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I 



THE 



f 
tt 



IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



BT 



KICnOLAS FLOOD DAYIN. 




LONDON- 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON 4; CO. 

TORONTO, ONT.: 
MACLEAR AND COMPANY. 



u 



F 

ILD3 

Entered Moording to the Act of the ParUament of Canada, In the ywr om tiunuaDd 
eight hundred and ceventy-seven, by Maolkab & Co., Toronto, in the Offioe of 
the Minister of Agriculture, 



F 



Entered at Stationers' HaU. 



ttUNrr.ll, ROSE k 00., «!''' 
PrOKTKRB AND BUfUBRS, 
TOHONTO. 



>,1 



TO 



HIS EXOELLENOT 



THE RIGHT HON. 



\ix ^Ydttkh |cmpl^ |ktooo4 fart of 

K.P., K.C.B., 
GOVERNOR-GExVERAL OF CANADA. 



THIS BOOK 



l*in, 



IS, BY PERMISSlOxX, RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 



<^S TO ONE 



WHO EMBODIES, IN KARE AlfD HAPPY OOMBINATIOW. 

THE VARIETY OF GIFTS 
HAVfl BROUGHT TO 



;VIC3 



OF THE 

EMPIRE. 



' i 



I ll 



M 
5 



PREFACE. 



f 



An old friend of mine, Mr. Joseph Hatton, writing 
in Tinsley's Magazine says : — " Still at the bottom of all 
thought and speculation as to the future, there is a strong 
layer of old English sentiment outside the Province of 
Quebec. The great pioneers of Canada, the English and 
the Scotch look across the broad waters of the Atlantic, 
and think of home. They feel proud of the flag which is 
not only to them a national symbol, but a link between . 
the far-off" settlement and the churchyard where their 
forefathers sleep beyond the sea." Scarcely anybody in 
England knows anything of Canadian history, and Mr. 
Hatton cannot be blamed for not being aware that the 
majority of people in Ontario, as compared with other 
nationalities, are Irish. The population of Ontario is 
1,620,831 : of these 559,44? are Irish, 328,889 Scotch, 
439,429 English ; and in the four Provinces of Ontario, 
Quebec, New Brunsw^ick and Nova Scotia, the Irish 
number 846,414, as compared with 706,369 English, and 
549,946 Scotch. The Irishman was here as early as 
others ; he fought against the wilderness as well as 
others ; his arm was raised against the invading foe as 
well as that of others; and when a man who was not Irish 
lifted the standard of revolt, and another who was not 
Irish betrayed his country and his flag, who more faithful, 



VI 



PREFACE, 



who more heroic, than the countrymen of Baldwin and 
Fitzgibbon in putting down that rebellion ? That a 
literary man like Mr. Hatton should wholly ignore the 
Irish, therefore, shows that there was need of such a book 
as the present. Who to-day are more truly attached to 
British connexion than the great majority of Irishmen 
all over the Dominion? Amongst ourselves also, the 
Irish have been too much ignored ; chiefly because the 
follies and absurdities of a few make hundreds averse 
from an assertion which would be only the reasonable 
expression of self-respect. There is a great dissimilar- 
ity in culture between the Irish cotter and the Irish 
gentleman, between the Irish labourer and the Irish pro- 
fessional man, but not more than there is between the 
Scotch laird and the Scotch gillie, or between the Eng- 
lish squire and the English peasant. Why then is it that 
Irishmen of the more cultivated class are sometimes 
found to run down the less cultivated class of Irish, so 
that, as somebody has said, whenever an Irishman is 
to be roasted, another is always at hand to turn the 
spit ? " My grandmother," says the Earl of Beacons- 
field, "the beautiful daughter of a family who had 
suffered mucjli from persecution, had imbibed that dislike 
for her race which the vain are apt to adopt when they 
find they are born to public contempt. The indignant 
feeling which should be reserved for the persecutor, in the 
mortification of their disturbed sensibility, is too often 
visited on the victim." Something like this process has 
taken place in the minds of Irishmen of a certain class. 
But let any Irishman who reads these lines ponder what 
I say : — You can never lose your own respect and keep 



PREFACE. 



Vll 



the respect of others ; you can never be happy and dreas 
yourself solely in the glass of other men's approval ; you 
may as well seek to fly from your shadow as to escape 
from your nationality. If you find any men mistaken, 
or low down in type, or in popular esteem, it is your 
duty to raise them, especially if they have on you nation- 
al or family claims. 

I had not intended to write a preface, and I have said 
enough in the opening chapter to indica,te the objects 1 
have kept before me. The history of Canada cannot be 
written withoul the history of the Scotchman, the Eng- 
lishman, and the German in Canada ; the Frenchman in 
Canada has found his historian. *' The Scotchman in 
Canada " is in the hands of a writer capable of doing 
justice to a great theme and an extraordinary race, whose 
deeds here as elsewhere are illustrious with such episodes 
as the Red River settlement, planted under the guidance 
of Lord Selkirk, by men with a determined bravery com- 
parable to that of the German troops at Gravelotte, again 
and again attempting the hill, studded with rifle pits, 
which guarded the French left. Even the Mennonite 
settlements will come within the purview of the histor- 
ian, and he will have to deal with a later American 
immigi^ation than the U. E Loyalist — an immigration 
composed mainly of men who entered Canada intending 
to settle in Michigan, but, who, when they saw the splen- 
did stretches of oak near London and the neighbouring 
counties, settled here. Among these settlers were the 
Shaws, the Dunbars, and the Goodhues. There was an 
eastern settlement of ^he same class, in which we find 
the Burnhams, the Horners, the Keelers, the Smiths, the 



• • • 

vni 



PREFACE. 



Perrys. Some of these were led to come to Canada by 
inducements held )ut by the Government of the day to 
construct roads and build mills. Hence in many instan- 
ces we find American immigrants the great patentees 
where they settled. 

In the index I do not give every name, but only the 
leading names. 

1 have in the notes thanked Mr. Charles Lindsey and 
the Hon. C'hristopher Eraser for their assistance in plac- 
ing books at my disposal. I have to thank Chief Jus- 
tice Harrison for the loan of books, and Mr. Justice 
Gwynne for the loan of books and old files of newspa- 
papers. To Mr. Allan McLean Howard my thanks are 
also due foi' books which could not well have been pro- 
cured elsewhere. To Dr. McCaul for books and hints 
respecting the university, I must likewise express my 
obligation. My thanks are due to my friends through- 
out the country who sent information, and to the agents 
employed by my publishers. Particularly are my thanks 
due to Mr. Sproule, of Ottawa, who, though an Orange- 
man, has visited a large number of Roman Catholic pre- 
lates and clergymen, in regard to this book, and got me 
more Roman Catholic information than has come from 
all other sources whatsoever. In a special manner, my 
thanks are due to Sir Francis Hincks, who, both by word 
and letter, helped me to understand the great period of 
which he could truly say — pars magna fui. For esti- 
mating the character and genius of Sullivan, he gave 
me invaluable data. From Mr. Thomas Maclear, and 
Mr. Thomas A. Maclear, I have received much assist- 
ance in collecting infc^ ^mtion for the settler chapters, 



PREFACE. 



IX 



and in revising the proofs. Last though not least, Dr. 
Hoflgins, Deputy Minister of Education, claims my thanks 
for books and pamphlets connected with his department. 
I have in places departed from rules usually observed 
in books. For instance, in some cases, I have not 
"spellud out" figures because T thought the use of 
arithmetical symbols more suitab. to the subject treated 
at the moment. 

The Irishman has played so large a part in Canada 
that his history could not be written without, to some 
extent, writing the history of Canada, and iLc Allowing 
pages may, in the present stage of Canadian historical 
literature, be found useful to the student and the politi- 
cian. 

Toronto, September 22nd, 1877. 



«ii 






ERRATA. 



Page 127, 1. 4, for " exiet" read " exists." 

163, J J from bottom, for " Walters" read " Waiters. ' 

165, /. 13, for " Livingstone" read " Livingston." 

177, I. 4 from bottom, for " £809" read " £800." 

213, 1. 14, for "Again he" read " Acadian." 

328, verses belong to note p. 327. 

347, 1. 7, for " McGibbon " read " McKibbon." 

349, I. 4 from bottom, for " Byson" read " Bryson." 

350, l: 14 from bottom, dele " school teacher." 
360, 1. 12 from bottom, for " Morsom" read " Mossom." 
393, heading , read «• Baldwin's character. " 
409, 1. 9, for " Catherine" read " Charlotte." 

476, ;. 13, for " Vice-ChanceUor" read «' Chancellor." 

577, 1. 12 from bottom, for " 1859 " read " 1849. " 

596, L 7 from bottom, for " arm he drew " read " arm drew." 



n 



<< 














I 

•I 

I 

V 




CONTENTS. 



,r^ 



CHAPTER I. 

MOTIVE OF THE " IRISHMAN IN CANADA." 



PAOI! 
1 

2,3 



Future of Canada 

Materials for the future historian 

Writing the HistojT of the Irishman in Canada an inviting task 'I 

Resources of the Dominion ^ ^ * 

Irishmen's position in Dominion . ' ^' ^ 

6 

CHAPTER II. 

ANTECEDENTS OF THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 

Irish History 

The Celt in Europe . 1 ! ! ! ! ^' ^ 

Early Settlement of Ireland ^ 

The Irish coWe Scotland and South-west Britain ■.■;.■;.*.■. jo 12 

Effect of the Introduction of Christianity into Ireland i , ' f 

Barbarizing effect of Danish Incursions . . !:' ^^ 

Norman invasion 15, 18 

TheTudorandStuari; policy in'lreiand ".'!":! ^J'f, 

Wilham III and James II "^'^' 2* 

Ireland the great Liberaliser of the Empire ^*' ^^ 

statesmen, Orators, Artists, Preachers ' - '"- ^^' ^ 

Irish Intellect and Charact ' 



^ 



iterary Men 



34,37 



'48 and the Men of '48 ; Penal Laws'and Gladstone's Legislatic.n «' f 

Ireland in the Eight- enth Century ^^egisiatu.n 43, 46 



CHAPTER III 

rishm; 
The Founders of the United States 




AXXECEDENTS-CWWd-IRISHMEN IN THE NEW WOR.D AND IN AUSTRAUA. 



50, 56 



/ 



Xll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The Struggle for Independence 56, 01 

Vast Immigration of Irishmen and their Success 62, 64 

The Position of Irishmen in the United States 64, 65 

Their Conduct during the War. 66. 66 

The Irishman in Australia, in Mexico, in California and in South 

America 62, 64, 66, 68 



CHAPTER IV. 

IiAYING THE FOUNDATION OF CANADA. 

The French Regime. ... . , 68 

Carleton, the First Iris^ Governor of Canada, and his Policy 68-74 

The War, Invasion of Canada, Carleton' s Dangers, Difficulties, and Suc- 
cess 75-87 

Carleton's Magnanimity and Administration 87, 88 

Major-Geueral Haldira^nd, Governor 88 

Acknowledgment of the Independence of United tStates, and the U. E. 

Loyalists 88-96 

IV'jthodism in Canada 96-98 

The Father of Anglicanism in Upper Canada 99-101 

The Roman Catholic Church in Canada 101 

Carleton becomes Lord Dorchester, and Retunj.;* aq Governor-General of 

Canada 101 

State of Education 102, 103 

The Constitutional Act of 1791 103, 104 

Lieutenant-Governors Clarke and Simcoe open respectively the Par- 
liament of Lower, and the Parliament of Upper Canada 104 

Colonel Talbot and the Talbot settlement 105-12f, 






CHAPTER V. 

LAYiNa THE FOUNDATION OF CANADA. — Continued. 

What Canada owes Irishmen and Canadian Unity 128-130 

The First Settlers 130-132 

Character of the Irish settler 132-135 

Analysis of the Population of the Dominion 135-142 

Irish settlements in Newfoundland 142-145 

The Irish in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward 

Island 145-170 

Irish Settlements in Lower and Upper Canada 170-173 

The dawn of political life in the Canadas 173-178 

Progress of the Methodist Church .... 178-186 

Education 185-186 

The poet Moore in Canada 187-190 



CONTENTS. «— r^— — p 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE WAR OF 1812-1814. 

The Veterans of 1812 to-day and the Character of the War lo/tSl 

Circumstances leading to War J^Ji-iJ4 

Two prominent heroes of the War 195-200 

The First Year of the War ^^'^^^ 

The Second " " " 206-210 

The Third " " 211-235 

23G-241 

CHAPTER VII. 

IRISH IMMIGRATION FROM 1815 TO 1837, 

The Results of the Great War in Ireland 

Irish Immigrations; what the Irishman has done L' Canada ^ what 
Canada has done for the Irishman ' „. 

244-301 

CHAPTER VIII, 

IBISH IMMIGRATION FROM 1815 TO 1837-ConUmi^d. 

The Blakes 

Settlement of the County of Carleton 302-308 

The Irishman in Montreal 310-328 

Oxford ■.■.■,■.■.■.;;. 328-336 

" Sandwich ^^^ 

HaltonandWelland,' If'^^ 

the County of Victoria..."; Zl'^^ 

the County of Peterborough. f?: 

Kingston 3o5 

^^ Percy... 365 

Belleville .*.V.V.".'.V.V.V.".".V.'.*.V.". ^^^"^^'^ 

" Dundas, Brantf ord and Hamilton ..'.'. fll 

the County of Middlesex V«n qoi 

theCounty of WelUngton ggj ggj 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE RISE OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT IN CANADA. 

Character of this History 

The first early stirrings of freedom ^^ 

Agitation of Gourlay and Mackenzie "• 386,386 

Struggle to have the debates reported.".'.".".". .'.".■.■ f ^' ^'^ 

387, 388 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Doctor Baldwin in Parliament 389 

Hon. Robert liUdwin ; Entrance into political life ; his character... 390-395 

Got 8 to England and presses his vifaws on Lord Glenely 396 

Sir Francis Bond Head 390-406 

Robert Baldwin Sullivan enters public life 398, 399 

The Rebellion of 1837 401-406 

Sir George Arthur, Governor ; unsatisfactory condition of all British 

North America ; struggles for liberty 406, 407 

Sir Francis Hincks 408, 409 

Mr. Poulett Thompson (Lord Sydenham) Governor- General 410-473 

The Union of the Canadas 409-438 

The first Parliament of United Canada 438-400 

Disputes regarding Responsible Government 446-459 

Agitation 460 

Portraits of Draper and Sir Francis Hincks 403,464 

CHAPTER X. 

THE RISE OF RESPONSIBLE ooVERNMEXT — Continued. 

state of Education in Canada 473-476 

Government of Sir Charles Bagot 476-483 

Fall of the Draper Government and rise of the Baldwin party to 

power 478-482 

Sir Charles (Lord) Metcalfe, Governor-General— violent agitation ... 483-503 



CHAPTER XI 

THE RISE OP RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT — Continued. 

The unconstitutional interregnum 503-508 

Popular agitation 609-512 

Parliament Dissolved ; exciting contest 512, 513 

Election of Speaker ; attack on the Ministry ; progress of Constitu- 
tional Governme)it ; indecency of Ministers ; Draper's Univer- 
sity Bill ; departure and death of Lord Metcalfe 521-532 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE RISE OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT — Continued. 

Lord Cathcart, Administrator 532 

Disorganisation of the Tory Party 532-534 

Lord Elgin, Governor-General ; Draper's farewell ; famine immigra- 
tion ; the Now Ministry; death of Sullivan; effect of Free Trade j 



'm 



CONTENTS. 



commercial depression ; Rebellion Losses Bill ; mob violence 
seals of Government ; treason ; triumph of Responsible Govern^ 



ment 



XV 

PAOB 

634-564 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE CANADIAN CONSTITUTION. 

Developing the country ; the - Clear Grits ;" Independence and An- 

nexation : advantages of Canadian Constitution . kh^ r^o- 

Parliament meets ; "Clear Grits" attack the Reform Government ' 
fnutful legislation; Railway Mania; Mr. Brown's hostility to' 
the Hmcks Government ; Coalition Opposition ; fall of Hincks 
and close of the Irish period (1825-1854) 572 589 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PROGRESS OF CANADA. 

Irish immigration smce 1837 

The Irishman as asocial force .... ^^'^^^ 

" asaMedicalman. ...:..::: Zf^^ 

" as a Journalist 'f.^'^f 

TheBench, the Bar, culture.... ^^^' ^^^ 

Canadian Art "'.'." '. C04-611 

Irish poets in Canada 611-618 

Volunteers 618-620 

620-623 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE IRISHMAN AS A RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL FORCE. 

Importance of Religion and Education 

The Church of England i > Canada ^o. 5^^ 

The Methodist Church 624-629 

The Presbyterian Church ..!!! '..'.".".■ ." ^^^'^^^ 

The Roman Catholic Church 032-635 

Education .. 635-643 

643,644 

CHAPTER XVI. 

CANADIAN HISTORY FROM 1856 TO 1877. 

Premiership of Mr. (now Sir) John A. Macdonald ... 

John Sheridan Hogan "^^ 

Thomas D'Arcy McGee ^*^' ^^ 

646-65J 



"_.!_, 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Fo'ej- Til 

Confederation, Lord Monck, Fenianism 651-656 

McGee, fierce contest, longing after repose, murder , 656-659 

The Catholic League ggo 

Return of Sir Francis Hincks. , ^ (559 qqq 

Reforr '^ ty reinforced by Mr. Edward Blake 660 661 

New Iris., members ggj gg2 

Lord Duflferin, Governor- General ; nationality, what ; Lord Dufferin's 

talents ; his career 662-666 

Conclusion ggir 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



CHAPTER I. 

It requires no such faith as Abraham's to look forward to a 
time when Canada wiH be a great nation. Had the aaed 
Hebrew, when told to count his descendants by the stars turned 
away incredulously and re-entered his tent, and sat down to 
laugh with Sarah over what might weU have seemed a mocking 
promise, he would surely have been excusable. It was hard for 
him to believe that the withered trunk would sprout and cover 
the land with forest. But, however strong his faith, he could 
not have grasped the mighty future which lay locked within his 
wintry loins. What human vision could have seen in the patri- 
arch bowed with age, the extraordinary people who were to be 
K) the world what the fruitful cloud and the vivifying sunshine 
are to the earth-a people, to whose spiritual insight that of the 
Greeks was bUndness, from whose sublime morality Eoman 
virtue diifered, as the human differs from the Divine ? But 
there would be no excuse whatever for doubts on our part We 
already count ourselves by millions ; we live in historical times • 
we are the heirs in possession of the moral and inteUectual 
wealth of centuries ; we carry in our veins the blood of races 
which have been prolific in martyrs and heroes, poets and states- 
men; m beauty, which gives sweetness to strength, and in art 
which renders that beauty immortal. We have seen the family 



THE IIUSltMi^N IN CANADA. 



? 



and the clan expand i ito the nation, and the descendants of rob- 
bers and outlaws become the stern lawgivers of the world. From 
what rude tribec sprang Greece ; out of what a coarse chaos 
came the refined civilization of France and the glory of the Brito- 
Hibernian empire. The great Eastern shepherd had long slept 
in his grave when his children were the slaves of a cmel tyranny; 
his dust had passed through many forms when Solomon ruled at 
Jerusalem; ages had intervened when a greater than Solomon 
promulgated from Zion a kingdom which can know no decline. 
We, too, shall have long slept with our fathers when Canada's 
sun will be in the zenith. But they only play their part 
worthily who live for morrows whose lii;ht cannot gladden them. 
This is a duty which is laid on all, bat especially on young 
peoples. Our politics are evanescent; our ambitions, dreams; 
there is nothing of reality in the passing show but the qualities 
which assign the individual and the community their place in 
the moral scale, and determine the character of their successors. 
Humanity is immortal ; the individual, perishable. Even races 
disappear and give place to other races. Old forces take new 
forms, as in the sea the waves spend themselves, transmitting 
their strength to other waves, which in their turn are doomed 
to die. 

It is natural to wish to know what manner of men our fathers 
were. On no subject has there been more curiosity, on none has 
there been so much absurd speculation, as on the ethnology of 
nations who have taken a foremost place in the world. The foun- 
tains of the Nile have not been so baffling as those changes and 
conditions which preceded the advent and growth of nations. 
The sources are lost in unrecorded time. It is only yesterday 
that the clue from language was discovered. Hence, ignorant or 
uncritical historians, more enamoured of the marvellous than care- 
ful about truth, have allowed fancy to run riot, and taught men 
to reverence fabulous heroes, and sometimes to regulate their con- 
duct by what was no better than idle legend. 

When the future historian of Canada sits down to write a 
story which, we may hope, will be illustrious with great achieve- 
ments and happy discoveries, triumphs in literature and art, in 



''*^* 



OliJECTS OF THE WORK. 



8 



ts of roL- 
d. From 
'se chaos 
he Brito- 
Diig slept 

tyranny; 
. ruled at 

Solomon 
) decline. 

Canada's 
heir part 
ien them, 
on young 
dreams ; 
J qualities 
■ place in 
luccessors. 
Iven races 
take new 
nsmitting 
doomed 

ur fathers 
none has 
nology of 
The foun- 
mges and 
f nations, 
yestei'day 
jnorant or 
than care- 
ught men 
iheir con- 
write a 
t achieve- 
nd art, in 



his library, side by side with lore it has not entered into the 
heart of man as yet to conceive, will be found records such as 
the historian of Greece, or Rome, or Ireland, or Scotland, cc 
England looks for in vain. He will ha^e to treat of the races 
which laid the foundation of the great northern empire on this 
continent, and ho must have adequate information to his hand 
But those records will be incomplete, unless we take care that a 
class of facts, which may easily escape, are duly hoarded. The 
future historian will find full particulars regarding those heroic 
Frenchmen — the missionary and the soldier — who were the 
pioneers of our civilization. He ought to know all about the 
English settlement. He should be acquainted with all that 
Scotchmen have done for Canada. He should not be ignorant of 
the noble elements of national life one of the most brilliant 
of modem nations has laid at her feet. To point out this is the 
task I have set myself. 

I have another object in view : I wish, while performing this 
task, to sweep aside misconceptions, to explode cherished lal- 
lacies, to point out the truth, and so raise the self-respect of 
every person of Irish blood in Canada. The time has not yet 
arrived when we can speak of a Canadian type, and until that 
day arrives, whether we are born on Canadian soil, or in the 
mother lands, we cannot safely forego the bracing and inspiring 
influences which come from country and race.* Our first duty 
here is to Canada ; but one of the best ways efficiently to dis- 
charge this duty, is to be just to ourselves and true to facts. 

Writing the history of Irishmen in Canada, I can afford to 
speak in this way, for it was in great part due to the eloquence 
and enthusiasm of an Irishman that the scattered provinces were 
brought together, and men born on this soil have acknowledged 



• Let the miserables who would deny a country because the shadow of a 
vanished oppression is only passing from it, and who do not scruple to abuse 

their fellow-countrymen, ponder the following remarks of an Englishman : 

•' The moral degradation arising from this vast mass of helotage could not fail to 
affect the bearing even of the upper classes of Ireland. It produced in them 
that want of self-respect and respect for their country in their intercourse with 
the English which drew from Johnson the bitter remark, ' The Irish, sir, are a 
very candid people ; they never speak well of each other." " — "Irish History and 
Irish Character." By Goldwin Smith. 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



/ 



their irulobtedness to his winged words for the most precious 
of gifts.* 

Hiippily, to write the history of Irishmen in Canada is no 
uninviting task. It is not merely that Ireland can advance her 
claim to recognition and respect as no inconsiderable contributor 
to the great work of laying the foundation of this young nation. 
She has helped to reclaim the land from barrenness ; to substi- 
tute for the wilderness the garden. In clearing and in counsel, 
her sons have done their part. Whether it was necessary to 
speul. or strike, they have been at the post of duty. This is not 
all which makes the task so pleasant. The heroism, the endur- 
ance, the versatile genius implied by all this may be found 
written on the tearful pages of the history of the motherland. 
What renders the task so pleasant is, that here the factious 
which have afflicted successive centuries exist but in shadow 
because the ground of quarrel is wholly absent. Whoever 
studies the history of Ireland, not in what are called popular 
histories and student's manuals, but in contemporary documents, 
will learn that the great bone of contention, from age to age, was 
not religion, nor form of government, but the land. Here, land 
can be no apple of discord. Ireland, nay, the three kingdoms^ 
might be drowned in one of our lakes. We have, too, out- 
lived the age of plunder and confiscation, and never can any 
difficulty arise on this score in a country where we open up 
provinces as men in the old world make a paddock. 

And if there can be no misgiving as to the abundance, neither 
can there be any as to the wealth and fruitfulness of the land. 
Ireland's fields are greener, but they are not as variously fruitful 
as those of Canada ; her hills — nothing could surpass their 
beauty, but they do not contain the mineral treasures which are 
to be found here ; her rivers have unspeakable charm, but their 
sands are not of gold. 

A glance at the physical geography of Canada will show it to 
be one of the richest sections of the globe. Its forests will 

• '• There is a name I would fain approach. . . . one who breathed into 
our new Dominion the spirit of a proud self-reliance, and first taught Canadians 
to respect themselves — Thomas D'Arcy McGee."— "Canada First; or, Our New 
Nationality." By W. A. Foster. 



I 



RESOURCES OF THE DOMINION. 



)W it to 
ts will 



build tliousiiuds of fleets and warm the hearths of many genera- 
tions. Already great as a wheat-growing country, it is destined 
to be greater, the isotherm of wheat running right across the 
greater portion of the whole Dominion. The red loam of Princo 
Edward is among the most fertile of soils. What country is so 
beautifully wooded and watered as New Brunswick, whose fer- 
tility is only surpassed by the wealth of its mines and fisheries ? 
Nova Scotia, variegated by lofty hills and broad valleys, by lakes 
and rivers, is rich in geological resources, and, while bountiful to 
the agricultundist, is still more bountiful to the miner. Gold and 
iron and copper, lead and silver and tin, abound. Shii)building 
is carried on extensively, as in New Brunswick and in Quebec 
The agricultural resources of Quebec and those of Ontario need 
Dot be dwelt on. It is now known that the land to the north- 
west of Manitoba is richer than any prairie land in the world. 
Our minerals held their heads high at the Centennial oi" 18 7G. 
Canadian horses and cattle are finding a market in England, and 
the gates of commerce are thrown open to us under the Southern 
Cross. If the eastern bounds of our Dominion, washed by the 
stormy Atlantic, are variously rich, so are the western bounds, 
wliose golden feet are laved by the calmer waters oi" the Pacific. 
Destined at once to be the England and the California of the 
future, British Columbia is as beautiful as she is richly dowered. 
The traveller who proceeds up the highway made where the 
Eraser cleaves the granite ridges of the Cascade range and enters 
the open valleys beyond, is face to face with " the unequalled 
pastoral and agricultural resources of the bunch-grass country." * 
From an eminence in the neighbourhood ol Kamloops he com- 
mands an interminable prospect of grazing lands and valleys 
waiting for the husbandman. He may see the mouths of the 
coal-pits opening into the hulls of the vessels ; here, inex- 
haustible supplies of iron ore ; there, the woodsman laying the 
axe to trees two hundred and fifty feet high and over four 
hundred yea.s old. Skirting the Eraser, he will see the Indian 
fisherman haul out a salmon on the sands, whence the miner is 
sifting sparkling ore. In Cariboo, in Cassiar, in the valley of 
the Stickeen, the precious metal is still more abundant. 



See Lord DuflFerin's speech at Victoria, Sept. 20th, 1876. 



il! 



} !'• 



6 THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 

What land is more richly blessed by nature with water, 
whether wo consider it as a beautificr, or as a drudj^c, or as a 
fishing Peld ? The fisheries inland and seaward, are unequalled. 
No codutry in the worl ^ has such an avenue of approach as the 
St. Lawrence. To wind one's way through the Thousand Islands 
is to wander amid enchanting beauty. It is an Irish poet who 
writes — 

" There are miracles, which man, 
Cag'd in the bounds of Fairopc^'s pigmy span, 
Cau scarcely dream of — whicli his eye must p.e 
To know how v/onderful this world can 'd." * 

What variety and beauty is there up Lake Superior ! Cross the 
continent, and you may sail "^long the coast for a week in a 
vessel of two thousand tons, threading " an interminable laby- 
rinth of watery lanes and reaches," winding endlessly amid a 
maze and mystery of islands, promontories, and peninsulas for 
thousands of miles, the placid water undisturbed by the slighest 
swell from the adjoining ocean, and presenting at every turn an 
ever-shifting combination of rock, verdure, forest, glacier, and 
snow-capped mountain of unrivalled grandeur and beauty." f 
Those capacious and tranquil waters, capable of carrying a line 
of battle ship, seem gentle, as if on purpose to suit the frail 
canoes which skim in safety over the unrippled surface. 

In such a country, where the laws are equal, with everything 
which cau stimulate industry, J everything which can stir the 
heart, it would be an extraordinary thing if the Irishman did 
not rise to a high level. Here, all that his fathers ever struggled 
for he has. He is a controlling part of the present ; he is one 
of the architects of the future, and he has nothing to do with 
the disasters of the past, only so far as they teach him lessons for 
the present. Nothing to do with the glories of the past, .save to 
catch their inspiration. On those disasters and those glories it 
will nov^ be my duty briefly to dwell. 



* Moore, 
t liord DuJFerin. 

t ^ am coavinced, from what I saw in the States, and from all I bi»vre heardr 
that tho position of the Irishman in Canada Is better than in the Slates. 



FUNCTION OF HISTORY. 



CHixPTEIl II. 



No source of education opjn to a people ought to be so 
ruitful as the story of their owi. country. But, if it is to teach 
and correct and inspire, it must be true. The muse of history is 
the purest of 'all the Nine, and no passion should darken the 
clear blue of the intellectual atmosphere of her domain; no 
fiction warp its crisp outlines. The romancer, who gives you idle 
fables, and calls them history, would play a much more useful 
part if he appeared in his true character of novelist; while the 
man who distorts facts or colours them mischievously, with the 
view of raising or stimulating passions, is worse than a murderer, 
for he sows broadcast the seeds of murder. In uncriticd times, 
the deposit of the national fancy is easily mistaken for the 
gold of truth, and for the most credulous of Irish historians 
there is this excuse : for him the future was a vista of despair ; 
the present, blood and tears, and hope, in the unnatural strain, 
was turned to the past, giving additional warmth and boldness to 
imagination. He erred, too, it must be admitted, in good com- 
pany, but, in his case, error was fraught with serious consequences 
— it was used by the enemies of his country to discredit her real 
glory. 

Some Irish historians divide the history into periods ; the 
pre-Christian, the Irish pentarchy, the Danish period, the Nor- 
man, the Tudor and Stuart, and the Hanoverian.* But, perhaps, 



• See "The Student's Manual of Irish History." By M. F. Cusack. 
Until somebody does for Ireland what Mr. J. R. Green has done for England, I 
know no better book to recommend to those who wanr to get an outline of events. 
But, owing, perhaps, to the limits of space, very important facts, which should 
find a place even in a compendium, are omitted, and it is impossible to escape from 
the conviction that, here and there, the partiality of the patriot sways the 
balance of the historian — an unhappy thing, because calculated to make Irish- 
men look ridiculous, and a needless thing, for Irishmen can afford to have the 
truth told. But it is one of the best small histories of Ireland which can be got. 








8 



THE IinSHMAN IN CANADA. 




.?.' 



the facts would be brought more certainly before the mind if 
Irish history were divided into the Celtic period and the mixed 
period. The modern Irishman is not a Celt, any more than the 
modern Englishman is a Saxon. The name of the greatest of 
English historians * proves him to have been in part Celt ; the 
name of the latest of Irish historians -f indicates that the writer 
is in part Norman. But, as in England, over Celt and Norman 
the Saxon predominates, so in Ireland, over Saxon and Norman, 
the Celt predominates. 

We may leave antiquarians to puzzle over the five "takings" 
of Ireland. It is enough for every practical purpose to know as 
we do, by the sure test of language, that the people inhabiting 
Ireland, when the mists of unhistorical times are swept away 
from its green hills, its fertile valleys, and extensive forests, 
belonged to the grea.t Celtic race. That race which came before 
the Teuton formed the vanguard of the Aryan march to the 
West I and played, and still plays, a great part in the history of 
the world. It plays its part no longer alone, but in conjunction 
with one or other of its brethren. The Celt of Gaul has done 
great things, not merely within his own bounds, but for Europe; 
but he has wrought all this brilliancy speaking a Latin dialect 
and wearing the name of a German tribe. The Celt of Ireland 
of Scotia major, and his brethren among the hills of Scotia 
minor, 'aving learned a language composed of elements drawn 
from dialects of their brethren, the Teuton on the one hand, and 
the Eoman on the other, have done their part in building up 
what, if Irishmen's attention had not been directed into other 



/ 



Disfigured, as Froude's history is, by deliberate misrepreflentation, his pages are 
the most vivid which have been devoted to Irish history, and the student could 
not do better than read them, if he will remember their real character and correct 
them by reference to more trustworthy sources bearing on the period. Mr. 
(Joldwin Smith's essay, "Irish History and Irish Character," should be read 
by every student. It is the most masterly thing ever written on Ireland, and 
breathes, with one or two trifling exceptions, a spirit of perfect fairness. For 
persona who are not students of Irish history there is no other book which will 
give them, on a small canvas, so true a picture, Th« canvas is small, but the 
treatment is the large treatment of a master-hand. 

* Maraulay. t Cusack. 

t Freeman. — "Comparative Politics," p, 50. 






It 



THE CELT IN EUROPE. 



channels, they would have readily and gladly recognised as the 
Brito-Hibernian empire. On this continent, working by the side 
of the Saxon, and mingling with him, the Celt has made, in a 
few years, one of the foremost of modern nations, and here, in 
C/anada, no small portion of the work of the future rests on his 
shouldei'8. It is impossible to say with certainty whether the 
Oelts separated from the Roman and the Greek in their Aryan 
nome, or parted company with them on their westward march. 
When we see them face to face with their classical brethren, 
it is as enemies. They poured over the Alps, and settled in the 
valleys of the Po, and, in vengeance for the haughty language of 
Roman ambassadors and some Gaulish blood spilt in a skir- 
mish, they raised the siege of Clusium n,nd marched on Rome, 
which, having put the Romans to rout at AUia, they gave to 
the flames. It was Celtic valour bore down the Roman in the 
defile of Thrasymene, on the disastrous field of Cannse ; nor was 
it until Csesar carried a ten years' extirminating war into the 
home of the Celts that the contest of four centuries was decided. 
They carried their arms into Greece and overran Asia Minor. 
They sacked Delphi ; " they met the summons of Alexander 
with gasconading defiance j they overthrew the phalanx in the 
plains of Macedon."* 

We may trust the traditions which assign an early date to the 
settlement of Ireland, while dismissing with a smile stories about 
Noah's children and Canaanitish emigrations. The Celt who 
settled in Ireland, separated by the sea from the continent, 
would naturally be shut out from a share in the wars and enter- 
prises of the members of his race on the mainland, and be 
kept free from influences to which they were exposed. Centuries 
passed away, and the civilization did not advance beyond the 
primitive stage of the sept and clan. Petty principalities arose, 
and petty kingdoms, and population was kept down by constant 
wars.-f There is no use in attributing virtues to the Irish Celts 
at this stage which are inconsistent with the infancy of a people. 
What they were we can very easily understand from what we 
know certainly of themselves, from what we know of the Gauls, 



Goldwin Smith. 



+ Professor Curry. 




in 



/ 



i ' 

1- 1 



10 



THE lUISIFMAN IN CANADA. 



aud from what we know of the Greeks at a like period of growth. 
In art, in arms, in polity they were, up to the time of St. 
Patrick, about on a level with the Greeks of the time of which 
Homer sings ; nor need we be surprised that a resemblance has 
been traced between ancient Irish and ancient Greek military 
monuments. The bards, as in early Greece, and in Germany in 
early times, held an important place in society and wielded great 
power. If it was their profession to flatter the strong, they were 
often the protectors of the weak. What was thought amongst 
the Teutons of the bards may be gathered from Uhland's great 
ballad, and in Ireland the wandering poet, who was credited with 
divine powers, often made himself unpopular with kings and 
princes. The bards were the journalists, orators, and historians 
of those times, and, before being admitted to the sacred order, 
they had to pass through a long course of training. Their 
religion was Druidism. They worshipped the sun, and in the 
neighbourhood of Dublin, to this day, the student witnesses 
survivals of this worship. The Irish-speaking Celt still calls the 
1 st of May " La Bealtinne," and throughout the island fires are 
lit, which are the embers of a once-living worship, the joyful 
greeting of the returning sun-god. There was a national code 
and recognised interpreters. Common ownership of land pre- 
cedes separate ownership.* In Kussia and Hindostan the village 
communities hold the land in common, and in Ireland the land 
was the property of the Sept. That such was the custom among 
the Greeks and Komans, in early times, may be gathered from 
the redistributions of land and the agrarian laws, from the 
Roman clientage and the Greek tribes, which are evidently 
cognate institutions of the Clan.-f- One of the most curious 
facts in comparative politics is, that the custom sanctioned by 
the Brehon laws of the creditor fasting upon the debtor exists 
at this hour in Hindostan, and has actually been practised within 
living memory in Ulster. 

Early in our era, the Scots of Erin colonised the west coast of 
Scotland and the adjacent islands. Traditions of this coloniza- 

• Maine's Ancient Law. 

+ Goldwiu Smith's " Irish History and Irish Character." 






.1 1 



IBISH COLONIZATION OF SCOTLAND. 



11 



tion and of frequent intercourse still linger in Scotland.* They 
acted with their friends in North Britain against the Roman, 
and in the reign of Constantine's successor the Irish and Picts 



pre- 



* The following remarkable article, which appeared in the Inverness High- 
lander, in reference to an Irish political question, is understood to be from the 
pen of an eminent Gaelic scholar : — *' There was a time when Clann nan Quidheal 
an guaillibha a cheile did not mean merely that a handful of Camerons, or of 
JIackays, or of Macdonalds, should yoke themselves firmly together in crossing? a 
burn or tracking a morass ; far less did it teach that a small body of Celts was to 
be compacted together for purposes of oflFence towards another body of Celts, 
And, even supposing that in remote and unchristian times this brotherhood did 
happen to be so limited, we have arrived at a time when, to say the very least, 
the bonds should embrace all the branches of the family of the Gaidheal. We 
are thankful to say that the tendency of the more intellectual enterprises o^ the 
race in oxir day is towards this wider brotherhood. Dr. MacLauchlan, Campbell 
of Islay, Matthew Arnold, Professor Morley, and even Professor Blackie, who is 
supposed to be more intense than broad, are unflinching in their declarations that 
Celtic learning, Celtic literature, and Celtic history to be what they ought to be, 
must embrace the learning and the philosophy, the history and the polity of the 
Scottish, the Irish, the Manx, the Cornish, the Armoric and the Welsh Celts ; 
that we must make careful use of the living speech and current traditions of 
Highlanders, of the fragments of literature found in the Isle of Man and in 
Cornwall, of the Cymbri, and of the vast stores of Irish MSS. which have 
escaped +he ravages of Teutonic destroyers. This is a valuable lesson in regard 
to other things, as well as being a valuable fact in itself, and it points to the duty 
of the different members of the great family drawing upon each other for co- 
operation in other departments. Even in the matter of war it is notorious how 
the Irish bore so brave a hand with the Highlanders in resisting the Danes ; a fact 
of which the mixture of Irish and Scottish names, and some of the confusion of 
Scottish and Irish history are the natural results. There is not a corner in our 
Scottish Highlands, there is hr.rdly a pedigree of an old Highland family, which 
does not bear out this rema.k. What are the Macdonalds, the Macdonnells, the 
Donnellies, the Connolies, the O'Connells, but the one grand family of Clann 
LomhnuiUf The Mackays, the Mackies, the Macghies, and even the Hoeys, the 
O'Gheochs, and the Keogas, are so many modifications of Clann Aoidh. The very 
Campbells, who have been so largely implicated in the work of denationalizing Scot- 
land, actually claim to be of the Irish stock of O'Duibhne. And, at the great battle 
of Ckutn-tairbh, at which the Irish under Brian Boirmhe overthrew the Danes, in 
the beginning of the eleventh century, Feochaibh nah-Alha are assigned an 
honourable position in the records of the time. Another thing, perhaps still more 
to the purpose, is the very curious fact, that so very large a proportion of High- 
land '* fiction," of legendary lore — corresponding in some measure at the time of 
its composition with our romances and with our more sober works of fiction — 
should have direct reference to Irish characters, events and scenes. No one 
is surprised to find this the case in Cantyre and in Wigtonshire. But it is as cer. 






12 



I 



I Ji 



pi) I 



/ 



THE IIlISTTJfAN IN CANADA. 



are said to have reached London and occupied it. It required all 
the ability of Theodosius to save the province from destruction. 
He defeated Saxon, Pict, and Scot, and unless Claudian indulges 
in a wilder poetic license than common, the number of Scots 
from Ireland must have been very large. The poet describes the 
victorious general as pursuing them to the extremity of Britain, 
and slaying so many that the Orcades were stained with Saxon 
gore, Thule warmed with Pictish blood, and Erin left mourning 
over heaps of her slain Scots.* 

There are traces in South-west Britain of Irish occupation. 
Some think that Wales was invaded by the Irish.f Irish oc- 
cupations are referred to in Welsh traditions. One invasion is 
mentioned in the Triads, and it would appear that, besides the 
settlements in Scotland and North Wales, the Irish dominion 
extended over South Wales and Cornwall. In Cormac's glossary 
we find an envoy sent over to the south-west of England to 



tainly, and perhaps more generally, so in the far north Highlands. In Glen- 
Urquhart ; in Stratherrick ; in Cromarty even, which has been so drenched with 
Teutonic soporifics ; in Applecross ; in Skye ; and in parts of the Long Island, 
the setting up of Highland families from Irish offshoots, the marrying of High- 
land ladies into Irish royal and other families, et cetera, are leading facts in the 
pedigrees and traditions handed down from remote periods. The wide and deep 
hold, for example, of the story of Clann Visneach all over the Highlands is an 
instructive fact, and one fraught with kindly outcomings from Celt to Celt. 
Then there is the great Ossianic drama, which is now established to have been 
neither exclusively Scottish, nor exclusively Irish, but a large network over both 
countries — wide enough, indeed, aa is now being shr by Dr. Hately Waddell, 
to embrace the territory of Cymbri also. After giving illustrations in regard to 
our family and friendly relations with the Manx, and to the benefits which are to 
be derived in a variety of forms from a more intiuiate acquaintance with the 
Cornish, we might pass over to Brittany, trace the relationship, and then point 
to a still wider relationship exempl^ed by the terms of amity which subsisted 
so long between the French nation and that of Alban. ♦ • * What we do 
profess is, that there is a nationality existing among us, that there are traditions, 
that there are latent sentiments, that there are common interests apart from, and in 
addition to, those principles of justice and those sentiments of fair play, which 
should make Highlanders, above all men, give Cothram na Feintie to the Irish. 

* Maduerunt Saxone fuso 
Orcades : incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule : 
Scotorum cumulos flevit glacialis lerne. 

f Aniuals of the Caledonians. Ritson. 



THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY 



13 



collect tribute, and this is borne out by the romance of Tristan 
and Iseult, in which the uncle of Iseult is sent to demand tribute 
from Marc, King of Cornwall, uncle of Tristan. The tales of 
King Arthur belong to the period of the Irish occupation. 

With the introduction of Christianity there came a new 
element of civilization, and the warm Celtic nature responded 
with enthusiastic fervour to the pure and ennobling influences of 
the Gospel. Their religion burned " like a star in Western 
Europe."* Columba, or Columbkill, a man of the royal race of Nial, 
undertook to carry the glad tidings to the Gael, the Pict, the Briton 
and the Scandinavian, and founded the holy island of lona, 
whence went forth missionaries to Iceland, to the Orkneys, to 
Northumbria, to Man, and to South Britain.f Columbanus did a 
like work among the half-barbarous Franks, and in France, in 



• Froude, "Vol. I., p. 15. 

+ "We must remember that before the landing of the English in Britain, the 
Christian Church comprised every country, save Germany, in Western Europe, 
as far as Ireland itself. The conquest of Britain by the pagan English thrust a 
wedge of heathendom into the heart >f this great communion, and broke it into 
two unequal parts. On the one side lay Italy, Spain and Gaul, whose churches 
owned obedience to the see of Rome ; on the other, the Church of Ireland. But the 
condition of tlie two portions of Western Christendom was very diflFerent. While 
the vigour oF Christianity in Italy, Gaul and Spain was exhausted in a bare 
struggle for life, Ireland, which remained unscourged by invaders, f iCw from its 
conversion an energy such as it has never known since Christianity had been 
received there with a burst of popular enthusiasm, and letters and arts sprang up 
rapidly in its train. The science and Biblical knowledge which fled from the Con- 
tinent took refuge in famous schools, which made Durrow and Armagh the uni- 
versities of the West. The new Christian life soon beat too strongly to brook 
confinement within the bounds of Ireland itself. Patrick, the first missionary of 
the island, had not been half a century dead when Irish Christianity flung itself 
with a fiery zeal into battle with the mass of heathenism which was rolling in upon 
the Christian world. Irish missionaries laboured among the Picts of the High- 
lands, and among the Frisians of the northern seas. An Irish missionary, Colum- 
ban, founded monasteries in Burgundy and the Apennines. The Canton of St. 
Gall still commemorates in its name another Irish missionary before whom the- 
spirit of flood and fell fled wailing over the waters of Lake Constance. For a 
time it seemed as if the course of the world's history was to be changed, as if the 
older Celtic race that Roman and German had swept before them had turned to 
the moral conauest of their conquerors, as if Celtic and not Latin Christianity wa» 
to mould the . stiniesof the Church of the West." History of the English People* 
J. R. Green, M. A., Examiner in the School of Modern History, Oxford. 



14 



THE IUl8liMAN IN CANADA. 



! i! 



I ': !!'■ 



/ 1'^ 



:> I 



Switzerland, m Italy there remaiu monuments of the sacred zeal 
which carried the truth to the Lombards — men, like themselves, of 
Celtic blood — and caused the Go;jpel star to shine on the darkness 
of the Main and Upper Rhine. While Columbauus was passing 
through Switzerland, one of his fellow-labourers was taken ill 
and could not proceed. The invalid on recovering;, remained 
with the people who had nursed him, and St. Gall commemorates * 
tlie work he accomplished, and, indeed, enduring traces of the 
Irish missions may be found in every part of Europe. It was 
not the sanctity only of the Irish which stood high at this time. 
Their scholarship was equally illustrious. Eric of Auxerre writes 
to Charles the Bald : " What shall I say of Ireland, which, de- 
spising the dangers of the deep, is migrating with her whole train 
of philosophers to our coast ? " Not only did Ireland send out 
apostles and philosophers to other countries, she welcomed 
pupils from every compass to her schools. Thousands of students 
from all parts of Europe came for instruction to the schools of 
Armagh, and to " that melancholy plain where the Shannon flows 
by the lonely ruins of Clonmacanoise."-)* Bede tells us that the 
pestilence of 656 found " many of the nobility and of the lower 
ranks of the English nation" in Ireland, who had crossed thither 
for purposes of study, and he adds, — " The Scots willingly re- 
ceived them all, and took care to supply them with food, as also 
to furnish them with books to read and their teaching gratis." 
Charlemagne welcomed Irish scholars and Irish preachers as 
powerful allies in the civilizing work he had to do. He promoted 
them to places of honour in his court; he employed them to teach 
the Frankish youth. Mr. Gold win Smith recalls how " Scotus 



li. 



• The progress of the Irish Columbanus at her very doors roused into new 
life the energies of Rome. Gregory determined to attempt the conversioi 
of Britain, but when the Roman mission in Kent sank into reaction, the Irish 
mission came forward to supply its place. " The labour of Aidan, the victories of 
Oswald and Oswi seemed to have annexed England to the Irish Church ; " and 
the monks of Lindisfarue, or of the new religious houses whose foundation 
followed that of Lindisfarne, looked for ecclesiastical tradition to Ireland, and 
quoted for guidance the instruction of Columba. — Hist, of the English People. 

+ Goldwin Smith. 



' 1 1 



ST. PATRICK A STATESMAN. 



15 



Erigena * was sitting a familiar guest at the table ot Charles the 
Bald, wlieii the king asked him how far a Scot was removed from 
a sot, and he answered, with Irish wit, ' By a table's breadth.' 
During the seventh and eighth centuries," continues Mr. Smith, 
" and part of the ninth, Ireland played a really great part in 
European history. It was the bright morning of a dark day." 
Surely a people to whom Europe is so much indebted deserve 
more consideration than they have met with in the hour of their 
misfortunes. What glory of military conquest can equal the 
pure and liappy glory of those two centuries of learning and 
piety ? And in this glory neither Norman nor Saxon has any 
share ; it belongs of sole right to the Irish Celt. 

St. Patrick was a statesman as well as a Christian missionary. 
When at his request the " men of Erin " came to a Conference 
with him, he retained all the Brehon law which did not clash with 
the Word of God f ; and happy would it have been for England 
as well as Ireland, if English statesmen in later times had acted 
in the same spirit of moderation as St. Patrick. About the time 
that the Brehon laws were codified under the guidance of St 
Patrick, great changes were made in the Eoman law, which was 
undergoing the modifications which might be expected under the 
influence of Christianity, and this may have had its eiYect on the 
character of the work, which was a " precise and elaborate code, 
displaying that peculiar aptitude for the form of legislation 
which the French Celt has displayed in the Code Napoleon." J 
The authority of this code continued until the power of the Irish 
chieftains was finally broken in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
Before the end of the seventeenth century the whole race of 
Brehons or judges, and Ollamhs or professors of the Irish laws, 
became extinct. 

The Danish incursions put a stop to the mental oulture and pro- 
gress which would infallibly have brought the Irish people forward 



* The profound utterances of tbis great man are living words to-day. Dean 
Stanley, in Lis latest work, quotes his saying — so far advanced, especially for Scotna 
Erigena's time— that " whatever is true Philosophy is also true Theology." History 
of Jewish Church. Third Series. Scribner, Preface, p. xrv. 
+ Senchus Mor., pp. 16, 17. 
Goldwiu Smith. 



f ' '! 



16 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






/ 



III! 



I ! 



♦iH 



to that stogo when they could be described as a united nation. 
It is vain to look back with regret on a state of things in which 
petty king warring with petty king could make alliances with 
the heathen invader. If national unity had been stronger than 
the clan and individual selfishness, of course the Danes never 
could have obtained a footing in the island. Though the Danish 
occupation led to the brief unity which expelled them the events 
leading up to the battle of Clontarf are such as could happen 
only in the very early stages of a people's growth.* The wife of 
King Brian, Gormflaith, who had two other husbands alive, was 
at Kincora when Ma3lmurra, her brother, the King of Leinster, 
came to pay tribute. Mrelmurra was also a vassal of the Danes 
who had helped him to his throne. His sister taunted him with 
being the vassal of her own husband, and a playful remark of 
his cousin acting on his mind like a spark on gunpowder, he 
left the palace in anger. Brian sent a messenger after him to 
pacify him, but the angry chief dashed out the braius of the 
messenger. His whole clan is roused to avenge an insult whic . 
no fire-eater of the time of duelling would have thought sufficient 
to warrant calling a man out. The O'Rourkes, the O'Niels, the 
O'Flahertys and the Kearys promised to assist him. And mark 
what followed on a sharp word over a game of chess. O'Niel 
ravaged Meath. O'Rourke attacked Malachy and slew his grand- 
son and heir. Soon afterwards Malachy defeated his assailants 
in a bloody engagement. He then divided his forces into three 
parties and plundered Leinster as far as Meath. Reprisals were 
made on each side ; Irishman slaying Irishman and the Danes 
in the land, nay, fighting side by side with the Leinster men, 
until Malachy demanded the protection to which he was entitled 
from Brian, who clearly was not in the proper sense of the word 
King of Ireland. " Brian of the tribute " properly describes 
his position. Brian obeyed the summons. He " ravaged Ossory " 
and marched on Dublin, where he was joined by his son Murrogh, 
" who had devastated Wicklow, burning, destroying and carrying 
off captives until he reached Kilmaiuham." The siege of Dublin 



• See for the details, " Irish Hifltory," by M. F. Cuaack, well known as "The 
Nun of Kenmare." 



m 



CLONTARF. THE DANES. 



17 



■\s-as raised during tlie winter, and Gormflaitli,who is a sort of Irish 
Helen, exerts herself in collecting forces against her two husbands, 
Brian and Malachy. She despatched her son Sitric to bring 
foreign aid, and promised her hand and the kingdom of Ireland 
to each of two Vikings if they would come and help the Danes. 
In the spring Brian marched towards Dublin " with all that 
obeyed him of the men of Ireland." He " plundered and de- 
stroyed as usual,"* says the Nun of Kenmare, on his way to 
Dublin. After he had passed Fingal and burned Kilmainham, 
he sent his son Donough to plunder Leiuster. A third of the 
forces on the Danish side were Leinster men under Mitlmurra. 
Clontarf was a great battle, and on both sides prodigies of 
valour were performed. But what could save from conquest a 
people in the condition the events preceding the battle show the 
Irish to have been in ? Even after the victory of Clontarf dis- 
sensions arose, and on their way f^om the field the clans separated 
and drew up in order of battle ! Centuries afterwards we see 
the same defects break out when Baldearg O'Donnell, for a pen- 
sion of £500, takes over to William's side a large following of 
Ulster Celts. 

The Danes settled down in the seaport towns they had 
founded — Limerick, Dublin, Wexford and Waterford, — and paid 
tribute either to the Ard Eigh or the local prince. They sometimes 
had to pay blackmail. In the year 1029 Olaf, the son of Sitric, 
wandering outside Dublin was taken prisoner by O'Regan, lord ol 
Meath, who extorted for ransom twelve hundred cows, sevenscore 
British horses, threescore ounces of gold, and sixty ounces of 
silver. Now the Normans having conquered all the neighbouring 
nations turned their attention to Ireland. Let no one exclaim 
against the Irish for their want of union. We see the same thing 
in Greece. If the Irish had been allowed time they would have 
grown out of the clan into the nation. But the Irish Celtic 
nation was strangled in its cradle, and those conquerors with 
whom we have now to deal were neither Saxon nor English, but the 
fierce Scandinavian rovers, whose conquests extended from the 
Jordan to the Boyne, and under whose heavy hand the English 



Irish History, p. 180, 
2 



18 



TUB IRISIIMADr m CANADA. 



i I 



/ I 



i' ! 



/ 



r ' 



i I 



I f^ I 



groaned for one kundred and fifty years. The Celtic blood 
already mixed with the Danish, and to some small extent 
with Saxon,* was now mingled with the Norman tide, even as 
it 'vas in after times in the south and west tinctured with that 
of Spain. With what we see going on before our eyes on the 
continent of Europe, it would be futile to discuss, even to-day, 
the morality of conquest. We have not yet arrived at that 
advanced stage of civilization, when nations can be expected to 
curb their greed and ambition, though it is as certain as human 
progress tliat the time will come when people will look back on 
the French and Germans, and the state of things leading up to 
Sedan, as barbarous. But if we could arraign the Normans 
before us they might plead that one of the Irish princes invited 
them to the country, and what is of still more significance, that 
the Irisli princes paid no attention to the new comers. In the 
words of the Annals, they " set nothing by the Flemings." The 
kingdom had not the first element of defence — watchfulness 
against invasion. It seemed in the ordinary course of things 
that troops should be brought from a foreign country to reinstate 
a petty king. There is this excuse to be made for Roderic, that 
he had to enforce his claims in the south and north, and was busy 
" portioning Meath between his inseparable colleague O'Eourke 
and himself "f He was busy in the still more useful work of 
founding lectorships at Armagh ; for during the Danish 
period, the enlightenment, the religious zeal, and enthusiasm for 
knowledge, which had three centuries before " burned like a star," 
had given place to Pagan superstition.^ Dermot MacMurrough 
soon found himself at the head of three thousand men, and 
marched on Ossory which he subdued. The monarch sum- 
moned a hosting of the men of Ireland at Tara, and with an 
army collected by the lords of Meath, Glial, Ulidia, Breffni, and 
some northern chiefs, proceeded to Dubli"\. But dissension broke 
out in the Irish camp ; the Ulster chiefs returned home, and 
MacMurrough's authority was acknowledged. Now, clearly here 

* The victims of Norman oppression fled in some cases to Ireland. McQee, 163. 

+ D'Arcy McGee. 

$ Ibid, p. 145 ; see also Froude, vol. i, p. 16. 






THE NORMAN INVASION. 



19 



we are in the presence of disunion which would paralyze the 
most heroic bravery. The country was thinly populated ; public 
spirit was unknown ; the only strong sentiment was the clan- 
nish ; and disunited hosts could not be expected to stand against 
united hosts. We have shown that the Celt, like the Teuton and 
the Norman, comes from the Aryan stock ; we have seen the 
Celt measure his sword, and not unsuccessfully, with that of 
Rome. As between the Irish and the Norman, it was a battle 
between an elder and a younger brother, and the elder brother 
one who had long been in training i.. the best fighting schools. 
The Prince of Thomond, Donnell O'Brien, who had married a 
daughter of ])ermot, was in rebellion against Roderic, and was, 
of course, willing to give his assistance to Dermot. The Nor- 
mans, in fact, found the Irish princes engaged in a game of 
grab, and the blood of the people squandered by the caprices 
and ambitions of their chiefs, whose life, like that of the Gallic 
nobles in the first and second centuries, was spent in a " con- 
tinual whirl of faction and intrigue."* The Danes, who remem- 
bered how impossible it was to expel themselves once they got a 
footing in the country, were alive to the necessity of resisting the 
Normans ; and the Dano-Celts of Wexford and Waterford fought 
with great energy the uncle of Strongbow. Strongbow, on his 
arrival at a later period, laid siege to Wexford, where the Normang 
set a precedent for Drogheda. Having made the Dano-Celts 
of Waterford a fearful example, they turned their faces towards 
Dublin. The woods and defiles were well guarded, but the 
enemy made forced marches over the mountains, and reached, 
long before they were expected, the capital, a city at that time 
not the size of Hamilton to-day. Hosculf, the Danish governor 
of the city, encouraged by the presence of a force collected by 
the Irish monarch near Clondalkin, had determined to stand a 
siege. But when the "decision and military skill" of the 
invaders were recognised, and the reports of the massacre at 
Waterford came, it wai determined to treat. The Danish 
governor fled with son e of the principal citizens to the Orkneys, 
and Roderic, the nominal king of all Ireland, withdrew his 



• M. Amedee Thierry. 



20 



THK IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



I 



I li 



forces to Meath to support his friend O'Kourke, " on whom he 
had bestowed a portion of that territory." Strongbow, on the 
death of Dermot MacMurrough, was abandoned by the Irish 
following of that prince, and a general rising having taken place, 
he throw himself into Dublin, but only to find himself sur- 
rounded by an army, and blockaded by a Danish fleet. While he 
was suffering from want of food, and negotiating with a view to 
capitulate, Donnell Cavanagh, an Irishman of rank, no less a 
person than the son of the late king of Leinster, stole into the 
city in disguise, and informed him that Fitzstephen was closely 
besieged in Wexford. It is then determined to force a passage 
through the besieging army. " The Irish army," says the Nun 
of Kenraare, " were totally unprepared for this sudden move ; 
they fled in panic, and lioderic," the King and Commander-in- 
Chief, " who was bathing in the Liffey, escaped with difficulty." 
The Norman, Miles de Cogan, was again left governor of Dublin, 
and with the exception of an attack on him which he easily 
repulsed, " the Irish made no attempt against the common 
enemy, and domestic wars were as frequent as usual."* 

Now it is clear that if the Irish Celts at this time were not 
much behind their foes in civilization, it would be impossible to 
account for these events. They belonged to the same great 
Aryan stock as the Normans, and the disunion and incapacity 
shown by men whose fathers did, and whose descendants have 
done, such great things, are to be traced to this, that thei^ 
civilization, as compared with the high organization of the Nor- 
man, was in a backward state, they having, in fact, retrograded 
from the intellectual advancement of the 8th century. The forces 
which came with Henry II. in 1171, should have been no more 
than a mouthful for the Irish. What should they not have done 
with Strongbow and his few followers ? In Henry's train came 
those who were to be the fathers of well-known Irish families ; 
and as we owe to the Danes the -f* Plunkets, Mclvers, Archbolds, 
Harolds, Stacks, Skiddies, Cruises, McAuliffes, we owe to the 
Normans the Clanrickards, the Butlers, the Le Poers (Powers), 
and many others who came afterwards, such as the Talbots and 



* Cuaack's History, p. 1C7. 



t McGee. 



THE HUSH KINGS SUBMIT TO UENllY II. 



21 



the Burkes, A white hare, which leaped from a neighbouring 
hedge, was caught and presented to the king as an omen of victory. 
" But," says D'Arcy McOee, " the time omen of his success he 
might read for himself in a constitution which had lost its force, 
inlaws which had ceased to be sacred, and in a chieftain i are 
brave indeed as mortal men could be, but envious, arrogant, 
revengeful, and insubordinate." The penalty paid through cen- 
turies of misery by the noble innocent peo])le who followed them, 
would be an impassable stumbling-block to faith in a Providence, 
were we not able to gi'asp the truth tl.at there is more bene- 
ficence in the operation of great general laws than there would 
be in fitful interference, and to hold by the hope, that all movea 
tx) a great justifying event in the future. 

The Irish nobles and kings submitted to Henry, who naturally 
according to the enlightenment of the time, but foolishly and 
cruelly according to modern ideas, administered the country as a 
Norman province. As soon ns Henry was gone, and the cold steel 
of Norman rule was felt, there would, of course, be resistance, 
hat, as might be expected from what we have seen, that resist- 
ance would not be eystematic or united, and from this time for- 
ward the history of Ireland is the weary annals of a half 
subdued dependency, in which the miseries of rebellion were 
aggravated by domestic broils. It is doubtful whether, if the 
Normans had been able to afford men to conquer Ireland as com- 
pletely as they conquered England, things would have been much 
better for the Celts than they were. But no hope whatever of 
happy relations could be built on a system of partial settleirent, 
and constant and indecisive war. It is amusing to find the 
deeds of the Norman attributed to Englishmen, at a time when 
the Englishman himself was in the house of bondage. The 
sentences* in which Macaulay describes the condition of English- 



• "The battle of Hastings and the events which followed it, not only placed a 
Duke of Normandy on the English throne, but gave up the whole population of 
England to the tyranny of the Norman race. The subjugation of a nation by a 
nation has seldom, even in Asia, been more complete. The country was portioned 
out among the captains of the invaders. Strong military institutions, closely con- 
nected with the institution of property, enabled the foryi(,Ti conquerors to opprew 
the children of the soil. A cruel penal code, cruelly enforced, guarded tho 




22 



THE IKISHMAN IN CANADA. 




men, might, with little alteration, be applied to the state of Ire- 
land. The cruelty on the one hand, and the irregular retaliation 
on the other, the aggression and resistance, are found in Ireland, 
with the qualification that the oppression is not so complete, and 
that the Irish sometimes make a stand. 

The statute of Kilkenny, enacted in the fourteenth century, 
shows that already it had become impossible to tell a man's race 
by his aame, and that the Norman and English settlers were 
mingling with the Celts. Marriage with the Celt was forbidden, 
as was the assumption of an Irish name. Early in the fifteenth 
century, the Irish of English descent began to set forth griev- 
ances, and the cities of Cork, Kinsale, and Youghal complained 
of the desolation consequent on thd strife of English noblemen. 
A like complaint was made by Waterford and Wexford against 
the Irish chieftain O'Driscoll, who is describd as an " Irish enemy 
to the King and to all his liege people of Ireland." We find 
m Henry VIII.'s day, France already interfering in Ireland, but, 
like the intermeddlings of after timps, "it took no effect by reason 
of Francis, his business in other parts." * It hastened, however 
the " second troubles " of the Earl of Kildare, a salutary omen, 
if those who looked to France could have seen it. The fact that 
whenever there was any revolt against England foreign aid was 



1^ '] 



'41 



/ 



I 



privileges and eveu the sports of the alien tyrants. Yet the subject race, though 
beatnn down and trodden under foot, still made its sting felt. Some bold men, 
the favourite heroes of our oldest ballads, betook themselves to the woods, and 
there, in defiance of curfew laws and forest laws, waged a p:>'(3datory war against 
their oppressors. Assassination was an event of daily occurreace. Many Normans 
suddenly disappeared, leaving no trace. The corpses of many were found bearing 
the marks of violence. Death by torture was denounced against the murderers, 
and strict search was made for them, but geiteraHy in vain ; for the whole nation 
was in a conspiracy to screen them. It was at length thought necessary to lay a 
heavy fine on every Hundred in w hicb a person of French extraction should be found 
slain ; and this regulation was followed up by another regulation, providing tliat 
every person who was found slein should be supposed to bo e, Frenchman, unless he 
WW proved to be a Saxon." Macaulay's History, t/o1. i., p. 7. In tba above 
paragraph we find the Saxons doing the very thing Saxon writers aftevwards in- 
veighed against the Irish Celt for doing. 

• The History of England under Henry VIII. Edward Lord Herbert, p. 246. 





EFFORTS TO INTRODUCE PROTESTANTISM. 



23 



sought for, should have taught the obvious lesson. The 
alternative for Ireland, owing to size and geographical situation, 
was to be an equal in a great empire or a vassal principality to 
a continental country. When O'Neill revolted in 1597, and 
defeated the English at Blackwater, he invited over the 
Spaniards, and settled them in Kinsale. But what was the 
Spaniard against the sea-king ? And what would Ireland be as 
a vassal of Spain ? The history of Spain and her colonies teUs us 
in unmistakeable language. The struggles in Ireland down to, 
and even after what assumed the character of a religious war, 
were agrarian, and Norman aggression was succeeded by confis- 
cating plots under the Tudors and Stuarts, plots from v^hich 
Burkes and Geraldines suffered as much as O'Connors and 
O'Eourkes. 

The efforts made to introduce Protestantism into the island 
took a form which was doomed to failure, for it added the fervour 
of patriotism, the instinct of race, the hatred of the weak for the 
strong, of oppressed for oppressors, to the natural attachment for 
the creed in which m.en are born, which is associated in their 
minds with all the tenderness and charm of childhood and of 
home. No translation of the Bible was put forth in the Irish 
language, and the missionaries of the new faith appeared in the 
guise of plunderers ; nor were their lives, as a rule, of a stamp to 
counteract such formidable stimulants to repulsion. " The govern- 
ment contented itself with setting up a vast Protestant hierarchy 
of Protestant archbishops, bishops, and rectors, who did nothing, 
and who, for doing nothing, were paid out of the spoils of the 
Church loved and revered by the great body of the people."* 

The plantation of Ulster followed on the confiscation of the 
lands of O'Neill and O'DonneU, whose English titles were, 
respectively. Earl of Tyrone and Earl of Tyrconnel. There can 
be no doubt there was a conspiracy to fasten on them a charge of 
treason, and their flight to the continent proves nothing, but that 
they were anxious 1;0 preserve their lives.-f* The plantation 



245. 



Maoauky's Hiatoryj vol. i. p. 84, 



+ Goldwin Smith. 




24 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






111 



I ' 



1 

; 


'jt 

P 


1 

■ ii 

1 


i:| 


, 


i 


1 

■ 


t 

1 



though destined to result iu one of the darkest pages in Irish 
history, was, economically, a brilliant success. It intro- 
duced into the north a large population accustomed to settled 
modes of life, who were themselves afterwards to experience in- 
justice at the hands of the English parliament, but who, in the 
face of restrictive legislation, and in the face oi' enormous and 
complex difficulties, have made the province of Ulster one of the 
most flourishing on the globe. Many of them were descendants 
of men who, at an earlier period, had migrated from Ireland into 
Scotland ; others were of SaxoD blood ; but all brought with them 
that stern Presbyterianism, \' ' :_ix has been the great factor in 
moulding the character of the modern Scotchman — a creed 
which would givt) a Titan's backbone to a race of mol- 
lusks. When received, not as some modern Presbyterian 
divines receive it, half hesitatingly, but as it was received by 
Calvin and Johii Knox, it gives to character all the strength of 
fatalism, and all the strength of a passionate faith, full of hope, 
and immortality. Many of the new comers, indeed, were tainted 
with the vices of adventurers. Many of them fled from debt^ 
and some from justice, but the great majority of them were, what 
we should call in Canada, good settlers. Sixty thousand acres 
in Dublin and Waterford, and three hundred and eighty-five 
thousand acres in Westmeath, Longford, Kings County, Queens 
County, and Leitrim, were portioned out in a similar manner. 

The espousal of the cause of Charles I. brought down on the 
country the sword of Cromwell, and resulted in further transfers 
of land, — transfers in which descendants of Saxon and Norman 
suffered. Spenser's grandson, though pleading his father's name 
and protesting his own protestantism, was ordered to transplant. 
When Charles II. came to the throne,the unhappy "loyalists" prayed 
for the restoration of their property in vain. The remembrance of 
the miseries entailed on them by adherence to the cause of Charles 
I., whoso iron minister, Wentworth, was the greatest enemy the 
Irish Celts ever had, did not prevent them falling a victim to the 
schemes of Tyrconnel ; and they espoused the cause of James II., 
when espousing that cause meant binding themselves to a wheel 
rolling to the valley. Far more than ever France was relied on. 



THEATY OF LIMERICK. PENAL LAWS. 



25 



though a little reflection might have shown that France could 
never be for Ireland anything but a broken reed. Even if the 
English, and the Celts and Irishmen of mixed blood adhering to 
English rule, could have been driven by the aid of France into the 
sea, the work would have to be begun over again ; for England 
could not let France have Ireland as a base of operation, and 
France could not hold it. The violation of the Treaty of Lim- 
erick is an undying blot, not on William, who would have ad- 
hered to it if he could, but on the Irish Protestants ; even as 
the withholding Catholic emancipation at the time of the Union, 
is an undying blot on the character of George III. and on that 
of some of Pitt's colleagues. Pitt was true to his convictions 
and resigned his place. No excuse can be made for the penal 
iavv's. All that can be said is that they were the bigoted and vio- 
lent reaction, caused by the violence and bigotry of James II.'s 
parliament in Dublin, during the brief hour when the country 
was at its mercv. 

Henceforth the Irish Catholics were the victims of an oppres- 
sion more awful than has ever been dealt out to any people or 
any portion of a people. Many of those Catholics were of Saxon 
and Norman descent, though a majority were, perhaps, pure Celts, 
and that they should have emerged from such persecution so 
little damaged by all this brutalizing tyranny, is one of the 
strongest evidences of the greatness of race. Education was 
denied them, but they gathered by the hedge side and learned 
from the page of Virgil the immortal tongue of Rome. Wealth 
and honour, freedom from shame and sorrow were offered them if 
they forsook their faith, but no bribe an empire had to give could 
make them abandon the despised religion they believed. The 
priest said mass when and where he could ; in the lonely glen, on 
the desolate mountain side, in the mud hovel, in the caves of the 
earth, he celebrated the rites of the proscribed church ; and, in his 
faded clothes, was armed with a talisman for the hearts of an 
enthusiastic people, such as no crosier of an endoAved church could 
equal. He proved every hour his self-denial, his devotion, his sym- 
pathy ; and while the rector drove to the squire's domain to enjoy 
his luxurious dinner, the priest shared the potato and cake of his 
miserable flock. The peasantry cui-tsey low when they meet a 



mmmmm 



26 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Hi 



11 1 



priest, however familiar they may be with hira, even when he is 
their own brother or son. The reason has often been misunder- 
stood ; it is a custom which has survived a time when the priest 
carried the consecrated elements constantly on his person, and 
when, at a favourable moment, he would make the mountain his 
altar; and while the language of Tiber mingled with Gaelic prayers, 
and the murmur of wild rills, thehost would rise like a moon against 
the sky, now bright as the hopes of heaven and the dreams of the 
past, and now dark as the fate of a people for whose wrongs its 
recesses seemed to hoard no vengeance. The son was tempted to 
turn against the father, but the Irish people have remained to this 
day examples of strong family affection. Poverty, compared with 
which the condition of the poorest peasant of to-day is opulence, 
was ordained by law, but the chastity of the poor Irish woman 
passed into a proverb. She is beautiful. She is not without 
the love of finery which belongs to her sex. She has the warmth 
of her race, but her purity has been proof against the trials of 
poverty and misfortune, and if in rare cases she falls, she is only 
half ruined ; shame survives ; chastity of soul outlives the degrada- 
tion of vhe body. 

Archbishop King maintained the divine right of kings until he 
felt the knife of James Il.'s persecution. In the same way 
the Presbyterians supported the penal laws until they were made 
to suffer themselves. But the imposition of the sacramental test 
was well fitted to enlarge their views on the subject of liberty of 
conscience.* By the enforcement of this test Presbyterian magis- 
trates, military officers, members of municipal councils were de- 
prived of their offices. In Londonderry, ten out of twelve aldermen, 
and fourteen out of twenty -four burgesses were declared incapable 
of civic trust because they would not submit to this test. Most of 
these had been prominent in the defence of the city during the 
celebrated siege. The Regium Donum was taken away under 
Anne, to be restored, however, under the House of Hanover. 

The war of the revolution showed what the two great races in 
Ireland could do, and what the mixtures of these races could do. 



i! ill 



• The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland. ByW. D. Killen, D.D., President of the 
Presbyterian College, Belfast. Dr. Killen, who speaks out against the oenal laws, 
maintaina Btrongly that the Treaty of Limerick was (violated. 



SIKGE OF DERRY. ENGLISH JEALOUSY. 



27 



The siege of Deny is one of the most glorious things in the history 
of the world ; the siege of Limerick was not less glorious, and the 
besieged achieved a victory, though the fruits of it were, unhappily 
alike for Protestants and Catholics, England and Ireland, de- 
stroyed by bad faith. Yet the men who fought so splendidly at 
Limerick, who afterwards fought so splendidly on the Continent, 
fought badly at the Boyne. Tlie coward James, forgetful of his 
own conduct, taunted the Irish with -doing what he had done. 
But he had had experience, and he should have known that neither 
Irishmen nor Englishmen can do impossibilities, and it is impos- 
sible for raw levies to meet trained troops. The soldiers who had 
training fought at the Boyne as the men of their race have always 
fought, and those who ran away, ran away for reasons which, as 
William and Schomberg knew, would make Englishmen and 
Germans run. The main lesson to learn from this for our im- 
mediate purpose is, that Irishmen if they neglect to comply with 
the conditions of success cannot succeed. There is, perhaps, an- 
other lesson of a more general character but equally apposite, 
which may be gathered from that war and the penal laws. The 
loss which bigotry and oppression entail on the bigot and oppressor 
was never more signally shown. The bigotry of Louis XIV. sent 
the flower of his subjects to recruit, in the time of his utmost 
need, the armies of his deadliest foe. The penal laws swelled the 
French ranks with those heroic exiles before whose deadly charge 
even English valour quailed. 

The jealousy of England was roused at an early period by the 
competition of her own colonists ; and the struggle for free trade 
and for emancipation from English dictation, gave the world a 
period fruitful of splendid eloquence, and of ardent patriotism,* 
and it was under the spell of Flood and Grattan, the modern 
nation of Ireland was born. There was more of a national charac- 
ter about the rebellion of, 1798, than of all the rebellions which 
preceded it. Like its predecessors, horrors ushered it in, and 
horrors followed in its wake. Grattan's great triumph was doomed 
to an early death, because inconsistent with the working of irre- 
sistible forces drawing Ireland closer to Great Britain, and making 
her the great liberriizer of the Empire. 



See Hallam. 



:28 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



1 1 1 



1 



! i 



Ireland has been the foremost assertor of popular rights, and 
an Irishman is the Chief Priest of constitutional liberalism.* Her 
sufferings have given the world a clearer grasp of the principles 
of civil and religious liberty, as her heroism has helped to extend 
and sustain the Empire. While her sons in the Irish and English 
Parliaments have expounded doctrines, she has exemplified them 
in her own person. Catholic emancipation and the struggles lead- 
ing up to it, had an incalculable effect on the progress of the 
world. The Incumbered Estates Act, though it dealt out hard 
measure to the gentry of Ireland, affirmed a valuable proposition. 
Mr. Gladstone's Irish Land Bill will infallibly lead to the passing 
of a similar measure for England ; and, in the fall of the Irish 
Church, outrageous abuse as it was, the English establishment 
heard its knell of doom. To Ireland is due the pregnant 
aphorism — " property has its duties as well as its rights." An 
Irishman was the first writer of the English tongue who denounced 
the traffic in slaves.f 

When we reflect on the way in which this country was kept 
back, its poverty, and its disturbed state, we cannot but marvel 
at the number of great men it has produced ; they have in the 
midst of trouble, which might well have hopelessly distracted, 
left monuments of their genius in every field of science and every 
walk of art, nor is there a cause sacred to human freedom for 
which they have not nobly toiled. 

We shall have to refer by and by to what Irishm^i, who were 
for the most part Protestants, have done ; it will be well here to 
point out how Catholic Irishmen distinguished themselves, though 
I would fain hope that a day of enlightenment is fast approach- 

* " We see the different practical tendenciea of the Irish and English race combined, 
yet distinguishable from each other in the political character of Burke, to whose writ- 
ings we owe more than we are aware, the almost religious reverence with which we re- 
gard the conititntion. . . . His feelings, diffused by his eloquence, have become 
those of oar whole nation." — Goldwin Smith's " Irish History and Irish Character," 
p. 19. 

t Southern. See Hallam. Thomas Sonthem, bom lti59, died 1746, was a native of 
Dublin. Having studied law at the middle Temple, he entered the army, and held 
the rank of Captain under the Duke of York. His latter days were spent in retire- 
ment and in the enjoyment of a considerable fortune. He wrote ten plays, but only 
two exhibit his characteristic powers, "Oroonoko," and "Isabella." Southern's 
Oroonoko anticipated '* Uncle Tom's Cabin." 



IRISHMEN ON THE CONTINENT. 



2» 



ing, when it will be no longer necessary to dwell on these distinc- 
tions. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth century Mountcashel's 
brigade, serving with Catinat in Italy, distinguished themselves 
on fields where their fathers fought two thousand years before 
under Hannibal. It is a waste of enthusiasm to grow dithyram- 
bic over mercenary valour. But at this time a portion of the 
Irish people had no other resource. In a remarkable passage, in 
whi(jh Macaulay describes the crushing effect of the penal laws, 
he tells how Irish Roman Catholics of ability, energy, and ambi- 
tion were to be found everywhere but in Ireland — at Versailles 
and at Saint Ildefonso, in the armies of Frederic and in the armies 
of Maria Theresa. Men who rose to be Marshals of France and 
Ministers of Spain, had they remained in their own country 
would have been regarded as inferior by all " the ignorant and 
wor1)hles8 squireens who had signed the Declaration against 
Transubstantiation. In his palace at Madrid * he had the plea- 
sure of being assiduously courted by the ambassador of George 
the Second, and of bidding defiance in high terras to the ambassa- 
dor of George the Third. Scattered over aU Europe were to be 
found Irish Counts, Irish Barons, Irish Knights of Saint Lewis 
and of Saint Leopold, of the White Eagle and of the Golden 
Fleece, who, if they had remained in the house of bondage, could 
not have been ensigns of marching regiments or freemen of petty 
corporations." In 1698, six regiments were at the siege of Valenza. 
While Irish campaigns were going on in Italy, the garrison of Lime- 
rick landed in France and the second brigade was formed of which 
the greater number assisted at the siege of Namur. In seven days 
Namur was taken. On the 24th July, 1692,Sarsfield — as gallant a 
soldier and as stainless a gentleman as ever lived — commanded the 
brigade, and was publicly thanked at the close. In the March fol- 
lowing he was made a Marshal de Camp. On the 28th July in the 
same year, he met a death which would have been the most enviable 
which could have befallen him, if the cause in which he was 
fighting was country or humanity. It was not even the cause of 
France. It was the caus_ of a tyrant, and the founder of a tyranny 



• Wall, Minister of Ferdinand the Sixth. 



30 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



>tti 



I .1 



ii i 



/ 



which sowed the seeds of miseries for generations of Frenchmen, 
of a tyranny whose refusal to tolerate the Huguenots* prevented 
the extension of toleration to Irish Roman Catholics. He fell on 
the field of Landen, leading his victorious troops. Sarsfield felt 
the sting of the situation. As he lay on the battle-field, he put 
his hand to his breast, and then looking at the palm, stained with 
his life-blood, he cried, " Oh, that this was for Ireland !" In 1701, 
Sheldon's cavalry behaved so well that Sheldon was made Lieu- 
tenant-General. In the following year Cremona was saved by a 
handful of Irishmen at the Po gate. Irish troops were present at 
the battles of Blenheim, of Oudenarde, of Malplaquet ; Iiish troops 
fought at Almanzo under Berwick. How they behaved at Fonte- 
noy,f in 1745, and the exclamation of the king, — " Cursed be the 
laws which deprive me of such subjects !" have given a more than 
common interest to that battle. It has been the theme of patriot 
song- writers, it has furnished a moral for Englishmen battling for 
lustice for their Irish fellow-subjects and Irish brethren. From 
1691 to 1765, more than 450,000 Irishmen died in the service of 
France. 

Under the Consulate and the Empire the Irish rose to high 
employment. As Louis found military genius among the exiles 
of the seventeenth, Buonaparte found among the expatriated of 
'98, two generals and five colonelfci.j On the restoration of the 

* The offer waa made to relieve the Irish Catholics if the French Protestants were 
tolerated. 

t " Fontenoy, the gi-eatest victory over England of which France can boast since 
Hastings." — Alison's Marlborough, vol. II., pp. 434, 435. 

i: " I met Irishmen, indeed, or men of Irish descent, everywhere, and in every rank 
on the continent, and their position teaches a lesson from Europe which it will do us 
no harm to ' inwardly digest.' It is a signal illustration of the xiltimate futility of 
sectarian quarrels and religious persecution, that some of the most prosperous and hon- 
oured families in Ireland are descendant ' f French Huguenots whom Louis XIV. 
drove out of France because they would not beco'ic C;.,tholicB ; and some of the most 
prosperous and honoured families in France are descendant;; of Irish Catholics, whom 
penal laws drove out of Ireland because they would not become Protestants. 

" In the dravrfng-room of the President of the French Republic, who is the natural head 
the exiled families, I met descendants of Irish chiefs who took refuge on the Continent 
at the time of the plantation of Ulster by the first Stuart ; descendants of Irish soldiers 
who sailed from Limerick with Sarsfield, or a little later with the ' wild geese ; ' of Irish 
soldiers who shared the fortunes of Charles Edward ; of Irish peers and gentlemen to whom 
life in Ireland without a career became intolerable, in the dark era between the fall iA 
Limerick and the rise of Henry Grattan ; and kinsmen of soldiers of » later date, who 



|g 



NAPOLEON AND COUNT O'REILLY. 



31 



Bourl)ons, the Irish officers who had risen under Napoleon adhered, 
as we might expect in chivalrous men, to his fortunes ; but in 
their place a new group of Franco-Irish made their appearance, 
the descendants of the men of the brigade. The last sword drawn 
for the Bourbons in 1791 was that of an Irish Count ; their last 
defender in 1830 was an Irish general. Three times during the 
eighteenth century Spain was represented at London by men of 
Irish blood. An Alexander O'Reilly was Governor of Cadiz ; he 
was afterwards Spanish ambassador at the court of Louis XVI. 
" It is strange," said Napoleon, on his second entry into Vienna in 
1809, "that on each occasion on arriving in the Austrian Capital 
I find myself in treaty with Count O'Reilly." Napoleon met 
him on a different scene, for it was his dragoon regiment which 
saved the remnant of the Austrians at Austerlitz. Numerous 
Irish names with high rank attached to them will be found in the 
Austrian army list of the time. In the Peninsula the Blakes, 
0'Donnells,and Sarsfields, reflected glory on their race. An O'Don- 
nell ruled Spain under the late reign, and to-day a MacMahon 
is President of France.* 



began life as United Iriahmen, and ended aa staflf officers of Napoleon. Who can 
measure what was lost to Ireland and the empire, by driving these men and their 
descendants into tlie armies and diplomacy of France ? All of them except the men of 
'98, have become so French that they scarce speak any other language. There is a St. 
Patrick's Day dinner in Pari* every 17th of March, where the company consists chiefly 
of military and civil officers of Irish descent, who duly drovn their shamrock and com- 
memorate the national apostle, but where the language of the speeches is French, 
because no other would be generally understood. I reproached a gallant young soldier 
of this class, whom I met in Paris, with having relinquished the link of a common 
language with the native soil of hia race. " Monsieur," he replied proudly, " when my 
ancestors left Ireland, they would have scorned to accept the language any more than 
the laws of England ; they spoke the native Gaelic' 'Which doubtless,' I rejoined, 
you have carefully kept up : Oo dha mor thatha t ' But, I am sorry to say, he knew as 
little Gaelic as English. During my last visit to the City of Brussels, I saw in the 
atelier of an eminent painter, the wife of a still more emineni sculptor, a portrait 
occupying the place of honour, which exhibited the unmistakable features of an Irish 
farmer ; and the lady pointed it out with pride ae her father, who had been a United 
Irishman, and had to fly from Ireland in '98, when his cause lay in the dust." — From a 
Lecture by Sii C. G. Duffy, in Melbourne. 

" The Marshal looks like an English rather than a French sportsman. His face, 
indeed, is not French, but Irish, and distinctly recalls the origin of his family. The 
MacMahons were Irish Catholics of good descent, who followed the fortunes of the 
Stuarts, and settled and became landed proprietors where the Marshal was bom, via., 
•at Sully (Saone et Loire), some sixty-eight years ago. The MacMahons took kindly to 



82 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Ii I 



/iiftii 




i ' 1 


f*'i 


1 


1 .1 






1 







Within a century, the great Leinster House of Kavanagh 
counted in Europe an Aulic Councillor, a Governor of Prague, a 
Field Marshal at Vienna, a Field Marshal in Poland, a Grand 
Chamberlain in Saxony, a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, a 
French Conventionist of 1793, Godefroi Cavaignac, Co-Editor 
with Armand Carrell and Eugene Cavaignac, sometime Dictator in 
France, and Edward Kavanagh, Minister of Portugal. Russia 
found among the exiles a Governor-General of Livonia. Count 
Thomond was Commander nf. Tjn,TiOTiedne : Lallv was Governor at 
Pondicherry ; O'Dwyer was Commander of Belgrade ; Lacy, of 
Riga ; Lawless, Governor of Majorca. It would be wearisome to 
enumerate further, but dozens might be added to the above list. 

These men, had the laws been what all admit, they should 
have been, would have done their part in consolidating and 



the Bourbons, and the Marshal'a father became a peer of France under Charles X., 
and His Majesty's personal friend. The Marshal, moreover, married into a noble 
family of Lejjitimists. His youth was passed xmder lily leaves. He was a Saiiit- 
Cyrien while the elder Bourbons were at the Tuileries, and when he entered the army 
he went away for years of rough campaigning to that common cradle of modern French 
Generals — Algeria ; ho that he was fighting in Africa while the jimior Bourbon was 
holding his hourgeots court at the Tuileries. A captain of chasseurs at the assault of 
Constantine, he had carved his way— in Algeria always — to the rank of general of bri- 
gade by the time the revolution of 1848 broke out. Then he rose rapidly, keeping the 
while apart from politics. General of division in 1852, Grand Officer of the Legion in 
18.53, in command of a division of infantry under Bosquet in the Crimea, created 
Grand Cross of the Legion and Senator for his part in the assault of the Malakoff ; 
then again fighting in Kabylia in 1857, and Commander-in-Chief of the forces in 
Algeria — MacMahon's services and rewards were many. The crowning glory of his 
military career was won in command of the second corps d'armfe of the Alps in 1859, 
on the field of Magenta, when the Emperor created him Duke of Magenta and Marshal 
of France. The Marshal was deputed to represent his sovereign, which he did with 
extraordinary pomp, at the coronation of William III. of Prussia in 1861 ; and in 1864 
he was Governor-General of Algeria, appointed to carry out the reforms on which the 
Emperor was bent. And lastly he led the army from Chalons to Sedan, where he was 
wounded in time to rid him of the responsibility of surrender. This wound, it has 
been often said, was not the least of Marshal de MacMahon's strokes of luck. But 
the time has not yet come for judgment on De MacMahon's part in the Franco-German 
war ; and he is fortunate in this, that his countrymen bear him no grudge for it, call- 
ing him the modem Bayard, and the ' honest soldier ; ' while they cover his comrades 
of the fatal campaign with mud. His aristocratic and monarchical sjrmpathies have 
whetted the edge of the weapons which the Left has used upon him ; but the rage 
against him that simmers through the cheap Republican papers is provoked by the 
disdain with which he folds himself in his soldier's cloak, keeps his hand near his 
sword, and stands sentinel over the destinies of France, imraovable to the last day of 
his septennaie."—" The Rulers of France."— 2io»id<m World, Jan, 3rd, 1877. 



IRISIIMKN IN INDIA. 



33 



enriching the Brito-Hibernian Empire. Tlie two men to whom wo 
owe it, that we have at this i:ioment an Indian Empire, Ho^ry 
and John Lawrence, who rescued our great Eastein dependenry 
from anarchy, and gave it what bids fair to bo an undtiring and 
fruitful peace, were born in the County of Derry. Sir Robert 
Montgomery, who rose from a humble post in the civil seivice of 
the Bengal Presidency, to be Governor of the Punjaub, who dis- 
tinguished himself as Dire'^tor-General of tho Police for that 
Province, who disarmed the native force at Lahore in 1857, who, 
for his services in restoring tranquillity, received tho thanks of 
both Houses of Parliament, and who retired after thirty-six years 
service with the Grand Cross of the Star of India on his breast, 
was born in the City of Londonderry. Sir James Emorson Ten- 
nent who also did good service for India, and who won for him- 
self a respectable place in literature and in politics, was a native 
of Belfast, as was Sir Henry Pottinger, who was Governor-Gen- 
eral of Hong Kong, and who distinguished himself as a diplomat- 
ist. ' Besides the gallant General Nicholson,' says a writer iu 
Fra^ '9 Magazine, " Ulster has given a whole Gazette-fuil of 
heroet 00 India. It has always taken a distinguished phce in the 
annals of war. An Ulsterman was with Nelson at Trafalgar, 
another with Wellington at Waterloo." it would not be 
easy to enumerate the Irishmen who were with Wellington 
at Waterloo. Wellington himself was an Irishman, and in 
enumerating the Irishmen who have distinguished themselves 
in India, it would be impossible to forget him or his brother. 
General Sir de Lacy Evans, who served with distinction in 
India and in the Peninsula ; who was present at the capture of 
Washington, but returned to Europe in time to take part in the 
battle of Waterloo, where he had two horses shot under him; who 
commanded the British auxiliary Legion raised to aid the Queen 
of Spain against Don Carlos in ^ 835 ; who commanded the Second 
Division of the array in the Crimea, and distinguished himself at 
Alma and at Inkerraan, after which he returned to England and 
received the thanks of Parliament ; who, as a member of parlia- 
ment from 1831 to 1841, and from 1846 to 1865, played an en- 
lightened and a liberal part; this fine old hero was born at Mil- 
town, in 1787. Viscount Gough, a field marshal, who commanded 
3 



in 



84 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



the 87tli ot T!*lavera, Barossa, Vittoria and Nivelle ; who was 
wounded at the Hiege of Tariffa ; whose vogiment at Barossa cap- 
tured the eagle of the 8th French, and iho baton of a marshal at 
Vittoria ; who commanded the land forces in the attack on Can- 
ton ; who defeated the Mahrattas at Maharajpore, capturing fifty- 
six guns ; who defeated the Sikhs at Moodkee, Ferozeshah, and 
Sobrar i ; who finally subdued the Sikhs in 1848-9 ; was born at 
Woodstown, Limerick, in 1779. General Rollo Gillespie, Sir 
Robert Kane, Lord Moira, the Chesneys, were all from Down ; and 
General Wolseley, who does not need to be described for Canadi- 
ans, takes his place side by side with the gi'eat warrior Irishmen. 

Among travellers and explorers Irishmen have taken a dis- 
tinguished place ; Captain Butler, the author of " The Great Lone 
Land," who, as a traveller and a literary man and a soldier, deserves 
a high place in the world's esteem, is an Irishman. Sir John 
Franklin's second in command, Crozier, was from Banbridge. 
Ulster sent McCiintock to find the great explorer's bones, and 
McClure to discover the passage seeking which Franklin fell. 

When we come to statesmen and orators what country can 
show gi'cate.r names ? Even England has produced no man to 
equal Burke, nor could any other country produce the versatility 
of Sheridan. J^ord Palmerston's Irish manner charmed the House 
of Commons nd the English people . afterwards. George 

Canning, "' jvered Wellington, was a son of a Derry man ; 

and — bi »70uld fail me to enumerate the Butts, the Duffys, 

the Plun. .a, the Grattans, the Floods, the Currans, the Shiels, 
the Cairns and the Whitesides. O'Connell stands alone ; in the 
great men of no i^ountry can you find a parallel for him and his 
extraordinary gifts. 

Their preachers and divines have been equally great. The 
most eloquent as well as the ablest man on the English Bench of 
Bishops to-day is Dr. Magee. As a preacher. Father Burke has 
attained a reputation outside his own communion. The Episcopal 
Church in London has no more eloquent preacher than Mr. For- 
rest. The Rev. Dr. Cooke, of Belfast, among the Presbyterians 
Carson, thegi'eat authority among the Baptists; Dr. Adam Clarke 
among the Methodists ; John of Tuam , Br. Doyle , Cardinal 
Oullen among the Roman Catholics are well known. 



ARTISTIC GENIUS. 



86 



When we go into law we should be on ground on which Irish- 
men stand to to > great advantage to make it necessary to dwell on 
their achievements as advocates and jurists. I remember when I 
was a student at the Temple, most of the leadini;;^ Ti\en in West- 
minster Hall were Irishmen, and a half a dozen of the ablest 
judges. The greatest of modern Chancellors, Lord Cairns, waa 
born at Cultra, Co. DoWj 

When we glance into the realm of art, the names of Barry, Mac- 
Use, Hogan, Foley, Crawford, at once strike on the memory. What 
tioops of actors and actresses and singers ! In the museum of 
Oxford as well as in the museum of Trinity, Dublin, the visitor's 
attention is seized by carvings wiought by Irish hands, which 
rival the work of Jean Goujon. When you enter St. Stephen's 
Hall in Westminster Palace, you see on either side marble statues 
of illustrious men. You cannot but do homage to Irish genius, 
not merely because Burke is before you as he arraigned Warren 
Hastings at the bar of outraged humanity, and Grattan emphasi- 
zing with outstretched hand his rythmic sentences. Even in such 
company, the love of liberty will be asserted by th6 noble figure 
of Hampden, strength and balance in every line of the figure and 
every trait of the countenance, and the immortal love of right 
written on his noble brow. You look for the sculptor's name, 
and read " Foley," an Irishman, bom in Dublin in 1S18. Near is 
Selden by the same artist. If you walk down Patrick Street, Cork, 
you will see facing Barrack Hill, the statue of Father Mathew. 
In Dublin, portrait statues of Edmund Burke and Oliver Gold- 
smith, will challenge your admiration. The young civil servant 
from ' Old Trinity,' or the Queen's University, on entering Cal- 
cutta, is struck with wonder by the bronze group, *' Lord Hardinge 
and Charger ; " all these, with many another noble work and price- 
less gem iiave issued from the studio of the great Irish sculptor. 

Among the many things which strike the visitor to Washington, 
nothing leaves so lasting an impress on his memory as the works 
adorning the Capitol ; they are the work of Irish sculptors, 
McDowell and Crawford. The frescoes in Westminster Palace are 
by an Irishman. The hon-^ur of these, and kiixw-dd works, have 
frequently been given, either'to Englishmen or Scotchmen, as the 
gieat men of our earlier period have also been at times filched 




86 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



!-M 




from Ireland. Tliis is acknowledged with great candour by an 
eminent Scotch historian.* These works are, therefore, referrf>d 
to, not to prove that Irishmen have high artistic tastes. That all 
their history proves. It is written not merely on their literature. 
It has left ineffaceable footprints on many a lonely ruin. But it 
is not so generally known, that to-day, as well as in the past, Irish- 
men are among the first in every walk of art, and are in not a 
f e ;v^ instances without rivals. 

In the fields of pure literature and in the drama, it would be as 
idle to point out what Irishmen have done as to remind Canadians 
that Sir John Macdonald and the Honourable George Brown have 
lived amongst them. It is more to the point to remind the reader 
what Mr. Mathew Arnold has demonstrated, that the Celtic has 
supplied to English literature the noblest, the most subtle, and 
the most distinguishing features. The " Idyls of the King " are 
founded on Celtic poems and probably on Irish poems, certainly 
on poems with a large Irish ingredient. We owe the conception 
of the Spectator (of course I mean the Spectator of the 18th cen- 
tury), with all its boundless influence on English literature, to 
Steele ; and the foundation of the great superstructure of the 
Scottish philosophy was laid by an Irishman, Francis Hutchison.-f* 
I do not care to stop to enumerate mere examples of success in a 
given branch of hterature, such as Lover as a humorous novelist, or 
Carleton, or Lever ; nor need one dwe?l on the names of Edgeworth, 
Hamilton, Maxwell, Mayne Reid. The founder of the novel of char- 
acter was an Irishman; the man to «Iiuse writings Thackeraygave 
his days and nights; on whom Dickens formed himself, and imitated 
but imitated in vain ; the author whose chief woik is Thomas 
Carlyle's great book ; — the reader has anticipat^ed the name oi 
Lawrence Sterne. The genius of Swift stands unapproached and 
unapproachable ; and in prose and poetry the genius of Goldsmith 
attained a grace and charm which have never been equalled. 
Moore did not do justice to himself, and he cannot, nor can Irish- 
men complain if less than justice has been done him of late years. 
He wrote much he should never have written; but when all the 

* The Scot Abroad. By John Hill Burton ; 2 Vols. William Blackwood ^i Sons 
Edinburgh and London, 1864. See pp. 1 to 12, "Vol. II. 
t Dr. McCoah. 




MOOBE. 



37 



rubbish has been sent to the pastry cook, there will remain enough 
to vindicate his claim to a place among writers whom posterity 
will not willingly let die. If his melodies could be destroyed, they 
would leave a far larger gap in literature than many supposi^. He 
had not passion enough to be the national poet of Ireland, but 
that position he will maintain until a greater comes the way, and 
he may retain it for ever. Much that is most characteristic of 
Irishmen finds expression in his verse, but it wants breadth of feel- 
ing and intensity. If Moore had suffered more he would have 
been more sympathetic, as the bard of a people whose struggles 
and griefs have been without parallel ; the passionate overwhelm- 
ing love for woman he could not express, for he never experienced 
it ; he had too much Anacreon in him for that ; and in the great sob 
of grief of his people his less profound nature heard only " the deep 
sigh of sadness." For all that, blot him out of English literature 
and replace him if you can. Or seek to imagine that he had never 
existed, and you will begin to realize what is his charm and what 
has been his influence on literature. It was not unfitting that the 
last of the wandering race of harpers should have presented him 
with the harp of Erin. He exemplified the incomparable skill in 
music of the early inhabitants, and did immeasurable service in 
diffusing iuster and luore sympathetic conceptions of Irish 
character. 

In journalism Irishmen have taken the very front rank. The 
editor of the -greatest paper in the world is of Irish blood, and 
perhaps of Irish birth.* His father was manager of the Times 
for many years. The foremost of correspondents, indeed the 
founder of the profession of correspondents, is an Irishman.-f* and 
in the popular literature of the day their busy energy and fertile 
genius are felt. If you were to take from English magazines and 
English newspapers — from English thought, in a word, the ele- 
ments supplied by Ireland, you would letive behind only a splen- 
did ruin.J 

* John Delane, the editor of the Times. The name h the same as Delany. 

+ WiUiam Howard Russell, LL.D., Special Correspondent of the Times. 

t "We would probably detract from our greatness -from the richness of our national 
gif'-s, if the Keltic element of the united people, should be too much drained away 
by emigration."— Goldwin Smith's " Irish History and Irish Character." 





38 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



M 



m. 



Ill 



The Irish intellect is not only gay and humorous but subtle and 
philosophical, with an aptitui'e for mathematical studies. The Irish- 
man lias all the subtlety, inquisitiveness, and fondness for the 
metaphysics of religion of the Celt, with a dreaminess which comes 
from the Teutonic infusion. To this inquisitiveness we owe the 
honour of having produced the first great heretical teacher of 
the Middle Ages, John Scotus Erigena ; and Feargall, the Bishop 
of Salzburg, maintained, to the scandal of the Holy See, that 
the earth was round. 

M. Martin, the French historian, speaking of the Celt of Gaul, 
says : — " From the beginning of historic time, the soil of France 
appears peopled by a race lively, witty, imaginative, eloquent ; 
prone at once to faith and to scepticism, to the highest aspira- 
tions of the soul, and to the attractions of sense; enthusiastic 
and yet satirical ; unreflecting and yet logical ; full of sympathy yet 
restive under dif^cipliiie ; endowed with practical good sense yet 
inclined to illusions ; more disposed to striking acts of self-de- 
votion than to patient and sustained effort ; fickle as regards 
particular things and persons, persevering as regards tendencies 
and the essential rules of life ; equally adapted for action and 
for the acquisition of knowledge ; loving action and knowledge 
each for its own sake ; loving above all, war, less for the sake of 
conquest than for that of glory and adventure, for the attrac- 
tion of danger and the unknown ; uniting, finally, to an extreme 
sociability, an indomitable personality, a spirit which absolutely 
repels the yoke of the external world and the face of destiny.** 

Here we have many features of the modern Irishman and 
nearly all his characteristics, where he is purely Celtic, the strain 
of sadness excepted — that divine melancholy which gives so much 
grace and sweetness to the man. But there is more in the Irish- 
man than meets you on the surface, and the light-hearted gaiety 
develops under responsibility into resolute efficiency, as " Hal " 
passes in a moment into the heroic Henry V., or, to take an illus- 
tration which is also a proof, as the "mischievous boy," Arthur 
Wellesley, the frivolous Aide-de-Camp of Lord Westmoreland, be- 
comes in a few years, " the Iron Duke."* There is, as John 

• " The abilities of Arthur, the younger brother, were of much slower develoijment 



IRISHMEN AND THE GREEKS. 



89 



Stuart Mill used to point out, and Mr. Mabaflfy has shown in 
detail, a great similarity between the old Greeks and Irishmen. 
All the delicate tact, the natural politeness of the Greek, he pos- 
sesses ; his love of art ; his delight and skill in music ; aptitude for 
oratory and acting ; the literary faculty in high development. 
But he can boast of other and still nobler qualities to which the 
Greek was a stranger.-f* 

In the lament of Andromache over Hector, in the Iliad, we have 
a heart-rending picture of the condition of unprotected children 
in Greece. If Hector's child escapes the " tearful war," nothing 
remains for him but ceaseless woe. Strangers will seize on his 
heritage. No young companions will own the orphan. He hangs 
on the skirts of his father's friends, and it is well if they do not 
spurn him. If they in pity at their tables 

" let him sip a cup, 
Moisten his lips, but scarce his palate touch, 
\VTiile youths with both surviving parents blest, 
May drive him from the feast with blows and taunta t 
' Begone, thy father sits not at our board ! ' 
Then weeping, to his widowed mother's arms 
He flies," 



[than his brother's.] The late Earl of Leitrim, who was with him at a small private 
school in the Town of Portarlington, used to speak of him to me as a singularly dull, 
backward boy. Gleig, late Chaplain-General, in his interesting ' Life ' of the great 
Captain, says that his mother, believing him to be the dunce of the family, not only 
treated him with indifference, but in some degree neglected his education. At Eton, 
his intellect was rated at a very low standard ; his idleness in school hours not being 
redeemed, in the eyes of his fellows, by any proficiency in the play gr()und. He waa a 
' dab ' at no game, could handle neither bat nor oar. As soon as he passed into the 
remove, it was determined to place him in the ' fool's profession,' as the army in those 
days was called. * * * It is a matte" of notoriety that he was refused a 
ooUectorship of customs on the ground of his incompetency for the duties ; and I have 
leason to believe that a letter is now extant from Lord Mornington (afterwards Lord 
Wellesley) to Lord Camden, declining a commission for his brother Arthur in the army, 
on the same grounds. When he became Aidc-de-'"'amp to Lord Westmoreland, the 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, his acquaintance with the usages of society was as limited 
aH could well be possessed by any lad who hat! passed through the ordeal of a public 
school. Moore alli:des, in his journal, to the c-iaracte'- for frivolity young Wellesley 
had acquired while a member of the viceregal staif . An old lady told me that when any 
of the Dublin belles received an invitation to a pic-nic, they stipulated as a condition of 
its acceptance that ' that mischievous boy, Arthur Wellesley, should not be of the 
party.' "— " Fifty Years of my Life." 13y George Thomas, Earl of Albemarle, pp. 219 
-220. 

t " The delicate tact with which unpleasant subjects are avoided in conversation, 
shows how easily men were hurt by them, and how perfectly the speaker could fore- 



-& 



40 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



How different is the conduct of the Irish peasants to destitute 
children. The parents may be dead or they have perhaps emi- 
grated. Do the friends of the absent or dead parents deal harshly 
with the helpless children ? So far from this, they give the or- 
phan a place at their scanty board.* Thackeray well says that 
DO Irishman ever gave a charity without adding a kind word 
which was better than the gift. Their sociability is indeed a 
charming talent, and it would seem that like the Greeks too, their 
heads are not made to bear much strong drink ; and for that rea- 
son, if one word of preaching is permissable, they should avoid 
alcohol, especially in the form of ardent spirits.^ 

"From a combination of causes— some creditable to them, some 
other than creditable," says Mr. Froude,J " the Irish Celts possess 
on their own soil a power greater than any other known family 
of mankind, of assimilating those who venture among them to 
their own image. Light-hearted, humorous, imaginative, suscep- 
tible through the entire range of feelings, from the profoundest 
pathos to the most playful jest, if they possess some real virtues, 
they possess the counterfeits of a hundred more. * * » 
They have a power of attraction which no one who has felt it can 
withstand. * * * Brave to rashness. * * * Passionate 



tell it by his own feelings. In fav.., so keenly alive are the Homeric Greeks to this 
great principle of politeness, that it interferes ^th their truthfulness, just as in the 
present day the Irish peasant, with the same lively imagination and the same sensi* 
tiveness, will instinctively avoid disagreeable thiags, even if ti-ue, and * prophesy 
smooth things,' when he desires especially to please. He is not less reluctant to be 
the bearer of bad news than the typical messenger of Greek tragedy." — Social Life 
in Greece. By the Eev. J. P. Mahaflfy, p. 25. 

* See "Social Life in Greece." By J. P. Mahaflfy, pp. 31, 32. 

+ " It is a difficult problem to explain how the Greeks managed to get drunk. Three 
parts of water to two of wine was the usual proportion ; four to tliree was thought 
strong, equal parts made them mad. I am unable to discover whether their winea 
were stronger or their heads weaker than ours. This is certain, that to them their 
wines were as strong as whiskey is to us. Their entertaiimients were about as order- 
ly as our gentlemen's parties, and intellectually, something like an agreeable assem- 
blage of university men, particularly among lively people, like the Irish. This is, I 
think, a jiinter verdict than taking Plato for an historical guide, as some Germans have 
done, and talking bombast about the loftiness and splendor of Attic conversation. To 
my taste, indeed, the description of his feast (symposium) abounds far too much in long 
speeches, which are decidedly tedious, and which would certainly not be tolerated at 
any agreeable party iu Ireland where thin is the branch of culture thoroughly under- 
Btood." — "Social Life in Greece,*' p. 319. 

i Vol. L, page 21. 



GENEROSITY. 



41 



in everything, passionate in their patriotism, passionate in their re- 
ligion, passionately courageous, passionately loyal and affec- 
tionate. * * * They possess and have always possessed some 
qualities the moral worth of which it is impossible to over-esti- 
mate, and which are rare in the choicest races of mankind. * * 
Wherever and in whomsoever they have found courage and 
capacity, they have been ready with heart and hand to give their 
services, and whether a le in sacrificing their lives for their 

chiefs, or as soldiers in l1 jt^^-^-nch or English armies, or as we 
now know them in the form of modem police, there is no duty 
however dangerous . nd difficult, from which they have been 
found to flinch, no temptation however cruel, which tempts them 
into unfaithfulness."* 

While such testimony can be found, and from such a quarter, 
an Irishman may stand aside. " The sums of money," says Mr. 
Gold win Smith, " which have been lately transmitted by Irish 
emigrants to their friends in Ireland, seem a conclusive answer to 
much loose denunciation of the national character, both in a moral 
and in an industrial point of view." Sir John Davies testified 
that no man loved equal justice more than the Irish Celt, and this 
feeling would not be lessened by Norman and Teutonic admixtures. 
The crimes committed by Whiteboys had their counterpart in 
England, as Macaulay shows, under the Norman, and indeed Eng- 
land bears away the palm from Ireland in crime. The Irishman 
is singularly free from a class of loathsome offences which are 
common elsewhere; and shooting landlords, which is dying out or 
has wholly died out under wise legislation, was the offspring of 
bad laws and crying injustice. Agrarian conspiracy implies no 
propensity to ordinary crime, either on the part of the wretched 
peasant who reverts to the wild justice of revenge, or on the part 
of those who screen him from detection. But for agrarian out- 



* The historian of V.^yoming tells of anirish settler," an old man named Fitzgerald," 
whose fidelity has the true ring. " The Indians and their allies placed him on a flax- 
brake and told him he must renounce his rebel principleB and declare for the king or die. 
* Well,' sain "the stout-hearted old fellow, ' I am old and have little time to live any- 
how, and I had rather die now a friend of my country than live ever so long and die » 
Tory.' They had magnanimity enough to let him go." — Miner's Hist, of Wxpming, 
pasre200. 



^i! 



42 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



I ii;,i 



li 



rages * the judges of assize in most parts of Ireland would often 
have had white gloves, the proportion of agrarian to all the 
other crimes being very large, something like seven to ten, and, 
as has already been indicated, agrarian crimes will soon be un- 
heard of. 

In Munster, in 1833, there were 627 whiteboy or agrarian 
crimes, against 246 crimes of all other descriptions. The influence 
of just laws, and the readiness of the Irish character to respond 
to them, is shown by the marked change wrought by Mr. Glad- 
stone's legislation. In the years 1873 and 1874 the average num- 
ber of agrarian crimes for all Ireland was 233, against 324 in the 
two preceding years, and in 1874 crimes of this class were 41 less 
than in 1873. But mere statistics do not convey the full effect 
produced within recent years, because they do not convey the im- 
provement in the bearing and sentiments of the farmers and 
peasantry.*!* 

When we come to ordinary offences, we find the state of things 
full of grounds for hope. The whole number of indictable 
offences in 1874 was 6,662, of which more than half were com- 
mit'^ed in Dublin. 

In regard to crimes against property, the statistics show that 
Ireland stands in a more favourable position than England by 
35 per cent., but riots and assaults are more common in Ireland, 
while indictable offences, disposed of summarily, are 17 per cent. 
more common in England ; thefts 56 per cent. ; aggravated assaults 
on women and children, 39 per cent. In the Province of Ulster, 
in 1874, the total of offences of all kinds was 59,976, whilst in 
portion of the population of Scotland, equal to that of Ulster, it 
was in 1873, 71,313, the balance being 19 per cent, in favour of 
Ireland. + Scotland consumes a much greater quantity of intoxica- 
ting liqtiors than Ireland, but the Scotchman can bear more 

• " It would be unjust to confound these agrarian conspiracies with ordinary crime, 
>r to suppose that they imply a propensity to ordinary crime, either on the part of 
those who commit them, or on the part of the people who connive at and favour their 
Bommission." — Goldwin Smith's Essay, p. 163. 

t See "Remarks on a Kecfnt Irish Election." Frazer's Magazine, August, 1875. 
Hie writer, an Ulsterman, settled in Tipperary, says a revolution has taken place in 
ihe feelings of the people. 

X See Professor Hancock's Statistics. 






THE GENTRY. 



4» 



alcohol, and ho is more prudent in his cups than the Irishman, of 
which fact the lesson is obvious. 

It is hard to speak of tihe events of '48, without doing more 
harm than good. The tone of England, the legislation of the Im- 
perial Parliament, have changed since the dreadful years of which 
no Irishman can think without tears, whose miseries it would be 
hard for any man born wheresoever, to realize without pain and 
humiliation. The indictment which can be drawn up against the 
Irish gentry is a dreadful one. This does not prove that Irish 
gentlemen were worse than other men ; it only proves what has 
been made too palpable in the history of humanity, that human 
greed is too strong for human brotherhood, and that no man can 
be trusted not to abuse power ; for the Irish gentry were not un- 
worthy of the great people of whom they should have been the 
leaders.* A class more fruitful in great men has never existed in 
any country, but they, like the peasants, were the victims of bad 
laws. The duties of the nobles, who spent the fruits of Irish soil in 
Paris and in London, wore, in an aristocratic country, thrown on 
them, and their lavish expenditure was the consequence; nor were 
they all wanting in sympathy for the tenant. To this day in 
England, even with the ballot, the tenant is so cowed that he 
is afraid to vote against his landlord ;-|- nor is there any protection 
on which man can rely against the cupidity of his brother man, 
but equal laws equally administered. 



* The following testimony to the Irishman from Mr. Froude's History, embraces 
all classes : — " We lay the fault on the intractableness of race. The modem Irishman 
is of no race — that is to say, he is of the Irish race, which is a distinct type, and most 
valuable to the world, a type as distinct from the Saxon as the Gelt, so blended now 
is the blood of Celt and Dane, Saxon and Norman, Scot and Frenchman. The Irish- 
man of the last centiH-y rose tohis natural level, whenever he was removed from his own 
unh ippy country, iu the seven years' war, Austria's best Generals were Irishmen. 
Brown was an Irishman, Lacy was an Irishman, O'Donnell's name speaks for him ; 
and Lally Tollendal who punished England at Fontenoy, was O'Mullally of ToUendally. 
Strike the names of Irishmen out of our own public service, and we lose the heroes of 
our proudest exploits — we lose the Wellesleys, the Pallisers, the Moores, the Eyres, 
the : 'ooteg, tha Napiers ; we lose half the oflBcers and half the privates wlio conquered 
India for us, and fought our battles in the Peninsula. What the Irish could do as 
enemies, wo were about to learn when the Ulster exiles crowded to the standard of 
Washington. What they can be, even at home, we know at this present hour. " 

+ See the London correspondent of the Toronto OloLe, of Oct. 28th, 1876, on tha 
Buckin{.5hamshire election. 



i\ 



ffj" 



\<m. 



"■ ll 



M 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Since '48 the events of that time have been judged by the actors 
themselves, and it has been acknowledged that tlie relation be- 
tween England and Ireland has changed for the better. If any 
one reads John Mitchel's diary, he will see how John Mitchel 
looked back on the fiasco with which he was connected, with feel- 
ings of exaggerated shame. In a book published for circulation 
among the Irish in the United States, the writer condemns in the 
strongest language the attempts of the Confederates to produce an 
armed revolution in Ireland.* Many popular Irish papers shew by 
their moderation that the Irishmnn is not like the Bourbon who 
his learned nothing and forgot nothing.-f* 

Since '48 two of the leaders have been servants of the crown, 
and one has accepted an imperial title.;}: '48 was a fiasco — which, 
as is sometimes the case, did more good than if the movement had 
been a success ; if it deserves praise it deserves it because the aim 
was impossible. No momentary independence was attained, but 
a powerful lift forward was given to the cause which triumphed 
in 1868 and 18G9. It added to the number of the national heroes ; 
it inspired the muse of Davis, and the life and oratory of McGee. 

In an English magazine of acknowledged power and influence,§ 
a writer, who describes himself as of " Scoto-Presbyterian descent, 
and born and educated in one of the most Presbyterian parts of 
Ulster," gives facts which it would be well to recall when it is even 
still the fashion to speak as if Irish insurrections arose from some 
unaccountable perversity of nature, instead of from the most 
vicious laws which have ever disgraced and degraded a country. 
It is Mr. Froude who tells us that " Lord Burleigh, who possessed 
the quality of being able to recognize faults in his own country- 
men, saw and admitted that the Flemings had no such cause to 
rebel against the oppression of the Spaniards, as the Irish against 
the tyranny of England." It is a long step from Burleigh to 



* See the preface to " The Men of '48," by Col. James E. McGee. 

t See an article in the Irish Canadian, Oct. 25th, 1876, warning the " men of action" 
^at they might do incalculable harm to their country. 

