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Full text of "Report of the Canadian observations of the transit of Venus, 6th December, 1882 [microform]"

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1 


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3 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 



U- 




REPORT 



OF THE 




CANADIAN OBSERVATIONS 



OF tHS 



TRANSIT OF VENUS. 



6th DECEMBER, 1882. 






/ 



/ 



HEPORT 



OF THE 



CANADIAN OBSERVATIONS 



OF THE 



TRANSIT OF VENUS, 

6th DECEMBER, 1882. 



OBSERVATORY, TORONTO, 

13th May, 1883. 
To THE Hon. A. W. MoLelan, 

Mnister of Marine and MsherieSf 

Ottawa. ' 

Sib, 

I have tho honor to report in reference to the preparation for, and results of 
the observations in Canada of tne Transit of Yenus of 6th Dec, 1882. 

Having, in tho spring of last year, had the honor to be entrusted by the Govern- 
ment with the general arrangements, in Canada, for observing the transit, and with 
procuring the necessary instrumental equipment, I instructed Lieut. Gordon, R. N., 
to proceed to England, and purchase various instruments, and to take the opportunity 
of visiting Oxfoi"d, to ascertain the exact way in which the English observers were 
being trained, and if possible himself to obtain some instruction. I also requested 
him to endeavour to obtain a practice model for use in Canada, as the time was very 
short for having anything made. In carrying out these instractions he was fortunate 
enough to be successful in every particular ; he also obtained from the Admiralty 
the loan of four Chronometers. 

Early in September the model was erected at McGill University, Montreal, and 
Dp, Jack, President of the New Brunswick University, Professors Johnson and 
MoLeod, of McGill University, and Mr. Chandler, practised with me in taking observ- 
ations of the contacts on the model. It is unnecessary to enter into any details of this 
practice ; I may, however, state that Professor McLeod who was the only one of the 
party who succeeded in obtaining observations of the actual transit, nearly always 
agreed with myself, within half a second, in the time he assigned to the contacts ; 
except when the circumstances of observation were very unfavourable owing to 
tremor from passing vehicles, or when sudden changes in the illumination occurred, 
which sometimes happened when the mirror in connection with the model was used. 

After leaving Montreal, I visited Quebec, Fredericton, and Kingston, and on my 
rettim to Toronto, ordered such smsJl additional apfdiancea as were necessary to 
ootli|^6te the equipment of these observatories for the purpose of the transit, 



3 

Daring my absence Lient. Gordon had visited Woodstock, and ascertained what 
was necessary to be done at the observatory there. 

In November the model was sot up on the tower of the University Buildings, 
Toronto, and the following gentlemen attended for practico :— Proiossor Williamson, 
Queen's University, KingHton, Professor Bain, and Dr. Haancl, Victoria University, 
Cobourg, Professor Wolverton, Baptist College, Woodstock, Profef-sor Hare, Ladies 
College, Whitby, Messrs. F. L Bluke, D.L.S., W. Millar, and S. E. Roberts, Toronto, 
and Mr. Shearman, Brantford ; as did also several members of the staff of the Meteoro- 
logical office. 

Arrangements had now been made for taking observations at the following 
places: 

WiNNiPBQ. — Observer — Prof. McLeod; assistant, H. V. Payne. Instruments— A 

four inch Achromxiic Telescope Alt. Azimuth Mounting, a Transit 
Instrument, two Chronometers. 

Woodstock. — Observer — Prof. Wolverton. Instrument — an eight inch Befractor, by 

Fitz of N. Y. ; aperture reduced to six inches . 

Toronto. — Observer — Charles Carpmaol, Director of the Observatory, assisted by 

members of the stalf. Instruments — a six inch Equatorial, by 
T. Co'^'' & Sons, York ; a three inch Transit instrument, con- 
strue by Troughton & Simras, London ; Sidereal Clock, Arnold, 
London, Chas. Frodsham, No. 84 ; a Mean Time Clock, Chrono- 
meters, &c. 

WHiTBr. — Observer— Prof. Hare, Ladies' College; a six inch Telescope by Fitz 

of N. Y. 

GoBOURO. — Observer — Prof. Bain, Victoria University ; a four and a quarter inch 

Telescope by Smith, Beck & Beck, London. 

JKiNQSTON. — Observer — Prof. Williamson ; assistant Prof. Dupuis. Instruments— A 

six and a half inch Equatorial, by Alvan Clark & Sons, of Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass. The Beaufoy Transit instrument; Clock by 
Prof. Dupuis, etc. 

Bbllxville.— Observer — Mr. Shearman, four inch Achromatic. 

Ottawa. — Observer — ^F. L. Blake, D.L.S., assistant Mr. B. C. Webber. Instruments — 

A four inch Achromatic from McGill University ; a Transit in- 
strument lent by the Department of the Interior. 

Montreal. — Observer — Prof. Johnson. Instruments — A six and a quarter inch 

Achromatic, and a Trandt instrument, etc. 

QusBEO. — Observer — Lieut. Gordon, R, N., assistant W. A. Ashe, D. L. S. Instru-, 

ments — ^An eight inch Equatorial, by Alvan Clark & Sons, aperture 
reduced to six inches. 

Halifax. — Observer — Mr. A. Allison. Instruments — A four inch Achromatic, by 

Dollond. 

Charlottetown. — Observer — H. J. Cundall, C. E. Instrument — ^A four inch Achro- 
matic. 

Frbdsricton. — Observer — Dr. Jack. Instruments — A seven inch Equatorial reduced 

to star inches, a Transit instrument, etc. 

As the instant at which certain phases appeared had to be noted, it was essential 
to the saccess of the observations that the various observers should have correct time, 
nrrangements were aecordirgly made with the Great North Western, and WestorQ 



i 

TTnion Telegraph Companies, for an exchange of time signals, the observers at 
Halifax, Fredericton, and also at Alontreal, exchanged time with Lieut. Gordon at 
Quebec ; and Quebec, Montreal and all points in Ontario, with myself at Toronto, we 
had thus on the night before the Transit, a complete interchange between all stations, 
with the exception of Winnipeg ; and it was further arranged that those stations, 
where observations were pecured, should come on again for a second interchange on 
the night after the Transit, and accordingly, on the night of the 6th I again ex- 
changed time with Cobourg, Belleville, Kingston and Ottawa, and also with Montreal. 
Prof. Mclieod also luade a determination of the longitude of his station at Winnipeg, 
by exchange of time signals with Prof. Hough of the " Dearborn " Observatory, 
Chicago, the .Telegraph Companies both in the United States, and Canada placing 
the wires at our disposal for the exchange of these signals without making any 
charge. 

On the day of the Transit, the stations at which contacts were secured were:— 

Winnipeg. — The two last contacts. 

Cobourg. — Third contact, atmosphere, however, very unsteady. 

Belleville. — Third contact, imperfect. 

Kingston. — The second, third and fourth contacts. 

Ottawa.— -The second, third and fourth contticts. 

Before proceeding to the Eeports of the various observers, it will be well to con- 
sider the errors of the Time-pieces employed. At all the stations, with the exception 
of Winnipeg, the times may be indirectly compared with the Toronto Clock, there 
having, as already stated, been an Interchange both on the night preceding, and on the 
night following the Transit. 

I have taken great pains to ascertain, as closely as I could, what were the errors 
of the Toronto Sidereal Clock on the two nights in question. In doing this I have 
met with unexpected difficulties, on examining the rates for the last eighteen years, 
during which no change has been made in the adjustment of the Clock, I find that 
the mean daily rates for the various months were as shewn in the following table :— 

TABLE 

Shewing Mean of Daily Bates of Sidereal Cock in each Mol '^^h, obtained from 18 years 

observations. 



MONTH. 



Mean Bate. 



Mean 
Pressure. 



Mean 
Temperature. 



Bate, 
+ 01 



January. . . 
February ■ 

March 

AprtI 

May 

June 

July 

August . . • ■ 
September. 
October ... 
November. 
December. 



-2-41W 
1-8920 
1-7496 
2-0637 
2-8917 
3-6429 
3-9177 
3 8571 
3-6901 
8-5706 
3-8350 
2-8820 



29-661 
•646 
•614 



21-887 
22-891 



—2 0666 
1-6212 
1- 



•567 


40 719 


14041 


•676 


62-681 


20399 


•570 


62-666 


2-6277 


•679 


68 677 


28061 


•615 


67-1)67 


2-7708 


•671 


59-547 


272M 


•649 


47 286 


2-8064 


•6:« 


84-840 


27706 . 


•641 


25 407 


2'42IM 



The fi^ares shew that the Clock is nqder compensated for temperature : bnt tb« 
larger portion of the variation in Bate, does not seem to be due to dilferences of temper- 
ature. If we take the residual temperature correction as '0162 T, the rates for the 
months of July, Aug. Sept. Oct. and Nov., are brought into every close agreement, 
the losing rate then rapidly diminishes, and reaches its minimum in March, after 
which time it again rises, the rates as at temperature zero, with the correction 
•0162 T, applied, are shewn in column five of the Table. 

The only way in which I can account for this, is by supposing that there must 
be a periodic shifting of the foundations of the Clock, which affects its rate. This 
supposition will perfectly account for the minimum occurring in March, when the 
amount of fi'ost in the ground has reached its maximum. The lapidity with which the 
changes take place, varies a good deal from year to year, and at the beginning of 
December lusb, seems to have been unusually rapid, in obtaining the errors at various 
times, I have assumed, as being in close agreement with the observations, that the 
losing rate was diminishing at this time by '07, of a second per day, independently 
of the Temperature residual of -0162 T. The adopted errors of the Clock, when it 
shewed 12 hours, on the different days, were accordingly, as follows : 



Date. 



Error. 



Daily Bate. 





h. m. 


s. 


B. 


