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Life of Cicero 7 

Cn. Plancius 10 

The Prosecutor 11 

The Case 12 

The Speech 14 

Chronological Table 15 

TEXT 17 




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§ 1. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the greatest of Roman 
orators, was born at Arpinum in 106 B.C. His family was 
of equestrian rank, but had never held any office in Rome. 
Cicero was accordingly a novus homo, and his struggle to 
obtain the praetorship and consulship was on that account 
made harder. He was sent while still a young lad to Rome, 
and there studied under the best masters, such as Archias. 
In B.C. 91 he assumed the toga virilis, and then attended 
the lectures of orators and lawyers. He was entrusted by 
his father to the special care of Mucins Scaevola, the 
Augur, from whose side he hardly ever departed. At that 
time one of the easiest methods of obtaining fame and 
success was by means of oratory, and as Cicero had a 
natural talent for this art, he cultivated it in preference to 
devoting himself to a military life. However, he served, 
as was usual with young Romans who aspired to public 
office, one campaign, and this happened to be in the Social 
War (89 B.C.) under Cn. Pompeius Strabo (the father of 
Pompey the Great). For the next six years he took no 
part in public affairs, but devoted his time to the study of 
rhetoric and the various schools of philosophy; from 
Phaedrus he learned the Epicurean system, from Philo that 
of the New Academy, and from Diodotus that of the Stoics. 

The first of his extant speeches is that Pro P. Quinctio, 
which was delivered in 81 B.C. Two years later, in a 
criminal trial, he defended Sextus Roscius Amerinus, whose 
accuser was Chrysogonus, the powerful freedman of Sulla. 
It was very bold in Cicero to undertake this defence, but 
bis boldness was equalled by his eloquence ; and his success 


on this occasion placed him at once amongst the best 
orators of the day. Ill-health obliged him to retire to 
Khodes and Athens, where he continued his study of rhetoric 
and philosophy for two years, returned to Rome in 77 B.C., 
and was elected quaestor for the year 75 B.C. He served 
this office at Lilybaeum in Sicily, and acquired golden 
opinions from the natives through his integrity, impartiality, 
and self denial. In 74 B.C. he returned to Rome and again 
devoted himself to his profession as an advocate. In 70 B.C. 
he undertook the impeachment of Yerres, who was charged 
by the Sicilians with having been guilty of misgovernment, 
oppression, and extortion when Quaestor in Sicily 73-71 B.C. 
Hortensius, the consul-elect for the following year, was 
Verres' advocate, and on behalf of his client was anxious that 
the trial should be delayed until the next year, when the 
presiding Praetor would be more favourably disposed to the 
defendant. Cicero frustrated this attempt by getting his 
evidence ready in half the time allowed, and by opening 
his case very briefly and proceeding at once to the exami- 
nation of his witnesses. The result of Cicero's onslaught 
was that Yerres departed at once into exile without even 
attempting a defence. 

In politics Cicero was a fairly consistent member of the 
senatorial party, or party of the nobles (Optima tes) ; the 
opposition was the Democratic party, or party of the people, 
and there were numbers of disappointed men of all ranks of 
society ready for revolution in any form if they could find a 
leader. Cicero was Aedile 69 b.c. Praetor 66 B.C. — in this year 
he advocated the Lex Manilla giving to Pompeius the conduct 
of the war against Mithradates — and Consul 63 B.C. The re- 
volutionary movement had by this time taken the form of a 
widespread conspiracy ; its members were of every class, even 
senators and consulars; it had branches in many Italian 
towns ; its object was to overthrow the government of the 
Senate by violence and substitute a Democratic government ; 
and from the name of its leader, it w^as known as the Catilin- 
arian conspiracy (see Index, s.v. Catilina). Its first step was 
to be the assassination of Cicero, but the latter by means of 
spies kept himself informed of all its movements, and at the 
close of 63 B.C., suddenly arrested the leading conspirators. 


A few days later he had them executed, although as Roman 
citizens they were exempt from such punishment, and the 
remainder, attempting to carry out their plans by force of 
arms, were defeated at Pistoria where Catilina fell. The 
surviving conspirators fled to the provinces, and in particular 
to Greece (§ 98). For his services on this occasion Cicero 
received extraordinary marks of honour, including the title 
of Pater Patriae. 

In 60 B.C. the Democratic Party found leaders in Caesar, 
Pompeius (recently returned triumphant from the war in 
Asia), and Cras«us ; these formed the coalition known as the 
First Triumvirate. They determined to get rid of Cicero, 
who was too good an Optimate to please them ; and they 
employed for the purpose P. Clodius, an unprincipled Demo- 
crat, and a Tribune of the year 58 B.C. Clodius drew 
attention to the illegality of the execution of the Catilin- 
arians, overawed both Senate and Consuls by the violence of 
his attitude and the presence of his armed partisans, and 
ultimately compelled Cicero to go into banishment. It was 
at this period that Plancius befriended the orator in Mace- 
donia. In the next year Pompeius quarrelled with Clodius, 
and to spite him procured the recall of Cicero, 57 B.C. In 
54 B.C. the orator delivered the present speech on behalf of 
Cn. Plancius. In 53 B.C. he was admitted to the College 
of Augurs ; and in 51 B.C. he acted as governor of the 
province of CiHcia, where he conducted with success some 
small military operations. 

About this time Pompeius came over from the side of 
Caesar to that of the Senate; and accordingly, when 
Caesar marched upon Rome 49 B.C., Cicero, after some hesi- 
tation, joined Pompey, but subsequently, after the* battle of 
Pharsalia in 48 B.C., he was reconciled to Caesar. After the 
death of Caesar, 44 B.C., an open rupture ensued between 
him and Antonius, and Cicero gave vent to his anger and 
indignation in the famous " Phihppic Orations," fourteen 
speeches, the finest and most renowned of which is the 
second. From the beginning of 43 B.C. until the end of 
April, Cicero was in the height of his glory, but before the 
end of that year, in the proscription that followed upon the 
formation of the Second Triumvirate, Cicero's name was, on 


the suggestion of Antonius, put in the list of those doomed 
to summary destruction. Soldiers were immediately sent 
in pursuit, and although his attendants wished to offer 
opposition, Cicero forbade them, and surrendered to his pur- 
suers, by whom he was killed. 

In the foregoing sketch no mention has been made of 
Cicero's philosophical works, which were both numerous 
and important. His activity in this direction begins from 
his exile in 57 B.C. ; in 55 B.C. he produced the De Oratore^ 
in 54 B.C. the De Re Publica, and in 52 B.C. the De 
Legibus. This period of activity was followed by five years 
(51 to 46 B.C.) of comparative rest, but in 46 b.c. he wrote 
the Hortensius or De Philosophia, a treatise now lost, in 
addition to the Partitiones Oratoriae, the Brutus or De 
Claris Oratoribus, and the Orator. During the years 45 
and 44 B.C. he wrote the De Consolationej on the occasion 
of the death of his daughter Tullia ; the Academica, an 
account of the new Academic Philosophy, which main- 
tained that there was no such thing as certainty — we must 
be content with probability ; the Disputationes Tusculanae 
treating of happiness and morality ; the De Natura 
Deorum, the De Divinatione (on the subject whether gods 
communicate with men by means of augury, etc.), the De 
Senectute, the De Amicitia, the De Fato (an account of 
Fate and Freewill), the Paradoxa (an account of certain 
paradoxical opinions of the Stoics), the De Officiis, a treatise 
on duty, and the De Finibus, on the Highest Good. 

So far we have dealt with Cicero's speeches and philo- 
sophical works. In addition to these must be mentioned 
(1) his Letters, of which be wrote a vast number, and of 
which more than 800 are preserved ; (2) his poetical works, 
which were very poor in quality though not small in 
quantity — his chief poem was written on the subject of his 
consulship ; and (3) his historical and miscellaneous works, 
e.g. a prose account of his consulship, an account of his 
policy immediately previous to his consulship, etc. 

§ 2. Cnaeus Plancius. The father of Cicero's client in 
the present case was an influential citizen of the municipium 
of Atina (§ 19) in Latium. He was of Equestrian rank 


(§ 32), and a prominent figure in the commercial world of 
Rome as a shareholder of, or director of, several of the great 
tax-farming companies (Societates ; § 32). Politically he 
was disliked by the Optimates because of his obstinate 
maintenance of the interests of his own order (see notes, 

His son, bearing the same name of Cnaeus Plancius, saw 
more than the usual amount of military service. In 78 B.C. 
he was in Africa vmder the Propraetor A. Torquatus (see 
§§ 27, 28, 98) ; in 68 B.C. he was with Q. Metellus in Crete; 
in 62 B.C. he was Military Tribune in Macedonia, when Caius 
Antonius was stationed as Proconsul in that province. In 
58 B.C. he was Quaestor in Macedonia, and it was in this 
year that he was able to confer a signal service upon his 
father's old friend Cicero. Obliged to leave Rome, Cicero, 
after wandering to various parts of Italy, betook himself to 
Dyrrhachium at the end of May, where Plancius went to 
meet him and conducted him safely to his own house in 
Thessalonica, despite the penalties entailed by Clodius' law 
upon any one who sheltered the exile. Plancius had 
sufficient kindness and courage to provide Cicer»o with a 
home until the end of November, thus probably saving his 
life from the vengeance of the fugitive Catilinarians. In 
56 B.C. Plancius was Tribune of the Plebs, and in the 
following year he put up for the Curule Aedileship, during 
the consulship of Pompeius and Crassus. Owing to some 
irregularity, however, the election was never completed; 
but in 54 B.C. he was elected with A. Plotius, a result 
which was owing in great measure to the influence of his 
father, to the support of Cicero, and to his own energy in 
canvassing. Laterensis, however, who was one of the 
rejected candidates, considered that the election had been 
carried by bribery, and instituted the present action against 
Plancius for breach of the Lex Licinia de Sodcdiciis. The 
result of the trial is not known. After the civil war 
between Caesar and Pompey we hear of Plancius living 
in banishment at Corcyra, where he received letters of 
consolation from Cicero. 

§ 3. M. Juventius Laterensis, the prosecutor, was a staunch 


and unswerving adherent of the Optimate party. By birth 
a plebeian, both on his mother's and on his father's side he 
could boast ancestors who had been of consular rank. Like 
Plancius he was a provincial, having been born at Tusculum. 
During his Quaestorship he exhibited games at Praeneste 
(§ 63). As Proquaestor at Cyrene he won praise by his 
liberal and just dealing with the puhlicani and socii. The 
most remarkable feature of his career was his opposition to 
Caesar in 59 B.C., when the latter, one of the First Trium- 
virate, had passed a law for distributing among Pompeius' 
veterans lands in Campania belonging to the State. The 
law contained a clause to the efiect that all magistrates 
should swear obedience to its provisions. Laterensis, who 
was then seeking the Tribuneship, distinctly refused to give 
his approval to the law, and abandoned his candidature 
rather than put himself in a position such as would require 
his taking the oath. The step was most imprudent, and 
made him many enemies ; even Cicero, though extolling his 
conduct, regarded his action as uncalled-for in so young a 
man, and most prejudicial to his political aspirations (see 
notes, Ch. XXII., § 52). 

Shortly after this L. Vettius charged him with complicity 
in a plot to assassinate Cnaeus Pompeius, but the charge 
was suppressed. He supported Cicero energetically against 
Clodius, but his extreme views alienated him from the 
citizens, and forced him to retire into private life for a few 
years, till he became a candidate for the Aedileship (55, 
54 B.C.), and was defeated by Plancius. He became Praetor 
in 51 B.C. ; and we hear nothing more of his life till we find 
him (in 43 B.C.) a Lieutenant in the army of M. Aemilius 
Lepidus, who at that time had charge of the provinces of 
Hispania Citerior and Gallia Cisalpina. When, in the same 
year, Lepidus forsook his allegiance to the Senate, and joined 
Antony after the battle of Mutina, Laterensis, an Optimate 
to the last, ended his life by his own hand. 

§ 4. The Case. — In 55 b.c. there were four competitors 
for the two vacant Curule Aedileships of the following year ; 
viz., A. Plotius, Q. Pedius, Cn. Plancius, and M. Juventius 
Laterensis. The election, however, was delayed until the 


year 54 B.C., when A. Plotius and Cn. Plancius were the 
successful candidates, a success chiefly owing to a coalition 
(coitio) of the two for mutual assistance. Before Plancius 
entered on office, in 54 B.C., Laterensis accused him under 
the Lex Licinia de Sodaliciis, which was directed against the 
illegal methods adopted by electioneering clubs, or sodalicia. 

JSodales was the name given originally to the members of 
clubs {Sodalitaies) organized for social or religious purposes, 
and with no political object. Such clubs, however, offered 
an easy means of influencing large sections of the com- 
munity for purposes of election, legislation, and even intimi- 
dation ; and the practice of thus using them rapidly reached 
such a height that the government interfered with various 
laws de Sodaliciis — " concerning the employment of clubs." 
In 68 B.C. all such Sodalitates were declared illegal, and it 
was one of the chief measures of the ultra -democrat Clodius 
to restore these in his Tribunate, 58 B.C. The old abuses at 
once reappeared : the Lex Licinia was passed within three 
years of their restoration. 

This law had been passed in the year 55 B.C. by M. Licinius 
Crassus Dives, the Triumvir ; and Laterensis made use of it 
in order to lessen Plancius' chance of acquittal. In other 
criminal trials the proper number of jurymen was chosen by 
lot from those indices w\io were free at the time (notes § 14, 36); 
the prosecutor and defendant could then challenge a certain 
number without giving any reason for their objection, thus 
getting rid of such as they considered likely to be unfair jurors. 
In a trial de Sodaliciis, there were special jurors employed 
called ivdices editicii (notes, § 36). This procedure pressed 
with great severity on the defendant, for the accuser named 
any four tribes he pleased, and the accused was only allowed 
to challenge one of these. The jury was then selected from 
the remaining three tribes without further challenge. Ac- 
cording to the spirit of the law, Laterensis should have 
named the tribes supposed to have been influenced by the 
sodalicia in this particular case; and in omitting to do this, 
he acted in accordance with the law indeed, but in a manner 
contrary to its spirit and to fairness, thus securing a panel 
of jurymen decidedly prejudiced in his own favour. More- 
over, the penalties inflicted by the Lex Licinia were of an 


extreme nature. As Cicero remarks (§ 79) : the " solus , 
patria, fortunae,'' of Plancius were at stake; the success of the 
prosecution involved his perpetual banishment and the 
ruin of his career ; yet, as Cicero complains, Laterensis only 
brought charges of ordinary ambitus against Plancius. 

If Plancius transgressed the provisions of the Licinian 
law, it must have been in one of the following ways : (i) By 
joining the sodalicia (§ 36, n.) in order to influence the 
election illegally; (ii) by canvassing and registering men in 
the tribes (conscribere) ; and (iii) by dividing the tribules, or 
members of the same tribe, into divisions (decuriae, decuriare) 
in order to control their actions with greater ease ; (iv) by 
allotting the tribes into districts {discriptio populi) for the 
same purpose ; (v) by promising money [pronuntiare) and 
employing agents (sequestres) to hold it in trust; (vi) by 
paying bribes and selling votes to others (dividere, vendere). 
Laterensis failed to prove that Plancius had been guilty of 
any of these illegal practices. Illegal canvassing {ambitus) 
in the ordinary form comprised all such indirect forms of 
bribery as the furnishing of games or gifts to the populace, 
and the conducting of one's canvass with large retinues of 
attendants, and all direct bribery (largitio) not carried on 
by means of clubs {sodalicia). Cicero himself passed a 
severe Lex Tullia de Ambitu against these abuses in the 
year of his consulship, 63 B.C. 

The president (Quaesitor, § 43, notes) in the case was 
Caius Alfius Flavus, whcm Cicero speaks of in the highest 
terms. It is probable that he was selected by the plaintiff 
and defendant. 

Laterensis opened his own case and spoke on the first day. 
Q, Hortensius replied to him on behalf of Plancius. The 
proofs were then produced. On the next day L. Cassius 
Longinus, who supported Laterensis {subscriptor) spoke, and 
was answered by Cicero. 

§ 5. The Speech. Cicero's speech falls naturally into 
three divisions. 

The Introduction (§§ 1-4). 

The First Part (§§ 5 — 35) shows that Laterensis has no 
reason to feel slighted and dishonoured by his rejection. 


In the first place ofiices of state were often awarded not 
by the judgment and common sense of the people, but by 
their caprice and whims. This was especially the case in 
elections for the Aedileship. Secondly, Laterensis owed his 
defeat to the fact that he had relied too much on his good 
position, and had not sought earnestly enough the good 
graces of the people. Still, if Laterensis rested any im- 
portance on the influence which his rank should give, why 
did he not accuse Aulus Plotius as well 1 The imputations 
brought against the character of the defendant are 

In the Second Part (§§ 36 — 57) Cicero shows that Plancius 
was elected by fair and strictly legal means, and that he 
had not employed bribery in his canvass. 

The Third Part (§§ 58 — 100) is devoted to answering 
L. Cassius, and refuting his assertions. Cicero discusses fully 
the allegation of Cassius that the orator's gratitude to 
Plancius was greater than the services demanded. 

The Peroration (§§ 101 — 104) consists of a forcible and 
pathetic appeal to the judges, especially to the president, 
Caius Flavus. A running analysis, at greater length, will 
be found in the Notes. 

§ 5. Chronological Table. 


106. Birth of Cicero at Arpinum. 

81. First Speech (Pro Quinctio). 

79_77. Studies at Rhodes and Athens (§ 84). 

75. Cicero Quaestor at Lilybaeum (§ 65). 

70. Prosecution of Verres. 

69. Cicero Aedile. 

66. Cicero, Praetor, supports the Lex Manilla. 
First conspiracy of Catilina fails. 

64. Second conspiracy of Catilina fails. 

63. Cicero Consul. Third Conspiracy of Catilina : four 
conspirators executed without trials. 

62. Battle of Pistoria and death of Catilina. 

60. The First Triumvirate of Caesar, Pompeius, and 


59. Caesar, Consul ( § 35), secures a remission of contract 
to the publicani. He leaves for his province of Gaul. 

58. Clodius, supported by Pompeius and Caesar, secures 
the banishment of Cicero. 

Quarrel of Pompeius and Clodius. 
' 57. Recall of Cicero. 

55. Plancius and Plotius elected Aediles : the election 
declared null (§ 49). 

54. Plancius and Plotius again returned Aediles. Late- 
rensis indicts Plancius de Sodaliciis. 


49. Outbreak of CivH War. 

48. Battle of Pharsalus and death of Pompeius at Alex- 
andria. Caesar Dictator. 

46. Battle of Thapsus. 

45. Battle of Munda. 

44. Assassination of Caesar, March 15th. 

43. Triumvirate of Antonius, Lepidus, and Octavianus. 
Proscription and Death of Cicero. 

Note. — With very slight alterations, the text is that of C. F. W. 
MXJELLEE in the Bihliotheca Teuhneriana. The Editors gladly 
acknowledge their debt to the German Editions of Kopke and 


I. — 1. Cum propter egregiam et singularem Cn. Planci, 
indices, in mea salute custodienda fidem tarn multos et bonos 
viros eius honori viderem esse fautores, capiebam animo non 
mediocrem voluptatem, quod, cuius officium mihi saluti 
f uisset, ei meorum temporum memoriam suffragari videbam. 
Cum autem audirem meos partim inimicos, partim invidos 
huic accusationi esse fautores eandemque rem adversariam 
esse in iudicio Cn. Plancio, quae in petitione f uisset adiu- 
trix, dolebam, iudices, et acerbe ferebam, si huius salus ob 
eam ipsam causam esset infestior, quod is meam salutem 
atque vitam sua benivolentia praesidio custodiaque texisset. 
2. Nunc autem vester, iudices, conspectus et consessus iste 
reficit et recreat mentem meam, cum intueor et contemplor 
unum quemque vestrum. Yideo enim hoc in numero 
neminem, cui mea salus non cara fuerit, cuius non exstet in 
me sum mum merit um, cui non sim obstrictus memoria 
beneficii sempiterna. Itaque non extimesco, ne Cn. Plancio 
custodia meae salutis apud eos obsit, qui me ipsi maxime 
salvum videre voluerunt, saepiusque, iudices, mihi venit in 
mentem admirandum esse M. Laterensem, hominem studio- 
sissimum et dignitatis et salutis meae, reum sibi hunc 
potissimum delegisse quam metuendum, ne vobis id ille 
magna ratione fecisse videatur. 3. Quamquam mihi non 

Plane. 2 

18 CICERO [CH. I. — III. 

sumo tantum neque adrogo, iudices, ut Cn. Plancium suis 
erga me meritis impunitatem consecutum putem. Nisi eius 
integerrimam vitam, modestissimos mores, summam fidem, 
continentiam, pietatem, innocentiam ostendero, nihil de poena 
recusabo ; sin omnia praestitero, quae sunt a bonis viris ex- 
pectanda, petam, iudices, avobis, ut, cuius misericordia salus 
mea custodita sit, ei vos vestram misericordiam medeprecante 
tribuatis. Equidem ad reliquos labores, quos in hac causa 
maiores suscipio quam in ceteris, etiam banc molestiam ad- 
sumo, quod mihi non solum pro Cn. Plancio dicendum est, 
cuius ego salutem non secus ac meam tueri debeo, sad etiam 
pro me ipso, de quo accusatores plura paene quam de re 
reoque dixerunt. II. — 4. Quamquam, iudices, si quid est in 
me ipso ita reprehensum, ut id ab hoc seiunctum sit, non me 
id magnopere conturbat ; non enim timeo, ne, quia perraro 
grati homines reperiantur, idcirco, cum me nimium gratum 
illi esse dicant, id mihi criminosum esse possit. Quae vero 
ita sunt agitata ab illis, ut aut merita Cn. Planci erga me 
minora esse dicerent, quam a me ipso praedicarentur, aut, si 
essent summa, negarent ea tamen ita magni, ut ego putarem, 
ponderis apud vos esse debere, haec mihi sunt tractanda, 
iudices, et modice, ne quid ipse offendam, et tum denique, cum 
respondero criminibus, ne non tam innocentia reus sua quam 
recordatione meorum temporum defensus esse videatur. 

5. Sed mihi in causa facili atque explicata perdifficilis, 
iudices, et lubrica defensionis ratio proponitur. Nam, si 
tantum modo mihi necesse esset contra Laterensem dicere, 
tamen id ipsum esset in tanto usu nostro tantaque amicitia 
molestum. Yetus est enim lex ilia iustae veraeque amicitiae, 
quae mihi cum illo iam diu est, ut idem amici semper velint, 
neque est ullum amicitiae certius vinculum quam consensus 
et societas consiliorum et voluntatum. Mihi autem non id 
est in hac re molestissimum, contra ilium dicere, sed multo 
illud magis, quod in ea causa contra dicendum est., in qua 
quaedam hominum ipsorum videtur facienda esse contentio. 

§§ 3 — 8.] PRO PLANCIO. 19 

6. Quaerit enim Laterensis atqne hoc uno maxime urget, 
qua se virtute, qua laude Plancius, qua digiiitate super- 
arit. Ita, si cedo illius ornamentis, quae multa et magna 
sunt, non solum huius dignitatis iactura facienda est, 
sed etiam largitionis recipienda suspicio est; sin hunc illi 
antepono, contumeliosa habenda est oratio, et dicendum 
est id, quod ille me flagitat, Laterensem a Plancio dignitate 
esse superatum. Ita aut amicissimi hominis existimatio 
offendenda est, si illam accusationis condicionem sequar, aut 
optime de me meriti salus deserenda. 

III. Sed ego, Laterensis, caecum me et praecipitem ferri 
confitear in causa, si te aut a Plancio aut ab ullo dignitate 
potuisse superari dixero. Itaque discedam ab ea contentione, 
ad quam tu me vocas, et veniam ad illam, ad quam me causa 
ipsa deducit. 7. Quid? tu magistratuum dignitatis iudicem 
putas esse populum ? Fortasse non numquam est ; utinam 
vero semper esset ! Sed est perraro et, si quando est, in iis 
magistratibus est mandandis, quibus salutem suam com- 
mitti putat ; his levioribus comitiis diligentia et gratia 
petitorum honos paritur, non iis ornamentis, quae esse in te 
videmus. Nam quod ad populum pertinet, semper digni- 
tatis iniquus index est, qui aut in vide t aut fa vet. Quam- 
quam nihil potes in te, Laterensis, constituere, quod sit 
proprium laudis tuae, quin id tibi sit commune cum Plancio. 
8. Sed hoc totum agetur alio loco ; nunc tantum disputo de 
iure populi, qui et potest et solet non numquam dignos 
praeterire; nee, si a populo praeteritus est, quem non 
oportuit, a iudicibus condemnandus est, qui praeteritus non 
est. Nam, si ita esset, quod patres apud maiores nostros 
tenere non potuerunt, ut reprehensores essent comitiorum, 
id haberent iudices, vel quod multo etiam minus esset 
ferendum. Tum enim magistratum non gerebat is, qui 
ceperat, si patres auctores non erant facti ; nunc postulatur 
a vobis, ut eius exitio, qui creatus sit, indicium populi 
Romani reprehendatis. Itaque, quamquam, qua nolui, 

20 CICERO [CH. III. — V. 

ianua sum ingressus in causam, sperare videor tantum 
afuturam esse orationem meam a minima suspicione offen- 
siouis tuae, te ut potius obiurgem, quod iniquum in dis- 
crimen adducas dignitatem tuam, quam ut eam ego ulla 
contumelia coner attingere. IV. — 9. Tu continentiam, tu 
industriam, tu animum in rem publicam, tu virtutem, tu 
innocentiam, tu Mem, tu labores tuos, quod aedilis non sis 
f actus, fractos esse et abiectos et repudiates putas? "Vide 
tandem, Laterensis, quantum ego a te dissentiam. Si medius 
fidius decem soli essent in civitate viri boni, sapientes, 
iusti, graves, qui te indignum aedilitate iudicavissent, 
gravius de te iudicatum putarem, quam est hoc, quod tu 
metuis ne a populo iudicatum esse videatur. Non enim 
comitiis iudicat semper populus, sed movetur plerumque 
gratia, cedit precibus, facit eos, a quibus est maxime ambitus, 
denique, etiamsi iudicat, non dilectu aliquo aut sapientia 
ducitur ad iudicandum, sed impetu non numquam et 
quadam etiam temeritate. Non est enim consilium in vulgo, 
non ratio, non discrimen, non diligentia, semperque sapientes 
ea, quae populus fecisset, ferenda, non semper laudanda 
duxerunt. Quare, cum te aedilem fieri oportuisse dicis, 
populi culpam, non conpetitoris accusas. 10. Ut fueris 
dignior quam Plancius (de quo ipso tecum ita contendam 
paulo post, ut conservem dignitatem tuam) — sed ut fueris 
dignior, non conpetitor, a quo es victus, sed populus, a quo 
es praeteritus, in culpa est. In quo illud primum debes 
putare, comitiis, praesertim aediliciis, studium esse populi, 
non indicium ; eblandita ilia, non enucleata esse sufiragia ; 
eos, qui sufiragium ferant, quid cuique ipsi debeant, con- 
siderare saepius, quam quid cuique a re publica debeatur. 
Sin autem mavis esse indicium, non tibi id rescindendum 
est, sed ferendum. 11. "Male iudicavit populus." At 
iudicavit. "Non debuit." At potuit. "Non fero." At 
multi clarissimi et sapientissimi cives tulerunt. Est enim 
haec condicio liberorum populorum praecipueque huius 

§§ 8—13.] PRO PLANCIO. 21 

principis populi et omnium gentium domini atque victoris, 
posse suilVagiis vel dare vel detialiere, quod velit cuique; 
nostrum est autem, nostrum, qui in hac tempestate populi 
iactemur et fluctibus, ferre modice populi voluntates, adlicere 
alienas, retinere partas, placare turbatas ; honores si magni 
non putemus, non servire populo ; sin eos expetamus, non 
defetigari supplicando. 

V. — 12. Venio iam ad ipsius populi partis, ut illius contra 
te oratione potius quam mea disputem. Qui si tecum 
congrediatur et si una loqui voce possit, haec dicat : " Ego 
tibi, Laterensis, Plancium non anteposui, sed, cum essetis 
aeque boni viri, meum beneficium ad eum potius detuli, qui 
a me contenderat, quam ad eum, qui mihi non nimis sum- 
misse supplicarat." Respondebis, credo, te splendore et 
vetustate familiae f return non valde ambiendum putasse. 
At vero te ille ad sua instituta suorumque maiorum exem- 
pla revocabit ; semper se dicet rogari voluisse, semper sibi 
supplicari; se M. Seium, qui ne equestrem quidem splen- 
dorem incolumem a calamitate iudicii retinere potuisset, 
homini nobilissimo, innocentissimo, eloquentissimo, M. Pisoni, 
praetulisse ; praeposuisse se Q. Catulo, summa in familia 
nato, sapientissimo et sanctissimo viro, non dico C. Serranum, 
stultissimum hominem (fuit enim tamen nobilis), non C. 
Fimbriam, novum hominem (fuit enim et animi satis magni 
et consilii), sed Cn. Mallium, non solum ignobilem, verum 
sine virtute, sine ingenio, vita etiam contempta ac sordida. 
13. " Desiderarunt te," inquit, " oculi mei, cum tu esses 
Cyrenis; me enim quam socios tua frui virtute malebam, 
et, quo plus intererat, eo plus aberat a me, cum te non 
videbam. Deinde sitientem me virtutis tuae deseruisti ac 
reliquisti. Coeperas enim petere tribunatum pi. temporibus 
iis, quae istam eloquentiam et vii tutem requirebant ; quam 
petitionem cmn reliquisses, si hoc indicasti, tanta in tempe- 
state te gubernare non posse, de virtute tua dubitavi, si 
nolle, de voluntate ; sin, quod magis intellego, temporibus 

22 CICERO [CH. V. — VII. 

te aliis reservr.sti, ego quoque," inquiet populus Romanus, 
" ad ea te tempera revocavi, ad quae tu te ipse servaras. 
Pete igitur eum magistratum, in quo mihi magnae utili- 
tati esse possis ; aediles quicumque erunt, idem mihi sunt 
ludi parati ; tribuni pi. permagni interest qui sint. Quare 
aut redde mihi, quod ostenderas, aut, si, quod mea minus 
interest, id te magis forte delectat, reddam tibi istam aedili- 
tatem etiam neglegenter potent i ; sed amplissimos honores 
ut pro dignitate tua consequare, condiseas censeo mihi paulo 
diligentius supplicare." 

VI. — 14. Haec populi oratio est, mea vero, Laterensis, 
haec : quare victus sis, non debere iudicem quaerere, modo 
ne largitione sis victus. Nam si, quotienscumque prae- 
teritus erit is, qui non debuerit praeteriri, totiens oportebit 
eum, qui factus erit, condemnari, nihil est iam, quod populo 
supplicetur, nihil, quod diribitio suffragiorum, nihil, quod 
renuntiatio expectetur ; simul ut, qui sint profe^^si, videro, 
dicam : (15.) " Hie familia consulari est, ille praetoria ; 
reliquos video esse ex equestri loco; sunt omnes sine 
macula, sunt omnes aeque boni viri atque integri, sed 
servari necesse est gradus ; cedat consulari generi prae- 
torium, ne contendat cum praetorio nomine equester locus." 
Sublata sunt studia, extinctae suffragationes, nullae con- 
tentiones, nulla libertas populi in mandandis magistratibus, 
nulla expectatio suffragiorum ; nihil, ut plerumque evenit, 
praeter opinionem accidet, nulla erit posthac varietas comi- 
tiorum. Sin hoc persaepe accidit, ut et factos aliquos et 
non factos esse miremur, si campus atque illae undae 
comitiorum ut mare profundum et inmensum sic efter- 
vescunt qucdam quasi aestu, ut ad alios accedant, ab aliis 
autem recedant, tanto nos in impetu studiorum et motu 
temeritatis modum aliquem et consilium et rationem re- 
quiremus? 16. Quare noli me ad contentionem vestrum 
vocare, Laterensis. Etenim, si populo grata est tabella, 
quae frontes aperit hominum, mentes tegit datque earn 

§§ 13—18.] PRO PLANCIO. 23 

libertatem, ut, quod velint, faciant, promittant autem, quod 
rogentur, cur tu, id in iudicio ut fiat, exprimis, quod non fit 
in campo ? " Hie quam ille dignior " perquam grave est 
dictu. Quo modo igitur est aequius? Sic credo, quod 
agitur, quod satis est iudici : " Hie factus est." " Cur iste 
potius quam ego ? " Vel neseio vel non dico vel denique, 
quod mihi gravissimum esset, si dicerem, sed impune tamen 
deberem dicere : *' Non recte." Nam quid assequerer, si 
ilia extrema defensione uterer, populum, quod voluisset, 
fecisse, non quod debuisset ? 

