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THE HORITES. 



BY THE REV. JOHN CAMPBELL, M. A., TORONTO. 



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THE HORITES. 



BY THE ItEV. JOHN CAMPBELL, M.A., TOUONTO. 



The student of Biblical History cannot fail to notice the remark- 
able prominence given to one supposed Canaanitish people over all 
others mentioned in the Pentateuch. This is the tribe of the 
Horites, who dwelt in their mount Seir. The first mention of this 
family is in Genesis xiv. 6, where they are numbered among the 
peoples defeated by Ohedorlaomer and his associates. In Deuteronomy 
ii. 12, 22, they are again spoken of as the ancient possessors of the 
land occupied by the descendants of Esau. Bishop Patrick supposed 
that the Horites had dwelt in that region since the days of the 
Deluge, although he did not suggest a line of Noah's descendants 
with whom they might have been connected.' In Genesis xxxvi. a 
singularly minute and full account is given of the families of this 
people, the only apparent reason for it being that Esau and his son 
Eliphaz married women of their race, and that the Edomites dwelt 
with them in the land of Seii*. The genealogies of the Horites there 
given are as follow : 

" These are the sons of Seir the Horite, who inhabited the land ; 
Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and 
Dishan : these are the dukes of the Horites, the children of Seir, in 
the land of Edom. And the children of Lotan were Hori and 
Homam; and Lotan's sister was Timna. And the children of 
Shobal were these ; Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho and 
Onam. And these are the childi-en of Zibeon ; both Ajah, and 
Anah : this was that Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, 
as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. And the children of Anah 
were these ; Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. And 
these are the children of Dishon ; Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, 
and Cheran. The children of Ezar are these ; Bilhan, and Zitavan, 
and Akan. The children of Dishan are these ; Uz, and Aran. 
These are the dukes that came of the Horites ; duke Lotan, duke 
Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah, duke Dishon, duke Ezar, duke 

> Commentary on Oonesis. Ch. xxxvi. 



Dislmn : these are tlie ilnkes that came of Hori, among their dukes 
in the land of Seir." («nnesis xxxvi. 20-30. Amonj^ these wo find 
that Anah, the father of Aholibamah, is (Gen. xxxvi. 2) tlie son of 
Zibeon ; it is, therefore, probable that Dislion, the father of Henidan, 
&c., may be the son of Anah. This woidd reduce the num})er of 
lines to five. If, however, Timna, the concubine of Eliphaz, the son 
of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 12), be the same as Timna, the sister of Lotan, 
it is manifestly impossible to make Lotan a contemporary of Zibeon, 
Anah, or even Dishon. Zibeon must have lived about the time of 
Abraham ; and Shobal, Ezar and Dishon, if they are his brethren, at 
the same period. The importance of this Horite line may be judged 
from the fact of its reappearance in the first chapter of the first book 
of Chronicles, where the above genealogy Ls given with some slight 
variations in the orthogi-aphy of the individual names. 

It is, to say the least, remarkable that a genealogy connecting with 
the family of Abraham in a way comparatively unimportant should 
be given at such length. Esau had other wives, Hittites, of Elon 
and Beeri, yet nothing appears concerning their families but the 
names of their fathei-s. Now the Hittites were a powerful people 
even at the time of Esau, and waged successful wars with many of 
the Pharaohs in later years. True, we find a brief account (Gen, 
xxii. 20) of the immediate descendants of Nahor, the brother of 
Abraham, from whose family came the wife of Isaac and the two 
wives of Jacob ; but this is not to be wondered at seeing that these 
were so intimately connected with the great patriarch himself. The 
sons of Abraham by Keturah, the children of Ishmael, and those of 
Esau, are, as we might expect, named, in some cases, with their 
grandsons. But nothing is recorded of the families to which Hagar, 
or Keturah belonged ; the name of Ishmael's wife is not even 
mentioned ; and no genealogy enlightens us in regai-d to the connec- 
tions formed by the heads of the Twelve Tribes. A simple mention 
of the immediate progenitors of Aholibamah would not have been 
matter of great surprise ; but this long Horite genealogy certainly 
ought to be so with every serious student of the Mosaic record. 

Still more extraordinary should this list appear, if, as almost all 
writers who have treated of them suppose, the Horites were an 
obscure race of uncivilized troglodytes, whom the Edomites without 
much difficulty extirpated. Strange that the great lines of Egypt 
and Assyria should pass without notice ; that the powerful families 



of Moab and Amnion aliould have no record ; that Islimael's grahd- 
Hons do not appoar ; and those miserable cave-dwellers have so much 
of Scripture allotted to them ! Whatever view wo may be inclined 
to take of the books of Moses, whether we regard them as an 
inspired production, or the work of a man wise beyond all his fellows, 
the problem remains the same. What ia the Divine purpose in 
giving such a genealogy 1 or what was the end of the historian in 
placing it on record 'i 

An objection naturally urged against the attempt to answer such a 
question is, that neither sacred nor profane history gives us any 
more information regarding the Horites. This I deny ; for I profess 
to have opened the door at which many have knocked in vain, and 
from induction of facts historical, mythological, philological, and 
geogi*aphical, to be sible to prove the truth of the following six 
propositions regarding this ancient people : 

I. That the Horites were no obscure troglodytes, but a race pre- 
eminently noble and distinguished. 

II. That they have left distinct geographical traces in and about 
Palestine, which find their counterparts in other lands. 

III. That one family of the Horites appears, in a somewhat dis- 
guised form, in the second and fourth chapters of the fii-st book of 
Chronicles, and there furnishes the link of connection with other 
histories than tLat of the Bible. 

IV. That in this family we find many of the divinities and some 
of the earliest rulers of Lower and Upper Egypt. 

V. That from this family came the Caplitorim, who invaded 
Palestine before the close of the wanderings of Israel. 

VI. That reminiscences of the Horites, and confirmation of sJl 
the preceding propositions, are found in the early history and 
mythology of Phccnicia, Chaldea, Arabia, Persia, India, Asia Minor, 
Greece, Italy, and of the Celtic and German peoples. 

I proceed at once to the proof of the above six statements, the 
first two being simply introductory, and depending greatly for confir- 
mation upon the establishment of the tliii-d and following projjositions, 

I. — The Horites were no obscure troglodytes, but a race 

PREEMINENTLY NOBLE AND DISTINGUISHED. 



"Wo liavo nlrcady Keen tlmt some of tlie heads of tribes or dukes of 
this nico were eunteinjionuifH of Abralinin. Their aiu-ostor Scir, and 
that other ancestor Jlori, mentioned in (ien. xxxvi. 30, who cannot 
be the son of Lutan, take iis liack to an ohlor i)eriod stilL In Abra- 
ham's time they were of sufficient importance to attract the attention 
of Chedorlaomer, and dwelt at no gi-eat distance from the cities of 
the [)lain, " tlie opuh'nt Pentajwlis of tlie Jordan." They are chiBsed 
witli the Ropliaim, the Zuzim, the Emim and tJie Avim, wliom there 
is strong i-eason for making Jaj)lietic peoples connecting with 
Riphath, Javan, &c., more especially as their names do not occur 
among the tribes of Ham. They represent a second wave of popu- 
lation moving westward from Babel, the first being a purely Hamitio 
stock that liad passed over Jordan and probably into Egypt, in both 
of which regions they soon became tLo serfs of a nobler race. The 
Shemites, with the exception of Abraham and his family, still kept 
to their ancient seat. Esau, a proud and warlike man, was not 
ashamed to ally himself with a Horite princess. He seems, indeed, 
to have entered upon this alliance on unequal terms, inasmuch as 
certain of the dukes of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 40), Timnah, Alvah, 
Aholibamah, bear Horite names, while no Horite duke bears the 
name of an Edomite. It is also to be noted that two of these are 
the names of females, although they stand at the head of the list of 
the Aluphim or dukes. In ancient times for a woman to give her 
name to a family was a mark of high honour, and such, undoubtedly, 
was the position that the Horite element occupied in the Edomite 
family. Obadiah iii. is often quoted as a passage which pi'oves the 
Horites to have been troglodytes, inasmuch as the Edomites, who 
supplanted them, are there described as dwelling " in the clefts of 
the rock ;" but who will dare to call the proud, free and warlike 
Edomites cave-dwellers 1 A better name should be found for those 
whose skill and marvellous industry fashioned the palaces of Petra, 
leaving marks of a high civilization, that nothing but a great convul- 
sion of nature can efface, whether they be Edomites or the sons of 
Hori. These troglodytes, if men will call them so, were a great 
people. It is interesting to observe that Josephus calls the descen- 
dants of Abraham by Keturah by the same name, and yet represents 
them, quoting the words of an ancient historian, as the conquerors of 
Egypt and founders of the Assyrian Empire.* 

< Joiephi Antlq. Lib. I. Cap. 16. 



But, apart from those fncts, the primary meaning of the root Hot 
or Chor, for the initial letter is the Helirow Cheth, is not a cave- 
dwoller. It wonld bo Htningo indeed if it were. Tlio word is an 
adjective, and means white, pure, and hence nolile. The interpre- 
tation troglo(li/te is a conjectural one, derived from false historical 
reasoning. In so far as tlie meaning obtains in tlie Hebi-ew language, 
it denotes historical corruption of the original sense, such as we find 
in our English words patjan and villain, Whig and Tm'ij, or, better 
still, in the word Bohemian. As well might later writers pretend 
that the original Bolieniians were a Jiorde of vagabonds, as those of 
the present day, that the Horites were a race of miserable dwellers 
in caves. The children of Seir, the Horite, were the white race of 
their age, the purest of all the Japhetic families, the nobles of the 
world's early history. Their name is a synonym for all these quali- 
ties in many tongues, and especially in those of the Indo-European 
class. The Greek heros, a hero, or demi-god, with Ilera the mistress, 
as a name of Juno, the German Ilerr, and hence, by tlie conversion 
of the aspirate into a sibilant, our English Sir, are a few of the later 
forms of this famous word, which fills a large part of the vocabularies 
of many languages.'* It appears in connection with the number 
seven, representing the seven dukes of that princely family, in the 
seven Ilarits, the bright ones of Sanskrit mythology ; and these, with 
the presei'vation of the guttural or strongly aspirated Choth, meet us 
again in the seven Greek Charites, or, without it, in the seven Horaa 
of the same theogony. This is hardly the place yet to enter upon 
the connection of the names of the individual Horites with those 
which appear in the history of the Indo-European families. Still, I 
may be permitted here to indicate some of the links that bind the 
Scripture genealogy to the traditions of ancient nations. Lotan is a 
root that appears in Latona, Latinus, and many other venerable 
names ; nor is it unworthy of attention that, as Latona is the mother 
of Horua Apollo, so Lotan's eldest son bears 4ie identical appellation, 
Hori. Shobal, which connects with Shibboleth, an ear of corn, is, as 
Hyde unwittingly shows, the Arabic Sambula, which he makes 
equivalent to the Greek SibuUa, and also to the Latm Spica, meaning 
the same thing.' In Aholibamah we have, I am assured, the original 

»• Quigniaut, Religions de I'Antiquit^, iii. 833, seq. Fuerst In his valuable lexicon giyen 
Phoenician Hor or Clior, the meaning of which la nobU aod frte. 
* Hjrde, Religlo Veterum Fenanun, 398. 



of the Greek Olympus, in the Ionic dialect Olj^iino-:, a word for 
which IK) derivation can bo found, and all the asBociations of which 
a^?ree admirably with the meaning of the Hebrew term " tent of the 
high place." The very word hamah, Uie high place, survives in the 
Greek bema. I shall yet have occasion to show the force of the 
following Homeric gloss ujjon the words of Moses. Speaking of the 
children of Zibeon the sacred writer says, " This was that Anah that 
found the mules in the Wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon, his 
father." The words of the Greek poet are :* 

" tla^XayovttJv S' rfyiiro TlvKatukvioQ \haiov (cf;p» 
'K£ 'Svcriui/, (i0iv t'lfiioviov yevoc ayportpaiov," 

" The rough heart of Pylaemenes led the Paphlagonian 
Eneti, whence is the stock of wild mules." 