Nov: 28 


5 16 


50-88 


3-28 


'• 29 




54-16 


8-20 


« 30 




57-36 


3-15 


Deo. 1 




60-61 


3-13 


<. 2 




63-64 


3-02 


« 3 




66*66 


2-91 


« 4 




69-57 


2-89 


" 6 




72-46 


2-86 


" 6 




75-32 


2-76 


« 7 




78-08 


2-61 


« 8 




80-69 


2-48 



In taking the Transits fnc time, the collimation error was obtained by reflection 
from mercury, the le^rei error was determined frequently, but I have been compelled 
to assume a uulfurm Azimuth error from the 29th of November to tfae 8th of Decern* 
her, as the weather was such that it was impossible to obtain satisfactory observations 
for determining the error of Azimuth between these dates, the agreement, however, 
between the errors obtained, from stars of different Declinations, was such, as 
showed, that any residual error was small as compared with the uncertainty of the 
Clock, 



N 



1)4 
* 



It 
u 



I 

01 



I 

The following is an abstract of the observations for time .— 



Date. 



Not. 29 

I)ea2., 
" 8.. 

." 4.. 

" 1. 
" 7.. 



Htar. 



S Dracouis 
Y AqulliB 

a •• 

Sun 
a Ophiuohl 

V2 Ursae maj. 
a Cor. Bor. 
o SerpentiB 
II DraoonlB 

II Draconis 

• y « 

y Gygni 






1^ 






•2 El 



a Cephei 

P Aquarll 

*p Cephei 

« Pegasl 






Corrected 

Clock. Time 

01 Transit. 



h. m. 8. 

13 65 34 63 

14 23 4682 

14 28 9 61 

11 22 40-61 

12 12 22 72 

10 8 88-12 

10 12 30-71 

10 21 17-41 

11 6 9-40 

U 5 108 

12 10 25-05 
12 86 31-13 

15 40 87 

16 20 5-66 

15 85 27-96 

16 58 26-81 
16 8 3-50 
16 9 48 01 
16 21 5 94 



R. A. 



h. m. 8. 

iO 12 2011 

19 40 41-38 
10 45 4 04 

18 SO 47 28 

17 29 rJ-32 

16 20 50-43 

15 29 12 09 

15 38 29-54 

16 22 21-78 

16 22 21-62 

17 27 45 35 
17 43 51 48 

20 18 1 27 

20 37 2609 

aO 52 48-36 

21 15 46 69 
21 ae 23-92 
21 27 808 
21 88 26-46 



Clock glow. 
UbHorved. 



h. m. 8. 
6 16 54 48 

54-66 

54-43 

5 17 0-07 
6-60 

12 81 

12-28 
12-13 
12 88 

20-54 
20 30 
20 36 
20 40 
20-44 

20-40 
20 38 
20 42 
20-07 
20 52 



Calcd. 



54-42 
64 48 
64 49 

6-68 
G59 

1223 
24 
-26 



20 60 
•71 
•75 

21-00 
03 

00 
-10 
-12 
-12 
•14 



0-0. 



B. 

006 
0-08 

-0-oe 
0-00 



-08 
•04 

- -13 
•06 

- -08 

- -41 

- -40 

- 60 
-•69 

- •a 

- ^72 

- -70 
-lOS 
--88 



• Three wires only. 

The large (iiscordanoe between the observed and calculated errorp on the 7th, 
I ascrihe to the rapid fall of temperature when the sKt of the transit room was 
opened, the thin rod of the pendulum taking up the temperature of the air much 
faster than the large mass of mercury in the bob. 

In the interchange of time, Chronometer, Eussell & Son's No. 7,050 was em- 
ployed, and the following errors were obtained by comparison, by the method of 
simultaneous beat between it and the Sidereal Clock : — 





h. 


m. 


s. 


8. 


Dec. 4th 


4 


1 


13-25 . 


Slow 26-39 


5th 


22 


35 


24- 


26-99 


5th 


4 


55 


35-25 


2 J -04 


5th 


20 


30 


25- 


26-58 


6th 


4 


50 


45- 


26-38 


6th 


10 


8 


45'5 


26-24 


7th 


5 


10 


55- 


26-27 


7th 


22 


26 


47*5 


27-10 


13th 


21 


47 


24- 


31-56 


15th 


1 


5 


47. 


31-08 



From these I have taken, as the errors at che times at which the interchange of 
time took place, tho fbllcying :— 



Deo. 6th throughout 
6ih 7 h. 
8 
9 
10 



8. 

sloTV 27-04 
26--?2 
26-30 
26.27 
26-24 



In signallinjgr tho timo on the nigl^^t of the 6th, the time Bignalled as an exact 
minute wuh the 33 seconds by tho Chronometer, on the night of the 6th, the second 
signalled was the 34. The return signals from all stations, except Kingston, were 
made by hand either from Clock or Chronometer, and were estimated at Toronto, by 
ear. At Kingston the Toronto signals wero taken down on a chronograph constructed 
^j Prof. Dupuis, and the return signals were made by the Kingston clock, which 
was placed in circuit so as to beat every second except that at the exact minute. 

The following shews the results of the comparison on the two nights : — 

December 5th,— Toronto and Kingston. 



Toronto sending. 



Kingston sending. 



T. 11 16 3^-00 K 
27-04 


11 29 20-87 
43-25 


K. 
K. 


11 46 0" 
43-27 


T. 
T. 


11 33 12-30 
27-04 


11 17 0-04 


11 28 37-62 
11 17 04 


11 45 16-73 
ll 33 39-34 


33 39-34 








11 37-58 


11 37-39 




jmber 6th, — Toronto and Kingston. 

T. 9 28 34-00 K. 9 41 23 00 
26-26 45-26 


9 57 0-00 
45-28 


9 44 11-20 
26-24 


9 29 0-26 


9 40 37-74 
9 29 0-26 


9 60 14-72 
9 44 37-44 


9 44 37-44 








11 37-48 


11 37-28 





m. s. m. s. 

Mean difference on 5th, 11 37*48 On 6th, 11 37*38 

December 5th, — ^Toronto, Ottawa. 



T. 10 4 23-00 
27-04 

10 5 0-04 



O. 9 12 35-60 
-7 11-21 

10 19 46-71 
10 5 0.04 



0. 9 58 12-09 
27 11-23 

10 25 11-23 
10 10 24-34 



T. 10 9 67'30 
2704 

10 10 24-34 






14 46 67 



14 46-89 



t 



ibecomW 6th,— l^oronto and Ottawa. 

T. 9 29 4'00 O. 9 17 1-BO 
26-26 27 16-27 



9 29 30-26 



9 44 17 77 
9 29 30 26 

14 4761 



O. 9 40 30'00 
27 16-31 

10 7 46'3l 
9 62 68-64 

14 47-67 



T. 9 62 32-40 
26-24 

9 42 58-64 



On the night of the 5th, the comparison with Cobourg gave, as the error of the 
Chronometer at Cobourg, on Toronto mean time fast, 2 m. 27' 3 s. at 14 hours ; and 
on the night of the 6th, at 9 20 fn^t, 2 m. 29- 2 s. 

The longitude of Toronto usnall}' boon taken as 6 h. 17 m. 33-49 sec. W* 

This result was obtained by an intorcliaitgo of time between Quebec and Toronto in 
January, 1867. Some recent interchanges of time have, however, led rae to infer 
that it may be somewhat too small. Arrangements have now been made to connect 
Montreal Observatory with Cambridge, and an interchange will be made at the same 
time between Montreal and Toronto, the result of which I will furnish in a supple- 
mentary report. 

At Ottawa, the chronometer which was employed was unfortunately subjected 
to a very great range of temperature, I have estimated as closely as I could, from 
Meteoi-ologioal observations in Ottawa, the approximate tompeiature of the chro- 
nometer during various periods, from one set of observations taken there, to another, 
and the temperature when within the Hotel and Telegraph Office has been taken at 
70° fahr., an estimate rather bolow than above the mark. The rate of the chronom- 
eter at different temperatures was taken from comparisons made in Toronto, one 
period extending from January 1st to February 11th, at a niean temperature of 
29*'.14, and a second period from February 12th to March 6th, at a mean temperature 
of 69'*.35. The daily rate of this chronometer at temperature 29°. 14 was found to be 
7.892 see. per day, and at temperature 59°.35 — 4.023 sec. Assuming the change 
of rate with temperature to be uniform and taking the error at I D. 7 H. 65 M. by 
chronometer as 26 m. 32.82 sec. I obtained the following tabular errors of the 
chronometer. 



Date. 



Error. 



D. 


H. 


M. 


min. 


sec. 


1 


7 


55 


26 


32-82 


3 


9 


49 




63-38 


6 


8 


30 


27 


11-92 


5 


19 


30 




13-14 


6 


20 


30 




•45 


6 


2 







15-16 


6 


8 


30 




17-29 


7 


8 







19-34 


7 


4 


44 




20-01 



4 



The error given by this table at 7 d. 4 h. 44 m. exceeded that obtained by obser^ 
Ivation by 1.28 sees. Dividing this change uniformly over the period from the first 
lobseryation we should have errors and rates as follows :— 



s 



Date. 


Mean Temp. 


Hourly Rate. 


fii 


tdl«. 


