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Full text of "The history of Detroit and Michigan, or, The metropolis illustrated [microform] : a chronological cyclopaedia of the past and present : including a full record of territorial days in Michigan, and the annuals of Wayne County"




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1 



THE HISTORY 



OF 



jdf ^micnntenliM (lejreveiTiids pere;! v»;irmcS ae t^.isiflsarrasin.ou ml fnsfveii' Ic )« yfdmt^ni 

ancien noiiverneur de laville 'ile CaslelsarrasiTi. 




SwWlUUttac Oci Cviutil immwioaf \V liWUlMnajill.Uui(rt.€t(<KiiK.^//fl!' 

( r (lilirrjIiMl iu ifltvi'ifrmi) 







Old Cakmiu.itk Ciu'Kcii— nuw a 1'rison — whrue Cadiliac's honks kki'ose. 

'I'liu picluri' and liiirriiij; ;ire rtproiliuid from the pniiitiiiK prtsmtiil in tin: City of Detroit 
l)y tlic Miiiiicipulily uf Custclsiirrusiii, in I'ruiicc. 



DETROIT AND MICHIGAN 



OR 



$be m^tvopolis Illustrated 



A CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLOIM^:dia OF THE 




PAST AND PRESENT 

|N^'-^'I>1N. A KUI.. KKCOKn OK TKKKrroK.AL OAVS ,N MICHH; 
AND TIIK ANNALS OF WAYNE COUNTY 



" native here, aiul In the man.., Ikiri " 



AN 



nF.TRori' 
SILAS FARMER & CO 

CoKNEK „■ .MoN,<„u Avenue am, Far.mek Sikekt 
1884 



Coi'Ykr;ht, 1884, iiv Sii.AS Fakmiik. 



Ai.i. RiiiHTs Resekvkd. 



KIwlrotytM'd and I*rf.ntt')I by 
TiiK Dktkiiit Kkkk rui':i<H C'iiMImny. 



DEDICATION 



^URING the progress of this work many friends have greatly aided me in many ways; 
one of them, like myself a native of the city, not only assisted me in the manner of 
others, but also gave me special encouragement, saying, oftener doubtless than he 
remembers: "Don't let yourself be hurried'; take time to do it well." These 
I thoughtful, helpful words were privately spoken. I delight in this public acknowledgment of the 
long-time friendship and hearty generosity that inspired their utterance, and gratefully dedicate this. 




THE FIRST HISTORY OF DETROIT, 

TO THOMAS W. PALMER, 



THE FIRST SENATOR FROM MICHIGAN 



NATIVE TO DETROIT. 



Ty best wish is that he may serve the nation, state, and city in as many ways and as effectively 
IS he has served 



The Author. 



PREFACE. 



" And so I i»'nnf(l 
It down, unlll ai Itnxlh it cainc to lu' 
Kor Irnt^'tli and liri'ailtli, I lit' hiv'ncss wliiili you sro." 

iSunyan's " A/io/of^y," 



In the summer of 1874 I planned ;i volume entitled "A History of Detroit," with the purpose of 
issuinv( the work during the National Centennial. As i)reparations projfresseci, the impossihility of 
produein.if a eomplete history in so short a time beeame increasingly apparent, and the plan was 
abandoned. 

After the original plan was given up, the work of gathering information went forward year by 
year, with the purpose of publishing only when no more material w;is known to be obtainable. During 
this period, many have asked why the volume was not thiished, and to not a few, the necessity of .spending 
so nuiih time was not clearly apparent. 

To me the advantages of delay have been daily manifest. 1 now fully understand that a local 
history bears to general history the same relation that a microscopic examination bears to one made with 
the naked eye; and that this is especially true when the history of ;i city nearly two hundred years okl is • 
lobe unfolded, and a work of permanent value i^njduced. The main purpose has been to write a history 
of Detroit, but the relation of the city to the territorial government was such that 1 have been compelled 
to give more of detail concerning the early history of Michigan than can be founil in all other published 
histories. 

Time, patience, discrimination, and large expenditures of money have been essential factors in 
the prei)aration of the volume; I, however, have had no regrets, for the work has been a labor of lo\e, and 
1 have l)een increasingly glad that it was my privilege to write the history of my birthplace. 

In view of the strange and interesting incidents connected with the history of Detroit, and the fact 
that it epitomizes the history of half the continent, and furnishes much information that is duplicated in 
the annals of no other city, it seems strange intleed that no one has heretofore attempted a comprehensive 
view of our fair domain. Undoubtedly there are those who could have woven a finer web, but none 
could be more earnest or enthusiastic, and the work has waited many years for more skilful hands. If 
nativity, continuous residence for twoscore years, and passionate love for the Queen City of the Straits confer 
any fitness for the work, so much, at least, is mine. I have studied Cadillac's own writings, handled 
tomahawks and scalping-knives stained with the blood of a century ago, read original letters written by 
Gladwin and Clark, and, bending over the moldering dust of Hamtramck, " the friend of Washington," 
have received inspiration for my task. 

I am compelled to believe that no stranger or resident of i< ■ vears could have accomplished what 
I have attempted. Without an intimate knowledge of the city, continuing through many years, various 
I obscure and buried facts could not have been unearthed, and historic problems that have eluded all 
previous research would have remained unsolved. A chemist sometimes finds out what elements there 
are in one substance by adding others : in history one can understand certain facts only as he studies 
j them in connection with collateral circumstances. Many topics are so closely related that the history of 
either could not be written without a knowledge of the othir. 

A good history is like a landscape, in that many things are brought at once within the range of 
I vision ; and it should resemble a photograph, preserving those mintite points which give character to the 
subject. Facts of little value in themselves are often of great import when considered with attendant 



VI 



PREFACE. 



i 



circiimstanres, Stars of the first magnitude are easily found : it is the little asteroids that escape 
observation, and as these are discovered various planetary disturbances are explained. 

In local history, details, deemed of trilling importance, are often unrecorded. These are, therefore, 
difficult to obtain, but tiie knowledge th :y give is frecjueiuiy essential as a key to important facts. Items 
that would be unimportant in a national history are in the highest degree appropriate and useful in locil 
annals. I have .s<jmetimes found that a single fact bore such relation to various subjects that allusion to 
it, or at least knowledge of it, was necessary to an intelligent presentation of several themes. Some 
facts were so far away in the dim regions of the past that patient search and close r bservation were 
required to find them, and more than once, a week has been spent in obtaining a single date. It is 
believed that a special feature of the book — the giving of definite dates of a great number of occurrences 
— will add much to its practical value. The giving of so many dates has compelled the use of forms of 
expression that might else have been avoided, the interjection of a date often robbing a sentence of its 
smoothness; but as the work was designed for reference, mere rhetoric has been sacrificed to definiteness 
of detail. 1 have sought for seasoning, but have not desired to serve up that alone. The facts have 
certainly been gathered. I have made no jiretence of gathering, but have been conscientiously thorough. 
Incomplete literary work, alike with sham, mechanical endeavor, is the bane of the age ; the one often 
destroys life, and the other debilitates that appreciation of the true which constitutes one of the joys of 
existence. 

The search for information has often been pursued under diHiculties that might have been 
discouraging if I had not often been rewarded by the discovery of interesting facts, entirely unknown 
before. To obtain such facts the mind must be historically magnetized, so that, moving through .stores (jf 
material, it will instinctively gather that which is appropriate and useful. If I have failed to do this, it 
has not been for \-\ck of a high ideal. 

Duyckinck describes the style of Dr. Johnson as consisting in " inimitable generalization supported by 
picturesque detail, and animating suggestions enlivened by epigram and antithesis." Could there be a 
better standard.-' The tracing of .some facts has been like the tracking of a hare; again and again it has 
been necessary to go back on the path, and renew the search, and at times, while rummaging in the garrets 
of old French houses and later dwellings, amid the dust and must of a century, I have almost forgotten 
to what age I belonged, and have for the time lived in the midst of past regimes. 

As Columbus, when he saw branches of trees and .seaweed drifting from the west, was led by the 
law of induction to infer the existence of America, so a true historian, by the presence of certain facts, 
foreknows the existence of others, and, like Columbus, he is ready to sail upon every sea in search of wh.it 
is known but undiscovered, and as he searches for one truth, innumerable others come like reefs and 
islands into view. When found, he gloats like a miser over a new acquisition, and delights to recur to, 
and call the fact his own. In the search for material I have traversed many untrodden ways, and 
searched unnumbered papers and places that will not again yield information. 

In local history, division and detail are inseparable and essential. It is as impossible to carry along 
in one narrative all the various themes pertaining to the history of a city, as to reproduce in one 
photograph the f.'ices of an entire family, giving the appearance of each in childhood, youth, and age. 

The method pursued in this work of treating each subject by itself has involved much adtled labor, 
and gives opportunity for clo.ser criticism than would otherwise be possible. The plan, in the fullness 
with which it has been attempted, is believed to be original. The chronological relation of each import- 
ant fact to every other is shown in the annals at the close of the volume. Many so-called local histories 
should have a more general title ; they give comparatively few items on local affairs, because the obtaining 
of new facts involves much trouble, and it is easier to generalize than to particularize, to copy than in 
obtain from original sources. 

My aim has been to offer so complete a list of subjects, such fullness of information, and sm h 
thoroughness of classification, as to make the volume a model of its kind ; and in no instance was the maj ir 
portion of the information in any chapter obtained from any one person, book, or manuscript. In certani 



fl subjects 

<jH of the tim 

™ istics, and 

the varied 

^ often quot 

/; have the < 

If sor 

resisted an 

If to 

I have us be 

[even in loc 

[(Icscribe. 

[tain parts < 

[ble all pers 

7api)ropriate 

(the thousai 

pounty prio 

|he names 

books and 

M'taincd oi 

because I \ 

J^nd dates. 

'Jecol lection 

In the 

•uhlications 

ladison, \\ 

Society of 

listorical S 

llso been ni 

foiumbus, ( 

dvania Col 

ave all bee 

loni the f(i 

|aven and 

I'racuse, T 

llvania; HI 

ansing, Kj 

|eme,is. Hi 

t)rt Huron, 

iairie du C 

|lllinois; C 

I'cru in 

^lifornia ; ^ 

rginia; Fr 

|Louisiana 

|nada; anc 

The wh 

ton a larg 

I Wavne C 



PREFACE. 



Vll 



; escape 

hcreforc, 
;. Items 

in local 
lliision to 
Some 
tion were 
te. It is 
t'urrcnccs 

forms (if 
nee of its 
:fmiteness 
'acts have 
thorough, 
one often 
e joys of 

lave been 

unknown 

1 stores of 

do this, it 

iported by 

here be a 

j;ain it has 

he }i;arrets 

forgotten 

ed by the 
;iin farts, 
h of what 
reefs and 
recur to, 

ways, and 

^rry alona; 
•c in one 

ijje. 
led labor, 
fullness 
h inipon- 
il histories 
obtaining 
py than to 

and such 
the maj'ir 
In certain 



subjects, I have intentionally preserved coliocjuial forms of expression, because they help to show the spirit 
of the times, and constitute part of the history of the period. I have desired to exhibit the character- 
istics, and the growth of the city in its varied aspects, and to trace in connected form the development of all 
the varied orms of its social and governmental existence. Instead of summarizing their contents, I have 
often quoted at length from original documents, in the bel' ^.f that others besides myself would be glad to 
have the exact language used. 

If some of the chapters seem to lack interest, I can only say that certain subjects have obstinately 
resisted any other treatment than the plain recital of facts. 

If to be a reliable historian, one must be always cool, and calm, and unimpassioned, as some would 

[have us believe, then 1 must acknowledge tiiat 1 was untitled for my task. It seenis to me, however, that, 

[even in local history, the historian should be full of both the fervor and the flavor of the times he would 

[describe. If it be thought that some statements are too highly colored, I can only say that concerning cer- 

Itain parts of our story, I have felt that no description could do full justice to the reality. As far as possi- 

jble all persons known to have been specially connected with the growth and government of the city are 

appropriately mentioned, and no feature proved more difTicult than the gathering and proper spelling of 

ihe thousands of names contained herein. Almost without exception the ofilicial records of the city and 

comity prior to the last thirty-live years are so meager and so carelessly written that the obtaining of 

^he names of many regularly elected officers was only possible by comparing and consulting various 

books and par^rs that had no necessary relation to the information sought. Many items have been 

bbtained only after hundreds of personal interviews, and the obtaining of the information was only possible 

because I was able to bring it to the memory of persons interviewed by reminding them of collateral facts 

l^nd dates. With the aid of definite data obtained from written tecords, I have been able to test the 

ecoliections of aged persons, and to verify statements that otherwise would have been valueless. 

In the search for material I have personally examined, or caused to be examined, the collections and 
lubiieations of the American Antiquarian Society, at Worcester, Mass., the State Historical Society, at 
ladison, Wis,, the Western Reserve and North Ohio Historical Society, at Cleveland, Ohio, the Historical 
|()ciety of rcnnsylvania, at Philadelphia, the Massachusetts Historical Society, at Boston, the Chicago 
lislorical Society, and the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, at Cincinnati. Examination has 
iso been made of hundreds of old manuscripts and documents at Ottawa, Albany, Indianapolis, Pittsburgh, 
|()Uimbus, Cincinnati, and New York. The New York Colonial Documents in ten volumes, and the Penn- 
Ivania Colonial Archives and Records in twenty-nine volumes, also the Calendar of N'irginia State Papers 
ive all been carefully read. From one letter to scores of letters, with information, have been received 
from the following places: Boston, Cambridge, Lowell, Salem, and Worcester in Massachusetts; New 
laven and Norwich in Connecticut; Newport in Rhode Island; New York, Brooklyn, Albany, Buffalo, 
Lrracuse, Troy, West Point and Manlius in New York; Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburgh in Penn- 
"^Ivania; I'.lizabeth and Trenton in New Jersey; Ann Arbor, Algonac, Armada, Albion, (irand Rapids, 
ansing, Kalamazoo, Jackson, Jonesville, South Haven, Three Rivers, Traverse City, Mackinaw, Mt. 
Qenie.is, Birmingham, Howell, liattle Creek, Northville, Owosso, Monroe, Meridian, Michigan Centre, 
Port Huron, Ponliac, Plymouth, Petersburgh, Palmyra, and Portland in Michigan; Madison, Milwaukee, 
Praiiie du Chien, Calamine, Darlington, and Plymouth in Wisconsin; Chicago, Jacksonville, and Springfield 
in Illinois; Clevelc'ind, Cincinnati, Chillicothe, Columbus, and Dayton in Ohio; Indianapolis, Richmond, 
and rem in Indiana; St. Louis and Jefferson City in Missouri; Denver in Colorado; San Francisco in 
California; Washington and Georgetown in District of Columbia; IJaltimore in Maryland; Richmond in 
Vlri;inia; Frankfort, Louisville, Lexington, and Newport in Kentucky; Marietta in Georgia; New Orleans 
in Louisiana; Jacksonville in Florida; Toronto, Ottawa, Quebec, Kleinbergh, Brockville, and Hamilton in 
Gfcnada ; and from Di'blin, Ireland ; London, England ; and Paris, France. 

The whole list of letters received numbers 2,166. From the State and War Departments at Wash- 
ington a large amount of valuable information not heretofore published was obtained. The old volumes in ' 
the Wayne County register's office, and the plat-books, have all been inspected ; also the registers and files 






Vlll 



PRF.FACK. 



In the probate office, tlur records of tlie coumy comiiiissioners and Hoard of Siiper\isors. aiul other records 
in the olliecs of the comity clerk, county auditors, and county treasurer. incUidiiig many old township records 
and proceedin>(s of the Hoard of Klection Canvassers. As havinj; direct connection with city matters, .ill 
the old records of the Governor .iml Jud.i{es, and their procecdin.us as a land hoard, have l)een re.ul, ;md 
with them a variety of petitions, memorials, and rcjiorts made to the (Governor .-md Judi^es, the Hoard of 
Trustees, and the Common Council; also the records of the Hoard of Trustees of the town of Detroit, 
bejrinninji with 1802, all of the proceedings of the Common Council from 1815 to the present, tojjether 
with innumerable ordinances which from time to time have been passed. Tiie annual messages of mriyors 
and reports of the several city ofl'icers have been consulted, and every rejiort m.ide by the W.-iter. Fire. 
I'olice, and House of Correction Commissioners ;uul the Ho.ird of I'ublic Works h;is furnished material for 
the work. I have also made use of the printed reports of the Hoard of Kducati< and iiave read, mostly 
in manuscript, the proceedin),'s of their several meetintrs, i)e,ijinninj,' with 1842. h published Directory 

of Detroit has been studied, and every m.ip of the city, either large or small, consulted; also the registers 
and records of several of the old fire companies, and several hundred miscell.meous pamphlets, 

During the progress of the work I have been .lided in every possible way by those who have made a 
specialty of preserving information concerning the city. And first of ;ill. I name with grateful thanks 
Judge James V. Campbell, who has, at all times, given without stint the advantage of his exception.illy 
reliable and complete knowledge of the past. Hut for his unfailing courtesy ;md long-continued help. I 
shoukl have h;id much less courage in going on with the work. With his n.ime 1 must also associate the 
name of that kind and courteous gentleman, C. C. Trowbridge, who so lately passed to his reward. He 
laid his memory and his manuscripts under contribution to furnish scores of items for this volume. No 
one equalled him in knowledge on many subjects connected with Detroit. Miscellaneous information of 
great variety and much interest was gleaned from the files of newspapers which 1 was fortunate in tinding 
nearly complete, for every year from 1817 to the present time. All were carefully looked over, — for 
some years tiles of two and three papers were examined. — a total of twenty thousand copies having been 
consulted. In many of them, even the advertisements were scanned for items ;md suggestions. This effort 
alone occupieil several months. For the use of various files 1 am under particular obligation to William E, 
Quinby. of The Detroit Free Press; William Stocking. L. F. H;irter, and H. F. H.iker, of The Post and 

■ Tribune; and James H. Stone, C. H. Hackus, and F. (i. Holden. formerly connecteil with the last-named 
paper. The files of The Evening News and the personal knowledge of its founder and chief proprietor. 
James E. Scripps. were also laid under contribution. It is not too much to say that, without an examina- 
tion of the newspaper files, it would have been utterly impossible to prepare a history of the city which 
would have been at all complete, bi addition t(j the local newspapers, the files of The National Intelli- 
gencer at Washington from 1800 to 1817, of The Alexandria Herald from 1810 to 1825, of The Philadelphia 
Aurora from 1798 to 181 5, and also old files of The Pittsburgh Commonwealth, The (Quebec (iazette, and 
a full series of Niles's Register were examined. All of these publications were issued before any 
paper was published at Detroit, and they contained many facts not found elsewhere. Even the hotel 
registers have furnished some items of interest, and the reports of business, charitable, literary, and 
educational institutions and societies have been systematically obtained and digested. 

The reports of the Supreme Court, and certain of the court files, calendars, and "short books" have 
contributed valuable facts, and reference has been had to various volumes in the Har Library. 'I'hrough the 
courtesy of C. I. Walker, secretary of the Historical Society organized many years ago, by General Cass, 
H. R. Schoolcraft, and other distinguished men, I had access to and have copied many of the original 
records, documents, and manuscripts, on different subjects, collected by that organization. Judge Walker's 
own library, including his private scrap-books, were also generously opened to my inspection ; al.so 
scrap-books owned by Samuel Zug, George W. Osborn, J. E. Pittman, I^evi Rishop, and others. Several 
old wills in the probate office, the private diaries of individuals, and in several instances family records 

' have furnished incidents and items. Many of the older families brought out for examination old 
hair-trunks and wooden chests full of papers, and several score of these receptacles of the past 



were diligently 
and Hamilton ' 
vidiials have bet 
Wondbridge. W 
The (ild ac( 
farts. Much de 
and General Wil 
in 1796. The v( 
Hurton, were wi 
aid of H. Prudlu 
the history of 
Vicar-General, 
had to the pri\ 
work. The clerj 
exception, have 
such facts as wcr 
H. P. Haldwin. ( 
Clair I'apers ne 
were published i 
exceeding interes 
manuscript volun 
personally examii 
In order to 
direction journey: 
de la Grave, Caui 
descendants, anc 
dered by Messrs. 
by the services an 
gratification of fir 
dantly compensat 
Through the 
Registrar at Quel 
nearly threescore 
material extracte 
pertaining to De 
use ">f by Mrs. 
collated. Inforn 
Indiana. Kentuck 
territorial docuiiK 
officers for every 
messages ; the re 
the territorial off 
complete coUectif 
Lansing, were, v 
States from ihe 
debates, and the 
several census re 
Ottawa, and the 
promise of any ii 



I 



PREFACE. 



IX 



were diliRcntly examined. In many of the old papers the signatures of Hradstrcet, Carlton, Vaiidreuil, 
and Hamilton were frequently seen. Among the valuable manuscripts, which by ihe courtesy of indi- 
viduals have hvvn consulted, were the papers of Judges Woodward and May, also those of the Abbott, 
WDodbridge. Witherell, I'almcr, Cooper. Ikush, and Campau families. 

The old accoiuit-books of the Macomb family and of Thomas Smith have afforded many curious 
facts. Much desirable information was secured by an examination of the original letter-books of D. Henly 
and deneral Wilkins, covering the period just i)ri()r and subseciuciit to the surrender of the post of Detroit 
in 1796. The very complete abstracts of titles in Wayne County, prepared by K. C. Skinner an C. M. 
liiirton, were willingly placed at my service, and through the courtesy of Rev. Father Anciaux, and vs.. 1 the 
aid of H. I'rudhomme, the records of St. Anne's Church, dating from 1704, were examined. In preparing 
the history of the Roman Catholic churches and their schools, I was especially aided by the 
Vicar-C>eneral, F. Hennaert, and the Secretary of the Diocese, Rev. C. P. Maes. Access was also 
had to the private library of Hishop Borgess, who has evinced in various ways his appreciation of my 
work. The clergymen of every denomination, and the officers of societies of every kind, almost without 
exception, have cordially exhibited the official records in their care, and have aided in obtaining from them 
such facts as were desired. Hy persevering effort, continued for nearly a year, and with the help of Senator 
H. P. Baldwin, ex-President R. B. Hayes, and (iovernor Charles Foster, 1 obtained access to the St. 
Clair Papers nearly two years before they were opened to the public eye, and long before they 
were published in book form. When read in connection with other facts, some of the letters are of 
exceeding interest. The twenty-six volumes of Sir William Johnson's Manuscripts at Albany, and the 
manuscript volumes of the Haldimand and Simcoe Papers at Ottawa, several luhidred in number, were 
personally examined, and many entirely new and hitherto unknown facts gleaned therefrom. 

In order to obtain information relating to Cadillac I pushed my inquiries to France, and under my 
direction journeys of inquiry and search were made to Aix, Fumel, Castelsarrasin, Montauban, St. Nicolas 
de la (">rave, Caumont. Angeville, Mombeau, and Toulouse. Inquiries were made among relatives and 
de.scendants, and old notarial and parish records were examined. In these endeavors the aid ren- 
dered by Messrs. Flamens and Tau|)iac, of Castelsarrasin, was of great value, and I was specially aided 
hy the services and suggestions of Hon. George Walker, the United States Consul-General at Paris. The 
gratification of finding the place and date of birth of the lounder of Detroit, heretofore unknown, abun- 
dantly compensated for the trouble and outlay. 

Through the aid of L. P. Sylvain of the Library of Parliament at Ottawa, and T. P. Bedard, Provincial 
Registrar at Quebec, copies of the official correspondence of the governors of New France, contained in 
nearly threescore large manuscript folios, were examined, and a large amount of valuable and entirely new 
material extracted therefrom. Access was also had to the copies of original documents and letters 
pertaining to Detroit, obtained in London and Paris by General Cass, only part of which were made 
use ^( by Mrs. Sheldon, and a number of other French manuscripts have been translated, and 
collated. Information has been obtained directly from the State officers of Massachusetts, Ohio, 
Indiana, Kentucky, and Michigan, and I have examined all the laws of the Northwest Territory, the 
territorial documents of Indiana and Michigan, the State Laws of Michigan, the reports of Michigan State 
officers for every year, and all the Legislative Council, House, and Senate journals, and the governors' 
messages ; the registers of the official acts of the territorial governors, and copies of the correspondence of 
the territorial officers, with the Departments at Washington, still on file at the national capital. The very 
complete collection of books and manuscripts concerning Michigan, collected by the late W. S. George, of 
Lansing, were, with his nearty permission, consulted with much advantage. The laws of the United 
States from the first to the last Congress, with scores of published volumes of congressional annals and 
debates, and the immense tomes known as the American State Papers and American Archives, and the 
several census reports from 18 10, have all been used. All the volumes in the Library of Parliament, at 
Ottawa, and the Library of Congress at Washington, and all the rich resources gathered at Madison, giving 
promise of any information, have also been examined. 



1 



PREFACE. 



Of published works more immediately connected wiili Detroit, use has In-cn made of the Historical 
and Scientific Discourses of Messrs. Cass, Sciioolcraft. anti Whitin^^ ; Mrs. Sheldon's and Lanman's Histories 
of Michigan; Blois's Gazetteer; Campbell's Outlines of the Political History of Michigan; Lanman's Red 
I5ook; Schojlcrafts Memoirs. Clark's History of the Wyandotts; the four volumes of Collections of the 
Michigan Tioneer Society, Roberts' Sketches of Detroit, and M. Rameau's Notes Historiques sur la Colonic 
Canadienne de Detroit. A great number of miscellaneous works in the State, Public, Mechanics', Young 
Men's, Cass, and University of Michigan Libraries have been consulted ; and among those which have 
afforded a few items, the following volumes should be noted •. Atvvater's History of Ohio, Albach's 
Western Annals, Armstrong's Notices of War of 1812, Adventures of Daniel Boone, Barber's Historical 
Collections of Ohio, B^urnet's Notes on the Northwest Territory, Bancroft's History of the United States 
(ten volumes). Bell's History of Canada, Butler's History of Kentucky, Brown's View of the Campaign of the 
Western Army, Bang's History of the M. E. Church (four volumes), Butterfield's Crawford's Campaign 
against Sandusky and Washington-Irvine Letters, Caniff's Settlement of Upper Canada, Craig's Olden Time. 
Campbell's Life of William Hull, Coffin's 1812 — the War and its Moral, Carver's Travels, Cist's 
Miscellany, Colden's Five Nations, Collin's History of Kentucky (two volumes), Clark's Proofs of the 
Corruption of General James Wilkinson (two volumes). Collections of Massachusetts Historical Society 
(forty-one »'olumes), Dillon's History of Indiana, Dubuisson's Report of the Siege of Detroit, Dawson's 
Life of Harrison. Darby's Tour from New York to Detroit, Drake's Life of Tecumseh, De Peystcr's 
Miscellanies, Mis. EUet's Pioneer Women of the West, Forbes's Trial of General Hull, P'rench's Historical 
Collections of Louisiana (five volumes), Gayarre's History of Louisiana, Garneau's History of Canada (two 
volumes), Hildreth's Pioneer History, Hull's Memoirs, Hennepin's Travels, Hecke iwaelder's >' ■ 'e, 
Jefferson's Correspondence (seven volumes), James's Military Occurrences, Ketchim's Buff nrl -he 
Senecas (two volumes), Lossing's Fieldbook of War of 1812, Laverdiercs Champhin (s.x volum La 
Hontan's Travels, Loskiel's History of the Missions of the United Brethren, McAfee's History of f Late 
War, Mackenzie's Life of Commodore Perry, McI3onald's Western Sketches, Manti's History of ; Late 
War in North America, McKenny's Tour of the Lakes, McCiung's Western Sketches, Menic/irs of 
Chevalier de Beauchene, Memoire de Bougainville, Memoire sur la Canada, Marshall's Kentucky, Monnette's 
History of the Valley of the Mississippi (three volumes), Margry's Relationes Incdites, and also his five 
volumes on Early French Discoveries, Official Correspondence of the War of 181 2, Ontwa, the Son of the 
Forest, Pouchot's Memoirs (two volumes), Parknian's La Salle and the IDiscovery of the (Jreat West, Old 
Regime in Canada, and Conspiracy of Pontiac, Pickett's History of Alabama, Roger's Diary of the Siege of 
Detroit, Roger's Journal, Stoddard's Louisiana, Shea's Translation of Charlevoix's New France (six 
volumes), Smith's History of Canada, Smith's History of Wisconsin, Schoolcraft's Aboriginal Tribes of 
North America (six volumes). Stone's Life of J. Ikant, and Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Spark's 
Letters to Washington (four volumes), Theller's Canada in 1837, Todd and Drake's Life of Harrison, 
Tasse's Les Canadiennes de I'Ouest, Williams's American Pioneer, Weld's Travels in North America, 
Wilkinson's Memoirs, and Young and Smith's Life of Governor Cass. 

The above list of books very nearly represents the bibliography of Detroit. A notable sentence which 
appears in many of the works was originally uttered by General Cass in an address before the State Historical 
Society. He said, " No place in the United States presents such a series of events interesting in themselves 
and permanently affecting, as they occurred, its progress and prosperity. Five times its tlag has changed, 
three different sovereignties have claimed its allegiance, and since it has been held by the United States, 
the government has been thrice transferred ; twice it has been besieged by the Indians, once captured in 
war, and once burned to the ground." Apparently every one who has wru en on Detroit was impressed 
with the elegance with which Governor Cass epitomized the history ot this region. In the course of my 
researches I have found the extract given in whole or in part by several score of writers, and almost with- 
out an exception, no credit was gi en to the author of the paragraph, which is panoramic in the complete- 
ness with which it presents our histo.7. 

For personal letters containing items of interest on many subjects, I have been indebted to Francis 






Parkman, the i 

tucky ; to C. C. 

North Ohio, Hi; 

author of Hisi 

* O. H. Marsh.i 

to the Hon. Th( 

History of the 

Worcester, Mas 

and his co-labor 

of the Magazine 

the Dominion 

She.i, the well-ki 

of various histc 

Peyster, lineal 

author of the R 

has answered st 

F. Saunders, lib 

the Ohio Historic 

city, called atten 

suggestions and 

Wood, of Albion, 

C. Fargo, of New 
Taylor, of Michig 
John T. Blois, aul 
Michigan " is wid 
sies to Henry Gi 
afforded every pos 
Clerks C. H. Borg 

For translati( 
indebted to L. L. 
James A. Girardii 
have aided me w 
Messrs. William 
Christian, (jreror 
Connor, Alexande 

D. B. Duflield, S 
M. W. Field, * Re 

E. C. Hinsdale, Mr 

C. B. Howell, Wil 
Jones, *R, F. Join 
Ladue. A. C. McC 
Minchener, James 
Raymond, A. B. R 
Dr. Morse Stewarl 

D. Wilkins, W. B. 
H. N. Walker, J. ( 

The work of 



PREFACE. 



XI 



I'arkinan, tlie noted historian of the old French reifinio, to R. H. Collins, author of tlie History of Ken- 
tucky ; to C. C. Haldvvin, Chas. Whittlesey, and H. N. Johnson, of Cleveland, of the Western Reserve and 
North Ohio, Historical Society ; to Prof. C. E. Anthon of New York ; to *John IJ. Dillon, of Indianapolis ; 
author of History of Indiana; to * Rev. Martin Kun(li,l,^ of Milwaukee; to *Dr. Leonard Bacon; to 
* O. H. Marshall, of the Buffalo Historical Society, author of sever.il monographs on historical subjects; 
to the Hon. Thomas Reynolds, of Ottawa; to Benjamin Suite, also of Ottawa, author of the most recent 
History of the French Canadians ; to S. F. Havens, Secretary of the American Antiquarian Society at 
Worcester, Mass.; to L. C. Draper, LL. D., Secretary of the State Historical Society of Madison, Wis., 
and his co-laborer D. S. Durrie, librarian of the .same society ; and to John Austin Stevens, former editor 
of the Ma.ijazine of American History. 1 am also specially indebted to Douglass Brymner, Archivist of 
the Dominion at Ottawa, and his polite assistants, Messrs. Alexander Duff and C. Rose ; to Dr. John G. 
Shea, the well-known Catholic author; to Benson J. Lo.ssiny, Chas. Gayarre, of New Orleans, author 
of various historical works on Louisiana; to Hon. Frederick Do I'eyster and General J. Watts De 
Peyster, lineal descendants of Major Arent S. De Peyster, and to Charles Lanman, of Georgetown, 
author of the Red Book. The librarian of Congress, A. R. Spofford, with great patience and cordiality, 
has answered scores of letters, and aided me in securing much information not otherwise obtainable, 
F. Saunders, librarian of the Astor Library, performed similar services; Julius De.\ter, secretary of 
the Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society at Cincinnati, and Robert Clarke, publisher, of the same 
city, called attention to facts that resulted in obtaining matter of great interest and value. Various 
suggestions and items, some of them highly important, were obtained by correspondence with M. B. 
Wood, of Albion, *Rev. Dr. Alfred Brunson, of Prairie du Chien, E. M. McCiraw, of Plymouth, Wis., James 

C. Fargo, of New York, William Sutton, of Battle Creek, Judge John E. Parke, of Pittsburg, Re"\ George 
Taylor, of Michigan, John Smith, Jr., of Romeo, L. M. Miller, of Lansing, and B. O. Williams, of Owosso. 
John T. Blois, author of the Gazetteer of 1839, and Mrs. E. M. Sheldon Stewart, whose " Early Days of 
Michigan " is widely esteemed, have personally furnished items of value. I am indebted for many courte- 
sies to Henry Gillman, librarian of the Public Library; both he and his predecessor. Prof. H. Chaney, 
afforded every possible facility and privilege. 1 have also been the recipient of many favors from City 
Clerks C. H. Borgman, Louis Dillman, and Alexander A. Saenger. 

For translations of a number of old French letters, documents, and manuscripts I am specially 
indebted to L. L. Barbour. I also secured much valuable aid from Messrs. Bela Hubbard, J. C. Holmes, 
James A. Girardin, *Levi Bishop, T. P. Hall, R. R. I-Hliott, and J. C. W. Seymour. To name all who 
have aided me would be impossible, but 1 must, in justice to myself, mention the helpful courtesy of 
Messrs. William Barclay, Herbert Bowen, Dr. William Brodie, J. J. Bardwell, Walter Crane, M. P. 
Christian, (irerory J. Campau, D. J. Campau, Jr., *W. K. Coyl, S. B. Coyl, *Z. Chandler, Dr. L. 
Connor, Alexander Chapoton, Adam Couse, E. V. Cicotte, H. A. Chaney, Levi E. Dolsen, P. E. De Mill, 

D. B. Duffield, S. T. Douglass, Henry Doty, S. D. Elwood, J. R. Elliott, J. S. Farrand, C. J. O'Flvnn, 
M. W. Field, *Rev. George Field, L. L. Farnsworth, Mark Flanigan, M. H. Gascoigne, Chauncy Hurlbut, 
E.C. Hinsdale, Mrs. W. Y. Hamlin, * Richard Hawley, Rev. M. Hickey. Ma;; Hochgraef, 1). Farrand Henry, 

C. B. Howell, William Harsha, Walter S. Harsha, G. A. Hough, John H. Harmon, James F. Joy, J. Huff 
Jones, *R. F. Johnstone, John Kendall (of the Fire Department), L. P. Knight, Henry W. Lord, W. N. 
Ladue, A. C. McGraw, Frederick Morley, J. F. Munroe, L. R. Meserve, Mrs. Andrew Myler, George H. 
Minchener, James McKay, John Owen. Thomas W. Palmer, Philo Parsons, George W. Paltison, Francis 
Raymond, A. B. Raymond, C. N. Riopelle, Robert E. Roberts, A. Sheley, F. H. Seymour, Henry .St.irkey, 
Dr. Morse Stewart, J. M. B. Sill, Elisha Taylor, J. E. Tryon, Henry M. Utley, * Caleb \'an Husan, *William 

D. Wilkins, W. B. Wesson, Dudley B. Woodbridge, Jefferson Wiley, *J. L. Whiting, *A. S. Williams, 
H. N. Walker, J. C. Warner, and Dr. C. C. Yemans. 

The work of procuring originals from w hich to make illustrations of pa.'Jt scenes, the selecting and 



*A11 tlicse Imvu passed away while thu work was in piuKress. 




XII 



PREFACE. 



obtainiiijf subjects for enijravings to represent the present period, and the gatherinjj of data for some of the 
specially important pictures, proved both difficult and expensive. In certain representations I was fortunate 
in securirij( the aid of C. W. Sumner, who successfully carried out my desires. 

Where any picture has been produced without an original from which to copy, the utmost care has 
been taken to have the illustration conform to the facts, and the few drawings for such pictures, 
before being engraved, were submitted for criticism to competent persons. In the various parts of one 
picture there are facts obtained from a daguerreotype, from an old photograph of a still older lithograph, 
from an original architect's plan, from a pencil-sketch by a former carpenter who has for many years been 
an esteemed minister; several old deeds were also consulted, and all the facts obtained, as well as the results 
of a dozen interviews with competent critics, are embodied in the engraving. In producing the engravings 
the aim has been historic accuracy rather than artistic effect, and what may be lacking in the finish of 
some pictures is intended to be more than made up in the fullness and range of illustrations contained in 
the volume. 

In making the engravings of buildings and scenes of the present day, the photographs, in nearly 
every case, were taken specially for this work ; and in collecting all of the materials, where information 
was to be obtained, no question of time, or toil, or cost has been considered. Every person, place, book, 
or depository promising information upon any subject relating to the city has been laid under contribution. 
Every clue has been followed, every suggested receptacle searched, and every individual interviewed that 
there was reason to suppose could aid in the work. 

In collecting and compiling, the following plan was pursued. I first searched everywhere for 
everything of interest on every subject, and carefully copied what was found. All the facts were ne.xt 
classified by subjects, and then arranged in chronological order. Each subject was afterwards taken up 
separately, and written out as fully as the facts obtained would allow. I'oints or details found to be 
lacking were noted, the necessary details looked up, and the several subjects were then again rewritten. 
Finally, during the ten years the work has been in preparation, careful attention has been paid to all events 
pertaining to the history of the city ; these have been noted and added as they occurred, and up i< the 
time of going to press the several subjects are believed to be complete. Both in the text and in the 
illustrations certain information is given, which, if not of great present value, will become of service as 
the years progress. 

In putting into shape the materials I have gathered I have sought to be candid and accurate, and 
hope that no evidences of narrowness or bigotry can be shown. The variety of subjects made ;iiiy 
methodical and proper classification very difficult. The arrangement finally adopted was carefully 
thougiit over, and is believed to be as convenient and appropriate as possible. A small amount of space 
has been devoted to business interests. Without stores and manufactories no city could exist, and the 
establishments represented find legitimate place in a history intended to be complete. In view of the 
magnitude of the work and the minuteness of the information it contains, it will be strange indeed if no 
errors are discovered ; every effort has, however, been made to insure accuracy, and the author will 
greatly appreciate the courtesy of any person giving information that will in any way add to the 
value or completeness of future editions. 

The full and careful index was compiled, partly as a labor of love, because of his interest in 
the work, by Prof. Henry Chaney, formerly Librarian of the Public Library. The mention of this fact 
is a guarantee that it has been prepared with scholarly care. 

In the final completion of the volume I have been materially aided by the courteous and competent 
foreman of the Free Press Book Room, Mr. Louis Beckbissinger ; he has made numerous practical 
and valuable suggestions, and has faithfully supervised the w-ork. 

With these statements I confidently submit the volume to all who have an appreciation of local history ; 
and if the public experience in reading, a tithe of the pleasure that I have found in gathering and gleaning. 
I am sure of grateful remembrance. 



Detroit, August, 1884. 



S. F. 



Detroit : Its 

Records. — 
Woril Dctn 
Relation to 
pearance. — 
field. 



The River, Isla 

A Natural 
V^olume of 
.sence of Dai 
Facilities. — 
and Docks, 
Tiirce Old 
Fishing at C 



Soil and Produc 
tiori.-^V'ast I 
Native Woo 
Place— Wea 
itors. — Migr 
Enormous P 
Indian Farn: 
Importance c 
Dead Bodies 
plies from tlu 
Tiffin's False 
Tobacco to 1 
Schoolcraft's 



Cadillac's Grant. 

Cadill.'ic's Tr 
Conditions o 
Rei>()rt. — Ca 
Governor aiu 
Jr. — The M; 
Illegalities of 
Claims. — (in 
French Claim 
Names of Coi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I.— LOCALITY. 

CHAPTER I. 

Detroit: Its Names, Location, and Surroundings. — An Old City.— Remarkable Facts. — Unique 
Rt'coicis. — Indian Desiijnations. — Their Meaninj;^. — A Prophetic Name. — Later Names. — The 
Word Detroit. — Corporate Titles. — Location of City. — lioiindaries. — Latitude and Lonj^itude. — 
Relation to Other Cities. — Conformation of Cround. — Mrs. Jameson's Description. — Present Aj)- 
pearance. — Adjacent Townships and Villages, — Hamtramck, Springwells, Crosse I'ointe, Green- 



field. 



3-5 



CHAPTER II 



The River, Islands, Wharves and Docks, Streams and Mills. — The River. — Orijjinal Scenery. — 
A Natural and National Boundary. — Lenj^th, Width, Depth, Character of Bottom. — Harbor. — 
Volume of Water. — Current. — Elevation above Sea. — Condition in Winter. — Ice Supply. — Ab- 
.sence of Danj-er. — Highest and Lowest Levels. — Causes of Rise and Pall. — Temperature. — Boating 
Facilities. — Excursions. — Names of Islands. — Origin of Names. -^ Curious Statements. — Wharves 
and Docks. — The River Line. — Improvement of River Front. — Early Docks. — Length of Docks.— 
Three Old .Streams. — Courses and Names of Streams. — Accident on the Savoyard. — Bridges. — 
Fishing at Congress Street. — Transformations. — Old Mills. — Their Location. 6-10 

CHAPTER III. 

Soil and Products, Game, Grain, and Fruits. — Cood Soil. — Different Strata. — Cadillac's Descrip- 
tion. — V^ist Prairies. — Rows of Trees. — Fruits. — Wild Animals. — Game Birds. — Large Buffaloes. — 
Native Woods. — Swans and Ducks. — An Indian's Illustration. — Serene Skies. — A Desirable 
Place.— Weaving Buffalo Wool. — Numerous Wolves. —Wolf Scalps.— Pigeon Roosts. — Bear Vis- 
itors. — Migratory Game, —.Song Birds. — Flowers. — Berries. — Wild Honey. — Maple Sugar. — 
Enormous ' Production. — Indian Mococks. — De Peyster's " Sugar Makers." — Early Harvests. — 
hulian Farmers. — Scarcity of Provisions. — Help from Montreal. — Bougainville's Description. — 
Importance of Detroit. — A Thousand Bushels of Wheat Burned. — A Famine Imminent.— Two 
Dead Bodies on the Beach. — Continued Scarcity. — Clouds of Ducks. — Sportsmen Drowned. —Sup- 
plies from the King's Stores.— Acreage under Cultivation. — Apples and Cider.— Pears and Poems.— 
Tithn's False Report. — Enormous Vegetables. — First Wagon-load of Flour. — Exporting Flour. — 
Tobacco to Baltimore. — Remarkable Fruits. — First Agricultural Society. — Fish and Fi.sheries. — 
Schoolcraft's Eulogy. — The State Fish Hatchery. u-16 

CHAPTER IV. 

Cadillac's Grant.— French Farms or Private Claims.— Lands Covered by City.— Seigneurial Rights.— 
Cadillac's Traditional Grant. — Its Limit.— His Claims. — Grounds of Claim. — His Concessions.— 
Conditions of his (irants. — Singular Requirements. — (irants within Stockade. — Aigremont's 
Report, — Cadillac's Departure. — His Property. — Cadillac's Claims Conceded. — Intrigues of 
Governor and Intendant. — The King's Decree. — His Purpose Defeated. — Memorial of La Mothe, 
Jr. — The Maichen's Deed. — A Vague Conveyance. — Misstatements. — The Facts Analyzed. — 
Illegalities of Commandants. — The" Beauharnois Grants. — Their Order,— Explanation of Old 
Claims, — (;rants by English Commandants, — Indian Deeds. — The French Farms. — Settlement of 
French Claims.— Doings and Reports of Commissioners.— Surveyors' Blunders.— Careless Clerks.— 
Names of Commissioners. 17-23 

[xiii] 





XIV 



TABLK OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

The Public Domain. — The Park Lots and the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract. —The Governor and 
Judges' Plan. — Land Boards. — Thf Coniiiion Fifkl. - Co-opiTative Labor. — The Commons. — 
United States l'ro|)crty. — The Wilkins Letter. — Claim of Iniiabitants. — Memorial to Coni^re.ss. — 
Statements of Hull and Woodward. — Indij^nant Inhabitants. — Action of C.overnor and Judges.— 
Lots -.'ersus I'astures.— Renewed Complaints. — The Park Lots. — Location. — When Surveyed.— 
Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract. — Date of Survey. — Governor and Judges' Plan. — Size of Ancient 
Lots. — Meetini; under Pear Trees. — Woodward's Persuasions. — Cientle's Humorous Description.— 
Woodward's I'erformances. — Discontent of People. — The (iovernor and Judges' Regulations. — 
Prices of Lots. — Hull and Woodward Visit Washington. — The Act of 1806. — Convivial Legis- 
lators. — .Mysterious Transactions. — Suspicion of Inhabitants. — Unnecessary Delays. — Bad Man- 
agement. — Protests of People. — Plan of Division. — Classification of Inhabitants. — More 
Mancjeuvring. — Liberal Constructions. — Donation Lots. — Room for Criticism. — Changes in 
Plans. — -Changes in Numbers of Lots. — Woodward's Letter to Madison. — The Book of Sections. — 
The Woodward Plan. — Its Advantages. —Washington the Model.— The Plan Inoperative. — Why 
Changed. — The Olficial Map. — Unlawful Powers. — Peculiar Management. — No Financial 
Report. — Remarkable Confidence. — A Uniijue History. — The Detroit Fund. — Secretaries of Land 
Board. — Termination of Trust — The Transfer of 1842. — Report of Hubbard and O'Flynn. — Old 
and New Lot Numbers — Land Board Sessions of Common Council. 24-31 

C H A P T E R V I . 

Maps of Detroit. — City Boundary at Different Periods. — Cass and Brush Farms. — Military 

Reserves. — Plans of 1749 and 1754. — The T. Smith Plan. — The J. O. Lewis Map. — Mullctt's 
Map. — I'armer's Map. — Later City Maps. — Area of Town in 1 802. — Extent of (jovernor and 
Jutlges' Plan. — Changes in City Boundaries. — The Cass and Brush F'arms. — Dates of Original 
(irants. — Improvements. — Desirable Locations. — Military Reserves. — A Powder Magazine in 
E.Kchange. — Laying out the Reserve. — Changes in Plan of 1807. 32-36 

CHAPTER VII. 

Public Surveys. — United States Land Office. — The King's Surveyors. — First American Surveys.— 
Location of Office. — Names of Surveyor-Generals. — United States Land Office. — First Sales of 
Lands. — Prices. — Receipts from Public Lands. — Early F2migration. — Amazing Numbers. — E.xtensive 
Sales. — E.xtravagant Speculation. — Paper City Period. — Incidental Details. — Cruel Joke. — The 
Bubble Bursts. — Bounds of Land District. — Prices of Lands. — Original Patents. — F'ees of 
Ofhcers. — Names of Registers and Receivers. 37-38 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Deeds, Mortgages, and Titles.— Past and Present Prices of Lands. — Notarial Records. — Recording 
of Deeds and Mortgages. — Present System. — Abstracts of Title. — Deriviition of Titles. — Evi- 
dences of Title. — Clouded Titles. — Record of Subdivisions. — Names of County Registers. — City 
Registers. — Incredible Prices. — Normal Values. — First Sale of Park Lots. — Prices Paid. — Cost of 
Various Tracts at Different Periods. 39-41 



PART II.— HYGIENIC. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Climate of Detroit. — Favorable Climate. — Bougainville's Statement. — Weather Diaries. — In- 
lluence of River and Lakes. — Mean Temperature. — Characteristics of Winters. — Clear Atmos- 
phere.— Unrivalled Firmament. — Delightful Autumns.— Flquable Rains. — Weather Indications.— 
Course of Winds. — Excci)tional Seasons.— Raining Ink. — Earthquake Shocks. — Ice livery Month.— 
Flowers in Winter. — Extensive Fires. — Dense Fogs. — Boats Running Every Month. — Continuous 
Sleighing. — Ryan's Prophecies. —July Frosts. — April Snows. — Wind Storms, etc. 4^-47 



CHAPTER X. 



Diseases.— Doctors. —Medical Societies. — Small Death Rate. — Reasons for. — The Usual Diseases.— 
Record of Deaths. — Fever and Ague. -Dp. Sappington's Pills. — F:pidemic in Army. — Hun- 
-The Cholera in 1832. — Instructions and Proclamations. — Vessels Ordered Away. — 



dreds Die.- 



i 



Cht)lera o 
Yi)siianti. 
Strange 1 
Rites Sho 
Regulation 
English 
Names of 



Cemeteries. — 

Places. — 1 
Remains.- 
Memorial. 
Lots. — Co^ 
Ground. 
Convenienc 
Uses. — Eh 
Gateway. 
Naine. ^ \\ 
When Oper 
ous Custor 
Names of C 



Health Officer 

Boards. — I 
lations. — T 
Grand Sewc 
Expenditure 
Commission 



Water and Ws 

the Plank. ~ 
Works I'ro 
Boring for V 
Information. 
Works. — Va 
Water. — Inc 
Rates. — A 
sioners. — Di 



The Parks and 

Grand Circus 
Location and 
Condition. — - 
1874. — E.xcil 
and Resistan 
timity. — Bell 
Island. — Its 
tures. — Esta 
Dogs. — Onl) 



French and En 

Regents. — T 
Regulations. - 



TAIJLK OF CONTENTS. 



XV 



Cholera on the Henry Clay. — Sufferings of Troops. — Excitement at Detroit. — Mails Stopped at 
Ypsilanti. — Travelers Driven frjui Rochester.- — Bridges Torn up. — Highways Blockaded.— 
Strange Inconsistency. — The Cholera in 1834. — Extensive Mortality. — Burning Pitch. — Burial 
Rites Shortened. — The Nurse Corps. — Father Kundig's Work. — Mortality of 1849. — Council 
Regulations. — The Scourge in 1854. — Medicine Men. — Early French Surgeons. — Long Titles. — 
English J'hysicians. — Names of Former Physicians. >t„,i:„„i c.,,.:,,*:..^ h„. c /-> :.._.:._ 

Names of OHicers. 

CHAPTER XI. 



-Medical Societies. — Dates of Organization. — 

48-51 



Cemeteries. — Burials and Sextons. — County Coroners.— An Expressive Phrase. — Indian Burial 
Places. — DalyelFs Crave. — An Iconoclastic Age. — Burial (Grounds of Fort Shelby. — Removal of 
Remains.- An Old Tombstone. — First Catholic Cemetery. — Transfer of Remains. — An Old 
Memorial. — Mt. Elliott Cemetery. — When Opened. — Number of Interments. — Number of 
Lots. — Cost of Grounds. --Management, — Trustees. — Hamtramck's Crave. — Protestant Burying 
Ground. — Location. — How Disposed of. — First City Cemetery.— Its Division. — A Religious 
Convenience. — Cemetery Lane. — Second City Cemetery. — Location. — Management. — Later 
Uses. — Elmwood Cemetery. — History of Purchase. — Cost of Grounds. — The Chapel. — The 
Gateway. — Trustees. — Superintendents. — Woodmere Cemetery. — Location. — Significance of 
Name. —When Opened. — Names of Officers. — Regulations. — Jewish Cemeteries. — Location. — 
When Opened — Lutheran Cemetery. — How Controlled. — Oflicers. — Burials and Sextons. — Curi- 
ous Customs. — City Sextons. — Duties. — Names of Sextons. — County Coroners. — Duties. — 
Names of Coroners. 52-58 

CHAPTER XII. 

Health Officers. — Drains and Sewers. — Scavengers. — First Board of Health. — Subsequent 
Boards. — Powers of. — Present Organization. — How Constituted. — Names of Members. — Regu- 
lations. — The Health Officer. — Sewers. — Experiments. — Private Ditches. — The Savoyard. — A 
Grand Sewer. — Lack of System. — Stupid Contractors. — Board of Sewer Commissioners. — Large 
Flxpenditures. — Regukition.s. — Size of Sewers. — Length and Cost of Sewers. — Names of Sewer 
Commissioners. — Scavengers and Duties. 59-6i 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Water and Water Works. — Public Drinking Fountains. — Water Pure and Plentiful. — Walking 
the Plank. — Primitive Methods. — First Regulations. — Public Wells. — Water Peddlers. — Water 
Works Proposed. — Berthelct's Pump. — Water Works Established. — Poor Arrangements. — 
Boring for Water. — Pumping by Steam. — Cass's Speech. — Works Purchased by City. — Seeking 
Information. — Springs in Northville and Southfield. — Propo.sed Utilization of. — Progress of Water 
Works. — Various Reservoirs. — The Hamtrjimck Works. — Plan i nd Description of. — Analysis of 
Water. — Increased Size of Pipes. — Statistics by Decades. — Locations of Water Office. — Water 
Rates. — A Stern .A.dvertisement. — Names of Assessors, — Collectors, — Engineers, — Commis- 
sioners. — Drinking Fountains. 62-72 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Parks and the Boulevard. —Pastures and Pounds. — Judge Woodward's Foresight. — The 
Grand Circus.— Former Marshes. — Improvements. — Removal of Fences. — Parks and Donors. — 
Location and Names. — Campus Martins. — Origin of Name. — A Place of Rendezvous. — Former 
Condition. — Present Appearance. — Superintendents of Parks. — The Park Question of 1870 and 
1874. — F^xciting Meetings. — ^ Plans and Counter Plans. — Mayor Moffat in the Way. — Persistence 
and Resistance. — The Struggle Ended. — Belle Isle Park. — Wise Planning. — Favorable Oppor- 
tunity. — Belle Isle Purchased. — Park Commissioners. — Improving the Park. — History of the 
Island. — Its Names. — The Boulevard. — Plans for. — Names of Conmiissioners. — F'ormer Pas- 
tures. — Establishment of Pounds. — Regulations. — Names of Pound-Keepers. — Numerous 
Dogs. — Only Eight Left. — The Dog Pound. 73-8o 



PART III.— GOVERNMENTAL. 



CHAPTER XV. 

French and English Rule. — French Motives. — ^ Political Ambition. — Religious Zeal. — Kings and 
Regents. — The Surrender. — Powers of Commandants. — List of French Governors. — English 
Regulations. — Creation of Upper and Lower Canada. — List of English Governors. 83-84 



XVI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Territorial and State Governments. — Virginia's Claim. — Grounds of Claim, — Release of Slate- 
Claims. — Creation of Northwest Territory. — Aiithorsliip of Ordinance of 1787. — Dane versus 
Cutler. — Tlie Northwest Territorial .Seal. — Description and Meaning. — Names of Territorial 
OHicers. — Division of Territor ;. — Creation of .State of Ohio. — Wayne County Delegates Excluded.— 
Detroit under Indiana Territiry. — Extensive Juristliction. — Creation of Territory of .Michigan. — 
Michigan Territorial Seal. — Increased Size of Territory. — First Delegate to Congress. — First Legis- 
■ lative Council. — Enlarged Boundary. — First State Constitutional Convention. — Delegates from 
Wayne County. — Convention Proposals. — Adoption of Constitution. — Territorial Ollicers. — State 
of Michigan. — Curtailment of Boundary. — Trouble with Ohio. — A New Convention. — Negative 
Decision. — Democratic Convention. — Congressional Provisions Accepted. — Formal Admission of 
..State. — Event Celebrated. — The State .Seal. — Second Constitutional Convention. — Delegates 
from Wayne County. — Differences between Constitutions of 1835 and 1850. — Third Constitutional 
Convention. — Constitutional Commission of 1873. — Capital Removed to Lansing. — Names of 
State Officers. 85-93 

CHAP T K R X VII. 

Legislatures and Laws. — Legislatures under English Rule. — Place and FJate of Sessions. — Legis- 
lature of Northwest Territory. — Places of Meeting. — A Linguistic Feat. — The (icneral Assembly. — 
Cry of Fraud. — Names of Members. — Pliant I'rinciples. — Forgiving Electors. — Mob at Cliilli- 
cothe. — Detroit Pistols. — Indiana Territorial Assembly.— Proposed Members from Detroit. — 
Michigan Territorial Legislature. — Scarcity of Laws. — Sunday Sessions. — Places of Meeting. — 
Personal Difficulties. — Curious Legislation. — Morbid Fears. — Remarkable Enactments. — Names 
of Members and .Secretaries. — Cientle's Criticisms. — Suspicions of People. — Woothvard's Lame 
Defence. — (ientle Arrested for Libel. — Citizens .Seek Redress. — Citizens Outwitted. — AUigalive 
Laws. — Proposed Blue Laws. — Blasts and Counter Blasts. — Legislative Refreshments. — Withcrell 
Tcrsiis Woodward. — The Several Codes. — Petitions to Congress. — Facts and ( Irievances. — 
Relief Provided. — Joy of Citizens. — A Proper Prayer. — Members of Legislative Councils. — The 
Green Bay Council. — Compilations of Laws. — First State Legislature. — Last Session in Detroit. — 
Extra Sessions. — Number of Members. — Districts Including Wayne County. — Names of Sena- 
tors and Representatives. 94-101 

CHAP T E R X V I I 1 . 

Presidential Electors, Cabinet Officers, and Members of Congress from Detroit. — Presidential 
Visits to the City. — Constitutional Links. — Presidential Electors. —Michigan's Choice. — Cabinet 
Officers from Michigan. — Territorial Delegates. — United States Senators. — Representative Dis- 
tricts. — Names of Representatives. — Pay of Congressmen. — Visits of President ,ind Vice-Presi- 
dents, — Harri.son, Monroe, Johnson, Van Buren, Taylor. — Grant's Residence in D roit. — An Inter- 
view in Washington. — X'isits of Fillmore, Pierce, Johnson and Hayes. — Garfield's Visits to and Ser- 
mons in Detroit. 102-107 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Political Parties and Campaigns. — Elections. — The Political System. — Party Names and Meth- 
ods. ^ Political Meetings. — Gaining Votes. — Novel Methods. — Interesting Campaigns. — Log 
Cabins and Hickory Halls. — Monster Whig Meetings. — Political Processions. — Democratic Barbe- 
cues. — Peculiar Resolutions. — Party Uniforms. — Bonfires. — Torch Bearers. — Union Political 
Meetings. — Visits of Noted Politicians. — First Territorial Elections. — \'iva Voce Voting. — Arbi- 
trary Proceedings. — Original Election Districts. — Remarkable Ballots. — Changes in Time of 
Election. — Changes in Qu.alifications of Voters. — The First St;ite Election. — Humoroc.s Incidents. — 
The Last Two-Day Election. — How Foreigners Become Voters. — Time of Election 01 Various Ofii- 
cers. — Colored Voters. — Woman Suffrage. — Remarkable Unanimity of Voters. — Local Issues.— 
Curious Coincidence. — Qualifications of Voters. — Registration. — Voting Precinct.s. — Preparations 
for Election. — Canvassing Votes. — Number of Voters in Various Years. 108- 1 17 

CHAPTER XX. 

Wayne County: Its Establishment and Boundaries. — County of Illinois. — Kent County.— Wayne 
County. — Sargent's Proclamation. — Sharp Correspondence. — St. Clair's Dissatisfaction. — The 
County Name. — General Wayne's Letter of Thanks. — Original Boundary.— Changes in Boundary. — 
Copies of Proclamations. 1 18-122 

CHAPTER XXI. 

County Officers and their Duties. — County Commissioners. — Early Finances. — 1 )ue Bills Issued. — 
Names of Commissioners. — Board of Supervisors. — Few Powers. — Valuations and Assessments. — 
Growth of City Representation. — County Auditors. — Importance of Of.ke. — Powers and 



1 )uties. — N 
County Cler 
of .Scho(jls. 
Surveyors. - 



The Townships 

First TownsI 
Township. 
Derivation o 



The .^arly Gov( 
Judges. — R( 

Court of Ge 
Citizens. — F 
Judges. — \\\ 
cials. — A SI 
countable ( )Hi 



The Common C 
Year.— City 

Time of Sess 
of Aldermen. - 
Terms of M( 
Seals. — Descr 



Mayor. — City Cle 
Office and N: 

Pv-.wers. — Nan 
of Clerks. — Ci 
of Officers. — (, 



Aldermen, — Theii 

Aldermen. — 1\ 
Aldermen by V 



The Wards : Thei 

City.— Date of 



French and Englii 
and Finances. 

Characteristic 1 
Licenses, — In^ 
Remedy. — Fin 
When Payable 
The Detroit I 
Improvements 
dered. — Due 
Cannot Borrov 
Finances. — Sa 
More Shinplasi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XVll 



Duties. — Names of Auditors. — County Treasurer. — History of Office. — Names of Treasurers. — 
Coimty Clerii. — History of Ofiicc. — Office Records. — Names of Clertcs. — County Superintendent 
of .ScIkjoIs. — Names of Superintendents, — Drain Commissioners. — Duties and Names. - County 
Surveyors. — Duties and Names. 123-126 

CHAPTER XXII. 

The Townships of Wayne County. — Derivation of Township Names. — Township Officers. — 

First I'ownsliips. — Vai^ue i>oundaries. — I'Mrst Systematic Divisions. — Date (f Creation of Each 
Township. — Ciians^es in Names and I5oundaries. — Obsolete Names. — lioundaries in 1883. — 
Derivation of Names. — Townsliip Officers. — Duties. — List of Township Supervisors. 127-132 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Sarly Government of Detroit. — Incorporation as a Town. — Rule of the Governor and 
Judges. — Revival of Local Government. — Covernmental (lenealogy. — Interesting Details. — 
Court of Oeneral Quarter Sessions. — thirst Town Corporation. — How Obtained.— (iralitude of 
Citizens. — First Town Officers. — Subsequent Elections and Ajipointments. — Rule of Oo\ernor and 
Judges. — An Anomalous Oovernment. — Autocratic Methods. — Strange Doings. — Orasping (Offi- 
cials. — A Sham Charter. — Insulting Absurdities. — (iovernor and Judges still at the Helm. -- Unac- 
countable Officials. — Revival of Local Government. — First City Charter. — Names of Trustees. 133-135 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

The Common Council or Board of Aldermen. — Board of CounciJmen. — Ordinances. — Official 
Year. — City Seals. — Creation of Common Council. — Powers of. — Seeking Light. — Place and 
Time of Sessions. — Number of Members. — Ouorum. — Rules. — Standing Committees. — Poard 
of Aldermen. — Presidents of Board of Aldermen. — The City Council or Board of Councilmen. ^ — 
Terms of Members. — Names of Councilmen. — Ordinances. — Oflicial Year. — The Several City 
Seals. — Description of Seals. — Significance of Present Seal. 1 36- 1 39 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Mayor. — City Clerk. — City Attorney. — City Counsellor. — City Historiographer. — Duties of each 
Office and Names of the Incumbents. — Creation of Office of Mayor. — Former Duties. — Present 
Pcwers. — Names of Mayors. — City Secretaries. — City Clerk. — Duties. — Office Records. — Names 
of Clerks. — City Attorney. — Duties and Names. — City Counsellor. — City Historiographer. — Names 
of Officers. — Object of Oftice. 140-141 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Aldermen. — Their Duties and Names. — Office First Named. — Aldermen at Large. — First Ward 
Akicrmen. — Aldermanic Courts. — Pay of Aldermen. — Names of Aldermen at Large. — Names of 
Aldermen by Wards and Years. . 142-146 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

The Wards: Their Establishment and Boundaries. — Wards for Fire Districts. — First Division of 
City.-- Date of Creation of Each Ward. — Changes in Boundaries. — Present Boundaries. 147-148 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 



French and English Taxation. — Territorial Taxes. — State and County Taxes. — City Taxation 
and Finances.— United States Taxes. — Ta.xes Payable in Wood. — Early Territorial Ta.xes. — 
Characteristic Letter. — Territorial Tax Gatherers. — Law of 1805. — An Old Ta.x Roll. — Territorial 
Licenses. — Investigation by Grand Jury.* — ^ Hull's Wasteful E.xtraviigance. — People without 
Remedy. — First Sale of Lands for County Ta.xes. — State and County Taxes. — How Apportioned. — 
When Payable. — Percentages. — Ta.x Sides. — Ta.xation Statistics by Decades. — First Town Tax. — 
The Detroit Fund. — Valuation of 181 7. — Corporation Receipts and Expenditures in 18 19. — 
Improvements of 1827. ^ The Congressional Gift. — Official Mismanagement. — Property Squan- 
dered. — Due Bills Issued. — Their Depreciation. — Sham Improvements. — City Wants §50. — 
Cannot Borrow. — The City Devours its Substance. — Death and Taxes. — Condition of City 
Finances. — Saving the Wreck. — Better Methods. — First Real Estate Tax. — First City Bonds. — 
More Shinplasters. — Watching a Trunkful. — Protest of the Butchers. — Display of Wisdom. — 



XVlll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Burning Shinplasters. — Chief Expenses by Decades. —Valuation by Dec.'ides. — Increasinif 
Wealth. — Tax I'cr Capita by Decades. - Sinkinif Fund. — Receipts for I-iiiuor Taxes. — Annual Tax 
Estimates.— How l'rc|)ared. — How Assessed. — When Due. — Increased I'ercentaifc. — Tax .Sales. - 
Collection of Back Taxes. - Special Assessments. — i'ropertv Liable to Taxation. - List of i'".xemp- 
tions. — Chanijfes in Fis'.':il Year. — The Treasure'-'s Accounts. —Explanation of l'"in.incial Methods. — 
City Depository. — U. S. Revenue Taxes. — Stamped Paper. — \'ari()us Laws. — First Collection 
District. — Tax Rates. — Amount of Ci)llections. — Names of Assessors and Collectors. 149-160 

C H A I' T E R .\ .\ I -X. 

Citizens'Meeting. — Board of Estimates. — Auditors, Comptrollers, Accountants.— City and Ward 
Assessors. — Board of Review. — City and Ward Collectors. — City Treasurers. — Receivers of 
Taxes. Citizens' Meciin).;s. — Tax I'stiinates. — Excitini^' Meetini^s. — Ciii/.eiis' Meelinj^s Abol- 
ished. — Board of E.stimates Created. — Lowers of the Board. — Names of Members. — City Auditor 
and Duties. — Name Chanjred to Comptroller. — Names of Comptrollers. — City Accountant. — 
Duties. — Names of Accountants. — City .and Ward Assessors. — Ciian,t,a's in Otlice. — Tamperinij 
with Rolls. — Names of Assessors. — Board of Review. — Duty of the lioard. — Names of Mem- 
bers. — City and Ward Collectors. — Peculi.ir Official Notice. — Names of Collectors. — City Trea.s- 
urer. — Duties of Otlice. — Names of Treasurers. — Receiver of Ta.\es. — Duties of Office. ^ — 
Names of Receivers. i6i-i68 



Court. — Ju 
tcrs. — Coui 
Wliipped. 
of Ch.'incery 
Appointees. 
History of 
Names of Ji 



Mayor's Court. - 
Notaries 

Fines Remitt 
Names of 
Sessions. - 
Comnn'ssioiic 
Justices of 
Admissions 
ment. 



K 

I' 



PART IV.-JUDICIAL. 

CHAPTER X.X.X. 

Justice in the Olden Time. — United States Circuit Court. — District Court. — United States 
Oilicers. — Bankruptcy Court. — Judicial Powers of Flarly Comm.intlants. — .Serious Complaints.— 
First Le,iijal Provisions. — Patriarchal Commandants. — A Woman Hanjj^ed. — Trader Murdered by 
his Slaves. — Conflicts between Commandants and ( lovernors. - The Office of Notary. — Com- 
plaint an^ainst Dejean. ^ His Ac(|uitt<'d. — The First Jutli^es. — The 'I'ri.al and Hanj;inj,M)f Coutinci- 
nau and Ann Wyley. — John Dodvje's Letter. — Hamilton's Opi)ressi()n of Dodi^e and Other Citi- 
zens. — A Detroit Dunijeon. — ^ Dejerm as a Jailer. — I)od>;e's Escajie and Threatenin.tjs. — Hamil- 
ton Indicted. - His Appeal to H.ildim.and. — First Justices. — United States Circuit Court. — 
Bounds of Circuit at Different Periods. ^Juri.sdiction. — Place of Sessions. — Names of Judj^es 
and Clerks. — United States District Courts. — When First Held. — Selection of Jurors. — N;imes 
of Jud.ijes and Clerks. — United States Attorney. — Duties. — Names of Attorneys. — United 
.States Marshal. — Powers. — Names of Marshals. — Commissioners for United States Courts. — 
Duties. — Names of Commissioners. — Masters in Chancery. — Duties and Names. — The First 
Bankruptcy Act. — The Second Bankruptcy Act. — Third Bankruptcy Act. — Bankruptcy Court. — 
Duties. — The Judge. 171-177 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Supreme Courts of the Territory and the State. — Supreme Courts of Northwest Territory. — Legis- 
lative and Judicial Duties Combined. — Court Methods. — A Festive Occasion. — Names of the 
Judges. —(Origin of a Name. — Supreme Court of Indiana Territory. — Names of Judges. — Supreme 
Court of Michigan Territory. —Jurisdiction. — Varied and KemarkaDle Powers. — Time and Place 
of Court .Sessions. — Sessions at Midnight. — Sessions in the Small Hours of the Morning. — Bar- 
room .Sessions. — Ses.sions on a Wood-pile. — Bread and Meal in the Court Room. — Whiskey 
Offered the Judges. — Rules and Counter Rules. — Sessions with only a Judge Present. — Dcisions 
not to Serve as Precedents. — Hanging under an ex-Post-Facto Law. — How a Lawyer Flailed to 
Help His Client. — Branding and Execution of Indians. — The F^xecution of Simmons. — Woodward 
and His Eccentricities. — Legal Somersaults, — Peculiar Dress. — Si.xteen Cujis of Tea. — literary 
Egotism. — Complaint of Orand Jiuy. — The (lazette Articles. — A Mockery of Justice. — The Case 
of the United States against British Officers. — Ludicrous Account of the Arrest and Trial. — 
Public Denunciation of Woodward. — Additional Eccentricities. — Congress Provides for Retirement 
of Judges. — New Judges appointed. — Names uf Judges ami Clerks, — Supreme Court of State. — 
Changes in Place of Sessions. — Time of Sessions. — Names of Judges. — Clerks and Reporters. 178-188 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

District Court. — Orphans' Court.— Court of Quarter Sessions. —Court of Common Pleas. —Court 
of Chancery. — County Courts. — Circuit Courts.- District Criminal Court.— Di-strict Courts 
of Territory. — Jurisdiction. — Boundaries of District. — Court Appointments. — .Session under a 
Green Bower. — Changes in Boundary oi District and Jurisdiction. — Names of Justices. — Orphans' 



e 



Morals. — City 

Needed. — Po 
Markets. — Tl 
Official Retrif 
Police. — Nigli 
ments. — Paid 
First Police 
politan Comn: 
('•ranted. — N; 
and Captains. 
Po'icemen. — B 
Yearly St.item 
Health Fund. - 
Duties and Na 



The Jails and th 

New Pickets. ■ 
Used as Jails. 
Jail. — F2rectioi 
Prisoners. — M 
Mayor Hyde's 
approves. — St.- 
Management. - 
Names of Sup^ 



Forts and Defense 

An Important 
Periods. — Enl; 
Citadel. — I'.rei 
Injured by Bac 
Officers. — Inte 
Erected. — Fla 
Wayne. — Loc£ 
tion'. — Object. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XIX 



Court. — Jurisdiclioii Transferred. — The Probate Court. — Obsolete Duties. —Judiifes and Kc).jis- 
UTs. — Court of (Icncral (Quarter Sessions. Jurisdittinn. - Names of Jiulj^cs. - I'risoners 
Wliip|)ed. — Services Sold. — Court of Common I'leas. Jurisdiction. — Nann's of Judj^es. — Court 
of Ciiancery. — Object of. — Names of Jud^^es and Reporters. — Masters in Clianccry. — Names of 
Appointees. — County Courts. — Jurisdiction. — Names of Judges and Clerks. — Circuit Courts. — 
History of Wayne Circuit. — Selection of Jurors. — I'lace of .Sessions. — The County ikiildinij. — 
Names of Judges and Clerks. — District Criminal Court. — Object of. — Judges. 181; vj^ 

C H A 1' r E R X X X 1 1 I . 

