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MAR 27 t?94 






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Character of the Celtic Church preceding Queen Margaret — Personal history of Queen 
Margaret — The successors of Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret: Alexander I., 
1107-1124; David I., 1124-1153; William I. (the Lion), 1165-1214— Scottish 
sees as at 1200 — Religious houses before 1200 — Terms and principles of the new 
Eoraan system — The clergy and religious houses. Alexander II. and III., 1214- 
1249-1286 : Ancient code of canons — Bishop Bernham of St. Andrews, his decrees 
of 1242. Alexander III., 1249-1286: Stages of the Papal claims on Scotland- 
Alexander's heir, the Maid of Norway. The Forty Years' War of Scottish 
Independence — Claimants for the throne, John Baliol and Robert Bruce — Scotland 
overrun by Edward I. in 1296 — Checked by Wallace — Scotland again overrun by 
Edward I. in 1303 — Coronation of Robert I. (the Bruce) in 1306 — Independence of 
Scotland recognized by treaty, 1328. David II., 1329-1370 : First collegiate 
church in 1342. Robert II., 1370-1390, first of the Stuart kings. Robert III., 
1390-1406 : Regency in 1398, Duke of Rothesay, and in 1402, Robert, Duke of 
Albany — Regency of Murdac, Duke of Albany, in 1419. 

In the history of Scottish Christianity few dates are of greater 
importance than the arrival in Scotland and marriage of Mar- 
garet of England to Iving Malcolm III, at Dunfermline. The 
marriage is variously assigned to 1068, 1069, and 1070. Before 
1070 there was no Eoman Church in Scotland, although 
Scottish Christianity had of course a great many rites and 
ceremonies in common with Eome, and Scottish churchmen 
in not a few cases had visited Eome. 

The difference between the Eoman and the Scottish Churches 
consisted in such matters as these : — The Scottish Church 
while acknowledging many of the saints common to Christen- 
dom, especially those of the East, had in addition a very- 
extensive local Calendar, deeply venerated, which outnum- 
bered the Eoman element. It had also peculiarities in a 


frontal instead of a coronal tonsure for monks; in a shorter 
Lenten Fast, which made up the forty days by including Sun- 
days, and began on Monday instead of on Wednesday; in a 
different time for Easter, dependent on a more ancient method 
of reckoning; in the absence of special or obligatory Easter 
Communion ; in the regular celebration of the Holy Supper 
with what were by Eomanists called " barbarous rites." The 
most marked features of the Scottish Church were in its 
government and orders, where monasteries took the place of 
dioceses, where abbots were above bishops, where bishops were 
without dioceses, where ordination was conferred occasionally, 
if not habitually, by one single bishop instead of three, where 
bishops were too numerous to be diocesan, and where (latterly 
at least) abbots were frequently married, making church lands 
hereditary in their families. 

Between the marriage of Queen Margaret in 1070 and the 
death of her son, David I., in 1153, there took place a fierce 
struggle of a new with an older form of Christianity, wdierein 
the new prevailed, being zealously supported by the Anglicized 
royal family and new Norman nobility, who revolutionized 
in this country both secular property and church government. 
When this struggle had ended in the overthrow of the 
ancient Celtic Church, the violence was hidden, or attempted 
to be hidden, by appropriating the old saints, as if there had 
been no difference or break between their Christianity and that 
of St. Margaret and St. David. 

Queen Margaret — called, from margarita, " the Pearl of Scot- 
land" — was a Saxon princess of Northumbria, granddaughter 
of Edmund Ironside ( + 1017), and niece to St. Edward the 
Confessor ( + 1066). When William the Conqueror began his 
reign he forced the Saxon princes and nobles to flee to 
Scotland in 1068. Edgar Atheling,^ his mother Agatha, and 
his two sisters, Margaret and Christina, took refuge with King 
Malcolm III., called Canmore ( = Great Head, born 1024, king 
1057). The refugees landed near Dunfermline, at St. Mar- 
<Taret's Hope, and the king met his future wife at a great stone 
on the roadside, ever since called St. Margaret's Stone, between 
Dunfermline and the shore. 

^ Add, noble, and in'/, son of. 


]Margaret, at Dunfermline, laboured in peace and piety, 
founding a monastery there in 1075, and rebuilding the church 
of lona. She restored Sunday observance by making Sunday 
field-work illegal. She also procured more regular and frequent 
celebration of the Lord's Supper, and purified marriage by 
firmly stopping it within the prohibited degrees. The brave 
king could not read, but he rejoiced in her knowledge, and 
helped her plans, kissing often her books of devotion, and 
furnishing their jewelled binding. Each morning she prepared 
food for nine orphans, and on her knees fed them. Nightly 
she washed the feet of six paupers. Her fastings were frequent 
and prolonged (to the injury of her health), and in Lent she 
read the whole Psalter twice in every twenty-four hours. With 
all this austerity she dressed richly as a queen, kept a large 
retinue, and used dishes of silver and gold for her plain food. 
She was careful of her children's education, and had them 
wholesomely whipped for their faults. Thus her influence and 
policy descended through her three sons who reigned — Edgar, 
1097-1107; Alexander I., 1107-1124; and especially David L, 
1124-1153 ; whereby really one devout mind moulded Scotland 
ecclesiastically for eighty-three years — from St. Margaret's 
marriage to St. David's death (1070-1153). 

Her husband and her eldest son fell when besieging Alnwick, 
13th November, 1093. " How fares it with the king and my 
Edward?" was her first question asked of her son Edgar on his 
return. The tidings proved her own death. " Praise and 
blessing be to Thee, Almighty God, that Thou hast been 
pleased to make me endure so bitter anguish in the hour of 
my departure, thereby, as I trust, to purify me in some measure 
from the corruption of my sins ; and Thou, Lord Jesus, who, 
through the will of the Eather, hast enlivened the w^orld by 
Thy death, oh deliver me." Pronouncing deliver me, she ex- 
pired, in the Castle of Edinburgh, 16th November, 1093, hold- 
ing in her hands her favourite and famous Black Hood — a cross 
of gold wath a Christ of ebony — which gave its name to Holy- 
rood Abbey. In 1249 she was canonized, and next year the 
relics of Malcolm and Margaret were buried in the same tomb 
at Dunfermline. The Queen's Ferry became the name of the 
rocks where pilgrims embarked to visit the shrine of St. 


Margaret and St. David. It is a just recognition of the 
claims of " the Pearl of Scotland," when in our own day we 
have Queen Margaret colleges. 

The character of Queen Margaret (like that of Columba, 
David I., and Leighton) is one of the rare points of unity 
among historians of all churches and politics. Her life has 
been written by her confessor, Turgot, prior of Durham, and 
afterwards Bishop of St. AndreM^s. This biography is a most 
precious contemporary record, with one transparent fault — of 
too many superlatives, which is a common drawback to ecclesi- 
astical biography written by contemporaries and friends. In 
early youth the Saxon princess had for her instructor the great 
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, who, in a letter quoted by 
Bellesheim,^ says : — " Dear queen, the space of a letter permits 
not my telling how my heart overflows with joy on reading 
your pages." The author of "Celtic Scotland"^ thus warmly 
characterizes the good queen : — " There is perhaps no more 
beautiful character recorded in history than that of Margaret. 
For purity of motives, for an earnest desire to benefit the 
people among whom her lot was cast, for a deep sense of 
religion and great personal piety, for the unselfish performance 
of whatever duty lay before her, and for entire self-abnegation, 
she is unsurpassed, and the chroniclers of the time all bear 
witness to her exalted character." 

On the deaths of Malcolm III. and Queen Margaret, in 1093, 
there followed a period of indecision, during which Donald Bane 
was quasi king for a few months, and then Duncan, an illegi- 
timate son of ]\Ialcolm, reigned two years. The real succes- 
sion to Malcolm III. lay with his three sons by Margaret, who 
followed each other thus: — Edgar, 1097-1107; Alexander I., 
1107-1124; David I., 1124^1153. If to these reigns we add 
two more, which carry us to the end of the century, viz. Malcolm 
IV. (David I.'s grandson), 1153-1165, and William I, the Lion 
(the last king's younger brother), 1165-1214, we have before 
us all that is necessary in order to see the complete settlement 
of the new religious order, not only in its distinctive principles, 
but also in its chief seats of rule and founders of endowment. 

Three of these kings exercised an influence so potent and 

1 1. 245. "- II. 344. 


beneficial that some special preliminary account of their career 
is here required. 

Alexander I. was a younger son of INIalcolm and Margaret. 
His queen, Sibylla, was the daughter of King Henry I. of 
England, and reposes in the convent isle at the north end of 
Loch Tay. In the seventeen years of his reign Alexander, 
besides quelling insurrection and giving civil stability to his 
kingdom, laboured with singular zeal to found and rear a church 
distinct and independent from that of England, but at the same 
time similar and friendly. In fact, his whole reign was spent 
in watchful resistance to the claims of both York and Canter- 
bury, which he alternately played the one against the other. 
His reverence for his mother, both personally and in church 
polity, appeared in his appointment of her confessor and 
biographer Turgot to the see of St. Andrews. Turgot's conse- 
cration gave rise to questions as to the relation of Scottish 
to English bishops. The king wished the consecration to be 
effected by a Scots bishop, the Bishop of Orkney, and the 
Bishop of Durham, and to take place at York. Against this 
the Archbishop of Canterbury reclaimed. At last the ceremony 
took place at York, the Archbishop of York presiding, but 
with express reservation of all questions of supremacy. Even 
on Turgot the king kept so keen a watch that the bishop 
was on the point of resignation, when his death occurred at 
Durham in 1115. Hereon ensued a five years' vacancy of 
the Scottish primacy, at the close of which negotiations by 
Alexander for Eadmer, a monk of Canterbury, took place 
with the Archbishop and King Henry; but as these stipu- 
lated for Eadmer to be consecrated by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, with a more than latent view to claims over the 
Scottish Church, Alexander refused his consent. Eadmer gave 
up his nomination, and in 1124 Eobert, prior of Scone, and an 
Englishman, was appointed. The king, however, died before 
Eobert's consecration, which occurred in 1128, when the Arch- 
bishop of York presided ; the claims of York and rights of 
St. Andrews being again left undefined, and expressly reserved. 
Alexander died at Stirling in 1124. The most romantic of his 
church benefactions was his endowment of a priory at Inch- 
colm, where he and his courtiers took refuge in a storm, and 


lived for three days on milk and shell-fish furnished by a 

David, the youngest of the six sons of Malcolm III. and 
Margaret, was born c. 1080, and after his father's death, in 1093, 
spent several years in England at the court of Henry I., who in 
1100 married David's sister Matilda. In 1107 David became 
Prince of Cumbria (= Cumberland, Dumfries, Eoxburgh, Selkirk, 
Peebles, Lanark, Dunbarton, Eenfrew, Ayr, and part of Lothian). 
In 1110 he married Matilda, widow of the Earl of Northampton, 
who held not only her husband's property but also that of her 
father, Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, whence David is often 
called Earl of Huntingdon. His Cumbrian princedom led him 
to revive and refound the see of Glasgow, and to plant monks 
at Selkirk, which became the seed plot of Kelso and other 
Border abbeys. After coming to the throne in 1124, his Eng- 
lish connection by marriage and lordships involved him in wars 
in 1135, 1138, and 1141, in which he was unsuccessful, especially 
in 1138, when he lost the battle of the Standard, fighting 
against King Stephen and Archbishop Thurston. Quitting this 
external and fruitless strife the king now resumed his early 
and better occupation, and devoted himself wholly, and with 
glorious success, to real Scottish work in castles, burghs, com- 
merce, law, cathedrals, and abbeys. Extensive and liberal 
though his church plans were, the king acted neither unwisely 
nor wastefully ; almost every one of his foundations was based 
on a revival of more ancient sites and half-alienated lands. He 
gathered the old vestiges, and added enough of his own to mark 
a new era. Nor could any better method have been adopted 
in that age than thus to plant over Scotland, especially on its 
troubled border, houses dedicated to peace and worship, learn- 
ing, agriculture, gardening, flocks, and herds, David's domestic 
life was singularly pure and devout, in unison with his early 
years under his sainted mother at Dunfermline. He lost his 
wife Matilda some years after his accession. He lost his 
son, Prince Henry, in 1152, but the prince was married to Ada^ 
daughter of the Earl of Surrey, who left three sons, of whom 
two, Malcolm and William, afterwards were kings of Scotland, 
while the third, David, became Earl of Huntingdon. Ailred, 
the king's biographer, was Prince Henry's instructor and com- 

willia:m the lion. 267 

panion. A fine influence on David's life and work came 
through St. Waltheof, in 1148, abbot of ^Melrose, who was a true 
saint and of royal race, being the younger son of Queen 
Matilda of England by her first husband, the Earl of North- 
ampton. St. "Waltheof had been educated at David's court, and 
as a favourite personal attendant used to carry the king's bow. 
The good king rested from his labours at Carlisle on 24th May, 
1153. "Often have I seen with my own eyes," says Ailred,^ 
" when he was ready to set out for the chase, and his feet were 
already in the stirrup, how at the voice of a poor man he would 
return, and patiently listen to his complaint." George Buchanan - 
says of him : " David departed carrjang with him such affection 
of all that they seemed as if bereft not of a king, but of a most 
excellent father. Eor through all his days he had been such 
as we read no equal of in all our chronicles, yet, for several 
years preceding his end, so diligently prepared he for his soul's 
departure that he greatly increased the veneration he had be- 
fore won. If men were to set themselves to draw the image 
of a good king, they would fall short of what David showed 
himself throughout the whole course of his life." Ailred says 
that David found three and left nine bishoprics. The three 
which he found were St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Moray. The 
other six which he founded were Glasgow, Aberdeen, Eoss, 
Caithness, Brechin, and Dunblane. A bull of Pope Clement III. 
to William the Lion in 1188 names these nine Scottish sees, 
and is silent as to the other four, because then not Scot- 
tish or not yet erected — for Galloway was subject to York 
till 1472 ; Orkney to Droutheim till 1477 ; the Isles to Dron- 
theim till 1498 ; and Lismore was not separated from Dunkeld 
till 1200. 

William I., the Lion, reigned 1165-1214, having succeeded 
his elder brother Malcolm IV. (1153-1165), who came to the 
throne at twelve and died at twenty-four, leaving naturally no 
very definite record of work in State or Church, but keeping 
up the religious tendencies of his race. To Iving Malcolm, 
however, belong three religious foundations — viz. the Cistercian 
monastery of Cupar in Angus, at the suggestion of St. Waltheof; 
a nunnery at Manuel, near Linlithgow; and a hospital at Soltra. 

1 Quoted by Dr. Grub. i. 282. B. vii. rex 91. 


Foundations that belong to his reign are — Paisley, Coldstream, 
Eccles, Haddington, North Berwick, Sandale, Lincluden, con- 
stituting in all a liberal contribution to the Church by the 
king and his nobles for a twelve years' reign of a boy. 

The reign of his brother William the Lion was eventful as 
well as long. In 1174 the king was surprised and captured 
in a mist near Alnwick, and after being sent to Normandy for 
safety, was released by Henry II. after the treaty of Falaise. 
This shameful treaty bound the Scots king to absolute homage 
for all Scotland as a vassal of England; stipulated for five Scots 
strongholds — viz. Edinburgh, Stirling, Berwick, Jedburgh, and 
Roxburgh, to be garrisoned by English troops at the expense 
of the Scots king; and provided for twenty Scots nobles to 
be held as hostages. AVithin two years the treaty of Falaise 
was revoked by Kichard I. for payment of 10,000 marks. The 
independence of the Church was better managed at Falaise, 
for the representatives of the Scottish clergy only " agreed that 
the English Church should have such supremacy over Scotland 
as in right it ought to have, and promised that they would not 
oppose the lawful claims of the English Church." The pawky 
and patriotic men who devised these innocuous terms, which 
decided and committed to nothing, were Eichard, bishop of 
St. Andrews; Eichard, bishop of Dunkeld; Galfrid, abbot of 
Dunfermline ; and Herbert, prior of Coldingham. "William 
founded the great abbey of Aberbrothic in 1178, dedicating 
it strangely to St. Thomas a Becket, M'hom, according to Bishop 
Leslie, he had known as a child, and who had fallen a victim 
to Henry II. in 1170, the origin of strife being Becket's zeal 
to put the Church above the King of England. In 1199 in 
this reign occurred the outrage of Earl Harold of Orkney 
against Bishop John of Caithness at Scrabster, when the tongue 
of the captive bishop was cut out. The report of this savagery 
drew forth a strong letter from Pope Innocent III., and in a 
more practical way led the king to make an expedition to the 
north to bring that district more directly under the Scottish 
sceptre.^ Prosecuting, like his clergy, the design of an inde- 
pendent Scottish Church, William resisted Pope Alexander III. 
as to the appointment of John Scot to the see of St. Andrews ; 

^ Hill Burton, ii. 11. 


and the timely occurrence of the Pope's deatli enabled the king 
to carry his point with the next Pope, Lucius III., who, being 
new in his chair, needed friends. "William made still further 
gain in 1188 from Clement III., in a bull confirming the inde- 
pendence of the Church of Scotland as against both York and 
Canterbury. The bull of Clement III. was confirmed by 
Innocent III in 1208, and by Honorius III. in 1218.i This 
independence as against England was won, however, at the 
cost of closer ties to Home. It is in this famous bull {Cum 
Universi), as already referred to, that the nine Scottish sees 
then existing are specially named. The king died in Decem- 
ber, 1214, at Stirling, and was buried in his own monastery of 

The position of the Scottish Church and the progress of its 
endowment from the time of Malcolm and Margaret to the 
close of the reign of William the Lion may be summarized in 
the three lists following, which are arranged chronologically : — 


St. Andrews— Bishop Kellach I., 890; Bishop Turgot, 1107. 

Glasgow — David I., when Earl of Huntingdon. Bishop John Achaius, 

Dunkeld — Alexander I, Abbot Cormac, first bishop, 1127. 
Aberdeen — David I. Bishop Nectan, 1125. 
Moray — Alexander I. Bishop Gregory, 1115, at Birnie. Cathedral at 

Elgin, 1224. 
Brechin— David I., 1150. Last Culdee abbot, 1219. 
Dunblane— David I., 1140. Endowed, c. 1220. Cathedral, c. 1240. 
Ross— David I., 1124. Earlier see in 716. 
Caithness— Malcolm III., c. 1066 ; also David I., c. 1126. 
Galloway — Fergus of Galloway, 1143. Subject to York till 1472. 
Lismore or Argyle, separated from Dunkeld by the Pope, 1200. 
Isles— 838, subject to Drontheim till 1498. 
Orkney, c. 1064, at Birsa; 1102, at Kirkwall Subject to Drontheim 

till 1477. 


Dunfermline, 1075. Malcolm HI. 1128, David I. 

Coldingham, 1098. King Edgar. 

Kelso, 1128. David I. ; at Selkirk, 1113, by Prince David. 

1 See Bellesheim, i. 330. Preparation had been made for this bull as far back as 
Pope Alexander III., who, in a letter of July 30, 1176, forbade the Archbishop of 
York to exercise his metropolitan rights in Scotland until the matter was decided at 
Rome (Bellesheim, i. 321). 


Scone, 1114. Alexander I. 

Jedburgh, 1118 and 1147. Prince and King David. 

St. Andrew's Priory, c. 1120. Alexander I. 

Holyrood, 1128. David I. 

INIelrose, 1136. David I. 

Newbotle, 1140. David I. 

Kilveinning, 1140. Hugh de Morville. 

Dundrennan, 1142. Fergus, lord of Galloway. 

Cambuskenneth, 1147. David I. 

Dryburgh, 1150. David I. and Hugh de Morville. 

Kynloss, 1150. David I. 

Ilestennot, 1159. David I. 

Paisley, 1163. Walter Fitz Alan, the first Steward. 

Cupar in Angus, 1164. Malcolm IV. 

Arbroath, 1178. William I , the Lion. 

Lindores, 1178. David, earl Huntingdon, brother of William I. 

Inchaffray, 1198 and 1200. Gilbert, earl of Stratherue. 


Monymusk, 1080. Malcolm III. 1179, Poger, earl of Buchan. 
Inchcolm, 1123. Alexander I. 
Loch Tay, 1122. Alexander I. 
Urquhart, 1124. David I. Cell of Dunfermline. 
St. Mary's Isle, 1129. Fergus, lord of Galloway. Cell of Holyrood. 
Lesmahago, 1 144. David I. Cell of Kelso. 
Lochleven, 1145. David I„ on an older foundation. 
Soulseat, 1148 (or 1125). Fergus, lord of Galloway. 
Sagadul, 1150. Reginald, son of Somerled, lord of the Isles. 
North Berwick Nunnery, 1154. Duncan, earl of Fife. 
Soltra, 1164. Malcolm IV. 
Manuel, 1156, a nunnery. Malcolm IV. 
Lincluden, c. 1170. Uchtred, lord of Galloway. 
Coldstream and Eccles, 1143 and 1155. Earl Cospatrick. 
Haddington Nunnery, 1178. Countess Ada, mother of Malcolm IV. 
Mauchlyn, 1165. Walter, son of Alan the Steward. Cell of Melrose. 
Canonby, 1165. Turgot de Ilossedal. 
Fyvie, 1179. Fergus, earl of Buchan. 

Holywood, 1180. Deroongal, lord of Kirkconnel. Cell of Soulseat. 
Tougland, 1125-60 and 1189. Fergus, lord of Galloway. 
Glenluce, 1192. Roland, son of Uchtred, lord of Galloway. 
Rosneath, 1199. Earl of Lennox. Cell of Cambuskenneth first, then 
of Paisley in 1225. 


/. Tlic Secular Clergy in Dioceses and Parishes. 

The religious foundations thus set up between 1070 and 1200 
involved an ecclesiastical nomenclature partly new, and where 


not new greatly extended and specialized. It has been too 
common in reformed Scotland, for three centuries, to pass over 
ancient ecclesiastical terms in a summary and contemptuous 
way ; but the subject is one that will repay careful study, for 
it carries in it much true wisdom fitted to improve the Church 
of the present day when judiciously investigated and fairly 
considered in its reasons. 

One of the first points of interest and contrast with the 
previous Celtic or Culdee system is in the matter of church 
buildings of all kinds. The change was far greater than in 
mere architectural style. Later changes, from the round to the 
pointed arch, from the early simple Gothic to the later ornate 
style, and from that in turn to the perpendicular, were as nothing 
to one another compared with the change at one bound from 
the old use of rude land stones, occasionally touched with a 
hammer, to the use of quarried freestone, regularly dressed 
and laid in even courses with skilfully prepared lime. Until 
Queen Margaret's and King David's time the only churches 
traceable ia this Eoman style are St. Martin's at Whithorn, 
Itestinoth in Forfarshire, and Eosmarkie in lioss-shire. Sur- 
viving examples of the Celtic style are to be seen in the fol- 
lowing buildings (all of which are dealt with in Anderson's 
"Scotland in Early Times") — Teampull Bennachad, in Lewis; 
Tempull Eonan, in North Eona ; Beehive Cells, in Eilan na 
Naoimh ; Kirkapoll, in Tiree ; Lybster, in Eeay ; Oratory on 
Inchcolm. Contrasted with these primitive works, the earliest 
parts of Dunfermline Abbey and Glasgow Cathedral, especially 
in its glorious crypt, all at once enter into competition with 
the architectural achievements of the most gifted periods. This 
architectural argument alone, even though it had no adminicles 
of proof in orders, ritual, or calendar, would suffice to establish 
a thorough distinctness, as regards church government and 
spirit, of the Scottish Christianity preceding and that following 
Queen Margaret. 

So far as concerns Scotland, it may be said that the cathedral, 
alike in its architecture and system of clerics, like the full- 
grown and full-armed Minerva from the brain of Jove, sprang 
into existence complete and at once, early in the twelfth century. 
Its ground plan was that of a Latin cross, and the cross was 


SO placed, by a system of what was called orientation, that the 
head of the cross, containing the high altar, pointed due east. 
This being settled, the main door fell to be in the west end, 
and it was usually flanked and emphasized by two towers or 
stair turrets. The two arms of the cross formed uniformly 
a north and south transept. The long line of the cross was 
divided into two portions, that on the east of the transepts 
being the chancel or choir, furnished with stall seats for clergy 
and choir ; while the nave, which extended from the transepts 
to the great western door, held the main body of the worshippers, 
especially on occasion of the chief festivals of the church year. 
On great days the transepts as well as the nave were filled by 
the worshippers. In most cases the nave had side aisles; so 
had the transepts one side aisle, if not two; and so in larger 
cathedrals had the choir. These side aisles were of great use 
as well as beauty, because they served for processions to per- 
ambulate the building within, and also furnished to people 
and clergy ready ingress and egress for every portion of the 
church, without disturbing the main body of the worshippers. 

Certain buildings or rooms had to be provided in each 
cathedral : a chapter -house, for the business meetings of the 
clergy ; a vestry, or sacrarium, for robing in, and holding the 
church plate, ornaments, and relics ; a choristers' vestry and 
song school ; a Lady chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
often placed behind the high altar. The frequency of services, 
and the number of clergy and assistants required, necessitated 
the placing of clerks' houses or manses as near the cathedral as 
possible, which usually grouped themselves round a court known 
as the Cathedral Close. The house of the dean was called the 
deanery ; that of the bishop was the castle or palace. Each 
house had its name either from the office of the clergyman 
who resided in it, or from the land that formed the endow- 
ment of the ottice under the name of prebend or canonry. 
Here comes in the application of "toft" and "croft." A 
toft in a village or town corresponded to a stance for house, 
and small garden for table vegetables ; a croft was often on 
the outskirts of the village or town, and furnished meal to the 
priest or fodder to his cow. 

The usual cathedral staff or dignitaries, besides the bishop, 


comprised the dean, who held special rule over the cathedral 
church as the bishop had over the diocese ; the precentor, who 
superintended the musical part of the service, ruling the choir ; 
the chancellor, who attended to all matters of law and writs ; 
the treasurer, who received and disbursed money ; the sacrist, 
who had charge of church vestments, plate, ornaments, and 
relics ; and 2ycbcndarics, or canons, who had special endow- 
ments which entitled them to a place in the cathedral chapter, 
which transacted certain ecclesiastical business with the juris- 
diction of a regular court. Larger dioceses, in addition to a 
dean, had an archdeacon, often called oculiis cpiscopi, who 
possessed a jurisdiction delegated by the bishop over a part 
of his diocese; thus an archdeacon was hiyhcr than a dean. 
St. Andrews, Glasgow, and Orkney were the only sees that had 
archdeaconries. The primatial see had archdeaconries of St. 
Andrews and Lothian ; Glasgow^ had archdeaconries of Glasgow 
and Teviotdale; Orkney had archdeaconries of Orkney and 
Tingwall. The dean again often delegated part of his func- 
tions to a sub-dean, as the precentor also did to a sub-chanter, 
or the sacrist to a sub-sacrist. 

Dioceses were subdivided into deaneries, of which St. Andrews 
had eight — viz. Fife, Fotherick, Gowrie, Angus, Mearns, Lin- 
lithgow, Lothian, and Merse. Glasgow had nine — viz. Nith, 
Annandie, Kyle and Cunningham, Carrick, Lennox, Euther- 
glen, Lanark, Peebles, Teviotdale. Aberdeen had first three, 
then five — viz. Mar, Buchan, and Garioch, to which were added 
Buyn and Aberdeen. Moray had four — viz. Elgin, Inverness, 
Strathspey, Strabolgy. Dunkeld had four — viz. (1) Athol and 
Drumalbane, (2) Angus, (3) Fife, Fotheric, and Stratherne, (4) 
South of Forth. Lismore had four — viz. Kintyre, Glassary, 
Lorn, Morvern. Galloway had three — viz. Desnes, Farines, 
and Fiainnes. The five remaining sees — Brechin, Dunblane, 
Eoss, Caithness, and The Isles — had no rural deaneries, but 
only a cathedral dean. 

Among parishes there were two grades, the higher under 
the name of rectory, the priest of which drew his tithes directly 
on his own account, whereas the simpler vicarage had only 
such part of the tithes as might be apportioned by the bishop 
or cathedral dicrnitary or relifrious house who held the living 


in patronage, and discharged the duties of the cure through 
a cheap substitute. Humbler than either rectory or vicarage 
was a cha;plainry, here and there erected on a special endow- 
ment of land so as to meet the wants of outlying districts. 

Bishop Keith ^ gives a list of 262 rectories or parsonages that 
continued independent down to the Eeformation, whereas above 
600 churches were in the hands of bishops or monasteries. 

The history of the erection, endowment, and subdivision of 
parishes is a subject of great interest, and very closely associ- 
ated with the history of the erection and endowment of dioceses. 
The origin of many of our older parishes is undoubtedly trace- 
able to chiirch sites or districts already existing in connection 
with Celtic worship. Just as the more prominent of these 
suggested the locality and name of the new bishoprics in most, 
or rather all cases, so did the smaller Celtic chapels serve as 
the nucleus of an improved and more definitely organized 
parochial unit. " There is abundant documentary evidence of 
the existence of parochial divisions in the twelfth century, but 
none before that period. In a charter granted by David I. to 
the monastery of Dunfermline, he confirms to the Church of 
the Holy Trinity the whole parish of Fotherif, In 1144 the 
Bishop of Glasgow confirmed to the monks of Kelso the church 
of Lesmahago, with its whole parish. In a deed of agreement 
which was made at Stirling, in the presence of King David 
and his son, between the Bishop of St. Andrews and the Abbot 
of Dunfermline, there is mention made of the parochial church 
of Eccles, and the words 2^cirochia and parochialis occur in other 
parts of the document." * 

The name Eccles, above applied to the original church of 
Stirling dedicated to St. Modan, was also applied to St. 
Ninians, near Stirling, while Eccles Brec, Varia Ca2Klla, or 
the Speckled Kirk, was Falkirk, and near that again was Eccles- 
machan=kirk of St. Machan. In the parish of Dron, near 
Perth, was Ecclesraagirdle=kirk of Magidrin, or St. Adrian, 
ridiculously corrupted to Axmagirdle. There was an Eccles 
in the Merse, besides Ecclefechan = kirk of St. Fechan, in 

1 " Church and State of Scot." Book iii., appendix, in a passage reprinted by Connell on 
Tithes, iii. 15. 

- Cunnincrham, i. 113. 


Dumfries. lu each of these cases the ecclesia, or eccles, carries 
us back to Celtic sites that afterwards became parish churches 
in the new arrangement initiated by Queen Margaret and her 
sons. Glen Eagles, near Crieff junction, is Glen Eccles, or 
the Kirk Glen, in disguise; compare in Kirkcudbrightshire, 
Terregles= terra ecclesia, and in Orkney, Eglishey=ecclesife 

The parish of Ednam, near Kelso, has been selected by three 
Avriters, Sir John Connell, Cosmo Innes, and Cunningham, as 
an early and typical instance of the creation of parishes. King 
Edgar, c. 1100, granted the wild land of Ednaham to an Eng- 
lishman named Thor. Thor reclaimed the district and erected 
a church, which was dedicated to St. Cuthbert. Edgar endowed 
it first with a ploughgate of land, and then with the tithes of 
Thor's manor. Next, Thor granted the superiority of the whole 
to the monks of Durham for the " weal " of certain souls. In 
tlie diocese of Glasgow is a group of at least six parishes of 
special rank for recognized antiquity — viz. Hoddam, Eenfrew, 
Govan, Cadzow, Borthwick, and Glasgow itself. Each of these 
has its root in the Celtic period. Another group of four parishes 
may be named in illustration of the method by which the 
parishes of Scotland were made up to about 1000 in number, 
by subdividing some of the largest of the more ancient parochial 
districts. Out of Kynef were formed Bervie, Catterline, and 
Barras. Out of St. Cuthbert's were formed Corstorphine, 
Liberton, Duddingstone, Canongate, North Leith, besides half- 
a-dozen old chapelries, Stobo was a ijlcbania, wuth Lyne, 
Broughton, Kingledoors, Dawic, and Drummelzier under it. 
Kinkell, in Garioch, was an ahthanc, which included. Kintore, 
Kenmay, Dyce, Skene, Drumblade, Kinnellar, and Monkegie. 
Another group of large old outstanding parishes is seen in the 
cases of Kinghorne magna and parva, Eccles in the Merse, 
Eoseneath, Inveravon in Strathspey, Tain in Eoss, Earr in Caith- 
ness, and Wick, which had a covey of eight chapels. 

It is worthy of note that previous to the currency of the word 
parochia there existed an older native word, shire, scir, or sJccir, 
which denoted the district attached to old Celtic churches, but 
which afterwards got widened and secularized to denote a 
county or district under a sheriff =scir-geref a or shire-graf. 


The older name survives in Skeirdustan = Kirk of St. Drostan, 
now included in Aberlour. In the Merse was Coldinghamshire ; 
in Clydesdale — Machanshire, Kilbrideshire ; Fife had shires of 
Kilrimund, Forgrund, Fothrif, Karel, &c. ; Aberdeen had Clat- 
shire, and shires of Tulynestyn, Eane, and Davyot,^ 

The boundaries of parishes in most cases coincided with the 
boundaries of estates, an arrangement which is still largely 
observable. The endowment was provided by voluntary gift, 
generally by the lord of the manor, and it was this fact which 
laid the foundation of the system of patronage, which descended 
with short interruptions to the year 1874 No law is traceable 
for the institution of endowment, but churchmen skilfully and 
industriously put forward the Old Testament principle of tithing 
or dedicating a tenth to God, which came to be almost uni- 
versally adopted by landowners when erecting churches for 
the benefit of their families and dependants. The dates and 
deathbed references of many ecclesiastical donations suggest 
that "the pious founder," when not self-intimidated by con- 
science, was sometimes intimidated by purgatory, and got his 
quid pro quo in masses for the dead. 

//. The Regular Clergy and Religious Houses. 

Dioceses and parishes proceeded on the pastoral idea of the 
Church, whereby certain men in different grades of priesthood 
were set apart for the care or cure of souls, each clergyman 
in his own charge, larger or smaller, responsible for the popu- 
lation of his district. The monastic idea, while it did not 
exclude the care of souls, mainly cared for the souls of its 
own members, who lived together under rules or vows, to 
attain, it was supposed, a higher piety than was practicable 
to ordinary members of the Church under any mere pastoral 

Monachism as a system was founded by St. Anthony, a.d. 
251-356, who was born in Upper Egypt, and being rich, founded 
the monastery of Faioum, near Memphis, the monastery con- 
sisting of a group of separate cells, corresponding to the Scot- 

J See Cosmo Innes, "Early Scotch Hist." 3, note; and E. W. Robertson, "Hist. 
Essays," IV. The Shire. 


tish examples at Elachnave and Deerness. They wore a habit 
of black and russet. After them came the monks of St. Basil, 
founded in 358, who wore a black habit and followed a severe 
rule. The next development was by St. Benedict, 480-543, 
Abbot of Monte Cassino, in South Italy, who organized and 
reformed the system. A further modification and extension was 
the work of St. Francis of Assisi, in Umbria, 1182-1226, who 
added the vow of poverty to the earlier vows of celibacy 
and obedience. 

There were seven canonical hours at which monks were 
summoned by bell to devotion— viz. Prime, at 6 a.m. ; Tierce, 
or 9 A.M. : Scxt, or noon ; Nones, 2 or 3 p.m. ; Vespers, 4 p.m. ; 
Compline, 7 P.M. ; Matins and Lauds, at midnight. 

The officers in a large monastery ^ere—aUot, or head of 
the establishment, who was called a mitred allot when he had 
a seat in the Scots ParHament. A prior was vicegerent of the 
abbot, or head of a smaller house. The prior had often a sul- 
prior; and there was a prior to every ten monks. The prce- 
centor, or chanter, was choirmaster, and also robe-keeper and 
librarian. The cellarer had charge of cellar, kitchen, and refec- 
tory. The treasurer, or bursar, received rents, and paid wages 
and accounts. The sacristan, or secretarius, had charge of altar, 
sacred vessels, candles, vestments, and bells. He, with the sul- 
sacristan, slept in the church. 

Other officers, inferior or occasional, were— almoner, cook, 
infirmarer, porter, refectioner, chamberlain, hospitaller, and 
hebdomaries, or doers of certain duties by weekly turns. 
The Eeligious Orders form themselves into two groups — 

1. The Bented or endowed religious — monks proper and 
original— subdivided into Benedictines, Cistercians, Carthusi- 
ans, Vallis-Caulians, and Trinitarians. 

2. The Mendicants, or Begging Friars, who lived on the 
" voluntary principle," subdivided into Black, Grey, and White. 
Friar is specially used of a member of the mendicant orders. 
A friar or frater, when in priest's orders, was called Father 
or Pater. 

The group of buildings composing one of the larger religious 
houses ° was usually extensive, picturesque, and carefully 
arrancred for convenience and order. Chief of all was the 
° 19 


church, which sometimes (as at Paisley), besides serving for 
the monks, did duty also as a parish church. Immediately 
outside of the church was a cloister or covered walk around 
the four sides of a square, two or three of the sides of this 
square containing the principal monastic buildings. Among 
these were the chapter-house, where the members of the com- 
munity met for transacting the business of their order; the 
scriptorium, where the writing and illuminating of books and 
manuscripts were done; the library, where books and MSS. 
were kept in coffers or on shelves ; the cells and dormitory, 
for retirement and sleep; the refectory or dining hall; the 
parlour ; guest chambers ; almonry, for distributing victuals 
to the poor ; chequer or exchequer, the chamber of the bursar 
or financial officer. 

The abbot had a special suite of rooms, consisting of chapel, 
bedroom, oratory, buttery, pantry, and auditory, or interview 
room. There were also kitchen, bakehouse, brewhouse, granary, 
grange or house-farm, pomarium or orchard, columbarium or 
dovecot, and fishery, in pond, loch, and stream, with shot or 
cruive for diet on Fridays and fasts.^ 

In the time of David I., when so many of the larger monas- 
teries were founded, and for at least two centuries later, these 
institutions not only evidenced the religious zeal and Christian 
liberality of the age, but were most judicious instruments of 
the public weal, material and moral aUke. Church tenants had 
no military service to render to their superiors. For religion's 
sake they and their dwellings and stock and crops were often 
spared and passed by unharmed, when fire and sword swept 
over neighbouring feudal estates. Monks, priors, and abbots 
were usually both skilled and liberal patrons of every architec- 
tural, agricultural, gardening, and pastoral improvement. They 
knew how to appreciate and encourage the better class of 
tenants and servants, and often accommodated their leases with 
a kindly regard to the interests of orphan children, or the 
widows of deceased and respectable hereditary tenants, thus 
helping them, notwithstanding bereavement and temporary 
weakness, to hold good their old place in the social scale. 

^ See Lees' Paisley, cLap. xvi., " Monastic Economics." 


ALEXA^^DER II. AND III. 1214-1249-128G. 

Alexander IL at the age of seventeen succeeded his father 
'\Yilliani the Lion in 1214 He married in 1221 the Princess 
Joan of England, sister of Henry III., who died childless in 
1239. In the same year he married hastily Mary de Couci, 
who in 1241 bore him a son, who succeeded in 1249 as Alex- 
ander III. Some time previous to the death of his first wife, 
Alexander, despairing of direct issue, had arranged with Par- 
liament for Eobert Bruce to succeed him as being his nearest 
male relative. This was declared in 1291 by Bruce.^ During 
the reigns of both Alexanders the Church in Scotland main- 
tained a long struggle for freedom from papal interference. In 
1217 the country was under papal interdict for fighting against 
King John (Lackland) of England, Alexander having sided 
with the English barons in their struggle. Three Scots bishops 
went to Ptome to complain of the extortions of Legate Gualo, 
by whom Scotland had been put under interdict. In 1225 the 
Scots clergy represented to Pope Honorius IV, their need of a 
metropolitan to hold a council to correct abuses. This was 
granted, and was afterwards cleverly interpreted as a ycrpetual 
concession under which free provincial councils were held in 
Scotland. At the first meeting, in 1225, it was enacted that 
the bishops, abbots, and priors should meet annually in synod, 
to last for three days. The council was to be summoned by 
the Conservator statutorum, who was to be elected by the 
assembled prelates, and to whom was entrusted a quasi metro- 
politan authority, and whose office lasted from one synod to 
another. Besides bishops, abbots, and priors, cathedral chapters, 
collegiate bodies, and convents were represented by procurators, 
and prelates imable to attend had to send proxies." At these 
councils the Scottish kings were represented by two doctors of 
civil law, whose business was to make known the king's wishes, 
and in case of need to protect the king's interests by a protesta- 
tion. It is hardly possible to avoid seeing in this free provin- 
cial council of 1225 and its successors, the remote ancestry of 
the General Assemblies of 1560 downwards. 

A code of about sixty canons, dating from the time of the 

1 HilJ Burton, ii. 13. - Bellesheim, i. 342. 


two Alexanders, has come down to us in a MS. discovered about 
forty years ago at Ethy, an old seat of the Beatons, and which 
formed part of an ancient register of the Abbey of Arbroath. 
These canons were read at the beginning of each council after 
sermon by the bishops in rotation, and after the election of 
Conservator. The following abstract of the first twelve is from 
Bellesheim : — ^ 

"Introductory — adhering to the decrees of the Councils of 
Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, and referring 
to the authorization of Pope Honorius for the holding of 
Scottish councils. (1) General directions as to the conduct 
of the council. (2) Election of the Conservator, and his duties. 
(3) All the prelates to hold firmly the Catholic and apostolic 
faith, to instruct those under their jurisdiction in the same, and 
to urge parents to bring up their children in the knowledge and 
observance of the Christian rehgion. (4) The sacraments to be 
administered according to the form prescribed by the Church. 
(5) The churches to be built of stone — the nave by the 
parishioners, and the chancel by the rector; they are to be 
duly consecrated, and furnished with the proper ornaments, 
books, and sacred vessels. (6) No church or oratory to be 
built, nor the divine office celebrated therein, without consent 
of the diocesan. (7) Masses not to be said in private places 
without the bishop's permission. (8) Every parish church to 
have its proper rector or vicar, who is to exercise the cure of 
souls either personally or by deputy, and all ecclesiastics are 
to lead pure and godly lives, or suffer canonical punishment. 
(9) A sufficient sustentation to be provided for vicars from the 
churches which they serve, amounting, all burdens deducted, 
to at least ten marks annually. (10) The clergy to take care 
that both their mental acquirements and outward habit are 
such as become their state. Garments of a red or green colour 
or striped not to be worn, nor shorter than befitting, and all 
clerics to have their proper tonsure. (11) No rector or vicar 
to enter upon any benefice without the consent of his diocesan 
or other lawful superior. (12) A proper parsonage house to be 
built near every church within a year's time." 

No less wise and wholesome are the other canons of the code, 

1 Bellesheim, i. 345. 



and one cannot but admire the gravity and modesty of tliose in 
particular that have for their object the moral purity of the 
clergy themselves. 

These annual councils of the Scottish clergy for the review 
and direction of Christian Hfe and work, delivered the Church 
and country from the costly and intermeddling visits of the 
Papal legates. By plain speaking, in September, 1237, at York, 
Alexander 11. scared Cardinal Otho, legate of Gregory IX., from 
visiting Scotland. Two years later the same legate got as far 
as Edinburgh, but met with royal opposition at the Border, and 
was only aUowed to proceed on condition that the visit was not 
to be used as a precedent. The reign of Alexander witnessed 
the introduction into Scotland of the two orders of Dominican 
and Franciscan friars— the king himself founding monasteries 
for them at Berwick-on-Tweed, Perth, Ayr, Stirling, Aberdeen, 
Edinburgh, Inverness, and Elgin. 

One of the best and most active bishops who ever laboured 
in Scotland belongs to this reign. David of Bernham, bishop 
of St. Andrews, as recorded by himself in the fly-leaf of his 
Pontifical (preserved in the National Library at Paris), in less 
than ten years consecrated 140 churches, which implies an 
immense zeal in church architecture, rebuilding, extending, and 
repairing, all in one diocese. The same bishop in 1242 held a 
diocesan synod at Musselburgh, when a series of twenty-six 
decrees were passed,^ of which the following are specially 
worthy of quotation : — 

" (1) The churchyards to be properly enclosed and protected 
against wild animals. (2) The chancel of the church to be 
kept in repair by the rector, the rest of the building by the 
parishioners. Every church to be provided with a silver 
chalice and other necessary furniture, the expenses to be met 
by the rector out of bis benefice. (3) The clergy to wear a 
large and conspicuous tonsure, not to eat or drink in taverns 
except on a journey, not to play dice, and to lead chaste and 
devout lives. (12) The duty of residence to be strictly observed 
by the clergy. (13) Marriage not to be contracted save before 
lawful witnesses. (16) Clerics not to exercise any secular trade 
or calling. (17) Nor to dictate or write a sentence of death. 

1 Given in full. Bellesheim i. 353. 


(20) To avoid the inconveniences of frequent clerical changes, 
no substitute to be appointed for less than a year. (23) Vicars 
strictly bound to residence. (24) Every rector either to provide 
a suitable and well-educated priest for his church, or to be 
himself in orders, on pain of suspension and deprivation of 
his benefice. (25) The confessions of women not to be heard 
between the chancel-screen and the altar, but in some other 
part of the church, out of hearing but not out of sight of the 
faithful," King Alexander II. died of fever at Kerrera during a 
western expedition to confirm his rule in Argyll and the Isles. 

Alexander III, 1249-1286, a king of a very noble type, 
succeeded his father at the age of eight, so that the country 
had the misfortune of a regency government for many years. 
The king was married at York on Christmas Day, 1251, 
to Margaret, daughter of Henry III. of England, who, with 
Mary de Couci, mother of the boy-bridegroom, was present 
at the ceremony. Continuing his father's task of resisting 
the Norse rule in the Western Isles, he gained the battle 
of Largs in 1263. This battle was a turning point in our 
history. King Haco had sailed from Bergen, 7th July, 1263, 
steering by Shetland, Orkney, anchoring at Eonaldsvoe on 5th 
August (date fixed by an annular eclipse of the sun), Lewis, 
Skye, and the Sound of Mull, where above 100 vessels were 
collected. He plundered Kintyre, Bute, Lochlongside, and the 
islands in Lochlomond. Thereafter a series of storms stopped 
his career, first by wrecks in Lochlong, then on 2nd October 
at Cumbrae, and next day at the battle of Largs. With the 
remnant of his armament, Haco retired to Lamlash Bay, then 
to the Hebrides and to Orkney, where he died, 15th December. 
After this the Norwegian kingdom of the Isles, with the Isle of 
Man and the Hebrides, was brought under the Scottish crown 
by treaty, signed in the Dominican priory at Perth, 2nd July, 

Continuing also his father's policy of resistance to Eoman 
interference, Alexander in 1266 prohibited the legate-cardinal, 
Ottobon de Fieschi (later Pope Adrian V.), from raising a 
procuration in Scotland of six merks for each cathedral 
and four merks for each parish church. The king appealed to 
Ptome, and the clergy raised 2000 merks to support the 



appeal-z.c. to buy off the procuration by a bribe. In 1268 
the same legate summoned the Scots clergy to a counci m 
England, when only four attended, not for obedience, but to 
decline jurisdiction and watch procedure. 

Three dates give us the stages of the Papal encroachments on 
the Scottish purse. 1. In 1254 Innocent IV. gave Henry III. 
of England one-twentieth of the ecclesiastical revenues of Scot- 
land for three years to help in crusade. But Henry's gain 
was even more slender than the Pope's right to give. L in 
1968 Clement lY. increased this airy gift to one-tenth in 
favour of Henry's son. This time the Scots saved their cash 
and evaded both England and Eome by offering payment in 
soldiers 3. In 1275 a legate came to Scotland to collect m 
person this one-tenth. His name was Benemundus or Boia- 
mund de Vicci, but he is best known as Bagimond, possibly 
as a joke on his bagging or begging mission. The device tried 
on him was a dispute and appeal whether the one-tenth was 
to be on the old or the present valuation. The poor legate had 
to trudcre back to Rome for the Pope's decision, which was m 
favour of the latter. The roll so made out is still extant, and 
is the best authority for old church wealth. Between 127o 
and 1560 many a sore exaction was made on Scots clerics 
according to this fleecing tariff, especially when the chief 
benefices feU vacant. The roll was revised in 1512, m a synod 
held at Edinburgh in the Abbey of the Dominicans. 

Alexander died suddenly, by a fall from his horse at King- 
horn in 1286— to the great grief of his subjects, for he had 
proved brave, wise, just, and virtuous. Tytler^ says of him: 
"Attended by his justiciary, by his principal nobles and a 
military force which awed the strong offenders and gave con- 
fidence to the oppressed, it was his custom to make an annual 
procuress through his kingdom for the redress of wrong and 
the punishment of delinquents. Eor this purpose he divided 
the kingdom into four great districts; and on his entermg 
each county, the sheriff had orders to attend on the kingly 
judae with the whole militia of the shire, and to continue 
with the court tHl the king had heard all the appeals of that 
county which were brought before him." 

1 Chap. i. 


The oft-quoted Cantus of ancient lament preserved by 
Winton (end of Book vii. of Cronykil), says — 

" Quhen Alysandyr, our kinge, wes dede, 
That Scotland led in luwe [love] and le [peace], 
Away wes sons of ale and brede, 
Of wyne and was, of gamyn [games] and gle. 

Our gold wes changyd into lede [leaden sorrow] 
Christ, born into virgynyte. 
Succour Scotland, and remede, 
That sted [placed] is in perplexyte." 

On the death of Alexander the crown devolved on his grand- 
child Margaret, the Maid of Norvs^ay. 

The only surviving child of Alexander III. and his queen, 
Margaret, was a daughter, Margaret, born in 1260, during a visit 
to the English court. This princess was married in 1281 to Eric, 
king of Norway, and it was her daughter, of the same name, who 
was now the child-heiress of the Scottish crown. The little 
Maid of ISTorway was the subject of much scheming on the 
part of Edward I. to have her married to his son, the Prince 
of Wales, so as to subject Scotland to England. He had 
secretly procured a dispensation in advance from the Pope, 
as the intended union was within the forbidden degrees. 
These artifices reached their climax at the treaty of Brigham, 
near Eoxburgh, in July, 1290, when on the part of the Scots 
many particulars were carefully stipulated for the independ- 
ence of the kingdom,^ which all went to justify the Scots in 
their determined resistance to Edward for forty years following. 
September of the same year which in July sealed the treaty 
of Brigham, witnessed the death of the little queen at Kirkwall, 
on her way from Norway. Now was Edward's opportunity. 
Already during the marriage negotiations he had asked delivery 
of Scottish castles to himself and was firmly refused. 

ONWARD TO JAMES I., 1290-1424. 

Even before the child-queen Margaret had sailed from 
Norway a most rash and unpatriotic appeal had been made 
to Edward I. from a party of Scottish nobles (unfriendly to 

1 Tytler, i. 28. 


Bruce's preteusions). On the death of Margaret no fewer 
than twelve competitors for the throne appeared, of whom the 
chief were John Baliol and Eobert Bruce. Both claimants 
were descended from David, earl of Huntingdon, brother to 
King William the Lion. Bruce, however, was the nearer of the 
two, being the son of Isabella, David's second daughter, while 
Baliol was the grandson of his eldest daughter Margaret. The 
decision lay with King Edward, who claimed as Lord Para- 
mount, and decided for Baliol, who was crowned at Scone on 
St. Andrew's Day, 1292. In 1293, on occasion of war between 
England and France, the Scots Parliament sided with the lat- 
ter, whereupon Edward invaded Scotland with a strong army, 
and on Good Friday, 30th March, 1296, stormed and sacked 
Berwick. The Scots army was defeated at Dunbar, April 27, 
which put all Scotland at Edward's cruel mercy, who in succes- 
sion visited Eoxburgh (May 7), Jedburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling, 
Perth, Brechin, Aberdeen, and Elgin (July 26). At Brechin 
Baliol was publicly stripped of the insignia of royalty. (He died 
an exile in France in 1305.) At each stage of Edward's 
crushing progress formal homage was compelled from all nobles, 
magistrates, and clergy. On his return the English usurper 
robbed Scone of the coronation stone, and mutilated the char- 
tulary of the abbey for the purpose of obliterating the evi- 
dence of the independence historically belonging to the throne 
and Church of Scotland.^ On the 28th of August the same 
melancholy year Edward held a Parliament at Berwick to 
receive collectively the fealty of clergy and laity of the country. 
But all this, which seemed so sweeping and thorough, was 
undone on 11th September next year by Wallace's briQiant 
battle of Stirling Bridge. In 1298 Wallace, though he lost 
the battle of Falkirk, yet continued to harass Edward by 
keeping near him on the watch for opportunities. After this 
defeat Wallace was deserted by the greater barons (who from 
the first had been jealous of him), and he resigned the office 
of Governor of Scotland. A slight truce came to Scotland in 
1300 through the interposition of Pope Boniface VIIL, who 
reminded Edward of the provisions of the treaty of Brigham 
which he was violating, and exhorted him to leave Scotland its 

^ The stages and dates of Edward's march are given by Tjtler, i. note G. 


right of self-government. The Pope at this time declared Scot- 
land a fief of the Holy See, but in 1302, probably after a bribe, 
sided anew with Edward, and rebuked harshly the patriotic 
Bishop Wishart of Glasgow. 

Edward in 1303 made a second great military progress 
through Scotland, his stages being Eoxburgh (21st May), 
Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Clackmannan, Perth, Dundee, Brechin, 
Aberdeen, Banff, Kinloss, Lochendorb, Kildrummie (8th Octo- 
ber), back by Dundee, Perth, Stirling, Cambuskenneth, to 
Dunfermline (11th December).^ 

The death of AVallace took place in 1305, that of Edward I. in 
1307, while the coronation of Bruce at Scone by Wishart, 
bishop of Glasgow, was in the year intervening. This Eobert 
Bruce was grandson of John Baliol's rival in 1290. The 
coronation was a bold stroke, which was recognized by a 
national council at Dundee, 24th February, 1309-10. Bannock- 
burn in 1314 put an end for a time to English meddling. A 
fine feature of the War of Independence was the patriotism and 
self-denial of the clergy, who sided with Wallace and Bruce in 
a degree that shamed the calculating or timid nobles, many of 
whom, however, were really by descent English aliens. 

In 1317 two Papal legates came to England to promote peace 
between England and Scotland, but Bruce refused to receive 
them, and made grim mockery of their deputy by sending him 
back naked and letterless because his title of king was not 
acknowledged. The legates resented this by excommunicating 
Bruce, and the Pope confirmed it in 1320. But a letter from 
the Scots Estates at Aberbrothic, on 6th April the same year, 
signed by eight earls and thirty-one barons, firmly stating the 
ancient and present independence of Scotland, procured a 
suspension, and in 1328 a removal of the excommunication. 
Finally, the treaty of Northampton, 4th May, 1328, completely 
recognized the independence of Scotland, and on 7th June, 1329, 
at the age of fifty-five, the great King Eobert died peacefully in 
his castle of Cardross surrounded by his nobles. 

David II. 1329-1370, son of the great Bruce, succeeded at 
five years of age, and was anointed in 1331 by the Bishop of 
St. Andrews, under a special buU of Pope John XXII. Ean- 

1 Tvtler, i., note P. 

DAVID II. 287 

dolph, earl of Murray, acted as regent up to his death m 1332, 
and was a competent man, but he was succeeded feebly by 
Donald, earl of Mar. The king suffered an exile of nme years 
in France, after losing the battle of Dupplin Moor m 1332, 
while Edward Baliol was set up in his place by Edward III. 
of Enaland, and crowned at Scone, but three months later was 
defeated at Annan, and driven into England. Another mis- 
fortune of David 11. was eleven years' captivity m the Tower 
of London, 1346-1357, after his defeat at Neville's Cross, near 
Durham, 17th October, 1346. The king's release in 1357 was 
arrancred for 100,000 merks. This sum Edward bound firmly 
on tlTe Scottish Estates, church, barons, and burghs, and also 
took personal securities in three Scots lords and twenty men 
of noble houses to reside in England as hostages. But all 
precautions faHed to extract coin from compulsory debtors. 
When David's queen-princess, Joanna of England, died, he made 
a low marriage in 1362 with a glamouring widow, Margaret 
Locrie from whom he was glad to be divorced in 1370. Eleven 
years'' captivity failed to satiate David with England, for again 
and aaain after 1357 he revisited the enemy's country, although 
the release money was unpaid, and he had to take elaborate 
precautions against fresh arrest. Worse than his capture in 
matrimony and in war, and worse than his silly visits to Eng- 
land was his base proposal in 1363 to the Scots Estates to 
accept Prince Lionel, a son of Edward, as successor to the throne 
of Scotland-a proposal which met unanimous and scornfu 
reiection from the three Estates met at Scone, "that they would 
have no Englishman to reign over them." A similar proposal 
was aaain made and rejected three years later. From all this 
it is only too plain that David IL was a poor creature, unworthy 
of his father and of Scotland; immoral in character, he was also 
devoid of patriotism. One of the few noticeable features of the 
reian ecclesiastically was the foundation at Dunbar m 1342 by 
Patrick earl of March, of the first collegiate church, which had 
an establishment consisting of a dean or provost, an archpnest, 
and eighteen canons. We shall see the growth of this new 
class of churches later on. , . , 

David n. died childless, and was succeeded by his nephew, 
Egbert IL, 1370-1390. Robert was the first king of the 


Stewart or Stuart dynasty, being son of Walter the High 
Steward of Scotland, and Marjory, eldest daughter of the great 
Bruce. The king was fifty-four at his accession, and was 
crowned at Scone by the Bishop of St. Andrews, 25th March, 
1371. Robert had been designated to the throne by his grand- 
father so far back as 1318. Eobert II. gave proofs of ability 
as regent during the previous reign, but his own reign of nine- 
teen years was one of comparative peace, to recruit the country. 
The romantic but useless battle of Otterburn occurred in 1388, 
in the midst of other Border raids in this reign.^ By his first 
wife, Elizabeth Mure, the king had four sons and six daughters, 
and by his second wife, Euphemia Boss, he had two sons and 
four daughters. Besides these sixteen he had also eight sons 
illegitimate, who grew up around the court.- Au Act of the 
Estates of 1371 fixed the succession to his eldest son John by 
the first marriage, while the Estates in 1389 appointed the 
second son (Earl of Fife) regent. By the intermarriages of his 
family with the nobility, Eobert II. secured the peace of his 
reign. He died at his castle of Dundonald, and was buried 
at Scone. 

Eobert III., 1390-1406, eldest son of Eobert II. succeeded 
his father. His original name was John, earl of Carrick, but 
on the day following his coronation, when his queen Annabella 
Drummond was crowned, it was agreed by nobles, clergy, and 
people to change the name of John, which was disliked from 
its connection with Baliol, to Eobert III. In this reign 
happened the gladiatorial fight on the North Inch of Perth 
between thirty men of one clan against thirty of another, when 
Chrom Gow volunteered to take the place of a " fugie." Now 
ended nearly a century of war with England, broken by only 
seven years of truce about 1347. Long strife caused Scotland 
to be divided into bands under privately warring chiefs, and 
the evil was increased by the indolence, lameness, and perhaps 
imbecility of the king — so that Parliament in 1398 appointed 
his eldest son, the Duke of Eothesay,^ as regent for three years 
to act with a council. On 14th August, 1400, Henry IV. of 
England sent a message to the king demanding homage, and 

^ Chevy Chase comes not from the Cheviot Hills, but from chevauchee, raid. 
2 Tvtler, i. 328. » pji-st Scottish instance of title of duke. 


then on refusal invaded Scotland. A retaliatory army under 
Douglas was sorely defeated at Homildon Hill in 1402. The 
Duke of Rothesay, supposed mad and needing restraint, was 
imprisoned at Falkland, and starved to death by his uncle the 
Duke of Albany, who thereupon became governor in room of 
Eothesay. Hereon followed a further mishap, that in March, 
1405, the king's only remaining son James (afterwards James 
I.), aged fourteen, when on his way to France for safety and 
education, was captured at sea off Flamborough Head, and 
became prisoner of Henry IV, If not by Albany's contrivance 
this capture certainly fitted well into Albany's ambition. The 
poor king died sadly at Eothesay, perhaps broken-hearted, 13th 
April, 1406. 

The interval between the king's death and the liberation of 
his son James I., in 1424, was filled by two regents. The first 
of these, from 1406 to his death on the 3rd September, 1419, 
was Eobert Stewart, duke of Albany, who had already acted as 
regent from the date of the murder of the Duke of Eothesay. 
During this regency, in 1411, occurred at Harlaw in Garioch 
the great battle between the Earl of Mar and Donald, Lord of 
the Isles, which averted from Lowland Scotland the destiny 
of being overruled from the Celtic "West. Duke Eobert of 
Albany was succeeded in the regency by his own son Duke 
Murdac. Murdac had been one of the prisoners made at 
Homildon Hill, and his release was procured by his father in 
exchange for the young Earl of Northumberland, though the 
king's son still continued a prisoner. Murdac, with his two 
sons, was beheaded at Stirling in 1425, in view of his castle of 
Doune, the reason being his own and his father's share in the 
troubles of Eobert III. and James I. 



JAIIES I. TO JAilES v., 1424-1542. 

James I., 1424-1437 : Benefits of the training of James I. in captivity— Vengeance 
on Albany and his sons— Dealing with the Highlands and Alexander, Lord of 
the Isles— Investiture of bishops and inquisition for Lollards. James II., 1437-1460 : 
Crighton and Livingston winning and losing the boy-king— Rise of Bishop Kennedy 
of St. Andrews— P'our good points in this reign. James III., 14G0-148S : Lord 
Robert Bovd seizes the boy-king at Linlithgow— King's marriage in 1469 and the 
fall of the Boyds— Agricultural Act of 1469— Story of Archbishop Graham oppressed 
by knaves— A row of courtiers hanged over Lauder Bridge— The Lauder Bridge 
faction fight, and murder of the king at Sauchiebuni. James IV., 1488-1513: 
The king's relation to his father's murderers— Formation of a Scottish navy— The 
king's exploits on horseback — Wholesome laws of 1493 on Church matters — The 
king's marriage in 1503— Lands to be let in "feu-farm" — War with England, 
and the king slain at Flodden. James V., 1513-1542 : Miserable series of rege^icies, 
and rise of English and French factions — "Erection" of the king in 1524— The 
king's escape from Falkland to Stirling in 1528— The king's marriages, Princess 
Magdalene and Mary of Guise — Solway Moss defection, and the king's death through 

James I, 1424-1437, son of Eobert III. and Queen Auna- 
bella Drummond, born 1394, had been seized by the English 
in 1406, at the age of fourteen, and kept by Henry IV. for 
nineteen years. In some respects this captivity was an advan- 
tage, for it brought to the king a better education than had 
been likely in Scotland. Besides training in the exercises of 
war and chivalry, James profited especially in learning and 
seeing the art of government and administration of justice in 
England. Nor was his captivity spent irksomely, for he had 
intercourse with the best of the English court, and was com- 
panion of Henry V. of England in his campaigns in France. 
In his long captivity he seems to have cherished a deep and 
fierce resentment at the Eegent Albany for making no effort 
towards his release and acting altogether as a usurper, but he 
bided his time and carefully planned his design for punish- 
ment. The thoughtfulness and resoluteness of the king is seen 
to better advantage in his clear insight into one of the chief 
causes of Scottish troubles, and especially of the weakness of 
the throne in its relation to the turbulent nobles, in his famous 
mot: "Let God but give me life, and there shall not be a spot 
in my dominions where the key shall not keep the castle and 
the furze bush the cow, though I myself should lead the life 

JAMES I. 291 

of a dog to accomplish it." On his release he was crowned 
at Scone in 1424. He began vigorous legislation in his very 
first Parliament with a law against rookeries in kirkyard and 
orchard trees; an Act for the encouragement of archery, pro- 
viding a butts in the vicinity of parish churches on every £10 
land, and prohibiting the useless but popular sport of football. 
He organized an acting committee, under the name of Lords 
of the Articles, and passed a law resuming the alienated Crown 
lands and calling on the nobility to show the charters of their 
estates. After eight months had passed he held another Par- 
liament at Perth, 12th March, 1425, on the ninth day of which 
he suddenly arrested Murdac, the late governor, his younger 
sou Alexander, and twenty-six of the principal nobles and 
barons. Shortly previous he had imprisoned Walter, Albany's 
eldest son, also the old Earl of Lennox, Albany's father-in-law, 
and Sir Eobert Graham (afterwards the king's murderer). 
Within the same month of May, Albany, his two sons, and 
his father-in-law were all condemned and executed. The 
same year witnessed the institution of the Court of Session, 
on 30th September. Another Parliament, held at Inverness 
in 1427, was notable for sudden and sharp dealing with forty 
Highland chiefs, who were seized and bound, of whom some 
whose guilt was already clamant were at once executed, while 
the majority were released. One of the released, Alexander, 
Lord of the Isles, soon after rebelled, razed Inverness, and 
ravaged certain Crown lands, but was promptly met by the 
king in Lochaber and defeated. Subsequently he appeared 
half clad with a naked sword in his hand before the altar at 
Holyrood begging mercy, which was granted. In 1431 James 
made an expedition to Dunstaffnage to punish a fresh rebellion 
under Donald Balloch, and 300 thieves and robbers were exe- 
cuted on the occasion. In his thirteen years' reign the king 
held no fewer than thirteen meetings of Parliament, and thus 
laboured hard at planting order among all classes of his subjects. 
The Church had a full share of the king's efforts. He re- 
newed the struggle with the Pope as to the investiture of 
bishops. Urban IV. had ordained every bishop to go to Eome 
for consecration — a grasping addition made to the acknowledged 
right of confirming appointments which brought great fees to 


Eome. To checkmate this James enacted that no clerk should 
purchase any pension out of any benefice ; also that no clerk 
should go beyond seas without consent of his ordinary, and only 
after an oath not to be guilty of baratrie, or simony. In addition 
to these safeguards, an Act against carrying gold out of the 
realm was made applicable to clerks. He made a special law 
for encouragement of learning in the Church as a qualification 
for preferment, by providing that all canons must have a uni- 
versity degree.^ A less pleasant feature of this great reign of 
law and order is its relation to church doctrine. The king's 
great allies in curbing the nobles and barons were the clergy, 
and in return for their help in his case he seems to have 
helped them in their case more than perhaps his own taste 
would have prompted. Parliament, in 1425, directed every 
bishop to make inquisition for Lollards and heretics ; this 
was the continuance of a policy which eighteen years before 
had caused John Eesby to be burned at Perth. In 1433 
Paul Craw, a Bohemian physician, was burned at St. Andrews, 
the prosecutor in both cases being Abbot Laurence of Lindores, 
the Inquisitor for Scotland." Both Eesby and Craw held 
Lollard or "Wiclififite doctrine, which had been dealt with at 
the great Council of Basel, that met in 1431, and was attended 
by eight Scottish representatives, including the Bishops of 
Glasgow and Moray and the Abbot of Arbroath, who would 
return from it with additional zeal. The extremely tragic end 
of King James, murdered at Christmas in the Dominican 
Convent at Perth by Sir Eobert Graham (uncle to the Earl of 
Stratherne), is best narrated by Tytler.^ 

James II. (1437-1460) succeeded at the age of eight. Imme- 
diately after the tragedy at Perth the queen-mother fled with her 
son to Edinburgh and took refuge in the castle, of which Sir 
"William Crichton was governor. The young king was hastily 
crowned at Holyrood, and a Parliament was held within a month 
which settled that the queen-mother was to have custody of her 
son till he was twenty-one, and Archibald, fifth earl of Douglas 
and duke of Touraine, was to be lieutenant-general of the 
kingdom. All this came to nought, and great part of the work 
of James I. was undone, the improvements being too raw to 

^ Walcott, "Ancient Church of Scotland," 73. - Laing's " Lindores Abbey," 105. ^Chap.ii. 

JAMES II. 293 

last, and the nobles regaining their old turbulence. The queen- 
mother found herself a prisoner in the castle, and Crichton 
seizing power by becoming keeper of the king. She eluded 
this by a clever flight with the king to Stirling Castle, which 
was in charge of Sir Alexander Livingstone of Callander ; but 
it was only a change from the frying-pan to the fire. Living- 
stone went to Edinburgh and began a siege of the castle on 
the ground of Crichton's treason, but the two rogues had a 
conference which ended in an alliance on the basis of going 
shares in the spoil. At this point, in 1439, the Earl of Douglas 
died, so that the two plotters became masters of the king and 
kingdom. The queen-mother now married Sir James Stewart, 
the Black Knight of Lorn, an ally of Douglas, but the anticipated 
advantage was extinguished by both bride and bridegroom being 
imprisoned by Livingstone at Stirling, when Livingstone took 
possession of the boy-king. The next move was that Crichton 
surprised the king when at play in the park of Stirling and 
ran off with him to Linlithgow. But the two rogues were 
again reconciled to make common cause by the mediation of 
Bishop Leighton of Aberdeen and Bishop Winchester of Moray 
at an interview in St. Giles'. Crichton, as chancellor, decoyed 
the young Earl Douglas and his brother David and their friend, 
Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld, into the Castle of Edinburgh, 
and had them all immediately executed after a hasty and sham 
trial. Livingstone after this, " splitting " with Crichton once 
more, had an agreement with "William, eighth earl of Douglas, 
who married the Eair Maid of Galloway, his cousin. This 
influence brought about the fall of Crichtou, and Bishop Ken- 
nedy of St. Andrews (sister's son of James I.) became chan- 
cellor instead. The firm attitude of Bishop Kennedy drew 
upon him, in 1444, the anger and revenge of Alexander, second 
earl of Crawford, who, with a band of turbulent men, wasted 
with fire and sword the bishop's lands in Fife and Angus, and 
tried to capture the bishop himself, who took refuge in his 
castle and excommunicated the marauders.^ With Kennedy, 
who was both honest and patriotic, came a better turn of 
affairs, for he henceforth steadied Crichton and wrought for 
the true interest of the king. Crichton again became chan- 

1 Tytler, ii. 138. 


cellor, and iu 1449 James married Mary, princess of Gueldres. 
After this the chief of the Livingstones were seized at Inch- 
belly, near Kirkintilloch, and ceased to form a rival party. 
In 1451, in Stirling Castle, James, with his own hand, in a 
sudden quarrel, stabbed Earl Douglas, who had a sealed letter 
of safe-conduct from king and council. This shocking crime 
led to a state of civil war. Parliament, in June, 1453, at 
Edinburgh, divided the Douglas estates, but soon after again 
the king made terms of peace with Douglas. In 1460 the 
king, in the interest of the Lancaster party in England, laid 
siege to the Castle of Roxburgh, which was held by Neville 
for the Yorkists, when one of the old hooped cannon burst 
and a splinter lolled the king on the spot in his thirtieth year. 
Two good points marked this wild reign — the founding of the 
University of Glasgow in 1450, on the model of Bologna, by 
a bull of Pope Nicholas V., at the request of Bishop Turnbull;^ 
and the declaration of the provincial councils of Perth, in 1457 
and 1459, that presentations to vacant benefices by ancient 
law and custom, within a vacant bishopric, belonged to the 
Crown — confirmed by Act of Parliament in 1462, and renewed 
in 1485 and 1487." The legislation of James 11. was in many 
particulars of high value. Best of all was the Act of 1449, 
giving security of tenure to tenants with leases when an estate 
changed hands : " For the safety and favour of the puir pepil 
that labouris the grunde, that all tenants having tacks for 
a term of years, shall enjoy their tacks to the ish of their 
terms, suppose the lords sell or analy their lands." ^ In the 
same direction of security for country people was the Act 
against "sornars, outlyars, masterful beggars, fools, bards, and 
runners about." Prudent and patriotic was the organization 
of wapenshaws, with weekly meetings for archery (every Sun- 
day !), and an amusing part of the Act was the prohibition of 
the idle sports of golf and football, which withdrew men's 
attention from honest labour and were useless for national 

James III. (1460-1488), at the age of eight succeeded his 
father, being crowned at Kelso after the capture of the castles 

' For a good account of which see Cosmo Innes' " Early Scotch Hist," 67-69, 220-253. 
"^ Bellesheim, ii. 85. ^ Cosmo Inues, " Legal Antiq.," 125 ; also Tytler, ii. 148. 



of Iloxburgh and AVark. His' first Parliament was Leld at 
Edinburgh in February, 1460, when the queen-mother and 
Bishop Kennedy were recognized as charged with the care of 
the king, with Lord Evandale as chancellor and Lord Boyd as 
justiciar. The queen-mother died in 1463. The struggle of 
the Eoses in England partly affected Scotland, but the battle of 
Hexham proved the deathblow of the Lancastrians, and a truce 
of fifteen years was thereon concluded with Scotland. The 
Boyds now rose into power by getting hold of the king's person. 
We see how this was managed by an " indenture " or " band " 
of 10th February, 1465,^ mutually pledging Fleming, Kennedy, 
and Boyd to stand each to other in " aefald kindness, supply, and 
defence." This was done in anticipation of Bishop Kennedy's 
death in 1466. As the king, aged fourteen, was sitting in his 
exchequer court at Linlithgow four members laid hands on him, 
put him on a horse, and took him to Edinburgh Castle. At the 
next Parliament in Edinburgh, under the guidance of the four 
traitors, an Act of Indemnity was passed, Boyd was formally 
appointed governor of the king's person, and a committee of 
peers was entrusted with parliamentary powers. Sir Thomas 
Boyd, eldest son of Lord Ptobert Boyd, was married to Mary, 
eldest sister of the king, and was made Earl of Arran. The 
king himself was married to Margaret, daughter of Christiern, 
king of Denmark, the dowry to be 60,000 florins, of which 
10,000 were to be paid down and a mortgage given over the 
Orkney Isles till the rest was paid, with besides, or first rather, 
a fuU discharge of the " annual" of the Western Isles, and all 
arrears thereon — an old score between Denmark and Scotland. 
Latterly King Christiern could scrape together only 2000 of the 
10,000 florins, when he gave Shetland as security for the 800O 
balance — and the two pledges have never been redeemed, so that 
Orkney and Shetland have ever since been Scottish, and specially 
connected with the Crown as well. The royal marriage took 
place at Holyrood in July, 1469, the king being eighteen and 
the queen sixteen. The fall of the Boyds quickly followed on 
the marriage, and from the marriage old Lord Boyd fled to 
Northumberland and died. His son, the Earl of Arran, fled to 
Denmark, where his ruin had been planned, and Sir Alexander, 

^ The text of which is given by Tytler, ii., note 0. 


Lord Robert's brother, was executed 22ud November, 1469, 
for the treason of 9th July, 1466, in carrying off the king from 
Linlithgow. Of course their estates were forfeited. The 
Princess Mary, wife of the Earl of Arran, was divorced and 
married Lord Hamilton, whose family now, in point of influence, 
took the place of the Boyds, and in Queen Mary's time, through 
this marriage, were next heirs to the throne. In 1469 was 
passed a valuable Act declaring the non -liability of the property 
of the tenants who tilled the ground for the debts of their 
lord. This is another of the roots of modern agricultural 
freedom, following up the Act of James 11. giving security 
under leases. In the see of St. Andrews Bishop Kennedy, who 
died in 1466, was succeeded by his uterine brother, Patrick 
Graham, bishop of Brechin, one of the best, but most unjustly 
treated and unfortunate, of our bishops. He was disliked by 
the Boyds, and went to Rome for confirmation, which was 
bestowed by Paul IT. Fearing his reception at home he prolonged 
his stay at Rome, and wrought so effectually against the revived 
claims of Archbishop Neville of York that he got the next 
Pope, Sixtus IV., in 1472, to make the see of St. Andrews 
metropolitan and independent. Moreover, the Pope appointed 
Graham his legate for three years, that he might reform the 
internal abuses of the Church. 

On his return everything went against the good arch- 
bishop — the nobles were scared at the prospect of losing 
their trade in the sale of livings — the priests were scared at 
the prospect of real work and parting with their concubines 
— the other bishops were jealous of a new and reforming 
superior. These three influences poisoned the mind of the 
king, and Graham was brought to trial before prejudiced or 
bribed judges on charges of the most flimsy and perverted 
kind. His condemnation was the result ; the king confirmed 
the sentence, and made Shevez, the chief prosecutor, and a man 
of no principle, archbishop in his stead. The afflicted Graham 
lost his reason, was imprisoned as a lunatic, and died in Inch- 
colm — a sorrowful fate for the pure and patriotic churchman who 
nobly completed the ecclesiastic independence of Scotland. 

In 1482 the discontented and seditious nobles had an army 
at Lauder, where the king and his despised favourites were. 


Here Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, gained his cognomen 
of Bell-the-cat from his prompt volunteering to master Coch- 
rane, after Lord Gray had told the story of the mice and the 
cat. Cochrane, the king's architect. Dr. Eogers, musician, 
Hommil, a tailor, Torphichen, Leonard, a shoemaker, Preston, 
and some others of the royal pets, were hanged in a row like 
dogs over Lauder Bridge by the wild rebels. The poor king 
himself was taken to Edinburgh for imprisonment under the 
care of the Earls of Atholl and Buchan, who, however, soon 
capitulated (possibly by collusion) to the Duke of Albany, who 
became king's keeper. Albany was thereafter stripped of his 
offices, but being allowed to keep his estates, entered into new 
plots with England. Edward lY., dying, was succeeded by 
Eichard IIL, who wished peace with Scotland. Queen Mar- 
garet died in 1486. The old faction of Lauder Bridge still 
feared being called to account, and in 1487 tried to secure 
themselves in Parliament ; but the king's party was strong, and 
passed an Act refusing applications for pardon for treason and 
other crimes for seven years to come. The next move of the 
same faction was to declare that James had forfeited the crown 
and ceased to reign, whereupon they proclaimed his son as 
James IV. The king, with an army of 30,000, met the rebels 
at Blackness, gained a skirmish, but too mildly negotiated a 
pacification, after which he retired to Edinburgh, and too con- 
fidingly disbanded his army. At once his son and the rebels 
reappeared. The royal army was quickly raised again, and 
they went to Stirling to meet a northern contingent. The 
rebels followed them from Falkirk, and a battle was fought at 
Sauchieburn, two miles from Stirling. As the heat and danger 
of the fight neared the king, his nobles prevailed on him to 
escape on horseback to the village of Bannockburn, but his 
horse getting a scare James fell heavily in his armour and 
was stunned. Carried into an adjacent cottage, still known as 
Beaton's Mill, he called for a confessor, when one of his enemies, 
pretending himself a priest, and being informed of the king's 
identity, with the baseness of a fiend, while stooping for pre- 
tended confession mortally stabbed the bruised king — in the 
thirty-fifth year of his age and twenty-eighth of his reign. 
Tytler' gives a vindication of the character and tastes of James 


III., which commends itself as just, for it is chiefly writers 
influenced by the hostile faction who have disparaged him.^ 
His architectural taste contributed not a little to Stirling Castle, 
and his musical zeal led him to build and endow the original 
Chapel Eoyal, which in later reigns became so famous as to 
rival a bishopric, and whose endowments partly survive to the 
Scottish chaplains of Queen Victoria.^ 

James IV. (1488-1513) at the age of sixteen succeeded his 
father. His coronation took place 26th June at Scone. For 
his share in his father's death he wore a penitential chain round 
his body, and added yearly to its weight. His first Parliament 
met on 6th October, 1488, and a fourth met so early as 3rd 
February, 1489, the chief work of these being perversely the 
prosecution of the nobles who were faithful to his father — such 
as Buchan, Bothwell, and Eoss of Montgrenan — whereas the 
real traitors were the present king's own courtiers. An insur- 
rection took place under the Earl of Lennox and Lord Lyle, 
who had many sympathisers in the north, where the king's 
father had had great support. The insurrection was quelled 
by the siege of Duchal and Crookston and the surrender of 
Dunbarton, shortly after which Lennox, Huntly, Marshal, Lyle, 
and Forbes were pardoned and restored to royal favour. One 
of the great distinctions of the reign was the growth of a 
Scottish navy, in which the king took a deep personal interest, 
following here the example of his father. On one occasion Sir 
Andrew Wood of Largo, with his Flower and Yellow Carvel, 
brought in five captive pirate vessels to Leith, while another 
time he defeated three ships of Stephen Bull, and took them 
as prizes to Dundee. The exploits of John and Eobert Barton 
soon followed. The king himself was specially fond of tourna- 
ments, and had a taste for rambling about in disguise, partly 
for curiosity to hear what his subjects thought of him, and 
partly to break the seventh commandment by opportunity or 
importunity. In a better way he was very energetic from 
time to time in rapidly riding great distances to promote the 
peace of the country and superintend the working of courts of 
justice. In 1490 he twice rode from Perth across the "Mounth" 

^ In the end of chap. iv. 
"^ Roger's "Hist, of the Chapel Royal of Scot." (Grampian Club, 1882). 

JAMES IV. 299 

into Aberdeenshire. In 1493 he rode into the West Highlands 
to Dunstaffnage, and Mingarry in Ardnamurchan. In 1494 he 
thrice visited the Isles, tried Sir John of the Isles for treason 
at Edinburgh, and stripped him of power and lands. In 1498 
he travelled as far as Inverness. In one day he rode quite 
alone from Stirling to Elgin, and then after a few hours' rest 
rode on to the shrine of St. Duthac at Tain, to prove at once 
the quietness of his realm and do an act of devotion. In 1499 
he held his court in South Kintyre. 

" In a Parliament held at Edinburgh in the summer of the 
year 1493 some important laws were passed, which evinced 
the jealousy of the king regarding any interference with his 
ecclesiastical privileges in the disposal of church benefices, 
and his determination to resist all unreasonable encroachments 
upon the part of the court of Eome. Eight months were to be 
allowed, after the occurrence of a vacancy in any see, for the 
king's letter appointing a successor to reach the Pope ; no 
interim promotion was to be allowed ; and any of the lieges 
who were detected lending themselves or their interest to 
oppose these regulations, were declared guilty of treason. No 
legate was to be permitted to enter the realm, unless he was 
a cardinal or a native of Scotland ; and the Archbishops of St. 
Andrews and Glasgow, who had been for some time engaged 
in a violent litigation, which had been carried on before the 
Papal court, and the expense of which plea had been attended, 
it is declared, with 'inestimable damage to the realm,' were 
exhorted to cease from their contention before a foreign eccle- 
siastical tribunal, submitting to the decision of the king, under 
the serious denunciation that if they demur to this proposal 
their tenants and 'mailers' shall be interdicted from paying 
to them their rents till they have repented of their contumacy. 
The king's orators and ambassadors who were sent to Italy 
received directions to exhort and entreat all his subjects, 
whether of the clergy or laymen, who had pleas depending in 
the Eoman court, to withdraw their litigation, and to return 
like dutiful subjects to their own country, bringing with them 
their bulls, writs, and other muniments, after which the mon- 
arch undertook that justice should be administered to them 
by their ordinary judge within whose jurisdiction the cause lay, 


and over whose conduct in delivering an impartial decision he 
engaged to have a strict superintendence."^ 

An important agricultural enactment was that flour was to 
be brought to market, and sold without any new taxation beyond 
the first multure where it was ground, and that victual might 
be sold all days as well as market days. By the Parliament 
of 1496 a singularly good educational Act was passed, ordering 
" that throughout the kingdom all barons and freeholders, whose 
fortunes permitted it, should send their sons to the schools as 
soon as they were eight or nine years old, to remain there until 
they had attained a competent knowledge of the Latin tongue ; 
after which they were directed to place them, for the space of 
three years, as pupils in the seminaries of art and law, so that 
they might be instructed in the knowledge of the laws, and 
fitted as sheriffs and ordinary judges, to administer justice 
under the king's highness throughout the realm;" whilst it is 
added, by this provision the " poor people of the land will not 
be obliged, in every trifling offence, to seek redress from the 
king's principal council."^ 

In 1503, at the age of thirty, the king married Princess Mar- 
garet of England, daughter of Henry VII., aged fourteen, an 
event which was celebrated in Dunbar's poem of " The Thistle 
and the Eose," as well as in other ways more obtrusive. A sad 
prelude to the marriage was the death, supposed by poison, of 
three sisters at Drummond Castle — Margaret, Euphemia, and 
Sibylla — daughters of Lord Drummond, the first of whom had 
for years been the king's mistress, and a very costly one, as the 
price of her silks in the treasurer's account-books shows. The 
marriage was happily followed by nine years of peace. One 
other agricultural law of 1504 is worthy of special note as thus 
described by Tytler : — " In the year 1457 it had been recom- 
mended to the king, lords, and prelates to let their lands in 
'feu farm,' but this injunction, which, when followed, was 
highly beneficial to the country, had fallen so much into disuse, 
that its legality was disputed ; it loosened the strict ties of 
the feudal system by permitting the farmers and labourers to 
exchange their military services for the payment of a land rent ; 
and although it promoted agricultural improvement it was 

1 Tytler, chap. v. 2 Ibid. 


probably opposed by a large body of the barons, who were 
jealous of any infringement upon their privileges. The benefits 
of the system, hov/ever, were in 1504 once more recognized. 
It was declared lawful for the sovereign, his prelates, nobles, 
and landholders to ' set their lands in feu,' under any condition 
wdiich they might judge expedient, taking care, however, that 
by such leases the annual income of their estates should not 
be diminished to the prejudice of their successors." 

The "raid of Eskdale " took place in 1504 for the quieting 
of that land of thieves and jackmen. Scotland had its first 
printing press, that of Walter Chepman, in 1508, when, after a 
volume of pamphlets, appeared the famous Breviary of Bishop 
Elphinstone of Aberdeen, who in 1494 had procured a Papal 
bull for the erection of a university there. 

On the accession of Henry VIII., the relations of King James 
to England soon changed from peace to war. In 1513 the 
king mustered an army of 100,000 men on the Burrow Muir 
of Edinburgh, and set out to cross the Borders. The expedition 
seems to have been regarded as rash and unjustified, although 
from the king's personal popularity many obeyed the sum- 
mons. The famous token of warning was the appearance of 
the old man in blue gown, linen girdle, and sandals in Linlith- 
gow Church, who called loudly on the king, went to his prie-dieu, 
gave him a double caution against going to war and against 
illicit amours, and then mysteriously disappeared. This appari- 
tion was supposed to be a stratagem of the queen, in the hope 
of reaching the king's will through his superstition, as a last 
appeal. All was in vain. The first evil happened at Ford 
Castle, where the lust-led monarch wasted his time dallying 
with Mrs. Heron, to the disgust of his army, which melted 
down to 30,000 (the initial 100,000 being perhaps a little 
exaggerated). The fatal fight of Elodden was fought on 9th 
September, 1513, and so equal was the struggle that it was 
not till next daylight that the English, under the Earl of 
Surrey, found out their success. The loss of the Scots, besides 
their king, was twelve earls, thirteen lords, five eldest sons 
of peers, fifty gentlemen of rank, five church dignitaries, and 
10,000 commons. The king fell in the forty-first year of his 
age and the twenty-sixth of his reign. 