II. — The Horites have left distinct geographical traces 

IN AND ABOUT PALESTINE, WHICH FIND THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN 
OTHER LANDS. 

In the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea I might mention the 
district long known as Syria Sobal, which commemorates the second 
of the Horite dukes.** Among his sons, Manahath gives name to a 
place sjioken of in the 6th verse of the 8th chapter of first Chroni- 
cles, the site of which is unknown. It may have been Minois, 
near Gaza in Philistia, or, as probably, the Mendesian nome of Lower 
Egypt. As for Ebal, the third son of Shobal, a mountain in Central 
Palestine bears his name ; and the region of Gebalitis in tlie vicinity 
of, or included in, Syria Sobal, shows the simple conversion of an 
initial Ayin, represented falsely in our English version as an unas- 
pirated letter, into a coiTesponding Gimel. The root Shepho is so 
common a one that I hardly dare trust myself to point out its 
geographical connections. Onam will be seen by any one capable of 
consulting a Hebrew lexicon to be of the same root as that which 
occurs in Ono, a town of Benjamin, and On, the celebrated city of 
the Sun, in Egypt. Bethana is the house of the god Anah, also 
called Anammelcch or Anah the king. Among the sons of Dishon, 
I need only select Eshban, a word which Gesenlus identifies with 

* Homeri Hind. ii. 851-2. The same Eneti introduced mules into Spain. They are the Anites 
descended from the son of Zibeon. 

** Ritter's Comparative Oeogi-apliy of Palestine, Edin., ii. 134. Keil and Dclitsch (in Gen. 
xxxvi.), good men but typical commentator* of tlie unhistorical class, sneer at the idea of a 
connection between Syria Sobal and Sliobal tlio Horite. The name appears indeed in an 
«poci]^2>h»l book, but is no more an apocryphal name than Gebalitis; 



Heslibon in Moab.* Among those of Ez«v, Akan, or, as he is called in 
1 Chronicles i. 42, Jakan, gives us the important family of the Beni 
Joakan, dwelling in Arabia Petrtea (Numbers xxxiii. 31). Of tho 
Hons of Dishan, Ua appears to have been tho first or most important 
settlor in the land of which the patriarch Job was an inliabitant. 

Dr. Hyde Clarke has already shown in several of his admirable 
papers, that the geographical names of Palestine are those of the 
world.* The majority of these names I have good reason to believe 
are eponymous. The Horites, who left little or no traces in Pales- 
tine, on account of their early emigration to other lands, did not, on 
that account, suffer their names to ijerish, but still "called their 
lands by theii- own names " in whatever pai-t of the world these were 
situated. Latopolis in Egypt and Latium in Italy represent Lotan. 
Hori gives Heroopolis, also in the land of tlie Pharaohs, and unnum- 
bered similar designations of towns in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 
Shobal ajjpears in the Lydian Sipylus and in the great Sabellian 
family of Italy. Alvan, or, as he is called in 1 Chron. i. 40, Allan, 
furnishes the Egyptian Ilahoun, and the famous city Ilium of the 
Troado. Manahath is the founder of Mender, and Mandara or 
Month-ra, and also had his name conferred upon Monetium of tho 
Japodes, like the Eneti, an lUyrian people."* Ebal, in the form of 
Gebal, appears in Phcenicia, and tlio character of the initial sound is 
at once seen in tho form Byblus, which consists in the jiretix of tho 
Coptic article. Onam we have already connected with On or 
Heliopolis in Egypt. The Colchian city jEa may bo a reminiscence 
of A jail, while Anah is almost proved to be the progenitor of the 
Eneti by the fact that thcii- ancestor in the Welsh mythical history 
is Gwynn, a word which reproduces the power of the initial Ay in of 
the Hebrew name.' The sons of Dislion seem to have sent colonies 
to Persia, for Hamadan, Ispahan and Teheran are too near Hemdan, 
Esliban and Ithran to be accidental. In Eshban Ave also find 
Hispania, while Ithran and Tyrrhenia agree. As for Cheran, no 
form is more common in universal geography. Aziris in Libya, and 

6 Geaciiii Lexicon in he. 

I has Iiero to express my public acknowledgment of Dr. Clarke's valuable suggestions in 
connection witli tlie special subject of tliis ilivisiun of tlie paper ; altliougli tlie field to wliicli I 
have couliiiial my attention principally is geojjrapliically, and perhaps clironologically, different 
from that ill which ho has pursued his important investigations. 

■«* We Und Soba, Alva and JIandara in close proximity. Lepsius' Letters, 163. 

T Davies' Celtic Kesearches, 107. 



10 

many similar names in Syria and Asia Minor, remind ns of Ezer. 
Like correspondences are found with the remaining eponyms of the 
Horite family. The question has often been asked, Whence came 
the Phoenicians, that ancient and distinguished people ? Hei-odotus 
and other writers tell us that their own account brought them from 
the shores of the Red Sea.'* Now, on these shores we find the Beni- 
Jaakan of the sons of Ezer, and this compound word, not the Beni- 
Anakim of Bochart, is the original of the national designation 
Phoenician.* It may seem that thus I reduce all the civilized peoples 
of the world to one ancestry, and represent the Horites as the one 
people of antiquity, in the same way as older writers have dealt with 
their Arkites, Atlantides, Cushites, &c. This, however, is not the 
case. There are, at least, six other families of little le.ss importance, 
and many more which contributed largely to early civilization, that 
I hope in time to bring under the notice of the student of ancient 
history.* That we find the Horites, or reminiscences of them, in 
nearly every country need not be matter of surprise, for what has 
been often remarked in regard to the mixture of peoples in the popu- 
lations of Greece and India is true of almost every land possessing a 
histoiy. There is no such thing as a pure civilized race. 

III. — One family of the Horites appears, in a somewhat 

DISGUISED FORM, IN THE SECOND AND FOURTH CHAPTERS OF THE 
FIRST BOOK OF CHRONICLES, AND THERE FURNISHES THE LINK OF 
CONNECTION WITH OTHER HISTORIES THAN THAT OF THE BiBLE. 

A serious objection assails me upon the threshold of proof. It is 
this. The second chapter, and part of the fourth, of the fii-st book 
of Chronicles profess to contain the genealogies of the sons of Judah. 
Under what pretence, then, can I introduce the Horites] I answer, 
upon several good grounds. In the first place, mention is made in 
these genealogies of men who certainly were not «Tews. Such ( 1 Ch. 
ii. 55) are the Kenites, that came of Hemath, the father of the house 
of Rechab, a line mentioned in the second verse of the 35th chapter of 
Jeremiah. Such, also, are the Kenezites, first mentioned in the 19th 
verse of the 15th chapter of Grenesis, and to whom Caleb, the son of 
Jephunneh (Numbers xxxii. 12, Joshua xiv. 6), is said to have 

'• Herodot. vii. 89. Btrabonis Oeog., 766. 

• Bochart, Canaan i. i. 347. 

* Such are the sons of Salma and Hareph (1 Cbron. ii. 61, 64), the Jerahmeelites (It. 36), tlie 
children of Btam (ir. 3), of Ashchur (ir. 6), of Coz (iv, 8), of Kenaz (iv, 19), of Bna (iv. 17), Ao. 



11 

belonged. Their genealogy is given, 1 Chron. iv. 1 3, <kc. In the ninth 
verse of the same chapter, Jabez is more honourable than his brethi'en, 
because he called on the God of Israel, not, we may conclude, on his 
own gods, as his brethren were in the habit of doing, Jabez was no 
Israelite. In the eighteenth verse, a daughter of Pharaoh marries 
Mered (literally the rebel), a most unlikely name for a descendant ot 
Judah. He is doubtless prince Mourhet, who is said to have married 
a daughter of Cheops, and whose features, as represented on the 
Egyptian monuments, are not at all Jewish.'" In the 19th verse, we 
read of Eshtemoa, the Miiachathite ; but the Maachathites (Deut. 
iii. 13, 2 Sam. x. 6), were, with the rreshurites, an independent 
people, who at times warred with the Israelites. Who can throw 
light upon the " ancient things " of verses 21-3 1 With what king of 
Israel do those, who had dominion in Moab, connect as his servants 1 
The names of the supposed descendants of Judah are not Jewish, 
What Jew would call his son Caleb (a dog), a name which so 
frequently occurs and in the greatest confusion 1 The family men- 
tioned in chapter ii. 43-45, is from its names clearly Midianite, and 
two of the names in chapter iv. 25, are Ishmaelite, The second 
chapter, as far as the 17th verse, seems to contain, with a few inter- 
polations, a record of the children of Judah ; the whole of the third 
is taken up with the family of David; but I have no evidence, 
beyond the words of the first verse of the fourth chapter, " The sons 
of Judah ; Pharez, Hezron, and Carmi, and Hur, and Shobal," that 
the families mentioned in it were Israelites in any sense of the term. 
The 23rd chapter of second Samuel, and the 11th chapter of the book 
we are considering, shed some light upon the nationality of those 
mentioned in its second and fourth chapters. In the 54th verse of 
the second chapter, the Netophathites are mentioned, and the Ithrites 
■'n the 53rd verse, while the head of Tekoa appeal's in the fifth of 
the fourth chapter, and a Maachathite in the nineteenth. Now, in 
the chaptera above mentioned (2 Sam. xxiii., and 1 Chron. xi.), we 
find Maharai and Heleb, Netophathites, Ira and Gareb, Ithrites, 
Eliphelet, the Maachathite, and another Ira, a Tekoite, I might 
also compare Hushah, the son of Ezer (1 Chron. iv. 4), with (2 Sam. 
xxiii. 27 and 1 Chron. xi. 29), Mebunnai and Sibbecai, the Husha- 
thites. It may be said that these are still Israelites, taking their 

W Nott and Gliddon In their joint ethnological work, p, 177. Osbum, Monumental History 
of Egypt, i. 464, seq. Lepiiua' Letters, 61. 



