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FIRST LESSONS 



-IN— 



GRAMMAR, 



-AND- 



HOW TO TEACH THEM, 



^BY— 



T. KRAZBR, 



FIRST-CLASS CERTIFICATE, TORONTO NORMAL ; PRINCIPAL OF THE PITBLIC 
AND MODEL SCHOOL, OWEN SOUND. 



" I had always a hatred of Grammar. Nature seemed to whisper me 
the folly of learning words instead o{ ideas." -^Disraeli. 



OWEN SOUND: 
J. Rl'THERFORD, StEAM Book AND JOB PRINTER. 

1884. 



\ \ 



Entered according to the Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-four, by T. Frazer, in the office of the 
Minister of Agriculture. " 

\\1 3 G 



PREFACE. 



This little book is an attempt to furnish hints on " How to 
teach first lessons in Grammar." Though more particularly 
intended for young teachers, or those about to enter the profession, 
it is hoped that even the general student will find it useful. To 
any who lack the advantage of having a teacher in studying this 
subject, it will, I think, be of pecuLar service. I have adopted, 
wherever the nature of the lesson will permit, the plan of illustrating 
by the aid of objects, which never fails to interest young pupils. 
Ideas should be first impressed, then the ierm^ and finally the 
definition should be drawn from the class, as a short exercise m 
composition ; the latter must be carefully criticised, and corrected 
if necessary, then written on the board for the pupils to copy and 
commit to memory. Each lesson taught in this way becomes a 
drill in reasoning as well as on Grammar. Though I have placed 
the Analysis of Sentences after Inflection for the sake of clearness, 
it should be taught simultaneously with the Parts of Speech. 

This work comprises all that is required in Grammar and 
Composition to pass the High School Entrance Examination. 

Owen Sound, May, 1884. 



INDEX. 



KINDS OF WORDS. 



Adjective . . 
Abstract Noun 
Adverb . . 
Conjunction . , 
Interjection 
Names 



i 



Case 

Comparison 

Conjugation 

Gender 

Infinitives 

Mood 



Page. 

8 


Pronoun . . 


18 
23 


Preposition 
Sentenc;; . . 


28 


Uses of Words 


29 


Verbs 


6 


Words 


IKFLE 
36 


CTION. 

Numl)er 


41 


Person 


49 
33 
54 


Participle 
Parsing . . 
Tense 


44 


Voice 



Page. 

. 18 

27 

. 2 

4 

13 

1 



31 
38 
51 
56 
47 
43 



ANALYSIS AND COMPOSITION. 



Arrangement 
Composition 
Resolving Sentences 
Style of Writers 


75 
83 
74 
7S 


Sentences — Simple 

" Compound . . 
" Complex 

Variety of Expression . . 


.. 60 

67 

.. 68 

77 


RULES or 


' SYNTAX. 




Adverbs and Prepobitions . . 
Case — Nominative 


90 

86 


Capitals . . 
Pronouns 


.. 94 

89 


" Objective . . 
" Possessive 


87 
88 


Prepositions, use of 
Verbs 


. 93 
91 




ERR 


ATA. 




Page 32, for "gasses," read 


"gase 


s." 








33, for " 4th, names of persons," read " 4th, names of objects. 

35, third line, for " of making," read "of marking." 

80, paragraph No. 4, for *' are readily," read "are not readily." 



FIRST LESSONS IN GRAMMAR. 



Lesson I. 
WORDS THE MEDIUM OF EXPRESSING THOUGHT. 

Show a picture of some unknown person or object to the class. 
Teacher asks : How many know of whom this is a picture ? No 
answer. 

Teacher — How can you be informed ? Pupils — You must tell us. 

Could I inform you in any other way than by fe/Zing you ? 

Yes ; by writing or printing the name of the person. 

That is correct. I will tell you (giving the name), and I will 
also write the name on the board. Now, how many ways have we 
of expressing our thoughts to one another ? 

We express our tli oughts in two ways : 

By speaking or telling our thoughts ; 
By writing or printing them. 

^Vhat CO we use in expressing our thoughts to others ? 

We use words or language. 

How many can tell what a word is ? 

Note. — If there is no answer to this question, the teacher may draw out their 
thoughts in the following manner : 

How many in passing a watchmaker's sliop, have observed a 
large circle of wood hung over the door, and painted so as to 
represent a watch ? All. 

What name is given to any object of this kind ? 

It is called a sign. 
- What is it used for ? 

It is used for the purpose of informing people that watches are 
made or sold within. 

Where are our thoughts formed ? 

They are formed in our minds. 

Can we see one another's thoughts ? No. 

How then do we make them known ? 

By speaking or writing them. 



3 SENTENCES. ^ 

And what do we use in doing so ? 

We use words or language. 

Then what are words ? 

They are signs of our thoughts. 

In how many ways do we use them ? 

In two ways : By speaking or writing them. 

Draw definition of words from class, then write it neatly on the 
board for pupils to copy : 

Words are signs, spoken or written, used to express our 

thoughts to others. 



Lesson II. 

THE SENTENCE. 

A:ik class to recite the definition of words. Having ascertained 
that each pupil has learned it, take any object, such as an apple, 
show it to the pupils, and ask them to write something about it. 
Suppose one of them has written : 

" The apple is ripe." 

Write the following on the blackboard : 

The apple is ripe. 

The ripe apple. 

Ask them to observe carefully the two expressions. Draw from the 
class which of these expresses a complete thought or statement about 
the apple. They will see that in the first expression the ripeness 
of the a])ple is affirmed; in the other, the kind of apple is merely 
named. They may complete the thought in the second expression, 
as "The ripe apple hangs on the tree." Tell them to write com- 
plete thoughts about the following subjects : Horse, cow, wagon, 
sleigh, boy, &c. 

The term " Sentence " may now be given. Draw definition 
from class, writing it on the board, correcting where necessary for 
class to copy: 

A Sentence is a number of words expressing a complete 

thought about something. 

Can we express all our thoughts in a few words or sentences ? 
No. 



PABTS OF A SENTENCE. 3 

\Miat name is applied to all the words used by people to con- 
vey their thoughts to one another ? Language. 
Definition drawn from class : 

Language is the expression of our thoughts by means 
of words spoken or written. 



Lesson III. 
THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A SENTENCE. 

Having tested the class on their knowledge of the previous 
definitions, ask them to write a sentence on some subject, as : map, 
slate, bell, Sue. 

Teacher — How many can tell how a sentence is formed ? 
Pupils — By speaking or writing about something. 

How many parts must a sentence contain ? 

Note. — If you fail to get the proper answer, write a subject on the board, as : 

The wild rose. 

Ask pupils to complete the sense, or complete it yourself, f.g.: The 
wild rose has a sweet smell. 

Teacher — In the sentence just formed what have I written 
about ? Class — About the rose. 

Then what is the subject of our thoughts ? Rose. 

What other part does the sentence contain ? It contains the 
siaiemeni about the rose. 

How many parts then has the sentence ? Two. 

What are they ? 

ist — The subject or name of that which we have in our thoughts. 
2nd — The statement^ or what we have to say about <^he subject. . 

Now explain that ist is called the subject of the sentence, and 
2nd is called the predicate of the sentence. 

Draw definitions from class, and write on board : 

The Subject of a sentence is the name of the person or 
object about which the statement is made. 

The Predicate is the part of the sentence which contains 
the statement about the subject 



USES OF WORDS. 

Write Subjects for Write Predicates for 

burns. The horse 

gives light. The cow 

swim. Little birds 

fly swiftly. The clouds 

learn fast. The apple-trees .... 

works hard. The winter 



Lesson IV. 

THE DIFFERENT USES OF WORDS. 

Write on the board some sentence, as : 

The boy ran home to tell what his companion had done. 

Teacher — What difference do you notice in the words of the 
sentence written on the board ? 

Class may perhaps answer — Some are short, others long. 

Yes ; some contain only a few letters, others six or seven, but 
there is another difference which I wish you to learn. 

How many have been in a carpenter's shop ? x\ll. 

Well, how many can name some of the tools he uses ? 

Some pupil is asked to reply, and the teacher will have no 
difficulty in getting a list of these, as axe, saw, chisel, h^.mmer, 
plane, &:c. 

Why does he keep so many different kinds of tools ? 

Because he has a diif event use for each. 

Right. What does he use a saw for ? 

To cut boards. 

What does he use a hammer for ? 

To drive nails. 

How many see that each tool has a different use ? All. 

Look at the sentence on the board. i 

How many see that each word has a different use ? 

What is "the "used for? 

To point out the person. 

What is " boy " used for ? 

To distinguish who is meant. 
* What is " ran " used for ? 

To tell what the boy did ; &c. 



REVIEW. 



The teacher may take up each word in a similar manner, and 
draw from the class its use in the sentence. 

'I'ell the use of each word in the following sentences : 

Paul saddled his horse to ride to the town. 
The old church has fallen mto ruins. 
Do you see that horse in the meadow ? 
'I'he owner of that house is a rich man. 



Lesson V. 

REVIEW WORK. 

Teacher — \\'hat did we notice about words in our last lesson ? 
Class - That they have different uses. 
How may we classify or arrange words ? 
We may classify them according to their use. 
Teacher now exnlons that words classified according to their 
use are called Parts of Speech. 

Define: Word, sentence, subject, predicate, part of speech. 

Write sentences on : 

apples. stars. island, 

wheat. lake. river, 

pears. boat. town. 

Write subjects for : 

is Governor-C ieneral is Member for Grey. 

Supply predicates for : 

The Amazon The Mississippi 

Little birds ' The sky 

' Divide the following sentences into subject and predicate : 
Harry studies every day. 
The dog was shot by its owner. 
The river has risen during the night 
Paris is the capital of France. 
The storm was furious. 
The storm has ceased. 
New York is the largest city in America, 
By the river he wandered. 
Over the hills they ran. 
Round the world we go. 



O NOUNS 

Lesson VI. 

NAMES. 

How many remember any of the uses of words ? 

Some are used as names. Some to distinguish, or point out. 

Write on your slates the names of all the objects you see in the 
room. ^ 

Inform the clasb that all words used as names are called nouns, 
because the word nuun means a Jiame. 

Draw definition from class : 

A noun is a word used as a name. 

Next step — place before the class a number of different kinds 
of objects or pictures of objects. 

Arrange into groups of the same kind, e.g.: 

A group of books — of pencils — of pens. 
A class of boys. A class of girls. 

What name may be applied to each objeet or member of a group 
or class ? 

The class will now get the idea of a name common to each mem- 
ber of a class. 

What kind of nouns may we call them ? 
Common nouns. 

What are they used for ? 

They are names common to each member of a class, to mark 
or distinguish it from one of another class. 

Draw definition : 

A common noun is a word used as the name of each 
member of a class to mark it from some object of 
another class. 

Point out the nouns in the following : 

John has broken his slate. 

Henry goes to school. 

The tree was blown down by the wind. 

The sun is glancing through the leaves of the forest. 

Bring me the cup off the table. 

Jane has hurt her finger. 



DISTINCTION BETWEEN NAMES. ? 

Lesson VII. 

DISTINCTION BETWEEN NAMES— COMMON AND 

PROPER. 

Having ascertained that the pupils understand the previous lesson 
on the noun, arrange if necessary into classes or groups as before. 

What name is eommon to each member of this class 7 Boy. 
What name is conwion to each member of this class ? Girl. 

If I wish to speak to a particular boy in the class, how must I 
address him so that he and the others will know that I refer to 
him? 

You will have to name him. 

Very well. Theh each boy and girl has what kind of name ? 

Each boy and girl has a particular name. 

What use has this particular name? 

Its use is to distinguish each person from another when spoken 
of. 

How many kinds of names have all persons then? 

It^Or— common names and particular names. 
Name some objects that have two names — common and i)ar- 
ticular 

Towns, villages, rivers, capes, &c. 

Write particular names for these common names : 

village. ' river. boy. street, 

town. cape. girl. bay. 

What are particular names used for? 

They are used to distinguish one individual of a class from 
another. 

What difference do you observe in the writing of common and 
particular names ? 

I'he particular names are written with a capital, the others with- 
out a capital. 

Inform class that particular names are called proper nouns, 
meaning one's own name. 

Draw definition, and write it neatly on the board for pupils to 
copy : 

Proper nouns are names used to distinguish individuals 
of tfie same class from one another. 

Exercise on proper and common nouns. 



8 ADJECTIVES. 

Lesson VIII. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Take a number of objects, such as rods, books, or apples, place 
them before the class. Write the names of these objects on the 
board, <f.^..- 

rod. apple. book. 

Ask the pupils to observe each object carefully. 
Draw from them individually the result of their observations. 
What do you observe about this apple? — naming i)upil. 
It is red. 

^^' hat do you observe about this rod ? 
It is straight. 

What do you observe about this book ? 
It is torn. 

Write each quality before the name of the object qualified, for 
example : 



red' 




thin" 


beautiful 


smooth 




straight 


torn 


large 




long 


small 


small 


> apple. 


short 


- rod. large 


yellow 




square 


dear 


sweet 




round 


cheap 


sour ^ 




thick 


well-bound 



book. 



Each pupil will be eager to give some property the object i)os- 
sesses. 

In drawing from pupils such qv lities as long, short, thick, thin, 
it will be necessary to compare one object with another. 

Having got all the qualities you can from class, ask what do 
these words written in columns before the names of the objects 
express. 

They will be able to answer that they express some property or 
quality of the object before whose name they are placed. 

Inform class that these words are called adjectives, which 
means cast or put to — a word put to a noun. 

Draw definition : 

An adjective is a word used to denote some quality 
which an object possesses. 



ADJECTIVES. 9 

Lesson IX. 
KINDS OF ADJECTIVES. 

There are a number of different objects — books, pictures, &:c. — 
on my desk ; if I ask one of you to bring a book from the desk, 
what would this request signify ? 

That you wanted any book. 

If I ask you to bring the book, what is meant ? 
That you desire a particular book. 

Note. — Again, by taking two pictures, placing one at a distance and hold- 
ing the other, illustrate the use of " this " and " that." 

To which picture do I refer when I say " look at this picture ?" 
'i'o which picture do I refer when I say " look at that picture ?" 

This picture denotes the one in your hand. Tfiat picture denotes 
the one more remote. 

If I refer to two or more pictures, what words should be used 
instead of this and that ? 

These and those. 

If I jjointed to an object at some distance, what word should I 
use in connection with its name? 

Yon or yonder. 

What is a or aji used for ? 

'I'o point out any object of a class from that of any other class^ 

What is the used for ? 

To point out a particular object from others of the same class. 

Deal similarly with the other words. 

What are a^ the, this and that used for ? 

To distinguish or point out some person or object. 

Inform class that these are called I )emonstrativc Adjectives — 
"demonstrative" signifies to show or point out. 

1 )efmition drawn from pupils : 

Demonstrative adjectives point out which person or 
object we are speaking of. 



10 REVIEW. 

Lesson X. 
REVIEW ON PREVIOUS WORK. 

Define : Noun, common noun, proper noun. 

Write sentences containing proper and common nouns. 

Write adjectives qualifying or limiting : 



pear, 


tree. 


boy. 


street, 


box. 


man, 


house, 


river, 


hat, - 


soldier, 


palace, 


queen 



Complete the following sentences by inserting an adjective in 
place of each dash : 

It is day. The horse is a animal flowers 

grow in the garden. Oxen are animals. A hand- 
kerchief w^as bound around his arm. He had a countenance. 

A man knows no fear. The man will be rewarded. 

I'he sea swallows many ship. Honesty is jewel than 

that which adorns a king's head. The men are the most 

government will enforce the laws. An 

son is a disgrace to his parents. A. .... . friend wuU not desert us 

in adversity. 