X Thomas D'Arcy McGee, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Emigration in 
Canada. Charles Gavau Duffy, at one time Prime Minister of Australia, and who is 
low Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. 

§ See FrOfSer's Magazine, August, 1875. The article is " Remarks on a Recent Irish 
Election. " The recent Irish election was that in which John Ivlitchell was returned. 



GLADSTONE S LEGISLATION. 



45 



Beaconsfield. Mr, Disraeli, in 1843, said a country in the condi- 
tion of Ireland, had nothing for it but to rebel. And what does 
this man of " Scoto-Presbyterian descent" say of the events of '48? 
He tells us that his Ulster birth and Presbyterian prejudices have 
not been able to blind him to the excellencies of the Munster char- 
acter. Nor can he understand why love of country should not be 
more generally appreciated in the Irishman. The German is 
praised for his love of Fatherland, the Frenchman honoured for de- 
voting fortune and life to the service of his country, everything 
English is made the standard of perfection all over the world by 
the Englishman. " In this love of country," says the writer, 
" and the inherent gratitude of the Irish peasantry, will be found 
the true solution of the much misinterpreted, but unanimous elec- 
tion of the formerly expatriated John Mitchel. " 

The writer contends that there was nothing disloyal in the vote 
cast for Mitchel. Since the passing of the Land Act, the majority 
of the voters have " no desire to repeal the Union," as this would 
be " parting company with the best consumers of their beef and 
mutton, their oats and flour." The reason, then, why a sol' ] vote 
was cast for Mitchel, was not because they would now approve 
of his policy of '48, but because they felt that when Ireland 
needed an honest voice, Mitchel supplied it ; and also that in the 
improved state of things, when an alien church had been deposed, 
a great measure of justice done to the tenants, the daily wages of 
the labourer doubled, evictions for non-payment of rent almost 
unheard of, Tipperary become a model county of peace and quiet- 
ness, a great government might have allowed the returned rebel 
to take his seat. 

When D'Arcy McGee was taunted in the Canadian Parliament 
with having been a rebel, he answered it was true he had rebelled 
against the mis-government of his country, because he saw his 
countrymen starving before his eyes, while his country had her 
trade and commerce stolen from her. " I rebelled," he added, 
" against the Church Establishment in Ireland ; and there is not a 
Liberal man in this community who would not have done as I 
did, if he were placed in my position and followed the dictates ol 
hum8,nity." It has been alleged in defence of the Government ol 
the day that it did not cause the blight of that agreeable but ill- 



I 



46 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



starred root the potato; "but" says the Scoto-Presbyterian, 
" when the i)otato crop was gone, its laws did not permit the 
starving inhabitants to touch any other of the produce that their 
own hands had roarod." Those laws permitted distraint of the 
stock, crop, and every species of produce. It was a common thing 
to put on the farm, when the crop was ripe, a keeper who was 
kept at the farmer's expense, " till the crop was reaped, thrashed, 
and converted into money," which passed directly to the pocket of 
the landlord, who frequently gave only a receipt on account. The 
people were starving, and plenty of food in the country. During 
the dreadful agony, famine filling the road sides and the hovels 
with gaunt victims, fever following on famine's heels, there was 
no break in the exportation to Great Britain of oats, flour, beef, 
pork and mutton. " Why did not the starving peasantry seize on 
these things — the produce of their own labour ? Because they 
were guarded in safety from our shores, by British troops.' The 
chief duty of the troops in the assize towns was to guard the flour 
on its transit from the mills to the port. It was against this 
monstrous state of things that the men of '48 uttered a wild, de- 
spairing cry. Wild, because despairing ; and despairing, because 
the past gave no ground for hope. But thank God ! those times 
are no more ; the dark night is over, and the dawn of another day 
is bright with happy promise. 

But the Imperial Parliament must not think that its work is 
finished, nor grow disheartened if, after centuries of wrong, j ust 
laws do not produce immediately all the results hoped for. 
Happily, all progress is slow ; though the slowness entails many 
evils, yet worse evils would result from greater rapidity of move- 
ment. Property in land is like property in nothing else, and the 
sooner Irish landlords and Irish peasants cease to speak as if men 
could be absolute owners of the land, the better. No man, in a 
country as thickly populated as Ireland or England, has a right 
to draw revenue from land, the duties incidental to the possession 
of which he does not discharge. The time is at hand when as 
short work must be made of absentees as Henry VIII. would have 
made of them. Nc^', of course, should any man be permitted to de- 
stroy a country's fruitfulness. If people will not do their duty as 
landowners, they must not be robbed ; they must get the value of 



ill i 



IRELAND IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



47 



their interest in the land, which must then be handed over at a 
proper price to those who will do the duty arising out of owner- 
ship. 

In Ireland at the present moment there are not more than 
40,000 persons owning the twenty million odd acres.and 5,806,000 
acres are possessed by two hundred and seventy-four persons. 
Sixty-three proprietors have more than a fifth of the soil of Lein- 
ster ; sixty-seven about a fourth of Munster ; ninety a good deal 
more than a third of Ulster ; and fifty-four about the same quan- 
tity of Connaught. 

The course of Ireland for a century would suggest thnt special 
legislation would be for the benefit of that country. Free trade, 
as the statement of a great general truth, is unassailable ; but 
when we come to apply it to countries in various stages of deve- 
lopment, and differing in resources, we see at once that it gives 
advantage to one over the other. But for protection the United 
States of America would be sending across the Atlantic for their 
knives and forks and reaping hooks. Now they could probably 
hold their own in the markets of the world, and therefore ought 
to adopt free trade. Ii'eland is undoubtedly specially suited for 
pasture. But if her mineral resources, small though they are, 
were developed, she would be much richer, and the farmers would 
be still better off. 

Ireland was, in the middle of the 18th century, a country of all 
but limitless pasturages. At the period of Arthur Young's visit, 
a century ago, a change had set in. Yet he found one grass farm 
of ten thousand acres, and not a few sheep walks of five or six 
thousand acres. It is important to note that it was not natural 
adaptability which brought about this state of things. One cause 
was the scarcity of labour consequent on the incessant wars of the 
17th century. But there followed on the Treaty of Limerick 
three-quarters -of a century of repose. Population increased, but 
still cattle farming was continued. The penal laws prohibited 
Catholics from buying or leasing lands. Competition between 
tenants was kept down. Thus the breaking up of farms was 
prevented. The markets of England and the Colonies were 
closed against the Irish farmer, and he had no motive for increas- 
ing production. Besides, the disqualification of Catholics lulled 



«8 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



the ProtoHtanta into a lethargic confidence. Couiplaints at last 
arose that there was not enough food grown for the population, 
which had greatly increased. The Irish parliament offered a 
bounty for all corn imported from the inland rural districts into 
Dublin. The efTect was immediate. Arthur Young noticed in 
1776 that the richest i)asturages of Tipperary and Limerick were 
being broken up. The outbreak of the American war gave a new 
impulse to this movement. England, facing a world in arms, was 
forced to grow within the three kingdoms the food she required 
for her vast armaments by sea and land, and this raised enor- 
mously th o price of com. The extensive grass farms disappeared. 
The land was ^^roupht under tillage, and population increased, as 
it were, at a bound. The war against revolutionary France cre- 
ated a still greater lemand for agricultural produce, and Ireland 
was completely converted into a tillage country. Waterloo sud- 
denly put an end to the factitious demand, and intense distress 
was the resuJt. To relieve the farmer, the com laws were passed, 
laws, which having fulfilled their purpose, were abolished amid 
the hungry cries of a starving people. 

Thus the agricultural economy of Ireland was completely revo- 
lutionized in something over half a century. A country of pas- 
tures became a country of tillage ; a country of large farms a 
country of minute holdings; an independent yeomanry gave 
way to dependent peasant occupyers, and the population increased 
at an appalling rate from about two to eight and a half millions. 

On the repeal of the com laws the farmers of Ireland found 
themselves exposed to competitors on the coast of the Black Sea 
and the banks of the Danube. Ireland might have sustained the 
competition of Russians, Hungarians, and Roumanians, had not 
the United States entered the field and suddenly become a great 
exporter of grain. The Irish and German immigrations led to the 
rapid opening up and settlement of the corn fields of the Missis- 
sippi valley, and the additional competition proved too much for the 
Irish farmers who had, with a worse market, to pay more for labour, 
and the cultivation of wheat began immediately to decline. In 
1847, though in that year, owing to the failure of the potato crop 
and the consumption of seed com for food, there was a great fall- 
ing oflf in cultivation, there were sown 745,000 acres of wheat, 



PASTURAaE. 



49 



while in 1875 only 15!>,00() acres were sown. The decreaHe in 
other grain crops, with the exception of barley, is e(iually marked, 
the (Icinimd for l)arley being kept up by whiskey-distillation. 
The decrease still goes on. South America and India are extend- 
ing the area of competition, and it is thought not unlikely that the 
cultivation of wheat for sale may cease altogether. There is a 
great increase in cattle-feeding crops, but only enough to balance 
the decrease in acres under gi-ain. The area under cultivation is 
now no larger than it was in 1841, while the number of homed 
cattle has nearly trebled and the number of sheep has nearly 
doubled. Thus the fiscal legislation of thirty years and the for- 
eign competition it introduced, have undone the revolution in 
the direction of tillage, and almost restored the agricultural 
economy of the middle of the last century. The number of acres 
under crops of all kinds, in 1875, including maadows and clover 
was only 5,332,813 ; while 10,409,320 acres were given up to 
grass. The whole area under crops proper was only about 
3,500,000 acres or about a sixth of the entire country. 

Breeding and feeding cattle make very small farms impossible ; 
sheep require extensive runs. Cattle give employment to very 
few hands. As we might expect, the population and holdings 
have decreased. The number of holdings of from one acre to five 
acres in extent, have diminished in thirty years from 310,486 to 
69,098, or at the enormous rate of 777 per cent. In 1841, the 
number between five and fifteen acres was 252,799 ; in 1875 the 
number was 166,959, a decrease of 34 per cent. Those over fif- 
teen, however, have increased. On the whole number of holdings 
the decrease has been one-fourth.* 

The great majority, perhaps all, of those who " own " the land 
are more or less inveterate absentees, and if they do not do their 
duty, they oug ^ to be taught that others will. The drastic 
measure, the Incumbered Estates Act, must be followed by another 
dealing with worse incumbrances than debt. It is not just to 
leave the minerals unutilized ; and when a large addition is made 
to the manufacturing population, then in the best and happiest 
way a check will be put on the present tendency, which bids fair 



* I am nidebUd to the Saturday Beview for the above facts. 



V Ji! 



{0 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






if allowed free course, to make Ireland a land of grazing fioiud 
and a waste of sheep walks. The history of Ireland shows the 
reverse of the teaching of Goldsmith to be the truth. A " bold 
peasantry " can, by legislation, be called into, or blotted out ot 
existence. Tho Irishman in Canada can rejoice that his adopted 
home is free from absentees and is rich in minerals 

Home Rule has had no influence on emigration to this coun- 
try, and the scope of this book does not lead me to discuss it here. 
Nor, again, had Fenianism any effect on this country's population. 
The most miserable of all attempts ever made on the peace of a 
people, called out the patriotic feelings of Canadians of all classes, 
and of every nationality. It was a Fenian bullet which, all too 
soon, just when his great powers were really ripening, deprived 
the world of D'Arcy McGee, These are the two sinister events 
which connect Canada in any way with Fenianism, and they call 
for no comment. Even Thomas Clarke Luby, when brought to 
Toronto last St. Patrick's day to lecture on Ireland, could not 
withhold the expression of his shame at the conduct of the Fenian 
raiders, and emphatically declared he had no sympathy whatever 
with them. 



JHAPTER III. 



What Irish and English statesmanship did for the United States 
is scarcely sufficiently recognized, The Irish Commons refused to 
vote £45,000 for the war against the American colonists. Burke, 
Barr^, and Sheridan wrote openly in defence of their transatlantic 
fellow-subjects. In France, McMahon, Dillon, Roche, Fermoy, 
General Conway, and other experienced military men, were ready 
to volunteer into the American service. It was the victory of 



^i 




MONTGOMERY. 



51 



Brito-Hibernian troops which made the United States possible ;• 
and when the citizens of the Republic look back to the dawn of 
her career of wealth and freedom and greatness, they will see 
clear, even through the mists of centuries, the romantic figure of 
the lover-soldier falling at the moment his charge broke the lines 
of Montcalm, and near him Irishmen whose names are only less 
illustrious than their English commander's. 

Irish historians have dwelt with too much delight on legends. 
I shall avoid this mistake, nor be tempted to dilate on St. Bran- 
don's discovery of America in A.D. 545.^ We are on solid ground, 
however, when we remind the reader that in 1518, Baron de L^ry, 



• " The fall of Montcalm in the moment of his defeat, completed the victory ; and the 
snbmiasion of Canada put an end to the dream of a French empire in America. In 
breaking through the line with which France had striven to check the westward advance 
of the English colonists, Pitt had unconsciously changed the history of the world. His 
support of Frederick and of Prussia, was to lead in our own day to the erection of a 
United Germany. His conquest of Canada, by removing the enemy whose dread knit 
the colonists to the mother-country, and by flinging open to their energies, in the days 
to come, the boundless plains of the West, laid the foundation of the United States." — 
Green, p. 737. 

t The "Life of Saynt Brandon" in the Gold Legend, Published by Wynkyn de 
Wbrde, 1483, Fol., 357. The voyage was a favourite theme with the early romance 
writers. An English translation of an early French revision ^yill|be found in Black- 
wood's Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. xxxix. Mr. D. F. McCarthy published, a quarter of 
century ago (Dublin 1850), an admirable poem on the subject. Mr. McCarthy, as will 
be seen from one or two stanzas, caught the music of an earUer century than the nine- 
teenth. 

At length the long-expected morning came, 

When from the opening anns of that wild bay. 
Beneath the hill that bears my humble name. 
Over the wavep we took our untracked^way. 
Sweetly the mom Is./ on tarn and rill ; 

Gladly the waves played in its golden light, 
And the proud t>.p of the majestic hill, 
Shone on the azrire air — serene and bright. 

All that pathetic, half-u^..ai^onable and wholly noble and beautiful lore whicL 
an Irinhman cherishes for the home of his race comes out in the following t 

Over the sea we flew that sunny mom, 

Not without natural tears and human sighs ; 
For who can leave the land where he was born, 

And where, perchance, a buried mother lies, 
Wliere all the friends of riper manhood dwell, 

And where the playmates of his childhood sbep j 
Who can depart, and breathe a cold farewell, 

Nor let his eyes tlieir honest tribute weep? 



58 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






1 1 t; I 



the blood in whose veins, like his name, was Irish, with a com- 
pany of colonists landed on Sable Island, off the coast of Nova 
Scotia, 

In the eighteenth century, Irishmen were met on all sides in 
America They were successful traders, successful sailors, success- 
ful soldiers, successful as interpreters ; and some of them, if this 
will not sound like a bull, successful Indian chiefs.* The Republic 
below the line should never forget what they did for that great 
free empire ; nor should the Irishman in the second or third gene- 
ration be other than proud of the rock whence he was hewn. The 
first naval capture made in the name of the United Colonies was 
made by five brothers, whose father, Maurice O'Brien, was a na- 
tive of Cork. " This affair," says Cooper, in his History of the 
United States Navy " was the Lexington of the seas." There 
were dozens of Irishmen in command after 1775. 

The ban laid on Irish manufactures, in IGSS,*!- and the rack- 
rents, sent multitudes of Protestants and Catholics across the 
Atlantic, According to Dobbs, writing a few years after, three 
thousand males left Ulster yearly for the Colonies. In 1699, 
James Logan, of Lurgan, accompanied William Penn to Pennsyl- 
vania, and became one of the foremost men in the colony. He 
was a strong Protestant, and with a firmer grasp of the large 
views and liberal tolerance at the base of Protestantism than were 



■m.- ! 



Our little bark, kissing the dimpled smiles 

On ocean's cheek, flew like a wanton bird. 
And then the land, with all its hundred isles 

Faded away, and yet we spoke no word. 
Each silent tongue hold converse with the past; 

Each moistened eye looked round the circling wave ; 
And, save the spot where stood our trembling mast, 

Saw all things hid within one mighty grave. 

See D'Arcy McGee's " Irish Settlers," a book without which this chapter could not 
have been written in Canada. 

* " More than one Irishman was naturalized in the forest, like Stark and Houston, 
and obeyed as chiefs. Of the numbei was the strange character known as Tiger Rorke, 
at one time the friend of Chesterfield and the idol of Dublin drawing-rooms ; at another, 
the tattooed leader of an Iroquois war party." — "The Irish Settlers in North America." 
By Thomas D'Arcy McGee. 

t " All the other oppressions of the Irish were of no importance compared with the 
destniction of their trade for the benefit of English producers." p. 399. Alahaffoy'a 
•• Social History of Greecet" 



ll 


1 

'1 


1 





FOUNDERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



53 



general then. ]Cven the Quaker Penn reproves him for his 
liberality. " There is," writes Penn from London, in 1708, " a 
complaint against your government that you suffer public Mass." 
Logan's example proved contagious, and so early as 1730, we find 
in the interior of the State, townships called Derry, Donegal, 
Tyrone, and Ccleraine. In 1729, the Irish emigrants, who 
landed in Philadelphia, were ten to one of all the European 
nationalities, an influx which continued tiU the close of the cen- 
tury. Among the Irish emigrants, in 1729, was Charles Clinton, 
whose three sons were to play so prominent a part in the annals 
of New York. A large Irish immigration settled in Maryland, in 
Virginia, and in South Carolina. Among the Irish settlers in 
South Carolina occur the famous names of Rutledge, Jackson, and 
Calhoun. North Carolina also received the Irish contingent 
which contained a governor in James Moore, who headed the re- 
A'olution in 1775. In the settlement of Kentucky Irishmen played 
their part. " For enterprise and daring courage," says Marshall,* 
" none transcended Major Hugh McGrady," and he gives a list of 
others deserving honourable mention. If the reader wishes to 
know what a noble pioneer the Irishman of those days made, let 
him read the early history of Kentucky, and what Simon Butler 
did and endured. In Delaware also, several Irish families made 
their homes, and in the contests between the settlers, Colonel 
Plunkett and Thomas Neill are prominent. The United States 
owe all their celebrated Butlers to the cadets of the great Ormond 
stock. 

In the colony of Massachusetts Bay, a meeting was held in 1725, 
a,t Haverhill, for settling the town of Concord, and with the view 
of excluding the Irish, it was resolved " that no alienation of any 
lot should be made without the consent of the community." Irish 
families who presumed to make a settlement were warned oflf. 
But they held their ground, and nothing came of the threat. In 
the capital of New England, in 1737, we find a body of " Irish 
gentlemen oi the Irish nation banding themselves together in a 
charitable society, for the relief of such of their poor indigent 
■countrymen, without any design of not contributing towards the 



History of Kentucky. 




it 



54 



TfiE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



provision of the town poor in general, as usual." This was in the 
main a Protestant Benevolent Society, and the 8th article of the 
Constitution declared that none but Protestants were eligible for 
office or committee work. The Londonderry settlement took 
place in the spring of 1719.* It consisted of sixteen families, who 
brought with them to the new world the stern fibre which would 
not surrender to death, armed with famine. They were all of the 
Presbyterian faith, and in process of time spread over Windham, 
Chester, Litchfield, Manchester, Bedford, Goffstown, New Boston, 
Antrim, Peterborough, Ackworth, in New Hampshire, and Bar- 
nett, in Vermont. Their descendants were the first settlers in 
many towns in Massachusetts and Maine, and they are now to the 
number of tens of thousands scattered over all the States of the 
Union.-f- Cherry Valley, New York, was in part peopled from Lon- 
donderry. A few families from Belfast, in 1723, established an 

* " He (the Ulster man), pushes along quietly to the proper place, nc* using his 
elbows too much, and is not hampered by traditions like the Celt. He succeeds partic- 
ularly well in America and in India, not because UlBter men help one another, and po 
on like a corporation ; for he is not clannish like the Scottish Highlanders or the Irish 
Celts, the last of whom unfortunately stick together like bees, and drag one another 
down instead of up. No foreign people succeed in America unless they mix with the 
native population. It is out of Ulster that her hardy sons have made the most of their 
talents. It was an Ulster man of Donegal, Francis Mackamie who founded Ameri- 
can Presbyterianism in the early part of the last century, just as it was an Ulsterman 
of the same district, St. Columbkille, who converted the Picts of Scotland in the sixth 
century. Four of the Presidents of the United States and one Vice-President have 
been of Ulster extraction, J ames Monroe, James K. Polk, John C. Calhoun, and James 
Buchanan. General Andrew Jackson was the son of a poor Ulster emigrant who 
settled iii North Carolina, towards the close of the last century : * I was born some- 
where, he said, between Carrickfergus and the United States.' Bancroft and other 
historians recognize the value of the Scotch-Irish element in forming the society of the 
Middle and Southern States. It has been the boast of Ulstermen, that the first Gen- 
eral who fell in the Ajuerican war of the Revolution, was an Ulsterman — Richard 
Montgomery — who fought at the siege of Quebec ; that Samuel Findley, President of 
Princeton College, and Francis Allison, pronounced by Stiles, the President of Yale, 
to be the greatest classical scholar in the United States, had a conspicuous place in 
educating the American mind to independence ; that the first publisher of a daily pa- 
per in America was a Tyrone man, named Dunlop ; that the marble palace of New 
York, where the greatest business in the world is done by a single firm, was the property 
of the late Alexander T. Stewart, a native of Lisburn, County Down ; that the fore- 
most merchants, such as the Browns and Stewarts, are Ulstermen ; and that the in- 
ventors of steam navigation, telegraph, and the reaping-machine — Fiilton, Morse, and 
McCormick — are either Ulstermen or the sons of Ulstermen." " Ulster and its people. "^ 
— Frazer's Magazine, Augu8t,1876. 

t Barstow'B New Hampshire, p. 130. 



BERKELEY. 



55 



Irish settlement in Maine. Amongst them was an Irish school- 
master named Sullivan, who, in 1775, founded Limerick, and whose 
Bons rose to high employment, civil and military. Longford sent 
the Higgins's and the Reilly's, the cream of its population, to 
Connecticut. One of the former was the father of a numerous 
progeny, now flourishing in New England. Palmer and Worces- 
ter (Mass.), received early in the eighteenth century their share 
of Irish immigration. 

In 1725, the amiable and acute author of the " Theory of Vis- 
ion " conceived the project of founding a College in the Summer 
Islands for the conversion of the red race in the American colonies. 
The English parliament having voted him certain lands in the 
West Indies, and £10,000 to be paid over as soon as the scheme 
was in operation, Berkeley — as noble a specimen of Irish benevo- 
lence, enthusiasm, and genius as ever crossed the Atlantic — resigned 
the rich deanery of Derry, and having " seduced some of the hope- 
fuUest young gentlemen" of Trinity to accept professorships in the 
future College at £40 a year, embarked. The scholarly band arrived 
at Newport, K.I., in January, 1729. As one might expect, diflicul- 
ties were raised in the way of handing over the money, and at the 
end of three years Walpole told Berkeley there was no chance of its 
ever being paid. While waiting, he farmed and wrote his " Minute 
Philosopher," and when in 1732 he determined to return to Ire- 
land, he bequeathed his farm of ninety acres to Yale College, and 
presented it with his library.* To this hour, not only in the 



• " The finest collection of books that ever came at one time into America." Bald- 
win's annals of Yale College, p. 417. A son in the flesh as well as in letters was bom 
to Berkeley, in America. His house " Whitehall " still stands. He loved to read and 
meditate in a snug retreat among the rocks which project over Nanaganset Bay. It 
was while seated here those noble lines occurred to him, the first of which has become 
a household word : 

" Westward the star of empire takes its way, 
The three first acts already past ; 
The fourth shall close it with the closing day, — 
Earth's noblest empire is the last." 

Thus it is to an Irishman that this continent owes its most auspicious prophecy. Not 
only so, it was Berkeley who first brought an organ to New England to peal out praise 
to God. It was he brought there the first artist to paint the beauty of its shores and 
nroods. This artist was che teacher of Copley. His name was Smibert, He was the 
architect of Faneuil Hall, and his picture of the Berkeley family is in Yale College. 
-See McGee'B " Irish Settlers." 



■ ■"'mi.'- 



66 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i 



seat of learning with which his fame is connected, but all over 
the continent, his name is an inspiration, his memory a hallowed 
thing with all who love genius and honour worth. A story of the 
Indian frontier war is like a star breaking through a cloud oi 
barbarism. In 1753, four hunters from Londonderiy " wandered 
in quest of game " into the territor}? of the Canadian Aroostooks. 
The four were captured, and two having been scalped, the remain- 
ing two were forced to run the gauntlet. The elder of the two 
escaped from the ordeal barely with life ; the younger, a lad of 
sixteen, the future General Stark, wlien his turn came, marched 
forward boldly, and snatching a chib from the nearest Indian, 
attacked the warriors drawn up on either side. He mocked the 
savages into reverence of his noble nature. They then ordered 
him to hoe corn. He tore it up by the roots saying such work 
was only worthy of squaws. He won their hearts. They ad opted 
him as a son. They called him their " young chief," and dressed 
him up in Indian splendour.* The campaign of 1755 brought the 
" Irish Brigade " to the Cans/lian frontier. 

In the accounts of Indian warfare on the Santee and Savannah, 
Irish names such as those of Governor Moore, Captains Lynch and 
Kearns, frequently appear as the champions of the whites. It was 
in this warfare the Guerilla host known as " Marion's Men " 
were trained, among whom were conspicuous. Colonels Harry and 
McDonald, Captains Conyers and McCauley. 

In 1764, Dr. Franklin, referring to the enactment of the " Stamp 
Act " at London, wrote to Charles Thompson, one of the Irish 
settlers in Pennsylvania, that the sun of liberty was set, and that 
Americans must light the lamps of industry and economy. The 
answer sent back by Thompson wa^, " Be a.ssured we shall light 
torches of quite another sort." 

The folly of the English Government and the tyranny of George 
III., are now universally acknowledged. With such statesmen as 
were at that period presiding over the Empire, the Colonists had 
nothing for it but to rebel. John Rutledge, an Irish settler in 

* He was one of the first captives given up to Captain Stevens. The original name 
Df Stark was Starkey, and it is thus spelled on the monument of the General's father 
it Manchester, N. H. See Barstovir's New Hampshire, p. 1.39, and Thomas D'Arcy 
McGee's " Irish Settlers in North America," p. 40. 



L 



A 1 ■ 



QUEBEC. 



s-i 



South Carolina, was the first man to rouse that State to resist- 
ance. It was a Langdon and a Sullivan who seized the guns at 
Newcastle, which thundered at Bunker Hill. In Maryland; 
Charles Carrol carried the popular banner, and bore down the 
leading royalist champion. Of the chiefs of the " Continental 
army " a full third were Irish by birth or descent, and the rank 
and file was very largely of Irish origin.* 

Richard Montgomery, who had served under Wolfe in the cap- 
ture of Quebec, having meanwhile travelled in Europe and emi- 
grated to New York, was elected by Congres" 1 rigadier-general, 
and when the sole command devolved on him, on the death of 
General Schuyler, conducted the campaign with rare judgment. 
Fort Chambly, St. Johns, Montreal, were taken, and with Irish 
energy he pressed on in the midst of a severe winter to Quebec 
He was a born leader of men, and his curt pregnant eloquence and 
confident bearing, made the hearts of his freezing soldiers beat 
with high courage. By a chance shot on the morning of the first 
of January, 1776, the glorious rebel fell before Quebec. Although 
he fought against the flag of England, he fought in what all admit 
now to have been the cause of freedom. It was strange that he 
should have fallen near the ground where his old commander fell, 
whom he resembled in the purity of his character; in his gallantry; 
in his skill as a soldier ; in his divided heart; for he had left behind 
him, at the call of duty, a gentle bride whom he passionately loved, 
and who was in all respects worthy of him. He might have 
penned the very verses which Wolfe wrote regarding the gentle 
girl who disputed with his country the empire of his heart. Here 
was liberty bleeding ; there his weeping bride. Mr. McGee re- 
marks on the strange fatality which gave to death on the rock 
of Quebec, three generals, alike in youth, in bravery, and 
chivalrous manly tenderness. " Three deaths " he cries, as if he 
felt the mantle of his favourite Ossian strong upon him, " three 
deaths, Quebec, do consecrate thy rock ; three glories crowii it 
like a tiara ! " 



* It is nut necessary for my purpose to go into particulars. These can be found in 
Hist. (;oll. 01 New Hampshire, voL I, p. 291, and in McGee's " Irish Settlers in 
North America." 



/v 



1« 



li 

1 1 



•i 



58 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



It was an Irish hand first hoisted the flag which has from the 
first been a refuge for the unfortunate and the oppressed. John 
Barry was born in Wexford in 1745. He pined for the stormy sea. 
He crossed the Atlantic in his fourteenth year, and sailing to and 
from Philadelphia, he learned the seaman's art, and at twenty -five 
was Captain of the Black Prince, first a fine packet, afterwards a 
vessel of war. When Washington was in Philadelphia, he met 
Barry at the house of Mr. Rose Meredith, and marked him for an 
ally. In 1775, Captain Barry was in command of the Lexington, 
lying in the Delaware, when the Union flag was chosen, and from 
his masthead the stars and stripes first flew. Towards the close 
of 1777, Washington publicly thanked him and his men for effec- 
tive services. How he became Commodore, his captures, his en- 
gagements with three British frigates in West Indian waters, in 
1782, is part of the general history of the war. From 1783, 
until his death, in 1803, he superintended the progress of the 
navy. " The Father of the American Navy," lies buried in Phila- 
deli)hia. It is scarcely worth while to mention a characteristic 
which the hostile Froude admits to be a common-place in Irish- 
men, — his unbribable fidelity. Lord Howe offered him a vast 
bribe, and further tempted him with the command of a British 
ship of the line, in vain. Like every man of real power, he was 
proud of his country. After the peace of Paris, he visited his 
birthplace, the Parish of Tacumshane, County of Wexford. When 
hailed by the British frigates in the West Indies, and asked the 
usual questions, he did not forget to let them know he was an 
Irishman.* 

Naval officers of less note were Captains James and Bernard, 
McGee, McD*.nough, with many others. Murrry, Dale, Decatur, 
and Stewart, were trained under Barry. 

Washington's favourite aide-de-camp was an Irish officer of the 
old Volunteer Blue and Buffs, Col. Fitzgerald, and Mr. G. Wash- 
ington Custis, who makes us acquainted with his heroism, men- 
tions many more of whom Irishmen have reason to be proud, and 
to whom the forty million dollar getters and breeders of dollar 



* His answer was, " The United States Ship Alliance^ fi2;V.C3^Jack Barry, half Irish- 
man, half Yankee — who are you?" 



FRANKLIN. 



69 



getters have ample cause to be grateful. The Irish merchants of 
Philadelphia contributed half a million of dollars towards furnish- 
ing provisions for the United States. On the 19th of October, 
1781, Cornwallis surrendered, and the following spring Great 
Britain acknowledged the independence of the United States of 
America : that independence was bought with no small amount of 
blood and treasure and heroism and valuable lives, and Irishmen 
contributed their share of the sacred purchase money. 

It was only natural that there should have been considerable 
sympathy between the Irish patriots in the third quarter of the 
eighteenth centuiy and the leading spirits in the revolutionary 
movement in the American colonies. Franklin visited Du})lin in 
1771. At the suggestion of the Speaker he was accommodated 
with a seat on the floor of the house. After the declaration of 
war in 1775, he addressed a letter to " The People of Ireland," 
urging them to refuse to join in the war against the colonies. 
Franklin was a bosom friend of Charles Thompson, * who wrote 
out the declaration of independence from Jefferson's draft. 

The first daily paper published in America — the Pennsylvania 
Packet — was issued by an Irishman, and it was in the Packet 
office the Declaration of Independence was first printpd. It was 
an Irishman, Colonel John Nixon, who first read it to the people. 
Eight of the signers of independence were Irish or of Irish de- 
scent.-j' It was an Irishman who first published fac similes of the 
signatures. Six of the delegatea by whom the Constitution was 
promulgated in 1787, were Irish. It was on an Irishman's farm 
freely offered to Washington, that the plan of the federal capital 
was laid, and the wealthy donor lived to see ten Presidents rul- 
ing in the " White House," surrounded by ever growing wealth 
and populous bustle and crowding chimney stacks, where once the 
smoke from his own dwelling flung a solitary reflection in the 
calm waters of the Potomac. The first governor of Pennsyl- 

• Born at Maghera, County of Deny, 1730. He died 16th August, 1824, having 
spent the close of his life in translating the Septuagiut. 

t Matthew Martin, bom m Ireland, 1714 ; James Smith, born in Ireland in 1713 ; 
George Taylor, bom in Ireland in 1716 ; he was so poor that hi-; services were sold on 
his amval to pay the expense of his passage out. George Read was the son of Irish 
parents. Charles Carroll was of Irish descent. Thomas Lynch and Thomas McKean, 



^•.,V 



60 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



III 



m 



hii'ii!. 



vania * after the adoption of a federal constitution, was a native of 
Dublin. We have seen that the first literary blow dealt slavery was 
given by an Irishman. One of the earliest legislative blows came 
from a like quarter.-)- Tn 1789 the Governor procured the passage 
of a law gradually abolishing slavery in the state named after the 
great Quaker. 

In the succeeding years we find Irishmen and their descendants 
as representatives and senators. We find them establishing and 
conducting educational institutions ; we see striking evidences of 
literary activity ; our attention is arrested by the bold engineering 
plans of Irishmen who were in advance of their time, but who 
would have made a fortune to-day. Some were unlucky, like 
Christopher Colles, and died in want, while others were fattening 
on their ideas ; others were more fortunate, like Robert Fulton, 
who launched the first steam-boat on the Seine, in 1803, running, 
in 1800, a more complete model on the Hudson. A native of 
Carrickfergus, Dr. Adrian, was distinguished as a mathematician ; 
and Matthew Carey, the father of H. C. Carey, as a political 
economist. 

The Irish leaning to the Democratic side in the United States, 
would seem to have a connection with the events of 1798 in Ire- 
land. The British Government, in 1799 and 1800, agreed to let 
T. A. Emmett, and D. McNevin out of prison, if they would pro- 
mise to quit the British Dominions for ever. The terms being 
arranged, Thomas Addis Emmett applied to Rufus King, the 
United States Minister at London, for passports for himself and 
his friends, but was refused ; Mr. King adding, what must have 
been meant for a joke, that " then were republicans enough in 
America." Some few years afterwards, when Mr. King was a 
candidate for the vice-presidency, and Thomas Addis Emmett was 
the leader of the New York bar, the great advocate, by a striking 
narration of the circumstances in letters to the New Yo7'k Evening 
Post, raised a feeling throughout the Union which blighted the 
hopes of the too clever ambassador of a few years before. 



were both of Irish parentage. John Rutledge, of South Carolina, makes up the eighth. 
Ail these men rose to high public employment. — "Lives of the Signers." 
♦ Alderman John Bums, of I'hiladelphia. 

t George Bryan. 



" OLD HICKORY." 



61 



I* was a native uf Ireland, John Smilie, who reported a bill in 
1812 in favour of war with Great Britain, and the man on whom 
his mantle fell, John Caldwell Calhoim, was the son of Patrick 
Calhoun, an emigiant from Donegal to South Carolina. In the 
naval engagements in 1812-15, the names of the Boyles, the 
Blakeleys, the Leavins, the Shaws, the Stewarts, the Gallaghers, 
the McGraths, tell their history. On land we meet everywhere the 
same Irish energy and valour. The hero of the victory of New 
Orleans, General Jackson, was, as Cobbett* pointed out with in- 
decent exultation, the son of poor Irish emigrant parents. In 
1828, Jackson was elected president by a large majority, the "Irish 
vote " playing an important part. The Irish did not forget his 
origin, and they were charmed by his military characteristics.-f* 
" Old Hickory " had some of the most remarkable traits of the 
Irishman in strong development. 

Contnbutions were raised in the States for repeal, and in 1847 
large sums were sent to support the famishing in Ireland. The 
'48 movement excited great enthusiasm among the Catholic Irish, 
and thousands of dollars poured in to the directories, as they have 
more recently to head centre treasuries. Be the objects wise or 
unwise, such subscriptions show the noble generosity of the Irish 
heart. 

* See Cobbett'a Life of Andrew Jackson. 

t Jackson's partiality for Irishmen was strong, but not blind. His personal atten- 
dants were nearly all natives of Ireland^ and he seems to have felt that kindly interest 
m them which makes the servant of an Irish gentleman feel himself a "humble 
friend." Jackson's man-servant, Jemmy O'Neil, used to indulge a little too freely,, 
and on such occasions assumed too much control over visitors and dwellers in the 
"White House." Wearied out with complaints, Jackson decided to dismiss him, and 
having sent for him said, "Jemmy, you and I must part." "Why so. General?" 
asked Jemmy. "Because," replies the President, "every one complains of you." 
"And do you believe them. General?" asks Jemmy with a mixture of surprise and re- 
proach. " Of course," answers Jackson, " what everyone says must be true." " Well, 
now General," cries Jemmy, " I've heard twice a.s much said against you, and I never 
would believe a word of it." Jackson's military experience should Imve indeed had a 
hardening effect if this would not touch him. Mr. Lowell, the author of the " Biglow 
Papers," has a genuine admiration for " Old Hickory," and tells us of him :— 

" He'd 'a' smashed the tables o' the law 
In time o' need to load his gun with." 
When the " White House " was threatened with*a mob, he refused the volunteered 
guard of naval and military, and loading his own and his nephew's guns, prepai-ed to 
meet hia foes. 



1 



'4 



f)2 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



' I 



i? 






i 

■II 



In Moxico, Irishmen and Irish names are as numerous as the 
Irishman, in a famous bull, said absentees were in Ireland.* One 
of Scott's most efficient colonels was RiK^y. But neither to his 
achievements nor to those of minor note — of the Pattersons, the 
Lees, the Magruders, the Neals, the McRcynolds — can justice be 
done here. Born in the same village as Major McRoynold8,f 
James Shields won a record which might call for extended 
notice. On his return to the United States ho was greeted with 
ovations, and Illinois elected him to the Senate. In the Session, 
1850-51, he reported as one of Committee on Military Affairs, in 
favour of conferring the rank of Lieut.-General on his old Com- 
mander and comrade, Scott. 

But why go into further particulars ? If arithmetic goes for any- 
thing, Irish blood is the main-tide of the great country below the 
line. In 1848, the Irish immigration exceeded that from all other 
sources. In that year, 98,061 persons of Irish birth passed into the 
Union ; in 1849, 112,561 ; in 1850, 117,038 ; as against in the same 
years iuspectively, 51,973 ; 55,705 ; 45,535 from Germany ; 23,062; 
28,321; 28,163 from Eng..ud; and 6,415; 8,840; 6,772 from 
Scotland ; and approximate proportion? liave continued. And 
what sort of stuff was this sent by Ireland ? I have seen them 
on the quays of Queenstown, many of them young farmers 
and farmers' daughters, all of them as fine specimens of the 
human race, as ever pressed the earth. Within a century, the Irish 
in America have contributed to the ranks of war and statesman- 
ship in the Union, distinction and efficiency, in as large proportion 
as they have strength and endurance to the equally noble field of 
labour. The Republic owes much to the Presidents Vice-Presidents 
the generals and commanders, the representatives and oratora, the 
lawyers and scholars of Irish blood ; she owes still more to the 
pure mothers of healthy instincts and faultless mould, which the 
green valleys and pure traditions of Ireland have given her, and 
to the unequalled hosts, wielding no sword and shouldering no 
gun, but armed with pick and axe and spade, who fought and fight 



H I 



* The reader will have read the story. " And are there so many absentees ?" asked 
an incredulous stranger of an Irishman, who had been inveighing against those rene- 
gades to duty. " Be gor the country is swarming with them," was the answer. 

t Dungannon, County Tyrone. 




EMIGRATION. 



62 



tho wiMemes.s, and who have carried the starry banner where no 
tiag .ever tloatud before. 

It is a noble work 'is subduing tho willorness. On no sub- 
ject has moro wretched stuff been talked than on emigration, 
and Irish emigration in particular. It was by '^migration the 
world was peopled, and emigration must go forward until every 
corner of the world is fully inhabited. There is nothing un- 
happy about Irishmen crossing tho Atlantic ; the unhappy thing 
is that, in a gnat many cases, the circumstances which imme- 
diately led to emigration were cruel and oppressive, and among 
the bitterest fruit of oligarchic rule. But if Irelajid's years had 
rolled on from the misty time of legend to this hour as happy as 
a maiden's dreams, her people would have had to cmigra! e, or eat 
each other, or else resort to immoral contrivances to limit popula- 
tion, sickening folly from which the pure, robust Irish nature has 
always turned away with disgust. When a country the size of 
Ireland is over-populated, duty and manliness bid the strong ones 
make for the wilderness, to face the hardships for which the aged 
and tender are unequal. It is a hard thing, indeed, to leave one's 
country, and all the harder because the intending emigrant fails 
to realize the fact that he will make for himself a new home. It 
is hard ; but life is made up of hard things, and men must not 
grumble at hardness. Yet the regrets of an Irishman for his 
country is a feature in his character which commands admiration ; 
it proves him to be made of the finest human c ly ; and we need 
not wonder it has inspired poets, and been fruitful of romance. 
" Do you find it hard to die ?" asked some priests in Montreal, aa 
they stood by the side of a dying student. The green valleys, 
the mountain side, his father's cabin, the mother's love, her soft 
musical voice, came before his fading fancy. His eye brightened 
for a moment, and then was drowned in one large tearful wave, 
" I do," said the dying mi:n, " but not half so hard as I found it 
to leave Ireland." 

When travelling in the United States, I found the opinion 
universal that a " smart " Irishman was the smartest man in the 
world. When the emigrants go into the country, they are the 
most industrious of all the population. In the south, west, and 
east, you find the Irish workman strong and successful. The 




: ! 


1, 

1 


' r 


■1, 

'li' 


' w 


,1 ' 


'M 


ii' 


1 'W ! 


n 


II 


i 

i 

1 ■ 



iii- 



I 



P' ,:l 



64 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Irishman who started a quarter of a centuiy ago with a dollar in 
his pocket, and who has in the interval climbed to we: 1th and in- 
fluence, is met everywhere.* The idea that Irishmen do not make 
prosperous merchants is common in England, in the fac3 of the 
existence of such men as the late Mr. Graves, M.P., of Liverpool ; 
and it obtains on t lis Cvontinent, though Stewart was an Irishman. 
In Tennessee and Missisiuppi, where Irishmen, owing to the talis- 
man of such names as Jackson, Carroll, Coffee, Brandon, are held 
in the highest favour, mercantile success has attended the labour 
and enterprise of hundreds. In Virginia, the largest fortune ever 
made Lv commerce was made by Andrew Beirne, an Irishman. 
In Missouri, Brian Mullanphy headed the list of millionaires. His, 
SOD, a lawyer and a judge, who died in 1850, bequeathed $200,000 
for the benefit of emigrants entering the Mississippi. John Mc- 
Dunogh died in the same year, at New Orleans, leaving behind 
him the largest single property in the Southern States. Daniel 
Clarke's great wealth has been made widely known by the Gaines 
Case. 

In California, a fourth of the farms are in the hands of Irish- 
men. They constitute one-fourth of the population of San Fran- 
cisco. Wxth the exception of four persons, six Irishmen are the 
highest rated in that City.f 

According to Mr. Maguire, the Irish stand well in the public 
esteem of the people of the United States. We sometimes hear 
the contrary. That they should stand well is only natural. Mr. 
Maguire devotes many pages of his book to Scotch-Irish, a class 
to which D'Arcy McGee applied his heaviest lash. On ^-eople who 
would try by the use of such a mean? igless phrase to deny their 
country I would noiii wasto r word. They are despised by those 
whom they try to conciliate ; and while men, the most illustrious 
and the worthiest our race has produced, were and are proud of 
Fjing Irish, the Ireland and the great people they reverenced 
M,n afford to leave the sneaks of passing favour unrecognized. 
The misfortune is that such conduct reflects on the country the 
liscredit of the individual. | 



* The Irish in America. By John Frank's Maguire, M.P., p. 258. 

•' Ibid. 

t I once asked a servant at a.Ti hotel what part of Ireland she came from. 



Her rich 




IRISH OHAUACTER. 



65 



No race has ever given a truer test of its bottom and genuine- 
ness than the Irish have done l)y their grateful remembrance of 
friends and relatives. It would be as vain to deny them the 
high virtue of generosity, as to question their valour or dispute 
their intellectual brilliancy. They have sent vast, almost fabu- 
lous sums across the Atlantic to bring out their friends, and they 
never ask for repayment. " The Irish are a grand race," said 
one who had lived much with them and in reference to this very 
matter, "and" he added, remembering how much the poor servant 
girls have done, and the temptation they have braved, " the 
Irish women are an honour to their country." The returns of the 
Emigration Commissioners lead to the inference that the amount 
of money seni by settlers on this continent to Ireland, for emi- 
gration purposes, cannot be less than $120,000,000.* 

Female ])urity is a high test of the quality of a race as well as 
of a civilization. " In the hotels of America the Irisli girl is ad- 
mittedly mdispensable. Through the ordeal of these fiery fur- 
naces of temptation she passes unscathed."-f- The answer Mr. 
Maguire .-eceived from the prominent hotel proprietors of the 
United States, when he asked Avhy all the young women in their 
establishments were Irish, was that " The Irish girls are indus- 
trious, willing, cheerful and honest ; they work hard, and they 
are strictly moral." After every deduction is made, this testimony 
remains substantially intact. 

Nothing has oeen said about the great v/ar. The part ])layed 
by those of Irish descent and Irish birth is too well known. 
When a few men, the remains of Irish regiments, march through 
New York on great public occasions, with their tattered banners 
and green cockades, one part of their story is told. They were 
faithful on both sides, according to their sympathies. But, thank 
God, the great mass, and all of those who enli.sted in Ireland, 
sided with tl North and struck for human freedom. " The 
war has trif .e Irish/' said a well-known General, " and they 



rich 



brogue, if placed on a^narrow gauge, would trip up the train. "Oim not Irish," 
she j-aid, " t)i'ra Scotch." Such degradation will of course be found among inferior 
j«lieeiinenn of all peoples. 

* Maguire. The Irish in America, page 33L 

t Mag .lire 

5 



«0 



THE lUISIIMAN IN CANADA. 



,s* 



} I 



fltood the test woll as good citizens and soldiers." Thomas Francis 
Meagher, a great orato'-, used all his amazing powers of pi.-rsuasion, 
and his spell of fiery inspij-ation, calling young IrislimciU in thou- 
sands to tight for the Union. Nor did they hang back. Their 

" Faith an<l trith 
On war'H re<I techHt<JUe lan^ tnio metal."* 

When I saw, during th(! Franco-German war, the 0(!rinan 
victorious soldiers res[)ecting women, and falsifying all the tra- 
ditions oi the brutality of war, my heart warmed to them. 
The southern peojjh; had reason to be thankful that Iiish- 
men niad(; so large a p(n-tion oi the army. 'J'he Protestant 
Bishop of New Orleans, told Mr, Maguirci that " in itvcry as- 
sault made upon a d(;fencelesH household, th(; Irish soldier was 
the first to intei'pose for th(; deffiuce of the helples.s, to shield 
them from insult and wrong," 'I'hey {)r'ot(;cted families fr'om "the 
cruel wrath of tlreir (theiamily sj countrymen;" and where help- 
less women were in a m<maced house, an Irish soldier has taken 
his place as sentinel at the dooi-, ke(!ping back the infuriate cr'owd. 
Of the prominent men oi Irish descent and birth in that war, it 
wf)uld fill a volume to speak. Hut two great names stand out in 
the first rank, — Meade and Sheridan. 

In Auustralia, as we have; seen, an Irishman rose rapidly to tho 
first place. (h\]y one honoured name need here be meritioned, — a 
name known to law and statesmanship, and dear to literature and 
ediication. Sir Redmond Carry, wlio has been SolJcitor-CJf-neral 
for the colony of Victoria, and who, in 18.51, became ovw, of tlie 
Judg(!S of the Supreme Court, waw l)orn in tho County Cork, in 
1813. He has taken a deep interest in educatron ; and his inau- 
gural addrcs.ses, delivered as Chancellor of the New Univer\sity of 
Melbourne, rrrark him as a man of wide views and high culture. 
Sir Redmond Bariy was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Tho 

* Lowell. In March, I8fi7, Meagher wrot3 a letter in which he bore toitimony to the 
chivairouH (l<!V()tiim of IiIm countrymen. " M^ny of iny gallant fellowM h.ft comfort- 
able liomcH, a.id relinqni«he(l good wagcH, and renigiied i)rofitable ami moHt proHiining 
nituations, to face the poor i)ittance, tlio worse rationw, the privations, ri^;.iur, ami Havage 
dangers of a Holdier'H life in the fielil." Meagher Heeni-d to have proved hinmelf a« 
bhiliaut a nuldier an he wsm an orator. All the '48 men had great utulf in them. 



SOUTH AMERICA. 



07 



Order of Knighthood was conferred on him in INfiO by letters 
jjatent. 

Iti the Soutli American Revolutions, Irishmen played a pro- 
minent part. During the fifteen year.s which elapsed from 1808, 
until in 182.*{, when the last Spanish soldier l(;ft (Jaiaeeas, thero 
was a strikinj^ succession of events, which only await the pen of a 
Tacitus to enujr^e into due pr(jminenee. Tin; contest liad three 
divisions, Bolivar's, in Columhia; O'lli^^^fins's, in Chili; and that ox 
the Argentine ]l(![)ul)lic, on tlnj Ilio de la Plata, By liolivai's side 
were numbers of Irish soldicsrs. In 1817, an Irish bri;;-ade, under 
the command of (jlent!ial lJ(!vereux, a natives of Wexfoid, went to 
his aid. We learn from the mt'inoirsof a <listirit^ui,sh(!d Kn;^lisli- 
maa*, that his jjliysiciaii, Dr. Moon;, was an Irisliirian who had f<jl- 
lowi.'d tiii Libcratoi' from Venezuela to Pei'U, and who was duv(;tedly 
attached to him. Bolivar's first ai<le-de -camp was a nephew of the 
celebrated Dr. O'Leary ; Lieut(!nant-(Jolonel Fei'guson, was also an 
Irishman,"!* Ecpially, if not more important, ■was the role alloted by 
late to the Irish in Chili, Under the hand of \)on Ambrosio 
0'lli;r<^ins> the last Cajitain-Cieneral, towns lia<l .sprung u}>, trau'e 
flourished, canals were opened, rivers and harbours wen; drcdgc^d. 
His son, Don Bernardo, Ix^rn in Chili, felt for the country an enthu- 
siastic pati iotism, and as Supieine Director, struggled and strug- 
gl(;d successfully foi' its independence. His heroi m was ordy 
HUipasse(J by his geiKMulship. The second brigade was for a tinui 
commanded by Ceneral Mackenna, an Irishman, wlio was killed in 



' Memoim ot (lenl. Millur, vol. II., pp. :iXi-2:i4. 

t When a men; ymitli, I'V-rgiiHon (piittcMi n (■■(Uiitin;,' hoiwe at Deiricrara, and ,io)r't.ii 
till) patriot Htaudunl. J.)uriiiK the war of extunnaiation, hu wan tukoii liy tht; .Siiimiar.lH. 
lie WOH le<l with Hcvcral (jtlierH, from a ilmiijeon at I,a(jtuayra, for tlio piirpoMt; of heiny 
shot on tlie H(!a hIiofo. Having only a jtair of troWKi.TH on, hi.i fair Hkiii wan oonHpicuoim 
aMi(<iigHt liiH nnfortuiiate HWartliy i;oiii|)anionH, ami attnicted the attention of the lioatrt' 
crfiw of an En^HHh man-of-war, caHually on tlio Htrand. One of tlje Hailorn ran tii) to 
him and aHke<l if ho wuh an i;ii|,'iiHhman. Ferii^iHon Haid " No, I am an IriMliman," 

" I too am an Irinhman" Hai<l the tar, " and \>y n<j HpaniHh raMcal nhall nmrder 

a countryman of mine if 1 can help it i '• Whereupon he ran to IiIh ofliecr ami ur.jud 
him to intercede with tlii; Spaniwh (Governor, and Ferf^unon'i life wan Hpaied. FergUHon 
it-'lated tluH incident to (Jeneral Miller. Wo have FerguHon h name, but tli'J .ther 
hero's, tho jfonerouH Jack whif Hnatchcd Inn life from Spaniwh ♦yrmny, k Iwt. Fcrsubon, 
of whoHc merit General Miller Hiii'uki in the highest terms, fc;ll on tiie ni^'lit of th>' con- 
Hjiiracy of Bogota, Heptendier, IH2H, iu the defenco of liolivar. " Mcmoii.s of (Jeneral 
Miller." 



68 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



a durl at Buono.s Ay res, in IS 14. C(;lone] O'Connor's name is 
insopara})ly bound up with Peruvian indei)en<lence, froin the fii-st 
att(!iiipt to the final battle of Ayachuco. The only Irishman on 
the Roya ..st side was General O'Reilly. 



CHAPTER IV. 



r 




■ 4-y 
.1)1 



Some seventy years after Jacfpies Cartier had sailed up the " fail- 
flowing"* St. Lawrence — 

" That northern Htream 
"That Bpreada into succcBsivo seas," 

Champlain foundcjd the colony, and the French r<jgiine com- 
inence<l. This rdgiine, having for a century and a half b(;en illus- 
trated by men whose energy, fortitude, sagacity and accomplish- 
mcmts would have made them remarkable in any theatre, fell with 
Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham. 

When Wolf(! procetided to take Qu<!})ec, he left in charge at tho 
Island of Orleans, with the 2nd Battalion of Royal Ainericans and 
some marines, a man who was to prove at once the founder and 



* Fuupptlrao Kavaftov as a uin(l(;rn writer, di.scovercd hy Dr. Hcadding, has it, 
ada-iting an epithet originally applied to far Hin.aller rivers. 

[Authorities :— The newspapers: " (Jonstilutional History of (Janada," Ijy 
H. .J. Watson . " Coircspondaiice di' la Hildiotliefpie (Jaiiadienne," M. Kranyois 
Cazoau ; "Hansard:" " Histoiro du Canada ot des Canadiens boub la Domina- 
tion Anglaise," par M. Bihaud : "History of Canada," MaeMullen : "The 
Bastonnais," by John Losperanee : "The Settlcnjcnt of Upper Canada,'' by 
Dr. Canniir : "Life of Col. Talbot;" Mra. .lameson'a *' Winter Studies and 
iSunimor HamMns : " " Family Records of the (iambles of Toronto." I am deeply 
iiid<;bti'd to Mr. (yharlos Lindicy foi planing his library at my di.Hposal, and to 
many ol,her friends foi the loan of bo >ks. I at/i indebted to the Hon. Mr. PVaser 
for giving me accosa to the Library of the Ontario Legislature at all houra. — 
N. F. I).] 



CARLETON. TRFATY OF PARIS. 



Cf) 



fair 



it ih'i 
iH an'l 
;r and 

liiH it, 

la,- by 
I'ranvoiH 
►omina- 
Tb.; 
la," by 
|es and 

il(!(!ply 
1 and to 

FraHor 
lours. — 



saviour of (Jariada. Tliis was (Jol. Ouy Carh-ton. ('arloton was 
horn at Straljanc; in thu County Tyrone;. Strabano to-<lay is 
a busy niark(;t town with a pojtuhttion of five thousand. It is 
connectc'l hy a lino of i-ailway with Deny and Enniskilhm. It 
stands on the ri<;lit hank of the Mourno near the spot whore that 
streatri 'ynwn the Finn at Lifl'ojd, fiorii whicli place it is called 
the Foylo.* A century and a lialf a^o it was a scone of sylvan 
beauty. Then as now it was famous for its sahnf>n. 

Guy Carleton was born tin; yciar Marlb(jrou;(h died. The 
renown of the <rr(Mit ca[)tain was Ion;,' after his death a c«jnimon 
topic. Blenheini and Rainillies were as iainiliar in men's mouths 
as Alma and Inkerman wei'(; a faw years ago. As yoiinj,' Carlottjn 
[)lied his rod in the Mourne u wish rost; within him which was to 
shqj)e all his ufter-life, which was to lead hiin to honour and 
usefulricjss, which was to connect his name for over with Canada 
and this threat continent— he lonf^ed for a soldier's care(!r. 

While y(jt a youth he entered the Guards, and in 1748 became 
lieut.-eolonel of tlie 72nd re;.^im(!nt. In tlie (German cainpaif.(n of 
I7-'>7 he was aide-de-camp to (Jund)erland. Fn thn fol lowing yeai- 
ho .served under Arrdjorst at the siege (^f Louisboui'g, and in 1750, 
as we hav<! seen, under Wolfe. He was wounded at tin; si(!ge of 
Bell<! Isle. Having Ijocome a colonel ho served in the Havana 
Exjtedition in 1702, and in the successful assault on the Moro 
Castle he was again wounded. 

Meanwhile the articles of capitulation wore signed in the camp 
b<.'for(! Montreal, Sopt(?mber8th, 1700. By the 27th of th(3se arti- 
cles, Vaudreuil pr(j{>osed that the Fi'onch C*ana<lians shfjuld be 
assured the; free exeicisc; of th(!ir faith. He asked further that 
the Knglish GoverntiK^nt .should s(!cure to the pri(!sthood thotitlif's 
and taxes the peo[)le had hithtJito been obli^^i-d to pay under the 
rule of the King of France. To the fi st of th.-sc projio.salu, Ain- 
herst felt at liberty to accede ; the second would depend on the 
King's pleasure. On the lOth of F»'biuary, I70.S, was signed (ho 
Treaty of Paris, by the fourth clause of which France ced<!d to 
England, Canada with all its dependencies, George III. granting 
the inhabitants the " lilxirty of the Catholic religion," and tho 

* Moutgoinery, his most forniidahlc! foe, was born at < '(juvoy, about Bovon uiilea 
distant from tho same spot. 



\ 



70 



Tin; IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



f4 • I 



opproHsed peasant oxehaii'^cfl th(; rigorf;UH vasHahij^e of French 
fcudalisin for tlio sooiii'ity and freedom of JJritisli citizonsliip. 
To the reign of violence Mucc(;e(k;d tlie resign of law.* 

Then; wens no towns of any coiis(!(|U(!nce save Quehcc, Mon- 
treal, and 'J'hroe llivers. At St. Johns, Jj'Assouiption, Jic^rthier, 
and Sorel there were niilitaiy estahlisliiiKints nnrrounded \)y 
ftcanty settlements. Wliat we now know as tlie Honrisliing Pro- 
vince of Ontario wa.s wilderness. TIk; population at tin; tini(; of 
the corupiest has hecsn estimated at from sixty to sixty-iive 
tliousand. Some of the wealthi*;)- residc^nts of the towns lujturned 
to Fi'ance. The' hulk of tlie people, li(jw<;V(;r, remained in Oanada. 
A nundjer of the .soldiers who liad brought about tin; cliange of 
fl'Xg settled in the country. The govcirniiicnt gave them grants of 
land. Th(;y maniiid Fninch wiv(rs. TIk; cliildr(;n spoke th(! tongue 
of the mother. Hence we find in Lower (Janada to-day m<!n heal- 
ing German, English, Scotcli and Irish names and sp(;aking a 
Latin dialect. 'I'he ]5attle of the Plains had given an im))uls(! to 
emigration to Caiuida. In a few years we find an Knglish-speak- 
ing population im})ortant enough to lead an enterprising firm to 
publish a newspap(!r."f" 

In the autumn following the Tieaty of Peace a Royal Proclam- 
ation was put forth, announcing that tlu; King had gi-aiited hitters 
patent under the grt^at seal to erect Quebec into a governnu^nt, 
and defining the boundaries of that Piovince to be the St. 
John (Saguenay) on the Labi-ador- coast, fi'om the liead of which 
river a line; was drawn through Lake St. John to the soutli end 
of Lak(! Nipi.ssim, whciiice cro.ssing the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Champlain in 45 degrees of N. latitude, it ])assed along the High 
Lands which divi(h; the rivers emptying themselves into the St. 
Lawrence from th(jse which iall into the sea, swiieping by the 
north Coast of the Bale des Chaleurs ami tlw; coast of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, l)y tl>e west end of the Island of Anticosti, and t<jr- 
niinadng at the river whence it set out. The proclamation de- 
clar(.'d that the King iiad given |)ow<ir an<] diiciction to the 
Governor, when the circumstances of the colony would i)ermit, 



* Hpeec}) of M. Pjiiiincau to the olectorR of Montreal, 1820. 
i- The Qnehi'C (JaziMt. 



caiilkton's ioi,rf;v. 



71 



l^ro- 



; St. 

I end 

Lake 

High 

k; St. 

>y tliu 

liilf of 

t(;r- 

on de- 

U) i\u: 

Mini lit, 



to .summon ft f(cnoial ass(!ml>ly. It promisfid tliat until such 
an asHombly could ]»e called, tlio inlialtitaiits slifMild eiij(;y tlici full 
I'onofit of tli(! laws of Knj^land. OenciHl Murray wan ai)i>oiiited 
gov(M"noi' imm(!diat<;Iy after tlic proclamation. Ifo was instructed 
until an ass(!inl)ly could l>e ealhtd in acc^oidfincc! witli tin; {)roclam- 
ation, to nominate a council to aid hiin in tin; administiution (jf 
tlie ;;ov(!rnment. A Coui-t of Kin<^'s l>('ncli and a (.'oini of (Jom- 
mon J'le-as wv.n'. estaMi.slKid, a)»d shortly afterwaids a Court of 
(Jlianc(!ry. We ne(;d not he surpris(id if the Frencli po])ulation 
grew dissatisfiecl with laws to which they wore unaccustomed and 
a method of procedure wliolly nov(;l,and carri(jd on in a language 
of which they did not undej'stand a word. Still less need we he 
surpris(;d tliat wh(;n oHicials were chosen from the j-anks of liriti.sh- 
])oni suhjfcts who did n<yt number one hundred and fiftie'th part 
of tlm po|)ulation, extortion and oppi-(!Ssi(;n were the; rule. 

In 1707 (.'ari(!ton was rewai'ded for his distinguished scjrvices 
by th(! lieut(!nant-governorship of Quelxjc. In 1708 he was 
already p(>[)ulai b(!cause of his humanity, and the ])eo])le with a 
true instinct turne<i towards him as a protector. His (himeanour 
has bcitn variously judged, some attributing the wisdom and gcm- 
tlencss of his rule to tlic native goodmj.ss of his heart, othfU's to a 
far-s<M!ing j)olicy. Accoiding to one view he was a friend of the 
French (Canadians because he took the trouble to know them. He 
wi,sh(!d to redress their gri(!vances b(;caii,sc he ha<l dilig(!ntly in- 
<juir(!d into tlujir situation. Being ji virtuous man, he sought with 
activity and constancy lo do right in behalf of those t<j wh(jm 
he stood in the; light of a shej)h<'rd. According to anotliei- view, 
he foresaw the i Hptuie of tht; thirteen colonies with the mother 
countrv, and det(;rmine(l to conciliatti the favour of tin; peojih; oi 
(Janada. We shall not detract from the claims of (Jaileton on our 
admiration, nor be untrue to the j)rol)abiliti(;s of th<i case, if we 
say we think Ijoth views are nece8.sary togiv(; the complete truth, 
as blen<ling stars make one light. 

One of the fiivit acts of Carleton was to era.se two influential 
names from his li.st of councillors, and to appoint two other coun- 
cillors in their place. Remonstrances were addressed to him from 
the English portion of the population. He replied that the new 
councillors had been appointed by the King —that h- would in 



72 



I'UK IIUSfFMAN IN CANADA. 



1 :i I 



!ir 



h 



!l' 



m 



con<luctin<^ tlio government con.sult tliose of hi.s councillors whom 
ho Ixilicved capable of giving him the best advice — that in mat- 
ters not coming .strictly within the (h)main of government, ho 
would seek advice outside; his council, and confcsr with men of 
sense whose characters chulliinged coniidence, men who jilaced 
before j)rivato interest the pu]>lic good and their duty to tho 
King — thataftei' liearing advice, lie would then aijt in that manner 
which he believed most advantageous to the s(;i-vice of the King 
and to tho wcill-being of tlie Province — tliat the numbei- of his 
council wasa dozen, and that those nominated by the King should 
have precedence; ov(;r those nominated l»y Oerx-ral Murray. \n 
170() I'epresentations had })een sent to England against the system 
of judicature recently introduced. Cai'leton, who was a statesman 
as well as a soldier, saw tliat this system was (piite unsuited to a 
people; with all wliose; priijuilices and traditions it was at war. lEo 
therefoi'o caused the leading French lavvyei's to compile the civil 
laws of Fianee for him, and armed witli this compilation he pro- 
ceeded in 1770 to England. He wished to see the " Coutume de 
Paris" re-establis]u;<l, but abridged and edit(;d so as to be better 
adapted to the n(;<;ds of (Jaiiada. The comj)ilati()n having been 
revised by tlie law ofHcesrs of tin; (Ji-own, becamt; the i)iincipal au- 
thority in (•as(;s relating to laml and inheritance. In other matters 
English law ruled, much to the disgust of the old French gentry, 
who did not und(;rstand tradesmen and labourers sitting in judg- 
ment on gentlemen. And though wo smile, it nnist have seemed 
hard to them. 

There was great dissatisfaction among tlie British at the delay 
wliich had taken place in granting them an Assembly. The 
French were also in favour of an Assend)ly. But, like tho ox- 
tremo Prote^stants and the extreme Ronian Catholics of to-day, 
they could not act together in politics, witli the result that both 
suffered. The discontcint was increased by the fact that in 1772 
Prince Kdward Island was given a Li(;ut<;nant-(j!<)vei'nor, a Legis- 
lative (Council, a Legislative Asseml)ly, a Custom-house, and a 
Court of Vice- Admiralty. But the diHicultv v;as to decide on a 
plan of united action. The Britisli desired a Parliament composed 
exclusively of Protestants : the Frencli wanted tho complete rc- 
establishment of their former laws and customs in all civil mat- 



THE QUEBEC! ACT. 



78; 



ter8. The fornior invit<Ml tho latter to attfjnd tlioir mnotingH ; ]»ut 
vvhon tlit'HC licard tliat thoy ^^^ir^^ to .swell a petition for a ,sy,steni 
Ijy which thtty tiieiiiselve.s should ht^ deprived u\' fidl citizcaiship, 
they naturally stood aside, 'J'he Britisli w»!re forced topct alone. 
On tho 3rd of Decendter, 177'}, th(!y presented to Lieutenant- 
Governor Crarnaho a ro(juest that he would, in accordance with 
tho Royal proniisi;, and the powers given him hy the proclauui- 
tion of 1703, convoke an Assenihiy. M. Crauiahe repli(!d that he 
would transmit their rcHjuest to tho Minister of the (.*olonies. 
The petitioners then addn.'ssed themselves to th(^ King. The 
French Canadians acted separately, and content(jd themselves 
with asking for tho re-estaljlishm(;nt of their foi-nujr civil juris- 
])ru(lence. Caileton was e'xamined on oath hefore a Connnittee 
of the House of (Jonunons. He stat(id that an Assembly com- 
posed exclusively of tin; British inhabitants would give gi'eat 
f)Hence to tlie Canadians. To such an Assembly the-y w(juld 
prefer the I'ule of a Governor and a Legislative C(juncil. Several 
French Canadians had tohl him that asseud'lies had drawn upon 
the other colonies so much distres.s, riot, and confusion, that tlu.'y 
wished never to have one of any kind. M. de Lotbiniere, a native 
French Canadian nobleman, (hiposed that the Fi'ench Would likt; 
to have an Assembly, provided they might sit in it. 

Carleton, in pressing his views on the (Jonuuittee, was naturally 
moie anxious about the oive hundred and fifty thousand French 
Canadian Roman Catholics under his chaige than about the 
handful of Fnglish-sp(!aking Protestants. When we rememV>er 
th(i ignoranc<! and political incapacity of the mass of tlu^ people, 
we shall probably Ihj inclined to doubt whether they were ripe for 
popular institutions. But the Home Government owed some con- 
sideration to the British inhabitants, and the Qu(!bec Act, even 
in tho face of impending war, must be pronounced a vicious", shoit- 
sighted measure. Tho framers of the nuiasure had no prophetic 
hint of the extent to which Engli.sh-speaking Canada was to 
grow, and from tlieir limited vision those who despair of this 
country may learn a useful lesson. In the House of Common.s, 
Irishmen whose names have l)ecome household words opposed it. 
Col. Barrd and Edmund Bin-ke gave it strenuous opposition. 
Burke pleaded for delay. He contended for the rights of the 



;lli 



!l| 



74 



TIIK IIIFSIIMAN IN CANADA. 



I! 



Ml 

a ifiii I 



n 



M 



IP 

ili 
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KTi^lisli-spcakirif,' inlialiltantn. r)n«! day 1m; )»rou;,'ht all tlu; weight 
of liis |»owcrfijl « I iii, lefties aii<l iiii;.,'lity rlietoric a;,'ainsi tin- Idll. 
On aiioMicr lie ridiculed it until his lieai<.'rM roared with mirth. 
On tliino the Hth, Im; "ran on in siieh a vein of humour that tlie 
House was in a contiinial lau^di dui-in;,' the whole of his s|)(!ech." 
On the 10th, ho wa.s ofjually happy. " Litth; did I think," criod 
Town.sliend, " when I called for a OovcrnirHint for (Janada, that 
] was invoking' a despotism." In the House; of Lords, the Earl 
of ('hatliam, speakinj^ from the brink of tho f^'ravn, denonncod the 
hill as a cruel, oppressive, an<] odious mriasure. He W(;ntso far as 
to say that it woidd shake tlie affection and confidenci; of the 
Kinj^'s suhjeets in En^rland, and Iriilniid. and lose liim the; hearts 
of all the Americans. Howev<!r the hill j)ass<;d. 

And wliiit was this Act a;,'ainst whicli Fox in tli(; rip(;nin^' ^^f>iy 
of his morning' in one liouse, and CJhatham in anoth(;r, in tin; pal- 
inj:^ splendours of his setting', tliundered ? It revoked the Itoyal 
proch'Miiation of 1703, witli its promise of an As.sembly. It ^^ranted 
the iloman (*atliolics tlie free; exercise of their reii^^ion, subject to 
the Kind's HU])remacy as d(;fined V^y tin; Act f)f Kliza]K;th. It 
f,njaranteed to the Jioinan Catholic clerf^y tlieir accustomed <lucs 
and n«,dits, witli i(;s])ect to ('atliolics only, but out of such duos 
and rifijlitH the Kin^ h(;ld liiinself at lib(;rty to mak(; sucli pro- 
visif)n as he mi^dit d(,'em expedi(jnt for tlie l^rot(;stant cl(jr<,'y. The 
OatholicK wei'C ntlieved of tho oath (jf tin; 1st of Qu(;en Kli/abeth, 
and tliiis a barrioi- a^^ainst their holding ofhce urxler the (Jrown 
was reinov(;d, an oath of"simpl(3 all(;{^ianc(; to tin; Kin<,' b(;in;^' sub- 
stituted. In all matters r<;laimg to property and civil rights, the 
Froncli laws were rc-establislied. In r(;gard to criminal matters, 
on the other hand, tho Engli.sli law was established for ever, A 
council of not more; than twenty-three, and not less than .seven- 
teen, was +,0 be appointed by the Crown, fjocal and municipal 
taxes, and the administration of internal {iffaiis, were within its 
juri.sdiction ; ovei imports and exports the J3ritish Pai liament 
kept a jealous control. The bounds of the province were ex- 
tended on the one; hand ovei- Labrador, and on the other as far as 
Ohio and the Mississipjti. It deprived the colonists of trial by 
jury in civil cases, of the Halioas Cf)ipus, and, in a word, of con- 



stitutional government. 



Tlie i rench Canadians did not regret 



w 



i 






TKMPTATIOXS TO DTST.OVAITY. 



7r, 



tiial l»y jury, an<l ihi'.y ha<l known littlr; of tin; a<lvaiita;,'(!s of tin; 
Ilaltcas Oji-puH, Jn<Ioo<l, to tlio Fnmcli ^j'ntlcnian it ,s(!(!iri(!fl nion- 
Hti'ous tliat tmfhi.siiicn arnl lahounii.s and nuclianics sliould sit in 
jii<l;^frrmnt on any issue in \vlii(!li lie was intci'estod. liut to tlu; 
I'.ritisli nrsi(l(!nts tlio Act was a cruid l)low. 

(JailctoJi icturncd to (Janada in tin; autumn of IT?^, and was 
liaihid Ity tin; peoplf! as a protector and friend. The Lef^islativo 
C/(;uncil was iriau;.fu rated, and was conij/osciil of oiui-tliird Oatlio- 
lics and two-thirds Prote-stants, souk; of these hein;^ nati\'(!s of 
J(!rsey, and usinj( tho French ]an;,'ua^'e. I'Ik; Con^n^ss rn(!t at 
JMiilade.lphia addnissed a letter to the French irdiahitants of Quo- 
bee, ui'^'in;,' the; (.'an ad i an s to tli row in tlicir lot witli them. I»ut 
this produced no effect. 'i'Jie l(!aderH of tin; peoj)h!, the cler^'y, the 
nohlj'.HHfi and tlie hotter class of Ixmrij^ioWx', tliou^ht that they had 
nion; to lose tlian ;,'ain l)y a chanf^e. " Tlic; man," says a Frencli 
historian * " to whom tlio administration of tin; ^^ov<!rinn(;nt liad 
heen entrusted, had known liow to inake tin; Cana<lians love; him, 
and thiscontrihuted not a little to retain at hiast within tin; honnds 
of neutrality tliost^ amonj^^ them wIkj mi^flit hav(r heen able, or who 
l)eliev(!d tln^mselves ahle, to am(jliorate their lot by inakin;.^ com- 
mon cause with the insui-^ent colonies," 

On the l!)tli April, tin; battle of Lexin^fton took place, and the 
insur;,'ent colonists, believin;^ the French (Janadians wore lield in 
check by the (Janadian fortifications, detcirinined to take tl.'em. 
Early in May, Allen and Arnold, at tin; Injad of about thnjo liun- 
dred men, crosscid Lake Champlain, and lande<l und(;r cover of 
nif.,dit near Ticonderoga. The fort contained only a few men, and 
was surj)rised next moi-ninf(, and captunjd without sliot Iteing 
fii'od. (Ji'own Point, f,'arrison(!d by a s(;r;^eant and tw(;lve men, 
surrendered a few days aftcn-waids. Saint Jean, whidi was 
cfjually weak in garrison, fell in tlie l)eginning of June. Tlie com- 
mand of tlie lak(! had now passed out of liritish hands. The situa- 
tion was critical. The gateways of (Janada wen; in the liands of tlie 
Americans. Carleton at once determined to recover tfi(i forts, and 
proceeded to rai.se a militia on the ])asis of French feudal Jaw. He 
miglit well til ink that he had more than common claims on the 



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76 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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French Canadian population. It seemed only just as he had 
been the means of restoring them their civil law, that he should 
new, in an extremity, reap the benefit of their feudal customs. 
But a dozen years of British rule, even in the most objectionable 
form it could assume, with no redeeming feature but the acci- 
dental greatness of soul of the Governor, had taught the peasants 
a lesson in freedom. They had half broken with a history of 
odious oppression. The chords of liberty in their hearts had vibrat- 
ed to the hesitating touch of a new era. What at a later period, 
the night of the 4th August, was to the German peasant of Alsace, 
the proclamation of 1703 w*as in a sense to the French Canadian. 
But the proclamation of 1763 was the incomplete work of a nar- 
row statesmanship. It was natural that the Alsatian peasants, 
who had leaped at a bound from serfdom into the position of 
landed proprietors and freemen, should have flocked to the 
standard of the republic. It was equally natural that the French 
Canadian pccvsant should have refused the appeal of Carleton, 
coming in the shape it did. Many of the seigniors took his view. 
But this only made the appeal more ominous. The poor people 
had not forgotten the hardships of the last war, nor the op[»res3ion 
which preceded it. 

Carleton had all that wonderful power of attraction which Froude 
has marked as native to the Irishman. But loved as he was, he 
could not persuade the peasants that it was their duty to act of- 
fensively f. gainst the Americans. The seigniors assembled their 
tenants, and explained to them the service expected of them, and 
the risk of confiscation which they would incur by holding back. 
Some were from old habit Inclined to obey, but the great majority 
declarcid that they did not feel themselves bound to be of the 
same opinion as their bcignior, that they owed them no military 
services, and that they would not fight against the armies of the 
revolted provinces. They knew neither the cause nor the result 
of the present difference. They would prove themselves loyal and 
peaceable subjects. They could not be expected to take arms. Their 
position is not difficult to understand. It was but the other day 
that the English invaders, fighting again.st their own soldiers and 
besieging their capital, had extorted from them a strict neutrality 
on pain of exemplary punishment, or, as they expressed it, of sum- 



APATHY OF THE HABITANS. 



77 



'roude 
'■as, he 
Lct o!- 
their 
\n, and 
jack. 
Ljority 
lof the 
ilitaiy 
lof the 
result 
ial and 
Their 
(1- day 
•s and 
,i-aUty 
If sum- 



mary military execution. Who could complain if they remained 
neutral ? Their resolve placed Carleton in a difficult position. 
Of regular troops he had but two regiments, and these so dis- 
persed that they could not act with efficiency. Nor was all indif- 
ference in Canada. Many sympathized with the rebels, and were 
determined to aid them. 

To rep'-'l fittack and suppress treason, the Governor resolved on 
the incorporation of the militia. On the 9th of June he issued a 
proclamation in which he said that there existed a rebellion in 
several of the colonies of His Majesty ; that a part of the forces 
bearing arms had made an incursion into the province, and held 
the language and wore the attitude of invader's ; that, therefore, 
he had judged it proper to proclaim martial law, and to call out the 
militia to defend the country and awe down revolt. Instead of 
producing the desired efiect, this proclamation produced discon- 
tent where there had been indift'erence, and transformed lukewarm 
sympathy into active co-operation. Nor, it seems, could the 
people persuade themselves that the King of England would act 
like the military chief of a despotic state. Voluntary enrolment, 
the people said, was the only means to which the Governor could 
legitimately have recourse. 

Carleton had the perseverance and fertilit}-^ of resource which 
liave never been w^anting in his countrymen in times of emergency. 
Unable to succeed by force, he tried persuasion. He turned to 
the Bishop of Quebec. That prelate addressed to the curds 
of his diocese, to be read in their churches, a charge in which 
he exhorted the people to take up arms for the defence of the 
country. 

The charge had no more etTect than the proclamation. The 
French Canadians had as yet developed no byalty to the British 
crown strong enough to be the parent of action. Such loyalty as 
they had was only equal to a passive negative result. Moreover, 
the people, fond of their little farms, and with strong family 
atfections, felt that if they took up arms tor the defence of the 
country, they would be forced to wage war on any part of the 
continent where the Empire might need assistance, and ihis in a 
struggle the end of which, at tliat time, no man could foresee. If 
their homes were threatened, they would defend them. Their 



• 




78 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



!i| 



fl 



ii 












public spirit was confined within the narrowest view of their own 
interest. 

On the 17th of June, 1775, Bunker Hill was fought. On the 
Cth July the Declaration of the Representatives of the United 
Colonies of North America was published. C'arleton, unable to 
overcome the popular determination to rest neutral, sought to 
raise a body of volunteers by offering to each volunteer two hun- 
dred acres of land, two hundred and fifty if he was mariied, and 
fifty for each of his children. His engagement to serve under 
arms was to tenninate at the close of the war, and his lands were 
to be exempt from all charges for twenty years. Even this mea- 
sure failed. Only a few volunteered. 

In this emergency Carleton had no choice but to a])peal for aid 
to the Indians. The Iroquois were then in the ascendant, and 
whatever course they took would be followed by the other tribes. 
Their objections to take up arms were overcome b}' persuasion, 
and a large number repaired to Montreal to engage themselves for 
the following year. Carleton's i)reparations for a war, offensive 
and defensive, proceeded with his usual activity and energy. But 
the reinforcements which he had been prondsed from Europe were 
delayed. His plan was to relieve the Boston garrison by invading 
American territory on the south of the St. Lawrence. 

Informed of this design, and believing the French Canadians 
were favourable to their cause, Congress resolved to anticipate 
him. A considerable force under General Schuyler was ordered 
to invade Canada and advance against Montreal, while Arnold 
was to penetrate the colony by way of Kennebec a,nd Chaudiere, 
and operate against Quebec. Schuyler, having made himself 
master of Isle-aux-Noix or Fort Lennox, put forth a proclamation 
not unlike that which King William addressed in 1870 to the 
French peasantry. The invaders did not come to make war 
ao-ainst the French Canadians. Their quarrel was solely with the 
British troops. The lives, property, the liberty and religion of 
the habitans would be respected. These appeals influenced a 
mere fraction of the people. 

Schuyler took ill, and Montgomery assuming chief connnand, 
prosecuted the siege of St. Johns with vigour, and despatched 
Colonel Allen to surprise Montreal. But Carleton was now in 



III! 



CRITICAL POSITION OF THE GOVERNOU. 



79r» 



idians 
cipate 
•dered 
mold 
dierc, 
luself 
lation 
o the 
war 
,h the 
lion of 
ced a 

Inand, 

Itched 

)W in 



Montreal, and it was not easy to surprise him. He called toge- 
ther about one hundred soldiers and two hundred volunteers, 
under Major Carsden, who, coming on the Americans, defeated 
them, killing fifty, and taking as many prisoners, including Colonel 
Allen. The rest, among whom were some habitans, escaped to 
the woods, or to the Ameiican camp. 

Chambly fell, or was rather given up, and Montgomery, whose 
powder had been nearly exhausted, with ammunition obtained 
from a fort which, I need not say, had not been defended by an 
Irisliman, carried forward the siege of St. Johns with renewed 
vigour. The garrison expected Garlcton to raise the siege. Carle- 
ton knew that want of provisions would not permit the garrison 
to hold out long. Hu sent to Colonel McLean, commanding at 
Quebec, to raise as many men as he could, and to come up to 
Sorel, where he proposed to join him. McLean had raised about 
three hundred men, for the most part French Cu-nadians. The 
Governor assembled at Montreal nearly a thousand men, consisting 
of Indians, French Canadians, and regulars, enrolled with despe- 
rate exertions. Instead, however, of joining McLean, knowing 
how pressing was the necessity to relieve St. Johns, he crossed 
the St. Lawrence but, on arriving near the shore, he found that 
the other Irishman had anticipated him. An American force, 
with two field pieces, advantageously placed on shore, waited 
until Carleton arrived within pistol shot, and then opened a 
deadly fire, forcing him, w ith a sad but an , ndaunted heart, to re- 
treat. Meanwliile McLean, on his way to Montreal, was stopped 
by another party of Americans, when he was deserted by most 
of his men, and compelled, with a renmant of the three hundred, 
who were deterndned not to recall Thermopylae, to fall back on 
Quebec. The brave Preston, apprised of these events, and his 
garrison in want of food, saw nothing for it but to surrendei", and 
he and his little band marched out with the honours of war. 

The Governor was now in a critical position. It was impossible 
to defend Montreal. The retreat to Quebec was beset with for- 
midable difficulties. Yet only by retreating on Quebec could he 
avoid being made a prisoner. Should he fall into American 
hands, all hope of saving Canada would be gone. He destroyed 
as much of the public stores as he could not take with him, and 



■^■1 



80 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i 



;i ' I 



with Bi'igadier Prescott, al»out one hundred soldiers, and such of 
the inhabitants as chose to acconi])any him, embarked on board 
the " Gaspd " and other smaller vessels. 

Almost as they quitted the city the Americans entered it. The 
principal citizens, among whom was John Blake, prepared a series 
of articles, to which Montgomery replied that he and his army 
had come for no other purpose but to give liljerty and security, 
and that he hoped to assemble a Provincial Convention who would 
adopt measures calculated to establish on a solid basis the civil 
and religious rights of the colonies. " Montgomery," says Mac- 
Mullen, " treated the people of Montreal with great consideration, 
and gained their good will by the affability of his manners, and 
the nobleness and generosity of his disposition." 

The stars in their courses had fought against Oarleton. At this 
moment all the chances are on the side of Montgomery. The 
gateways of Canada are his. He is master of Montreal. A for- 
midable force under Arnold is marching on Quebec. Carleton, 
the hope of the Province, has but a slendei- chance of escape. The 
very winds conspire against him, and he has not sailed two 
leagues from Montreal when he is obliged to weigh anchor oppo- 
site Lavaltrie, a village called after the uncompromising Jesuit 
Laval, who had himself fought so many battles. The forced 
delay, under any circumstances, would have l>een perilous. But 
what are we to think of the situation when our eye rests on the 
bixtteries erected by the Americans on a rising ground near Sorel, 
and the floating batteries on the bosom of the .stream. Here are 
lions in the Governor's path. Montgomery has heard of his situa- 
tion, and prepares to attack him, and in anticipation he rolls under 
his tongue the sweet morsel of glory, making Carleton prisoner, 
putting a happy end to the war, and placing a coping stone on 
his own renown. While Montgomery's Irish brain is thus cogi- 
tating, unmindful of fate, unknowing that he is doomi 1 never to 
leave Canadian soil, the Irish brain of Carlet^ is fertile in expe- 
dients. He assumes the disguise of a French Canadian peasant, 
or, if we are to believe M. Adolphus, of a fisherman, and with the 
brave Bouchette, his aide-de-camp, and an old sergeant, he enters 
a little boat, and with muffled oars they glide down stream. Row 
carefully now, Joseph Bouchette, for you carry in your frail boat 



■d 



V i 



STEALING THROUGH THE MIDST OF THE ENEMY. 



81 



A^tthis 
. The 
A for- 
j'lcton, 
)e. The 
3d two 
V oppo- 
Jesuit 
forced 
, But 
on the 
■ Sorel, 
re are 
sitiia- 
under 
isoner, 
one on 
lis cogi- 
}ver to 
expe- 
leasant, 
[ith the 
enters 
Row 
til boat 



the fate of Canada. They slij) down, ahnost angry with the phos- 
phorescent light struck from the silent oars. They come opposite 
Sorel. They are in the midst of the floating batteries. A whisper 
may undo them. There are the dark forms of the batteries. They 
can hear in the silent night the tread of the watch. The solemn 
stars in the dark-blue canopy overhead, seem at one time to peer 
with discovering eyes, and at another they infuse the confidence, 
the deliberate valour, the heroic strei.igth, which great hearts drink 
in from contemplation of the vast and enduring works of God. 
The oars are shipped and Captain Bouchette and Sergeant Bou- 
thillier paddle with their hands. Sorel and the islands guarding 
the entrance to Lake St. Peter are passed. They now betake 
themselves afresh to the oars. The shallow lake is crossed, and 
they arrive at Three Rivers only to encounter fresh dangers. The 
hotel was full of American troop?;. Carleton's disguise, his own and 
Bouehette's familiar manner preventc [ all suspicion. Two armed 
schooners, from v/hose mastheads floated the English flag, were 
in the offing. Having partaken of some refreshment, Carleton 
reembarked in his little boat, and gained one of these schooners. 
Then ordering the other to accompany him, he made for Quebec. 
Prescott and his one hundred and twenty men were forced by the 
floating batteries before Sorel to surrender. 

While these events were taking place, a body of men fifteen 
hundred strong had left Boston, and, in the face of incredible diffi- 
culties, mounted the Kennebec to its source. On a beautiful 
morning in September full of hope, and under the inspiring eye 
of Washington, they had marched out of Cambridge. Eleven 
transports conveyed them to the mouth of the Kennebec. Car- 
penters had been sent on before, and two hundred boats were 
ready to receive them. Between them now and their destination 
lay the primeval forest. After six days they arrived at Norridge- 
wock Falls, where they had their first portage. It took them 
seven days to drag their boats over rocks, through the eddies, and 
even along the woods. Arrived at the junction made by the 
Dead River with the Kennebec, one hundred and fifty men were 
ofi" the rolls, owing either to desertion or sickness. When they 
set out the world was beautiful in the glows and glories, the 
delicious atmosphere of the Indian summer ; the salmon trout 



i, ' 'I 



i" 'I 



S2 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



bounJecl in the glittering stream ; the forest was a glimmering 
masH of gold and fire. But the October winds despoiled the trees 
and hurried the hel})less shivering leaves into stream and along 
narrow, devious forest paths. One day a mountain of snow rose 
before them. An officer ran up to the summit in order to catch 
a glimpse of Quebec. But instead of the ancient city, with ita 
fortress-crowned rock, he saw bleak forests, through whose deso- 
late branches the frosty winds howled, and wintry inhospitable 
wastes. Hauling boats, wading fords, trudging kneo-deep in 
snow, but alow progress was made. A whole division grew faint- 
hearted, and returned to Cambridge. The expedition still pressed 
on. They had passed seventeen falls, when, through a Idinding 
snow-storm, they stepped on to the height of land which sepa- 
rates New England from Canada. A portage of four miles 
wrought them to a stream on which they floated into Lake Me- 
gantic. Here they encamped. On the morrow, Arnold, with a 
party of fifty men on shore, and thirteen men with him in his 
boats, proceeded down the Chaudiere to obtain provisions from 
one of the French settlements. The current was swift and boiled 
over rocks. The boats were, nevertheless, allowed to drift with 
the stream. Soon the roar of falling waters smote on the ear. 
Before they could resolve the cause, they were drifting among 
the rapids. Three of the boats were dashed to pieces. Six of 
the men hurled into the water, were saved with difficulty 
from drowning. After seventy miles of falls and rapids they 
reached Sertigan, where they received shelter and provisions. 
Meanwhile the bulk of the army which was left behind was in a. 
miserable condition. They killed and cooked their dogs, devoured 
raw root^;, drank the soup of their moose-skin mocassins. They 
had been forty-eight hours without food before they received 
flour and cattle from Sertigan. On the 9th November, two months 
after they had set out with so much hope and lightness of 
he&iTt, in the glad sunshine, from Cambridge, they reached Point 
Levi, having learned something of the perils of the wilderness and 
the rigours of a Canadian winter. 

Their approach was not unheralded. An Indian to whom 
Arnold had entrusted a letter for Schuyler had taken it to Lieut.- 
Governor Sieur Hector Th^ophih Cramah^, commander of the 



THE BASTONNAIS. ARNOLD DISAPPOINTED. 



83 



cring 

trees 

along 

V rose 

catch 

ith its 

! deso- 

litable 

2ep in 
f aint- 

iressed 

iinding 

h sepa- 

r miles 

ke Me- 

, with a 

a in his 

ms from 

id boiled 

•ift with 

the ear. 
among 
Six of 

llirtieulty 

[ids they 
[ovisions. 

rt^as in a. 
levom'ed 
They 
received 
[) months 

,ness of 
led Point 

ness and 

whom 
to Lieut.- 

Ir of the 



!l 



forces in the capital during Carleton's absence. Arnold had hoped 
to surprise QuelDcc. But some days before he arrived opposite 
Quebec, orders had been given to strengthen the fortifications, to 
organize the militia, and to remove the boats and shipping. In 
Mr. John Lesperance's " Bastonnais," Cramah^ is made to enter- 
tain his friends, the Barons of the Round Table, on this evening. 
In their claret-coloured coats, lace bosom-frills and cuff's, velvet 
breeches, silken hose, silver-buckled shoes, and powdered wigs, 
they greeted the Governor. The dining-room, lit with a profusion 
of wax candles, looking like a piece of Versailles, even as Quebec 
itself was like a city transported from Normandy. But the ban- 
quet is broken up by news of the contiguity of those brave fellows 
who are talked of by the Canadian peasantry of to-day as the 
" Bastonnais." 

On the 10th, a council of war was held, and it was resolved to 
defend Quebec while the least hope remained. Outside in the 
streets the cry was heard " The Bastonnais have come," and from 
the ramparts Arnold's men could be seen on the heights of 
Levis. On the 1 2th, Colonel McLean, who had retreated from 
Sorel, arrived at Quebec with a body of Fraser's Highlanders, who 
having settled in the countiy, were now re-enrolled. The Cana- 
dian militia was four hundred and eighty strong. There was also 
a militia composed of Englishmen, Irishmen, and Scotchmen, 
which boasted five hundred men. There were a few regular 
troops and some seamen. The " Hunter" sloop-of-war, conn^^u-nded 
the river. Nevertheless, Arnold succeeded on the night o^ the 13th 
in crossing the river, and landing at the very spot were Wolfe 
had landed in July sixteen years before. Like W^ife he marched 
on to the plains of Abraham. His men gave three cheers, which 
were responded to by counter cheers from the city and a few dis- 
charges of gi-ape. He had failed to surprise it. He had not 
enough of troops to attack it with effect. He therefore, on the 
18th, retired up the left bank of the river, as far as Pointe-aux- 
Trembles, where he arrived immediately after Carleton had 
quitted it, and where he determined to await the amval of Mont- 
gomery from Montreal. On the following day, General Carleton, 
escaping, as we have seen, so many dangers, arrived at the one 
fortress which was not in the grasp of the Thirteen Colonies, the 



Ill I 






,']i 



ij,, 



I'llP' 'il 



(Mil 



■If^! 



fj!f| 



f 






mrM\ 



§ 



84 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



strong and beautiful city for which the Empire had paid with the 
life-blood of Wolfe, the queenly, rock-throned citadel, which at 
that moment was the Thennopylre of British power on this 
continent. 

XI 'Hhmen never I'csort to half measures. Hence they make such 
good generals and such efficient rulers The first thing Carleton 
did, on taking the reins out of Cramah^'s hands, was to strengthen 
the hand; of the loyalists, and practically increase his provisions 
by expelling from the city all who were liable to serve in the 
militia, but who refused to do their duty. The population num- 
bered about five thousand, of which three thousand or more were 
women and children. Provisions were abundant, but fire-wood 
was scarce. Happily the winter was not severe. The venerable 
Jesuit College in Cathedral Scjuare was the principal barrack, and 
the chief outposts were at the St. Louis, St. John, and Palace 
Gates. Palisades were raised where Prescott Gate was afterwards 
erected. In the Lower Town there were batteries in Little Sault- 
au-Matelot, and at the western end of Pr^s-de- Ville. The French 
militia, who guarded the Lower Town, sang as they went and 
came, just as the French Mobiles did during the siege of Paris. 
But instead of " Aux Armes, Citoyens," the Canadian militia 
chanted, if we may believe Mr. John Lesperance — 

"Vive la Canadienne, 
Et ses jolis yeux doux." 

There was, I doubt not, the same light-heartednesa — the same ten- 
dency to lay hold of the humour of all things and persons — the 
same gosciip — the same curiosity among the women, with their 
voluble tongues, and half-real half-feigned alarm, as I saw in 
Paris during the Franco-German War. The siege lasted eight 
months — twice as long as that of Derry, twice as long as that of 
Palis, four times as long as that of Limerick. 

Montgomery arrived at Pointe-aux-Trembles on the 1st Decem- 
ber. Their united forces amounting to about two thousand 
men, he proceeded to attack Quebec, After three days' march, 
he arrived before the fatal city, and sent a flag to summon the 
besieged to si snder. Carleton, acting with the strictest logic, 
refused to admit that rebels had any right to the usual laws 



ATTACK OF AMERICANS REPULSED. THEY FLY. 



85 



\ the 

h at 

this 

such 
•leton 
nrthen 
isions 
in the 
num- 
3 were 
s-wood 
levable 
ek, and 
Palace 
srwards 
3 Sault- 
French 
ent and 
Paris, 
militia 



ime ten- 
,ns — the 
;h their 

saw in 
ed eight 

that of 

Decem- 

Ihousand 

march, 

ion the 
1st logic, 

lal laws 



of war, and ordered the gunners to fire on the herald. A letter 
brought l)y a woman was Ijurned, and Cnrleton said that he 
would treat every message from the Americans in the same 
manner, until they craved mercy of the King, and became loyal 
subjects. Nevertheless, during the follov/ing days lettei-s were 
thrown into the city, some addressed to the Governor, others to 
the citizens. These last rarely fell under the eyes for which thoy 
were intended, for as soon as they were seen by the soldiers, they 
were carried to the residence of the Governor. The weather was 
intensely cold. Nevertheless, Montgomery constructed batteries, 
but his guns were too small to make any impression on the forti- 
fications, from which a destructive fire blazed continually. He 
determined to take the placg l)y storm. But Carleton was fuDy 
informed of his determination, and the attacks of Arr.old and 
himself failed in consequence. Montgomery paid with his life for 
his temerity. Arnold was wounded while attacking the first 
barrier on the side of Sault-au-Matelot. Captain Morgan took 
the command, and drove the guard back to the second barrier. 
But Carleton was soon on the spot, and owing to his promptness 
and skill, the Americans were surrounded and driven out of a 
strong building at the point of the bayonet. Their loss in killed 
and wounded was about a hundred. Four hundred and twenty- 
six, including twenty -eight officers, suiTendered. Carleton would 
now, under ordinary conditions, have sallied out on the Americans. 
But these had sympathisers both without and within the walls, 
and the Governor wisely waited for the succours which would 
come with the opening up of navigation. He had thos-" 
houses, in which the enemy might take up his quarters, burned. 
His vigilance, his activity, his great capacity, let no advantage 
slip. Pre-occupied, as he was, however, he took care to seek out 
amid the winter snow, the body of General Montgomery, and 
place it in the earth with military honours. 

Early in May, the "Surprise" frigate and a sloop of war, with one 
hundred and seventy men and some marines, arrived in the har- 
bour. The moment these men were landed Carleton resolved to 
attack the enemy, who, disheartened and already dcxnoralized, fled 
precipitately, leaving behind cannon, stores, ammunition, and even 
the sick. These were treated as one might expect by Carleton, 




86 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



\m 



of wliom humanity was a distinguisliinj^ feature. Every kindness 
which could alleviate the suffering of tiie sick, or make the life of 
the liealtliy prinoners more pleasant, was lavished on them. For 
his services during the siege, Carleton was kniglited. 

Meanwliile, Captain Foster, having had some successful engage- 
ments with the Americans on the lakes, was pusliing towards La- 
chine, when he was compelled todefend himself agr'nst Arnold, with 
a force thrice as strong as his own. The defence \\ (,s so stout that 
the Americans had to retire to St. Anne's. 

The American troops retreating fiom (Quebec, having lost at 
Sorel their connnander. General Thomas, who had taken Arnold's 
place l)efore Quebec, were joined at the confluence of the Riche- 
lieu by about four thousand men. Cteneral Sullivan was chief in 
command. 

A body of troops arrived from England, all of that type which 
made a French General say it was well English soldiers were not 
more numerous. There was no longer anything now to prevent 
Carleton taking a vigorously offensive attitude. Brigadier Eraser, 
with the first division.he sent on to Three Rivers. Sullivan thought 
he saw an oppoi-tunity of sui-prising the town, and inflicting serious 
damage on part of the British army. He accordingly sent General 
Thompson, with eighteen hundred men, against Three Rivers. 
But he was met by Fraser, who had been informed of his design) 
and sustained a signal defeat. Five hundred prisoners, including 
Thompson himself, were taken, and the retreat of the main body 
was cut off. These repaired for shelter to a swampy wood. There 
they spent a night of misery, and might have died there of want 
and ague, had not Governor Carleton, with a rare chivalrous 
pity, drawn the guard from the bridge spanning River du Loup. 
They were thus allowed to make their escape, and rejoin Sullivan 
at Sorel. No longer equal either in the quality or numbers of the 
British troops, Sullivan mounted the Richelieu, and was joined by 
Arnold at St. Johns, '^hey then retreated to Crown Point. Thus 
ended the American invasion, which, says a French writer, was 
wholly fruitless, save in affording an opportunit}'- to the colonists 
of showing their courage, and bringing out the military and civil 
virtues of Richard Montgomery. Frc , ir point of view it may 
be remarked that it emphasized the qualities of another hero not 



SUCCESS OF CAULETON. HIS MAONANIMITY. 



87 



ncsH 

feof 

For 

ragC- 

s La- 
,\vith 
bthat 

)st at 
•nold's 
[liche- 
lief in 

which 
31-0 not 
)revent 
Fraser, 
hought 
seriouB 
]^eneral 
Rivers, 
design. 
chi<ling 
ill body 
There 
^f want 
vah-ous 
Loup. 
uUivan 
8 of the 
ined by 
Thus 
,er, was 
lolonists 
Ind civil 
it may 
lero not 



less 
toi 



distinguished 



for military and civil virtues, Guy Carle- 



•■•I 



9' 



-V* 

IS 



Carleton, after several naval actions, made himself macter of 
Lake Champlain, and had beaten the Americans along their 
whole line, by the tinn' it . vs neces-sary to go into winter quar- 
ters. The Canadians gladly received the troops ipiartered on 
thein, for they had learned to regard the Americans as in lors 
and enemies, owing to the necessities laid on all troops in a 
foreign country. 

Meanwhile, the Declaration of Independence had been adopted 
by the Continental Congrjss, July 4th, 177G. The British, in 
other directions, had not been so successful. They had evacuated 
Boston. They had been repulsed before Charleston. But they 
had gained an important victory at Long Island, taken possession 
of New York, and driven Washington across the Delaware. But 
Washington's victories at Trenton and Princeton left the result of 
the campaign in favour of the colonists. 

General Burgoyne, when he went back to England, closeted 
himself with ministers, and drew up ihe plan of a campaign by 
way of Lake Champlain. He arrived at Quebec the 9th of May, 
1777, endowed with the chief command. Carleton was deeply 
wounded by the slight which had been cast upon him. He had 
saved Canada, and his reward was to be superseded by a man 
whose claims were not fit to be mentioned in the same breath as 
his. Nevertheless, he contented himself with demanding his 
recall, and proceeded to second the plans of Burgoyne with all 
his might. There is a lesson in subordination of priceless value. 
Burgoyne having opened the campa,ign prosperously, was com- 
pelled, a few months later, to surrender his whole army at 
Saratoga. 

Of the conduct of Carleton during the invusiun, Mr. J. M. 
Lemoine, in his " History of Quebec," says : " Had the fate of 
Canada on that occasion been confided to a Governor less wise, less 
conciliating than Guy Carleton, doubtless the 'brightest gem in the 
colonial crown of Britain,' would have been one of the stars on 
Columbia's banner ; the star-spangled streamer would now be 
floating on the summit of Cape Diamond." 

Carleton, relie ved from military duty, was able to devote more time 



■i^'tiihtnriiaM 



88 



THE IRISHMAN IN C\NADA. 



wl 



to the peaceable administration of the Province. The first Legisla- 
tive Council, under the Quebec I t, was held in the spring of 1777. 
Sixteen Acts were passed. Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas 
and Probate were erected. The Governor, the Lieut. -Governor, 
the Chief Justice, and any five of the Council constituted a Court 
of Appeal. A Militia Act wr passed, which made, with few ex- 
ceptions, all Canadians arrived at the required age liable to mili- 
tary service. This Act created great dissatisfaction, and it has 
been bitterly attacked by French Canadian writers. But we have 
come to live in times when the most enlightened English thinkers 
have advocated a like system for the mother countries. 

Major-General Haldimn.nd, a man perfectly ignorant of the 
lawb and customs of Canadians, or. for that matter, of the empire, 
arrived in July, 1778, to assume the government of the colony. 
Carloton was followed with many regrets and many kind wishes 
on the part of the people of Canada, and the people of Quebec pre- 
sented him, as he was about to embark, with addresses which 
showed what had been the character of his rule. Haldimand was 
in all respof'ts a contrast to Carleton ; he was, if we may believe 
the writings of the tim* cruel, inquisitorial, iniquitously extor- 
tionate, in a word, a tyrant, without either sagacity or self-respect. 
The burdens of the peasantry were increased until they became 
no!i burdens but scourges. One of the judges was a retired cap- 
tain of infantry on half pay ; another an army doctor ; and it may 
well be believed that not having had legal training, they often 
allowed undue weight to their own prejudices and preferences. 
All the defects of the Act of 1774 were brought into striking 
relief under the rule of Haldimand. It was seen that the delusive 
constitution was no protection against tyranny. M. du Calvere, 
the forerunner of men like Gourlay, Mackenzie, and Baldwin, 
went {■: England to demand the recall of General Haldimand. 

In the November of 1782, the independence of the United 
States was acknowledged, and this had a n^omentous effect upon 
the character 'A the Canadian population. Thousands of U. E. 
Loyalists left the States for Nova Scotia and Canada. They 
founded the town of St. John, on the St. John River; the;;- 
swelled the population of Huhfax ; they settled along the Bay of 
Fuiidy ; they faced the wilderness in Ontario, settling along the 



IRISH U. E. LOYALISTS. 



89> 



Legisla- 
of 1777. 
on Pleas 
rovernor, 
I a Court 

few ex- 
I to mili- 
id it has 
) we have 

thinkers 

it of the 
le empire, 
le colony, 
ad wishes 
aebec pre- 
ses which 
mand was 
ly believe 
sly extor- 
If-respect. 
sy became 
itired cap- 
,nd it may 
;hey often 
references, 
striking 
delusive 
|u Calvere, 
Baldwin, 
imand. 
he United 
[ffect upon 
of U. E. 
la. They 
TQv ; the;;-' 
[he Bay of 
along the 



upper St. Lawrence, around the Bay of Quinte with its thousand 
beauties, and on the Niagara and Detroit Rivers. 

Among these U. E. Loyalists were not a few Irishmen. Luke 
Carscallian, having served in the British army, had retired and 
emigrated to the American colonies prior to the rebellion. When 
the war broke out, he desired to remain neutral, but the rebels 
insisted as he was a military man that he must join them or be 
regarded as one of the enemy. He replied : " I have fought for 
the King and I would do so again." An order was issued for his 
aiTest. He hid, and ultimately made his escape to Canada, leav- 
ing behind him all his personalty and twelve thousand acres of 
land. What did the rebels do ? With atrocious cowardice and 
cruelty, they seized his son, a lad of tender years, and threatened 
to hang him unless he betrayed his father's hiding place. The 
son was not unworthy of the sire. His reply was — " Hang 
away." The cowards, unimjn-essed by this noble conduct, han^i, 3d 
him three times yntil he was almost dead. Three times they put 
the question to the half fainting boy. Three times he returned a 
defiant " no." When taken down the third time, and repeating 
his determination, the monsters killed the half -strangled lad. 

Of the same type was Willet Casey, born of Irish parents in 
Rhode Island. The war in which his father was killed ended, he 
settled near Lake Champlain, thinking he was putting down his 
stakes in British territory. He discovered after making consider- 
able clearing that herein he was mistaken, whereupon he removed 
again. He set his face towards Upper Canada, accompanied by 
his wife and Ids old mother, who died three months aft^r the 
migration. Dr. Canniff saw the couple when they had grown 
old, and he says, " two nobler specimens of nature's nobil'ty 
could not be imagined." 

One of the great f-;oMier settlers was William Bell, born August 
12th, 1758, in the County Tyrone. When the revolutionary war 
broke out, he was a sergeant in the o3rd regiment of the line. In 
1789 he came to Cataraqui, and commenced trading in the port 
of Sidney, Ferguson being his partner. In 1792 Bell gave up 
trading, and became a school-teacher to the Mohawks ; but he 
seems to have done business in the way of trading in 1799. In 
1803 ho is found settled in Truro. He had meanwhile received a 



^'iV\ 



im 




^0 



THK IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



^'illl 



captain's commission in 1798, a major's in August, 1800 ; and in 
1800 he became lieutenant-colonel. He was an active pul)lic man, 
well known in Thurlow, where he served as magistrate, coroner, 
and as colonel of the Hastings Battalion. He died in 1833, having 
done the country good service. 

Captain Peter Daly, who resided in New York, was called home 
to Ireland before the rebellion, and at the earnest solicitation of 
a bachelor friend, named Vroman, he left his son Peter Vjehind 
him. Vroman was wealthy, and called himself lord of many a 
fair acre on the banks of the Mohawk about where Amsterdam 
now stands. He promised to make Peter, whose genial Irish 
manners had won his heart, his heir. When the war broke out, 
Peter was sixteen years of age. But the blood of heroic fathers 
ran in his veins — fathers who had fought under the flag which it 
was sought to te."" down. Wealth was on one side — honour on 
the other. Prosperity here — toil and hardship there. He did not 
hesitate. He turned his back on wealth, and joined a company, 
following the flag of his fathers along the shores of Lake Cham- 
plain, where, in one night, he assisted in scaling three forts. He 
was instrumental in takinof Fort Ticonderoga. When the war 
was over, in company with other loyalists, he came up the Bay of 
Quintd. Having married, he settled down in the second conces- 
sion of Ernesto wn, near the Village of Bath, where he made a 
comfortable livelihood, and did his share of the work of laying 
the foundation of the great Canadian nation of the future. Mr, 
Daly was a Presbyterian. He never heard anything from Vroman, 
and his grandson says, with some natural bitterness, tliat he cared 
but little for the land that had driven him to dwell among the 
wild beasts of the unbroken forest. He left behind him a nume- 
rous and respected family. Two of his sons, Thomas and Charles, 
were still living on the old farm near Bath in 1809. Philip, the 
eldest, died at Oak Shade, in Ernesto wn, in 18G1, having at- 
tained to one year more than the period allotted to man. His 
eldest daughter became Mrs. Aikens ; another daughter married 
Asal Rockwell, of Ernestown ; another, Jacob Shibley, ex 
M.P.P. ; another, Joshua Boatle ; and the descendants of the brave 
Peter are numerous. 

Another remarkable Irishman, who lived to over a hundred 




A CENTENARIAN. THE CANNIFFS. 



91 



and in 

iic man, 

30voner, 

having 

id home 
ation of 
behind 
many a 
sterdam 
al Irish 
oke out, 
; fathers 
which it 
)nour on 
i did not 
ompany, 
e Cham- 
rts. He 
the war 
e Bay of 
I conces- 
3 made a 
laying 
re. Mr. 
Vroman, 
le cared 
long the 
a nume- 
Charles, 
lilip, the 
ving at- 
in. His 
married 
l)ley, ex 
he brave 

hundred 






years of age, was James Johnson, a soklier in Rogers' Battalion. 
He was captain of the cattle drivers who came with the first .set- 
tlers of Ernes^^own. " He got his location ticket," says Dr. Cannitt", 
" at Carleton, Ireland." The doctor adds, that he had a family of 
seven sons and six daughters, 

John CannifF, a U. E. loyalist, was a member of an Irish Huge- 
not family. An oil ])ainting of the grand-uncle of Dr. Canniff 
bears on the back of its frame the statement that he was born at 
Bedford (New Rochelle), State of New York, in the year 1757. 
One or more persons of the name of CannifF were among the 
Hu onots who were expelletj from France on the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. in 1685. Many of these exiles 
found a home in Ireland, and because naturalized. Among them 
were the Canniffs. The name may now be found in Ireland. 
The Cannifls were among the first settlers in New Rochelle, all 
of whom were Huguenots. 

At the breakir out of the American rebellion, the CannifFs 
were divided. Most of them remained loyal to the Empire. At 
the close of the war, John CannifF was a refugee in New Bruns- 
wick, from which place he came to Canada in 1788, being one of 
the first settlers in Adolphustown. Ak out the beginning of the 
present century he removed to Thurlow, Hastings Co., which 
was then a wilderness. He was a pioneer in the erection of saw 
and flour mills. The settlement made by him ultimately received 
the name of Canifton. 

James Canm.T, brother of John, and grandfather of Dr. Canniff', 
came to Canada some years after his brother. The incidents 
attending the journey of the family from Duchess County, on the 
Hudson, in batteaux, would supply material for an interesting 
narretive. 

It was with no small regret he left his beautiful home on the 
Hudson, and that enchanting river— the River of the Mountains, 
as the Spaniards called it — with the queenly dignity of the Cats- 
kills ; the pictures(iue heights— the sublime Highlands, where the 
noble stream strolls, like some mighty lord through his ancestral 
halls, between rock-ribbed hills, whose cheeks were browned 
before the days of Adam ; all the grandeur of a wall of unbroken 
rock extending for miles ; all the repose of sloping hills and 




wm 



1 J 



■S«' 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 

sleepy hollows. To-day the steamer pants along those waters. 
The scream of the railway whistle is heard. On either side of 
Poughkeepsie, there are now handsome villas and stately resi- 
dences. 

*' By woody bluff we steal, by leaning lawn, 
By palace, village, cot — a sw set surprise 
At every turn the vision breaks upon." 

Lovers wander up broad maple avenues, and young ladies' schools 
take their constitutional walk over beautifully-kept grounds, 
while the silver Hudson goes, gladder for their laughter and smiles, 
to the sea. A world of wealth and poetry and legend have ga- 
thered around those banks in a century. But though they had 
no monster hotels, no shining cities, no Irving, when CannifF took 
up his stakes, the moon did not look down less sweetly on Old 
Cro Nest ; the star lingered near its summit, as it lingers this 
night ; the grey form threw its silver cone on the wave as it 
throws it now. All the beauty of nature was there, and the voice 
of God in the leafy, solitary woods, on the river's breast, with its 
abounding loneliness, was heard clearer than it is to-day. The 
rocky caverns of Luzerne were, for all purposes of comparison, as 
deep then as now ; and as full of meaning, as at this moment, 
would be the question : 

" Pray tell me, silvery wave, in murmur low. 
How long ago the light first saw thy face ? 
Who saw thee, when, in all thy rushing might 
And strength, thou burst the highland chain, and forced 
Thy rugged way on to the sea ?" 

Yet James Canniff preferred the British flag to the stars and 
stripes, and happily for him, in settling in Adolphustown, he only 
passed from one beautiful river to another. Richard, another 
brother, was likewise one of the first settlers in the County of 
Hastings. 

JameS Canniff's wife was a native of Ireland. Her maiden 
name \ as McBridc. They had two sons, John and Jonas, and a 
number of daughters, all of whom married in the Bay of Quints 
region. The two sons settled in Thurlow, near where the city of 
Belleville now stands, by the banks of the river Moira. John 
was drowned at an early age in attempting to cross the swollen 
stream in a canoe. 



KINGSTON. CANADA FIRST. 



93 



,e waters. 
iY side of 
tely resi- 



es' schools 
grounds, 
md smiles, 
d have ga- 
L they had 
inniff took 
stly on Old 
infers this 
wave as it 
id the voice 
st, with its 
,-day. The 
iparison, as 
lis moment, 



reed 

stars and 
m, ho only 
ird, another 

County of 

iHer maiden 

onas, and a 

|,y of Quints 

the city of 

Loira. John 

the swollen 



'VT-i 



Jonas, tlie father of Dr. Canniff, was married, in 1811, to Letta 
F]a<der, a descendant of the Knickerbockers of the River Hudsou. 
When war was vlcclared, in 1812, Jonas voluntered, leaving his 
young wife in a half-finished log hut in the woods. He served as 
a non-commissioned office? in Captain Borland's comjmny of 
Adolphustown, under Colonel Cartwright, of Kingston. He was 
present under arms when the American fieet approached King- 
ston, with the intention of attacking the place, and with his com- 
pany, followed the fleet, as, in order to escape the warm reception 
of Kingston, it moved down the waters of the Bay. 

At a comparatively early date he erected a saw mill ; and 
afterwards a very large stone flour mill. He had three sons, James, 
Philip Flagler, and William ; and six daughters. The sons sur- 
vive. Dr. Cannifl" is the youngest of the family. His father is 
still alive, and in his 88th year. Dr. Canniff" occupied for a time 
the position of President of the Medical Section of the Canadian 
Institute. A journalist, he was for a number of years corres- 
ponding editor of the " Canada Medical Journal," published at 
?Tontreal, and he is now associate editor of the "Sanitary Journal," 
Toronto. He has been an active pamphleteer on medical and 
other subjects, and has taken a very decided stand in opposition 
to the antiseptic treatment of wounds, as presented and advo- 
cated by Professor Lister, professor in the University of Edin- 
burgh. 