12 

names from the towns they inhabited. If so, why is Ittai (2 Sam^ 
xxiii. 29) called a Benjamite, Bani (2 Sam. xxiii. 36) a Gadite, and 
Adina (1 Chron. xi, 42) a Reubenitel It cannot be said that Zelek, 
the Ammonite, Ithmah, the Moabite, Nahari, the Beerothite, and 
Uriah, the Hittite, who are mentioned (2 Sam. xxiii. 37, 39, 
1 Chron. xi. 46) together with them, are Israelites. Tliere is more 
historic tnith than men are aware of in the words of the Apostle 
Paul, " For they are not all Israel which are of Israel." It is plain, 
not only that many had, like Caleb, part and lot with Israel in the 
land of promise who were not descendants of Abraham, but that the 
kingdom of Israel, in the time of David, consisted of a number of 
different nationalities. The line of Jerahmeel, which is given in 
1 Chron. ii. 25-41, is not an ..ibrahamic family, although I do not 
deny that there may have been a Jerahmeel in the line of Judah. 
We meet with these Jerahmeelites in 1 Sam. xxvii. 10, where David 
is represented as telling Achish that he had made a road against the 
south of Judah, and against the south of the Jerahmeelites, and 
against the south of the Kenites, as if they were three distinct 
peoples. Also, in the 30th chapter, the Jerahmeelites and the 
Kenites are sjioken of as dwelling in cities, wliUe the same is not said 
of any of his confederates and friends to whom David sent presents. 
In connection with this passage, as showing the position of Caleb the 
Kenezite, we find (verse 14) the Egyptian slave deserted by the 
Amalekites saying, " We made an invasion upon the south of the 
Cherethites, and upon the coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon 
the south of Caleb." The Cherethites have been clearly shewn, and 
are now generally allowed to have been, Cretans ; and Caleb's 
descendants are no less thoroughly distinguished from the .people of 
Judah than are these Japhetic warriors. 

I might dwell upon the antiquity of Bethlehem Ephratah, which 
(1 Chi'on. ii, 19, 24, 50) derives its name from Ephrath, the wife of 
Caleb, the father or son of Hur, for there is contradiction here ; an 
antiquity which is well shewn (Gen. xxxv. 16, 19) by its possessing 
that name in the time of Jacob. Yet Caleb is the gi-eat-gi-andson of 
Judali by a very late comiection. It is somewhat strange that none 
of the gi-eat names of these genealogies, if we except the immediate 
descendants of Judali, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, over appear 
in any other part of the Bible. With the exceptiqn of the ancestors 
of David, and the families of the Levites iu the sixth chapter, the 



13 

lists are utterly useless for genealogical purposes ; and we have no 
record that the twelve tribes ever employed them for such an end, or 
even that the most learned of their rabbis have been able to reduce 
them to order. It is utterly impossible to reduce them to order, on 
the hypothesis or understanding that they represent the descendants 
of Judah, Benjamin, &c. The Ham and Hur and Salma of Judah 
cannot be reconciled with those of the same name afterward men- 
tioned ; neither can the Beni-Jamin of the seventh chapter be made 
to agree with the children of Jacob's youngest born. What, then, 
it may be asked, is the alternative ] The books of Chronicles are of 
low canonicity — for the Jew places them at the end of the hagi i- 
grapha. Shall they be deemed unworthy of the canon ? Far from 
it. I regard the first book of Chronicles as one of the most valuaL!-; 
books in the Old Testament Scriptures. It contains what is found 
in no other book in the world, a brief but most comprehensive record 
of all the great families of antiquity. It embraces a large Gentile 
genealogy, or series of genealogies, overshadowing those of the 
Hebrew people ; and this accounts for the mystification of all the 
Jewish doctors. They never thought of looking in the inspired 
wiitings of their canon for a sign of the Divine interest in all the 
nations of the earth, beyond that furnished in the tenth chapter of 
Genesis. 

The books of Chronicles are among the least edited, even at the 
present day, of all the books of the Bible. The versions of these 
books differ widely, to an extravagant degree, in the names given in 
the first few chaptei's of the first book and in other particulai-s." It 
may yet be found by scholars possessing greater Oriental erudition 
and greater facilities than I can command, that the connection of the 
sons of Jacob with these Gentile families is the result of ancient 
rabbinical interpolation ; and that a well meant, but injudicious, 
attempt to clear up a mystery has led to the serioiis confusion that 
80 frequently appears. I may state here, once for all, that nothing 
short of the most serious and long settled conviction of the truth 
and important reality of my discovery could induce me to cast a 
doubt upon the presently received views in regard to this portion of 
the Sacred Volume. With the Apostle Paul I trust ever to be able 
to take aa my motto, " We can do nothing against the truth, but for 
the truth," meaning by that Truth the inspired Word of God, 



" E.g., Tbe Septuagiot and Syriac versions. 



u 

whether that inspiration regard matter of doctrine or of history. 
In the meanwhile, I assume thd oon-ectness of our present Hebrew 
version of 'the first book of Chronicles, and, to account for the 
presence of the Gentile names which I find in the first few chapters, 
suggest the following hypotheses : 

1. Together with the descendants of the sons of Jacob, there may 
have been included in, the lists their' connections by marriage. — This 
except in the case of Bithiah the daughter of Pliaraoh, and the 
Kenites (Judges iv. 11), who should have been numbered among the 
descendants of Levi rather than of Judah, I cannot perceive. 

2. Or, together with them, tliere Tnay have been included a mixed 
multitude of otlier races t/iat had suffered oppression along with them 
in Egypt, and liad part in their deliverance. — This might help to 
satisfy Dr. Colenso's doubts, and is true in so far as the Kenites and 
some of the Kenezites are concerned. It must, however, make the 
list retrospective, giving the ancestors of these fugitives back to or 
beyond the time of Abraham. Even thus, my investigations have 
shewn me that it will not account for all the lines mentioned, many 
of whom had little or no late connection with Palestine. 

3. Or — CTid this I think is the truth — Southern Palestine was the 
great centre of a later dispersion than that of Babel, being the hightvay 
to Egypt and Arabia, Syria, and Asia Minor ; and tlie Mosaic narra- 
tive, looking ratlier to geographical than tribal descent, gives here the 
eponyim of the va/rious states and cities into tfi^e possession of which 
Israel entered. — There is a significance which we do not yet under- 
stand in the words of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 7, 8), " Remember the 
days of old, consider the years of many generations ; a^k thy father 
and he will shew thee ; thy elders and they will tell thee. When 
the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he 
separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people accord- 
ing to the number of the children of Isi-ael." This hypothesis will 
account for the immense disproportion between the number of the 
descendants of Judah and those of the other tribes supposed to be 
placed on record in these chapters, since they occupied the larger por- 
tion of Soutliern Palestine ; although it is time (Numbers i. 27) that 
the children of Judah wei-e more numerous than those of any other 
of the sons of Jacob. I now proceed to find among the names con- 
nected wifli the mention of this tribe one of the families of the 



15 

Horites, whose position geographically •would bring them, if my 
hypothesis be correct, within its limits. 

The only Shobal mentioned in the Bible, apart from the families of 
the Horites, is one that appears in 1 Chron. ii. 50, 52, and iv. 1, 2. 
The verses are, " These are the sons of Caleb the son of Hur (called 
also, 1 Chron. ii. 19, the father of Hur), the first-born of Ephratah ; 
Shobal, the father of Kirjath-jearim. And Shobal, the father of 
Kirjath-jearim, had sons; Hai'oeh and half of the Manahethites. 
The sons of Judah ; Pharez, Hezron, and Carmi and Hur and 
Shobal. And Reaiah (or Haroeh) the son of Shobal begat Jaliath ; 
and Jahath begat Ahumai and Lahad. These are the families of the 
Zorathites." Among the families of Kirjath-jearim ai*e mentioned, 
in the 53rd verse of the second chapter, the Zareathites, whom a. 
glance at the Hebrew text will show to be the same as the so-called, 
Zorathites, The name IJur is identical with the root of the word 
Horite. As for Caleb he is ubiquitous throughout the second 
chapter, and his name is, from its meaning, clearly Gentile. Be this, 
as it may, we have a Shobal, itself not an Israelitish name, in con- 
nection with other Gentile appellations, and notably with a Hur, 
who is not the father of Uri, of whom came the wise Bezaleel 
(1 Chron. ii. 20, Exodus xxxi. 2), and whose name agrees with the 
Horite parentage of another Shobal, frequently mentioned. He is 
the father of Kirjath-jearim. Now Kirjath-jearim (Joshua ix. 17) 
was a city of the Gibeonites, and continued to be so, for the Gibeon- 
ites made peace with Isi*ael by artifice. But these Gibeonites were 
Hivites (Joshua ix. 7, xi. 19), and so also are the Horites called 
(Gen. xxxvi. 2.) The name Hivite, I am convinced, does not desig- 
nate Hamitic or any other kind of descent ; nevertheless it forms a 
link to bind Kiijath-jeai-im and the Horite stock. More important 
is the fact that the second son of Shobal, the Horite, and of that 
Shobal who is mentioned in tiie book of Chronicles, is Manahath, a . 
name unknown in the annals of Israel. Hui", Shobal, and Manahath, 
form already a threefold cord for the Horite connection. A difficulty 
appears, however, in the eldest son of the Shobal of Chronicles, who 
is Ha (the definite article) Roeh or Reaiah, as contrasted with the 
Alvan or Allan of the Horite. I confess that this staggered me for 
a time, but disappeared as soon as I began to investigate the meaning 
of the two words. The name Alvan or Allan is a somewhat Punic 
form of the word Elioun, the most high, and corresponds with the 



16 

Ambic Galijan (for its initial letter is ayin), meaning of lofiy 
stature.^^* The Punic form appears in the " Alonim v 'Alonuth" of 
the Poeniilus of Plantus, designating the gods and goddesses." I 
must liere anticipate by introducing the authority of the Phoenician 
History of Sanchoniatho, -vrhich deals with the region about the 
Dead Sea, Peraea being a primitive seat." He gives, indeed, an 
older divinity, Elioun, whom he makes the husband of Beruth, a 
kind of Aphrodite or Ephrath, and who would correspond with the 
father of Hur ; but he has a later divinity (no divinity with him 
however), who in the Greek translation is termed Ilus or Cronus 
and whose brothers are Betylus, Dagon, and Atlas. Now, Betylus 
is probably Bethlehem, closely connected with this family, rather 
than Bethel, as many, like Bishop Cumberland, have supi)Osed. 
Dagon I shall yet prove to be Onam. As for Atlas, he does not 
belong to this line at all, but to that of Jerahmeel. Tlie impoi-tant 
pai"t of the name Alvan or Allan is the initial Al. The final n is 
valueless, for duke Aliah of the Edomites is clearly of the same 
name. The yod and vav are, as we see above, interchangeable ; so 
that the Al remains, denoting in Hebrew and other Shemitic tongues, 
without any assistance of additional letters, the Most High, God. 
This is the Ilus of Sanchoniatho, who appears along with Dagon on 
many sculptured walls of Chaldea. He is there called II, and is the 
highest of the Babylonian divinities. It is in the Chaldean myth- 
ology that we are furnished with the materials for identifying Alvan 
and Reaiah. II or Ra, Sir Henry Rawlinson and many other 
students of Oriental monuments and inscriptions inform us, is the 
great god of Babylonia." This Ra is an Egyptian term originally, 
and denotes the sun in the ancient Coptic of the hieroglyphics. The 
word Roeh or Haroeh divested of the definite article, denotes, 
accordiiig to Gesenius, vision, the sight of the sun ; and a corre- 
sponding Coptic word connecting with Ra is Ro, the face. But 
Fuerst, with his usual wisdom, renders Roeh, the All-seeing One, 
that is, God. Reaiah seems to me an attempt to provide a Hebrew 

H* For this meaning of the name Alvan I have confirmation in the high authority of Fuerst. 
That judicious lexicographer finds in the word a high, sublime one, and makes it, as I have 
done, the same as El and Elioun. Fuerst's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon in loo. 
»« Pluuti Poenuli, v. 1. 