James V. (1513-1542) in his secoud year succeeded his 
father, having been born in April, 1512. Again had the land 
to suffer sorely during the king's minority, from the rivalries 
of turbulent barons contending for power by possession of the 
king's person. Margaret, the queen-mother, sister of Henry 
YIII., was regent, but she foolishly married Douglas, earl of 
Angus, and gave rise to English and French factions which 
lasted till the Eeformation, producing not only dispeace, 
but leading to the loss of thousands of lives in feuds which 
amounted to civil war, impoverishing the country and hin- 
dering agriculture and all refining influences. From 1513 to 
1528 the supreme power was tossed like a ball from side to 
side — the queen-mother, or the queen-mother and her second 
husband, or the Duke of Albany, or the Earl of Arran, being 
in turn the players. The death of the great Bishop Elphin- 
stone of Aberdeen in 1514, who was intended for the primacy, 
threw that place open to a miserable set of prize-fighters on 
the death at Elodden of the king's bastard. Archbishop Alex- 
ander Stewart, aged twenty-three. The prize fell to Andrew 
Forman, bishop of Moray, the disappointed competitors being 
Gavin Douglas, afterwards of Dunkeld, and John Hepburn, prior 
of St. Andrews. The Duke of Albany landed at Dunbarton 
in May, 1515, and left again for France in 1517, when De la 
Bastie ("Tillibatie") acted as his deputy, but was entrapped and 
killed near Dunse by Home of Wedderburn. In 1520 a fight 
in the streets of Edinburgh — "Cleanse the Causeway" — took 
place between the party of Arran and that of Angus, the 
latter being successful. Albany returned to Scotland in 
November, 1520, and resumed his regency, but Henry VIII. 
was continually interfering. In 1522 Albany again returned to 
France after appointing a Council of Eegency of five members, 
headed by James Beaton, the archbishop of Glasgow (after- 
wards of St. Andrews), as Chancellor, Previous to this had 
taken place a foolish expedition to the Borders, which broke 
up at Eccles. Albany finally left Scotland for France in 1524. 

Meantime the king was being educated mostly in the Castle 
of Edinburgh under Gavin Dunbar, who in this period of 
violence and corruption behaved so nobly as Bishop of Aber- 
deen from 1519 to 1532. Bishop Dunbar's royal pupil was 



put in a fresh position in 1524, appropriately called "the 
Erection of the King," for he ^v'as now set up as a puppet 
to subserve the interests of rival political parties. At the 
acre of twelve the boy was taken from his lessons and carried 
from Stirlincr to Holyrood, whereupon all the officers of the 
royal household were changed, "from the treasurer to the 
carver" At this stage of the puppet-show the royal guardians 
as rearranged were Lennox, Hamihon, Angus, and Beaton; but 
the doers now feU out afresh over the bone of the abbacy of 
Holyrood, just as before, in 1514, they had fought over the 
bone of the primacy. The king's erection was followed next 
year by the queen-mother's success in procuring her divorce 
from Angus, whereon this feminine Henry VIII. at once 
married her paramour, Henry Stewart, second son of Lord 
Evandale. The very next year again, in June, the divorced 
Ancus rose once more to the surface, and thus afresh a new 
serines of revenges and acts of violence was the result. 

At the acre of seventeen, on the 23rd May, 1528, the king 
made his escape suddenly and cleverly from Falkland Palace 
and fled to Stirling, thus eluding the constraint of the Douglases. 
Ko sooner had he attained his freedom in Stirling than he 
summoned the chief lords to meet him, and began measures 
to be avenged on Angus. Next year, in the month of June, 
with a host of 12,000 men, he went to the Border country, 
partly on a hunting expedition and partly on a raid against 
thieves. Johnnie Armstrong of Gilnockie and forty of his 
men richly arrayed, presented themselves confidingly before 
the kincr, and were immediately seized and hanged, which, 
considering the habits of the age and district, was rather hasty 
and promis°cuous dealing. Another of these wild hunting parties 
was held in the Atholl country, when, after a splendid entertain- 
ment in a great tent of green wood, the extemporized banqueting 
place was fired and burnt to the ground as a fresh barbaric show 
The kincr married in 1537, at Paris, Magdalene, daughter of 
Francis!., who landed at Leith on Whitsun Eve, but died at 
Midsummer of consumption. A second marriage took place 
at St. Andrews in June, 1538, to Mary, daughter of the Duke 
of Guise and widow of the Duke of Longueville. Mary of 
Guise from this date till her death in the Castle of Edinburgh 


in 1560, fills a very important place in our history. In 1540 
the king made an expedition by sea along the east coast, north 
to Orkney, back to the Pentland Firth, and westward to the 
Hebrides, ending at Dunbarton, where he landed to return to 
Stirling. The queen bore first one son and then another, but 
both died in infancy, and shortly before them died Queen 
Margaret, the troublesome widow of James IV. In August, 
1542, Henry VIII. invaded Scotland, whereon James gathered 
an army of 30,000 on the Burrow Muir of Edinburgh, marched 
southward, and met the invaders at Solway Moss. The nobles 
acted cruelly and unpatriotically, partly in anger with the king 
and partly in hatred of Oliver Sinclair, who had the chief com- 
mand. The result was that there was no heart in the fight, so 
that when the English attacked them they fell back like sullen 
cowards or traitors; whereafter the poor king was so dejected 
that he took to bed in Falkland, and died of shame and vexation 
on the 14th of December, 1542, in the thirty-first year of his 
age. On his deathbed tidings came of the birth of a princess 
at Linlithgow on 7th December, afterwards Mary Queen of 
Scots, whereat he grumbled, " It cam with a lass and it will 
gang with a lass." But the grumble was no deathbed second- 
sight, for " the lass " is the best known and (apart from ecclesi- 
astical feuds) best beloved of the whole Stuart line. 

While the poor king left only one infant daughter to fill his 
throne, he left no fewer than six bastard children, for whose sake 
the best ecclesiastical livings in Scotland were degradingly alien- 
ated — viz. James Stewart, abbot of Kelso and INIelrose; James 
Stewart, " the Good Eegent," prior of St. Andrews ; Eobert, prior 
of Holyrood House ; John, prior of Coldingham ; Janet, wife of the 
Earl of Angus ; Adam, prior of the Chartreux at Perth. Appoint- 
ments like these are the clearest proof of the hopeless rottenness 
of the age, and showed how near the old church was to its day 
of doom, when such scandals were tamely submitted to. 



Dioceses of St. Andrews, Glascrow, Duukeld, Aberdeen. Moray, Brechin, Dunblane Ross, 
Caithness. Gallowav, Lismore or Aro;vU. the Isles, Orkney, with succession of bishops 
in each see— Summary of parishes and chapels in the thirteen sees— Collee^iate 
churches or provostries — Monasteries, hospitals, &c. 

/. Diocese of St. Andrcivs. 
The earliest Christian settlement at what, in the eighth century, 
came to be known as St. Andrews is that of St. Cainnech, or 
Kenneth, of Achaboe in Ireland. He was a contemporary of 
St. Columba, and had a cell here on the very edge of the sea, 
where he died, 11th October, 598. Some, however, place the 
cell of Kenneth not at Kilrymont, but at Kennoway or Ken- 
nichi, near Markinch, 20 miles from St. Andrews.^ It is 
certain that old calendars join Kenneth more to Kennoway 
than to St. Andrews. 

At this earliest period there was a second and principal 
connection of the same place with the Irish Church through 
St. Eiagail, Eegulus, or Eule, of Muic-inis in Loch Derg, who 
was with St. Columba at the convention or synod of Drumceat 
in 573, and settling here left his name even more firmly than 
Kenneth himself, being known as St. Eule or Eewel, and his 
chapel as Kilrule. 

The connection of the place with St. Andrew the apostle has 
no historical foundation till the year 731, when Bishop Acca 
of Hagulstad or Hexham, in Northumberland, took refuge among 
the Picts, and brought with him relics of St. Andrew, who was 
specially venerated at Hexham. At this period (736) a fresh 
endowment was made directly associated with St. Andrew, the 
endowment coming from Angus, king of the Picts (731-761), 
known as Angus son of Fergus,^ who dedicated one-tenth of his 
inheritance, in terms of his vow at Athelstaneford. Following 

1 See Gordon's " Scorichronicon," i. 71. ^ Skene's " Celtic Scotland," i. 296-8. 


this we meet the name of Tuathalan as an abbot of Kilrymont, 
who died in 747. Then in still firmer history we meet the 
name of Cellach or Ivellach in 908, as the first bishop of St. 
Andrews, the see having been recently removed from Aber- 
nethy, and added on to the older religious settlement at Kilry- 
mont or Kilrule. Thus early there seems to have been a 
duplicate religious establishment in the place, corresponding 
to the later cathedral staff on the one hand, and the adjacent 
priory of St. Andrews with its monks on the other; for in 921 
a modification of the old system of the Celtic or Columban 
monastery was made, when a canonical rule of Culdees was 
introduced through Maenach Ccle Be, who came from Ireland 
to establish "the ordinances of Erinn," where this canonical 
rule had already been in operation for a century — being, in fact, 
the adoption of the plan agreed on in 816, at the Council of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, for bringing together into one common life 
recluses who previously had lived as solitaries. An arrange- 
ment with the Keledei of Lochleven was made by Fothad, the 
second bishop of Alban, who succeeded Ivellach. We may 
judge how well the monks of Kilrymont stood in that age from 
the fact that Constantine III. quitted his throne to join them, 
and spent five years as their abbot, dying in 943. The bishops 
of Alban^ were Cellach, 908 ; Fothad, son of Bran ; Malisius, 
955-963 ; Maelbrigdi, 963-970 ; Cellach, son of Ferdalaig, 970- 
995; Alwynus, 1025-1028; Maelduin, 1028-1055; Tuthald, 
1055-1059 ; Fothad, last bishop of Alban, 1059-1093. On the 
death of Fothad there was no bishop for fourteen years, until 
the appointment of Turgot in 1007, as the first bishop of 
St. Andrews under the new system of Queen Margaret. The 
original diocese of Kellach and his successors had its southern 
boundary at the Forth, extended west as far as Strathern and 
Menteith, and north to Angus and Mearns. But in 1018, after 
the battle of Carham, Eadulf ceded the province of Lothian to 
the victor, Malcolm II., so that then was added to the diocese 
that large province, which became the archdeaconry of Lothian, 
and in 1636 was separated by Charles I. as a new bishopric, 
of Edinburgh — of Erastian origin (according to the theories of 
High-Churchmen), compared with the old Thirteen. 

^ As given by Skene, ii. chap. viii. 


The outline of the history of the present cathedral of St. 
Andrews, the ruins of which are so remarkahle, is that it was 
founded in 1160 by Malcolm IV. and Bishop Arnold, and 
known as "the Great Church," the choir being as usual the part 
first built and consecrated. A consecration of part of the nave 
took place in 1243. From 1272-79 Bishop Wishart continued 
the building westward. A re-consecration took place in 1318 
by Bishop Lamberton, after the lead of the roof had been 
stripped by Edward I. in 1304. A great fire, from careless 
plumbers on the roof, occurred in 1378, but it was restored by 
Prior Bisset (1393-1416). In 1472 the see was raised to an 
archbishopric with twelve dioceses suffragan, until in 1491 
Glasgow was made an archbishopric with four suffragans, 
leaving seven suffragans to St. Andrews. 

The cathedral had thirty or more chapels or altarages, each 
with a separate endowment, so that^ "there -was scarcely a 
house or tenement in St. Andrews which did not yield a few 
shillings yearly to the chaplain of one or other of the altars." 
Their names were— Holy Ptood, B.V. Mary, St. Catharine, St. 
Lawrence, St. John Baptist, St. Bartholomew, St. James, All 
Saints, St. Phillan the Abbot, St. Duchatt or Duthac, St. ]\Iary 
Magdalene, St. Barbara the Martyr, Our Lady of Pity, St. 
Michael the Archangel, St. Fergus, St. Ninian, Holy Blood, St. 
Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Anne, St. John Evangelist, St. Andrew, 
St. Bride, " the Douglas Virgin." 

Previous to "the Great Church" there was "the Old Church," 
of which the tower and church of St. Eule survive. Going 
backwards, probably there was yet another church intermediate 
between the old church and the original cell or cells of St. 
Kenneth and St. Eegulus. The best light on the old church 
is from a design on tw^o capitular seals given in Gordon's 
" Scotichronicon," i. 97, where the tall square tower appears 
with a low sloping spire on top, on the one side of the tower 
being a chancel and on the other side a nave, both roofed with 
stone, the nave having a lesser tower on the west end, and a 
southern door on the side, and being 8 or 10 feet higher in 
the ridge than the chancel, and the windows to match. The 
tower is supposed to belong to the end of the eleventh century; 

^ Lyon's Hist. i. 53. 


but an earlier date is more probable, especially if, as is also 
probable, it originally stood alone, corresponding to the Eound 
Towers of Abernethy and Brechin, as a place of security for 
church books, plate, and vestments, and of retreat for priests in 
time of war.^ What Lyon (ii. 164) says of this earlier cathedral is 
more certainly true of the building that immediately preceded 
it, probably on the same site. It was in this ancient church 
that Hungus, king of the Picts, with his nobles, offered up their 
grateful thanks to God and St. Andrew, on their bare knees, for 
the victory which they had been enabled to gain over Athel- 
stane the Saxon ; presented gifts in fulfilment of their vow ; 
and made provision for the honourable custody of the relics 
of the apostle. 

" Syne St. Andrewys relics there, 
With honour gret ressaved were." 

Here the venerable Culdean fathers worshipped God and are 
buried. Here Constantine III. was interred; but his bones 
were afterwards dug up by the monks of lona and translated 
to their monastery. Here, too, are interred Edelred, earl of 
Fife, son of Malcolm III. and abbot of Dunkeld, who had 
been a benefactor to the monastery, and Hugh Macflavertie, 
king of Ailech and heir of Ireland, who did penance within 
its walls for his sins. Here, moreover, Bishop Arnold was 
consecrated by a papal legate, in the presence of Malcolm IV. ; 
and, lastly, here repose in peace the remains of the same 
Arnold, together with Bishops Eobert and Eoger, whose tombs 
are mentioned by Wyntoun, though all traces of them have 
long since been effaced. 

This church served as the cathedral of the diocese till the 
one properly so called was constructed ; and it was in its 
chancel that King Alexander I. 

" Gart them to the altar bryng 
Hys comely steed of Araby, 
Saddled and brydled costlvly, 
Covered with a fayre mantlet 
Of pretious and fyne velvet, 
AVith hys armory of Turkey 
That prince then used generally " — 

1 See Anderson's " Earlv Cliristian Scotland," 33. 


"u-hen he bestoTved the " Cursus Apri " and other valuable 
gifts on the Church of St. Andrews. 

The titles of the primate were — Lord of the Lordship and 
Priory of St. Andrews ; Lord Keig and Monymusk ; Lord 
Kirkliston, Dairsey, Monimeal, Scotscraig, Tynningham, &c. 
He had palaces at Stow, Linlithgow, Kinghorn, and Inch- 
murtach, and houses of an inferior description at Torrie, 
Dairsey, Monimeal, Muckart, Kettins, Linton, and Monymusk. 
He was perpetual moderator and president of all national 
synods, chancellor of the university, and patron of a hundred 
and thirty-one benefices ; and before the Eeformation no abbot 
or prior within the limits of his diocese could be appointed 
without his express sanction and confirmation. His jurisdiction 
extended over eight dioceses, and he was lord of regality over 
three districts — viz. (1) Monymusk, with the Marquis of Huntly 
as hereditary bailie, paying £300 of feu duty ; (2) Kirkliston, 
with the Earl of "Winton (and later the Laird of Hopetoun) as 
hereditary bailie ; (3) St. Andrews (i.e. counties of Fife, Perth > 
Forfar, and Kincardine), with Learmonth of Dairsey (and later 
the Earl of Crawford) as hereditary bailie — these offices being 
abolished only in 1748 under the Heritable Jurisdiction Act. 

The primate's ecclesiastical jurisdiction included two arch- 
deaconries, of St. Andrew's and Lothian, eight rural deaneries, 
and two hundred and forty-five parishes. 


Turgot, confessor to Queen Margaret, 1107-1115. 

Robert, prior of Scone, founded Priory of St. Andrews; got gift of Culdee 

monastery of Lochleven ; built church and tower of St. Rule, 1124-1158. 
Arnold or Emald, abbot of Kelso, began the greater cathedral, 1158-1159. 
Richard, chaplain to Malcolm IV., 1163-1177. 
Hugh, 1178. 

Roger, built the castle 1200, 1188-1202. 
William Malvoisine, bishop of Glasgow; introduced Dominicans to Scotland; 

first bishop buried in the cathedral, 1202-1238. 
David Bernham, of Berwick, crowned Alexander III., 1239-1253. 
Abel, canon of Glasgow and archdeacon of St. Andrews, 1253-1254. 
Gameline, archdeacon of St. Andrews and lord chancellor, 1255-1271. 
"William AVishart of Pitarrow, lord chancellor, 1273-1279. 
"William Lamberton, cathedral consecrated (1318) in presence of King Robert 

Bruce, 1298-1328. 
James Bene, consecrated at Rome by Pope John XXIL, 1328-1332. 
"William Landel, consecrated at Avignon by Pope Benedict, 1341-1385. 


Walter Trail, an excellent bishop, consecrated by Antipope Clement XVI. ; 

rebuilt castle of St. Andrews, 1386-1401. 
Henry Wardlaw, consecrated by Antipope Benedict XUL, founded (1411) 

the University of St. Andrews. "Wardlaw of Torie was one of the greatest 

of the bishops, originally precentor of Glasgow ; built the Guard Bridge, 

near St. Andrews, 1404-1440. 
James Kennedy, bishop of Dunkeld, grandson of Robert III., founded 

St. Salvador's College ; greatest of all the bishops, 1440-1466. 
Patrick Graham, bishop of Brechin, uterine brother of Bishop Kennedy, 

first archbishop in 1472 ; became insane through oppression, 1466-1478. 
William Shevez, archdeacon of St. Andrews, 1478-1496. 
James Stewart, second son of James HE., duke of Ross and marquis of 

Ormond, educated by Abbot Shaw of Paisley, made primate at twenty- 
one, invested by Pope Alexander VI., 1497-1503. 
Alexander Stewart, natural son of James IV., educated by Erasmus, made 

primate, chancellor, abbot of Dunfermline, and prior of Coldingham at 

eighteen ; fell with his father at Flodden, 1506-1513. 
Andrew Forman, bishop of Moray, 1514-1522. 
James Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, founded St. Mary's College ; burnt 

Patrick Hamilton, 1522-1539. 
David Beaton, nephew of preceding, abbot of Arbroath, cardinal ; burnt 

Wishart; murdered, 1539-1546. 
John Hamilton, natural son of first Earl of Arrau, abbot of Paisley, bishop 

of Dunkeld, author of Catechism of 1552, hanged at Stirling, 1549-1571.' 

The archdeaconry of St. Andrews contained the following 
deaneries : — Deanery of Fothri, with twenty-five parishes ; 
Fife, twenty-eight; Goverin (Gowrie), twenty-one; Angus, forty; 
and Mearns, fifteen. The archdeaconry of Lothian contained 
the following deaneries : — Lindidcu, with forty-four parishes ; 
Lothian, or Haddington, thirty-seven; and Merkis, or Merse, 

//. Diocese of Glasgow. 

The future site of the Cathedral of Glasgow was consecrated 
as a burial-ground by St. Ninian, who died in 432. The burial- 
ground was fringed by venerable trees c. 540, when St. Kenti- 
gern or Mungo came to it with the body of the hermit Fergus 
from Kernach on a car said to be drawn by two wild bulls. The 
spot of this interment is marked in the crypt under the south 
transept, or " Blackadder's Aisle," with an old inscription in 
Saxon letters: "this is the ile of car. fekgus." And the 
spot of St. Mungo's own grave is marked in the crypt by the 

'For a full account of the Bishops of St. Andrews, see Lvon's "St. Andrews," 
i. 51-343. 


grouping of the pillars to constitute a shrine. At the age of 
twenty-five St. Mungo was consecrated bishop by one Irish 
bishop, but after his death in 603 the record of his successors 
is a complete blank till the refounding of the see under Earl 
David (c. 1116), afterwards David I. Although the line of 
bishops and the exact nature of the primitive buildings are 
unknown, there was still divine worship and the survival of 
ancient endowments that reached back to St. IMungo's time. 
What Earl David did was not mainly to bestow new gifts im- 
poverishing his earldom or his throne, but to revive old Church 
rights to certain lands which were subjected to an investigation, 
the result of which was embodied in a Notitia drawn up by five 
furatorcs seniorcs homines et sapientiorcs totiiis Cumbric. Govan, 
Partick, Cadzow, Eenfrew, and Borthwick were among these ear- 
liest possessions and churches. Other names recognizable in the 
old spelling and erroneous copying are Cathcart, Paisley, Con- 
clud, Carntyne, Stobo, Peniacob, Ancrum, Lilliesleaf, Hoddam, 
Ednam, Abermelk, Dryfesdale, Kelso, Peebles, Morebattle, Paile. 
Ten other places named are not identifiable at all, or only 
guessable.^ WiUiam I. granted to the bishop a toft in each 
of his royal burghs of jMunros, Dumfries, Forfar, and Stirling. 
The cathedral then possessed twenty-five churches, seventeen 
of which were mensal, and the bishop acquired large accessions 
of property in lands and churches in Ashkirk, Gillemoreston, 
Stobhou, Carnwath, Kilbride, Anandale, Hottuu, Muckart, 
Lillisclef, Wilton, Campsy, and Cardross.^ 

The cathedral was erected by Bishop Achaius in 1136, on 
the site of a wooden structure which had been burned down ; 
but the new fabric having been again destroyed by fire, the 
foundation of another church was laid in 1181 by Bishop 
Jocelyn, and the crypt dedicated July 6, 1197. The spire 
was in progress in 1277. In 1528 Bishop William de Bond- 
ington saw the choir completed. In 1291 Edward I. gave 
certain oaks to Bishop Wishart (Bruce's patriotic friend) to 
complete the steeple, but the bishop converted them into 
catapults for the siege of Kirkintilloch Castle. Bishop W. 
Lauder (1408-25) commenced, and Bishop John Cameron 
(1425-47) completed the present spire, the chapter-house, and 

^ See Alt. " Glasgow " in Ordnance Gazetteer. ^ Cosmo Innes, " Sketches," 35. 


crypt beneath it. The north aisle was roofed by Bishop Muir- 
head (1455-73). Before 1480 the nave, begun in the four- 
teenth century, and the north-west tower were completed. 
Archbishop Blackadder (1484-1508) built the rood-loft and 
the stairs of the great crypt, and also the crypt under the 
south transept. In 1854 the north-western tower (locally 
known as the " Gutty " Steeple, being of squat shape) and the 
consistory house, which stood on each side of the great western 
doorway, were foolishly removed as " excrescences," when it 
was found on examining their foundations that they were as 
ancient as the western doorway and gable itself. The bishop's 
palace or castle, which occupied the site of the Eoyal Infirmary 
till 1792, was largely the work of Bishop Cameron (1426-46). 
A reproduction of it in wood formed one of the principal 
features of the Glasgow Exhibition of 1888, and contained a great 
collection of Scottish antiquities. In Bishop Cameron's time 
there were thirty-two manses of rectors, chiefly in Drygate and 
Eottenrow, partly in Kirkgate and High Street, which formed 
a substitute for a cathedral close in Glasgow. In 1501 the 
cathedral establishment consisted of— dean (Cadzow), precentor 
(Kilbride), chancellor (Campsie), treasurer (Carnwath), sub-dean 
(Monkland), archdeacon of Glasgow (Peebles), archdeacon of 
Teviotdale (Marbottle), sub-chanter (Ancrum), sacrist (Cambus- 
lang). Besides these there were canons and prebendaries of 
Stobo, Govan, Eenfrew, Glasgow I., Blantyre, Carstairs, Car- 
dross, Air, Erskine, Old Eoxburgh, Durrisdeer, Mearns, Moffat, 
Edilston, Glasgow II., Luss, Eaglesham, Ivirkmaho, Tarbolton, 
Killearn, Douglas, Sanquhar, Cumnock, Polmadie, Strathblane, 
Ashkirk. The sites of thirty-two of the manors or manses 
belonging to the canons are detailed by M'Ure in his quaint 
" History of Glasgow." There was a country seat at Lochwood, 
in Old Monkland, where is Bishop's Loch, and where died Bishop 
Cameron on Christmas Eve, 1446, after (as is said) a thrice- 
repeated call to come to judgment in retribution for exactions 
devoted to building of the castle, part of the cathedral, and 
manses. Good were it if the old bishops had no worse to 
answer for than solid and tasteful masonry. 

The see was made archiepiscopal in 1491, with four suffragans 
— viz. Dunkeld, Dunblane, Gallow^ay, and Argyle. Glasgow was 


very firm iu holding its own against St. Andrews, as appeared 
in the scandalous fight for precedence within the cathedral 
between the crossbearers of Archbishops Dunbar and Beaton, 
in 1545, in presence of the papal nuncio, the patriarch of 
Aquileia, the riot of rival priests having to be quelled by the 
Eegent Arrau.^ In its prime the see of Glasgow was endowed 
with magnificent temporal possessions which fully warranted 
its title of the " Spiritual Dukedom." The archbishops held 
the lordships of the royalty and baronies of Glasgow, and of 
eighteen baronies of lands within the sheriffdoms of Lanark, 
Dunbarton, Ayr, Eenfrew, Peebles, Selkirk, Eoxburgh, Dum- 
fries, and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. Bishop Bondington, 
iu his last year, 1258, established in his see the liberties and 
customs of Salisbury as regards the internal administration of 
ecclesiastical affairs, while the "use" or service-book of the 
same see was adopted not only in Glasgow, but in most of 
the Scottish dioceses.- It has been said* — " The edifice which 
we now behold has seen the English Edward prostrate before 
its high altar, and heard his vows at the gloomy shrine of 
St. Kentigern. It witnessed the absolution of Bruce while 
the Eed Cumyn's blood was scarce yet dry upon his dagger. 
Its walls rang with exhortations that it was better in the eye 
of heaven to fight for that outlawed homicide than to do battle 
for the Cross in the Holy Land. In its vestry were the Bruce's 
Coronation Eobes made ready in haste ; from its treasury was 
' the Banner of Scotland ' taken, which waved above the ruined 
' Kaiser stuhl ' at Scone, when, with maimed rites and a scanty 
train, heralds proclaimed him ' Eobert, king of the Scots.' In a 
more peaceful age, its chapter-house and crypt sheltered the 
infant convocations of the university. It has seen a king 
serving at its altars ; for as the Emperor was a canon of 
Cologne, and the French monarch a prebendary of Tours, so 
a Scottish sovereign (the devout and chivalrous King James 
of riodden) had a stall in the choir and a seat in the chapter 
of Glasgow." 

Besides the high altar, the cathedral had altars of — St. Ken- 
tigern (south side of nave); St. Mary (at entrance of choir); 

1 Bellesheim, ii. 171. ^ Innes, " Sketches," 44. 

^ QtMrterly Review, 84-134, quoted in Gordon's " Scotichronicon," ii. 439. 


St. John Baptist (in nave) ; St. Mary of Consolation ; St. Mary 
of Pity (south entrance of choir) ; St. Serf ; St. Machan (north 
side of nave, third pillar from rood-loft) ; St. Blasius ; St. Cuth- 
bert the Confessor (both in nave) ; St. Nicholas (south aisle, 
first pillar from rood-loft) ; All Saints (north side of nave) ; 
St. ]\Iichael the Archangel (behind the great south door west- 
ward) ; St. Stephen and St. Lawrence, martyrs (behind the 
great altar) ; Corpus Christi (in nave, fourth pillar from rood- 
loft) ; St. James the Apostle (in choir, between St. Stephen 
and St. Lawrence on the south and St. Martin on the north) ; 
Name of Jesus (north side of entrance); St. Thomas of Can- 
terbury, archbishop and martyr (in nave) ; St. Christopher 
(in nave); Holy Elude; Darnley Chapel. 

In the crypt were altars of — Holy Cross, St. Catherine, 
St. Martin, Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Kentigern's Tomb, St 
Nicholas, St. Peter and St. Paul (between St. Nicholas on the 
north and St. Andrew on the south), and St. Andrew. Besides 
these were ten endowed chaplains apart from particular altars.'- 
The chartulary specifies nineteen holy relics in shrines of 
gold, silver, leather, or linen that were carried separately in 
processions on high days, especially in the stately time of 
Bishop Cameron." 


John Achaius, tutor of Earl David (David T.), consecrated by Pope Pas- 
chal n. ; founded cathedral 1136, 1115-1147. 

Herbert, Abbot of Kelso, Chancellor of Scotland; constituted the dean 
and chapter on model of Salisbury, 1147-1164. 

Ingelram, Archdeacon of Glasgow and Chancellor, 1164-1174. 

Joceline, Abbot of Melrose, enlarged and rebuilt crypt and choir of cathe- 
dral after a burning down, 1175-1199. 

Hugo de Roxburgh, Archdeacon of Glasgow and Chancellor, 1199- 

William Malvicine, translated to St. Andrews, 1200- 

Walter, chaplain to King WilUam, 1208-1232. 

William de Bondington, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, Chancellor ; finished 
nave of cathedral; introduced "use" of Salisbury, 1233-1258. 

John de Cheyam, chaplain to Pope Alexander IV., 1260-1268. 

Robert Wishart, patriot friend of Wallace and Bruce, 1272-1316. 

^ See List of Altai-s in Gordon's " Scotichronicon," ii. 448-450. 

^ See their names in Art. " Glasgow," Ordnance Gaz. of Scot. A full inventory of all 
the ornaments, reliques, and jewels (including books) of the Church of Glasgow, dated 
24th March, 1432, is given in Gordon's "Scotichronicon," ii. 451-457. To the diocese 
of Glasgow, parish by parish, is devoted the whole of the first volume of Cosmo Innes' 
" Origines Parochialcs " — a matchless thesaurus of Church writs and antiquities. 


John Wishart, 1319. 

John Lindsay, 1322. 

William Rae, built old Glasgow Bridge, 1335-1367. 

"Walter Wardlaw, secretary to David II., cardinal priest, 1368-1389. 

Matthew Glendoning, 1389-1408. 

William Lauder, began vestry and finished steeple, 1408-1425. 

John Cameron, provost of Lincluden, secretary to James I. ; built castle 
tower and manses, 1426-1446. 

William TurnbuU, Archdeacon of St. Andrews; got bull from Pope Nicho- 
las V. for a college, 1448-1454. 

Andrew Muirhead, rector of Cadzow, 1455-1473. 

John Lamg, High Treasurer, 1474-1482. 

Robert Blackader, Bishop of Aberdeen; first Archbishop, 1491, 1484-1508. 

James Beaton, younger son of John Beaton of Balfour, bishop elect of 
Galloway, Treasurer; translated to St. Andrews, 1508-1522. 

Gavin Dunbar, Prior of Whithorn, tutor to James V., 1524-1547. 

James Beaton, son of James Beaton of Balfarg, nephew of the Cardinal, 
and grandson to John Beaton of Balfour. At the Reformation retired 
to France with the writs of his see, and died at Paris in 1603, 1551-1603.^ 

The archdeaconry of Glasgow contained the following dean- 
eries : — Nycht, Nith, or Dumfries, with thirty-one parishes, 
besides two in Annandale and eight in Galloway ; Annandie 
or Annandale, twenty-eight parishes, besides eight in Eskdale ; 
Kyle, seventeen parishes; Cunningham, fifteen; Carrick, nine; 
Lennox, seventeen ; Eutherglen, thirty-four ; Lanark or Clydes- 
dale, twenty-five ; and Peebles or Stobo, nineteen. The arch- 
deaconry of Teviotdale contained thirty-six parishes. 

///. Diocese of Dunkeld. 

Dunkeld (Dunum Keledeorum=Hill of the Culdees) owed 
its origin to the insecurity of lona, where, in 806, no fewer 
than eighty-six of the religious were slain by northern pirates. 
One substitute for lona was erected at Kells in Meath in 807. 
Another substitute was founded at Dunkeld by Constantine, 

^ With the death of this really cood and wise prelate in 1603 ended the old hierarchy 
of Scotland, after serving for five centuries. A very different man was the nephew from 
his he-goat tincle, the cardinal. Sad was his exile from 1560 to 1603, suffering for the 
sins of others. Yet he had some sympathy from his old tenants, many of whom continued 
paying rent for ten years after the Reformation. The writer's ancestor, Walter Scott of 
Daldowie, is noted in the printed rent-book of the see as making payment on 3rd January 
and 21st April, 1563; while his kinsman, Martin Kankin of Kenmuir, also in Old 
Jlonkland, makes a payment as late as 18th June, 1668. The old Church tenants or 
" rentallers " were kindly dealt with by the archbishops. 

In 1653 the Koman clergy in Scotland were reincorporated as a Mission, and governed 
by Prefects Apostolic till 1694. From 1694 to 1878 they were governed by a Vicar 
Apostolic. In 1878 a hierarchy was restored, consisting of two archbishops and four 


king of Dalriada and Tictavia, between 807 and 816.^ After 
this° beginning King Kenneth, in 851r transferred the relics 
of St. Columba to Dunkeld, whose abbot became head of the 
Pictish Church; and the Columban clergy, who in 717 had 
been violently expelled by King Nectan, seem now, partly at 
least, to have been reinstated. On the death of this first bishop 
of Fortrenn in 865, the primacy was transferred to Abernethy, 
and the second abbot of Dunkeld was abbot only. The abbots 
soon became laymen and hereditary — e.g. Duncan, who fell in 
battle at Duncrub, in 965 ; and Criuan, son-in-law to Malcolm II., 
in whose time, in 1027, Dunkeld was entirely burnt. Ethelred, 
earl of Fife and abbot of Dunkeld, was son of Malcolm III. 
The bishopric was revived by Alexander I. in the person of 
Cormac, the Culdee abbot, who became the first bishop under 
the new system. Cormac is first mentioned as bishop in 1115 
in a charter of Scone, but probably was consecrated in 1107, 
the cathedral being begun in 1127. Bishop William Sinclair 
(1312) built the choir. Bishop Eobert Cardeny (1396) built 
the nave, also the castle, of which the name survives in " Castle 
Close." Bishop John Pialston (1448) finished the nave and 
began the aisle. Bishop Thomas Lauder (1452) built the porch 
of the south gate and adorned it with statues. He finished the 
cathedral in 1460, and in 1464 re-dedicated it to St. Columba. 
He had a fresh series of buildings in the chapter-house (1469) 
and the Great Tower, 96 feet high and 24 feet square, and to 
all he added many gifts of vessels and ornaments for the church 
service. Bishop Brown gifted two large bells named St. George 
and St. Colm. 

The diocese until 1200, from its original connection with 
lona, extended westward so far as to include what was then 
made the new diocese of Argyll, at the disinterested request 
of Bishop John Scot, who had no Gaelic. Previous to Bishop 
Brown (1485) the diocese was undivided, like Eoss, Caithness, 
Brechin, and Dunblane, but he subdivided it into four deaneries. 
There were episcopal residences at Dunkeld, Cluny, Perth, 
Auchtertool, and Edinburgh, Cluny being the chief and 7 miles 
from Dunkeld, the intervening land being all the bishop's own, 
and so wide that there were four different roads available 

1 Skene, " Celtic Scotland," i. 305. * Ibid. i. 310. 



between the two places. The chapter is said to have been 
formed in 1127 in place of the Culdees, and reconstituted 
about the close of the fourteenth century. Bishop Liverance, 
who died in 1249, first made canons residential. Bishop Bruce 
oave the Church of Abernethy for prebends to four cathedral 
or stallar vicars. Bishop Lauder gifted provision for six cho- 
risters and founded three additional prebends— of Alyth, Aber- 
lady, and Muckersy. In 1509 there were seven chaplains for 
chantry altars. 

Besides the high altar there were the following others, aii 
of which implied special endowments :— (1) St. Mary's, on the 
riaht of the high altar; (2) St. Michael's; (3) St. Martin's; 
(4) St. Nicholas'; (5) St. Catharine's; (6) St. John Baptist's; 
(7) St Andrew's; (8) Holy Innocents'; (9) All Saints'; (10) 
St Ninian's ; (11) St. Stephen's; (12) Holy Cross, on rood-loft. 
"Bishop Lauder gave to the cathedral in 1461 six standard 
candlesticks, one chalice, three cruets, two vials, a silver pyx 
for chrism, a solid pyx of silver for the Eucharist, a holy water 
vat, two sprinklers, and two censers of silver. At the high 
altar he painted the reredos or ' antemurale ' with the twenty- 
four miracles of St. Columba, and two images, two pillars, ana 
two ancrels above it, and added fifteen chandlers in fair fashion, 
bearing' tapers of wax in honour of our Saviour, according to 
the description in the Apocalypse; two frontals of silk and 
a pillar for the paschal. Bishop Brown gave suits of vest- 
ments of white and of blue, woven with gold, copes of silk 
in pairs of two colours, three of gold woven work, a tabernacle 
for the hiah altar, a gospel lectern of four sides, of brass, with 
statues of" the four evangelists; and the figure of Moses, also 
in brass holding up the bookstand with his arms ; and behind 
it was a three-branched candlestick of brass. The choir screens 
were painted with the images of apostles and saints on the inner 
and outer sides ; and behind the stalls were figures of kings, 
bishops, and benefactors, to remind the choir of their devotions."^ 


Cormac, Culdee abbot, became first bishop, 1127. 
Gregory, died at Dunkeld, 1130-1169. 

1 Walcott, 209. An excellent condensed history of Dunkeld, in ;t\«^bo\^- f fi^J^' 
cathrdral and chapels, is given in MarshalVs " Historic Scenes m 149-162. 


Richard de Prebenda or Provand, chaplain and kinsman to William I., 
died at Cramond and buried at Inchcolm ; helped the church in the 
treaty of Falaise, 1170-1178. 

Walter de Bidun (Betoun ?), lord chancellor, and died same year, accord- 
ing to Abbot Mill, 1178. 

John Scot, archdeacon of St. Andrews, elected bishop of St. Andrews, but 
opposed by William I. ; having no Gaelic got Argyll disjoined ; a good 
bishop, revered as a saint; died as a monk at Newbottle, 1178-1203. 

John of Leicester, archdeacon of Lothian, died at Cramond, buried at 
Inchcolm ; thirteen years bishop, 1200-1213. 

Hugo de Sigillo, monk of Arbroath, "the poor man's bishop," 1214. 

Gilbert, chaplain to Bishop Hugo, 1216-1236. 

Galfrid Liverance, i.e. de Liberatione Captivorum = monk of the Trinity 
Friars, made canons residential and adopted the use of Sarum ; died at 
Tibbermuir and buried at Dunkeld, 1236-1249. 

Richard de Inverkeithing, prebendary, chancellor in 1256, but resigned 
when his seals were stolen from Dean Stutteville, 1250-1272. 

Robert de StuttevUle, 1272. 

Matthew de Crambeth (=Dovehill in Kinross), was put in by Edward I., 
chamberlain of Scotland, 1288-1305. 

William Sinclair or de Sancto Claro (whom Bruce called his " own bishop," 
and the people "the fechtin bishop;" a brave and patriotic man, whose 
war-cry at Donibristle against the English invaders is historical : " All 
ye that love Scotland's honour, follow me "), built the choir of the 
cathedral ; buried at Dunkeld, 1312-1338. 

AValter, probably put in by Edward I., c. 1324. 

Duncan, an Englishman, probably also by Edward I., c. 1351. 

Richard, 1345-1367. 

John, 1357-1370. 

Michael Monymusk, 1373-1376. 

John Peebles, LL.D., canon of Aberdeen, treasurer of Glasgow, arch- 
deacon of St. Andrews, chancellor, 1377-1396, 

Robert de Cairney or Cardney, excommunicated by the Pope, but a great 
benefactor of the see, 1396-1436. 

James Kennedy, son of Sir James Kennedy of Dunure, and of Mary, 
daughter of Robert III., who was four times married ; became bishop 
of St. Andrews, 1438-1440, 

Alexander Lauder, parson of Ratho, bishop only from May to October, 1440, 

James Bruce, parson of Kilmany, son of Sir Robert Bruce of Clack- 
mannan ; had a feud with Macdonachie or Robertson of Strowan ; 
gave Abemethy to four vicars of Dunkeld, 1442-1447, 

John Ralston or Ralphston (in Renfrewshire), rector of Cambuslang, 
provost of Bothwell, dean of Dunkeld ; buried at Dunkeld, 1448-1452. 

Thomas Lauder, master of Soltra Hospital, tutor to James II. ; founded 
three prebends (Alyth, Aberlady, Muckersy) ; built the Tay Bridge, 
and bought a bishop's lodging at Perth and Edinburgh ; a model 
bishop, + 1481, 1452-1476. 

James Livingston, rector of Forteviot and Weem, chancellor; buried at 
Inchcolm, 1476-1483. 

George Brown, rector of Tyningham, chancellor of Aberdeen, son of 


burgh-treasurer of Dundee ; divided the see into four deaneries ; pro- 
cured Gaelic preachers ; promoted clerical efficiency ; built Castle of 
Cluny ; enlarged the palace at Dunkeld ; was probably the best bishop 
ever in the see, 1485-151-4. 

Gavin Douglas, provost of St. Giles, parson of Hauch or Prestonkirk, 
brother to Earl of Angus ; translated the ^neid into Scots verse with 
original poetry prefixed to the several books ; buried in Savoy chapel, 
London, 151G-1522. 

Robert Cockburn, bishop of Ross, translated to Dunkeld, 1522-1526. 

George Crichton, brother of Crichton of Naughton (in Balmerino), 

John Hamilton, natural son of James, first earl of Arran, abbot of Paisley ; 
translated to St. Andrews, 1545-1649. 

Robert Crichton, nephew of Bishop George Crichton, + 1586, 1550-1560. 

The diocese of Dunkeld contained the following deaneries : — 
Atholl and Drumalbane ( = Breadalbane), with forty-seven 
parishes ; Angus, five ; Fife, Fotheric, and Stratherne, eight ; 
and South of Forth, seven. 

IV. Diocese of Aherdeen. 

The first Christian settlement at Aberdeen seems to have 
been by St. Machar or Mauritius, whose day in the calendar is 
12th November, and who died c. 610 at Tours. He was a dis- 
ciple of Columba, and founded a church at the mouth of the 
Don at a place described by Columba ubi Jlumen instar haculi 
(with a crook like a crosier) intrat marc. Machar was a friend 
of St. Devenic, and joined with him in evangelizing the north.^ 
This foundation was duly recognized in the dedication of the 
cathedral begun by Bishop Alexander Kininmontli II. (1356-80) 
to St. Mary and St. Machar. There were at least two earlier 
structures on the same site. 

The exact date of the erection of the see of Aberdeen is 
unknown, the legend of its original foundation by Malcolm II. 
(1003-1029) at Mortlach (in Strathspey on the Fiddich, five 
miles south of Craigellachie), resting on five documents forged 
probably by Boece. The four clerics called bishops of Mortlach 
were probably only heads of the monastery.^ From Mortlach 
the see was said to have been transferred by David I. (1124-53) 
to Aberdeen, but all that is certain is that a charter granted 
by the Mormaer or Earl of Buchan for refounding the church 

1 Forbes' " Kalendars," 393. 
2 Hill Burton, i. 341, note; Pref. Begirt. Aberdeen; Skene, "Celtic Scotland," ii. 378. 


of Deer early in David's reign was witnessed by "Kectan, 
bishop of Aberdeen ;" whilst a bull by Pope Adrian IV. con- 
firmed in 1157 to Edward, bishop of Aberdeen, the church of 
Aberdeen and the church of St. Machar, with the town of Old 
Aberdeen and other lands, in which are included the monastery 
of Cloveth and the town and monastery of JMurthillach, with 
five churches and the lands belonging to them. "There is here," 
says Dr. Skene, " no allusion to Murthillach having been an 
episcopal see, the seat of which had been transferred to Aber- 
deen. The designation of ' monastery ' points unequivocally to 
these churches having been old Columban monasteries ; and 
accordingly we find that Murthillach was dedicated to St. 
Molocus, or Moluoc, the founder of the churches of Lismore and 
Eosemarky in the sixth century." 

In 1256 the chapter was completed, when Bishop Ramsay 
appointed thirteen prebendaries, dean (Kirktoun =: Old Aber- 
deen), chaunter (Auchterless), chancellor (Birse), treasurer 
(Daviot), archdeacon (Eayne). Prebendaries — Balhelvy, 1256 ; 
Kincardyn, 1330; Turreff, 1412; Kynkell, 1480; Eathven, 
1445 ; INIonymusk, 1445. Deacons — Murthlac, Oyne, 1256 ; 
Cruden, 1256 ; Ellone, 1325 ; Methlac, 1362 ; Crimond, 1262 ; 
Codilstan or Coldstone, 1414. Suh-deacons — Banchory-Devenic, 
1256; Clat Tullynestle, 1376; Forbes, 1325; Invernochty, 
Strathtie with Auchendour, 1356; Aberdour, 1318; Lonmay, 
1314; Philorth, 1361; Old Deir, 1256; Drumoak, 1368; St. 
Nicholas, St. Mary ad Nives, 1499. 

Bishop Alexander Kininmonth in 1357 demolished the 
remains of the old church (begun by Bishop Hugh de Benham, 
+ 1282, and continued by Bishop Henry le Chen his successor, 
+ 1328), and laid the foundation of another, but died before the 
walls were 18 feet high. Bishop Lichtoun, in 1424-40, built 
St. John's aisle, or north wing of the transept, laid the founda- 
tions of the choir and three towers, and advanced the works. 
His epitaph says that he built "separately the fabric of the 
church from the choir station [i.e. the rood-loft, where the last 
station of the procession halted] up to the top of the walls." 
A ceihng of red fir was added, and the church was roofed and 
paved in 1445 by Bishop Lyndsay. Bishop Spens repaired the 
palace and canons' manses in the canonry (burnt in 1233 by 


an English fleet), and added the stalls and throne in 1460, with 
glazing for the windows. Bishop Elphinstone completed the 
great central tower (of freestone, all the rest being of granite), 
which formed a sea-mark, and in 1489 furnished it with four- 
teen bells, three of w^hich were suspended upon " oak trees." He 
then proceeded with the choir, but there was only a small 
portion completed when he died in 1514, the high altar being 
placed in Bishop Dunbar's aisle. This bishop completed the 
western towers and the south wing of the transept in 1522. 
He also ceiled the nave with oak, adorning it with the arms 
of the chief benefactors — the architect being James Wynter of 
Angus. Bishop Stewart built the consistory or chapter-house 
in 1532. The north-west tower contained the charter-house or 
muniment room.^ The cathedral tower fell through mismanage- 
ment in 1688. There remains a nave of five bays, 126 feet by 
67-6, with pointed arches and round pillars, some of which have 
flowered capitals well worked ; traces of a choir that was aisle- 
less, and possibly measured 70 feet ; and a fragment of the south 
wing of the transept. There is a south porch with a parvis 
or upper chamber. The west front, which is massive and im- 
posing, presents a gabled porch under seven windows, tall and 
of one light, with round heads trefoiled. On the sides are 
flanking towers, machicolated, with short octagonal spires, in 
all 113 feet high. The dormer windows in the clerestory are 
single lights, round-headed. There is no triforium. The richly 
carved pulpit remains. 

The bishop's palace, on the east side of the cathedral, with 
the manses on the north, was burnt in 1233 by an English 
fleet. A later palace (c. 1470), with a large fair court and four 
high towers, stood near the site of the house of the modern 
divinity professor. To the south stood the deanery, where is 
now Old Machar Manse. The chaplain's court, built in 1519, 
contained chambers for twenty vicars, who served at the altars 
of St. Catharine, St. Mary, St. Nicholas, St. Devenic, St. Michael, 
St. Andrew, St. Maurice, St. Dominic, St. Paul, and the chapter 
altar. Other altars were. Our Lady of Pity (in the vault), St. 
Peter, St. Duthac, St. Clement, Our Lady (in the south wing), 
St. John, and Holy Ptood. The precinct or canoniy formed a 

' Walcott, 07. 


sanctuary, and held a girth or sanctuary cross. To the west 
of the cathedral was an hospital, founded iu 1532 by Bishop 
Gavin Dunbar, for twelve poor bedesmen (its revenues are now 
distributed to eighteen men in their own homes). Another 
hospital and church (St. Peter's) stood within Spital burying- 
ground, near the south end of the town; and still another 
Church, St. Mary ad Nives, or Snow Kirk, stood behind houses 
a little north-west of Spital burying-ground — both of which, by 
Act of Parliament in 1583, were added to the cathedral church. 
An inventory of the cathedral, dated 7tli July, 1559, is given 
by Walcott (pp. 100-103), extremely interesting for its details 
of church plate, ornaments, cloths, and robes. Originally the 
diocese had only three rural deaneries — Mar, Buchan, and 
Garioch; later additions were Buyn and Aberdeen. In 1547 
is mentioned a deanery of Formartine, between Ythan and Don, 
with sixteen parishes. The best guide to the churches in the 
diocese is " Collections for a History of the Shires of Aberdeen 
and Banff," by the Spalding Club (two vols., 1843).^ 


Nectan, 1125-1154. 

Edward, chancellor of Scotland iu 1140, 1154-1171. 

Matthew, 1172-1199. 

John, prior of Kelso, 1200-1207. 

Adam de Crail, 1228. 

Gilbert de Stirling, 1228-1239. 

Ralph de Lambley, abbot of Arbroath, preached barefoot through the 

diocese, 1247. 
Peter de Ramsay, drew up Cathedral Statutes, 1256. 
Robert Poitou, an Englishman, 1256-1270. 
Hugh de Benham, consecrated by Pope Martin at Rome, sat in Council 

of Lyons in 1274, 1282. 
Henry le Chen, founded prebend of Ellon, 1328. 
Alexander de Kyninmond, built two palaces, 13 — . 
William de Deyn, also a builder, reformed tlie clergy and endowed vicarage 

of Old Aberdeen, 1350. 
John Rait, D.D., 1355. 
Alexander de Kyninmond II., 1356-1380. 
Adam de Tyninghame, dean of Aberdeen, 1389. 
Gilbert de Greenlaw, chancellor of Scotland, 1422. 
Henry de Lichton, bishop of Moray, 1422-1440, 

' The Breviary of Aberdeen, first printed in 1508 (reprinted in 1853 in full, and its 
Kalendar reprinted in 1872 by Bishop Forbes in " Kaleudars of Scottish Saints"), is 
perhaps the best work of its kind, and had for its chief compiler the great Bishop 
Elphinstone, a careful account of whose noble cai-eer is given bv Cosmo Innes. 
" Sketches," 2(;0-267. 


Ingelram de Lindesay, LL.D., paved and roofed cathedral, 1441-1458. 
Thomas Spens, bishop of Galloway, keeper of Privy Seal, 1459-1480. 
Robert Blackader, prebendary of Glasgow, translated to Glasgow, 

William Elphinston. LL.D., bishop of Ross, chancellor and Privy Seal, 

founder of King's College ; a great and good bishop ; learned, pure, 

and generous, 1484-1514. 
Alexander Gordon, cousin of Earl of Huntly, consecrated and died in 1515. 
Gavin Dunbar, archdeacon of St. Andrews, 1519-1532. 
AVUliam Stewart, LL.D., son of Sir Thomas Stewart of IVIinto, provost of 

Lincluden, ambassador to England, 1531-1545. 
William Gordon, fourth son of Earl of Huntly ; a swinish man, as described 

by Bishop Spottiswood, and rebuked in 1559 by his own dean and 

canons in council, 1541-1577. 

The diocese of Aberdeen contained the following deaneries : — 
Deanery of Mar, with twenty-nine parishes ; Buchan, twenty- 
one; Buyn, fourteen; Garuiach, nineteen; and Aberdeen, eleven. 

V. Diocese of Moray. 
Previous to Elgin, the see was originally and successively 
at Birnay, Kinnedor, and Spynie, without a proper cathedral. 
The bishopric was founded by Alexander I. shortly after his 
accession (1107). But it was not till Bricius, the sixth bishop 
(1203-1221), made application to Pope Innocent III. to have a 
fixed cathedral, and the Pope ordered it to be at Spynie, that 
substantial building operations began, which ended somewhat 
selfishly in a famous Bishop's palace there, with a moderate 
extension of the parish church. On the death of Bricius, his 
successor, Bishop Andrew de Lloravia, coming in the reign of 
Elgin's great benefactor, Alexander II., and having obtained from 
him an extensive site on the banks of the Lossie, made in 1223 
fresh application to Pope Honorius, representing the solitary 
unprotected site of Spynie, and its distance from market, and 
praying that it might be translated to Elgin, and there settled 
at the then existing Church of the Holy Trinity, a little to the 
north-east of the town, adding as an additional reason that the 
change was desired not only by the chapter, but also by the 
king. On 10th April, 1224, the Pope issued a bull directed to 
the Bishop of Caithness, the Abbot of Kinloss, and the Dean 
of Ptoss, empowering them to make the desired change if they 
should see fit. These having met at Elgin, 19th July, 1224, 
appointed the said Church of the Holy Trinity to be the cathe- 


dral church of the diocese of Moray, and so to remain in all 
time coming ; and on the same day the foundation stone was 
laid with all due pomp and ceremony. Bishop Andrew lived 
for eighteen years after, and was able to carry the building far 
towards completion, if not actually to finish it. This building 
had an untimely end, for, as recorded by Fordun, in 1270 the 
cathedral of Elgin and the houses of the canons were burned 
— he does not say whether by accident or design. If Fordun is 
correct, it was soon after this that the more famous cathedral 
arose whose ruins are still the glory of Elgin. Most writers 
on the cathedral, however (especially Lachlan Shaw in his 
" History of the Province of Moray," and Dr. Gordon, his latest 
editor), pass over this part of Fordun's Chronicle, and speak 
of the cathedral as lasting 166 years — i.e. from the death of 
Bishop Andrew de Moravia, in 1242, till the burning, in 1390, 
by the brutal or mad Earl of Badenoch, Alexander Stewart, son 
of Eobert II. Probably the burning of 1270 was less destruc- 
tive than that of 1390, and there were two liberal and building 
bishops, Archibald (1253-1298) and David Moray (1299-1326), 
either or both of whom, having long episcopates, could have 
repaired the injury done to the church of Andrew de Moravia. 

After the burning of 1390, Bishop Bur or Barr sent a plain- 
tive appeal to the king for aid and reparation, and the " Wolf 
of Badenoch " was at last compelled to yield, when, on condition 
that he should make satisfaction to the bishop and church of 
Moray, and obtain absolution from the Pope, he was absolved 
by the Bishop of St. Andrews in the Blackfriars Church of 
Perth. Bishop Bur pressed on the rebuilding of his cathedral, 
which was continued by his successors, Bishop Spynie and 
Bishop Innes. At the death of the latter, in 1414, it was still 
unfinished, and at the meeting of chapter for the election of a 
sucpessor, the canons nobly agreed that whichever of them was 
elected bishop should devote a third of the revenue to building, 
until the cathedral was restored. After this great and long 
effort the central tower and spire, 198 feet in height, fell in 
1506, were rebuilt between 1507 and 1538, to fall again in 1710. 

The dimensions of the cathedral are — extreme length, includ- 
ing western towers, 289 feet ; breadth of nave and side aisles, 
87 feet; breadth of choir, including walls and aisles, 79 feet; 


length across transepts, including walls, 120 feet; height of 
western towers, 84 feet; eastern turrets, 60 feet; height of 
grand entrance, 24 feet; height of chapter-house, 34 feet; 
breadth of chapter-house, including walls, 37 feet; height of 
great west window, 27 feet ; diameter of east circular window, 
12 feet; height of side walls, 43 feet; breadth of side aisles, 
18 feet. 

The shires of Elgin, Forres, and Nairn, with parts of Inver- 
ness and Banff, were comprised in the diocese, a large portion 
of which is level and fertile, enjoying one of the best climates 
in Scotland, and producing wheat and fruit equal to those of 
any part of the Lothians. The bishop, as usual, had within 
his diocese civil and ecclesiastical courts and relative officers. 
The cathedral dignitaries were — dean (Auldearn), archdeacon 
(Forres), chanter (Alves), treasurer (Kineddar), chancellor 
(Inveraven), sub-dean (Dallas), sub-chanter (Ealford). 

The chapter consisted of twenty-two canons, of whom eight 
were founded by Bishop Bricius, and twenty-two by Bishop 
Andrew de Moravia. In its constitution the chapter was on 
the model of Lincoln.^ The canons resided within the canonry 
or " college," which had a stone wall four yards high and 900 
yards circuit, inclosing cathedral, canons' houses, and church- 
yard. Outside this precinct, toward the city of Elgin, was a 
small burgh dependent on the bishop and college. Each of the 
five dignitaries — viz. dean, archdeacon, chanter, treasurer, and 
chancellor— had four acres of land at Elgin, and each canon had 
two acres; besides which each of the twenty-two canons had 
a toft of land for a manse. On the north-west of the cathedral 
are the remains of palace, deanery, and manses, of the brave 
days of old. With the exception of St. Andrews and KirkwaU, 
no Scottish city is so rich in consecrated memorials. The 
college is marked in North College Street and South College 
Street, and in the modern houses called North College and 
South College — the former once the residence of the dean (whose 
memory survives in Deanshaugh and Dean's Crook on the 
Lossie), the latter the residence of the sub-dean. Duffus manse 
and Unthank manse stood at the north end of King Street till 
beyond 1800. 

1 Grub, i. 277. 


regarding the revenues of the see, Lachlan Shaw ^ says :— 
" The rental of the sheriffdom of Elgin and Forres, as it was 
made up and set down and subscribed by the Commissioners 
of Forres, the 30th May, 1667, was £65,603 2s. lid. Scots 
money, and shows that the Church had lands in almost all the 
parishes within the diocese, besides some parishes — as Birnie, 
Kenedar, Ogston, St. Andrews, Laggan — that wholly belonged 
to it. The said rental is only the annuity or feu-duty now 
paid out of these lands, of which the bishop was formerly the 
proprietor and received tlie whole real rent. But these rich 
revenues were so dilapidated and sold, particularly by Bishop 
Patrick Hepburn, that in the year 1563, when an account of 
all ecclesiastical benefices was taken, the rent of the bishopric 
of Moray, as then given up and recorded in the Book of 
Assumption, was as under: 'Money, £1649 7s. 7d.; wheat, 
10 bolls; barley, 77 chalders 6 bolls 3 firlots 2 pecks; oats, 
2 chalders 8 bolls ; salmon, 8 lasts ; poultry, 223.' The lands 
which in 1563 paid this rent, no doubt pay at this time [i.e. 
1775] more than £3000 sterling. Besides, it was found and 
complained of at that time that full rents were not given up, 
and scarce one-half of the lands of this diocese remained 
unsold. To the rental ought likewise to be added the revenue 
arising from the regality of Spynie and from the commissariots 
of Moray and Inverness, which before the Eeformation was 
very considerable." 

It was a melancholy close to so long and glorious a history 
of devout gifts, grand architecture, and solemn ritual that a 
monster like Bishop Patrick Hepburn (1535-1573) should 
bring up the rear. He was the son of the Earl of Bothwell and 
prior of St. AndrcM-s, uncle also and abettor of the murderer 
of Darnley, and one of the group of he-goat bishops (others 
being Beaton of St. Andrews, Gordon of Aberdeen, and Chis- 
holm of Dunblane) whose public and shameless debaucheries 
made defence of the old Church hopeless at the Eeformation. 
Bishop Hepburn not only acknowledged, but (as recorded by 
Knox) boasted of thirteen concubines, seven of whom were 
men's wives. Letters of legitimation under the Great Seal of 
State passed for ten of this villain's bastard children ; besides 

^ Gordon's edition, iii. 301. 


which he frightfully squandered the property of his see by 
fraudulent tacks of Church lands from 1540 onwards, as shown 
in detail in Shaw's " History of Moray." 


Gregory, 1115. 

William, in Rome, IICO, and made legate, c. 1140-1161. 

Felix, 1162. 

Simon de Tonei, monk of Melrose, buried at Birnay, 1171-1181. 

Richard, chaplain to William I., buried at Spynie, 1187-1203. 

Bricius de Douglas, prior of Lesmahago, fixed see at Spynie ; founded 

chapter of eight canons on pattern of Lincoln ; at Lateran Council in 

Rome in 1215, 1203-1221. 
Andrew de Moravia, dean of Moray, founded cathedral at Elgin, 

Simon, dean in 1232, 1244-1253. 
Archibald, dean, built Kineddar palace, 1253-1298. 
David Moray, founder of Scots College at Paris in 1325, consecrated at 

Avignon ; excommunicated in 1306 at instance of Edward I., 1299-1326. 
John Pilmore, son of a Dundee burgess, consecrated at Avignon ; helped 

Scots College at Paris, 1326-1362. 
Alexander Barr, LL.B., consecrated at Avignon, harassed by "the Wolf 

of Badenoch," 1362-1397. 
William de Spynie. LL.D., precentor, consecrated at Avignon, 1397-1406. 
John Innes, LX,.B., parson of Duffus, archdeacon of Caithness, conse- 
crated at Avignon. On his death the chapter agreed to give a third 

of revenue to see to repair the cathedral, 1407-1414. 
Henry de Leighton, LL.D., parson of Duffus, of the Leightons of Usan, 

near Montrose ; translated to Aberdeen, 1414-1424. 
David, 1424-1429. 

Columba de Dunbar, provost of Dunbar in 1411, 1429-1435. 
John Winchester, LL.B., provost of Lincluden ; came with James L from 

England as chaplain, 1437-1458. 
James Stewart, of family of Lorn, dean, lord treasurer, 1459-1461. 
David Stewart, brother of last, parson of Spynie ; built " David's Tower " 

at Spynie, 1462-1476. 
William Tulloch, bishop of Orkney, 1477-1482. 
Andrew Stewart, son of Black Knight of Lorn, dean, rector of Monkland, 

provost of Lincluden, 1482-1501. 
Andrew Forman, son of laird of Hutton ; translated to St. Andrews, 

James Hepburn, third son of Lord Hailes, rector of Partoun, abbot of 

Dunfermline, 1516-1524. 
Robert Shaw, son of Laird of Sauchie, abbot of Paisley, 1524-1527. 
Alexander Stewart, son of Alexander, duke of Albany, and grandson of 

James H., prior of Whithorn, abbot of Inchaffray and of Scone, 

Patrick Hepburn, son of Earl of Bothwell, prior of St, Andrews ; com- 

mendator of Scone ; robbed the see by fraudulent tacks, and lived a 

disgraceful life, 1535-1573. 


The diocese of Moray contained the following deaneries :— 
Elgin, with twenty-four parishes; Inverness, twenty; Strath- 
spey, fourteen ; and Strabolgy, nineteen. 

VI. Diocese of Brechin. 
The see was founded in 1150 by David I., and re-dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity. Previously there had been a Culdee 
monastery devoted by King Kenneth (son of Malcolm), 971-995, 
to the Holy Trinity — a common and favourite dedication among 
the Culdees. After Kenneth thus " gave the great city to the 
Lord," we next hear of Brechin in two charters of David I. to 
the church of Deer — the first one witnessed in 1132 by Leot, 
abbot, and the second in 1153 by Samson, bishop of Brechin; 
so that between these dates— most probably about 1150— the 
abbot appears to have become the bishop, the abbacy passing 
to lay hereditary abbots, and the Culdees being first conjoined 
with, next (1218) distinguished from, and lastly (1248) entirely 
superseded by, the chapter.^ 

The round tower of Brechin, attached to the south-west angle 
of the cathedral, is by far the most noted feature of the place. 
From a round, square-edged plinth, it rises to a height of 86f 
feet, or including the later conical stone roof, lOlf feet, and 
it is perfectly circular throughout, tapering regularly from an 
internal diameter of 7f feet at the base to one of 6| feet at the 
top, whilst the wall's thickness also diminishes from 4^ to 2^ 
feet. It is built in sixty irregular courses, of blocks of reddish- 
gray sandstone, dressed to the curve, but squared at neither top 
nor bottom ; within, string-courses divide it into seven storeys, 
the topmost lighted by four rather large apertures facing the 
cardinal points. A western doorway, 6| feet from the ground, 
has inclined jambs and a semicircular head, all three hewn from 
single blocks, and the arch being rudely sculptured with a 
crucifix, each jamb with a bishop bearing a pastoral staff, each 
corner of the sill with a nondescript couching animal. Prob- 
ably the tower dates from Kenneth's reign (971-995). Only 
two others similar exist in Scotland, at Abernethy and Eglishay 
in Orkney. Four have disappeared — viz. Deerness, in Orkney; 
West Burray, Tingwall, and Ireland Head, all three in Shetland. 

1 Skene, " Celtic Scotland," ii. 332-400. 


Ciildee abbots continued at Brechin till 1219, and then eleven 
of the old benefices were erected into canonries. A list of eight 
abbots is preserved : Artgus, primate of Fortrenn, +865 ; Duncan, 
slain, 965; Crinan, slain in battle, 1040; Leod, 1151; Dovenald, 
1178; Brice, prior, 1180; Mallebryd, prior, 1218, or rather 
1202-1222 ; John, abbot, 1219. In the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, here and at Abernethy, the abhot was a layman, 
whose title and benefice were hereditary, whilst the prior dis- 
charged the ecclesiastical duties. After the eleven old bene- 
fices were made canonries, Finhaven and Lethnot were added 
later, and these thirteen, with the bishop as rector of Brechin, 
formed the chapter. The chapter was constituted in 1372, and 
consisted of — dean, pra?centor (Stracathro), chancellor, treasurer, 
archdeacon (Strahan), bishops choral vicar, pensionar, sub-dean, 
with canons and prebendaries of Kylmoir, Buthergill, Guthrie, 
Fortihnevyn in 1474, Glenbervy in 1384, Lethnot in 1384, 
Logic John, Muneky, Dunychtyne, and Craig. Four priests 
vicar and six choristers lived in a house together in 1429. 
There were altars of St. Thomas the Martyr, St. Catharine, 
St. Ninian, St. Christopher, Holy Trinity, Holy Cross (with 
"Maidlin" or St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, and chapel of 
Carmyllie in Panbryd), St. Mary (two chaplaincies in 1360 
from Dun). The bishops had palaces or castles at Brechin, 
Fearn (seven miles west of Brechin, and in diocese of Dunkeld); 
and Farnell. 

The cathedral, founded about 1150, and added to at various 
periods, was a plain cruciform building, comprising an aisle- 
less choir (84^ feet long), pure early first-pointed in style; 
north and south transepts ; and a nave of five bays with 
aisles (114 x 58 feet) terminating westward in a tower on the 
north-west corner, and a large four-light window, almost of 
flamboyant style, over the western arched doorway, the gable 
overhead being crow-stepped. The north-west tower is of finely 
jointed masonry, in four storeys, with a low octagonal spire, 
having dormer windows, and 128 feet high, built by Bishop 
Patrick de Leuchars (1351-1373). The tower has a belfry 
turret at the north-east angle, and in the belfry three ancient 
bells. The basement of this broad square tower, which is the 
best surviving feature of the buildins;, contains a fine solid 


vaulted chamber, probably the old chapter-house. In 1806-8 
a cheap and ignorant reconstruction of the side walls and roof 
of the nave, including a part of the choir, but excluding the 
eastern end and the north and south transepts, provided a 
modern parish church, which happily retains the old pillars, 
but is savagely disfigured by choking wooden galleries. Jervise^ 
says "the cathedral had twenty-three churches and chapels 
attached to it, curiously scattered."^ 


T., 1156. 

Samson, 1158. 

Radolph, abbot of Melrose, 1178-1198. 

(Robert Mar, 1219.) 

Hugo, 1219. 

Gregory, archdeacon, 1225-1247. 

GUbert, 1247-1249. 

Albin, precentor, 1248-1269. 

William de Kilconcath, rector of Dominicans in Perth, died at Rome, 

Edward, monk of Cupar Angus, travelling preacher, c. 1280. 

Robert, archdeacon, 1284-1285. 

William, in 1290 addressed Edward I., 1286-1303. 

John de Kinninraond (in Fife), 1304-1325. 

Adam, consecrated 1328, 1327-1350. 

PhiUp, dean, 1350-1351. 

Patrick de Leuchars, rector of Tyningham, lord chancellor, consecrated at 
Avignon, 1351-1373. 

Stephen, founded prebend of Lethnot, 1374-1384. 

Walter Forester of Garden (Stirlingshire), canon of Aberdeen, secretary 
of state, 1400-1416. 

John de Carnoth or Crennach (probably Carnock in St. Ninians), lord 
chancellor; accompanied Princess Margaret, daughter of James I., to 
France, 1426-1454. 

Robert, 1454. 

George de Shoreswood of Bedshiel, Berwicksktre, rector of Coulter, chan- 
cellor of Brechin, and lord chancellor, 1454-1462. 

Patrick Graham, son of Lord Graham, and nephew to James I. by Lady 
Mary Stewart, daughter of Robert HI., translated to St. Andrews; a 
truly good man, who was very ill used later as the first archbishop in 
Scotland, 1463-1466. 

John Balfour, 1466-1501. 

Walter Meldrum, 1488-1512. 

John Hepburn, called bishop in 1517, consecrated 1523-1558. 

John Sinclair, dean of Restalrig, president of court of Session, of the 

^ " Memorials of Angus and Mearas," i. 175. 

* The best list of bishops is that given by Cosmo Innes, Preface vi.-xvi., "Registrnm 
Episc. Brechinensis," Bannatyne Club. 


Roslin family; married Queen Mary to Darnley in Holyrood Chapel, 
29th July, 1565, 1565-1566. 

The diocese of Brechin contained thirty parishes. 

VII. Diocese of Dunblane. 

Like Brechin, Dunblane was formed into a bishopric by 
David I. out of the old Pictish bishopric of Abernethy, which 
in the division was allotted as a parish to Dunblane. The date 
of erection was previous to 1150 — some say 1140. Dunblane 
was already a Columban, and (notwithstanding Dr. Skene's 
argument to the contrary^) also a Culdee settlement. The 
church dates back to the seventh century, and was an offshoot 
of the church of Kingarth in Bute, for its founder was St. 
Blane. He was of the race of the Irish Picts, and nephew of. 
that Bishop Cathan who founded Kingarth: he was himself 
bishop of that church, and his mother was a daughter of King 
Aidan of Dalriada. Dunblane and its church were burnt under 
Kenneth MacAlpin (844-860) by the Britons of Strathclyde, and 
in 912 were ravaged by Danish pirates headed by Rognwald. 

" At Dunblane," says Goodall,'^ " the Culdees continued near 
a hundred years longer than at Dunkeld. Cormac Malpol, 
their prior, with Michael, parson of Mothil, and Macbeath, his 
chaplain, are witnesses to a confirmation by William, bishop of 

Dunblane (1210 ), of a gift of the Church of Kincardine 

to the monks of Cambuskenneth to be seen in their Chartulary, 
fol. 80; and Malpol, the prior, and Michael and Malcolm, 
Culdees, are witnesses to a charter by Simon, bishop of Dunblane 
(1170 ), one of William's predecessors.^ 

"At last, in the year 1240, the election of the bishop of that 
see was devolved upon canons-regular, by a mandate of Pope 
Gregory IX., which was obtained in this manner: Clement, 
bishop of Dunblane, went to Ptome, and represented to that 
Pope, how of old time his bishopric had been vacant upwards 
of a hundred years, during which period almost all the revenues 
were seized by the seculars ; and although in process of time 
there had been several bishops instituted, yet, by their sim- 
plicity or negligence, the former dilapidations were not re- 

1 II. 403. * Preliminary Dissertation in Keith's " Bishops," iv. 

^ See Crawford's " Officers of State," 6. 


covered, but, on the contrary, the remainder M-as ahnost quite 
alienated; so that, for near ten years, a proper person could 
not be found to accept of the charge; that the case having 
been laid before the Pope, he had committed the trust of sup- 
plying that vacancy to the bishops of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, 
and Brechin, who made choice of this Clement ; but he found 
his church so desolate that he had not where to lay his head 
in his cathedral : there was no college there, only a rural 
chaplain performed divine service in the church that had 
its roof uncovered ; and the revenues of the see were so small 
that they could hardly afford him maintenance for one half of 
the year. 

"To remedy these evils, the Pope appointed William and 
Geoffry, the bishops of Glasgow^ and Dunkeld, to visit the 
Church of Dunblane; and if they should find these things to 
be as represented, he authorized them to cause the fourth part 
of the tithes of all the parish churches within that diocy to be 
assigned to the bishop thereof; who, after reserving out of these 
tithes so much as should be proper for his own sustenance, was, 
by the advice of these two bishops and other expert persons, to 
assign the rest to a dean and canons, whom the Pope enjoined to 
be settled there, if these matters could be brought about without 
great offence ; or, if otherwise, he ordered that the fourth of the 
tithes of all such churches of the diocy as were in the hands 
of seculars should be assigned to the bishop, and that the 
bishop's seat should be translated to St, John's monastery of 
canons-regular {i.e. Inchaffray) within that diocy, and appointed 
that these canons should have the election of the bishop when 
a vacancy should happen thereafter." 

As the bishop's seat was not transferred from Dunblane to 
Inchaffray, we may infer that th.Q former part of the alternative 
was carried out — viz. that dean and canons were found for 
Dunblane, and the bishop also provided for out of the fourth 
of the tithes of all churches in the diocese. The decay of 
clerics at Dunblane in Bishop Clement's time (1233-1258) 
may as well have applied to Keledei declining there, and does 
not imply that they never were there but existed only at 
Muthill (13 miles to the north), and that the Culdees of Mut- 
hill, being in the diocese of Dunblane, were called Culdees of 


Dunblane. " We find," says Skene,^ " the Kelcdci with their 
prior at IMuthill from 1178 to 1214,- when they disappear from 
the records, and Muthill becomes the seat of the dean of Dun- 
blane, who had already taken precedence of the prior of the 
Kelcdci. It is probable that, under the growing importance 
of Dunblane as a cathedral establishment, the possessions of 
the Kelcdci had fallen into secular hands." This would be 
the more easy as the monastery of the Culdees was a distinct 
institution about a mile south of the church and village of 

The foundation of the present cathedral is attributed to 
Bishop Clement, originally a monk who received the tonsure 
from St. Dominic himself. The cathedral which he left has 
since his day been extended both to east and westward ; and 
what he built he joined on to the more ancient square and per- 
pendicular tower. The cathedral consists of an aisled, eight- 
bayed nave (130 by 58 feet, and 50 feet high), an aisleless choir 
(80 by 30 feet), with a chapter-house, sacristy, or lady chapel, to 
the north. The nave is almost entirely pure first-pointed. In 
the clerestory the windows are of two lights, with a foiled circle 
set over them, plainly treated outside, but elaborated by a range 
of shafted arches running continuously in front of the windows 
within, so much apart from them as to leave a narrow passage 
round the building in the thickness of the wall. The east 
window is a peculiar triplicate, with the centre light much 
taller and wider than the others. The west front has over the 
doorway and its blind-arch on either side three very long and 
narrow two-light windows of equal height, with a cinquefoil 
in the head of the central window and a quatrefoil in the head 
of the side windows ; whilst above is a vesica, set within a 
bevelled fringe of bay-leaves, arranged zigzagwise, with their 
points in contact — the last the subject of a well-known rhapsody 
by Euskin. The root of the cathedral history in this case lies 
in the tower ; it stands awkwardly a little out of line in the 
south aisle of the nave, an evident remnant of an older church, 
exactly like the similar tower in Muthill, of the eleventh century, 
retained in a church built c. 1430. A tower almost exactly 
similar, but more ornate, probably twenty or thirty years later 

1 II. 404. - Reeves' " British Culdees," Evidences, S., 141. 


in date, exists at Dunning, in the same diocese, and also a Celtic 
church settlement associated with St. Serf. The old Culdee 
church of Markinch has a tower of the same peculiar style, 
with a square, upright, saddle-backed roof, and crow-stepped 
gables. Some vestiges remain of the bishop's palace, over- 
looking the Allan on the south-west of the cathedral ; and the 
triangular space in front of the south side of the cathedral, 
and forming the end of the high street, has some old houses 
which are believed to have been canons' manses. 

The chapter consisted of — dean (Muthill), prsecentor, chancellor, 
treasurer, archdeacon; Prebendaries — Abbot of Cambuskenneth in 
1298, Abbot of Arbroath for Abernethy from 1240: Crieff przwio 
(probably parish of), Crieff secundo (probably St. Thomas at 
Milnab), Logic, Fordishall, Kinkell, Kippeu, Monzie, Comrie. 
Eighteen finely carved oak stalls of the dignitaries and canons 
belonging to the sixteenth century still survive. Other carved 
work was destroyed in 1559 by the Prior of St. Andrews and 
the Earl of Argyll. The line of bishops ended with three of 
the neighbouring family of Chisholm of Cromlix. Bishop 
James Chisholm was eldest son of Edmund Chisholm, and was 
a good administrator. Bishop William Chisholm, his half- 
brother, was an ecclesiastic of the worst possible type for forni- 
cation, church robbery, and persecution of so-called heretics. 
Bishop William Chisholm, nephew of the robber-bishop, became 
after the Eeformation a Carthusian monk at Lyons. He is 
supposed to have taken with him the writs of the see, which 
have been lost. Marshall ^ gives an account of this branch of 
Chisholms. The same writer says,^ "Among the sepulchral 
monuments in the cathedral is that of Malise, eighth earl of 
Strathearn, and his countess. It is in the vestry of the choir, 
and is a flat block of gritstone, having on it full-sized figures 
of the earl and countess. When discovered in the choir, the 
block was above a coffin of lead with date 1271. In the centre 
of the choir is the dust of Lady Margaret Drummond, mistress 
(but probably privately married) of James IV., and her sisters 
the Ladies Euphemia and Sybilla, daughters of Lord Drummond^ 
who were poisoned (apparently to clear the way for the king's 
marriage to the Princess Mary of England in 1503). Their 

' " Hist. Scenes in Peithsbiie," 346. - Ibid, 343. 


remains were deposited here by permission of their uncle, Sir 
AVilliam Drummond, then dean of Dunblane. Three blue slabs 
covered and marked their resting-place. The recumbent figure 
attired in pontifical vestments and mitre, and which is in a 
niche of the wall under a window of the choir, on the right of 
the pulpit, is supposed to represent Bishop Knlay Dermock, 
and to be his sepulchral monument. The other recumbent 
figure under one of the windows of the nave represents Bishop 
Michael Ochiltree, who greatly added to the rich adornments 
of the cathedral." 


Laurence, attests a charter of Malcolm FV., 1160. 

Simon, 1170. 

Jonathan, archdeacon, buried at Inchaffray. Great endowment of the see 

by Gilbert, earl of Stratherne, c. 1195-1210. 
William de Bosco, chancellor, 1210. 
Abraham, 1220 to c. 1223. 
Osbert, abbot of Cambuskenneth, +1231. 
Clement, a Dominican friar, consecrated by Bishop William of St. 

Andrews at the Stow Church of Wedale ; founded cathedral ; made 

exaggerated wail of poverty to the Pope, who in 1238 appointed a 

commission of inquiry, 1233-1258. 
Robert de Prebenda, dean, ambassador in 1277 to Edward I. ; in 1265 

was Conservator of Council at Perth, 1258-1283. 
AVilliam, one of the arbiters between John Baliol and Bruce, 1290 to c. 1292. 
Nicholas de Balmyle, monk of Arbroath, parson of Calder, lord chancellor, 

Maurice, abbot of Inchaffray, Bruce's chaplain at Bannockburn with crosier 

of St. Fillan ; a brave patriot priest, with the old piety that reverenced 

relics, yet was true and fervent, 1320-1347. 
William, 1347-1361. 

Walter de Cambuslang or Conentre, 1362-1370. 
Andrew, seals Act for succession of crown at Scone, 1st April, 1373. 
Dougal, c. 1380-1399. 
Finlay Dermoch, built bridge over Allan Water, tomb in cathedral on 

north side of nave, 1400-1419. 
William Stephen, divinity-reader in 1411 at St. Andrews, Conservator of 

Council of Perth in 1420, 1420-1429. 
Michael Ochiltree, dean in 1425, built Knaik Bridge at Ardoch, Bishop's 

Bridge at Culdees ; rebuilt Culdee Church at Muthill ; crowned James 

II. in 1437 at Holyrood, 1429-1447. 

Robert Lauder, sent on several embassies, founder of several prebends, 

Thomas, 1459. 

John Hepburn, a lord of session, 1467 to c. 1479. 
James Chisholm, son of Edward Chisholm of Cromlix, chaplain to James 

III, 1534 ; a careful administrator and good bishop, 1486-1527. 


William Cbisholm, half-brother of the preceding, who resigned in his 
favour ; a shameless wretch, who wasted the see by fraudulent tacks to 
liis three bastards and his nephew, and who burned men for heresy, 
William Chisholm, nephew of the robber bishop, appointed by Papal 
brief of 2nd June, 1561, and nominated by Queen Mary in 1564 ; was 
in exile Bishop of Vaison in France, became a Carthusian of Grenoble, 
and died at Rome, 1564-1593. 
The diocese of Dunblane contained forty-three parishes. 

VIII. Diocese of Boss. 
AYhat afterwards became the bishopric of Eoss had its origin 
in a Columban monastery planted at Eosmarkyn or Eosemarkie 
by Lugadius or ]\Ioluog, abbot and bishop of Lismore, who 
died in 577, and whose day in the old calendar is June 25. 
Following him a century and a half later came Albanus Kiri- 
tinus, or Curitan, surnamed Bonifacius, who, in the interests 
of Eome, restored the church or rebuilt it of stone, and super- 
seded the older native dedication by St. Peter in 716. When 
the see was re-founded by David I., c. 1228, Eosmarkyn con- 
tinued, with the church of St. Peter as cathedral. But appa- 
rently under Bishop Thomas de Dundee (c. 1309), the site was 
removed to Fortrose or Chanonry, and a new cathedral begun 
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Boniface. Chanonry (so named 
from the number and prominence of canons' houses) is half a 
mile westward from Eosmarkyn, with which it was united in 
1455 by James II. as a free burgh in favour of the Bishop of 
Eoss. There is here a ferry of one mile across to Fort-George, 
on the Nairn and Elgin side of the firth, so that the site was 
a convenient one in several respects. In fact the architectura; 
pre-eminence of the two cathedrals of Eoss and Elgin, and their 
nearness by the Fortrose ferry, gave rise to a curious legend, 
put in wizard Michael Scott's name, that the fairies in one 
night erected the two cathedrals, but misplaced them, and were 
making a mound over the firth by which to convey each to 
its proper site when an untimely and too devout Highlander 
wishing them "God-speed" as he passed, scared the fairies 
from further effort, so that the cathedrals are on the wrong 
side, and a gap of a mile exists in the mound to this day ! 

The sole remains of the cathedral church of St. Peter and 
St. Boniface are the south aisle of the chancel and nave, a 


detached chapter-house, a bell, dated 1460, and another, the 
" augelus bell," removed to Inverness. The cathedral, begun 
by Bishop Thomas (c. 1309), and completed by Bishop John 
Fraser, who died in 1507, was originally 120 feet in length; 
comprised a nave of four bays, with aisles 14 feet wide and 
round-headed windows ; had a choir, with aisles, lady chapel, 
west tower, quasi transept, rood turret, and to the north-east 
a vaulted chapter-house over a crypt. AYithin the cathedral 
precincts stood the various manses of the dignitaries and 

The chapter consisted of — dean, precentor, chancellor (Kin- 
nettes), treasurer (Urquhart), archdeacon (Kilearnan), sub-dean 
(Edderton), sub-chanter (Urray), with Prebendaries of Suddy, 
Avoche, Kincardine, Nigg, Kilmuir Easter, Logie Easter, Eos- 
keen, Alness, Kiltearn, Lumlair, Contin, Morinche, Kirkmichael, 
and Killicudden. 

The last bishop, John Leslie, 1564-1596 (born 1527 of the 
Leslies of Balquahain, but illegitimate), was one of the great 
and good men of the old Church, who suffered in the company 
of the bad, at the Eeformation.^ 

The choir and aisles of Leslie's cathedral were cruelly and 
foolishly ordered to be stripped of their lead by James VI. in 
1572, in punishment of the bishop's supposed treason. This 
prepared for the more savage work of Cromwell, who, with the 
cathedral and palace and canonry stones, built a fort at Inverness. 

Churches in the diocese of Eoss are often described as being 
in Eerindonald or in the maragium (= mayordom or lordship) of 
Ferindonald, or of Eerindonald and Ardmanoch, the one being 
the ecclesiastical and the other the civil style. Much of the land 
spoken of in the old charters of Eoss is reckoned by davachs 
or ploughgates, words that very often recur in " Origines Paro- 
chiales" (vol. ii. part ii.), where all the parishes of the diocese 
are taken up and contents of the old writs exhibited. 


Macbeth, witness to charter of David I., c. 1128. 

Simon, witness to charter of David I. to Dunfermline, c. 1150. 

Gregory, consecrated by Arnold of St. Andrews ; sat in Lateran Council 

1189, 1161-1195. 

^ A portrait and good account of him, especially in bis wonderful fidelity to Queen 
Mary, are given in W. Forbes Leitb's " Narrative of Scottish Catholics," 84-140. 


Reginald or Reinald, called macer, monk of Melrose ; consecrated by John, 
bishop of Dunkeld, 1195-1213. 

Robert, chaplain to William I., 1214-1230. 

St. Duthac, patron saint of Tain, + 1253. [His place here, however, is 
inconsistent with early authorities, who give his death 8th March, 1068.] 

Robert, archdeacon, + 1269. 

^latthew or Machabeus, consecrated at Viterbo by Gregory X. ; died at 
Council of Lyons, 1272-1274. 

Thomas de Fyvie, 1274. 

Robert, in 1290 addressed Edward L, and swore fealty, 1284. 

Thomas de Dundee, recognized Bruce's title to the crown, built Rosmarkyn, 

Roger, 1328. 

John, 1334. 

Roger, mentioned 1338 and 1350, 1338. 

Alexander, 1357-1370. 

Alexander Kilbinnes, signed charters 1404 and 1416. 

John TurnbuU, 1420-1439. 

Thomas Urquhart, Tullich, 1441. 

Henry Cockburne, 1463-1476. 

Thomas Hay, founded collegiate church of Tain, 1481, 1481-1487. 

William Elphinstone, translated to Aberdeen, 1482-1484. 