VII. — 17. Quid? sipopuli quoque factum defendo, Later- 
ensis, et doceo Cn. Plancium non obrepsisse ad honorem, 
sed eo venisse cursu, qui semper patuerit hominibus ortis 
hoc nostro equestri loco, possumne eripere orationi tuae 
contentionem vestrum, quae tractari sine contumelia non 
potest, et te ad causam aliquando crimenque dedueere ? Si, 
quod equitis Eomani filius est, inferior esse debuit, omnes 
tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico 
amplius ; hoc tamen miror, cur huic potissimum irascare, 
qui longissime a te afuit. Equidem, si quando, ut fit, iactor 
in turba, non ilhim accuso, qui est in summa sacra via, cum 
ego ad Fabium fornicem impeller, sed eum, qui in me ipsum 
incurrit atque incidit. Tu neque Q. Pedio, foi-ti viro, suc- 
censes neque huic A. Plotio, ' ornatissimo homini familiar! 
meo, et ab eo, qui hos dimovit, potius quam ab iis, qui in te 
ipsum incubuerunt, te depulsum putas. 18. Sed tamen 
haec tibi est prima cum Plancio generis vestri familiaeque 
contentio, qua abs te vincitur; cur enim non confitear, 
quod neeesse est ? Sed non hie magis quam ego a meis con- 
petitoribus et aHas et in consulatus petition e vincebar. 
Sed vide, ne haec ipsa, quae despicis, huic suffragata sint. 
Sic enim conferamus. Est tuum nomen utraque familia 
consulare. Num dubitas igitur, quin omnes, qui favent 
nobilitati, qui id putant esse pulcherrimum, qui imagini- 
bus, qui nominibus vestris ducuntur, te aedilem feceriuti 

24 CICERO [CH. VII. — IX. 

Equidem non dubito. Sed si parum'multi sunt, qui nobilita- 
tem ament, num ista est nostra culpa 1 Etenim ad caput et 
ad fontem generis utriusque veniamus. 

VIII. — 19. Tu es e municipio antiquissimo Tusculano, ex 
quo sunt plurimae familiae consulares (in quibus est etiam 
luventia), tot, quot ex reliquis municipiis omnibus non sunt ; 
hie est e praefectura Atinati non tarn prisca, non tarn 
honorata, non tarn suburbana. Quantum interesse vis ad 
rationem petendi ? Primum utrum magis favere putas 
Atinatis an Tusculanos suis ? Alteri (scire enim hoc prop- 
ter vicinitatem facile possum), cum huius ornatissimi atque 
optimi viri, Cn. Saturnini, patrem aedilem, cum praetorem 
viderunt, quod primus ille non modo in earn familiam, sed 
etiam in praefecturam illam sellam curulem attulisset, 
mirandum in modum laetati sunt ; alteros (credo, quia 
refertum est municipium consularibus ; nam malivolos non 
esse certo scio) numquam intellexi vehementius suorum 
municipum honore laetari. 20. Habemus hoc nos, habent 
nostra municipia. Quid ego de me, de fratre meo loquar ? 
quorum honoribus agri ipsi prope dicam montesque fave- 
runt. Num quando vides Tusculanum aliquem de M. 
Catone illo in omni virtute principe, num de Ti. Corun- 
canio municipe sue, num de tot Fulviis gloriari ? Verbum 
nemo facit. At in quemcumque Arpinatem incideris, 
etiamsi nolis, erit tamen tibi fortasse etiam de nobis aliquid, 
sed certe de C. Mario audiendum. Primum igitur hic habuit 
studia suorum ardentia, tu tanta, quanta in hominibus iam 
saturatis honoribus esse potuerunt. 21. Deinde tui muni- 
cipes sunt illi quidem splendidissimi homines, sed tamen pauci, 
siquidem cum Atinatibus conferantur; huius praefectura 
plena virorum fortissimorum, sic ut nulla tota Italia f requen- 
tior dici possit ; quam quidem nunc multitudinem videtis, 
iudices, in squalore et luctu supplicem vobis. Hi tot equites 
Romani, tot tribuni aerarii (nam plebem a iudicio dimisimus, 
quae cuncta comitiis adfuit) quid roboris, quid dignitatis 

§§ 18 — 24.] PRO PLANcio. 25 

huius petitioni attulerunt 1 Non eniin tribum Teretinam, 
de qua dicam alio loco, sed dignitatem, sed ociilorum coniec- 
tum, sed solidam et robustam et assiduam freqiientiam 
praebuerunt. Nostra municipia coniunctione etiam vicini- 
tatis vehementer moventur. IX. — 22. Omnia quae dico de 
Plancio, dico expertus in nobis ; sumus enim finitimi Atina- 
tibus. Laudanda est vel etiam amanda vicinitas retinens 
veterem ilium officii morem non infuscata malivolentia, non 
adsueta mendaciis, non fucosa, non fallax, non erudita arti- 
ficio simulationis vel suburbano vel etiam urbano. Nemo 
Arpinas non Plancio studuit, nemo Soranus nemo Casinas, 
nemo Aquinas. Tractus ille celeberrimus Venafranus, Alli- 
fanus, tota denique nostra ilia aspera et montuosa et fidelis 
et simplex et fautrix suorum regio se huius honore ornari, se 
augeri dignitate arbitrabatur, isdemque nunc ex municipiis 
adsunt equites Romani publice cum legatione testimonio, 
nee minore nunc sunt soUicitudiae quam tum erant studio. 
Etenim est gravius spoliari fortunis quam non augeri digni- 
tate. 23. Ergo, ut alia in te erant illustriora, Laterensis, 
quae tibi maiores tui reliquerant, sic te Plancius hoc non 
solum municipii, verum etiam vicinitatis genere vincebat ; 
nisi forte te Labicana aut Gabina aut Bovillana vicinitas 
adiuvabat, quibus e municipiis vix iam, qui carnem Latinis 
petant, reperiuntur. Adiungamus, si vis, id, quod tu huic 
obesse etiam putas, pat rem publicanum ; qui ordo quanto 
adiumento sit in honore quis nescit '? Flos enim equitum 
Romanorum, ornamentum civitatis, firmamentum reipublicae 
publicanorum ordine continetur. 24. Quis est igitur, qui 
neget ordinis eius studium fuisse in honore Planci singu- 
lare? Neque iniuria, vel quod erat pater is, qui e-.t princeps 
iam diu publicanorum, vel quod is ab sociis unice diligebatur 
vel quod diligentissime rogabat vel quia pro filio supplicabat, 
vel quod huius ipsius in ilium ordinem summa officia quaest- 
urae tribunatusque constabant, vel quod illi in hoc ornando 
ordinem se ornare et consulere liberis suis arbitrabantur. 

26 CICERO [CH. X. — XII. 

X. — Aliquid praeterea — timide dicam, sed tamen dicen- 
dum est : non enim opibus, non invidiosa gratia, non potentia 
vix ferenda, sed commemoratione beneficii, sed misericordia, 
sed precibus aliquid attulimus etiam nos. Appellavi popu- 
lum tributim, summisi me et supplicavi ; ultro mehercule 
se mihi etiam ofFeientis, ultro pollicentis rogavi. Valuit 
causa rogandi, non gratia. 25. Nee, si vir amplissimus, 
cui nihil est quod roganti concedi non iure possit, de aliquo, 
ut dicis, non impetravit, ego sum adrogans, quod me valuisse 
dico. Nam ut omittam illud, quod ego pro eo laborabam, 
qui valebat ipse per sese, rogatio ipsa semper est gratio- 
sissima, quae est officio necessitudinis coniuncta maxime. 
Neque enim ego sic rogabam, ut petere viderer, quia famili- 
aris esset meus, quia vicinus, quia huius parente semper 
plurimum essem usus, sed ut quasi parenti et custodi salutis 
meae. Non potentia mea, sed causa rogationis f uit gratiosa. 
Nemo mea restitutione laetatus est, nemo iniuria doluit, cui 
non huius in me misericordia grata fuerit. 26. Etenim, si 
ante reditum meum Cn. Plancio se vulgo viri boni, cum hie 
tribunatum peteret, ultro offerebant, cui nomen meum ab- 
sentis honori fuisset, ei meas praesentis preces non putas 
profuisse? An Minturnenses coloni, quod C. Marium e 
civili ferro atque ex impiis manibus eripuerunt, quod tecto 
receperunt, quod fessum inedia fluctibusque recrearunt, 
quod viaticum congesserunt, quod navigium dederunt, quod 
eum linquentem terram eam, quam servarat, votis, omioibus 
lacrimisque prosecuti sunt, aeterna in laude versantur ; 
Plancio, quod me vel vi pulsum vel ratione cedentem rece- 
perit, iuverit, custodierit, his et senatui populoque Romano, 
ut haberent quem reducerent, conservarit, honori banc 
fidem, misericordiam, virtutem fuisse miraris? 

XI. — 27. Yitia mehercule Cn. Planci res eae, de quibus 
dixi, tegere potuerunt, ne tu in ea vita, de qua iam dicam, 
tot et tanta adiumenta huic honori fuisse mirere. Hie est 
enim, qui adulescentulus cum A. Toiquato profectus in 

§§ 24—29.] PRO PLANcio. 27 

Africam sic ab illo gravissimo et sanctissimo atqiie omni 
laude et honore dignissimo viro dilectus est, ut et contubernii 
necessitudo et adulescentis modestissimi pudor postulabat, 
quod, si adesset, non minus ille declararet quam hie illius 
frater patruelis et socer, T. Torquatus, omni illi et virtute 
et laude par, qui est quidem cum illo maximis vinclis et 
propinquitatis et affinitatis coniunctus, sed ita magnis 
amoris, ut illae necessitudinis causae leves esse videantur. 
Fuit in Greta postea contubernalis Saturnini, propinqui sui, 
miles huius Q. Metelli ; cui cum fuerit probatissimus hodi- 
eque sit, omnibus esse se probatum debet sperare. In ea 
provincia legatus fuit C. Sacerdos, qua virtute, qua con- 
stantia vir ! L. Flaccus, qui homo, qui civis ! qui qualem 
hunc putent, assiduitate testimonioque declarant. 28. In 
Macedonia tribunus militum fuit, in eadem provincia postea 
quaestor. Primum Macedonia sic eum diligit, ut indicant 
hi principes civitatum suarum ; qui ciim missi sint ob aliam 
causam, tamen huius repentino periculo coinmoti huic assi- 
dent, pro hoc laborant, huic si pracsto fuerint, gratius se 
civitatibus suis facturos putant, quam si legationem suam 
et mandata confecerint. L. vero Appuleius hunc tanti facit, 
ut morem ilium maiorum, qui praescribit in parentum 
loco quaestoribus suis praetores esse oportere, officiis beni- 
volentiaque superarit. Tribunus pi. fuit non fortasse tam 
vehemens quam isti, quos tu lure laudas, sed certe talis, 
quales si omnes semper fuissent, numquam desideratus 
vehemens esset tribunus. 

XII. — 29. Omitto ilia, quae si minus in scaena sunt, at 
certe, cum sunt prolata, laudantur, ut vivat cum suis, 
primum cum parente (nam meo iudicio pietas fundamentum 
est omnium virtutum), quem veretur ut deum (neque enim 
multo secus est parens liberis), amat vero ut sodalem, ut 
fratrem, ut aequalem. Quid dicam cum patruo, cum affini- 
bus, cum propinquis, cum hoc On. Saturnine, ornatissimo 
viro? cuius quantam honoris huius cupiditatem fuisse 


creditis, cum videtis luctus societatem ? Quid de me dicam, 
qui mibi in liuius periculo reus esse videor? quid de his tot 
vii'is talibus, quos videtis veste mutata 1 Atque haec sunt 
indicia, indices, solida et expressa, haec signa probitatis non 
fucata forensi specie, sed domesticis inusta notis veiitatis. 
Futtilis est ilia occursatio et blanditia popularis ; aspicitur, 
non adtrectatur; procul apparet, non excutitur, non in manus 
sumitur. 30. Omnibus igitur rebus ornatum hominem tarn 
externis quam domesticis, non nuUis rebus inf eriorem quam te, 
generis dico et nominis, superiorem aliis, municipum, vicino- 
rum, societatum studio, meorum temporum memoria, parem 
virtute, integritate, modestia aedilem factum esse miraris ? 

Hunc tu vitae splendorem maculis aspergis istis 1 lacis 
adulteria, quae nemo non modo nomine, sed ne suspicione 
quidem possit agnoscere. " Bimaritum " appellas, ut verba 
etiam firgas, non solum crimina. Ductum esse ab eo in 
provinciam aliquem dicis libidinis causa, quod non crimen 
est, sed inpunitum in maledicto mendacium; raptam esse 
mimulam, quod dicitur Atinae factum a iuventute vetere 
quodam in scaenicos iure maxim eque oppidano. 31. adu- 
lescentiam traductam eleganter, cui quidem cum, quod licu- 
erit, obiciatur, tamen id ipsum falsum reperiatur ! Emissus 
aliqui e carcere. Et quidem emissus per inprudentiam, 
emissus, ut cognostis, necessarii hominis optimique adules- 
centis rogatu ; idem postea praemandatis requisitus. Atque 
haec nee ulla alia sunt coniecta maledicta in eius vitam, de 
cuius vos pudore, religione, integritate dubitetis. 

XIII. " Pater vero," inquit, " etiam obesse filio debet." 
vocem duram atque indignam tua probitate, Laterensis ! 
Pater ut in iudicio capitis, pater ut in dimicatione fortun- 
arum, pater ut apud talis vires obesse filio debeat? qui 
si es.set turpissimus, si sordidissimus, tamen ipso nomine 
patrio valeret apud dementis indices et misericordes ; valeret, 
inquam, communi sensu omnium et dulcissima commenda- 
tione naturae. 32. Sed cum sit Cn. Plancius is eques 

§§ 29—34.] PRO PLANCio. 29 

Romanus, ea primum vetustate equestris nominis, ut pater, 
ut avus, lit maiores eiiis omnes equites Romani fuerint, 
summum in praefectura florentissima gradum tenuerint et 
dignitatis et gratiae, deinde ut ipse in legionibus P. Crassi 
imperatoris inter ornatissimos homines, equites E-omanos, 
summo splendore fuerit, ut postea princeps inter suos pluri- 
marum rerum sanctissimus et iustissimus index, maximarum 
societatum auctor, plurimarum magister : si non modo in eo 
nihil umquam reprehensum, sed laudata sunt omnia, tamen 
is oberit honest issimo filio pater, qui vel minus honestum et 
alienum tueri vel auctoritate sua vel gratia possit ? 

33. " Asperius," inquit, " locutus est aliquid aliquando.'' 
Immo fortasse liberius. " At id ipsum," inquit, " non est 
ferendum." Ergo ii ferendi sunt, qui hoc queruntur, liber- 
tatem equitis Romani se ferre non posse ? Ubinam ille mos, 
ubi ilia aequitas iuris, ubi ilia antiqua libertas, quae malis 
oppressa civilibus extollere iam caput et aliquando recreata 
se erigere debebat ? Equitum ego Komanorum in homines 
nobilissimos maledicta, pubhcanorum in Q. Scaevolam, virum 
omnibus ingenio, iustitia, integritate praestantem, aspere et 
ferociter et Hbere dicta commemorem ? XIV. — Consuli P. 
Nasicae praeco Granius medio in foro, cjim ille edicto iustitio 
domum decedens rogasset Granium, quid tristis esset ; an quod 
reiectae auctiones essent : " Immo vero " inquit, " quod le- 
gationes." Idem tribune pi. potentissimo homini, M. Druso, 
sed multa in re publica molienti, cum ille eum salutasset 
et, ut fit, dixisset : " Quid agis, Grani 1 " respondit : " Immo 
vero tu, Druse, quid agis ? " Ille L. Crassi, ille M. Antoni 
voluntatem asperioribus facetiis saepe perstrinxit inpune. 
Nunc usque eo est oppressa vestra adrogantia civitas, ut, 
quae fuit olim praeconi in ridendo, nunc equiti Romano in 
plorando non sit concessa libertas. 34. Quae enim umquam 
fuit Planci vox contumeliae potius quam doloris 1 quid est 
autem umquam questus, nisi cum a sociis et a se iniuriam 
propulsaret 1 G_um senatus impediretur, quo minus, id quod 


hostibus semper erat tributum, responsum equitibus Romanis 
redderetur, omnibus ilia iniuria dolori fuit publicanis, sed 
eum ipsum dolorem hie tulit paulo apertius. Communis ille 
sensus in aliis fortasse latuit ; hie, quod eum eeteris animo 
sentiebat, id magis quam ceteri et vultu promptum habuit 
et lingua. 35. Quamquam, iudices (agnosco enim ex me), 
permulta in Plancium, quae ab eo numquam dieta sunt, con- 
fenmtur. Ego quia dico aliquid aliquando non studio ad- 
ductus, sed aut contentione dieendi aut lacessitus, et quia, 
ut fit in multis, exit aliquando aliquid si non perfacetum, at 
tamen fortasse non rustieum, quod quisque dixit, me id dixisse 
dieunt. Ego autem, si quid est, quod mihi scitum esse videatur 
et homine ingenue dignum atque docto, non aspernor; stoma- 
cher, cum aliorum non me digna in me eonferuntur. Nam 
quod primus scivit legem de publicanis tum, cupa vir amplis- 
simus consul id illi ordini per populum dedit, quod per 
senatum, si lieuisset, dedisset, si in eo crimen est, quia suffrag- 
ium tulit, quis non tulit publicanus 1 si, quia primus scivit, 
utrum id sortis esse vis an eius, qui illam legem ferebat ? Si 
sortis, nullum crimen est in casu ; si consulis, splendor etiam 
Planci hunc a summo viro principem esse ordinis iudieatum. 
XV. — 36. Sed aliquando veniamus ad causam. In qua 
tu nomine legis Liciniae, quae est de sodalieiis, omnis ambitus 
leges com plexus es ; neque enim quicquam aliud in hac lege 
nisi editicios indices es secutus. Quod genus iudiciorum si est 
aequum uUa in re nisi in hac tribuaria, non intellego quam 
ob rem senatus hoc uno in genere tribus edi voluerit ab 
accusatore neque eandem editionem transtulerit in ceteras 
causas, de ipso denique ambitu reieetionem fieri voluerit 
iudicum alternorum, cumque nullum genus acerbitatis 
praetermitteret, hoc tamen unum praetereundum putarit. 
37. Quid? huiusce rei tandem obscura causa est an et 
agitata tum, ciim ista in senatu res agebatur, et dis- 
putata hesterno die copiosissime a Q. Hortensio, cui tum 
est senatus adsensus? Hoc igitur sensimus: " criuscumque 

§§ 34 — 40.] PRO PLANCIO. 31 

tribus largitor esset, et per banc consensionem, quae magis 
honeste quam vere sodalitas nominaretur, quam quisque 
tribum turpi largitione corrumperet, eum maxime iis 
hominibus, qui eius tribus essent, esse notum." Ita putavit 
senatus, cum reo tribus ederentur eae, quas is largitione 
devinctas haberet, eosdem fore testis et iudices. Acerbum om- 
nino genus iudicii, sed tamen, si vel sua vel ea, quae maxime 
esset cuique coniuncta, tribus ederetur, vix recusandum. 
XVI. — 38. Tu autem, Laterensis, quas tribus edidisti? 
Teretinam, credo. Fuit certe id aequum et certe expec- 
tatum est et fuit dignum constantia tua. Cuius tu tribus 
venditorem et corrupfcorem et sequestrem Plancium fuisse 
clamitas, eam tribum profecto, severissimorum praesertim 
hominum et gravissimorum, edere debuisti. At Yoltiniam? 
lubet' enim tibi nescio quid etiam de ilia tribu criminari. 
Hanc igitur ipsam cur non edidisti 1 quid Plancio cum 
Lemonia, quid cum Uf entina, quid cum Clustumina ? Nam 
Maeciam, non quae iudicaret, sed quae reiceretur, esse 
voluisti. 39. Dubitatis igitur, iudices, quin vos M. Laterensis 
suo iudicio non ad sententiam legis, sed ad suam spem ali- 
quam de civitate delegerit? dubitatis, quin eas tribus, in 
qui bus magnas necessitudines habet Plancius, cum ille non 
ediderit, iudicarit officiis ab hoc observatas, non largitione 
corruptas? Quid enim potest dicere, cur ista editio non 
summam habeat acerbitatem remota ratione ilia, quam in 
decernendo secuti sumus ? 40. Tu deligas ex omni populo 
aut amicos tuos aut inimicos meos aut denique eos, quos 
inexorabilis, quos inhumanos, quos crudelis existimes ; tu 
me ignaro, nee opinante, inscio notes et tuos et tuorum 
amicorum necessaries vel iniquos vel meos vel etiam defens- 
orum meorum eodemque adiungas, quos natura putes asperos 
atque omnibus iniquos; deinde effundas repente, ut ante 
consessum meorum iudicum videam, quam potuerim, qui 
essent futiu?!, suspicaii, apud eosque me ne quiuque quidem 
reiectis, quod in proximo reo de consilii sentontia consti- 


tutum est, cogas causam de fortunis omnibus dicere? 41 . Non 
enim, siaut Plancius ita vixit, ut offenderet sciens neminem, 
aut tu ita errasti, ut eos ederes inprudens, ut nos invito te 
tamen ad indices, non ad carnifices veniremus, idcirco ista 
editio per se non acerba est. 

XVII. — ^An vero nuper clarissimi cives nomen editicii 
iudicis non tulerunt, cum ex cxxv iudicibus principibus 
equestris ordinis quinque et lxx reus reiceret, l ferret, 
omniaque potius permiscuerunt, quam ei legi condicionique 
parerent; nos neque ex delectis iudicibus, sed ex omni 
populo, neque editos ad reiciendum, sed ab accusatore 
constitutos indices ita feremus, ut neminem reiciamus? 

42. Neque ego nunc legis iniquitatem queror, sed factum 
tuum a sententia legis doceo discrepare ; et illud acerbum 
iudicium si, quem ad modum senatus censuit populus- 
que iussit, ita fecisses, ut huic et suam et ab hoc ob- 
servatas tribus ederes, non modo non quererer, sed hunc 
iis iudicibus editis, qui idem testes esse possent, absolu- 
tum putarem, neque nunc multo secus existimo. Cum enim 
has tribus edidisti, ignotis te iudicibus uti malle quam notis 
indicavisti; fugisti sententiam legis, aequitatem omnem 
reiecisti, in tenebris quam in luce causam versari maluisti. 

43. " Voltinia tribus ab hoc corrupta, Teretinam habueiat 
venalem. Quid diceret apud Voltiniensis aut apud tribulis 
sues indices 1 " Immo veco tu quid diceres ? quem iudicem 
ex illis aut tacitum testem haberes aut vero etiam excitares ? 
Etenim, si reus tribus ederet, Yoltiniam fortasse Plancius 
propter necessitudinem ac vicinitatem, suam vero certe edi- 
disset. Et, si quaesitor huic edendus fuisset, quem tandem 
potius quam hunc C. Alfium, quem habet, cui notissimu^ 
esse debet, vicinum, tribulem,gravissimum hominem iustissi- 
mumque, edidisset? cuius quidem aequitas et ea voluntas 
erga Cn. Planci salutem, quam ille sine ulla cupiditatis 
suspicione prao se fert, facile declarat non fuisse fugiendos 
tribulis huic indices, cui quaesitorem tribulem exoptandum 

§§ 41—46.] PRO PLANCIO. 33 

fuisse videatis. XVIII. — 44. Neque ego nunc consilium 
reprehendo tuum, quod eas tribus, quibus erat hie maxime 
notus, non edideris, sed a te doceo consilium non servatum 
senatus. Etenim quis te tum audiret illorum, aut quid 
diceres? Sequestremne Plancium? Respuerent aures, nemo 
agnosceret, repudiarent. An gratiosum ? Illi libenter au- 
dirent, nos non timide confiteremur. Noli enim putare, 
Laterensis, legibus istis, quas senatus de ambitu sanciri 
voluerit, id esse actum, ut suflfragatio, ut observantia, ut 
gratia toUeretur. Semper f uerunt viri boni, qui apud tribulis 
suos gratiosi esse vellent; (45.) neque vero tam durus in 
plebem noster ordo fuit, ut earn coll nostra modica liberali- 
tate noluerit, neque hoc liberis nostris interdicendum est, ne 
observent tribulis suos, ne diligant, ne conficere necessariis 
suis suam tribum possint, ne par ab iis munus in sua 
petitione exspectent. Haec enim plena sunt officii, plena 
observantiae, plena etiam antiquitatis. Isto in genere et 
fuimus ipsi, cum ambitionis nostrae tempera postulabant, et 
clarissimos viros esse vidimus, et hodie esse volumus quam 
plurimos gratiosos. Decuriatio tribulium, discriptio populi, 
suflfragia largitione devincta severitatem senatus et bonorum 
omnium odium ac dolorem excitarunt. Haec doce, haec 
prefer, hue incumbe, Laterensis, deeuriasse Plancium, con- 
scripsisse, sequestrem fuisse, pronuntiasse, divisisse; tum 
mirabor te iis armis uti, quae tibi lex dabat, noluisse. Tri- 
bulibus enim iudicibus non modo severitatem illorum, si ista 
vera sunt, sed ne vultus quidem ferre possemus. 46. Hanc 
tu-rationem cum fugeris cumque eos indices habere nolueris, 
quorum in huius delicto cum scientia certissima, tum dolor 
^^avissimus esse debuerit, quid apud hos dices, qui abs te 
taciti requirunt, cur sibi hoc oneris inposueris, cur se potis- 
simum delegeris, cur denique se divinare malueris quam 
eos, qui scirent, iudicare ? XIX. — Ego Plancium, Lateren- 
sis, et ipsum gratiosum esse dico et habuisse in petitione mul- 
tos cupidos sui gratiosos ; quos tu si sodalis vocas, officiosam 

Plane. 3 


amicitiam nomine inquinas criminoso ; sin, quia gratiosl 
sint, accusandos putas, noli mirari te id, quod tua digni- 
tas postularit, repudiandis gratiosorum amicitiis non esse 
adsecutum. 47. Nam, ut ego doceo gratiosum esse in sua 
tribu Plancium, quod multis benigne fecerit, pro multis 
spoponderit, in operas plurimos patris auctoritate et gratia 
miserit, quod denique omnibus officiis per se, per patrem, 
per maiores suos totam. Atinatem praefecturam compre- 
henderit, sic tu doce sequestrem f uisse, largitum esse, con- 
scripsisse, tribulis decuriavisse. Quod si non potes, noli 
toUere ex ordine nostro liberalitatem, noli maleficium putare 
esse gratiam, noli observantiam sancire poena. 

Itaque haesitantem te in hoc sodaliciorum tribuario cri- 
mine ad communem ambitus causam contulisti, in qua 
desinamus aliquando, si videtur, vulgari et pervagata decla- 
matione contendere. Sic enim tecum ago. 48. Qaam 
tibi commodum est, tribum unam delige ; tu doce, id quod 
debes, per quem sequestrem, quo divisore corrupta sit ; ego, 
si id facere non potueris, quod, ut opinio mea fert, ne 
incipies quidem, per quem tulerit, docebo. Estne haec vera 
contentio 1 placetne sic agi ? num possum magis pedem con- 
ferre, ut aiunt, aut propius accederel Quid taces, quid 
dissimulas, quid tergiversaris ? Etiam atque etiam insto 
atque urgeo, insector, posco atque adeo flagito crimen. 
Quamcumque tribum, inquam, delegeris, quam tulerit Plan- 
cius ; tu ostendito, si poteris, vitium ; ego, qua ratione tulerit, 
docebo. Neque erit haec alia ratio Plancio ac tibi, Later- 
ensis. Nam ut, quas tribus tu tulisti, si iam ex te requiram, 
possis, quorum studio tuleris, explicare, sic ego hoc contendo, 
me tibi ipsi adversario, cuiuscumque tribus rationem popo- 
sceris, redditurum. 

XX. — 49. Sed cur sic ago ? Quasi non comitiis iam super- 
ioribus sit Plancius designatus aedilis ; quae comitia primum 
habere coepit consul cum omnibus in rebus summa auctori- 
tate, turn harum ipsarum legum ambitus auctor; deinde 

§§ 46 — 51.] PRO PLANCIO. 36 

habere coepit subito praeter opmionem omnium, ut ne si 
cogitasset quidem largiri quispiam, daretur spatium conpar- 
andi. Vocatae tribus, latum suflfragium, diribitae tabellae, 
renuntiatae. Longe plurimum valuit Plancius ; nulla largi- 
tionis nee fuit nee esse potuit suspicio. Ain tandem ? una 
centuria praerogativa tantum habet auctoritatis, ut nemo 
umquam earn tulerit, quin renuntiatus sit aut iis ipsis 
comitiis consul prior aut certe in ilium annum ; aedilem tu 
Planeium factum esse miraris, in quo non exigua pars 
populi, sed universus populus voluntatem suam declararit, 
cuius in honore non unius tribus pars, sed comitia tota 
comitiis fuerint praerogativa? 50. Quo quidem tempore, 
Laterensis, si id facere voluisses, aut si gravitatis esse pu 
tasses tuae, quod multi nobiles saepe fecerunt, ut, cum 
minus valuissent suffragiis quam putassent, postea prolatis 
comitiis prosternerent se et populo Eomano fracto animo 
atque humili supplicarent, non dubito, quin omnis ad te se 
conversui a f uerit multitude. Numquam enim fere nobilitas, 
integra praesertim atque innocens, a populo Romano sup- 
plex repudiata est. Sed si tibi gravitas tua et magnitude 
animi pluris fuit, sicuti esse debuit, quam aedilitas, noli, 
cum habeas id, quod malueris, desiderare id, quod minoris 
putaris. Equidem primum, ut honore dignus essem, maxime 
semper laboravi, secundo loco, ut existimarer ; tertium mihi 
fuit illud, quod plerisque primum est, ipse honos, qui iis 
denique debet esse iucundus, quorum dignitati populus 
Romanus testimonium, non beneficium ambitioni dedit. 

XXI.— 51. Quaeris etiam, Laterensis, quid imaginibus 
tuis, quid ornatissimo atque optimo viro, patri tuo, respon- 
deas mortuo. Noli ista meditari atque illud cave potius, ne 
tua ista querella dolorque nimius ab illis sapientissimis viris 
reprehendatur. Vidit enim pater tuus Appium Claudium, 
nobilissimum hominem, vivo fratre suo, potentissimo et 
clarissimo civi, C. Claudio, aedilem non esse factum et eun- 
dem sine repulsa factum esse consulem ; vidit hominem sibi 


maxiine coniunctum, egregium virum, L. Volcatium, vidit 
M. Pisonem ista in aedilitate oflfensiuncula accepta summos 
a populo Romano esse honores adeptos. Avus vero tuus et 
P. Nasicae tibi aediliciam praedicaret repulsam, quo cive 
neminem ego statuo in liac re publica fortiorem, et C. Mari, 
qui duabus aedilitatis acceptis repulsis septiens consul est 
f actus, et L. Caesaris, Cn. Octavi, M. TuUi, quos omnes 
scimus aedilitate praeteritos consules esse factos. 52. Sed 
quid ego aedilicias repulsas coUigo? quae saepe eius modi 
habitae sunt, ut iis, qui praeteriti essent, benigne a populo 
factum videretur. Tribunus militum L. Philippus, summa 
nobilitate et eloquentia, quaestor C. Caelius, clarissimus ac 
fortissimus adulescens, tribuni pi. P. Rutilius Rufus, C 
Fimbria, C. Cassius, Cn. Orestes facti non sunt, quos tamen 
omnis consules factos scimus esse. Quae tibi ultro pater et 
maiores tui non consolandi tui gratia dicent, neque vero quo 
te liberent aliqua culpa, quam tu vereris, ne a te suscepta 
videatur, sed ut te ad istum cursum tenendum, quem a 
prima aetate suscepisti, cohortentur. Nihil est enim, mihi 
crede, Laterensis, de te detractum. Detractum dico ? si me- 
hercule vere, quod accidit, interpretari velis, est aliquid etiam 
de virtute significatum tua. XXII. — Noli enim existimare 
non magnum quendam motum f uisse lUius petitionis tuae, 
de qua ne aliquid iurares destitisti. Denuntiasti homo 
adulescens, quid de summa re publica sentires, fortius tu 
quidem quam non nulli defuncti honoribus, sed apertius 
quam vel ambitionis vel aetatis tuae ratio postulabat. 53. 
Quam ob rem in dissentiente populo noU putare nuUos f uisse, 
quorum animos tuus ille fortis animus offenderet; qui te 
incautum fortasse nunc tuo loco demo vere potuerunt, provi- 
dentem autem et praecaventem numquam certe movebunt. 

An te ilia argumenta duxerunt 1 " Dubitatis," inquit, 
"quin coitio facta sit, cum tribus plerasque cum Plotio 
tulerit Plancius ? " An una fieri potuerunt, si una tribus 
non tulissent ? "At non nullas punctis paene totidem.'' 