IS Sanclioniatho's Pbceniclan History, by Cumberland, 107. 

" Uawlinson's Herodotus, App., Bit. i., Essay x., s. 2, (i.)&c. Both Ha and II as conver- 
. tible terms signified " a god " in general, and this agrees with Fuerst'a translatiouB of Alvaa 
.4nd UoeU. See below in the text. 



17 

nitme for the son of Shobal, for Gesenius makes it to mean " whom 
Jehovah cares for," admitting, however, that Haroeh designates the 
same person. We have in Alvan and Beaiah two words denoting 
supreme deity. I would only present one additional proof, at this 
stage, of the identity of Alvan and Reaiah, II and Ra. It is found 
in connection with the history of Sanchoniatho. Jehid or Jeoud is 
named as the son of Ilus, whom he sacrificed to his father Ouranos. 
Rightly the son of Reaiah bears the corresponding name Jahath. 
All that I demand at present is a belief in the probability that the 
Horite Shobal, with his sons Alvan and Manahath, is the same as 
the Shobal, son of Hur, whose children are Roeh and Manahath. 
The identification of the Ilus and the Jehid of Sanchoniatho with 
the Roeh or Reaiah and Jahath of Chronicles is important but not 
absolutely necessary for the burden of proof. 

IV. — ly THIS FAMILY (THAT OF ShOBAL) WE FIND MANY OF THE 

divinities and some of the earliest rulers of lower and 
Upper Egypt. 

It is now, I think, generally conceded that the earliest population 
of Egypt entered from the north-east, and must, therefore, if it came 
by land, as is most likely, have passed through the country of the 
Horites, and have dwelt for a time, probably, in the south-western 
comer of Palestine, about the kingdom of Gerar, visited by Abraham 
and Isaac, but of which we hear nothing in later times. The Scrip- 
tures call Egypt Mizraim, and we are therefore justified in believing 
that the son of Ham of that name was one of the earliest settlers in 
the land. But it is to be remarked that no race, royal or princely, 
in Egypt, ever claimed descent from this ancestor. The connection 
of Mizraim with Menes and others is sheer imfoimded hypothesis, 
and I shall yet show that CJiemi, a name of this ancient country, 
bears no reference, as it is often supposed to do, to Ham himself. 
My own impression, I do not say decided conviction, is that the 
Hamites, if they exercised sovereign authority at all, did so for a 
very short time and during a period which is unhistorical, after which 
they became the subjects of a superior race. Many writers, with 
Shuckford, have supposed the Horites to be the invaders of Egypt, 
known as the Shepherd Kings." That they did invade Egypt can 
be clearly proved, but it was at an earlier period than that of the 

I* Shuckford's Connection of Baored and Profane History. Original edition, ii. 236. 
2 



18 

Hycsos, for tho dynasty which these invaders ovei'threw was Horite. 
It is worthy of note that among the many races with whom the con- 
quering Pharaohs are said to have wanted, and whose names are 
recorded on various raonumenis, the Horites never appear. 

One of the earliest names of Egypt is Aeria. The Eev. W. B. 
Galloway, to whom I am indebted for many valuable suggestions, 
both from pei-sonal communications and from his published oinnions, 
together with other writers, connects this name with the Auritab 
of tho Old Chronicle.'* These Auritae are given as the first great 
race of Egypt, including gods, demi-gods, and men." Their gods, 
indeed, the Egyptians allowed to have been but deified men.'* These 
Auritae are the Hor Shesu, servants of Horus or families of the 
Horites, of the monuments and papyri." I need not tell any student 
of Egyptian antiquities that Horus is the greatest of all names in 
the Egyptian mythology. It is an aspirated word, having the form 
Choris, shewing the power of the Hebrew Oheth, and appears 
frequently as a tennination to the names of many kings, Nepher- 
oheres, Tancheres, Zebercheres, &c. In this family several of the 
principal gods of the Egyptians are to be found. We shall not find 
Osiris here, nor his near relation Atmoo ; these belong to the family 
of Etam. Neither will Ammon and his son Khensu meet us ; these 
are later, and connect with the son of Lot. The purely solar 
divinities, the centre of whom is Ra, the sun, are the representatives 
of the family of Shobal. 

The first to engage our attention is the ancestor of the gods of the 
Auritae. His name is Seb, Sebek, or Seb-i-a, and he is Cronus or 
Time. In him we find the Shobal of Mount Seir. As the Al of 
Alvan becomes the Ea of Chronicles, so the final al of Shobal, 
although a different syllable, is represented by the ra which is affixed 

1» Egypt's Record of Time to the Exodus of Israel, 130. Mr. Galloway while rightly con- 
necting Aeria and tlie Auritw, as Kenrick and many others liave done, puts a most just and 
reasonable faith in ttie antiquity of both words, in which these writers do not generally agree 
with liim. Wliilo agreeing fully with Mr. Galloway in Ida derivation of tlie Assyrian lino from 
.Egypt and ideutiUcation of Scsostris with Xisuthrus, I regret that I cannot find with him the 
word Atliyrian or Assyrian in Aeria. The Assyrian line is tliat of Asshur or Ashcur, whose 
son Achashtari is Sesostris and Xisuthrus. This line was from an early period inimical to the 
Horitos. 

w Old Egyptian Chronicle in Cory's Ancient Fragments. Tliere can be no reason for reject- 
ing the name Auritae more than for discarding the two otlijr designations, Mcstraei and 
Acgypti, to which no exception is talcen, 

18 Tliis is stated by Diodorus Siculus and others. All tlie Pharaohs when dead became gods. 
Lenormant and Cliovalier, 1. 294. 

v> Lenormant and Chevalier, Manual of the Ancient History of the East, i. 202, 



19 

to the name of the Egyptian god. Th« son of Seb is Ra, the sun, 
nnd in him we have the II or Ra of the Babyionians, and the Alvan 
or Keaioh of the sacred narrative. A brother of Ba is the deity 
Month or Month-ra. I am indebted to Mr. Osburn for a confirma- 
tion of my identification of the name Mauahath with that of this 
god.'" Still another is An-ra, connected with On or Heliopolis, and 
he is Onam, the youngest or lust mentioned of the Shobalian breth- 
ren. Fuerst points out that the m of Onam is a noun tei*mination 
common among the Edomites. Jahath, or as we may also read it, 
allowing for the power of the medial Cheth, Jachath, appears in 
subjection to these, and among the descendants of Seb, as Ati-ra or 
Achthoes-ra, a name we are yet to become moi-e familiar with. 
Lower still in order, yet not in point of dignity and importance, is 
Ahora-ra, and he is the Ahumai who appears as the eldest son of 
Jahath. Two goddesses connect with this remarkable line. One is 
Neith, whose name, meaning to level a bow, is identical with the 
Hebrew Nahath, which is the same as Manahath, without the pre- 
fixed Mem. The other is Hekt, which is simply an abbreviated form 
of Jachath, the initial yod being converted into a breathing. 

Some of these divinities were rulers in Egypt. As for Seb or 
Shobal and Ra or Alvan, we have no evidence that they ever exer- 
cised sovereignty in that land. Alvan, whom we have seen to be in 
all probability the Ilus of Sanchoniatho, ruled, I am persuaded, in 
the south of Palestine, whence his more adventurous brother Mana- 
hatli pushed on into Egypt, pi'obably taking with him Onam and 
Jahath the son of Alvan. I shall yet give good reasons for limiting 
Alvan to Palestine, and making a pi'obable connection for him with 
the Abimelechs of Gorar. The region chosen by Manahath for his 
settlement was Tanis oi Zoan in the north-east of the land of Egypt, 
a city built seven years before Hebron in Palestine. It may have 
been built at that time by Manahath himself, but tlii.. I think hardly 
probable. Close at hand is Mendes giving its name to the Mendesian 
nome. This Mendes is the city of Month, who is Manahath ; and 
Manahath himself is the first ruler of the Egyptians, the great 
Meues, whose name and fame descended i.o all lands as Menu, 
Minos, Mannus, Manes, Menw, Mingti, and even it may be the 
Algonquin Manitou. 'the first ruler of Egypt, and the first law- 
giver among all peoples who ever pi-etended to the benefits of Egypt's 
early civilization, is the second son of Shobal the Hoiite. 

W Monuiucntal History of Egypt, i. 841. 



20 

A little later than Manahath wo find Onam. Not contented la 
share his brother's empire or to occupy the position of a subject, he 
turned southward, and, a little below the point of divergence of the 
Nile's various branches, founded a town, which he named after him- 
self. On, the strong city of the Sun, also called An-ra. There he kept 
regal state for some years, until a new invasion drove him from the 
throne ; and his descendants the Anu, after threatening Egypt for a 
time from the coasts of Arabia Petraea, withdrew at last to Ohaldea.'' 
' On the lists he appears as Onnos j but his name as found upon the 
monuments is An, represented by the figure of a fish." There can 
be no doubt that he is the Babylonian Oannes or Dagon, so intimately 

• connected with Ilus, none other than his oldest brother Alvan.* 

I cannot tell precisely at what period Jahath or Jachath, the son 

■ of Alvan or Beaiah, began his unhappy reign, whether during the 

life of his uncle Manahath or after his death. He ia Achthoes, the 

•cruel king of Heracleopolis, who was killed by his guards and 

Hercules, according to the lists. There are or were at least three 

towns in Egypt called Heracleopolis, two of which were in the Delta, 

• one at its eastern and the other at its western extremity, while the 
tbird was situated on the left side of the Nile below Lake Moeris. It 
is probable that Achthoes inhabited and ruled over the town to the 

• east of the Delta, not far from the dominions of his father Alvan on 
the one hand and those of his uncle Manahath on the other. He is 
fully identified with the solar line of Seb," and his name is read Ati 

• on the monuments, where he is also represented as a monarch cut off 
in the flower of his age. This may agree with the statement of 
Sanchoniatho «s to the unhappy fate of Jehid or Jeoud, the son of 
Ilus. This Jachath or Achthoes was r onfederate with Nesteres, the 
son of Usecheres, whom I will yet show to be Ha (the definite 
article) Ahashtari the son of Ashchur (or as our English version of 
the Bible erroneously reads ABshur), a great name in a distinguished 
family, the Ashtar of the Shepherd Kings." He, however, is no 
Horite, and for the present must be dismissed. Nesteres or Ahash- 
tari and Achthoes together made war upon Onam or Onnos, the 

n Lenormant and Chevalier, i. 296, IL 359. 

» Osburn, i. 311. 

** Bonomi, Nineveh and its Palaces, 830, qaotea some ralaable remarks of Hiss Fannjr 

• Corbeauz, conaecting On and Dagon. 

M Oibum, I. 373. 
« Id., U. 622. 