John Fraser, natural son of a Tweeddale family, abbot of Melrose, privy 
councillor in 1506; finished the cathedral, + 1507 ; efBgy in cathedral, 

Robert Cockburne, translated to Dunkeld, 1508-1521. 

James Hay, postulate of Dundrennan in 1516, 1525-1538. 

Robert Cairncross of Balmashanner, near Forfar, provost of Corstorphine, 
chaplain to James V., abbot of Holyrood, commendator of Fearn ; 
buried in the cathedral, 1539-1545. 

David Paniter or Panter, vicar of Carstairs, prior of St. Mary's Isle, com- 
mendator of Cambuskenneth ; was seven years abroad on public busi- 
ness; nominated in 1544; consecrated in 1552 at Jedburgh. His Latin 
letters of state published by Ruddiman in 1722, 1544-1558. 

Henry Sinclair, of Roslin family, friend of James V., rector of Glasgow 
(1539), abbot of Kilwinning (1541), dean of Glasgow (1550), president 
of Court of Session (1544) ; died in France, 1560-1564. 

John Leslie, son of Canon Leslie of Elgin, rector of Oyne, senator of 
College of Justice, abbot of Lindores (1564), bishop of Coutances 
(1593) ; died and buried in monastery of Gertrudenberg, near Brussels; 
ambassador and stanch friend of Queen Mary ; a churchman of the 
highest order for learning, ability, purity, and fidelity to his afflicted 
queen. His chief work, "De Origine, &c., Scotorum," was published 
at Rome in 1578, 1565-1596. 

The diocese of Eoss contained thirty-seven parishes. 

IX. Diocese of Caithness. 
The first church in Dornoch was dedicated to St. Bar or 
Fymbar, who was the patron saint of Cork, and whose day in 


the old calendar is September 25. Some say he lived in the 
sixth century, but others say in the eleventh. Possibly St. Bar 
himself preached for a time in Dornoch, but more likely the 
dedication arose from the presence and reverence of one of his 
foUowers a generation later than the saint himself. At all 
events the name survived into cathedral times, when a different 
form of church rule arose, and a fresh dedication of the same 
site was made to St. Gilbert and St. Mary. 

"The festival of St. Bar continued to be held as a term day 
and fair during both the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, 
and the ceme'tery of St. Fimber of Dornoch occurs in several 
bounding charters of the same period. The Church of St. Bar 
existed— whether in ruins or otherwise does not appear— till, 
according to Sir Eobert Gordon, writing in 1630,^ 'it was of late 
demolished in the days of King James the Sixth.' 

" The bishopric of Caithness appears to have been from its 
erection co-extensive with the older earldom, extending, as 
recorded in charters of 1476, 1527, and 1567, from Portnacultir 
to the Pentland Pirth, and from the eastern sea to the western, 
and thus including the modern counties of Caithness and Suth- 
erland. The era of its erection is unknown. The first bishop 
whose name appears in authentic records is Andrew, whose rule 
extended from the year 1146 at latest to the year 1185. Before 
1153 King David I. granted to that bishop Hoctor Comon 
(probably "the same as Huctherhinche, subsequently assigned 
by Bishop Gilbert to the chantry), free from all service except 
that of the common host."^ Bishop John, who succeeded 
Andrew, refused to collect the papal tax of one penny on each 
inhabited house, granted before 1181 by Earl Harold, and got 
into trouble thereby. Pope Innocent III. prescribed an elabor- 
ate penance in 1202 to Lomberd, who had obeyed Earl Harold 
when ordered to cut out the bishop's tongue and eyes. The 
next bishop got into even worse trouble. "By an old custom 
a spann of butter for every twenty cows was paid to the bishop 
by the husbandmen. Bishop Adam reduced the number first 
to fifteen, then to twelve, and finally to ten, exacting in every 
case the spann of butter. In 1222 the Katanes men complained 
to Earl John, who in vain attempted to induce the bishop to 

1 " Oricrines Parochiales," ii. 597, 508. 


be more moderate. While the bishop was at his manor of 
Hakirk in Thorsdal (probably at that time the episcopal see), 
in company with Serlo, dean of Neubotle, his confidential ad- 
viser, and Eafu the logmaclr (one of the prefects appointed 
by King William), the discontented husbandmen assembled 
in the vicinity, threatening to use violence, from which Earl 
John, who was present, seems to have dissuaded them. Eafu's 
intercession with the bishop had no effect — the husbandmen 
advanced to attack the house — Serlo came out to meet them, 
and was immediately seized and put to death — and the bishop 
at last coming out and offering terms, the better part of the 
populace would have willingly made an arrangement, but the 
more violent seized him, dragged him to a hut (or, as some 
say, his own kitchen), and setting fire to it, burned him to 
death." ^ The Church afterwards tried to make amends to 
Bishop Adam by canonizing him, in addition to the terrible 
penalty of cutting off the hands of eighty-four of the mur- 

The next bishop, Gilbert, soon after his appointment, on the 
narrative that in the times of his predecessors there was but 
a single priest ministering in the cathedral church, both on 
account of the poverty of the place and by reason of frequent 
hostilities, and that he desired to extend the worship of God, 
resolved to build a cathedral church at his own expense, to 
dedicate it to the Virgin Mary, and to make it conventual. 
He appears to have completed the building. The glass used 
for the windows is said to have been made at Sytheraw (Cider- 
hall), west from Dornoch. In 1242 he made his will, which was 
extant in 1630. He died in 1245, was afterwards canonized, and 
became the patron saint of the church which he built. His 
relics continued to be had in reverence till the eve of the Eefor- 
mation. Gilbert de Moravia was one of the greatest men of 
the old Church, liberal in gifts, skilful and painstaking in archi- 
tecture, a born ruler of men, a leader in civilization and agri- 
culture over the north, and of a pure Christian spirit. 

The church consisted of a nave with aisles, choir, and tran- 
sept, with a massive square central tower surmounted by a 
low spiked spire. The pillars of the choir are round, and the 

'" engines Par." ii, 598. 


triforium had square-headed lights, the east window being 
filled with reticulated tracery. The cathedral was burnt in 
1570 during a feud between the Murray s and the earls of Caith- 
ness. The manses remained till 1769. A square tower of the 
palace still survives. 

The chapter, modelled on Elgin and Lincoln, had ten mem- 
bers, of whom the bishop was chief, and had the fruits of six 
parish churches, not named. The dean had the church of 
Clun (Clyne), the great tithes of the city of Dornoch and of 
the town of Etheuboll (Embo), with one-fourth of the altarage 
of Dornoch and the whole land of Nethandurnach. The pre- 
centor had the church of Creich, the parsonage tithes of Pronci, 
Auelech (Evelix), Strathormeli (Achormlary), Askedale (Ause- 
dale), and Eutheverthar (Ehiarchar), one-fourth of the altarage 
of Dornoch, with the whole land of Huctherhinche at Dornoch. 
The chancellor had the church of Rothegorth (Rogart), the 
parsonage tithes of the twelve dauachs of ScelleboU (Skelbo) 
and one-fourth of the altarage of Dornoch. The treasurer had 
the church of Larg, the rectorial tithes of Scitheboll (Skibo) 
and Sywardhoch (Sydera), except those of Strathormeli, and 
the remaining one-fourth of the altarage of Dornoch. The 
archdeacon had the churches of Bauer and Watne (Bower and 

Of the canons, the first had Olrich ; the second, Donot (Dun- 
net) ; the third, Cananesbi (Canisbay) ; and the fourth, Kel- 
duninach (Kildonan), of an exceptional kind, was held by the 
Abbot of Scone. 

The churches of Far and Scynend (Skinnet), the lands of 
Pethgrudie (Pitgudie in Dornoch), two Herkhenyis, and the 
common pasturage of Dornoch, were common to the prebend- 
aries, ^nd assigned in an artificial manner so as to secure cathe- 
dral residence. Each canon had a toft and croft in the city of 
Dornoch. The dean had half a year's residence compulsory, 
and the canons three months' yearly. The bishop and digni- 
taries were bound to provide priests as their cathedral vicars 
or stallars, of whom the bishop's vicar alone had a provision 
from the cathedral — viz. the rectorial tithes of Thoreboll (Tor- 
boll) and of Kynald, and twenty acres of land at Dornoch, with 

a toft and croft there. The canons were allowed to find vicars 


in deacons' orders. The Church of Dyrnes (Durness) was be- 
stowed upon the cathedral, to find light and incense.^ 


Andrew, monk of Dunfermline, sat m CouncU of Northampton ; died at 
Dunfermline, 114G-1185. 

John, had his tongue and eyes cut out by Earl Harold in 1201, 1185-1213. 

Adam of Carlisle, abbot of INIelrose, consecrated by William Malvoisin of 
St. Andrews : burned to death at Halkirk, in dispute about butter-tax ; 
Earl Harold, who led to both murders, was hanged in 1231. 

Gilbert de Moray, sou of the Lord of Duffus, monk of Melrose, archdeacon 
of Moray, 1203: abbot of Glenluce ; consecrated at York; founder of 
Dornoch Cathedral. He is in the kalendar as St. Gilbert, 1222-1245. 

William, in 1250, in letter of Alexander IH., defends the liberties of the 
Scottish Church, + 1261. 

Walter de Baltroddi, LL.D., 1271. 

Archibald Heroc or Hayrok, archdeacon of iNIoray, peaceably settled old 
dispute as to church lands with earls of Sutherland, 1275-1288. 

Alan of St. Edmund's, lord chancellor, tool of Edward I., 1290-1291. 

Andrew, 1293-1300. 

Ferquhard de Ballegaumbe or Belle jambe, a defender of Scots liberty, 
recognizing Brace's title to the crown, 1301-1328. 

Alan, archdeacon of Aberdeen, 1341. 

David, + 1348. 

Thomas Murray de Fingask, 1348-1360. 

Alexander Man, + 1389. 

Malcolm, 1410-1421. 

Robert Strathbrock, of a family in Foveran, 1444. 

John Innes, dean, 1447. 

William Moodie or Mudy, 1445-1460. 

[Vacancy of twenty-four years, when the see was governed by Adam 
Gordon, dean and parson of Pettie.] 

Andrew Stewart, natural son of family of Invermeath (probably Invermay, 
Perthshire), lord treasurer, 1490-1518. 

Andrew Stewart, son of John, earl of Atholl, former postulate of Dunkeld 
against Bishop Gawin Douglas ; instigated Clan Gunn to slay Laird of 
Duffus, when in retaliation the laird's brother, dean of Caithness, seized 
the vicar of Far, and imprisoned him at Duffus, 1518-1542. 

Robert Stewart, born 1516 (brother to Matthew, earl Lennox), elect and 
administrator in 1542 ; provost of Dunbarton College ; never in priest's 
orders ; in exile twenty-two years ; prior of St. Andrews ; Earl of March, 
1579; died at St. Andrews, 1586. After the Reformation he became 
Protestant, and gifted away much of the rents of the see of Caithness 
and priory of St, Andrews. 

The diocese of Caithness contained twenty-five parishes. 

'See Cosmo Innes, "Sketches," 81, 82. 


X. Diocese of Galloway. 
This see has three names. Galloicay marks it best geo- 
graphically ; Candida Casa associates it with St. Niuiaii, who 
founded it in 397 and dedicated it to St. Martin ; Whitlurnc 
associates it with the cathedral dedicated to St. Martin when 
the see was refounded by Fergus, lord of Galloway, in 1143. 
Here arises a question as to the real site of Candida Casa, or 
the White-house ; whether it was identical with that of the later 
cathedral, which is at the town of Whithorn, two miles inland, 
or whether it was distant two miles from the town and on the 
little isle of Whithorn. Certainly the coast site of the isle has 
a very ancient church, and would also be more conspicuous, as 
Candida Casa implies. The real difficulty is that the tomb 
and shrine of St. Ninian in later times were in the cathedral, 
and there is no record of any translation from the isle. The 
question is discussed in Bishop Forbes' "St. Ninian."^ A 
century or less after the time of St. Ninian, his church, under 
the name of " the great monastery of Rosnat," became famous 
as a seminary of religious and secular instruction, the name 
Whitherne appearing under the phonetic form of Futerna in 
Irish literature. St. Modwenna or Monenna or Medana, the 
friend of St. Brigida, had founded a church called Chil-ne-case, 
in Galloway, and opened up Irish intercourse. Rosnat is the 
scene of the very ancient hymn of St. Mugint, which with the 
scholiast's note on it is given by Bishop Forbes.^ To Cairnech, 
one of the bishops and abbots of Futerna, is ascribed the 
introduction of monachism into Ireland itself. 

From the year 727 to 796 the see of Galloway belonged to 
the kingdom of Northumbria, when its first bishop was Pecht- 
helm, and its last Beadulf. The see was subject to York till 
1472, when St. Andrews was made metropolitan, under which 
it continued only till 1491, when it became suffragan to Glas- 
gow. The chapter of the see were canons regular or Prcemon- 
stratensian canons of the priory of Whitherne. They held 
prebends of Borgue, Crossmichael, Twyname, Kirkcudbright, 
Laswede or Leswalt, Stonykirk, Whitherne, Wigtown, and Dairy. 
They held also the churches of Glasterton, Kirkmaiden, Sorbie, 

1 " Scottish Historians;' v. 269, 270. ' Ibid. 292, 293. 


Craigilton, Mothernin, Helpstone, Kirkdale, Toskerton, Clash- 
ainCand Kirkanders. The diocese was divided into three 
rural deaneries— viz. i)cs;ies = the east part of Kirkcudbright; 
Farines = e2.&t part of Wigtownshire; Rinncs = ihQ country west 
of Main Water. The river Urr divided the sees of Galloway 
and Glasgow, as it still divides the synods of Dumfries and 
Galloway. An interesting view of the ancient arrangement 
of the chapter, showing names, offices, and number of the 
members, appears in a document given by Bishop Forbes.^ 
It gives the voters in 1235 in favour of Odo, who was 
rival to Bishop Gilbert. Each name occupies a line in the 
form, Eyo frater Dunecanus, catliedralis prior Candidcc Cascc. 
Shortened they are as follows — Dunecanus, cathedralis prior; 
Bricius, canonicus et sacerdos; Paulinus, quondam prior; Helias, 
canonicus, sacerdos, et sub-prior ; Cristinus, canonicus, sacerdos, 
et thesaurarius ; Johannes, canonicus, sacerdos, et provisor ; Ger- 
ardus, canonicus, sacerdos, et cantor ; Mauricius, can. et sac. ; 
Henricus, can. et sac. ; Fingallus, can. et sac. ; Malicliias, can. 
et sac; Johannes, can. et sac; Gilhertus, can. et diaconus; 
Concius, can. et diaconus; Andreas, can. et acolytus; Melcalmus, 
can. et sac; Gregorius, can. et sac; Neemias, can. et sac; Fergus, 
can. et sac; Garciamcs, can. et sac; Nicholaus, can. et diaconus; 
MalacK, can. et acolytus. 

The shrine of St. Ninian was a famous place of pilgrimage, 
visited by two queens and two kings of Scotland — viz. Mar- 
garet in 1473, Mary in 1503, James lY. three times, and 
James V. Offerings were made on these occasions, and like 
the modern multiplication of collections in certain churches, 
there were no fewer than six separate places of offering in old 
W^hitherne, as detailed in the lord treasurer's accounts.^ The 
names of the six places are : " at the Rude altair, at the ferter 
[i.e. feretrum = shrine or tomb] in the utir [outer] kirk, at the 
reliques, at the hye altair, at the lady chapel, and in the chapel 
on the hill " [i.e. chapel Outon, one mile north of "SAHiitherne]. 

The conclusion of Bishop Forbes' Preface to his "Life of 
St. Ninian " is worthy of quotation as a historical review. " No 
one can stand within the precincts of the ruined priory of 
AVbitherne, or look out to sea from the roofless chapel at the 

1 " Scottish Historians," Preface, li. ^ Quoted by Bishop Forbes, 294-304. 


isle, without emotions which are difficult to describe. He 
stands on a spot where the ancient civilization of Eonie, and 
the more ancient barbarism of the Meatse, alike gave place to 
the higher training of the gospel of Christ — where the domi- 
nation of the earth, transferred to the true faith, but still pro- 
ceeding from the Eternal City, laid hold upon the strongest 
of all those Celtic races which constitute the population of 
Scotland — where Irish learning established the great monastery, 
and Irish piety received illustrations in Brignat and Modwenna, 
JMancennus, Eugenius, Tighernachus, and Endeus — where a 
Saxon church, remarkable for the sanctity of its bishops, re- 
paired the breaches caused by conquest and foreign oppression 
— where, amid the ravages of the Norsemen and the feuds of 
the local princes, a rest was found for the ashes of St. Cuthbert 
— where, in the great restoration of the twelfth century, the 
civilizing influence of the see of York and the spiritual grace of 
the Order of Premontr^ brought some alleviation to the bar- 
barism of the times — where an Italian legate, mediating be- 
tween the conflicting claims of Scotland and England, brought 
his Italian astuteness and his Italian tact to bear upon the 
question — where Ailred acquired the knowledge which gives 
local colouring to his narrative — where the bishop of the 
diocese, so poor that he needed to act as suffragan and coad- 
jutor to the Archbishop of York, yet appeared in his true place 
as intercessor for the rebel Thomas to his offended king — where 
David, wounded in battle, found a cure for his festering sore — 
where year by year the concourse of devout pilgrims to St. 
Ninian's shrine was so great as to call for royal interference, 
and in the presence of his sanctity the old feuds of Scots and 
English M'ere for the time to be forgotten — where the good 
Queen Margaret, the wife of James III., found food for a piety 
which has almost entitled her to a place in the Ivalendar of the 
Saints — where the gallant and chivalrous James lY., in whom, 
in spite of the temptations of youth, the devotional element 
prevailed, drew in that spiritual life which, expressing itself 
in deep penitence for his complicity in his father's death, sent 
him with an iron girdle of penitence round his waist to the 
fatal field of Flodden. 

"And all this historic interest centres round one single figure. 


sketched in faint outline by the Venerable Bceda, filled in by 
the crraceful hand of the amiable Ailred, commemorated m the 
dedications of many churches through the length and breadtli 
of Scotland -Ninian, the apostle of the Britons and of the 

Southern Picts. 

' In paradiso ecclesise, 
Virtutum ex dulcedine, 
Spiramen dat aromatuui 
Ninianus coelestium.' " 

The followin<^ is an outline of the dilapidation of the see, as 
the sacrilegious robbery of the church was mildly called. In 
1528 Bishop Henry Weems, with consent of the archdeacon, 
confirmed the alienation of some of the lands of Saulseat. In 
1560 Malcolm the Commendator granted away the kirk lands 
of ]^Iochrum. In 1564 the bishop and chapter infefted John 
Stuart in Canencutoch and Polwhelly, and in 1565 Vans in 
Barvennane, while Gilbert Agnew has a tack of Culmalzie, and 
Patrick Vans of Barnbarroch obtains Baltersone. TiU 1587, 
when the priory was vested in the king, it presented a history of 
continued spoliation, while pilgrimages were made penal by 
the law of the land. In 1608 the priory was granted to the 
see of Galloway. In 1622 Bishop Andrew Lamb disponed the 
precinct and closeage of the priory to George Gledstanes. In 
1641 it was granted to the University of Glasgow, and in 1661 


St. Ninian, + 432. 

Pechthelm, 730-735. 

Acca, was expelled, 732-741. 

Frethewald, +764. 

Pictuine, + 77C. 

Ethelbert, consecrated at York, translated to Hexham, 777-789. 

Radulph or Badulf, 790. 

Christianus, consecrated at Bermondsey by Archbishop of Rouen, sus- 
pended 1176 by Cardinal Tomasi for absence from Council of Edin- 
burgh and pleading that he was suffragan of York, 1154-1186. 

John, monk of Holyrood in 1206, 1189-1209. 

"Walter, chaplain to Roland, high constable of Scotland ; gave church of 
Sembrie to Dryburgh, 1209-1235. 

Gilbert, master of novices of Melrose, abbot of Kinloss, consecrated at 
York ; gave Sorbie to Dryburgh, 1235-1253. 

Henry, abbot of Holyrood, consecrated at Eastby Abbey, Richmond, by 
Walter of York and Walter of Durham, 1255-1293. 


Thomas de Dalston, consecrated by Bishops of York, Carlisle, and St. 

Asaph ; swears fealty to Edward I. in 129G, and in 1309 recognizes 

Bruce, 1296-1311. 
Simon, 1321. 
Henry, 1334-1335. 
Michael, treats for redemption of David II. ; last of the bishops subject 

to York, 1357-1358. 
Adam de Lanark, 1359-136G. 

[Papal schism (1378-1417) gave sometimes duplicate and rival 

bishops from Rome and Avignon.] 
Thomas, consecrated at Avignon, 1368. 
Elisffius, 1405-1413. 
Thomas, 1415-1420. 
Alexander Vans, of the Barnbarroch family, envoy to England in 1428 ; 

resigned, to be monk at Holyrood, 1420-1451. 
Thomas Spens, envoy in 1449, privy seal in 1458 ; translated to Aberdeen ; 

founded hospital in Edinburgh, where he died 1480, and was buried in 

Trinity CoUege, 1451-1459. 
Ninian Spot, canon of Dunkeld and Moray, comptroller of Scotland, 

George Vans, cousin to Bishop Alexander Vans ; from 1504 the Bishop of 

GaUoway was styled Candida Casm et Capellx regix Strivilensis Episcopiis, 

the deanery of the chapel royal being annexed to help the small living, 

David Arnot, archdeacon of Lothian in 1501, provost of Bothwell, abbot 

of Cambuskenneth in 1503, commendator of Tungland in 1516 (the last 

added, like the deanery, to increase the living of see) + 1526, 1509-1522. 
Henry AVeems, natural son of James IV., was official of Galloway in 1516, 

Andrew Durie, abbot of Melrose, 1541-1558. 
Alexander Gordon, bishop of the Isles, passed through great variety of 

fortune as judge of Court of Session, suspended minister, rejected 

" visitor," titular bishop of Athens, and on his deathbed resigning his 

see with consent of the queen to his son John, a student in France, 


The diocese of Galloway contained the following deaneries : — 
Desnes or Disnes, with thirty-five parishes ; Einnes, eight ; and 
Tarines, thirteen. 

JlI. Diocese of Lismore or Argyll. 

The see was erected in the year 1200 by the Pope at the 
request of Bishop and Saint John of Dunkeld, in favour of 
Evaldus as first bishop, the territory being taken from the 
dioceses of Dunkeld and of the Isles. It comprised Argyll, 
Cowal, Lorn, Kintyre, Lochaber, and some of the Western Isles, 
as shown in the list of parishes. The see seems to have been 


first at Muckairn, the name Kilespeckerrill there being ex- 
plained by Skene ^ as meaning church of Bishop Erailt, Eraldus, 
or Harold, the first bishop. This continued till 1236. Killes- 
pickerrill was on the left bank of the Xeaunt, and may have 
got its distinctive name from Bishop Erailt the more readily 
to contrast it with an older church in the west of the same 
parish — viz. Kilmaronag {i.e. St. Eonan's), the ruins of which 
are still traceable. In 1236 the see was transferred to Lismore, 
where a Columban monastery had been founded by St. Lughadh, 
Lugadius or Moluoc, who died 25th June, 577. The original 
church of St. Moluag stood at Portmaluag, on the sea coast. 
The island of Lismore (= great garden) contained the cathedral 
of St. Moluac, and the bishop's residence, Achenduin Castle, the 
parish priest of Kilmaluag in Lismore being dean. One of its 
deans, Sir James M'Gregor, between 1512-1540 compiled a 
common-place book of Gaelic heroic ballads and some religious 
poems, which has been edited, translated, and annotated by 
Dr. M'Lauchlan and Dr. Skene (1862), under the title "The 
Book of the Dean of Lismore" — a book of singular value for the 
Gaelic language, a few of the pieces being real Ossians. 

The only remains of the cathedral, once 137 by 29J- feet, are 
an aisleless decorated choir, 56 feet by 28, with piscina and 
sedilia, and also traces of a chapter-house and sacristy. As 
re-roofed in 1749 this choir now serves as a parish church. 
The architecture of the choir seems to date from c. 1350. A 
freehold of originally twelve (but now six) acres has been held 
for centuries by a family of Livingstones, " barons of Bachuill," 
i.e. custodiers of the bishop's crosier or hachuill more, 2 feet 10 
inches long, once covered with copper. 

The chapter consisted of dean (Kilmaluag in Lismore), 
prsecentor (Kilcalmonell), chancellor (Kilmichael), treasurer 
(Dunoon), archdeacon (Lochgoilhead). Prelendaries — 'Kil- 
modan, Inverkelan, Kilmacharmaig in Knapdale, Lochhead 
in Kintyre. This diocese is one of those where the accurate 
and copious information given in the " Origines Parochiales" 
of Cosmo Innes is available parish by parish. In 1662 a new 
chapter was provided for the diocese by express statute." 

Father Hay, in his "Scotia Sacra,"^ gives the following curious 

1" Celtic Scot.," ii. 408. = See Grub. iii. 201. ^As quoted in the "Origines Par.," ILL 162. 


descrii^tion of the dress of the canons of Lismore: — "Their usual 
habit reached to the ankles. At divine service in the church 
they wore a rochet with an amice (abmdium) placed upon the 
shoulders, and a surplice with open sleeves, from Easter Eve 
to the feast of All Saints (1st November), and from Hallow 
Eve (31st October) to Holy Saturday they wore a linen sur- 
plice reaching to the ankles, and by peculiar privilege and 
custom violet-coloured capes, as appears from the ' Iconice 
Canonicorum Imagines,' printed in 1400, which was to be seen 
in the choir. They afterwards wore black capes open in front, 
and under the cape, which was lined with red cloth of silk or 
silk and wool (holoscrico sen heteromallo), a linen tunic (cotta 
sen phelo7ie) without sleeves. On the head they wore an amice 
made of gray fur (ex griseis pdliculis), and above it a hood 
{capuceum seu mosettam), which covered the shoulders, with a 
collar of ermine attached. To the cape was attached behind 
a train {cauda rcpcns) of the same material and colour, which 
they carried on the left arm. This change was introduced pro 
tempore by Pope Nicholas.^ By a decree of the Council of 
Narbonne (1043), purple vestments were strictly forbidden to 
clerical persons, lest they should make a boast of worldl}^ pomp. 
Yet the dignitaries {senatorcs) of this cathedral church were 
distinguished by the purple, that the memory of the blood shed 
by them for the gospel of Christ might not perish." 


Evald, Erald, or Harald, chaplain to Bishop John of Dunkeld. 

[Harold, chaplain to Bishop Clement of Dunkeld, has grant of three davacks 

of Kilkesog in 1228 from Alexander II. Query, is not this bishop the 

same as the first? 1228.] 
"William, drowned in a storm ; grant of Sir Ewen of Argj-U to Bishop 

William in 1251, 1240-1251, 
Alan, ratified Kilfiuan to Paisley, 1250-1261. 
Laurence, often mentioned in Paisley charters, 1261-1299. 
Andrew, homage to Bruce, witnesses donations to Greyfriars of Glasgow, 

David, 1330-1350. 

Martin, recommended in 1342 for the see by Edward of England, sus- 
pended 30th May, 1362, 1351-1362. 
Finlay (after long vacancy of see), Dominican friar, chaplain to Murdoch, 

duke of Albany, in 1425 fled to Ireland with Murdoch's son James ; died 

there 1425, 1420-1425. 

' " Raynald. Annal. Eccles.," an. 1278, no. 79. 


George Lauder of Balconiie, Fife, vicar of Crail, U25; preceptor of St. 

Leonard's hospital, Peebles. 1427-1470. 
Robert Colquhoun, son of Laird of Luss, rector of Luss and Kippen, 

John. c. 1499. 
David Hamilton, natural son of James Lord Hamilton, commendator of 

Drvbur^h and Glenluce, abbot of Sandal ; the last added to improve the 

small living of the see, 1505-1523. 
Robert Montfromery, son of first Hugh, earl of Eglinton. rector of Kirk- 

michael. had a natural son Robert legitimated 1553, 1525-1539. 
"William Cunningham, brother to Earl of Glencairn, 1539-1552. 
James Hamilton, natural brother to Duke of Chatelherault, rector of Pettie 

in Moray, rector of Spot in Lothian, subdean of Glasgow, commendator 

of Abbey of Sandal, which was appended to see of Argyll. He became 

Protestant at the Reformation, 1558-1575. 

The diocese of Lismore or Argyll contained the following 
deaneries : — Kintyre, with twelve parishes ; Glassary or Glasrod, 
thirteen ; Lorn, fourteen ; and Morvern, eight. 

XII. Diocese of The Isles. 

The history of this see is remarkable in many ways, as com- 
pared with the rest of the thirteen. While its origin goes further 
back than all, save Galloway and Glasgow, yet the attainment 
of its chief church to full and proper cathedral status was the 
latest of all the thirteen, being reached only in 1506. The follow- 
ing historical outline, chiefly founded on " Xotes on the History 
of the Euins of lona," by Dr. Skene, ^ will show this: — lona 
contains foitr distinct ecclesiastical foundations — viz. (1) Team- 
pull Odhran or Chapel of St. Oran, with its graveyard, called 
Eeilig Oran, the size of St. Oran's being 40 by 20; (2) the 
Church of St. INIary, at first an abbey church with cloisters 
and monastic buildings, but afterwards a cathedral ; (3) a nun- 
nery ; (4) Teampul Ronaig, St. Eonan's or Eowan's, which was 
the parish church of the island at Port Eonan. The oldest 
of these is St. Oran's, who died October 2, 548, i.e. fifteen years 
before Columba landed at lona. 

In a later paper (Proceedings Scott. Soc. of Antiq., 1875-76), 
Dr. Skene points out that the little chapel north of the abbey 
church, and at a short distance from it, had an entirely different 
orientation, pointing more to the north, and that alongside it 
some foundations were exposed with a similar orientation. To 

1 Reprinted in vol. vL pp. 342-353 of "Tlie Historians of Scotland." 


the west of the ruins a small buildirig, known as St. Columba's 
house, was similar in orientation, and therefore all these are 
probably remains of the establishment that preceded the Bene- 
dictine monastery. 

The grand portion of lona's history is what lies between the 
years 563 and 806, the former being the date of St. Columba's 
arrival, and the latter the date when the monks, to the number 
of sixty-eight, were martyred by the Northmen in Martyrs' 
Bay, and religious rites were for the time extinguished in the 
sacred island. After the great massacre in 806, wliich had 
been preceded by burning and plunder and slaughter in 795, 
79S, and 802, a safer substitute for lona was sought at Kells 
in Ireland, and another at Dunkeld, which have each their 
separate history. But men still clung to lona, for in 818 
some of the relics were brought back and buildings of stone 
were raised. In 825 the abbot and several of the monks 
were slain for refusing to point out the hiding-place of the 
relics and shrine. In 878 the shrine and relics were again 
carried to Ireland for safety, but were brought back some years 
later. On Christmas Eve of 986 took place the last Danish 
attack, when the abbot and fifteen monks were murdered ; after 
which the buildings were more or less ruinous tiU about 1074, 
when Queen Margaret " rebuilt Huensc Ccendbium, furnished 
it with monks and with an endowment for performing the 
Lord's work." 

Shortly afterwards lona became subject to Magnus Bare- 
foot of Norway ; and in 1099 died Abbot Duncan, the last 
of the old order of abbots. After 115-4 came a fresh gleam 
of prosperity for lona under the protection of Somarled, 
regulus of Argyll, when the abbot of Derry was the suc- 
cessor of Columba and Adamnan, and when the sacred isle 
had on it a sagart-mor (=great priest), a ferleighin (=lector), 
a disertach (=head of hermitage), and a head or prior of 
the Culdees. This was the state of matters when the 
abbey church of St. Mary (whose ruins are now the most 
prominent of all remains on the island) was founded by 
Eeginald, Lord of the Isles, 1166-1203. The Book of Clan- 
ranald, kept by the Macvurichs, says that this Eeginald founded 
three monasteries of black monks or Benedictines — viz. St. 


Mary's in lona, another of black nuns, also in lona, and a 
monastery of grey friars at Sagadel in Kintyre. The Bene- 
dictines of lona were Tyronenses, and not Cluniacs. Eeginald's 
foundations were confirmed by the Pope on December 9, 1203. 
A confirmation of a different kind still survives on a column 
on the sou til-east under the tower of St. Mary's, which bears 
the inscription — "Donaldus 0' Brolchan fecit hoc opus." This 
Donaldus w\as prior of Derry and probably also of lona, 
and died 27th April, 1203, being a relative of the Bishop 
and Abbot of Derry, Flaherty 0' Brolchan. The church 
thus begun measured 160 feet by 24, was 70 feet across the 
transept, and had a central tower 70 feet high, which still 
survives. The high altar was of marble, 6 feet by 4, was 
pretty complete in the middle of last century, and has been 
carried off in chips by the Cockney class of tourists, headed by 
Pennant in 1772. 

For a long time the abbey of lona, in regard to ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, was the subject of conflicting claims by the arch- 
bishops of York, by the archbishops of Drontheim, by the 
abbey of Furness, and the clergy of Man. Pope Innocent IV. 
attempted a settlement in 1244, but the controversy was re- 
newed on the death of Bishop Simon in 1247.^ Drontheim 
in Norway was erected as metropolitan in 1154 by Anastasius 
IV., and expressly included the Sudreys or Western Isles. 
The Isles now called Western as regards Scotland were 
anciently called Sudereyer (the Suderies or Southern Isles 
as regards Orkney), when both belonged to the Danes or Nor- 
wegians. They were made a bishopric in 838, and united to 
Mona or Man in 1098. In 1458 Sodor and Man were separ- 
ated and attached to the English Church. In 1431 the Abbot 
of lona made obedience to the Bishop of Dunkeld. In 1498 
The Isles were made suffragan to St. Andrews. Between the 
years 1492 and 1498, John, abbot of lona, was elected bishop 
of The Isles, and in 1506 the abbey of lona was permanently 
annexed to the bishopric of The Isles, the bishop being ex offtcio 
perpetual commendator of Icolmkill. It was only at this 
period that the abbey church of St. Mary's became the cathe- 
dral of The Isles. 

' See Grub, i. 32-1 and 254. 


In lona are buiied forty-eight Scottish, four Irish, and eight 
Norse kings. The roll of abbots of lona extends to forty-nine 
names, given in detail in the Chronicle of Hy, sec. 9, in Intro- 
duction to Bishop Eeeves' Adamnau's Columba. In the ninth 
and tenth centuries the names connect closely the two Celtic 
churches of Scotland and Ireland, and are for a time more 
Irish than Scots. To trace the parishes, and still more the 
chapels in this diocese, good maps are indispensable. By far 
the best for this purpose are those at the end of Yol. II. Part i. 
of " Origines Parochiales," where also are found summaries of 
the chief grants and titles to the several churches and estates. 

The ancient writs of the see being lost at the Eeformation, 
a new chapter was established in 1617 : — Beaii, parson of 
Sorbie in Tyree, who was also vicar of lona ; sub-dean, parson 
of Ptothesay ; other four parsons with these to form the convent 
and chapter.^ In 1662 a statute was passed restoring an arch- 
deacon in the chapter of The Isles (omitted in 1617) with 
certain benefices in Skye. 


Wymund, consecrated the first bishop {i.e. under the Norwegians) by- 
Thomas, archbishop of York (?), monk of Furness ; an insolent free- 
booter and pirate ; imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle and Byland Abbey 
"propter ejus importunitatem," i.e. to keep him quiet; had his eyes 
put out and was gelded, 1113-1151. 
John, monk of Seez, consecrated by Henry Ebor., buried at St. German's 

in 1151. 
Gamaliel, consecrated by Roger Ebor., buried at Peterborough. 
Christian Archadiensis (=r Ergadiensis), of Argyll, bishop of Whitheme, 

1154-1186, buried at Bangor in Ireland. 
iMichael, a Manxman, died at Fountains Abbey, 1203. 
Nicolas de Meaux, abbot of Furness, consecrated by Archbishop of York, 
1203-1217; resigned at Bangor in Ireland; in 1227 signs a charter, 
c. 1210. 
Reginald of Norway, nephew of King Olaf of Man, buried at Rushin 

Abbey in Man ; a devout prelate, 1217-1225. 
John Maclvar or Harfere, burnt by neghgence of his servants, buried at 

Jervaulx, 1226. 
Simon Archadiensis or Argj-U, consecrated at Drontheim by Archbishop 
Peter Lawrence ; held a synod in 1239, where he made thirteen canons, 
still extant ; died at Kirkmichael in Man ; buried at the new cathedral 
of St. German, which he had founded, 1226-1247. 
Laurence, archdeacon of Man, consecrated at Drontheim, but drowned 
same year on his return, 1249. 

' Grub. ii. 309. 

3j4 the church of Scotland. 

Richard, an Englishman, canon of St. Andrews, consecrated at Rome by 
Archbishop Serlo of Drontheim, 1252. 

Stephen, in 125;) confirms clmrches and lands held by Paisley Abbey 
within the see of INIau. ,. ■, , t 

Richard, dedicated St. Mary's, Rushen or Castletown ; died at Langalyner 
in Copland : buried at Furness, 1257-1274. 

^larcus or Mauricius of Galloway, promoted by Alexander ni., conse- 
crated at Tunsburg by Archbishop of Drontheim ; long prisoner m Eng- 
land; frequently envoy; died blind ; buried at St. German's, 1275-1303. 

^Ulan of GaUoway, consecrated by Jorund of Drontheim ; recognized Brace's 
title to crown 1309 ; died and buried at Rothesay, 1305-1321. 

Gilbert MacLellan of Galloway, consecrated by Eidolf of Drontheim; 
buried at Rothesay, 1321-1327. 

Bernard de Linton,' rector of ]\Iordington in 1296, abbot of Arbroath in 
1311 ; buried at Arbroath or Kilwinning, 1328-1333. 

Thomas, buried at Scone ; English seize Isle of Man, 1334-1338. 

William Russell, abbot of Rushin, a ]\Ianxman, consecrated at Avignon 
by Bertrand, bishop of Ostia ; held a synod at St. Michael's in 1350, 
when five new canons were passed ; buried at Furness, 1348-1374. 

John Duncan, archdeacon of Down, a ISIanxman; consecrated at Avignon; 
returning, made prisoner at Bolonia; ransomed for SOOmerks, 1374-1380. 

John, commissioned by Richard II. in 1388 to treat with John of Isla and 
^lacXeil of Barra. 

^lichael, witness to a grant in 1409. 

Angus, younger sou of Donald, lord of the Isles ; witness to a charter in 
r427 by Alexander of Isla ; " buried with crosier and episcopal habit in 
the cross on south side of the great choir," c. 1427-1437. 

Angus, sits in Parliament in 1476. 

Robert, gets charter from John, lord of the Isles, of the mensal church of 
Ivilberry in 1492. 

John, privy councillor, got from James IV. and the Pope the abbacy of 
lona to be joined to the see of the Isles in 1507, c. 1495-1509. 

George Hepburn, uncle to first Earl of Bothwell, provost of Lincluden, 
abbot of Arbroath in 1503, lord treasurer in 1509, slain at Flodden in 
armour ; styled Georgius Sodorensis episcopus et monasterii lonias com- 
mendatorius perpetuus, 1510-1513. 

John, sits in Parliament, 1524, called elect in 1525-26-28. 

Ferquhard ISIaclaughlan, legitimated in 1544, resigned, 1530-1544. 

Koderic Maclean, archdeacon, 1544-1549. 

Alexander Gordon, second son of John, master of Huntly, and of Jane, 
natural daughter of James IV. ; on losing see of Glasgow was made by 
the Pope archbishop of Athens; got in 1555 Abbey of Inchaffray in 
commendam^ translated to Galloway, 1553-1558. 

John Campbell, elect in 1558, of Calder in Nairn, dilapidated the benefice 
in favour of his relatives in Nairn. 

John Carswell, chaplain to Earl of Argyll, rector of Ivilmartin, dean of 
Chapel Royal, Protestant superintendent ; presented to the see by 
Queen Mary, 24th March, 1566; +1572. 

The diocese of The Isles contained forty-four parishes. 


XIII. Diocese of Orhicjj. 

The see was founded in 1102 at Kirkwall (=Kirkwaag or bay). 
The cathedral was begun in 1138 by Eognvald or Eonald, 
Norse jarl of Orkney (=the "SVhale Isle), and dedicated to his 
uncle St. Jklagnus. The bishops were sufFragran of Drontheim 
from about 1150, and of St. Andrews from 1471. The see of 
Orkney was originally at Birsa, where Jarl Thorfinn (+ 1064) 
built Christ Church. Orkney was occupied by the Norsemen 
from 870 to 1468, the early Xorse being heathen. The earl- 
dom was, from 1231-1321, 1321-1371, 1371-1468, successively 
in the Angus, Stratherne, and St. Clair line. 

Previously the islands had been Christianized by Celtic 
missionaries, whose seats are marked in the places still called 
Papa (= father or priest). Orkney has — Papa AVestray (= Papey 
meiri of the Saga) ; Papa Stronsay (= Papey Minni) ; Papley 
(= Papuli), on mainland in parish of Holm ; Papley in South 
Ptonaldshay; Papdale near Kirkwall; Damsey or Adamnan's 
Isle, with its chapel of St. Mary and a nunnery, in the bay of 
Pirth at Finstown ; Pdnansey or Xinian's Isle in North Eon- 
aldshay. Shetland has— Papil in North Yell; Papa Stour on 
west side of mainland ; Papa Isle at Scalloway ; Papil in Isle 
of Burra ; and St. Ninian's Isle, near Fitful Head. 

The most notable names under this diocese are — St. Olavc, 
Olaf, Ola or (corrupt) Tola, king and mart}T, July 29, 1030. 
He was second king of Norway of that name, and second 
Christian kmg. Olaf Helge (= holy) was slain by his rebel- 
lious and heathen subjects in battle at Stichstadt, near 
Drontheim, where he was buried. Churches are dedicated to 
him at Papil Yell, Kirkabister, Bressay, Kirkwall, Whiteness, 
■\Yidewall, and at Gress in Lewis. 

St. Magnus, king and martyr, April 16, 1104. Was heir of 
Jarl Erlend, and first cousin to Haco, with whom he was joint 
ruler of Orkney under King Magnus Barefoot of Norway. 
Haco appointed a meeting with Magnus at Egilsey, and there 
treacherously slew him. Magnus first tried to avert from 
Haco the sin of bloodshed, then failing, died bravely, saying 
to the trembling executioner, "Stand before me and hew 
me a mighty stroke upon the head. Be firm, poor man. 


for I have prayed to God for you that He may have mercy 
upon you." He was buried in Christ Church, Birsay ; then 
taken to St. Ola's, Kirkwall; then to the cathedral, and 
canonized in 1135. His churches are— Kirkwall Cathedral, 
Dunrossness, Egilsay, Hillswick, Tingwall, St. Magnus Bay, 
on the west side of Shetland. 

,S'^. Bognvald or llonald, August 20, 1158, but not found in 
lioman martyrologies. This Kali, surnamed Eonald, was son of 
Gunnhilder, sister and heir of St. Magnus, who married a Norse 
Earl Kolr. Kolr and his son Eonald, in terms of a vow, 
founded the cathedral of Kirkwall, to get money to build 
which they agreed to make the Orcadians freeholders of their 
land for a single payment of one merk (= Is.) per acre. Eogn- 
vald was murdered in Caithness by Earl Harold's tutor; canon- 
ized in 1192, when his body was removed from Ladykirk in 
South Eonaldshay to Kirkwall Cathedral. In company with 
Bishop AYilliam "the Old," Eognvald had been one of the 
Jorsalafarers (= Jerusalem-goers or crusaders). 

Bishop William "the Old" though not canonized, was per- 
haps a greater man than either Magnus or Eonald. He held 
the see for sixty-six years (1102-1168), being the first Bishop 
of Orkney. In 1848 Bishop William's body was found in 
the cathedral with a piece of lead under his chin rudely 
inscribed, and now in the National Museum in Edinburgh: 
H[ic\ requicscit Williavms senex felicis memorie. Prnius Epis. 
[= Primus Episcopus.] 

Under Norwegian rule were fourteen bishops (1102-1477), 
endiDg with William VI. (1455-1477). Under Scottish rule 
were five, the last being Bishop Eeid (1540-1558), who had 
previously been Abbot of Kinloss, Prior of Beauly, and Vicar- 
general of Aberdeen, and who was one of the commissioners for 
the marriage of Queen Mary with the Dauphin. When return- 
ing, he died suddenly at Dieppe, along with his fellow-commis- 
sioners Lords Eothes and Cassilis — all three of poison, as is 

Bishop Eeid has the merit of creating at Kirkwall in 1544 
(confirmed in 1545) a regular cathedral foundation of seven 
dignitaries, seven prebendaries, thirteen chaplains, a sacristan, 
and six choristers. The dignitaries were : — (1) Provost or dean. 


prebendary of Holy Trinity, and rector of South Eonaldsay 
and Burra ; (2) archdeacon, chaplain of St. Ola, with tithes of 
Birsay and Harray ; (3) precentor, prebendary of Orphir, with 
tithes of Stennes; (4) chancellor, prebendary of St. Llary in 
Sanday ; (5) treasurer, rector of St. Nicholas in Stronsay ; (6) 
sub-dean, rector of Hoy and Walls; (7) sub-chanter, pre- 
bendary of St. Colme. The prebends were : — (1) Holy Cross 
in Sanday, care of bells and floor of cathedral ; (2) St. Mary in 
Evie, care of roof and windows ; (3) St. Magnus ; (4) St. John ; 
(5) St. Laurence ; (6) St. Catharine ; (7) St. Duthus. The sac- 
ristan was rector of St. Columba's in Sanday, now Burness. 

In 1725 Orkney was constituted a synod with three pres- 
byteries. Previously it had been one presbytery in the synod 
of Caithness.^ 


William the Old, first bishop of Orkney, was friend of St. Magnus; 

travelled with St. Ronald to Palestine; superintended building of 

Kirkwall Cathedral from 1158 to 1168. Bishop sixty-six years, 1102-1168. 
WiUiam n.. -M188. 
Biarin, + 1223. 
Jofreyrr, 1223-1247. 

Henry, accompanied Haco invading Scotland, 1248-1269. 
Peter, envoy from Eric of Norway for marriage of Margaret, daughter of 

Alexander EL, 1270-1284. 
Dolgfinnr, 1286-1309. 

William HI., last mentioned 1328, 1310-1328. 
William IV., first mentioned 1369 ; cruelly murdered, 1369-1382. 
William v., 1382-1390. 
Henry 11., attended coronation of Eric of Norway at Calmar in 1396, 

John, 1396-1422. 
Thomas de TuUoch, son of Tulloch of Bonington in Forfarshire, governor 

of Orkney for King Eric ; safe-conduct from Henry VI. of England in 

1441 for a year; at coronation of Christian of Norway in 1442, 

William VI. (de Tulloch), cousin of Bishop Thomas, sent in 1468 by 

James HI. to Denmark to negotiate marriage with Princess Margaret ; 

Lord Privy Seal in 1473 ; envoy to England in 1471, 1455-1477. 
Andrew, first bishop under Scots rule of St. Andrews; had Kirkwall 

' It is very sad to see, as the writer did in August, 1886, the noble and well-preserved 
cathedral of St. Magnus, now visited every autumn by hundreds of tourists, while used as 
a parish church, yet fitted up in so tasteless a manner as to be a scandal to the Church of 
Scotland. What a magnificent church it might easily be were the hideous galleries, pulpit, 
and all modern fittings swept away, and the interior treated like the transept and nave of 
St. Giles', Edinburgh. " So mote it be," and soon. 

358 THE CHURCH or scotlai^t). 

made a royal burgh iu 1486 ; got a safe-conduct from Henry Vn. of 
England in 149-1, 1478-1501. 

Edward Stewart, consecrated chapel of King's College, Aberdeen ; men- 
tioned 1511 and 1513. 

Thomas, endowed the cathedral choristers. 

Robert Maxwell, son of Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, rector of Torbolton 
1521, provost of Dunbarton College; built cathedral stalls; provided 
bells'for steeple ; in 1540 entertained James V. on his progress through 
the Isles, 1526-1540. 

Robert Reid. son of John Reid of Akynhead, who fell at Flodden ; edu- 
cated at St. Salvators, St. Andrews, and at Paris ; sub-dean and official 
of Moray : commendator of Ivinloss in 1526, of Beaulieu in 1530 ; presi- 
dent of Court of Session in 1550 ; commissioner for marriage of Queen 
Mary 1558 ; died on return to Dieppe ; great patron of learning ; first 
founder of college of Edinburgh by legacy of 8000 merks, 1541-1558. 

Adam Bothwell, possessed temporalities of see of Orkney, 11th October, 
1559 ; one of four bishops who embraced the Reformed doctrine, the 
other' three being Carswell (Isles), Hamilton (Argyll), Stewart (Caith- 
ness) ; married Queen Mary to Earl Bothwell ; judge of Session ; abbot 
of Holyrood, where buried ; crowned and anointed James VI. at Stirling, 

The diocese of Orkney contained the archdeaconries of 
Orkney, with thirty-five parishes ; and of Tingwall (Shetland), 
with seventeen. 

The total number of churches in the thirteen dioceses was 
1042, with 546 chapels, thus distributed: — St. Andrews, 251, 
with 81 chapels, of which 123, with 41 chapels, were in the 
Archdeaconry of Lothian; Glasgow, 231, with 110 chapels; 
Dunkeld, 65 with 16; Aberdeen, 96 with 53; Moray, 73 with 
30 ; Brechin, 28 with 11 ; Dunblane, 38 with 9 ; Eoss, 38 with 
30; Caithness, 25 with 67; Galloway, 57 with 20; Argyle, 
47 with 47; Isles, 43 with 32; Orkney, 50 with 40. The 
greater number of these churches were of very small size, 
from twenty to thirty feet long by fifteen or sixteen feet 
wide. "We may compare with this summary another that was 
made in the time of Mary of Guise, which gave 13 bishops, 
50 provostries, 500 parsons, and 2000 vicars. It is impossible 
to state their exact number at any given date, because then, 
as now, some chapels grew into churches, some prebends con- 
sisted only of lands without church or chapel, and the connec- 
tion of parishes with monasteries tended to reduce hundreds 
of parish churches to mere chapels. Moreover, through declen- 


sion and removal of population, especially in the north and 
west of Scotland, many ecclesiastical structures have dis- 
appeared not only as places of worship, but even from local 
nomenclature, and are discoverable only from ancient writs, 
local tradition, especially old graveyards with memorial stones, 
ecclesiastical names of farms, bays, lochs, or valleys. A strildng 
feature of these old lists is the absence or merely chapel posi- 
tion of many lively modern places, such as Greenock, Port- 
Glasgow, Gourock, Lerwick, Bridge of Allan, Coatbridge, Wishaw, 
Newton-on-Ayr, Ardrossan, Oban, Campbeltown. Another fea- 
ture is the presence of but one or two names where modern 
extension gives ten or twenty town parishes in one group, as in 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Paisley. Of the thir- 
teen dioceses only four have their chartularies extant and also 
printed — viz., Glasgow, Aberdeen, Moray, and Brechin.^ 

{Forty-three Foundations). 
Collegiate Churches, Prcepositurcc, or Provostries formed an 
important and distinct development of Eoman Catholicism 
in Scotland, being prominent churches emphasized or created 
intermediate, as it were, between the thirteen cathedral churches 
(which, as we have seen, were completed by the year 1200) and 
the higher class of parish churches, which had the position of 
rectories, as compared with vicarages or mere chapelries. Most 
collegiate churches, before being endowed as jprcepositurcc, pos- 
sessed an earlier and smaller endowment as parish churches. 
Others, again, seem to have been mere chapels in their earlier 
stage, if even that, and to have been made prcepositurce all at 
once without ever having had a parochial character, even after 
their better endowment. Two instances of the latter sort exist 
in Strathearu — one at Innerpeffray, two miles below Crieff, and 
the other at Tullibardine, half a mile south of the railway 
station of that name, on the Crieff Junction Eailway, the for- 
mer representing the Drummond liberality, and the latter that 
of the AthoUs, who occupied the old castle of Tullibardine. 
Innerpeffray always was in the parish of Monzie, and Tulli- 
bardine always was in the parish of Blackford or Strageith. 

' Cosmo Innes, " Sketches," 20. 


Collegiate churches were a creation mainly of the fifteenth cen- 
tury,'the earliest specimen being that of Dunbar (in 1342), and 
the latest that of Biggar (in 1545). The motive in creating them 
seems to have been threefold : to recognize by a superior clergy 
the more populous or cultured parts of the country, especially 
near some nobleman's castle, that had no immediate benefit 
from a cathedral ; to strengthen the secular or parochial clergy 
as against the regular or monastic clergy; and to promote 
grammar-school education, nearly every one having such a 
school attached. They were called collegiate from having a 
college or chapter like cathedrals. The clergy composing the 
chapter were not bound by rule, like monks ; but under the 
name of canons and prebendaries, like cathedral clergy, lived 
in their own houses or manses. This endowed chapter of 
secular canons was presided over by a dean, called a provost 
{propositus), the members of the chapter or prebendaries being 
beneficed clergy holding neighbouring cures. Such collegiate 
churches of the fifteenth century, with the well-ordered presi- 
dency of a provost, are to be carefully distinguished from the 
so-called " collegiate charges " subsequent to the Eeformation 
in places like Hamilton, Brechin, Elgin, Montrose, Cupar, St. 
Andrews, Culross, Paisley, &c., where misuse of the principle 
of " parity " has given us a two-headed monster, and produced 
many a needless controversy and " case," in consequence of men 
being unequally yoked in the irksome propinquity of a common 

The endowment of this new class of churches was one of 
the latest and very best efforts of the old Church of Scot- 
land, and was a proof of the internal feeling of the Church 
itself that some quickening and change of ecclesiastical life 
and polity were required. By this date the monastic life and 
wealth had been discovered to be somewhat idle, and in an 
earlier age to have been unduly extended, to the disadvantage 
of the diocesan and parochial system. But reverence for old 
endowments being still a living principle, no attempt was made 
to transfer even part of the wealth of abbeys, priories, or 
nunneries to the strengthening of the parochial clergy. Leav- 
ing ancient benefactions alone as sacred, even though less 
needed or less wholesomely administered than at first, these 


earnest Christians of the fifteenth century honourably laboured 
to find from fresh gifts the means of endowing Provostries to 
meet the current needs of the age. 

A list of thirty-eight collegiate churches is given by Mr. 
Laing as at the Eeformation, of which only four were founded 
by the sovereign, the rest being by subjects, and almost all had 
existed already as privately endowed chapels or churches. A 
list of provostries and their rents, as in the collectors' books in 
1563, is given in Keith's "Affairs" (iii. 510). Another list of 
thirty-three, with fuller details, is in Keith's " Bishops, Eeligious 
Houses" (chap, xix.), where it is mentioned that the patronage 
of eleven of them belonged to the king — viz. Restalrig, Kirk- 
heugh, St. Giles, Chapel Eoyal of Stirling, Trinity College, St. 
Mary-in-the-Fields, Dunbar, Dunbarton, Bothwell, Lincluden, 
and Tain. A more recent list, arranged in dioceses, is afforded 
by Bellesheim (ii. 414). Walcott's "Ancient Church of Scot- 
land," pp. 355-375, offers the best list. Muir's "Ancient 
Parochial and Collegiate Churches of Scotland" (Parker, 1848) 
deals with the striking architecture of the chief of these 

Diocese of St. Andrews. 

1. Crail, 1517, by Sir William Myrton, Morton, or Merton, and Janet, 
prioress of Haddington. Endowed for provost, sacristan, ten pre- 
bendaries, and a chorister. 

2. Foulis Easter, St. Marnan's or Methvan's, mentioned 1180; consecrated 
in 1242 ; made collegiate in 1446 by Sir Andrew Gray. Provost and 
several prebendaries. 

3. St. Andrews, St. Mary's or Earkheugh, endowed as a Chapel Royal 

(capella domini regis Scotorum) in 1250 by Alexander II. Site on the 
rock uncovered in 1860. Had provost and ten prebendaries— viz. 
Arbuthnot, Kinglassie and Kingask, Duray and Rumgally, Feteresso, 
Dysert, Cameron and Ceres, Bervie, Strathbroke, Benholme. Revenue 
in 1561, £176 and fourteen chalders of grain. 

4. St. Andrews, St. Salvador's, 1458, by Bishop James Kennedy, for a 
provost and prebendaries, to whom Archbishop Shevez added one 
in 1496. It held the churches of Cults, Kemback, Denino, and 
Kilmany, the ministers being vicars-pensionary. 

5. Corstorphine or Cross Torphin, St. John Baptist's, 1429, by Sir John 
Forrester, chamberlain of Scotland, for a provost, eight chaplains, and 
two singing boys. The prebends were — Invergogar, Norton, Halder- 
stoun, Dalmahoy, Haltoun, Boningtoun, with dependent churches 
of Ratho, Byres, and Plat. 

6. Creyghton, St. Mary's and St. Kentigern's, 1449, by Sir William 

Creighton, Lord Chancellor, for provost and eight prebendaries, two 


singing boys, and a sacrist. Four of the prebends— Vogrie, Arniston, 
Middleton, and Locherworth— were in the gift of the archbishop. 

7. Dalkeith, St. Nicholas', 1406, by Sir James Douglas, earl Morton, for 
provost and six chaplains. 

8. Dirleton Gulauc, 1446, by Sir Walter de Haliburton. 

9. Dunglas, Greencastle, Haddington, St. Bridget's, 1450, by Sir Alexander 

Hume, for provost and prebendaries. 

10. Dunbar. St, Bega's, 1342 and 1392, by Patrick and George, earls of 
March, for dean, archdean, or vicedean, and eight prebendaries — 
viz. Dunbar, Spott, Pinkerton, Belton, Pitcox, Dunse, Chirnside, and 
Linton, the last three in its patronage. 

11. Edinburgh, Trinity College, at the foot of Leith Wynd, 1450, by Mary 

of Gueldres, widow of James II., for provost, eight prebendaries, two 
clerks or choristers, and thirteen blue-gown almsmen. The eight 
prebends were— Holy Trinity Hospital (on opposite side of wynd), 
the Sacristan, Browderstanes, Strathmartin, Gilestoun, Ormistonn, 
Hill, and Newlands. It held the churches of Easter Weems, Soutra, 
Fala, l\irkurd, Ormistoun, Lempetlaw, and Gogar. Taken down in 
1845 to make room for a railway. 

12. Edinburgh, St. Giles', built 1120, made collegiate in 1466. Amplest in 

clergy of all the provostries. Provost, curate, sixteen prebendaries, 
sacristan, beadle, minister of choir, four choristers — in all about a hun- 
dred clerics and thirty-six altars. St. Giles Grange, " Sanct Gillegrange," 
as farm. The Perthshire parishes of Dunbarnie, Pottie, and Mon- 
crieff belonged to the provost of St. Giles. 

13. Edinburgh, St. Mary's, Kirk of Field, Sanctx Marix in Campis. On 
site of College of Edinburgh, and scene of the Darnley tragedy. 
Provost and ten prebendaries, two choristers, and hospital for bedes- 
men. Held churches of Livingstoun and Lempetlaw. 

14. Linlithgow, St. Michael's, built by James III. Enlarged by James V. 
In the south wing, or St. Catharine's Chapel, James IV. had his 
warning before Flodden. James V. erected twelve stalls, and made 
St. IMichael's the chapel of the Knights of the Thistle. 

15. Restalrig, one mile from Edinburgh, 1487 and 1512, by James III. 
and James Y., chiefly the latter. Dean or preceptor, six preben- 
daries, three chaplains, and, in 1515, two singing boys. The dean 
held Leswade. The college held St. Mary's, Rothesay, and part of 
Leith. Octagon chapter-house with central pillar built by Sir Robert 
Logan (died 1539). Famous as the shrine of St. Triduana. The nave 
was torn down as idolatrous in 1560. Income, £93 6s. 8c?. 

16. Roslin, St. I\Iatthew's, 1446, by William de St. Clair, earl of Orkney, 
for provost, six prebendaries, a pensioner vicar with cure of souls, and 
two singing boys. A very splendid surviving building, the loiver 
chapel of which was built by Elizabeth, countess of Buchan. Held 
Pentland Church. Income, £106 13s. id. 

17. Seton, 1493, by George, lord Seton, for a provost and six prebendaries, 

a clerk and two singing boys. Two prebends were added and church 
enlarged before 1513. 

18. Stirling, Chapel Royal, St. Mary's and St. Michael's, by James IV., 1501, 
for dean, subacan, chanter, sacristan, treasurer, chancellor, archpriets, 


succentor, sixteen chaplains, six singing boys, and a choirmaster. 
The deanery was annexed to provostry of Kirkheugh, St. Andrews, 
and later to see of Galloway. Held churches of Dunbar, Dalmelling- 
ton, Alloa, Cultram, Dalrymple, Kelly, and Kirkmore, besides Dun- 
drennan, Inchmahome, Rosneath, Cessnock, Spot, Waltame, Dunse, 
Pincarton, and was richest of all the provostries. 

19. Tester, St. Bothan's or St. Cuthbert's, in East Lothian, 1418 and 1441, 

by Sir William de Haye, for provost, six prebendaries, chaplain, and 
two singing boys. Income, provostry, £100 ; church, £47 2s. id. 

Diocese of Glasgow. 

20. Biggar, St. Mary's, 1545, by Malcolm Lord Fleming, chancellor, for 
provost, eight prebendaries, four singing boys, and six almsmen. 
Held churches of Thankerton and Dunrod. 

21. Bothwell, 1398, by Archibald, earl of Douglas, lord of Galloway, for 
provost and eight prebendaries. The prebends were — Strathaven 
(£26 13s. 4(7.), Overtoun, Newtoun (£20), Netherfield, Cruikburn, 
Stanehouse (£30 13s. 4(/.), Hessildene, and Ivettymuir. The choir 
of church survives, with fine monuments, but degraded by heating 
apparatus of savage colliery aspect for adjoining new church. 

22. Carnewath, 1424, by Sir Thomas Somerville, for provost and six 

23. Dunbarton (distinct from the Parish Church), was a chapel of the 

Virgin at Broadmeadow, 1450, by Isabella, countess of Lennox and 
duchess of Albany. Held churches of Fintray, Strathblane, and 
Bonhill. Value, £233 6s. 8d. 

24. Glasgow, St. Mary's and St. Anne's, Tron or Laigh Kirk at St. Thenaw's 
gate, 1628, by James Houston, subdean of cathedral and rector of 
university, for provost, eight canons, and three choristers. Provost 
appointed by Abbey of Kilwinning. Prebends of St. Mary, St. James, 
and St. Roche. Bishop William Elphinstone and Canon Muirhead 
added prebends of St. Nicholas, St. Andrew, and St. Christopher, 
Sir Martin Read, chaplain of castle, added prebends of name of Jesus 
and St. Martin. Master of the song-school. Site occupied by Tron 
Steeple in 1637. 

25. Hamilton or Cadzow, 1462, by Sir James Hamilton, for provost and 

eight prebendaries. 

26. Kilmaurs, 1403, by Sir AVilliam Cunningham, for provost, eight pre- 
bendaries, and two singing boys. An adjoining estate is called 

27. Kilwynning, 1443, by Donald Campbell of Lochaw, second Earl 
of Argyle. 

28. Minnibole or Maybole, 1371, by Sir John Kennedy; 1441, by Sir 

Gilbert Kennedy, for provost and three prebendaries. Provostship 
had twenty marks ; the prebends, fifty-four marks. 

29. Peebles, St. Andrew's, 1543, by the magistrates and Lord Hay of 
Tester. The old church was dedicated in 1115. Another dedication, 
perhaps enlargement, took place by Bishop Joceline of Glasgow, 1195. 
Nine prebends — viz. St. Mary, Holy Cross, St. Michael, St. Mary, 
major, St. Mary Geddes, St. John Baptist, St. Andrew, St. James, 


St. Christopher— seem to have been old chantries, while the endow- 
ment of 1542 was for a provost, two prebendaries, and two choristers. 

30. Sempill or Lochwinnoch, St. Mary's, 1505, by John Lord Sempill, who 
fell at Flodden, for a provost, rector of Glassford, wearing a lawn 
surplice, an almuce on the arm, and a scarlet hood ; a vicar, sacrist, 
six chaplains wearing hoods of red cloth lined with lamb's wool, in- 
cluding a clerk in orders, precentor and schoolmaster, and two singing 
boys. The sacrist to adorn the church with leaves and flowers. 

31. Blantyre Provostry, closely associated with Blantyre Priory — making 
with Bothwell, Cadzow, Carnwath, St. Mary's (Glasgow), and Biggar, 
six collegiate churches in Lanarkshire. 

Diocese of Aberdeen . 

32. Old Aberdeen, King's College, 1505, by Bishop William Elphinstone, 
for eight prebendaries, chanter, sacrist, organist, six singing boys. 
The chapel of St. Mary was consecrated by Bishop Edward of Orkney ; 
famous for the best preserved carved oaken work in Scotland. 

33. New Aberdeen, St. Nicholas', 1441, by Bishop Law, for vicar, curate, 
and sixteen chaplains (as at 1519, but twenty-two in 1491). Has a 
crypt of our Lady of Pity. There were thirty altars. 

34. CuUen, St. Mary's, founded by Robert Bruce, made collegiate in 1543 
by Sir Alexander Ogilvie of Deskford, for provost, six prebendaries, and 
two singing boys. 

35. Eannethmont, 33 miles north-west of Aberdeen, burnt at the Refor- 
mation by Leslie of Balquhain. 

Diocese o/ Moray. 

36. Abernethy, 1460, by George, earl of Angus, for eight prebendaries. 

Diocese of Brechin. 

37. Guthrie, St. Mary's, in Forfarshire, 1479, by Sir David Guthrie, lord 
treasurer, for provost and five prebendaries. Held the church of 
Carbuddo or Kirkbuddo. In 1478 Sir D. Guthrie purchased the 
church from Arbroath Abbey. 

Diocese of Dunblane. 

38. Methven, 6J miles from Perth, 1439, by Walter Stewart, earl of 
Athole, son of Robert H., for provost and five prebendaries. 

39. Innerpeffray, in Strathearn, St. Mary's, mentioned 1342, made collegiate 

in 1508 by first Lord Drummond. Church still entire. 

40. Tuilibardine, Holy Trinity, in Strathearn, 1446, by Sir David Murray, 
for a provost and prebendaries. Church still entire. 

Diocese of Ross. 

41. Tayne, St. Duthac's, 1481, by Bishop Thomas Hay of Ross, for provost, 

eleven prebendaries, two deacons, clerk, and three singing boys; on 
the model of Corstorphine. Names of prebends were Newmore, 
Dunskeath, Tallurky, Morinchy, Cambuscurry, Innerathy. Visited in 
1506 by James IV. Great place of pilgrimage. Very copious details 
of this provostry are given in " Origmes Parochiales," H. ii. 416-433. 


Diocese of Galloway. 

42. Liucluden, St. Mary's, in Terregles parish, 1^ mile from Dumfries, 
formerly a Benedictine convent (c. 1150), but refounded c. 1400 by 
Archibald the Grim, earl of Douglas and lord of Galloway, for 
provost and twelve canons ; in 1429 for provost, eight canons, 
twenty-four bedesmen, and a chaplain. Held churches of Caer- 
laverock, Kirkbean, Cowen (Colvend), Terregles, and Lochrutton. 
Income, £423 6s. 8d. besides victuals. 

Diocese of Argyll. 

43. Kilmund, St. Mund's, on the Holy Loch, 1442, by Sir Duncan Camp- 

bell of Lochaw, for provost and six prebendaries; endowed with three 
merklands of Achinlochir in barony of Ealmun ; six merklands of 
Blaremore and Gareloch ; two carucates of Craighawtis in barony of 
Cowal ; two merklands of Cesflade and Cloyne in Kilmun ; one merk- 
land of Kilandrew in Lochow. 




Austin Canons, Tyronenscs, Cluniacenses, Cistertienses, Vallis Caulians, Carthusians, 
Pra;monstiateuses, Benedictines, Trinity Friars — Friars or Mendicants — Convents — 
Hospitals or ]Maisons Dieu. 

Rented or Endowed Religious. 
/. Austin Canons, or Canons Regular of St. Augustine. 

1. Scone Abbey, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Mary, St. Laurence, 
St. Augustine, and St. Michael, was founded by Alexander I. (on an 
earlier Culdee foundation), and colonized from Oswald's Nostell in 1114. 
It held eleven churches — viz. Scone, Cambusmichael, Kinfauns, Logierait, 
Blair in Gowrie, Redgorton, Kilspindyrait, Logie, Dundee, Liff, Inver- 
gowrie. The income was £1140 Scots, besides victual. There were 
eighteen canons. The abbey wall inclosed fully 12 acres. It contained 
the Stone of Destiny used at coronations, brought from Dunstaffnage, 
and in 1296 removed by Edward I. to Westminster. The abbey was 
wrecked in 1559 by a reform mob from Dundee. It was erected into a 
temporal lordship for the Earl of Gowrie, and in 1604 Sir David Murray, 
of the family of TuUibardine, became Lord Scone. The "Liber Ecclesie 
de Scon," published by the Maitland Club in 1843, gives 233 charters, from 
1114 to 1570. 

2. Inchcolm, in Firth of Forth, was founded in 1123 by Alexander I., 
who had been entertained here by a hermit for three days in his cell, near 
a stone-roofed little chapel of St. Colm, 15J feet long, which still remains 
after having served as a piggery and byre ! The conventual remains con- 
sist of a refectory, with a wall-pulpit ; the abbot's house ; a stone-roofed 
octagonal chapter-house, and a library over it. In 1405 the vaulted Lady 
chapel on the soutli of the choir was founded. The abbey was burned by 
the English in 1382 and in 1385, not without a judgment on the marauders 
by the "St. Quhalme," as they punned St. Colm. The tower (20J feet 
square) is similar in form and details to that of lona, and probably of the 
same age. The new choir (78X15 feet) of 1265 is of later date than the 
tower, on which it abuts.^ Walter Bower, the continuator of Fordun's 
" Scotichronicon," was abbot here from 1418 to 1449. Inchcolm was the 
prison of Archbishop Patrick Graham of St. Andrews, who was driven, 
mad by the oppression of his enemies. The income was £138. James 
Stuart of Beith, of the Ochiltree family, became commendator on the 
surrender of Abbot Henry in 1543. His second son, Henry Stuart, became 
Lord St. Colm in 1611. 

3. St. Andrews Priory was recognized in 1144 by charter of Bishop 
Robert, and shortly after this one of the monks wrote " Magnum Regis- 
trum," its Book of Muniments, in which the Keledei are referred to. In 

' See Gordon's " Monasticon," iii. 51-68 ; also Ross's " Aberdour and Inchcolme." 


1144 the Hospital of the Keledei, with its parsonage, was transferred to the 
Canons Regular, and they were confirmed in possession of two more 
parsonages already assigned to them, the bishop retaining his seventh, 
thus leaving three" parsonages as before. David I. made an ordinance that 
the prior and canons of St. Andrews should receive into incorporation with 
them the Keledei of Kilrymont, but if the Keledei refused then they were 
to have only their life interest. This provision recurs under successive 
popes till 124S, so tliat the Keledei held their old separate place in spite 
of king, pope, and bishop trying to absorb them. In 1309 they still held 
lands in the Cursits Apri. But in 1332, when WiUiam Bell was chosen 
bishop, they were excluded from the election, and ceased from troubling. 
The priory possessed twenty-one churches or their great tithes, viz — 
Trinity Church, St. Andrews, given by Bishop Richard; Lathrisk, by 
Nesius. son of William ; Leuchars, by the same ; Dairsey, by Bishop Arnold ; 
Forgan, in Fife, by David I. ; Markinch, by Duncan, earl of Fife ; Portmoak. 
by Bishop Arnold ; Cupar, in Fife, by Duncan, earl of Fife ; Scoonie, by 
the same ; Kennoway, by Thirleswan. son of Colban ; St. Cyrus or Eccles- 
greig, by Bishop Richard; Rossie, in Cowrie, or Rossieclerach, by Matthew, 
archdeacon of St. Andrews ; Inchsture, by Bishop Richard ; Forgan, in 
Cowrie, or Longforgan, by Bishop Roger; Fowls (Easter), by Bishop 
Richard ; Linlithgow, by David I. ; Haddington, by the same; Bourtie, by 
Wilham de Lamberton ; Tharflund or Tarland, by Earl Morgund ; Mig- 
gaveth or Migvie, by the same ; DuU, by Malcolm, earl of Atholl. 

To the above twenty-one, which rest on charters, are to be added eleven 
on the evidence of papal bulls, &c. : Thelin or Tealing, by Hugo Gilfard 
and William his son ; ]Meigle, by Simon de Meigle ; Abercrombie, Kilgour, 
by Duncan, twelfth earl of Fife ; Ivinaldie, by Simon, bishop of Moray ; 
Auldcathy; Fordun, by King Robert Bruce; Strathmeiglo, Binning, 
Mucrosin, and Tannadice; also two churches in Ireland, Ruskin and 
Karlingsford, given by Hugo de Lascy, earl of Wilton. 

A list of twenty-five priors, beginning with Robert (1140-1162), and 
ending with Lord James Stewart (natural son of James V., died 1570), is 
given in Lyon's " History of St. Andrews " (ii. 268).^ The cells and priories 
belonging to St. Andrews were — Lochleven, Portmoak, Monymusk, Isle of 
ISIay, and Pittenweem. The revenue given in in 1561 for the priory was 
£2239 Scots and £8000= grain. 

The priory buildings on the south of the cathedral were surrounded by 
a wall 20 feet high and 4 feet thick, commenced by Prior John Hepburn 
in 1516, and still nearly entire. It has thirteen round and square turrets, 
each with a niche for an image, and with a staircase. There were three 
gates, the chief being the " Pends," 75 feet long by 16 broad, and a fine 
Gothic arch at each end. The ground inclosed by the wall was 20 acres, 
and in the time of Martine, secretary to Archbishop Sharpe, contained 
fourteen different buildings, of which the chief were : — The prior's house, 
Hospitiiim Vetiis, or old inn ; cloister, to the west of the prior's house, where 
was held the Senzie Fair in second week of Easter ; the Senzie house or 
consistory house, for the sub-prior ; the dortour or dormitory, between the 
prior's house and the cloister ; the refectory, 108 feet by 28 ; the guest- 
1 The prior of St. Andrews took precedence of all the abbots of Scotland, by bull 
of JI art ill V. 

368 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

hall for strangers and pilgrims, on the south-west of the road from the 
Tends to the shore ; the new inn, or Novum Hospiiium, built in a month 
for Magdalene, queen of James V., afterwards the house of the later arch- 
bishops" Besides these were— the teind barn, the abbey mill, and the 

i. LoCHLEVEN PiuOKY, in Kinross-shire, was dedicated to St. Serf or 
Servanus. Lochleven has seven islands, the largest of which, St. Serfs 
Island, has an area of 8U acres. The next largest, Castle Island, of 8 acres 
extent, is that which is associated with Queen Mary's captivity. Andrew 
Winton, author of the " Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland," was prior of 
Lochleven from 1395 to 1420 or 1424. In 842 Brude, son of Dergard, 
the last of the Pictish kings, gave the island of Lochleven to God, St. 
Servan, and the Keledeau hermits dwelling there in conventual devotion. 
This is the earliest notice of Keledei. Before 9G1 the Culdees had given 
up the island to Bishop Fothad of St. Andrews so long as he should 
provide them with food and raiment. In 1144 Bishop Robert conferred 
the island and other Culdee possessions on the Canons Regular of St. 
Andrews. This was repeated by David I. in 1145, and made more 

The priory held the churches of Markinch, Sooonie, Hurkyndorath or 
Auchterderran, Portmoak, Balchristie, and Bolgie. A list of the books of 
the Culdees in 1144 is given in the Register of St. Andrews, meagre 
but of extreme interest : — A pastorale, a gradual, a missal, the works of 
Origen, the sentences of St. Bernard, a treatise on the Sacraments, a 
portion of the Bible, a lectionary, the Acts of the Apostles, the Gospels, 
the works of Prosper, the Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Canticles, 
a gloss on the Canticles, a book of Interpretationes Dictionum, a collec- 
tion of sentences, a commentary on Genesis, selections of ecclesiastical 
rules. St. Serf's chapel was 30 feet by 20, with walls 12 feet high and 
2\ thick. Two miles distant, at the village of Ivinneswood, was a very old 
manufactory of parchment, probably a survival of the monastery. A 
seven years' apprenticeship was needed to the business. The income of 
the priory was £111 Scots, with 28 bolls of bear and 72 bolls of meal. 

5. Isle of May and Pittenweem Phiory. The Isle of May, in the 
Firth of Forth, is one mile long by three quarters of a mile broad, and 
is six miles south of Anstruther Wester. The isle is associated with St. 
Adrian or Adran = Macgidrin of Flisk and Liudores, who came from 
Ireland in 845, bringing the relics of St. Monan or Monenn. At first 
a Culdee settlement it was re-constituted by David I. and granted to the 
Benedictine Abbey of Reading in Yorkshire, recently founded by his 
brother-in-law, Henry Beauclerc, on condition that they should place and 
maintain there nine (afterwards increased to thirteen) priests of their 
brethren to celebrate divine service for the soul of the donor and the 
souls of his predecessors and successors, kings of Scotland. Other gifts 
were added, particularly to the parish of Anstruther, part of Rhynd, 
Mayshiels (in Fife), Beal (in Lothian), Lingo, Petother.' The monks 
of the isle had land and a landing-place and house at Pittenweem as 
early as 1114, which, as less exposed, seems gradually to have eclipsed 

' Stuart's " Isle of May," pref. xxxi.K. 


the May. The first notice of a prior of Pittenweem is in 1221, In 1269 
Bishop Wishart of St. Andrews paid 1100 merks to the Abbot of Reading 
for all his rights, and then bestowed the priory on the Priory of St. An- 
drews — this being finally adjusted only in 1318. Pittenweem was made 
free regality in 1-452 by James II., and in 1472 Pope Sixtus IV. made it 
mensal to the Bishop of St. Andrews — but this never took eiiect. In 1626 
Pittenweem was made a barony \)y James V. James IV. (as seen from 
the Lord Treasurer s accounts) paid many visits of pilgrimage to the May, 
e.g. 21st May, 1490; 3rd June, 1503; 6th and 29th July, 1505; 29th July, 
1506 ; 25th August, 1507 ; 2nd July, 1508. 

Under Prior John Roull or Rowle (1526-1552) the old possessions, 
held since the twelfth century, were mostly alienated, among others in 
favour of four bastard sons of his own. He was succeeded by Lord James 
Stewart, prior of St. Andrews from 1552, as perpetual commendator of 

6. HoLTROOD Abbev was founded in 1128 by David I. in honour of the 
Holy Cross, Blessed Virgin Mary, and All Saints, The Cross associated 
■with the foundation was not legendary in David's miraculous escape from 
an enraged stag by the intervention of a cross, as told by Boece, but 
historic in the Black Rood of his mother St. Margaret, which she held in 
her hand on her deathbed in the Castle of Edinburgh in 1093, and which 
was captured from David II, in 1346 at the battle of Neville's Cross, and 
long treasured in Durham Cathedral as a charm and trophy,^ 

The churches held by the abbey were : — Karreden, with two ploughgates 
of land, granted by Robert, bishop of St. Andrews ; Levingstone, by Turstan, 
son of Leving ; Trevernent, its lands, pastures, and tithes, by Thor, son of 
Swanus ; Ogelfas or Ogtlface, in Torphichen, whole land of, by Willelmus 
de Veteriponte ; Kinnel or Kinniel, with a ploughgate of land, by Herbert, 
the great chamberlain ; Paxtun church and Bathchet church, with a 
ploughgate (later exchanged with Newbottle for part of carse of Falkirk); 
Dunrod, in Kirkcudbright, by Fergus, lord of GaUoway (a monk of Holy- 
rood), and his son Uchtred ; Trahil or Trail (St. Mary's Isle), by the same ; 
Galtweid, by the same ; Kirkbride of Blacket, by the same ; St. Cuthbert of 
Desnesmor or Kirkcudbright, by the same ; Tungland, by the same ; Twen- 
hame, by the same ; St. Constantine of Colmanel, by the same ; St, Constan- 
tine chapel of Egingham, by the same ; Kirkandrew of Balmaghie by the 
same ; Kelton, by the same ; Kyrkecormac, by the same ; Balnecros chapel 
(the last four belonged anciently to lona) ; Anwoth, by David, son of 
Terr ; Culeness chapel, by the same ; Eglysbryth or Falkirk, early ; Mount 
Lothian, in Penycuik; Melginche, with Abthen land; Penteland chapel; 
Boulton, by De Veteriponte ; Eister Kyngorne ; Ur ; St. Constantine of 
Crawford, with castle chapel ; Baru or Barra, near Garvald ; St. Michael 
of Dalegarnoc ; St. Mary-in-the-Fields, at Edinburgh (afterwards coUegiate 
Kirk of Field) ; Airth ; Corstorphin ; Hamir or Whitekirk ; Libberton. 

Dependent cells of Holyrood were — St, Mary's Isle in GaUoway, Blantyre 
in Clydesdale, Rowadil in Harris, Colonsay, Crusay, and Oransay, 

The chief territories of the abbey were — in the Carse of FaUcirk, round 
its churches of Airth, Kinniel, and Falkirk ; in Livingston, Bathgate, 

^ Gordon's "Monasticon " (140) gives the foundation charter. 


Ofrleface. and Carriden. It had large grants in Preston, Tranent, and 
Bolton, and the whole of llamir, now AVhitekirk. Closer around the 
abbey, from early times, it possessed the burgh of Canongate, the baronies 
of Broughton and Inverleith, Sauchton and Sauchtonhall, with estates 
held by vassals in IMcrcliiston, Liberton, and Craigmillar. 

The' valuation given in 15G1 (ridiculously small compared with the 
above charter roll) was £2926. Gordon's "Monasticon" (151-160) gives 
a list of thirty abbots, beginning with Alwiu, who resigned in 1150, and 
ondin" with Adam Bothwcll, resigned c. 1581, died 1593. The nave alone 
survives, the east gable with its fine window being a comparatively modern 
partition, which leaves outside both the transept and choir with lady chapel 
of the original abbey church, Holyrood Palace occupying the site of the 
cloister and other ecclesiastical edifices. 

7. BLANTi'RE Priory, on the Clyde opposite Both well Castle, planted 
on a picturesque crag, was but a small house and a cell of Holyrood, yet 
its prior often sat in Parliament. It was closely associated with the parish 
church, lA mile distant, which is sometimes called collegiate; this is prob- 
ably the reason why one of the priors is called dean also, as at the head 
of both. The income was £131. The benefice was given by James VI. 
to Walter Stuart, son of Lord ]\linto, made Lord Blantyre in 1606, the 
reason of the gift being that as a boy Stuart was educated with the king 
and shared his floggings. On one occasion the priory gave retreat to 
Wallace, and the spot is still pointed out where he dropped from a window 
and fled when pursued. 

8. Caiibuskennetu Abbey, on the Forth, one mile below Stirling, was 
founded by David I. in 1147 — the name St. Kenneth's Bend or Crook 
showing that previously it had some consecrated character. In 1315 the 
abbot was mitred. The church was 178 feet long by 37 broad, having a 
nave with a north aisle, a choir and transept with an east aisle. A de- 
tached tower of four storeys, and 35 feet square, survives. Not least 
interesting is an adjacent orchard with an ancient wall inclosing it. There 
were chapels of St. Andrew, St. John Baptist, St. Laurence the martyr, 
St. Katharine, and All Saints. It was destroyed in 1559 by a reform mob. 
The second last abbot was Alexander Myln, first president of the Court 
of Session in 1532, and author of " Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld," one 
of the great men of his age. In the scramble and squandering that 
followed the Reformation, the lands of Cambuskenneth fell to John, earl 
of Mar, and his nephew Adam became commendator. In 1608 James VI. 
settled the barony on Alexander Erskine of Alva. In 1607 the income in 
money was £1067. 

The churches, with their tithes and pertinents, which belonged to the 
abbey were— Clackmannan, with its chapels ; Ivinclaven, with all its per- 
tinents ; Tillicoultry ; Kincardine, in Menteith ; Gleneagles ; Eccles or St. 
Ninian's, with its chapels of Larbert and Dunipace, and other chapels and 
oratories ; Alva ; Kirkintilloch ; Tillibody, with its chapels at Alloa ; For- 
teviot; Kilmaronock; I\Jinnoul; Lecropt; Amgask; and Kippen. 

The abbey possessed, in addition, the lands or farm of Cambuskenneth, 
Colling, Bandeath, with its wood, Carsie, Tillibody, liendinch ; the lands 
of Kettlestone, with mills; lands on Forth between Pullemiln and the 
road to the ships : tofts at Stirling, Perth, Linlithgow, Haddington, and 


Renfrew ; forty acres witli toft and mill, priests" croft, in Clackmannan ; 
lands at Iviuciaven ; lands at Kincardine ; half a carucate, with a toft, at 
Crail ; half a carucate, with meadow, at Balcormac ; a carucate at Binning ; 
a carucate at Kirkintilloch ; two oxgangs in Dunipace ; part of the lands 
of Menstrie ; lands at Inverkeithing, Duneglin (?), and Ayr ; Fintilloch 
(Fintalich ?), in Stratherne ; lands of Cambusbarron ; Maldar, near Touch ; 
lands with mills at Arngask ; and lands of Loching. 

Privileges and casualties of the abbey were — fishing with one net in 
the Forth between Cambuskenneth and Polmaise ; fishings of Carsie and 
Tillibody; fishing with one net in the Clyde near Renfrew; one salt-pan 
with the necessary land about it ; half of skins and tallow of beasts slain 
for the king"s use at Stirling ; tenth of all sums paid for obtaining decreets 
in courts of StirUng and Callander ; kane or custom of one ship ; tenth of 
the king's feu-duties of the lordship of Stirling ; forty shillings yearly out 
of the customs of Perth; a common pasturage in Petcorthing in Crail; a 
merk of silver out of the revenues of Crail ; pasturage of 500 sheep and 
20 cows at Binning ; grazing of certain cows at Borland near Kincardine ; 
tenth of feu-duties of Bothkennar, amounting to 6 chalders of grain and 
£8 Os. bd. Scots yearly; additional chalder of grain by grant of Sir 
William More; pension of 100 shillings out of church of Blair (Drum- 
mond ?) ; forty shillings out of the king's revenues of Airth, besides the 
tenth of the feus ; £10 out of the revenues of Piean ; forty shillings out 
of the revenues of Stirling; 20 cuderui or kebbocks of cheese of the 
revenues of Stirling ; certain privileges in wood of Keltory or Torwood ; 
oblations presented to the church of the monastery, without any deduction 

Cells or priories of Cambuskenneth were Inchmahome and Rosneath, 

9. Jedburgh Abbey, dedicated to St. Mary, is one of the foundations 
of David I. in 1118, before he came to the throne. It was at first only a 
priory, but in 1150 became an abbey, being at first under Durham. The 
name Jedburgh or Jedworth has been spelled in eighty-two ways, each 
given with an authority in "Origines Parochiales" (i. 366). It suffered 
dreadfully in Border wars, especially in 1296, 1523, 1544, and 1559, so 
that its ruinous state, like that of a large group of religious houses, is quite 
independent of the iconoclastic rage of the Reformation. The abbey 
church, in which the services were conducted by one of the monks as 
chaplain, was the church of the parish before the Reformation. 