§§ 51 — 55.] PRO PLANCIO. 37 

Quippe, cum iam facti prope superioribus comitiis declarati- 
que venissent. Quamquam ne id quidem suspicionem coitionis 
habuerit. Neque enim umquam maiores nostri sortitionem 
constituissent aediliciam, nisi viderent accidere posse, ut 
competitores pares sufFragiis essent. 54. Et ais prioribus 
comitiis Aniensem a Plotio Pedio, Teretinam a Plancio 
tibi esse concessam ; nunc ab utroque eas avulsas, ne in 
angustum venirent. Quam convenit nondum cognita populi 
voluntate hos, quos iam turn coniunctos fuisse dicis, iacturam 
suarum tribuum, quo vos adiuvaremini, fecisse ; eosdem, cum 
iam essent experti, quid valerent, restrictos et tenacis fuisse ? 
Etenim verebantur, credo, angustias. Quasi res in conten- 
tionem aut in discrimen aliquod posset venire. Sed tamen 
tu A. Plotium, virum ornatissimum, in idem crimen vocando 
indicas eum te arripuisse, a quo non sis rogatus. Nam quod 
questus es plures te testes habere de Yoltinia, quam quot in 
ea tribu puncta tuleris, indicas aut eos testis te producere, 
qui, quia nummos acceperint, te praeterierint, aut te ne 
gratuita quidem eorum sufFragia tulisse. XXIII. — 55. Illud 
vero crimen de nummis, quos in Circo Flaminio deprehensos 
esse dixisti, caluit re recenti, nunc in causa refrixit. Neque 
enim, qui illi nummi f uerint nee quae tribus nee qui divisor, 
ostendis. Atque is quidem eductus ad consules, qui tum 
in crimen vocabatur, se inique a tuis iactatum graviter 
querebatur. Qui si erat divisor, praesertim eius, quern tu 
habebas reum, cur abs te reus non est f actus 1 cur non eius 
damnatione aliquid ad hoc iudicium praeiudicii comparasti ? 
Sed neque tu haec babes neque eis confidis ; aha te ratio, 
alia cogitatio ad spem huius opprimendi excitavit. Magnae 
sunt in te opes, late patet gratia ; multi amici, multi cupidi 
tui, multi fautores laudis tuae. Multi huic invident, multis 
etiam pater, optimus vir, nimium retinens equestris iuris et 
libertatis videtur; multi etiam communes inimici reorum 
omnium, qui ita semper testimonium de ambitu dicunt, quasi 
aut moveant animos iudicum suis testimoniis aut gratum 


populo Romano sit aiit ab eo facilius ob earn causam digni- 
tatem, quam volunt, consequantur. 56. Quibuscum me, 
indices, pugnantem moi*e meo pristine non videbitis ; non 
quo mihi fas sit quicquam defugere, quod salus Planei 
postulet, sed quia neque necesse est me id persequi voce, 
quod vos mente videatis, et quod ita de me meriti sunt illi 
ipsi, quos ego testis video paratos, ut eorum reprehensionem 
vos vestrae prudentiae adsumere, meae modestiae remittere 
debeatis. lUud unum vos magnopere oro atque obsecro, 
indices, cum huius, quern defendo, turn communis periculi 
causa, ne fictis auditionibus, ne disseminate dispersoque 
sermoni fortunas innocentium subiciendas putetis. 57. Multi 
amici accusatoris, non nulli etiam nostri iniqui, multi com- 
munes obtrectatores atque omnium invidi multa finxerunt. 
Nihil est autem tarn volucre quam maledictum, nihil facilius 
emittitur, nihil citius excipitur, latins dissipatur. Neque 
ego, si fontem maledicti reperietis, ut neglegatis aut dis- 
simuletis, umquam postulabo. Sed si quid sine capite 
manabit atque erit eius modi, ut non exstet auctor, si, qui 
audierit, aut ita neglegens vobis esse videbitur, ut, unde 
audierit, oblitus sit, aut ita levem habebit auctorem, ut 
memoria dignum non putarit, huius ilia vox vulgaris **audivi" 
ne quid innocenti reo noceat, oramus. 

XXIV. — 58. Sed venio iam ad L. Cassium, familiarem 
meum, cuius ex oratione ne ilium quidem luventium tecum 
expostulavi, quern ille omni et humanitate et virtute ornatus 
adulescens primum de plebe aedilem curulem factum esse 
dixit. In quo, Cassi, si tibi ita respondeam, nescisse id 
populum Romanum, neque fuisse, qui id nobis narraret, 
praesertim mortuo Congo, non, ut opinor, admirere, cum 
ego ipse non abhorrens a studio antiquitatis me hie id ex te 
primum audisse confitear. Et, quoniam tua fuit perelegans 
et persubtilis oratio, digna equitis Romani vel studio vel 
pudore, quoniamque sic ab his es auditus, ut magnus honos 
et ingenio et humanitati tuae tribueretur, respondebo ad ea, 

§§ 55 — 60.] PRO PLANcio. 89 

quae dixisti, quae pleraque de ipso me fuerunt ; in quibus 
ipsi aciilei, si quos habuisti in me reprehendendo, tamen 
mihi non ingrati acciderunt. 59. Quaesisti, utrum mihi 
putarem, equitis Romani filio, faciliorem fuisse ad adi- 
piscendos honores viam an futuram esse filio meo, quia esset 
familia consulari. Ego vero quamquam illi omnia malo 
quam mihi, tamen honorum aditus numquam illi faciliores 
optavi, quam mihi fuerunt. Quin etiam, ne forte ille sibi 
me potius peperisse iam honores quam iter demonstrasse 
adipiscendorum putet, haec illi soleo praecipere (quamquam 
ad praecepta aetas non est grandis), quae rex ille a love 
ortus suis praecepit filiis: 

Vigildndum est semper ; multae insidiae sunt bonis, 
Nostis cetera ; nonne % 

Id quod multi invideant 

quae scripsit gravis et ingeniosus poeta, non ut illos regies 
pueros, qui iam nusquam erant, sed ut nos et nostros liberos 
ad laborem et ad laudem excitaret. 

60. Quaeris quid potuerit amplius assequi Plancius, si 
Cn. Scipionis fuisset filius. Magis aedilis fieri non potuisset, 
sed hoc praestaret, quod ei minus invideretur. Etenim 
honorum gradus summis hominibus et infimis sunt pares, 
gloriae dispares. XXV. — Quis nostrum se dicit M'. Curio, 
quis C. Fabricio, quis C. Duellio parem, quis Atilio Calatino, 
quis Cn. et P. Scipionibus, quis Africano, Marcello, Maximo? 
Tamen eosdem sumus honorum gradus quos illi adsecuti. 
Etenim in virtute multi sunt adscensus, ut is maxime gloria 
excellat, qui virtute plurimum praestet; honorum populi 
finis est consulatus ; quem magistratum iam octingenti fere 
consecuti sunt. Horum, si diligenter quaeres, vix decimam 
partem reperies gloria dignam. Sed nemo umquam sic egit 
ut tu : " Cur iste fit consul ? quid potuit amplius, si L. Brutus 
esset, qui civitatem dominatu regie liberavit?" Honors 
nihil amplius, laude multxmi. Sic igitur Plancius nihilo 
minus quaestor est f actus et tribunus pi et aedilis, quam si 


esset summo loco natus, sed haec pari loco orti sunt in- 
numerabiles alii consecuti. 61. Profers triumphos T. Didi 
et C. Mari et quaeris, quid simile in Plancio. Quasi vero 
isti, quos commemoras, propterea magistratus ceperint, quod 
triumpharint, et non, quia commissi sunt iis magistratus, in 
quibus re bene gesta triumpharent, propterea triumpharint. 
Pogas, quae castra viderit ; qui et miles in Greta hoc impera- 
tore et tribunus in Macedonia militum fuerit et quaestor 
tantum ex re miHtari detiaxerit temporis, quantum in me 
custodiendum transferre maluerit. 62. Quaeris, num disertus 
sit. Immo, id quod secundum est, ne sibi quidem videtur. 
Num iuris consultus. Quasi quisquam sit, qui sibi hunc 
falsum de iure respondisse dicat. Omnes enim istius modi 
artes in iis reprehenduntur, qui cum professi sunt, satis 
facere non possunt, non in iis, qui se afuisse ab istis studiis 
confitentur. Virtus, probitas, integritas in candidato, non 
linguae volubilitas, non ars, non scientia requiri solet. Ut 
nos in mancipiis parandis quamvis frugi hominem si pro 
fabro aut pro tectore emimus, ferre moleste solemus, si eas 
artes, quas in emendo secuti sumus, forte nesciunt, sin autem 
emimus, quern vilicum imponeremus, quem pecori prae- 
ficeremus, nihil in eo nisi frugalitatem, laborem, vigilantiam 
esse curamus, sic populus Romanus deligit magistratus quasi 
rei publicae vilicos ; in quibus si qua praeterea est ars, facile 
patitur, sin minus, virtute eorum et innocentia contentus 
est. Quotus enim quisque disertus, quotus quisque iuiis 
peiitus est, ut eos numeres, qui volunt esse ? Quodsi prae- 
terea nemo est honore dignus, quidnam tot optimis et 
omatissimis civibus est f uturum ? 

XXVI. — 63. lubes Plancium de vitiis Laterensis dicere. 
Nihil potest nisi eiim nimis in se iracundum fuisse. Idem 
ecfers Laterensem laudibus. Facile patior id te agere 
multis verbis, quod ad indicium non pertineat, et id te 
accusantem tarn diu dicere, quod ego defensor sine periculo 
posfiim confiteri. Atqui non modo confiteor summa in 

§§ 60—66.] PRO PLANCIO. 41 

Laterense ornamenta esse, sed te etiam reprehendo, quod ea 
non ennmeres, alia quaedam inania et levia conqiiiras. 
"Praeneste fecisse liidos." Quid? alii quaestores nonne 
fecerunt ? " Cyrenis liberalem in publicanos, iustum in 
socios fuisse." Quis negat ? sed ita multa Romae geruntur, 
ut vix ea, quae fiunt in provinciis, audiantur. 

64. Non vereor, ne mihi aliquid, indices, videar adrogare, 
si de quaestura mea dixero. Quamvis enim ilia floruerit, 
tamen eum me postea fuisse in maximis imperils arbitror, 
ut non ita multum mihi gloriae sit ex quaesturae laude repe- 
tendum. Sed tamen non vereor, ne quis audeat dicere ullius 
in Sicilia quaesturam aut clariorem aut gratiorem fuisse. 
Vere mehercule hoc dicam : Sic tum existimabam, nihil 
homines aliud Eomae nisi de quaestura mea loqui. Fru- 
menti in sum ma caritate maximum numerum miseram; 
negotiafcoribus comis, mercatoribus iustus, mancipibus libe- 
ralis, sociis abstinens, omnibus eram visus in omni officio 
diligentissimus ; excogitati quidam erant a Siculis honores 
in me inauditi. 65. Itaque hac spe decedebam, ut mihi 
populum Eomanum ultro omnia delaturum putarem. At 
ego cum casu diebus iis itineris faciendi causa decedens e 
provincia Puteolos forte venissem, cum plurimi et lautissimi 
in iis locis solent esse, concidi paene, indices, cum ex me 
quidam quaesisset, quo die Roma exissem, et num quidnam 
esset novi. Cui cum respondissem me e provincia decedere : 
" Etiam mehercule," inquit, " utopinor, ex Africa." XXVII. 
— Huic ego iam stomachans fastidiose : " Immo ex Sicilia," 
inquam. Tum quidam, quasi qui omnia sciret : " Quid ? 
tu nescis," inquit, "hunc quaestorem Syracusis fuisse?" 
Quid multa 1 destiti stomachari et me unum ex iis feci, qui 
ad aquas venissent. 

66. Sed ea res, indices, hand scio an plus mihi profuerit, 
quam si mihi tum essent omnes gratulati. Nam, postea- 
quam sensi populi Romani auris hebetiores, oculos autem 
esse acris atque acutos, destiti, quid de me audituri essent 


homines, cogitare ; feci ut postea cotidie praesentem me 
viderent, habitavi iii oculis, pressi forum ; neminem a con- 
gressu meo neque ianitor meus neque somnus absterruit. 
Ecquid ego dicam de occupatis meis temporibus, cui fuerit 
ne otium quidem umquam otiosum? Nam quas tu com- 
memoras, Cassi, legere te solere orationes, cum otiosus sis, 
has ego scripsi ludis et feriis, ne omnino umquam essem 
otiosus. Etenim M. Catonis illud, quod in principio scripsit 
Originum suarum, semper magnificum etpraeclarum putavi, 
" clarorum virorum atque magnorum non minus otii qimm, 
negotii rationem exstare oportere" Itaque, si quam habeo 
laudem, quae quanta sit nescio, parta Komae est, quaesita 
in f oro ; meaque privata consilia publici quoque casus com- 
probaverunt, ut etiam summa res publica mihi domi fuerit 
gerenda et urbs inurbe servanda. 67. Eadem igitur, Cassi, 
via munita Laterensi est, idem virtuti cursus ad gloriam, hoc 
facilior fortasse, quod ego hue a me ortus et per me nixus 
ascendi, istius egregia virtus adiuvabitur commendatione 

Sed ut redeam ad Plancium, numquam ex urbe afuit nisi 
sorte, lege, necessitate ; non valuit rebus isdem quibus for- 
tasse non nulh, at valuit assiduitate, valuit observandis 
amicis, valuit liberalitate ; fuit in oculis, petivit, ea est usus 
ratione vitae, qua minima invidia novi homines plurimi sunt 
eosdem honores consecuti. 

XXVIII. — 68. Nam quod ais, Cassi, non plus me Plancio 
debere quam bonis omnibus, quod iis aequo mea salus cara 
fuerit, ego me debere bonis omnibus fateor. Sed etiam ii, 
quibus ego debeo, boni viri et cives comitiis aediliciis aliquid 
se meo nomine Plancio debere dicebant. Yerum fac me 
multis debere et in iis Plancio ; utrum igitur me conturbare 
oportet an ceteris, cujji cuiusque dies venerit, hoc nomen, 
quod urget, nunc cum petitur, dissolvere? Quamquam 
dissimilis est pecuniae debitio et gratiae. Nam, qui pecu- 
niam dissolvit, statim non habet id quod reddidit; qui 

§§ 66—71.] PRO PLANCIO. 43 

autem debet, is retinet alienum ; gratiam autem et, qui 
refert, habet et, qui habet, in eo ipso, quod habet, refert. 
Neque ego nunc Plancio desinam debere, si hoc solvero, nee 
minus ei redderem voluntate ipsa, si hoc molestiae non 
accidisset. 69. Quaeris a me, Cassi, quid pro fratre meo, qui 
mihi est carissimus, quid pro meis liberis, quibus nihil mihi 
potest esse iucundius, amplius, quam quod pro Plancio facio, 
facere possim ; nee vides istorum ipsorum caritate ad huius 
salutem defendendam maxime stimulari me atque excitari. 
Nam neque illis huius salute, a quo meam sciunt esse defen- 
sam, quicquam est optatius, et ego ipse numquam illos 
aspicio, quin, cum per hunc me iis conservatum esse memi- 
nerim, huius meritum in me recorder. 

Opimium damnatum esse commemoras, servatorem ipsum 
rei pubUcae, Calidium adiungis, cuius lege Q. Metellus in 
civitatem sit restitutus ; reprehendis meas pro Plancio 
preces, quod neque Opimius suo nomine hberatus sit neque 
Metelli Calidius. XXIX. — De Calidio tibi tantum respon- 
deo, quod ipse vidi, Q. Metellum Pium consulem praetoriis 
comitiis petente Q. Calidio populo Eomano supplicasse, cum 
quidem non dubitaret et consul et homo nobilissimus patro- 
num esse ilium suum et familiae nobilissimae dicere. 70. 
Quo loco quaere ex te, num id in iudicio Calidi putes, quod 
ego in Planci facio, aut Metellum Pium, si Pomae esse 
potuisset, aut pat rem eius, si vixisset, non fuisse facturum. 
Nam Opimi quidem calamitas utinam ex hominum memoria 
posset evelli ! Yulnus illud rei publicae, dedecus huius 
imperii, turpitude populi E^mani, non indicium putandum 
est. Quam enim ilH indices, si indices et non parricidae 
patriae nominandi sunt, graviorem potuerunt rei publicae 
infligere securim, quam cum ilium e ci\'itate eiecerunt, qui 
praetor finitimo, consul domestico bello rem publicam libe- 
rarat? 71. At enim nimis ego magnum beneficium Planci 
facio et, ut ais, id verbis exaggero. Quasi vero me tuo 
arbitratu et non meo gratum esse oporteat. " Quod istius 

44 CICERO [cH. XXIX. — xxxr 

tantum meritum?" inquit; ** an quia te non iugulavit?" 
Immo vero quia iugulari passus non est. Quo quidem tu 
loco, Cassi, etiam purgasti inimicos meos, meaeque vitae 
nullas ab illis insidias fuisse dixisti. Posuit hoc idem 
Laterensis. Quam ob rem paulo post de isto plura dicam ; 
de te tantum requiro, utrum putes odium in me mediocre 
inimicorum fuisse (quod fuit uUorum umquam barbarorum 
tarn inmane ac tam crudele in hostem?) an fuisse in iis 
aliquem aut famae metum aut poenae, quorum vidisti toto 
illo anno ferrum in foro, flammam in delubris, vim in tota 
urbe versari. Nisi forte existimas eos idcirco vitae meae 
pepercisse, quod de reditu meo nihil timerent. Et quem- 
quam put as fuisse tam excordem, qui vivis his, stante urbe 
et curia rediturum me, si viverem, non putaret ? Quam ob 
rem non debes is homo et is civis praedicare vitam meam, 
quae fidelitate amicorum conservata sit, inimicorum modestia 
non esse adpetitam. 

XXX. — 72. Respondebo tibi nunc, Laterensis, minus 
fortasse vehomenter, quam abs te sum provocatus, sed pro- 
fecto nee considerate minus nee minus amice. Nam primum 
fuit illud asperius, me, quae de Plancio dicerem, mentiri et 
temporis causa fingere. Scilicet homo sapiens excogitavi, 
quam ob rem viderer maximis beneficii vinculis obstrictus, 
cum liber essem et solutus. Quid enim? mihi ad defendend- 
um Plancium parum multae, parum iustae necessitudines 
erant familiaritatis, vicinitatis, patris amicitiae? quae si 
non essent, vererer, credo, ne turpiter facerem, si hoc 
splendore et hac dignitate hominem defenderem. Fingenda 
mihi fuit videlicet causa peracuta, ut ei, quem mihi debere 
oporteret, ego me omnia debere dicerem. At id etiam 
gregarii milites faciunt inviti, ut coronam dent civicam et se 
ab aliquo servatos esse fateantur, non quo turpe sit protec- 
tum in acie ex hostium manibus eripi (nam id accidere nisi 
forti viro et pugnanti comminus non potest), sed onus bene- 
ficii reformidant, quod permagnum est alieno debere idem 

§§ 71 75.] PRO PLANCIO. 45 

quod parenti. 73. Ego, cum ceteri vera beneficia etiam 
minora dissimulent, ne obligati esse videantur, eo me bene- 
ficio obstrictum esse ementior, cui ne referri quidem gratia 
posse videatur ? An hoc tu, Laterensis, ignoras 1 qui cum 
mihi esses amicissimus, cmn vel periculum vitae tuae mecum 
sociare voluisses, cum me in illo tristi et acerbo luctu atque 
discessu non lacrimis solum tuis, sed animo, corpore, copiis 
prosecutus esses, cum meos liberos et uxorem me absente 
tuis opibus auxilioque defendisses, sic mecum semper egisti, 
te mihi remittere atque concedere ut omne studium meum 
in Cn. Planci honore consumerem, quod eius in me meritum 
tibi etiam ipsi gratum esse dicebas. 74. Nihil autem me 
novi, nihil temporis causa dicere, nonne etiam est ilia testis 
oratio, quae est a me prima habita in senatu ? In qua cum 
perpaucis nominatim egissem gratias, quod omnes enumerari 
nullo modo possent, scelus autem esset quemquam prae- 
teriri, statuissemque eos solum nominare, qui causae nostrae 
duces et quasi signiferi fuissent, in his Plancio gratias egi. 
Recitetur oratio, quae propter rei magnitudinem dicta de 
scripto est ; in qua ego homo astutus ei me dedebam, cui 
nihil magnopere deberem, et huius officii tanti servitutem 
astringebam testimonio sempiterno. Nolo cetera, quae a me 
mandata sunt Htteris, recitare; praetermitto, ne aut proferre 
videar ad tempus aut eo genere uti litterarum, quod meis 
studiis aptius quam consuetudini iudiciorum esse videatur. 

XXXI. — 75. Atque etiam clamitas, Laterensis : " Qico 
usque ista dicis ? Nihil in Cisjno pro/ecisti ; obsoletae iam 
sunt preces tuae" De Cispio mihi igitur obicies, quem ego 
de me bene meritum quia te teste cognoram, te eodem auctore 
defendi? et ei dices " g-wo usque?" quem negas, quod pro 
Cispio contenderim, impetrare potuisse] Nam istius verbi 
" qu^ usque " haec poterat esse invidia : " Datus est tibi ille, 
condonatus est ille ; non facis finem ? ferre non possumus." 
Ei quidem, qui, quod pro uno laborarit, id ipsum non 
obtinuerit, dici " qico usque ? " inridentis magis est quam 


reprehendentis ; nisi forte ego unus ita me gessi in iudiciis, 
ita et cum his et inter hos vixi, is in causis patronus, is in 
re publica civis et sum et semper f ui, solus ut a te constituar, 
qui nihil a iudicibus debeam umquam impetrare. 76. Et 
mihi lacrimulam Cispiani iudicii obiectas. Sic enim dixisti : 
*' Vidi ego ticam lacrimulam." Vide, quam me verbi tui 
paeniteat. Non modo lacrimulam, sed multas lacrimas et 
fletum cum singultu videre potuisti. An ego, qui meorum 
lacrimis me absente commotus simultates, quas mecum 
habebat, deposuisset meaeque salutis non modo non oppug- 
nator, ut inimici mei putarant, sed etiam defensor fuisset, 
huius in periculo non significarem dolorem meum 1 77. 
Tu autem, Laterensis, qui tum lacrimas meas gratas esse 
dicebas, nunc easdem vis invidiosas videri? 

XXXII. — Negas tribunatum Planci quicquam attulisse 
adiumenti dignitati meae atque hoc loco, quod verissime 
facere potes, L. Racili, fortissimi et constantissimi viri, divina 
in me merita commemoras. Cui quidem ego sicut Cn. 
Plancio numquam dissimulavi me plurimum debere semper- 
que prae me f eram ; nullas enim sibi ille neque contentiones 
neque inimicitias neque vitae dimicationes nee pro re publica 
nee pro me defugiendas putavit. Atque utinam, quam ego 
sum in ilium gratus, tam licuisset per hominum vim et 
iniuriam populo Romano ei gratiam referre ! Sed si non 
eadem contendit in tribunatu Plancius, existimare debes non 
huic voluntatem defuisse, sed me, cum tantum iam Plancio 
deberem, Eacili beneficiis fuisse contentum. 78. An vero 
putas idcirco minus indices mea causa esse f acturos, quod me 
esse gratum crimineris? An, cum patres conscripti illo 
senatus consulto, quod in monimento Mari factum est, quo 
mea salus omnibus est gentibus commendata, uni Cn. Plancio 
gratias egerint (unus enim fuit de magistratibus defensor 
salutis meae), cui senatus pro me gratias agendas putavit, ei 
ego a me referendam gratiam non putem ? Atque haec cum 
vides, quo me tandem in te animo putas esse, Laterensis? 

§§ 75—81.] PRO PLANCIO. 47 

uUum esse tantum periculum, tantum laborem, tantam 
contentionem, quam ego non modo pro salute tua, sed etiam 
pro dignitate def ugerem 1 Quo quidem etiam magis sum non 
dicam miser (nam hoc quidem abhorret a virtute verbum), 
sed certe exercitus, non quia multis debeo (leve enim est 
onus beneficii gratia), sed quia saepe concurrunt propter 
aliquorum bene de me meritorum inter ipsos contentiones, ut 
eodem tempore in omnis verear ne vix possim gratus videri. 
79. Sed ego haec meis ponderibus examinabo, non solum 
quid cuique debeam, sed etiam quid cuiusque intersit, et quid 
a me cuiusque tempus poscat. XXXIII. — Agitur studium 
tuum vel etiam, si vis, existimatio, laus aedilitatis ; at Cn, 
Planci salus, patria, f ortunae. Salvum tu me esse cupisti ; 
hie fecit etiam, ut esse possem. Distineor tamen et divellor 
dolore et in causa dispari offendi te a me doleo ; sed me- 
dius fidius multo citius meam salutem pro te abiecero quam 
Cn. Planci salutem tradidero contentioni tuae. 80. Etenim, 
indices, cum omnibus virtutibus me adfectum esse cupio, 
turn nihil est quod malim quam me et esse gratum 
et videri. Haec est enim una virtus non solum maxima, 
sed etiam mater vii-tutum omnium reliquarum. Quid est 
pietas nisi voluntas grata in parentes? qui sunt boni 
cives, qui belli, qui domi de patria bene merentes, nisi qui 
patriae beneficia meminerunt? qui sancti, qui religionum 
colentes, nisi qui meritam dis immortalibus gratiam iustis 
honoribus et memori mente persolvunt? Quae potest esse 
vitae iucunditas sublatis amicitiis? quae porro amicitia 
potest esse inter ingratos? 81. Quis est nostrum liberaliter 
educatus, cui non educatores, cui non magistri sui atque 
doctores, cui non locus ipse mutus ille, ubi alitus aut doctus 
est, cum grata recordatione in mente versetur 1 Cuius opes 
tantae esse possunt aut umquam f uerunt, quae sine multorum 
amicorum officiis stare possint ? quae certe sublata memoria 
et gratia nulla exstare possunt. Equidem nihil tam pro- 
prium hominis existimo quam non modo beneficio, sed etiam 


benivolentiae significatione alligari, nihil porro tarn in- 
humanum, tarn inmane, tarn ferum quam committere ut 
beneficio non dicam indignus, sed victus esse videare. 82. 
Quae cum ita sint, iam succumbam, Laterensis, isti tuo 
crimini meque in eo ipso, in quo nihil potest esse nimium, 
quoniam ita tu vis, nimium esse coneedam petamque a 
vobis, iudices, ut eum beneficio conplectamini, quem qui 
reprehendit, in eo reprehendit quod gratum praeter modum 
dicat esse. Neque enim illud ad neglegendam meam gratiam 
debet valere, quod dixit idem, vos nee nocentis nee litigiosos 
esse, quo minus me apud vos valere oporteret. Quasi vero 
in amicitia mea non haec praesidia, si quae forte sunt in 
me, parata semper amicis esse maluerim quam necessaria. 
Etenim ego de me tantum audeo dicere, amicitiam meam 
voluptati pluribus quam praesidio f uisse, meque vehementer 
vitae meae paeniteret, si in mea familiaritate locus esset 
nemini nisi litigioso aut nocenti. 

XXXIV. — 83. Sed haec nescio quo mode frequenter in 
me congessisti saneque in eo creber fuisti, te idcirco in ludos 
causam conicere noluisse, ne ego mea consuetudine aliquid 
de tensis misericordiae causa dicerem, quod in aliis aedilibus 
ante f ecissem. Non nihil egisti hoc loco ; nam mihi eripu- 
isti ornamentum orationis meae. Deridebor, si mentionem 
tensarum f ecero, cum tu id praedixeris ; sine tensis autem 
quid potero dicere ? Hie etiam addidisti me idcirco mea lege 
exilio ambitum sanxisse, ut miserabiliores epilogos possem 
dicere. Nonne vobis videtur cum aliquo declamatore, non 
cum laboris et fori discipulo disputare? 84. " Rhodi enim," 
inquit, " ego non fui " (me vult fuisse), " sed fui," inquit, 
(putabam in Vaccaeis dicturum) " bis in Bithynia." Si locus 
habet reprehensionis ansam aliquam, nescio cur severiorem 
Nicaeam putes quam Rhodum ; si spectanda causa est, et tu 
in Bithynia summa cum dignitate fuisti et ego Rhodi non 
minore. Nam quod in eo me reprehendisti, quod nimium 
multos defenderem, utinam et tu, qui potes, et ceteri, qui 

§§ 81 — 87.] PRO PLANCIO. 49 

defuginnt, vellent me labore hoc levare ! Sed fit vestra 
diligentia, qui causis ponderandis omnis fere repudiatis, ut 
ad nos pleraeque confluant, qui miseris et laborantibus 
negare nihil possumus. 85. Admonuisti etiam, quod in 
Greta fuisses, dictum aliquod in petitionem tuam dici potu- 
isse; me id perdidisse. Uter igitur nostrum est cupidior 
dicti 1 egone, qui, quod dici potuit, non dixerim, an tu, qui 
etiam ipse in te dixeris? Te aiebas de tuis rebus gestis 
nuUas litteras misisse, quod mihi meae, quas ad aliquem 
misissem, obfuissent. Quas ego mihi obfuisse non intellego, 
rei pubUcae video prodesse potuisse. 

XXXV. — 86. Sed sunt haec leviora, ilia vero gravia 

atque magna, quod meum discessum, quem saepe defleras, 

nunc quasi reprehendere et subaccusare voluisti. Dixisti 

enim non auxilium mihi, sed me auxiHo defuisse. Ego vero 

fateor me, quod viderim mihi auxilium non deesse, idcirco 

me illi auxilio pepercisse. Qui enim status, quod discrimen, 

quae f uerit in re publica tempestas ilia, quis nescit ? Tri- 

bunicius me terror an consularis furor movit ? Decertare 

mihi ferro magnum fuit cum reliquiis eorum, quos ego 

florentis atque integros sine ferro viceram 1 Consules post 

hominum memoriam taeterrimi atque turpissimi, sicut et 

ilia principia et hi recentes rerum exitus declararunt, quorum 

alter exercitum perdidit, alter vendidit, emptis provinciis a 

senatu, a re publica, a bonis omnibus defecerant ; qui exer- 

citu, qui arm is, qui opibus plurimum poterant, cum, quid 

sentirent, nescii-etur, furialis ilia vox nefariis stupris, religi- 

osis altaribus, effeminata secum et illos et consules facere 

acerbissime personabat; egentes in locupletis, perditi in 

bonos, servi in dominos armabantur. 87. At erat mecum 

senatus, et quidem veste mutata, quod pro me uno post 

hominum memoriam pubHco consiho susceptum est. Sed 

recordare, qui tum fuerint consulum nomine hostes, qui soli 

in hac urbe senatum senatui parere non sierint edictoque sue 

non luctum patribus conscriptis, sed indicia luctus ademerint. 

Plane. 4 


At erat mecum cunctus equester ordo ; quern quid em in 
contionibus saltator ille Catilinae consul proscriptionis 
denuntiatione terrebat. At tota Italia convenerat ; cui 
quidem belli intestini et vastitatis metus inferebatur. 

XXXVI. — Hisce ego auxiliis studentibus atque incitatis 
uti me, Laterensis, potuisse confiteor, sed erat non iure, non 
legibus, non disceptando decertandum (nam profecto, prae- 
sertim tarn bona in causa, numquam, quo ceteri saepe 
abundarunt, id mihi ipsi auxilium meum defuisset), armis 
fuit, armis, inquam, fuit dimicandum ; quibus a servis atque 
a servorum ducibus caedem fieri senatus et bonorum rei 
publicae exitiosum fuisset. 88. Vinci autem improbos a 
bonis f ateor f uisse praeclarum, si finem tum vincendi viderem 
quem profecto non videbam. Ubi enim mihi praesto 
fuissent aut tam fortes consules quam L. Opimius, quam 
C. Marius, quam L. Flaccus, quibus ducibus inprobos civis 
res publica vicit armatis, aut, si minus fortes, at tamen tam 
iusti quam P. Mucius, qui arma, quae privatus P. Scipio 
ceperat, ea Ti. Graccho interempto iure optimo sumpta esse 
defendit ? Esset igitur pugnandum cum consulibus. Nihil 
dico amplius nisi illud : Victoriae nostrae gravis adversarios 
paratos, interitus nullos esse ultores videbam. 89. Hisce 
ego auxiliis salutis meae si idcirco def ui, quia nolui dimicare, 
fatebor, id quod vis, non mihi auxilium, sed me auxilio 
def uisse; sin autem, quo maiora studia in me bonorum 
fuerunt, hoc iis magis consulendum et parcendum putavi, tu 
id in me reprehendis, quod Q. Metello laudi datum est hodie- 
que est et semper erit maximae gloriae 1 quem, ut potes ex 
multis audire, qui tum adfuerunt, constat invitissimis viris 
bonis cessisse, nee f uisse dubium, quin contentione et armis 
superior posset esse. Ergo ille cum suum, non cum senatus 
factum defenderet, cum perseverantiam sententiae suae, non 
salutem rei publicae retinuisset, tamen ob illam causam, 
quod illud voluntarium vulnus accepit, iustissimos om- 
nium Metellorum et clarissimos triumphos gloria et laude 

§§ 87—91.] PRO PLANcio. 51 

superavit, qnod et illos ipsos inprobissimos civis interfici 
noluit et, ne quis bonus interiret in eadem caede, providit; 
ego tantis periculis propositis cum, si victus essem, interitus 
rei publicae, si vicissem, infinita dimicatio pararetur, com- 
mitterem ut idem perditor rei publicae nominarer, qui 
servator fuissem ? 

XXXVII. — 90. Mortem me timuisse dicis. Ego vero ne 
inmortalitatem quidem contra rem publicam accipiendam 
putarem, nedum emori cum pernicie rei publicae vellem. 
Nam qui pro re publica vitam ediderunt (licet me desipere 
dicatis), numquam mehercule eos mortem potius quam in- 
mortalitatem adsecutos putavi. Ego vero si tum illorum 
impiorum ferro ac manu concidissem, in perpetuum res 
publica civile praesidium salutis suae perdidisset. Quin 
etiam si me vis aliqua morbi aut natura ipsa consumpsisset, 
tamen auxilia posteritatis essent imminiita, quod peremptum 
esset mea morte id exemplum, qualis f uturus in me retinendo 
fuisset senatus populusque Romanus. An, si umquam 
vitae cupiditas in me fuisset, ego mense Decembri mei con- 
sulatus omnium parricidarum tela commossem? quae si 
viginti quiessem dies, in aliorum vigiliam consulum reci- 
dissent. Quam ob rem, si vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam 
est turpis, certe multo mortis cupiditas mea turpior fuisset 
cum pernicie civitatis. 