Mayor's Court. — Recorder's Court.— Police Court.— Superior Court.— Commissioners. — Justices. 
Notaries.— Lawyers. —Detroit Bar Library. -Mayor's Court. — Aldermanic Judges and Justices. — 
Kims Remitted. — I'risoners Working on Streets. — Recorder's Court. — Original Duties of Recorders. — 
Names of Recorders. — Names of Judges and Clerks. — Police Court. — Jurisdiction. — Place of 
Sessions. — Police Justices and Clerks. — Superior Court. — Jurisdiction. — Judges and Clerks. — 
Conuiiissioners of Hail. — Circuit Court Commissioners. — Powers. — Names of Commissioners. — 
Justices of the Peace. — Jurisdiction. — Names of Justices. — Notaries. — Powers. — Lawyers. — 
Admissions to iJar. — The liar Association. — A Witty Retort. — The Bar Library. — Its Manage- 
ment. 19s 200 

CHAP T E R XXXIV. 

Morals. — City Marshals. — Police. — Sheriffs. — Prosecuting Attorneys. — Constables. — Reforms 
Needed. — Pontcharirain's Recommendations. — Difficulties in the Way. — No Sabbath. - Sunday 
Markets. — Their Discontinuance. — IMur Law Proceedings. — Higher Standards. — Reni;irkable 
Ofiicial Retribution. — The Ordeal of Fire. — Duties and Names of City Marshals. — The Earliest 
Police. — Night Watchmen. — Volunteer Watchmen. — Service not Sustained. — Midnight Refresh- 
ments. — Paid City Watch Asked for. — Ojjposition of Citizens' Meeting. — The Merchants' Police. — 
First Police Commission. — Increasing Need of Police. — Riot of 1863. — ICstabli.shment of Metro- 
politan Commission. — Opposition to ihe Commission. — Winning its Way. — Additional Powers 
(iranted. — Names of Commissioners. — Superintendents. — Secretaries. — Attorneys. — Physicians 
and Captains. — ^ .Salaries. — Oualifications of Policemen. — Regulations and Suggestions. -. Special 
Po'iccmen. — Bradford Smith's Work.-- Mounted Police. — Number of Force. — FLxpenses.— Arrests. — 
Yearly .Statements. — Police Stations. — Their Location, Date of ICrection, and Cost. — Life and 
Health Fund. — Relief Society. — Sheriffs. — Duties. — Names of Sheriffs. — Prosecuting Attorneys. — 
Duties and Names. — Constables. — Duties and Names. 201-213 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

The Jails and the House of Correction. — Location of Jails. — New Jail Purchased. — Pills for 
New Pickets. — Insufficient Jails. —Juil Hired of James May. — Proposed Purchase. — Buildings 
Used as Jails. — Jail Erected by \.}overnor and Judges. — An Unoccupied Jail. — Tearing down a 
Jail. — Erection of Clinton Sireec Jail. — Second Jail on Clinton Street. — Average Number of 
Prisoners. — Management. — A Prisoner's Joke. — Detroit Hou.se of Correction. — Its Origin. — 
Mayor Hyde's Efforts. — Brock.vay's Suggestions. — Estimates Ordered. — Citizens' Meeting Dis- 
approves. — St.ite Aid Sought. — I-'avorable Citizens' Meeting. — Building ICrected. — Organization. — 
Management. — Money Making. — (Occupation of Prisoners. — Efforts for their Improvement. — 
Names of Superintendents and Inspectors, 214-218 



PART v.- MILITARY. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Forts and Defenses. —Pensions and Pension Agents. — Military Officers in Command at Detroit. — 

An Important Post. — Early Posts in Michigan. — Finst Fort at Detroit. — Condition at Different 
Periods. — Enlargements. — How Garri.soned. — Citizens Ta.xed for Repairs. — New Stockade and 
Citadel. — Erection of F"ort Lernoult. — Why Built. — Description of. — Clark's Hopes. — F""ort 
Injured by Bad Weather. — .Stockade Partially Removed. — Strength of Garrison. — Visits of Noted 
Officers. — Interesting Letters. — New Stockade. — Fort .Shelby. — Successive Garrisons. — Arsenal 
ICrected. — F'lag-stafif Blown down. — Distinguished Arrivals. —The Fort Demolished. — Fort 
Wayne. — Location. — Cost. — Rebuilding. — Fort Croghan — Order for its Erection. — Its Loca- 
tion. — Object. — Becomes a Play-Ground. — Detroit Barracks. — Their Location. — Arsenal at 



XX 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



l)i-;irl)()rn. - - K.irly I'l'iisioii I..iws. - IViisioncrs Paid from Dctmit. Nanu-s of IVnsion Avjcnts. - 
Kri'iich Coinmaiulams. Naiiu's. I imc of Scrvi.c. I'.nnlisli Coiiimaiidaiils. Names. Tiiiu' 
of Service. - AiK-aloti- of Colonel I'.M,<laml. Amerie.m Commandiiiv; Ollicers .it I'orls .uid K.ir- 
racks. — Districts and Departments KntbraeiiiK Detroit. - Names uf Commandin,i{ ticnerals. 2^1 J30 

CHAPI'i: K WWII. 

Early Indian Attacks. — The French and English, or Seven Years' War. — Indian Attac k of 1703. — 
A Doi; M.ikes 'i'nuible. ()ll,i\v;i.s irrsus Miamis. Sliootinj; of K.itlier del ll.ille.— A Monlli's 
Siei^e.— Disaffection of llie Mi.iinis. ~ Cadiil.ie Compels a IVaec. 'I'lic Attack of 1712.— Dii liiiis- 
soii'.s Defense. — Methods of Attack. — Krencli Inj^cniiily. — Tlic Imixcs Defeated. - Immense 
Sl.uiinlUer. - - Indian 'riirciteninijs. — Tlie French .md' I''.n,nli'sli War. - Occasion of. -- Scalp Money. 
Human Scalps ;is Merchandise.'- Proposed ,\tt;ick of 1747- - I''xpostire of the Plot. Tlu' h'ort Re- 
inforced. Unfriendly Indians to he put to De.itli. — Arrest of Indians. -Oriijaiii/.ation of Ohio Com- 
pany. -Uneasiness of the l''rench. ~ 'r.'ikin.< Possession of the Ohio X'allcy. -Colonists I'.ncoiir.it^cd. 
~ \V;ishi!ii;ton's Mission. —The I'lttslnirvjh Fort.— Its Capture by the I'Yench. Dcfe.it of Cicneral 
Hraddock. — Dishonest Olticers. - -French Activity. — The FuKlish Retake the Piti'')uri;h Fort. — 
Defeat of Fnijlish by P.irty from Detroit. — New Defenses at Detroit. Relief sei to Niaijara. — 
Niagara Surrendered. Troops and Provisions .Accunuil.itcil ;it Detroit. — Ouebee Captured.— 
Caiiaila Surrendered to ICnulish. -Major Rt)j;crs Takes Po.s.sessioii of Detroit.-- Sir Win. John.son 
Arrives. — His Treaty with Indians. 231-234 

C H A P T I'. R X X N \- 1 I I . 

The Conspiracy of Pontiac. — Friendship of French and huli.ms. — Pontiac's Project. — Preliminary 
Movcnuiiis. -Coinicil of Indi.ins. — Prciiar.itions for .Attack. — Tiie Plot Revealed. —Cladwin's 
Prep.ir.iiions. — I'oniiac Surprised. - His Rcvenvfc. - The Killin.ij of Sir Robert D.avers. — The 
Indi.ins Invest the Fort. — The First \'ictims. - Proj^rcss of the Sieije. — Houses Destroyed. — 
Council with Indians. — Pontiac's Treachery. -- Attempts to Starve tiie C.arrison. - Supjilics from 
Niairara. — The IJlacksmith's Armory. — Sujiply Hoats Captured by Indi.ins. - Pe.ice between French 
and English. — A Concert Civen. — The Prayer Hell Rin,ns. —Scarcity of Provisions. - Relief 
Arrives. — Movine Reinforcements. — Ponti.ic Seeks French Aid. — The French Orijanized for 
Defense. — F.irmers Seekinjf Refinjc — Indi.m Fire Crafts. — Indi.ins Sue for Peace. — Arrival of 
Dalyell. — His I'\)olish \'enture. — The li.utle of P.Ioody I lije. — Di'fcit and Disaster.— The Crave 
of D.ilyell. - .Arrival of Supjilies. — A Fetter from Cdaiiwm. - Wilkins' Relief I'.xpediiion. — Short 
Supplies at Detroit. -- Troofis .Sent to Ni;ij;ara. — Termin;ilion of .Sieije. -~ I'"estivities in the l-'ort. — 
Hnulstreet's Expedition. — Its Arrival at Detroit. — His Council with the Indians. — They Yield 
Allei^iance. — \'i.sit of Capt. Croyhan. 235-241 

c H A p r 1-: R X X X i x . 

The Revolutionary War. — British and Indian Wars and First American Occupation of Detroit. — 
French and Spanish Intrigues. — Martial Law Proclaimed. - F.ni;lish Fears and Plans. — Liciitenant 
tiovernors Created. — Object and Powers of Oilice. — Misstatements Corrected. — Lieutenant (iov- 
ernors 7'i-rsus Comm;indants. — Ciovernor Hay and His Troubles. — His .Surname. -De Peyster's 
Dislike. — Importance of Detroit. — Army .Activities. — Incitinj;' the Sav.ages. — Distribution of (ioods 
and Trinkets.— E(iuipment of War Parties. — Ojipression of American Sympathizers. — Interesting 
AlVidavits. — Loyalists at Detroit. — French OlTicers and Indian Companies. — Wholesale Employ- 
ment of .Savat^es. — A P>;irbarous Warfare. — Lord .Suffolk's Justification. — Chatham's Scathing 
Reply. — Scalping l\irties Co and Come. — Scalping Knives and Scalps Hought and Sold. — Singing 
War Songs. - Cioods for the Indians. — Enormous Supiilies. — An Oflicial Estimate. — Long Headed 
Squaws. — Congre.ssion.il ICft'orts with Indians. — Proposed Expedition against Detroit. — Foster's 
Expedition from Detroit. — A Song by Col. De Pey.ster. — More Expeditions from Detroit. — A 
Proclamation by Hamilton. — The Attack on Fort Henn-. — Capture of Daniel Boone. — Detroit 
Forces at Wyoining. — Captain Bird and His Love Affair. — Simon Kenton as a Prisoner. ^ — His 
Escape. — John Leeth's Exp-riences. — Hamilton's Expedition against X'incennes. — Col. Clark's 
Counter Movement. — Col. X'igo's EfRcient Aid. — Clark Marching to Vincennes. — The Jovial 
Drummer. — Hamilton's Surrender. — Supplies Captured. — Rejoicing at Detroit. — ILimilton and 
Other OlVicers in X'irginia. — Jefferson Justifies Their Imprisonment. — Washington Favors Leniency. — 
Hamilton and Hay Paroled. — Character of Hamilton. — Mcintosh's I'-xpedition against Detroit. — 
Brodhead's Desires. — Information Sought from Zeisberger. — Clark's Plans. — La Balm's Expedi- 
tion. — Immense Expenditures for Clark's Forces. — Failure of Clark's Expedition. — Was''-'igton's 
Desire to Capture Detroit. — English Movements at Detroit. — Thousands of Savages lu i..ed. — 
Bird's Expedition. — Ruthless >iassacre of White Settlers. — The Delaware Indians and Their 
Neutrality. — The Moravian Missionaries. — Their Removal to Detroit. — Williamson's Expedition 



again.sl the 
is Defealedl 
to Detroit, 
as Captive.s.| 
Report. 
Indi.ins I'ju| 
Erected on 
The J.iy ll 
/\rrangem(i| 
Henley and 
(Hiestion. 
Intrigues in 
Conduct. 



Indian Wars fr| 

Detroit. 

.It Tippec.ini 



The War of 181 

Called for. 
Cicner.il I lull 
at Springwe 
C.inadi.ins. — 
Van Horn's 1 
British .and ! 
British I''rect 
II nil's Reply. 
The British 
Disgust of th 
Catches a Tai 
Rec.ipture ol 
Killed. .Sc.alpi 
Sympathy. — 
Mortality ;im<i 
Troops .Marel 
Crogli.m's Sir 
Perry's \'ictor 
of the Th.inii 
ease. — Pits ii 
against Mac! 
Expedition. — 
— Plentiful a 
Madison's Lei 



The Surrender o 
" Dearborn's 

His Denunci; 
Lossing. — H 
tions. — Dishc 
Defenders. — 
Real Issue. — 
foggery. — P? 
chronism. — . 
Half Truths. - 
Cass. 



TAni.K OF CONTF.NTS. 



XXI 



aisMinst till' I )('l;i\varcs. — lie Massacres the Christian liidians. — (.ol. Crawford's Kxpcdilioii. - lie 
is Dtfcalcd and liurnrd, - Dc I'l ysti-r Asi<s the Indians for " Live Mi-at." — Kiiiirn of War Parties 
to Detroit. Coiintin)^' tin- Sial|)s. — Ki'cpinis' I ally of tin- ncjitii Wlioops. — Woinen and Cliildrcn 
as Captives.-- Humane Condiut of C<rtain < )l(i( ers. - l'ro|)osed Surrender of Detroit. Dou).jlass's 
Keport. N (•),;( >tiat ions to ()l)lain I'ossession of Detroit. -- Hritisli rnv\illin).jness to Surrender. — 
li\dians Iju-our.ij.jrd to Continue the War. Defeat of ( lenerals il.unier and St. Clair. British Kort 
Mri'eted on tiie Miami. Tlie McKee Letters. -- (ieneral Wayne Defe.its the I'.nijiisii and liuhans. — 
The Jay 'I'reaty. - 'I'iie Western Posts Nielded. A Letter from C.eneral Wasiiini;lon. P'inal 
Arr.ini^ements for Surrender. - The Date of I'.nj^lish Dep.irture.- Anierie.ins in I'ossession. — The 
Henley and llamtramek Letters. — 'festimony of S(|uire Reynolds. -Complete .Settlement of ^he 
Ouestion. dirty and His Horse. N'isit of lloiindary Line Commissioners. — I'"reiieh and Sp.mish 
Intrivjiies in Detroit and the West.- - Powers' Mission to (ienenil Wilkinson. — Wilkinson'.s Suspicious 
Conduct. 242-271 

CHAPTKR .XL. 

Indian Wars from 1790 to 1812. — Impertinence .-md Inhumanity of L'.nijlish onicers. - I'nre.st at 
Detroit. Preparations for Defense. British Presents to tin- Indians. - I larrison Defeats Indians 
at 'I'ippecanoe. — Citizens of Detroit Ask Conijress for Troops. 272-273 



CHAPTIIK Xl.l. 

The War of 1812. — The Riijht of Search. - Attack on the Chesapeake. — War Declared. — Militia 
Called for. Mritish Activity. — Musterinij of Detroit Militia. — Army (iathered at Dayton. — 
("leneral I lull Takes Command. — Hull's Matfj^ajjc and Muster Rolls Captured. - 1 lull's Army Arrives 
at Sprin,;;wells.— Cass's Mission to Maiden. — The Army Cross to Sandwich. — Proclamation to 
Canadians. — Various Detachments Sent out. - Captain IJrush Arrives at the Raisin.— Defeat of 
Van Horn's J'^scort. — The Army Returns to Detroit. — Miller Sent to Relief of Brush. — Defeat of 
British and Indians. -\h- .Arthur Seeks to Aid Miller. — Miller Ordered bai k to Detroit. — The 
British I'.reet Batteries. — Further Klforls to Relieve Brush. — Brock Demands Surrender of Detroit. — 
Hull's Reply. — Cuttintf down a Pear Tree. — Detroit Bombarded.-- Incidents of the Cannonade. — 
The British Cross to Sprinvjwells. - Colonel Anderson's Opportunity. — The Fort Surrendered. — 
Disjjju.st of the Militia. — Amount of Stores Surrendered. — Removal of Stores. — Captain Klliott 
Catches a Tartar. — Was Hull a 'I'raitor ? — Stranj^o Stories. — Mrs. Dodemead's Joke. — I'lans for 
Recapture of Detroit. — Battle of Frenchtown. — Winchester's Defeat. — Wounded Americans 
Killed. Scalped, and Burned. — (iatherinij the Remains. — Ransominjj; of Prisoners. — Womanly 
Sympathy. - Proctor's Inhumanity. - - American Citizens Ordered to Leave. — Their Protest. — Oreat 
Mort.ility ainonj^ Indians. — Indian Outraijes. — Indian Cajitives. — Her Mother's Scalp. - American 
Troops .Marchinjf to Detroit. -~ I'rovisional Methods. — Harrison's Messajje to Major Crojjhan. — 
Cro.nhan's Sinijular Reply. — His Arrest and K.xplanation. — His Defense of Fort Steven.son. — 
Perry's Victory. -- Proctor Leaves Detroit. — The Old Flaij. — Christeninji; of Fort Shelby. — IJattle 
of the Th.imes. — Sheriffs and Auctiotieers Appointed for Canada. — Troops Decimated by Dis- 
ea.se. — Pits instead of Cotlins. — An Inijenious Ruse. — Fxpedition aijainst Fort Talbot. — Ivxpeilition 
against Mackinaw. — Indian Depredations at Detroit. — The Killinj^ of McMillan. — A Volunteer 
E.xpedition. — McArthur's Rillemen Arrive. — Insolence of British Ofiicials. — Date of Reoeeupation. 
— I'lentiful and Positive Testimony.— A Question Settled. — Di.stress after the War.-- President 
Madison's Letter to Congress. — Relief Afforded by (Government. 274-288 



CHATTER XLII, 



The Surrender of Detroit. — An Analysis and Review of " Hull's Trial," " Hull's Memoirs," and 
" Dearborn's Defense." — Trial of General Hull. — His Case Considered. — Efforts in his Behalf. — 
His LJenunciations. — Relatives as Defenders. — General Dearborn's Defense. — Candor of Mr. 
Lossing. — Hull's Ingratitude. — His Discreditable Administration. — His Vituperation and Accusa- 
tions. — Dishonesty of his Statements. — Specimen Stultifications. — Base Insinuations of Certain 
Defenders. — His Memoirs. — Misrepresentations. — Inconsistent and Reckless Statements. — The 
Real Issue. — Opinions ■Jvr.y//.f ?" acts. — Simplicity as an Excuse for Carelessness. — Specimen Petti- 
foggery. — Pathetic Nonsense. — A Coward's Reason. —Afterthought Excuses. — A Fatal y\na- 
chronism. — A Wonderful Surplus. — Remarkable Effrontery. — Clark's Absurd Argument. - 
Half Truths. — Letters from John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Governor 
Cass. 289-298 



XXll 



TARLi: OF CONTENTS. 



CMAI'TER XLIII. 

The Black Hawk War.— Toledo War— Patriot War— Mexican War. — Cause of Hl.u k I lawk Wan- 
Troops from Mifhijjan. — Di'p irtiiii' of (luards and I )raj^jooii.s. — I'l'ic Kciiirii to Dclruit. — 
Arrival of U. S. Troops. - Mlack Hawk in Detroit. -VUv Toledo \V;ir. - Cause of. — Laws and 
Counter Laws. — Militia on the iNL-ireh. — 'i'lie Sheriff and his I'o.sse. liouiidary Line Skirmish. — 
Arrests in Toledo. — Michij.;an Militia at Toletlo. -A .Midniijht Court. -- Jiulvjes on the Ktui. — 
(lovernor Mason Superseded. — Return of Troops. — Humorous War Soiij^f. -- impromptu Celebra- 
tion. — i'risoners Released. - Governor Horner's Reason. — Ohio Victorious. — The Patriot War. — 
Dissatisfied Canadians. — Events at lUitfalo. — Refux:ees at Detroit. - Hiuiters' Lodijcs. - Patriot 
'Sympathizers. — Stolen Arms. — Ciovernor Mason's i''.xpedition. — Sutherland's Forces. Capture 
of Theller. — Arrival of U.S. Troops. — Activity of lirady (aiards. - The Patriots Caiuionadeil. — 
Excitement at Detroit. - Patriot Camn near lUoody Rim. — Cenerai Brady Disperses Patriots. — 
Patriots Attack Windsor. — Their Defeat. — Theller's I'scajH- and Trial. — Otiiet Restored. — The 
Mexican War. — 'I'roops from Detroit. — (iener.'il Scott's Commendation. — Prematiu'e Ciiebration. — 
Victory of Palo Alto. — Captain Taylor's Joy. — t)tllicers of the Michigan Troops. — Return of the 
Troops. — State Expenses for Troops. 299-304 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

The War with the Somli. — The Irrepressible Conflict. — The Hero of Fort Sumter. — War Begins.— 
Union Meetini(s. — I'.quippinvj the I-'irst Infantry. — Individual Loans.— The Oath of Allegiance. — 
Flag Raisings. — War Meetings. — Mustering of First and Second Regiments. — The C.imi) of Instruc- 
tion. — More Regiments Raised. — Union Political Convention. -Camp Hackus Established.— Cele- 
bration of Victories. — Passports to Canada. — Return of Ceneral Willcox. — Ward Drills. — Dejiar- 
ture of Regiments. — Riot of 1863. — Cettysburg and \'icksburg. — Comforts for the Soldiers. — 
Return of Regiments. — Hurley and his Plot. — Other Rebel Plots. — The City to be Burned. — 
Victory at Richmond. — News of Lincoln's Death. — Hagley's Eulogy. — The Funeral Procession. — 
Entertaining Returning Troops. — Old Battle Flags. — Number of Soldiers and Los.ses. — Relief 
Organizations. — Ol'licers. - Synopsis of Work. — Relief and Bounty Funds. — How Apportioned. — 
Total Amounts Expended. — .Soldiers' Monument. — Organization of Association. — Raising the 
Funds. — Nauici: of Olikers. — Description of Monument. 305-312 

CHAPTER LXV. 

Militia and Military Companies. — First Regulations. — Uniforms Unnecessary. — Parades at Detroit. — 
Hull's Martinetism. — A Peculiar Law. — Militia Ollicers. — Absurd Regulations. — (lorgeous 
Uniforms. — The {'.overnor'.'-- Clothing Store. — Dissatisfaction of Inhabitants. '— Uniforms Miist be 
Procured.— Gentle's Description of Military Doings. — An Awkward Captain and His Awkward 
Squad. — Trouble between Hull and Griswold. — Military Courts. — Amusing Excuses. — Military 
Companies. — Date of Organization. — Officers and Incidents. 3 13-3 '8 



PART VI.— SOCIAL. 

CHAPTER XL VI. 

Original Inhabitants of Detroit. — Indian Agents. —Eiirly Visitors. — First Inhabitants. — Various 
Theories. — Probable Order of Occupation. — Humboidt's Opinion.— Indian Mounds.— E.xamina- 
tions. — Contents. — Probable Object. — Names of Tribes. — Cannibals. — Location of X'illages. — 
Indian Dress. — Amusements. — Habitations. — Occupations. — Origin of Indian Names.— The 
Council Fire, —Visits of Noted Indians. — Methods and Requests. — Stephenson's Metaphor.- 
English Gifts. — American Largess. — Indian Dandies. — Quaint Designations. — Indian Agents.— 
Indian Treaties. — First White Visitors. — Remarkable Journeys. — Champlain and Detroit. — Mar- 
quette.- Joliet.—Galinee.— La Salle and the Griffon. — Tonty and La Forest. — La Hontan.— 



Charlevoix. 



321-325 



CHAPTER XLVII. 



Biography of Cadillac. — The Founding and Growth of Detroit. — Manners and Customs. — Marriage 
Laws. — Masonic and Odd Fellows' JJocieties. — Cadillac's -al Name. — Date and Place of 
Birth. — When Baptized.— His Father's History. — Other i- -latives.— His Signature. — Careless 
Recording. — The Family Name. — Proofs of Identity. — His Early Life. — Rare 'Abilities. — Deter- 
mined Character. — A Cosmopolite. — His Marriage. — Residence in Acadia. — His Wife's Devotion. 






— Her Co 
Mt. Desei 
Esteem. 
I caving 
Jealousy ( 
Death aiu 
C.-ulillac .It 
cils. — Opi 
StatiMnent 
I'irst BirtI 
I'!nc()(ir;ige 
Reports, 
of New C 
Obsolete r, 
age of ( 
names.- 
tic Anin 
Emi)loymei 
tive Atmi 
Early Soci 
Event. - 
Club. — Ma 
A Mride wit 
Societies. — 



Slavery and the 

Sla/es. — P 
dolph Oppoi 
Unfriendly 
Detroit. — 'I 
Association. 
.\rrivals. — ' 
I' I Try Raid. 
Disgraceful 
Case. — Col( 



Recreations and 

Amusement! 
Conquest. — 
by Mail.— L 
gerald. — Pic 
America. — 
Games. — O 
of Garden. - 
on Piety Hi 
on Jefferson 
Carnival. — I 
Cricket Clul 



Music and the 

Parish Chori 
Singers. — F( 
Detroit Phil 
Union. — Or] 
First Piano 
Bands. — Lii 
Location of 
and inventor 
Art Exhibiti( 



TABLE OV CONTENTS. 



• t • 

xxm 



— I Icr Coura.iLjc. — Names of their Children. — History of Child.en. — Mis Wife's I>ast Home. — The 
Mt. Desert Cirant. — 1 he Cirr'goires. 'I'iieir Miirial I'lace. -Cadiliae's Position. — (loveriimental 
Ksteein. — Appointed to .Mackinaw. - His Return to <2iiel)ec. — Desires to I'ound Detroit, Date of 
leavinif Detroit. — Appointed Ciovernor of I-ouisiana. -Arrival at Mobile. — His Activity. — 
Jealousy of As.soeiates. — l-aler Misrepresentations. — Appointed ( lovernor of Castelsarrasin.His 
Death and lUirial. — 'I'he Koiindinif of Detroit. — Cadillac's I'lans. — Obstacles in the Way. — 
Cadillac at (Quebec. — (loinj^' West. — IJeaiichene's Narrative. — Hirthday of Detroit. — Indian Coun- 
cils. — Opposition to Colony. — V'audreuil NeiLjIects Orders. — Intrivjues at Tr.idinjj Company. — 
Statement of Cadillac's Son.— Boldness of First Settlers. — Roy.il JJIood. — St. Anne's Records. — 
l-'irst Birth, Marriaj^e and Death. —(Irowth of J'opulation. — Arrival of rroniincnt Families. — 
Fncoiirai^rement to Settlers. — Ii --easinii I'rosperity. — Aeadians at Detroit. - Knj^dish Census 
Reports. — First American Settlers. — Bostonians. - Poetical Praises. — Potent Maps. - Thousands 
of New Comers. — Kmi^ration .Sorij.;. — Arriv.il of X'arious Nationalities. — Intercstinj^r Facts. — An 
Obsolete Opinion. — Cen.sus by Decades. — Percent of Increase, — Number of Families. — Percent- 
.ijje of Children. — Population Possibilities. — Old Time Manners, — Rouj^h \'oya)>;es. — Nick- 
names. — Styles of Dress. -- A Sonnet on a Bonnet. — Subjects of Thouj^ht.- Provisions. — Domes- 
tic Animals. — Su)j;ar and Fish Scales. — A Delicious Drink. — ("lOvernor Cass's Testimony. — 
Employments of First Settlers. — Unscientific Farmers. — Cientlemcn by Occupation. — A Conserva- 
tive Atmosphere. -- A Place to F.njoy Fife. — Characteristics of People, -Personal Appcar.ince, — 
F.arly Social .\dvantages. — Old School Flospitality. — Pertinent Testimony. — Noticeable Social 
Fvent. — Bani|iiet to C. C. Trowbridije. — New Year's Calls. — Social Societies. — The Dctrf)it 
Club. — Marria>,'e Laws. — Indi.-m Wives. — Importation of Younjj Fadies. — Weddinjj Festivities. — 
A Bride with a Doll, — Territorial Marria).;e Laws. — Later Re,v;ulations. — Masonic and Odd Fellows' 
Societies. — Date of Institution of Lodjjes. — Incidents. — Places of Meetings. 326-343 



CHAPTER .XLVIIL 

Slavery and the Colored Race. — First Slaves. — Indian Servants. — Orders for Slaves. — Prices of 
Sla.'cs. — Peculiar Expressions. — .Slavery Prohibited. — -Efforts to Repeal Prohibition. — John Ran- 
dolj.h 0|)i)oses. — Colored Militia. — -Taxes on Sl.ive Properly. — C.radual Extinction of Slavery. — 
Unfriendly Laws. — Kidnapjiin,^ Slaves. — Riot of 1833. — I-lscape of Blackburn. — lOxcitemeni at 
Detroit. — Troops from Fort Or.itiot. — Anti-Slavery Society. — Officers of .Society. — The Liberty 
Association. — Fugtive Slave Loan. — Arrest of Rose. — l'ndcri,'round Railroad. — Frequent 
Arrivals.— Humoious Handbill. Anti-Slavery .Sentiment. — John Brown in Detroit. — The Harper's 
Ferry Raid. — ("elebr.uion of Emancipation. — The Riot of 1863. — Faulkner's Arrest and Trial. — A 
Disgraceful Mob. — Houses Fired. — Colored People Beaten and Killed. — Sequel to Faulkner 
Case. — Colored People Ask for Citizenship. — Citizenship Bestowed. 344-348 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Recreations and Amusements. — Sporting Facilities. — Skilful Maidens. — Natural Gayety. — Sunday 
Amusements. — Foot Racing. — The French Champion. — Sir Wm, Johnson's Visit. — Miss Curie's 



Conquest. — Old Time Civilities. -The Grosse Pointe 

by Mail. — Lady Musicians. — War and Merriment. - 

gerald. — Picnic on Belle Isle. — Racing on the Ice. - 

America. — Characteristic Challenge. — Woodbridge 

Games. — Obsolete Laws. — McKinstry's Enterprise. - 

of Garden. — First Museum. — The Higgins' Collection. — Dor'or Cavalli's Mu.seum. — Coasting 

on Piety Hill. — Early Skating Rinks. — Recreation Park. — 'I .e Zoological Garden. — F'oot Ball 

on Jefferson Avenue. — Billiard Tables. — Noted Malches. — Novel FLntertainments. — Authors' 

Carnival. — Roller Skates and Velocipedes. — City Lic(.'nse Fees. — The Turn-Verein. — The 

Cricket Club. — Gymnasiums. — Shooting and Fisl ing Clubs. — Boat Clubs and Regattas. 349-353 



Roatl. — Dancing all Night. — Compliments 
-Miss Powell's Visit, — Lord Edward F'itz- 
- Winter Picnics. — Michigan against North 

Grove. — Old Time Rambles. — Children's 
Sports at Michigan Garden. — Description 






CHAPTER L. 

Music and the Drama. — Art, Artists, and Inventors. — N,iture's Vocalists. — Fifes and Fiddles.-- 
Parish Choristers. - Hot Flip and Songs. — Primitive Halls. — Local Vocalists. — Visits of Noted 
Singers. — Former Teachers. — Musical Organizations. — Harmonic Society. — Musical Association, — 
Detroit Philharmonic, — Concordia Society, — Nicolai Philharmonic, — ^ I)etroit Musical. — Chorus 
Union, — Orpheus Musical. — Arion Glee Club. — Schumann Society, — Siengerbund Meetings. — 
First Piano and Organ. — Detroit Composers, — Successful Compositions. — Leaders of Brass 
Bands, — Lincoln's Ojjinion of Kern. — Gideon's Band, — Recent Bands, — Military Theatricals. — 
Location of Theatres, — Visits of Noted Actors. — Bronson Howard and His Plays. -- Art, Artists, 
and inventors, — Works of Randolph Rogers, — Stanley's Paintings, — Portraits by Bradish, — Fine 
Art Exhibitions. — Works by Local Artists. — Exhibition of Noted Paintings, — Dunlap's " Bearing 



XXIV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



the Cross" "Calvary." and "Christ Rojertcd." — West's "Christ Healing the Sick."-— Teale's 
"Court of Death."— Rossitcr's "Return of the Dove" and " Miriam."— Dubufc's "Adam .md 
Eve "—rower's "(".reek Slave."— riiotoijrapliic Work. — The Art Loan. — Local Artists.— Museum 
of Art. — Subscriptions towards Site. — Cift of J. K. Scripps.— Detroit Inventions. — Hurt's .Solar 
Compass — Edison's Early Visits.— An Omnivorous Reader. —Van de I'oele's Liijht.- h elix Meier s 
Clock.— Smith's Automatic Clock.— Hrown's Cold Pens. — Day's Snow Plow. — Wilder 's Propeller 
Wheel.— Davis's Refrigerators.— Flower's Double-Faced Valves. 354-364 



PART VII. ARCHITECTURAL. 

CHAPTER LI. 

Houses and Homes. — Stores and Business Buildings. — House and Store Numbers. — Lighting and 

Heating. — Lo.i^ Houses.— I!irch-I?ark Roofs.— Acadi;ui Simplicity. — lUiildini^s Multipiymv:.— Stone 
Quarries. — Intere-stini^ Discovery. — Oriijinal Cellar Kitchen. — The River Front. — Picture of Speci.il 
Interest. — A Street View in 1800. — The Cass House. — Judj^e Campbell's "Cas.sina." — Moran and 
Lafferty Houses. -- First Brick Residence. — Various Occupants. — The Campau House. — A French 
House. — Growth of City. — Recent Statistics. — Noted House Movinvr. --Cravel and Slate Roofs. — 
Brick Rows. — Effects of Street Cars. — Increase of Elaboration. — Residence Streets. — Lawns and 
Shade Trees. — Remarkable Facts. — Business Corners. — Former Desinnations. — FMrst Hiick 
Stores. — A Prize Conundrum. — Introduction of Plate Gla.ss. — Olfice Buildings. — Names of Busi- 
ness Blocks. — Location and D.ate of Erection. — House and Store Numbers. — Primitive Fire 
Kindlers. — First Matches. — ISayberry Candles. — Tallow Dips. — Burning Fluid. — Coal Oil. — 
Electric Lights. — .Street Lighting. — ('.as Inspectors. — Keeping Warm. --Stove Renting. — Coal 
Introduced. — Inerea.sed Use. — First Steam Heating. — Steam Supply Company. — Boilc In- 
spection. 3'j7-47 I 

CHAPTER LII. 

Council Houses. — Court House or Capitol. — Cit/ Halls. — Opera Houses and Public Halls. — 

Council Houses. — Locations. — Indian Council House. — When Built. — Governor Cass's Testi- 
mony. — Woodworth's Statement. — Various Occujiants. — City Council House. — A Moving History. — 
The Court House. — Changes and Delays. — A Mistake .Somewhere. — Peculiar Contract. — Laying 
of Corner-Stone. — Dinner by Contractor. — Completion of Capitol, — An Appropriate Address. — 
Scrip for Contractors. — The Cupola. — A Favorite Lookout. — Old City Hall. — .Selection of .Site. — 
Erection of Building. — Campus Martins Lime Kiln. — Completion of Building. — Flntertainments 
in. — Building Vacated and Demolished. — New City H >ll. — 'The Site. — Description of Building. — 
View from Tower. — The Clock. — Old Cannons. — 1 he Hubb.ird Statues, — Cadillac, La Salle, 
Marquette, and Richard. — F.arly Public Halls. — The Old Session Room. — Old ^'<)nng Men's 
Hall. - Firemen's Hall. — Merrill Hall. — Young Men's Hall. — Arbeiter Hall. — St. Andrew's I lall. - 
Detroit Ojiera House. —Whitney's Opera House. — Harmonic Hall. — Former Music Hall. — Other 
Public Halls. — Building Inspectors. 472-479 



CHAPTER L I I I . 

Old Taverns and New Hotels. — The Dodemead House. — Smyth's Hotel. — Sagina Hotel — Woodworth's 
Hotel. — Uncle Ben. — The Long Room. — American or Wales Hotel. — Harriet Martine.au 's De- 
scription. — The First Mansion House. — ICverything by Turns. — Prominent Landmark. — Attractive 
Resort. — Yankee Boarding-House. — Franklin House. — Eagle Hotel. — Cliff's Tavern. — New York 
and Ohio House. — Michigan Exchange. — The National. — Rus.sell House. — St. Joseph House. — 
Detroit Cottage. — Andrew's Railroad Hotel. — Second Mansion House. — United States Hotel. — 
Central Railroad House. — Coyl House. — Commercial Hotel. — Indiana House. — Western 
Hotel. — Grand River House. — ( ioodman House. — Northern Hotel. — Perkins Hotel. — Johnson's 
Hotel. — Bagg's Hotel. — Buena \'ista House. — Biddle House. — ^ City Hotel. — American Temper- 
ance House. — Grand Circus Hotel. — Merchants' F^xchange. — Peninsular Hotel.- Blindbury's 
Hstel. — Antisdel House. — Garrison House. — St. Charles Hotel. — Tremont House. — Revere 
House. — Leland House. — The Madison. — Waverly House.— Howard or Griswold House. — Earned 
House. — Railroad Exchange. — Finney House. — Brighton House. — Hotel F>ichson. — Ei.senlord 
House. — Hotel Henry. — Hotel Renaud. — Gollinet or Bern.ird House. — The Brunswick. — 
Standish House. — Rice's Hotel. — The Kirkwood. — Dates of Opening. — Names of Proprietors. 
etc, 480-488 



TADLE OF CONTENTS. 



XXV 



chai>ti:r li v. 

Important Fires, — Fire Marshal. — Fire Limits. — Ciiimney Sweeps. — Notable Fires. — Dates and 
Incidents. — Fire of 1703. — Indian Incendiaries. — Cadillac Injured. — Fire of 17 12. — Buildings 
Demolished. — The Fire of 1S05. — Resultant Changes. — Premonitions. — -The Laborer's I'ipe. — 
Old Fire Pump. — The Hatter's Vat. — Inhabitants in Double Line. — Excited People. — Loading the 
Ikiats. — The Town Destroyed. — Houses outside the Stockade. — Dilhet's Account. — Majestic and 
Frightful Sight. — Crippled Child. — Munroe's Letter to Harrison. — Well-Baked Bread. — Hull's 
Accommodations. — ^"(iathering Building ALaterials. — Horrible Suspicion. — Strange I'roclamation. — 
Relief Contributions. — How Disposed of. — Later Conflagrations. — Dates. — Locations. — Owners 
of Property. — Fire Commission Records. — Yearly List of Fires and Losses. — Fire Mar.shal. — 
History of OfTice. — Duties and Names of Marshals, — Fire Limits. — Changes in Limits. — Chimney 
Sweeps. — Time's Changes. 489-500 

CHAPTER LV. ' 

The Old Fire Depj ment. — The Steam Fire Department. — The Fire Department Society. — The 

Swab Brigade. — I'^irs as Extinguishers. — -Engine of 179S. — Sweeping the Chimneys. — Fire 
Bags. — Keg and Bucket Safeguards. — Roof Ladders. — Bucket Line. — Trustee's Orders.- — Dis- 
obedience Fined. — A Widow's Wit. — Morbid Fears. — Town Inspectors. — Suburban Inspectors. — 
Battering Rams. — Axemen. — Battering-men. — Firemen. — Missing Hooks and Rams. — Informa- 
tion Sought. — Fire Engines Wanted. — I'roposed Lottery. — Sunrise Practice. — Shouldering Tubs. — 
Unwilling Citizens. — Broken Resolutions. — luigine- House Site W^anted. — Watchman's Cry. — 
Candles in Windows. — Noise and Terror. — Arrival of No. i. ^ Lazy Citizens. — Triangular Bell 
Wanted. — Xo. 2 Organized. — First Review Day. — Reservoir on Wheels. — I'nderground Reser- 
voirs. — ^ First Hose Company. — No. 3 Organized. — Engine Hou.se for No. 2. — New Fire Ordi- 
nance. — Wands for Ollieers. — Caps and 'Prumpets. — Fire Buckets for Hou.scs. — Fire Wardens 
and Duties. — Tolling the Bells. — The Steeple Watch. — Districting the City. — No. 4 Organized. — 
Heroic Firemen. — Coats Burned Off. — A Poor Corporation. — -Singular Resolution. — No. 5 Or- 
ganized. — Visiting Firemen. — More Companies Organized. —Annual Parades. — Oay Decorations. — 
Well-Dressed Firemen. — ^ Highest Water. — Broom Carrying. — False Alarms. — Jealousies. — Politi- 
cal IntUience. — Firemen's Balls. — Daring Deeds. — Starting for a Fire. — Rival Companies. — 
.Successful Tricks. — Exciting Scenes. — Washed ( )ut. — Night Refreshments. — Newspaper Thanks. — 
Firemen's Songs. — Company Mottoes. — Department in 1851. — Engine-House Furnishings. — The 
First Stream. — ^ Increase of Rivalry. — Costly Jealousies. ^ Sidewalk Ordinance. — Displeased Fire- 
men. — Disbanding Companies. — C)lci Citizens to the Rescue. — New Companies Organized. — The 
Firemen's Dog. — Unworthy Firemen. — First Trial of Steamers. — \'olunteer Companies Disband. — 
The Old Machine and Hose. — Characteristic Song. — First Steamers Ortlered. — I'aid Companies 
Provided for. — First Fire-Alarm Telegraph. — Chief Engineers of Volunteer Department. ^ Steam 
Fire Department Created. — Military Management. — Full and Careful Reports. — Department 
Expenses aiul Inventories. — Engine Houses. — Steamers. — Hose Carriages. — Automatic Conveni- 
ences. — Chemical Engines. — A Protective Company. — New f^ire-Alarm Telegraph. — Its Con- 
struction. — How Operated. — The Box Alarms. — How Given. — Hydrants and Reservoirs. — 
Organization of Commission. — Names of Commissioners. — Secretaries. — Engineers. — Surgeons.— 
The Firemen. — A Creditable Force. — Firemen's .Association. — Fire Department .Society. — Organi- 
zation. — Objects. — Hurlbut's Letter. — Firemen's Hall. — Description of. — \'an Dyke's .Services. — 
Appreciative Testimonial. — Cemetery Lot and Monument. — Improvement of Mali. — Management 
of Society. — Legislative Provisions. — Names of l^residents and Secretaries. 501 523 



PART VIII.— RELIGIOUS. 



CHAPTER LVL 

Roman Catholic Missionaries and Priests. — Churches. —Bishops and Dioceses. — The Catholic 
Union. — Catholic Pioneers. — Jesuit Visitors. — Tireless Zeal. — Oreat Ability. — Priestly K.xplorers. — 
A Religious Settlement. —First Chapel. — Valliant and Del Halle. — Cadillac's Preferences. — 
Franciscans Hold the Fort. — Burning of Chapel. — St. Anne's I^ecords. — Carefully I'rescrved.— 
Authenticity Attested. — Interesting Extracts. — The First Entry. — Del Halle's Death and Burial.— 
Frequent Removal of Remains. - E.xtracts from Records. — New Church Erect' d. — ^The Church 
Burned. — Visit of Charlevoix. — Arrival of Bonaventure. — Completion of New Church. — Crespel's 
Narrative. — Richardie's Huron Mission. — Pothier and Sail eoauve. — Death of Pothier. — Visit of 



XXVI 



TAHLE OF CONTENTS. 



Bishop roiitl)rianci. -Riverside Ciiapeis. — The Reel Chapel. — Roprition Exercises. — Services Dur- 
injf I'oiUiac War. — Trustees and I'ew Rents. — Arrival of Father Richard. — I'niversal Ksteeni.— 
Richard's Loyalty. — His Election to Conijress. — Death and Uiirial. —Memorial Window. — Church 
Burned in 1805. — Services after the Fire. — Church Troubles. — 15ishop Fla.ijcl's Interdict. — His 
Arrival. — Ditficulties Settled. —(ireat Rejoicings. — Departure of Bishop Flaj^et. — The Melcher 
Farm Church. — Incorporation of St. Anne's. --The F^rst Trustees. — The Church Property.— 
When Obtained. — The Consideration. —An Unveritied Tradition. —The Building of St. Anne's.— 
Father Richard's Adverti.sement.— Counterfeit Shinplasters. — Steeple on Fire. — A Sleepy Pro- 
phecy. — Original Ajjpearance of Church.— Customs of the Past.— Curious Official Letter. — A Peculiar 
Advertisement. — Church Processions.— A \'aluable Bequest. — Priest's House. — Capacity of 
Church. — Bounds of Parish. — Names of Priests. — Date of Service. — Floly Trinity Church. — First 
, Building. —Its Removal. —New Building. — Cost.— Seating Capacity. —Average Attendance. —Value 
of Property. — Yearly E.Kpenses. — The Mamie Disa.ster. — Memorial Tablet. — Bounds of Parish. — 
Names of Priests. — Terms of Service. — St. Mary's Church. — First Services in Cernian. — ICrection 
of Building, — Size. — Number of Sittings. — Value of Property. — Names of Priests. — Time of 
Service. — Franciscan Residence. — Boundaries of Parish. — The New Church. — SS. Peter and 
Paul Church. — Consecration Services. — Size and Cost of Building. — Mrs. Keveny's Ciift. — 
Value of Property. — Names of Priests. — Terms of Service. — Bounds of Parish. — St. Jo.seph's 
Church. — Original Location. — First lUiilding. — Priest's Residence. — New Church. — Cajiacity. — 
Value of Property. — Church Beneficial Society. — Bounds of I'arish. — Names of Priests. — Terms of 
Service. — St. Anthony's Church. — Location. — Cost. — When Completed. — Capacity. — Names of 
Priests. — Terms of Service. — St. Patrick's Church. — Location. — When Completed. — Cost. — Date 
of Enlargement. — Priest's House. — Value of Property. — Names of Priests. — Terms of Service. — 
Bounds of Parish. — St. Vincent de Paul Church. — Location. — W' hen Consecrated. — Cost. — 
Capacity. — Priest's House. — Value of Property. — Bounds of I'arish. — Priests and Terms 
of Service. — Our Lady of Help Church. — Location. — When Consecrated. — Cost. — 
Capacity. — Value of Property. — Bounds of Parish. — Priests and Terms. — St. Boniface Church. — 
When (Organized. — .Services in School Ikiilding. — Priest's House. — Names of Priests. — Bounds of 
Parish. — Church Erected. — Date of Consecration. — Value. — St. Albert's Church. — Location. — 
Date of Consecration. — Cost of Church, — Capacity. — Bounds of Parish. — Names and Terms of 
Priests. — New Church Building. — .St. Aloysius Church. — Location. — Purchase. — Purchase of 
Buildings. — Improvements. — Capacity. — Bounds of Parish. — Services of Father \'an Dyke. — 
Value of Property. — St. Joachim's Church. — Original Name. — Location. — Cost. — Bounds of 
Parish. — Value of Property. — Name of Priest. — Church of the Sacred Heart. — Locatioii. — Cost.— 
Capacity. — Average Attendance. — Nainesand Terms of Priests. — Bounds of Parish. — Value of 
Property. — St. Wenceslaus Church. — Location. — Cost. — Capacity. — Naines of Priests. — Church 
of the Holy Redeemer. — First Ser\'ices. — Location. — Cost. — Capacity. — Bounds of Parish. — 
Priests in Charge. — St, Cassimer's Church. — Location. — Combined Church and School Building. — 
Cost. — Date of Consecration. — Name of Priest. — Bounds of Parish. — St. Boiiavetiture Church 
and Monastery. — Location. — Size of Building. — Cost. — Grotto t)f the Blessed Virgin Mary. — A 
Peculiar Structure. — Location. — Beautiful Avenue. — Cost of Grotto. — Description. — Roman 
Catholic Bishops and Dioceses. — First Diocese in New France. — Names of P.ishops. — Dates of 
Consecration. — Vicar-Generals. — Secretaries. — Catholic Union Society. — \\ hen Organized. — 
Objects. — How Managed. — Presidents and Secretaries. 527-549 

CHAPTER LVIL 

Earliest Protestant Ministers. — The Moravians. — Later Missionaries and Clerical Visitors.— 
First Regular Protestant Services. — First Protestant Clergymen in Detroit. — English Army 
Chapl.iins. — Moravians Brought to Detroit. — Departure of Moravians. — Their Return. — First 
Protestant Services. — Interesting Details. — The Moravians on the Huron. — NewCinadcnhuctten. — 
Consecration of Church. — Moravian Visits and Baptisms. — Leaving New (inadenhuettcn. — A 
Chaplain of the Queen's Rangers. — Gen. Wayne's Army Chaplain. — E.xtract from Journal. — Arri- 
val of David Bacon. — Revs. Badger and Hughes. --Mrs. Bacon Leaves for Connecticut. — Return 
with Wife and Brother. — His Sermons and his Hearers. — Visit of a Moravian Minister. — 
Messrs. Badger and Hughes again. — Dr. Leonard Bacon's Birthplace. — Incident of his Infancy. -- 
Bacon Visits Maumee and Mackinaw. — Goes to Ohio. — Visit of Daniel Freeman. — Services by 
Rev. Mr. Pollard. — Rev. Nathan Bangs Arrives. — Account of Visit and Services. — Lot Asked for 
Protestant Church. — Rev. Wm. Ca.se Appointed to Detroit. — Bravery and Success. — Methodist 
Episcopal Church Organized. — First Protestant Church in Territory. — Names of Meinbers. — F'arly 
Methodist Preachers. — Mitchell, Holmes, Ryan, and Hopkins. — American Army Chaplains. — Death 
of Rev. J. T. Wilmor. — Arrival of Joseph Hickco.v. — Low State of Morals. — A Rigid Law. — Plain 
Talk by Mr. Hickcox. — Services by Rev. Gideon Lanning. — The Rouge Church. — Methodist 
Ministers: Davis, Di.xon, Kent, Finlay, Morey, and Strange. — Rev. John Monteith Arrives, — His 
First .Sermon. — Evangelistic Society Organized. — .Services at Council House. - Judge Woodward's 
Proposed Society. — Robert Abbott's Advertisement. — Burying Ground Granted to Protestant 



i 



Society. 

Bills. 

Successd 



The Methoc 

First M.| 
Names 
Visitors. I 
Building! 
erty. — l| 
and StaiJ 
Erection] 
Names 
Church. 
Mal'fitt. 
Library 
Church. 
Names.— I 
of New ^ 
F'ormer 
and Tern 
cation. 
Property. 
Street Ch 
Number 
Sixteenth 
erty. — N 
Services. - 
When De 
Date of 
Asbury ^ 
Organizal 
by Decad< 
cated. — ( 
Church. — 
John Ste' 
Brick Chi 
cades. — • ] 
Building. ■ 
Zion Afri 
bands. — 
Location. 
Street Pn 
Society I 
Ikiilding. 
of Pastor: 



The Protesta 
Reformed 

House. — 
Names of 
Erection ( 
bers bv 
Consjcrat 
Chime of 
Decades. 
Building. 
Church. - 
Memorial 
John's CI 
Location. 
Assistant 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XXVll 



Society. — Erection of Church. — Dedication of Building. — Sabbath Collections. — Clnircli Due 
Bills. — Pew Rents. — First Protestant Society Incorporated. — L eparture of Mr. Monteith. — Mis 
Successor. — First Protestant Society Becomes a Presbyterian Church. 55o-55^ 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

The Methodist Episcopal Churches. — Events of Interest to the Denomination. — Circuit Riders. — 
First M. E. Society. — First Church Buildinj^. — Notice of Meetin.if. — Incorporation of Society. — 
Names of Corporators. — Relation to the Rouge Society. — Reminiscences by Dr. Brunson, — Inciian 
Visitors. — Christian Courtesies. — (iathering Materials for Building. — Location.-- Description of 
Building. — Christian Indians. — Interesting Meetings. — Old-Time Records — Sale of Church i'rop- 
erty. — Erection of New Church. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — Erection of Woodward Avenue 
and State Street Ciiurches. — Consolidation of Woodward Avenue and Congress Street Societies. — 
Erection of Central Church. — Cost of Property. — Church Societies. — Members by Decades. — 
Names and Terms of Pastors. — Church Societies. — Central Morning Mission. — Congress Street 
Church. — First Services. — First Trustees. — Location of Building. — Sermon by Rev. John N. 
Mal'fitt. — A Comprehensive Lecture. — Donation Parties. — General Grant as a Pew-Holder. — 
Library Association. — Enlargement of Church. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — Burning of 
Church. — Subsequent Services. — Number of Members by Decades. — Tabernacle Society. — Former 
Names. — First Church Building. — Old Location. — Extensive Repairs. — Sale of Property. — Purchase 
of New Site. — Church and Chapel Erected. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — Simpson Church. — 
P'ormer Names. — When Organized. — First Building. — New Location. — New Building. — Names 
and Terms of Pastors. — Palmer Memorial Church. — Former Name. — Original Location. — Dedi- 
cation. — Improvements and Alterations. — Yearly Expenses. — Members by Decades. — Value of 
Property. — New Location. — New Church. — New Name. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — Fort 
Street Church. — Preliminary History. — Erection of Building. — Location. — Cost. -— Dedication. — 
Number of Members. — Names and Terms of Pa;itors. — Yearly Expenses. — Value of Property. — 
Sixteenth Street Church. — Location of Building. — Date of Dedication. — Cost. — Value of Prop- 
erty. — Number of Members. — List of Pastors. — Junction Church. — Original Location. — Early 
Services. — New Site. — Names of Pastors. — Value of Property. — Delray Church. — Location.— 
When Dedicated. — Cost. — First Pastor. — Wesley Church. — Its Beginnings. — Cost of Building. — 
Date of Dedication. — Cass Avenue Church. — Location. — Cost of Chapel. — First Pastor. — 
Asbury Mission. — Location. — Cost. — Date of Dedication. — First German Church. — Date of 
Organization. — First Meetings. — Erection of Church. — Location. — Value of Property. — Members 
by Decades. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — Second German Church. — Location. — When Dedi- 
cated. — Cost. — Members by Decades. — Names of Pastors. — Thirty- second Street German 
Church. — Location. — When I )edicated. — Cost. — First Pastor. — Lafayette Street African Church. — 
John Stewart's Mi.ssion. — First Colored Society. — First Building. — \'arious Removals. — First 
]3rick Church. — Location. — Cost. — Extensive Repairs. — Value of Property. ^ Members by De- 
cades. — Names and Terms of Pastors. — I^benezer African Church. — When Organized. — First 
Building. — Chapel Purchased. — When Dedicated. — Value of Property. — Names of Ministers. — 
Zion African Church. — First Building. — When Dedicated. — Names of Ministers. — Society Dis- 
bands. — New Organization. -- Place of Meeting. — Names of Ministers. — French Church. — 
Location. —Cost of Building. — Name'- of Pastors. — Society Disbanded. — Church Sold. — Pine 
Street Protestant Methodist Church. — Date of Organization. — Location. — Names of Pastors. — 
Society Disbanded. — Bethel Evangelical Association Church. ^ — Date of Organization. — First 
Building. — Cost. — New Location, — New Building. - - Members by Decades. — Names and Terms 
of Pastors. — Events Interesting to Methodists. — Names and Terms of Presiding Elders. 559-580 




CHAPTER LIX. 

The Protestant Episcopal Churches. — Bishops, Dioceses, and Conventions. — Anglo-Catholic and 
Reformed Episcopal Churches. — St. Paul's Church. — When Organized. — Meetings at Council 
House. — Part of Old Burying-Ground Obtained. — First Church. — Enlargement of Church. — 
Names of Rectors. — Service Described by Mrs. Jameson. — Sale of Woodward Avenue Properly. — 
Erection of New Church. — Names of Rectors. — Annual Expenses. — Value of Property. — Mem- 
bers bv Decades. — Christ Church. — When Organized. — Location. — First Building. — When 
Cons-crated. — Addition Built. — Chapel Erected. — Cost. — Church Erected. — Cost. — Size. — 
Chime of Bells Donated. — Names and Terms of Rectors. — Memorial Window. — Members by 
Decades. — Mariners' Church. — Mrs. Anderson's Bequest. — Special Legislation. — Erection of 
Building. — Cost. — Names of Rectors. — Members by Decades. — Value of Property. — St. Peter's 
Church. — First Services. — Building Erected. — Partially Burned. — Extensive Improvements. — 
Memorial Window. — Value of Property. — Members by Decades. — Names of Rectors. — St. 
John's Church. — Date of Organization. — H. P. Baldwin's Gifts. — Cost of Chapel and Church. — 
Location. — Names of Rectors. — Missionary Work. — Value of Property. — Members by Decades. — 
Assistant Rectors. — Grace Church. — First Services. — Erection of Building. — Location. — Cost. — 



xxvm 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



E. W. Hudson's Oift. —J. W. Waterman's Donation. —Value of Property. — Members by Decades.— 
Names of Rectors. — St. Stephen's Clnircli. — Location. -- When Consecrated. — Names of Rt-c- 
tors. — Kmaniiul Memorial Church. — First Services. - Erection of liuildinc:. — Mrs. Med' ry's 
Gift. — New Location. — Names of Rectors. — Value of Property. — All Saints' Chapel. First 
Services. — Location. —Cost. — Rectors in Charj^e. — St. James Church.— When Established. — 
Location. — A Church Purchased. — New Iklildinl,^ — \'alue of Property. — Names of Rectors. — 
Mission of the Messiah. - Location. — Cost of P>uilding. — Value of Property. — Names of Rec- 
tors. — St. Mary's Mission. — When Established. — Chapel ICrected. - - Location.— Cost. — Ministers 
in Charjre. — Mission of the (Jood Shepherd. — First Services. — Huildinjf Faceted. — Location. — 
Value of Property.— Ministers in Chaige. — St. Thomas' Mission. ~ Location. — When Estab- 
lished. - St. Barnabas Mission. — Location. — When F^stablished. — Cost of Buildinif. — Rectors. — 
Holy Trinity Mission.— First Services. — Ministers in Charj^e. — St. Luke's Memorial Chapel.— 
Location. — Erected by C. C. Trowbridije. — Object. — St. Matthew's Colored Church. - First Ser- 
vices. — First Building. — Names of Ministers. — New Building. — Cost. — Ministers in Charge.— 
St. Joseph's Memoriaf Chapel. — Location. — Cost. — Donated by Mrs. Medbury. —Trinity Church. — 
When Incorporated. — Place of Meeting. — .Services Discontinued. — St. Mark's Church. — First 
Services. — New Location. — Building Erected. — Services Discontinued. — Property Sold. — Diocese 
of Michigan Created. — Piishops. — Conventions. — Episcopal Residence. — Diocesan Fund. — The 
Church Association.— Holy Trinity Anglo-Catholic Church. — Places of Meeting. — Names of 
Clergymen. — Epiphany Reformed Episcopal Church. — Date of Organization. — Location. — Minis- 
ters. - Emanuel Reformed Episcopal Church. — Places of Meeting. — Date of Incorporation. — 
Services Discontinued. 52*~593 

CHAPTER LX. 

The Presbyterian Churches. — Occasions of Interest to Presbyterians. — First Presbyterian Church. — 
Date of Organization. — Names of Original Members." — First Church Property. — First Session 
Room. — 15rick Session Room. — Sale of Church. — New Building Erected. — Cost. — When Dedi- 
cated.— Tower Clock. — Property Sold. — Burning of the Church. — Utilizing the Old liell. — Services 
after th'j Fire. — Church on Cratiot Avenue. — Cost. — When Dedicated. — Names of I'astors. — 
Duffield Memorial Tablet. — Value of Property. — Members by Decades. — School for Chinese. — 
Scotch or Central Church. — First Services. — Building Erected. — Names of Ministers. — New 
Building. — Cost. — Change of Name. — Members by Decades. -Fort Street Church. — First 
Services. — First Building. — Second Building. — Cost. — Names of Ministers. — Extensive Repairs. — 
Burning of Church. — Opera House Services. — Church Rebuilt. — J. D. FJ ayes' Gift. — Members by 
Decades. — Eighth Ward Mission. — Jefferson Avenue Church. — First Services. — I'.rection of 
Building. — Names of Ministers. — Members by Decades. — The Frontenac Avenue Mission. — 
Westminster Church."^ First Services. — Washington Avenue Building. — Names of Ministers. — 
Sale of Property. — Parsons Street Chapel. — New Church. — Members by Decades. — Calvary 
Church. — Location. — When Organized. — Building Dedicated. — Ministers. — Members. — Union 
Church. — Brockway's Mission. — First Building. — Present Building. — Names of Ministers. — \'alue 
of Property. — Memorial Church. — The First Mission. — Places of Meeting. — .Memorial Buildings. — 
Memorial Windows. — Historical Lectures. — Trumbull Avenue Church. — Cost. — Location. — 
Ministers. — United Presbyterian Church. — Society Organized. — lUiilding Purchased. — Extensive 
Improvements. — Names of Ministers. — Number of >iembers. — French and German Church. — 
When Organized. — Building I-Lrected. — Location. — Society Disbanded. — Property .Sold. — 
Reformed Church of /America. — When Organized. — Location of Building. — Ministers. — Mem- 
bers. — Occasions of Interest. — Presbyterian Alliance. 594-604 

CHAPTER LXI. 

The Baptist Churches. — Occasions of Interest to the Denomination. — First Church. — Ser\'ices in 
University Building. — Erection of Frame Building. — Building Sold. — First Brick Church. — Mrs. 
Jameson's Description of Church and Services. — Names of Pastors. — Second Brick Church. — 
Cost. — When Dedicated. — The Cass Avenue Church. — Size and Cost. — Members by Decades. — 
Second Church (colored). — Places of Meeting. — Property Purchased. — Members by Decades. — 
Names of Ministers. — Lafayette Avenue Church. — When Organized. — First Services. — Erection 
of Chapel. — The Church Building. — Names of Pastors. — Alembers by Decades. — Site for New 
Church. — First German Church. — When Organized. — First Meetings. — Location of Church. — 
Cost. — Number of Members. — Names of Pastors. — Zion Church (colored). — When Organized. — 
Name of Pastor. — Members. — Eighteenth Street Church. — When Organized. — Builciing Dedi- 
cated. — Value of Property. — Names of Ministers. — Twelfth Street Church. — Origin. — Location. — 
Building. — Pastor. — Members. — Church luilarged. — .Second German Church. — Location. — Build- 
ing. — Pastors. — Clinton Avenue Church. — Location. — Chapel Erected. — Pastor. — The Church 
Building. — Shiloh Church. — Organization. — Places of Meeting. — Pastors. — French Church. — 
When Organized. — Dedication of Church. — Members by Decades. — Pastor. — Tabernacle 



Church. 
Names ( 
Cost of 
tions. — 



The Congn 

Church. 
Finney. 
Decades 
Debt an( 
Avenue 
Name o 
sion. - 



Congregi 



The Lutherai 

Second 
nial I'^xen 
St. Mark' 
Evangelii 
Building, 
gelical Ch 
When On 
municanti 
Pastor. — 
Matthew's 
R formed 
Names ol 
Location, 
ized. — CI 
Building. - 
Owners. — 



The Christiar 
Church. - 
Statistic: 

ing. — A 
Building. - 
Church. — 
Congregal 
Improvem 
(Universa 
Thiril Av 
First Sen 
Sliaary Z( 
ing. — Na 
Members. 
Average i 



The First Su 
Conventi( 

ing. — Ot 
rizing. — : 
Industrial 
tendents. 
Unions. - 



1 



TAHLE OF CONTENTS. 



XXIX 



Church. -- When Orijaiiized. — Howard Street Cliapel. — New Ikiiklini;. — W'lieii Deilicated. — 
Names of I'astors. — Sale of Property. — Reniiiants of Society. — Park Street Church. — Location. — 
Cost of lUiildiiijr. — I'astors. — Union with First Church. — Occasions of Interest. — State Conven- 
tions. — liaptist Social U nion. 605-6 1 2 

CHAPTER LXII. 

The Congregational Churches. — Notable Congregational Gatherings. — First Conercjjational 
Church. — Preliminary .Services. — Society Organized. — Building Erected. — Visit of i'resident 
Finney. — Names of Pastors. — The Fort Street Church. — Value of Property. — Members by 
Decades. — Second Church. — When Organized. — Erection of Chapel. — The Church lUiilding. — 
Debt and Difficulty. — Names of i'astors. — Value of Property. — Number of Members. — Trumbull 
Avenue Church. — Origin. — Original Location. — New Location. — Organization of Church. — 
Name of Pastor. — Springwells Church. — Location. — 15uilding. — Pastors. — Harper Avenue Mis- 
sion. — Location. — Management. — Mt. Hope Mission. — Location. — Management. — Notable 
Congregational Gatherings. 613-616 

CHAPTER L X I I I . 

The Lutheran Churches. — St. John's German Evangelical Church. — First Services. — First lUiilding. — 
Second Building. — Names of Pastors, — Third Ikiilding. — Members by Decades. — Semi-Centen- 
nial E.xercise. — St. Paul's German J'lvangelical Church. — Location. — Building. — Cost. — Pastor. — 
St. Mark's German Evangelical Church. — Location. — Building. — When Dedicated. — Trinity 
Evangelical Lutheran Church. — When Organized. — First Ikiilding. — Addition Erected. — New 
Building. — Cost. — Names of Pastors. — Communicants by Decades. — IJethlehem German Evan- 
gelical Church. — Location. — Communicants. — Pastor. — Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church. — 
When Organized. — First iJuilding. — Location. — New Church. — ■ New LoCtition. — Pastor. — Com- 
municants. — Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church. — When Organized. — Building. — Location. — 
Pastor. — .St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church. — When Organized. — Building. — I'astors. — St. 
M.itthew's Evangelical Lutheran Church. — When Organized. — Building. — Pastors. — Zion German 
R formed Church. — First Building. — Second Building. — Location. — Communicants by Decades. — 
Names of Pastors. — St. Peter's German Evangelical Lutheran Church. — When Organized. — 
Location. — Pastor. — .Salem German Evangelical Lutheran Church. — Location.^ When Organ- 
ized. — Church Building. — Pastors. — St. Luke's German Evangelical Lutheran Church. — Location. — 
Building. — Pastor. — St. John's Independent Lutheran Church. — Location. — Building. — Former 
Owners. — Pastor. 617-623 

CHAPTER LXIV. 

The Christian Church. — The New Jerusalem Church. — The Unitarian Church. — The Universalist 
Church. — The Third Avenue Mission Church. — Jewish Congregations. — General Church 
Statistics. — First Christian Church. — Places of Meeting. — Names of Pastors. — Present Build- 
ing. — A Donation. — Members by Decades. — Church of Christ. — Location. — Howard Street 
Building. — Plum Street Building. — Members by Decades. — Mission Building. — New Jerusalem 
Church. — First Services. — Names of Ministers. — Church Buildings. — Members by Decades. — 
Congregational Unitarian Church. — Organization. — Erection of Building. — Names of Ministers. — 
Improvements to Building. — Members by Decades. — New Church Site. — Church of Our F'ather 
(Universalist). — P'irst Service. — Erection of Building. — Cost. — Pastor. — State Convention. — 
Third Avenue Mission. — Organization. — I'astor. — The Building. — Beth El Jewish Society. — 
First Services. — Purchase of Church Buildings. — Names ot Rabbis. — Members of Society. — 
Sliaary Zedec Jewish Society. — When Organized. — I*urchase of Church Building. — New P)uild- 
ing. — Names of Rabbis. — Church Statistics by Decades. — Number of Buildings. — Number of 
Members. — Percentage of Members. — Sittings. — Percentage of Sittings. — Statistics for 1880. — 
Average Attendance. — Church E.xpenses. — Value of Property. 624-630 



CHAPTER LXV. 

The First Sunday School.— Mission Schools.— Sunday School Statistics, Sunday School Unions, 
Conventions, and Celebrations. — The First Sunday School. — Notice in (Gazette. — Date of Open- 
ing. — Object. — Officers of the Association. — Plxtracts from Annual Report. — E.xtensive Memo- 
rizing. — School for Colored Children. — Books Used. — Mission Schools. — E.xtinct Missions.-- 
Industrial School Mission. — Sunday School Statistics for 1863, 1870, and 1880. — Names of Superin- 
tendents. — Number of Officers, Teachers, and Scholars. — Average Attendance. — Sunday School 
Unions. — Conventions and Celebrations. 631-637 



XXX 



TAHLi: OF CONTENTS. 



C H A P T F, R L X V I. 

Union Religioua Societies. — Union Meetings.— Revivals and Revivalists. — Voiinp Men's Christian 
Association. — First Society. - Wiicn Orijanixed. — Names of Ollici-rs. — Location of Rooms. — 
Orj^anization Disbands. — Yoiinij Men's Ciiristian Union. — Dale of ( )rjj;anization. — Ollieers. — 
Metiiotl of Work. — Termination of Society. — The I'resent Association. — When Ory:anized. — 
Location of Rooms. — International Convention. — The Farmer Street Property. — Dedication of 
Huilding. — Increased Prosperity. — Mr. Skiff's Bequest. — Lines of Work. — New Location De- 
sired. —Sale of Property. — New Rooms. — The Boys' Brancii. — Presidents and (ieneral Secre- 
taries. — The Railroad Branch. —When Organized. — Location of Buildini,^. — City, County, and 
State Bible Societies. — Dates of Orijanization. — Officers —Work. — Union Bethel Society. — When 
Organized. — Place of Services. — Chaplains. — City Tract Societies, — Dates of Oriranization. — 
Officers. — Methods of Work. — Detroit Evangelical Alliance. — Object. —When Organized. — 
Officers. — Detroit Ministerial Union. — Organization. — Meetings. — Union Prayer Meetings. — The 
Morning Meeting. — When Organized. — Places of Meeting. — The Noon Meeting. — Revivals and 
Revivalists. — Visit of Rev. E. P. Hammond. — The Whittle and Bliss Meetings. — Services of Rev. 
G. F. Pentecost. — Meetings of Harry F. Sales. 638-643 

CHAPTER LXVII. 

Poverty and Its Relief. — The Poor Commission. — City Physicians. — The County Poor. — Poveny 
and Its Relief. — Methods under Northwest Territory. — Overseers of the Poor. — Directors of 
Poor. - Manner of Relief. — Unworthy Recipients. — Large Benefactions. — Names of Directors. — 
The Poor Commission. — Office Methods. — Names of Commissioners. — City Physicians. — Duties. — 
Districts. — Names. — Crosse Pointe Hospital. — The County Poor. — Early Methods. -- Present 
System. — Names of Superintendents. — County Poorhouse. — First Locatioii. — Remarkable Fact. — 
Father Kundig's Services. — Legislative Appreciation. — The Poor Farm. — Location. — Buildings. — 
Management. — County Insane Asylum, — Original Size. — Additions. - County Physicians. 644-649 

CHAPTER LXVIII. 