The abbey held the churches of— Jedburgh, Eckford, Hownan, Oxnam, 
Longnewton, Dalmeny, Barton and Grendon, Crailing, Nesbit, Plender- 
leith, Hopkirk, Belshers, Abbotsleigh, Bassenthwaite and Kirkanders, 
Lidal and Doddington. 

Other possessions of the abbey of Jedburgh were— chapel in the forest 
glade opposite Xeruwingslaw or Mervinslaw in Southdean ; the tithe of 
the king's hunting in Teviotdale ; Ulveston or Ulston, Alneclive (near 
Ancrum), Crumesethe, Rapeslawe, with the right boundaries of these 
towns ; a house in the burgh of Roxburgh ; a house in Berwick ; a third 
house in Berwick with its toft ; one stream opposite the island Tonsmidhop ; 
Eadwardesle, now Long Edwardly ; pasture for their cattle along with 
those of the king ; timber and wood in his forests, according to their wants, 
except in Quikebeg (?) ; the multure of the mill from all the men of Jedde- 


worth, ubi castellnm cd; a salt-pan near Stirling; Rule Herevei. according 
to its ri^ht boundaries and just pertinents (exchanged for a ten-pound 
land elsewhere). By grant of William the Lion— church of Barton ; church 
of Grendon ; a toft and seven acres in burgh of Jeddeworth ; in their 
houses in Berwick such liberty that none of the king's servants presume to 
exact the tuns in which wine was brought thither by merchants, and which 
we're emptied there ; one fishing in the Tweed, above the bridge, which 
Wilham of Lamberton resigned to the king's grandfather. By Sheriff 
Gospatrick— one and a half ploughgate and three acres of land, with two 
houses in Crailing. By Berengarius Engain — one mark of silver in the 
mill of Crailing and two oxgangs of land, with one villain and one toft ; 
and for the maintenance of the chaplainry of the same town, other two 
oxgangs of land with another toft; and one other toft near the church. 
By David Olifar— the tithe of the mill of the same Crailing. By Orm, 
the son of Eilau— one ploughgate of land in the other Crailing. By 
Richard Inglis— two oxgangs of land in Scranesburg or Hunthill, and two 
oxgangs in°Langeton. By Gamel, the clerk— Caverum, with consent of 
his^sons, Osulf and Ughtred. By Margaret, the wife of Thomas de Loudon, 
with consent of the same Thomas and of Henry Lovel, the son of the same 
Margaret — Ughtredsxaghe, with its right boundaries. By Christian, the 
wife* of Gervase Ridel— one-third of the town of Xeruwingslaw. By 
Geoffrey de Perci — the church of Oxenham, with two ploughgates of lands 
and two oxgangs adjacent to the same church ; and the common pasture 
and common fuel of the same Oxenham ; and Newbigging and pasture and 
fuel in common with the other men of Oxenham, which Newbigging, Henry 
de Perci, after the death of the foresaid Geoffrey, his brother, confirmed to 
the canons in presence of King William's brother, Malcolm, By Radulph, 
the son of Dunegal, and Bethoc, his wife — one ploughgate of land in 
Rughechestre (Rochester, near Otterburn), and the common pasture of 
the same town. By Turgot of Rossedale — the religious house of Lidel or 
Canonby and the whole land adjacent to it ; the church of Kirkander with 
all its pertinents. By Guy of Rossedale, with consent of Ralph, his son — 
forty-two acres between Esk and Lidel, where they meet, and the freedom 
of the water from the moat of Lidel to the church of Lidel. By Ranulph 
de Soils — the church of the valley of Lidel, and the church of Dodington, 
near Berton, and one-half ploughgate of land in Nasebith. By Gervase 
Ridel, afterwards canon of Jeddeworth, and by Ralph, his brother — the 
chvu-ch of Alboldesle, with all its pertinents and rights. By William de 
Vipont — one ploughgate of the land in his demesne of Caredene, with the 
common easement of the town. 

At the Reformation the monastery was suppressed and its revenues were 
annexed to the Crown, but it seems to have been held m commendam by 
Andrew, the last abbot, from 1560 till 1593. About 1600 the spirituality 
was conferred on Alexander, Lord Home, and in 1606 the abbacies of 
Jedburgh and Coldinghame were erected into a temporal lordship in his 

10, Restennot or Rostinoth Priory, St. Peter, one mile north of Forfar, 
in the midst of a loch (now drained), accessible by a causeway and draw- 
bridge. Here were kept for safety the muniments of Jedburgh Abbey, of 
which it was a cell. The foundation of David L in 1159 was on the site 


of an earlier church erected by St. Boniface c. 624, who also erected Inver- 
gowrie and Tealing. 

David gave to the mouks certain thanages, bondagia, and royal lands. 
The charter by :Malcolin IV. (1159-1163) specifies as possessions— the 
churches of Crachnatharach, Pethefrin, Tealing, Druimald, Dysart, and 
Egglispether, with their pertinents; the whole teinds of the king's other 
places in Angus, including those in money, wool, chickens, cheese, and 
malt, and those of tlie miU and fish-market of Forfar; also 10^\ out of 
Kynaber, the wliole teinds of the king's farms or lordships of Salorch, 
Montrose, and Rossie; the free passage of Scottewater, i.e. Firth of Forth ; 
a toft in each of the burghs of Perth, Stirling, Edinburgh, and Forfar ; 
together with a toft in Salorch, and 20.s-. for the light of the church of 
Salorch itself, with the kings salt-pits and mill of Montrose. William the 
Lion, between 1189 and 1199, gave the lands of Ardnequere (supposed to 
be Gossans) in exchange for Foffarty, which, with waters, woods and plains, 
meadows and pastures, muirs and marshes, were to be held in free and 
perpetual alms by the prior and canons. Alexander III. gave the tenth of 
the hay of the meadow of his forest of Plater, near Finhaven. 

In the time of King Robert I. the writs of the priory were lost, and a 
Notiiia was made to replace them by evidence. The king thereafter gave 
license to cut wood at all times in his forest of Plater for waggons, carts, 
yokes, halters, and the like ; he gave also the teinds of the king's horses 
and studs, and a third of the hay of the forest of Plater. In 1333 Sir 
Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk gave an annuity out of the barony of 
Duny; and in 1336 Bishop James Bene of St. Andrews gave his whole 
lands of Rescobie. David II. in 1344 gave 20 merks sterling from the 
great customs of Dundee. Andrew Dempster of Careston and William 
and John Collace of Balnamoon gave £4 from the thanedom of Menmuir 
(confirmed in 1360). 

The priory chapel and tower, 70 feet high, with a broach spire, still 
remain, visible on the east side of the railway north of Forfar. The valu- 
ation of the priory was £275. The lands and site were granted in 1606 
to Sir Thomas Erskine, afterwards Earl of KeUie. 

11. Canonby Priory, on the Esk, founded c. 1165 by Turgot of Rosse- 
dale. The prior sat in the Parliament of Brigham in 1290. Monastery 
and church were destroyed by the English after Solway Moss in 1542. 
Site of convent at Halgreen or Holygreen, half a mile east of the village. 
It held the churches of St. Abbulbie or Selbie, Waulhopdull, and 

12. Inchaffray Abbey in Strathearn, in the parish of Maderty, was 
dedicated to God, St. Mary, and St. John Evangelist. It is called in 
charters Insula Missarum (the isle of masses :=inis aifrionn). The first 
charter of the abbey, by Earl Gilbert, is witnessed by the Countess 
Matilda, his wife, and his six sons. By its great charter, in 1200, Inchaffray 
was endowed with the churches of— St. Kattanus of Abruthven, St. Ether- 
nanus of Maderty, St. Patrick of Strogeath, St. Meckessok of Auchter- 
arder, St. Beanus of Kinkell ; with the tithe of the earl's kain and rents 
of wheat, meal, malt, cheese, and all provisions throughout the year in 
his court; with tithe of aU fish brought into his kitchen, and of the 
produce of his hunting ; and the tithe of all the profits of his courts of 



justice, and all offerings. The monks had the liberty of fishing in the 
Tetfer, and of fishing and birding over all the earl's lands, waters, and 
lakes. They might take timber for building and other uses from his 
woods, and have their pannage or mast-feeding for pigs, as well as bark 
and firewood, in whatever places and as much as they chose. Some years 
later Earl Gilbert granted also the church of St. Beanus of Foulis, with 
tiie " dower'" laud of the church and the common pasturage of the parish, 
and the church of the Holy Trinity of Gask, with the same privileges. 
The foimdcr died in 1223. Abbot Maurice blessed Bruce's army at Bannock- 
burn in 1314. and another abbot fell at Flodden in 1513. Cells belonging 
to Inchaffray were — Strathfillan, Scarinche, and Abernethy. The valuation 
in 1563 was £666. In 1556 James Drummond, younger and infant son 
of the second Lord Drummond, was secular commendator of Inchaffray, 
which was erected into a temporal lordship, and in 1609 he was created 
Lord Maderty. The "Liber Insule Missarum," by the Bannatyne Club 
(18-47), gives eighty-four charters, rental of 1563, taxed roll of lordship for 
1630, and forty-seven Cartas recentiores. 

Smaller Houses of the Austin Canons. 

1. Loch Tay, island near Kenmore, 1122, by Alexander I. Cell of 

2. Portmoak Priory, on St. Serf's Isle, in Lochleven. A Culdee settle- 
ment in 838, but hardly distinct from Lochleven Priory on the same isle. 

3. Monymusk Priory, 1080 and 1179. Culdee. Ten churches. 

4. St Mary's Isle Priory at Trail, 1129. Kirkcudbright. Three churches. 
Cell of Holyrood. 

5. Rowadill or Rodil Priory, St. Clement's. Harris. Cell of Holyrood. 

6. Oronsay Priory, founded by St. Columba. Refounded by the Lord 
of the Isles in the fourteenth century. Cell of Holyrood. 

7. Colonsay Abbey, Kilouran. Culdee. Cell of Holyrood. 

8. Inchmahome Priory, c. 1296. Isle of St. Colmac near Aberfoyle. 
Held three churches. Founder, Murdoch, earl of Menteith. Cell of 

9. Rosneath Priory, before 1199. Founder, St, Modan, in time of 
Congal, who died in 602. Cell of Cambuskenneth. 

10. StrathfiUan Priory, 1314, on the Dochart. Founder, King Robert I. 
Cell of Inchaffray. 

11. Scarinche Priory, Isle of Lewis, in honour of St. Catan. Cell of 

12. Abernethy Priory, originally Culdee. Cell of Inchaffray, from which 
canons came in 1273. 

11. Tyronenses. Founded in 1109 at Tyron, near Chartres, by St. Bernard, 
abbot of St. Cyprian'' s, in Poictou. 

1. Kelso or Calchow Abbey, was first founded at Selkirk by David L 
in 1113, and at Kelso in 1128. The first abbot of Selkirk was Herbert, 
afterwards Bishop of Glasgow in 1147. The last abbot of Kelso was 
James Stuart, natural son of James V., who died in 1559. 

The parishes possessed by Kelso were— Selkirk, Molle, Sprouston, 
Home (in Stitch el), Greenlaw (with chapels Lambden and Halyburton), 


Symprinc, Keith or Iluinbie, Makerston, Maxwell, Gordon, Innerlethan, 
Roxburgh (its three churches), Ednam, Crailing, Yetholm, Bolden 
(barony of), Fogo. Langton, Nenthorn with chapel of Little Newton 
(in exchange for Cranston), Duddingston, Caldor Clere or East Calder, 
Pencaithland, Peebles Castle Chapel, Linton, Rutheric, Cambusnethan, 
Dunsyre, Wiston with chapels Roberton and Symington, Thankerton or 
Wode-kirk, Crawfordjohn, Carluke, Campsie with Altercummin or 
Antermony, Culter, Biruie (in Moray). Dumfries, Morton, Closeburn, 
Trailfiat and Drumgray, Stapilgorton (in Langholm). 

Each of these parishes had lands besides teinds, and some very exten- 
sive — e.g. in the single parish of Molle (now absorbed in Morebattle) the 
list of grants to the monks occupies three pages (464-7) in Gordon's 
" Monasticon." The Kelso rent-roll of 1290 is our best guide to old 
Scottish agriculture and village life, of which the monks were great 
patrons, holding extensive lands "in dominico," in their own hands, and 
managing them from their granges. From this "in dominico" sj'stem 
come the names demesne (Norman-French), domain, and mains ^ home 
farm. These holdings were estimated by ploughlands and the number of 
sheep. Their crops were oats, barley, and wheat. Hill pasture afforded 
hay by withdrawing sheep for a time. They had waggons for harvesting 
and wains for their peateries. Colpinhope, in Yetholm, had 500 sheep with 
200 dinmonts ; Sprouston had 300 hogs ; Molle, at Altonburn, had 300 
dinmonts ; Berehope, 700 wedders ; Newton, 1000 ewes and 60 swine ; 
Makerston or Malcalverston, 300 lambs. Witelaw, besides two flocks of 
Avedders, had four score cows. Each grange had a hamlet of thirty or forty 
cottariiy each of whom had from one to nine acres of land with his cottage. 
Beyond the grange and the cottar-town were the farmsteads of the hus- 
bandi, each of whom on his husband-land kept two oxen, and six of these 
husbandmen united their pairs of oxen so as to work in common the 
ponderous old plough. 

In 1300 at Reveden or Redden in Yetholm the monks had — the grange, 
which they tilled with five ploughs drawn by sixty oxen, and where they 
pastured fourteen score of ewes besides oxen ; half a ploughgate, let to 
Richard of the Holm ; eight husband-lands and one oxgang, for each of 
which the following services were done — viz. every week in summer a 
journey to Berwick with one horse, which was to carry three bolls of corn, 
and return either with two bolls of salt or one boll and a ferloch (=firlot) 
of coals ; and on the next day after every such journey, one day's work 
of whatever kind might be wanted. When not required to go to Berwick, 
they wrought two days in summer and three days in autumn. To stock 
his farm each husbandman received two oxen and one horse, three 
chalders oats, six bolls barley, and three of wheat. Abbot Richard com- 
muted these services for money in the hard times of Edward L, when they 
gave back their stock, and each paid 1 8s. per annum for his land. There 
were nineteen cottages, eighteen of which were let for 12d. a year and six 
days' work in autumn, during which they were found in food, as they 
were also at sheep-washing and sheep-shearing time ; the nineteenth 
cottage paid 18c?. a year and nine days' work. They had also two brew- 
houses, which paid to the abbey two merks a year, and a mUn, which paid 
nine merks. 

376 THE ciiUECH of Scotland. 

On oOth Juno, 1523, Lord Dacre unleaded the convent, and burnt the 
Ladv chapel, abbot's palace, and monks' dormitory. It was burnt again 
in 1542 by the Duke of Norfolk. Worse havoc was made by Lord Here- 
ford. It suffered further in 1544 and 1547. The revenues were £2495, 
or including Lesmahago £3710. The lands were made into an earldom 
of Kelso in 1GU5 for Sir Robert Kerr of Cessford. 

2. Lksmahago Priory, a cell of Kelso, was founded by David I. in 
1144, the old dedication to St. Machutus or ]\Ialo being retained. The 
name is the quick and rural pronunciation of Ecclesia St. Machuti. The 
older Culdee monastery was at Abbey Green. 

Its churches were — Closeburn, Trailflat, Roberton, Urmiston, Syming- 
ton. Drumgre. Dunsyre, Morton, Kdmaurs. Carluke, Lesmahago. 

The priory church was burnt down at night by John of Eltham, brother 
of Edward III., in 1335, when many poor refugees were crowded round 
St. Malo's shrine, which was a sanctuary, and defined outside by four 
boundary crosses. The bones of these victims slain in defiance of church 
law were brought to light in 1803 in digging the foundation of the 
present parish church, and the pile of them was large enough to be com- 
pared to a peat-stack. The savage perpetrator was stabbed by his own 
brother in a quarrel at Perth in 1336. 

The revenue in 155(3 was £1214 ; bere, fifteen chalders ; meal, eleven 
chalders; oats, four chalders; and 250 fowls, counting six score to the 
hundred. At that time there were five brethren of the convent taking 
yearly, for pensions, habits, silver, and other dues, £88, with 2 chalders 
12^ bolls meal and 5 chalders bere; a forester, culteUar, falconer, porter, 
brewer, barber, and boatman on the Clyde, in the monks' service. One 
boll meal was allowed for each of these three — washing altar-cloths, 
leading convent fuel, and "grathing the garden." The abbey gardens 
and orchards remained objects of interest even in 1773, together with the 
abbey green, the site of the vdlage. 

3. Kilwinning Abbey, on a site sacred to St. Winning (579), was 
founded in 1140 by Hugh de Morville, constable of Scotland. A western 
bell-tower, 32 feet square by 103 high, fell in 1814. From 1488 it was 
associated with archery sports of the popinjay, papingo, or parrot. 

The churches held by Kilwinning were — Kilwinning, Dalgarven, Irvine, 
Kilmarnock, Loudon, Ardrossan, Kilbirnie, Kilbride, Beith, Kirkmichael of 
Gemilston, Dunlop, Dreghorn, Dairy, Stevenston, Stewartou ; Dunbarton, 
Kilmaronock; South and North Knapdale; Kilmory and Kilbride, in Arran. 

The last abbot, Gavin Hamilton of Raplocli, dean of Glasgow, was 
killed in the Canongate of Edinburgh, 28th June, 1571. Revenue in 
1563, £880. In 1603 erected in a temporal lordship for the Earl of 

4. Aberbrothoc or Arbroath Abbey was founded in 1178, and 
dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury by William the Lion. St. 
Thomas was slain on the 29th December, 1170, and canonized in 1173. 
William seems to have been acquainted with Thomas in early life. The 
abbey, begun in 1178, became the burial-place of its founder in 1214, 
and was dedicated in 1233. It was burnt in 1272, 1380, and 1445. It 
suffered from an English fleet in 1350. The gifts of the founder were — 
the territory of Athyn or Ethie and Achinglas; the shires (or parishes) 


of Dunechtyn aud Kiugoldrum ; a net's fishiug in Ta}-, called Stok, and 
one in the North Esk ; a salt work in the carse of Stirling ; the ferry-boat 
of Montrose with its laud ; the custody of the " Brecbannach," with the 
lands of Forglen attached to that office ; a plough of land in Monethen 
or Moudyne on the Bervy ; a toft in each of the king's burghs and resi- 
dences, and a license of timber in his forests ; the patronage and tithes 
of the following churches : — In Angus— St. Mary of Old INlunros, with its 
land, Newtyl, Glammis, Athyn or Ethie, Dunechtyn, Kingoldrum, Inver- 
lunan, Panbryd, Fethmuref or Barry, IMonieky, Guthery. In the Mearns — 
Nig, Kateryn or Caterlin. In Mar — Banchory, St. Ternan, Coul. In 
Fermartyn — Fyvie, Tarves. In Buchan — Gaweryn. In Banff — St. Marnan 
of Aberchirder, Inverbondin or Boindie, Banf. Inverness ; Abernethy, 
in Strathearn ; Hautwisil, in Tyndale. 

Additional gifts in William the Lion's reign were — by the Earls of 
Angus, the churches of Monifod or Monifieth, Muraus, Kerimore, Stra- 
dechty Comitis or Mains ; the lands of Portincraig (now Broughty). 

Marjory, countess of Buchan, gifted Turfred or Turref ; Half le Naym, 
Inverugy ; Roger, bishop of St. Andrews, Aberhelot or Arbirlot ; the De 
Berkeleys, Inverkelidor or Inverkeelor and the lands of Balfeith or Belphe; 
Thomas de Lundyn, ostiarius regis, Kinerny and the forest land at the 
junction of the Dee and Canny, called nemus de TrostaucJi, now " the Wood 
of Trustach." 

Robert de Lundres, natural son of William the Lion, gifted the church 
of Ruthven ; the Malherbes gave two oxgates in Rossy, and a rent of 2s. 
from Balnaves in Kinnell; the Fitz-Bernards (Sibald of Kair) gave the 
" Rath " of Katerlin on the coast of Mearns ; the De Montforts, Glaskeler, 
adjoining; the family of Abbot or Abbe, the right of charcoal from 
their wood of Edale or Edzell; the Fitz-Thancards, the lands between 
Ethkar and Calledower, and the davach of Ballegillegrand ; the bishops 
of Brechin, some lands in Stracatherach ; the St. Michaels, the lands of 
Mundumach or Mundurno on Don, north of Aberdeen ; Earl David, 
brother of William the Lion, Kinalchmont or Kinethmont in Garioch, 
measured and arable ; the Earl of Buchan, a mark of silver yearly ; the 
Earl of Stratherne, a half mark from the fishing of Ur or Mickleour on 
Tay ; Richard de Frivill, a plough of land from Ballekelefan ; Richard 
de Frivill, Phihp de Melvil, his father-in-law, Walter Sibald, and William 
the Lion, a small territory about Monethen or Mondyne on the Bervy 
and Kare ; Robert I., the church of Kirkmacho in Nithsdale. 

The abbey was toll Jree — that is, protected against the local impositions 
which of old beset all merchandise. It was also custom free, and passed 
its exports of wool, hides, tallow, and salmon, by virtue of its own cocket. 
But the privilege the abbot most valued was the tenure of all his lands 
in free regality — that is, with sovereign power over his people, and the 
unlimited emoluments of criminal jurisdiction. The abbey had a bailie 
of the regality, or justiciar chamberlain and bailie, which latterly became 
hereditary in the family of Airlie. The abbey had also a mair and coroner 
= the old Celtic "Dereth." The office of Judex, Doomster, or Dempster, 
was attached to the lands of Caraldston, and came into the hands of 
the Earls of Crawford. 

Besides the high altar, dedicated to the patron, St. Thomas a Becket, 


the abbey church had at least six others— viz. St. Catharine, St. Peter 
St. Lawrence, and St. Nicholas, all dedicated on one day, 26th August, 1485, 
by George de Brana, bishop of Dromore. The others were— Blessed Virgin 
Mary and St. James. The valuation of the abbey was £2873 + £273 for 
kirks of Abernethy and Monifieth — wheat, 34 chalders ; bere, 155 chalders; 
meal, 211 chalders; oats, 27 chalders; salmon, 3 lasts, besides other ser- 
vices and smaller duties. The last abbot was Lord John Hamilton, second 
son of the Earl of Arran, governor of Scotland ; he obtained the appoint- 
ment c. 1541, got possession in 1551, and died 1604, aged seventy-one. 
His son James, marquis of Hamilton, was created Lord Aberbrothoc, 
5th May, 1608. 

5. LiNDORES Abbey, on Tayside, below Newburgh, dedicated to St. 
]\Iary and St. Andrew the apostle, was founded by David, earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, brother of William the Lion, on return from the Holy Land, 
c. 1178. While Earl David provided the endowment, the chief director 
of works was Guido, the first abbot, who died in 1219 (as Fordun says), 
"after be had built the monastery itself from the foundation, and had in 
a great measure completed suitable out-houses, and had energetically 
governed the monastery for nearly twenty-eight years, leaving behind 
him twenty-sbc monks in full religious order, exhorting all the brother- 
hood to mutual love, and absolving them from their transgressions." 

The founder, in a charter before 1198, gave to his abbey — the church 
Lindoris and all the lands belonging to it ; the church of Dundee (St. 
Mary's) and everything pertaining to it ; the churches of Fintray, Inver- 
urie and Monkegie, Logie-Dornach, Premnay, Radmuriel, Inch, Culsalmond, 
and Ivinnethmont (in his earldom of Garioch). 

The bull of Pope Innocent III., 1198, mentions "the church of Mothel 
in Strathern," by which is meant, as shown in the detailed rental, not the 
parish church of Muthill, but only Easter Feddal, Wester Feddal, and 
Bennie, then part of Muthill, now of Ardoch. Wester Feddal was held 
under burden of conveying two horse-loads of herring from Glasgow to 
the abbey yearly. The same bull names Cuningrove and Wissinden in 
the bishopric of Lincoln — the former probably Cotgrave in Nottingham- 
shire, and the latter known to be Whisendine in Rutland. 

Lindores itself included the modem farms of Grange of Lindores, Berry- 
hill, Ormiston, Lindores, Lindores Abbey, Craigmill, and the burgh lands 
of Newburgh — a stretch of 4 miles by 2 of fine upland pasture and rich 
arable soil. The founder also gave Redinche (=reed inch), now Mugdrum 
Island, with the whole of the fishings around it, save "his own yhare at 
Colcrick." Wilham the Lion gave a toft in each of the burghs of Berevic, 
Strivelin, Karel, Perth, Forfare, Munros, and Aberdene. Roger de 
Quincy, earl of Winchester and constable of Scotland, gave the monks 
the right of taking 200 cart-loads of brushwood or heather (bruere), 
and as many peats as they require from the peatery of Menegre, in the 
moor of Kindelouch, none else having right to peats there without their 
permission ; also an acre of land to dry peats on and two acres for 
storage, with pasturage for ten ewes and two kye for the peat-man. 
This peatery survives in the names Ladybog and Ladybank, lady being 
St. Mary of Lindores. Between 1235 and 1264 Roger de Quincy also 
gave the church of CoUessy, confirmed by the Pope, 13th December, 1288. 


Sir David de Lindsay of Crawford, one of the barons who signed the 
famous letter to the Pope, 19th November, 1355, gave from his lands of 
Pethfour, near Cairnie, in St. Madoes, two merks yearly for a wax-light 
at his wife's tomb. Duncan, earl of Fife, in gratitude for his escape at 
the battle of Durham and deliverance from captivity, gave the church of 
Auchtermuchty " and the lands which have pertained to it of old." In 
1190 the abbey endowed the altar of St. Blasius in St. John's at Perth ; 
and in 1499 the abbot purchased the half of Pitcaithly. Pope Nicholas 
gave the monks a dispensation to wear bonnets {De bonneiis utendis Bulla) 
at certain parts of the divine worship and in processions, by reason of the 
great cold of the kingdom of Scotland. But at the reading of the Gospel 
and elevation of the Host there was no dispensation. 

Under Abbot Henry (1502-1527) the abbey lands were erected into a 
regality of Lindores in 1510; and in 1621, when the days of sacrilegious 
dispersion had come, they fell to a lay proprietor, Lord Lindores. The 
abbey was destroyed by "Reformers" in 1559. The existence of two famous 
sorts of pears has been traced to the abbey gardens — viz. Bon Chretien 
and Bergamot. Our " geen " has the same monastic origin, being the 
French "guigne," while our Auchin pear is named from Aachen or Aix- 
la-Chapelle, and our Stirling Castle apple is a survival of the Cambus- 
kenneth orchard. 

The revenue in 1275 for purposes of taxation was valued at £1666. 
The valuation in 1561 was £2240— wheat, 11 chalders 12 bolls: bere 
and malt, 40 chalders 7 bolls ; meal, 49 chalders 5 bolls ; oats, 2 chalders 
7 bolls, besides cain, customs, marts, carriages, and other duties. Two 
full rentals of Lindores, with notes of locality of great interest, one c. 1480 
and the other 1561, are given in Laing's "Lindores Abbey and its Burgh 
of Newburgh," 410-466. 

6. ICOLMKILL or lONA Abbey falls here to be dealt with only in the 
period after its foundation anew by Reginald, lord of the Isles (1166-1203); 
the history of the abbey from that date onward to 1506, when it was 
absorbed in the bishopric of The Isles, has abready been given in the account 
of The Isles as one of the thirteen dioceses. Four documents from the 
Vatican, of dates, 1203, 1247, 1353, and 1372, are given in " Historians of 
Scotland," vol. vi. appendix v. 

In 1226 Bishop Simon of The Isles was also abbot of lona. The abbey 
was for centuries under Dunkeld. Between 1306 and 1329 Abbot Finlay 
received episcopal confirmation from Bishop Sinclair of Dunkeld ; and in 
1431 the abbot did obeisance (fecit ohedientiam manualem) to Robert of 
Cardeny, bishop of Dunkeld. In favour of the last Abbot John the abbey 
was annexed to the bishopric in 1506. 

Smaller Houses of the Tyronenses. 

1. Dull in Perthshire, an old Culdee seat and abthane, associated with 
the name of St. Adamnan. 

2. Fyvie Priory, on the Ythan in Buchan, was founded in 1179 by 
Fergus, earl of Buchan, and enlarged in 1285 by Reginald le Cheyne. It 
was a cell of Arbroath. 

3. Inch Kenneth Priory, between Mull and lona, was held by the monks 
of lona. 


4. Rothesay, St. Mary's, half a mile south of Rothesay, was also a cell 
of lona. 

///. Cluniacemcs. Named from Cluny Abbey in Bdn/undi/, near Macon, where 
Abbot Berno of Gigni and Abbot Odo of Clugni, c. 912, revived or reformed 
the Rule of St. Benedict. 

1. Paisley Abbet was founded in the first instance as a priory, and at 
Renfrew, on an Inch, in 1163 by Walter, son of Alan, the first of the 
royal house of Stewart. In 1220, through the influence of Alexander II., 
it was raised to an abbacy by Pope Houorius III. Pope Boniface issued 
a bull for exemption and protection of the abbey in time of war ; but in 
1307 it was, notwithstanding, attacked and burnt by Aymer de Valence. 
It had recovered again when, in 1327, Pope Benedict gave the privilege 
of the mitre and pontificals. A long line of gifts gradually enriched tlie 
monks of Paisley. Abbot Thomas Tarves, in 1451, visited England in 
quest of architectural hints. He is said, in the Auchinleck Chronicle, to 
have "fand the place all out of gude rewle and destitute of leving, and 
all the kirks in lords' hands and the kirk unbiggit. The body of the kirk 
fra the bucht stair up he biggit, and put up the ruf, and theckit it with 
sclat and riggit it with stane, and biggit ane great portioun of the steeple 
and ane stately yett-hous. ... He brought all the place tae freedom, 
frae nocht tae ane michty place, and left it out of all kind o' debt." The 
two succeeding abbots, Henry Crichton (1459-1472) and George Schaw 
(1472-1498), continued the buildings, especially the latter, who in 1485 
finished an orchard and garden wall of cut stone, above a mile in cir- 

There were only two abbots more, Robert Schaw (1498-1525), nephew 
of the preceding, and John Hamilton, afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, 
hanged at Stirling in 1571. 

The best list of churches belonging to the abbey occurs in a buU of 
Pope Clement IV. in 1265, those gifted in the original foundation charter 
being here in italics : — Paisley, Lochwynoc, Innerwyc (in East Lothian), 
Kaicart, Rughgleu, Curmanoc, Polloc, Merness, Xeilston, Kylberhan, 
Hestwod, Howston, Kylhelan, Harskyn, Kylmacolm, Innerky^), Largyss, 
Prestwic hurgh Icirk, the other Prestwic [monachorum] or Monkton, Cragyn, 
Tumebery, Dundonald, Schauher (St. Quivox), Hauchynlec, Kylpatrik, 
Neyt (Rosneath), Kyllynan (probably Kilfinan), Kylkeran (Campbeltown), 
St. Colmanel in Scybinclie (Skipness), chapel of Kylmor at KenlochgUpe. 
[Legerdwode in Berwickshire is omitted.] 

The original dedication of the abbey was fivefold— to God, St. Mary, 
St. James, St. IMirin, and St. Myldburge or Milburga. 

"The lands of the abbey were in Renfrew, Dunbarton, Ayrshire, 
Peebles, and Roxburgh. How they managed their Peeblesshire land of 
Orde we have almost nothing to tell us, but on their other properties 
they had granges— large farm-houses under the care of a granger, probably 
a lay brother. The chief grange was at Blackston on the Gryfe, ' in the 
lord abbot's hands for grange.' The 'Barns' of Kilpatrick were the 
head steading of the abbey on the other side of the Clyde, and the 'Place' 
of Muncton was the centre of management for their Ayrshire estates. 
The tenantry consisted of two classes— co«a?-s, who paid from 10s. to 40s. 


of rent and laboured on the monks' land ; and farmers, who paid their rent 
chiefly in grain, and who cultivated their land with oxen and implements 
furnished by the abbot. Tlie latter kind of holding is termed steel how, 
and all the large farms seem to have been so let on lease." ^ In Boiamuud's 
Roll of 1275 the abbey revenue is put at £2G66 ; thus, in point of wealth. 
Paisley was next to Kelso, St. Andrews, Dunfermline, and Arbroath. 
At the "assumption of thirds," in 1561, the abbey rental was £2-467 — 
meal, 72 chalders 3 bolls; here, 40 chalders 11 bolls; horse corne, 43 
chalders 16 bolls; cheese, 500, five score and six stones. Abbot Hamilton 
in 1553 resigned in favour of his nephew, Claud Hamilton, aged ten, who 
in 1591 was made Lord Paisley, and was succeeded by his sou, James, 
earl of Abercorn. 

2. Cross Raguel Abbey, in parish of Turnberry or Kirkoswald, be- 
longing to Paisley Abbey till 1244. The name Kirkoswald points to an 
older dedication to St. Oswald, king of Northumberland (died 643). The 
name Cross Raguel is variously explained as Crux Regalis, referring to 
King Oswald, or Crux St. Reguli or Riagail. The abbey was 2 miles from 
Maybole, founded by Duncan, first earl of Carrick, and dedicated to 
St. Mary. It held the churches of Kirkoswald, Straiton, Kirkcudbright, 
Girvan, Invertig, and DaiHy. The ruins stand in the precinct or 
abbot's yard, and indicate an aisleless oblong church of 164 feet, ending 
in a five-sided apse. Abbot Macbrayar, who died in 1547, greatly ex- 
tended and improved the buildings. The last abbot, Quentin Kennedy, 
in 1562 held a formal public disputation with John Knox at Maybole. He 
died in 1564, when a pension of £500 was given from the revenues to 
George Buchanan. The rest was given to Allan Stewart as commendator, 
who in 1570 was roasted before a fire by Gilbert, earl of CassLUs, nephew 
of Abbot Kennedy, until he signed a tack in the earl's favour. In 1275 
the income was £633. In 1561 it was £466. 

3. Fail Priory, 1252, on west side of Loch Fail, in the parish of 
Tarbolton, was a cell of Paisley. 

4. Dalmulin, on north bank of the Ayr, was founded in 1229 by Walter 
the Stewart, for Gilbertines, but c, 1238 became a cell of Paisley, 

IV. Cistertiaiscs, Bernardines, or White Monks, were mi order founded at 
Cistertium or Citeaux hi 1096 hy Robert, abbot of Molesme, and in 1116 
by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. 

1, Melrose Abbey, St. Mary's, Avas founded by David I. in 1136, the 
monks being brought from Rievaux in Yorkshire, There was an earlier 
monastery with a history of exceeding interest, dating from c. 650, associated 
with the names of St. Eata, St. Boisil, and St. Cuthbert, being a cell of 
St. Aidan's house at Lindisfarne, and planted at Old Melrose on a loop 
of the Tweed, 2^ miles eastward of the abbey site of 113G, It was doubt- 
less reverence for this earlier monastery and its saintly inmates and mis- 
sionaries that led David to choose the same locality for his new foundation. 
He granted to the monks and " their successors, for a perpetual possession, 
the lands of Melros, and the whole land of Eldune and the whole land of 
Dernwic , . . all the fruits and pasture and timber in my land, and 

1 Lees' "Abbey of Paisley," 161. 

382 THE ciimicH of Scotland. 

in the forest of Selkirk and Traquhair, and between Gala and Leadir 
Water, besides both the fishery on the Tweed everywhere, on their side of 
the river as ou mine, and ... in addition, the whole land and pasture 
of Galtunside." The abbey church was dedicated 28th July, 1146. Further 
gifts were made by Malcolm IV., by William the Lion, by Allan the king's 
steward, and by the De Morvilles. In 1322 the abbey was burnt by the 
English under Edward II. Robert I. made a grant of £2000 for rebuild- 
ing"^ and desired that his heart should be buried there. In 1385 it was 
burnt again by Ilichard II. In 1544 and 1545 it was pillaged and devastated, 
and the destroyers were chastised ou their retreat at Ancrum Moor. The 
monks in 1530 numbered eighty, and ten years later seventy, with sixty 
lay brothers. The church had chapels of St. Ninian, St. Katharine, St. 
Thomas, St. Paul, St. Cuthbert, St. Peter, St. Kentigern, St. Stephen, 
and St. Bride. 

The abbey held the churches of — Hassenden, Cavers (1358), Wester- 
kirk, Ettrick, Dunscore, Ochiltree (1316), Mauchlin, and Tarbolton (1369). 
The monks held pastures in Lammermuir, Sorrowlessfield, Ploughgate, and 
Eskdale ; they had an hospital for sick monks at Auldeniston ; monk's 
tower at Hassenden, a hostel for poor pilgrims; and an abbot's town 
house in Strichen's Close, Edinburgh. 

The rental was valued at £1758. At the dissolution the lands fell to 
James Douglas, and in 1619 to Thomas Hamilton, earl of Melrose. 

2. Newbotle Abbey (name meaning new dwelling) was founded in 1140 
by David I. " The situation is of that kind which the Cistertians most 
of all affected. The South Esk, escaped from the green hills of Temple 
and the woody ravines of Dalhousie, widens its valley a little to give room 
for a long range of fair level ' haughs.' At the very head of these meadows, 
and close to the brook, the abbey stands. Behind, to the north, are the 
remains of the ancient monkish village, once occupied by the hinds and 
shepherds of the convent, but separated from the abbey gardens by a 
massive stone wall, stiU called the ' Monkland Wall,' ascribed to the time 
and the personal care of William the Lion, which still forms the boundary 
of the park on that side. Across the little river the bank rises abruptly, 
broken into fantastic ravines, closely wooded, which only upon examin- 
ation are discovered to be the remains of the ancient coal-workings of 
the monks, of a period when the operation was more a sort of quarrying 
than like modern coal-mining."^ 

The church, St. Mary's, was consecrated by the Bishop of Moray, 16th 
March, 1233, but burnt by Richard II. in 1385, and again by the Earl of 
Hertford, 15th May, 1544. Here Edward I. was born, 5th June, 1296, 
and here resided the Princess Margaret of England in 1503, from 3rd to 
7th August, being visited daily by James TV. after their marriage contract 
had been signed at Lamberton church. The church of the abbey with 
its cemetery has been effectually obliterated ; and it is beneath the flower 
plots or the smooth turf of the modern garden that Queen Mary de Couci, 
wife of Alexander II., rests, with Sir Alexander de Ramsay and Sir James 
of Douglas, both lords of Dalkeith and benefactors of the abbey, and 
many another lady and lord of Lothian, Though not one of the most 
richly endowed monasteries, that of Newbotle possessed great estates in 
^ Cosmo Innes, " Sketches," 125. 


six counties — Edinburgh. Haddington, Linlithgow, Lanark, Peebles, and 
Stirling. Its churches were— Cockpen. Heriot, Bathgate, and Badermono-j 
or Monkland. The Lanarkshire possessions of the abbey, the gift of 
Malcolm IV., are still known as Old Monkland and New Monkland. 
The first charter trace of coal of Xewbotle is in a gift of Seyer de Quinci, 
earl of Winchester (1210-1219), the half of the marsh which stretches 
to the burn of Whytrig on the east, and also the coalwork and quarry 
(carboixarium et quarrarinm) between the said burn of Whytrig and the 
bounds of the lands of Pontekyn and Inveresch (Pinkie and Inveresk), 
and in the ebb and flow of the sea. Through this field in later times the 
monks carried galleries and conduits for the discharge of the water, not 
only of their o-wn mines, but of that which impeded the working of 
their neighbours, the monks of Dunfermline, in their coal-field of Inveresk 
and Pinkie. 

Philip de Everwel, the lord of Lynton and Romanno, gave the monks 
a right of pasture in Eomanoch for 1000 sheep and 60 cattle and all their 
stud of mares. The abbey had special charters for right-of-way between 
the Monklands in Lanarkshire and Newbotle. The family of ^Melville, 
among others, gave a license to the monks " going and returning between 
Newbotle and the abbey lands in Clydesdale, of passing through their 
lands of Retrevyn, by the road which they had used in time past, with 
their cattle and carriages; and also of unyoking their beasts from their 
•waggons, and pasturing in the pasturage of that land as often as they 
required, avoiding corn and meadow, and of passing the night there, once 
in going and once in returning." For this the monks were to pay yearly 
a new waggon, such as they manufactured for their own use in Clydesdale, 
laden with timber or building material of any kind. In palmy days the 
monastery had eighty monks and seventy converts. The revenue in 15G1 
was reported as £1413, Six aged monks had £240 paid in pensions at 
the suppression, when the lands were converted into a barony in 1597 for 
jMark Ker, lord Newbotle, for whom his father, the last commendator, 
secured the lands in 1587. 

3. DuNDRENNAN Abbey, St. Mary's, in the parish of Rerrick, and 5 miles 
from Ivirkcudbright, 1^- mile from the Solway Firth, at Port Mary, 
It was founded in 1142 by Fergus, lord of Galloway. Its church was 
cruciform, 130X30 feet, with side aisles Ibh feet wide, transept 107X28 
feet, choir 45X26 feet, and central tower and spire 200 feet high. Cloisters 
on south side of church were 108 X 104 feet, the monastic offices being 
stiU further south. The claims of Dundrennan to have been the last 
resting-place of Mary in her flight from Langside to England are contested 
by Hill Burton, who proves that she rode by Sanquhar to Terregles, the 
house of Lord Herries, where she spent three or four days. 

It held the churches of Rerrick and Kirkmabreck, Its income was £500. 
The last abbot was Edward Maxwell, son of John, lord Herries. The 
lands fell to Robert Maxwell, son of Lord Herries. In 1606 John Murray 
became Lord Dundrennan. In 1621 it was annexed to the Chapel Royal 
of Stirling. 

4. KiNLOSS or Kynflos Abbey, St. Mary, a quarter of a mile from the 
south-east corner of the estuary of the Findhom, was founded by David I. in 
1150, and confirmed by Pope Alexander III. to Reinerius, the second abbot. 


The grants made by the founder were— in the parish of Alves or Awacli, 
the lands of Kvulos and Inverlochty, and certain lands on the Massat. 
Malcolm IV. added a mill on the Massat with the adjoining " landella " of 
2 acres, with a ploughgate of land in the "landella" of Burgyn or Burg5^ 
William the Lion gifted the barony of Strathisla in Banffshire ; the lands 
of Burgie lying on the north side of the king's highway from Forres to 
Elgin ; ^the lands of the '-prcpositura" of Invereren and a toft in Eren ; 
also tofts in his burcrhs of Inverness, Kairu, Forres, Elgin, and Aberdeen. 
Bishop WUliam of Moray gave the church lauds of Burgie. Walter Mur- 
dach and his wife Muriel, daughter of Peter de Pollock, gave part of the 
haugh of Dundurcus with the land and pasture set apart for them. Robert 
Corbet gave three oxgates of land of Lethenoth lying between the churches 
of Gamry and Troup. David, son of Duncan, earl of Fife, gave land of 
Belach or Balloeh, on the west boundary of the barony of Strathisla. 
Robert I. gave all the fishings in the Fiudhorn, and the church of Ellon 
in Aberdeenshire. William, earl of Sutherland, 21st May, 1362, gave the 
hospital of St, John the Baptist, of Ilebuisden or Helmdale, in the parish 
of Loth. 

Ivinloss had twenty-five abbots, an account of whom is given by Dr. 
Stuart." Abbot Thomas Crystall, the twenty-third of these, and who 
died in 1535. increased the monks from fifteen to twenty. The most 
famous of the abbots was Robert Reid (1528-1558), who was from 1541 
bishop of Orkney, Avhose book seal is given by Dr. Stuart (p. Iv.), being 
a stag's head surmounted by a mitre, with motto " moderate " underneath, and 
for surrounding inscription, "-J-Robertus Reid, epus, Orchaden. et abbas. 
a. Kynlos. 1558." Abbot Reid founded an abbey library, and also brought 
from France a gardener who was expert in the planting and grafting 
of fruit trees, and who left tokens of his skill not only in the gardens of 
the abbey and the neighbourhood, but throughout the whole of Moray. 
Of him Ferrerius adds, that his only defect was the want of one of his 
feet, which he lost in a sea-fight with the Spaniards near Marseilles. 
Ferrerius, above quoted, was a learned Piedmontese whom Abbot Reid 
brought to Kinloss to teach philosophy, and who took so deep an interest 
in his work that he wrote lives of Crystall and Reid, which are reprinted 
by Dr. Stuart, besides some singularly interesting specimens of discourses 
by Adam Elder, a monk of Kinloss. 

The monastery had altars— of the Dead, in a mortuary chapel, St. Jerome, 
St. Lawrence, St. Mary, St. Anne, St. Peter, Holy Cross, St. John Evan- 
gelist, St. Andrew, St. Thomas the Martyr, St. Bernard, and St. Mary 
iSIagdalene. In 1541-44 the church was decorated by paintings in dis- 
temper by a foreign artist, Andrew Bairtrum. A curious purchase by 
Abbot Crystall was that of eighty feather beds for the monks. 

Walter Reid, the last abbot, subscribed the Protestant covenant of 1560, 
and alienated much of the abbey lands, marrying Margaret CoUace of 
Balnamoon. In 1601 Edward Bruce, commendator, got a charter from 
the Crown, erecting a lordship and barony of Kinloss. A new erection 
was given to the same effect, 3rd May, 1608. In 1633 the family got the 
earldom of Elgin, and in 1643 the estate passed to Brodie of Lethen. 

'" Records of the Monastery of Kinloss," pref. xxsix.-lvL, and 74, 75. 


5. DEin Abbey, in Buchan, St, Mary's, ou the left bank of Soutli Ugie 
Water, in the parish of Old Deer, three-quarters of a mile from the village, 
was founded in 1218 by William Comyn, earl of Buchan, and colonized 
by three monks from Kinloss. At tlie dissolution the monks were fourteen. 
The abbey held the parishes of Foveran. Peterhead, and King Edward. 
The income was £875, besides rents in kind. Another valuation is £572. 
It was made into a barony of Altrie in favour of llobert Keith, son of the 
fourth Earl Marischal. In 1809, when the site was explored, the church 
was found to have been cruciform, 150 by from 27 to 38 feet, and 90 feet 
across the transept. 

The earlier history of Deer, preceding the above foundation (and from 
which alone it is entitled to the name of abhci/ in the Celtic sense), is of 
deepest importance on account of its clearness. About 580 St. Columba 
and St. Drostan, his nephew, came from lona to Aberdour and thence 
to another town, which pleased Columba, because it was full of God's 
grace ; and he asked of the Mormaer Bede to give it him, and he would 
not. But his son falling sick, the Mormaer went to the clerics to ask a 
prayer of them, and gave them in offering the land from Clock in tiprat to 
Clock pctte mic Garnait. They made the prayer and health returned. 
Then Columba gave Drostan that Catkair, and blessed it, and left as his 
word, " whosoever comes against it, let him not be many-yeared victorious." 
Drostan weeping as they parted, Columba said: "Let Dear (Tears) be 
its name henceforward." All this, and more, is in the Book of Deer, a 
Latin MS. of the ninth century, containing the Gospel of St. John and 
parts of the other three, the Apostles' Creed, and an office for the visita- 
tion of the sick. This precious MS., found in 1860 at Cambridge, was 
edited by Dr. Stuart and printed by the Spalding Club in 1869. 

6. Cupar Abbey, in Angus, St. Mary's, was founded by Malcolm IV. on 
12th July, 1164. in the centre of a military intrenchment, probably Roman. 
Part of the site is still occupied by the parish church. 

The churches held by the abbey were— Alvah, in Banffshire ; Airlie, 
Glenisla, and Meathie, in Forfarshire ; Bendochy and Fossoway, in Perth- 
shire, with the chapel of St. Mary of Inchmartin, in Errol. The abbey 
paid salaries to chaplains at St. Margaret's aisle in Forfar, Carsegrange, 
Errol, &c. Excepting those at Murthly in Aberdeenshire, and the church 
lands of Alveth in Banffshire, the abbey estates lay in the counties of 
Forfar and Perth. The principal lands (as named in the " Rental," in two 
vols., published by the Grampian Club in 1879) were those of Aberbothry, 
Arthurstone, Balgersho, Balbrogy, Balmyle, Carsegrange, Cupar Grange, 
Drummie, Denhead, Ennerwick in Atholl, Glenisla, Grange of Airlie, 
Glentulach, Keithock, Little Perth, Myluehorn, Murthly, Persie, Pitlochry, 
and TuUyfergus. 

In the original endowment by two charters given at Traquair, Malcolm 
IV. granted to the abbey all his lands at Cupar, and coal and certain other 
privileges in the royal forests. WiUiam the Lion gave, as a site for the 
abbey, half a carucate of land ( = 50 acres), also the king's chase and some 
waste land, besides (for endowment) the lands of Aberbothry and Keithock; 
the lands of Parthesin or Persie with a certain reservation ; two plough- 
gates of land in Rethrife or Rattray, and the marsh of Blair or Blairgowrie. 
William of Hay gave the lands of Ederpoles or Lederpoles c. 1170. His 


son, Sir David Hay, gave a net's fishing on the Tay, between Lornie and the 
hermitafje of Gillemicbel. Nicholas of Hay gave a bovate of land in 
Carse o1 Gowrie, previously held by Roger, son of Baudrice. John de 
Hay of Adnachtan gave one yare on the Tay, and a toft in Adnachtan. 
llichard de la Battel (a squire of the Hays) gave the land lying between 
Ederpoles and Inchraartin. Stephen of Blair, son of Vallenus, gave the 
lands of Ledcassy. Alexander U., in 1234, granted the monks three 
charters, confirming the lauds of Glenisla, Belacktyn, Frenchy, Cragnethau, 
Inverquharity, Fortuhy. and others, to be held in free forest. The family 
of Atholl, Sir William Oliphant, Sir William Montealt or Mowat, William 
of Montefixo or Muschet, Sir Hugh Abemethy, IVIichael of Meigle, Sir 
John of Inchraartin, Sir Gilbert Hay, and several others, were benefactors. 
The abbot had two country seats, the chief at Campsie, 3 miles south- 
west of the abbey, and the other at Cupar Grange, north of the Isla, and 
■2 miles from the abbey. At the crag of Campsie, in parish of Cargill, 
was St. Hunnaud's or Adamnan's chapel. The "Register of Cupar" 
(i. 1-117) has an account of the succession of abbots. In 1561 the rental 
was set down as £1238— wheat, 7 chalders 12 bolls; bere, 75 chalders 10 
bolls; meal, 73 chalders 4 bolls; and oats, 25 chalders 4 bolls. But before 
this date five estates had been alienated by Abbot Donald Campbell, youngest 
son of Archibald, second earl of Argyll, to his sons. In 1606 the lands 
were made a lordship for James Elphinstone, as Baron Cupar, second son 
of the first Lord Balmerino. 

7, Glenluce Abbev, or VaUis Lucis, St. Mary's, in Galloway, on the 
left bank of Luce Water, Ih mile north-west of the village, was foimded 
in 1190 by Roland de Galloway, constable of Scotland, and colonized from 
Melrose. It covered more than an acre of ground, and had a garden and 
orchard of 9 Scots acres, now the glebe of Old Luce. In 1235 the abbey 
Avas plundered by the soldiers of Alexander H. In 1507, when James TV. 
with Margaret his queen, was returning from a pilgrimage to Whithorn, 
he lay a night at Glenluce, and gave the gardener 4s., marked in the Lord 
Treasurer's accounts. Thomas Hay, of the Hays of Park, was in 1560, by 
papal bull, made commendator ; the revenue of £666 being, in 1575, leased 
to Gilbert, fourth earl of Cassilis, infamous for his roasting of the abbot of 
Crossraguel, and also for villany in forging the signature of the last abbot 
of Glenluce by means of a monk, when the earl engaged a " carle," Carno- 
chan, to stab the monk, and next engaged his uncle to hang Camochan, all 
to cover the forgery, and "sa had conqueist the lands of Glenluce." How 
many a crime and family curse the sacrilegious plunder of church lands 
occasioned all over Scotland ! In 1602 the lands were made a barony in 
favour of Lawrence Gordon, second son of the Bishop of Galloway. Aiter 
several other changes they came into the hands of Sir James Dalrymple, 
Viscount Stair and Lord Glenluce and Stranraer. 

8. CuLROSS Abbey, St. Mary, St. Andrew, and St. Serf, was founded in 
1217 by Malcolm, earl of Fife, who was buried here in 1229. The first 
monks came from Kinloss, ISIarch 12, 1229. The foundation of 1217, as 
in so many other cases, was simply the reviving or remodelling, with fresh 
endowments, of an older Celtic monastery associated with St. Servanus 
alone, whose church, according to Dr. Skene, dated from c. 700. The 
Earls of Argyll were hereditary bailies of the abbey, the last abbot being 


murdered in 1530. The abbey, besides certain lands, iiell the church of 
Tullibole. The revenue was £768. In 1609 Robert Colville, brother of 
the last commendator, was made Lord Colville of Culross. The 1st of 
July, St. Serf's day, was for centuries (until lately) a day of processions, 
games, and merry-making. 

9. Balmerinach Abbet, dedicated to St. Mary and St. Edward the 
Confessor, was founded in 1227 by Ermengarda, William the Lion's 
widowed queen, who, six years later, was buried before the high altar of 
its cruciform cliurch. It was colonized from Melrose on St. Lucy's day, 
1228. The abbey stood on a height behind the village, commanding a fine 
view of the Firth of Tay and the Carse of Gowrie, as far as the opening of 
Strathearn. The edifice was Second Pointed, 2-40 by 140 feet, and (corre- 
sponding to the duplicate dedication) parted by eight octangular piers into 
two parallel aisles. It is now a ruin, having been burned by the English 
in 1548, and sacked by Reformers in 1559. It held the churches of Bal- 
merino and Barrie, with fishings on the Tay. Its lands were erected into 
a barony for Sir James Elphinstone, lord Balmerino, in 1604. Verifying 
the usual curse on the sacrilegious land-grabbers of that age, the two first 
lords were sentenced to death, and the sixth and last was beheaded on 
Tower Hill for his share in the '45. 

10. Sweetheart Abbey, or Xew Abbey, in Kiikcudbrightshire, 7 miles 
south from Dumfries, at the foot of Criffel, was dedicated to St. Mary, 
and founded in 1275 by Devergoil or DevorgLUa (who also founded Baliol 
College, Oxford, and buUt the old bridge of Dumfries). Devorgilla was 
third daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, great-granddaughter of David 
I., and mother of the vassal-king John Baliol. Her husband, John de 
Baliol, died in 1269 at Barnard Castle, where he was buried, except his 
heart, which, shrined in ivory and silver, the devoted woman retained beside 
her even at meals, latterly placed near the high altar, and finally it was 
deposited on her own heart in the tomb — hence the name of the abbey, 
Duke Cor or Sweetheart, and Neic Abbey, to distinguish it from Dun- 
drennan, founded 130 years earUer, and popularly known as the Old Abbey. 

The abbey held the churches of Lochkinder, now New Abbey (in which 
parish it was situated), Kirkpatrick-Durham, Crossmichael, Buittle, and 
Kirkcolm, with the baronies of Lochkinderloch and Lochpatrick, besides 
other property. The income was £682. The lands were made a lordship 
in 1624 for Sir Robert Spottiswood, lord Newabbey. 

The two last abbots were John, who sat in the Parliament of 1560, which 
approved the Confession of Faith, and Gilbert Brown, who had a written 
controversy with John Welsh of Kirkcudbright, later of Ayr. Abbot 
Brown, banished in 1605 from Scotland, died in 1612 in Paris, as Provost 
of the Scots CoUege. 

Smallei- Houses of the Cistertians. 

1. Sagadul or Saddel Abbey, founded 1150 ; in Ivintyre, opposite Arran. 

2. Friars Carse Priory, near Dumfries. Cell of Melrose. 

3. Hassendean Priory, west of Hawick. Cell of Melrose. 

4. Mauchlyn Priory, 1165; in Ayrshire. Cell of Melrose. 
6. Cadvan, in Dunbog. CeU of Balmerino. 


6. Holm Cultram, Holme or Harehope; in Cumberland, 12 miles from 
Carlisle, by Henry, earl of Huntingdon, 1150. The monks were sent 
from Melrose by St. Waltheof, under his friend Everard, who became the 
first abbot. 
V. Order of Vallis CauUum, or Val de Choiix, in Burgundy ; founded there in 

1193. Introduced in 1230 to Scotland hy Bishop Malvoisin of St. Andrews. 

An order of ascetics. 

1. Pluscardixe Prioky, St. Mary, St. John Baptist, and St. Andrew, 
was founded in 1230 by Alexander II.. and called Monasterium Vallis 
St. Andrefc. The monks being ascetics, only the prior and the procurator 
were allowed to go beyond the precinct. The ruins, well-cared for, stand 
in a valley, sheltered by hills and pine woods, on the north side of the 
Lossie 4 miles south-west from Elgin. The old orchard still bears fruit. 

The priory possessed the whole valley of Pluscarden, 3 miles in length, 
in the parish of Elgin; the lands of Old Mills, near Elgin; lands in Durris; 
lands of Grangehill, now Dalvey, where was a grange and cell of monks ; 
a fishing on the Spey, given by Robert I. The walls of the precinct remain 
nearly square, with the church in the centre, choir 56 by 27 feet, transept 
92 feet across. There were chapels and altars — of the Dead, St. Jerome, 
St. Lawrence, St. Mary, St. Ann, St. Peter, Holy Cross, St. John Evangelist, 
St, Andrew, St. Thomas, St. Bernan, St. Mary Magdalene. 

In Boiamund's Roll of 1274 it was taxed at £533, while Beauly and 
Ardchattan were at £200. In 1454 the Cistertian Vallis Caulians were 
superseded by Benedictines brought from Urquhart, so that then Plus- 
carden became a cell of Dunfermline. Sir Alexander Seaton, earl of 
Dunfermline, was made commendator of Pluscarden in 1565. The Book 
of Pluscarden, founded mainly on Bower's " Scotichronicon," and com- 
piled in the priory in 1461, probably by Maurice Buchanan, forms vols, 
ix. and x. of " The Historians of Scotland." 

2. Beauly Priory (Bellus Locus, Bcaulicn), St. John Baptist, in the 
parish of Kilmorack, was founded by Sir John Bisset of Lovat, in 1232, 
for seven French monks. (The church, aisleless, was 136 by 21 feet.) It 
held the churches of Abertarf, Kintallirgy, with chapel of St. Laurence 
at Conveth, and kirk of Cumer or Comer. The last prior granted the 
lands in 1558 to the sixth Lord Lovat, but they were forfeited in 1715. 

The oldest possessions of the priory were Fitheney, Karcurri, and the 
fishing of the Forne. William Bisset, brother of the founder, between 
1230 and 1242 gave the church of Abertarf; said church in teinds, church- 
lands and tithe of salmon fishings in parish, being confirmed by Bishop 
Andrew de Moravia. In 1255 Laurence, miles, son of Patrick, janitor, of 
Inverness, gave all he had in Bromihalw and in the island. Between 
1275 and 1294 David of Innerlunan gave Oucbterwaddale, extending to 
half a davacli. In 1280 Cecilia Byseth gave her third part of Altyr. 

3. Ardchattan Priory, founded in 1231, in Lorn, near Connel Ferry. 
This priory succeeded an older church of St. Modan, called Kilbodan, in 
Benderloch. The priory church was 66 by 29 feet. Between the priory 
and the hill is a pasture called " the monk's garden." For charters and 
values see "Orig. Par." (II. i., 153), where the whole valued rent amounts 
to £1400 Scots. 


VI. Carthusians, or Christ's Poor, a recluse order founded in 1086 by St. 
Bruno at Chartreuse in Grenoble. Solitude and silence were their rule; 
hut they were hospitable and charitable, and withal, better educated than the 

1. Perth, Cartuss {Monasterium Vallis Virtutis), founded in 1429 by 
James I. and his queen, for thirteen monks, was wrecked in 1559 by 
Knox's " rascal multitude." In 1563 the revenue was returned as £509— 
wheat, 8 chalders 5 bolls; here, 20 chalders; meal, 2 bolls; white oats, 
12 chalders 6 bolls; black oats, 12 chalders 9 bolls. A full account of 
this monastery is given in Fittis' "Ecclesiastical Annals of Perth," 213-264. 

2. Makerstone, in Roxburghshire. 

VII. Priemonstratenses or White Friars, from Prasmonstratum or Pr.emontre 
in Laon, France, held the rule of St. Auyustine, and icere established by 
St. Norbert of Magdeburg in 1120. 

1. Saulseat Abbey (^Sedes Anirriarum, or Monasterium Viridis Stagni), 
dedicated to St. Mary and St. John Evangelist, near Stranraer, in the parish 
of Inch, was founded in 1148 by Fergus, lord of Galloway, afterwards 
canon of Holyrood in 1160. It was the first establishment of Premon- 
stratensians in Scotland, the mother of Whithorn and Holywood. Its 
abbot was appointed by the king, uncontrolled by the Pope. In 1568 
the abbot of Saulseat, with some other leading men, subscribed a bond 
to defend Queen Mary. 

The abbey held the churches of Saulseat (afterwards joined to Inch) and 
Kirkmaiden. After the Reformation the abbey revenues went to the 
parishes of Kirkmaiden, Saulseat, and Portpatrick, before 1628 caUed 
"The Black Quarter of the Inch." The revenue in 1562 was £343— 
meal, 13 chalders 4 bolls ; bere, 7 chalders 8 bolls ; capons, 13^ dozen ; 
oats, 6 chalders. 

2. Holywood Abbey (Sacrum Nemus or Dercongall), St. Mary's, 5 miles 
north-west of Dumfries, was founded in 1180 by John Maxwell, lord of 
Kirkconnel. It held the churches and church-lands of Holywood, Dun- 
score, Penpont, Tynron, and Kirkconnel, and exercised jurisdiction over 
many lands in Nithsdale and East Galloway. Joannes de Sacro Bosco 
was a monk here in 1221. The last abbot, Thomas Campbell, gave help 
to Queen Mary after her escape from Lochleven, and incurred forfeiture, 
in 1568. In 1618 it was made a barony for John Murray of Lochmaben. 
The value in 1544 was £700 (reduced in 1561 to £425)— meal, 19 chalders 
14 bolls ; bere, 9 chalders 3 boUs ; malt, 1 chalder. 

3. Whithorn Priory, St. Ninian's, was founded in the reign of David 
I. (1124-1153) by Fergus, lord of Galloway, when the priory church 
served as the cathedral of the diocese of Galloway. The monks formed 
the dean and chapter of the cathedral, and were so closely associated with 
it that the account already given of the diocese supplies what is needed 
for the priory as well. The two most famous priors were Gavin Dunbar, 
in 1514, who became archbishop of Glasgow, and James Beaton, who 
became archbishop of Glasgow and also of St. Andrews. In 1513 the old 
Earl of Angus, Archibald " BeU the Cat," retired to this priory and died 
the following year. In 1561 the value was £1016— bere, 15 chalders 14 



bolls; meal, 51 chalders 15 bolls. In 1606 it was annexed to the revenues 
of the see of Galloway. 

4. TONGLAXD Abbey, on a tongue of land at the meeting of the Dee 
and Tarf, in south Kirkcudbrightshire, was founded by Fergus, lord of 
Galloway, c. 1150, for canons from Cockersand in Lancashire. In 1325, 
during the insurrection after the death of Alan and the rout of the Irish 
invaders the enraged Galloway men slew tlie abbot and sacrist in the 
church because they were foreigners and had sworn allegiance to Edward I. 
Prior Herries repaired the buildings and built the precinct wall in 1430. 

The last abbot, Damian, satirized by Dunbar, was an Italian alchemist, 
who in 1507, in the reign of James IV., essayed to fly from Stirling Castle to 
France. He fell into a "midden" and broke his thigh-bone — a fiasco which 
he ascribed to the blending in his pinions of a dunghill cock's plumes with 
eagles' feathers. The abbey held the churches of Balnacross, Senwick 
in Borgue, Troqueer (Balnacross given by Robert I., and Senwick by 
David II.) In 1516 Tungland was given to David Arnot, bishop of 
Galloway, and was attached to that see till the Reformation. William 
Melvil, a lord of Session in 1587, was made commendator by James VI., 
and in 1588 got a pension of £616 from the revenues ; he died in 1613. 
The value was £206. 

5. Dryburgh Abbey, St. Mary's, 3 miles below Melrose and 10 miles 
above Kelso, was founded in 1150 by Hugh de Morville, constable of 
Scotland, and his wife, Beatrice de Beauchamp. The cemetery was con- 
secrated on St. Martin's day, 1150, "that no demons might haunt it," 
and the monks came on 30th December, 1152, from Alnwick. They wore 
a coarse black cassock covered by a white woollen cope. In 1208 the new 
cemetery was consecrated by Bishop Malvoisin of St. Andrews. 

Churches held by Dryburgh were — Maxton, given by Walter Stewart, 
father of Robert II., but surrendered for an exchange in 1200 to Sir Hugh de 
NormanviUe ; Kilrenny, with half carucate of Pitcorthy and toft in Crail, by 
Ada, mother of Malcolm IV. ; Merton, before 1221 confirmed by Pope 
Honorius HJ. ; Caddisley chapel and St. Leonard chapel (in Lauder parish), 
both west of the Leader, by David I. ; Lauder, by John Baliol and his 
wife, DevorgiUa, for six mass chaplains; Channelkirk, by Hugh de Morville; 
Sawelton or Salton, by the same; Pencaithland, by Lady Catharine Stewart 
of Cardross, before 1376 ; Golyn or Gulane, by Sir William de Wallibus, 
for two mass canons; Lessudden, with tofts, orchard, and meadow, by 
Richard de Laudonia, before 1252 ; St. Mary in Ettrick Forest, in time of 
David n. ; St. Kentigern at Lanark, with chapel of Glegern or Cleghorn, 
by David I. ; Pedynane or Pettinain with grange of Imbirston, by the 
same; Nemphlar (chapel of Lanark) and Carteland, with tithes of all 
his cattle there, by the same ; Sowerby or Sorby in Wigtown, with church 
land by Robert de Veteriponte, for which, in 1280, the prior and convent 
of Candida Casa gave a money payment of 20 merks ; Worgis or Borgue, 
in Kirkcudbrightshire, by Hugh de Morville ; Bosjeth, by his wife BeatrLx ; 
Sembry, by Walter, bishop of Galloway, +1335 ; Vogrie, by Bishop Gilbert, 
his successor. 

Of the chief other possessions of Dryburgh, Peter de Haga gave two 
oxgangs in Bemersyde with messuage and garden, pasture for three cows 
and twenty sheep, and part of his forest of Flatwood. Roger de 


Quiuci gave the fishing of the lake of Merton. Alexander de Baliol of 
Cavers gave half the wood of Gladiswood, with half of the Woodhead iu 
feu for 40s. anuually. Helias gave, at his village of Brotherstansyde, 
pasture for 100 sheep, 8 oxen, 4 cows, and 2 horses, besides 6 acres arable. 
Thomas of Brotherstane cave G acres, with pasture for 80 sheep, 4 oxen, 
and 1 horse. Simon de "Wardrobe gave 18 acres, David Olifard gave a 
ploughgate and pasture for 300 sheep in Smalham. llobert III. in 1390, 
on suppressing the dissolute nunnery at South Berwick, gave their lands to 
Dryburgh. Sir Adam of Gordon gave a peatery. Patrick, earl of Dunbar, 
gave two oxgangs in Ercildon, a toft and croft, and pasture for 100 sheep, 
12 oxen, 12 swine, and 2 horses, with easements; also Hunter's Laud, 
with pasture for 300 sheep, 4 oxen, and 4 cows. Many further like gifts 
are named in Gordon's " Monasticon," filling seven pages (327-334), 
following which is a list of abbots (334-345). 

In 1183 Pope Lucius III. granted permission to the canons of Dryburgh, 
whenever the kingdom should be under a general interdict, to celebrate 
divine service in their church in a low voice, with the doors shut, and 
without ringing of bells — all excommunicated and interdicted persons 
being shut out. In 1332, when the army of Edward II. was on its retreat, 
the monks rang their bells for joy, but the soldiers returned and burnt 
the abbey in revenge. Again, in 1385, it was burnt by Richard 11. ; and 
yet again, in 1544, by Sir George Bowes and Sir Brian Layton. A 
special feature of the abbey was a chapel of St. Modan, commemorative 
of an earlier Celtic church on the same spot. St. Mary's Aisle, the 
north aisle of the choir, on 26th September, 1832, furnished a fitting 
grave to Sir Walter Scott. The refectory was 100 feet long, 30 broad, 
and 60 high. The cloister to the north of the refectory was 100 feet 
square, and is now a flower garden. 

The value was £912 — wheat, 1 chalder 14 bolls; meal, 22 chalders 15 
boUs ; here, 24 chalders 7 bolls ; oats, 3 chalders 15 bolls. In 1604 Dry- 
burgh, with Inchmahome and Cambuskenneth, was made a barony of 
Cardross for John, eai'l of Mar. 

6. Fearn Abbey iu Ross, founded in 1227 by Ferquhard, earl of Ross. 
Abbot Patrick Hamilton was burnt at St, Andrews in 1527. 

VIIL Benedictines or Black Monks, from St. Benedict of Monte Cassino. 
They were of a literary and active disposition. 

1. COLDINGHAM Priory, St. Cuthbert, St. Ebba, and St. Mary, 2 miles 
from Eyemouth in Berwickshire, was founded in 1098 by King Edgar, 
and given to Durham. In 1485 James III. tried to suppress it, and give 
half its revenues to his new Chapel Royal at Stirling, and the other half 
to endow a collegiate church at Coldingham; but this rash scheme, 
through resistance of the Homes, hereditary bailiffs of the priory, cost the 
king his life at Sauchieburn, 11th June, 1488, From 1509-60 it was 
under Dunfermline. As happened in so many cases. King Edgar's foun- 
dation in 1098 was on an older Christian settlement of nuns which had 
existed from 660, associated with St. Ebba, who was visited by St, Cuth- 
bert, The nunnery became corrupt, and decayed. 

The churches held by the priory were — Edrom, granted by Cospatrick, 


earl of Dunbar, confirmed by David I., 1139; Holy Trinity at Berwick, by 
Bishop Bee, l:.^S->-1309; Fishwiek and Swinton. confirmed by Bishop Robert 
of St Andrews. 1250; Ednam (with chapels of Newton, Nenthorn, and 
Nesbit), founded by tlie Saxon, Thor Longus ; Earlston or Ersildun, c. 
1150, by Walter de Lindsay to Kelso, but in 1171 exchanged for Gordon 
in Berwickshire, and St. Laurencekirk in Berwick; chapel of Stitchel; 
Smalhani or Smailham, by Walter OUfard, justiciary of Lothian (+ 1242) ; 
Ayton; Lamberton ; and Aldcambus. 

The original grants made by King Edgar at the altar were— the whole 
village of Swinton, according to the same boundaries by which the Saxon 
Liulf held it ; twenty-four beasts for recultivating the land of Swinton ; 
that the inhabitants of Coldinghamshire pay to the monks a yearly tribute 
of half a merk of silver for every carucate of land; Paxton, with the 
men, lands, and waters, and territory between Cnapdean and Homdean ; 
also the mansions or villa2;es of Aldcambus, Lumsdean, Renton, Reston, 
Swinewood, two places called Eiton or Ayton, Prenderguest, Farndun, and 
Cramesmuthe, with their lands, woods, waters, tolls, wrecks of ships, and 
all dues belonging to them. 

Bishop Robert of St. Andrews in 1127 gave a charter of freedom from 
custom, can. or cuneved, and all services to him and his successors, and 
declared Coldingham more exempt from all episcopal aids than any other 
abbey church in Lothian. William the Lion gave the keeping of his 
woods of Reston, Brockholewood, Akeside, Kirkdeanwood, Harewood, 
Deanwood, Swinewood, and Houndwood, prohibiting all hunting without 
permission of the monks. 

David, baron of Quixwood, in Abbey St. Bathans, gave 26 acres of land 
adjacent to the leper hospital of Aldcambus, together with a wood on the 
muir of Aldcambus. Robert I. by charter at Newbottle, 26th December, 
1328, gave the privilege of five stags yearly from Selkirk Forest, for the 
monks to celebrate the feast of the translation of St. Cuthbert, 4th 

In 1406 the monks made Archibald, earl Douglas, keeper of their 
possessions with a pension of £100, who appointed Sir Alexander Home 
of Dunglass as his bailiff at £20. Sir David Hume of Wedderburn was 
bailiff in 1441. In 1465 Alexander, lord Home, became hereditary bailiff. 
The value of the priory was £818 — wheat, 6 chalders 7 bolls; here, 19 
chalders 12 bolls; oats, 66 chalders 8 bolls; pease, 3 chalders 18 bolls. 
In 1606 it was made a lordship for Alexander Home of Maunderston. 

2. Dunfermline Abbey {Fermehdunum, De Monte Ivfermorum), Holy 
Trinity and St. Margaret, founded by Malcolm HI., completed by Alex- 
ander I. David I. in 1124 brought thirteen monks from Canterbury. 
Between 1244 and 1250 the Norman choir was rebuilt, when took place the 
translation of St. INlargaret, i.e. removal of her body and shrine from the 
old high altar to the new one — Queen Margaret having been canonized in 
1249, and the abbot mitred in 1244. The churches held by the abbey were — 
Abercrombie, Caldor Comitis, Cousland in Cranston, Dunipace, Kinel, 
St. Giles' (Edinburgh), Glenin, Hailes or Colinton, Inveresk, Inverkeithing, 
Kellin or Carnbee, Kinross, Kinghorn or Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, Kinglassie, 
Melville or Lasswade, Dalkeith, Marlin (?), Newlands, Newton, Newburn, 
St. James' (North Queensferry), Orwell; St. John's, St. Leonard's, and 


Castle Chapel (Perth) ; Stirling Castle Chapel, Strathardle or Ivirkmichael, 
Wj'met, Newton. 

Properties in Dunfermline district which paid teinds to the abbey, as 
given in in 1561, were— Baudrick (middle), Hoill, Blacklaw, Cavil, Craig- 
luscar, Clune, Craigduckie (east and west), Galrick, Cask, Grassmuirland, 
Knockhouse, Kjiock. Legattisbrig, Limekilns, Logie, Lathalmond, DundufF, 
Drumtuthil, Gellets, Luscar (east and west), Millhills (north and south), 
Mortlandbank, INliddlebaldridge, Meldrum's ]\Iill, Xewlands, Outh, North 
Queensferry, Pitliver, Pitreavie, Pitfirrane, Pittencrieff, Pitbauchlie, Pit- 
connochie, Ptandel's Craijs, Roscobie, St. Margaret's Stone, Zouchmill, 
Tinnygask, Fod, Breryhill (north and south), Halbank, Luscar (east and 
west), Pitdennis, Carnock, Ivinnedar, Bandrum, Saline, Lassodie, Cocklaw, 
Lathangy, Arlay, Spittalfield, near Inverkeithing. 

The abbey had right to the whole wood needed for fuel and building 
within its jurisdiction ; every seventh seal caught at Kinghorn ; one-half 
of the fat of whales caught or stranded in the Forth ; a ship exempted from 
all customs; custom dues of all vessels entering the harbour of Inveresk; 
besides houses, lands, annuities, salt-pans, quarry, coal-pit, skins and fat 
of beasts killed at feasts at Stirling. Valuation in 1560 was £2513 : — 
wheat, 28 chalders 11 bolls ; bere, 102 chalders 15 bolls ; meal, 15 chalders ; 
oats, 61 chalders 6 bolls ; horse corn, 29 chalders 1 boll ; butter, 34 stones ; 
lime, 19 chalders 15 bolls ; salt, 11 chalders 8 bolls ; capons, 374 ; poultry, 
746. At the dissolution there were twenty-six monks. Abbot's Hall and 
Pinkie House were residences of the abbot. The lands were given to 
Secretary Pitcairn, then to the Master of Gray, finally to Alexander Seton, 
earl of Dunfermhne, 1 605. 

3. Ukquhart Priory, Holy Trinity, near Elgin, was a cell belonging to 
Dunfermline, founded in 1124 by David I. The priory held the churches 
of Urquhart, St. Margaret, Bellie, and Dalcross. 

A charter by Robert Keldelecht, abbot of DunfermUne (1240-1252), gives 
the lands of Kildun, near Dingwall, to Richard of Moray and his heirs, for 
an annual payment on St. John's day in our cell of Urchard. The kirk 
land of Durris belonged to Urquhart. The south and east parts of the 
parish of Urquhart were made a lordship for Alexander Seton, baron of 
Urquhart, in 1591, afterwards Earl of DunfermUne. Urquhart (c. 1346) 
fell into disorder, and by direction of the Pope was joined to Pluscardine. 
No rental return was made in 1563. The site is marked by the " Abbey 

IX. Trinity Friars, Trinitarians, Bid Friars, Matliurines, Crossed or CrutcJied 
Friars, and Fratres Cruciati, are various names of an order whose 
houses were called hoqntals and their superior miuister. Their office 
was to redeem slaves, especially Christians, from the Turks. Insti- 
tuted in 1198 by St. John of j\Ialta, and received in England in 1357 as 
the Order of Ingham. 

1. Aberdeen, 1211. Site of Trinity Church. Destroyed, December 8, 
1659, by party of reform. 

2. Dunbar, 1218. Patrick, fifth earl of Dunbar. "Friars' Croft" 
marks the site. 

3. Houston, 1226. In Renfrewshire. 


4, Scotlandwell, 1250. Kinross-shire, on north side of the Leveii. 
Two churches. 

5. Failford, 1252. Tarbolton, Ayrshire. Founded by Andrew Bruce; 
cast down in 1561 by Lords of Council. It held the parishes of Barnweil, 
Symington, and Galston, in Kyle; Torthorwald, in Dumfriesshire, and 
Inverchaolin, in Argyllshire. 

G. Peebles. St. Nicholas, Church of Holy Cross, 1257. By Alexander III. 

7. Dornock, 1271. In Sutherlandshire. By Sir Patrick Murray. De- 
stroyed 1570. 

8. Berwick-on-Tweed, 1214. At the Bridge. 

9. Dundee, 1283. At foot of South Tay Street. By Sir James Lindsay 
of Glenesk. 

10. Cromarty, 1271. By Sir Patrick Murray. 

11. Brechin, 1200. Between the Bishop's Palace and Brechin Castle. 

12. Luffness, 1286, at Aberlady. By Earl of Dunbar. 

13. Dunet in Buchan, founded inl297 by Alexander, third earl of Buchan. 

14. Soltre, Holy Trinity, on Soutrahill, seventeen miles south-east of 
Edinburgh, founded 1164 by Malcolm IV. "Soutra Aisle " survives. It 
held the churches of Ormiston in East Lothian, Strathmartin in Forfarshire, 
Lympetlaw in Sprouston (given by Richard Germyne), and Wemyss in 
Fife (given by John of Methkill). Soltre was annexed to Trinity College 
by Mary of Gueldres in 1462. 

Friars or Mendicants. 

I. Carmelites or White Friars, from 1126. 

Aberdeen, St, Mary and St. John, 1350. Philip de Arbuthnot. 

Banff, St. Mary. Before 1300. 

Berwick, c. 1250. 

Dunbar, 1263. Patrick, seventh earl of March. Site near the town. 

Edinburgh, Holy Cross, Greenside, 1526. A lazar in 1691. 

Inverbervie, Kincardineshire. " Friars Dubbs." 

Irvine, St. Mary. Laird of Fullarton. Fourteenth century. 

Lmlithgow, St. Mary, 1290. South side of town at Friars Well. 

Luffness at Aberlady. Confirmed by David 11. Luffness was the port of 

Queensferry, St. Mary, 1330. Laird of Dundas. Still well preserved. 
Roxburgh, 1513. 
Tylilum, St. Mary. Perth, 1262. Site now called Dovecotland. 

//. Dominican, Black or Preaching Friars. 
Aberdeen, site of Grammar School. Alexander II. 
Ayr, St. Catharine's, 1230. By Alexander IL In Friars Vennel. 
Berwick, 1230. Alexander IL 
Cupar, in Fife, St. Mary's. Foot of Castle Hill. Was founded by an Earl 

of Fife, and annexed by James V. to St. Andrews. 
Dundee. Andrew Abercromby, burgess. 
Dysart, St. Denis. A fragment still stands. 
Edinburgh, St. Mary's. Blackfriars Wynd, 1230. 


Elgin, 123.J. Alexander II. 

Glasgow, St. Mary's, 1244. Church destroyed by lightning, 16G8. Rebuilt 

in 1G99, and known as College Church or Blackfriars. 

Inverness, 1233. Alexander II. 
Linlithgow. East side of town. 
Montrose, 1230. Sir Alan Durward. 

Perth, St. John and St. James, 1236. North side of town. 
St. Andrews, 1274. In South Street. Bishop Wishart. The property 

transmitted from Lord Seton became the Madras School. 
St. Monace, Fife, c. 1370. By Sir Alan Durward. David II. founded 

the church, 1332. 
St. Ninian's, near Stirling. Friars Wynd. 
Wigtown Priory, 12G4. South-east of town. Devorgilla. 

///. Franciscans, Minorites or Grey Friars, from 1231. 
(A.) Conventuals or Recollects. 
Berwick, 1235. 
Dumfries, 1300, Devorgilla. In Friars Vennel. Church pulled down 

after Comyn's murder in it in 1305, and rebuilt in south-east as St. 

Dundee, 1292. On the Howff. 
Haddington, St. Duthac's. Alexander II. 
Innerkethyn, St. Columba's, 1234. Near the "Inns" or palace where 

Annabella Drummond, widow of Robert IH., died. 
Roxburgh, St. Peter's, 1235. 

(B.) Observantines (more strict, with bare feet and shirtless). 

Aberdeen, St. Mary's, 1450. Destroyed 1560 by Barons of Mearns ; but 

its church partly survives as Greyfriars or College Church. 
Aberdour, 1450. 
Ayr, 1472. By the inhabitants of Ayr. " Friars Well " on the site of 

present old church. 
Banff, St. John Evangelist. 

Edinburgh, south side of Grassmarket. James I. 
Elgin, 1479. John Inues. South side of city. 
Glasgow, Greyfriars Wynd, 147C. By Bishop Laing. Earlier grants in 

Jedburgh, 1513. The citizens. 
Kirkcudbright. Founded in first half of thirteenth century. In 1564 

Queen Mary gave the friary church to be a parish church. The lands 

were given to Sir Thomas Maclellan of Bombie. 
Lanark, St. Kentigern, 1314. By Robert I. " Friars Yard." 
Perth, 1460. South-east of town. Lord Oliphant. Destroyed by mob, 

11th May, 1559. 
St. Andrews, 144-. In Market Street. Bishop Kennedy and Bishop 

Graham. Property given by Queen Mary to the town. 
Stiriing, St. Modan, 1494. James IV. 


IV. Friars of St. Anlhowj of Vicnnc. 

South Leith, 1435. Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig. Had St. Anthony's 
hermitage and chapel at Arthurs Seat. Changed into St. James's 
Hospital in 1614. 

V. Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and Malta. A charitable 
order serving the sick. 

Ancrura Preceptory. Ruins known as "Maltan Walls." 

St. John's Hill, near Edinburgh. 

Kinkell or Telia. Preceptory dissolved 1494, and given to Marischal 

Ruthwell, Preceptory at Kirkstyle. Chapel, cemetery, and ample lands. 

Torphichen, 1153. David I. Had seven churches. A garth or sanc- 
tuary. Made into a barony in 1564 for Sir James Sandilands, the last 

St, Andrews, in North Street, held ten tenements in town. 

Knights- Templars. A military order, poor at first, 
Aboyne. The lands and castle passed from William Bisset to the Knights 

Templars in 1242 ; from them to the Erasers of Cowie ; and ultimately 

to the Huntly family. 
Adamtoun, Our Lady lurk of Kyle. A preceptory which had a travelling 

" pardoner." 
Balantrodoch, or Amiston, on the South Esk. By David I. Chief seat 

of Templars in Scotland. 
Edinburgh, Holy Mount, St. Leonard's Hill. 
Inchinnan. Church and pertinents granted by Walter Fitz Alan to the 

Kjiights Templars. On their suppression in 1312, transferred to the 

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. At the Reformation the lands passed 

to Lord Torphichen, then to Semple of Beltrees. 
Maryculter in Ivincardineshire. The church and most of the parish passed 

in 1312 from the Knights Templars to the Knights of St. John. Sir 

James Sandilands was preceptor in 1547. 
Oggerstone, in Stirlingshire. 

Red Abbey Stead. Near Newstead in Roxburghshire. 
St, German's House, near Seton, in Tranent, in twelfth century. 
Drem. The barony of 800 acres belonged to the Knights Templars. The 

priest's house still stands, and the cemetery is now a garden. 

Tulloch or Tullich in Aberdeenshire. 
Turriff. Site marked by "Temple Brae." 
Urquhart Bay, north side, on Loch Ness. 

Convents in Scotland. 

/. Benedictines or Black Nuns, founded hy St. Scholastica, sister of the great 

St. Benedict, + c. 543. Had four hotises. 

Coldingham or Coludi, founded before 661. St. Ebba's house stood at 

first on St. Abb's Head, and was transferred to the site of the later priory. 


IvLlconquliar in Galloway. 

Lincluden, founded by Uthred, who died in 1174 ; but made into a 
collegiate church c. 1490. 

North Berwick, St. Mary's, founded by Duncan, earl of Fife, who died 
1154. It was destroyed in 1565. The ruins are near the railway station. 
The revenue in 1565 was £557, besides rents in kind. It was made a lord- 
ship for Sir Alexander Hume. by James YI. 

//. Cistertians or White Nuns. Had fifteen houses. 

Coldstream, St. Mary's, founded in 1143 by Gospatrick, earl of Dunbar. 

Edinburgh, St. Mary's, in St. Mary's Wynd. 

Eccles, St. Mary's, in Berwickshire ; same founder as Coldstream. 

Elbotil, or Eldbottle, in Dirleton. 