91. Nam quod te esse in re publica liberum es gloriatus, 
id ego et fateor et laetor et tibi etiam in hoc gratulor ; quod 
me autem negasti, in eo neque te neque quemquam diutiug 
patiar errare. XXXVIII. — Nam, si quis idcirco aliquid 
de libertate mea deminutum putat, quod non ab omnibus 
eisdem, a quibus antea solitus sum dissentire, dissentiam, 
primum, si bene de me meritis gratum me praebeo, non 
recuso incurrere in crimen hominis nimium memoris nimi- 
umque grati ; sin autem aliquando sine ullo rei publicae 
detrimento respicio etiam salutem cum meam, tum meorum, 
certe non modo non sum reprehendendus, sed etiam, si mere 


vellem, boni viri me, ut id ne facerem, rogarent. 92. Res 
vero ipsa publica, si loqui posset, ageret mecum, ut, quoniam 
sibi servissem semper, numquam mihi, fructus autem ex 
sese non, ut oportuisset, laetos et uberes, sed magna acer- 
bitate permixtos tulissem, ut iam mihi servirem, consulerem 
meis ; se non modo satis habere a me, sed etiam vereri, ne 
parum mihi pro eo, quantum a me haberet, reddidisset. 
93. Quid? si horum ego nihil cogito et idem sum in re 
publica, qui fui semper, tamenne libertatem requires meam ? 
quam tu ponis in eo, si semper cum iis, quibuscum aliquando 
contendimus, depugnemus. Quod est longe secus. Stare 
enim omnes debemus tamquam in orbe aliquo rei publicae, 
qai quoniam versatur, eam deligere partem, ad quam nos 
illius utilitas salusque converterit. 

XXXIX. — Ego autem Cn. Pompeium non dico auctorem, 
ducem, defensorem salutis meae (nam haec privatim fortasse 
officiorum memoriam et gratiam quaerunt), sed dico hoc, 
quod ad salutem rei publicae pertinet : Ego eum non tuear, 
quern omnes in re publica principem esse concedunt ? Ego 
C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas primum populi Romani, 
nunc etiam senatus, cui me semper addixi, plurimis atque 
amplissimis iudiciis videam esse celebratas? Tum hercule 
me confitear non indicium aliquod habuisse de utilitate rei 
publicae, sed hominibus amicum aut inimicum fuisse. 94. 
An, cum videam navem secundis ventis cursum tenentem 
suum, si non eum petat portum, quem ego aliquando pro- 
bavi, sed alium non minus tutum atque tranquillum, cum 
tempestate pugnem periculose potius quam illi, salute prae- 
sertim proposita, obtemperem et paream ? Ego vero haec 
didici, haec vidi, haec scripta legi ; haec de sapientissimis et 
clarissimis viris et in hac re publica et in aliis civitatibus 
monimenta nobis et litterae prodiderunt, non semper easdem 
sententias ab eisdem, sed, quascumque rei publicae status, 
inclinatio temporum, ratio concordiae postularet, esse defen- 
sas. Quod ego et facio, Laterensis, et semper faciam 

§§ 91—97.] PRO PLANCIO. 53 

libertatemque, quam tu in me requiris, quam ego eque 
dimisi umquam neque dimittam, non in pertinacia, sed in 
quadam moderatione positam putabo. 

XL. — 95. Nunc venio ad illud extremum, in quo dixisti, 
dum Planci in me meritum verbis extollerem, me arcem 
facere e cloaca lapidemque e sepulchro venerari pro deo ; 
neque enim mihi insidiarum periculum ullum neque mortis 
fuisse. Cuius ego temporis rationem explicabo brevi neque 
invitus. Nihil enim est ex meis temporibus, quod minus 
pervagatum quodque minus aut mea commemoratione cele- 
bratum sit aut hominibus auditum atque notum. Ego 
enim, Laterensis, ex illo incendio legum, iuris, senatus, bono- 
rum omnium cedens, cum mea domus ardore suo deflagra- 
tionem urbi atque Italiae toti minaretur, nisi quievissem, 
Siciliam petivi animo, quae et ipsa erat mihi sicut domus 
una coniuncta et obtinebatur a C. Vergilio, quocum me uno 
vel maxima cum vetustas, turn amicitia, cum mei fratris 
collegia, turn rei publicae causa sociarat. 96. Vide nunc 
caliginem temporum illorum. Qum ipsa paene insula mihi 
sese obviam ferre vellet, praetor ille eiusdem tribuni pi. 
contionibus propter eandem rei publicae causam saepe vexa- 
tus nihil amplius dico nisi me in Siciliam venire noluit. 
Quid dicam ? C. Vergilio, tali civi et viro, benivolentiam in 
me, memoriam communium temporum, pietatem^ humanita- 
tem, fidem defuisse ? Nihil, indices, est eorum, sed, quam 
tempestatem nos vobiscum non tulissemus, metuit, ut earn 
ipse posset opibus suis sustinere. Tum consilio repente 
mutato iter a Vibone Brundisium terra petere contendi; 
nam maritimos cursus praecludebat hiemis magnitudo. 
XLI. — 97. Qum omnia ilia municipia, quae sunt a Vibone 
Brundisium, in fide mea, indices, essent, iter mihi tutum 
multis minitantibus magno cum suo metu praestiterunt. 
Brundisium veni vel potius ad moenia accessi ; urbem unam 
mihi amicissimam declinavi, quae se vellet potius exscindi, 
quam, a suo conplexu ut eriperer, facile pateretur. In hortoa 

54 CiCERO [CH. XLI. — XLlI. 

me M. Laeni Flacci contuli. Ciii cum omnis metus, publi- 
catio bonorum, exilium, mors proponeretur, haec perpeti, si 
acciderent, maluit quam custodiam mei capitis dimittere. 
Cuius ego et parentis eius, prudentissimi atque optimi senis, 
et fratris et utiiusque filiorum manibus in navi tuta ac 
j&deli collocatus eorumque preces et vota de meo reditu exau- 
diens Dyrrachium, quod erat in fide mea, petere contendi. 
98. Quo cum venissem, cognovi, id quod audieram, refertam 
esse Graeciam sceleratissimorum hominum ac nefariorum, 
quorum impium ferrum ignisque pestiferos mens ille consu- 
latus e manibus extorserat ; qui antequam de meo adventu 
audire potuissent, cum tamen abessent aliquot dierum viam, 
in Macedoniam ad Planciumque perrexi. Hie vero simul 
atque mare me transisse cognovit — audi, audi atque adtende, 
Laterensis, ut scias, quid ego Plancio debeam, confiteareque 
aliquando me, quod faciam, et grate et pie facere; huic, 
quae pro salute mea fecerit, si minus profutura sint, obesse 
certe non oportere ! Nam simul ac me Dyrrachium atti- 
giss© audivit, statim ad me lictoribus dimissis, insignibus 
abiectis, veste mutata profectus est. 99. acerbam mihi, 
indices, memoriam temporis illius et loci, cum hie in me 
incidit, cum conplexus est conspersitque lacrimis nee loqui 
prae maerore potuit ! O rem cum auditu crudelem, turn 
visu nef ariam ! O reliquos omnes dies noctesque eas, quibus 
iste a me non recedens Thessalonicam me in quaestoriumque 
perduxit ! Bttc ego nunc de praetore Macedoniae nihil 
dicam amplius nisi eum et civem optimum semper et mihi 
amicum fuisse, sed eadem timuisse quae ceteros; C. Plan- 
cium fuisse unum, non qui minus timeret, sed, si acciderent 
ea, quae timerentur, mecum ea subire et perpeti vellet. 
100. Qui, cum ad me L. Tubero, mens necessarius, qui fratri 
meo legatus f uisset, decedens ex Asia venisset easque insidias, 
quas mihi paratas ab exulibus coniuratis audierat, ad me 
animo amicissimo detulisset, in Asiam me ire propter eius 
provinciae mecum et cum meo fratre necessitudinem 

§§ 97 — 103.] PRO PLANCio. 65 

comparantem non est passus; vi me, inquam, Plancius et 
conplexu suo retinuit multosque menses a capite meo non 
discessit abiecta quaestoria persona comitisque sumpta. 

XLII. — 101. O excubias tuas, Cn. Planci, miseras, o 
flebiles vigilias, o noctes acerbas, o custodiam etiam mei ca- 
pitis infelicem ! siquidem ego tibi vivus non prosum, qui 
fortasse mortuus profuissem. Memini enim, memini neque 
umquam obliviscar noctis illius, cum tibi vigilanti, adsidenti, 
maerenti vana quaedam miser atque inania falsa spe in- 
ductus pollicebar, me, si essem in patriam restitutus, prae- 
sentem tibi gratias relaturum ; sin aut vitam mihi fors 
ademisset aut vis aliqua maior reditum peremisset, hos, hos 
(quos enim ego tum alios animo intuebar?) omnia tibi 
illorum laborum praemia pro me persoluturos. Quid me 
aspectas, quid mea promissa repetis, quid meam fidem im- 
ploras 1 Nihil tibi ego tum de meis opibus pollicebar, sed 
de horum erga me benivolentia promittebam ; hos pro me 
lugere, hos gemere, hos decertare pro meo capite vel vitae 
periculo velle videbam ; de horum desiderio, luctu, querellis 
cotidie aliquid tecum simul audiebam ; nunc timeo, ne tibi 
nihil praeter lacrimas queam reddere, quas tu in meis acer- 
bitatibus plurimas efFudisti. 102. Quid enim possum aliud 
nisi maerere, nisi flere, nisi te cum mea salute complecti ? 
Salutem tibi idem dare possunt, qui mihi reddiderunt. Te 
tamen (exsurge, quaeso !) retinebo et complectar nee me 
solum deprecatorem fortunarum tuarum, sed comitem soci- 
umque profitebor; atque, ut spero, nemo erit tam crudeli 
animo tamque inhumane nee tam inmemor non dicam 
meorum in bonos meritorum, sed honor um in me, qui a me 
mei servatorem capitis divellat ac distrahat. Non ego meis 
ornatum beneiiciis a vobis deprecor, iudices, sed custodem 
salutis meae, non opibus contendo, non auctoritate, non 
gratia, sed precibus, sed lacrimis, sed misericordia, mecum- 
que vos simul hie miserrimus et optimus obtestatur parens, 
et pro uno filio duo patres deprecamur. 103. Nolite, iudices, 


per vos, per fortunas, per liberos vestros inimicis meis, iis 
praesertim, quos ego pro vestra salute suscepi, dare laetitiam 
gloriantibus vos iam oblitos mei salutis eius, a quo mea salus 
conservata est, hostis exstitisse ; nolite animum meum debili- 
tare cum luctu, turn etiam metu commutatae vestrae volun- 
tatis erga me; sinite me, quod vobis fretus huic saepe 
promisi, id a vobis ei persolvere. 104. Teque, C. Flave, oro 
et obtestor, qui meorum consiliorum in consulatu socius, 
periculorum particeps, rerum, quas gessi, adiutor fuisti 
meque non modo salvum semper, sed etiam ornatum floren- 
temque esse voluisti, ut mihi per hos conserves eum, per 
quem me tibi et his conservatum vides. Plura ne dicam, 
tuae me etiam lacrimae inpediunt vestraeque, indices non 
solum meae, quibus ego magno in metu meo subito inducor 
in spem, vos eosdem in hoc conservando futures, qui fueritis 
in me, quoniam istis vestris lacrimis de illis recordor, quas 
pro me saepe et multum profudistis. 


An obelus (t) denotes a variant reading:. 

Proper names of any importance, which are not explained in the notes, 
found in the Ikdex. 

Ch. I. § 1. Exordium : Cicero regrets that Plancius is made a 
ieapegoat by the orator's enemies, and that Laterensis should he their 
representative. The vindication of Plancius' conduct must depend 
largely on the justification of Cicero's own deeds (§§ 1-4). 

The construction of the first section demands attention. Capiebam, 
the main verb of the first half, is preceded by the temporal clause 
cum . . . viderem (in which. p7'opter goes with fidem, the intervening 
words being attributive), and is followed by a causal clause qu^d 
. • . videbam. The second half is somewhat similarly constructed ; 
but audirem, the verb of the temporal clause, has dependent on it two 
accusative and infinitive clauses (inimicos . . . esse, rem , . . esse^, 
to the latter of which is appended a relative clause (quae . . . fuisset). 
There are two main verbs {dolebam .. . . ferebam), on both of which 
the object clause si salus . . . esset, with its sub-dependent causal 
clause quod is . . . texisset, depends. 

Planet : this is the more correct form of the genitive singular of 
proper names in -ius. Cn. (or Gn.) is written Cnaeus (Gnaeus). 

fidem : referring to the time when Cicero was an exile in Mace- 
donia. See Introd., § 2. 

bonos : an epithet applied by the speaker or writer to the men of 
his own party in politics, "well-disposed," "patriots." With Cicero 
it usually denotes members of the Optimates, or ISenatorial party. 

honor! : " election to office." Honor is the usual word for " office " 
of any sort, as here for the Curule Aedileship. Introd,, § 2. 

fautores : " one who supports or promotes " (^faveo^. 

cuius officium : the relative clause frequently precedes that upon 
which it depends ; e.g. in this case, ei is the antecedent of cuius. 
Officium (opem-fado') is " kindness " or " good offices." 

fuisset : subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua after videbam. 

saluti : predicative dative (Dative of Complement or Result), found 
with sum, habeo, do, etc. It is to be distinguished from the Dative 


of Purpose (work contemplated), whicli is joined to factitive verbs 
and to substantives ; e.g. tres viri agris dividundis, " three commis- 
sioners for allotting lands." Many grammars confound the two 

meomm temporum : Cicero generally alludes to the period of his 
banishment (Introd., § 1) as mea tevipora, and the word is common 
in the sense of a " time of danger," " crisis." Cp. § 4, end. 

meos partim inimicos : adjectives used as substantives are most 
usually of three terminations, and are rarely in the singular excepting 
when equivalent to abstract nouns ; e.g. rectum = "rectitude," but 
rectus vir, " a righteous man " and recti, " men of honour." Inimicus 
is an enemy in private life, hostis a public foe. 

in iudicio : " in court," when on his trial. 

in petitione : " in his candidature." Cp. ^eto, " I am a candidate 
for office," &nd petitor, "a candidate." 

acerbe fereham, si : "I took it ill that." Si sometimes replaces 
the more usual quod after verbs of emotion (cp. miror si, and Greek 

infestior: "imperilled," here used in a passive signification — 
" liable to be attacked." Usually infestus is active — " attacking," 

custodiaque : in coupling three or more words the usual rule in 
Latin is to omit the conjunction with all or to insert it with all. 
But -que (as here) is sometimes used, like the English " and," with 
the last of the list only. 

§ 2. conspectus : " the sight of you." The word is usually " sight " 
in the sense of seeing, active ; not that of ieing seen, passive. 

consessus iste: "your court here." Iste means "which I see 
before me," " yonder." See § 4, first note. 

unnm quemque vestrum : vestrum and nostrum are partitive geni- 
tives, vestri and nostri objective genitives. 

cui , . . fuerit : fuerit, exstet, sim ohstrictus, are consecutive sub- 
junctives, the relative expressing " of such a kind as." 

summum meritum : in furthering the recall of Cicero from banish- 
ment. So henejicii. Exstet is very little stronger than sU. 

f salvum videre voluerunt : salvuni velle or cupere is a pet phrase 
of Cicero, and therefore some read salvum voluerunt, omitting videre. 
The meaning is the same. 

venit . . . admirandum esse . . . quam metuendum : we should 
expect magis before admirandum, but the comparative meaning is 
sometimes involved in a gerundive. Cp. tanta vis hominis leniunda 
quam exagitanda videlatur^ "it seemed the man's violence ought 
rather to be soothed than excited." The subject of admirandum is 
the accusative and infinitive clause M. Laterensem . . . delegisse. 

Laterensem : the plaintiff, see Introd., § 3. 

dignitatis : objective genitive. 

magna ratione: "with good grounds." The ablative of manner 
eometimes occurs without the preposition cum when there is an 
important adjective attached to it; and cum is never used in the 

§§ i— 4.] NOTES. 59 

phrases hoc consilio, " with this design," iiissu tiio, bona tua venia, 
nullo negotio, or with the unqualified nouns dolo, w, forte ^ sponte, 
iure, ininria, ioco, natura. 

§ 3. quamquam : " and yet ; " resumptive, and not introducing a 
concessive clause. 

mihi non sumo tantum : " I do not presume so far." 

pietatem : this word includes the three duties of a man towards 
his family, his country, and his gods. " Q-oodness" is a fair trans- 

nisi . . . ostendero : " unless I show. " In hypothetical sentences 
relating to future time, when the apodosis is in the future tense, the 
protasis is usually in the future perfect, sometimes in the simple 
future. In English the present tense is used. Similarly the future 
perfect is used in most relative and temporal clauses, if indicative, 
dependent upon a principal verb in the future or its equivalent (i.e. 
an imperative, a gerundive, or a future participle with surn). 

praestitero : * ' make good." The constructions of praestare are 
(1) with accusative — "to make gQ(A" praestare fidem ; (2) with 
dative — "to surpass," and ablative of that in which one surpasses; 
e.g . praestare alicui virtute, "to surpass some one in valour." 

petam a vobis : peto is one of the verbs of asking which are never 
used with two accusatives. Precor and postulo have the same con- 

equidem : a strengthened form of quidem (as enim of nam), used 
with all persons. 

reliquos . . . ceteris : reliquoa = the rest regarded as a whole ; 
ceteris = the others regarded separately. 

mihi . . . dicendum est : the agent is expressed by the dative 
after the gerund except when ambiguity would arise, i.e. in cases 
where the verb governs a dative. Dicendum is the gerund (not 
gerundive) implying necessity, the meaning being originally " There 
is a saying for me," i.e. " I have to say," " I must say." 

Ch. II. § 4. si quid: "If any fault has been found with my- 
self, without involving (lit. in such a way as not to involve) my 
client." Hie frequently denotes the client of the speaker, iste 
the client of the opposing advocate, or sometimes merely "the 

reperiantur . . . dicant: the subjunctive may be used in any 
dependent clause itself dependent on a subjunctive, and is then 
known as the Subjunctive of Attraction. 

ut ego putarem: "as I thought," Putarem is subjunctive on 
account of the Oratia Obliqua. 

quid : quis is used for " any " after si, ne, nisi, nwm, and in some 
relative and comparative sentences. It is here used as an adverb 
(accusative of limitation), " in any wise." 

respondero: "and only when (i.e. not until) I have answered." 
See the note on ostendero, § 3. 

criminibus : the actual " charges " contained in the indictment, as 


distinct from mere allegations. The proper meaning of crimen is " a 
charge ; " that of "a crime " being secondary and later. 

§ 5. First part of the speech : Laterensis acts wrongly in com- 
plaining that Plancius was preferred to him ; for the people does 
not judge when it elects to office, hut follows its own whims. This 
should be borne with (§§5-11). 

explicata : "clear," "straightforward," opposed to lubricus, "slip- 
pery," "treacherous." 

in tanto usn nostro : in view of (considering) such great intimacy 
as ours." 

iustae : "perfect." Cp. iusta Icgio^ "a legion of the full comple- 
ment ; " iusta acies, " a regular battle." 

nt . . , velint : this clause explains the nature of the lex, which 
means a " condition," as in the phrase qua lege ? on what terms or 
conditions 1 Idem is neuter, the direct object of velint. 

in qna . . . videtur : "in which it seems that there must be made 
as it were a comparison of the parties in the case." In English we 
say " it seems (is said) that Caesar was killed ; " whereas the Latin 
says Caesar videtur (dicitur') interemptus esss (not videtur Caesarem 
interemptum), preferring the personal to the impersonal construction. 
Quidam is common in Cicero with a modifying force, like ut ita 
dicam or quasi. So here quaedam = " so to say," " as it were." Cp. 
quadam temerifate, § 9. 

§ 6. qua laude: laus is "merit" or " deserts," while meritum is a 
" good deed." 

Buperant: "has beaten him" — the regular sequence. 

illius ornamentis : " Laterensis' distinctions." Any distinction of 
blood, rank, or office, was an oimamentum ; and more particularly 
the insignia of an office were its special ornamenta — e.g. the toga 
praetexta of curule magistrates, the fasces of the consul, etc. 

iactura facienda est : " my client's worth must be sacrificed." 
lactura is properly used of throwing a cargo overboard during a 
storm to lighten a ship; hence "sacrifice," "loss." 

largitionis ; if Cicero admits that Laterensis is the better man, 
the natural inference is that his client Plancius used bribery to obtain 
Laterensis' defeat. The words might also mean "I (Cicero) must 
incur the suspicion of having been bribed," i.e. by Laterensis, to 
make only a mock defence. Such collusion was known as prae- 

quod ille me flagitat: verbs of asking and demanding take 
a double accusative, except peto, precor, pestulo. Cp. I., § 3 

dignitate: ablative of respect. 

accusationifl condicionem: "the line of the prosecution," i.e. the 
course adopted by the opposite side, whose plan was to defeat 
Plancius by comparing him unfavourably with their own client, 

Ch. III. potuisse superari: "could have been conquered." Im- 
personal verbs constructed with a dependent infinitive, retain the 

§§ 4—8.] NOTES. 81 

present infinitive where English uses the perfect infinitive. The 
same rule applies to the personal verbs possum and debeo. 

§ 7. quid % used as a particle of surprise, like the English " Why 1 " 
(exclamatory). Some such word as censes is suppressed in the Latin. 

utinam . . . esset: the wish refers to the present and is unat- 

bI quando : " if they ever are " (sc. populus"). Quando is indefinite 
when following si or num; otherwise it is (1) interrogative, (2) 
relative, or (3) cauaal (m^'* since "). 

in iis magistratibus : i.e. the Tribuneship of the Plebs, and the 
military offices of the praetorship and consulship ; magistratus means 
both the magistrate and his office. His levioribus refer to offices 
of comparatively little importance, such as the Aedileship and 

comitiis: comitium *=" the place of assembly," comitia » "the 
assembly" itself, "an election." They were usually held in the 
Campus Martins, north of the city. 

diligentia : ablative of means. So gratia (" popularity ") and 
ornamentis, for which see § 6. 

quod sit proprium : qvod =• " such as ; " hence the subjunctive sit 
(consecutive). Proprium is here a substantive — ** a characteristic of 
your merit." 

quin id tibi sit : " without its being common to you and to 
Plancius," lit. " but that it is, etc." This is the ordinary use of quin 
after a principal negative clause, particularly after verbs of doubting, 
hindering, and being ignorant. Quin is also used (1) in direct 
questions with the indicative, implying surprise that the thing is not 
so ; e.g. quin imus? *' Why ever don't we go 1 " (2) With imperatives 
(in older Latin), also implying surprise ; e.g. quin die, "tell him, 
of course." (3) With the indicative mood in direct statements, 
e.g. § 59. 

§ 8. agetur: "shall be discussed," a sufficiently common meaning. 
Cp. agere cum aliquo, " to treat, negotiate with a person." 

quern non oportnit : sc. praeteriri. The antecedent is is, the 
(suppressed) subject of praeteritus est. 

a iudicibus condemnandus : the ablative of the agent with a is 
here used after the gerundive, in order to preserve the same con- 
struction as in the parallel clause, a populo praeteritus est. Contrast 
mihi . . . dicendum est, § 3, last note. 

nam si . . . ferendum : " for if this were so, the jury courts would 
have the privilege, which the senate in our forefathers' time were 
unable to maintain — namely, of being revisers of the elections — or 
rather would have a privilege which would even be much less endur- 
able." Ut introduces a clause explaining the meaning of id ; with 
rel must be understood id Jidherent. The privilege "which would be 
much less endurable " is that of cancelling the election of a man and 
condemning him. Esset (Jerendum) is a potential subjunctive, the 
protasis being omitted. 

turn . . . gerebat: i.e. he had his election cancelled after he 


had received (^ceperaf) office from the people, but before he had 
actually entered upon it (creatug). The original arrangement in 
Rome was that the Comitia Centuriata, the assembly of the populm 
in their classes and centuries, made decrees which were then sent 
up to the Senate for approval. The senators were thus " revisers " 
(reprehensores) of such decrees, which became law (leges') or were 
cancelled according as they obtained the Senate's assent (auctoritas) 
or no. Auctor fieri is " to give the auotoritas." By a Lex Puhlilia, 
of 339 B.C. the senate was compelled to give this sanction before the 
people were called to vote upon the measure. By the time of Cicero 
the Comitia Trihuta had amalgamated with the Comitia Centiiriata, 
and constituted the sole popular assembly. 

qnamquam : when meaning "although," quamquam. requires the 
indicative in Cicero, as qnamvis the subjunctive. 

ianua : ablative of the road by which, 

offensionis tuae : " of offending you." So desiderium tuum, ** regret 
for you." The possessive in such cases does duty for an objective 
genitive (tui). 

quod addacas : *' hec&use I imagine you are bringing your merits 
to this inadequate test." This is the force of adducas, which is 
subjunctive as giving Cicero's view of the case, not a simple inde- 
pendent statement of the facts ; i.e. the verb is in Virtual Oblique 

quarn ut . . . coner : cp. quamparerent, § 41, note. 

Ch. IV. § 9. qnod . . . non sis factus : cp. quod . . . adducas, 
§ 8, n. 

aedilis : see note on Indi parati, § 13. 

tandem : " I pray," as frequently with imperatives. 

medius fidins : originally (ita) me deus Fidius iwvet — " so help 
me the God of Faith ; " '* on my word." 

qui . . . iodicavissent : the subjunctive is due to the conditional 
force of qui (=^ et si ilW). The verb iudieo is here used intransitively 
(" to pass judgment "), and so graviv>s iudicatum, which is passive and 
therefore impersonal, according to rule. 

qnam est hoc: "than is this (judgment) which you are afraid 
should seem to have been the judgment passed upon you by the 
people." Iudieo is here transitive and personal. See last note. 
The subject of the we-clause is made the object of the primary 
clause. Such a proleptic or anticipatory use is not common in Latin, 
but cp. § 52, culpa, quam tu vereris, ne a te suscepta videatur. In 
Greek it is the common Attic Construction so-called, e.g. olda rhv 
Av5pa, oUs i(TTi, " I know of what sort the fellow is." 

comitiis: ''at the elections" (temporal abl., and see below, note 
on § 10). 

facit: "appoints," "elects;" magistratus (accus. pi.) must be 
supplied as complement to the factitive verb. 

ambitus : " has been most courted." Ambitus is here the participle 
of ambio, not the noun. 

§§ 8—11.] NOTES. 63 

impetn: "impulse." 

discrimen : generally " difference ; " here " the power to find a 
difference," "discrimination." 

quae . . . fecisset : the subj. depends on an indirect statement. 

§ 10. ut fueris: "granting that you were," the concessive use 
of ut. 

ita oontendam : " I will so join issue that . . . ," i.e. " while main- 
taining your worth, I will, etc." Jta . . . ut may often be so 

comitiis: cp. § 9, n. Similarly initium, principium, adventvg, 
helium, are used in the ablative, sometimes with and sometimes 
without the preposition in, to mark the " point of time ; " and Ludis, 
Saturnalibus, Latin Is (^Feriis), are regularly used without in, 

studium : " favouritism," " party-spirit." 

esse : " prevails." 

eblandita : the participle of eUandior, deponent, is here used 
passively — " won by wheedling." So adeptus, " winning or won ; " 
expertws, "trying or tried ; " meritus, "deserving or deserved," etc. 

enucleata : (e and nucleus) " freed from the husk ; " hence 
"genuine," "given from the heart." 

qui . . . ferant : subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua after putare. 

mavis esse : " prefer that it is," i.e. " will have it to be." 

rescindendum : the gerundive not seldom in negative sentences 
implies possibility — "it is not (possibly) to be revoked." Ferendum 
bears the more usual sense of necessity — " it is (necessarily) to be 

§ 11. male iudicavit populus : these words are supposed to be 
spoken by Laterensis ; so non dehuit and Tion fero. At iudicavit 
. . . atpotuit, etc., are the retorts of Cicero. 

non fero : "I won't bear it." Such a usage of the present with a 
future meaning is more common in the "deliberative present" of 
questions ; e.g. cui dono libellum, " To whom am I to give the book ? " 

oondicio : {con and dico) originally "agreement;" hence "stipula- 
tion," and finally the resulting "position," "privilege," or "right" 
(as here). The word is sometimes incorrectly spelled conditio, which 
comes from condio, and means " seasoning." Note the attraction of 
Tiaec to the gender of the predicate condicio. Cp. hoc opus hie 
labor est, "this is your labour, this your task." So too even with the 
relative, Pompeius, quod rei publicae est lumen, " Pompeius, who is 
the light of our nation." 

principis : here an adjective — " imperial." 

dare vel detrahere cuique: verbs of "taking away from" 
require an accusative of the thing taken away and a dative or 
an ablative with a preposition (a, de or ex) of the person from 
whom the thing is taken away. Here cuique belongs to both verbs 

qui . . . iactemur: the subjunctive is due to the causal force of 
qui. The meaning is " It belongs to us inasmuch as we are tossed 
on the billows," etc. The words tempestati populi et Jluctibus are 


a hendiadys — "on the billows of this popular storm." See note, 

§ 83. Popvli is subjective genitive, 
alienas : ** belonging: to other men," i.e. " estranged." 
magni : the so-called " genitive of price," really a locative (op. 

hum% on the ground) marking at what point in the scale of value. 
servire . . . defetigari : dependent upon nostrum est repeated. 

Ch. V. § 12. The reasons that induced the people to pass over 
Laterensis given in their own words. Laterensis had not sued for 
favour in the proper spirit, and had withdrawn himself from notice 
just when h£ was wanted. 

ad populi partis : "to the people's part or role," i.e. to impersonate 
it. This meaning of 2Jars is found only in the plural. The accusa- 
tive plural in -Is belonged originally to -i nouns only. Thence it 
was extended to consonantal adjectives (and participles) of the 
3rd declension, and finally to all 3rd declension adjectives and 

cum essetis : the usual equivalent of a (causal) ablative absolute. 

a me contenderat: sc. heneficium — "had sought," "had striven to 
win." Conte7ido, with a simple accusative, is rare in this sense of 
"seeking," and usually takes an object clause in the subjunctive or a 
simple infinitive. 

familiae : here " family" in the sense of " pedigree." The original 
meaning of the word is " household," including the slaves (famuli), 
and it rarely bears the sense of the English " wife and family." 

non valde ambiendum putasse: ''thought that there was no need 
of an energetic canvass ; " impersonal gerund ; see § 3, note. Amhire 
is properly " to go around," hence used of a candidate going round to 
" canvass" for support. Ambire and amMtio are used by Cicero in 
a good sense ; but in consequence of bribery there was instituted a 
Quaestio ambitus, or Special Commission to hear cases of Bribery and 
Corruption, and hence the word ambitus came to denote illegal canvass 
and bribery. The time for the commencement of the canvass was 
left to the candidate. In Cicero's time it was usually about a year 
before the election. Candidates for office were accustomed to dress in 
white, whence their name {candidatus from candidus). This was at 
first forbidden by law, but afterwards the habit became universal. 

Bibi supplicari : supplico used impersonally in the passive, since it 
is an intransitive verb. 

equestrem : in early times the Equites ot Rome were the wealthiest 
of the citizens, who acquired that name from the fact of their serving 
as cavalry. Later, when rich men came to dislike service, they ceased 
to form any part of the army, and their place there was supplied 
from the allies. They still retained their name, however, and came 
to be a separate class — the Equester Ordo (123 B.C.) — of less high 
rank than the senators, but possessing the privilege of serving as 
jurors in courts of justice. This was the most important and lasting 
of the innovations of Caius Gracchus. In Cicero's time the income 
which qualified for admission to the order had recently been fixed at 

§§11 — 13.] NOTES. 65 

400,000 sesterces (by the Lex Boscia Othonis). Thus the Equites 
were now merely the rich non-senatorial class, — bankers, merchants, 
and capitalists ; and their great importance was due to their being 
virtually the revenue officers of the Republic. They bought the right 
to collect the taxes at an annual valuation, and made what they 
could out of their bargain by dint of extortion. 

incolumem : this word takes the same construction as liher and' 
tutus {a or ah). M. Seius was condemned to pay a fine so heavy 
that his income as an Eqnes (i.e. not less than 400,000 sesterces, or 
£3,600) was not sufficient, and he was therefore removed from the 
list of the Equites^ 

potuisset : the mood is due to Oratio Obliqua. 

C. SerrauTim: he defeated Catulus in the consular elections for 
106 B.C., as did Mallius in those for the year following. Serranus' 
only merit was to belong to the gens of the great Regulus : Mallius 
was the commander whose defeat by the Cimbri at Arausio, 105 B.C., 
cost the lives of 80,000 Romans. 

novam hominem : ^^ & parvenu " " self-made man." It was applied 
by the old aristocratic gentes of Rome to anyone whose house was as 
yet not ennobled by having attained to a curule magistracy. 

animi . . . magni : genitive of quality. 

§ 13. desiderarunt : desidero is " to miss" and so " to seek in vain" 
for something which one usually has, or ought to have. 