He was one of the originators of the Canadian Association in 
connection with the " Canada First" Party, and of the National 
Club. Finding, however, that the tendency of the association 
was adverse to his principles as a conservufcive, he withdrew, and 
shortly after explained his action in a tract. He is a strong advo- 
cate of " Canadianism," and opposed to the existence of national 
societies, which perpetuate principles and feelings originating in 
the Old World, and which, he believes, retard the gi-owth and 
development of a hearty Canadian nationality. He is intensely 
opposed to anything approaching the appearance of annexation 
to the United States ; and, while wholly devoted to Imperial con- 
nection, holds that, even should England cast off" her colonies, 
Canada would never form a political union with the States. 



li.'l 



li- 



i 



h /' I 



94 



THE IIIISIIMAN IN CANADA. 



Dr. CannifFhas been a busy author,* and an active member of 
various associations. 

In 1867 bo received an invitation from the Medical Faculty of 
Paris to attend, as a delegate, the first International Medical Con- 
gress. He read a Paper or .-i occasion upon the " Indians of 
Canada," in connection with the subject of " Tuberculosis." In 
October of the same year, he busied himself, with others, in the 
organization of the Canadian Medical A-'bociation at Quebec, and 
was appointed the first secretary for the Province of Ontario. In 
1868 he returned to Toronto, and resumed the Chair of Surgery 
in Victoria Medical College. 

We have been kept very near f'ngston for some time. At a 
very early date, the King's town.ship must have been surveyed 
and settled, for Dr. Cannitf tells u , Collini^, the surveyor, used the 
name in 1788. During French rule, a settlement was begun at 
Kingston, under De Courcelles, as early as 1672, and called Cata- 
raqui. A fort was erected, and named aftei" ^ distinguished 
French count. Fort Frontenac, a fort which was made much use 
of by the French and the Indians, until it was destroyed in 1758 by 
the expedition commanded by Colonel Bradstreet. The place fell 
into the hands of the British in 1782. The King's township was 
mainly settled by U. E. Loyalists, some of whom, as their names 
indicate, were Irish. According to Cooper, the town v/as laid 
out in 1793. It was then confined to the eastern portion, and 
the log hut kept its neighbour, the Indian wigwam, in counte- 
nance. In its early, as in its later, days, the Irishman was well 
represented. 

Our business is not with antique hric-ci-hraG. We may, bo'^ 
ever, record that there is at present a pewter dish in e^:istence 
which a person addicted to making bulls would declare to be en- 
titled to the dignity of being ranked as an Irish settler, with a 
Palatinate ancestry. Barbara Monk, who was born in Ireland, 
married one Gasper Hover, who settled in Adolphustown. The 
ancestors of Ba.rbara had carried this dish with them from the 
Palatinate to Ireland ; one of their descendants carried it to New 



* Among Dr. Canniff's works are " Principles of Surgery," and " Settlement of 
Upper Canada." 



IRISH STAMINA. LOVE OF JUSTICE. 



95^ 



lembor of 

i'aculty of 
lical Con- 
[ndians of 
osis." In 
n-s, in the 
lebcc, and 
itario. In 
f Surgery 

me. At a 
L surveyed 
r, used the 
; begun at 
lUed Cata- 
tinguished 
J much use 
in 1758 by 
e place fell 
kinship was 
leir names 

I v/as laid 
>rtion, and 
in counte- 

II was well 

may, bo"T 

1 existence 

e to be en- 

er, with a 

Ireland, 

iwn. The 

from the 

it to New 



Settlement of 



York, whence it was brought by Barbara with the company of 
Major Van Alstine. 

In that company were several persons with more claim to the 
name of Irishman than the pewter j)late. Amongst them, pre- 
eminent in years, was John Fitzgerald, who died in 180G, at 
the ripe age of 101. In the same company was William Casey, 
who, with Willet Casey, menticmed above, represented four- 
teti'. souls. All the men, who came from Ireland in those 
earlj' days, must have been men of fine stamina. If we travel 
into another township, we find Williaia Anderson, who was 
alive in 1869, aged eighty-eight, having come to Canada in 
1803. Three years afterwards he settled at Mississauga Point, 
having meanwhile married a Miss Way, a descendant of U. E. 
Loyalists. Those men brought with them from Ireland that 
sturdy love of justice for which Sir John Da vies, in his day, declared 
the Irish to be remarkable. Once Judge Cartvtrright, holding his 
court at a tavern at Ernestown, convicted and sentenced to be 
hanged a man accused of stealing a watch, the only evidence 
against him being that the watch was found on him. The accused 
declared that he had bought the time-piece of a pedler. Neverthe- 
less, the judge would not re-consider his verdict. Dr. Connor, of 
Ernestown, stood up in open court, and appealed against the mon- 
strous injustice of taking a man's life on such evidence. In those 
early days, that dignified demeanour which distinguishes our 
courts, did not exist. He was hissed down, and the man was 
hanged. Subsequently the pedler turned up, and justified the 
unfortunate man. 

Dr. John Gamble was born near Enniskillen in 1755. Havincr 
studied medicine and surgery at Edinburgh, he emigrated, in 1770, 
to New York, where he at once entered the King's service as 
assistant-surgeon to the General Hospital. He was subsequently 
attached to the Old Queen's Rangers. After the peace, he went 
to New Brunswick. In 1784, he married and practised his pro- 
fession at St. John. He subsequently joined the Queen's Ran- 
gers as assistant-surgeon. In 1802 he settled down to })ractise in 
Kingston, where he died in 1811, leaving behind him his wife and 



thirteen children. 



daughters and four sons, in 1820 



His wife removed to Toronto with her nine 
The descendants of the pair 



9G 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



M 1 



i i 



W 



ahead V exceed by a good many, two hui dred. Mrs. Gamble, 
who had l)een a Miss Clarke, was the daughter of a U. E. Loyalist, 
and was ninety-tw(j years old at the date of her death. Mr. Clarke 
Gamble is one of tlie descendants. J. W. Gamble, who died a few 
years ago, was the eldest son of Dr. John Gamble. He was 
born at the garrison, York, in 1798; was elected for the South 
Riding of York in 1838, and re-elected for the same riding in 
1851, by a majority of 600. In 1854 he was again re-elected, and 
indeed a \&\^e portion of his life was passed in the discharge of 
public duties. 

Some ten years prior to the revolutionary war, Dennis Carroll, 
a native of the County Down, crossed the Atlantic, with his wife, 
and settled in Maryland. He had several sons, all of whom^ with 
the exception of Joseph, adhered to the revolutionary side. Joseph 
joined the British army. He drew land in Nova Scotia. After 
sufftsring shipwreck, of which he was one of the few survivors, he 
arrived in St. John. Having lost his property by endorsement, 
he, in 1809, set out with his wife and a family of eight sons, to 
renew his search after fortune in the wilds of Upper Canada. He 
was living on an Indian farm, near where Brantford now stands, 
when the war of 1812-15 broke out. He and his three eldest 
sons joined the army. The close of the war found the family, a 
Presbyterian one, notwithstanding the name, at York. One of 
his sons became a successful physician ; another, a well-to-do 
commercial man. One of his descendants is well known as a 
Methodist minister, the Rev. John Carroll, D.D., a man of dis- 
tinguished piety, who has written much and well. 

The greatest factor in civilization is religion. When an emi- 
gration settles down in a new country, its success, its progress, 
and its happiness will greatly depend on the character of the 
fauna of that country. If injurious animals abound, population 
may be kept down, and civilization retarded. The wolf and bear 
were the principal enemies the emigrant had to encounter in 
Canada. But worse than wolf or bear or tiger are the lusts of 
man. Endowed with infinite desires, nothing can keep him from 
degenerating, but communion with the Absolute ; nothing but 
Eternity can outweigh his vast and turbulent passions, in which 
earth-born and earth-bounded resolutions are as straw and drift 



RARLY METHODISM. OKOUGE NEAL. 



1)7 



Gamble, 

Loyalist, 

r. Clarke 

ioJ a few- 
He wan 

he South 
riding in 

ected, and 

scharge of 

is Carroll, 
1 his wife, 
hom^ with 
ie. Joseph 
da. After 
rvivors, he 
dorsement, 
ht sons, to 
inada. He 
10 w stands, 
ree eldest 
e family, a 
One of 
well-to-do 
nown as a 
lan of dis- 

len an emi- 
ts progress, 
pter of the 

population 
llf and bear 
Icounter in 
the lusts of 
him from 

)thing but 

|s, in which 

and drift 



m 



■M 



in the g)a,sp and coil of rousod-up seas. And the same country 
which was, in the eighth and ninth centuries for Europe, the lamp 
of truth and the ark of civilization, sent men here'to Canada to 
root hai'd by her foundations, the gospel. 

The Methodist Church is one of the inost useful and numerous 
denominations in Canada. It numbers in Ontario alone nearly 
five hundred tliou.sand. In Quebec itnuiubers thirty-four thou.sand 
one hundred ; in New Brunswick, nearly seventy thousand ; in 
Nova Scotia, forty thousand eight hundred and seventy-one. 
This church is traceable to the Irish Methodist Church as child 
to parent. 

In 17G0, Embury and Barbara Heck emigrated from Ireland, 
and founded Metliodism in the States. Embury died in 1773. 
His ^dow married John Lawrence, who, like herself, had emi- 
grated from Ireland. On the breaking out of the revolutionary 
war, tins couple, together with David Embury, Paul Heck, and 
Barbara Heck, and many more of the Irish Palatines, removed to 
' Lower ' Canada, settling first about Montreal, whence they aftei-- 
wards removed to Augusta, in 'Upper' Canada. Here they pursued 
their work with zeal. In the house of John and Catherine Law- 
renc(i, the first " class " of Augusta was held. They thus antici- 
pated and prepared the way for che itinerant Methodist preachers, 
and, as some think, for the ultimate universality of Methodism 
in the Dominion.* 

Another man whose name, at this period, should not be for- 
gotten, was George Neal. George Neal wielded not only the 
sword of truth, but the sword of steel. He belonged to that curious 
race of soldiers who unite fervent religious feeling to a warlike 
instinct, such as Havelock, Hedley Vicars, and hundreds of others, 
whose names will readily occur. A major of a cavalry regiment 
in the British army, he was a local Methodist preacher. He 
crossed the Niagara river at Queenston, and commenced preach- 
ing. The same results followed as have always followed the 
preaching of the Gospel by warm-hearted men. The story of 
immortal love, of purity, and rectitude, that had no harsher word 
for impurity and error than "sin no mo/e;" of that mysterious 



* See Goldwiu Smith in "Fortnightly Review" for March, 1877. 



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I; i 



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08 



THK IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



pcrMon who wt-nt through tho world, liko a hrocze of balm and 
healing through a fevor-strickun town ; of one so groat that tho 
povv'or (jf cinpiro hoouih trifling compared with His ; of one so 
tondor, and withal so sorrowful, that Ho sooniod tho incarnate 
sigh of Ileavon over lunnan woo ; this divine talo, when told with 
tho Irish warmth of Major Noal, was, says Dr. Bangs, " blossod to 
the awakening and conversion of many souls," aiid tlio bluff 
Christian soklior, wliose house became afterwards a home for the 
preachers, and who lived to see large and flourishing societies es- 
tablished througlu/Ut all tho district where he lived, " was always 
spoken of by the people with great affection and veneration, as 
the pioneer of Methodism in that country." For some years he 
was the ordy Methodist preacher in Canada. But in 1788 another 
pioneer came into the field, James M'Carty, who was destined to 
win the glory of martyrdom. A convert of Whitfield's ministry, 
he crossed over from tlie United States to Kingston, and passed 
on to Ernestown, where he began to hold rtligious meetings in 
the log-cabins. He was a man of attractive manners and speech. 
Large numl)ors attended his preaching. A great impression was 
made. Many were awakened. His mccess provoked hostility 
among churchmen, who were, as we n\ay be sure, without any 
claim to be considered religious men. The word " Methodist " i» 
even now used by some foolish people as a tena of reproach. In 
England, the church-doors had been closed in the face of John 
Wesley, and he and his followers were often subjected to indignity. 
We need not. wonder, then, that a sheriff', a militia captain, and an 
engineer, should combine to rid the country of this " pestilent 
fellow." Four armed men entered the house on Sunday morning 
where M'Carty was dwelling in that peace which man can neither 
give nor take away. Their object was to drag him to the 
Kingston prison ; but the congregation resisting, and one Perry 
offering bail for M'Carty 's appearance before the magistrate, they 
retired. The next day the Sheriff of Kingston refused to interfere 
with him. Nevertheless, the three ruffians, before night, had him 
in prison on some frivolous pretext. Perry succeeded in bailing 
him out. On his being returned for trial, his enemies seized him, 
thrust him into a boat, and had him landed on one of the small 
islands in the rapids near Cornwall, where he perished. 



■f 



FATHKIl OF AXai.ICAMSM IN UVPIM (JAN'ADA. 



90 



lialui anil 
i that the 
if one 80 
incarnate 
told with 
blessed to 

the V)hiff 
lue for the 
jcieties es- 
^as always 
leration, as 
e years he 
'88 another 
destined to 
8 ministry, 
and passed 
meetings in 
and speech. 
)ression was 
ed hostility 
irithout any 
ethodist " is 
proach. In 
ice of John 

o indignity. 

(tain, and an 

s " pestilent 

av morning 
can neither 

him to the 
one Perry 

;istrate, they 
to interfere 

rht, had him 

fd in bailing 
seized him, 

lof the small 

d. 



♦! 



.'ai 



Among tlio U E. Loyalists was a man of Irish Idood, the Rev. 
John Stuart, who escaped, in 1781, to Canada, where lu> was des- 
tined to win the title of the Father of tlie Cluirch of England in 
Upper Canada. He was born in 1740. Though Ms family were 
Presbyterians, his priMlilections led him to the Church of Kughind. 
He became a missionary in the Mohawk Valley, and translated 
the New Testament into the language of the Mohawks. In Ca- 
nada he proved himself a zealous missicmary, and was indefati- 
galile in laying the fountlation of the Church among the Indians 
and the whites. In 1785 he took up his permanent abode at 
Catara(jui, where he resided until his death, which took place in 
1811. 

Though not unmindful of success he was a true missionary. 
"I shall not regret," he wrote in 1783, " the disappointment anfl 
chagrin I have hitherto met with, if it pleases God to make me 
the instrument of spreading the knowledge of His Gospel among 
the heathen." In 178-1< he visited the new settlements on the St. 
Lawrence, the Bay of Quintd, and the Niagara Falls. In a church 
which stood ninety miles from the Falls, and which was the first 
church built in Upper Canada, the Mohawks received him with 
enthusiasm, and crowded the windows to catch a glimpse of their 
old pastor. In 1785 he wrote : " I have two hundred acres within 
half a mile of the garrison — a beautiful situation. The town in- 
creases fast ; there are already about fifty houses built in it, and 
some of them very elegant. It is now the port of transport from 
Canada to Niagara. We have now, just at the door, a shij), a 
scow, and a sloop, besides a number of small craft, anti if the com- 
munication lately discovered from this i)lace by water to Lake 
Huron and Miehilmachinac proves as safe and .short as we are 
made to believe, this will soon be a place of considerable t^'ade." 
The way he mingled the pioneer settler with the pioneer divine 
is .shown in the following sentences : — " I have been fortunate in 
my lotcttions of land, having 1,^00 acres at different places in 
good situations, and of an excellent quality, three farms of which 
I am improving, and have sowed this fall with thirty bushels in 
them. * * * We are a poor, happy people, industrious be- 
yond example. Our gracious King gives us land gratis, and fur- 
nishes provisions, clothing, and farming utensils until next Sep- 



J 




n 



% 



■\ i 



100 



THE laiSHMAN IN PANADA. 



Kill: 



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ii 






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If 



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tembor, aftor which the generality of the peophj will he al)le to 
live without his bounty," In May, 17^0, he opened an academy. 
In 17H8, he went round his ;)ari.sh, which wa.s two hundred miles 
long. Witli six Indians, commanded by Ca «tain Brant, he coasted 
along the iK^rth shore of Lake Ontario ; weit twenty-five miles 
by land to New Oswego, a Mohawk village just established on 
the Grand River, and beautifully situated. It contained seven 
hundred souls. In the midst of a nund)er of tine houses stood a 
handsome church, with a bell swinging in its steeple, the first 
bell which made the air vibrate in Upper Canada. Brant had 
collected money when in England, and had expended it t': li^lvan- 
tage. Stuart returned by Niagara, and visited that settlement. 
Here he found no clergyman. The pojjulation had gi . atly increased, 
and lie was so pleased with the people and countiy. that he was 
tempted to remove his family thither. " You may imagin»>," he 
wiites, " it cost me a struggle to refuse the unanimous and press- 
ing invitation of a large settlement, with the additional argument 
of a subscript i':ii, and other emoluments, amounting to nearly 
£300 York currency per annum more than I have here. But, on 
mature reflection, I have determined to remain here." He explains 
to his correspondent that he is not rich, as he might be inferred 
to be, when he refuses such an otler. He adds .- " I do not intend 
to die rich. * * I Jiad a commission sent me as first judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. But for reasons which will readily 
occur to you, I returned it to Lord Doichester, who left this place 
a few days a^ijo." 

In 1789 he was appointed Bishop's Commissioner for the set- 
tlements from Point au Baudette to the western limits of the 
Province. In 17.92 he became chaplain to the Upper House of 
Assembly. In 1799, his alTna mater, the Univeisity of Penn- 
sylvania, conferred on him the degree of D.D. At the same time 
he became chaplain to the Kingston garrison. He was in the 
seventy-first year of his age, when called away. He was six feet 
four inches high, and was hence hv rnoiously known as "the 
little gentleman." His sermons were vigorous and persuasive. 
He seems +o have been a handsome man. His character was a 
lofty one. We need v^t be surprised, therefore, when we are 
assured that he was held in the highest esteem by his fellow-citi- 




IRISH SETTLEMENT IN NEWFOUNDLAND. 



101 



i ahlc to 
caUcmy. 
id miles 
> coasted 
ve nxile.s 
ished on 
id seven 
I stood a 

the first 
laiit had 
icadvan- 
ttleiuent. 
ncreased, 
it he was 
,oiru'," he 
nd press- 
argument 
to nearly 
But, on 
explains 
inferred 

ot intend 
judge of 

ill readily 
jthis place 

the set- 
its of the 
House of 
I of Penn- 
Lame time 
las in the 
IS six feet 
s "the 
lersuasive. 
eter was a 
In we are 
jllow-citi- 



zens. An agreeahle clergyman lias seldom to complain of 
neglect. Mr. Stuart was a good deal more t' m a merely agree- 
ablr clergyman. He liau five sons and thi 3 daughters borne to 
luTii by Jane O'Kiell. Hi., .sons all occupied prominent positioitH, 

Ic is, as the reader has seen, hard for me to treat Newfound- 
land as not within the .scope of this book. In l7i*'-4, the Kev. Dr. 
O'Donriell, a native of Tippcrary, availing himself oi the toleration 
of the Roman Catholic Ileligion, as si^t forth in the Royal Pro- 
clamation relating to Newfoundland, led an Irish .settlement 
thither. In 17UU he was a})p()inted l)i.shop of the island, and 
he received for some years, until his death, an annuity of 
.£.50 for his .services in suppressing a mutiny among the troops. 
Krom Dr. O'Do'^nell's time, the Catholic bishops have played an 
important ])art in the island, not only as prelates — as witness the 
careers of Bishops Lambert, Scallan, Fleming, and Mullock — but 
as (elements of government and material progress. 

The Irish priest followed his people wherever they wuiit, and 
had, sometimes, preceded them into tht v, "'deniess as mis nonaries 
to the Indians, as was the case with the Rev. Ednuind Bui-ke, 
the Bishop of Halifax. 

At Quebec, in 1804, the English Cathedral was built by Mr. 
Cannon, an Irish Catholic. Prior to this, a mass was said specially 
for the Irish Catholics ; and at Montreal the Bonsecours and the 
Recollet Church were placed at their disi)osal. 

Haldimand was recalled, and Henry Hamilton sent out as 
governor in his stead. Hamilton called the Legislative Council 
together, and having got them to introv-'urio Habeas Corpus into 
the statute law of the Province, was gucceeded by Colonel Hope, 
who, after a few months, made room for ( >> neral Carleton, now 
Lord Dorchester, who, in addition to the governor-generalship of 
Canada, was nominated commander-in-chief of all His Majesty's 
forces in the colony. For some years loud complaints of misgo- 
vernment had been sent across the Atlantic, and in 1787 Lord 
Dorche.ster instituted an inquiry which brought to light a state of 
things worse than anyone had imagined. The administration of jus- 
tice was tainted ; Judges refused to hear evi( lence. Letters from per- 
sons interested in suits were allowed the weight of testimony, with- 
out being sifted b\ o ?s-examination. It was shown that Governor 



JM rft! 



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iii 



102 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



In 




Haklimand had made the judges instruments of political oppres- 
sion. Not only so. The English judges looked to English prece- 
dents ; the French judges administered civil law ; and the judges 
who knew as little of English common law as of the French civil 
law, did what was right in their own eyes. Education was in a 
deplorable state. The English-speaking inhabitants had increased, 
and were increasing. This deepened the note and increased the 
volume of the demand for a Legislative Assembly. 

In 1787 the Legislative Council amended and made perpetual 
the militia ordinance of ten years before. A French historian, 
Bibaud, says the only way to account for this conduct is by sup- 
posing that Lord Dorchester and a majority of his Council were 
persuaded that a ligorous military despotism was the form of 
government which best suited Canada. Thf measure, from whose 
provisions were exempted councillors, judges, public officers, 
seigneurs, cle^'gy, nobles, jjrofessional men, and all specially ex- 
cluded by order of the commander-in-chief, and which ordained 
that captains and other officers of militia, in the country districts, 
should be justices of the peace, was a despotic one, and not defen- 
sible on the ground of the dangers to which the country was 
exposed. Yet, owing to Lord Dorchester's capacity, and charm of 
manner, discontent diminished, and, if we judge by the eulogies 
on the Governor in the addresses presented to Prince Wil- 
liam Henry, we shall conclude that everything was held to be 
satisfactory. In 1788, the Council turned its artillery against un- 
licensed practitioners of medicine. In 1789, provision was made 
for the more effectual administration of justice. A committee of 
the executive council appointed to impiire into the best means of 
advancing elementary and the higher education, communicated 
v/ith the Bishop of Quebec, M. Jean Francois Hubert, and his co- 
adjutor, M. Francois Bailly, The responses of the two bishops 
were in singular discord. M. Hubert thought the country too 
little advanced, too thinly populated, and too poor, for the found- 
ation of a university in Quebec , while M. Bailly said it was high 
time a uiiiversity was established in Canada. Neither prelate 
pointed out a solution of the difficulty. The letter of the Bishop 
of Quebec is valuable, however, as showing the condition of edu- 
cation. Excepting the Quebec seminary, there was not a school 






STATE OF EDUCATION. CONSTITUTIONAL ACT. 



103 



oppres- 
li prece- 
i judges 
ich civil 
rt'as in a 
creased, 
ised the 

erpetual 
istorian, 
by sup- 
icil were 
form of 
m whose 
officers, 
ially ex- 
ordained 
districts, 
ot def en- 
ntry was 
charm of 
eulogies 
ice Wil- 
eld to be 
ainst un- 
s^as made 
uittee of 
1 leans of 
lunicated 
id his co- 
bishops 
mtry too 
le found- 
was high 
prelate 
le Bishop 
Q of edu- 
a school 



in the province where more was done than teach reading, and 
writing, and arithmetic. The committee reported in favour of 
establishing free schools throughout the province, a free school 
for higher branches in the principal town of each district, and a 
university. The scheme, which was a secular one, was regarded 
with hostility by the clergy, and it was found impossible to put 
it into exer tion. 

The governor also nominate*! a committee to report on the 
advantages and ^disadvantages of the feudal tenure, and of free 
and connnon socage. The committee reported against the feudal 
system, and the report was followed by the draft of a bill or ordi- 
nance which greatly alarmed the seigneurs and those having like 
interests. One seigneur, however, Charles de Lanaudiere, had 
already, in 1788, addressed the governor, and shown that it was 
the interest of the seigneurs that a change of tenure should take 
place, for without emigrants their lands were valueless, and it was 
folly to expect emigrants to settle under a system of laws they 
abhorred. The census showed the population of the province at 
this time to have been 150,000, auvl M. de Lanaudi^re's land could 
accommodate them all. 

Difficulties now began to arise out of the differences in tradi- 
tion and character between the old and the new settlers ; and the 
Home Government prepared a bill which was sent out to Lord 
Dorchester, to specify any changes his more intimate knowledge 
of the country and the people might suggest. The Constitutional 
Act of 1791 divided the Province of Quebec into two provinces, 
to be known as Upper Canada and Lower Canada, each of which 
should have an elective legislative assembly and a legislative 
council, and governor appointed by the Crown ; the seignorial 
tenure and French law, in civil cases, to be retained in Lower 
Canada ; British law, civil as well as criminal, to be established 
in Upper Canada. Provision was made for the maintenance of 
the Protestant clergy, one-seventh of the land being reserved for 
this purpose, and one-seventh for the crown. Those members of 
the legislative council who should have titles were to have an 
hereditary right to sit in the upper chamber. The Act was thought 
by some too aristocratic, by others the reverse. Its popular 
elements were to prove delusive, and the provisions for the clergy 






it ■ 



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104 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



were destined to retard the progress of the country, and to give 
rise to much trouble. Lord Dorchester, with the instincts of a 
statesman, recommended that the reserves of the crown and of 
the clergy should be in separate jurisdictions. But the ministers, 
knowing that the lands mixed up with those of private indivi- 
duals, would be more valuable, rejected his advice, and thus, as 
Smith says, struck a blow at the progress of the population, and 
the prosperity of the province. 

While this measure was passing through parliament, it was 
warmly debated by the House of Commons. Charles James Fox, 
more than any statesman of the time, saw the bill in its true cha- 
racter. It appeared to be founded on generous principles, which 
vanished the moment it was examined in detail. The people of 
Canada would infallibly make dangerous comparisons between 
the limited and aristocratic system about to be established, and 
the popular constitution of the United States. They should give 
to the Canadians a popular assembly, not in appeaiance, but in 
reality. 

On one point raised in the debate, there would probably be a 
difference of opinion now — namely, the division of the province. 
Many would think to-day that the object should have been to bring 
the peoples more together ; that it v/as a mistake, to permit two 
systems of laws, and that, if measures had been devised by which 
the English and French-speaking portions of the population should 
have been mixed, and the foundation laid for a homogeneous na- 
tion, there would have been more than was shown of that rare 
statemanship which goes to make a country. Fox, with that 
wisdom and foresight which never deserted him, pointed out 
the true course to take, and Lord Dorchester was even more 
opposed to the division of the province. Pitt was no less con- 
vinced of its expediency. He foresaw the state of things which 
led Mr. Brown and Sir John A. Macdonald patriotically to sink 
their differences to bring about confederation. 

Lord Dorchester, having obtained leave of absence, left for 
England in the autumn. General Alured Clarke, on the 17th 
December, opened the first parliament of Lower Canad.* ; while 
on the 17th December, 1792, Lieutenant-Governor J. G. Simcoe, 
opened the fiist Upper Canada Parliament at Newark (Niagara). 




AN ARISTOCRATIC PIONEER. 



105 



In Lower Canada, Lieutenant-Governor Clarke divided the pro- 
vince into counties, cities, and boroughs ; and Edward O'Hara 
was returned for Gasp^. D'Arcy McGee Loasted, in 1806, that 
henceforward Lower Canada was never without an Irish repie- 
sentative in its legislative councils, and I believe the boast might 
be made to-day. Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe divided Upper 
Canada into nineteen towns, which only sent sixteen members 
to parliament. The upper province was very thinly populated, 
and we were on the eve of a European war which was destined 
to scatter on Continental battle-fields strong hands and ))rave • 
hearts, that might otherwise have made war on the wilderness in 
Canada. We were destined, however, to snatch one great prize 
from the maw of that war, for the founder of the Talbot settle- 
ment was the youthful secretary of the first Lieutenant-Governor 
of Upper Canada. 

That brilliant period, comprising the closing decades of the 
eighteenth century, and the opening quarters of the nineteenth, 
was distinguished by an extraordinary number of remarkable 
men. Amongst them all — statesman, soldier, scholar, wit, poet — 
we doubt if there was one more deserving of study — one who, in 
his career, presents more strikingly original features — than Col. , 
the Hon. Thomas Talbot, the founder of the Talbot Settlement. 

Born at Malahif^o, in the County Dublin, on the l7th July, 
1771, he was the s(m of Richard Talbot, Esq., and Margaret, 
Baroness Talbot. The Talbots of Malahide spring from the same 
source as the Earl of Shrewsbury. Among the great barons who 
accompanied William the Conqueror wa^' Richard do Talbot. 
" His grandson, Richard," says Lodge's "Peerage," " was father of 
Gilbert, ancestor of the Earl of Shrewsbury, who settled in Ire- 
land in the reign of Henry II., and was invested with the ancient 
baronial castle of Malahide, and the estate belonging thereto." 

Thomas Talbot was educated at the Manchester Public Free 
School. But his knowledge could only be elementary. In 1782, 
when only eleven years of age, he received a commission. It 
does not follow that he was taken away from school. He must, 
however, have left school before he had completed his sixteenth 
year, as we find him, in 1786, one of the aides-de-camp to the 
Marquis of Buckingham, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. His ; 



rlT 



106 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






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holding this position is explained by the fact that the Marquis 
was related to the Talbot family. His brother aide-de-camp was 
that " mischievous boy,"* Arthur Wellesley, afterwards the Duke 
of Wellington. Both lads were destined for fame — widely differ- 
ent, indeed, in lustre and magnitude. Both were destined to 
lei ,d useful lives ; and, perhaps, in his humble sphere, wielding 
i;he axe amid Canadian forests, Talbot's usefulness may, in the 
sum of things, prove as great as that of Wellington, throwing his 
sword into the balance against the French Caesar. It is pleasant 
to think that the acquaintance of the two early friends continued 
through life, and that tlie backwoodsman was entertained by the 
great Duke at Apsley House. Sir Jonah Barrington did not find 
the first soldier in Europe so approachable. 

The man who would have predicted the f -ite of the two young 
aides-de-camp would have certainly sketched a brighter career for 
Thomas Talbot than for Arthur Wellesley. Talbot had more 
lively parts, and was equally we;l-connected. But happily for 
Canada, he early left the path of fame for that of usefulness — 
the drawing-room and the tented field for the wilderness and the 
shanty. 

Many a hero dates his predilection for the life of a soldier from 
the hour he read the life of Alexander the Great. The life of 
Nelson sends scores of youths to the yard-arm. Reading Charle- 
voix's history, while secretary to Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, 
Talbot was filled with an enthusiasm to drive out the wild beasts, 
and to people the shores of Lake Erie with an industrious papu- 
lation. 

Li the yea" 1790, Mr. Talbot joined the 24th regiment ao lieu- 
tenant, at Quebec. Three years afterwards he received his ma- 
jority. In 1796, he became lieutenant-colonel of the 5th regiment 
of foot, which regiment he immediately joined, and did good ser- 
vice on the Continent, commanding two battalions. After the 
peace of Amiens, he retired from the army ; came to Canada, and 
settled at Port Talbot, on a spot which had attracted his fancy 
during one of General Simcoe's expeditions. On arriving here, 
Talbot erected a tent on the top of the hill ; turned host ; met the 



See " Fifty Years of My Life." Albemarle. 






'^>, 



THE CASTLE OF MALAHTDE. 



107 



e Marquis 
camp was 
the Duke 
[ely differ- 
Bstined to 
, wielding 
lay, in the 
rowing his 
is pleasant 
, continued 
ned by the 
id not find 

two young 
T career for 
, had more 
happily for 
sefulness — 
ess and the 

loldier from 
he life of 
ing Charle- 
or Simcoe, 
,vild beasts, 
rious V-'pu- 

lent a3 lieu- 
led his ma- 
th regiment 
[d good ser- 

After the 
Canada, and 

his fancy 
[riving here, 
1st ; met the 



governor at the tent-door, and, witli that dignity which was part 
of Ids inheritance, invited liis Honour to the Castle of Malahide. 
" Here, General Simcoe," he said, " will I roost ; and will soon 
make the forest trend>]e under the wings of the flock I will 
invite by my warblings ai-ound me." On the following morning 
they stood at the Forks where London now stands, when General 
Simcoe said : " This will be the chief military depot of the west, 
and the seat of a district. From this spot I will have a line for 
a road run as straight as the crow can fly, to the head of the 
little lake " — where Dundas stands to-day. 

" He remained in my family four years," wrote General Simcoe 
to Lord Hobart, in 1803, " when he was called home as major of 
the 5th regiment, then ordered to Flanders. During that period, 
lie not only conducted many details, and important duties, inci- 
dental to the original establishment of a colony in matters of 
internal regulation, to my entire satisfaction, but was employed 
in the most confidential measures necessary to preserve that 
country in peace, without violating, on the one hand, the relations 
of amity with the United States, and, on the oth' '•, alienating the 
affection of the Indian nations at that time in open war with 
them." 

" In this very critical situation, I principally made use of Mr. 
Talbot for the most confidential intercourse with the several 
Indian tribes, and, occasionally, with his Majesty's Minister at 
Philadelphia. These duties, without any salary or emolument, he 
executed to my perfect satisfaction." 

Thus an Irishman played a very important part in settling the 
new order of things. 

When Talbot returned to Europe — on the march, or pacing the 
rock of Gibraltar, or sharing the chagrin of the disastrous expe- 
dition of the Duke of York — he dreamed another dream than that 
of military glory ; and, nrnid the roar of battle, mused on found- 
ing a settlement in the silent wilds of Canada. The peace of 
Amiens bears date, the 27th of March, 1802. Immediately 
Colonel Talbot, having determined to lay aside the sword for the 
axe, made some visits of friend, ip, and then turned his face to 
the boundless ocean, and the almost equally boundless forest. 

He wished to take with him a companion, who should helj) 



I Hi 



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m 



ll'Siill 
!! 



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il 



108 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



him in founding a colony in Canada* This companion was 
not a lady, for against the charms of the gentler sex Talbot 
seems to have been proof, but a young man, who was afterwards 
to be well and favourably known as Lord Dacre. Mr. Brand had 
been educated in Germany. He had studied in the philosophical 
school of Kant. A young, imaginative, generous enthusiast, he 
was in love with liberty — his imagination took fire at progress. 
" The political, as well as the social and intellectual system of 
Europe appeared to him, in his youthful zeal, for the improve- 
ment of his fellow-beings, belated, if not benighted, on the road to 
it ; and he had embraced, with the most ardent hopes and pur- 
poses, the scheme of emigration of Colonel Talbot for forming in 
the New World, a colony, where all the errors of the Old were to 
be avoided. But his mother died, and the young emigrant with- 
drew his foot from the deck of the Canadian ship, to take his 
place in the British peerage — to bear an ancient English title, 
and become master of an old English estate — to marry a brilliant 
woman of English fashionable society — and to be thenceforth the 
ideal of an English country gentleman." From that Arcadia 
which was to revive under the auspices of Talbot and himself, he 
turned away at the call of fortune, leaving Talbot to pursue his 
course alone. He little knew from what hardships he saved him- 
self when he took his hand from the plough of a pioneer. 

Talbot landed at a point afterwards known as Port Talbot, on 
the 21st May, 1803. With characteristic eagerness, the dash- 
ing Irish soldier immediately set to work with his axe, and 
cut down a tree. Where now stands the settlement which 
should always bear his name, was the primeval forest. To the 
west was unbroken and undisturbed wilderness ; to the east there 
was no sign of civilization nearer than sixty miles. Where Lon- 
don now sits, like a queen, in the midst of the finest agricultural 
region of Canada ; rich in branch banks, telegraph agencies, 
and daily papers ; with its fine buildings, large hotels, numerous 
churches, foundries, breweries, petroleum refineries, tanneries, 
boot factories, factories for making furniture, musical instruments, 
carriages, candles, soap ; with its population of nearly twenty 



* See •• Old Woman's Gossip," by Fanny Kemble. "Atlantic Monthly," Feb. 1877. 



PORT TALBOT. ARKANGKMENT WITH THE GOVERNMENT. 100 



anion was 
sex Talbot 
afterwards 
. Brand had 
nilosophical 
thusiaat, he 
at progress. 
I system of 
le improve- 
i the road to 
368 and pur- 
i- forming in 
Old were to 
igrant with- 
, to take his 
English title, 
•y a brilliant 
inceforth the 
ihat Arcadia 
d himself, he 
3 pursue his 
e saved him- 
neer. 

rt Talbot, on 
3s, the dash- 
lis axe, and 
nient which • 
•est. To the 
;he east there 
Where Lon- 
asricultural 
agencies, 
sis, numerous 
(S, tanneries, 
instruments, 
early twenty 




^thly," Feb. 1877. 



thousand ; green boughs of trees, which were young when Cartier 
.sailed up the St. Lawrence, dipped into the river as yet un-named 
the Thames, and where there is now the busy hum of commerce, 
the tap of the wood-pecker broke the solemn silence, and echoed 
down the wooded aisles. Where the corn-fields and orchards of 
the most favoured townships of Middlesex, Elgin, and Bothwell, 
on the side of Erie, flourish — there, in 1803, the forest, in all the 
richness of Canadian vegetation, reigned supreme. 

Port Talbot must then, as well as now, have been a charming 
spot. The creek winds round the hills amid rich flats. The 
approach from the east presents to the delighted eye of the 
traveller, every variety of woodland scenery — of hill and dale. 
On j-ounding the acclivity. Lake Erie, stretching away to the 
horizon, breaks upon the vision. We are here two hundred feet 
above the lake, and the view, wherever we turn, is of the grandest. 

While in England, Colonel Talbot had made an arrangement 
with the Government, by which he obtained a grant of five 
thousand acres : in this way. For every settler the colonel placed 
on fifty acres of land, he was entitled to two hundred acres, until 
five thousand acres were reached. He afterwards obtained for 
such of the settlers, as desired it, one hundred acres of land each. 
Some idea of the means of the pioneers may be gathered from the 
fact, that some of them had not, in thirty years, completed the 
payment of the moderate dues, £6 9s. 3d. ; and many of the old 
farmers, at this hour, acknowledge their obligation to Colonel 
Talbot's liberality. Talbot and his fellow-workers endured great 
privations. 

One of these was George Ward, a native of the Queen's County, 
who joined the British army about the close of the last century. 
His regiment was ordered to Quebec, and while there he made 
Talbot's acquaintance, and ever after they remained fast friends. 
Ward .settled on the banks of the River Thames, about fifteen 
miles ea.st of where Chatham now stands. When the war of 1812 
broke out, he had four sons — William, James, Alexander D., and 
Talbot St. John. William and James volunteered into the Kent 
Militia, under Captain John McGregor. James was attacked by 
a severe cold, in the camp on Burlington Heights, from which he 
died. William fought under McGregor, at the Battle of the 



no 



TIIK HUSH MAN IN CANADA. 



"f( 111 



Nil 



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Hit 



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Longwood.s. Captain Alexander Ward and his younger )trother 
were then aiiiall boys, running through tlie cani{» of Teeuniseh 
and liis warriors, before betook his position on the battle-ground 
at Moravian Town. The captain loved to describe the hero's 
. attitude haranguing his warriors, and the l)reathless silence with 
which they listened to his eloquence. In 1837, Captain Ward 
raised a company of volunteers, marched to the front, and re- 
mained under arms until the rebellion was put down ; after 
this he lived on his farm near Wardsviiie, a quiet and retired life. 

As with all early settlers, one of their difHculties was to get 
their corn ground. They were obliged to hollow out with fire 
the stump of a large tree, until it was converted into a serviceable 
mortar ; a wooden beetle being used as a pestle, the corn was ren- 
dered fit for use. But this was a clumsy method, and in 1808, 
Col. Talbot built a mill at Dunwich, He seems also to have made 
an eifort to supply them with religion. He assembled them on 
Sunday for religious worship, and like a patriarch read divine 
service to them. He ensured punctuality and a large congrega- 
tion by sending the whiskey -bottle round after the service. Not 
only did he thus seek to lead their minds to heaven, he united 
them in the bonds of matrimony. He also, it is said, baptized the 
children. Yet at no time of his life was he what is understood by 
a religious man. When a young man he was full of jocosity, and 
some have affirmed wit ; it is certain that after dinner, like many 
other men, he was given to retailing stories which are better left 
untold. 

His mode of transferring land was peculiar. He was accus- 
tomed to pencil down the name of the settler, and this rough-and- 
ready way of giviag a title was aided by his memory. A trans- 
fer was effected, not by elaborate conveyance, but by a piece of 
india-rubber and a stroke of the pencil. 

Things progressed slowly. Not until 1817 was there anything 
like a shop or store in the settlement ; the wants of the settlers 
were often supplied from Col. Talbot's stores. In those days the 
settler had to pay eighteen bushels of wheat for a barrel of- salt ; 
a yard of cotton cost one bushel. The cotton may now be had for 
sixpence. The same quantity of wheat would to-day buy eight 
or ten barrels of salt. 



Hi, 



m 



EXTENT OF THK TALBOT SETTLEMENT. 



Ill 



iini^er brother 
of TecuinHL'li 
l)attle-,t,'r()un(l 
ibe the hero's 
ss silence witli 
Captain Ward 
front, and re- 
t down ; after 
nd retired life. 
ies was to get 
V out with fire 
bo a serviceable 
e corn was ren- 
1, and in 1808, 
:io to have made 
nibled thorn on 
•ch read divine 
large congrega- 
le service. Not 
aven, he united 
id, baptized the 
understood by 
of jocosity, and 
iner, like many 
are better left 

He was accus- 
^his rough-and- 
lory. A trans- 
It by a piece of 

I there anything 
of the settlers 
those days the 
barrel of- salt ; 
low be had for 

l-day buy eight 



The tract settled under the superintendence of Col. Talbot, 
— a superintendence extending over half-a-century, — comprises 
twenty-nine townships, containing from KJO.OOO to 180,000 in- 
habitants. The townships are the following: — Raleigh, Zone, 
Howard, Maidstone, Rochester, Tilbui-y East, Houghton, Mersea, 
Howard, Sandwich, Carradoc, Southwold, London (together with 
the city), Eck.frid, Yarmouth, Romney, Oxford, Harwich, West- 
minster, Bayham, Mosa, Middleton, Tilbury West, Blandford, Gos- 
field, Malahide, Dunwich, Al<lboro', Walsingham. 

The settlers or tlunr descendants, with a few exceptions where 
the whiskey bottle was allowed to kill foresight and thrift, are 
the proprietors of fine farms, well stocked, with good barns, and 
eaeh worth from $2,500 to $25,000. These yeomen, as we have 
seen, had no more than the axe on their shoulders, when they 
made the nccjuaintance of Thomas Talbot. 

Talbot was one of those men who make men. He made Bur- 
well. He made Mr. John Rolph who affected great love and re- 
verence for the Colonel, and liked him so much that he would have 
been glad to have given him one of his sisters. But the Colonel 
seemed impervious to female charms. He said he had been in 
love and that the lady refused him, but those who knew him best 
thought this was uttered in jest. 

He was a man scrupulously exact in monetary transactions. 
The large sums received from the settlers were duly accounted for 
to the Government, at a period not distinguished for that honour 
which feels a stain like a wound. The only notes he would take 
were those of the Bank of Upper Canada. He made an annual 
visit to Toronto (Little York) and gave in his returns and money 
to the Government. On these occasions he travelled in a hif'h 
shouldered box sleigh, wi-apped up in a .sheep skin coat and covered 
with buffalo robes. The sheep skin coat soon became an object of 
reverence. 

Colonel Talbot was a man of liberal views, and gave the land to 
any good settler, whether English, Scotch, or Irish. To avoid 
personal encounters, he had one of the panes of glass in his window 
made to open and shut, and here all negotiations took place. He 
did not like being disturbed after dinner, and devoted of late years 
the forenoon of each day to business. A good idea of the extent. 



Ill> 



112 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



If^ 



of his transactions with eniigiants may be gathorocl from papers 
laic before the House of Assembly in 1830. The Colonel had, in 
addition to the original agreement, made another.and, underOrders 
in Council, settled r vast tract of country far in excess of anything 
^ had originally contemplated. From an abstract in the al)ove 
papers headed " Statements of Lands in the London and Western 
Districts, which have been placed in the hands of the Hon. 
Thomas Talbot, under Orders in Council and Orders from the 
Lieutenant-G )\ 'rnor, for the time being," it appears that the 
enomious amount of 518,000 acres lying in twenty-nine town- 
ships had been placed at his disposal. In 1831, the [)Opulation 
settled in these townships was estimated by the Colonel himself as 
nearly 40,000 souls. 

In 1826, he became straitened in means, owing to his exertions 
to push forward the settlement. He wrote a letter to Earl 
Bathui-st saying that after twenty yec.:s devoted to the improve- 
ment of the Western Districts of Canada, he found himself in 
difficulties. Having established twenty thousand souls without 
any expense for superintendence to the Government or the settler, 
and at a .sacrifice of $100,000 to himself, he woke up to the un- 
pleasant conviction that he was wholly without capital. In re- 
sponse to this appeal he obtained a pension of $2,000 per annum. 
He deserved this on public grounds. He was a father to his people, 
and protected them from the fangs of men in office who cared only 
for the fees. What power he exercisod may be inferred from the 
fact that in a minute of the Council addi'essed to His Honour S. 
Smith, Administrator of the Government of the Province of Upper 
Canada, Mr. W. D. Powell complains as follows : — " It is" he says, 
" apparent under this latitude that the Province is at the disposal 
of Colonel Talbot, by being allowed to receive 150 acres for himself 
for every settler he placed on 50." But Colonel Talbot, acting under 
Orders in Council, was beyond his spleen. The secj '/ of the 
animosity to the Colonel was that his powers interfered with the 
fees. Nor need one be surprised that the emigrant preferred to 
flee from an insolent official to one who was pjiternal in his pro- 
tecting kindness. 

The land on which he had laid his hand was seen by the Little 
7ork Officials to be the most valuable in the country. But the 



i!!l 



THE TALHOT ANNIVERSARY 



113 



from papers 
onel had, in 
indorOnlers 
of anything 
in the a})Ove 
md Western 
if the Hon. 
iYS from the 
trs that the 
'^-nine town- 
B population 
el himself as 

his exertions 
itter to Earl 
the improve- 
nd himself in 
iouls without 
3r the settler, 
ip to the un- 
lital. In re- 
D per annum, 
to his people, 
lo cared only 
-red from the 
is Honour S. 
nee of Upper 
t is" he says, 
the disposal 
is for himself 
acting under 
ecj '■> of the 
ired with the 
preferred to 
,1 in his pro- 
sy the Little 
try. But the 




Colonel defeated their sinister aims. Hence large tracts of fertile 
land, which might have lain untilled, are now occupied hy pros- 
perous farmers. We need not wonder that the settlers kfpt for 
many years the day of his first arrival in the country as a feast. 
• Tlie day ami all who honour it!" was received with futhusiiism, 
and the "Hem. Thomas Talbot,tliefounderof the Talbot settlement!" 
was dro'vned in bumpers. After the fiist few years, the anniver- 
sary always took place in the beautifully situated Town of St. 
Thomas, called after the Colonel, and ccmtinued until fa.shi()n and 
strangers drove away the sturdy yeomanry. 

In ISIH the town of London was surveyed and laid out in lots. 
Thee were dven out to actual settlers, by Colonel Talbot, on con- 
wition of the performance of settlement duties, and the building 
a house. 

The Castle of Malahide, at Port Talbot, where the first men in 
Canada, and noble and distinguished men from the old country, 
were frequently entertairfed, was built like an eagle's nest on a 
boM high cliff overhanging the lake. It was a long range of low 
buildings, formed of rough logs and shingles. The main building 
consisted of three princii)al apartments, of which the dining-room 
was a really handsome room. The kitchen was large, and the fire- 
place designed by a man on hospitable thoughts intent. Under 
ground were cellars for storing wine, milk, and provisions. To the 
east was the granary and store-rooms, on the west the dining- 
room, and between these two an audience -room. In front of the 
building was a Dutch piazza, where poultry of all kinds sunned 
themselves and dozed. The rafters had never been touched with 
any implement but the axe. In the audience chamber, where vis- 
itors were received and business transacted, the furniture was very 
plain. A solid deal table, a few chairs with skin bottoms, a cup- 
board, a couple of chests — that was all. The only thing imparting 
an air of comfort to the room was the ample fire-place. The colonel 
drank good wine, and if his fare was homely, it was of the best. 

Near to the main building was another, containing a range of 

bedrooms. In latter years a suite of rooms of more pretensions 

was added. Around the house rose a variety of outbuildings of 

various shapes, unharmonious in dimensions, and unsymmetri- 

cally disposed. One of these was the log hut which first sheltered 
8 









{ill! 



in 




114 



THE raiHHMAN IN CANADA. 



the Colonel. Many of these outbuildings were for the geo«e and 
fowl, of which he reared a sutKcient number to .supply a county 
From thi.s clifl-upheld castle the blue lake was seen .spreaditig away 
like a large mind dreandng of all it has read and thought in sunny 
hour«. On the'left was Port Stanley ; and it was jdeasant to .sit and 
watch the .schoorors sail by, or some little sk iff, with fuli-bcllied 
canvas, plough through the bright waves. Behind the house was 
an open tract of land, prettily broken, where many head of cattle 
grazed, and large Hocks of .sheep brow.sed. There were sixteen 
acres of orchard, and a beautiful flower garden. House, grazing 
gi'ounds and cliff, all were framed in luxuriant woods, through 
which in summer steals a gentle stream into the lake, and in win- 
ter roars a raging torrent. " The storuis and the gradual action of 
the waves," wrote Mrs. Jameson, forty years ago, " have detached 
large portions of the cliff in front of the house, and with them 
huge trees. Along the lake shore I found trunks and roots of trees 
half buried in the sand, or half overflowed with water, which I 
often mistook for rocks. I remember one large tree which, in fal- 
ling headlong, still i-emained suspended by its long and stray fd>res 
to the cliff above ; its position was now reversed — the top hung 
downwanis, shivered and denuded. The large spread root, upturned, 
formed a platform on which new earth had accumulated, and new 
vegetation sprung forth of flowers and bushes and sucklings. Alto- 
gether it was a mo.st picturesque and curious object." 
■ Up to the introduction of responsible government into Canada, 
the Governors regularly made tours as far as Port Talbot. No man 
of rank felt he had " done" Canada without making this visit, 
and ladies were anxious to see the man who could resist their 
charms. Among the Colonel's visitors were the Duke of Rich- 
mond, Mr. Labouchere, Sir Peregrine Maitland, Sir J. Colborne, 
Lord Ayhner, Chief Justice Robinson, and others. Hundreds of 
less note called to pay their respects. There was open house for 
all, and while tho gentlemen were entertained in the dining-ro(jm, 
Jeffrey, the confidential servant, made the poor deserving settler 
happy in the kitchen. The Colonel had often to preside over the 
culinary department him.self. 

Sometimes he met with i snob, and treated him as he deserved. 
Mr. Parkins, at one time Sherilf of London, England, was invited 



I 



AN EXTRAORDINARY LIKENESS. 



115 



ewe and 
I county, 
ing away 
in sunny 
io nit unci 
Jl-belluHl 
ouse was 
i of cattle 
e sixteen 
i, grazing 
, through 
(1 in win- 
1 action of 
1 detached 
yith them 
)ts of trees 
1-, which I 
ich,in fal- 
,tray fiVjres 
^ top hung 

upturned, 
1, and new 

ngs. Alto- 

)o Canada, 
No man 
I this visit, 
[esist their 
of Kich- 
Colborne, 
indreds of 
house for 
ling-room, 
ling settler 
\g ov.er the 

deserved. 
r&s invited 



to dine witli him. During dinner, he made use of offensive lan- 
guage about one of Col. Talbot's friends. " I do not permit such 
language to be made use of at my table," said the host. Parkins, 
lifting the edge of the tablecloth and discovering a pine board, 
cried : " Your table ! Do you call this a taljle i " " Jeffrey," said 
Col. Talbot, " let Mr. Parkins' horse bo brought to the door." 

" xMy dogs don't understand heraldry," .said he to a countryman, 
who sought to influence him by an imaginary pedigree. A Yankee, 
who preferred to live under the British flag, applied for land, x'he 
Colonel asked him, whether he had got a good chanicter. Kis 
reply wa.s in the affhmative. " From whom ? " " From the Al- 
mighty." " And what does He say ? " " Why, He recommends me 
to take care of myself, and to get as nuich land as I can." " Very 
well," said the C(»lonel, " that is a good recommendation and you 
shall have a lot." Like most men of Innnour, he was benevolent, 
ai'd a love of justice was the predominant feature of his character. 
Mrs. Jamesm grew enthusiastic over Port Talbot. She found the 
Talbot District containing twenty-eight town.ships and 680,000 
acres of land, of whic!i, at that time, some forty years ago, 98,700 
acres were cleared. The inhabitants, including the population 
of ten towns, amounted to 50,000." "You see," .said Talbot gaily, 
" I may boast, like the Irishman in the farce, of having peopled 
a whole country with my own hands." All the agreements were 
in his own handwriting. 

He was then about sixty-five years of age, but did not look so 
much. "In spite of rustic dress, his good humoured, jovial and 
weather-beaten face," writes vhat fascinating authoress, " and the 
primitive simplicity, not to .say rudeness of his dwelling, he has, 
in his features, air and deportment, that 'something' which stamps 
him gentleman. And that something which thirty-four years of soli- 
tude has not effaced, he derives, I suppose, from blood and birth — 
things of more consequence, when philosophically and philanthropi- 
cally considered, than we are apt to allow. He must have been very 
handsome when young ; his resemblance now to our royal family, 
particularly to the King (William IV.), is so very striking, as to 
be something next to identity. Good natured people have set 
themselves to account for this wonderful likeness in various ways 
pos ibleand impossible; but after a rigid comparison of dates and 




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116 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



ages, and assuming all that latitude which scandal usually allows 
herself in these matters, it remains unaccountable, unless we sup- 
pose that the Talbots have, var la grdce de Dieu, a family knack 
of resembling kings. You may remember that the extraordinary 
resemblance Avhich his ancestor, Dick Talbot (Duke of Tyrconnel) 
bore to Louis the fourteenth, gave occasion to the happiest and 
most memorable repartee ever recorded in the chronicle of wit."* 

Mrs. Jameson was delighted with his flower garden covering 
over two acres neatly laid out and enclosed and evidently a hobby 
and a pride to the old nian. It abounded in roses, the cuttings 
of which he had brought from the gardens of England. " Of 
these he gathered the most beautiful buds, and presented them to 
me with such an air as might have became Dick Talbot present- 
ing a bouquet to Miss Jennings. We then sat down on a pretty 
seat under a tree, where he told me he often came to meditate. 
He described the appearance of the spot when he first came here, 
as contrasted with its present appearance, and we discussed the 
exploits of some of his celebrated and gallant ancestors, with 
whom my acquaintance was (luckily) almost as intimate as his 
own. Family and aristocratic pride 1 found a prominent feature 
in the character of this remarkable man, A Talbot of Malahide, 
of a family representing the same barony from father to son for 
six hundred years, he set, not unreasonably, a high value on his 
noble and unstained lineage; and in his lonely position, the sim- 
plicity of his life and manners lent to these lofty and not unreal 
pretensions a kind oi poetical dignity. 

'■ I told him of the surmises of the people relative to his early 
life and his motives for emigrating, at which he laughed. 

" ' Charlevoix,' said he ' was, I believe, the true cause of my 
coming to this place. You know he calls this the ' Paradise of 
the Hurons.' Now I was resolved to get to Paradise by hook or 
by crook and so I came here.' ""f 

*In a note Mrs. Jameson recalls the reply of Talbot when sent Ambassador to 
France. Louis XIV., struck by the extraordinary likeness to himself, said, " Monsieur 
L'AmViassadeur, est-ce-que Madame votre Mfere a jamais 6ti dans la cour du Roi 
mon Pere ?" The witty Irishman replied with a low bow, " Non, Sire -mais mon pk-e y 
aait!" 

t Winter Studies, vol. ii., pp. 197, 198, 199. 



"«.T 



DISLIKE TO FEMALE SOCIETY. 



117 



illy allows 
is we sup- 
lily knack 
raordinary 
Fyiconnel) 
ppiest and 
! of wit."* 
n covering 
;ly a hobby 
he cuttings 
and. " Of 
ied them to 
>ot present- 
on a pretty 
meditate, 
came here, 
scussed the 
jstors, with 
mate as his 
lent feature 
f Malahide, 

to son for 
alue on his 
)n, the sim- 

not unreal 

to his early 



He said, seriously, he had accomplished what he had resolved to 
accomplish, but he would not for the universe again go through 
the horrors he had gone through in forming the settlement. He 
broke out against the follies and falsehoods and restrictions of 
artificial life in bitter and scornful terms. Yes — he was happy 
and the old man sighed as he said so. He was alone — a lonely 
man. His sympathies and affectionfj had been without natural 
outlet. "But," says Mrs. Jameson, forgetting all she had ever 
read about the vanity of fame and human ingratitude, " he is a 
great man who has done great things and the good which h«i has 
done will live after him. He has planted at a terrible sacrifice an 
endurinff name and fame .nd will be commemorated in this ' brave 
new world ' this land of hope, as Triptolemu' among the Greeks. 

" For hie indifference and dislike to female society, and his 
determination to have no settler within a certain distance of his 
own residence, I could easily account when I knew the man; 
both seem to me the result of certain habits of life acting on a 
certain organization. He has a favourite servant, Jeffrey by name, 
who has served him faithfully for more than five -and twenty 
years, ever since he left off cleaning his own shoes and mending 
his own coat. This honest fellow, not having forsworn female 
companionrjhip, began to sigh after a wife — 

' A wife ! oh ! Sainte Marie Benedicit^ ! 
How might a man have any adversitt^ 
That hath a wife?' 

And like the good knight in Chaucer, he did 

* Upon his bare knees pray God him to send 
A wife to last unto his life's end.' 

" So one morning he went and took unto himself the woman 
nearest at hand — one, of whom we must needs suppose that he 
chose her for her virtues, for most certainly it was not for her at- 
tractions. The Colonel swore at him for a fool ; bat, after a while, 
Jeffrey, who is a favourite, smuggled his wife into the house, and 
the colonel whose increasing age renders him rather more depend- 
ent on household help, seems to endure very patiently this addi- 
tion to his family, and even the presence of a white-headed chubby 



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118 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



little thing, which I found runuing about without let or hind- 
rance," 

What a sad picture and how beautiful it is at the same time 
made by the presence of a child with its fearless innocence and 
the hint it gives of womanly care and kindness. There is always 
srme unhappy explanation for indifference or dislike to the society 
of women. Either the mark has a small, narrow nature, or else a 
woman has been the instrument to him of a great sorrow and he 
reasons by a sweeping generalization from one woman to her sex 
generally, or he has so high an ideal of the fe'^ipl character that 
experience fills him with disgust. Yet as the existence of hypo- 
crites does not prove there are no saints, so the fact that we see 
in some women treachery and gi*eed, miserable intrigue and vil- 
lainous plotting to plunder or ruin, is no reason why we should 
forget the lessons taught us by the noble bearing of a mother, and 
by the chaste dignity of a sister. A young lady once, on hear- 
ing a gentleman quote the following words of Tennyson, — " No 
angel but a dearer being all dipt in angel instincts," and apply 
them to women generally, said very wittily : — '' But the trouble 
is they are not dipped deep enough." Some are dipped deep 
enough, though they are perhaps not the majority. They, how- 
ever, furnish the ideal towards which all women should strive. 
When we remember how high a chivalrous and noble-hearted man 
places a woman for whom he has the least tenderness, and the 
petty, selfish, ravenously lucre-loving character of multitudes 
whose face and form are like those we dream of in angels, when 
above all we reflect on the hideous contrasts furnished by haughty 
professions and humiliating practice, we need not wonder when 
we see a large-natured man like Talbot banish himself from the 
solace of love and gentle companionship. The inconsistency of incon- 
sistent women has tainted a whole literature, and made the men of 
genius of France libellers of half its population. It is better that dis- 
gust should take the form it took in Talbot's case than that we 
should grow satisfied with the hasty, low, and utterly false concep- 
tion of the character of woman we form, when the wings drop from 
the angel, and the haroine sinks in the moral scale to the level of a 
lap-dog, and revenge ourselves during the rest of our lives by breaking 



'.^Wgi lKIPW 



;t or hind- 
same time 
acence and 
e is always 
the society 
e, or else a 
ow and he 
to her sex 
,racter that 
le of hypo- 
hat we see 
ue and vil- 
we should 
mother, and 
!e, on hear- 
'son, — " No 
and apply 
the trouble 
lipped deep 
The3^ how- 
kould strive, 
learted man 
ess, and the 
multitudes 
,ngels, when 
3y haughty 
onder when 
3lf from the 
acyof incon- 
e the men of 
,ter that dis- 
han that we 
'alse concep- 
;8 drop from 
ihe level of a 
by breaking 



'1 



NOBLE WOMEN. 



119 




m 



epigrams on the betterhalf of the human race * For all the vain and 
bad ones there are plenty of good women whose smile has no be- 
trayal in it, and in the vivacity of whose eye there is no death; who 
can literally double our joysf ; whose approbation is to genius as a 
draught from Helicon itself i ; whose sympathy is like the dew, as 



* Even the character of Lucretia has not escaped the sneers of French writere— " Ah ! 
(lit le Martinis de Riberville, Je ne pense pas que ce soit ce que Monsieur le Conseiller 
appri^ende, et js ciois qu'il est Lien assur^ de Madame son t^pouse. Ma foi, dit bon 
vieillard, il n'y a qu'heur et malheur h cela, et les femmes sent fideles ou infidMes 
sulon les occasions. Lucrtee tHoit la plus cruelle femme de Rome, et elle ne laissa 
point de se rendre avant que de se tuer."— "LaFausse Clelie." The date of the volume 
is 1718, and it was published " avec permission du roi." 

t The toast of " The LaiUes, " as giv^n vy a wit will probably be familiar to most of 
my readers—" Here's to the ladies, who hi-ive our sorrows, double our joys and treble 
our expenses." 

X The power of women — their presence — their conversation — their encouragement in 
stimulating the literary faculty — has not been sufficiently dwelt on, and is little under- 
stood. The mind works better if a woman is in the room. She throws into the air 
some subtle electricity. All strong minded men and all great races (witness the Jews) 
breathe through the nosa entirely— the mouth being kept for its proper functions of 
eating and drinking and talking. The brain is braced and stimulated by the air pass- 
ing through the nose. It is possible that the very air breathed by either sex is more 
stimulating to that sex if members of the opposite sex breathe it at the same time. This 
is felt so keenly by persons highly organized that we need not be surprised that the 
world saw exaggeration or wild love in the terms in which John Stuart Mill spoke of 
his wife. The power of Caroline Michaelis over the mind of Schlegel is one of the 
most intesesting studies in literarj' history. Both before and after she becomes his 
wife her influence was on him like an inspiration. Nor would he ever have been the 
man he grew to be had it not been for her. But Caroline Schlegels do not grow like black- 
berries on every hedge. She writes to her little sister, a young affianced bride, "When 
the Ilm's Hm's (the dandy students) pass under your eyes, do you really do abso- 
lutely nothing for vanity's sake ? It would be impossible for you entirely to annihilate 
its movements, for this is the most involuntary of all original sins, and one we need as 
little to be ashamed of as corns or toothache. Onfy we ought neve- to mwea step, either 
bachonrds or forwards, towards encotiraging the failing You cannot help Us being plea- 
sant to you if your veiled cap suits you ; but baoare how you set it more at one person than 
another." When her first husband died she returned to her parents' roof. She WTites 
to Meyer—" I do not trouble myself concerning the future. ♦ * ♦ Qne aim 
alone do I consider myEelf obliged to pursue with unfaltering step— that of my daugh- 
ter's welfare. All the rest lies stretched before me like the vast expanse of the troubled 
ocean. If at times I find myself turning giddy at this spectacle, and feel my head whirl' 
I just close my eyes and still trast myself on it without fear," and she compares her- 
self, after the first great burst of grief, to an invalid " re8tore<l to life, slowly regaining 
her strength, and inhaling anew the pure, balmy spring air." In this mood August 
Wilhelra Schlegel fouud her and loved her, as how could he do else ? I could mention 
dozens of cases, which have come within my own experience, where the woman in- 
spired a;nl s elped, and was content that the husband should receive all the praise. 



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120 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



gentle and as refreshing; whose spirit in a liouse fills it with har- 
mony and peace, and makes it a region of beauty, a realm of delight; 
whose voice is music; the touch of whose hand is rest; and it is 
treason to them and treason to ourselves to forget that such exist, 
and challenge our homage. While filling our lives with plea- 
sure and melting the heart, they have a celestial strength by 
which they brace chai'acter and purify the soul. And if a woman 
whom fate relegates to what is sneeringly called " single blessed- 
ness " deteriorates, and from happy dreams, " castles in Spain," her 
mind is driven to ruins where it cowers amid broken arch and 
shattered column and desolate hearth, the grey loneliness of dis- 
mantled uninhabited halls — disappointed anticipations, a heart 
whose desire has failed, a life whose charm has evaporated — and 
bitter takes the place of sweet, and the wine of her ample nature 
becomes vinegar ; not less unhappy, as we shall see in Talbot's 
case is the effect on man of despising the wisdom of the sacred 
utterance that it is not good for him to be without the tempering 
conditions of woman's society. 

*' woman ! lovely woman ! Nature made thee 
To temper man ; we had been brutes without you ! " 

But to return to Mrs. Jameson's sketch of a great and singular 
man. 

" The room," she writes, "into which I first introduced you, with 
its rough log walls, is Colonel Talbot's library and hall of audi- 
ence. On leaving my apartment in the morning, I used to find 
gi'oups of strange figures lounging round the door, ragged, black- 
bearded, gaunt, travei-worii and toil-worn emigrants, Irish, Scotch 
and American, come to offer themselves as settlers. These he 
used to call his land-pirates ; and curious and characteristic and 
dramatic beyond description were the scenes which used to take 
place between the Grand Bashaw of the wilderness and his hungry 
unfortunate clients and petitioners. 

" Another thing which gave a singular interest to my conversa- 
tions with Colonel Talbot was the sort of indifference with which 
he regarded all the stirring events of the last thirty years. 
Dynasties rose and disappeared; kingdoms were passed from hand 
to hand like wine decanters ; battles were lost and won ; he nei- 



BURIED IN THE FOREST. 



121 



t with har- 
lof deliglit; 
, ; and it is 
, such exist, 
with plea- 
trength l)y 
if a V omaii 
gie blesse-l- 
Spain," her 
sn arch and 
iness of dis- 
ms, a heart 
)rated — and 
mple nature 
in Talbot's 
I the sacred 
le tempering 



md singular 



ed you, with 
all of audi- 
ased to find 
ged, black- 
ish, Scotch 
These he 
jcristic and 
ised to take 
his hungry 

y conversa- 
with which 
irty years. 
from hand 
m; he nei- 



ther knew, nor heard nor cared. No post, no newspapers, brouglit 
to his forest-hut the tidings of victory and defeat, of revolutions 
of empires, ' or murmurs of successful or unsuccessful war.' 

" When first he took to the bush Napoleon was consul, when he 
emerged from his solitude the tremendous game of ambition had 
been played out, and Napoleon, and his deeds ar J his dynasty, 
were numbered with the things o'er past. With the stream of 
■events had flowed by, e(|ually unmarked, the stream of mind, 
thought, literature, the progress of social impro\^ement, the changes 
in public opinion. Conceive what a gulf between us ! But though 
I could go to hnn, he could not come to me. My sympathies had 
the wider range of the two." 

It must have been like talking to an ancestor. Partly necessity, 
partly a true instinct, led Talbot thus to bury himself in the forest. 
Had he kepf. up his interest in the real world, he could not have 
held his purpose of playing the part of the greatest of Canadian 
pioneers. He, at long intervals, made trips to England; and these 
trips, and the occasional visits of distinguished people, were the 
epochs from which he dated. From these flights he returned like 
an old eagle to his throne on the cliff, whence ho looked down with 
contempt and indifference on the world he had quitted, and with 
much self-applause and self-gratulatior on che world around, which 
under his auspices had been called into existence. 

Among those Irish emigrants and settlers who failed in fore- 
sight many were drawn from the educated class ; for alas ! at that 
time education was a class distinction. Those men who came to 
the Talbot settlement side by side with the sturdy Gael from the 
Highlands of Scotland, and from all parts of Ireland, had two 
things which are often found together, solid pride and a vacuous 
purse. An interesting and prominent man of this class was John 
Harris. This gentleman had a dispute with another as to whose 
part of the province had received most respectable settlers. " Why '' 
said Harris, " in the London district we have one township all 
gentlemen." He referred to the Township of Adelaide, where a 
large number of old soldiers who had commuted for their pensions 
sought to settle. These included many members of most res- 
pectable Irish families. A nephew of Curran, Captain Curran 
found himself among them. But it is not for the Irish settlers al one. 



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122 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



but also for Scotch and English, that the country is indebted to 
Colonel Talbot. What was felt by all for him, by English and 
Scotch as well as Irish, appears from a correspondence which took 
place in 1817. On the 5th of March, 1817, James Nevills, secre- 
tary of a meeting held respecting the anniversary, writes, trans- 
mitting an address. He said he was further directed to say that 
a chair was to be left pei-petually vacant in Colonel Talbot's name 
to be filled by him or " by his descendants in future ages." How 
we do dream, as clouds may dream of building themselves into 
solid towers. The address signed on behalf of the meeting by J. 
Wilson, President, and L. Patterson, Vice-President, breathes a 
spirit of filial gratitude. They presented him with a tribute of 
the high respect they collectively cherished and individually felt. 
" From the earliest commencement of this happy patriarcJiy, we 
date all the blessings we now enjoy ; and regarding you as its 
founder, its patron and its friend, we most respectfully beg leave 
to associate your name with our infant institution. To your first 
arrival in Port Talbot we refer as the auspicious hour which gave 
birth to the happiness and independence we all enjoy and this day 
commemorate." The address went on to say that in grateful re- 
membrance of the Colonel's unexampled hospitality and disinter- 
ested zeal in their behalf, and because they contemplated with 
interested feelings the astonishing jn'ogress of their increasing 
settlement under his friendly patronage and patriarchal care, they 
had unanimously appointed the 21st of May, for the Talbot anni- 
versary. They added that the public expression of happiness and 
gratitude, they transmitted through their children to their latest 
posterity. 

The answer of Colonel Talbot was in keeping with his character. 
It was frank and manly and simple. It was fit to be signed 
" Your faithful friend." Having thanked them, he says it highly 
gratified him that they were not insensible to the exertions he 
had made to advance the welfare of that part of the Province. 
For these exertions he was amply compensated by witnessing the 
assemblage of so large and respectable a body of settlers. He had 
no doubt but that in a few years the country would exhibit in a 
striking manner the superiority of the soil and thoroughness of 
their labours. The surest way to ensure this was to persevere as 



ENVY AND INGRATITUDE.. 



123^ 



indebted to 
English and 
3 which took 
levills, secre- 
.vrites, trans- 
d to say that 
'albot's name 
asfos." How 
jmselves into 
neeting by J. 
t, breathes a 
1 a tribute of 
ividually felt, 
atriarehy, we 
ig you as its 
illy beg leave 

To your first 
ir which gave 
J and this day 
1 grateful re- 

and disinter- 
mplated with 
eir increasing 

lal care, they 
Talbot anni- 

iai)piness and 

their latest 

his character, 
to be signed 

ays it highly 

exertions he 
the Province, 
vitnessing the 

ers. He had 
exhibit in a 

irouffhness of 
persevere as 



they had begun, in industry and harmony. There should be 
wanting nothing on his part to promote their interest. They did 
him infinite honour by associating his name with their infant in- 
stitution, which he ardently hoped might be productive of social 
and virtuous enjoyment, and never become the vehicle of calumny 
and party intrigue. This was dated the 10th March, 1817. Mr. 
J. Rolph was delighted with what had been done, and makes a 
note which has an historical value now. " The secretary to the 
Talbot anniversary, Mr. Adjutant James Nevills, shoidd prepare a 
statement to be published, and he should keep on record all the 
proceedings of the day. Should pen, ink and paper be scarce, the 
Adjutant knows where he can get as much as he wants by riding 
up for it — J. Rolph." The poorest man in the whole twenty-eight 
townships could now boast of his ability to supply an Adjutant 
with paper and ink. On the 17th Lieutenant-Colonel Burwell,. 
who was jealous of Rolph's influence A\-ith Colonel Talbot, put 
forth an address deprecating an anniversary. The people could ill 
afiord to pay cash for attending far-fetched anniversaries. But he 
admitted the great claims and noble character of Colonel Talbot. 
Burwell's address was a curiosity from the point of view of style : 
" If," he said, "the worthy personage to whom the address was 
presented had departed this life. If, he was no more — I will not 
now inform the world nor insult his sense of delicacy by saying 
what part I would take in the foundation of such an institution.. 
At present he is among us — we know his exertions to get the fine 
tract of country we inhabit settled. And he knows what our ex- 
ertions have been to settle it. Without saying anything more 

respecting him we know him. And from the progi-ess we 

have made, not in fine anniversary addresses, but in meliorating 
the rude wilderness ; the world may judge whether we have not 
such feelings and understandings as we ought to have. And 
whether we can appreciate its worth without proclaiming it on the 
house-tops — and making ourselves ridiculous." Of course the bur- 
den on the people would be just as great if Colonel Talbot were 
dead. It is easy to see that Burwell was an - vious, ill-conditioned 
man. 

On the 21st May, 1817, the anniversary was held at Doctor 
Lee's Hotel, Yarmouth. Seventy-five persons attended. Not one 



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124 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



of thoni l)ut ha<l tasted of the Coloncr.s bounty and had experienced 
his directing- kindness. Colonel Burwell's address was condemned 
for its })ad taste and intrusiveness. 

Towards the close of his life, there is little doubt the Colonel 
was not temperate. But he had accjuitted himself well during 
his long career, and in what he went through in the solitude of his 
life must be found the excu?e, if excuse can be made. A very 
small worm will spoil a g-ood api)le, and a trilling weakness mar 
a fine character. But for this blemish, what a proud figure Colonel 
Talbot would make in our history. Perhaps, notwithstanding it, 
his form will stand out great and venerable to the eye of future 
generations. He lived to see his work accomplished. Before he 
went down to the grave, London was a flourishing capital, and 
the prosperity of the whole settlement was assured. He succeeded 
in all his projects regarding his settlers. His design to found a 
great family estate proved abortive. For some time prior to his 
death, his mind suffered an eclipse. 

Wishing to bequeath his large estate to a male descendant of 
the Talbot family, he had, at a comparatively early period, invited 
to Canada one of his sister's sons, Mr. Julius Airey. This young 
gentleman took, up his abode at Port Talbot. But the dulness of 
the life, the Colonel's eccentricities, and the want of congenial 
com|)anions, rendered existence unbearable ; and, after a residence 
of a few years with his uncle, he relinquished all claims to Port Tal- 
bot and returned to the society for which he pined. Colonel Airey 
military secretary at the Horse Guards, succeeded to the expecta- 
tions of his younger brother. Throwing up his attractive and im- 
portant position, and turning his back on the capital of English 
civilization, he removed with his family to Port Talbot. From this 
time Colonel Talbot's infirmities increased. He was doubtless wor- 
ried. Colonel Airey, instead of living in ahouse of his own on some 
part of the estate near " the rookery," took up his residence with his 
uncle. Differences ensued. Colonel Talbot had been accustomed 
to dine at noon. Colonel Airey introduced a new order of things; 
dinner at seven o'clock, and dressing for it indispensable. Not only 
so, the liquor was locked up. The old man kicked. He deter- 
mined to keep a separate establishment. But he had been dis- 
turbed at a time when new habits cannot be formed. He grew 



Tfyj 



Dj(T 



DEATH OF THE GRKAT PIONEER. 



125 



I experienced 
,s coinlemned 

the Colonel 
well (lurinn: 
)lituJe of lus 
ide. A very 
/■eakness mar 
igure Colonel 
thstanding it, 
eye of futui-e 
d. Before he 
g capital, and 
He succeeded 
o-n to found a 
le prior to his 

descendant of 
period, invited 
This young 
the dulness of 

of congenial 
ier a residence 
ns to Port Tal- 
Colonel Airey 

the expecta- 
activeand isu- 

tal of English 
)ot. From this 

oubtless wor- 
s own on some 
dence with his 

n accustomed 

■der of things; 

,ble. Not only 
He deter- 

had been dis- 

led. He grew 



d 



sick and discontented. He resolved to leave Canada. He would, 
he thought, draw out the remainder of his days in England, 
or on the continent. He left Port Talbot. But taken sick at 
London, Canada West he lay there, the old man, nigh eighty 
years of age, in a dangerous condition for weeks. He was, how- 
ever, in the midst of kind friends in the house of Mr. John Harris. 

He recovered but henceforth he was a mere tool in the liands 
of Geor<{e McBeth. He set out for England, where he remained a 
year and then returneil to lay his bones in the country to which 
he liad devoted his life. It was a distressing thing to see the old 
man settle down in a humble cottage on the outskirts of his 
aiagniticent estate. The man who had once been lord of Port 
Talbot was fain to lodge in a small room in the house of Mrs. 
Hunter, the widow of his friend and servant Jeffrey. He had 
made over to Colonel Airey the Port Talbot estate, worth $50,000, 
and 13,000 acres in the adjoining Township of Aldboro'. This 
was not a moiety of the estate which Colonel Airey had had reason 
to expect would descend to him ; but now it was evident it was all he 
would get from the Colonel. He therefore rented what he had 
got to Mr. Saunders and returned witli his family to England, 
where he resumed his post at the Horse Guards. The remainder 
of the estate, worth $250,000, was bequeathed to George McBeth, 
who married a daughter of Mr. Saunders. With McBeth the 
Colonel removed to London and resided in the house of his former 
servant and sole legatee, until the day of his death which occuiTed 
on the 6th February, 1853. 

His remains were removed from London on the 9th of February, 
the day previous to interment, and were placed for the night in 
the barn of an inn-keeper at Fingal, to the indignation of the old 
settlers. One old man, Samuel Burwell, begged with tears in his 
eyes to have the body removed to his own house. But this would 
have disturbed McBeth's arrangements. On the following day 
the corpse was removed from Fingal to Port Talbot and rested foi- 
a short time within the mansion once owned by the deceased. 
The hearse was followed by tlie leading men of London to the 
church at Tyrconnel. The day was bitterly cold, but a few fast 
friends had come to see him interred. He lies in a grave near the 
church. On the oak coffin ran the simple inscription — " Thomas 




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126 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Talhot, Founder o{ the Tall)ot Settlement: Died 6th Feb., 1853." 
It may truly be added now that here rests one of the foundei-s of 
Canada. 

In 1700, after playing a great part in Canada for an exception- 
ally long time and proving himself a true friend to all the colonists, 
and not least to the French Canadians, Lord Dorchester, amid the 
hea'tfelt regret of the people, took his departure from our shores. 
He died in 1808, in his eighty-third year. 



CHAPTER V. 

We have seen an Irishman prove himself the saviour of Canada, 
and watch with parental anxiety and care, with efficiency and far- 
sighted wisdom, her infant years. We have seen another Irish- 
man turn his back on love, on high position, on all the charms of 
civilization, on the most attractive of all professions, on the most 
fascinating of all careers, to come to Canada to play a patriarchal 
part, amid hardships which would have appalled a less uncon- 
querable soul, and turned the edge of a less finely tempered 
will. We are now to watch Irishmen in a sphere other than that 
of politics, and on a less grandly heroic scale. In earlier chapters I 
pointed out what a great people had done throughout the world. 



[Authorities : — Original Sources : " Murdoch's History of Nova Scotia " : " Nova 
Scotia Archives" : Mrs. Moodie's " Roughing it in the Bush" : " The Atlantic|Monthly"; 
Haliburton's "Nova Scotia": Old Files of Newspapers: Anspach's "History": 
Bonneycaatle's " History of Newfoundland" : Mackintosh's " Parliamentary Com- 
panion" : " St. John and its Business" : "Early settlers of Bowinanville, T^arlington, 
Clarke, and the surrounding country," by J. T. Colesnan : Poole's "Early settlement 
of Peterborough" : Campbell's History of Prince Edward Island: "Historical and 
General Record of the Irish Settlement of Colchester County, down to the present 
time," by Thomas MilUar, Halifax, N. S. : " Ireland and the Centenary of Americar 
Methodism," by the Rev. William Crook : " Case and his Contemporaries," by the Rev. 
Dr. CarroU : " The Irish Po8ition,">y L>'Arcy McGee.] 



England's oldest warrior. 



127 



a Feb., 1853." 
le founders of 

an exception- 
l tlie colonists, 
)ster, amid the 
mi our shores. 



IS 



our of Canada, 
ciency and far- 
another Irish- 
the charms of 
, on the most 
a patriarciial 
a less uncon- 
aely tempered 
her than that 
lier chapters I 
out the world. 



Scotia": "Nova 
AtlanticlMonthly": 
ach's " History ": 
irliaraentary Com- 
mville, T^arlington, 

Early settlement 
"Historical and 
wn to the present 
tenary of American 
raries," by the Rev. 



Any other word than world would he too small. For on what 
shore have they not left monuments of their ener<jfy and genius. 
They have gone forth from a little island and made the wide earth 
their mausoleum.* A branch of that people exist here in Canada 

• While I write these lines there comes the account of the death of a man who was 
distinguished at a time ere a (^eneratiim already past had come into existence. Field- 
Marshal Sir John Forster-Fitzgerald, (i. C H., died at Tours, on the 24th of March. 
The French military authorities of that city— j)erhap8 MacMahon remembered the 
thread which apart from military renown bound them both— received instructions from 
Paris on the 2(ith to ^dve the dead hero a military funeral. Mr. Disraeli's government 
made a mistake in not takiu),' to itself tlie glory of giving fitting sepulture to the old 
hero. He was tlie olde.t soldier the Empire had, and he had risen to the highest rank 
in his jHofession. He entered the army in 17!>3. He served in the Peninsula where he 
commanded a light battalion and n brigatle, and was present at most of the engagements 
whieli culminated witli Napulvons overthrow at Waterloo. He took a ]>rominent part 
in theas.'ault on Badajos and fought gallantly at the battles of Salamanca, Vittoriaand 
i,he Pyrenees, receiving the Gold Cross for personal bravery and distinguished services. 
He was owner of the large estate of tJarrigorau and he was as considerate to his tenau- 
Jry as he was br.ive in the field. 

Some verses in Truth, April 5th 1877, maj' be (ptoted : 

He was the oldest warrior England had 

And from hting family had sprung ; 
He 'von his spars when he was yet a lad. 

And fought when the old century was young. 

At Badajos the fatal breach he scaled ; 

He lived through Salamanca's bloody fray ; 
Was at Vittoria where a mona."ch quailed. 

And lived to tell of Talavera'ti day. 

Bravely he fought through the fierce campaign. 
That brought the beaten Frenchmen to their knees, 

When just from their last holdin;,'-place in Spain, 
They turned to bay amongst the Pyrenees. 

Bravely >"! foiight and well ; he w'ore 

The golden cross for valour on his breast, 
Until he died upon a foreign shorts, 

And found at length from life's long struggle rest. 

The wiiter th-m upraids England for her parsimony in not sending over to Toias some 
|/<jf his old comrades. The least, he says, England could have given him was a tomb. 

And 80 it happed ; for all the honour payed 
To our field-marshal at his long life's close 

And military demonstration made 
Was by the Frenchmen, his old gallant foea. 

B;it was it meet to treat a soldier thus ? 
Wlio'd gained the highest rank our army knows ? 




12.S 



TIIK IHISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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to-day, and lias boon horo from tlio l>oginnin<^f of Britisli rule. It 
is in no spirit of unwortliy rivalry or small boasting that I say 
tlu'ir hands liavo done more tlian tlioso of any other to clear the 
vvilderness. If vo look at tlie census alone it proves this. But 
the census does not tell all. There are thousands of flourisliing 
acres liere in (^ana<hi (m vvliose yellow harvests an owner looks 
who is not Irish, In wnich acres were cleared by Irishmen. These 
in some instances (Iropj)ed like soldiers in the battle and fell into 
unknown graves, truly the unremendiered brave. On lands where 
tlieir names are unknown they planted the first civilizing foot 
they grappled with the wilderness ; and then they passed away as 
we all shall, the best of us, and the most miccessful. A id what 
more can be said of us than of them ? If it can be said we did our 
day's work it will be well. • 

I shall show, by-and-bye, that we owe our present constitution in 
great part to Irishmen. I have already dwelt on their character 
and genius and on part of theii- achievements, and if the tale is 
continued it is not that I may here in (Janada draw my country- 
men aside horn other people ; above all it is not that 1 may fan 
illogical, unhistorical, and imchristian hatreds in th(;ir breasts. 
Better that })!itnotism should be torn from a man's heart, and all 
the love which swells in it hon he thinks of that land which for 
centuries has lain on T es like a beautiful sorrow, if that 

patriotism and tha* .did not co-exist with sweet human 

charities for other ^ j. 



Was it noble, w..3 it generous 
That thus a gallant history should close ? 

The clone of such a career is a sad and si)lendid illustration of the speech of Ulysses 
to Achilles when he would persuade the sulking hero to leave his tent and once more 
measure his brand with Hector : — 

Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back 

Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 

A great sized monster of inijratitudes ; 

Those scraps are good deeds past : which are devour'd 

As fast as they are made, forgot as soon 

As done : Perseverance dear, my lord, 

Keeps honour bright : To have done, is to hang 

Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail 

In monumental mockery. 




{CANADIAN NATIONAL UNITY. 



129 



[,i.sh rule. It 
ir tlmt I say 
r to clear the 
es this. But 
if Houri.slnnj,' 

owner looks 
hmcn. These 

and fell into 
1 lands where 
vilizinjjj foot 
issed away as 
I. A "1(1 what 
lid we did our 

lonstitution in 
leir character 
I if the tale is 
V my country- 
hat 1 may fan 
th(jir breasts, 
heart, and all 
a?id which for 
4orrow, if that 
sweet human 



speech of Ulysses 
kent and once more 




Above all, I would guard against the misconc( iition that I 
wouM divt'rt Irishmen's minds from their duty a.s Canadian citi- 
zens. An eminent Presbyterian divine, when preaching on St. 
Andrew's day, declared it to bo his conviction that the interest of 
Scotchmen in one another, and in their mothiT country, had in 
no way hindered their identification with Canada.* The claims 
of Canada can be paramount, though the Sf '.chman remembers 
with pride his rugged storied hills ; though the Englishman's 
fancy roams amid the gardened beauty of English greeneries and 
English landscapes, and takes fire at English struggles for consti- 
tutional freedom ; though the Irishman's heart beats ({uicker, 
when he recalls the loveliness of his country, her heroism, and all 
she has done for "the Empire" and for tho world. Nor will he 
be the less true as a Canadian citizen, if the 'springs of a noble 
sympathy flow, when he reflects that her loveliness is still de- 
faced by recent grief, and her beauty overshadowed by memories 
of the past. 

My countrymen have had too much of the inspiration of ha- 
tred. They have been too much misled.-f' Those who misled 
them did not know that they were misleading them. I have 
shown them that the Saxon, and Celt, and Norman, and Roman 
and Greek, are all brethren, that all come from one parent race. 
To-day, England is probably far more Celtic than Saxon.J 



* If tl'e existence of national societies in Canada were to have the eflfect of dividing 
the community into hostile sections anrl sowing seeds of strife between men of diflferent 
origin, then it would be umiuestionably an evil ; but I have yet to learn that any such re- 
sult has been produced. With all confidence, I assert that the interest of Scotsmen in 
one another and in their Mother Country, as exjiressed through the St. Andrew's So- 
ciety, has not dimiaished their "readiness to identify themselves thoroughly with Can- 
ada in all that concerns her material, social, and religious progress."— /Serwo/i ore (b'<. 
Andreio'8 Day, 1876, by the Rev. D. J. Macdonell. 

t Thern are some words I frequently repeat to myself, which express a view all my 
countrymen must take, before they can do full justice to themselves : 

" Let merry England proudly rear 
Her blended roses bought so dear ; 
Let Scotland bind her bonnet blue, 
• With heath and hare bell'dipped in dew ; 
On favoured Erin's crest be seen, 
The flower she loves, the Shamrock green." 

t "It has been fashionable to sneer at zealous Irish writers for thoir pruponsity to 

9 



m..^. 



130 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



ni 



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li ' I 





The people of England are not responsible for the wrong done 
by their rulers in the past ; and it is neither just nor wise to write 
violent diatribes, or cherish vindictive feelings against them- 
What would be wrong anywhere' would be doubly wrong herci 
where we are showing what Iris. ..len have done for Canada, not 
alone, but assisted by Scotchmen and Englishmen and Frenchmen 
and Germans It is a saddening work, in some respects, I am 
engaged on, for it brings vividly before me how little the dim vast 
masses of all nationalities get out of life ; and yet, dark as seems 
their fate, when we look into their lives, there are starry bright- 
nesses and glimpses of a tender, indescribable beauty, which thrill 
and touch and purifiy like the stars, or the delicate crimson of 
morning, or the peiisive tints of " dewy eve." There is a halo 
round the head of humanity, only our eyes are too dim, too pre- 
occupied, always to discern it ; but when we do see it, whether in 
the wilderness or the crowded city, we are conscious of the divine 
fire in the heart, and the heavenly nimbus which wraps the care- 
worn head. 

Mrs. Moodie does not place the settlers too high : — 

" Those hardy sires who bore 
The day's first heat —their toils are o'er ; 
llude fathers of this risiiig land, 
Theirs was a mission truly grand. 

find traces of the Kelts everywhere. But there can be no doubt whatever that the 
Kelts were once a very widely diffused people. They have left names for rivers and moun- 
tains in almost every part of Europe. The name of the river Don inRussia, for example, 
is one of the common Keltic names for water, and so we find a river Don in Yorkshire, 
a Deaa in Nottinghamshire, a Dane in Cheshire, and a Dun in Lincolnshire. The 
same nauie appears in the Ilho-(/««-u«, or Khone, in Gaul, the Eri-rfa/t-us, or Po, iu 
Italy, as well as in the Z>((-ieper, D/i-iester, and i>aii -ube, .^nd even in the An -do« in 
the Caucusufl. This is one example out of hundreds, by which "'•' trace the former 
nbi(inity of the Kelts, who as lati; as tlie Christian era were present in large numbers, 
as far east as Bohemia. 

" The 3tcond series of invading Aryan swarm-< consisted of Germans, who began by 
pushing the Kelts westward, and ended by assuming a great part of their territory, 
and mixing with them to a considerable extent. There is some German blood in Spain, 
and a good deal in France an<l Northern Italy ; and the modern English, whib* Keltic 
at bottom, are probably half Teutonic in blood, as they are predominently Teutonic in 
language and manners." " The Races of the Danube," by John Fiske, in the Atlantic 
Month' y, for April, 1877, p. 404. * 

See also an Essay by Mr. Goldwin Smith, on " Canada's Political Destiny." He 
says : " The Anglo-Saxon race is far less prolific than the Irish, who are even sup- 
pi mting the Anglo-Sa-ons in some districts of England." 






wrong done 
wise to write 
gainst them- 

wrong herei 

Canada, not 
i Frenchmen 
ispects, I am 
i the dim vast 
lark as seems 
itarry bright- 
, which thrill 
ite crimson of 
ere is a halo 

dim, too pre- 
it, whether in 
i of the divine 
i-aps the care- 



whatever that the 
rivers and moun- 
ussia, for example, 
Don in Yorkshire, 
ncolnshire. The 
i-dau-us, or Po, in 
ill the Ar>-(io'i i" 
trace the foriucr 
ill large numhers, 



or 



:.i 



aus, who began by 
of their territor)-, 
lan blood in Spain, 
glish, whiK- Keltic 
nently Teutonic in 
ike, in the Atlantk 

kl Deatiny." He 
Iwho are even sup- 




ROUGHINO IT IN THE BUSH. 131 

Brave peasa'its whom the Father, God, 
Bent to reclaim the stubborn aod ; 
Well they perfonn'd their task and won 
Altar and hearth for the woodman's son." 

The settlor who clears the country is its true father. He makes 
all possible. Without his axe, his log cabin, his solitude, his 
endurance, his misery, we could not have the abundant appliances 
of civilization, the stately temple, the private mansion, the palaces 
of law and legislation, the theatre, the enjoyment of social inter- 
course, refinement, all, in a word, he forewent. A hard lot even 
when the settler, owing to somi peculiar a-l vantages, was able to 
take with him into the wilderness some of the conveniences of 
civilized life. Under the happiest circumstances there were hard- 
ships and difficulties. The exclusion, was drear enough during the 
later spring and summer and autumn, when activity was possible ; 
but in<lescribable, not to be realized, when barred on all sides by 
the snows of a Canadian winter, and the atmosphere at times 
freezing the mercury, so that it could be used as a bullet. Where 
they were near a town or something ca]>able of being held, by a 
stretch of fancy, in that light, the sleigh or cariole with its 
charmiiiif bolls would bear them over the snow to the social centre. 
But for those far withdrawn into the heart of the forest, in miser- 
able huts, what a life ! Field labour suspended, no emplo}ment 
outside or inside, none of the comforts of a home, hundreds of miles 
from a doctor*, far removed from the church-going boll, without 

* " It was a melancholy season, one of severe mental and bodily suflfering. Those who 
have drawn such agreeable pictures of a re.sideriee in the backwoods never dwell upon 
the periods of .sickness wliei "ar from medical advice, and often, as in my case, de])rived 
of the assistance of friends by adverse circumstances, you are left to languish, unat- 
tended, upon the couch of pain. The day that my hu.sband was free of the fit, he did 
what he could for me and his poor sick babes ; but, ill as he was, he was obliged 
to sow the wheat to enable the man to proceed with the drag, and was, therefcn-e neces- 
sarily absent in the field the greater pari of the day. I was very ill, yet, for hours at 
a timo I had no friendly voice to cheer me, to proffer me a drin^v of cold watoi-. or to 
attend to the poor oabe ; and worse, still worse, there was no onj to belj> thiit jiale, 
marble child, who lay so cold and still, with ' half-clo.sed violet eyes,' as if death had 
already chilled his young heart in his iron grasp. There was not a breatl\ of air ii ov.r 
close burning bed-closet ; and the weather was sultry beyond all that I liavf '•:ince ex- 
perienced. ♦ * » I bad asked of Heaven a son, and there he lay helpless by the 
side of his aim )st helpless m )ther. wh > could not lift him up in her arms or still his 
cries. * * * Often did I weep myself to sleep andjwake to weep again with reaew mI 
anguish. R uighing it in the Bash, such and greater suffering was the fate of thou- 
aauds." — Mrs. Moodie. 



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132 



THE IRISHMA.N IN CANADA. 




the soothing ministrations of religion, exiled from all the sweet 
human relations, tho^^e of the family alone excepted ; no school for 
the children, a dreary monotony in which note of time is lost, the 
news of the world heard of but fitfully, no hope save of the most 
humble kind, ambition impossible, an existence not much more 
intellectual than that of the wolf which dogs the settler's footseps 
ot an evening, stealthy as one of the gathering shadows or the 
hog that burrows for an acorn near his shanty. The sacrifice 
of thousands of lives in such an existence is the price we pay 
for a country made a clear stage for the civic man to play his 
part. Occasionally we see great force of int'^llect and character 
assert itself in spite of the benumbing surroundings. But to 
most Fate says — go work and die and of your fallen bodies make 
a bridge over which other men may travel to the fair cities and 
country towns, law courts and parliaments, wei' written ne s- 
papers, fame and power, and all the noble conflicts of political 
manhood. If the settler was refined, as he often was, Scotch and 
Irish and English, he found himself brought in contact with coarse 
human as well as other coarse coiiditions. 

The settler who never went near the woods, but took up his 
place in some small tnwn, he too was a pioneer, and often made 
great sacrifices, and v/hether he made sacrifices or not., if he played 
his part manfully, deserves to have the debt of grat'^uJe paid. 

When we first ask ourselves what are the (jualities which make 
a man a good settler, we think chiefly of stern perseverance, and 
scarcely give a thought to the softer and more winning human 
characteristics. Yet very little reflection would have convinced 
us that kindness, generosity, good humour, sprightliness and noble- 
ness, are of almost more importance in the bush than in the 
crowded city. In the city you can hire attention ; in the wilder- 
ness you must look to the heart of those you are brought in con- 
tact with for it. In the town you can buy amusement and dis- 
traction ; in the wood you are thrown on the bent and genius of 
those who happen to be your neighbours, your allies, or your 
servai.ts. 

What sort of a settler should we expect the Irishman to make ? 
What work of difficulty and adventure has he ever shrunk from ? 
We might hope to see in him more than patient toil an<l family 



KINDLY QUALLTIES OF THE IRISH SETTLER. 



133 



ill the sweet 
; no school for 
me is lost, the 
e of the most 
t much more 
tier's footseps 
tiadows or the 
The sacrifice 
price we pay 
n to play his 
and character 
lings. But to 
1 bodies make 
fair cities and 
ivritten ne s- 
ts of political 
as, Scotch and 
ict with coarse 

it took up his 
id often made 

if he played 
^ade paid. 
:8 which make 
severance, and 
inning human 
ave convinced 
less and noble- 

than in the 
in the wilder- 
ought in con- 
ment and dis- 
and genius of 
dlies, or your 




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an to make ? 
shrunk from 1 
I an<l family 



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love, and that his gay heart, his wit, his cheerfulness under mis- 
fortiines, as well as his generosity in prosperity, would accompany 
him to the wilds. Nor did the Irish settler in Canada belie such 
hopes, Ivlost of my readers will have read Mrs. Hoodie's graphic 
accourt of her sufferings in the bush. Her gallant husband was a 
Scotchman ; she is an Englishwoman. Her testimony is, there- 
fore, that of an impartial person. From what class of settlers did 
she recidve most assistance and most consolation ? It is not too 
much to say that seven-eighths of those who helped her husband 
and her-stilf efficiently were Irish, and while she had to complain 
of the conduct of many, amongst the many there was not one with 
Irish blood in his veins. A friend of hers, one Tom Wilson, is 
accustomed to put on a false nose. As he walks through the 
town with this false nose on, the people cry out: — "What a nose ! 
Look at the man with the nose ! " But she tells us that a party 
of Irish emigrants pass, and, " with the courtesy natural to their 
nation," they forbear laughing until the disfigured man, as they 
think him, has gone, and then they give full vent to their sense 
of the ludicrous. They were gentlemen by nature. 

What servants the Irish have proved themselves to be. Many 
persons don't like to dwell on the fact that the poor Irishman and 
woman have had to earn their bread sometimes by the lowest 
service. But I feel no humiliation about that, because all work 
seems to me noble, if nobly performed. Did not Apollo serve as 
a slave ? Did not Christ say that He had been among His disci- 
ples, not as a master but as one that served ? Was not Epictetus 
a slave ? And iEsop ? No ! there is nothing disgraceful in serv- 
ing, if men serve well and with loyalty, not with eye service, but 
with a genuine determination to perform what they do, well. Such 
a servant was Jack Monaghan, who did all in his power to sujtply 
for Mrs. Moody the loss of a maid-servant ; lighting the fires ; 
milking the cows; nursing the baby ; cooking the dinner, and en- 
deavouring " by a thousand little attentions to show the grati- 
tude he really felt for our kindness ;" attaching himself to little 
Katie " in an extraordir aiy manner ;" spending all his spare time 
in making little sleighs and toys for her, or dragging the sleigh 
he had made and the beloved burden in it, wrapped in a blanket, 
up and down the steep hills in front of the house ; his great de- 



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..^i i'.jr-'wr^T^wr^- 



134 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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light to cook her bread and milk at night, and feed her himself ; 
then he would carry her round the floor on his back, and sing her 
Irish songs. Touching picture ! This dark-haired, dark-eyed un- 
tutored Irish Celt, and the fair-haired Saxon child who always 
greeted his return from the woods with a scream of joy, and run- 
ning forward to be lifted by him and to clasp his swarthy neck 
with her white arms. "I could lay down my life for you," he 
would say to her, as he spoke of her love for him and his love for 
her. It would be hard to show nobler work done by any emigrant 
than was done by honest, loving Jack Monaghan. In the wilder- 
ness, over the stumj) of his neglected life, the flowers of the heart 
broke forth luxuriantly. The movements of his life were like 
melodies ; as is so often the case, the fingers v/hieh touched the 
rude keys, and brought out all the music of this apparently rough 
nature, were the fingers of a child. There is something truly God- 
like about a child in its tenderness and purity, its freedom from 
petty care and superiority to our small prejudices, its spontaneous 
goodness and its love ; its unwrinkled forehead and unclouded eye 
look out on us from eternity on this shore of time, soothing the 
distressed spirit and sweetning the brackish waters of the heart. 

Then Jack is brave as a lion, and attacked by an enemy of 
his and of the Moodies, one Uncle Joe, he springs on his foe, and 
makes the big man roar for mercy. His kindness of heart, and 
what Mrs. Moodie calls his reckless courage, left him no strong in- 
stinct of self-preservation, and when a tree is to be felled, the fel- 
ler of which carried his life in his hands, he raises the axe and 
cries : " If a life must be sacrificed, why not mine ? " and he com- 
mends his soul to God, and plies the axe with vigour. 

At the logging bee, who behaved best and were, after they had 
done a good day's work, most amusing ? The Irish settlers ; and 
Malttchi Chroak takes a pair of bellows and, applying his mouth 
to the pipe, works his elbows to and fro as one playing on the 
bagpipes ; then he sings a song. " We certainly did laugh our fill," 
says Mrs. Moodie, " at his odd capers and conceits." 

Was there ever a more beautiful episode than that trip to Stony 
Lake ? And could there be a more charming family than the 
Irish Roman Catholic family we are introduced to ? What kind- 
liness and pluck and bravery in the men and women ! Ana 



*'*'» 



AN OLD IRISH DRAGOON. 



135 



her himself; 
and sing her 
irk-eyed un- 
who always 
joy, and run- 
warthy neck 
for you," he 
i his love for 
my emigrant 
n the wilder- 
5 of the heart 
life were like 
. touched the 
irently rough 
ng truly God- 
freedom from 
3 spontaneous 
inclouded eye 
soothing the 
of the heart, 
an enemy of 
his foe, and 
of heart, and 
no strong in- 
elled.the fel- 
the axe and 
and he com- 

ter they had 
settlers ; and 
ng his mouth 
lying on the 
bugh our fill," 

,rip to Stony 
lily than the 
What kind- 
omen ! Ana 



1 



" Onld Simpson," or the " Ould Dragoon ! " No wonder Mi-s. 
Moodie exclaims : " Happy he who, with the buoyant spirits of 
the light-hearted Irishman, contrives to make himself happy even 
when all others would be miserable." The old dragoon, with his 
wife Judy, lived in bliss, and went on doing his day's work sing- 
ing— 

"With his silver -mounted pistols, and his long carbine, 
Long life to the brave Inniskillen Dragoc 

He at once accompanied the stranger who had . ,. t with such 
different treatment from others, to help to blaze the side-lines of 
a lot of land received as part of a military grant. First, however, 
he asks her into the house to take a drink of milk and some 
bread and butter. The house ! It was a rude shant}-, in which 
all the hinsres were made of leather. There were no windows. The 
open door supplied their place in the day-time. His wife gives the 
visitor a cordial welcome, and is delighted at the notice taken of 
the children. The whole day was occupied with the job, but the 
kindly Simpson gave his services with " hearty good will," all 
the time, " enlivening us with his inexhaustible fund of good- 
humour and drollery." When they got back to the shanty his 
wife had an excellent meal prepared for them. 

One Irish girl after another proves " invaluable," both in the 
house and in the harvest and hay-field. 

These hurried references will enable the reader to realize what 
kind of qualities, the love, the devotion, the nobleness, the gene- 
rosity, the high spirits and good humour, the Irish settler brought 
to Canada. And we may well rejoice that such are the character- 
istics of the Irishman when we ponder the following facts. 

While Carleton was busy as a statesman, countrymen of his 
were elsewhere, in humbler but not less useful spheres, occupied 
with the work of laying the foundation of what Canada is to-day, 
and of the greatness which is in store for her. If we turn to the 
" Origins of the People " we find the grand totals to be as follows. 
In the four Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia there are 706,309 of English, .549,946 of Scotch, and 
846,414 of Irish origin ; while the numbers professing various re- 
ligions are thus classified : Methodists, of which eight kinds are 
specified, 567,0&1 ;, Baptists, 237,4.50, though the Baptists proper 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




number only 1G5,238, as the Wesleyans proper number but 378,- 
543 ; the Catholics 1,492,029 ; the Christian Conference, 15,153 ; 
Church of Enoland, 494,049 ; Congregational, 21,829 ; Evangeli- 
cal Association, 4,701 ; Irvingite.s, 1,112 ; Lutherans, 37,935 ; 
Presbyterians, a good deal more than 500,000 ; Jews, 1,115 ; 
Brethren, 4,760. Out of a total population in the four provinces 
of 3,485,701, the Protestants number 1,993,732 or a clear majority 
of over half a million. 

To be more particular. The population of Ontario is 1,020,851, 
of which Catholics represent 274,102 ; the Church of England, 
330,995 ; the Baptists something like 100,000 ; the Presbyterians, 
375,000 ; the Methodists, 370,000 ; the Protestant majority beinjf 
1,846,089. Of the 846,414 of Irish origin 572,252 are Protestants 

In the English there is a Celtic element. That element pre- 
dominates in the Irish and Scotch. It also predominates in the 
French ; it is pure in the Welsh. Now what are the facts ? The 
people of French origin in Canada numbered in 1871, 1,082,940; 
of Welsh, 7,773. Thus more than three millions of the population 
of the four provinces are mainly Celtic, without counting the large 
Celtic element in the English, and the Spaniards. These last, how- 
ever, number only 829, while Switzerland has given us 2,962 ; 
Scandinavia, 1,623 ; Russia, G07 : the Italians, 1,035 ; the Ger- 
man.s, 202,991 ; the Dutch, 29,662. 

If we go over the districts in Ontario we get the following facts. 
In the peninsular county, called after the old Saxon colony of 
East-Sexe, and having, like it, its Colchester, and for the Thames 
and the North Sea, the Detroit River, and Lakes St. Clair and 
Erie, in Essex, the proportions of the population, according to 
origin, show the English element leading the van, the figures 
being, Irish, 5,746 ; English, 7,672 ; Scotch, 2,604 : religion, Cath- 
olic, 13,955 ; population, 32,697. In Kent again tlie English 
element is in advance, giving 7,743, as agninst 5,714 Iii;-h, and 
4,843 Scotch ; the Catholics out of a population of 26,836 number- 
ing 5,698. In_^Bothwell the relative precedence is held : Those of 
English origin numbering 6,745 ; of Irish, 5,463 ; of Scotch, 4,375 ; 
the Catholic element in a population of 26,836, numbering 1,854. 
But when we come to Lambton, Lambton of the rich cornfields, 
and pleasant Huron shores, the county represented by Mr. Mac- 



COMPONENTS OF POPULATION. 



137 



ber but 378,- 
ence, 15,153 ; 
!9 ; Evangeli- 
i-ans, 37,935; 
Jews, 1,115 ; 
our provinces 
clear majority 

is 1,020,851, 

1 of England, 
Presbyterians, 
najority being 
•e Protestants' 
i element pre- 
ainates in the 
le facts? The 
71,1,082,940; 
bhe population 
iting the large 
hese last, how- 
ven us 2,962 ; 
)35 ; the Ger- 

ollowing facts, 
xon colony of 
f)r the Thames 
St. Clair and 
, according to 
,n, the figures 
eligion, Cath- 
tlie English 
ri4 Iri.-h, and 
6,830 number- 
leld : Those of 
Scotch, 4,375 ; 
iibering 1,854. 
ich cornfields, 
I by Mr. Mac- 



kenzie, the Irish come to the front. The figures are, Irish, 10,389 ; 
English, 9,581 ; Scotch, 8,534 : the Catholics numbering 3,467. In 
Elgin, St. George once more rushes ahead of St. Patrick and St. 
Andrews and the figures show for those of English origin 8,734 ; of 
Irish, 4,074 ; of Scotch, 3,572 ; the Catholics numbering 715. Here 
there is a considerable representation of the great Teutonic race, 
the German element nundjering 3,512, as against 1,342 in Lamb- 
ton, 1,407 in Kent, and 2,150 in Essex. In West Middlesex the 
figures are : English, 0,420 ; Scotch, 5,078 ;• Irish, 4981 ; the Cath- 
olics being only 978. North Middlesex, 5,010 ; 7,044 ; 7,481 ; 
Catholics, 3,322. East Middlesex, 9,741 ; 4,750; 8,728; and the 
Catholics figuring up to not much more than a fourth of the Irish 
population, their- number being 2,024. 

Thus in the north the Irish head the list, while in the east and 
west the lead belongs to the English, who properly hold the first 
place in London, the numbers being, English, 6,693; Irish, 5,379 ; 
Scotch, 2,882 ; the Catholics being something between a fourth 
and a sixth of the population, the exact number being 2,024. In 
Norfolk (South), the figures are: English, 6,060; Irish, 2,502; 
Scotch, 2,119 ; of the Catholic religion, 701 : in Norfolk (North), 
6,979 ; 2,778 ; 1,060 ; of the Catholic religion, 910. The German 
element is strong in the two divisions of Norfolk, aggregating 
5,384. In South Oxford the English lement is represented by 
10,196 ; the Irish by 5,356 ; the Scotch by 3,861 ; of the Catl-olic 
religion, 1,897; while in the north the thistle leads, the figures 
being Scotch, 9,013; English, 8,600; Irish, 3,035 ; of the Catholic 
religion, 940. In Brant (South ov West), the English count for 
9,153 ; the Irish, 4,190 ; the Scotch, 3,184 ; of the Catholic religion, 
1,890 ; while in North or East Brant the report is, English, 4,590 ; 
Irish, 2,026 ; Scotch, 2,708 ; of the Catholic religion, 1,118. 

Now I will run over the districts, giving first the number 
of Irish, then the number of Scotch, then the number of Enirlish, 
only pausing to comment on .something remarkable. It will be 
observed that without any further analysis, jnerely giving the 
number of Catholics shows, as compared with the number of Irish, 
the relative strength of the two divisions of Irishmen. Haldi- 
mand— Irish, 5,855 ; Scotch, 2,088 ; English, 0,406 ; Catholic 
religion, 1,705. Monck— Irish, 2,085 ; Scotch, 1,461 ; English, 



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138 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



4,047; Catholic religion, 1,017. In Monck the German clement 
surpasses either of the otlier, and is represented by 5,028 souls. 
Welland— Irish, 4,878; Scotch, 2,094 ; English, 0,223; German, 
5,910 ; Catholic religion, 8,040. Niagara — Irish, 1,193 ; Scotch, 540; 
English, 1,403 ; German, 414 ; Catholic religion, 053. Lincoln — 
Irish, 0,073 ; Scotch, 2,438; English, 5981 ; German, 4,844 ; Catholic 
religion, 3,525. South Went worth— Irish, 2,072; Scotch, 2,803; Eng- 
lish, 4,787 ; German, ^^,057 ; Catholic religion, 2,500. North Went- 
worth— Msh, 5,105; Sootch, 3,082 ; English, 4,070; German, 1,309; 
Catholicreligion, 2,500. Hamilton— Irish, 8,900; Scotch, 3,930; Eng- 
lish, 9,097 ; Catholic religion, 5,059. South Huron— Irish, 7,793 ; 
Scotch, 7,301 ; English, 772 ; German, 3,389 ; Catholic religion, 
2,098. North Huron— Irish, 15,947; Scotch, 12,087; English, 
8,780 ; German, 1,831 ; Catholic religion, 3,004. Bruce (South)— 
Irish, 9,828; Scotch, 11,420; English, 3,077; German, 5,525; Catho- 
lic religion, 4,779. Bruce (North)— Irish, 4,750 ; Scotch, 7,094 ; 
English, 2,910; German, 875; Catholic religion, 415. Perth, 
which has given a name to the Convention which Edward II. 
fondly thought the completion of the Conquest and settlement of 
Scotland, when Caledonian chivalry rose under Robert Bruce to 
rout the English at Bannockburn, reappears in Canada, and 
oddly enough contains more Irishmen than Scotchmen; in 
South Perth, the Irish element numbering 0,870, and in North, 
9,701 ; while the Scotch is represented by 5,222 in the Southern 
division, and 4,820 in the Northern; the extent of the English ele- 
ment being 0,520 in South, and 2,819 in North Perth ; the Germans 
aggregating in the two divisions, 7,710; Catholic- religion in the 
two divisions, 5,902. Waterloo, North and South, is strong mainly 
in the great Teutonic stem of the Aryan race; in the two divisions, 
the Gennan element numbering 22,050 ; while the Irish, Scotch 
and English, respectively, 3,220 ; 7,315; 5,050; Catholicreligion, 
South, 2,493 ; North, 3,003. 

In Wellington the Irish lead once more. For South Wellington 
the figures are, — Irish, 3,704 ; Scotch, 4,902 ; English, 4,503 ; Ger- 
man, 900 ; C. R., 2,787. Centre Wellington, Irish, 8,447 ; Scotch, 
8,314 ; English, 5,980 ; German, 1.171 ; C. R., 2,318. North Wel- 
lington, I., 11,770 ; S., 5,281 ; E., 5,890; G., 1,057 ; C. R., 3,731. 
In the thriving Town of Guelph, the Irish element is represented 





NATIONAL STATISTICS. 



139 



by 2,125 (of which only 566 are Catholics), as against 1,750 Scotch, . 
and 2,755 English. By an odd coinc" lence, just as in Wallace, in 
Perth, the Irish element is 1,852, to 383 Scotch, so in Erin,in Centre 
Wellington, the Scotch outnumher the Irish, the figures being 
2,160 and 1,492. In South Grey we have I., 10,931 ; S., 9,225 ; E., 
4,928; G., 3,790; C. R., 3,275. In North Grey. I., 12,580; S., 
8,326; E., 7,35o ; C. R., 1,050; Halton, I., 8,074; S., 5,108; E., 
6,993 ; G, 1,282 ; C. R., 1,512. Peel, L, 7,484 ; S., 2,140 ; E., 6,037, 
C. K, 1,509. Cardwell, I., 11,465; S., 1,823; E., 2,876; C. R.; 
2,758. Simcoe, like Cardwell, is very strong in the Irish element, 
as the following figures show: — Irish in South Simcoe, 14,593; 
S., 2,7S8; E., 5,248; C. R., 1,869. North Simcoe, I., 11,247; S., 
8,468 ; E., 9,161 ; G., 1,254 ; C. R., 6,885. North York, I., 6,826 ; 
S., 3,228; E., 10,.50t: G, 2,223; C. R., 2,328. West York, I., 
5,559 ; S., 2,398 ; E., 6,636 ; G., 1,359 ; C. R, 2,180. East York, 
1,4,682; S„ 3,206; E., 8,806; C. R., 1,502. Toronto, the Queen 
City of Western Canada, is nearly half Irish, the figures being, — 
Toronto West, Irish, 13,001 ; Scotch, 4,644 ; English, 11,946 ; C. R., 
5,914. Toronto East, I., 11,100 ; S., 3,568 : E., 9,259 ; C. R., 5,967. 
In the two divisions the strong German race numbers 985. In 
the two Ontarios the English are first : — South Ontario, I., 4,698 : 
S., 3,550 ; E., 10,298 ; C. R., 2,005. North Ontario, I., 7,400 ; 
S., 6,417; E., 8,992; G., 811 ; C. R, 3,072. Durham (west), I., 
6,496 ; S., 2,095 ; E., 9,205 ; G., 247 ; C. R., 2,497. Durham (east), 
I., 10,746; S., 1,141 ; E., 6,630 ; G., 241 ; C. R., 819. In Durham 
there is appropriately a Cavan which contains 3,197 persons with, 
the rich Irish blood in their veins, and of which only 26 are 
Catholics. 