Charitable and Benevolent Societies and Institutions. — Yankee Innovations. — Moral and Humane 

Society. — Organization. — Object. — Young Men's Benevolent Society. — Presidents. — Secretaries. — 
E.\penditures. — Detroit City Mission Board. — Utopian Plans. — Lodging House. — Catholic Female 
Association. — Kundig's Wards. — Successful F'air. — Building Erected. — Officers of the Associa- 
tion. — St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum. — When Organized. — Various Locations, — Present 
Building. — Superiors in Charge. — Ladies' Protestant Orphan Asylum. — When Organized. — First 
Officers. — Asylum Opened. — Donations. — Building Erected. — Reorganization. — Principal Offi- 
cers. — St. Mary's Hospital. — When Opened. — Location. — Clinton Street Building, — New Building. — 
Regulations. — St. Andrews' Society. — Organization. — Object. — Officers. — Working Men's Aid 
Society. — Building. — Location. — Objects. — Lafayette Benevolent and Mutual Help Society. — 
When Organized. — Object. — Location of Building. — Officers. — Industrial School. — Organiza- 
tion. — Object. — Original Location. — Removal. — Obtaining Funds. — New Building. — Manage- 
ment. — -Practical Features. — Names and Terms of Officers. — St. [f)sepli's Retreat. — Former 
Name. — Location. — Object. — Building. — Crounds. — St. Luke's Hospital, Church Home, and 
Orphanage. — Origin. — Original Location. — The Fort Street Property. • — Large Bequests. — Trus- 
tees. — Management. — Officers. — Hebrew Widows' and Orphans' Society. — Organization. — 
Objects. — Officers. — Harper Hospital. — Walter Harper. — His (jift. — Provisions of Deed. — 
Nancy Martin's Donation. — Trustees and Management. — Buildings Erected by Government, — Soldier 
Patients. — Ordinary Patients. — Recent Bequests. — New Building. — Location. — Cost. — Accom- 
modations. — Home of the Friendless. — Origin. — First Location. — High Street Building. — Warren 
Avenue Building. — Aims and Management. — The Home Messenger. — Officers. — St. Anthony's 
Male Orphan Asylum. — Location. — Value of Property. — Objects. — Officers. — Women's Flospital 
and Foundlings' Home. — Its Origin. — First Location. — Present Site. — Design of Institution. — 
How Sustained. — Officers. — House of Providence. — Object. — Management. — Original Building. — 
Present Location. — Evangelical Lutheran Orphan Aid Society. — When Organized. — Original Loca- 
tion. — Removal. — Membership. — Beneficiaries. — Officers. — Italian Benevolent Society. — When 
Organized. — Object. — Officers, — Little Sisters' Home for the Aged Poor. — First Building. — New 
Location. — New Building. — How Maintained. — Inmates, — Sister Superiors. — The Thompson 
Home. — Its Founder. — Original Quarters. — Erection of Building. — Object. — Conditions of Admis- 
sion. — Officers. — The Working Women's Home. — When Organized. — Locations. — Object. — 
Officers. — Zoar Orphan Asylum. — Location. — Building. — Inmates. — Detroit Day Nursery and 
Kindergarten Association. — When Organized. — Object. --Location of Building. — Officers. — Convent 
of the Good Shepherd. — Location. — Object. — Roman Catholic. — Beneficial Societies Names. — 
When Organized. — Detroit Association of Charities. — Object. — Methods. — Officers. 650-666 



I 



R 



Early Metho 
Papers an 

Opportunit 
Names of 
gan Essav 
The Detrbi 
able Li!)el 
Printers' D 
graph. — 
Literary ( 
A Clever 
sonian Den 
the Lakes. 
Farmer's 
Michigan 1 
crat. — Am 
L'Amie de 
News. — W 
Wellman's 
The Monti 
Musical H 
Offering. — 
The Penin;- 
ent. — The 
Magazine. 
News. — Tl 
Magazine of 
of the Wee 
The Shrapi 
Sun. — The 
The Penins 
Advance. — 
Manufacturt 
The Wester 
Canadienne. 
Bulletin. — 1 
Period. — T 
Our Diocest 
Price Curre 
tol. — The ] 
de Detroit, 
man. — Ros 
Michigan \V 
Popular T^i 
Graphic. — 
Sun. —The 
view. — Thi 
Our Church 
Times (No. 
Therein. — 
Express. — • 
Enquirer. — 
Tribune. — 
The AUgem 
Commercial 
ticultural Joi 
Western H- 
Leader. — T 
County Cot 
IVeparation; 



TAKLE OF CONTKN TS. 



XXXI 



PART IX. -LITERARY. 



C 1 1 A I' T E R L X I X . 

Early Methods of Publishing. — The First Newspapers. — The Newspaper Graveyard. — Living 
Papers and Periodicals. — City Printers. — Newsboys. — The Town Crier. — Church Notices.-- 
Opportunities Improved. - First Newspapers in Canada and the West. — Defunct Publications. — 
Names of Editors and Publishers. — Characteristics. — Dates of First and Last Issues. — The Michi- 
gan Essay. — Misstatements Corrected. — Definite Information Obtained. — The Paper Described, — 
The Detroit Gazette. — The Type and Press. - - Amusing Notices. — A Carrier's Address. — Remark- 
able Libel .Suit. — Editor Imprisoned. — Public Dinner in the Jail. — Release of Mr. Sheldon.— 
Printers' Discouragements. — The Michigan Herald. — The Gazette Fran9aise. — The Detroit Tele- 
graph. — Herald of Literature and Science. — Michigan State Register. — Evening Spectator and 
Literary Gazette. — The Spy in Michigan. — The Detroit Morning Post. — McGinnis versus Bagg. — 
A Clever Retort — The Craftsmen of Michigan. — Michigan Observer. — The World. — The jeffer- 
sonian Democrat. — The Day Hook. — The Michigan Agriculturist. — The Eglantine. — The Mirror of 
the Lakes. — The Journal of Education. — Si)irit of '76. — The Western Farmer. — Michigan Farmer. - 
Farmer's Companion. — The Western Rural. — The Rat Gazette. — Michigan Christian Herald. — 
Michigan Literary Gem. — The Washingtonian. — The Daily Times. — The Constitutional Demo- 
crat. — American Citizen. — Western Catholic Register. — The Daily Gazette. — Detroit Magazine. — 
L'Amie de la Jeunesse. — American Vineyard. — Evangelical Observer. — Detroit Register. — Daily 
News. — Western Excelsior. — Michigan Journal of Homoeopathy. — Western Literary Miscellany. — 
Wellman's Literary Miscellany. — Northwestern Advocate. — Daily Herald. — American Gleaner. — 
The Monthly Hesperian. — The Medium. — Le Citoyen. — Peninsular Fountain. — Northwestern 
Musical Herald. — Western Evangelist. — Commercial Bulletin. — The Republican. — Student's 
Offering. — -The Atlantis. — The Catholic Vindicator. — The Guardian. — The Daily Times No. 2. — 
The Peninsular Journal ot Medicine. — Medical Independent. — The Peninsular and Independ- 
ent. — The Michigan Homoeopathic Journal. — The Michigan Journal of Education and Teachers' 
Magazine. — Waymarks in the Wilderness. — The Little Wolverine. — The Ashlar. — The Evening 
News. — The Bremen's Journal. — Preston's Bank Note Reporter. — Brown's Reporter. — The 
Magazine of Travel. — The Young Men's Journal. — The Transcript. — The Herald. — The Spirit 
of the Week. — The Michigan Democrat. — The True Democrat. — Der Radicale Democrat. — 
The Shrapnel — Froth. — The Christian Unionist. — The Journal of Commerce. — The Daily 
Sun. — The Peninsular Herald. — The New World. — The Review of Medicine and Pharmacy. — 
The Peninsular Journal of Medicine (No. 2). — The Medical Journal. — The Western Medical 
Advance. — The Price Current. — 1 he Monitor. — The Mechanic and Inventor. — The Scientific 
Manufacturer. — Journal of Commerce (No. 2). — Sunday Times. — The Odd Fellows' Wreath. — 
The Western Catholic. — Baptist Tidings. — L'Impartial. — The Anti-Roman Advocate. — L'Etoile 
Canadienne. — The Song Journal. — Our Mutual Friend. — The Popular Appeal. — The Commercial 
Bulletin. — Leather Apron. — Our Yankee Land. — The Pulpit. — The Mystic Star.— The Boy of the 
Period. — The Michigan Journal of Homoeopathy. — Michigan Edition of Northwest Reporter. — 
Our Dioceses. — The Sunday Guest. — The Better Age. — The Wolverine Messenger. — The Weekly 
Price Current. —The Little People. —Truth for the People.— Michigan Truth teller.— The Capi- 
tol. — The Evening Star. — The Travellers' Illustrated Railway Reporter. — Le Courier. — Le Journal 
de Detroit. — The Herald. — The Sontag Zeitung. — Marine Record. — The American Work- 
man.— Rose's Nose. — The Red and Wliite Ribbon. —The Western Era. — The National. — The 
Michigan Weekly Sun.— The Socialist. — The Michigan Homestead. — The Penny Times. — The 
Popular T^ra. — The Family Journal. — Moore's Masonic Messenger. — Public Spirit. — Detroit 
Graphic. —The Sunday Herald. — The Times. — The Lever. — Detroit Illustrated. — The Sunday 
Sun. —The Daily Mail. — Commercial Law News. — The Pursuivant. — The Northwestern Re- 
view. — The Liibor Review. — The Detroit Gazette. —Our Catholic Youth. — The Anglo Catholic. — 
Our Churches. — Michigan Trade Review. — The Unionist. — The Evening Telegram. — The Daily 
Times (No. 3). — The National People. — Living Papers and Periodicals with Publications Merged 
Therein. — Northwestern Journal. — The Journal. — The Courier. — Daily Advertiser. — Daily 
E.xpress. — Free Democrat. — Michigan Organ of Temperance. — Temperance Advocate. — Daily 
Enquirer. — ^ Democrat and Enquirer. — Daily Tribune. — Peninsular Freeman. — Advertiser and 
Tribune. — Free Union. — Daily Post. — Post and Tribune. — Free Press. — Commercial Bulletin. — 
The Allgemeine Zeitung.— Michigan Volksblatt. — Michigan Staats Zeitung. — Journal and Herald. — 
Commercial Advertiser. — American Observer. — The Familien Blaetter. — Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Journal. — Michigan Farmer and State Journal of Agriculture. — Progress of the Age. — 
Western Home Journal. — Evening News. --Daily Union. — Michigan Christian Herald. — Public 
Leader. — Michigan Christian Advocate. — The Amphion. — Die Stimme der Wahrhcit. — Wayne 
County Courier. — Medical Advance. — Leonard's Illustrated Medical Journal. — The Index. — New 
Preparations. — Therapeutic Gazette. — Daily Hotel Reporter. -- Michigan Railroad Guide. — The 



XXXll 



TABLE OK CONTENTS. 



Family Circle. — Detroit Lancet. — Medical Age. — Michigan Medical News. — Detroit Clinic. — A 
New Idea. — Michijjan A. O. U. \V. Herald.— Detroit .Society News.— Every Saturday. — Chaff. — 
Marine News.— Family Herald. — Home Messenj^aT. — The indicator. -Western Newspaper Union. — 
Manufacturer and Inventor. — Western Land (iuide. -Detroit I'laindealer. — The Spectator. -Michij^an 
Mirador. — Detroit Commercial. — 'I'he Evenin).j Journal. — The Times. — American Meteorobvjical 
Journal. — Editors. — I'ublishers. — Dates of First Issues, — Incidental Items. — City Printers. — News 
Boys. 669-693 

CHAPTER LXX. 

Early Book Printing. — Books and Booksellers. — Almanacs. — Gazetteers. — Directories. — Maps 

of Michigan. — Oovernor Hamilton's Proclamations. — The Macomb Press. — Feather Richaril's 
Enterprise. — First Books and Printers. — Disposition of Father Richard's Type. — Books and Book- 
sellers. — Former Standard Authors. — The First Bookstore. — Later Establishments. — Names of 

Proprietors. — Dates of Changes. — Almanacs Printed at Detroit. — Titles and Publishers State 

Ciazetteers. — When Issued. — Publishers. — City Directories. — Dates of Issue. — Names of Pub- 
lishers. — Number of Pages and Names. — Maps of Michigan Issued at Detroit. — P. E. Judd's 
Proposals. — Orange Risdon's Prospectus. — John Farmer's Map. — The First Issue. — Extensive 
Circulation. — Remarkable Accuracy. — Later Maps. 694-699 



CHAPTER LXXI 

Citizen and Visiting Authors. — Cadillac's Writings. — Later Authors and Their Works. — Anthon. — 
Adams. — Aikman. — Atchinson. — Allen. — Bangs. — Bacon. — Brownson. — Boardman. — Buchanan. — 
Baraga. — Bagg. — Burt. — Bibb. — Bishop. — Brinton. — Brearley. — Ballard. — Bates. — Beard. — Blodg- 
ett. — Brunson. — Buckley. — Brown. — Buck. — Backus. — Cass. — Chipman. — Chase. — Cooke. — Carter. — 
Castor. — Carleton. — Campbell. — Chaney. — Coyle. — Codde. — Couse. — De Peyster. — Dufiield. — 
Dolan. — Dowling. — Davenport. — Donovan. — F2cldy. — Ellis. — Edouard. — Fasquelle. — F^ox. — Fitch. — 
Fuller. — Field. — Ford. — Forbush. — Fairbanks. — Ciillman. — Griffith. — Goadby. — Gilchrist. — Girar- 
din. — Holmes. — Hubbard. — Henry. — Houghton. — Howard. — Howe. — Hawley. — Hailmann. — 
Hamlin, — Howell. — Haigh.— Hall. — Harris. — Isham. — Inglis. — Jacobs, — Jennison. — Jones. — Kirk- 
land. — Kalisch. — Kelso. — Kitchell. — Lodge. — Lord. — Lundy. — Lambie. — Leonard. — Laidlaw. — 
Levington. — Lewis. — Mackenzie. — Macomb. — Morris. — Mayhew. — McCoskry. — Munger. — Mc- 
Carty. — Mason. — McCracken. — Maes. — Mercer. — Merwin. — Newberry. — Nail. — Noble. — Owen. — 
O'Brien. — Perkins. — Pilcher. — Potts. — Poole. — Post. — Pierson. — Pattison. — Peavey. — Rich- 
ards. — Roberts. — Robertson. — Rayne. — Robinson. — Russell. — Ryan. — Rouse. — Shattuck. — 
Schoolcraft. — Sheldon. — Snelling. — Smith. ^Silver. — Seaman. — Stebbins. — Scripps, — Smart. — 
Shurley. — Stewart. — Sill. — Silber. — Seymour. — Stokes. — Stowe. — Trumbull. — Thomson. — Tyler.— 
TurnbuU. — Theller. — TenBrook. — Trowbridge. — Thompson.— Thomas. — Terry.— Throop.—Tripler.— 
Taylor.— Tibbets. — Tuttle. — Van Fleet. — Varney. — Woodward. — Whiting.— Webb. — Witherell. — 
Willis. — Walker. — Ward. — Watson. — Willcox. — Waterman. — Warner. — Wilkins. — W' anless. — 
Wight. — Winder. — Washburn. — Wooley. — Young. — Zundell. Visiting Authors: La Salle. — 
Galinee. — Hennepin. — La Hontan. — Tonty. — Charlevoix. — Crespel. — Rogers. — Carver. — Zeisberger. — 
Lord Fitzgerald. — Volney. — Weld. — Burnett. — Heriot. — Watson. — Earl of Selkirk. — Darby. — 
Morse.— Finley.—McKinney.—Colton.— Kinzie.— De Tocqueville.— Beaumont.— Hoffman.— Mar- 
tineau. — Marryatt. — Marshall. —Webster. — Jameson. — Marsh. — Marcy. — Grimes. — Lanman,— 
Buckingham. — Barnard. — Fuller. — Parkman. — Beecher. — Stowe. — Geikie.— Cooper. — Greeley.— 
Agassiz. — Cabot. — Atwater. — Bancroft. — Bremer. — Seward. — Ellet. — Kidder. — Chambers. — 
Ampere.— Albach.— Hopkins. — Bacon. —Vincent.— Pardee. — Lossing. — Wise. — Eddy.— Clark.— 
Trollope. — Peto. — Haven. — Custer. — Eggleston. — Newman. — Lee. — Allcott. — Fanny F'ecn. — 
Parton. — Taylor. — Disturnell. — Newman' Hall. — Newton. — Mueller. — Thompson. — Locke. — 
White.— Holmes.— McCosh.— Casgrain.— Russell.— Hurst. — Simpson.— Merrill. — Peck.— Foster.— 
Warren. — Wiley. — Suite. — Tanguay. — Kelton. — D'Aligny. — Fallows. — Webb. — Atkinson. — 
Duffield. Author Visitors from the University: Angell. — Adams. — Brunow. — Boise.— Cooley. — 
Cocker. — D'Ooge. — Dunster. — Douglass. — Evans. — Franklin.— Ford. — Frieze. — F'rothingham. — 
Gray. — Herrington. — Johnson.- -McLean. — Morris. — Olney. — Hayne. — Palmer. — Prescott. — Peck. — 
Rose.— Stowell.— Tappan. — Vaughn.— WinchcU.— Watson.— Whedon.— White.— Wood. Lectures 
by: Phillips. — Shillaber. — Hayes. — Youmans. — King. — Prentice. — Maury. — Taylor. — White. — Hale. — 
Burlingame. — Simpson. — Raymond. — Emerson. — Curtis. — Holland. — Everett. — Brownlow. — 
Brown. — Abbott. — (ireeley. — Du Chaillu. — Twain. — McCarthy. — Field. — Douglass, —Cook. — 
Wiliard. — Capel.— Arnold. — Benjamin. — Fowler. — Burritt.— Shaw. — Saxe. — Milburn. — Bungay. — 
Punshon. — Guard. — Beecher. — Dickinson. — Hawkins. — Proctor. — Morris. — Train. — Talmage.— 
Tilton. — Vandenhoff. — IngersoU. — Gough. 700-709 



Literary, His 

Detroit A 
Lectures. 
Property. 
Lyceum. - 
tution. — ' 
Ollicers. - 
ized. — Fii 
New Bui I 
Society. • 
Museum. - 



Private Schoo 

McDouga 
cours. — B 
Payne. - 
field. — Den 
Healy.— K 
ment. — Te 
Bellows. — 
man. — Blu 
Cochran. — 
Moir. — Hi 
Schools. — 
wood. — R 
Schools of 
tion of Bi 
Brown. — Z 
ing. — Chur 
Communaut 
Pupils and 
Charity An 
School. — T 
Jo.seph's Scl 
Help. — St. 
School. — H 
the Sacred 
Evangelical 
German Re 
Zion F2vang 
School. — St 
Number of i 



The University 

Curious At 
Parvo. — hi\ 
tion of I5uild 
New Corpor 
Schools. — ' 
Walker. — C 
Cochran's. - 
Detroit Mec 
Advantages. 



The First Cot 

Ordinance o: 
quent Scho( 
Fairs. — Act 



TABLE OP' CONTENTS. 



XXXlll 



CHAPTER L X X I I . 

Literary, Historical, and Scientific Societies. — Lotteries and Literature. — First City Liiirary. — 
Detroit Athena;um.~ Location. — Manai,'ement. — Yoiinyf Men's Society. — Wlien Orj^^ini/cti. — 
Lectures. — First Hall. — Eiectioneerinii;' Slethods. — New Location. — Dedication of Mall. — Sale of 
Property. — Removal to Merrill IMock. — Society IJisbanded. — Names of Presidents. — 'Ilie 
Lyceum. — When (Jrganized. — 1 "irst Officers. — Woodward's Phraseolojj^y. — Extracts from Consti- 
tution. — The Lyceum of Michiij; n. — Orijanization and Oti'icers. — Historical Society of Michij^an. — 
Officers. — Lectures. — CoUedions. — I'resent Status. — Detroit Mechanics' Society. — When ( )riran- 
ized. — First Officers. — Dt nation from City. — I lall l'>ected. — Manaj^ement. — Value of Property. — 
New l?uiidint( ICrected. — Misfortunes. — Presidents and Secretaries. — Wayne County Pioneer 
Society. — Object and Oflicers. — Detroit Scientific Association. — Objects. — Officers. — Contents of 
Museum. — Various Locations. — Officers. 710-714 

CHAPTER LXXIIL 

Private Schools and Seminaries. — Church Schools. — Early Educational Facilities. — Truant Roys. — 
McDougall's Vow. — Children of the Reiiiment. — Old Schools and Teachers. — (larrit. — Re- 
cours. — Balpour. — Pattison. — Uurrell. — Donovan. — Serrier. — David liacon. — (iouj^h. -- Curtis. — 
Payne. — Rowe. — Danforth. — Cook. — The (Gazette's Warninjj;. — Teachers. — IJanvard. — Urook- 
field. — Deming. — (Goodwin.— Youny. — Trowbridvije. — Brownson. — Kinney. — Carpenter. — Shepard. — 
Healy. — Kinnicutt. — Hathon, — Jerome.— Tucker. — First !■ emale Seminary. — Location. — Manage- 
ment. — Teachers. — Williams — I'arrand.— Wilson.— Coe. — Howe. — Crane. — Tappan. — Nichols. — 
Bellows. — Marsh. — Fay. — Abbott. — W. A. Bacon. — Elms. — Himes. — Weed. — Clancy. — East- 
man. — Blois, — Mitchell. — Meany. — Vail. — Fitch. — Millette. — Higgins. — O'Brien. — Fowler. — 
Cochran. — Curtis. — Brewster. — Clements. — Bryant. — Hurd. — Grinold. — Branigan. — West. — 
Moir. — Hurlbut. — Zinger. — Kuhn. — Miss Hunt's Seminary. — Location. — Patrons. — Select 
Schools. — Teachers. — Funke. — Stutte. — Campbell. — Soldan. — Hosmer. — Emerson. — Ellin- 
wood. — Rockwell. — Reighley. — I3etroit Female Seminary. — Location. — Principals. — Private 
Schools of Patterson and Romer. — German American Seminary. — Curious Legislation. — Erec- 
tion of Building. — Management. — Later Teachers. — James. — Leonard. — Jones. — Schantz. — 
Brown. — Ziegler. — Liggett's Home and Day School. — When Established. — I^ocation. — lUiild- 
ing. — -Church Schools. — Cadillac's Plans. — leather Richard's Schools. — Educational Enterprise.— 
Communaute de Ste. Marie. — The Church P'arm .School. — St. I'hilip's College. — Professors. — 
Pupils and Pranks. — Sisters of Ste. Claire Seminary. — Female Charity School. — Sisters of 
Charity Arrive. — Catholic I'Vee Schools Established. — St. Vincent's Seminary. — Ste. Anne's 
School. — Trinity Catholic School. — St. Mary's School. — Schools of SS. Peter and Paul. — St. 
Joseph's School. — St. lioniface School. — St. Vincent de I'aul School. — School of Our Lady of 
Help. — St. Albert's School. — Polish Franciscan Convent. — St. Joachim's School. — Sacred Heart 
School. — Holy I^edeemer .School. — St. Cassimer's School. — St. Anthony's School. — Academy of 
the Sacred Heart. — I^etroit College. — St. John's German Evangelical School. ^ — St. Mark's (German 
Evangelical School. — St. Matthew's Lutheran School. — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran School. — Zion 
German Reformed School. — .Salem Lutheran .School, — Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran School. — 
Zion Evangelical Lutheran School. — St. Paul's Lutheran School. — St. l^aul's German Evangelical 
School. — St. I'eter's German Evangelical School. — Cost of Buildings. — Number of Teachers. — 
Number of Scholars. — Charges for 'Puition. — Various Statistics. 71 5-727 

CHAPTER LXXIV. 



The University of Michigan. — Commercial Colleges. — Medical Colleges. — University Schools, — 
Curious AssiuTiption. — Birthday of University. — A Comprehensive Corporation. — Multum m 
Parvo. — Large Words, — Statutes of University. — Obtaining Funds. — Singular I'roceedings. — Erec- 
tion of Building. — First Teachers. — Monteith. — Dickie. — Shattuck. — Farmer. — Cost of Tuition. — 
New Corporation Created. — Lancasterian Schools. — University Removed to Ann Arbor. — Branch 
Schools. — Teachers at Detroit Branch. — Fitch. — Meigs. — Bissell. — Harvie. — Howard. — 
Walker. — Gray. — I5a.Kter. — Loundsberry. — Close of School. — Commercial Colleges. — Gregory's. — 
Cochran's. — Goldsmith, Bryant, & Stratton's. — Mayhew's. — Spencer, Felton, Loomis, & Co.'s. — 
Detroit Medical College. — Michigan College of Medicine. — Homoeopathic ColIc"-' -Faculty. — 
Advantages. — Number of Graduates. 728-754 

CHAPTER LXXV. 

The First Common Schools. — The Board of Education, Its Schools and Its Management. — 

Ordinance of 1787.— Lands Granted for Schools. —School Act of 1809. — Act of 1827. —Subse- 
quent Schools. — City Divided into Districts. — The Free School Society. — Tomato Catsup and 
Fairs. — Act of 1833. — Special l^rovisious for Detroit. — Barren Results. — Law of 1837. — Edu- 



XXXIV 



TAnLK OF CONTKNTS. 



cational Factllties. — Committee of Investijfation. — Election of Sciiool Inspectors. — Common 
Sciioois in 183S and 1839. — Districts. —Teachers. — School Books. — Statistics. — Location of 
Schools. — Ai)|K)rti()nmcnt of I'riniary Sciiool Fund. — Names of Inspectors. — Directors and 
Moderators. — .School Statistic; and Manajrenicnt in 1840 and 1841. Mectinyj to i'romote Free 
Schools. — F.ncouraj,Hn).( Results. -Hooks Used. — The iJible in the Schools. — iVlitions and Pro- 
tests. — Text |{ool<s and Date of Introduction. --.Sciiolars. -Conditioiis of Admission. — ■ Avera),{e 
Attendance by Decades. — Nnml)cr of Scholars for I'.ach Teacher by Decides. -- Yearly Cost per 
Capita by Decades. — Health Reyulaiions. - Primary and Midtlle .Scliools. — L'nion System.— 
Classil'ication and ("IradinJ,^ — .School Hours. — Terms. — Vacations. — Lenjjthy Service of Mr. 
Nichols. — A One Siileil Resolution. — A Patriotic Resolve. — Special Teachers, — Music. — I'en- 
manship. — Drawinj;;. — Reading'. — School Huiidinjjs. — A Capitol Steal. — Names of IUiildin).{s. — 
Reason for Names. — Location. — -Date of iM-eclion. — Description.^ Tlie Ilijjh School. — When 
Kstablished. — Location, — Military Drills. — Princi|)als. - - Coiulition of .Vdmission. — Yearly Num- 
ber of Pupils.-- Alumni Association. —Sep.u'ate Colored Schools. — I^iual Opporlimities Asked. — 
Reciuest Refused. — Persistence of Colored People. — Their 'I'riumph. — Ye.arly Sl.iti.stics. Value 
of School Property. — Children in City. — Pupils Enrolled. — Average .Attendance. — Number of 
Sittinjjs. — Annual Expenditures, — -Number of Teachers. — Number of Schools.-- Salaried (Jllicers. 
— Superintendents. —Clerks. — Messcniifcrs — Supervisor of Repairs and Huildinir. --Names of 
Presiilents and Secretaries. — I'inancial Resources. — Cirowth of .School Taxes. — Reci'ipts from 
Primary School Finul. — Number of Ins|)eclors in X'arious N'ears. — Ward Inspectors Disconlinui'd. — 
Inspectors at Large Provided for. — Sessions of Hoard. — -Description of Seal. — Names and Terms 
' of Inspectors. 755-758 

CHAPTER LXXVI. 

The Public Library. — Constitutional Provision for District Libraries. — First Receipts from Fines. — 
Dilliculty of Obtaininij Fines. — Results of Increased \'ii(ilance. — Opening- of District Library. — 
Library Huildinir in Rear of Capitol. — Larger (Quarters Needed. — Centre Park Cir.'inted for Library. — 
Erecti(jnof Huikling. — Yearly Receipts from Fines. — Library Commissioners. — Librarians. - Regu- 
lar' ns. — Classification. — Valuable Works. — Number of \'olumes. — Number of Patrons. — Yearly 
St : sties. 75y-762 



PART X.— COMMERCIAL. 

CHAPTER LXXVI I. 

Merchants and Trading. — Custom House and Collectors. — The Board of Trade. — A Commercial 
Colony. — Cadillac's Expectation. — Hroken Faith. — The Trading Company. — Montreal Jeahjusy. — 
Exorbitant Prices. — Dishonest Agents. — Cadillac's Offer. — He Obtains Control. — Intrigues of the 
Trading Company. — Cadillac Arrested.— His Acquittal. — Trading Permits. — Tonty's E.xactions. — 
Names of Early Traders. — Defrauding the (iovernment. — English Regulations. — Ccmimissicjiiers 
of Trade. — Large Powers. — Had Character of Certain Traders. — Mohawk Merchants. — .Sharp 
Practices. — A Tankard for a Hoy. — Enormous Q'^''^'^'^'''^^ '^^ Goods. — Description of a Trading 
Store. — Merchants in 1767. — Later Merchants. — The Fur Trade. — Methods of Trade. — Large 
Profits. — Slow Returns. — Indian Visitors and Ooods. — French and English Accounts. — Old 
Ledgers. — Licenses. — Business Establishments in 1819. — Dickering. — Flush Times of 1836. — 
Otficial Auctioneers. — Jealous Merchants. — Changes in Trade Methods. — Mabley's Stores. — Old 
Establishments. — The Drug Business. — Large Importations. — Mercantile Capital. — Changes in 
Business Centres. — Street Merchants. — Street Cries. — Fir.st Seed Store. — D. .M. Ferry & Co.'s 
Establishment, — Travelling Agents, — Retail Delivery. — Show Windows. — Curious .Signs. — Ad- 
vertising Methods. — Commercial Agencies. — Objects and Managers. — Merchants and Manufac- 
turers' Exchange. — Objects and Officers. — Custom Hon.se Regulations. — Bounds of District. — 
Duties of Collector. — Bonded Warehouses. — Imports and l'".xp()rts. — Names of Collectors. — Board 
of Trade. — First Organization. — First Officers. — Places of Meeting. — Forwarding and Commission 
Houses. — Present Board of Trade. — First Officers. — Commencement of Daily Sessions. — Yearly 
Statements. — Joint Stock Building Company. — Dedication of Building. — International Commercial 
Convention. — Telegraphic Reports. — New Hall. — Arbitration Committee. — Inspectors. — Fees and 
Commissions. — Conditions of Membership. — Presidents and Secretaries. 765-792 

CHAPTER LXXVI il. 

Markets. — Marketing and Prices. — Departed Glory. — Market Greetings. — French Ponies and 
Carts. — Old Time Methods. — Market Place Idlers. — Former Woodward Avenue Market. — Loca- 
tion. — Cost, — Discontinuance. — Berthelet Market. — Various Agreements. — Careless Officials. — 



Final Dis 
Cost. — S 
Market. 

Duties, 
linucd. — 
Hours. - 
Me.it Ins; 
Duties of 
Hay Mar 
Articles ai 



Manufacturinj 

tion. — Su 
Mines. - 
•Sand I)cp( 
ing Materi 
F;ivorat)le 
Locations. 
Co. — Detr 
Detroit Br 
Works.—: 
Wire and 
Work.s.- 
and Steel ^ 
Co. — Nati 
Co. — Dell 
ceutical IVl 
Works. — 
Shulte Bro 
Tobacco I' 
& Co.'s Cil 
& Warren 
Mannfactu 
Detroit Wi 
tory. — Hui 



The Liquor T 

Brandy for 
Suspicious 
Tavern Lie 
City Vote? 
Prayer. — !■ 
Decision. — 
Increased 
Remonstrai 
Women's 
Dealers. — 
Order Meei 
creased.— 
Union Com 



Banks and Cui 

rency. — P( 
Halifax Cu 
Jury. — Pro( 
Issues. — F 
States Ban! 
Facilities. — 
United Stat 
Confidence 
Banking Li 
Bank Notes 
sioners. — I 



TABLE OF CONTKNTS. 



XXXV 



Final Disposition of Property. — City Hall Market. — Various nuilclinj>^s. — Dates of Erection and 
Cost. — Street Set apart for Market. — 'i'lie Wasliiiij^rton Market. Location. — Cost. — Ciosiii); of 
Market. — The Cass Market. — Location. — Cost. — Site ( iiveii by ( ienerai Cass. — Market Clerks. — 
Duties. — Names and Terms of Clerks. — Market Keijiiiations. — Sunday Markets. — When Diseon- 
limied. —Opening and Closing of \Lirket. — Resolution of Citi/eiis. — "Servants" Disobey. — Market 
Hours. — Forestalliii)^. — I'rivate Meat Markets. — Market Rents. — Fees from Market Wajjons. — 
Meat Inspector. — The 'Xi-^ww Uaker. — Prices Fixed for Him. — Sealer of \Vei,i,dits and Measures. — 
Duties of Sealers. — Names and Terms of Oflicers. Wood Markets. — Inspectors and Districts. — 

LoL.'itions. — W'eijjh Masters. — Names and Terms, — Vrices of Different 

793-801 



1 lay Markets. — Various 
Articles at Various Times. 



CHAPTKR L.X.XIX. 



Manufacturing Advantages. — Articles Produced. — Leading Establishments. — Favorable Loca- 
tion. — Superior Advantajjfcs. — Raw ^L•lterials F3asy of Access. — Lake Superior Iron. — Famous 
Mines. — (Irindstone (Quarries. — Lumber Manuf.icturinij. — Plaster Beds. — Clay, Limestone, and 
Sand Deposits. — Manufacturinjf Sites. — Unlimited Water Sui)ply. — Cheap Fuel. — Prices of lUiild- 
inij Materials. — Water Communication. — Railroad Facilities. — Low Taxation. — Livinj^ Kxpen.ses. — 
Favorable Climate. — Manufacturinvj Capital. — Articles Manufactured. — Leadin,i( Kstablishments. — 
Locations. — Ollicers. — Pniducts. — Localities Supplied. — Michijjan Car Co. and Detroit Car Wheel 
Co. — Detroit Steel and Spring; Works. — Peninsular Car Works. — Russel Wheel and Foundry Co. — 
Detroit Brid.^^e and Iron Works. — Fulton Iron and I'.nj^ine Works. — Huhl Iron Works. — Flaxle Iron 
Works. — Michiifan Malleable Iron Co. — Michel's Woo(l Workinjj Machinery E.stablishment. — National 
Wire and Iron Co. — Detroit Safe Co. — Detroit Bronze Co. — The E. T. Barnum Wire and Iron 
Works. — The Detroit .Stove Co. — The Michijjan Stove Co. — Peninsular Stove Co. — ICureka Iron 
and Steel Works. — Detroit and Lake Superior Copper Co. — Middlelirook and Post Manufacturinj.^ 
Co, — National Pin <"').— The Detroit F'ile Works. — Detroit Emery Wheel Co. — Union Door Knob 
Co, — Detroit .Stam^ "jj Co. — Parke, Davis, & Co., Manufacturinjif Chemists. — The Stearns Pharma- 
ceutical Manufactunnj,^ Co. — Hubel's Capsule Laboratory. — Michigan White Lead and Color 
Works. — Detroit White Lead Works. — Detroit Linseed Oil Co. — Berry Bros. Varnish Factory. — 
Shulte Bros. Soap Factory. — Laitner Bros. Brush Factory. — American ICajjle Tobacco Co. — Banner 
Tobacco Factory. — Scotten's Hiawatha Tobacco F'actory. — (ilobe Tobacco Factory. — Burk. Rich 
& Co.'s Cigar Manufactory. — Hargreaves Manufacturing Co. — Richardson Match F^actory.--Clough 
& Warren Organ Co. — .\L J. .Murphy & Co.'s Spring Bed and Chair Factory. — Gray & Baflty, 
Manufacturing Upholsterers. — Sutton Slanufacturing Co. — Mumford, F()ster,& Co.'s Last Factory. — 
Detroit Willow Ware F'actory. — Pingree & Smith's Shoe Factory. — Vail & Crane's Cracker Fac- 
tory. — Hugh Johnson's Carriage Flstablishment. — The Johnston Optical Co. 802-836 

CHAPTER LXXX. 

The Liquor Traffic and Temperance Efforts. — Early Difficulties. — Plots and Counter Plots. — 
Brandy for the Sav.-iges. — One Class at a Time. — Cadillac's Brewery. — (leneral Rum Store. — 
Suspicious Circumstances. — ICarly Territorial Licen.ses. — City Ordinances. — Disorderly Indians. — 
Tavern Licenses. — First Temperance Society. — Later Organizations. — Local Option in 1845. — 
City Votes against Licenses. — State Prohibition of Licenses. — ("lOUgh's Lectures. — A Long 
Prayer. — State Law of 1853. — Tne Vote on its Adoption. — The Carson League. — Justice Bagg's 
Decision. — Resolution of Liquor Dealers. — Prohibitory Law of 1855. — Success and F'ailure, ^ 
Increased Number of Saloons. — Petition of Ladies. — The Sunday Ordinance. — Petitions and 
Remonstrances. — Final Action. — Young Men's Father Mathew Temperance Society. — The 
Women's Crusade. — The Women's Christian Temperance Union. — State Meeting of Liquor 
Dealers. — The Liquor Tax Law. — Council I'avors Liquor Dealers. — Moffat's Vetoes. — Law juid 
Order Meetings. — Supreme Court Decisions. — The Red Ribbon Movement. — Liquor Taxes In- 
creased. — Receipts from Liquor Tax. — Brewers' Convention. — Women's Christian Temperance 
Union Convention. — Order of White Cross. 837-845 

CHAPTER LXXXI, 

Banks and Currency. — Insurance and Insurance Companies. — Card Money or Playing Card Cur- 
rency, — Pontiac's Due-Bills. — Wampum. — Its Manufacture. — Peltry Currency. — York and 
Halifax Currency. — Merchants' liills. — Cut Money. — A Public Nuisance, — Action of Grand 
Jury. — Proctor's Bills. — Ohio Currency. — Heavy I3iscounts. — Shinplasters of 18 17, — Irresponsible 
Issues. — Father Richard's Scrip. — Governor and Judges' Scrip. — Unreliable Bills. — The United 
States Bank. — Go\ rnment Deposits Withdrawn, — State Banks as Fiscal Agents, — Extended 
F"acilities, — Bewildering Prosperity. — Enormous Importations. — Extravagant Expenditures. — New 
United States liank. — Jackson's Specie Circular, — Panic of 1837, — Suspension of Detroit Banks. — 
Confidence Gone. — F'ortunes Lost, — Disaster Everywhere. — Dishonest Debtors. — Wildcat 
Banking .Law. — Mushroom Banks. — Bogus Certificates. — Nails and Window Glass as Specie. — 
Bank Notes by the Bushel. — Wayne County Wildcats. — Officers and Directors. — Bank Commis- 
sioners. — Dishonesty of Bank Oflicers. — Bank Notes as Wall Paper, — The City in a Quandary.— 



XXXVl 



TAIJLE OF CONTENTS. 



Panic of 1857. — Tts Results. — Crisisof rSfio. — Stiimp-'l'.-iil Ciirrnuy. Treasury Notes. - Disap- 
pcarancc of Coin. — I'ostajfo Stamps as Chaiij^a-. — Mfrcaiitile Scrip and Tokens. — I'ost.'il Ciir- 
rcney. — First ('ireeni)aiks, - Knormoiis Premiums fordoid. — Xatioiial U;mks Created. - I'aiiir of 
1873. — Cireenijacks Keaeli Par. - I'lie Dctniit hank. -- I'elitioii for I'.stahiislimeiU. Hank ll:'ild- 
inir. — Contle's History ( .' Hank. — Ai)siird Pni|)osilions. - Peculiar Transactions. — Fxtended Circu- 
lation.- Amazinv; Issues. -The ("lovernor .ind [udjfes as Promoters and Stockholders.- Conj^'^ress 
Disapproves of the Hank. — The Hank Continues IJusiness. — Ciovernor lluil's Si.itement. - liank 
of Michiijan, — When Ortjjani/ed. — First Shareholders. — Directors. Kel.ition to Other li.uiks. — 
Names of I'residcnls and Cashiers. — Various l.oeations. — tlreetion of Hank Huilding. — Hranch 
Hank of ISronson. - Successful Manaijement. — The I'ide Turns. - Termination of Hank.-— Farmers 
and Mechanics' Hank. — St. Jo.seph Hranch. — l.ar{,'e ()per;itions. -- l'",normous Dividends. — Siisoen- 
sion of 1S37. — Casliier's Duties. - Presidents and Casliiers. - Michitjan Insunune Company Hank. — 
Its Hankinjr Powers. — I'residenfs and (.'.ishiers. Panicof 1S57. — Orijanization of National Insurance 
Hank. - Michi^j.in St.ite Hank. Pri'sidents .'ind Casiii'/rs. — Suspensi'^n of H.ink. — Proposed State 
Hank of Michigan. —Revival of .Miciii.^j.ui State! Hank. - Successful Termination of Career.— Hank 
of St. Clair. — Ollieers. — Detroit .Savinifs Hank.- First Othcers. — Kem.irkable Care, — Cashiers and 
Director". - Peninsular I .nik. — Names of Corporators. — Profitable Husiness. — Disasters Come. — 
Husiness Wound Up. -State Hank of Michi).jan. — ( )riicers. - Merited into First National Hank, — The 
New Or^.-iiM/ation. — Presidents and Cashiers. — Reorjjanization of 1882. -Directors and Ollieers. — 
Second National Hank. — Ollieers and Directors. — Reorj^ani/ed as Detroit National Hank. -Anurican 
National Hank. — Presidents and Cashiers. — Merchants and Manufacturers' Hank. — Reorganized as 
a National Hank. — Officers and Directors. — Tiie .Meciianics' Hank. — Officers. — The Peojile's Sav- 
in<;s Hank. — Officers. — (Jerman American Hank. — Wayne County Savinijs Hank. — Officers and 
Location. — Safe Deposit Co. — Object. — Advantajjes. — The City Hank. — When Discontinued. — 
Michi),'an Savii\c;s Hank — Location and Officers. — The Market Hank. — Location and Officers.— 
Commercial National Hank. — Officers. — Directors. — The State Savinijs Hank. — Officers. — Dime 
Savinjjs Hank. — Officers. — Plymouth and Wyandotte Hanks and Officers. — ''rivate Hankers. — Past 
and Present Firms. — Lejjal iloiidays. — (iiowth of Hank Ca|)ital. — Insurance and Insurance Com- 
panies. — I'^'iriy Aijents. — Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Comjiany. — Miciiijran Mutual Life 
Insurance Company. — Western Union Mutual Life and Accident .Society. — Commercial Mutual 
Association. — Michigan Fire and NLarine Insurance Company. — Standard Life and Accident Insurance 
Company. 846-875 



PART XL-COMMUNICATION. 

CHAPTER L XXXII. 

The Post Oiifice and Mails. — Telegraph and Telephones. — Army E.xpenses. — Indian Messengers. — 
First Post Road. — Post Office Established. — Irregular Mails. — Hlowing the Horn. — Daily Mails 
from East Hegin. — Mail Regulations in 1832 and 1837. — First Mails through Canada. — Postal 
Rates at Various Times. — Singular Provisions. — Introduction of Envelopes and Stamps. — First Postal 
Cards. — Receipts for Postage at Detroit by Decades. — The Registry System. — Money Orders and 
Postal Notes. — Amounts Sent and Received. — Free Delivery System. — (Irowth of Service. — Office 
Force and Salaries. — Various Po.st Office Locations. — Erection of Government Huilding. — Loca- 
tion. — Description. — Names of Postmasters. — How Abbott Received Norvell. — Telegraphs and 
Telephones. — First E.xhibition of Telegraph. — The Speed, O'Reilly, and Sno- • Lines. — First Mes- 
sages East and West. — "The Telegroff Wurking." — Location of Offices. — Northern Michigan 
Line. — River Cables. — First News by Atlantic Cable. — Ceneral Rejoicings. — United States Tele- 
graphic Co. — Atlantic and Pacific Lines. — American Union Line. — District Telegrapli Systems. — 
Apparatus and Messengers. — First E.\hibition of Telephone. — Growth in Use of Telephone. — 
State Telephone System. 879-886 

CHAPTER LXXXIII. 

Journeying. — Transportation Facilities. — Express Companies. — First Horses. — French Ponies. — 
Ride and Tie Method. — Indian Trails. — Hridle Paths. — To Washington and Back on Horseback. — 
French Carts. --The First Carriage. — First Four Wheeled Wagon. — Governor Cass as a Bor- 
rower — Fin Stages. — Stage P.outes and Time. — Public Hacks. — Omnibus Lines. — Transporta- 
tion Facilities. — Freight Rates. — Pack Horses. — Opening of Erie and Welland Canals. — Naviga- 
tion of the Huron. — The Five Million Loan. — Internal Improvements. — Defunct Enterprises.— 
St. Mary's Fails Ship Canal. — Freight Lines. — Great Changes. — River Ferriage. — Bridge and 
Tunnel Projects. — Plans and Counter Plans. — Wheat lilcvators. — Drays and Trucks. — Package 
and Baggage Co. — Express Companies. — When Established, — Location of Offices. — Names of 
Agents. " - 887-892 



lee 



Railroads. — 

ing the I 
R.iils.— 1 
Ko.id Ex 
O.ikl.iiuK^ 
< )riicers 
Subscripti 
Excursion 
Notices, 
pl.aints. — 
and Atw; 
with Mic 
Cleveland 
Cars. — I 
Canada S 
to Variou 
tive.— - Fir 
and Tol 
Aid Soug 
Aid from 
gance. - ' 
G. T. June 
cm R. R. 
pletion of 
R.R.— $2 
Route anc 
Where Lo 



Navigation or 

Upper Lai 
.Ste. Claire, 
Later \'ess 
from " ( iaz 
Steamboat 
Detroit an 
Liverpool. 
Detroit. — 
and Depan 
Later Ferr 



United States 
Harbor Ir 

Navigators 
Methods 01 
Their Coi 
Districts. - 
River. — L 
Saving Sei 
Improvenu 
Steamboat! 
tors. — Na: 
tions. — Dt 
Marine He 
Surgeons a 



Military and I 
roads. — S 

Highways. 
Fuel. — Sl( 
Unsatisfact 



TABLE OF C^iN /ENTS. 



1 

xxxvii 



CMAPTKR I, XXXIV. 

Railroads. — The Prophecy of the Cia/ettc. — I'oiuiac and Detroit Railroad. — New Corporation. — Hiiild- 
ini.,' tile Road. — Sinl<-I loles. — Tirst Locomolive. — I'irst I'lssenvjer Coaclies. — Slow Time. — Strap 
Rails.— Kirst I'assenj^er Depot. — M.xtension Down Ciratiot Ro.id. — Traek Torn Up by the I'eople. — 
Road Extended to Campus Martins. — Depot llnildin^'s. — New I'roprietors. —Consolidation with 
Oakland it Ottawa R. R. — Date of Completion to Various Stations.-- Kinaneial History. — I'rincipal 
Ollicers and Terms. — Miehi,;jan Central Railroad. - Orivjinal Estimates. — Local .Subscriptions. — 
Subscriptions fronj City of Detroit. — Ri-markable ICconomy. -Completion of Road to Vpsilanti. — 
Excursion and Celebration. — A Locomotive and I'rain Drawn by llorse-l'ower. — Newspaper 
Notices. — Road <)j)encd to Ann Arbor. — Date of Completion to Various I'oints. — lV,.itical Com- 
plaints. --.Sale of Road. — Proposed Cut. in Woodward Avenue. — The Track on Woodward Avenue 
and Atwater Street. — Tiiird Street Depot First U.sed. — I'roperty on River and at Junction. — Strife 
with Michijfan Southern R, R. — Road Completed to Chicaj^o. — Lines of Moats to lUiffalo and 
Cleveland. — Railroad Conspiracy Cise. - Dates of Extensive Fires. — Introduttion of Sleeping 
Cars. — Passenijer 'Pratru; and Ea.ninj^^s by Decades. — Principal Oll'icers and Terms. — Chicai^'o & 
Canada Southern R. R. — Fast Time. — Ollicers. — Detroit iV Pay City R. R. — Date of Completion 
to Various I'oints. — Lake Shore &. Michigan .Southern R. R. — Orij^nnal Charter. — First Loc<imo- 
tive, — First (Jround Broken. — Date of Openinij between Various Stations. — Sale of Road. — Detroit 
and Toledo Line. — Local Ot'ticers and Terms. — Detroit, Hillsdale & .Southwestern R. R. — City 
Aid Souj^ht. — Voters Refuse. — Completion of Road. — Oreat Western R. R. — Meetinij in and 
Aid from Detroit. — Road Completed to Windsor. — Oreat Celebration, — Mun'Mpal Extrava- 
jjanee. — Third Rail Laid. — Ferriajre of Freij^dit and Passeni^er Cars. — Chicajjo, Detroit & Canada 
O. T. Junction R. R.— Detroit Aj,;ents. —Flint & Pere Marciuette R. R. — Detroit, Lansinvf it North- 
ern R. R. — City Aid Sou^jht. — $300,000 Voted. — Law Unconstitutional. — Bonds Inv.ilid. — Com- 
jiletion of Road. — Detroit, Mackinaw & NLiripiette R. R. — Officers. — Detroit, Butler it St. Louis 
R. R. — $200,000 Donated by Citizens, — Ajjents at Detroit,— Cincinnati, Hamilton iV Dayton R. R. — 
Route and Ajj^ents. — Detroit Union R. R. Station and Depot Co. — R. K. Bridges and dates. — 
Where Located. — A Double Bridge. 893-906 

CHAPTER LXXXV. 

Navigation on Rivers and Lakes. — Canoes and Dig-outs. — Birch Bark Canoes. — Expedition to 
Upper Lakes. — ^ NLackinaw Boats. — Pirogues. — The First Sail Vessels. — The (Iriffon and Lake 
Ste. Claire. — Celebration of 1879. — Schooners During Pontiac War. — Revolutionary War Vessels. — 
Later \'essels. — Chicago Colonized from Detroit. — Arrival of the " W;ilk-in-the-Water." — Notice 
from " Oazette." — The "Superior" and Her .Successors. — The .Steamboat Michigan. — Increase of 
Steamboat Travel, — V^enturesome Vessels. — Campau's Opinion. — Sinking of the Atlantic. — 
Detroit and Cleveland Line. — Its History, — Names of Boats and Routes. — Direct Shijiments to 
Liverpool, — Tugs. — Detroit Dry Dock Co. — Officers and Facilities. — List of Steamers Built at 
Detroit, — Yearly List of First Arrivals and Departures, — Number and Tonnage of Vessels Arriving 
and Departing. — The First Ferries. — Rates of Ferriage. — The Horse-Boat. — Osborn's Poem. — 
Later Ferries. — Harbor and Harbor Masters. 907-917 

CHAPTER LXXXVI. 

United States Lake Survey. —Lighthouses and Their Construction. — Life Saving Service. — 
Harbor Improvements, — Inspector of Steamboats. — Signal Service. — Marine Hospital. — 

Navigators' Charts. — Survey of J.akes Petitioned for. — First Appropriation. — Immense Benefits. — • 
Methods of Work, — Issuing of Charts, — Valuable Instruments. — Officers in Charge. — Lighthouses. — 
Their Construction and Repair. — Lighthouse Engineers. — Names and Terms. — Lighthouse 
Districts. — Care of Lighthouses and Buoys. — Supply and .Storage l^epot. — Lighthouses on 
River. — Location. — When Erected. — Kind of Light. — Names and Teriu' of Inspectors, — Life 
Saving Service. — District Head(]uarters. — Appliances. — Stations. — Superintendents. — Harbor 
Improvements. — First Appropriation. — Yearly Expenditures. — Officers in Charge. — Inspectors of 
Steamboats. — Duties of Inspectors. — Engineers and Pilots' Licenses. — Supervising and Local Inspec- 
tors. — Names and Terms. — The Signal Service. — When Organized. — The Takuig of (Observa- 
tions. — Description of Instruments. — Weather Maps and Storm Signals. — Names of Observers. — 
Marine Hospital. — Description of Building. — How Supported. — Patients and Disbursements. — 
Surgeons and Stewards. 918-924 

CHAPTER L XXXVII. 

Military and Plank Roads. — Streets and Street Paving. — Side and Cross Walks. — Street Rail- 
roads. — Street and Road Officers. — Board of Public Works. — Lack of Roads. — (Government 
Highways. — When Established. — Proposed Lottery to Build a Road. — Bad Reads and Costly 
Fuel. — Sloughs and Delay. — Restricted Traffic. — First Plank Roads. — Pioneer Experiments. — 
Unsatisfactory Results. — Improved Methods, — Large E.xpenditures. — Great Advantages. — Rates 



XXXVlll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



of Toll. — Length of Roads. — Number of Gates. — Streets and Street Paving. — Picturesque 
Scenes. — Narrow Ways. — Fast Driving Prohibited. — A Blessing in Disguise. — Woodward's Fore- 
sight. — Wide Avenues. — ^ Encroachments of Citizens. — improper Subdivisions. — Supervision of 
• Plats. — Street Openings. — Costly Experiences. — Widening of Streets. — ^ Closing of Streets. — 
Notable Instances. — Cemetery Lane. — Bolivar Alley. — Dequindre Street. — Peculiar Localities. — 
Corktown. — Dutchtown. — Kentucky. — Polacktown. — i'iety Hill. — Peddler's Point. — Swill Point. — 
The Potomac. — The Heights. — A Lon Street. — Lafayette Avenue in Winter. — Characteristics 
of Woodward Avenue. — Griswold Street Features. — A Pun in Verse. — Former Condition of 
Streets. — Stalled Teams. — Convict Labor. — First i'aving. — Kind and Location. — Specifications 
of 1835. — Extensive Wood Paving. —Moffat's Opposition. — Paving ]5onds. — Repairing and Re- 
paving. — Street Cleaning. — .Street Sweeping Machines. — I^ength of Paved Streets and Alleys. — 
Primitive Sidewalks. — Brick, Plank, and Stone Walks. — Cross Walks and Crossing Sweepers. — The 
Streets in 1850. — Poetical Description. — Care of Sidewalks. — Claims for Accidents. — Street Rail- 
roads. — Names of Lines. — Routes. — When Opened. — Length of Routes. -- Niunber of Cars and 
Horses. — Time of Trip. — Rates of Fare. — Taxation of Lines. — Transit Railroads. — Location. — 
How Operated. — Road Supervisors and Duties. — Road Districts and Officers. — Ward Supervisors 
and Overseers. — Street Commissioners and Duties. — City Surveyors. — Duties and Names. — Commis- 
sioners on Plan of the City. — Duties and Names. — Commissioners of Orades. — Powers. — Names 
of Commissioners. — Board of Public Works. — Whep Established. — Po'vers and Duties. — Names 
of F2ngineers and Coi imissioners. 925-936 

C H A P T E R L X X >. V II I . 

Street Names and Th2ir Origin. — Changes in Names. — A Curious Melange. — Names of Past and 
Present Streets. — First Record of Names. — Origin of and Reason for Names. — Changes in 
Names. — Dates of Changes. — Woodward's Puns. — McCabe's Names for Alleys. — Historiographer's 
Report. — Street Names as Historic Memorials. 937-94^ 



PA.RT XII.— SUPPLEMENTAL. 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 

Annals of Detroit. — History Epitomized. — Different Epochs. — Curious, Significant, and Interesting 
Events. — Local, Religious, and Political Meetings. — Governmental and Business Changes. — import- 
ant Judicial and Military Occasions. — Noted Meetings and Conventions. — Date of Visits of Authors, 
Statesmen, Politicians, and Prominent Personages. — Noted Celebrations. — Important Citizens' Meet- 
ings. — Notable Storms and Disasters. — First Arrival and (departure of Steamboats. — Railroad 
Trains. — Telegraphic Messages, — Local E.xcitements of Various Kinds. — Dates of Interesting 
Exhibitions. — Lectures. — (kunes and Entertainments. — The First Street Lighting. — Water 
Pipes. — Steam Fire Engines. — Street Railroads, Etc. 95 '-976 



French Farms or Private Claims. — 

firmation. — Later Designations. 



A P P E N D I X A . 

Acres in Claims. — Names of Original Claimants. — Datds of Con- 
— Discrepancies in Numbers. — Duplicate Numbers, 977-982 

APPENDIX B . 



City Charters, Amendments, and Special Laws. — The First Corporation.— Later Charters. — Amend- 
ments. — Chief Characte. istics. 983-988 



I 


Old Carm 




where Ca 


2 


Map show 




and ok 


3 


Windmill 




and th 


4 


Reduced 




and Ju( 


S 


Plan of D( 


6 


Map of the 


7 


Reduced f; 




the Go 




Plan, 


8 


Map of ad 


9 


Specimen 




photogi 


10 


Entrance t 


II 


Map of Mt 


12 


Entrance t 


13 


Entrance tc 


14 


The Old R 




Street, 


15 


Old Reser 


16 


Plan of Ne 


17 


The New > 




and To 


18 


One of the 


19 


Plan of Be 


20 


Police Stat 


21 


Superinten 


22 


Map of N( 




dinance 




and 17c 


23 


Seal of No 


24 


Map of N 




May 7, 


25 


Map of In 




30, 180: 


26 


Seal of Im 


27 


Map of T 




Januan 


28 


Seal of Te 


29 


Map of 




April 1 


30 


Map of ] 




April I 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



L 



1 Old Carmelite Church (now a prison), 

where Cadillac's bones repose, Frontispiece. 3' 

I'ACiK 

2 Map showing route of former streams 32 

and old river line, 9 

3 Windmill Point, on Bela Hubbard Farm, 33 

and the river in 1838, 10 34 

4 Reduced fac- simile of the Governor 35 

and Judges' Plan, 30 36 

5 Plan of Detroit in 1749, 32 

6 Map of the city in 1 796, 33 37 

7 Reduced fac -simile of the Lewis Map of 

the (Governor and Judges' proposed 38 

Plan, 34 

8 Map of additions to the city limits, 35 39 

9 Specimen of tornado work. From a 40 

photograph, 47 

10 Entrance to Mt. Elliott Cemetery, 53 41 

1 1 Map of Mt. Elliott Cemetei y, 34 

12 Entrance to Elmwood Cemetery, 56 42 

13 Entrance to Woodmere Cemetery, 56 

14 The Old Round House, foot of Orleans 43 

Street, 65 

15 Old Reservoir and Embankment, 66 44 

16 Plan of New Water Works, 67 

17 The New Water Works Engine-House 45 

and Tower of Stand Pipe, 68 

18 One of the Water Works Engines, 69 46 

19 Plan of Belle Isle Park, 76 

20 Police Station, Belle Isle, 77 47 

21 Superintendent's House, Belle Isle, 77 

22 Map of Northwest Territory under Or- 48 

dinance of 1787 and Treaties of 1783 

and 1795, 85 49 

23 Seal of Northwest Territory, 86 

24 Map of Northwest Territoiy, Law of 50 

May 7, 1800. 86 

25 Map of Indiana Territory, Law of April 51 

30, 1802, 87 

26 Seal of Indiana Territory, 87 52 

27 Map of Territory of Michigan, Law of 

January 11, 1805, 88 53 

28 Seal of Terrif^-y of Michigan, exact size, 88 54 

29 Map of Michigan Territory, Law of 55 

April 19, 1 816, 88 

30 Map of Michigan Territory, Law of 56 

April 18, 1818, 89 

[xxxix] 



PAfiK 

Map of Michigan Territory, Law of 

June 28. 1834, 89 

Map of State of Michigan, Law of April 

20, 1836, 90 

Great Seal of State of Michigan, 91 

General Grant's Old Home, 104 

Fac-simile of letter from U. S. Grant, 105 

Election Cut from Advertiser, October 

22, 1840, 109 

Election Cut from Advertiser, October 

15, 1852, no 

Election Cut from Tribune, November 

5, 1856, I ID 

Election Scene, — First State Election, 1 1 2 
Reduced fac-simile of First Proclama- 
tion establishing Wayne County, 1 18 
Map of Wayne County, Proclamation of 

August 15, J 796, 1 19 

Map of Wayne County, Law of May 7, 

1 800, 1 1 9 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation of 

July 10, 1800, 1 19 

Map of Wayne County, Law of Apiil 

30, 1802, 120 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation of 

January 14, 1803, 120 

Map of Wayne County, Law of January 

11,1805, r2o 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation 

of November 21. 1815, 121 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation 

of October 18, 1 816, 121 

Map of Wayne County, J'roclaniation 

of July 14, 1817, 121 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation 

of January 15, i8i8, 122 

Map of Wayne County, Proclamation 

of September 10, 1822, 122 

Map of Wayne County, Law of No- 
vember 20, 1826, 122 
Township Map of Wayne County, 1 29 
Seal of the City, 138 
Fac-simile of i2>^-cent shinplaster of 

1838, tS3 

Fac-simile of 18^- cent shinplaster of 

1841, 154 



xl 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I'Alili 



57 Fac-simileof 25-centsliinplasterof 1838, 

58 Fac-simileof 50-cent sliinplaster of 1837, 

59 Former County Buildiiii;, soutlieast cor- 

ner of Griswold and C^onqjress Streets, 

60 Gratiot Avenue Police Station, 

61 Trumbull Avenue Police Station, 

62 Central Poli<-e Station, 

63 Grand River Avenue (sub) Police Station, 

64 Police Headquarters, 

65 Old Block House, Jefferson Avenue, 

66 Old Jail, on site now occupied by Public 

Library, 

67 Sheriff's Residence, Jail, and Police 

Court Room, 

68 Detroit Hou.-^e of Correction, 

69 Superintendent's House — House of Cor- 

rection, 

70 Old U. S. Arsenal, corner of Jefferson 

Avenue and Wayne Street, 

71 Officers' (2uarters at Fort Wayne, 

72 Old Pontiac Tree, 

73 Pontiac's Conspiracy revealed, 

74 Signature of J. F. Haintramck, 

75 Reduced fac-simile of Hull's Proclama- 

tion to the Canadians, 

76 Reduced fac-simile of printed Articles of 

Capitulation of General Hull, 
^]^ Reduced fac-simile of Proctor's Proclam- 
ations of 181 2 and 1 81 3, 

78 Presentation of Colors to First Regiment, 

79 Triumphal Arch erected in honor of Col. 

O. B. Willcox, 

80 Death of Lincoln. — Meeting on the 

Campus Martins. April 16, 1865, 

81 Soldiers and Sailors' Monument, 

82 Fac-simile of Cadillac's Signature, 

83 Detroit Club House, 

84 Old Masonic Hall, 

85 Old Odd Fellows' Hall, Woodward 

Avenue, T857, 

86 Odd Fellows' ilall, head of Monroe Ave. 

87 Handbill of Underground Railroad, 

fac-simile, Yz si,Te, 

88 The John Brown House, 

89 Recraation Park, Entrance and Recep- 

tion Building, 

90 Concert handbill of fifty years ago, 

fac-simile, yi size, 

91 Harmonic Hall, 

92 Store of C. J. Whitney, 

93 Store of Roe Stephens, 

94 The Watson Gallery, 

95 Randall's Photographic Studio, 

96 Plan of Art Loan Building, 

97 Former Store of M. S. Smith &: Co., 

98 Present Store of M. S. Smith & Co., 



'55 


99 


.56 


00 


194 1 


01 


207 




207 


02 


208 


03 


208 


04 


209 


OS 


215 


06 




07 


215 ' 


08 


216 


09 


217 






10 


218 


II 




12 


224 


>3 


225 


14 


239 J 


'5 


241 




268 


16 




17 


275 


18 




'9 


278 


20 




21 


279 


22 


306 


23 




r24 


307 


25 




26 


309 1 


27 


312 1 


28 


326 


29 


340 


30 


342 


31 




32 


343 1 


33 


343 I 


34 




35 


347 ■ 


36 


34« 


37 




38 


352 1 


39 




40 


354 1 


41 


355 


42 


356 


43 


356 


144 


359 


'45 


360 


146 


361 


147 


363 


148 


363 


•49 



View of Detroit in 1796, 

River front of Cass and Jones farms in 
1819, 

Part of St, Anne Street (now Jefferson 
Avenue) in 1800, 

The Old Cass House on Larned Street, 

Old Moran House, 

The Old Lafferty House, 

Residence of (iov. Wm. Woodbridge, 

(jovernor Hull's Residence, 

The Campau House, 

Former Gothic Residence of T. H. 
Hinchman, 

Reduced fac-simile of Map showing lo- 
cation of all buildings in 1853, 

The James AbboiL Rpsidence, 

The John Palmer Residence, 

The John Farrar Residence, 

The John Farmer Property, 

The Cass Residence on Fort Street, 

The Duffield Homestead, Woodward 
Avenue, 

The Brush Homestead, Randolph Street, 

Residence of William Barclay, 

Former I^esidence of Solomon Davis, 

Residence of Mrs. James A. Van Dyke, 
Francis Palms, 
James Flattery, 
R. H. Hall, 
E. B. Wight, 
A. H. Dey, 
A. C. McGraw, 
A. E. Brush, 
John S. Newberry, 
James McMillan, 
W. G. f hompson, 
H. R. Newberry, 
Thomas Ferguson, 
S. D. Miller, 
Robert P. Toms, 
Mrs. H. E. Benson, 

The Thomas Palmer Homestead, 

Residence of W. K. Muir, 

Chauncy Hurlbut, 
George McMillan, 
Hugh Moffat, 
George S. Davis, 
S. B. Grummond, 
Mrs. Charles Ducharme, 
S. D. Elwood, 
Wm. B. Wesson, 
J. Greenslade, 
J. Michels, 
C. I. Walker, 
John Owen, 
G. V. N. Lothrop, 



Pacb 

367 


150 
'5' 


Residenc( 


368 


152 
153 




368 


■54 




369 


'55 




372 


156 




372 






373 


'57 




373 


158 


Former R 


373 


'59 
160 


Residence 


374 


161 






162 


The De( 


375 


163 


R.esidence 


376 


164 




376 


.65 




377 


166 




377 


167 




111 


!68 
169 




378 


170 




378 


171 




379 


172 




379 


'73 




380 


"74 




380 


'75 




38« 


176 




381 


177 




382 


178 




382 


179 




383 


180 




383 


181 




384 


182 


Former Re 


385 


•83 


Residence 


386 


184 




386 


185 




387 


186 




387 


187 




388 


188 




38S 


189 




389 


190 




389 


191 




390 


192 




390 


«93 




391 


194 




391 


'95 




392 


196 




392 


'97 




393 


198 




393 


199 




394 


200 




394 


201 




395 


202 




395 


203 




396 


204 





t\ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



xli 







Pagk 






Pai;k 


150 


Residence of Charles Root, 


396 


205 


Residence of J. G. Dickinson. 


424 


151 


Henry P. Baldwin, 


397 


206 


Edward Burk, 


425 


152 


J. F. Joy, 


398 


207 


J. E. Scripps, 


425 


153 


Mrs. Zachariah Chandler. 


398 


208 


H. H. LeRoy. 


426 


'54 


H. A. Newland, 


399 


209 


E. S. Heineman. 


426 


'55 


Caleb \'an Husan, 


399 


210 


Mrs. L. R. Medbury, 


427 


.56 


Alfred Chesebrough and 




21 1 


C. J. Whitney, 


427 




Charles Biincher, 


399 


2 1 2 


n. Whitney. Jr., 


428 


'57 


Allan Shelden, 


403 


2'3 


John Pridgeon, 


428 


.58 


Former Residence of George S. Frost, 


400 


214 


J. S. Farrand, 


•429 


'59 


Residence of Benjamin Vernor, 


401 


215 


Samuel Heavenrich, 


429 


160 


Don M. Dickinson, 


40 r 


216 


Mrs. H. S. Frue, 


430 


161 


Mrs. N. W. Brooks, 


402 


217 


R. W. King, 


430 


162 


The De Garmo Jones Residence, 


402 


218 


William C. Williams, 


43' 


163 


Residence of Alexander Delano, 


403 


219 


Philo Parsons, 


431 


164 


Mrs. T. F. Abbott, 


403 


220 


F. W. Hayes, 


432 


165 


J. P. Phillips, 


404 


221 


W. W. Leggett, 


432 


166 


Clement Lafferty, 


404 


222 


J. Babillion, 


433 


167 


Emily Ward, 


405 


223 


J. L. Edson, 


433 


!68 


Henry Heames, 


405 


224 


Joseph Black, 


434 


169 


Edwin Reeder, 


406 


225 


A. G. Lindsay, 


434 


170 


W. E. Lovett, 


406 


226 


R. H. Fyfe, 


435 


171 


F. Buhl. 


407 


227 


B. F. Farrington, 


435 


172 


Beia Hubbard, 


408 


228 


Henry Stephens, 


436 


'73 


Daniel Scotten, 


408 


229 


C. D. Farlin. 


437 


'74 


C. H. Buhl, 


409 


230 


George F. Moore, 


437 


'75 


Wm. Brodie, 


409 


231 


John Burt, 


438 


176 


M. S. Smith, 


410 


232 


Wells Burt, 


438 


177 


T. D. Buhl. 


410 


233 


William A. Moore, 


439 


178 


George W. Bisseli, 


411 


234 


W. H. Stevens, 


439 


179 


E. Y. Swift, 


411 


235 


Thomas W. Palmer, 


440 


1 80 


Wm. A. Butler, 


412 


236 


L. L. Farnsworth, 


441 


181 


W. H. Tefft, 


412 


23/ 


Mrs. E. C. Eaton, 


44t 


182 


Former Residence of Alfred Russell, 


4'3 


238 


C. A. Newcomb, 


442 


183 


Residence of George C. Langdon, 


413 


239 


C. C. Bowen, 


442 


184 


D. M. Richardson, 


414 


240 


W. Boeing, 


443 


185 


George H. Hammond, 


4'4 


241 


C. R. Mabley, 


443 


186 


Neil Flattery, 


4'5 


242 


Charles ICndicott, 


444 


187 


Rt. Rev. C. H. Borgess, 


415 


243 


W. J. Waterman, 


444 


188 


J. W. Waterman, 


416 


244 


il. K. White, 


445 


189 


Robert McMillan, 


416 


245 


G. S. Wormer, 


445 


190 


the late M. I. Mills, 


4'7 


246 


A. H Wilkinson, 


446 


191 


John Moore, 


417 


247 


D. M. Ferry, 


446 


192 


Mrs. John J. Bagley, 


418 


248 


Simon Keavenrich, 


447 


193 


the late S. F. Hodge, 


418 


249 


George C. Codd, 


447 


194 


David Preston, 


419 


250 


G. M. Traver, 


448 


'95 


J. S. Vernor, 


419 


251 


Elisha Taylor, 


448 


196 


E. W. Voigt, 


420 


252 


A. E. F. White, 


449 


197 


J. B. Wayne, 


420 


253 


James V. Campbell, 


449 


198 


J. A. Roys, 


421 


254 


George Jerome, 


450 


199 


Alanson Sheley, 


421 


255 


G. S." Frost, 


451 


200 


G. 0. Robinson, 


422 


256 


C. W. Noble. 


451 


201 


David Ward. 


422 


257 


the late H. P. Bridge. 


452 


202 


0. W. Shipman, 


423 


258 


Former Residence of W. and W. S. 




203 


F. P>. Dickoison, 


433 




I larsha, 


452 


204 


William Cowie, 


424 


259 


Residence of T. P. Hall, Grosse Pointe, 


453 




xlii 

260 

261 

262 
263 

264 

265 . 