Point out the adjectives in the fallowing : 

A tall dark-looking man rode past on a grey horse, in the 
bright blue sky there is not the smallest cloud I never saw be- 
fore so beautiful a simset. There is not in the wide world a valley 
so sweet. The French make fine soldiers, they are more impet- 
uous but not so steady as the British. 



ADJECnVES. 11 

Lesson XI. 
NUMERAL ADJECTIVES, &c. 

Hold a book or any other object before the class and ask : 
How many books have I in my hand ? One. 

Write the name of the object on the board, as shewn in a former 
lesson, and draw other numbers from the class. 

one ^ u n first \ much \ 

two ( second f , , little > fire-wood, 

three f°r third ( °° ' less) 



many 



) ^^"k^- fourth) 



To get the adjectives in the second column from class, arrange 
the objects in a series. Ask some one to number them as first, 
second, &c. 

Note.. — The adjectives denoting quantity, as given in the third column, 
may be drawn from class in a similar way. 

The pupils have now got the idea of number and qtmntity, and 
the term quantitative may be given. 

Write the definition neatly on the board after getting the sub- 
stance of it from class : 

Quantitative adjectives denote how much or how many 
of that for which the noun is the name. 

Supply numeral adjectives where a dash occurs : 

men were sentenced to die soldiers were ordered 

for China. Lake Superior is in length, in width, and 

feet deep. The Reader is not often used in our 

public schools. 



W ADJECnTES. 

Lesson XII. 

DRILL ON THE ADJECTIVE. 

Write the following kinds of adjectives in connection with names 
of objects : 

Six which point out or limit. 
Six denoting quality. 
Six denoting number. 
Six denoting quantity. 

Place of the Adjective in the Sentence. 

W'rite on board : 

A ripe apple hangs on the tree. 
The apple is ripe. 
I saw a ripe apple. 

Ask class to divide these sentences into subject and predicate. 
Example : 



SUBJECT : 

A ripe apple 
The apple 
I 



PREDICATE : 

hangs on the tree. 

is ripe. 

saw a ripe apple. 



What is the adjective in each of these sentences ? Ripe. 

I;n what part of sentence No. i is it used ? 
In the subject. 

In what part of sentence No. 2 is it used ? 
In the predicate. 

In what part of sentence No. 3 is it used ? 
In the predicate. 

Note. — Explain that in the yi>j/ sentence the adjective is used aflHfmfhely, 
and belongs to the attributes of the subject ; in the second it is employed in the 
predicate, and is used to complete the predicate, being used predicatively ; in 
tl>e third it is used atti-ibuliveiy. but forms part of the completion of the 
predicate. 

When is an adjective used attributively ? When predicatively ? 



VERBS. IS 

Lesson XIII. 
THE VERB. 

Write on the board the following sentences : 

John struck the desk. 
He walks quickly. 
They sat on the sofa. 

What word in first sentence tells what John did to the desk ? 
Struck. 

What word in second sentence tells what he did ? Walks. 

What word in third sentence tells wha): they did ? Sat. 

Then what work dd these words struck^ walk, sat, perform ? 

They tell or assert something about their subjects. 

Write on the board : 

Snow is white. 
Willie loves history. 

What word in the first sentence asserts the quality of whiteness 
to snow ? 

The word is. 

What word m the second sentence tells how Willie regards 
history ? 

The word loTes. 

What kind of words are is and loves 1 

They are words that tell ox assert something about their subjects. 

Can we construct a sentence without a word that tells or asserts 1 
No. 

Note. — Teacher now informs the class thai; words used for the purpose of 
telling or asserting are called verbs, because no seutence can be formed with- 
out one, and the word verb signifies a word. 

Draw definition from class ? 

A verb is a word which makes an assertion about some 
person or object whose name forms its subject. 



Lesson XIV. 

KINDS OF VERBS. 

Write on the board : 

John struck the ball. 
Henry walks. 



y 



14 VERBS. 

N^me the verbs in these sentences : 

Sirikt's and walks. 

In whiv-h of these sentences does the action expressed by the 
verb pass from the doer to something else ? 
In the first sentence. 

Who is the doer ? 

John. 

What action does he perform ? 

He strikes. 

And what does the action pass to ? 
To the ball. 

Note. — Teacher may explain that ball is called the object of the verb because 
the action passes from the doer to it. , 

In the second sentence does the action pass from the doer to 
an object ? 

No ; the action is confined to the doer or subject. 

What kinds of verbs would this distinction give us ? 

Two kinds. First — Those in which the action expressed by 
the verb passes from the doer to an object. Second — Those in 
which the action expressed by the verb is confined to the doer or 
subject. 

Note. — Inform class that the first are called transitive verbs, and the 
second are called intransitivk verbs. 



Transitive signifies to go or pass across ; ijitransiiive signifies 
not passing across. 

Write transitive verbs to connect the following : 

John table. 

Harry ball. 

William nail. 

Mary letter. 

Write intransitive verbs to connect the following : • 

The ship on the sea. 

The cow under the tree. 

The horse along the road. 

The man on the sofa. 



REVIEW. 11^ 

Lesson XV. 
REVIEW WORK. 

Define an adjective. Define each kind of adjective. Define a 
verb. 

Point out the adjectives in the following sentences and classify 
them : 

Mysterious night ! when our first parent knew thee he did not 
tremble for this lovely frame, this glorious canopy. This contract 
of ancient and modern civilization is a remarkable feature in Egypt. 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear full many a gem of 
purest ray serene. A hundred bodies were dug out. It is a 
glorious lan'd with snowy, bold and magnificent mountains ; deep, 
narrow and well-wooded valleys ; large and superb glaciers, and 
numberless rivulets. 

Point out the verbs in the following : 

I saw him yesterday. 

He hurt his foot. 

She sang sweetly. • 

He ploughs the field. 

I walked home with him. 

He works hard. 

James writes with his left hand. 

Supply verbs where a dash occurs : 

James time away at school. 

The fire brightly. 

The chair * 

The horse away. 

The snow fast. 

The walls ...*... down. 
The elephant 



1ft VERBS. 

Lesson XVI. 
TRANSITIVE VERBS. 
Write on the board : 

John gathers apples. 
John likes apples. 

What kind of verbs are gathers and likes i 
They are transitive. 

Why? 

Because the action expressed by these verbs passes to an object 

What do we gather with ? 
"^xt gather with our hands. 

What do we like with ? 
We like with our minds. 

Name some actions performed by the mind. 

We study, think, love, pity, rejoice, with our minds, &c. 

What name is given to such actions of the mind as love, pity, 
hate, &c.] 

Note. — If the answer is not forthcoming, teacher may explain that these 
are called feelings. 

How many can now inform me what transitive verbs express ? 
They express action or feeling. 

Draw definition and write on board : 

A transitive verb is one which denotes an action or 
feeling, which is directed towar Js some object. 

AV'rite transitive verbs in the following blanks, denoting action 
or feeling : 

The horse him. She us. The farmer the 

field. The miller wheat. John history. He 

the poor boy. We time. 



TBBB. 17 

Lesson XVII. 
INTRANSITIVE VERBS. ^ 

Define a transitive verb. 
Write on board : 

Ice melts. 

Harry is sick. '' 

Robeit sleeps. 

Willie rejoices. 

Name the verbs in each sentence. 
Melts, is, sleeps and rejoices. 

What kind of verbs are these ? 
Intransitive. 

Why ? 

Because the action or feeling expressed by each verb does not 
pass over to an object but is confined to the doer. 

What does melts express ? 
It expresses action. 

What does rejoices express ? 
It expresses feeling. 

What does is express ? 

It asserts the condition of sickness with its subject Harry. 

What does sleeps denote ? 

It denotes the state or condition of Robert. 

And what kind of verbs are these ? 
Intransitive. 

W^hat may intransitive verbs express ? 

They may express action or feeling, state or condition. 

Definition : 

An intransitive verb is one which denotes an action or 
feeling, state or condition which is confined to the 
doer. 

Write intransitive verbs for the following subjects : 

The army The books The dog at the 

moon. There my mother's picture. The storm 

furious. 



18 irOTTNS. 

Lesson XVIII. 

ABSTRACT NOUN. 

Write on the board : 

(a) Honest men are respected. 

(b) Honesty is respected. 

In sentence (a) what is said to be respected ? 

Honest men. 

In sentence (b) what is said to be respected ? 

Honesty is said to be respected 

What kind of men are spoken of in sentence {a) ? 

Honest men. 

What kind of word is honest? 

Honest is an adjective because it qualifies men. 

Then in sentence {a) the tjuality of being honest is used in 
connection with some individual. 

What kind of word is honesty ? 

A noun, because it is used as a name. 

What is it the name of? 

It is the name of a quality or property. 

Is this property used in connection with ?ixvs particular individual 
in sentence {b) ? 

No ; it is considered as the name of a prope*-'- -^r qual'ty apart 
from anything else. 

Note. — Explain that names of this kind are called abstract , ntns because 
the qualities are abstracted from the objects which possess these j-.o^ierties. 

Abstract nouns denoting action may be illustrated in a similar 
manner. 

Note. — Abstract nouns are mostly derived from adjectives and verbs. 
Derive abstract nouns from these adjectives : 

wide, square, hungry, foolish, 

round, high, virtuous, wise, 

regular, strong, fierce, wicked. 

Derive abstract nouns from the following verbs : 

occupy, confer, choose, 

walk, relieve, serve, 

talk, express, believe. 

Draw definition : 

An abstract noun is the name of some property, quality 

or action. 



PBONouir. 19 

Lesson XIX. 

PRONOUN. 

Write on board : 

John struck John's dog. 
He struck his dog. 

Name the nouns in the first sentence. 
yohn and John's. 

What words have been used instead of these in the second 
sentence ? 
He and his. 

Supply other words for nouns in the following sentences : 

Mary studied Mary's lesson. 

Mary did not think the lesson too long. 

Mary's father will give Mary a nice book. H 

The book has many nice pictures in the book. 

Note. — Ask some one to read the sentences ; when class has finished, find 
liow many agree, and point out errors, iif any. Pupil reads : 

Mary studied her lessons. 
She did not think them too long. 
Her father will give her a nice book. 
It has many nice pictures in it. 

What words does her supply the place of? 
It supplies the place oi Mary. 

What word does them supply the place of? 
It supplies the place of lessons. 

What word does it supply the place of? 
It supplies the place of book. 

What kind of words have she^ her^ them^ ity &c., supplied the 
place of ? 

They have supplied the place of nouns. 

Teacher now informs the class that she, her. them, &c., are called pronouns. 
Pronoun signifies for a noun. 

Definition : 

A pronoun is a word which supplies the place of a noun. 



BIVIBW. 

Lesson XX. 
REVIEW. ' 

Define transitive and intransitive verbs. 
Define abstract noun and pronoun. 

Arrange the transitive and intransitive verbs in different columns 
in the following sentences; in the same manner arrange the 
pronouns and abstract nouns : 

She told me shame would never betide. 

With truth for my creed and God for my guide. 

She taught me music. V 

Brittania rules the waves. 

We cannot prize a good character too highly. 

Nothing is lovelier than virtue. 

The storm was at its heighth. 

Gratitude is a noble emotion. 

Hope, the balm of life, soothes under every misfortune. 

Supply pronouns where a dash occurs : 

I love friend companions are not to be trusted. 

are good boys climbed up the mountain 

walks in sleep call Harry have just 

seen , hope will come to see soon. 

Supply abstract nouns in the following : 

The of the lights blinded me. His was shaken. 

. . . .*is good exercise. He had no master, but was in- 
troduced into England by Caxton merits 

is despised. conquers all things leads to 



{ 
{ 



EEIATIYB PBONOUN. r 21 

Lesson XXI. 
RELATIVE PRONOUN.i>-r 

Write on the board : 

I went to see the new house which John built. 

I know the man who bought the farm. 

I saw the man and the boy that took the goods. 

Ask clasjj to break up each into two sentences ; if they fail to do so, teacher 
may write them on the board as follows : 

a. I went to see the new house. 

b. John built the house. 

c. I know the man. • ^ 

d. The man bought the farm. 
I I saw the man and the boy. 

I They took the goods. 

In the first sentence, what word united the affirmations marked 
a and b ? 

Which. 

What word in sentence b is it used for } 

House. 

Then what two offices does which perform ? 

It is used instead of house^ and it also connects two affirmations 
so as to make one sentence. 

If it stands instead of house^ what kind of word is which ? 

It must be a pronoun. 

Right ; but it not only stands for a pronoun, but it connects 
sentences. 

Deal in a similar manner with the other words who and that. 

Now inform the class that these are ce,lled relative or conjunctive pronouns . 
Inform them that the word they stand instead of is called the antecedent. Ex- 
plain the meaning of the terms relative and conjutictive. 

Draw the definition from the class : 

A relative pronoun, in addition to being a substitute for 
a noun, connects sentences. 

Supply relative pronouns in the following blanks : 

I saw the man was taken prisoner. The man and the 

boy ..... I engaged have left. I saw the person she 

married. He does wrong deserves punishment. This is 

not the book I gave you. They seek me early shall 

fmd me. 



22 mTBREOOATIVB PRONOUN. 

Lesson XXII. 
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Write on the board : 

Who is at the door ? 
Which do you like best ? 
What did he bring ? 

What kind of sentences are these ? 
They ask questions. 

Inform them that all such sentences are called interrogative, which denotes 
asking a question. 

Name the words beginning each question. ^ 
Who, which, what. - 

What does 7v/io supply the place of ? 
The name of some person. 

What does which supply the place of? 
The name of some object or person. 

What does what supply the place of ? 
The name of some object. 

What kind of words are whi\ which and whcU ? 

They are pronouns. 

Why? 

Because they are used instead of nouns. 

How are they used ? 

They are used to ask questions. 

What name have we for sentences which ask questions ? 
They are called interrogatives. 

Then what kind of pronouns may we call who^ which and what ? 
They may be called interrogative pronouns. 

Definition : 

An interrogative pronoun is one which is used in asking 

questions. 

Supply interrogative pronouns where a dash occurs : 

do you like best ? is the shortest ? ol 

them is right ? did you ask for ? 



ADVERBS. 

Lesson XXIII. 

ADVERBS. 

Write on the board : 

The lamp burns with a clear flame. 

How does the lamp burn ? 

With a clear flame. 

How many could express the idea ivith a clear flame by a single 
word ? 

The lamp burns brightly. 

Very good. If you saw a bird fly past you in a moment, what 
word would express this rapidity of flight ? 

Swiftly or quickly. 

Right. 'i'hen what do the words brightly^ quickly^ swiftly 
express ? 

They express the manner of the action, or how it is done. 

Write words to express the manner of the action in the following 
sentences : 

John writes Mary sings 

VV'illie studies Henry talks 

Robert walks Edward acts 

Write on board : 

John rises early. 
Willie went away. 
I saw him here now. 

Draw from the class what each of the words early ^ away^ here^ 
now, express, e.%.: 

When does John rise ? 
Early. 

W^hat does early express ? 
Time of rising, S:c. 

What kind of verbs do brightly, swiftly, quickly, &c., modify ? 
They modify verbs. 

Yes, they are generally used with verbs, hence we call them 
adverbs. 

Point out the adverbs in the following : 

He plays too eagerly. 

He struck him very hard. 

He got up behind. 

I arrived yesterday. 

The earth turns round. 



M ADVERBS. 

^* Lesson XXIV. " 

ADVERB— Con ftnued. 

Write : "^ 

The rose is very beautiful. 

What word expresses the degree of beauty ? 
The word very expresses the degree of beauty. 

What kind of word is beautiful ? 