D. H. M. 










1 7 56 


13-56 


•4029 


26 


32-82 


3 9 49 


16-33 


•3881 


26 


62-92 


5 8 30 


70-00 


-1017 


28 


11*04 


5 19 30 


32-00 


-3045 


27 


12*16 


5 20 3'» 


33-00 


•2991 


26 


12^46 


6 2 00 


29.00 


.3205^ 


27 


14^11 


6 8 30 


70-00 


-1017 


27 


16-19 


7 3 


18-00 


•3792 


27 


18-09 


7 4 44 






27 


18-73 



This coriected table gives the error at 3 d. 9 h. 49 m. within 0*1 sec. of the 
observed error. Id the above exchanges of time between Ottawa and Toronto, there 
is, however, a discrepancy between the mean of the results on the two nights of 
O'dl sec. Assuming that the change was due to a uniform error in the asr<amed rate 
of chronometer 1752, we find for the errors on Toronto Mean time at (he times of 
contact 



1752, slow of T. M. T. at 2nd contact 12 25-43 
" 3rd « 12 26 87 

«« 4th " 12 26-95 



In the exchange with Kingston taking the clock times as shown by the chrono- 
graph, and allowing, as in the case of Ottawa, for the difference between the errors 
at tne time of exchange, we get as errors of the Kingston clock on Toronto Mean 
time, at the time ot the several contacts, as follows : — 



2nd Contact 


12 


21^58 


Clock fast. 


3rd 


12 


22-03 


C( 


4th « 


12 


22-08 


M 



The clock times of the contacts as measured from the Chronograph slipSj with 
the corresponing Toronto mean times were as follows : — 



Clock. 
Ingress. h. m. s. 

Internal contact, second described phase 9 19 46*25 



Internal contact, first 

second 
External contact 



u 






2 42 53-20 

2 43 12-54 

3 3 4315 



T. M. T. 

h, tn. St 
9 7 24-67 

2 30 31-17 
2 30 50-51 
2 51 21-07 



Cobourg had no transit instrument, and the time therefore depends entirely upon 
the exchange of signals by telegraph, interpolating we get for this error at the time 
contact was observed :— 

Chronometer fast on Toronto mean tim<) 2 min. 28*53 sec. 

I append hereto the reports of the individual observers at the several stations 
where observations were obtai led, except that from the station at Belleville, where, 
owing to atmospheric disturbance and other causes, the observation was not suf- 
ficiently accurate to be of value. 

t have forwarded copies of this report to the Boyal Society of Canada and to the 
^yal Astix)uomical Society of Great Britain. AH of which is respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES CARPMABL, 
Superintendent Meteorohgiedl Service of Canada, 



tion 



^ 



stations 

3, where, 

not Buf- 



nd to the 
ibmitted. 



TORONTO, 15th i)soEHB«&, 1882. 

ftnAftiiM dAftPitAiSL, I^SQ., Ji.A.. P.R.A.S., F.RS.C, 

Superir-cendent of the Transit ofYenos Observations 
For the (Tovernment of Canada. 

Sib, 

I have the honor to report on the observations of the Transit of Venus taken at 
Ottawa, as follows : — 

I was assisted in these observations by Mr. B. C. Webber, of the Meteorological 
Service, and the following instrnmonts were used : — A four-inch Achromatic Tele- 
scope, alt-azimuth mounting, a Transit instrument by Messrs. Troughton and Simms, 
2^ m. O.G., and Chronometer, Frodsham, 1752. 

The temporary observatory was erected on Nepean Point, in Lat. 45** 26 N., 
and Long. 5 h. 2 m. 48 see. W., approximate geographical positions. 

On the evening of the 5th exchanged time with the Toronto Observatory, the 
weather being very cloudy and threatening to snow. The morning of the 6th broke 
with dense clouds at low elevation with no immediate prospect of breaking. Soon 
after 8 o'clock signs of clouds dispersing in S.E., 8.15 by chronometer, sun shone out 
brilliantly. Sighted on the sun, and focussed on sun spots at 8.24 ; rice grains on 
snn just discernible. Definition of telescope very fine. At first external contact 
atmosphere rather hazy. Time of first external contact 8 h. 34 m. 45 sec. by chrono- 
meter 1752, Frodsham. This time is not to be depended on, as my attention was 
called away just at moment of contact, and had to estimate, the notch being formed 
on the sun when I again put my eye to the telescope. I do not think it can be more 
than five or six seconds out at the most. At no time could I detect any portion of 
the planet that was off the sun. The portion on the sun was very black. Towards 
internal contact clouds began to pass over the sun, hiding it completely at times; 
Just before internal contact, caught a glimpse of the sun through a break in the 
clouds, which lasted long enough to catch the contact. No black drop observed. 
Bright cusps of sun met at 8 h. 54 m. 51 sec. The sun became obscured 8 h. 55 m. 
08 sec, during which interval of 17 seconds the band of light between the limbs of 
Yenos and the sun, broadened considerably. The time 8 h. 54 m. 51 sec. was last 
time of appearance of discontinuity in ^he illumination of apparent limb of sun. Sun 
re-appeared at 9 h. 11 m. with prospects of fine afternoon. For an hour, with the 
exception of the time occupied in the passage of a few fleecy clouds over the sun, the 
planet was observed. No markings of any kind could be distinguished on its surface, 
which appeared intensly black in comparison with the bright face of the sun. 
Clouds again gathered thickly and snow began to fall. Snow storm continued with- 
out intermission up till 2 h. 5 m., when clouds began to clear off in the south-west. 
At 2 h. 12 m. the sky was perfectly clear in south and west and the sun began to 
peep out, when Yeuus was observed approaching internal contact at egress, oeing 
then about half its own diameter from limb of sun. Air. Webber commenced to 
count at 2 h. 16 m. At 2 h. 17 m. 19 sec. slight fading in light was observed near 
point of contact, which gradually increased until 2 h. 18 m., when contact was 
observed by first appearance of blackness like that of the planet, and the bright 
cusps began to recede. No black drop or distortion of the limb of Yenus was 
observed, although the edge of the sun was boiling just a little. I used an illumina- 
tion about midway between total darkness and brightness that the eye could just, 
bear. When the planet was half way off the snn, I thought I could faintly disoem 
the limb of the planet, but could not be sure of it. Between internal and external con- 
tacts nothing unusual was observed. At 2 h. 38 m. 12 seo. the dark body of the 
planet left the sun, although a faint shading of the limb of sun near point of contact 
till 2 h. 38 m. 31 sec. was observed, when nothing annsual in the illumination of 
Umb of Ban was observed after that time. For aboat an hoar afUqr external oontaot 



u 

hi egress the snn shone brilliantly, when clouds again arose and the sttn Wad 
Bhroaded from sight for the rest of the day. I again exchanged time with the 
Toronto Observatory on the evening of the day of transit. A set of transits wore 
taken at the observatory at Nepean Point on December Ist and 7th by Captain E. 
Deville, Chief Inspector of Surveys, and on the 3rd December by myself. These were 
the only time transits taken owing to unfavorable weather. The chronometer 
No. 1752 Frodfiham was taken from the hotel to the Observatory on the 1st Decem- 
ber, and left there till the evening of the 5th, when it was taken to the telegraph 
office to exchange time ; it was afterwards taken to the hotel and put in the safe till 
morning of the 6th, when it was taken to the (bsorvatory and left there all day 
until evening, when it was again taken to the telegraph office, time compared, and then 
back to hotel safe; from there it was taken to the observatory on the evening of the 
7th December, for timing transits. It was exposed to a good deal of variation in 
temperature, from 70*^ at the hotel on the 7th to 5° or 6° below zero, on Nepean 
Point Observatory; the temperature on the 6th was a little below the freezing point. 
Captain Deville compared my chronometer with Mr. Lindsay Eussoll's, who took the 
last two contacts at his own house. His chronometer was keeping sidereal time, 
and the following was the result of the comparison : 

Dent 2071, =2nh. 34™. 40secs. 

Frodsbam 1752,= 3^- 01™. 34:-5«eca. 

Dent 2071,= 20ii- 37™- 45«ecs. 

Frodsham 1752, = 3*^- 04™- 39secs. 

Temperatures at Ottawa during early part op Drcember, 1882. 



December 1st . 

" 2nd 

" 8rd . 

" 4th . 

" 5th . 

" 6th . 

" 7th 

" 8th 



6.59 A. 
28.3 


1 P.M. 


9 P. M. 


Mean. 


Max. 
31.8 


Min. 


81.5 


19.2 


26.33 


18.1 


17.2 


20.2 


14.1 


17 17 


19 9 


13 6 


9.0 


106 


4.2 


7.93 


13.9 


4 1 


- 49 


8.1 


14.1 


5-T7 


14 1 


- 58 


30.8 


85.2 


30.1 


31.87 


36.2 


13 9 


81.3 


342 


22.2 


29.23 





21 5 


29.9 


22.6 


5.1 


19.17 


296 


48 


- 2.9 


5.1 


0.1 


0.77 


6.9 


- 2.9 



The mean here 
Is the actual 
mean of the 
three obser- 
vations. 



Your obedient servant, 

(Signed), F. L* Blake, D. L. S. 

COBOUBG, January, 1883. 



Gharlks Carpmaei*, Esq., M.A., F.B.A.S., F.B.S.C., 

Meteorological Observatory, Toronto. 

I have the honor to make the following report of the observations of the Transit 
of Yenns which I, assisted by Drs. Haanel and Coleman, was enabled to make : — 

The sky in the early pert of the morning of December 6th, 1882, was clear 
enough to justify the most sanguine expectations of getting good observations of at 
least the first contacts, but a few minutes before 8 a.m. dense masses of clouds began 
to rise in the northwest, and by ten minutes past 8 the whole heavens with the excep- 
tion of a small area in the northeast and east were covered, completely shutting out 
the BOQ from view. These clouds did not break away till long after external and 
intenuLL oontaot at ingress were passed. 



it a 



11 

About 10.30 a.m. rifts in the clouds appeared and shortly before eleven a clear 
view of the planet on the sun's disc was obtained. The accompanying colored 
diagram No. 1, affords a very accurate idea of the appearance presented by the planet 
at that time and during the following two hours and three quarters. The disc of the 
planet especially towards its circumfiM-ence presented a purplish hue while the centre 
had a faint light spot slightly tinged vith a pale slaty green. Had photographic 
apparatus been furnished several impresbions might have been taken very success- 
fully from 11 a.m. till nearly 2 p.m. 