91 

nncle of the latter, and the conclusion of the war was a treaty, one 
of the provisions of which was the marriage of a daughter of Onnos 
to Achtlioos, who was thus united to his cousin. Achthoes holds a 
high position among the Pharaohs, and spite of his traditional 
cruelty and unhappy end, is frequently refeiTed to by later monai'chs, 
who trace their descent from the Horites of the line of SQb."* 

The death of Achthoes or Jachath and the Shepherd invasion, 
which is really the period of the supremacy of Ashtari and his 
family, were coincident. The line of Seb, or, as he is at times called, 
Sebek, j ust as Sibulla gives Spica, was driven out of Lower Egypt, 
and had to take refuge at Coptos.** There dwelt the descendants of 
Achthoes, the children of Seb, the worshippers of Horus, the 
religious faction or party known as the Mentcherian (Month-Hor). 
The head of this Upper Egyptian monarchy was the son of Ati or 
Achthoes, whose name on the monuments and in the lists varies 
between Ahmes and Kames. In Kames, the initial vowel is want- 
ing, and its absence brings out the full power of the Hebrew Cheth 
of Achumai. He is also the head of the family, which, gathering 
strength in the south, rose at length in rebellion against the Shethite 
power, and reasserted the dignity of the line of Horus. His brother 
Lahad I have not yet identified. I am not satisfied that he is Alites 
or Salatis ; yet Lud, an ancient name of the Egyptians, seems to 
connect with him. There are links to bind the stock of Jahath to 
Lower as well as to Upper Egypt at this period, and it is possible 
that Lahad may have taken i)art in his brother's expulsion. With 
Newton, however, "hypotheses non fingo." 

It is interesting to note the date of this division of the Egyptian 
empire, as it is afforded us by the statements of Scripture. We 
may conclude that Shobal and Zibeon were contemporaries, Shobal,^. 
if anything, being a little earlier than his brother. 
Seir or Hur. 



Shobal. Zibeon. Abraham. 

Alvau or Reaiah. Anah. Isaac. 



Jahath. Aholibamah — Esau. Jacob. 

Ahumai. Joseph. 

«» For the connection of Seb, Achthoei, Mencheres, and Onnoi, see Osburn, L 873, ftc. 
M Osbuni, iL 64, && 



22 

According to the above table, Ahumai ami the patriarcli Joseph 
are coiatemporaries, so tliat Jdsepli appears properly iu Egyjit during 
the i>erifxl of the so-called Shepherd Kings. This agrees with the 
almost universal tnulition that he lived and ruled under Apophis, 
the gi-eatest of that line." As Apophis, however, was not the first 
of his dynasty in order of reigning, I am disposed to throw Shobal 
a little farther, say half a generation, back into the past. With tho 
line that displaced the Horites we have, at i>re8ent, nothing to do. 
At their head stands the family of Ashchur, or as he is generally 
called Usecheres, and, liS the central figure in their family, Achash- 
tari, who is at once Ashtar and Sesostris. It was he who overthrew 
the Horite power in Lower Egypt, and who, once an ally of 
Achthoes, became the Sheth that stands ever after as the enemy of 
Horns and all his race. These identifications are given in few 
words, but are the results of many labours and much patient investi- 
gation. They are clearly established in my own mind, and abundance 
of proof for them will emerge both in this paper and in future 
accounts of other great families of antiquity. I am convinced that 
no intelligent Egyptologist will lightly pass by what he must regard, 
at the least, as a series of extraordinary coincidences, unparalleled in 
the connections of Sacred and Pi-ofane History. 

V. — From this family op Shobal, in the line of Ra or 
Alvan, came the Caphtorim who invaded Palestine beforb 

THE close of the WANDERINGS OP ISRAEL. 

Before proceeding with the proof of this statement in itself, I may 
be allowed to dwell for a short time upon the fact that the southern 
dynasty founded by Ahumai or Achumai, as AJimes or Karnes, is 
the dynasty of Syncellus, called that of the Aegypti. SynceUus and 
other sources of Egyptian history give us three dynasties of rulers in 
the land of the Pharaohs, the Auritae, whose history we have con- 
sidered, the Mestmei, and the Aegypti.'* The Mestraei are the 
Shethites of Ahashtari, who is called Nesterea by decipherers of the 
monumental records. The Aegypti are the revived Horite line under 
Ahumai, who is himself Aegyptus. I proceed to the proof, and in 
giving it will anticipate somewhat by introducing etymological and 
historical illustrations from other languages and mythical histories. 

*i Lepsius' Letters, 480, 487. 
-** Vide Cory's Ancient Fragmenta. 



38 

The region in which the Horite family in the lino of Ahumai or 
Ahnios took refuge, and in which it exercised regal dominion, was 
that of Coptos. This word hu« been generally and rightly suppoHod 
to be the root of the name ^^gypt, the Egyptians themselves being 
known as Copts. We learn, however, that the ancient name of 
CoptoB was Chemmis, and this Chemmis, the abode of the god Khem 
or Ahom, gives us as its eponym Kames or Ahmes, otherwise 
Ahumai. The ancient name of Egypt, as a whole, was Chemi, the 
land of this same founder of Chemmis. The word Chemi, in ancient 
and modern Coptic, conveys the two ideas of heat and blackness. 
Similar roots with the samo double meaning are found in Arabic, 
Syriac, and Hebrew. The Hebrew word Chum is proposed by 
Fuerst as the root of Achumai, the initial Aleph being prosthetic. 
It is interesting to note that the symbol of Ahom is the vulture or 
eagle, and Gyps, the black vulture, has often been supposed a part 
of the name Aegypt, while the word Ahom represents it. It is also 
worthy of remark that another name for the Cheops of Herodotus is 
Chembes or Chemmis.'* For a similar transformation, I may instance 
the Latin Cupid as the homonym of the Sanscrit Cama. We have 
thus five pairs of words serving to illiistrate the identity of Ahumai 
and ^gyptus : 

Coptos. .(Egypt. Cheops. Gypt. Cupid. 

Chemmis. Chemi. Chemmis. Ahom. Cama. 

In proceeding to identify these two names, I need hardly apologize 
for introducing Persian connections. I have already pointed out 
what Herodotus, Diodorus, and other Greek writers so plainly state, 
that from Chemmis came ^gyptus, Danaus and Perseus, their 
descendant, the head of the Persian line." Nor are confirmations 
of these statements wanting. A simple method of proof, allowing 
the possibility of a Persian connection, lies in an enquiry into the 
Bible relations of the name Achumai. The nearest word to Achumai 
is Achmetha, the name of a city mentioned in Ezra vi. 2. The 
final tha, which distinguishes this word from Achumai, is a particle 
denoting place in many languages. In Hebrew we find Helek, 
Atarah, Maarah becoming Helkath, Ataroth, Maarath, while Aiath, 
Kehelatha, Zeredatha, and similar words testify to the same. We 

» Diod. Slo., 1. 63. 

» The Fharauh of the Bacodu*. Canadian Journal, VoL xlii, No. 1. 



24 

find it also in the change of the word Chem to Copt. Chemt is 
almost unpronounceable, and .would soon become Chebt. To return, 
however, to Achmetha. Our English version of Ezra, perfectly 
trustworthy here, renders it as Ecbatana, but places in the margin, 
the conjectural reading, " in a coffer or chest." The Greek equiva- 
lent of the Aramaic Achmetha, Hebrew Chemeth, a coffer, is Kibotos, 
and that is the name of the ark in which the scattered limbs of 
Osiris, which were brought to Chemmis, or Coptos, were placed. The 
words Achmetha and Ecbatana are really the same, in spite of the 
vast difference of their appearance. The change of an rn into a b 
(one of the commonest of all changes in etymology), and the affix of 
another Persian particle denoting a place (ana), account for the 
variation. Ecbatana, however, in Persian is HagToatan, and is the 
town of the Persian Achaemenes or Djemschid," the great solar 
hero, whom Guigniaut and others have identified with the Ahom or 
Khem of the Egyptians." The sawing of Djemschid in two simply 
represents the division of the Egyptian Empire in his reign. 
Whether we ti-anslate Achmetha as Ecbatana or Kibotos, we still 
find an -^gyptus in our Achumai, and in the former case identify 
him with the head of the Achaemenian Persians. We do not 
wonder that Cambyses, when in Egypt, claimed to be descended from 
its ancient kings, and those of a Horite ptock." 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson settles at once, in few words, the question 
which has vexed many students of Biblical antiquities — " Wlience 
came the Caphtorim'?" The majority of writers, like Hitzig, have 
taxed their ingenuity to bring them from Crete along with the 
Cherethit«8. Now the Cherethites of Palestine never saw Crete. It 
was doubtless a late stage of their progress that brought a handful of 
them to that island. Some of the Caphtorim formed part of that 
migration. But these matters do not concern us at present. One 
of the names of Coptos, as Sir Gardner Wilkinson has shewn, is Kebt- 
Hor, a form like Ahom-ra." It was the Coptos of the Horites. 
Kebt-Hor is the Caphtor of the Bible, and the earliest city of that 

n Rawlingon's Herodotus, Book i., Ch. 98, Note 2. See also Book HI., Ch. SO, Note 6. Tim 
Peralan B, for which the Oieeks had no real equivalent, their own B having the sound of V, 
was replaced naturally enough by the labial most akin to H, M. 

n Guigniaut, 11. 116, 189. 

** Lenormant and Chevalier, 11. 97. 

*« Rawllnson's Herodotus, Book li., Ch. 15, Note 5. AUo App., Book 11., Ch. 8, (ISUi. 10th, 
4nd 17th dynasties) Note. 



25 

name. From it came the Caphtorim, whom the Scriptures, without 
the slightest ambiguity, derive from Egypt."* The Caphtorim invaded 
Palestine before the Israelites entered the land, yet, strange to say, 
we read of no settlements of this people, nor are they spoken of as a 
nation at the time of Israel's occupation. 

The genealogy of the sons of Shobal says nothing of the Caph- 
torim ; but it mentions that Aohumai, and perhaps Lahad, were the 
heads of the families of the Zorathites, whom we have found to be 
the same as the Zareathites. The root of this name is Zirah, the 
hornet ; on this point thei'e is and can be no doubt. An Egyptian 
traveller in Palestine speaks of a town (Jailed Zorah, a 'place of 
hornets, concerning which he says that the inhabitants were hornets 
by name and by nature." The Zirah or hornet (Exodus xxiii. 28, 
Deut. vii. 20, Joshua xxiv. 12,) whom God by the lips of Moses 
promised to send before his people to drive out the Hivite, the 
Canaanite, and the Hittite, was no valiant insect even in countless 
swarms, but a race of men of high lineage and great martial prowess, 
the descendants of Shobal the Horite, and the Caplitorim, who took 
their name from Shobal's great grandson, Achumai. It would be 
strange indeed if any insect pest, according to the ordinary laws of 
nature and the Divine working, should force great nations out of 
cities walled up to heaven. Neither did the Israelites find in 
Palestine a deserted land, but one full of towns, well peopled, and 
great armies, weakened doubtless, but not destroyed, by the hornet 
invasion. In Dor and Endor, and many neighbouring places, these 
Zorathites (for they are the Dorians, and Palestme their Pelopon- 
nesus — the home of their fathers which they returned to conquer — • 
as Mazocchi shrewdly guesses)," long maintained their independence, 
and in time passed on to other lands, to be numbered among the most 
warlike of the peoples of the earth. We may now see a reason for the 
mention of apparently minute particulars regarding this branch of the 
human family in the Book of Chronicles. I may add that the hornet 
appears on the crest of the Egyptian kings of tha Horite family. 

VI. — Reminiscences of the Hohites, and confirmation ov 

ALL THE PBECEDINQ PROPOSITIONS, ARE FOUND IN THE EARLY 

» Gen. X. 14 ; Deut. ii. 23 ; Jereni. xlvii. 4 ; Amos ix. 7. 