An adjective. vv -t * 

Then the word very qualifies or modifies what kind of word ? 

It modifies an adjective. 

Teacher Qxplains that very is also an adverb. , ' 

Write : -' 

The eagle flies very swiftly, v . 

What kind of word is swiftly ? ' ^ ■ ^ • / 

An adverb. , ; 

Why? ■' ': ■X^''^^:'ivAr - r 

Because it tells how the eagle flies. /-[, ^ :.Lji;;i 

What word modifies ja////^ / . > i ,,; 

Very. ,,.'.:■::: , ■;;'"■"'' '-; 

Teacher, explain that very is an adverb also, '^v^ 

What kintf of words do adverbs modify ? 
They modify verbs, adjectives and other advert 

And what do they express ? 

They express manner, time, place, and actioi 

Definition : 

An adverb is a word used to modify verbs, some 

adjectives and adverbs. 

Where a dash occurs insert an adverb : 

I walked Mary sings The tree is high 

The horse trotted The lion roars The poor dog 

was hurt. He will go to Toronto. He is 

recovered yet. He speaks of his companions. She is 

free from the effects yet. I am glad to see you. 

Two minutes had elapsed when he came. 




ADVEBBS. 

Lesson XXV. 
KDW^KBS— Continued. 

Write on the board : 

He walked there. 



{ 



Come here instantly. >? 

He leaves to-morrow. 

He is exceedingly strict. 

r He will certainly come. 

( Perhaps he is delayed by storms. 

Why did he go ? 

They fought bravely. v 

Note. — Ask class to name each adverb in these sentences and tell what it 
expresses, ^,^; '-^''-^ v. ::?,:^^ r^ -?'■-: '■<':, -jV--'- 

What does there express ? Place. 

What does ^>wAj;«//y express ? Time. : >n;;? 

What does exceedingly express ? Degree. 

What does certainly express ? Affirmation, &c. 

What does why express? Cause (used interrogatively.) 

What does bravely express ? Manner. 

Name the different ideas adverbs express. 

They express idea of time, place, manner, cause, degree, 
affirmation, &c. 

Write sentences containing adverbs of time, place, degree, cause, 
effect, affirmation, negation, &c. 



96 KBVUW. 

Lesson XXVI. 
REVIEW OF PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS. 

Define : Pronoun, relative and interrogative pronouns, and 
adverb. 

Point out or arrange the pronouns under their different kinds, 
and name the adverbs in the following sentences : 

I have not seen him lately. He is constantly at work. He 
went away yesterday. I'hey ran swiftly down the hill. She often 
walked three miles before breakfast. He is still not very old. 
I saw John, who told me about the accident. Which of you will 
go. What would you do in my place ? Who would have thought 
he was so old ? I know what you said. Which of them do you like 
best } I saw the dog which bit the little girl. He is a man who 
cannot defend himself I saw the tree that was struck by lightning. 

Supply pronouns or adverbs where you can in the following 
sentences where a dash occurs : 

horse threw him The house was built by 

parents taught to read project 

answered The boaster is doubted. Discoveries 

are made He came upon me . . . Bees build their 

hives The bird was secured. 



PBGF08ITI0N. 27 

. Lesson XXVII. 

PREPOSITION. 

If convenient, take a small box, and with your pencil or any 
other object draw from class the following relations of the pencil 
to the box in regard to place or position, &c. Placing the pencil 
in the box, ask : 

Where is the i)encil ? It is in the box. 

Where now ? It is 0ver the box. 

Where now ? It is < ^t" ^''.?^ \ the box. * '/ ^ V ' 

Where now? \\.\s, outside \}[\<t box. 

Where now? It is from the box, &c. " ^ - --^ W 

What do the words in^ oi'er, under ^ &c., show? 

They show the position of the pencil in relation to the box. 

Write on the board : 

He took a book from the desk and placed it on the 

, _ .^. . table. 

What word in this sentence shows the relation of hook to desk} 
What %vord in this sentence shows the relation of it to table? 

From shows the relation of book to desk. On shows the relation 
of it to table. 

What kind of words are oi'er, under, from, on, &c. placed before ? 
They are placed before nouns. 

Where is their position ? 
Before the noun. 

Infoi-m the class that they are called prepositions— ^x^ signifying be/ore, 
hence the name. 

Draw definition : 

A preposition is a word placed before nouns to show 
the relation of one object to another. 



9B r ooNJUNOTioys. 

Lesson XXVIII. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 

Write on the board : 

John and William go to school. 

Ask class to divide the sentence so as to make two sentences, ^.^.; 

John goes to school. 

William goes to school. '- r • ■■^' 

^Vhat word has been omitted in breaking the sentence into two 
parts ? And. 

What work does and perform in the sentence ? , 

It unites the statements — J^o/in goes to school^ William goes to 

school — into one sentence. .-; 

i ■ ■ ■ ' ' 

Write on the board : - >- 

John may go. 

Harry may go. ^^ 

Ask class to combine these statements into one sentence so as 
to convey the idea — ist, That one may go, but not the other; 
2nd, John may gc, and not Harry. 

John or Harry may go. 
John, but not Harry, may go. 

Name the words used in combining these statements. 
And, or, but. 

What are these words used for ? 
They are used to join statements. 

What name may be given them ? 
Joining words. 

Now explain that they are called conjunctions — meaning a word that joins. 
Defmition : 

Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences. 



nrnuEUBcnoNs. 29 

Lesson XXIX. 



: -^^..-a 



INTERJECTIONS. 

Write on the board : ,^ 

Hurrah ! our boys have won the game. 

Alas! he is dead. 

Mercy ! how you frighten me. 

Oh ! why did he leave us ? 

Hark ! did you hear that ? 

Adieu! my friend. 

What words in these sentences express joy, sorr<yiv, surprise^ &c.? 
Hurrah, alas, mercy, &c. . . 

Then these words express some sudden emotion of the speaker, 
and are not connected with the sentence, hence they arc called 
interjections, which means thrown between. 

Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden 
emotion or feeling of the speaker. 

Insert an interjection where a dash occurs : 

! tlie victory is ours ! I am surprised at this. 

My house is on fire, ! lam undone my friend, I 

am glad to see you the cannon are booming, the battle 

has begun dishonest wretch, I despise thee. 



90 KiviBW, -n 

- REVIEW. 
Define : Noun ; common, proper, and abstract nouns. 

Classify the nouns in the following sentences : 

Milton wrote Paradise Lost. Newton was a great philosopher. 
The longest river in the world is the Mississippi. Tyranny defeats 
itself. Idleness creates mischief Skating is splendid exercise. 
Repentence merits forgiveness. Heroism is worthy of admiration. 
Honesty is the best policy. John showed more courage than 
ability, more bravery than prudence. ,. , ., ;, 

Classify pronouns in the following sentences : 






He that is down need fear no fall My friend, we must part. 
He trusts me because he knows I am honest. Who gave you the 
book ? I know the person who won the medal. Did you buy 
the lot that was sold. _ 



■.T( re- 



classify the verbs in the following sentences : 
Which" of them did you see? What did he say? 

How many kim/s of words are used in our langugage ? 
What name is given to the different kinds of words ? 
Define each part of speech. 



i 



>aaKyv ^v. 



INFLECTION. 

' Lesson I. :, 

"■^ c_, ./.,.,:__, , . NUMBER. ., ^, _ , ^., ,!.\.r" 

Take a number of objects, such as books, pens, &c.: holding a 
dook before the class, ask for the word denoting one of these. 
Class gives the word book. ^ *''^" 

Write the word dook on the board in the first column, as shewn 
in the example given below ; next, by holding up ^wo or more 
books, get the word dooks, which denotes Morc than one of these 
objects ; write the word books in second column. Take another 
object and deal with it in a similar manner. 

Note. — In a lesson of this kind there are name« of objects or animals 
the plural form of which may be drawn from class after writing, the singular 
form on the board. 

Denoting one. Denoting more than one. 

i pen pens j ^°"^^^^ ^y adding s to the singular. 

{ box boxes l ^°^"^^^ ^y adding es to the singular. 

{ chi!d children } ^^^"^^^ by adding en to the singular. 

{ JSo^h teeth } ^^^^^ ^y ^^^"g^"g '^' '^^'^' 

What change has been made in the word book in order to express 
more than one? 
The letter s has been added to it. 

Deal similarly with the other words given in the columns, draw- 
ing from class the different modes of changing words from those 
denoting one to those denoting more than one. 

How many ways are given here of changing from words defwtin^ 
one to those denoting more than one? 

There are four modes — first, by adding s to the singular form of 
the noim ; second, by adding es ; third, by adding en, and fourth, 
by changing the vowel of the singular. 



■I KTMBBR. 

Lesson II. 
NUMBER. 

In our last lesson how did we classify names ? 

Into two classes — those denoting one and those denoting more 
than one. 

What word is applied to words like one, tu>o, three, &c.? 
Numbers. 

Well what name may be applied to this change in the word we 
have just been learning ? '/ 

Number. 
How many can define Number as applied in our lesson ? 

Number is a change in the form of nouns to denote 
whether we are speaking of one person or object 
or of more than one. 

Note. — Explain that names denoting one are called Singular, and names 
denoting more than one. Plural. 

Write on board the singular forms and draw from class the 
plural, e.g.: 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Nouns ending in 


Form plural by 
adding 


gas ., . 


gasses 


vjk" ' 8 


es 


glass 


glasses 


9S 


es 


bush 


bushes 


sh 


es 


church . 


churches 


ch soft 


es 


monarch 


monarchs 


ch hard 


s 


fox ''' ^ 


foxes 


X 


es 


topaz 1 , ; ;. 


topazes 


z 


es 


potato ^^ ' ' 


potatoes 


o 


es 



What kind of words form their plural by adding es ? 

Nouns ending in ss, s, sh, ch soft, x^ 2, &c., form their plural by 
adding es to the singular form. 

Words ending in y may be taught as follows : Write the singular 
on the board, asking class to spell the plural form. 

boy boys lady ladies 

bay bays sky skies 

toy toys penny pennies 

attorney, attorneys 



OKNDSK. 33 

vVhat kind of letter comes before y m boy, toy, bay, &c.? 

A vowel. 

How do these words form their plural ? 

By adding s. , 

What kind of letter comes before y in lady, sky, &c.? 

Consonants. 

Draw the following rule from class : 

Words ending^ in (/, preceded by a vowel, form the plural by adding a. 

Words ending in </, preceded by a consonant, form the plural by / 
changing y into / and adding es. ' 



Lesson III. 
GENDER. 

Arrange names on the board in columns, e.g.: 

man woman parent book 

boy girl child pen 

How are the names in the first tivo columns arranged ? 

They are arranged according to the sex of the person named. 

Note. — If the answer is not forthcoming, explain that persons and animals 
are divided into two classes according to sex, example : 

Men and boys belong to the male sex ; women and girls belong 
to the female sex ; inanimate objects belong to neither sex. 

What sex may a parent or child be? 

A parent or child may belong to either the male or female sex. 

Then what may we say of parent or child in regard to sex ? 

That they are names common to both sexes. 

How many classes of words will this division give ? 

Four divisions. 

I St, names of persons, &c., belonging to the male sex. 
2nd, names of persons, &c., belonging to the female sex. 
3rd, names of persons, &c., belonging to either sex. 
4th, names of persons, &c., belonging to neither sex. 

Inform clasL that those of the ist division are said to be of the 
masculine gender ; those of the 2nd, of the feminine gender ; 
those of the 3rd, of common gender ; and those of the 4th of 
neuter qfender. 



.^- 



34 OSNDER. 

Draw defir ion from class : 

Gender is a change of form in the noun corresponding 
to the classes of words denoting each sex. Names 
of objects without sex are said to be of the neuter 
gender. 

Give nouns of opposite gender corresponding to : 

'':_,::::_:.■ father ox horse uncle 

'' sister * man gentlemen sir 

^^ lady '■' " \ ewe goose wizard 

boy ' cow duck nun 

Note. — When a noun of multitude is regarded as one whole, it is neuter ; 
when regarded distributively, it is common. 



Lesson IV. 

Write jcolumns (a), {b) and (c) on the board. 

Draw from class the names used in second column, writing, them 
on the board as they are named by the class. v. 

MASCULINE. FEMININE IS FORMED H / - 

i brother sister ) 

{a) I hoy girl / By different words. 

(husband wife) 

( heir heiress j 

(/5)<lion . lioness By adding ess and ine. 

( hero heroine) 



\ By prefixing words of 



. V I man-servant maid-servant (the ^^^/z^/^'r required be- 
^^' \ he-bear . . she-bear i fore those of common 

j gender. 

Draw from class : . >. 

In column {a) how is the femii * e formed ? 
By different words. 

In column {b) how is the feminine formed ? 
By affixing ess and ine. 

In column {c) how is the feminine or masculine formed ? 



REVIEW. 35 

By prefixing words of the different genders to those of common 
gender. 

How many ways or modes are there o^ making the gender of 
nouns ? 

There are three wavs of marking the gender of nouns — ist, by 
using different words ; 2nd, by a-lding the terminations gss and ine 
to the masculine ; 3rd, by prefixing words denoting the kind of sex 
to words of common gender, 

• Name the gender of the following words : 

book hart cattle fowl 

deer children house multitude 

paper pen bird animal 

arm head army . people 



REVIEW ON INFLECTION OF WORDS. 

Define Number and explain the terms singular and plural. 

Give the different modes of forming the plural. 

Give rule for forming the plural of words ending in y. 

Write exceptions to the rule of adding es to nouns ending in o. 

Define gender, and explain the terms masculine, feminine, 
common and neuter gender. 

Give all the rules for forming the feminine, &c. 

Write the plural of sister, brother, boy, foot, die, goose, foot, 
child, man, loaf, flagstaff, staff, leaf, wharf, eye, glass, mouse, pen, 
key, chief. 

Write the singular of sheep, chimneys, dice, selves, fifes, pianos, 
fathers-in-law. Frenchmen, lilies, dwarfs. 

Write words having the same form for both singular and plural. 

AVrite words which have a different meaning in the plural from 
the singular. ^. ,- :*, vi ^i 

Classify the words according to gender in the following list : 
John, boy, girl, cloud, bird, house, hare, hair, queen, king, uncle, 
coal, hero, nun, count, duchess, youth, goat, monk, abbess, nephew. 

Give words of the opposite gender to the following : Man, girl, 
wife, lady, goose, drake, wizard, father, sister, niece, mother, 
daughter, cow, friar, priace, &c. 



36 CASH. 

:f_^/ .-;■-. Lesson VI. -''^v--'-^ ;■■'■■■■ 
CASE. - -- 

Write on the board the following sentences and ask the class to 
change the nouns to pronouns : 

(a) John tore John's book. 

(d) John's father will punish John. 

Changed by class to : 

{c) He tore his book. 

(^) His father will punish him. ^^ 

What is the subject of sentence (a)? , , . \ 

yohn is the subject. 

What other form of the word is given in the same sentence ? 

John's. 

What is meant by J(7^«'j ^i?^>4! ? '^ . ; 

That John owns it. 

In how many ways is the word yohn used in sentence {a) ? 
In two ways — first as the subject, second to denote ownership. 

Then how are these differetit uses of the word denoted ? 
They are denoted by a change of fortn in the word. 

What change has been made in the word John ? 
It has been changed to ^ohn^s. 
Ask class to spell the latter form. 

Next draw the attention of the class in a similar manner to the 
different forms of the pronouns, according as they are used or related 
to other word^, as the subject of a verb or the object of an nction. 

How many different forms of the word heaxt given in sentences 
{c) and {d) ? 

He^ his, him. r - . v; >, ; - - :^ ^j^ -.> ':^ 

Why do we use these different forms ? 