Shortly before two the atmosphere which had been comparatively steady began 
to be disturbed and rapidly became worse while flying clouds now and again swept 
across the face of the sun. Before the time of internal Contact at egress the boiling 
of the atmosphere was such as to render observations very unsatiwfactory. The limbs 
of sun and planet appeared to spin. The limb of the sun at which contact was about 
to take place seemed to consist of filaments of light, each revolving swiftly in a small 
spiral. 

Internal contact at egress appeared to take place at 2 h. 33 ra. 27 sec. by the 
chronometer which was then 2 m. 29.5 sees, fast of the time at the Toronto observa- 
tory. Just at this critical time a cloud svcp' sun and planet out of sight, and when 
it had passed a small area of the planet's limb wua decidedly beyond the suns limb, 
while a narrow beautifully distinct white line of light surrounded that portion of the 

f)lanet's limb which was beyond the sun. The colored diagram No. 2 represents this 
ine of light when about half the planet's disc had crossed the sun's limb and it fajtn- 
fully represents the peculiar appearance presented by this line of light on the north 
western portion where it was decidedly broader than it was along the remaining arc. 
This peculiarity was noticed by each of the throe obsei-vers without his attention 
being called to it by the others. 

Very soon after the planet had passed the position figured in this diagram No. 2, 
clouds hid the sun from sight and prevented any observation being taken of the 
external contact at egress. The telescope used was a 4 J inch refractive equatorially 
mounted, and made by Smith, Beck & Beck, London, England. Power employed 
was about 150. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Professor Bain further says in his letter, dated 25th January, 1883 : — 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of January 20th, in 
which you ask for a further description of phenomena seen at the instant of time at 
which I had marked down the words " ap. contact." 

In the report already sent I refer to the atmospheric disturbance which grew 
worse and worse till all vision of sun and planet was lost under the flying clouds. 

The ever narrowing bank of light over which the planet was slowly moving as 
it approached the sun's limb was heaving, boiling, and apparently spinning in manner 
described in previous report, other than this nothing peculiar was seen. No black 
drop presented itself, no distortion of the planet's limb, such as an elongation towards 
point of contact, nor till after part of the planet was beyond sun's disc did any arc of 
white light surround any part of the planets disc. The exact instant when that 
beautiful bright white arc of light tii-st appeared, I know not, for just after what 
seemed to be contact a cloud came over, and when it was passed the arc of light was 
there. The cloud was on face of planet and sun fully five seconds. 

It was impossible to take a point North and another South of the point at which 
contact was about to take place, and note when the illumication of the point of con- 
tact began to be distinctly less than that of the points choeen, for the sun's limb was 
not still enough to admit of any such thing, it appeared constantly to heave acd 
surge. 



12 

With this exception the planet moved steadily towards contact, presenting no 
phenomena different from those observed at any earlier stage. The A ^ D E were 
simply remarks made at the telescope while the observation was making ; the exact 
words used, and the instant at which each phrase was spoken, being noted by the 
assistants. This plan was adopted, thinking that if any marked phenomenon pre- 
sented itself neai* time of contact, before or after, the exact second of time when 
observed could thus be noted, bat nothing in addition to the phenomena already 
described was seen. 

In giving you the colors of the disc of planet, I described exactly as seen in our 
telescope; of coarse the purplish hue of the edge would at once inform you that our 
glasses are somewhat over corrected. 

I forgot to m >ntion that during the day the sun's surface was mottled, but pre- 
sented no well-marked rice grains — no interlacibg willow pattern. 

I hope I have been able to make clear to you what was presented to our view on 
that day, from 1_ a.m. until 2 h. 33 m, 38 sec. p.m. ; that is, all phenomena that were 
seen, and the order in which and time at which they were seen. 

Again, Professor Bain says, on February 21st, 1883, " In answer to your note 
16th inst., I have the honor to reply that ' ap contact ' means * approaching contact.' " 
Dr. Coleman put '♦ ap " down in the hurry, but " approaching " was the word used. 

Approximate position of observing station taken from United States Ghaiia of 
Lake Ontario. 

Latitude 43° 57 N. 
Longitude 5 h. 12 m. 3*7*5 sees. 





TIME NOTES 


. TT^TERNAL CONTACT AT EGRESS. 


A 


h. 


m. 

32 


sec. 


Atmosphere very unsteady. 


B 




33 


5 


Approaching contact. 


C 




<( 


27 


Now. 


D 




(( 


33 


Cloud. 


E 




it 


38 


Passed. 


F 








Illumination of Atmosphere of Yenus. 
YiolMit boiling of Sun's surface, observations 
very unsatisfactory. 



(Signed) A. R. BAIN. 



REPORT OF THE OBSRRVATIOXS OF THE TRANSIT OF VENUS AT 
KINGSTON OBSERVATORY, CANADA, 6th DECEMBER, 1882. 

We had so far the advantage in preparing for the transit here that the longitude 
of the site of ttie former obsei'vatory bailding had been previously determined by 
every known method, coutinued for a number of years, as well as by telegraphic 
communication, to be 5h. 5m, 54.6 s, W., with a probable error of not more than two- 
tenths o| a secon4« 



\i 



> i> 



AT 



igitude 
ed by 

;raphio 
I two- 



Its latitude had been no less oarefnlly ascertained by a series of observations neai* 
zenith stars,— particularly B. A. C. 4841, 5400, 6013. and 6731,— by transit with 
attached micrometer in the prime vertical, to be 44^ 13' 21" 7 N. 

The site of the new observatory building in which observations began to be 
taken laut year is on higher ground, and a little further to tLa west, and the neces- 
sary triangulation being made the longitude and latitude of the equatorial piev from 
which the transit was viewed were found to be 5h. 5m. 56s. 4 W., and 44° 13' 26" 2 N. 
respectively. 

The new Observatory is a neat frame building, conla!. g, besides the apart- 
ment for the observers, the transit rooms and two rooms in tb jquatorial tower, and 
the arrangements for opening and closing the (^ihuttors, and revolving the dome, act 
perfectly both in winter and summer. 

The instruments in the Observatory ara the " Beaufoy transit," leniby the Koyal 
Astronomical Society, and a small portable transit, by Simirs, both in excellent 
order, in the tower ; at the west end of the building is the Equatorial, by Alvan 
Clark. In the spare room below is preserved an interesting specimen of one of the 
best telescopes of the middle of last century, a reflecting Gregorian telescope con- 
structed by Shortt in 1742, with 7-inch parabolic reflector, and the original stand for 
movements in altitude and azimuth. 

This instrument was presented to the Observatoiy by Principal Leitch, of Queen's 
University. There are also mean time and sidereal clocks with excellent escape* 
ments, and compensation pendulums constructed by Professor Dupuis. 

The instruments usually employed are the large Beaufoy transit and the Equa- 
torial, and were those made use of in connection with the transit of Yenus. 

The Beaufoy transit has an object glass of three inches clear aperture and 50 
inches focus. It is fitted with dew cap, with 5 vertical and 2 horizontal wires, and a 
striding level, the level has on it a new and accurate scale of divisions, each denoting 
one second of arc; the axis is supported on two pyramidal stone piers resting on a 
broad basis of the same material, which lies upon a solid mass of concrete extend- 
ing deep into the ground. 

The Er aatorial has a 6Mnch object glass of 8 feet focus, and at the end next the eye 
was fitted with a solar, reflecting prism and neutral tint glass wedge ; the eye piece 
employed in viewing the transit was a positive one, with a power of a hundred and 
twenty, which was found to give the sharpest and best defined vision of the limbs 
of the sun and planet. 

Besides the clocks already referred to, two other time keepers were available, 
and the times of contact as given by these on the day of the transit were alone 
employed. The one was a half second M. T. chronometer, number 2382, by Parkin- 
son and Frodsham, lent by the British Admiralty for the use of Canadian observers, 
and the other a very perfect M. T. clock in Prof Dupuis' house, with compensation 
pendulum, and Denison's gravity escapement, and electrically connected both with a 
chronograph there and with the Observatory. Both the clock and chronograph are 
of Prof. Dupuis' construction, the rate of the clock is very steady, as the recoi-d below 
shows: — 

Clook Erbors. 







Seconds 


Dec 


3, 7 p.m. 


38-49 




5, 12 n. 


43-29 




6, 9 a.m. 


44-11 




6, 2 p.m. 


44-56 




6,10 " 


45-28 




7, 7 « 


4719 




8, 7 « 


49-36 



e 



u 

On the evening of the 6th Deoemher clock signals were received from Toronto 
as follows, and registered on the chronograph :— Toronto 17 m.; Kingston 29 m. 
20 9 8. ; clock error, -j- 43-29 s. And also on the evening of the 6th as under:— 
Toronto, 29 m.; Kingnton, 41 m. 23 8.; clock error, -4- 45-28 8. On the evening of 
the 6th at 9 h. 28 m., 29 m., rfO m. and 31 ui. Toronto M.T. 

The corresponding times by Parkinson and Frodsham's chronometer at the King- 
ston Observatory were 9h. 23m. Us., 24m. Us., ::i5m. Us. and 26m. Us., the 
chronometer being 16 m. 23-'7 s. slow by Obdorvatory time and havine a daily losinar 
rate of 3-77 s.. s j- e. 

The difference between the mean times at Toronto and Kiiigstou, therefore, 
from the result of these signal exchanges is 1 1 m. 37*7 s. Bach second for four minutes 
of Kingston mean time was also on the evening of 6th signalled to Toronto. 