266 

267 
268 
269 

270 



271 

272 

273 
274 

275 

276 

277 
278 

279 
280 
281 
282 

283 
284 
285 
286 

287 
288 

289 
290 
291 
292 
293 

294 
295 
296 

297 
298 
299 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Paue 



Residences of John S. Newberry and 

James McMillan, Cirosse Fointe, 
Residences of H. B. Ledyard and Hugh 

McMillan, Grosse Pointe, 
Residence of J. I. David, Grosse Isle, 
Residence of the late Edward Lyon, 

Grosse Isle, 
The Smart Block — Present site of Mer- 
rill Block, 
View of north side of Jefferson Avenue 

and Griswold Street in 1837, 
Northwest corner of Woodward Avenue 

and Larned Street in 1862, 
The Abbott Block in 1845, 
The Rotunda Building, 
View of southwest corner of Griswold 

and Larned Streets in 1870, 
The Canipau Building — D. Preston & 
Co.'s Bank ; Commercial National 
Bank, 
The Newberry & McMillan Building, 
The Coyl Block, 
The Merrill Block, 
The Ferry Building — Newcomb, Endi- 

cott, & Co.'s Store, 
The Wesson Building — Taylor, Wool- 

fenden, & Co.'s Store, 
The Cleland Building, 
The Moffat Building, 
J. E. Pittman's Coal Dock, foot of Rio- 

pelle Street, 
Old Council House — original appearance. 
Council House — as enlarged, 
Old Court House or Capitol, 
Fac-simile of Scrip issued by the Gov- 
ernor and Judges, 
Old City Hall and Surroundings, 
The City Hall, 
Arbeiter Hall, 
Detroit Opera House — Stores of J. L. 

Hudson, 
W^hitney's Opera House, 
Former Music Hall, — now White's 

Grand Theatre, 
Woodworth's Steamboat Hf)tel, 
The Mansion House, 
National Hotel in 1846, 
The Russell House, 
Andrew's Railroad Hotel and Pontiac 

Depot, 
Perkins' Hotel, 
Eisenlord House, 

Burning of First Presbyterian Church, 
Old No. i,^"The Goose Neck," 
An Old Fire-bucket, 
Old Firemen's Hall, 





300 


454 


301 




302 


455 


303 


456 


304 


456 






305 


457 






306 


457 






307 


458 




458 


308 


459 






309 


459 


310 




311 


461 


312 


462 




463 


313 


464 






314 


465 


315 




316 


466 




467 


317 


468 


318 




319 


470 


320 


472 


321 


472 




473 


322 


474 


323 


476 


324 


477 




478 


325 




326 


478 




479 


327 




328 


479 




480 


329 


48 1 


330 


482 


331 


483 


332 




333 


484 




485 


334 


487 


335 


495 


336 


503 


337 


505 




506 


338 



Pa(;ii 
Old No. 5 Engine House, Clifford Street, 507 
A " Mose" of the Olden Time, 508 
The Banner of Old No. 4, 510 
Old Joe, the Firemen's Dog, 51 1 
Clifford Street Engine House, and 
Steamer No. 3 ready for Funeral Pro- 
cession of President Lincoln, 512 
Fire Commissioners' OfTice and Engine 

Houses, 513 
Engine House, corner of Larned and St. 

Antoine Streets, 514 
Engine House, corner of Larned and 

Riopelle Streets, 514 
Engine House, corner of Fort .Street and 

Elmwood Avenue, 515 

Engine House, Eighteenth .Street, 515 
Engine House, Hastings Street, between 

Congress and Larned Streets, 516 
Engine House, Alexandrine Avenue, 516 
Engine House, corner of High and Rus- 
sell Streets, 5 1 7 
Engine House, corner of Sixth and 
Baker Streets, 5 1 8 
Engine House, Montcalm Street, 518 
Engine House, Clifford Street, 519 
Engine House, Sixteenth Street, head of 
Bagg Street, 520 
A Steam Fire Engine, 521 
Firemen's Hall, Jefferson Avenue, 522 
First Page of St. Anne's Records, 528 
Residence erected by Bishop R&se, 533 
St. Anne's Catholic Church, original ap- 
pearance, 534 
St. Anne's Catholic Church, present ap- 
pearance, 534 
Holy Trinity Catholic Church, 536 
Memorial Tablet in Holy Trinity Catho- 
lic Church 537 
St. Mary's Catholic Church, 538 
Residence of Franciscan Fathers of St. 

Mary's Church, 538 

Priest's Residence St. Anne's Church, 538 
Catholic Church and former Cathedral 

of SS. Peter and Paul, 539 

Original St. Joseph's Church, 540 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, 540 

.St. Anthony's German Catholic Church, 541 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church, 541 
St. Vincent de Paul Catholic Church and 

Priest's House, 542 

Catholic Church of Our Lady of Help, 542 

St. Boniface Catholic Church, 543 

St. Albert's Catholic Church, 544 
St. Aloysius Catholic Pro-Cathedral and 

Priest's House, 544 

New St. Albert's Catholic Church, 545 



339 

340 

341 
342 
343 

344 

345 

346 

347 

348 



349 



350 



35' 



352 

353 

354 

355 

356 

357 
358 

359 
360 

361 

362 
363 

364 
365 
366 

367 

368 
369 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



xlii 



II 



1>ai;f£ 



339 St. Joachim's French Cathulic Church 

and School, 

340 Sacred Heart German Catholic Church 

and School, 

341 St. Wenceslaus Catholic Church, 

342 Catholic Church of Holy Redeemer, 

343 St. Cassimer Catholic Polish School and 

Church, 

344 St. Bonaventure Catholic Ciuirch and 

Monastery, 

345 Crotto at Church of the Assumption — 

Connor's Creek, 

346 First Protestant, afterwards Trinity Cath- 

olic Church, 

347 Fac-simile of Scrip issued by First Pro- 

testant Society, 

348 Reduced fac-simile of Articles of Incor- 

poration of First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 1st page, 

349 Reduced fac-simile of Articles of Incor- 

poration of First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 2d page, 

350 Reduced fac-simile of Articles of Incor- 

poration of First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 3d page, 

351 Reduced fac-simile of Articles of Incor- 

poration of First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 4th page, 

352 First Methodist Episcopal Church — ori- 

ginal brick building, 

353 First Methodist Episcopal Church, corner 

Woodward Ave. and State Street, 

354 Central Methodist Episcopal Church — 

Chapel and Parsonage, 

355 Congress Street Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

356 (Jriginal Lafayette Street Methodist Epis- 

copal Church, 

357 Tabernacle Methodist lOpiscopal Church, 
35S Walnut Street Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

359 Simpson Methodist Episcopal Church, 

360 Jefferson Avenue Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

361 Palmer Memorial Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

362 Fort Street Methodist Episcopal Church, 

363 Sixteenth Street Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

364 Junction Methodist Episcopal Church, 

365 Uelray .Methodist Episcopal Church, 

366 Wesley Methodist ICpiscopal Church, 

367 First German Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 

368 Asbury Methodist Episcopal Chapel, 

369 Cass Avenue Methodist Episcopal Chapel, 



546 



370 



371 



546 


372 


547 






373 


547 






374 


548 




548 






375 


556 


376 


557 


377 




378 




379 


560 


380 




381 



561 382 





383 


562 


384 




385 




386 


563 






387 


565 






388 


566 






389 


568 






390 


570 






391 


570 




570 


392 


571 


393 


571 






394 


572 


395 


572 


396 


573 


397 




398 


573 


399 


574 


400 


574 


401 


574 


402 




403 


575 


404 


575 


405 


575 


406 



Pa(;k 

Second German Methodist Episcopal 

Ch' rch, 576 
Thirty-second Street German Methodist 

Episcopal Church, 576 
Lafayette Street African Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, 577 
Ebenezer African Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 577 
Hethel Church of Evangelical Associa- 
tion — Original Building, 578 
Bethel Church of Evangelical Associa- 
tion — Second Building 578 
St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church, 582 
Christ Protestant Episcopal Church — 

Original Building, 583 

Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, 583 

St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Church, 584 

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church, 585 

Grace Protestant Episcopal Church, 586 
St. Stephen's Protestant Episccpal 

Church, 587 
Emanuel Memorial Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, 587 
All Saints' Protestant Ejiiscopal Mission, 588 
St. James's Protestant Episcopal Church, 588 
Protestant Episcopal Mission of Messiah, 589 
St. Mary's Protestant Episcopal Mission 

Chapel, 589 
Good Shepherd Protestant Episcopal 

Mission, 589 
St. Barnabas' Protestant Episcopal Mis- 
sion, 590 
Holy Trinity Protestant Episcopal Mis- 
sion, 590 
St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Memo- 
rial Church, 590 
Original St. Matthew's Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, 591 
St. Matthew's Protestant Episcopal 

Church, 591 
St. Joseph's Protestant Episcopal Memo- 
rial Chapel. 591 
Epiphany Reformed Episcopal Church, 592 
View of Churches on Woodward Ave- 
nue in 1849, 594 
First Presbyterian Church, 595 
Central Presbyterian Church. 596 
Fort Street Presbyterian Church, 597 
Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, 598 
Frontenac Avenue Presbyterian Mission, 599 
Westminster Presbyterian Church, 599 
Calvary Presbyterian Church, 600 
Union Presbyterian Church, 6oi 
Memorial Presbyterian Church, 601 
Trumbull Avenue Presbyterian Chapel, 602 
United Presbyterian Church, 602 




XllV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Hagb 



407 Dutch Reformed Clnirch, 

40S Original Ikiilding of First IkiptistCiiurcii, 

409 Baptist Clnirch, corner of Fort and Oris- 

wold Streets — First Ikkk Building, 

410 Baptist Church, corner of Fort and C Iris- 

wold Streets — Second Brick Building, 

41 1 Cass Avenue Baptist Church, 

412 Second Baptist Church (colored), 

413 Lafayette Avenue Baptist Church, 

414 First Cicrman Baptist Church, 

415 Eighteenth Street Baptist Church, 

416 Twelfth Street Baptist Church, 

417 Second German Baptist Church, 

418 Clinton Avenue Baptist Chapel, 

419 Clinton Avenue Baptist Church, 

420 French Baptist Church, 

421 First Congregational Church — Original 

Building, 

422 First Congregational Church, Fort Street, 

423 Second Congregational Church, 

424 Trumbull Ave. Congregational Church, 

425 Springwells Congregational Church, 

426 Harper Avenue Congregational Mission 

Chapel, 

427 Mt. Hope Avenue Congregational Mis- 

sion Chapel, 

428 View of Monroe Avenue and St. John's 

Church in 1872, 

429 First (lernian Evangelical Protestant St. 

John's Church and School, 

430 Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, 

431 St. \L'irk's German Evangelical Church, 

432 St. Paul's German Evangelical Church, 

Seventeenth Street, 

433 Original Immanuel Evangelical Luth- 

eran Ciuircl\ 

434 Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church, 

435 Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, 

436 St. Paul's ICvangelical Lutheran Church, 

Joseph Campau Avenue, 

437 St. Matthew's Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, 

438 Zion German Reformed Church, 

439 St. Peter's German Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, 

440 Salem German Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, 

441 St. Luke's German Evangelical Church, 

442 St. John's Independent Lutheran Church, 

443 Washington Ave. Christian Church, 

444 Disciples of Christ Church, 

445 Mission Church of Disciples of Christ, 

446 New Jerusalem Church, 

447 Congregational Unitarian Church, 

448 Church of Our Father — Universalist, 

449 Third Avenue Mission Chapel, 



603 


450 


605 


45' 




452 


605 


453 


606 


454 


607 


455 


607 


456 


608 


457 


608 


458 


609 


459 


609 


460 


610 




610 


461 


610 


462 


611 


463 




464 


613 


465 


614 


466 


6IS 




615 


467 


616 


468 




469 


616 






470 


616 






471 


617 


472 




473 


618 


474 


619 


475 


619 


476 




477 


619 


478 




479 


620 


480 


620 


481 


620 


482 




483 


621 


484 




485 


621 


486 


622 






4S7 


622 


488 




489 


622 


490 


623 


491 


623 




624 


492 


625 


493 


625 


494 


626 


495 


626 


496 


627 


497 


628 


498 



I'agk 

Beth El Synagogue, 628 

Synagogue of Shaary Zedec, 629 

County Insane Asylum and Poorhouse, 649 
St. Vincent's Catholic Female Orphan 

Asylum, 651 

Protestant Orphan Asylum, ' 652 

St. Mary's Hospital — original building, 653 

St. Mary's Hospital — new building, 653 

Old Industrial School, 655 

New Industrial School, 655 

St. Joseph's Retreat for the Insane, 656 
St. Luke's Hospital, Church Home and 

Orphanage, 656 

Harper Hospital — original building, 658 

Harper Hospital — new building, 659 

Home of the Friendless, 660 

Women's Hospital and Foundlings' Home, 662 

House of Providence, 662 
The Little Sisters' Home for the Aged 

Poor, 663 

The Thompson Home, 664 

Zoar Orphan Asylum, Springwells, 665 
Detroit Day Nursery and Kindergarten 

Building, 665 
Convent of Mission of the Good Shep- 
herd, 666 
Post and Tribune Building, 684 
Free Press Building, 687 
Evening News Building, 688 
Michigan Christian Herald Pjuilding, 689 
A Newsboy, 692 
Detroit News Company's Store, 696 
Old Female Seminary, Griswold Street, 716 
The Liggett Home and Day School, 719 
German American Seminary, 719 
Trinity Catholic School, • 721 
St. Mary's Catholic School, 722 
St. Joseph's Catholic School, 722 
St. Vincent de Paul Catholic School, 723 
Our Lady of Help Catholic School, 723 
St. Albert's Catholic School, 724 
Polish Franciscan Convent and Mother 

House, 724 
Aciidemy of the Sacred Heart, 725 
Detroit College, 725 
Trinity Lutheran School, ^ 726 
Old University Building, Bates Street, 730 
Goldsmith, Bryant, & Stratton's Busi- 
ness University, 732 
.Michigan College of Medicine, 734 
First Public School Building, 738 
Old Second Ward Public School, 745 
The Barstow School, 745 
The Houghton School, 746 
The Tappan School, 746 
The Jackson School, 746 



499 


The John 


i;oo 


The Niche 


501 


The Cam] 


i;o2 


The Wilk 


503 


The Lincf 


504 


The FranI 


505 


The Cass 


506 


The Cass 


S07 


The High 


508 


The Dulfu 


509 


The Firna 


510 


The New 


511 


The Web.' 


512 


The Trow 


5'3 


The Bisho 


514 


The Bisho 


5'5 


The Jeffer: 


516 


Seal of the 


5'7 


The Public 


518 


Fac-similc 


5'9 


Stores of I 


1520 


Stores of I 


521 


Store of G 


S22 


Stores of ( 


323 


Store of F 


524 


Store of R 


525 


Stores of I' 


S26 


Stores of 7 


527 


Seed Wart 


528 


Seed Farm 


529 


Stores of L 


530 


Stores of C 


531 


Stores of L 


533 


Store and 


5,33 


Store of P. 


5,34 


Store of M 


535 


Establish ni 


536 


Stores of J 


537 


Stores of J 


5,38 


Stores of \ 


539 


Stores of E 


540 


Stores of A 


541 


Stores of I* 


542 


Stores of I 


543 


Stores of I 


544 


Stores of C 


545 


Stores of A 


546 


Stores of h 


547 


Store of A 


548 


Store of A 


549 


Stores of 1 


550 


Store of D 


55' 


Stores of V 


552 


Old Board 


553 


Stores of L 


554 


New Boarc 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



X 



Iv 



Pa<;b 

499 The John Owen School, 747 

500 The Nichols' School, 747 

501 The Campbell School. 747 

502 The Wilkins School, 748 

503 The Lincoln School, 748 

504 The Franklin School, 748 

505 The Cass School — oriij;iiial appearance, 749 

506 The Cass School — as enlarged, 749 

507 The High School, 750 

508 The Dnflickl School, 750 

509 The Firnane School, 751 

510 The New Irving School, 751 

511 The Webster School, 752 

512 The Trowbridge School, 752 

513 The Bishop School — original appearance, 753 

514 The Hisiiop School — as enlarged, 753 

515 The Jefferson School, 754 

516 Seal of the Board of Education, 755 

517 The Public Library, 759 

518 Fac-simile of a Trader's License, 768 

519 Stores of Beattie, Fitzsimons, & Co., 769 

520 Stores of H. P. Baldwin 2d & Co., 769 

521 Store of George Kirby, 770 

522 Stores of C. R. Mabley & Company. 771 
323 Store of Flattery Bros., 772 

524 Store of R. H. Fyfe & Co., 772 

525 Stores of Farrand, Williams, & Co., 773 

526 Stores of T. B. Rayl & Co., 773 

527 Seed Warehouse of U. M. Ferry & Co., 774 

528 Seed Farm of D. M. Ferry & Co., 775 

529 Stores of L. A. Smith & Co., 776 

530 Stores of G. & R. McMillan, 776 

531 Stores of Dean, Godfrey, & Co., ']•]^ 

532 Store and Residence of P. Blake, 777 

533 Store of P. A. Billings, 778 

534 Store of Mumford, Foster, & Co., 778 

535 Establishment of Thorndike Nourse, 779 

536 Stores of James E. Davis & Co., 779 

537 Stores of John J. Dodds & Co., 780 

538 Stores of William Reid, 780 

539 Stores of Edson, Moore, & Co., 781 

540 Stores of Allan Shelden & Co., 782 

541 Stores of F. Buhl & Co., 783 

542 Stores of Heineman, Butzel, & Co., 783 

543 Stores of Heavenrich Bros., 784 

544 Stores of Charles Root & Co., 784 

545 Stores of A. C. McCiraw & Co., 785 

546 Stores of H. A. Ncwland & Co., 785 

547 Store of A. R. & W. F. Linn, 786 

548 Store of A. C. Bacon & Co., 786 

549 Stores of T. 11. Hinchman & Sons, 787 

550 Store of Dwyer & Vhay, 787 

551 Stores of W. J. Gould & Co., 788 

552 Old Board of Trade Building. 788 

553 Stores of Ducharme, Fletcher, «Sc Co., 789 

554 New Board of Trade Building, 789 



55 
56 
57 
58 

59 
60 

61 

62 

64 

65 
66 

67 
68 
69 
70 

71 
72 

73 
74 
75 
76 

n 
78 

79 
80 



83 
84 

85 

86 

87 
88 

89 
90 

9' 
92 

93 
94 

95 
96 

97 
98 

99 
600 
601 
602 
603 
604 
605 
606 



Page 

Store of B. F. Farrington & Co., 789 

.Stores of Standart Bros., 790 

Stores of Phelps & Brace, 790 

Stores of Rathbone, .Sard, & Co., 791 

Stores of Buhl Sons & Co., 791 

Former Woodward Avenue Market, 793 

Vegetable Market, 794 

Old Washington Market, 795 

Central Market Building, 796 

Michigan Car Co.'s Works, 803 

Detroit Steel and Car Spring Works, 805 

Russel Wheel & Foundry Co.'s Works, 805 

Detroit Bridge & Iron Works, 806 

I-'ulton Iron & Engine Works, 806 

Buhl Iron Works, 807 

Eagle Iron Works, 807 

Michigan Malleable Iron Co., 808 
Michels' Wood Working Machinery 

Factory, 808 

National Wire & Iron Co.'s Works, 809 

Detroit Safe Co.'s Works, 809 

Detroit Bronze Co.'s proposed building, 810 

Detroit Stove Co.'s .Stores, 811 

The Barnum Wire and Iron Works. 812 

Detroit Stove Co.'s Works. 813 

Peninsular Stove Co.'s Works, 814 

Eureka Iron Co.'s Works, Wyandotte, 814 

Michigan Stove Co.'s Works, 815 

National Pin Co.'s Factory, 816 

Detroit File Works, , 816 
Detroit & Lake Superior Copper Co.'s 

Works, ' 817 
The Middlebrook & Post Manufacturing 

Co.'s Works, 818 

Detroic Stamping Works, 818 

Detroit Emery Wheel Co.'s Works, 819 

Parke, Davis, & Co.'s original Laboratorv, 820 

Parke. Davis, & Co.'s present Laboratory, 821 

Laboratory of Frederick Stearns & Co., 822 

Capsule Factory of F. A. Hubel, 822 
Boydell Bros. White Lead and Color 

Works, 823 

Detroit White Lead Works, 824 

Detroit Linseed Oil Co., 824 

Berry Brothers' Varnish Factory, 825 

Schulte's Soap and Candle Factory, 825 

A. Laitner's Store and Brush Factory, 826 

The first Tobacco Factory in Detroit, 826 

The American Eagle Tobacco Factory, 827 

The Banner Tobacco Factory, 827 

The Globe Tobacco Factory, , 828 

Scotten's Hiawatha Tobacco Factory, 828 

Hargreaves Manufacturing Co.'s Factory. 829 

Burk, Rich, & Co.'s Cigar Factory, 829 

Richardson's Match Factory, 830 

The Clough & Warren Organ Factory, 831 



xlvi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



607 Gray & Haffy's Furniture and Upliolstcr- 

ing Establishment, 

608 M. J. Murphy & Co.'s Spring Bed and 

Chair I'actory, 

609 The Sutton Pail Factory, 

610 A. Dondero's Willow-ware Factory, 

611 Pingree& Smith's Shoe Factory, 

612 Vail & Crane's Cracker and Hiscuit Fac- 

tory, 

613 Carriage Factory and Store of llugii 

Johnson, 

614 Fac-simile of one of Father Richards' 

Shinplasters, 

615 Fac-simile of Note of Detroit City Bank, 

616 Fac-simile of Note of Detroit Ikuik, 

617 Fac-simile of Note of Bank of Michigan, 

618 Fac-simile of Note of Farmers and Me- 

chanics' Bank, 

619 Fac-simile of Note of Michigan Insur- 

ance Bank, 

620 Detroit Savings Bank, 

621 Fac-simile of Note of The Peninsular 

Bank, 

622 Fac-simile of Note of The State Bank, 

623 First National Bank, 

624 People's Savings Bank, 

625 Wayne County Savings Bank, exterior 

view, 

626 Wayne County Savings Bank, interior 

view, 

627 View of the Vaults of the Safe Deposit 

Company, 



I'\(.B 






628 


832 


629 




630 


832 




833 


631 


833 




834 


632 




633 


835 


634 




63s 


835 






636 


847 


637 


85. 




857 


638 


860 


639 



861 640 



863 
864 


641 
642 


865 

866 


643 


867 
868 


644 


869 
869 


645 

646 
647 


870 


648 



Paos 

Michigan Savings Bank, 871 

State Savings Bank, 873 
Office of Detroit Fire and Marine Insur- 
ance Company, 873 
Office of Michigan Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company, 874 
The Post-Office, 883 
Railroad Ferry Dock, 890 
Detroit & Milwaukee Depot in 1865, 894 
Fac-simile of M. C. R. R. Ticket of 

1838, 896 

Original Michigan Central Freight Depot, 898 
Old Depot lUiiklings of Michigan Central 

Railroad on Third Street, 899 

New Michigan Central Depot, 900 
First Locomotive in the West and old 

Passenger-car, 902 
Double Railroad Bridge at Baker and 

Fifteenth Streets, 905 

Jefferson Avenue Railroad Bridge, 906 
Fac-simile of Collector's Entry on arrival 

of the Walk-in-the-Water, 909 
General Offices of the Detroit and Cleve- 
land Steam Navigation Company, 911 
Docks and Yard of the Detroit Dry 

Dock Company, 912 
Iron Ship-building Docks of Detroit Dry 

Dock Company at Wyandotte, 913 

The Ferry-boat Argo, 916 
Government Storehouse — Lighthouse 

Department, 920 

The Marine Hospital, 923 



PART I. 



LOCALITY. 



America hi. 

callfd old. D( 

tory is unique 

New Yorl<, New 

settled, and lor 

well, the Sieur 

our border, and 

The city was f( 

built St. I'etersl 

When Cadili 

and the South ! 

and there was i 

the United Stat( 

was like a bit 

World, and no 

one or two in tli 

common with ( 

records read lil< 

mediieval scent 

strangely intern 

Cradled in romii 

the school of c( 

her ])osition as 

stantial of all th( 

to the days of t 

old castle on the 

added to the ai 

tlements, so De 

past, graced anc 

present. Even 

most cities. At 

nated by no les< 

has had three dil 

In the old trac 

was known by th 

ti-a, A Great Vil 

phetic of its fut 

tun-ong. Circuit! 

location at the t 

called the site of 

sarondia, which 



CHAPTER I. 



DETROIT: ITS NAMES. LOCATION, AND SURROUNDINOS. 



NAMK.S. 

America hi..s but few cities tiiat can properly be 
cailfd old. Detmit is one of tliese, and its his- 
tory is unique and peculiarly interestinj^j. Before 
New York, New ( )rleans, Philadelphia, or Boston was 
settled, and lonjf before the time of Oliver Crom- 
well, the Sieur de Ciiamplain had nearly readied 
our Ijorder, and the Indians had described our site. 
The city was founded before Peter the Creat liad 
built St. Petersburg. 

When Cadillac came the East India Company 
and the South Sea Bubble had not been heard of, 
and there was not a newspa|K'r or a post-oHice in 
the United States. The first colony here established 
was like a bit of France in the wilds of the New 
World, and no city in the Eastern States, and but 
one or two in the South and West, have anything in 
common with our earlier life. Some of the old 
records read like a page of Froissart, and visions of 
medi;fval scenes and pictures of savage life are 
strangely intermingled in the records of our past. 
Cradled in romance, nurtured in war, and trained in 
the school of conservatism, the city new glories in 
her position as the most attractive and most sub- 
stantial of n\\ the cities whose traditions reach back 
to the days of the " Grand Monarch." Like some 
old castle on the Loire, with cresting, tile, and finial 
added to the ancient towers and moss-grown bat- 
tlements, so Detroit stands, a proud relic of the 
past, graced and crowned with all the gifts of the 
present. Even in its names, it is favored above 
most cities. At different times it has been desig- 
nated by no less than six distinct appellations, and 
has had three different corporate names. 

In the old traditions of the Algonquin Indians, it 
was known by the name of Yon-do-ti-ga, or Yon-do- 
ti-a, A Great Village; its first name was thus pro- 
phetic of its future. It was also called Wa-we-a- 
tun-ong. Circuitous Approach, on account of its 
location at the bend c the river. The Wyandotts 
called the site of Detroit Toghsaghrondie, or Tysch- 
sarondia, which name, variously spelled, will be 



hi 



found in the old Colonial Documents, published by 
the State of New York ; it has been modernized into 
Teuscha Grondie, and has reference to the course of 
the river. The Huron Indians called the place 
Ka-ron-ta-en, The Coast of the Strait. 

When first settled, the location received the name 
of Fort Pontchartrain, in honor of Count Pontchar- 
train, the then French Colonial Minister of Marine. 
As the number of inhabitants increased, and the 
settlement grew into a village, it received its present 
name from the word dctroit, or strait. Its popular 
cognomen, the City of the Straits, is thence derived. 

It is an interesting fact that the name of the 
oldest city in the Canadian Dominion and the first 
capital of that region, the place from which Cadillac 
and the first settlers came hither, is derived from the 
Algonquin word qitcbcis or (jiic/idtr, signifying a 
strait ; the cities of Detroit and Quebec thus bear 
names similar in origin and signification. 

The early French colonists applied the name 
Detroit to the settlements on both sides of the river, 
calling one North Detroit, the other South Detroit. 
It is also known that early French travelers desig- 
nated all of the waters between Lakes Erie and 
Huron as the di'troit. This generalization has led 
several modern authors into the error of locating 
events here that really occurred on the river St. 
Clair. 

The city's corporate names have been as follows : 
By Act of January i8, 1802, it was designated as 
the " Town of Detroit." By Act of October 24, 
181 5, it was called the " City of Detroit." On April 
4, 1827, it was enacted that the corporate name 
should be "The Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of 
the City of Detroit." On February 5, 1857, it was 
enacted that the name should be " City of Detroit." 

LOCATION. 

The city is located near the head of the river, on 
its northerly and westerly banks. The eastern 
boundary is about four miles from Lake St. Clair, 
and the western, nearly twenty miles from Lake 




LOCATION — SURROUNniNCS. 



Erie. The river separates the Hritish Province of 
Ontario, formerly Upper Canada, from tiie State of 
Michijjan, County of Wayne. The tity is bounded 
on the nortli hy tlie townsliips of ("iieenfield and 
Hamtrameiv, on tlie east by 1 lamlramci-:, and on tlie 
west by thf township of .Sprinjjfwells. Reolconinij 
from the ll;igstaff on the City Hall tower, Detroit 
lies in latitude 42° 19' 50.28" north; and longitude 
83° 2' 47.63' west of (Ireenwii-h, England, and 5' 
59' 45-83" west of Washington, I). C. Our time is 
therefore 23 minutes 59.06 seconds slower than that 
of Washington. Rome a id Constantinople are in 
nearly the same latitude, ai< 1 Havana and Calcutta 
are longitudinally in the sam range. Upon a globe 
the city appears as opposite lie northwest corner of 
the Chinese luiipire, and on \n air line, it is about 
one thousand miles northeast < f New Orleans, or the 
Gulf of Mexico, and seven In ndred miles west of 
New York and the Atlantic Coist. 

The older portions of the cit ', including all south 
of Adams Avenue, are built on a succession of 
ridges runnini; parallel with ti.e river, their general 
direction being from east to \ 'est. Counting from 
the river to Adams Avenue, there were at least four 
ridges. At the corner of Woodward and Jefferson 
Avenues the ground is twe ity-two feet iibove the 
river. From "\Voodwaixl A\ enue the ground slopes 
gradually away to the west until, at Second Street, 
the roachvay is on a leve' with the wharves. An- 
other ridge is shown .".t Fort Street. It crossed 
Woodward Avenue and extended beyond Farmer 
Street. The third ridge was just south of the ('.rand 
Circus; and the property of H. H. Leroy on the 
west side of Woodward Avenue shows that the 
street at that point has been graded down nearly 
four feet. At High Street, and again at Fremont 
Street, the rise of ground is quite noticeable. At 
the Holden Rojid the elevation is fully fifty-two feet 
above the river. 

" Beautiful for situation," the city wins the praises 
of all who look upon it. No one has more faithfully 
portrayed its appearance, and the feelings of a visi- 
tor, than Mrs. Jameson. She says ; 

The day h.is been most intolerably hot; even on the lake there 
was not a breath of air. But as the sun went down in his glory, 
the breeze freshened, and the spires and towers of the city of 
Detroit were seen against the western sky. 

The schooners at anchor, or dropping into the river, the little 
<auioes flitting across from side to side, the lofty buildings, the 
enormous steamers, the noisy port and busy streets, all bathed in 
the light of a sunset such as I had never seen, not even in Italy, 
almost turned me giddy with excitement. 

Since her visit in 1837, the city has both gained 
and lost in beauty. The old pear-trees no longer 
form a setting to the houses of white and red, and 
the tints of gray and brown have mostly disap- 
peared. Rarer architecture now looms amid the 



trees and richer coloring greets the eye, and those 
who come to see, linger to admire, 

.SURROUNDINO.S. 

A large portion of the adjoining townsliip of 
Hamtramck is built up near the river, and iron 
smelting, stove and hollow-ware manufacturing, and 
other kindred industries are extensively carried on 
there. Stores and shops line the main road, — an 
extension of Jefferson Avenue, and many elegant 
residences are located on the river-side. Belle Isle 
lies in front, and opportunities for boating are unsur- 
passed. The new City Water Works, with receiv- 
ing basins, substantial engine-houses, and other 
buildings, are in the extreme eastern corner. Here 
also are Linden Park, the Driving Park, and the 
(lerman Shooting (Irounds, and Milwaukee Railroad 
Junction. The villages of Leeville and Norris are 
also within the township limits. This latter suburb 
is about six miles from the city. It was laid o^t in 
August, 1873, by Colonel P. W. Norris, after whom 
it is named. He purchased the grounds in 1865. 
The vill.ige is located about thirty feet above the 
forks of Connor's Creek, on gently undulating 
ground; the soil is dry and .saiuly, but very fer- 
tile, Prairie Mound, once a faxorite haunt of the 
Indians, and one of their burial-])laces, is in full view 
of the village. 

An abundant supply of good well-water is easily 
reached. All the streets and avenues are seventy 
feet wide ; one is one hundred feet wide and extends 
to Woodward Avenue. A large Orphan Asylum, 
controlled ' ■• the Lutheran Church, is here located. 
Near the ,s the crossing and .station ""f the 

Bay C- and Trunk railroads. 

'^ , .ip of Springwells, on the southwest 

b of Detroit, contains a noted railroad junc- 

tio.., iginally called the (".rand Trunk Junction ; the 
post-office name is now Detroit Junction. Connec- 
tions are here made between the Michigan Central, 
(irand Trunk, Detroit, Lansing & Northern, Lake 
Shore «& Michigan Southern, Flint & Pere Marquette, 
and Detroit & Butler railroads. The car shops of 
the Michigan Central Railroad, consisting of four 
large and other smaller buildings, were located here 
in 1873, and many railroad employes have built 
homes near by. Here, also, are the extensive car 
manufacturing shops of the Michigan Car Company, 
— an establishment unrivalled by that of any other 
car-building company in the United States. The 
extensive dry docks and ship yard of John P. Clark, 
the Baugh steam forge establishment, the leather 
manufactory of the late Marshall Jewell, and the 
large tobacco manufactory of Daniel Scotten, several 
large nurseries and extensive brick-yards, the smelt- 
ing works of the Detroit & Lake Superior Copper 
Company, the village of Delray, the Detroit Glass 



SL'RROUNDINC.S. 



Works, Fort Wayiu-, St. Luke's Hospital, and Wood- 
mcre Ccmetfry are in this town. 

'I'hc shore hne of drosse I 'ointe township, which 
joins Ilanitramck on the north, is washed l)y the 
clear i)hie waters of Lake St. Clair, The township 
is celehrated for its cherries. It is the summer re.'^ort 
of a numlier of Detroit families, who have erected 
elegant residences and determined its future as the 



most desirable and attractive .stiburb that Detroit 
can ever |)ossess. A liifhtiiouse, on what is known 
as Windmill I'oint. marks the entrance of the river 
into the lake, and is the chief landmark of the 
vicinity. 

The township of (ireentleld adjoins the city on the 
north. Here is the immense seed farm of U. M. 
I'crry i5t Company, embracing three hundred acres. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE RIVER. ISLANDS, WHARVES AND DOCKS, STREAMS AND MILLS. 



THE RIVER. 

London has its Thames, Paris, the Seine, Rome, 
the Tiber, and new York, the Hudson; but in 
everything the Detroit excels them all. It is no 
wonder that the first visitors came by water wiicn 
such a stream flowed by them and beckoned them 
along. All the early travelers bore testimony to the 
beauty of the river and the volume of its waters, 
which the population of a score of the largest cities 
cannot diminish or defile. Then as now islands, 
like emeralds, were strung along its way, and myriads 
of wild fowl then fed upon its shores; its waters 
did not "dash high on a stern and rock-bountl 
coa.st," but were so still and calm and clear that 
the smoke of wigwams, nestled on their banks, was 
mirrored on their smooth surface. Scores of canoes 
were hauled up on the ri\ er-side, while others flashctl 
along the current or plied to either shore. Later 
on, windmills stretched their broad ar.ns to the 
breeze, and, with fish-nets hung on reels, formed the 
landmarks of their day. 

The Detroit River is undoubtedly one of the most 
remarkable in the world. It forms a natural boun- 
dary between the United States and Upper Canada, 
separating liie Slate of Michigan from the Province 
of Ontario ; the boundary line opposite Detroit is 
about midway of the i^tream, and for most of the 
distance neares. the Canadian shore. The United 
States thus has jurisdiction over the larger portion. 
It was declared to be a public highway by Act of 
Congress December 31, 1819. From Windmill 
Point Liglu, at the foot of Lake St. Clair, to Bar 
Point, where the river empties into Lake Erie, the 
distance is 27 miles, 151 5 yards. The distances 
between other established points are as follows : 
From Windmill Point Light to foot of Isle La Peche, 
1534 yards; from Isle La Pec he to foot of Belle Isle, 
3 miles, 254 yards; from Belle Isle to Woodward 
Avenue, 2 miles, 347 yards; from Woodward Avenue 
to head of Fighting Island, 7 miles, 780 yards ; from 
Fighting Island to Bois Blanc Lighthouse, 1 1 miles, 
640 yards; from Bois Blanc Lighthouse to Bar 
Point, 2 miles, 1480 yards. 

The greatest width of the river is three miles ; in 
its narrowest point, opposite the city, it is a little 
over half a mile wide. Its average width is one 



[6] 



mile. The depth varies from ten to sixty feet, with 
an average of thirty-four feet. The river bottom, 
for the most part, is sa 'y or stony. It is navigable 
for vessels of the laij^est class, is almost entirely 
free from obstructions of any sort, and offers one of 
the largest and safest harbors in the world. Lon- 
don is the largest port, but more tonnage passes 
Detroit than e\-er enters the Thames. 

The waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, 
and St. Clair, of Green, Saginaw, and Georgian 
Bays, also of thousands of streams that enter them. 
How into the Detroit. It is, in fact, the natural 
drain or channel for the pas.sage of waters from 
eighty-two thousand square miles of lake surface, 
and one hundred and twenty-five thousand square 
miles of land, thus rivalling the Ohio, which is more 
than forty times as long. 

The current is rapid and generally uniform ; the 
maximum velocity is 2.44 miles per hour, the mean 
velocity, 1.79 miles. It is estimated that two hun- 
dred and twelve thtnisand cubic feet of water pass 
the city each second of time. 

More fresh water is discharged through this river 
than through any other in the world except the Ni- 
agara and the St. Lawrence. The incline amounts 
to one and one half inches per mile, or three feet for 
its entire length. The elevation above sea-level, at 
a point opposite the Marine Hospital, is five hundred 
and seventy-seven feet. The river is not generally 
frozen over until the latter part of December or 
January ; but in extreme cold weather the ice is from 
twelve to twenty inches thick. 

Previous to 1854, persons and teams frequently 
crossed over on the ice ; and on February 10, 1855, 
the river was so completely frozen that a little shanty 
was erected in the middle, in which liquors were 
sold. 

The breaking of the ice by the daily trips of the 
Railroad Ferry Boats, since 1854, has precluded any 
further crossing on foot in front of the city. Such 
is the rapidity of the current that the river is soon 
cleared of tloatitig ice. The gathering of ice is an 
extensive business, and from 50,000 to 100,000 tons 
are annually stored for summer use. The water sup- 
plied to citizens amounts to 6,000,000,000 gallons 
yearly. 



THE RIVER — ISLANDS. 



Si 



The river is usually tranquil and never danijer- 
ously rough. The water is of a bluisli tinij^e, and in 
transparency and purity is unrivalled. 

Like other bodies of water, the river rises and 
falls, but unlike rther large rivers, the variations are 
never so sudden or extreme as to cause any incon- 
venience, and build ngs are erected at the v.'ater's 
edge without fear of damage. 

In the year 1800, again in 1814-1815, and also in 
1 827-1 828, a'.u in 1838, the river rose from three to 
si.\ feet above its usual level, remaining so for two 
or three years, rnd then subsiding quite rapidly. 

The mean annual rise is about sixteen inches dur- 
ing July or August. The low-water period is in 
February or March. The highest recorded level 
was on June 2, 1838, when the water was only two 
and eight tenths feet below the water table of the 
Water Works Engine House. One of the lowest 
levels recorded was in the winter of 1819, when the 
water was eight and five tenths feet lower than 
usual. 

A succession of wet seasons, or winters of heavy 
snows, causes it to rise, and the reverse occurs in 
dry seasons. The most marked effect is produced 
by winds ; the river is perceptibly lowered when a 
southwest wind strikes it, and the water is driven 
into Lake St. Clair and blov- n down into Lake ICrie. 
In March, 1873, a strong wind of this kind lowered 
the river some five feet below its mean level. A 
northeast wind will reverse the above conditions 
and cause it to rise proportionately. 

The temperature of the water varies from 33° 
Fahrenheit for the winter months to jy for the sum- 
mer season. The variation between the surface and 
the bottom is about 3". 

The breadth, general safety, and smoothness of 
the river make it specially inviting for boating and 
yachting, and in later years many persons have 
availed themselves of the facilities afforded. Sev- 
eral noteworthy reg.ctas have been held here, and 
boatmen all concede thiit no finer location can be 
found for a trial of skill. During the suni' ;r sea- 
son, excursions up and down the river, and to differ- 
ent islands, are of almost hourly occurrence. 

ISLANDS. 
The islands vary in size from one to several thou- 
sand acres. Two of them are located above, and 
twenty below the city. Beginning at the head of 
the river, the first is Isle La Peche, or Isle of the 
Fishes, also called, in 1810, Peach Island. It is 
situated on the Canadian side of the river, and was, 
during the summer months, the home of Pontiiic. 
Belle Isle, the City Park, is described in the article 
on Parks. Beginning nt a point six r-.les below the 
city are the islands known as Fighting, Mud, drassy, 
Grass, Mama-Juda, Crosse, Turkey, Stoney, Slo- 



cum's. Humbug, Fox, Elba, Calf Snake, Hickory, 
Sugar, Bois Blanc, Horse, Cherry, and Tawa, or 
Celeron. Fighting Island, also called in 1796, (Ireat 
'I urkey Island, was originally occupied by the Wyan- 
dotts, and in 1858 it was sold by the Canadian Gov- 
ernment for their benefit. In 18 10 Indian intrench- 
ments were plainly visible on the northeast end of 
the island, and from these warlike appearances the 
island took its name. 
An old French memoir of the date of 171 7 says: 

Two leajfUfS from Kort Detroit is .in island called Isle aux Din- 
des. It is so called because 'I'urkeys are always to be found there. 
It contains only very little timber, only prairie. Four or five years 
ago, a man named Le Tonnerre, principal Chief of the Foxes, and 
two of the same tribe, were killed there by the Hurons, settled at 
Detroit The two Foxes who were with I,e Tonnerre were de- 
voured by wild beasts, crows, or other vermin; but the body of Le 
Tonnerre was still uninjured .1 year afterw.-ird, not an animal hav- 
in.vi tcuched him. 

Grosse, or Great Island, is the largest in the 
river. The French memoir just quoted says : 

It is very nne and fertile and extensive, being, as is estimated, 
horn six to seven leagues in circumference. There is an extraor- 
dinary quantity of apple trees on this island, and those who have 
seen the apples on the ground sa)' that they are more than half a 
foot deep; the apple trees are planted as if methodically, and the 
apples are as large as small pijipins. Abundance of excellent mill- 
stones are found on this island; all .iround it are very fine prairies. 
It was a long time doubtful whether Detroit should not be founded 
there. The cause of the hesitation was the apprehension that the 
timber might some day fail. 

At one time, the locating of Fort Wayne on this 
island was seriously considered, and on some 
accounts it would have been an extremely favorable 
situation. The banks rise abruptly from the water 
in many places to fully twenty feet in height. In 
1776 Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton gave William 
Macomb leave to occupy the island, and on July 5, 
1793, Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe gave his family 
permission to continue. 

Several citizens of Detroit have elegant residences 
here, and there are many fine farms and homes. 
The Canada Southern Railroad extends to the 
island, connecting by ferry with the Canada shore. 

Mama-Juda Island contains twenty-nine acres, 
and is named from an old squaw, who, prior to 1807, 
used to camp there year after year, during the fish- 
ing season. She finally died on the island. 

Slocum's Island, of about two hundred acres, is 
owned by G. B. Slocum. 

Humbug Island, of some forty acres, just below, 
is also owned by Mr. Slocum. It is not inappro- 
priately named, for it is rather a part of the main 
land than an island. 

Elba Island, in 181 7, was thickly covered with 
trees. 

Bois Blanc, or Whitewood Island, on the Cana- 
dian side of the river, Wcis occupied by the Huron 



8 



ISLANDS — WHARVES AND DOCKS — STREAMS AND MILLS. 



Indians in 1742, .ind contained a villaije rci(v;lariy 
laid out and inliabited by st-vral hundred people. 
Father Pothier was in charjje of a mission anionnj 
them, but in 1747 they became estranijed from tlie 
French and he returned to Detroit. Tlie followinjr 
year the difficulties were settled, and a Huron Mis- 
sion was established at Sandwich under charj^e of 
Fathers Pothier and De la Richardie. 

In 1796, when the British yielded up Detroit, they 
erected a blockhouse on this island, but as the 
United States protested that it did not belonjf to 
them, they for the time yielded the point, and soon 
after erected a fort at Maiden. 

In 181 3, during; the tlj^ht which preceded Perry's 
victory, Tecumseh and his Indians were here 
encamped. When the patriots were in possession 
in 1838, they denuded it of the trees in order to get 
better range for their cannon. 

Celeron Island, of seventy acres, is so named 
after Sieur dc Celeron, once Commandant of Detroit. 

WHARVES AND DOCKS. 

By the building of wharves and docks, and the 
extension of the shore by " made land "the river is 
continually encroached upon. At the foot of Wood- 
ward Avenue, it once came up sevi'iity-seven feet 
north of the north line of Atwater .Street; and 
between Woodward Avenue and Wayne Street it 
covered half the space o'-cupied by the blocks 
between Atwater and Woodbridge Streets. At 
Cass Street it covered a part of wiiat is now Jeffer- 
son Avenue. On T. Smith's map of the town as it 
was in 1796 are shown two wharves tailed respect- 
ively Merchants' and Public or King's Wharf. 

One of the earliest "-ecords concerning the wharves 
recounts the voting of a ta.x, on "July 26, 1804, of 
twenty-eight pounds eight shillings New York cur- 
rency for repairing wharf." The wiiarf repaired was 
probably that formerly known as King's Wharf, still 
in use in 1823. 

In 1819 permission was granted to II. Berthelet to 
build a wharf at the ffiot of Randolph Street. 
Wharves were also built, about this time, by Mr. 
Hudson and Mr. Roby. As the city grew, an increas- 
ing amount of rubbish and refuse was deposited on 
the low grounds at the river's edge. This created 
an almost con.stant nuisance, and from time to time 
efforts were made to correct the evil. On July 3, 
1820, a ta.\ of five hundred days' labor was voted to 
be spent "on the border of the river." In 1826 the 
permanent improvement of the river front was begun 
by the depositing, along the margin, of earth from 
the embankment of Fort Shelby. During the 
following years up to 1834, the work was continued 
at an expense of over $10,000. 

One of the improvements of 1827 was known as 
the Steam Mill Wharf. The City Council voted to 



give the perpetual use of sixty feet in width on 
Woodward A\enue, fnjm Atwater Street to the 
channel of the river, to a Steam Mill Company, for 
the erection of a mill, provided it was built within 
two yeiirs; the City also expended $3,000 in tilling in 
and building a dock for the site of the mill, which 
was never erected. Since that time the work has 
gone on until good and substantial docks, nearly live 
miles in length, now line the river along the city 
front. 

STREAMS AND MILLS. 

Within the present city limits threa different 
streams once tlowed on their winding way, buoying 
up the light canoe, or turning the mills of the French 
settlers. 

The courses of these streams, in their relation to 
present street lines, in so far as old deeds, maps and 
observations furnish data for judgment, are indicated 
on the accompanving inap. 

The Savoyard Creek, b - nch of the Huron, or 
Xavier River, as it is variously called, had its rise in 
a willow swamp on the (luoin I-'arm, near where 
Riopelle Street now crosses Congress. In 1821 the 
south bank of the stream was one hundred and 
ninety-one feet north of the south side of Lamed 
Street; meandering westward, it reached Woodward 
Avenue at Congress Street, and here a wide bridge 
spanned the stream. At other places, single jilanks 
enabled pedestrians to cross. In 1822 L. E. Dolson, 
then a boy of nine years, was jumping on one of 
these foot bridges on Congress Street, just east of 
Griswold, when the plank broke, letting him fall into 
the water, which was about eight feet deep. 1 be- 
coming entangled in the reeds and rushes ^ lich 
were plentiful at the bottom, he barely escaped 
drowning. 

The stream, in early times, was much used in go- 
ing to and from the river ; and boy-anglers found 
successful fishing at the corner of Woodward Ave- 
nue and Congress Street. Its outlet was at a point 
on the Jones Farm close to the Cass line, about 
where Fourth Street intersects Woodbridge Street. 
Prior to May, 1826, there was a jog in Woodbridge 
Street at this point, and an okl bridge which crossed 
the creek, not being in line with the street, was re- 
moved by order of the Common Council, and a new 
one of stone was built in proper line. A channel, 
walled with wood, was also constructed from the 
bridge to the river. On December 4, 1826, a certi- 
ficate was issued to De (iarmo Jones for §422.31 for 
constructing said bridge and channel. 

In course of time, and increasingly as the years 
went on, the people li\ing near the border of this 
stream used it as a drain, and after Fort Shelby was 
demolished, the bottom and sides, for some dis- 
tance, were planked with lumber from that fortifica- 



tion. It til 
and, as sudl 
so offensivel 
was com|i(l 
a deep and I 
A "grand si 







mm 




sion. The c 
yard from tin 
its banks can 
The strean 
after Judge 
Creek, from 
here in 1780 
pan's River. 



STREAMS AND MILLS. 



lidii. It tluii I)tH:ain(; prnctically an open sewer; ereeted tlie first .^list-mill on tlie stream, just north 

and, as sueli, lost all its primeval charms, and grew of what is now ]'"ort Street, and near tlie railroad 

so offensive and malodorous that in 1836 the city crossinjr. The stream supi^lied water sullieient to 

■was eomiielled, at a great expense, to convert it into run the mill six or eight months of the year, 
a deep and covered .sewer by enclosing it in stone. Parent's Creek, or IMoody Run, is the real historic 

A "grand sewer" it became, and still fulfils its mis- stream. It was first named, presumably, after 




Mai- SH0W1.no KoLTli Ol" FuK.MliK biKEAMS, A.NU UlO KlViiU Ll.NH, 



sion. The creek is said to have been named Savo- 
yard from the fact that one of the earliest settlers on 
its banks came from Savoy. 

The stream more recently known as May's Creek, 
after Judge May, was formerly called Cabacier's 
Creek, from Joseph Cabacie, or Cabaeier, who lived 
here in 1780. It was designated in 1747 as Cam- 
pau's River. It is claimed that Jacijues Peltier 



Joseph Parent, a gunsmith, whose name appears in 
St. Ann's records on May 21, 1707. Only a few 
yeru's ago the entire course of the stream could be 
traced; now nearly half its length is lilled in, and 
its channel will soon be entirely obliterated. 

The name was changed to liloody Run after the 
defeat and slaughter of Captaii\ Dalyell and his 
company by the Indians, on July 31, 1763. 



10 



STREAMS AND MILLS. 



On John Farmer's map of Michiiran for i<S30, a 
mill is marked on tiiis stream, just south of what is 
now Jefferson Avenue. There was also, at one 
time, a mill where the stream crossed tiie flratiot 
Road. 

Knagjj's Creek was just outside the present western 



limits of the city, and the course of the stream 
can still be traced. Near its terminus, on the Hela 
Hubbard Farm in Springwells, was located the 
old Knagsr's Windmill, built in 1810. It was in 
use till about 1840, and was torn down in 1853 or 
1854. 




WlNU.MU.l. I'OINI (ON 15KLA Hl.iJllAKl) I'AKM) ANll llIK Rl\KK IN l8j8. 



Almost 
available foil 
jj^ood crops v| 

In boring 
in 1829, tht 
reached : all J 
clay, with \\ 
fifteen feet; 
limestone, si: 
A small str; 
reached, and 

Three mile; 
of where the 
is a broad be! 
with drainage 

The natun 
Cadillac in a c 
one of the Fn 

The business of 
have not the aliilii 
better pen than ni 
account of it, I w 
but a channel or li 
length, according 
escapes slowly an 
and crystal waters 
are so many seas < 
Fronlinac, and wl 
Lawrence, mingle 

Its borders are 
beautiful waters Is 
bordered by lon>t 
felt the careful hai 
younji and tild, so 
and quantity of t 
produced them. 
vine, which has r 
builds a thick rool 
ing down the top 
with its embrace. 

Under these br 
timid deer and fai 
collect the apple; 
Here the cautious 
to gather the gra| 
large and glutton( 
tridge, woodcock, 
cover the country 
high forests of fi 
which sweetens tl 
of the pitiless re; 
which fatten wo 
tion. 



CHAPTER III. 



SOIL AND PRODUCTS, GAME, GRAIN, AND FRUITS. 



Almost all of the land in the city and vicinity is 
available for jrardeninjj; and farming, producing 
good crops with but little fertilizing. 

In boring for a well on P'ort Street, near Shelby, 
in 1829, the following strata were successively 
reached : alluvial earth, ten feet ; yellow and blue 
clay, with veins of quicksand, one hundred and 
fifteen feet ; sand and pebbles, two feet ; geodiferous 
limestone, sixt) leet; lias limestone, sixty-five feet. 
A small stratum of carbonate of lime was then 
reached, and then more lias limestone. 

Three miles from the river, and a few rods south 
of where the railroad crosses Woodward Avenue, 
is a broad belt of land, of a lower level, which proves, 
with drainage, both rich and fertile. 

The natural products were well set forth by 
Cadillac in a description written October 8, 1701, to 
one of the French officials. He said : 

The business of war being so different from lliat of writinj;, I 
have not the ability to make a portrait of a country so worthy of a 
better pen than mine; but since you have directed me to render an 
account of it, I will do so, pninisinj; that the Detroit is actually 
but a channel or river of medium breadth and twenty-five leagues in 
length, according to my estimate, * * * through which flows imd 
escapes slowly and with snfliciently moderate current, the living 
and crystal waters of Lakes Superior, M ichigan, and Huron (which 
are so many seas of sweet water) into Lake Krie, 1-ake Ontario, or 
FroiUeuac, and which liiudly, together with the waters of the St. 
Lawrence, mingle with those of the ocean. 

Its borders are so many vast prairies, and the freshness of the 
beautiful waters keeps the banks always green. The prairies are 
bordered by long and broad rows of fruit trees which have never 
felt the careful hand of the vigilant gardener. Here, also, orchards, 
young and old, soften and bend their branches, under the weight 
and quantity of their fruit, towards the mother earth which has 
produced them. It is in this land, so fertile, that the ambitious 
vine, which has never wept under the knife of the vine-dresser, 
builds a thick roof with its large leaves and heavy clusters, weigh- 
ing down the top of the tree which receives it, and often stifling it 
with its embrace. 

Under these broad walks one sees assembled by hundreds the 
timid deer and faun, also the squirrel bounding in his eagerness to 
collect the apples and plums with which the earth is covered. 
Here the cautious turkey calls and conducts her numerous brood 
to gather tlie grapes, and here also their mates come to All their 
large and gluttonous crops. Oolden pheasjtnts, the quail, the par- 
tridge, woodcock, and numerous doves swann in the woods and 
cover the country, which is dotted and broken with thickets and 
high forests of full-grown trees, forming a charming perspective, 
which sweetens the sad lonesomeness of the solitude. The hand 
of the pitiless reaper has never mown the lu.\uriant grass upon 
which fatten woolly buffaloes, of magnificent size and propor- 
tion. 



There are ten species of forest trees, among them we the walnut, 
white o«k, red oak, the ash, the pine, white-wooc and cotton- 
wood; straight as arrows, without knots, and almost without 
branches, except at the very top, and of prodigious size. Here 
the courageous eagle looks fi.xedly at the sun, with suflicient at 
his feet to satisfy his boldly armed claws. The fish are here 
nourished and bathed by living water of crystal clearness, and their 
great .'ibuudance renders them none the less delicious. Swans are 
so numerous that one would take for lilies the reeds in which they 
are crowded together. The gabbling goose, the duck, the widgeon, 
and the bustard are soi''' lant that to give an idea of their num- 
bers I must use the ex;> > ion of a savage whom I asked before 
arriving if there was much game. " So much," he said, " that they 
draw ".'* "n lines to let the boats pass through.'* ♦ * ♦ In a 
word, .1' climate is temperate, and the air purified through the 
day and night by a gentle breeze. The skies are always .serene 
and spread sweet and fresh influences which makes one enjoy a 
trancpiil sleep. 

If the situation is agreeble, it is none the less important because 
it opens and closes the door of pass;ige to the most distant nations 
which are situated upon the borders of the vast seas of sweet 
water. None but the enemies of truth could lie enemies to this 
establishment so necessary to the increase of the .i;lory of the king, 
to the progress of religion, and the destruction of the throne of 
liaal. 

In addition to the animals named, other early ac- 
counts tell of elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, 
otters, lynxes, wildcats, beavers, and musk-rats; and 
say they were very numerous in the vicinity of De- 
troit. So numerous and large, indeed, were the 
wild bisons, that the making of garments from their 
wool was seriously considered. 

Between 1820 and 1830 the howling of the wolves 
was frequently heard in the edge of the town. 
Bounties of three and four dollars were paid by the 
county for killing them; and no small share of the 
taxes was devoted to paying for wolf scalps. 

In 1824, and also in other years, myriads of wild 
pigeons made their roosts in the forests of the 
county. They were so numerous that hundreds 
could easily be killed with a walking stick. 

As late as the fall of 1834 deer were abundant 
within a morning's walk, and black bears would oc- 
casionally perambulate the streets. Wild turkeys 
and quails were numerous up to about 1850, and 
frccjuenlly stray ones came into the city, and innu- 
merable flocks of ducks and geese, in their annual 
migrations, swept over the town, often flying so low 
that their notes could easily be heard. 

The surrounding woods and meadows have always 
been enlivened with the songs of meadow-larks, 



["] 



Id 



fiOlI. AND PRODUCTS, GAME. GRAIN AND FRUITS. 



r()l)ins, brown thriislies, aiul l)()l)(>]iiiks; and year hy 
year briiLilit-pliiniaged Ininiming birds flit about the 
trumpet-vines. 

It was not alone tlie y;ayly-featiiere(l birds that 
made tiic plaee a pleasant one. In the forests were 
wild honeysuckles, and the e)j;lantine, or Michij^an 
rose. Snow-berries and lleurs-de-lis were scattered 
here and there, and the perfume of locust blossoms 
often filled the air, while river and streams were 
bordered with the white and blue of the pond-lily 
and the sweet flai^. Strawberries, whortleberries, 
cranberries, and raspberries were indii^enous, and 
melons, beans, and othei' vegetables were cultivated 
by the Indians before the whites appeared. In addi- 
tion to those named by Cadillac, the forest included 
trees of beech, birch, hickory, niajile, elm, butter- 
nut, cedar, basswood, and coniferous trees of various 
kinds. 

In the way of sweets, the wild bees stored up 
honey in the trees. The maples also contributed 
their store of .sweetness. In 1819 one hundred and 
fifty thousand pounds of maple siij^ar were produced 
in Michigan, and in September, 1825, one merchant 
advertised forty thousand pounds for sale. Charle- 
voix says the Indians did not know how to make 
sugar out of the maple sap until the French mission- 
aries came. Prior to that time, they made only 
syrup. They soon became experts, and a "sugar 
bush," to them, was better than a farm. 

Maple sugar was used almost e.xclusively until 
recent years. Loaf sugar was the only other kind 
kept for sale, and was used only on state occasions. 
The maple sugar was brought in by the Indians in 
mococks, which held all the way from four ounces 
to fifty pounds. One of the smaller mococks was 
a toothsome prize for children in days gone by, 
and wail appreciated far more highly than the 
French bon-bons of to-day. The method of making 
this sugar, together with several points regarding life 
in those days, is set forth in the following lines, writ- 
ten by Colonel De Peyster while at Mackinaw 

THE MAPLE SUGAR MAKERS. 
'l\sK—7'/te Jolly Beggars. 
I'll slinij my p.ipoos' cradle,' said KitcliL-nL-yoe's Meg, 
With kettle, bowl, and ladle, and scoutawaba^ ke«. 

CiioKUs — A sug'rin>{ 1 will go, will go, will go, will go, 
A sug'ring I will go. 

Nasib and Charlotte I'arlie, of whom the lads are fond. 
Shall drag^ their father early out to the twelve-mile pond. 
Chokls— A sug'ring I will go, etc. 

Come Nebenaquoidoquoi, and join the jovial crew, 
Sheeshib and Matchinoquoi shall tap a tree with you. 
CHOKLii— A sug'ring I will go, etc. 

• The Indian child, swaddled upon a flat board, and carried upon 
the squaw's back by a band across the forehead, by which it is at 
night often hung on a tree. 

3 Rum, which they take with them to make sweet grog of the 
liquor when half boiled, to entertain their friends who may walk 
out to see them. 

* On a bftrk sleigh, he being lame. 



P.right Kesis, deign to aid us, and make the s;ip to rui\, 
I'.ninga,* who arrayed us, at least should have a tun. 
CiioKi s — A sug'ring 1 will go, etc. 

In kettles we will boil it, on fires between the rocks, 
And lest the snow should spoil it, there tramp it in mococks.' 
CiioKis — A sug'ring 1 will go, etc. 

Of all our occupations, sweet sug'ring is the best. 
Then girls and their relations can give their lovers rest. 
CnolJl'S — A sug'ring 1 will go, etc. 

Rut when the season's over, it will not be amiss, 
That 1 should give my lover a sissobacpiet kiss.* 
CiioKis— A sug'ring I will go, etc. 

As to cereals, old records show a good harvest in 
1703, and abundant supplies for a garrison of one 
hundred and fifty men. Up to about 1706 almost 
the only gniin grown was Indian corn. Cadillac 
then procured eight tons of French wheat and other 
grain from Quebec. After this there was a good 
supply of wheat, which, then as now, was sown in 
both spring and fall. 

The Ilurons and Ottawas were excellent farmers 
and raised large quantities of corn. In 17 14 twenty- 
four hundred bushels \\-cre sent from Detroit. Agri- 
culture was, however, greatly neglected, and the con- 
ditions on which grants of land were made tended 
to discourage any intelligent efforts at farming. 

In 1747, owing chiefly to the number of Indians 
who gathered here and consumed the supplies, pro- 
visions were very scarce, and M. de Longueuil was 
compelled to apply to Montreal for help. On Sep- 
tember 23 a convoy of provisions arrived under com- 
mand of M. de Celeron, escorted by one hundred 
and fifty men, including merchants and servants. 
Their coming saved the settlers from starvation. 

M. Bougainville, in his memoirs on Detroit, under 
date of 1757, says: 

There are two hundred habitations abundantly provided with 
cattle, grains, and flour. The farmers can raise as many cattle as 
they want, as there is abundant pasture. * * ♦ They gather, 
in ordinary years, two thousand five hundred measures of wheat 
and much oats and corn. They formerly sowed some fall wheat, 
but very often that seed produced only rye. A farmer of that 
place assured me that he sowed two measures of very good wheat, 
but the product was only rye. They sow during the months of 
February and March, and gather in the month of July; the pro- 
duct in wheat is usually twenty mciisures for one. * ♦ It would 
be well for the authorities to encourage the inhabitants of Detroit 
in the cultivation of their land and afford them facilities for selling 
their produce. It would be a great advantage to procure from 
them all the provisions needed in the garrisons of the forts Presque 
Isle, Marchand, Rivi^re-de-Hceuf, and Duquesne. 

These provisions would cost less than those sent from Montreal, 
as the expenses of transportation from there are excessively high; 
and there is such great dilViculty in getting the provisions that the 
garrisons are often in danger of being in need. 



* The commandant's lady, who at this time of the year generally 
gives the neighboring squaws each a chintz shift, and some ver- 
milion, and other articles. 

' lioxes made of birch-bark, sewed with the fibre of the spruce- 
tree root (called watap), holding from thirty to fifty pounds each. 

'A sweet kiss. The Indian maidens are remarkable for white 
teeth and sweet breaths. 



NotwithstJ 
was raised iii 
her 9, 1763.1 
about one tl 
In 1768 then] 
half acres of 
hundred and I 
duced; but \\\ 
became imml 

The Annul 
tains a lettei| 
which says : 

Letters from 1 1 
that several boati 
Lake Erie, in whi 
great that they hil 
they h.td found il 
kill the ravens ai| 
subsistence. 

Many other bo 
Detroit, and seve 
lost. 

Ten years 
trouble for wa 
March 10. 178c 
Bolton at Nia^ 
habitants here 
ounce of flour 
Many will be a 
the fall wheat, 
having had a cji 
he said, " I am 
ant Bunbury i\ 
drowned by the 
flying in clouds 
they had been ( 
of sport, have i 

This acciden 

On March i: 
ernor Sinclair, ; 
greatest trancji 
inhabitants beii 
assistance of th 
The same ye; 
eighty-three ac 
cultivation. 

From a very 
cherry trees wc 
of Detroit. ( 
noted varieties 
Apple is partici 
called Pomme 
was noted for 
and freely used 
of fish and cidt 
lars. Immense 
in height, with 
with large, thit 



SOIL AND PRODUCTS. GAME. GRAIN. AND FRUITS. 



13 



Notwitlistaiuliiijif v.'irioiis disooura.i^cnicnts. wlieat 
was raised in considerable quantities. On Septem- 
ber 9. 1763, tiie barn of Mr. Reaiime, containinjf 
about one thousand bushels of wheat, was liurned. 
In 1768 there were five hundred aiul fourteen and a 
half .icres of land under cultivation, and ninety-seven 
hundred and eiiflity-nine French bushels of corn pro- 
duced; but in 1770 food was so scarce that a famine 
became imminent. 

The Annual Register, an Enijlish jieriodical. con- 
tains a letter from Paris, dated March 19. 1770, 
which says : 

I.ettfrs from Di-troit by Monday's New York mail inform us 
tliat several boats with jjoocls have been seventy clays erossinyj 
Lake Krie, in which time the distress of the people has been so 
great that they have been obliged to keep two hnman bodies, that 
they had fo\ind iinburied upon the shore, in order to eollec t and 
kill the ravens and eagles, that came to feed on them, for their 
subsistence. 

Many other boats have been frozen up within forty miles of 
Detroit, and several traders' small boats with goods have been 
lost. 

Ten years later the inhabitants were apain in 
trouble for want of certain kinds of provisions. On 
March 10, 1780, Colonel De Peyster wrote to Colonel 
Bolton at Niagara, sayinvj ; " The distress of the in- 
habitants here is very j;reat for want of bread, not an 
ounce of Hour or a tfrain of corn to be purchased. 
M.iny will be at a loss for ijrain to put in the ground; 
the fall wheat, however, has a good appearance from 
having had a cjuantity of snow." In the same letter 
he said, " I am sorry to inform you, sir, that Lieuten- 
ant Bunbury and Mr. Godfrey, the conductor, are 
drownetl by the overturning of a canoe. The ducks 
flying in clouds jiast the fort, the gentlemen, forgetting 
they had been desired not to go in canoes, too eager 
of sport, have lost their lives." 

This accident occurred the day before he wrote. 

On March 12. 1780. he wrote to Lieutenant-(iOV- 
ernor Sinclair, saying: "Everything here is in the 
greatest tranciuility except the cry for bread, the 
inhabitants being so much in want that without the 
assistance of the King's stores, many must starve." 
The same year, however, twelve thousand and 
eighty-three acres of land were reported as under 
cultivation. 

From a very early period the pear, apple, and 
cherry trees were prominent features in the scenery 
of Detroit. Our orchards have produceil many 
noted varieties of fruit, among which the .Snow- 
Apple is particularly famous. In 1796 a large apple 
called Pomme Caille, deep red from skin to core, 
was noted for its flavor. Cider was largely made 
and freely used a century ago. In 1818 our exports 
of tish and cider were valued at si.xty thousand dol- 
lars. Immense pear trees, a hundred feet and more 
in height, with trunks from one to three feet thick, 
with large, thick limbs and heavy foliage, were at 



once the pride and pest of their owners; for then, 
as now, boys and pears afliliated. Almost every 
farmer had from one to half a dozen of these 
trees, which produced from thirty to fifty bushels 
each. 

The seeds or young trees from which they were 
grown were probably brought from France. None 
of the early travelers mention their e.xistence, and 
.'lithe )ugh they were once numerous they have largely 
dis;i]ipeared. 

In the absence of further facts concerning these 
grand old trees, their memory deserves to be honored 
l)y the insertion of two poems that they inspired. 
The first, giving them legendary origin, w.ts written 
several years ago by L. J. Bates; twenty-three out 
of the thirty-three verses are given : 

THE MISSION PEARS. 

In his deerskin covered chair 
Overlooking blue St. Clair, 

Ripiiling to its marshy edges, 
Sat the Jesuit father, thinking. 
And the sumuier odors drinking 

I'rom the wind-blown, wa\y sedges 
Wide the mission lodge before, 
"I'wixt the forest aud the shore. 
* * * * * 

Twice and thrice, with zeal unspent, 
Urgent missives had he sent 

To the Jesuit colleges 
In far France, o'er land and ocean, 
liegging help of their devotion 

To convert the sa\'ages. 
That the Church might foimd and keep 
Reahn and empire broad and deep. 
***** 

" Send me one of burning zeal, — 
Someone who can speak and feel. 

That these heathen stocks shall hear him; 
St)meoni' with an holy miction, 
ICIoquent in evtu'y function. 

Hold, that savage heiirts may fear him; 
Someone patient, quick to teach; 
Someone wise, and strong to preach. 
***** 

Nigii two hundred years ago, 
Sat the father, thinking so, 

In the Jesuit mission garden, 
Looking o'er the St. tHair marshes 
Spreading to the forest arches, 

While, each side, an Indian warden, 
Crim and silent in his place. 
Stood and watched his master's face. 

Stirred the leaves upon the trail 
From the forest, and a pale 

Face, impressed with wasting sorrow, 
Toward them came, young, sad, exalted; 
I!y the father's chair it halted, 

And a siid voice siiid, " (iood morrowl " 
While the stranger bent his knee. 
" I.o, a missive sent to thee." 
***** 

Long his countenance he bent 
O'er the missive, strangtdy sent 

From the far-off Jesuit college: 
" Him we send, though young, is fervent. 



14 



SOIL AND I'RODUCTS, GAME, C.RAIN AND FRUITS. 



Faithful, resolute, observant, 

Valiant, earnest, full of knowledge, 
Kloquont and wise of speech; 
Patient, ti^nder, quick to teach." 

And the wise Superior wrote, 
In a separate sealed note 

Most discreet, a private letter, 
Telliiij; of a lady, fairest 
Of I lie belles of France, and rarest, 

liound in haled marriage fetter, 
Fondly by this youth adored, 
Murdered by her jealous lord. 
»**•»■ 

" Work him ever, night and day, 
Klse his heart will eat awiiy, 

And a j^'allant life be wasted. 
Use hini, for his soul's salvalion,— 
Give him constant occupation. 

IJeath he hath already tasted, 
And its after-coniiuK pain. 
Work may make hiui whole again." 

Soon this pale-faced eloquent, 
Ever on his tasks intent, 

Won the love of all around him. 
All the children loved hini nearly, 
All the wi>inen held him dearly; 

Flinty hearted warriors found him 
Full of strange attractiveness 
With his strong, sad gentleness. 

Hut when every task was done. 
Often, at the set of sun. 

When the sky, with glory gleaming, 
Flooded the blue- waters sparkling. 
Reedy marsh and forest darkling. 

Would he stand, .is one day-dreaming. 
Gazing o'er the fair expanse, 
While his heart returned to France. 
***** 

Once, as thus he stood distrait, 
Like a soul o'erbcme by fate. 

The good father, coming on him, 
Saw him ])luck from out his bosom 
Withered jx'ar and clover-blossom. 

While to siii'Ut tears Ihey won him, 
On his head the father laid 
Disapproving hand, and said: 

" Son, this world thou hast put off, — 
Earthly love or earthly scoff, 

Nevermore, hast vowed, shall move thee. 
Much it grieves me, in this fashion, 
Then, to witness mortal passion 

Call me, loving, to reprove thee. 
Give those tokens to my care, 
And betake thyself to prayer." 

" Father, for each erring soul 
One hath died to make it whole: 

.Me unworthy! me heart-broken! 
Two for me, — most imdeserving! — 
For my sin have died imswerving; 

And I look upon this token 
As my penance, seeing there 
All my sin and my despair. 

***** 

Long the father walked apart. 
Deep communing with his heart, 

While the brother knelt and waited; 
Then, at last, the father, standing. 



Spoke in kindness, not commanding: 

" Son, thy penance is abated. 
This thy token holds within 
That which may relieve thy sin. 

"Genuine love, though at its worst, 
R.irely hath been wholly cursed; 

Still some spark of good is in it. 
In thy passion, so forbidden. 
May we tind one blessing hidden, 

And from out the evil win it, 
Possible that good may be 
Cure or comfort imto thee. 

" Son, I bid thee rise and itand, 
Look upon thisiu-e<ly land! 