In order to express a change in their use or relation to other 
words. 

Now explain that this change in the noun or pronoun is called case, which 
means ^ falling away from the common form used in the subject. 

Definition : 

Case is the form in which a noun or pronoun is used to 
show its relation to some other word in the sentence. 



CASH. 37 

> Lesson VII. 
Ch.^¥.— Continued. 

Write on the board : 

{a) John asked John's father to give John a knife. 
{b) He asked his father to give him a knife. 

How many forms has the word yohn in sentence {a) ? 

Two — 'J^o/in and y^ohn^s. ,- . , . 

How many forms has the pronoun used instead of John in 
sentence {b) ? 

Three — h€y his, him. 

What relation has y^ohn to the verb asked} 
It is its subject. 

What relation is expressed by yohn^s knife ? 
Possession or ownership. * 

What relation is expressed by the words to give a knife to yohn ? 
An objective relation. i : j^^ ,. . F v 

How many relations are expressed by ^^ position "of the word 
yohn in sentence {a)} . ^j. 

Three relations — the relation of the subject ^:o the verb, the 
relation of possession, or ownership, the relation ot the object 
of the action, or preposition. 

How many I'orms has the noun to express these relations ? 
Two. 

How many forms has the pronoun to express these relations ? 
Three. 

Now inform the class that the form for the subject of the verb is called the 
nominative case; the form tor denoting irwnership or possession is called the 
possessive case; ami the form «lenoting the object of a verl) or preposition is 
called the objective case. 

Draw definition ; •" 

Nominative case is the form of a noun or pronoun used 
as the subject of a sentence. 

Possessive case is the form of a noun, &c., used to 

denote ownership. 

Objective case is the form used as the object of a verb 

or preposition. 



38 PBKSON. 

Lesson*V^II. 

V PERSON. 

Write on the board : ' -. 

I saw the man you spoke of. pii 

- ■ • 

How many different persons are mentioned in this senience ? 
Three are mentioned. 

Name them. 

7, you and man. .' 

What does /denote ? 

/denotes the speaker. - t: '■ 

What does _>'f?« denote ? 2 

Vou denotes the person spoken to. , ^ 

What does man denote? / ■ ^ 

Man denotes the person spoken of, -, . v^ .i!^: i 

Note. — Inform class that words denoting the speaker are said to be of the 
first person ; those denoting the person spoken to, of the second person j 
and those denoting the person spoken of, of the third person. 

Get all the pronouns of each person from class. 



": ';; ,/ '»"" -,.:^. Lesson IX. ,' ;"_ ". T .I'ii^'." 
EXERCISE ON THE PRONOUN. 

Construct a table of pronouns according to person, gender, 
number and case, from the following sentences : 

I have hurt my fool, it gives me pain. Thou art he. Thy 
father spoke of thee to me. He, she and I went for a walk. We 
met his, Iier and your fiitliers. They asked us to accompany them 
back, and we agreed to their request. Our time is now fully 
occupied. He owes you and them its value twice over. 

i 



BEVISW. 89 



How many numbers have pronouns or nouns ? 

Two — singular and plural. 

How many cases ? 

Three — nominative, possessive and objective. 

How many genders ? 

Three — masculine, feminine and neuter. 

How many persons ? •-- 

Three — first, second and third. 

2 able of pronouns constructed by class 



M- 



GENDER. 


SINGULAR 


• 




PLURAL. 






NoM. 


Poss. 


Obj. 


NoM. 


Poss. 


Obj. 


com. I St person 


I 


my 


me 


we 


our 


us 


com. 2md " 


thou 


thy 


thee 


you 


your 


you 


masc. 3rd " 


he 


his 


him ) 


'' V '•' 






fem. " '• 


she 


her 


her } 


they 


their 


thei 


neut. " 


it 


its 


it ) 


. , ,.„. - 


■ A.^- c i ■ -: ' -- ■ 





Why do we place /in the singular ? 

It denotes one. 

Why in the nominative? ■ \v ^/ -" 

Form used for subject. 

Why in the first person } 

Form used for speaker. .-.,,,' 

Why in the common gender ? 

Form used for either sex. 

Get the other forms in a similar manner from class. 



-'■:'"'' i:''.\-''^"''\ <■■■ Lesson X. '■ - ' "''" J 
REVIEW ON INFLECTIONS. 

Define : Case — nominative, possessive and objective. 

Point out the nouns and pronouns in the following sentences 
and tell the person, gender, number and case of each : 

We should improve our time. 
In youth all things seem pleasant. 
Hope is a great support in misfortune. 
I praised the scholars because they were attentive. 
The boys have lost their ball. 
I hung it on the nail. 

The girls have wasted their opportunities and they will never 
come again. 



40 , . COMPABISON. 

Define : Person, gender and number. 

Write the possessive forms, singular and plural, of : 

I, thou, eagle, man, mother-in-law, John, James, sheep, rose, 
bee, river, sister, it, we. 

Write sentences containing : ^ ; -t- -. 

I, my, our, your, their, them, his, it, thy, ours, theirs, mine, &c. 



■^■'' ' : '^ "' Lesson XL .■'.;^;;^.v ^,5 .i- 

INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Take any three objects of the same kind, but differing in size, 
<r.?..- apples, wooden balls or marbles. Holding one before the class, 
ask : ■; 

What is your opinion in regard to its size ? -=• 

It is /ar^e. ^ - ^ ■ ' 

What is your opinion of this one ? 'D^- I ', 

It is larger. 

What is your opinion of this one ? ^.^ 

It is the largest. • ;* u, '/r r^ ii ; ■% ■, 

What have you been doing? _ 
We have been telling you about the size of the apples. 
How do you know that the first I showed you is large ? 
Because we saw it. 

Here are two globes ; what have you to say about the size of 
this one? , v • 

It is smaller than the other globe. 

Would you call it a stnall globe ? 
Yes. 

Is it not larger than this large apple ? 
Yes. 

Then why do you say the apple is large and the globe small ? 

Because the apple is large compared with other apples, and the 
globe is small compared with other globes. 



COMPARISON. 41 

What do all our ideas of large and small depend upon ? 
They depend upon comparison. 

If we say anything is good, large, beautiful, &c., what do we 
affirm? 

We affirm that it is good, or large, comparing it generally with 
another object of the same kind. 

If we say "This apple is larger," what is affirmed ? 
That it is larger than the other. 

What is affirmed in stating " This is the largest " ? :?^ 

That it is larger than any of the others. 

How many degrees of quality have been expressed by these 

forms? :. , w . --■::■' 

Three. 

How do we obtain them? 

By comparing one object or group of objects with another object 
or group of objects. , . 

What name may be given to this change of form in the adjective ? 
Comparison. 

Defmition : 

Comparison is a change of form in the adjective to 
express quality in different degrees. 

Inform cla-s that the simple form U called the positive degree ; the second, 
the comparative degree ; the third, the superlative degree. 

Draw the following definitions from class : 

The positive degree of an adjective is its simple form used to denote 
the quality of the object when generally compared with other 
objects. 

Comparative degree is the form which denotes the degree of quality 
possessed by the object when compared with another. 

Superlative degree is the form which denotes the highest or lowest 
degree o? quality possessed by the object when compared with 
two or more objects. 



42 COMPARISON. 

.: .^V ;— ■': '-: .: . r . ' .- LeSSON XII. • . : :'' 

METHODS OF COMPARISON. 

Write on the board or draw from the class the following forms 
of adjectives ; ...... 

Positive - bad good high beautiful 

Comparative worse better higher more beautiful 
Superlative - worse best highest most beautiful 

What do you notice about the forms of the first and second 
column ? 

That different words are used for each degree. 

How are the comparative and superlative formed in the third 
column } 

The comparative is formed by adding er and the superlative by 
adding est to the positive. 

How are they formed in the fourth column ? 

The comparative is formed by prefixing more to the positive form, 
and the superlative by prefixing most to the positive. "' 

How many can tell what kind of words more and most are ? 

They are adverbs. 

Why? - ^^ 

They modify adjectives. " . . . ,:..-> 

How many kinds of comparison does this give ? ^ 

Three — first, by using different forms of the word ; second, by 
adding er and est to the positive ; and third, by prefixing more and 
most to the positive. 

Inform class that the first is calletl irregular comparison ; the second, 
it'rminattonal \ and the third, t/tZ/rr^w/ comparison. 

List of adjectives that do not admit of comparison : 

Adjectives sometimes used as pronouns, as this, that, &c. 
Numerals, as one, two, &C., first, second, &c. 
Those denoting perfection, as sure, certain, universal. 
Those denoting position, shape, material, as circular, square, 

wooden. 
Proper adjectives, as English, Irish, <S:c. 



VOICE. «8 

Lesson XIII. 

;v^' :■■■■;■ .^. ■-:■; ..^ VOICE. • . •_ ' -^ . '^ 

Write on the board sentence (dt) ? 

(a) Henry struck the ball. 
(d) The ball is struck by Henry. rc 

t (<:) He walked down the street. 

After writing sentence {a) ask the pupils to express the same 
idea by another form of the same verb. 

Note. — If the class fail to do so, write sentence (^). Ask the pupils to 
notice and explain the difference of the two sentences. They will discover 
for themselves that though different in form they both express the same 
meaning. 

What is the subject of sentence (a) ? Henry. 

What is the subject of sentence {&) ? Ball. 

What relation has the subject to the action expressed by the 
verb in sentence (a)? 

It is the name of the doer. 

What relation has the subject to the action in sentence (d) ? 

It is the object of the action. 

What kind of verb is ^'/r^^^^ ? 

Transitive. 

Could we change sentence (c) in the same maAner as sentence 
(a)? No. 

What kind of verb is walked ? 

Intransitive. ..3 

Then intransitive verbs do not admit of this change ? No. 

How many ways are there of expressing the action or feeling 
described by transitive verbs ? 

There are two ways, i.e.:— {a) When the subject of the verb is 
the name of the doer of the actiun or feeling described by it ; 
(/>) When the subject of the verb is tlie object of the action 
described by it. . ,^ ^ 

^\'hat do these two forms show ? 

They show whether the subject of the sentence stands for the 
doer, or for the object of the action expressed by the verb. 



44 MUOD. 

Now give the ierm voice, and draw from class that — 

Voice is the form of the verb which shows whether the 
subject of the sentence stands for the doer or for 
/' the object of the action expressed by the verb. 

'I'e.icher may explain that as the suhjert in ft)rm (a) is the actor or doer this 
fornx is called the ACTivt voice. Form (b) is called the passive voice. 

Draw definitions : ' 

The active voice is the form of the verb which shows that the subject 
is the doer of the action. 



The passive voice is the form of the verb which shows that the subject 
is the object of the action. 



V Lesson XIV. 

MOOD. >v 

Write on the board : 

(tz) I study grammar. v 

{b) If he study grammar he will become a correct 

speaker. --7-^- 

{c) Study grammar that you may learn to write 
correctly. ^/ :.-■? 4v.<;r' " •,. 

{d) To study grammar is useful. 

Draw from the class by judicious questioning the following : 

In sentence {a) the verb study is used to assert a fad ; in {b) it 
is ui;ed conditionally ; in {/) to command or entreat ; and in (</) it is 
used without referem c to person or time, the verb being used as 
a name. ■-'■-r--^v'-^^7-- 

How many modes of using the verb are here given ? Four. 



MOOD. 45 

Explain thai those four wa/s of using the verb are called moods. 

• Definition : ,r> ; 

Mood is the manner of using the verb, as affirming a 
fact, expressing a condition, uttering a command, 
or simply as a name. 

Give the terms indicative, which signifies poijiting out ; subjunctive, 
because the verb is subjoined to another ; imperative, which means com- 
manding ; infinitive, without limit, because the verb is not limited by 
person, number or time. 

Note. — The teacher should give numerous examples in each of the different 
moods before getting the following definitions from class. 

Indicative mood comprises the forms of the verb v^hich point out or 
assert something as a fact, or ask a question about one. 

Imperative mood is the mode of using the verb in a command. ' 

Subjunctive mood is the manner of using the verb when subjoined to 
another verb or depending on some statement, question or 
supposition. 

Infinitive mood is the manner of using the verb merely as the name of 
the action without reference to time, &c. 

The subjunctive is used in the following : < 

/ {a) When we express doubt or denial in a conditional clause, 
ns " If I were certain of that, I ivould be happy." 

/ {b) When we express something contrary to what is known to 
(be a fact, as *' If I were he, I would try again." 

{c) When futurity and condition are both implied, as " If he 
come^ I will go." 

(//) When a wish is contrary to a fact, as "I wish I were rich." 

{e) A future intention or result, as " I will wait till he die^ 



46 Riniw. 

*: /-;. -v ' ^ . Lesson XV. ' ; 

EXERCISE ON PREVIOUS WORK. 

Define comparison — positive, comparative and superlative de- 
grees of comparison. 

Give examples of three kinds of comparison. 

Classify and give examples of adjectives that do not admit of 
comparison. . ,i 

Write the definitions of voice and mood — each kind of voice 
and each kind of mood. 

Classify and compare the following adjectives where they admit 
of it : Good, wise, beautiful, larger, far, fair, rich, perpendicular, 
square, wooden, round, French, junior, enormous, eager. :> 

Give the voice of each verb in the following : ^ 

I saw John yesterday. ,;.-,. 

They ordered him to leave. >^--?.i-^ J 

The king issued a proclamation. 

They were beaten by the soldiers. 

The land was being settled by foreigners. 

The victory was won by the British. . ..^ 

Give the mood o{ each verb in the following : - 

Where have you laid the book ? -^ ■ ^^ 
I told you to be careful. , >• 

If this were a fme day I would take a walk. 
Do not stand idling there, go at once. 
I am sorry to see you look so unwell. 
Pay what you owe me. 
The order is that we charge. 



TBN8I. 47 

Lesson XVI. 

TENSE. 

Write on the board : > , 



(a) I study my lessons. 
(If) I studied my lessons. 
(cj I shall study my lessons. 



What do the various forms of the verbs express in these 
sentences ? 

They express a di^erftice of time in the action. 

What does the verb in sentence (a) express ? 
It expresses present time. 

, What does the verb in sentence (h) express ? 
It expresses /^j"/ time. / "^ 

What does the verb in sentence (c) express ? 
It expresses future time. 

In how many ways can we speak of an action with reference to 
time? 

In three ways — as taking place nmv or in the present ; as 
having occurred in the past ; as about to take place in the future. 

Write on the board : 

•• ^ ' I -J-.-- J,. - 

I am studying my lesson. 
I was studying my lesson. 
I have studied my lesson. 
I shall have studied my lesson. 

How does the verb express the action in the first sentence ? 
It is spoken of PS being incomplete. 

How in the action expressed in the second ? 
As being incomplete in the past. 

How in the third ? 

As being completed now. 

How in the fourth ? \^ 

As being complete in the future. ^ 

How many ways may we regard an action with respect to time ? 
As present^ past or future. 



J 



/ 



48 TENSE. 

How may we speak of an action with respect to its progress ? 
As being complete or incomplete. 

Give the term tense, which signifies time, and draw the definition from 
class. 

- - ■ ** 

Tense is the form of the verb which expresses partly the 
time of an action or event, and partly its completeness 
or incompleteness at the time. 



Lesson XVII. 

TENSE. 
Write on the board : 

(l write a letter. 

Present J ^ ^^ Writing SL letter. 
- -present < j ^^^^ written a lette 






have written a letter. 
I have been writing a letter. 



What time is expressed in the first two ? : ; • ; ; /,;j4.w: 
Present time. 

Note. — In asking the class what time is expressed in the next two, the 
answer may be "They express the .iction in past thne." 