Special observations were made for the determination of the rates of the chrono- 
meter and clock every time the Wv,ather permitted for upwards of two weeks before 
the day of the transit, and the evening of the 6th being very fine advantage was 
taken, soon after the transit was over, of observations of stars for ascertaining the 
Observatory time, and the rates with all possible precision, and of completing the 
examination for azimuth. 

In the use of the transit for time the Equatorial thread intervals were ascertained 
by many observations of the principal circurapolar stars, and others to be : — 

Seconds. 

A. M. = 42 012 

B. M. = 20-938 
0. M. = 0-061 

D. M. = 20-873 

E. M. = 41-997 

The error of pivots is -f '02 s. 

The level constant on the day of transit was — -03 sec, and the collimaticn 
—•08 sec, the azimuth error in consequence of some settling of the piers which had 
been suspected since the last adjustment in azimuth, was -{- 1-09 sec The collima* 
tion constant had been ascertained in the ordinary way by observations of the pole 
star with reversal, and that of azimuth by calculation from the observed times of 
passage of high and low stars. 

The weather for a week before the transit had been very unfavorable, and we 
began to fear that our preparations would prove fruitless after all, but we were 
agreeably disappointed by the 6th of December being on the whole a fine day, par- 
ticularly so in the afternoon. The early morning sky was overcast, as the time for 
the commencedient of the transit approached, however, it became clearer, and Pro- 
fessor Dupuis and I repaired to oar posts, while Mr. James M. Dupuis was at hand to 
render very useful assistance in various ways, as it might be necessary. One of the 
passing clouds which were beginning to disperse obscured the view of the first 
external contact, and the planet was in consequence not seen until it had partly 
entered on the sun's disc. This was at 8 h. 45 m. 5 sec. by chronometer, or 9 h. m. 
26-76 sec. Observatory mean time. 

At 8 h. 53 m. by chronometer, or 9 h. 9 m. 21-8 sec K.O.M.T. — a line of light 
appeared round the planet on the side away from the sun, and apparently brighter 
towards the southern limb of the planet. 

The clouds had now paosed away, and approach to the first internal contact was 
noted at 9 h. 1 m. 25 sec. by chronometer, and by chronograph connected with mean 
time clock. 

The first internal contact itself, that is, when the limbs of the sun and planet 
appeared just to toaoh each other, took place as nearly as could be jadged at 9 h. 



thi 

D<r 



1 m. 44 sec. by chronometer, or 9 h. 18 m. 5-81 sec. Observatory mean time, ^or fl 
little while after, the limbs seemed slightly to separate, a dark shade occupied the 
narrow Interval between them, extending a little way on each side of the former 
points of apparent contact. The time when this dark shade began to break away 
and disappear occurred at 9 h. 2 m. 40 sec. by chronometer, or 9 h. 19 m. 1.81 sec. 
Observatory moan time. This I regard as the true time of internal contact at in- 
gress. There was still some remaining hajiinoss in the atmosphere, but as the sky 
was bright and free from clouds at tiio time, both of these contacts were very 
distinctly seen. There was nothing of the so-called black drop, but only the dark 
shade already referred to. 

Not long after the last contact at ingress, clouds began again to spread over the 
sky, and continued to do so until about noon, when they again gradually passed off, 
and from about 12 h. 30 m. p.m. to the end of the transit, as well as throughout the 
afternoon and evening the neavens were perfectly clear. The first internal contact 
at egress took place at 2 h. 25 ra. 44.5 sec. by chronometer, or 2 h. 42 m. 7*15 sec. 
Observatory mean time. The dark haze seen at ingress in the morning began at 
this time to be again observed at eg' ess, but the interval during which it continued, 
and discontinuity was noted, was much shorter than in the forenoon, the last internal 
contact at egress, that is, when the outlines of the limbs appeared exactly to touch, 
occurred at 2 h. 26 m. 4 ■ 5 sec. by chronometer, or 2 h. 42 ra. 27 • 15 sec. by Observatory 
meantime. The former of these times I consider the true mean time of internal 
contact at egress. The last external contact took place at 2 h. 46 m. 36 sec. by 
chronometer, or Observatory mean time 3 h. 2 m. 57'7l sec. 

(Signed) JAS. WILLIAMSON, 

Director Kingston Observatory. 

Kingston Observatory, 30th January, 1883. 



McG-iLL CoLLEaE Observatory, 

Montreal, 20th December, 1882. 

Charles Carpmael, Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S., P.R.S.C, 

Superintendent of the Transit of Venus Observations 
For the Government of Canada. 

Dear Sir, 

I have the honor to make the following report on the Transit of Yenos Expedi 
tion to Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

I was assisted by Mr* H. V. Payne, Inspector for the Meteorological Office. 

In accordance with your instructions I remained a day in Chicago in order to 
make arrangements for transmitting time signals between Winnipeg and Chicago. 
Colonel Cloury, Manager for the Western Union Telegraph Company kindly granted 
the free use of the Company's lines for this purpose, and Professor Hough, of the 
Dearborn Observatory, promised his co-operation. 

We arrived in Winnipeg on Wednesday, November 22nd, and were received by 
His Lordship the Bishop of Eupert's Land, who >o guests we were during our stay 
in Winnipeg, and to whose thoughtful assistance we owe much. The pier for the 
transit instrument had, under the direction of His Lordship, already been built and 
arrangements made for the erection of a shelter, which, with some additions, proved 
suitable for the purpose of our work. 

The instruments placed under my care were a four-inoh refracting, alt-azimuth 
telescope ; a portable transit by Messrs. Tronghton and Simms and two mean timo 



clii'OUOmQtefs— 664 (tobios and 652 Murray. Tho telescope is in itid t)08Sds8ion of 
McGill College ; it has a focal length of 62 inches, and was provided with a first 
sarface* reflecting prism, an Airy eye-piece of power 160, and a neutral tint wedge, 
the eye-piece and prism wore made especially for this observation by Mr, Gandlach, 
of Rochester, N. Y,, and tho wedge is one purchased by you, being similar to those 
used in the British Observatories. The teloscoyio has a slow motion wrm gearing 
with handles for both altitudes and azimuth. The mounting is very steady. The 
tripod wati unconnected with tho floor of the shelter and rested directly on the ground. 
A rough adjustable seat was made at the station. The following will indicate the 
optical performance of tho telescope ; 

1. The disc of a bright star out of focus is round, but has a somewhat jaggy 
edge. There is the usual change of colors as the eye-piece is pulled out, namely, — ^from 
greenish to a green centre bordared by purple, and beyond focus a purple centre 
Dor red by green changing as it is pulled still further out to a uniformly light 
pur^'ie disc. 

2. On a night of not very good definition and full moonlight (S Gassiopete was easily 
seen double. "" 

3. The rice-grains on the sun on the day of the transit were just visible with 
the thin edge of the wedge. 

The transit instrument belongs to the Observatory, Quebec. It has a clear aper- 
ture of If inches. It was mounted on a brick pier, two feet by two feet, capped with 
stone and built from a depth of six feet below the surface of the ground. 

The chronometer GGi is the property of the McGill College Observatory; it 
was repaired and cleaned by the Messrs. Bond, of Boston, for use on this expedition. 
The chronometer 652 is the property of the British Admiralty, being loaned for 
the purposes of the transit of Venus Observations in Canada. 

The instrument shelter was ten feet by fourteen, and was divided into two 
compartments. The roof was flat and sloped towards the south ; it was made in 
part; moveable in the telescope room, giving an uninterrupted view of the sun dur- 
ing the time of the transit. 

The transit room was provided with the usual opening. A photograph of the 
station is presented herewith. 

On unpacking the transit instrument, the striding level was found to have been 
broken. Two levels were at once forwarded to me from Montreal, one of which 
reached me unbroken. Previous to its arrival I was fortunate enough to meet Mr. 
Drummond, D.L.S., in Winnipeg, and to obtain from him a small striding level made 
by Messrs. Troughton & Simms. This level on being attached to the broken one by 
wooden clamps served to determine the inclination of the axis within small range. 
The value of one division of this bubble was found to be three and nine-tenths seconds 
of arc (3.9"). Owing to the shortness of the bubble the transit had to be levelled at 
the beginning of each evening's work. The value 01 one division (one-sixteenth of 
an inch) of the Montreal bubble was (2.4") two and four-tenth seconds of arc. 

On the 27th November the transit instrument vrza roughly got into position, and 
on this and the following night a number of star transits for wire intervals were 
obtained. These with the resulting equatorial intervals are given in a table attached 
hereto. While ihe number of stars observed is much too few to obtain permanent 
intervals from, I consider the intervals obtained to be sufficiently near the trath for 
the purpose in view. 

The first observations for time were made on November 29th, the Brammond 
level being used. The errors of the chronometers for this and subsequent determina- 
tions are given in a table appended hereto. Qloudy weather prevente4 fttrther 



of 
dj 



11 

olbdeinntlwiB Tintil iDeoembet 4th. wh«ti time was oamftilly detcnmiiMd. lHaUts are 
ffiven hvrewith showing details of time determinaitiens on Decemiwr 4th, 6th and Y'tti. 
On December Sth a solar in addition to siderial obser^itons was obtat*«d. 

ThTOugti the courtesy of the Great North Western Tel^raph Company and Mr. 
McDougall, Manager of the Winnipfeg <^ke, the line from Winnipeg to GMkirk ^ft 
cut and passed through our observing station. This gave connection with the Dear- 
born Observatory at Chicago through relays at Chicago and St. Paul's. 

Time Signals foe Longitude. 

The signals received were those of tbe clock at the Dearborn Observatory. Tfti s 
clock closes f.he circuit at intervals of two seooods up totheSind seoond for each 
minute, except before every 5th minute when the last contact is made at the 40th 
BMond. 

December 4th, p.m., signals were received during 12 minutes: — 

Ih. 22m. 18'35aeo. oo chronometer, 652 = 8h. Om. OOsec. on Dearborn clock. 