In thy within'<l pear lies dormant 
Nature's power to bloom, and bless 
This unfruitful wilderness. 

Here is healing for thy torment! 
Many and many a voii e of prayer 
Long may bless thy withered pear, 

' * « * * * 

"Son, thine own hand shall prepare 
Mold, and plan' the seed with care; 

Haply with it may be buried, 
For a noble resurrection, 
Murdered love, luiblest affection. 

Faith and truth that so miscarried. 
Peace and rest descend on thee. 
First fruit of the earliest tree!" 

Thus, like souls redeemed from sin, 
Did the mission pears begin 

In the ancient Jesuit garden; 
And the shoots, as they ascended. 
Prayerfully were watched and ti^nded, 

Till the wood could grow and harden. 
Often, in their early years, 
Watered by repentant tears. 

Then, to other missions sent. 
Wandered far the eloquent. 

Till forgotten for another; 
And the father slept, immortal 
Many years; when, at the portal, 

lient a sick and feeble brother. 
Craving rest, from travel sore, 
At the mission's welcome door. 

In the sunset red, cme day, 
Lo, the stranger dying lay 

Underneath the pear-trees, laden 
With their ripe fruit, bent and swaying. 
Where the happy children, playing, 

Little man and rosy maiden. 
Loved to visit. On each child 
Sweet the dying brother smiled. 

Glowed the west.'rn sky like fire. 

" This," he muttered, " this is Loire, 

Rippling through the sedges slowly 
Of his marshes. I.o, my lady 
Walks the old pear-orchard shady! 

O beloved, purged and holy. 
Thou dost bring deliverance. 
Home, and peace, and love, and — France! " 
***** 

Old French settlers — work and place 
Blended with a mighty race. 

Mightiest earth hath ever vaunted: 
S'.ill the old faith rarely falters, 



A 
W 

M 
Y. 

Ai 
VI 

Stil 

Sc 



The follow 
H. Coyle, ti 



SOIL AND PRODUCTS. GAME, GRAIN AND FRUITS. 



15 



Though It kneels nt <iUi<'r altars, 

Til the nrij,'hl)(irinv; city plaiUcd: 
At tin; shrhic i>f nond St. Aim, 
Worships still the habitan. 

Many a thrifty Missiim Pear 
Yet o'erliKiks the hitie St. Clair, 

Like a veteran, faithful warden; 
And their hraru his, gnarled and oUh'ii, 
Yield their jniey fruit and >;iil(len. 

In the aneient Jesuit >,'ard( 11 
Still, each year, their blcissonis dame, 
Scent and hUxiTn of sunny I'ranee. 

The following verses were wriltiii in iiS4y 1)\ W, 
H. Coyle, tlien ;i resident of tiie eity: 

TO THK OLD I'KAK TKKKS OK DKTKon'. 

An lun.dred years and more ye have stood • 
Thriiuj,'h sunshine and thnuiyh storms, 

And slill, like warriors elad in mail. 
Ye lift your stalwart forms. 

Proud in your iniyht ye challenge the winds 

As in your palmy days; 
And ye laugh in scorn at the howliuK blast 

And the lightning's lurid blaze. 

Ve have seen the boy in his childhood jilay 

111 your loiil shades, blithe iind brave. 
And havi' moaned with thi' evening's suininer breeze 

o'er the old grandsire's grave. 

From your lofty tops o'er the river blue 

Ye have looked, long, long ago. 
As the Siivage leaped on the shilling sands 

With sealping-knife and bow. 

'Neath your leafy boughs the painted chief 

Has pitched his peaked lent. 
And the council fire tlinmgh your quivering leaves 

Its silver smoke has sent. 

l-'rom the frontier fort ye have sei'ii the flash. 

And heard the cannons boom. 
Till the stars and stripes in victory waved 

Through the battle's glare and gloom. 

When the ancient city fell by the llames. 

Ye saw it in ashes expire, 
liut, like true sentinels, kept your posts 

111 the blazing whirl of fire. 

And where tall temples now lift their spires 

And priest and iieopU' meet, 
Ye have seen the giant forest oak 

And the wild deer bounding fleet. 

W'here the white-sailed ship now rides the wave 

Ye have watcheil the bark c.moe. 
And heard in tin; iiigiit the voyager's song 

And the Indian's shrill halloo. 

The lingering few " vieux habitans " 

Look at ye with a sigh. 
Anil memory's tear-drop dims their gaze 

While they think of the times gone by. 

Oh! those were honest and happy times, — 

The simple days of old. 
When theii; forefathers qiiafTed and laughed. 

And lived for more than gold. 

One by one, like brown autumnal leaves, 

They are falling to the ground, 
And soon the last of that honored race 

'Neath the yew-tree will be found. 



Live on, <ild trees, in your hale jfrceil age! 

Long, long may your shadows last. 
With yiair blossomed boughs and golden fruit, 

Loved emblems of the past." 

The interior of the State was for many years 
deemed almost useless for agricultural purposes. 

On November 30, 181 5, Edmund Tiflin, Surveyor- 
Cieneral at Chillieothe, wrote to General Meigs, 
Commissioner of the Land Oflu-e at Washington, 
that in the whole of Michigan Territory there was 
"not one acre in a hundred, if there would he in a 
thousand, that would in any case admit of cultiva- 
tion. It is all swampy and sandy." On December 
II he again wrote: "Subsequent accounts confirm 
the statements, and make the country out worse, if 
possible, than I had represented it to be." 

Detroit and the private claims near by were repre- 
sented as being somewhat better, without so many 
swamps and lakes, but the region as a whole was 
said to be extremely sterile and barren. Such repre- 
sentations must have been founded on unjjardonable 
ignorance or knavery. No .State in the Union has a 
larger proportion of excellent farming lands. The 
wheat crop in 1879 amounted to thirty-five million 
bushels, and the productions of our gardens, fields, 
and orchards are unexcelled. 

In 1821 II. IJerthelet raised Tl pumpkin that was 
six feet eight inches in circumference, and after it 
had been picked three weeks it weighed one hun- 
dred and seventj'-four pounds and twelve ounces. 
The pre\ious year, two seeds planted at Grosse 
Pointe produced thirteen hundred and fourteen 
pounds of pumpkins. 

As early as 1823 water-melons weighing from 
thirty-.si.x to forty-four pounds were frequently seen, 
and beets weighing eighteen poiuids and water- 
melons weighing forty pounds were common. 

The following item from the Gazette of December 
13, 1825, tells its own story: 

Better Prospects. — We mention as a. singular f.ict, and <ntii<ly 
new in this territory, that a w.igon-load of FLOL'R arrived in 
town last week from the interior. It was made at Colonel Mack's 
Mills at Pontiac, and we understand that there are several hundred 
barrels there which will be brought in soon. 

This notice marked an era, and soon after Detroit 
had bread to eat and Hour to sell. In 1827 she made 
her hrst export of Hour to the amount of two hun- 
dred barrels. About this same time, in 1828, she 
began to contribute what some would call one of the 
luxuries of life to other places, " sending coals to 
Newcastle" in the shape of one hundred hogsheads 
of Michigan tobacco shipped to Baltimore, besides 
packages to other places. 

In 1827 a pear, weighing thirty ounces, was grown 
by Judge Sibley; it was seven and a half inches 
long and fourteen and a half inches in circum- 
ference. 



i6 



SOIL AND PRODUCTS, C.AMK, GRAIN AND FRUITS. 



On Nowmbor 13, 1833, Mr. Moon t-xhihiud a 
bfft two f('(.t ;iiul six iiiclKs loiiy; and Iwo kcl and 
five iiulu's in cinunifi'iviux'. It uiiji^lu'd sfvcntoeii 
pounds wiliiont tin: top. in Juno. 1S4S, a straw- 
berry nearly tiirce inilies in di.inu'ter was ji^rown i)y 
Horace ilalioik; .and in I1S54. in tiie (.garden of John 
Farmer, on Monroe .Avenue, one tree prodciced plums 
nieasLUinjr nearly six inches in eircumferenee, .and 
the peach trees were heavily laden with peaches .is 
larjje as any ever seen in this market. A i^ardiii 
near by produced a pot.ito of such immensi'. size 
that it furnished a full supply of that edible for four 
meals to ;i family of two. A (luint-e tree in the s.ime 
y.arden produced (juinces one of which weighed 
nearly three p(junds. 

Notwithstanding- the productiveness of the .soil, 
provisions, in e.irly days, were very de.ar. The 
reason is given in the Detroit (iazette of January, 
1819; it s.iys : "There are families owning; from 
one hundred to two hundred acres of land in the 
vicinity of the city who are in the constant luibit of 
buyinvr their bread at the baker's and vegetables of 
their more enterprising neighl)ors." 

In US37 so much interest was taken in the raising 
of fruits ;uh1 gr.ain that a meeting was held on .April 
24 at the City Hall to org.uii/.e .in .Agricultural ,'ind 
Horticultural Society. Colonel McKinstry acted as 
chairm.m ;ind H, G. Ilubb.ird ;is secretary. .An 
organization was effected which continued in exist- 
ence for some twenty years, and its annual exhibition 
was looked forward to as among the most interest- 
ing events of the year. 

In ancient days, as now, whitefish, sturgeon, ])ick- 
erel, pike, perch, black b.ass, catfish, sunfish, and 
bullheads were plentiful. Large numbers of fish — 
from the half-pound perch to the one-lnindred-and- 
twenly-pound sturgeon — are caught yearly. Who 
that has lived here so long does not remember the 
large reels that twenty years or more ago were so 
often seen along the river-bank, with the fishers' 
nets hung upon them .•' 

Of all species, the whitefish is most numerous and 
highly prized. Schoolcraft thus sings their praise : — 

All friends of unnd living by tureen and dish 

Concur in exaltinn tliis prince of a (isli, 

So fine in a platter, so teniptiii),' a fry, 

So rich on a gridiron, so sweet in a pie, 

That even before it the sahnon must fail, 

And that niiKhty bonne-bouche, the land beaver's tail. 

****** 
Its beauty and Havor no person can doubt, 
When seen in the water or tasted without; 
And all the dispute that opinion ere makes » 

Of this kiuK of lake-lishes, this deer of the lakes, 
Rej^ards not itsch oiceness to ])onder or sup, 
But the best mode of dressing and serving it up. 

In 18 1 8 whitefish were worth only three dollars 



jHT barrel, ;ind bo.it-ioads were sold for fifty cents 
per hundred. 

In 1S23 there were t.iken at Hog I.sland twelve 
huiuircd b.irrels, then worth from four to ti\'e doll.ars 
per b.irrel. On the grounds they were sold ;it from 
four to eight shillings per hundred. In 1823 the 
c.itch w.is not so l.irge, and they .sokl at from two ttj 
three doll.irs per hundred. In the early part of the 
week ending October 23, 1824, at the fishery on 
Grosse Isle, twenty-five and thirty thous.md white- 
fish were caught in a single day. In 1825 they were 
worth six and .seven dollars per barrel, and thousands 
of barrels were shipjied to Ohio and New York. 

In 1S27 they were so numerous that fifteen thou- 
.sand wefe taken with a single seine, in five hauls. 
The citch in Detroit River from 1836 to 1840 
averaged about thirty-five hundred b.irrels per year, 
worth eight dollars per barrel. In 1880 there were 
caught about twelve thousand h.alf-barrels, worth 
four dollars and seventy-five cents each. 

The importance of fish ;is ;in article of food 
induced the establishment, in 1873, of a State Fish 
Commission. The first fish h.itchery in the .State 
w.is successfully operated in the winter of 1873-1874, 
by N. \V. Clark, — about one million I'ue hundred 
thousand young tish being producetl. On .April 14, 
1874, five thousand young whitefish were deposited 
in ^'erkes Lake, I'lymouth Township. On M.irch 
'3> 1875, three hundred and sixteen thousand young 
fish were deposited in the Detroit River. On 
August 3. 1876, the Commission resolved to estab- 
lish a hatchery at Detroit. A cheap frame building, 
twenty by fifty feet, was erected at Number 475 
Atwater .Street, near Deciuiiulre; with the ap|)ar;itus, 
it cost $1,300. It was completed .September 25, 
1876, and fully equipped by November i. Between 
November i .and 12, 1876, four hundred .and five 
female fish were stripped on the fishing grounds and 
ten million eggs i)rocured; nearly twice as many 
male fish were alsf) .stri])ped. .and the h.atchery w.as 
set in operation. .More recently largd tish are kept 
in the hatchery, and eggs are obtained more easily. 
The tirst eggs hatched out on M.arch i, 1877. L^p 
to 1S83, nearly one hundred millions of fish had 
been prodticed. In the spring of 1883. thirty-eight 
millions were hatched out, and many of them were 
deposited in the Detroit River. When from eight 
to fifteen days old, the young fry are shipped to such 
places as the superintendent may designate. In 1 8S3 
a new building for the hatchery was erected on the 
northeast corner of Lafayette Street and Joseph 
Campau .Avenue. 

In the winter months, and especially in March or 
April when the hsh are hatching, the institution is 
well worth a visit. 



Tkk city of 
only the ancii 
and .some pul 
sons until gr.i 
sible th.at the 
several years 
dillac, but if 
temj)or.iry or C' 
In the more se 
were made of 
control of l.irg 
celed out to p 
neur, were cult 
out to ordinary 
agreed upon. 

The terms or 
were not left tr 
the Coutume di 
king. When a; 
in a new jilace, 1 
the fort and ce 
lease or sell. 

Antoine de la 
troit, is said to h 
arpents square, 
uniform measun 
it at 192.24 feet, 
than a square ;u 
used as interch; 
Indian agent at 
said that Cadilla 
two hundred an 
were true, it woi 
the farm knowi 
Cass Farm, in fr 
rear by Grand R 
reached to the p 
Original docui 
Quebec, show th 
.sides of the Dett 
and it is not pro! 
claim if previous 
domain of only f 
the entire strait 
curred in establ 
the general ben 



CHAPTER IV. 



CADILLAC'S GRANT.— FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAIMS. 



Thk city of Detroit, as now laid out, imliules not 
only the ancient town, but several adjoining farms, 
and some pulilic land never owned by private per- 
sons until granted by the L'nited States. It is pos- 
sible that the French occupied the site of Detroit 
several years before the founding of the city by Ca- 
dillac, but if so, the previous occupation, whether 
teni|)orary or continuous, involved no personal rights. 
In the more settled portions of New France, grants 
were made of seigneuries giving the seigneur entire 
control of large estates, which, were generally par- 
celed out to purchasers, or, if retained by the seig- 
neur, were cultivated by his own people, or farmed 
out to ordinary lessees on such terms as the parties 
agreed ujion. 

The icrms on which lands might be sold by him 
were not left to his own option, but were fixed by 
the Coutume de Paris or by special decrees of the 
king. When an olticer was alUnved to build a fort 
in a new place, he was f reijuently made proprietor of 
the fort and certain adjacent lands, which he could 
lease or sell. 

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, the founder of De- 
troit, is said to have been granted a domain of fifteen 
arpents square. The arpent, however, was not a 
uniform measure. The United States standard fixes 
it at 192.24 feet. A woodland arpent is a little more 
than a square acre ; but arpents and acres are often 
used as interchangeable terms. Mr. C. Jouett, the 
Indian agent at Detroit in 1803, so used them. He 
said that Cadillac's grant was fifteen acres square, or 
two hundred and twenty-five acres in all. If that 
were true, it would now be bounded on the east by 
the farm known as the Brush Farm, west by the 
Cass Farm, in front by the Detroit River, and in the 
rear by Grand River Street. As usually regarded, it 
reached to the present line of Adams Avenue. 

Original documents, copies of which are on file in 
Quebec, show that he claimed all of the land on both 
sides of the Detroit, from Lake Erie to Lake Huron; 
and it is not probable that he would have made this 
claim if previously there had been f^ranted to him a 
domain of only fifteen arpents square. He claimed 
the entire strait because of the great expense he in- 
curred in establishing the first colony, because of 
the general benefits accruing to New France from 



the peace he secured with the Iroquois, and also for 
the reason that the establishment of the fort at De- 
troit prevented the English from reaching the west- 
ern Indians. 

In pursuance of his claim, he made a (joncession 
to his eldest .son of a tr.act of land on the riv^r, be- 
ginning at tlie entrance into Lake Erie, w ith a front- 
age of six leagues, and extending five leagues back 
from the river. This concession included Grosse 
Isle and all the adjacent islands. 

In support of his demand for all the lands on the 
strait, Cadillac said tliat he had est.ablished French 
or bulians here and there along the whole course of 
the river. There can be doubt that he was granted 
power by the king to dispose of land on the river, 
for tliere is abundant evidence to that effect in a 
'etter from Pontchartrain, dated June 14, 1704, and 
.^Iso in the decrees of June 14, 17, and 19, 1706. 
Under these decrees he made two grants, now in- 
cluded in the city, and known as Claims No. 12 
and No. 90, or the Ciuion and Withcrell Farms. 
The grant to Francois Fafard de Lorme embraced 
what is now known as Private Claim 12 and part of 
13. It was made March 10, 1707, and covered a 
strip of land four hundred feet wide by four thou- 
sand feet long, or nearly thirty-two acres. De Lorme 
was to have the privilege of trading, hunting, and 
fishing, but was not to kill hares, rabbits, partridges, 
or pheasants. He was to pay annually, on March 
20, five livres as seigneurial dues or rental, and ten 
livres for the right to trade. He was to commence 
improvements in three months, and was to plant, or 
help plant, annually, a May-pole before the door of 
the seigneur. He also bound himself to have his 
grain ground at the public mill, and to pay toll, at 
the rate of eight pounds for each minot, — a measure 
of three bushels. He could not sell or give his land 
as security without consent; and in case of sale, 
Cadillac was to have the first right to purchase. He 
was also to furnish timber for vessels and fortifica- 
tions when desired; and further promised not to 
work as a blacksmith, cutler, armorer, or brewer, 
without special permit. He might import goods, 
but could employ no clerks unless they lived in De- 
troit; and he was not to sell liquor to Indians. 

Other conditions, common to grants in this period, 



[•7] 



i8 



CADILLAC'S GRANT. 



were that the graiiti-es should pay, on St. Martin's 
D?y, a certain number of fowls, so many ilozfti oi^ijs, 
or a definite number of measures of j^'rain for each 
front arpent <K-cupicd ; ;ukI in addition to havinvf 
their jjrain (ijround in the seimieur's mill, they were 
obli^fcd to have their brc.id baked in his ovens. 

At Deti.iit the Ixiundariesof these farms, or claims, 
were detincil by ditches. The I'rivate Claim now 
known as No. yo was j^ranted by Cadillat' to Jacob 
de Marsac Jouira, dit Desrodies, on the same day 
that the jjrant was made to De Lorme. He also 
made two other grants of the same size, — one to 
M. St. Aubin .and tiie other to the willow IJeaus- 
seron. Cadillac also granted to Michel Camjjau a 
piece of land tifty-lhree feet lon,v( upon St. Antoinc 
Street, anfl .seventeen feet on .St. Ann Street, within 
the stockade, for which he was to pay an annual 
rent of five livres and five sous. For a riylu to 
trade, ten livres additional were oharijed. The 
rents were payable on March 20, in furs or " silver 
money when there shall !)e any." The jj^rantees 
were to pay eight livres per minot for the grinding 
of their grain. No transfer could be made without 
the consent of Cadillac, and with every transfer a fee 
was to be paid him. In case the grantees neglected 
or did not wish to ])lant the May-pole, they were 
required to pay three livres in silver or peltries. 

Cadillac also grantctl a lot inside the fort to M. 
Malette. Other lands within and without the pick- 
ets were granted by him to Messrs. Langlois, Tru- 
deau, Magnau, Des Rivieres, De Ruisseau, Com- 
paret, Dufresne, Hubert, Lacroix, and Monier. 

In 1708 M. d'Aigremont officially reported that he 
caused the lands at Fort Pontchartrain to be meas- 
ured, and found that there were three hundred and 
fifty acres improved, of which La Mothe had one 
hundred and fifty-seven acres, and the French in- 
habitants forty-six acres; that sixty-three inhab- 
itants p(jssessed lots inside the fort, and twenty-nine 
of them farms outside. M. d'Aigremont arrived 
at Detroit July 15, 1708, and remained nineteen days. 
The records of St. Ann's Church, under dale of July 
29, 1708, note his jjresence under the following name 
and title: " Franijois Clarembault, Esq.,Sieur d'Ai- 
gremont, Navy Commissary in Canada, sub-delegate 
of the Surveyor, and King's Deputy for surveying 
the Military Posts in Canada." 

In 1 7 10 Cadillac was appointed Governor of Loui- 
.siaria. In the summer of 171 1 he was relieved of 
the command at Detroit, and on his departure his 
property was placed in the care of Pierre Roy. 
After he left, there were so few immigrants, and 
the settlers were so much discouraged, that no 
grants were made for many years. It appears evi- 
dent that while Cadillac was in Louisiana his inter- 
ests at Detroit received but little attention. Set- 
tlers, however, began to murmur at the demands 



made upon them under the concessions he had 
granted, and in April, 1716, the king revoked all 
grants made by Cadillac on the ground that they 
were not given in ordinary form, .and that too much 
was ex.'ictcd of the occu|)ants. This deircc, how- 
ever, was accomp.initd with a provision which left 
the settlers in possession .as before. 'I'he next year 
Cadillac returned to Fr.ince, .and in 17 19 or 1720 the 
king directed that lie be put in possession of the 
l.'uuls which he h;id cleared at Detroit, together with 
the rights th.at he hail in connection with lands he 
had conceded to others. He w.as .also to be put in 
possession of the buildings, furniture, and cattle 
which he left when he went to Louisi.ina, together 
with the increase of the live stock. His other claims 
he was to bring before an olficer for adjudication, 
and ;i patent was to be granted to him for the lands 
within two years. 

M. V.uidreuil, the Ciovernor. and Megon, the In- 
tendant of New France, jjrob.ably at the instigation 
of Tonty (then in comm.and h(!re), and presumably 
ill the interest of those occupying the Lands cl.aimed 
by Cadillac, offered v.arious reasons why it would be 
impolitic anil impossible to carry lait the directions 
of the king. In connection with their protests they 
stated in their mcmori.al of N()vcmi)er 4, 1721, that 
there were then only four who h.iil farms outside the 
fort, and th.at thirty others had locations inside the 
stockade. The king responded to these protests by 
a decree, dated May 19, 1722, which conceded to 
Catlill.ic all the land he had cleared and rights over 
that which he h.ad gr.anted to others, except that the 
dues exacted from traders were thereafter to be paid 
only to the commandant of the post. He also di- 
rected that Cadillac should h.ave two years from the 
date of the decree in which to have his claims sur- 
veyed. No evidence can be found that the claims 
of Cadillac were ever surveyed and defined in ac- 
cordance with the intent of the decree. On the 
contrary, Vaudreuil and Begon, in a letter dated 
October 14, 1723, said: "The Lands cleaied by M. 
de la Mothe are not yet surveyed, neither do we 
know what he has conceded, the revenues of which 
must be paid to him." 

It is not probable that the lands and claims of 
Cadillac were .settled according to the king's decree, 
.and it is clearly evident that the governor-general, 
intendant, .and local commandants evinced a masterly 
inactivity in bringing his claims to a final and just 
conclusion. The proof th.at his claims were left in 
vague and unsatisfactory shape is made almost con- 
clusive by the following facts. In 1730, the year of 
Cadillac's death, his eldest son, in a memorial to 
Count Maurepas, said that his father had the promise 
of the post of Detroit, with the title of seigneur. 
Now, this son was with Cadillac, and old enough to 
be aA ensign, when his father came ; and if his rights 






had been de 

creeof 172^, 1 

about it and I 

view of the c; 

amination of t 

was first he.i 

C. A. Desnoy 

Lower Canat 

Detroit. It p 

land on the 1 

to IJcrnard M 

and heirs of C 

obtained froii 

1873, by Levi 

Volume I. of 1 

gives .a tran.^ 

the jiropcrty i; 

toine de la Mdi 

and her s.aiil .si 

sess .at Detroit 

consisting of i 

with the buildii 

.and enjoyment 

ing gr.anted on 

Council of St.at 

said ileceaseil ; 

.arrearages of sii 

property whicl 

quantity .and co 

Detroit. Indui 

to said vendors 

leases, buildings 

ever they may a 

It will be nocii 

1738, makes no 

cept the one of A 

that Cadillac's cl 

years, evidently 

tent and numbe 

and his claims 

doubtedly h.ave 

Deed. The mo 

f.act that just w 

clearly known. 

which would not 

been fully adjust 

that the deed " c 

rights and prop 

" the whole of I 

sold for about 

without a knowl 

It was never co 

council that Cad 

appurtenances." 

granted were to 

much uncertaint 

embraced. Ac 



FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAIMS. 



^9 



had been definitely settled accordin]Lf to the kinif's de- 
cree of 172::. his soil would uiuloiihtL'dly have known 
about it and have so stated in his nuMiiorial. This 
view of the case is made still more certain by an ex- 
amination of the Maichens Deed, so called. This deed 
was first iicard of in Detroit in 1872, when Rev. J. 
C. A. Desnoyers, curate of the parish of St. i'ic, in 
Lower Canada, forwarded it to l). N. Lacroix, of 
Detroit. It purported to be a deed for ;i tract of 
land on the Detroit, executed on Au,;;ust 28, 1738, 
to licrnard Maichens, of Marseilles, by the widow 
and heirs of Cadill.ic. 'I"he deed was subsecjuently 
obtained from the same priest, on November 29, 
1873, by Levi liishop, and on paj^es 343 .and 344 of 
Volume 1. of tiie Pioneer Collections of Micliij;an, be 
),Mves a translation of it. The deed conveys " All 
the property generally left by the said dece.ised An- 
toine de la Mothe C'ldill.ie, and which .said Mad.ime 
;uid her said sons, in eonse(|iicnce of his death, pos- 
sess at Detroit, upon L.ike Ijie, in North America, 
eonsistini( of cleared lands forty arpents in depth, 
with the buildin,i(s ;ind ;uiim;il stock toijcther in title 
.'inil enjoyment ; with the ri,v;ht of huntinj; and tlsh- 
inif ijranted on the ujlh of May, A. D. 1722, by the 
Council of State of His Maje.sty, for the benefit of 
said deceased ; with the right of ([uit rents and 
arrearages of such rents in stock and other mov.ible 
property which .appertains thereto, and in such 
([uantity and consistence ;is belongs llu'reto, in said 
Detroit. Including in this sale all that may belong 
to said vendors in regard to s.aid lands, fruits, f.irms, 
leases, buiklings, stock, arrearages, and rents wher- 
ever they may appear." 

It will be noticed that this deed, although made in 
1738, makes no .'illusion to any gr.uit or de-ree ex- 
cept the one of May ly, 1722. That decree provided 
that Cadillac's claims should be .surveyed within two 
years, evidently in order to cL'iermine llieir real ex- 
tent and number. If such survey had been made, 
and his claims clearly defined, the f.ict would un- 
doubtedly h.'ive been referred m in the Maichens 
Deed. The most casual examination discloses the 
fact that just what was beinjj^ con\eyed was not 
clearly known. The deed tleals only in generalities, 
which would not be the case if Cadillac's claims hatl 
been fully adjusted. The statement of Mr. Bishop 
that the deed "conveyed the site of Detroit, with all 
rights and property thereto belonging," and that 
" the whole of Detroit and its appurtenances were 
sold for about ten thousant* dollars," was made 
without a knowledge of the real I'p.cts in the case. 
It was never conceded by either he king or the 
council that Cadillac owned ' all of Detroit and its 
appurtenances." Only the lands he had cleared or 
granted were to be restored to him, and there was 
much uncertainty as to how much would thus be 
embraced. Accompanying the deed (which was 



only a duplicate) there was a letter dated Boston. 
August 20, I7y8, addressed to a .Mr. Sicart, signed by 
Mine, (iregoire, granddaughter of Cadillac, setting 
forth that Maichens paid only half of the purchase 
price, and left for Detroit inmietliately after getting 
the deed ; that they h.id since been unable to hear 
from him or get ny satisf.iction as ti> the further 
sum due, although the property conveyed was by 
the deed mortgaged to the family of Cadillac until 
paid for in full. The object of this letter was to 
induce some lawyer to recover the projierty, and 
Mme.( Iregoire pro|)osed togiveone<iuarterof all that 
might be realized from the claim. The probability 
is that .Maichens himself, at that early day, never 
realized as much as he actually paid for whatever 
c.'ime into his possession. 

Only about ten years before writing the above 
mentioned letter, Mme. (Iregoire had obtained from 
the Commoinve.ilth of Massachusetts a grant of Mt. 
Desert Islanil .mil portions of the main land. Her 
claim for that estate was based on a grant made to 
Catlill.ic. prior to his arrival at Detroit, in evidence 
of whii'h she furnished a copy of the king's decree 
describing and granting the lands. Her success in 
securing this grant would undoubtedly have caused 
her to make a more earnest effort to obtain the grant 
;it Detroit had there been like conclusive evidence 
of her rights. 

It is matter of record that there was much confusion 
for many years concerning the lands of Detroit. 
La I'orest, Tonty, and S.'ibrevois all made grants, 
but none of them had authority to do so. About 
1720 Tonty comiJelled the inhabitants to bring their 
contracts of concession to him, imd he retained the 
greater part of them. 

On \lay 14, 1728, Louis XIV. gave permission to 
lease the farms at Detroit; ruid on March 15, 1732, 
he directed the settling of all I.ukIs granted, on pain 
of forfeiture. In 1734 Beauharnois, CJovernor-Cien- 
eral, and IIoc(iuart, Intendant of New France, began 
to grant farming lands at Detroit. These conces- 
sions were subject to much the same conditions indi- 
cated in the grant by Cadillac to De Lorme. The 
first lands granted were the farthest from the fort, 
antl each new grant was a little nearer the fort than 
the one preceding; conseiiuently, in each case, the 
gr.ints were bounded by the unconceded lands of the 
fort. In fact, nine different claims are described as 
being bounded on one side by I'ort Pontchartrain. 
An iinportant condition of the grants was that, with- 
in two years, a patent of confirmation should be 
obtained from the Crow ., but this was almost uni- 
versally neglected. The following grants were con- 
firmed by Louis XV. on February 22, 1735; they 
had been granted by the govtrnor and intendant on 
the dates appended : P. C. 1 5, to Jean Gilbert, dit 
sans pere, on July 9, 1734; P. C. 16, to Charles 



FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAIMS. 



Chene, on July 14, 1734; 1'. C. 18, to Jacques Cam- 
pau, pert, on July 10, 1734. This last grant was also 
contirnu'd to Nicholas Campau, pere, and P. C. 38, 
to Jean Cass St. Aubin, pere, on July 15, 1734. 

The following twenty-three grants were made on 
the dates named, but for some reason were not con- 
firmed by the king. It will be noticed that ail the 
first grants were on the east side of the town ; the 
last grant on the east was made on May i, 1747, on 
the very day that the first grant to Robert Navarre 
was made on the west side of the fort. 



Present No. 
of claim. 



Grants on East Si'cfe of 7 men. 

Aments To whom Krantid. Datf of ,i.;raiit. 

5, 2x40 — Jean Chapatone 

(chirurgien), June 18, 1734 
91 and 14, 5x40 — Pierre Kustache, July 3, 1734 
733. 5x4o~I.()uis Campau, July 5, 1734 
9, 4x40 — St. Marsac l)es- 

rocher, pere, July 6, 1734 
7, 4x40 — Pierre Meloche, July 8. 1734 
19, 4x40 — "Named" Moran, July 1 1, 1734 
257, 4x40 — Fran(;ois Cilbert, 

dit sans pire, Sept. 10, 1736 
26, 4x40 — Ciaeten Seguin, 

dit Lederout, Sept. 10, 1736 
E. part of 2, 3x40 — Jean Bt. Beau- 

bien, May 30, 1745 

W. part of 2, 2x40 — Jean Maria 

Barios, May i , 1 747 

I, 2x40 — Eustache Gamelin,May i , r 747 



U1M 



\JfVX4AM/t^ 



27. 



vJijikvC ^ (ufrVwf 473 



24. 
726, 

55. 
55. 

55. 
44. 

474. 
77 and 78, 



Grants on J J 'est Snfe of To^cn. 
22, 3x40 — Robert Navarre, May 
3x40 — Antoine Robert, April 
3x40 — Charles Chene, " 
2x40 — La \'euve Vital 

Caron, " 

2x40 — Pierre Labadie, " 
3x40 — Lacharie Cicot, " 
3x40 — Franejois Burrois, " 
2x40 — Jean Bt. Debutes, 

dit St. Martin, " 
2x40 — Jacques C.odet, " 
3x40 — Claude Audrey, 

dit St. Andrie, " 
2x40 — Alexis Delille, " 
8x40 — " iN'amed " De- 

quindre. 



I, I 
I, I 



747 
750 



May 16. 1753 



It is net claimed that the above list includes all of 
the grants that were rrade. A Canadian official 
list of old claims shows that M. Chauvin .eceived a 
grant of two arpents by forty on June 16, 1734, 
" bounded on one side»towards the east northeast 
by the land of Faffard de Lorme which he holds of 
Sieur de la Mothe Cadillac." This would identify 



the grant with what is now known as P. C. 182, nr 
the Mullett Farm. It is also known that on Septem- 
ber I, 1736, a grant of a farm two arpents wide, 
lying next west of a grant made to Francois Lauzon, 
was conceded to Charles Bonhomme, dit Beaupre, 
on September i, 1736. Also that a farm of the 
same size, lying immediately east of the fort and 
between it and the present Brush Farm, was granted 
to Pierre Reaume on April i, 1750. The knowledge 
of this last grant explains the existence of the old 
claims on the east which interfered with the Gov- 
ernor and Judges' Plan. 

The farthest claim on the east of the city, granted 
by the governor and intendant, so far as shown by 
the Proceedings of the Land Commissioners, was 
Claim 26 in the town of (irosse Pointe. Going 
west toviards the city, the following claims, not 
shown to have been granted by the governor and 
the intendant, are interspersed with those which they 
are known to have granted, and with the six claims 
that were fully approved by the commissioners. 
Their order is as follows: Numbers 688, 7^4, 387, 
7-S' 337. 152, 10, 644, 723, 155, 734, 180, 679, 100, 
(^7^' 573. 1 1. 453. 454. 609, 14, 8, 17, 182, 181, and 6. 

The farthest claini on the west of the city shown 
in the Proceedings of the Commissioners to have 
been granted by the governor and the intendant is 
P. C. Jj, or the Hubbard l'\'irm. ( ioing east towards 
the city, the folk.wing claims, in their order, are not 
shown to have been granted by the governor and 
the intendant, viz.: Numbers 21, 20, 727, 728, 729, 
338, 228, 227, 248, 247, 246, and 592. Between the 
two extremes there are thus embraced thirty-eight 
claims that were, very likely, granted by the governor 
and the intendant, but no evidence of the kind was 
presented to the Conunissioners of Claims. In fact, 
it seems to have been impossible, in the case of all, 
or nearly all, the claims, to show a chain of title 
from the time of the original grants ; and as the 
claims were confirmed in accordance with possession 
and improvements on a given date, there was but 
little use in ]iresenting any of the original grants to 
the commissioners. 

An idea once prevailed that affairs in remote 
French posts were conducted without much regard 
to legal correctness. The more closely the question 
is examined, the more careful the local authorities 
api^ear to have been ; and if all the facts could be 
ascertained, it is not unlikely that the claims con- 
firmed by the L^nited States on purely equitable 
grounds might have been more generally based on 
perfect rights than has been supposed. There can 
be no doubt that the British Government looked 
upon most of the French titles as clear. In imita- 
tion of the French commanders, the English lieu- 
tenant-governors and commandants gave possessory 
rights in and near Detroit, some approved by the 



Privy CouiK 
grants could 
grants to inc 
made by th 
authorities ; 
king's prod 
grants, and t 
and America 
or with, the 
assumed to o 
occupancy, 
were those 
granted by tl 
Robert Na\-a: 
of their dead 
were on thcj 
when the trib 

The front 
occupied by tl 
this was gen 
orchard; and 
and corn fick 
give river fron 
keep the cccu 
and safety. T 
tended to be 
from two to fi\ 
had a river fro 
hundred feet, \ 
half miles. 

Within the f 

the entire |)()pu! 

side as well as ( 

ade for a great 

As late as 17 

by one hundred 

within the pici 

subject to fines 

charges, ini-lud 

the fort in repai 

While Michi,t 

tory. Congress, 

States Laws, V^ 

Register and Ri 

commissioners 1 

under French ai 

the commission 

and rejected all 

by F. P. Matche 

drum, and P. ( 

They decided t 

them were not f 

by the French 

Paris, of Februa 

made by the Br 

prior to the tre 

between the Ui 



FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAIMS. 



21 



Privy Counril, and some not acted upon ; but such 
jrrantj could never le,i(ally become absolute. .Several 
grants to individuals on the west of the town were 
made by the Indians, and approved by the local 
authorities ; but none of these were valid. The 
kinif's proclamation of 1 763 expressly forbade such 
grants, and they were never lawful. By both British 
and American law, all Indian purchases must be by, 
or with, the consent of the Government which is 
assumed to own the ultimate title, subject to Indian 
occupancy. Among the more notable Indian grants 
were those of the Na\-an"e and Campaii farms, 
granted by the Potawatamies to Isadore Chene and 
Robert Navarre, to keep in order the resting-places 
of their dead. Their village and place of grazes 
were on these lands, and the grants were made 
when the tribe removed from this neighborhood. 

The front of the French farms on the river was 
occupied by the dwelling-house and garden ; back of 
this was generally a very valuable and beautiful 
orchard ; and in the rear of the orchard were wheat 
and corn fields. The farms were narrow, so as to 
give river fronts to as many as possible, and also to 
keep the occupants close together for convenience 
and safety. The depth of the farms was always in- 
tended to be forty French acres, the width varied 
from two to five acres, or in other words, the farms 
had a river frontage of from four hundred to nine 
hundred feet, with an average depth of one and a 
half miles. 

Within the fort the building-lots were small, and 
the entire population — those holding farm lands out- 
side as well as others — had homes inside the stock- 
ade for a great many years. 

As late as 1778 the largest lots were twenty-five 
by one hundred feet. It is probable that ail the lots 
within the pickets were permanently disposed of, 
subject to fines of alienation, and to certain annual 
charges, including a contribution towards keeping 
the fort in repair. 

While Michigan was still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, Congress, by Act of March 26, 1804 (United 
States Laws, Volume II., page 227), appointed the 
Register and Receiver of the Detroit Land Office as 
commissioners to examine and report on all claims 
under French and English grants. Under this Act 
the commissioners examined a number of claims, 
and rejected all except three, viz., !'. C. 16, claimed 
by F. P. Matcher, \\ C. 18, claimed by Oeorge Mel- 
drum, and P. C. 90, claimed by J. M. Beaubicn, 
They decided that the other claims presented to 
them were not founded ujion any legal grant made 
by the French ("lovernmcnt ])rior to the treaty of 
Paris, of February 10, 1763, f)r upon any legal grant 
made by the British subsequent to said treaty, and 
prior to the treaty of peace of September 3, 1783, 
between the United States and Oreat Britain; 01 



upon any resolution or Act of Congress had subse- 
quent to said treaty of peace. 

By Act of March 3, 1805 (United States Laws, 
\'olume II., page 343), they were authorized to ex- 
amine and report on claims actually possessed and 
improved on July i, 1796, the official date on 
which the Territory passed from the British into the 
possession of the American (iovehinient. 

They were also to examine into claims based on 
all grounds whatever ; and persons were to have till 
November i, 1805, to file their claims, which were 
to be surveyed at the expense of the Government. 
Before the commissioners had forwarded their first 
report to Congress Detroit was destroyed by the fire 
of June II, 1805. Under the provisions of the law 
of 1805 in connection with the law of 1804, the com- 
missioners subsequently reported on six classes of 
titles, viz.j I. Grants by French governors confirmed 
by the King of France. 2. (}rants .by French gov- 
ernors not confirmeil by the king. 3. Occupancies 
by permission of French commandants without grant, 
and jierhaps without evidence of the permission, but 
with long and undisturbed possession. 4. Occu- 
pancies under I'rench possession, without any per- 
mission, but with undisturbed possession. 5. Simi- 
lar titles, together with purchases un Indians 
under ISritish rule. 6. Occupancy and possession 
under American Government, and purchases from 
Indians. They sent three reports to the Secretary 
of the Treasury, one dated December i, another 
December 16, 1805, and the third March 6, 1806. 
They again reported in favor of the three claims ap- 
proved under the first law, and also in favor of P. C. 
15, claimed by Phillis Peltier, and P. C. 38, claimed 
l)y the heirs of Antoine Morass. These five claims 
tl . y nortcd as valid so far as original title was con- 
ccrneii, but it was not claimed ih.it the chain of title 
since the original gnmt was complete. The sixth 
claim confirmed by the commissioners was that of 
Charles and Nicholas Guoiii, ;in(l cmbr.iccd what is 
now known as P. C. 12 and 13. It was claimed in 
one |)arccl, and was conlirmcd in separate tracts. 
Tlu'y also icpnrlcd claims for many other tracts 
b;ist'(l (in owncrshi|) and occup;ilion. 

The Amcricin State' Papers stale that the commis- 
sioners foiintl only six titles that had been confirmed 
by the king. This is undoubtedly an error, caused 
by inci .. . j; the two grants of Cadill.ic with the four 
grants that were actually confirmed by the king. 
The State Papers also say that eight claims were con- 
firmed, which error is apparently caused by counting 
the two grants of Cadillac twice. 

On March 3, 1807 (United States Laws, Volume 
II., page 437), Congress confirmed the six tracts al- 
ready alluded to, and also all tracts reported upon 
by the commissioners which were occupied, im- 
proved, and .'.ettled upon prior to and on July i, 



2:2 



FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAlMf^. 



1796, and that had continued to be occupied up to 
the date of tlie Act. By Law of April 25, 1808 
(United States Laws, Volume IL, pai^e 502), claim- 
ants were allowed until January i, 1809, to file their 
claims. 

By the Act of 1807, the claims were to be sur- 
veyed under the direction of the surveyor-general. 
All certificates issued by the commissiom .'s were re- 
quired to be entered at the land office at Detroit be- 
fore January i, 1809. The claims confirmed under 
this last Act included nearly all the orij^inal private 
claims in Wayne County, not excepting the inevita- 
ble six French grants, which were again confirmed 
as held by po.ssession. The claims were surveyed 
by Aaron Clreely, and his map is referred to on page 
158, Volume v., of the American State Papers in 
connection with the Abraham Cook Claim. His 
manuscript map was afterwards engraved. 

On April 23, 1812 (United States Laws, Volume 
IL, page 710), Congress confirmed the claims as sur- 
veyed by Aaron (ircely under direction of the sur- 
veyor-general, making his survey authority even 
where It did not correspond with the description of 
the claims as conlirmed by the commissioners. 
There is abundant evidence that in making his sur- 
veys he frequently gave extra measure by adding 
die length of his "Jacob's staff" from one to three 
times. Tradition says a bottle of wine or brandy 
had something to do with this proceeding. 

Other surveyors, among them Joseph Fletcher and 
John MuUett, were afterwards employed in surveying 
the rear concessions. 

The patents for the lands confirmed reached De- 
troit just before or during the War of 1812, and were 
seized or destroyed by the liritish. 

In addition to grants of lands fr at ing on the river, 
the commandants at Detroit are said to have made 
grants known as " second," " rear," o-- back com-es- 
sions, whereby the depth of the farms was extended 
to eight arpents. Many persons claimed of the 
Commissioners of Claims a similar duplication of 
their farms upon the plea that the lands claimed had 
always been used for obtaining wood, and that the 
Government would have granted these rear conces- 
sions at any time if asked. On September i, 1807, 
the commissioners reported to Congress, recom- 
mending that as the arable land fronting on the 
river was exhausted, and mostly without wood for 
fires, lands in the rear be added as asked for. 

Hy Law of April 23, 1S12, it was provided that 
additional lands might be granted for farms that had 
been confirmed only forty arpents in length, and 
claims for the additional land were to be filed before 
December i, 181 2, but no farm was to be over eighty 
arpents in depth. 

By Act of March 3, 1S17 (United States Laws, 
Volume III., page 390), the time for the filing of 



claims for back concessions, under Act of 181 2, was 
extended to December i, 1818. On May 11. 1820 
(United States Laws, \'olume III., page 572), Con- 
gress revived the powers of the commissioners, and 
authorized them to decide on claims presented under 
Act of 1817, and they were to report on or before 
October i, 1821. This Act was construed as reviv- 
ing all the powers j^ossessed by commissioners under 
former Acts; and several original claims, confirmed 
under Act of 1820, are contained in Report or Book 
Number 4, in Volume V., page 146, of American 
State Papers, entitled, " A Report of Absolute 
Claims." The last Act pertaining to the hearing 
and deciding upon claims by commissioners was 
passed on February 21, 1823 (United States Laws, 
Volume III., page 724). It provided that the Act 
of 1820 should.be in force until November i, 1823, 
and that the final rt'port of the commissioners should 
be laid before Congress and the Secretary of the 
Treasury. The Act also confirmed claims reported 
on under Act of 1820, as reported by the .Secretary 
of the Treasury. The numbers of the claims in 
Wayne County, filed under the several Acts, range 
from I to 734. Many of tlie numbers between these 
two extremes are for claims in other parts of the 
then Territory of Michigan. The total number of 
claims confirmed in Wayne County was only two 
hundred and sixty-eight. 

Rear concessions were granted for about one hun- 
dred claims. The number of acres granted origin- 
ally to claims ranged from less than one half an acre 
to six hundred and forty acres, and the rear conces- 
sions covered from three acres to three hundred acres. 
Judging by the testimony given before the commis- 
sioners, there must have been a very general, and 
apparently a concerted, effort among many claimants 
to swear through each other's claims. The com- 
missioners themselves reported that the records of 
the earlier Boards had been so mutilated that it was 
impossible fully to understand them. The unravel- 
ling of the history of the claims is made difficult also 
by the fact that the different Boards designated the 
same books by different numbers. \'olume I. is 
sometimes called I., sometimes II. , and then ap- 
pears as number III. These errors were appropri- 
ately supplemented by the careless transcribing and 
transposing of the names of claimants, surveyors, 
and clerks, — the same names being spelled in .several 
ways. As late as 1823, at least thirteen original 
claims were confirmed by Commissioners of Claims 
that had been left unconfirmed by the first commis- 
sioners. To these claims they gave new numbers. 
In the list of claims' most of them are designated 
by the new numbers. The only other tract in Wayne 
County., aside from the Ten Thousand Acre Tract, 

> See Appendix A. 



bearing a s 
surveyed, is 1 
Rouge. It i 
the British oc 
in the War 
fitted out. 
of the lands 
came to be 
first commiss 
and Frederic 
On April 16, 
man, and 01 



FRENCH FARMS OR PRIVATE CLAIMS. 



23 



bearing a specific name or number, and separately 
surveyed, is the Ship Yard or University Tract on the 
Rous^e. It is called Ship Yard Tract because, durinjj 
the British occup.'ition, and also under American rule 
in the War of 181 2, vessels were there built and 
fitted out. It was selected at an early date as part 
of the lands devoted to the University, and thus 
came to be called also the University Tract. The 
first commissioners were George Hoffman, Register, 
and Frederick Bates, Receiver of the Land Office. 
On April 16, 1806, Peter Audrain succeeded Hoff- 
man, and on April 4. 1807, James Abbott suc- 



ceeded Bates. Under Act of 1807, the Secretary 
of Territory, Stanley Griswold, was added to the 
Commission. On March 18, 1808, Reuben Atwater 
succeeded Griswold, and up to October, 18 14, 
the Commission consisted of Audrain, Atwater, 
and Abbott. In 18 14 William Woodbridge suc- 
ceeded Atwater. In 1819 Jonathan Kearsley suc- 
ceeded Abbott. In 182 1 H. B. Brevoort succeeded 
Audrain, and he, in 1823, was succeeded by John 
Biddle. The last commissioners were Woodbridge, 
Kearsley, and Biddle. 




CHAPTER V. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN.— THE PARK LOTS AM) THE TEN-THOUSAND-ACRE 
THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN.— LAND BOARDS. 



TRACT. 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. 

During French rule the lands outside the stock 
ade and in the immediate vicinity of Fort Pontchar- 
train were, in part at least, cultivated in common by 
the inhabitants. Lands similarly situated at Kas- 
kaskia, Illinois, were guaranteed in perpetuity by the 
king to the inhabitants and used by them as a "com- 
mon field ;" and rights of the same nature are known 
to have been exercised by the inhabitants of Detroit. 
The " common field " was usually enclosed, and 
each head of a family had a portion entirely at his 
disposal, subject only to such regulations as would 
prevent injury to the rights of others. Under these 
general regulations, the field was usually cultivated 
simultaneously by its several owners, and much of 
the work done in common. Outside of these cul- 
tivated lands were the "commons," used for pastur- 
age by all alike. 

It would not have beei\ expedient to allow the 
lands adjoining the fort to be built upon to any 
great extent. A certain amount of open space about 
the stockade was necessary as a protection both 
from fire and from the Indians. If houses were too 
near together, they might afford a place of ambush, 
be used to shoot from into the fort, or serve as look- 
outs wherefrom to discern the numbers and the 
preparations of the garrison. A few houses were 
built outside, but they proved a source of danger 
and annoyance, and were repeatedly torn down. A 
letter addressed to James McHenry, Secretary of 
War, by John Wilkins, Jr., Quartermaster-general, 
ancestor of the late Colonel Wi''iam D. Wilkins, 
gives interesting particulars of :i a status of the 
commons and other property at Detroit, at the 
time it was first surrendered to the United States. 
It reads as follows : 

PriTsnuRGH, 17 February, 1797. 
Sir,— 

The United States have succeeded to a great deal of property at 
Detroit. The whole ground on which the town of Detroit is 
situated seems, originally, to have been reserved by the British f(jr 
the use of the fort; but the merchants and tradesmen preferring to 
live under the protection of the garrison, grants of lots have been 
given to them, which, in time, have formed a regular town. 

But there yet remains around the town a quantity of vacant 
ground, which, of course, becomes the property of the United 



States. This, from its situation, is valuable. But in order to pre- 
serve it, the.e will be a necessity of preventing any persons build- 
ing on it, or the United States should have it laid out in lots and 
sold. 

The vacant ground I allude to is without the pickets; within 
the i)ickets, exclusive of the fort and barracks, there are a number 
of houses and lots of ground, which the United Stales have suc- 
ceeded to, such as the council-house, store-houses, wharf, etc., 
and two large gardens for the garrison; and outside of the pickets, 
a ship-yard, consisting of a number of work-shops. I was in- 
formed, when at Detroit, that there were a number of other 
buildings than those we got possession of, which had belonged to 
the British Government, but that, since thiir removal, were 
claimed by people living in their. These claims ought to be 
inquired into. 

The public domain or commons included at least 
all of the northern half of " the Governor and 
Judges' Plan," and practically all of the land beyond 
lying between the Cass and Brush farms within a 
distance of three miles from tiie river. 

A few years subsequent to the date of the Wilkins 
letter, the Northwest Territorial Legislature adopted 
the following instructions to their delegate to 
Congress : 

ir/iereas, The inhabitants Of Wayne County, in the town of 

Detroit, have, time out of mind, enjoyed a small piece of land 

adjacent to the town, as a public common, for the use of the 

. inhabitants, imtil partially dispossessed by military authority, 

therefore, 

Resolvedy That Paul Fearing, Esq., be instructed to use his 
endeavors to have the right of the Siiid common confirmed by the 
United States to the inhabitants aforesaid. 

No action was taken by Congress on this or 
other claims in this region imtil 1803. The Govern- 
ment then directed Mr. Jouett, the Indian agent at 
Detroit, to "inquire into and report the situation of 
the titles and occupation of the lands private and 
public." In accordance with instructions, Mr. 
Jouett made a report concerning claims and settle- 
ments on the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers, but it 
contained little of permanent value. In a communi- 
cation presented to the House of Representatives on 
January 17, 1805, in regard to the settlement of 
claims for farms, signed by Francois de Joncaire 
and others, the following passages occur : 

Your memorialists further solicit the attentiim of Congress in 
favor of the claims set up by the citizens of Detroit to the com- 
mons or domain adjoining said town; and request that the siime, 
by law, may be confirmed to them and their successors with power 



[24] 



in said corpo 
with lots for 

We state ;is 
firnie<l by m, 
grant was ma 
was laid out, 
heirs and sue 
commons, wlii 
siu-li by the 
encroachment' 

But unfortii 
itself nor the 
either lost or 
places without 
iallsts. 

On Augu 

Woodward, 

inhabitants 

a grant froi 

it as a comn 

country. T 

it will pro!) 

wh;it disposi 

At the reti 

and Judge \\ 

1S05, as to 

Their report 

bank of the r 

nions; and t 

the existence, 

charter from 

commons as 

either the proj 

such as indivi( 

"The Com 

memorial froi 

House of Re] 

Mr. (Gardner ] 

tants, praying 

land, amountii 

joining the sai 

fee simple, to 

use in cominoi 

reservations a: 

seem meet." 

This petitior 
Public Lands, 
Governor and 
posed of the pi 
It is very do 
dispose of thes 
no means unt 
the right, .uid 
property. Ph 
as Park Lots, 
them were sold 
did not meet tl 
June 3, 181 1, a 
ernor and Judg 



THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. 



25 



in said corporation to make sale of a part to accoininodatu persons 
with lots for bnikliiiK, and to re){nlate tin; nse of tin; residue. 

We state as a fart j^cnerally believed in this country, and con- 
firmed hy many a^ed persons now livinj^ in this district, that a 
grant was made hy the French (iovernment at the time said town 
was laid ont, vesting and conferring in the then inhahitants, their 
heirs and sncc(;ssors, both the ground plat of said town and the 
commons, which have ever since been held, used, and enjoyed as 
such by the inhabitants, to the excepti(m of some unwarrantable 
encroachments by individuals upon the siune. 

Itut unfortunately for the citizens of said town, neither the grant 
Itself nor the record thereof can now be found, the grant being 
either lost or wrongfully withheld, and the record removed to 
places without the district and wholly unknown to your memor- 
ialists. 

On Aiij^ust 3, 1805, Ciovcrnnr Hull wrote to Jiidi^e 
Woodward, who was then in \Vashi/iy;ton, tlin*. tlie 
inhabitants claimed the common " in consequence of 
a grant from the French ( 'lovernment, and have used 
it as a common pasture since the settlement of the 
country. Their title to it is, at least, doubtful, and 
it will probably rest with Congress to determine 
what disposition sliall be made of it." 

At the recjuest of the Covernment, Governor Hull 
and Judge Woodward made a report, on October 10, 
1805, as to the title to the town and commons. 
Their report says, " The circumjacent ground, the 
bank of the ri\er alone excepted, was a wide com- 
mons ; and though assertions are made respecting 
the existence, among the records of Oue!)ec, of a 
charter from the King of France conferring this 
commons as an appurtenance to the town, it was 
either the property of the I'nited .States, or, at least, 
such as individual claims did not pretend to cover." 

" The Commons " was the subject of another 
memorial from the inhabitants of Detroit to the 
House of Representati\es. On February 17, 1808, 
Mr. Oardner presented a memori,-,il of the inhalii- 
tants, praying " that the title to a certain parcel of 
land, amounting to about two thousand acres ad- 
joining the said City of Detroit, may be granted, in 
fee simple, to the corporation thereof, for the free 
use in common of all the memorialists, untlcr such 
reservations as to the wisdom of Congress shall 
seem meet." 

This petition was referred to the Committee on 
Public Lantls, but was never reported on ; and the 
Ciovernor and Judges assumed control of and dis- 
posed of the property. 

It is very doui)tful whether they had any right to 
dispose of these lands, anil their legal right was by 
no means unquestioned ; they, however, claimed 
the right, ind having the power, disposed of the 
property. The lands were laid out, and designated 
as Park Lots, and on March 6, 1809, forty-one ;>f 
them were sold at auction. \qt\ naturally, the sale 
did not meet the approval of the inhabitants, and on 
June 3, 181 1, a petition was presented to the Gov- 
ernor and Judges, praying them to annul the sale, 



and convey the lots to be " held by the inhabitants 
of the town of Detroit forever as a commons." 

The records state that tlije petition was received 
and read, and the jirayer thereof not granted. 

This decision the older inhabitants received with 
mingled grief and indignation, one of them saying, 
" It has come to pass that the lands on the common, 
that our ancestors and ourselves owned more than 
one hundred years before the Congress of the United 
States or the Governor and Judges of Michigan 
owned one foot of land on the face of the earth, are 
now exhibited for sa'e at public auction, to the origi- 
nal proprietors, on the humiliating conditions that 
we pay twenty prices for it." 

The laying out of a portion of the commons, south 
of what is now Adams Avenue, into regular city lots 
was also protested again.st. Addressing the chief 
executive of the Territory, one of the inhabitants 
said, " Governor, if you had laid out the commons in 
lots of from six to twelve acres, they would have 
made us good meadows or pastures for our cattle in 
the summer season, and we could afford to pay a 
handsome price for them ; but the lots you are now 
attempting to sell are not worth the deeds and re- 
cording. Believe us, Governor, no town will ever 
exist in these marshes." 

Others of them, in a memorial to the President, 
complained "that the Governor and Judges had 
lavished between five and six hundred dollars of our 
taxes in digging wells and erecting pumps on the 
commons, near half a mile behind the town of De- 
troit, where no town, in our opinion, will ever exist, 
and no wells be necessary; and when they were 
about half finished, the enterprise was abandoned." 

All of these protests and memorials were, how- 
ever, alike unavailing. The Governor and Judges 
were a law unto themselves, and continued to do as 
they pleased. 



THK PARK LOTS AND THK TKN-THOUSAND-ACRE 
TRACT. 

The Park Lots and the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract 
together constitute the ten thousand acres which the 
Governor aivl Judges, by Act of 1806, were author- 
ized to lay out, adjacent to Detroit. The Ten- 
Thousand-Acre Tract, so-called, is separated from 
the rest of the land because it was not sur\-eyed 
until several years after the Park Lots were laid out. 

The Park Lots lie on both sides of Woodward 
Avenue, and extend northwards for nearly two and 
a half miles frtim Adams Avenue. They were 
ordered surveyed by the (Governor and Judges on 
December 14, 1808. James McCloskey, the sur- 
veyor, was instructed " to commence his survey north- 
west of the street which runs through the Grand 
Circus, parallel with the same street, and to begin 



26 



THK C.OVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN.— LAND BOARDS. 



with lots of five acres, and increase the size of lots 
as he proceeds." 

The land was surveyed into eij(hty-six parcels or 
lots, numbers i to 46 inclusive lyinij on the east, and 
the rest on the west side of Woodward Avenue. 
Owinji; to the fact that the lines of the Cass and 
Brush farms narrowed the domain on its northern 
extremity, the lots were irregular in size and in num- 
ber of acres. 

The Tcn-Tliousand-Acre Tract was surveyed by 
Joseph Fletcher in 1816 into forty-eij^ht lots, of one 
hundred and sixty acres cacii, and twelve lots of 
eighty acres each. Half of these smaller lots are 
situated on the eastern, and half on the western side 
of the tract. 

THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGKS' PLAN. — LAND 
HOARDS. 

Prior to the tire of 1S05, the town embraced an 
area of about two acres. Immediately after the fire, 
some of the inhabitants erected temporary dwellings 
in the midst of the ruins of tiieir former homes. 
Others determined to take possession of portions of 
the commons and buikl thereon. According to a 
report made on June 24, 1805, by Matthew Ernest, 
Francois Lasalle, and Charles Moran, there were 
sixty-two proprietors of lots in the okl town. The 
size of lots varied from twenty-four to one hundred 
and sixty-one feet frontage, and from twenty-four 
to one hundred and twenty-five feet in depth. On 
Monday, July i, 1805, the inhabitants assembled 
under the pear-trees in the Public Garden and 
informally adopted a plan similar to the old one 
including a portion of the commons. Judges 
Woodward and Bates, who were present, prevailed 
on them to defer further action until the arrival 
of the governor, and they concluded to wait two 
weeks. On the evening of the same day the 
governor arrived. In a letter written August 3, 
1805, he says, ".Vfter a conversation with the 
judges it was determined to attempt to convince the 
proprietors of the impropriety of their proceedings. 
* * * * They very readily agreed to relinquish 
their plan and wait for our arrangements. We 
immediately fixed on a plan, and employed the best 
surveyor we could find in the country to lay out 
the streets, squares, and lots. If possible, the plan 
shall be forwarded by this conveyance. 1 hope it 
will be approved by the Government." 

The people considered that not more than two or 
three days would be necessary to lay out and reg- 
ulate the new town. But they were doomed to 
disappointment, , 

A few days after the meeting under the_ pear- 
trees Judge Woodward was appointed a standing 
committee to lay out the new town agreeable to the 
plar chey had adopted ; and his Britannic Majesty's 



surveyor, Thomas Smith, was brought over from 
Upper Canada to assist in that arduous undertaking. 
Mr. John Gentle, who wrote a full account of the 
proceedings to a Pittsburgh paper, says : 

After a few days spent in preparing their apparatus, the judge 
l)c;,'an his (ipcrations on a height t'nnti,k;u<iiis to the fort. There 
he placed his instrmuinis, astronomical and astrological, on the 
siiinniit of a hiiye stone, which stone shall ever remain a monu- 
ment of his indefatigable perseverance. ' 

i'nr the space of thirty days and thirty nights he viewed the 
diurnal evolutions of the planets, visilile and invisible, and calcu- 
lated the course and rajiidily of the blazing meteors. To his pro- 
found obsenations of the heavenly regions the world is indebted 
for the discovery of the streets, alleys, circles, angles, and squares 
of this magnilicent city, — in theory e<|ual in magnitude and splen- 
dor to any on the earth. 

Hut the most arduous and tedious performance was the laying 
out and measuring the marshes a mile bai:k from the town into 
streets, lots, circles, and grand squares, measuring and unineasur- 
itig them, arranging and deranging them, for the space of two full 
months more. The patience of the people was at h'ugth exhausted; 
and they became so clamorous at List that the Ciovernor and 
Judges were constrained to rest from their labors and agree to 
make a division of the lots. 

The inhabitants were told to go and choose lots, and if more 
than one chose the s;une lot, the legislature would decide which 
should have the choice. They reasoned against this mode of 
division, because they well knew it would not succeed; but it was 
of no use. Several went and chose the same lot; the legislature 
was applied to for a decision, and a dispute took place between 
the legislature and the pi'ople. In consequence, jis was intended, 
this mode of divisi(m was abandoned. 

liy way of killing time, the judge went to work again with his 
instruments, and mea.sured the commons over and over for about 
three weeks nv re. A few lots were then advertized for sale at 
auction, aw these conditions; — If the proprietors of U)ts in the old 
town purchased, they were at liberty to otTset the lots they pur- 
chased with their old lots, foot for foot; and if the okl ground was 
not sulTicient to cover the new, two cents would be e.sacted per 
foot for the overplus; atul .all purchasers were to give bonds, pay- 
able in five years in five installments, to William Hull, Esq., his 
heirs, etc., etc. 

The first lot was purchased by James .Abbott, who was instructed 
by Judge Woodward to bid it up for him, for five hundred dollars. 
The ne.\t, by James Henry, at three hundred dollars: he had old 
ground to cover with. The ne.xt, by Charles Curry, at six hun- 
drid dollars: he also had ground to cover with. The next was bid 
up to two thou.s;uid six hundred dollars, by Henry and Abbott. 

The average price of the fourteen lots sold was now taken, and 
fixed .IS a general mc^dium for all future sales. .Many applied 
afterwards for lots; but nime could be obtained unless they agreed 
to pay the fixed average price, which was three hundred dollars 
on the lower side of the main street and two himdred and fifty 
on the upper side. .As no title ccnild be given, no payments were 
required to be made tmderone year. 

Early in November, 1805, Governor Hull and 
Judge Woodward left for Washington, carrv'ing 
with them a plan to aid in obtaining desired legisla- 
tion. The plan embraced the old .site and also most 
of the so-called Commons or Public Land, which 
was almost entirely destitute of trees for a mile or 
more on all sides, and afforded a fine location for 
the proposed new city. 



' The stone referred to was undoubtedly the same immense 
boulder that lay on the Campus Martins, at the junction of Mon- 
roe and Woodward Avenues, until the street was paved, when it 
was buried out of sight. 



This pi; 
time the 1 
year 1815 
of it. 

The visi 
resulted in 
which auti 
out a new 
adjacent, 
thous;uKl f( 
of .scventct 
in Detroit 
profess or c 
balance of 
a court-hou 
It would 
then were c 
of convivi.i 
saying tint 
wine to trc 
purpose of i 
All of the 
are involved 
in passing 
variance wit 
expected. 

The givins. 
United State 
well, to enab 
and a jail, s 
when it was 
Territory for 
than sutficiei 
large enough 
country. It 
comparatively 
Detroit, were 
crnmcnt so - 
firmation of 
lay on both s 
land matters 
that .some of 
desire on the 
possess them ^ 
of the Territoi 

The delay 
forced the inh 
there, in impn 
and fall of i8( 
was taken; an 
with the plans 
erected that y 
deeds had be 
These delays c 
be no question 
pose to delay a 
lots staked 01 



THE GOVERNOR AND Jl'DCES' PLAN.— LAND BOARDS. 



^7 



This plan was, probably, lost or destroyed at the 
time the Hritisli were in i)()Ssession in 1812; in tlie 
year 1815 careful search failed to reveal any trace 
of it. 

The visit of Hull and Woodward to Washington 
resulted in the passaije of the Act of April 21, 1806, 
which authorized the Ciovcrnor and Judges to lay 
out a new town and ten thousand acres of land 
adjacent, and to convey a lot, not to exceed live 
th(jusand feet in size, to every person above the aije 
of seventeen years who owned or inhabited a house 
in Detroit at the time of the fire, and wlio did not 
profess or owe allej^iance to any foreign power. The 
balance of the lands were to be devoted to erectini;- 
a court-house and jail. 

It would appear that members of Coni^ress even 
then were credited with bein,n' open to the inlUiences 
of conviviality, for Judije Woodward is quoted as 
saying tl, it he expended three hundred dollars in 
wine to treat the members of Congress with the 
purpose of influencing them to pass the bill. 

All of the transactions of the (iovernor and Judges 
are involved in mystery; and the action of Congress 
in passing the Act of 1806 seems strangely at 
variance with what might naturally have been 
expected. 

The giving away of ten thousand acres of valuable 
United States land, and many of the town lots as 
well, to enable the Territory to build a court-ht)use 
and a jail, seems a strange proceeding, especially 
when it was claimed that the surplus taxes of the 
Territory for 1805 alone would have been more 
than sufficient to build a court-house and a jail 
large enough to accommodate the s|5arsely inhabited 
country. It is said that the lands were then f)f 
comparatively little value; but if lands, in and near 
Detroit, were of so little worth, why was the dov- 
ernment so dilatory .and so careful in the con- 
firmation of the private claims, so-called, which 
lay on both sides of the town? Looking at these 
land matters in all their bearings, it is no wonder 
that some of the inhabitants thought there was a 
desire on the part of some of the officials to dis- 
possess them of their property and drive them out 
of the Territory. 

The delay in the defmite adoption of any plan 
forced the inhabitants to remain scattered here and 
there, in improvised abodes, all through the summer 
and fall of 1805. Winter came, and still no action 
was taken ; and such were the delays in connection 
with the plans of 1806 that not a single house was 
erected that year; up to May, 1807, only nineteen 
deeds had been given for lots in die new town. 
These delays cannot be justified ; indeed, there can 
be no question that had there not been a settled pur- 
pose to delay action, plans might have been adopt'?d, 
lots staked out, and proprietorship agreed upon, 



much earlier, and all such action would have received 
whatever of congressional sanction was necessary. 
All the old records, and the earliest deeds, show that 
there was gross mismanagement and vexatious delay 
in the distribution of lots. 

The first meeting of the Governor and Judges as 
a Land Board was on September 6, 1806, and 
during the month various resolutions were adopted 
in relation to the manner in which lots should be 
dis])oscd of. Corner lots, and thf)se most valuable, 
were to be sold, and others not so advantageously 
situated were to be given away. This plan did not 
meet tile ajiproval of the citizens, and on October 6, 
1806, a public meeting was held and the citizens 
protested against it vigorously. On October 1 1 the 
people were retiuested to present such a plan as 
they would ap|)rove, and on October 16 a plan was 
presented which was substantially adopted just one 
month later. 

Under this plan the inhabitants of the town, at 
the time of the fire, were divided into three classes : — 

1. Those who owned lots in the town at the time; 

2. Those who owneci or occupied houses; 3. Those 
individuals who resided in the town, but who did 
not own or occu]n' any lot or house. Those persons 
in .ne first class who had im|)roved their lots subse- 
quent to the tire were allowed to retain the lands 
occupied or enclosed by them; but as the lots, ac- 
cording to the new plan, were, in some instances, 
larger than they had before occupied, they were re- 
quired to pay from two to three cents per square 
fooi for any excess in size. 

Towards Christmas the governor, by agreement, 
decider; the rights of all the claimants, one by one, 
and located the donation lots; and about New Year 
every person, male and female, who lived in the 
town when it was burned, and whom the governor 
judged eligible, to the number of two hundred and 
fifty-one, drew their donation lots. 

About three weeks after, the board came to- 
gether, and the governor introduced the question 
" Whether those who came to Detroit since it was 
given up to the Americans by the British, who had 
not taken the oath of allegiance, should receive do- 
nation lots," and delivered a lengthy speech in favor 
of said class of claimants. Judges Woodward and 
Griffin seemed also at first inclined to favor giving 
them lots, but the final decision was against such 
claimants. About two thirds of the two hundred 
and fifty-one person.^ who had drawn donation lots 
but a few days previously were, by this decision, 
deprived of them. So the farce went on, the people 
being alternately threatened and cajoled until many 
of them became almost ready to yield their old 
holdings and leave the Territory. 

Eventually the terms of the Act of 1806 were very 
liberally construed, and not only individual owners 



28 



THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN.— LAND HOARDS. 



and (uxLipaiits but in some cases their wives, and 
even tlieir slaves, were the recipients of donation 
lots. 

The claims allowed to individuals in all three classes 
were boujjht up, traded, and transferred, in many 
instances never being owned for any length of time 
by the persons to whom the lots were given. 

There would seem to be no end to the opportunity 
for legitimate criticism of the proceedings of the 
Governor and Judges. One would naturally sup- 
pose that the Congressional Act of 1 806 was intended 
to relieve, as far as possible, the necessities of those 
who suffered by the fire. That was the ostensible 
object of the Act; but in fact the most valuable lots 
were sold to and taken up by persons who were not 
sufferers by the fire, nor even residents of the town 
when it occurred. The ( iovernor and Judges sought, 
by various methods, to compel the people to purchase 
lots, and the donation lots were offered rather as a 
sort of bonus than as a gift. 

The Donation Files are in the office of the city 
clerk. File Number One contains a list of claim- 
ants to lots under the first, second, and third classes, 
with the numbers of lots according to the old plan. 
File Number Two contains a list of unsettled claims. 
File Number Three gives a list of proprietors and 
residents of the town on June 11, 1805. There 
are one hundred and fifty-eight receipts for donation 
lots. 