** Cliabas, Voyage d'uu Egyptieu, quoted by Lenortnant and Chevalier, IL 100. This plao* 
must have been Dora. 
n Anthon'g Claasioal Dictionary ; Art. Pae8tiun, 



26 

HISTORY AND MYTHOLOGY OF Ph(ENICIA, ChALD^A, ArABIA, PeRSIA, 

India, Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, and of the Celtic and 
German peoples. 

Phoenicia. — We have already seen that the Phcenicians are a 
Horite stock, not in the line of Shobal but of Ezer, the father of 
Akan. In him we must find the Isiris of Sanchoniatho, called by 
him erroneously the brother of Chna, who was the first to be named 
a Phoenician. Now C ina I make Akan, and not, as the semi-Hebrew 
later Phoenicians said, Canaan, Akan becomes Chna by the proper 
pi'onunciation of the initial ayin, for which, as in the Arabic, I have 
always vindicated a sound approaching that of g, the correctness of 
which appears in the Septuagint very frequently rendering ayin by 
gamnia. Gakan would be more like the true form of the name of 
the son of Ezer than Akan or Jaakan. This form gives us the swan 
of Canaan, one of its insignia, being identical with the Latin cygnus, 
Greek Kuxvtx;. Let the unshemitic vowels be removed, and we have 
at once, with slight reduplication, the Chnas, gi"en as the ancestor of 
the Phoenicians ; and this Chnas or Akan we find coming from the 
. shore of the Red Sea, according to the ancient tradition of the origin 
of the builders of Tyre and Sidon. He is their first king, Agenor 
or Akan the Horite. I reserve much that I have to say under this 
head for a future paper on the Phoenicians. Thabion, the Phoenician 
teacher, who led people astray, may have had the same name, if he 
be not the same person as Zibeon, the next to Shobal among the sons 
of Seir.** Shobal seems to be lost in the Phoenician story, unless 
Asbolus, who is obscurely mentioned as the same with Coum, or 
Achumai or Khem, the son of Belus and nephew of Canaan, father 
of the Phoenicians, and Mestraim father of the Egyptians, be he." 
But the Cronus or Time which represents him, or that he represents 
in the Egyptian mythology aa Seb, in Sanchoniatho is applied to his 
son, Ilus or Alvan, the brother of Onam or Dagon, the husband of 
Rhea (a word which is simply the Reaiah, Roeh or Ra, by which the 
eldest of the Shobalians is known), and the father of Jehid or Jeoud. 
Sanchoniatho plainly says that he went into Egypt, but did not 
reign there, his kingdom being in Talestine. The story of Sanchon- 
iatho is a venerable record of primeval history, somewhat obscure and 
corrupted, yet of inestimable valae. 



M Banchoulatbo'g Plicen. Hist. 05, 343 uni Cumbsrland with a totally different end in view 
finds that Thabion is a Oreeic form of ,m .id^ r Znhhn. 
*• Saucliuniatlio's Fhoeo. Hist., 116. 



27 

Chaldcea. — The Iliis of Sanchoniatho and the II or Ra of Babylonia 
are generally allowed to be the same."* In th« ancient Belus of that 
early empire, not that he really ruled in whai is known as Babylonia, 
but his descendants, we have Alvan as II with the Coptic aiticle in a 
softened form prefixed, forming, as I ha-.e elsewhere shown, the word 

Baal, which is simply 7^ with an initial 3. As for Ninus, he is, 
doubtless, a nunnated Onam, and the same as Anu, Cannes or Dagon, 
the Onnos, whose descendants were driven from Egypt into Babylonia. 
This is, indeed, the derivation given in all ancient records of Cannes 
and his family.*" The god of Assyria is Asshur, and in him we have* 

I am persuaded, a reminiscence of the Egyptian Usecheres or Ashchur, 
his son Achashtari or Sesostris being the Chaldean Xisuthrus, as I 
hope yet to have an opportunity of proving at length." 

Arabia. — One of the regions in which most naturally we should 
be inclined to look for traces of the Hoiites, is Arabia. In the 
mythology and early history of that country we accordingly find 
them. An old god known to the Greeks is Dusares, otherwise Dhu- 
Sair.** The word Dhu signifies Lord, and Sair gives us the Bible 
name Seir. Connected with him is Hobal, a god whose woi-ship Avaa 
brought from the region of Syria Sobal, and who is the same as Aud, 
being the Cronus or Seb of the Arabians." The people of Aud or 
Hobal are the original inhabitants of Irem, in which we find Jearim, 
the Kirjath or villages of which Shobal and his family inhabited.** 
Intimately allied to Aud or Hobal, as his sons and descendants, are 

II or Dhucalyan, Monat, Shedad, Yaguth, Lokman and Lud. In H, 
Calyan and Dhucalyan, we find Allan, the power of the initial ayin 
appearing in the second, and the princely Dhu preceding it in the 
third. Monat, though a name generally applied to a goddess, as ia 

w» The Greek form Illinos given by Damoscius, and with whicli Sir Henry Rawlinsnil 
(Bawlinson's Herodotus, App. Blc. i., Essay 10, 2, (111) ), connects the Babylonian Il-enu, is 
more like Alvan or Allan. Ouigniaut says Holon or £1 is the oriental Cronus. (Religions de 
rantiqulti, il. 897.) 

*" Cory's Ancient Fragments, 22, 31. 

« The Rev. W. B. Galloway (Egypt's Record. 15'/) identifies Xisuthrus and Sesostris. Whiston 
in Josephus (Ant. I. 2, 3) also identifies Seth and Sesotris. Seth, SUetli or Ashtar, tlie deity of 
the Egyptian Shepherds, is tlie same. So is the Persian Tasliter and the Indian Tvashtar or 
Batyavrata. The stories connected with all these names recall an ancient deluge, ami a warAiro 
with a Horitc line. The children of Bheth (Numbers xxiv. 17), connected in Balakm's prophecy 
with Moab, are of this ancestry. 

«< Guigniaut, iii. 019. 

** Sale's Koran, Preliminary Discourse. Guigniaut iL 874. Lenormant and CheTAller, U. 851. 

** Sale's Koran, Preliminary Discourse. 



28 

the case of Neith, gives us Manahath. Shedad is Dagon or Onam. 
Close to On, or perhaps the same place, is Fostat, which is simply a 
form of Shedad with the Coptic article prefixed, and meaning, like 
On, the strong city. Again, Dagon is the divinity of Ashdod in 
Philistia, which is of the same root as Shedad. Shedad plainly is a 
translation and not a corruption of the word Onam. For the con- 
nection of Shedad and Alvan I quote the authority of Hyde, who 
Bays that Shedad, the son of Aud, sent Dahak the Arab, the son of 
his brother Ulvanus, against Djemschid.** The historical statement 
is false, inasmuch as Djemschid was the son of this Dahak, if, as is 
most likely, he be Jachath son of Alvan, but the connection of Alvan 
and Onam as Shedad in the son of the former, is valuable. The 
Phcenician history of Sanchoniatho mentions a Sadid as a son of ilus. 
Anotlier representative of this family is Yaguth, who is Jachath, 
and , 3 very properly is the supreme divinity of the Dhukailite 
Arabs,** the sons of Dhu-Calyan. Of the Adite line descended from 
Hobal, a prominent member is Lokman. He is Lubad or Gypt, </te 
vulture man, and presents to us Achumai, Ahom or Achaemenes, 
with the prefix somewhat disguised of the Arabic article Al. The 
head of the Achsemenian Persians was said to have been nursed by 
an eagle or vulture, and Lokman is simply Al Achsemenes. Lubad 
is a form like Al Gypt, without the strong power of the cheth, rising 
from Ahumai rather than Achumai. He and his followers are 
reported to have been transformed into monkeys, the reverse of Mr. 
Darwin's hypothesis, and a tradition that we shall yet meet with in 
other lands." To the above may be added Lud, the Arab, whose 
descendant Askelos founded the city of Ascalon, and who is 
undoubtedly the Lahad that gave to some of tlit Egyptians the 
name of Lud. He also is an Adite of Hobal, Among the kings of 
Egypt, whom the Arabs claim, are Kabus and his brother Al Walid. 
These may be Achumai and Lahad, the first in the form which we 
find in Cheops. Saba or Abd Shems (the servant of the sun), a very 
old Arabian king, I think may be Shobal, and his son Cahlan, Alvan, 

« Hyde, Religlo Vet. Pers. 183. 

4* Bauier, La Mythologie et les Fables oxpliqueea par I'histoire, i. 628 seq. Katl or Cayl li a 
title of authority similar to Dhu, and is doubtless a form of (al or) II, giving the full force of 
the initial ayin. Tlie people of Kliaulan who worship II take their name from Alvan. The 
■olar deity Dhu Kolosa is the lord of Elusa or Khulasa, the highest in heaven (Coelurn) or 
BIysium. Eleusla is the same word. 

V Sale's Koran, Preliminary Discourse. Lenormant and Chevalier, 11. 299. 



29 

especially as in Shobal we lia,ve the head of a pre-eminently solar 
line. A better acquaintance with the older Arabian historians would 
enable me to apeak more decidedly npon this point. 

Connected with the Arabian are the Talmudical legends. Some 
of these treat of Kabil, the head of the Deevs or demons. Kabil, as 
we shall yet see, is Shobal, associated in other mythologies with 
these same Deevs. The great enemy of the Deevs is Seth, not the 
son of Adam, but the Egyptian Sheth or Aahtar, whom we have 
already found at enmity with the H6rite family." The Chemosh of 
Moab is in all probability the Khem of Egypt and Caraa of India, 
Achumai the son of Jachath.** 

Pfima.— Persia is the great Aryan land, an early name of which 
was Haroiou, the same word as Haroeh.^ Its ancient history tells 
us that the first king who ruled in the earth after the great flo6d or 
destruction was Gil-shah or Kaiomers. He was called Abul-Muluk, 
or the father of kings." This Gil or Gil-shah furnishes us with the 
name II or Alvan, the full power of the initial ayin appearing in it ', 
and he is the Abimelech who ruled in Gerar immediately after the 
destruction of the Cities of the Plain."* Connected with him is 
Menoutchehr, the Egyptian Menes or Manahath the Horite, whose 
name on the mon>iments is Month-Hor. His son Nawder is a 
Neith-ra, and perhaps the Naater of the tablets. The Persian 
goddess Nahid is Neith or Nahath. We have already found that 
Djemschid or Achsemenes of the line of Gil-shah is Achumai. I 
have strong reasons, however, for making him the same aa Kai Kobad, 
supposed to be a later Persian king, as I will yet show when treating 
of the Greek connections," In Kai Kobad we have the Copt or 
^gyptus already identified with Achumai. Lohurasp or Aurvada^pa 

*» Baring Gould's Legends of Old Testament Characters, 6V. 

« Sir G&rdnor Williinson, A Popular Account of the Ancient EgyptiRUS, i. 280. 

W Rawlinaon's Herodotus, App. Bk. i. Essay xi. s. 14. 

»i Russell's Connection of Sacred and Profane History, ii. 28. London : Tegg. 