Elquho, in Strathearn. in parish of Rhynd, at '• Grange of Elcho."' 

Emmanuel, St. Mary, near Linlithgow, now Manuel. Founded by 
JIalcolm rS^. 

Gulane, in Dirleton. 

Haddington, St. Mary's, in Nungate. 

Halyston, St. Leonard's, near Berwick ; by Duncan, earl of Fife, ia 1154. 

Perth, St. Leonard's, before 1296. 

St. Bothan's. The nunnery of St. Mary at Abbey St. Bathans. founded 
c. 1200, by Ada, countess of Dunbar, was a cell of South Berwick, and 
had income of £47. The east and west walls of the chapel, 68 by 28 feet, 
survive in the parish church. 

South Berwick. 

Trefontaines, or Strafontane, one mile west of St. Bothan's, called also an 

lona, St. Konad. This had at first Benedictines (Black Nuns), under 
Prioress Beatrice, sister of the founder, Reginald, lord of the Isles. But 
there were White Nuns (Augustinians) at lona previous to Bower of Inch- 

Innishail, in Loch Awe, where the chapel was in use tiU 1736. 

///. Nuns oj St. Clair, or Minores.tes of St. Francis ; founded hy Santa Clara 
at Asffisi, in 1212. Had three houses, 

Aberdeen, St. Katharine of Sienna. 

Aberdour, St. Martha's Nunnery of St. Clair, 1476. 

Dundee, in 1260, by Devorgilla. 

IV. Dominican Nuns. 

Edinburgh, St. Katharine of Sienna. "The Sheens" or Sciennes at 

T^. Carmelite Nuns. 

Edinburgh, St. Mary's of Placentia. "The Pleasaunce." 


Besides eighty-two monasteries and twenty-four convents, there were 
eighty-three hospitals established, of which a list is given in \\'allcott's 


" Ancient Church of Scotland "' (p. 38i), and a shorter list of twenty-eight 
in Spottiswood's " Religious Houses." Their uses were— as infirmaries for 
the sick and aged, as hostels for pilgrims and travellers, as homes for 
lepers. In dai's when no poor-law existed and surgeons were few, this 
ancient form of medical mission was one of the best aspects of the Gospel, 
and ought to make us think more kindly of the old Church than we com- 
monly do in modern Scotland. The very name of Maison Dieu (well known 
still in Brechin) is a hymn in itself. It is noteworthy that no fewer than 
eight of these hospitals are commemorative of St. Leonard, whose day is 
November 6. He was a French nobleman under Clovis I., and a disciple 
of St. Kemigius, who became a hermit in a forest four leagues from Limoges. 
He died c. 559. Prisoners were his especial care. Five bear the name of 
IMary ]\Iagdalene, probably in reference to the alabaster box of ointment 
mentioned in St. Luke vii. 37. 

Li^t of Hospitals (aJphaheikal). 

Aberdeen had four: 1. St. Anne's Lazar House; 2. St. Thomas the 
Martyr, before 1490 ; 3. A foundation by Bishop Dunbar in 1538 for twelve 
poor unmarried men — it stood west of the cathedral ; 4. St. Peter's Spital, 
by Bishop Kyninmond. 5. Aberdour, St. Mary and St. Peter, 1487. G. 
Aldneston or Aldcambus, Lazar Hospital, before 1177, under Melrose, en- 
dowed by David, baron of Quixwood, in Abbey St. Bathans. 7. Arbroath, 
St. John Baptist. 8. Ardross, belonging to South Berwick. 

9. Ballantyne's Hospital, for a master and seven poor folk, on the road 
between Edinburgh and Dalkeith. 10. Balgavies in Forfarshire. 11. Balin- 
crieff or Bancrieff, St, Cuthbert's at Aberlady, twelfth century. 12. Banff, 
bedehouse for eight aged women. 13. Berwick, Maison Dieu by Philip 
de Rydal. 14. Brechin, Maison Dieu, 1264. 

15. Cambuslang Spital, village of Spital on road towards Rutherglen. 
16. Cavers Spital, Roxburghshire, 17. Crailing Spital, belonging to abbey 
of Ancrum. 18. Crookston, near Paisley, c. 1200, by Robert Croc, for 
infirm men. 

19. Dalkeith, 139G, for six poor men, by Sir James Douglas. 20. Donis- 
lee or Doonslea, near Ayr, St. Leonard's Hospital. 21. Dunbar, had a 
Maison Dieu at head of High Street. 22. Dunbarton, hospital for bedes- 
men. 23. Dunkeld, St. George's Hospital, by Bishop Brown, 1510, for 
seven old men. 24. Duns. 

Edinburgh had seven : — 25. Maison Dieu of St. Mary Magdalene in 
Cowgate, c. 1507, for chaplain and seven bedesmen, by Michael and Janet 
Macquhen ; 26. St. Leonard's Hospital at St. John's HiU, Salisbury Crags ; 
27. Greenside, Leper House ; 28. Lazar House near the house of the 
provost of Trinity College ; 29, Maison Dieu at head of Bell's Wynd ; 
30. St. Mary's Hospital in Leith Wynd, 1479, by Bishop Spens of Aber- 
deen ; 31. St. Thomas Hospital, for seven red-gowned almsmen, near the 
Watergate, by Bishop Crighton of Dunkeld. 32. Ednam Spital, St. 
Leonard's (St. Laurence?), near Kelso. 33. Elgin, Maison Dieu, c. 1226, 
on west side of city. 

Glasgow had three :— 34. St. Nicholas, for twelve bedesmen, 1470, by 
Bishop Muirhead; 35. St. Ninian's Leper Hospital, by Lady Lochow, 
c. 1450, on south side of Clyde in Govan parish, marked by Hospital 



Street, near the end of Bishop Rae's bridge, now Stockwell Bridge ; 36. 
Farnington Hospital, at Stable Green Port, near the cathedral, 1491, by 
Bishop Blackader (a chapel and hospital called Farnwgton in the parish of 
Roxbur^^h was in 1186 confirmed by the Pope to the Bishop of Glasgow). 

Haddln-ton had two :— 37. St. Mary's ; 38. St. Laurence. 39. Hamil- 
ton St Mary of Bethlehem, 1459. 40. Hassendeau, Monk's Tower, a 
hostel for pilgrims, c. 1180. 41. Helmisdaill, in parish of Loth, St. John 
Baptist belonging to Kinloss. 42. Horndene or Upsetlington in Ladykirk, 
St Leonard's, by Robert Biset, twelfth century. 43. Hutton, St. John s, 
Berwickshire. 44. Holywood in Galloway, founded under Robert I., re- 
endowed in 1372 by Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway. 45. How Spital, 
on east bank of the Annan, 

46. Jedburgh, Maison Dieu for pilgrims. 

47. Kilcause or Kingcase, St. Xinians Lazar House, near Ayr, for eight 
lepers by Kinc- Robert I. 48. Kincardine o' Neil, by Alan Durward. 

49 Lanark, St. Leonard's. 50. Lauder, at Chapel Yard, for poor 
almsfolk, by Hugh de Morville. 51. Leith, St. Nicholas. 52. Lasswade, 
St Mary of Consolation, 1478, by Rector Robert Blackader (afterwards 
Archbishop of Glasgow), for the poor and sick pilgrims. 53. Libberton 
(or Leper-toun) had oil-weU and chapel of St. Catharine, famed for curing 
skin diseases. 54. Legerwood, St. Mary Magdalene, Lazar House. 5o. 
LinUthgow, St. :Mary Magdalene. 

56. Maxwell, St. Michael's Hospital or Maison Dieu, opposite Roxburgh 
Castle ; the hospital gai'den site is still marked by roots of old flowers. 
57. Mount Teviot in Roxburghshire. 

58. Nesbit Spital in parish of Crailing. 59. Newburgh, by Alexander, 
earl of Buchan. 

60. Old Cambus in Cockburnspath, for lepers, twelfth century. 

6l'. Peebles, St. Laurence and St. Leonard. Perth had three :— 62. 
St Leonard's, before 1296 ; 63. St. Anne's, on south side of St. John's 
Church, c. 1500; 64. St. Catharine at the Claypots, 1523. (The hospital 
of Kincr James YL, with charter of 1569 and confirmation of 1587, was an 
attempt; to conserve some of the endowments of the wrecked religious 
houses of Perth, but had small success.) 65. Polmadie, St. John's 
Hospital, before 1319, across the Clyde from Glasgow Green. 66. Portic- 
crag, now Broughty, or Broughty Ferry, and belonged to Arbroath 

67^^*Rothvan, St. Peter's, by John Byseth, 1224, for prior, chaplain, 
seven lepers, and a menial. 68. Old Roxburgh, Maison Dieu, St. Mary 
Magdalene, by David L, c. 1140. 69. Rutherford, St. Mary Magdalene, m 
parFsh of Maxton, belonged to Jedburgh. 

70. Sanquhar, before 1296, on north bank of the Nith. 71. Shetland, 
Lerwick, Lazar House. 72. Shetland, Papastour, lepers. 73. Shotts, 
St. Catharine of Sienna, by James, lord Hamilton, 1476. 74. Smalholm 
Spital in Roxburghshire. 75. Soltre, Holy Trinity, by Malcolm lY., 1164, 
for pilc^rims and poor folk; endowed with eight churches. 76. Spey, St. 
Nicholas at Boharm. 77. Stirling Bridge, St. James's Lazar House, before 
1463 78 Stirlincr, near the Port of St. ISIary's Wynd, asylum for decayed 
tradesmen, by Robert Spital, tailor to James W. 79. Stonehouse, Spital. 
80. Sugden or Seggieden, St. Augustine's ; mentioned 1296. 



81. Torrens or Torrance in East Kilbride, St, Leonard's, thirteenth 
century. 82. Trailtrow in Cummertrees. 83. Turriff, St. Congan's Maison 
Dieu or Hospital, for master, six chaplains, and thirteen poor husbandmen, 
by Alexander Couiyn, earl of Buchan, in 1272. lu 1329 Robert I. added 
a mass chaplainry for his brother Nigel Bruce, slain at Kildrummy. The 
site is still known as " Abbey Land." 

Many of tlie sites of old hospitals, or at least the lands with which they 
were endowed, are identifiable by the name of Spital, either alone or joined 
with such words as street, field, hill, house, burn, shiels, haugh. 




Narrative of events from death of James V.— Murder of Cardinal Beaton— Mary of Guise 
sncceeds Arran as regent— Marriage of Queen JIary to the Dauphin— The Regent s 
conduct at Perth irritates the Lords— Parliament of August, 1560, accepts a new 
Confession— Representative churchmen of the better sort: Ninian Wingate and 
Bishop Leslie, Bishop Reid, Archbishop James Beaton, and Abbot Kennedy- 
Authors of Catechism of 1552 and Archbishop Hamilton— Three provincial councils 
called for reform— Fourteen causes leading to overthrow of the Church— Better 
features of the Roman Church— Where did the old Church wealth go ? 

An organic and systematic exhibition of the old Church, being 
somewhat dry work, has been too often passed over by our 
historical writers, who excusably preferred the lively line of 
events, or the fuller treatment of one local subject, such as we 
find in the admirable volumes on the abbeys of Lindores and 
Paisley. But we cannot do justice to the merits of the pre- 
Eeformation Church, unless we have some clear and com- 
prehensive idea of its wonderful internal organization, for its 
weaknesses were chiefly moral and personal. Nor can we 
understand the working of one of the secret and most potent 
motives that led to the Church's overthrow with a sudden crash 
in 1560, unless we have seen in detail the nature, extent, and 
growth of the old ecclesiastical endowments, which were so 
strong a temptation to greedy, turbulent, and unscrupulous 
barons and lairds, who shrewdly foresaw in an ecclesiastical 
revolution a rich chance of plunder, besides the crippling of a 
rival or superior power in the state. The view here taken strips 
the Eeformed Church that succeeds of some of its gilding, but 
it is far better in the long-run to be strictly impartial, and draw 
as true a picture as we possibly can of the Eoman Church in 
Scotland, which was our forefathers' church as well as Eoman. 
We can never ourselves be beyond the reach of revolution, and 
were such fate to overtake us we can conceive how bitter it 
would be to have our good qualities forgotten or caricatured, 
while our faults were exaggerated and gibbeted. 

On the death of James V. at Falkland, in 1542, the throne 
fell to an infant seven days old. It has been said that Beaton 
claimed the custody of the infant in terms of a forged will 


of the late king. In point of fact the Earl of Arran, the next 
heir to the throne, became regent by authority of the Estates. 
The earl was a good, easy, fickle soul, with no backbone in his 
policy. The one aim of Henry VIII. was to secure possession 
of the infant queen, and to have her married as early as 
possible to his son Edward, so as to swallow up Scotland in 
Eno-land. To this end he tried hard to use the Scots captured 
at Solway — called on the one side " the Assured Scots," and on 
the other "the English Lords "—against their country's independ- 
ence. They made the best bargain they could for their own 
freedom by holding out slippery hopes ; but though they gave 
hostages of sons or relatives for their fulfilment, most of them 
did the very opposite of what Henry bargained for, as England 
was to them simply " the auld enemy." The Scots clergy were 
more patriotic than the Solway captives, as they had always 
been, even in the dark days of Wallace and Bruce, at the peril 
of their churches. Cardinal Beaton meantime was in prison 
at Blackness in charge of Lord Seton his friend, and he was 
ludicrously removed to St. Andrews to his own castle. The 
reason of this imprisonment of Beaton, while formally his 
treasonable correspondence with Erance, was really that his 
patriotic statesmanship stood in the way of the "Assured 
Scots " — viz. the Earls of Cassilis and Glencairn, with the Lords 
Eleming, JMaxwell, Somerville, and Oliphant — betraying their 
country into the hands of Henry VITI. for their own selfish ends. 
But the imprisonment of Beaton, who at this stage had full 
popular sympathy, put all things into confusion, by the country 
being laid under interdict of the Church and the services of 
religion suspended ; so that in view of this storm his enemies 
quailed, and ended his imprisonment by transferring him to 
his own castle. Moreover, it was during this imprisonment of 
Beaton that in May, 1543, the Parliament permitted the use of 
the Bible in the vulgar tongue — a measure against which the 
other bishops appealed to a Provincial Council. To be safer 
against the arts or force of Henry the young child and queen- 
dowager were shifted from Linlithgow to Stirling — a prudent 
move, effected after a meeting of the cardinal's party at St. 
Andrews. A treaty on the lines of the less offensive part of 
Henry's design was on the point of acceptance by the Scottish 


Estates, when Arran suddenly made friends with the cardinal, 
and the course was so changed that in December the treaty 
was decisively repudiated — to the wild rage of the would-be 
father-in-law. In May of 1544 an English fleet entered the 
Eirth of Eorth and landed an army under the Earl of Hert- 
ford, which burned Edinburgh for three days, and ravaged the 
coast towns of Eife ; but marching toward the Border, for more 
destruction, they met with a sudden and sharp chastisement at 
Ancrum Moor. The very next year Hertford made a second 
Scottish inroad, crossing from England into the Kelso- Jedburgh - 
IMelrose-Dryburgh countr)% and working unparalleled destruc- 
tion of life, grain, cattle, and architecture. Hertford's report to 
his brutal master, besides burnt and plundered grain, specified 
12,492 sheep, 1292 nags and geldings, "towns, towers, stedes, 
barnekins, parish churches, bastel-houses — 192 ; villages — 243 ; 
monasteries and friar-houses — 7." Thus perished the grand 
Border abbeys of David I. — not, as is commonly supposed, by 
the fury of Picformers, but by English savagery alid soldiery, 
because under the name of marriage we refused to concede our 
national independence. 

At this time, in some silent way, reforming views were 
spreading in Scotland, as was seen in the fact that a mob 
at Dundee destroyed the Black and Grey Eriars monasteries, 
and also the Abbey of Lindores, turning adrift the helpless 
monks. A mob also attempted to wreck Arbroath Abbey, 
but were held at bay by Lord Ogilvie, and similarly the 
citizens of Edinburgh defended their Blackfriars house from 
a local reform mob. The religious struggle is further seen 
from opposite sides in a peculiarly unpleasant form, in the 
burning of George Wishart for heresy at St. Andrews in 
1545, and the vile assassination, partly retaliatory, of Cardinal 
Beaton at the same place on 29th May of the next year, by 
Norman Leslie, the eldest son of the Earl of Rothes. Beaton, 
with aU his faults, was the greatest statesman of the age in 
Scotland, and his removal — while it cleared the way for the sub- 
version of the Church — was an irreparable loss from a civil 
and patriotic point of view. The garrison of the Castle of 
St. Andrews held out for fourteen months, tiU August, 1547. 
It is only fair to confess that they were a crew of despera- 


does and blackguards, and it is not easy to regard John 
Knox with honest Christian sympathy for casting in his lot, 
even temporarily, with such men; and his having to keep 
them company in the French galleys till February, 1549, was a 
punishment not altogether unmerited. 

The deadly policy of Henry YIII. survived its author, when 
the Protector Somerset marched northward with 15,000 troops, 
attended by a coasting fleet, and successfully engaged the Scots 
at Pinkie, near Musselburgh, in 1547, through bad generalship 
on the Scottish side. This sore defeat and slaughter was 
followed by the destruction of Holyrood Abbey and other 
cruel ravages around Edinburgh; but it led to no more per- 
manent evils, as the English had quickly to go south again. 
One result of the scare was the shifting, for security, of the 
young queen from Stirling to the island of Inchmahome. 

A new turn to affairs was given by the arrival of a French 
fleet at Leith on 16th June, 1548, with 6000 men and cannon, 
as allies to the Scots against England. An ambassador, Sieur 
D'Ess^ accompanied the expedition. Previous to this an 
arrangement, with some degree of recognition, had existed, 
whereby a son of the Earl of Arran, the governor, was to 
marry the young queen. But under the influence of D'Esse 
this was set aside in favour of the Dauphin, and the matter 
was put in shape so speedily that the queen sailed in the 
French fleet from Dunbarton, and reached Brest 30th August, 
1548. With the help of the French cannon the English 
were dislodged from forts at Broughty, Inchkeith, Hume, 
Haddington, and Lauder. But meanwhile the Xing of France 
had made a peace with England, which included his ally of 
Scotland. This peace, which lasted from April, 1550, to 1554, 
restored to Scotland the whole of her old territory, and was 
of special value in enabling men to return to agriculture and 
the repair of burnt farmsteads and villages. The same period 
of rest had a very important political result in leading to a 
change in the governorship, whereby Arran retired, and Mary 
of Guise, the queen-mother, succeeded, and held the office till 
1560, so that with her regency we arrive at the more immediate 
movements which culminated in the Eeformation. 

Although the new regent had been now sixteen years in 


Scotlaud she had learned but little of our language — never 
getting beyond putting "me" for "I," and limiting herself 
to a few score elementary nouns, adjectives, and verbs ; but 
her greatest defect was in not understanding our national tem- 
per and feelings. Otherwise she was a prudent, intelligent, 
and devout woman, who seems honestly to have wished the 
peace and welfare of Scotland, but these always with the 
preservation of the old faith and Church. She ought to have 
earlier found out that Scotsmen would no more submit to be 
ruled by Frenchmen than by Englishmen, and that Scotland 
would never be a province under either. Against this strong 
national feeling she erred when De Eoubay was made vice- 
chancellor ; when Boutot was made governor of Orkney ; when 
Bartholomew Villemore was put in a post in the exchequer, 
and D'Oysel in the Eegent's Council; when French troops alone 
held Dunbar Castle and a fort at Eyemouth. What gave most 
offence of all was her project for a standing army, to be main- 
tained by a new tax. A fundamental change like this should 
never have been proposed by an interim ruler. In the winter 
of 1557 a commission of six members crossed to France to 
arrange for the queen's marriage with the Dauphin, the com- 
missioners being Archbishop James Beaton of Glasgow, Lord 
James Stuart (the queen's illegitimate half-brother). Lord 
Eothes, Lord Cassilis, Bishop Keid of Orkney, and John 
Erskine, laird of Dun. It is to be noted that two of these 
six — the Lord James and Erskine of Dun — were very soon 
to develop into leaders of the reform party. And it is 
further to be noted that two extremely awkward things 
occurred in connection with this marriage commission — the 
one, that proposals were made and underhand documents 
actually signed afterwards, by Queen Mary, utterly incon- 
sistent with Scottish nationality ; the other, that three of 
the commissioners died suddenly at Dieppe on their way 
home (Eothes, Cassilis, and Eeid) — it is supposed of poison, 
to hinder them divulging the extent and details of the French 
designs against our nation. The actual marriage took place, 
24th April, 1558. On the 10th of July, 1559, Henry IL of 
France died of a face wound received in a tournament, and 
Mary Stuart thereon became Queen of France as well as of 


Scotland; and this was her position at the time when, in 
Scotland, the Eeformation was accomplished in her absence, 
for it was 19th August, 15G1, when she landed again at 
Leith as the widow of Francis II. 

But meantime another influence, and a great one, affected 
religion in Scotland on the death, 17th November, 1558, of 
" Bloody " INIary of England, which opened the succession to her 
half-sister Elizabeth, whose sympathies were wholly with the 
Protestant party. Knox had been in Geneva since July, 1556, 
but his views were gaining ground, as shown in the First Cove- 
nant or "Band," dated 3rd December, 1557, the subscribers 
coming to be known as "The Lords of the Congregation." 
A second "Band" was subscribed in 1559. The martyrdom 
of Walter Mill, the priest of Lunan, at the age of eighty-two, 
on 28th August, 1558, at St. Andrews, made a great popular 
impression against the old faith. Jest and tumult also contri- 
buted at the annual procession of St. Giles, on 1st September 
of the same year, when the saint's image was stolen and the 
smaller substitute was upset, then dragged through the Nor Loch, 
and burned. The same year witnessed the presentation to the 
regent of the petition of the Protestant barons, by Sir James 
Sandilands of Torphichen, a married priest. The Ecclesiastical 
Council of 1559, dealing honestly and bravely with the subject 
of inward reform of church and churchmen, in the Dominican 
monastery of Edinburgh, rose on 10th April never to meet 
again. Most decisive of all was the preaching of Knox, in 
May, 1559 (he had come on 2nd May from France at the 
special desire of the Lords of the Congregation), at Perth, 
Crail, Anstruther, and St. Andrews, when unhappily a number 
of monasteries and churches were sacked. This preaching 
was preceded by the regent breaking promise with the Con- 
gregation and putting their preachers to the horn — i.e., declaring 
them outlaws. The regent had used French money to hire 
troops to garrison Perth, and had entered it with a body- 
guard of French troops under D'Oysel, notwithstanding that 
the four following points had been agreed to by her just 
before: — (1) "Both the armies shall be disbanded, and the 
town left open to the queen ; (2) none of the inhabitants 
shall be molested on account of the late alteration in religion ; 


(o) no Frenchmau shall enter the town, nor come within three 
miles of it; and when the queen retires, no French garrison 
■will be left in the town ; (4) that all other controversies be 
left to the next Parliament." This breach of faith gave 
occasion to some of the more cautious nobles to quit the 
regent and side with the reform party. They grew so strong 
that on 23vd October a great meeting of nobles and burghers, 
tlie spiritual lords being absent, issued a proclamation declaring 
the regent deposed. The cry now was danger from France, 
and to make common cause with England to avert it. The 
danger from France became apparent when 1000 fresh French 
troops landed and encamped at Leith to help the regent. 
At this stage Maitland of Lethington left the regent's party 
and sided with the Lords of the Congregation. D'Oysel's 
troops made a harrying march through Fife, and increased 
the popular rage against the French. But now English ships 
with 6000 troops appeared, and on the 7th of May, 1560, 
English and Scots, combined, assaulted the French in Leith, 
but in vain. Soon after this two French commissioners, De 
Eandan and Mouluc, bishop of Valence, met at Newcastle 
with Cecil and Wotton as commissioners from England, and 
came to an agreement that the French troops should quit Scot- 
land; that the French king and queen should give up the 
use of the name of England in their titles and arms; that 
the government of Scotland should be granted to the nation, 
and that the things done by the nobles and people should be 
considered as done in defence of their liberties and of the 
rights of their sovereign. This was embodied in the treaty 
of Edinburgh, of 6th July, 1560. But the clause as to the 
abandonment of the use of the name of England in title 
and arms, although accepted by the French commissioners, Mary 
never would ratify. In the midst of these arrangements the 
regent died in the Castle of Edinburgh on the 9 th of June, 
in peace and concord and mutual forgiveness of those of the 
Reformed clergy who ministered to her. 

The last great step was taken when the Estates met in 
August. On the 17th they approved of a Confession of Faith 
that had been preparatorily drawn up by five leading reformers, 
to whom a commission had been given by the great Council on 


29tli April. On the 25th of August the Estates completed the 
Eevolution or Reformation by passing a series of three Acts — 
the first repealing other beliefs, the second abjuring the Pope, 
and the third prescribing penalties of extreme severity for ad- 
ministering or being present at mass. 

A view of the inner working of the meeting is obtained from 
the following note in Hill Burton^: — "Throckmorton, the English 
ambassador, gives an account of this eventful Parliament. He 
' never heard matters of such great importance sooner dis- 
patched, nor with better will agreed unto.' After a question 
about the institution of the Parliament, 'the next was the 
ratification of the Confession of Faith, which the Bishop of 
St. Andrews said was a matter that he had not been accustomed 
with, and had had no sufficient time to consider or confer with 
his friends ; howbeit, as he would not utterly condemn it, so 
was he loath to give his consent thereunto. To that effect spake 
also the Bishops of Dunkeld and Dunblane. Of the lords 
temporal the Earls of Cassilis and Caithness said No. The 
rest of the lords, with common consent and glad will, allowed 
the same.' The old Lord Lindsay, as grave and godly a man as 
ever he saw, said, ' I have lived many years ; I am the oldest 
man in this company of my sort ; now that it has pleased God 
to let me see this day, where so many nobles and others have 
allowed so worthy a work, I will say with Simeon, nunc 
dimittis.' The old Laird of Lundie confessed how long he had 
lived in blindness, repented his former life, and embraced the 
same as his true belief. The Lord James, after some other 
purpose, said, that he must the sooner believe it to be true 
for that some other in the company did not allow the same — he 
knew that God's truth would never be without adversaries. 
The Lord Marshall said, though he were otherwise assured it 
were true, yet might he be the bolder to pronounce it, for that 
he saw there the pillars of the Pope's church, and not one of 
them would speak against it. Many others spoke to like effect, 
as the Laird of Erskine, the Laird of Newbattle, the sub-prior of 
St. Andrews ; concluding all in one that that was the faith in 
which they ought all to live and die." 

The spiritual lords seem to have been stricken dumb by the 

' End of Chapter xxxviii. 


defection of some of their own number, by the open immorality 
and unpresentableness of others, by knowledge that the temporal 
lords were swayed by foresight of spoil, and were backed by 
Queen Elizabeth, and, perhaps most of all, by the knowledge that 
they had lost the sympathy of the common people. The silence 
and paralysis of bishops, abbots, and priors, in Parliament, is the 
more marvellous when we consider the really noble defence that 
was made for years before, and at that very time, outside Parlia- 
ment, by not a few of the old clergy who laboured for inner 
reform, for correction of external abuses, and who defended the 
old faith in its main foundations, apart from its more offensive, 
superstitious, and greedy dues, levied on the common people 

A modern Eoman Catholic writer^ (the Rev. W. Forbes- 
Leith), has said truly, and without exaggeration—" On the eve 
of the Pieformation the Church of Scotland could glory in 
prelates who were distinguished equally for their talents and 
their virtues. Foremost among these were Eobert Reid, bishop 
of Orkney and abbot of two northern monasteries, known as the 
founder of libraries, the introducer of foreign schoolmasters and 
gardeners, the restorer of the buildings as well as of the disci- 
pline of the cloister ; also Alexander Mylu, abbot of Cambus- 
kenneth and first president of the College of Justice, instituted 
by James V. in imitation of the law courts of France, one who 
united in himself the man of business and man of letters, the 
lawyer and reformer of learning. The bishopric of Eoss was 
held successively by several men of eminent qualities. David 
Panter, consecrated in 1546, whom Bishop Keith pronounces ' a 
person of most polite education and excellent parts,' belonged 
to a family of statesmen and scholars. Another Bishop of Eoss, 
after a very short interval, was Henry Sinclair, ' the reformer 
of the law, and the patron of the literature of his country.' 
He was succeeded by John Leslie, ' whose character combined 
all that was pious and amiable in the prelate, sagacious, firm, 
and upright in the statesman, learned and elegant in the 
scholar and man of letters.' James Beaton, archbishop of 
Glasgow, beloved by all who knew him, was ambassador at the 
French court for forty-two years. 

' " Scottish Catholics," p. 6. 


" The inferior clergy could also pride itself on many learned 
and virtuous priests, who after undergoing for several years the 
various trials of a severe persecution, were at last banished ; 
and who, strangers though they were, acquired in foreign uni- 
versities a high reputation for character, ability, and learn- 
ing. M'Crie says, 'They were to be found in all the universities 
and colleges. In several of them they held the honourable 
situation of principal, and in others they amounted to a third 
of the professors.' In Paris alone we find John Fraser, the 
fourth son of Alexander Fraser of Philorth, elected in 1596 
rector of the University of Paris ; Patrick Cockburn, who held 
a professorship of Oriental languages ; James Tyrie (of Drum- 
kilbo), John Hay (of Dalgaty) lectured successively on philo- 
sophy and theology ; Edmund Hay was rector of the College 
of Clermont; John Bosseville, James Laing, John Bellenden, 
David Cranston, James Ballantyne, David and William Cham- 
ber, and many others, were doctors of the Sorbonne." 

Men who favoured reform within the Church were — John 
Mair, provost of St. Salvator's College ; John Winram, sub- 
prior of ISt. Andrews ; Gavin Logie, principal of St. Leonard's ; 
Kobert Pdchardson, canon regular of Cambuskenneth ; Alex- 
ander Seton, Dominican friar and confessor to James V. ; Friar 
William Airth. 

Another class, though small, yet composed of earnest and 
able men, were the defenders of the old faith. To these 
especially reformed Scotland has failed in doing justice, but 
more recently their true merit has been recognized. Such were 
Quintin Kennedy, Ninian Winzet, Bishop John Leslie of Eoss, 
Bishop John Sinclair of Brechin, and (if not personally yet in 
his work) the author of the noble Catechism of 1552. A short 
biographical sketch of six of the chief of the above may here 
be given as a due tribute to great men on the other side. 

NiNiAX Winzet, or Wingate, was born in 1518 at Ptenfrew, 
and appointed burgh schoolmaster at Linlithgow in 1551, where 
he spent ten years. " Reuolueand in mynd yat maist flurissand 
part of my aige, spent in ye teaching of ye grammar-scule of 
Linlychtquow, about ye space of ten zeiris, I jugeit the teching 
of the zouthed in vertew and science, nixt efter ye auctoritie 
with the ministeris of justice, vnder it and efter ye angilicall 


ofiice of godlie pastours, to obtene the thrid principal place 
inaist commodious and necessare to the kirk of God." In 1561 
he was cited before Spotswood, superintendent of Lothian, and 
being unable to renounce his creed was deprived of office. "At 
ye command of Dene Patrik Kinloquhy, precheour in Linlyth- 
gow, and of his superintendent, gentil reidar, I, for denying 
only to subscrive yair phantasie and faction of faith, wes 
expellit and schott out of yat my kyndly toun, and fra my 
tender freindis yair." He was author of three tracts dated 
from Edinburgh after this harsh expulsion. The first (given 
to the Queen, 15th February, 1562) asks permission to write 
certain things to the Protestant preachers as to doctrine, orders, 
and manners ; the second, on the lawful vocation of ministers, 
with three letters to Knox ; and the third, a recommendation 
of certain festivals. He printed also " Last Blast of the Trum- 
pet," and " Vocation of Protestant Preachers." The magistrates 
of Edinburgh visited the printing office, seized his proofs, and 
imprisoned the printer. Wingate himself escaped to Flanders, 
where in 1563 he published eighty-three questions on "Doc- 
trine, Ordour, and Maneris ; " also a translation of Vincentius 
Lirinensis. In 1565 he passed to France, taught in Paris in 
1569, and in 1576 became abbot of St. James' at Ptatisbon. 
He next published " Flagellum Sectariorum " and " Velitatio in 
Buchananum " (a refutation of " De Jure Eegni apud Scotos "). 
Ten years after these books appeared he died, 21st September, 
1592. His " Certain Tractatis," &c., was issued in 1835 by the 
Maitland Club. But this has been superseded by the edition 
and Life by the Scottish Text Society in 1888. 

AVhat a bold honest Scot Wingate was, seeing and bewailing 
the shameful state of the Church, is apparent from this scrap 
of his Tract of 1561: — "Your godly and circumspect distribu- 
tion of benefices to your babeis, ignorantis and filthy ains, al 
Ethnic, Turk and Jow may lauch at it, that being the ground 
of al impietie and division within the, Scotland." 

John Leslie, bishop of Ross (illegitimate son of Gavin 
Leslie, rector of Kingussie, commissary of Moray), was born 
29th September, 1527, educated at King's College, Aberdeen, 
in 1550 made canon of Aberdeen at EUon, then studied at 
Paris divinity and languages, especially Greek and Hebrew, 


then took civil and canon law for four years at Poitiers, 
received degree of LL.D. at Toulouse, and there taught canon 
law. Coming to Scotland in 1554, he taught civil law in 
Aberdeen, and in 1558 became official of Aberdeen, having 
previously been parson of Oyne. In 15G0 he appeared in the 
disputation held at Edinburgh, and next January was cited to 
give account of his faith. In April, 1561, on the death of 
Mary's husband, Francis II., he was sent to France by the 
Catholic nobles to secure the queen for their side. She made 
him a privy councillor, and in 1564 a lord of Session. In 1565 
he became Bishop of Boss, and next year Abbot of Lindores 
in commcndam. His "De Origine, &c., Scotorum" was published 
at Kome in 1578. In 1593 he was made Bishop of Coutances 
in Normandy, and died in 1596, at the age of seventy, in the 
monastery of Gertrudenberg, near Brussels. He was imprisoned 
in the Tower of London by Elizabeth for planning the escape 
of Mary and her marriage with the Duke of Norfolk. Three 
times he suffered imprisonment for his zeal in his queen's 
service. He wrote " Pite Consolationes/' which was given to 
Mary, and versified by her in French. The day before her 
execution, the queen wrote commending him to Philip of Spain 
for preferment, as " that most pious, able, and devoted servant." 
His " History of Scotland in Scots, 1436-1561," was written in 
1570, and published from his MS. in 1830.^ 

EoBERT PiEiD, bishop of Orkney, was the son of John Reid 
of Akynhead, in Fife, who fell at Flodden. He was educated 
at St. Andrews, where he lodged with an uncle Eobert, who 
was official of the diocese and afterwards sub-dean of Moray. 
In 1528 he was anointed abbot of Kinloss, in Greyfriars, 
Edinburgh, by Bishop Gavin Dunbar of Aberdeen. In 1530 
he got the Abbey of Beauly in commcndam. Twice he acted 
on embassies to Henry VIIL, and twice to Francis I., in 
1535-36. In 1541 he had two missions to England as to 
disputed marches. From 1538 to 1544 he was busy with 
building at Kinloss and Beauly. In 1538 he brought a French 
painter, Andrew Bairhum, to Kinloss, and also John Ferrerius, 
the Piedmoutese, a noted teacher of philosophy, who wrote 

' Sec Laing's " Lindores," pp. 125-129. A portrait of the good bishop is prefixed 
to Forbes-Leith's " Scottish Catholics." 


notices of the abbots of Kinloss, especially of his patron Reid.^ 
Abbot Eeid brought also a gardener from France, whose skill 
was available over the province as M^ell as at the monastery. 
In 1541 he was recommended by the king to the Pope for 
the see of Orkney, and to retain his present offices besides the 
bishopric. At Orkney the bishop built the Palace Tower at 
Kirkwall, which still bears his arms; he added three bays 
and a splendid porch to the cathedral itself; founded also a 
grammar-school, and gave a new constitution, with suitable 
endowments, to the cathedral chapter. Prom 1554 to 15th 
September, 1558, when he died at Dieppe, he was occupied on 
state business of the highest order at home and abroad. By his 
will he left 8000 merks for a college at Edinburgh, with which 
was purchased, in 1581, the Kirk of Field. 

James Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, was the youngest of 
the three great men of that family, being nephew to David, 
the cardinal, who again was nephew to James (died 1539), 
archbishop first of Glasgow and then primate. This youngest 
Beaton was the second of seven sons of John Beaton of 
Balfour, in Fife, elder brother of Cardinal David. After a 
careful education in Paris his first office was that of chanter 
of Glasgow. In 1543 he became Abbot of Arbroath in suc- 
cession to his uncle. In 1552 he became Archbishop of 
Glasgow, enjoying the confidence of the Governor Arran, of 
the Eegent Mary of Guise, his niece, Mary Beaton, being one 
of the queen's four Maries. In 1559 his old friend the Earl 
of Arran, who now sided with the Eeformers, "took order," 
and cleared Glasgow^ Cathedral of images, and put a garrison 
in the castle-palace, which, however, the archbishop recovered 
with French soldiers. In July, 1560, when, according to 
treaty, the French troops left Leith, Beaton went with them, 
taking all the cathedral plate and records, especially the 
"Bed Book of Glasgow," written in the reign of Piobert III. 
These treasures were all carefully deposited in the Scots 
College in Paris. Beaton was left by Queen Mary in Paris, 
in 1561, as her ambassador, and was continued by James VI. 
in the same capacity. In 1587, in defiance of law, he was 
restored by the king to his title and estates as Archbishop 

' See Stuart's " Kinloss," Pref. 


of Glasgow. His death took place, 24tli April, 1603. He had 
served as ambassador to three generations of Scots monarchs, 
had seen six kings of France, serving as ambassador iinder 
five of the six, and at last left all his wealth of 80,000 livres 
to the Scots College for the education of poor Scotsmen, 
founded in 1325 by the great Bishop David :\ioray, of Moray. 
So thoroui^hly recognized were the integrity, purity, and dis- 
interested liberality of James Beaton, that no attacks were 
ever made on his character, amid all the rage of faction and 
corruption in his long career. Without being brilliant, he was 
a pre-eminently wise and good bishop, whose name is still 
revered by families of the old blood of Clydesdale.^ 

QuiNTiN Kennedy, abbot of Crossraguel, in Carrick, was the 
youngest son of Gilbert, earl of Cassilis. He was educated at 
St. Andrews, being enrolled at St. Salvator's in 1540, and 
studying also at Paris. First vicar of Girvan, in Carrick, he 
next, in 1547, succeeded his uncle William as abbot at Cross- 
raguel. He sat in the Provincial Council of 27th November, 
1549. In 1558, at the request of his nephew, the Master of 
Cassilis, he published from the shop of John Scott, in Edin- 
burgh, " A Compendious Tractive, conform to the Scriptures of 
Almighty God, reason, and authority, declaring the nearest and 
only way to establish the conscience of a Christian man in 
all matters which are in debate concerning faith and religion." 
The Compendious Tractive is one of the best known works 
of its age. Keith- gives an analysis of it, while it was reprinted 
in 1835 by the Maitland Club, and again in 1844 in the 
Wodroio Miscellany. The abbot wrote eleven other w^orks, 
named in Bellesheim.^ The Tractive was not answered till 
1563 by Principal Davidson of Glasgow, one of his old Parisian 
fellow-students. In March, 1559, Kennedy challenged Willock 
at Ayr to a discussion on the sacrifice of the Mass, but Willock 
sw^erved on the subject of the Fathers, and then acted unfairly 
in bringing with him 400 to 500 followers instead of twelve, 
as agreed on. Keith* gives the argument as between Kennedy 
and Willock, as does also the Wodroio Miscellany.^ In 1561 

^ The writer i.s able, with double gladness, to bear this testimony, by family tradition, 
as the descendant of one of Beaton's " Rentallers," who had held also for centuries of the 
cathedral before Beaton. 

= " Affairs," appen.iii. p. 405. ^11.25-1. ^" Affairs," appen. iii. .S9fi. 5pp.259-277. 


Kennedy wrote "An Oration in favour of all those of the 
Congregation, exhorting them to espy how wonderfully they 
are abused by their deceitful Preachers." Another work of the 
same year, on the sacrifice of the Mass, was answered by George 
Hay, of Aberdeen, in 1563. Most famous of all is Kennedy's 
disputation with Knox at Maybole in 1562.^ He died 22nd 
August, 1564 Kennedy had the same bold honesty as Wm- 
gate in exposing the shameful moral corruption of the Church, 
which in point of doctrine and constitution he defended with 
his whole soul. 

The following specimen of his sentiments and style is drawn 
from Keitlr :— "Bot thow may se daylie lykewyse be experience 
ane bairne and ane babe, to quhame scarcelie wald thou geve 
ane fair apill to keip, gett perchance fyve thousand saules to 
gyde; and all for avarice, the rute of all vice, that their parentis 
may 'gett the profect of the benefice to their awin singulare 
comm'oditie, and the pure simpyll bairne scarslie gett to bring 
him up vertuuslie ; the convent, and place quhare God sulde 
be daylie honourit and servit, gais clene to rewyne : And zit 
thay quha are the procuraris, disponaris and upsteraris of sick 
monsterus farssis to be in the Kirk of God, ar the maist prin- 
cipall cryaris out on the vices of kirkmen. Geve the Kirk 
had the auld ancient libertie (as perchance sum tyme it had) 
that ane byschop wer frelie chosin be his chaptire, the abbot 
and prior be the convent, and of the convent ; then sulde be 
qualifeit men in all the estatis of the kirk, then sulde all 
hereseis be stemit, and the peple weill teicheit. ... As 
to me, I wyll say na thing ; but humelie beseik the Lord God 
tyll illuminat the hartis of the magistratis (specialie quhilkis 
lies the authoritie to be the upsteraris of faithfull ministeris 
in the kirk of God) to provide sic qualifeit pastouris as wyll 
do conforme to thair vocation, and as may be to the glore of 
God, exoneration of thair awin consciences, and thairis quha 
providis them to have authoritie in government of Christis 


First, of the origin and design of the book. It was printed 
in August, 1552, at St. Andrews, at the primate's expense, and 

' In Knox's works, by Laing. ^ " Affairs," appendix iii. p. 411. 


bearing bis name on its title-page. Tbe approbation of it was 
before tbe Provincial Synod at Edinburgb in January, 1551-52, 
as appears from tbe original title-page : " Tbe Catecbisme, that 
is to say, ane commone and catbolik instruction of the Christin 
people in materia of our catbolik faitb and religioun, quilk na 
gud Cbristin man or woman suld misknaw ; set f urtb be the 
maist reverend father in God, Johne, archbiscbop of Sanct 
Androus, legatnait and primat of tbe Kirk of Scotland, in his 
provincial counsale haldin at Edinburgb tbe xxvi. day of 
Januarie, tbe yeir of our Lord 1551, with tbe advise and 
counsale of tbe bischoippis and uthir prelatis with doctours 
of tbeologie and canon law of the said realme of Scotland 
present for the tyme." This book, composed in tbe Scottish 
dialect, and approved, after a thorough examination, by tbe 
most prudent and learned theologians of tbe whole kingdom, 
was to be put into tbe hands of the rectors, vicars, and curates 
for their own instruction and that of their flocks. It was to 
be read aloud from the pulpit by the rector or curate, vested 
in surplice and stole, every Sunday and holy day for tbe space 
of half an hour before High Mass. All tbe chapters and sec- 
tions, including tbe preface and introduction, were to be read 
through. The reader must speak audibly, intelligibly, and 
reverently. He must articulate his words distinctly and attend 
to the punctuation. Moreover, lest by any stammering or 
stumbling he should excite the ridicule of his congregation, 
he must rehearse bis future lection by frequent and daily re- 
petition, and learn to impress the minds of his hearers by tbe 
animation of his voice and gesture, and by fervour of spirit. 
Alas, all this was ineffectual, for tbe book passed out of sight 
almost as soon as it was printed. It was reprinted in facsimile 
in 1882 by Professor Mitchell, and in 1884 was edited by T. G. 
Law, with a fine introduction. 

Tbe book itself is of the highest excellence in matter, 
composition, and tone, and does very great honour to its 
authors. Its four parts are — Of the Ten Comraandis ; Ex- 
positioun of tbe xii. Artikils of the Crede ; Declaratioun of tbe 
Sevin Sacramentis ; Expositioun of the Pater Noster. To these 
four is added : " Ane declaratioun schawand to quhem we suld 
pray, and for qubom," dealing with " praying to Sanctis and 

CATECHISM OF 1552. 417 

for the saulis departit." It is not controversial or interrogatory, 
though called a Catechism, but in homily form ; quotation of 
Scripture is very ample and apt, always in Latin, but always 
accompanied by a pithy Scots rendering. The silences of the 
book are ver}'' striking — e.g. there is no mention of the Pope or 
of the Church of Eome, and no mention of indulgences. Yet 
the immaculate conception of the Virgin IMary is taught, and 
communion under one kind is explained and defended. The 
Ave Maria, or Angelus Domini, or Angelical Salutation, is given 
in the old short form : " Hail IMarie ful of grace, our Lord is 
Math the, blissit art thow amang wemen, and blessit is the fruit 
of thi wambe" (with omission of the words, "Holy Mary, mother 
of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death ").^ 
The moral tone of the whole book and its devotional feeling are 
praiseworthy in the highest degree, so that with the exception 
of the part on the seven sacraments, the pendicle on prayers 
to saints and for the dead, and a few other short passages, the 
book is sound and edifying to this day to all healthy Christian 

As to the authors of the book, it is professedly official, eman- 
ating from the Council of 1551, but with special prominence 
given to the primate on the title-page and at the colophon, 
thus : " Prentit at Sanct Androus be the command and expensis 
of the maist reverend father in God, Johue, archbischop of Sanct 
Androus, and primat of the haill Kirk of Scotland, the xxix. 
day of August the yeir of our Lord MDLII." Probably the 
primate did a large part of it himself. His education at Paris, 
according to the Galilean Church, would lead him to keep 
the Pope in the background and to take hints from the Ee- 
formers there. John Winram, sub-prior of St. Andrews, is 
traditionally associated with the authorship. "Winram sat in 
the Council of 1551, and had the convenience of residence 
beside the primate. More able men, possessed of the exact 
line of qualification, and far higher in spirituality than Winram, 
were AVingate of Linlithgow and Kennedy of Crossraguel; but 
it is vain to guess in the absence of record. 

John Hajmilton, the last Eoman Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
was the illegitimate son of James, first earl of Arran. Born 

* See on this point Law's Preface, xL and xli. 

418 THE ciruECn of Scotland. 

ill 1512, he entered the monastery of Kilwinning, and at the 
age of thirteen was elected Abbot of Paisley. In 1540 he went 
to Paris for canon law and theology. Pieturning in 1543 he 
was made privy seal and lord high treasurer by his brother the 
governor. In 1544 he was nominated to the see of Dunkeld, 
and on 28th November, 1547, succeeded Beaton as primate. 
Hamilton put in force the penal laws against heretics, held 
provincial councils for reform of abuses and for discipline in 
1549, 1551, 1559, and reconstituted and endowed St. Mary's 
College, St. Andrews, " for defending and confirming the Catholic 
faith." In 1563 he was imprisoned for a short term in 
Edinburgh Castle, for saying mass, but released at the special 
instance of the queen. In 1566 he baptized James VI. at 
Stirling — the last Ptoman ceremony of State. Hamilton adhered 
faithfully to the queen, helping her escape from Lochleven, and 
bearing her company on the fatal field of Langside in 1568, 
after which he was in distress, and taking refuge in Dunbarton 
Castle, shared its fate of capture in 1571. He was tried hastily 
on four charges, to the third of which, the murder of Eegent 
Moray at Linlithgow by his kinsman, Hamilton of Bothwell- 
haugh, he confessed guilty foreknowledge, and for which he 
was hanged in his robes on the common gibbet of Stirling, 
5th April, 1571. This was cruel and vindictive, though not 
exactly unjust. Probably his worst fault was his alliance with 
Grizell Semple, alias Lady Gilston, daughter of Lord Eobert 
Sempill, by whom he had three sons who were afterwards 
legitimated. Through this concubinage, moreover, when the 
plunder of the Church began, these Sempills for a time shared 
the spoil of the abbey of Paisley.^ The most memorable work 
of this last primate of Scotland was his share in the noble 
Catechism of 1552, the beautiful swan-song of a dying church. 

The struggle of and for the old Church by the true, but now 
too late, method of inward reform, finally took place in a series 
of three councils. The earliest of them was held in the Black- 
friars Church at Edinburgh in November, 1549. This had been 
preceded and prepared for by a convention of clergy at Linlith- 
gow three months earlier. In the council sat sixty ecclesiastics 

' See Lees' 'Paislev." 



of mark — six bishops aud two vicars-geueral, fonrteeu abbots 
and priors, seven doctors of divinity, three Dominicans, four 
Franciscans, besides deans, provosts, and canons. The forty-one 
canons passed at this council were so judicious and comprehen- 
sive that had they been fully and speedily given effect to, they 
would have so vastly improved the Church that it might, 
some think, have been left in that condition, rather than sub- 
jected to the terrible ordeal of August, 1560, and subsequent 
years. Bellesheim ^ gives the fullest account of these canons. 
The following is an abridgment of the injunctions laid on 
the clergy:-— "To put away their concubines, under pain of 
deprivation of theu' benefices ; to dismiss from their houses the 
children born to them in concubinage; not to promote such 
children to benefices, nor to enrich them — the daughters with 
dowries, the sons with baronies — from the patrmiony of the 
Church. Prelates were admonished not to keep in their house- 
holds manifest drunkards, gamblers, whoremongers, brawlers, 
night-walkers, buffoons, blasphemers, and profane swearers. The 
clergy in general were exhorted to amend their lives and man- 
ners, to dress modestly and gravely, to keep their faces shaven 
and their heads tonsured, to hve soberly and frugally, so as to 
have more to spare for the poor, to abstain from secular pursuits, 
especially trading. 

" Provision was made for preaching to the people ; for teach- 
inff grammar, divinity, aud canon law in cathedrals and abbeys ; 
for visiting and reforming monasteries, nunneries, and hospitals; 
for recalling fugitives and apostates, whether monks or nuns, to 
their cloisters ; for sending from every monastery one or more 
monks to a university ; for preventing unqualified persons from 
receiving orders, and from holding cure of souls ; for enforcing 
residence, and for restraining pluralities; for preventing the 
evasion of spiritual censures by bribes or fines: for silencing 
pardoners or itinerant hawkers of indulgences and relics; for 
compelling parish clerks to do their duty in person, or to find 
sufficient substitutes ; for registering the testaments and inven- 
tories of persons deceased, and for securing faithful adminis- 
tration of their estates, by bringing their executors to yearly 
account and reckoning ; for suspending unfit notaries, and for 

1 II 200-211. - Robertson's Preface to the " Statuta EccL Scot." cxlix. 


preserving the protocols of notaries deceased ; for reforming the 
abuses of the consistorial courts." The next council, in January, 
1552, besides passing ten more practical statutes, gave us the 
great Catechism already described.^ The third synod was held 
on 1st March, 1559, and sat continuously till 10th April. It 
was occupied with practical " articles of reformation " fitted to 
meet the chief grievances of the Lords of the Congregation, but 
on the doctrinal basis of the old faith, and passed thirty-four 
additional statutes to that end.* Between the last two councils, 
evidently recognizing the failure of the great Catechism, there 
was published in 1558, by authority of the primate, a little 
treatise of four pages, printed by John Scott in St. Andrews, 
and called a " Godlie Exhortatioun," or, popularly, " The Twa- 
penny Faith." It contained an explanation of the Lord's Supper, 
and an exhortation to communicating worthily, and was to be 
read by the clergy to the people previous to the celebration. 
Another intermediate incident was the Aberdeen memorial of 
5th January, 1559, from the clergy there to their bishop, asking 
him, among other points of reform, to give personal heed to the 
seventh commandment. This was honest, for William Gordon 
was probably the blackest bishop of his generation. 

The Council of 1559, which closed on 10th April, was ap- 
pointed to meet again on Septuagesima Sunday next year ; but 
before that date the Church was reformed from the opposite 
side, and the council never met. 

Altogether apart from questions of doctrine, ritual, or church 
government (which come for consideration more fitly under the 
heading of the Eeformed Church from 1560 onwards), it may 
be useful to put down articulately some of the chief causes that 
brought the old Church of Scotland to the deplorable and mori- 
bund condition which the Provincial Councils of 1549, 1552, 
and 1559 tried in vain to heal. 

1. From an early period, especially in the reigns of Alexander 
II., Alexander III., and James L, there had been irritation and 
political danger from interference by the Pope as a foreign power. 

2. Scotland suffered continual pecuniary drain and deepening 
corruption, by so many clerics seeking promotion from Rome, and 
paying for it there, like bidders at an auction. 

' Bellesheim, ii. 211-219. 2 n,;^ ;;_ 240-252, 

CAUSES OF church's OVERTHROW. 421 

3. The celibacy of the clergy, as an institution against nature, 
led to common concubinage and worse, whereby they lost the 
respect of the people, and provoked ceaseless jibing and ridicule 
in talk and song. 

4. The degradation of so many of the sisters and daughters 
of the secondary lairds as clerical mistresses, stirred the secret 
resentment of these insulted families against an order which, in 
defiance of the first principles of the Gospel, used its wealth to 
promote seduction and lust. 

5. The civil government of Scotland was too clerical, espe- 
cially in the reign of James Y., who distinctly irritated the 
nobles by favouring the clergy as his advisers. 

6. Marriage, which means the framework of civil society, 
was cumbered by canon law, which forbade it within eight 
degrees of consanguinity, and along with consanguinity counted 
the relation of godfather and godmother, which had nothing 
to do with bodily sibness at all. These needless restrictions 
gave occasion to dispensations which, by their multiplicity, were 
not only an impoverishing drain from the charges attending 
them, but led to strife and further pecuniary waste in contested 
successions, both to private property and hereditary offices.^ 

7. Clerics were not only responsible for an unworkably 
prohibitive marriage law, but were also arbiters of succession 
by means of the consistory courts of each bishop, drawing a 
fresh set of fees at this point, and pushing clerical influence 
into all property in one of its chief foundations — heredity. 

8. The pecuniary pressure of the old Church was further felt 
in the extravagant powers possessed for collecting a full tithe, 
extending over the most recent improvements of both land- 
lord and tenant, and including the first choice of grain from 
the harvest field. Still more oppressive were the death-dues, 
in the shape of the " kirk cow " and " the upmost claith," or 
best bed-cover, in the house of the bereaved for the priest. 
The doom of this abuse was sealed by Sir David Lindsay's 
" Satire of the Three Estates," especially the oft-quoted lines 
in act ii. scene 1, where three deaths in succession — father, 
mother, and wife — deprive a poor pendicler of his whole stock 
of " three kye, baith fat and fair." 

* See a lawyer's view of this in Hill Burton, iii. 314 


0. For a considerable period before the crisis of 1560 the 
richest livings in the Church, especially in abbeys and priories, 
were habitually conferred on bastards, royal and noble, or on 
court favourites, and these often mere children. Bishop Leslie 
names 1473 as the date of the origin of this abuse.^ 

10. A very widespread source of weakness to the Church 
in the best part of its system was the absorption of so many 
parochial livings by the monasteries, which degraded the rural 
clergy by fostering a cheap and ill-educated class of men, who 
got only a fraction of the living while they did the whole duty, 
so far as it was done, or could be done by them. 

11. A special cause of loss of respect for the old Church 
was its extremely frequent use of "cursing" to terrify the 
people into payment of dues, or to make restitution, or to 
confirm their testimony, whereby the solemnities of discipline 
or excommunication became naturally the theme of mockery.'-' 

12. The Church's cruelty in punishing heresy by fire alienated 
men's sympathy from bishops and abbots to their victims. The 
proof of this is seen in the contemporary narratives of the 
martyrdoms of Patrick Hamilton, Eesby, Craw, Wishart, and 

13. The "sharp statutes" of the three reforming councils 
of the old Church itself, in 1549, 1552, and 1559, are alleged 
by Bishop Leslie to have had the effect of driving over many 
of the younger clergy to the new Church of the Lords of the 
Congregation, where priests were permitted to marry.-' The 
priests who crossed from the old Church to the new, whether 
from conviction or for convenience, or from the simple desire 
to abide among their parishioners as religious teachers, still 
were certainly a good many in number, and carried their ordi- 
nation with them, and formed the nucleus of the Eeformed 
Church of Scotland. Unfortunately we have no definite list 
of their names or parishes. 

14. Not as a cause of weakness, but as a motive for assault, 
was the enormous wealth of the Church, which excited the 

' See proof of this in Laing's " Lindores," pp. 110-111, who refers to Robertson's 
" Statuta," preface, p. 00, and onwards. 

-See Hill Burton's reprint of the diabolical contents of the "Great Cursmg," iii. 310, 
and also the rhyming curse of priest John Rowl against the robbers of his hens and 
garden, p. 322. 

'See Hill Burton, 9nd of chap, xxxvi. 


covetousness of the Scots nobility, and led them efiectively to 
combine for the Church's overthrow. Many were reformers 
for purity, but more were reformers for spoil, at least among 
the nobiUty and Parliament that carried the reform on 17th 
and 24th August, 1560. 

The use of such a list of causes as the preceding is that 
it furnishes much common ground of fact and principle, on 
which both Eomanist and Protestant can agree, and by narrow- 
ing the ground and range of controverted matter, tends towards 
clearness and also mildness regarding the essential points at 
issue, as between different branches of the Church. Those 
who deem everything Ptoman or prelatic Uach are perhaps 
further wrong than those who deem everything Protestant 
or Presbyterian ivhite. Truth, charity, and wisdom are at 
their maximum in the middle space, and at their minimum 
at either extreme. 


The dates of our cathedrals, abbeys, and priories, chiefly 
from 1100 to 1400, show three centuries of wonderful activity 
in architecture — one of the noblest and most solid of the arts. 
All the more marvellous is the phenomenon as immediately 
following on the " creel-work," or oaken style, or boulder-stone 
work, of the Celtic Church. Expenditure so lavish, and all 
voluntary, is a clear index of fervour, liberality, taste, and 
orderliness. "We know that travelling squadrons of masons, 
with skill far beyond mere craftsmen, moved from place to 
place accomplishing these great undertakings. Local tradition 
tells, e.g., that the builders of St. Bride's of Douglas, with its 
gem of a belfry spirelet, came fresh from Glasgow Cathedral ; 
while the ingeniously varied finials of the Eoslin Chapel but- 
tresses were the personal device of each craftsman in friendly 
competition one w^th another. 

Though the Scottish kings, inheriting the spirit of St. Mar- 
garet, were the chiefest benefactors of the Church, yet large 
and steady accessions came from the higher clergy, who for 
several centuries, as a class, were self-denying and patriotic^ 
especial patrons of agriculture and gardening, a taste which is 
traceable still in many a manse garden and orchard. Very 


impressive are the remnants of monastic orchards, such as 
are still visible at Blantyre Priory or Cambuskenneth Abbey. 
Corresponding to the liberality of the Crown and clergy was 
that of the nobles and gentry, to whom mainly we are indebted 
for our humble parish churches and their endowment apart 
from taxation or compulsion. Free and devout gift was what 
made the Church in these centuries so rich and strong — too 
rich in fact, and too well provided with stately fanes, con- 
sidering the rude dwellings of farmers and villagers. It is a 
areat mistake and injustice to follow the ignorant prejudice of 
our extremer sects, and condemn the Eoman Church with 
severity, except in its final century, or rather half-century, 
before the Eeformation. How long the nobler tone of the 
old churchmen continued is evident from the date of our three 
pre-Eeformation Universities— St. Andrews, 1411; Glasgow, 
1450 ; Aberdeen, 1494. The princes of the Church could not 
have given heart and wealth to such a cause unless they had 
still been in the main worthy both of their preferment and of 
the Gospel itself.^ 

Scarce could there be a simpler or nobler testimony to cer- 
tain good qualities in the old Church than is to be seen in the 
foundation of eighty-three hospitals, provided and endowed for 
wayfarers, and for the aged and sick. Every monastery, too, 
besides its special care of agriculture and fruit-trees, had an 
officer called injirmarer, whose skill was available for patients 
outside as well as inside the institution. These were the men 
who preserved to the world for centuries the knowledge of 
healing herbs. What a pleasant picture of these old ways and 
days we have in the character of Pere Hugo, and his disciple 
Frere Wendolin, in the story of Uncle Balthasar, in the (mo- 
dern and Protestant) " Legendes de 1' Alsace ! " At a later date 
monasteries had done their chief work, and were often retreats 
of lazy and gluttonous men ; but at their first settlement, and 
for perhaps two centuries onward, they were primary and 
precious agents of culture, both material and moral — as true 
schools of Christian knowledge and virtue as the Celtic monas- 
teries had been in a still ruder age. 

' For an extremely interesting account of our old university life, especially at Glasgow 
and Aberdeen, the reader is referred to C. Innes's " Sketches," pp. 220-234. 



Each of the thirteen bishoprics was endowed, some of them 
liberally.^ St. Andrews, when valued in 1561, had £2094; 
Glasgow, £987 ; Aberdeen, £1653 ; Moray, £2033 ; Brechin, 
£651°; Caithness, £1283 (another account, £386) ; Ross, £462 ; 
Orkney, £539; Dunblane, £313; Dunkeld, £1407; Galloway, 
£1159— each having largely in addition lands and rents in 
kind. The Isles and Argyll were not reported with the rest in 
1561, the cunning Earl of Argyll having seized the papers, 
so as to hide the exact amount of his sacrilege. But no 
absence of figures can obscure the fact that among the Argyll 
spoil are the three ecclesiastical islands of lona, Lismore, and 
Tiree, at least. Some of the fifty provostries— e.^-., the Chapel 
Eoyal at Stirling, St. Giles', Edinburgh, Dalkeith, Linlithgow, 
Cadzow, and Biggar— were also liberally endowed. The eighty- 
three hospitals had each an endowment : while many were small, 
at least one-half were respectable, and quite distinct from the 
endowments of the parishes wherein they were situated. But 
the monasteries were the chief centres of rich endowment. 
Omitting the houses of the Begging Friars — many of which 
however, in spite of their name and profession, contrived to 
become wealthy— those of the Eented Eeligious were eighty 
in number, of whom thirty-two had seats in Parliament. 

The total amount has been stated thus:— "The united in- 
come of the bishoprics, in money £13,000 Scots, together with 
40 chalders 5 bolls of wheat, 416 chalders 14 bolls of barley, 
302 chalders 11 bolls of meal, 137 chalders 5 boUs of oats, 28 
chalders 9 bolls of malt, 286 kine and bullocks, 431 sheep, 
87 dozen capons, 209^ dozen of poultry, 73 geese, 19 muir- 
fowl, 17 swine, 453 last 1 barrel of salmon, 30,000 scraw or 
dried unsalted fish.^ 

1 An old valuation of twelve of the Scottish sees is given by Lyon, " St. Andrews," 
i. 97, copied from the Registry of the Priory, and presumably dating between 1200 
and 1270, because it contains Argyll but not The Isles. " Aberdeen, £1610 ; Caithness, 
£286; Ross, £351; Moray, £1418; Argyll, £280; Galloway, £358; Brechin, £416; 
Dunblane, £507 ; Dunkeld, £1206 ; Glasgow, £4080 ; St. Andrews, £8018. The calcula- 
tion is that £1 in the twelfth centnrv would equal £5 at present." 

"^ In the year 1563, the boU of wheat in Scotland averaged £2 ; the boll of barley, 
£1 13«. 4(f. ; the boll of malt, £2 ; oats, 10«. ; a cai'case of mutton, 9s. ; a goose, la. ; 
a dozen of capons, lis. ; a dozen of poultry, 4». ; a stone of cheese, 6s. 8d. ; a swme, 
£1 ; a kid. Id. ; a barrel of salmon, £4. 


" The abbeys and other religious liouses drew annually about 
£42,000 Scots, with 268 chalders 14 bolls of wheat, 1198 
chalders of barley, 1315 chalders 6 bolls of meal, 591 chalders 
3 bolls of oats, 30 chalders 1 boll of malt, 65 marts, 52 mutton, 
387 dozen capons, 948 dozen poultry, 239 barrels salmon, 1054 
stone of cheese, 146 stone of butter — exclusive of the receipts 
for masses and indulgences, and other dues." ^ 

Calculated at the above rates for 1563, the bishops' payments 
in kind equalled £20,861, while the monastic payments in kind 
equalled £57,091 — so that the gross value of the thirteen bishop- 
rics was £13,000 + £20,861 = £33,861; and the gross value of the 
revenues of the religious houses, £42,000 + £57,091 = £99,091. 

Another very satisfactory way of measuring the wealth of the 
Church, independently of money and chalders, is to remember 
the old understanding of the Scottish kings in raising taxes, an 
understanding habitually acted on with the consent of the two 
parties concerned — viz. that when a given sum of money had to 
be raised, one-half of it was undertaken by the Church and the 
other half by the nobles and burghers. We may be quite sure 
that such a division of taxation would not have been accepted 
quietly by the spiritual lords had there not been good reason 
for agreeing to a full half. 

Undoubtedly this enormous mass of property was one great 
motive of the nobles and gentry in turning against the Eoman 
Church and favouring reform. No less clear is it that this 
wealth was wasted among the most greedy and unprincipled 
men of that age, instead of being used for the benefit of the 
old tenants on the church lands, or to re-endow church, school, 
college, infirmary, almshouse, and orphanage. 

The first element of the dispersion consisted in this, that for 
two or three decades previous to 1560 there went on a deliber- 
ate and unprincipled system of what was called dilapidation 
of church property of all kinds. Bishops, deans, provosts, 
preceptors, abbots, and priors, foreseeing danger to the Church, 
put their houses in order by giving leases to relatives and 
favourites on terms that amounted to robbery and breach of 

' Fittis's " Ecclesiastical Annals of Perth," 74, where reference is made to Lawson's 
" Popular History of the Reformation in Scotland," 7, 254, 264, and to Bishop Keith's 
History, Appendix, 180. 


trust, called more politely dilapidation. Two of the most 
flagrant offenders were Bishop Patrick Hepburn of Moray, 
already mentioned, with his thirteen concubines, and Bishop 
William Chisholm of Dunblane, who enriched his three bas- 
tard children and his nephew, Sir James Chisholm of Cromlix, 
at the expense of the see. This knave compounded for his 
dishonesty by a double portion of zeal against heresy. In 1539 
he and Beaton condemned five men to the flames at Edinburgh. 
The grand spoliation, however, followed 1560, and it is only 
admitting the truth to acknowledge, as Eoman Catholics say, 
that the Eeformation was due as much, perhaps, to hope of 
plunder as to zeal for Scriptural doctrine or preference of a 
simpler ritual. Nothing could be baser afterwards than the con- 
duct of the nobles, gorged with church lands, towards the starv- 
ing Eeformed clergy. The same policy of greed and ingrati- 
tude forms the chief explanation of the execrable churches 
built during the whole of last century. It is true that the art 
of architecture was in a large measure lost, but the loss arose 
more perhaps from miserly starvation than from real ignorance. 
Long before the Eeformation, the original use of monasteries 
liad been served, and they had come to be regarded as idle 
superfluities. Laymen were in part appointed to them as 
rulers instead of monks, and even boys became nominal church 
dignitaries. After 1560 it was no great change when mitred 
abbacies and priories were transformed by a little varnish of 
law into temporal lordships, so that scores of the very best 
estates in Scotland went to men who had never done any ser- 
vice to Church or State further than that they had some Court 
influence, or were powerful enough to help themselves. In 
this way a large proportion of the proprietorship of Scotland 
rests on a basis utterly rotten and fraudulent ; not on natural 
succession, honest purchase, military service, conquest in war, 
or reclamation of waste, but on violence, knavery, favouritism, 
and servility. Had it happened more generally as it did in 
Lanarkshire and Eenfrewshire, where the old Church rentaUers 
became proprietors of their farms, paying as teinds what they 
used to pay as rent, it would have been a mighty boon to the 
country by multiplying the useful and independent class of 
small and middle class landholders. But when vast masses of 


church property were handed over without any reasonable 
consideration, to aggrandize men whose territorial position, in 
most cases, was already good, or too good, the enrichment be- 
came a curse, retarding liberty, prosperity, culture, and agri- 
culture. This is really what is meant when the hateful names 
of commendator and temporal lordship are found attached after 
1560 to any of the old monasteries. 

What Dr. Lees says of "Paisley Abbey" (p. 228) is of general 
application: — "The blow came not from the people, but from 
the aristocracy. The idea that the common people had become 
so instructed in the truths of Scripture as to abhor the doctrines 
of the papacy, is far from being historically correct. They 
were too ignorant to read Scripture, far less to understand 
abstruse theological disquisitions; but they had little respect 
for their clergy, and were more ready to follow their laird than 
their priest. The laird had everything to gain by favouring 
the new doctrines — the abbey lands, so much richer than his 
own, afforded too tempting a bribe, and poor proprietors like 
Sempill [father of the primate's concubine] saw an easy way 
to fortune, by an appropriation of the Church revenues. The 
manner in which the Church property was gifted away forms 
a scandalous episode in the history of Scotland. Men like 
Claud Hamilton [the last abbot and nephew of the primate], 
who never had done anything for their country, became enriched 
and ennobled through the spoliation. It is vain to picture 
regretfully what might have been ; but anyone can see how 
much better it would have been for Scotland if the whole 
community, instead of a few unworthy individuals, had got the 
benefit of the Church's wealth. Those who did get it have, in 
too many instances, made a very miserable use of their ill- 
gotten gain." 

Here are twenty samples taken at random of the scattering 
of church lands, and the value of the money attached to the re- 
spective monasteries, with still greater values of rent in kind : — 

Kelso, £2495. Sir Robert Kerr of Cessford. 

Kilwinning, £880. Earl of Eglinton. 

Londores, £2240. Lord Londores, son of Earl of Rothes. 

Culross, £768. Lord Colville of Culross. 

Newbottle, £1413. IVIark Ker, Lord Newbottle. 

Cambuskenneth, £930. John, earl of Mar. 


Inchaffray, £666. James, Lord Maderty. 

Blantyre, £131. Walter Stewart, lord Blantyre, son of Earl of Minto. 

Monymusk, £400. Forbes of IMonymusk. 

Pittenweem, £412. Colonel Stuart and his son Lord Pittenweem. 

Lesmahago, £104. James Cunningham in 1561. Barony in 1607. 

Arbroath, £2553. Lord Claud Hamilton. 

Coldingham, £898. Alexander Hume of Maunderston. 

Balmerino, £704. Sir James Elphinstone, lord Balmerino. 

Cupar-Angus, £1886. Stewart of Atholl. 

Deir, £572. Robert Keith, son of Earl Marischal. 

Dundrennau, £500. Robert IVIaxwell, son of Lord Herries. 

Kynloss, £1152. Baron Bruce of Kynloss, earl of Elgin. 

Melrose, £1758. James Douglas. 

New Abbey, £212. Sir Robert Spottiswood, lord New Abbey. 

In many instances, something very like a curse seems to 
have attached to these sacrilegious lordships. At least the 
proverb was fulfilled that ill-gotten gear has not thriven ; 
what came with the wind has gone with the water, or, as 
the Scripture proverb has it, " an inheritance may be gotten 
hastily at the beginning ; but the end thereof shall not be 
blessed."^ Certainly such acquisition of property tends to 
render all landed estates insecure by dissociating them from 
heritage, thrift, virtue, and valour. Seeing that perhaps one- 
half of the land of this country within the last 300 years 
has passed through so degraded a history as the foundation of 
present titles, the modern and popular impatience of game, 
rack-renting, political dictation, and general conceit of land- 
owners, is not so unreasonable as it seems at first sight. The 
chief unreasonableness is when the more ignorant and sectarian 
of our lower orders form new schemes of church robbery under 
the name of religious equality, without proposing to raise a 
count and reckoning with those old offenders, who neither earned 
nor inherited their share to begin with; who hold a larger share 
by far than the present Church of Scotland ; and who for three 
centuries past have rendered no service, either sacred or civil, 
in return for their appropriations. 

' This principle of retribution has been traced in detail in twenty-six cases within the 
diocese of St. Andi-ews by Lyon in his " Hist.," ii. 400-406, in appendix h5, under the 
title " Punishment of Sacrilege within the Diocese of St. Andrews," where it is clearly 
shown from the history of the Scottish peerage and baronage that sacrilege was punished 
in the present life, and chieJJy by the failure of male issue. The continuous line^ of 
historic proof in plague-stricken families is certainly very remarkable, and the article 
concludes by quoting the Marquis of Strafford's words to his eldest son, immediately 
before his execution: "I charge you never to meddle with the revenues of the Church; 
for the curse of God will follow all who do." 




Pre-Reformation documents — The Order of Geneva — The Confession of Faith of the Eng 
lish at Geneva— Distribution of the chief reform ministers among the burghs — 
Calvin's Catechism — Other Catechisms— Consummation of the Scottish Reformation 
by the Parliament — Prohibition of the mass — The first Confession of the Reformed 
Church — Tjie First Book of Discipline— The official persons of the new Church— 
The education section of the First Book — Abolition and re-adoption of ordination 
by laying on of hands — The early Assemblies — State of the Church at the end of 
fourteen years — Mary Queen of Scots — Her return from France — Marriage to 
Damley — Murder of Rizzio — Her resignation — Escape from Lochleven — Battle of 
Langside — Her flight to England, and execution — Regents Moray, Lennox, and 
Mar — Death of John Knox. 

Having already shown in detail the causes that led to the 
overthrow, in 1560, of the Church established in Scotland by 
St. Margaret and St. David in the end of the eleventh and 
beginning of the twelfth century, we are free at once to enter 
on an account of the constitution and career of the Church 
that succeeded it; for there was no interval between the two 
— the suppression of the one and the substitution of the other 
being the work of the same Parliament, and even of the same 
day. In dealing with the four and a half centuries of the 
Pioman period of the Church, a careful endeavour has been 
made to give distinct and hearty praise where praise seemed 
due, and to avoid all vague railing and prejudice against 
doctrine or ritual on the mere ground of being Pioman. This 
is the only fair method of historical criticism — where there is 
blame as to impurity of life or irregularity of appointments to 
office, carefully to define the period and extent of such. Simi- 
larly, where doctrine is concerned, to specify what is considered 
erroneous, and at the same time give the Church due credit 
for that very large proportion of sound doctrine which is 
honestly held and taught. In dealing with the form of the 
Church of Scotland to which we now come, we propose to act 


on the same principles, giving an accurate narrative of events, 
without attempting to conceal or defend things weak or wrong, 
but rather to point them out, not for attack, but as simply 
disapproving them and marking them to serve as warnings. 
In this way we are able to give effect to certain of the criticisms 
of both Pioman Catholics and Episcopalians, in so far as they 
are solid and definite, and not merely partisan and routine. 

Several years before the actual accomplishment of the Refor- 
mation in Scotland in August, 1560, we find in existence and 
public use a Book of Common Order, often called The Order 
of Geneva, identical in its main elements with that which was 
formally approved in 1564, in an edition which has since then 
been recognized as the standard one. It will be convenient 
to trace the book backward from 1564 to its earliest known 
form in Latin, dated 1st September, 1554, at Frankfort, and 
used there by Knox in the congregation of English refugees. 

The General Assembly, 26th December, 1564, ordained "that 
everie minister, exhorter, and reader sail have one of the Psalme 
Bookes latelie printed in Edinburgh, and use the order con- 
tained therein in prayers, marriage, and ministration of the 

" In the generall assemblie convened at Edinburgh in De- 
cember, 1562, for printing of the psalmes the Kirk lent Rob. 
Lickprivick, printer, twa hundredth pounds, to help to buy 
irons, ink, and papper, and to fie craftsmen for printing." In 
the same Assembly it was concluded, " that an unif orme Order 
sould be keeped in ministration of the sacraments, solemnization 
of marriages, and burial of the dead, according to the Booke of 

The Eirst Book of Discipline, framed in 1560, expressly 
approves of the Order of Geneva, which it calls "our Book of 
Common Order," and mentions its being " used in some of our 
churches " previous to that period. An English edition of the 
Order of Geneva was printed at Geneva in 1556 with a preface 
dated "at Geneva the 10th of February, anno 1556." This 
date of 10th February, 1556, at Geneva, is of special importance 
as the real beginning of Knox's Liturgy and also of the Con- 
fession of Faith, as is seen in a prayer which immediately 
follows the preface: — "A prayer made at the first Assembly 


of the English Church at Geneva, when the Confession of 
Faith and° whole Orders were there read and approved." 
Another EngUsh edition of the Book of Common Order was 
printed at Geneva in 1558. 

Besides emphasizing the two dates, 1556 and 1564, that mark 
the first Geneva edition and the first Scottish edition of our 
Book of Common Order, we require to take note of a frightful 
disfigurement and degradation that the book suffered in 1565 
and 1567 by the addition to it, first, of a treatise on fasting, and 
next of a form of excommunication, the former in the spirit of 
grumbling and gloom, the latter in the spirit of cruelty and 
persecution— these two additions being as bulky as the original 
book itself ! The preface of a Latin translation of the Liturgy 
of the English Church at Frankfort is dated 1st September, 
1554, and the prayers are identical with those in the Order 
of Geneva. In November, 1554, Knox began his ministry in 
Frankfort, and the Order of Geneva so translated was a version 
of that used by Calvin there. 

Another of our pre-Eeformation documents, but closely asso- 
ciated with the Geneva editions (1556 and 1558) of the Book 
of Common Order, is "The Confession of Faith used in the 
English Congregation at Geneva." It is traceable to 1554, 
and is divided into four parts, which are a paraphrase of the 
Creed on the persons of the Trinity, and on the Church. This 
earliest of our Scots Confessions is really the best of them all, 
being shorter, simpler, closer to the terms and arrangement of 
the Creed, and with less disfigurement by violent abuse of the 
Pope than the Confession of 1560. Some editions of the Book 
of Common Order do not contain the Geneva Confession, per- 
haps from consideration that an equivalent is provided within 
the book itself in " Ane Exposition of the Creed," which forms 
part of the " Order of Baptism," and runs in four parts par- 
allel with the Confession on the Trinity and the Church. This 
exposition, again, did not exist in the original Geneva editions- 
The exposition is plainly and well done, without any railing 
at "the man of sin" or the "idolatries" of the Eoman Church; 
but although unobjectionable in matter, style, or spirit, it is 
entirely unsuited for insertion as part of a baptismal order, 
because, filling six octavo pages, it is far less simple than the 


Apostles' Creed, which it drowns in verbiage, by furnishing, in 
fact, still another Confession of Faith, to the confusion and injury 
of those of 1556 and of 1560. 

Besides the Book of Common Order and the Geneva Con- 
fession, a third point wherein the Eeformation was anticipated 
was that on 19th July, 1560, at a solemn thanksgiving in St. 
Giles' (three days after the French and English left Leith 
according to treaty), the chief ministers of the party of the 
Lords of the Congregation were distributed among the burghs, 
showing that the Eeformed already counted the land as theirs 
now that the French troops were gone, and that the chief 
nobles adhered to the Eeform and had the sympathy of 
Queen Elizabeth besides. Spottiswoode (i. 325) says: — "John 
Knox was appointed to serve at Edinburgh, Christopher 
Goodman at St. Andrews, Adam Heriot at Aberdeen, John 
Row at Perth, William Christison at Dundee, David Ferguson 
at Dunfermline, Paul Methven at Jedburgh, and Mr. David 
Lindesay at Leith. Besides these they did nominate for the 
direction of Church affairs some to be superintendents, as Mr. 
John Spottiswoode for Lothian and Merse, Mr. John Winram 
for Fife, and John Erskine of Dun for Angus and Mearns, 
Mr. John Willock for Glasgow, and Mr. John Kerswel for 
Argyle and Isles. With this small number was the plantation 
of the Church at first undertaken." The boldness of this action, 
while the old Church was still legally intact, is even more 
striking than the fewness of the clergy thus distributed. The 
mighty self-confidence implied in this anticipatory procedure 
may have been what struck dismay into the spiritual lords on 
17th and 24tli August, a month later. 

Closely connected with the Book of Common Order and Con- 
fession of Geneva of 1556 is the English translation of Calvin's 
Catechism, in the same year. It is thus alluded to in 1560 in 
the Book of Discipline : — " After noone must the young children 
be publicly examined in their Catechism, in the audience of the 
people; in doing whereof the minister must take great diligence, 
as well to cause the people understand the questions proponed 
as the answers, and the doctrine that may be collected thereof : 
the order to be kept in teaching the Catechism and how much 
of it is appointed for every Sonday, is already distinguished in 

434 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

the Catechism printed uith the Book of our Common Order; 
which Catechism is the most perfect that ever yet was used 
in the Kirk "^ The copies in use in 1560 and 1od9, and earlier, 
were the Geneva edition of 1556. The first Scottish reprint 
was in 1564 The first edition in French, with question and 
answer, was printed by Calvin at Strasburg in 1541 -the 
earliest draft, printed at Basel in March, 1538, being a mere 
doctrinal compend drawn from the " Institutiones." Luther's 
first Catechism was published in 1529 ; and the earliest of all 
reformed Catechisms was that of Brentius in 1526. In the 
French Church, Calvin's Catechism was bound up with the 
New Testament, the metrical psalms and tunes. Church prayers, 
forms of baptism, and the Lord's Supper, and a confession of 
faith in forty short sections. The Catechism was divided into 
fifty-five Sunday parts, thus apportioned :— 1-20, the creed; 
21-33, the commands; 34-44, the Lord's prayer; 45-55, the 
sacraments. Thus the original teaching of the Church of Scot- 
land adhered to the simpler line of the Creed instead of found- 
ing on a stiff theological system, as is done in questions 1-38 
in the Westminster Shorter Catechism. Another advantage 
of Calvin's Catechism was its adherence to the more Christian 
view of the fourth commandment, before the Puritans revived 
the Judaistic ideas, and gave currency to a name that had been 
laid aside for fifteen centuries, because destitute of Christian 
reference. In Calvin's Catechism there are altogether 373 
questions, compared with 107 in the Shorter Catechism. The 
latter has the advantage of better adaptation to being com- 
mitted to memory, besides its smaller size; but the former is 
more free, thoughtful, and suggestive, and might profitably be 
again put into use for the training of youth in Bible classes, 
as a guide in exposition without the requirement of committing 
to memory. 

The Eeformation of the Church in Scotland was consummated 
on the 24th August, 1560, by the Scottish Parliament. The 
gist of what was done on that momentous day consisted in four 
particulars : — (1) Sanctioning of a certain new Creed or Con- 
fession of Faith ; (2) abolition of Papal jurisdiction in Scot- 
land; (3) repeal of former statutes in favour of the Eoman 

' Chap. xi. § 3. 


Church; (4) abolition of the mass, and punishment for the 
hearers and sayers of mass. The abolition of Papal jurisdiction 
in Scotland was a measure clearly justifiable on political grounds, 
as indispensable for complete national independence ; but it 
was on religious grounds that the Eeformers would themselves 
mainly have rested as their reason. The repeal of former 
statutes in favour of the Eoman Church was a simple matter 
of necessity, in the circumstances, after the adoption of a New 
Confession of Faith and a reorganization of the Church. The 
last of the four Acts was entirely unjustifiable in both of its 
parts, and particularly the latter prescribing punishment. To 
prohibit altogether the celebration of mass was a gross act of 
religious intolerance, hindering the celebration of the Lord's 
Supper by a large body of Christians in the way that had been 
in use for centuries, and which approved itself to their con- 
sciences as agreeable to Scripture. It was in vain that the 
Eeformed chose to employ strong language and call the mass 
idolatry. Even if it had been idolatry, neither Church nor 
Parliament had any right to hinder idolatry except by argu- 
ment. The cry of idolatry was raised mainly to enable the 
Eeformed to fall back on the Old Testament, for the help 
of severe measures which in different circumstances once had 
Divine sanction, but which no Christian body is now entitled 
to plead under any circumstances. All who said mass or dared 
to hear it, for the first transgression were to be punished with 
confiscation of goods; for the second, with banishment from 
the kingdom; for the third, with death. This is of a piece 
with the worst that can be said of the Spanish Inquisition. 
The real object of this barbarous legislation was so thoroughly 
to root out Eomanism that no reaction in its favour might 
endanger the stability of the Eeformed Church. 

On the Act of 24th August, 1560, prohibiting the mass under 
pain of confiscation, banishment, and death, Dr. George Cook^ 
justly observes — "Over this statute every friend to true religion, 
to the influence of the mild spirit of Christianity, and to the 
sacred rights of men, would wish to cast a veil. It too plainly 
shows that the worst part of popery had not been taken from 
the hearts of those who so vehemently opposed it. . . . 

' "Historv of the Reformation," ii. 336, 2nd edition. 


There is something in the tendency which all sects have shown 
to draw the sword of persecution most humbling and disgrace- 
ful to human nature." 

This Confession of Faith is important as the earliest such 
document in the Eeformed Church of Scotland, and as received 
at once by Parliament — in fact, at their own special request, 
liaving been drawn up by the chief reforming clergymen. The 
work was done in four days, and was approved by Parliament 
on the 17th August. A draft of the Confession was probably 
made previous to this date. We know that before being 
submitted to Parliament it was privately gone over by Mait- 
land and the Lord James Stuart, and toned down in some 
of its expressions, while one paragraph was omitted on the 
duty of subjects to the civil power. 

This Confession continued from 1560 to 1647 the recognized 
standard of the Church of Scotland, and the greatest battles 
the Church ever waged were fought under it. Its noble spirit 
is patent from one sentence of its preface : — " We conjure you 
if any man will note in this our Confession any article or sen- 
tence repugnant to God's Holy Word, that it would please him 
of his gentleness, and for Christian charity's sake, to admonish 
us of the same in writing; and we, upon our honour and 
fidelity, do promise him satisfaction from the Holy Scriptures, 
or due reformation of that which he shall prove to be amiss." 

The titles of the twenty-five chapters of the Scottish Con- 
fession of 1560 (ratified in 1567 under Eegent Moray, and 
recognized as a standard in the Test Act of 1681) are : — 

Of God. The Creation of Man. Original Sin. The Revelation of 
the Promises. The Continuance, Increase, and Preservation of His 
Church. The Incarnation of Christ Jesus. Why it behoveth the 
Mediator to be very God and very Man. Election. Christ's Death, 
Passion, Burial, &c. Resurrection. Ascension. Faith in the Holy 
Ghost. The Cause of Good Works. What Works are reputed Good 
before God. The Perfection of the Law and the Imperfection of Man. 
The Church. The Immortality of the Soul. The Notes by which the 
True Church is discerned from the False, and who shall be Judge of the 
Doctrine. The Authority of the Scriptures. General Councils: their 
Power, Authority, and Cause of their Convention. The Sacraments. 
The Right Administration of the Sacraments. To whom Sacraments 
appertain. Of the Civil ^Magistrate. The Gifts freely given to the 


As its character is fiilly examined in our dissertation on the 
Doctrine of the Chnrch, we need enlarge on it no further here. 