Write on the board : ^ ^ ' ;;:?>;:;'? i ; 

I have written a letter. 
, I had written a letter. 

Would we use /ia7'e wrf/fen to express an action occurring 
yesterday ? 

No. We would say : I have written a letter to-day or this 
morning. 

The pupils in this way will see that though '■'^havewritten^^ expresses the action 
as complete, it is complete at a time of which the present forms part. Sim- 
ilarly, ' 'had'" shows the action as complete in past time ; and ''have been writing'^ 
expresses an action as continuing at a time of which the present forms a psrrt 
but now completed. 



CONJUGATION. 40 

The teacher may ask the class to form the past and future 
tenses. ._ ; 



f I wrote a letter. 
p ) I was writing a letter. 
j I had written a letter. 
I I had been writing a letter. 



I shall write a letter, 
P ) I shall be writing a letter 



i 

J I shall have written a letter. 

V I shall have been writing a letter. 



How many tenses do these four divisions of present^ past and 
fut:tre time give ? 

Twelve tenses. 

Teacher now gives the term for each tense. 

Present Indefinite speaks of an action in the present without regard to 
its progress. 

Present Imperfect speaks of an action in the present as being incomplete. 

Present Perfect, as complete in the present. 

Present Perfect of Continued Action, as continuing at a time of which 
the present forms a part, but now complete. 

The past and future tenses may be taken up in a similar manner. 
Give exercises on aii the persons in the singular and plural. 



Lesson XVIII. -- 
SCHEME FOR THE CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. 

Verb " to speak." . 

Indicative Mood 

PRESENT TENSES, 

Indefinite - - I speak. 

Imperfect - - - I am speaking. 

Perfect - - - I have spoken. 

Perfect of continued action I have been speaking. 



60 



CONJUGATION. 



PAST TBNSE. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect 

Perfect - - - 

Perfect of continued action 



I spoke. 

I was speaking. 

I had spoken. 

I had been speaking. 



FUTURE TENSE. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect 

Perfect - - - 

Perfect of continued action 



I shall speak. 

I shall be speaking. 

I shall have spoken. 

I shall have been speaking. 



Subjunctive Mood. 

PRESENT TENSES. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect 

Perfect - 

Perfect of continued action 



If] I speak. 

If J I be speaking. 

If] I have spoken. 

If] I have been speaking. 



PAST TENSES. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect 

Perfect 

Perfect of continued action 



If] I spoke. 

If] I were speaking. 

If] I had spoken. 

If] I had been speaking. 



FUTURE TENSES OR SECONDARY FORMS. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect - - - 

Perfect 

Perfect of continued action 



If 
If 
l{ 
If 



I should speak. 
I should be speaking. 
I should have spoken 
I should have been 
speaking. 



Imperative Mood. 
[Thou] speak. 



Indefinite - - 

Imperfect - *^ 

Perfect - *^ 7 

Perfect of continued action 



Infinitive Mood. 

To 
To 
To 
To 



speak. 

be speaking. 

have spoken. 

have been speaking. 



PAKTICIPLB. ^ 

. Participles. 

Indefinite - - Speaking. 

Perfect - - - Having spoken. 

Perfect of continued action Having been speaking. 

NoTK. — I have not thought it necessary to give all the persons of the verb 
in this scheme. The pupils, however, should be drilled on all the moods, 
tenses and persons in both singular and plural. 



- ,-k':-. 'v Lesson XIX. ^ , ■/•-- ' __ :, 

PARTICIPLE. 
Write on the board : 

{a) I see a tall boy. 
VUT ('^i I see a little boy. 

{c) I see a boy walking. , / 

{d) I see a boy running. 

What words in sentences {a) and {b) enable you to tell which 
boy is referred to ? 

Tall and little. . 

What kind of words are tall and little ? 

Adjectives. 

W^hat words in sentence {c) and {d) mark or distinguish the 
particular boy ? 

Walking 2LnA running. - r;*^ ■ ^ 

They perform the work of what part of speech ? ■ . 

They perform the work of an adjective. 

Do these words perform any other duty than that of an adjective ? 

Yes ; they express what each boy does. 

What kind of words generally expresses what we do ? 

Verbs. 

Then these words running and walking participate in the nature 
of what kind of words ? .• 

They participate in the nature of verbs and adjectives. 

Give the term participle, which xi\^ds\.% participating in. 

A participle is a word which partakes partly of the 
nature of the verb and the adjective. 

Point out the participles in : 

I saw John throwing a stone. 

I heard him talking to himself. 

The ship sailing down the bay, ran ashore. 

A tree growing in front of the house is dying. 



52 PARTICIPLE. 

Lesson XX. 
FARTICIFLE— Con fmued. . 

Write on the board : 

{a) He, ploughiTig the field, felt merry. 

(d) Having ploughed the field, he went home. 
{c) Having been ploughing all day, he felt tired. 
(</) The field being ploughed, he went home. 

(e) The field, ploughed by him, yielded a good crop. 

{/) The field, having been ploughed by him, yielded a 
good crop. , , 

Name the words in sentences (a), {b) and {c) which have partly 
the nature of a verb in expressing action, yet do not make an 
assertion. 

Plmighin^^ having ploughed^ and having been ploughing. 

Then what kind of words are these ? Participles. 

What kind of verb is plough ? Transitive. 

Then what form or voice are the first three ? Active. 

What forms are in {d\ (e) and (f) ? Passive. 

Give the following terms : , - ; 

C Imperfect - - Ploughing. — 

Acfive ^. Fev^fect - Having ploughed. ^ * 

, ( Compound Perfect - Having been ploughing. 

[Indefinite - Being ploughed. 

Passive < Ferfect - - Ploughed. 

( Compound Perfect Having been ploughed. 

Point out the participles in the following, and tell what kind 
>each is : .--....;. x. _v .-^j>:v-t' .-'v. !' ;, 

Having defeated Harold, he marched to London. • ' 
Being badly beaten, the boys returned. 
- He having struck the mah first, was fined. 

The letter having been written with bad ink, could not be 

read. 
His house being burnt, he went to the country. 
The man having been nearly killed, was insensible. 
James, having been working all day, went early to bed. 

Note. — A verbal nolin is always the s\ibject of a v«rb or the object of 
a verb or a preposition — a participle is never used in this way. 



CONJUGATION. 53 

Lesson XXI. 

CONJUGATION. 

Write on the board the present and past indefinite of the 
indicative mood and the perfect participle of two verbs, one 
belonging to the strong, the other to the weak conjugation. Example: 



ES. INDEF. 


PAST INDEF. 


PERF, PART. 


plough 
smite 


ploughed 
smote 


• ploughed 
smitten 



How are the past indefinite and perfect participle formed in the 
verb plough ? 

By adding ed to the present. 

How is the past formed in the verb smite ? 
. By changing the vowel of the present. 

How is the participle formed ? 
By adding en to the present. 

Where does the change take place in plough} 
From without. 

Where does the change take place in smite? 

From within, when changing from the present to the past. 

Inform class that verbs like plough which form their past tense and perfect 
participle by the addition of d or ed to the present are called weak verbs ; 
and verbs which form their past tense by modifying the vowel of the present 
are called strong verbs. 

A list of verbs of weak conjugation : 



flee 


fled 


fled . .^ 


deal ^ 


, dealt 


dealt 


hear 


heard 


heard *J' . 


feel "^ 


"^felt 


felt 


sell 


sold 


sold :, '.: 


kneel 


knelt 


knelt 


lay 


laid 


laid ": "::: 


teach 


taught 


taught 


have 


had 


had - ;- * 


beseech 


besought 


besought 


creep 


crept 


crept 


rend 


rent 


rent 


leave 


left 


left 


bleed 


bled 


bled 


lose 


lost 


lost ; ;-^ 


light 


lit 


lit 


Ue 


lay 


lain 


bet 


bet 


bet 



t 




INFINITIVES. 










Strong 


conjugation : 






awake 


awoke 


awoke 


bind 


bound 


bound 


wear 


wore 


worn 


wind 


wound 


wound 


shear 


shore 


shorn 


begin 


began 


begun 


choose 


chose 


chosen 


shrink 


shrank 


shrunk 


seethe 


sod 


sodden 


swim 


swam 


swum 


shoot 


shot 


shot 


arise 


arose 


arisen 


hang 


hung 


hung 


thrive 


throve 


thriven 


dig 


dug 


dug 


smite 


smote 


smitten 


sting 


stung 


stung 


fly 


flew 


flown 


win 


won 


won 


let 


let 


let 


wring 


wrung 


wrung 

Less 


go 


went 


gone 




;oN XXII. 




• 




INFINITIVES. 







Write on the board : 

{a) To play is pleasant. 

(b) I love to play. 

(c) Something is pleasant. 
{d) I love something. 

USED AS A NOUN. 
What word in sentences {c) and {d) has been substituted for to 
//ty in the first two sentences ? 
Something. 

What part of speech is something ? 
A noun. 

Tell its relation in each sentence. 

It is the subject of is in {c), and the object of love in (</). 
Then how is the verb to play used in {a) and (^) ? 
It is used as a noun. 
Write on the board : 

{a) He is said to be here. 

{b) He was commanded to stand. 

(<:) (He to be here) is said. 

[d) (He to stand) was commanded. 

Something is said. v . 

Something was commanded. -^ 

To be and to stand are used as complements of the subject, and 
are therefore used as nouns. . , 



INFINITIVES. OS" 

USED AS AN ADVERB. 
They come to ask you. Purpose of coming. 
I am glad to hear this. (Had (why?) 
V^ou are (|ui(:k to learn. Quick (in what way?) 
Words used to denote purpose - how, why, &c. — are railed 
adverbs, hence in these examples the infmitives are used a^ adverbs. 

USK[) A.S AN ADJKCTIVt:. 

Your mistake is to be deplored. (Deplorable) 

His request is not to be denied. (Undeniable) 

How are the infmitives used in the last two sentenc es ? 

They are used as adjectives. 

Infmitives may take the })lace of a noun, an adverb or an adjective. 

Note. — The infinitive should be parsed by telling the kind, voice, conju- 
gation, mood and tense of the verb ; and whether it is used as a noun, an adverb 
or an adjective. 



Lesson XXHI. 

EXERCISES ON THE PARTICIPLE, VERBAL NOUN 

AND INFINITIVE. 

Classify the participles in the following, and point out the verbal 
nouns. 

I saw a boy beating a dog. 

He being absent, nothing can be done. 

Having conducted them through the pass, he returned. 

The pilot having been discharged, the mate took command. 

James having been studying hard, felt tired. 

Pained at leaving home, she did not speak. 

We heard the horn sounding. 

No survey having been made, I cannot tell. 

I declined giving my opinion. "":.): 

He having heard of the disaster, set off at once. 

Being struck with its beauty, I bought it. 

Hated by all, pitied by none, he fell fighting. . 

I love travelling. : = ^ '^ 

He was the cause of my being injured. 

James is proud of having gained the prize. 

He is desirous of being noticed. 

After having been working, he is tired. 

I am the cause of his having been appointed. 



56 



PARSING 



Name the infinitives and tell their use in the following 

We used to see them often. 

He promised to do what he could. 

We are going to work. 

They ordered him to be })unished. 

He was ordered to be punished. 

I am sure to succeed. 

Do you want paper to write? 

Harry is slow to learn. 

That man is not to be depended on. 



Lesson XXIV. 

EXAMPLES IN PARSING. 

Oh, John ! I have just seen the little boy, who, having been 
injured, was sent to the hospital. 

The judge sentenced the prisoner to be hung. 



WORD. 


RELATION. I PARSING. 


Oh 


none. 


Interjection. 


John 


none. 


Noun, prop., mas., 3rd, sing., nom. 






of address. 


- ^- ^l. '' 


I have seen 


Pers. pro., com., ist, sing., nom., 
subject of have seen. 


have seen 


1 have seen boy 


Verb, trans., act., strong., ind., pres. 




perf, ist,smg., agreeing with /^^j'. 


just 


just have seen 


Adv. of time, modify'g have seen. 


the 


the boy 


Dem. adjec, limiting Ooy. 


little 


little boy 


Qual. adject., pos. deg., qual'g boy. 


boy 


have seen boy 


Noun, com., mas., 3rd, sing., ob- 
jective, gov'd by have seen. 


who 


boy who was sent 


Rel. pro., masc, 3rd, sing., agree'g 
with boy,nom., subject of was sent. 


having been 


- ; _ : / _ - -^. 


,.i_-i 7 ,.^ .il! i.- -W - ■ ^ ^-—7 ._,:_- 


injured 


who having been, 


= "•" 4 /-'■ ' -' ' •: ■ 




&c 


Pass. comp. perf participle, quali- 






fymg w/io. 



PARSING. ' 
EXAMPLES IN PARSING— CV«/i«««/. 



57 



WORD. 



was sent 

to 
hospital. 



judge 
sentenced 



prisoner 
to be hung. 



RELATION. 



who was sent 

was sent to hos- 
pital 

to hospital 



judge sentenced 

judge sentenced 
prisoner 



sentenc'd prison'r 

sentenced to be 
hung 



PARSING. 



Verb, trans., pass, weak, ind. past 
indef.,3rd, sing., agreeing with boy, 

Prep'n,relating was sent and hospital. 
Noun., com., neut., 3rd, sing., obj., 
gov'd by prep. to. 



Noun, com., mas., 3rd, sing., nom., 
subj. oi sentenced. 

Verb, trans., act., weak, ind,. past 
indef., 3rd, sing., agreeing with 
its subject y«^^. 

Noun, com., com. gend., 3rd, sing., 
object of sefitenced. 

Verb, trans., pass., strong, infinitive, 
pres. indef., may be considered 
as an adverb denoting purpose, or 
as a noun complementary to 
prisoner. 



, REVIEW ON INFLECTION OF WORDS. 

Define number, and explain the terms singular and plural. 

Give the different modes of forming the plural. 

Give rule for forming the plural of words ending in y. 

Write exceptions to the rule of adding es to nouns ending in 0. 

Define gender, and explain the terms of masculine, feminine, 
common and neuter gender. 

Give all the rules for forming the feminine. 

Write the plural of sister, brother, boy, foot, die, goose, child, 
man, loaf, flagstaff, staff, leaf, wharf, eye, glass, mouse, pen, key, 
chief. 



68 BEVIBW. ' 

Write the singular of sheep, chimneys, dice, selves, fifes, pianos, 
fathers-in-law, Frenchmen, lilies, dwarfs. 

Write words having the same form for both singular and plural. 

Write words whicl;i have a different meaning in the plural from 
the singular. 

Classify the words according to gender in the following list : 
John, boy, girl, cloud, bird, house, hare, hair, queen, king, uncle, 
coal, hero, nun, count, duchess, youth, goat, monk, abbess, nephew. 

Give words of the opposite gender to the following : Man, girl, 
wife, lady, goose, drake, wizard, father, sister, niece, mother, 
daughter, cow, friar, prince, &c. 



EXERCISE ON INFLECTION AND PARSING. 

Change the following sentences into the other tenses of the 
indicative mood, and in both voices if the verb is transitive : 

He wrote a letter. 
■ The goods are landed. 
They ran away. 
Did he give you a book .? 

Change to each tense in the subjunctive mood : 

If he come, I will go. 
If I were he, I would go. 

Write the following verbs in all the moods and tenses : 
To plough, to dig, to speak, to write. 

Give the past tense and perfect participle of : Fall, swim, seethe, 
cut, steal, knit, till, hurt, bless, go, play, take, forsake, cleave, mean. 