In South Victoria the Irish element swells to 10,519 ; the 
Scotch, 2,702 ; the Engli.sh, 5,129; C. R., 4,165. In North Vic- 
toria the figures are, I., 23,638 ; S., 3,777 ; E., 2,920 ; C. R. 
912. West Northumberland, I., 6,811; S., 2,944 ; E., 6,557 : C. R., 
2,796. East Northumberland, I., 6,583 ; S., 3,209 ; E., 6,714 ; G., 
2,894 ; C. R, 2,781. West Peterborough, I., 5,794 ; S., 1,612 ; E., 
3,354 ; C. R., 3,125. The Town of Peterborough contains no less 
than 2,066 of Irish blood, and 1,338 Catholics. East Peterborough, 
1,7,774; S., 2,772; E., 3,137; C. R., 3,902. North Peterborongh, 
I., 1,709 ; S., 563; E., 1,458; C. R., 481. Prince Edward, I., 5,900;. 



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140 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



S., 1,378 ; E., 6,049; G., 4,800 ; Dutdi, 634 ; C. R., 1,500. Hast- 
ings (west), I., 4,797; S., 1,572 ; E., 3,990; C. R., 3,350. Hantings 
(east), I., 8,324; S., 1,348 ; E„ 3,078 ; C. R., 4,879. Hastings (north), 
I., 7,287; S., 2,200 ; E, 3,875; G. 1,266 ; Dutch, 1,014 ; C. R., 2,375. 
Lennox, I., 5,244; S., 1,478; E., 4,849; G., 4,649; C. R., 1,418. 
AcMington, I., 9,429 ; S., 1,738 ; E., 3,459 ; G., 5,453 ; C. R., 4333. 
Frontonac, I., 7,886 ; S., 1,958 ; E., 4,082 ; G., 1,040 ; French, 997 ; 
Dutch, 169 ; C. R., 4.479. Thus in Frontenac the Irish are nearly 
twice the number of English, and more than four times the Scotch. 
In the charming City of Kingston, the figures give I., 6,611 ; S„ 
l,fi21 ; E., 3 271 ; G., 199 ; French, 363 ; African, 102 ; C. R., 3,980. 
Leeds, lying snugly by the St. Lawrence, has a noble Irish popula- 
tion of 11,202 ; the Scotch numbering 2,410, and the English, 
4,885 ; the German, 1,195 ; the French, 093 ; the Dutch, 101 
C. R., 3,035. In pleasant Brockville the figures stand — I., 5,106 
S., 1,579 : E., 3,621 ; C. R., 1,904. Grenville, I., 6,761 ; S., 1,907 
E., 2,939; G., 408; F., 020; D., 297; C. R., 3,064. Leeds and 
Grenville, L, 9,458; S., 1,272; E., 1,817; G., 322; F., 291; D., 
141; C. R., 2,332. Dunda.s, L, 6,541; S. 2,485; E., 1,921; G., 
5,503 ; F., 1,031 ; D., 1,112 ; C. R., 2,382. Stormont, I., 2,708 ; S., 
3,571; E., 804; G., 2,220; F., 1,200; D., 1,203; C. R., 2,306. 
Cornwall, I., 1,483 ; S., 2,058 ; E., 757 ; G., 905 ; F., 907; D., 119 ; 
(y. R., 3,370. Glengarry has properly a large Scotch population, 
the figures being,— I., 1,279 ; S., 15,899 ; E., 509 ; F., 2,007 ; C. R., 
10,404, Prescott, L, 4,055; S., 2,540; E., 1,250; G., 147; F., 9,023 ; 
C. R., 11,774. Russell, I., 7,745 : S., 2,870 ; E., 1,551 ; F., 5,000 ; 
C. R., 8,831. Ottawa, I., 8.021 ; S., 2,285 ; E., 3,721 ; F., 7,214 ; 
C. R., 12,735. Carleton, I., 10,774; S., 2,102; E., 1,700; C. R., 
0,028; South Lanark, I, 11,007; S., 5,334; E., 2,020; F., 455; 
C. R., 4,313. North Lanark, I., 5,500; S., 5,539; E., 1,194; F., 
410 ; C. R., 2,340. South Renfrew, L, 6,616 ; S., 4077; E., 1,287; 
F., 1,266; G., 620; C. R., 6,347. North Rcxifrew, I., 6,949 ; S., 
2,070; K, 1,371; F., 1,616; G., 1,698; C. R., 4,712. Nipissing 
(north and south), I., 509 ; S., 92 ; E., 122 ; F., 473 ; C. K, 778 
south, and 640 north. Muskoka, I., 1,631 ; S., 1,027 ; E., 2,235 ; 
G., 321 ; C. R., 239. Parry Sound, L, 461 ; S., 266; E.,306 ; C. R., 
247. Manitoulin, L, 110; S., 127 ; E., 132 ; C. R., 1,329. Algoma, 
L, 276; S., 552; E., 237; C. R., 2,027. Totals for Ontario, Irish, 



QUEBEC AND LOWER PROVI^'CES. 



141' 



1,500. Hast- 

0. Hastings 
tingH (north), 
; C. R., 2,375. 
C. R., 1,418. 
; C. R., 4333. 
French, 997; 
?h are nearly 
is the Scotch. 
I., G,G11 ; S„ 
1 C. R., 3,980. 
Irish popula- 
the English, 
Dutch, 101 
cl— I., 5,106 

1 ; S., 1,907 
Leeds and 
F., 291 ; D., 
., 1,921; G., 

1, 2,708 ; S., 
C. R., 2,366. 
67; D., 119 ; 

population, 

2,607; C.R., 

'7;F., 9,623; 

; F., 5,000 ; 

; F., 7,214 ; 

,700 ; C. R., 

; F., 455 ; 

„ 1,194; F., 

7; E., 1,287; 

,6,949; S., 

Nipissing 

; C. R., 778 

; E., 2,235 ; 

.,30G;C. R., 

9. Algoma, 

itario, Irish, 






i 



559,442; Scotch. 328,889; English, 439,424. C. R., 274,102. Thu.-^ 
in Ontario, the Irish are as five to three to Scotchmen and persons 
of Scotch descent ; and as five to four as regards tho^e of English 
Mood ; and the Protestant Irish are nearly double the Catholic. 

When we come to the Province of Quel)ec we find the Irish 
element the strongest after the French. Pontiac (south), I., 8,239; 
S., 1,897; E.,910; F., 8,195. Pontiac (north), I., 123; S.,08; E„44; 
F., 260. Ottawa (west), I., 8,605; S., 1,298; E., 1,508; F., 11,531. 
Ottaw", (centre), I., 1,376; S., 320; E., 550; F., 7,054. Ottawa 
(east), I., 1,119 ; S., 614 ; E., 286. Argenteuil, 1,4,080 S., 3,213; 
E., 1,443; F., 3.902. Deux Montagnes, I., 770; S., 348; E., 96; 
F., 13,972. 

It is unnecessary to go much further into details as regards 
Quebec. In Montreal, the Irish element is very strong. In Mont- 
real (centre), I., 969; S., 341; E.,479; F., 3,224. Montreal (east), 
I., 6,013; S., 1,580, E.,3,307; F., 35,569. Montreal (west), I., 19,394; 
S., 7,974; E., 9,099; F., 18,063. Thus in Montreal west, the Irish 
element is stronger than the French. In Huntingdon also, those 
of Irish, are more numerous than those of French blood. Hun- 
tir.g.'on, (east), I., 4,112; S., 1,292; E., 825; F., 2,383. Huntingdon 
(wc-.:), I., 2,274; S., 1,892; E., 208; F., 2,541. In Quebec, as indeed 
in most cities the Iiish are again numerous, the figures being I. 
12,345; S., 1,861 ; E., 3,974; F., 40,890. The totals for the Province 
of Quebec show L, 123,478; S., 46,458; E., 69,822; F., 929,817; G., 
7,963; C. R. 1,019,850. Of the 71,666 protestants, 62,449 belong to 
the Church of England. 

In the Province of New Brunswick the Irish element ranks 
first. St. John I., 20,128; S., 5,785; E., 13,772; C. R., 17,829. In the 
City of St. John separately I., 15,605; S , 3,2841; E., 8,557; C. R., 
9,999. Charlotte, 1,10,154'; S., 4,319; E.,10,783; C.R.,3.828. Kings 
whose undulating hills and green valleys recall Ireland, the figures 
are 1. 10,841, S., 2,705 ; E., 8,279; G., 1,186; C. R., 3,522. Queens, I. 
5,409; S., 2,142; E., 4,842; C.R., 1,331. Sunbury, I, 2,655; S.,552; 
E., 2,839; C. R., 1,031. York I., 9,095; S., 3,917; E., 9,577; C. R., 
4,388. Carleton,I.,7,541;S., 2.570; E., 8,197; C.R.,2.416. Victoria, 
I., 1,696; S., 955; E., 1,509; C. R., 8,270. It is not necessary to go 
further into particulars. Enough to state that the totals of New 
Brunswick areas follows ; I., 100,643; S., 40,858; E., 83,59 



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142 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



41.,<>07; G. 4,478; Dutch 0.005; Welsh 1,()UG; Africana 1,701; C. U., 
y(),016. 

In Halifax City the Irish predominate, the figures bein*,' I., 
n.OOr); S,, 4,817; E., 0,720; G., 1,4G9; C. R, 12,431. The totals for 
the whole of Nova Scotia are I., 02,851; S., 120,041; E, 118,520; 
G., 21,042; F., 32,833; Dutch 1208; African 0,212; C. R., 102,001. 

In Piince Edward the nuniljcr of persons of Irish blood Is 31,000; 
S., 25,484 ; E., 21,878. In Manitol)a the Irish element is not yet 
.strong. But in due time, side by side with the Scotch ajid English, 
men of Irish blood are destined to pcjssess those fertile regions. 
In Eiitish Columbia then; are no statistics to hand. In New- 
foumlland the number of persons l)orn in Ireland is nearly double 
that of those bom in Scotland or in England. The population 
is 1 10,530, and what the proportion of Irish blood is it is not easy 
to say, but it is safe to assume that it is very large. 

Newfoundland, which will, I hope, soon make part of the Do- 
minion, is the first British colony estal)lished on this continent, 
and is supposed to have been discovered in the tenth century by 
Biarne, son of Heriulf Bardson.* But the first discovery, generally 
considered historical, is that of Cabot, whom King Henry VII 

* Newfoundlaml is the oldest Colony of (ireat liritain in America, having l)een taken 
|)0.s.sesHion of by John and Seba.stian C^abot for King Henry Sevt.ith, in the year 1407 
and called Baccalaos, the word used for cod fish ))y the natives, 'i' here is every reasoii 
to believe, however, that it was discovered long before, viz., in 1001, by Biron or ^Morn 
who named that £).irt where he landed Winland ; he was a Norman ; on liis return he 
told of his discovery. "Lief," son of " Eric Redhead," immediately fitted out a vessel 
with thirty-five men, and taking Biorn with him, set out for the newly-discovered 
country. Afterwards settlements were made from Greenland and Iceland ; it even 
api>ears that a Bishop was stationed there. Eric, Bishoji of Greenland, having g(meto 
Winland in 1121, where it is supposed he died. Sub8e(iuont adventurers discovered Latin 
books in possession of one of the chiefs, supposed to have belonged to the Bishop. The 
Island was subsecjuently called Estotiland. According to Anspach's History there is no 
doubt that Winland, Estotiland, and Newfoundland, are the same country. The native 
Indians, now extinct, or nearly so, are supposed to be degenerate descendants of the 
Norman settlers ! In 1.583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of the harbour of 
St Johns, in the presence of all the ships there, in the name of Queen Elizabeth, and 
established a colony. Colonies were afterwards established there by Sir George Calvert 
ill the reign of James First— one of his (Calvert's) principal men, Daniel Powell, was, 
an liishman ; by the Marquis' of Hamilton, in time of Charles First. Lord Falkland 
(Gary) in 1C20, sent a colo^v of Irishmen there, but one cannot find their names. John 
Gray, a merchant of Bristol, made a good settlement in 1608 ; but then the great and 
chief inducement was the fisheries; gradually the country was found not to be the 
barren spot represented.— See Anspach's History. 



^1^ 



SETTLEMENTS IN NEWFOUNDLAND. 



143 



1,701; O.K., 

ires being I., 
'he totals for 
E, 118,520; 
R., 102,001. 
jod is 81,000; 
nt is not yet 
and English, 
irtile regions, 
d. In New- 
learly double 
lo population 
it is not easy 

•t of the Do- 
lls continent, 
h century by 
jry, generally 
^ Henry VII 



chagiii' '<! at his own want of adventure in refusing to aid (Jolum- 
buH, despatched in the May of 141)7 on a voyage of discovery. 
Then follow the visits of the Portuguese Cor te real in 1500; of the 
French Verazzani in 1525 ; of Jac(iues (^artier in 1584. In 1583, 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, the n)ost interesting of English adventurers, 
who had the gallantry and charm ot liis half-brothei, Sir Walter' 
Raleigh, landed at St John's, took possession of the island in 
the name of Queen Elizabeth, and ere returning on that voyage, 
in which he was to meet his doom, promulgated laws. In IGIO, 
Guy attempted to e,staV)lisli a colony at Conception Bay, and in 
1CI;'> Captain Whitlxmrne took steps to introduce law among the 
population. Other settlements followed, and in 1728 Newfound- 
lank, released from the nominal control of Nova Scotia, was 
erected into a separate province. In most of these settlements 
there must have been a proportion of Irish, as in 1753, out of a 
total po])ulation of 13,112, part of which, however, was migrati)ry, 
there were 1,795 Catholics, chiefly Irish. 

In 1784, a great stimulus was given to Irish emigration to 
Newfoumlland by the Rev. Father O'Donnell, a native of Tip- 
perary, who had been educated at Prague, and who was attracted 
by the toleration prevailing on those shores to leave his ntitiNo 
countiy, and settle with his people, beyond that ocean, w^liich 
seemed to the men of those days so dividing. This learned divine 
was appointed, in 1790, Roman Catholic Bishop of the island. 
For aiding General Skerret in putting down a nnitiny among a 
regiment raised there — a mutiny which was only i)art of a 
wide-spread disaffection, instinct with the principles and feel- 
ings of 1708 — the bishop was granted by the Imperial Govern- 
ment an annuity of £50 sterling. Among the Irishmen who have 
risen to prominence here, D'Arcy ^''cGee mentions tlie Hon. L. 
O'Brien, who administered the Province, Chief -Justice Brady, the 
Hon. Mr. Kent ;,ud the Hon. Mr. Shea, both of whom became 
premiers. 

Bonn}'castle writes that " more than one-half of the people are 
Irish ; so much so indeed as, considering the verdure of the earth, 
the absence of reptiles, the salubrity of the air, and peculiar 
adaptation of the soil to the growth of the potato, to tempt one 
very c. ien to call it ' Transatlantic Ireland.' " The same author 




;' ' 



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144 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




says : " The Irish arc an excitable race, which they themselves do 
not aifect to deny ; they are easily led, but difficult to drive. But 
the good qualities of the Irish peasant abroad are very prominent, 
and here in Newfoundland they are so busily employed during a 
great part of the year, in very small and detached sections, that 
they have no time to think about politics, or about anything else 
but getting their bread for themselves and their families, to pro- 
vide in time for a long, severe and serious winter. I declare, and 
I am sure I shall be borne out by every class of people in this 
country, and by all those whose domicile is a mero transient one, 
that a more peaceable, respectable, loyal, or a kinder-hearted race 
than the Newfoundland English and Irish, whether emigiants or 
native born, I never met with," 

Party political and religious spirit, however, ran high in the 
island. Many old country merry-making customs were kept up 
by the Irish population, amongst others. Bonny castle particularizes 
that of the boys on St. Stephen's Day, going round from door to door 
with a green bush decorated with ribbons, &c., and containing 
a little bird to represent the wren, while they sing — 

' The wren, the wren, the king of all birds, 
On St. Stephen's Day was caught in the firs." 

St. Patrick's Day is also regularly celebrated. Both Protestants and 
Catholics generally unite, in compliment to each other, in observ- 
ing the days of their respective saints, namely St. George and St. 
Patrick. " But the devotion," says Anspach, " with which the 
latter is honoured by the sons of Erin is by far the greater of the 
two." They also kept up the Sheelagh's Day. This is the day 
for getting sober. 

The religious bodies in Newfoundland consist of the Church of 
England, the Roman Catholic, the Presbyterian, the Independent, 
and the Methodist Churches. The Church of England and the 
Roman Catholic are by much the largest. The former was estab- 
lished by the " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts," and the mission in Newfoundland was one of the 
original objects of its care. William III., Prince of Orange, was 
the father and founder of this Society, which has since spread and 
done so much good. In the list of clergy of the Church oi Eng- 



m 

m 



SIR THOMAS COCHRANE. 



U5 



land, in 1842, several Iiish names appear. Amongst the namesof 
governors of the island are a few Irish ones, and the most pros- 
perous administration, up to 1842, was that of Sir Thomas Coch- 
lane, who was appointed in 1826. His administration was a vig- 
orous one, and he has the merit of having opened roads in the 
vicinity of the capital, and of directing great improvements in 
the town itself, Avhilst the cultivation of the soil consequent upon 
his indefatigable zeal in forming internal communications, began to 
be attended to, the wheat began to yellow the landscape, and good 
pasturage was provided for horses, cattle, and sheep. He built a 
Government-house of solid stone. Vigilant, .arseeing, politic and 
princely, ho retained his office until 1834, bestowing upon it 
great and unwearied attention, and displaying a magnificence in 
his vice-regal functions before unknown. In 1835, he obtained a 
new commission with very extensive powers, and was constituted, 
in point of fact and law, the first civil governor. 

In 1830, the venerable and much beloved bishop of the Roman 
Catholic Church, the Irish Dr. Scallan died, universally lamented. 
He was succeeded by Dr. Fleming. 

The first newspaper in Newfoundland was printed by an Irish- 
man. The Royal Oazette and Ketvfoundland Advertiser was pub- 
lished on the 27th August, 1807, by Mr. John Ryan, and continued 
up to 1842 at all events, (the date of Bonnycastle's History) as the 
official Government paper under the title of the Royal Oazette. 
Mr. Ryan had then Mr. Withers associated with him at St. Johns. 
The oldest Benevolent Association on the Island is the Benevo- 
lent Irish Society, which was founded in 180G. 

Soon after the cession of Nova Scotia to the British Crown, at 
the j)ressing request of the New England Colonies, the British 
Government ottered free grants of land to th . military men who 
should elect to settle there ; a free passage, together with tools, 
arms and rations for a year, being proffered as an inducement. 
On the 2l8tof June, 1840, four thousand disbanded soldiers, under 
Governor Cornwallis, arrived in Chebucto Harbour, and com- 
menced the settlement of that town, which has since grown into 
a great city, with churches and cathedrals, with banks and 
school-houses, spacious public buildings, a score or more of 

hotels, stores which would take rank as specimens of architecture 
10 



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146 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



in London, great manufactories, and a dockyard which covers 
fourteen acres. Over the splendid harbour alive with shipping, 
frown eleven different fortifications. It is the chief naval 
station of Canada, Two regiments of the line, besides artillery 
and engineers are always stationed here. Opposite the city stands 
the Town of Dartmouth, one of the prettiest in the world. The 
Hceneiy is beautiful, and the natural beauty is enhanced by pretty 
villas along the shore. An extensive steam communication con- 
nects Halifax with various parts of Continental Canada, Prince 
Edward Island, Newfoundland, the United States, the West 
Indies and Great Britain. From east and west run admir- 
able lines of railway. It has a population of some thirty-three 
thousand, and the value of its assessed property cannot be much 
less than S20,0()0,()00. The aggregate of its imports and ex- 
ports is not at present much below 818,000,000. Of the four 
thousand veterans, who thus early laid the foundation of the 
Liverpool of the Atlantic coast, a considerable number were 
undoubtedly Irish. The foundation of the City of Halifax was 
laid in 174)9. Ten years after this, it was described in a contem- 
porary account as divided into " Halifax proper, Irishtown, or the 
Southern, and Dutchtown or the northern suburbs." At this 
period the inhabitants numbered three thousand, one-third of 
whom were Irish. The President of the Irish Charitable 
Society was in 1755 appointed one of His Majesty's Council for 
the Province of Nova Scotia. 

If we examine the old books we shall find the fact that Nova 
Scotia was largely settled by Irishmen made clear. A book called 
" Nova Scotia Archives," gives a long list of the first settlers and 
among the names wefind Neil,0'Neil,Fitzgibbon,Flynn,Cavanagh, 
Casey, Ryan, Fitzgerald, Whelan, Blake, Mooney, Connor, Owen, 
Magrath, Moore, Donahoe, Doyle, Sullivan, Kennedy, Farrell, 
Plunkett, Connolly and many others, undoubtedly Irish. Mur- 
doch in his "History of Nova Scotia," gives many Irish names 
some of them belonging to men who played a prominent part in 
the government of that Province. Amongst the Justices of Peace 
and Agents to assign lands to settlers at Shelburne, appear the 
names of James McEwan, Peter Lynch, William C. White, Patrick 
Wall and Michael Langan ; amongst the Privy Council for 1789 



mm 



ST. Patrick's day in nova scotia, 1796. 



147 



we find the Hon. Thomas Cochran and the Hon. Charles Morris. 
Either Morris or his son was afterwards President of the Irish 
Society. Mathew Cahill was Sheriff of Halifax that year, and a 
levee was held at the Government house on St. Patrick's day. 
Hon. Thomas Cochran amongst others was appointed a trustee of 
a Grammar School to be forthwith erected. This was, without 
doubt the first ever built in Halifax. Wm. Cochran, of Trinity 
College, Dublin, was chosen its first master. 

On St. Patrick's day in 1796 a levee was held at the Qovenvtuent 
House. About 5 P. M., the Irish Society's dmner took place at 
Gallagher's. H. R. H. Prince Edward Sir John Wentworth, some 
members of the Council, the Speaker and several members of the 
House a V,; ended as guests. 

In thc^ Ualifax Journal of Novenj.bei, 1799, we learn that the 
Rev. J. Murdoch died at Musquodoboit, on Thursday, 21st of 
November, aged 55 years, that he was a native of Ireland and 
came over to the Province 32 years before, in 1767, as Presbyterian 
minister for Cumberland. He had been settled about eight years 
at Musquodoboit. His death was much lamented by the inhabi- 
tants of that settlement and by his family, he having left a widow 
and ten children. The historian mentions in a note that the old 
gentleman was his gi-andfather. 

Rev. Geo. Wright, aged 67, who was long the Head Master of the 
Halifax Grammar School, died in 1819. He was Missionary of 
the Round Church, North Suburbs, and Chaplain to the Garrison 
of Halifax. He was an Irishman, and, says the obituary, " a most 
assiduous and conscientious instructor of youth." He had been 
trained at TriiJty College, Dublin. 

On St. Patrick's day, 1811, the members of the Irish Society 
celebrated the anniversary of the Saint, by dining with a large 
number of guests at the Masonic Hall. His Excellency, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, and Major-General Balfour, with their re- 
spective suites, Commissioner Inglefield, the Hon, the Judge of the 
Vice-Admirality Court, the Commissary-General, the Captains of 
the Navy, the Garrison staff, and others were among the guests. 
The company sat down to dinner at half -past five. The Hon. 
Charles Morris, President ; S. H. George Esq., acting as Vice- 
President. After the cloth was removed, upwards of forty toasts 



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148 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



were given, mostly V^umpers,' among which were: " The memory of 
the Pious St. Patrick ; " " Our Venerable King, may the prayers 
of liis loyal people be heard ; " " The Prince of Wales and the 
British Constitution ; " " The Duke of Clarence and the Navy ; " 
" The Duke of Kent and the Knights of St. Patrick ; " '• The Queen 
and the rest of the Royal Family ; " " The land we live in, and 
may it long be governed by its present benefactor, and may health 
and happiness ever attend him." 

His Excellency thanked tiic Company for the honour done him. 
He considered the prosperity of the Province due, next to the in- 
dustry of its inhabitants, to the effects of the wise and beneficent in- 
structions of his Sovereign, which it was his happy lot to execute, 
and after representing in glowing colours the achievements of 
the British army in Spain and Portugal, and the heroic virtues of 
its commander-in-chief, gave as a toast " Lord Wellington," which 
was drunk with three times three, and the most enthusiastic 
applause. After that came, " The General and the Garrison ; " 
" Admiral Sawyer and the squadron under his command." 

His Excellency and most of the principal guests retired at nine 
o'clock. "The rest of the company," says the reporter of the Halifax 
Gazette, " sat to a very late hour." It is to be feared they had a 
bad head-ache the next morning. 

The Right Rev. Dr. Edmund Burke, who died in 1820, in the 
78th year of his age, was an Irishman, having been born in the 
County Kildare. He was Parish Priest of the Town of Kildare, 
'vl'.ich he vacated at the frequent and earnest solicitations of some 
ot the Professors of the Seminary of Quebec, and arrived in Lower 
Canada the 2nd of August, 1780. There he officiated as a clergy- 
man, and taught the higher branches of mathematics and philoso- 
phy, with great credit to himself and benefit to the students who 
crowded to hear the lectures of a man celebrated in the University 
of Palis as exceeding most men of his day in mathematical science, 
as also in the classics. He was particularly strong in the Greek 
and Hebrew languages. He taught in Quebec until Lord Dor- 
chester appointed him, as a faithful and capable person, to reconcile 
the many powerful tribes of Indians inhabit: iig the country about 
Lake Superior and the back of the Ohio and Louisiana, who at 
that time manifested dispositions very hostile to the British 




A GREAT MISSIONARY. 



149 



J memory of 
the prayers 
ales and the 
the Navy ; " 
'• The Queen 
5 live in, and 
I may health 

ur done him. 
'xt to the in- 
oeneficent in- 
)t to execute, 
lievements of 
oic virtues of 
igton," Avhich 
, enthusiastic 
le Garrison ; " 
nand." 

etired at nine 
Df the Halifax 
ed they had a 

1820, in the 
1 born in the 
rn of Kildare, 
ations of sonic 
■ived in Lower 
;d as a clergy- 
s and philoso- 
students who 
.he University 
latical science, 
in the Greek 
itil LordDor- 
m, to reconcile 
country about 
isiana, who at 
to the British 



Government. Among these savage tribes of Indiana he resided 
six or seven years, suffering great privations, nor did he return 
until he had fully accomplished the object of his mission. He in- 
structed the benighted Indian in the principles of the Christian 
religion, and impressed on his mind a knowledge of the true 
God, by whose assistance he inculcated into his savage mind 
sentiments of loyalty, obedience, and lasting friendship for his 
great, worldly father, King George the Third. Government re- 
warded those important services by granting Dr. Burke a pension 
for life. His vanity would have been excited, if he had any, by 
the sincere and cordial friendship of the Duke of Kent, ai^ also 
of every military and naval officer who successively commaiaded 
in British America during his time, all of whom entertained such 
an opinion of his sound judgment and zealous loyalty, as to con- 
sult him on the most important points of their intended opera- 
tions brfore they put them into execution. His advice and opinion 
during the war of 1812 were greatfully acknowledged by the 
two men who were then in command, and by them honourably 
reported to His Majesty's Ministers; who, in approbation of Dr. 
Burke's loyalty and learning, used their influence with the See of 
Rome to appoint him Bishop of Sion and Vicar Apostolic in Nova 
Scotia. The historian describes him as a tall, handsome, grave- 
looking man. Latterly he stooped a little in walking. His man- 
ners were cheerful, urbane and easy. 

In 1821, Lawrence Kavanagh was returned to the Assembly for 
Cape Breton. He was a Roman Catholic, and would not subscribe 
the declaration against transubstantiation, although willing to 
take the State oaths. He therefore did not take his seat. The 
following year, 1822, on the 25th February, a resolution was 
moved to the effect that a large number of the inhabitants of 
Cape Breton were Roman Catholics, and that Lawrence Kavanagh, 
one of the two members they had chosen to represent them, was 
of that creed ; that though willing to take the State oaths, he could 
not conscientiously subscribe the declaration against transubstan- 
tiation ; that he should be permitted on taking the former oaths 
to sit in the House until His Majesty's pleasure should be known, 
provided the Lieutenant-Governor approved . 

This resolution was lost, 13 voting for and 17 against it. 



nil 



9' -■ '• 

A) ' ' 



150 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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Amongst the nays were the names of Roach and O'Brien. These 
voted against the motior tearing their friends were too precipitate. 
In 1827, Lawrence Kavanagh was again elected and still refused 
to sign the declaration. The Assembly met 1st February, but he 
was absent. On Feb. 26th, the Catholic petition, praying that an 
address be presented to His Majesty by the House to dispense 
with the declaration and test oaths, was presented by Mr, Uni- 
acke, member for Cape Breton, and a resolution moved by him in 
accordance therewith was seconded by Judge Haliburton and 
ably spoken to by both. This no doubt had some effect. But 
the King's message absolving Catholics from the declaration was 
on its way. Accordingly we find that Lawrence Kavanagh was 
sworn in on 2nd April. The Roman Catholic petition was headed 
by one Mr. CaiToll, who is referred to in Judge Haliburton's 
speech as his " old friend." The draft of the petition is in the 
hand-writing of Lawrence O'Connor Doyle. 

We have just seen in what a liberal and enlightened manner 
the Catholics were treated in Nova Scotia. Their religion, pro- 
scribed by statute, was long tolerated by Governors more sagacious 
than tlie law. In 1763, a large and prosperous colony from the 
north of Ireland settled in Nova Scotia, and brought with them 
their household gods. They were Presbyterians to a man, and 
named the new settlement Londonderry. In the following year, 
large numbers of Irish Presbyterians were expelled from New Eng- 
land. The traveller who sails along the indented coast of the County 
of Cumberland, will see many a white sheet spread to the wind. 
He will enter spacious harbours. When he explores the country, 
he will be .struck by pleasant homesteads, to which the Cobequid 
mountain forms a picturesque back-grouiid. He will visit a large 
and thriving mining population, who work the richest coal mines 
of the Province" He will observe thousands of grindstones manu- 
factured from the underlying rock, and expoi'ted in vast quantities 
to the United States. He will discover that the country abounds in 
gypsum. If it is summer, the eye will re.st on fields white with a hay 
crop, yielding annually $1 .■'>00,()00. He will find here flourishing, 
a population of twenty-four thousand. The rugged ridge shuts 
out the sea from the levt.ls of Colchester, supporting a population 
equally large. Hants with its beautiful mountain, and smiling 



IRISH COLONISATION OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



151 



rien. These 
precipitate, 
still refused 
uaiy, but he 
ying that an 

to dispense 
by Mr, Uni- 
jd by him in 
iburton and 

effect. But 
laration was 
vanagh was 

was headed 
Haliburton's 
ion is in the 

ined manner 

eligion, pro- 

tre sagacious 

ny from the 

t with thein 

a man, and 

owing year, 

n New Eng- 

the County 

lO the wind. 

/he country, 

le Cobequid 

visit a large 

coal mines 

;ones manu- 

t (quantities 

abounds in 

i with a hay 

flourishing, 

ridge shuts 

population 

and smiling 



valleys, and its hills of gypsum, supports a population of twenty- 
two thousand. An ecjual number subsists and flourishes amid the 
scenes of Longfellow's " Evangeline," the rich agricultural county 
of King's, with its comfortable and wealthy farms, its charm- 
ing scenery, its commandiag views, all the glory of Grand 
Pr<;, all the picturesqu'.i sublimity which fills the soul as we 
gaze from the top of Horton. One hundred and ten years ago, 
these great and thriving counties were a wildernes.s, when the ex- 
pelled Irish Presbyterians from New England, axe and Bible in 
hand, set about the work of transformation. Later on, at the 
outbreak of the first American war, Irish loyalists came to their 
aid. Later still, when the guns of the second were being stowed 
away in armouries, Irish military men, the oflicer and the private, 
were impelled by the love of independence, when their regiments 
were disbanded at Halifax, to betake themselves to the bush. The 
Irish, including both Presbyterians and Catholics, formed in 1827, 
at the very lowest, a full half of the population. According to 
the census of 1861, the total population of Nova Scotia was 380,- 
849, of which 80,281 were Catholics, all of Irish descent. 75,788 
representing Colchester, Cumberland, Hants, and King's, were the 
descendants of the great fathers, who grappled with the wild 
a century before. Thus, looking at Presbyterian and Catholic 
Irish alone the proportion was sustained. We can only guess at 
the Irish element in the remainder of the population, but it could 
not be contemptible. In the census of 1871, the total given as of 
Irish origin is 62,851; figures which show how untrustworthy 
the table entitled the "Origins of the People ' is, considered in any 
light of accuracy. The foible of many persons to describe them- 
selves as of English descent, and similar foibles are well known. 
The absurdity of these figures, in the light of historical facts, 
will be made more clear, when we state chat the number given as 
of Iriih origin in the City of Halifax alone, is 29,098, D'Arcy 
McGee loved to point out that a large proportion of the first names 
in Nova Scotia belonged to either Protestant or Catholic Irish. 
Among the former, lead the Inglis,' Cochrans, Heads, Uniackes ; 
among the latter, the Kavanaghs, Boyles, Tobin«, Kenneys, O'Con- 
nors, Doyles, and others. Long before the Emancipation Act, Mi- 
chael Kavanagh's sitting for Cape Breton, was connived at. Mr. 



iii 



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15^ 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



O'Connor Doyle was admitted to practise as a barrister. Since 
those days, such names as Walsh in law, and Compton in litera- 
ture, appear. 

We are able, owing to the industry and research of Mr. Thomas 
Millar, of Truro, to give something like an accurate idea of the 
part the Irish took in building up, at least, one county ; and from 
one case a general inference must be drawn. On the i)th Octolier, 
1761, Colonel Alexander McNutt, agent of the British Government, 
arrived in Halifax, with upwards of three hundred settlers from 
the north of Ireland. In less than a week they were landed on 
w^hat is now called McNab's isl and. Throughout the following months 
they remained about Halifax. Having, during the winter, endured 
considerable hardship, in the spring of 1762 some went to Horton, 
some to Windsor, some to Londonderry, some to Onslow, and 
others to Truro. In the year, 1765, the inhabitants of Truro ob- 
tained a grant of land from the Government, among the gran- 
tees being Alexander Millar, the grandfather of the author of the 
book referred to above, and the youngest son of Alexander Millar, 
who, with his wife and children, emigrated from Belfast, in the 
year 1718. The Millars are a large family now in Nova Scotia. 
Alexander Millar, born in Truro, April 22nd, 1769, was one of the 
first and ablest advocates of Total Abstinence, in Nova Scotia. In 
his address in 1834, to the Society of which he was Vice-President, 
he said: he wished to put on record what he had witnessed in re- 
gard to the traffic in the use of ardent spirits. In 1773, there was one 
barrel of rum sold in Truro; the next year, one puncheon ; the next, 
three puncheons; the ratio of increase going forward, until in 1831 , 
sixty puncheons were sold. In the early days, the people of Truro 
were famed for their sobriety ; they were sober, orderly and hospi- 
table; but as the trade increased, and with it the use of ardent spirits, 
the people generally sank in reputation, and many of the most le- 
spectableaiP">ng them fell before the destroyer. Total abstinence 
was the only way <i^ defeating the "adversary." Two years befoie, 
only eighteen persons were found to embrace this principle. A year 
after the commencement of the movement, the number stood at 
133; the figures rising in twelve months more to 175. The evi- 
dence of thousands who had made the experiment, was conclusive 
against moderate drinking. It was presumption for any man to 






THE CREELMANS AND THE ARCHIBALDS. 



15a 



er. Since 
Q in litera- 

Ir. Thomas 
dea of the 
; and from 
th OctoV)er, 
avernment, 
ttlers from 
! landed on 
ing months 
er, endured 
. to Horton, 
nslow, and 
if Truro ob- 
the gran- 
thor of the 
ider Millar, 
iast, in the 
ova Scotia, 
i one of the 
Scotia. In 
i-President, 
essed in iv- 
ere was one 
; the next, 
itilinl831, 
)le of Truro 
and hospi- 
lent spirits, 
le most I'e- 
aljstinence 
Bars before, 
Die. A year 
ir stood at 
. The evi- 
conclusive 
my man to 



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think he could follow with impunity that path of ruin. Nor 
was he without help from other Irishmen. In 1756, three 
brothers, Samuel, Matthew, and Francis Creelman, emigrated 
from Ireland to Nova Scotia. Samuel settled in Upper Steviack, 
Couilty of Colchester ; the other two elsewhere; and all grew pros- 
perous. One of the sons of Sanniel was called after himself. He 
liad six sons, the second of whom, William Creelman, was 
the father of the Hon. Sanniel Creelman, and the fourth, the 
grandfather of one of the law firm of Macarthy, Hoskin, 
Plumb, & Creelman, Toronto. William Creelman was a delegate in 
18;J2, from Upper Steviack, asking the county sessions from the 
( 'ounty of Colchester not to grant a license to any person to sell 
spirituous liquors. When the petitions were read, there was a ma- 
jority of the justices in favour of not granting licenses. But the 
piesiding judge was dissatisfied with the opinion expressed by the 
ju.stices. 

In I7G2, the founders of the Archibald family arrived from Ire- 
land. David Archibald was a leading man in society, and was the 
first Justice of the Peace settled in Trui-o. He was also thj first 
who represented the Truro Township in Parliament. He took 
his seat, June 5th, 1766. His name stands at the head of the 
list of elders of the Presbyterian Congregation, chosen in the sum- 
mer of 177w. He seems to have been of a somewhat stern character. 
When a man was brought before him for theft, his sentence was 
" that the thief should be tied to a cart and driven from the hill 
across the river-dam round the parade and back to the hill again, 
and that the driver should use the whip more freely on the thief 
than on the horse." He was forty-five years old when he arrived 
in Nova Scotia, having been born in Londonderry on the 2()th 
September, 1717. He was married to Elizabeth Elliott on May 
19th, 1741. His eldest son Samuel was born the following year. 

This man's career was somewhat varied and unhappy, though 
he nuist have had a happy humour. Born, like his father in 
Londonderry, he became member for Truro Township in the 
House of Assembly, was indeed elected twice in 1775, and again 
in 1777. " He was," says his biographer " full of sport," and we get 
the following instance. On one occasion, when a number of men 
were engaged dyking in the marsh, the men, as was the cus- 




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THE IRISHMAN IN CIANADA. 



torn in those days, took their drain in the middle of the after- 
noon, and lay down to have a little rest. They all fell asleep, 
whereupon Archibald took every man's spade, and fastened each 
one of them down to the marsh by the queue of his hair. In 1770 
he started for the West Indies with a cargo of V>oards and horses. 
When on his way to the Bay he rode up to the shop door of one 
John Smith, and sai<l to him : " Come, Smith, let us take a parting 
drop." When Smith was about to take the drop, Archibald 
.snatched the bottle away, and rode off laughing. In fact the 
bottle contained ti.sh oil. "While he was in the West Indies,'' w 
are told, "he received foul treatment from a British officer, and 
died there .suddenly, leaving a widow and six young children." 

David Archibald, the father of this man, and whose career has 
been already glanced at as the founder of the Archibalds, was 
assisted in this work by three brothers. How much they and 
theirdescendants must have done for Nova Scotia may be gathered 
from the fact that it takes nearly eighty pages demi-octavo to 
recount the number and exploits, the marrying and giving in 
marriage, of the Archibalds. 

Among those who came in the ship " Hopeweli," under the 
guidance of Colonel McNutt, was Robert Barnhill, with his wife, 
his son, and three daughters, with their husband.^ and families. 
This family also contributed their .share to peopling the waste, as 
is evidenced by their descendants, the Barnhills, Deyarmonds, 
Bairds, &;c. Another family brought out by the " Hopewell " was 
that of James Crow, consisting of six sons and one daughter. 

Earlier than the " Hopewell," came what is known as the 
" starved ship." She arrived in 1760, having many Irish emi- 
grants on board. She was so scantily supplied with provisions 
that, long before the voyage was over, each passenger was put on 
an allowance of one pint of oatmeal and a little water. A Mr. Fisher 
begged from the mate a tablespoonful of water, which was 
refused him, there 1 leing but two thirds of ^ bottle on board. 
The man used to moisten a spoonful of oatmeal with salt water, ami 
so eat it. In this manner passengers and crew existed for fourteen 
days. At last they saw with ^ndeous joy death seize on the 
weaker ones among them. Fis. must have recalled all he had 



1 



THE STARVED SHIP. 



15o 



heard of the Siego of DeiTj', as over the covetous repast he and 
his ft'llowH hung. 

" Part waH divided, part thrown in the sea, 

And micli things an the entrails and the Vtrains 
Ke((aied two sharkH, who followed o'er the billow " 

Sailors and passengers ate the .-est. At last even this resource 
failed. In fact, the weak did not die (|uick enough. Then 

" The lotH were made, and maik'd and inix'd and handed 

In Hilent horror, and then- distrihntion 
Lidrd even the aava^e Innnger which demanded, 

Like the Promethean vulture, thifl pollution ; 
None in particular had nought or plann'd it, 

'Twafl nature gnaw'd them to this reHolution, 
By which none were permitted to be neuter " 

and the lot fell on our poor fiiend Fisher, only nineteen years of 
age. Just at the moment when the butcher was lifting his knife 
to slay, a vessel hove in sight and responded to their signals of 
distress. Fisher was saved for other worms than his own 
kind. So deep an impression did the horrors of the voyage 
make on him that throughout his whole after life he could never 
see without pain the least morsel of food wasted, nor a pail of 
water carelessly cast to earth. He was a religious man. He 
married three times, had twelve children, eleven of whom arrived 
at adult age, and four of whom lived to an average age of ninety - 
one years. His descendants, in 1850, numbered nine hundred 
and fifteen, scattered through nearly all the States of the Union, 
through Nova Scotia, and through Ontario and Quebec. He him- 
self died in New Hampshire. 

Other families which came about the same time, were those of 
James Johnson and John John.son, whose descendants are numer- 
ous in Nova Scotia to-day. In those days also came the Hunters, 
as did the Teas', the Dickeys, the McConnells. There was an- 
other Fisher besides the one mentioned above — William Fisher, 
who was born in Londonderry in 1716 ; and who, having married 
one of the Archibalds, removed to New Hampshire, in 1743, only 
again to return to Truro in 1762. He represented Truro for five 
years. Other Irish families were tiie Moores and Downings, the 
O'Briens and Hamiltons, the Fultons and the Creelmans. To these 
last I have already referred. It takes thirty pages to recount the 



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156 



THR lUrsiIMAN IN CANADA. 



di'scundants of the three brothers. Hon. Sfiniuel Creehnan, wiio 
hoMs the must pioniiiient po.sition of any person of his name in 
Nova Scotia, i.s, as we have .seen, the grandscjn of Samuel CrLohMan 
the emigrant. His mother wa.s the great-graniUlaughter of David 
Anhihakl, with whom I have aheady dealt. The H(jn. Mr. Creel- 
man i.s the President of the Nova Scotia Temperance Alliance, 
and Vice-President of the Young Men's (Christian As.sociation for 
the Maritime Provinces. lie has been Grand Worthy Patriarch 
of the Grand Division Sons of Temperance, Nova Scotia; Finan 
cial Secretary and a member of the Executive Council, Nova 
Scotia, from 1851 until IHoG ; Chief Gold Commissioner from 18(52 
until 18r)8 , a .second time a meniber of the Government in 18(J7 ; 
sat for Colchester in Nov(^ Scotia Assembly from 1847 to 18.51 , 
for South Colchester from 1851 to 1855, when he wa.s defeated; 
appointed to the Legislaiive Council in 18G2 ; resigned the .same 
year on being appointed Gold Cyonnuissioner ; he was re-appointeil 
to the Legislative Council in 18(17 ; he ^s been a justice of the 
peace .since 1843. Mr. Creehnan is a " Liberiil " In politics. 

A fine specimen of the energetic Irishman was the late Hon. 
James Cochran, a member of the Executive Council, who.se name 
has not yet disappeared from the Parliamentary Companion. He 
first saw light in Granard, Longford, in 1802. He emigrated 
to Halifax in 1825 and immediately commenced to build up his 
career as an enterprising young colonist. He possessed energy, 
judgment sound and vigorous, and soon began to take a position 
in the van of his contemporaries. In 1829, he married Miss Catha- 
rine Walsh, of Wexford, Ireland, She died in 1874, By energy, per- 
severance and integrity, Mr. Cochran soon built up a good fortune. 
He was a director of the People's Bank and also of the Acadia 
Fire Insurance Company. Twice he was chosen President of the 
Charitable Irish Society. 

Mr. Cochran was long identified with the i)olitical struggles of 
Nova Scotia. He belonged to that infiuential class of Catholics 
in the Province of Nova Scotia who act with the Rel'orm party. 
His direct active political history commenced in 18fc;7, when he 
became a candidate for the Local A-ssembly in the intt rests of the 
Anti vionfederate party. He added undoubted strength to the party, 
as was seen on the 15th of September, 1867. When a Govern- 



3elman, who 
his naniu in 
lel CiLcliMau 
ter of David 
n. Mr. (Jreol- 
ice Alliance, 
lociation for 
\y Patiiarch 
i)tia; Finan 
uncil, Nova 
irt'roni 18()2 
mt in l.S()7 ; 
147 to Ihol , 
as ilet'eatod ; 
ed the same 
re-appointed 
istioe of the 
flitios. 

le late Hon. 

whose nanu' 

pan ion. He 

e emigrated 

luihi up his 

ssed energy, 

e a position 

VlisK Catha- 

energy, per- 

ood fortune. 

the Acadia 

ident of the 

struggles of 
»f Catholics 
brm party. 
7, when he 
rests of the 
to the party, 
I a Govem- 




HKNATORH COCilRAN AND SMYTH. 



157 



9 



M 







ment was formed in lH(i7 l>y the Anti-confederates, Mr. Cochran 
was selected for a seat in the Executive. T , 1871, ho preferred to 
retire from the more exciting scenes of the .ower House, and was 
therefore ap])ointed to a seat in the Legislative Council. Perhaps 
the Union Party had meanwhile made menacing progress. 

" This," says an olntnary notice in the Acadian Recorder, "is a 
summary of the outer life of the great man whose memory we are 
s»eking to honour. His ])rivate charities — his benevolent acts — 
his kindly .sympathies, his pious endeavours, his private virtues, 
these are only recorded by the All-seeing Searcher of men's hearts. 
It is not necessary for us to dwell on this side of the departed's 
life. His career is known to all. No man ever ventured to im- 
peach his honour oi- call in question his integrity of purpose. For 
over three score vears and ten the deceased has gone in and out 
day after day among his fellow-citizens. In Ids mercantile, politi- 
cal, .social and religious relations, his life has been open to every 
one, and there is no one in Halifax to stand up and prefer a charge 
against him in any of these relations. As a merchant he was 
honest and generous ; as a politician he was sincere, faithful and 
scrupulous ; as a citizen lie was kind, just and beneficent ; as a 
Catholic he was devout, pious and devoted. He has gone ; another 
of that race of veterans whose enterprise has helped to build up 
this city, and whose wisdom and sagacity have aided in moulding 
our institutions. He was an example for his own and for all times. 
His career stands out clear and bright for the imitation of all men. 
We know not where his place is to be filled. Unfortunately we 
have too few men of the stamp of James Cochran. Let us prize 
his worth and cheri.sh the memory of his eminent virtues." Mak- 
ing all allowance for the latitude of an obituarist, such statements 
regarding matters of fact in a community whore Mr. Cochran was 
known, could only be made wliere a man had deserved the eulogy. 

A brother Senator, who happily survives, the Honourable Peter 
Smyth, was born the same year, 1802, in Ireland. He emigrated 
to Nova Scotia early, and was educated there. He was married 
twice, in the first instance to a Miss O'Grady, in the second in- 
stance to a Miss Helen Keating. Unlike Cochran, Smyth is a 
Conservative. 

In the Legislative Assembly we have William Henry Alison, of 



158 



THE IRISHMAN IN C4NADA. 



I%- 



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!m| 




the Donegal AliBons ; Donald Archibald, J. P., the son of Samuel 
Archibald, on whose joyous career, with its fatal close I have 
just dwelt ; John B. Dickie ; E. Farrell, M.D., of the Water- 
ford Farrells ; Philip Carteret Hill (the Provincial Secretary), 
the sou of Captain N. T. Hill, .f the Royal Staff Corps, who 
was stationed at Halifax after the war of 1812. While there he 
married and left the service. The; father of Captain Hill was Major 
Hill, of Cork, who Wiis for some time the Quai-ter-master General 
at Waterford. Mr. P. C. Hill, was born at Halifax, in 1821, edu- 
cated at King's College, Windsor, and called to the bar in 1841. 
He married the grand -daughter of Chief Justice Haliburton, and 
daughter of the kte Hon. E. Collins. He was elected Mayor of 
Halifax, for three consecutive terms. He is the author of the 
" Unity of C/reat)an," a lecture, aud " The United States and Bri- 
ish Provinces contrasted from personal observation." Mr. Hill is a 
Liberal Conservative. 

In the Dominion Parliament we tind Patrick Power, M.P. for 
ILalifax, who has been Alderman and Commissioner of Schools, 
President of the Charitable Irish Society, &c. He is an independent 
supporter of the Reform party. The son of this gentleman is in 
the Senate. 

Wher we come to New Br 'nswJck, the " Origins of the People " 
put down as of Irish origin l()0,6rj>4, out of 285,594, a little mo^^e 
'an the sa^me propcntion as the Catholics, though it is well known 
there hrve been many Protestant settlements, and the proportion 
of French origin is only 44,1^07. Still we have in New Bruns- 
wick more than a third and less than one-half. 

Until 1784, New Brunswick formed pait ')f the old French Pro- 
vince of Acadia, afterwards, under English rule, called Nova 
Scotia. In the August of that year information was received by 
the packet from Falmouth that the Province of Nova Scotia was 
to be divided, and the lands lying on the north side of the Bay of 
Fundy were to be erected into a new Government, under the 
name of New Brunswick. Colonel Thomas Carieton, brother of 
that great Irishman Guy Carieton, was appointed first Governor. 

The division was hailed with delight by the inhabitants of the 
new Province. The new Governor, on his arrival, was presented 
with an address. Murdoch, in his History, says he was ;«.i- 



SETTING APART OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 



159 



n of Samuel 
close I have 
the Water- 
Secretary), 
r Corps, who 
iile there he 
11 was Major 
ister General 
nl821, edu- 
bar in 1841. 
iburton, and 
ied Mayor of 
[thor of the 
tes and Bri- 
Mr. Hill is a 

cr, M.P. for 

of Schools, 

independent 

leman is in 

/he People " 
little moi-e 

well known 
proportion 
ew Bruns- 

rench Pro- 
ill ed Nova 
vceived by 
Scotia was 
the Bay of 
under the 

brother of 
jJovernor. 
ints of the 

presented 
le was ;..i- 



dressed by His Majesty's exiled loyalists from different parts of 
the American continent resident on St. John's river. They call 
him " the brother of our illustrious friend and patron Sir Guy 
Carleton," and designate themselves " a num})er of oppressed and 
insulted U^yalists." They were they .said formerly freemen, and 
again hoped to be .so under his au.spictis. They congratulated him- 
self, his lady and family, on his " .safe arrival to this new world 
to chock the arrogance of tyranny, crusli the growth of in- 
justice, and estaljlish .such wholesome laws as had ever V^een the 
Vjasis of the ghjrious British Con.stitution." They also alluded to 
him as having been Colonel of the 29th Regiment, in the late re- 
bellion. To this address he replied in modest and moderate terms. 
" The ex[)ression.s," says Munloch, " used in this document appear 
to be tinctured with n'.sentment against the Government of Nova 
Scotia. " Murdoch himself, a Nova Scotian, does not admit there 
were any causcis of complaint. He says : " Great allowance should 
be made for men wlio, V^y the events of the civil war, were forced 
to exchange their once ha[)py homes for a c(juntry in a wilderness 
state, a milder climate for a moic rugged one, and who were in a 
manner drifting on a di.sasti'ous current." 

It is evident that New Brunswick, when set apart, was almost 
altogether composed of .settlers from the rebellious colonies of 
America. That afterwards there was a large Irish emigration there 
can be no douht. If you look over the files of New Brunswick 
papers, you will find tlieiii full of Iri.sh names. In the County of 
Gloucester, New Brun:;wick, there is a settlement originally of 
about eighty families, fiom Bandon — "merry Handon town" — from 
which their town has 'oeen called " New Bandon." The repn;- 
sentation in the House of (Commons ought to Ije a pn^tty good 
criterion to go by ; which, according to the speech of Mr. Waller 
is as follows : — Scotch, five ; English, sevf^n ; Irish, four. 

Among the loyalists tlierc were "n r who could boast of liish 
birth. The most noted of thefv ,vas Colonel John Murray, 
of Rutland, Massachusetts, one of those colonial noblemen who 
lived upon their estates after the traditions of the mother country. 
He was, in addition to being a colonel in the militia, a Mandamus 
Councillor, and a member of the General Court. (Jn the night of 
the 25th of August, 1774, heabaiidoned his house and fled to Bos- 






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THE lUIHIIMAN IN CANADA. 



ton. Ho accompanied the royal army to Halifax. Tn 1779 lie lost 
liiw exten.sive eHtatcs undei- the (Jon.spiracy Act. He Hub.seqiKintly 
.S(!ttled in 8t. John, where he huilt a residtince on Prince William 
Street. A pait of" the lot is now the well-known (Jhipman CHtate. 
Ili.s grandson, a njemher of the Kx(!cutive (council, ha.s liis por- 
trait by ('opiey. '''here i.s a })ay(met-hole throuj^^h the wi^, and 
tbefamily tradition runs that having been disai)point«!d in finding 
him, the leholn, who had suddenly attacked his house, pierced 
his portrait with a bayonet. In [)erson he was tall being- six 
feet three inches, and w(dl pi-oportioned. One of his daughteis 
married the Honourable Daniel liliss, who was Chief Justice 
and Executive. (Jouncillor of the Province. Her daughter Han- 
nah was mother of the- Honourable Samuid Allan Wilmot, ex- 
Governor of New Brunswick. Anotluii- mariied tlx; Honouiabli; 
Joshua Up}ian>, .hidgt; of th<! Supreme; (^ourt, and a m(!nd>er 
of the <^ Council. F')'anc(!S (Jhandler, wife of I; lUinii bl-j John W- 
Weldon, Speak*!)- of th(! House of As.soud)ly, w.as the daughter of 
Mrs. Upham and grand-daughter of ('olonel Muiray. H(;i son, — 
the Reveren<l (Charles Wentworth Upham, late pastor of the Fii-st 
Church at Salem, Massachusetts, is the authoi- of the well-known 
biogjaphy of Sii' Henry Vane. 

At St. Martins, a number of Irishmen are settled ; notable 
among them being the Skillens — Andiew and Robert, natives of 
Killyleagh, County Down, who came to this country in 1847. 
Their handsome residences within half a mile of each otlu;!-, add 
to the ap})earance of the village, and betoken a spirit of improve- 
ment in the owners. 

This spirit of improvement does not (snd in the private resi- 
dences, but is also noticeable in public improvements. Foremost 
here, stands the Masonic Hall, a credit at once to the village and 
to the fraternity who occupy it. The lowei j)art is used as a ]»ul)lic 
hall. The village owes to Andrew Skillens a <lebt of gratitude for 
his enterprise in building this beautiful hall, and furnishing a 
magnificent room for pub'jc meetings. 

Not satisfied with erecting comely buildings, finding a great 
want of communication wxth the outside world, Andrew Skillens 
has built a steamboat ca,ll.',dthe "Earl Dufierin," to ply between 
St. Martins and St. John for the accommodation of the public. 



COTTON MANUFACTURE IN NEW BRUNSWICK. 



161 



This new enterpriHO, the Government recognised as a necessity, 
and voted a subsidy of SI, 000 per year, to make it a success. 
The wharf accommodation at St, Martins being entirely private 
|)ropcrty, and not being all that was required for a sea-going 
steamer, Mr. SIcillens built wharves, warehouses, coal-sheds, offices, 
&c. There are many other Irish families in the vicinity, who 
have made th(!ir mark. 

When you take up a St, John business directory, you find it full 
of Irishmen — Dunns, from Londonderry ; Carvills, from County 
Down, and the like. 

William Parks, the founder of the first New Brunswick cotton 
mill was ])orn in Irrland, in 1800, and emigrated to New 
Brunswick in 1822, with a stock mostly of linen. He went 
into the gi-ocery and shipping Inisiness, and subsecpiently into 
dry goods. In 1846, he associated with himself, his son, Samuel 
Parks, under the style of William Parks «& Son. Samuel 
died in 1863. William having some business connected with his 
shipping interest to transact in Englana, embark(;d on the steamer 
"City of Boston," in 1870, which was never heard from. He had 
b(;cn for seven years Presidcmt of the Commercial Bank. He was 
President of the Western Extension Railway from its organization 
to its completion to Mc.^dam, and up to his death. Boldly specula- 
tive he had for some time entertained the project of manufacturing 
cotton goods, and made it a subject of careful study, and, in 
1801, he entered upon the great enter[)rise. He was joined by his 
second son, John H. Parks, who, as a civil engineer, had for several 
years Ijcen in the service of the Intercolonial Railway Companv. 
This gentleman is now sole proprietor of the works. 

A >)rick mill, 110 x 50 feet, and three stories in height, was at 
once erected, and the requisite machinery was selected in England 
by the present proprietor for the manufacture of the ordinary 
cotton ^'rey cloth, to which they confined their operations for a 
year or two. Twenty-four looms were first set up, the nuni'jer 
being soon increased to fifty-two. The cotton yam v/as at that 
time all iniported. When a great opportunity occurred Parks was 
ready to use it. With the American war, cotton became so dear 
that manufacturers abroad were forced to use the cheapest quali- 
ties, and the cotton yarn they produced became so inferior and un- 
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THE IRISHMAN IN CANA'M. 



satisfactory, that Mesars. Parks tk Son d<jcided to enter upon the 
manufacture of a good article in whose production they used the 
best American cott(»n, improved machinery and skilful workpeople. 
'J'he success exceeded their expcjctaticus, and they were able to jmt 
tlieir yarn upon tlie market at Vmt ■*, slight advance over the infer- 
ior English article. Witli Confederation they found theii' goods so 
much in demand, that tliey devoted all tlieir attention and ma- 
chinery to the production of yarn, which soon attained as high a 
reput.ation in the Dominion, a.-* it enjoyed in New Brunswick. 

The success of this manufacture has been remarkable. Twelve 
years ago all th(} cotton y}i,rn used in the Dominion was imported. 
Now scarcely any is brought over, and three-fourths of all used in 
the Donuniou is made at this establishment. .The works nowcover 
nearly an acre with substantial brick Ijuildings. The ({uantity of 
cotton used at the mill is over ..two thousand bales annually, and 
the production of yarn about fifteen thousand pounds per week. 
The number of v/orkpeople employed is about two hundred. 

Guy Stewart fo Co., from Newry, are large hnubei-ers. John 
Boyd is a great merchant, who eu)igrated to New Brunswick, or 
rather was brought by his mother there, in 1833, v/hen he was 
three years oM. In 1838 lie entered the house, in which he be- 
came ])artner. Mr. Boyd has a good oratorical faculty. John 
Hegan emigrated from Belfast in 1828 ; James McNichol, from 
the County Tyione, in 1807 ; R. Scarl from the King's County; 
the Hutchiusons, of Londonderry ; Rev. P. Butler, of Dublin ; the 
Hay wards, of King's County ; (Jarson Flood, Thomas Furlong, and 
Alexander McDermott. John W. Nicholson, from the County 
Down, the large ship-owner and general eommission merchant, 
is one of St. Jrhn's >vealthiest and most solid men. John Ander 
son, only son of the late Jame.s Baird And* i\son, was born in Bel- 
fast, on the 20th of February, 1812, and came to St. John in 1840, 
where vv was a prosperous merchant for twenty-five years, re- 
tiring from business in 1865. In 1835 he was elected a member 
of the Belfast Society, a club established for local and municipal 
purposes. In St. John, he has been for many years connected 
with the St. John Mutual Fire Insurance Company ; wms appointed 
a Justice of the Peace in 1865, and has been an active member uf 
the jessions. 



JOHN COSTIOAN. JUDGE WALTERS. 



163 



In the Legislative Council, we have Hon. William Lindsay ; in 
the Assembly, Butler ; Elder ; T. M. Kelly, a member of the 
Executive Council ; Robinson, Rogers, Ryan, Willis. 

lu the Dominion Parliament, the son of Mr. John Costigan is 
woil known. The latter, a cousin of the late Francis Meagher, 
v.as a native of Kilkemiy, and brought up to mercantile pursuits 
in the ufhce of Meaglier's fatlier. In 1830 he moved to Lower 
Canada, bringing witlf him his family, settling at Quebec. Hero 
he was almost at once employed as agent for Sir John Cald- 
well, who, before the era of responsible Government, was Trea- 
surer for the Imperial authorities, and was, ))rivately, an enter- 
j)rising speculator. In 1840, Mr. Costigan left Quebec for the 
Province of New Biunsv/ick, to take charge of extensive mills 
Sir John Caldwell was erecting there. He took with liim his 
family, among whom was his younger son, John, born in Quebec, 
1835. This son is the gentleman who now represents Victoria and 
Madawaska Counties, New Brunswick, in the Dominion House of 
Commons. John Costi^jan, tlie younger, received all his education 
in Victoria College, Nev^' Brunswick, with the exception of two 
years spent at St. Anne's College, Province of Quebec. He began 
his politiciil career in 1 JOC; when he was returned for the Provin- 
cial House, and held his seat there until Confederation, since 
which time he has represented the same constituency in the 
House of Commons. He was at first opposed to the Confedera- 
tion scheme, but when it w^as carried he gave it his full support. 
Mr. Costigan has for some time been regarded as the spokesman 
of the Irish Roman Catholics of New Brunswick in the House of 
Commons, and though pressing their claims in some delicate in- 
stances, he has, it is sai 1, always been able to retain his popularity 
with the larg( body of Protestant electors which exists in his 
constituency. 

Mr. Costigan has contepted snven elections, and V«eea defeated 
but once, which was owing to his opposition to the Confederation 
scheme. Of the family of the elder Mi. Cu itigan, four daughters 
and two sons survive. 

A legal luminary is the Hon. Charles Walters, of St. John, 
County Judge, and Judge of the Vice Admiralty Court; he was 
bom at St. John, on the 2Gth November, 1818. He is the son of 



164 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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Wicklow parents who came to this country about the year 1800. 
Judge Walters was educated at St. John County Grammar School, 
where he distinguish ed himself as a classical scholar, and was awarded 
the corporation gold medal for that branch of study. In 1840 he 
began the study of law under Judge Ritchie, and was enrolled a bar 
rister in 1847. In 1854 he entered on his political career, but was 
defeated. In November, the following year, he was elected to re- 
present the County of Victoria, for whifth constituency he wa.s 
again returned in 1857. In November, 1855, one month after his 
first election, he was called to a seat in the Executive, and was 
the first Roman Catholic in the Province who enjoyed that dis- 
tinction. In 1857, he was appointed Solicitor-General, an office 
he held for many years. In 18C1, he and the present Lieut.-Gov- 
emor, Mr. Tilley, were returned for the City of St. John, in the 
Liberal interest. Like D'Arcy McGee Judge Walters was a warm 
advocate of Confederation. A fluent and logical speaker, firm in 
his principles, but liberal in his ideas, and courteous in his man- 
ner, he embodies all that need be looked for in a representative 
Irishman. A St. John journalist writing of him in 1865, says : 
*' Through his exertions the criminal code is now in an excellent 
state, being almost the same as the English law, so that in its ex- 
ecution our judges and legal men have the advantage of the 
criminal judgments of the English Bench." A good draughtsman, 
the Intercolonial Railway Act of 1863, the Militia Act, the 
Railway Facility Act, and various local laws, were all the produc- 
tion of his pen. In the Legislature Mr. Walters was empha- 
tically a working man. Judge Walters received his appointment 
as County Judge in 1867, and was made Judge of the Vice Ad- 
miralty Court, October, 1876. 

We have not mentioned a hundreth part of the names we might 
mention. There are still the McGaws, the Philips, Patrick Rob- 
inson and family, U. E. Loyalists, and many others. 

It is a significant fact that the political press of New Bruns- 
wick is mainly controlled by Irishmen. The most distinguished of 
the editors is the Hon. Timothy Warren Anglin, Speaker of the 
House of Commons. Mr. Anglin came to St. John in 1848, and 
in the following year started the Morning Freeman, first as a 
weekly, and shortly after as a tri-weekly. Both issues still con- 




THE PRESS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 



165 



e year 1800. 
nmar School, 
w&s awarded 

In 1840 ho 
irolled a bar 
•eer, but was 
ilected to re- 
ancy he was 
nth after his 
ive, and was 
'■ed that dis- 
al, an office 

Lieut. -Go V- 
Fohn, in the 
was a warm 
iker, firm in 
1 in his iiian- 
presentativc 

1865, says : 
an excellent 
lat in its ex- 
ttage of the 
i-aughtsman, 
a Act, the 

the produc- 
was empha- 
tppointment 
he Vice Ad- 

es we might 
atrick Rob- 

S^ew Bruns- 
nguished of 
aker of the 
n 1848, and 
I?., first as a 
les still con- 



"1 



tinue. He sat in the Provincial Assembly for St. John County 
from 1861 till 1868, and has represented Gloucester in the House 
of Commons since the confederation of the provinces in 1867. H6 
was elected Speaker in 1874. 

The Evening Olohe became the property of John V. Ellis and 
Christopher Armstrong, in 1861 — the latter being an Irishman, 
and the former born in Nova Scotia, being of Irish parentage. 
Mr. Ellis is now Postmaster of St. John, Mr. Armstrong remaining 
sole editor. The Daily News, the oldest paper in the city, is the 
property of the Hon. Edward Willis, an Irishman, and a member of 
the New Brunswick Government. He has represented the City 
and County of St. John since 1870. The St. John Telegraph w&s 
started by John Livingstone, son of Mr. Livingstone, for many 
years Customs Officer at Richibucto, N, B., (an Irishman) in 1862, 
since which time it ha,s become one of the leading organs of the 
Maritime Provinces. He sold the Telegra'ph in 1871, and began 
the Watchman, which has already taken its place in the front 
rank of Canadian journals. Mr. Livingstone is one of the most 
pithy and spirited writers in Canada. William Elder, at present 
member of the Provincial Parliament, an Irishman, started the 
Morning Journal in 1865 as a tri-Vh'-eekly and weekly, which, at 
a subsequent period was merged in the Telegraph, of which 
jouinal he is now the proprietor. New Brunswick is greatly in- 
debted to this gentleman who hag, stimulated its business activity, 
and promoted general intelligence. 

Among the clergy you find the Rsv. James Bennet, now minister 
of St. John Presbyterian Church, who was born in 1817 in Lis- 
burn. County of Down. The first of the family, with two brothers 
having come from France,and being of Huguenot faith, had settled 
amongthe Irish Presbyterians. From these, the most, if not all of the 
Bennets of the North of Ireland are descended. Mr. Bennet finished 
his education in the classical school of the Royal Academical In- 
stitution, Belfast, under the head-mastership of the Rev. Thomas 
Dix Hincks, father of Sir F. Hincks. On March 30th, 1843, 
he was ordained to the charge of a church, County of Armagh. 
Having been invited by the Presbyterian Church, St. John, 
to become their pastor, he arrived there on the Srd March, 1854, 
and was duly inducted by the Presbytery of St. John, in the 



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166 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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June following. In this church he has continued to officiate ever 
since. 

He has written a gi-eafc deal for the public, especially since 
coming to St. John. His unacknowledged pieces are very numer- 
ou.s. He edited the Canada PreshyfeHan, started by the Rev. 
Wm. Elder, for some time. In that periodical many of Mr. 
Bennet's sermons ha\e appeared. His sermon preached as 
Moderator of the Synod of the Church of the Lower Provinces 
on " The Divinity of Christ, deduced from his character and 
claims," is an^ admirable specimen of close reasoning and pulpit 
eloquence, and added considerably to his fame as a preacher. His 
" Wisdom of the King" is a delightful book. 

Rev. David Montgomery Maclise, D.D., was bom near Finvoy, 
County Antrim. His parents were members of the Presbyterian 
Church there. From childhood, he was trained up under the in- 
fluence of religious principles, and very early in life resolved by 
God's grace to become a minister of the Gospel. 

He was for a time classical teacher in the West Jersey Col- 
legiate School, conducted by the Rev. Samuel Miller, D.D., son of 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, of Princeton Seminary ; was head 
master in Bath Academy in Ontario, then Canada West, pleach- 
ing always on the Sabbath, and many other occasions ; lecturing 
on Temperance, and doing a vast amount of gratuitous labour. 
Having thus had a theoretical and practical training for the work 
of the ministry, he determined to devote himself exclusively to it. 
He had two of wliat is called " calls," the one to Hopewell, and the 
other to Montgomery, Orange County, New York, the latter of 
whi«h he accepted. 

Another ornament of the Presbyterian Church is Dr. Irvine. 
By him the question of " Instrumental Music," was first intro- 
duced into the General Assembly of (Janada. He got an overture 
which he penned, carried by the Session of Knox Church, Mon- 
treal. He introduced the overture to the Presbytery of Montreal, 
which was duly licensed and transmitted to the General Assembly, 
By the Supreme Court it v/as sent down in terms of the " Barrier 
Act" to Presbyteries and Kirk Sessions, and after a severe contest 
spreading over .several years, his overture became virtually the 
law of the General Assembly as it now exists. He was very 



LEADING cr.KliaYMEN. 



1C7 



Sciate ever 

ially since 
2ry numer- 
y the Rev. 
,ny of Mr. 
reached as 
• Provinces 
racter and 
and pulpit 
icher. His 

ar Finvoy, 
•esbyterian 
iler the in- 
esolved by 

Fersey Col- 
).D., son of 

was head 
st, piPdch- 
; lecturiiig 
Dus labour, 
1' the work 
ively to it. 

11, and the 
le latter of 

Dr. Irvine, 
irst intro- 
n overture 
irch, Mon- 

Montreal, 
Assembly. 
i " Barrier 

re contest 
tually the 

was very 



much worried and severely criticised, especially by some of his 
warmest friends. 

The Rev. Alexander McLeod Stavoly, was born in the Parish of 
Loughguile, County Antrim. He studied at the Belfast Acade- 
mical Institution. Afterwards, he went to the University of 
Edinburgh. He attended the prelections of such professors in 
the Philosophical and Theological classes as Professor John Wil- 
son, antl Dr. Thomas Chalmers. In the Moral Philosophy class 
presided over by the former, known to literature as " Christopher 
North," he gained a leading prize. Having finished his literary 
course, Mr. Stavely received license in the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, and preached for a short time to congregations in the 
Province of Ulster, He then accepted an invitation to go to 
New Brunswick, and was ordained by the Northern Presbytery 
at Kilraughts, County Antrim, in the month of May, 1841, to the 
office of the holy ministry, and pastoral charge of the missionary 
station at St. John, New Brunswick, 

He arrived at St. John, the place of his future and present 

labours, in the fall of the same year, and is now the senior minis- 

', er of that city. Several sermons, addresses and speeches by Mr. 

Stavely have been published, amongst them, "The Perpetuity 

of the Gospel," " Redeeming the Time," " The Life and Times of 

John Knox,'' "A Word for the Reformed Presbyterian Church." 

Prince Edward Island was one of the first discoveries of Cabot, 
who named it St, John, after the day of its discovery. It was 
ceded to Great Britain in 1763, still retaining its name of St. John, 
It was not largely settled by Irish, but mainly by the Scotch and 
French. A census of the province, taken in 1798, shows but few 
Irish names. Still there are somo> such as Cochran, Whelan, FlyunT 
Burke, Moore, Flannigan, Carroll, &;c. 

The first governor appointed was Captain Walter Patterson, an 
Irishman, and the grand-uncle of Mr, A, T. Todd, Toronto. 7 He 
arrived, with other officers, in 1770.* He was one of the largest 
landed proprietors, and had an Act passed by the Assembly in 



* A younger brother settled at Baltimore, U. S., and his daughter Elizabeth was 
married on 27th Dec, 1803, to Jerome J Bonaparte, This marriage was aftenviirda 
declared null by his brother, the Emperor Napoleon, Madame Patterson Bonapirte 
is still alive.fas also a son by the marriage, who is a colonel in the French army. 



-Ill;'' 



168 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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1780, changing the name of the island to "New Ireland." This wae 
without petitioning the Imperial Government. The Home Gov- 
ernment, however, took umbrage at the high-handed manner in 
which the Act was passed, and disallowed it. He applied again in 
1783, by petition^ for a change of the name, and got for answer 
that it would be taken into consideration. Campbell declares that 
had the first application been made by petition to the King, it is 
extremely probable that the proposed change of name would have 
been adopted. The name was changed to Prince Edward in hon- 
our of the Duke of Kent, in 1798. Governor Patterson was not 
at all popular, at least he had a good many enemies, who placed 
his conduct in an unfavourable light before the Home Government ; 
questions connected with the land, which had always been a fruit- 
ful source of trouble in the Province, being the main ground of 
complaint against him. He was certainly inclined to be arbitrary 
in some measures ; but h?.s motives seem to have been honest. His 
letters to his friend St lart, also one to Lord Sydney, define mat- 
ters from his point of view. During his rule of seventeen years 
he laid out the principal part of the island. He was recalled in 
1787, and General Edmund Fanning appointed in his place. Gov- 
ernor Fanning was of Irish descent. His grandfather came to 
America with Earl Bellemont in 1699. The Honourable T. Des 
Brisay, another Irishman, was administrator of the government 
during the temporary absence of Governor Patterson in England. 
There must have been at least one Irish settlement in the island, 
to account for the "District of Belfast." 

One of the most popular governors of the island was Sir Dom- 
inick Daly, of whom we shall see a good deal when treating of 
the struggle for responsible government in Canada. He arrived 
12th June, 1854 ; his administration was marked by great progress 
and success ; several important Acts were passed, the only diffi- 
culty being the vexed land question, which always was a trouble. 
Sir Dominick left about 1859. In his speech proioguing the House 
previous to his departure, he expressed his gratification at the har- 
mony which had subsisted between the executive and the other 
branches of the legislature during the whole course of his admin- 
istration, to which the uninterupted trauquillity of the island dur- 
ing the same period might in a great measure be attributed. 



I'l 
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I." Thiswae 
Home Gov- 
i manner in 
led again in 

for answer 
leclares that 
J King, it is 
would have 
^ard in hon- 
on was not 
who placed 
iovernnient ; 
aeen a f ruit- 
n ground of 
be arbitrary 
honest. His 
define mat- 
nteen years 

recalled in 
place. Gov- 
ler came to 
ible T. Des 
government 
in England. 

the island, 

Ls Sir Dom- 
treating of 
He arrived 
3at progress 
3 only diffi- 
18 a trouble, 
the House 
at the har- 
d the other 
his admin- 
island dur- 
uted. 




■.ja 



A TRIBUNE IN PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



169' 



The Rev. Theophilus Des Brisay was a native of Thurles, County 
Tipperary, and was bom October, 1754. He arrived in the island in 
1775, having been appointed by royal warrant the year previous 
to " the parish of Charlotte," of which parish he remained 
rector till his death, which occurred in 1823. He was the only 
Protestant clergyman on the island till the year 1820. A man 
of .sterling character, and a faithful servant of his Divine Master, 
he was subjected, in the discharge of his sacred duty, to privati- ns 
of which the present generation have happily no experience. The 
Rev. Dr. James Macgregor writes of him : " I was always wel- 
come to preach in his church, which I uniformly did when I 
could make it convenient. His kindness ended not but with his 
life." 

The Honourable Edward Whelan died at his residence in 
Charlotte town, on the 10th of December, 1867. He was born 
in County Mayo, in 1824, and received the rudiments of educa- 
tion in his native town. At an early age he emigrated to 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. Shortly after his arrival he entered the 
printing office of the Hon. Joseph Howe, then a newspaper 
publisher in that city. Here he gave such proofs of that great 
facility for newspaper writing, which distinguished him in after 
life, that he was occasionally employed to write editorial articles for 
Mr. Howe's newspaper, during the absence or illness of the latter. 
At the age of eighteen he went to Prince Edward Island, which 
was then ruled by persons who could scarce ly be said to be amen- 
able to public opinion. Mr. Whelan, ranging himself on the side 
of the people, threw the weight of his influence as a jouraalist 
into the struggle for popular rights. 

Apart from Mr. Whelan's oratorical power which was consider- 
able, the great lever of public 0}>inion obeyed his masterl}' hand as 
often as any fair occasion arose to resort to its agency. He never 
abused the power of the press. He knew how to combine a 
singularly consistent political career with conciliatory manners. 
Although he died comparatively young, he lived long enough to 
see, to a large extent, the results of his labours in the extension 
of civil liberty. 

Mr. Whelan was a Roman Catholic. The writer of a sketch of 
his life which appeared in the Exarrdner, says that " hia words 




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THE IRISHMAN IN (!ANADA. 



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and thoughts in the hour of death were those of a Christian 

gentleman." 

Among the Irishmen who emigrated to Prince Edward, was 

Daniel Brennan, a poor lad, who, by his energy and perseverance, 
succeeded in acquiring the profession of a Provincial Land Sur- 
veyor, at which he worked for some time, but finally entered into 
mercantile life in Charlottetown. He became a leading merchant. 
He married twice, but left no family. He was a Roman Catholic. 
He died in 1876, aged 80, a very wealthy man. 

Owen Connolly emigrated when a mere youth, a very poor 
man. On his first arrival, he used that old threshing machine, the 
" fiail," amongst the fai'mers in the settlement. By indomitable 
l^luck and perseverance he gradually pushed himself forward, un- 
til he established himself in a large busine.ss in Charlottetown. 
Some years ago he extended his business, and opened a branch 
establishment in the Town of Souris, King's County, both of 
which houses he still carries on. He was mainly instrumental in 
opening a branch of the Bank of Halifax, in Charlottetown, and 
another branch of the same Bank in Souris. He is one of the 
wealthiest men in the Province of Prince Edward Island. 

He is still alive ; a man of about 65 years. He is a Roman 
Catholic. He is married, but has no children. 

Lower Canada was all but exclusively French in its settle- 
ments ; Upper Canada was dedicated to the sole possession of the 
U. E. Loyalists, and " German and other foreign Protestants." In 
1791, however, we find Edward O'Hara returned for Gaspe, since 
when Lower Canada has always had an Iri.sh element in its reprc 
sentation. In 1799, Felix O'Hara was appointed " Provincial 
Judge," at a salary of £200 a year, and among the subscribers to 
the '' benevolence of His Majesty" for carrying on the war with 
France, was £27 from one Judge O'Hara. The existence of an 
extensive Irish settlement on the north of the St. Lawrence, be- 
tween Montreal and Throe Rivers, would seem to be indicated by 
the County of Leinster, with its Townships of Wexford, Kilkenny 
and Kildare. As the years rolled on, the Irish found their way 
into Ontario. 

The first settler in Clarke was Mr. Richard Lovekin, who, accom- 
panied by his family, left Ireland in the September of 1795, sailing 



mm 



WOLVES. AN ACQUISITIVE WOOD-MOUSE. 



171 



Christian 

vard, w<as 
severance, 
jand Sur- 
bered into 
merchant. 
Catholic. 

very poor 
chine, the 
lomitable 
ward, un- 
ottetown. 
a branch 
, both of 
mental in 
iown, and 
ne of the 
I. 
a Roman 

ts settle- 
on of the 
nts." In 
spe, since 
its reprc 
'rovincial 
3ribers to 
war with 
ice of an 
'once, be- 
;cated by 
ECilkenny 
heir way 

0, accom- 
)5, sailing 



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from the Cove of Cork. For four months they were tossed on the 
ocean, the sport of adverse winds. They landed at St. Barthole- 
mew on the 26th of January, 1796, and arrived at New York on 
the 9th of the following' April. In less than a hundred years what 
progress the world has made, even from the emigrant's point of 
view ! Lovekin, with two hired assistants, went on to Canada to 
locate his land, leaving his family b liind him. He settled, and 
built his shanty at the mouth of what was afterwards known as 
Baldwin's Creek. While engaged some distance up the creek in 
cutting grass for their beds, they heard the distant howling of 
wolves. Soon the wolves became bolder, and approached within 
a short distance of them. Becoming alarmed, Lovekin and his 
assistants pulled for the outlet. As they passed into open water, 
forty or fifty wolves howled along the bank. Arrived opposite 
their shanty, they did not land until they had seen the last dusky 
figure fade into the wooded gloom. They kept up a large fire for 
the remaining part of the night. 

Another incident or two are worth relating. Having built his 
house and cleared some land, Mr. Lovekin thought of returning for 
his family. He had, with other money, one hundred and fifty 
dollars in silver. This, on account of its weight, he detennined 
not to take with him, but to hide it in the hollow of a tree. He 
put it in a stocking and hung it up in a scooped trunk. When 
he and his family came " home" the next summer, they found an 
old bear had made the house his abode during the winter. On 
going to the tree for his money, he was not a little disappointed 
to find it — gone ! His mind hovered round his money, and he 
haunted the tree, which at last he determined to cut down. At 
the base, hope revived when he saw portions of the paper and 
stocking cut up fine, forming, together with g'-ass and leaves, a 
wood-mouse's nest. That wood-mouse was a thief and also a 
banker in his way. Beneath the nest was the hundred and fifty 
dollars in the midst of mould and rotten wood, 

Lovekin drew his land, took the oath of allegiance, and was 
appointed chief magistrate of the Home District, which embraced 
the country, Irom Cobourg to Toronto. 

Another settler was John Burk, the grandfather of one of the 
members for West Durham. John Burk built his house on the 






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172 



THE IRISHMAJf IN CANADA. 




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bank of the lake on the southern portiori of the farm owned by 
his grandson, W. K. Burk. At a later period came the McLaugh- 
lins, the Browns and the Spinks, now among the svealthiest farmers 
in the county. The Township of Cartwright wts almost entirely 
settled by Irish Protestants. 

General Simcoe had originally intended that Newark should 
be the capital of Ontario. But finding that the Home Govern- 
ment did not retain possession of the fort on the American side 
of the Niagara River, he said : " The chief town of a Province 
must not be placed under the guns of an enemy's fort; " and hav- 
ing spent a summer prospecting, fixed on the site of Toronto. In 
1795, the infant capital contained twelve houses, and the bar- 
racks wherein Simcoe's regiment was quartered. In the summer 
of 1793, shortly after he had fixed on the site for his capita', news 
came of the surrender of Valenciennes to the allies, under the 
Duke of York. In honour of the Duke and of the surrender, the 
place was named York. It was declared the capital of the Pro- 
vince in 1797. 

The troubles of '98 led to a large emigration not made up solely 
of peasants and farmers. "From Ireland," says McMullen, " where 
the troubles of ''98' had left many a hearth desolate, and many a 
heart seared and crushed with sorrow, came most of the old 
country people. Better a free land, even though it were the 
rudest shanty of the backwoodsman in the sad and sombre forests 
of Canada, than the cottage in old Erin, where any moment the 
Whiteboy might cruelly thrust the crackling turf into the thatch, 
or the minions of Castlereagh level its walls to the ground. And 
thus settlements gradually spread on every side." 

In 1799, Robert Baldwin, of Knockmore or Summerhill, in the 
parish of Carrigaline, near Cork, came to Canada, bringing with 
him his eldest son. Dr. William Warren Baldwin, who had been 
practising for a year or two, his youngest son, John Spread Bald- 
win, still quite a boy, and four daughters. He settled on a farm 
in the township of Clarke, at tht mouth of a creek which has since 
been knov/n as Baldwin's Creek, Here he remained until about 
the time of the war, when he came to Toronto, where he died in 
1816, and where Dr. Baldwin had already settled, at first practising 
medicine. After a few years he entered tb^ i>i'ofes8ion of the law, 



THE BALDWINS AND SULLIVANS. 



173 



to which he devoted himself with great energy. He was for many 
years Treasurer of the Law Society. Tn 1803 he married a daugh- 
ter of Mr. William Willcocks, who had at one time been Mayor of 
the City of Cork. He had come to Canada some yeara befor:-; and 
had done a good deal to promote emigration, having probably been 
induced to emigrate by his cousin, the Hon. Peter Russell, who 
held several offices of trust in the Province, who was for a time 
administrator of the Government, and who had first come to Ame- 
rica as Secretary to Sir Henry Clinton. 

Dr. Baldwin had five sons, three of whom, however, died young. 
His eldest son, the Hon. Robert Baldwin, and Mr. W. A. Baldwin, 
of Mashquoteh, survived him. Mr, John S. Baldwin, the youngest 
brother of Dr. Baldwin, became a prominent merchant in the plac3, 
and left a numerous family, among whom was the late Rev. Canon 
Edmund Baldwin, of Toronto ; also the Rev. Canon Maurice Bald- 
win, of Montreal ; the Rev. Arthur H. Baldwin, of Toronto, and 
Alderman Morgan Baldwin. 

In 1817, Captain, afterwards Admiral Baldwin, another son of 
Robert Baldwin, of Summerhill, came to Canada, and a few years 
later, his brother, Captain Henry Baldwin, of the merchant ser- 
vice, followed him, 

In 1819, Mr. Daniel Sullivan, of Bandon, and his wife, who was 
the eldest child of Mr. Robert Baldwin, of Summerhill, came to 
Canada with a numerous family, among whom were Robert Bald- 
win Sullivan, afterwards distinguished as politi lan and statesman, 
and as a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench ; and Dr. Henry Sul- 
livan, afterwards a Professor in the University of King's Col- 
lego, Toronto. 

The ordinary and obvious acts of administrative legislation of 
Canada's early years need not be referred to particularly, A 
word of pleasure may be uttered that one of the first acts of the 
Upper Canada Legislature, was to abolish slavery. At first there 
were no parties, and therefore no opposition, and of course, every- 
thing went on well ? Not at all. There was, both in Lower and 
Upper Canada, an irresponsible Executive with all the oflScial 
arrogance and tyranny, all the nepotism and jobbery which be- 
long to iiTesponsible power. A weak governor, knowing little 
about the country, was helpless in the hands of a few leading 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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individuals. No matter how the poj)ular Assembly voted, the 
sams men would hold power. Eoth Provinces v/ere under the 
rule of an oligarchy. Poor gentlemen, half pay officers, the pen- 
niless scions of old Irish and Scotch houses, Englishmen of cul- 
ture with more enterprise than money, came to the Province. 
Haughty, and unfit for the hardships of the bush, and eminently 
fit to supply what Canada very much needed, ready pens and 
educated heads, they naturally got all the ])ublic offices, and as 
naturally gave themselves the airs of an aristocracy, with a 
double claim on men's homage, the blue blood claim and the 
bureaucratic. This Government class acted together and inter- 
married, and drew to themselves privileges and advantages, and 
so the foundation of party was laid. One set of the community 
had special favours given it, which were resented and envied by 
the rest of the community. Lieber says, with justice, that where 
there are no great grounds of division, party is apt to degenerate 
into faction. Canada for some years at all events was to be saved 
from this danger. 

Simultaneously in Lower and Upper Canada we see signs of 
political life. At a dinntr which was given at Montreal at the 
end of March, 1805, in honour of those members who had spoken 
in favour of British principles of taxation, toasts were i)roposed 
and drunk in honour of the members who were " friendly to 
constitutional taxation," and opposed to a tax on commerce 
for building gaols, as contrary to " the sound practice of the 
parent State." One of the toasts was directed at " local preju- 
dices." Another ran : — " Prosperity to the Agriculture and Com- 
merce of Canada, and may they aid each other as their true 
interest dictates by sharing a, due proportion of advantages and 
burthens ; " another : " The City and County of Montreal, and the 
Grand Juries of the District, who recommended local assr jsments 
for local purposes." These resolutions seem not only harmless but 
wise. They touched however, a majority of the Assembly on the 
raw. After the prorogation of Parliament they were printed in 
the Montreal Gazette. Nevertheless, they were taken into con- 
sideration the following session. On March 6th, 1806, it was 
resolved that the Gazette contained a false, scandalous and sedi- 
tious libel. The president of the banquet having escaped to 



EARLY STRUGGLES FOR FREEDOM. 



175- 



>ted, the 
ider the 
the pen- 
i of cul- 
*rovince. 
iiinently 
)eus and 
, and as 
with a 
and the 
id inter- 
ges, and 
amunity 
ivied by 
it where 
generate 
36 saved 

signs of 
1 at the 
spoken 
roposed 
ndly to 
mmerce 
of the 
preju- 
d Com- 
ir ti'iie 
ges and 
and the 
isments 
ess but 
on the 
nted in 
io con- 
it was 
id sedi- 
iped to 



the United States, nothing was done against Edwards, the editor 
of the Gazette. Four days afterwards the Sergeant-at-arms was 
ordered to bring Thomas Gary, the editor of the Quebec Mercury 
before the House to answer for his conduct in giving the public 
a report of its proceedings. Caiy had to apologise in a most 
humble fashion. But as we might expect, he did not cease to 
attack {)eople who had acted against him so vindictively. The 
result was the establishment in the opposite interest in 1806 of 
Le Canadien and the controversy of journals commenced with its 
stinmhis to iliought, and its unequalled safeguard to liberty. 

Up to this, liberty of the press could not be said to exist in 
Canada. Little over twenty years before an Irishman had fought 
a great battle for freedom of the press in the mother land. 
" Even a hundred libels," .said Sheridan, " had better V»e 
ushered into the world than one prosecution be instituted 
which luight endanger the liberty < f the Press of this 
country." At another and a later period he cried in words 
which produced a great effect on Parliament : — " Givu them a 
corrupt House of Lords, give them a \enal House of Com- 
mons, give them a tyrannical prince, give them a truckling Court, 
let me have but an unfettered Press, I will defy them to encroach 
a hair's-breath upon the liberties of England." When in 1808 
Le Canadien commented adversely on the intrigues of the 
Government — Sir J. H. Craig's view oi sna duty as a Governor, 
being to act with a party — M. Panet, as x' pposed proprietor of 
that journal, was stripped of his rank as Lieutenant-Colonel of 
Militia. Other officers were in like manner degraded foi having 
used their inliuence in favour of M. Panet's candidature. At a 
later period Sir James Craig thought fit to condemn the conduct 
in very unmeasured terms, of a portion of the Assembly, which was 
opposed to the election of judges as members of Parliament. The 
menacing state of things in the neighbouring republic made him 
(he not having the wisdom of Carleton) lean too openly on the 
inhabitants of British origin. When the election took place the 
Canadien attacked His Excellency with unmeasured violence, and 
the most part of those who had taken a course offensive to him 
were elected. Parliament was opened on the 20th January, 1810. 
The Assembly passed a resolution that it was a violation of the 



176 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 







Statute by which tb ■ Assembly was constituted, an infraction 
of its privileges, and a menace to the liberties of the subject for 
the Governor or the other branch of the Legiskiure, to censure 
its proceedings, especially when that censure took the form of 
approving the conduct of a part of the Uouse, and condemning 
that of another part. After some discussion on financial questions 
they came to the concluoion that the Province was in a position to 
pay all the expenses of Government with which they readily 
charged thems«^lves. There was a dead lock. The Legislative 
Assembly expelled the single judge who sat as member of it. The 
Governor dissolved the Chamber. During the election, which 
was a violent one, six members of Parliament and the pro- 
prietor of the Ganadien were tlirown into prison. They were 
released ultimately ; the judges were disqualified ; and so the 
cri^". 1 was got over. 

.'n New Brunswick, the dead-lock came in the closing years 
of the eighteenth century, though the brother of Lord Dorchester, 
Colonel Carleton, administered its affairs with great tact from 
1782 to 1802. 

W^ return to Upper Canada. There was but one newspaper in 
the Province, the Upper Canada Gazette, the honour of establish- 
ing which, with so much else, belongs to Governor Simcoe. It 
was, however, a government organ ; and started by a governor and 
supported by government, and without competition it could liave 
no life. The Rev. Dr. Carroll speaking of this paper for Nov. 
13th, 1801, describes it as a coarse, Himsy, two-leaved paper of oc- 
tavo size, the department of news large, but the " news much 
older than their ak*." Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe having Ijeen 
recalled in 17l)G, the Province was administered by Mr. Russell, 
senior member of the Executive, until the arrival of Lieutenant- 
Governor Hunter, in 1799, who was succeeded six years afterwards 
by Mr. Gore, the country having been, during a brief interregnum, 
governed by Mr. Alexander Grant. The administration of justice 
had fallen into a disgraceful condition, and despotic power had> 
as it never fails to do, rendered its possessors impatient of oppo- 
sition. To use our party watchwords now, and apply it to the 
events of those days would be misleading. There is, for instance, 
no Conservative to-day who is not mo^e " advanced" than the 



r hadi 



EARLIEST ORGAN OF OPINION IN UPPER CANADA. 



177 



leader of the Reform Party in IS^l. How impossible then to use 
the party designations of the present in 1800. The ground was 
being broken up for the seed of party, but the present struggle 
was between the people and an oligarchy. 

At this period, Mr. Thorpe, an English lawyer, was sent out as 
one of the judges of the Court of King's Bench. His impartial 
administration of justice had made him popular. Grand juries 
entrusted him with their grievances to be laid before Mr. Gore, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, who naturally fell into bureaucratic 
hands, and conceived prejudices against the judge, who unfortu- 
nately, considering his office, allowed himself to become a candi- 
date for a seat in parliament. An Irish gentlema*, Joseph Wilcox, 
voted for him and was deprived of the Shrievalty of the Home 
District. He then started, practically, the first real organ of public 
opinion in Upper Canada — the Upper Canada Guardian — the 
legitimate forerunner of the Olobe, the Mail, the Leader, the Lon- 
don Advei'tiser, the London Herald and their contemporaries. He 
opposed the Government and wasprosecuted for libel, butacquitted. 
He became popular, and was returned to parliament where he was 
equally outspoken. The result was, he was arrested and 'thrown 
into York gaol. When liberated, he became leadtr -if the opposi- 
tion and had a majority in the House. When the war of 1812 broke 
out, he gave up his paper, and went into that war to defend his 
adopted country, and fought gallantly at Queenston. " Still," 
says McMullen, " Government treated him harshly, and at lengt>>, 
thoroughly disheartened and disgusted, he deserted to the enemy, 
taking a body of Canadian militia over with him." The Ameri- 
cans rewarded him with a Colonel's commission, and he fell at 
Fort Erie, while planting a guard, a musket-ball finding its billet 
in his restless frame. Had he remained true to Canada, he might 
occupy a proud place in our bead roll of heroes. No excuse could 
be made for the harsh conduct of Government. Still less could 
anything be said to palliate the treason of this pioneer of an in- 
dependent press, this forerunner of our popular tribunes. Parlia- 
ment made provision for appropriating £809 for the salaries of 
masters of grammar schools, in the eight districts of Upper 
Canada. The patronage being vested in the Government, and 

£100 a year being an object to a " gentleman" with nothing par- 
12 




178 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



!tt & 





ticular to do, and full capacity to do that, some abuse arose 
in consequence. This led to trouble in the case of another Wil- 
cocks, also an Irishman, whom we have already mentioned in con- 
nection with the Baldwins. He was member for the First Riding 
of the County of Lincoln, the West Riding of the County of York, 
and the County of Haldimand. In a private house he seems to 
have made use of some strong language regarding his brother 
members. T^or this he was "tried" before the house on the 30th 
of January, 1808, found guilty, and committed to the Common 
gaol of the Home District, there to remain during the sitting of 
Parliament, He had given notice that he would bring in a bill to 
repeal the District School Act. The day after he obtained leave 
to bring in the bill, he was sent to a dungeon. No wonder the 
two things were put together. He was placed in a cell where 
there were none of the conveniences which the baldest decency 
requires. It seems, he was also opposed to some other bills which 
it was thought desirable to pass. 

The population has been increasing, the work of government 
going foi'ward, wealth accumulating, political ideas ripening, and 
as we have seen an Irishman here and there and everywhere, doing 
his part of the work. Mind only his part. But it is not ray pro- 
vince, the title of the book precludes me from mentioning particu- 
lars regarding other natiorialities, and yet I have in passing, 
perhaps, done them some small share of justice. For there has 
been no Carleton sent us save from Ireland, and Col. Talbot 
stands without parallel, working away there in the west, letting 
out London in lots, and superintending the planting of the rich 
and extensive acres placed by Providence under his auspices. Let 
us turn once more to the arduous religious field of that day, and 
see whose hands are at work clearing it. 

In 1790, the first Methodist Circuit in Canada was defined, and in 
1792, at Adolphustown, the first Methodist chapel in Canada was 
built. In 1802,the honoured name of Nathan Bangs was on the min- 
utes for Canada, and he soon had as fellow-labourers, William Case 
and Henry Ryan, all of them men of apostolic mould. In 1855, the 
venerable Mr. Case addressed a letter to his old co-labourer, Nathan 
Bangs, which, as Mr. Crook says, sheds " a beautiful light upon 
Canadian Methodi.im in Canada in early times." In this letter he 



PIETY AND AGE. 



179 



arose 
r Wil- 
in con- 
Riding 
fYork, 
ems to 
brother 
le 30th 
Dinmon 
;ting of 
t hill to 
d leave 
[ler the 
1 where 
iecency 
s which 

;rnment 
ing, and 
e, doing 
ny pro- 
particu- 
passing, 
ere has 
Talbot 
letting 
the rich 
es. Let 
ay, and 

I, and in 
Ida was 

le min- 
liniCase 

^55, the 
lathan 

it upon 

3tter he 



recalls the scenes and changes through which they had passed ; 
how they assembled in private houses and V)arns ; how they toiled 
on horseback through wild forests from two-and a-half to four 
mil'^^s an hour, and he asks him to revisit these scenes before leav- 
ing for the fairer climes. 

How beautiful and cheerful does religious faith make the aged ! 
It lights up with glory their grey hairs. It compensates with a 
nobler fire for the loss of the glory of youth within the eye. It 
is as though a traveller should come on others benighted, and 
while with them illumine the darkness with a sti'ange unexpected 
light of a mysterious morning, and break the sombre silence with 
voices of distant melodies, having nothing mortal in their notes 
of subtle stimulation. 

Mr. Case goes on to tell how he had made a journey through 
Hallowell, Belleville, Kingston, Elizabethtown, Brockville, Au- 
gusta, Matilda, Bytown (Ottawa City), Perth, Walford, and horn: 
to Alnwick, through a portion of the northern new settlements. 
Only a few of their former friends were living. A poet, whose 
inspiration was remorse, and whose mighty magnificent so^u^ so 
full of noble feeling, so disfigured with mockery, a song which 
was the cry of a nature at war with itself, the wail of a man who 
loved what was good, and could not be that which he loved and 
fain had been, that poet wrtes : 

" What is the worst of woes that wait on age ? 
What stamps the wrinkle deeper on the brow ? 
To view each loved one blotted from life's page, 
And be alone on earth, as I am now." 

No such cry breaks from the old Methodist preacher gazing 
round on the tombstones of those he loved, for, for him, there was 
no bowing with despairful head — 

" O'er hearts divided and o'er hopes destroyed," 

No indeed. He had a talisman against gloom and could sing 
with a happier poet — 

" On the cold cheek of death smiles and roses are blending, 
And beauty immortal awakes from the tomb." 

He found one or two or three of his old friends of long ago living, 







180 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




M'ni 



from oi^'lity to ninety year-s of ago. But most were gone. " Yet," 
he adds, "they live in their exainplea of piety, integrity, ho.spi- 
tality, and Christian benevolence." The prcjgeny bore a .striking 
inipre.sH of their patriarchal fathers. He finds the grandchildren 
following in the steps of thiiir grand.sires and sires. The Emburys, 
Detlors, Millers, Maddens, Switzers, of the Bay of Quintd, are 
described as numerous and pious, and justifying th^ir Irish train- 
ing on Mr. Wesley's knee. Old Mrs. Detlor, forty ^ 3ars ago, told 
him when a child in Ireland JVIr. Wesley took her on h"-; knee. 



when she sang — 



(jLildren of the Hsavenly King, 
As we journey let us ainj,'." 



Mr. Crook says the impression the life of Nathan Bangs made 
on him was, that a hundred of such men would turn the world 
upside down. 

Mr. Crook, after going over many interesting facts, concludes 
that the estimate is far too low which would connect one-fourth 
of the Methodists of Canada, directly or remotely, with Irish Me- 
thodists, and he goes on to speak of Garret Miller and others. Of 
one extraordinary man he seems to have forgotten the claims; 
Henry Ryan, an Irishman of the Boanerges type, an O'Connell 
in the garb of a Methodist preacher, who was, in 180.', appointed 
with the Rev. William Case to the Bay of Quints circuit. The inhabi- 
tants of Kingston were at this time, according to Carroll, very 
irreligious. Ryan and Case determined to rouse the peoj e. Ryan 
had a powerful voice, and on a market day they would Iocs arms 
and go singing down the streets and ultimately ir.to the market- 
place, — 

" Come let us march to Zion's hill." 

They were sure on reaching the market-place to have a good 
congregation, to whom Ryan preached. His voice was like O'Con- 
nell's in power of reaching far. It rose like a clarion, and was 
heard over the adjacent waters. They were tripped off the but- 
cher's block ; pins were inserted into their calves ; their hair was 
set on fire ; if they preached at night their candle was put out ; 
but they preached away, and their preaching bore fruit. 

In 1810 Ryan was presiding elder, and h 'ities as such were to 
visit every part of the Province from Detroit to Cornwall. He tra- 



•^e- 



" Yet," 
hospi- 
tiiking 
tiildien 
iiljurys, 
ii6, are 
1 train- 
To, told 
: knee, 



^ marie 
J world 

►ncludes 
3-fourth 
ish Me- 
tiers. Of 
claims; 
Connell 
pointed 
inhabi- 
11, very 
Ryan 
A<. arms 
narket- 



a good 

O'Con- 

Ind was 

the but- 

lir was 

lut out ; 

I were to 
He tra- 



FIUST CAMP MEETINQ. 



181 



veiled about -tjOOO inlloH annually, and the entire allowanwiof thi«« 
extraonii iry man was a])out £(10 a year, $800 ! At the first camp 
meeting held in Canada, Ryan was present, as were Case, Keeler, 
Madden, and Bangs. It was held in 1805, on the south shore of 
Hay Bay. The last night is descri VmI by Dr. Bangs as impressive 
beyond doscription. The sky was without a cloud. p]very star 
came out. To thu enthusiastic minds and visioned eyes of thost 
earnest mem, the camp was filled with a glory not of earth. The 
neighbouring forest, reposing in the enchanted starlight, vibrated 
to and fro with echoing hymns. When the parting came, the scene 
was most affecting. Bangs and Case and Keeler and Madden hung 
on each other's necks " weeping and yet rejoicing." Some of the 
people parted, as they knew, to meet no more here. As these happy 
hosts dispersed to their different and distant homes, along the high- 
ways rolled victorious chants of praise. 

The man who is regarded as the father of the Roman Catholic 
Church in Upi)er Canada — a Church mainly supported by men of 
Irish blood, was oddly enough a Scotchman, though he belonged to 
the great Celtic race. Bi.shop McDonnell was born in the third 
quarter of the la.<t century, in Glengarry, educated at Valladolid 
— full of old-world romantic and warlike, Roman and Moorish 
memories, where Christopher Columbus died — a place well fitted for 
the training of one who had the seeds of greatness in him. Having 
been ordained, he returned to his native country, where he offi- 
ciated as a priest until 1789, when he joined the Glengarry Fen - 
cibles, ordered on duty to Ireland, a regiment raised by his exer- 
tions, and composed entirely of Catholics, In 1802, the regiment 
was disbanded, and after much negotiation their chaplain and 
friend, obtained for every one of his people who chose to go to 
Canada two hundred acres of land. A year afterwards he had 
settled on Canadian soil a splendid race of men with patents 
in their pockets for 160,000 acres of land. 

He had well nigh unbounded influence with the Government, 
and obtained for his Church nearly all the land it possesses in Up- 
per Canada. Nor can any one doubt that he had a true eye for 
the best situation in a district. He was for many years, together 
with Bishop Strachan, a member of the Legislative Council. 
When he arrived here in 1804, he said, .speaking with pride, " there 



• I 



182 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



ii'K? 



iH 



• f/ 



i 

■K ■'■ 



hiT: 



were," " but two Catholic clergymen in the whole of Upper Canada. 
One of these clergymen soon dv erted his post, and the other 
resided in the Township of Sandvvich, in the Western District, 
and never went beyond the limits of his mission ; so that upon 
entering upon my pastoral duties i had the whole of the Pro- 
vince limits in charge, and without any assistance for a 
space of ten years." He spoke thus in 1836, when he could 
boast that by his exertions five-and-thirty churches had been 
built, and that twenty-two clergymen were zealously at work, 
the greater number of whom had been educated at his own ex- 
pense. He added, to attest his services to the Crown, that he had 
been " instrumental in gettWg two corps of my flock raised and 
embodied in defence of their country in critical times. The 
first Glengarry Fencible Regiment was raised by ro.y influence 
as a Catholic corps, during the Irish Rebellion, whose dangers and 
fatigues I shared in that distracted country. I contributed in 
no small degree to suppress the rapacity of the soldiers and 
bring back the deluded peoi)le to a sense of their duty to their 
sovereign and submission to the laws." The second Glengarry Fen- 
cible Regiment was raised in this Province, when the government 
of the United States of America made war on the Colony. " It 
was planned by me," said the Bishop, "and partly raised by my 
influence." He was the first clergyman of his Church who 
preached in Belleville. But the first clergyman permanently set- 
tled at Belleville was an Irishman, the Rev. Michael Brennan, who 
did not arrive, however, until 1829. 

The Church of England, which was the established Church of 
Canada, was meanwhile, doing its own work, as was tiie Presby- 
terian Church, each having, as at this hour, bright ornaments and 
sustaining pillars from Ireland, 

In NcT' i'oundland. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island, there was a counterpart to the Methodist energy 
\\^hich we have seen in U])per Canada, or, as W3 should now say, 
Ontario ; for as Dr. Stevens writes in his History of Methodism, 
" Irishmen have warred a good warfare, and died triumphantly 
on almost every important Methodist field of the world," and he 
goes on to say that they founded it in the British North American 
Provinces, as well as in the United States, in the West Indies, in 



r Canada, 
he other 

District, 
that upon 
' the Pro- 
ice for a 
he could 
had been 
at work, 
3 own ex- 
lat he had 
aised and 
cies. The 

influence 
kUgera and 
ributed in 
liers and 
y to their 
;arry Fen- 
)vernment 
ony. " It 
id by my 

rch who 

ently net- 
iinan, who 

I'hurch of 
Presby- 
Inents and 

nd Prince 
[st energy 

now say, 
tethodism, 
Iniphantly 
ll," and he 
[American 

Indies, in 



«*' 



THE SECRET OF GREATNESS. 



183 



Africa, and in India. Laurence Coughlan unfurled the Methodist 
banner in Newfoun<llarid, ia 17G5, a year before Embury preached 
in New York. He was converted in Ireland, in 1753, and several 
of his letters to John Wesley are reproduced in Mr. Crook ,s book. 
On November ith, 1772, he wrote a letter to Wesley, telling him 
what success he had met with during seven years of missionary 
labour. He had then two hundred communicants. He was, he 
said, a thorough Methodist. Nor did he believe his preaching 
would do much good without "discipline, which," he adds, "I 
consider, under God, has been the preserving of my society." 
The Church of England clergy were up in arms against him. He 
was prosecuted. He was accused of every conceivable crime in 
letters to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, by which 
he was employed. He went on unheeding. His enemies hired a 
physician to poison him. If I may parody Goldsmith — who came 
to poison remained to pray. The physician became a Methodist, 
and revealed the plot. A revival took place. Classes were 
formed. Persecution grew fiercer. He was summoned before the 
Governor. The Governor not only decided in his favour, but 
made him a Justice of the Peace. 

Master Laurence did not feel himself able to stand going over 
his vast parish solely by water, and was thinking of returning 
home or turning to some new field. But Wesley writes to him 
under date of August 29, 1768, in a manner which shows strong 
gra.sp of the foundation of all greatness, that the writer had im- 
bibed the spirit of the early apostles, and had borrowed more than 
perhaps he suspected from the Roman Catholic Church. " De«xr 
Laurence," he writes, " by ^^arious trains of Providence you have 
been led to the very place where God intended you should be. * 
* * * In a short time how little will it signify whether 
we have lived in Summer Islands, or beneath 

' The rage of Arctos, and eternal frost.' 

How soon will this dream of life be at an end ? And when we 
are once landed in eternity, it will be all one whether we have 
spent our time on earth in a ipalace, or had not where to lay our 
head." 

Here Mr. Grumbler, be you Methodist or what else, is a phi- 



ll 



IV. r It 



wrrrrw 



jill 



il 






■ \ I 



:i; 



iilf 



;,;!:, I' 'I 









IpR 



184 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



losophy to calm your perturbed spirit, and give you something of 
dignity and greatness. Providence has sent you here to do your 
duty : do it like a man. However strong your constitution you 
must die, and that soon, and then what do the vanities, the pomps, 
the little ambitions, the vile injustices of unjust men matter. 
How bracing it is in a world of money grabbers to read these 
great words. They come to us like a breeze of power from the 
hills of the Absolute. There is medicine for discontent, for worry* 
for effeminate longings after ease. What does it matter to you 
whether you lie hard or soft ? And so <^nr friend Cough Ian la- 
boured on in Newfoundland. 

When he went there, Newfoundland is described as sinking into 
heathenism. But his preaching wrought a great change. Cough- 
lan's hands were soon strengthened by an Irish merchant, one of 
his converts, Arthur Twomey, and by the arrival in 1770, from 
Waterford, of John Soretton, son to John Stretton, of Limerick, 
"a prominent friend of Methodism in the early day." He built at 
Harbour Grace, the first Methodist chapel in the Lower Provinces. 

Mr. Crook also gives letters from Wesley to Stretton. This was 
in 1785, when Coughlan had returned to England to die. Wesley 
had sent one of his lieutenants to go through the heart of Ame- 
rica, " visiting the flock," and " settling them on the New Testa- 
ment plan, to which they all willingly and joyfully conform "; 
and he concludes in words of authority which sound, like those of a 
great captain : " Go on in the name of the Lord, and in the power 
of His might ! You shall want no assistance that is in the power 
of your affectionate friend and brother — John Wesley." Keeping 
a promise made in the body of this letter, Wesley, at the ensuing 
conference, appointed an Irishman as a missionary to Newfound- 
land. In 1804, Ireland gave Newfoundland another missionary ir. 
the person of John Remington, and later on sent Samuel Ellis and 
Samuel McDowell. 

About twenty years ago everybody was reading a book which 
had a curious fascination for my boyish fancy, though I could not 
undei*8tand the character portrayed, half soldier half religious en- 
thusiast. It was a book which especially laid hold of the minds 
of religious women. As the Athenian got tired of hearing Aris- 
tides called the Just, so some lads in those days got tired of hear- 




in 



l^hich 

not 

Is en- 

linds 

iris- 

lear- 



HEDLEY VICARS. EDUCATION OF U. E'S. 



185 



ing Hedley Vicars " cracked up." Curiously enough, his name is 
connected with Newfoundland, with Canada, as well as with 
Ireland, and therefore he has a double claim to be briefly dwelt 
on here. Captain Vicars, of the Royal Engineers, then stationed 
at St. John's, was induced to attend the preaching of a Methodist, 
the Rev. George Cubitt. From being trifling and sceptical, he 
became earnest and religious. Dressed in full uniform, he used to 
preach. He fell in love with a fair young Methodist. They were 
married. Captain Hedley Vicars, of the 97th, was the fruit of 
this union. Many years after this, Captain Vicars, with his 
Newfc dland wife, resided at Mullingar, Westmeath, where he, 
his wife and son were accustomed to attend the Methodist Church. 
In New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward, the Metho- 
dists made their mark, n^-r could one conceive better missionaries 
for a new country than ohe strict followers of Wesley. As mission- 
aries they take rank side by side with the Jesuits, in self-denial, 
in zeal, in energy, and in persuasiveness ; though they have not the 
same imposing air of turning thu'r back on the world, and giving 
up life, and love to go at a sombre, cold, cheerless, penlous, obscure 
achievement, with a help-meet who herself frequently makes no 
bad missionary. 

And what of the work of education in those early days ? The 
majority of the refugvv^s, according to Dr. Canniff", possessed but a 
limited education. The culture of .a small nundjer was good, but, 
he says, the gr-^ater portion of Loyalists from the colonies in 
revolt " had not enjoyed opportunities for even a common educa- 
tion." Where parents are uneducated and in the midst of the un- 
educated, they do not care to educate their children. Mr. Ruttan 
said he picked up what knowledge he had acquired from his 
mother. But school teaching was gradually introduced. The first 
school teachers wei discharged soldiers, and generally Irish. We 
have seen how the Rev. John Stuart set up a seminary. But 
when he settled at Cataraqui, he said : " The greatest inconvenience 
I feel here is that there is no school for our boys." The following 
year he opened a school himself. Another pioneer teacher at Kings- 
ton, was Donevan. Colonel Clark, of Dalhousie, received part of his 
education at Kingston, and he speaks of three Irishmen, Myers, 
Blaney, and Michael, as teachers. Two other pedagogues, well re- 









r'l! ■- 



18G 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



iit'i 



\'Mi[]\ 



riiembcrod, are Edward O'Ruily and McCormick, who seemed to 
think boy.s could be made to learn only in the way one of George 
Eliot's characters declares, babies can be made good. Later on Mr. 
Wholan taught. 

In 1799, Mr. Strachan, who was afterwards to occupy so great a 
place in the history of Canada, arrived here from Scotland. Dr. 
Chalmers, as has been the case with many another Scotchman 
since, was invited to come. But Chalmers, though his greatness 
was not yet known to the world, and perhaps, only half suspected 
by himself, refused, and in refusing, suggested the name of his 
friend, Strachan, who came to carry out a scheme of education 
projected by Simcoe. But by the time he arrived, Simcoe had 
been recalled. Hov/ever, in the following year, a school was es- 
tablished by the Hon. R. Cartwright for his sons, having Mr. 
Strachan for teacher, who had the privilege of taking ten other 
scholars nt £10. each, per annum. Three years afterwards, Mr. 
Strachan removed to Cornwall. In those early years he did a 
gieat work in imparting the higher education and training future 
statesmen. 

" Antiquarian research," says Professor Wilson, in his interesting 
Essay,* calling attention to Dr. Scadding's "Toronto of Old," "seems 
peculiarly out of place in a new colony, and is lucky if it escapes 
the sneer of the busy trader in his zeal for wealth and material 
progress. Nevertheless," he continues, " to one gifted with the 
slightest powers of fancy, there is something fascinating in the 
attempt to recall the infancy of comparatively modern cities." 
And surely it is not less fascinating, while fraught with instruct- 
tive lessons, to recall the early stages and struggles of a community 
aiid to point the sources whence it drew mental and moral food, 
more precious than any which even the bountiful bosom of our 
mother, the earth, can yield. 

We have seen Colonel Simcoe choose Toronto for his capital, 
when " dense and trackless forests lined the margin of the lake, 
and reflected their inverted images in its glassy surface," and 
gave the shelter of luxuriant foliage to the wigwam of the Missis- 
saugas. On the heights above the Don, he erected the first Gov- 



Canadian Monthly, August, 1873. 



lital, 

[ake, 

and 



CAiMDAS TRUE LAUREATE. 



187 



ernmcnt House, a rustic building, to wliich he gave the name of 
Castle Frank. He was recalled. Meanwhile, a house was erected 
here and a house there, and the first white child born in the in- 
fant city was of Iiish parents, Edward Shncoe Wright, who 
afterwards kept an inn known as the Greenland Fishery, at the 
foot of John Street. Wright is still alive, and must be a very 
old man, for he was born of parents in the service of General Sira- 
coe, who stood gor' rather to him, and from whom he received his 
second name. If we suppose him to have been born the year prior 
to the Governor's recall, he would now be eighty-two. 

Among the Irish families, who came in to help to lay the moral 
and material foundation of Toronto was that of Mr. Joseph Rogers. 
They came from Cooks'town, County Tyrone. Mr, Rogers carried 
on the business of a furrier in King Street, and his descendants 
are in the same line of business to-day, and, like him, strong in 
all the points whicli make good, useful citizens. 