21*3 chronometer fast 00 

*Ih. 21m. 57*05sec. meantime at Winnipeg = 8h. Om. OOsec. Chicago M.l?. 
Observed difference in time Oh. 38m. 02.95sec. 



December 5fh, p.m., signals were received during 3 minutes: — 

7h' 32m. 17'7sec. on chronometer 662 n= 6h. 10m. O-Osec. on Dearborn clobki 

20*1 chTionometer fast 0*1 clock fast 

*th. 31m. 5T'6 sec. Winnipeg mean time=: 8h. 9m. 69-9 Chicago M.T. 
Observed difference in time 8h. 38m. 02'3sec. 



Mean of differences on December 4th and 5th...*..... Oh. 38m< O2'620ec. 

Allowance for armature and current time **. . ...... 0'12 

Seduced difference in time »... Oh. 38m. O2'74s0c. 

Longitude of Dearborn Observatory 4 ^h. SOm^ 26'788ec. 

" Winnipeg sfation *6h. 28m. 29*628et;. 

Time signals were also received and sent on the night of December 8th, but as 
no time observation was made snbeequent to the tth^ and the rate of the standard 
chrpnometer was not verv well determined, I do not consider that ^ eliable difference 
of time can be obtained from the exchange. Hiis was tbe only night on whidfai my 
signals were received at the Deai born Observatory. My signals were dent by h'aoid 
and received on a chronograph. The difference of time thus recorded as given io me^ 
by Professor Hough is precisely the same— to a tenth of a second — as the difference 
observed by me. These times should differ by twice the armature and currient time. 
The error is no doubt almost entirely due to my imperfect sending, which besides 
bein^ by hand wa» not ctiierwise under fitvorable circumstances, -th^ signals 
received could be compared with the chronometer to the nearest tenth of a second 
wUh «MM^ On aceoant of these cirommstances, I have thought that grealer accuracy 
could be obtained by mwdring tbe difference of longitude depend on differences obtained 
in one direction only ; adding dn armature and current time as above. 

As will be observed on reference to the table giving chronometer errors, a time 
determination was made on December 4th ; this wad immediately after the exchange 
of time signals. On December 5th, there was no observation but time was well 
determinMl on the 6th. 

^ilOaM^^mfjMtW^hmt^ weight to tM difference! in longitd^htained 
on the ni|uit of the 4th. Bat this refinement seems, under thd circam8ttt]|fieB, to be 
uwleeB. ao attempt was made to determine a peMbnal equation between Krofeaaor 
TSoagjIk and mjrMUT 



il 



a 

The great diffioalty experienced in the running of chronoitieters, ref«rre(i id 
elsewhere, made it quite impossible to obtain a very accurate determination of longi« 
tade. I consider the above result to bo within one second of the truth. 

It may be proper to add that the longitude of the station as taken from the map 
of the Government Lands Survey is 6 h. 28 m. 290 sec. 

Advantage was taken of every clear day to practice with the telescope, making 
record of times as if the transit of Yenus were actually taking place. 

The method of recording times, which was adopted, was as follows :— Mr. Payne 
called out the seconds from to 60 and made a record of each minute as it passed. 
When I called "now " be wrote the corresponding second — to the nearest half second 
— in a column opposite to the minute previously recorded. Having made this entry 
he continued counting until another signal was given. After the second signal time 
was recorded, Mr. Payne wrote from my dictation what was supposed to have been 
observed. 

This method was strictly adhered to during the actual observation, and a short 
statement of what was observed was written immediately after each contact. 

On the morning of December 6th, the sun was obscuretl by cloud and snowdrift 
until after 9 o'clock. When the sun had risen above the cloud and snowbanks it 
remained visible until it had again sunk behind them in the afternoon. The tempe* 
ratnre during the time of the observation of contact was 18° below zero, Faht., and 
the velocity of the wind was 24 miles per hour. 

On reaching the station shortly before 11 a.m., and directing the telescope on 
the sun it wns found to shake so violently as to make it impossible to keep the sun 
in view. We immediately set to work to screen the telescope from the wind. After 
moving it back so that it stood entirely within the shelter, we covered the roof open- 
ing with the exception of a hole about one foot square, through which the sun could 
be seen for some time before and after contact at egress. The telescope was then 
found to be perfectly steady. All arrangements were completed and the telescope 
directed on the sun at shortly before 1 o'clock, from which time until after the third 
oontaot Venus was kept in the field of the telescope, principally by Mr. Payne, as I 
wished to rest my eyes as much as possible before making the observation. 

Observations of 3bd and 4th Gontaots. 

Time record from Murray chronometer No. 652. At shortly after 1 h. 19 m. 
Mr. Payne began counting seconds. Tho following is an exact copy of the records :— 



al Contact 
Egress. 


h. 

1 


m. 
20 

21 


s. 
66 


'i'Light about to be broken. 


Intern 

at 




22 
24 


11 


^Blackness all the way across a secodd 
or two before this. 


h 


1 


40 
41 






, "3 


"8 




42 


13 


^Lastappetrano* cf gapi «pprozim*to, 


- F 




- 


43 




.1-^ I-.I.'' fc 






19 

Bioa-grains jast yisible at third contact, illnmination poor. Extreme thin end 
of wedge used giving too dark a field, but enn very much too bright to be obeeryed 
without the wedge. This applies more particularly to the fourth contact. At times 
near the third contact the illumination was nearly as bright as I desired, but con* 
sidering the observation as a whole the field wan too dark. 1 should say that the 
time ofactnal iDternal contact — the first appearance of any well marked and persist* 
ent discontinuity in the illumination of the sun near the point of contact — was oon^ 
siderably nearer the first time, 1 h. 21 m. 66 sec. uncorrected, than the last, Ih. 22 m. 
1 1 sec. The time I would wish to be taken as the moment of contact as above 
defined is Ih. 22 m. on chronometer, which was at the time of the observation 60*6 sec. 
fast, making the actual local time of contact Ih. 20m. 69*4 sec. 

At 1 h. 42 m. 13*0 sec. equal 1 h. 41 m. 12*4 sec, local time, there was the slight- 
est possible appearance of a gap in the limb of the sun. Just then the illumination 
became very bad, and my eye oeing rather tired, 1 lost sight of the point of '^ontaot. 

I have preferred to give my notes as made during the progress of the observa- 
tions and immediately after them, rather than what might perhaps better express my 
meaning, written at this time. 

I desire, however, to make the following additions to these notes : Definition waa 
iairly good, there being little or no boiling on the limb of the sun. My remarks as 
to illumination were written immediately after the fourth contact, and were made 
with the then condition of the atmosphere on my mind, and were undoubtedly 
intended to refer to that time ooly. These remarks are, however, correctly qualified 
in what follows them. The important point is that at third contact the seeing was 
sufficiently good to leave no dotibt whatever as to what I saw. There was no olack 
drop but merely a haze or smoky darkness which gradually increased to complete 
blackness. There was no haze at 1 h. 21 m. 65 sec, chronometer time, but it was the 
last instant at which I could definitely say there was no appearance of a haze. I 
waited rather too long before giving the second signal at 1 h. 22 m. 11 sec, chronome- 
ter time, and for this reason made the note attached thereto. 

The time I have indicated as what I would desire to be taken as the time of third 
contact must be very near the truth. 

i stopped observing at 1 h. 24m., and did not recommence until 1 h. 39 m. 

Ihe word approximate following the remark opposite to 1 h. 42 m. 13 sec. does 
not express what was intended. At that time the gap was seen, but it was not seen 
afterwards. Had I continued to see it I do not think that any appearance of " gap " 
would have been visible for more than five seconds after the recorded time. 1 am 
able to judge of this somewhat closely from my model practice. 

The minutes entered in the record preceding and following times of contact are 
the minutes dnrinff which counting was continued. After both i'^temal and external 
contacts I verified I&. Payne's counting by looking at the chronometer and his record 
while he still continued to count seconds. 



I am your obedient servant, 
(Signed), C. H. MoLEOD, 



-^I 



90 



eeMPAiRlSQMS OF ERRORS OF CHRONOMETERS. 

OTRHAY 6B2, and TOBIAS 6*4, a* WINNIPEG. 
(iBiahop'i 0<mrt, 8t. Jdhn's College.) 



'r 



ixty. 


Hour. 


m 


Urrora. 
+ fli8t; — ilow. 


RiMABKfl. 


ma 


Faatof 

eea. 


Slow of 
652. 


m 


662 


MoT«3l 


8 v^m. 




88.6 








•* 88 


II 




86.8 








•« 84....... 

" 2*. 


<« 
It 




33.8 
81.8 






Up to 8 p.m. on the 27tli both chrono- 
meterfl were In a room, meantempera- 
tuj« about Obi* wltb a raoga Qt v»tbw»' 


•• 26 


II 




29.8 






" 27 

" 28 

H «• 


it 
11 

12 m. 




, 28.9 
21.4 
22.4 






m In transit house on 27th from 8 to 

10 p.m. 
664 In transit house on 28th flrom 8 to 

12 p.m. 


" 20 


9 a.m. 




22.4 








It «• , ,, 


Sp^m. 




22.0 






> 664 In transit liouse ; temp. 11**. 
)StrrQr»from observation. 


u, <l 


latm 




18.8 


+6.1 


+84,4 


•• 80 


9 am. 


' 


17.8 




+24.1 


Brror from' rate. 


14 « 


10 p. m. 


( 


16.8 








])Wr 1-.,... 


9a,n|i. 




15,8 




+28.6 


If tt It 


" " 

<4 « 


6i>.ra. 
T " 




16,8 
17.2 (?) 






y664 in, transit UQCWW [f^om 5 tOrT p.q|»w 

temp. -5*. 
) 17*2 probably a mistake for^Tli. 