Parse, according to the model given, all the words in the 
following sentences : ]*: - . a - ;.^ : ^ - 

The sun is gradually sinking below the trees. — " -^^ - ^^'^ 
We are now reading Macauley's History of England. 
Idleness is the source of misery and crime. 
- We ought to look the subject fully in the face. 



EXSRCISB. 59 

The smiling daisies below beneath the sun. 

Then out spake brave Horatius, 

The captain of the gate : 
To every man upon this earth, 

Death cometh soon or late. 

Who would have thought her so old ? 
Of whom are you speaking ? - 

Ploughing is a healthy occupation. 
Neither you nor I can go. 
Hoping to see you soon, I bid you good-bye. 
He is worth two thousand dollars a year. 
He is fond of rowing on the river. « 

My companion being deceived by his newly-formed acquaint- 
ance, gave him the money. 






ANALYSIS AND CONSTRUCTION OF 

SENTENCES. 



Lesson I. . > i 

■, ■ - , ■ '■ :" ANALYSIS. .;';- J^TK : 

Ask the class to write sentences about map, Harry, &c., g.^.: 

The map hangs on the wall. 
Harry spilled the ink. 

The pupils should be required to separate each into subject and 
predicate. 



Supply predicates for : 

The water 

The queen 

Fire 



The sun . . . . 

Winter 

The laborer, 



Write subjects for the following predicates : 

is landed. fought bravely. 

were shining. are to be pitied 

.gives pleasure. * adorned the walls. 

Now write some sentence on the board, as ; 

The little birds build their nests in Spring. 

Ask the pupils to name the subject and predicate. 

The sentence may be fully analysed step by step, marking the 
divisions as they are understood by the pupils. Example : 



SUBJECT. 




PREDICATE. 


ATTRIBUTES 


(I. SUBJECT 


G. PRED. 


COMPLETION i EXTENSION 

1 


The little 


birds 


build 


their nests 


in spring. 



G. subject signifies grammatical subject. 



ANALYSIS. 



ei 



What do the words the little qualify? 
They qualify birds. 

Inform pupils that all words used to limit or qualify the subject are called 
the attributes of the subject. Next, take up the different parts of the predicate 
in a similar manner, illustrating that the object of transitive verbs, predicate 
adjectives, and nouns used to complete the sense after intransitive verbs, are 
placed in the completion ; all adverbs and phrases answering to how, when, 
why, whence, etc., are placed in the extension of the predicate. 



Lesson II. 
CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES. 

The following form may be drawn on the board, and filled up 
by the pupils as follows : 

ATTRIBUTES 'SITBJECT'PREDICATEICOMPLBTIONI EXTENSION 



The ripe 
Little 



apple 
apple 
John 
John 



hangs 

hangs 

lost 

lost 



his book 



on the tree, 
yesterday. 



Ask some pupil to name a subject. Write it in the column 
marked subject. 

Ask another to supply a predicate for it, and place it in the 
predicate column. 

The other parts of the sentence should be got in a similar 
manner from the pupils. 

Drill on this exercise till each pupil is able to supply any part 
of the sentence .asked, as completion, extensions of time, place, 
manner, &c. 

How many subjects has each sentence ? One. 

How many predicates has each ? One. 

Give the term simple sentence. 

Definition drawn from class : 

A simple sentence contains one subject and one 

predicate. 



62 CONSTRUCTION OF SBNTISNCBS. 

EXERCISES. 

Supply attributes for : 

flowers are blooming horse is lame 

house is on fire. The duty is to obey. 

Supply completions for: . 

The dog bit on the leg. Edward became They 

praised The master is Good boys study 

The boy is r^^ 



Supply extensions for : 



:t- V 



I saw him He went Mary talked 

Willie sings He wondered The snow fell 

He came home The wind blew The ship sails 



!''f 



. Lesson III. 

ATTRIBUTES OF THE SUBJECT. 

Write on the board : 

I. The large box is in the room. 

i John's hand is hurt. 
( His book is torn. 

3. A man of prudence will look to the future. 

4. The steeds prancing, frightened the child. 

5. William, the carpenter, is building a house. 

6. Little John, the painter's son, being clever, took 

the prize. 

Ask the pupils to analyse each sentence. 



ATTRIBUTM OF THE SUBJECT. 63 

Draw from class the kind of words forming the attributes in each 
sentence, e.g.: 

What kind of words are the and large? 
Adjectives. 

What kind pf word is JohtHs} ~ 

Noun in the possessive. V . \ 

What kind of word is his"? " r, ,., . . ^ 

Pronoun in the possessive, .. 

What kind of words are of prudence ? --'l 

Preposition, followed by its case. ^ 

What kind of word \s, prancing} 
Participle. • . 

What kind of word is carpenterl . 
Noun, in apposition. \ 

Now draw from class that— ^^ • ' ' ' '• 



« « « 

« (< dt 



The attributes ofthe subject may be: One or more adjectives. 

v% • A noun or pronoun in the poss. 
A prep., followed by its case. 
A participle. 
A noun in apposition. 
" " " A combination of some or all 

of these. 

Classify the attributes of the subject in the following sentences : 

The gallant soldier died for his country. 

Mary's book is torn. 

The student of history will understand why the Roman power 

decayed. 
Nelson, having given his orders, displayed the signal for battle. 
The stately homes of England, how beautiful they stand. 
The spirit of your fathers shall start irom every wave. 
The meteor flag of England shall yet terrific burn. 
Macauley, the historian, had a splendid memory. 
Frightened by the tumult and shivering with cold, the beautiful 

maiden stole away unobserved. 



64 extension op the predicate. 

Lesson W. • 

EXTENSION OF THE PREDICATE. 
Write on the board : 



I. He works hard. 

He looks for help. 
He is fond of study. 

3. James arrived last night. 

4. He has gone to help his brother. 

I taught geography to them. 
Do me the favor, &c. 

6. The sun having set, the stari: began to peep. 



'■{ 



M 



Having analyzed the above, draw from the pupils that the 
extensions may consist of : 

I St — An adverb, as : He works ^a*?/. 

2nd — A preposition followed by '..s case, as : He looks /^r /le/p. 

3rd — A phrase denoting time, distance, &c., as : James arrived 

/asi night. ,-,< 

4th — Infinitive of purpose, as : He has gone to help, &c. 
5th — The indirect object, as : I taught them geography. 
6th — The nominative absolute, as : The sun having set, the stars 

began to peep. 

Classify the extensions in the following : 

Pleasantly next morn rose the sun o'er the town. 
John went to town yesterday by the morning train. 
Flow gently sweet Afton among thy green braes. 
They soared onward over immense forests and fertile islands. 
1 shed tears for very joy. 
He went home to study his lessons. 
He walked three miles an hour. 
The farm is forty rods wide. 
Seaward, from east to west, a river rolled. 
Alone in the desert, I love to ride. 
Amid the tall ancestral trees they stand. 
Far and wide, by mountain, stream, and sea, their graves are 
severed. 



COMPLBTION OF THB PREDICATE. 65 

Lesson V 

COMPLETION OF THE PREDICATE. 

Write on the board : ' - 

. V j John is a good boy. 
^ ) Edward became king. 
(d) The sky is blue. 

(c) John struck the ball. f . . 

(d) He appears to be honest. ! 

Draw from the pupils the different kinds of words that fill up or 
complete the predicate in these sentences. 

Some pupil is required to answer that the predicate may be 
completed by : ' 

(a) A noun in the predicate nominative, as boy, king. 
(^) An adjective in the predicate, as blue, 
(r) A noun used as the object of a transitive verb. 
(d) By an infinitive, as to be, &c. 

Supply Completions for the followinpj verbs : 

They praised .... He seems I call He 

was made The defenders were doomed The 

light becomes I shall not He gro\\ 

Supply attributes for the subjects in the following : 

A man is respected. William defeated king James. 

Edward was the father of our queen. The troops 

could not march any further grass wili^ion be scorched 

with the hot sun. 

Write extensions for : 




He rode Lend your knife The eagle flies 

James arrived The fence measures ,.;.., 



66 CONTRACTED SENTENCES. * 

' ' Lesson VI. 

' CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 

Write on the blackboard the name of some familiar object, or 
place the object itself before the class, and draw from pupils the 
various qualities it possf acs, writing on the boaid as follows : 

Glass is smooth. 
Glass is brittle. :. 

Glass is transparent. 
Glass is hard. 

Contracted : Glass is smooth, brittle, hard, and transj^arent. 

Pupils will notice that the subject and verb are used otily once 
in the contracted sentence. 

Write on the board : 

John, entering his room, after walking home from 

school, sat down to study. 

Change into three simple sentences, as : 
" - John walked home from school. 
John entered his room. 
John sat down to study. 

Ask the pupils what words have been changed or supplied. 

The pupils will answer that the participles have been changed 
to verbs, the word yohn has been repeated so as to form the 
subject of each sentence. 

Now reverse the process, asking what changes are required to 
form one subject and predicate from these three simple sentences. 

Class : {a) All the verbs but one must be changed to participles. 
, ,T {b) The subject is only used once. . >, 

\. .:-,vv. ^'T- •• >-■ --. EXERCISES. _. --.va^.vrurvi- 

Combine into simple sentences : 

Gold is heavy. Gold is yellow. Gold is ductile. Gold is 
malleable. Gold is fusible. 

No complete survey had been made. It is therefore impossible 
to state accurately the amount of land. 

He sent for Edward Montague. He became Chief Justice. 
He was then an influential member of the House. 



^ COMPOUND SENTENCES. 67 

Lesson VII. 
COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

Write on the board : ;' 

(a) John and Harry went to skate. r ' 
. (/f) He is happy, but I am not. . 

Draw from class the number of assertions in each sentence ; ask them to 
write them on slates, or on the board, as: 

s ■ ■■..'-■■ 

* / \ *! John went to skate. 

■ ' I Harry went to skate. 

/m/ He is happy. , . ,,,,)f 

■ ' ) I am not. ' .>,, /Mf 

Are each of these assertions complete when sei)arate from one 
another ? 

Yes. 

What doe? each assertion form ? • 

It forms a simple sentence. 

Then how are these sentences (a) and (d) formed ? 

They are formed Xvj joining simple sentences by means of con- 
junctions. 

Clive rhe term compound sentence. Draw definition : 

A compound sentence is one which contains two or 
more simple sentences, combined by co-ordinate 
conjunctions. 

Form compoimd sentences from the following : 

The way was long. The wind was cold. 

He is rich ; he is unhappy. 

The man is not wealthy ; the man is not wise. 

He felt my pulse ; he shook his head. 

Suddenly I started up. I rang the bell. 

The dog is remarkable for its attachment to man ; the dog 

is remarkable for its sagacity. 
The thunder roared ; the lightning flashed ; the wind tore 

up the pines by their roots ; it flung them into the valley ; 

the rain descended in inundating gusts. 



W COMFLKX NSMTEJNC'ES. 

Lesson VIII. 
, COMPLEX SENTENCES. 

Write on the board : - . 

(a) The prudent man looks to the future. 

(^) The man who is prudent looks to the future. 

Name the attributes of the subject in sentence (a). 
The and prudent. 

What words are used instead q{ prudent in sentence {b) ? 
Who is prudent is used as the attributes in {b). 
How many finite verbs has sentence {a) ? 
One — looks. \ ■ 

How many finite verbs has sentence (^) ? . ' 
Two — is 2iX^A looks. 

Which verb forms the principal predicate in both ? _.•, 

Looks. '■' 

To what part of the sentence does is belong.^ . 
To the attributes. 
What is the subject of Af ? ;^ 

IVho. : --. :-•':'" •' "^--r'' " "^ -' 

Inform class that the words who is prudent are called a clause. 

Definition : , a, 

A clause is any part of the sentence which contains a subject and 
predicate of its own apart from the principal subject and predicate. 

Give the term complex sentence. 
Definition : 

A complex sentence is one which besides having a 
principal subject and predicate, contains one or 
more clauses which have subjects and predicates 
also. 

Classify the following, and tell whether they are simple, com- 
pound or complex, and why : 

The forest has spells to enchant me. 

The mountain has power to enthrall. 

The philosopher and the peasant were called first. 

The man was innocent, but the woman was guilty. 

A vine-dresser who lay at the point of death, called his 

children around him. 
I will tell you a story which was told to me. 
I suppose you have been in the country. 



ADJECTIVK (XAUSE. 69 

Lesson IX. 
THE ADJECTIVK CLAUSK. 

Write on the board : . '. 

(a) A faithful man shall abound with blessings. 

(d) A man (who is faithful) shall abound with blesr'.igs. 

Name the attributes of the subject in sentence (a) 

Faithful. 

What words are used instead oi faithful vci {b) ? ^ "" 

'Xho. &\\x<>^ luho is faithful. ^ . .. .. 

What kind of word '\?> faithful} ; • - ; ' ^vl 

An adjective. . = v '? 

What kind of clause may we call {who is faithful)? = 

An adjective clause. 

Why? 

Because it supplies the place of an adjective. 

Definition : 

An adjective clause is one which supplies the place of 

an adjective. 

r - 

EXERCISES ON THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. 

The eye that mocketh at his father shall be plucked out. 

He that flatters his neighbor spreads a net for his feet. 

The king that faithfully judges the poor shall establish his 

throne. 
He that giveth to the poor shall not lack. 
The swiftest dog we have is the grey hound. 
There is perhaps no single animal which has been more 

useful to man than the dog. 
I will tell you a story which was told to me. 
The man who diligently attends to business is sure to succeed. 
The man whose son we saw has gone to Albany. 
Those who fled were killed. 
Where is the book that your father gave you ? 



70 NOUX CLAUSE. 

Lesson X. 
NOUN CLAUSE. 

Write on the board : 

(a) I know something. 

(^) I know that he will not come back. 

What kind of sentence is (a) ? Simple. 

What kind of word is something'^ A noun. 

Where should it be placed in the analysis ? 

In the completion. 

Why ? 

Because it is the direct object of know. 

What words supply its place in sentence (/') ? 

The clause that he will not come back. 

What kind of clause may this 1^ called ? 

A noun clause. 

Why? 

Because it supplies the place of a noun. 

Draw definition from class : 

A noun clause is one which supplies the place of a noun. 

Write on the board : 

{a) That he loas a good man, is well known. 

{b) I hope you have studied your lessons. 

{c) His success depends upon ho7i.> he exerts himself'. 

(d) The fact is he is indolent. 

{e) The saying, " that truth is stranger than fiction," is often 

verified. 
{/) I am certain that you will win the prize. 

Draw from class that a noun clause may occupy the following 
positions : 

{a) The subject of a sentence. 
(6) The object of a verb, placed in the comj)letion. 
{c) The object of a preposition, placed in the extension 
{d) The predicate nominative, placed in the completion 
(<?) In apposition to a noun, placed in the attributes. 
{/) The object of an adjective, placed in the extension. 

When a noun clause forms the subject of a sentence the clause 
is placed in the attributes in apposition to // understood, and // is 
used as the subject 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSE.' 71 

I.ESSON XI. 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE. 
Write on the board : 

(a) He speaks '^^isely. 

(If) He speaks as a wise man would speak. 

What kind of word is wisely ? 
An adverb. . 

Where arc adverbs placed in analysis ? 
They are placed in the extension. 

\\'hat has been substituted for wisely in sentence (d) ? 
The clause as a 7£iise wan would speak. 

Then what kind of clause may we call this ? 
An adverbial clause. , 

Why? 

Because it takes the place of an adverb. 

Note.— As adverbs may denote time, place, manner, cause, effect, &c., 
adverbial clauses may de*iote the same. 

KXERCISES ON THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE. 

Classify the clauses in the following according to time, 
place, &c.: 

When he comes home, we will take a walk. 

While we were talking, my brother launched the boat. 