So early as the 29th April, 1560 (nearly four months previous 
to the legalizing of the Eeformation), a commission was given 
by the great Council of Scotland to five distinguished church- 
men to draw up a " Book of Discipline " — viz. Knox, Spottis- 
wood, Winram,^ Willock, and Eow — added to whom, at the 
subscribing of the completed work, was Douglas — all six bear- 
ing the same Christian name of John. The title-page runs : 
"The First Book of Discipline, or the Policie and Discipline 
of the Church, drawn up by Mr. John Winrara, &c., . . . 
and presented to the Nobilitie anno 1560, and afterwards sub- 
scribed by the Kirk and Lords." It was completed 29th May, 
and has the peculiarity of having been accepted by the General 
Assembly, but not by the Parliament, as the Confession of Faith 
had been. Appended to it are thirty-three of the best and 
noblest names in Scotland of that day, headed by James, duke 
of Chatelherault, and his eldest son, James Hamilton, earl of 
Arran, followed by the Earl of Argyll and the " Good Eegent " 
Moray. These signed it in their individual capacity, but the 
number and quality of the names in point of weight fall little 
short of formal parliamentary sanction. The signing was ac- 
companied by a condition alike kindly and statesmanlike : 
" Providing that the bishops, abbots, priors, and other prelates 
and beneficed men which els have adjoined themselves to us, 
bruik [retain] the revenues of their benefices during their life- 
times, they sustaining and upholdiug the ministry and ministers 
as herein specified, for the preaching of the Word and minis- 
tering of the sacraments." The First Book of Discipline occu- 
pies about fifty-six octavo pages, while the Second (in 1578) 
has the merit of having only about twenty. It is a great defect 
of every one of these early documents that they enter far too 
much into regulation of every detail, and on account of this 
tediousness have never been much read, at least popularly." 

1 For history and character of Winram, see Lee, " Hist, of Ch. of Scot," i. 87, and 
Appendix v. 

^ Two reprints, in 1836 and 1853, of the First Book of Discipline erroneously state that 
it was finally agi-eed on by the General Assembly of 1581 and registered in the Acts of 
the Kirk. This applies only to the Second Book, drawn up in 1578, and it is absurd or 
fraudulent to regard the latter as a mere revisal of the former, which the above method 
of reckoning seems to point at. 



For our purpose here, the important part of the First Book 
of Discipline is that which deals with the official persons who 
were to do the work of God in the new system. The striking 
feature is that we are not presented with a fine-spun theory, 
drawn, or 'supposed to be drawn, from the New Testament, but 
with a plan adapted to existing wants, to tide over the diffi- 
culties of the period, and ripen in due time to something better. 
The official persons of the Church were the five following: 
ministers, readers, superintendents, elders, deacons. 

Every congregation had a right to call its own minister; but 
if the electi°on was neglected forty days, the Church might 
present a man apt to feed the fiock, who was to be ex- 
amined not only concerning his knowledge, but also concern- 
ing his life and manners. By far the strangest point touching 
mhiisters is, that ordination by laying on of hands was deliber- 
ately laid aside; but in a few years this extreme step was 

altered " Other ceremonie than the public approbation of the 

people and declaration of the chief minister (or of him who 
presideth on this occasion) that the person there presented is 
appointed to serve the Church we cannot approve ; for albeit 
the apostles used imposition of hands, yet, seeing the miracle 
is ceased, the using of the ceremonie we judge not necessarie." 
This fact speaks only too plainly of the vehemence and 
thoroughness of the Scottish Ptcformers in rejecting the old 
priestly superstitions where great change was needed, sometimes 
changing too much. 

The reader was an interim substitute for a fully trained 
clergyman, so long as the clergy were scarce. He did not bap- 
tize, or marry, or celebrate the communion, but in certain cases 
he conducted the ordinary service of the church — a matter then 
more easy, inasmuch as a printed prayer-book was in regular 
use. In dealing with Scripture, the reader was allowed to add 
a few words explanatory or hortative ; but he was cautioned 
not to be too long, nor to attempt preaching properly so called. 
A trace of this early office still meets us in the popular name 
of lectern or lettern, applied to the precentor's desk. The office 
itself still survives in the Swiss Church, and partly in the 
Church of England, where the lessons are often read by laymen. 
A large proportion of our country churches, for some time after 


the Eeformation, had readers only, who were also the first 
schoolmasters. In 1567 there were 455 readers and 151 ex- 
horters to 257 ministers, and in 1574 there were 715 readers 
to 289 ministers. In 1581 their abolition was voted by the 
General Assembly, but they lingered on long in many remote 

Originally the ciders and deacons were subjected to a yearly 
election, lest by long continuance in office they should presume 
to encroach upon the liberty of the Church. 

By far the most remarkable of the early offices is that of 
superintendent. There were to be ten superintendents, for the 
following stations or dioceses: — Orkney, Koss, Argyll, Aberdeen, 
Brechin, Fife, Edinburgh, Jedburgh, Glasgow, Dumfries. But 
only five of the ten were ever filled — viz. Winram, Fife; Willock, 
Glasgow ; Carswell, Argyll ; Erskine of Dun, Brechin ; Spottis- 
woode (father of the archbishop), Lothian. Eow at Dumfries 
was called commissioner, but his settled duty was at Perth. 
Eow was appointed minister of Perth in July, 1560, by the 
Committee of Parliament, at the same time that Knox was 
appointed to Edinburgh, Ferguson to Dunfermline, Goodman 
to St. Andrews, Christison to Dundee, and Heriot to Aberdeen. 
The spec ial work of the superintendent was the planting of kirks 
and providing ministers or readers. They were t o remain in no 
place above twjinty days in their visitation till they passed 
through their whole bounds ; to preach at least thrice weekly, 
both when travelling and when at their principal station, where 
they must not sta y more than three or four months at a time, 
AVinram was very often accused of negligence, especially in 
preaching and visiting churches, yet he held his office to the 
last. Willock was an Englishman, and voluntarily returned to 
England afterwards. Erskine of Dun died in 1591. Goodman 
was an Englishman. Adam Heriot was previously a monk of 
the priory of St. Andrews. Eow had previously officiated as a 
priest at Perth. 

It is noteworthy that in describing the superintendent's 
sphere of duty the Book of Discipline distinctly uses the word 
diocese eleven times over, thus : — " The names of the places of 
residence and severall diocesses of the superintendents. The 
superintendent of Orkney, whose diocese shall comprehend 


The superintendent of Eosse, whose diocese shall com- 
prehend . . . The superintendent of Argyll, whose diocese" 
and so on to the tenth at Dumfries. 
The main question as to these superintendents is as to their 
relation to bishops. The name is evidently a translation of 
eTTt'o-KOTTo? (overseer), " bishop " being the word itself without 
translation. Also the duties are kindred to episcopal — viz. 
charge of a number of churches and churchmen in a given 
district, together with more ample income (but still small).^ 
There the resemblance ends ; it fails in all that is most essential 
in either Eoman or Anglican bishops. There was no special 
consecration beyond that of ordinary ministers; and one of 
the'^A^uperintendents (Erskine of Dun) was only a layman 
when appointed, being a well-educated and devout country 
gentleman. They were liable to be caUed to account b y the 
General Assembly, which~was composed only of ordinary 
mmis^rs" and elders. In point of fact, the superintendents 
were not very useful or successful, but the plan was one that 
seemed very reasonable for setting the new ecclesiastical ma- 
chinery in motion." 

While the originally intended number of superintendents 
never was completed, a kindred class of men, under the name 
of visitors or commissioners, was created alongside of superin- 
tendents. These commissioners or visitors had lesser districts 
assigned to them, and they were not held bound to reside in 
their district. Thus in 1574, while only one superintendent 
appears, there are six commissioners. In 1578, commissioners 
are twenty-four in number; next year, twenty-five; and next 
again, twenty-six. The six commissioners of 1574 are — James 

^ "It was thought that every minister should have at least 40 bolls meal and 26 bolls 
malt, to End his house bread and drink, and more, so much as the discretion of the 
Church might find necessary, besides money for procuring provision for his house and 
other neces.'iaries. ... To the superintendent it was thought that (6 chalders) 
96 bolls of barley, (9 chalders) 14-4 bolls of meal, (3 chalders) 48 bolls of oats, and (iOO 
merks of money, to be eiked and paired at the discretion of the Prince and Council of 
the reahn, should be paid in tiie same manner." — Principal Lee, ^^Hist." i. 163-4. 

^ Principal Lee (" Hist.," i. 190) says : "The fact is, that the name of superintendents 
was immediately borrowed from the Church of England, the most eminent members of 
which, in the reign of Edward VL, were anxious to establish Church government on the 
model of Geneva, and to declare the office of bishop and presbyter to be the same. 
Cranmer declared that ' by the Scripture a bishop or priest needeth not conse- 
cration, election being sufficient ; ' and Bishops Latimer, Hooper, Pilkington, and Jewel 
have recorded their conviction of the identity of the ofhces of bishops and priests." 


Annand, for Orkney ; Gilbert Foulsy, for Zetland ; Eobert 
Graharae, Caithness ; Donald Munro, Eoss ; George Hay, Aber- 
deen and Banff; Andro Hay, Cliddisdail, Eainfrew, and Levenax 
or Lennox. 

Probably the ablest division of the Book of Discipline is 
chap, vii., entitled " Of Schools and Universities " — a section 
which is of special value for its sound theory of middle or 
grammar schools, and is supposed to have been written by 
Winram and John Douglas, who were specially qualified. 
"■Of necessitie, therefore, we judge it that every several kirk 
have one schoolmaster appointed, such a one at least that is 
able to teach grammar and the Latin tongue, if the town be 
of any reputation. If it be upland, where the people con- 
vene to the doctrine but once in the week, then must either 
the reader or the minister there appointed take care of the 
children and youth of the parish, to instruct them in the 
first rudiments, especially in the Catechisme, as we have it 
now translated in the Booke of the Common Order, called 
the Order of Geneva. And furder, we think it expedient that 
in every notable town, and especially in the town of the 
superintendent, there be erected a colledge in which the arts, 
at least logick and rhetorick, together with the tongues, be 
read by sufl&cient masters, for whom honest stipends must be 
appointed: as also that provision be made for those that be 
poore and not able by themselves nor by their friends to be 
sustained at letters, and in speciall these that come from land- 
ward." ^ 

These enlightened plans regarding education were hindered 
mainly by the avarice of the nobility, who seized on the 
patrimony of the Church, intended by the Eeformers for wor- 
ship, teaching, and the poor. On this point Principal Lee 
well says : ^ "If the Eeformers had been allowed to carry 
their plans into execution, a great proportion of the rents of 
the bishoprics would have been applied to the support of 
literary institutions, as well as to the due sustentation of the 
parochial clergy. Their destination of these funds was indeed 
intercepted by the avarice of men of power; but though the 
enlightened views which they had endeavoured to impress 

1 Hist. L 200. 


upon the Parliament were thus frustrated, it is certainly 
most unfair to charge upon the Eeformers the discredit of an 
effect to which they not only did not contribute, but which 
they laboured strenuously to counteract. They had the best 
interests of learning deeply at heart ; and if their counsel had 
been followed, no country in the world would have been so 
well supplied as Scotland with the means of extending the 
benefits of a liberal education to every man capable of intel- 
lectual improvement." 

In connection with the First Book of Discipline in relation 
to the Church polity of 1560, compared with questions that 
subsequently arose and developments that took place, it is of 
f^reat importance to note the grave and unquestionable blunder 
that was made in discarding ordination by laying on of hands, 
in favour of a mere call from a number of people regarded 
as a congregation. The blunder was soon discovered and per- 
manently corrected, and there was this palliation for the 
mistake, that in most cases no ordination was required, be- 
cause so many of the first preachers were already in orders as 

Another important and kindred point is that the Eeformed 
Church did not start with any theory of parity, but deliber- 
ately in duty, authority, and stipend, although not in distinct 
ordination or consecration, recognized certain churchmen above 
others — superintendents above ministers, and ministers above 
exhorters and readers. Unhappily this elasticity, suggested 
by nature and reason, was soon abandoned in order to simplify 
the struggle against a system intended to increase the inequality 
and to make or borrow a separate framework to fit it. Had 
the original inequality been maintained, it would have proved 
extremely useful, especially in recent days, as a great improve- 
ment on the slow and cumbrous government and administra- 
tion of departments of church work by committees. Altogether 
there seems to have been early dissatisfaction with the Book 
as both tedious and ill-arranged, for so early as 1567, or 
immediately after, we find in twenty sections "ane schort 
somme of the Bulk of Disciplin for the instruction of ministers 
and reidaris in thair office." 

Some of the details of the early meetings of the General 


Assembly are remarkable. T he custom was to meet twi ce 
a year, in June and December, the December meeting being 
on the 25th — Christmas Day— expressly to thwart observance 
of it according to Eoman usage. At the firs^ Gene ral Assembly^ 
on 20th December, 1560, held in the "^Church of St. Mary 
Magdalene, in the Cowgate of Edinburgh, there were only 
Ibrt y-two members, of whom only six are named as ministers. 
The first seven Assemblies had no president or moderator. 
It was on Christmas, 1563, that it was first agre ed to j iaye 
ajnoderatorjiijuture,. George Buchanan — the^chief 'of Scottish 
scholars, a member of the Assembly of 1564, one of six com- 
missioners in the Assembly of 1565, and moderator of that 
of 1567 — was not a layman, as commonly represented, but in 
virtue of his office as Principal of St. Leonard's College, St. 
Andrews, minister of the parish as well as Principal, and 
Professor of Divinity. 

Nor_jvvas_there_ ^at ^ first_any definite^ mode _ of callin g an 
Assembly. The fourth General Assembly, in June, 1562, 
consisted only of five superintendents and thirty-two other 
members. In June, 1563, an Assembly met at Perth. These 
very meagre meetings tell their own tale as to the absence 
ol~pos'fage'for sending messages to distant clergymen, and as 
to the difficulty and cost of travelling — not to speak of 
danger — in the unsettled state of the country. Most of all, 
these thin meetings indicate that there were many parishes 
yet altogether unprovided with ministers. No_proportion_was 
^asyet"^ fixed "as" to' mmisters' and elders' seats. Apparently 
barons a nd lairds were allowed to sit simply on the ground 
of property and friendliness to the new order of things. The 
original dearth of clergy in the newly reformed Church is seen 
from the fact that only forty-three persons, lay or clerical, 
besides the forty-two members of the Assembly of 1560, could 
be counted up as suitable for ministers or readers throughout 
the country. But within seven years, such was the progress 
made, there were about 257 ministers, 151 exhorters, and 455 
readers, with five superintendents, labouring in the Church. 
Nearly aU these early ministers had previously been priests, 
and year by year they saw their way to cast in their lot with 
the Eeformers. " As the most part of the canons, monks, and 


friars ^Yithin the realm had made profession of 'the true re- 
ligion,' they were enjoined to serve as readers." ^ 

°The orijanization of the Church in 1574 = shows 988 churches, 
arranf^ed "under 303 heads, with 289 ministers, 715 readers — 
places of 20 ministers and 97 readers vacant — in all, 1121 per- 
sons. This register is arranged in the old dioceses, but arbi- 
trarily subdivided into groups of three to six parishes— the 
diocese of Glasgow showing subdivision into the old deaneries. 

The real state of the Church at this period — when reform 
had been accomplished and maintained for above a dozen years, 
but before strife had arisen as to bishops and presbyters — is 
best seen by taking three districts which subsequently corre- 
sponded to the presbyteries of Auchterarder, Dalkeith, and 
Paisley, and observing the relation of the parishes, where the 
primary parish is provided with a minister, who has charge of 
certain other parishes that have only a reader. 

AVhere there are fifteen parishes at present in the presbytery 
of Auchterarder there were in 1574 only four ministers and 
sixteen readers, thus grouped: — Auchterardour, stipend £100 
and kirk-lands, had readers at Auchterardour, Kinkell, Abirruth- 
ven, and Dunnyng. Strogeith, £60 and kirk-lands, had readers 
at Strogeith, Muthill, and Strowane. Foulis, £80 and kirk- 
lands, had readers at Foulis, Madertie, Trinitegask, and Findo- 
gask. Tulichettil, £100 and kirk-lands, had readers at Tulli- 
chettil, Cumrie, Monivaird, Monzie, and Crieff. 

The presbytery of Dalkeith, presently possessing twenty-two 
parishes old and new, stood thus in 1574 : — Pentland, stipend 
£67 and kirk-lands, had readers at Pentland, Pennycuik, and 
Montlowthyane. Newbotil, £100, had reader at Newbotil. 
"Malvile needs na reidare." Dalkeith, £64 and kirk-lands, 
had readers at Dalkeith, Lesuaid, and Glencors. Cokpen, £123 
and kirk-lands, had readers at Cokpen, Caringtoun, Clerkin"- 
toun, and Tempill. Heriot, £125, had readers at Heriot, Borth- 
wik, and Stow. Ormestoun, £126, had readers at Ormestoun, 
Salton, Pencaitland, Keith-Mershall, and Keith-Humbye. In- 
neresk, £120, had readers at Inneresk, Natoun, and Cranstoun. 

' " Bk. of the Universal Kirk." 

' As detailed in Register of Ministers and Readers in Miscellany, Wodrow ^oo., pp. 


Creichtoun, £133, had readers at Creichtoiin, Sowtray, and 

What is now the presbytery of Paisley, with twenty-three 
parishes old and new, was in 1574 thus represented : — Eistwod, 
stipend £66 and kirk-lands, with readers at Eistwod, Euthir- 
glen, and Cathcart. Paislay, £200 (two ministers), with readers 
at Paislay, Xeilstouu, Kilbarchane, and Mernys. Pienfrew, 
£200, with readers at Eenfrew, Govane, and Inchechynane. 
Erskin, £133, with readers at Erskin and Houstouu. Kilellane 
per sc £40. The greater number of these readers had only £16 
or £20 of stipend with kirk-lands. 

At this stage the Church had neither synods nor presbj^teries, 
only the two extremes — kirk-session and General Assembly. 
The germ of the synod was in the council of the superintendent, 
and the germ of the presbytery was in what was called the 
exercise — exercise with additions, or weekly exercise. " It was 
thought expedient, in every town where there were schools and 
any resort of learned men, there should be a weekly exercise 
for the trial and improvement of those who were employed in 
the service of the Church. The ministers and other learned 
persons in rotation were to interpret some place of Scripture. 
One was to give his opinion succinctly and soberly, without 
wandering from his text or introducing exhortations, admoni- 
tions, or reproofs. Another was then to add what the first 
seemed to have omitted, or to confirm what he had said by 
apt illustrations, or gently to correct any of his mistakes. In 
certain cases a third might supply what seemed to have been 
imperfectly treated by the others." All this was founded on 
1 Cor. xiv. 29 — " Let the prophets speak two or three, and let 
the other judge. If anything be revealed to another that sit- 
teth by, let the first hold his peace. Eor ye may all prophesy 
one by one, that all may learn, and all may be comforted." 
"While this text gives wise direction for the ordering of Christian 
congregational meetings at a time when the charismata were 
still a living feature of the Church, its applicableness to post- 
Eeformation times, and to a clerical assembly, may well be 

The communion was to be celebrated at least four times a 
year. Knox's Liturgy prescribes " once a month." Here we 


discern an evident superiority, in the fresh feelings of the early 
Eeformed Church, as compared with the seventeenth and 
eighteenth century custom of only yearly celebration, on the 
Old Testament model of the Passover and annual Day of 

The regular Sunday services consisted of two meetings — the 
one beginning at 8 a.m.; and the other in the early afternoon, 
for children to be catechised in the audience of the people, for 
which purpose the Catechism of Calvin was divided into por- 
tions for each Sunday. There was to be a week-day service 
in every church, especially in towns — a system that has fallen 
into regrettable disuse. 

Such was the nature and position of the Church of Scotland 
at its origin, and for some time after. But the early difficulties 
of the Church can be appreciated only in connection with some 
outline of contemporary political history. A chief cause of the 
plots and changes characteristic of the period was the fact that 
two regencies came comparatively close together — the first in 
the youth of Mary, whose father, James V., died very shortly 
after her birth at Linlithgow, in 1542. Again, James VI., 
]\Iary's son, was crowned at Stirling in 1567, when he was only 
one year old — his mother having been forced to resign already, 
in her twenty-fifth year. 

These weaknesses of the throne opened the way to the 
schemes and rivalries of barons already too turbulent and 
powerful to be good subjects. At the date when the Eefor- 
mation was achieved (August, 1560), Mary of Guise, widow 
of James V. and mother of Mary Stuart, was regent; and 
the Eeformation itself in one aspect was a revolution — a seizure 
of all power, civil and ecclesiastical, by a crowd of feudal 
barons in revolt against the lawful regent, whom they de- 
posed, and practically in revolt also against the girl-queen 
herself, whom they expected to turn as they pleased. 

At the end of the Eeformation year (6th December), Mary's 
husband, Francis II. of France, died at Orleans, and Mary very 
early and properly made up her mind to quit France, much as 
she loved its people and ways, and betake herself to that 
smaller and ruder land where she was queen in her own right. 
Accordingly she arrived at Leith, 19th August, 1501. Her 


reception was joyous and sincere. But matters soon changed, 
more through the fault of her nobles than of herself. The 
queen's personal talent for government was very great — as 
eminent, perhaps, as her beauty and accomplishments ; but 
the divergence between queen and nobles as to creed, and the 
intrigues of the nobles among themselves and with Queen 
Elizabeth of England, rendered it impossible for Mary Stuart 
to follow any quiet and consistent policy. In fact, she never 
had a fair chance as a queen. 

After a great deal of scheming and counter-scheming as to 
a proper match she was at last, on 29th July, 1565, married 
to Lord Darnley, one of her own subjects, but partly of royal 
blood — the queen being now tv/enty-three and her husband 
only nineteen. This was the first great mistake made by Mary, 
who was one of the cleverest women of the age, while Darnley 
was an incorrigible fool, silly and jealous, and made worse by 
his royal alliance. The crisis both of folly and crime came 
when Mary's Italian secretary, David Eizzio, was foully mur- 
dered, clinging for refuge to the queen's dress, on 6th March, 
1566 — not a year after the marriage. In this assassination 
Darnley was a leading spirit, his dagger being left in the poor 
secretarv^'s body. Blood leads to blood, and the next victim 
was Darnley himself, whose death was compassed by a " band " 
of nobles who despised him for his silliness, and hated him for 
his rank. He was got rid of at Kirk-of-Field, near Edinburgh, 
10th February, 1567, only a year and a half after his marriage. 

For this conspiracy, murder, and treason, the Earl of Both- 
well was brought to trial within a month, but on 12th April 
acquitted. To this unprincipled earl the queen was actually 
married on the 15th May, 1567 — only three months and five 
days after Darnley's tragic death. One party says the queen 
was in collusion with Bothwell when she was carried off, and 
therefore grossly guilty. Another party avers her seizure by 
Bothwell was pure violence and treason, and the queen an un- 
willing victim. Whichever it was, the wretched union lasted 
only one month, for on the 15th June the queen parted from 
BothweU, and surrendered to the Confederate Lords at the 
head of their troops on Carberry Hill. 

By the Confederate Lords she was immediately sent prisoner 


to Lochleven, where she was forced to sign papers of resig- 
nation—her half-brother Moray being appointed regent, 12th 
August, 15G7, and her son James, a child of one year old, 
being crowned king at Stirling. 

In order to understand the rapid and fearful nature of the 
e.xperiences througli which the queen passed in a very brief 
time, and the seditious attitude of the nobles, their rapid 
chauges, and how the queen was dictated to by them, a note 
of the dates and events at the great crisis may here be given. 

(1) In the first week of December, 1566, there was a con- 
ference at Craigmillar Castle, where the queen then was. At 
the conference were j\Ioray, Maitland, Argyll, Huntly, and Both- 
well, and the person against whom they were met was Darnley, 
whose tragic death followed on 10th February, 1567. 

(2) On 19th April, 1567, at the close of a meeting of Parlia- 
ment, a "band" was signed at Ainslie's Tavern in Edinburgh 
to promote a marriage between the queen and Bothwell — the 
signatories being Earls Argyll, Huntly, Cassilis, Morton, Errol, 
Sutherland, Eothes, Glencairn, Caithness, and Lords Boyd, Seton, 
Semple, Oliphant, Ogilvie, and Herries.^ The marriage thus 
plotted took place loth May, and had been made practicable 
by Bothwell on 24th April seizing the queen at Almond Bridge, 
six miles west of Edinburgh, whence he carried her to Dunbar. 

(3) After the marriage, and within a fortnight, took place a 
meeting of nobles at Stirling in the interest of the prince, and 
entirely adverse both to Bothwell and the queen. The lords 
present were mostly the same as the Ainslie Tavern company — 
viz. Argyll, Atholl, Morton, Mar, Glencairn, Lindsay, Boyd, 
Maitland, Tullibardine, Grange. These " Confederate Lords," as 
they were called, tried to surprise the queen and Bothwell at 
Holyrood ; who were missed by one day, for on 6th June they 
escaped to Borthwick and then to Dunbar, the confederates 
pursuing with 2000 horse. Failing in this they returned to 
Edinburgh, and issued a proclamation at Canongate, 11th June, 
and another next day at Edinburgh,'' declaring their aim to be 
to deliver the queen from bondage and captivity, but making no 
hint of the queen's collusion with Bothwell. Yet these were 
the same lords who signed the band at Ainslie's Tavern ! The 

^ Keith, '' Affairs," ii. 563. " Ibid. ii. 620. 


melancholy end was that to these same rebels and traitors the 

queen surrendered at Carberry Hill on 15th June, and two 

days later was on her way to Lochleven. On the 2nd of 

May, 1568, Mary escaped from Lochleven ; and thereafter her 

party among the nobles fought and lost all at Langside, near 

Glasgow. She took refuge in England, put herself in the power 

of Elizabeth, and was never again free, till her execution in 1587. 

As the queen's first great mistake was the marriage with 

Darnley, so her second was the union with Bothwell, and the 

third her retreat to England. The great historical problem 

touching Mary turns on her willingness or compulsion in the 

Bothwell marriage. The mystery of the " Casket Letters," after 

all that has been written, not excluding ]Mr. Skelton's brilliant 

" Maitland of Lethington," is still uncleared, but the presumption 

is considerably in the queen's favour. There can be no doubt 

that the nobles as a body were unjust and grossly disloyal to the 

queen, and had a direct interest in blackening her character so 

as to excuse their own plots. Nor can we lay any stress on 

what Buchanan has written, because his violent attack on the 

character of his sovereign, to whom in better days he had so 

gracefully dedicated his Psalms, is glaringly partisan, being 

influenced largely by his own zeal for the Eeformed Church 

and his idea that the queen's influence was incompatible with 

that. Then, again, it is clear that Knox's treatment of her is 

utterly indefensible in its rudeness, being based on an assumption 

of a Divine mission on his part, and a daringly presumptuous 

misrepresentation of the mass as idolatry. One of the fine 

features of the queen's character is her consistent firmness in 

asserting her personal adherence to the Eoman Church, in spite 

of the temptation to disarm her opponents by pretending some 

degree of sympathy with their reforms. On the other hand, 

an indefensible part of the conduct of the queen's enemies 

was their intolerance in demanding that she should worship as 

they did, and their considering that this want of agreement 

with them in any way lessened her right to the throne. 

"Whatever may be said in favour of such a requirement since 

1688, it is a totally different case where the change from 

Eomanism to Protestantism was new, and where the sovereign 

was only adhering to the creed in which she had been trained. 

450 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

The regency of Moray, which began 12th August, 1567, 
lasted only till 1570, when, on 23rd January, he was assassi- 
nated at Linlithgow by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. It was the 
IJec^ent Moray who gave the first sanction of the Crown to the 
Eeformation, and a short period of rest to the struggling Church 
—a double boon, appreciated then and ever since in the title 
of "The Good Eegent." In July, 1570, the Earl of Moray 
was succeeded in the regency by the Earl of Lennox (who 
belonged to the king's party); but Lennox was shot in the 
High Street of Stirling the very next year. There were two 
things which rendered his position peculiarly unsafe : in the 
first place, his rule was not recognized as lawful by the 
queen's party, which at this date was still lively and hope- 
ful; besides this he had made himself needlessly offensive 
by the hasty and cruel violence which he employed against 
Archbishop Hamilton, who fell into his hands on the capture 
of Dunbarton Castle, 2nd April, 1571, and was hanged at 
Stirling only four days later and without any regular trial. 
Lennox was surprised and slain by a body of the queen's parti- 
sans, led by Earl Huntly and Lord Claud Hamilton, only five 
months after the archbishop's death. 

On the 5th September, 1571 (the day after this revenge on 
Lennox), the regency passed to the Earl of Mar, who was the 
choice of the nobles of the king's party in the distracted state; 
but Mar, dying suddenly on 28th October the next year, was 
succeeded by the Earl of Morton, who continued from 24th 
November, 1572, to 1578, when he resigned. Meanwhile the 
Castle of Edinburgh was held in the interest of the captive 
queen, but in 1573 it was taken, and the governor, Sir William 
Kirkaldy of Grange, was hanged. Death, kindly, intervened 
to save Maitland from the same doom. Before this, on 24th 
November, 1572, Knox had died. 

Thus, within a period of ten years or little more after the 
lieformation, the principal actors were off the stage, and there 
had taken place a series of events of blood and treason, and 
lust and revenge, that have made this decennium as fertile of 
tragedy and controversy and mystery as the decennium of tlie 
siege of Troy. 



OF PRESBYTERY, 1592-159G. 

The superiatendeut of Angus's letters to the regent — The Convention and its ecclesias- 
tical polity — Different views regarding the Concordat — Agi-eed to by General As- 
sembly of 1572 — Knox's farewell letter to Assembly — The " tulchans," or straw- 
bishops, of the Concordat — Andrew Melville — Fraudulent treatment of the clergy by 
the regent — Archbishop Boyd — Execution of Morton — Buchanan and King James — 
Office of bishop declared unlawful by Assembly — The King's Confession^The Raid 
of Ruthven— The Black Acts— Archbishop Adamson— The Act of Annexation— 
The Lesser Barons — Execution of Queen Mary — Conduct of King James at the 
time— His marriage — The ilagna Charta of Presbytery — Erection of presbyteries — 
The Second Book of Discipline — The office of deacon. 

On 1st February, 1572, when the Earl of Mar -was regent 
took place the Concordat of Leith, followed by a General As- 
sembly, -wherein the whole complexion of Church government 
was changed. The way had been prepared for some kind of 
change, in that Mar's kinsman, Erskine of Dun, superintendent 
of Angus, had written two letters to the regent on 10th and 
14th November, 1571, distinguishing between purely ecclesi- 
astical functions, which the Church alone had right in, and 
other matters touching temporalities, which the State might 
justly regulate, but wherein recently the State had been acting 
oppressively, and for which the superintendent craved relief 
for the mutual benefit of each. Mar had answered these letters 
in no unfriendly spirit. Besides the Superintendent of Angus, 
many of the clergy saw how desirable it was to have some 
more constitutional arrangement than had been adopted by 
Parliament at Stirling, in August, 1571, without consultation 
with the Church — viz. to call certain of the Protestant clergy 
to vote as successors of deceased prelates, and to appoint nomi- 
nal bishops to vacant sees, so that they might attend meetings 
of the Estates. The object of this was to keep up the old 
ecclesiastical element of Parliament, so as to avoid objection 
by the queen's adherents, that the Acts of the king's party in 
Parliament were irregular from the absence of prelates. 

The Concordat at Leith, where the king's party was en- 
camped, was arranged during a period of civil war and great dis- 


order. The meeting of clergy on 12th January was called a 
Convention only, and not a General Assemhly. Only the super- 
intendents and a few ministers were invited by the regent to 
consult on the best methods of allaying the dissensions be- 
tween the Court and the Church. This Convention illegally 
assumed to itself the functions of the Assembly that had no 
hand in its appointment. Besides this, the Convention reduced 
itself to a committee of six — viz. John Erskine, John Winram, 
Andrew Hay, David Lindsay, Robert Pont, and John Craig. 
The other six of the Privy Council were, Earl Morton, chan- 
cellor ; Lord Euthven, treasurer ; Robert, abbot of Dunfermline ; 
Sir John Bellenden, lord justice-clerk ; Mr. James Macgill of 
Rankeillor, clerk register; and Colin Campbell of Glenorchy. 
These twelve entered into an arrangement as to Church dig- 
nities, of which the following is the substance : — 

"It is thought good, in consideration of the present state, (1) That 
the names and titles of the archbishops and bishops be not altered, or 
the bounds of the dioceses confounded, but that they continue in time 
coming, as they did before the reformation of religion, at least till the king's 
majesty's majority or consent of Parliament ; (2) that the archbishoprics 
and bishoprics vacant should be conferred on men endowed, as far as may 
be, with the qualities specified in the Epistles of Paul to Timothy and 
Titus ; (3) that to all archbishoprics and bishoprics that should become 
vacant, qualified persons should be presented within a year and a day after 
the vacancy took place, and those nominated to be thirty years of age 
at the least ; (4) that the spiritual jurisdiction should be exercised by the 
bishops in their dioceses; (6) that abbots, priors, and inferior prelates, 
presented to benefices, should be tried as to their qualification and their 
aptness to give voice in Parliament, by the bishop or superintendent of the 
bounds, and upon their collation should be admitted to the benefice, but 
not otherwise ; (6) that the elections of persons presented to bishoprics 
should be made by the chapters of the cathedral churches ; and because 
the chapters of divers churches were possessed by men provided before his 
Majesty's coronation, who bore no office in the Church, that a particular 
nomination of ministers should be made in every diocese, to supply their 
rooms until the benefice should fall void ; (7) that all benefices, with cure 
under prelacies, should be conferred on actual ministers, and on no others; 
(8) that ministers should receive ordination from the bishops of the 
diocese, and where no bishop was as yet placed, from the superintendent 
of the bounds ; (9) that the bishops and superintendents, at the ordination 
of ministers, should exact of them an oath for acknowledging his Majesty's 
authority, and for obedience to their ordinary in all things." 

It was also agreed that all archbishops and bishops here- 
after to be admitted should exercise no further jurisdiction in 


spiritual fuuction than the superintendents exercised ; that 
they were to be subject to the Church in spiritual matters, 
as to the king in those that were temporal ; and that they 
should consult some of the most learned of the chapter, not 
fewer than six, with regard to the admission of such as were 
to have function in the Church. 

It was further agreed that no disposition should take place 
of any abbacy vacant at the time of the negotiation, or which 
afterwards should become vacant, till inquiry had been made 
what part of the revenue consisted of tithes, and what of tem- 
poral lands, that, with the advice of the bishop or superin- 
tendent within whose province the abbey or priory lay, pro- 
vision should be secured for the decent support of the ministers 
who officiated in the churches, and that it should be paid in 
terms of a special assignation. What remained after this had 
been done, it was thought proper to give to him who had the 
title of abbot, prior, or commendator, whose duty it was to 
represent the ecclesiastical state in Parliament. These titular 
priors and abbots were to be promoted to seats in the College 
of Justice, or were to be employed by the king in the affairs 
of the Commonwealth, it being, however, secured that no 
church connected with their benefice should be destitute of 
a minister. With respect to residence, it was resolved that 
no one engaged in the pastoral office should be absent from 
his benefice above forty days in the year, without permission 
from the king, or unless he had some lawful impediment. 
It was also agreed that qualified ministers should be settled 
throughout the kingdom, and that they should be assisted 
by readers, who, having been approved by the bishop or 
superintendent, were to be authorized to dispense the sacra- 
ment of baptism and to marry. It was further determined 
that none should be admitted to a plurality of benefices with 
cure; and that the political and religious sentiments of the 
ministers might be placed beyond a doubt, all who were pre- 
sented to livings were to be required, in presence of the bishop 
or superintendent, to subscribe the articles of religion, or the 
Confession of Faith and doctrines of the sacraments contained 
in the Acts of the first Parliament of James, and to swear 
that they acknowledged the king's authority. 


These articles, after they had been approved by the depu- 
tation of the above-named twelve from the Church and the 
Government, were submitted to the regent, the Earl of Mar, 
who, in name of his sovereign, gave to them his approbation. 

The ecclesiastical polity thus framed by the Convention dif- 
fered considerably from that laid down in the First Book of Dis- 
cipline, in restoring Episcopacy, and recognizing titles and offices 
which the Eeformers had at first considered it wise to abolish. 
Yet this Episcopacy rested on the same foundation which had 
been previously laid, for it received the sanction of those to 
whom it was submitted, not from its being expressly prescribed 
by the Word of God, but from its being calculated, in the pecu- 
liar situation of the Church of Scotland, to give vigour and effi- 
cacy to religious instruction, and to secure all the important 
objects which an ecclesiastical establishment is designed to pro- 
mote. The truth is that ever since the Eeformation, now twelve 
years ago, the Church had been painfully feeling the force of the 
warning given by Archbishop Hamilton through John Brand, a 
monk of Holyrood, to John Knox : — " Say from me that howso- 
ever he has introduced another form of religion, and reformed 
the doctrine of the Church, whereof it might be there was 
some reason, yet he should do well not to shake loose the 
order and policy received, which had been the work of many 
ages, till he were sure of a better to be settled in place thereof."' 
The sudden and violent overturn, in 1560, of offices elaborately 
developed in an ancient and wealthy church, had thrown their 
fabrics and emoluments in tithes and lands open to a scramble, 
wherein the Eeformed clergy came very badly off', getting only 
starving pittances irregularly paid, whereas the bulk of the 
ecclesiastical property went to rapacious and rebellious nobles 
at feud among themselves and against the throne. Thus, by 
apparently opposite motives, were Court and Church at this 
period brought together to make common cause in readjusting 
the temporalities of the Church. The ministers, on their side, 
hoped to get fairer stipends and these regularly paid, while the 
nobles, on their side, hoped to get more directly and more 
freely hold of the old episcopal and monastic revenues and 
lands, and at the same time, by restoring or conserving the 

' Keith's " Hist, of Affairs," Spottiswoode Soc, iii. 21. 


prclatic element in the estates, to render parliamentary action 

The object aimed at in these arrangements was not so much 
the setting up of Episcopacy for its own sake, as rather to be 
used as a means whereby needy and greedy noblemen might 
get at the wealth of the old Church, and whereby parliamentary 
action might be secured as valid. An Act of Privy Council, 
February 15, 1562, assigned one-third of the old revenues to 
the clergy of the Eeformed Church, and gave the other two- 
thirds in liferent to the old beneficiaries— i.e. archbishops and 
bishops, abbots and priors. As the law stood, only ecclesiastical 
persons could di-aw the revenues arising from these two-thirds, 
and as they were now held -only in liferent, the question re- 
quired to be faced and settled as to their destination on the gra- 
dual extinction of the liferenters. The Reformed clergy claimed 
them by inheritance as Church patrimony. The nobility con- 
sidered the money would be useful to themselves if they could 
outwit or force the Church. The Concordat was the result, and 
the proposed bishops were mere cats'-paws of the barons. It is 
instructive to mark the different ways in which the programme 
of the Concordat at Leith has been regarded. According to 
Dr. Grub (ii. 180), " there was one fatal deficiency, which made 
the new polity, however outwardly fair and regular, a mere 
form. The persons to whom the office of consecration [of the 
new bishops] was intrusted had not themselves the gift which 
they were required to bestow on others." But this begs the 
whole question whether ordination is not transmissible through 
presbyters as well as through bishops, and whether the first 
bishops were not the creation of presbyters as a matter of con- 
venience and expediency. Dr. Cook, in his "History of the 
Church of Scotland" (i. 181), gives this favourable opinion— "The 
Episcopal polity which issued from the Convention, appears to 
have been admirably calculated for securing a useful and efficient 
clergy. It established an excellent system of control ; it enforced 
upon ministers the regular discharge of their pastoral duties ; it 
assigned a peculiar province to all holding benefices— allotted 
a moderate provision for their support and comfort — whilst it 
subjected the highest dignitaries of the Church to restraints 
which guarded against the indolence or the profligacy that had 


disgraced the bishops tinder the Popish establishment." Most 
strikiuc' of all is it to find Knox himself at the time, although 
he took no direct part in the matter, yet indirectly acquiescing 
in these terms addressed in a letter to the Assembly from St. 
Andrews very shortly before his death. He requests that " all 
bishoprics vacant may be presented, and qualified persons nomi- 
nated thereunto, within a year of the vaiking thereof, according 
to the order taken in Leith by the Commissioners of the nobility 
and of the Kirk in the month of January last ;" that no pensions 
of benefices be allowed without consent of the legal possessor, 
the superintendent, or commissioner of the district, or " of the 
bishops lawfully elected according to the said order taken at 
Leith;" that persons nominated bishops be rejected if they 
" make not residence, or be slanderous, or found unworthy either 
in life or doctrine by the judgment of the Kirk;" and that "an 
Act be made, decerning and ordaining all bishops admitted by 
the order of the Elirk now received, to give account of their 
whole rents and intromissions therewith once in the year.^ 
Contrasted with Knox, less favourable estimates of the Leith 
Convention and Concordat have been formed by the keener 
school of Presbyterians represented by Melville, Calderwood, 
Petrie, Ptule, Wodrow, and M'Crie (junior), who transfer the 
controversial heat of later periods against Episcopacy, more than 
the facts warrant, to the opening decade of the Reformed Church, 
which, though it had no bishops, yet had little animus against 
them, and even to a considerable extent copied their best 
features, alike in superintendents and commissioners. 

These arrangements came up for final consideration at a 
General Assembly held in Perth in August, 1572, when they 
were agreed to hesitatingly and temporarily — the Assembly 
especially stipulating that the names archbishop, dean, arch- 
dean, chancellor, chapter, " slanderous and offensive to the ears 
of many," should be changed into others, and that the whole 
be only " interim until further and more perfect order be ob- 
tained at the hands of the king's majesty's regent and nobility." 

Knox was unable to attend the Perth Assembly, but sent a 
letter, wherein he took a solemn farewell of them all, and of all 
public affairs. In a message accompanying the letter, among 

' " Booke of the Universal Kirke of Scotland," part I. 248. 


other things he advised them not directly to oppose the articles 
of the Convention, but to stipulate that the churchmen who 
drew the two-thirds should account for them to the General 
Assembly. This course would have exposed unfaithful men to 
prosecution for simony, and would have defeated the develop- 
ment of Church robbery through bishops of straw. 

Following up the Concordat of Leith, John Douglas became 
primate ; James Boyd got Glasgow ; Andrew Paton, Dunkeld ; 
Andrew Graham, Dunblane ; George Douglas, Moray. Already 
Gordon was bishop of Galloway; Bothwell, titular bishop of' 
Orkney ; Stuart, of Caithness ; Hamilton, of Argyll ; Alexander 
Campbell, of Brechin ; Cars well, of the Isles — of whom Gordon 
alone was episcopally consecrated. Leslie of Boss held nominal 
possession till + 1596. 

The new bishops under the Concordat of Leith and the Perth 
Assembly were bishops chiefly in name, as the revenues of the 
sees went to enrich certain lay lords. James Melville^ says — 
" Every lord got a bishopric, and sought and presented to the 
Kirk such a man as would be content with least, and get them 
most, of tacks, feus, and pensions." It was a good stroke of 
popular wit and ridicule whereby these make-believe bishops 
were called "tulchans," the Gaelic name for calf-skins filled 
with straw, that used to be set before cows to induce them to 
yield their milk more easily. With allusion to the character- 
istic features of the tulchans, Patrick Adamson, in a sermon at 
St. Andrews, made a threefold classification of bishops : the first, 
my lord bishop in the Eoman Church ; the second, my lord's 
bishop, where my lord held the benefice and kept a bishop to 
do the work, so as to secure the revenue ; the third, the Lord's 
bishop, or true minister of the Gospel. 

This Concordat was largely managed by IMortou and the 
intended archbishop, John Douglas, provost of New College, 
St. Andrews, whom Knox refused to inaugurate as bishop, 
pronouncing an anathema against the giver and receiver of the 
bishopric. It will be remembered that in 1571, on the death 
of the primate, Morton had received from Eegent Mar a grant 
of the revenues of St. Andrews. The paction between Morton 
and Douglas was what roused the ire of Knox. 

> Diaiv, 31. 


At this stage we enter on a new and important development 
in our Church history. Had the principles agreed on at 
Leith in 1572 been more generally accepted or more fairly 
carried out, so as to have properly taken root, they might have 
averted the long and bitter strife between Presbytery and 
Episcopacy, as well as the degradation of Presbytery, in later 
times, into narrow sects based on paltry internal feuds. And 
the strife and degradation might have been averted by faith- 
fully conserving the main principles of Church government 
set up by the original reformers of 1560 in a system pos- 
sessing the best features both of Presbytery and Episcopacy. 
The constitution of 1572 differed from that of 1560 by laying 
greater stress on bishops ; but the constitutions of 1592, 1638, 
and 1688 all differ from that of 1560 in laying a stress on 
Presbytery and parity then unknown; for it was not until 
1581 that the first presbyterial court was erected, and not 
till 1586 such courts were sanctioned by the king. 

The Concordat of Leith had a reasonably fair start. Though 
the Church had little or no joy over it, many, and apparently 
the majority, had anticipations of peace and usefulness in it ; 
while the prejudice against it was limited in extent and mild 
in character, mostly touching nomenclature. The first attitude 
of the Church towards it is seen in such ways and points as 
the following : — At the first meeting of the General Assembly, 
March 6, 1573, after the adoption of the modified system of 
Episcopacy, a parish minister was made moderator, though the 
Archbishop of St. Andrews was present. Yet in this Assembly 
there was distinct recognition of bishops in giving certain direc- 
tions as to excommunication and as to dealing with witches. 
In the Assembly of 1574 the Piegent Morton was solicited "to 
provide qualified persons for vacant bishoprics." This year 
Archbishop Boyd of Glasgow was moderator. Three superin- 
tendents — viz. Erskine, Spottiswoode, and Winram — tendered 
their resignation, having felt insulted by some words spoken by 
the regent concerning their office, but the Assembly refused to 
receive the resignations, and guarded them against being inter- 
fered with in their own districts by the bishops. A bishop's 
authority was confined to his own see, and he had no official 
pre-eminence in the Assembly. 


There were two things, distinct from each other and apart 
from internal disfavour in the Assembly itself, that combined 
to raise and foster a growing opposition to the system of 1572. 
These were, first, fraudulent pecuniary treatment of the clergy 
by Eegent Morton, which led many to go back in favour of the 
old superintendent system ; and secondly, there was the sudden 
appearance of a new church leader in the person of Andrew 
Melville to foment and guide this dissatisfaction, so that instead 
of taking the simple form of reverting to the old order, his 
movement took the undesirable form of sharp and prolonged 
controversy, striving against all pre-eminence, whether in name 
or office, in the Church, and setting up a new theory of parity 
which was neither natural. Scriptural, ecclesiastical, nor Scottish. 

The offence given by the regent consisted in his mismanage- 
ment of stipends. Previously these had been paid out of the 
third of the revenues of benefices, the remainder of the third, 
in a certain proportion, going to the king's household. These 
thirds were collected at the instance of the superintendents, 
and then distributed to ministers and readers, who, however, 
had no little inconvenience from delay. The regent offered to 
collect the thirds himself, fix at once the stipend of each parish 
minister, and save all delay, adding the pledge that if his 
scheme did not give satisfaction on trial the old plan would be 
reverted to. When he had got control of this revenue, stipends 
were worse paid than before, often wholly refused, and minis- 
ters kept dangling about court in hope of payment. Moreover, 
parishes were united to save the difference between a minister's 
allowance and that of a reader ; and also the superintendents 
were cut down to the ministerial level — all these clippings 
going into the regent's pocket. 

The other prominent obstacle to the continuance of the modi- 
fied Episcopal constitution of 1572, besides the financial mis- 
management of the regent, was the new policy and influence 
of Andrew Melville. As John Knox was the leading church- 
man in the early Eeformation period, from 1560 to 1572, when 
the First Book of Discipline represented the Church's views^ 
so was Melville the leading churchman in this later period, 
when the Church's views were represented by the Second 
Eook of Discipline. 

460 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

Melville was one of those men of whom any Church might 
have been proud, and one of the most accomplished scholars of 
that energetic age, when almost everywhere those of the high- 
est learning were arrayed on the side of the new doctrine. 
He was born in 1545 at Baldovy, near Montrose, and was 
educated there and at St. Andrews, where he stayed from the 
age of fourteen to nineteen. He then went to Paris for two 
years, and at twenty-one became regent or professor in the 
college of St. Marceon at Poitiers. Thereafter at Geneva, in 
1568, through Beza's influence, he was appointed professor of 
humanity. Peturning to Scotland in 1574, he was made prin- 
cipal of Glasgow College, and six years later principal of St. 
Maiy's College at St. Andrews. 

WTiatever may have been the independent line of his own 
thoughts on Church government, undoubtedly his views were 
much influenced by six years' contact with Beza, who was a 
man essentially narrower than either Calvin or Knox, and whose 
keenness took the wrong and too republican direction of look- 
ing askance on all eminence in the Church, and aiming at a 
monotonous level, which is chiefly a convenience for helping 
upward an inferior class of men, while it tends to drag down 
men of ability and spirit, or at all events tends to prevent 
them reaching the higher level which they would naturally 
attain in any other calling where professional diligence and 
integrity had a free and fair field. A man of Melville's 
scholarly power, of good family, and at the head of a uni- 
versity, took almost from the first a foremost place in the 
Church councils, and finding a large measure of discontent 
ready-made through the penurious bungling or peculation of 
Eegent Morton, and having a clear counter polity to propound, 
nothing was more natural than that he should at once rise to the 
surface as the Church's champion against the court and state. 
Half of the same power exercised in a friendly and conciliatory 
way might have neutralized the regent's mismanagement and 
given satisfaction to all concerned, with a workable Church 
midway between Presbytery and Episcopacy, apart from red-hot 
theories on either side. 

What happened, however, in the actual circumstances was 
this, that year by year Melville guided his party to increasing 


success against the whole of Mortou's ecclesiastical polity, 
and even against a part of the earlier polity of Knox and the 
original Eeformers. For five years, from 1575 to 1580, step 
hy step Melville's views and party made progress. Then for 
another five years not only was progress arrested, but matters 
were violently thrown back to the Episcopal position of 1572, 
the new turning-point being the Eaid of Kuthven in 1582. In 
1585 came another period of five years for a fresh start of 
Melville's policy, until in 1590 it was completely successful, as 
marked in a famous and foolish speech of the king. 

The following is an outline of this period of alternate move- 
ment and reaction. A report made to the Assembly of 1575 
by a committee of six members, chosen three from each side, 
bore that they were unanimouslj" of opinion that the name 
hislioiJ rightly belonged to every minister who had the charge 
of a flock, but that out of these some might be chosen to over- 
see such reasonable districts as might be assigned them besides 
their own congregations; to appoint ministers, elders, and 
deacons in destitute places ; and to administer discipline with 
the consent of the clergy and people. This is simply an adher- 
ence to the old idea of superintendent, and is also in strict 
accord with the Confession of 1560, which neither asserts parity 
in the ministry nor denies Episcopacy. Best of all, this free 
system is also that which the ripest modern criticism of the New 
Testament has firmly vindicated as the original order of apostolic 
times. The members of the committee that gave in this re- 
port were Andrew Melville, principal of Glasgow College ; John 
Craig, minister of Aberdeen, formerly Knox's colleague ; James 
Lawson, minister of Edinburgh ; David Lindsay of Leith ; John 
Eeid of Perth ; and George Hay, commissioner from Caithness, 
of whom the first three were in favour of Presbytery, while the 
other three were on the side of Episcopacy. 

By a regulation of the Assembly of 1575, Archbishop Boyd 
of Glasgow was enjoined to choose a particular flock and to 
confine himself to such bounds in his visitation as the Church 
should prescribe. The archbishop made this judicious and 
respectful reply in writing: — "First, I understand the name, 
of&ce, and modest reverence borne to a bishop to be lawful, 
and allowable by the Scriptures of God, and being elected by 


the kirk and king to be bishop of Glasgow, I esteem my calling 
and office lawful. As it respects my execution of that charge 
committed to me, I am content to endeavour at my uttermost 
ability to perform the same, and every point thereof, and to 
abide the honourable judgment of the kirk from time to time 
of my offending by my duty, craving always a brotherly desire 
at their hands, seeing that the responsibility is weighty, and 
in the laying to my charge to be examined by the canon left 
by the apostle to Timothy (i.-iii.), because that portion was 
appointed to me at my receipt, to understand therefrom the 
duties of a bishop. As to my living, rents and other things 
^ranted by the prince to me and my successors for the securing 
of that charge, I reckon the same lawful. As to my duty to 
the supreme magistrate in assisting his Grace in Council or 
Parliament, being summoned thereto, I consider my position 
as a subject compels me to obey the same, and no hurt but 
beneficial to the kirk that some of our number are at the 
making of good laws and ordinances. In the doing whereof, 
I protest before God, I intend never to do anything but what 
I believe shall stand with the purity of the Scripture and a well 
reformed country, for a good part of the revenue I enjoy has 
been given for that cause."^ This was held to be no answer to 
the Act, which plainly shows that the self-willed Assembly de- 
manded submission in preference to sound law and argument. 

In 1578 a nearer approach was made to the later Pres- 
byterian system by prohibiting territorial names or titles to 
bishops, and restricting them to their own proper names. 

In 12th March, 1578, Morton resigned the regency, and the 
king, ai twelve years of age, nominally assumed the govern- 
ment. Morton soon regained influence, but was finally got rid 
of by the king's favourites, Lennox and Arran, and was exe- 
cuted 2nd June, 1581. 

The king early manifested an antipathy to the General 
Assembly and to Presbytery, which never left him. This arose 
partly from the influence of his favourites, partly from his 
prospect of succession to the English throne and from his innate 
conceit of arbitrary power, and possibly from the over -stern 
discipline of his school-days. The curious personality of James 

1 " Book of the Universal Kirk '' (quoted by Lawson, i. 160). 


runs through the whole Church history of his long reign. 
Sully called him "the wisest fool in Christendom," allud- 
ing to his name of the Scottish Solomon. " He was, indeed," 
as Macaulay says, "made up of two men: a witty, well-read 
scholar, who wrote, disputed, and harangued, and a nervous, 
drivelling idiot who acted." Buchanan, who knew him best, 
admitted that in making the king a pedant, it was the most 
he could make of him. 

In 1580, at Dundee, no Episcopal remnant was left at all : — 
" The whole Assembly of the Kirk, in one voice, found and de- 
clared the pretended office of a bishop to be unlawful, having 
neither foundation nor Avarrant in the Word of God, and ordained 
all such persons as brooked the said office to demit the same 
as an office to which they were not called by God, and to cease 
from preaching the Word and administering the sacraments 
till they should be admitted anew by the General Assembly, 
under pain of excommunication." This measure, alike of over- 
strained doctrine and excessive rigour, was submitted to by all 
the bishops except five. Archbishop Boyd of Glasgow made 
a protestation, which the Assembly accepted. Adamson, who 
was presented by Morton as archbishop to St. Andrews, was 
admitted by the same Assembly. 

The 28th of January, 1581, is the date of the document 
variously called the Second Confession of Faith, the King's 
Confession, the l^egative Confession or First Covenant, chiefly 
directed against Popery, and drawn up at the request of the 
king by John Craig, minister of Edinburgh. It was now signed 
by the king, and was afterwards repeatedly signed during 
periodic fears or panics of Eomish plots. It is printed as the 
first part of the National Covenant. 

The King's Confession is remarkable for the wildness of 
its language in denouncing the errors of the Eoman Church, 
evidently embodying the chief terms used in the heat of the 
original battle of the Eeformation — terms which by a curious 
bitter tradition have descended in many cases to the nineteenth 
century, and still form the uncouth armoury of ultra-Protestant 
societies, where nothing is known but the one-sided literature 
of denunciation, blind to good, and mindful of evil. 

On the 2nd of June Earl Morton was beheaded, ostensibly 


for a share in the murder of Darnley, hut really as a victim to 
the rivalry of Lennox (Esme Stuart d'Aubigne, the king's 
cousin, who came from France in 1579). Lennox (on the 
death of Archbishop Boyd) offered the see of Glasgow to 
Kobert IMontgomery, minister of Stirling, with a simoniacal 
barcrain that the revenue (value £4080) should go to Lennox, 
all save £1000 Scots to Montgomery. Montgomery was ex- 
communicated 9th June, 1582, and his name is of frequent 
occurrence subsequently. After the Assembly of June, 1582, 
a committee went to Perth, headed by Melville, to lay the 
Church's griefs before the king. On Arran's demanding who 
dared to sign so treasonable a document, Melville said "We 
dare," signed the paper, and was followed by the rest of the 

On 23rd August, 1582, the Raid of Euthveu took place, when 
the king was made prisoner at Huntingtower by Earl Gowrie, 
aided by Mar, Glamis, and others, with a view to rescuing 
him from the malign influence of Lennox and Arran. The 
church was too easil}^ pleased by this turn of affairs. John 
Durie (lately exiled for his visit to the king at Kinneil and his 
sermon in Edinburgh) returned in popular triumph. But on 
the 25th August, 1583, the king escaped from the Confederate 
Lords into the Castle of St. Andrews, and the Eaid of Euthven 
was declared treason. The barons submitted, and were for- 
given. Durie was cited — retracted and was dismissed. Mel- 
ville was cited — was defiant and fled. Earl Gowrie was tried 
on a new charge, and executed 2nd May, 1584. 

On 22nd Ma}-, 1584, Parliament met and passed a series 
of five Acts, generally known as the Black Acts, which utterly 
destroyed the old freedom of the Church, replaced Episcopacy 
and secured it by penal sanctions :— (1) The ancient jurisdiction 
of the three estates was ratified (one of the three being the 
lishops), and to speak evil of any one of them is treason. (2) 
The king was supreme in all causes and over all persons, and 
to decline his judgment is treason. (3) All convocations not 
specially licensed by the king are unlawful (church courts are 
thus made to depend on the king's will). (4) The chief juris- 

J "The Grieves of tlie Kirk" are given in foni-teen particulars as presented to the 
king m writing in Peterkin's " Booke of the Universall Kirk," 256. 


diction of the Church lies with the bishops (who thus take the 
place of Assemblies and Presbyteries). (5) "None shall pre- 
sume, privately or publicly, in sermons, declamations, or familiar 
conferences, to utter any false, untrue, or slanderous speeches, 
to the reproach of his Majesty or council, or meddle with the 
affairs of his highness and estate, under the pains contained in 
the Acts of Parliament made against the makers and reporters 
of lies." 

Pont, minister of St. Cuthbert's, made public protestation 
against these tyrannical acts, and fled with Walter Balcanquhal, 
another city minister, to Berwick. 

In August the Estates again met and added an Act that 
made the five already passed more practical for mischief — that 
all ministers, readers, and masters of colleges should compear 
within forty days and subscribe the Acts concerning the king's 
jurisdiction over all estates, temporal and spiritual, and promise 
to submit themselves to the bishops, their ordinaries, under pain 
of being deprived of their stipends. For a time the Church was 
forced into submission by these sweeping oppressions. 

On 5th November, 1585, what may be called a revolution 
came to the relief of the Church, when the banished lords 
with armed followers entered Stirling Castle, met the king, 
and offered him a homage which was really a victory — Arran 
having fled northward just before their entry. Now by the 
Synod of Fife, Andrew Melville being present. Archbishop 
Adamson was excommunicated as the author of the Black Acts 
of last year. He was again excommunicated, but finally ab- 
solved in 1590, and died in 1591 in extreme destitution. 

Archbishop Adamson is a man who has by no means had 
justice at the hands of Presbyterian historians and critics. 
Although not of high tone or pre-eminent ability, he seems to 
have been in a fair degree worthy of the promotion he received, 
and but for the fierceness of party spirit, at the time of 
his primacy would have passed muster reasonably well with- 
out being illustrious. Patrick Adamson or Constance or 
Constine was born in 1536 or 1530, the son of a baker who 
was a burgess of Perth, several of whose family held respectable 
public positions. Patrick was educated at the grammar school 
of Perth and at St, Andrews, where he took the degree of M.A. 

4G6 THE CHURCH or Scotland. 

Thereafter for four years he was a teacher at Ceres and had care 
of several gentlemen's sons, specially of young Macgill of Ean- 
keillor. After the Reformation he acted as minister of Ceres, 
and in 1563 was prominent enough to be made a commissioner 
of the General Assembly for planting kirks in the North. He 
went to Paris in 15 6G with young Macgill, and the same year 
he suffered six months' imprisonment for a Latin poem on the 
birth of James YI., his offence being that he had given to the 
infant prince, as was objected by France and England, too many 
titles in the heading of the piece. At Bourges he studied law 
in company with his pupil, and there narrowly escaped the outer 
wave of the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. On his 
escape and return the same year he became minister of Paisley. 
Three years later he was appointed by the Assembly a com- 
missioner for settling the jurisdiction and polity of the Church, 
and also became chaplain to the Regent Morton, and archbishop 
of St. Andrews. He wrote a translation, in four books of Latin 
verse, of Calvin's Catechism ; and made a Latin version of 
the Confession of Faith of 1560. One of the best tokens of 
the really good position occupied by Adamson, apart from the 
ecclesiastical strife in which he became involved through the 
fault of others, is the fact that he was recommended for the 
principalship of St. Leonard's College at St. Andrews by George 
Buchanan himself. In 1578 there were complaints in the 
General Assembly of his tergiversation as to the Book of Dis- 
cipline of 1576. In 1582 he was seized with a sore disease of 
obscure nature, called by himself a Fcditie, during which he 
naturally kept at home in his Castle of St. Andrews, for which, 
with evident bias of temper, he is blamed by Calderwood — "he 
keeped his Castle, like a tod in his hole " — part of the blame 
being for getting medical hints from a woman, Alison Pearson, 
who was afterwards burnt as a witch in Edinburgh. The 
Church and the age were grossly and cruelly wrong in the 
matter of witches; and it is not at all unlikely that in the 
low state of medical science this woman was skilled in healing- 
herbs, and might be honestly of great use. At all events 
the archbishop so far recovered in 1583 as to be able to preach 
before the king, who then visited St. Andrews. In January, 
1586, a declaration (relative to the Black Acts of 1584) was 


published by Adamsou with the concurrence or help of the 
king; but the same year James was led or compelled to dis- 
avow this declaration and sign another in a contrary sense, 
whereby the unfortunate primate was left in the lurch, to bear 
the brunt of the odium of these Acts, for which he was excom- 
municated by the Church, now swayed by Andrew Melville's 
party. Much of the reproach heaped upon Adamson turns upon 
his having got into debt ; but the cause of his impecuniousuess 
does not seem to have been in maintaining state or squander- 
ing, but simply in the confused and unpunctual condition of 
the revenues of his office, aggravated and needlessly exposed by 
the vehemence of his clerical opponents. Tlie so-called Ee- 
cantation which clouded his last days, in 1591, seems to have 
been mainly a fraudulent or semi-fraudulent trick played upon 
a feeble and dying man by the same triumphant persecutors, 
so that the shame of it is theirs and not his. 

The view here taken of Adamson's character and treatment 
is in substantial agreement with that of Dr. George Cook,^ 
whose work is not sufficiently prized for its moderation of 
tone and its preference for the Reformed Church in its earlier 
days compared with its later and narrower developments." 

A compromise between the council and the clergy was 
effected and ratified in the General Assembly of 1586, at 
which the king was present and voted. It was resolved that 
by bishops should be meant only such as were described by 
St. Paul ; that such bishops might be appointed by the General 
Assembly to visit certain bounds assigned to them, but subject 
to the advice of the Synod ; that in receiving presentations and 
giving collation to benefices, they must act according to the 
direction of the presbytery of the bounds, and be answerable 
for their whole conduct to the General Assemblies. It was 
also agreed to have annual meetings of the Assembly. Arch- 
bishop Adamson having made some submission, was absolved 
from the excommunication. 

lu 1587 an Act, commonly called the Act of Annexation, 
was passed by the Estates, annexing the temporalities of all 

' " Hist, of the Church of Scot.," i. 459-461. 

^ A good outline of Adamson's career and list of Lis writings is given in Dr. Gordon's 
" Ecclesiastical Chronicle for Scotland," i. 321-338. 


the bishoprics to the Crown — a proceeding that practically 
uprooted Episcopacy, by leaving it mere names without corre- 
sponding revenues; and the sacrilegious plunder was mostly 
squandered among needy and greedy courtiers. In the same 
year the king revived an old part of the constitution by call- 
ing into Parliament members for counties, otherwise known as 
" lesser barons " or " commissioners of shires." This was done 
to counterbalance the independent turbulence of the great 
nobles, but the issue was that the lesser barons, as in closer 
contact with the common people, were far less subservient 
to king and court than the great nobles. Previous to this, on 
8tli February, the unhappy Queen Mary had been executed by 
the jealous and cruel Elizabeth. Poor King James had not 
the courage to interfere effectively on behalf of his mother, 
and the conduct of many ministers in refusing to pray for 
her is a dark blot on the Church. In the Assembly in June, 
1587, the king tried to have John Couper punished, he having 
pre-occupied the pulpit of St. Giles on 3rd February for the 
purpose of excluding Archbishop Adamson and hindering the 
appointed prayer for Queen Mary. Couper was removed from 
Edinburgh to Glasgow. Many of the ministers, however, had 
done their duty in praying for their afflicted queen without 
being misled by the question of her share in Popish plots, 
which she was quite entitled to use if thereby she could re- 
gain the throne. In this painful and shameful crisis the 
dilatory conduct of James was worse than that of the obstruct- 
ors of prayer, because while his mother was tried on the 11th 
and sentenced on the 25th October, 1586, it was only on 3rd 
February, 1587, that prayer was appointed, nor were the three 
intervening months put to any use to deliver Mary from the 
cruel policy of her sister of England. 

In 1590, in the General Assembly, the king made an extrav- 
agant speech in praise of the Church, now thoroughly Presby- 
terian. The speech is more damaging to the king's reputation 
(considering the general character of his policy during a long 
reign) than almost anything he ever said or did. "He fell 
forth praising God that he was born in such a time as the time 
of the light of the Gospel ; to such a place as to be king in 
such a Kirk, the sincerest Kirk in the world. The Kirk of 


Geneva keepeth Pasche and Yule: what have they for them? 
They have no institution. As for our neighbour Kirk in Eng- 
land, It is an evil-said mass in English, wanting nothing but 
the liftings. I charge you, my good people, ministers, do°ctors 
elders, nobles, gentlemen, and barons, to stand to your purity 
and to exhort the people to do the same; and I, forsooth, so' 
long as I brook my life and crown, shall maintain the same 
agamst all deadly." 

A mixture of good-humour and light-headedness marked the 
kmg at this period. He had recently returned from his odd 
marriage adventure, having spent the winter at Kronberg, near 
Copenhagen, after being married at Upsal (ChristianiaX 23rd 
November, 1589 (by his chaplain, David Lindsay, minister of 
Leith), to the Princess Anne of Denmark. The queen was 
crowned in the chapel of Holyrood in May, 1590, on a Sunday, 
by the king's favourite (for the time being), Eobert Bruce, onJ 
of the ministers of Edinburgh. 

The Assembly met 22nd May, 1592, in Edinburgh, ^vith 
Eobert Bruce as moderator. Pour articles were formulated as 
a petition to the king. Parliament met in June, when the 
petition of the Church was taken into consideration, and an 
Act passed, often called the Magna Charta of Presbytery 
ratifying the Hberty of the Church, giving a legal jurisdiction 
to its courts, declaring that the Acts of 1584 were abrogated, 
in so far as they impinged on ecclesiastical authority in matters 
of religion, heresy, excommunication, or coUation, and providing 
that presentations should henceforward be directed, not to the 
bishops, but to the presbyteries within whose bounds the vacant 
benefices lay.^ 

Thus were legalized the chief parts of the Second Book of 
Discipline. Some attribute this wonderful amount of conces- 
sion to the volatile humour of the king, for the present greatly 
pleased. Others explain it by the public alarm at the pr°esence 
of Bothwell (the king's mad cousin), and the horror caused by 
the recent tragedy at Donibristle— partly because the corpse of 
Earl Moray was stiU lying in the church of Leith unburied, and 
partly by force of common rebuke and threatening from the 

- 'J^^^°" ^f^} °^ t^'s important Act is given in Lee's " Hist, of the Ch. of Scot," 
11. rf ; also in Laws of the Ch. of Scot," 38 (Aberdeen, 1853). 


pulpit. This Act was sent by the king as a great gift to the 
General Assembly of April, 1593; and this royal sunshine lasted 
for four years. Of Assembly 1596 Caldenvood says :— " Here end 
all the sincere Assemblies of the Church of Scotland, enjoying 
the liberty of the Gospel under the free government of Christ." 

The erection of presbyteries at this date merits special 
attention. Although in later times presbyteries have come 
to be regarded as the basis of the system of the Church of 
Scotland, they had no existence for above twenty years after 
the Reformation. The Presbytery of Edinburgh, which was 
first erected, began in 1581. Others followed by degrees, and 
were agreed to by the king in 1586. In 1592 they were 
ratified by Parliament. 

" At the Assembly h olden in Aprile 1593, the names of all 
the Presbyteries were given up — viz., Dingwall, Kirkwall, 
Thurso, Dornoch, Taine, the Channorie of Eoss, Invernesse, 
Forresse, Elgin, Ruthveu, BamfF, Deir, Innerourie, Aberdeen, 
Kincardine, Cowie, Brechin, Arbroath, Meigle, Dundee, Dun- 
kelden, Perth, Dumblane, St. Andrews, Cowper, Dumferlin, 
Kirkaldie, Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Dalkeith, Had- 
dingtoune, Dumbar, Peebles, Chirnside, Dunce, Jedburgh, Mel- 
rosse, Dumfreis, Kirkudbright, Wightoun, Air, Irving, Pasley, 
Dumbartoune, Glasgow, Hamilton, Lanark. These were the 
townes whereunto the ministers of the kirks nixt adjacent 
resorted every week for exercise of prophesie, by course and 
exercising of discipline. The seat of the Presbytrie might 
not be changed without the determination of the GeneraU 
Assembly, as the Act made in October 1581 beareth."^ Thus 
in 1593 there were only forty-eight presbyteries, as compared 
with our present number of eighty-four. 

The more exact subdivision of the Church into presbyteries 
was the work of Melville and his party. In the Assembly of 
October, 1576, it was enacted "that aU ministers within eight 
miles should resort to the place of exercise each day of ex- 
ercise." In the Assembly of July, 1579, it was proposed "that 
a general order may be taken for erecting presbyteries in 
places where public exercise was used, till the policy of the 
Kirk might be established by law;" to which the Assembly 

1 Scot of Cupar, " Narration," 60. 


answered, "the exercise may be judged a presbytrie." The 
name previously in use for those who met in the exercise 
was " the Eldership," which is used in the plural in the Second 
Book of Discipline, chap, vii., as equivalent to presbyteries. 
The Glasgow Assembly of 1638 furnishes a careful list of 
sixty-seven presbyteries, "the order of the Provinciall Assem- 
blies given in by the most ancient of the ministrie within 
every province, as the ancient plateforme thereof." 

It will be more convenient to bring together here what re- 
lates to the Second Book of Discipline, wliich not only greatly 
differed from the First Book of 1560, but also has been in 
later times too generally appealed to as the true and proper 
standard of our Eeformed Church, which it is not, unless we 
shut our eyes to the difference between the narrow exclusive- 
ness of the Presbyterian system of Melville, compared with 
the freer and more tolerant system of Knox, which was based 
on Presbytery, but without claiming a monopoly of Scripture 
for it. The new book originated in the Assembly of 1576, 
which appointed certain brethren to make an overture of the 
policy and jurisdiction of the Kirk — for the west country, 
the Bishop of Glasgow, Andrew Melville, Andrew Hay, James 
Greig, David Cunninghame; for Lothian, Eobert Pont, James 
Lawson, David Lindsay, Clement Little, and Alexander Syme ; 
for Fife, the Superintendent of Fife, and principal masters 
of the university ; for Angus and Mearns, the Laird of Dun, 
William Chrystison, John Eow, William Eynd, John Duncan- 
son; for Aberdeen, John Craig, Alexander Arbuthnot, George 
Hay: the divisions to meet in Glasgow, Edinburgh, St. An- 
drews, and Montrose: the joint meeting to be in Stirling, 
where each section was to be represented by two members, 
or at least by one, and to report to next Assembly in October. 
At the October meeting the matter was again remitted to 
Craig, Chrystison, Hay, Cunninghame, Eow, Greig, Lawson, 
Lindsay, Pont, Ferguson, Eobert Hamilton, John Eobertson, 
and Erskine of Dun. In the Assembly of 1st October, 1577, 
all was finished except the three heads — de Diaconahi, de Jure 
Patronatus, and dc Divortiis. In the Assembly of 25th Octo- 
ber of the same year all was complete except the head de 
Diaconatu, which was to be given in with a note, as agreed 

472 THE cHUECii of Scotland. 

to by a majority, "without prejudice of further reasoning," 
and presented to the regent. Endeavours were made year by 
year in vain to secure the sanction of regent or king for the 
book, which in 1581 was inserted in the registers of the 
Assembly. It was sworn to in the National Covenant, and 
revived and ratified by the Assembly of 1638. It was first 
recognized by Parliament in establishing the Church in 1592, 
and again similarly in 1690. 

The book is divided into thirteen chapters, of which the 
titles are : 

(1) Of the Ivirk and policie thereof in general, and wherein it is dif- 
ferent from the civil policie. (:2) Of the policie of the Kirk, and persons 
and office-bearers to whom the administration is committed. (3) How the 
persons that have ecclesiastical functions are to be admitted to their office. 

(4) Of the office-bearers in particular, and first of the pastors or ministers. 

(5) Of doctors and of their office, and of the schooles. (6) Of elders and 
their office. (7) Of the elderships, assemblies, and discipline. (8) Of the 
deacons and their office, the last ordinary function in the Kirk. (9) Of the 
patrimonie of the Kirk, and distribution thereof. (10) Of the office of a 
Christian magistrate in the Kirk. (11) Of the present abuses remaining 
in the Kirk, which we desire to be reformed. (12) Certain special heads of 
reformation which we desire. (13) The utilitie that should flow from this 
reformation to all estates. 

A comparison of the arrangement of ecclesiastical offices is 
interesting. Whereas there were five offices under the First 
Book, now there are only four — superintendent and reader are 
dropped, and we have minister (or bishop), doctor (or teacher), 
elder (or presbyter), and deacon. The weak points here are the 
rash introduction of doctor or teacher, the splitting up of the 
one office of presbyter into a teaching and a ruling branch, fol- 
lowed by the degradation of the real diaconate. 

The doctor was a university professor or teacher of the 
higher order, and the proper dignity and use of schools of 
learning was a great feature of the Eeformed Church; but 
it was awkward to class them alongside purely ecclesiastical 
offices.^ As yet the modern Church courts of Presbyterianism 
were not fully distinguished. Nowhere in the Second Book 

' Teacher or doctor retains a like place in the " Form of Presbyteiial Chnrch 
Governnnent and of Ordination of Ministers agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines 
at Westminster," and approved by the General Assembly in"l645. It is also vigorously 
defended, both in theory and practice, as an ecclesiastical office, by so sound an authoiity 
as Prineipal Lee, Lect. XIV. 


of Discipline is a claim made for Presbytery as a Divine 

At the same time the compilers of the book claim "that 
the whole of the scheme was not merely agreeable to the 
Word of God, but expressly authorized and enjoined by Divine 
authority." The real views of the compilers on the subject 
are seen in many references in the Eecords of Assembly ; e.g., 
10th May, 1586: — "There are four offices ordinare sett down 
to us be the Scripture, to witt, pastors, doctors, elders, and 
deacones, and the name of a bischop ought not to be taken, 
as it hath been in Papistrie ; but it is common to all pastores 
and ministers." ^ In fact the whole dealing of the Assembly 
with bishops when under Melville's influence proceeded on the 
assumption of their being unscriptural and corrupt, as seen in 
decision of the Assembly of 1580, quoted above. This idea has 
descended to modern times as a sort of tradition in Scotland, 
but for a generation past has been generally abandoned. 

When minister (or bishop) and elder (or presbyter) are held 
as two offices, each distinct from that of deacon, this is not 
inconsistent with the view accepted by the best modern critics, 
that originally bishop and presbyter were convertible terms; 
and the duality was adopted as a matter of practical con- 
venience to distinguish those bishops or presbyters who loth 
teach and rule, from other bishops or presbyters who rule 
only, according to what is said in 1 Timothy v. 17 — "Let 
the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, 
especially they who labour in the word and doctrine." This 
solitary text, however, even though it were correctly inter- 
preted (which it is not), is far too narrow a basis for the 
superstructure of our kirk-sessions. Melville and his party 
took the "ruling well" to refer to men co-operating with 
ministers, but working under them, whereas the Episcopal party 
understood both the "ruling well" and "double honour" to 
allude to ministers themselves who in certain cases were more 
competent than the average of their own order, and who accord- 
ingly came to the front in important matters and occasions. 

A vast improvement would have been to have confined the 
synonymous words bishop, presbyter, and elder, to the minister, 

' Peterkin, 292. 

474 THE cnuncii of Scotland. 

and to have named our present lay or rulmg elder by the name 
of deacon — thus more clearly bringing out the twofold office 
in the Christian Church. 

Sorrowful has been the lot of deacons in Scotland. They 
are members of no church court. Their call and election have 
no clear rules in our Books of Discipline. Their office is de- 
graded to mere finance, " to receave and distribut the haill 
ecclesiastical guids." Once they collected stipend, but now the 
minister does it. In 1886 they existed in only 78 out of 1320 

Great would be our gain in point of clearness were we to 
revert to Scriptural treatment of the office, on the basis of Acts 
vi. 1-8 ; Phil. i. 1 ; 1 Tim. iii. 8-13. This would imply dis- 
continuance of the name of " elder," which is a misnomer for 
members of kirk-sessions, and the substitution of deacons, 
which is beyond all question the proper name to mark their 
most useful and honourable functions. 

Of the Parliamentary sanction given in 1592 to the Second 
Book of Discipline, it has been judiciously said^: — "It placed 
the ministers in the situation which they had long been desirous 
to occupy ; it gave them reason to hope that, secured against 
opposition, they might now devote themselves to the spiritual 
concerns of the community; and it afforded to the king an 
opportunity of gaining their confidence, and, through this, the 
best wishes and the steady loyalty of his people. Had he 
followed this gracious act, as he was prudently advised to do, 
by such a provision to the clergy as would have exempted them 
from the hardships of poverty, he would have identified their 
duty and their interest with the just exercise of his prerogative; 
he would have perceived that rough and severe censure by 
which the ministers in their pulpits shocked his feelings and 
irritated his passions, daily softening; he would soon have 
heard inculcated manly and rational sentiments respecting what 
was due to the person and the office of the sovereign ; and he 
might have anticipated by nearly a century that state of the 
Presbyterian Church which has existed since the Eevolution 
— a state no less favourable to the constitutional rights of the 
king than to the liberties of the subject." 

1 Cook, L 469. 




TLe Church Council ordered to quit Edinburgh — The Octaviaiis — Meddlesomeness of the 
Church at Holyrood — Court removed to Linlithgow — Church agrees to clergy voting 
in Parliament — Perpetual moderators — King James's book, " Basilikon Doron " — 
Edinburgh ministers banished — The king's defiance of the Church — Succeeds Queen 
Elizabeth — Summons certain leading ministers to London — Andrew Jlelville sent to 
the Tower — Trial of Welsh of Ayr and others — The Convention of Linlithgow — The 
Scottish Inquisition — The Acts of the muzzled Assembly at Glasgow — Return of 
the king to Scotland — The Five Articles of Perth — Death and character of King 
James — Accession and marriage of Charles I. — His English Parliaments — His 
tyranny over the Scottish Church — The new Service Book and Canons— Paper of 
Grievances and Supplication to the king drawn up — Riot in St. Giles' — Jenny Geddes 
— Extended opposition to the Service Book — The " Four Tables " — The royal pro- 
clamation and the protestation — The Covenanters — The king agrees to cancel the 
Canons, &c. — Unreasonableness of the Covenanters — First fully recognized Assembly 
for thirty years — The Second Reformation 

When we start again from the date of 1596, we enter on a fresh 
and long era of struggle, divided into two parts — 1596-1638, 
and 1638-1688. The earher period, from 1572 to 1592, marks 
the first struggle, chiefly associated with Melville. The next 
period is from 1596 to 1638, at which point Presbytery was 
triumphant in the National Covenant and in the General 
Assembly at Glasgow. The third is from 1638, through the 
darkest time of both our ecclesiastical and civil history, under 
Cromwell and Charles II., to the Eevolution of 1688. 

The question of the recall of the exiled earls (Huntly and 
Errol were already back in disguise) made a permanent and 
bitter breach between the king and his favourite Bruce. The 
same topic was the occasion of the scene between Melville and 
the king at Cupar. On 19th October the Countess of Huntly 
petitioned the Synod of Moray to receive her husband's peni- 
tence. The king and court allowed the rebel lords to remain 
till May, 1597, in hope of reconcilement to the Church. Mean- 
while, on 20th October, the Commissioners of Assembly, and 
certain deputies from synods, appointed a fast and a Council 
of the Church, both of which, with a sermon by Black of St. 
Andrews, increased the excitement. The Secret Council re- 
taliated by ordering the members of the Council of the Church 
to quit Edinburgh within twenty-four hours, and Black to enter 


himself iu ward beyond the Tay. These proceedings, unfriendly 
to the Church, were supposed to be partly the result of the 
influence of eight commissioners of exchequer nominated by the 
king in January, 1596, popularly called Octavians — viz. Alex- 
ander Seton, lord president of Session ; Walter Stuart, prior of 
Blantyre; John Lindsay of Balcarres; John Skene, clerk register; 
Peter Young, almoner; Sir David Carnegie ; James Elphinstone, 
senator of the College of Justice; and Thomas Hamilton, king's 
advocate. Another cause of the turn of feeling on the part of 
king and court against the Church was undoubtedly the un- 
reasonable meddling of the Church with the private talk and 
manners of Holyrood. The Assembly had the impertinence and 
senselessness formally to depute three ministers to confer with 
the king concerning his own sins and those of his household in 
six. articles of complaint, the last of which dealt with the queen's 
late hours and balls ! Little wonder the king was galled and 
alienated. In fact some allege that he had never been very 
hearty or sincere in the sanction of the Church in 1592, and 
now reverted, on opportunity or provocation, to his own real 

On 17th December a riot in Edinburgh arose from the colli- 
sion between the jurisdictions of Church and State, upon which 
the king and court left for Linlithgow, and threatened to re- 
move the law courts there also. 

On 1st January, 1597, the king returned to Edinburgh in 
triumph. He developed his altered sentiments in an Assembly 
in March at Perth, and another in May at Dundee, taking up the 
plausible cry of a minister for every kirk and a stipend for every 
minister, but aiming really at getting a standing commission of 
ministers appointed to vote in Parliament as bishops. On 26th 
June the full restoration of the Popish earls took place in Aber- 
deen, where they received the communion as Presbyterians in 
St. Nicholas' Church. In December Parliament received com- 
missioners of the Assembly seeking a vote in Parliament for a 
limited number of ministers. On the part of the Church (by 
management of a meeting in the north and the king's presence), 
in March, 1598, an Assembly at Dundee agreed to this by 
a majority of ten. The Assembly concluded that it was neces- 
sary and expedient for the weal of the Church that the minis- 

THE king's book. 477 

try, as the third estate, should vote in Parliament in name of 
the Church, and that the number admitted be fifty-one, as it had 
been of old, in place of the bishops, abbots, and priors. They 
were to be elected partly by the king and partly by the Church ; 
but the specific regulations were remitted for consideration to 
presbyteries and synods, who were to consult with the doctors 
of the universities. At the close of this Assembly protesta- 
tion was made by John Davidson of Prestonpans that none 
of the Acts passed should be held as valid, because the Assembly 
had not been free, but had been overawed by the king. When 
the proposal as to clerics voting in Parliament was made earlier 
in the Synod of Fife, Davidson had used the oft-quoted words, 
" Busk him, busk him as bonnily as ye can, and fetch him in as 
fairly as ye will, we see him well enough, we can discern the 
horns of his mitre" — thus declaring his anticipation that the 
ulterior aim of the king was a complete Episcopal system. 
Next year certain propositions drawn from the king's book, 
"Basilikon Doron" (which had been surreptitiously procured), 
were laid before the Synod of Fife by Dykes of Anstruther, 
and condemned, which ended in the king being forced to pub- 
lish the book. 

On 18th March, 1600, an Assembly at Montrose agreed to 
regiilations as to the election and maintenance of those who 
should vote in Parliament, the chief being that, on a vacancy, 
the king select one from a list of six names given by the 
Church. Many caveats were appended to the consent of the 
Assembly. These points had previously been agreed on at a 
meeting of commissioners at Falkland, 29th July, 1598. How 
far the Church really was at this date from assenting to Episco- 
pacy in agreeing to clergy voting in Parliament, appears from 
the fact that those so voting were to be called commissioners 
and not bishops, and that they were annually to report to the 
Assembly, and demit their office, unless expressly renewed by 
church or king. A further restriction was added that these 
commissioners were not to be members of Assembly unless 
specially appointed by their presbyteries. 

On 5th August occurred the Gowrie plot, in which young 
Earl Gowrie and his brother, Alexander Euthven, were slain, 
and the king got free. Ministers in Edinburgh refused to 

478 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

believe the story, and live of them were banished for their 
disrespectful incredulity, but soon restored. 

The same year that witnessed the ]\Iontrose Assembly— 
wherein clerical voting in Parliament was agreed to, but with 
express rejection of the name of bishop and stipulation for 
that of commissioner, witnessed the king's deliberate defiance 
by promoting three of the commissioners— David Lindsay of 
Leith, Peter Blackburn of Aberdeen, and George Gladstanes 
of St. Andrews — to be respectively bishops of Ptoss, Aberdeen, 
and Caithness. Thus was the king chargeable with the double 
violence, first, of procuring the forced assent of the church 
courts to a basis for his intended scheme, and then as soon 
as he had secured a bare foundation, breaking faith with his 
own pliant friends, and doing the very thing against which 
they had expressly stipulated when they met, so far, the royal 
wishes in the matter of the parliamentary representation of 
the Church. 