Cyrenis : local ablative, from nominative Cyrenae. 

cum . . . esses : cum takes the indicative when it merely denotes 
time, the subjunctive when it has a causal or concessive meaning ; 
but the subjunctive is frequently used by Cicero when time only is 
implied, especially after a past tense. 

quam socios: malo is regularly followed by quam, whether con- 
structed with object accusatives or infinitives. 

quo plus intererat, eo plus aberat a me : the subject to these two 
verbs must be supplied from the words frui tua mrtute. " The more 
the enjoyment of your virtue was of importance to me, the more it 
was wanting." Intererat is impersonal, aherat personal: ahsum is 
followed by the ablative with or without a or ab. 

sitientem . . . virtutis tuae : present participles used as adjectives 
govern the genitive — "thirsting for courage like yours." Contrast 
patiens labores, " actually enduring labours," and patiens laborum, 
" capable of enduring labours." 

pi. : i.e. plebis. 

requirebant : i.6. in 58 B.C., the year of Cicero's banishment, when 
Laterensis could, as tribune of the Plebs, have been of great service 
to Cicero by endeavouring to prevent the passing of the bill of 
banishment. Laterensis was a candidate for the Tribuneship of that 
year, but had to abandon his candidature in consequence of a quarrel 
with Caesar. 

cum reliquisses : " by abandoning that candidature." 

gubernare : " to hold the helm of the state." 

si nolle : sc. te gubernare indicasti. 
Plane. 5 


in quo . . , possis : consecutive subj. 

temporibus : ** opportunities." 

eum magistratum : i.e. the Tribunate. 

magnae utilitati : predicative dative. Cp. saluti^ § 1, n. 

ludi parati : the first (plebeian) Aedileship came into existence at 
the same time as the tribuneship of the Plebs (494 B.C.). The name 
owed its origin to the Aedes Cereris (Temple of Ceres), in which the 
Aediles had to preserve the State archives. Later on they had to 
prevent the introduction of foreign religions, and to look after the 
weights and measures. In 367 B.C. curule Aediles were appointed 
to superintend the public games. Patricians and plebeians held 
this office in alternate years, till at last the distinction died out. 
Both plebeian and curule Aediles were elected by the Comitia 
Tributa. In Cicero's time they had the duties of police magistrates, 
including the care of the streets, buildings, public land, etc. Of 
the various Ludi (public games and holidays), the plebeian Aediles 
were responsible for the Ludi Pleheii and Cereales; the Curule 
provided the Ludi Romani, Floralia, and Megalesia, The office 
had no political significance such as the tribunes had in their power 
to propose or veto laws ; hence Cicero makes the Romans say, " Who 
the tribunes are is matter of importance, but it does not matter who 
are the Aediles." 

permagni interest : interest is followed by genitives of price and 
person, but by the ablative singular of poss. pronouns. 

quod ostenderas : " what you had shown promise of," i.e. the wish 
to become a Tribune of the plebs. 

id quod . . . interest : i.e. the useless office of Aedile. 

condiscas censeo : " I advise you to learn." In this sense censeo 
generally takes the subjunctive (with or without ut). When not 
introduced by ut (as here), such a subjunctive is known as the 
Oblique Jussive, 

Ch. VI. § 14. The court Ms nothing to do with the way in which 
office has been won, provided that it was not gained by bribery ; for 
the people exet'cises a free and unrestricted choice (§§ 14-16). 

iudicem: under the kings, the powers of judge belonged to the 
monarch alone, but he delegated his functions in part to Quaestores, 
especially in cases of murder (parricidium') and treason (per- 
duellio). When the kingship was abolished, the judicial power was 
vested in the Comitia Centuriata; and this likewise delegated its 
functions to a body of specially appointed judges called a quaestio 
extraordinaria. After a time these developed into permanent com- 
missions {perpetuae'), each dealing with cases of a particular sort. 
The first was that de repetundis (B.C. 149), which dealt with charges 
of extortion made against provincial governors. Others were after- 
wards added, especially by Sulla (B.C. 81). Up to the time of Caius 
Gracchus the iudices were taken exclusively from the senate, but by 
his Sempronia Lex (B.C. 123) the right of acting as jurors was trans- 
ferred to those who possessed the cens:us equester, i.e. the knights 

§§ 13—16.] NOTES. 67 

(see note, § 12). Sulla gave the iudioia back again to the Senate in 
B.C. 81. In B.C. 70 the Aurelian law ordered that the indices should 
be taken in equal numbers from the senatora, the knights, and the 
trihutil acrarii. A certain number of jurors was selected each year 
by the Praetor Urhanus ; these were entered in the album iudicum, 
and were called indices seUcti. A praetor acted as president of the 
quaestio^ but owing to the number of cases, and to the fact that the 
praetors were only eight in number, special presidents had also to 
be appointed (Quaesitores'). 

modo ne : " provided that you were not outdone." Modo, like 
dummodo and dtim, is here a "particle of proviso," and requires 
the subjunctive, the negative being always ne. Modo = "only," 
modo = "in the fashion of," and modo , . . modo . . . = "now . . . 
anon," are of course not conjunctions. 

praeteritus erit : the tense is due to that of the main verb oporteUt. 
See note on ostendero, § 3. 

nihil est iam : " there is no reason now to ask the people for any- 
thing," lit. " there is nothing such that in respect to it prayer is made 
to the people." The relative quod is really an accusative of limitation 
(cp. quid, § 4, note), and the subjunctive is consecutive. 

diribitio suffragiorum : (diriUtio, from dis and haled) " sorting of 
the votes." 

t Between quod . . . renuntiatio the MSS. insert suppUcatio 
magistratuum, which is meaningless here. 

renuntiatio : " announcement of the result " of the election. 

qni sint professi: subjunctive of indirect question (with videro), 
profiteri is the technical term for candidates giving in their names. 

§ 15. familia consularis : on familia, see note, § 12. Consularis 
here means " that has furnished consuls," as praetoria means " that 
has furnished praetors." So vir consularis {praetorius) means " a 
man who has heen consul (praetor)." 

gradns : " the distinctions of rank." 

cedat : the subj. here and in Tie contendat is used in a direct com- 
mand in the third person. 

praetorio nomine : " all who have borne the title of praetor." Cp. 
Notmn Latinum used of all who called themselves Latins. 

sublata sunt studia : two clauses naturally dependent one on the 
other are here made co-ordinate. Thus sublata sunt studia, etc., = 
si sublata erunt studia ; exstinctae = si exstinctae, etc. ; while the 
clause nihil accidet, etc., is really equivalent to the apodosis. 

factos : cp. facit eos, § 9. The clause ut . . . miremur explains 
hoc. Hoc, id, and illud, are constantly thus used to prepare the way 
for explanatory clauses, and are known as " hoc (id, etc.) anticipatory." 

campus : i.e. the Campus Martins, where the elections were held, a 
level and open space on the Tiber's bank, north of the Capitoline Hill. 

comitiornm : here " assembly," in the Comitium. See § 7, n. 

modum: " moderation," " limit." 

§ 16. noli . . . vocare : " do not invite me to make a comparison 
between you." The regular way of expressing a prohibition is (1) by 


ne with perfect subjunctive ; (2) by periphrasis, e.g. noli with infini« 
tive, cm^e (ne) or cura ne with subjunctive. 

tabella : the small tablet upon which the voter wrote the name of 
the candidate whom he favoured , hence " vote," in general, and 
especially " ballot," or "secret voting," as here. The special feature 
of secret ballot is that a man may yrofess to vote one way while really 
voting another (mentem tegif). 

quod velint : the so-called " generic subjunctive," really consecutive 
subjunctive. The force of it is its indefiniteness : thus sunt qui 
dicunt = " there are (a certain number of) men who say ; " sunt qui 
dicant, " there are persons (of such sort as) to say." The first implies 
that the individuals are well known ; the second that they are 
indefinite in number, etc., only a class of people. So quod volo = 
" what I (really) wish ; " quod velim = " whatever I (happen to) 

exprimis : " insist." 

grave : •' a serious matter " for the jurors. 

quo modo igitur est aequius 1 the questions quo modo . . . aequius, 
and cur iste, etc., are supposed to be spoken by the opponent. With 
aequius, qg. fieri huno quam ilium — "that he should be elected rather 
than the other." 

sic . . . quod agitur : " for the reason which I am discussing 
(agitur ; see note, § 8), and which is enough, etc." 

cur iste : Bd.f actus est. So with non recte. 

t assequerer : some editors alter this to assequerere — " what would 
you gain if I made use of this final defence, namely, that, etc.," viz. 
even if 1 were to admit that he (Plancius) was wrongly elected (non 
recte). Quid assequerer means " what good would it do me if, etc." 

Ch. VII. § 17. Cicero refuses to institute a comparison between 
Plancius and Later ensis ; but he points out that Plancius had been 
appointed to office by the people^s choice in the fair and usual way. 
His equestrian position was beneficial ; he was strongly supported by 
the sympathy of the Atinatians and friends from the neighbouring 
towns ; his father was an infiuential member of the publicani ; 
Cicero himself exerted his influence ; lastly, his own character had 
recommended him for the aedileship. 

ortis : orior takes the ablative with or without a preposition ; op. 
edifus, creatus, etc. 

orationi tuae : dat. with a privative ob, 

aliquando : " at length." 

qui longissime a te afuit : Plancius was at the head of the poll ; 
Laterensis was fourth Laterensis would have had more justification 
for his conduct if he had brought an action against Pedius or Plotius, 
who came next to Plancius, as he would probably have been elected 
if they had not. 

ut fit : "as sometimes happens." 

sacra via: the Sacred Way (so-called as being the route of all 
ceremonial processions, and especially of generals when celebrating 

§§ 16—19.] NOTES. 69 

a triumph), entered the city by the gate on the eastern side, crossed 
the spot where later stood the Colosseum, and ran by the side of the 
Forum Eomanum to the foot of the Capitoline Hill. At the eastern 
end of the Forum stood the Fornix Fabiiis, and from that point the 
road sloped upward to the east. At the top of the slope was summa 
Via Sacra. 

dimovit : " set aside," by obtaining a greater number of votes. 

§ 18. confitear: deliberative or interrogative subjunctive. With 
necesse est, sc. {vt) coiijUear. 

est tuum nomen . . . consulare : " your name is a consular one on 
both sides," i.e. the families of his father and his mother comprised 
members who had held the office of consul. See note on consularis, 
§ 15. 

quin omnes : see above, note on § 7. Nuvi duhitas? is virtually 
negative, being equivalent to "you can't doubt." 

qui id putant : id =favcrc nobilitati. 

imaginibus : this refers to the Roman custom of keeping wax 
images of such ancestors as had held curule offices. Those who 
possessed such imagines formed the nohiles ; those who had none 
were noH homines (note, § 12). The right bestowed by this usage 
was called ius imaginum. 

qui ament : generic (consecutive) subjunctive. 

caput et fontem : hendiadys for " fountain head." See note, § 83. 

Ch. VIII. § 19. municipio Tusculano : " the township of Tuscu- 
lura," like t/i'bs JRomana for v7-hs Iloma. 

municipio : the Social War (91-89 B.C.) resulted in the passing of 
the Lex Inlia (90 B.C.) and Lex Plautia Papiria (89 B.C.), which 
extended the full civitas or franchise to the Latins and Italians. 
The position of the towns, however, continued to show gradations of 
rank, and their relations with the governing power at Rome were as 
diverse as they had previously been. We may divide the towns as 
Roman and non-Roman ; and we may further subdivide roughly the 
former into coloniae, municipia, and praefecturae ; the latter into 
civitates foederatae, civitates sine foedere immunes et liherae, and 
civifates stipendiaHae. The position of the coloniae was highest. 
They were offshoots from Rome, enjoying in full the privileges of the 
civitas Romana. Originally they were of two kinds, the Coloniae 
civivm Romanorum and the Coloniae Latinae ; but the distinctions, 
as far at least as Italy was concerned, were removed by the Social 
War. Their government was an imitation of that of Rome, consisting 
of a senate (decuHones), and officers {duumviri) representing consuls. 
The municipia were governed by their own citizens, each in its own 
way ; but after the Social War they gradually adopted the forms of 
government prevailing in the Coloniae. The praefecturae differed 
from the two preceding in being govenied by officers {praefecti iuri 
dicundo) from Rome, nominated annually by the praetor urhanus, 
and in some cases elected at the comitia trihuta under his presidency. 
The difference was mainly felt in Midicial matters which were under 


the control of the Praefectm as the deputy of the Roman Chief 

Atinatis : see note on partis, § 12. 

alteri : alter, nter, uterque, are only used in the plural when 
speaking of two parties; or when coupled with nouns having no 
singular, or no singular in the required sense. Alteri here = Atinates. 

vicinitatem : Arpinum, Cicero's native place, was about 1 2 miles 
west of Atina. 

huius : because Saturninus was present in court. So hi tot equites, 
§ 21 ; and hi = indices, passim. 

sellam curulem: this was a chair of peculiar form, ornamented 
with ivory, originally the king's chair, and subsequently assigned to 
the Consuls, Praetors, Curule Aediles, Censors, Dictators, etc. These 
offices were hence called Curule. The chair is here put for the office 
of which it is the symbol. 

attulisset : subjunctive in Virtual Oblique Oration — " because (as 
they said) he had brought." The quod clause is not a statement of 
the writer, but represents what was said by the Atinatians. See 
note on adducas, § 8. 

certo scio : distinguish certo scio, '* I know for certain," and certe 
scio, " I certainly know." 

vehementins : " very heartily." 

§ 20. habemus hoc: "it is a way we and our townships have." 
ffoc = nostrorum munieijmm. honore laetari vehementius. 

de fratre meo : Quintus Tullius Cicero, see Index. 

quid . . . loquar? deliberative or dubitative subjunctive (as above, 
§ 18). It might also be future simple. 

H. Catone illo : ^'that famous Marcus Cato" (see Index). This is 
the usual force of ille when joined to proper names. 

incideris : future perfect — " But (you) fall m with an Arpinate, 
and you'll have to listen, etc. ; " i.e. " if yon fall in," etc. Cp. suhlata 
sunt studia, § 15, and note. For the tense, cp. ostendero, § 3. 

Arpinatem : " a man of Arpinum." 

§ 21. frequentior: "more densely peopled." Frequcns usually 
means "crowded," rarely "frequent." 

sqaalore : it was usual for relatives, clients, and others interested 
in the case, to attend on the defendant in court and lend their 
sorrowful appearance towards moving the pity of the iudices, and so 
securing a favourable verdict. They purposely wore shabby garments 
{squalidus, squalor, sordes) as a mark of their concern. 

tribuni aerarii : the adjective aerarivs is derived from aes (copper 
money). The trihuni aerarii were originally the leading members 
of the plebs, probably one in each tribe, whose duty it was to raise 
the war-tax (tribntum) from the members of that tribe and pay the 
soldiers. Subsequently the Quaestors became paymasters, but the 
tribuni aerarii lingered on after the loss of their functions, and by 
the Lex Aurclia (70 B.C.) they obtained a share in the iudioia. 
This privilege was withdrawn by Julius Caesar, 46 B.C. They always 
consisted of the richest and most influential members of the plebs, 

§§ 19—23.] NOTES. 71 

and the term is often used in contradistinction to the word plels 
itself ( = " the rabble of the plebeians ") as here. 

comitiis adfuit : " supported you at the election " for the Aedilc- 
ship. Adesse alicui is the regular expression for an advocate or 
patronus " supporting " a client. 

roboris: partitive genitive with quid, 

tribum Teretinam : for voting purposes, all Italians possessing the 
right to vote {ius suffragii) in the election of Koman magistrates 
were distributed amongst the thirty-five local tribes. One of these 
was the trihis Teretina^ and in it were included the men of Atina, 
who were not, however, of sufficient weight to carry (praebuerunt') 
the entire tribe. Each tribe had one vote, and the order in which 
they voted was decided by lot. 

coniectum : " the attention of all eyes." 

coniunctione vicinitatis : " by the bond of near neighbourhood ; " 
see note on vicinitatem, § 19. The genitive is one of definition or 
description, explaining that wherein a thing consists. 

Ch. EX. § 22. expertus in nobis : " from my own experience." 
Nolis here means Cicero himself, but mmua means **we men of 

officii morem : " fashion of (doing) kind ofiices." f There is a v.l. 
officii rationem, which means " debt of duty." 

fucosa : lit. "dyed," hence "sham," "disguised." 

celeberrimus : not "most celebrated," but "most thickly populated." 
Cp. freqiiens. After Cicero the word assumed the secondary meaning 
of "celebrated," "famous." 

dignitate : ablative of respect. 

publico cum legation© : '• with embassies on behalf of their town- 
ships." They were sent officially to show the interest of the several 
municipia in Plancius' case. Cp. the notes on squalore and adfuit, 

testimonio : " to bear witness in his favour," lit. " for a witness ; " 
dative of purpose. 

§ 23. ut . . . sic : " although . . . yet." 

non solum municipii . . . genere : " not only in respect of his 
township but also of his neighbourhood," i.e. the inhabitants of the 
municipium and the neighbours of Plancius were much more enthu- 
siastic than those of Laterensis. The ablative genere is one of cause 
or means. 

Labicana, Gabina, Bovillana : see Index, s.v. Labici, Gabii, Bovillae. 
The Fcriae Latinae was an old festival of the Latin league, cele- 
brated on the Alban Mount, because Alba was the first centre of the 
alliance. The festival consisted of a sacrifice offered by the consuls 
to Jupiter Latiaris, and each deputy of a league city who was present 
received his share of the sacrificial flesh to bring home. After the 
destruction of the Latin league, the festival was still carried on by 
the Romans, and came to be an annual holiday, extending over four 
days, at which few, if any, true Latini were present. 


camem Latinis petant : for the (generic) subjunctive petant, see 
above § 10. For the case of Latinis (^sc. ferns'), cp. nomitiit, § 9, Note. 

puWicanum : the ^;?i/>^im/ii were, even at the time of the Punic 
wars, rich bankers possessing the Equestrian census (see note, § 12). 
They were of the greatest service to the State in financial matters. 
The taxes of the larger provinces, and all kinds of revenue accruing to 
the State, were not paid into the treasury direct, but were farmed by 
the publicani, who formed gigantic stock companies (societateg) to 
carry out the business in an efficient manner. The wealth acquired 
in this way made them one of the most important constituents of the 
Eoman State. The law of Caius Sempronius Gracchus conferring the 
rank of knight on all who possessed a certain income {equester census) 
admitted them to the privileges of the Ordo Equester. 

quanto adiumento : predicative dative. 

in honore : " in matters of office." 

§ 24. qui neget : lit. " of such a kind as to deny." 

neque iniuria : " and rightly too." See note on magna ratione, § 2. 

sociis : '• the shareholders " or " partners " in the joint stock com- 
pany of which Plancius' father was one of the directors (prineeps). 

quaesturae tribunatusque : " zeal of his quaestorship," i.e. " during 
his times of office as quaestor and tribune." 

consulere liberis suis : " consult the interests of their children." 
Note this meaning of consulere with the dative ; but consulere aliquem 
-= " to consult some one," and consulere in aliquem = " to take 
measures against a man." 

Ch. X. commemoratione beneficii : " by reminding men of his act 
of kindness" in sheltering Cicero during his exile. 

appellavi populum tribatim : *' I appealed to the people tribe by 
tribe." It was customary for the candidate and his supporters to go 
round the tribes soliciting their votes, not confining their exertions 
to the candidate's own tribe, but also trying to gain over as many as 
possible of the others (note on Teretinam, § 21. 

summisi me : "I humbled myself." 

ultro : " voluntarily," of what is done without compulsion or even 
entreaty, *' beyond what was to be expected." Connected with ultra , 
offerentis and pollicentis are accusatives plural. 

rogandi : " asking their support." 

§ 26. vir amplissimus : Pompeius ; see Index, de aliqao : T. 
Ampius Balbus. Balbus brought in a law (63 B.C.) that Pompeius 
should be permitted to wear a bayleaf crown and the decorations of 
a triumphant general at the Circensian games. In return for this 
Pompeius supported him in his candidature for the aedileship, but 
unsuccessfully {non impetravit). 

ut omittam illud : " to omit the fact that," etc. The clause is final. 

necessitudinis : "intimate friendship," corresponding to the con- 
crete 7iecessarlus. 

quia familiaris asset : the subjunctive because the reason is the 
alleged or seeming reason. 

§§ 23 — 27.] NOTES. 73 

plurimum essem usus : " had always been on very intimate terms 
with his father ; " a common meaning of utor with a personal 

sed ut : sc. petere viderer. 

restitutione : i.e. the recall of Cicero from exile. See Introd., § 1 . 

fuerit : consecutive subjunctive. 

§ 26. cui . . . fuisset : the relative cui is here causal — " seeing 
that my name." 

absentis . . . praeseatis : the adjectives agree, according to rule, 
with the genitives of the personal pronoun implied in the possessives 
vienvi, meas. 

honor i : cp. adiumento, § 23. 

an : this particle strictly introduces the second or further alterna- 
tive of several. When standing apparently in a single question there 
is an ellipse of the first alternative, which is easily supplied from the 
context, and is usually merely the contrary of the expressed alterna- 
tive; e.g. An tu tristem me esse yutas? " (Don't you see that I am 
cheerful) or can it be that you think me sad ? " i.e. " Surely you see I 
am not sad ? " This use of an is specially common in oratory, and 
implies that the expressed alternative is absurd, while its contradictory 
is true. 

tecto : ablative of instrument. 

C. Harinm : for the circumstances, see Index. 

viaticum congesserunt : " collected provisions for his journey." 
( Viaticum, from via, a journey.) 

quam servarat : viz. by his defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones. 

•f ominibus : " good wishes," because such were regarded as happy 
omens. There is a v.l. omnibus, with votis. 

vel vi pulsum vel ratione cedentem : '•' either exiled perforce or 
retiring purposely." Cicero likes to give his banishment from Rome 
the appearance of a patriotic and voluntary action. 

his : i.e. the indices. 

queni reducerent : the subjunctive is due to the final force of qui — 
" whom they might bring back," "to bring back." 

Ch. XI. §27. tegere potuerunt: "might have covered;" the 
indicative of ^;o.f.swwi is used in place of the subjunctive (here 
potential) in the apodosis of a conditional sentence. 

ne tu . . . mirere : a final clause like ut omittam, § 25. There is 
an ellipse of a verb of saying—'- and I say this lest you wonder, etc." 
It cannot be taken as imperative {= noli mit'ari) because the present 
subjunctive with 7ie is only so used when the prohibition is general, 
not definite. 

honori: dative of advantage with adiumenta — "supports towards 
this office (of Aedile)." It might also be predicative dative, as in 
§ 26, in which case huic is dative of interest "for him," i.e. "to my 
client's honour." 

contuberHii necessitudo : " the intimacy of their common quarters." 
Contuhernales or C'omites was the name given to those young men of 


good position wlio attached themselves to military leaders, in order 
to learn the art of war under their guidance. 

oxnni virtute et laude : ablatives of respect. 

propinquitatis : " blood relationship." aflBnitatis : " relationship by 
marriage." The genitives are those of definition, explaining what the 
maxim is vinclis are. 

necessitudinis causae : " the reasons arising from friendship." 

probatissimus : " most highly thought of." Cui is a dative of the 
person judging — '•' in whose eyes." 

sperare : " hope {i.e. be confident that) he is," etc. In this sense 
spero takes any tense of the infinitive, not necessarily the future, 
which is proper to verbs of hoping and oromising. 

qua virtute : ablative of quality. 

L. Flaccus : one of Cicero's instruments in the suppression of the 
Catilinarians, he being praetor at the time. He was a witness for 
the defence, and must be distinguished from the L. Flaccus of § 88. 

assiduitate : " constant attendance" in court during the trial. Cp. 
assident, § 28. 

§ 28. tribunus militum : each legion was commanded by six 
military tribunes. They were elected in part by the people in the 
Comitia, in part nominated by the general. The tribunes elected by 
the Comitia held office for one year, and were men of good position, 
belonging by virtue of their office to the Ordo Equester. 

quaestor: quaestors were at this time divided into Quaestores 
militares and Quaestores urbani. The former accompanied the army 
and looked after all the financial and commissariat business, super- 
vising the collection of taxes, and acting as paymasters to the forces. 

cum missi sint : the mood is due to the concessive force of cum 

facturos : in Oratio Recta, gratius faciemus . . . si huio praesto 
fuerimus (future perfect) quamsi . . . confecerimics. The tense of 
fuerint and confecerint (perfect subjunctive) is due to the primary 
time oiputant. 

tanti facit : " makes him of so much account." For the locative 
tantt^ cp. note, § 11. 

in parentum loco : because the Quaestor — the lowest officer of any 
political importance — began his public career under the guidance of 
the Praetor, who acted as governor of the province to which the 
quaestor was appointed paymaster. 

quam isti : i.e. the Tribunes of 57 B.C., eight of whom advocated 
Cicero's recall from banishment, while only two opposed it. Isti — 
"those you mentioned," is used because Laterensis had probably 
extolled the activity of the Tribunes of 67 B.C. in order to make light 
of anything that Plancius had done daring his tribuneship in the 
year after. 

Ch. Xir. § 29. in scaena: "before everybody's eyes." The 
metaphor is from the theatre. 
ut vivat : " viz. how he lives," etc. The clause is an indirect 

§§ 27 — 30.] NOTES. 75 

question expanding and explaining ilia, and like it depending on 

multo secus: sc. ac deus — "just like a god." Secus and its com- 
parative secitu^, aliter, pariter^ aeque, similiter, etc., take ac {atque) 
instead of quam. Cp. the note on pictas, § 3. 

liberis : dative of the person judging. Cp. cui, § 27. 

aequalem : an " equal " in point of age, 

quid dicam cum patrao : ut vivat will have to be understood from 
ut vivat cum svis. 

adflnibus . . . propinquis : for the distinction, see note, § 27. 

veste mutata : the sign of grief in Rome. The senators changed 
their tunic with a broad stripe (latus elavns, laticlavius) for one 
with a narrow stripe (angusticlavius) ; the magistrates did not 
appear in the oflEicial toga praetexta ; the equites appeared in black 
instead of the angusticlavius. Those who had no pubHc position, 
and who were not of equestrian standing, left off wearing the toga, 
and when worn at all this garment was old and shabby. Personal 
appearance was also neglected. Cp. note on squalore, § 21. 

expressa : "genuine," " strongly marked." 

forensi specie : " outward seeming," such as might be assumed in 
the Forum, i.e. out of doors ; whereas domesticus is such as belongs 
the privacy of home, "inward." 

t futilis: "that will not hold water," "worthless." This, and 
fallax, are conjectures torfacilis, the reading of the MSS. 

occarsatio : "constant meeting," i.e. "courting," marked by fre- 
quent salutatio, or stopping to converse with the lower classes, a 
simple way of winning popularity. 

non excutitur ; " is not to be examined," as a garment is by being 
shaken out. 

§ 30. t generis . . . nominis : the genitives depend on rebus, 
understood. An amended reading is genere . . . nomine appositive 
to rehus. 

superiorem aliis : ablative of respect, like non nullis rebus above, 
and virtute below. 

societatum : " business-firms " of the publicani ; see note, § 23. 

Imputations cast by Laterensis on Plancius' conduct shown to be 
unfounded (§§ 30-35). 

maculis aspergis : " befoul," " bespatter." iacis : " throw out 
hints of." 

quae . . . possit : consecutive subjunctive. 

Bimaritum : " the twice married man," i.e. bigamist. Laterensis 
had coined the word for the occasion (ut fingas). 

inpunitum : "a reckless lie in a sca.ndal" i.e. "lie aitd scandal." 
This meaning of inpuyiitus (" unchecked ") is not usual. 

mimulam : " a wretched actress," " ballet-dancer." The diminutive 
implies contempt. 

iuventvite :=iuvenes, abstract for concrete ; cp. the use of operae for 
" workmen," vigiliae, oustodiae, etc. 

oppidano ; " provincial." 


§ 31. adulescentiam : accusative of exclamation, with which 
a governing verb is easily supplied in thought ; e.g. " to think 
of . . . 1 " Cp. vocem, ch. xiii. 31. 

cum . , . obiciatur: the subjunctive is due to the concessive force 
of cum. 

per inprudentiam : " unintentionally." Per and the accusative is 
a common periphrasis for adverbs ; c^.per iooum, "jestingly." 

rogatu : one of the numerous words of the 4th declension only 
found in the ablative singular. So ivssu. inivssu, astu (in Ciceronian 
Latin), etc. 

praemandatis requisitns : " sought by warrant. " Praemando Q' to 
order beforehand "), "to send forward orders to have a man arrested 
on his arrival at a place." 

de cuius . . . pudore . . . dubitetis : subjunctive because the 
relative cuws denotes purpose — " in order that you may have doubts 
of his honour." 

Ch. XIII. pater : the elder Plancius had quarrelled with the 
Senatorial party under the following circumstances : a tax-farming 
company {Societas) to which he belonged had asked for an abatement 
of the terms upon which they had taken a contract for the taxes of 
Asia. Their plea was the impossibility of collecting the money due 
from the country, ruined as it was by the Mithradatic war. Julius 
Caesar supported them, and succeeded in obtaining a reduction of a 
third for them. This happened 61-60 B.C. Laterensis thinks that 
the elder Plancius' conduct ought to be prejudicial to his son. 

ut . . . debeat 1 " would you have it that . . . ? " Ut introduces 
a subjunctive in expressions of indignation and surprise. 

iadjcio capitis : " a trial that concerns his civil status." Caput and 
fortunae comprise the social and material existence of a man, caput 
including all the private and public privileges of a citizen. Plancius, 
if convicted, was liable to a ruinous fine and perpetual banishment, 
which last was the severest form of iudiciwn capitis, inasmuch as the 
death-penalty was scarcely ever inflicted. 

apud talis viros : sc. indices — " before such jurymen as these." As 
the jury were largely Eqnites they were not likely to think very ill 
of the elder Plancius' conduct to which Laterensis refers. 

corrmmni sensu omnitim : " by the common feelings of all." Com- 
munis sensus is "fellow-feeling," not "common-sense." 

§ 32. cum sit : the whole sentence down to magister is causal, and 
the main verb does not come until the interrogative oberit. The 
causal sentence includes a double consecutive construction, the first 
ending at gratiae, the second at viagiiter ; and the consecutive ut 
clauses are introduced by the determinative adjectives is, ea. The 
construction is est ut (or qui^ faciat, " he is such a man as to do it," 
is an exceedingly common form of consecutive construction in 
Latin. So below, is pater . . . qui possit. 

summo splendore: qualitative ablative. 

inter suos : " amongst his fellows," i.e. in Atina. 

§§ 31—33.] NOTES. 77 

maximamm societatum auctor : " promoter of very important 

vel miims honestum : " even a less worthy man " than his son 
Plancius the younger. Aut . . . aut . . . distinguish alternatives 
which are essentially different ; but vel . . . vel . , . imply that the 
distinction is unimportant, and a single vel often means *' even." 
Both constructions occur here. 

§ 33. asperius : " rather harshly," a very much stronger word than 
liheriuit. The allusion is to Plancius' remarks on the question of the 
tax-contract. See ch. xiii., first note. 

inquit : sc. Laterensis. 

immo : " nay rather," introducing an after-thought or correction. 

commemorem : dubitative or deliberative subjunctive — " Am I to 
mention . . . ? " 

Ch. XIV. praeco : " an auctioneer's man," " crier," whose duty it 
was to advertise the date and nature of sales. 

edicto iustitio: iustitium (ius and sisto) was a cessation of all 
public business, marking a period of grave public danger, alarm, or 
grief. On this occasion it was due to the scandal of the jugurthine 
War. See Index, s.v. Scipio (5). 

an reiectae : see the note, § 26. Here the ellipse probably is 
aliudne esset ? " was it anything else ? " This alternative not being 
regarded as probable is omitted. 

reiectae : " put off " in a double sense ; with auctiones it means 
" postponed," with legationes, " were not heard." Embassies often 
made magnificent presents to the consuls to obtain an audience of 
the Senate, The particular embassy here referred to was that under- 
taken by the son of Jugurtha. It met with an abrupt refusal, capped 
by the iustitium here mentioned, which compelled Granius to cease 
business for the time. 

quod legationes : sc. reiectae sunt. 

multa in republica molienti : " engaged in many political intrigues," 
referring to his revolutionary designs. See Index, s.v. Drusus. 

ut fit : " as usual." 

quid agis : first in the sense of " How are you ? " the usual form of 
greeting. Secondly, in the sense " What (mischief) are you planning 1 " 

L. Crassi : L, Licinius Crassus, the famous orator, was consul 
95 B.C., and passed a law expelling from Rome all who were not 
citizens. The measure was aimed against the endeavours of the 
Italians to acquire the franchise, and led to the Social War (91-88 B.C.) 

M. Antoni : M. Antonius (grandfather of the M. Antonius of the 
Second Triumvirate, 43 B.C.), was a brilliant orator and a stubborn 
Optimate. He was put to death by the Democrats when Marius 
became master of Rome, 87 B.C. 

voluntatem : " political inclinations," " policy." 

t vestra adrogantia : there is a v.l. nostra, which refers to the 
senatorial party, amongst whom Cicero reckons himself. 

§ 34. Planci : the elder Plancius. 


dolor : Reid (Pro Balbo) states the distinction between luctm, 
dolor, and viaeror, thus : dolor = grief felt at heart ; luctus — grief 
shown by dress ; maeror — grief shown by the countenance. 

unpediretnr quo minus : constitutionally it was not lawful for the 
Senate to sit after sundown, and Cato, on purpose to defeat the 
petition of the puhlicani (§ 31, note), protracted the debate as to 
remitting part of the contract-price for the Asiatic tax-farming until 
it was too late to take the vote. Not even a public enemy (hostis) 
would have been so treated, says Cicero. 

dolori fuit : predicative dative. 

magis promptum habnit : " gave readier vent to." 