At an early })eriod an Irishman visited, or lather flitted by, our 
shores, who made a brief stay lower down the St. Lawrence, but 
whose name — such is the power of genius — is inextricably bound 
up with the thought and history of Canada. Nor is it possible to 
write about Toronto's early days without mentioning his name 
and musing over his words. Indeed, Moore is not only the laureate 
of Ireland, but of Canada. His " Canadian Boat Song " has as 
yet found no successful rival. Dr. Scadding and Dr. Wilson de- 
clare that it has "become alike in words and air a national 
anthem for the Dominion." You cannot produce poetry as you 
produce fat cxen, by offering a prize. The verses of Moore are 
known to every Canadian school-boy, and echo every summer 
along our lakes and rivers. Sometimes the voice is that of the 
captain 'of a raft, sometimes -the notes are those of a lady who 
would be equal to a selection from Mozart. " It could scarcely be 
heard," says Dr. Wilson, " by any Canadian wanderer, when far 
away among strangers, without a thrill as tender and acute as 
ever the ' Ranz des Vaches ' awoke on the ear of the exiled 
Switzer, or ' Lochabcr No More,' on that of the Highlander lan- 
guishing for his native glen."* In an epistle written to his coun- 

* Moore wrote the words to an air sung fre([uently by the boatmen. In descending 
the river from Kingston to Montreal the wind was ho unfavourable that they were oh* 



I 






188 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i ''■'?'• 









1 „i 



trywoman, Lady Charlotte Rawdon, and dated " from the hanks 
of the St. Lawrence," he gives his impression of Niagara, the St. 
Lawrence, and Toronto. 

I dreamt not then that, ere the roll''"",' year 
Had filled its circle, I Hhould w .. here 
In musing awe ; should tread this wondrous world, 
See all its store of inland waters hurl'i^ 
In one vast volume down Niagara's steep ; 
Or calm behold them, in transparent sleep, 
Where the blue hills of old Toronto shed 
Their evening shadows o'er Ontario's bed ; 
Should trace the grand Cataraqni, and glide 
Down the white rapids of his lordly ti" , 



liged to row all the way. The journey took five days. During the day the sun was 
intonse. At night they were forced to take shelter or. the banks in any hut whose 
owners would receive them. "But," cries the poet, "ih- magnificent sceneiy of the 
St. Lawrence repays all these difficulties." He added that there was not a note of the 
air which did not recall to his memory " the dip of our oars in the St. Lawrence, the 
flight of our boat down the rapids, and all those new and fanciful impresHi"' to which 
my heart was alive during the whole of this very interesting voyage." aope this 
book of mine will fall into a great variety of hands, and as some of my poorer country- 
men too often content themselves with an edition of the Melodies only, at the risk of 
being accused of bringing coal to Newcastle, I reproduce the stanzas :— 

A CANADIAN BOAT-SONG. 
WRITTEN ON THE RIVER ST. LAWRENCE. 

Et remigem cantus hortatur. —Quintilian. 

Faintly as tolls the evening chime. 
Our voices keep tune and our oars keep time. 
Soon as the woods on shore look dim. 
We'll sing at St. Ann's our parting hymn. 
Row, brothers, row, the stream rims fast, 
The Rapids are near, and the daylight's past ! 

Why should we yet our sail unfurl ? 
There is not a lireath the blue wave to curl ! 
But when the wind blows off the shore, 
Oh ! sweetly we'll rest our weary oar. 
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast. 
The llai)ids are near, and the daylight's past ! 

Utawas' tide ! this trembling moon 
Shall see iis float over thy surges soon. 
Saint of this green isle ! hear our prayers, 
Oh ! grant us cool heavens and favouring airs. 
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast. 
The Rapids are near, and the daylight's i)ast ! 



',m 



hf I 



K3 



189 



)anks 
icSt. 



n wa«! 
whose 
of the 
of the 
a, the 
which 
e this 
intry- 
iak of 



A SUBLIME THRONE. 

Thrmigh massy woods, 'mid islets flowering fair 
And blooming gla. es, where the first sinful pair 
For consolation might have weeping trod 
When banished from the garden of theirGod." 

Here is a fine night picture on the St. Lawrence : 

Among the reeds, in which our idle boat 
Isrock'd to rest, the wind's complaining note 
Dies, like a half-breathed whispering of flutes ; 

Along the wave the gleaming porpoise shoots. 

And I can trace him, like a watery star 

Down the steep current, till he fades afar 

Amid the foaming breakers silvery light 

Where yon rough Rapids sparkle through the night - 

Here, as along this shadowy bank I stray 

And the smooth glass-snake, gliding o'er my way 

Shows the dim moonlight through his scaly form 

Fancy.^ with all the scene's enchantment warm 

Hears in the murmur of the nightly breeze, ' 

Some Indian Spirit warble words like these. 

in Iw/'^^'''' '^n '""i? "^ '^' ^^''''' ^''y f^^^if ^ ^^<^ beautiful 
m which many a Canadian picture is woven with Indian Wend ' 
The description the Spirit gives of himself, sitting on the edge of 
Niagara m winter time, is magnificent :- ^ 

Oft when hoar and silvery flakes 

Melt along the rufl=led lakes ; 

When the grey moose sheds his horns, 

When the track at evening warns 

Weary hunters of the way 

To the wigwam's cheering ray, 

Then, aloft through freezing air. 

With the snow-bird soft and fair 

As the fleece that heaven flings 

O'er his little pearly wings, 

Light above the rocks I play, 

Where Niagara's starry spray, 

Frozen on the cliff, appears. 

Like a giant's starting tears ! 
There, amid the island sedge. 
Just upon the cataract's edge. 
Where the foot of living man 
Never trod since time began. 
Lone I sit, at close of day, 
While, beneath the golden ray, 
Icy columns gleam below. 
Feathered round with falling snow, 
And an arch of glory springs, 
Brilliant as the chain of rings 






ill 



«\ 



Hi 






,*i <ii 



' m 



^h 



p 1 iifrii 



'I ; 



'^ 



190 THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 

Round the necks of virgins hun^', — 
Virgins who have wandered young 
O'er the waterw of the west, 
To the hmd where spirits rest ! 

The Song of the Si)irit, which he composed during the night, 
over the epistle to Lady Rawdon, is taken up : — 

Thus have I charmed, with visionary lay, 
The lonely moments of the night away ; 
And now, fresh daylight o'er the water beams ! 
Once mor*. embarked upon the glittering streams, 
Our boat flies liglit along the leafy shore, 
Shootiiig the falls, without a dip of oar 
Or breath of zephyr, like the mystic bark 
The poet saw, in dreams divinely dark. 
Borne, without sails, along the dusky flood, 
While on its deck a pilot angel stood. 
And, with his wings of living light unfurled, 
Coasted the dim shores of another world ! 

Yes ! Moore belongs to Canada as well as to Ireland in that 
special sense which links a poet's name with a locality. Of course, 
as a poet with a genuine gift of song, he belongs to the world, 
and will be read and studied when Hazlitt's criticisms are for- 
gotten and those who were befooled by the malicious glitter of 
epigrammatic trifling have been succeeded by a wiser generation. 

The spot is pointed out at Kingston where he wrote, " I knew 
by the smoke that so gracefully curled." He stayed a few days at 
Montreal, where he seems to have been treated with that hospi- 
tality and attention he loved. He repaid his hostess with a few 
verses full of compliments turned with graceful exaggeration, and 
then left our shores for ever. 



VETERANS OF THE WAR OF 1812. 



191 



CHAPTER VI. 

A FEW sessions ago the Pailiaraent at Ottawa voted a small sum,. 
$50,000 to be distril»nted among the surviving warriors of 1812, 
and the two following years. More than half a century had passed 
since the Treaty of Ghent put a stop to hostilities in which the 
strong and unrighteous had shown only weakness and won but 
disgrace, in v hich the weak, fighting in a righteous cause, engaged 
in the noblest of all struggles, the struggle for home, for honour, 
individual and national, had displayed dignity and strength ; and 
as the great, joyous, unselfish hero of antiquity, when ere he at- 
tained his eighth month, ignoble but powerful jealousy sent two- 
serpents to destroy him, was in no way terrified but seized the 
reptiles one in each infant hand and squeezed them to death: so 
Canada, assailed in the cradle by the two great enemies of national, 
existence, was nothing daunted, but anticipated maturity and 
crushed what seemed the resistless instruments of easy ruin. More 
than fifty years had passed since a glow other than that of Indian 
summer liared along the tranquil bosom of Lake Erie, and Izzard, 
leaving the fort which sentinelled its waters a smoking ruin, 
crossed with 8,000 men to American territory. What changes 
had taken place, what great things had been achieved, what can- 
didates for reward and renown had fought and disappeared, what 
forces had arisen and dashed themselves against the rocks of doom ! 
There had been a rebellion, great constitutional changes, phantas- 
magoric invasion, and many who took part in these were as sound 
asleep as Brock, had passed as completely beyond censure or ap- 
plause as Fitzgibbon beyond neglect. The intention was to give 

[Authorities :— Alison's " History of Europe :" Auchinleck's " History of the War of 
1812-14 :" David Thompson's " History of the Late War :" Col. Coffin's "Chronicle of 
the War of 1812 :" " The Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, 
K.B. :" " Historical Sketch of the War of 1812 :" by Miss A. M. Machar. " A Poetical 
Account of the Campaigns of 1812 and 1813," by An Acadian. "Life of Colonel 
Talbot," by Edward Ermatmger. McMullen's " History of Canada." Surviving 
Veterans of 1812-14 and their friends.] 




w^^ 



192 



THE IllISHMAN IN CANADA. 



m 






each man a hundred dollars and it might well have heon thought 
that the sum was large enough. But those men of 1812 were a 
sturdy race and the number of well authenticated surviving war- 
riors was large enough to reduce the share of each to twenty dol- 
lars. The old soldiers were, however, well content. They valued 
the recognition of their services, tardy though that recognition 
was. It is the privilege of old age to be garrulous, and especially 
of the old age of soldiers, and we need not be surprised that the 
faded and wrinkled heroes seized the opportunity to show how 
fields were won in those days of wilderness, before railways and 
breechloaders, when nobody dreamed we should send ritle teams 
to Wimbledon, and the most prophetic soul had no touch of intui- 
tion to body forth the railway magnate, either in his tadpole state 
of bonus-beggar or in the coarse importance of later years of 
pompous success. On the present the veterans looked with rheumy 
eyes ; the adventures and perils of sixty years ago, with all their 
incident?, the brightness of the morning of the fight, the bracing 
keenness of an early frost as they rushed into one of the autumn 
engagements, the hue of the landscape in which the bloody picture 
was framed, th'^ ^ight in the glance of the leader giving his last 
command, all was for them vivid as ever. Over the scenes of those 
days for them time's curtain could never fall. To talk of that 
stirring period did the old men good, for this brought with it a 
breeze of power, a thrill of youth, the rainbow light of hope. 
Some were bowed under the hand of time. Others were erect and 
bore their ninety years as if it was a small thing. This one had 
grown prosperous ; to that fortune had been less kind. But pros- 
perous or not they were all glad of public acknowledgment of their 
services, and it exhilarated the heart of them to greet and gi-asp 
the hands of companions in arms of long ago, Samuel Clements, 
eighty years of age, formerly of Crook's Flank Company, who was 
present at Queenston Heights, who fought under the solemn 
stars at Lundy's Lane, would have made a good central figure for 
a historical picture as he told with uplifted finger how he saw 
Block fall. Such a picture well executed might be placed by the 
side of Miss Thompson's Roll Call. 

Every winter the society of York Pioneers founded by an Irish- 
-maa, and presided over by a noble specimen of the United Empire 



PATRIOTFC VALOUR. 



193 



)ros- 

bheir 

i-asp 

lents, 

was 

lemn 

for 
Isaw 

the 

:ish- 
ipire 



Loyalist, Colonel Donison, celeltratos tlu; anniversary of CliryHler'a 
Farm. Wo live in days when perhaps anniversaries are over-done, 
wlien too many seek distinction, not by deeds, but by talking 
about the deeds of others, wlien energy is apt to exhaust itself in 
sparkle and froth. But the deeds of I (SI 2-1 4 can never pass from 
men's liearts while Canada is Canada. From whatever point of 
view we regard tlie part played l)y Canada in those years, it is cal- 
culated not merely to win sympathy, l)ut to challenge enthusiasm. 
The struggle was cruelly unequal. All the riglit and nearly all 
the valour was w'.th the weaker side. Eight millions were arrayed 
against two hundred tliousand. To-day the United States are only 
ten times our nund)er. Then they were forty times. Aided 
by a handful of regular troops, we had to defend a frontier of 
1,700 miles, menaced at three critical and vulnerable points. What 
wonder if there was a momentary sinking of heart ? It was but 
a passing spasm. Tlie peoj)le of the Lower Province, the United 
Emoiie Loyalists, the sturdy Canadian yeome i, the militia, men 
of Irish, Scotch, and English blood, all proved themselves worthy 
of their fathers. Volunteers Hocked into the garrison towns. In 
default of gun.s anc) swords, they pressed the peaceful implements 
of husbandry into the service of war. There is no mood, however 
solenm, in which we cannot look with complacency on the little 
bands repulsing a cruel and impolitic invasion. In their hands 
the sword was something more than an instrument of justice ; it 
was drawn with the choicest blessings of Heaven, and wielded 
with the force of sacred passions. The defender of his country 
does not tight for plunder or renown ; he is not thinking of stars 
and crosses ; he is no soldier of fortune ; no knight errant doing 
wanton battle in the name of a fantastic honour. He is fighting 
for home, for the mother who nursed him, for the wife who makes 
the starlight of his dwelling, for the child who lisps his name, and 
is impatient at his absence. When the trumpet calls him, these 
things sweep across his fancy, and he is aware of a sublimed 
strenojth, and conscious of an unwonted fire ; he feels as the anci- 
ents felt in supreme moments of battle, as though the immortals 
fought beside him, and gave him the victory. And when, with 
weary hands and heavy eyelids, he sinks into repose, the infinite 
13 



194 



TTTE TUISIIMAN IN CAXADA. 



ri. ii 



.|i ' 



I el' 



Holaco, which belongs tosulf-nacrificu, is arot;a(l him, like hovering 
wings.* 

The people of Great Britain and Ireland cannot La MaincMl if 

the important events wiiich at tliat time took plu^e on the rivers 
and lakes of Canada, amid forest shadows and opening margents, 
received from them but scant attention; a just view lias been 
neither so common nor so emphasiztMl, as is desirabh', amongst 
ourselves. It would be hard to expect men to turn their gaze 
from Moscow in Hames, from Luipsic and the great Napoleon's 
beaten columns, from the moving spectacle of the Allies entering 
Paris, an<l the master of the world a prisoner in a petty island, to 
Queenston, to Burlington Heights, to the glorious struggle at 
Chrysler's Farm, to the victorious twenty-fifth of JulyatChippawa. 
•Yet though on a smaller scale than those which studded Europe 
with memories of wasted valour, our fights had a greater influence 
on the future ; they had in them the seeds of things. Wo have 
lived to see a revolution in the foreign policy of England, and an 
Anglo-French alliance with a Napoleon ruli^ig at the Tuileries. 
But during nigh upon three-quarters of a century, Canada has 
advanced steadily towards the goal of a national existence. 

Nor, as we shall see, were our campaigns poor in indiAddual 
heroism, or wanting in the picturesque. As long as Canada has 
a history and and a name, so long will the story of Mary Siccord 
walking twenty miles of wilderness, in danger of savage beasts 
and more savage men, to warn Fitzgibbon of an intended surprise 
on the Beaver Dam, be told. When in our national galltjry of 
the future, miles of canvas attest the progress of Canadian art, no 
picture will compel more attention than Brock erect in his canoe 
leading the way to battle at Detroit, or the same gallant captain, 
shouting while the fatal lead whizzes to his heart : " Push on the 
brave York Volunteers." The tenacity of the two privates of 
tl 3 Forty-first who kept the bridge in the western marshes, 
though these swell the mass of undistinguished, valour, stirs the 
heart as surely as the heroism of men more fortunate in renown. 
Centuries hence men will turn with admiration to Tecumseh, 
shaming by his determination the timid Proctor, or later, telling 



* In the above and the following paragraph, there are a few aentences which have 
already appeared in a periodical. 



THK IlKllLIN DKCUKK. 



195 



no 
moe 
bain, 

the 
U of 
shea, 

the 

)wn. 
[iseh> 

ping 

have 



him to have a " hi<,' heart," or still later falling, like a hero fij^'ht- 
ing to the last. There wan wanting to us no fo. .u of snifeiing ; 
wai' was hruught to our hea; ^is, an«l we tast( ' the bitterness of 
devastation and defeat an W( '! as the dear-bought joys of vic- 
tory. 

The history of Irishmen in Canada would not be complete with- 
out an aceount of this war, necessarily within easily understood 
limits. The greatest feat performed during the three campaigns 
was performed by an Irisi>man — a man, too, who was a true hero 
in more senses than beinj; a brave soldier entitles a man to that 
name. If Scotland sent her shp.ro of men in the gallant (llengar- 
ries and others, and England hers. Ireland was rej)resented by ihe 
IGOth Reginient, and by a large proportion of the 49th, while ah 
had a relative place in the Canadian Yeomanry, who did such 
splendid service. 

Napoleon having become Emperor of France — having been 
crowned King of Italy — having beaten three empires on the field 
of Austerlitz — having scattered the glories of Frederick and of 
Prussia at Jena — advanced to Berlin, whence he hurled a thunder- 
bolt at the commerce of England. This was a measure w^hich 
could have occurred only to a man insane from succc^ss, and the 
excited consciousness of stupendous genius, which, having lost all 
sense of perspective, felt onuiipotent, and thus like the thunder 
cloud, held within itself not only min for others, but the 
secret of its own dispersion. A great warrior, Napolecm was not 
a statesman ; and though he could look up at the stars, and ask 
flippant atheists who made them, he was hiuiself the worst kind 
of Atheist ; he failed to recognise the fact, that no force can be 
permanent which cannot, in the hour of trial, fall back on God ; 
he did not see that justice and truth are stronger than genius and 
armies ; that morality, in the long run, beats might ; that princi- 
ples are above principalities and powers ; that all is cloud and 
spray, and shifting sand and changing form, except the Absolute, 
who is the core and pivot of all things material and moral, the 
sole imperishable rock in the infinite abyss of everlasting muta- 
tion. By the Berlin decree, the British islands were placed in a 
state of blockade. Every species of commerce with them was for- 
bidden. Every letter addressed in English was to be seized, and 



I 



i-y 




196 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



id : 






1 






^Mll 



i: 




fei 



interdicted all circulation. Every British subject in countries 
occupied by the French troops, or by those of the allies of France, 
was to be made a prisoner of war. Every species of property 
belonging tc a subject of Great Britain, in any part of the world, 
was declared to be good prize. English goods bought by a 
French subject were placed in the same category. No vessel from 
England or her colonies, or which touched at a British port, was, 
whatever her distress, to be received in any harbour over which 
the tyrant had power. If a vessel, in stress of weather, or needing 
food, put into any harbour of France, or her allies or dependents, 
she was declared liable to seizure, even though .she did not belong 
to England, if she had barely called at Liverpool or Belfast or 
Halifax. 

Tnere was not a country in the world, however small, if her 
merchant marine consisted of a single schooner, but should have 
resented this barbarous decree, which apart from all other follies 
committed by great soldiers, ought to make men for ever 
qualify their admiration of the military genius. How was it 
treated at Washington ? The war of independence had left behind 
it a bitter feeling towards England, the danger of which did not 
escape the sage glance of Washington, that unique hero whose 
perfect balance makes the impression of faultless sculpture. It 
was natural that the French revoxation should excite the sympa- 
thies of the American people. All that was generous and enlight- 
ened, the world over, saw in that revolution the stormy dawn of a 
better and nobler day for the world. War with Great Britain and 
a French alliance became a passionate popular longing. The tide 
rose 80 high that it threatened to sweep even Washington into 
helpless privacy, or even worse. Washington stood calm like a 
great tower when the rivers have broken over their banks, and all 
the land is a turbulent turbid sea, hurrying one way. The follies 
and crimes of the Revolution brought about reaction ; the floods 
subsided, and a commercial treaty was established with Great 
Britain. Again, however, the anti-British feeling rose, nor did 
the hostilities between the United States and France in 1798, 
sensibly abate it. A treaty of peace ensued. The election of 
Jefferson to the Presidency, and the ascendancy of the Democratic 
party assured, there was nothing to check the jealousy and 



THE ORDERS IN COUNCIL. 



197 



ght- 
of a 
and 
tide 
into 
ce a 
■id all 
bllies 
loods 
reat 
r did 
1798, 
n of 
ratic 
and 



dislike of whatever was British. It seemed at one time as if a 
people loud in their boast of freedom would ally themselves 
with a despot. When, the continent at his mercy, Napoleon penned 
the Berlin decree with the view of striking at liberty in her last 
asylum in the old world, England retaliated by the " Orders in 
Council," prohibiting trade with the ports occupied by the French, 
vigorously bl ikading all the })orts of France or her allies, and 
declaring the manufactures or produce of the hostile countries or 
their colonies, good prize. These Orders in Council necessarily 
struck a blow at American commerce, for the British fleet swept 
the seas. Not merely did they interfere with the vast carrying 
trade of the United States. There was not a poor operative in 
England or Ireland, who did not suffer in consequence of the mad 
tyranny of Napoleon, for it was Napoleon who was surely respor.- 
ble in the first place. The wisdom of the Orders in Council may 
be questioned. But so far as they were an evil, the moral respon- 
sibility rested with the ruler of France, and indeed at the time of 
the whole continent. Jefferson, unjustly and unpatriotically and 
unscrupulously seized the opportunity, to still further inflame 
animosity against England. He refused to ratify a treaty of amity 
commerce and navigation, between Great Britain and the United 
States, negotiated by the American Minister at the Court of St. 
James. He sent a message to Congress inveighing against the 
Orders in Council. Not a word did he utter against the Berlin 
decree. The Democratic party, as insane as Napoleon, forbade 
American vessels to leave their ports. 

The right insisted on by England of searching for British deser- 
ters in American ships aggravated the delicacy of the situation. 
The breach between the two countries became wider. The broad- 
side from the Leopard bringing the Chesapeake to, in order to 
search for deserters, had, though, the English Government disa- 
vowed the act, no tendency to make the relations more amicable. 
Meanwhile the mad embargo on outgoing American vessels, pro- 
duced the natural result — distress. Massachusetts demanded its 
repeal. Mr. Madison was elected President. The edict was re- 
pealed in the spring of 1809, an Act being substituted prohibiting 
all intercov-ise with France and England, but p^-oviding that the 
Act should be a dead letter in regard to either or both nations 






198 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Ill 

11 



once their hostile decrees were repealed. Things looked more 
favourable now. 

Mr. Erskine, son of the celebrated advocate, was sent out with 
express instructions from Mr. Canning, which he somewhat ex- 
ceeded, in consenting to consider the suspension of the non-inter- 
course Act a fair equivalent for the lapse of the Orders in Coun- 
cil, and thus failing to insist that so long as the French decrees 
were in force, the United States should renounce all pretensions 
to carry on any trade with the colonies of belligerents not allow- 
ed in times of peace, and that British ships of war should be 
allowed to enforce, by capture, the American non-intercourso with 
France and her allies. There was great rejoicing among the 
moderate party at the settlement, which had, it was supposed, 
been effected by Mr. Erskine and Mr. Madison. The federal press 
had articles headed " Triumph of Federal Policy ;" " No Em- 
bargo;" " No French Party;" " A Return to Peace, Prosperity and 
Commerce," and the like. 

All this exultation was destined to receive a rude shock. De- 
pression and indignation followed joy, when on the 20th July, 
more than a month after it was thought the obnoxious measures 
had become dead letters, news came that Mr. Canning had declared 
in the House of Commons, that the arrangement made by Mr. 
Erskine was wholly unauthorised by his instructions. Mr. Ers- 
kine was wrong to have gone beyond his instructions. Mr. Can- 
ning was more of a bureaucrat than a statesman, however, in 
refusing to ratify his arrangement. The non-intercourse was goon 
re-established, and the situation was more unsatisfactory than 
before. Every hour made it more tense. Mr. Jackson, who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Esrkine was studiously insulted. In the spring of 1811, 
the American minister took formal leave of the Prince Regent. A 
rupture was felt to be inevitable. Intercourse with France was 
resumed. The French flag flew in American harboui's and from 
French vessels, many of which were fitted out as privateers, to 
prey on British commerce. The train was all ready. The match 
was applied by the collision between the Little Belt and the Pre- 
sident, the former an English sloop of war of eighteen guns, the 
latter an American frigate of forty -four guns. The following Jan- 
uary, by an overwhelming majority. Congress passed resolutions 




PROJECTED CONQUEST OF CANADA. 



199 



De- 

uly, 

ures 
ired 
Mr. 
rs- 
an- 
in 
oon 
han 
uc- 

11, 
. A 
was 
rom 

to 
itch 
Ve- 
the 
an- 
ions 



to increase the regular troops to 25,000, and raising an immediate 
loan of $10,000,000. 

How the Americans hastened hostilities in order to capture 
the British homeward bound West India fleet ; how Madison 
sought to work on the warlike feeling by placing before Con- 
gress worthless papers sold him by Henley for the enormous sum 
of $50,000; how, on the 19th of June, Congress passed an Act 
declaring war against Great Britain; how shortly afterwards the 
Orders in Council were repealed ; how notwithstanding Congress 
did not recede from its hostile position, need only be referred to. 
Madison was anxious to distinguish his presidency by the conquest 
of Canada. The great mass of the American people hungered for 
moie territory, and they longed to humiliate England by driving 
her from the Valley of the St. Lawrence, and raising the stars and 
stripes over every stronghold from Fort Maiden to Quebec. 

The United States acted at this time, as they have frequently 
done, as if they did not believe in justice or honour, and only 
cared about profit and expediency. But there have always been 
thousands who would not bow the knee to Baal, and the most 
influential and*reflecting raised protests against the war as unjust, 
unnecessary, and impolitic, as indeed hardly decent, seeing that it 
meant having for an ally a man, whose whole career showed him 
to be the enemy of ^xcedom. 

Not only was the war objected to in itself. The method by 
which Canada was to be conquered was placed in its true light. 
One Virginian gentleman said the plan was to make the Canadians 
traitors as a preliminary step to their becoming American citizens. 
Honourable men shrank from the tactics of tricksters. But un- 
fortunately the sinister policy prevailed, as it has often prevailed 
since, not to the advantage of the world at large or the American 
people themselves. The men of New England would have nothing 
to do with the invasion of a people who had given no provocation. 
In Boston on the day war was declared, the flags were hoisted 
half-mast high, as though some great national calamity had oc- 
curred. On the other hand, extreme men from Germany, French 
enthusiasts, with no political experience save what they had gained 
during the reign of terror, Irish sympathisers with, and refugees 
{To«n the Irish rebellion, swelled the cry of war. These last had 



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200 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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been, in most cases, deprived by bad laws of that education which 
would have enabled them to make just distinctions, or they would 
have turned with disgust from an attack on a peaceable population 
for a cause of quarrel which had occurred on the other side of the 
world. I do not find, however, that on this occasion the American 
army wa*:; in any great proportion Irish, and amongst the Generals 
we louV m vain for a Montgomery. 

But in truth the Americans thought taking Canada would be 
an easy task. With an ignorance and a vanity which provoke a 
smile, it was believed that the Canadians themselves, would gladly 
exchange the union jack for the stars and stripes,* and if they 
were not so wise in their election, they must be taught wisdom. 
How could they resist indeed ? The odds were overwhelming. 
Apart from the vast po^ dlation they had to draw on, they had 
twenty-five thousand regular troops and one hundred thousand 
militia, against five thousand eight hundred men in the two Ca- 
nadas, and a small militia badly equipped. 

In Lower Canada parlianxent had passed a liberal Militia Act, 
and voted considerable sums. A regiment of French-Canadian 
voltigeurs was raised. I cannot but pause here to think how dif- 
ferent things might have been in Ireland if the people had had 
privileges such as those wisely accorded to French Canadians in 
1775, and had been trusted. In Upper Canada an effective Militia 
Bill was passed, and Brock, fully aware of the danger, was exert- 
ing all his energy and ability to meet it. There were few troops 
in the province and not suflicient arms for half the militia. From 
England, where it was thought the repeal of the Orders in Council 
would settle everything, no aid could be expected for months 

There are two prominent heroes in the war of 1812-14. To 
one ample justice has been done. Neither alive nor dead has the 
other been properly rewarded. Both were intimately associated 
in their lives. Perhaps it was well for the one he fell in battle 
urging on the brave York volunteers, or he might have expe- 
rienced the fickleness of popular favour, and the dire ingratitude 

* Even to-day wo Bometimes hear Americans talk in a strange way on this head. 
When coming back from the Centennial, I fell into conversation wiih an intelligent 
American, who said to me—" I guess over in Canada you feel at times that you ar 
not free enough, and that old mother England keeps you down a little too much." 



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FIRST ACQUAINTANCE OF BROCK AND FITZGIBBON. 201 

which seems inseparable from free communities. Both were gen- 
uine heroes. The less fortunate was the more romantic of the- 
two. We must go a little back in time in order to trace the early 
acquaintance of two remarkable men. 

Isaac Brock was born in Guernsey in 17G9, the same year in 
which iS'apoleon and Wellington were born. His family was one; 
of some local importance. He was tall, robust, and though a 
gymnast, remarkable for his extreme gentleness. He entered the 
8th regiment as an ensign in 1785. Five years aftei-wards he 
was promoted to a lieutenancy. At the close of 1790 he obtained 
an independent company by raising the requisite number of men^ 
He soon after exchanged into the 49th, and joined his regiment at 
Barbadoes. There wafc' in the regiment a confirmed duellist, who 
took advantage of his being a dead shot. Brock soon proved to 
his brothel' captain that he was not to be bullied nor intimidated. 
He was challenged as a matter of course. On the ground Brock 
pointed out that it was not fair, he being so large a man, to stand 
at twelve paces, and producing a handkerchief, insisted on firing 
across it. This the duellist declined, and the consequence was,, 
the regiment got rid of him. On the 24th of June, Brock pur- 
chased his majority. In 1797 he purchased his lieutenant-colo- 
nelcy, and soon after became senior lieutenant-colonel of the 49th.. 
He was then in his twenty-eighth year. 

On the 6th of August,a young Irishman enlisted in the 49th, on 
Barham Downs, near Canterbury. In less than two months he 
was fighting under Brock at Egmont-op-Zee, where his colonel 
was wounded, and had his holsters shot through. The merits of 
James Fitzgibbon were soon discovered by General Brock, who, a 
few years afterwards, made him sergeant-major, and in 1806 pro- 
cured him an ensigncy. After the deployment of the 49th on the 
sand hills, Fitzgibbon separated from Colonel Brock with that 
part of the regiment detached under Lieutenant-Colonel Sheafie. 
Soon after they commenced firing, the soldiers covering them- 
selves behind the sand hills and firing over the summit. While 
thus engaged he noticed the paymaster, Savery Brock, passing 
from the top of one sand hill to ' lother, directing and encourag- 
ing the men. He watched every moment to see him fall. But 
two hours passed away and the paymaster remained untouched.. 



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202 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



" Bem<]f at this time," says Fitzgibbon, " only eighteen years of 
age, and not nine months from my parents' fire-side, in a remote 
village in Ireland, I did not venture, although a sergeant, to give 
any orders or instructions, lest I should do wrong. But after 
witnessing Savery Brock's conduct, I determined to be the first to 
advance every time at the head of those around me, and I soon 
saw that of those who were most prompt to follow me, fewer fell 
than of those more in the rear." He then, this raw lad of eighteen, 
made up his mind to think no more of his own life, but leave the 
care of it to Divine Providence, and to strain every nerve to do 
his duty. At five o'clock on that day, while in his eagerness 
pressing forward, he went too far ahead of his men, was cut off 
and taken prisoner. 

On the 27th February, 1801, the 49th embarked on board Nel- 
son's squadron at Portsmouth. On the 30th of March the fleet 
proceeded through the Sound, with a topsail breeze from N. W. 
Fitzgibbon was in the Monarch, the 49th acting as marines. This 
ship had 210 men killed and wounded. The next year the regi- 
ment was ordered to Canada. In the fall, at Montreal, an educated 
soldier named Carr was observed by Colonel Brock to salute him 
with less manliness than usual, and he suspected that he would 
desert as the ice bridge was on the river. Brock ordered Fitzgib- 
bon, now a sergeant-major, to bring the man before him. The 
Colonel directly charged Carr with intending to desert. " Man- 
fully tell me the truth !" roared Brock. Carr stammered out a 
denial. Brock stepped up to him, and putting his clenched fist 
forward, cried in a firm voice : " Don't prevaricate. Tell me the 
truth like a man. You know I have always treated you kindly !" 
The awed wretch confessed that he and others had determined to 
desert. " Go then," rejoined the Colonel, " and tell those deluded 
men all that has passed here, and that notwithstanding what you 
have told me, I will still treat every one of you with kindness^ 
and you may then all desert from me if you please." 

In the following summer, when the 49th were at York (Toronto), 
the sergeant of the guard informed the sergeant-major (Fitzgib- 
bon), that three of his men were missing, and that a boat had 
been taken from a shed in charge of a sentry, who had like- 
"wise disappeared. Fitzgibbon instantly reported this to the Col- 



SEiaOUS COxNSPIKACY. 



203 



[onto), 
Itzgib- 
U had 
like- 
Col- 



onel, who ordered him to man a hoat forthwith with a sergeant 
and twelve privates of the light company. In half an hour Brock 
and Fitzgihbon were sitting together muffled up in the stern, while 
the oars dipped rapidly, and the little craft shot through the waters 
for Niagara, which was reached in the morning. The Colonel 
then despatched a party of the detachment stationed there to nin 
along +he Amrrican shore of Lake Ontario, while he and Fitzgih- 
bon roved round by the west end of the lake, with the view of 
interc-^^Hng the deserters should they have taken this course. But 
they had taken the other direction, and were captured by the 
party sent east by Colonel Brock. 

In the following year a serious conspiracy in which some Irish- 
men were implicated was discovered. The object of the mutiny 
was the life of Col. Sheaffe, who seems to have been a tyrannical 
martinet. A servant of Major Wulff, of the Royal Artillery, who 
was stationed at Niagara, was returning home across the common 
from fort St. George when he met a soldier of the 49th, one* Fitz- 
patrick, running towards the Fort. He asked the time, and on 
being told, cried : " Thank God, I will not be too late for the roll- 
call or dinner, for if I were that tyrant would send me to 

knapsack drill for a week. But, by ! " and he mattered a 

threat. The servant struck by Fitzpatrick's manner went over to 
the Fort and described the interview to Col. Sheaffe. Fitzpatrick 
was sent for. He confessed nothing, but showed what were con- 
sidered unmistakeable signs of guilt. He was put in irons and 
sent to the cells, whereupon a soldier named Daly confessed he 
was one of the conspirators, having been seduced from his duty by 
Sergeant Clarke. Daly had been enlisted by this sergeant in Ire- 
land in the year previous. A meeting of the conspirators had 
taken place that morning, at Knox's tavern, from which place 
Fitzpatrick was returning, perhaps having taken a glass or two 
when his manner betrayed him. 

Word of the conspiracy was immediately sent to Colonel Brock, 
at York. The Colonel and Fitzgihbon, his " young and devoted 
Sergeant^Major," embarked in the schooner which brought the 
report. Fitzgihbon was told to remain below deck and out of 
view until sent for, while Brock walked ovei' alone to the east 
gate of the fort. He crossed che square to the guard which he 



204 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



III 



found commanded by Sergeant Clarke. It was part of the plan 
that the mutineers were to take to their arms on some night when 
Sergeant Clarke and Corporal O'Brien were on guard. They were 
now on guard. The guard presented arms. Colonel Brock ad- 
vanced and said : " Sergeant, let your guard shoulder arms." It 
was done. " Come here, Sergeant," he said, authoritatively, " lay 
down your pike." The pike was laid down. " Corporal O'Brien, 
bring a pair of handcuffs and put them on this sergeant and lock 
him up in the cells and bring me the key." This was done. 
" Come here, Corporal, lay down your arms, take off your accoutre- 
ments and lay them down also." Obeyed. " Come here you 
grenadier " — addressing the right hand man of the guard — " bring 
a pair of hancjcuffs and put them on this corporal, and lock him 
up in another cell and bring me the key." They were brought, 
and Brock cried : " Drummer, beat to arms." Just then Lieutenant 
Williams was seen issuing from the nearest building: " Williams," 
cried Brock, " go and instantly secure Rock, and if he hesitate to 
obey, even for a moment, cut him down." Williams ran up stairs and 
told Rock to come down. " Yes, sir, when I take my arms." " No 
you must come down without them." " I must have my arms, 
sir." " If you touch your musket I will cut you down instantly ; 
go down before me." Thirteen conspirators were taken, and they 
and seven deserters were sent on to Quebec where they were tried 
by Court-Martial. Four of the mutineers — Clarke, O'Brien, Rock, 
and Fitzpatrick, and three deserters were condemned to suffer 
death. 

Why do I recount this circumstance which can shed no lustre 
on Irishmen ? Because, as I have already said. Irishmen can af- 
ford to have the truth told, and incidentally it shows that the 
49th had been recruited in part, in Ireland, 

In a letter, dated Quebec, March 17, 1807, and addressed to the 
adjutant-general of His Majesty's forces. Brock speaks of the 
lOOth regiment in a contradictory manner. He says : " The 
winter has passed without a single instance of neglect or miscon- 
duct having occurred among the 100th regiment, and it is a pleas- 
ing task to report that so exemplary have the men behaved, that 
even regimentally, only one corporal punishment has been inflicted 
for the last three months." So far so good. He adds with singu- 



THE CURTAIN RISES. 



205 



lar absurdity : " I am now speaking of men, vrho, being nearly all 
Irish, are of a]l others the most volatile and easily led astray * * 
The men were principally raised in the north of Ireland and are 
nearly all Pi'otestants. They are robust, active and good looking." 
By the returns of the 100th regiment, dated IGth March, 1807, it 
appears that only one officer was an Englishman, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Murray, one — the assistant surgeon — a Scotchman, while 
twenty-six were Irish ; eight unknown, being absent on leave or 
not having joined ; two vacancies ; making a total of 38 officers. 
Of the non-commissioned officers and privates, out of 468, 
the Irish numbered 4)58 ; there being nine English and one 
Scotch. 

Fitzgibbon, always the right hand man of Brock, became, as 
already indicated. Lieutenant in 1809. 

The curtain must now rise on war. We cannot, nor is it 
necessary, to mention the names of all the Irishmen engaged in it. 
The ^*^ards, such men as Edward Wright and Mr. Rogers, had 
their comrades and counterparts. There is one prominent Irish 
hero ; perhaps, by and by, we shall have to admit a poor private 
to that position — James O'Hara, better known as " Jimmy" 
O'Hara, of whom more anon. 

The Americans commenced hostilities by taking Mackinaw, 
a small military outpost for the protection of the fur trade, an ad- 
vantage of which they were soon deprived. Meanwhile, General 
Hull, an officer of the war of independence, on the 12th July 
crossed the river Detroit, with a force of two thousand five hun- 
dred, and a strong park of artillery. He planted the American 
standard on our shores, and issued a bombastic proclamation, 
in which he said, that the standard of the Union waved 
over the territory of Canada, that it brought no danger to peace- 
able unofiending inhabitants, that he^ came to find, not to make 
enemies, to protect, not injure Canadians. He reminded them 
that they had felt the tyranny of Great Britain and seen her in- 
justice. But, he magnanimously added, that he did not ask 
them to avenge the one or redress the other. The United States 
were powerful enough to do both and much more. " Had I any 
doubt of eventual success," he went on, " I might ask your assist- 
ance. But I do not. I come prepared for every contingency. I 



•II 



! 




206 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



P' 



liave a for which will break down all opposition, and that force 
is but the vanffuard of a much 'greater. " After more .sturt' of the 
same sort, be declared that no white man found fightin*^ by the 
side of ail Indian would be taktm prisontT ; " instant death will be 
his lot." A few weeks afterwards, General I^lull had retreated 
acro.'is the river, and had surrendered Detroit. 

An unknown author using the nam de plmne, " An Acadian," 
writes with great bitterness in his " Poetical Account." But 
as the poem was written as the war progressed and })ublish- 
ed in 1815, it is valuable as expressing the sentiments of the 
hour. 

The publisher, John Howe, jun., dedicates the letters to the 
people of Canada. The last lines are dated "United States of 
Amgrica, December, 1813." It is clear the author was an en- 
forced exile amongst a people for whom he had a special, I had 
almost said, an exaggerated antipathy. As he wrote nothing about 
1314, I gather either that he died, or else that he obtained his 
freedom, and was a bird who could only sing when caged. 

Adieu ! the wintry wind blows hard around 
And nature in an icy chain is bjund, 
May Spring revive in Enijland's happy isle 
With cheering hopes and most propitio'is smile, 
And may the war and my sad exile end, 
Prays with sincerity thy faithful friend. 

And so he disapppears over the snow crusted landscape. It may 
be that he was conscious that he had not in supreme measure the 
divine afflatus. Yet the verses dealing with the surrender at 
Detroit are not without spirit, though they scarcely fulfil the 
conditions of poetry. 

Brock led them* through the deep rolling flood. 
And at Detroit the fearless body stood : 
Around the towns in slonder lines they spread ; 
And through the columns whistled English lead, 
Hissing too loud to please a Yankee's ear, 
Soon wild disorder imitated fear. 
'■ Capitulation " whispered every way, 
And on the fort gleamed in the sunny ray 
The flag of peace, white as the thorn of May. 



*The Indians. 



1^ 



rJATTF.E OF gUEENSTON HEIOHTS. 

Parley the trum])et Hpoko, thu ntrifo woh Htill, 
And HiauKhter Htayeil iigainHt the IniliuiiH' will, 
Fi)riii tliiir i-arn, thcMt! wonls n^vihnvte IdikI, 
" No (nmrtur give— but maHHacru the crowd ! " 



207 



' at 



On the first gate, Hull's proclamation spread, 
J.tMt UH that caijtive general hIiowM liii head, 
The Indian chief stepped forward from his band, 
And pointing to the line with lifted hand, 
Where Hull had jironused death to all his race, 
He flings his hatchet with indignant face, 
And from the j)aper struck its every trace. 

It does not come within my task to point out how Sir George 
Prevost tied Brock's hands, or to describe thu most irritating of 
all spectacles, a superior mind controlled by an inferior one, a 
swift intuition and a strong will reined in by blundering and vacil- 
lation. The American plan embraced a combined attack. Hull 
was to enter Canada at the west by crossing the Detroit River ; 
Van Ransallaer at the Niagara River ; Dearborn by way of Lake 
Champlain and the Richelieu ; all aided by harassing incursions 
at minor points along the frontier. 

Van Ransallaer at Queenston, made Captain Dennis, with two 
companies of the 49th retreat to the north end of the village. 
Here he was met by Brock, who dismounting from his horse, put 
himself at the head of a company of the 49th, resolved to take the 
heights, now in possession of the Americans. Under a heavy fire, 
he advanced at double quick time, crying out as he waved his 
sword to " push on the brave York volunteers." He fell as the 
words escaped iiis lips. A cry rose, which be sure was swelled 
with Irish voices, to avenge the General, and regulars and militia, 
though so much outnumbered, drove the enemy from its strong 
position on the crest of the hill. The enemy being reinforced 
ti^ey were obliged to retire. Then Major-General Sheaffc on whom 
the command devolved, came up with reinforcements ; the conflict 
was renewed; regulars and militia, though still outnumbered, 
charged again and again, until they turned the left flank of 
the Americans, and the day was won. Among the officers men- 
tioned in the report of General Sheafie as having distinguished 
themselves, were at least two Irishmen, Lieutenant-Colonel Butler 



ff I 




MPm 



208 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



and Lieutenant Thomas Butler. The British loss did not exceed 
one hundred men, while that on the American side was not less 
than two thousand. Amon}.^ the former was the {.^allant provin- 
cial aide-dti-camp of Brock, Colonel McDonald. This battle was 
the Thermopyhe of the war. Brock, as he entere<l among 
the shades, might have greeted Leonidas as his brothtsr ; and the 
meii whose blood enriched those heights, whence to-day the eye 
drinks in a scene of such varied beauty, the gi-een slopes, tho 
pretty town, the bright waters of Ontario ; Brock's monument, and 
the union jack giving a British character to the whole ; might 
speak to the traveller who visits this spot of heroic associations, 
sending Canadians a parody of the innnortal message : 

Tell the Spartans, at their bidding, 
Stranger, here in death we lie.* 

There could indeed be no nobler resting place for a hero than near 
the measureless grandeur of the Falls ; material sublimity near 
moral sublimity ; and yet when contrasted with this the myriad 
might of the watery plunge into the boiling chasm seeming so 
small. Ages upon ages have elapsed since the waters commenced 
to cleave a way through the rock, and when a like period has 
passed away, this thunderous voice may still be heard, and tho 
name of Brock be mingled with its legends when his column 
shall be a shapeless fragment, and the language he spoke a curious 
study for the learned. 

Brock's mauaoleum, distant worlds shall tell, 
And paint Niagara where the hero fell. 
Time spuming flood ! When nations are no more, 
Thou wilt relate the tragic story o'er ; 
And show that grave, beside his on the hill 
Where brave Macdonald holds his station still ; 
For as in life — in fortune's hours they sped. 
So side by side are laid the heroes dead. 

Nor until Brock has ceased to be historical will be forgotten, as one 
of the noblest features in his career, that he early discovered the 
genius of the brave and simple Fitzgibbon. 



• Lines composed by Simonides and inscribed on the monument erected at Thermo- 
pylae in honour of the defenders of Greece. 



.RMISTTC'E. THE ENEMY AT THE GATE. 



209 



one 
the 



kermo- 



Van RanHjillaer, disgusted with the conduct of the American 
militia — wlio, after they hud seen what Brito-Hiberniau valour 
meant, pleaded the " constitution " when he wanted them to ad- 
vance into Canadian territory — resigned, and was succeeded by 
Brigadier-General Smyth in the connuand of what may be called 
the American army of the centre. 

If we ha<l to discuss the generalship of the British commander 
and the armistice, disapproved of even by Prevost, which he con- 
cluded, we should in justice to him bear in mind that the prisoners 
he had taken greatly out numbered his little army.* But Brock 
had he survived would have followed u[) the advantage. As it was, 
what happened ? The enemy availed themselves of the opportunity 
to recruit and reorganize their army, as well as to collect a flotilla 
at the lower end of Lake Erie. 

A bleak, cold, cheerless November blew its icy breath over the 
colony at whose gates still watched the aggressors, soon to retire 
into brief winter quarters, baffled and beaten at all points. Harri- 
son, with his Kentucky forest rangers and sharp-shooters from 
that State, which makes half the southern boundary of Lake Erie, 
and rests in the lap of the Ohio, hurrying to swell the majestic 
volume of the Mississippi, rolling to the Gulf, threatened the small 
force under Proctor in the west ; Smyth, with five thousand men, 
strutted on the eastern shore of the Niagara River ; Dearborn, at 
the head of ten thousand men, hung on the confines of the Lower 
Province ; for though beaten on land the successes of the Ameri- 
cans at sea kept up their spirits. The same good fortune did not 
attend them on our lakes, though they pounced upon Canadian 
shipping under the guns of the forts at Kingston, York, and 
Niagara. An attempt on a British advanced post near Rouse's 
Point called forth ail the ardour of Lower Canadians, of whatever 
origin, and the Montreal militia rose as one man. 

To the feeling in Lower Canada, as well as all over the country, 
all historians bear witness. Through the kindness of Mr, A. Thorn- 
ton Todd, I have been put in possession of some valuable corres- 
pondence of his grand-uncle, Isaac Todd, an eminent Irish merchant 

♦Neither Sheaffe nor Prevost were English or Scotch or Irish. Prevost was bom in 
New York and his father was a Swiss. Sheaffe was born in Boston and was of German 
descent. 

14 



'i|!i 



m 



210 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



in Montreal, whose brother was one of the leaders of the North- 
West Fur Company, after whom the first ship to the Columbia 
River on the Pacific was called. In a letter dated Montreal, 20th 
of October, 1812, he writes to his correspondent at Liverpool, that, 
as he knew, his object in coming here was to sell property, " but 
the unfortunate war makes pioperty of no value here, nor does 
there appear any business but soldiering." In a previous letter 
dated the 23rd September, 1812, he says : " There seems'a determi- 
nation and spirit in English and Canadians to defend their Pro- 
vince. The Americans are advancing with ten thousand men 
(Dearborn's) by report, and are now near the line which separates 
this Province anJ the United States, about thirty miles from the 
opposite side of the river. What may be the event God knows, or 
what can influence the President to persist in a war when the 
great part of the pretended cause (the Orders in Council) is done 
away, and when he mu..t know it is reprobated by almost all the 
good men in the United States. There is still hope thit he will 
not be re-elected President, or that when Congress meets there 
will be a majority for peace." Having pointed out that the two 
countries should, though separated in government and laws and 
empire, be united " from nature and interest," he goes on to say : 
" Although at my time of life I can do little good as a soldier, yet 
as this place is threatened with invasion I don't like to leave my 
friends. I have therefore determined on waiting the event and 
wintering here." 

Smytji [had meanwhile issued a proclamation to the men of 
New York, and addressed his soldiers in a melo-draniatic style ; 
had embarked and re-embarked, irresolute one should say, rather 
than resolute to conquer; and terrified by a bugle horn, had given 
up the enterprise. " I must not be defeated," he said, when put- 
ting liimself at the head of his troops. Nor was he. To fight is 
as necessary a preliminary to defeat as to victory. The people of 
the United States nicknamed Smyth, General Van Bladder, and 
the tavern keepers thinking him unworthy even of a cock-tail, 
shut their doors in his face. * 



* In his address to the men of New York, this braggart had said : (the italics are 
mine) "The valour of the American people has been conspicuous ; but thvnation has 



CANADA'S SPIRIT UP. 



211 



" Acadian " pours forth all the vials of his scorn on the unfor- 
tunate General : — 

The welkin now wiis still— the air serene, 

The General roused once more his sleeping spleen, 

His courage rose— "for Canada push on, 

The way in clear— the heavy clouds are gone," 

He spoke, as bray'd along the distant range 

The haughty bugle with its warlike change. 

Still stood the knight, of all his honours shorn 

Forgetful hero— whv 'ot have spiked the horn? 

" Back ! back ! " he c led, " Row ! row I with speed away, 

That Canada, I cannot take to-day." 

When the armies had gone into 'vinter quarters, the Loyal and 
Patriotic Society of Upper ('.'.ada vas formed to provide for 
those on wliom the brunt of < iie vrar 'lad fallen. This fund was 
warrrJy supported in Canada, in i/he West Indies, in the old 
count'.y, and in Nova Scotia, a statement in which Irishmen may 
feel a personal pride as well as their brethren of the same blood 
from England and Scotland. By the Legislatures of both Pro- 
vinces large votes were passed for equipping and embodying a 
jtrong force of militia. Recruiting was responded to so readily 
that for the campaign of 1813 the offensive force, including regu- 
lars and militia, amounted to 8,000, which had, however, to face 
three times their number — making a combined movement on the 
three keys of Canada's safety, Amhertsburg, the Niagara frontier, 
and the St. Lawrence. Early in the year Proctor gave a good ac- 
count of Harrison in the Far West ; the Highland Glengarries, 



been unfortunate in the selection of those who have directed it. . . . Must I turn from 
you, and ask the men of the Six Nations to support the Government of the United 
States. Sh-'ll I imitate," he asks with admirable Pistol eloquence, "the officers of the 
British king, and suffer our ungathered laurels to be tarnished by ruthless deeds- 
shame where's thy blush— no — advance then to our aid— I will wait for you a few days 
— I cannot give you the day of my departure— but come on— <5ome in companies, half 
companies, pairs or singly — I will organise yovi for a short tour ; ride to this place if 
the distance is far — and send back your horses." 

In his address to the soldiers, he told them tht^y were about to conquer Canada ; that 
they were superior in number and in personal strength, and'activity to the British ; 
that the British soldiers were old and sickly, and quite unfit to endure their charge. 
He little knew he was speaking of men, who, if Napoleon's picked troops were charging 
them, would not reel. 

In his despatch, he said ; " The affair at Quepnsfc^n is a oaution against relying on 
crowds who go to the banks of Niagara to look a*' a bittle, as on a theatrical exhibition." 






212 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



while the ice was still on the river, had distinguished themselves 
on the St. Lawrence, by a brilliant demonstration against Fort 
La Presentation. When the ice had disappeared from the river 
it was determined to assault York. On the 27th of April, the fleet 
stood before the capital of Upper Canada. To the landing of the 
enemy a most determined resistance was made by a small force. In 
this force were the Rogers, the Duggans, the Wrights, and the like. 
Overpowered by numbers, they were obliged to retire. The Ameri- 
cans, commanded by General Pike, having effected a landing, ad- 
vanced to the fort situate where the Great West ... xreight depot 
stands to-day — a spot which, in 1812, was two miles to the west of 
the town, in the midst of a country thickly wooded,* unburdened by 
asylums, and unbeautified by princely mansions. They formed into 
two lines, and carried the battery by assault. They then advanced 
towards the citadel in the same order, and in doing so captured a 
small intervening battery. There they halted to dress their lines 
for the supreme attack on the mainworks, when a magazine was 
fired by an Irish Artillery Sergeant, named Marshall. The explo- 
sion killed and wounded a good many on both side.s, and amongst 
the killed was General Pike. After a brave struggle, there was 
nothing for it but that the little band should retreat. This they 
did in good order towards York. There was one man, however, 
who would not quit the fort, and, though his conduct may 
seem Quixotic, it shows him to have possessed the stuff of which 
heroes ivre made. Nor did the people of Toronto forget it when, 
having been meanwhile soiled by gross weaknesses, he was borne, 
amid vast crowds, to his grave. The humble hero was James 
O'Hara, v/hose name speaks for his nationality. He swore he 
would not leave the fort. When the Americans came in, O'Hara 
asked them what they wanted, and, lifting the butt-end of his 
musket, was about to strike, when he was overpowered and dis- 
armed. Here we have the spirit of Tecumseh fighting to the last 
blow amongst his braves. Why did this hero remain a private ? 
For a cause which has kept more men, Irish and otherwise, back 



* In the thirteenth of tb» Dudden Sonnets, Wordsworth sings of 

" The gusts that lash 
The matted forests of Ontario's shore, 
By wasteful stsal unsniitten." 




VINCENTS GALLANT DEFENCE. 



213 



than any other — a cause which Sir Walter Scott, brought up in 
the midst of a drinking society, characterized as the one vice in- 
consistent with gi-eatnesH. 

In York General Sheaffe held a Council of War, when it was 
resolved to abandon the town and retreat toward Kingston. In 
the capture of York the Canadians lost four hundred, forty of 
whom were killed or wounded ; the Americans from four to five 
hundred, forty of whom were killed and two hundred and twenty- 
two wounded by the explosion. 

On the 8th of May, the Americans evacuated York, re-embarked, 
proceeded to Sackett's Harbour where under Dearborn's instruc- 
tions — the General was sick in bed — great preparations were 
made for invading the Niagara frontier.* 

Again he alludes to this in the canto or letter describing the 
attack on the Niatjara frontier. The student of the war should get 
before his mind a clear picture of the geographical situation. 

General Vincent defended Fort George, at Niagara, with 1,400 
men against G,000 men and 11 vessels with a fighting broadside 
of 52 guns. A landing severely contested was effected under 
cover of the guns from the ships. Having landed however, the 
Americans did not have it all llieir own way. They were three 
times driven back at the point of the bayonet, nor was it until the 
corpse of every mounted officer disfigured that placid shore, and 
every gunner lay dead or dying near his gun that Vincent aban- 
doned the desperate struggle against ten-fold odds. He spiked 
his guns, blew up his magazine and retreated in good order on the 
Beaver Dam, a strong position twelve miles from Niagara on the 
road to Burlington Heights. Fort George fell into the enemy's 

* Acadian refers with a want of taste to Dearborn's infirmity. 

Near the Lake's margin little York town stood, 

Wrapp'd in a robe of deeply folding wood ; 

Its youthful beauty no disorder sL . w'd, 

But i)eace and plenty made it the'r abode ; 

One fort api)ear'(l, but of the sr^ailest size 

With Britain's ensign waving to the skies, 

From whose dark l)attery clouds of smoke were spread, 

As the invaders on their numbers led ; 

The General sick and weari/ staid behind, 

To fight his stomach was not much inclin^iH. 






ill 



! , I 



ill 



214 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



hands and 445 brave Canadians, whether Irish, English or Scotch, 
lay dead around the little town. The Americans made no ener- 
getic effort to follow up the advantage, and by the time the 3,000 
men and nine field pieces sent in pursuit arrived, Vincent had 
entrenched himself at Stony Creek. The American purauing force 
was under Generals Winder and Chandler, the former being chief 
in command. The Acadian says — with I fear — as just bitternesfj 
as contempt, although some Canadian historians do not mention 
the circumstance of cottage burning, and Americans deny it : 

This sober general moved not on in haste, 
Slowly he marcK'd, and laid each cottage waste; 
Arriving safe, the fiftii iair cloudless day. 
Within ten miles of where the British lay 
On a fair plain, that its broad bosom lent 
An ample space to halt, he spread his tent. 
This was enough, no other thought was near. 
No cautions whisper reach'd his warlike ear ; 
• But all supine, he and his army fed 
On brave spoils pilfer'd from the peasant's shed. 

On the 1st June, 1813, T.Ir. Isaac Todd speaks of the "critical 
situation" of the country, particularly Upper Canada. " They have 
had all this spring," he writes, " a superior force on Lake Ontario, 
and by great numbers have obtained possession of one of our forts 
after severe fighting, as you will see by a hand bill. Since the 
arrival of Sir James Yeo with officers and 500 seamen, we have 
now a fleet ready and wi]ling to meet them, the event of which 
[meeting] may partly decide the fiite of Upper Canada. Sir George 
Prevost is in Upper Canada, and anxiously awaiting the arrival of 
more troof)s to attack them. Our troops are so superior that on a 
plain they can beat three times their number, and our Indian 
allies behave so well, I trust Great Britain will never make peace 
without attending to their interests and protection. We have yet 
exclusive of seamen, only about 1,000 troops, and the 19th regi- 
ment of Light Dragoons, arrived. The latter will not be mounted 
these twelve months, and if they were, would be of little use in 
woods. There are two American gentlemen sent by the American 
Government to Russia, it is said, to solicit the Emperor's mediation 
for peace. Before they obtain it, they ought to be humbled." 

How Vincent had the enemy's position reconnoitred, and ho w a 
night attack of 600 on 3,000 was a complete success, the two 



VINCENT TAKES THE OFFENSIVE. A HEROINE. 



215 



generals with 620 officers and men, and four guns, falling into the 
hands of the brave captain, is well known, as is also, how the rest 
fled in confusion,* The enemy was now thrown back on the edge 
of the frontier at Fort George. 

General Vincent, slightly reinforced, took the offensive. He 
placed his right wing under the command of Lieut.-Col. Bisshopp. 
The Colonel pushed forward detachments, and took up two posi- 
tions commanding the cross-roads at the Ten -mile Creek and the 
Beaver Dam. Dearborn despatched Lieut.-Col. Baerstler with a 
force of seven hundred men from Fort George to attack the hand- 
ful of men, only thirty, who, under Lieutenant Fitzgibbon, of the 
49th, had taken up their position in a stone house near the Beaver 
Dam. A woman named Mary Secord, the widow of a man who 
had been wounded at Queenston, heard from private sources that 
it was the intention of the American forces to surround Fitzgibbon. 
She determined to apprise Fitzgibbon, if possible, of his danger. 
She left early in the June morning, her heart beating with anxiety 
lest she should not get through the American guards, out ten miles 
in the country. Through all the burning summer tide she walked 
over a rough coimtry, and as she came into the neighbourhood of 
the Beaver Dam, daylight was gone. Captain Kerr, wit)i a party 
of Indians, occupied the adjacent woods. There was a moon, and 
as the brave woman strode on in a light more attuned to tender 
associations than to those of war, she came on the Indian encamp- 
ment. For a moment, and to a mind free from apprehension, the 
scene was picturesque. But when two hundred armed Indians 
rose, and yelled and shouted, " woman !" it was terrible. " It made 
me tremble," said Mrs. Secord, when recounting the circumstance. 
'•' I cannot," she added, " express the awful feeling it gave me." 
She did not, however, lose her presence of mind. Advancing to 
one of the chiefs, she made him understand she had great news 
for Fitzgibbon. Fitzgibbon, benefiting by the information, made 
his arrangements. 

The following day Colonel Baerstler came unexpectedly on this 



* Chandler, one of the Generals taken, had, on he 4th of July, 1812, given as a toast, 
" The 4th of July, 1813, may we on that day drink wine within the walls of Quebec." 
He probably had hia wish, as on that day he was a prisoner within those walls. 



216 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



same body of Indians. Fighting ensued. Fitzgibbon soon came 
up with his thirty men. The fighting grew hotter. Baerstler 
fearing an ambuscade drew off his large body of infantry, his 
dragoons and his field pieces towards Lundy's Lane. 

Lieutenant Fitzgibbon reconnoitred and having discovered that 
reinforcements had been sent for, determined on a step so bold, and 
so instinct with the true soldier genius, that it deserves to be 
placed on record as among the master feats of the world, with that 
of the Huguenot Captain Normand and the soldier Barbot when 
the Duke of Anjou was besieging Rochelle, with the gallantry of 
*Elizabeth's great Admira- attacking a whole Spanish fleet with 
a single ship; a feat which gives a revived lustre to the Chevalier 
Bayard's grand motto"f* too often forgotten in these degenerate 
days, and for which Fitzgibbon was much praised. He determined 
to summon the Americans to surrender. Baerstler was entrapped 
by the boldness of the step. He surrendered. Terms of capitu- 
lation were drawn up. By a judicious disposition of a few men 
Fitzgibbon had given Baerstler the idea that he was surrounded. 
Five hundred infantry, fifty mounted dragoons, two field guns, 
with ammunition waggons and the colours of the 16th United 
States Regiment were taken. This, as Miss Machar says, was one 
of the most brilliant, if, indeed, it was not the most brilliant 
exploit of the war. J Of course the exploit was on a small scale, 
but it was in the grand manner. Fitzgibbon was as much out- 
numbered as Miltiades was at Marathon. 



* Sir Richard Grenville. 

t Bayard'8 device was a porcupine with the motto —Vires agminis unus habet. That 
is — one man is as strong as an army corps. 

Z The allusion made above to the siege of Rochelle, the historical student will excuse 
me ej. plaining for the benefit of some of my friends. Near the counterscarp of Rochelle 
was a mill which Nonnand had taken possession of and in which he placed one soldier. 
Stiozzi, one of the besieging generals, attacked it in the night. The soldier Barbot held 
it resolutely, firing with incredible quickness a number of shots from an arquebuss on 
the assailants. By varying the inflection of his voice the impression was given that he 
had a considerable garrison, while Normand from a battlement encouraged him in words 
which kept up the delusion. Barbot, on the point of being forced, demanded quarter 
for all in the mill. Quarter being granted he surrendered the entire garrison in his own 
person. If it is permissible to mingle the sublime with the ridiculous, compare the 
soug, 

" ' Let me out ! Let me out ! ' ' Zounds ! what a bother 
If there's two of you, why not help one another ?' " 



ROMANCE AMID BATTLE. 



217 



Be 
le 



Fitzgibbon received his captain's commission on the field. No 
warrior that Frossart celebrated was braver than this man, and 
that he would not have been out of place in the old chronicler's 
knightly narrative when men dared great things for the smile of 
fair ladies, will be seen by what follows. The moment he was 
captain, he asked leave of absence for three days. The request 
waa extraordinary ; another battle was expected soon. General 
Sheaffe after a moment's hesitation refused the request. But 
when Fitzgibbon told his story; how there was a little girl he 
loved and how he wanted to marry her so that if he was killed she 
should have the pension of a captain's widow, the refusal was 
withdrawn and the request granted. 

Can you not follow the lover hero, riding one hundred and fifty 
miles or more to Bath, to marry the girl he loved ? How full of 
all sorts of various and conflicting emoiions his breast would be. 
Her name was Mary Shea. They were married, and he was back to 
his duty in time. 

Fitzgibbon was a plain simple man, in all points heroic. With 
that absurd desire so often witnessed to deprive the common 
people of great qualities, an attempt has been made more than 
once to connect him with what is called "a good family," and some 
have for this purpose drawn largely on their imagination. But 
his own words and the portrait of him painted by a master hand, 
the accomplished author of " Winter Studies," * leave no doubt that 
he sprang from the peasant class, I commend him for not seeking 
to disown his origin. I have lately had to read with some 
care "Morgan's Parliamentary Companion," and the impression it 
makes on me is, that none but aristocrats have emigrated to- 
Canada from Scotland and Ireland and I may add England. A 
reproach has been hurled at us colonists that we "steal crests." 
There could be no meaner vulgarity. Fitzgibbon was above this. 
Nor was he ashamed of his humble mother as I have known some 
modern heroes to he.f 



* Mrs. Jameson, an Irishwoman, to whom I shall ha. ^ again to refer, 
t A .soldier who distinguished himself in one of our recent African wars, and whos 
career I followed with some interest, lost all claim to respect in my eyes when I dis- 
covered that he was not only ungrateful to his aged mother but ashamed of her humble 
position. 



■218 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



One February morning, nearly forty years ago, Mrs. Jameson 
wan visited hy a man " who," she says " would have pleased me 
anywhere, hut here he is really invalus.ble." This was Colonel 
Fitzgibbon — the eager lover and Ulyssian soldier of our present 
■chapter. She then recounts an incident told her by Fiiz^ibbon 
with the view of showing the simplicity of his character. 

In earlier pages it has been shown that the writer knows the ad- 
vantages of Canada. She is not without disadvantages as com- 
pared with Ireland or Great Britain. What Irishman, country- 
born, has not been waked in the early summer morning with a 
chorus of birds in the elms and beeches around his home — the 
thrush's song, the blackbird's rich note, the robin's hymn elate, 
the linnet's warbling, the finch's quick-beat notes, all making a 
various harmony while 

" Night murmurs to the Morning, 
' Lie still, love, lie still ! ' " 

and glimmering day spreads silvery arms around the shadowy 
walls of the room of his childhood. What Englishman, what 
traveller who has loitered in the gloaming amid Wiltshire orchards, 
or with devious step lingered to inhale the fragrance of a Surrey 
flower garden, snugly lying under the protection of a fir-covered 
heather-clad foi'est, and not heard with rapture the nightingale 
wooing the rose, and with breast pressed against the beloved thorn, 
singing so that the night air pauses on his way to listen. These 
are joys which are not for us in Canada. Nor, again, have we 
another joy to see and hear, when the land is all gold with sum- 
mer, the lark go up like a stream of song, and hidden in a cage of 
sunlight, with a sunbeam for his perch, pour forth the gladdest 
of all bursts of melody. In his boyhood, Fitzgibboii had often, in 
his wanderings over the fields, seen the lark rise and heard him 
sing, and like all true, simple natures, he had learned to love the 
bird. Besides, it was associated with home, with the fields of his 
childhood, with the daisies and buttercups, the hurrying cadent 
streams streaking the mountain side with silver, and making 
darkening mysterious mirrors in the valleys for the changing 
landscape — mirrors of limped gloom, framed by many a blue wild 
flower, peeping out from nook or tiny cleft of half-moss-hidden 



■MUM 






POWER OF ASSOCIATION. 



219 



rock. It is in such scenes we fill the goblet with a pure and holy in- 
spiration whence the mind, amid the sin and sorrow of the world* 
drinks refreshing, scenes to which we fly when experience proves the 
mocked commonplace of the preacher, that the world is vanity, and 
all its triumphs dead sea fruits. For nature when unmarred 
by man, by his proud iutixi«iuii or his hideous gas lamp, or his 
smoking factory, is as the face of God, full of sweetness and pity 
and sympathy, to whom we -an go, and having poured out .^ur 
griefs, dry the tears and smooth away the wrinkles, and return 
again to the world with a spirit and look of proud endurance. 
And how grateful are we for whatever helps us in the midst of 
the busy heartless crowd, snaffled with greed and whipt on by 
Mammon, for whatever repeopies the old vanished world with its 
purple light u.id the glories of imaginative childhood, just hover- 
ing over the mountain ere they depart for ever! It may be the 
note of a flute, a flower, the wind haiping among the trees, the 
roll of the lake on the beach, the drip of the suspended oar which 
shall prove the enchanter, or the magician's voice may be the song 
of a bird, 

Now it hapj.oaed that in Fitzgibbon's 'lase the enchanter was 
a lark, a bird long known in Toronto as tbe "emigrant lark." Mrs. 
Jameson recalls some lines from one of Wordsworth's lyrics — 
" The Reverie of Poor Susan," in which is described the emotions 
of a simple servant girl from the country, on hearing the song of a 
caged bird in Cbeapside. 

'Tis a note of eui;hantment— what ails her ? she sees 
A mountain asctiiding, a vision of trees ; 
And a single small cottage, a nest like a dove's, 
The one only dwelling on earth that she loves ! 

The fair writer having remarked on the nearness of the alliance 
between all human hearts in natural instincts and sympathies with 
their unfailing fountains of poetry, describes how Fitzgibbon told 
her on their first interview how as he was turning down a by- 
street in Toronto he heard somewhere near him the so\>g of the 
lark, and how he described his emotions on the occasion in the 
following words : " When I heard the voice of the bird in the 
air, I looked by the natural instinct up to the heavens, though 
I knew it could not be there, and then on this side, and then 



220 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



on that, and at last I Haw the littlo creature perched 
on itH sod of turf in a cage, and there it kept trilling and 
warbling away, and there I stood stock-still — listening with my 
heart. Wtil, I don't know what it was came over me, but every- 
thing seemed to change before my eyes, and I was in Ireland, and 
my home all about me, an<l I was again a wild slip of a boy lying 
on my back on the hill-side near my mother's cabin, and watch- 
ing as I used to do, the lark soaring above my head, and I straining 
my eyes to follow hei , till .she melted into the blue sky — I stood," 
he continued, " listening to the bird lost, as in a dream, and there 
I think I could have stood until this day." Mrs. Jameson goes on 
to describe how " the eyes of the rough soldier filled with tears." 
He was, she says, as unconscious that he was talking poetry as 
Monsieur Jourdain that he was talking prose. " Colonel Fitz- 
gibbon," she continues, " is a soldier of fortune ; that phrase 
means in his case at least, that he owes nothing whatever to for- 
tune, but everything to his owji good heart, his own good sense, 
and his own good sword. He was the son, and glories in it of an 
Irish cotter, on the estate of the Knight of Glyn." We have 
seen something of his early career. We have it on his own 
authority, that up to the time he shouldered a musket, his only 
reading had been " The Seven Champions of Christendom," and 
The Seven Wise Masters," " with his head full of these examples 
of chivalry he marched to his first battle field vowing to himself 
that if tMere were a dragon to be fought or a giant to be defied he 
would be their man ! At all events he would enact some valorous 
exploit, some doughty deed of arms, which should astonish the world 
and dub him captain on the spot." He then — Mrs. Jameson is 
speaking — " described with great humour and feeling his utter 
astonishment and mortification on finding the mechanical 
slaughter of a modern battle so widely different from the picture 
in his fancy ; when he found himself one of a mass in which the 
individua' heart and arm however generous, however strong, 
went for nothing — forced to stand still, to fire only by the word 
of command — the chill it sent to his heart, and his emotions 
when he saw the comrade at his side fall a quivering corpse at 
his feet, — all this he described with a graphic liveliness and sim- 
plicity which was very amusing." We have seen how he was 



A IJEROS SHAME. PILLAGE. 



221 



taken prisoner. Mrs. Jameson ac^'ls the following details. " He 
was afterwards taken prisoner, and at the time he was so over- 
come by the idea of the indignity he had incurred hy being' cap- 
tured and stripped [of his arms], and of the afHiction and dis- 
honour that would fall oji hi^- mother that he was tempt(Ml to com- 
mit suicide in the old Reman fashion ; but on seeing a lieutenant 
of his own regiment brought in prisoner he thought better of it : 
a dishonour which the lieutenant endured with philosophy might 
he thought be borne by a subaltern, for by this time, at the age of 
eighteen he was ain.ady a sergeant." Mrs. Jameson feels inclined 
to patronize the colonel a little after the manner of a literary lady 
highly cultivated, and fresh from the old country, dealing with an 
old Canadian veteran. In another paragraph she says : — " The 
men who have most interested me through life were all self edu- 
cated and what are called originals. This dear good F. is most 
original. Some time ago he amused me and gave me at the same 
time a most vivid idea of the minor horrors and irremediable mis- 
chiefs of war, by a description of his being qnarteied in a church 
in Flanders. The Ss, iers on taking possession of their lodging 
began by breaking open the poor boxes, and ransacking the 
sacristy. They then broke up the chairs and benches for fires to 
cook their rations, and these not sufficing, the wooden saints and 
carved altars were soon torn down. Finding themselves incom- 
moded by the smoke, some of the soldiers climbed up by the pro- 
jecting ornaments, and smashed through the windows of rich 
stained glass to admit the air, and let out the smoke. The n'^xt 
morning at sunrisu,'' says Mrs. Jameson, " they left this sanctuary 
of religion and art a foul defaced ruin. A century could not 
make good again the pollution and spoliation of those few hours. 
' You must not be too hard on us poor soldiers,' added Fitzgibbon, 
as if answering to a look, for I^ did not comment aloud, ' I had a 
sort of instinctive perception of the mischief we were doing, but I 
was certainly the only one ; they knew no better, and ths pre- 
carious life of a soldier gives him the habit of sacrificing every- 
thing to the present moment, and a certain callousness to the 
suffering and destruction which besides that it ministers to the 
Immediate want, is out of sight and forgotten the next instant. 
Why, I was not quite so insensible as the rest, I cannot tell unless 



'4 



I'll 
i iw 



i, 



222 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



it was tlirough the j^'oodne.ss of God. When I was a boy, my first 
feeliiif^ next to my love for my mother wn,s j^ratitiulo to Ood fi)v 
having' made me and called me into being out of nothing. My 
first thought was what I could do to please him. » * ♦ 
I looked about in the fulness of my heart to see what I could do 
— and I fancicMl there was a voice which whispered continually, 
' Do good to your neighbouj do good to your neighbour ! ' With 
so much overflowing benevolence and fearless energy of character, 
and all the eccentricity and sensibility and poetry and headlong 
courage of his country, you cannot wonder that tliis brave and 
worthy man interests me." 

The unknown poet, I have so often quoted deals very gi-aphi- 
eally with the affair of the Beaver Dam. 

At Beaver Dam collecting their «ni)i)lieB 
The British lay with force of little Hize, 
Some fifty Hoiils 'twas easy to defeat, 
And John could never fight unleBS he eat. 
Therefore thiH victory would crown their name 
With noble conquestH and the wreath of fame. 
On th«y advanced— their cannon in their rear 
Their strength precluding order, caution, fear. 
And hover'd on the Bkirts of Beaver near, 
BeHide a wood, whose deep and sombre shade 
Encircled round a little peac^^ful glade, 
When like flamingos the g'^ s among, 

Appear'd the British, st' line along ; 

The dazzling red-coa* dvery side,* 

Before, behind, all g far and wide, 

And by their side u ..Ke Indian band. 
With each his bow and tomahawk in hand. 
Their Chieftain's visage glar'-' with deeper red 
As to behold the foe he rais'd his head ; 
And from his eye-balls flash'd indignant ire 
Li'i :i a dark cloud shooting its vivid fire. 
His bow and quiver to his shoulder slung 
And in his belt his heavy hatchet hung. 
He marked Fitzgibbon with a i)iercing look 
And from that silent signal, orders took. 
The young lieutenant with intrepid eye 
Forward advanc'd — and bade them yield or die. 
His major's name he urg'd, whose force at hand 
Would treble theirs ; a sturdy veteran band ; 
And their resistance nothing could avail. 
The crest-fallen Colonel listened to the tale. 



* I tzgibboii had so disposed his little force that it seemed very formidable. 



SUCCESSFUL ATTACK ON BLACK ROCK. 22^ 

Ga»e up hlH men uiul afl he ntill declnres — 
* " From pure humanity," that evor Hpares. 
Gentle, kind creature ! Tjet hin name he great ! 
He ruhbed hiu friend to aid his foe'H eutate. 

On hearin*,' of Bneistler's critical position, a reinforccmont of 300 
men were despatched to his aid. But when they found tliat his 
«' critical " situation was capitulation, the}' returned to th(» camp. 

Tlie brilliant stroke of F'itzgihixjn was kept in countenance; by the 
gallant descent of Colonel Clark (Canadian Militia,) and (Jolonel 
Bisshopp, on the 11th July, on Black Rock. Bisshopp with a 
detachment of royal artillery under Lieutenant Armstrong', forty 
of the King's regiment under Lieutenant Barston, one hundred of 
the 41st under Captain Saunders, forty of the 49th untler Cap- 
tain Fitzgibbon, and about forty of the 2nd and 3rd Lincoln 
militia, embarked at two o'clock in the morning, to attack the bat- 
teries of Black Rock.f The detachment landed half an hour be- 
fore daylight. So stealthily was this done, that not a sentry 
stiiTed. They at once proceeded to attack the batteries, which 
they carried by surprise. The enemy hearing the firing at their 
advanced posts, retreated precipitately on Buffalo. The British 
immediately set to work to destroy block-houses and barracks,, 
and the morning sky anrJ limpid water were soon red with the 
flames from these, from a navy-yard, and from a largo schooner 
Such of the public stores as could be got off were taken across the 
river. While they were completing the transportation of stores 
the enemy, having been reinforced by a large body of Indians, came 
up. The Indians were posted in the woods, on their flanks, and in 
advance of them. A gallant fight was made by the British. Find- 
ing, however, that the Indians could not be driven from the woods 
without great loss, Bisshopp determined to retreat to the boats. In 
the retreat, he fell. The detachment, however, did not suffer, 
as all necessary pre-arrangments had been made. The sun was 
now getting strong, and in his full morning beams it was a splen- 
did sight to see the boats bearing the heroic band somewhat 
thinned, across the river, while the American regulars, mill' ia and 
Indians, poured on them a heavy fire. The}» had eighteen killed,. 



i 



* Colonel Baerstler said he capitulated on the score of humanity, 
t A stronghold near Buffalo. 



22* 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



nineteen wounded, and six ])rivates were niis.sing. They had 
Hoi^^ed and captured valuable Htores, and destroyed a great quan- 
tity of ordnance.* The descent at Black Rock was a great .suc- 
cess, though itwas very dearly pui'chased by the death of Bisshopp, 
and Bissho])p's death seems to be conn- jd with the eager cha- 
racter more than once exemplified by FitzgiVjbon. Captain Fitz- 
gibbon had been placed by General Vincent in connnand of a sort 
of independent com])any of Hangers. Volunteers from the various 
regiments were called for. So many men came forward from 
every regiment, that the difficulty was to decide who should be 
permitted to go. Any number of young subs tendered Fitzgibbon 
their services. Ho selected Lieutenant Winder f of the 49th, a 
friend of his, volunteer 1). A. Macdonell, of the 8th ; volunteer 
Augustus Thompson, of the 49th, and another from the same regi- 
ment. The.se were permitted as a great favour to join his corps. They 
were all dref-.sed in green, the Irish colour, and tliey were known 
as "Fitzgibbon's Green ' Uns." They were the fir.st to cross the 
river on the Black Rock expedition, and Fitzgibbon pressed on 
with such ardour, that the block -house was in their possession 
long before Colonel Bisshopp w'*s ready to move forward. This was 
considered a piece of impei'tinence, and the "Green 'Uns" were 
punished by being sent without breakfast, to watch the enemy 
near Buffalo, while the rest of the detachment was carrying off 
the stores. This accomplished, they were ordered to return and 
cover the re-embarkation. Colonel Bisshopp was nettled at not 
having been in front during the advance. He was now deter- 
mined to be the last to retire. All had embarked safely. But 
the moment they began to push from shore, the Indians who, un- 
perccived, had crawled to the banks, fired on them. Tiie "Green 
'Uns " disembarked and drove the enemy to the woods. On 
re-embarking the fire was renewed. Again they disembarked. 
Again the Indians sought the woody .shelter. But by this time, 
Porter with his whole force was upon them. The only thing was 
to rush for the boats. In the confusion, some oars of the boat 
into which Bisshopp sprang were lost overboard. She drifted 



" Letter of Thomas Obirke, Lieutenai.t-Colonel 2nd Lincoln Militia, to Lieutenant- 
•Colonel Harvey, Deputy- Adjutant General. 

t Afterwards Dr. Winder, liibranra to the House of Assembly at Quebec. 



DESCENT ON HACKETT's HARBOUR. 



225 



In 
In 



down stream, the enemy firing mto hiir. Thns, says* the authority 
for this version, gallant Bisshopp, the darling of the army, re- 
ceived hi.s death wound, and never was any ottiecr, save Brock, 
more regretted than he wa«.* The same authority asserts that 
on this occasion all the fighting was done by Fitzgi'obon's men. 
It would be more satisfactory if .the v/riter of the letter had not 
with})eld liis name. But it is to be presumed that Auchinleck would 
not ([uote it, unless the writer was known to him as trustworthy. 
All we know of him is, that he was one if the subs of tlie 4Uth. 

Seven <lays before, when Colonel dark's militia cro.sst^d over 
from Chi})[)aNva, and captured the guard stationed at F(M't Schlos- 
ser, bringing back with them a large quantity of provisions, a six 
pounder, several stand of arms ami abundant ammunition, a por- 
tion of the Greens, commanded }>y Lieutenant Winder were with 
them. On the following day, when a large detachment crossed 
from Buti'alo.they were encountered hy twenty-five of Fitzgib})on'a 
men, under Thompson, and were ^jroed to make a running fight to 
their boats. 

While the operations we have glancerl at were going forward on 
the Niagara fi-ontier, an expi-ditiun was fitted out at Kingston for 
a descent upon Sackc'tt's Harbour, under an understanding be- 
tween Sir George Prevost, tlie Commander-in-Chief, and Sir James 
Lucas Yeo, the British Conunodore. The expedition was ready on 
the 28th of May — three gun-ships carrying troops and accompanied 
by the Connnodore's fla.g ship. At ten o'clock at night they stood 
for the American side. When tliey ap])eared before Sackett's Har- 
bour, they found 'he enemy on the alert ; signaL-n were given. 
The American regulars and militia posted near hurried to the re. 
lief of the troops left by Dearborn to <l<;iend the place. Never- 
theless a landing was effected in the face of a large force of mili- 
tia, and no sooner had the British troops formed on the beach and 
given them a volley than they broke and fitd in confusion. 
The advanced guard, composed of the grenadiers of the 100th 
Regiment, all of them Lish, as we have seen, drove the enemy 
from every position he had taken up.-f- 



♦Letter from " A Green 'Un," quoted by Auchinleck, in his Hi.<)tory of the War. p. 
178. 
+ History of the War. By David Thompson, of the Royal Scots, p. 190. 
15 




226 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Now the British troops were placed in a crit'cal position. Col. 
Baynes was proceeding to attack the batteries with the view of 
tr king the town and arsenal when he found himself attacked in 
the rear by a large body of the United States militia, brought up 
by General Brown, the batteries meanwhile pouring on the 
British fro» t a furious fire. There was nothing for it but to re- 
embark. The British loss was two hundred and fifty-nine in 
killed and wounded and missing. But for the arrival of 
jeneral Brown the town and arsenal would have been captured, as 
prior to his coming up the enemy had commenced to burnhis stores . 

In the west, Proctor was waging an unequal and doubtful 
struggle against Harrison, in which though greatly outnumbered 
Scotchmen — witness the splendid charge of the 41st, under Muir — 
and Englishmen were behaving as they always have done in 
battle. It is scarcely within the scope of this work to dwell on 
the fighting on Lake Ontario between Chauncy and Yeo, or the 
second descent on York, when the devastation previously com- 
menced was finished ; on the American attacking parties amid the 
blue mazes of the Thousand Islands, intercepting convoys of 
batteaux, conveying provisions for western garrisons ; on the 
attempts against Canada niade from the mountain girdled bays of 
Lake Champlain ; on the naval conflicts far out on th(^ stormy 
Atlantic ; on the vigilant blockade established by Sir John Borlase 
on the American coast. I have an impression that the overwhelm- 
ing majority of " tars" have been Englishmen. I know of course 
that Scotchmen and Irishmen were, and are, to be found among 
the men and officers of the British fleet. But the above impres- 
sion is strong, and therefore I have always thought the glory of 
naval victories belongs in a peculiar manner to the great Eng- 
lish section of the two islands which have made the empire. I 
must however add, that I never have had time or opportunity to 
verify this impression ; and I have met a good many Irishmen 
in all ranks on board men-of-war. 

As the fiery tints which promise the fall, began to appear in the 
woods, the American leaders determined to act with an energy 
which could not fail of success. Hampton in the east, crossed 
Lake Champlain at the head of 5,000 men, with the view of ad- 
vancing on Montreal. Wilkinson with a force of 10,000 men 



1 
t 
1 
1 
I 

P 

E 
V 

th 




PROCTORS RETREAT. TECUMSEH S DEATH. 



227 



e 

(T 



threatened Kingston from Saclett's Harbour. Fort Georffe 
was in the possession of the enem}', watched by Vincent. In the 
west, General Harrison was awaiting reinforcements to advance 
with 6,000 men on Proctor. 

Fort Maiden, Proctor's main stronghold, had been despoiled 
of arms and ammunition to supply Barclay's fleet. When Bar- 
clay's squadron — overpowered by numbers, every vessel unman- 
ageable, every officer killed or wounded, a third of the crews 
hors de combat, and Barclay himself so mutilated, that when 
months afterwards he appeared before the Admiralty, stem 
warriors, whose eyes were not used to the melting mood, wept, had 
to surrender. Proctor was in a position to which little justice is 
done by describing it as critical. His last hope was destroyed. 
Had Barclay beaten Perry he could have rendered assistance to 
Proctor, which would perhaps have forced Harrison to abandon 
his position. But now before the English Commander the only 
alternative was retreat or ruin, and retreat across the wilder- 
ness in rainy autumn weather, was beset with dangers. Fort 
Detroit was therefore dismantled and abandoned. With a force 
of 830 men the unfortunate Commander, deaf to the remonstrance 
of Tecumseh, and with misery and humiliation in his heart, re- 
treated to Burlington Heights. Tecumseh with 300 Indian fol- 
lowers accompanied him. Harrison with 3,800 men pursued. Proc- 
tor's rear guard was surprised, stores and ammunition were cap- 
tured, and 100 prisoners taken. Proctor was brought to bay. The 
brief fight came off at Moravian Town, on the Thames. Proctor 
was the last man to be equal to perilous demands. He was 
routed, and with a remnant of his troops effected a miserable re- 
treat. In Tecumseh, the heroic fire of perhaps a once civilized 
race blazed forth, and he, the last of the great Indian chiefs, fell 
like the English Warwick, the last of the great English Barons. 
Lakes Erie and Huron and the western frontier were now com- 
pletely under the control of the Americans. 

Vincent was compelled to raise the blockade of Fort George. 
Everything looked dark. Prevost issued ordors to abandon the 
Upper Province west of Kingston. But in the face of this order of 
the timid Prevost, a council of war was held on Burlington Heights 
and the resolution formed to defend the western peninsula. 



228 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



There we^e in Lower Canada 3,000 British troops, supported by 
a French Canadian militia, to face 21,000 men under Wilkinson 
and Hampton, bent on the conquest of the province. Upper 
Canada was considered by the Americans as practically at their 
mercy, and indeed it was a dark hour for the British. How is the 
little colony going to Keep out of the maw of the Republic ? The 
letters of Mr. Todd, wntten at this time, show how great was the 
crisis, and yet how nl^L was the spirit of the young nation. 

It has been doubted whether Wilkinson intended to attack King- 
ston, If he did so intend, 2,000 troops having been thrown into 
Kingston, his mind was directed into another channel. After 
he had collected all his forces on Grenadier's Island, between King- 
ston and Sackett's Harbour, they were embarked on board a 
flotilla, and began the descent of the St. Lawrence. On the Gth 
November, they arrived at Williamsburg, where the troops, toge- 
ther with the stores and munitions of war disembarked on the 
Canadian side of the river. They meant to pass undiscovered 
during night, the British posts at Prescott and its neighbourhood. 
They reckoned without their host. A force, small when com- 
pared with that of the enemy, consisting of the skeletons of the 
49th and 89th regiments, and three companies of Canadian 
voltigeurs, with a few militia and a couple of gun-boats, in all not 
more than eight hundred men, under the command of Colonel 
Morrison, had hovered on the rear of the flotilla. At Prescott their 
movements were known. The enemy was about to move past the 
Fort, fondly believing that all was quiet within, when they were 
assailed on both land and water, by a disconcerting fire of 
musketry and battery guns. In the morning, a few miles below 
Prescott, when they were preparing the flotilla to move on to- 
wards the rapids of the Long Sault, Colonel Morrison, with his 
detachment, came up with them. As a considerable p oportion 
of the 800 men were Irish it is not beyond the scope of this 
book to describe the Battle of Chrysler's Farm, where the 
fathers of some of cur prominent citizens in every town in Canada 
fought, and where some of them gloriously fell. It was the first 
battle where the British and American troops met on the open 
plains. Here there was no shelter for the American riflemen ; no 
rests for their pieces. 



BATTLE OF CHRYSLERS FARM. 



229 



On the 11th of November, about two o'clock in the afternoon, two 
brigades of infantry and a regiment of cavahy, amounting to 
between three and four thousand men under Gene/al Boyd, were 
sent against Morrison's advance. These fell gradually back to 
the position chosen for the detachment to occupy. The British 
force exhibited a front of about seven hundred yards. At one end 
of the seven hundred yards rolled the St T,awvence; at the other 
frowned a pine wood. The British rigi, ited on the former; 
the left on the latter. The right consisted of v flank companies 
of the 49th, a detachment of the Canadian Fencibles, and one field 
piece. These were a little advanced on the road and were sup- 
ported by three companies of the 89th with a gun, formed in 
echelon.* The 49th and 89th thrown more to the rear with a gun 
formed the main body ; a reserve extended to the bleak woods on 
the left, which were occupied by the voltigeurs and a few Indians. 
An hour after the first gun M^as fired the action became general. 
The enemy moved forwanl r- br.igade to turn the British left ; 
they were repulsed by the 8')th and 49th. The next movement 
was directed against the right. The 49th hurried in echelon to 
meet the foe followed by the 89th ; the 49th advanced until within 
half musket shot of the enemy. They were then ordered to form 
into line which they did under a heary fire. "Charge!" rang out 
on the cold November air, and the 49th were told to advance 
and take the gun. They moved forward, but, when they were 
within a short distance of their prize, their ardour was checked 
by a command to halt. The enemy's cavalry had charged on the 
right and there was danger if the attempt to take the gun 
had been persevered in, they might have fallen on the rear of 
49th. They were however so well received by the companies of 
the 89th and the British artillery poured into them so well directed 
a fire that they quickly retreated. An immediate charge was 
then made and the gun was taken. The British were now ordered 
to move foi-ward along the whole line. The Americans concen- 
trated their forces to check this advance. But bef )ve the steady 



1 



\ 



* Echelon ia a French word and means the step of a ladder. It is figuratively applied 
to the position of a body of troops arranged in lines or divisions having the right of the 
one bordering upon but slightly behind the left of the other. To the eye of a person 
on horseback it looks like a ladder. 



230 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



valour and well directed lire of the British they gave way at all 
points. Nearly 4,000 had been in fact beaten by 800, from an 
exceedingly strong position. They sought to cover their retreat 
by their light infantry; but they were soon routed. The de- 
tachment that night occupied the ground from which the 
enemy had been driven. His whole infantry lied to the boats 
and sought the American shore. 

Some three weeks earlier Colonel de Salaberry, with a few hun- 
dred Canadians, confronted Hampton with a force which must 
have been near eight thousand, seeking to enter Canada by the 
Chateauguay River on his march to Montreal. On the 26th of 
October, Hampton's light troops forming his advance were seen 
moving up both sides of the Chateauguay. By an admirable dis- 
position of his troops Colonel de Salaberry checked the advance 
on the left bank of the river, the enemy causing his light troops 
and the whole main body of the army to retire, while his advance 
on the right bank of the river was turned by Captain Daly's com- 
pany of the Third Battalion of embodied militia and Captain 
Bruyere's company of Chateauguay chasseurs. The enemy made 
frequent attempts during the day to advance. He was each time 
repulsed, and under cover of night he retreated across the St. 
Lawrence. In the general orders of October 27th, special mention 
is made of Captain Daly's " spirited advance," and we are told that 
Lieutenant-Colonel de Salaberry experienced the most able sup- 
port from, amongst others, Adjutant O'Sullivan. 

Wilkinson had ordered Hampton to join him at St. Regis. We 
have seen how Wilkinson himself behaved. When he received a 
letter from Hampton on the 12th November, the day after he had 
fled before Morrison's little band, he declared his hopes were 
blasted. The invasion planned on so large a scale had failed 
miserably. An American journal said democracy had rolled her- 
self up in weeds and lain down for its last wallowing in the slough 
of disgrace.* All danger having been removed by the retreat of 
the two American generals the Sedentary Canadian Militia was 
dismissed on the 17th November. 

General McClure was still in the possession of Fort George, and 



* fiostun Gazette 



FORT NIAGARA TAKEN. 



,231 



his soldiers greatly distressed the neighbourhood. General Mur- 
ray of the 100th, was sent by Vincent to check the depredations 
on the farmers. General McClure decamped with has<te from 
Twenty Mile Creek, and hearing of the disastrous termination of 
Wilkinson's expedition he precipitately abandoned Fort George, 
having first however, contrary to plighted faith, set fire to Newark. 
That beautiful peaceful little town which every summer gleams 
afar over the steely silvery water to the eye of the inhabitants of 
Toronto going over in " the boat " to the Queen's Royal, or making 
for the hundi-edth time the pilgrimage to the Falls, was one mass 
of flame ; those wooded, mirrored shores, which are known best as 
varied with glaring sunlight and illuminated mist, sweeping away 
in long links until lost in silver haze, where the lake and sky are 
one, were then bare of leaf ; every tiny limb had its burden of snow ; 
and on receding bay and frozen branch the conflagration cast a glow 
which had its companion flare in the wintry heavens. The blue 
wooded heights which form so appropriate a back-ground to the 
picture, in the month of June, were splendid with the reflection of 
the flames, and where so much comfort and hospitality and good 
cheer reigns to-day there was nothing but cold and want and misery. 
Every house save one was a smoking ruin. Of a valuable library, 
the property of Counsellor Dickson, and which had cost a vast sum, 
not a book remained. Dickson was a prisoner. His wife lay on 
a sick bed. The ruffians who fired her house took her and placed 
her on the snow before her devoted building. On a December 
night of an unusually severe winter four hundred helpless women 
and children were compelled to seek shelter where they might. 
Colonel Murray now pi;oposed an attack on Fort Niagara and the 
proposal was approved by General Drummond. A surprise was 
resolved on. The embarkation commenced on the night of the 
18th December. The whole of the troops had landed three miles 
from the fort early on the following morning. The force was as 
follows, and consisted as will be seen largely of Irish, fighting 
happily side by side with their English and Scotch brethren. The 
order of attack is adhered to, and as the reader cannot fail to 
observe the Irish 100th was assigned the post of honour : an ad- 
vance guard, one subaltern and twenty rank and file, grenadiers 
of the 100th Regt., Royal Artillery with grenadiers, five com- 



SB 



232, 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



panies of the 100th Ref,'t. under Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton, to 
assault the main gate and escalade the walls adjacent ; three 
com])anies of the 100th under Captain Martin — an Irishman — 
to storm the eastern demi-bastion ; Captain Bailey with the 
grenadiers and Royal Scots was directed to attack the salient 
angle of the ioi-tification, and the flank companies of the 41st 
Regt. were ordered to support the principal attack. Each 
party had scaling ladders and axes. The fortress was carried by 
assault after a short but spirited resistance. Among the officers 
singled out for distinguished bravery were Captain Martin, who 
stormed the demi-bastion in the most intrepid manner, and Lieu- 
tenant Dawson and Captain Fawcett, both of the 100th. They 
were respectively in commaml of tlie advance and grenadiers, and 
cut otf two of the enemy's piquets, surprised the sentries on the 
glacis and at the gate, and thus obtained the watchword, " to 
which," says Colonel Murray, "may be attributed our trifling 
loss." The exertions of Quarter-master Pilkington, of the 100th» 
are eulogized, as are those of Captain Kirby,* Lieutenants Ball, 



li- 1 



♦ The Resolution of the Honourable the House of Assembly of Upper Canada. 

Resolved unanimously :— That a sword, value of fifty guineas, be presented to Capt. 

Jas. Kirby, of the Incorj)orated Militia, as a memoral of the high sense they entertain 

of the very important services which he rendered in crossing the troops to the territory 

of the United States, and the gallantry displayed by him at the capture by assault 

of Fort Niagara on the 19th of October, 1813. 

(Signed) GRANT POWELL, 

Clerk of Axiemblv. 
York, r2th of April, 3815. 

Inscription upon the Sword :- -" From the House of Assembly of Upper Canada to 
Captain James Kirby for his judicious and gallant conduct at the assault and reduc- 
tion of Fort Niagara on the 19th December 1813." 

His glorious achievement " which left the Niagara shores free from the enemy and 
contributed in a high degree to the result of the next campaign," so writes Allan 
Maclean, speaker of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada in a congratulatory 
letter dated Kingston, 10th October, 1815. 

It seems incredible but I am assured it is true nevertheless that owing to the surprise 
some American officers were found playing cards in the officers' quarters. James 
McFarland piloted a party of Irishmen, and as they opened the door on a number of 
officers who were playing " High, low. Jack and game," the question was asked " What 
is trumps ? " " British bayonets, be — ! " cried the foremost of the party. In visiting so me 
of the battle-fields of 1812-14, 1 found Mr. Duncan McFarland, of Niagara, an entertain- 
ing guide. This gentleman's father was Scotch and his mother Irish- -she the daughter 
of Irish John Wilson who brought » large family into Cannda at the close of the war 
He himself while yet a boy served in the war, first as oxon driver and afterwards as 
driver of horses. He says he was promoted to drive horses for what was deemed 



K < 



NEWARK AVENGED. 



283 



Scroos, and Hamilton of different provincial corps. The British 
force consisted of 500 rank .nd file. Twenty-seven pieces oi 
cannon were on the works. There were upwards of ?,000 stand of 
arms in the arsenal. The store-houses were full of clothing and 
camp equipage of every description. 

On the same day the Village of Lcwiston was taken posses- 
sion of, and together with Youngstown and Manchester, in re- 
venge for Newark, given to the flames. It would have been 
better to have acted more magnanimously. Later on Black Rock 
was taken by Major General Ryall with a force composed of por- 
tions of the 89th, the 41st and 100th regimenty, with about fifty 
militia volunteers, and a body of Indian warriors. 

The language of " Acadian " paints for us the feelings of the 
hour in vigorous terms, Homeric in their simplicity : — 

The foe had safely reached his native shore, 
There their wild revellings and riots roar ; 
Not long these drunken wassaili spread their noise. 
Short was the tumult of their hearty joys : 
Britannia's vengeance reached the saucy crew, 
And on Niagara's fort her veterans flew. 
That fortress fell with one resistless storm. 
Newark's bright flame matle her defenders warm,- - 
" Newark ! " the avenging word, as on they sped, 



bravery, but which was in reality cowardice. The first Congreve rockets which were 
used in the war were about to be tried and all were ordered to squat. Young McFar- 
land stood erect. "Why did you not squat?" asked General Murray. *'What do I 
care for your rockets, was the saucy reply of the boy, wherjupon he was promoted to 
to the rank of driver of horses. 

I asked how he came to have *' D " after his name. The " D " was adopted to save 
his father's rations. There was another man named McFarlane in the regiment, and 
he used to drink his rum. The change of a letter secured the grog. Duncan 
McFarland tells how he was standing on the road near the old McFarland ravine about 
two miles from Niagara, when an Indian asked him where the sentry was. The boy 
who had not yet taken the reins in hand told him, whereupon the Indian crept on his 
belly like an eel, and in a few minutes a shot wa-s heard and the sentry fell, which was 
the signal for a skirmish. Duncan McFarland saw Moore sitting under an oak tree 
where the Lewiston road now runs by the McFarland farm, composing and writing 
poetry. It was probably here he wrote part of his letter to Lady Charlotte Raw- 
don — the description of Niagara would be penned in the heat of early impressions. 
In the ravine two bayonets which are now in the possession of my friend T. A. Keefer, 
of Toronto, were found, one English and the other American, and no doubt, on the spot 
two soldiers fell at the same moment, as I have seen them fall during the Franco-Ger- 
manic -,var. In McFarland's house are clocks, mirrors, and other household gear which 
had been buried during the war. 



I 



Sm 



234 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



" Newark ! " was echoed a,H the Yankees fled ; 
A Hecond Newark LewiHton dispUyed, 
Blazing ret>riHal8 through the gloomy Hhade. 

Mr. Isaac Todd, on the 25tli December writes from Montreal, 
(and his words not only indicate the improved state of public feel- 
ing, but give us a glimpse of the way the Governor and the mer- 
chants occasionally spent their evenings, amid all the difficul- 
ties) : — " Public mattei-s look much better in the Upper Pro- 
vince. We are again in possession of Fort George, and all our 
former line to Fort Erie ; and your brother has given to Sir George 
an opinion which if followed will, I hope, protect Michilimakinac 
and Lake Huron, and, of course, the usual communication by the 
Grand River. ... I think we will [note the Irish use of 
will,] have a decided superiority on Lake Ontario next summer. 
We have a frigate of forty guns, and two smaller vessels, that will 
be ready to launch by April, and before if necessary. Sir George 
left this last week for Quebec. I feel his loss, having a general 
invitation to dine and play a rubber every evening. Indeed he 
has been particularly civil to me ; and since he went to Quebec he 
has reminded me of my promise to visit him there." 

The blazing a.nd smoking ruins of the American frontier from 
Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, furnished the drop scene of the second 
act of the war. The conquest of Canada was as remote as ever. 
There was not a foot of Canadian soil in possession of the enemy, 
excepting Amherstburg, in the far west, against the loss of which 
British possession of Fort Niagara might fairly be set ; while the 
American seaboard was blockaded, and American commerce was 
paralyzed. 

The fourth letter of " Acadian " concludes with a bitter attack 
on American life and manners. The writer's hatred of the rule of 
the many is as great as Mr. Loa,\ e's ; and two of his lines would 
recall the famous description of democracy, " that barren plain 
where every mole-hill is a mountain, and every thistle a forest 
tree":— 

All here aro great — all legislate and mAe, 
E'en boys are prating orators at school. 

To dwell further on " Acadian's " poem is foreign to my purpose. 



AMERICAN MANNERS SIXTY YEARS AGO. 235 

With cheering hopeHand most propitious smile, 



every house situated-aHtl^^ite/eltl T'^ '''^ '""'^^ '"^ "'« «'**«» "'»'^« 

rooms on a floor and two stonrw 1 . \"'f ~ *** *^*' '''^' ""^ *^« '•«''*1 ^th two 

the "wooden «eat " i^he S o;J^;e:r;'f;:'1 ^^'^ *^« --« "^ "«-'.- Hence 
wie louowmg verses of the Juvenal in exile of 1812 : 

All gentlemen-not like Cato wise 

Z^TJT' ^" P'""^'^-f''^'-e needed no disguise, 

But that the ,m.n would dignify his state, 

And w,,rth and wisdom make his station great ; 

Here they all brag- and hide with flimsy f^u.e 

Ihe dung hdl that their parent-stem supplies. 

I hat Qesar R«gers-in a log-house born, 

His mfarit-cradle now beholds with scon, ; 

Talks of his family-iu power and worti. 

And scorns the poor for their fow abject birth. 

HiB kmd biographer declares him great, 

Bon', as he says on his own sire's estate. 

ii> -T true and I will paint its size, 
^aint all its beauty to the dullest eyes • 

A mansion, twelve feet square, one side a door, 
A shmgled roof, hung o'er an unplaned floor, 
Received each traveUer who deigned to stay 
And bait h,.j horse or break fast on the way ; 
Ihis was his own estate, but now it stands '^ 

AS ted by better means and abler hands, 
in better garb arranged a wooden seat, 
Painted and white-wash'd all aroimd complete ; 
Here mushroom like they all spring up by chance. 
To make a gentleman he neeu but dance ' 

liien off they fling and strut and brag aloud 
And trample down the humble menial crowd, 
G«t placed in office and like beggars ride, 
And mal.e the wretched feel their upstart pride. 

He goes on, rising to a height he seldom attains, in a strain of true poetry :- 

Thin), not I scorn the poor- or low-born worth I 
Or look for Virtue in high titled birth. 
Ah no ! the violet beside the stream, 

On ^!°"™!ff ;««« th*t SreeU the morning beam. 
On the wild desert or the mountain's side, 
More lovely seems than all the garden's pride 



•23G 



TIIK lUISIIMAN IN CANADA. 



On tlio 3r(l FcV)ruaiy, 1814, wo find Isaac Todd writing &h fol- 
lows fionj Montroal. Hia luttur may be taken as an index of the 
general sentiment. 

" I have," ho says, " desired tliat none of my land be sold under 
two dollars an acre, and I think in peace the number of settlers 
from the States and disl)anded soldiers will increase the value of 
land, and the sums raised here and in F^ngland will be sufficient to 
compen.sate all those who have suffered from the war. Indeed, 
my opinion is, that Upper Canada has gained by the war, though 
some individuals have sutTered. I lately thought we would (note 
the use of would,) have ])cace this spring, and now I think it 
doubtful. Americans must be beat {sic) out of their arrogance 
.and insolence." 

If we except some little brushes in the west;, arising out of the 
predatory incursions of the enemy, who held Fort Maiden, nothing 
of any consequence wivs done until March. Towards the end of 
that month, Wilkinson with a force of 5000 infantry, 100 cavalry, 
and 11 guns, failed ^o take Lacolle Mills, ten miles from Rouse's 
Point, though it was defended by only a slender garrison of 500 
men. The besiegers retired after four hours' fighting, and betook 
themselves to the shores of Lake Ontario. At Oswego, the fleet 
made a descent on the An?erican troops, numbering 1,080, and put 
them to fiight. Chauncey was blockaded in Sackett's Harbour. 
Meanwhile, American troo})s under General Brown, were h.irrass- 
ing the Niagara frontier. Port Dover, without the least excuse, 
was wantonly burned down. Fort Erie, vvith a British ganison 
of 170, surrendered without firing a shot, to 4/^00 assailants. The 
170 men were of the 8th or King's regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Buck. There was along the frontier only 1J80 British 
troops, to meet a formidable foe. 

The fall of Fort Erie led to a gallant struggle, in which Irish- 
men shone. General Brown, thank'*ul for sujall mercies and 



Less sullied and more sweet it drinks the dew, 
Cheering with excellence the dreary view : 
The garden's gaudy pride rich compost gives ; 
In purity the mountain lily lives ; 
The Daw in borrow'd feathers I deride, 
Not the wild goldfinch singing by his side. 



A GALLANT STRUGGLE. 



237 



flushed with his succchh over 170 men, marched down the river to 
the British riji^lit, at the mouth of tlie Chippawa or Welland Iklvor. 
Lieufenant-Colom^l Pearson witli tlie light companies of the 100th, 
some militia, and a few Indians, reconnoitred their position and 
found them pasted on a rid<(e parallel with the river in strong 
force. (Jn learning that the 8th regiment was hourly expected 
from Toronto, or York, as it was then called, Major-General Ryall 
postponed the attack. 

On the 4th, Lieutenant-Colonel Pearson with the light com- 
pany of the Royal Scots, and the Hank company of the 100th, 
and a few of the 19th Light Dragoons was in advance, in a 
general reconnaissance. A slight skiiiiiish took [)lace with the 
enemy's riflemen. On the morning of the 5th, the King's regi- 
ment arrived. At four o'clock in the afternoon dispositions for 
attack were made. The advance consisted of the light companies 
of the Royal Scots and of the 100th regiment, with the second 
liincoln militia. The Indians were on the right flank in the 
woods. The troops moved in three colunms. The enemy had 
taken up a strong position ; his right resting on some buildings 
and orchards, close on the river Niagara, and strongly supported 
by artillery; his left toward the wood, a considerable body of rifle- 
men and Indians in front of it. 

The Indiai. s on the British side and the militia advancing, were 
soon engaged with the enemy's riflemen and Indians. The advance 
was checked for the moment, but it was only for a moment. The 
light troops were brought up to their support. Then in handsome 
style, after a shai'p contest, they dislodged the riflemen and Indians 
of the enemy. Two light twenty-four pounders and a howitzer 
were placed against the right of the enemy. The Royal Scots and 
100th Regiment were formed to attack his left, which opened a 
heavy fire. The King's Regiment was then moved to the right, 
and the Rcyal Scots and the 100th were ordered to charge him 
in front. Under a most destructive fire they charged with 
splendid gallantry, — the Scots of Scotia Major, and the Scots of 
Scotia Minor. They suffered severely, however, and having regard 
to the numbers of the enemy, it was thought well to withdraw 
tl. Tu. A retreat on Chippawa was made in good order. Not a 



238 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



single prisoner fell into the enemy's hands, save those who were 
disabled by wounds. 

General Ryall's attack on an enemy four or five times his num- 
ber, was justified by the past history of the war, by its results, and 
by his Irish blood. Brown had not even the spirit left to pursue 
him. His own men gained in form by the attack. The enemy 
was prevented trying to cut off communication with Burlington. 
Finding that Chauixcey's fleet was being watched and held in dur- 
ance by Commodore Yeo, and that therefore it could not assist him 
to take Fort George, General Brown retreated to Chippawa, pur- 
sued by whom he should have pursued. Ryall tok up a position 
at Lundy's Lane, about a mile from the Falls, and about two and a- 
liaii inAii the American position. 

General Drummond had hastened from Kingston to Niagara. 
He sent Colonel Tucker with a detachment to the other side of the 
river, and pushed on himself to Lewiston. The Americans, under 
Scott, had advanced to the Falls, and that commander sent for 
Brown to join him. In the face of this juncture Ryall was retreat- 
ing from Lundy's Lane, when Drummond came up and counter- 
manded the or it r to retire. The formation of the British troops 
was scarcely com^ueted when the whole front was warmly engaged. 
Both sides fought well. So determined were the attacks of the 
enemy that the British artillerymen were bayoneted while in the 
act of loading. Gunlip was within a few yards of gunlip. Long 
ere the last act of the bloody drama had begun, night closed over 
the scene. There was charge and countercharge, recoil and rally, 
and the moonlit gleam of sword and bayonet was like the phospho- 
rescent glow of the breakers of a bloody sea. At nine o'clock there 
was a short intermission, during which the muttied roar of the 
Falls was lieard above the groans of the dying, as though Eter- 
nity, calm and strong, awful and changeless, were chanting the 
requiem of the brave souls passing into her infinite bosom. Again 
there came from out the darkness a blaze, from out the comparative 
silence a rattle of musketry, and the enemy, like the movements 
of a fire-fly, could be discerned by his glare as he went into action. 
Though his attacks were everywhere renewed with fresh troops, 
they were everywhere repulsed. At midnight Brown was beaten, 
. and from before a force of only half his number, retreated, leaving 



AMERICANS BLOCKADED IN FORT ERIE. 



239 



nearly a thousand dead on the field. The British loss was very little 
less ; but the gallant force in which the Royal Scots played a 
splendid part, sat down the victors on that bloody scene. 

The eneray retreated on Chippawa. The following day he 
abandoned his camp, threw most of his baggage, camp equipage 
and provisions into the rapids and having set fire to Street's 
Mills and destroyed the Chippawa bridge, retreated in great dis- 
order on Fort Erie. The whole force of 5,000 Americans had 
been engaged. Lieutenant GeneralDrummond mentions Major Kirby 
as among those who had distinguished themselves. The English 
and Scotch regiments behaved magnificently, and I only regret 
it does not come within the plan of this work to do them justice. 
At Lundy's Lane the Americans for the first time during the 
war ventured to cross bayonets with British troops. 

The Americans sought to make Fort Erie as strong as possible. 
Meanwhile Drummond, at the earliest moment determined to 
take it by storm. He opened a battery on it on the 13th of Au- 
gust, and having done considerable damage, determined to assault 
it en the 14th. He directed a heavy column against the entrench- 
ments on the side of Snake- 1 all. Two columns advanced from the 
battery against the fort and the entrenchments on the side facing 
the battery. In the heavy column we find our old friends the 
flank companies of the 100th and 89th. jBoch attacks were made 
two hours before day-light. Both failed. The Briti.sh loss was 
very severe in killed and wounded, amounting to over 900. 
Among the officers thanKed were Lieut. Munay of the 100th, and 
Captain O'K^efe of one of the flank companies. Notwithstand- 
ing the large number of men slain and wounded, Drummond btmg 
reinforced was able to keep the Amer' is blockaded. 

Peace was made with France on the 4th of April, 1814. The 
Titan of war for whom the world did not seem vast enough, had 
accepted Elba as a retreat — an eagle confined in a canary cage — 
and the small heart of Louis XVIII. was fluttering with joy at 
the prospect of entering and ruling in those halls whence the 
mighty one had been driven. The British fleet was now free to 
turn its attention to xVmerica. British men of war made 
inroads along the entire American coast, and British troops de- 
scending at various points made it necessary to recall some of the 



240 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



troops operating on the Canadian frontier. The various events 
leading up to that conflagration which made the Potomac wear the 
colour of Lake Ontario and the Bay, when little York was given 
to the flames, it is not mine to tell ; nor the repulse of the attempt 
on Baltimore ; nor yet the repulse of the assault on New Orleans 
and the consequent retreat ; a repulse which was perhaps favour- 
able to peace, as it placed the Americans on better terms with 
themselves. 

On the 8 th of August the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain and 
the United States held their first conference at Ghent, but the 
treaty of peace was not signed until the 24th of December. In 
the interval occurred the inglorious advance on Plattsburgh which 
gave the coup de [/race to any military reputation Prevost may 
ever have enjoyed. The British troof)s were indignant at being 
ordered to retire. Tears of anger burst from many eyes, and offi- 
cers broke their swords declaring they would never serve again. 

The disaster on Lake Champlain encouraged the Americans be- 
sieged in Fort Erie to make a sortie. After a struggle for a time 
doubtful, they were driven back and pursued to the glacis of the 
fort with a loss of 500 men. Izzard was now advancing in force, 
and Drummond thought it prudent to withdraw to Chippawa. 
On Lake Ontario, all had gone well for the Union Jack, and as 
Niagara frontier could be therefore abundantly provisioned, 
Izzard who had 8,000 men despaired of the invasion, blew up the 
works at Fort Erie, crossed over to American territory, and that 
beautiful frontier disturbed for three years, was once more left to 
repose in the varied radiance of the Indian summer. 

The last date in Isaac Todd's* correspondence from Canada, is 
Quebec, 16th July, 1814. He was then on the point of leaving 
for the old cmmtry, for the next letter is dated Portsmouth, 
August 17th. In a memorandum of the IGth July, he says: " Wrote 
Jane and Agnes I would send them a piano." At that date pianos 
were not as plentiful in Montreal as they are to-day. He says 
nothing about the war ; he sends such a message as he would in 
times of security, and indeed throughout 1814, there seems not to 



* This great business Irishman seems to have been a man of ability, v«ry correct 
formal habitb, much capacity for friendshir and with genuine kindness of heart. He 
died in England in 1819. His partner was the founder of McGill University. 




PREVOSTS DISGRACE. TRIUMPHANT PEACE. 



241 



have been the least misgiving in Canada as to the result of the 



war. 