" This Assembly," says Dr. Cook, " may be considered as hav- 
ing introduced a new form of ecclesiastical polity, and as thus 
marking an epoch in the history of the Church of Scotland. 
Instead of the parity for which Melville, in conformity with 
the principles which he had embraced at Geneva, had strenu- 
ously contended, and which he had successfully established, there 
was recognized an order of ministers who, in addition to the 
pastoral office, had civil duties to perform, and were consequently 
in a different situation from the rest of their brethren. That it 
was his anxious wish to restore prelacy, his conduct plainly 
evinces ; yet what was the result of his interference, and of that 
readiness to coincide with him, in so far as they believed 
that they could conscientiously do so, which the commis- 
sioners appointed by the Assembly manifested [at Falkland] ? 
Far from being able to prevail upon them to restore even 
the modified form of Episcopacy which had been introduced 
by the Convention of Leith, they displayed the utmost aver- 
sion to any essential distinction amongst ministers ; and though 
they conceded the vote in Parliament, they preserved the 
fundamental maxims of that Presbyterian polity to which 
they had ever been warmly attached. This should have 
suggested to James the line of policy which it was prudent 


to pursue. He must now have been satisfied that he could 
depend upon the loyalty of the Church, and that he could 
effectually remove the practices which were inconsistent with 
the dignity and security of his government. He should there- 
fore have consulted the feelings, or. as he regarded them, the 
prejudices of his people, and given unequivocal proof that, in 
return for their support of his throne, they would find him 
the zealous champion of their religious liberty, and the watch- 
iul guardian of the ecclesiastical constitution which their con- 
viction of its conformity to the Word of God rendered it to 
them a sacred duty to defend. Had he thus acted he would 
have gained the affections of his subjects ; he would have seen 
himself surrounded by men actuated by the firm and chival- 
rous loyalty by which the Scottish nation had for ages been 
distinguished; and he would not only have increased the 
comfort of his own reign, but would have prevented those 
numberless calamities which afterwards spread misery through- 
out Britain." 

On 24th March, 1603, died Queen Elizabeth, to whom James 
succeeded. On 3rd April he attended St. Giles', and at the 
close of the service made a farewell speech. He held a cod- 
ference at Hampton Court after his arrival in England, where 
nine bishops, seven deans, and one archdeacon represented 
Episcopacy, and four ministers represented the Puritans. In 
September, 1606, eight Scotch ministers, including Andrew 
and James Melville, were sent for to London, to be similarly 
reasoned with. Day by day they were plied with controver- 
sial sermons, in vain. At last (for a Latin epigram on the 
Chapel Royal altar furniture) Andrew Melville was convicted 
of scandaluni magnatum, and sent to the Tower. James Mel- 
ville was exiled to Newcastle and Berwick. The others were 
put under restrictions in Scotland. The fate of Andrew Melville 
merits special attention. After lying four years a prisoner 
in the Tower, he was released in 1611 to go as professor of 
divinity to Sedan, where he died in exile about 1622, at the 
ao-e of seventy-seven. There are few sadder chapters in Scot- 
tish literature than the tenth in M'Crie's "Life of Andrew 
Melville," which records the scanty traces of the last eleven 
years of one of the greatest, boldest, and most patriotic Scots- 


men of that generation, yearning for news of a church and 
land from which he was severed by a tricky despot. It was a 
base act for the king to summon these clergymen to London 
from their native land, on pretence of conference on church 
afifairs, and then pass severe sentences in an alien court, to 
which they owed no jurisdiction, and where no friends were 
at hand to interpose to secure a fair trial. 

On 2nd July, 1605, an Assembly was held at Aberdeen, 
which gave much future trouble. Straiten, laird of Laurieston, 
was present as commissioner, with a letter from the Privy 
Council. Twenty-one ministers met, with Forbes of Alford 
as moderator. He and Welsh of Ayr were imprisoned. On 
the 24th of July, called before the Council in Edinburgh, they 
declined submission, and were warded in Blackness. On 2nd 
August Eobert Durie (Anstruther), Andrew Duncan (Crail), 
Alexander Strachan (Creich), and John Sharp (Kilmany) 
appeared before the Council, and were warded there also. 
On 3rd October other fourteen were cited, of whom seven 
were warded. The first six were tried by assize on 10th 
January, 1606, at Linlithgow, for treasonable declinature of 
the king's authority. The jury was tampered with, and gave 
a conviction. The six were sent back to Blackness to await 
the king's pleasure. Bearing on this trial a letter is extant 
written by Sir Thomas Hamilton to the king, on the day on 
which the sentence was passed, in which he mentions the 
difficulties with which he had to struggle, and the infamous 
methods he was obliged to employ to procure the condemna- 
tion of the ministers, and expressing a devout wish he should 
have no more such work to do. Lord Hailes, in publishing 
this letter, says, "It gives a more lively idea of those times 
than a hundred chronicles could do; and that we here see 
the prime minister, in order to obtain a sentence agreeable to 
the king, address the judges with promises and threats, pack 
the jury, and then deal with them without scruple and cere- 
mony." To the credit of part of the jury, so strong was the 
sense of the injustice of the trial, that six of the fifteen refused, 
after six hours' consultation, to bring in a verdict of guilty, 
and one of them nobly said that he not only absolved them 
from the crime of treason, but regarded them as faithful ser- 


vants to Christ, and good subjects to the king. The systematic 
use of methods, in which artifice, intimidation, and violence 
were thus employed to thwart Presbytery and promote Epis- 
copacy, have produced in Scotland the natural but untoward 
result of prejudicing our nation unduly against a form of church 
government which is not contrary to, although not prescribed 
in Scripture, and which has certain advantages, as providing 
a prompt executive and a natural reward for professional ability. 
At Perth, in July, 1606, Parliament confirmed the king's 
prerogative declaring him supreme over all persons and causes, 
and restored the temporal estate of bishops without reference to 
caveats — against which a protestation was signed by forty-three 
ministers. The same Parliament erected a number of prelacies 
into temporal lordships — the two Acts being the fruit of an 
agreement between the bishops and the lords. On the 10th 
December of the same eventful year, at a time when the 
Church had been weakened by the removal of eight of her 
ablest ministers detained in England (including the two 
Melvilles) and fourteen others associated with the Aberdeen 
Assembly of 1605 exiled or " warded," a convention of ministers, 
summoned by royal missive to presbyteries, met at Linlithgow, 
consisting of 136 ministers, with 33 nobles and elders, and 
agreed to an overture by the king, that bishops should preside 
in meetings within their bounds where resident, and elsewhere 
that the oldest, gravest, and most experienced minister should 
act as fixed and constant moderator — the constant moderators 
to have a special salary of £100 Scots. It was afterwards 
objected that this was not a General Assembly, and that the 
minute of the meeting was altered at court so as to include 
synods as well as presbyteries to be under constant moderators. 
In fact so impudently unconstitutional was the convention that, 
besides agreeing to the new law, it dictated the names of the 
permanent moderators, and appointed them also to be constitu- 
ent members of each General Assembly. But amid all her 
sufferings — by banishment of leaders, and packing of church 
courts, and orders to pass suicidal laws — the clergy still held 
firm a large measure of the old spirit of independence. The 
Synod of Angus yielded only after struggle. Some yielded 
through compulsion. Fife, Lothian, and Merse refused constant 


moderators. The Synod of Perth, in the spring of 1607, defiantly 
elected Henry Livingston in the face of Lord Scone, the king's 
commissioner, who bullied and stormed, and knocked over a 
table, and locked the door— all in vain. While the synods thus 
stood up for the liberties of the Church, the presbyteries for the 
most part were wheedled or coerced, and some, as is said, even 
bribed.'^ "When the Assembly next met, in July, 1608, the three 
Popish earls— Huntly, Errol, and Angus — were again harassed 
by imprisonment and excommunication, and their Church fur- 
ther proceeded against in its seminary priests, pilgrimages, and 

Parliament met in Edinburgh, 24th June, 1609, and passed 
an Act in favour of the bishops, restoring to them the old juris- 
diction of commissariats, touching wills and marriages, and of 
spiritual and ecclesiastical causes, the Court of Session being 
authorized to enforce the execution of their sentences. Within 
a month of this Archbishop Spottiswoode of Glasgow became a 
judge of the Court of Session, and the new policy had its climax 
in February, 1610, when two courts of high commission, specially 
for church cases, were set up by the royal authority without 
sanction of Parliament, one in each archbishopric, the two being 
made one in 1615. Certain bishops and certain laymen were 
appointed members of these courts, and any five members, of 
whom the archbishop must be one, formed a quorum. They 
had power to call summarily before them any supposed offender 
in life or religion, try them, and if impenitent, issue a mandate 
for their excommunication by the minister of their parish. If 
the parish minister refused, the court could proceed by suspen- 
sion, deposition, or imprisonment. They could fine at discretion 
every one summoned before them, and on a warrant signed by 
the archbishop they could also imprison. In cases of con- 
tumacy the Privy Council were commanded to employ the 
whole force of the government in executing the sentences of 
the commission ; and if the persons summoned did not obey 
the councO, they were denounced as rebels. The commission 
was specially authorized to watch over the conduct and con- 
versation of all ministers, preachers, and teachers in schools, 
colleges, or universities, and to proceed against those who used 

' Principal Lee, ii. 180. 


impertinent speeches in public. Such was the Scottish version 
of the Spanish Inquisition, which at one sweep withdrew every 
clerical and scholastic man from the shelter of the law and 
constitution of his native land, and put him under an arbitrary 

In June, 1610, a muzzled Assembly was held at Glasgow 
under missives from Whitehall. It was composed of thirteen 
bishops, thirteen nobles, forty barons, and above a hundred 
ministers, with Archbishop Spottiswoode as moderator, and Earl 
Dunbar as high commissioner. Notice was sent in advance tu 
presbyteries by the moderator as to what ministers he wished 
sent as members. Even with this precaution no open debate 
was allowed, but only results of private conference were pre- 
sented in eleven propositions to be registered by the Assembly. 
Moreover, there was the peculiar accompaniment of money pay- 
ments, whether as travelling expenses or as salaries, to the per- 
manent moderators of presbyteries. Archbishop Spottiswoode in 
his History declares the payments to have been arrears of the 
salaries of the constant moderators since their appointment in 
1606. If the money was not the price of votes, the time of its 
payment would have been more seemly elsewhere in the 
calendar and elsewhere in the country. 

As the Acts of this Assembly are of special importance, they 
are here given at length. It was ordained — 

1. That the indiction of General Assemblies of the Church belonged 
to his Majesty, by the prerogative of his crown ; that aU such convocations 
held without his permission were unlawful; that the Assembly held in 
Aberdeen in 1605 without his Majesty's authority was null and void; and 
that an Assembly should be held once a year. 

2. That synods should be kept in every diocese twice a year, in April 
and October, in which the archbishop or bishop of the diocese should be 
moderator; and that where, from the extent of the dioceses, it was ex- 
pedient that there should be several other meetings, a clergyman appointed 
by the archbishop or bishop should preside. 

3. That no sentence of excommunication or absolution should be pro- 
nounced against or in favour of any person without the knowledge and 
approbation of the bishop of the diocese, who must be answerable to his 
Majesty for the regularity of his proceedings ; and that when a process 
has been fairly and legally finished, sentence should be pronounced at the 
bishop's direction by the minister of the parish in which the offender dwells. 
To this regulation it was added, that if the bishop should delay pronouncing 
sentence against any person that deserved it, whose process had proceeded 
to a proper length, and should be convicted of this by the General Assembly, 


advertisement should be made to his Majesty, to the effect that another 
prelate might be elected to the see. 

4. That, for the future, all presentations should be directed to the bishop 
of the diocese ; that a testimonial of the life and abilities of the person 
presented should be sent to the bishop by the neighbouring ministry ; and 
that the bishop upon his own examination, finding him qualified, should 
take the assistance of the ministers of the district in which the person is 
to officiate, and then perfect the whole act of ordination. 

0. That in cases of deposition the bishop, with some ministers in the 
neighbourhood where the delinquent officiated, should proceed to try the 
cause and to pronounce sentence. 

6. That every minister at his admission should swear obedience to his 
Majesty and his ordinary, according to the form agreed upon at a confer- 
ence held in the year 1571. 

7. That the visitation of the diocese should be done by the bishop him- 
self, and if the bounds were greater than he could overtake, that he should 
then make special choice and appoint some worthy minister of the diocese 
to visit for him ; and that whatever minister should, without lawful excuse, 
refuse to appear at the visitation or diocesan assembly, should be suspended 
from his office and benefice, and if he did not amend, should be deprived. 

8. That exercise of doctrine should be continued weekly amongst the 
ministers at the time of their accustomed meetings, to be moderated by 
the bishop, if he were present ; or if not, by any other whom he should 
appoint at the time of synod. 

9. That the bishops should be subject in all things concerning their life, 
conversation, office, and benefice to the censure of the General Assembly, 
and being found culpable, should, with his Majesty's consent and advice, 
be deprived. 

10. That no bishop should be elected under forty years of age, who had 
not actually taught as a minister for ten years. 

11. That no minister, either in the pulpit or in public exercise, should 
argue against or disobey the acts of this present Assembly, under the 
penalty of deprivation; and particularly, that the question of equality or 
inequality in the ministry should not be discussed in the pulpit, under 
the same forfeiture. 

After all the strife, convulsions, oppressions, and cruelties 
created in the interest of bishops by regent, court, and king 
from 1572 till 1610, it is startling to find thus late that 
Scotland had no real bishop after all, and more so to find 
that the bishops themselves were unaware of their not being 
genuine till it was discovered and revealed by the king in 
London; and most startling of all to find that after consecra- 
tion by three English bishops, with the king himself as master 
of ceremonies, they did not get the true stamp, having been 
summarily raised to the episcopate without passing through 
any ordination as presbyters or as deacons, and possibly not 


even being baptized Christians. After the Glasgow Assembly, 
Spottiswoode (archbishop of Glasgow), Lamb (bishop of Brechin), 
and Hamilton (bishop of Galloway), set out for London, 
where the king informed them that his object in sending 
for them was that they might be properly consecrated, and 
that on their return they might properly consecrate others 
in Scotland. To avoid the old jealousy of the jurisdiction of 
York or Canterbury, the consecrating English bishops selected 
were London, Ely, and Bath. Montagu of Bath could not 
attend, but Neale of Rochester and Parry of Worcester acted 
instead, and the function took place in the chapel of London 
House on the 21st of October. On arrival in Scotland the 
three reals proceeded to consecrate ten nominals — viz. Glad- 
stanes, St. Andrews ; Blackburn, Aberdeen ; Douglas, Moray ; 
Graham, Dunblane ,: David Lindsay, Eoss ; Forbes, Caith- 
ness ; Law, Orkney ; Alexander Lindsay, Dunkeld ; Campbell, 
Argyll; and Knox, the Isles. St. Andrews and Orkney were 
consecrated in the parish church of St. Andrews, 30th Decem- 
ber, 1610. On Sunday, 30th January and 24th February, 
1611, some were consecrated at St. Andrews and Edinburgh, 
and some at Leith — Caithness and Aberdeen being consecrated 
at Brechin, For none of these consecrations was there any 
consultation of presbyteries, synods, or assemblies, although all 
of these were still recognized courts of the Church. It does 
strike one as odd, being unhistoric and mal-geographic, to hear 
tell of a Scottish Episcopal Church, not only the orders of 
which, but the very idea of which, came from England; for it 
was not till seven years after James VI. was James I. of 
England, where he had learned this new lesson, that we have 
the first hint of any fundamental flaw in the aboriginal tul- 
chans. Not till the Parliament of 16th October, 1612, at Edin- 
burgh, were these proceedings legalized, for then was the Act 
of 1592, which established Presbytery, rescinded; and then were 
the opposing ecclesiastical acts of Assembly, 1610, ratified, with 
new modifications never even considered in any Assembly. 

At this stage we may fairly consider Episcopacy as legally 

settled in Scotland. The successive steps by which conformity 

to Episcopacy was established may be thus enumerated: — (1) 

By granting to ministers a vote in Parliament, 18th March, 



1600 ; (2) by appointing perpetual moderators, lOth December, 
1606 ; (3) by the erection of the High Commission in February, 
1610 and 1615 ; (4) by giving bishops the sole power of ordain- 
in(» and depriving ministers in Assembly, 6th June, 1610 ; (5) 
by the consecration of the bishops in London, 21st October, 
1610; (6) by their confirmation in Parliament, 28th June, 
1617.^ But how are we to estimate the means which led to 
this result, more especially as regards the amount of national 
acceptance, clerical or popular. An Episcopal historian of con- 
siderable industry and ability estimates as follows from his 
point of view: — "It will thus be seen that the Episcopal Church 
was established in Scotland in the course of a few years without 
any formidable contentions. Some of the more violent of the 
Presbyterian preachers grumbled and remonstrated, but no 
civil war, no riots, no commotions ensued. In reality the great 
mass of the people were passive, and no serious opposition was 
even attempted. The Church was established, moreover, by 
Parliaments of the whole nobility of the kingdom, and the 
representatives of the counties and royal burghs. Such are the 
principal facts, however much they may be distorted or denied 
by the Presbyterian writers." - 

Very different from this is the estimate of one who was 
not blinded by the end in judging the means. Dr. Cook^ 
says : — " The Episcopal form of church government was thus 
introduced into Scotland, and was thus fully established. It 
is impossible not to be struck with the singular contrast be- 
tween the mode in which it gained the ascendency, and the 
mode in which the Presbyterian discipline was endeared to the 
affections of the nation. In tracing the progress of Melville, 
and of those who embraced his views, it was often necessary 
to advert to the bold language which they assumed, and to that 
independence of sentiment and conduct which sometimes ap- 
peared scarcely reconcilable with submission to government ; 
but they never lost sight of the happiness and the improvement 
of the people ; they acted upon the noble principles of liberty, 
and uniformly refused to sacrifice to the caprice of the sove- 

' Principal Lee, ii. 196. 

* Lawson, " The Episcopal Church of Scotland, from the Eeformation to the Revolu- 
tion," 318. 

* Hist, il 249. 


reign what they believed to be necessary for averting slavery, 
or for preserving uncontamiuatecl the sources of moral and 
religious instruction. 

"There was nothing in Episcopacy itself which should have 
prevented it from equally avowing and feeling the most tender 
concern for political freedom ; but the fact is undoubted that 
it associated itself with the prerogative of the monarch, and 
advanced under the shadow of that prerogative. From the 
moment that the design of introducing it began to be accom- 
plished the king assumed a tone of authority to which his 
Scottish subjects had never been accustomed to listen; the 
Assemblies of the Church were controlled; the most unwarrant- 
able acts of oppression were committed ; the men who should 
have preserved the purity of government debased it by seeking, 
contrary to justice and to law, to punish all who were obnoxious 
to the court; and to crown the whole, that the opposition made 
to ecclesiastical innovation might be suppressed, the High Com- 
mission, the most frightful engine of despotism, was transferred 
to a kingdom where in the darkest times it had been happily 

Not satisfied with the arbitrary measures already taken, fresh 
foundations of a like sort were prepared in an Assembly at 
Aberdeen on 13th August, 1616, the members of which were 
not elected by presbyteries, but appointed under dictation; 
and similarly the moderator, Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. 
Andrews, took his seat not by election but as of right. After 
more legislation against the Eomanists (Father Ogilvie, the 
Jesuit, had been executed on 28th February, 1615, at Glasgow, 
on the same day as he received his sentence) a new Confession, 
of Faith was composed and sanctioned — bishops were invested 
with fresh powers, a new Catechism was ordered, and, especially, 
certain ministers were appointed to revise the Book of Common 
Prayer, to adapt it for use at all times of common prayer — i.e. to 
take away the liberty used since 1560 of a choice between free 
prayer and Knox's Liturgy. To this was added a resolution — 
" It is thought most necessary and expedient that there be an 
uniformity of church discipline throughout all the churches of 
this kingdom, and to that effect it is ordained that a Book of 
Canons be made and published in print, drawn forth of the 


books of former Assemblies; and where the same is defective, 
that it be supplied by canons of councils, and ecclesiastical 
conventions in former times." Archbishop Law of Glasgow 
and William Struthers, minister of Edinburgh, were to prepare 
these canons for the Commissioners of Assembly, who were to 
examine and approve them, and present them to the king for 
his sanction. Other regulations were passed relative to exami- 
nation of children for confirmation, communicating at Easter, 
and registers of births, marriages, and deaths — all these being 
the precursors of the famous Articles of Perth. 

After thirteen years' absence, the king arrived in Edinburgh 
on 16th May, 1617. Parliament met 28th June, when the 
king submitted to the Lords of the Articles a proposal equiva- 
lent to the abolition of Assemblies — "That whatsoever his" 
Majesty should determine touching the external government 
of the Church, with the advice of the archbishops, bishops, and 
a competent number of the clergy, should have the strength of 
a law." For making protestation against this, Hewat of Edin- 
burgh, Simson of Dalkeith, and David Calderwood of Crailing 
were deprived of office and imprisoned, Calderwood being also 
banished.^ An Assembly at St. Andrews, 25th November, 
proved even yet unmanageable in regard of some plans sub- 
mitted by the king, which they refused to deal with till a fuller 
Assembly was met. 

An Assembly, specially notable for passing the Five Articles 
of Perth, met 25th August, 1618 — Lords Binning, Scone, snd 
Carnegy being the king's commissioners. Archbishop Spottis- 
woode took the chair as of right. The king's letter was twice 
read. Open discussion was not allowed, and the Five Articles 
were voted in slump. Before voting, threats were made to report 
every recusant's name to the king. Eighty-six voted for the 
Articles, forty-nine against, three declined to vote. William 
Scot of Cupar and John Carmichael of Kilconquhar led the 
opposition. The articles were in substance as follows: — (1) 
Enjoining kneeling at communion; (2) permitting communion 
in private houses in case of sickness; (3) permitting private 
baptism on necessary cause ; (4) enjoining the confirmation by 
the bishop of children eight years old ; (5) orders for observing 

' This Protestation is given by Lee, ii. 192. 


as holy-days Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Day, As- 
cension, and Whitsunday, with abstinence from business and 
attendance on worship. Afterwards ministers refused to read 
the order anent the Articles from the pulpit, people avoided the 
churches where they were observed, and the terrors of the High 
Commission were used to enforce obedience. In 1621 the Five 
Articles were ratified in Parliament, but even there with a great 
struggle — seventy-seven voting for, fifty against, the majority be- 
ing gained only by the votes of the bishops and higher nobility. 
The closing years of the king's life are of little importance in 
Scottish Church history, as they were mainly occupied with an 
attempt to arrange a Spanish marriage for his heir, Prince 
Charles, who, in 1623, with the profligate Duke of Buckingham, 
made a sudden and secret visit to Spain, which ended in no- 
thing. Another closely kindred matter of the period was an 
attempt, in the Parliament of 1621, to help the king's son-in- 
law, the Elector Palatine, who had married the Princess Eliza- 
beth, and was in great straits, in an unsuccessful war after 
the battle of Prague. A third matter was the plantation of 
Nova Scotia by Sir W. Alexander, earl of Stirling. 

The king died 27th May, 1625, in the fifty-ninth year of his 
age. The personal character of James YI. is a strange medley. 
AVe cannot blame him for his physical fear of the sight of a 
drawn sword, because that defect was inborn, coming from his 
mother's alarm when Eizzio was stabbed clinging to her dress. 
]\Ioreover, as a child, he was unable to walk until the age of 
seven, and was all his days somewhat feeble and peculiar in his 
limbs and gait, one intimate contemporary describing the move- 
ment of his feet or limbs as " circular." Another physical pe- 
culiarity was that his tongue was too large for his mouth, so 
that in drinking he was forced to make facial motions corre- 
sponding to those made in eating, while at the same time the 
two extremities of the mouth inclined to leak down either side 
of the chin. Besides his experiences of treason in 1582 at 
Euthven, in 1600 at Gowrie House, and 1605 in the Gunpowder 
Plot — not to speak of the earlier contentions for the possession 
of his person — he seems to have had a constant fear of assas- 
sination or seizure, as seen in his padded clothing, and in the 
curious case of his visit to Sir George Bruce's mine at Culross. 


His personal manners and amusements were coarse, and his 
language full of nasty oaths.^ An essential silliness of mind 
shows itself in the succession of favourites on whom he depended, 
and who interfered with or superseded the king's proper rela- 
tion with the recognized officers of state and legal courts. He 
becran with half a dozen private schoolmates under the tutor- 
ship of George Buchanan ; and their share in sports and flog- 
aings ended in grants of church lands with corresponding titles. 
About 1572 these were succeeded by Earl Morton; then he 
passed in 1579 to Captain James Stuart, who became Earl of 
Arran, and to Esmo Lord Daubigny, who became Duke of Len- 
nox ; then from 1587 to 1596 (the wedding and Presbyterian 
period) came the cameraderic of Eobert Bruce, minister of Edin- 
burgh. In England the same silly process went on even more 
injuriously from 1607, in the case of the Scotsman Carr, who 
became Earl of Somerset, and passed to Villiers, who became 
Duke of Buckingham, and ruled the king from 1617 till his 
death. The total absence of soldierliness and bravery in James 
showed itself in his resort to mean and undignified devices, 
as when at the examination of Andrew Melville he planned 
to overhear from behind a screen, and when he issued the mil- 
linery ordinance for judicial and pulpit clothing, under pretence 
of pleasing tourists ! Wonderful was his vanity, specially shown 
in speech-making on all occasions, even during church service 
and in church courts. Most troublesome of all was his self-will 
and self-worship in his diseased doctrine of prerogative or Divine 
right, to which all, as he thought, should yield without ques- 
tion. In short, to speak plainly, there was an undoubted ele- 
ment of crack-brainedness in the king, joined with a certain 
dash of cleverness — the former, with the vanity and wilfulness, 
probably inherited from his father Darnley. Such was the 
curious personal and royal force that was the origin of so much 
change, trouble, suffering, and exile, especially in the ecclesias- 
tical department of Scottish life, during his whole reign, from 
the age of twelve to fifty-nine ; and it was rather hard that free 
and reasonable men, born under a good and old state that had 
maintained its independence, both civil and ecclesiastical, should 
be made playthings by a royal oddity like this. 

* Sir J. Balfour, " Anuals," ii. 108-115. 

AIMS or JAMES VI. 491 

Looking at some of the aims of James VI. in the light of the 
present Church of Scotland, apart from the gross mismanage- 
ment of the king in forcing them by royal mandate and perse- 
cution, instead of using constitutional and gradual methods ; 
looking at his aims also apart from the later chapter of the 
Covenants from 1638 to 1698 — it is a remarkable fact that 
many of these old aims of the half-crazy despot are in them- 
selves now regarded partly as harmless, and partly as even de- 
sirable and near of realization by the free choice and judgment 
of genuine and consistent Presbyterians. Of the Five Articles 
of Perth, at least three are in this position. So far from 
private baptism being objected to, it has for a generation 
past been a growing evil in the Church. Communion in pri- 
vate houses in sickness, although not yet formally permitted, 
has many among the more thoughtful of the clergy who are 
in favour of it, under reasonable regulations, as an ordinance 
fitted to edify the sick, and that might safely be adopted. 
As to the observance of the five chief days of commemoration, 
several of them are already widely accepted by the Church of 
Scotland ; and it would be far better to accept all the five 
ecclesiastically than to have them piecemeal and secularly foisted 
on us in scraps of parliamentary legislation, touching bank 
holidays, railways, school-sessions, and law-court vacations. 
The proposal of constant moderators for Presbyteries, which 
created panic and storm in 1606, is after all as nearly as possible 
the very plan which men of insight see to be needed in the pre- 
sent day to rescue government by Presbyteries from compara- 
tive failure. AVe greatly need more administrative efficiency, 
more respect for men of experience and merit, less of equality 
for drones and striplings, less of committeeism, less of rotation 
and more of selection of the fittest. With moderators of Pres- 
byteries elected for their fitness, and, if elected half yearly, yet 
renewed till they have fulfilled perhaps five years, a kindred 
improvement would be the restoration of superintendents, at 
least for the remoter districts of the country, who would be 
specially available as moderators of their synods during their 
tenure of office. Only by methods like these can the Church 
have any guarantee for being properly represented on social, 
provincial, or national occasions, when a spokesman or deputy 


is required. Above all, would the same method strengthen the 
Church internally by fostering a body of men specially trained 
in matters of order, taste, law, polity, and administration ; for 
these higher elements come not from parity but from individual 
gifts, diligently cultivated till they become masterly, and which 
ouoht to be recognized as individual, and not as collective, 
rotatory, or haphazard. The Prayer Book question, so grossly 
mismanaged by King James (not to anticipate the further 
confusion under Charles I.), was a matter then really re- 
quiring attention. But it should have been done by the 
Church itself on the Scottish basis of our Liturgy of 1560, 
apart from plans of uniformity with England, and apart 
from royal editorship and compulsory use, which meant the 
discontinuance of free prayer, which has always been a care- 
fully guarded privilege of the Eeformed Church, alike of Scot- 
land and on the Continent. One of the widely recognized needs 
of the Scottish Church of to-day is the restoration (to be openly 
and leisurely done) of our old Liturgy and Common Order, in a 
revised form, to secure more of solemnity and order and compre- 
hensiveness to our public devotions, and to secure uniformity 
within the Church for the celebration of the sacraments and of 
marriage, for admission of catechumens, for conferring the dia- 
conate on members of kirk-sessions, for conferring of license on 
preachers, of ordination on ministers, and perhaps an order for 
the good old office of superintendent. But for the deep feelings 
of resentment and suspicion unhappily aroused in the reign of 
James VI., and embittered in the two reigns that followed, this 
feeling of favour for the old paths of the first reformers would 
long ago have prevailed in Presbyterian Scotland. 

The death of James in 1625, and the accession of his son 
Charles I., brought no relief to Scotland. The chief difference 
lay in Charles being more English and less Scottish than his 
father, and accordingly, through ignorance of the national taste 
and temper, more apt to form unworkable plans, and persist in 

Soon after the accession of Charles his marriage took place 
with Princess Henrietta Maria of France, daughter of Henry IV. 
The stipulations in the marriage contract were grossly incon- 
sistent with the principles of a Protestant king and state. They 


bore that the queen, her children, and domestics, should be 
secured in the free exercise of the Eoman Catholic religion ; 
that she should have a bishop, invested with all necessary 
authority in religious matters, with twenty-eight priests or 
monks, and a chapel in every place where she should reside. 
She was to have entire charge of the education of her children 
till they were thirteen years of age. There was also a secret 
article, that Catholics in England should not be searched after 
or molested on account of their religion. 

The tragic difficulties of the reign of Charles turn on his rela- 
tion to his English Parliaments, which may be shortly stated 
thus : — He dissolved his first, which had begun most loyally^ 
because it had grown dissatisfied with the state of religion in 
England, and with the countenance given to Arminians. He 
dissolved the second in 1626 because, instead of yielding subsidies 
and increasing taxes, it asked redress of grievances, Bucking- 
ham's impeachment being demanded by Sir John Eliot. His 
third Parliament, in 1628, drew up the Petition of Plight, which 
was granted by the king, but followed by the Eemonstrance 
from the Parliament, in which Buckingham was named as a 
chief source of evil, and at this point Buckingham was assassi- 
nated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant John Felton. This Parlia- 
ment ended in the Quarrel of Ptcligion, which was a strong 
protest against the High Church tyranny of Laud, now bishop 
of London, his tyranny being the cause of the Pilgrim Fathers 
seeking liberty of worship in New England. On the dissolu- 
tion of the third Parliament in 1629, none met for eleven years, 
during which the mad exercise of the royal prerogative supplied 
revenue, largely by revival of monopolies, till at last, on the 
revenue question of ship-money, England was roused by Hamp- 
den, just when in Scotland the Prayer Book of Laud was the 
burning question. It was the Scottish energy in resisting its 
ecclesiastical tyrant that drove Charles to the dire expedient of 
summoning what proved to be the Long Parliament, in 1640. 
By this, in May, 1641, Strafford was executed and Laud im- 
prisoned, the Civil War breaking out in July, 1642, to rage till 
August, 1646, and matters going worse and worse until the 
execution of the king in 1649, Laud having already met the 
fate of Strafford in 1645. 


The first collision with his Scottish subjects arose from his 
project of resuming the grants of tithes and benefices wastefully 
made by his father to court favourites. This came up in Octo- 
ber, 1625, at a Convention of Estates, and greatly stirred a large 
party of the nobles, so that the Earl of Nithsdale (the king's 
commissioner) was very near being stabbed at the table. Ulti- 
mately the project was carried through, not so as to recover the 
church wealth, but only to revalue it. Yet much mistrust of 
the king remained. There was no General Assembly for twenty 
years, from 1618 to 1638, the only meetings being provincial 
or diocesan synods, packed and manipulated by the bishops, 
although in 1627 a meeting of clergy supplicated the king for 
an Assembly; but their paper was tampered with by the Bishop 
of lioss, who presented it. On Easter Sunday of 1627, in Edin- 
burgh, only six or seven persons communicated kneeling, and 
fresh controversy arose on the subject of posture, embodied in 
1628 in a petition to the king, who was enraged, and demanded 
the punishment of the petitioners. In 1633 parts of the Scot- 
tish coronation ceremonial, where Archbishop Laud acted as 
prompter, gave new offence. Besides this, in the Parliament 
of 20th June, two days after the coronation at Edinburgh by 
Archbishop Spottiswoode, the Acts of 1606 as to the royal pre- 
rogative, and of 1609 as to the apparel of churchmen, were both 
revived by coercing Parliament, the king attending and marking 
on a list all who voted against his wishes. Even with such bare- 
faced intimidation it was said on the spot by Earl Eothes that 
the voting was the other way, and that the clerk had exchanged 
the figures. Lord Balmerino was tried in 1634 for "leasing- 
making," founded on a stolen or stray copy of a petition to the 
king stating these grievances. Though condemned to death, a 
pardon was extorted in November, 1635 — such was the heat in 
the country against the king's folly and tyranny, all over a matter 
of church tailoring. 

The greatest heat of all arose from an attempt to force a new 
Service Book and canons on the Church. The proposal came 
out in 1636, and was to have been ripe by Easter, 1637, but the 
books were not printed in time. 

This proposal of 1636, as is worthy of notice, was not of 
sudden origin, but was the development of an intention enter- 


tained for several years, only awaiting some opportunity of 
realization, and now carried out in spite of many remonstrances 
on tiie part of the Church, some of these coming from men who 
were by no means of the extreme party. The continuance of 
unconstitutional and violent measures against the Church to 
repress Presbytery and promote Episcopacy was clearly the 
purpose of the revival in 1626 of the High Court of Commis- 
sion, which had expired on the death of James VI. It now 
consisted of the two archbishops, the Bishops of Eoss and 
Dunblane, the lord chancellor, the Marquis of Huntly, the Earls 
of Morton, Marshall, Nithsdale, Anuandale, and Winton, the 
Viscount of Aird, the Laird of Thornton, and others to the 
number of seventeen, who, or any ten of them, the chancellor 
always being one, were empowered to call all persons before 
them for transgressing the Acts of Parliament, or for speaking 
against the king, or misconstructing his laws, proceedings, or 
progenitors ; and to fine, confine, and ward them at pleasure. 
At the Convention of Estates at Holyrood in July, 1630, a 
paper of general grievances was given in, and supported by Earls 
Eothes, Cassilis, Linlithgow, and by Lords Tester, Ptoss, Bal- 
merino, Melville, and Loudon, asking fulfilment of the promise 
publicly given at the introduction of the late ceremonies (of 
1618), that they were to be matters of freedom to be practised 
as things indifferent ; that ministers be not urged at their entry 
with oaths and subscriptions not allowed by express Act of 
Parliament ; and that ministers deposed, confined, or banished 
be restored. Through the hostility of the bishops and five or 
six court lords this was thwarted. Next there was drawn up 
for the same Convention on 3rd August, and presented by Lord 
Balmerino, and supported by the above-named noblemen, but 
resisted and smothered by the bishops and courtiers, a grievance 
turning on two points : that a new oath was exacted of intrant 
ministers, superseding the oath expressly set down by Parlia- 
ment of October, 1612, and shutting the ministry to well quali- 
fied men desired by the people; and that in deprivation and 
suspension of ministers, while the same Act of 1612 requires 
the bishop to associate to himself the ministers of the bounds 
where the delinquent serves, no such trial is given, but the 
bishop acts by himself. 


So far from removing or diminishing grievances already 
existing, the king in 1631 sent a fresh order to the archbishops 
to arrange for introducing organs to cathedral churches, vesting 
the clergy and choir in surplices, and adopting a new metrical 
translation of the Psalms written by the late king, assisted by 
Sir William Alexander, the secretary. But in the last case 
the translation was found so fantastic that even the bishops 
dropped it. 

In anticipation of the Parliament that was to meet at Edin- 
burgh, 19th June, 1633, on occasion of the king's visit to Scot- 
land, a paper of grievances and petitions was presented on 29th 
May by Thomas Hog, minister of the Gospel, to Sir John Hay, 
clerk register, for presentation to his Majesty and Estates. 
These grievances bore — that ministers now voted in Parliament 
absolutely, without regard to special election and the limitations 
provided in Act of Parliament, December, 1597, at Edinburgh, 
according to which they were first to have warrant of the Kirk 
for what they should support by vote, and year by year were 
to give account to the next General Assembly of what they 
have done since the last; further, that the ratification in Par- 
liament, 1612, of Act of Assembly, 1610, omits subjection of 
bishops to the General Assembly, and makes other omissions, 
additions, and alterations in clauses, articles, and words of im- 
portance ; that General Assemblies had been holden yearly or 
oftener from 1560 to 1603; and that in Assembly at Glasgow, 
1610, the regulations as to commissioners and voters in Parlia- 
ment were made on the basis of a yearly report to the General 
Assembly, according to the system ratified in the Act of Parlia- 
ment, 1592. Then follows a reclamation against being "nick- 
named" Puritans, and having threats made for not observing 
ceremonies like festival days, private baptism, private com- 
munion, and Episcopal confirmation — things unknown from the 
Eeformation to 1567, when an Act of Parliament defined the 
Church's observances, the things above-named being contrary to 
the tenor of the Act of Perth Assembly, 1618, and contrary 
to the meaning of the voters, where it was professed that none 
should be pressed with obedience to that Act. The last two 
paragraphs of the " grievances " refer to the change of oath at 
admission of ministers; and to ministers being suspended, 


silenced, and deprived for matters merely ecclesiastical, before 
judicatories not established either by Parliament or the Kirk. 

The clerk register took great offence at this document, where- 
on Mr. Hog presented to the king at Dalkeith, before his entry 
into Edinburgh, a short special petition asking his favourable 
consideration of the above. But all was in vain, for the main 
document was suppressed. 

Immediately subsequent to the Parliament of 1G33, the lords 
and other members who had voted against the king's measures 
drew up a supplication to the king, afdrming their complete 
loyalty and acknowledgment of his prerogative, notwithstand- 
ing their views on Church matters, and reasoning with him that 
these repeated changes in ceremony that were made obligatory 
were ruining the Church, and especially reclaiming against the 
royal favour to Arminianism, admission of Eomanists to places 
of power, and introduction of church novations without con- 
sent of clergy lawfully assembled. Adverting to the pecuniary 
side of the question, they declared that they had even agreed 
to fresh taxation " without craving that it may not be bestowed 
upon diverse parties, whose wastes and wants your good sub- 
jects are not obliged to supply." " We are therefore confident 
that your Majesty . . . will be unwilling ... to 
introduce upon the doctrine or discipline of this your mother 
Church anything not compatible with the honour thereof and 
your good people's conscience, other than hath been by Acts 
and public practice of this Church."^ 

In the face of this series of warnings the infatuated king 
chose to persevere in his wilful course of conforming Scotland 
in religion to England. The new Service Book was to be the 
instrument of this, but it was seen as the book was being pre- 
pared that a book of canons was needed to accompany the 
Liturgy, furnishing the Church with a new constitution or 
directory. These canons were at first announced as to be 
drawn from Acts of Assembly, which would have been the 
legitimate course, but in point of fact they had almost no con- 
nection with Acts of Assembly except in the way of contrariety. 
The title of the book was " Canons and Constitutions Ecclesi- 
astical, gathered and put in form for the Government of the 

' Stevenson, i. 50, 62, 98, 104, gives full copies of the documents above referred to. 


Church of Scotland. Eatified and approved by Authority, and 
ordained to be observed by the Clergy and all others whom they 
concern. Published by Authority. Aberdeen, imprinted by Ed- 
ward Eaban, dwelling upon the Market Place, at the Arms of 
the City, 1636, with royal privilege." The book consists of nine- 
teen chapters extending to forty-three pages.^ 

The titles of the chapters are : — 

(1) Of the Church of Scotland. (2) Of presbyters and deacons: their 
nomination, ordination, function, and charge. (3) Of residence and preach- 
ing. (4) Of the conversation of presbyters. (5) Of translation. (6) Of 
the sacraments. (7) Of marriage. (8) Of synods. (9) Of meetings to 
Divine service. (10) Of schoolmasters. (11) Of curates and readers. 
(12) Of printers. (13) Of christenings, weddings, and burials, to be regis- 
tered. (14) Of public fasts. (15) Of decency in apparel, enjoined to 
persons ecclesiastical. (16) Of things pertaining to the Church. (17) Of 
tithes and lands dedicated to churches. (18) Of censures ecclesiastical. 
(19) Of commissaries and their courts. 

The canons at which offence was mainly taken were : — 

1. That whosoever should affirm the king's majesty had not the same 
authority in causes ecclesiastical that the godly kings had among the Jews 
or the Christian emperors in the primitive Church, or impugn in any part 
his royal supremacy in causes ecclesiastical, was to be excommunicated. 

2. That whosoever should affirm the worship contained in the Book of 
Common Prayer and administration of the sacraments, or that the govern- 
ment of the Church by archbishops and bishops, &c., contained anything 
repugnant to the Scriptures, or was corrupt, superstitious, or unlawful, was 
to be excommunicated. 

3. That ordinations were restrained to four times of the year, the first 
weeks of March, June, September, and December. 

4. That every presbyter shall cause Divine service to be done according 
to the Book of Scottish Common Prayer before all sermons, and that he 
sliall officiate by the said book in all the offices, parts, and rubrics of it. 

6. That no presbyter shall be surety for any person whatever, in civil 
contracts, under penalty of suspension. 

G. That the remainder of the bread and wine prepared for the com- 
munion be given to the poorer of those who received that day, and to be 
eat and drank by them before they went out of the Church. 

7. Presbyters to administer baptism without distinction of days, in case 
of sickness and danger, and the people to receive the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper in a kneeling posture. 

8. No presbyter or layman, jointly or severally, to make rules, orders, or 
constitutions in causes ecclesiastical ; or to add to or take away from any 
rubrics, articles, or other things now established, without the authority of 
the king or his successors, under pain of excommunication. 

^ Both the original edition and a reprint at Edinburgh in 1720 are very rare, but a 
copy may be found in Laud's collected works in librarv of "Anglo-Catholic Theology," 
V. 683. 


9. That national or general assemblies are to be called only by the king's 

10. That no presbyter or reader shall pray extempore, or use any other 
form in the public service than that prescribed, under pain of deprivation. 

11. That no person should teach in public schools or private houses 
unless licensed by the archbishop or bishop under their hand and seal ; 
and that none are thus to be licensed unless men of orthodox belief and 
conformity to the orders of the Church. 

12. That nothing be printed unless first perused and allowed by the 
visitors appointed for that purpose, under penalty at discretion of the 

13. That for administering the sacrament of baptism a font shall be pre- 
pared and fixed near the church porch, according to ancient usage ; that 
a fine linen cloth should likewise be provided for this purpose, and all 
decently kept. 

14. That a decent table for celebrating the holy communion be provided 
and set at the upper end of the chancel or church ; that at the time of 
Divine service the table shall be covered with a handsome stuff carpet, 
and when the holy eucharist is administered, with a white linen cloth : 
and that basins, cups, or chalices, of some fine metal, shall be provided 
to furnish the communion table, and used only for that purpose. 

15. That bishops and presbyters without issue shall leave their effects, 
or a great part of them, to pious uses ; or having issue, shall bestow some 
legacies, as a mark of their affection, upon the Church, 

16. That no presbyter shall discover anything told him in confession to 
any person whatsoever, excepting the crime is such that, by the laws of the 
realm, his own life may be in danger by concealing it. 

17. That no person shall be admitted to holy orders nor suffered to 
preach, catechise, administer the sacraments, or perform any other ecclesi- 
astical function without subscribing the canons. 

These canons were ratified and confirmed by the king in a 
letter under the great seal, dated Greenwich, 23rd May, 1635, 
and were published previous to the publication, and even the 
completed composition, of the Service Book and the Ordinal,^ 
to which they bound the clergy by severe penalties by antici- 
pation. They were thus objectionable both in matter and 
manner — not drawn from Acts of Assembly as alleged, never 
submitted to any church court for sanction, never submitted to 
Parliament even, subversive of church courts fully authorized 
by both Church and Parliament, and subversive of modes of 
worship in unbroken use from 1560 to 1636. No other branch 

'No copy of the Ordinal, printed before the end of 1636, and alluded to in the Canons, 
is known to exist It was separately condemned by the Glasgow Assembly, 6th Decem- 
ber, 1638, on the same day as the Service Book, Book of Canons, and High Commission, 
were similarly dealt with. It is there called " the Book of Consecration and Ordination," 
and is stigmatized as "introduced and practised without warrant of autliority. either 
civil or ecclesiastical." 


of the Christian Church ever had such a barefaced and cruel 
piece of Erastianism perpetrated on it as that a king, by mere 
exercise of royal prerogative, should manufacture a complete set 
of three church books for canons. Divine service, and ordina- 
tion, and present them with the alternative — Take these, or lose 
office, goods, and life, as traitors ! It was nothing short of mad- 
ness so to deal with a nation and Church that is one of the 
freest and boldest in all history. Deeply, however, as the 
nation was exasperated by the Book of Canons, the people de- 
liberately restrained themselves until the scheme of the despot 
was fully revealed, because the canons, being more clerical, were 
a class grievance, whereas the Service Book, when it would 
come into use, was more likely to arouse the whole community 
as a defiantly despotic interference with what was most sacred, 
and touched every Scottish man and woman to the quick. 

The Service Book, in its earlier draft, was mainly the work of 
Bishop Wedderburn of Dunblane and Bishop Maxwell of Eoss, 
with whom subordinately were associated Sydserf of Galloway, 
and Ballantyne, or Bellenden, of Aberdeen. Wedderburn was 
a special jjrotegd of the English primate Laud. He was born 
at Dundee, but educated in England. After residing long with 
Isaac Casaubon, he taught divinity in St. Mary's College, St. An- 
drews, and was made a prebendary of Ely by Bishop Andrews, 
who was of the same extreme ritual school as Laud. 

In April, 1636, the king ordered Archbishop Laud of Canter- 
bury, with Bishop Juxon of London and Bishop Wren of Nor- 
wich, to consider the alterations proposed by the Scots bishops 
in modification of the English Prayer Book, which, by order, had 
been taken as the basis. On 18th October, 1636, the king sent 
the book so altered by Laud, Juxon, and Wren, to the Scots 
bishops, with a letter addressed to Archbishop Spottiswoode as to 
its publication and compulsory use. The same day the king 
wrote to the Scottish Privy Council on the subject, and on 20th 
December the council passed an Act as directed. Copies were 
printed in April, 1637. Thus the book, although called Scot- 
tish, was mainly the work of Laud and his English coadjutors, 
aided by Bishop Wedderburn as their agent in Scotland, and it 
can best be characterized by saying that it is substantially a 
revision of the English Book of Common Prayer, modified in 


the direction now known as ritualistic, especially in the com- 
munion office. 

The objections taken to the book in a general way were that 
it conflicted with national feeling, as being essentially English ; 
that it conflicted also with religious feeling, as founding on royal 
edict without any ecclesiastical sanction; that it conflicted with 
doctrinal views firmly held by the great bulk of the Church 
since the Keformation as leaning to Eomanism. Not the least 
influential element of opposition was that for some time past 
many of the nobles and landowners were roused against the 
king and the bishops by fears as to the revocation of teinds, and 
by the encroachment of the clergy into several offices of state, 
whose emoluments and honours, since 1560, had been associated 
with lay lords. Another line of objections lay in points of 
detail, that were opposed on the ground of novelty or supersti- 
tion. Of this sort was the sign of the cross in baptism; use of 
the ring in the marriage ceremony ; consecration of water at par- 
ticular times by prayer, the water to be poured into the baptis- 
mal font; a prayer on giving the communion elements, which 
was regarded as countenancing transubstantiation ; and a thanks- 
giving for departed saints. A petition of Alexander Henderson 
of Leuchars next year to the Privy Council lets us see the objec- 
tions to the Service Eook as carefully formulated by the coming 
moderator of the Assembly of 1638 : — 

First, because the book was warranted neither by the General Assembly 
nor by Act of Parliament ; secondly, because the liberties of the true Church, 
and the form of worship and religion received at the Reformation, and 
universally practised since, were warranted by various Acts of Assembly 
and Acts of Parliament; thirdly, because the Church of Scotland was a 
free and independent Church, and its pastors were best able to provide 
■what was for the good of the people ; fourthly, because it was well known 
what disputes there had been respecting a few of the many ceremonies 
contained in that book, which, when examined, would be found to depart 
from the estabhshed form of worship, and to draw near to the antichristian 
Church of Rome ; f-fthly, because the people had always been taught a 
different doctrine since the Reformation, and would not agree to such 
changes, even if their pastors were willing to submit. 

Easter of 1636, intended for the introduction of the new- 
book, came and passed, but the book was not ready — or the 
bishops were not, for some said that the older and more cautious 
were for delay. At length Sunday, 23rd July, was fixed on, 


and intimation was made on the Sunday preceding without 
causing any special excitement. Both sides made ready in 
their own way. Emphasis was to be given to the new book, 
particularly in St. Giles' and Grey friars Churches in Edinburgh. 
In the former the bishop, David Lindsay, was to preach, Dean 
Hannah was to read prayers, while the archbishop and several 
other bishops, with members of Privy Council, judges of the 
Court of Session, and city magistrates, were to give 6dat to 
the occasion by their presence in state. In the latter James 
Eairley, bishop-elect of Argyll, was to officiate. When the ser- 
vice began at nine o'clock in St. Giles', in the division known 
as the Old Kirk (the choir or High Church being under repair), 
the dean had no sooner begun than commotion and outcries 
ensued, especially among the women, drowning the voice of the 
reader. The bishop mounted the pulpit to remonstrate, but in 
vain, for noise and execration grew more violent, so that stools, 
sticks, and books were thrown at dean and bishop, the former 
having his surplice torn in an attempt to pull him out of the 
lectern. The archbishop got the lord provost and magistrates 
to clear the church of the rioters, and the service was then 
gone on with without a congregation. It fared little better 
in the Greyfriars, for the bishop had to cut short the service 
on reaching the end of the absolution. The central figure in 
this riot, that brought the tyranny to a standstill and gave 
vent to the gathering indignation of the oppressed, is Mrs. 
Janet Geddes, the herb-stall woman, who proved too much for 
dean, bishop, primate, and king. " Villain ! daurst thou say 
the mass at my lug?" It is amusing to note how diverse are 
the estimates of Jenny and her stool.^ 

The form of the check by stool-throwing in church was vio- 
lent and irreverent ; but it indicated how deep and general was 
the disapproval of the king's ecclesiastical tyranny, that what 
began so vulgarly went on till it ended not only in a change of 

1 '' An ignorant and fanatical woman, whose name has come down to ns associated 
with no other act than that of offering violence to a minister of the Gospel when engaged 
in the performance of public worship." — Bishop C. Wordsworth, in '^ Charge" of 
iSeptember, 1886. 

" A brave Scotchwoman, who struck the first blow in the great struggle for freedom of 
conscience, which, after a conflict of half a century, ended in the establishment of civil 
and religious liberty." — Lord President Inglis on the Memorial Brass in St. Giles', 
April, 1886. 


Church, but a change of dynasty. It has been alleged that the 
riot was an organized one, carefully and secretly prepared, that 
the Amazons were bespoken for their part, and that some of the 
most active were zealous apprentices in female garb. Even 
though this were proven, it would matter little, for in ridding 
themselves of the unscrupulous arts [and unconstitutional vio- 
lence of kings like Charles, honest men are entitled to some 
of the freedoms associated with war. 

The Privy Council met next day and issued a proclamation 
denouncing the rioters. The magistrates apologized for the 
occurrence, and apprehended some persons on suspicion. Next 
Saturday the archbishop and bishop announced that till the 
king's pleasure should be ascertained neither old prayer-book 
nor new should be read, but that there should be only a sermon 
preceded and followed by a prayer. On 4th August a letter 
from the king exhorted the council to search and punish the 
authors of the late tumult, and the council agreed to resume 
the liturgy on Sunday, 13th August ; but no resumption took 
place, and strife ensued between bishops and nobles in the 
council as to who was to blame for the whole failure of the 
unfortunate Service Book. Probably the true reason of drop- 
ping the book was the opening of the eyes of the council to the 
extent to which the nation was against the unconstitutional 
violence of the king and bishops, for resistance was even 
bolder elsewhere than in Edinburgh itself. At Glasgow, on the 
last Wednesday of August, "William Annand, minister of Ayr, 
preached a synod sermon in defence of the canons and liturgy 
at the request of Archbishop Lindsay. But next evening the 
women of Glasgow waylaid the preacher on his way to the 
archbishop's, tore his clothing, and used him very roughly. 
They were the more determined in the evening, because for 
some reviling words at the close of the meeting during the 
day the magistrates had apprehended two of the offending 
women and put them in prison. Even the magistrates thought 
it prudent, in view of the feminine fury, to get Mr. Annand 
with a guard out of the town ; but when he had mounted his 
horse the animal stumbled, and horse and rider fell together into 
what is known as a " midden hole " that bordered the street — a 
bath which raised a mighty cheer from the too orthodox crowd. 


Ou lotli July a prosecution for disobedience as to the liturgy 
was started against Henderson of Leuchars and three ministers 
in the Presb/teries of Irvine, Ayr, and Glasgow— viz. William 
Castlelaw, Stewarton ; Thomas Bonar, Maybole ; and Eobert 
Wilkie, Glasgow. But bills of suspension were presented to 
the Privy Council on 20th August, on the ground that the 
recent innovations were illegal. The council on 25th August 
found, that while purchase of the book was imperative, its 
observance was not enjoined. This slip caused delay, during 
which the whole country was roused. 

The council had led the opposers of the Service Book to 
expect by the 20th of September, the date fixed for their next 
meeting, a full answer from the king to their demands, and 
meanwhile the supplicants were not idle. Lord Balmerino 
and Henderson guided their counsels, and they sent deputies 
about the country to organize their friends — viz. RoUock to the 
South, Cant to the North, Eamsay to the Mearns, and Murray 
to Perth and Stirling. Fife, Lothian, and Ayrshire were already 
lively enough. Sixty-eight supplications or petitions were sent 
in to the council on 20th September, and the Earls Suther- 
land and Wemyss had presented a common supplication in 
name of nobility, barons, ministers, and burghs, craving the 
matter to be again referred to the king before the book was 
enforced. This paper was signed, among others, by Lords 
Tester, Cranston, Loudon, Montgomery, Dalzell, Fleeming, 
Dalkeith, Balmerino, Burleigh, Hume, Cassilis, Lothian, Boyd, 
Angus, Eothes, Wemyss, Sutherland, Dalhousie, Lindsay, and 
Sinclair — names which prove alike the weight and width of the 
opposition.^ The council agreed not to answer the petitions 
until they heard from the king, and the Duke of Lennox was 
sent up to London to lay the whole matter, with the latest 
documents, before him. The council saw the necessity of 
making concessions, but the difficulty was with the king 
himself. Hope, the king's advocate, Traquair, the treasurer, 
and Earl Morton were all blamed by the bishops at this 
stage for being too favourable to the supplicants and neglect- 
ful of the king's interest ; but their only fault was that they 
saw the real merit and lawfulness of the petitioners' case 

1 Stevenson, ii. 202. 


as against the king's arbitrary interference. On the 11th Sep- 
tember the people of Edinburgh invaded the City Chambers, 
and forced the magistrates to join them in a supplication against 
the book. A meeting of the Privy Council was intimated by 
the chancellor for 18th October, and messengers were at once 
sent to get representatives of the supplicants gathered from all 
parts of the country. Commissioners from above 200 parishes 
gave in fresh supplications to the council, and the petitioners 
thus brought together in great numbers began the more to feel 
their strength and to consult together as to their common 
interest. Again the court answer to the council was unyield- 
ing and harsh. Feeling themselves helpless, and overawed by 
the concourse in Edinburgh, they issued a proclamation for all 
strangers to depart home within twenty-four hours under pain 
of rebellion ; and in rebuke of the people's invasion of the magis- 
trates' meeting of 11th September, another proclamation fol- 
lowed removing the secret council and the Court of Session 
first to Linlithgow and then to Dundee. This move only made 
matters worse, and led the supplicants to lay the blame more 
directly on the bishops, in whose interests all these things were 
going on, and who were a predominating power in the Privy 
Council. Accordingly, on 15th November, a formal complaint 
to the king against the bishops was drawn up by the Earl of 
Loudon and Mr. David Dickson, charging them with being 
authors of the liturgy and canons and all the troubles that 
had followed upon them. This complaint^ was at first sub- 
scribed by twenty-two nobles, several hundreds of gentlemen, 
some hundreds of ministers, and most of the burghs, and a 
little later by fourteen additional noblemen and corresponding 
numbers of others. The only place of any importance that 
refused to join in the movement against tyranny was Aberdeen. 
At this point the zeal of the people of Edinburgh was unduly 
inflamed, as is seen in a second invasion, on 18th October, of 
the City Chambers, and in their mobbing of Bishop Sydserf 
of Galloway, on which occasion, so complete was the ascendency 
of the crowd, that the Earls of Traquair and "Wigtown, who went 
to help the besieged and imperilled bishop, were themselves so 
helpless and assaulted that they were compelled to seek pro- 

' Stevenson, ii. 218-222. 


tection at the hands of the lords who had influence with the 
discontented. Against poor Sydserf the rabble were shouting, 
"Papist loon! Jesuit loon! betrayer of religion!" and were tearing 
open his clothes to discover a golden crucifix which he was said 
to wear under his vest. The corresponding cry against the two 
court earls and the magistrates was: "God defend all those 
who defend God's cause ! God confound the Service Book and 
all its maintain ers !" Such was the violence against Traquair, 
the lord treasurer, that he was thrown down on the street, and 
his hat, cloak, and white staff of office were taken from him ; 
vet Traquair was no mere slave of the king, but a comparatively 
fair and reasonable man, who had much sympathy with the 
movement against the Prayer Book, and who wished peace 
by some honest compromise, such as ought to have been 
attainable, because it was not a question of Prayer Book or no 
Prayer Book, but of the manner and degree of revision of 
a book already recognized. Nor was it a question of bishop 
or no bishop, but of the degree of authority to be vested 
in superintendents already recognized by law of Church and 
State, partly for work within the Church and partly for re- 
presenting the Church in Parliament. But unfortunately the 
hour of compromise was past, because the king was madly self- 
willed, and the people had so often been taken in or forced 
down that they ceased to believe the king's word and feared 
new wiles in fresh proposals. As an indication of the suppli- 
cants' consciousness of where their strength lay, but an in- 
dication in a much better way than in mobbing and maltreating 
bishops and courtiers, or in coercing magistrates by swarming 
into their chambers like the legendary mice that inundated 
the tyrant's tower in the Ehine, we may interpret the curious 
flauntingly democratic petition sent in to the chancellor in name 
of the " men, women, children, and servants of Edinburgh." 

The supplicants arranged for a great muster on 15th Novem- 
ber. At this date one of their foremost friends was the Earl 
of Montrose, just returned from foreign travel, and who, six years 
afterwards, was to change sides and prove the king's greatest 
champion. The gathering on and after 15th November was 
the immediate cause of a new development in the contest, that 
proved decisive towards the final victory of the popular party ; 


for when the Privy Council met at the same time a friendly 
arrangement was entered into, whereby the petitioners agreed 
that as the redress of their grievances was likely to take some 
time, they would, to avoid offence by their great number present 
in town and to save trouble to themselves, choose a few of the 
nobles, two gentlemen of each shire, one minister of each pres- 
bytery, and one burgess for each burgh, to act as commissioners 
for the whole, and to wait for his IMajesty's answer to their sup- 
plications (referring to the " Petition of the Noblemen, Gentle- 
men, Ministers, and Burgesses, against the Service Book and 
Book of Canons" on 20th September). Hence arose the famous 
"Tables" or "Pour Tables" of nobility, gentry, clergy, and 
burghers, wherein all classes combined to vindicate their re- 
ligious liberties. 

Prom the date of its first formation this Convention of 
the Tables, which had a real but, in a sense, unintentional 
sanction on the part of the Privy Council, became the virtual 
Parliament of Scotland, and the king's government went on 
from panic to panic and blunder to blunder, until it was by 
and by pushed out of existence in a manner to be bitterly re- 
gretted by every true patriot who regards a limited monarchy 
as the best form of civil government, and who regards the 
Church as the natural and best ally of every well-regulated 
State. Time after time, but all in vain, did good men with 
clear knowledge of Scottish affairs and Scottish feeling go to 
London with messages from the Privy Council, beseeching the 
king to listen to their statements, advice, and warning — the 
Duke of Lennox in August, 1637, the Earl of Roxburgh in 
December, the Earl of Traquair in January, 1638. Traquair 
returned with pitiably unwise and inadequate instructions. 
The king had determined before making any further conces- 
sions to proclaim his resolution to pardon the acts of violence 
which had been perpetrated, to vindicate the innovations, and 
to prohibit all tumultuous assemblies ; promising, however, that 
he would listen to such supplications from his people as were 
conveyed in language which it was proper for subjects to use 
to their sovereign. Traquair reserved the communication of 
these things until he should be able formally and solemnly to 
do so in Stirling, to which the Court of Session had been trans- 


ferred from the capital— thinkiug that by launching them all 
at once the supplicants would be daunted and think twice 
before committing themselves to absolute rebellion. The earl's 
plan and date somehow leaked out, and a remarkably bold 
counter-policy was adopted of an open protest at the same 
time and place as the royal proclamation. Friends in the 
Privy Council suggested the danger that after such a course 
the king would probably refuse to receive any new supplica- 
tions from their party ; whereupon they made answer that they 
would do their duty and commit the event to God Almighty, 
who was able to protect his own cause and their just proceed- 
ings. Knowing the likelihood or certainty of a protestation, 
Traquair did his best to save the dignity of the king and 
council by trying, through great expedition, to have his pro- 
clamation finished before his rivals could be on the ground to 
strike their parrying blow. Even this failed, and the earl was 
forced to think, if not to say, as Ahab to Elijah, "Hast thou 
found me, mine enemy?" when Lords Lindsay and Hume, 
accompanied by a notary public, were on the scene at Stirling, 
on 20th February, to take up their parable as soon as Traquair 
and Eoxburgh had finished theirs. 

The substance of the protestation ran : — 

1. That tlie seeds of superstition and idolatry are contained in these 

2. Though there were nothing such in them, yet are they full of novel- 
ties which cannot be admitted unless with the violation of their liberty, 
laws, and received religion, especially when they are obtruded against 
their will, without any previous judgment of the national synod, which has 
always had the supreme power of judging in ecclesiastical matters of that 

3. That it is unjust to deny liberty to accuse the bishops, whom they are 
able to prove guilty of many crimes. 

4. They protest against the use of the High Commission, in regard it is 
a court supported by no foundation in justice, constituted by no municipal 
law, obtruded upon the Scots from the practice of the English, contrary to 
the fimdamental laws of the kingdom. 

6. That they reject the bishops as unjust judges, and cannot admit their 
judgment till their innocence shall be made appear in a competent court. 

6. That all their meetings and their petitions to the council are designed 
for no other end, but to defend the purity of divine worship hitherto 
received against the obtrusion of innovations, and the liberty of the 
Church against the tyranny of the bishops; and that they have deter- 
mined, for prosecutmg those sacred purposes, to attend sober meetings of 


that kind, nor can tliey with a good conscience desist from them, unless 
they would be esteemed betrayers of the glory of God, the honour of the 
king, and the liberty botli of church and state.^ 

This protest was affixed to the cross beside the proclamation, 
and it was repeated on successive days at Linlithgow and Edin- 
burgh. In the case of Edinburgh the protestation used was 
modified and read by Archibald Johnston of Warriston, sur- 
rounded by a company of sympathisers, consisting of sixteen 
nobles and many barons, gentlemen, clergy, and burgesses, while 
the royal proclamation which preceded had been received with 
jeers and laughter, and the officers who made it were violently 
compelled to remain to hear the counterblast.^ 

These protestations were immediately followed by the takiug 
of the National Covenant, which was so important a step that 
it led to a new name, " Covenanters," being henceforth applied 
to those who lately were called Supplicants or Petitioners ; and 
for fifty years to come the whole of the Scottish Church turns 
directly on the views of these resolute men, whom we have to 
follow through good and bad fortune. The general aim of the 
Covenant was to maintain and utilize the enthusiasm which 
had been aroused against the Service Book and the arbitrary 
measures associated with it. More particularly, as declared in 
the document itself, was its aim to bind those who opposed the 
Service Book into one united body for mutual defence against 
the dangers to which their opposition to the Service Book 
exposed them. The Covenant was composed by Henderson, 
minister of Leuchars, and by Johnston of Warriston as legal 
adviser, and it was revised by Lords Balmerino, Eothes, and 
Loudon. It consisted of three -pavts— first, a verbatim and 
complete copy of the King's Covenant of 1580 as drawn up by 
John Craig and signed by King James and his household, with 
a view to unite the kingdom as a Eeformed state in self-defence 
against the tenets and designs of Romanists ; second, a recital, 
with proper references, of a long series of Acts of the Scottish 
Parliament justifying and allowing the several things sworn 
to in the Covenant of 1580, this being specially the work of 
Johnston of Warriston, and apparently designed to satisfy the 

^ Stevenson, ii. 27G. 
* Grub, ii. 409 ; Warriston"s form of protest is given by Cook, ii. 405. 


nation that though now the king did not head the Covenant, 
yet those who renewed it had authority of a long series of laws 
on their side. Then thirdly, as Henderson's contribution, came 
a new bond suited to the circumstances of 1638, and substituted 
for a general bond, which with consent of king and church was 
appended in 1590 to the original document of 1580. From this 
it will be seen at once that it is the new bond contained in the 
third part that calls for special notice. And although the whole 
Covenant is of very easy access, being printed along with the 
Westminster Standards, it will be advantageous to quote the 
decisive paragraphs : — 

Finally, being convinced in our minds and confessing with our mouths 
that the present and succeeding generations in this land are bound to keep 
the foresaid national oath and subscription inviolable, 

We noblemen, barons, gentlemen, burgesses, ministers, and commons 
under-subscribing, considering divers times before, and especially at this 
time, the danger of the true reformed religion, of the king's honour and of 
the public peace of the kingdom, by the manifold innovations and evils, 
generally contained and particularly mentioned in our late supplications, 
complaints, and prot«stations ; do hereby profess, and before God, His 
angels, and the world, solemnly declare, that with our whole heart we agree 
and resolve all the days of our life constantly to adhere to and to defend 
the foresaid true religion, and (forbearing the practice of all innovations 
already introduced in the matters of the worship of God, or approbation 
of the corruptions of the public government of the kirk, or civil places and 
power of kirkmen, till they be tried and allowed in free Assemblies, and in 
Parliament) to labour, by all means lawful, to recover the purity and 
liberty of the gospel, as it was established and professed before the foresaid 
novations. And because after due examination, we plainly perceive and 
undoubtedly believe, that the innovations and evils contained in our sup- 
plications, &c., have no warrant of the Word of God, are contrary to the 
articles of the foresaid Confession, to the intention and meaning of the 
blessed reformers of religion in this land, to the above vmtten Acts of 
Parliament, ... we also declare, that the foresaid Confessions are to 
be interpreted, and ought to be understood of the foresaid novations and 
evils, no less than if every one of them had been expressed in the foresaid 
Confessions ; and that we are obliged to detest and abhor them, amongst 
other particular heads of Papistry abjured therein. And therefore, from 
the knowledge and conscience of our duty to God, to our king, and country, 
. . . we promise and swear by the great name of the Lord our God to 
continue in the profession and obedience of the foresaid religion ; and that 
we shall defend the same, and resist all these contrary errors and corrup- 
tions. . . . 

And in like manner, with the same heart, we declare before God and 
men, that we have no intention nor desire to attempt anything that may 
turn to the dishonour of God or to the diminution of the king's greatness 


and authority ; but on the contrary we promise and swear, that we shall 
to the uttermost of our power, with our means and lives, stand to the 
defence of our dread sovereign the king's Majesty, his person and authority, 
in the defence and preservation of the foresaid true religion, liberties, and 
laws of the kingdom ; as also to the mutual defence and assistance every 
one of us of another, in the same cause of maintaining the true religion 
and his Majesty's authority, with our best counsel, our bodies, means, and 
whole power, against all sorts of persons whatsoever. ... In witness 
whereof we have subscribed with our hands all the premises. 

Both before and after a fast on 1st March, 1638, this Cove- 
nant was sworn with uplifted hands, and subscribed in Grey- 
friars' Church with great enthusiasm, after earnest prayer by 
Henderson and eloquent exhortation by Lord Loudon. Copies 
were dispersed over the country, and within two months there 
were Covenanters in vast numbers all over Scotland with few 
exceptions; among these the chief were Aberdeen, St. Andrews, 
Crail, and some remote places where such movements had no 
chance. When Archbishop Spottiswoode came to Edinburgh, 
and heard of the renewal of the Covenant, he exclaimed, " Now is 
all our labour during the last thirty years destroyed at once ;" 
and in this belief he and aU the bishops save four fled to Eng- 
land. The original subscribers of the Covenant among the 
noUlity were— Eothes, Montrose, Cassilis, Sutherland, Eglintou, 
Wemyss, Home, Lindsay, Lothian, Tester, Burleigh, Loudon, 
Melvil, Johnston, Forester, Cranston, Boyd, Sinclair, Balmerino, 
Coupar. Among the laroiis subscribing were— Elcho, J. Suther- 
land, J. Sinclair, Erskine of Scotscraig, Hume of Wedderburn, 
Hume of Ayton, Campbell of Larbert, Lamington, Bishopton, 
Keir, Blair, Eulwood, Kowallan, Eiddell, Cunningham, Garth- 
land,' Eicarton, Kilmahew, Murray, Lag, Craigdarroch, Cunning- 
ham'head, Moncrieff, Kelburu, Greenock, Buntein, Hay, Camp- 
bell, Graham of Killearn, Eollo of Duncrub, Murray of Aucha- 
doun, and Inglis of Frathrum. Among the original subscribing 
rainisters were— Murray at Methven, Scrimgeour at Kinghorn, 
Douglas at Kirkcaldy, Gillespie at Wemyss, Cunningham at 
Portincraig (Broughty), Dickson at Irvine.Henderson atLeuchars, 
Arthur at Westkirk, Porteous at Cessford, Skinner at Kinghorn, 
Bennet at Auchtermuchty, Eamsay at Edinburgh, and Eollock 
at Edinburgh.! xhe original parchment still exists in the Advo- 

1 Stevenson, ii. 292. 

512 THE CHURCH of Scotland. 

cates' Library, and is written all over, the signatures overflowing 
to the margins, and, when room failed, ending in mere initials 
for the latest comers. 

Notwithstanding Lord Advocate Hope's opinion that this 
Covenant was legal and compatible with loyalty, it may well 
be argued that it was not, and it may be admitted that most of 
the objections taken to it on this score by Episcopalians and 
others are valid. The Covenant of 1580 was against Popery in 
time of alarm, yet it is here used against Prelacy and the royal 
prerogative, which are quite different things. The Covenant 
of 1580 was headed by the king, and was for the king; but this 
was not only apart from him, but directly to restrain and thwart 
him. This Covenant was a league of mutual self-defence by 
certain citizens against all opposers, and already it was notorious 
that the king himself was the chief opposer. The verbal loyalty 
expressed toward the king, if it had any real meaning, would 
make the Covenant self-contradictory ; but that the whole weight 
is in the bond for mutual defence, and that the defence is against 
the king, is beyond question. These things being so, the bond 
is technically an illegal one, and inconsistent with ordinary 
loyalty. But though illegal, it may soundly be contended that 
the bond was justifiable, and this is the line taken by judicious 
churchmen. " The vindication of the Covenant must be rested, 
not upon far-fetched attempts to reconcile it with loyalty, but 
upon this great principle that, when the ends for which all 
government should be instituted are defeated, the oppressed 
have a clear right to disregard customary forms, and to assert 
the privileges, without which they would be condemned to the 
degradation and wretchedness of despotism."^ " There are times 
when law must be set aside — when man resumes his natural 
rights. The king had violated the laws of the land; why should 
not the people ? The king had attempted, in defiance of the 
constitution, to force an obnoxious liturgy upon the nation; why 
should not the nation band itself together and defy him to do 
it ? Is the monarch made for the nation, or the nation for the 
monarch ? Is the will of the one or the will of the many to be 
supreme ? Should the people, for fear of violating some statute, 
and giving pain to some men in high places, sit still and allow 

1 Cook, ii. 415. 


their religion and liberties to be trampled on 'i Had the Cove- 
nant not been subscribed, it is certain the liturgy would have 
been introduced, the canons enforced, and the heel of arbitrary 
power placed on the neck of our country. This is its justification."^ 

The outbreak in St. Giles' on 23rd July, 1G37, and the sign- 
ing of the Covenant on 28th February, 1638, prepared the way 
for the General Assembly held in Glasgow Cathedral 21st No- 
vember, 1638. But before dealing with the Assembly it is 
needful to trace politically what immediately preceded. 

A meeting of the Privy Council took place at Stirling on 1st 
March relative to this new movement touching the Covenant. 
The council was divided, some members being at heart friendly 
to the Covenanters ; hence no military force was raised to quell 
them, and on the contrary the prevailing idea was concession. 
A despatch was sent to London by Sir John Hamilton, also 
a private letter of Traquair and Eoxburgli, emphasizing the 
troubled state of the country as a "combustion." The Cove- 
nanters, who now embraced the great majority of the nobility, 
also wrote their views to their friends at court. The king made 
even now but fev/ concessions, and gave his instructions, such as 
they were, to the Marquis of Hamilton, whom he trusted greatly 
and safely. The chief points of instruction were that the Canons 
and Service Book were not to be pressed except in a legal way; 
the High Commission was to be regulated so as to be no longer 
a grievance ; and in exchange for these boons the Covenant was 
to be disclaimed. But these instructions were not made public. 
The marquis arrived in Scotland on the 3rd of June, when the 
Covenanters were preparing for civil war. He reached Dalkeith 
like a private man, his own vassals paying no heed to his call, 
because deeming it inconsistent with the bond lately signed. 
The gates of Edinburgh and the approaches to the castle were 
guarded by armed men in the Covenanting interest. The same 
was done at Stirling. On 4th July proclamation was made at 
Edinburgh of the king's intentions regarding Canons, Liturgy, 
and High Commission ; but the part of the instructions as to with- 
drawing the Covenant was prudently omitted — and yet a protest 
was taken by the Tables. The council itself actually drew back 
the consent it had given to the making of this proclamation, and 

' Cnnningham, ii. 85. 


threatened to sign the Covenant if the marquis did not agree 
to acknowledge their withdrawal, whereon the marquis in disgust 
net their demand by tearing up the certified proclamation, which 
had not yet been copied into the record of the council's pro- 
ceedings. The sorely puzzled marquis started on 6th July for 
London for fresh instructions. He returned on 8th August, the 
substance of his new message being that the king agrees to the 
sif^ning of the Confession of 1567 (apparently as a substitute 
for the Covenant being withdrawn), and also to the calling of a 
General Assembly and a meeting of Parliament. 

As to the General Assembly, the king insisted that the repre- 
sentatives should be elected by the ministers only. The Tables 
replied, it must be the old way, as in 1597, of ministers and 
elders. AVhen the clergy were inclined to agree to the king's 
proposal, the Tables of nobles, barons, and burgesses put down 
their foot and said No— elders must be electors also. At this 
stage the marquis again started for London on 25th August, after 
a consultation with the Earls of Traquair, Eoxburgh, and South- 
esk. On 17th September he was back at Holyrood. The king 
had now agreed to suggestions made by the marquis — to cancel 
the Liturgy and Canons, to abolish the High Commission, sus- 
pend the Articles of Perth till approved by Assembly and Par- 
liament, subscribe the King's Covenant of 1580, and pardon the 
past to all subjects who agree to act dutifully in future. 

It was a shame to the Covenanters that these terms were 
not accepted. Sir Thomas Hope, the lord advocate, who had 
zealously signed the Covenant, did agree to them, but very un- 
fortunately he was overruled. At first the Covenanters wished 
delay of the proclamation for signing the Negative Confession 
of 1580 ; but on 22nd September, when the proclamation was 
made, they also made a protestation, showing unreasonableness, 
and in fact that they had become irreconcilables. In looking 
forward to the General Assembly, fixed by the royal proclama- 
tion for 21st November at Glasgow, the Tables sent secret in- 
structions to presbyteries as to electing representatives — an act 
which was as bad an interference with a free and fair Assembly 
as any act of the king ever was. Then, to prevent the bishops 
voting in the Assembly, they incited the Presbytery of Edin- 
burgh to the trickery of framing charges against them, which 


would cause them to be at the bar of the Assembly instead of 
sitting as members. The Presbytery of Edinburgh had nothing 
to do with any of the bishops except the one in the newly 
erected see of Edinburgh, and the charges, moreover, were mon- 
strous and artificial, being these : — Violation of the cautions of 
Assembly 1600; holding Arminian and popish tenets; exercising 
unwarrantable authority; and practising many gross vices incon- 
sistent with common church membership. No wonder the perse- 
cuted bishops declined the jurisdiction of the Assembly. The 
marquis foresaw the likelihood or necessity of withdrawing the 
royal countenance from the Assembly at an early stage, while 
the Covenanters were already resolved to go on at all hazards. 

No Assembly fully recognized by the Church had met for 
thirty years. The great, and too free, Assembly at Glasgow con- 
sisted of 140 ministers, 17 nobles, 9 knights, 25 landed pro- 
prietors, and 47 burgesses.^ The Marquis of Hamilton was Lord 
High Commissioner, and Alexander Henderson, minister of 
Leuchars, Moderator. Johnston of Warriston was appointed 
clerk. The Assembly having sat from 21st to 28th, transacting 
preliminary matters, chiefly relative to the constitution of the 
court, came at length to the decisive question of the trial of the 
bishops. When the Commissioner failed to prevent this, on 
29th November he dissolved the Assembly in the king's name, 
and withdrew. Undaunted, the members (with the exception 
of two elders and three ministers) continued their business. 
The losses of the Assembly by the withdrawal of the Commis- 
sioner and five members were compensated by fresh acces- 
sions — viz. Argyll, AYigtown, Kinghorn, Galloway, Mar, Napier, 
Almond, and Blackball^ The Acts of this Assembly number 
no fewer than seventy-tM'o.^ The chief are these : — 

Dec. 4. Annuls six late Assemblies — viz. Linlithgow, 1606 ; Linlithgow, 
1608; Glasgow, 1610; Aberdeen, 1616; St. Andrews, 1617; Perth, 1618, 
with reasons of nullity for each. 

Dec, 6. Condemns the Service Book, Book of Canons, Book of Ordina- 
tions, and High Commission. 

Dec. 8. Declares Episcopacy to have been abjured by the Confession of 
Faith, 1580, and now removed.'* 

^ The Roll is given by SteveDson, ii. 474 ; also by Peterkin, 109. * Stevenson, ii. 576. 

* See list in Peterkin, " Records of the Kirk," 46. 

* Peterkin, " Records," 28. The only exception to the unanimity of this vote was the 
remarkable one of Robert Baillie, who voted onlv remove without abjure. See Stevenson, 
ii. 625. 


Dec. 10. Declares the Five Articles of Perth to have been abjured and 

Dec. 13. Eight bishops deposed and excommunicated, and other six 
deposed after sermon by the Moderator, the trials having taken place from 
7th to 12th Dec. The excommunicated were Spottiswoode, St. Andrews; 
Patrick Lindsay, Glasgow; David Lindsay, Edinburgh ; Sydserf, Galloway; 
Maxwell, Ross ; Whiteford, Brechin ; Bellenden, Aberdeen ; AVedderburu, 
Dunblane. The six deposed were — Guthrie, Moray ; Alexander Lindsay, 
Dunkeld; Abernethy, Caithness ; Graham, Orkney; Fairlie, Argyll; Camp- 
bell, the Isles. 

Dec. IS. The order of the Provincial Assemblies, according to the Pres- 
byteries therein contained." 

Dec. 19. Act against civil places and power of kirkmen, debarring minis- 
ters from the Justiciary, lordships of Session, and membership of Parlia- 
ment ; also appoints commissions for trying clerical delinquents, to sit at 
specified dates at Edinburgh, Jedburgh, Irvine, Kirkcudbright, Dundee, 
Chanonry, and Forres. 

The sittings of this sweeping and revolutionary Assembly- 
ended on 20th Dec. According to one report-* the Moderator's 
last words were, " We have now cast down the walls of Jericho ; 
let him that rebuildeth them beware of the curse of Hiel the 
Bethelite." But it is clear from the silence of other annalists, 
and from the way they are given in the record of Stevenson, 
that these words formed no part of the Moderator's closing 
address,'* but were some sort of aside when the business had 
been ended. 

Such was the work familiarly known in Scotland as the Second 

If there be some things to condemn in the Assembly of 1638, there is 
also much to admire. Its courage was wonderful ; the revolution it effected 
was complete. Its proceedings were undoubtedly violent, but so are all 
revolutions. A storm was required to purify the atmosphere. The labour 
of thirty years was to be undone almost in a day. It is certain in repudiat- 
ing prelates and prelacy it only fulfilled the wish of the people ; for thirty 
long years had not weaned them from their first love to Presbytery, nor 
reconciled them to Episcopacy. It has sometimes been objected to it, that 
it went beyond its own province, set Acts of Parliament at defiance, and 
abolished a hierarchy which was established by law. This is quite true ; 
but after all, it is only such a legal objection as a special pleader might 
take. The Assembly of 1C38 embraced the Parliament ; it was the con- 
vened representatives of all the Estates ; its voice was the voice of the 
people. If the nation wished the change, it did not greatly matter whether 
it was effected by its representatives met in Parliament or met in Assembly. 

■ Peterkin, 32. ^ List given in Peterkin, 37. ' Stevenson, ii. 676. 

* Peterkin, 18^ ; Stevenson, ii. 665-676. 


Great movemeuts seldom square themselves with law. It is worthy of 
remark, however, that the first Reformation in the Scotch Church was 
effected by the Parliament, the second by the General Assembly. Fault 
was found with both. — Cunningham, ii. 107. 

On withdrawing from the Assembly, the Marquis of Hamilton 
made a proclamation stating his reasons for dissolving the meet- 
ing, prohibiting further meetings under pain of treason, and 
ordering the members to depart from Glasgow within twenty- 
four hours — all of which went for nothing. His anxieties and 
labours brought on an illness, but as soon as he had partially 
recovered, he started afresh for London, personally to report 
to the king. In fairness the High Commissioner is entitled 
to great praise alike for the ability and sincerity of his endea- 
vours to bring about better terms between the king and the 
Scottish Church; and it is greatly to be regretted that the 
Covenanters at this critical juncture had not abstained from 
several unjust and offensive proceedings when the king and 
Commissioner had granted so many concessions. The errors 
of the Tables consisted in dictation to Presbyteries as to elec- 
tion of representatives — coming to the Assembly armed as for 
war — refusing a vote to the royal assessors — prejudging the 
case of the bishops by the artifice of charges in the Presbytery 
of Edinburgh, and depriving them of seat and vote. 

The Scottish Primate died within a year — a man of good 
literature, life, and manners, diligent in business affairs, but 
subservient to royalty for his own ambition, and somewhat 
blind to the true feelings of his countrymen. It is melancholy 
to read the list of charges on which the Primate was deposed 
and excommunicated, every one of which bears on the face 
of it proof of prejudice and determination to be rid of a Church 
dignitary. His will, given in the Life prefixed to the edition 
of his History in 1847, presents a very different view of the 
man. The society that bears the archbishop's name has done 
him due honour in its publications — just as the rival society 
that bears the name of Wodrow has done to the authors and 
writings on the other side. Between the two sets of these 
rival volumes on every library shelf should be the motto, Medio 
tutissimus ibis. 





A Covenantins army raised — Tlie " pacification " of Berwick — Assembly of 1639 — In- 
tolerance "of the Covenanters — Tlie Scots anny cross the Tweed — Raising of the 
roval standard at Nottingham — Solemn League and Covenant subscribed by the 
English Parliament — The Shorter Catechism — \Yestminster Assembly — Battles of 
the Civil War — Barbarities of the Scots Estates — Surrender of the king by the 
Scots army — Battle of Preston — Execution of the king— Charles II. proclaimed by 
the Scots— Battle of Dunbar — The '' crowning mercy " of Worcester — Death of 
Cromwell and entry of Charles into London — Ecclesiastical degradation of Scotland 
during the Commonwealth — First schism in the Church of Scotland — General 
Assemblies suppressed — Resolutioners and Remonstrants — Chief Church leaders of 
this period. 

The triumph achieved at Glasgow iii December, 1638. was 
too one-sided to prove lasting. The attitude of the Lords of 
the Covenant so closely portended civil war, that Alexander 
Leslie (afterwards Earl of Leven), who had been field-marshal 
with Gustavus Adolphus, wrought with Lord Rothes to prepare 
a Covenanting army. The king on his side saw^ the need of 
preparation, and had appointed the ]\Iarquis of Huntl}' his 
lieutenant for Scotland, and gave the ]\Iarquis of Hamilton 
command of a fleet to co-operate in the Eirth of Forth with the 
royal army. Huntly was made prisoner by Argyll, and Hamil- 
ton was too slow and cautious. As early as the middle of 
Eebruary the king appointed his army to meet at York by the 
end of March. By the end of INIay, 1639, the Scots army (with 
Baillie as chaplain) was planted on Buns Law^, while the king 
and his army were just across the Tweed. A pacification, 
however, took place at Berwick, on the basis of a free Assembly 
at Edinburgh, and a Parliament to follow, each side to abandon 
their armaments. At first the king refused to ratify the pro- 
ceedings of the Glasgow Assembly, while the Scots Commis- 
sioners refused to annul them; then they ended in the above 

According to agreement the Assembly met on the 12th of 
August, and on the 17th enacted " that the Service Book, Books 
of Canons and Ordination, and the High Commission be still 
rejected ; that the Articles of Perth be no more practised ; that 
Episcopal government, and the civil powers and places of kirk- 
men, be holden still as unlawful in this Kirk; that the pre- 


tended Assemblies at Linlithgow in 1606 and 1608, at Glasgow 
in 1610, at Aberdeen in 1616, at Perth in 1618, be hereafter 
accounted as null and of none effect ; and that for preservation 
of religion and preventing all such evils in time coming, General 
Assemblies, rightly constitute, as the proper and competent 
judge of all matters ecclesiastical, hereafter be kept yearly and 
oftener pro re nata, as occasion and necessity shall require ; the 
necessity of these occasional Assemblies being first remonstrate 
to his Majesty by humble supplication ; as also that kirk ses- 
sions, presbyteries, and synodical assemblies be constitute and 
observed according to the order of the Kirk." 