•• " 

** - 


8 " 
10 " 




7.5 
4.0 






664 In transit tapose at temp^— 0,1 


44 


9 a.m. 




3.8 


1 


• +28.9- 


'Error from ratoi 


«♦. " 

•«- •♦. 

•♦ " 


' apim. 

' 8 « 


1 


8.8 
' 8t0 
' 2.8 




1 


•^^iJ?;>TtSS»ioM^ng«lJB^ 
afftr a» tlM atmusSmm^tmuai0Sm 
lilwork. 


•• 8 


9 a.m. 




. 1.8. 


, +21.1 


J +28,8 


iSrroriftom.ratef 


«* " 


9 p.m. 




0.7 






■ 


" 4,« 


8 a.m. 


0.5 


f 


• +22.2 


+21.7 




" " 

" " ... 


,6.80 pjn. 
11p.m. 


1.1 

1.5 


: 


+22.6 


+a.3 


im^qMgP*' Avriag, trfuuH work to. 
3Arn>rs'fiM>m obvnrvAUPW, 


^' 6 


9^.m. 


1.9 




\ 


[ 




" " 

<t< 41 


10 " 
1 p.m. 


2.2 
2.8 






tfiSi in transit house, temp. 8" below sera 


" " 

«• II 


6 ♦' 

jl " 


2.6 


42.8 


+22.7 


+20.1 


1 A62 in transit house,temp. 11* below sera 
! Jump forward occurred after receiving 
f Chicago time, probably in carrying 
J chronometer home. 


" 6 

II II 

v.. .: . ■".. ; — - 


"a.m. 
9 " 




41.8 
42.2 


• ■ .. 


• 


662 at observing station ; temp. 11* b«> 
iow sera 






on 



tt 



'Murray 652 and Tobias 664, at Winnipio (St. John's Collioi). 



D«r. 



Deo. 8, 



Hoar. 



• ■ .*••* . • 



11a.m. 

Noon 
2.46 p.m. 
1 16 p.m. 
8.4S p.m. 



604 



Fast of 
062 



Brrora 
+ fast; -alow. 



aiowc 

062 



(Ml 



662 






41.8 

.871.8 
87l4- 
871.6 



+2«.7 



RXMARKA. 



-f60.7 
+60.6 
+80.1 



"biSw^ero***"*"^'"* staUon , tMnp. 18» 
Solar obaerTatlon. 

From oomparlaon with atamlard* 

j 652 iraaalt work; temp. 29" below zero. 

jErroraiftwm alderlal obserratlona. 



TIMB 0B»BHVAT10irSl 
6th a^ m^^'r'JL^^t'fL?^^^^^ *''*'"^ observatio»8 made on December 4th 

The stAwiobservBdi are item ther.AnieirioaiJ.Bphemerik »«»«eBtrate. 







22 
TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS. 



|i|' 



- ... 


Latitude 49° 1 


w 


N., 


Longitude 6 b. 28 m. 2t 


'«)0. West. 




















Instram. Brrors 




Date. 
1882. 


star. 


1 


1 
i 

s 


ai 

1 


Observed 

Mean tln-e 

OfXranali, 

by Chro. 

662L 


Mean time 
of Stars. 

Passage. 


Observed 

tronometei 

£rror. 


oorreoted for 




•i 




1 


Bemarki. 






i 


5 


i 












< 


1 


Deo. 4.. 


iiUrteeMaJ. . 


N. 49» 64' 


L 


6 


8, 47, 49.64 


8, 47, 86.68 


4- see. 
i^.ll 


+ 8eo. 
18.06 






The Incli- 
nation of 
axis was 




a Draoo.*.M. 


N.64°66' 


L 


6 


9.06,00.64 


9, 06, 49.70 


10.94 


10.67 






observed 
as fol* 




4 Draco. 


N. ISf 16' 


L 


2 


7, 11, 41.00 


7, U, 86.00 


4.70 


4.22 






lows:— 
a 8p.m.=W. 




/i Arletis 


N. 20' 14' 


U 


6 


8, 68, 11.68 


8,62,63.68 


18.06 


18.38 




21.09 


1 +ai6 seo; 
3 10.16p.m.^ 
0. W. ¥ 0.« 




iiPlsolum.... 


N. 14" 46' 


ii 


5 


8, 30, 17.22 


8, 29, 69.95 


17.27 


17.46 




20.57 
























a see. ; 10.45 

a p-m. = W. 

H +0.62 see. 

The oor- 




oPlsolum.... 


N. 8»34' 


II 


5 


8, 44, 14.74 


8,43.67.21 


17.68 


17.78 




21.19 


























9'Oett 


.-. 8" 47' 


II 


5 


8, 28, 14.98 


8,22,67.96 


17.08 


17.14 




21.61 
























reoUon for 








Inequality 


















Mean - 21.11 


of pivots 




/inrMin 


N. 74" 38' 


L 


4 


0,65,86ilO 


9,65,28.88 


6.22 






Is Includ- 




6.07 






ed in the 
above level 




SUrMin 


N. 76" 18' 


L 


8 


9,32,2064 


9,82,16.04 


4.60 


8.46 






•g errors :— 
^ It Is W.+ 




aPersei 


N.49<'27' 


U 


8 


10,20,47.80 


10, 20, 28.30 


19.60 


20.60 




20.6 


^ -16 sea for 
e,lamp east. 




aCeti 


K. 8*88' 


u 


s 


10,00,60.46 
9,^2.CV.68 


10,00,41.70 
9, 41, 49.20 


17 76 


18 16 




21.9 


^ 




yOetl. 


N. 2" 44' 


u 


6 


18.88 


18.70 

Mean 


• 


22.4 




.21.63 






aPerMi 


N.47"26' 


u 


8 


10,80,2L46 


10,80,02.66 


18.81 


20.8 




20.6 


1 




iiTaorl 


N.28»24' 


<4 


6 


10, 46, 14J8 


10,44,66.80 


17.68 
2nd 84 


18.6 




ai.o 


1 




9t. Mean - 


ao.8 


1 





















Mean Chro. erro?.*, lamp east is + 21.11 

«» " « west is 4- 21.63 

Ohro. 652, fast [- 21.37 

COMBINATIONS FOE AZIMUTH. 
Lamp East. Lamp Wist. 



fj TTrsffi Majoris and /3 Arietis = 5.27. 
a Braoonis and 97 Pisoium = 4.4. 
a Draoonis and Pisoium = 4.74. 
4 Draconia and Q' Ceti = 4.31. 

Mean = 4.68. 



Ij Ursffi Minoris and y Ceti 
6 Ursffi Minoris and a Ceti 

Mean 



= 5.75. 
= 5.6. 
= 6.62, 



MeM) of IJamp W. imd Lamp £. = -{- 6.16, 



m. 



Mf^::''-:b' 



Time beierminations from Transit Observations 

at Winnipeg ; Latitude 49° 65' N. ; Longitude 6h. 28m. 29.5 sec. W. 











■ 




*t 


Corrected for 








g 


S-i 




Observed 

hronomete 

Error. 


error of 






Star. 


i 
1 


a 

a 


4 


Mean time 
of Stars. 

Passage. 


Observed 

'lime 

ol Transit 

on Chro. 

No. 652. 






Date. 


i 


u 


S" 


Remark*. 






L 


6 






u 


Hi 

66.64 


S' 


i3 




DecC, 


X Draconls... 


N. 69»59' 


6. ao, 88.57 


6, 21, 33 72 


-|- sec. 
67.15 


Inclination 






















^-^ 


of axis ob- 


1882L.. 


eDraoo(H).. 


N. Te* 19' 


L 


a 


5, 22, 80.25 


6, 28, 21.60 


53.26 


62.86 




§ 


served as 
follows: 5b. 




O.K. 4468.... 


N.78"46' 


U 


4 


6,46,21.04 


6, 47, 28.90 


62.86 


64.18 




e4 


20m. =W + 
*16 sec ; 6h. 




Oepbei 


N. e7?29' 


<« 


4 


6, 11, 1)6.02 


6, 12, 08.60 


62.58 


68.88 






•85 rain. =W 
+ 40. 
Going: of 




t Oephei 


N. 86' 35' 


4< 


6 


6.43,51.811 


6, 48, 63.64 


62.34 


62.87 








■Andromedee 


N. 2b« 27' 


l< 


S 6. 60. 2X.46 


7, 00, 28.46 


60.00 


60.40 




61.32 


*|Chro.proba- 
Sbly not very 
eq steady, al- 


























Markab 


N. 14" 86' 


II 


4 


6, 66. 13.70 


5,67,18.20 


60.41 


66.62 




60.04 


Atbough Its 




•* Plsoium... 


N. e^lS' 


M 


4 


6, 60, 27.30 


6, 51, 26.80 


60.41 


60.70 




61.24 


S total change 
Sduring ex- 
'^posure.from 




t PlMiaRi ... 


N. 5" 0' 


4( 


6 


6, 31, 08.18 


6,82,08.08 


59.90 


60. r 




61.78 


standard 
Ohra was 




Fomalhaat.. 


a. WW 


<• 


b 


6, 48, 28.70 


5,49,28.08 


68.38 


58.48 




60.74 


only 110 of » 




















second. 


















Mean • 61.2 


Note-Posi- 
tion of In- 




4 Draco (H). ■ 


N. li' 16' 


L 


8 


7,08,45.38 


7,04,47.05 


61.72 


61.72 


(Eero.) 


strament In 

.azi math 

'gwasohang'd 

«on 6th at 




822 Camelop 
(H) 


N. 84" 02' 


<• 


4 


7,46,06.84 


7, 46, 06.74 


60.40 


58.00 








a OaasiopesB. 


N.SficM' 


U 


b 


7,80,66.28 


7,81,54.64 


68.81 


68.07 






^r.boat7p.m. 