On the 5th of January, 1815, Isaac Todd writes from Bath, Eng- 
land, addressing a Montreal fi^m, that the signing of the Prelimin- 
aries of peace was very unexpected. He feared the particulars 
would not be such as would please in Canada, " as there will be no 
extension of boundary." He adds, " peace is no doubt desirable, as 
it gives security, and from the heavy taxes laid on lands, tSsc, in 
the United States, you will have numbers flock into Canada, and 
what with discharged soldiers &c., the Upper Province will very 
soon be greatly increased in inhabitants. You will see by the 
newspapers (most probably English newspapers sent by the same 
mail as the letter) various reports about Sir George Prevost, &c., 
which I believe have little foundation." Unfortunately for poor 
Provost's reputation, those reports had only too much in their 
foundation that was other than unsubstantial. 

For three years, the United States had carried on an unjust, 
an unsuccessful, and an inglorious contest. Canada had waged 
a defensive warfare, just, noble, unequal, full of success and 
glory. Materially injured for the time, it is probable the shrewd 
fur merchant was right in anticipating advantages, as likely to 
accrue, though Howison and Miss Machar both insist that 
materially the results were pernicious. There can be no dispute 
however, that morally the war was beneficial to Canada. Irish- 
men, Scotchmen, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, and men of 
these great races born on Canadian soil, fought side by side, and 
learned to love more intensely the beautiful country for which 
they bled. The budding national life took a deeper and more 
beautiful tint, and gathered a ^ ore splendid promise, because its 
root-soil was enriched with blood. If peace was pale from mourn- 
ing over precious lives wasted, the light of victory was in her eye, 
the rythm of triumph gave stateliness to her step, and all her form 
was instinct with the ennobling consciousness of duty. 



16 



242 



THE TKISHMAN IN CANADA. 



OHAPTER VII. 

In the perusal of history nothing is so sad as the truth forced 
on us from every side that hitherto the lot of the poor as compared 
with that of others has been unbef '-ably hard. It is not merely 
that, in the ordinary course of life, they are without the pleasant 
su loujidings which smoothen oh' tsXi-stonce of those raised above 
a hand-to-mouth economy. Are harvests bad ? The poor suffer 
most. Does pestilence sweep over the land ? The destroying 
angel visits the crowded room and smites down the ill-fed and 
little washed. War ? The poor have thousands and tens of thou- 
sands slain and they afterwards pay for the cost of the bloody 
machine by which their sons and fathers have been mown down. 
Does any sudden increase in wealth take place? The poor do not 
share in it. They witness the land-OAvner increase his luxuries, 
the manufacturer ride to church in a more splendid carriage, the 
shopkeeper purse up his chin in folds of more insolent pride, but 
they are as they were before. 

The great war had enriched the landowner, the capitalist, the 
manufacturer, and the farmer; the poor it made poorer. It is 
from the years lying between the Peace of Amiens and Waterloo, 
years which studded Europe with famous battle fields, which raised 
individuals to the height of glorj?^ and wealth and power, which 
filled . hundred trenches with nameless dead a nd scattered stars 
on a few padded breasts, it is from those years of blood and war 
prices that the historian dates that strife of classes, that social 
estrangement, that severance in sympathy between rich and poor, 



[Authorities for Chapters VII and VIII. -Original information gleaned from all 
parts of the country. McMullen's "History." D'Arcy McG-ee's " Irish Position in 
British and Republican North America." *' Five Years' Residence in the Canadas," 
By Ed. Allen Talbot. Mrs. Jameson's " Winter Studies." Green's 'History of the 
English People." Scadding's " Toronto of Old." The Gazette. Almanacs for 1821, 
1825, 1832, 1837, 1839. FotheringiU's "Sketch of the Present Htate of Canada." 
Lambert's "Travels," Morgan's "Celebrated Canadians." Morgan's "Parliamentary 
Companion." The Olobe. The Mail. Poole's " Early Settlement and Subsequent 
ProgresB of the Town of Peterborough." Darid's " Biographies and Portraits."! 



THE LEGACY OF GLORIOUS WAR. 



243 



. 



Lll 

In 



, 



k 



between the capitalist and his "hands," between employers and 
employed, which constitutes one of the great difficulties of the 
politics of the Three Kingdoms, and projects into the future a lurid 
ominous light. 

Nor was it merely the war which had led to the enormous in- 
crease of wealth. The discoveries of Watt and Arkwright, enabled 
the manufacturer to treble production without increasing his 
expenses, and that which was destined in the long run to benefit 
the poor, seemed at arst to add to the weight of the millstone 
which ground them down. Even a succession of bad harvests 
swelled the causes which gave the agriculturists a fever.' m and 
unnatural prosperity. Wheat rose to famine prices and land 
shared proportionately in the upward movement. An idiot named 
Ned Ludd once broke some frames in a passion, and thus without 
designing it gave his name to a labour sect. In the winter of 
1811 parties of men, maddened by want and thinking the inven- 
tions of Arkwright and Watt fatal contrivances for their own 
destruction, went about breaking frames and machinery. In the 
following year serious riots occurred. Numerous bodies of unem- 
ployed artisans committed great excesses. Several of the Luddites 
were tried and executed. The legacy of a glorious war was heavy 
taxation, an enormous debt and general distress, the pressure of 
which was increased by the selfish, short-sighted policy of a par- 
liament of landowners. Aware that the enormous addition to 
their revenues depended on a factitious cause, which, once removed, 
they would have to be content with their incomes before the war, 
they sought to keep up the war price for corn, and to enact by 
Jaw that the poor should be half-starved. They passed a bill in 
1815 prohibiting the introduction of foreign corn. This is what 
an English parliament did for an English people. Napoleon's 
guns were not as dreadful as this statute. Better be food for 
powder than food for famine. 

In Ir iir^nd, where the people were consumers of that ill-starred 
root, the potat:o, the situation was more complicated. An agii- 
cultural country, the farmers who were not in a position to be 
rack-rented, gained by the war. The squire had his income in- 
creased, and in consequence launched out into a lavish expenditure, 
which was destined to scatter his family as surely as his father's 



244 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



sword had scattered the early owners of his broad acres. Hence 
to-day in fair old houses, by storied crystal streams, on green 
wood-embosomed terraces, the stranger is lord.* Sometimes the 
estate was purchased, not by a stranger, but by one of the old 
Catholic families who, having made money in trade, foolishly, but 
naturally, turned away from the cooperage, or the tanyard, to be- 
come an esquire of a Ballyscanlan or a Mount Leader. Sometimes 
by a curious irony, an illegitimate child put to trade as good enough 
for him, has purchased the '' big house;" while the young mis- 
tresses of his unhappy mother have become governesses in 
Australia and in America, and his legitimate brethren have driven 
cabs in Melbourne, or loafed at farming in Canada. Where they 
had genius they have risen to eminence in some imperial or foreign 
employment ; while those of energy and moderate talents have 
given officials and jurists to all the colonies of Great Britain. 
Ireland used to swell, as she does now, the population of the 
manufacturing towns of England, and ohe fall in the demand for 
labourers in Lancashire was felt in the remote west of Gal way. 
Jealous English legislation all but destroyed the Irish linen 
trade. Population was rapidly increasing. The consequence of 
all was, that the poor in Ireland were in even a worse condition 
than they were in England, and soon after the termination of the 
war, a large emigration to Canada took place. The thirteen thou- 
sand emigrants who arrived at Quebec in 1819, were, Christie 
tells us, chiefly from Ireland. The same remark is true of the 
forty thousand who arrived in the four following years. In the 
seven years from 1819 to 1825, 68,534 emigrants came to Canada, 






* This change haa been always going on. The son of t^e stranger of to-day will feel 
himself to be connected by family and " old associations " with Ireland, and his son or 
grandson will be swept off,. Now economical laws do what revolutions did in other 
times. In a ballad of the Jacobite era, there runs a verse which has always struck me 
na being singularly pathetic : — 



'Tis my grief that Patrick Laughlin is not 

Earl in Erris still ; 
That Brian Duif no longer rules as 

Lord upon t'ae Hill ; 
That Colonel Hugh McGrady should 

Be lying stark and low ; 
And I sailing, sailing swiftly 

From the County of Mayo. 






IRISH IMMIGRATION AFTER 1815. 



246 



2el 

lor 

ker 

le 



— tradesmen, journeymen, and day labourers, who for the most 
part took up their residence in the Town of Quebec and in Mon- 
treal. In the following seven yeai*s the average of arrivals rose 
much higher. In one year, 1831, as many as 50,000 persons landed 
at Quebec, most of them being Irish. This large immigration soon 
told, even in Lower Canada. In 1820, among the new members 
returned to parliament was Michael O'Sullivan, for ihe County of 
Huntingdon, a gentleman of great ability, who died Chief Justice 
of Lower. Canada. In Quebec, in the parishes of Megantic, Lotbi- 
niere, and Portneuf, at St. Colombe in the district of Montreal, in 
the townships of the Ottawa, and in Upper Canada, there are 
several Irish settlements due to the Irish exodus of this period. 

There are two aspects to the Irish emigration to Canada. What 
the Irishman has done for Canada is the first. The second is not 
less important, what Canada has done for the Irishman. Nor 
could there be a better way of impressing the former on the mind 
than by dilating on the latter. Men have come here who were un- 
able to spell, who never tasted meat, who never knew what it was 
to have a shoe to their foot in Ireland, and they tell me they are 
masters of 1,000, or 2,000, or 3,000 acres, as the case may be, of 
the finest land in Canada. One of the best known professional 
men in this country, and one of tl^e oldest settlers, writes me that 
in his opinion nothing is more gratifying than to contemplate the 
class of substantial farmers the Irish emigration has produced. 
" Go into whatever part of Ontario you may, you will find Irish- 
men on farms of value from $5,000 to $10,000 ; many of whom 
have also heavy investments at their bankers." On the very day 
he wrote to me he received a letter from a friend containing these 
words, " Uncle Robert Scott is dead, worth $20,000." This man 
came to Canada poor. He went on a wild lot and cut his way to 
fortune. " I know many men," adds my con espondent, " who 
emigi'ated from places adjacent to my native place who were poor 
men on their arrival in Canada, and are now in independent cir- 
cumstances — some as well off as the above named, T!ese I look 
upon as reflecting more honour on Ireland and Irish character than 
her gentlemen. I think I am safe in asserting that our thrifty 
Ulster men are as fair specimens of success as the canny Scotch." 

I have received dozens of letters, all authenticated with names 






246 



THE IliISU»LA.N IN CANADA. 



and addresses, from well-to-do fanners, which make out a much 
more emphatic case than the above. 

The other day Guelph held her jubilee to celebrate the cutting 
of the first tree where the county town of Wellington now stands, 
in which Irishmen have done their part in all resi)ect.s. When the 
emigrants began to pour into Canada they found no colonization 
roads to aid their progress. Where a dozen rich counties yield 
the means of a happy and cultivated existence to thousands, there 
was nothing but unbroken forest. There were few cows and fewer 
horses. N?t half a million of acres were cultivated, even after a 
fashion. Ottawa did not exist even as the Village of By town. 
Not a tree had been cut where London stands now. In 1821, 
in the whole of that vast tract which to-day compi'ises the Coun- 
ties of Northumberland and Durham, TS', *th and South Victoria, 
Peterborough and Halliburton, there were only two post offices. 
Newcastle and Bowmanville had not emerged into the village 
state. The forest gloomed where Lindsay and Peterborough 
flourish. There was, as we shall sec by -and -by, but small 
educational advantages. The howl of the wolf was more familiar 
than the voice of preacher or teacher. Loo)-. at Canada to-day. 
The change is undoubtedly due in part to the Englishman and 
Scotchman, but if the truth must be told, the greater part of the 
work was done by Irishmen, To-day, in Toronto streets there 
are splendid stores where the water of the Bay rolled fifty years 
ago. There is a Custom House which would be an ornament to 
any city in the world — which would not have been out of place in 
Athens in the days of Pericles. Fifty years ago a wooden shanty 
was enough for all purposes. Tens of thousands of dollars worth 
of goods psiss through this Custom House in a year. Fifty years 
ago they used to import little parcels of tea. Fifty years ago, in 
fact, Toronto was a village. Most of the houses were below the 
Market, east of which all the business was done. There was an 
orchard where the establishment of Mr. Kay stands, at the corner 
of Yonge and King. There was another orchard between Melinda 
and Wellington. According to Mr. James Stitt, who came from 
Derry, and who has been here for over half a century, there were 
at this period plenty of Irish in Toronto. There was little money. 
You could hire a man for six dollars a month and a girl for three 



AN IRISH AUTHOR ON CANADA IN 1823. 



247 



t 



"^ 



There was one Roman Catholic Church and one Presbyterian and 
one English — all very small. John Baldwin, Ijrother to Dr. 
Baldwin, kept a store in King Street. When Mr. Beaty came here, 
in 1817, there was only one brick house in the town. Five thou- 
sand Indians and their squaws used to meet where Adelaide Street 



runs. 



In 1824 with the view of encouraging immigration, and giving 
some idea of Canada, Edward A Hen Talbot, a relative of Colonel 
Talbot, published a book in two volumes in which he gave his 
impressions of the country. He was very ready to condemn what- 
ever displeased him. His testimony when it was favourable was 
therefore all the more convincing. Great changes must have taken 
place since he visited Canada fifty-four years ago. For instance 
he says Canadian women of that time, though possessed of the 
finest black eyes, could boast of very few of those irresistible 
charms which captivate the heart. The immigration of the fol- 
lowing years composed in part of English and Scotch, but mainly 
of Irish, must in half a century have wrought a wonderful change. 
The women had one hideous defect peculiarly offensive. There 
was hardly one of them over twenty years of age whose teeth 
were not entirely destroyed. They were also subject to goitre. 

Talbot found in Upper Canada, two classes of society : The first 
class composed of professional men, merchants, civil and military 
officers, and the members of the Prorincial Parliament ; the 
second of farmers, mechanics and labourers, who associated to- 
gether on all occasions " without any distinction." The first class 
dressed exactly in the same way as people in the old country, but 
the men Here much less intelligent and the women not so refined 
in their manners. They were fond of public assemblies but had 
no taste for small social parties, a criticism as true to-day as in 
1823. In the winter subscription balls were common, and every 
tavern in the country however destitute in other accommodation, 
was provided with an extensive ball-room. There was no intro- 
duction, admission being a matter of course on producing a ticket. 
The gentlemen sat on one side of the room, the ladies on the other. 
* A line of demarcation appears to be drawn between them over 
which one would suppose it was high treason to pass, or to throw 
even a sentiment. Both parties maintain an obstinate silence and 



248 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



appear as cautious of trespassing beyond tlie imaginary landmark 
which divides their respective domains, as if the pass was guarded 
by rattle snakes." When the order for dancing was given the 
gentlemen signified their wish to take a })artner by " awkwardly 
placing themselves via-a-vis to their fair antagonist, and making 
a sort of bow so stiff that as the head slowly inclines towards the 
floor you imagine you hear the spine and the marrow separating." 

Those were the days before the "Boston." The gay youths and 
lively maidens of those times were much attached to country 
dances. The ladies vied with each other in introducing the most 
difficult figures. Few steps were danced but all were deeply 
" skilled " in the " right and left, six hands round, and down the 
middle." When supper was announced the gentlemen led their 
partners to the supper-room and immediately returned to the ball- 
room, where they waited until the ladies had done. The gentle-^ 
men then " su})ped undismayed by female presence." After supper 
dancing recommenced and was continued until daylight. 

This aristocratic but not untruthful critic says, that men "of the 
first class" in Canada, in 1823, were, with very few exceptions, of 
" mean origin" — by which, doubtless, he means poor. Put they 
had acquired considerable fortunes, and made quite " a genteel 
appearance." Indeed, he found them " very little inferior" to coun- 
try gentlemen in the three kingdoms, either in look or address. 
He could not say as much for the women. They had allowed their 
fortunes greatly to outstrip their minds and persons in improve- 
ment. " That graceful and dignified carriage, that polite and fas- 
cinating address, that demeanour, ' nor bashful nor obtrusive,' 
which so eminently mark the lady of family of Great Britain 
and Ireland, are nowhere to be witnessed." Nevertheless, the 
majority of the young ladies of Upper Canada were " decently, if 
not fashionably, educated," but they had little taste for reading, 
and were averse to conversation. Again, it must be remarked — 
what a change has come over the people of Canada ! It must be re- 
membered this man saw tlie best society ; that he is a competent 
witness. He declares that the ladies he met would sit for hours 
in the company of gentlemen without once interchanging a senti- 
ment, or manifesting the slightest ir ist in conversation of any 
kind. A settled melancholy sat upon ».aeir countenances, — 



MARRIAGE IN 1823. CLASSES. 



249 



And Htealing oft a look at tho bijf jiloom, — 

the men came to partake of the same "^luinijishncss." You might 
as well have tried to reverse the order of nature, as have attempted 
to extort a smile from their countenances. Yet he was told when 
emancipated from the presence of men they could converse with 
volubility. 

In those days all the ladies married yonng, nor was fortune with 
them a matter of consideration. If one attained her twenty-fifth 
year without marrying, she was regarded as having passed her 
youth, and no longer entitled to gallant attentions from the other 
sex. However, an old maid was " a delicacy," of which few man- 
sions could boast. 

Not only has a great change for the better come over our Ca- 
nadian women, a great change has come over our Canadian men — 
for the better? In those days it seems, every man on attaining his 
twenty-first year resolved to take a wife. Women were therefore 
a " scarce commodity in the Canadian market." In one respect, 
the difference between the men of that time and the men of to- 
day is specially gratifying. It is a rare thing in Canada for a 
man who has any respect, for himself, or who occupies the position 
of a gentleman, to get drunk. But Mr. Talbot found the Canadian 
gentlemen very fond of drinking to excess, their favourite bev- 
erage being Jamaica spirits, brandy, shrub and peppermint. 

What our critic calls "the second or lower class" had, he assures 
us, much the same manners and customs as the higher class. They 
were, however, less intelligent ; their women were very poorly 
educated, greatly addicted to pleasure, immoderately fond of 
dress, and after eighteen, determined to follow their own hearts 
in the choice of a husband. He gives a very unpleasant picture 
of morals, and if not exaggerated, we have only to congratulate 
ourselves that in this important particular we have made great 
progress. He says, Irish women were held in high esteem. " The 
Irish ladies are such as might naturally be expected, such as have 
stamped a high and exalted character on the domestic economy of 
our country, and have rendered her in this respect, the envy and 
admiration of the world. In Europe and America, in every place 
where they are known, the daughters of Hibernia are regarded as. 



-250 



THK lUIHHMAN IN CANADA. 



the Lucretias of modern times ; as the proud and honouraV»l(> ex- 
«in|)liHcati()U of the wise man'.s words : ' She will do her husband 
j^ood and not evil all the days of his life. 8he openeth her mouth 
with wisdom, and in her tongue is the law of kindness.'" 

Mr. Tali >ot assures us that in the House of Assembly there were 
many who could neither sign their names nor even read, and lie 
comments with much justice on the bad effect it must have on 
the mind of the country to see incompetent and ignorant persons 
filling exalted stations and responsible positions. There is no 
stimulus to culture. His remarks indicate a want of appreciation 
of the necessary conditions of a new country. That he should 
comment on the fact that in Canada in 1823 literary merit could 
not anticipate " honour and renown," as its certain rev/ard, will 
create a smile in ] 877. The young Canadian " looks around him 
and plainly discovers that a superior education is by no means 
necessary to qualify him for the highest situation in tlie land, for 
he finds that the greater part of those who ^^1 official situations 
are as ignorant as himself." Even in 1877 a prominent merchant 
in Toronto, when one of his boys showed artistic talent _jrew 
alarmed, and when it was suggested to him to cultivate the lad's 
gifts replied with much self-complacency that lie would do nothing 
of the kind. He did not see, he said, that those men who learned so 
much were any the cleverer at making money. We have, I would 
fain believe, improved on fifty years ago in reverence. Mr. Talbot 
found there was a pervading and persistent propensity to «-d,ke the 
name of God in vain. There was a perpetual use of the most 
dreadful oaths and imprecations; a uniform violation of all 
decency and a practical contempt for everything which bore the 
character of virtue. In respect to swearing which is a practice 
as vulgar as it is wicked, there is still room for progress and ground 
for regret.* The criticisms of this Irishman who has long past 
to his account may perhaps have a reforming infl.uence to-day. 



' I once count*"d the number of times in ten minutes a prominent man, in idle con- 
versation, used the solemn phrase — " By God." He used it thirty-five times ! nearly as 
often as he resorted to that other abominable but not so serious American vulgarism-^ 
" you know :" " we went you know and then by G — you know whom should we meet 
you know ? A and B themselves, by G — , and you know, etc." The young men I think 
do not swear as much as their elders, and if they use supernatural expletives content 
themselves with the comparatively inoffensive, but still vulgar, " damn." 



J 



t 



1 



EXFEllIENCE OF EIGHTEEN SETTLEllS. 



251 



Though ho (lenonncos camp iiieotings, ho pays a high trihutc to 
tho work tho Metliodi.sfcH did in oso early days. 

Fifty or .sixty years ag(j the wages usually paid to labourers all 
over Canada was two shillings and sixpence a day with hoard and 
lodging. Carpenters and hewers of wood received double this 
sum. Mr. E. A. Talljot, on the first of July 1823, addressed a 
letter to those of " my fatlu'r's settlers, who are now residing in 
the Township of London," asking them what their position was 
and whether they were content with their lot. Eighteen men, all 
of them Irishmen, replied that they were perfectly satisfied with 
their adoj)ted country. It may be well to go over their names, 
because their descendants are flourishing among us to-day. William 
Geary had £300 when leaving Ireland. He took up 200acres of land, 
had cleared thirty acres, possessed one yol^e of oxen, six cows, no 
sheep, eight young cattle ; and had no acquired capital. Charles 
Golding,£100;150 acres; 2 yoke of oxen; 5 cows ; 6 young cattle; 10 
.sheep. Joseph O'Brien, £100; 100 acres; 20 acres cleared; 1 yoke 
oxen, and 1 horse; 4 cows; 4 young cattle; 20 sheep. Thomas Gush, 
£100 ; 200 acres ; 15 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 3 cows ; 5 young cattle ; 
5 sheep. Robert Ralph, £50 ; 100 acres; 15 acres ; no oxen ; 3 
cows ; 5 young cattle ; no .sheep. John Grey, £50 ; 100 acres ; 26 
acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 4 cows ; 6 young cattle ; 10 sheep. William 
Haskett, £100 ; 100 acres; 15 acres; 1 yoke oxen and 1 hor? e ; 3 
cows ; 5 young cattle ; 10 sheep. Francis Lewis, £75 ; 100 ^res ; 
2' acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 2 cows ; 4 young cattle ; 5 sheep. Foilet 
Grey, 100 acres ; 25 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 5 cows ; G young cattle ; 
10 sheep. John Grey, jun., £40 ; 100 acres ; 10 acres ; 1 yoke 
oxen ; 2 cows ; 3 young cattle ; no sheep. Thomas Howay, £50 ; 
100 acres ; 25 acres ; 2 yoke oxen, :vnd 1 horse ; 1 cow ; 2 sheep. 
James Howay, £20 ; 100 acres ; 10 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 4 cows ; 
1 young cattle ; 5 sheep. John Turner, £100 ; 100 acres ; 20 acres ; 
I yoke oxen ; 3 cows ; 5 young cattle ; no sheep, Thomas 
Howard, £50; 100 acres ; 25 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 3 cows ; 3 young 
cattle ; 10 sheep. Robert Keys, £50 ; 100 acres ; 15 acres ; 1 yoke 
oxen ; 3 cows ; 4 young cattle ; 10 sheep. William Evans. £50 ; 
100 acres ; 15 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 2 cows ; 2 young cattle , no 
sheep. William Neil, £50 ; 100 acres ; 17 acres ; 1 yoke oxen ; 3 
cows : 4 young cattle ; 10 sheep. George Foster, £30 ; 100 acres ; 



^t^trnmrn 



252 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



15 acres ; 1 yoko oxen ; 2 cows ; 3 3'oun^' cattle ; 10 sheep. None 
had any accjuired capital. Mr. Talbot made a strong appeal for 
f^migratioi) from overcrowded Ireland, ai;d against pauper emigra- 
tion. " Were I a poor Irish peasant, compelled to toil year after 
year without a hope of bettering my circumstances, I would 
endeavour to find my way to this country it such an object could 
be achieved by any human exertions. Nay, if I could not other- 
wise obtain money sufllicient to defray my expenses, I would 
attire myself in the habit of a common beggar, and for seven 
years, if necessary, would continually solicit alms, in order thereby 
to amass the necessary .sum to effect my object." 

There has been no period in our history when persons were not 
to be found who believed our manifest destiny was annexation. 
Such persons rarely appeared among the Iiish, nor aic they found 
among them to-day. In 1828, annexation was thought to be 
very near — who has proved right ? The men who said in 1823, 
that it was only a matter of a few years, or the Irishman who put 
on rejord that the pro])hets of annexation anticipated an event 
which would never take place ? Talbot declared from his knowledge 
of the people of Canada then, that were their adopted country 
invaded, they would " meet the foe with a determined resolu- 
tion that w luld ensure success to a more dangerous enterprise." 
Inhabited by such a people, he asked what had Canada to fear. 
Wj had England to fear ? Nothing. But she had much to do. 
Mr. Talbot s?w the governmental bureaucratic abuses which other 
Irishmen were to sweep away, and he called on the Imperial 
Parliament to adopt measures as more likely to issue in desirable 
results than some of those acts which had enian^.ted from the 
resident authorities. 

Talbot was disgusted with Canadian hotels, and the carelessness 
of their proprietors respecting the comforts of what we call 
" guests," a curious euphuism, by which an hotel keeper describes 
his patrons and employers. He was also offended by their curi- 
osity and frank impertinence. In the course of a pedestrian tour 
from the Talbot settlement to Montreal, he stopped at an hotel 
where the landlord, finding his sly inquisitorial attempts in vain, 
after many guesses asked : " What are you V " An Irishman," re- 
plied Talbot. " Well, 1 swear that's pretty particular tarnation 




i 



HOTEL KEEPERS FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



253 



0(1(1 too," cried this Boniface, who proved to ])e a Yankee. " Why, 
I vow you Hpeak lunglish nearly as well as we Americans does." 
Tliis was nearly as ^^ood as the assurance of a New York citizen to a 
well-known Oxford professor: '"1 knew at once," said the New-york- 
er, " you were an Englishman, by your provincial accent." On pre- 
senting himself at another hotel or tavern, and asking a damsel 
to get him some dinner, he met with no direct response. The girl 
merely turned to her mother and said : " Mother, the man wants 
to eat." If he could rise from his ashes and come to Canada to- 
day, he would find our hotels and taverns in many respects 
changed. The hotel-keeper to-day is too important or too polite 
to manifest any curiosity about anyone, if his conscience is at rest 
as to the matter of payment. On the score of comfort he would 
have little to complain, beyond the fact that at the big hotels, fish, 
fowl, beef, mutton, venison, veal, have a community of flavour, sug- 
gestive of the belief that during the process of cooking they have 
been endeavouring to solve the great pi-oblem of young countries 
in modern days : how to make the heterogeneous homogeneous. 
He strongly condemns the charivaris then common, and apparently, 
seeing that one occurred tlie other day, not wholly extinct yet. 
Ho was delighted with the Lower Canadians. In view of Mr, 
Gladstone's legislation, and of (juestions frequently raised among 
ourselves, it is hard to resist ([noting a passage from the pen of this 
Irish Conservative, as he describes himself, of course with refer- 
ence to home politics, in 1823. But I nmst content myself with 
giving the substance. The French Canadians seemed to him the 
happiest people on earth. They were almost to a man in that en- 
viable state of mediocrity which Agur considered the most favour- 
able to the preservation of a virtuous mind, when he prayed for 
" neither poverty nor riches " Fo had frequently observed a strik- 
ing resemblance in manr >'' ius well as in religi(jn between the Irish 
peasantry and the Lowe Canadians. But he had not been able to 
pursue the compariscm without making a melancholy contrast. 
The liearts of his " oppressed countrymen" were e(pially light and 
equally susceptible of the tenderest impressions. They were oq ually 
ardent in tiieir afl'ectionf-, equally hospitable, but more sociable. 
But in every other resnect how different ! While the habitant 
appreciated the British constitution, which guarded his civil rights 



I 




254 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



and religious liberty, and lived a stranger to want and care, misery 
and wretchedness, in happ^ seclusion from disaffection, discontent, 
and bloodshed, the Irishman dragged out a wretched existence, 
under what " he erroneously conceives to be a government whose 
grand object is to keep him in poverty and slavery, at once the pity 
and the scorn of the Avorld." While the Catholic Canadian rev- 
ei'en(.ed the constitution and the laws, the Catholic Irishman 
seemed to exist only that he might subvert both. But why was 
this ? Because the laws were wise in Lower Canada, and dealt 
out justice to the Catholic Canadian, whereas they were unwise in 
Ireland, and dealt out injustice to the Catholic Irishman. Had 
Pitt, in 1800, been able to carry out his policy of emancipation, 
and had the land laws been reformed, the miseries of sixty years 
would have been impossible. " I have often heard it argued," says 
Mr. Talbot, himself a Protestant, " that Catholics cannot feel well- 
affected to a Protestant Government ; but surely there is here a 
full refutation of this absurd opinion. I question much if out of 
England's twelve millions Protestants there could be selected l»ur 
hundred thousand individuals better affected towards the English 
Government and constitution than the Catholics of Lower Canada.'* 
And have we not in Upper Canada found them loyal ? Mr. Talbot 
thoiTght all that was necessary to i)acify Ireland was to treat them 
as a half a century earlier the French Canadians were treated. 
To-day I can assure my fellow Protestants that all they have to do 
in order to remove whatever they deem objectionable to the Catho- 
lic as a politician is, to treat him on equal terms. It is no wonder 
that they should be peculiar and puzzling, that their thoughts 
should not be our thoughts, nor their political passion our political 
paasion, nor their language our language, when, partly through our 
fault and partly thiough their own, they live amongst us but are 
not of us, almost as separated as the Jews were from the suri'ound- 
ing populations in mediaeval times. Those who have truth on 
their side may nullify its powers by associating it with repellant 
ideas. Injustice in any form, f< nd intolerance however subdued, 
clouds up this 3un of humanity's hopes, the brightest of whose at- 
tendant stars is toleration, whose beauty has ravished the choicest 
spirits of the world — calm, ruild-beaming in its light, and sweet 
and comforting as charity. It sometimes appears to me as if Catho- 



/h 



J 



HUMAN NARROWNESS. LITTLE YORK IN 1817. 



255 



A > 



lies and Protestants, with passions at least as strong as their con- 
victions, forget that the God whom they both profess to serve does 
not hate either ; rather, we are assured on all hands loves both, 
though one or both may — for man is fallible — hold some mistaken 
views. So far, therefo'-o, as they hate each other they are actuated 
by a spirit contrary to that of God. The people of Nineveh were 
heathen. Jonah was offended with Jehovah because he did not 
destroy that great city. God spared them, and rebuked the Jew- 
ish exclusiveness of the narrow-minded prophet, who, though he 
waa willing to see Nineveh in ashes, was vexed so as to be ready 
to die because a gourd which grew up in a night withered. Are 
we not, most of us, occupied with our gourds, and do we not think 
too little about humanity, not to speak of the teachings of One 
we all profess to revere ? 

Among the earliest fruits of the work of war and bad laws 
combined, as emigration agents, an emigrant ship in 1817 stood 
out from the port then know i as the Cove of Cork, but which 
on the occasion of the Queen's visit some three decades since 
changed its name. To-day across the hill encircled harbour, un- 
rivalled in beauty w^A .capacity, there shines the front of splendid 
hotels and stately mansions on terrace above terrace. But in 1817 
Queenstown was nothing better than a good sized village whose ho- 
tels with their dining rooms over the mighty b«.y were a popular 
attraction. Edward Gate?, a Corkraan, nad chartered a vessel to 
bring out emigrants to Montreal. The vessel was left at Quebec 
while they made their way to Montreal in the "Swift-Sure" steamer. 
Gates having loaded his vessel for the return voyage travelled with 
his family up to little York v/hich was then a miiddy and dirty 
little place, without trottoirs. The seaman was an enterprising 
fellow. He at once started a store at the corner of Caroline Street 
and King Stroet and commenced manufacturing soap and candles, 
and tobacco. In 1820 he built a packet to run between little 
York and Niagara. The Duke of Richmond was then Governor 
of Lower Canada, and the boat was called after his Grace, who 
had not perhaps quite lost his popularity. This waa the iirst re- 
gular packet between York and Niagara, and on its first trij) 
Colonel Johnson, who was commanding the G8th,made the vesse! a 
present of a suit of flags and a small piece of ordnance, to be fired 



25G 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



of! on its arrival and departure. Gates sailed the "Duke of Rich- 
mond" on tlie lake until 1H2G, when Richardson built the steamer 
"Canada." He then got a situation at Port l)alhousi(5, being 
made collector just as a canal was opened. He died there in 1827, 
and was buried at St. Cathariner.. 

He was a tall man of dignified bearing. He had seen service, 
had been master in the navy, and commanded a privateer. That 
the above facts are well worthy of record will be seen by the fol- 
lowing extract from the newspaper of the day. Having described 
the launch and informed us that judges consider the vessel a very 
fine one the reporter 8a3'^H : — " It is now several years since any 
launch has been had here ; it therefore, though so small a ves8el,at- 
>acts a good deal of attention. 

The son, R. H. Gates, lives in Toronto. He has been engaged 
in various businesses here and at Bradford where there are many 
Irish families, such as the Armstrongs and the Stoddars. He 
founded the; York Pioneers in 1869, and he assisted in the forma- 
tion of the United Canadian Association in 1870, of which for the 
last two years he has been president. This is the gentleman who 
in 1870 made such praiseworthy, but unsuccessful efforts to find 
the bones of Tecumseh, and who ha^ in his possession several 
valuable relics, among others a gun found in the bay, a veritable 
" brown bess." 

To return to the passengers in Gates' ship. Crossing the Atlan- 
tic was then a very different thing from what it is to-day. A 
graphic account of the voyage might be made from a little book 
written in faded ink kept by one of the passengers. Diarists are, 
as a inile, an imbecile class. A diary v/as picked up some twelve 
months ago, on Front Street, in which the owner entered, day 
after day, that he had risen at six, had had a wash, and felt 
splendid ; at certain intervals there was a variation — he seems on 
occasions to have risen as usual at six, to have gone through his 
customary ablations, and to have felt not "splendid " l*ut " first 
rate." Charles Stotesbury's diary was kept on a more instructive 
principle. Thecinigrant sliip left Cork harbour on Tlun-sday, the 
15th May, 1817, at 7 o'clock. Gn the IGth, Stotesbuiy saw a 
crrampus. After they were at sea six days, during the last thiee of 
which they had dirty weather, a little robin (^ame on board. It 



I 



t 

n 
Is 
It 



If 
It 



J 



AN EMIGRANTS DIARY. 



257 



w a pity the little red-breast died, as he might have taken his 
place side by side with the " emigrant lark." On the 24'th of May 
a storm took away the top sails of the ship. Stotesbury's trunk 
and the long-boat were washed over})oard. The main-sheet was 
torn away. " Our shrouding disabled. Our cook and evorything 
almost drenched. Every p(}rson on board in be<l." The next day 
was spent in making repairs. " Found out," he says, " some 
sweet water saved by the sailors which was of great service." On 
the 4th of June, we have the entry : " Put on three potatoes per 
day at our dinner. Water very bad. Blowing all night. Con- 
trary wind." On the 29th of July : " Going to heave the lead. 
Supposed to be on the banks. Saw several ice islands." If voy- 
aging in those days had some un})leasantness, there were compen- 
sations. Who coming hither in one of the Allan Line could 
write at the end of a six weeks* journey, such an entry as the fol- 
lowing :—" June *^()th, wont out in a small boat fishing and 
fowling; a perfect calm; got sounding on the banks of New' 
foundland, and caught a few cod." On July the 2nd, there is 
another calm day, and they catch a large quantity of turbot and 
codfish. " Dined on iurbot and cod pie," the diarist notes with 
inward satisfaction. A succession of fine days followed. On 
Tuesday, the 25th August, they are twen^.y-five miles from Que- 
bec, and Stotesbury went on shore with four passengers, of whom 
one was named Daly, who had his family with him, and who was 
about "to look for a place or get a snug farm." The diarist adds : 
" Bought some bread and milk at a l)ake-liouse. The owm^r has 
three windmills on the sea shore, ilis family live here in the first 
style. His daughter was going to mass in a hi>rse-ehair. In the 
summer this is a most beautiful plac(!. But," he sighs, " they 
have but five months summer and seven of winter." On the Ifith 
of August they passed, at four o'clo(!k, the Falls of Montmor- 
ency and in half an hour had a full view of the citadel-crowned 
city. At six o'clock they were at the <iuay, the journey hav- 
ing taken four months. 

On the 15th August, there is the following entry : " Sent Mr. 
SullivaTi and Miss Jones oft" to Montreal in the steamboat. There 
are tiiree of them at present running, and they are building two 

17 



258 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



l^ 



h ! 



moro, one of .seven hundred, tlio other about eij^lit hundied tons 
witli a Hixty lior.se power engine." 

Mr. Stoteshury had neitli(.'r the literary power noi- th(! culture 
of Mr. W. D. IIowelLs, wh<j,se genius i.s never more happy than when 
it takes wing from Preseott gate, alights on the ('itadel orhovei's 
over the Plains of Ahialiam, But it is extraordinary what a vivid 
picture he gives you of Quebec in his own liumble, na'ive way. 
Quebec lie tells us looked very "handsome" from a short distance. 
" When the sun is up it has a most })eautiful appearance as the 
houses are covered with sheet tin." The lowi'-r town ho thought 
a most disagreeable place, the streets " always covennl with uiud." 
"There are two ways of going to th<i Uj)per Town, one u]) a hill 
the way the horses go, tlu; otlier up a ladder or stairs made of tim- 
ber. The pathways are mostly made of wood as also the shores, 
There are very few manufactures here of any kind. Each shop 
sells everything you could mention. AH the goods that arrive 
here are sold b}'- auction. When th(;r(! is a glut of anything th(;y 
are sold for little or nothing. The shop-keepers charge a mcjst 
enormous price for evcnything ; as they do little or no lousiness in 
tVie winter they must make it up in the summer. Boarding houses 
are from 6s. to 10s. per day. The steand)oats carry about eight 
liundnjd persons to Montreal at a time ; £'S jx^r cabin fare and 
everything found, £1 for steerage and nothing found. AlxAit 
three days to go up. An immense number of Indians t)'ade iiere 
in their canoes. They always carry their paddl(!s in their hands. 
A large piece of cloth or blank(!t wrapped about them, tied in the 
middle, a hat trimmed with silver lace and silver clasps about 
their arms and hanging to some of their 'oacks lar-ge plates of silver. 
They are of a black complexion, high cheek bones. lj|ie shops do 
not seem to do much business. There are a few i-egular butchers 
here who keep stalls in the Market Place. The markets are sup- 
plied in that and everything else, especially fruit by the couivtry 
people who come to town in a light kind of cart and gericrally 
driven l>y the women of the family. They draw up theii- carts in 
a straight line across the Market Placid and you purchase out of 
their carts. They also carry a ))aras()l to keep off the sun in sum- 
mer and snow in winter. In wintei- they come to town in sleighs." 
Whai a Dutch picture he makes of the romantic old city. Not a 



FIRST IMPUESSIONS OF QUEBKC. 



259 



lie 



lo 



Irs 



|i- 



a 



memory is .stirred in him of Wolfe, of Montgomery, or of Arnold. 
" It is very hard," he says i)athetically, " to do biisinosH here 
without knowing French. The watchmakers' ami silversmiths' 
shops art! the handsomest looking shops in Quebec. They do but 
little business, but have great profit. Very few shops h(jre have 
large windows ; only parlour windows as we call them. They call 
them (the shops) stores." 

"As you pass along the river from Quebec to Montreal, you see 
the houses at both sides and a chapel which are built all alike at 
about nine miles distant from each other by govei'innent. Tho 
people here are very indolcmt. As soon as they can clear as much 
ground as will (suable th(!m to live comfortably, keep a horse and 
cow and a few sheep and pigs, a few acres of wheat, oats and a 
snug kitchen garden with a chaise or light cart which they use to 
go to chapel in or market, and a sleigh which they use six months 
of the year on the river on the ice instead of the road, they never 
think of tilling any more of the land but let it lie in woods as 
they got it except they want fire wood, tlwm they cut down the 
timber ami burn the branches which manui'cs the ground for them 
and from which they get a crop tho following year," 

Here we have evidently Stotesbury's own observations, mixed 
up with what he had heard from others. J3ut, nevertheless, thciro 
is noi a word which has not historical value. He concludes his 
little essay headed " The Town of Quebec," by the remai'k : " Any 
man that has a wife and wisluis to live in the country, and has 
about (jne hundred guineas, can secure an imlependeiice hereby 
getting a grant of land and clearing it." 

Stotesbury seems to have had friends at Quebec. On the Sun- 
day after his landing, he tells us he dine<l at one Keatiug's, in 
whose garden he g(^ ))lenty of fruit. In the morning he went to 
the Chuich of P]ngland. The church and organ he found " very 
line," and the minister "very good." The name of one of his fel- 
^ low passengers was Jefirys. This Jeffrya had taken lodgings in 
Quebec. " I do not know how he is going to support himself/' 
remarks the diarist. " I do not think he knows himself ycst." 

On the loth, we have later entries, which give us an inkling re- 
garding eaily emigrant life, and show that already there was the 
nucleus of an Irish colony in Quebec. 



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260 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i I 



On Tnesrlay, 14th of August, "met Smith, the coppersmith, and 
Mahony, tlie distiller. Sold about ten shillings worth of my wor- 
sted st(jckings. Kept three pair for myself." On the following 
day, " Sold two casks of my glass at forty per cent, profit." On 
the 22nd, " Spent the day with Mr. Gibb, the chandler, who is 
making but little ; there is such a quantity of soap and candles 
imported here. Drank tea with Mr. Doyle." On the following 
day he drank tea with Mr. Atkins. All the above names are those 
of Cork families. 

On the 24th, he embarked in a sailing vessel, the " Lord Welling- 
ton," which weighed anchor atl2o'clock, bound for Montreal. The 
passengers consisted of eight men, four women, and eight children. 
At Three jJivers, two of the passengers got work; one as a turner, 
at SIO per month, the other, as a boy to mind horses, at S4. Each 
got beside, diet, washing and lodging, The charge for washing 
was from os. to 6s. a dozen. 

On the 1st September, they anchored in Lake St. Peter, and 
some of them went ashore. Stotesbury got into quiet raptures 
over the black currants, the best he ever saw ; strawbemes, rasp- 
berries, and blackberries and some gooseberries. The place was 
for the most part wood. A few cattle were grazing. The hi*^- 
was at least six feet high. As he picked his currants, an eagle 
wheeled above him. He fired, but the king of birds with a scream 
soared unharmed away. On the 3rd, they anchored iifty miles 
from Montreal, and a little party again went on shore. He picked 
in the woods the handsomost bunch of flowers he ever saw. The 
women that went ashore with him found a litter of young pigs 
in the woods, and stole two of them. It is with a note of joy, he 
marks the disappearance of tlie mosquitos, by which he said his 
fellow-passengers had been terribly bitten. When they entered 
the river first, some of the passengers' eyes were entirely closed. 
Their feet and hands were swelled, and even at this Y)eriod the 
" bites" had not left the legs of poor Stotesbury. They reached 
Montreal on the 15th, a Sunday. 

Montreal he considered half the size of Cork, and therefore, it 
need not be said, that it must have grown considerably since. 
There were scarcely any public buildings to attract his eye. He 
thought Nelson's i lonument and pillar very handsome. The Court 



i 



MONTREAL AND MUDDY YORK IN 1817. 



2G1 



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118 



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House and Gaol were the only public buildings he thought worth 
mentioning. Thert; wore fourvery handsome brick houses, and the 
man who built them had made the bricks liimself. Auctions were 
innumeral)le. The hotels and boarding-houses charged enor- 
mously. It was common to see two or three dogs drawing a little 
cart, and one, two, three, four, five or six bullocks, drawing a 
waggon. There were three or four chapels, and one church, " the 
handsomest finished inside, I ever saw." There were three soap 
manufactories, which did a good business ; two foundries, one of 
which had an air furnace, the other, a six-horse power engine ; 
two potash manufactories. The only ship-building that was going 
forward was the building of two steamboats. He was pleased 
with Montreal. " This," he says, " is a much better town than 
Quebec for business, or for a person to live in. The people gener- 
ally get up at five o'clock, eat their breakfast at eight, dine at 
one, drink tea at six. Labourers live here as well as tradesmen at 
home." 

Mr. Gates bought two horses and carts, in which they set off* for 
York. In the first part of the journey they were greatly incon- 
venienced, in consequence of their ignorance of French and the 
ignorance of English of the inhabitants. After fourteen days they 
arrived at Kingston, where they swopped one of their horses. 
They then set otf for York, passed the Indian woods, which were 
twelve miles square, slept at an Indian tavern, and after twelve 
days arrived at York, the journey from Montreal thither having 
taken them twenty-six days. 

His description of York is so concise that it shall be given word 
for word. " York is a very snug place, very beautifully situated, 
a great many stores and very few manufactories. It is not a great 
deal more severe in winter, nor much more warm in summer, than 
in Ireland. Scarcely any people to be seen in the streets; and the 
streets are so confoundedly muddy that there is no walking." 
When Mr. Stotesbury passed a January and a July in York, he 
changed his opinion as to the heat and cold of i*"^ relatively to Ire- 
land. 

Among the men associated with the advent of the Oates's to 
Canada wtifi John Carey, who started the Observer newspaper, 
which he printed and published in King Street, where used to 



j 



2G2 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



stand tlie cstaLlishmcnt of Hunter, Rose & Co. In those days of 
small things this paper did good work by giving the debates, and 
ultimately exposing the sins of the Government. There was a 
rival journal, whose crushing satire against poor Carey's paper 
was to call it "Mother C — y." A correspondent stylos it "The 
Political Weathercock and Slang Gazeteer." The modern Cana- 
dian journalist must see that even before his time delicate and 
refined satire was understood in Canada. Carey died in Spring- 
field, on the Credit. 

Another Irish journalistic pioneer was Francis Collins, proprietor 
of the Freeman, whose editorials were remarkable for liAelinesS) 
and breadth of information. He died of cholera in 1834. He was 
imprisoned in 1828, for applying the words "native malignity" 
to the Attorney-General. It is pleasanter to be a journalist in 
Canada to-day than tifty years ago. 

At this period there arrived in York from Cork, a man whoso 
family was destined to exercise considerable influence on the 
thought of Canada. John Tyner, the father of Mr. Tyner the 
brilliant editor of the Hamilton Times, and of the late Mr. A. 
Tyner, the editor of the Telegraph, a man of great power and 
brilliancy. The eldest of John Tyner's three sons was intended 
for the church, but died early. 

Mr. Arthurs, the father of Colonel Arthurs, was early well- 
known ; and his name is one of the first which appear in the 
books of the Custom House. He took an active part in civic 
politics. Another remarkable man in this way was Rice Lewis. 
With much clearness and native force of character, he laid the 
foundation of the largest iron and hardware business in Toronto 
The Monaghan Hamiltons have sent ofiTshoots into every part of 
this continent, aitd it gave Toronto a worthy branch when the 
father of Alexander Hamilton, the painter, settled in York. Alex- 
ander was born in Cavan, whither the family had removed prior 
to crossing the Atlantic. On emigrating they sailed direct for 
New York, whence, being persecuted on account of their loyalty 
to Great Britain, and strong opinion concerning the unrighteous 
war of 1812, they came to Canada and cleared ground in the Tor- 
onto Township. Alexander Hamilton, electing to lead a city life, 
went for three years and a half to New York, to learn ft trade. 









\^* 



THE HAMILTONS. ALEXANDER DIXON. 



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which he thou^^ht would prove jirofitable and useful in the growing 
City of Toronto. His charactei" as a citizen and a man of business 
is well known. He early w^on the confidence of his fellow-citizens, 
and served in the council. He was captain in the Toronto militia 
in 1837, and served against the rebels. As a York pioneer, and 
a meniV)er of the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society, as an 
active Methodist and Sabbath -school teacher he })is done good 
work. Mr. James sJ. Hamilton, LL.B., is the second son of the 
Rev. Doctor Hami'.on, a well-known contributor to sacred lite- 
rature. Mr. Hamilton is a member of the law firm of Beaty, 
Hamilton & Cassels. He has written a book called " The Prairie 
Province." 

Thomas James Preston, a native of Old Castle, County Meath 
settled in " Muddy York " in 1827, where he became a leading 
draper. He secured a handsome competence, on which he lived 
many years in retirement, until his <leath in 1873. He left a 
numerous family. The Rev. James A. Preston of Cornwall, is his 
eldest son. The father held the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
militia, was a Justice of the Peace, and served as a member of 
the City Council for two years. 

Alexander Dixon came to Upper Canada from the Cityof Dublin, 
with the intention of proceeding to Mount Vernon, in the State of 
Ohio, where a large number of Irish Protestants were induced to 
settle. Mr. Dixon, finding that things at Mount Vernon differed 
altogether from the highly coloured Utopian rej)resentations which 
induced him to emigrate, returned to Canada, intending to go 
back to Ireland, Owing however to the advice and urgent repre- 
sentations of Mr. Dunn, the Recei/ej-General of that time, and 
father of the dashing cavalry officer who won the Victoria Cross in 
the memorable Balaklava charge, he determined to make York his 
home. He procured a lease of a portion of an orchard which 
occupied that part of King Street where Adelaide Buildings now 
stand. In a shore time two houses arose which, at that period 
were marvels of shop architecture. In this way his long and suc- 
cessful career as a man of business commenced. 

In 1834 Toronto was incorporated and changed its nam3 from 
York. Shortly after this Mr. Dixon was chosen Alderman for St. 
Lawrence Ward. In Toronto and elsewhere Irishmen have dis- 






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264 



THE IKISHMAN IN CANADA. 



playefl great capacity for civic government. Some of our most 
prominent city fathers to-day are Irishmen. In 1870, Mr. Henry 
Rowsell published a pamphlet giving the names of the members 
of the Municipal Council and Civic Officials of the City from the 
year 1834 forward. An analysis of this tract shows that the 
second mayor was an Irishman, Robert Baldwin Sullivan, the first 
mayor being William Lyon Mackenzie. From 1836 to 18-50, in- 
clusive, the mayors are Thomas D. Morrison, M.D. (one year), 
George Gurnett (one year), John Powell (1838, 1840), George 
Monro (1841), Hon. Henry Sherwood, Q.C. (1842-1844), William 
Henry Boulton (1845-1847), George Gurnett (1848-1850). In 
1851 we have an Irishman, Mr. Bowes, in the chair, and he ruled 
for three years. After a leap of three years — Joshua George Beard, 
the Hon. John Beverley Robhison (1854), the Hon. George William 
Allan (1855), Hon. John Beverley Robinson (1856,) we have in 
1857 an Irishman, John Hutchinson, in the chair. In 1858, we 
have the name of W^illiam Henry Boulton and David Brecken- 
bridge Read, Q.C. bracketed. In 1859, the Hon. Adam Wilson, 
Q.C, was mayor ; in 1860, he had associated with him John Carr, 
as president. Then follow three years of John George Bowes ai»d 
three years of Francis H. Medcalf. Since then Mr. Medcalf has 
presided as mayor for more than one year in the City CouDcil. Mr. 
Manning has been mayor and the probability is that an Irishman 
will be our mayor f jr 1878. 

In 1834 there were four members of Council and two Alder- 
men, Iri.sh : John Armstrong, John Craig, William Arthurs, James 
Trotter, Councilmen ; John Harper, Alderman for St. Andrew's 
Ward. Geo. Duggan, Sen., for that of St. Lawrence ; Mr. Andrew 
T. McCord was Chamberlain, and was destined to hold that im- 
portant office for forty years. In 1835, the Irishmen are : Coun- 
cilmen — John Armstrong, John Craig, Alexander Dixon, James 
Trotter, Geo. Nicol; Aldermen: — John Harper, Hon. R. B. Sul- 
livan (also Mayor), Geo. Duggan, John King, Richd. H. Thorn- 
hill. Among the officials in addition to the Chamberlain, we 
have Charles Daly, City Clerk and Geo. Kingsmill, Chief of 
Police. In 1836, Councilmen — Edward McEIderry, John Craig, 
James Beaty, William Arthurs, James Trotter; Aldermen John 
Hai-per, John King, M. D ; 1837, Councilmen — John Ritchey, 



f^ 



'W'*.m 



TORONTO TOWN COUNCIL. 



266 



I'-'-i 



John Craig, James Browne, James Trotter, Robert Blevins; 
Aldermen — John Armstrong, John King, M. D., Alexander Dixon ; 
1838, the same with the exception that Dr. King disappears from St. 
George's Ward and Charles Stotesbuiy and Geo. Duggan, Jun., 
are Aldermen for St. David's ; Alexander Hamilton was elected 
Councilman instead of James Turner ; 1839 saw no change but 
the replacement of Robert Blevins by a Scotchman, Mr. William 
Mathers. In 1840 things remained unchanged further than this, 
a city solicitor was appointed and the appointment feli to the lot 
of an Irish Canadian, Mr. Clarke Gamble. In 1841, no change but 
the re-appearance of Robert Blevins. Nor is there any change in 
1842, four of the prominent officials are still Irish and the Council 
and Aideraien's roll remains, so far as our purpose is concerned, as 
they were ; and so until 1847, when nearly every man in the 
council is an Irishman. What a council this was ! Among the 
Aldermen were the Hon. John Hillyard Cameron, Q.C., Scotch ; and 
Irish — Joseph Workman, J . H. Hagarty, Q.C., James Beaty, John 
Armstrong, Geo. Duggan; of twelve councilmen, ten were Irish, 
namely, Samuel Shaw, John Ritchey, William Davis, George Piatt, 
John Craig, Thomas J. Preston, Alex. Hamilton, Samuel Piatt, 
John Carr, James Trotter. In the officials the only change is that 
Geo. L. Allan has superseded Geo. Kingsmill, one Irishman super- 
seding another and James Armstrong, an Irishman, has replaced 
Robert Beard as Chief Engineer of the Fire Brigade. The next 
year we miss the names of Cameron and Hagarty. The Irish 
Aldermen for 1848 are George Duggan, Jr., Richard Dempsey, 
Jos'iph Workman, John Armstrong, James Beaty ; Councilmen: 
V/ni. Dav^ , Alex. Hamilton, Robert James, Jr., Samuel Piatt, John 
Carr, John Smith. In 1849, James Ashfield was among the other 
Irishmen iv. the Council; in 1851 Michael Hays; in 1852 Kivas 
Tully, Adam Beatt> and R. C. McMu '3n; in 1852 Samuel Rogers, 
find S^-iauel T. Green; in 1853 James Good and Thomas McCon- 
key, William Murphy, Thomas Mara, and Theoi)hilus Earl; in 
1854 Ogle R, Gowan appears among the Aldermen; for 1855 the 
names of John Wilson, Wm. Murphy, and Robert Moodie should 
bv mentioned, that of Alexander Manning in the following year ; 
in 1857 the names of William Ardagh, William Ramsay, William 
W. Fox, and Robert Moodie appear, as do those of George Boomer, 



M 1 



" § 



-^'^^ 



266 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



John Purdy, Christopher Mitchell, Robert J. Griffith, Wm. Len- 
nox; in 1859 a^nong the list of Aldermen we find Thompson 
McCleary, John O'Donoghue, Kivas Tully, W. W. Fox, and 
Michael Lawlor, M D. Among the Common Councilmen the 
only new name is that of George Carroll; in 1860 Patrick Conlin 
appears as a new name, as does James Farrell; in 1862 Patrick 
Hynes, Alderman; in 1863 John Spence and Nathaniel Dickey 
and John O'Connell are elected for the first time; in 1864 John 
Canavan; in 1866 Francis Riddell; in 1870 we find among other 
Irishmen already mentioned, Robert Bell, Arthur Lepper, and 
John J. Vickers, Aldermen; the Judge of the County Court, 
George Uuggan ; City Clerk, John Carr ; Stephen RadcliflPe, 
Assistant Clerk; and Robert Roddy, Second Clerk. A large pro- 
portion of the minor oflicials were Irish. 

But to return to Mr. Dixon. As we have seen, he was fre- 
quently chosen alderman. He also held a commission of the 
peace, and was a very active district magistrate. No citizen of 
Toronl/O did more for our public and private buildings. Adelaide 
Buildings, the first structure on King Street possessing any pre- 
tensions to architectural beauty, we owe to him and to Mr. Peter 
Paterson. His own handsome residence on Gerrard Street, now 
occupied by Dr. Tupper, set the example for the numerous man- 
sions which adorn the city. To his correct taste and sound archi- 
tectural judgment. Trinity Church and the present St. James's 
Cathedi"al were not a little indebted. A strong Conservative and 
a zealous churchman, he was the means of erecting Trinity Church, 
whose " father and founder " he has been called. Ho was, how- 
ever, helped in the task by Messrs. Gooderham, Turner, Beard, 
and Kent. A good writer and speaker, he took an effective and 
useful part in public discussion. His eldest son is the Rrjv. Canon 
Alexander Dixon, Rector of Guelph. 

Mr. Williari Dixon, his second son, educated at Upper Canada 
College, was for some years Chief Agent of Emigration for the 
Dominion in Great Britain. His connection with the Canadian 
Government commenced at the time of the Great Exhibition in 
1862, when he had charge of the Canadian Department ; soon 
after he was appointed E.iigration Agent for the Dominion, with 
his head -quarters at Liverpool. In consequence of his represen- 



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• '- 



WILLIAM DIXON. SCOTT HOWARD, 



207 



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tations the head ofRce was opened in London. In 1870 he was 
summoned to Ottawa, and was for several weeks there aidin<;j in 
the organisation of a general and comprehensive system of 
immigration. In 1871 he was again summoned there, to consult 
with the Hon. J. H. Pope, who was appointed iiead of that 
Department. In the summer of 1873 his health began to fail, 
under the severe pressure of his official duties. So assiduous was 
he, that, even four or five days previous to his death, he sent off 
his usual weekly despatches to Ottawa. He died in the end of 
October, 1873. Shortly after, in a letter written to his brother, 
Canon Dixon, the Hon. J. H. Pope said : — " He was the most care- 
ful and conscientious administrator that I ever knew. His loss is 
not only a loss to the Department, and to his friends, but to the 
public service of the Dominion as well." In a speech in Parliament 
also, Mr. Pope bore very high testimony to his services. 

A third son, Mr. F. E. Dixon, was Adjutano of the Queen's Own 
for some years, and did much towards raising that regiment to its 
high state of efficiency. He was Captain of No. 2 Company at 
the time of the Fenian raid, when this company met with serious 
losses. He was afterwards promoted to be Major, and wrote a 
work on " The Internal Economy of a Regiment," which was 
made a text book for volunteers, and was adopted by some of the 
regular troops then qup,T',eroL in Canada. 

We have already se. :■ something of the valuable material the 
Huguenot Irishman sent to Canada, ames Scott Howard })elonged 
to a family who sought, away from the sunny lands of France, from 
the " proud city of the waters," away from delusive edicts, from 
Vassys and Bartholomews, an asylum for their faith at Bandon, 
in the County Cork. Here Nicholas Howard established silk 
manufactures. Success at first smiled on the enterprise, but owing 
to the hostile legislation of England the manufactures languished, 
and the family became impoverished. In the midst of the stormy 
period of 1798, James Scott Howard was born. In 1819, when 
he was twenty-one years old, he arrived in York, bearing letters 
of introduction to the Rev. Dr. Strachan, and to Dr. Baldwin. 
He was an adventurous follow. Before coming to '^anada, he 
explored the maritime provinces. With a canoe he \\rnt ^vhither 
he listed. Paddling the River. du Loup and the Madawaska, he 



■'IP'— 



268 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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reached the head waters of St. John, down which he went to 
Frtderickton. Here he met his fate in the fair daughter of Captain 
Archibald McLean. Having with his young bride come on 
to York, he entered the office of the Hon. Wm. Allan. 
He and his wife stayed for some time with Dr. Baldwin at 
Spadina, which was then reached by a path through the woods 
commencing where Yonge Street now runs. An instructive light 
is thrown on the condition of things at this time, by merely enu- 
merating the functions fulfilled b^' Mr. Allan ; Postmaster, Collector 
of Customs, Inspector of shop, still, and tavern licenses, Trustea of 
the General Hospital for Upper Canada, Treasurer for the Society 
of Strangers in Distress, at York, Commissioner for vesting the 
estates of certain traitors and aliens in His Majesty, also for in- 
vestigating the claims for losses during the late war with the 
United States, Director of the Bank of Upper Canada, Treasurer 
of the Old Home District which at that time consisted of 
what is now known as the Counties of York, Halton, Peel, Wel- 
lington, Grey, Simcoe, and Ontario. Collecting the customs 
was in those days a light matter as were the duties devolving on 
the Postmaster. Nevertheless, the aggregation of so many posi- 
tions must have kupt the hands of any one man very full. All the 
work of Mr. Allan, Mr. Howard, when that gentleman was in Eng- 
land, performed as his deputy. He ultimately became Postmaster, 
but was unjustly deprived of his office in 1837, for alleged 
sympathy vith the rebellion. .In 1840, he went to reside on a 
farm in the Township of Burfcrd, County of Oxford, where he 
was one r,^ Mr. Hincks' warmest supporters, who appointed him 
Treasurer of fne Home District. A man of benevolence and 
genuine Irisl) instincts, he was Treasurer for the Irish Relief 
Fund, raised during the famine year of 1847. He was one of 
the beat secretaries the Bible Society has had, and die 1 in the 
very act of writing a letter in its behalf. His services to the 
Society were such as to lead them to present him with a valuable 
piece of plate. He was, moreover, Treasurer of the Upper Canada 
Tract Society, and a member of the Council of Public Instruction, 
from its formation to his death, and a Magistrate for the Counties 
of York and Peel. 

Another well-known official has already been mentioned in a • 






CREDR' OF THE CITY OF TORONTO. 



2G9 






passing way. Andrew Taylor McCord is the son of the late 
Andrew McCord, who was a manufacturer in the Town of Belfast, 
in the North of Ireland. Mr. McCord was educated at the Bel- 
fast College and was brought up to mercantile business in Bel- 
fast, which city he left in the year 1831, for Little York, which 
at that time contained not more than 6,000 inhabitants. Mr^ 
McCord, as we have seen, was appointed City Chamberlain and 
Treasurer, the first year of its incorpoio,Mon as a city and held 
that office for upwards of forty years until he resigned in the 
latter part of 1874, when the city had increased to about 70,000 
inhabitants. The finances of the city so far as he had the manage- 
ment of them, were administered l>y him during thfit long period, 
honestly and economically. In the year 1856, when the debentures 
of the city only realized about eighty in Toronto he went to Eng- 
land and succeeded in placing them in the London market at par, 
and in a great-measure owing to h's punctuality in the payment 
of interest and principal on the days they fell due, they have held 
to that figure since. At times indeed they have sold at 105. In 
this way undoubtedly a very large amount has been gained by 
the city. 

The credit of the corporation bonds stands high and furnishes 
a striking contrast to the state of things in the year 1834, when 
the first £1000 expended for improvements was raised in antici- 
pation of the taxes, by every member of the Council, including 
the Mayor and the city officials, signing a promisfeory note. 

Very few of the old ro nibers of the previous Council are now 
living. The only persons who served in the year 1834, are Wm. 
Cawthra, Jas. Lesslie and George Monro. 

When speaking of officials it would be wrong to forget a family 
which has given us one of the ablest heads in the Post-office de- 
partment to-day. From the same town on which young Howard 
turned his back in 1819. there came to Little York four years later 
Matthew Sweetnam, His wife, Elizabeth Reilly, was a native of 
Drun.\reilly, County Leitrira. In 1831, their son Matthew Sweet- 
nam was born. Having received a good sound education, he entered 
the Post-office service in 1852 as assistant Post-master. Five years 
afterwards he was appointed Post-office Inspector of the Kingston 
postal division. In 1870 he was transferred to the Inspectorship. 



r »•.« 



It 



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270 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



of the Toronto division. A man of strong religious views and 
active public spirit, he is Vice President of the Upper Canada 
Bible Society and was for four years president of the Toronto 
Mechanics' Institute. He has taken an active interest in various 
literary and educational societies, in hospital management and 
the like. Possessed of good administrative abilities and grea^ Torce 
of character, a vigorous writer and a fair speaker, he is well cal- 
culated to play a useful and a leading part in an^- ent^^rprise of 
whatev-ji- character to which he may devote himself. One of the 
senior Inspectors of the Post-office Department, he has been a 
guiding influence in the improvements which have been made in 
post-ofjfice management within the last twenty years. In 1857 
when the colonization roads were being opened up he had jurisdic- 
tion over the new postal arrangements for the district. In 18G2 
h - was a commissioner to examine into the management of the 
j)ost-offices at Montreal, Hamilton and London. ♦ 

If we pass to Toronto merchants, we find ourselves in the pre- 
sence of success and integrity sometimes conjoined with large 
talent for public affairs. 

One of the most remarkable men who came to Canada during 
this period is the Hon. William McMaster. The present writer 
believes phrenology is trustworthy only to a limited extent. It 
seems, however, established that to do large things there must be 
a large brain. Hood used to say that no man ever did anything 
great who had not a large neck, and he would })oint to the bust 
of Walter Scott and account for Scott's easy power by dwelling 
on his broad neck. To have force it is necessary that the back of 
the head should be large. A phrenologist could not have a better 
text than the head of William McMaster, It is large and well 
balanced and his life partakes of the same character. He has 
known how to make money, and he has known how to do good. 

Born in 1811 in the County of Tyrone, he emigrated to Canada 
in 1833. He entered the wholesale and retail est iblishraent of 
Robert Cathcart, whose store was on the south fide of Kiug street 
facing Toronto street. There could be no higher uroof of his busi- 

O O J. 

ness ability than that after a year he became a partner. Ultim- 
ately he saw his way to do better still and set up for himself as a 
wholesale merchant on Yonge Street, just below King Street. 



HON. WILLIAM MCMASTER. 



271 



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At that time the principal distributing centre even for Upper 
Canada was Montreal. But Mr. McMaster saw that this was not 
destined to be perpetual ; that a change had already set in and that 
by energy and business talent, Toronto could be made a formid- 
able rival to Montreal. "Mr. McMaster can hardly be described as 
a pioneer in the attempt to divert the trade from its old and well- 
worn channel, but hardly any one has done more than he has to 
make the attempt successful*." He extended his business until 
all Western Ontario was his market. He built large premises and 
took his nephews into partnership with him. Extended business 
again compelled him to build. The magnificent store on Front 
Street, near Yonge Street, now occupied by his nephews, was the 
lesult. 

Mr. McMasver began to give more attention to finance than 
to commerce, and in time left the whole of his Dry -goods business 
to Captain McMaster and his brothers. He became a director of 
the Ontario Bank, and of the Bank of Montreal. He has been 
for many years President of the Freehold Loan and Savings Com- 
pany, Vice President of the Confederation Life Association, and 
director of the Isolated Risk Insurance Company. He was the 
founder of the Canadian Bar '•: of Commerce of which he has been 
President for sixteen years, and the success of which is mainly 
due to his large capacity and business power. His conduct as 
chairman of the Canadian Board of the Great Western Railway 
reflects on him the highest credit. In politics a reformer, he was 
in 1862 elected for the Midland Division in the Legisl«tlv^e Coun- 
cil of Canada. After Confederation he was chosen as one of the 
senators to represent Ontario. In 1 865 he bef'ame a member of 
the Council of Public Instruction, and for tcu years represented at 
the Board the Baptist Church of which he is a pillar. In 1873 
he was nominated one of the members of the Senate of Toronto 
University. He has been a liberal supporter of the Canadian 
Literary Institute at Woodstock. His contribution to the build- 
ing fund was $12,000 ; and his annual donations have been very 
liberal. 

The foundation of the Superannuated Ministers' Society of the 

* Weekly Globe, March 10th, 1876. 



272 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



S^ 



t ! 



:f 



Baptist Church of Ontario is due in great part to him, and he has 
been the principal factor of its success. The new Baptist Church 
on the corner of Genard and Jarvis Streets, which is one of the 
handsomest in the city, would never have been erected but I'or 
him. The joint contribution of himself and his wife exceeded 
$50,000. He is the treasurer of the Upper Canada Bible Society 
to which he has been accustomed liberally to subscribe. Altogether 
it must a^- once be admitted by any one who runs over his career 
that his life, beyond that of most men, has been singularly s\icces8- 
ful and useful, and well asserts the capacity of Irishmen to take a 
foremost place as merchants and bankers. He is a strict teetota- 
ler. At his parties no wine is to be seen, and those parties are 
not less pleasant than others where loaded sherry and champagne 
of doubtful origin circulate freely. The energy of Mr. McMaster 
in his sixty-sixth year is a fine testimony to the truth preached 
by Pindar many centuries ago, that water is the best of all bev- 
erages. 

Mr. Foy, the father of Mr. J. J. Foy, the barrister, came to Can- 
ada in 1832. He was then twenty years of age, not possessed of 
much worldly goods, but, having industry and energy, he made his 
way. After a little delay at Montreal he came on to York, where 
he went into business with Mr. Austin, the President of the Dom- 
inion Bank. " They were,' said Mr. Foy to the writer, " fortu- 
nate in their ventures, and are an example of what Orange and 
Green might do when working in harmony instead of dissipating 
their energies against each othor." 

The partner of the deceased Mr. Foy, Mr. James Austin, happily 
still survives, a wealthy man, and a useful citizen. Mr. Austin 
was bom in the County of Armagh, in the year 1813. When he 
was sixteen years of age, his parents, who had heard flattering 
accounts of Canada, and especially of York, determined to emi- 
grate thither. They arrived on the 10th October, 1829, after a 
passage of seventy days, ten of which passed away between Mon- 
treal and Prescott, in the small flat-bottomed boats propelled from 
the shore by habitans, with poles. When a rapid was reached, 
several yoke of oxen were harnessed to the craft by means of a 
strong hawser, and she was dragged through until she was once 
more in still water. At this time there were no side paths, sewers, 



■3 , 
1 ■ 



AUSTIN AND FOY. SCOLLARD. 



273 



10 

)r 



tl 



or any means of li<^hting the streets of " muddy little York." The 
disappointment of the family was extreme. Only that the season 
wa-s so far advanced they would have returned home again ; as it 
was, they resolved to remain. 

In DecemV)er, Mr. Austin's father determined to apprentice him 
to William Lyon Mackenzie for four years and a-half, to learn the 
printing business. His boy thus provided for, he purchased a farm 
in the Township of Trafalgar, to which, with the remainder of his 
family, he removed. His son spent twelve years at the printing 
business, and he attributes whatever success he has achieved, to 
the gener.-'l knowledge he acquired of men and things during his 
connexion with that trade. Having, by the dint of close appli- 
cation and self-denial, acquired a small sura, he embarked in bus- 
iness with Mr. Foy, in 184G, and after sixteen years accumulated 
a handsome fortune. In the crisis which followed the Russian war 
he and his partner were afraid to let goods out of their j)ossession 
on credit ; the business naturally fell off ; they resolved to invest 
their capital more securely ; and each having his own views, they 
decided, in 1859, to dissolve partnership. 

In 1870 Mr. Austin was induced by some friends to assist in 
working up the stock of the Dominion Bank. This was accom- 
plished in a period brief beyond precedent. He was appointed 
President, which position, togethei with others of a responsible 
character, he still holds. Mr. Austin is sixty-four years of age, and 
is full of health and vigour. He has witnessed the cholera of 1832 
and ISS^-, when the deaths often averaged from twenty to forty a 
day ; the emigrant fever, which proved more disastrous ; the rebel- 
lion of 1837, which for months paralyzed business, and demora- 
lized the people ; together with agitations for responsible govern- 
ment, and against clergy reserves ; and Fenian invasions, such as 
they were. 

A wit as well as a banker, was Maurice Scollard, who came 

here from Cork, in 1819. He was long, well, and favourably known 

in connection with the Bank of Upper Canada. He was a good 

sample of the Irish gentleman. Warm hearted, open handed , 

genial and sparkling, his sayings and doings are still referred to 

with pleasure. His humour and power of repartee made him a 

coveted companion and a dangerous foe in wordy war. His gen- 
18 



n 



I 



274 



THR IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



uine charactor is strikin/^ly shewn })y a deed which has a parallel 
in the conduct of another Irislunan, who has been Mayor of Mon- 
treal. His Itrotiier in Cork, having failed for a large amount, 
Maurice charged himself with the debt as a debt of honour. He 
never lost sight of this, and had a few years before his death paid 
it to the uttermost farthing, Bank clerks have not princely in- 
comes, and this almost (quixotically honourable ct duct on the part 
of Maurice Scollard, must have kept him poor all his days. Quix- 
otically : for no man should hold himself responsible for his bro- 
ther's conduct, unless that brother is under age, or unless he has 
been the means of inducing others to trust him. Don Quixote is 
one of the noblest characters ever created by dramatist or novelist, 
but, as is so often the case with a great nature, he is not a very 
practical person. 

Mr, John Ritchey's name has been inentioned in connexion Avith 
the Cov.no' 1. He was a builder, and came hither from Belfast, in 
1811). He wiiS for many years one of the leading builders in Toronto, 
and ovned a- large amount of property in the city. He maj' be 
said to have built and owned the first theatre in the place — The 
Royal Lyceum. Much of Toronto was built by four brothers, John, 
William, Samuel and James Rogers, builders and painters, &c., 
who came here from Coleraine, in 1832. The Messrs. Langley, of 
Langley &l Burke, one of the leading firms of Dominion architects, 
are the sons of a Tipperary man. 

A family of Somersets from the County Cavan, carl}'- came here 
and having acquired wealth settled on a farm in the Township of 
Toronto. Mr. Somerset was an active member of the early Metho- 
dist church in York. The families of Somerset and Harper be- 
came allied, and both in time mingled with the family of Aikens. 
About ohe time Mr. Harper came to York, Mr. James Aikens set- 
tled one concession north of the Dundas Road, in the old Township 
of Toronto. There being no Presbyterian clergyman near, Mr. 
Aikens invited the itim rant Methodist preachers to conduct ser- 
vice in his house. He was thus led to connect himself with the 
Methodist church, and brought up his family within its precincts. 
It is no unimportant matter that Mr. p Mrs. Aikens became a 
centre, whence radiated religious influence, nor that the wander- 



^ 



HON, JAMES AIKENS. JOHN UKATTY. 



275 






ing ovangeliat ev-.-r found a hospitable reception in their comfort- 
al ! home. 

Their ehlestson is tlie Hon. James Cox Aikens. Ho married the 
only daughter of Mr. Somerset, and lived the life of a well-to-do 
yeoman, a few miles from the paternal homestead, fie recciived 
a liberal education at Vict-./ia College, Cohourg. Thus litted for 
public life, he in due time turned his attention to affairs, and as a, 
member of the reform party, was returned for Peel in IS He 

represented this constituency until 18GI, when he was defeated. 
From ISG2, until the Union, he was a mend>er of the Legislative 
Council for the " Home" Division, and in 1807 was called to the 
Senate by Royal Proclamation. In 18G9, he joined Sir John 
Macdonald's government, and became Secretary of State, with 
charge of the Dominion lands in Manitoba and the North- West 
Territories. He held this office imtil Sir John Macdonald's resig- 
nation on the 5th November, 187.3. He is still down in " Mor- 
gan" or rather "Mackintosh," as a "?liberal." Since 18G9, he has 
resided in Toronto. His brother, Dr. Aikens, is well known in 
Toronto, as a leading physician. Another brotlier. Dr. Moses 
Aikens lives in the paternal homestead — one might write mansion 
— and Ct^rries on an extensive practice. 

Many of Mr. James Aikens' most successful fellow immigrants 
and colleagues in settling that part of the country known as 
"The New Purchase," including the old and new surveys of 
Toronto, Trafalgar, Chinguacousy, Erin, Albion, Gore of Toronto, 
and adjacent places, were Irishmen. One of these, John Beatty, 
who had accumulated wealth in New York, was employed by 
some of his old friends in Ireland and in the States to spy out 
the land and make " locations " for them. Mr. Beatty and his 
fellow commissioners were pious men, and when they crossed the 
Etobicoke, and entered on what was known as the " Back Road,'' 
they knelt down and asked the guidance of Heaven. Mr. Beatty 
himself settled on the flats of the River Credit, where the beauti- 
ful Village of Meadowvale now gleams out in gai'dened beauty on 
the traveller. He was long a leading mind in that place, in mat- 
ters religious, civil, social and military. He was a local preacher, 
magistrate, and militia captain; h"s eldest daughtei married an 
influential Irishman, who had put down his stakes in Trafalgar — 



..I ' 

I 31 1 



! 



276 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



James Crawford, son of Patrick Crawford. Ilis second daughter 
married Stewart Grafton, the s i of a patriarchal Irish yeoman — 
a well-to-do farmer, who resided in the Township of York, on the 
lot lately occupied by Mr. Isaac Robinson. The son. Dr. John 
Beatty, has long been an influentijLl resident and practitioner at 
Cobourg. This gentleman n^arried a daughter of James Rogers 
Armstrong, who, with his brother, the late Dr. Armstrong, of 
Kingston, were of North of Ireland origin. One of the beautiful 
daughters of Dr. Beatty is the second wife of the Hon. William 
McDougall. 

Time and space alike would fail to tell of all the Irishmen in 
Mr. Beatty's settlements who rose by their industry and energy. 
One might dwell on Dr. Todd and his brothers ; on Alexander 
Broddy, one of whose sons is the sheriff of the county and the 
richest man in his vicinity ; on Bartholomew Bull, at Davenport, 
who worked his way up from bush-farming to be a large property 
holder, and who gave to the country two physicians, one lawyer, 
and one magistrate — John P. Bull, J.P., who is ever helping on 
all kinds of improvement ; nor, perhaps, if particulars are to be 
enlarged on, should it be forgotten, gave wives to two gentle- 
men — Dr. Patullo and Mr. James Good — both of Irish origin. 

The eldest son of Patrick Crawford, mentioned above, was the 
Hon. George Crawford, father of the late Lieutenant-Governor of 
Ontario. He became a Government contractor on the Rideau 
Canal ; made wejilth, and, having married a Miss Sherwood — his 
sec(md wife — settled at Brock ville. His brother James was an 
amiable man, of a retiring disposition, who early retired from 
business and lived in good style — first at Meadowvale, then at 
Hamilton, and finally at Brantford, where he died. All his chil- 
dren occupy good positions, and his youngest son is a well-known 
physici^n in Hamilton. Another brotiier, Mr. Lindsay Crawford 
— called Lindsay after an Irish family in that quarter — early 
turned his attention to commerce, and boc: me a dry-goods mer- 
chant in Hamilton, where he marriea the daughter of an Irish 
house — Miss Magill. Another brother, Patrick Crawford, never 
left the scenes of his boyhood. 

The second son of the Hon. George Ch-awford, by his first wife. 
Miss Brown, was born in the County Cavan. He was educated in 



daughter 
eoman — 
k, on the 
)r. John 
tioner at 
s Rogers 
trong, of 
3eautiful 
William 

jlimen in 
1 energy. 

lexander 

and the 
avenport, 

property 
e lawyer, 
;lping on 
ire to be 
gentle- 
ih origin. 

was the 
pernor of 
3 Rideau 
ood — his 
3 was an 
fed from 

then at 
his chil- 
li-known 
Crawford 
r — early 
)ds mer- 
an Irish 
d, never 

rat wife, 
icated in 



1 






LIEUTENAJ^T GO PERNOR CRAWFORD. 



277 



Toronto, where he was called to the bar in 1839. He became a 
Queen's Counsel in 1867, having meanwhile been associated with 
Mr, Hagarty (the present Chief Justice), in business. He after- 
wards took Mr. Crombie into partnership. He sat for Toronto 
East in the Canadian Assembly, as a Conservative, from 1861 to 
1863, and for South Leeds in the House of Commons from the 
Union until 1872. At the ensuing general election he was re- 
turned for West Toronto. He was President of the Royal Cana- 
dian Bank, of the Imperial Building, Savings and Investment 
Society, and of the Canada Car Company ; a Bencher of the Law 
Society of Ontario, and Lieutenant-Colonel 5th Battalion, Toronto 
Militia; he had also been President of the Toronto & Nipissing 
Railway Company. As Lieutenant-Governor his bearing was all 
that could be wished. But a difficult task was assigned him and 
Mrs. Crawford. To follow so popular a woman as Mrs. Howland 
was a trying task. He died before the expiry of his term of office. 

In the same part of the country, the Watkinses, who W' nt in 
when it was a wilderness and achieved wealth, would well illus- 
trate the en rgy and perseverance Irishmen have brought to their 
adopted land ; as would the Baileys, the Websters, families more- 
over, whence the Methodist Church drew some zealous local preach- 
ers. Mr. Webster, the local preacher, who is at the present moment 
a leading influence, was, if informants do not deceive, the first 
editor of the Canadian Christian Advocate. He has published 
several books, amongst them — adventurous theme ! — " Woman, 
Man's Equal." His last work is the admirable "Life of Bishop 
Richardson." His writings have won for him the honorary D.D. 

The numerous family of Morrows, who came here in 1820 and 
settled in the Township of Hope, one concession north of the main 
road running from York to Kingston, have scattered tcions all 
over the country. The Mahas, the Skellys, the Scullys, tho Prices, 
the Allisons, the Sandersons, the Beattys of Thorold, arid others 
have done such service as it would take many pages to recount. 
Take an instance. Wm. Beatty settled at Thorold in 1834. He 
obtained a mill privilege from the directors of the Welland Canal. 
He erected a mill and went largely into the busines.\ He also 
went into tanning. He must have brouglit considerable capital 
with him; but he very soon greatly increased it. He at one time 



1 I'l 









E 



278 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



represented tlie County of Welland in the Ontario Assembly. 
His sons were the first to colonize Parry Sound, and build a mill 
there. William Beatty is still the principal landowner; he has 
built a Methodist church, organized a Sabbath-school, and laid 
the foundation of useful institutions. The brothers James and 
William Beatty were the first to run a steamer from Colling- 
wood to Parry Sound and under their auspices the first weekly 
paper was launched in the District of Algoma. The Beatty line 
of steamers tells its own story. 

Mr. James Beaty, the proprietor of the Leader, does not belong 
to the Beattys of Sarnia. The name is spelled differently, but un- 
doubtedly all the Beaty s are of the same family originally. James 
Beaty came here in 1817 from County Cavan, from that part 
where the river divides the County from the County Leitrim. 
On the 17th of March he dined with about thirteen Irishmen, 
amongst them bei'^g the father of Dr. Bergin, M.P. One of 
these was a man named Rse, who came out in the vessel with 
Mr. Beaty. R{b was a Roman Catholic, and, it is said was 
the first who read mass in Little York. But could a man who 
was not a priest read mass ? Mr. Beaty, as we have seen, 
was in the second Council of this city. He proposed Dr. Mor- 
rison for mayor. He opposed the Family Compact, and was a 
strong antagonist of the clergy reserves. He was managing 
director of the bank of which Sir Francis Hincks was cashier, and 
although most of those who were directors of that bank went 
wrong in 1837, he never wavered in his allegiance. He loves 
to talk of a clever Roman Catholic priest named O'Grad^'^, who 
figured prominently on the eve of Mackenzie's abortive rebel- 
lion. One night O'Grady moved to have a secret committoe. 
" Well," said Mr. Beat}^ " I have no secrets in politics or religion. 
I will belong to no party that has secrets in it." O'Grady, accord- 
ing to Mr. Beaty, was as good-hearted an Irishman as ever lived. 
According to Mr. Beaty, Foley would have been sent for when 
Sandfield Macdonald was called on to form a Govejnment, but 
for Sandfield's intrigues. Mr. Beat)'' was director of the first 
Mutual Insurance Company, in the Home district ; Presi dent 
of one of the first Building Societies ; Commissioner of the Pro- 
vincial Lunatic Asylum ; Trustee of the General Hospital, and as 



a,^.i.Ji^.i.,aFt* 



JAMES BEATY. J. G. BOWES. 



279 



lill 

las 

lid 

Ind 

ine 



such superintended, with others, the construction of the New 
Hospital. He has been Alderman ; was for nine years a director 
of the Grand Trunk Railway, and has long been proprietor of the 
Leader and the Patriot. He was returned to Parliament for 
East Toronto in 1867, and re-elected at the General Election fol- 
lowing. He is a Conservative in politics and in religion a 
" Disciple," the Disciples being a sect like the Plymouth Brethren 
in all respects but that they reject the notion of a sinner praj'ing 
to be converted, and do not believe in the spiritual illumination on 
which the Brethren set so much store. His brother, John 
Beaty, came here in 1818, and remained in Trafalgar, County of 

vlton, over fifty years, until his death, in 1870, at eighty years 
of age, leaving behind him sons who are well known men — Robert 
Beaty, John Beaty, and William C. Beaty, J. P., of Ashdale, 
Trafalgar, an active and leading man in local politics. He farms 
five hundred acres, and raises thoroughbred and other stock exten- 
sively. His youngest son, James Beaty, Jun., Q.C., an alderman 
of Toronto, was born on the Ashdale farm. 

Other connections of Mr. James Beaty are Mr. John and Mr. 
Samuel Beaty, both enterprising and energetic newspaper men who 
take an active part in the management of the Leader. The Bel- 
ford family is also closely''related to Mr. Beaty. Charles Belford 
is a well-known journalist. At ont time editor of the Leader, he 
elected when the Mail was started to OiU its staff*. He has ever 
since been the principal political writer on it. His brothers, the 
Messrs. Belford Brotherr, have, as publishers, displayed great en- 
terprise, energy and taste, and thrown a new light on the possi- 
bilities of the trade in Canada. 

One of the most remarkable men who ever walked down King 
Street was the late John Geo. Bowes. He was born near (Clones, in 
the County of Monaghan in 1812 and came to Canada in 1833. He 
went into the employment of his brother-in-law, Samuel E. Taylor, 
on whose decease in 1838 he wound up the business and became 
manager for the Messrs. Benjamin who took the premises. The 
Benjamins removed to Montreal. Bowes took his brother-in- 
law into partnership with him ; opened a wholesale dry goods 
warehouse ; they were so successful that after three years they 
were able to purchase the business of Messrs. Buchanan, Harris 



280 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



I 



^1 



& Co., upon these removing to Hamilton. Henceforth he was in 
the front rank of the wholesale men in Canada. As a financier 
he had few equals. 

Of middle heigh o and of exceedingly well knit frame, he 
was fond of manly exercises and was, in expressive coHof^aial lan- 
guage, an ugly customer in a row. Character lives in all we do, 
and the secret of his success may be extract. d from the following 
incident, perhaps as certainly as from a heavy business transac- 
tion. Having occasion when mayor to visit the garrison, he took 
with him a member of the Council. Thv re existed at the time a 
species of feud between the military and the civilians. While 
Bowes and his friend were walking about the garrison, making 
observations in vegard to certain projected civic improvements, 
they were set upon by five soldiers who had marked them for an 
easy prey. The warriors had made a grand mistake. Bowei 
handled three of them. The first he struck went right down, 
Bowes having caught him under the chin. Two of the soldiers 
rushed at him, but before they had time to toucn him — one ! two ! 
and they were reeling back se /eral feet. Meanwhile the first had 
risen and sought to close with his antagonist. To this under or- 
dinary circumstances, Bowes would have had no objection. He 
had now however to keep his eye on more than one. The soldier 
struck him on the breast bat the blow had no more effect on that 
iron frame than a pea shot against, or the rat-tat of a drummer boy 
on a drum. The next moment a blow over the right temple again 
sent the man of war to the ground. On came his comrades to 
avenge his fall. By this time Bowes' blood was thoroughly up ; 
it ran lightning; the veins his companion observed, occupie;] 
though he was, stood out on his foiehead ; with his great mane- 
like head of hair he was suggestive of a lion at bay. His blows 
rained on his foes who felt his knuckles as though he wore iron 
gauntlets. In a few minutes he was able to come to iiis friend's 
assistance and the enemy fied. It would have been easy to find 
out the soldiers — for there was not one of them on whom Bowes 
had not put his sign manual, and to have had them punished. But 
though mayor of the city, feeling for them that kind of affection- 
ate t^ nderness we have for people whom we have well beaten, he 
refused to have them arrested. 



am 



llflBJliA. 



CATCHING THE HUMOUR OF THE CROWD. 



281 



T-as m 
incier 

e, he 
1 lan- 
e do, 
wing 
nsac- 
took 

ime a 
hile 

iking 



An alderman of St. James' ward, 1850, we have seen how he 
was 3lected Mayor by the Council for 1851-52-53, and by popular 
vote in 1861-62-63. He was elected one of the members for the 
the city in 1854 and took an eager interest in the legislation of" 
the period. When the separate school question was agitating the 
country, he threw the weight of his influence on the side of 
separate schools. Fortunate in business, he lost a laige portion of 
the wealth he had made by expensive political contests and the 
reckless speculation of his partner. 

He was President of the Toronto and Guelph Kailway, and was 
connectec^ with various monetary institutions. He died on the 20th 
of May, 1864, at the early age of fifty-two. His funeral was the 
largest ever seen in Toronto, and was attended by all classes of 
the community. He left a widow and nine children. One of his 
sons is a rising young barrister,not unlike the father in appearance,, 
but projected — physically — on a smaller scale, and fair, whereas 
the father was somewhat dark. 

Bowes seems tohave been capable of making a careless statement 
to catch the humour of a crowd. On a hustings occasion, Mr. M. 
C. Cameron had told his audience with what aiwopos, I am in no 
position to say, that he was related to the Stuart line of Kings, 
a line of men the least admirable Scotland has ever produced. 
Mr. Alexander Manning who was a bosom friend of Bowes, said 
to him : " Now you can beat that. Say j'ou are descended from a 
greater man than any Stuart, Brian Boru." Accordingly, when 
Bowes' turn came to speak, he said : — " Mr. Cameron says he is 
descended from the Stuarts, why, I am descended from a man 
greater thfin any Stuart ever was. I am descended from Brian 
Boru himself." The crowd which was mainly Irish, gaped and 
then cheered, as those present had never heard a crowd cheer be- 
fore. This may have been cleverly done. I have heard Bowes 
praised for it by very able men who were present at the 
time. But it is not defensible. In the first place, it was not 
true, and nothing, no not the heat of an election strife will justify 
even what are called " harmless fibs." In the next place, it was 
an appeal to the ignorance of the audience, and the duty of a 
public man is not to appeal to the ignorance of the people, but to 
drive away as far as in him lies that ignorance, and appeal to reason, . 



1 M" 



n 



•282 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






i 



judgment, and the living passions which are born of the gi'eat 
issues of the day. There was a much better answer to Mr. 
Cameron's boast or joke, for it is hard to regard his statement in 
a serious light. That answer was to dwell on the chai-acter of 
the Stuarts, men and women, and show what a pack they were, 
and then make Mr. Cameron c 3sent of his royal relatives. 
Having done this, Mr. Bowes, could have asked what on earth the 
family tie had to do with the issue of the moment. 

A scandal gathered round Mr. Bowes' name in connection with 
a profit of £10,000, made by the purchase of £50,000 city deben- 
tures, in regard to which Mr. Hincks (Sir Francis) had a bill 
passed through Parliament. No one can doubt for a moment 
that such a purchase was, to say the least, an improper act. It 
is perhaps only just to his memory, to give the following account 
of the transaction which is from the pen of a surviving friend. 

"Mr. Bowes thought at the time of the purchase of the £50,000 of 
debentures issued by the city that he had a perfect right to buy 
them; he also asserted that whatever was done by tl Council in 
the matter or by himself as mayor, was done solely upon public 
grounds and with a view to public interests ; that the arrange- 
ments the Council did enter into were clearly for the advantage 
of the fity, and in no manner injurious to its interests, but very 
much tiie reverse. 

" Tiiere is no doubt the credit of the City of Toronto was greatly 
improved b}'^ the resale which Mr. Bowes succeeded in making of 
the debentures — but in after life, in consequence of the suspi- 
cions, the discussions and contentions to which it gave rise, and 
the unfavourable inferences drawn from his silence at the time of 
the transaction, he regretted most deeply the part he took in the 
matter. 

" The City of Toronto lost nothing however, by the transaction 
— in fact it obtained the profit made on the sale of the Debentures, 
some $5,000. 

" Mr. Justice McLean in giving judgment in the appeal case of 
Bowes V. The City, says : 

" ' In all this I confess that I have not been able to see any vio- 
lation of duty, or of any obligation which the appellant owed to 
he City o Toronto as an alderman or as mayor ; no portion of 



; :|' 



mmm 



wm 



THE DEBENTURES SCANDAI,, 



283 



the public moneys have been misapplied or diverted to the benefit 
of the appellant : no loss has been caused to the city, but on the 
contrary a considerable gain has accriT id from thj whole proceed- 
ing ; and, admitting to the fullest extent that the appellant was in 
the character of a trustee for the city while he filled the ofiice of 
mayor, 1 do not find that the evidence brings home to him any 
violation of trust or <any dereliction of duty which can entitle the 
City of Toronto to insist on his paying into its treasury an amount 
which has been derived from the use of funds furnished by a 
third party. In coming to this conclusion, I must admit that I 
do so with some considerable doubt, knowing that the point has 
been carefully considered and ably adjudicated upon in the court 
below by judges much more experienced in the consideration of 
cases of trust; bui, I have not been able to satisfy myself that the 
appellant has done anything which can entitle the respondents to 
recover against him in this action. I am therefore of opinion that 
the judgment of the court below should be reversed and that the 
bill filed by the city at the information of certain parties should 
be dismissed.' 

" The majority of the judges, however, were of opinion that, tak- 
ing into consideration the quasi fiduciary position of Mr. Bowes, 
the profit made by the sale of the debentures should be handed 
over to the Corporation." 

Another representative man, though of a very difierent type is 
the Hon. Frank Smith. He was born at Richfield, Armagh, in 
1832, and was brought by his father to Canada in 1832. The 
family settled near Toronto. From 1849 to 1867 he carried on 
business in London. At the latter date he removed to Toronto 
where he continues hia wholesale grocery trade. He was an 
alderman in London for many year.s, and was mayor of that city 
in 1806. He is connected with some large institutions such as the 
Northern Extension Railway, of which he is president. He is also 
president of the Toronto Savings Bank, and a director of the Do- 
minion Bank. A conservative, he was called to the Senate in 
Feb., 1871. 

To this class belong the Hughes, the McCrossons, the Merricks, 
and the like. 

A representative man of another type is Mr. Alexander Manning, 



a 



284 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



one of our largest contractors, who has been aldi rman and mayor, 
and has within comparatively few yeai s raised himself to wealth. 
During his mayoralty he entertained the Duke of Manchester, 
and he placed his handsome residence on Wellington Street 
with its commodious grounds at the disposal of Lord Dutierin, 
when the Governor-General was visiting Toronto. Knowing how 
expensive politics are, he has hitherto kept out of those engulfing 
waters. He has a reputation it would take a Rembrandt to paint. 
Beneath the shrewdness and determination without which wealth 
cannot be made, there is a tender heart and, in the midst of shad 
ing which would seem to indicate hardness of character, shine out 
one or two large acts of spirited and apparently even reckless 
generosity. A deviser of schemes, he has learned how to use men, 
and always on the alert to put a little train of one kind or another 
in motion, he is suspicious lest he himself should be taken in and 
too cheaply used. When addressing the electors at one of the 
hotels during a contest for the mayoralty, he properly boasted 
that he liad been a working-man. There could not be a better 
instance than is furnislicd by Alexander Manning of what Canada 
can do for persons with brains and thrift. Mr. Manning has been 
a useful citizen and may yet play a niore prominent part when, 
sptisfied with the wealth he has acquired, he throws contracting 
aside. 

A man whose name has often been associated with that of Mr. 
Manning — they arc, if I do not mistake, full cousins — is John 
Ginty, himself a contractor. Mr. Ginty glides quietly through life 
and exercises considerable influence in a noiseless way, keeping 
meanwhile his own counsel with considerable success. Deeper 
than he seems, over the surface of his character might be written 
Denham's lines : — 

" Search not to find what lies too deeply hid 
Nor to know things where knowledge is forbid." 

Though careful of money he has done many generous acts and 
lost much from his desire to help others. His father came here 
in the year 1827 ; but he must be dealt with later on. 

A family, not without being typical, is the Morphy family. 



Km 



THE MOllPHYS. THE HARRTSONS. 



285 



Duiing the Napoleonic wars, a young Irishman named Morphy, 
devoted to tlie crown, and anxious for military distinction, raised 
a hundred volunteers, for which he was rewarded with a commis- 
sion in the 9oth regiment. He served in the Peninsula and at 
Waterloo, after which battle he retired on a captain's half-pay, 
and settled in Cork. He was ai)pointed magistrate. He died in 
1831, leaving behind him a consiuerable amount of property — 
valuable paintings, works of art, articles of vertu collected during 
his campaigns — the proceeds of which, amounting to several thous- 
and pounds, were equally divided between his next of kin, four 
cousins, two of whom were men. 

One of the men, who had seven sons, emigrated to Canada on 
the eve of Mackenzie's rebellion, and settled in Toronto. The 
lads grew up in Toronto, and entered, some the professions, 
some mercantile life, some official employ ; all did well, and won 
for themselves respectable positions. They did even better 
than this. They married and became the fathers of numerous 
families, who, if collected together, would make a respectable 
congregation and a tolerably large town. So delighted were they 
with their adopted country, that they wrote to Ireland, and pre- 
vailed with children of another of the legatees to come to Canadq,. 
They were five boys, and are now wealthy merchants and good 
citizens of the Province of Ontario. Several years ago, the eldest 
of the seven boys went to Ireland, and brought back with him 
to Ontario about one hundred able-bodied men worth many thou- 
sand dollars to the country. Such has been the result of the pic- 
tures and articles of vertu collected by the captain, during his 
campaigns on the continent. 

I shall have, in another place, to speak of Chief Justice Harri- 
son — a splendid specimen of Irish geniality, power, and perseve- 
rance — but his family will claim a word here. The family is a 
remarkable one, and is said to be of Danish origin, like so many 
of the greatest families in Ireland. To speculate on the form of 
the name would be fruitless, because, in Ireland, a process has gone 
forward of a very misleading character. As I have shown in the 
introductory chapters, at an early period, the Normans assumed 
Irish names with a motive akin to those which made them 
mhernis ipsis Hiherniorea. Something must be put down to 






Ill 



! 



286 



TIIK [RISIJMAN IN CANADA. 



the attraction of which Mr. Froiido npeaksso emphatically ; some- 
thing I fear must ho put down to the (le.sire to increase tlieir 
power with a elan or clans, even as the tyranny they wen; enal>led 
to inflict under the Irish law was undoubtedly a factor in the 
aggregate considerations which made them become " more Irish 
than the Irish themselves.*' On the other hand, in the course of 
time, when every Irish thing fell under a ban, it became the interest, 
and sometimes the object of the owners of Irish names to denude 
them of their distinctively Irish character. Before our eyes to- 
day, with persons who could have no reason arising out of fear or 
favour to yield to this process, we yet see their names become 
subject to it, owing to the quiet but enormous and overwhelming 
force of the mere fact, that a race whose patronymics have a cer- 
tain form is the race which, at least in the past, has bet^n domi- 
nant. Macaulay's name, in its Celtic form would be McCaulay — 
Macaulay looks, though it does not sound, English. The Rev. Mr. 
Macdonnell's nan^e in its Celtic form would be McDonellor O'Don- 
nell, for the " Mc " and " O " mean the same thing. Thirty years 
ago Sir John Macdonald's name was always printed in the news- 
papers McB..--ald, as was that of the present Lieutenant-Governor 
and his brother, Sandfield Macdonald. Neither of these men 
could be supposed capable of stooping to the folly of modifying 
the form of writing his name. But the assimilating power, that 
power which has made the Scotch and Irish Gael speak a Saxon 
dialect on pain of effacement, that power which has made Gaelic 
and Erse dead languages, works vdiere there is no motive of the 
least magnitude, like a Nasmyth hammer which, though it can 
crush an elephant with ease, can crack a nut with delicacy. In other 
days there were strong cogent reasons why the young Scotchman, 
pushing his fortune in London, should seek to get rid of his accent 
and all that reminded the conquering Saxon of his peculiar origin ; 
there were equally strong reasons why Irishmen should modify 
the dangerous, and often the only legacy left them by their 
fathers — a Celtic name. It was easily done. Take away the "0" 
or " Mac " and put son at the end of the name. Iverson and 
Wattson sound very English — make them Mc Watts and Mclver 
and they are Celtic again. How English Morrow sounds. Yet it 
is the same as Murrough — the ne^me of Brian Boru's eldest son. 



IRISH NAMES. REV. RICHARD HARRISON. 



287 



McMuiTogh is tho same name with tlie patronymic })refix, and 
this i.s tho Hamo as the Irish MacMurray and the Scotch McMur- 
rich, and all are prubuhly tlie same as Murpliy. 

If a process, such as I have endeavoured to indicate, liad not 
gone forward, there would be little difficulty in assij,niin<,' the 
Harrison family its source. As it is we must he content with the 
tradition which gives it a Danish classification. Whether they 
came from over the Noi-th Sea or from the Continent ; whether 
Celtic or Saxon in origin, they were found at a tolerably early 
period in the County of Monaghan, where, on " Harrison Farm," 
Richard Hamson the emigrant was born. He married at the ajre 
of twenty-seven and forthwith removed to Canada. He settled 
first at Markham, but some time afterwards removed to Toronto, 
where by attention to business he won for himself a handsome 
fortune. 

He had three daughters and three sons — the present Chief Jus- 
tice of Ontario, the Eev. Richari' Harrison and the late Mr. Frank 
Harrison, for some years Lieutenant in the IGth Regiment. 

The Rev. Richard Harrison, after a distinguished course in 
honours at Trinity College, was admitted and became curate 
of St. George's, Toronto, Missionary of Beverley, Incumbent of* 
Woodbridge, and now of jSt. Matthias. In 1870, he married 
Cecilia Marie, daughter of William Leslie, of the County of Wel- 
lington, one of the oldest living representatives of the Leslies of 
Fermanagh. The achievements of the " Leslie Troop " in India 
will long keep his relative. Colonel Leslie's name alive. 

The father of Mr. Leslie, a retired captain, removed to Canada 
some thirty years ago, having married a French lady named Le 
Vine. He was lost at sea while returning hither after a 
visit to Ireland. The weight of the family cares fell on the 
shoulders of William the eldest son, then only nineteen. This 
young man was born at St. Omer in France, and educated at 
Portora, Enniskillen. An I ish conservative churchman in the 
midst of a Scotch Presbyterian settlement, there is no name in 
the County of Wellington more honoured than that of William 
Leslie. His son, Henry Leslie, having graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, is devoting himself to the ministry. 

I am now about to speak of one of the most interesting episodes 



i 






288 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



I 



in tlie history of emigration ; an episode wliich can only find a 
parallel in another little Irish ((ua8i-arif;locratic exodus, an account 
of which will l)0 given in another chapter. What an incident for 
an emigration novel ! What a suhject foi a book or canto of 
D'Arcy^McGee's projected emigration epic ! From Kinsale, whore 
early in the seventeenth century the last of the independent Irish 
chieftains, O'Neill and O'Donnell, were overthrown, and a thousand 
of their followers having fallen before the swords of the Lord De- 
puty's horse, lay the stark emblems of a lost cause within reach of 
the roar of the whitening billows of the upbraiding sea — where 
James II. landed in 1G89 and was received hy the Roman Catholic 
population with shouts of unfeigned joy — which fell after a gal- 
lant resistance before the all conquering sword of Marlborough, 
who with his usual skill in improving a victory had, on the fall of 
Cork, hurried on to the fort which of all others was most imj)ortant 
from the point of view of French aid to the Irish — from this 
historical spot four roung gentlemen started just three quarters of 
a century ago to aeek their fortunes in Canada. 

Lawrence Hayden was only sixteen years of age. He and his 
school-fellows John and William Warren, and Callaghan Holmes, 
with their hired man Pat Deashy, took passage in a brig The Orace 
of llfracomhe, determined to follow in the distant colony " agri- 
cultural and farming business." In due time they touched the 
shore at Quebec. They lingered in the historic city to visit the 
fortifications and the Falls of Montmorency. They then pro- 
ceeded up the river and lake to York, where the Warrens, being 
related to the family of Dr. Baldwin, that generous and good man 
gave the young adventurers an Irish welcome. They at once set 
about obtaining information, and at length decided to settle in 
Whitby. Prudence dictated that they should not commit them- 
selves very deeply. They purchased a lot conjointly, one hun- 
dred acres in the third concession of Whitby, upon which they at 
once settled. Scarcely had they entered on their land when they 
heard Pat Deashy shouting, " master William ! Master John I 
Come here ! Come here ! " Hastening to whence the shouts 
came they fo and Pat looking up into a high tree on which were 
three bears, the mother e-^ J two large sized cubs. Hayden des- 
patched them with his gun. One of them caught in a fork of the 



THE WEAKY WILDEUNESS. 



iad 



branches. There was nothing for it but to leave part of their prize 
behind tliem or fell the tree. They set to work an<l in <luo time the 
tree shuddered and shook its l')fty cone, and, Wi^h what the an- 
cients would have regarded as a groan, fi .1. The bears were 
skinned and for several winters Hayden wore a cap uade from the 
pelt of the old bear. 

They were the lirst Irishmen to settle in that section of the 
country and were known by subse([uent settlers as " The Four 
Irishmen." After a time they found — mere youths that they 
were and gently nurtured — the task they had undertaken too 
onerous. New and pleasant cnouifh for a time, when the novelty 
wore off, when tho sense of campinj.' out was gone, when the un- 
social monotony appeared in all its grimness of stern reality, they 
found it unsufterable. There was no voice of woman near them 
to round their lives with subtle nnisic, no sympathetic touch of 
gentle hand to soothe them, no smile bathed in tenderness — like 
early sunshine among early dew — to cheer them on, and life 
Vjecame as weary as Mariana's, and they discovered that in the 
midst of boundless wilderness there may be a moral prison-house. 
It is not merely that they missed the more spiritual assiduities 
with which women cheer and charm; those little household duties 
which women best attend to fell to the lot ot young men who 
had been accustomed to the refinements of the home of Irish gentle- 
men, where the women, si.-jter3, moth 3rs, cousins, and sweethearts are 
not only beautiful, but have about them an elevation and purity 
as if they had only just stepped out of Bunyan's " House Beauti- 
ful" and were own sisters to Discretion, Prudence and Charity, 
and had caught the serene light in their eyes from gazing on the 
Delectable Mountains. The poor young adventurers cooked their 
own meals, made their own bread, mended their own clothing, 
" did " their own washing. Their ignorance of farming was very 
great. The following incident of their cooking is worth relating. 
For a long time it was their custom to take alternate Christmases 
at Toronto, when they were entertained by Dr. Baldwin. Once 
when the two holiday-makers returned to Whitby they found the 
edges of their razors hopelessly blunt. On inquiring the cause they 
learned that the two who had remained at home had killed a pig 



19 



290 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



, 



■tl 



; I 



I i'!! 



I! 

i 

I 



If 

ii" 



and instead of taking the bristles off in the usual v/ay, by scalding, 
had shaved them off. 

At length, heartily tired of the "agricultural and farming bus- 
iness," the Warrens sold out their interest to Mr. Hay den, as did 
Mr. Holmes. The Warrens opened a store near what is to-day the 
Town of Whitby. The brothers soon separated. John went and 
opened a store where Oshawa now stands. He built a mill, and 
laid the foundation of the growth and prosperity of that flourish- 
ing town. He named it, choosing an Indian word which signifies 
the crossing of two paths. Ho was very successful. He still re- 
sides at Oshawa. His brother William became Collector of Cus- 
toms at Whitby harbour. The duties of his post he discharged in 
a Tery satisfactoiy manner until last year, when he was superan- 
nuated. 

Callaghan Holmes died of the chojora on his way to Ireland in 
183^5. Pat Deashy remained only a short time with Mr. Hayden, 
after he was left alone. Pat went to Buffalo, where he soon died. 
Hayden sold his lot and purchased another, and sold this, and 
opened a store on the Kingston road. Finding himself, after a few 
years of store-keeping, prosperous, he sold out his stock and retired 
to a farm he had purchased in the meantime. In 1830 he mar- 
ried Barbara Sullivan, a niece of Dr. Baldwin. About the year 
1840 he furbished up his c) ssics, passed an examination, and was 
entered as a student-at-law. A long illness compelled him to give 
up the study of the law. He returned to his farm near Whitby. 
In 1845 he removed with his family to Toronto, to take charge of 
the large landed properties of the Messrs. Baldwin and their cli- 
ents. He was thus engaged until 1850, when he was appointed 
Clerk of the Crown and Pleas, Court of Common Pleas. This 
office he held until the death of Mr. Small, in 1864, when he suc- 
ceeded that gentleman in the Crown Office. He died in 1868, at 
his residence in Bloor Street, having played many parts, and played 
them successfully. He was placed on the Commission of the 
Peace as early as 1828. In 1825, he received his commission as cap- 
tain in the 2nd regiment of East York Militia, from which he re- 
tired with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. As a magistrate, he did 
much towards allaying the excitement during the troublous times 
of 1837-'38. Grudges and hatreds were gratified by making accu- 



HAYDRN PROMOTES IMMIGRATION. 



291 



sations of treason, and in times of excitement and danger such cases 
were difficult to handle. The delicate task Mr. Hayden seems to 
have performed well. In those days magistrates had to [)erf orra the 
marriage ceremony, and Hayden united together in the happy bond 
of matrimony thirty-eight couples. He was also a Commissioner 
of the Court of Requests, Coroner, and frequently Returning 
Officer. 

The fam'Mes of " The Four Irishmen," had considerable local 
infl aence in their part of the County of Cork, and an unremitting 
correspondence being kept up, many of their countrymen v.fjre 
induced to settle at Whitby. Hayden always took a deep and 
unselfish interest in the welfare and success of these emigra?ii,s, 
many of them being forward to assert to-day that they owe cheir 
prosperity'" to his kindness and good offices. One recf^Mnt with 
gratitude the following circumstance. He is a man, now highly 
prosperous, who had for some reason or other failed to procure /or 
himself a farm. He was induced by Mr. Hayden, to lease a two 
hundred acre lot on a term of years, with the right to purchase it 
at a given price. He cleared the lot, built a house, paid the rent, 
raised a large family, but, naturally improvident, forgot all about the 
purchase, until the time, had passed for paying the money. Con- 
vinced that ho had lost his farm, he came to Mr. Hayden, telling 
him of his great trouble. What was his surprise and joy to hear 
from his benefactor, that, fearing something of the kind would 
happen, he had himself paid the money ? 

Party feeling ran high between the Roman Catholics and 
Orangemen. Hayden worked hard to allay passions, and in a great 
measure succeeded. On one 12th of July, he met a party of (Catho- 
lics on their way to contest the day with the Orangemen. An en- 
lightened Catholic himself, he sought to induce them to return 
home, and after much entreaty succeeded in persuading them. 
Loyal to the British flag, which is the Irish and Scotch flag as well 
as the English, he resisted many temptations to become a citizen 
of the United States. The late Mr. Senator Morgan, of New York, 
who had married a sister of Dr. Baldwin, urged him in vain to go 
to New York, though he promised what he had the power to per- 
form, to look after his advancement. A man of wealth, named 
Dodge, wished him to become a partner, and take charge of an 



292 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






^i I 



extensive iron manufactory in Buffalo. These men and others, 
recognised in Hayden's grave, earnest, intelligent and thoughtful 
character, qualities which required only an extended field, to make 
a great mark. Throughout his whole life he bore a high charac- 
ter, upright in business, blameless in his private life. 

A reticent man, not given to speak much of himself, he yet 
sometimes told of a narrow escape he had had on Lake Ontario, 
when he used to take his wheat to York to be ground. On one 
occasion he set sail from Big Bay, now the harbour at Whitby, in 
a " Dug-out," with five bags of wheat. It was late in the evening 
when he started. It was important to gain time. He made the 
stretch from one headland to another. As he was nearing York, 
a storm came on. The night was pitch dark. He could no longer 
tell his bearings. In the midst of his bewilderment the boat cap- 
sized. Like most Cork men, a good swimmer, he struck out un- 
daunted, until he touched ohe sides of the unhappy craft which 
had turned turtle. To this he clung, knowing that the waves 
would drive it ashore. After what seemed two or three hours, he 
touched bottom. He pulled his boat up on to the beach, and 
dripping wet, took shelter underneath it until the morning, when 
he found he had drifted against the island. He dragged the boat 
across the sand into the bay, over which he paddled himself to 
York. His grist was at the bottom of Lake Ontario. 

On another occasion, late in the evening, astride of a young 
colt, he left York. Night came, and a thunderstorm. A tiash of 
lightning broke athwart his path. This startled the young beast. 
A buck jump — and he was off like the electric gleam which had 
frightened him. A good rider, Hayden kept his seat. The horse 
stopped on a sudden, throwing his rider on to his neck. The 
horse screamed with terror. A great broad flash which lit up the 
whole country and unveiled the face of the lurid waters to the 
horizon, revealed the cause. He was on the brink of Scarboro' 
Heights, with the lake roaring eight hundred feet below. The rider 
did not lose his nerve, but slid quietly off the horse. The animal 
then recovered his position on the bank. When the storm 

" Moaning and calliug out of other lands, 
Had left the ravaged woodland yet once more 
To peace," 




HAYDENS FERTILITY OF RESOURCE. 



293 



Hayden resumed his journey. He must have possessed great 
physical endurance. On one occasion, election business pressing, 
he rode from York to Whitby, back again to York, and thence back 
again to Whitby, eighty-four miles in the daylight of one day. 

He was full of resource. When alone on his farm at the Bay, 
finding his money running short, he determined to have some. 
He set to work, chopped trees, and made ashes sufficient to pro- 
duce a barrel of potash. This he shipped for Montreal, taking 
passage himself. He sold his ashes to advantage. Not caring to 
go back the way he went, and wanting a horse, he bought one at 
an auction and rode him bare-backed to Whitby. His early ex- 
periences in Ireland, where even young gentlemen are accustomed 
to take out a, bridle with them and without a saddle have a canter 
over the fields on one of their father's horses, would make this ride 
a light matter. 

He always retained his hold on the affections and regard of the 
early suttlei-s in and about Whitby, and on their families. Mr. 
Blake, when he accepted the Chancellorship, represented East 
York. The moment the vacancy occurred, some of the principal 
men of East York belonging to each side oi politics, urged him to 
offer himself for their suffi-ages. He had every prospect of being 
elected without opposition. The offer was as tempting as it was 
gratifying. But f^s he would, in case he accepted it, have had to 
sacriffce a public position, which he felt bound in the interest of his 
family to keep, he declined. 

Mr. Hayden seems to have had decided opinions on religious 
and political questions. In religion, I am informed by a relative, 
who can speak with ample authority, he was a Roman Catholic, 
and as such was the first to settle in South Ontario. " He may," 
writes my informant, " be styled the father of the Catholics in that 
section, in more senses than one. He was possessed of a sincere 
and firm conviction of religious truth, and his whole life, thoughts 
and actions were governed by its teaching and principles." In 
politics, he was a reformer of the Baldwin type, and he did much 
to keep alive the principles and spirit of the party. He possessed, 
at all times, the entire confidence of his leader, Mr. Baldwin, with 
whom his public and private relations were of the most confiden- 
tial and friendly character. While living in East York, he took a 



:l I 



! i 



U M< 



4 



294 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



deep interest in all undertakings of a public nature, and his in- 
fluence with the Government was readily exerted to benefit public 
undertakings and individuals whom he deemed worthy of the 
confidence of those in power. 

The father of John Ginty, mentioned in an earlier part of this 
chapter, came to Canada from Old Castle, Westmear.h, in 1827> 
and settled in South Simcoe. He was a good public speaker, an 
exceedingly clever man generally, and possessed consi<lerable local 
influence which he exercised in support of the late Hon. W. E. 
Robinson, Owing to his exertions and exposure in the rebellion 
of 1837 he got erysipelas of which he died. His wife is still alive. 
In 1854 the son removed to Toronto. 