"♦ Oilshah or Abimelech is probably the Abimelech of Abraliam, who ruled iu Oerar, hia 
town, called after himself, being the Elusa of Ptolemy and otliers, now called by the Arab! 
El-Khulasa, thus shewing the power of the ayin. It is worthy of note that, although the 
name Elusa is not mentioned in the Bible, the Arabic version in Genesis xx. 1, 2, for Gerar 
reads Bl-Khulus, "as if referring it to Elusa." Robinson's Biblical Researches, i. 202. Thie 
il plainly the original of the Greek Eleusis, as well as of Elysium and Coelum, the Rarian 
plain near it being the region of Aroer, not far ftwm Elusa. The first monarchy after the 
destruction of the Cities of the Plain was that of Oerar. The extensive and exceedingly 
ancient ruins in the neighbourhood of Elusa point to a far distant and high oivUiwtion. 

** Vide Shah Nameh for this and other partioulars in Fe.iian History. 



30 

is plainly a later Horus, who appears on the Egyptian monuments M 
a successor of Achumai. As for Fcridun, he belongs to a different 
line, his ancestor Shah-Giliv being a Bible Caleb, the form of the 
Persian connecting with -lEsculapius, and the Aiskulabita of the 
Book of Nabathean Agiioulture. 

India. — I am not by any means the first to connect Seb and Siva. 
Si\ " marries Iswara, and of him are Hani, Hari, and the seven 
mothers of the earth, the Harits. He is the great Deev like Kabil, 
and the seven Harits carry him. He is the sun, and also, like Seb 
and Hobal, Cronus, although this title is often given to his son Cala 
or Caliya, who is II, Has or Alvan, with the full power of the initial 
ayin, and corresponds to the Persian Gilshah. The haunt of Siva 
and Caliya is Cailasa, which is Elusa or Khulasa in the Geraritio 
region of Palestine, over which Abimelech ruled. Vaivaswat, the 
Bon of Caliya, is not very like Jachath ; nevertheless, I am persuaded 
that it is the same word, the Vivaghat of the Persian being identical, 
and merely requiring the prefix of the Coptic article with redupli- 
cation to complete it. Vaivaswat is stUl the sun, and is the father 
of Yama, whom numberless writei-s have identified with the Egyptian 
Ahom and the Persian Achasmenes." Yama's domain is the south 
and dai'k region. Gopt is one of his attendants, or rather he, as 
Gopt, is an attendant of Siva. Siva himself is called Gopati, which 
is Coptus and ^gyptus. Siva's son is Cartikeya, but Pococke has 
found him in Kerkestes, son of ^gyptus." A daughter of this line 
is Times, in whom is represented the female name Ahmes, so common 
in Upper Egyptian records. She is Durga, but Durga is Zirah the 
hornet, for its second letter is ayin, hence Zirga. In the .<3Eolic 
Greek the change of z to d is exceedingly common. A better con- 
nection still for the Zorathites of Shobal's line is found in- the full 
name of an early Indian monarch, who appears in the Riimayana, 
Dasaratha, king of Oude, or of the Aud people. Zorathi and 
Dasaratha are the same, although I do not think that any Pharaoh 
bore this generic title. Lakshman and Bama are his sons, the 
former giving the Arab Lokman, and connecting with the monkey 
race that built the bridge of stones by which Rama passed to Ceylon 
from the mainland, just as Lokman is one of the monkey Adites. 
Rama at once recalls the Rameses who descended from Achumai. 

M Uuigiiiuut, il. 116. Cama or Cupid the same as Kheui ; i, 297. 
M India iu Qreece, SO. 



31 

Raraa is himself an incarnation of Siva ; and a later Parastiraraa, or 
Kama with the axe, is the Greek Perseus. The enemy of Siva or 
Mahadeva, the great Deev, is Mahiasura, the great Asura, in whom 
appears Ashcur or UsechereB, the father of Ashtari, Ashtar or Sheth. 
Another Indian stoiy furnishes, in a somewhat disguised form, the 
names of several members of the Shobalian family. Shobal himself 
is Kapila, a form like the Talmudical Kabil. Kalyana and Roja, 
descended from him, are Alvan or Reaiah, and Mandhatu is plainly 
Manahath, while the unfortunate and wicked Chetiya represents the 
unhappy and cruel Jachath.'* Menu, Manu Swayambhu, the fertile 
cow Sabala, and many other mythological characters, belong to the 
same Horite story. Different tribes have preserved the same narra- 
tive in different forms, both as regards fact and the orthography of 
propel' names. 

Asia Minor. — I have already claimed for the famous city of Ilium 
a connection with Ilus or Alvan, a connection favoured by Bishop 
Cumberland.** The Atys of Phrygia gives us, in his mournful story, 
a vei'sion of the history of Jahath or Jachath, called Ati upon the 
Egyptian monuments. He is a solar divinity like Jahath, is born 
of the stones cast behind them by Deucalion and Pyrrha (Dhu 
Calyan"* and Phre, a Ra or Rhea, w^ith the prefix of the Coptic 
article), and is the first of the Galli, or priests of the Sun, a word 
which is simply a plural of the Gil fonn of Alvan's name. He is 
called Papas, and a striking coincidence appears in the fact that the 
Egyptian king is termed Ati or Pepi.*' The Cnppadocians, often 
thought to be the Caphtorim, are truly a family of Copts."* They 
were an unmixed people, fond of independence, and distinguished 
from others as the White Syrians. It is in Lydia, however, that we 
look for the Horite family. This country had intimate relations 
with Assyria and Palestine it is generally conceded,'' but I can 

M Hardy's Mnmial of Buddhiiui, 134. 

'0 haneliouiatho's Plircn. Uist., 473. 

M* The value of the k in Deukalion is at once known by the fact that the Irish Declan, who 
represents Uim, becomes the Welsh Dylan. The ayin of Alvau thus apjiears. Davies' British 
Druids, 104. 

*T On this all EgyptologiRts are agreed, 

M Vide Gesenii Thesaurum. 

M Anthon's Classical Dictionary, Art. Lydia. In my article on " The Cojitic Element In 
Languages of the Indo-European Family," (Canadian Jotinial, Dec, 1872, p. 408), I have 
shewn deolded Arabian connections in tlie change of Aciamus and Atys to Alcimus (Lokman) 
and Alyattes, and in the preicnce of Sadyattcs or Shedad in the LyUiau dynasties, 



32 

prove a still more intimate connection with Egypt. A Lydian name 
of hoar antiquity is Sipylua or Shobal. The oldest king, however, 
whose name is recorded is Manes, who seems to reappear as the 
Maeon of Phrygia in the story of Atys. Manes is Menes and 
Manahath. His son is variously oalled Atys or Cotys. This is a 
mistake very likely to be made, Atys or Cotys being the nephew of 
Manahath, but ruling in Egypt as he did, while Alvan remained in 
Palestine. Atys or Cotys is Jachath. The sons of Atys are Lydus 
and Torybus. The former is Lahad. The latter is a word obscurely 
connecting with Achumai a? the head of the Zorathites. We have 
a better name for him in the Aciamus, under whom Ascalus built 
Ascalon according to Lydian tradition.*" Now Ascalus in the Arab 
story is a man of Ludim of Ad, and Lud is Lahad, the brother of 
Achumai. The relations of Moab and the line of Shobal we have 
already seen to be intimate, as Syria Sobal forms part of Moab, the 
image of the god Hobal came from that region, and Khem or 
Afhumai is Chemosh, the Moabite god. But Mopsus, who is 
Moab, and Sipylus, who is Shobal, are represented as drowning 
Ichthys, the son of Atargatis, in a lake near Ascalon."* In Attis, 
Sabus and Minotaurus, so closely joined by Guigniaut, we find the 
three names Shobal, Manahath and Jahath."^ Although not in Asia 
Minor, I may mention in this place the solar line of Colchis, includ- 
ing two forms of Jachath or the Egyptian Ati and Hekt. These 
are Aeetes and Hecate. The temple of Jupiter Actseus at lolcos 
also commemorates Jachath. 

Greece.- — Among the islands, Crete is worthy of attention. There 
Minos is said to have ruled, and in him we see Menes and Manahath. 
The labyrinth agreeing with that of Mendes,'* and the Minotaur, 
which is Mouth-Hor or the Persian Menoutchehr, confirm the 
identification. The Egyptian origin of Khadamantus, the presence 
of Cherethites or Creti in the south of Palestine, and a town 
Minois near Gaza, are more than sufficient evidence of the trans- 
mission of the old Egyptian history to the island of the Mediter- 
ranean." The names of Deucalion (Dhu Calyan) and Androgeus 
(Nawder or Naater) in the Cretan genealogies are also worthy of note. 

*o Xantbus ap. Creuzerl Fragmenta. 
« Oulgniaut, ii. 944. 

n Diod. Sic. i. 01, 66. Btrab. xviL 1, 42. 
« Vmo HiUig, die FhlUitaer. 



.13 

Of .scarcely less importance than the history of Crete is that of 
Rhodes." Its line is one of Heliads, a solar line. The sons of 
Helius, who is Ilns or Alvan, fled on account of a deluge, •which 
reminds us of that of Oilshah, to other lands. Among them, Actia 
went to On or Heliopolis in Egypt, .and taught the Egyptians 
astrology. Who can fail to recognise Jachath 1 Another is Ochime, 
whose name preserves more purely than any other the original form 
Achumai. His daughter Cydippe married Cercaphus, anotlier 
Heliad, whom I have not yet been able to identify. From tliis 
union sprang Lindus, Jalyssus and Camirus, the ecjuivalents of 
which I have not found. But in Cercaphus I recognise a head of 
the Cercopes, who infested Lydia in the time of Omphale, and whom 
Hercules changed into apes. Thus we have three traditions — the 
Arab, the Indian, and the Lydian forming about Achumai as a 
centre. The narrative of Diodorus Siculus takes some of the 
Heliades to Tabor in Palestine, although to him it is the Rhodian 
Atabyris. Ritter holds that Tabor is the original of the Rhodian 
name.'* Some distance to the north of this mountain and westward 
on the sea-coast is Ecdippa, commemorating' the name of Ochirae's 
daughter, and close beside Ecdippa is Ummah, a memorial of himself. 
Cercaphus may survive in an Acrabbi (or Gecrabbi giving the force 
of the ayin) lying near Carmel, which at least one writer has iden- 
tified with Camirus. 

In Bceotia we meet with Actteon, the brother of a Hecate, who was 
torn to pieces by his dogs, just as Jachath or Achthoes was killed by 
his own guards, who should have defended him. His story is made 
a parallel to that of Atys, son of Croesus, accidentally slain by his 
attendant.*' In the same country, of which Thebes, a reminiscence 
of an Egyptian Thebes, was the capital, Sipylus (Shobal) and 
Minytus (Manahath) are numbered among the sons of Amphion and 
Niobe." Amphion is the son of Epopeus (Apoi)his) and Antiope 
(Neith-pe), while Antiope is the daughter of Nycteus (Ma-Nachath). 
A form resembling Nycteus, in the absence of the initial M, is 
Antaeus, whom Hercules slew in Egypt. Actieus, the ancient king 
of Attica, preceding Cecrops, probably Cercaphus, is Jachath or 
Achthoes, whose dominions, after the capti'.i« of On, would extend 

«♦ Diod. Sic. V. JSS, seq. 

0* Die VorhaUo Europiilscher Volkergeschiehtcn 339, seq. 

«o IMml. Sic. iv. 81, seq. 