When Hannibal marched into Italy, he was obliged to open 

a way over the mountains. 
Unless you go, I will stay at home. 
As a man lives, so will he die. 
We should obey, that we may learn to govern. 
He could not go, because he had his lessons to study. 
He cares as little for me as he does for you. 
I will wait till he comes. 



72 * RKVIKW. 

" • Lesson XII. 

REVIEW. 

Define : Simple, compound and complex sentences. 

Name the different kinds of clauses which a complex sentence 
may contain. 

Write four sentences containing adjective clauses. 

Write four sentences containing noun clauses. 

Write four sentences containing adverbial clauses. 

Write complex sentences containing noun clauses, illustrating 
the different positions they may occupy. 

Point out and classify the noun clauses in the following sentences: 

I know that he will come again. 

That the moon revolves around the sun, is well known. 

The fact is, she is a poor girl. 

The truth is, he cannot succeed. 

It is evident that the opening up of the North-west will benefit 

Ontario. 
Nothing is to be expected but that he will be ruined. 
Do you know where he is ? 

Supply noun clauses where a dash occurs : 

Every parent knows He was unable to find 

Can you inform me I forgot to tell you 

It is easily seen The truth is 

It is well known. '^ was asked. 

Supply adjective clauses where a dash occurs : 

I have found the boy 

He informed the man that he must retrace his steps. 

Happy is the man 

Supply adverbial clauses where a dash occurs : 

I will tell you ^ ^ ' - : ' * - r -^ 

He lay '-Lm'^:-^- -; ^f. ^-:t:.;'^;:':- 

He is not happy, though £• 

I will follow you. ' ' 

He did not pay me 

What is the use in speaking 

Come here 

I am contented 

You will not succeed 



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74 SBNTENOEH. 

Lesson XIV. 

RESOLVINCx COMPLEX SENTENCES INTO SIMPLE. 

Example : 
Can the husbandman look forward with confidence to the 
increase, who has the promise of Ciod, that seed time and 
harvest shall not, fail ? 

Resolved : 

Can the husbandman look forward with confidence to the 

increase? "rsb'i'*' 

He has the promise of Ciod. ' VrbM"^ *■ 

The promise that seed time and harvest shall not fail. 



Resolve into smiple sentences : 

Christian charity is friendship expanded like the face of the 
sun when it mounts above the Eastern hills. 

An honorable friend of mine, who is now, I believe, near me, 
has told us that prudence can never be used in the cause 
of vice. :;_ 

Combining simple into complex sentences : 

I grant that brevity is very pleasing. 
Where not obscure it is pleasing. ; 

Where not defective it is pleasing. 
Even to the daintiest judgments it is pleasing. 

Combined: 

1 grant that brevity, where it is neither obscure nor defective, 
is very pleiising, even to tiie daintiest judgments. 

(Joml)ine into a complex sentence ; 

John is building a new house. ^^„ _l^^ ^ ^ - 

He is building it v)f brick. - 

He is building it on the hill. .„__ 

The hill is West of the town. 

It will cost about a thousand dollars. 



VARIETY OF ARRANGEMENT. 75 

Lesson XV. 

VARIETY OF ARRANGEMENT— GRAMMATICAL AND 

RHETORICAL FORMS. 

(a) All their bare sabres flashed. 

(d) Flashed all their sabres bare. 

(c) The term of all the race of earth is fixed. 

(ii) Fixed is the term of all the race of earth. 

Draw from the pupils the different modes of expressing the same sentence, by 
writing them on the board, as shown above. 

Which form is most commonly used ? 

The form used in the sentences (a) and (c). 

In what kind of writing or composition is the other form used ? 

In poetry and oratory. 

Explain that — 

The common form of speech is called the grammatical form. 
That used in poetry, etc., is called the rhetorical form. 

Draw from class that in the grammatical form the subject is generally 
placed yfrj^. In the rhetorical form t^>^ emphatic word comes first, and the 
verb generally before the subject. 

This may be an emphatic adjective, as : " Sweet is the hour of rest." 
" adverb, as : " Now 's the day and now 's the hour." 

" adverbial phrase, as : " Down in the water he sank." 

" object of a verb, as : " His throat the chieftain's 

gripe compressed." 
" infinitive, as : " Bent is his head of age." 

EXERCISES. 

Change from rhetorical to grammatical : 

'i'hen outspake brave Horatius : 

To every^man upon this earth, death comcth. 

From thejiand where the roses of Sharon smile, we come. 

ixlotionless as a cloud the old man stood. 

Bei eath the sun the smiling daisies blow. 

Teacher may give other examples and also exercises in changing from 
grammatical to rhetorical. 



76 VARIETY OF ARRANGEMENT. 

Lesson XVI. 

• VARIETY OF ARRANGEMENT— DIRECT AND 

INDIRECT FORMS. . . 

Write on the board : ,. 

■ ■■ . ■-> 

Direct.— Then "I hope," added the Dial Plate, " we shall all 
immediately return to our duty, for the maidens will lie in 
bed till noon, if we stand idling thus." 

Indirect. — The Dial Plate added that he hoped they would all 
return to their duty, for the maidens would lie in bed till 
noon if they stood idling thus. 

Direct. — "I would give my right hand," he exclaimed, "if I 
could only repair the injury I have done that splendid fellow." 

Indirect. — He exclaimed that he would give his right arm if he 
could only repair the injury he had done that splendid fellow." 



Draw from class the dilTerence in the arrangement of the two forms. They 
will observe that in — 

1. The direct form : The words of the speaker are given as they 

are spoken by himself. 

In the indirect form : They are given as recorded by another. 

2. In changing from the d'rect to the indirect form : 

(a) The pronoun of the first person is changed to the third. 
(^) The pronoun of the second person is changed to the third. 
(c) The present tense is changed to the past tense. 



In changing from indirect to direct, the past is changed to the 
present, and the third to the first or second. 

Examples may be given by th^ cher frot . any reading book. 



VARIETY OF EXPRESSION. , 77 

Lesson XVII. 
VARIETY OI EXPRESSION. , 

AVrite on the board ; ■ * : i>j;i :• r - -;; - 

[rt] Integrity secures the esteem of the world. 

[d] The esteem of the world is secured by integrity. 

[c] Columbus was convinced that the world is round, 
and was resolved to test his theory by experiment. 

[//] Columbus, being convinced that the world is round, 
resolved to test his theory. ., 

Draw from class that the first two sentences convey the same idea in a 
different form, by changing from active to passive, or from passive to active. 
The second mode of attaining variety of expression is by changing some of the 
veri>s Xct participles and omitting conjunctions. 

exp:rcises on variety of expression. 

Change from active to passive : , 

^ Caesar conquered Gaul. i ? :. 

The Eg}^ptians embalmed the bodies of the dead. 
Newton discovered the law of gravitation. , ^ 
The general ordered the troop to charge. 
They were preventing us from going through the field. 

Change from passive to active : 

Milton's ])oetry has been admired by the greatest minds. 

The jews were persecuted in the tenth century by the 
monarchs of Europe. 

Change one of the verbs into a participle, omitting the 
conjunctions: > ' '- ■ ' ;K «:- 

The battle was finished and the enemy fell back to the river. 
Hudson ascended the river which now bears his name, and 

founded Albany. 
The Romans had conquered all their enemies, and were, at 

the time of our Saviour's appearance, masters of the 

world. 



78 VARIETY OF EXPRESSION. 

Lesson XVIII. 
VARIETY OF EXPRESSION— ^^«//>/7/«;. 

Write on the board : ' .-'. 

[a] Indolence is the cause of many evils. 

ll>] Laziness is the beginning of many troubles. 

How has the variety of expression been obtained in [a] and [d] ? 
By using dii^erent words having the same, or nearly the same, 
meaning. ^;, . , ■ , ., ., .,:rrr: v 

Explain that words having the same meaning are called sjrnonymes. 

Write on the board : ' 

V] His brother is dead. 
*//] His brother has departed this life. 
V] His brother has gone to that bourn whence no 
traveller returns. 

How has the variety of expression been obtained in [r], \(f\ and 

M? 

By using a greater number of words or phrascs to express the 
same idea. 

Give the term paraphrasing. 

Now d^aw from class that variety of expression may be obtained 
by changing from active to passive ; by changing some of the verbs 
to participles, and leaving out unnecessary conjunctions ; by using 
synonymes ; by paraphrasing. 

EXERCISE ON VARIETY OF EXPRESSION. 

Change 'ly using synonymes for words in italics : 
Idleness^ luxury and pleasure destroy many a youth. 
Wealth is desired by all. 

In many of the West India islands the earth is so productive 
and requires so little cultivation that plants may be said to 
grow spontaneously. 

C!hange by paraphrasing : . 
The sun shines. 
Sleep is refreshing. 

England expects every m?n to dc his duty. 
Punctuality is the soul of business. 



STYLE. IP 

Lesson XIX. 
- EXAMPLES OF STYLE. . 

Style is the manner in which a writer expresses his thoughts. 

No two writers are likely to express the same idea in exactly 
the same manner. 

The different kinds of style have been characterized as : 

[a] Simple style, in which our thoughts are expressed in the 
natural manner, without any attempt at effect, e.^.: 

I met a little cottage girl, 

She was eight years old, she said, 

Her hair was thick with many a curl 
That clustered round her head. 

[^] Florid, in which there is a great deal of ornament, ^.t,"^..- " I 
saw her just above the horizon, decorating and cheering 
the elevated sphere she had just begun to move in, glittering 
like the morning star, full of life and splender and joy." 

[c] Nervous, in which forcible sentences are employed, as : 

Charge ! Chester, charge ! On, Stanley, on I * ., 

The combat deepens. On ye brave, 
Who rush to glory or the grave ; - , , . , ;, 

Wave, Munich, all thy banners wave, ; ;<, 

And charge with all thy chivalry. 

[(/] Concise, in which our thoughts are expressed in as few words 
as ]X)ssil)le, as : I cjime, I saw, I conquered. 

'I'he style of an author should be adapted to the subject on 
which he is writing. A light, frivolous, or lively style would not 
suit a solemn subject such as religion. A solemn style would be un- 
suitable to record the common affairs of life. 



T^ESSox XX. 

PKOPERTIKS OF STYLE. > 

The following properties are considered requisite in every style 
Purity, precision, clearness, strength, harmony and vividness. 



80 STYLE. 

By PURITY OF STYLE is meant the use of words and modes of 
expression, warranted by the authority of the best writers and 
speakers, [a] Using foreign words or modes of construction where 
pure English is just as expressive, is a violation of this rule, [d] 
Obsolete words, or slang phrases are impurities of style which 
should be avoided, as : He is in a pretty bad fix. 

Precision or accuracy consists in the use of words that express 
exactly what is intended by the speaker or writer, hence the 
importance of acquiring the exac/ meanings of words. Very few 
words in English express exactly the same idea, and this is why 
our language admits of so many torms of expression, e.g.: 

Courage enables us to meet danger without shrinking. 

Bravery defies danger. 

Fortitude suffers without yielding. 

Clearness is the arranging of words, clauses and sentences so 
as to convey distinctly the meaning of the speaker. 

1. To write with clearness we must have a knowledge of the rules 

of syntax, and how to apply them. 

2. Avoid the use of ambiguous expressions. 

3. Avoid using the same pronoun for different antecedents. 

4. Never leave out words that are readily supplied by the mind of 

the reader. 

5. Words or clauses closely related to one another should not be 

separated by other words or clauses. 



Lesson XXI. 
PROPERTIES OF STYLE. 

Examples of violations of these properties of style : 

1, Ambiguity : I believe he likes me as well as you. 

should be : I believe he likes me as well as he likes you. 
or : I believe he likes me as well as you like me. 
or : I believe he likes us both. 

2. The man told his master that whatever he did he could not 

please him. 

Use the direct form, as : Said the man to his master " whatever 
I do I cannot please you.'' 



8TYLB. ffH 

3. The worst can be said of him is he is sometimes lazy. 

Should be : The worst that can be said, &c. 

4. Cedar is not so hard, but more durable than oak. 

Should be : Cedar is not so hard as oak, but it is more 
durable. 

This work, being afflicted with rheumatism, I am obliged to 
discontinue. 

Corrected : Being afflicted with rheumatism, I am obliged 
to discontinue this work. 

Strength is the use and arrangement of words in such a manner 
as to make a deep impression on the mind of the reader or hearer. 

Examples of violation of this property : 

1. He gained the universal love and esteem of all. 

2. The children are playing in the umbrageous shadow of a 

shady oak. 

3. Idleness and luxury and pleasure destroy many a youth. 

4. He plunged into every species of crime, and left the path 

of virtue. 

Corrected : 

1. He gained the love of all. 

2. The children are playing in the shadow of an oak. 

3. Idleness, luxury and pleasure destroy many a youth. 

4. He left the path of virtue and plunged into every species 

of crime. 

What were the errors in each sentence ? 

In sentence (i), the word universal contains the same idea as all^ 
and the sense only requires one of them. Using the same word 
or one of similar meaning oftener than the sense requires, is called 
TAUTOLOGY. In Sentence (2), the words utnbrai^eous and shady are 
unnecessary because they repeat the same idea oftener than is 
required; this is called redundancy. In sentence (3), the word 
and is used too often. In sentence (4), the weaker assertion follows 
the stronger, which is wrong. 



in eTTLE. 

Rules for securing strength in writing : 

1. Avoid tautology and redundancy. • 

2. Avoid using ^«</ too often. 

3. Avoid ending a sentence with an adverb, a preposition, or 

a succession of short words, if possible. 

4. When there are several dependent similar clauses, place 

the longest last, and the weaker before the stronger. 

Harmony is the smooth easy flow of sounds which please the 
ear, and therefore it is the best guide. 

Avoid a succession of similar sounds, words of the same length, 
or those containing too many consonants. 

Unity. — In every sentence there should be only one leading 
thought ; this, in composition, is called unity. 

Rules for avoiding a violation of this property : 

1. Introduce as few subjects as possible into a sentence. 

2. Do not crowd into a sentence ideas that have no con- 

nection with each other. 

3. Avoid the use of parenthetic clauses. 



COMPOSITION. 



SUBJECTS— FAMILIAR OBJECTS. 

Example : Take a piece ol glass, and after each pupil has care- 
fully examined it, ask them to write on their slates its various 
properties which they have discovered for themselves through the 
senses of touch, sight, taste, &c. 

They will be able to state that glass is transparent, colorless or 
otherwise, smooth and hard. 

By experiment they can discover that glass is brittle, fusible and 
insoluble. 

Such words as fusible and insoluble will have to be supplied by 
the teacher, after tie idea has been conveyed to their minds. 

Next give the class a short description of its manufacture and 
history. ' . ""^^ 

Each pupil should now be required to write neatly on paper 
what he has learned about glass. 

Criticise the following points : neatness, errors in grammar or 
construction, method, spelling, amount of information acquired. 

The pupils have learned from this short lesson : 

1. To use their senses in examining an object. 

2. To state their thoughts or ideas on any subject in a 

methodical manner. 

3. That they must have a knowledge of the subject before they 

can write about it. 

Pupils should never be required to write on any subject they 
do not comprehend, hence they should be trained to think from 
observation and experiment, and their first attempts at composition 
should be short descriptions of familiar objects. 

Teachers should not neglect to give their pupils a drill on 
business forms, such as notes, orders, drafts, receipts and business 



84 COMPOSITION. 

letters. These should contain only what is necessary and to the 
point. Avoid all flourishing ; aim at neatness and correct spelling ; 
be concise and polite. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PUPILS : 

In corresponding with friends or relatives our letters should not 
be so formal as in those relating to business. 