The difficulty of distributing the donation lots 
satisfactorily, and the tn)ul)les between the Governor 
and Judges, are indicated in the following e.xtract 
from a letter by Judge Woodwaird to James Madison, 
then Secretary of State. He says : 

The town titles will be definitely arranged as soon as the mili- 
tary reservation is made. We gave great diss;itisfaction in the dis- 
tribution of the donations. Mr. Bates and myself were clearly of 
opinion that the donations should not be suffered to run foul of the 
adjustment of the ancient titles. The governor gave way to the 
public storm. As their wish was, however, impracticable in its 
own nature, not from the mere reluctance of those who were to 
make the distribution, we have been constantly obliged to pain- 
fully tread back upon our own steps; and none of us have given 
satisfaction to the people. Perh.ips none could have done it under 
the jealousies and dissensions existing among them. But they 
would have been more respectful towards the Government if it had 
been steady and firm. On one side desiring nothing wrong, and 
not to be driven from what they knew to be right on the other. 

The plar of 1805 was superseded by the plan of 
1806, made by Abijah Hull. This plan differed 
from that of 1 805, both in the size and the boun- 
daries of the lots. What is probably the original is in 
the city clerk's oftice; it is pasted on a piece of stif 
paper, and bears on its face the words " Abijah 
Hull, Derby, Conn." (the birthplace of Governor 
Hull) and the words " Abijah Hull, Detroit, Mich.," 
together with a rough outline of two buildings, evi- 
dently intended to represent the capitol and the 
penitentiary. 



There is also in the city clerk's office a plan on 
parchment, mounted on rollers, entitled, "Copy of 
Plan of 1806, by Abijah Hull, Detroit, Mich., ' bear- 
ing the words, " The figures in black ink denote the 
plan of 1806, the figures in red denote the plan of 
1807." This last-named plan was fully identified in 
1877 by J. F. Munroe as the copy of the Abijah Hull 
plan, which was made by him while in A. E. Hae- 
thon's employ, from Brush's abstract of titles and 
the Governor and Judges' papers. 

In 1807 Abijah Hull prepared plans of sections 
I, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. These plans, in the shape 
of some of the k)ts, and also in the numbering, 
differ from former plans. This series of section plans, 
called the " Hook of Sections," was adopted by the 
Governor and Judges, all the plans being attested 
with the signatures of William Hull, Governor, and 
Peter Audrain, Secretary. The certificate of the 
county register as to the recording of these plans was 
not attached until December 23, 1 848. 

All of the sections named are marked as approved 
on April 7, 1807, except Section No. 7, which 
was approved April 13, and Section No. i, which 
was approved on April 27 of the same year. Sub- 
sequently to 1807, Aaron Greely appears to have 
been employed by the Governor and Judges as sur- 
veyor, and he is said to have deviated from all the 
previous plans. Deeds were issued in accordance 
with lots as shown on the several plans, and grants 
were made that conformed to none of the plans, but 
simply confirmed titles to tracts of land in the old 
town and adjoining domain, the boundary lines being 
described by old landmarks regardless of later plans. 

The main features of the plans of 1S05, 1806, and 
1 807 were undoubtedly the same, and do great credit 
to the foresight of tlieir author. Judge Woodward. 
His views of the future of Detroit were nearly a 
century in advance of his time. 

In the light of existing facts, no one who studies 
the original plan can avoid wishing that it could have 
been adhered to. The portions of the city of which 
we are most proud and which are most admired by 
strangers, our main avenues, the Campus Martins, 
the Grand Circus, and the smaller public squares, 
are all parts of Judge Woodward's plan. His 
diagonal streets and avenues have produced several 
locations of special prominence which afford excep- 
tional opportunities for architectural display. Pecu- 
liar and pleasing vistas result in many places from 
the triangular intersection of .streets arranged for in 
his plan. 

That the plan was suggested by Judge Woodward 
is evidenced by the fact that seven pages of his 
Private Memorandum Book, commenced March 
29, 1802, are occupied with a map of the city of 
Washington cut into .sections. Anyone who looks 
at this book, and examines the old plan of 1806, 



ii; 



will be coni 
from sugge 
ton. That 
years befoi 
from Alexai 
ling Detroit 
near his old 
by a Freiic 
portions of \ 
city thus ha 
remembrant 
latest Goven 

The Go\ 
old claims ; 
in so far as <• 
was largely 
proprietors w 
them foot fi 
owners prefer 
up or exchanv 
the new street 
so far as it w; 
original shajie 
Avenue, and 
below (}riswol 
of 1807. The 
of Jefferson A- 
ward and sou 
confirmed as o 
A space one 
the Askin or 1 
Michigan Avcn 
Mr. Askin, and 
the fire, never y 
On Novembe 
quest of Goven 
a plan of the cit 
they sought una 
seemingly at the 
Thomas Smith ( 
could be found 
tions," so far as 
plan about six 
have been endor 
use was made ol 
no trace of it cai 
The Governor 
original Act of 
ings; but they r 
Act approved M; 
mit a plat of the 
John Farmer of 
Lewis Cass and 
mon Sibley, and 
of Detroit. The 
hundred and fift 
warded to Coiun 



THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN. -LAND UOARDS. 



29 



will be convinced that it was made by Woodward 
from suggestions afforded by the plan of Washing- 
ton. That city had been laid out only fourteen 
years before. When Mr. Woodward came here 
from Alexandria, he was full of plans for remodel- 
ling Detroit after the national capital, wiiich was so 
near his old home. The capital itself was laid out 
by a French engineer. Major Lenfant, who took 
portions of X'ersailics as his model. Our old French 
city thus has features in its plan which perpetuate 
remembrances of the capitals of its earliest and its 
latest Government. 

The Governor and Judges' Plan covered some 
old claims and also the Government Reserve; but 
in so far as any of the owners yielded to the plan, it 
was largely of choice. In all cases where the old 
proprietors were willing, lands were exchanged with 
them foot for foot ; but in several instances the 
owners preferred to retain tiieir old holdings, giving 
up or exchanging only so much as was covered by 
the new streets. The entire front of the old town, 
so far as it was in private hantls, was retained in its 
original shape, and hence the lots south of Jefferson 
Avenue, and extending west from a point not far 
below (jriswold Street, do not conform to the plan 
of 1807. The same is true of scattered lots north 
of Jefferson Avenue, as well as some east of Wood- 
ward and south of Jefferson Avenue, which were 
confirmed as original private holdings. 

A space one arpent wide from the west part of 
the Askin or Brush Farm, and extending back to 
Michigan A\enue (perhaps a little farther), snkL by 
Mr. Askin, and partly built up several years before 
the fire, never yielded to the plan. 

On November 17, 1808, James McCloskey, by re- 
quest of Governor Hull and Judge Witherell, made 
a plan of the city, laying it out at right angles, which 
they sought unavailingly to have adopted. In 1816, 
seemingly at the request of the Governor and Judges, 
Thomas Smith examined all deeds and records that 
could be found, and, taking Hull's "Hook of Sec- 
tions," so far as possible, as a guide, prepared a new 
plan about six feet square. This plan apjiears to 
have been endorsed by the Governor and Judges, as 
use was made of it at various public land sales, but 
no trace of it can now be found. 

The Governor and Judges were required, by the 
original Act of Congress, to report their proceed- 
ings; but they made no report until Congress, by 
Act approved May 30, 1830, required them to trans- 
mit a plat of the city. In accordance with this law, 
John Farmer of Detroit was engaged by Governor 
Lewis Cass and Judges William Woodbridge, Solo- 
mon Sibley, and Henry Chipman to prepare a plan 
of Detroit. The map was drawn on a scale of two 
hundred and fifty feet to one inch, and was for- 
warded to Congress by the Governor and Judges, 



with other documents, on January 8, 1831. Much 
opposition was made to it by many citizens at the 
time, as private interests were not consulted in its 
preparation, only the official and legal representation 
of lots being given. On February 12, 1831, the 
Committee on Territories reported a bill in favor of 
the map as drawn by John Planner; but as the Gov- 
ernor and Judges were found to have full power in 
the matter, no further action w.as thought necessary. 
The map, on a reduced scale, is reproduced in Vol- 
ume V. of the American State Papers, Public Land 
Series ; and a fac-simile, one third the size of that 
reproduction, is given. It is the only ofTicial map 
forwarded by the Governor and Judges, or recog- 
nized by Congress, and is frecjuently referred to in 
law cases where the highest authority is desired. It 
will be noticed that the sub-divisions of the Military 
Reserve, although laid out several years before the 
map of i83[ was made, are not shown on the map; 
the reason lies in the fact that the Reserve was laid 
out by the city, and not by the Governor and Judges, 

The Governor and Judges made no report to Con- 
gress in regard to their management of the Park 
Lots or the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract. J. F. Mun- 
roe says that when the papers of the Governor and 
Judges were turned over to A. E. Haethon. city 
surveyor, there was among them a sur\-ey of these 
lands, and that Haethon neglected to give it*to his 
successors. His otTice was subsequently destroyed 
by fire, and the survey was undoubtedly burned. 

The Governor and Judges, first in charge, un- 
doubtedly assumed unlawful power in giving away 
lots to various churches and societies, and exceeded 
their authority in many particulars. None of these 
powers were included in the Act creating the Land 
Board. The ease with which their sessions changed 
from land-board to legislative, and from legislative 
to judicial, as the exigencies of the case seemed to 
them to demand, was something marvellous even for 
that time of transition. They were not asked to 
present any detailed account of their management as 
a Land Board or of the disposition of their trust ; 
and no report was ever rendered by them as to the 
disposal of a single lot, or of a single dollar received 
from the sale of lots. Different persons served in 
connection with the important trust, and as no ac- 
count of their acts was ever officially called for, they 
cannot well be blamed ; but it certainly was a mani- 
festati(jn of great confidence or of great carelessness 
to suffer any set of men to wield so much power 
without requiring from them any report. 

There were at their disposal ten thousand acres of 
land immediately adjoining the city, over four hundred 
city lots in the best and oldest part of the town, and 
all of the lands known as the Park Lots, lying north 
of Adams Avenue and on both sides of Woodward 
Avenue, between the Cass and Brush farms, and ex- 



f^U^fS 



30 



THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN.— LAND BOARDS. 



k 



-i: 



tendinjf nearly to the present railroad crossing, a 
distance of two and one half miles ; and the old capi- 
tol, the jail, .ind a few scatterinij lots, comprised the 
net proceeds of their far-seeinij efforts. 




Redixed Fac-simile of the Governor and Jt•uG)•;^' Plan. 



That no account was rendered is made apparent 
by the fact that the memorial of a committee of citi- 
zens to Congress, in January, 1823, printed in the 
Detroit Gazette, says that no statement of the receipts 
or expenses of the Territory had ever been made 



public, and that even the appropriation taws had not 
been published, except in one or two instances. The 
article also s»t forth, " Th.it the ("lovernor and 
Judges, as trustees of the Detroit fund, hatl already 

been in the management 
of that trust for sixteen 
years, and no court-house 
is as yet built, or any 
steps taken towards build- 
ing one; no account has 
ever been rendered of their 
])roti'e(.lings in the man- 
agement said fund, 
either for iformalion 
of the . i-)V whose 
benefit th s' '"'^ ^'>'^^^ made, 
or to Congress who made 
tile grant. 'I'hat one of 
the judges is dii-ectiy and 
voluntarily interested to a 
\cry large extent in the 
funds of that trust ; and we 
have reason to believe, 
from his conduct as a 
member of the Land 
Board, that that interest 
has a direct inlluence on 
the management of the 
concerns of that trust." 
The tiiiant'ial transactions 
connected with their doings 
under the Act were kept 
by the treasurer of the 
'I'erritory in an account 
called the " Detroit Fund ;" 
but tile most diligent search 
has failed to tind any re- 
cord or statement of re- 
ceipts or expenses credited 
or charged to the fund dur- 
ing the tirst twenty years 
of their administration. 

The following persons 
acted as secretaries of the 
Land Board : 

I'eter .\udrain, 1806-1809 
Josepii Watson, 1809-1818 
A. K. Wing . 1 8 18-1822 
A. G. Whitney, 1 822-1824 
K. A. Brush . i 824-1826 
H. Chipman . 1826-1829 

L. B. Sturges 1829 

K. A. Brush 1830-1832 

Thomas Rowland 1832- 1834 

A. S. Kellogg 1834-1837 

After the State was admitted into the Union, there 



remained 
Ie;(aily con 
maincd of 
trust was tc 
Tilt; last 
Land Boarc 
c<invcycd a 
Their funct 
For twen 
regular city 
controlled a 
committed l( 
sity for the 
passed awaj 
authority ce 
of closing up 
W'hen tlu 
still undispos 
cured to thci 
erally was in 
On April 2 
Council was 
the Detroit 
the recorder 
to Congress, 
city of the b 

On August 

a memorial w 

1838, $200 w 

kins for maki 

memorial. N 

the work of pt 

April 14 a nici 

of the council 

passed a law 

aldermen the si 

and directing t 

law which auti 

The law also rt 

January i, 184 

they neglected 

On .Septemb 

rected to take 

documents; an( 

bard and C. J. ( 

full examinatior 

administration, 

originally comm 

On Xovembei 

ate report, with 

complete li.-,t of 1 

suiting from the 

Governor and Ji 

the new plan ai 

bers according t( 

tracing early owi 



THE GOVERNOR AND JUDGES' PLAN.— LAND BOARDS. 



31 



remained neithur territorial jrovernor nor judges 
le;(aily com|)etent to deal with such lands as re- 
mained of the orii^inal trust, ;iiul of necessity the 
trust was terminated. 

The last session of the ("lovemor and Judj^'cs as a 
Land Hoard was held on July i, ii^3f>. when they 
conveyed a lot to the Detroit Voun.ii Men's Society. 
Their functions ceased two days after. 

For twenty-two years after the estahlisiiment of a 
regular city j^overnment, the Clovernor and Judges 
controlled and disposed of the property ori;.;inally 
committed to them, altiiouj^h the occasion and neces- 
sity for the lontinuance of their trust had long before 
passed away; and not until five years after their 
authority ceased was .anyone charged with the duty 
of closing up their affairs. 

When their regime closed various city lots were 
still undisposed of, the titles of others were not se- 
cured to their rightful owners, and the business gen- 
erally was in a confused and unfinished state. 

On April 25, 1837, a Committee of the Common 
Council was appointeil to in(iuire into the state of 
the Detroit Fund, and on May 9 the council directed 
the recorder to prepare documents to be presented 
to Congress, in order to obtain the transfer to the 
city of the balance of the funds, or lots. 

On August 5 the recorder presented the form of 
a memorial which was adopted ; and on March 24, 
1838, S200 were ordered to be paid to Ross Wil- 
kins for making investigations and jireparing the 
memorial. No action w.'is taken by Congress, and 
the work of petitioning was repeated in 1840. On 
April 14 a memorial was signed by all the members 
of the council; and on August 29, 1842. Congress 
passed a law making the mayor, recorder, and 
aldermen the successors of the (iovernor and Judges, 
and directing them to take an oath to carry out the 
law which authorized them to sit as a Land Board. 
The law also required them to report, on or before 
January i, 1844. This last requirement, however, 
they neglected to observe. 

On September 27, 1842, the city clerk was di- 
rected to take charge of all the old Land Board 
documents; and on December 20, 1842, Bela Hub- 
bard and C. J. (^'Flynn were appointed "to make a 
full examination and rejiort concerning the origin, 
administration, and present condition of the trust 
originally committed to the Governor and Judges." 

On November 26, 1844, they presented an elabor- 
ate report, with many interesting details, including a 
complete li.-.t of the changes in numbers of lots, re- 
sulting from the various and conflicting plans of the 
Governor and Judges. The numbers according to 
the new plan are the numbers now used, the num- 
bers according to the old plan being of value only in 
tracing early ownership. 



l.l>r OK I HANOES IS NIMDBRS OF LOTS. 



Olll 

I'lun. 



New 
I'liin. 



Si;(ii(>N I. 



i(' 
37 
J8 
■♦J 
44 
45 
4rt 

47 

48 

4.) & 50 

50 iSi 51 

5' 

53 

5J 

57 

58 

1591k 60 

6i» *. 59 

61 

61 

63 
64 

65 
66 
17 & 115 
68 
84 
86 
87 



10 
40 
4« 

48 
49 
50 
5' 
ja 
53 
54 
55 
56 

II 
63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 

69 

JO 

■/' 
73 
73 
74 
92 

93 
94 



Old 


New 


Plan. 


IMun. 


5> 


59 


i 5' 


60 


1 33 


6i 


1 54 


62 


1 ;5 


63 


56 


64 


11 


u\ 


\ 39 


67 1 


1 6i 


11 


8j 


84 


99 


87 -i" 97 


103 1 



Old 
I'lun. 



SKCTtON 3. 



Skci'ion 2. 



4' 
4-; 
43 
44 
43 
46 

47 

48 

4 'J 
5" 



16 






•9 


17 






20 


18 






21 


I() 






22 


20 


23 


& 


24 


2t 






as 


22 






26 


-•3 






=7 


24 






28 


21 






29 


26 






v> 


27 


3< 


& 


3'-! 



37 

38 
i'> 
40 

4'' 

4' 



53 
54 
55 

56 
107 
108 



Sectio.v 4. 



49 
50 
5> 
52 
53 
54 
53* 5; 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 

63 
64 

63 



53 

54 
55 
=6 



57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 

63 
64 
65 
66 

67 
68 
69 

Skction 6. 



49 
5' 
5> 
5.' 
53 
54 
55 
56 
76 

77 
78 

II 
81 

83 
84 

8s 



New 
I'lun. 



Old 
Plan. 



33 
48 

49 
50 
5' 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 



35 
36 
37 
38 
3? 
40 

4' 
42 

43 
44 
43 
46 

47 
48 



34 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

4' 

42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 



86 


83 


Skction 7. 


31 


31 & 32 


33 


23 


»3 


24 


24 


25 


3S 


26 


26 


27 


»7 


28 


28 


29 


29 


30 


30 


M 


3' 


32 


32 


33 


33 


34 


34 


35 


35 


36 


36 


37 


37 


38 


38 


39 


39 


40 


40 


4> 


4> 


42 


42 


43 


43 


44 


44 


45 


43 


47 


46 


48 


47 


49 


48 


50 


49 


5' 


50 


52 


5' 


53 


52 


54 


53 


55 


54 


56 


SS 


57 


56 


58 



59 
60 
61 
62 
63 

It 
69 
70 
7' 
72 
73 
74 

II 
77 

II 
81 
83 



New 

Plan. 



59 
60 
61 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 

7' 
7-' 
73 
74 
75 
76 

77 
78 

81 
82 
83 
84 



Section 8. 

& 23 



2i 
24 
25 
26 

27 

28 
29 

y-" 

3' 
32 
33 
34 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 

4> 
82 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

49 
5" 
51 
52 



24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
3' 
32 
33 
34 

36 

38 
39 
40 

4> 
42 
43 
44 

46 
47 
48 

49 
50 
S' 
52 
53 
54 



Their report showed that the city had become the 
absolute owner of twenty-nine lots, with possible or 
part title in nearly seventy others. Ever since 1842, 
as occasion has required, land-board sessions of 
the council have been held, decisions made, and 
deeds issued to claimants and purchasers. Sessions 
have also been held from lime to time to perfect 
titles of properf originally deeded by the G<)\-ernor 
and Judges, am, define the powers and rights of 
the city as to various parks laid out on the original 
plan. In 1880 a session of the council as a Land 
Board was held to perfect the title to a portion of 
St. Ann's Church property. It seems hardly possi- 
ble that Congress by the Act of 1842 intended to 
give the city government, for an indefinite length of 
time, the peculiar power it has since continued 
to exercise, and a limitation of its power in this 
direction would probably be no injustice. 



MAPS OF DICTROIT.- 



CMAPTER VI. 



CITY noUXDARY AT DIFFERENT PERIODS.— CASS AND BRUSH 
FARMS.— MILITARY RESERVES. 



MAI'S OK DKTROI r. 

Thk earliest plans or maps yet discovered were 
made in 1749 and 1754 by Joscpii (laspard Chausse- 
gros do Eery, a French lieutenant and enj^inccr. A 
few of his papers fell into tiie possession of Father 
Louis Antoine I'otiiicr, and in 1S45 Jacques \'ii,aT, 
of Montreal, made copies of some of them, includinjj 
the maps named. In 1854 C. I. Walker obtained 
tracinj^s of them, one of which is here reproduced. 
The only differences between the plans of 1749 and 
1754 are as follows: In the plan of 1754 the 



stockade is extended a little farther east, and the 
location of a bake-house and store-house are 
marked, while the location of tlie cemetery is not 
desijrnatcd. From an examination of the ])lan of 
1749 it will be seen that in its general outline and 
method of layini,^ out the streets, it is almost a fac- 
simile of tiie earliest map of New Orleans. The 
next oldest plan of Detroit is the one made by T. 
Smith in 1816, showinj; the city as it was in 1796. 
In 1877 what is believed to be the orii,nnal copy of 
this map was in the possession of Eugene Robinson, 










rmU4*^ 



Till] 



i.^M' 



AoguBt aoth, 1749. 



BEFKBEHCKR. 

A. — OunimandaQt's Boiue, 
B— Qiiard House Bud Barracks, 
r.— Powder Magaxine. 
P.— Parish Churcb. 
X.— Prieit's HouM). 
F.— Cemetery. 
Q.— Boyal Qardens. 
H.— ludlvidual Qardeoa. 



HPaSCHCHH 




S-_ c 5- 




Plan of Detroit in 1749. 
[3-'] 



1 



It 
II 

Si 
( 



It w;is bnii 
Henry Hiri 
Tlie pl.iii ill 
was maili' fi 
of the n).i|) 
cations of I 
17'/)." 

About 18. 
and pui)lislu 
prob.ilily, ;i 
the proposcc 
r8o^), uiili 
buil(!ini;s ;is 1 
of piihlicaiio 
a scale of li\ 
inch, and wa 
Joiin Mullet 
sanction. 
se.ssed by 
others. An 
map with " 1; 
title, and wit 
the lots, was ii 
A. (iirardin in 
j,Tai)hcd by C( 
Huffalo, New \ 
of the ori;,nnal 
in \'olume V, 
State I'.ipcrs, 
in connection 
the (lovcrnor a 
simile, reduced 
given. 

In 1830 Johr 

published a m; 

however, laid do 

no Icsral existei 

siiow the lines o 

lots, the bounda 

whic-h Iiad been 

("■overnor and Ji; 

also reproduced, 

in title, in \'()lun 

can State Paper 

ries. In 1878 J, 

copy of the on'ir 

five hundred copi 

been sol3 at a do 

Tlie plan of 18 

Farmer, is descri 

of the GoveriKir j 

was drawn by 

office of district 

1835, and was th< 

accurately the si/( 

ated the old land 

30.X44 inches. It 



MAI'S OF Di.rkoir. 



33 



It was b(ni;,'ht by A. K. Ilactlum, of Dt-troit, of 
Ilniry MiTlIiflct, of Mniilrt'a!, for liftcfii dollars. 
Tlie plan in Mrs. Siicldon'.s " History of Mi(lii;;an " 
was niailc from it by J. F. Miiiinte. 'I'lie full tiiK' 
of the map is " I'l.iii of the Town and Fortili- 
cations of Detroit as tlu-y stood before tlu: yrar 
17./)." 

About 1825 J. <). 1,1'wis, of Detroit. (Mivfravec' 
and published a small maj) of the city, whieh is, 
probably, a fair representation of 
the propo.sed plans of 1805 .'uid 
iiSo(^), with the addition of publii: 
huildinifs as they existed at the time 
of pnblicaiion. 'I'his map is on 
a scale of five hmidred feet to one 
inch, and was, probably, drawn by 
John Mullett; it had no oflicial 
sanction. In 1877 copies were pos- 
sessed by Sidmy D. Miller and 
others. An en,t,n-aved copy of the 
map with "1807" attached to the 
title, and without the numbers of 
the lots, was in possession of James 
A. (iirardin in 1878. It was litho- 
i^raplied by Compton tS: Ciibson, at 
HulTalo, New York. A copy of one 
of the ()ri;.,dnal maps is reproduced 
in \'olume \'. of the American 
Stale I'apers, I'ublic Land Series, 
in connection with the report of 
the C.overnor and Jud;^es. A fac- 
simile, reduced to one half size, is 
given. 

In 1S30 John Mullett made and 
published a map of the city. It, 
howcNi'r, laid ilown alleys which had 
no let(;il existence, and failed to 
show the lines of many I'laims and 
lots, the boundaries of and rii^hts to 
which had been recognized by the 
("rovernor and Judges. This map is 
also reproduced, with a slight change 
in title, in \'olume \ . of the Ameri- 
can State I'apers, I'ublic Land Se- 
ries. In 1878 J. C. Holmes had a 
c<)[)y of the original map, of which 
five hundred copies are said to have 
been solcl at a dollar a copy. 

The plan of 1831, drawn by John 
F'armer, is described in connection with the history 
of the (lovernor and Judges' Plan. The next map 
was drawn by John Farmer while holding the 
olTice of district surveyor. It was published in 
1835, and was the first map of Detroit which gave 
accurately the si/e of the lots, and carefully deline- 
ated the old land lines. The size of the map was 
30x44 inches. Its price was three dollars. It had 



a very large sale and lias furnished the groimd-work 
for all the maps of the city that have .since been 
made. The copyright of this map was .sold to J. 
H. C'olton (.\: Co., and it was siibsi'quently publisheil 
by A. 1'.. Ilaethon. He issui-d two editions, dated 
1846 and 1856 respectively. 

In 1837 Morsel: Brother issued a hastily prepared 
map of the city; and in 1853 Henry Hart published 
a maj) showing the loc.itionof the buildings. In 