«■ ApoUodorl, iii. 5, 6. 



to Djebel Attaka. Echetus, tlio cruel king of Epints, may be a 
memory of the same date, and the very word Echthos, an enemy, a 
generalization of the character of one whose early death cannot atone 
for his wickedness.** 

It is, however, in the gi'eat family of the Dorians that wo must 
find the ancestoi's of the Caphtorim and Zorathitos. Their history 
begins with a deluge, the third which has come under our notice. 
This deluge I have good authoi'ity for placing " the borders of 
Egypt.*** It is that of Deucalion. I have already anticipated, by 
taking it for gi-anted, that Deucalion is the Arab Dhu-calyan. He 
is Alvan, the Deev. A like name from a place in the same Pales- 
tinian region, the town of Nyssa, south of Gaza, is Dionysius, a 
Dhu-Nyssa. As Gilshah, Ave have found Deucalion ruling at Elusa, 
not far from the town which Diodorus connects with the Bacchic 
god.** Him, however, for the present we must dismiss. Tlio wife of 
Deucalion is Pyn-ha, the Rhea of Ilus, and a female Egyptian Phrah. 
The son of Deucalion is Hellen. Here we find the Dorian annalists 
guilty of multiplication l^ke Manetho and his Egyptian predecessors, 
for Hellen and Deu-calion are one, the former replacing by a simple 
aspirate the hard initial sound of the latter, made necessary by the 
jjrefix Deu. Hellen is Allan, and the original Hellenes are the 
Alonim, a truly royal name. Of the sons of Hellen, we must dismiss 
.(^olus. I know nothing certainly concerning him. Dorus and 
Xuthus remain. The fonner appeal's too early. The latter is 
Jachath. Dorus is another name for Achumai, answering in a mea- 
sure to the Torybus, who is brother of Lydus. The Zorathites, in 
the form Zorah, furnish the Dorian name by the ^olic change of z 
to d. Of Apollo and Phthia, a purely Egyptian name, answering to 
Phthah, while Apollo is any solar personage, came Doras and 
Laodocus, and these are the solar Achumai, the Zorathite, and 
Lahad, his brother. These answer to Lydus and Toiybus of Atys or 
Cotys. The daughter of Dorus is Xanthippe, but the daughter of 

•8 I have not given authonties for] this Homeric- and similar names witli tlieir connected 
legends, as tliey arc accessible in any good classical dictionary, and a useless list of references 
would unnecessarily swell tlie size of tlie paper. 

w* Hierouyui, Chronicon Eusebii. It is true tbat tlie deluge of Ogyges (AgagJ is named 
instead of that of Deucalion, but it is plain tliat they are one, for Ogyjes is the founder of 
Eleusis, which is Elusa in Gerar. Africanus, in the third Book of his Chronicle, quoted by 
Syncellus, seems to speak of Ogyges and Actaous as if one person. Now, Acfcieus is Jachntli, 
son of Alvan or Deucalion. 

«» Diod Sic. iv, 2. 



d5 

tho Peraian Kai Kobad, who is also Aclmmai, is SenJaboli, and tho 
daughter of Ochime ia Cydippe, It is utterly impossible that this 
can be more coincidence. A son of Dorus is Teutamas, and Toth- 
mosis is a successor of Alinies or Achumai. Tlie mythic ancestors of 
the Dorians ia ^gimius, and in him we again find Achumai ajipear- 
ing. Dymas, the son of yEgimius, is but a shortened form of 
Teuttimas of Dorus, and Tothmosis of Ahmes. Herodotus rightly 
brings the Dorians from Egypt. Mazocchi correctly traces them to 
Dor and P]ndor and similar towns south of Carmel.'" Their cities 
are the same as those of the Heliads of Rhodes, for Helius is Hellen, 
Actis Xuthus, and Ochime ^gimius or Dorus. Epidaurus is a later 
form of Caphtor. I have said that I know nothing of the iEolians. 
Their story connects intimately with that of the Dorians, and it 
may be that ^olus is also Alvan. Sisyphus is certamly his brother 
Shepho, (Ebalus is Ebal, and (Enomaus Onara, Time will not per- 
mit me to show tho extent of my researches in connection with them. 

lUyria may here engage our attention, as lying between Greece 
and Italy. I should never have been induced, had not other 
evidence led me to it, to divide this word into the two constituents 
II and Ra, although this combination is justified by the Chaldieau 
equivalent of Alvan, Alorus.'^ The Eneti, or descendants of Anah, 
we have already seen to be an Illyrian people. In Illyria, were also 
found Oreitse (Horites), and Dassaritao (Zorathites), a name which 
at once calls to remembrance the Indian Dasaratha. The modern, as 
well as the ancient, Albanians are the people of Alvan, and their 
other name Skipetar, as well as their town Epidaunis, represent their 
old home in Kebt-Hor and theii* Bible name Caphtorim. A glance 
at Illyrian geography will fumiah abundant evidence of the Horite 
ancestry of the brave Albanians. 

Italy. — Hyde has already, in the Arabic Sambula, provided a com- 
mon ground on which Sybil and Spica, the Hebrew Shobal and the 
Egyptian Sebek, may meet. The Sabine god Sabus, ana the whole 
Sabellian family unite in this connection. The Rhodian Helius 
becomes the Latin Sol, and the Hebrew Alvan the Latin Silvanus, 
by the same rule. Silvanus, the enemy of children, is the cruel Ilus 

"> Vide note 37. Dora was probably the most southern of the Phoenician towns. Its inhabi- 
tants wore never subdued. Stephanua of Byzantium calls its founder Dorus, son of Neptune. 
—Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 

'» Berosus, Cory's Ancient Fragment*. Galloway, E. R., W2. 



36 



or Cronus, wlio is represented as sacrificing his son. Tlie Silones, 
named after him, are a monkey race, once more reproducing the 
Arab, Indian and Lydian stories, Rhea Silvia or Ilia is the old Rhea, 
wife of Ihis, the Pyrrha that married Deucalion, and that bears both 
the names of the eldest son of Shobal. The Etniscan Mantus is 
Manahath. Apollo and Apulia represent Ebal. Coelus and 
Elysium are the abode of Shobal, the great Deev, and his son Alvan, 
or Gilshah, or Caliya, in Elusa or Khulasa, the Cailasa of the Hin- 
doos. Of Coelus and Hecate, a strange combination, seeing that 
they are the names of father and son, Janus is said to be the 
offspring. But Janus, the fish-god, is Cannes or Onam, a prominent 
member of the Horito family. The line of Alba, the white city, is 
peculiarly Horite. In it we find Latinus, who is Lotan. Alba 
Sylvius is Alvan himself, twice named over. His son Atys is Jahath, 
and, strange to say, is also called Capetus, while his son is Capys, 
thus twice reproducing the ^gyptus, Kobad or Cheops, whom we 
have found to be Achumai. Thus plainly did the old story of a far- 
off and bygone civilization live in the memories of those who claimed 
as their ancestors the children of Seir, the Horite." 

Germans and Celts. — The German and Scandinavian mythologies 
have few points of connection with the Horites. Their gods and 
heroes belong pi-incipally to two other families, those of Etam and 
Ashchur. The red Shethites are among the ancestor of these 
peoples. Still Ra or II survives in the god Fi-ey with his wife 



« The following table presents the names, which, 


generally In genealogical order, recall the 


prinnipal family of the line of Shobal : 






Horite. 


Shobal. 


Alvan, Allan. 
Roeh, Reaiah. 


Jachath. 


Achumai. 


figyptian. 


Seb. 


Ra. 


Achthoes, 
Ati or Fepi. 


Ahom, Kames. 

Chtops, jEgyptus. 


Phoenician. 




Elioun, Ilus. 


Jehld. 


?Coum. 


Arabian. 


Hobal. 


U, Ulvanus. 
Dhucalyan. 


Yaguth. 


Lokman. 
Kalnu. 


Ptrsian. 




GU-shah. 


?Zohak. 


Achcemenes. 
Kai Kobad., 


Indian. 


KapUa. 


Cala, KalyuuL 


Valvaswat 


Tama. 




Siva. 


Rq}a. 


Chetiya. 


Oopati. 


Lydian. 


Bipylus. 





Atys or Cotya. 
Papas. 


Aciamus. 
Alcimus. 


Rhodian. 




Hellas. 


Actis. 


Ochinie. 


Parian. 




Hellen. 
Deucalion. 


Xuthus. 


^gimlus. 


4lban. 


"""~ 


AlbaSyMui. 


Atys or 
Capetttt. 


Capys. 



87 

Froya, the Egyptian Phro, and as II in the annual feast which was 
held in his honour, called Yulo." Ondurdis also is the E;j:yptian 
Ondorah or Denderah, which takes its name from the god and first 
ruler of Halioiiolis. Tlie Celtic divinity, Ogmius, with his Mercury 
and Hercules asaociations, lias been frequently identified with Ahoin, 
and is Achuinai. The Irish O^oniuin, son of Thoi, must be the 
same, Thoi being a form of Jahath, an Achthoes without the first 
syllable. He seems to }»o represented by the British Beli, who is 
called eiToneously son of Manhogan (Manachath), and correctly the 
father of Llud (Lihad). Beli may be the name of Alvan himself, 
given to Jachabh when accuL'ato history perished, and a tendency 
arose to reduce the solar divinities to unity. 

The Ethiopian deity Assabiiius, and its earliest monarch Arwe, 
may be Eshban and Haroeh. Manachath may appear not only in 
the Chinese Ming-ti but also in the Peruvian Manco-Guina-Capac 
and the Algonquin Manitou. It would be strange if the ancient 
people of China and the tribes of this continent could be shown to 
have dwelt within the influence of a Horite civilization. The unity 
and recent origin of the human race would be at once established 
could this bo done, as I doubt not it will be before long. In the 
meantime, the various traditions of civilized peoples have carried us 
back to the days of Abraham and to the lands in which he sojourned — 
Palestine, Egypt, and the region lying between ; and pointed these 
out as the time and the place when and where man, a second time 
beginning to fill the earth, laid the foundations of his present pros- 
perity. The facts I have given, through the connections established 
between the Scripture narrative and tradition, are a besom to sweep 
into the waste-basket of literature the utterly unfounded hypotheses 
of Bunsen and others, which throw the commencement of Egyptian 
history thousands of years into the past. They abolish, I trust for 
ever, that absurd class of interpreters of mythology, who make 
Euhemerus a continual object of scorn, and pleasingly imagine a 
■world sitting down in its various divisions to weave out of its own 
brain a complex and unintelligible solar allegory. They say to the 
ethnologist, the student of language, the comparative geographer, the 
groper towards a science of religions, the historian, as they point to 
the eastern life of nearly four thousand years ago — there is the long- 
forgotten field in which your studies must begin if they are to be 

n Malltt'i Northern Antiquities. Bohn ; 110. 



38 

successful. And, more important than all, they tell the Gentile of a 
Divine hand, not simply leading him as well as the Jew through the 
early period of the world's history, but placing on record, briefly as 
becomes the littleness of things human in view of the Divine, yet 
comprehensively, the roll of his forgotten ancestry. Spite of all 
questions regarding the books of Chronicles, the Bible still proves 
itself the true and faithful Word, the great standax'd of historic fact 
as well as of spiritual truth and life. I am fully conscious of the 
importance of the revolution which the acceptance of the truths set 
forth in this paper will cause in the world of historical science. Of 
this, however, I am also sure — 

" Magna est Veritas et prsBTalebit."