§ 36. agnosco ex me : "I know it from my own case." 

exit : " gets about," i.e. is repeated as an anecdote. 

adductus : *' because led on by excitement ; " the participle is 
causal. So lacessitus — " because provoked." 

non rusticum : " not stupid or witless ; " rusticus being used to 
represent what is boorish and stupid. 

scitus : " knowing," i.e. " neat," " clever." 

videatur : after quod consecutive. 

ingenue : " a gentleman." The adjective properly applies to one 
born of free parents (i.e. not a servus or lihertinns, slave or freed- 
man) ; and so came to mean " of good breeding " in the usual sense 
of that term. 

cum conferuntur : " whenever they are attributed." Indefinite 
recurrence or frequency is always expressed in Cicero and Caesar by 
the indicative mood ; later writers used the subjunctive. 

scivit legem: "voted for the law " as to remitting the contract- 
price. According to Laterensis, the elder Plancius had voted in the 
first tribe which went to the poll on the measure. Which this tribe 
was at any comitia, was decided by lot (sors\ or by the presiding 
officer ; and its vote, being accepted as an omen, influenced the votes 
of the succeeding 34 tribes very considerably. Hence the anger of 
Laterensis towards Plancius and his tribe. 

consul : Caius Julius Caesar, who defeated Cato's obstruction (note 
on impediretur, § 34) by bringing the matter before the people 
instead of the Senate, 59 B.C. 

quod . . . dedisset : the usual form of hypothetical sentence relating 
to conditions known to have been untrue in the past. 

utrum id : " Will you have it that this was due to the lot or to 
him," etc. The genitives gortis, eius, are predicative. 

legem ferebat : "proposed the law" to the assembled tribes in 
comitia. In this case it was Caesar, the consul. Cicero says : If 
Plancius' voting first depended on the casting of lots, it was no 
fault of his ; if it depended on Caesar's request, it was a very high 
compliment (splendor). 

Flanci : the younger, as Jiunc is the elder Plancius. 

Ch, XV. § 86. Second part of the speecli. Cicero shows that the 
proofs of bribery and corruption on the 2)art of Plancius, brought 

§§ 34—37.] NOTES. 79 

forward by Laterensis, are ineonclusive (§§ 36-48). Zaterengu only 
acovses Plancius of ambitus not of sodalicia ; yet he avails himself 
of the Licinian law, contrary to jufttice. The way in which the 
plaintiff emjfloyed it was not in accordance with the spirit of its 
enactment. Laterensis must prove that Plancius was guilty of 
hreahing the lex de sodaliciis (§§ 49-56). 

legp.s Licinae : The Lex Licinia de Sodaliciis was passed, B.C. 55, 
in the consulship of Pompeius Magnus and M. Licinius Crassus. Its 
principal object was to prevent the formation of brotherhoods or 
clubs (sodalicia) which exercised undue influence over the elections, 
— in fact, formed intimidation or bribery societies to carry their own 
favourites through at the elections. Its penalties were very severe 
(note, § 31), and it gave special opportunities of success to the 
prosecutor by allowing him to name his own jury. The object of 
Laterensis in accusing Plancius under this law, instead of under the 
ordinary laws de Ambitu, was to put in force all the severity allowed 
by the law. He was also enabled to bring him before a self-chosen 
tribunal, the indices editicii. See below. 

omnis ambitus : omnis is accusative plural. 

uUa in re : "in any kind of case (of bribery) save the tribal 
cases." The sense is : according to law, the indices editicii may 
only be employed in cases of sodalicia. Laterensis charges Plancius 
with ambitus, and yet employs iudices editicii; and even if such 
self-chosen juries are fair in any case (and Cicero does not think 
they are), it is not easy to see why it is so in a case of sodalicia. 

re tribuaria: any matter in which the tribes as such have a 
share ; here the organisation of clubs, which was made tributim. 
See Introd. § 4. 

tribus edi voluerit : " decreed that the tribes (from which the 
iudices were to be chosen) should be nominated by the prosecutor." 

de ipso denique ambitu : " in a case of mere illegal canvassing." 

reiectio iudicum alternomm : " right of alternate challenging of 
jurors." The whole number of citizens liable to serve as jurors 
{senators, equites, tribuni aerarii ; see note, § 14) was enrolled in 
the Album Iudicum for the year, and divided into a number of 
Decuriae, probably ten. In an ordinary trial, the case came before 
one such decuria appointed by lot (sors), or by the Praetor Urbanus ; 
and by the Lex Vatinia, both prosecutor and defendant had the 
right to challenge (reicere') any member of the jury alternately, 
until each party was satisfied that he had got a satisfactory bench 
of jurors. This applied to any case of ambitus, but did not apply 
to cases de sodaliciis, in which the accuser had a right to name four 
tribes (tribus edere), one of which only could be challenged by the 
defendant. From the remaining three was then chosen a panel of 
jurors, the iudices editicii. The accuser was supposed to name the 
tribes suspected of taking bribes. 

hoc . . . unum : i.e. trial by iudices editicii. 

§ 37. obscura causa : i.e. why the senate appointed iudices editicii 
in cases of sodalicia and not in other bribery trials, 


hestemo die : Hortensius was Cicero's colleague in the defence 

of Plancius, and spoke on the day before. 

cuinscumque : " in whatever tribe a man was guilty of bribery," 
lit. " of whatever tribe he was the briber." The moods of esi^et, etc., 
are due to the sentence being in Oratio Obliqua after sensivius. 

sodalitas : " club," '* brotherhood." They were originally for reli- 
gious and social pui-poses. See Introd., § 4. 

reo tribus ederentur : "nominated for the accused." Reo is 
recipient dative. 

nominaretur : in English we say " is named " (present), but Latin 
may subordinate such attributive clauses to the time of the principal 
verb (here, sensimns). 

sua : either " one's own " or " the accused's own," according as we 
supply reo (dative of the agent) after recusandum, or leave the agent 
indefinite ("not to be objected to by a man"). 

Ch. XVI. § 38. Teretinam : the Teretina trihtbs, like the others 
here mentioned, was one of the thirty-one country tribes. There 
were four town tribes besides, making up the total of thirty-five. 

fuit certe id aequum : "that at any rate (^certe) would have been 
just." Note the indicative in this phrase where we would naturally 
expect the subjunctive, and cp. the phrases longum est, "it would be 
tedious ; "possum sexcevta deer eta proferre, " I might bring forward ; " 
difficile est, " it would be difficult." 

venditorem: because, according to Laterensis, Plancius, Eifter 
winning over the tribe by bribery, then sold its votes to others. 
See below, § 54. 

sequestrem : "receiver" or "go between;" a man who kept the 
bribe-money in trust till everything was arranged between the briber 
and the bribed. 

severissimorum hominum : sc. tribufn, genitive of definition. 

Voltiniam : sc. edidisti credo. 

nescio quid : " something or other " — often used in a contemptuous 
way, and taking its verb (if any) in the indicative mood ; e.g. nescio 
quid dicit, "He is talking some nonsense." But nescio quid dicat 
(indirect question), ** I don't know what he is saying." 

quid Flancio cum Lemonia : sc. est, *' What has Plancius to do with 
the Lemonian tribe 1 ' The Lemonia tribus resided near the Porta 
Capena ; the Uf entina near Privemum and Tarracina ; the Clus- 
tumina near the old Sabine town of Crustamerium. 

nam Maeciam: nam here, as often, gives the reason why what 
follows, is not mentioned before. The Maecian tribe was in Latium 
near Lanuvium, and was, for some reason unknown, devoted to 
Laterensis, and therefore sure to be challenged by Plancius. 

quae iudicaret . . . reiceretur : subjunctives because quae implies 
a purpose. 

§ 89. ad sententiam legis : "according to the spirit of the law," 
which demanded that the tribes accused of bribery should be 

§§ 37—43.] NOTES. 81 

ad suam spem aliquam : Laterensis hoped that the tribes he named 
would condemn Plancius. 

remota ratione : " when the motive, which wc followed, etc., is set 

§ 40. tu deligas 1 " Are you to choose ? " subjunctive of modified 
question. Cp. tlx affirmaverim, "I would scarcely like to say." So 
notes, cffvndas, cor/as. 

eodem : " into the same scale," The word is an adverb. 

effandas : " let loose upon me " the names of the jury. 

in proximo reo : *'in (the case of) the last defendant," i.e. " in the 
last prosecution of this kind," which was that of P. Vatinius. 

de consilii sententia : '• by the ruling of the court," The judicial 
Praetor was assisted by a body of assessors (consilium') whom he 
consulted in cases of difficulty. 

§ 41. ut eos . . . inprudens : a consecutive clause after errastiy 
while ut . . . veniremus is a consecutive clause after cos ederes. 
Idcirco introduces the apodosis. 

Ch. XVII. nomen editicii iudicis non tulerunt : an allusion to 
the attempt made by Servius Sulpicius during Cicero's consulship 
(63 B.C.) to introduce indices editicii: 12.5 equites were to be nomi- 
nated by the accuser ; the defendant might challenge (reicere) 75, 
leaving 50 ; 25 senators were to be appointed by some other means. 

t ferret: "accept." There is a v.l. referret (sc. in iudicuni 
numerum^ — " register." 

parerent : in comparative sentences \.ntvodi\xQQA.hy quam^potinsquam, 
the subjunctive is used with or without ut. Cp. quam ut ao7ier, § 8. 

delectis : those chosen for the current year and enrolled on the 
Album Indicum (= selectis, see note on reiectio iudicum, § 36). 

ita feremus, ut : "accept without rejecting" (lit. " so accept as not 
to reject "), 

§ 42. doceo discrepare : " show it to be at variance ; " but doceo ut 
discrepet, "show it how (teach it) to be at variance." 

censuit . . . iussit : censeo is the technical word for the senate 
making a decree (senatus consultum), iuheo is technical for the people 
making a law (lex). 

huic : i.e. Plancius, " my client," dative of advantage. 

qui idem testes esse possent : who could at the same time be 
witnesses ; idem agreeing with a word and referring to a person or 
thing already mentioned is best translated by an adverb in English. 
Possent is subjunctive because qui is consecutive, 

ignotis : sc, Plancio (dative, as also with notis), and therefore quite 
" in the dark " (in tenebris) as to his behaviour. 

versari : "run its course." The word is often little stronger than 

§ 43. habuerat venalem : "had had in his purchase," i.e. had 
bought it by bribery. 

diceret: cp, commemorem, § 33, So diceres, haberes, and excitareg. 

excitares : " summon as a witness." 

Plane. 6 


quaesitor : the president of a standing commission (quaesHo 'per- 
peUia, § 14, note). From the time of Sulla (81 B.C.) iip to that of 
Caesar there were eight Praetors who decided by lot the courts in 
which they were to preside. As these eight were frequently too 
few to conduct all the cases, a presiding judge {Quaesitor) might be 
selected by both parties to preside over an extra court. 

quern habet : sc. quaesitorem. 

cnpiditatis : " partiality." 

prae se fert : " openly manifests." 

cui . . . videatis : cui is causal, *' since, you see, what he ought to 
have prayed for was a president from his own tribe." 

Ch. XVIII. § 44. edideris : cp. quod adducas, § 8, n. sequestrem : 
see § 38, n. Diceres is understood. 

noli . . . putare : the common periphrasis to express a prohibition, 
which may also be expressed by ne putaveris or cave (jie) putes. 

legibus istis id esse actum : *' that it was the object of {or in) those 
laws, that." Legibus is an instrumental ablative. From this use of 
actum est distinguish the very common usage actum est de me, " It is 
all over with me." 

sanciri : sc. apopulo (see note, § 8). The sanctio of a law is the 
penalty attaching to its infringement, so that sancire legem, is " to 
make a law penal." Until approved by the people in their Comitia, 
a measure remained a mere senatus consuUum, not a lex. Cp. § 42, 

§ 45. liberis nostris interdicendum est : the usual constructions 
of interdico are (1) accusative of thing and dative of person ; (2) 
accusative of person and ablative of thing. The thing forbidden, iiE 
expressed by a clause, is turned by ne and the subjunctive as here. 

conficere : technical phrase—" to gain the votes of " his tribe. 
Necessariis is dative of advantage. 

antiquitatis : " the old-fashioned style." 

isto in genere : " of that sort (of men) was I." 

decuriatio tribulium : " systematisation," or the dividing of the 
tribes into sections for greater facility of managing them for elec- 
tioneering purposes by means of bribery. Discriptio populi is the 
marking of the several tribes into districts for the same purpose 
( » conscribere, below). These two modes of gaining votes were 
expressly forbidden by the Licinian Law. The same law also forbade 
the employment of men who held the bribe-money in trust for both 
parties (sequestres), the promising of money (pi'onuntiare), and its 
distribution (dividere). Cicero now demands that the accuser should 
prove that Plancius was guilty of these illegalities. 

hue incumbe : '• direct your efforts to prove that . . . ," constructed 
like a verb declarandi. 

non modo severitatem : in the phrase nan modo non . . . sed ne . , . 
quidem, the second non may be omitted provided that the predicate 
or some other word in the second clause (as here ferre possemus) is 
common to both clauses. 

§§ 43 — 48.] NOTES. 83 

ista : " those charges which you allege.** 

§ 46. cum . . . turn : " both . . . and . . ." Distinguish turn . . . 
mim (reverse order) = " then . . . when . . ." Cp. § 49. 
hoc oneris : partitive genitive ; cp. id temporis, etc. 

Ch. XIX. cupidos sui : " devoted to himself," " his partisans." Cp. 
the meaning of cvpiditas, § 43. 

sodales : i.e. members of the bribery clubs (sodalicia). 

quia gratiosi sint : the reason that occurs to Laterensis ; hence 
the subjunctive (Virtual Oblique Oration). So in § ^l,fecerit, etc. 

§ 47. pro multis spoponderit : " has stood surety for many " in law 

in operas plurimos miserit: "obtained places for very many." 
With operas is to be understood societatis, the societas being one 
of these large tax-farming companies of which Plancius' father 
was director. Operae has here its concrete sense of " workers," 
" officials." 

comprehenderit : " laid under an obligation to himself." 

sancire poena : " to punish by a penal enactment," " make punish- 
able." For sancire, see § 44, n. Ohservantiam (sc. populi) is 
•* cultivation of the people's favour." 

communem ambitus causam : " the general charge of bribery." 
Laterensis was unable to substantiate the charge of sodalicia, and 
so was obliged to have recourse to (te contulisti) general charges of 

desinamus : jussive subjunctive. 

si videtur : '• if it seem good,'^ " if you please," like the Greek 

§ 48. quam tibi commodum est : quani is governed by deligere 

quo divisore : ablative of Attendant Circumstance (Ablative Abso- 
lute), not ablative of the Agent after corrupta sit, as in that case 
the preposition a or ah would be required. 

fert : " leads me to believe." Fero is common in this absolute usage. 

tulerit : sc. tribum, and cp. conficere, § 45 ; — " by whose agency he 
carried (the votes of) that tribe. " 

pedem conferre : " come to close quarters," a metaphor from two 
men fighting. 

dissimulas : simulo is " I pretend to be what I am not ; " dissimulo, 
" I pretend not to be what I am." 

atque adeo : "and in fact," a rather unusual use of the intensive 
particle adeo. Flagito is here transitive. 

quamcunque tribum : " choose whatever tribe you like which P. has 
carried." Delegeris is the usual jussive subjunctive (perfect). The 
sentence may also be taken •' you must demonstrate the corruption of 
any tribe you choose ; " in which case delegeris is future perfect 
according to the usual rule that dependent indicative clauses sub- 
ordinate to an imperative stand in the future. With vitium sc. 
trihts (genitive). 


alia . . . ac : see note, § 29. 

ut . . . possis : ut is here «= *' as," the correlative being sic, and 
possis is subjunctive in the apodosis of a conditional clause, the 
protasis of which is si requiram. 

Ch. XX. § 49. Plancius was as good as elected in tite forme?' 
year when the elections were IroTcen off. Even if he had the desire 
on that occasion to employ bribery, the short notice that was given of 
the Election, mould hare rendered any such designs futile. In 
addition, what happened' at the first election clearly showed that he 
need have no fear of rejection on a- future occasion. 

quasi ... sit designatus : quasi requires subjunctive when intro- 
ducing a case known to be only imaginary. 

consul : M. Licinius Crassus, the author of the Licinian Law. 
See Index. 

spatium comparandi : " the time for making preparations " to 
bribe the tribes. 

ut ne : found occasionally in lieu of simple ne. Ne does not 
belong to quidem. 

vocatae : " called up " one by one, to give their votes in the polling- 
booths (septa). This giving in of the votes was suffragium ferre. 
The voter wrote upon a tablet (tabella) the name of the candidate 
whom he supported, and the sum of the votes of each tribe was 
sorted (diribitae'). The final result of the votes of the whole number 
of tribes was then " returned " (renuntiare') by a herald (praeco), and 
repeated by the presiding magistrate, here Crassus. 

valuit : " was far the strongest " of the candidates. Cp. valuissent, 

nulla . . . nee : as a rule two negatives = an affirmative ; but 
nullus, nemo, nunquam, may be followed by nee (neque) . . . nee 
(n^que) in clauses which do not negative, but merely analyse, them. 

ain tandem "i " Do you say that, pray ? " = " What ? " emphatic. 
Ain stands for aisne, as vin, audin, for visne, audisne. It here 
expresses surprise that Laterensis should be astonished that Plancius 
was elected, though he had gained the vote of the praerogativa 
centuria, or century which was first called up to vote (note, § 35). 
This was usually suflBcient to ensure the return of the candidate for 
whom it voted, as many others voted the same way from superstitious 

t ni nemo unquam : " that no one ever secured its vote without 
being returned as senior consul at that very election, or at any rate 
as one consul for the year ensuing." Of the two consuls he was 
prior who was elected by the greater number of votes, and this, says 
Cicero, was usually the case with the candidate who secured the vote 
of (tulerit) the leading century : in any case he was sure to be 
second in the returns of the voting, it being an unknown thing for 
the choice of the leading century not to be either first or second. 
In ilium annum means the particular year for which any consular 
comitia was held ; i.e. the year next after. 

§§ 48—51.] NOTES. 85 

Cicero's argument is this : the vote of a single century (the 
Praerogativa) always decides a consular election. But when Plancius 
stood for the aedileship in 55 B.C. the whole comitia returned him, 
and surely that was enough to ensure his return in the second and 
postponed election of 54 B.C. (The election of 55 B.C. had been 
declared invalid, see Introd., § 2.) 

The reading is perplexed. Mueller and most MSS. yvit prior before 
tulerit (" was first to get its vote ") and omit it after consul. It is 
better to adopt the present reading with one MS. In any case 
consul must be understood again after certe, and fully expressed the 
text would run aut lis ipsis comitiis consul prior, aut certe consul 

quin renuntiatus sit : cp. § 49, and preceding note. 

universus populus : referring, like comitia tota, to the frustrated 
election of 55 B.C. 

praerogativa : "took the lead." 

§ 50. gravitatis tuae : " befitting to your dignity," predicative 

ut . . . prosternerent : this clause explains id. 

quam putassent : cp. § 41, note on parerent. 

pluris . . . minoris : genitives of price. 

Ch. XXT. § 51. Laterensis need not he ashamed, nor fear that he 
has done discredit to Ms ancestors, by failing to obtain the aedile- 
ship ; for in the first place this has happened to many great men mho 
liave afterwards held more important offices of state, and secondly his 
conduct in ahandoyiing the tribuneshi}) caused of course considerable 
irritation (^ §§ 51, 52). 

quid . . . respondeas : " what you are to answer," an indirect 
interrogative depending on quaeris. In the direct form the verb 
would be same, quid respondeas ? " What are you to reply ? " corre- 
sponding to the deliberative of the first person, quid respondeam ? 
*• "What am I to say ? " The subjunctive not infrequently thus 
implies duty; e.g. termini quos non excedamus, "boundaries which 
we are not to (must not) cross." 

illis sapientissimis viris : This is the regular Latin form for such 
expressions as " such wise men as they." 

civi: ablative. 

repulsa : *' defeat," or rejection, when ofEering himself as a 

ista in aedilitate : ** this aediliciate of yours," i.e. about which you 
make so much ado. 

offensiuncula : for the force of the diminutive cp. mijnula, § 30, n. 

aediliciam : " of his aediliciate," i.e. of his candidature for that 
oflBce. We have the simple genitive (aedilitatis) below, and again 
aedilicias repulsas, § 52. Pracdicaret is potential subjunctive. 

L. Caesaris : the consul of 90 B.C., and author of the Lex lulia, 
which extended the Koman franchise to all Italians who had not 
taken up arms in the Social War. Cnaeus Octavius was a leading 


optimate and opponent of Marius and Cinna. Marcus TuUius Decula 
was consul 81 B.C. 

aedilitate praeteritos : " passed over in their (candidature for the) 
aediliciate." The ablative is either that of Respect or of Point of 
Time, like comitiis, § 9. With praeteritos sc. a populo, as agent. 

§ 62. habitae sunt : " have been held to be of such sort that." 
£ius modi is a predicative genitive. 

benigne factum: because they were saved the expense that was 
entailed on the aediles, and were not obliged to defray the cost of 
shows. See note, § 13, ludi parati. 

L. Fhilippus : an optimate and an opponent of the Democratic 
reforms of Satuminus (100 B.C.) and Livius Drusus (91 B.C.). The 
only other important name is that of C. Fimbria {s.v. Index), 

summa nobilitate at eloquentia : the ablative of quality is rarely 
joined to a proper name enthetically (i.e. without vir or homo^. 
Occasionally the genitive of quality is used in a similar way ; e.g, 
Torquatus priscae et nimist durae severitatis. 

quo : qno here is final. 

de te detractum : " your reputation has not suflFered " (lit. " nothing 
has been deti-acted from you"). 

xnehercule: an abbreviated oath — "so help me Hercules." Cp. 
mediusfidivs, § 9, note. " Indeed " is a sufficient rendering here. 

aliquid significatum : i.e, that he was too good to be a mere Aedile, 
and the people had reserved h4m for more important offices. 

Ch. XXII. magnum quenaam motum : " quite a great sensation over 
your candidature " Petitionis is an objective genitive like that in 
consensio rerum (=" agreement about things"), and such poetical 
uses as fessi rerum (" weary of the world "), where the idea of 
" object" merges into that of " cause." Quidam often represents the 
English "very," "quite," and gives to the adjective which it qualifies 
the widest and most indefinite meaning. 

ne aliquid jurares destitisti : in his consulship (59 B.C.) Julius 
Caesar brought forward a law (Lex Julia Apraria) by which certain 
lands in Campania were to be divided amongst poor citizens who had 
three or more children. He bound by oath the candidates for the 
tribuneship of the following year to maintain this law. Laterensis, 
one of their number, refused to take the required oath, and abandoned 
his candidature. The populace naturally disliked such a protest 
against a popular law. 

aliquid : more emphatic than quid (indefinite), which usually 
follows ne, si, nin, nvm. Translate — " take a certain oath." 

de summa: "What were your political views in general" (lit. 
** what you felt about the general condition of the state"). 

ratio: "interests." 

§ 53. ofFenderet: the subjunctive is due to qui consecutive. 

loco demovere : a metaphor from wrestling, " elbow you from your 

Cicero maintain* that Planoius should be entirely cleared of the 

§§ 51—54.] NOTES. 87 

charge of coalition. The arguments brought to prove it are 
fallacious and inconsistent, and the action of Laterensis is also 
inconsistent (§§ 53 — 58). 

duxerunt : " influenced you." In § 49 Cicero denied the possibility 
of coitio and corruptio on account of the suddenness of the elections ; 
here with reference to the majority necessary to secure the election 
of both. Laterensis maintained that there was bribery (1) because 
Plancius was elected in both comitia ; (2) because he had, with 
Plotius, the votes of the majority of the tribes, and in some tribes 
had almost the same number of votes ; (3) because both the tribes 
whose votes had been promised by Plotius to Pedius and by Plancius 
to Laterensis had at the second election voted for Plancius and 
Plotius. Cicero intentionally sets forth the reason (2) in an obscure 
manner : Laterensis did not lay stress on the mere majority, but on 
the fact that the majority was formed by the same tribes, 

coitio : the combination or collusion of one candidate with another 
to prevent the election of a third. 

an una potuerunt 1 the general rule is that in conditional clauses 
the moods in apodosis and protasis are the same ; but possum, deheo, 
and the gerundive, are commonly used in the indicative in the 
apodosis, though the subjunctive occurs in protasis as here. 

pnnctis : " votes." The older way of voting was by scratching a 
mark (punctum') on the tablet (tabella)^ instead of writing the name 
in full. Hence the word came to be used for a vote generally. 

qnippe : " naturally," here used as an ironical particle ; cp. Vergil's 
quippe vetor fatis, " of course fate forbids me ! " It is generally 
confined to its causal use with qici and the subjunctive. In later 
Latin it was joined to adjectives without a verb, in the same causal 

superioribus : 55 B.C. See Introd., § 2. Prope qualifies facti and 
declarati — '' as good as elected," etc. 

habuerit: subjunctive of modified assertion or potential. The 
mood has nothing to do with quanqnam ; §§3, 8, nn. 

sortitionem : if two candidates secured the same number of votes, 
lots were cast to decide which should have the office. 

§ 54. concessam : i.e. each had *' handed over " his own particular 
tribe for Laterensis to make use of if he could. This was in 55 B.C. ; 
but in the following year they had declined to do so. 

in ang^stum : "get into straits," i.e. risk their chances of election 
by surrendering votes to a rival. Angvstum is here used as a noun; 
cp. angustias below — "they were afraid to run the thing too 

quam convenit : " How consistent it is to say," etc. 

eum te arripnisse : enm refers to Plancius ; arripio here in the 
sense of "bringing to trial." The plaintiff had to lay hands 
(inicere manus) on the accused if the latter refused to appear in 

a quo non sis rogatus : " who had not begged of you * to drop 
the charge. Plotius probably had asked Laterensis to abandon the 


proceedings against himself, so that for Laterensis to continue the 
case against Plancius looked like mere spite, seeing that his offence 
and that of Plotius was alleged to be the same. 

indicas : the argument of Cicero is as follows : the testimony of 
these witnesses is of no value ; the majority voted for Plancius either 
because (1) they were bribed by Plancius, or because (2) of their 
own accord they supported his candidature. In the first case their 
testimony cannot be accepted as coming from a tainted source ; in 
the second case they are not likely to speak against Plancius unless 
bribed by Laterensis to do so. 

Ch. XXIII. § 55. Circo Flaminio : built by C. Flaminius Nepos 
between the Via Lata and the Tiber, not far from the Capitol. Some 
money was found here, and Laterensis supposes it to have been 
intended for bribes by Plancius. 

caluit : " was a burning topic." 

refrixit : "has cooled," " lost all importance." 

quae tribus : *' what was the tribe for which it was intended as 
a bribe." divisor: § 45, note on decuriatio. 

eductus : the technical term for bringing the accused before the 

iactatum : "jostled," "maltreated." Cp. iactor iii turha, § 17. 

aliquid praeiudicii : the genitive is here partitive. Praeiudicium 
is an "anticipatory verdict," not "prejudice" in our sense of the 

haec habes : Tiaeo is the previous (§§ 53-55) statements, and hales 
== "you are sure of " (= credere or scire). Another translation is 
" have as a reason." 

cupidi tui : cp. cupidos sui, xix. § 46. 

retinens equestris iuris : " too tenacious of," the present participle 
taking the genitive when denoting the state. See § 13, note. • 

§ 56. non quo ... sit : non quo or non quia take the subjunctive, 
and give the untrue or, at any rate, insufficient reason, whereas the 
indicatives est and sunt state the true or satisfactory reason. 

quod . . . postulet : subjunctive because quod is consecutive. Cp. 
below, quod . . . videatis. 

communis periculi : " our common hazard," i.e. the liability of all 
of us to be one day in the defendant's position. 

suhiciendas : " to be put at the mercy of." 

§ 57. nostri iniqui : iniquus is properly an adjective, and takes 
the dative j but when used as a substantive as here, it is used with 
a genitive (objective) or a possessive pronoun. Cp. below, omnium 

communes: "professional" faultfinders, who attack everybody 

capite: "source." 

memoria : ablative of price. 

quid : "in any wise." 

§§ 54—60.] NOTES. 89 

Ch. XXIV. § 68. Third part of the Speech. Cicero answers 
L. Cassius, loho has laid stress on four points in his speech : (1) Nohle 
birth ought to have given Latercnsis the preference ; Cicero remarks 
that the path to office is open to all, even if the man of nohle birth is 
less envied. 

luventium tecnm expostulavi : " remonstrated with you about 
Juventius." The thing about which one remonstrates is expressed 
either by the accusative (as here), or by de and the ablative. The 
Juventius in question was possibly juventius Thalna, the first 
plebeian Curule Aedile, two years after that office was established, 
365 B.C. 

qui . . . narraret : subjunctive of purpose, after final qui ; " no 
one to tell us." 

Congo: Junius Congus was a celebrated antiquary, of whom 
Lucilius the Satirist said that he preferred the antiquaiy to any 
scholar as a reader of his Satires. 

cum . . . confitear : causal — " seeing that I confess." 

aculei: aciileus is "a sting ;" hence metaphorically in the plural 
to denote " sharp and cutting remarks," 

habuisti : •' made " or '• spoke." Cp. the phrase orationem habere. 

§ 69. illi . . . quam mihi: datives of advantage. Malo is here 
transitive — "desire a thing for one person rather than another." 
Volo has the same transitive use." 

honorum aditus : " pathway to office," the genitive is objective, not 

quin etiam : often written as one word, quinetiam. See note, § 7. 

adipiscendorum : sc. honorum. 

ad praecepta: "for advice; " ad is often used of purpose, cp. the 
final use with the gerund. 

aetas non est grandis : M. Tullius Cicero, the son, was born 65 B.C., 
and consequently was in his twelfth year at the time of this trial. 

rex ille a love ortus: i.e. Atreus, who in the tragedy of Attius, 
which bears his name, speaks the lines quoted by Cicero. For Atreus 
see Index. 

vigilandum : gerund expressing obligation. 

poeta : L. Attius, or Accius, a Roman tragic poet, 170-94 B.C. His 
thirty-seven tragedies were popular to the latest times, and par- 
ticularly the Atreus, which was the first of them. 

qui nnsquam erant : ** who never existed." This is a very common 
use of nusqvam in Plautus. 

§ 60. quod . . . invideretur : " he would be less envied." Invi- 
deretur is potential subjunctive. The son of a distinguished father 
would be less subject to envy than a parvenu. Praestaret is personal. 

Ch. XXV. nostrum : the difference between nostrum and nostri is 
that the former is always a partitive genitive, the latter objective. 

adscensns : "gradations," "steps." 

honorum populi : populi is subjective genitive—" honours conferred 
by the people." The scale of offices in Rome (according to the Leaa 


Annalis) was thus — Quaestor, Aedile, Praetor, Consul. The office of 
dictator was extraordinary, and besides was obsolete in Cicero's time, 
when, if it were necessary, one of the Consuls for the time being was 
invested with dictatorial powers. 

octingenti fere : Consuls were first appointed 609 B.C. after the 
expulsion of the kings. Between this and the date of the present 
trial 455 years had elapsed. The Decemviri (451, 450 B.C.) prevented 
the election of consuls for two years ; the Tribuni Militum Consulari 
Potestate usurped the place of the consuls for fifty years (between 
445-367 B.C.) ; there were three years during which there were no 
magistrates ; a dictator held the reins of government for three years. 
After subtracting these 58 years we find that there were 397 years in 
which 794 consuls were in office. 

egit : " pleaded " or " argued." 

quid potuit : sc . fieri. For the mood of potuit, op. potuei'unt, 
§ 53, n. 

si asset: the usual mood of a hypothesis of known untruth m 
present time. 

§ 61. (2) Cassius depreciates the military services of Plancius. 

quid simile : sc.fuerit, subjunctive of indirect question. 

quasi vero : ** as if, indeed . . . 1 " ironical. In the following 
clauses ceperint and (^proptereay triumpharint are the usual sub- 
junctive with quasi (hypothesis of known falsity), and {quod) 
triumpharint is subjunctive of the untrue reason, while commissi 
swit is indicative of the true reason. See the note, § 55. The 
imperfect subjunctive triumpharent is due to the consecutive force 
of quibus. 

quae castra viderit : " what service he has seen ; " castra, being a 
chief feature in military life, is here put (by metonymy) for the 
actual service. 

qui . . . fuerit : qui is here concessive — "though he was." Hence 
the subjunctives/wcW^, detraxerit. 

hoc imperatore : i.e. Q. Metellus Creticus, who was present in court, 
cp. § 27. The words are in the ablative absolute. 

temporis : partitive genitive with tantum, 

§ 62. (3) Cassius asks if Plancius was more eloquent or (4) more 
skilled in the law than Laterensis. 

id quod secuudum est : " which is the next best thing." 

quasi quisquam : quisquam is used only (1) in negative or quasi- 
negative sentences, (2) after comparatives. Amongst quasi-negative 
sentences are classed (3) questions implying a negative answer, 
usually introduced by num ; and (4) such sentences as the present 
which imply that the statement is absurd : e.g. quasi quisquam sit, 
etc. = scilicet nemo est, " of course there is nobody," etc. 

hunc falsum : " say that my client has given him a wrong answer 
on a point of law." 

afaisse ab istis studiis : " that they are strangers to those pursuits." 

mancipiis : " slaves." Mancipium (from manus and capio) was 
the technical term for the legal and formal purchase of a thing j 

§§ 60—64.] NOTES. 91 

then it acquired the meaning of the property obtained by such 
purchase, especially slaves. 

frugi : originally the dative of frux used as a predicative dative, 
the word came to be treated as an indeclinable adjective — " useful," 
and is frequent as a proper name {agnomeri). Quamvis belongs only 
to frugi ; when coupled with a verb it usually takes the subjunctive. 

emimus : gnomic or aoristic perfect of customary occurrence — 
"whenever we buy," taking the usual sequence of a past tense 
(imponeremus, etc.). With imponereimis, which is final, understand 
rillae. Vilicus, which properly signified the steward of a farm, was 
applied to the superintendent of any other works. 

facile patitur: "make no difficulty," "are well satisfied." Cp. 
facile patior, next section. 

sin minus : " but if not," i.e. if there be no additional accomplish- 
ments. With minus in this sense, cp. such uses as quae j^raedicta 
sunt mimis eveniunt, "what has been prophesied does not happen at 
all " (lit. " happens less than it ought to do "). 

quotns quisque : " How few 1 " Lit. " Each (unit) of what total 
number ? " " One in how many 1 " 

ut nnmeres : "though you should count," "even counting those," 
etc. The mood is due to the concessive force of ut. 

civibus : dative. It cannot be ablative on the analogy of that used 
•withjifl and faeio, e.g. Quid hoc homine faciatis ? What are we to do 
with this fellow ? 