In Simcoe the late Mr. Ginty was frequently brought in contact 
with a remai'kable man who did a good day's work i:or Canada, 
and whose family are in various ways contributing to its political, 
social, and intellectual life. Colonel O'Brien belonged to that 
interesting cl^ss the ranks of which have been fed mainly from 
Ireland — the gentlemen settlers — who brought to their adopted 
country means, talent, and culture, and to whom we owe nearly all 
the refinement of which we can boast. 

Colonel O'Brien was born at Woolwich, on the 9th of January, 
1798. His father, who had married the eldest daughter of Colonel 
Calendar, was a Captain and Adjutant in the Royal Artillery, 
who had served in the West Indies and who, for his services, was 
allowed to retire on half -pay. It may not be uninteresting to put 
on record that one of the sisters of Miss Calendar maMed Thom*^ 
Brinsley Sheridan, whose wit was nearly as bright as his father's. 
They had three remarkable daughters, who were so beautiful that 
they were known as the " Three Graces." One married the late 
Lord Dufierin, another the Honourable Mr. Norton, and the third 
the Duke of Somerset. Both Lady DufFerin and the Honourable 
Mrs. Norton won for themselves a place in literature. Mrs. Norton 
was, at fifty years of age, strikingly handsome. Seen five minutes 
she made on the mind an inefiaceable impression, and her second 
marriage would seem to indicate that like all supreme beauties 
she carried with her into the sick room, and to the verge of the 
grave, the power and charm which enchain the heart. 

Colonel O'Brien's earliest days were passed in the neighbourhood 



•GENTLEMEN SMUGGLERS. 



295 



of Cork, where his father was stationed for several years. His 
education which was commenced at Spike Island — a military 
station and a scene of convict labour in the harbour of Cork — 
was of a peculiar cliaracter, and the only wonder is that instead 
of the most honourable of men, he did not develop into a free- 
booter. Not only was he taught the usual rudiments of a liberal 
education, especially in the science branches, he received fruitful 
instruction in the manly art with the history of which in Canada 
his name is inseparably connected. In those days amateur smug- 
gling was considered a good joke. A gentleman did not shrink 
from it. It was like breathing the Proctor's dogs at college. It 
was indulged in with the graceful recklessness of a "Prince Hal," 
at the promptings of a spirit of adventure such as made James of 
Scotland unconsciously provide material for the most effective of 
Scott's poems. To get a cask of wine into a man's cellar without 
paying duty, though a malum prohibitum was not regarded as a 
malum m se. Even men holding His Majesty's commission en- 
gaged in the " sport." Captain O'Brien — the Colonel's father — 
fell in with the custom of the hour. An expert boatman, with 
the fastest wherry and best crew in the harbour, it was his delight 
assisted often by friends from the men-of-wa. riding at anchor on 
the bosom of this unrivalled bay, or better still, returning from 
Spain or Portugal, to outwit the custom-house officers and revenue 
cutters. Often pursued, whether in sliine or storm he was never 
caught. When the revenue dogs were in full cry he sat confident:— 

Tunc me biremis praesidio scaphse 
Tutum per ^gseos tumultua 

Aura feret, geminiisque Pollux. 

And loud was the laughter and high the mirth, as they broached 
the cask, and drank the furtive wine singing : — 

" Vive la contrebande ! " 



Captain Vansittart, so well known as Admiral Vansittart, in 
Woodstock, where he laid out the beautiful property of Eastwood, 
framed with woodland, now in possession of Mr. T. C. Patteson, 
used to tell of casks of P rt and Madeira brought in his ship and 
the exciting chases which took place, when the game broke cover 



296 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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beneath her cannon-frowning sides. On these occasions his 
father's chosen companion, the boy, while yet a stripling, became 
an adept in the management of a boat. In this way he largely 
acquired those tastes and that seaman-like skill which influenced 
his whole career, and fitted him to play the part of founder of 
yachting as an institution among us. For Irishmen, founders in 
so much else Canadian, are also founders here. 

No better boatman or more finished yachtsman than Colonel 
O'Brien has ever sailed Canadian waters. lie originated and 
organised the first yacht club in Toronto. Dr. Hodder, the son 
of an Irishman who was a great friend of Captain O'Brien's, 
was the means of bringing into prominence its successor, the 
Royal Canadian Yacht Club. Some of the older yachting 
men still talk of the " Coquette," built in O'Brien's barn, on 
the shoies of Lake Simcoe. Her rigging and sails were made 
with his own hands. The " Gazelle " followed, and the " Fan- 
qui." Fanqui is a Chinese word, and means " foreign rascal," 
a term applied by the Celestials to the outside barbarians. The 
yacht was thus opprobriously baptized because of her peculiar 
shape and rig. His son, Mr. Henry O'Brien, a leading member 
of ^a leading law firm in Toronto, inheriting his father's tastes and 
aptitudes formanly exercises,and especially for boating and yacht- 
ing, started, some few years ago, the Argonaut Club. The last 
time Colonel O'Brien was on the water he took an oar in a four- 
oared boat of the Argonauts. 

With such a training as young O'Brien had, it was natural that 
the sea should have been his choice when the question of a pro- 
fession was mooted. Indeed, with or without this training, he 
would, at the age he was called on to decide, have declared for 
Neptune. Every boy of spirit reared in Cork wants to go to sea ; 
and anxious mothers and ambitious fathers are sorely troubled by 
their young hopefuls, from their seventh to their fourteenth year, 
who long for the life of a seaman bold, who pine for the stormy 
sea. This contiguity with the sea and necessary contact with 
shipping, with foreigners and foreign seamen, with stately war- 
ships, with regiments embarking and disembarking; the blare of 
the bugle in the morning from the heights of Barrack Hill ; the 
recall as evening settles slowly down on the beautiful city and 



A SEA-ROCKED CRADLE OF GREATNESS. 



297 



darkens over the wooded terraces of the pellucid river, and clothes 
the towering belfry of Shandon with congenial shadows ; the 
sham battles in the park ; the gaiety of the princely promenade of 
the New Wall ; all the beauty of form and colour of the various 
landscape which no one could know without loving it in its 
changing moods, as though it were a beautiful, capricious, yet 
noble-hearted woman ; streets which run over the graves of 
heroes ; storied towers ; associations with Spenser and kindred 
men ; all this expands the mind of the child, fills it with vague 
longings after adventure and greatness, sends his mind down the 
handsome river, like a little rudderless boat, dreaming out to sea ; 
dreaming Heaven knows what of grand achievement and daring 
deed. It is to this stimulating surrounding we must in no small 
part attribute the fact that Cork has produced so many remark- 
able men. And when the child, while the disturbing effeminacy 
of the passions is in abeyance, thinks of adventure, and his eager 
nature longs for action — what horse sa sure to bear him at once 
to all he longs for as the white-maned steed that frets hard by 
yonder green-capped cliff ? The earliest song he hears praises a 
life on the ocean wave, and exalts beyond all quieter homes, a 
home on the rolling deep. The comely mother of seven or eight 
sons, and looking younger than one of our young women of 
twenty, has not made your acquaintance an hour bbfore you hear 
from her maternal but rosy lips, that the fine boy whose head she 
pats is determined to go to sea. She supposes it must be, but the 
sea is a dreadful life. And Tom or Bill at once takes you into 
his confidence, runs off for his well-rigged boat which he sails on 
one of the inlets of the river, and he assures you he means to be 
captain of just such a ship as he bears in his arms. 

Young O' Brien was not ten years of age when he had fixed his 
destiny. Having passed through a short preparatory course at Ply- 
month, when only eleven years of age he went to sea as a middy in 
the "Sybelle" frigate, having received from his mother ere the ^ist 
embrace the admonition — " Never to forget his Bible, orthat he was 
the SOP of an Irish gentleman." This was at the close of the gi'eat 
war wuen a midshipman's life had none of those comforts which 
now-a-days make it one of comparative luxury. He subsequently 
served in the China seas in the craik 36-gun frigate "Doris," com- 



298 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



mantled by his cousin Captain Robert O'Brien, who afterwards 
came to this country an Admiral, and Uved at Woodstook and at 
Tollendal, n jar iiarrie. Captain O'Brien obtained his promotion 
by his skill in taking a merchantman off the Goodwin Sands. 
The peace with America put an end to the long naval contest and 
an end also to any speedy advancement in the navy. O'Brien, 
therefore, joined the army. He was given a commission in the 
2nd Dragoons, but finding this corps d'elite, in all senses, too ex- 
pensive, he exchanged into the 58th Regiment, then under orders 
for service in the West Indies. Here his health failing he retired 
on half pay. 

Now his mind returned to its first love. He went into the mer- 
chant service and made several voyages to the East. His reputa- 
tion for seamanship and general capacity brought him an ofier of 
one of the fine East Indian passenger ships of that day. As he 
was about to take command he was attacked by a severe illness 
v^hich compelled him to give up the sea for ever. 

His restless activity, however, would not permit him to settle 
down to a quiet life in the Old Country. He determined to seek 
his fortune in the backwoods of Canada. With a number of other 
half-pay ofiicers he settled on the North Shore of Lake Simcoe, 
taking up his grant in the Township of Oro. Sir John Colborne 
had put him in charge of the settlement. Here he built the house 
where he ended his days. A beautiful picture of this house has 
been painted by his son, Mr. Lucius O'Brien, whose name as that 
of the foremost artist in Canada will again come up. Mr. O'Brien 
was the only settler on the shore of Lake Simcoe who retained his 
grant to the end. 

Here with his newly married wife and a family growing up 
about them — all the children survive — he entered on the toils and 
hardships of the backwoods. He and his wife did all that kind 
hearts and fertile brains and ready hands, far from empty, could 
do to promote the happiness of all around them. They visited 
and succoured the sick and needy. He filled many offices of trust. 
He became Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, Commissioner of 
the Court of Requests, and Colonel in the Militia. As a Justice 
of the Peace he was fearless and active, and some thought severe. 
But in those days there were many turbulent characters in the 



AN ENERQETIC GENTLEIVIAN SETTLER. 



299 



Simcoe District who required a firm hand. In the suppression of 
the rebellion he took an active part, and was for some time en- 
gaged at Lloydtown, a hotbed of disaffection, in the discharge of 
magisterial duties. 

Shortly after the establishment of the County of Simcoe as a 
municipality Mr. O'Brien left "The Woods" and removed to Toronto 
where he lived for many years. With his accustomed energy he 
threw himself into various business schemes. He was one of the 
moving spirits in the first projected railway from Toronto to Lake 
Huron, with a terminus at Sarnia, and was secretary of a company 
formed to promote it. He was opposed to having a terminus at 
Collingwood. He was the organizer and first manager of the Pro- 
vincial Insurance Company. He was also connected with the 
press, and at one time owned the old Patriot and the Colonist. A 
staunch loyalist and a strong Conservative he took an active part 
in the politics of the day. 

Fis chief public interest like that of Mr. Dixon's was the wel- 
fare and prosperity of the Church. His first care on settling at 
Lake Simcoe was to set apart a portion of his land for a church 
and glebe. On this one of the first missions north of Toronto was 
established, and through his exertions the church was built. To 
the little church -yard of this church over the bright fields, one day 
in the summer of 1875, the brave old man's remains were carried 
by his sons and old friends. 

He hated whatever was false and mean. Owing, perhaps, to his 
early training, his manner was dictatorial. He had strong views 
on men and things which he fully expressed. He used to hesitate 
or rather stutter bu^ could not bear to be helped out of his difii- 
culty. On one occasion he was saying — " It is not worth a si-si- 
si — ." " Sixpence," suggested some one. " No, sir," replied O'Brien, 
" not worth a shilling." If there was a blemish in his character 
it was of the most superficial nature, while his sterling qualities 
were such that no one ever knew him without loving him. 

Dr. Lucius O'Brien, the Colonel's brother, who was surgeon to 
the troops engaged in the suppression of the rebellion in Jamaica, 
in 1831, soon after left the army, and hearing glowing accounts 
of Canada from the Colonel, came here and settled fourteen miles 



300 



THE IRISKtMAN IN CANADA. 



. 



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north of Toronto, at Thomhill, where he had for some years a large 
practice. 

At that time, the indulgence in whiskey-drinking was carried 
to unhappy lengths among the rural population. Dr. O'Brien, 
though hitherto a wine drinker, determined to become a teetotaler. 
He established a temperance .society of which he was President, 
until he removed to Toronto in 1838. In 1837-8, he was appointed 
chief military sur<:^eon at Toronto, where, when the troops were 
disbanded, he settled down to practice. He held several impor- 
tant public positions in connection with his profession. A re- 
ligious man, he took a deep interest in the Bible Society, of which 
he was Vice-Presi'^ent for many years before he died. In 1845, 
he was appointed to the chair of Medical Jurisprudence at King's 
College, and lectured until 18.53, when the school was done away 
with. A strong Conservative, he became editor of the Toronto 
Patriot, which he continued to edit for eight years. If he was 
lesponsible for all the articles in that paper during Lord Elgin's 
time, his editorial labours are not so creditable as his medical. 
Having lost money through injudicious speculations, he accepted 
the office of Secretary to the Hon. Wm. Cayley. He subscfjuently 
received an appointment in the Finance Department. He died 
at Ottawa, in 1870, at the advanced age of seventy-five. 

We now return for a moment to the County of Simcoe. In 
1822, the McConkey family eniigrated to Canada from Tjrone, 
where Thomas David McConkey was bom in 1815. The family 
first settled in the Niagara district, but in 1825 removed to the 
County of Simcoe. Thomas was educated at a common school, 
and when he came to man's estate he opened a geneial store in 
Ban'ie, immediately after the new district was set apart and pro- 
claimed. Success beyond his expectation followed, and a few 
years ago he retired from business. 

Like most of his countrymen, he had a capacity for public em- 
ployment, and was elected a member of the first Town Council of 
Barrie, where he rendered the county great service. He held the 
position of Reeve of the town for nine yeartf In 1860, he was 
elected Warden of the Cc mty of Simcoe, an office he held for two 
Vv^ars. 

A strong reformer, he in 1861 unsuccessfully contested North 



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THE TOWN-LINE BLAZERS. 



301 



Simcoe with Mr. Angus MorriHon. Ho again opposed Morrison in 
1803, when he was elected a member of the old Canadian parlia- 
ment. He supported Confederation, and at the general election of 
1867, he was elected unanimously for the first House of Counnons 
of the Dominion of Canada. He declined a nomination in 1872. 
Ill ^ 875, he was nominated to contest West Simcoe, but was de- 
feated. For nearly twenty years up to his appointment in 1875 
to the Shrievalty of the county, he was a justice of the peace. He 
is a good speaker and a man of convictions and integrity. 

The greater part of a township near Streetsville, County of 
Peel, is settled by emigrants from "gallant Tipperary." Th y used 
to be Ctilled some years age the " Town-line blazers." The names 
all smack of Ireland— the Cooks', the Cantlans', the Millers,' the 
Coles,' the Waits,' the Orrs.' They were accustomed to come down 
to town with their guns, a practice which I hope they have dis- 
continued. " One old boy," writ'^s a correspondt^nt, " would come 
down, and when he took a glass too much he would say : 'Do yoii 

think you could box a Cole or a Cantlan? No! nor by could 

you box old Rowley himself.'" 

John Hammond and his wife came out early to Canada. He 
died at Lachine, of cholera, and his wife with her son William 
Hammoi d (now of Yonge Street), went on as far as Brampton. 
All the relatives of this lady have done well. A brother of Mr. 
Hammond farms two hundred acres of land at Owen Sound, 
and is doing " first-rate," whilst an uncle farms 300 acres at Bramp- 
ton, and is very prosperous. In the neighbourhood of Brampton, 
the Whitehead «/.he Arnots, the Willis's, and a score of other fami- 
lies attest at once the energy of Irishmen, and the scope of Canada 
for industry. 

Already it has been shown that Ireland has sent to Canada re- 
markable men, and furnished interesting incidents for the histor- 
ian of emigration. But the story is not half told, as will be seen 
by the following chapter. 



302 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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CHAFTEP VIII. 

Some of the most striking facts connected with the early Irish 
emigration will now be laid before the reader. 

In 1H32 the Messrs. Edward and Dominick Blake, with some 
connections and friends, left Ireland for Canada to seek a kinder 
fortune beneath colder skies. Nothing was to be despaired of 
with such leaders. It was hard to leave a country where the 
family had made for itself a name and place. But necessity was 
severe as the father of Teucer, and there was nothing for it but to 
bedew the shamrock with wine and on the morrow sail the 
boundless main. 

The Blakes of Castlegrove, County of Galway, held a good place 
p.mong the country gentry. Dominick Edward Blake, of Castle- 
grove, married first the Honourable Miss Netterville, a daughter 
of Lord Netterville, of Drogheda, by whom he had three sons, 
Edward, Andrew, and John Netterville. He afterwards maiTied 
a daughter of Sir Joseph Hoai-e, Baronet, of Annabella, in the 
County of Cork, by whom he had four sons, one of whom was 
Dominick Edward Blake, who chose the Church as his profes- 
sion. He married Anne Margaret flume, eldest daughter of Wil- 
liam Hume, of Humewood, County Wicklow. His wife survived 
him as did his three daughters, and the two sons Dominick Ed- 
ward and William Hume, both of whom were educated at Trinity 
College^ Dublin. Dominick Edward, the eldest, was ordained as 
a clergyman of the Church of England, while his brother studied 
surgery under Surgeon-General Sir Philip Crampton. 

The Rev. D. E. Blake soon married, the lady being a Miss Jones, 
the eldest daughter of a man who was connected in a passing way 
with Canada, and whose conversation respecting the country had 
no small influence on the mind of his son-in-law. Major Jones 
was a retired oflUcer who had held commissions in the 37th, 49th, 
and 60th regiments. He had served throughout the Peninsular 
War and in Canada during the war of 1812. He took part in the 
battles of Lundy^s Lane and Queenston Heights. 



THE BLAKES START FOR CAN VDA. 



303 



William Ilume Blako married Mias Catharine Hume, the daugh- 
ter of a younger brother of William Hume, of Humewood. In 
1832, lie and his brother determined to emigrate to Canada. In 
the July of that year they sailed for this country, accompanied 
by their mother and sisters ; by the late Archdeacon Brough, who 
had married Miss Wilhelmina Blake ; by the late Mr. Justice 
Connor ; by Dr. Robinson and his sons, Arthur Robinson, now of 
Orillio, and (Charles Robinson, the present Judge of the County of 
Lambton ; by the Rev. Benjamin Cronyn, late Bishop of Huron, 
and tlie Rev. Mr. Palmer, now the Archdeacon of Huron. TI.ey 
chartered a vessel the " Ann of Halifax/' and with high hopes 
and brave hearts stood out to sea. 

When only three days out one of the crew was seized with 
cholera and liefore morning his body was thrown overboard. 
Owing to the prophylactic measures of Dr. Robinson the plague was 
stayed. Yet for some time there was an inclination in the breasts 
of the emigrants to put the ship's head about and return to Ireland. 
After six weeks they arrived in the St. Lawrence and were .sub- 
jected to a long quar^^ ntine at Grosse Isle. September had arrived 
before they were allowed to proceed. The cholera was now epi- 
demic. 

They remained about six months in Little York, and then 
separated, Mr. Brough, Mr. SkefRngton Connor, and Doctor Robin- 
son going northwards, to the Township of Oro, on Lake Simcoe, 
j,nd the remainder going west to the Township of Adelaide, of 
which i]ie Reverend D. E. Blake had been appointed rector by Sir 
John Colbome, then Governor of the Province. 

Mr. W. H. Blake purchased a farm at Bear Creek, about seven 
miles from Adelaide, near where the Town of Strathroy now 
stands. He resided there about two years, after which he returned 
to Toronto, and commenced to study law. The Reverend Mr. 
Blake, with whom his motht^r resided, remained for about twelve 
years in Adelaide, during whiah time he built the three churches 
in which he held service. Having been appointed rector of Thorn- 
hill in the year 1844, he removed thither, and for thirteen years 
continued his ministrations in each of his three churches every 
Sunda3^ Travelling twenty-four miles in all weathers, and con- 
ducting three services, proved, however, in time, too much for 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



him, and he had reluctantly to abandon the most distant one to 
the care of others. Notwithstanding his failing health he con- 
tinued his ministrations in the remaining two churches up to the 
time of his death, which took place in June, 1859, at Trinity 
College, Toronto, upon the evening of the annual convocation. 
His widow and two sons, Dominick Edward and John Netterville, 
and two daughters survived him. His mother lived until towards 
the close of 1867, when she died at the age of ninety-three, in 
London, Ontario, at the residence of her youngest daughter, the 
widow of the Reverend Richard Flood, late of Delaware. A 
woman of remarkable strength of mind and firmness of character, 
up to the time of her death she remained in full possession of all 
her mental faculties. 

The history of the early settlement of the district west of 
London differs little from that of the newer districts of the pre- 
sent day. Roads tL:;re were none, except one or two leadirg 
colonization lines cut out through the wilderness. The present site 
of London was then known as the Forks of the Thames, and the 
baggage and household belongings of the Blakes had to be dragged 
by oxen, through quagmires and over streams, from Port Stanley 
to Adelaide. 

For some time the nearest post office to where the Reverend Mr. 
Blake resided, was fifteen miles distant, \7hat is now the Egre 
mont Gravel Road, passing through a rich farming district, havisig 
on either side comfortable residences and farm "steadings," war, then 
a mere trail, unfit for travel except with oxen and waggons. On 
either hand lay a dense wilderness, through which the wolves 
howled as they chased the deer during the long winter nights. At 
first no medical man could be found nearer than London; and tho 
emigrants with whom the township was being settled, consisting 
chiefly of old soldiers (many of them with no more worldly goods 
than they btood up in), had to be housed and fed at the expense 
of the Government. Typhus fever soon broke out amongst them, 
and many d'^^d for want of proper treatment. The Revere?ad Mr. 
Blake fortunately had some knowledge of medicine, and betv/een 
visiting l:he jick and attending to his parochial dutiee, the firfitfev 
years of ais life as a colonist passed rapidly. 

One of the, LI settlers, the late Colonel Johnston, of Strathroy, 



LOST IN THE WOODS. 



805 



used to relate the following anecdote of him : — On the occasion of 
a visit of inspection which Sir John Colborne paid to the dis- 
trict, Mr. Blake invited several retired officers and gentlemen in 
the township to meet the Governor, and accompany him on a 
tour amongst the settlers. Passing along a trail through the 
woods, the party came upon a large oak tree which had fallen 
across the path, fully six feet high. Each one took a look at it, 
but did not care to try such a leap. Mr. Blake, however, in spite 
of the remonstrances of the remainder of the party, put his horse 
to a gallop and cleared the obstruction without any more difficulty 
than if it had been a hedge, and the occasion a hunt with the 
Castlegrove pack. The remainder of the party, including the 
Governor, Arere content to plunge through mire and brushwood 
around the tree, until they reached the path qgain. 

On another occasion, of a wintry afternoon, late in November, 
Mr. Blake rode on horseback some miles to perform service at one 
of his churches. It was nearly dark by the time service was over, 
and the homeward road a mere cow path through the woods. 
Just as he had mounted, a messenger arrived to say that a settler 
living a short distance was dangerously ill, and wished to see him. 
Proceeding onwards, he remained with the dying man until late 
in the night, and then started for home. Before long, however, a 
snow-storm set in. He missed his way. He wandered through 
the woods completely lost. The cold became more intense as the 
night wore on. Packs of wolves frequently passed close to him 
in chase of deer, and at such times his horse showed tremulous 
symptoms of distress and panic. It was difficult to restrain him 
from dashing off amongst the trees. As it was, Mr. Blake lost his 
hat. Several times he had like to be torn off his horse by pro- 
jectirg limbs. When daylight came, the animal left to himself, 
found his way home. Mr. Blake became dangerously ill, and 
never quite recovered from the effects of his exposure. Both the 
Blakes had been in Ireland, like the rest of their family, Conser- 
vatives. In Canada the Revd. Dominick Blake remained Conser- 
vative, but never took any part in political contests, as he co.i- 
sidered doing so not proper for a clergyman. After his appoint- 
ment to the Rectory of Thornhill, near Toronto, he took an active 

interest in the Church Society of the Diccese, and fjr many years 
20 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



strove earnestly to establish harmonious action between clergy 
and laity in church matters. At the same time he exerted him- 
self to improve the condition of those of the clergy who were 
entirely dependent upon voluntary contributions for their support, 
while he sought to extend the influence of religion and the. 
Church into the newer districts. He was a good writer, and 
published some able essays on the canons and other matters rela- 
tive to church government. His ability, his sound judgment, and 
the well-known moderation of his views, secured for him the res- 
pect and confidence of Bishop Strachan, as well as o* the clergy 
and laity generally. His death, at a comparatively early age, was 
a serious loss to the church of which he had been so able and 
devoted a servant. 

William Hume Blake, the late Chancellor, will appear frequently 
in the couise of this history. His sons, the Hon. Edward Blake, 
and the Hon. Vice-Chancellor Blake, will also be dealt with else- 
where. The sons of the Rev. Dominick Blake are not unworthy 
of the gifted family to which they belong. 

Dominick Edward Blake has been compelled to occupy himself 
altogeth'.r with agricultural pursuits, owing to the state of his 
health. At the age of thirteen, in consequence of the death of his 
father, Mr. J. N . Blake was thrown upon his own resources, and 
he has, wholly unaided, made his way. In 1862, he commenced 
studying law and in 1867, at the age of 21, was called to the bar. 
A severe attack of illness prevented him for some time applying 
himsely closely to practice. In 1873, he projected the Lake Sim- 
coe Junction Railway (now approaching completion), and be- 
came Managing Director and afterwards President, which position 
he still occupies. 

The Rev. Mr. Flood came out to Canada in 1833. He was one 
of the missionaries of the time, and his career was similar to that 
of his brother-in-law, Dominick Blake. He settled down near 
the Village of Delaware, Township of Caradoc. Not only did he 
have services at his little church in Delaware, he had congrega- 
gations at the neighbouring Indian villages. 

A melancholy occurrence, which nearly proved fatal to Mr. 
Flood, took place at Delaware, on the second Sunday in April, 
1843. A temporary scow was constructed for the purpose of 



A FATAL SHIPWRECK. 



307 



;lergy 
him- 



crossing the river, now overriding its banks. Flood and thir- 
teen others returning home from church embarked on the scow. 
Scarcely had they reached mid -current, when the scow was 
carried violently down stream. The situation was perilous. 
The swollen waves laden with drift boiled around the awk- 
ward craft and roared in angry eddies. There was nothing for 
it but to trust in Providence ; they were at the mercy of the 
merciless river. Down they went, living waifs of the headlong 
heedless waters. As they turned their helpless glances each on 
each, vague bewilderment gave place to imminent peril and defi- 
nite alarm. A willow leaned across, and dipped its branches into 
the turbid river. Nothing could be done. In a moment the scow 
dashed against the procumbent tree. A shock ; the tree swayed ; 
the rifted bark shcved the white ; the scow was swamped. The 
whole party managed to lay hold of the tree, which the weight 
of fourteen persons brought on a level with the surface of the 
water. 

Luckily, a man on the shore saw their distress. Taking with 
him a rope, he put off in a skiff. The rope was attached to the 
tree ; two of the shipwrecked got into the boat ; the other end 
of the rope was attached to a larger tree. There was a dan- 
ger of the roots of the low-lying tree giving way ; the rope 
was to enable some of those who were clinging to it to 
lighten the burden. Those who had recourse to the rope, inched 
themselves on until they reached the large tree into which 
they climbed. Meanwhile the gallant little skiff upset. All hope 
was now abandoned by some. But after nearly an hour had elapsed, 
another skiff, a miserable little thing, long condemned, was patched 
up, and a young man named F. Tiffany, of Delaware, put boldly 
off to the rescue of the sufferers. By this time three persons were 
drowned. Mr. Flood and two others, the one a mechanic in 
the neighbourhood, the other. Captain Somers, formerly of the 
British army, alone remained on the tree first seized. Mrs. Flood 
was throughout peifectly calm and self-possessed, as was her hus- 
band, and directed Mr. Tiffany's efforts in the first place to Captain 
Somers, who was ahnost in a state of exhaustion. Several efforts 
were made to g^t ^\im into the boat, but in vain. At length it 
was discovered that one of the drowned men had laid hold on one 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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of his legs, and held it in the grasp of death, and hy a stronger 
cord than Mezentius ever knew, iiie dead and the living were 
bound together. Each together had taken the sacrament of Christ 
a little more than an hour before ; but in the last desperate effort 
for life, no thought of charity, no ovei-whelming motive of self- 
sacrifice had play. Around was the whitening waters, in his ear 
their dreadful hum. Quickened fancy formed and framed pictures 
of the past ; the happy fields of busy men ; the sun climbing up the 
sky ; the myriad mirroring dew-drops, spangling expanding 
meads, and making glitter on low-lying leas ; the sunsets — those 
grand rose windows of the cathedral of heaven ; the sweet domes- 
ticities of life, the friendship of man, the love of lovely woman ; all 
passed in a moment ; his heart dilated with the passion to live ; 
he clutched his companion; a struggle and his spirit is mingling 
with the waters; and the dead hand keeping the last command of 
the will, carries within the cold ghastly knuckles poor Somers' 
doom. 

Every effort was made to set the fated captain free. But while 
those fruitless attempts at .deliverance were going forward, Cap- 
tain Somers' gi'asp of the tree relaxed ; he cast around a glance 
of fearful meaning, and sank lifeless in the waters, leaving be- 
hind him a wife and eleven children. Tiffany was now at liberty 
to direct his attention to Mr. Flood, whom he succeeded in getting 
ashore. The names of those who perished were Captain Somers, 
James Rawlins, George Robinson, and William Edmonds. Mr. 
Flood had held Edmonds above the water until he was a corpse 
and was himself well nigh exhausted. Poor fellow, when he 
was nearly powerless, asked Mr. Flood if there was any sign of 
the raft ? The reply was : " Dear friend, Christ is the only raft 
of which I can now assure you." 

A son of Mr. Flood, Mr. Edward Flood, is settled at Lindsay, 
where he ably edits the Victoria Warder, a paper of which he is 
the proprietor. 

There were emigrants, a contrast in every way to the Blakes, 
who illustrate not less strikingly the subject and object of this 
book. At the very time the Blakes were leaving Ireland in their 
chartered vessel, another emigrant ship was sailing out of Dublin 
Bay, from one of whose passengers I have received a letter, in 



^11 



WHAT CANADA HAS DONE. 



309 



)nger 
were 
ihrist 
iffort 
self- 



which he says that Canada has done more for Irish, English and 
Scotch, than they have done for Canada, which is quite true. 
Canada is the bountiful mother which only needs a little coax- 
ing to lay bare all the wealth of her life. The writer of the let- 
ter left Dublin with his father. When the vessel was out three 
weeks the cholera attacked the passengers. In eight days they 
lost forty-five persons. Throwing bodies overVoard became mo- 
notonous. The writer's father and mother, a sister and child of 
tender years, all died. When he arrived at Montreal, about 
seventy were dying daily. He got to Middlesex. Up to this 
time he and his brother never owned a new pair of shoes or boots. 
Each had only one clean shirt for Sunday, and very little of 
any other clothes for Sunday or Monday. They used to be sent 
with a small dish of dirty grain to feed about eight or ter.» hogs. 
It was hardly safe for a boy to go near so many starving hogs ; 
aboat half of which would die of starvation ere spring. " One 
of these same boys is now worth $20,000, not by speculation, 
but by hard work on a farm, and he is respected everywhere. I 
remember," continues my correspondent, " when a brother of mine 
would not be let eat only out of the pot, when the family which 
he lived with had had their share taken out of it. He was 
knocked about from Tom to Dick and Harry, and had scarcely 
a home. Now some people say he is worth $30,000." 

About the same time there came to Middlesex a young man 
with large feet, and when he saw the " minister " coming his way 
he stood in a great bunch of weeds to hide his bare feet till the 
" preacher " had passed. That man is now well to do in a flourish- 
ing county of Ontario, and " it is likely that if tho Prince of 
Wales came to Canada, his daughter would be invited to the 
Prince's ball. Does a man," asks my correspondent, in bad Eng- 
lish and bad spelling, but with much strength of observation, 
" think that the Irish are a more superior rac" than English or 
Scotch ? Not so. The Irish need mixing with the canny 
Scotch." 

The mixture is a good one. But even without the mixture 
Irishmen can show themselves canny, and have shown themselves 
so. The great thing is to imist on education, and wide and 



310 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




: 



! 

IT 



ill 



varied reading. Nothing makes men differ so much, even in 
bodily appearance, as mental development. 

" Forty years ago," the same gentleman writes, " I happened to 
pass by a poor nan's house. I saw that he had, by some means, 
bought a yoke of steer, and they having some vermin on them, 
the man shook some wood ashes on their backs. One lay dead, 
*'he other was dying, leaving the man as poor ^s Job's turkey. 
Some years afterwards I passed that way. There was a house fit 
for the Governor, made from hard industry on the same farm." 

The man who has thus supplied my palette with colours is him- 
self worth $20,000. 

There are several counties which have been wholly, or almost 
wholly cleared by Irishmen. Foremost among these stands the 
County of Caileton, which comprises the Townships of Nepean, 
North Gower, Marlborough, Goulburn, March, Huntley, Torbolton. 
Fitzroy, the Village of Richmond and the City of Ottawa. 
Throughout the county the Irish element predominates, save in 
the Townships of Fitzroy and Torbolton, which are chiefly settled 
by that other branch of the Celtic race whose hardihood has been 
nourished in the land of heather aiid shaggy wood, amid the stern 
sublimities of mountains and mountain streams. In the northern 
part of March, too, there are a great many of the Imperial English 
blood. Part of the Township of Goulburn, including the Village 
of Richmond, was settled by the Duke of Richmond, about 1815, 
with officers of the 99th. Among these military settlers were 
Irishmen such as Captain Burke ; Lieutenant Maxwell, to whom 
we shall have again to refer ; Captain Lett ; Rev. Dr. Short, mili- 
tary chaplain ; Captain Lyon, laeutenant Ormsby, and Lieutenant 
Bradley. Into this settlement some naval officers also found their 
way. The northern part of the Township of March was settled 
by Captain Monk, an Englishman, and Colonel Lloyd, an Irish- 
man. With such exceptions, the whole of the raetropolitan 
county of the Dominion was settled by the Irish emigi'ant, with 
no assistance from anybody : his capital, his friends, his patrons, 
were his strong right arm, bis resolute will and the axe upon his 
shoulder. Some particulars relating to the two classes of pioneers 
will not be uninteresting. 

George ^ Burke, of the 99th Regiment, and Colonel of the 

r. 



SOLDIER. JOURNALIST. LUMBERER. 



311 



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him- 



iilage 



Carleton Militia, was a native of Tipperary. He served in the 
Peninaula, and afterwards in Canada, during the war of 181?. 
During his campaigns here he contracted that fondness for Canada 
which has made of many who intended no more than a flying visit 
permanent settlers. When he retired from the service he took 
up his residence at Richmond. He was an Irish gentleman of the 
old school, a Conservative and a staunch Loyalist. He was the 
first Registrar of the County of Carleton, a position which he re- 
tained until his death. 

His son, James Henry Burke, early gave evidence of literary 
and even poetical, talents. Feeling himself walled in from con- 
genial opportunity in the wild region round Richmond — Ottawa 
being then the small landing-place, Bytown — he made a voyage to 
the Arctic Region, and saw something of the great world outside. 
In 1854, he, having gained much experience and enlarged his 
views, settled at Ottawa, and started the Ottawa Tribune, in the 
Irish Roman Catholic interest. This paper he conducted in a very 
able manner until his death. On the decease of John Egan, in 

1857, he ran for Pontiac, but was defeated by Mr. Heath. With 
the exception of Mr. Egan, he did more for the Ottawa district 
than any man of his day. The opening up of the Ottawa Valley 
was a subject on which he held enlightened views, and one on 
which he spoke and wrote well. He died on the 8th of January, 

1858, at the early age of thirty-seven, having given promise of 
great things, both in statesmanship and literature. 

John Egan was a native of Aughrim. He emigrated in 1832. 
He died at the early age of forty-seven. In the fifteen years he 
was spared to his adopted country he did as much as any man ever 
achieved in so brief a period. Few men were better acquainted 
with the trade of the Ottawa. The resources of the countrv and 
its requirements were thoroughly mastered by him. He worked 
his way from nothing to the head of the largest business on the 
river. It was he first gave system to its lumber trade, a trade 
which has yielded a return equal to one-fourth of the entire 
revenue of Canada. Before his time lumbering on the Ottawa 
was a wild venture. The annual b- ^iness of his house ran up a 
few years before his death to from $800,000 to $1,000,000. It gave 
employment directly to over 2,000 men, It required 1,600 horses 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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and oxen. His living machinery consumed annually 90,000 bushek 
of oats, 12,000 barrels of pork, 15,000 barrels of flour. The 
ramifications of the house occupied a portion of nearly every 
stream on the Ottawa's course. 

A handsome man, whose life was divided between business and 
generous deeds, he was very popular. He represented the County 
of Ottawa until it was divided, whon he was returned by acclama- 
tion for Pontiac. His name has become part of the topographical 
nomenclature of the Ottawa, he having, with his clerk, the late Mr. 
Michael Joseph Hickey, founded and named Eganville. 

Mr. Hickey was born at Nenagh, County Tipperary, in 1825. 
He was the oldest son of Mr. Patrick Hickey of the same place. 
He came to Canada while quite a young man and entered as clerk 
the employment of Mr. Egan, who soon selected him to take 
charge of his important business on the River Bonnechere, where a 
large number of emigrants from Donegal were settled. Hickey 
induced Egan to build gristand saw mills, and the advance of civili- 
zation was soon attested by the erection of a tavern. The nucleus 
of a village was now formed. Hickey suggested the name of Egan- 
ville to the Post-office authorities. Eganville is now a considera- 
ble place with chui*ches, mills, numerous stores. The population 
is about six hundred. 

Here Hickey commenced business under the name of Hickey 
Brothers. But owing to the depression in the lumber trade he re- 
tired leaving the business to his brothers, John and Thomas, men of 
ability and genial popular manners. Michael Joseph Hickey had 
literary ability, and edited for a considerable time with great 
success the Ottawa Tribune. It was in connection with Hickey 
that McGee started the J^ew Era. Differing on the seat of gov- 
ernment question — Hickey being stoutly in favour of Ottawa — 
they severed business connection but maintained their friendship. 
Hickey then went to the bar and practised his profession in 
Ottawa. Business took him to Toronto in the November of 1864. 
As he was walking along the Esplanade he fell into the Bay and 
was drowned. He was a constant contributor to Harper's Maga-^ 
zine and a paper contributed to that periodical, entitled "The Capi- 
tal of Canada," deservedly attracted a great deal of attention. 

When speaking of those connected with lumbering, Robert and 



na 



THE FOUNDER OF PEMBROKE. 



313 



James Cobum, of Pembroke, should not be forgotten. When 
growing youths, in 1830, they with their mother, a widow, emi- 
grated to Canada. They first resided in Nepean. Ready employ- 
ment and good pay in the lumber shanties early took them up the 
Ottawa. They soon began to do business for themselves and suc- 
ceeded. They live on their own estates within a few miles of the 
fast-growin-g and beautiful Town of Pembroke, and are now as 
always fast friends of Methodism. 

The founder of Pembroke came from Tipperary, Daniel O'Meara 
was born in 1812. His family is a respectable one, and well 
known in that part of Ireland. Educated at his native town, 
and in Dublin, on the death of his father in 1834, he came to 
Canada, After a brief sojourn in Quebec, he joined a party bound 
for the Upper Ottawa. Finally he settled where now stands the 
Town of Pembroke, which, in conjunction with Alexander Moflat, 
he founded in 1835. He carried on business for some time as a 
general merchant. In the latter years of his life he engaged in 
lumbering. He used to go every year to Quebec, and bring emi- 
grant^s thence at his own expense. Not a few of the prominent 
men or. the Ottawa valley acknowledge that they owe the foun- 
dation of their prosperity to O'Meara. Shortly before his death 
he greatly extended his business by the establishment of numerous 
branches. He started two of his brothers, Michael and William, 
in business as merchants and lumbermen, both well known and 
greatly respected, in the County of Renfrew. He died in 1859, 
at the early age of 47, leaving three sons and two daughters, who 
survive. Mr. O'Meara was a Roman Catholic. He had built a 
church, and on his death-bed gave £500 towards the erection of a 
new one. He was a Conservative in politics. The reform journal of 
Pembroke — the Observer — in its issue of the 2?nd April, 1859, in 
the course of an eloquent article, mourns the loss to Pembroke of 
its leading business man, and dwells in terms of eulogy on the 
energy, the adherence to principle, the open-handed generosity of 
O'Meara. 

Another man whose name is of note in connexion with lumber- 
ing, was John Brady, who was born in Cavan, in 1797. He came 
to this country in 1819, having suffered great hardships during 
a voyage of eighteen weeks across the Atlantic. He first settled 



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•314 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



in the County of Glengarry, where he was married to Rachel 
McDonald, at St. RapLael's Chui-ch, by Bishop McDonell. He 
subsequently removed from thence to the Township of Alfred, in 
the County of Prescott, near the Ottawa river, the settlement 
being known to this day by the name of the Brady Settlement. 
He threw himself with energy into farming and lumbering. He 
was elected one of the old District Councillors. He was also 
Justice of the Peace and Coroner for the county. These offices 
he filled until the year 1847, when he removed to the County 
of Oxford, where he was soon elected to the County Council, 
which office he filled until his death, in 1853. In politics he was 
a Reformer, and took a very active part in affairs. He was 
a Roman Catholic. His wife is still living with his third son, James, 
in the Town of Ingersoll. The family consisted of five sons and 
three daught'drs, all of whom are living, except one daughter. John 
Brady had a brother named Thomas Brady, who settled in the 
same neighbourhood, and who died recently at the age of 95 years. 
John Brady's son, James Brady, who is a well-known man in Inger- 
soll, was born at Prescott, in 1839. 

It would require many volumes to recount the lives and deeds of 
all those Irishmen who have made the County of Carleton what 
it is. A rapid survey must content us here. 

John Boucher came to Canada in 1819, having been born in 
1789. He worked for a year on the canal in the employ of Colonel 
By. With what he saved in this year he went into March township 
and began to clear with his own hands a dense bush. His 
daughter, Mrs. Riddel 1, was the first child bom in the Township 
of March. Boucher was married three times and had in all twenty- 
five children, eleven boys and fourteen girls. At his death, this 
man — who went into the Township of March with his axe on his 
shoulder — left each of his sons a farm and each of his daughters a 
portion of money. He worked at farming all his life, excepting 
about twelve years which he devoted to the business of hotel- 
keeping. He belonged to the Church of England, and was a strong 
Conservative. 

If all his children have proved as prolific as Mrs. Riddell, his 
great-grandchildven alone now number 875. His descendants 
at this moment are very numerous. 







A PIONEER BREWER. 



316 



Not 80 successful was Ralph feinith, who was born in Queen's 
County in 1777, and emigrated in 1819. He settled in the wilder- 
ness near where the City of Ottawa stands to-day. The only farm 
in the whole county in 1819 was one occupied by Philemon 
Wright, the pioneer of the North Shore of the Ottawa River. 
Smith built the first house of any kind on the South Shore, from 
the furthest settlement to Point Fortune. The second was a hut 
raised by the late Nicholas Sparks on his purchase of " Lot C," 
Concession C, now the most populous portion of the City of 
Ottawa. 

Mr. Smith went into business as a brewer or distiller. He was 
the pioneer of this trade in Central Canada. Possessed of ample 
means when he arrived in Canada, and a complete master of a 
lucrative if not a very useful business, he ought to have realized 
wealth. But confidence in others led to pecuniary losses which 
swamped the greatest portion of his capital. But — happy consti- 
tution! — his pecuniary losses never affected either his good humour 
or his character, nor abated in the least from the esteem in which 
he was held. He die t an advanced age, being over four score 
years. He was a Conservative and a member of the Church of 
England. 

Mr. John Nesbitt, a native of County Cavan, was bom in 1803, 
and emigrated in 1823. He settled in the Township of March. He 
ultimately purchased large farms in the Township of Nepean, 
where he has since resided. He has done much to settle and im- 
prove the County of Carleton. Genial and hospitable, his friends 
throughout the county are as numerous as his acquaintances. 
Always an active member of the Church of England, he liberally 
assisted the completion of the parish church and parsonage in 
South March. He has always been an energetic Conservative. 
He has been for over thirty years in the commission of the peace. 
He has reared a large family, all settled in Carleton, and all in 
comfortable circumstances. Owing to a slightly aristocratic man- 
ner, as well as to his influence in the township, his neighbours 
style him " Lord John," by which title he is known throughout 
the County of Carleton. 

Thomas Sproule, who died in 1849, is still remembered in 
Ottawa. He was born at Athlone, County Westmeath, in 1772. 



_' « 



310 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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I 



He entered the Royal Navy as iiiidshipinan at the age of seven- 
teen and afterwards the Ea.st India Company's service. He was 
present at the storming of Stsringapatam. After returning to 
Ireland he served in the yeonunry, and emigrated in 1820. He at 
once ]>roceeded to the military rer^erve of Richmond, purchased 
land and settled there, a' the Chaudi^re on the Ottawa, where the 
batteaux from Montreal landed their freight. Sproule and his 
party arrived in the spring of 1820, and whilst admiring the wild 
grandeur of the scenery from the bluff on which is now erected 
the Parliament Buildings, was offered the whole of the present 
Ordnance Property then belonging to a private individual and 
consisting of more than half the present City of Ottawa, inchiding 
the hill on which the public buildings are erected, for the sura of 
£7^>. But he preferred proceeding to the settlement of Richmond, 
He was appointed first coroner of the Bathurst District, which 
was afterwards formed into the Counties of Carleton, Lanark and 
Renfrew, and made a captain in the Carleton Militia. He was 
one of the first in organizing a Church of England parish at Rich- 
mond. He was a Tory of a now extinct school ; with a strong 
spice of the old sailor in him. 

The founders of a settlement ir Lanark came from the south of 
Ireland. If ever any author sb ike it into his head to write 

" Remarkable Men of Can^ ' a companion volume to the 

" Celebrities of Canada," .^even Irishmen must be given a 

prominent, if not a forerao... place in the volume. John Quinn, 
Patrick Quinn, Terence Doyle, James Power, John Cullen, 
William Scanlen, and James Carbe^'ry — six from the County of 
Waterford and one from the County of Limerick, all young 
energetic men, decided to emigrate to this country in the year 
1820. Previously to doing so, they made a compact that they 
would stick together through every trial and vicissitude, in evil 
report and good report, in sickness and in health. Where all could 
not get work none would remain. They were determined to 
fight the battle of life together, and fought their way through all 
sort^ c' difficulties till they got to Perth, then a military station 
'..lull . Txly a few houses. They immediately got the job of clear- 
ing Ujj ten acres of land, fit for cropping with grain the following 
fall. This job was given them by Col. Powell, father to the present 



Ju. 



THE SEVEN IRISHMEN SETTLEMENT. 



317 



Sheriff of Carloton, and tniu to fchuir agreement, they wouhl not 
separate, V)Ut built a log slianty on tlieir lot and all lived together. 
Col. Powell, learning their .secret, ])rocured for them a lot of land, 
200 acres for each, all in one block. They built a house upon one 
of the lots and lived together. Each was cook in rotation. They 
took their turns at carrying provisions from Perth, a distance of 
foui*teen miles — two of them going to Perth for a bairel of flour 
and relieving each other on the road, which was only a blaze 
through the bush. One of them used, when old, to tell a story of 
liow he went to Perth for seed corn, but unfortunately on his way 
back he lost the blaze. Patting dovvn his corn, he went to seek 
his lost blaze. He found the Vjlaze but never found his corn. 
Old government rum had perhaps something to do with this. 
They thus worked together until they had secured enough for 
each one to settle on his separate lot, and having done so, they 
toiled indefatigably, but always together, and always succes.sfully, 
until finally the settlement became known as that of the Seven 
Irishmen. Their ho.spitality became proverbial. Every pei-son 
had a hearty welcome ; new settlers being objects of special 
attention. They gave them information; showed them the best 
lands ; how, where, and v^hen to plant the different seeds. Their 
descendants have spread out and flourish. The settlement has 
become a large and important one in the County of Lanark. All 
the original seven settlers are dead. The last, John Quinn, died 
in the year 1869, after having passed the allotted span. They 
were all Roman Catholics. 

Daniel O'Connor, a man of considerable capacity, early attracted 
the attention of Colonc;! By. A. native of the City of Waterford, 
he was bom in 179G. He was twice in America before his settle- 
ment in Canada ; once as a volunteer in an adventurous expedi 
tion to South America.. He came to Canada in 1826, and was 
about to return to Ireland in 1827, when he met Colonel By at 
Kingston, who strongly advised him to settle in Bytoww. He 
accordingly went to Old By town, where he immediately opened 
business as a mercha it, and was very successful. Colonel By had 
commenced operations on the Rideau Canal, and By town wa.-^ 
very rough place. This, was the time of the "shiners," the " By- 
town shiners," who were notorious, not only in Canada, but in the 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



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United States. They \\'ere the old type of the raftsmen on the 
Ottawa. Mr. O'Connor, on his amval, was appointed Justice of 
the Peace, and he often found it a hard job to fuhu his special 
position, and conserve tlu peace. But he -exercised a great deal of 
influence over his rough charge, and waL. .espected by the wildest 
man on the river. 

Shortly afterward J, h(; was offered by the Government his 
choice of Sheriff or Treasurer of the District of Dalhousie. Being 
in business, he chose the latter office, the duties of which he dis- 
charged until his death. The District of Dalhousie was subsequently 
constituted the County of Carleton. The first election after the 
triumph of responsible government, he ran against Hon. Thom: 3 
McKay, for the District of Dalhousie, and although he polled a large 
vote, was beaten by a majority of three. The election lasted a 
wef.k. His daughter, Mrs. Fricl, widow of the late Mr. H. I. Friel, 
who was Mayor of the ciiy, was the first child born in By town. 
He died in 1858, aged 62, on the anniversary of the day he landed 
in Bytown. He was a (conservative and a Roman Co.tholic. 

Irishmen, the first ia so many things in Carleton and its 
incipient capital Bytown, can also claim to have been the first 
there in the noble band of pioneer school-teachers. 

Hugh O'Hagan, born in Deny, October 1788, came to Canada. 
1799. He remained soi ae time at Montreal, and then removed to 
St. Maiy's, where, in 1824, he was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace. Owing to local difficulties, ^nd in order to avoid violence 
he sacrificed his property, and removed to old Bytown, in 1837, 
where he for many ycirs taught school. He was one of the first 
school-teachers in By« )wn. Many of the old inhabitants were 
indebted to him for v hat they know. He was Captain of the 
Carleton Militia, was i Roman Catholic, and a strong Conserva- 
tive. He used to prou* ly call himself " a I'ory of the Tories." He 
was a gentlemanly m 3 n, and very hospitable. He died in the 
fall of 1865,and,altho i^h a Freemason of the highest orders, was 
buried in the family ^ ault under the Roman Catholic Church, 
Gatineau Point. 

His son, Frank O'Hagan was born in 1833 at Bytown. He was 
intended and studied for the Church, but finding his tastes were 
in another direction, he «Tfave up the idea and entered into litorary 



A PIONEER STOCK-RAISER, 



319' 



pursuits, for which he w&s eminently fitted^ He was for several 
years a newspaper editor in New York and the Western States. 
H.4 edit( 1 a paper in Chicago. He was a great lover of the- 
atricals, and himself an actor of considerable talent. He was also a 
poet, and published several poems. One particularly called "To 
my Mother," written when quite young, is very touching. He 
returned to Ottawa several years before his death, and wrote for the 
Ottawa Times and Citizen. He gradually sank under the great 
destroyer, consumption. He died in 1872 in his 39th year, and 
was laid beside his father. He left a wife and two children. Had 
he lived more by rule he might l/C alive to-day. 

I have mentioned above Lieutejiaut Joseph Maxwell as one of 
the foundation stones of Richmond. He deserves more* than a 
passing word, not merely as a public spirited man whose sword 
and muscle were at the service of his adopted country, but as one 
whose clear glance even at that early day anticipated one of the 
most useful enterprises of our own time, happily richer in oppor- 
tunity. To-day, Bow Park is one of the sights which an intelli- 
gent visitor to Canada must see, and in other parts of Canada Irish 
breeders are doing a good work. The Honourable George Brown 
has shown in the most practical way his conviction that a pro- 
gressive coil ntry must have well-bred animals ; if we are to have 
good beef and mutton, good butter and wool, attention must be 
paid to the ;aising of stock. In soil and temperature Canada is 
well adapted for raising first-class beasts. We have grasses capa- 
ble of giving an excellent flavour to mutton, and making tender, 
nourishing beef. Short-horns thrive as well here as elsewhere, as, 
notwil: -standing < ir sudden changes, and extremes of heat and 
cold, on the whole do sheep, whether English Leicesters and 
Downs, or the Scotch Cheviots and Blackfaced ; and the day is 
fast approaching when the Canadian breeds of cattle and sheep 
will be second to the breeds of no other country. Mr. Brown, and 
other rre&t breeders, who have the honour of having done so much 
in thijt important particular, will perhaps be surprised to find that 
they v'ere anticipated by an Irish lieutenant, at a time when the 
noblest, belts and stretches of Ontario were covered with bush and. 
were tl le haunts of bears and wolves. 

Lieui.entjnt Maxwell must have been a man of an original cast of 





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320 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



inincl, for even at this hour in Iioland, the special division of 
stock-raising, in which he excelled, is attended to, but perfunc- 
torily . The physical characteristics of Ireland are well adapted 
for the breeding of all kinds of sheep. No intense heat, no severe 
cold, a mean of 48° of temperature, forty inches annual rainfall, 
a noble v .ety of hill, dale, and grasses, Ireland seems marked 
out for sheep husbandry. The native breeds are not of the best, 
and the introduction of others has as yet been far from sufficiently 
extensiv^e. The Cottagh, with a small, pretty head, and upright 
ears, small bones, light body, and a neck almost as long as a deer b, 
puts up very sweet meat. The Long Woolled has long legs, a long 
neck, a long head, large car«. grey faces, and a narrow but larg'^ 
body. Of both, the wool is good, and either crossed with Downe 
or Leicesters would make a noble breed of sheep. Something, 
but yet too little has been done. In Maxwell's youth, however,^ 
breeding was an undiscovered mystery in Ireland. 

Born at Roscrea, in the County Tipperary — as a boy, he often 
followed the hounds around the base of Devilsbit, or as they 
woke the morning echoes amid the frowning shadows of Slieve- 
bloom ; nor could so intelligent a lad see without reflectii'.g the 
sheep allowed to wander indiscriminately over the mountains, or 
along the green banks, where the Suir hurries past Templemore, 
eager to play with the historic memories of Cashel, and on its 
way to the sea, catch a dim ai^d distant glimpse of the cloudy 
gloom of Knockmealdown. But if any thoughts of improving 
the breeds of his native country stirred within him, they were 
driven away by the call of the bugle bidding him to the battle 
field. When there was no sign of manhood on his cheeks but 
dubious down, he joined the 99th regiment. With this regiment, 
nearly every man in which, as we have seen, was an Irishman, he 
came to Canada and took his part in the war of 1812. When he 
and his friends settled at Richmond, they did not forget their 
military traditions. They at once formed a regiment with Cap- 
tain Geo. J. Burke as Colonel ; Maxwell, Lyon and Lett, Captains; 
Sproule, Lieutenant; Short, Chaplain, and Crawford (a large- 
hearted Scotchman), physician. They were among the first to 
turn out during the rebellion of 1837-38. Their sons got up one 
of the first, if not the first, volunteer battery of artillerj' organized 




SHEEP BREEDING. CONSERVATIVES. 



321 



in Upper Canada. William Pitman Lett, the city clerk of Ottawa, 
was one of the most prominent in raising the new corps. 

Lieutenant Maxwell, on first settling in Richmond, entered on 
mercantile pursuits. Finding commerce uncongenial he, after 
two years, gave it up and settled down to farming on one of the 
finest tracts of land in the neighbourhood. There he devoted 
special attention to the raising of stock. He imported the best 
breeds of sheep, and his stock became noted throughout the en- 
tire country. If to-day we see, in Carleton and in the surround- 
ing counties, sheep which are a credit and full of promise, it is to 
no small extent due to the gallant Irishman, who, in the dawn of 
our nation, did not indeed literally beat hi^ sword, red with the 
blood of her enemies, into a pruning hook or a shepherd's staff, 
but who, while keeping near him the warlike and war-worn brand, 
obtained those peaceful weapons which fight the noblest battles — 
the plough and kindred implements of the field. Maxwell 
was one of the first Justices of the Peace. Hospitable to a fault, 
his house was open not only to friends, but it is said even to foes. 
He was a member of the Church of England, and acted with the 
Conservative party. He died in 1848. ^ 

It should be borne in mind that when the word Conservative is 
applied to a man at the period of Maxwell's active life, it means 
something very different from what it means to-day. The differ- 
ence will be made abundantly clear in succeeding chapters. A 
Conservative, prior to the culmination of Baldwin's long and heroic 
struggle for responsible government, was on the side of bureau- 
crats, who represented the last defenders of a decaying, and when 
decaying no longer useful, cai se. 

There was a time in the history of Canada when something like 
the paternal rule of a crown colony wasfbest for it. But that 
time had passed away, at least, as early as 1825, and possibly be- 
fore. The true distinguishing names for the two parties in Cana- 
da up, certainly, to Lord Sydenham's time, and it may be for 
some year? afterwards, are not " Conservatives " and " Lib- 
erals," but the Bureaucratic Party and the Popular Party, 
the Famil}*^ Compact founded on selfishness and buttressed by 
wrong, and teeming with the fruitful seeds of revolution ; 

the "Popular Party" raised on the rock of eternal justice j 
21 



Im 



322 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



m \ 



i! 



Mi' 



the cleternuned bravery of its garrison, the heroism of its 
skirmishing parties, braced by grievances, commanded by a man 
of unstained conscience and spotless repute. The battle was bit- 
terly fought, but the victory could not at any time have been 
doubtful. It never is doubtful where one side lights for a great 
cause, for justice, and therefore for God; and the other struggles, 
with heroic b". eness, to preserve the ignoble and perishable ram- 
parts of egotism. 

An Englishman, Mr. Howard, has presented to Toronto a park 
which is destined to be the finest park on this Continent. It is a 
noble gift and Mr. Howard should always be gratefully remem- 
bered by our citizens ; nor should Mr. P. G. Close's exertions in 
regard to this splendid lung for Toronto be forgotten. In 1816 
there came to this country a poor young fellow who was destined 
to be to Ottawa a benefactor nearly as splendid as Mr. Howard 
has been to Toronto. 

Nicholas Sparks was a native of Wexford, who emigrated to 
Canada in 1816. Having worked his way up to the Township of 
Hull, on the North shore of the Ottawa River and directly oppo- 
site the site of the presejit City of Ottawa, he engaged as a farm 
servant with Philemon Wright. He saved a sufEciert sum to pur- 
chase lot C in Concession C, Rideau froxxt, in the Township of 
Nepean, consisting of two hundred acres, on the south side of the 
Ottawa River. He bought the lot from John B. Honey, the 
patentee from the Crown, on the 20th of June, A.D. 1826, for 
ninety-five pounds sterling. At the time of his purchase the lot 
was a wild bush, which it wfts his intention to turn to farming 
purposes. Having with his own hands cleared a spot he built a 
shanty. The commencement of the Rideau Canal in the follow- 
ing year, however, changed his purpose. With his natural shrewd- 
ness, he perceived that his and the surrounding property was des- 
tined to be the site of a town of some importance, and the lot 
purchased by him for ninety-five pounds is now one of the most 
populous and wealthy portions of the City of Ottawa, where 
stand the Court House, the Jail, the City Hall, the Post-Office, 
the Ladies' College, the Opera House, the Orange Hall, the Pro- 
testant Orphans' Home, Christ Church, St. Andrev^r^, Baijk Street 
Church, the Dominion Wesleyan. Methodist *Chur6li, the Baptist 



FOUNDER OF ORANOEISM IN CANADA. 



323 



Church, the Congregational Church, the Catholic Apostolic Church, 
Russell House, several first-class hotels, and every bank in the 
City. The property with the buildings is now estimated as worth 
four million dollars. 

Mr. Sparks was a Conservative in politics, but never pushed him- 
self forward in political life, the only public positions he held 
being that of alderman for the city, during the years 1855-6-7, 
and Justice of the Peace for the County of '"'"ripton. Unosten- 
^tious in his prosperity, he was made of the .oest human clay. 
/The Court-house and Jail Square, and City Hall L .^uare were pre- 
1 sented by him to By town ; and to the Cb"-< ch of England, of which 
Tie was a member, the site for Christ Church, with parsonage and 
school. He died on the 27th February, 1862, aged sixty-eight 
years, leaving one son, who has since died, and two daughters, who 
survive. 

Another Carleton pioneer, who died a millionaire, was "William 
Hodgins, who came to Canada in 1820. He was bom in Tipperary, 
in 1787. He settled about twelve miles from where Ottawa stands. 
His history is the history of hundreds : he cleared land and made 
wealth, dying worth $250,000. He was eighty-one years of age 
when he died. 

A representative man of the Orange body was Arthur Hopper, 
Ogle R. Gowan has usually been considered the founder of 
Orangeism in Canada. This opinion is not correct. The real 
founder was the venerable old man who died in 1872, in his 
eighty-eighth year, to whose ample board, though he sported the 
orange lily every 12th of July, the Catholic priest was as welcome 
as the Protestant minister ; who was a devoted friend to men of 
every creed, if they carried under their waistcoat the talisman of 
an Irish heart. 

Born at Roscrea, in 1784, Mi-. Hopper emigrated to Canada in 
1812. He carried on a business for three years at Montreal, and 
in 1825 he set up in the Township of Huntley as a merchant. 
While residing here his advice was sought by all the inhabitants, 
especially by his own countrymen. Catholic and Protestant. Sub- 
sequently he purchased six hundred acres in the Township of Ne- 
pean, where he finally settled. Situated six miles from Ottawa, 
witfh three Churches, a School-house, an Hotel, an Orange Hall, and 



S24 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



several tradesmen's shops, is the thriving village of Merivale. It 
is settled almost entirely by Irish, all of whom are in comfortable 
circumstances. This village owes its existence to Arthur Hopper. 

He became a member of the Orange Association in his eighteenth 
year. He took his first degree in Dublin, in 1802, where he served 
as a yooman during the disturbance of 1803. Having filled several 
subordinate ofiices, he, for many years, occupied the chair, as De- 
puty Grand Master of the County of Tipperary. 

Soon after his arrival in Montreal, he, with the late Mr. William 
Burton, Mr. John Dyer, Mr. Francis Abbott, and about six or eight 
others, formed the first Orange Lodge ever opened in British Ame- 
rica. This was done under warrant from the Grand Lodge of Ire- 
land. This warrant William Burton went home expressly to pro- 
Cure. Burton was elected the first master. From such small be- 
ginnings, nearly sixty years ago, the present powerful Orange As- 
sociation has grown. 

In subsequent years Arthur Hopper was elected to fill the chair 
with the additional power of granting warrants to subordinate 
lodges, given under the Great Seal of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, 
of which the Earl of Enniskillen was the Grand Master. The first 
warrant ever granted to a subordinate lodge in British America 
was granted to Mr. Robert Birch, of Richmond, under the hand 
and seal of Mr. Arthur Hopper, as Grand Master, and Mr. William 
Burton as Deputy-Grand Master. Soon after Ogle R. Gowan 
came here with credentials from the Grand Lodge of Ireland. A 
council with the lodges then in existence was held, and the present 
system inaugurated. When Mr. Hopper settled in Huntly he 
opened the first lodge in that township. He subsequently inaugu- 
rated lodges in difierent parts of the County of Carle ton. The last 
one which he inaugurated was Number Eighty -five of Nepean, of 
which he was first Master, and of which he was made an honorary 
member for life, when through infirmity he could no longer attend 
the meetings. When he died, in 1872, he had been seventy years 
in connection with the Order during which he had attained all the 
degrees from the Orange to the highest Black. When grown 
garrulous with years he loved to talk over old days. He had seen 
the fajl of one national government and the rise of another. He 




RICHARD BISHOP. THE BATTLE FAMILY. 



325 



was present at the closing of the last Irish Pariiament and at the 
opening of the first Pariiaraent of the Doiuinion. 

As an instance of success it would not be easy to find a more 
remarkable man than Richard Bishop, who was bom in the County 
Limerick, and emigrated with his father, Richard Bishop, in 1829. 
The father purchased land and settled in the Township of March 
He amassed a considerable fortune and died in 18()3, aged sixty- 
eight. His son, who is now fifty-six years of age, is one of the 
most successful of a successful family. At an early age he left his 
father's house and struck out for himself in Bytown. He rapidly 
rose both in wealth and public estimation. A large landed pro- 
prietor of the County of Carleton, he is now able to retire a rich 
man. He is a Conservative and an active member of the Church 
of England. 

The Battle family is in its way representative. They belong origi- 
nally to the County of Sligo, whence they came to Canada in 1832. 
The elder members of the family consisted of three brothers, 
Patrick Battle, v^ho settled in Quebec ; John Battle, who settled 
in Toronto ; and Matthew Battle, who settled in Liverpool, Eng- 
land. Patrick Battle resided in Quebec where he lived until 
1870, when he removed with his family to Ottawa, where his son 
is now Collector of Inland Revenue. This gentleman, Mr. Martin 
Battle, was bom in 1828, in Ballymote. He lived in Quebec till 
18.56, when he removed to St. Catharines where some of his rela- 
tives were settled. There he was employed in responsible work 
by Sheckluna, the celebrated Lake Ship Builder. In 1859 
he was appointed to superintend the removal of Government 
stores from Toronto to Quebec. Subsequently he had charge of 
stores in connection with the trips of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales 
and H. R. H. the Duke of Edinburgh, and the chief management 
of the stores when the Government was removed from Quebec to 
Ottawa. For his efficient discharge of these duties Mr. Battle re- 
ceived appreciative letters from the eminent persons concerned, 
and was complimented by the London Times. In 1870 he was 
appointed Collector of Hydraulic Rents, and in 1873 Collector of 
Inland Revenue at Ottawa. He has always been a strong advo- 
cate of temperance, having taken the pledge from the well-known 
Father McMahon, of Quebec. He is one of those who founded 



326 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



IF 







\ 



the St. Patrick's Orphan Asylum at Ottawa, and has acted as 
Sfcijretary to the Institution for seven years. He was also instni- 
mentai in the formation of the Ottawa Irish Catholic Temperance 
Society, Benevolent Branch, which is now a strong institution 
and which has been of the greatest advantage to the working men. 
Mr. Battle attributes his advancement in life to his teetotalism. 
Like all his family Martin Battle is a member of the Roman 
Catholic Church, and a genuine Irishman. He was the first per- 
son who presented an address to D'Arcy McGee when that great 
orator came to Canada. 

Another official, well and favourably known in the capital, is 
Zechariah Wilson, the eldest son of Hugh Wilson, who early in 
the present century emigrated from the County Tyrone, and set- 
tled first at St. Johns, in the Province of Quebec, where his son 
was born in 1815. Having received the best education available 
at the time and place, he in 1836, removed to Bytown, and entered 
into business with his brother, Hugh L. Wilson. The firm was 
successful The partnership was dissolved, when Hugh determined 
to go to New York to enter business on a larger field. Zechariah 
remained in Canada. He is now collector of Customs at the port 
of Ottawa, where his amiable qualities have won for him friends 
amongst all classes. He was a good working member of the Irish 
Protestant Benevolent Society at Ottawa, when it was one of the 
forem<;st national organizations there. 

A good instance of what Canada has done for Irishmen is Peter 
Egleson, an extensive land owner and capitalist. He is a native 
of Cavan. He came to Canada about 1834, and for awhile was at 
Grenville — half-way between Montreal and Ottawa, and then a 
more important place than Bytown. On coming to Ottawa, he 
went into service as coachman to Colonel Bolton, Commandant of 
the Engineers at work on the canal. He married Bolton's house- 
keeper, a widow with one child. He soon quarrelled with Bolton, 
and set up as a country schoolmaster in Gloucester township, 
County of Carleton. After a year's experience of the tr} mg life 
of a pedagogue in the country, he returned to Bytown, and con- 
tinued the same work. At the end of two years he abandoned 
the ferule for a general trader's counter. He has since made 
money rapidly, and is now worth at least $200,000. He has been 



m ^f 



AN OTTAWA POET. 



327 



id as 
stra- 
ance 
ution 
men. 
ilism. 
Oman 
t per- 
great 

ital, is 
Lrly in 
id set- 
lis son 
ailable 
ntered 
•m was 
•mined 
hariah 
he port 
friends 
le Irish 
I of the 

is Peter 
I native 
3 was at 
I then a 
awa, he 
tidant of 
i house- 
Bolton, 
)wnship, 
ying life 
and con- 
andoned 
ce made 
has been 



an active promoter of the local building societies, from which he 
has derived considerable personal benefit. He was for some years 
member of the school board and municipal council. 

His son James is a colonel in a volunteer corps, and is even a 
better business man and more wealthy than his father. There is 
a large family of the Eglesons about Ottawa, some Catholics and 
some Protestants and all well to do. 

While Ireland thus supplied Carleton with pioneers and busi- 
ness men, she also poured in humanizing influences, and amongst 
those whose literary turn has helped to brighten and spiritualise 
existence, a prominent place must be given to William Pittman 
Lett, bom at Wexford, the second son of the late Andrews Lett, 
who was a captain in the 26th Cameronian regiment, with which 
corps he saw considerable service in Spain, under the command of 
Sir John Moore ; who was present with his regiment, then under the 
command of the Earl of Dalhousie, at the battle of Corunna ; and 
was a witness of the moonlight obsequies of Sir John Moore, ren- 
dered doubly immortal by the pen of his fellow-countryman, Wolfl[. 
He and his son, as we have seen, came to Canada in 1820, and set- 
tled at the Village of Richmond. In 1828, after the death of the 
captain, the family removed to what is now Ottawa. Young Lett 
obtained his education in the public schools of Bytown, and in 
the High School of Montreal. He was for a few years a pupil of 
the late Rev. Alexander Fletcher, of Plantagenet, who is said to 
have been an accomplished scholar. From 1845 until 1853, Mr. 
Lett was connected editorially with the Conservative press, and 
during thirty years he has written not only in prose, but in verse 
for the newspapers. He l;as acquired a considerable local reputa- 
tion as a poet,* He has published " Recollections of Bytown and 
its Inhabitants." He is the author of the letters signed Sweeney 
Ryan, which displayed no small amount of humour. Had he been 
able to devote himself to literature, he might have achieved an 
unviable reputation. Whether he would have been a happier man 
is another question. 



♦ On a recent occasion he composed some lines of which a couple of verses deserve, 
both for sentiment and expression, quotation here. 



r 



1 



'I 

4 



I 



i '♦ 



1" 






328 THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. • 

Come, let us in thifl far-off land, 

From Erin's sea-girt shore 
One blood, one race, in union stand 

Round memories of yore. 
To-day we'll gently level down 

The barriers that divide ; 
And close together hand-in-hand, 

Stand brothers side by side. 

We ask not wliat may be your name. 

Come to us whence you may ; 
We ask not by what path yon came, 

Or where you kneel to pray. 
Your common birthright of the lan<i 

Is all we seek to scan, 
To-day we offer friendship's hand 

To cTery Irishman ! 

. To the knowledge without which our schemes of development 
would be like rudderless, compassless ships, Irishmen have given 
a stimulus which has borne practical fruit. John McMullin, now 
residing at Eganville, deserves a place among those who have made 
us acquainted with the geological character of a countr}'^ which 
is rich in scientific suggestion. Born at Newry, in 1817, he came 
with his parents to Canada in 1820. The family resided for some 
years in Quebec, While quite young John McMullin engaged in 
the lumber trade on the Ottawa. Having a great desire for the 
acquisition of knowledge, his inquisitive mind busied itself with 
geology. He attracted the attention of the late Sir William Logan, 
in whose Department at Montreal he was engaged for two years. 
While there he discovered the Dawn of Life. The late Dr. Beau- 
bien frequently quoted him in his lectures. 

If I were to attempt to write the history of all who live in 
Montreal and dfeserve a place in this book, I should have to write 
a whole volume about that noble city, and call it the " Irishmen 
in Montreal." There are, however, a certain number who, for one 
reason or another, are so prominent that there is no difficulty in 
selection, for public rumour has already made the selection for me. 

The name of Mr. Thomas White- -or " Tom White," as he is 
familiarly called — has become a house-hold word in Canada. Bom 
at Montreal in 1830, his father came from Westmeath, while his 
mother was of Scotcli descent. When young White was growing 
up, the principal school in Montreal was Mr. Workman's. Thither 
Thomas White was sent. When the High School was opened he 



TOM WHITE. EFFIOIRNCY OF PARLIAMENT. 



fi29 



left Mr. "Workman's and attended the classes of the new school. 
He passed through his school -boy studies with credit. When six- 
teer years of age he was engaged in the office of a merchant. At 
the < nd of three years he entered the office of the Queen's Printer 
as an apprentice. When in 1851-2 the Government removed to 
Quebec he followed it, and through the influence of Stuart Derby- 
shire he was appointed to the office of assistant editor on the 
Quebec Gazette. In the spring of 1853 he went to Peterborough, 
where he started the Peterborough Review. In 1860 he turned 
his back on newspaper work for a time and entered the office of 
the Honourable Sidney Smith to study law, and four yeai-s after- 
wards was called to the bar of Upper Canada. He did not prac- 
tise long, A newspaper man to the finger tips, he pined for 
printer's ink. In connection with his brother, he purchased the 
Hamilton Spectator. In 1866 he ran for South Wentworth, but 
was defeated by the small majority of three votes. In 1869, at 
the request of the Honourable John Carling, Emigration Commis- 
sioner for Ontario, he went to England and delivered lectures on 
■Canada fl roughout Great Britain. In the following year he again 
went to England on the ^^arae errand. Meanwhile his brother made 
arrangements for the purchase of the Montreal Gazette, and on his 
return he settled in Montreal and took charge of the editorial de- 
partment of the leading Conservative newspaper of Lower Canada. 

In the general election of 1872, he ran for Prescott and was 
defeated by five votes. He subsequently ran for Montreal West 
and was again defeated by a small majority, — seven votes. In the 
same constituency he again ran against Mr. Thos. Workman. He 
was beaten by fifty votes, but polled two hundred more than on 
the previous occasion. 

Mr. White's return to Parliament for some constituency is only 
a matter of time. There must be many an electorate throughout 
the country that had rather be represented by a man than by a 
voting machine. The intelligence of a constituency is to be mea- 
sured by its representative. Mr. White is one of the rising young 
men of the Dominion, whom all parties would like to see in the 
House of Commons. His wide information, his talents, his facility 
of expression, his strong political instinct, would make him a 
great accession to those whose utterances tend to raise our Dominion 






1(1 



1 1: 



* 



f t 






:l i 



* ') 



'i ii 



^30 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Parliamont to a position comriionHU rate with the character of this 
young nation ; to constitute it tliat lever of echication and pul>lic 
spirit whicli it must become, when it shall be ruled by our best 
minds and shall march forward in the serene consciousness of 
power sa<,'cly directed to great ends. 

Mr. White has published much in a pamphlet form. He is a 
leading Mason, President of the Rej)orters' Gallery of the House 
of Connnons, President of the Press Association of Uyper Canada. 
He has for many years represented St. George's Church in the 
Diocesan Synod. He did that wise thing, marry early. He was 
only tw j!*y-three. Even this gives him claims, for, as old Fuller 
says, though bachelors are the strongest stakes, married men are 
the bef;t binders in the hedge of the commonwealth. 

Few business families have b3en more useful to Canada than 
the Miller family, of whom Robert Miller is now the leading re- 
presentative. Born in the City of Cork in 1810, ho is the youngest 
son of the late Adam Miller and Theodora Lovtll. The family 
emigrated to Canada in the year 1820, and settled at St. Johns, 
where his father occupied the position of teacher in the Govern- 
ment School until his death in 1 826. Mr. Miller removed to Mon- 
treal in 1833, and after serving an apprenticeship with the late 
Ariel Bowman and the late Campbell Bryson, booksellers, St. 
Francois Xavier vStreet, commenced business on his own account in 
1841. He subseijuently formed a partnership with his brother 
Adam, and the business was for many years carried on under the 
firm of R. & A. Miller, both in Montreal and Toronto. 

Having obtained permission from the Commissioner of National 
Education in Ireland, they republished the Irish National series 
of school books, which were authorized by ih;^ Upper Canada 
Council of Public Instruction. This series was for a number of 
years in general use throughout Canada. 

On the dissolution of the partnership between the two brothers 
in 1803, Adam went to Toronto where he died a few years ago. 
His brother Robert retained the business of the Montreal House. 
His establishment is now one of the largest in the city. 

Mr. Miller has been from its foundation a member of the Irish 
Protestant Benevolent Society. He has been the Managing 
Director for some years cf the Danville School-Slate Company, 



SIDNEY IlOUKllT BELLINOHAM. 



331 



He has taken an active part in the Young Men's CliriHtian Asso- 
ciation, and been one of its vice-prnsidents. For a great many 
years ho has been, and is, a working niendjer of the Methodist 
Church. 

The name of Sidney Robert Bellingliam was at one time a 
name of power in Montreal, and known throughout Canada. 
Tlie fourth son of the late Sir Allan Bellingham, Baronet, of 
Castle Bellingham, County Louth, by Elizabeth, second daughter 
of the Reverend Edward Walls, of Boothby Hall, Lincolnshire, 
he was the grandson of Sir William Bellingham, the tirst Baronet, 
who was some time Secretary to the Right Honourable William 
Pitt ; afterwards Commissioner of the Royal Navy ; and who 
represented Reigate in the English House of Commons. Mr. 
Bellingham was born on the second day of August, 1808. He 
was educated in Ireland. After his residence in Canada for some 
time, he married Arabella, the daughter of William Holmes, of 
Quebec. He was called to the Bar of Lower Canada in 1841. He 
was one of the best known political writers for the newspaper 
press of Lower Canada, principally for the Montreal Times, and 
afterwards for the Montreal Daily N&wh. 

During the troubles of the Rebellion, in 1837, Mr. Bellingham 
was the magi.^trate sent with Col, Wetherall to attack St. Charles. 
He afterwards devoted much time to develop the military spirit 
of the county, he so long represented in Parliament, and as Lieut.- 
Colonel of the Argenteuil Rangers, he brought up the regiment 
to a high state of drill. He sat for the county in the Canadian 
Assembly from 1854 to I860, when he was unseated. Mr. Bel- 
lingham had the honour of being President of the St. Patrick's 
Society of Montreal at that pe . 'od when Catholic and Protestant 
were alike eUgible for the office. Retiring a year or two ago from 
public lif 3, he bade farewell to Canada, and now resides in 
Ireland. During O'Connell's Repeal agitation, Mr. Bellingham 
used to speak strongly in favour of that policy. 

Neale, in his History of the Puritans, speaks of the Rev. William 
Workman, who was lecturer at St. Stephen's church, in Glouces- 
i "^, from 1618 to 1633. Neale describes him as a man of great 
piety, wisdom and moderation. His wife was a fruitful bough. 






ill 



i:;: 






332 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



In consideration of small salary and large family — common but 
perplexing antithesis ! — the City of Gloucester voted him an 
annuity of twenty pounds. 

Meanwhile Laud had attained the Archiepiscopal mitre, and 
was addressing himself with energy to stemming the tide of 
"afornmtion. The images and pictures were restored to the 
churches. The clergy indued themselves in gorgeous vestments, 
such as those used by the elegy of the Roman Catholic Church. 
They who disapproved of the new order of things and resented 
the policy of Laud, were naturally enough regarded by the 
Primate with no friendly eye. Workman in one of his sermons 
stigmatized pictures and statues of the founders of Christianity, 
the Apostles, the fathers, eminent Christian women, as unfit orna- 
ments for churches. He declared that to set up images of Christ 
or of the Saints in the private houses, was, according to the Hom- 
ily, unlawful, and tended to idolatry. He was brought before 
the Court of High Commission. After a trial, in which the 
charges agains^ ^im wer© easily proved, he was deposed and 
excommunicataa. 

He now opened a school in order to support his family. As an 
excommunicated person, he was inhibited from teaching youth. 
He then commenced the practice of medicine, in which he had 
some skill. The Archbishop forbade him. Those were the days 
of persecution, when Protestants and Catholics alike abused power, 
the days before the newspaper and the emigrant ship, and Work- 
man, not knowing where to turn in order to support his family, 
fell into a settled melancholy and died. 

These circumstances naturally made a deep impression on his 
children. His oons eagerly joined the Parliamentary army, in which 
William Workman, fi'om whom the Canadian Workmans spring, 
held a commission, and was one of those who met the charge of 
Rupert on the field of Naseby. He served until 1648, when he 
went over to Ireland with Cromwell. On the close of the Irish 
campaign he retired from military life, receiving as a reward for 
bis services, a grant of the two town lands of Merlacoo, and two 
sizeacks in the County of Armagh. Of these lands, the old soldier 
held possession for some time. But he was in the midst of a 
hostile population, different in race and religion, with bitter 



THE WORKMAN S IN IRELAND. 



333 



memories of defeat, and a passionate hunger for vengo^'acc jorn 
of great wrongs, and whetted by the policy of eminent men, vsing 
the peasant as a pawn in a game for empire, calling a brave, 
ignorant, enthusiastic people, from wise acquiescence in the inevi- 
|iable, to fling t^iemselves on the spears of fate, under the banner 
of a doomed cause. During Tyrconnel's administration, he removed 
to the County Down, near Donaghadee, whence he was obliged to 
flee and shelter his old age behind the fortress of Derry, soon to 
be invested by the Irish army, He must have succumbed to the 
appalling privations of the siege, as his name does not appear in 
the history of an event, which in all its particulars is as well known 
as the transactions of one of our local Parliaments. 

When at last, the besieging army, a long column of pikes and 
standards, was seen retreating up the left bank of the Foyle to- 
wards where Carleton was to be born, his two sons and their 
wives emerged from the war-scarred walls of Derry, and settled 
in the County Antrim, In the following year, William III landed 
at Carrickfergus The inhabitants hurried to the shore to welcome 
him. The wife of one of the Workmans was a comely person, and 
had taken her child in her arms and joined the crowd. William, 
with his habitual coldness, passed hurriedly through the throng. 
But ol»serving the beauty of the infant in Mrs. Workman's arms, 
and perhaps — for that stern eye was not insensible to female 
charms— not unmindful of its mother's; aware too, no doubt, that 
no act could appeal more strongly to the popular heart, than a 
great statesman and leader of armies, pausing in the midst of a 
dangerous and momentous enterprise to fondk a babe; he stopped 
and k'ssed the child, and whispered a compliment to the proud 
matron whose blushes did not make her less beautiful. Hence 
the saying, that the first person King ^''^illiam kissed on landing 
in Ireland was a Workman. 

One of the brothers settled at Brookend Mills, near Coagh, 
whence he removed to Monyraore to take charge of the mill 
there. For more than a century this mill remained in charge of 
successive generations of Workmans. Joseph Workman, the 
father of Dr. Workman, was the last of the family who occupied 
the Monymore mill. This man having made a visit of three 
years to the Uxiited States returned to Ireland and took up his 






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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



abode in Ballymacash, a mile and a half west of the village of 
Lisburn, where his family, nine in uumbe", were born, all of 
whom with their father ultimately emigrated here. 

Benjamin, the eldest, came in 1819. He in connection with his 
brother established the Union School at Montreal. For twenty 
years it was the largest English school in Canada. Among its 
pupils were several men who were afterwards distinguished : Sir 
Henry Smith at one time speaker of the Houss of Assembly ; Hon. 
Lewis Wallbridge, who also became speaker ; Henry Myers, M.P.P.; 
Hon.L. H. Holton,M.P. ; Thomas Workman, M.P., and many others 
who attained eminence in commercial and professional walks. Ben- 
jamin Workman did more than teach school in order to diffuse en- 
lightenment among his fellow- citizens. He published the Canadian 
Gourant for five years. It was prospering when he sided with 
the teetotallers, wliereupon the licensed victuallers withdrew their 
patronage and the paper died. 

He now determined to study medicine. After six years at 
McGill College he in 1853 was admitted to practice. Three years 
afterwards he accepted the appointment of Assistant Medical 
Superintendent in the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Toronto, where 
his brother Joseph was Superintendent, whence in 1875 he re- 
tired superannuated by old age. 

WilliaiQ Workman emigi-ated in 1829, having spent the three 
years preceding his emigration with the Royal Engineers on the 
Irish survey. He became assistant editor of the Gourant. Aban- 
doning journalism he entered an important establishment in 
the hardware trade. He soon became partner and the firm still 
retains his name. He retired from the firm in 1859. In 1849 
he was elected President of the City Bank, a position which he 
held for twenty-four years. He was the first President of the 
City and District Savings Bank, an institution of which he was 
the founder. In 1868 and for the two following years he was 
elected Mayor of Montreal, and performed the duties of that great 
office with a dignity and hospitality worthy of the great city over 
which he presided. So satisfactorily did he do his work that he 
was twice honoured with a public banquet in which all classes and 
creeds joined. When he refused re-election as president of the 
City and District Sa'/ings Bank the officials presented him with 




AN ENERGETIC RACE. 



335 



a grand epergne and plate, very costly, and on the occasion of his 
retirement from the Mayoralty the citizens gave him a diamond ring 
which cost a little fortune, and with it two massive pieces of plate 
accompanied by a flattering address. Chief Justice Cockburn, 
when addressing the jaiy in the famous Tichborne suit, said with 
truth that in the discharge of a public duty no man can be insen- 
sible to public opinion. Mr. William Workman may well feel 
gratified that his services in great and responsible positions met with 
the appreciation of his fellow -citizens. During the visit of Prince 
Arthur he had the honour of receiving not the least frank and en- 
gaging of the sons of his Sovereign. Still the president of the Pro- 
testant House of Industry and Refuge, of the Montreal Dispensary^ 
of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal, i, and of 
the Western Hospital, he has been an active and directing mind in 
most of the great philanthrophic and commercial institutions of 
Montreal. He was president of the St. Patrick's Society in Mon- 
treal when that society was composed of Catholics and Protest- 
ants. 

Alexander Workman is at present a hardware merchant at Ot- 
tawa. He it was who co-operated with Benjamin Workman in 
school teaching at Montreal. Leaving Montreal, he went to the 
Ottawa district, and for a few years worked a farm in Huntly 
township. This did not suit him. He again tried Montreal, only 
once more to return to By town, and embarked in the hardware 
trade with Edward Griffin. Griffin left the firm some years ago. 
The business has since been carried on by Mr. Workman, who is 
now nearly eighty years of age. 

Like all ^is family, he is a man of versatile talents, and large 
capacity for public life. For several years a member of the Otta- 
wa City Council, and Mayor cl the City in 1860 and 1861. In 
this year the Prince of Wales laid the corner stone of the Parlia- 
ment Buildings, and Mr. Workman performed his part of the 
ceremonies with credit. Though possessing so much public spirit 
and talents for public life, he is like so many of his countrymen, 
a man of retiring disposition. He has therefore shunned the 
broadest glare of the public stage, and never sought "parliament- 
ary honours," though he might have been easily returned to Par- 
liament. A shrewd business man, he has a generous heart. The 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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County of Carloton Protestant Hospital owes him much. On it 
neither his time nor hiS money has been spared. 

The brave old man's later years have been beclouded by be- 
reavement. Nine years ago he lost his only son, a promising 
young man. with his father's ability, wealth of philanthropic feel- 
ing, and popular manners. A few years elapsed and he laid his 
wife in the grave, in which lay buried their mutual hopes. It is 
the common tragedy of life. He will go to them ; they caanot 
return to him. 

Thomas Workman, the member for Montreal West, is the only 
one of his family who is not Conservative. He was born at the 
Monymore Mill, in 1813, and was educated at Montreal, where he 
is senior partner in the hardware firm of Frothingham & Work- 
man. His business capacity is attested by the fact that he is 
Vice-President of Molson's Bank, President of the Sun Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, Chairman of the Montreal Branch of 
the Stadacona Fire Insurance Company, a Director of the Canada 
Shipping Company. He has been President of the Irish Protestant 
Benevolent Society. He sat for Montreal Centre in the House of 
Commons from the Union until 1872, when he retired from Par- 
liament. As we have seen, he defeated Mr. White, for Montreal 
West, in 1875. He is described in " Mackintosh " as a Liberal, 
and a supporter of Mr. Mackenzie. Like all the Workmans, he is 
a man of great energy and ability, with those qualities which win 
public confidence. 

Befo. 3 proceeding to the great Irish settlements of Victoria and 
Lindsay, there are a few individual cases worthy of note, which 
may be taken up in a draaltory way. 

James Cross was born in the County Fermanagh, and came to 
Canada in 1825. He settled at Spring Brook, in the, Township 
of Caledonia, in the County of Prescott. His place is within a 
few miles of the Ottawa River, and close to the celebrated Cale- 
donia Springs. Here he first sat down, one of the earliest 
settlers in the district. He lumbered as well as farmed. Having 
accumulated a fortune, he retired from active business twenty 
years ago, and devoted his attention to the improvement of his 
lands. Like his countryman. Maxwell, he has done much for the 
advancement of agriculture, and the improvement of stock. He 



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KING OF THE IRISH. OFFICIALS. 



337 



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served many years in the Municipal Council, and vras captain 
in the Militia. He has been a Justice of the Peace for twenty-live 
years. 

In 1829 he married Ann Holms, a highly cultivated lady, whose 
parents came here from the County Carlow. The fruit of the 
marriage was five sons and three daughters. Three of the sons 
settled on the paternal acres, one went into merchandise, one into 
the army, and one, James Fletcher Cross, LL.B., is a barrister 
practising in Toronto. 

In the Township of Oxford, not far from Norwichville, dwells 
an Irish Roman Catholic, Mr. McNally, a man respected by every- 
body, and so influential among his countrymen that he is ca.ied 
the King of the Irish. 

The name of Bull is well known in Hamilton, Toronto and 
Montreal. In 1835, we find George Perkins Bull publishing the 
Reader, in Toronto. A few years afterwards he removed to 
Hamilton, where he published the Gazette. Mr. H. B. Bull brought 
the Gazette to an end, and published a church newspaper in Tor- 
onto. His son, Richard Bull, is secretary to the Life Association 
of Scotland. 

As I write, the York Pioneers' flag is half-mast high at St. 
Lawrence Hall, in respect to the memory of Mr. J. P. Dunn, of 
the Custom House. The poet writes — 

" The flag is hoisted half-mast high, 
A mournful signal o'er the main, 
Seen only when the illustrious die, 
Or are in glorious battle slain." 

But for good, though comparatively humble service in a new 
cor.jitry, the honour may be as appropriately paid as if around the 
cold brows of the dead there twined the bloody laurels of war. 

Mr. Dunn came to Canada from the County Kildare, in 1823, 
and settled in Toronto in 1 833. He was the oldest revenue officer 
in the country, having been for thirty-five yeai's an official in 
the Custom House. He was a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a York 
Pioneer, and a member of the Irish Protestant Benevolent 
Society. 

Another Irish official, who should not be forgotten, died some 
months before Mr. Dunn. Christopher Walsh came to this 
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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



country in 1842, ho being then thirty-two years of age. Soon 
afterwards he received an appointment as clerk in the Toronto 
Post-oflfice, where his courtesy and business ability gained him 
friends. In 1853 he was appointed Collector of Customs at New- 
castle ; in 1854 he was removed to Oshawa, where he filled the 
duties of collector until 1875, when he was superannuated. He was 
a generous man to his Church and to all worthy objects. Never 
having married, and having no relatives, he left his property t(^ be 
divided between the House of Providence, the Catholic Church, 
St. Gregory's Church, Oshawa, and his housekeeper. At his burial, 
his old priest and friend. Dean Proulx, of Toronto, officiated, and 
Father Berrigan, of Duffin's Creek, preached the funeral sermon. 

The parents of the Hon. John O'Connor settled at Maidstone, 
County of Essex, in 1828, when he was only four years of age. 
The country was wilderness. A few Irish families had settled 
on a line through the Township of Sandwich, Maidstone and 
Rochester, forming what was afterwards called the Iri.h Set- 
tlement. 

The distance from the house of the O'Connors to Sandwich was 
fourteen miles, the road being a mere cart-road cut through the 
wood. It used to occupy two days with an ox- team and cart 
going to Sandwich and two more to return. This part of the 
country is level and only slightly diversified in places by small 
ridges of dry ground. Between the ridges, water might at times, 
in the spring and fall, be seen for miles. The first improvement 
in the roadway was a path made by slashing trees one after another 
upon which the people walked balancing themselves with a long 
pole. The timbers throughout were very heavy on the ridges 
consisting of white oak, beech, hard maple, hickory, iron-wood 
and other varieties; in the low grounds elm, butter- wood, black 
ash. By degrees the land along the line of road was cleared in 
patches, drained and tilled. The settlers were nearly all Roman 
Catholics. The first church in the settlement was built in the 
yea.r 1839 or 1840, a log building'at a place called Maidstone Cross, 
hard by the Willow Swamp. It was a dismal place. The log 
building in time gave way to a handsome brick church and the 
parish is now one of the most wealthy in the county. The first 
resident priest was Father Michael McDonnell, a native of Lime- 






HARDSHIPS OF EARLY SETTLERS. 



339 



rick. Before his arrival the parish used to be visited by clergy- 
men from Detroit {ind Sandwich ; Father Cullen, from Detroit, a 
native of Queen's County, Ireland, visited the place every second 
Sunday for two or three years. 

As an instance of the hardships and privations of the first set 
tiers, the Honourable John O'Connor tells of a family from Kil- 
kenny, named Kavanagh, consisting of the father, mother, three 
sons, and two daughters. The father, the sons, and the daughters 
set to work clearitjg up the land and tilling it from year to year. 
While they were thus employed, the mother, a brave little woman, 
forty-five years of age, supplied them with provisions, which, for 
two long years, she carried on her back from Sandwich, a distance 
of thirteen miles, froquently bringing a hundred-weight of flour, 
while at every step she was almost knee deep in mud and water. 
She deserves a place side by side with the most distinguished of 
the Kavanaghs. A man might well be prouder of her than if she 
were a luxurious lady, full of idleness and vapours, wasting her 
time in fashionable follies, and dissipating whatever mind she 
might happen to have, over insane novels and the propagation of 
the latest scandal. 

The settlement having been cleared with such heroic labom^ 
the country having been drained and tilled, is now one of the 
most flourishing in the Dominion. James Cahill,one of the original 
settlers is still living, a hale old man of ninety years, as is William 
Colter, another original settler. 

The Honourable John O'Connor, who was called to the bar of 
Upper Canada in 1854, and created a Q.C. in 1872, has been Reeve 
of the Town of Windsor. He was Warden of Essex for three years 
and for twelve y ears he fulfilled the duties of Chairman of the 
Board of Education of the Town of Windsor. He is the author- 
of " Letters addressed to the Governor-General on the subject of 
Fenianism (1870)." He was sworn of the Privy Council and was 
President of that body from July 2nd, 1872, until March, 1873, 
whenhe was appointed Minister of Inland Revenue. An unsuccess- 
ful candidate for Essex in 1861, he was returned by that constitu- 
ency in 1863, only however, to be soon after unseated. At the 
general election of 1867, he was returned to the Commons and was 
re-elected in the following general election, but in that of 1874, 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



he was beaten l»y William McGregor hy a large majority. Mr. 
McGregor having been unseated on petition, Jeremiah O'Connor 
ran against him, but McGregor again won the seat by a still 
larger majority. 

William Moore Kelly instituted the Provincial Reformatory, of 
which he is Warden. He belongs to the family of the Kellys, of 
Cinuigmore, County Galway, and is a nephew of the late Arch- 
bishop of Tuam. He came here immediately on the eve of th(; 
Rebellion of 1837. He was appointed Captain in the 4th Batta- 
lion of Incorporated Militia, and served with his regiment until 
1842. On its being disbanded he was appointed Collector of 
Customs at Toronto. When Baldwin came into power Kelly was 
dismissed. Men carrying out f^overnments are quite justified ii 
appointing their own friends to offices, provided always that their 
friends are fit. But Metcalfe seems most improperly to have 
ignored the nominee of his constitutional advisers. He appointed 
Robert Stanton, who was not a friend of the Government. This 
was one of the earliest acts which showed the arbitary autocrfttic 
temper of Sir Charles Metcalfe, and heralded the struggle winch 
aggravated his ailments, injured the country, emphasized the evils 
of the Family Compact, and finally sent poor Metcalfe frorji our 
shores to die, painfully conscious that in Canada he had AvhoUy 
failed, all of which will be told at length later on. 

Mr. Kelly's friends said he was dismissed without any charge 
being made against him, or without the grounds for any charge 
such as would justify his dismissal. A long and acrimonious cor- 
respondence between the Finance Minister and Mr. K 41y followed. 
The matter was frequently discussed in the Assembly. Mr. Kelly 
and his friends called for a searching scrutiny into every act of 
his official life. He was paid upwards of $1,700 balance due him. 
It would be out of place at this day and here to discuss the ques- 
tion between Mr. Kelly and the Government of the time. The 
important fact connected with his dismissal is that which throws 
light upon Lord Metcalfe's rule. The idea of a man coming to 
carry out responsible government refusing to listen to his Ministers 
in the matter of the appointment of a collector of customs ! But 
the mistakes and blunders, the faults and follies of Lord Metcalfe's 
rule must await another chapter. 






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THE BARBERS AND VHE BIORDANS. 



341 



It is worthy of remark that the two leading firms of paper manu- 
facturers in Ontario are Irish — the Barbers and the Riordans. The 
histoiy of both in business would be a record of success and there- 
fore would have little of those elements out of which an interest- 
ing narrative could be built up. The incidents, however, of the 
emigration and settlement of one of these families is so character- 
istic, and so illustrative of the country of over fifty years ago, that 
I am tempted, though anxious to hurry forward to the more im- 
portant events of succeeding chapters, to linger a little around this 
bit of private history, which is also well calculated to stimulate 
hope and brace resolve for long endeavour. 

On the 12th of May, 1822, a family named Barber — con- 
sisting of the father, mother, four sons, and a daughter, all of 
whom were born in Antrim, sailed from Belfast for Quebec, 
where they arrived on the 10th of July. The next day they went 
up the river in a steamer to Montreal ; thence to Lachine , a dis- 
tance of nine miles, in carts. Here they took a Durham boat 
for Prescott and compassed the rapids as we have seen Mr. Aus- 
tin and his friends do. The passengers were ordered at times to 
pioceed on foot for miles along the banks. On such occasions they 
were much alarmed by the song of the gi'asshoppers, which they 
took for the hissing of snakes. The greater part of the way was 
wood with only a few clearings. They were not accustomed to 
bush, and the grasshoppers' cry caused more alarm than it would 
have done had the country been open. After eleven days they 
airived at Prescott. The distance is now run by rail in four 
hours. Old Mr. Barber, who was a mason and bricklayer-, found at 
Preiicott employment, for the remainder of the season, at good 
wages, of which a certain part was in kind, or as it was called 
then, " store pay," the balance being in money. Prescott was, in 
those days, a very important town. All produce coming down 
the lakes for Montreal or Quebec had to be transhipped there.. 
This consisted for the most part of flour, staves, and tobacco, 
■w^hich, at Prescott, had first to be put on board of Durham boats,, 
as none of the lake vessels could live in the rapids. 

The season for mason work over, and the impression being 
general tiiat the country westward was better to settle in, Mr. 
Barber determined to go to Niagara, where he arrived on the 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



12th December. Niagara was then a flourishing town. From 
the head of the lake and from York, people went thither to buy 
their goods. After some time the Hon. James Crooks went to 
Niagara to try to find a mason to go with him to West Flam- 
borough. He offered employment to as many of the family as could 
work. He was carrying on an extensive and various business ; a 
flour mill, saw mill, oil mill, woollen factory, tannery, distillery 
and a large general store. A few years afterwards he built the 
first paper mill in Upper Canada, for which he received a bounty 
from the Government of five hundred dollars. 

The eldest of the young Barbers went into the woollen fac- 
toiy and served his time to the trade. The second learned the 
paper-making business ; the third, the mill-wright business ; the 
youngest, like the eldest, going into the woollen factory. In 1831, 
the father died. But the family kept together and remained with 
Mr. James Crooks, two of the brothei-s renting the woollen fac- 
tory from him. 

In 1837, they bought, from George Kennedy, a small woollen 
factory, at Georgetown, in the Township of Esquesing, County 
of italton, where the four brothers sat to work "^A-ith great energy. 
Georgetown is situated on the River Credit, and possesses great 
water advantages. It has, to-day, a population of 1,282. It is 
served by two railways, and will be served by another when the 
Credit Valley is completed. It contains paper mills, a tannery, a 
brewery, an ironfoundry, a grist mill, marble works, a printingoffice, 
three hotels, twenty stores. It is the theatre of a large lumber, 
grain, and general produce trade. It can boast of a weekly paper. 
Forty years ago there were only three families in the place. The 
township was thinly settled, the clearings being small. The roads 
were bad, and, as elsewhere, there were plenty of wolves. In the 
fall, especially, their long howling made the night dismal. The four 
brothers were in the wilderness, and never could have got on had 
they not had quick brains, fertile in resource. Anything they 
required in the way of machinery, they had to make. At this 
time all the farmers manufacturecl their own cloth. But when the 
Barbers had their machinery goi: the farmers gradually began 
to exchange their wool for the machine-made cloth. After a few 
years the manufacture of cloth was extended beyond the require- 



QROWING WITH THE COUNTRY. 



848 



nients of the home department. Another market must be found. 
This was not easy. Ultimately Messrs. Walker &; Hutchinson 
became customers ; Messrs. Ross &; Mitchell next bought, and con- 
tinued to do so until they retired from business. Other customers 
now presented themselves, and the difficulty of a market trouliled 
the young manufacturers no more. 

Business increased. A second mill was started at Streetsvillc, in 
1843. Later on. the water power at Georgetown failing, the two 
woollen mills were consolidated, and the large mills, now known 
as the Toronto Woollen Mills, were erected in 1853. Three of the 
brothers remaining at Georgetown, and James being a practical 
paper maker, it was decided to commence that business near George- 
town, on the main stream of the River Credit. The first mill was 
erected in 1854, the second in 1858, since which time large addi- 
tions have been made. During the building of the Grand Trunk 
Railway, the firm supplied all the car and other iron work, except- 
in|^ that for bridges, used between Toronto and Guelph. The only 
serious reverse was experienced in 1861, when the woollen mill at 
Streetsville was totally destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of $80,- 
000 dollars above insurance. The same year a large boiler exploded 
at the paper mills, the loss being over $8,000. The woollen mills 
contain seven set of the most improved machinery, and turn out 
on an average one thousand yards of tweed per day. The paper 
mills are supplied with three of the best machines, and make daily 
over five thousand pounds of the material for books and newspa- 
pers. All the paper used by the Canadian Government, during 
the past seventeen years, has been made here. The firm was 
dissolved in 1809, after an existence of thirty-two years, without 
a deed of partnership or any division of profits, each one drawing 
according to his requirements. William and Robert Barber pur- 
chased the woollen business ; James, the paper mills ; while Jose})h 
Barber, and Benjamin Franklin, a brother-in-law, retired. William 
Barber, during his residence in Halton, was one of the oldest mem- 
bers of the County Council. He was a Justice of the Peace since 
the first commission was issued in the county. He represented 
Halton in the first and second Parliaments of Ontario. James Bar- 
ber is one of the oldest coroners in the county, and the other bro- 
thers are magistrates of many years' standing. Of the family of 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



five cliiklren who loft Ireland in 1822, all are yet alive and in good 
health. So many years of hard work and close economy could 
have only one effect in Canada, namely, the accumulation of pro- 
perty. Those competent to judge estimate the combined family to 
represent close on three-quarters of a million dollars. Of the five 
families there are now twent3'-five children living, many of th«'m 
married, and having families of their own, so that the name is not 
likely to pass out of Canadian history for some tune ; and unless 
the offspring were to degenerate very sadly — a most unlikely . 
thing — from tlieir sires, it is desirable that the name should long 
illustrate our commercial and political annals. 

Few counties, if any, have advanced more rapidly than Victoria, 
as few towns have made more vigorous progress than Lindsay. 
On the 30th of July of the present year a trip was made to Lind- 
say on the occasion of the opening of an extension there of the 
Whitby & Port Perry Railway. The Pres.. .it, an Irishman, of 
whom something lias already been said, Mr. Austin ; Mr. James 
Michie, a Scotchman, the Vice-President — a man who if Ik were 
an Irishman, could not have a larger or kinder heart, nor if he 
were an Englishman, a fairer or more unprejudiced mind — and a 
large number of gentlemen from Toronto were on the special cars. 
The train stopped for a moment at Manilla, where the stalwart 
men and tall comely women spoke well for their race. Mr. Caw- 
thra turning to a gentleman near whom he sat observed, as the 
wheels began to move over the level lines, that they were entering 
the beautiful Township of Mariposa. He further remarked on 
the wealth of the township and neighbouring townships; on 
their cultivation and prosperity ; that Canadians had much to be 
proud of; and told how when he was a boy the people used 
to go over crude paths all the way to his father's store in New- 
market to buy their goods. Mariposa is now a scene of beauty 
and wealth. A typical township, it is settled in great part 
by Irish and a good deal by Scotch and English ; over the smil- 
ing country, one of the finest for wheat-growing in Canada, in the 
character of the people, m. the faces of the children, the splendour 
of the rose, tlie beauty of the shamrock's refreshing tint and ex- 
quisite form, the independence of the sturdy thistle with its heart 
as if stained by the blood of battle, seem blended in magnificent 



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THE CAPITAL OF VICTOIUA. 



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pronii.se of tlie homogeneous Canadian race that is to be. When 
the train arrived at Lindsay, crowdin, on each side of the plat- 
form were the citizens, men and women, all looking wealthy and 
comfortable and happy, well-(h-es,sed and good looking, with the 
gleam of hope, the untroubled light of pros[)erity in their eyes. 
Not a trace of the terrible listlessness which a few years ago 
would be in the faces of a crowd in Ireland. 

Lindsay settled by Irishmen of energy, in a land where there 
was room for hope, her past has been as successful as her future 
is brilliant. Forty years ago where Lindsay stands ; with a prin- 
cipal street which is twice as wide as King Street, Toronto, built 
on either side with large busy stores ; with its large lumber and 
and grain trade, its telegraph offices, branch banks, county build- 
ings, schools, gi'ist and saw mills, manufactories of iron castings, 
machinery, leather, woollen goods, wooden ware, boots and shoes ; 
with its brewery and spacious hotels ; two weekly newspapers, 
each edited by able men, the Reform paper by Mr. Barr, a skilful 
journalist who learned his craft on the Olobe — the Conservative, 
by Mr. Flood, who like so many successful newspaper men ex- 
changed a commercial position for the printing office ; with its 
population of six thousand ; where all this busy prosperity 
astonished not a few from the Capital of Ontario, forty years ago 
was a dense forest. In 1854, the population of Lindsay was about 
400, which increased by rapid strides until 1861, when it number d 
3,000. In the July of that year a destructive tire took piace 
which consumed the whole of its business portion. In 1877 the 
population is close upon 6,000. One of the greatest events in the 
early history of Lindsay was the building of the Midland Rail- 
way in 1857. Up to that time it was little more than a small 
village. Then the tide of prosperity began to flow, and now it 
has three railways and a fourth is being built. Its water com- 
munication extends over hundreds of miles. In short it is one 
of the most flourishing towns in Ontario. These great results are 
in part due to the natural advantages of its position. But it has 
been achieved principally by the exertions and perseverance of 
its inhabitants, who despite the difficulties and privations they had 
to endure, have succeeded in making the town one on which the 
largest hopes may be built. Nearly S200,000 has been voted 



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-346 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



in ' '• of the various railways. The one thing which more than 
any other strikes the visitor to Lindsay, and the Township of Ops, 
is the prevailing nationality of the inhabitants ; they are almost 
wholly Irish. Here ard there we see an English or a Scotch 
face, but the Irishmen are in an overwhelming majority. The 
earliest inhabitants of both town and township were, as will be 
seen, almost without exception Irish, and it is to them and their 
undaunted pluck in the main that Lindsay owes its present jjros- 
perity. 

In the Town of Lindsay, ar. the present moment, we have many 
successful Irishmen v/hose intelligence and culture equal their 
business ce.pacity. M ^jor Deacon, now Colonel Deacon, a hero of 
the Crimean war, who cracked many a joke with Dr. Russell 
over the camp fire and in the trenches, came out here in 1866, 
and at once by his gi'eat energy, business cai)acity and genial 
nianrers made himself popular. He has been Reeve of the Tcjwn. 
Mr. William Grace, descended from a well-known Irish-Norman 
family, whose ancestors often led the charge of feudal warfare to 
the cry of " OrciySfteach ahoe,"--the Grace's cause — came to Canada 
in 1850. He is clerk of the County Court of Lindsay, Registrar 
of tlie Surrogate Court, Deputy Clerk of the Crown and Pleas, 
H. Dhairman of the School Board. Mr. John Dobson, is one of 
the most prominent merchants in Lindsay. He came originally 
from Cavan. After some stay in Toronto he settled at Lindsay, 
where he has now conducted a successful business for over four- 
teen years. His partner, Mr. Thomas Niblock is also an irishman. 
One of the most remarkable men in this ,[)art o^' the country i.s one 
who enjoys more than a local fame. Mr. William McDonnell is at 
once one of Lindse^'s oldcsr inhabitants and brightest ornaments. 
Few men have done as much to build up the town. Ho is a large 
property holder. In the early days of Lindsay he performed im- 
portant serv^ices. He was the only acting magistrate up to the 
incorporation of the town, which took place in 1857. He is the 
embodiment of public spirit. His success as an author is beyond 
the arbitration o" criticism His " Exeter Hall," and " The 
Heathens of the Heath," vindicate his claini to a place in the 
literary Pantheon. Another public spirited man is Mr. Thon)9 
Ke^iuan, who came to Canada nearlv forty years ago. He began 



LINDSAYS LEADING MEN. 



347 



business in a small way. By energy, by probity, by pru- 
dence and ability, he has accumulated a large amount of property 
both in the Town of Lindsay and the Township of Ops. Mr. John 
Kennedy has been a resident of Lindsay for twenty years. He 
is a successful merchant, and was, for over fifteen years. Treasurer 
of the Town. He has alao been Treasurer of the Township of Ops. 
Mr. James McGibbon, has done good service to the county. He 
is the Crown Land Agent. Another old and respected inhabitant 
and one of the first settlers is Jeremiah O'Leary, whose two sons, 
Arthur and Hugh, are now successful practising bai'risters. 
Thomas W. Poole M.D., who published in 18G7 a very interesting 
sketch of the settlement of Peterborough, having thrown away 
the quill for the lancet, and fled from printers' ink and " printers' 
devils " to patients, settled at Lindsay ten years ago. He has 
proved a successful practitioner, and has twice won the confidence 
of his fellow citizens as a candidate for the mayoralty. Mr. 
William L. Russell is another successful man — a broker and com- 
mission merchant. He Las resided in Lindsay for twenty -five 
years. He is from the County of Kilkenny, and is a man of good 
family, Mr. Thomas Matchett, the County Treasurer, was the 
first representative to the Local Legislature, for the South Riding 
of the County of Victoria, under the Sandfield Macdonald regime. 
He lived in Omemee for forty years. He received his present 
appointment on the Honourable Samuel Casey Wood becoming a 
member of Mr. Mowat's administration. Mr. Edward Veitch is an 
old resident of Lindsay, having been in that town not less than 
twenty years. He is a successful hotel-keeper, and has thus 
passed the preat test of merit below the line. He owns large 
property. He is an ardent politician, and possesses a greitu deal 
of ability. He is a well-read man and full of public spirit. Mr. 
William Bell is among the o) :s\, and most entei"prising residents 
of the town, and has done eat deal to build it up. Mr. Lan-y 
Maguire occupied the Mayor's chair for two yea,rs. He is a mer- 
chant. His brother-in-law, Mr. Joseph Dundas, is doing a large 
commercial business, and is one of Lindsay's heaviest grain buyers. 
J\les8rs. Grace, McJ3onnell, Veitch and Kennedy and Colonel 
Deacon have been forw a'd in raiiway enterprise. Among those 
who have passed away was Mr. Donner, for a short time a mem- 



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348 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA, 



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ber for South Victoria. He was the son of an Irishman, was a 
lawyer of considerable power, and a man of great social brilliancy. 

When we go outside Lindsay into the township, the first man 
we think of is venerable John Walker, with his strong noble face 
and white hair sweeping Vjack over his shoulders. He was born 
in 1798, and came to Canada in 1832, with his five sons, among 
whom was Samuel, then seven years old. They first landed 
at Quebec, whence they got to Montreal in a steamer. Part of the 
way to Cobourg was travelled in l)oats towed by horses known as 
Durham boats. At Cobourg, Mrs. Walker and her children 
remained in the emigrant sheds until the father prospected the 
land on which he now lives. They got to Peterborough, having 
travelled in scows across Rice Lake. At Peterborough they 
stopped two weeks. They were taken across Mud Lake and 
Pigeon Lake to the place where Omemee now stands. There were 
plenty of Indians about then. They were cast for lot fifteen in 
the seventh concession. There came at that time to the neigh- 
bourhood a family named Drummond, with the view of driving a 
trade with the emigrants, who had come to settle in the 
wilds. They charged so much for showing the land allotted and 
building the shanty. In a month the Walkers were at work. 

The only emigrant here before Mr. John Walker was the father 
of Mr. John Connolly. The clearing progress went on. The 
branches were lopped from the trees which were then cut so as 
to fall in the same direction. The branches were then burned. 
This done, the trees were sawn into lengths and piled on each 
other and burned. For some time logging bees were out of the 
question. But when the immigrants increased, the logging bee 
and pig-sticking bee and other kinds of bee came into vogue. 
Numbers of men assembled and helped to cut and piie up the 
logs, and the whiskey flowed ; so nmch whit- key was set in motion 
by a logging bee ; a smaller quantity for a pig-sticking bee, and 
so on. 

Meanwhile they had to send to Port Hope, or Kingston for food. 
If a man wanted an axe ground he went to Kingston and marked 
with an axe or V)lazed his way through the woods in order t > kno^t 
how to return. Sometimes they ground the wheat with theii teeth 
for dinner. But I am anticipating. In the second year the 




A PROLIFIC SKTTLER. A PHILOSOPHER. 



340 



Walkers planted potatoes, and hy and by grain. So fruitful are 
the Irish loins, and so conchicive to health is Canada that the de- 
scendants of old Mr. Walker now number themselves by hundreds.. 
One is a senator below the line. One son had fourteen children, one 
daughter fifteen. Another son had twelve children, a third eleven, 
a fourth ten, and a fifth nine ; one had four and another three, A 
daughter now living in Lindsay is the moth(;r of six children. 

Samuel Walker is now a rich man in Lindsay, living on and 
placing his money where it may be most jn-ofitable. Mr. Samuel 
Walker is a philosopher, who thinks for himself, and believes a 
great deal is wasted on mere fashion, — and who can doul)t but 
that he is right ? He tells with graj)hic power how the boys, in 
the depth of winter, cut out a piece of bass-wood in the shape of 
a sole, and having warmed it at the fire, tied it on with leather 
wood and made for the school-master, who lived in a little bit of 
a shanty. " We were far happier then," said Mr. Samuel Walker, 
with a tone of regret, as though ^e despised wealth as well as 
fashion, " no fashions, no style, no doctors to pay, and when Sun- 
day came all you did was to take a walk in the Inish." " And 
what did you do for the consolations of religion ?" " We did 
without them." By-and-by they learned to make maple-sugar, 
and with that, potatoes, and wheat, lived like " fighting cocks." 
The man who carried the wheat to the mill, — it took him four 
days to go and come, — would keep for wages half the floui- and 
all the brin. 

The McHugh family is a remarkable one. The first McHugh 
was a .sergeant, who came to Canada ii^ 1831. His eldest son 
was the first warden of the County of Victoria ; his f(;ur other 
sons are now large farmers in the township. I have already 
sj)oken of Mr. John Connolly. His father came out from Ireland 
in 1830, and settled in the Township of Ops. John, who is the 
owner of a large proj.'erty in the Township of Ops, has for many 
years held the position of Reeve. Mr. William O'Keefe came out 
about the same time as Mr. Connolly, and is vary highly respected. 