PLAN or rHL TOWN ikFORTinCAr/ONSorDETRO/T 

JIa thfv stouU he/ore the year tystS. 
t^om T'tmiOta Map miuif Mniy Jo" Hitl, m'tfi nHriitiont from JMes 
~~~~' ' 'iiinrii /null Oie tfrir lff/in> hiient , .ihnmn^yils 

~ rtlaliun to tHr prvurnl f/tan f/ the Citu 

&ea/e ^00 /eel to/ ineli'. 
'tTTTrri, •^■•■l-oftillon ^ titii fy* Ponlthnrlraintn-iyoi 

■-• ''i„M,',r,nfl,i:"J 




Mai' ok iiiK Cnv i.N 1790. 



1858 J. F. Munroe, city surveyor, issued the best 
map made from 1835 till then. On account of the 
growth of the city, it was necessarily much larger 
than any tliat preceded it. A new edition was pub- 
lished in 1868. In 1 87 1 Eugene Robinson, city 
sun'eyor, compiled a large map, which was published 
by Calvert & Company. A second edition was 
issued in 1879. 



^■i^- f^ 



MAPS OF DETROIT.— CITY BOUNDARY AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



Several sma!! maps of the city have been pub- 
lished in connection with the city directories, that of 
James Dale Johnson being the first. Complete 
small street maps of the city were first published in 
1863, and have been issued almost yearly since, by 
the firm of S. f^armer & Company. In 1875 this 
firm issued the first edition of a " Map of the City of 
Detroit and Its Environs." It was drawn by C. H. 




Reduced Fac-simile ov the Lkuij Map o? riiB Governor and Judges' Proposed Plan. 



Ellis, is four by five feet in size, and shows all of 
Detroit with a larj^'e portion of the adjoininjj- town- 
ships of Hamtranick, Springwells, and (ireenfield, 
im^luding the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract and the 
village of Norris; it takes in the new Water Works 
and Belle Isle, on thi. east, and extends far enough 
west to include Foit Wayne, Delny, the Grand 
Trunk Junction, and Woodmere Cemetery. Both 



sides of the river are shown, with the Canadian vil- 
lages of Walkertown, Windsor, and Sandwich. 

CITY BOUNDARY AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1803 Mr. C. Jouett, the Indian agent, wrote to 
the War Department that "of the two hundred and 
twenty-five acres granted to Cadillac in 1701, only 

four were occupied by the 
town and Fort Lernoult; 
the remainder, except 
twenty-four acres added 
to Williani McComb's 
farm, is a conmion." The 
boundaries of the town, 
by the Act of 1802, were 
as follows: — "Bounded 
in front by the river, or 
Strait of Detroit; east- 
wardly by the division 
line between John Askin, 
I'.sq., and Antoine Beau- 
bien ; westwardly by the 
division line between the 
farms belonging to the 
heirs of the late William 
McComb and Pierre 
Chcsne ; extending back 
from said river two miles, 
at an equal width rear as 
in front." 

The Pierre Chesne 
Farm is now known as 
the Jones or Crane Farm. 
The adopted Plan of 
the Ciovernor and Judges 
left out the Brush and L. 
Beaubien farms on the 
east, and the Cass Farm 
on the west, and extended 
only about one mile back 
from the river, thus re 
ducing the limits of t'. 
town on three sides. 

On (\-tobcr 24, 181 5, 
the city limits were ex- 
tended so as to include 
the Cass Farm for a dis- 
tance of two miles from the river; but by Act of 
March 30. 1820, the Cass Farm was again thrown 
outside of the city. 

The Witherell P'arm, which became part of De- 
troit by the Act taking effect April 4, 1836, was left 
outside of the city by the Ac', of February 15, 1842. 
By Act of April 12, 1873, parts of the townships 
of Ilamtramck and Greenfield were added to the 



city, but the 
was illegal. 

It thus api 
have been c 
limits have, li 
extended no 1 
the accompar 
planations, gj 
Detroit at difi 



Amoiig all t 
probably none 
Cass and Bru.' 
original Gover 



Hat or Die 8 

(HTYOF 



r 



lit 



z^ 



\^ 



|£i 



M 



Tel 



r« 



CITY IJUUNDARV AT DIFFJIRICNT I'KRlODS.— CASS AxM) 15RUS11 FARMS, 



35 



citv, but the .Supreme Court decided that tlie Act 
was illegal. 

It thus appears that the boundaries of tiie city 
have been curtailed no less than four times. Its 
limits have, however, been actually and permanently 
extended no less than seven times, as appears from 
the accompanying map, which, with the above ex- 
planations, gives a complete showing of the area of 
Detroit at different periods of time, 

CASS ANU liRUSlI KARMS. 

Among all the old claims embraced within the city, 
probably none are so frt'(|uently mentioned as the 
Cass and Brush farms. These farms bounded the 
original Covernor and Judges' Plan, the lirush Farm 



lying on the easterly, and the Cass Farm on the 
westerly side of the town. 

Portions of the tract now included in the Cass 
I'arm were granted to Robert Navarre on May i, 
1747, and other portions, in 1750, to three several 
persons, — Messsrs. Harrois, (jodet, and St. Martin. 
The Pontiac Manuscript shows that the person last 
named was occupying a ])()riion of the farm in 1763. 
On March 29, 17.S1, it was purchased at auction of 
the estate of Jacijues St. Martin by \V. Macomb for 
^1060. About this time, twenty-four acres are said 
to have been added to the tract, without authority so 
far as is known. The tract now known as the 
Cass Farm embraces Private Claim No. 55, con- 
tlrmed, bythe United States Commis.sioners, tojohn, 
William, and David Macomb on November 16, 1807; 






tf 



Plat o[ lie Several AUns ^ 

CITY OP DETECITr^i 



Sonflili'M ofl 0.000 jcretnct. 






ULaj 3, 1875. 




1^1 May 3, 1875 

jgal 

I -I 
I 




DETKOIT RIVER 



.\Iai' Of Additions m C in Limits, 



_^uJ — 



36 



CASS AND BRUSH FARMS.— MILITARY RKSKRVKS. 



il 



and also Private Claim No, 59-2, which was confirmed 
to the same parties on December 31, 1808. 

The occasion of the transfer to Covernor Cass was 
as follows: — The ordinance of 1787, and Acts creat- 
ing subsequent Territcjrial (Governments based on 
that ordinance, rccjuired the governor to be a free- 
holder to the extent of at least one thousand acres of 
land. Governor Cass, in order to conform to this 
law, after he had brougiu his family from Ohio, pur- 
chased of the Macombs in 1816 the farm which has 
since borne his name, and about the same time 
bought a large tract near the mouth of the river. 

The front of the farm was originally a very high 
bank, the river coming up to where stores are now 
located at the intersection of Jefferson Avenue and 
Second Street. The bank was dug away and the 
streets graded in 1836, twenty-five thousand cords 
of earth being removed. In September and October 
of that year lots on the " Cass front," embracing 
that part of the farm between Larncd Street and the 
river, were offered for sale at auction, the entire 
tract having previously been sold to a company of 
ten persons for one hundred thousand dollars. 

The property was then so far away from the 
center of the city that the lots would not sell, and 
after spending a large amount of money in improve- 
ments, the majority of the original purchasers were 
very glad to have General Cass take back the prop- 
erty at the price they had originally agreed to pay 
That part of the farm between Lamed Street and 
Michigan Avenue, was laid out in May, 1841, the 
portion north of Michigan Avenue in 1851, the lots 
north of Grand River in 1859. 

The land now known as the Brush Farm was con- 
ceded to Eustache Ciamelin on May i, 1747, and on 
March 15, 175^, by consent of Commandant Bellestre 
it was transferred to Jacques Pilet. On October 31, 
1806, the farm, except a few lots on the western side, 
was conveyed by John Askin to Elijah Brush. The 
entire farm, as far north as High Street, was laid 
out into lots in 1835, and north of High Street in 
1862. A large number of the lots have always been 
leased, ilie rental being determined by a valuation 
of the lots, new appraisals being made from time to 
time as agreed upon. The southern entls of both 
the Cass and Brush farms were built upon and im- 
proved many years ago, but the larger part was not 
sold or leased until improvements had been made 
on either side; consciiuently the owners were able, 
on account of the demand for central property, to 
affix conditions of sale that have been greatly to the 
advantage of themselves and purchasers. Houses 
of a certain value were required to be erected within 
a definite number of years, and thus these farms are 
now largely covered with elegant and comfortable 
residences, nnre being found on them than in any 
other part of t)ie city. 



MIM'l'ARY RKSKRVKS. 

When the English surrendered the city in 1796, 
the grounds occupied by the fort, the citadel, and 
other government buildings became the special 
property of the Uniicd States Government. The 
plan of the Governor and Judges was made to 
include the government property, but as they had 
no control over it, the plan was so far inoperative, 
and the Reser\'es remained in possession of the 
United States until May 26, 1824, when Congress 
gave to the city the Military Reserve between 
Lamed Street and Jefferson Avenue, bounded west 
by the street leading to the public barn (now Wayne 
Street), and east by the line of the large Reserve, 
near the line of the present Griswold Street. On 
May 20, 1826, Congress granted the balance of the 
Military Reserves to the city, including the grounds 
occupied by Fort Shelby,— reserving only the arsenal 
and military store-keepers' lots, — the grant being 
conditioned upon the building, by the corporation, 
of a magazine outside of the city. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Act, the 
city, on November 8, 1830, advertised for proposals 
for building a powder magazine for the United 
States, on the '"■••atiot Road, near what is now Russell 
Street, where the barracks were afterwards located. 
The magazine was completed in September, 1831. 
The city was put in formal possession of the Reserve 
on September 11, 1S26, and on April 4, 1827, the 
Legislative Council gave the Common Council 
power to alter all that part of the Governor and 
Judges' Plan lying north of Larned Street, south of 
what is now Adams Avenue, and between Cass and 
Brush Streets. Individuals owning lots within the 
boundaries designated, whose rights were disturbed, 
were to have other lots assigned them, or be paid 
the value of their lots. Against this action many 
citizens protested vigorously; and on the same din- 
that the Act was passed <-. memorial was sent to 
Congress praying that body to prevent the proposed 
change in the plan. The protest was of no avail, 
and by ordinance of April 23, 1827, the city pro- 
vided for obtaining the consent of lot-owners to the 
plan of the new sub-division as laid out by John 
MuUett. His plait ■ as finally agreed to, and on 
May 16, 1827, a public auction of lots on the site of 
the old fort took place at Military Hall, one of the 
old buildings of the cantonment. The conditions of 
sale were that a stoT)e, brick, or frame house, two 
stories in height, be erected on each lot before the 
expiration of the time for the last payment, or else 
all previous payments and rights to the lot were to 
be forfeited. Some buildings belonging to the old 
fort were fitted up for tenants, and for several years 
the city performed the part of landlord. For further 
particulars as co the sale of lots see chapter on Taxa- 
tion and Finances. 



In the earlit 
surveyed undt 
officer appoini 
method preva 
an old docun 
interest : 

In consequence ( 
inl\al)itants that tli 
and tliat they do nr 
primitive grants, ai 
tliereforj, Mr. Janu 
surveyor, I have aj 
for the future his si 
decisive; and all wh 
form tliereto. 

Given under my ] 

From Other c-l 
was the survexo 
Thomas Smith 
.McXiff acted its 

Under the An 
16, 1812, Aaron 
veying private cl, 
surveys under a 
181 5, and the sin 
pleted in 1S57. 
office of surveyoi 
Michigan was rei 
William Johnson 
subsecjuent ap])c 
1851, Lucius Lyi 
1853 to 1857, Le 
Emerson. The ( 
1857, and the Re 
Commissioner of 
records show thi 
miles or 36,128,6. 

r-MTKt 
The first Land 
was established ai 
March 26, 1804. 
of president Mo 
auction sale of lai 
the Counril Hon 
ranged from §2 tc 
being §4. I'p to 
sold on credit, onl 



CHAPTKR VII 



PUBLIC SURVKVS.— UNITED STATI'.S LAND OFFICE 



PUBLIC SURVEYS. 

In the earliest days of the settlement, lands were 
surveyed under the direction of the kiny, by an 
oftieer appointed for the purpose, and the same 
method prevailed under English rule. This copy o( 
an old document making such appointment is of 
interest : 

In consequence of repeatid complaints made by several of the 
inhabitants tliat their neighbors have encroached on their farms, 
and that they do not actually possess the quantity spe ified in the 
primitive grants, and for which they pay rents to His Majesty; 
therefore, Mr. James Sterling being an experienced and ajiprox'ed 
surveyor, I have appointed hint Ring's Surveyor at Detroit; and 
for the future his surveys onl>' shall be looked upon as valid and 
decisive; and all whom it may concern are hereby ordered to con- 
form thereto. 

Given under my hand and seal at Detroit, April 21, 177^. 

Hi;nuv Ha -si; it, Major ami Commandant. 

From other old records it appears that Philip Frey 
was the surveyor on March 27, 1785. He appointed 
Thomas .Smith his deputy on May 8, 1787. P. 
McXiff acted as surveyor in 1794 and 1799. 

Under the American Ciovernment, by law of May 
16, 1812, Aaron (ireely was paid $5,565.92 for sur- 
veying private claims in Michigan. The first public 
surveys under a general law were commenced in 
181 5, and the survey of the entire .State was com- 
pleted in 1857. In the month of May, 1845, the 
office of surveyor-general for the district including 
.Michigan was removed from Cincinnati to Detroit. 
William Johnson was then surveyor-general. The 
subsecjuent ajipointees were as follows: 1845 to 
1851, Lucius Lyon; 1851 to 1853, Charles N(jble ; 
1853 to 1857, Leander Chapman; 1857, Charles J. 
Emerson. The office was closed at Detroit May 1 1, 
1857, and the Record of Surveys deposited with the 
Conmiissioner of the Land Office at Lansing. The 
records show that the State contains 56,451 sciuare 
miles or 36,128,640 acres. 

UMtKD ST.\TKS L.VND OFFICE. 
The first Land Office in what is now Michigan 
was established at Detroit under Act of Congress on 
March 26, 1804. On May i, 1818, a proclamation 
of Pri .sidcnt Monroe authorized the first public 
auction s.ilc of lands in Michigan. It tocic place at 
the Council House on July 6, 181 8. The prices 
ranged from $2 to $40 piT acre, the average price 
being $4. I'p to 1826, United States lands were 
sold on credit, only a small amount being required 



to be paid down. In 1826 the law requiring full 
payment went into effect, and sales were greatly 
reduced. The receipts for United States lands sold 
at Detroit up to 1830 were as follows: One half year 
of 1820, $2,860.32; 1 82 1, $7,444.39; 1822, $17,359.38; 
1823, $30,173.34; 1824, $61,917. 15; 1825, $92,332.55; 
1826, $41,125.13; 1827, $34,805.45; 1828. $17,433.72; 
1829, $23,329.48. Total, $718,548.36. 

From 1825 to 1837, the immigration from the 
Eastern States increased so rapidly that business 
flourished, and by the purchase and clearing of 
lands large sums of money were brought into and 
scattered about the Territory. As early as 1833 
capitalists began to come from New 'S'ork to invest 
in wild lands. In 1836 the number of immigrants 
was simply amazing; the steamers and sailing ves- 
sels were literally loaded down with people who 
came to settle in Michigan and the West. From 
five hundred to seven hundred frecjuently arrived on 
a single boat. During the month of May public 
lands weic entered so rajiidly that on Monday, May 
9, the register had lu close his door and receive ap- 
plications through the window, and the receipts at 
the Land Office between the ist and the 25th of the 
month were $278,000. The total amount received 
at the three Michigan land offices, namely, Detroit, 
Kalamazoo, and Monroe, was over $1,000,000. Dur- 
ing the year the total sales in Michigan amounted to 
the enormous suin of $7,000,000. Numerous asso- 
ciations were formed for the purchase of wild lands 
and embryo city sites, and at the mouth of everj- 
western river, and almost e\cry township corner, 
towns were laid out. "(')n paper," creeks were 
magnified into streams, and comparatively insignifi- 
cant streams were tr.insfornuil into large rivers 
floating steamboats and other water-craft, while on 
the land the speculatiir's dreams took form in 
imaginary hotels, churches, schools, and railroads. 
Absolute forests were in imagination transformed 
into cities, and sold at ten thousand per cent ad- 
vance. The laying out and making maps of these 
"paper cities" kept tlie few draughtsmen then in 
Detroit busy all day long and far into the night. 
Hundreds of dollars, in the "wildcat" currency of 
the times, were frequently paid for a draughtsman's 
services for a single day. Leading men of both 
parties formed pools with fifty or a hundred thousand 
dollars, and committed the amounts to the discre- 



L<7] 



l8 



UNITED STATES LAND OFFICE. 



lion of agents who were to be compensated by a 
sliare of the protits in the lands purchased. 

The details of some of these enterprises are so 
ludicrous as to be hardly credible. There remain to 
this day survivors of the crowds which, in the heii,dit 
of the season, occupied the entire width of Jefferson 
Avenue in front of the Land Office, each individual 
awaiting his turn to enter and secure his prize. Some- 
times large sums were given to .secure the services of 
the fortunate man at the head of the column by 
another who was far in the rear. Horses were merci- 
lessly driven and killed in the race to reach the 
Land Office. In one instance, at midday, two men 
on horseback were .seen turning the corner of Wood- 
ward and Jefferson Avenues, hastening at full speed 
to the Land Office. It turned out that they were 
victims of a cruel joker in Genesee County. Each 
of them had ridden all night, breaking dtnvn two 
horses apiece in the seventy-mile race, in order to be 
the first to enter a certain tract of land. The 
sequel .showed that they desired to purchase entirely 
different parcels. Men who one day were the pos- 
sessors of meadow or pasture lots near some village 
or city found themselves, the ne.xt day, the proprie- 
tors of innumerable fractions into which their acres 
had been subdivided, and could hardly believe they 
were the same persons who, so short a time before, 
had been hewers of wood and drawers of water. 

It is utterly impossible to describe, in terms which 
the present generation would comprehend the actual 
condition of the public mind at that period. This 
abnormal activity began to sh(nv itself in 1S34, 
grew rapidly in 1835, and culminated in 1836; and 
when the panic came, the sites of many " paper 
cities " could be bought for less than the price of 
wild land, and to this day are owned and assessed 
as farm lands. At the present time the Detroit 
District of the United States Land Office embraces 
parts of the counties of Muron, Sanilac, Lapeer, 
St. Clair, Macomb, Oakland, Livingston, Ingham, 
Jackson, Washtenaw, Wayne, Hillsdale, Lenawee, 
and Monroe. All the government lands, however, 
in these counties are sold. The district also em- 
braces the counties of Cheboygan, Presque Isle, 
Alpena, Montmorency, and Otsego, in parts of 
which government land is for sale. In 1880 about 
one hundred thousand acres were still subject to 
entry. Lands within six miles of an existing or pro- 
posed railroad are held at twenty shillings per acre. 
All other government lands are sold for ten shillings 
per acre. No credit is given, and payment must be 
made in cash, or lands may be selected, and obtained 
by the use of Bounty Land Warrants or United 
States scrip, so called. This scrip is of the nature 
of ;i due-bill, issued by the Government to holders 
of land ilaims, in some of the Southern and Western 



States, at the time certain territory was ceded by 
foreign governments. 

The Land Ollice contains a record of the names 
of the original purch.asers of all government lands in 
the counties above named; and where parties have 
failed to call or send for the patent issued by the 
Government and have it put on record, the names 
of original owners can be obtained only from this 
office and the Land Office at Washington. When 
payments are made for lands, a receipt is given for 
the money, and a record is forwarded to Washing- 
ton. The government patent or deed is then issued. 
The receipt of the receiver for the payment of the 
price of a piece of land is considered good evidence 
o* ownership, but unless the go\ernment patent or 
deed is placed on file the chain of title is not com- 
plete in the county records. That many persons 
neglect to obtain their patents is evident from the 
fact that there are between twenty ana thirty thou- 
sand uncalled-for patents in the office at Detroit. 
There are two officers connected with this office, 
one is designated as the "register," the other as 
the "receiver," and each of them has a salary of 
five hundred dollars per year and one half of the 
fees. The fees consist of two per cent, on the 
gross value of all selections for which cash or 
land-warrants are received, and two per cent, on 
the cash valuation of lands taken up under the 
Homestead Act. There is also a government fee 
of ten dollars when the amount of land entered 
is over eighty acres, and five dollars when eighty 
acres or less are entered. The total receipts by the 
United States from sales of land in Jlichigan, up to 
June 30, 1883, amounted to $18,501,522. 

The following persons have served as registers 
of the Land Offic-e : 

1804 and 1805, George Hoffman; 1806-1 821, 
Peter Audrain; 1 821-1823, Henry B. Brevoort; 
1823-1837, John Biddle; 1837-1839, Thomas Hunt; 
i839-i84i,01mstead Hough; 1841-1847, Robert A. 
Forsyth; 1847-1849, Elisha Taylor; 1849-1853, 
Lorenzo B. Mizner; 1853-1857, Daniel J. Campau; 
1857-1861, Charles F. Heyerman; 1861-1863, J. G. 
Peterson; 1863-1869, Arnold Kaichen; 1869-1871, 
Addison Mandell; 1 871- 1877, Frederick Morley; 
1 877-1 883, Joseph B. Bloss; 1883- , Adam E. 
Bloom. 

The receivers of the Land Office have been as 
follows: 

1 804- 1 807, F"rederick Bates; 1807-18 19, James 
Abbott; 1819-1851, Jonathan Kearsley; 1851-1853, 
Ezra Rood; 1853-1857, Elisha Taylor; 1857-1861, 
Jacob Beeson; 1861-1865, H. K. Sanger; 1865-1869, 
Edward Le Favour; 1869 to October, 1 881. John M. 
Farland; 1881 to July, 1882, E. W. Cottrell; 1883- 
, Lyman G. Willcox. 



DEEDS 



DEED 

Under Fi 
recorded by a 
By law of Jui 
the office of 
concerning th 
Territory was 
that deeds mi 
court. An A 
ized the regit: 
by Act of No 
to be recordec 

On April 

provide a bool 

January 29, li 

created, and tl 

the recording 

and mortgage: 

which are nur 

which they are 

consultation. 

the register is r 

ically the name 

with a referenci 

name is record 

numerous and I 

in almost all tn 

to abstracts fun 

The most th 

history of land^ 

Skinner & Bur 

thousands of d- 

the compilation 

stored in an el 

him especially fc 

Upon so imp 

estate there oug 

A very few lots i 

English rule, am 

be shown. AH 1 

derived primaril 

ondarily: ist, fi 

farms were coni 

missioners; 2d, I 

were authorized 

the " Mayor, Re( 



CHAPTER VIII 



DEEDS, :iORTGAGES, AND TITLES — PAST AND PRESENT PRICES OF LANDS. 



DEEDS, MORTGAOES, AND TITLES. 

Under French and English rule, all deeds vere 
recorded by a notary in a book kept for the purpose. 
By law of June i8, 1795, of the Northwest Territory, 
the office of register was created. The first Act 
concerning the registering of deeds under Michigan 
Territory was passed August 29, 1805; it provided 
that deeds might be recorded with the clerk of any 
court. An Act, passed on January 19, 181 1, author- 
ized the register of probate to record deeds; and 
by Act of November 4, 181 5, deeds were required 
to be recorded in his office. 

On April 12, 1827, the register was directed to 
provide a book for the recording of mortgages. On 
January 29, 1835, the office of county register was 
created, and the register of probate ceased to have 
the recording of deeds or mortgages. The deeds 
and mortgages are recorded in separate volumes, 
which are numbered or lettered in the order in 
which they are filled. The records are open to free 
consultation. Under the Revised Statutes of 1S46, 
the register is required to keep and record alphabet- 
ically the name of every party to eac-h instrument, 
with a reference to the book and page where the 
name is recorded. These index volumes are so 
numerous and the arrangement .so incomplete that 
in almost all transfers of real estate reference is had 
to abstracts furnished by private parties. 

The most thorough and comprehensive abstract 
history of lands in Wayne County is possessed by 
Skinner & Burton. Mr. Skinner has spent many 
thousands of dollars and years of labor in making 
the compilations and collections, all of them being 
stored in an elegant fireproof building erected by 
him especially for their preservation. 

Upon so important a question as the title to real 
estate there ought to be nothing vague or uncertain. 
A very few lots are held under deeds obtained under 
English rule, and for these a long chain of title can 
be shown. All other titles to lands in the city are 
derived primarily from the United States ; and sec- 
ondarily: 1st, from persons to whom old French 
farms were confirmed by the United States com- 
missioners; 2d, from the Governor and Judges, who 
were authorized to convey by Congress; 3d, from 
the " Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen" of the city. 



and later the Common Council, who were made the 
successors of the Governor and Judges, and who 
also received some of the Military Reserves as a 
gift from the United States; 4th, from the United 
States, who deeded directly some of the Govern- 
ment Reserves ; and 5th, from the State, which 
issues deeds for lands on which the ta.xes are not 
paid to any one who will pay the amount due. * 

To constitute a perfect title there should be a 
chain of deeds starting from some one of these 
classes, and continuing, without a break, down to the 
latest claimant or owner; and each new deed should 
be signed by all the parties to whom the property 
had previously been deeded, or their heirs or assigns. 
If any of the parties have married since the deed 
was made to them, the deed should be signed by 
the new parties, and the man and wife should in all 
cases unite in the signing of deeds. 

If any of the parties making a new deed are the 
heirs of parties who made the last conveyance, it 
should be so stated in the deed. The description of 
the property conveyed should be the same in each 
deed; or, at least, it should be carefully examined to 
see that it covers the same land. To make it certain 
that there are no tax titles on the land, the books of 
the county and city treasurers should be examined, 
or, as is usual, a certificate or statement should be 
obtained from each of these officers showing that 
nothing is due for taxes or spet ial assessments. If 
the land has been sold for taxes, this is a cloud 
upon the title that needs to be removed, aiul the 
books in either office will show who has acquired the 
tax title. 

A w.irranty deed from a responsible party is con- 
sidered to insure a perfect title, but as mistakes may 
happen in the making out of deeds, and parties may 
cease to be able to make good their warranty, the 
safe course is to make sure that the abstract of title 
shows the title to be vested in the party or parties 
who convey. A quit claim deed from parties in 
whom the title to land is clearly vested, is consic'ered 
as good as a warranty deed. If any mortgages have 
been given covering the land, it should be seen that 
they are all discharged by the parties to whom they 
were given. A discharge may be made either by a 
written document, which should be placed on record, 



I39] 



40 



PAST AND PRESENT PRICES OF LANDS. 



or by the mcrtt^aijee writinv,^ " nischarifed " on the 
face of tlie orii^iiial record, with the date and their 
name. 

By law of March 9, i S44, deeds from the Gov- 
ernor and Jud)j;cs were reiiuired to be recorded at 
length; and a transcript of the same was to be 
prima facie evidence in cases where the original 
deed would be evidence. 

A further law of May 7, 1847, provided that it 
should not be necessary to have or prove the 
acknowledgments of the Mayor and Aldermen, in 
the case of deeds duly executed by them. An Act 
of April I, 1850, provided that in the case of deeds 
and conveyances from the (iovernor and Judges 
heretofore recorded, but not acknowledged, the 
record of such deed, or a certified copy, should be 
evidence in case it is proved the original deed is lost. 

In addition to the other records, in the office of 
the register of deeds, all subdivisions of property 
in the city or county, and all plats affecting the 
division of property, are required to be filed. 

Up to January i, 18S1, the county register re- 
ceived no salary, hired his own clerks, and was paid 
solely by the fees of the office, which were estimated 
to amount to from ten to twelve thousand dollars 
yearly. By law of 1879, his salary is fixed by the 
county auditors at not less than twenty-five hundred 
dollars nor more than three thousand dollars per 
annum, and all the fees are required to be paid into 
the county treasury. The county registers have 
been as follows: 1835, R. S. Rice; 1836, C. W. 
Whipple; 1837-1841, George R. Griswold; 1841 
and 1842, Josiah Snow; 1843-1847, Silas A. Bagg; 
1847-1851, C. V. Selkrig; 1851-1855, Henry Cam- 
pau; 1855 and 1856, H. R. Nowland; 1857-1861, 
H. S. Roberts; 1861 and 1862, H. M. Whittlesey; 
1863 and 1864, E. N. Eacroix; 1865--1869, W. E. 
Warner; 1 869-1 873, Alonzo Eaton; 1873 and 1874, 
John W. McMillan; 1875-1879, Charles Dupont; 
1879 and iSSo, Henry Plass; 1881 and 1882, J. I. 
Mitchell; 1883- , C. M. Rousseau. 

Under Act of July 28, 1818, the governor was 
authorized to appoint a city register for Detroit, to 
record all papers concerning real estate. A further 
law of March 27, 1820, provided that his compensa- 
tion should be the same as that of the register of 
probate ; and all deeds and mortgages, in order to 
be valid as against any new purchaser, were re- 
quired to be recorded before December i, 1821. A 
law of July 14, 1830, authorized the register to ap- 
point a deputy, and by law of March 22, 1837, the 
office was abolished and its duties combined with 
those of the county rej^ister. The following persons 
served as city registers : 1 798- 1 804, Peter Audrain ; 
1 806- 1 8 1 8, Joseph Watson ; 1 8 1 8- 1 822, A. E. Wing ; 
1822 and 1823, A. G.Whitney; 1823-1825, E. A. 
Brush; 1825, P. Lecuyer; 1826-1830, John Whip- 



ple; 1830-1835, Theodore Williams; 1836, C. W. 
Whipple. 

PAST AND TRKSKN'T PRICKS OK LANDS. 

In 1760 M. de Ik-llestre, the French commandant, 
paid M. V'ernet a sum equal to $2,500 for two lots 
whose combined s! 'e was onl)- 30x50 feet. In 
1767, under English rule, /220, New York currency, 
was paid for a lot forty feet wide on .St. James 
Street extending througti to St. Ann's Street. 
These prices for that early period seem enor- 
mous; yet it is well known that such prices were 
freciuenlly paid. Judge Woodward, in a letter 
dated March 6, 1806, states that property in the old 
town of Detroit bore so enormous a value that he 
"would not n;uiie it, as it would be deemed incredible." 

The protection afforded by the stockade, and the 
privileges of trading, had much to do with the value 
put on lots within the pickets. After the town 
passed under the control of the United States, real 
estate resumed its normal value, and prices became 
more definite. According to tiie rei)ort of a com- 
mittee appointed by the proprietors of lots, after the 
fire of 1805, the value of lots 27x54 feet was 
$123.50, and of lots 161x175 feet, $614.50. The 
total value of all lots owned by the sixty-nine pro- 
prietors was $14,205.50. 

After the fire, and the distribution of the lots, the 
highest sum paid for the excess was seven cents, 
and the average four cents per square foot. 

On March 6, 1809, forty-one of the Park Lots, 
containing five and ten acres each, were sold at auc- 
tion, the auctioneer being p.iid one fourth of one per 
cent commission. The conditions of sale were one 
fourth cash, one fourth in six months, and the remain- 
ing half in twelve months from date of sale. 

Upon these terms the following persons bought 
the lots indicated, at the prices named : 

Purchaser. No. of Lot. Price. 

John Palmer 81 ... $55 00 

Jacob Sanders 21 ... 21 50 

Daniel Stevens 51 and 52 . . . 27 13 

William Scott 40 ... 20 00 

1 1, 12, 13, 14 ... 195 62 

Riciiard Sniythe 72 and Tl . . . 23 78 

" 53 ;i'iil 54 ■ ■ ■ 30 50 

Solomon Sibley 49 and 50 . . . 24 74 

22 and 23 . . . 26 87 

42 and 43 ... 45 62 

" 74. 75. 7^>. 77. and 78 ... 123 52 

" " 8 .md 9 ... 1 1 5 00 

B. Woodworth ... 24, 25. 26, 27 . . . 70 00 

John R. Willianas 55 ... i- 55 

47 and 48 ... 31 37 

44and45 ... 45 62 

... I, 2, 3, and 4 ... 188 75 

John Whipple 68 and 69 ... 22 20 



As late a 
fiftt-en doll 
purchaseil I 
the "Cass 
west cornel 
with a fron 
by one hunc 
$2,010. In 
on the nori 
bridge Stre 
1817 the In 
Bates and I, 
two hundrec 
On \\m\ 15, 
& Co. for $2 
in the vicinit 
auction by tl 
purchasers w 
Rowland sai 
money are so 
ing about tw 
would not giv 
In 1829 Da 
Avenue, for n 
for S200. 
reported that 
unsold, which 
of less than se 
On June id 
tained the folic 

HiiyiiiK and .sell 
with sptciilators, h 
from ten to tweni 
(jovernor Cass has 
back as Lariied Str 

In January, 1 
over three hunc 
of property cha 
of the city pape 

As proof of the r; 
ten acres of land, ( 
without any l)uildin 

On June 15, 1 
near Cass Stre 
from S300 to ^\ 

On October 
the amount of 
water lots .selliiv 

In Janu.-iry, \\ 
of ( Inswold anc 
Bank of Michig; 
July 25. 1859, it 
for $12,550. Tl 
feet on Griswoli 
bought ten acret 
Woodward A\'( 
On May 28, 18, 



PAST AND PRESENT 1M<ICES OF LANDS. 



41 



As late as 181 7 the Park Lots were valued at only 
fiftt-en dollars per acre. In 181 5 Governor C;iss 
purchased five hundred acres of land, now known as 
the "Cass Farm," for $12,000. In 1816 the south- 
west corner of Jeffer.son anil Woodward Avenues, 
with a frontaj^'e of forty feet on Jefferson Avenue 
hy one hundred on Woodward Avenue, was sold for 
$2,010. In November, 1816, Lot 49, 40x80 feet, 
on the northwest corner of Griswold and Wood- 
bridjre Streets, was sold to 15. Stead for $1 1.90. In 
1817 the University Lot, on the northwest corner of 
Bates and Lamed Streets, eij^hty feet on Earned by 
two hundred and ten on Bates Street, sold for §80. 
On April 15, 1864, it was bouj^ht by Farrand, Sheley, 
& Co. for $22,010. In 1819 a large number of lots 
in the vicinity of the present City Mall were sold at 
auction by the (lovernor and Judj^es. Among the 
purchasers was Judge Sibley. After the sale Major 
Rowland said to C. C. Trowbridge, " A fool and his 
money are soon parted. Sibley has just been buy- 
ing about twenty lots at seven dollars each, anil 1 
would not give him seventy cents each." 

In 1829 Da\iil Cooper bought the lot on Michigan 
Avenue, for many years occupied by his residence, 
for $200. On October 27, 1829, Robert Abbott 
reported that there were .seventy-four city lots still 
unsold, which were then worth $5,000, or an average 
of less than seventy dollars each. 

On June 10, 1835, the Journal and Courier con- 
tained the following : 

liiiyiriK and sclliin,' is the order of the day. Our cl.j 
with speiuliitors, who are all on tiptoe. Several snii)j fortun ., 
from ten to twenty thousand dollars have already been niauo. 
( lovernor Cass has disposed of the front part of his farm, as far 
back as Lamed Street, for $100,000. 

In January, 1836, real estate was \eiy active, and 
over three hundred and hfty thousand dollars' worth 
of property changed hands. In February, 1836, one 
of the city papers .said : 

As proof of the rapidly inoriasinK v.tIiic of property in thi lity, 
t(m aeres of land, one mile from the ri\'er on tlic Pontiac Koail, 
without any huiitiin.ys, has been sold fur $io,o(x:). 

On June 15, 1836, several lots on Jefferson ,\vcmic, 
near Cass Street, were sold at auction, bringing 
from $300 to $450 per foot front. 

On October 18, 1836, lots on tht; Cass front, to 
the amount of $190,000, were sold .at auction, the 
water lots selling at from $146 to $220 per foot. 

In Janu.'iry, 1843, the lot on the southeast corner 
of Ciriswold and Congress Streets was sold by the 
Bank of Michigan to the county for $1,800, ;ind on 
July 25, 1859, it was sold at auction to C". H. Buhl 
for $12,550. I'he lot has a frontage of thirty-tive 
feet on Ciriswcld Street. In 1842 Colonel- Winder 
bough! ten iicres of land on the northeast corner of 
Woodward Avenue and High Street for $1,500. 
On May 28, 1846. forty-two acres were purchased 



for the proposed Elmwood Cemetery, for $1,858. A 
lot on Jefferson Avenue, ne.irly oppo.site the Ex- 
change, fifty-two feet front by seventy feet deep, 
was .sold at auction, February 17, 1851, for $6,400, or 
about $1 23 per foot front. The same year St. Paul's 
Church Society sold sixty feet front by one hundred 
feet dee|), on Woodward Avenue, where the church 
then .stood, for $12,642, and four years later the 
adjoining property, on the south, was sold by the 
Presbyterian Church for $50,000. 

In 1848 and 1850 II. R. Andrews bought the 
ground on which the Detroit Opera House is located 
for $6,500. In 1 86 1 it was sold by the executors of 
his estate for $23,500. In 1867 it was sold for 
$50,000, and in 1868 Dr. E. M. Clark paid $55,000 
for the property. 

The ground and building occupied by the First 
National Bank were sold at auction October 4, 1855, 
for $24,000, one third cash, and the remainder in 
two years, without interest. 

I n February, 1 860, the property on southwest cor- 
ner of Criswold and Congress Streets, eighty feet 
front on C.riswold by one hundred feet on Congress 
Street, was sold to C. II. Buhl for $334 per foot 
fn)nt. 

in 1862 Mr. E. S. Heineman bought the house 
and grounds on the north corner of Woodward 
Avenue and Ailelaide Street for $20,000. 

In 1863 the ti\e lots now occu[)ied by the Central 
M. E. Church were bought for $8,600. In October 
>f tli^ same year the lot on the northeast corner of 
L : .;ress and Ranilolph .Streets, with a frontage of 
fifty-four feet on Randolph Street by ninety feet on 
Congress Street, with the buililing, sold for $9,000. 
On November 11, 1863, two lots on the north side 
of Jefferson .Avenue, near Wayne Street, twenty-five 
feet front each, sold for $83 per foot front. 

On July 10, 1873. one hundred and fifty-two lots 
at the Grand Trunk Junction were sold for an aggre- 
gate of $55,455; anil on July 18 ninety-two more 
lots were sold for the sum of $28,1 10. 

The lot on the northwest corner of Jefferson 
Avenue and Griswojil Street w.is sold to Albert Ives 
in September, 1876, for $27,000. 

The size of lots varies accoriling to the fancy of 
those who make the subdivisions. The usual sizes 
are 30x100 and 50x150. According to the loca- 
tion, either business or residence lots sell at from 
$10 to $i,5ix) per foot frontage. Among the ni.iny 
persons who have laid out large tracts into city lots, 
Messrs. F. J. B. Crane, W. B. Wesson, Walter Crane, 
John Gibson, and J. W. Johnston have been cspe- 
ci.illy prominent. They have enriched themselves, 
and promoted the intere.sts of the city by their busi- 
ness sag.'icity, and it is l.irgely owing to their efforts 
that so great a proportion of our inhabitants are 
freeholders. 



PART II, 



HYGIENIC 




Thk dim; 

the early tra 

here in 1757 

l)c'auty and f 

iiavinif ainins 

snow. Tile i 

find tlieir livi 

All investi; 

nioditled by t 

late it seems t 

is seldom sub 

as are comino 

mer temperat 

A diary of th( 

of July to th( 

days, showed 

twelve cloudy 

fell. A recorc 

five days, fnjir 

1819, showed 

thirteen variaL 

snow. In the 

perature in No 

January 30', ar 

ing the years 

about the same 

Boston, Buffak 

The unconir 

tumns and the 

often been the 

temperature, di 

surfaces of this t 

as soon as it fall 

hardly sufficien 

open winter is 

spring, the pro 

being about tw 

always followe( 

Our deepest anc 

in February, \\ 

Winter often " 

then, with a bou 

The region is 

phere, the inten; 

its moonlight, ar 

of its sunsets. 



CHAPTER IX. 



TIIK CLIMATIC OF DICTUOIT 



Thk climate of Detroit very favorably impressed 
the early travelers. M. tie IJoiigainville, wlio was 
here in 1757, says: "The atmosphere is of j^aeat 
beauty and serenity. It is a maj,Miiti(ent climate, 
havinjf almost no cold weather, and only a little 
snow. The cattle stay in the fields all winter and 
find their li\iii)^ there." 

All investij^ations indicate that the climate is 
modified by the surroiindiniij bodies of water. Of 
late it seems to be more variable than formerly, but 
is seldom subject to such e.\tremes of heat and cold 
as are common to the latitude. The mean of sum- 
mer temperature is 67 ; in winter the mean is 26 . 
A diary of the weather, kept in 1816, from the 24th 
of July to the 22(1 of October, or for ei,i,duy-nine 
days, showed that fifty-seven d;iys were fair and 
twelve cloudy, and that <jn twenty days showers 
fell. A record kept at the fort for one hundred and 
five days, from Xovember 15, 1S18, to l-ebruary 28, 
1819, showed forty days clear, forty days cloudy, 
thirteen variable, and tweK'c cloudy, with rain and 
snow. Ill the winter of 1818-1819 the average tem- 
perature in November was 43 , in December 25 , in 
January 30', and in February 33 ' l'"ahrenheit. Tak- 
inj^ the years toi^ether, the mean temperature is 
about the same as that of Elmira, Albany, Portland, 
Boston, Buffalo, and Rochester. 

The uncommon beauty and serenity of the au- 
tumns and the usual mildness of our winters have 
often been the subject of remark. The increased 
temperature, due to the extensive and open-water 
surfaces of this region, causes the snow to melt almost 
as soon as it falls. In manywinters the snow hr- '^een 
hardly sufficient for go(jd sleighing. A - <d 

open winter is ordinarily succeeded by an early 
spring, the proportion as to c( id or late springs 
being about two to one. Cold, snowy winters are 
always followed by cold and backward springs. 
Our deepest and longest lasting snow usually occurs 
in Februar)-, which is also the coldest month. 
Winter often "lingers in the lap of Spring," and 
then, with a bound, leaps into the arms of Summer. 

The region is noted for the clearness of its atmos- 
phere, the intense blue of its sky, the brilliancy of 
its moonlight, and the gorgeous and glowing colors 
ol its sunsets. Indeed, in these particulars, it not 



only exi-cls the Eastern States, but rivals the far- 
famed skies of southern Italy. We have in a single 
month more cle.ir firmament, and of an inteiiser blue, 
th.in th.it land has in half a year. 'i"he autumn here 
is one of the most enjoyable of the sea.sons, afford- 
ing a wonderful contrast to the dull, wet seasons of 
Fur.ipeaii countries in the same latitude. I'lie latter 
part of November is usually so mild that it is known 
and enjoyed as the Indian .Summer. True, the 
leaves are mostly gone from the trees, and nature 
would seem cheerless but for a dreamy haze and a 
springlike mildness in the atmosphere that more 
than atones for the lost glories of summer. 

The climate is the driest in the United States, 
east of the head-waters of the Mississijipi. The 
rains are ijuite etjually distributed through all but 
the winter months, and they have only one sixth of 
the entire precipii.ition. Crops seldom suffer for 
want of moisture. .Vbout the end of September it 
is usual to expect a r.iiny period of some days' dura- 
tion, known as the "e(iuinoctial storm," but often- 
times no such storm appears. During midsummer 
violent rains of brief duration frequently come to 
cool and clear the atmosphere, and a feature peculiar 
to this locality is the rains that so often occur 
during nights which are preceded and followed by 
cloudless days. 

In the months of December and February there 
is the least rainfall. From February to June there 
is a gradual increase. The mean fall of the spring 
months is 2.8 inches. In June, the month of largest 
precipitation, it amounts to 3.9 inches, and the mean 
of the summer is 3.1 inches. The mean for Septem- 
ber reaches 3.3 inches; in the autumn it is 2.4 
inches. The average yearly rainfall, for the period 
between 1840 and i860, was 3;^ feet. The greatest 
fall of rain was in 1855, it being 6 feet; the least was 
2^ feet in 1859. 

As a rule, warm summers, if succeeded by dry, 
pleasant autumns, are followed by mild and open 
winters. Cold summers and autumns are ordinarily 
succeeded by cold winters, the exceptions being 
about one to two, and the probabilities are four to 
one that early springs will be followed by warm and 
pleasant summers. 

In winter the prevailing winds are west or west- 



L.sl 










V2 



^ 



/a 



^l 



'a 







>^ 




7 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 



1.0 Iri- IIM 



I.I 






2.2 



2.0 



1.8 



1.25 



1.4 IIIIII.6 







^-b^ 



^^ 










Q, 



1 



iV 



46 



CLIMATIC OF DF/I'KOIT, 



crly. In thi; spriiii;, for nearly half tlic time, cast and 
northeast winds i)rcvail. The winds vary from cast 
to west and from northeast to soulii, seldom romin.sf 
from tile northwest, in summer soiitiiwest winds 
are most prevalent ; east and west winds are also 
fre(iuent, but tiiere are few northwest or southeast. 
Autumn brin,v,'-s westerly winds, varying from south- 
west to south. Takini; the yearly averaj>:e, probably 
two thirds of the winds are southwest, west, and 
northwest. 

Of course tliere are exceptions to all the above 
ji;eneral rules, and some of these exceptions, j^leaned 
from old records and letters, will astonish the "old- 
est inhabitant." Jonathan Carver states that in 
October, 1763, dense black clouds hunj,^ over the 
city, from which fell rain of a sulphurous odor, and 
of such dark color that some was collected and used 
as ink. The winter of 1779-1780 was the most 
severe on record. Horses and cattle died from 
exposure to the cold, and in the spring hundreds of 
them were found dead in the woods. On .May 16, 
1780, C(jlonel De Pey.ster wrote to Colonel Bolton 
at Niagara, saying: "After the most severe winter 
ever remembered at Detroit, this is the earliest we 
think prudent to venture a vessel to Fort Erie." In 
the spring and summer of 1782 the rains, the most 
violent ever known, washed away ;i large portion of 
the embankment of Fort Lernoult. Farly in i 784 
an extraordinary frost set in, extending all over this 
region. The oldest resitlent could not remember 
any such dee]) snow as that of ilie succeeding win- 
ter ; in some places it was live or six feet deep, 
and caused great distress. .\s late as .March 6 the 
snow was four feet deej). In Lake St. Clair, a mile 
from the shore, the ice was three feet thick, and it 
did not disappear until May. 

The winter of 1811-1812 brought an earthquake 
in place of storms. Its first and most destructive 
manifestations occurred at New Madrid on the Mis- 
sissippi. On December 16, 181 1, it destroyed the 
entire village, which was located on a bluff, fifteen 
feet above high-water tnark, sinking it five feet un- 
der water. .Sand-bars and islands disappeared, 
lakes sixty miles long and one hundred feet deep 
were formed, and the air was fu" of suljihurous 
vajjor. Up to December 21 shocks were of daily 
occurrence, and they were felt at intervals until late 
'.1 February. They were especially severe about 
thirty miles below New Madrid, and were felt all 
over the valley of the Ohio as far east as Pittsburgh. 
They were especially noticeable at Detroit on Janu- 
ary 22 and 23, on the 24th, at 7 P. M., and also on 
February 7, 1812. 

In i8r6, at Detroit, ice formed every month in the 
year. From the 14th to the 20th of .\pril, 1821, 
eight inches of snow fell. The winter of 1S23 was 
very mild. Flowers blossomed in the winter out of 
doors, and a ves.sel arrived from Sandusky on Janu- 



ary 13. On May I. 1S24, there was a foot of snow 
on the ground. In 1826 the winti:r wiis so mild 
that grass is said to have grown ,-i foot in January. 
November 12, 1827, was remarkable as being a very 
dark day. In October, 182S, there were extensive 
fires in the woods, caused by lack of rain, and last- 
ing for two weeks. They began on the Huron 
River, and ran over a large portion of the State. It 
was impossible to see hou.ses along the road. Arti- 
cles exposed gathered a sticky residuum from the 
smoke. It was humorously said that a pig which one 
man killed became good bacon while he was dressing 
it. 1829 was a dry season, but the traditional "six 
weeks of sleighing in the month of February" were 
duly enjoyed. On December 4. 1833, there was no 
ice, and steamers and schooners were arriving and 
departing. February 22, 1834, there was a great 
gale of wind that l)lewdown chimneys and unroofed 
houses. Fi'bruary 8. 1835, the mercury was below 
zero all over the country. The winter of 1838 was 
particularly mikl. ( )n Januai'y 8 the steamer Robert 
Fulton arrived from lUilT.-ilo. March 23, 1840, a 
snow-storm beg;ui which lasted eighteen hours, and 
eight inches of snow fell. In 1S45 .steamers arrived 
from Buffalo every month in the year. 

In 1853, with the exception of a slight shower on 
September i.^, there was no rain all the summer and 
autumn, up to October 21. Fires in the woods were 
numerous, and the fog in Detroit was disagreeable 
and druigerous, old citizens actu;dly losing their way 
in the .streets. The spring ;uid summer of 1855 
were rainy, and the wheat w;is generally damaged; 
the winter was cjuite severe. In January and Febru- 
ary, 1856, there was continuous sleighing. In the 
fall of 1856 and the winter of [857 the public were 
amused with the prophecies of W. W. Ryan in 
regard to the weather. On January 27 he gave a 
lecture at the City Hall. In 1859 there was frost 
every month, and especially heavy frosts on the 
4th and loth of June and the 3d and 4th of July did 
great damage to fruits and vegetables. January i, 
1864, there was a sudden fall in temperature from 10° 
above freezing point on December 31 to 20 "below on 
January i. The summer of 1865 was one of the 
hottest for many years, and much rain fell; the In- 
dian Summer, extending all through November, was 
particularly warm. From the 19th to the 20th of 
January, 1866, the temperature fell 60°. On the 2d 
and the 4th of May, 1867, there was a frost. On 
the I.St and the 2d of March, 1868, immense quan- 
tities of snow fell, almost stopping travel. Other 
snow-storms came on the 2d, 3d, 4th, 7th, i8th, and 
25th of .Vpril; in fact, all through the month, and all 
thrr)ugh May, there were frosts, which were especially 
noticeable on the i8th. On .\pril 12, 1869, there 
was a light fall of snow, and on the next day a heavy 
snow-storm. On October 23, while the trees were in 
full foliage, six inches of snow fell, and many trees 



CLIMATE OF DKTROIT. 



47 



were broken with its weight. On April 26, 1870, 
over one hundred vessels were waitin.u^ at the St. 
Clair Flats for the iee to move out of the ehannel, 
where it was fully ten feet in heitjht. 

On April 20, 1871, ice one fourth of an ineh in 
thickness formed at ni^dit; and on Auj^nst 17, 18, and 
ig there were iieavy frosts. .\o rain had fallen for 
a lonjj time, and it was very dry. In .September and 
October there were extensive fires in Michij^an and 
the West, followed by the i^reat fire in Chica,t,^o. 
December 23, 1871, there was a severe wind-storm. 
The winter which followed was very severe. 

April 13, 1872, occurred a storm of wind, which 
did much damai^e to vessels and poorly built houses. 

January 29, 1873, was the coldest day of the 
season, the mercury ranj^injj^ from 18 to 35' below 
zero. April 3 two inches of snow fell. On December 
4 a wind-storm did much damage, blowing down 
chimneys and signs ami unrooting houses. 

April 5, 1874, snow fell sullicit'nt for good sleigh- 
ing, and on May 7 ic-e formed. The next month, on 
June 28, the mercury was 98' in the shade. 

On March 3, 1875, snow fell fifteen inches on a 
level. On June 27 there was an occurrence entirely 
unusual. -Vbout 6 i'. M. a whirlwind commenced 
near the corner of Ash and Williams Streets, and 
made its way across Crand River Avenue, a dis- 
tance of nearly a mile, sweeping a track fully one 
hundred and fifty feet wide, destroying thirty-three 
small buildings and injuring twenty-eight others. 
Two persons were killed and ten slightly injured. 

March 20, 1876, there was a severe snow-storm. 
July 5, there was a very heavy wind; trees were 
uprooted, carriages and wagons overturned, vessels 
dragged their anchors, and the ferry-boats were 
compelled to stop running. In December ice 



twelve inches in thickness was fornu'd in the river. 
On the 15th and i6th, there was a very severe wind, 
and the snow and ice were piled up in great masses 
in front of the city. 

On January 15, if'77, there was a heavy snow- 
storm, which for a time stoi)ped all travel. Febru- 
ary 7 was extraordinarily warm, and on March 20 
there was a sh.irp snow-storm, accompanied by 
thunder and lightning. It so affecti'd the ek'ctrical 
apparatus in connection with the City Hall bell that 
at every fia.sh the bell struck one. 

In 1878 no ice formeil until February g. There 
was no snow until February 1 1, and boats kept on 
running. For a week in the July following, the 
mercury ranged from 90° to ioo\ On July i there 
was a very heavy thunder-storm and much rain. 

In J;uniary and February, 1879, there were no 
frosts, but on the 6th and the 17th of June this 
remissness of the winter was atoned for. (^n July 
10 there was an immense fall of rain, flooding the 
sewers and filling cellars. On August i hailstones 
as large as walnuts fell in great quantities; during 
the last week in January, 1S81, and the first two 
weeks in the February following, we had clear 
weather and sunshine every day, and the ground 
was entirely free from snow. 

The first two weeks of February, 1883, were in 
marked contrast ; there were several inches of snow, 
and the trees during the entire period were covered 
with sleet and ice. During the night of Monday, 
May 21, there was a heavy wind, accompanied with 
rain, which turned to hail and snow the next morn- 
ing, the storm continuing at inter\-als all the day. 
On the night of Septemlx'r 8 there was a heavy 
frost, which did great damage to fruits and vege- 
tables. 




SPFcrMEN OP Tornado WoKK, {Fyoin a f<l,otofrafh.) 



CII AI'TER X. 



DISEASKS.— DOCTORS. Ml'.DlCAI. SOflKTII'lS. 



DISK, ASKS. 

Di'VCRorr camiot he riTomniciulcd as the paradise 
of ])liysicians. 'I'lu; j^ciieral inildiu-ss of llic climate, 
liic pure breezes from tile river and lal<e, tlie com- 
plete system of drainavje, for which there are excep- 
tional facilitit'S, the inexhatistible supply of sujierior 
water, the abinidance anil \ariety of tish, meat, 
fruits, and wj^alables in its markets, the fa\'orable 
sanitary contlitions, resiiltini,^ from our wide and 
well-kept streets, the enlightened and efficient 
efforts of the Health Officers and Sanitary Police, 
the almost entire absence of tenement houses, and 
the fact LJiat a lari^e majority of the inhabitants own 
their homes, are ;ill to be taken into account in 
explaininj^ its fortunate contlition as one of the most 
healthy cities in the world. 

In cases of disease, these ailvantai^es are favor- 
able to the physicians, niakintj their prescrijjtions 
more effective and increasinj>; the averaije of cures. 
The doctors thus i;et full credit for their skill, and 
this fact, added to other desirable features, makes 
the city attracti\e to physicians as a place of resi- 
dence, notwithstandintr its jreneral healthfiilness. 

Durinyj the last forty years the prevailing; diseases 
have been malarious fever, rheumatism, pneumonia, 
choleraic affections, croup, and pleurisy. There 
have also been occasional visitations of the ordi- 
nary epidemic and contaii^ious diseases, such as 
influen/.a, measles, sciirlet-fever, small-pox, etc., 
and within twenty years typhoid, or rather typho- 
malari.il fc\ers and diphtheria have been added to 
the above list, whic-h, it will be observed, embraces 
only the diseases common to temperate climates. 
Detroit has an advanta^^e over other ordinarily 
healthy cities in the same latitude, in that these dis- 
eases, when they occur, are exceptionally mild in 
type. The yearly death-rate averacfes only about 
twenty for every i.ooo persons. The total number 
of deaths reported in iSSowas 1,074; in 1881, 1,709; 
in 1882, 2.712; and in 18S3, 2,957. 

Old records show that in 1703 the small-pox 
made severe inroads upon the infant colony. It is 
also undoubtedly true that the first American settlers 
suffered mucli from fever and ai;;ue, and whiskey, as 
an antidote, wiis freely used by almost every one. 



In Course of time quinine was substituted, and this, 
combined with other remedies, was tlrst atlmiiiistered 
under the n.ime of Dr. Saj^pinv^ton's I'ills. 

In the fall and winter of 1813 a sex'ere epidemic 
prc\ailed in Oeneral I larrison's army. Hundreds of 
soldiers died, and were buricil near the fort. The 
remo\al of their remains in 1826, ai the time the 
Military Reserve was laiil out into lots, was doubt- 
less one of the causes of the illni'ss of that vcar 
which carried away II. J. Hunt, A. C. Whitney, and 
other prominent citizens. 

The first serious cpiilemic amoni^ citizens occurred 
in 1832, and in anticipation of its cominj^- the Hoard 
of Health, on June 25, issued ])rinted instructions 
for the prevention and cure of the cholera, includinj); 
lists of medicines and prcscriinions for children and 
adults. The mayor's proclamation, ajipended to 
these instructions, forbade vessels from any other 
port to approach within a hundred yards, or to land 
any person until after an examination by a health 
oflicer. 

On July 4 the .steamer Henry Clay arrived; she 
was on her way to Chicai^^o with three hundred and 
.seventy soldiers for tlu' Ulack Hawk War, under 
command of Colonel T\\ij;j>-s. On July 5 one of the 
soldiers died of cholera, and the vessel was immedi- 
ately ordered to Hoij Island. From there she went 
on her way, but the disease attacked so many of the 
troops that it was useless for the vessel to proceed, 
and she was compelled to stop at I'"ort (Iratiot. 
From there the soldiers betjan to make their way to 
Detroit, but many of them died on the road, and 
were devoured by wild beasts ; only one hundred 
and hfty reached the city, arrixiny; here about July 
8. They then embarked on the steamboat \\'m. 
Penn, but the disease compelled them to leave the 
vessel, and they went into camp at Siiringwells, 
where they remained until the scouixc had expended 
its force. 

Meanwhile, on July 6, two citizens died of the dis- 
ease, and a panic was at once created. Many per- 
sons left their business and tied from the city. In 
the country the excitement was even greater than at 
Detroit. On the arrival of the mail-coach at Ypsi- 
lanti, the driver was ordered by a health officer to 



[48] 



disi:asi;s. 



49 



stop, thai an examination of passt-iijujfrs niii^lit be 
made. The driver rcfllsinl,^ his iiorscs were fired 
on ; one was killed, and tiie driver iiitnself had a 
narrow escape. At other jiiaci's fences wert' l)iiilt 
across tile roads, and traveit'rs were compelled to 
turn b.tck. At Rochester persons from Di'troit wt're 
turned out of the hotel and their ha.i^.^ane thrown 
after theni, and the [jridijes were tniMi ii]) to prevent 
persons from enteriniithe vilLij^e. At I'ontiac ai)o(ly 
of men were armed, and si'ntinels were stationed 
on the hii^hw, y to ]ire\-ent ingress. One of the 
citi/t'ns of this latter place, Dr. I'oriei-. canu' here to 
investii^ate the tliseast', hut on his relui"n he was 
refused admiltanee to his own home ;uid com|)elletl 
to revisit our city. In Detroit the lioard of Health 
issued ren'iiiar bulletins, ;nul the court and jury- 
rooms in the old capitol wxre used for hospital ]nir- 
poses. Hy .Auj,Mist i 5 the epidemic was ])ractical!y 
over. The deaths, nini'ty-six in number, could be 
ir.'iced in most instances to iiUemper.ance ar,(l care- 
lessness. 

Two years later the disease ai;;iiu .appeared, ;uul 
this time with added horrors. It l)ei;;in its work of 
destruction the first of .\uniist, .and continued till the 
last of Se|)teml)ei. The i^featest number of deaths 
in any one d.ay was sixteen. In twenty days there 
were one hunilred and twenty-two di-.aths fi'om 
cholera, .and tifty-seven from other causes. Ninety- 
five of these victims were str.an^'ers. Se\-en per 
cent of the population died in a month. 'J'he old- 
est and best citizens, as well as those conipar.ati\'ely 
unknown, were numbered amoni( the dead. Busi- 
ness was hardly thoui;ht of. 'I'he air appe.ari'd un- 
usually oppressive, and to |)urify it l.irne ki'ttles of 
pitch were burned at ni^ht in front of v.arioiis houses, 
and at interv.als aloni^ the streits; the burial rite was 
shortened; and persons were not .allowed to enter 
or leave the city without inspection .and due del.iy. 
It h.ad been the laistom to toll the bell on llu' occa- 
sion of a death, but the tolling' became so fre()uent 
th.at it iiKa'cased the i),anic, ,and w, as therefore discon- 
tinued. 

Mayor Trowbridi^e w.as especially .activt'. D.ay 
after day he visited the hospital, .and in m.any w.ays 
cared for the sick, most honor.ably fultdliuj;- his 
duties as the chief m.a^istrate of the city in its time 
of {greatest nwd. ;\ nurse corps w.as ort;'.ani/ed. .and 
anioni; those who (L^.ave sjieci.al and |ierson.il .atten- 
tion to the p.atients were Drs. Whitiny, Rice, .and 
Chapin, Peter Desnoyers, Z. Ch.andler, John i''.armer, 
and W, N. C.ariienter. 

Some of the p.atients were s,a\ed by the c.ire of 
volunteer attendants .after they h.ad been i^iven up by 
the reinul.ar physici.ans. In the case of one ni.in thus 
fr'wvu o\-er, Mr. I'.irmer .asked if he mii;ht ni\e the 
man some " No. 6." The .answer w.as " ^'es ; ^ixc 
him anienic if you want to," meanini; that the 



man's case w.as hojieless. Some " No. '') " was .ad- 
ministered; the man's jnilse ri'turned. he ii^ot better, 
.an.d in three d.ays w.as uji .and ,at his work. 

Tall, strong-, bnive l.ather M.artiu Kiuulii;- out- 
shone .and oultlid .all others by his tireless devotion 
to the sick .and tlu- dyini;. So(jn after the cholera 
madt' its appear.ance, l'"ather Kundi.i^ bou,i(ht the old 
l'resl)\ teri.in Clninh, which h.ad just been moved to 
till' northwest corner of li.ates Street and Michi).;an 
(ir.and .Avenue, .and divided it into two ap.artments, 
for m.ale .and female patients rt'specti\ely. ( )ut of 
four rows of pews, every second one was removed, 
and his hosiiital w.as re.atly, A one-horse ambulance 
was then prepared, .and mornintj after mornini;', ni,v;ht 
after nii^ht, he wint here and there, j.j<atlu'rinn' in the 
sick .and t.akini^- them to the refuse which combined 
s.anctuary .and hospit.al. lie w.as so much of the 
time .amoinf the p.alients that he was .axoided on the 
stia'cts lest he should s[)re.ad thi' cont.i)L;ion. I'viiig 
|)alients, as the\' p.issed .aw.ay, connnitted their chil- 
dren to his care, and ilie trust was f.aithfully admin- 
istered. The Le.nisl.alure, on March i.S, 1H37, voted 
him $3,000 in .acknowletl^inent of his services ; but, 
as is show 11 elsewhere, he w.as never fully reimbursed 
for the expenses he iiKan'red. 

1''.u1k r Kuiulii;' w.as ably seion.ded by the Catholic 
Kemale Association and by the Sisti'rs of St. ClairC' 
Mi'. Alpheus While .also rendered el'licient aid, not 
only ncL^K'ciiiu.;- his business himself, but xi\in,i,^ also 
the time of his employees. 

In June, 1X49, the reappearance of the cholera 
w.as feared, ,and the follow ini( notice appeared in the 
daily papers : 

riiK piMiMt: scHooi-s:. 

I-'ritla)', the jjtl in-^t. li;i\iii,i.; l)i'.'n a|)|j.)iiUt-il l)y liis Honor, ttie 
Mayor, iis a clay of prayir, fastiiij;, and Uianks^'iviu>; in view of 
an ini|)i'nding and tfrril)le yet witliluld cpidrniir, llir I'nljlic 
Stliools of till.- cily will llirrcforc l)c- dismissed for tliat day. 

l.K\l lilSllcil', 
Chiih-num Vt>nniiittie on Sihools. 

.At this time the citizens turned out in force to 
clean up the city and to sei' that .all nuisances were 
abated. The Common Council, ,at the sin.;-,ijestion of 
the lioard of Health, n.issed an ordinance forbiddinjr 
the sale of fresh tlsh, oysters, fruits, xeoetables, \'eal, 
or pork. On |ul\' 9 the first death took place. July 
16 there were three deaths. July 18 there were 
four, and on the i9ih there were ten ca.ses of 
choler.a. On tlu' 23d three died, and on the 25th 
.seven deaths were reported. The niort.ality con- 
tinued to iiu fease, the .a,n'nTe,y;ate of interments for 
the month bein;;' se\en hundred .and eighty-one. 
The avcr.aife of deaths from choler.a w.as twelve per 
day, and on several days the number of deaths 
r.ani^ed from thirty-tive to forty. From the 1st to the 
2oth of Aui^ust the number of deaths was two hun- 
dred .and ei,nhty. 



50 



DISEASI'.S. — DOCroKS.-MKDICAL SDCIIuTIKS. 



The scoiiri,re, at tliis tiiiK', was a national one, rtnd 
by ])n)claniati(iii of I'lvsidcnt Taylor ilie first l''ri(lay 
ill August was oi)scrvc(l as a day of fasliiiy^ and 
prayer. Soon after this tlu; mortality decreased, and 
on Aui^iist 22 a Committee of the L'oiineil, ap|)ointed 
to make a daily re|)ort, was disehai'm'd, and the ordi- 
nance prohihitini,' the sale of certain fruits, meats 
and ve,ijetal)les was rescinded. < )n Aii.i,aist 25 the 
disease a^ain broke ont, nii^ed with vinilence until 
the early part of SeptembiT, and then i^radiially snb- 
sided. Its last victim died on Sei)tember 12. 

In 1X54 the ]iestilence ai(ain visited the city, and 
the |);i|)ers made daily a|:)pe;ils tociti/.ens to " sprinkle 
lime." It made its appearance in the latter |),irt of 
May. In Jnne the number of deaths avera,v;x'(l two 
or three per day. In July the number of deaths 
from all causes was two hiuidred and fifty-nine, a 
majority beini;' ri'ported as from cholera. Diu'iny 
Augtist the scourge disap[)earetl. 

llOCl'OKS. 

" Medicine men " are no modern innovation. 
The red men of the forest used Umg words and mys- 
terious decoctions long before the French chintr- 
i^eoiis came. The Wa-be-no, a secret society of In- 
dian prophets, or medicine men, once held its annual 
meeting near Springwells, and their mystic incanta- 
tions and incomprehensible compounds formed a 
fitting prelude to the cabalistit; signs and abbreviated 
Latin of their regular and irregular successors. 

The old records of St. Anne's Church contain the 
names, not only of the cures, but of the healers as 
well, and as early as May 9, 17 10, the name of 
M. Henry Hellisle, Cliiniri^con, was inscribed there- 
in. The names of others appear, on the following 
diites : November 26, 1715, M.Jean Haptiste For- 
ester; January 20, 1720, .M. Pierre Jean Chapaton, 
Jr. February 8, 1755, the name of (iabriel Christo- 
pher Legrand, "Surgeon-Major of the Troops," 
appears. The records also show that, as a titled 
surgeon, he outranked any of his predecessors or 
successors. He was the ".son of (iabriel Louis Le- 
grand, ICsq., Sieur de Sintre, Viscount de Mortoim, 
Chevalier of the Royal and Military Order of St. 
Louis, and of Henriette Catharine de Creniay." 

A return of January 12, 1761, by Cieorge Croghan, 
of i)ersons employed by the (iovernment at Detroit, 
contains the name of " Doctor Antoney," at " live 
shillings per day." This is undoubtedly meant for 
the name of Dr. (leorge C. .Inthon. He came to 
Detroit on November 29, 1760, with Major Rogers, 
and was the .sole medical officer of the post. The 
troops of the army and navy, the inhal)itants, and 
the Indians, all alike in turn were patients of tliis 
gifted physician. He resigned on August 4, 1786. 
In 1780 the name of Dr. William Menzies ap- 
pears. 



The earlier physicians carried medicines and little 
scales, wi-ighing out their pre.scri])tions ,'it the houses 
of their ii.'itients, .and their long<'ues, powdered hair, 
■and rul'tk'd shirt-fronts enforced the rt'spi'cl which 
their jirofession conimandetl. In his reflation to 
their pt'rson.il well-being, the doctor often comes to 
be esteemed and ri'verenced .among men as much 
as the i),istor. His touch .and his tread become 
known .and loved, .and his (luestions .and his (|uassia 
even are longed for. The n.imes of some of the 
physici.ans of the ])ast .are "as ointment poured 
forth." ;ui(l their memory lingers like the perfume of 
cedars; strength .and gr.ice were theirs. Among the 
most widely known of the i)hysici.ins of former days 
were the following : 

William McCroskey, William 15rown, Stephen C. 
Henry, J. L. Whiting, M.irsh.tU Ch.apin, Dougkis 
Houghton, 1".. lliu-d, Zin.i I'itcher, A. L. I'orter, R. 
S. Rice. Slulomilh S. ilall, .1. R. 'i"erry, ( '.eorge B. 
Russell, .\br.ih.am S.iger. [. 1>. Scovel, L. I'. Starkey, 
Robert McAIillan, T. 11. Cl.ark, V.. A. Theiller, H. P. 
Cobb, L. H. Cobb, F. (i. Di'snoyers, I'"rancis Breck- 
enridge, Justin Rice, Linus Mott, J. H. Bagg, E. W. 
Cowles, Pliny Power, Moses (kmn, J. C. (lorton, E. 
B.atwell, C. S. Trii)ler, C. N. Fge, Ira M. Allen, J. 
M. .\lden, David Inglis, F. H. Dr.ike, Cieorge Bige- 
low, F. \L Clark, .\. L. Lel.and, J. J. Oakley, Lsaac 
S. Smith, N. 1). Stebbins, S. B. Thayer, S.'m. Ax- 
ford, Rufus Brown, I). Day, F. R.ane, A. B. Palmer, 
L. C. Rose, M. P. Stewart, S. (L Armor, A. S. Hea- 
ton, and I). O. F.arr.ind. 

The physicians now resident in Detroit are located 
conveniently all over the city. Many of them are 
established on .anil near Lafayette Avenue, and those 
desiring treatment by any of the popular "pathies " 
of the day can l^e acconunodated. 

Two .Medical Colleges gradu.ate .a large niunber of 
students every ye.ar, sever.al excellent hosjiit.als afford 
exceptional clinical advantages, and .a number of 
valuable medical joinai.als .are published in the city. 

MKDK Af, .SOLIKTIKS. 

While the doctors have often been enabled to 
keep their patients alive, their own societies have 
over .and .ag.ain died for want of care and because of 
improper treatment. It is evidently easier to com- 
pound drugs th.an to harmonize the views of mem- 
bers of the profession, and a di.agnosis of some 
" Society" cases would perhaps reveal .symptoms of 
ment.al poisoning. 

The first society w.as authorized by an Act of the 
Legislative Council of June 14, 1819. Under this 
Act the physici.ans .and surgeons of the Territory 
were .authorized to meet in Detroit on July 3, 1819, 
to form a medical society, 

The Act also i^rovided for the formation of county 
societies, who were authorized to e.xamine persons 



si'i'king tc 
fee of Sio 
without su 
.aster of so 
these org.ai 
Society w; 
president ;i 
ye.ars later 
organized. 
Medical Si 
lived for t 
on .August 
n.ame w.as 
aiul W. 1 1 
organizatio 
A W.ayi 
org.anized J 
for ten ye; 
Honid'opat 
org.anized 
J.anu.ary 20 
this institu 
1878-1SS1. 
1882, R. ( 
Porter. 1 
1S83 
maintained 



MEDICAL socii:tii:s. 



51 



si.'fkiiin' to jiracticc, and to t;rant diplomas. A 
ka; of Sio was to l)c \xM for v;n-\\ diplonia, and 
without siuli (li|)loina no one inii^lit practice. Dis- 
aster of sonic l<in(l soon terminated tile existence of 
these ()rt,^'uii/.ations. In 1839 tlu' Micliiyan Medical 
Society was in existence, with D. ( ). Iloyt as 
president ;ind !■".. \V. Cowles as secretary. A few 
years later the Sydenham Medical Society was 
orc^anizcd. It ceased in I1S4S. The Wayne County 
Medical Society w.is ori^ani/.ed in May, 1S66, and 
lived for ten years. It was then dish.anded, and 
on An,!L;iist (7, hS;^, n new society by the .same 
name was ori;ani/,ed. William Jirodie, president, 
and \V. 11. Rouse, secretary, have served from its 
organization. 

A Wayne County I lomneopathit: Institute was 
orirruiized July 3, i<S6S, and continued in existence 
for ten years. It was succeeded, in 1878, by the 
Ilonid'opathic Collejije of I'hysici.ans and Sur.i,^eons, 
orii^ani/.ed October 2\, 1878, and incorporated on 
January 20, 1879. The presidents and recorders of 
this institute have been as follows : Presidents,— 
1878-1881, K. X. Sprani^er; i88[. C. C. .Miller; 
1S82, R. C. Olin; 1883, J. McCuire; 1884, I'hil. 
I'orter. Recorders, — 1878-1883, J. C. Gilchrist; 
1883 , J. M. Cririin. Since April, iSSo, it has 

maintaineJ a Free Dispensary, which is a con- 



tinu.ition of a I'rce Iloma-oiiathic Dispensary organ- 
ized by a number of ladies in 1876. 

The Detroit Academy of Medicine was organized 
on .September 18, 1869, at the ollice of Richard 
Inglis. The otlicers h.ivi' been ,'is follows: I'resi- 
deiits, — 1869, Rich.ird Inglis; 1870, !•;. W. Jenks; 

1871, II. I". I.yslir; 1872, J;uiies F. \oyes; 1873, 
Henry A. Cleland ; 1874, K. L. Shurly; 1875, C. B. 
(filbert; 1876, ("leorge I'. Andrews; 1877, Leartus 
Connor; 1878, A. 15. Lyons; 1S79 ;md 1S80, Theo- 
dore A. .McC.r.iw; 18S1, 11. (). Walker; 1882- 

, Judson llr.idlcy. .Secretaries, — 1869, W. II. 
Lathrop; 1870, .A. I>. Lyons; 1871, L. Connor; 

1872, A. H. Lyons; 1873, i'"r;uik Livermore; 1874, 
A. li. Lyons; 1875. II. (). W.alker; 1876 and 1877, 
James I). Munson; 1878, ]•;. A. Chapoton; 1879 
and 1880, J. \V. Robertson; 1881, A. K. Carrier; 
1882, Morse Stew.irt, Jr.; 1883- , A. H. Lyons. 

The Detroit Medical and Library Association was 
organized October 4, 1876, and incnr|iorated March 
12, 1877. The officers have been as follows: 
Presidents, — 1877, J. .V. lirown ; 1878, A. .S. Ileaton; 
1879, K. L. Shurly; 1880, II. A. Cleland; 1881, 
T. A. McC.raw; 1882, X. W. Webber ; 1883 
R. A. Jamieson. .Secretaries, - 1877 and 1878,'!'. 
F. Kerr; 1879, F. D. Porter; 1880- , Willard 
Chaney. 



I 



H 



C]':Mi'/n:uii:s. 



C II A I'T I': R XI 



Al.S AND Sl'.Xl'ONS. ColNTV Ci )Ri )NI:RS. 



cIvMi;ii:kii.s. 
Till': fcnii'teries of the past ami the present aiv 
naturally tlu'idcd into ci^lit classes, \i/. : Tlu- old 
Indian burial ])laccs, the Military, Catliolir. I'roiis- 
tant, t'ily, Jewish, .and l.iilhci'.in ;>;rnunds, ;uul the 
ccniftrrics of piixalc i'oi-porati<ins, 

lihii'aii lUiiial I'liUiS. 

" They h;i\'c put tin- s.iiid o\rr him " w;is the 
common Indi.m rxprrssion whm lcllini;(if the death 
of one of the tribe, I )iie of ihi' plares where the 
hiilian de.ad were buried was the N,i\arre' I'';irm, 
more lately known as the llrt'voort [''.nan. I><iih 
the village! and the buri.al place of the I'oi.iwat.imies 
were there, and the tiibe deeded tiie entire' f.iian to 
Robert \';i\-;iri-e on M.iy 26, 1771, The ikwl s.iid, 
"We ,i;'i\-e him this land fore\-ei- that he m,i\- culti- 
vate, till! same li'^ht ,a lire thereon, ,ind take c.ire of 
our de.ad ; and for suret\- of oui" word we h.ive 
made oin- mai'ks, sup|)orted by two br.anches of 
w.ampimi." .\t v.arions times since the det'd w.as 
made the march of im|)ro\ement and the siiovel 
of tile Milesian have si'riously disturbed the le- 
m.ains of the dusky foiaiis there buried. In 1S67, 
while W'oodbrid.ne .Street w.as bein,v^\!L;raded, twenty- 
live or thirty skeletons were exluuned. There were 
also fountl several pipe-bowls, to^ellier with tom.a- 
hawks .and llints in i;re,it number. ( )ther remains 
have been found within the last few years, 

Milita>y Binyi/i^' {hnuiids. 

As early .is \'](^'s, and prob.ibly nmch e.irlier, the 
j^routid inmiediately in t!ie re.ar of the present First 
N;ition;il I5ank Vwis used .as a milit.iry i)iu-i;il-place. 
After the l)attle of Bloody ISriiljre, or liloody Rini, 
the reiiKiins of Captain D.ilyeii,' anil other oflicers 
who perished in lh.it fe;M-ful mass.acre, were buried 
there. In i(S47, while workmen were exc.av.atini;- 
for ;i buildini;- near die northeast corner of Ciriswold 
and \Voodbridj;e Streets, skeletons .and portions of 
oId_ tonil).st()ne.s were found; .and one stone w.as 
broken up and put in the cellar-w.ill. It is ;i s.ad 
cnmment.'irv on the spirit of the .a-c tli.it there is 
scarce a ii;nive or i^nivestone left, or even .a record 
of the present pl.ice of burial of those who dieil at 



Detroit ,a ccnlurv ai;o. .VII, ,ill, h.ive dis.ippe.ired I 
The tombstone of ll.amtr.amck .alone I'ein.ains as a 
memorial stone for the: thous.ands who p.assed away 
before him. 

In i.Si;, .and lan-r, ,1 poi'iiou of the ,i;i'oiinils be- 
loni^inv; to I'ort .Slulbv, .and even the j^i.aci^: itself, 
w.as used .as .a buri.al-pl.nc. Seven bundled soldiers 
Were buried West of the fort in the winter of 1S13- 
1S14. ( )n < >et(]ber 51, 1X17, Lieutenant John 15r(.oks 
w.as burn d 011 iju' ,i:;roun(ls of the fort, I'lieri: was 
,1 lon;^' fimcr.al procession, and the servii'es were con- 
ducted by Rev. .\lr. I.,arned, 

After the jL;rantinn- of the .Milil.i:-y Ki'serve to the 
city, the street commissionei-, on .Vui.;nst 27, 1X27, 
was directed to re-inter, in the new cemetery, the 
bones of soldiers which were exposed by ^r.adinn' 
.about tlie foit ; .and .1 l,ir>^-e number were removed. 
'Idle .i^roiind w.as located bctwi-en .Michigan .and La- 
f.iyette .Avenues, and ociuipied .a ji.art of both blocks 
between \\'a\ ne .and I'ii'st Streets. In 1 .S 



33' 



wlieii 



> Often written Ualzell 



Cass Street w.as Wwv^ pawd, many cot'fms were dut; 
up, .and exc.av.ations for cell.ars in th.at loc.ality have 
frequently unearthed other old i;r,ives. In 1869 
twenty-live bodies Were duv;- up on Ca.ss Street, and 
in i.S.Si, while prep.ua'ni;- found.alions for a new block 
on the coiaier of MichiL;",in A\enue .and Cass Street, 
the rem.iins of sever.al bodies \wxii revealed. 

The little enclosure showai ;it the left in the pic- 
ture of Deti'oit in I7</) is bi'liewd to h.i\e been a 
ijr.avey.ai'd, .and from ;i comp.iia'son of ni.aps and 
pl.ans it seems prob.ible that the bones alluded to in 
the Detroit Journ.al of December 9, I1S29, were from 
this little niilit.ary bnri.al-|il;ice. The [ourn.al .s.ays: 

'I'lu- uiMkiiu-ii ciiipl.ijTcl hj- Maj.)r Si h wail/ in niinn ill,., i-urth 
fiDiii priiiiiMS adjiiiiiini; tlu; .Maiisimi It.mse in this city disciivcred 
a toiiibst.iiu; iiisciilird til t'.nsi.is'ii Jiiliii ( layu of jist Kiijiniciit of 
KcKit. Masonic cmhlnns aro iiii;TavLd ml it. '\\\k date is 1778. 

What was done with tiie stone is now unknown. 

Catholic C 'riiti-trrics. 
The location of the earliest known burial-pl.ace is 
showai on the in;ii)s of 1749 .and 1796. The records 
of St. Anne's Church st.ate tli.at on June 25. 1755, 
certain bodies were tr.ansferred from the old ceme- 
tery to the new one. This new cemetery w.as inside 
of the stock.ade,.and covered a portion of the irroiinds 
of St. Anne's Church, then located on wli.at is now 
Jefferson Avenue, between C.riswold and Shelbv 



[52] 



Streets, 
n.ames of 
other per>- 
were buri 
stock.ade 

1755. •■i'kI 
time to bri 

cluna-h. 
buried abo 
nesses w h( 
.a portion 
from time 
been iii.adi 
m.ains li.av 
was laid ( 
old )j;r.ive\ 
feeliui;, .aiu 
(juadr.ani^ii 
church, I'.ai 
and Judm"- 
f|Uestion w 
l*'l;mcl, in 
Anne's rec 
rem.ains fro 

1817, llu- 111 
wc, nndcrsii^ni 
ini'iit (if .1 ci It 
strt'tt, wlirre 
Cliurili c,f St. 
([iiirfd tiTfiiiiH 
liiiryiiii; ,i;niiin 
I lulu, is, aiitl a 



It was as 
St, Anne's 
l..arned Stfi 








^g^v rrHv--v;.^-:- : 



ci:.\ii:ri;Kii.s. 



.■^0 



Stri'fts. TIk' nconls of St. Anne's fluircli \^]\r tlic 
iiaini'S of a nuinhci" of priests, coinniandaiiis, and 
otlier piTsons of (lislinciiou who, at \ai-ious ])crio(ls, 
wiTi.' burieil i'\tn within the •iiureh w.ills, Tiie 
stoei<a<lc was enlaiXfd just l)efore tlie removal in 
1755, and tliis seems to have i)een di'emed a litiini; 
time to brinj; certain rt'mains into,y;roim(l ne.irer llie 
ehureh. It is well known that many |)ersons were 
buried about the old ehnreh, and lhei-e are livini;- wit- 
nesses who, as late as i<Si.S, s;iw i;ra\es oeeiipyini,;' 
a portion of what is now Jeffi'rson Avenue ; and 
from time to time since then, as (■xca\;itions ha\e 
in'cn made for sewers and cell.irs in tile vicinity, re- 
mains have i)een nncovcri'd. W'lu'n the new town 
was laid out in i.S(y), the (iiies'.ion of .allowinv;' the 
old >rra\'eyar(ls to remain ^as'e rise to much hard 
fi'i'linit;', and for ni'arly a do/en \eai's there w;is ;i 
(|ua(lrani;iilar stru!iri;k' lutwei'n two p.arlics in the 
cluu'ch, fathei- Richard, tlu' pi'icst, ,ind the ( lovcrnor 
and Judi^i'S, as to the \-acatinj4 of the ^-rounds. The 
question was not st'ttled until the arriwil of I'lishop 
Fla.i^et, ill iSiS. The following; transcript from St. 
Anne's records ni\'es the dati' of removal of certain 
remains from the old i^routids : 

1817, llir liist (l.iy cif .M:iy ;iii(l ihr lUih of tin- stmie nioiitli, 
wr, iimliisiKiKd priest n-i'tiir l^l St. .Ainu's, liavc' maiU: (lisiiUif- 
min; iif a ci-rtiiiii (inaiitity iif l)iiiits friim tlic iniddii' nl tin- in.iiii 
strc(l, wlurc wcri' foriniTly tin- i>lil liiiryin.i,' y;iniMi(ls ami ukl 
Cluirili cif St. Anne. Wc- hiiriiil tlnsi! rcinaiiis, with all tlu^rr- 
(liiiri-d ii-i-fmuiiii s, ui Ji Miiiaii; ).;ra\-i-, in the mi(l<lli' of tin- new 
huiyini; Kruunil ; lliis in pi-iisun<c of the inulcrsij,'nicl, I'.tiumi'j 
I Uiliois, uiul a .uriat number of pioplr. 

(Sixiud) I'', r 1 1' N N !■: riiimts, 

( ;,\i:Kn I. Rii 11 \i;ii. 

It was as a i/zc/y /;7' i/;fi> for these ,!i.;rounds that 
St. .Anne's Church recei\-i'd the lai;i.;e, tract un 
L.anieil Street, east of liates Street, 




.\n old memorial, dated .April 22. 1S07, addressed 
to the (lovi'rnor and Jii<lv;('s, says: 

.\liont the year ]y<t'> or '117 it was (Icrtncd ixpi-dienl for tin- 
liiiiilii .■iiid liialili of tlic inli.ilpitanis of tlir amicnt town of I'l'- 
troil (I oiisidiTin^' till- ).;rcal li-ni;ili of time tlial the small spaee of 
).;ronnd ,'idjaeeiit to the i hnreh has heeii used as a pulilic plan- of 
interment I that .i new linrial-.tfroniid should he allotted to (iiiri<in- 
^rev;ation on the then pnhlii: eoinnions. .\< eordinj..'I>' the ground 
wliiih We now hold was ])ieketed in, with the approbation ol Ihi' 
(orporation of liitmit, and tln^ <'ojisi'nt of ('dlonel llamtranxk, 
the military (imnnandanl of this plac f, nniler whose jnrisdietioii 
the etitiunnns was then in some measure eonsidi-red. 

The statements of the memorial are conrirmed l)y 
a letter from I'eter .Aiiih.iin to ( iovernor St. Cl.iir. 
dated November i, i7y<S, on file at Columbus, < )hio. 
It says: 

1 think it my duty to inform your I'.xcelleney that the com- 
mamlaru of this post has v;ranli-tl an aert; of v^roiind on tln^ com- 
mons joining' the town, to he nsi-d a^ .i linryim; ,i;romid liy the 
Roman Catholics. This i,;rant aiiswirs a \ ery ^ood pnr|)os<', as 
the old hnryinj.; ;;romul jomini^ their ehnreh and within the pickets 
K sM full that it IS a real pidilie nuisance, and h;is been preseiiteil 
as such liy sexer.d utand juries. 

Thei^rouiids on I.;irned Street, thus obtained, con- 
tinued to be used up to 1S27, when the city j^a\c the 
C.itholics the use of one half of the then new City 
Cemetiry on the ISi'aubien I'arm. 

Mount l-'.lliott C '(•iiirtrry. 
This is located on the l.eib I-';irm, and is bounded 
bvCerman .Street on the north, Macomb .Street on 
the south, .M(}uiit Mlliott .\\enue on the east, and 
J''.lmwdod C'eiiU'li'rv on the west. In 181S2 it con- 
tained siNtv-li\'e acres. The first imrchase of 
eleven acres w;is made on .An,t;iist 31, I1S41. 'fhe 
cemetery is named after Robert T. l'".lliott, one of 
the original pi-ojectors and |)urchasers. His own 

interment, the first in the 
grounds, took place on 
September 12, 1841. I-'rom 
that day to January, 1884, 
the aggregate of inter- 
ments reached about 25,- 
765, not including the re- 
mains of 1,490 graves 
removed from the old City 
Cemetery on the Beaubien 
Farm in the fall of 1869. 

The ground is laitl out 
into about 6,000 lots, of 
which upw.ards of 4,000 
ha\e been sold at ])riccs 
r.anging from $25 to S300. 
Single graves are sold at 
a tixed |irice and the pcxir 
are buried free. The cost 
of the several piirelia.scs of 
land up to 18S4 amounted 
to $45,190, and nearly an 



* 



54 



ci:mi:i'i:kii'.s. 



equal amount lias bctii txiHiuIrd fnr inipidM- 
iiiLiits. 'I'lic ci'Muacry was (>|)t'n((l in Si'|)t<inl)rr, 
1841, and was conscrrati'd liu' same year liy liishop 
Lcfcvrc. A second lot of .i,M'ound was lonsccralcd 



Wa 



R.'br .-iZ.ti 









SI 



ai 



III 

iilii 

m 



mmm 
ifiiiii 

\'f \^ ■••'•'■!'' Ki'<fv[';i;'l.': K 

Lii:.;iliiC'i:Etid:£li:t; 

, 11,. 1. 1 1 1 II M 1 M i> . ii; \ ^l..l;l . |i:.,i.i ;i 1.1 1 ':/. f.rt 

LLi.L'A-'J-LUJJ.b.LLLlL-'J f Ni 1 1 ll ■ 1 I II 1 1 . \/^/, I I'l 1 



*: — .'Vi rt ,' • ■ ■ ■ ' — 'J ■ .' ■ ■ ■i,'^,',' ll."., wiifii •. ,,' 



iUiLia; liltKjiWiWIyy 



^itilw 1; ; i^yj-v. CI' ':■+:•:■ W "SniiS wl 



iil 







Map of Mr. Elliott Cemetery, 



l)y the sanir prelate on Deeeniher 7, iSd,, anda later 
purchase by liishop ilorj^'ess on ( irtoher ifi, iSISi. 

A stone jt^ateway was eom|)leted in .September, 
1 882, at aeostof §6,000. The eemetery was originally 
undiT the direct care of the bishop of the diocese. 
On November 5, 18^15, it was incorporated, and 
placed in the care of twi'Ke trustees, two each beinitt 
ilecled from the parishes of St. I'eter and St. I'aul, 
St. .\nne"s, .St, Mary's, Holy Trinity, St. Joseph's, 
and St. Patrick's. <M those tlrsi chosen only Messrs. 
I'.llioti and Ihlfron i-emain on the board. The 
Hoard of 'I'rustees in 1883 was as follows: From 
the Church of St. i'eter ;uid I'.aul, Richard K. I'.lliott, 