^ An'lromedcB 


N.85« 0' 


ti 


5 


8,00,09.56 


8,01,08.06 


68.60 


68.78 




68.73 


d Inclination 

Sof axis ob- 

•J served as 

foIloviFs : 7h. 




« Pistian*... 


N. 7M5' 


•< 


8 


7, 68, 6L89 


7,64.50.17 


68.78 


68.00 




68.90 




^Cett 


8. 18» 88' 


II 


4 


7, 34, 44.97 


7,86,44.84 


69.87 


60.37 




60.87 


M6m.4=W - 
•*15 sec. ; 8b.- 






































Mean - 


60.00 


a-15m.=W + 
S'16 sec No 
'rdevlatlon in 
7a B i m n t h 
; here. 
H Instrament 




y Piseium... 


N. 14« 46' 


u 


8 


8, 22, 06.10 


8, 28, 06.86 


68.76 


60.02 




























•'Cetl 


a. 8»47' 


It 


8 


8,16,06.12 


8, 16, 04.97 


68.85 


60.02 








































prohnbl y 
distnrbed 
on reversal. 












Error ofOhro.-^l-20+WW - «,•! 



In first set on combining for azimuth as follows : — 

t Oephei and Fomalhant = 2.5 ; o Gephei and i Piseium = 2 1 ; Groombrid^e 
4163 and (•> Piseium = 2.1 ; 9 Draconis and Karkab= 2.4 ; a Draoonis a Andromeda 



=1.8. 



2.5 + 2.1 + 2.1 + 2.4 + 1.8 __ g.g 
5 



The mean anmnthal doviation to be obtained from the 2nd set is about ** Nil." 
The ooilimation error obtained by reversal on two stars (on the 4th) was only 
4- .05 see. The 8rd set of observations being compared with the second (above) 
•hows this oorresiion to be still very small. ' 






U- 



Hi 



W 



I ti- 
ll 



time (fiatsnnbaftoR from Trmsft Gbservatttn^ A Wiflnipeg. 

XAtitade 49° 58' N. ; Longitade^ h. 28 m. 29.5 sec. W. 



Date. 
188X 



Dm. 7. 



Btwr. 



|^<Uxsee'Mln.i 

(BmaeA... 

• CML 

«at4danl... 



c/DM8B'MlB.J 

••lAculgn... 
«<«iMrlg»... 
llVaoH..... 



DeoUna- 
41on. 



N. 74"t|8' 
N. 77"I8» 
N. 47' «5' 
N. 81° I2« 

N. r^' 

8. 9>«' 
N.82»14' 

N. w^mf 
N.4s^ar 

N.82«4li' 
N. 28"»» 
N. IV^'iS' 



o 

I 



4S 



L 

<<i 

III 

•II, I 



Mtan time 
^'Stars. 

Panage. 



9^48,41.26 
9, S8, 19.74 
10, 37, 14.91 
10,89,28.17 
10,00,58.06 
9,^68J97 
10, 20, 04.12 

11,60, 10.40 
11,34,65.07 
12,00,26.47 
11,41,48.77 
12,n,lfi.M 
11«M, W,» 



Oboewed 

Time of 

Transit. 

Ohro.^6&2. 



0,44,89:20 
9,60, 18.47 
10,'i28, 10;40 
IQ,)I0, 19100 
10,01,49.27 
0, 49, 50. 16 
10,21,00.^74 

11,:^, 14^40 
11,86,48:74 
12,01,22.16 
11,i12,44j4S 
12.12,10<62 



6 

11 



tsec. 
87.94 

98.73 

56.50 

56.89 

56.21 

8S.19I 



64.00 
54.07 
65.60 
56.71 
56.56 



Cbronom. ertor 

eorreeted fed: 

errprof 



65.001 



68.88 08:08 
66.74 '57.84 



S5^ 



I 

« 

in 



OtunKclfM. 



InoUnatlon of 
aala abttUhmA 
^ asfollo^w:— 
him. 

9 40 =WI|608eo. 
lew =WiH0-66 



66.55 87262 
'W.81 57.71 
'67.15 07 Jtt 
*87.06l>8740 
Mean - ''IKr.60 
'61.35| 62.40 
66.^ 56^ 
66.67 87.87 



87.22 

**7.7l' 
I 
'mMft,«mptmilaM9 —0.4 



Oluio, vitte as 
«| deduced from 
ateMnqMtMisonbe* 
U fore and after 



g see. perj hoar. 

'87.60 S 4to(laMdto0pm 

M beginnli)g of 



56.20 



87:G8 '87.28 



66.441 57i«8^'87.« 8 

j 1 ^There Is ho ap- 

11,06, 18J48 > 5i>.87l 65.9ll' 56i82| ^O-M ^MMtohla azi- 

■ einath deflation 
Mean - 87;aB&n edttwlr po- 

A-ti9p.m.Bnrorof0bfiK>. 67.881 



aiiau«»«» uh of 
azi ' >feeryed 

i«li ' /■»:— 
h.m. 

1116 := «ir-Hn.i6s6o 

1215 = W4^8& 



isltlon. 



SOLAJt TIULNSIT, 6th PBOBMBUB, 1882. 




I 



OfaoervedTime. 

Paasage. 

1st limb. 



tkJKPW 



cfbeenred nme. 

Passage. 

2ndljimli. 



U, 61, 09.96 



11,6^81.06 



Chronometer 
readlagfor 
Transit of 

Bon's cantre. 



U. 82, 90.62 



Mean time 
of iSunts 
passage. 



n. 



-n 



51 



Observed 

Chrohom. 

error. 



66.-49 



Chronometer 

error oonreoted 

for aslmath 

+ a.2«eos. 



^.46 



W l >" 



The aeiinathal de' d.\tioii used to redooe sotor o bs err ati on is that obtained from 
observations on the night of the 6th before reversal. As the oollimation error is 
very ifviallriMad the J«vMeorv»Gtion,(«rrer)«:as^(^^ obsenred .t)iro.|gh in^dyerjbance, 
tefc tJii^^NmmintsM of Jih«Aic.baii^4ie0j.'l7 the aafoaas Ati6, p4A.» 'Wocin yf.;v,a9 -^ *16, 
i$-<wiM^n»fcJbejpre»t) iniUiis.iKMitioa.jieoesMriJy.jiaaUAJt^ fU^l^i^ U> 

be more thftn a small unction oJPn second in Anoc. 



M. 



of 



IjGOseo. 
4*66 

r#te M 
id from 
rtfonjb*- 
Qd after 
uw-0.4 
Brj hour. 
«dtoepm 
il4g of 
■r*. 

1^ 4>n of 
' >ierved 

ft'.— 



!• |io »P- 
>ble ari- 
de^latlon 

Ithslr po- 



ronowetor 
)rooiveotea 
r aElmnth 
ha.2ieoa. 



26 

Determination of Equatorial Intervals of Wires in 

Transit Instrument. 

TROUGHTON and SIMMS, Makers, 
Focal Length, 24 inches. Clear Aperture, one and throe-quarter inches. 



Date, 

1882. 



Btar. 



Nov. 27th.! 88 Casslopeae. . . 
I I Casslopeae.... 
' 50 Cassiopeae. . . 

a Cygni 

a Cepbel 

o Urs8B Majoris. 

Bootis 

iS Ursae Min. . . . 

6 Persei 

5 UrsaeMin.... 

i Ursae Min.... 



« 

1 
« 

<t 
i< 
II 



<• 

K 

28th. 
II 

II 

II 

" ih. 
II 

II 





Observed Intervals. 


1 


2. 


3 


4 


+ 

86.26 


4- 
43.56 


4-.'>6 


42.44 


76.70 


38.70 


-.30 


37.80 


96.74 


48.74 


-.06 


47.86 


42.28 


21.48 




21.22 


64.36 


32.56 


-.S4 


31.94 


64.86 


32.86 


-.14 


32.14 


48.90 


24 90 


4-20 


24.40 


113.70 


57.70 


-.06 


56.00 


44-24 


22.74 


+M 


22.26 


128.30 


64.10 


4- -40 


62.90 


146.70 


74.20 


+.70 


72.80 



87.44 



Fquiitorlal Intervals. 



+ 
29.99 



77.30 15 .10.12 
97. "'O 5 30. i;! 
43.02 i 29.97 



64.64 
65.44 
49.60 



114.10 30.13 



44.76 
127.90 
148.80 



30.11 
;i0.07 
29. ^-^ 



29.9* 
30.09 
:^0.13 



30.048 



-I- 
ld.I4 

15.20 

5.18 

15.22 

15.23 

15.23 

15.19 

15.29 

15.39 

15.27 

15.24 



15. 'AS! 



4..02 
-.11 
—.02 

-.16 
—.06 
+ f2 
-.02 
+.02 
+.09 
+.14 



+.002 



14.75 30.22 
14.84 I 30.3-i 



14.90 
15.04 



30.38 Lamp 



30.49 



14.95 : 80.25 
14.90 I 80.34 
14.89 I 30.26 

I 

14.84 i 30.33 



15.06 
14.99 
14.95 



30.28 
30.47 
30.66 



14.918 30.858 



East 

or 

Clamp 

WeBt. 



Means. 



.^ 



^M 



uned from 
va. error is 



,,<***«>""•'■ 



\«4^ 







i2:E: 



PLAN^ 



OF TRANSIT 
SHEWING f^^'Z^ -^ H 



"L'^NUS STATION 



WINNIPEG MAN. 

BT'^DecembeR 1888 

-— "VT."^*- — ' — ^ 

JV»/^ 6Ckai7is/396) 
effual to one inch 



t/NCDLOl/l\ED STf{EETS Af^E /Joj fET bJiuT l/PO//.^ 



TffJS'^