Mr. Alexander Byson is one of the oldest settlers. He has 
brought up a large family, — nine sons and one daughter. A man 
known as " King Connell," or " King of Ops," h said by some 
to have preceded Connolly ; and he and his son Maurice 



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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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own considerable property on the banks of the Scugog. Opa was a 
Catholic settloinont, one of Mr. Peter Robinson's. 

In Emily Township and the Village of Omeniee, one of the first 
names that occur is that of McQuade. Mr. McQuade is the member 
for the South Riding in the Dominion Parliament. He is a veiy 
Ifir'fj^i' property holder in real estate. He is from Cavan, where he 
was born in 1817. His father, Henry McQuade, died in Ireland ; 
his mother, whoso maiden name was Mary Curran, came to the 
United States with a large family, Thence the family removed 
to the Township of Emily, where they arrived in 1837. Most 
of ^ hti brothers and sisters are dead. One sister is still alive 
in West Durham, where she is married to a Mr. Henry Gibson, an 
Irisliman from the North of Ireland. Arthur McQuade, when he 
first came to Canada, " hired out " to a farmer for ten dollars a 
month ; he worked with the same man for a second year at eleven 
dollars per month. He then purchased from his employer one hun- 
dred acres of land. He married Susan, a daughter of Thomas 
Trotter, who came from Fermanagh, and was one of the oldest 
settlers of that section of the country. Mr. McQuade has seven 
children living, all well to do ; five died. He at present owns one 
thousand acres of land, and has considerable investments in stocks, 
mortgages, and the like. He is probably worth $100,000. He 
has for years resided in Emily Township ; he was for twenty 
years collector of taxes there, deputy-reeve for eleven years, being 
fiequently returned by acclamation. He was school-teacher for 
fifteen years, and can look back on a career of usefulness 
and success. He is a hale, hearty, open-hearted man ; a Con- 
servative in politics. Hj is a Protestant, and has been County 
Master of the Loyal Orange Society in the County. The wise 
liberality of the Roman Catholics in Victoria could not be more 
sti'ikingly shown than in the election of Mr. McQuade. Mr. Mc- 
Quade is a great man at agricultural association». 

The late Morris Cottingham was one of the eldest settlers. 
I le took an active part in all public movements having relation 
to the interest and welfare of the country. He was a large 
property holder and died in 1876 leaving a large family. He and 
his wife and sons sailed from Belfast in 1820. The voyage from 
Belfast to Quebec occupied seven weeks and three days ; from La- 






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THE COTTINQHAMS. 



351 



chine to Kingston they took passage in Durham boats. On the 
])a.ssage up an accident occurred to one of the fellow -passengers. 
At Cornwall a woman named Trotter was robbed of all her money 
V)y an AMencan sharper who joined the party. He cut out her 
pocket and took 100 guineas and forty doubloons. They went 
from Kingston to Port Hope in a sailing vessel and were wrecked 
on Gull Island. Finally, they reached Port Hope which consisted 
of only a few houses. John Brown and J. I). Smith, who were the 
pioneers of the business of Port Hope had stores there. The Cot- 
tinghams purciiased a cow from John Brown and drove her through 
the wilderness to the present Township of Emily, to the site of the 
Village of Omemee. The son, Samuel Cottingham having felled 
the first tree, crossed over Pigeon River on it. They made the 
first clearing where the Methodist Church now stands, but did not 
settle on the lot till the spring of 1821. They lived meanwhile 
in the neighbouring Township of Cavan. 

They had not long settled in their new home when they were 
visited by Indians who were without clothing, but seemed very 
inoffensive, and at once made friends with the family, calling them 
all names of their own. One day the Chief having imbibed pretty 
freely of Fire Water, began asking what brought theni to settle in 
th(^ir country, and being answered that King George had sent 
them, he replied : " King Geoige — <lamn rascal." 

In the year 1824 William and Samuel went to Montreal, and 
|)urohased clothing for the Indians, sup[)lie8, ammunition, and 
otluir merchandise. 

In the summer of 1825 occurred what is known as Pei'T Robin- 
son's emigration, principally from the south of Ireland. The emi- 
grants settled in this and the neighbouring townships. They 
landed at Cobourg, and the brothers were employed in locating 
theiu. The Government acted very liberally, giving < ach family 
100 acres fite, supplying them with farm impUments for work, 
besides building for each settler a shanty twelve l)y fourteen 
feet. From that time to the present the Irish race has predomi- 
nated in this section of the country, which has kept pace with any 
other part of Canada. The hardships and innumerable difficulties 
which beset the family at that early period, would take a large 
book to chronicle. The present Town of Peterborough contained 



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352 



THE IKIHHMAN IN CANADA. 



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ono liouso, kept })y a man who corultinod a saw and grist mill, and 
blacksmith .sh<)|) ; ho aftorward.s, in 1820, built for William Cot- 
tin^diam, the first mill in the county. Their |,'rain had previously 
to be taken some fifteen nnles to V)e ground, through a long 
stretch of swamp and heavy timbenid land. Samuel (Nottingham 
assisted in the survey of four townships, B'enelon, Verulam, 
Methuen, and Ops. Colonel McDonald, of Glengarry, liad the 
surveying of the Township of Op.s, in which the site for the 
present Town of Lindsay was laid out, but some time elap.sed 
before any one settled there. He' also collected the first taxes for 
this township, having to make his return to John Bundiam, of 
Col)<)urg, a distance of forty miles. He carried tlie whole sum to 
him, amounting to four dollars, his fees for the same being one 
shilling. In 183G he ct»ntracted with the Government to l)uild 
twelve houses for tiie Indians, on wliat is now known as Indian 
Point, in Balsairi Lake. He had to go to Toronto to draw his pay. 
It is now a very valua]»le property, and is in a liighly cultivated 
state. In the fall of 1837 the Cottinghams and their neighlxmrs 
promptly marched to Bowmanville at the call of the Government 
to (piell the rebellion under Mackenzie. They wintered at Bow- 
manville, and left in May, 1838, William being diseliargcid with a 
captain's commission, and Samuel with a lieutenant's. Indeed no 
people proved more loyal to the Government on that occasion 
than did the Irish in this district. William Cottingham is at pre- 
sent Reeve of the Village of Omemee. 

An<jther prominent man, and a successful merchant and large 
l)roperty holder, is Mr. Thomas Stephenson, Reeve of the Town- 
ship of Emily. Then there is Mr. John Scully, Mr. Denis Scully, 
and Mr. Jeremiah Scully, who settled in the township tliirty years 
ago. They have succi;eded by their energy and industry in accu- 
mulating a large amount of real estate. Michael Lehane is 
a prominent agriculturist, and identified with all movements bear- 
ing on the cultivation of the soil. He is one of the oldest magi.s- 
trates in that part of Victoria. 

In Fenelon Township we have Hugh Crawford, a prominent 
man as an agriculturist ; Samuel Raizin, who has done much for 
railway enterprise ; Henry Raizin, who is a County Inspector of 
Public Schoch ; both men of great intelligence, and of social md 



THE WORTHIES OF THE VICTOUIA TOWNSHIPS. 



353 






|)ublic ;iHofulne.sH. There arc William and Henry Downer, botli 
practici' a;^riculturi.st.s ; Joseph and Samuel McCiee, prosperous far- 
mers ; the Jordan family ; Henry Perdue, a Tipperary man, noted 
foi" liis spl(;rjdid breed of Devon cattle ; Jolm Daniel, another suc- 
cessful farmer, who has 1,500 acres under cultivation, and is rapidly 
HulMhiiiiir the wilderness. 

In Marij)osa, already mentioned, William Foster and John 
Glenny aie first-class a^^riculturists, and are full of puldic spirit. 
Here is the prosperous family of tlie Irvins, and as fruitful as 
pi osperous. Stephen Dundas is also pr(jminent as an a/^ricul- 
turisl, as is James Moffat. The Davidsons represent " Old 
S<iuire 1 Javidson." There is a whole settlement of them — millers, 
agricult-iirists, and all most successful. 

Behind Fenelon is the Township of Bexley, ^^ here we find the 
Staples, of whom Joseph Staple is the head. This gentleman re- 
presented North Victoria in the Commons as a Conservative. Ho 
is the first and only Reeve of Bexley, and was for several years 
Warden of the County. James Moore is one of the foremost 
agriculturists of Bexley. 

In the I'ownsliip of Bixhjy, Robert Sta|)les stands in the front 
as a lumberer and agriculturist. He represented the town.ship in 
the (y'ounty Council for years. And there is John Bailey, the 
present Reeve. 

In the Township of Soiuerville, in the foremost ranks of prac- 
tical agriculturists stands James Eliot, tlien we have Benjamin 
BurclnjU, Mr. Per<lue, and others. 

In the Township of Verulam, there is Morsom Boyd, " the King 
of Pines," as Mr. George Laidlaw called him — the ])rince of lum 
berint'U in that part, and one of the first settlers. Then we have 
the Junkin family, sixteen of them, all practical agriculturists 
and taking a deep interest in munici{)al matters. The principal 
hotel keeper is Mr, John Sim})8on, po.ssessed of plenty of Irish 
geniality, and no mean judge of a hoi'se. Then there is the Ire- 
ton family, a large connection of them, all connected with the 
Episcopal Church. There is also the Bell family, agriculturists 
and manufacturers. Nor should we forget that prime agricuU 
turisi, William Playfair ; nor Jabez Thurston, agriculturist and 
lumberman, at the head of a large family connection. Then there 

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354 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



is honest Ned Kelly, and W. B. Reed, a successful merchant in 
Bobcaygeon. 

In the Township of Garden, James Fitzgerald is Reeve, a quiet 
good fellow, a great pioneer, warring with the bush, but all the 
time taking a lively interest in iii'inicipal affairs. 

Mrs. Foley {n^e Sullivan), of Garden, is a genuine heroine. She 
was bom on the shores of those beautiful lakes which every sum- 
mer attract tourists from all parts of the world to Killainey. She 
married early, and had three children. One day she said to her 
husband : " We shall never do anything here. They say Gana<Ui is 
a fine country, let us go out there, in the name of God, and try our 
luck." But the husband would not hear of it. She then said : 
" Well, I must go myself ;" and the brave little dark -eyed woman 
saved enough money to biing her to Toronto. In Toronto she 
took in washing, and saved enough money to send for her hus- 
band and her children. She then said to her husband : " If we 
are to do anything for our children, we must push out into the 
woods." She heard there was land to be had in Victoria, and 
tiuther she went with her family, and worked like a brave woman. 
Slie has now 200 acres of land well cultivated, and each of he; 
four ssons has 1 00 acres. All four are married, and are raising 
happy families. 

It' will not be out of place to record an incident which Mr 
Gla. ke, an Irish settlei in the Township of Drummond, has often 
told. Glarke had been a soldier. He found he was being plun- 
dered. One little pig after another disappeared. He suspected 
a neighbour who bore no good character, and determined to sit up 
and watch. Accordingly, having loaded his gun, he lit his pipe, 
and listened for the sound of intruding footsteps. He waited and 
watched the whole night, but no sound alarmed him. Just at the 
dawn he heard the squealing of a pig. He darted out. The 
squealing came from the Beaver meadow. Jumping the fence, he 
saw the form, as he thought, of MacNaughton, bearing away his 
pig. He called m him, but the call was unheeded. He drew 
near and said : " MacNaughton, if you do not stop, I'll shoot you." 
The warning was ^ot regarded. Glarke raised his gim and fired 
at the legs of the robbi '^. The next moment he saw that the 
robber was a she bear which was taking the little pig to her cubs. 



THE COUNTY OF PETERBOROUGH. 



355 



The ball grazed the bear's leg. She paused, threw the pig on the 
ground, and with a stroke of her paw killed it ; then made for 
Clarke. Clarke ran. Luckily he had brought ammunition with 
him, and as he ran he loaded, doubled and fired, hitting the brute, 
which, however, only uttered a cry of anger, and continued pursuit. 
Clarke loaded again. He was now near the fence, and the bear 
close on his heels. He turned and fired, striking the animal in 
the forehead. As he fired, he s))rang over the fence. It was well 
he did, for the bear uttering a cry such as Clarke could never 
forget, sprang towards where he had been, and fell dead in the 
act of hugging her fancied prey. 

The maiden name of the wife of the present member for South 
Victoria has been mentioned. The father of this lady, Thos. Trotter, 
one of the oldest settlers of South Victoria, came to Canada previous 
to the formation of the " Robinson Settlement." His wife is still 
alive, and lives with her son in Emily Township. The old gentle- 
man is long dead, and the family much scattered. One daughter 
lives near Cobourg. One son lives on Manitoulin Island, and one 
at Owen Sound. Another son went to the United States, and has 
not been heard of for years. Old Mr. Trotter seems to have been 
a wealthy man when he died, and Mr. McQuade, through his wife, 
received a portion of the property. 

Sixty years ago the County of Peterborough was an unbroken 
forest. In the Autumn of 1818 a few pioneers found their way 
into the Township of Smith. The next year another exploring 
party started for a region where most of them had drawn land 
and returned well pleased with w^tal they saw. 

Where there are now busy factories and well-lighted streets and 
all the life and wealth of Peterborough, prior to 1825 there were 
only one or two families. The most sanguine settlers were in des- 
pair. But during the Autumn of that year, the Honourable Peter 
Robinson, after whom Peterborough is named, conducted a large 
emigration from the South of Ireland. In the May of 1825, the 
hill of Cove, now known as Queenstown, was a scene of heart-rend- 
ing grief. Bitter tears were shed. Bitter cries went up to Heaven, 
At first Cove appeared like a vast f lir. More than four thousand 
persons had crowded from the country into it. Half the number 
were bound for a distant land which lay beyond the vast and dan* 






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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



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gerouH ocean. The other half had como to h)ok their last on 
daughters and brothers and sons. Gay ribbons were flying from 
the head-dress of the women. The men tall, stalwart fellows, the 
women with the ^low of health and the beauty for which their 
country is renowned sauntered about, talking, bu^ ing articles for 
the voyage, and with them the old people, the grey-headed, wrink- 
led fatlu'iH, the mothers with a countenance in wi.ich the lines of 
tenderntss contended against the furrows of care. The black 
ships are lying in that harbour which is among the most beautiful 
of the works of God. Monkstown shines white against the hill 
and on the heights opposite, which overlook the road leading from 
Queenstown to Cork, t'te furze were already yellow with blossom. 
The terraced curves of the harbour circle on either side of tlie 
harbour's mouth, beyond wliich the Atlantic beats into foam against 
the rocky bases of the groen hills. No wonder men find it hard 
to leave such a country. It is like a lover tearing himself 
away from the woman he has loved and loves. In that hour of 
giief and madness and tears, her eye seems brighter, her smile 
sweeter than ever, and her sobs accentuate with fatal charm 
every beauteous outline. The hour comes. The bells sound. 
The boats put off' to the ships. Anchor is weighed. Those left be- 
hind press over the low wall which fringes the long straggling hill 
commanding the view sea-ward. The emigrants press to the side 
of the ship. They wave their handkerchiefs,and as the ships move 

away, a wail from the shore rises like but that is indescribable 

and beggars comparison. Some faint, others rush madly down to 
the water's edge. None turn homewards. Seaward they strain 
their eyes until the ships have become specks and disappeared. 

On boaid the vessels, grief and sickness prostrate most. But 
one emigrant sits in the bow. He watches the waves rise between 
him and his beloved country. When the last shadowy outline is 
gone, to an old harp, an heirloom of his family, which may have 
sounded in the halls of Tara, and with his forefathers' prowess of 
song not wholly degraded, he pours forth in words somewhat as 
follows, a farewell to his country, in which he mourns over her 
history and dilates on her tender beauty : — 






AN emiorant's farewkll. ^''7 

They're gone ! The green hillu <>' uiy country no more, 

IndiHtinct a« a dream I beh.ld o'er tlic Hpray ; 
The wild wavoH that daah in'-o foam on the Hhoro, 

Will roll darkly and deei).y between us to-day. 

Farewell ! O, farewell ! my infancy's clime 1 

BrighteBt gem of the sea! choicest flower of the e-vrth ! 

Gum tyranny-soiled ! flower sullied by crime ! 

Sunny isle doomed to tears from the hour of thy birth ! 

Did a hove -pan thy sky, my place were not here ; 

The w<ja,lth of Golconda woidil not tempt me to roam ; 
But afar I can pay my sole tribute -a tear, 

And strike the old harp, so long nilenced at home. 

Be still, breaking heart ! A star gleauis in the west ; 

In Canadian wilds her old airs sliall resound ; 
There her cliildren, hopeftd, ccmtented and blest, 

A nation of freemen contribute to found. 

No more shall we fight the foul feuds of sorrows ; 

The sinister strife cf dark ages shall cease ; • 

Our eyes be aglow with the light of glad morrows. 

Our breasts with the Ijehests of the Preacher of Peace. 

Late in June the vessels arrived ao Quebec. The passenoers, 
2,024 souls, were immediately forwarded to Kingston. Thi re they 
remained for some weeks. The weather was intensely hot, and 
many suffered in consequence from fever and ague. Mr. Robinson, 
meanwhile, proceeded to Sc(jtt's Fhiins, as Peterborough was then 
called, and spent a week exploring the townships. On the llth 
of August, he embarked five hundred on board a steamboat and 
landed them the next day at Oobourg. The remainder of the 
settlers were brought up in the same manner, the boat making a 
trip each week. They were next taken from Cobourg to Smith 
at the head of the Otonabee River. The route lay through a 
country very thinly inhabited. The twelve miles of road from 
Lake Ontario to the Rice Lake were hardly passable. The Oton- 
abee River is in many places very rapid, a ad this year the water 
was much lower than usual. I'he first thing Mr. Robinson had to 
do was to repair the road and make it fit to bear loaded waggons. 
In ten days so much progress was made that provisions and bag- 
gage could be sent over it with ease. Three laige boats were 
transported on wheels to Rice. Lake. A boat was built for the 
special purpose of being able to ascend the rapids of the Otonabee. 







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THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 






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The ague and fever attacked old and new settlers alike. The 
first party Mr. Peter Robinson ascended the river with, consisted 
of twenty men of the country, hired as axemen, and thirty of the 
healthieet settlers, not one of whom escaped falling ill r.nd two of 
whom died. The immigrants, while waiting to be " located " on 
their lands sheltered themselves from the heat by constructing 
rude huts or wigwams built of slabs, bark, the branches of trees, 
sous and the like. The emigration was under the auspices of the 
Government, and Government rations were given out to the poor 
settlers, one pound of pork and one of flour for each person over 
fourteen years of age, half a pound of each to children between 
five and eleven years, a pound of meat and a pound of flour to 
every four children under five years of age. The provisions were 
brought from Cobourg or other places equally happily situated, 
and the rations were given out for a period of eighteen months. 
It is easy to see that persons with a large family of young chil- 
dren wouk^ have more food than they required. The excess of 
rations provided some with the luxury of whiskey. 

The immigrants accompanied by guides went out in groups to 
examine the land and fix on the portions allotted them. To each 
family of five persons was given one hundred acres. Each grown 
up son also got a hundred acres. Contracts were made by Mr 
Robinson with older settlers to erect .shanties at the rate of ten 
dollars each. Roads were extemporised through the forest. Teams 
of oxen and horses weie purchased for transporting the settlers 
vnih their eflfects to the spot where with axe and spade they were 
to dig the foundations of a civilized community. Before the close 
of autumn the vast immigration had distributed itself into homes, 
each family being supplied with a cow, an axe, an auger, a hand 
saw, a hammer, one hundred nails, two gimlets, three hoes, one 
kettle, one frying pan, one iron pot, five bushels of seed potatoes, 
and eight quarts of Indian corn. 

But there were many trials yet in store for these poor settlers. 
Fever and ague which had assailed them on their landing in the 
countiy, pursued them to the bush. During the passage to Quebec 
fifteen of them had died. Before the spring of 1826 had well 
begun eighty-seven more laid their bones in the earth they had 
come to till. Scarcely a family escaped the scourge. Entire 






FEVER AND AGUE. SLANDER. 



359 






households shook for months sc that they could not hand each 
other a glass of water. In a single day eleven funerah of immi- 
grants saddened the streets of Kir.g iton. In the remoter settle- 
ments, away from medical aid, hhe most loathsome devices of a 
desperate quackery were resorted to, and miseries untold and 
indeseiibable were endured, The people were perishing continu- 
ally as though some offended God had discharged his arrows on a 
guilty race. But as the land was cleared and the soil became drier, 
liability to this depressing and afflicting disease diminished. At 
the present day this region is omiriently healthy. 

In the Newcastle district six hundred and twenty-one men, five 
hundred and twelve women, seven hundred and forty-five children; 
in all eighteen hundred and seventy-eight were settled ; in that 
of Bathurst a total of fifty-five ; in Montreal, twenty-six ; Kings- 
ion, two. 

We need not be surprised that the immigrants, were regarded 
with critical distrust f>y the older inhabitants. Were one to be- 
lie /e their slanderers, we should write that, while their rations 
lasted, they acted like many a young gentleman who inherits a 
small patrimony ; that they put forth no exertions. They found 
it difficult to face the new order of things, and to gird them- 
selves to work and exacting toil. But calumnies of this sort are 
abundant, where there is the least difference in the circumstances 
of sections of humanity, placed aide by side. The ordinary human 
heart unaccustomed to generous impulse, cort^'ullpj by the egotism 
which would be amusing, were it not cojitemptible, is the narrow 
factory of misrepresentation. It is a solaje to ])ett}' characters, to 
try anc make themselves out superior in some small way to other 
persons. What, however, are the facts ? From the third report of 
the Emigration Ccnmittee of the British Parliament, 18/?7, we 
learn that th jie were sixty lots xxi Douro, on which 245^ acres 
were cleared in 1826 ; 8,251 bushels of potatoes grown ; 4,175 
bushels of turnips; 1,777 bushels of Indian corn ; that 80f bushels 
of wheat had been sown. 1,159 lbs. of maple sugar were made 
by those settlers in Douro ; 11 oxen purchased by themselves, 18 
cows and 22 hogs. In the Township of Smith, we find like re- 
sults : 34 locations ; 113J acres cleared ; 4,800 bushels of potatoes, 
1,150 bushels of turnips, 637 bushels of Indian corn, grown ; 40| 




360 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




bushels of wheat sown ; 889 lbs. maple suga** productd. Pur- 
chased by the emigrarits, 6 oxen, 7 cows, 21 hogs. In Otonabee, 
again we find 51 locations; 186 acres cleared ; produced 10,500 
bushels of potatoes, 4,250 of turnips, 1,395 of Indian corn ; 1,419 
lbs. of maple sugar. 38 bushels of wheat were sown, and 
4 oxen, 13 cows, and 11 hogs, were bought. In Emily, of which 
we have already said somethii^g, the figures are as follows : — 
Locations, 142; acres cleared, 251^. Produce: potatoes 22,200 
bushels, turnips 7,700, Indian com 3,442 ; maple sugar 2.280 lbs ; 
sown, 44^ bushels wheat ; bought, 6 oxen, 10 cows, 47 hogs. For 
Ennismore, the figurej are equally eloquent. Locations 67 ; acres 
cleared 195 ; produce 8,900 bushels of potatoes, 3000 of turnips, 
104| of Indian com; 1,330 lbs. of maple sugar ; sown 44| Imshels 
of wheat ; bought 4 oxen, 9 cows, 10 hogs. Asphod 1 : Locations 
36 ; acres cleared, 173 ; produce, 9,150 bushels of potatoes, 2,850 
of turnips, 1,733 of Indian com ; 1,345 lbs. of maple sugar ; sown, 
86 bushels of wheat ; bought 2 oxen, 8 cows, 32 hogs. The esti- 
mated value of the produce of the immigrants of 1825, up to the ^-^ 
24th November, 1826, was in Halifax currency, £12,524 1 9s. Od. 
If the idleness of the Iri,sh immigrants could do this, what might 
not be expected from their industry ? 

Oddly enough, in the Colonial Advocate, of Decemlte] 8th, 
1826, William Lyon Mackenzie attacked the loyalty and patriotism 
of the immigrants ! The man, who ten years afterwards, was to 
head an abortive rebellioi>, who had published a series of biogra- 
phies in pamphlet form, extolling the genius of Irishmen, who was 
proud of his descent from a remote Irish ancestor, assaile<l these 
helpless strangers in their most vulnei-r.ble point. The men 
whose sons are now the lords of smiling farms in the richest part 
of the Dominion, had an ardent desire to go to the United States. 
The $30,000 which had been expended in bringing them out and 
settling them was thrown into the sea. Worse, it was a bounty 
paid out by Canadian councillors to recruit in Ireland soldiers for 
the United Siatos. What baseness is there to which low ambi- 
tion and factious opposition will not descend ? The charge was at 
oiivte refiited. Two communications were published in a London 
paper, one from Mr. Thomas Orton, of the Land Registfr Office of 
Port Hope, the other from Mr. James Fitzgibbon, better known as. 



r 



THE TOWN OF PETERBOROUQH. 



361? 



Colonel Fitzgibbon, a heroic noble character, to whom we shall have 
again to refer. Fitzgibbon pointed out that it would not have 
been surprising, if many of the settlers, skilled mechanics, antl 
other strangers to forest life, who could find employment and gooil 
wages everywhere between the settlement and New York, had 
spread themselves abroad. As a fact, they had not done so. Nor, 
concluded the gallant i'ellow, had they since their arrival, done 
aught for which he or any other countryman of theirs need blush. 
Meanwhile, Peterborough began to rise. The few immigrants 
who had remained on tlie plains, built themselves little dwellings'. 
They plied a trade, they turned their hands to what they might. 
John Boates started that sure and sinister mai k of modern civili- 
zation, a tavern. Adjoining it was a log house, in which Oapt. 
Armstrong lived. Captain Armstrong was engaged in distribut- 
ing rations to the settlers. John Sullivan put up a log house on 
the south-west corner of George and Charlotte Streets, and ho too 
kept a tavern. William Oakely started a bakery, and made the 
staff of life, while Boates and Sullivan dispensed a perilous solace 
which would not be too harshly described as the fluid of death. 
There are ruined children, heart-broken widows, who would not 
think me harsh if I called it the instrument of hell. Tlic next 
house was on the south side of King Street, where Timothy 
O'Connor lived. East of O'Connor's another was built, by James 
Hurley, in the \vinterof 182G. Mr. Stewart opened a small store ; 
gave credit ; charged the bar of si p, or the half pound of candles, 
or the ounce of tea, or the quarter-pound of tobacco, to " the 
woman with the red cloak," the " man with the iron grey beard," 
the " girl with the mole on her cheek." Need we wonder he was 
bought out? James Bailey, a north of Ireland man, in 1826, 
built his house, and kept a tavern. In 1828, John CruAvford, of 
Port Hope, put up a frame house. And so the town grew. The 
Irishman became fond o* his adopted country, and the grief of 
his heari, stilled, he was at leisure to turn his thoughts to the 
happy cares of life, and the happier joys of friendship and love*. 
Cupid follows the human family everywhere. All climates agree 
with him. He discharges his arrows with as murh s];U in a 
Canadian winter as in the slumberous, almost volupi loa-, atrno - 
phere of the tropics. His song is ever fresh. He fails in with 



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7 



^62 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



the cadence of the sleigh bells, as well as with the tones of the 
lute. Under a maple tree he is as much master of the situation 
as under a palm. And so men fell in love and married, and 
begot large families, to gladden them with the tenderer love of 
parent and child, when the fierce wild heat of the passions could 
make their veins run with lightning no more, and when all the 
soft and pleasant appliances of civilization should sarround the 
home of their old age. Were this not so amid the toil" and pri- 
vations of a pioneer life, what a mournful light would steal 
through the sunless forest, what a gloom would rest on xhe am(ir- 
phcus beginnings of early settlements. Even in the heart of capi- 
tals, and in the midst of wealth, 

" The hours were dreary, 
Life withe 'it love does buc fade ; 
Vain it wastes and we grow weary." 

Love, more powerful than imagination, cannot merely irradiate 
the gloom of a dungeon, and render us independent of that mob 
we call society, it makes the couch of poverty softer than down, 
and infuses into the heart of privation a IjtIc joy. 

In the winter of 1826, His Excellency Sir Peregrme Maitland, 
visited the town and settlement. Save where the few houses stood, 
that portion of the town then cleared was c isfigured with stumps. 
The Governor was accompanied by Colonel Talbot, the Hon. John 
Beverley Robinson, the Attorney General, and others. The Vice- 
regal party were entertained by Captain Rubridge. He held a rude 
levee, at which a large number of settlers attended. Various ud- 
dres;4ts were presented. One, from the Magistrates, dwelt on the 
good con-'Iu^'.t of the immigrants who had given ground to hope that 
they would pro^'^e a valuable acquisition to the Province. A de- 
putation from the colony of Smith, came with a verbal address. 
The chosen spokesman broke down, as raw onvtors will, Bui he 
had presence of rnind enough to turn round to Mr. Jacob Brom- 
wellandsay: "Speak it you, sir." The difficulties, occasional 
•distress, the want of a mill were dwelt on: " SavJig your presence, 
sir," said Bromwell, " I have to get up at night to chew corn for 
the children." They were promised assistance. I'atrick Barragan, 
-a school-teacher, presented an a-ddress on behalf of the Irish Ro- 
niftn Catholics. The Irish immigrants expressed their gratitude to 



8 



^ 



7 



A VICE-REGAL VISIT. 



363 



their " gracious good King, and to His Majesty's worthy, good and 
humane Government," for all that had been done, " and," said the 
address, very characteristically, " we hope yet intend to do for 
us." They were equally alive to what Mr. Peter Robinson had 
done for them, and equally mindful of the future, so far as he was 
concerned. " We are fully sensible that his fine and humane feel- 
ings will not permit him to leave anything undone that nii^y for- 
ward our welfare." They were satisfied with the doctor and the 
officers placed over them. " Please your Excellency," the address 
proceeds, still characteristically, and not without some humour ; 
" we agree very well, and are pleased with the proceedings of the 
old settlers amongst us, as it is the interest of us all to do the 
same. And should an enemy ever have the presumption to in- 
vade this portion of His Majesty's dominions, your Excellency 
will find that we, when (.ailed upon to face and expel the common 
foe will, to a man, follow ov brave commanders ; not an Irish 
soul will stay behind." They deplored " the want of a clergy- 
man to administer to us the comforts of our Holy Religion." They 
also said they wanted good schoolmasters to instruct their 
children. 

The next day the Governor drove out to Ennismore. Mud 
Lake was crossed on the ice. The party put up at the shanty of 
Mr. Eugene McCarthy, the father of Mr. Jeremiah McCarthy who 
was Reeve of Ennismore. Equally loyal addresses were forwarded 
from various townships to Earl Bathuist, Col jr/ial Secretary. 

The vice-regal visit bore fruit. A grist mill containing two run of 
stones, was completed in 1827, and was at once oflTered for sale by 
the Government. Mr. John Hall and Mr. Moore Lee became the 
purchasers. A bridge was built across the Otonabee. Henceforth 
the prosperity of the town and the success of the settlement were 
assured. 

In 1832 the cholera visited this continent and penetrated to 
Peterborough. Out of a population of five hundred, twei. *.;y -three 
persons died of this disease. In 1833 the lawyers began to arrive. 
Stafford Kirkpatrick " put out his shingle " in 1834. In the year 
1832 a couple of small steamers were placed on Rice Lake. About 



ii^ 



um 



304 



THE IRISHM.iN IN CANADA. 



the same time the great work was conceived of renderinsjf navi- 
gable the chain of waters from the Bay of Quinte to Lake Simcoe. 

In the civic, legal, and militia affairs of the district the names 
which occur most frequently are, as we might expect, Irish. In 
1847 the immigrants arriving from Ireland brought w^t,h them a 
fever of a malignant ^ype. In 1860 the Prince of Wales was 
received magnificently in Peterborough. A pavilion was erected 
on the Court House Green for the presentation ol ad Iresses. In 
front of the pavilion, seats had been fixed for one thousand children • 
The rising ground of the Court House Park would have atlbrded 
easy standing room for thirty thousand people. But whether 
thirty thousand or only fifteen thousand availed themselves of it 
is lefj uncertain by contemporary accounts. In any rasa the 
splendour, the arches, the population, all indicate what progress 
had been made as far back as seventeen years ago. Schools had 
long been opened and ministers of the various forms of Christianity 
established in Peterborough.* I need not tell the reader what 
Peterborough with its .5,000 inhabitants, its stores, factories, mills, 
newspapers, railway and telegraph accommodation, its well laid 
out find well-iit streets is to-day- Nor is it necessary to describe 
the county with its prosperous townships. The greater part of 
all this wealth and prosperity and usefulness to the Dominion is 
due to I-ish heads and hands. 

A remaikably able business man, whose history has already 
been written in one of our own periodicals, is William Cluxton. 
Born at Dundalk, County Louth, in 1819, he lost his father when 
he was only six years' old, and his mother before he had passed 
his twelfth year. On her death the orphaned family was scatter- 
ed, and he went to reside with an uncle who carried on a busi- 
ness at Cootehill, County Cavan. His uncle soon urged him to 
emigrate to Canada. He found himself among friends three 
miles from the small village of Peterboro' of that time. Here he 
soon discovered that nature did not intend him for farming. With 
his friends' consent he sought and o))tained a very humble situa- 
tion in the employment of the late John Hall, the father of Judge 



* This word is spelled either Peterborough or Peterboro', apparently according to the 
whim of the writer. 




A SUCCESSFUL IRISH LAD. 



365 



• the 



Hall, also deceased, who was then the leading merchant in the 
village. He was soon promoted, and in 1836 we find him at Port 
Hope in charge of an establishment belonging to the late John 
Crawford. He next went to Peterboro' to take sole charge of a 
branch of Mr. Crawford's business. In 1842, he set up business 
on hi.s own account. Why particularize ? His history is the his- 
tory of thousands. In 1872, he retired from the dry-goods busi- 
ness with an amjjle fortune. One of its branches, established at 
Lindsay, he sold to a clerk, who is now one of the wealthiest 
and best business men in that town. To his two sons and an- 
other clerk he sold the Peterboro' establishment. His grain and 
lumber transactions are so large that he has as yet been unable to 
extricate himself from these branches of speculation. For the last 
twenty years he has moved the princi^ml part of the grain along 
the whole line of railway from Lindsay to the front. His transac- 
tions, it is said, have amounted to half a million annually. 

In 1852, he became manager of the Peterboro' branch of the 
Commercial Bank of Canada, a position he held for eight years. 
He has been President of the Midland Railway Company ; of the 
Marmora Mining Company ; of the Little Lake Cemetery Com- 
pany ; oi' the Port Hope and Peterboi'o' Gravel Road Company ; 
he is still President of the Lake Huron and Quebec Railway Com- 
p.iny. He has been both in the Town and County Council. He 
iv. ?. magistrate of several years' standing. 

after hours, whether clerk or manager, instf'Cvd of chatting 
in bar parlours, he devoted liiaiseif to the cultivation of let- 
ters and music, in which last humanizing "li he became a profi- 
cient. He was thus fitting himself fo''the respon.sibilities of the 
future. He was returned to Parliament, in 1&G7, for West Peter- 
borough. 

In Kingston, we find, in the early days, among prominent Irish- 
men, the Rev. M. Salmon, P.P. ; Jaines Salmon, merchant ; 
Walter Mc(!1unniffe, merchant ; Anthony Manahan, the first M.P. 
for Kingston aftei* the Union, and of whose career particu- 
lars will ' . given later on ; Thomas Turpin, merchant ; Dr. James 
Sampson, who came to Canada in 1820 as army surgeon, and who 
settled in Kingston, of which he ultimately became Mayor ; Dr. 
Macaulay, Dr. Tierney, Dr. Keating, Bishop Phalen, Peter Mac- 



I ' 



36f! 



THK IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i i! 



doiidld Mecham, Michael Brennan, J. W. Armstrong, R. B. Ann- 
strong, P. Driscoll, Robert Deacon, the present postmaster ; George 
Douglas, Thomas Murphy, John Rourke, A. Forster, Mr. Jennings, 
of T. C. D., a teacher ; Rev. A. Balfour, Thomas Kidd, the poet ; 
Thomas & J. Baker, H. Benson, Colonel J. Ferguson, Messrs. Breen 
& Harty, J. & J. Greer, J. Williamson, the Messrs. Cunnin-^ham, 
large iron merchants ; H. Scanlan, auctioneer in 1834 ; the Rev. 
T. Hancock, Church of England minister, son of Sir V. Hancock ; 
Keough, a poet ; John & W. Breden, now wealthy men ; Patrick 
Slaven, whose descendants are numerous, 

Anthony Manahan, mentioned above, was born in 17f)4. in 
Mount Bellew, County Galway. He went to the Island of Trini- 
dad in 1809, with his brother, a merchant in high repute, who 
was private secretary to Sir Ralph Woodward. He married 
Sarah, third daughter of the Hon. John Nugent, who was Ad- 
ministrator of the Government during an interregnum ol two 
years, and came to Kingston in 1824. which he left to take the 
management of the Marmora Iron Works, in 1825, established by 
Mr. Hayes, like himself an Irishman. After the death of that 
gentleman, who sunk a large fortune in the undertaking (Manahan 
also lost a considerable sum), he returned to Kingston in 1830. 
Mr. Edmond Murray 'of Irish descent) and himself ran on the 
Conservative side, in the election for Hastings in 1834, when both 
were returned. He was elected for Kingston in 1840, after a 
very severe contest with Mr. J. R. Forsyth, owing to the fact that 
both Orange and Green united in supporting him ; for though a 
Catholic, he was most 'popular with his Orange countrymen. He 
was defeated in 1844 by Mr. (now Sir) John A. Macdonald, and 
died at Kingston, in 1849. 

Peter O'Reilly, descendant of the O'Reillys of Oavan, was born 
at Westoort, County of Mayo, in 1791, and emigrated to Canada 
in 1832, the year of the first cholera. He nettled at Belleville, and 
there carried on the business of a merchant for several years. 
When the rebellion of 1837 broke out, Mr. O'Reilly offered hie 
services, and received the appointment of Captain of No. 2 Com- 
pany in the Hastings Regiment of Militia, in which position he 
remained in active service for two years, under Colonel the Baron 
de Rottenburgh, his company being the first which was called out, 



JAMES O REILLY, Q.C. 



ZQ7 



and on hie retirement he received the thanks of the Governor of 
Upper Canada for his services and loyalty to the Crown. During 
the sixteen years he spent in the County of Hastings where, in the 
old days, politics did really exist, and party lines w*^re well de- 
fined, Peter O'Reilly's voice and influence did much for the side he 
espoused. 

Mr. O'Reilly took a strong interest in public questions, ard was 
the intimate friend of the truly "honourable" Robert Baldwin, by 
whom he stood in many c, hard fought contest for constit a clonal 
government in this country. He moved to Kingston in 1847, the 
year alter that in which his son, the late Mr. James O'Reilly, Q.C, 
commenced the practice of law there. Shortly afterwards he was 
appointed Clerk of the Crown, Clerk of the County Court, and 
Registrar of the Surrogate Court of the United Counties of Fron- 
tenac, Lennox and Addington. In Kingston he for many years 
exercised a strong influence over his countrymen, by all of whom 
he was much beloved, and there he died full of years. 

His son, Mr. James O'Reilly, Q.C, was bom at Westport, in the 
County Mayo, on the 16th of September, 1823. In 1842 he com- 
menced the study of the law. He was the first student examined 
by the late Secretary of the Law Society, Mr. Hugh N. Gwynne. 

He first entered the law office of Mr. Charles Otis Benson, in 
Belleville, where, a short time before, he had completed his educa- 
tion under the direction of the late Mr. William Hutton, the head 
of the Grammar School of the County of Hastings. A relative of 
Sir Francis Hincks, Mr. Hutton was a man of learning and ability, 
who subsequently held an important position in the Bureau of 
Statistics in the old Province. Mr. O'Reilly after a short tine 
with Mr. Benson entered the office of the Hon. John Ross, Q.C, 
subsequently Attorney-General for Upper Canada, then engaged 
in the practice of his profession and supposed to have secured the 
largest practice of any lawyer in the Province. 

He remained a few months in Mr. Ross' office until he was 
called to the Bar, when he went to Toronto, and completed 
his studies in the office of Messrs. Crawford, the late Lieutenant- 
Governor of Ontario, and Hagarty, the present Chief Justice 
of the Common Pleas. He was called to the Bar, 9th of 
August, 1847, and immedi^teiy commenced the practice of his pro- 



"868 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



fesHiori in the City of Kingston. The leading mem}>ers of the Bar 
of Kingston were Mr. (Sir) John A. Macdonald ; the Hon. Alex- 
ander Campbell, Senator of the Dominion of Canada ; the late 
Tliomas Kirkpatrick, Q.C., M.P. ; and the late Sir Henry Smith, 
Q.C. Mr. O'Reilly, in a short time, secured a large and lucrative 
practice, and at one Assize held no less than o'ghty -seven briefs on 
the civil side of the Court, besides a number f criminal cases in 
which he was engaged as leading counsel. 

His first important capital case created much public notice at 
the time from trio extraordinary circumstances connected with the 
alleged commission of the crime. After two days* investigation 
of the evidence the Jury ac(juittcd the prisoner, and Sir James 
Buchanan Macaulay, the presiding Judge, paid a high compliment 
to the young advocate for the skill and ability shown in the de- 
fence of his client. Shortly after this he was associated with Mr. 
Kenneth McKenzie, Q C, now Judge of the County Court of the 
County of Yr>rk, for the defence in the case of the Queen vs. Mrs. 
Smith, for poisoning by strychnine. The prisoner, after an extra- 
ordinary effort on the part of her counsel, was acquitted. So great 
was the jniblic indignation at the escape of the prisoner that a 
guard had to accompany her to the American steamer to save her 
fiom tlie violence of the people. Mr. O'Reilly shared largely in 
the pre.stige of the acquittal. The case attracted considerable 
notoriety in England, and \;'as reported in the Medical Journal as 
the tirst in the Colonies t'ov murder by strychnine where the 
colour te,' !. — well known to chemists — was employed. 

When Mr. McKen.'-:e, Q.C. brought a libel suit against the 
publisher of the Daily New.", Kingston, for an alleged libel on his 
professional character, Mr. O'Reilly was opposed by the late Hon. 
J. Hilly ard Cameron, Q C, yet he won a verdict for the plaintiff 
and S250 damages ; a sum at that time considered large damages, 
especially as against a public journalist. 

Next to the celebrated McGee case, that of the Queen vs. Mrs 
Bridget Farrally, for the murder of her brother-in-law by poison- 
ing, is the most remarkable. The case was tried at the spring 
assizes of 1867, in the County of ^ '.oria. The plea was that of 
insanity, which was one of the first cases known either in Ca- 
nada or the old country where a plea of insanity proved successful 



a 

V 



PROSECUTINO THE MURDF.RER OF MOOEE, 



36!) 



in a charge of homicide by poisoning ; the fact of the administra- 
tion of poison to procure death requiring forethought and design 
would seem to be incompatible w'th the presence of insanity at 
the time of the commission of the oftence. 

In September, 1868 Mr. O'Reilly was appointed crown prose- 
cutor in the case of ..le Queen vs. Whelan, for the murder of 
D'Aicy McGee. A warm personal friend, a devotee* admirer and 
follower of the muidered statesman, Mr. O'Reilly v ked inde- 
fatigably in preparing for the trial, which lasted seven days and 
ended in the prisoner being found guilty and suffering deatli. 

In the course of his speech O'Reilly used the following language 
very characteristic, but perhaps too warm for a prosecutor who 
should prove his case up to the hilt but show no fceling : — 

" God forbid that the man who committed the foul deed should 
not suffer the just punishment consequent upon his crime. The 
people of this country desire to see the murderer punished ; the 
press unanimously agree that every effort should be made to lay 
bare the murder, and if I have been instrumental in drawing it to 
lig'it I shall go down to my grave satisfied that I have tracked 
the felon who killed D'Arcy McGee." Again alluding to the 
manner in which the assassin accomplished his work, he said : — 
" Who saw him ? — God in heaven saw him on that beautiful 
night v/hen all heaven was lighted up, on that night when a 
dastardly deed was perpetrated which will bring down the ven- 
geance of God and man." 

Mr. O'Reilly served in the Council of Kingston as an alderman 
for many years, being elected almost unanimously after a resi- 
dence in that city for one year and a half. He was often urged 
to enter political life, particularly during the local general elec- 
tions in 1867. In 1864 he was appointed a Queen's Counsel and 
succeeded the late Mr. A. J. Macdcnnell as recorder of Kingston, 
which ofH^'-e he continued to fill until it was abolished in 1861) by 
the Local ^'^ovemment of Ontario. He was a bencher of the Law 
Society and in 1869 he was called to the bar at Quebec. For 
many years he was president of the St. Patrick's Society of King- 
ston. His full length portrait was presented to him by the Corpor- 
ation at the time of the " Trent " affair when he raised a company of 

volunteers. He held for several years a commission in the active 
24 



i 



370 



THt' IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i 



militia, a-:J in 1872 retired with the rank of Major. He was 
otherwise identified with tht interests of the surrounding district, 
having been a director and the standing counsel of the Kingston 
and Pembroke Railway Company. 

In 1872 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament for South 
Renfrew and sat during <^ .^o short life of the second Parliament. 
Upon the dissolution in 1874 he refused again to enter political 
life, which interfered too much with his profession. He was a 
devoted admirer of Sir John Macdonald, and but a few days be- 
fore his death expressed high admiration for that statesman. 

It is not unreasonable to suppose that Mr. O'Reilly, having tor 
thirty years been a pr^lic man, looked forward to a seat upon the 
Bench and comparative relaxation from labour. Alluding to his 
prospects not long before his death, he expressed satisfaction at 
h .ving been assured that had Sir John Macdcnald's Government 
remained in power, it was their intention to elevate him to tiio 
Bench whenever a vacancy should occur. He was a fine manly 
fellow; amiable; a shrewd observer of human nature; of great per- 
ceptive powers, and although a strong believer in the religion of 
his forefathers, bigotry, intolerance or prejudice were entirely 
foreign to his nature ; he judged a man's practices, not mere pro- 
fessions, and frequently alluded when discussing this point to the 
noble lines of Thomas Moore — 



. 






" Shall I ask the brave soldier who fights by my side. 
In the cause of mankind, if our creeds agree ? " 

Mr. O'Reilly was one of the wittiest members of the legal pro- 
fession in the Dominion ; he frequently convulsed the Bench, Bar 
and public, and at times fairly laughed cases out of court. A few 
years ago Harpers Monthly published a number of his witticisms, 
alh'iing to him as a distinguished member of the Canadian Bar. 
His was an active life. Canada's able men have seldom found a 
bed of roses to rest on after the la'^nurs of their early days 
and prime; so it was with James O'Reilly. Dispensing char- 
ity like a prince —charity without ostentation — he found it 
necessary to work indefatigably at his profession, going circuit 
regularly, and toiling over briefs. By his death the Bar of 
Canada lost a distinguished member and the poor of Kingston 






T 



O REiLLY S DEATH. HIS WIT. 



371 



a good friend : an amiable wife and an attractive family lost 
an affectionate, thoughtful husband, and an indulgent father. I 
will not trust myself to describe his death — his advent to 
a happy home after a successful circuit — his complaining of a 
slight pain in the head — speaking affectionately to his wife — -the 
breaking of the silver chord during her momentary absence from 
the room — and her return — the wild cry of sorrow — over this 
scene of tragedy and breaking hearts I must cast a veil. .^ 

I have spoken above of his wit. He was at one time entrusted 
with the brief for the plaintiff" in a breach of promise case. His 
client was an elderly cook. She was fat as every good cook should 
be. Her face was red. She had lost one eye. Her lover was a man 
of humble station. O'Reilly had an inspiration. He proved that 
the defendant used to visit the plaintiff" and sigh, protest and eat, 
that moreover during his acquaintance with the cook he had 
gained not less than forty pounds in weight. F.e put in two 
photographs of the defendant. One, taken before his days of court- 
ing, showed him lean and hungry ; the other plump ss a peach 
and fat as an over-fed lap-dog. " To whom," asked the advocate 
who had evidently read the Merchant of Venice, " do these forty 
pounds belong if not to my client ? " The jury convinced that 
the woman had a claim to at least a portion of the plaintiff and 
evidently estimating adipose tissue at $5 a pound gave her a ver- 
dict of $200. 

The member for Kingston in the Local House, Mr, William 
Robinson was born in Ballymony, County Antrim, in 1823. He 
came to Canada and settled at Kingston in 1846. He is President 
of the Kingston and Marmora Railway. He \7as an Alderman of 
Kingston for sixteen years and held the office of Mayor for 1869- 
70. He was first returned to Parliament in 1871, and re-elected 
at the last general election. 

Henry Cunningham, of the wealthy firm of Cham and Cun- 
ningham — both Irishmen — has been Mayor of Kingston, as also 
has been William Ford, wh >oe son, R. M. Ford, is President of the 
Board of Trade, as was William Harty, prominent among King- 
ston merchants. 

In 1864, a very noble character in his way died at Kingston. 
Matthew Rourke was born in Armagh, in 1796. He emigrated to 



s 



372 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



fS 



this continent in 1817, and remained for a short time in the State 
of New York, where he met his wife, Mary Malloy, a young wo- 
man from his own country, pious, of great attractions and ami- 
ability. Soon after marriage he removed into British terri- 
tory, and settled at Kingston where he commenced business. His 
path at that time was not strewn with roses. But Rourke was 
made of a fibre which does not quail before difficulties. By force 
of character and int-igrity he succeeded. He was emphatically a 
self-inade man. He brought to the. battle of life nothing but his 
keen Irish intellect and his indomitable will. He not only made 
a fortune, he gained the confidence and respect of all classes of 
his fellow citizens. His career is a triumphant answer to those 
who assert that the Irishman in this country has cot the ability 
to raise himself to prominence. He occupied many of the posi- 
tions of trust ir che gift of his fellow citizens. He was a roan of 
a charitable disposition, as the poor and the leading Roman Ca- 
tholic institutes of Kingston experienced. Like nearly all his 
countrymen, he was blessed with a large family ; his excellent 
wife bearing him twelve children, seven of whom survive. Three 
of his daughters embraced the conventual life. Of his sons, Daniel, 
the eldest, and John, ex-alderman of Kingston, are the proprietors 
of the well known Kingston Mills, a splendid property situated 
on the Rideau, not far from Kingston. They employ a large num- 
ber of men. Shiewd business men, they are an example in the 
interest they manifest in all that concerns the welfare of their 
workmen — a duty which capitalists neglect at their peril. No 
man, or class of men, can with impunity treat their brother men, 
as " hands." This brings its retribution in the hardening effect on 
the capitalist himself, in the emphasis of class distinctions with 
all their dangers, in those periodical wars between the rich and the 
poor, and in the long run, revolutions with their bloody train of 
ghastly disasters. 

The youngest son, Francis, is a Doctor in Montreal. He gained 
much experience during the Americin civil war. He has invented 
a plan for exhausting sewers of sewer gas, which is thought highly 
of by scie i^tific n)en. 

In Percy we find a represe/iiative man — a namesake of the 
late J imes O'Reilly, but apparently no lelative. 



T 

1 



DIFFICULTIES AND DECISION. 



873 



\ 



. 






James O'Reilly, born of Catholic parents, in the Parish of 
Moiirne, near Kilkeel, County Down, in 1800, was one of a large 
family of sons. He emigrated to Canada in 1830, and having 
been raised on the sea shore, naturally took to the water, and for 
the summer worked a " batteau " in Quebec. In the fall he 
removed to Upper Canada, and in the succeeding An crust married 
Ellen Dunne, from the County Kildare. He still clung to the 
water, working on the old Durham boats. Shortly afterwards he 
removed to Queenston, where he was for some time in the employ 
of Hon. John Hamilton. In the summer of 1834«, he, with a com- 
rade, Lawrence Granitch, a native of Cork, set out for Percy to 
" locate " land. They went by steamer co Cobourg, then but a 
small village, whence they proceeded on foot to the Township of 
Percy. They came to view some land owned by the Revd. John 
Carroll, Point Pleasant, Niagarji, but finding neither roads nor 
neighbours, and being unused to backwoods life, they gave up the 
prospect in disgust. They had proceeded to Cobourg where tiiey 
met Mrs. O'Reilly on her way to the backwoods. After gaining 
some idea of the hardships of the life of the backwoodsman, lier 
husband had sent word that she should remain where she was, but 
the messenger had delivered a wrong message, viz : to come imme- 
diately. Here was a coil. On leaving Queenston, Mrs. O'Reilly 
had sold at a sacrifice every article of furniture not easily removed ; 
the remainder she had with her. IJIer husband, after explaining 
the difficulties to be encountered, and the hardships to be under- 
gone, left the future course to her decision. She, in the spirit of 
the heroine of Victoria, answered, " In God's name, let us go to the 
woods." His comrade, Lawrence, or as he was familiarly called, 
" Larry," decided to throw in his lot with them. They all re- 
turned to Percy, where a hospitable Irish Protestant, William, or 
as ne was called " Billy " Wilson received them with the genero- 
sity of his race. The two men prficeeded to their lot which they 
occupied in partnership, and began " underbrushing." Now their 
hardships began. It may, however, be remarked, that throughout 
the early yesrs of their settlement, the hardship fell principally 
to the lot of O'Eeilly, " Larry " being a bachelor, and free at any 
time to leave for the " shanties," and having less care and expease. 
O'Reilly's situation now may be imagined. Living in an old 




m 



^74 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



*' lumber shanty " without a door, unless a blanket hung over an 
opening in the wall may be so described, and with other openings 
in the centre of uhe roof — troughs — to permit the free egress 
of smoke and the ingress of light, as well as wind, rain or snow ; 
with small means and a large stock of inexperience, but with 
plenty of health and strength, and strong hope for the future, he 
began to hew from the primaeval forest a home which he could 
call " mine," where agents, bailiffs and tithe proctors were un- 
known. 

During the following winter, while Larry went to the " shanty," 
O'Reilly occupied, with his \, ife, a house belonging to his friend, 
" Billy '■" Wikon, and here hij eldest daughter was born. In the 
spring of 1835, they removed to their new home in the woods, 
situated six or seven miles from the nearest known settler. They 
were twelve miles from the nearest store or mill — Percy Mills, 
now Warkworth — and about thirty miles from a post office. He 
had to carry the grist on his back twelve miles. Having no team, 
he had, after underbiaishing, to " change works " with some more 
fortunate settler, that is to say, for one day with a team, he had 
to work two in return. He had, besides, to earn a living for his 
family, and as there was no settler near, he had to go to the front 
of the township, a distance of eight, ten or twelve miles, where- 
ever some one might perchance require rail-splitting, logging, 
reaping with either the sickle or the like, carrying hie; pay home 
on Saturday night. In the mean time his wife remained in the 
woods with no one to speak to, no company but her infant daugh- 
ter, unless strolling Indian hunters came for a loaf of bread in 
exchange for venison. A nighdy serenade of wolves did lot add 
to the cheerfulness of the lonelj'^ dwelling. But never was the 
slightest insult offered to her ; never was imposition practised, or 
other advantage taken of her lonely and helpless position by 
those untutored children of the woods. Perhaps the courage with 
which .he bore hardship and isolation engendered respect in the 
minds of the aborigines, and was her best shield. 

Had these been the extent of the hardships, they would prob- 
Abl}' soon have surmounted them, as settlers were beginning to 
come in. But now the bread-winner for the family was stricken 
down by the grea«; enemy of the backwoodsman — fever and ague. 



i j 



SICKNESS IN THE BUSH. 



375 



Other diseases ma}^ be thrown off and the former strength reco- 
vered, but where the ague takes firm hold of a man his previous 
strength is never regained. Thus James O'Reilly, the backwoods- 
man, a man of one Imndred and seventy or one hundred and eighty 
pounds, with broad chest and erect carriage, who at the age of 
forty had not known what sickness was, and was as vigorous as 
when twenty-one, was in three years hopelessly prostrated. He 
never completely got rid of the ague. During the continuance of 
the fe-'or, he became delirious ; when it passed he frequently 
fainted, and, though afterwards in good health, never thoroughly 
recovered his former vigour. It is very easy to realize what 
difficulties and hardships such sickness entailed. The husband 
fallen sick, the wife did not escape, and ro their substance was 
consumed. Their furniture, and even clothing, had to be given 
for doctor's bills. 

But all difficulties must have an end, and theirs proved no ex- 
ception. Settlers came in ; roads were built ; villages arose in 
suitable positions ; as their family grew up their labour became less 
onerous, and if not rich, they were independent and respected. 

In a pioneer's life there are many points worthy of remark, the 
most important of which relates to religion and its influence on 
the lives of the settlers. Thus on O'Reilly's migration to the 
back-woods there was no minister of his persuasion permanently 
established nearer than Belleville, a distance of forty miles. There 
the late Reverend Father Brennan was missionary for immense 
distances both up and down the lake, and could, therefore, but 
seldom visit any one locality. The consequence was that many 
of the people became indifl':>rent or careless. Sometimes eight 
children of the one mother were baptised at the same time, private 
baptism having been previously administered. Thus it was a 
standing joke with an old Protestant friend that he vwas the 
" priest " who christened the children of the O'Reillys. Subse- 
quently the settlers in this locality were visited by Father Butler, 
of Peterborough. The first priest permanently established in their 
midst was the Reverend Edward Vaughan, who arrived in 1845. 
Picture the life of a minister of religion in those times. Then 
buggies were not in use for there were no roads to drive them on, 
ti*avel being either done on foot or on horseback. His life was not 



mmmn 



sm 



376 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



one of either ease or luxury. Mr. Vaughan's mission included the 
Townships of Seymour, Percy, Asphodel, Dummer and Belmont, 
which still remain the same mission. Father Vaughan was soon 
recalled. By his removal the mission lost a most zealous pastor 
and charitable man. He succt.ded by the Reverend J. 

Bernard Higgins, who bad kindred difficulties to surmount. Tn 
1852 Father Higgins was removed and the Reverend James, now 
Vicar-General Farrelly appointed, who erected a priest's house at 
Hastings, which, when O'Reilly " moved in," had not a house of 
any kind or a tree cut where the village now stands. At that 
time there were two wooden churches erected by the present }ms- 
tor. Reverend John Quirk, one at Hastings and one at Norwood, 
besides a frame church at Campbellford. Warkworth Chuich has 
been enlarged. During Father Vaughan's time any small room 
would hold the congregation, but now commodious churches are 
becoming crowded. These churches have been erected almost 
wholly by the Irish people. 

Among the hardships of life in the woods there is hardly any- 
thing, as we have already seen, more distressing to the settler than 
the presence of wolves. Tlieir hideous howling, their treaclierous 
and ferocious disposition, and their destructive habits make them 
a formidable enemy. Every night sheep, calves, and such helpless 
animals had to be secured from harm. This was usually done by 
building a square pen of rails which was then weighted. 1 his 
pen had what was called a " slip gap " for the admission of the 
sheep. The space between the rails left the poor shivering animals 
in full view of their terrible foes. The snow was frecjuently 
tramped as solid as a road on all sides of the pen. Wolves hunt 
in packs. They surround a sheep pen and encourage each other 
with their dismal howls, seek for entrance, and woe to the poor 
animals if any weak part is discovered in the pen. The pack 
usually send out a scout, an old and experienced wolf which will 
view the ground before a raid is made. In old times the large 
chimneys were the only means of warming the houses or " shan- 
ties " of the settlers. The fire was kept up with wood like cord- 
wood but split somewhat finer, such wood being piled at nigh<^ at 
the side of the hearth. At one or two o'clock one morning the 
family was disturbed by the dog which rushed madly against the 



I 



WOLVES AND BEARS. 



37r 






bolted door a ''d then ran off only to return with greater force, 
O'Reilly arose to see what was the matter. There was a moon. 
By its light he saw a large wolf that chased the dog. Seizing a 
stick of wood, and advancing towards the wolf whloh retreated, 
he cast the wood at him. The animal deftly dodged the stick and 
returned after O'Reilly to the door. O'Reilly pelted him with 
sticks of wood which the wolf cunningly avoided, without leaving 
his post. Finding stick-throwing to no purpose and bethinking 
him of an old musket which he possessed, he determined to try 
that. The musket was not in very good condition having the bar- 
rel bent, or as one of his friends said, " built for shooting round 
comers." He fired without striking the wolf. No sooner was the 
report heard, however, than every fence corner, stump, and stone 
seemed alive with dismal howls. On another occasion O'Reilly 
started before daylight to a neighbouring pond to fish for bass. 
Having caught a nice string offish he was returning when he heard 
on every side of the path through the woods howl answering 
howl. He was in the centre of a scattered pack. Pulling the fish 
from the rod on which he had them strung, he cast them away, 
thinking the wolves would be detained to devour the fish. He soon 
reached home, and subsequently visiting the place he found the 
fish untouched. Wolves evidently are not fond of fish. 

Bear stories are plentiful. While laid up with ague, O'Reilly 
had a hired man, who proved a lazy fellow. He frequently ne- 
glected to do work which should have been done. Some wheat 
in the stack having become wet and sprouted was taken down 
and set around to be given to the pigs. The man, one night after 
dark, acknowledged that he had not fed the pigs, and was de- 
spatched to do so. What was his horror on, as he supposed, seizing 
a sheaf of wheat, to find that he had a live bear by the shaggy 
coat. Bruin gave an angry growl and left. 

An old Indian Chief, Penashie, with his two grandsons, started 
out on a hunt in the woods. The old man proceeded to the flat 
while the boys took the ridge. After advancing some time the 
old Indian discovered a cub on a tree, and rashly fired. He only 
wounded the young bear, whose cries brought the mother to its 
assistance before the Indian could reload his gun. The beer im- 
mediately "went" for the Indian, who, for his age, used his feet 



378 



THR IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



in a very lively manner. Knowing that he would be caught if he 
moved in a straight line, he ran in cirnles roTind a large basswood, 
closely followed by the bear. Such a race could have but one end. 
But luckily the young men had been attracted by the report and 
came running to see what their grandfather had shot. They found 
him not the hunter but the hunted. They shot the bear and none 
too soon, as the old man was completely exhausted. 

Two whii;<^ hunters named Perry, with a horse and a small dog 
were going through the woods, and seeing a cub in a tree, although 
wholly unarmed, determined to take it home in a bag which they 
happened to have with them. One of them climbed the tree whose 
branches approached the ground. On the approach of the man 
the cub began to cry, which brought the mother to the foot of the 
tree. Here she proceeded to climb after the man but was seized 
by the dog in the rear, which so exasperated her that she turned 
to punish his temerity. Immediately letting go and keeping out 
of her reach, he returned on her attempting to climb the tree, and 
thus kept her employed until the man had bagged the cub and 
handed it from the limbs to his comrade on horseback below. He 
^nen dropped on to his horse and left the field. 

Nearly all the early settlers were distinguished for their kind- 
ness to each other during sickness and more especially the Irish 
and Scotch settlers. In spite of religious and political prejudices 
and in defiance of contagion, the sick were tended with the utmost 
care. 

There was another trait of charactei not so praiseworthy. 
Many of the early settlers contracted a pernicious habit of " visi- 
ting," or as it used to be called " cabin hunting." Thus the wife 
with the " baby " would go to see some of her neighbours, and 
have " tea," which would consist of all the " good things " that 
their scanty means could afford, and very often at the expense of 
their future necessities. The husband went in the evening to 
carry home the baby. 

There was another trait among Irish settlers, a curse entailed 
by landlord oppression and by the system of " tenant-at-will." 
They were very backward in making good permanent improve- 
ments, usually putting up some temporary affair that " will do for 
this year." Like the children of Israel they required one genera- 



1 



I 



7 






BUILDERS-UP OF BELLEVILLE AND HAMILTON, 



879 



tion of free life in the wildeixess to eradicate the cnnker of sir very. 
These anecdotes and obtiervations I have leam^ from Mr. 
O'Reilly's son, who also tolls me of kindnesses she^n hin during 
disease and trouble by a Scotch Presbyterian fan^i'ly. Angus was 
the name of these good Samaritans. 

Among the builders up of Belleville and/Che neighbourhood 

were : Wm. Alford, John Allan, Geo. Armj>wong, T. Atkins, 

Buckley, Col. Wm. Bell, S. Briton, H/Bulgar, R. Bullen, -^-- 

Burke, ^. Beatty, Robt. Bird, ^/^rennan, Rev. ^l,.€!afnpbell, 

S. Carroll, Jas. Coulter, R. Cummings, Rev. J. Cochrane, 

Callaghen, D. Crombie, Deagan, Doherty, J. Donaghue, 

A. Dunn, Dacey, P. Fahey, Francis Fargey, Robt. Francis, 

J. English, R. German, Rev; Jno. Grier, John Graham, Charles 

Hayes, Jas. Harrison, J. J. Haslett, Dr. Wm. Hope, Horam, 

Hanley, M. Jellett, P. Johnson, Jones, J. Kerr, S. Nyle> 

J. Kennedy, J-arkin, D. Le wler, P. Lynch, Wm. Morton, Jno 

V. Murphy, A. Manahan, H. McGuire, Jas. McDonnell, J. Meag- 
her, Jacob Moore, !^cCreary, Wm. McDavid, J. McConohey 

Mormacy, W. McOowan, J. Garvey, W. Mclnnich, J. McMa- 

niara, J, McAnnary, H. McGinnis, M. Nulty, C. O'Brien, Saml. 

On', P. O'Reilly, O'Donnell, Jno. Patterson, W. Perkins, Jas. 

Power, Prentice, M. Ryan, R. Tanderson, J. Shannon, 

Shanks, P. Shehan, Sennett, Jas. Stead, Dr. R. Stewart, O. 

Shaughnesey, Shea, D. Sullivan, Wm, Templeton, Gordon 

Thompson, Tracy, Wm. Watt, White, Jas. Whiteford. 

In Dundas and Brantford and Hamilton we have a large Irish 
population. In Hamilton, Mr. John Barry, who came to this 
country many years ago, is an eminent Irish barrister, who has 
won the confidence of his fellow-cieizens as alderman. Mr Neill 
O'Reilly is a child of Irish parents, and has brought to great per- 
fection that gift of fl.uent utterance with which his countrymen 
are credited. The Stinsons, the Bradleys, and the Murphys took 
an active part in the first settlement of Hamilton. 

Judge O'Reilly, now Master in Chancery, in Hamilton, is pro- 
bably the oldest settler in that city. The old judge is still full 
of activity. He did good service in early life as a volunteer sol- 
dier in Canada, and as a leading lawyer and judge he performed 
his part of our great work here. 



mi^ 



380 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



In writing of the Talbot Settlement, what Irishmen did for 
London has been indicated. It is not possible, without altering 
the plan of the book, to do more than mention the names of the 
prominent early settlera whose families fiourit-h 'n thu capital of 
the West and the surrounding country. The Hodgins and O'Neals, 
the Deacons and Shoebottoms, the Talbots and Fitsgeralds, the 
Waldens, the Langfords, the Gowens, the Stanleys. Freeman 
Talbot has done irore for this part of Canada in the matter of 
roads than any other man. Then we have the Eadys and Jer- 
myns from Cork, and the Weirs from the North of Ireland ; the 
Westmans, the Ardills, the Guests, the Hobbs. All these have 
done good work in clearing the wilderness and making comfort- 
able homes for themselves. The Irish are pre-eminent as mer- 
chants, lawyers, teachers, and preachers in London. I have not 
mentioned the Densmores, the Willises, the Ryans, the Dickeys, 
the Dickinsons. Old Mr. Dickenson boasts one hundred and seven 
years. Forty years ago those men have carried a bag of wheat 
on their backs forty miles to get it ground. Dr. Evans was on 
the London circuit thirty-two years a^'o, and often slept in a log 
shanty in which he could not stand upjlght. 

The Fergusons settled in London about fifty-five years ago. 
They came from the County Cavan. There were only two stores 
in London at this time. One was owned by the late Honourable 
G. J. Goodhue and L. Lawrason, the present Police Magistrate. 
Mr. Tom Ferguson is a son to the eldest of the brothers. William 
Glass should also be mentioned. His father is still living. The 
family has been a long time in the country. Col. Shanley, one of 
the finest old fellows in Canada, is Master in Chancery. 

Judge Daniels, formerly of London, was born in the County of 
Monaghan, and came to this country early. In 1845 he was called 
to the bar. He was for fourteen years in the Council of London. 
His father used to keep an inn at the comer of Queen and Yonge 
Streets, Toronto, a man about four feet high and weighing near 
400 pounds. Judge Daniels is full of stories concerning old times 
in Canada. 

The member for London, William Ralph Meredith, LL.B., one 
of the most promising young men in the Ontario Assembly, is the 
son of John Cook Meredith, a native of Dublin, who early came 



LONDON AND QUELPH. 



381 



to Canada, Mr. William Ralph Meredith was bom at Westmins- 
ter, Middlesex, Ontario, in 1840, and was educated at the London 
Graniniar School and the Toronto University. He was called to 
the bar in 1861, and ten years afterwards was elected a member of 
the Law Society. He is a member of the Senate of Toronto Uni- 
versity. He was first returned to Parliament in 1872. He is a 
Liberal Conservative. His father, Mr. John Cook Meredith is 
Clerk of the Division Court. Two of the brothei-s are lawyers. 
The ittdies of the family are remarkable for their beauty. 

Mr. Hugh Macmahon, of London, is one of the most enlightened 
Irishmen in the Dominion and uses his voice and pen to promote 
that cordial feeling between his countrymen which it is so desirable 
should exist in their own interest and in the interest of Canada. 
On the penultimate day of July he wrote to the London Free 
Press a letter, which it would be well for many Irishmen if it 
were graven on their hearts. 

Nathaniel Currie was the first representative of West Middle- 
sex in the local House. He came to Canada early. The Hon. 
Marcus Talbot, sometime M. P. for East Middlesex was lost in the 
" Hungarian." Strathroy was founded by an Irishman, Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the son of the English Consul at New York. He called 
the place after his father's farm in the County Tyrone, where 
there is now a post village of the same name. The English's 
settled in London and afterwards at Strathroy. James and John 
English are well known men. John English is rapidly winning 
the confidence of his fellow citizens, and may one day be called 
on to play a public part. 

The picturesque Town of Guelphwaslargelybuiltupby Irishmen. 
In 1828 Mr. Timothy O'Connor settled on a farm in the Township 
of Eramosa. At that time there were but few settlers in the 
vicinity, and only five houses in what is now the town. Arch- 
deacon Palmer shortly afterwards emigrated to Guelph, and the 
town gradually advanced. Many Irishmen put do „ i their stakes, 
amongst whom the Mitchells, the Heflernans, the Chadwicks, 
the Carrolls and others were prominent, and one or more members 
of their families took leading positions. Their children are now 
engaged in various pursuits, and are doing their part towards 
building up the country. In 1849 Mr. Timothy O'Connor moved 



382 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 




to Guelph Township. He had seven sons and two daughtere. 
The eldest is the pioprlotor of the Qu en'fc Hotel ; the second a 
prominent farmer; the third a n-anufacturer ; the fourth a law- 
yer ; the fifth who distinguished hiii .sell at Fordham College, 
New York, is the manager-in-chief of an extensive New York 
manufacturing house. The oldest of the Mitchell family haH fillj j 
the Mayor's chair in Guelph ; the second is a merchant ; the third 
a minister ; the fourth a lawyer. Heffernan Brothers are suc- 
cessful dry -goods mexhants. The Carrolls are fa»*»ncio, seven 
fine men, all over six feet high. Mr. Carroll was an extensive 
builder, and reputed the wealthiest man in Gue^iph. One of the 
most prominent Irishmen in the town is Mr. James Hazelton, 
one of the Hazletons of Cookstown, Ireland. This gentleman 
was several times president of the St. Patrick's Society. By his 
energy and industry he has amassed considerable wealth. There 
are besides, uhe Dorans, the Grahams, the Sweetnams, the Mays, 
the O'Donnells. 

I had almost forgotten John Craven Chad wick, fourth son of 
John Craven Chadwick, of Ballinard, Tipperary, who settled 
at " Cravendale," near Ancaster, County Wentworth, in 1836, 
and removed thence to Guelph in 1851, where he still resides. 
He served on the Niagara frontier during the rebellion of 
1837-8, as a volunteer, in Capt. Alexander Mill's troop of 
cavalry. Subsequently he held a commission in 1st Regiment of 
Gore Militia. He has been twice named in the Commission of the 
Peace for the County of V^ellington. He served as a delegate to 
the Diocesan Synod of Toronto, almost continuously, from 1853 
until the separation of the Diocese of Niagara from that of To- 
ronto, when he was appointed by the Bishop of Niagara as a mem- 
ber of the Corporation of Trinity College, Toronto. He is a Vice- 
President of Guelph St. Patrick's Society, ^^^e has four sons, viz., 
John Craven Chadwick, residing roar Guelph ; Frederick Jasper 
Chadwick, of Guelph, who has taken an active part in political 
and municipal afiairs for some years, and is Mayor of Guelph this 
present year, 1877. He also has been President of Guelph St. 
Patrick's Society, jildward Marion Chadwick, of Toronto, Bar- 
rister-at-Law, Honorary Major and Captain in the Queen's Own 



THE IRISH IMMIGRATION BEFORE 1887. 



383 



Rifles ; Austin Cooper Chadwiek, oi Ouelph, Junior Judge of the 
County of Wellington. 

An old resident o! Guelph is Col uel Higinbotham, the member 
in the Dominion i'arlianient for North "W .^lington. Born in the 
County Cavan, in 1830, he was educated at the National School 
there, an 1 aftei'wards by the Rev. Wra. Little, of Cootehill. He 
early came to Canada and settled at Guelph, where for twenty 
years he caiTi^d on business as chemist and druggist. He is Pre- 
sident of the Guelph St. Patrick's Society. He was a member of 
the Tov/n Council of Guelpb for many years, and on several occa- 
sions has hold the office of D :>puty Reeve and Mayor. He has been 
long connected with the Volunteer movement. He joined the 
active force in 1856, and was for four months ou the frontier on 
the occasion of the first Fenian raid. He commanded the 30th 
Battalion Rifles (ten companies) from its organization until 1872, 
when he retired, retaining the rank of Capta.n. He was first re- 
turned to Parliament in 1872, He is described in " Mackintosh " 
as a Liberal, and a supporter of the Mackenzie Administration. 
I have now put the reader in a position to judge of the charac- 
ter of the Irish migration prior to the rebellion of 1837. I have 
not scrupled to complete a subject by giving particulars which re- 
late to the present tir.ie. While showing what kind of settlers 
Ireland sent here, I hnve also shown wiiat were the difficulties 
which had to be 8urmount(5d by all the settlers, whether Scotch, 
or English, of those early d&yn. Founded as much of the informa- 
tion is, on the experience of the pioneers, told by themselves either 
in conversation or by letter, or else on the testimony of their chil- 
dren, in this and the preceding chapters, we have historical ma- 
terial of the highest value. These chapters will have enabled the 
student of Canadian history to realize the early beginnings of our 
national existence in the era anterior to politics ; he will have 
been prepared for th j impending struggle into which we are about 
to enter ; he will have been supplied with a part, and not the 
least valuable part, of the data by which he must judge the charac- 
ter, physical, mental, and ethnological of our present population ; 
he will have been put in possession of not the least suggestive 
facts by which he must appraise, if he will appraise justly, the 
claims of a great people. Other facts remain to be told, more in- 




:384 



THE IRISHMAN I.N CANADA. 



teresting, perhaps, but not more suggestive. I shall have, by-and- 
bye, to describe the post-rebellion Irish immigration, with all the 
cultivating and refining influences which came in its train. But 
before doing that, the most stirring and instructive events in our 
annals will have to be recounted more fully than has yet been 
done by anybody, but not more fully than they deserve — the 
heroic struggle against a tyrannical oligarchy, the birth amid bitter 
throes of our constitutional life. 



CHAPTER IX. 



1 



I proceed to pass in review an eventful period during which 
many of the greatest men Canada has produced rose to their 
full stature. If we have in us the spirit of our sires, if we 
are made of the fibre of which ancestors should be made, if we 
have such hearts as are the fit foundation stones of nations, these 
men built for themselves an everlasting name. 

In those years two j )ung men came into prominence who were 
destined to play great parts, who are still amongst us, whose 
hands have done much to mould this young country, but whose 
career and character it will not fall to my lot to paint. I speak 
of Sir John Macdonald and the Honourable George Brown. I 



[Authorities for Chapter IX.— Gourlay's Works; Lord Durham's Report; News- 
papers ; "Travel and Transportation," by Thomas C Keefer, C. E.,in " Eighty Years' 
Progress from 1781 to 1861 ; " " Historical Sketch of Education in Upper and Lower 
Canada," by J. George Hodgins, LL.D., F.R.G.S., in "Eighty Years' Progress from 
1781 to 1861;" "Sch<x)i.. and Universities on the Continent," by Matthew Arnold; 
" The Emigrant to North America ; " " McMuUen's History ; " Kaye's " Life of Lord 
Metcalfe ; " " Our Portrait Gallery " in the Dublin University Magazine ; Willis's 
" Sketches in Canada ; " Sir B. Bonnycastle's " Canada and the Canadians ; " " Bio- 
graphy of the Hon. W. H. Merritt, M.P.;" Original sources : ''Salmon-Fishing in 
Canada," by a Resident, edited by Colonel Sir James Edward Alexander, Knt., 
K.C.L.S.,14th Regiment, with illustrations; London: Green, Longman 8c Roberts, 
1860. This is dedicated to an Irishman, Lieutenant-General Sir William Rowan, 
K. C.B., Colonel 19th Regiment, lately commanding the forces and administrator of 
the Gorsmment of Canada. Hansard.] 



CHARACTER OF THIS HISTORY. 



885 



shall, however, have to allude briefly to the parts played by these 

gentlemen in the great struggle ; briefly, because I am dealing 

with Canadian history from a special standpoint, and yet that 

special stand-point will not prevent me treating the period on 

which we are now entering in the broad epic spirit of history. 

Singularly happy for this work is it, that the two great periods of 

C* ladian history were controlled by Irish genius. In other parts 

of the book — 

" We must tread a tamer measure 
To a milder homelier lyre." 

and this little essay, from first to last, is but a tributary to the great 
river of history, and may one day be lost in its capacious stream. 
But the rivulet can quench the thirst of the faint, and refresh 
the weary limb ; in its depths gems serene of ray may rest ; the 
precious ore be cast up on its shores ; beautiful lives gll ^e through 
its crystal arcades ; and this little book may likewise refresh, and 
inspire, and correct, and in the future even, speak fruitfully to 
men, undeceive the deceived, recall the betrayed from the mazes 
of betrayal, and help in that straightening, setting-up process, 
which I think is going on, and which years of slavery and a prop- 
aganda of passion and ignorance have made so necessary. It is 
better to be useful than famous. If these humble pages do a good 
day's work, others will take up the thread ; echo will answer echo ; 
an influence unknown and unthought of will live in the lives of 
Irishmen, nay, of all Canadians, when the hand that traces these 
letters will be a clod of the valley. Beautiful results will bloom 
around, because wounded feelings have been healed, drooping 
hopes invigorated, noble ambitions kindled, charity diffused, jus- 
tice vindicated, the truth told. 

The rebellion of 1837-8, and the union of the two Canadas, were 
but incidents in the gretj struggle for responsible government, of 
which the foundation was laid in the closing years of the eigh- 
teenth century. But the structure rose slowly amid difficulty and 
strife. The building was a roofless shell until 1841, and the 
coping stone was not placed until six years afterwards. 

Early, in both Lower and Upper Canada, inevitable difficulties 

arose out of the fact that popular government was allied with 

personal government, qualified by the cupidity of a second chamber. 
25 




886 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



I 



A tendency towards independence in Lower Canada, and a dispute 
between the provinces respecting import duties, led the Imperial 
Parliament to attempt a solution by a Union Bill, which, while 
conceding the claims of Upper Caiiada in respect to import duties, 
leant strongly in the direction of making the Executive indepen- 
dent of the Assembly, a measur ? whicn caused much alarm among 
the people of French origin in Lower Canada. At a time, when 
the great question whether Frenchmen are fit for parliamentary 
government, is still discussed, it would be instructive to study the 
period now before us, in Lower Canada, and to note how much 
better, men of French descent understood the genius of popular 
institutions, than the English governcrs, or indeed English states- 
men, alw'^ys excepting, to go back nearly a quarter of a century, 
that t\traordinary raan Cliarles James Fox, whose genius made 
the future present, and the distant near. 

In Lower Canada, in 1825, the estimates were laid before the 
Assembly without any distinction between the funds appropriated 
by the Crown, and the supplementary vote required from the 
House, The next vear. Lord Dalhousie having returned from his 
short leave of absence in England, great indignation was created 
by the estimates bein^^ laid before the Assembly in two classes, 
and its fancied power over the Executive destroyed. With French 
Canadians of talent excluded from office ; the mass of the people 
speaking a language alien to the Imperial isles; favouritism; seig- 
norial rights ; what could be expected but discontent on the part 
of a Province, now numbering four hundred and twenty thousand 
souls, and ojiposition and protest on the part of a chamber whose 
functions were reduce 1 to the level of farce ? 

In Upper Canada, the Crown and Clergy Reserves which inter- 
fered with the settlement of the Province, as Mr. Talbot points 
out very eloquently in his book, and other abuses, created discon- 
tent. When in 1817, the Assembly wished to inquire into such 
matters, it was prorogued by the Governor — contemptuous treat- 
ment which could have Imt one result, to aggravate discontent. 
Amid discontent and discussion, the root of existing evils was 
seen, and responsible government, in one form or another, began 
to take outline in thoughtful minds. 

About this time a Scotchman named Gourlay, appc ared like a 



BM 



GOURLAY AND MACKENZIE. 



387 



portentous comet on the horizon of "The Family Compact." He 
was full of inquiries, and full of schemes, and therefore a visitor 
most unpleasant to those who were farming this great Province 
for themselves. The foolish Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
instead of seeing that whatever tended to raise discussion, and 
to foster interest in the country, was calculated to create a public 
spirit, without which free institutions are a doubtful blessing, 
levelled a paragraph of a speech from the throne at the head of a 
persecuted man, who, whatever his eccentricities, had new ideas, 
which are more valuable to a community than a thousand emi- 
grants, being to it, indeed, what light and sunshine are to the phy- 
sical world, bringing freshness, op(^ning r.p lanes of beauty and 
avenues of wealth. In a population of one hundred and twenty 
thousand, meetings of delegates were prohibited, in order to hit 
poor Gourlay. This Act was a couple of years afterwards re- 
pealed, under the influence of an impending election. Every year 
the Reform Party was taking shape and consistency. The General 
Election of the Autumn of 1825,resulte 1 in an Assembly in which 
the Family Compact was in a minority, and outside the Assembly 
the mantle of Gourlay had fallen on William Lyon Mackenzie. 
Little need be said, especially in this work, of Mackenzie. His 
story, surely, notwithstanding some faults not an unaffecting one, 
has been told by an appreciative and able pen.* It would be un- 
generous to deny either Mackenzie or Gourlay, some of the credit 
for responsible government. But neither of them conceived the 
idea of responsible government as we enjoy it. Mackenzie advo- 
cated making the Legislative Council elective. This, he thought, 
would remedv all existinr/ evils. Baldwin was the first to see 
how the knot might be cut, and it is to him we owe our present 
form of government, and that the country tided successfully over 
a dangerous crisis. 

That there were ample grounds for complaint and agitation in 
those days may be easily shown. In 1825, a question arose re- 
specting the reporting of the debates of the House of Assembly. A 
vote was passed to meet the expense, but was dishonoured by the 
governor. In 1826, a committee was appointed to inquire into 



♦ Charles Lindsey. 



388 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



m 



the expediency of encouraging reporting, with power to send for 
persons and papers. John Rolph was chairman, and he reported 
on the 26th of December. It was submitted that in every free 
country the public had encouraged the reporting of Legisla- 
tive proceedings, that the English House of Commons had never 
succeeded in embarrassing or suppressing their publication, that 
valuable knowledge relating to parliamentary histoiy, the usages 
and privileges of parliament, and ',he liberties of the people had 
been derived from such publication, that in the then state of the 
Province there was not suiScient patronage given to any one jour- 
nal to reward a reporter for the time and labour which would be 
consumed in reporting the debates, and that as the vote of the 
previous years had been dishonoured by His Excellency, it was 
the duty of the (Committee to recommend in the strongest manner 
such measures for the security and independence of the press as 
was in the power of the House, &nd free from the veto or control 
of the present administration. It is evident from this what was 
the arbitrary character of the Government in 1826. 

Again, on February 14th, 1827, John Wilson, the speaker of the 
Commons House of Asivjmbly, in the name of the House, addressed 
His Excellencj% saying that they had learned that it was his de- 
sign to prorogue parliament on the following Saturday. The 
number and importance of the measures in progress before them 
and which it would be impossible to despatch by that time in- 
duced them to request that His Excellency would be p^ ised to 
defer the prorogation to a more distant day. The request was 
refused, and the House was prorogued on Saturday the 19th. 

Sir P. Maitland, in his reply, said it was with reluctance he had 
in the previous year acceded to a similar request from the Legisla- 
tive Council. To avoid the occurrence of such a necessity he had 
that session given an early intimation of the intended time of pro- 
rogation. If any unforesoen objects of great moment had presented 
themselves, he took it for granted that they would have referred 
to them. If none such had occurred he would rather leave it to 
the Legislature to resume at a future session any matter not of 
extraordinary public moment which might be left unfinished, than 
" produce uncertainty on all future occasions by departing from 
the day I have named." 



DOCTOR BALDWIN. 



389 



At this time we find W. W. Baldwin in parliament, he and Wm. 
Lyon Mackenzie apparently working together. The Honourable 
Henry John Bolton, Solicitor-General, was censured by the House 
for his conduct in what was known as the Hamilton Outrage, and 
for his bearing before a committee appointed by the House. 
The reproof of the Speaker is on the journals. Dr. Baldwin was 
active in bringing Bolton and Allan MacNab before the House. 

Dr. Baldwin had a firm grasp of the principles of popular 
liberty, and he bequeathed his principles as well as his integrity 
to his son. Indeed his son expressly declares in a letter written 
to a member of the House of Assembly, with reference to his 
negotiations with Sir Francis Bond Head, that hid opinions were 
not hastily formed, but were imbibed from his father. The student 
of the journals of the Upper Canada House of Assembly, will 
find Dr. Baldwin mooting constitutional questions in 1825. The 
last most striking glimpse we get of him was at the great Reform 
demonstration held in Yonge Street, and called the Durham meet- 
ing. " The old Doctor," says an eye-witness, " was pulled off the 
waggon, and they told him it was only his gray hairs saved him. 
Hincks was there too, and he had . o run for his life." 

He early removed to Toronto, where his son Robert was born, 
in 1804. Here, if a Canadian colloquialism is permissible, he went 
back on iEsculapius, and began to court the stern Muse of law. 
Rather would it be more correct to say that he united medijal and 
forensic practice. He had, so early as 1802, employed himself in 
the even more useful character of pedagogue. Advertisements 
appeared in the public prints of those days, saying that Dr. Bald- 
win, understanding tliat some of the gentlemen of the Town of 
York were anxions for the establishment of a classical school, 
intended to open a school in which he would instruct twelve boys 
in writing, reading, classics, and arithmetic, the terms for each boy 
being eight guineas per annum, payable quarterly or half-yearly, 
" one guinea entrance, and one cord of wood to be supplied by 
each of the boys on opening the school." A note to the advertise- 
ment said that the advertiser would meet his pupils at Mr, Will- 
cocks's house m Duke Street. The date is York, Dec. 18th, 1802, 
and the school was to commence on the 1st of January. One of 
his pupils was the late Chief Justice McLean, who used to tell 



390 



THE IIUSHMAN IN CANADA. 



how the pupils got a holiday on the biiih of tho future statesman, 
in 1804. Dr. Baldwin was, with a number of others, called to the 
bar without having received any previous training. In connexion 
with his dual practice, some annising anecdotes are told. It was 
not an uncommon thing for him to receive, vrhile engaged in an 
intricate law suit, a peremptory call to be present at the advent 
into the world of some who were destined to become well-known 
citizens of Toronto. The judge would usually adjourn the court, 
pending the interesting event. 

Travelling on circuit in those days was not a pleasant matter. 
The journey from York to Niagara, when navigation closed, had 
to be performed on foot, there being no roads or paths for even 
a single horse. On one such journey Dr. Baldwin lost his way, 
and was compelled to sleep in the woods all night, and next day 
swim the River Credit, which was swollen. 

There is perhaps but one street in Toronto worthy of its pro- 
gress and its future. All our streets are too narrow with one ex- 
ception. But Spadina Avenue is worthy of any capital in the 
world. This avenue which is one hundred and twenty feet wide 
was laid out by Dr. Baldwin as an approach to his residence at 
Spadina, where he fondly hoped a Baldwin would for ever dwell. 
He wished to found a family, the head of which should draw a 
princely revenue from an entailed estate. Oddly enough, it was 
his son who csrried through the legislature the bill abolishing the 
rights of primogeniture. He died in 1844, and another Irishman, 
Sir Francis Hincks, placed a chaplet on the tomb of one so worthy, 
so disinterested and so excellent, whose loss was of a magnitude 
it was difficult to appreciate, and still more difficult to repair. 

There had already long entered on the stage of public life one 
well calculated to repair that loss, who was connected by the dear- 
est ties with the versatile professional man and enlightened states- 
man, who had thus passed away amid eulogy which was without 
affectation, and a regret whose universality defied hyperbole. The 

name of Robert Baldwin is a household word in Canada. But 
perhaps his character is frequently misapprehended by all classes, 

and to the rising generation his remarkable career is known only 

in outline. To a man who was not without fairness and who had 

a respectable amount of literary ability, the most spotless states- 



BALDWINS COURAGE. 



891 



man Canada has produced seemed an unscrupulous agitator.* 
To others his character lias appeared weak, because his views on 
religious (questions were what would be called high church. A 
great hand has, however, demonstrated that we cannot measure 
the strength of a man's mind by his beliefs within that region 
which admits of no tests, on which the accumidated expeiience of 
mankind throws little or no light, which according to pecidiarity 
of faculty and character assumes such different hues and vary- 
ing importance, on which some tread as Ciirist did v.'r> the sea, 
as though it was solid land, and on which others are explorers 
without compass or chart, wandering voyagers of despair, for 
whom no guiding stai' ever glitters and for whom no port is re- 
served. Mr. Mackenzie, the present prime minister, once s})oke of 
Baldwin as a pure-minded but timid statesman. But the truth 
is he exemplified in the happiest manner the family motto, " iiee 
ti/mide nee tertiere." He has been described as a man of one idea ; 
one idead men are never timid. If he shrank from dealing in a 
sweepingly radical manner with the Clergy Reserves, it was not 
timidity held him back, but his scruples. " Alas ! " said the 
Elector Prince Frederick, when the Bohemians would choose him 
as their King. " If I accept the crown I shall be accused of ambi- 
tion, if I reject it I shall be branded Avlth cowardice." When at 
one time it seemed that Mr. Hiucks was flirting with the Govern- 
ment, and the Inspector-General at the time called out, " Go it 
Hincks, we'll take care of you," Baldwin dropped Mr. Hincks a 
note, telling him to decide at once to which side he belonged. 
Did this look like timidity ? The scathing tongue of Hincks was 
not a lash a timid man would gratuitously provoke. For a long 
time he had in the House onlj- a following of seven. Ho lived to 
have too many supporters.^f* But did he shun the wilderness ? 
On the last occasion of his election he was speaking at Sharon, 
north of Newmarket, when an elector said to him,, that they would 
elect him if he would pledge himself to do avfuy with the Cleigy 



* Bonnji^castle's " Canada and the Canadians." Vol. 2, p. 157. 

fWhen at the head of the Government and in the full tide of his success he used to 
say : " When a government has too many supporters the members of the jiai-ty are 
too exacting. Whereas, wh n there is a strong opposition, you can say — ' Oh we cannot 
do that, we should lose our position-' " 



392 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Reserves. Baldwin's reply reminds us of Macaulay's and Mill's, 
when each was asked about his religious beliefs " Have I ever," 
said Baldwin, " pledged myself on any question ? I go to the 
House as a free man. I am here to declare to you my opinions. 
If you approve of those opinions and elect me I will carry them 
out in parliament. If I change those opinions I will come back 
and surrender my trust and give you an opportunity of re-electing 
me or choosing another candidate," He would go to parliament, 
not as their delegate, but as their representative. He saw that 
what Frjnch radicals have so often insisted on and their imita- 
tors in other countries have preached, the "mandat imperatif" 
degrades the member, and in degrading the member degrades 
parliament. Not only so. It deprives the country of the best 
fruits genius has to bestow. Did such language look like that of 
cowardice ? He lost his seat on the next occasion, because he had 
the courage of his opinions. There was a person in North York 
named Pearson, a very strong local man. This important indivi- 
dual called one day on Baldwin and urged his views about the 
Clergy Reserves. Baldwin was firm respecting his view of the 
way the question should be settled. His firmness was mistaken 
for haughtiness. The local magnate was offended, went home, 
made his ring and vowed Baldwin should be beaten iiext election. 
If the constituency was in favour of sweeping away the abuse of 
the Clergy Reserves and doing this in a way of which Baldwin 
would disapprove, it was quite right, whatever Mr. Baldwin's 
past services, to choose another candidate. I have been assured 
however that but for the supposed offence to Pearson, he would 
have been again elected. The moral for ambitious candidates is 
clearly to cultivate local magnates. The moral for the people is 
that they should think for themselves and rise above sectionalism. 
The proposition that, in dealing with the character and capa- 
city of a public man, you have nothing to do with his private life 
unless his private conduct should interfere with the efficient dis- 
charge of his public functions, is incontrovertible. There is a 
danger even in dwelling or private virtues while the man's 
career is yet unfinished, because attention is diverted from the 
real issue of capacity and integrity. Nor has it been uncommon 
to hear the private virtues of the man pleaded in extenuation of 



BALDWINS COURAGE. 



393 



the inaptitude of the statesman. When it was pleaded for Mr. 
Percival that he was a good father, Sydney Smith wittily said ho 
had prefen'ed that that gentleman had whipped the little Perci- 
vals if he had saved his country. When however a man has 
passed from the scene, his private chanicter may for a double 
reason be dwelt on ; he is no longer a candidate for public place, 
and he is beyond hypocrisy. Then if the statesman, or soldier, 
or poet, or orator has worn the white rose of a blameless private 
life, it ought to be pointed out. Baldwin was not a man of genius 
as that term is properly understood. But though he had not the 
incommunicable gift he seems to have been made of the choicest 
human clay ; no where does this show more beautifully than in hia 
private life. A tenderly affectionate father, as a I'^ver and a 
husband, this man of somewhat cold and stern manners, takes his 
place side by side with the heroes of romantic attachments. His 
wife was the sister of the Hon. Robert Baldwin Sullivan, and there- 
fore his own first cousin. She was singularly beautiful. They were 
married in 1827 ; she died in 1836, when he was only thirty-two 
years of age, and for twenty-two years he cherished her memory, 
as Petrarch that of Laura, as Dante that of Beatrice. He was 
accustomed to retire to his room on the" anniversary of her death, 
and meditate and recall in a happy melancholy, the 'touch of that 
vanished hand, and hear in the stillness of his sorrow the silvery 
note of that voice which was forever hushed. 1 have said he was 
not a man of genius, but his speeches show })ower and breadth 
of argument and sometimes not a little humour. It was he chris- 
tened Lominick Daly, the permanent secretary, the Vicar of Bray 
of Canadian politics, the lily of the valley.* He had that which 
Cicero says is one of the greatest powers an orator can have, 
authority. At a reform demonstration which took place in the 
County of Hastings, on the 17th Feb., 1848, a speaker said he 
had been asked how it was that Mr. Baldwin carried conviction 
when he had so little of the orator about him. The reply was, 
" I am not surprised Avhen I consider the patriotic and able course 



"Coming to the character of the Hon. Dominick Daly, he fMr. Baldwin) stopped 
and asked what he should say of him. That honourable gentleman said he is like the 
lily of the valley— he toils not, neither does he spin. Really we can afford to make him 
a present to the government (loud laughter)." Parliamentary report. 



394 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



!i 



I 



lie ha.s pursued in public life." His reading was not wide, but 
his literary taste wns g()o<l. Moore was his favourite poet. The 
same fervour which carried conviction to political audiences per- 
suaded juries. They felt he was a nian who dared not lie. Mr. 
James Stitt u.sed to travel with him on his electioneering tours, and 
he has often heaid him say: — ' I would ratlier never be elected 
at all than tell an untruth to one of these men." His life has 
something of the completeness and beauty of a well-kept garden, 
where tree, and hill, and streai'i balance each other, where if there 
is no sublimity there is no deformity, where the air has no wild 
stimulus of the mountain breeze, no smiting thrilling power of 
ocean wave, but only the domestic i)urity of the well-kept 
home. Milton was a disagreeable husband and a harsh fath n- ; 
Howard could turn away from his philanthrophic labours to play 
the tyrant in his own house, and to invent the dreadful system of 
solitary confinement ; Marlborougn was a miser and a corruption- 
ist ; the victor of Trafalgar was the slave of a childish vanity ; 
Wolfe was at times a vain-glorious boaster ; Pitt was too fond of 
the bottle ; the heroic William was unfaithful to his wife ; the 
youth of Alfred was stained by dissipation. But though Bald- 
win was neither a Milton, nor a Marlborough, nor a Pitt, but a 
brave wise statesman who was equal to the demands made on 
him by his country, if we cannot claim for him that his life was 
as splendid as that of those great men, we can that it was more 
balanced. 

Baldwin was born on the 12th of May, 1804, on the north- 
west corner of Frederick Street and Palace (now Front), at the 
house of his grandfather, Mr. Willcocks. This gentleman was a 
native of Cork, who in 1790 conceived the project of founding a 
settlement in Canada. He was promised a township, n condition 
that he should settle it with emigrants. When he arrived with 
his emigrants as far as Osw^pgo, he found that the Government 
had rescinded the Orders in Council. Of the emigrants he 
had brought out he sent back at his own expense as many as 
wished to return. Those who were so disposed dispersed themselves 
throughout the United Stat.es, while he and his family came to 
Canada and received allotments of land. Dr. Baldwin, shortly 
after coming to Canada, married a dauj^terof Mr. Willcocks, by 



I 



1 



POLITICS IN 1825. 



395 



whom lie had five sons, two of whom .survived liim, Robert nnd 
William Augustus. 

Robert was called to the bar in tlie Trinity Tenn of 1825, and 
practised with his father under tlie name of Baldwin & Son. They 
afterwards associated with them Robert Baldwin Sullivan. 
Robert early became a member of the Osgoode Society, and at 
his death lield the office of Treasurer. He knew the value of a 
high chnractei- to the profession, and as a bencher was very strict 
in enforcing ])rofessional rules. We have seen how he early mar- 
ried his cousin. He had by her two sons and two daughters. One 
of the daughters married the Honourable John Ross. One of the 
sons chose the sea for a profession. The eldest son, W. Willcocks, 
occui)ied for some time a large farm handed down from his great 
grandfather, Mr. Willcocks. 

In 1824 be ran for the County of York with James E. Small, 
afterwards Judge of the County of Middlesex, but both were 
defeated by Messrs. Ketchum and Mackenzie. In the 
following year, Mr. John B Robinson, who then represented 
York (Toronto), vacated his office of Attorney-General, and 
his seat in Parliament, on becoming Chief Justice of the 
Court of Queen's Bench. Baldwin came forw. rd, his opponent 
now, being, oddly enough, Mr. James E. Small. Baldwin was 
returned but lost his seat on petition, there being an informality 
in the Writ which was issued by the Lieutenant-Governor, instead 
of by the Speaker of the TTouse. This was one of the first pro- 
tests against personal, and in favour of parliamentary, govern- 
ment. Mr. Baldwin, on again presenting himself was again 
elected. The next year, on the death of George IV., parliament 
was dissolved, and Mr. Baldwin on seeking re-election was de- 
feated by Mr. Jarvis* whom he had beaten twelve months before. 
From that period until the Union he did not seek a seat in Parlia- 
ment : but he continued to watch the progress of events and 
never ceased to contend that so long as the executive officers 
were independent of the people, no change in the character of 
the Legislative Council would be other than illusory, or as he 



* Mr. W. B, Jarvis, then, and for many years afterwards sheriff of the Home T>ia- 
trict and afterwards ot the County of York. 



306 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i 




somutiiiujH put it, that tho Executive Council to })o effective should 
always l)e able to connnand tho support of the Legislative Assem- 
bly. We have here the key note to his whole political career. 
He laboured to make the Executive dependent on the will of the 
people, when such a claim was denounced as revolutionary. It 
was to secure this object as we shall see, that he tbuglit with 
such unbending purpose, that generous, noble character, but re- 
actionary governor. Lord Metcalfe, with his ideas of Government 
borrowed from India and Jamaica. 

In 1835, Baldwin visited England and the Continent. While 
in England he carried on a correspondence with Lord Glenelg, 
the Minister for the Colonies — for he was denied an interview 
— urging the necessity of giving the Canadian people a real 
constitution instead of the sham by which they were mocked. 
On his return to Canada, he found Sir Francis Bond Head 
at war with the Assembly and with popular opinion. Influ- 
enced perhaps by instructions from home, and perhaps by a 
sincere desire to serve the Province, Sir Francis Head determined 
to have an Executive Council composed of the leaders of brfth parties. 
He was confessedly no politician. We have had for many years in 
our midst a distinguished man who is not only infinitely superior to 
Sir Francis Head as a literary man, but is a veteran political 
writer. He has contended for government without party, but has 
never explained the manner in which such a government could be 
worked under a constitutional system. W^hen Head made 
-overtures to Baldwin, Baldwin said he would afford him 
assistance on condition that he had his entire confidence, and that 
responsible government should be established ; pointing out that 
under responsible government His Excellency would have the full 
power of a constitutional king, which was all that the Canadian 
constitution, properly understood, gave him ; that he would 
always have the right to accept or reject the advice of any of his 
exe<^,utive councellors, they of course resigning on their advice be- 
ing rejected. " His Excellency," says BaMwin in his letter to Mr. 
Perry, "'very candidly declared his entire dissent from such views 
and opinions. He, nevertheless, with the most gracious expres- 
sion of satisfaction at the very full and candid manner in which I 
had opened them to him, renewed his soliv > «,tion for my accept- 



SIR FRANCIS BOND MEAD. 



sor 



ance of a soat in the Executive Council, suf^j^esting as an induce- 
ment for such acceptance the increased facilities which my 
place in the Executive Council would afford me towards the 
more efficiently representing and urging my views." Baldwin told 
him that no administration could give him much assistance that 
had not the conhdonce of the majority of the Provincial Pai'Ha- 
mont, and tliat he did not think this confidence could be obtained 
without more help than his single name would, bring. In the 
seconfl place he said he had no confidence, politically speaking, in 
the existing councillors, all of them Tories. These were, Peter- 
Robinson, Commissioner of Crown Land.i, O. H. Monkl.viul, In.spec- 
tor General, and Joseph Wells, Bursar of King's College. After a 
consultation with Dr. Baldwin and Dr. Rolph, Robert Baldwin 
declined to enter the Government. 

The Lieutenant-Governor again sent for him and requested him 
to state more explicitly what the assistance was to which he harl 
alluded. Baldwin replied that the assistance of Dr. Rolph, Mr. 
Bidwell. his father, and Mr. Dunn was most desirable. After 
further negotiations Baldwin, with his friends Rolph and Dunn,, 
were sworn in. The new councillors, as we have seen, did not 
conceal from the Lieutenant-Governor their views as to tiie pro- 
priety of the Executive Council being consulted in all public 
affairs. They patriotically gave Sir Francis Head a trial, especially 
as he urged that in the Council thpy would have more opportunity 
of advancing thoir views. Sir Francis began to make appoint- 
ments on his own responsibility — appointments which were 
censured by the Assembly. The duties of the Council were re- 
stricted to land matters, and they were kept in ignorance of 
administrative acts for which, nevertheless, public opinion held 
them responsible. Contrary altogether to the expectations of the 
Lieutenant-Governor, of the House of Assembly, and of uhe public, 
the old members of the Council joined the new in sigaing a re- 
monstrance against s. system of government under which the 
sworn councillors ',vere kept studiously in the dark as to the pro- 
ceedings of the Lieutenant-Governor. It can scarcely be doubted 
that Sir Francis Head expected that he would have the support 
of the three councillors who had been for years acting under the 
old irresponsible system. He, however, did not hesitate as to his; 



398 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



1 ' 



I 



i I 



course, which was to require hiw councillors either to abandon 
their principles or to forfeit his confidence. The result was the 
resignation of the entire Council, luid a breach between Sir Fran- 
cis Head and the House of Assembly, which had been but recently 
elected, and which contained a majority of Reformers. 

At tiiis crisis an Irishman stept prominently forward on the 
political stage, who was to play a brilliant and even distinguished 
part, and till a great space in history, though his career unfor- 
tunately leaves on the mind the impression that he was cynically 
indifferent as to the side he espoused. This impression is in part 
true, in part false. The weak side of his character comes out in 
the reply he made to a friend who complimented him on a bril- 
liant speech made on one side of a question. " Yes," he said " it 
was a good sj 'ech, but not half so good as the one I made a year 
ago from the other point of view." This, however, may have been 
in part jest. The strong side of his character appears in his 
large grasp of political issues. Robert Baldwin Sullivan was a 
contrast to his cousin Robert Baldwin. Intellectually brilliant, 
and morally weak, he yet did work for Canada which should 
never be forgotten. He is indeed the most shining figure among 
the Irishmen who took part in the political struggles which pre- 
ceded the establishment of parliamentary or, as it has been gen- 
erally termed in Canada, — Responsibk Government. A native 
of Baudon, in the County of Cork, whence his fathe .• emigrated 
to Upper Canada in the year 1819, when the future statesman was 
a youth of about eighteen years of age,* his mother, as we have 
seen, was a sister of Dr. William Warren Baldwin, and it was ow- 
ing to the fact that many members of his wife's family had 
made Canada their home, that Mr. Sullivan's father was led to 
come here, 

Robert S".llivan was for a short time employed in business, his 
elder brother Daniel, who died soon after arriving at manhood 
having been destined for the legal profession. Robert soon deter- 
mined to follov/ the same career as his brother, and v/a.> articled 
to his uncL Dr. Baldwin about the same time as his disti;iguished 
cousin. Mr. ^"llivan speedily attained great eminence in his 

* Morgan, with his usual accuracy, says Sullivan was born in Toronto. 



1 ■^ *^T 



ROBERT BALDWIN SULLIVAN. 



391) 



profession, to which he devoted himself most assiduously. At this 
period of his career he had not taken any active part in politics, 
although from his family connexions he was looked upon as belong- 
ing to the liberal party, with which his uncle and brother-in law 
had been identified. Both had, however, in a great measure with- 
drawn from public life, when R. B. Sullivan entered on his pub- 
lic career. About this time a letter was addressed by Mr. Joseph 
Hume, M. P., to Mr, William Lyon Mackenzie in which he refer- 
red in strong terms to the " baneful domination of the Moth jr 
Country/' and expressed a hope that the subsisting connexion 
would soon terminate. This language created intense excitement 
throughout Upper Canada, and a public meeting was called, the 
avowed object of which was to unite all classes of the people, who 
were favourable to British connexion, without reference to home 
views or questions of domestic policy. On this occasion Mr. Sul- 
livan took a prominent part in opposition to Mr. Mackenzie, who 
had recently returned from England, whither he had gone on a 
political mission after his expulsion from the fourth Parliament of 
Upper Canada. 

About this time the City of Toronto was incorporated, and Mr. 
Mackenzie became its first mayor in the year 1834, During this 
year Mr. Sullivan took considerable interest in municipal affairs, 
acting in concert with the minority of the corporation, who were 
members of the Conservative party. At the next municipal elec- 
tion he became a candidate for St. David's Ward, in opposition to 
Mr. Mackenzie, and carried his election, after which he was chosen 
mayor of the city. He was filling that office, and devoting him- 
.self most energetically to the improvement of the city, and 
more especially to its drainage, when Sir Francis Head at the 
commencement of the year 1830, succeeded Sir John Colborne a.s 
Lieutenant-Governor. The earliest acts of the new Lieutenant- 
Governor, with their results have been recorded. 

In the present crisis Sir Francis Head applied for assistance 
to Mr. Sullivan, whose term, of office as mayor had recently ex- 
pired. Sir Francis Head was evidently desirous to avoid identi- 
fying himself with the ^Id official party, and Mr. Sullivan 
occupied exactly the position that was likely to render him a 
valuable ally. He had no sympathies with the old party, and yet 




400 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



i 



i 



I 



he had by a popular vote in the capital city defeated the most 
active member of the Reform party, and had thus become for the 
time being the leader of the Conservatives. Sullivan accepted the 
offer made to him, in conjunction with the Honourable William 
Allan, Captain (afterwards Admiral) Baldwin, uncle of Robert 
Baldwin, John Elmsley, and Mr. Cross. Mr. (noAV Chief Justice) 
Draper was soon after added. The House of Assembly passed a 
resolution of want of confidence in the new councillors. The sequel 
is like a burlesque. Sir Francis and the Assembly entered on a war 
of words, in which the literary training of the former helped him 
to extemporise an artillery of Billingsgt ., with which the old 
worn metal of the latter could not compare. In agitation he beat 
Mackenzie, who beaten at constitutional weapons placed himself 
at Sir Francis Head's meicy. by leaning, however lightly at first, 
to rebellion in a Province which was as loyal then as it is to-day. 
This enabled Sir Francis to impress the people with the idea that 
the constitution was in danger, and that the edge of the axe was 
on the rope that bound us to British rule. Not only did the 
demagogic talents of the Lieutenant-Governor weaken Mackenzie 
7 and Bid well, — men like Baldwin stood completely aside from them. 
Bidweil was foolish enough to lay before the House a seditious 
letter of Papineau. The majority of the A.s»embly still playing 
into the hands of the Governor stopped the supplies. Government 
retorted by stopping theirs. Every money bill passed during the 
session was blocked, including that for the allowances of members. 
Sir Francis Head prorogued the House, and in doing so scolded 
the members roundly. He was a vain man, and was delighted with 
the excitement he had created. Nor was it the less gratifying 
because an element of it was the shock of disappointment he 
had given the Liberals. When he arrived some few weeks 
earlier, the walls were placarded v/ith "Sir Francis Head, a tried 
Reformer; " words which caused no nraall surprise to a man who, 
up to that moment had, as he said himself, no more connection 
with human politics than the horses which were drawing him. 
Sir Francis Head's conduct contrasted very unfavourably with that 
of Lord Gosford in Lower Canada ; and if anything could justify 
Mackenzie it would have been the wild and ur-cerly unconstitu- 
tional conduct of the representative of Majesty in Upper Canada. 



in 



1 



AN EXCITING GENERAL ELECTION. 



401 



1 



He dissolved the House, and put before the country, not the issue 
as to the responsibility of the Executive, but that of the existence 
of British connexion. " Sir F. Head," says Lord Durham's report, 
" who appears to have thought that the maintenance of the connex- 
ion with Great Britain depended upon his triumph over the 
majority of the A ssembly, embarked in the contest with a deter- 
mination to use every influence in his power in order to bring it 
to a successful issue. He succeeded, in fact, in putting the issue 
in such a light before the Province, that a great portion of the 
people really imagined that they were called upon to decide the 
question of separation by their votes." 

A most exciting general election took place, at which Baldwin 
was not a candidate, which resulted in the return of a House of 
Assembly opposed to the introduction of responsible government. 
Mr. Sullivan, shortly after his acceptance of office as an Executive 
Councillor, wa;- created a Legislative Councillor and Commissioner 
of Crown Lands, which latter office he continued to hold until the 
Union. 

The general election of 1836 was followed by a commercial 
crisis, one incident of which was the suspension of specie payment 
by nearly all the Canadian Banks. This involved an extra ses- 
sion of the Legislature, which was speedily followed by the rebel- 
lion. 

We have already seen how Irishmen of every creed turned out 
in defence of the British Canadian flag. " The great mass of the 
emigrants," says Sir Richard Bonnycast'e writing in 1846, " may 
however be said to come from Ireland, ar d to consist of mechanics 
of tlie most inferior class, and of labourers. If they be Orange- 
men, they defy the Pope and the devil as heartily in Canada, as 
in Londonderry, and are loyal to the backbone. If they are Re- 
pealers, they, come here sure of immediate wealth, to kick up a 
deuce of a row, for two shillings and six pence is paid for a day's 
labour, which two shillings and sixpence was a hopeless week's 
fortune in Ireland ; yet the Catholic Irish who have been long 
settled in the country are by no mear s the worst subjects in this 
Transjitlantic realm, as I can personally testify, having had the com- 
mand of large bodies of them during the border troubles of 1837-8. 
They are all loyal and true. In the event of a war, the Catlioiic 
26 



402 



THE IRISHMAN IN CANADA. 



Irish to a man will be on the side of England." The same writer 
proceeds to pledge himself for the loyalty of the Catholic priesthood. 

On the 18th of November, 1837, Mackenzie, Rolph, and Morrison, 
with others, had decided at a secret meeting on a plan of opera- 
tions, in unison with Fapineau. The rebellious bund were io be 
marched by Yonge Street, on Toronto. The place of rendezvot s was 
Montgomery's tavern; the time, between six o'clock and ten o'clock 
at night on the 17th of December. Four thousand men were to 
march on Toronto, seize the arms in the City Hall, and capture 
the Lieutenant-Governor and his advisers. Rumours had reached 
Sir Francis Head, of the intended rising, but he was incredulous. 
On the 2nd of December, our old friend Captain Fitzgibbon learned 
that quantities of pikes had been collected in the neighbourhood 
of Markham. Still nothing was done, and one of the Judges 
was heard to declare that the over zeal of the Captain had given 
him a good deal of trouble. 

How Rolph deranged Mackenzie's plans, who was, with his ac- 
customed energy, hurrying about the country, preparing for the 
rising ; how the insurgent leader learned \/ith dismay, on the 3rd 
of December, that Rolph had altered the day of attack to the -ith ; 
how with a small force he determined to advance on the city ; how 
at last Sir Francis Head became alarmed, and asked Baldwin to sfo 
and meet the rebels with a flag of truce, and ask them what they 
wanted; all this is well known. Baldwin said he had no objec- 
tion to go, but he wanted to have some one with him, and suggested 
Bidwell. Bidwell refused to go, and suggested Dr, Rolph. Dr. 
Rolph, the " secret traitor," as McMuUen callt> him, rode out with 
Baldwin, and was guilty of an act of treachery, which left an 
undying impression on the mind of the honourable man he had 
betrayed. When the flag of truce was sent forward, Mackenzie 
replied they wanted independence, and that the Governor would 
have to put his message in writing within an hour. Rolph and 
Baldwin returned with the answer that the Lieutenant-Governor 
refused to comply with the demands of the insurgeuos. Dr. Rolph 
now rode up to Mackenzie, and advised him to wait until six 
o'clock, and enter the city under cover of night. Rolph had be- 
trayed his Mend and his country, and Baldwin never spoke to him 
again. How the insurgent mob fled before the fire of a picket of 



AN ORATOR IN HUMBLE LIFE. 



403 



loyalists, need not be dwelt on, nor the further .stages of the miser- 
able rebellion. The Irish throughout the country. Protestant and 
Catholic, turned out from lonely shanty and city home. Fitzcrib- 
bon, by his precautionary measures, saved many lives and much 
money for the country. Thrice the Council generously voted Iiim 
hve thousand acres of land, and thvice was the vote magnanimcusly 
disallowed. The Provincial Parliament parsed a vote of thanks to 
him, and presented him with a sword and some money. In 1850 

M-v!'''^''r^'''.V^ ^'' "^'^'^^'y ''"^^^^«' Her Majesty created him a 
Mihtary Knight of Windsor, and in England, therefore, he pas.sed 
away the evening of his days. There can be no doubt of the nu.u- 
bers of Irish who turned out, in 1837, for the flag; but it is only 
fair to state that in the list of those arrested on weak or good 
grounds, there occur a good many Irish names. 

In Lower Canada an importan