Ch. XXVI, § 63. Cassius had extolled the services of Laterensis 
when abroad ; Cicero shows hy his own example what little influence 
rovincial success had at Rome. He had learned thereby the lesson 
that it was necessary to make friends in Home. Laterensis should 
have done the same, and could have done so more easily on account 
of the nobility of his family (§§ 63—67). 

nihil potest : sc. dicer e. 

ecfers : (= effers) "you extol." 

enumeres . . . conquiras : cp. note, on adducas, § 8. 

Fraeneste: locative ablative of third declension substantive. For 
lados, see § 13, note. 

ita multa : ita means " in such a way," and therefore can only 
qualify verbs ; with adjectives must be used adeo^ " to such a degree." 
Ita here is merely the correlative of ?/f, and does not belong to mvlta. 

§ 64. de quaestura mea : at Lilybaeum, B.C. 75, See Introd., § 1. 

floruerit: "however successful it was." Quamvis in concessive 
clauses takes the subjunctive. 

eum me fuisse : " was such — that." 

in maximis imperils : i.e. as a praetor and consul. 

non ita multum gloriae: " not so very much renown" — gloriae is 
partitive genitive. In this and similar phrases ita only apparently 
qualifies adjectives, as the expressions are usually elliptical. 

aliud : sc. fecisse. 

caritate: "deamess," "high-prices," and so "dearth." The corn- 


supply of Eome was drawn mainly from Africa, especially Alexandria, 
and Sicily, and the policy of distributing grain to the populace at 
merely nominal prices caused the demand to be much increased. A 
fortnight's bad weather was enough to starve Rome by preventing 
the arrival of corn-ships. 

negotiatoribus : bankers and wholesale merchants, while merca- 
torihus are the petty traders who went personally about with their 

mancipibus : the publicani who farmed the decumae (tithes) with 
which Sicily was taxed in lieu of the usual money-tribute. 

§ 65. nt . . . putarem ; is best taken as a consecutive clause, 
denoting the result of the hope (" such confidence that I thought "). 
The clause can hardly be explanatory of hac spe, which would require 
the accusative and infinitive. 

casu diebus lis : " as luck would have it, at the season when." 
This forms the antecedent to the clause cum plurimi, etc. 

itineris : " a journey hy land''' Cicero would travel by sea to 
Puteoli, and thence reach Rome by road. 

Puteolos : the modern Pozzuoli, is a seaport town of Campania on 
the east side of the Bay of Baiae, a few miles west of Naples. It 
was founded by Greeks from Cumae, and became a Roman colony in 
B.C. 194. It was a favourite resort of the wealthy and fashionable 
(lavti) classes of Rome because of its mineral springs {aquue). 

concidi paene : " I almost sank into the earth" or "collapsed." 
The expression is a colloquial one. 

num quidnam . . . novi : " any news at all 1 " a favourite form of 
greeting among the Romans. For novl, cp. gloriae, § 64. 

Ch. XXVII. Syracusis : there were two Quaestors in Sicily, one 
stationed at Syracuse, the other at Lilybaeura at the opposite 
(western) end of the island. The latter was Cicero's station, and 
the point is that the would-be clever person who tried to correct the 
first speaker's mistake about Africa showed that he did not know 
much better himself. 

quid multa? sc. dicam. "Why make a long story of it?" 
"Well ." 

feci: "made myself out (pretended) to be." Cp. /acto me alias 
res agere, " 1 am pretending to have other business." 

§ 66. hand scio an : "I rather fancy this occurrence did me more 
good." Nescio an, Haud scio an, Dubito an, are used to imply that 
the statement which they introduce is believed rather than otherwise. 
— "I incline to think that," etc. An English sentence beginning 
" I don't know whether," has exactly the opposite meaning : in both 
there is an ellipse of one alternative, but the expressed alternative 
is in Latin the accepted one, in English the rejected one. 

sensi: the Latin perf. following postqioam, etc., is translated by 
an English pluperf. 

auris . . . acris : accusatives plural. 

habitavi in oculis : " I was constantly before the eyes of the public." 

§§ 64—68.] NOTES. 93 

pressi forum : " gave the forum no rest," i.e. was constantly 
engaged in the law-courts, which were a leading feature in Roman 
political life. Of fifty-seven extant speeches of Cicero, twenty were 
delivered between and inclusive of the years 70—63 B.C. 

ianitor : all large houses had their own door-keepers. Cicero 
means that he was never "not at home," at whatever hour. 

cut . . . fuerit : causal, subjunctive. 

cum otiosus sis: "whenever you have leisure;" subjunctive in 
Oratio Obliqua. 

ludis et feriis: cp. notes, §§ 9, 10, 13. 

M. Catonis illud : " that observation of Marcus Cato." For the 
Oi'igines, see Index, s,v. Cato. 

negotii : from nee (old form of Jion), and otium ; it here refers to 
public business. 

si quam habeo laudem : by an attraction very common in Latin 
the subject of the principal sentence (lans) is attracted into the 
relative clause, and into the case of the relative. Cp. in quern, 
primum egressi locum, Troia vocatur^ "the place where they first 
landed is called Troy. 

privata consilia : alluding to his successful suppression of Catilina's 
conspiracy. See Introd. § 1. 

§ 67. munita : munire viam is the technical phrase for "building" 
or " laying down " a road. 

hoc : " on this account," ablative of Cause. 

hue : i.e. ad gloriam. 

a me ortus : i.e. without distinguished ancestors. Cicero was a 
self-made man, with no recommendations of birth. See below {novi 
homines) and note, § 18. 

sorte : " at the bidding of the lot." The province assigned to each 
Quaestor was determined by lot. 

lege : i.e. military service enjoined by law. 

necessitate : in carrying out his father's business. 

minima invidia : ablative of Attendant Circumstances (Ablative 

Ch. XXVIII. § 68. Casslns stated that Cicero was under no 
greater obligation to Planclus than to all other patriotic men ; and 
that he retvarded him, too highly for his trouble by sujyporting him 
in his canditature for the Aedileship. Cicero answers tJiat he will 
reward each of his benefactors when the opportunity presents itself; 
that, however, does fiot cancel his obligations to Plancius, to whom 
he owes his safety (§§ 68—71). 

quod . . . fuerit : subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua, the statement 
being made by Cassius, not by Cicero. 

meo nomine : "on my account," "for my sake." The metaphor is 
from an account-book, in which each person's " account" is entered 
against his "name." Hence nomen often = the "debt" itself, as in 
the next sentence. 


contnrbare : "to become bankrupt;" rationes, "accounts," being 

an ceteris : sc. oportet nom-en cuiusque dissolvere. Before hoo 
nomervy sed must be supplied in translating. 

dissolvere : " pay off." This word and solvere are both technical 
in this sense. 

qui refert, habet : The relations of a debt of money and a debt of 
gratitude are inverse. Debts of money are settled by the paying 
over of the money owed ; debts of gratitude by retaining the 
feeling of gratitude. 

hoc molestiae: i.e. the indictment of Plancius. Molestiae is a 
partitive genitive. 

§ 69. possim : not subjunctive because of the indirect question, 
but potential. The direct question was quid possis? 

meminerim : •' remember " as a state of mind ; recordari, " recall 
to mind," as a passing occurrence. In accordance with this dis- 
tinction memini takes usually the genitive ; recordari nearly always 
the accusative {meritum). 

servatorem : for the allusion, see Index, s.v. Opimius. Tpsum is 
" in his own person," " single-handed." 

sit restitutus: the subjunctive is due to Virtual Oratio Obliqua, 
as this is a statement of Cassius. So Uheratus sit. For the allusion, 
see Index, *.-». Metellus (Numidicus). 

sno nomine : " on account of his own reputation." Cp. meo nomine^ 
§ 68, note. 

Ch. XXIX. quod ipse : the relative refers to the whole of the 
following oblique statement. 

non dubitaret : dvhito with infinitive = " hesitate ; " with quin 
and subjunctive = " doubt." 

praetoriis : " for the election of Praetors." 

patronum : " patron of himself and of his noble house." Familiae 
is a possessive genitive corresponding to the possessive adjective 
suum. The Metelli were one of the highest gentes in Rome, while 
that of Calidius was of only secondary importance ; hence the value 
of Metellus' reminder to the people that Calidius was his patron. 

§ 70. quo loco : " at this point " of my speech. Cp. § 71. 

foisse facturum : the oblique form of fecisset in the apodosis of a 
hypothesis of known falsity in the past. 

utinam : cp. III., § 7, note. 

finitimo bello: by taking Fregellae, a Volscian town of S.E. 
Latium, which attempted a revolt in 125 B.C. on the refusal of the 
senate to grant the civitas, or franchise, to the Italians at large. 

domestico bello : by the killing of Caius Gracchus (121 B.C.), whose 
popular reforms threatened to destroy the power of the senate and 

§71. at enim: often used to introduce an objection that might 
be raised by an opponent, in order to refute it. 

iugulari: Plancius shielded Cicero, who was in danger of being 

§§ 68 — 72.] NOTES. 95 

assassinated during his banishment by the remnants of the Cati- 
linarian conspirators, at that time scattered through Greece. See 
Introd. § 1. 

ab illis : *' on their side," ah denoting the direction from which the 
danger came. Cp. ab laeva, "on the left;" and such phrases as 
dives ah aviicis, " rich in point of friends.'' 

posuit : *' asserted." 

toto illo anno : 58 B.C., when Clodius was tribune of the Plebs, 
and Piso and Gabinius were consuls, the year of Cicero's banishment. 
See Introd. § 1. The ablative is that of the "time within which," 
and must be carefully distinguished from the accusative of the 
"time during which." Thus toto anno means that the occurrences 
happened on various occasions within the whole of a year ; totum 
annum would imply that they lasted without cessation for a complete 
year. (Later writers sometimes use the ablative where Cicero would 
employ the accusative.) 

fermm in foro : it was illegal for a Roman to carry arms within 
the city walls. 

versari : § 42, n. 

nisi forte : " or perhaps," with the implication that what follows is 
absurd. Fully expressed it would be "Surely you don't think so 
unless," etc. 

quod . . . timerent : subjunctive because quod introduces the 
reason attributed to the person addressed. 

quemquam : see note, § 62. 

vivis his : i.e. the iudices ; ablative absolute. 

curia : the Curia ITostilia, the most ancient meeting-place of the 
senate, stood on the north side of the Forum, at the end furthest from 
the Capitol. Julius Caesar built a new Curia in the corresponding 
position on the south side. The senate could, however, be convened 
in any public building, such as a temple. 

t modestia : ironically used — " forbearance." There is another 
reading, molestia. 

Ch. XXX. § 72. Cicero refutes the attacks of Laterensis directed 
against himself personally. He shows that he had not lied, and 
had not invented the facts just to suit the purpose of the moment 

illud : " that observation " (sc. dictuvi). Cp. § 66. 

temporis causa : " to suit the occasion." 

necessitudines familiaritatis : "the obligations of close intimacy ;" 
the genitive is one of definition. 

hoc splendore : ablative of quality. 

mihi debere : because Cicero was defending him, 

gregarii : " common soldiers." 

faciunt inviti ut: "are loth to," "grudge to." The w^clause is 
really explanatory of id. 

coronam civicam : a civic cronm was the crown given by one 


citizen to another who had saved his life in battle. It was composed 
of oak leaves. 

non quo ... sit : the false reason introduced by non quo. See 
not€, § 56, 

accidere : used of lad luck, as contingere of good luck ; evenio and 
evado are indifferent. 

alieno : " a stranger," i.e. one who is not a member of one's family. 

idem : be owes bis life to each ; to one its beginning, to the other 
its preservation. 

§ 73. cum . . . dissimulent : cum is concessive — " though." For 
the meaning of dissinmlo, see note, § 48. The argument is, that men 
are often slow to accept a kindness because they dislike to be under 
obligation to their benefactors. 

cui videatur : " such that gratitude seems inadequate even to 
merely repay it." 

vel periculum : for vel, see § 32, note. 

prosecutus : the technical word for "escorting" one upon a 

sic egisti : " dealt with me to this purpose, namely that." The 
accusative and infinitive clauses stand after egisti as a verb demon- 
strandi, explaining sic. 

§ 74. oratio : the speech delivered in the senate in September 
(57 B.C.), immediately after his return from exile. 

cum . . egissem : this, and statuissem, are concessive clauses, 
subordinate to egi; the sentence is best broken up in translating. 
Possent may be either subjunctive of Virtual Oblique Oratia, or by 
attraction to the mood of egissem, etc. 

causae nostrae : Cicero's own cause or case, as against Clodius and 
others who sent him into exile. 

de scripto : " spoken from manuscript," the occasion being too 
momentous for an extempore speech. 

ad tempus : = tem ports causa, above. 

60 genera , . . quod videatur : generic relative; hence subjunctive ; 
cp. above ei . . . cui. 

genere litterarum: referring to the memoirs of his consulship, 
three books De I'emjforibus Suis, and a poem on the same subject. 

Ch. XXXI. § 76. Cicero ohjects to the unreasonableness a nd un- 
fairness of the reproach that his tears and eiitreaties were of no effect 
in his defence of Cispius (§§ 75, 76). 

quo usque dicis "i " How much longer are you going to talk ? " For 
the quasi-future force of dicis, see note, § 11, and cp. non facts Jinem? 

nihil in Cispio profecisti : " you gained nothing by it in Cispius' 

de Cispio mihi obicies : " Will you bring up Cispius' affair against 

te eodtim auctore : "on your recommendation too" (eodem). 

inyidia: " invidious meaning," "malice." 

§§ 73—79.] KoTEs. 


irridentis magis est : " is the mark or sign of the mocker ; " predi- 
cative genitive. 

his . . . hos : i.e. the iiidices. 

qui debeam : = talis ut deheam. 

§ 76. lacrimulam : the diminutive has an ironical sense—" tiny 

Cispiani: "in Cispius' trial." Cicero had failed to secure the 
acquittal of M. Cispius, vrho was convicted of amhitus, 56 B.C. He 
had been an energetic supporter of Cicero's recall when tribune in 
the previous year. 

qui: i.e. Cispius. Nothing is known of the simultates. 

significarem: interrogative subjunctive, " was I not to make plain ? ' 

Ch. XXXII. § 77. Cice.To kIwws the idleness of the charge that he 
is more grateful to Plancius than to others who deserve it more. It 
is difficult to show his gratitude to all Ms benefactors, as for instance 
to Laterensis himself} hnt he 2>refers to oblige Plancius of the two, 
because to him failure loill mean ruin. There can be no such thing 
as excess of gratitude (§§ 77 — 82). 

quicquam adiumenti : partitive genitive — " any support at all." 
L. Kacilius, as Tribune, 5G B.C., was one of the few men who ventured 
to withstand Clodius' violence on behalf of Cicero and the Senate. 

nuUas neque . . . : see note, § 49. 

per . . . vim : " so far as some men's turbulence went." 

§ 78. crimineris : subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua aitev putas. 

patres conscripti : " senators." This was considered by Roman 
historians to have been a short form for patres et conscripti. The 
patres would then, be the original (patrician) senators ; the conscripti, 
the plebeians who were enrolled in 509 B.C., on the expulsion of 
Tarquin, to fill up the ranks of the Senate. It is thought, however, 
that the name may have been given to distinguish the original senators 
from those patres (heads of families) who were not members. 

in monimento Marl : i.e. the Temple of Honos and Virtus, erected 
by Marius after his victory over the Cimbri, 101 B.C. Here the 
Senate first met to discuss the proposed recall of Cicero, 57 B.C. 

an . . . putem : deliberative subjunctive (subjunctive of the 
modified question). 

a me referendam : see note, § 8, « iudicibus. 

haec cum vides : i.e. how grateful I am to Plancius. 

exercitus : "worried," "troubled." 

concurrunt : the reading is doubtful. Some such nominative as 
viulti or qui de me bene meriti sunt must be supplied from the 
context, and concurrunt will mean "clash," "are at variance." 

§ 79. examinabo : "weigh with weights of my own." Examen is 
the tongue of a balance, and " to examine " is to weigh over in one's 

Ch. XXXIII. agitur : " is at stake." 

in causa dispari : the loss of the suit would mean exile and loss of 

Tlanc. J 


wealth to Plancius, in Laterensis' case merely the disappointment of 
his wishes. 

medius fidias : see note, § 9. 

abiecero . . . tradidero : rhetorical use of the future perfect for 
the simple future in order to emphasize the readiness of Cicero to 
carry out what he said. 

§ 80. nihil quod malim : consecutive subjunctive. 

pietas : here in the limited sense of the duty of the children to 
their parents. 

belli . . . domi : locative cases. 

religionum colentes : for the genitive, see note, § 13. Beligio in 
the singular means " superstition," or " religious awe ;" in the plural, 
" religious observances," or " religion " in our sense of the word. 

sublatis amicitiis : the ablative absolute is equivalent to a condi- 
tional clause — " if friendships are done away with." 

§ 81. alligari : "to be drawn closer " to one another. 

inhumanum : not so strong as our *' inhuman," but used of an 
action that does not become a gentleman, "rude," " unpolished." 

committere ut : " act so as to," with the implication that such 
action is bad. 

§ 82. fnimium esse : some editions insert gratum between these 

ut eum : Le. Cicero himself. 

beneficio complectamini : by acquitting Plancius. 

dicat : the ordinary expression would be either (1) quod gratum 
. . . esse (licit, a causal sentence giving the satisfactory reason for 
the request (comjjleetamini) ; or (2) quod nimium gratus sit, giving 
the satisfactory cause as conceived by the iudiees (Virtual Oblique 
Oration). Instead of these, the two expressions are confused : the 
verb of saying is retained, but itself passes into the subjunctive. Cp. 
Caesar, B. G. V. vi. § 3, contendit (^Bumnorix) . . . pa Him quod 
mare timeret (D.'s own reason, Virtual Oblique Oration), partmi 
quod relig'wnlhus im2)cdiri sese diceret, instead of impediri se dicehat, 
or impediretur, alone. 

quo minus : if what Laterensis says is true, Cicero is of use only to 
the litigant or the offender when brought to justice ; and as the 
iudiees are presumably not such, Cicero is of no use to them and 
they need not trouble to keep friends with him. 

praesidia : " powers of defence." 

voluptati: predicative dative. i>o j^raesidio. 

Ch. XXXIV. § 83. Cicero replies to some minor personalities of 
Laterensis as to his fondness for law, his appeals to tJie juries' pity ^ 
and his hadjoJics (§§ 83 — 85). 

nescio quo modo : " somehow or other." See the note, § 38. 

creber fuisti : " you were very often (busy) on this topic," " you 
made this statement very often." Compare totus in illis, "entirely 
wrapped up in these matters ; " in scrihendo multo esscm crebrio7', 
" much more given to writing." 

§§ 80—84.] NOTES. 99 

in ludos : " that you had been unwilling to let the case come on 
at (Jit. throw it back to) the time of the games." Cicero in defending 
Aediles on previous occasions had made reference to the statues of 
the gods, which were carried round on the occasion of certain Ludl 
on cars (tensac), in order to excite the sympathy of his audience by 
his appeal to these deities on behalf of his clients. Laterensis on 
this account was unwilling to give Cicero this opportunity, and 
accordingly was averse to holding the trial at this time. His wish 
was not gratified, for the Ludi Roviani were in course of celebration 
when the case was heard ; but, as the orator ironically states, 
Laterensis had shown up Cicero's trick and rendered it useless. 

tensis : cars inlaid with silver and ivory on which the statues of 
the gods were brought to the Circi/s Maximus in procession attended 
by the Priests, Magistrates, and Senators. 

misericordiae causa : " to excite pity." 

fecissem : subjunctive in Oratio Obliqua. 

non nihil egisti : " you gained something," "you scored a point." 

fecero : fut. perf. indicative. For this use cp. § 3, nisi ostetidcro. 

praedixeris : pcrf. subjunctive, cuvi causal. 

mea lege : i.e. the Lex TvlUa de ambitu, which Cicero carried in 
his consulship, 63 B.C. It made illegal canvassing punishable by ten 
years of exilium. 

miserabiliores : "exciting pity," "pathetic." Adjectives in hills 
are generally passive, but some few are active, as in Oceano dig- 
sociabili, " the ocean that bars intercourse ; " penetrabile telum, 
"a piercing dart." 

laboris et fori : = laboris forensis — " toil of the forum," i.e. all the 
business of a lawyer. The use of two coordinate nouns in lieu of one 
noun and a qualifying adjective, is known as liendiadys (^V 5td hvdtv) ; 
e.g.pateris libamus et auro, "we pour libations in golden dishes." 
Cp. 5$ 11. 

§ 84. Rhodi : alluding to Cicero's stay at Rhodes, 78—77 B.C., 
where he studied oratory under the rhetorician Apollonius Molo. 
Laterensis had hinted that such a training might make a tricky 
speaker, but not a sound lawyer. 

vnlt : " he means that I have " been at Rhodes. 

Vaccaeis : a people in Hispauia Tarraconensis, living near the 
Douro, about Salamanca. Cicero sarcastically implies that the elo- 
quence of Laterensis was such as might be looked for from one who 
had studied amongst savages. 

bis in Bithynia : Laterensis served during the second Mithradatic 
war (74 — 65 B.C.). Bithynia was a province of Asia Minor, west of 
Paphlagonia, on the coast of the Black Sea, which was bequeathed 
to Rome in 74 B.C., and was at once overrun by Mithradates, King 
of Pontus. Its capital was Nicaea (Ishnik'), near the lake Ascania. 

causis ponderandis : an ablative of manner ; the preposition in is 
usually added — " while weighing the cases." In meaning the phrase 
does not differ much from the ablative absolute causis ponderatis. 
The construction occurs only twice in Cicero. 


§ 85. inCreta : the island was conquered by Q. Metellus 67—66 B.C., 
and was thenceforth a Roman province. Laterensis was probably a 
lefjatKS there. There is a sarcastic allusion to Cicero's fondness for 
puns. Creta or Cretan earth {i.e. chalk) was used in whitening 
garments such as the gown used by candidates {candidati). Hence 
cretatvs! = candidates. 

dixerim : the mood is due to the causal force of qui. So dixeris. 

ad aliquem misissem : i.e. to Pompeius. Cicero wrote a voluminous 
letter to Pompey, who was at that time organising the affairs of 
Asia. The part taken by the orator in preserving the state from the 
Catilinarian conspirators was so boastfully described, that Pompeius 
was disgusted, and left Cicero to the mercy of Clodius. MiHsscm 
is subjunctive in Virtual Oblique Oration. 

Ch. XXXV. § 86. Cicero justifies his Tiasty flight. It was not 
fear of death that drove him away, it was the fear of civil war, and 
of the danger that might befall all good citizens. He also wisJied 
to give the Senate an ojyportunity of showing their gratitude by 
recalling him (§§ 86 — 90). 

discessum : Cicero's usual way of describing what was in fact only 
an anticipation of the sentence of banishment. See Introd. § 1. 

tribunicius terror: "dread of (i.e. caused by) a tribune." The 
adjective does duty for a subjective genitive, as in eonsularis furor 
= furor consulum. The tribune was Clodius, the consuls were 
L. Calpumius Piso and Aulus Gabinius. 

eorum : i.e. the followers of Catilina. 

alter exercitum perdidit : i.e. Piso, who led a large army . to 
Macedonia, and through bad generalship lost a large portion of 
it, .'57 B.C. 

alter vendidit : Gabinius, as proconsul of Syria, restored King 
Ptolemaeus of Egypt to his kingdom for 1,000 Talents, 55 B.C., 
without the authority of the senate, 

emptis provinciis : they bribed the tribune Clodius to let them 
have by vote of the people the provinces they wished for. This act 
was a defiance of the Senate, to whom belonged the right of allot- 
ment of the provinces for each year. 

qui . . . plurimum poterant : i.e. the triumvirs Caesar, Pompeius, 
and Crassus. Caesar had command, as Proconsul, of the army in 
Gaul. Pompeius was influential by his renown in war, Crassus by 
his wealth. 

farialis ilia vox : of Clodius, who committed sacrilege at the 
festival of the Bona Dea, which was taking place at Caesar's house. 
The presence of any male was illegal, but he obtained an admittance 
by disguising himself in women's clothes, in the prosecution of an in- 
trigue with Pompeia, the granddaughter of Sulla, and wife of Caesar. 

acerbissime : " to our bitter indignation." 

§ 87. sierint : the relative is causal, as also with ademerint. Qui 
fuerint is an indirect question. The allusion is to the fact that the 
consuls forbade anyone to put on mourning garments (vestem mutare') 

§§ 85—90.] Nb-M. 101 

as a mark of sympathy with Cicero, although the Senate had passed 
a decree that this should be done. 

patribus : dative of indirect object after adiino, 

in contionibuB : e.g. L. Aelius Lamia, a friend of Cicero, who had ven- 
tured to plead for the orator, was banished Ijy the Consul Gabinius. 

saltator : " mountebank," i.e. Gabinius. Dancing was considered 
disgraceful to a respectable citizen. 

Ch. XXXVI. auxiliis : " allies," abstract for concrete. Cp. the 
use of uigenia for "intellectual men," and of operae, § 47. 

§ 88. fuisse praeclaram : " I confess . . . would have been a fine 
thing." Fuisse =^ fiiturvDi fuisse, just as longum est ov fuit is 
idiomatic for longwn esset ovfnisset. 

viderem: the imperfect, where we should use the pluperfect, implies 
that the effect of the action is lasting, and not a momentary one. 

L. Opimius : see Index. The allusion is to the suppression of 
Caius Gracchus. 

C, Marius : who caused the fall of Saturninus, the revolutionary 
tribune of 100 B.C. Lucius Flaccus was colleague of Marius in the 
consulship of that year, and assisted him. 

Mucius: P. Mucins Scaevola, one of the consuls of 133 B.C., the 
year of Tib. Gracchus' revolution. He took no active part in the 
struggle which led to the death of T. Gracchus ; but he is said to 
have publicly shown his approval of the conduct of Scipio Nasica 
(see Index). 

§ 89. laudi . . . gloriae : datives of the purpose used as (secondary) 

saum . . . defenderet : Metellus (see Index) was the only member 
of the Senate who had the courage to refuse to swear obedience to the 
Agrarian law of Saturninus ; hence it was suum factum not factum 

voluntarium vulnus : it was a " voluntary damage," inasmuch as 
Metellus might have avoided it by taking the oath with the rest of 
the Senate. 

committerem : deliberative subjunctive . 

qui . . . fuissem : the relative is concessive. The allusion is, of 
course, to the prevention of Catilina's plot. 

Ch. XXXVII. § 90. contra rempublicam : " in opposition to the 
interests of the State. E re puhlica expresses the opposite idea. 

putarem . . . vellem: potential subjunctives. 

dicatis : the subjunctive without nt (Oblique Jussive) is regularly 
joined to licet in the sense of " though." Licet ut dicatis means 
" you have permission to say." 

civile praesidium : " constitutional safeguards." Civilis is " what 
befits a good civis." 

Decembri : it was not until Dec. 3, 63 B.C., that Cicero completed 
his preparations against Catilina's followers. They were outlawed 
by a decree of the Senate on Dec. 5th. On Jan. Ist, 62 B.C., the new 

102 ctCEflxy piro plancio, [ch. xxxvii. — xl. 

consuls entered office. Viginti is merely a round number, as we say 

'• in three weeks' time." 
§ 91. in re publica liberum : " an independent politician." 
in hoc: the more usual construction of gratulor is (1) tihi de 

victoria gratvlor, or (2) tihi victoriam gratulor. 
quod me negasti : sc. liberum esse. 

Ch. XXXVIII. omnibus . . . eisdem : referring to Pompeius and 
Caesar, with whom Cicero had made friends, though they were 
largely responsible for his banishment. 

primum : Cicero's argrument is this : No matter what I do, I fail to 
satisfy Laterensis, If I make new friends, he blames my fickleness 
and says I am not independent ; if I do a good service to old friends, 
he calls me too grateful, 

f recuso : there are vv. 11. dcleo (Holden, after Campe) and desino. 

mere : " act heedlessly." 

ut id ne facerem: 7(t ne (= ne^ is used to give special prominence 
to the negative purpose. Cp. § 49. 

§ 92. ut quoniam . . . ut iam : vt is repeated on account of the 
intervening clauses. In translating the oblique portion of this 
section, it is best to convert into direct speech ; i.e. sihl, sese, etc., 
will become the ^rst person (EespvMica), while wecitw, etc., and 
such verbs as tidissew, will pass into the second person (Cicero). 

§ 83. requires : " mis?," "seek for " in vain. 

in orb 3 : '• stand in politics as it Avcre on a wheel." 

illius : i.e. reijmhlicae. 

Ch. XXXIX. Pompeiuln : Pompeius (see Index) had supported 
Cicero's restoration, had got a senatus consiiltum passed in the orator's 
favour, and had been the medium in reconciling him to Caesar. 

taear : deliberative subjunctive. So desim. 

C. Caesaris : Cicero stood on very friendly terms with Caesar 
during the years 56 — 54 B.C., although the latter's support of Clodius 
had led to Cicero's retirement from Rome. 

populi Bomani : by the law of the Tribune Vatinius, conferring 
upon Caesar for five years the command in Illyricum and Cisalpine 
Gaul (59 B.C.). This was extended 55 B.C. by the Lex Trehouia for 
another five yeai-s. 

senatus : the senate had failed to prevent the passing of the Lex 
Vatt/iia, and to cloak its defeat it voluntarily passed a consultum 
adding Transalpine (Narbonese) Gaul and another legion to Caesar's 
command. In 57 B.C., on Cicero's motion, it decreed him a thanks- 
giving (svppl/catio) of the extraordinary length of fifteen days for 
his reduction of the Belgic Gauls. See Index, s. v. Caesar. 

addizi : addico is a law term expressing the sentence of a Praetor 
by which a person or thing was made over to its rightful owner. 

videam : the relative (^?*a*) is causal. Confitear is potential sub- 
junctive, the suppressed protasis being si Caesaris laudihus desim. 

^ 94. videam : subjunctive by attraction to the mood otyugnem. 

§§ 91—98.] NOTES. 103 

navem : *' the ship of the State." 

proposita : " set before us as the goal," " our only object." 

Ch. XL. § 95. Cicero procccdH to describe the dangers that beset 
h hn when Planeiiis siweonred him, in. order to disprove the charge of 
rxnfifjcration which Latcremis had advanced. 

t arcem e cloaca : a proverbial ex]n'ession, "make a mountain out of 
a molehill." There is another reading, arciiut — " an arch of triumph."' 

hominibus : dative of the agent after auditum. 

Sicilian! petivi animo : " I intended to go to Sicily." 

sicut domus : on account of his friendly relations with the Sicilians 
during his Lilybaean Quaestorship and his support of their case 
against Yerrcs. See notes, § G5, and Introd., § 1. 

uno vel maxime : " in the highest degree." Unus with superlatives 
increases the emphasis. Cp. § 97, uvbem unam aniicissimam. 

fratris collegia: "his colleagueships with my brother." Quintus 
Cicero was Aedile 65 B.C., Praetor 62 B.C. ; and in each office he had 
Vergilius as a colleague, 

§96. caliginem: "darkness" metaphorically, i.e. "gloom and misery." 

eiusdem: viz. Clodius, the author of Cicero's exile. 

rei publicae causam: "the same political reasons." llesjjublica 
very often corresponds to our term " politics," e.g. de 7'epubUoa loqui, 
" to speak on a political topic." 

nihil ... est eorum : " nothing of this is the case." 

iter a Vibone: the preposition a is occasionally used with the 
names of towns, when the sense is "from the neighbourhood of." 
Vibo was the head of a district known as the ager Viboniaims. Cp. 
next section. 

terra: " by land." 

petere contendi : "hastened to make the journey to Brundisium." 
Iter is tlie direct object of petere, while the accusative Brundisium 
(motion to) depends upon the verbal notion in iter (" a going," from 
CO, ire). Contendo^ unlike most verbs of "endeavour," regularly 
takes the infinitive. 