Before commencing a letter think over the various subjects on 
which you intend to write, and draw out the different heads on a 
piece of paper in the order desired. Repetition is thus avoided and 
a proper arrangement secured, ■ 

Commence a new paragraph when passing to another head. 

Every letter should contain : 

1st — Name of place where written, and date. 

2nd — Style of addressing the correspondent, as Dear Sir, &c. 

3rd — Acknowledge receipt of your correspondent's letter, if 

necessary. 
4th — Express pleasure or sorrow for news received, if any. 
5th — Ask for information, if desirable. 
6th — Give information concerning yourself, or on any subject 

that may be of interest to your correspondent. 
7th — Close with a clause of respect or friendship, as Voi/rs 

truly\ Yours sincerely^ &c. 
8th — Sign your name. 



TRANSPOSITION. 85 

TRANSPOSITION. 

Transposing poetry to prose is very good practice for pupils, as 
they will require to comprehend the meaning of the piece before 
they can transpose it. 'I'hey should be required tu substitute or 
supply such words as are necessary to complete the sense. 

Example : ■ . • 

Oh ! for one hour of youthful joy, 

Give back my twentieth spring ; 
I'd rather laugh a bright-haired boy 

Than reign a grey-beard king. 

Transposed : 

Oh ! if I could only recall the joys of my youth, when I was in 
my twentieth year. 1 would rather be a laughing bright-haired 
boy than an old man, though I were a king. 

Example : 

. Life is real, life is earnest. 

And the grave is not its goal ; 
" Dust thou art, to dust returnest," 
Was not spoken of the soul. 

Transposed : 

We should be earnest workers, for life is a reality, and does not 
end with death. It was not said of our souls, but of our bodies 
" Dust thou art, and to dust thou shalt return." 

Give exercises in transposition to the pupils from the poetical selectious in 
their reading books. 



->^''i- 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 



Write on the board : 

(a) I walked down the street. 
(d) Me walked down the street. 

The class, when asked, will reply that sentence (a) is the correct 
■mode of speaking. 

What relation has / to the verb ? 

It is its subject. 

What is the case of /? 

It is in the nominative case. 
■"■ What case is ;;/<? in ? 

It is in the objective form. 

What rule may we deduce from this ? I'hat — 

The subject of a verb is in the nominative case. 

Note. — Where other rules can be taught in this way, the idea or meaning 
of the rule will be more easily impressed on the mind of the pupil. 

RULES FOR THE NOMINATIVE CASE. 

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case. 

2. A noun or pronoun in apposition to the subject is in the same case. 

3. Where a noun or pronoun is followed by a participle without a finite verb, 
it is in the nominative absolute. 

4. When a noun is put in apposition to a whole sentence, or is used for the 
name of something addressed, the nominative is iised, 

5. A noun in the predicate denoting the same person or thing as the subject, 
is in the predicate nominative. 

Correct by the above rules : 

Me and Will:e are going to Toronto. 
Them and her do not agree. 
Harry and us are neighbors. 
John, him that was at college, has come home. 
The soldiers, them v/e saw kist week, have left. 
Me being absent, nothing was done. 
It was me, not John, who painted thc^t. 
O poor me, I shall be killed. 
^ Her and her mother are going to church. 

Him and me is going to the sale. 
Them is the ones I want. '' 



EULES OF SYNTAX. 87 

RULES FOR THE OBJECTIVE CASE. 
The objective case is used : 

1. When the noun or pronoun fcjllows a transitive verb in tlie active voicp, or 
a preposition ; 

2. After the adjectives like, near, worth ; 

3. In app:)8ition to a substantive in the objective case ; 

4. When nouns denoting space, time, measure, follow intransitive verbs ; 

5. When nouns derived from the same root as the verb of the sentence follow 
intransitive verbs. (This is the cognate object.) 

Correct the following by the rules above : 

Between you and I, he won't stand it long. 

It makes but little difference to either you or I. 

He that is fond of quarrelling, avoid. •••' 

Whom did you say was come. 

Who did you give it to ? 

Who did you ask ? 

Did you see John, he with the blue cap ? 

Edward became king, him who killed his brother 

Clarence. 
The whole responsibility fell upon they who had least to 

do with it. 
I hardly know who to make my complaint to. 
They and I he grossly insulted. 
He is worth you and I put together. 
If I was her I would not go. 
They went out with he and I. 
He asked he and I to his house. 
He and his m.other I invited to the party. 
Will this room do for he and you ? 
Let you and I go together. 
The person who he invited has left. 
It was very foolish of you and he to do so. 
Give me a book for Smith, he who won the prize. 



. . . J'S- _ <.T 



88 RULES OF SYNTAX. 

RULES FOR THE POSSESSIVE. 

The possessive case, which is marked by an apostophe and the 
letter s, is used : 

1. When the name of the owner is placed before the name of the thing 
owned ; 

2. When two or more nouns in the possessive case are in apposition, or when 
the whole is regarded as a compound phrase, the sign of the possessive is affixed 
to the last only, generally to the person's name ; 

3. When each word is emphatic, or the words are not in apposition, the sigfu 
of the possessive is affixed to each ; 

4. When the plural ends in s the apostrophe only is added. 

5. The noun that <?ovems a plural possessive need not necessarily be in the 
plural, unless the sense requires it. 

6. The possessive case is used before verbal nouns which are governed by a 
preposition. 



Exercises for corrections on the foregoing rules : 

'■•■■■■ /- , _ 

Johns boots require mending. 
My fathers place was sold yesterday. 
For thy servant's David's sake. 
Misses and ladies boots for sale. 
For the queen's of England sake. 
I borrowed Wr'o. I's, the carpenters, axe. 
These are J ohi ' d Mary's shoes. <. 

For goodness's sake ! 
The fact of me being sick at the time, proves my 

innocence. 
I have heard of him being a great worker. 
What can be the cause of the Council neglecting our 

petition ? 
Smith's & Watson's store was burned last night. 
I do not like him being away so late. 
In consequence of the king saying this. 
He insisted on the man being punished. 



RULES OF SYin-AX. 89 

RULES FOR PRONOUNS. 

1. A pronoun agrees with the noun for which it stands in gender, number 
and person. 

2. If two or more nouns of different genders are connected by "or " or '* nor," 
each of them should be represented in the same sentence or clause by a pron«)un 
of the same gender or number, unless it denote joint ownership. 

3. Pronouns expressing possession have two forms — the shorter, used before 
the noun, the other when the noun is omitted. 

4. The relative a^ees with its antecedent in gender, number and i)er8on. 

5. It is considered inelegant to use an adjective for an antecedent. 

6. Collective nouns require " who " when followed by a phiral verb, and 
"which " when followed by a singular verl). 

7. The relatives "who," "whom" and "whose" are used for persons; 
" which " for lower animals and inanimate objects. 

8. " That " is applied to both iiersons and things, and it is used in preference 
to " who " in the following cases : 

(a) When the gender of the noun is doubtful ; 

(b) When the antecedent refers to both jjersons and things ; 

(c) After an adjective in the superlative degree ; 

(d) After "same" and "who '^ 

(b) After an antecedent without an article limiting it. 

9. The relative pronoun is sometimes omitted. 

10. When pronouns of different persons are used, the third comes before the 
first, and the second before the first and third. 

Exercises for correction : 

The army broke their ranks. - : ■ 

The army pursued their march. 

Neither Mary nor John got a prize for their composition. 

Neither the man nor his wife showed her certificate. 

He fell a laughing like one out of their mind. 

If ye, from your heart, forgive every one his brother 

their trespasses. 
Let you and I go. 

Between you and I, I dcn't like him. 
Willie is very clever, which gains him many friends. 
The court who finds the prisoner guilty are unjust. 
The people which are often deceived by false ajjpearances 

are a poor guide. 
The boy which you knew, is dead. 
The dog whom you struck, is lame. 
The children whom we saw were very orderly. 
I shot the dog who ran at me. 

The man and the horse whom you saw, were drowned. 
He is the same whom we noticed yesterday. 



90 RULES OP SYNTAX. 

RULES FOR ADVERBS. 

1. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. 

2. Two negatives are improper. 

3. "Ever" is sometimes wrongly used for "never." 

4. Care should be used in placing the adverb as near as possible to the word 
to be modified by it. 

' RULES FOR PREPOSITIONS. 

1. Prepositions govern the objective case. * 

2. The word or phrase which the preposition connects with the governing 
word should always be placed so that the connection will be clear. 

3. Prepositions generally stand before the word they govern, but when the 
relation is omitted they are placed after the verb. 

4. Avoid inserting prepositions that are not required, or omitting them when 
required. 

Exercises on the above : 

This milk tastes sourly. ; , 

The moon shines clear. 

She sings sweet. ' 

I'll never do so no more. 

The day looks beautifully. -; ' 

The sky looks gloomily. • 

I did not get scarcely no sleep last night. 

He is awfully proud. 

He is exceeding popular. - , 

He seldom or ever prays. >,• 

She always appears very amiably. ■ 

Who do you allude to? • ; . ; - - 

Who are you speaking about. 3 ' 

I entreat of you to hear us. ---- . :^ ^ vv 

It is worthy your notice. 

Not only England, but all Europe was alarmed. 

Such expressions sound harshly. 

That is seldom or ever the case. 

Some persons can only distinguish black, white and grey. 



SULES OF SYNTAX. vf^ 

RULES FOR VERBS. 

1. A verb agrees with its subject in number and person. 

2. Two or more singular subjects connected by and referring to different 
persons or things require a plural \ erb. 

3. When two nouns describe the same subject regarded as one, even though 
it have a plural form, the verb is singular. 

4. A collective noun, when the idea of unity is prominent, takes a singular 
verb, and when the idea of plurality is prominent, a plural verb. 

5. Subjects in the singular, connected by 'Str" or "nor,"' take a singular 
verb. 

6. Nouns connected by "and "and preceded by "each," "every" or "no" 
take a verb in the singular. 

7. When two nominatives are connected — one aifirmative, the other negative 
— the verb agrees with the affirmative. 

8. When two nominatives of different numbers are found in different clauses 
of the sentence the verb should be repeated. 

9. When a verb separates its nominatives it agrees with the first and is 
imderstood of the rest. '? 



Exercise on the foregoing rules : > . > : : -:i:i 

Hundreds was killed by the accident. 

John and James goes to school every day. 

Sickness and poverty is poor companions. 

Flesh and blood have not revealed it unto thee. 

The hue and cry were raised. 

The Flowers of the Forest are an old and beautiful song. 

The Pleasures of Memory were published in 1792. 

The meeting have adjourned. 

The fleet were destroyed. 

The people is not to be depended upon. 

The jury was unanimous. 

Strength or courage do not always avail. 

Every man and woman h. the congregation were there. 

Our own conscience and not other men's opinions are 

our guide. 
Neither was their names nor their residence known. 
The farm are his and the implements too. 



W BULES OF SYNTAX. V 

RULES FOR THE Y^KB— Continued. 

10. Active transitive verbs govern the objective case. 

11. Some intransitive verba and the verb "to be," take the same case after 
them as before them. 

12. The perfect participle should not be used for the past indefinite. 

13. " Shall " is used in the first to denote intention or purpose, and in the 
second and third to denote obligation. " Will " in the first denotes determin- 
ation; in the second and third, affirmation. . . 

14. Verbs connected by "and " or "nor," referri-ig to anything done by the 
same pexson, under the same circumstances and at the same time, agree in 
mood, tease and person. 

15. When verbs are used in different voices, moods and tenses, the subject 
should be repeated. 

16. Whatever is considered universally true is put in the present. 

17. The subjunctive is used when futurity and doubt are implied, or when 
a supposition is made contrary to a fact. 

18. The perfect participle is u^ed after " have " and " be." 

Exercises on the above rules : 

Let you and I go. - 

He remembered you and I well. * 

I thought it was them. 

What if it was him ? 

John has broke the window. 

Mary has wrote her letter. . - 

James done that. - 

He throwed the stone. 
r Mary sung last night. - .■;^.u 

♦: I wall go if it does not rain to day. 

I shall go to-moirow whetlier it rains or not. 

I am determined he will stop at home. 

If he does succeed he would not be any happier. . 

If he should be successful he will aim still higher. 

it is while men slept the enemy has sown tares. 

They would not be persuaded though one rise from the 
'Sr dead. 

I think he could come if he tries. 

If I was him, I would not go. 

If he comes, show him to my room. 



USB OF PRBPOSmONS. 18 

THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS. 

Avoid the needless insertions of prepositions. Be careful to 
use them according to their sense. 

Between refers to two ; among or amid to ixitjre than twa 

Agree to a bargain, and agree viih an opinion. ' 

Attend to what is said ; attend upon a person. 

Call on the person to see him ; oaXXJor the person to go with you. 

Change bills_/&r silver ; change/ri?/// heat to cold. 

Confer or bestow a favor on ; confer or converse 7vith a person. 

Confide in your friend ; confid .; a secret to. -^ ' 

^ Correspond w/^A your friend ; correspond /(? what was said. 
' Die ^disease, or die by the sword. ' >■'- 

D\S^r Jrom a person in an argument. 

Dissent y^f'w an opinion. 

Expert at or in. . ir , ' 

Fall over a log ; fall under his displeasure. ' . 

¥r&e/rom pain ; free <?/" charge. 

Frown rt!^ or <J«. "^ < 

Glad tf/ what occurs. 

\n%\si upon. •^" 

Made ^wood : madey&ra purpose. 

Martyr /ur his coimtry ; martyr to disease. 

Prejudice <7?rt/«j/. " ' -^' 

Profit ^^j/ having a pi ofit t'w goods. ^ - 

Provideyc'r our family ; provide 7vith bread ; provide against want. 

Reconciled to our lot. 

Resemblance to. 

Resolve on doing. 

Regard y2;r a person ; with regard to what was said. 

I smile at his actions, but fortune smiles on (or upott) him. 

Taste ^pleasure; taste /&r reading. 

Think on what you said when you think of me. 

Thirst _/&r drink ; thirst after righteoupness. 

True to our country ; true ofw?.. 

Wait on the table ; waity^r his coming ; wait at the door. 

We may fall among thieves ; we fail in to rank ; we fall off' 9. horse. 

We fall out with our neighbors ; we fall upon the enemr. 



"^s 



94 HtTLES FOR CAPITALS. 

RULES FOR CAPITALS. 

The following should be written with capitals : 

1. The first word of every Hentence. 

2. The first word of every line in poetry. 

3. The first word of a direct quotation. 

4. The pronoun " I " and interjection " ()." 

5. Names of months and days of the week. 

6. All proper names and titles of office or honor. 

7. Words forming the leading subjects of discourse. 

8. The principal words in titles of books and headings of chapters. 

9. Proper adjectives. 

10. Names of objects personified. , , -- 

• 11. Names of the Deity. t/ ■,*.,?,'•'• ^iT 



RULES FOR PUNCTUATION. 

THE COMMA. 

1. Adjective and adverbial phrases, if lengthy, are separated from the rest 
of the sentence by a comma. 

2. Nouns in apposition, followed by adjuncts, are separated from the rest of 
the sentence by a comma. 

3. Several words of the same kind following each other, are separated by 
commas. 

4. When words follow in pairs, the pairs are separated by a comma. 

5. All nominatives of address are separated from the rest of the sentence by 
commas. 

6. Some adverbs, as "therefore," "besides," &c., are generally separated 
from the rest of the sentuice by a comma. 

THE COLON. 

The colon is used to show some close relation between two or more sentences 
by combining them in one. s^: ;\ % - ' : -. ^:;; '? v. N: r 

THE SEMICOLON. 

The semicohm is used between co-ordinate statements where a shorter pause 
is desired than that marked by a colon. 



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