At this stage the Covenant began to be made (instead of a 
voluntary bond for self-defence) an instrument of intolerance. 
The Assembly rose on 30th August, and next day Parliament 
sat, was prorogued 24th October, and again on 14th November, 
to 2nd June, 1640. This delay was injurious to the king's 
interests. The Covenant became an instrument of oppression 
and persecution after it was signed by Traquair on 6th Sep- 
tember, 1639, in Parliament. Having thus the sanction both 
of Council and of the Assembly, it w^as forced on men whether 
they approved it or not ; and failing to sign they were ejected 
from office. At an Assembly held 28th July, 1639, at Aber- 
deen, whereat no High Commissioner appeared from the king, 
it was enacted " that no preacher nor schoolmaster be allowed 
to reside within a burgh, university, or college, who refused to 
sign the Covenant." Now "the Aberdeen doctors," who had 
lately been a thorn in the side of the Presbyterians by their 
learned and legal opposition, had a hot time of it. Dr. James 
Sibbald of New Aberdeen, Principal Dr. Alexander Leslie of 
Old Aberdeen, Dr. John Forbes of Corse, professor of divinity, 
and old Dr. Scroggie were all deprived. Dr. Barron had just 
died, and escaped vengeance, but his widow was summoned 
before the Covenanting inquisitors, and his manuscripts were 
overhauled to prevent posthumous opposition. At the same 
Assembly the question of the Brownists came keenly forward. 
This sect of refugees from Ireland forsook public worship, and 
had their meetings in families, and often at night, their views 
being of a peculiarly ranting and self-righteous sort.^ 

1 Stevenson, iiL 894. 


It was just before the Assembly of Aberdeen, and after the 
pacification of Berwick, that the Earl of Montrose changed sides 
at a conference with the king, where he was one of three repre- 
sentatives of the nobility. 

When on 2nd June Parliament met, without the king's Com- 
missioner, it passed important Acts, ratifying the proceedings 
of the General Assembly of 1639, and named a committee to 
transact business. On 21st August the Scots army crossed the 
Tweed, and on the 30th entered Newcastle. Thus pressed from 
Scotland (not to speak of other pressure from England), the 
king agreed to hold a Parliament at Westminster, 3rd Novem- 
ber (the Long Parliament). On 17th August, 1641, a Parlia- 
ment met at Edinburgh, at which Charles was present, where 
were confirmed the Acts of Parliament of June, 1640, over- 
throwing Episcopacy, establishing Presbytery, and also approv- 
ing the desire of the Scots for uniformity of religion and church 
government with England. Meantime the king's difficulties in 
England increased, so that on 22nd August, 1642, the royal 
standard was set up at Nottingham, in civil war. An Assembly 
at St. Andrews, 20th July, 1641, continued the diseased craving 
for uniformity, as shown in an Act " for drawing up a Cate- 
chism, Confession of Faith, Directory of Public Worship, and 
form of Kirk Government," evidently the precursor of the 
Solemn League and Covenant, and of the work of the West- 
minster divines, both of which unfortunately were a copy, 
reversed, of the plan of James VI. in 1606, and of Charles in 
1633, which had been so fruitful of misery from the opposite 

At the Assembly of 1643 on 2nd August, the Solemn League 
and Covenant was agreed to, after a speech by Alexander Hen- 
derson. On 22nd September it was subscribed in London by 
the members of both Houses of Parliament, the Assembly of 
Divines, and the Scots Commissioners. Then it was circulated 
over the English counties, as well as over all synods and pres- 
byteries in Scotland. 

The Solemn League and Covenant was every way inferior 
to the National Covenant, being more narrow and less spon- 
taneous, and especially objectionable in being forced on England 
in order to spread Presbyterianism, where it was never generally 


desired. The subscribers pledged themselves by oath that they 
would endeavour the preservation of the Eeformed religion in the 
Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and govern- 
ment ; as also the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of 
England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and 
government, according to the Word of God and the example 
of the best Eeformed churches ; that, in like manner, they 
should, without respect of persons, endeavour the extirpation 
of Popery, Prelacy (by which they declared themselves to mean 
church government by archbishops, bishops, and all other 
ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy), superstition, 
heresy, schism, and profaneness ; that they should, with the 
same sincerity, endeavour with their estates and lives, mutually 
to preserve the rights and privileges of the Parliaments, and 
the liberties of the kingdom, and to preserve and defend the 
king's person and authority, in the preservation and defence 
of the true religion and the liberties of the kingdom. It is 
shocking to see men thus taking oath to defend the king's 
person and authority, when they had at the very moment an 
army in the field for the contrary purpose ; and not less painful 
to see those whose late sore grievance had been to have the 
religion of England thrust on themselves, now when circum- 
stances were changed, trying to thrust the religion of Scotland 
both on England and Ireland. One is tempted to exclaim 
that these Covenants on the whole were a delusion and snare, 
although the first of them had a temporary success five years 
before in welding the nation together to resist royal tyranny. 

This same period is remarkable as giving to Scotland those 
books that have ever since served as our standards of doctrine 
and government — the Confession of Faith, the Larger and 
Shorter Catechisms, and the Directory of Public Worship. By 
far the most influential of these has been the most unpretending 
— the Shorter Catechism, which substantially in its doctrinal 
part follows the school of St. Augustine, but in point of method, 
very unfortunately, did not follow the plan of Calvin, in starting 
from an exposition of the articles of the Apostles' Creed.^ 

* To the same influence we also owe our present metrical Psalter, by Francis Rons, 
a member of the Long Parliament, and lay member of the Westminster Assembly. The 
Psalter was authorized bv the General Assembly and Commission of Estates in 1650. 


The Westminster Assembl}', whose name is so familiar in 
Scottish Church history, was constituted by an ordinance of the 
Lords and Commons of England on 12th June, 1643, "that such 
a government should be settled in the Church as may be most 
agreeable to God's Holy Word, and most apt to procure and 
preserve the peace of the Church at home, and nearer agreement 
-with the Church of Scotland and other Eeformed churches 
abroad." The Assembly consisted of 10 peers, 20 members of 
the Commons — as lay assessors — and 121 clergymen, with Dr. 
Twiss as prolocutor or president; and its meetings were held 
in the Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster, and conducted on 
the model of Parliament itself. Previous to the day of meeting 
the king declared the Assembly illegal. About sixty-nine of 
the members nominated by the Lords and Commons defied 
the king's declaration. Among these were very few Episcopal 
clergymen, so that this gave Presbyterians and Independents 
an overwhelming majority, and the Westminster documents 
a one-sided character. 

Commissioners from Scotland were invited to attend the 
discussions. The clerical commissioners were — Baillie, Hen- 
derson, Eutherford, and Gillespie. Eobert Douglas was also 
named, but did not attend. The lay commissioners were — 
Johnston of Warriston, Lord Cassilis, and Lord Maitland (after- 
wards Duke of Lauderdale). To these were added Argyll, 
Ealmerinoch, and Loudon, with Eobert Meldrum and George 
Win ram. 

" The Westminster Confession has taken a firm hold upon 
the mind of all Presbyterian Churches, not only in Scotland, 
but throughout the world. And this arises not from its em- 
bodiment in statutes of any kind, but from the sources of its 
own inspiration, and the place which these occupy in the his- 
tory of religious thought. It is not peculiarly Scotch, nor is 
it distinctively Presbyterian. There is only a small and com- 
paratively insignificant portion of it which is marked by the 
influence of local and temporary circumstances. A learned and 
able defender of it in recent times has said with truth :^— 'It is 
lined and scored with the marks of conflict, but the deepest and 

1 " Lect. on the Westminster Confession." by Professor Mitchell, D.D., of St. Andrews : 
Edinburgh, 1876 


tlie broadest lines are those which run through all the Christian 
ages, and which appear distinctly either in the creeds of the 
early councils or in the writings of the greatest of the Latin 
fathers, or which, if they are not found so prominently there, 
appear broad and deep in the teaching both of the Greek and of 
the Latin Church, and of the ablest theologians of the raiddle 
ages,' It is to this fundamental coincidence with the main 
stream of Christian teaching that it owes its strength and the 
hold it has acquired over so large an extent of Christian ground. 
A corresponding width of interpretation must be given to it. 
This may be gathered from its history as well as from its words. 
It was not drawn upon the model of the old native Scotch Con- 
fession, but on the model of the Articles of the Church of Eng- 
land. And the amplification which it makes of these articles 
is one which did not come from any Scotch or Presbyterian 
hands, but mainly from the hands of one of the most eminent 
divines of the Episcopal Church, Archbishop Ussher. It repre- 
sents his view, not of any local or provincial controversy, but 
of the sum and substance of the Eeformed doctrine."^ 

It is to the period and influence of the Westminster Assembly 
that we have to trace the discontinuance of Knox's Liturgy. 
It was not forbidden, but simply dropped, possibly as a Scottish 
sacrifice to counterbalance the English sacrifice in passing by 
the English Prayer Book. In 1641 a proposal to revise the 
Book of Common Order and to prepare a catechism was referred 
to Henderson,'' who replied, " Nor could I take upon me either 
to determine some points controverted, or to set down other 
forms of prayer than we have in our Psalm Book, penned by 
our great and divine Eeformer." 

The period from the Civil War to the king's execution (1642- 

^ Dnke of Arjryll, Contemporary Review, January, 1878. 

-Alexander Henderson, born at Creich, in Fife, was educated at St. Salvator's College. 
From 1610 he taught for several years as regent in philosophy, and in 1615 was ap- 
pointed by Archbishop Gladstanes minister of Leuchars. He proved an earnest minister 
— zealous in education, founding and endowing two schools at Creich and Leuchars. In 
1618, at the Perth Assembly, he spoke and voted against the Five Articles. He was one 
of the first to refuse to read the king's Service Book. Thrice he was Moderator of 
Assembly — 1638, 1641, 1643. At the signing of the Covenant in 1638 he was one of 
those who prayed and preached, and was the writer of the Solemn League and Covenant. 
As one of the Scots Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly, he laboured with great 
diligence, and wrote many of the public documents of the period. In 1646, from the 
middle of May till the middle of July, he had a correspondence with King Charles on Pres- 
bytery and Prelacy. The same year, in the middle of August, he died at Edinburgh. 


1649), ecclesiastically as well as politically, turns on a series of 
five battles-Edgehill, 23rd October, 1642 ; Marston Moor, 1st 
July, 1644 ; Naseby, 14th June, 1645 ; Phniphaugh, 13th Sep- 
tember, 1645 ; Preston, 18th August, 1648. The first conflict 
between the Eoyal and Parliamentary troops, at Edgehill, was 
indecisive. In the next battle, at Marston Moor, the Parliamen- 
tary troops, under Cromwell and David Leslie (nephew of the 
old field-marshal), defeated the king's troops under Eupert. 
After this battle Cromwell reorganized the army under the 
name of the "New Model," and brought the religious enthusiasm 
of his " Ironsides " to meet the chivalry of the Cavaliers. The 
result was a decisive victory at Naseby. In the next battle, 
three months later, at Philiphaugh, the royal cause was utterly 
wrecked, when David Leslie surprised and defeated the Marquis 
of Montrose, who had gained so many successes for the king in 
the Highlands for two years past at Blair- Atholl, Tibbermuir, 
Aberdeen, Inverlochy, Dundee, Auldearn, and Kilsyth. 

At this time the executions of loyal and good Scotsmen by 
the Estates, goaded on by the Covenanters, were frequent and 
disgraceful. Sir John Gordon of Haddo (from whose confine- 
ment the dungeon beside St. Giles' was called Haddo's Hole) was 
guillotined 19th July, 1644; the same fate and date applying to 
Captain John Logic, who had been captured with him. James 
Small, a messenger from Montrose to the king, was hanged at 
the Cross, 1st May, 1645. After the battle of Philiphaugh 
prisoners to whom quarter was promised by Leslie were slaugh- 
tered in the courtyard of Newark Castle, on the brutal pressure 
of certain army chaplains,^ while others were smashed and 
drowned by being thrown over a high bridge on Ettrick or 
Yarrow. Ten prisoners of mark made at Philiphaugh were ap- 
pointed to death. Three of these suffered at Glasgow — viz. Sir W. 
EoUock, Ogilvie of Inverarity, only eighteen years of age, and 
Sir W. Nisbet. At St. Andrews were guillotined Sir Eobert Spot- 
tiswoode, secretary for Scotland, and second son of the primate; 
Captain Andrew Guthrie, son of Bishop Guthrie of Moray; Colonel 
Nathaniel Gordon, on 20th January, 1646; and at the same place, 
two days later, William Murray, brother of Earl Tullibardine. 
In Kintyre took place a massacre of poor disarmed natives by 

^Lawson, 647. 


Leslie, instigated by a Covenanting preacher called John Xevay.^ 
In Februar)^ 1645, a committee of Assembly pressed for the 
execution of political prisoners in the Tolbooth, when Wishart, 
afterwards bishop of Edinburgh, and Irvine of Drum and two of 
his sons were, in the loathsome place called the Thieves' Hole, 
fighting for their lives with swarms of rats. It is only fair 
to record these barbarities perpetrated on Episcopalians and 
Loyalists by the Scots Estates when in sympathy with the Cove- 
nanting leaders, for it was these and like excesses that prompted 
the terrible revenge that for twenty-eight years followed the 
Eestoration of 1660. 

The Civil War being ended by the battle of Philiphaugh, a 
new struggle began between the army and Parliament in Eng- 
land, in the course of which the Sectaries, Dissidents, or In- 
dependents came to the front, and got the better of the Pres- 
byterians, treating them in turn with no small part of the 
cruelty which they had, in their day of power, exercised on the 
Episcopalians, and above all leaving to the Presbyterians, who 
began the disorder, a great part of the odium and disgrace as- 
sociated with the rule of Cromwell. In May, 1646, the king 
took refuge in the Scots camp at Newark, in Nottinghamshire, 
where he remained for eight months with Lord Leven, who fell 
back on Newcastle. But on 30th January, 1647, the Scots 
army accepted £400,000 in discharge of their claims, gave up 
the king to a committee of Parliament, and crossed the Border 
homeward. The king escaped from restraint at Hampton Court 
to the Isle of Wight, where from November, 1647, to Septem- 
ber, 1648, he was a prisoner at Carisbrooke Castle, when an 
" engagement " was entered into with the Scots Estates, headed 
by the Duke of Hamilton, to give parliamentary sanction to 
the Solemn League and Covenant, provided none be compelled 
to take it against their wills ; to establish Presbytery in Eng- 
land for three years, provided king and household were allowed 
their own mode of worship; and after these three years to 
establish such a polity as the Westminster divines, with twenty 
commissioners of the king's nomination, should determine as 
most agreeable to the Word of God. In a General Assembly 
at Edinburgh in July, 1648, the engagement was opposed; but 

' Lawson, G53. 


the Estates took their own way and raised an army, which, 
under the Duke of Hamilton, was defeated by Cromwell at 
Preston. After Preston, Cromwell marched to Edinburgh, dis- 
persed the Eoyalists, and reinstated Argyll in power, whereon 
the bitter and narrow faction of the Protesters or Eemon- 
strants grew in influence. This was the period of the Whig- 
amores' Eaid, when the Covenanters of Ayrshire crowded to 
Edinburgh, made friends with Cromwell, and passed the Act 
of Classes, by which they excluded from office and from the 
army all who had taken part in the engagement. Meanwhile 
in England, " Pride's Purge," by violently removing 140 mem- 
bers from Parliament, gave the Independents the mastery of 
the Presbyterians. When Parliament and army were thus 
made synonymous, the end was that on 30th January, 1649, 
the king was beheaded at Whitehall in front of his own palace. 
Considering the cruel end of the king, tyrant though he 
was, and considering that the first direct step towards that end 
was in the Scots army, on 30th January, 1647, delivering up 
Charles to his enemies at Newcastle on a bargain of £400,000, 
to be paid wuthin two and a half years, the Scots, and especially 
the Presbyterians, have been ever since accused in history of 
the base crime of selling their king. Blame they must bear, and 
that heavy, but not to the extent of a conscious or intentional 
sale. Seeing that the king had in his great distress voluntarily 
taken refuge in the Scots camp, thus appealing alike to their 
pity and remnant of loyalty, it was their clear duty to have 
by solemn writing stipulated for his life and good treatment 
as a prisoner, before handing him over to others. Moreover, 
it was a base folly to mix up a cash bargain with one of the 
most serious political acts that the representatives of any 
nation could engage in. On the other side there are two great 
and decisive facts that effectively exculpate the Scots from both 
the sale and subsequent fate of the king. (1) The army which 
they afterwards raised to deliver him from his extreme danger 
and shameful imprisonment, and which met so unhappy a fate 
at Preston five months before the king's execution, and before 
the violence of Colonel Pride to the English Parliament made 
the king's trial possible ; (2) the bold and immediate proclama- 
tion of Charles II. as king by the Estates at Edinburgh on 


5th February, only six days after his father's death, show the 
broad distinction, alike in principle and policy, between the 
Scots and the regicide party. 

In the same year of blood and revenge by temporary law, 
took place three most cruel executions of honourable men — 
the Duke of Hamilton, 9t]i March (in London) ; Earl Huntly, 
22nd March ; and the Marquis of Montrose, 25th May. 

James, the third marquis and first duke of Hamilton, was 
born in 1606, and from boyhood had been a favourite of Charles 
I., so that when he was charged with treason by Lord Ochiltree, 
the king spurned the idea. In 1630 he entrusted him with 
6000 men to serve under Gustavus Adolphus in aid of Bohemia. 
Nothing could exceed the prudence and zeal of the marquis in 
his difficult post at the Glasgow Assembly in 1638, yet in 1643, 
just after being made duke, he was imprisoned by the king on 
suspicion, and only released in 1646. He vindicated himself 
nobly by joining Charles in the Scots camp at Newcastle, and 
trying to prevent his being given up to the English. His 
failure at Preston put him in the power of Cromwell, so that 
he came to his end by execution at the hands of the usurper. 
Scotland in that age had no truer patriot, and the king no more 
loyal adherent, than James, duke of Hamilton and earl of 

The story of James Grahame, " the great Montrose," is even 
more brilliant than that of Hamilton. Full justice has been 
done to his heroic devotion to his king in Mr. Mark Napier's 
"Life and Times of Montrose;" and his death has been nobly 
commemorated in Aytoun's ballad, "The Execution of Mon- 
trose." The studied indignities of his treatment, and the 
horrible details of his sentence, cause burning shame in every 
Scottish breast, that the Covenanters, while struggling for 
political and ecclesiastical freedom, should have sunk to such 
depths of revenge and meanness on a fellow Scot, far more loyal 
than themselves and possessed of military genius of the highest 

Three months after the king's death the Commonwealth was 

formally proclaimed. The Scots, however, at once proclaimed 

Charles II., and sent an embassy to the new king at the Hague. 

The events of this period (as concerns Scotland) are again 


determined by battle — Dunbar, 3rd September, 1650, and 
Worcester, 3rd September, 1651, the latter called by Cromwell 
his "crowning mercy." From August, 1649, to the following 
March, Cromwell was engaged in Ireland at Drogheda, Wexford, 
and Clonmel, in butcheries which stain his name. In May, 1650, 
his army crossed the Tweed, and after several shiftings along 
the east coast from Edinburgh to Dunbar, he at last engaged 
and defeated Leslie, who had rashly left his strong hill-position. 
In an eight miles' chase 3000 Scots were slain and 10,000 made 
prisoners. After this great victory Cromwell visited Edinburgh, 
Linlithgow, Kilsyth, and Glasgow, making a sort of mockery of 
the Covenant as he proceeded. Next year, on the anniversary 
of Dunbar, he fought at Worcester, when Leslie was made 
prisoner, his army annihilated, and Charles forced to flee to 
France to enter on nine years more of exile, although he had 
signed the Covenant twice in 1650 (in June at Speymouth, and 
in August at Dunfermline), and although he had been crowned at 
Scone on 1st January, 1651, Argyll placing the crown on his 
head, and Eobert Douglas preaching the coronation sermon. 
Since the battle of Dunbar, Cromwell had handed over Scotland 
to be repressed by General Monk, who, after storming Dundee 
two days before the battle of Worcester, kept rigorous order as 
long as the Commonwealth lasted. 

On 19th April, 1653, Cromwell turned out the English Par- 
liament, and locked the door. After the " Barebones " Parlia- 
ment, another, called in 1654, was dissolved in January, 1655. 
When offered the title of king in 1657, Cromwell declined it, 
and took that of Protector. In February, 1658, he dissolved 
another Parliament in a rage, and died 3rd September of the 
same year. His son Eichard succeeded as Protector, but being 
a simple quiet man, he made haste to quit a dangerous place 
in favour of the king ; so that when Monk, with his army from 
Scotland, marched south in November, 1659, the way was pre- 
pared for the exile, whose entry to London took place 29th 
May, 1660. 

These years of the Protectorate were for Scotland years of 
peace, although not of liberty. The Church had no General 
Assembly since 1653, when in July, at Edinburgh, in the very 
midst of a sederunt, the members were turned out of doors by 


Lieutenant-Colonel Cotterell, and marched out of town between 
two lines of soldiers. It is marvellous how easily Cromwell 
usually gets off in Church history, in spite of all his misdoings 
in these years, mainly because of his alliance with the Sec- 
taries in England and the Protesters in Scotland. The root 
of the most of our ecclesiastical and political calamities from 
1643 to 1660 was, that the semi -legitimate Covenant of 
1638, for plain self-defence, justifiable in the circumstances, 
was degraded into a compulsory League and Covenant in 
1643, for the oppression of England — a sin avenged on Scot- 
land by the kindred tyranny and wilder fanaticism of the Eng- 
lish Sectaries, which turned the tables on us for needlessly 
interfering against Episcopacy in a neighbouring and inde- 
pendent nation. These Scottish excesses from 1643 to 1660 
hamper fair-minded churchmen in condemning to the full the 
cruel retaliations of Charles II. But the saddest and most 
lasting result that came to Scotland when religion ran to seed 
in the whims and fanaticism of the Cromwellian and Puritan 
period, is that these oddities and excesses got to be perpetuated 
among us in the spirit and form of dissent, vexing the Church, 
like a divine judgment, with internal strife, and the presence of 
an unreasonable and irreconcilable element from these days till 
now ; whereas it has been the effort of the National Church for 
two centuries to rid itself of crotchets, and get back to the good 
sense and tolerance which marked the Reformed Church from 
1560 to 1596. 

Principal Lee, the best authority in such matters of this cen- 
tury, gives the following account of the contending parties, and 
the ecclesiastical degradation that came from Puritan influence 
in Scotland in the Commonwealth period : — 

" The Presbyterians were not, however, dispirited by this dis- 
aster (the defeat at Dunbar). They resolved to provide for the 
national safety by endeavouring to unite all parties in the pub- 
lic service. They prepared two resolutions — one, that those who 
had hitherto been obnoxious, either for their neutrality or for 
their share in the engagement under the Duke of Hamilton, 
should be allowed and encouraged to make a profession of their 
repentance ; and another, that after testifying their repentance, 
thev should be admitted to share in the defence of the kingdom. 


"When these resolutions were adopted by Parliament, the 
Malignants and Engagers, eager to be received into the public 
service, complied with the forms required by the Church for the 
purpose of obtaining absolution. But this step was followed by 
new dissensions. The same party in the Church which had 
opposed the Engagement now protested against the admission of 
any of the disaffected to serve in the cause, and declared that 
their pretended repentance was a profanation of the Divine ordi- 
nances, from which no good could be expected. An association 
was framed against the Sectaries, and a remonstrance against 
the kin(T by five western counties — Ayr, Eenfrew, Galloway, 
Wigtown, and Dumfries ; and from this period the Church and 
the nation were divided into Eesolutioners and Eemonstrants 
or Protesters. The Eemonstrants considered the treaty with 
the king as criminal, and proposed that he should be suspended 
from the government till he gave clear evidences of his repent- 
ance ; and they protested that it was unjust to impose on others 
a prince unworthy to reign in Scotland, or to interfere in the 
affairs of an independent nation. The remonstrance was con- 
demned by the Committee of Estates as seditious. They, in the 
meantime, withheld their levies to the number of four or five 
thousand ; and thus, instead of uniting to resist the aggressions 
of Cromwell, the Covenanters, by their violent divisions, were 
working out their own destruction. 

" It was the great error of the Presbyterian churchmen of that 
awe that they interfered too much in the conduct of civil affairs.^ 
But they were the fittest men of those times for the manage- 
ment of public business, and if they had not been unhappily 
divided from one another, their councils might have been pro- 
ductive of the most salutary effects. They were far more dis- 
tinguished for their courage than many of the military leaders ; 
and when the cowardice or treachery of Dundas, the governor 

^This jnst censure by Principal Lee is even better put by Dr. Cook (iii. 163), who 
says — " Many of the clergy who now guided the counsels of their brethren had exhausted 
their eloquence in representing interference with the civil power as a proof of the coiTup- 
tion of Episcopacy, and had insisted upon the exclusion of churchmen from all offices 
connected with political avocations, as essential to the existence of an efficient ministry, 
and to the dissemination of religious knowledge. Yet these men, who were so shocked 
that bishops, by having a seat in Parliament, could calmly and constitutionally guard the 
rights of the Church, and moderate the ardour of lay ambition, had no hesitation virtually 
to assume the reins of government, to set the legislature at defiance, and to dictate to the 
people the manner in which, as members of the Commonwealth, they ought to act" 


of Edinburgh Castle, delivered up that fortress (1G50) to the 
English, the ministers of Edinburgh, who had taken refuge in 
it, protested against its ignominious surrender. The moderate 
Covenanters, by far the most numerous party, united with the 
other Eoyalists to defend the king and the country. But the 
ill-advised plan of marching into England was ruinous to their 
cause. The battle of Worcester almost annihilated their army, 
and compelled the king to abandon his dominions ; and while 
the martial strength of the kingdom was thus wasted on a de- 
lirious expedition, Scotland, abandoned by its defenders, fell an 
easy prey to the ferocious General Monk. 

" To ingratiate themselves with Cromwell, the Protesters de- 
clined praying for the king, and framed their churches after the 
model of the Sectarians. They introduced a mode of celclrating 
the Divine ordinances, which till that time had been unknown in 
Scotland, and which came afterwards to be generally practised 
by those whose meetings were interdicted by the severe enact- 
ments of the Government after the king's restoration. Tliey 
jpreached and prayed at much greater length and ivith much greater 
fervour than their Irethren. At the administration of the C07n- 
munion they collected a great oiumher of ministers, and performed 
Divine service two or three successive days lefore, and one at least 
after, the solemnity. On such occasions not fewer than twelve 
or fifteen sermons were delivered in the course of three or four 
days to the same audience ; but as the numbers attracted to the 
spot were often far greater than could hear the voice of one man, 
it was not uncommon to divide them into two or three separate 
congregations, to each of which a succession of preachers was 
assigned, and thus thirty or forty sermons were preached to the 
different groups of communicants and spectators. Their har- 
angues were generally unpremeditated, and their devotions were 
supposed by the people, and perhaps by the speakers themselves, 
to be dictated by a celestial impulse. In this style of preaching, 
and in the performance of other public exercises of religion, the 
Protesters were imitated by many of the Kesolutioners, who 
still maintained their fidelity to the king ; but as this party was 
composed chiefly of more reasonable men, they could not allow 
themselves, for the sake of popularity, to adopt all that vehe- 
mence of utterance, and that redundancy of matter, with that 


assumption of a prophetical character, which distinguished some 
of their rivals. " ^ 

It is well to remember that the first schism in the Church 
of Scotland originated in 1651, in the Cromwellian period, and 
under the malign influence of English Puritanism, to which is 
traceable the innovating, captious, and hot-headed party of the 

After the destruction of the Scots army at Worcester, 3rd 
September, 1651, and the flight of the king to the Continent, 
the ministers neither taught the people in the old way, nor 
o-uarded them against the Sectaries, who had now supreme civil 
control and acknowledged no Covenant. Cromwell suppressed 
General Assemblies. One met at Edinburgh in July, 1650, with 
Andrew Cant as moderator, but its Acts are not printed. The 
next was at St. Andrews in June, 1651, but adjourned. When 
it met next month in Dundee, with Robert Douglas as modera- 
tor, its members fled on hearing of Cromwell's soldiers coming 
from Perth. The next was at Edinburgh in July, 1652. The 
next, at Edinburgh in July, 1653, with David Dickson as modera- 
tor, was, as we have said, forcibly dispersed by Colonel Cotterell ; 
and the last for the Commonwealth period, at Edinburgh in July, 
1654, was suppressed by soldiers before it had been constituted.*^ 
When the General Assembly approved the resolution of the 
Commission respecting the Malignants (to let them join in the 
defence of their common country in its day of danger in 1648) 
the Eemonstrants protested bitterly both in 1651 and 1652. 
When the king was a wanderer, and his supporters, the so-called 
Malignants, no longer existed as a party, the Eemonstrants yet 
persisted as a faction in opposing the great body of the clergy. 
The Eesolutioners dealt mildly with them, considering their 
venom and wildness of principle, but in hope of checking them 
deposed three of their ringleaders — viz. James Guthrie of Stir- 
ling, Patrick Gillespie of Glasgow, and James Simpson of Airth — 
while James Naismith of Hamilton was suspended. Offended 
by this well-merited check, the rest of the Eemonstrants left 
the Assembly, in the way of secession, for a separate existence, 

1 " History," ii. 309. 

^ The best account of the miserable Assemblies, 1C49 to 1654, is given bj Peterkin 
"Records," Appendix, 591-670. 


and in order to organize an opposition. They adopted the 
mischievous and disorderly plan of having great and heated 
gatherings of ministers, elders, and church members (the discon- 
tented of many parishes) assembled for joint worship, followed 
by discussions resembling those of church courts, in which they 
did not scruple to condemn everything they disapproved of, 
although enacted by regular General Assemblies. Similar 
district gatherings of a vehement nature were arranged for the 
celebration of the Lord's Supper, with a compound multipH- 
cation of preaching and praying hitherto unknown in Scotland, 
the whole being characterized by a gloom and fanaticism verging 
on frenzy. Embittered against the Church, and willing to 
accept any help, the Remonstrants, who were Covenanters run 
to seed, actually came round to frame an alliance with the 
Sectaries, who made a mock of the Covenant and were open 
republicans. This unprincipled conjunction secured to the 
Eemonstrants the sympathy and control of the military power 
of the day, and led to their being able, although a minority, 
to persecute the Eesolutioners, who were the only legal repre- 
sentatives of the Church of the Covenant. Describing this 
period in a letter of 19th July, 1654, to his Continental friend 
Spang, Baillie says : — 

" As for our Church affairs, thus they stand :— The Parliament of England 
had given to the English judges and sequestrators a very ample commission 
to put out and in ministers as they saw cause. According to this power 
they put Mr. John Eow in Aberdeen, Mr. Robert Leighton in Edinburgh, 
Mr. Patrick Gillespie in Glasgow, and Mr. Samuel Colville they offered to 
the Old College of St. Andrews. AU our colleges are likely to be undone. 
Our churches are in great confusion. No intrant gets any stipend till he 
has petitioned and subscribed some acknowledj^ment to the English. When 
a very few of the Remonstrants and Independent party wiU call a man, he 
gets the kirk and the stipend ; but whom the presbytery and the whole con- 
gregation call and admit, he must preach in the fields, or in a barn, without 

" As for our State, this is its case — our nobility near all wrecked. Dukes 
Hamilton, the one executed, the other slain; their estate forfeited; one 
part of it gifted to English soldiers, the rest will not pay the debts ; little 
left to the heretrix ; almost the whole name undone with debt. Huntly 
executed, his sons aD dead but the yoimgest ; there is more debt on the 
house than the family can pay ; Lennox is living as a man buried in his 
house of Cobham ; Argyll almost drowned with debt, in friendship with the 
English, but in hatred with the country ; he courts the Remonstrators, who 
are averse from him ; Chancellor Loudon lives like an outlaw about Atholl, 



his lands confiscated for debt under a general very great disgrace ; Marischal, 
Rothes Eglinton, and his three sons ; Crawford, Lauderdale, and others, 
prisoners in England ; and their lands either sequestrated or forfeited, and 
gifted to English soldiers ; Balmerino suddenly dead, and his son, for public 
debt, comprizings, and captions, keeps not the causeway ; Warriston, having 
refunded most of what he got for places, lives privately in a hard enough 
condition, much hated by the most, and neglected by all except the Remon- 
strants, to whom he is guide. Our criminal judicatures are all in the hands 
of the English ; our civil courts in their hands also. The commissariat and 
sheriff courts are all in the hands of the English soldiers, with the adjunc- 
tion in some places of some few Remonstrants. Strong garrisons in Leith, 
Edinburgh town and castle, Glasgow, Ayr, Dunbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, 
Perth, Dundee, Burntisland, Dunnotter, Aberdeen, Inverness, Liverary, 
Dunstaffnage, &c."^ 

Violatino- the Covenant in one of its express branches, the 
Eemonstrants ceased, after the battle of Worcester, to pray lor 
the king during public worship. On the other hand, on the 
death of Cromwell, 3rd September, 1658, the constitutional cove- 
nanting party of the llesolutioners began to take steps for the 
restoration of the monarchy. 

" On one point nearly all historians are agreed, that it 
was their spirit (the Protesters') and the course they pursued 
which rent the Church in pieces, which caused the restora- 
tion of Episcopacy in 1662, and drove many into conformity 
with it who had perilled life and fortune for its overthrow a 
quarter of a century before. The Eesolutioners were wedded 
to the 'middle way which standeth betwixt Popish and Pre- 
latical tyranny, and Brownistical and popular anarchy,' and 
some of them, like Baillie and Dixon, died of broken hearts, as 
they saw one extreme inevitably pave the way for the other. 
Scotland can never forget the Protesters who were martyred at 
the Eestoration, nor those who stood by the Church in her ruins ; 
but it is not less important to remember the lesson taught by 
the divisions that preceded." " 

The chief clerical leaders of the Church in the period between 
the Glasgow Assembly and the Eestoration were Alexander 
Henderson, Samuel Eutherford, Eobert Baillie, and George Gil- 
lespie. Of these four, only Eutherford and Baillie survived the 
Eestoration, but neither long enough to witness or suffer from 
its effects, except in foresight of coming calamities. Henderson 

• Letters quoted in Peterkin. " Records," 666. 
* Dr. Sprott, Introd. to Book of Common Order, p. kn. 


and Gillespie, dying- in 1646 and 1048, were off the field before 
the existence of the debased faction of the Protesters ; but the 
latter, had he been spared so long, would certainly have joined 
them, if we may judge by his vehemence when moderator (just 
before his death), when his very prayers from the chair showed a 
strong political bias against the Committee of Estates, ^ and the 
Assembly under his partisan control made a violent declara- 
tion against a recent Act of Parliament. Henderson, on the 
other hand, was too sober and judicious to have thus gone 
astray, and the Church was fortunate in having at its head a 
man of such firmness and business capacity in the crisis of 1638. 
The best man of aU the four was undoubtedly Eobert Baillie, 
who M'as really representative of what was best and most 
temperate in the Covenanting Church of his age. The most 
exceptional man of the group was Eutherford, who, with all his 
faults, was a good scholar. While he is lauded to adoration by 
one set of writers, in deference to whom Stanley calls him " the 
true saint of the Covenant," it is a fact that his letters on reli- 
gious subjects are in many places barely decent in their figu- 
rative language— that his "LexEex"is steeped in sedition— 
and that his red-hot furnace style of prayer was an importation 
from the anti-Church Brownists of Ireland, while his whole rela- 
tion to Church courts and Church business was that of a firebrand. 

1 Cook, iii. 160. 




Policy of the Restoration government — Execution of the Marquis of Argyll, &c. — The 
Act Rescissory— Plot for the overthrow of Presbytery — The author of it — Crom- 
well's estimate of Sharpe — Act for the Re-establishment of Episcopacy — The Cove- 
nant burned bv the common hangman — Origin of field-preaching — Introduction of 
the thumb-screw into Scotland — Graham of Claverhouse— The Court of High Com- 
mission — The rising at Dairy — Battle of Rullion Green — Torture of the boot — The 
Assertory Act — Acts against Conventicles and absence from church — The Highland 
Host — Murder of Archbishop Sharpe — Battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Bridge — 
Indulgences — The Cameronians — Sanquhar Declaration — Aird's ^loss — Test Act — 
Execution of Earl of Argyll, Baillie of Jerviswood, and others — Death of Charles 
and succession of James VII. — Atrocities of this period — The last of the martyrs — 
Three memorial volumes — Robert Wodrow— Landing of William of Orange, and 
flight of James — Re-establishment of Presbytery — Literary character of the Cove- 

Although Charles II. was crowned at Scone in 1651, the 
monarchy was in abeyance for a period of eleven years, count- 
ing these from the execution of Charles I. in 1649 to the 
triumphal entry of Charles II. into London, 29th May, 1660. 

One of the earliest and clearest tokens of the temper and 
policy of the Restoration Government lies in a series of three 

The Marquis of Argyll was beheaded 27th May, 1661, though 
he had set the crown on the king's head at Scone. There was 
treachery in his capture at London when on his way to pay 
homage to the king. There was baseness in Monk helping his 
doom by sending letters he had received from Argyll to his 
prosecutors in Edinburgh. The chief charges were his having 
signed the Solemn League and Covenant, and his complying with 
Oliver Cromwell, partly in October, 1648, when he opposed the 
"engagement," but mainly in 1652. The second victim was 
James Guthrie, minister of Stirling since 1649, who had given 
special offence by his connection with the "Western Ee- 
monstrance" of 17th October, 1650, a " Supplication," in August, 
1660, and a pamphlet, "Causes of the Lord's Wrath," written in 
1651. Earl Middleton had also a grudge against him for an 
excommunication he had pronounced on him. The execution 
took place 1st June, 1661. After his head was placed on the 


Netlierbow Port, drops of blood from it fell on Middleton's 
coach when passing underneath ; and there is u legend of new 
leather being necessary to avoid the tell-tale stain. The third 
victim was Archibald Johnston, lord AVarriston. He had been 
active with legal advice in connection with the " Tables," was 
clerk to the great Glasgow Assembly and to other Assemblies 
during several years, was one of the Lords of Session and one 
of the lay commissioners to the Westminster Assembly. Like 
Argyll and Guthrie he had opposed the " engagement " for the 
king's rescue in 1648. The order for his seizure came in July, 
1660 ; but he fled to France, was hunted down and brought 
to Edinburgh, tried, and executed 22nd July, 1663. 

Before coming to the Rescissory Act of the Parliament of 
28th March, 1661, it is important to note preparatory signs 
and understandings as to what was to be done relative to the 
Church. The mere restoration of monarchy was not necessarily 
adverse to Presbytery, for the Church had very early sent 
deputies to arrange for the king's return, and the whole of the 
clergy (the undoubted majority) belonging to the party of the 
Piesolutioners were decided Eoyalists. It was only the more 
extreme of the Protesters who were semi-republican. A letter 
from the king dated 10th August, 1660, was delivered by James 
Sharpe, the future primate, on 1st September to Ptobert Douglas 
for the Presbytery of Edinburgh, bearing that "because they 
who, by the countenance of usurpers, have disturbed the peace 
of that our Church, may also labour to create jealousies in the 
minds of well-meaning people, we have thought fit, by this, to 
assure you that, by the grace of God, we resolve to discoun- 
tenance profaneness, and all contemners and opposers of the 
ordinances of the Gospel. AA"e do also resolve to protect and 
preserve the government of the Church of Scotland, as it is 
settled by law, without violation, and to countenance, in the 
due exercise of their functions, all such ministers who shall 
behave themselves dutifully and peaceably, as becomes men of 
their calling. We will also take care that the authority and 
acts of the General Assembly at Dundee, 1651 [which sanctioned 
the Eesolutions], be owned and stand in force, until we shall 
call another General Assembly, which we purpose to do as soon 
as our affairs shall permit ; and we do intend to send for Mr. 


Robert Douglas and some other ministers, that we may speak 
with them in what further may concern the affairs of that 
Church." Here the king promises expressly to ratify the pro- 
ceedings of one Assembly, to summon another, and to consult 
with eminent ministers as to further arrangements. There is 
no hint of overthrow of Presbytery. The king's letter was 
composed by Sharpe, and when Earl Middleton, who was com- 
missioned to open the Scots Parliament, iirst read it, he was 
amazed, and reproached Sharpe for having abandoned and de- 
stroyed the design of introducing Episcopacy, to which he had 
previously agreed. Sharpe explained that the king's declaration 
would keep the Presbyterians quiet, and if the Parliament 
settled Episcopacy by law this would fulfil the king's promise. 
]\Iiddleton's answer was that this might be done, but that he 
did not love the way which made the king's first appearance 
in Scotland to be a cheat.^ 

A letter from the Earl of Lauderdale dated Whitehall, 23rd 
October, 1660, to Eobert Douglas, shows how late of formation 
was the final resolve: — "As to the concerns of our mother Kirk, 
I can only promise my faithful endeavours in what may be for 
her good; and indeed it is no small matter to me in serving my 
master, to find that his Majesty is so fixed in his resolution not 
to alter anything in the government of that Church. Of this 
you may be confident, though I dare not answer: but some 
would be willing enough to have it otherwise. I dare not 
doubt of the honest ministers continuing in giving constant 
testimonies of their duty to the king, and your letter confirms 
me in these hopes ; and they doing their duty, I dare answer 
for the king, having of late had full contentment in discoursing 
with his Majesty on that subject. His Majesty hath told me 
that he intends to call a General Assembly, and I have drawn a 
proclamation for that purpose, but the day is not yet resolved on." 
Sharpe himself, after returning from Holland, had written that 
the king was very afiectionate to Scotland, and was resolved 
not to wrong the Scottish polity of the Church.' The blunder 
of Scotland, and of England as well, was in arranging the king's 

1 Cook, iii. 230. 

* Wodrow in his Intioduction to " History of the Sufferings," goes over the whole of 
Sharpe's correspondence at tliis critical period. 


restoration without limiting the prerogative — an oversight whicli 
arose partly from negligence and partly from entliusiasm of 
loyalty, especially in England, on escaping the domination oi' 
the Commonwealth. When Scottish Church affairs were under 
the consideration of a meeting of the Scots Privy Council held 
in London, but with an admixture of English members present, 
the Earl of Crawford and Duke of Hamilton had sided with 
Lauderdale in resisting an attack on the Church, and the king 
was inclined to agree, but other Scottish members, aided by 
Sharpe, the Earl of Clarendon, and Duke of Ormond, carried the 
king with them. 

The Acts of the Parliament which sat in Edinburgh from 
1st January to 12th July, 16G1, and which, on 28th March, 
passed the sweeping Act Rescissory, showed from the first re- 
volutionary and arbitrary changes. The very first Act revived 
the old claim of James VI., asserting the king's supremacy over 
all persons and in all causes. Another Act deprived Warriston of 
all his offices. On 24th January an Act was passed for the 
visitation of the colleges of Aberdeen by Sharpe, Halyburton, 
Strachan, and Patersou, all of whom afterwards became bishops. 
On 27th January the swearing of the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant was prohibited. Other Acts recalled forfeitures and at- 
tainders, and gave compensation in many cases, especially to the 
families of Episcopal clergy who had been wronged since 1638. 
Many of these things were just in so far as they righted wrongs 
and excesses mostly associated with the Sectaries and Pro- 
testers ; but it was a very different thing to confound with these 
the Piesolutioners and Engagers, M'ho formed the bulk of the 
Scottish Church, who had always been loyal, and had a whole 
series of Acts of Parliament on their side, besides the king's 
own coronation oath at Scone and signature to the Covenant 
in 1651. 

The Act Ptescissory rescinded or cut off from the body of the 
law all the statutes passed in the Parliament of 1640 and after, 
so that it, in fact, reverted to things as they were in 1633. The 
Acts thus rescinded are not admitted to be valid, but while 
spoken of as invalid are yet repealed notwithstanding. The 
Act, such as it was, was rushed through in a hurry, by arrange- 
ment between Middleton, the high commissioner, and Primrose, 


the lord clerk registrar. The plot is now completed. Sharpe 
had announced the prospect of a proclamation, assuring his 
friends of the preservation of the established worship, discipline, 
and government of their Church. He brings down such a pro- 
clamation. Suddenly, as in one of the revolutions of a panto- 
mime, the whole apparatus of the Presbyterian polity is swept 
from the stage, and Prelacy stands in its place as the established 
" discipline and government." Is anything necessary to com- 
plete the evidence that Sharpe's hand was in this feat ? If so, 
it is at hand in a letter to Middleton, in which he takes credit 
as the inventor of the whole. Describing an audience with the 
king, he says : " He spoke to me of the method to be used for 
bringing about our Church settlement, and bade me give my 
opinion of a present expedient, which, when I had offered, he 
was pleased to approve, so did the Bishops of London and Wor- 
cester ; and after consultation with our lords, it was agreed that 
Lauderdale and I should draw a proclamation from the king to 
be sent to your grace, with which I trust you will be satisfied." ^ 

This conduct of Sharpe is in unison with Cromwell's estimate 
of the man when he cleverly nicknamed him " Sharpe of that 
ilk," which being interpreted is, Sharpe the Sharper. Another 
interpretation, however, of this m6t of Cromwell takes the 
passive instead of the active sense — i.e. not that Sharpe practised 
on others, but that he was too shrewd to be imposed on by 
Cromwell himself, and was able to see clearly the true interests 
of Scotland instead of being hoodwinked like the narrow clerics 
of the Protesting type. In fact the friends of Sharpe complain 
that he has been misunderstood by fair-minded men as well as 
misrepresented by others. They think that he honestly made 
the best of circumstances when he saw Presbytery to be hope- 
less of attainment or maintenance, and fell back on a modified 
form of Episcopacy as the only thing open to Charles and the 
only thing that the English Parliament (smarting from the 
tyranny of Independents and Presbyterians) would sanction, 
and that his old co-presbyters vented and resented their own 
disappointment by throwing all the blame on him. 

The next move was on 27th May, 1662, in the " Act for the 
Restitution and Re-establishment of the Ancient Government 

' Hill Barton, Ixxvii. 



of the Church by Archbishops and Bishops." But in prepara- 
tion for this, fully five months before, a nucleus of prelates had 
been created on 15th December, Sharpe's charter of presentation 
by the king to the primacy bearing date, Whitehall, 14th No- 
vember, 1661. 

Of the old race of bishops only Sydserf of Galloway (trans- 
lated to Orkney in 1662) survived, and the new series received 
their consecration from and in England. In December, 1661, 
Sharpe (for St. Andrews), Fairfoul (for Glasgow), Hamilton (for 
Galloway), and Leighton (for Dunblane) were consecrated in 
Westminster Abbey, Sharpe and Leighton^ having to submit 
to the indignity of previous re-ordination in private. This was 
a repetition of the foreign manipulation of James's bishops of 
1610, when Spottiswoode, Hamilton, and Lamb were consecrated 
in London House by the Bishops of London, Ely, Eochester, 
and Worcester. 

In 1662 signing of the Covenants was declared to be treason- 
able, yet the Covenant had been subscribed (reluctantly, it is 
true) by Charles himself in 1650, when Presbyterian support 
Avas of use to hhn. The Covenant was burned by the common 
hangman in London, 22nd May, 1661, and the burning was 
repe^'ated with fresh mockery at Linlithgow, 29th May, 1662, 
on the anniversary of the king's entry into London. An Act 
of 1662 required that clergymen then in of&ce should remain 
only on condition of receiving fresh presentation from the law- 

» Robert Leighton belonged to an old Forfarshire family of Usan, in the parish of Craig, 
and was born Tn Edinburgh in 1611. His father, Dr. Alexander Leighton, was a Pres- 
byterian minister and also physician, who in 1G29, for a book attacking Episcopacy, was 
terribly tortured by the Star Chamber, and kept ten years in prison Lcighto.i s youth 
wa"spent in London with his father, and at the age of sixteen he became a student at 
Snlurgh ptduating in 1631. He continued his studies at Douay where he learned 
fo apprccilte the devotional side of Romani.m. From 1641 to 16o3 he was minister of 
Newbale where his sermons and " Commentary on St Peter's Epistles were main y 
written. From 1653 to 1662 he was Principal of the University of Edinburgh where 
he ™' e a weekly Latin lecture on divinity. From 1662 to 1671 he was bishop of Dun- 
blane and from-1671 to 1674 archbishop of Glasgow. Disappointed wuh his colleagues 
with the government of Charles, and with the prospects of EfHscopacy, he resigned his 
rffice and lived for ten years in pious and useful retirement at Broadhurst, Sussex, with 
rbro'ther-in-law, Mr. Lightwater. His death took place in 1684 m the Bell Inn, War- 
wick lln? London, a! a bishop, his aims were singularly hone.t and fevout: to in 
ruLatelhe regular reading of Scripture in pubhc worship: to adhere mainly to Scripture 
expottion iaTreaching; to make regular use of Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Do^ology m 
ioSpTto celebrate the Lord's Supper more frequently ; and, as far - PO*-ble mam- 
tain a short daily service both in church and house. The wisdom and fane spin of 
Ldghton's rule in his diocese are best seen in " Register of the Diocesan Synod of Dun- 
blane, 1662-1688," edited by the Rev. Dr. Wilson of Dunmng, 18/ /. 


ful patron, and institution from the bishop. From 1649 to 
1660 patronage had been in abeyance, and ministers had been 
elected by kirk-sessions. 

On 1st October, 1662, a Privy Council held at Glasgow de- 
clared all parishes should be vacant whose ministers had not 
submitted to the bishops before 1st November. Nearly 300 
left their benefices rather than remain against their consciences. 
This was the origin of the subsequent field-preachings or conven- 
ticles. The Glasgow Privy Council was presided over by the 
Earl of Middleton as Lord High Commissioner; and he and 
his Council, both at Glasgow and Ayr, in daily and nightly 
drunkenness, resembled heathen bacchanals more than anything 
even remotely kindred to Christianity. The 300 outed min- 
isters were replaced by the poorest creatures ever known as 
clergy in Scotland — illiterate, juvenile, drunken, openly vicious. 
This evil of unfitness in character and training was increased 
by their subserviency and cruelty in generally acting as spies 
and informers on their own parishioners who were Presby- 
terian, and guiding the rude soldiery who marched about 
the country.^ 

During the long persecution that ensued, the troops were 
successively under three commanders — viz. Sir James Turner, 
General Sir Thomas Dalziel, and John Graham of Claverhouse 
(Viscount Dundee). When an investigation was made shortly 
after 1667 into Turner's conduct, he was deprived of all his 
posts on account of extortion and cruelty, being convicted, on 
a list of sixteen cases, of "fining and cessing for causes for 
which there are no warrants." " Yet during the investigation 
this wretch was zealously defended by the Archbishop of Glas- 
gow, Alexander Burnet. Dalziel had served as a soldier of 
fortune in Eussia, and it was he who introduced the Eussian 
barbarity of the thumb-screw into Scotland. Claverhouse, a 
man of a much higher type than Dalziel, joined refinement and 

^ It would be very -nrong to employ language so condemnatory of a large body of 
clergy unless the evidence was specially clear. One of the leading authorities is Bishop 
Burnet. In his " History of his Own Time " (i. 260) he says: " They were generally 
very mean and despicable in all respects, the worst preachers I ever heard, ignorant to 
a reproach, and many of them openly vicious. They were a disgrace to their order, and 
were indeed the dregs and refuse of the northern parts. Those of them who were above 
contempt or scandal were men of such violent tempers that they were as much hated as 
the others were despised." 

" Wodrow's " Sufierings," ii. 102. 


a certain kind of chivalry to ability and diligence, but reserved 
his good qualities for those who stood on one side of the line 
that separated Presbytery from Episcopacy. Measured by nn- 
sophisticated popular feeling, the number of his executions, 
and the cold-bloodedness of his conduct, Claverhouse was, 
\ipon the whole, the most hateful of the three tools of tyranny. 

In January, 1664, the king erected a Court of High Com- 
mission to deal with ecclesiastical affairs ; but it proved so vio- 
lent and provocative, even in the estimate of Charles, that he 
suppressed it in two years. This Commission, often called the 
" Crail Court " from the prominence of the primate in it, con- 
sisted of forty-five members, of whom nine were bishops and 
thirty-five laymen. Five members, of whom one must be a 
bishop, formed a quorum. The court could meet where it pleased, 
coidd call any Scotsman before it, was a specially clerical engine, 
and more remote from legality and impartiality than even the 
Privy Council, the smallness of its quorum making it particu- 
larly handy for the perpetration of jobs as to fines, and revenges 
as to persons. 

Not unnaturally or inexcusably, prolonged and immoderate 
oppression generated sedition and revolt. On 12th November, 
1665, at Dairy, in Galloway, a few men overpowered some sol- 
diers, marched to Dumfries, where they surprised Sir James 
Turner, then proceeded with increasing numbers to Lanark, 
Bathgate, Colinton, Pentland, and EuUion Green, where (28th 
November) an engagement took place, the king's troops being 
led by Dalziel. The insurgents, a mere mob of 900, were easily 
defeated and dispersed, with forty-five slain and a hundred 
captured. John Neilson, laird of Corsock, and Hugh M'Kail, 
preachers, were put to the torture of the " boot," in presence of 
Lord Kothes, successor of the drunken I\Iiddleton. The execu- 
tion of Neilson and M'Kail was a special barbarity, allowed to 
cTo on by the primate and the Archbishop of Glasgow even after 
a letter had been received from Charles directing the severities 
to cease for the present.^ The captives of Eullion Green were 
hanged in groups of ten and seven and sixteen. 

0°n 10th November, 1669, was passed the Assertory Act, de- 
claring the king inherently supreme over all persons and in all 

1 Wodrow, " Suifering-^," ii. 38. 


causes, the aim of the Act being to shorten the road of Cove- 
nanters to execution. The severities of special legislation, how- 
ever, only had the effect of making field meetings more frequent, 
bolder, and larger. 

The increase of field-preaching was resented by a fresh Act, 
in July, 1670, against conventicles, whereby any man might be 
forced to reveal what he knew about them on oath, and every 
field-preacher was to be punished with death and confiscation.^ 
Another Act construed into crime every baptism performed by 
an outed minister. And still another Act made criminal simple 
absence from church {i.e. from Episcopal service) on three suc- 
cessive Sundays, The curates had a roll of parishioners which 
was called over at the close of the Church service, when the 
names of the absent were marked and reported to the command- 
ing officer of the nearest troop of soldiers. No wonder such 
representatives of the Gospel made no headway in the country. 
These Acts were enforced in part by means of fines ; and the 
spoliation that went on may be judged from the single instance 
of the small county of Renfrew, where in a few years fines 
amounted to £368,000 Scots — a sum then so ruinous and im- 
possible that the Government, with all its ferocity and rapacity, 
was forced to compound. 

In 1669 an indulgence, the first of a series of three, was 
granted by the king and council, whereby peaceable outed minis- 
ters were permitted to hold manse and glebe, and a yearly " main- 
tenance," and to minister only in their own parish. This was 
accepted by forty-three of the ejected. A second indulgence 
in 1672 was accepted by about eighty more. The violent Cove- 
nanters blamed these men as unfaithful ; but this was a harsh 
judgment on men who had suffered since 1662, whose aim now 
was to preach the Gospel for a bare subsistence, and who were not 
forced to abjure the old principles that were dear to them. Be- 
tween these indulgences good Bishop Leighton tried a better 
and gentle plan of his own, endeavouring with concurrence of 
the Government to effect an " accommodation " of the nature of 
truce or compromise between Episcopalian and Presbyterian. 
Men called the " Bishop's Evangelists " tried this with less suc- 
cess than they deserved. Alas, the Covenanters were too argu- 

' The first Act against conventicles dated 7th December, 1665. 


mentative, too long persecuted, too often deceived to take even 
Leighton at his word. 

In 1676 letters of intercommuning {i.e. of civil excommuni- 
cation) were issued against about a hundred persons, whose fault 
lay in their adhering to Presbyterianism when the king had 
ordered all to be Episcopalian. These hundred were mostly 
ministers and lairds who had not appeared before the Council 
when summoned. This intensely personal form of vindictive- 
ness recalls heathen Eome in the proscriptions under Marius and 
Sulla. Christian men on whose head a price was thus put, and 
whose lives were in daily peril from informers, could hardly 
fail to become reckless. jMoreover, men in office, who were 
themselves only legalized murderers and assassins, were hardly 
entitled to expect consideration from a populace whom they had 
made desperate. 

A glimpse of the depraved character of the highest councillors 
of the kingdom is seen in the case of Mitchell, a small Edin- 
burgh shopkeeper, who had fired a pistol at Archbishop Sharpe 
when entering his carriage. On mere suspicion, Mitchell was 
arrested, tried, and tortured. There was no proof but his own 
confession. A solemn promise of indemnity w^as made to the man, 
yet he was tried over again through the urgency of the arch- 
bishop, and condemned and executed — the four judges (Lauder- 
dale, Eothes, Hatton, and Sharpe) all joining in an express and 
public act of perjury in order to clear the way to the scaffold. 
They denied on oath a promise which stands to this day in the 
records of the Scottish Privy Council. 

In 1678 the west of Scotland had 10,000 soldiers let loose on 
it, of whom 6000 were Highlanders. Their work was intended 
to be one of desolation, and was so pitiably sweeping that the 
Duke of Hamilton and the Earls of Atholl and Perth went to 
London at the risk of their lives to remonstrate with the 
king. They succeeded, and the Highland Host was recalled. 
Wodrow's account of this invasion, from its literal realism, 
gains a touch of both picturesqueness and humour, which he 
never dreamed of himself in writing it: "When the Highlanders 
went back one would have thought that they had been at the 
sacking of some besieged town, by their baggage and luggage. 
They were loaded with spoil. They carried away a great many 


horses and no small quantity of goods out of merchants' t^hops, 
whole webs of linen and woollen cloth, some silver plate bearing 
tlie names and arms of gentlemen. You would have seen them 
with loads of bedclothes, carpets, men's and women's wearing 
clothes, pots, pans, gridirons, shoes, and other furniture, whereof 
they had pillaged the country."^ 

On 3rd May, 1679, a small party of outlaAved Covenanters 
committed a great crime and blunder in assassinating Arch- 
bishop Sharpe on Magus jNIoor. They did unspeakable damage 
to their cause, by confounding base murder with noble resistance 
to tyranny. Above all, they raised sympathy with the mur- 
dered archbishop, who, had he been allowed to die in natural 
course, would, according to the view here taken of his acting, 
have come down to posterity as one of the most mercenary and 
unpatriotic of Scotsmen. 

It seems vain to attempt even a partial vindication of Sharpe, 
to the extent of supposing that his decision to abandon Presby- 
tery was only made subsequent to 1661, after it had been over- 
thrown by Parliament. What is worst about him is still un- 
touched — his previous acting as the Church's deputy — his late 
declaration of his new position — his own acknowledgment (in 
the British Museum letter quoted by Hill Burton) of his share 
in the scheme of Charles — and above all, his eager and cruel 
conduct as the king's tool in persecuting his old co-religionists. 
He can never cease to be known by his contemporary name of 
" Judas," and to be associated with the words and estimate of 
Eobert Douglas, who was in company with him in most of the 
negotiations which ended in the archbishopric, and who was 
sounded by Sharpe himself on the subject. "James," said 
Douglas, " I perceive you are clear — I see you will engage — you 
will be Archbishop of St. Andrews. Take it, then," laying his 
hand on Sharpe's shoulder, " and the curse of God with if."- 

On the 29th May, 1679 (anniversary of the king's restoration) 
a declaration amounting to rebellion was made at Ptutherglen 
by certain of the more desperate of the Presbyterian party, after 
which they proceeded to Hamilton, and then to Drumclog, while 
Graham of Claverhouse was marching from Glasgow in pursuit. 
He overtook them on the 1st of June. They boldly accepted 

' " Suflerings," ii. 413. - Kiikton. 135 ; Russell, ii. 257. 


the challenge of battle, aud siDging to the tuiv^ "Martyrs" 
Psalm Ixxvi., " In Judah's land God is well known," they ad- 
vanced on the fierce dragoons. After a short but sharp engage- 
ment Claverhouse was forced to fly, leaving above thirty of his 
troopers dead on the moor of Drumclog. 

The victorious rebels marched to Glasgow, and after a useless 
skirmish with the military there, returned to Hamilton, being 
from 4000 to 5000 strong. There they lay till, on 22nd June, 
the Duke of Monmouth, coming from England with fresh troops, 
attacked them at Bothwell Bridge, and utterly defeated them. 
The only real fighting was on the bridge itself, which was de- 
fended by Hackston with a picked guard of 300, who fought 
for some time with the butt-ends of their muskets, after ammu- 
nition failed. It was a sore fight for the Covenanters, as 400 
were killed in the flight and 1000 surrendered as prisoners. 
The place is still shown, alongside the Hamilton and Bothwell 
road, where the prisoners were forced to lie flat on the moor 
all night. They were then marched to Edinburgh, and confined 
for months in the walled graveyard of Greyfriars', under the 
open sky, and with guards posted along the walls, ready to 
shoot down every fugitive. A chief cause of this defeat was 
an incapable and fanatic commander, Eobert Hamilton, who en- 
couraged, or permitted, on the very field of battle discussions of 
points of doctrine and policy as between Besolutioners and 
Protesters. The more moderate party knew the friendliness of 
Monmouth, and but for the obstinacy of the Protesters might, 
on reasonable terms, have avoided bloodshed. The want of 
common discipline made an orderly retreat impossible, and led 
to the large number of killed and captured.^ 

Fully a month after the battle an Act of Indemnity was 
passed, but to little purpose. Tliis was the third indulgence of 
a somewhat similar kind during the long-continued atrocities 
of Charles. The first was in 1669, and the second in 1672. 

' An ancestor and namesake of the writer, a laird from the parish of Shotts, was 
among the SOU who fought at the bridge gateway, and it is a family tradition that they 
were helpless for want of gunpowder, some kegs of raisins being opened instead of ammu- 
nition at the critical moment. Guns being useless, they were pushed by weight of bodies 
along the bridge, and after being driven ten or fifteen yards, made another stand and 
wild charge with clubbed guns, and got b.ick lialf-way to the gate, only, however, afresh 
to be overborne by the bodily weight of Jlonmouth's men pushing with the advantage of 
the brae on the Bothwell side. 


Tliese indulgences cannot be interpreted in favour of the good 
sense or moderation of the king, because the severities imme- 
diately preceding, and especially following each, indicate too 
surely the same line of policy. In the language of the period 
these little pauses of persecution were called the "blinks" 
(referring to occasional dry and sunny hours in an otherwise 
untoward harvest). The " blinks " fell between the severities 
after the Pentland rising and the severities after the murder 
of the archbishop, which in tlie same language of the period 
Avere called the " killing times." 

After the date of Both well Bridge we mark the rise of the 
most extreme section of the Covenanters under the various 
names of Society-men, Cameronians, Hillmeu, and Wild Whigs. 
It was they who, as stormy-petrels, heralded the coming crisis 
of the great revolution of 1688. While others contented them- 
selves with murmurs or groans under the tyranny of Charles, 
the Society-men took the bold and headlong plan of publicly 
declaring the perjuries and oppressions of Charles to be so 
shameful that he could no longer be counted a sovereign worthy 
of obedience, and that the throne ought to be held as vacant. 
One of the earliest of these declarations was an unsigned paper, 
renouncing allegiance to the king, which was seized on 3rd 
June, 1680. It was known as the Queensferry Declaration, 
being found on the person of Hall of Haughhead in Teviotdale, 
who was killed at Queensferry, by the governor of Blackness 

On 22nd June of the same year twenty-one men of Hall's 
stamp made a solemn declaration to the same effect, with drawn 
swords, at the market-cross of Sanquhar: — "We do by these 
presents disown Charles Stewart, that has been reigning, or 
rather tyrannizing, on the throne of Britain these years bygone, 
as having any right, title to, or interest in the crown of Scot- 
land, for government — as forfeited several years since, by his 
perjury and breach of covenant both to God and his Kirk, and 
by his tyranny and breach of the very leges regnandi (the very 
essential conditions of government) in matters civil. . . . 
We do declare a war with such a tyrant and usurper, and all 
the men of his practices. . . . And we hope after this, none 
will blame us for or offend at our rewarding those that are 


against us as they have done to us, as the Lord gives oppor- 
tunity." For this daring anticipation of the Kevolution some 
of them quickly suffered ; for on the 23rd July sixty-three of 
the party were surprised at Aird's Moss, in the parish of Auchin- 
leck, by the royal dragoons, when the preacher Cameron, from 
whom they took their name, was killed ; and the furious Hack- 
ston, who commanded the 300 on Bothwell Bridge, and had 
been present at the assassination of Sharpe, was captured. 
Hackston was executed on 30th July, 1680. 

The barbarity of the judges and of the Government of the 
day appears very plainly from a quotation which Wodrow makes 
from the books of council, recorded in preparation, on the day 
lefore his trial: — "That his body be drawn backwards on a 
hurdle to the cross of Edinburgh ; that there be an high scaffold 
erected a little above the cross, where, in the first place, his 
right hand is to be struck off, and after some time his left hand; 
then he is to be hanged up and cut down alive, his bowels to 
be taken out, and his heart shown to the people by the hang- 
man ; then his heart and bowels to be burnt in a fire prepared 
for that purpose on the scaffold ; that afterwards his head be 
cut off and his body divided into four quarters ; his head to be 
fixed on the Netherbow, one of his quarters with both his hands 
to be affixed at St. Andrews, another quarter at Glasgow, a 
third at Leith, a fourth at Burntisland ; that none presume to 
be in mourning for him, or any coffin brought ; that no persons 
be suffered to be on the scaffold with him, save the two bailies, 
the executioner and his servants ; that he be allowed to pray to 
God Almighty, but not to speak to the people ; that the heads 
of Cameron and John Fowler be affixed on the Netherbow ; 
that Hackston's and Cameron's heads be affixed on higher poles 
than the rest." 

Even this did not daunt the Society-men ; for in October of 
the same year, at a large open-air meeting at Torwood in Stir- 
lingshire, Donald Cargill (for whose seizure, dead or alive, a 
reward was offered by the king), after sermon, excommunicated 
the chief persecutors of Scotland— viz. the king, the Duke of 
York, the Dukes of Lauderdale, Eothes, and Monmouth, General 
Dalziel, and Sir George Mackenzie. 

In 1681 a fresh rigour was laid on the country in the Test 


Act, requiring every person in public office to swear that he 
owned the true Protestant religion as explained in the Con- 
fession of 1567 ; that he acknowledged the king to be supreme 
in all causes, and over all persons, both civil and ecclesiastical ; 
that he would never consult about any matters of State without 
his Majesty's express license or command; and never endeavour 
any alteration in the government of the country. Nearly eighty 
of the clergy left their parishes rather than thus wound their 
consciences. The spiritless Parliament passed also a Royal 
Succession Act, which was intended to smooth the way for the 
Duke of York's succession to the crown. Both of these Acts 
were boldly dealt with by the Cameronians in their own way, 
being publicly burnt by about fifty of them in the town of 

The more prominent incidents of this dark period of legalized 
wickedness are the six following : — 

The Earl of Argyll (son of the Marquis of 1661) was allowed 
to take the Test thus as a Privy Councillor : " I take it, in as 
far as it is consistent with itself and the Protestant religion • 
and I do declare, I mean not to bind up myself, in my station 
and in a lawful way, to endeavour any alteration I think to 
the advantage of the Church or State, not repugnant to the 
Protestant religion and my loyalty." Yet after this he was 
tried and found guilty of high treason ; but escaping from the 
Castle of Edinburgh, 20th December, 1681, fled to Holland. 
In 1685 he was apprehended and executed under the old 

Alexander Hume of Hume in 1682 was executed for attend- 
ing conventicles, his wife, on her bended knees, when interced- 
ing for him, receiving brutal repulse from the wife of the 
chancellor, the Earl of Perth. 

Sir Hugh Campbell of Cessnock in 1684 was imprisoned in 
the Bass, and deprived of his estate. The very jury was insulted 
and threatened by Sir George Mackenzie for not finding him 
guilty, and for showing some satisfaction when a witness shrank 
from perjuring himself, and the prosecution broke down. 

The Rev. William Carstares (afterwards Principal of the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh) in 1684 was subjected to the torture of the 
" thumbkins." "When worn out by subsequent confinement, he 


agreed to make certain disclosures, on receiving a promise from 
Government that nothing he said should be brought, directly or 
indirectly, against any man in trial. Yet this evidence, by the 
baseness of the Government, was not only at once published, 
but was used by Lord Advocate Mackenzie as " an adminicle of 
proof " against Baillie of Jerviswood. 

Eobert Baillie of Jerviswood (great-grandson of John Knox, 
and both nephew and son-in-law of Johnston of Warriston), 
was executed 24th December, 1684. He was apprehended in 
1683, and the king and Duke of York were both present at his 
first trial before the Privy Council in London. In Edinburgh, 
at his subsequent trial. Sir G. Mackenzie, in reply to a re- 
proach from the accused, had to confess his baseness thus: 
"Jerviswood, I own what you say. My thoughts there were 
as a private man; what I say here is by special direction of 
the Privy Council." " Well, my lord," said Jerviswood, " if you 
keep one conscience for yourself and another for the council, 
I pray God to forgive you — I do!" When he received sentence 
of death his words were: "My lords, the time is short, the 
sentence is sharp; but I thank my God, who hath made me 
as fit to die as you are to live." Since then there has been in 
Scotland no more honoured name and line than that of Baillie 
of Jerviswood. 

Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth was another of the doomed 
men of the period ; but escaping from prison, he secreted him- 
self in the family burial-vault at Polwarth church, till he was 
able to flee to the Continent, whence he returned at the Eevolu- 
tion, and afterwards earned a noble name as Earl of Marchmont. 
Things went on in systematized ruin and legal murder year 
by year, conducted by Claverhouse in the field, and by "Bloody" 
Mackenzie in the capital. " It were endless," says a historian, 
" to chronicle every instance of oppression that occurred. The 
mind, in fact, turns away with loathing from the recital. Mul- 
titudes were ruinously fined ; others were sent to the West 
Indies as slaves; others were hanged. Many, succumbing to 
these terrors, gave a reluctant attendance at church; others 
turned their eyes towards America as a place of refuge from 
their manifold wrongs." 

In May, 1684, a new proscription-roll of nearly 2000 names 


was published, revealing a cruelty in the Government suggestive 
of absolute madness or demoniacal possession, that dealt with 
Christian men as if they were wild beasts, to be exterminated 
by fire and sword. Need we wonder that this was replied to 
by the Society-men posting several notices, at kirk and market, 
that they had resolved to take the law into their own hands 
and avenge their sufferings on their inhuman persecutors ? 
This "Apologetic Declaration" was resented in turn by the 
tyrants who acted in name of law : and it was in this mutual 
frenzy of parties that King Charles suddenly died in Febru- 
ary, 1685. 

The Duke of York, a professed Eomanist, succeeded Charles, 
under the name of James VII. He published an Act of Indem- 
nity ; but it was not meant to include those who most needed 
it, and it was clogged by the condition of an oath of allegiance. 
Its hollow and superficial character was seen in the fact that 
the persecutions continued. Some of the most cruel and best 
known instances belong to this period, such as those of John 
Sempill of Dailly, John Brown of Priesthill, and Margaret 
AVilson and Widow M'Lauchlau, drowned in the Blednock by 
being tied to stakes Avithin tide-mark.'^ This was the period 
when Dunnottar Castle was used as a State prison, after the 
prisons of Edinburgh could hold no more. Two hundred were 
confined in vaults, where they had to take their turn of a 
mouthful of fresh air from a crack in the ground. One hun- 
dred of them, after being branded with a hot iron, were shipped 
to America as slaves, but sixty died on the passage. 

At length we come to the last of the martyrs, in 1688. In 
April, 1686, James began to propose to the servile Scots Parlia- 
ment a plan for giving certain liberties to both Presbyterians 
and Papists ; but they took alarm at the latter half of the plan, 
interpreting it as intended to promote a counter-reformation lead- 
ing back to Pome. Next year the king passed an Act without 
consent of Parliament, and even removed from ofdce Alexander 
Cairncross, archbishop of Glasgow, and Andrew Bruce, bishop 
of Dunkeld, who had opposed his plan. Bishop Atkin of Gal- 

' An impudent attempt was made by Mr. Mark Napier, in his "Memorials of Dundee" 
and " Case for the Crown," to show that the Wigtown martyrs were a myth and calumny. 
But Dr. Stewart of Glasserton, in his " History Vindicated in the Case of the Wigtown 
Martyrs," taught this rash apologist of prelacy a lesson. 


loway, who had also resisted, died before punishment could 
reach him. Bishop Kamsay of Eoss also narrowly escaped 
trouble for the same cause.^ The moderate Presbyterians made 
use of this toleration, and even wrote to the king a letter of 
gratitude ; but the Cameronian party scorned all favours, and 
continued defiantly in the field— suffering, however, in the per- 
son of their chief preacher, James Eenwick, who was captured, 
and in February, 1688, executed, being happily the last of our 

The memory of these sorrowful and scandalous times has 
been specially preserved for the common people by three books, 
remarkable more for facts and fervour than for grace of style. 
The first edition of "The Scots Worthies," by John Howie 
of Lochgoin — containing seventy-two biographies, from Patrick 
Hamilton to James Eenwick — was in 1775. Of the seventy- 
two biographies only five belong to the period preceding James 
VI., so that the series is equivalent to a biographical history 
of the Church during the three Stuart kings who successively 
troubled our Zion. And the biographical form has some pecu- 
liar advantages due to men who counted not their lives dear 
unto them. " Naphtali " and the " Cloud of Witnesses," contain- 
ing the " Last Words and Dying Testimonies of the Worthies,'' 
date from 1668 and 1714. The main and fullest authority is 
Eobert Wodrow, minister of Eastwood, who from 1707 to 1721 
laboured on his "History of the Sufferings of the Church of 
Scotland from the Eestoratiou to the Eevolution." 

A striking feature of one group of writers on Scottish Church 
history is their vehemence and persistency of attack on old 
Wodrow as a collector of silly gossip, a dealer in cheap miracles, 
a believer in witches, an exaggerator or inventor of bloody inci- 
dents, a man of mean abilities. So goes the battery of Lawson, 
Mark Napier, Michael Eussell, Grub, and others. The real 
scandalum magnatum of Wodrow is his herculean industry in 
copying so many documents, collecting so many facts, and pre- 
senting the history from 1660 to 1688 so touchingly, that his 
sturdy book forms an insuperable barrier to the Anglicizers of 
Scotland, by showing why Prelacy has been so marvellously sus- 
pected and hated by our nation. 

^ Wodrow, " Sufifeiiiigs," iv. 365. 


The conclusion of the "Scots Worthies" gives this sum- 
mary : — " During the twenty-eight years of persecution in Scot- 
land, above 18,000, according to calculation, suffered death or 
the utmost hardships and extremities. Of these 1700 were 
shipped to the plantations, besides 750 who were banished to 
the northern islands, of whom 200 were wilfully murdered. 
Those who suffered by imprisonment, confinement, and other 
cruelties of this nature, were computed at or about 3600, in- 
cluding 800 who were outlawed, and 55 who were sentenced 
to be executed when apprehended. Those killed in several skir- 
mishes or on surprise, and those who died of their wounds on 
such occasions, were reckoned to be 680. Those who went into 
voluntary banishment were calculated at 7000. About 498 were 
murdered in cold blood, without process of law, besides 362 who 
were by form of law executed. The number of those who per- 
ished through cold, hunger, and other distresses contracted in 
their flight to the mountains, and who sometimes, even when on 
the point of death, were murdered by the bloody soldiers, cannot 
well be calculated, but will certainly make up the number above 
specified. Yet, like the Lord's Church and people of old while 
in Egypt, the more they were oppressed the more they grew — the 
blood of the martyrs being always the seed of the Church. Yea, 
to the honour of truth and the praise of that God whom they 
served, they were so far from being spent, wasted, or eradicated, 
that at the Eevolution they could raise a regiment in one day, 
without beat of drum, the ancient motto of the Church of Scot- 
land, Nee tamen consumebatur, being verified now as evidently 
as ever." 

The policy of tolerating Popery in England as well as Scot- 
land alienated the English Church from the king, and led many 
to think of his deposition. This party entered into correspondence 
with William, Prince of Orange, the Stadtholder of Holland, 
who had married James's eldest daughter, and was a stanch Pro- 
testant. Misgovernment had gone so far, and distrust and hatred 
of James were so wide and deep, that William had only to show 
himself to be welcomed. He landed his troops at Torbay on 
the 5th of November, 1688 ; and in a few weeks the Eomanizing 
tyrant and plotter was a fugitive, suffering for his own sins, and 
the sins of his brother, and his dynasty. 


Wonderful for suddenness and completeness was the change 
that came with the Eevolution of 1688. The doctrine of divine 
right of kings, that had been so disastrous in results to Scotland 
since the days of James VI., was now cast to the winds. The 
jjrinciples both of Church and State contended for by the per- 
secuted Presbyterians were absolutely the basis of the new sys- 
tem, so far as Scotland was concerned. The apparently wildest 
doctrine of the Cameronians as to the practical forfeiture of the 
crown by both Charles and James, was ratified by the Parlia- 
ments of both nations, and is embedded in the Britisli Constitu- 
tion to this day. 

Though persecution was ended, it took some time before 
matters in Scotland could be settled in legal form. Meanwhile 
the people righted for themselves in a few days the wrongs of 
a persecuted generation. William had landed at Torbay only 
on 5th November; and on Christmas Day the oppressed peasantry, 
especially the more violent but also ill-used Cameronian section 
of the west of Scotland, began a system of local mobs, called 
" rabblings," whereby they got rid of above 200 of the subser- 
vient and alien curates, who had in so many cases brought fines, 
exile, and death on their own parishioners, by playing the base 
part of spies and informers. But there is another side to this 
picture no less true : these curates and their distressed families, 
for many years subsequently, received frequent help from Pres- 
byterian ministers and Presbyterian church courts. 

In July, 1689, Episcopacy was abolished by Parliament, and 
in April, 1690, Presbytery was re-established — the legislature 
reviving the Act of 1592, and summoning a General Assembly. 
On 16th October, 1690, accordingly, an Assembly, consisting of 
180 members, met — being the first for forty years. 

Speaking of this great national deliverance, Hallam, the most 
judicial and dispassionate of English historians, says : " There 
was as clear a case of forfeiture in the Scots Episcopal Church as 
in the royal family of Stuart. ... It was very possible that 
Episcopacy might be of apostolical institution ; but for this 
institution houses had been burned and fields laid waste, and the 
Gospel had been preached in wildernesses, and its ministers had 
been shot in their prayers, and husbands had been murdered 
before their wives, and virgins had been defiled, and many had 


died by the executioner and by massacre and imprisonment, and 
in exile and slavery, and women had been tied to stakes on the 
seashore till the tide rose to overflow them, and some had been 
tortured and mutilated : it was a religion of the boots and the 
thumb-screw, which a good man must be very cool-blooded 
indeed, if he did not hate and reject from the hands that 
offered it. For, after all, it is much more certain that the 
Supreme Being abhors cruelty and persecution, than that He 
has set up bishops to have a superiority over presbyters." 

The nation having thus at last got its own will, and being 
left without serious arbitrary interference, those struggles that 
had been. SO; frequent and disastrous, from the first enforced 
Episcopacy in the regency of Morton to the last enforced Epis- 
copacy und*er Charles and James, ceased. The violent intro- 
duction, time after time, of this form of government against 
the clear and strong wish of the Scottish nation, has only 
tended to make our system of Presbytery more sharply defined, 
and to prejudice us unduly against Episcopacy in its better and 
milder aspect, as represented by men like Leighton, Ussher, and 
Burnet. The Presbytery of 1688 was narrowed by controversy 
and persecution, as compared with the Presbytery of 1596, of 
which Principal Lee says: "Till the year 1596 the prosperity 
and influence of the Church continued undiminished. To this 
period all true Presbyterians look back as the era of the greatest 
purity which this National Church attained." 

We are indebted to Principal Lee for one of the best vindi- 
cations we possess of the literary character of the Covenanters. 
He says : — 

" No tolerable account of the Scottish Covenanters has ever been pub- 
lished in an extended form, and our National Church ought to feel deeply 
indebted to any writer of ability who shall supply this vast desideratum in 
her history. With scarcely an exception the Covenanters had been trained 
to the habit of disputation from their tenderest years ; and at every stage 
of their lives they were familiar with scenes of contention. After having 
completed the usual academical course, many of the ablest of their number 
acted as regents in colleges ; and in this capacity they could scarcely fail 
to acquire a turn for wrangling, and to gain a facility of utterance by the 
practice of teaching the Aristotelian logic and presiding in the daily exam- 
ination of the students. Thus Alexander Henderson, Robert Blair, David 
Dickson, Samuel Rutherford, James Wood, David Forrest, Hugh Binning, 
James Guthrie, Robert M'Ward, and several others (of whom the small 


wits of the succeeding age were accustomed to speak so scornfully), had, 
at a very early age, signalized themselves as professors of philosophy and 
the liberal arts, and had been universally acknowledged to be men of no 
ordinary talents and acquirements. ... A distinction ought, indeed, 
to be made between the earlier Covenanters, whose education had been 
completed before the constitution of their Church was overturned, and 
those who did not enter on their vocation till the time of trouble overtook 
them. But even of those who grew up under the shade of persecution, 
and whose minds were nurtured amidst alarms and strifes and perils, which 
rendered it impossible for them to pursue a regular train of study, it has 
been affirmed that they were men of no mean endowments, and that 
though their stock of learning was but scanty they acquired an uncommon 
degree of shrewdness in the discernment of character and in tracing the 
connection of events (whence arose the popular belief of their prophetical 
gifts), while at the same time they became masters of a powerful and im- 
passioned eloquence, to which, though it violated many of the established 
canons of criticism, it was not possible to listen without -"being deeply 
moved." ' 

Lord Moncrieff works out the same idea in another direction : — 

" The Covenanters have generally been looked upon as a somewhat un- 
educated, rude, fanatical body of the lower orders, and people seem to 
contrast them with the better birth and better manners of the Royalists. 
I believe there is in all this a very great delusion. It is true that, in the 
latter part of this period of twenty years, most of the higher families had 
ostensibly, if not sincerely, conformed to the tyrannical government which 
they could not resist. But the inception of the Covenanters embraced the 
largest portion of the upper ranks and the whole body of the people. 
Whatever of birth, of culture, of manners, and of learning or intellectual 
power Scotland could boast, was at that time unquestionably to be found 
in the ranks of the Covenanters. The following list of the Scottish peers 
who were, as ruling elders, included among the members of the Commission 
of the General Assembly in 1647. corroborates my statement : Archibald, 
marquis of Argyll ; John, earl of Crawford ; Alexander, earl of Eglinton ; 
William, earl of Glencairne ; John, earl of Cassilis ; James, earl of Home ; 
James, earl of Tullibardine ; Francis, earl of Buccleugh ; John, earl of 
Lauderdaill ; William, earl of Lothian; James, earl of Finlatour; William, 
earl of Lanark; James, earl of Callendar; Archibald, lord Angus; George, 
lord Birchen ; John, lord Tester ; John, lord Balmerino ; James, lord 
Cowper; John, lord Bargany."- 

To these vindications another may be added, bearing on the 
proportion of Presbyterians in Scotland to Episcopalians at the 
date of the Revolution : — 

" If, under the kings of the house of Stuart, when a Presbyterian was 

excluded from political power and from the learned professions, was daily 

annoyed by informers, by tyrannical magistrates, by licentious dragoons, and 

was in danger of being hanged if he heard a sermon in the open air, the 

1 " History of the Church of Scotland," Lect. sxiii. " Lecture on " Church and State." 


population of Scotland was not very unequally divided between Episcopa- 
lians and Presbyterians, the rational inference is that more than nineteen- 
twentieths of those Scotchmen whose conscience was interested in the 
matter were Presbyterian, and that not one Scotchman in twenty was 
decidedly and on conviction au Episcopalian." ^ 

Looking back on the struggles of the reigns of Charles I. and 
Charles II., we see a total failure of the attempts to plant Epis- 
copacy by force of royal prerogative apart from the wishes of 
the people, and apart even from the fair working of Parliament. 
Besides being a failure in attainment, the attempts ended in 
the subversion of the throne and the modification of the con- 
stitution, by limiting the prerogative so as to stop such efforts 
for the future. At the end of the struggle in 1688, the aim 
that had cost so much deception, impoverishment, and blood, 
was more remote than it was in 1625 when Charles I. came 
to the throne, and still more remote than it was in 1572, 
before James had begun his earhest effort in the same direc- 
tion. At first Presbytery was not defended as a strictly 
scriptural system ; nor was parity a recognized principle of our 
Eeformed Church. It was only when men had been cheated, 
fined, banished, hanged, guillotined, and shot during three reigns, 
that the original system of our Church government and worship, 
with its superintendents and Book of Common Order, was 
narrowed down to a novel basis of parity and extempore prayers, 
in favour of which the New Testament was foolishly misquoted ; 
and Prelacy came to be regarded with bitter national hatred. 

The main lines of the struggle on behalf of our original Ee- 
formed Church were unquestionably right, being a contention 
for national and ecclesiastical independence, for the rights of 
the people and of the Scots Parliament, as against royal prerog- 
ative and a Secret Council. But as the duel grew hotter on the 
side of royalty, acting lawlessly not only through the Secret 
Council but through even more arbitrary Courts of High Com- 
mission, so the heat of the people increased correspondingly; 
and the National Covenant, which had been at first justifiable, 
became in five short years emphatically the reverse (except 
as a last resort under provocation), the Solemn League and 
Covenant appearing essentially disloyal and persecuting when 
now analyzed, in times of peace. 

^ MacauJay, " History," chapter iiu. 

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