Ch. XLI. § 97. quae sunt: "between Vibo and Brundisium," 

Cp, iter a Vibone, § 96, ?i. 

in fide mea : " loyal to me," " owed me allegiance." Cp. § 101, note. 

vellet . . . pateretur: potential. The urbs una is Brundisium, 
which he did not actually enter. 

hortos : " country-seat," a residence with extensive grounds. 

omnis metus : "fears of every kind." 

exaudiens : " catching to the very last." The verb means " to hear 
when there is an obstacle in the way," whether of space or otherwise. 

§ 98. refertam : the ablative as well as the genitive is found with 
this adjective. 

potuissent: subjunctive because anteciuani here implies purpose. 

viam : an accusative of extent which here expresses the measure 
of distance away. 


insignibus abiectis: i.e. the toga praetexta, the official dress of the 
Quaestor, who was also allowed the attendance of lictors when engaged 
in provincial duties. 

§ 99. memoriam : exclamatory accusative. 

audita . . . visu : ablatives of respect after crudelis and n°faria. 

quaestorium : formed like praetorium (from j^raefo;-), "the 
Quaestor's residence." 

de praetore : Appuleius Saturninus, who ought, as superior magis- 
trate, to have entertained Cicero, but was afraid to do so, and left 
the duty to his Quaestor. 

§ 100. legatus : "had held a commission under my brother," i.e. 
had gone as an aide-de-camp of Q. Cicero, when Praetor, to Asia, 
60 B.C. Any magistrate with a military imper'mm Qi.e. in actual 
command of troops) might have a certain number of legati, or 
deputies, to relieve him of part of his duties. 

exulibus ; the outlawed remnant of the Catilinarians. 

persona : properly a theatrical " mask," and so " character," " role." 

comitis : sc. persona ; see note, § 27. Plancius behaved as 
assiduously and courteously as if Cicero were the real Quaestor and 
himself only a comes, or attache. 

Ch. XLII. § 101. Peroration : An appeal to the viercy of the jury 
and tlie president (§§ 101—104). 

me . . . relaturum : the clause is appositive to vana, the direct 
object oi pollicebar, which it explains. 

hos : i.e. the indices. So Jiorwn below. 

fidem : *' help," a natural meaning arising from that of a " promise 
of loyalty " or assistance. 

pollicebar : used of "promising what lies in one's power" while 
promittere is " to undertake" for oneself or for others. 

vel vitae periculo : " even at the risk of their life," ablative of 
attendant circumstance. 

acerbitatibus : " time of bitterness." 

§ 102. possum aliud : BC.facere, a common ellipse. 

exsurge : " rouse yourself." 

divellat : consecutive subjunctive after tarn qui—" so cruel as to 
tear me." 

deprecor: "intercede for." So above dejjrecator fo7'timarum, 
" one who intercedes for your fortunes." 

§ 103. per V08 : the common use of per in adjurations with an 
ellipse of the verb (e.g. 07'o, or ohsecrd). 

laetitiam : ' * give them not the pleasure to boast " (lit. " pleasure 
to them boasting"). 

a vobis persolvere : "discharge by your aid." The phrase is 
technical for " paying by a drauglit on another." 

§ 104. C. Flave : C. Alfius Flavus, the qvacsitor (§ 43). 

de illis : a rather unusual construction of recordor in lieu of tlio 
ordinary accusative. 



Alli^nns, -a, -um : of Allifae, a town of the Pentri in Samnium, 
near the Volturnus, north of the Via Latina between Venafrum and 
Beneventum (§ 22). 

Antonius, -i, ra. : see § 33. 

Aquinas, -atis, adjective : from Aqulnum (^Aquino), a Volscian 
town on the Via Latina, near the eastern border of Latium, north 
of the Liris {Gariffliano). It was famous as the birthplace of the 
Satirist Juvenal (§ 22). 

Arpinas, -atis, adjective : from Arpinum (§ 22). 

Arpinum, -i, n. : an ancient town of the Volscians amongst the 
Sabine Hills on the upper waters of the Liris ( Garigliano). It re- 
ceived the im svffragli in 188 B.C., and was enrolled in the Cornelian 
tribe. It was the birthplace of Caius Marius and Cicero. 

Atina, -ae, f. : a praefectura in the S.E. of Latium in the Sabine 
Hills between Venafrum and Sora, 12 miles east of Arpinum. The 
town still remains under the same name (§§ 19, 22). 

Atinas, -atis, adjective : from Atina. 

Atreus, -ei, m. : (alluded to, § 59, rex ille), was son of Pelops, who 
was son of Tantalus, who was son of Zeus. Atreus was the brother 
of Thyestes, and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. He killed his 
two nephews and served up their flesh to Thyestes, for which the 
gods cursed him and his house. The fulfilment of the curse was a 
favourite theme of the Attic dramatists and their Eoman imitators. 


Bovillae, -arum, f. : near the Alban Lake, about ten miles south of 
Rome on the Via Appia, was in early times an important city of the 
Latin league. It was here that Clodius, Cicero's inveterate enemy, 
was killed by Milo. 

Brundisium, -11, n. : an ancient sea-coast town in Calabria, with a 


good harbour, the chief port of the Romans in the Adriatic, and the 
regular point of departure for Greece. The modern name of the town 
is Brindisi, 

Brutus, -i, m. : Lucius Junius Brutus, the nephew of Tarquinius 
Superbus, feigned madness to save his life from his uncle. When 
Sextus Tarquinius violated liUcretia, Brutus headed the revolt which 
expelled the Tarquins from Rome, 510 B.C. He became one of the 
first consuls at Rome, 509 B.C. Discovering a plot to restore the 
kings, in which his own sons were shown to have had a share, he 
ordered them to be put to death (§ 60), 


Caesar, -aris, m, : (1) Lucius Caesar; see notes, § 51. (2) Caius 
Julius Caesar, was born in 100 B.C. During the Sullan revolution he 
was compelled to fly from Italy, but returned after Sulla's death, and 
gi"adually made himself head of the Democratic or popular party. In 
60 B.C. he was strong enough to form, Avith Pompeius and Crassus, 
the coalition known as the First Triumvirate. As consul 59 B.C. he 
brought forward an Agrarian Law as to the allotment of some Ager 
Puhlimis in Campania, and it w^as by his refusal to swear observance 
of this law that Laterensis first made himself notable (see Introd. § 3). 
In the same year Caesar carried, despite the opposition of the Senate 
under Cato the younger, the law which relieved the puMicani of 
one-third of their contract in the matter of the Asiatic taxes (§ 35). 
Immediately after^ Caesar left for his province of Gaul, where he cam- 
paigned for ten years and completely subdued that country, even 
invading Britain twice (55, 54 B.C.). In 49 B.C. the jealousy of 
Pompeius led to the Civil War. At the battles of Pharsalia (48 B.C.), 
Thapsus (46 B.C.), and Munda (45 B.C.), Caesar crushed opposition, 
and after having been Dictator for four years, was assassinated by 
some of his personal friends on the Ides of March, 44 B.C. 

Calidius, -i, m. : Quintus Calidius, tribune of the plebs, 99 B.C., 
passed the law recalling Q. Metellus Numidicus from exile. In return, 
Metellus' son supported Calidius' candidature for the praetorship, 
78 B.C. (§ 69). 

Caslnas, -atis, adj. : a native of Casinum, a town in the east of 
Latium, on the Via Latina, ten miles west of Venafrum (§ 22), and 
about eight miles east of Aquinura. 

Cassius, -i, m. : Lucius Cassius was junior counsel for Laterensis in 
this case, and brother to Cassius Longinus, one of the murderers of 
Caesar. When civil war broke out between Caesar and J^ompey in 
B.C. 4S, he was sent as Icgatus by the former to Thessaly. In 
44 B.C. be was tribune of the plebs. He took no part in Caesar's 
murder, and after that event he joined Octavianus, so making M. 
Antonius his enemy. When Octavianus and Antonius were recon- 
ciled, Cassius fled to Asia, but after the battle of Philippi (42 B.C.) he 
was pardoned by Antonius. 

Catilina, -ae, m. : Lucius Sergius Catilina, a dissolute and bankrupt 

INDEX. • 107 

patrician, formed a succession of conspiracies in Rome, with the 
object of retrieving his ruined fortunes by becoming champion of 
the democratic or popular party. At the time of the firet plot 
(65 B.C.), the ostensible head of that party was Pompeius, who was 
then absent at the scene of the Mithradatic war. Catilina wished 
to preclude the possibility of his return by overthrowing the govern- 
ment of the Oj^timaUs, and substituting one of the Democrats. After 
several failures, the conspiracy came to a head in the consulship of 
Cicero. 63 B.C. Many knights and senators were involved in the 
plot ; Caesar and Crassus were believed to be implicated ; Antonius, 
the junior consul, was himself a conspirator ; the Italians, especially of Etruria, were arming for Catilina. Cicero was able to keep 
himself informed of the progress of the plot by means of spies, and 
so to avoid his assassination which was one of Catilina's first objects. 
Ultimately the conspiracy was denounced by Cicero in the Senate 
(see § 90,^^) ; but Catilina had already left Eome to join the insur- 
gents in Eiraria, when the four most notable of his colleagues were 
arrested. In a protracted debate Caesar advocated leniency, while 
Cicero advised the Senate to order the execution of the prisoners, 
whom he caused to be executed without trial and without due 
authority. Catilina was defeated, and slain at Pistoria {Plstoja) in 
Etruria. It was for his action on this occasion that Cicero was subse- 
quently banished, and the resentment of the Catilinarian refugees 
imperilled his life when in exile (§ 98). 

Cato, -onis, m, : (1) Marcus Porcius Cato, born at Tusculum, 231 
B.C., served against Hannibal in the Second Punic War (218—203 
B.C.) ; and in 111 I B.C., was the chief agent in the defeat of Antiochus 
at Thermopylae. He was a distinguished orator, and his censorship, 
184 B.C., is remarkable for the attempts he made, though unsuccess- 
fully, to check the growing degeneracy which was gradually under- 
mining all the simple and hardy qualities of the old Ilomans. His 
opposition was chiefly directed against the Hellenising spirit of the 
day, the representative of which was Scipio. Yet in his old age he 
studied Greek. His literary fame rests especially on his Origines 
the first Latin historical work ; embracing the history of Rome down 
to 150 B.C. (§§ 20, 66). (2) M. Porcius Cato the younger, great- 
grandson of No. 1, was one of the most obstinate leaders of the Oj)- 
timates. It was his refusal to meet the wishes of ihe 2Jublu'a7ii which 
compelled Caesar to appeal to the people on their behalf (§ 35). He 
sided with Pompeius in the Civil War, was in the army defeated at 
Thapsus 46 B.C., and committed suicide after that defeat, at Utica. 
Hence he acquired the surname of Uticensis. 

Catulus, -i, m. : Quintus Lutatius Catulus was three times defeated 
in the consular elections by Serranus, Fimbria, and Mallius. The 
fourth time he was successful, and became the colleague of Marius in 
102 B.C. In the next year he defeated the Cimbri with great loss at 
Vercellae. In 100 B.C. he took a leading part against the demagogae 
Saturninus, and as an adherent of the Optimatcs was proscribed by 
Marius and committed suicide, 87 B.C. (§ 12). 


Cicero, -onis, m. : (1) Marcus TuUius Cicero, the oi-ator ; see Introd. 
§ 1 ; (2) Quintus Tullius Cicero, younger brother of Marcus, was born 
102 B.C., studied Khetoric at Athens, returned to Rome, and in 65 
B.C., became plebeian Aedile. In 63 he supported Caesar in his oppo- 
sition to the stringent measures taken against the Catilinariaus. 
From 61 B.c, to 59 B.C. he held the office of propraetor of Asia. In 
58 B.C. he was one of the most active agents in securing his brother's 
recall. He acted as a legatvs to both Pompeius and Caesar, and was 
with the latter when Britain was invaded, 54 B.C. In the civil war 
he sided with the Ojjtimates in a half-hearted fashion. He received 
pardon from Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia B.C. 48 ; and was put 
to death by the Triumvirs, 43 B.C. (§ 20). 

Cispius, -i, m. : see § 76. 

Clodius, -i, m. : Publius Clodius Pulcher, Cicero's bitterest opponent, 
had served in the army of Lucullus B.C. 67, and was an active agent 
in stirring up disaffection against his general. In 62 B.C. the rites of 
the Bo7ia Dea, an exclusively female festival, were celebrated at the 
house of Caesar, who was then Pontifex Maximus. Clodius, who had 
an intrigue with Caesar's wife, made his way in, disguised in female 
attire. He was discovered and impeached for impiety. An alibi 
would have been established had not Cicero come forward and proved 
that Clodius was in Rome on the day in question. He was never- 
theless acquitted, 61 B.C. He now determined to be revenged on 
Cicero ; and to carry out his purpose got himself elected tribune of the 
plebs, passing, as was necessary, voluntarily into a plebeian family. 
He became the agent of Caesar and the Triumvirs, who disliked 
Cicero ; and one of his first acts of office (58 B.C.) was to bring forward 
a bill banishing anyone that had put a citizen to death without trial. 
Cicero was forced to leave Rome (see Introd. § 1), and when his de- 
parture was known, the bill pronouncing his banishment was passed. 
Clodius now that he had gratified his revenge, no longer cared to keep 
on good terms with the Triumvirs, and gave them such offence by his 
conduct that they suffered Cicero to be recalled. In B.C. 53, he was 
a candidate for the praetorship, and his enemy, Milo, stood for the 
consulship. There were daily conflicts between the armed bands that 
accompanied each, and in one of them Clodius was murdered 52 B.C., 
near Bovillae (§ 86). 

CoruncaniuB, -i. m. : Tiberius Coruncanius, of Tusculum, was one 
of the types of the old Romans. He was the firet plebeian Pontifex 
Maximus ; held all the chief offices of state; was consul 280 B.C., 
when he fought against Pyrrhus ; and triumphed over the Volsinians 
and Volscians. In 240 B.C. he was dictator, and he was well known 
as a celebrated jurist (§ 20). 

CrassuB, -i, m. : (1) M. Licinius Crassus, surnamed Dives, was 
praetor in 72 B.C., when Spartacus defeated the two consuls for that 
year. He had greatly distinguished himself in the wars of Sulla, and 
was entrusted with the command of this war ; which, by his vigorous 
measures, he soon brought to an end. Supported by Pompeius, he 
obtained the consulship for the year 70 B.C. ; and with Caesar and 

INDEX. 109 

Pompeius he formed the so-called First Triumvirate in 60 B.C. Crassus 
owed this to the influence which he commanded by his wealth and 
vast possessions, obtained chiefly through the Sullan confiscations. 
He was consul again. 55 B.C., when he passed a Lex de Sodaliciis 
under which Plancius was indicted by Laterensis. (See Introd. § 4.) 
He left Rome soon after to take over the war against the Parthians, 
and was killed at Carrhae, 53 B.C., losing an army of 20,000 men. (2) 
Lucius Crassus. See note, § .38. (3) P. Crassus, surnamed Lusitanicus 
for his victory over the Spaniards of Lusitania, 93 B.C. (§ 32). 

Curius, -i, m. : Manius Curius Dentatus, a novus homo, reached the 
highest offices in the state, was consul 290 B.C., and in this year 
triumphed twice over the Samnites and Sabines, having ended the 
third Saranite War. In 275 B.C. he was consul again, and triumphed 
over the Samnites and King Pyrrhus, whom he defeated at Beneven- 
tum. He held a third consulship in the following year when Pyrrhus 
left Italy. He was the man who was found by the Samnite envoys 
roasting his meal of turnips (§ 60). 

Cyrenae -arum, and Cyrene, -es, f . : the chief town of the province of 
the Cyrenaica in Libya, bordering on the east upon Egypt and upon 
the Syrtes and the Libyan desert on the west. It was a Greek 
colony, founded 631 B.C., and is now known as Ohrennah (§ 63). 


Driistis, -i, m. : Marcus Livius Drusus was Tribune of the plebs, 
91 B.C. As a supporter of the Optimutes he had taken up arms 
against Saturninus, 100 B.C. In his tribunate he introduced some 
democratic reforms for his own party, obtained the restoration of the 
indicia for the senators, and at the same time introduced three 
hundred knights into the senate. This last measure displeased the 
senators, and did not even please the knights. He distributed corn 
at a low price and established colonies in Italy. The hope of the 
franchise was held out to the Latins and the Italian allies. This 
roused bitter hostility against him. A secret society was formed to 
protect him ; and this developed into a league of the Italians aiming 
at the acquisition of the civitas by force of arms. Dmsus was assas- 
sinated before the league could act. and his death was the immediate 
signal for the outbreak of the Social War, 91 B.C. (§ 33). 

Duellius, -i, m. : Caius Duellius (or Duilius), consul 260 B.C., de- 
feated the Carthaginians at 3fylae, and was thus the first Roman to 
achieve a naval victoiy. The event was commemorated by the 
Columna Rostrata, a column in the Forum, adorned with the beaks 
(rostra) of the captured ships. These were afterwai-ds transferred to 
the platform for public speakers, which thence acquired its name of 
the Eostra (_§ 60). 

Dyrrhachium, -i, n. : a famous sea-coast town of Grecian Illyria, 
the landing place of persons journeying to Greece from Italy by way 
of Brundisium, which lay due west of it. It was foimerly called 
Epidamnus. The modern name is Burazzo (§ 98). 


Fabius, -i, m. : Q. Fabius Maximus, five times consul and once 
dictator, won the name of Cimctator by his military policy of refus- 
ing to meet Hannibal in a pitched battle and preferring to wear him 
out by delay. To him was mainly due the failure of Hannibal's 
invasion of Italy in the Second Punic War (§ 60). Poets call him 
iinus qui nobis cunctando restituit rem. 

Fabricius, -i, ni. : Caius Fabricius Luscinus, thrice a consul, went 
as envoy to Pyrrhus, 280 B.C. The King tried his utmost to win 
Fabricius by bribery, but without effect. He enjoyed four triumphs, 
and was one of the stock types of the Roman of olden times (§ 60). 

Fimbria, -ae, m. ; Gaius Flavins Fimbria was a novus homo, and 
colleague of Marius in the consulship of 104 B.C. He took a leading 
part against Saturninus, 100 B.C. (Not to be confounded with his 
bon, of the same name, a violent partisan of Marias, who was sent 
into Asia as Icgatus of Flaccus. He instigated the murder of Flaccus, 
86 B.C., and made himself commander-in-chief until the arrival of 
Sulla (84 B.C.) compelled him to commit suicide.) (§§ 12, 52.) 

Flaccus, -i, m. : (1) and (2) Lucius Flaccus, see §§ 27, 88 ; (3) 
Laenius Flaccus, a friend of Atticus, entertained Cicero at Brundisium 
(§ 97). 


Gabii, -orum, m. : a colony of Alba Longa, once one of the most 
important members of the Latin league, lyingf twelve miles due east 
of Eomc on the road to Praeneste. It fell into a decayed and deserted 
state in the later times of the republic. 

Gracchus, -i, m. : (1) Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, son-in-law of 
Appius Claudius and brother-in-law of Scipio Aemilianus, under whom 
he served at the siege of Carthage, B.C. 146, and was the first to scale 
the walls. As quaestor in Spain, 137 B.C., he succeeded in preserving 
a Roman army from destruction. Three years afterwards he became 
a candidate for the tribunate, and was elected for 133 B.C. He 
entered on office with a fixed purpose. He had noticed the desolate 
condition of Italy, and the vast stretches of land of land where only 
slaves and cattle were to be seen. Gracchus, with the support of 
Appius Claudius, P. Mucins Scaevola, and Crassus the Pontifex 
Maximus, brought forward his agrarian reforms. No one was to 
possess more than five hundred iugera of the public land, but every 
possessor might hold in addition two hundred and fifty iugera for 
each of his sons. The rest of the Agcr Publicvs was to be distributed 
among the poorer citizens, who were forbidden to alienate the land 
thus received. Three commissioners were to see that these measures 
were carried out. The bill naturally caused great excitement among 
the rich landowners. They persuaded M. Octavius, a fellow tribune 
of Gracchus, to veto his measure. Tiberius then resorted to the 
desperate expedient of deposing Octavius from his office, an act which 
was a direct violation of the Roman constitution. The law was then 


passed, and Gracchus put up for re-election for the following year. 
A riot broke out. Scipio Nasica, the leader of the extreme Ojitiviates, 
after appealing in vain to the Consul Mucius Scacvola to stop the 
election, headed his adherents and attacked Gracchus and his party. 
Tiberius was slain in the riot. His reforms were resumed by (2) has 
brother Caius ; see s.v. Opimius. 


Hortensius, -i, m. : Quintus Hortensius, engaged with Cicero for 
the defence of Plancius, was the leading Roman orator till Cicero dis- 
placed him in B.C. 70. He was born B.C. 114, and served in the 
Social War, 90 B.C. ; spoke against Cicero for the tirst time, 81 B.C. ; 
and for the last time in support of Verres. After this his energy 
abated. He spoke several times on the same side as Cicero, allowing 
his rival to speak last, a concession which was always made to the 
best speaker. He abandoned political life after the coalition of 
Pompeius, Caesar, and Crassus, 60 B.C. He was a staunchsupporter 
of the Optimate party (§ 37). 

labicum, -i, n., and Labici, -orum, m. : an ancient Latin town, 
fifteen miles south-east of Rome, to the north of Mons Albanus. It 
became a Roman colony, 418 B.C. 

Laterensis, -is, m. : tSee Introd. § 3. 


Macedonia, -ae, f. : conquered from Perseus, 168 B.C., became a 
Roman province, 146 B.C. It was bounded on the east by Thrace, and 
stretched on the west and south so far as to include Thessaly and 
Epirus. Its capital was Thessalonica (Salonikl) or Therma, where 
were the headquarters of Cn. Plancius when quaestor here, 58 B.C. 

Mallius, -i, m. : See § 12. 

Marcellus, -i, m. ; Marcus Claudius, was consul 222 B.C., and 
triumphed over the Insubrian Gauls, having won the last S2)oli(i 
opima from the Gallic leader Viridomarus, king of the Insubres, at 
Clastidium. In the year 214 B.C. he was consul again, and conducted 
the war in Sicily against the Carthaginians. After taking Leontini 
he laid siege to Syracuse, but was baffled for two years by the skill 
of Archimedes, till, assisted by treachery, he captured the city in 
212 B.C. In the year 208 B.C. he met his death in battle against 
Hannibal at Venusia (§ 60). 

Marius, -i, m. : Caius Marius was a native of Arpinum. He was 
of low birth, and is even said to have bean a hired labourer before he 
ioined the army. His military prowess attracted the favourable 
notice of Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia, 134 B.C., who even spoke of 
him as a coming general. He was defeated when candidate for the 
aedileship (§ 51), but obtained the praetorship B.C. 115. His marriage 


with Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar, added greatly to his influence. 
Jn 109 B.C. he accompanied the consul Metellus to Africa as his 
lieutenant, and distinguished himself in the campaign against 
Jugurtha. He returned to Kome, and was elected consul, with com- 
mand in Numidia. Jugurtha was captured after a long resistance in 
106 B.C. ; and in 104 B.c.Marius was consul for the second time. To 
meet the hordes of barbarians that were threatening Italy, he was 
elected consul again annually for the years 103 — 100 B.C. The 
Teutones and Ambrones were annihilated by him at Aquae Sextiae 
102 B.C., and conjointly with Catulus he destroyed the Cimbri at 
Vercellae 101 B.C. He aided Saturninus in his democratic reform 5, 
100 B.C., as the price of his consulate for that year, then joined the 
Optimates and crushed Saturninus (§ 88). He took part in the 
Social War, but was eclipsed by Sulla. In 88 B.C. Sulla obtained 
the command in the war against Mithradates. Marius intrigued to 
deprive him of it ; Sulla thereupon marched upon Rome, and Marius 
was forced to escape in a vessel. Stress of weather compelled him 
to land at Circeii, and he took refuge in a marsh near Mintumae 
(§ 26), where he was discovered and handed over to the authorities 
of Mintumae, who at first imprisoned him but afterwards gave hira 
a vessel in which he succeeded in arriving in Africa. Obliged to 
leave Africa by the governor of that province, he joined Cinna and 
returned to Rome with him 87 B.C. His death took place shortly 
after the commencement of his seventh consulship, 86 B.C. 

Metellus, -i, m. : 1. Q. Metellus, surnaraed Creticus for his services 
in Crete, 67 B.C. (§§ 27, 61). 2. Q. Metellus Numidicus, so-called for 
his successes against Jugurtha in Numidia, 109-8 B.C. On being super- 
seded by Marius he returned to Rome and was accused of extortion, 
but acquitted. He was censor 102 B.C. In 100 B.C. he voluntarily 
retired from Rome to avoid civil strife, because he had refused to 
swear obedience to an agrarian law which the Tribune Saturninus 
had passed by force. This law contained a provision that the Senate 
should swear obedience within five days after its enactment. He 
was recalled by the Lex Calidia, 99 B.C. 3. Q. Metellus, son of 
Numidicus, obtained the name of Pius from his devotion to his 
father. He was praetor in B.C. 87, and saw active service in the 
Social War. He left for Africa, when Marius joined Cinna in Italy, 
and aided Sulla against the Marians in 83 B.C. In 80 he was consul 
with Sulla, and as proconsul carried on the Sertorian war in Spain, 
triumphing with Pompeius in 71 B.C. He was afterwards Pontifex 
Maximus (§ 69). 

Mintumae, -arum, 1 : a coast town of Southern Latium on the 
Via Apjpia, situated on the bank of the Liiis {Oarigliano). See s.v. 


Octavius, -i, m. : see § 51. 

Opimius, -i, m. : Lucius Opimius was consul in the year 121 B.O, 

INDEX. 113 

when C&vu^ Gracchus (brother of Tiberius ; s.v. Gracchus) had made 
himself virtually monarch of Rome by his democratic reforms. 
Opimius was a personal enemy of Gracchus, and one of the first acts 
of his consulship was a proposal to repeal the law of Gracchus for 
colonising the site of Carthage. Soon after Gracchus was declared 
a public enemy. His followers entrenched themselves on the Aven- 
tine, where L. Opimius attacked them with an armed force. Gracchus 
was slain in the struggle that ensued. Opimius was banished 109 B.C. 
on the charge of receiving bribes from Jugurtha. He retired to 
Dyrrhachium, where he died some years afterwards in great poverty 
(§ 69). 


Fedius, -i, m. : Quintus Pedius, who was an unsuccessful competitor 
in the year that Plancius was elected, was probably the grandson of 
Caesar's sister, Julia. He was Caesar's legatus in Gaul, was praetor 
B.C. 48, and served B.C. 45 against Pompey in Spain. The Zex 
Pedia was brought forward by him 43 B.C., punishing all the 
murderers (.f Julius Caesar with banishment. 

Philippug, -1, m. : see § .52. 

Piso, -onis m. : L. Calpumius Piso, father-in-law of Julius Caesar, 
was consul with A. Gabinius in the year of Clodius' Tribunate, 58 B.C. 
Both consuls sided with Clodius against Cicero (§§ 86, 87). 

Fompeius, -i, m. : Cnaeus Porapeius Magnus was born 106 B.C., 
and distinguished himself against the Italians in the Social War. 
He obtained three triutnphs — (a) in 81 B.C., over the African Prince 
larbas ; (b) in 71, over the Spaniards ; and (c) in 61, for his victories 
in the East. He was Consul in 70 B.C., and also in 52 B.C. — on the 
latter occasion without any colleague. The Lex Gahinia of 67 B.C. 
invested him with exi:raordinaiy powers in the Mediterranean in 
order to extirpate the pirates, and the Lex Manilla gave him the 
commard against Mithradates, 66 B.C. In 60 B.C. he formed the 
First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus, and made use of Clodius 
to get rid of Cicero, as a warning to the rest of the Optimates, 58 B.C. 
Subsequently he assisted the recall of Cicero out of spite to Clodius, 
finding himself unable to keep the latter under control, 57 B.C. (§ 93). 
He was. on his return from the East, the most powerful person in 
Rome (§ 86, nn.y, but he soon became jealous of Caesar, and eventually 
broke with him altogether. When Caesar crossed the Rubicon, and 
marched on Home, in 49 B.C., Pompey was obliged to retire to 
Thessaly, where he suffered a severe defeat at Pharsalia in 48 B.C. 
Thereupon he fled to Egypt, where he was killed. 

Fraeneste, indccl. : now Pale!<triy)a, 20 miles south-ea^^t of Rome, 
in the Sabine hills, and on the frontiers of the Aequi (§ 63). 

Futeoli, -omm, m. : see § 65, n. 

KaciliuB, -i. m. : see § 77. 

Regulue, -i, m. : Atilius Regulus Calatinus consul, 258 B.C., during 
Plane. Q 


the First Punic War. He was Dictator 249 B.C. (§ 60). [Not to be 
confouaded with M. Atilins Recrulus, who invaded Africa 256, and 
was captured by the Carthaginians, who put him to death for his 
refusal to assist them in obtaining peace from the Senate.] 

Rhodus, -i, f . : Rhodes, the large island off the southern coast of 
Caria in Asia Minor. It was celebrated for its schools of Rhetoric, 
and, like Athens, served as a kind of University to young Romans. 
See Introd. 1 (§ 84). 


Satnrnimis, -i, m. : Cn. Satnminus, a relative of Plancius and a 
witness in his defence (§ 27). [To be distinguished carefully from 
(1) L. Appuleius Saturninus, Tribune 100 B.C., whose democratic 
reforms were crushed by Marius (q.v,') ; and (2) L. App. Saturninus, of 
Atina, Praetor of Macedonia, 58 B.C. See §§ 28, 99.] 

Scaevola, -ae, m. : Q. Mucins, the famous jurist and Pontifex 
Maximus, was consul 95 B.C., and took up arms against Saturninus, 
100 B.C. Cicero was one of his pupils in law. He was Pr praetor of 
Asia for nine months, and by his justness and strictness in con- 
demning the oppressions of the pnhlicani he incurred their hatred 
(§ 33). He was murdered during the battle of Sacriportus, 82 B.C. 

Scipio, -onis, m. : (1) Cn. Scipio Calvus (§ 60), father of Scipio 
Nasica, was consul B.C. 222. In 218 B.C., at the beginning of the 
Second Punic War, he was despatched by his brother Publius to Spain. 
There he was shortly afterwards joined by Publius, and both spent 
five years in campaigns against the Carthaginians till, in 212 B.C., 
they fell in battle. (2) Publius Cornelius Scipio (§ 60), consul 218 
B.C., was defeated by Hannibal at the battle of the Ticinus in that 
year. See No. 1 above. (3) Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus 
Maior (§ 60) was the son of No. 2. He was present at the battle of 
Ticinus, fought at Cannae 216 B.C, and was chosen as Proconsul to 
conduct the war in Spain 211 B.C. By 207 B.C. he had won for the 
Romans nearly the whole of Spain. In 206 B.C. he crossed over to 
Africa in the hope of gaining alliances among the African kings, and 
in the same year returned to Rome to offer himself as candidate for the 
consulship. Though he had not yet filled the office of Praetor, and 
was but thirty years of age, he was unanimously elected. In 204 B.C. 
he crossed over to Africa as Proconsul, and ended the Second Punic 
War by the decisive battle of Zama, 202 B.C. He died at Liternum, 
183 B.C., where he had retired after he had left Rome in disgust at a 
prosecution that he had been exposed to. His last wish was said to 
have been that he might not be buried in his ungrateful country 
(§ 60). (4) P. Cornelius Scipio NasTca Scrapie (§§ 51, 88) was 
grandson of the elder Scipio Nasica and cousin of Tiberius Gracchus. 
He was Pontifex Maximus in 133 B.C. during the Tribunate of 
Tiberius Gracchus, and headed the more violent part of the Senate 
in the opposition to this reformer's projects. He led the attack 
which caused the death of Tiberius. Cicero always extols this act 

INDEX. 115 

in the highest terms. At the time however popular indignation was 
so strong that he was obliged to leave Italy. He died shortly after 
at Pergamus. (5) P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica, son of No. 4, consul 
HI B.C. and a famous wit (§ 33). He declared a institiuvi (§ 33, n.) 
in consequence of the people's resolve to repudiate the shameful 
peace accorded to Jugurtha, Prince of Numidia, who had murdered 
his relatives and seized their possessions, in defiance of Roman 
intervention, and in 112 B.C. had massacred the entire Italian 
population of the African trading town of Cirta. 

Serranus, -i, m. : see § 12. 

Sora, -ae, f. : the most northern town of the Volsci, became a Latin 
colony after the end of the Second Samnite War B.C. 303. It was 
situated near the river Liris {Garigiiano), about 8 miles north of 

Soranus, -a, -urn : belonging to Sora. 


Tullius, -i, m. : see § 51. 

Tusciilum, -i, n. : fc-unded, according to the legend, by Telcgonus, 
son of Ulysses and Circe, was only about 10 miles south-tasc uf Rome. 
In early times it was one of the most important towns in Latium, but 
like the other Latin towns its glory decayed. It was a favourite 
residence of Cicero, who possessed a villa there which he called his 


Venafranus, -a, urn : belonging to Venafrum. 

Venairum, -i, n. : the most northerly town of Campania, close to 
the borders of Latium and aiew miles east of Caslnum. 

Vibo, -onis : (§§ 96, 97) a mvnicijfiuvi in the Bruttian territory, on 
the west coast of Italy. It was originally a Greek colony, and its 
Greek name was Hipponium. The Romans colonized it after the 
Second Punic War, 194 B.C. 




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