Henry I ). IS.irnard; fi-om St. .\nne's, Alexander V.. 
\'i,!L;er, [osi'|)h W. Moore; from .St. Mary's, {'"rancis 
I'et/, Josi'ph Scluilte; from Holy Trinity, Jeremiah 

Calnon, John .Mon;it;h;in; from .St. Jost'ph's, 

, .\. I'l'tx; from St. I'atrick's, John Heffron, 

C. J. O'Klynn. 

When the v;r"und was tn-st opened it was placed 
in ehariiie of !'. ISiirns, who in 1872 was suecei'ded 
by John Ktid. ( >ne of the chief points of interest 
is the ^fasi' ;c,ul tombstone of Colonel John l''rancis 
ll.imtramck. the tlrst American conun.andant at 
Di'troit. Ik: was oriv^in.illy binaed in the iLjraxi'yard 
of St. Anne's, but in July, 1866, uiuk'r the super- 
inti'iidenc cof K. R. I'.lliott, the remains were ri'moved, 
placi'd in an oaken e.asket, and (k'posiled in Mount 
Illliott. '{'he i;ra\'e is locati'd at the intersi'ction of 
.Shaw^■ and Resurrection Avenues. The inscription 
on the stone is as follows : 

S;iilV(l 

to tlie Mciunry (if 

Jolni I-"rani-is IlanUranu k, I"'s(i., 

C'oldiicl (if till- I^t t'liiti-il SiMtis Ki>;im(]it of Infantry 

and 

Cdinnianilant of 

T)ctr(iit and its I Jcpcndcniit^s. 

He departed litis life mi tlii! iitli of Ajiril, i.So;, 

Aged 45 years, 7 ntontlis iV ;>S days. 

'I'rne Patriotism, 

And a /ealoiisattaelimeiit to Nation, d lilierly, 

Joined to a !andal)li' anil>ition 

Ii il hii'i 'nto Military serviee at an early 

period of his life. 

lie \v;is it soldier even before he was a man. 

lie was an aeti\-e participator 
in all the I lan^'ers, I liHienlties and honors 

of the Re\-olntionar)' War; 

And his heroism and nniform good eondnet 

proetn'ed him the attention and personal th.mks of 

tlie immortal Washington. 

'the I'nited .States in him have lost 

A valuable olVieer and a i;ood citi/en, 

And Soeietyan I'sefiil and I'leasant Member; 

to his family the loss is inealeidable, 

and his friends will never forxt't 

the Memory of Ilamtramek. 

'this hnndile monument is placed over 

his Remains 

by the oO'ieers who had the Honor 

to ser\'e under his command — 
A ymall but Ki'ateful tribute to 
liis merit 

and 
his worth. 



■ 



ci:mi:i'i;kii:s. 



n.T 






Proft •s/a lit Ci nil trrit -.v. 

'I'lie earliest record foiieerniiix a I'rotestani ceiiu- 
tery is eoiitaiiii'ii in the proeeediiij^s of liu' Hoard of 
Trusu-es for October 3, 1S03. It says, "It is well 
known that the Protestant hnryiny;- iLfroinid is in very 
bad order, and Chai'les Curry is re(|iiested to oi)eu a 
subscription for that object." 

The jrround referred to covered a portion of what 
is now Woodward Avenue, between Larned and 
Con>(ress Streets, and was probably a part of the 
same j^rounds shown in the niajis of 1749 and I7<X). 
In iSiS it was known as the Mniilish buryini;- 
ground, and nn'ctinirs of eiti/ens were held on July 
18 and 25, to consider the necessity of enclosini^ 
tile .irrounds; and on beini;' imitioned to ilo so, the 
trustees resolvetl to enclose them, by tax if neces- 
sary. On July 2(), i<Si(;, a portion of this buryinij 
pround was ijranted by the Govirnor and Judv;es to 
the Kirst Protestant Society, It was used for burials 
up to June, 1827, and then the city passed an ordi- 
nance forbidding- its further use for such purjioses. 
'I'he remains of persons buried in the j.j'rounds were 
removed at various times as necessity demanded. 
A notice from the trustees, reciuestin.vr the remov.al 
of the remains by friends, was published as late as 
February 5. 1851. 

City Crnirfrn'is. 

The establishment of the first City Cemetery 
jjrew out of a nieetini;' of cili/ens hekl on December 
16, 1826, when a conuiiitlee was ajipointed to report 
ujion a site for burial ])urposes outside of the city. 
The Conuuon Council then took action, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to proc-ure suitable .iijroiuHls. 
On March 22, 1827, they reported that they had 
purchased of Antoine Heaubien two and one 
half acres for a burial ground, for which they paiil 
S500. At the same meeting the mayor submitted a 
resolution for the payment of the S500 which had 
been borrowed from the Hank of Michigan. The 
purchase was fully consummated on June i, 1827, 
and on June 19 the council appointed a committee, 
consisting of Recorder \i. l*. Hastings and Alder- 
man P. J. Desnoyers, to divide the grounds into two 
equal parts, am' these parts were thereafter desig- 
nated respectively as the Catholic and the Protestant 
Cemetery. The lots had been laid out previous to 
this division, and when the dividing fence was erect- 
ed it ran directly across many of the lots. This fact, 
however, proved of great practical convenience, for 
many families, who had both Protestant and Catholic 
relatives, bought these lots lying along the line of 
the fence, and buried their Catholic friends on one 
side and their i'rotestant relatives on the other; thus 
the sanctity of the ground was preserved, while in 
the same lot, and yet in two different cemeteries, 



those of op|)osite faiths reposed in jjcace. On Sun- 
days this |)lace was a favorite resort, lii'ing within 
easy walking distance, scores and hundreds of chil- 
dren and grown peo|)lc, on pleasant S.ibbaths, wan- 
dered about the grounds, reading and comparing 
the tombstone inscriptions. The lir'^t lots in the 
Protest.'int* portion of the cemetery were sold at 
auction on March 26, 1828, atid the money received 
was used for imiirovements. i'he grounds lay be- 
tween Cir.itiot and Clinton Streets, and extended a 
little e.ist of St. .\nloinc Street, bounded on the west 
by what is now known as Paton Street. Tliis last 
street was then called (. iinetcry l.ane, and extended 
from the (Iratiot Road to Jefferson .Avenue. In 
1836 a gate was erected at the entrance on Jeiferson 
Avenue, midway In'tween lieaubien and St, .Vntoine 
Streets. The lane was laid out in 1827, partially 
enclosed in 1836, and fully enclosed in 1843. In 
June, 1845, a petition was circulated to have it 
opened, but it was ilecided that the city had no 
rights therein. After 1855 no interments were 
allowed to bi' made in the cemetery, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1859, Mullett Street was opened through the 
grounds. A large portion is now designated as 
Clinton Park. 

The second City Cemetery dates from May 31. 
1834. The mayor on that day bought at auction, 
for $2,010, lifty-tive acres of the Ciuoin l''arm, just 
north of the Oratiot Road, and now bounded on the 
west by Russell Street. The tract was deemed too 
large for a cemetery, and thirty-tive acres were di- 
vitled into lots and sold. A plan of tlu' grounils was 
adopted on .September 30, 1835, and the price of 
lots was tixed at §10 for full, and §5 for hall lots. 
Originally the city sexton had charge of the grounds 
and sold the lots, l-'rom 1841 to 1863 sales were 
made by the city clerk, and after 1863 the comji- 
iroller was charged with the care of the plan and the 
sale of lots. On April 20, 1869, it was ordered that 
no more bodies be buried in the grounds, and on May 
14, 1879, an order of the Circuit Court was issued 
vacating the cemetery. This gave the city full con- 
trol over it for other purposes, and since then the 
wtjrk of removing the graves has gone rapidly for- 
ward. One thousand foin- lunidred and ninety-three 
bodies were removed in 1880, at a cost of $2,019, 
and buried at (Iro.sse Point, a portion of the hospital 
groimds having been set apart for the purpose ; in 
1881 one thousand .six hundred and sixty-eight 
additional bodies were removed, and during 1882 the 
work was completed by the removal of the remains 
of one thousand three himdred and fifty-seven 
bodies. The House of Correction and one of the 
Hay and Wood Markets occupy a portion of the 
ground ; and, as opportunity offers, the city is per- 
fecting its title to the entire cemetery by buying 
up the rights of lot-owners. 



56 



ti:Mi:i' 



l-'.liiiWi>i>ii ( \ nil li rv. 
This bc.'Uilil'ul (.■cnicUTy lirs in llir rasirrn p.iri nl 
tin- city, 'i'iic v;n>iiiui is nl .1 li'.;lii. pornns iiaiiiir. 
.■md from its natural (■iiiifiiiinaiinn adniirahlv adaplci! 
Iiir the pnrpiiM'. Parent's C'rcrk, or lilcmiK Unn. 
winds uraci'lully thnni'^ii tiic ,v;rinmds and adds 
niiich to till' attraction of ilic place, Tlif' money to 
purchase tin.' lirst lui'iy-uiie avrcs was obtained by 




Kn ru ASc h: ro Ivi.mw unn 1'i;mi' ri'uv. 

subscription. The land cost Si. S5S,, and was con- 
tracted for in the spriii^of i.S4(). <)n()ctober S, fol- 
lowing;', the cemeterv was optiU'd, and l!ie next (l,i\-, 
at .an auction s.ale, the subscril)ei\s li.id their clume 
of the lots. Those of the subscribers who did not 
want lots, luul thi'ir siibscrii)tions refunded. 'I'he as- 
sociation was iiicoiporated by special .\ct on Mai'ch 
5, 1849, ;uul ttniler tlu' .\ct all moneys recei\ed fi-oni 
sale of lots, over ,ind .above the cost of the i^rounds. 
must be tle\'oted to their impro\'ement. Tlu' deed 
for the tirsc purchase was il.ated July 10, 1S5C. The 
date .and cost of sul)se(|uent |)iircliasi's are as fol- 
lows : .\u!L;iist 26, 1851, 1 1 1", ■'„ acres, ;isi.2oo; De- 
cember 6. 1851, Lots 21 and 22 of Tiiint i'arm, 
$f)oo; January 24, 185;!, 2 ,-„-„ acres. S200 ; .Se|nem- 
ber 12, 1864, live acres of 1). C Whitwood, !S3,5<>o; 
May 12, 1871, 1133 acres, $16,000. ilythe opening;' 
of (icrman Street three and one third acres \ww 
left outside the eiU'.osure. leaviiiiL;' se\eiit\-ei,t;ht aci-( s 
in the ^-rounds. In 1852 a t.isteftil .and substantial 
monument was erected on the i^founds ilesi.i,;iiateil as 
the .Strangers' Lot. 

The Chapel was built in 1855, and cost S4.000. 
It is a Xorman ("lothic structtiri' of (|uarried linie- 
.';tone, .about thirty-four fei't lon;^- by twenty wide. 

The stone i^atcway, fronting;- Mlmwood ,\venuc, at 
the head of i.'roi^han Street, was completed in 1870, 
and cost §6,000, The size of lots \',iries from 1 5 x 20 
to 20x30; the prices in 1850 wei\' from Si 5 l" 



SliHM.nh, ( )n J.uiu.iiy I, |S,S4. there were about 
;,yi() lot-owners, and 35 lots were still unsold. 1 In 
loi.il number of interments ,it lh,it daii' w.as 21,421. 
The lirst trusties were .\. D. I'r.iser, president; 
|ohn »)v\cn, irc.isurcr; 1 lcnr\ l.edy.ird, se< ret.iry ; 
I.', (. I'rowbrid'^e, Ur.icl (.'oe, and J. .S. jciuicss. 
On August <■), 1834, t'. 1. Walker look the |)l,icc of 
Israel i.'oe, removed lo New N'ork, ( )n JiiK 1'', 
|8()|, I). 1;. DuHield w,is I'Iccted in pl.ice of 
II. l.edy.ird, ;md C. 1. W.ilkei- becime secre- 
tary. (>n June 14. 18(12. (.'.ilcb \',in IJusen 
bcc.ime .1 triislee in pl.icc of J. S. Jenness, 
removed from the cilv. < )n .\pril 4, 1868, 
Mr. \\ alkcr rcsi^^iied, ,ind William .\. llutlcr 
w.is then clc< led , I trustee and I). I'l. DiiHii'ld 
chosen sccrci,ir\-. ( )n (;uui.u'v 11, 1878, 
K. I', I'oms siicceed'd A. D. I'i'aser as .a 
trustee, anil 188;,. .alter the de.ith of C, t'. 
Ti'owbrid'^c. > pl.ice w.as filled by tlu' ap- 
poinimcnl of A. II. 1 )e\ . l-'i'om the limi' 
the cenuiery w.as opened until M.ay 2, 1870, 
at which (kite the office w,is discontinued, 
Robert I'lcll .acted , IS collector and .avji'iil of 
the tiaistecs. 

The supcrinlendenis h;ui' been .as fol- 
lows: \\ ill. I ludson lo .\pial, i855;Thom,is 
.Matthews to .\pril, 185O; and I ). ( d.adew it/, 
to .\u;.;ust 5. 1808; William K. ll.amillon 
w.as .appointed .St'ptembcr 3, 1 808, ,and his successor, 
' '.cor^i' 11. Harris, on M.anh 1. 1875. Mr. Harris 
resioiud l'"el)ru.ary y. 1876, and on April 12, 1876, 
-A. W'. lll.iin w.as a[)pointed. 

// 'oiuliiuTi- (. )■//.■, ■/,7-\>, 
This cemetei-y lies in the town of Spring-wells, four 
.and one h.ilf miles from the City ll.ill, ,uul oc(ai|)ies 
part of the Ship \ .u'd Tract. It is bounded west 




EntranxI' Tn WcinoMii:!;!- Ci- Mr rpuv. 

by IS.aby Creek, .a wide b.ayou, which extends within 
the i;rounds ; on the south tlu' i^rounds .are bounded 
bv fort Street, .and on the I'.ast bv the Dix Cross 



Ko,ul. Wo 
ro.tds, is li 
entr.Mice. 
notice th.at 
rivci' Koiiv; 
of the cei 
" mere," .1 
The i;roui 
are exem| 
ptirposes, .1 
The .iss 
reor!u;,ani/i( 
last year il 
0, 1808, tlu 
entrance, 
|80(;, the 
John J. 1; 
Smiih. M. 
son. ( 1. W 
Willi.un I' 
Kirby. .\i 
cers were e 
Hudson, \ 
M. S. Smii 
llubb.ard, 1 
The oilic 
!•;. N'. Swift 
C. 1. W'.aike 
as .addition; 
M. W'. rieli 
S. J. Murpl 
■['In; ceil' 
1869. when 
The numbe 
there were 
numbi'r of i 
from the ol 
ber, 1868, t 
ten cents ,a 
the city po 
twenty-live 
The i^a-m 
All erectio 
prohibitt'd. 
graves are 
corporation 
lises. and | 
purpose of 
No corp; 
over one 1 
waatiniL;' froi 
Skills is supi 



The Re 
Wasbinirtd 
I'"lmwooil 



CKMi:il'.RIi:S. Ill KIAl.S AND Si XIONS. 



57 



Ki),i(l. WniKimcic St.iiion. on tlic f.. S. (.1- C. S, K.iil- 

I'dads, is loiaii'il wiiliiii casv walkini;' distaiu'c nl' ilic 
untiMiKi.'. It is a iiiiiicidciicc wurtliv of passiiii; 
iiotiic iliat a liicalily kiKuvii as World's I'.nd. mi llic 
rivrr K(iin;c, is (|uitc nrar the ^numds. 'riir iia'iic 
(i| tile ccini'U'ry is a comixniiid dl "wodd" and 
" iiuTc," and is su.i;,m'sti\i' dl its wodds and waliTs. 
riu' i;rdiinds iMnbracc two hundred and Iwn a<ris, 
art: i'.\('ni|)l Ironi lasalidii, well ada|ilrd foi' burial 
piu'iidsis, and capahli' of hi'ini; made very allracti\c. 

Tin: assdciatidu was ornani/.cd |ul\' iS, i.S^;, and 
rcdrv;ani/fd ICbruaiy 19, i.Sdi;, and in llir fall dl this 
last year the lirsl inii'rnuius wcrr niaili'. ( )n April 
(), 1K6.S, till' board autliori/cd the cdnsiruciidu dl the 
liitrancc, and in iiS0(7 it was built. ( )n May 10. 
iSb(;, tin: rollowinj; persons were chosi'ii directnis : 
John J. Ha.nU'y, K. \V. Iliidsdii. r. I. Walker, M. S. 
Smith, M, \V. Field, I'.ela Hubbard, I). M. Kirhard- 
soii. {]. W. I.ldyd, Daniel Scditeu. I'.. A. Mllidtt, 
William I'helps, Amos (.'. Ilubbard, ,ui<l ( icdi'i^e 
Kirby. At a subsf(|iient miciiu's; the Idllowin;^ dlll- 
rers were elected: |dlm J. lianles', prisident ; K. \\ . 
Iiudsd:i, siee-presidiiit ; C. I. Walker, si'irtt.uy ; 
M. S. Sniiili, treasurer: Moses W. i'ield and lUla 
llubb.ird, l'.\t'eiiti\c Committee. 

■["hi; olliet'rs in i883\vi're k. W.<'.illett. ]iresident ; 
I',. N'. Swift, viei'-|M\'sideiit : M. .S. Smith, ire.isurer: 
C. I. Walkir, seeri'tary : with the followinv; i)ersdns 
;is additional diri'etors: (1, W. Latimer, K. \'. .Swift, 
M. W, I'ield, I'hild i'.-irsons, 11. Ilubbard, j. Creusel, 
S. J. Murphy, K, W, .\lleii, and ( leor.nc Kirby, 

'riie eentetery w.is form.ill)' di'dieated July 14, 
18O9, when .an addri'ss was deliwred by L'. I. Walker. 
The niimbi'r of lot-owners up to 1 S.S4 w.is 1,487, and 
thei-i: were about 17,000 lots still for sale. The 
numbi'r of internu'iUs, i-xelusive of the 2,000 removed 
from the old Caty Cemetery, w.'is (1,541. Ii; Novem- 
ber, iSfxS, the city contr.ieted for about the a( ri's, at 
ten ct:nts a s(|uarc foot, to be used for the burial of 
the eitv poor. The ordinaiA price foi" lots is from 
twenty-live to tilty cents a siiuai'e ffiot. 

The jL^eneral rules of the cemetery are as follows: 
All erections known ,ls lie.id ;uul foot boards are 
prohibited. .Ml f;imily burial lots and all sinii^ic 
,Hi'a\es ;irc sodded .ind kept in iL^ood oriler by the 
eorpf)ratidii without char,i.;e. I ledijes, wooiK'ii trel- 
lises, and posts and chains .are not allowed for the 
purpose of enclosure. 

No corpse is allowed to reni.ain in tln' i)iiblic vault 
over one week, tmless |iermis.Mon is obtained in 
writiiii;- from the |iresi(lent or secretary. V. \V. 1 lii,'- 
(.(ins is superintendent ; otTioe at the cemetery. 

/( Ti i/s// C, 'iiiiii •n'cs. 
The Ref.)rm Conirreiration Heth Kl Temiile, on 
Washini^tnn Avenue, opened a i-einetery .uljoinini,' 
KImwood about uSjo. It was formally recotjnized 



as ,1 cemetery by the council on July 1^), iRf^n.biit 
no rc'.^ul,u' iccord df interments w.is kej)! till abdut 
1S70. It is UdW used <inl_\ by thdse who own lots 
then'; no new lots are sold. On .April 5, 1X7^. the 
conv;renation contracted with the olliccrs of Wood- 
mere for the sole ((iiiirdl of about three acres in 
St'ction I' north. 

In i.Sfi4 the conj;re,i;.ition of Sh.tary Zi dec pur- 
ch.iscd one ;uid dUc h.ilf .acres for ccmetcr\ juirpcises 
nc.ir the D. iS. M. K. K. junclidn, for $450. In 1.S82 
h.ilf an ;icrc w.is used by the connri-i;ation of Heth 
Isr.acl. one fourth of an .acre by the Detroit l.ddyc 
Kesher Shel ll.isal, .and three fouiths of ,111 ,icre by 
the ori^dn.il purchasers. 

I.titlirrtui Ci'iiirfrrv. 
This cemetery, cdni.uninvi ti'ii acres, is located 
■ ihoul ihrei- miles from the City il.ill, on the k-ft- 
h.ind side of the (ir.itiot Kn.id, on the .Mi'ldrum 
I' .arm. It w.is purch.iscd J.mu.ir),- 1 1. iSfiS, at a cost 
df fiJ.fioo. It is contrdlli'd b_v the cdn,vifet;.itidn df 
the Trinitv l.iither.an L'hurcli on the cdrner df 
(iralidt Avenue and Prospect Slrei'l. The |)i ce df 
Idts is S30. The dfticers in i(S83 were, II. .\. Chris- 
tiansen, secrel.iry, and C. 11. Hcyer, ticisunr, with 
Christian Schroederas superintendent. 

Ill'KIAl.S .\N1) Sl'.XI'ONS. 

'I'he use df hearses in Detroit dates from about 
1830. Trior to their inirdductidn. colVms wi-re I'ar- 
ried to the^faNe upon biers or bars, borne somitimes 
upon the shoulders, and ofliii carried by h.and. AX. 
the funeral of a pi'rson of wealth, the bearers were 
pi-o\ided with loiii;' white liiu'ii scarfs. The.se scarfs 
were tied with linen cambric, which, accordinj^- to 
custom, was used for the bosoms of the shirts which 
the bearers were e.xpicted to h.ive made from the 
scarfs. 

• l'"ormcrly there was i^reat carek'ssness in the 
ki'e]iin);- of the records by cemetery ollicials and 
sixtons. At llu' i)risent time i)ermits for burials 
must be obtained from the health ol'ticer, aiul are 
issued only upon evidence within his knowledjj^e 
as sui'h oHicer, or upon the eertiticale of a reputable 
physician, or a coroner. 

.\ city sexton w.is appointed as e.irly as 1827, but 
the office was not detinitely created until March 17, 
1829. It w,is the duty of the sexton to su|)erintend 
interments in the Protestant j.;rdund, and he was 
paid by the .inidimts rt'ceived for his services, which 
weri: iircscribed by ordin.mce. It was possibly at 
this time that 

'riic (IcHtor l<ikl tlic su.xton, 
.Vnd till' si'Xlcin tdllcd tlir lirll, 

as an ordinance allowed the latter tifty cents for 
"tdllinjLT." On September iS, 1829. the council was 
petitioned to prevent the further tollinij; of the bell, 



58 



IJUKIALS AM) SKXroXS. COUXrv CORONKKS. 



uiul liiis pari of liis dulios ccasi'd fur a time. In 
1S41 it was made his duty lo rt'porl llu' nanu'S of 
all persons dyinii' in ihc ciiy, with liic cause oi 
dealii, aud liie name of the alteiidinv^ piiysician. 
More recently il was his duty to tile the physician's 
certilicate with the city clci k. I le was also charn'ctl 
with the care of the i;'rounds of the City Cemelei'y. 
lie was ap|)oinled by the louncil on nominalion of 
the mayor. l''rom 1.S63 he iiad a salary of ,SJO(> 
per year in addition to the amounts allowetl to he 
char.ijed for the burial of |>aupers. 

i>y ordinanci; of iSjo the amount allowed was ftS 
if burieil in {''.Imwood oi' Mt. l-Mliolt. and $1) if buried 
in Woodnicre. < )n an order fiom the Director of 
the Poor, it was the duty of the siwton to ,i;i\e anv 
|)ers()n, dyiiii;' without means, or the body of any 
pauper or criminal, ;i burial. i>\- ;i I'harli'r .lUKMid- 
ment in iS7() the ollice terniin.ated with that year, 
aiul the duties were transferred to the Commission- 
ers of the i'oor. 'l"he followinj^ persons served as 
city sextons: 

'1827, K. W. ii.irnes; 1S2S-1S33, Isr.ael Noble; 
'833-1835, C.eori^e Combs; i.S35-i84f, I. Noble; 
1841 -1844, C. II. I'.ckHlf; 1S44 1847. R. C, .Scadin ; 
1847 1850. James Sutherland; 1850-1852,!'".. .Myers; 
1852-1857, I". Dcinccke; 1S57-1859, 1*. Clessen ; 
[859 i8^)i, .\. T. Ray; i8()i, foscph Parkinson; 
1862-1864, \'. Ccisi; 1864, \\:i I'iattery; 1865-1868. 
Thomas Roche; 1868 -1871, V. (nist; 1 871 -1874. 
Georire Heron ; 1874-1876, R. IJronson; 1876-1878, 
James Hickey; 1878, V. Ceist. 

COUXrV CORONERS. 

The olfice of coroner is as old .as the Northwest 
Territory. Under Michii;an Territorv, hv .Act of 
.September 13. 1805. the territori.il m.irshal was con- 
.stituted coroner, .Act of Xovembor 3, 181 5, pro- 
niled th.it coroners should be .'ipiiointed by the 
.^■overnor. .\ct of .April 21, 1825, provided for their 
election on the second Tuesday of October for 
terms of three years, I'nder Constitution uf 1835 



the term of ollice w.is two ye.ars. iiy l.iw of 1836 
two were lo he t'kicted instead of oiu' as before. 
The Constitution of 1850 m,i(k; no |)rovision for the 
ollice, and none were elected between 1851 ;uid 
1857. The Revised St.itutes of 1857 revived the 
ollice. 

In any case where death is sudden, .and not to be 
accounted for on n.itur.il ^romids, the coroner may 
hold .an in(|uest. The fees ,ire p.aid by the county 
.auditors ,ind ,iie ,is follows: For \iewini;' .a l)ody, 
§3; for e.ich mile tr.aveled in ,i(oinv;- to the pl.ace, ten 
cents; for e.ich subpdin.i serveil on witnesses called 
to ;iitl in determinimj cause of death, twenty-live 
cents; for administeriim' oath to witnesses, ten cents. 
Jurymen serviui^' on coroner's inciuests are |)aid $2 
per day. Six persons constitute .1 jury. 

The names of the coroners, with their terms of 
service, .are ,as follows; 

1796, llermin I'.berts; i7()9,and 1801, John Dode- 
mead; 1803, Joseph ILirrison; 1804, Joseph Wilkin- 
son; Xovember 21, 1815 to 1836, Henj.amin Wood- 
worth; 1836, I J. Wood worth, A. S. Schoolcr.ift ; 
1837 1840. 1). Petty, .V. V.Murray; 1840, .A. Y. 
.^blrr,■iy, D.iviil l'"rench; 1841 ,uid 1842, J.ames 
Ilanaier, J.imes (tunninv;'; 1843, J.imes licaubien, 
John Sinons; 1844, W. W, 1 lowland, J. P.. Spra'.;iie; 
1S45 .and 1S46, i'.aschal M.ison, .Alexander I.cid- 
beler; 1S47-1S50, John 11. Hill, H. R. Xowl.md ; 
1850, C. W. J.ickson, .\lanson ' ., ; 1851 .and 

1852. D. I). Hustis; K.Lewis 7, v ;> :)r.^;e Moran, 

U.aniel Murray; iS58-iS',i, v.. \\ utile, A. W. 
Spr,n,aie; i86r -1S63, !•;. L.tiiden , C. H. P.,ir- 
rett; 1863-1865, J. W. D.ily, iben Iftiston; 

1865-1867, Timothy McCarthy, J. '.Daly; 1S67 
1869, P. M. Austin! J. W. IXaly; 1869-1873. John 
(".n.iu, James C.ahill; 1873. .\.. !■". Jeniiin,v;s, J. S. 
(iritlin; 1874, X. 1$. Rowley. J. S. Gritlin; 1875 and 
1876, X. H. Rowley. J.ames C.ihill ; 1877, Peter O.iks, 
John Wilson; 1878 .and 1879, Peter Oaks, .Ad.im 
Schulte; 1880, .A. Schulte; i88r, A. !■:. Carrier, J. I). 
Richards; 1S82, W. V. Clark, A. !•:. Carrier; 1S83- 
, M. Dt'i'.ne. J. Locke. 



J 



Thk tir 
found in 
board was 
S. Rice ; 
ded ; .am 
the .aldi'rm 
into ,a 1)0.1 
ai;-;iin led 
Several ph 
poor, .and < 
ize for th 
led to tin- 
sistini^' of 
Pitcher. 
tKUices of I 
alderm.an 
pointed byl 
to be city | 
of Police C 
a member 
tuted a qv 
No rei^ular 
called toj^i 
They wen 
The bo.arii 
the health 
e.xpeiKlitun 

The ord 
until 1864, 
as membei 
physicians, 
under the 
Gorton, C. 
1866 -1 87 1 
O. F.arr.aiK 
H. Drake; 
C. C. Vem 
J. H. Cars 

1877. 1:. 1 
E. Leach: 
martin, an 
Mor.se Stc 
.An eiuii 
law of ^Ll 
ing physi( 



Cii aptI':r XII. 



ni:Ai;rii oi'kickrs. drains and si:\vi:rs. sca\'i:\(;i:rs. 



TiKAr/nr or rrcr.Rs. 

Tlir, first meiuinn maclr (if a Iioard of Mcaltli is 
found in tlic Couiiril l'roceedin.i;s of 1S31. Tlic 
board was composed of Drs. J. L. Whiiinij and R. 
S. Rice; in 1S32 Drs. Henry and Ciiapin UTre ad- 
ded; and on account of tlie prevalence of cholei,'.. 
the aldermen also, occasionally, resolved themselves 
into a Iioard of Health. In 1837 fear of sm;ill-pox 
a^ain led the council to institute a Health I'lOard. 
Several physicians were appointed U) vaccinate the 
poor, and on April i :: they were rei|ucstt'd ici orj^an- 
ize for thai purjiosc. In iS4(; the fear of cholera 
led to the appointment of a Hoard of Health, oon- 
sistin.i;- of Drs. I,. H. Cobb, R. S. Rice, and Z. 
I'itclu'r. A boanl was also pro\uletl for by ordi- 
iKuiccs of 1861 and 1870. It consisted of the senior 
alderman of each ward and four physicians, ap- 
pointed by the coimcil, two of whom were recjuired 
to be city physicians. Tiie president of the lioard 
of Police Commissioners, by virtue of his oriicc, was 
a member of the board. I''i\e members consti- 
tuletl a (quorum; the city clerk kept tlu: records. 
No regular meetini^s were lu'ld, but members were 
calletl toijelher whenever it was deemcLl tlesirablc. 
Tln'V were jiaid $1.50 for each session attended. 
The l)(jartl had power to do all things needlLil for 
the health of the city, but matters involvin;..; special 
e.Npentlitures required the approxal of the council. 

'I'he ordin.anci' of 1861 was not fulK' carried out 
until 1864, and the first a[ipoinlments of physici;uis 
as members of the bo.ard were made that year. The 
physicians, other th.in city physicians, appointed 
under the ordinance were as follows: 1804, j. C. 
(iorton, C. li. IJarrett ; i8(')5,Z. Pitcher, C. ISrumme ; 
1 866 -1 871, Z. I'itcher, William P.rodie; 1871, D. 
O. Farrand, II. K. Smith; 1873, \V. A. Chandler, E. 
H. Drake; 1873, K. H. Drake, H. F. f.yster; 1874, 
C. C. Venians, A. Harrowman; 1875, (i. A. I''o.ster, 
J. H. Carstens; 1876, T. F. Kerr, J. H. Carstens; 
1877, !•:. Leach, A, F. Hoke; 1878, H. \. Torrey, 
K. I.eacli; 1879, (). A. Foster, E. Leach, P. P. Cil- 
niartin, and Duncan McLeoil; 1880, D. O. I'.ifrand, 
Morse Stewart, and John Minterman. 

An entirely new organization was provided by the 
law of May 26, 1881. Under this law three practic- 
ing physicians are appointed by the council on 



nomination of the mayor; the first appointees were 
to ser\e for one, two, and three years t'acli, and then 
beginning with 1882, one was to be appointed yearly 
on the third Tuesday of June, for a term of three 
years. These physicians, with the mayor, cou){> 
iroller, and presideiu of the Police Hoard, con- 
stitute till' Hoard' of Health. The medii:al nu'iiibers 
of tlic bo.ird on June i, 1881, were as follows: D. 
O. Farrand appointed for one year, John I'linter- 
man for two years, and Morse Stewart for threi' 
years. In 1882 tin bo.ud rem.iined the same. In 
March, 1883, on tlu' death of Dr. Farrand, T. A. 
McCraw was appointi'd as !iis successor. 

In i88[ the bo.ird appointed O. \V. Wight as the 
health ofiicer, at a salary of bj.ooo jier year. 
Lbuler his supervision the Health Department has 
obtaineel ;m efliciency ne\'er bt'fore posses.-eil. All 
buri.il permits are issued from his ollice, and full 
statements of the age of the deceased, cause of 
death, name of attending physici.an, and place of 
buri.il ;ire required to l)i' lileil with this ol'licer. 
Monthly statements of these and other facts pertain- 
ing to the health of the city are regul.irly jirinted and 
issued. The Health ( )Hicer has the aid of the sani- 
tary siiuad of the Police Dep.artment, and placards 
all houses where infectious diseases e.xist, using for 
cases of small-pox notices printeil on yellow cards, 
for scarlet fe\e;', red cards, and for diphtheria, blue 
cards. .\n o\-ersight is kept of such premises as are 
placardi'd, and after the recovery or death of the 
(),itient, they ;ire disinfected. 

The scavengers and meal inspector are reiiuired to 
co-operate with the Hoanl of Health, and legislation 
is hoped for t',;it. 'f obt.ained, will securi' pure ice, 
|)iire milk, propi.r \entilalion, good plumbing, and 
freedom Ironi wbnoxious sewer-gas and coal-smoke. 

DR.MNS AM) .SKWKR.S. 

An .\ct of \\m\ 24, 1824, gave the council power 
to |irovide for the construction of sewers, but the 
desirability of building them seems to have been for 
many years an unsettled question. On March 12, 
1827. a committee consisting of Lewis Cass, John 
liiddle, J. Kcirsley, D. C. McKinstry, P.J. Desnoy- 
crs, and John Mullett presented a lengthy report to 
the council, in which they said : " In regard to com- 



[59] 



6o 



DRAINS AND SIAVI'.RS. 



inoii sc'WiTS, (loiibls havi' hvcw (.■sprrssnl rrsprrtini^ 
thi'lr oltcct upnn tlu' i)ul)lir lu'-iltli. yci \\c art' in- 
clined ti) ihiiiic it WDiiKl hi' i'X|)(.'clicin to make an cx- 
perinuMit iiycstaiiiisiiini^one in \\'(i()(li)riil,!^x' Strict." 
In tile li,i;lit of facts tliat now exist, such a report 
sii^ned l)y siii'li persons seems curious iiuleed. 

On May i, 1827, it was determined to " ni.ake an 
experiment," and tlie coiun-il adopletl the following : 

AVfc/rvi/, lliat I he drain or raviiii- cdinmoiily lallod tlur River 
Savoyard, lie (k-ipcmd from the outlet into llic Oclroit Kivir, 
throiiK'li tin- farm of ('.ovt-nior t'ass, to tlie line nf the Military 
Reservation, with the consent of the proprietor of said farm ; and 
that a drain in eontinnation thereof he extended tlimtmh the said 
reservation in the alley lietwien t'onitrcss anil l.arn<d Streets tc^ 
its easterly termination. 

This plan w.is carried out, and the timbers from 
old Fort Shelby were used to form the sides of an 
open sewer which followed the course of the stream. 
At that time, even the ditches in -the streets were 
made and owned by private parties; and on June 20, 
1828, the council appointed a committee "to confer 
with the |iroprietor of the ditch leadinit;' alonn' Hati'S 
Street to the .v^reat sewer, with a view to j^urchase 
the same for the use of the city." ( >ld records show 
that the city expended Si.-?^. in 1S28, in di,v;xin,^' 
these open sewers or ditches. These primitive drains 
offended the eye and outraged the nostrils for se\cral 
years. 

Hut little real iirogress was made in building 
drains or sewers until May 20, 1835, A committee 
of the council then i)resented an elaborate re])ort on 
the subject, and recommended the construction of 
wliat is known as the (Irand Sewer. This was 
agreed to, and in December, 1835, the council 
offered a premium of $100 for an acceptable plan for 
draining the city between the Cass and Brush farms, 
A plan was adopted, and in 1836 the first under- 
grnund sewer was built, at a cost of $-2, 607. It is 
still doing e.vcellent .service, and deserves its name 
of •'(Irand." Its route is from Heanbien Street on 
Fort to Randolph, through .Michigan (irand Avenue 
to Bates Street, along Bates and Congress to (Iris- 
wold, diagonally across (iriswold to the alley between 
Congress and Larned Streets, along the alley to 
First Street, and down First Street to the river. It 
is constructed of stone, having side walls eighteen 
inches thick, with a brick arch of two feet spring. 
The bottom is paved with hard-burned brick. It is 
four feet six inches wide and live feet high in the 
clear; the average depth of the exca\alion is ten feel. 
In the main it follo\ the route of the Savoyard. 

The sewer proved such a success that others fol- 
lowed, and from year to year the number has in- 
creased. For many years, however, there was no 
general system, and contractors were often careless, 
and ignorant of the first principles of drainage. It 
is a fact of record that during 1849 sewers in the 



I'"irsi and l-'ifth ward;., and on K;indolph Street, were 
so constructed that, wlicn nearly complete, it was 
found the water, instead of taking the ilirtction 
desired, ran towarils the locality sought to be 
drained. In 185^1 the great sewer in Woodward 
.\\eniie south of Congress Street w.'is built, and for 
months ;ifterwar(ls immense banks of earth remained 
in the street as moiuuniiiis of the stupidity and mis- 
management of contractors ;ind olVicijils. I'litil 1857 
all ])riv;ile sewers wi-re built by indi\iduals, of such 
materials and in such places as they pleased. The 
result was that many lots \vere without drainage, 
and others with only ]iartial or defective drains. 
The city charter of 1857 remedied these evils by 
|)roviding for a board of three sewer commissioners, 
to be nomin.iled by the mayor and appointed by the 
council. They seized without p;iy, and were origin- 
ally appointed for terms of three, four, and five years, 
and then for live years each. More of system was 
now introduced; all sewers, public .and ]-)riv.ite, were 
placed under their control ;uid built by their direc- 
tion, and no drain could be put in without their ap- 
pro\-al. 

Sewers are called j^ublic sewers wlien built by 
order of the Common Council ;ind paid for by jiub- 
lic tax for genentl drainage inir[)oses, 'I'hese are 
almost inv.'triably built in the streets. Lateral sewers 
are usually built in the alleys, and are paiil for by 
.special assessnuiit ii|)on the particular lots bene- 
fitted, each lot paying according to the number of 
square feet it contains. The theory is that every 
lot is entitled to dniinage; and on the petition of 
even one person, a lateral srwer may be built in order 
to ilrain his lot, and the adjoining loi - must help to 
pay the cost. Persons desiring to connect a drain 
with a lateral .sewer are required to pay §1.00 for the 
privilege of the connection, which is made, without 
further charge, by the Board of I'ublic Works. 

By .Vet of April 13, 1871, the city was authorized 
to issue §300,000 in bonds for the purj^ose of build- 
ing sewers, provideil the citizens' meeting approved. 
Under this law, in 1872, §80,000 were raised by the 
sale of bonds, and the number of |')ublic sewers was 
largely increased. In 1874, on the creation of the 
Board of Public Works, the powers of the .sewer 
commissioners were transferred to that body. By 
Act of February 18, 1875, the council was again 
,iuthori/.ed to issue $300,000 in bonds for sewer pur- 
poses; and under the two laws of 1871 and 1875 
bonds for building jiublic sewers, to the amount of 
§397,500, were issued. Both public and lateral sew- 
ers are built of brick; the connections from houses 
are generally of sewer pijie, although wood is some- 
times used. The main sewers \ary in size from 
21 X 28 inches to 6x8 feet, and are from twenty to 
forty feet below the surface. Lateral sewers are 
generally of egg shape, and 1 5 x 20 inches. 



The ])! 
gress Stre 
neling un 
the surfac 
city. Tbi 
on the strt 
it has sini- 

The tot. 
to 1884, is 
length of 
and they 

The su 
Jackson ; 
Matthew 
l-'inehart. 

The me 
ers were 
ton, Jamc 
Jackson, . 
clay, T. 1 1 
Sheley, T. 
A. Shelev, 
Bagg, W. 



DRAINS AM) SKWKRS.— SCAVENGERS. 



6i 






The pulilii- sewi-r in Ciriswokl Siivct, from L'on- 
jrress Street to the river, was Ixiiil in i<S77, by tun- 
iieliiij^ under tlie street instead of excavatinitf from 
the surface, and was liie lirst seui'r so built in tin- 
city. The nietliod i)rove(l advanta,i;eoiis, as travel 
on the street was not materially interfered with, and 
it has sinci' been ^I'mrally .adopted. 

The total leni^th of i)ul)lic sewers built from iS^$, 
to 1884, is 80 miles, .and the cost $2,056,872. The 
Icnti^th of l.ater.il sewers built since 1855 is 1 1 1 miles, 
and tliey h.a\e cost $581,099. 

'l"he superintendents of sewers were, 1852, C. 
Jackson; 1.S53, Stephen ^^artin ; [854, J. M. D.ivis, 
Matthew Oliver; 1855, II. C. Moors; 1856, Isaac 
Kinehart. 

The members of the Board of Sewer Commission- 
ers were .is follows: 1857, C. Ilurlbut. A. Chapo- 
ton, James She.irer; 1858, J. Hou.irhton, C. \V. 
Jackson, A. Chapoton; 1859, C. Hurlbut, W. Bar- 
cl.iy, T. H. Hinchman ; 1860-1863, W. Barclay, A. 
Sheley, T. H. Hinchman; 1863-1866. W. Barclay, 
A. Sheley. A. Chapoton; 1866, A. E. Bissell, .\. S. 
Bai,% \V. Barclay; 1867-1871, A. E. Bissell, Wil- 



liam Barclay, A. Sheley; 1871, W. II. Coots, Wil- 
liam Barclay. A. I".. Bissell ; 1872-1874, A. E. I'.issell, 
Harvey Kini^, W. 11. Coots. 

The followin'.( persons served as enirineers of 
sewers: 1859-1862, E. W. Smith, 1862- 1874, I'hos. 
Ledbeter. 

scavkn<;i:ks. 

The olTice of scaveiiji^er was created by ordinance 
of 1S52, which provided that a scavenj^er should 
be appointed yearly by the council. 

By ordinance of 1855 si'wr.il scavcnv^ers mi^ht be 
appointed, ,ind they were authori/.ed to charge eit^ht 
cents a cubic ft)ot for the cleaninvr of vaults and 
drains, in 1883 the le.i^al charije was twelve cents. 
In 1864 that part of the business pertaining to the 
removal and burial of dead animals was lirst done 
by contnict. Ordinances of 1863 and 1870 provide 
that, by payin,if one dollar and .tjivintr surety for 
faithful services, any proper person may be licensed 
by I lie mayor as a scavenij^er. They arc under the 
direction of the Board of Health. 



C H AI^TE R XIII. 



WATKK AM) WAl'IilK-W'ORKS.— I'UIJLIC DRIXKINCr KOI 'XT A INS. 



wm 



WATFR AXn \V.\ ll'R-WORKS. 
TiiK first settlors had no nu'd lor wi'lls, pn,t,nnes, 
pumps, or ri'siT\dirs. Tlic water .iIoiiil; the sliore 
was not (lelik'il bv sewers and I'eluse troin shop and 
factory; instead of eontainini;- inipiirities, it washed 
and whitened the sanely beaeli and was everywhere 
as clear as a diamond. 

I'laeh farnihoirsc hail its sin.i^le roiii^h-iiewn lov;- or 
|i!ank iirojectiiiii;' into the stream, and barefootfd 
maidens, niorniny;' by morninv;, "walked the plank," 
ilaslu'd a bucket into th.e river, and with the rope to 
which it was attachetl drew out tlie w.ater for their 
daily needs. There were no assessors to in(|uire 
how m;mv the family included. " Shni-ol'fs" wx're 
unknown. The supply was hterally "as free as air," 
and whosoe\er would nii.nht tir.iw or drink. 

.\s the settli'inent li'rew, buckets ,^a\e partial jilace 
to barrels, therefore the wharf was used, and when 
the " iiostoni.ans " came they brouiL^ht "rules .and 
rej;ulations." ( )ne of the earliest Acts of the Hoard 
of 'I'rnstees was the jxissai^e on July Uk 1N04, nf an 
ordin.ince reciuii'iiiLj each person t.ikiin; w.iter fi'oin 
the Merchants' Wharf to |)ay one doll.ir in adv.ance, 
for the privilege of so doini^'. This did not please 
the l'"rench and on .\uyust 6, the oi-din,ince was 
repealed, .\fter the tire of 1805 the Ciowrnor and 
Judi^i's i-oncluded th.at it was not safe to rely alto- 
vjcther upon the I'iver for a writer siipi^k. and they 
undertook to |)ro\ide public wells. ( )n November 
29, iSof), ;in accoimt w.as presented l)\- (ieort^-e Huff 
for " sniithwork done ;it the pimips," and on 
December 3 followini,^ the .governor was appointed 
a committee " to cause the pimiiis to be stored and 
painted." 

.\n appropriation bill, passed by the C.overnor and 
Judi^es on March 20, iSo;, contains the followinv,^ 
item: " Kor completinjr wells and puni|)s in the 
vicinity of the court-house and prison, §100 charv,'-e- 
able to Detroit ImukI." Their records for M.irch 
2<S, 1807, slate th.il the ni.arshal is ".authorized to 
complete the wells ;md pumps in the vicinitv of the 
court-house by causing; the said wells to be i\vvp- 
ened, and walled with bricks or stones, and c.iusinn- 
the said pimips to be put in complete order for use," 
One of the last ii.imcd wells w.as on Jefferson 



[.-,.] 



A\'cnue ni'.ar Wayne Street, Wells were .also i>ro- 
vided on the commons back of the town, in the 
rci^ion of tlu' s(|u;irt' now (lisii,(n,att'd ;it the Campus 
M.irtius. The di,i;xin;,^' of wells in this locality t,^ave 
j;reat olTencc to the people, ISolh cattle .and jjcrsons 
fell uuo them, .and on M.ay 7, 1808, the (ir.and Jury 
presented "the wells on the dom.iin .as ;i d.ani;erous 
nuis.ance." In consequence of this .action, on De- 
i-ember 15, 1808, the m.arsh.al w.as " directed to dis- 
pose of the pumps, stone .and otluM" .articles which 
h,a\e heretofore been furnished for the wi'lls on the 
commons." ( )n M.arch 7, 1809, W. McD. Scott pre- 
sented ,in .account of H' .i4- 5'-' f'"' *^'"'^pensis incurred 
in di,i;;v;in,i;' public wells, which w.as duly allowed. 
One of the wells with .a pumj') w.as located on 
the noi'th side of Jefferson .\\enue between bates 
and R.andolph Streets, On Kebru.ary 3, i8iy, Mr. 
Stead w.as p.aid $30 for rep.airini^' well and puttiny^ 
in a pump. It w.as worked with .a windl.ass, and 
w.as in use. for sever.al years. In 1S2S the city p.aid 
$2. 37 for tilling- it u]), 

Dinani; these years w.ater w.as fi-ei|uently carried in 
buckets suspended from the ends of a woodiai yoke, 
borne uiion the shoulders. It was .also h.auled in 
b.arrels in the old two-wheeled l-'ri'iu'li carls, .and 
sold at sixpence per barrel. Two b.arrel were con- 
sidered .a load, .and from them, <as the carts Jo^-^ed ' 
o\er tlu' rou,i;ii, imp.aved streets, much water was 
distributed aloni;' the w.ay. 

The erection of w.ati'r-works w.as |iul)liely su^tj- 
ijested by the trustees of the city for the tlrst time 
on February 25, 1820, on which d.ite .1 notice \\',as 
published inviting' i)ropos:ils, to be made before June 
I, for till' e.\clusi\-e jirivilej^e of erectinn' such works. 

The lii-st |)ro|iosition, from John W. Tompkins, 
was received March 21, 1820. His offer was not 
s.atisf.actory, and meantime the .authority of the cor- 
]ior.ation to t^r.ant the exclusive ri^ht for sup|)lyini,'- 
the city with w.ater havinv;- been called in question, 
on June t H. J, Hunt was .aii|iointed to examine .and 
report on the subject, I lis report was doubtless 
s.'itisf.aetorv for further propos.als were invited, and 
on July 27, 1S20, the trustees voted to meet Au.n'iist 
10, to receiw them. The iiroceedini^s of the trus- 
tees do not indii-aie that .any proposals were received 



WATER AM) WATKR-WURKS. 



at lliis iiu'i'tiiii;', aiid on Octdbcr i9"S2tJ was ap- 
propiiatcd towards t'xpfiise of ili.^.i^in^' a will in 
Jefferson Avfiiuc already trecit'd near Dr. William 
Hrown's." 

The sul)ject of water-works contiiuied to he a,L;i- 
taled, and on jiiiu' i, 1823, a meetim,-- of citizi'ns was 
held at the coinicil-honse to consider a |)i'oposiiion 
from ("ieori;\: Deininy for fiirnishim;- the eily with 
water, and on June 4 they rt'solved that "it is ex- 
pedient to jiromote tile enter|)i-ist: of ( leori^e Deinini^ 
and liis assoi'iates for snpplyini;- the eity with water, 
and that upon e(|uital)le comlitions we fa\'or his 
havinif ex("liisi\'e privileges for a certain nmnhi'i' of 
years." The enterprise was " without l)oitoni," or 
tlie resolution "leaked," for no water-works were 
obtained. 

The next step in the history of our water siijiply 
was the passa.^^e of an Act on Au,i,fust 5, 1824, 
"authori/.ini;- Peter 15erthelet to erect a wharf on the 
river Detroit in the continuation of Randolph Strec;t 
and runnini,^ to the slii|) channel of said river," pro- 
vided "that the said I'eter lierthelet, his heirs and 
assii^ns, shall at all times during; the existence of the 
above j^rant, at his own or their own expense, erect, 
make, and kt'ep in repair, at some convenient place, 
at or near the end of said wharf, next the channel of 
the river, a i^ood and suflicient pump, at which ail 
persons who may reside in the city of Detroit shall 
be at all times free of wharfaj^e or other expenses, 
entitled to take and draw water for their own use 
and convenience; and for that purpose a free use 
of said wharf shall be j,nven, for carts, wai^ons, 
sleii^hs, or other machinery to be used in drawini,^ 
and carrying away the water." The dock and 
pump were duly erected, and the pump remained 
until March 19, 1835, when it was removed by the 
City Council. 

The pump, althoui^h an improvement, \v;is still 
an uns.aiisfactory method of oht.iinimr water, and 
occasioned much c()m[)laint. The same year that 
Berthelet's pump was authorized, the father of Jacob 
S. l'"arrand, Ik'tluiel Farrand, who was then en- 
gaged in the manufacture of pmnps at Ain^elius, 
Cayn.t;;a County, New York, learned of the condition 
of affairs, and conceivetl the idea of ijettini;- the 
ri^ht to ert'Ct water-works at Di'lroit. lie came 
on foot to the city, and submitted his proposi- 
tion to the council on l''ebruary 16, iiS25, and on 
l'"ebruai"y i<; a meetini;' of citizens was held to con- 
sider his offer. It UKt their approval, and on I'V-b- 
ruary 21 the council api^ointed a committee to con- 
clude the contract. The next day they passed an 
"Act (j^rantiniL^ to liethuel I'.irrand and his lev^ril 
representatives the sole and exclusive ri,nht of water- 
ing; the city of Detroit and for otluT purposes." Mr. 
Farrand went home, and in May, accompanied by 
Rufus Wells, he again arrived in Detroit. He at 



once commenced operations, spending the stmimer 
in cutting and rafting tamarac logs from the Clinton 
River for the inu-pose of making pipes. Refore the 
works were fairly established, Mr. \\\!ls ])urchased 
Mr. l'"arrand's interest, and on March 3[, 1827, an 
ordinance w.is passed "gr.anting to Rufus Wi'lls, or 
his legal representatives, the exclusive right of sup- 
plying the city of Ditroit with water." ,\ fiuther 
ordinance, passed October 10, 1827, granted addi- 
tional rights. 

The piniip-house was located on the Berthelet 
Wh.arf. It was a fnime building, twenty feet s(|uare, 
witli two pumjjs of the inches bore. Hy means of 
horse-iiower the water was forced into a forty-gallon 
cask, located in the (•u|)()la of the pum|)-house, which 
was forty feet above the wharf, from where it was 
conveyed by wooden logs to the reservoir located on 
Randolph Street, at the rear of the lot now occupied 
by Firemen's Hall. The reservoir was sixteen 
fi'ct s()uare, built of white oak j^lank, two inches 
thick and six feet long, caulked with oakum ; it 
restt-d on a frame of timber sixteen feet high, was 
covered with a shingle roof, and had a capacity of 
9,580 imperial grdlons. A fevv wooden logs con vcNcd 
water through i^ortions of Ji'ffi-rson .Avenue, 1, anted 
and Congress Streets. All the arrangements were 
\ei-y pi'imitive ; iqion one occasion a wooden jilug at 
one of the houses on Larned .Street was carelessly 
knocked out, and the cellar was soon tilled with water, 
and the reservoir nearly emptied, causing almost 
e\ery jien-stock to fail. The company were re(|uired 
to put in service pipes, and for both |)ipes and water 
families paid but $10 jier year in ([uarterly instal- 
ments. 

After a few years, other parties became interested 
with Mr. Wells, and in June, 1829, as it was e\-i(lent 
that works of grealtr ca|)acily were needed, the 
Hydraulic Company, as the association was calli'd, 
riceiveil from the city a gi^aiit of the south end of 
Lot 8, — the second lot from the southeast ccjrner of 
Wayne and Fort Streets. On this lot they were to 
erect a new reservoir, and bore for water, the idea 
having gained jorevalence that water could be had 
more easily from a well than from the river. On 
August 6, 1829, The Gazette contained this item: 

'I'lio Ilydiiinlif C'<impaiiy (if tins city aio linriiii; fur water im 
the ^ili; (if tin; (lUt fnrt, llu; hi,<li(.'st >;niiMKl within tin; limits (if tliu 
iMirpdratiim. 'I'licy ha\'': pciictratcd diu' hiuulrftl anti t\V(_-nty fuc^t 
jiild aru still K"'"i,' "H witli lliiir labor. 

After boring a hole four inches in diameter to the 
dei)th of twr) lumdred and sixty feet, one hundred 
and forty-four feet of which was tubed with cast-iron 
tubing, the pebbles and quick.sand Jiccumulated in 
the pipe, and early in April, 1830, the project was 
abandoned. The chief engineer of the company, at 
this time, was Mr. {'"ailing, who seenis to have been 
appropriately nann.'d. 



64 



WAIl.K AM) \\A TI'.K WoKKS. 



Tlu' coini);!!!)- now dctermini-d to ay;aiii rrcrt 
])iiniiMii,i( wdrksaiul resort to iln' rivur, and in virw ol 
till' nivaicr t'\|)fiisi' tlial tlu'v must incur, they soui^iil 
to be relieved from furnishiui;- seiviee pipes and pen- 
storks, to obtain an e.Mi'nsinn (if the time durini;- 
wiiirh tliey were to ii,i\i' the exeUisive privilc.ne of 
su|)plyin,i; water, and also to \x'. released from the 
obligation of surrenderiiv^- their works without com- 
pensation at the lermin; lion of their charter. After 
various nu-etinyjs .and e.ciietl discussions, their ile- 
inands were granted, and in 1830 new works were 
constructed. 

Tile reservoir, located on the I'Drt Street lot, was 
of brick, eiv^hteen feet s(|uare and nine feet deep, 
enclosed with wood; it held ci.Sii v^allons. On 
.August 4, 1S30, the i-oinpany comnu'iici'd layini;' 
water-|)ipes from the ri\ei- to Jefferson A\i'iiue, just 
al)o\-e the M.ansion House; their new works went 
into operation at :: i'. M. on Monday, October 11, 
1830. A lai^i' crowd .gathered at the engine-house 
to witness tlu- letiinv;' on of ihe water. 'I'he wooden 
pi|)es, i)ut toireth.er with iron thimbles, lay just under- 
neath tlu; i^'round, and thiir course could be easily 
traced by ilu' water which oo/cd out, tlm im[)erfect 
joints allowing' it to leak at every length. Governor 
Cass, who with others was ])resent to witness the 
letting on of the watei\ was called upon for a 
speech. Moiuiling ;i b.irrel ni'ar by, and casting his 
eye over the route of the \i\pc. hv. began by saying: 
"Fellow-citizens, what an age of |)rogress I " No 
one then thought his words sarcastic. The pump- 
ing was tionu by a ten-horse-power engine belong- 
ing to the Detroit Iron Works, located on the corner 
of Jefferson A\enue .and Cass Street. The engine 
did double duty, supi)lyiug power for its owm-rs .as 
well as for the I lydraulii" Comp.any. In conse(|uence 
of a defect in the boiler, cUiring a whole week in 
November, 1831, no water could be pum|)ed. At 
this time there were but two lines of wooden logs 
of three ini'hes bore. 

In 1 83 1 an aildition.al reservoir w.as constructed, 
adjoining the old one ; it w.as built of o.ak i)lank, was 
forty feet S(|u;irc, ivn ft-et dt'cp, .and held iii),6.So 
gallons. The reserx'oir lirst built rem.ained in use 
until 1839, when it w.as sold ant! taken ilown. The 
other one w.is ust'd occ.isionally up to 1842, during 
which year the 1. gs were relaid, m.iny of them 
having been imp.iired by frost in the winters of 
1830 .and 1831, At the s.ame time a twenty-horse- 
power engine w.as built, and located in a building 
erected for it on the north side of Woodbritige 
Street, l)etwccn Wayne and Cass Streets, 

The company supplied water until 1836, losing 
money e.ach ye.ar, .and hearing const.ant .and well- 
grounded compl.aints th.it I he w.ater w.as neither 
ile.ar, pure, nor wholesome, .and very uncertain as to 
quanuty. Finally a Committee of the Council w.as 



.ippointed to ivsamine tiie matter. 'I'lu'' reporied 
that the comp.any h.ad f.iiled to fult'ill their contract, 
,in<l th.it their ch.irUi' w.is null and \did. .After 
much discussion, it was decided th.it the city would 
buy the works, and on May 18, 1S3''), a Connnittic 
of the Council |-cpoited th.it they h.ad purch.ased .all 
the re.il and |)erson.il est.ite of the Hydr.aulii- Com- 
pany for $20,500, the property to be surrendered 
June I, 1836, .and to \)v p.aid .''or in city bonds bear- 
ing six per cent interest, due on |une 1, 1856. A 
special session of the council was ne.Kt held on June 
9, w hen it w.as 

Ki-xi'/rvif, tliat Nnali Siittiin lie, and he !s Iicnhy appuinti-d, 
as .ivtciU fur this I'Miaid, tn piiMcrd ti) Uir cilics iif I'iUsbiiiK, I'liila- 
dilpliia, N'.'W \'iirk, tn iXMiiiiiic tlir watrr-wcirks in tliose <itii:s, 
and (il)l.ilii all iiucdful iiiluniiathiii in n-.uard to llii' (Dnstiiii lii>n 
and iipitrali.in tluTi-of ; and tlu: said a;;rnl tn hi' .•uitlinri/icl and 
rniiiowi^rcd to fontr.-irt in ihr ludialf nf ilu' <nrpnr,iticin i>( this city 
for cast and wrought inm pipes for condnctin).,' ihc walur into the 
cily. 

A'c.vo/, v</, lliat till- snniof $1 icj he approprialid for lhc> ih-frayinv; 
the expenses of the agent of the corporation, a)id that a warrant 
for that anionnt be issned on thu 'I'reasnry. 

A committee w.as also .appointed to jnirch.ase ,a 
w.ater lot .ai)o\-e the cily, upon which to erect works. 
( )n June 15, 1836, the recorder reported that they 
h.id "purch.ased from M.ajor Antoine Dctiuindre 
three water lots in front nf the Detiiiindre F.ann, with 
,1 front of 350 feet on the river, for §5,500." 'I'he 
work of buikling w.as begun ,at onrc. and on June 
30, 1836, John I'arr.ir w.ts .appointed to superintend 
.and inspect the ereciioii of the wharf. It is e\i(lent 
th.at there were some misgivings as to the success or 
desirability of the pl.m for obt.aining w.ater from the 
ri\fr, for on the s.ame d.ay the council jirocecdings 
show the pass.age of the following resolution : 

/u-xi'/t'ii/, that I )avid I'rench and II. W'ilinarth be appointed 
,1 eoinniillee to examine i he several springs in Xorthville and 
Sonthlii Id, also others in ihe vieniity, lo ascertain if a snflicient 
qnantilyof |>nre water can bi; obtained from lln-ni to snjiply this 
city, and Uie probable' lo^i of con\eying it hiliier. 

On August 3 Mr. French reported th.at l)y a con- 
centration of several sjirings in the town of F.arming- 
ton an abund.ant supply of pure w.ater could be 
obtained. Nothing further came of this report, .and, 
in the light of later experiences, one cannot help 
wondering whetlier tlie members of the council had 
not been drinking something, besides water when 
they adopted the resolution. 

Meantime the newly i)urchased works continued 
to l)e used, .and in 1836 an ordinance w.as ])assed 
"that, on ,a])i)lication, w.ater m.ay be conveyed 50 
feet from front line of lots to be kept flowing at 
least twelve hoiu's out of the twentv-four. pro\ided 
the corpor.ation does not h.ave to make more than 
100 feet of new pipe to supply any one applicant," 

In 1837 work was begun on the reservoir .at the 
foot of Orleans Street. In 1838 iron pipes, the first 



in the cily, 

dolph Sire 

eontr.acl w; 

Sutton to b 

tain.ar.ac h>'^ 

a forty-live- 

voir, and In 

or roiind-hi 

the old ^: 

\\'illi.im Jii 

work, wiiic 

superinicnd 

lifty feet hi; 

feet in hcigl 

sixiy feet in 

tion of the 

piers .and ari 

st.airw.ay, wi 

out over the 

from which 

olden lime : 

things to be 




Old Ro( 



The rcser\ 
States stand 
and forty t( 
and in p.arli.i 
house w.as li 
.M.arch 27, .am 
Meanwhile t 
.ai)|)arent that 
and in anlici 
side of the cii 
'•'^'47. g.'ive c( 
eslal)lishcd. 

In 1 8 50 ,ar 
hundred-ant 



\VATI:K AM) WATl'.R WORKS. 



65 



ill tlu; city, wvw laid on Ji-I'ferson Avciuic, Trom Ran- 
dolph Slrcrl. U) W Iwaiil Avciun.'. In 1S40 a 

contrai't was made with L'harlfS Jackson and Noah 
Sutton to build an i'n,:^inc-iiouse, lay niiu' niiks of 
taniarac loj^s, four and one half of iron pipis, fuinish 
a forty-rivc-horsc-powLT cnj^inc, civet tlic iron reser- 
voir, and finish its tower. The plan of the reservoir, 
or ronntl-house, was copied by Noah Sutton from 
the old Manhattan Works of New \'oi-k Cit\-. 
William lUirnell was the contractor fni the brick- 
work, wiiich was completed in 183S. John Scott 
superintended the construction. The lirick part was 
fifty feet lii.^h, surrounded by a wooden top twenty 
feet in liei.trht. The iron tank, twenty fei't lii^ijh .and 
sixty feet in diamett-r, was located in tlie upper por- 
tion of the building;-, restinvj on numerous brick 
piers and tu'ches. A narrow, crooked, and winding' 
stairway, with a rou.v^h, wooden [ilalform extendins^' 
out o\er the reser\dir, led to the top of the building, 
from which a fine \iew could be obtained ; in the 
olden time a visk to this reservoir was one of the 
ihinj^s to be enjoyed In" all visitors. 




UlU KiiLM) lioLMi, luul ul- OKLli.\NS STUUUT. 

The reservoir had a capacity of 422,979 United 
States standard gallons, and weighed one lumdred 
and forty tons. It was in constant use until 1857 
and in partial use until 1S60. In 1866 the round- 
house was torn dow'i. The work was begun on 
March 27, and the old land mark soon disappeared. 
Meanwhile the rapid growth of the city made it 
api)arcnt that more extensive works were needed, 
and in anticipation of the erection of reservoirs out- 
side of the city, a charter amendment of .March iC), 
1847, gave control over any works that .should be 
established. 

In 1S50 an .additional pumiting engine of one- 
hundred-and-rtfty-horse-power w;is set up. ]'"vcn 



with these addition.al facilities, the supply of water 
was uncertain, .and in 1851 four acres of land on the 
Muileit l''ai-m wiM\: purchased as a site for a new 
ris(r\iiir. This investment gave rise to nuK:h tlis- 
cussion, and in the winter of 1851 and 1852 the 
papers were til'ed with arguments and communica- 
tions for and against i)roposals to si'il the water- 
works to ;i priv.ate corptjration. l'"in;diy, by (jrdi- 
anee passed I'ebru.iry 24, 1852, the management of 
the works was vested in a board of five trustees, 
and a year later, on February 14, the same trustees, 
by .Act of the Legislature, were constituted a IJoard 
of Water Co nmissioners. Vmm this time the 
bo.ard had control of all the property of the water- 
works, which, on December 30, 1862, was conveyed 
to them by deed of the council. 

I'he continued incri'ase of the city and its pro- 
spective wants letl the connnissioners to disj^ose of 
the four acres on the .Mullett i^'arni ; and in 1854 
they i)urchased ten acres on the JJeciuindre l-'arm, a 
mile and a h.alf from the river, at a cost of §7,363. 
'J'his ground, the highest in the city available for the 
pur[)ose, is twenty feet higluT than the level at the 
corner of Jefferson and Woodward .Avenues. 

.\ nvw resei"\oir\vas begun upon this site in 1S54. 
It was first used in .\ovember, 1857, but was not 
fully completed until i860. It is bounded by Wil- 
kins, Calhoun, Riop.'lle, and I)e(|uindre Streets, and 
consists of two basins enclosed by a sloping em- 
bankment thirty feet high, composed princij)ally of 
clay. The embankment is one hundred and three 
feet thick at the base and fifteen feet wide at the 
top. The outside is h.andsonu'ly sodded. The 
basMis were originally lined with brick. After a few 
months' use, heiuier and more durable material was 
deeiiK'd necessary, and stone, with brick for a few 
feet at the top, was substituted. Steps lead from 
the northwest corner to the top of the embankment, 
upon which tiiere is a gravel w.ilk 1,003 feet long. 
The two b.isins are surrounded by a neat fence, and 
a flight of steps from top to bottom of the interior of 
each affords easy access for cleaning or repairs. 
The dividing wall between the basins contains a 
stairw.ay leading to the shut-ol'fs, so that water can 
be let on or shut off from either basin without inter- 
fering with the other. I'ach basin is two hundred 
feet sijuare al the top, one hundred and fourteeii 
feet sciuare at the bottom, and twenty-eight and one 
half feet deep; and together they cover an area of 
530 X 320 feet, or nearly four acres. The capacity of 
the two is 9,000,000 gallons. The water is forced in 
and distributed through pipes two feet in diameter. 
The total cost of the reservoir, aside from the 
ground, was §116,287.58. A keeper resides on the 
grounds, and on week-days from April i to Decem- 
ber I, from 9 A. At. till sunset, and on Sundays from 
2 I'. M. to sunset, the grounds are open to visitors. 



66 



WA'll'.K AM) \\AI1;K works. 



As tlic top is sc'venty-scvcn and one lialf feet above 
the river, it ronimaiuis an .'xtensive view of the 
northeastern portion of tlie city. 

Tile various extensions and enlargements de- 
manded increased expt'ndiiuri's, and the commis- 
sioners were autliorized l)y Ac t of l"ei)ruary (>. I'S^,. 
to i)orrow §350.000, and an Act of l''ci)ruary 10, 
1857, ).',a\e power to l)orr()W an additional §250,000. 
In July, 1858, a new pipe was sunk in the river, the 
inlet end heinjL;' one hundri'd ,ind si'\-enty-t"ive feet 
from the wharf-line, .and the iiuality of the water o!)- 
tained was jrreaily iniprovi'd. 

In 1.S56 a new euj^ine was contrncted for, to be 
built in New \'orl<. It was completed and deliv- 
ered, l)ut f.ailed to do the work ai^reed upon, and 
was rejected by the eonnnissioners, who refused to 
pay for it. A suit was instituted against them, anti 
a decision reiulered under which the contractors 
recovered §26,500. In 1S62 a new env^ine w.is pro- 
cured, which cost §25,000. Attain it i)ecame neces- 
sary to enlarije the capacity of the works, and on 
February 17, 1869, the Legislature authorized the 



hoard to borrow $2 5o,oixj. A furtlier .\ct of .April 
5 i;;ive power to levy a t.ix of three cents a foot 
fronta^-e on all vacant lots passed by the supply 
]iipes, with power to .sell the lots after a certain time 
if the taxes were not i)aii!. Comparatively few per- 
sons paid the t.ax, and in June, 1876, the law was 
decided to be illei^al, and .all moneys collected under 
it have been, or are li.ible to be, refundi'd. 

Durinif 1870 m.uiy persons who lived adjoininj,^ 
the city petitioned to be served from the water- 
works, and in October the pipes, for the first time, 
were extended outside the corporation. In this same 
vearthe ever-recurrinir considenition of enl.ir.i^cment 
was ;n;;un :\ iirominent theme, and the<|uestion of ;in 
entirely new location occasioni'd nnich research and 
investiii;;ition. \'arious jilans .and locations were 
discussed bv city oflicers, priv.ate citizens, and the 
Water Ho.ird. 'I'he I.enisl.itiu-e, on March 8, 1873, 
j;;ive the board power to borrow §r,ooo,ooo for the 
pin-pose of erecting- new works, .and the Act pro- 
vided for the r.aising of §75,000 yearly by direct t.ax. 
the surplus over the necessities of the board to be 




KeSEKVOIR and K.MUA.NK.MEM llKUVtEN RiOl'ELLE ANU DecJUI.NUKE SiKEETS. 



.set ap.art .as 

12, 1873, (1 

board, ])ro\ 1 

their use, .11 

works outsi 

enl.aru'enicn 

seventy ;tcri 

.site for the 1 

the ( Irosse 

the river, ;i 

I'riv.ite Cl.ii 

about four n 

of the locati 

(), W. (;re< 

the ni.'iyor :i 

ligate the s 

works. '11 

1874. 'l"he; 

and .advised 

recommendc 

of the bo.ard 

services on tl 

eral Weitzel, 

August 18, ; 

The reasons 

th;it the woi 

from .'uljoinii 

.all seasons o( 

from .a river i 

and, by mci 

from iin])urit 

settling basin 

invited, and t 

W.alton, & \\ 

in December 

three years, ; 

the first time 

The inlet 

twenty-seven 

angles with t 

stream ; it is ( 

thick, five fe 

twenty-tive fe 

the ri\-er, wh 

two feet of \v 

from the wes 

ends .and one 

bottom four : 

tiftv-seven ft 

height six feet 

the whole len; 

'l"he water 

strainer, intlu( 

basin, thence, 

into effluent 

wells to the p 

the forty-two 



WAILR AND WAIllK WORKS 



si:t apart as a sinking- fund. A further Act of April 
12, i<S73. (k'Tuu'd with iiuicli dft.iil tlio jxiwrrs of the 
board, i>ro\idcd for coiulcniniiijL^' priw'ti.' jjropirty for 
thi'ir usi', and ,v;a\'c tluMii powir to erect and control 
works outside the city. In furtlicranee of plans for 
enlar^enicnt, tiie board, in janu.iry, ICS74, Ijou^lit 
seventy acres for $35,000 of Roijert P. Toms as a 
site for tile new works. Tlic ianil lias a frontage on 
the (Irosse I'oinli: Road of 9fi7 feet and extends to 
tlie river, a distani'e of 2,715 fi'it ; it covers jiiirls of 
I'riv.ite Claims Nos. 337 and 257 in ilamiramck, 
ai)out four mile, from the City Hall. The wisdom 
of the location w.is called in (jui'stion, nm\ Cii'iierals 
I). W. (ireene ;ind C. \\\'it/el were appoiiiteil by 
the ni.iyor and the lioard of I'ublic Works to inves- 
tigate the subject of location and of the i)roposed 
works. Their report was presciiticl in iXun'ust, 
1S74. 'I'liey approved of the location purchased, 
and ;id\isi'd the erection of works substantially as 
reeommiiuh'd by I). I'"arrand Henry, the enii;ineer 
of the board. The bill of ( leneral dreene for his 
services on this occation was !ii>i,i34and that of (ien- 
eral Weit/el, S'.*574o5- Tluse bills were presented 
Au]L;tist iS, and orderi'd paid on August 24, 1874. 
'["he reasons v;iven in favor of the new location were 
that tile works would be beyond the reach of tire 
from adjoininjf liri'iiiises, and woukl be accessible at 
all seasons of the year; the water would be obtained 
from a river channel seldom or never contaminated, 
and, by means of settlinif basins, coultl be freed 
from impurities. Proposals for constructing the 
settlin.iLj basin, docks, and a short slip or canal were 
invited, aiul the contract was let to Messrs. Lacey, 
Walton, iS: Walker for §106,130. W^ork was beyun 
in December, 1874, the works were completed in 
three years, and on December, 15, 1877, water for 
the first time was supplied therefrom. 

The inlet pipe is near mid-channel, in about 
twenty-seven feet of water, and is sunk at ri^dit 
anodes with the current, with the j^nitini;- side down 
stre.am; it is of wrou,!L(ht iron, one fourth of an inch 
thick, live feet in diameter, made in lengths of 
twenty-tive feet, and extends eleven hundred feet into 
the river, where it is enclosed by a crib in twenty- 
two feet of water, the water tlowin^' into the ])i])e 
from the west. The strainer is of pine lumber, the 
ends and one side ei.nlit inches thick, the top and 
bottom four inches tliick. The extreme len,t;th is 
tiftv-seven feet, width seven feet eij^lit inches, 
height six feet. The tjratinjr, extending on one side 
the whole length, is of hard-wot-d slats. 

'llie water is forced by gravity thnnigh the 
strainer, influent pipe, and gate-well into the settling 
basin, thence, intercepted by submerged bulkhead, 
into effluent gate-well, effluent pipe, and strainer 
wells to the pump wells, whence it is pumped into 
the forty-two-inch mains; these are so connected 




DErROll 



Pr.AN OF Detroit Water-Works. 



ii 



6S 



\\ Al I:K AM) W A I I.U \\i »klsS. 



that I'iilu r or hoili can In; used ; tln'v nin by difffr- 
fiit nmtis.oiu: i6,oo() kvt in Iin;,flli, tln' (itlur jS.ooo 
feet, to tlie snpplyiiiij mains. 

Tilt; scttliiijj basin is ihri't; bundii'd and siMy-livc 
feet wide and tli(' two sides measure. se\cn Iniiulrcd 
and fifty and eij^ht jiimdrcd feet ns|HMii\cly. it 
varies in deptli from ihirteen fe<l al the eiiannt 1 or 
soiilli bani< to si'venteeii feet on the nortli or engine 
siile at low-water niaii< ; it is sepai'aled from tlie 
ri\er liy a natural l)aiii< of solid eai'ili two liimdi'ed 
feet in widlli; on the other thi'ie sides tlnre are 
jtlank walls supported hv |)ilcs di'i\rn se\'cn h rl in 
blue clay; outside of tiu; |)lank walls there are solid 
embanknu'iits of blue clay, |)uddled in by hand, 
from elcecn to fnmleen fi'et wide. 1)11 the west 
side the embankment, which is eoeeri'd with plank, 
eonneets with and le.ids to the <loek, which is nine- 
teen hundrt'd feet louv;' and twi'nl\-li\e feci wide. 
West of the embankment is a canal forty-live feet 
wide: .and seventeen feet dei p. About se\'i'ntv-live 
fi'ct from the north bank of iln' setllini;- basin is :i 
siibmeri;'ed bre.ikw.ilcr, which prevents ,i direct em-- 
riMit from tlu' inlet to the outlet pipe, .and facili- 
t.ates the dc|)osit of ;uu- sedimcntai'y m.itler. i'lu.' 
l)asin ha.s ;ui ari'a of something;' ox'i'r si\ .aeres, 
and the ])ipe eonvi'yini,^ the water from it to the 
well in the en,;,nne-!iouse, like the inka pi'pc, is 
six feet .above the bed of the basin, thus ;illow- 



inyf ;ill sediment U) f.ill below the mouth of the 

Tile upper i)ortiiin of the ;.;roniids is occnpied by 
eo.al-housi', setllin;;- b.isiii, .and i ,uial ; the lower por- 
tion is reser\'ed for the site nf .m .addition.i! basin, 
shoulil it be n-i|uired. Thi' v^ruinuls .idjacent to the 
street .are i^r.lded, seeded, .ind orn.imented with 
slirubl)cr\- .and two sm.ill l.ikes; driveways li;id tu 
the eni^ine-hou^c. 

The en'.;ine-hoiise, of brick, st.ands nearly in the 
centre of tlu' upinr h.ilf of the i^rounds, eiu;hl lum- 
dred feet from the front line. The hci;^bt of the 
buildin;,;' to the lop of the m.iin w.alls is forty feel, 
to the pe.ik of tlu' roof Se\'enl\--li\a' feet, .and to the 
ti>p of the tower one hundred ;uid fciurieen feet. 
The eimine-rooin proper Is'i^ x (») fei'i. .and is o|)en 
to the roof. Two boiler-houses ioiii the rear, .and 
,are each lift\--ilirce .and six tenths by foi-|\--se\cn and 
four tenths feet inside nu'.asurement. with .a hei'.;lii 
of forty fei't. A sp.ice of thirty-sexcn fi'ct between 
them is used ,as store-roo , w.ash-i"ooni, .and woi'k- 
shop. The brick chimnevs on the outer w.al! of e.ach 
biiilei--roi]ni ,are li\'e feet in dianieler inside, .and one 
hunili-ed ;ind twenty feet hi,L;h. There .are two coni- 
poimd-be.un ]nmi|)in^- <'ni,^ines, both (k'sii^iied bv 
John 1^. j-alwards, .and each of them c,i|),il)le of 
pumiiin:< 24,000,000 y.allons d.aily. A tluVd envjine 
of the same kind will be completed durin,;,,^ 1884. 




The Nuw Wati;u-Wukks Engini; Hucm;, and Tuuek or Stand I'li't, 



One of llii 

i)uilt l)y til. 

was compli 

side b-on \\ 

'I'he t'Ui; 

Works lias 

in di.imeter 

inches in di. 

is eomjiosei 

inch stei'l pi 

hve feet Ion 

six inches 

centre eolm 

sii|)ports ll 

forms the 

forty-four f( 

fei't in di.ui 

base, .and si 

inches .at tli 

tot.ai heii^ht 

pl.ate to top 

fifty feet tli 

The lly-whei 

four feet in d 

weiv;iis.il)oui 

the cr.aiik sh, 

inelies in di.n 

Tile eni;in 

the Kiverside 

differs slii{litl 

built by the 

eomotive \\'( 

hi,nli sti'.am c 

four inches nil 

l)ump three f( 

inch iiKire di.-n 

be.ani of thi: 

eomposet! of 

fourtli-incii s 

twenty - live 

inches loii^- I 

six inches wid 

3,350 |)oimds 

lly-wheel is t 

feet four inch 

eter and wei 

forty tons. 'I 

inir wells .are 

wide, ,and tw 

four feet thic 

weighs ni'.irlj 

boilers, iisiiail 

ei.t(ht feet in 

lonir; heit;jii f 

cit,--!!! feet eiy 

e.aeli iioiler, s 

surf.aee, 1,36^ 



WAI KK AM) W All.K WOKKS. 



Oy 



One of till- c'lv^Hiii's was first nsfd in 1S77. and was 
built by till' Detroit Loroniotive Works; tiic dtlier 
was niniplcicil in iSSi l)y S. I'". Ilodnc, at llic Kivir- 
side h-(in \Viirl<s. 

'I'lie c'nv;ini' built by the Detroit Locomotive 
Works lias a hii;h steam cylinder, forty-two inidies 
in diami'ter, and a low steam cylinder, eii;IUy-foin' 
inches in diameter, with six-loot stroke. 'I'he beam 
is composed of si.\ half- 
indi steel plates, twenty- 
live feet loiij;- by five feet 
si.\ inches wide. The 
ci'iitre column, which 
supports till' be.'im and 
forms the ;iir vessel, is 
forty-four feet hiv;h. ten 
ft'ct in diamc'ter at tlu' 
b.ise. ,uid sewn feet t"i\'e 
inches ;it the top. The 
total hei;^hi from b.ase 
pl.ate to top of be.im is 
tlfty fet't three inches. 
The lly-wlu'cl is twi'iUy- 
four feet in di.imeter. and 
weij^iis .about tliii'ty tons ; 
the crank sh.ift is tifteen 
inclii's in diameter. 

'I'he I'lmiiu: built by 
tlu; Riverside IronWorks 
differs slii.;luly from that 
built by the I )etroit Lo- 
comotive Works. The 
hinh steam cylinder has 
four inches more, and the 
pump three fourths of an 
inch more di.anieter. '{'he 
beam of this eiii^ine is 
composed of four three- 
fourth-inch steel pl.ates, 
twenty- live' feet foiir 
inehes ion.^ by live feet 
si.K inches wide, weii;hin,n- 
3,350 pounds ea<h. Tiie 
tly-wheel is twenty-four 
feet foiu" inches in diam- 
iter and wtMv^hs nearly 
forty tons. 'I'he pum]-)- 

injr wells .an- forty-one feet lonj.^, twenty-one fc " 
wide, and twenty-two feet deep, with walls about 
four (vvl thick. Kiivh eni;ine with its air-pumps 
weighs nearly live hundred tons. There are ei^ht 
boilers, usually called marine boilers, each of them 
eijirht feet in diameter by nineteen feet si.\ inches 
loPif ; heivjht from bottom of furnace to top of shell, 
eiv;ht feet ei,i,dit and one li;i!f inches; wei^dit of 
each boiler, .seventeen and one half tons; he.ilini,^ 
surf.ace, 1,364 S()n.ire fi'ct. The st;uid-|)ipe aids in 



sectiriii),' a uniform ]iressiire of water throtivfh tlu; 
force mains; it is ni.ade of boiler iron rind lias ;i 
diameter of live feel at the base ,and thirty inches 
,il ihe top, the |)lates r,in,v;ini;' from live eitjhths to 
three sixteenths of an inch in thickness. It has ;i 
hei(.,du of one luindred and thirty-two feet from the 
foundation upon whieli it rests. The tower which 
encircles il is built of the best (|ualily of jjiessed 




I i.Mc >>i liii. K.N(,im;s. 

brick; the base or lower section is extended out- 
ward from the main shaft to allow of a p.issa^ew ay 
or wstibule to the windin,i^- stairw.iy one hundred 
and twenty-four feet hiyh, which leads to an ob- 
si'rvatory at the top. There are two luindred and 
four steps. 

An analysis of the water by I'rofe.ssor Dou).,dass in 
1S54 showed the contents of i.oocj j;ramiues to be ; 
suliih.ite of |)ot,assi;i. .00:283 j;r,immes; snlpli.'ite of 
sod.i. .0075; c.iibon.ile of linu', .033; phos|ih;ite of 



ro 



\v.\'Ii:r and \\.\i'i:k works. 



liiiH', .0311 ; alumina, .0105; silira, .(loy, ami car- 
bonatoof inm, .(XJS14 ; oratntai nf .ui^Soy v,rrammt's 
of solid luatltT in 1,000; in olIuT words, ;i i^-.illnii of 
w.itiT rontaiiK'd only 5.72^ ijrains of solid nialtcr, 
and this of siidi niincr.ils, in siicii proportions, as to 
1)1- of no re.il detrinifiit. 'I'lif iron pijic from wliicli 
tile water for analysis was takfu cxtcndi'd only 
twrnty-fivo feet l)cyond the wh.irf-line. An .malysis 
of a i,;allon of water l)y I'rofessor A. li. Lyons in 
September, 1S79, from w.iter obiaii.cd at the new 
works j^ave tiie foilowinij result : pot.issium, trace; 
sodium chloride, .229; sodium carbonate, .394; cal- 
cium sulphate, 1.043; calcium carbonate, 3.353; 
maijnesium carbonate, 1.209; alumina, .241 ; ferrous 
carbon.ite, trace; silica, .306. Toi.il, 6.775 j(rains. 

The cost of the new works, including the .tjrouiKis, 
up to J.iniiary, US84, was §1,271,739. 

.Ml .ifenenil distribution pipes are laid at the ex- 
pense of the city ;is fast as the commissioners deem 
necessary; and all ajjplications for extensions m;iile 
at the office are carefully considereil. Service pipes 
are recjuired to be put in by a licensed |)liniiber, at 
the expense of the individual. 1 'lumbers p.iy live 
dollars a year to the board as a license fee. A con- 
trast between the methods and facilities of the p.isl 
and the present is sugi,n'stetl in the following item 
from a daily paper of July, 1850 : 

/Viim/ii-r.— Why is it lliiit in a city of 25,i.wj {..habitants, with 
oiu: Hydraulic Wiirks, and the very t..\ttnsiv<; iiDprovuineiits evt ry- 
wherc going forward, that we have no professional plnnibtr aniung 
us? 

Petitions to make connections with the water- 
pipes must be made at the otlice, on blank forms 
there furnished, and a charge of $1.75 to Si-oo for 
service cock and for connecting must be paid when 
the permit is granted. Between the first day of 
December and the tir.stdayof March no connections 
are allowed to be made without special permit. 

Up to January i, 1884, there were 16,978 .service 
connections in the iron pipes, and 8,278 in the 
wooden logs; tliere was a total of one hundred 
and sixty-two miles of in n pipe, and seventy-eight 
miles of wooden logs. The iron pipe varies in size 
from three to forty-two inches in diameter, and 
the bore of the wooden logs from two and one 
quarter to four inches. The winter of 1874-1875 
being remarkably cold, the water-pipes were more 
generally affected than ever before, and many of the 
street mains froze and burst, causing serious incon- 
venience. 

In 1827 the force mains, or main pipes, delivering 
to the supply pipes consisted of tamarac logs o( 
four-and-one-half-inch bore. In 1830 three-inch 
iron pipes were used, in 1840 ten-inch pipes, in 1854 
twenty-four-inch pipes, and in 1875 pipes of three 
feet six inches in diameter were first employed. 



The following l.iblc gives a good idea of the 
grouili ,iu(l extcni of the water-works: 





Valnr of 


Amount of 




Workn. 


Diht. 








. 


rMsi 


• rii.-'4" 


$ a.sJ,77' 


1 Si K 1 


'ph.„7Hi 


l.^.,..., 


.H7,, 


1,170,. 70 


Hw-., 


1K8,. 


^,7S",7'"' 


l.5".!i'"«' 


,HH, 


.l,,li'v»«. 


1,555,01.10 



18711 
1880 
188 ) 



Water 
Kati'H. 

$ -.5,482 
4V.4J4 
'-■7. 1 4.1 

^85,^.58 



No, of 
Kaniilii'H. 

''S'ASO 
M.7'7 
a2<7H:) 
27,087 



IntiTi'.Ht 
paid. 



•4J.8.t7 
54i757 

(jy,()IO 
'I4.j-'J 

Gallons 
punipud. 



C'oKt of 
operutiiig. 



Mi5U 

33."«) 

45.7.)J 

54.4.M 

Atlles of 
ripcagu. 



.1o3<';3',74! 


/H 


87.i,..|0,4si 


(>^ 


i,8tj6,c,(i< 1,1.08 


i.'ij 


.">i.'i52ii/'.'i)3»o 


21 V 


7.l7'^.3-'7."'» 


242 



Tlu: office w.'is at one time located in the old City 
II.ill. In i85-' it w.'is removed to the old l''iremen's 
II.ill, on the corner of li.-ites and l.jirned Streets. In 
July, 1862, it w;is moved to ;i store in the central 
portion of the ISiddle llou.se Block, and in .M.iy, 
1872, to the north side of Jefferson Avenue, between 
Bates and Randoloh Streets. < )n S.'iturday, June 16, 
1877, the office w;is established on the e;ist side of 
Oriswold Street, midw.ay between Miihig.in Avenue 
and Sl.ite .Street, in a building speci.illy erected for 
the purpose, and renteil to the connnissioners. 

Under ordinance of 1836 the water rates were as 
follows: I''ach common dwelling-house, §10 yctrly ; 
each dwelling "larger than common," with one 
horse or cow, $' 2 ; each family in house with .several 
families, $8; each livery with four horses, §10; each 
store, $6 ; each office, $5. The t.tx was to be paid 
six months in advance, and no w.iter sui)plie(l for 
less than six months. As at i^resent managed, in 
May and June of each year personul inspection and 
intiuiry is instituted throughout the city ; and from 
facts thus obtained a list of consumers is made. 
On the last business day in June the rolls are 
confirmed, .and are fin;il and conclusive except as 
aflditional assessments may l)ccome necessary by 
increased use of water. Any reduction claimed 
by reason of diminished use of water can apply 
only to the succeeding (|uarter. The jiresent rates 
for each house range from five dollars upwards, 
with special rates for varying circumstances and 
particular kinds of business. If not paid within 
the first month of the quarter, five per cent is added; 
if not paid before the expiration of the quarter, ten 
per cent is added ; and if not then paid, the supply 
of water is shut off, and before it is let on again, not 
only the water tax but an extra charge of fifty cents 
for turning on the water rnust be paid. 

A law of 1873 required the board to charge for the 
pipes, and double rates for water supplied to persons 
living outside of the corporation. After ten years, 
trial, in 1883, discretionary power was given to the 
board as to the amount to be charged. 



W ;iicr 111 
be s.tid to 
there were 
indic.itors i 
<cnls, in 
g.illons reg 

When tl 
superintend 
lei'tions. I 
city collecti 
catcs the .- 
th.it d.iy 

I'.W ViiCK w 
Room iviry rii 
receive tin? del 
does not |iay ii 
the I'onncil, .-i 
joking. 

IlKTHiirr, A I 

In 1848, 
assessr )rs o 
council. \ 
tion of the 
the collector 

The asse* 
council wert 
ham ; 1 849, 
D. Clairoux, 
Francis Mel 

By appoir 
-sors and col 
N. Case, T. 

From iSj 
superintendc 
W.'IS $500 a ; 
elective oflic 
the Water C 

The follov 
1827-1833, 
French ; 1 8 
ward M. M 
1843, 15. B. 
1 846- 1 848, J 
ley, N. C.rei 
1854, K. .Mc; 

The engin 
Charles How 
min Keeney 
J. I'!, lulwan 
pointed gent 
served until 
appointed ch 
new works \ 
when the ofli 
Superintendc 
and contiiUR 
1877, he was 



WATKR AXI) WATl'.K WORKS. 



;i 



Water mt'tcrs wtTi' tcstfd in 1854., hut can hardly 
1)1' said to have lu'cii in usr 'iiilil I1S74, and ''> ''*^^3 
tiirri' wiiv but thirty-two iiicttrs and tucivi' watcr- 
indiiators in the city. 'I'iic r.itc in 1S75 was two 
cents, in 1XS3 one cent for eacii )nc hiindreil 
jfallons re,;;istere(l. 

W'luii tile city took ciiar^ft' of tiie works, liic 
superintendent ii.id eii,irv;c of assessments .md eol- 
li'ctions. hi I.S45 the rates were eollerted i)y tiu' 
city eolleelor. '\'\k' followinv( .■id\eriiM'nient indi- 
cates tiic sternness of iiu'.nicipal niana^'ement in 
tii.it day 

I'Av \nt u Wm UK Tanks,— I will hv iit iho Cdiiimim Cmiiuil 
kdiiiii I'M r>' iMiirniiiK' fmin (in until lialf-past twilvc ii'ilmk tn 
rt-cciv).' tlur ili'liiii|ii('iit w.itir-tiix .. I'Acry mail and winiiaii wlm 
(liit'H ni>t pay up hy .M<itiilay, tlif .isl instaiu, will In- npculid tn 
tllr C'ininiil, and tin; water in i"itv rasr shnt olf. 1 am nut 

jiikiniiC. 

MdKdAN II \ IKS, t'/V^ Colleitor 
Dktuoii', April m, 1S4:;. 

In i(S48, under a permissive ordinance of 1842, 
assessors of w.iter-r.iies witc ap|)oiiUe(l bv the 
council. At tile pri'sent time, .'md since the crea- 
tion of the W'.iter Commission, the bo.ird appoints 
the collectors. 

The assessors of water-taxes aiipointed by the 
council were as follows: 1S48, W. Haniay, I".. Hen- 
ham; 1849, N. I). Carinnter, <}. S|iencer ; 1850, !.. 
I). Clairoux, John V., Norton; 1851, \. T. Taylor, 
Francis Mt Don.iiil. 

Hy appointment of the commissioners, the asses- 
sors and collectors in 1883 were: James Fenton, L. 
N. Case, T. K. I'utnam, and I'. F. .Seitz. 

From 1836 to 1849 the council apptjinted the 
suiierinteiident of the works. 'I'he salary in 1839 
w;is S500 a year. I>y charter of 1849, it became an 
elective office, and so remained up to the creation of 
the Water Commission in 1853. 

The f()ll()wini( jiersons starved as superintendents: 
1827-1833, A. v.. Hathon; 1833-1837, David 
French; 1837, S.inford iSriltain; 1838-1S40, fid- 
ward Ah McCiraw; 1840-1843. William Hanlay ; 
1843, '*• '^- Moore; 1844-1846, David Thompson; 
1846-1848, James Stewart; 1848, Washinij^ton l>ur- 
ley, N. Cireusel ; 1849-1851, David Kdsall; 1851- 
1854, K. ,\Ud)onald. 

The enjrineers have been as follows: 1830-1840, 
Charles fhiward ; 1840, E. Fl. Rees ; 1841, Benja- 
min I\^eeney ; 1 842-1 861, F. M. Wing; 1861- , 
J. F:. Edwards. In 1853 Jacob Houghton was ap- 
pointed ifcneral superintendent and enir'ncer and 
served until 1861. In 1872 I). Farrand 1 enry was 
appointed chief engineer. Under his supe ision the 
new works were carried into sucessful o]ieration, 
when the office ceased. B. 15. Moore was aiijiointed 
Superintendent of FIxtension and Repairs in 1850, 
and continued to serve until his death. In April, 
1877, he was succeeded by Henry I5ridge. Robert ¥.. 



Roberts w;is ;ippointetl secret;ir\' on the organi/.alion 
of the bo.ird, .and continued in ollice until 1872, 
when hi' was sueceeiled by Meiiry Starkey. Cieorgc 
v.. Kun/e, the receiving clerk, li.is bi'cn in the oflice 
since 1872. 

The /\ct creating the W.itcr Commission n.imed 
five commissioners, who were to serve for three, 
four, live, six, and seven years res|)eetively ; ,ind in 
April, 1856, ;ind ye.irly thereafter, one was to be 
elected annually by the Common Couik il for the 
term of five years. They were to serve without 
compensation, liider l.ivv of 1879 their terms were 
to begin on the first Tuesd.iy of M.iy, and by .\ct of 
1881 members of the commission c.in be appointeil 
only on the nomin.ition of the ni;iyor. The board 
organi/ed .\hiy 16, 1853, .and consisted of S. Conant, 
president; J. A. Vandyke, W. R, Noyes, F'.. A. 
iirush, .111(1 II. Fedyard. In 1855 James A. \'.in- 
dyke died, .and \. I). Fr.aser was aiipointed to till 
his pl.icc. At the expiration of the term of S. Co- 
nant in 1859, he w.is succeeded by J. D. ^h)rton, and 
the sjime ye.ir John \'. Reulile was appointed suc- 
cessor to Henry Fedy.ird, who removed from the 
city. In 1861 J. V. Reuhle entered the army, and 
his pLice vv.is lilled by Chaiiney Hurlbut. His term 
expired in 1863, and S. (i. Wight w.is apjiointed. 
In 1865 W. R. Noyes resigned, and the v.acancy was 
hlled by the appointment of Jacob S. Farr.and. In 
the same year the v.ac.-incy occasioned by the ilece.ase 
of J. D. Morton w.as tilled by the .-ippointmeiu of 
John Owen. In 1868 F. A. Brush resigned, and 
Caleb \'an Husan vv.as ajiixiinted, .and the term of 
S. (i. Wight h.aving exjiired, Ch.auncy Hurlbu' w.as 
again appointed a member of the bo.ard. 'I'he term 
of A, D. Eraser closed in 1871, and Samuel F. 
Hodge succeeded him, and the next year Elijah 
Smith took the place of Caleb \;in Ilusar.. He w.as 
;uic(eeded in 1877 by Mich.ael M.artz. In 1879 
James Beatty was appointed in iil.ace of S. '". Hodge, 
and John I'ridgeon in |)l.ice of John Oacii. The 
bo.ird in 1883 consisted of J. S. Farrand, C. Hurl- 
but, M. M.artz, J. Beatty, and J. I'ridgeon. 

Regular meetings of the commissioners .are hekl 
monthly on the Wednesd.ay after the first .S.iturd.iy 
in each month. About forty persons are const.antly 
employed by the board, with salaries varying from 
$100 to Ji2, 200 yearly. During the summer season, 
\ .en new pipes and extensions are Laid, from sev- 
enty-five to one hundred and fifty addition.al men 
are employed, .and $6o,ocx3 is yearly paid out for 
salaries and labor. 

■"UIU.TC DRINKING FOUNTAIN.S. 

]5oth .jzens and dumb animals are indebted to 

Moses W. F^itiJ for the suggestion of jiublic drinking 

fountains. Fie petitioned the council in regard to 

them on May 23, 1871. On the 30th a committee 



72 



PUBLIC DRINKING FOUNTAINS. 



reported favorably, and on Jiuk' 27 Uic toin|nrollL'r 
was directed to advertise for seven. Nine more 
were ordered in July, 1S74. 'I'liey are generally 
plaeed at liie intersection of streets. In iSS-; foun- 
tains were located -it the corner of McDoni^all and 
Jefferson, Orleans and I'Yanklin, Ki(i]H'lle :an\ ( 'ii-;itiot, 
dratiot and Randoipli, Congress and iiatcs, Fort 



anil Wootluard, foot of Woodward, First and Jeffer- 
son, Twenty-lirst and Woodbridi^e, Tweiftli and 
I'ort, Fourteentii and Micliiv^an, Twenty-fourth and 
Miciiijran, Cass and I.i'dyard, (Irand River and 
Truniinill, Twelfth and liaker, and at Fast and 
West Hay and Wood Markets. It is the duly of 
the gas inspector to earc for them. 



Tin 

Wi: are 

ward for 

l)ordered \ 

gestions w 

of tile (io\ 

for tile pla 

avenues. 

Circus is I 

slKule of t 

or watc tl 

hard to ri 

jionds .-uul 

tlie bulifn 

refuse of i 

citizens coi 

tile directi( 

raised from 

In 1846 

southwest 

and also a 

Clifford, tc 

directed th 

— the tirsi 

the other I 

the further 

out trees a 

west side c 

attention, a 

laid out in 

1866, the 

Campus M 

August 27, 

Hall, for tisi 

co.x. In if 

Circus Park 

Adelaide Cr 

In order t 

and grass, t 

1866, when 

days. In Ji 

all the park 

fence of the 

same time, c 

All the sr 

apjireciated 



CHAPTER XIV 



THE I'AUKS AM) I'lll'; liOl J. i:\ARl).- I-ASITRIIS AND POUNDS. 



TItF. I'ARKS AND 'IIIE nOTU.KVARD. 

Wk arc nrlainly iiululncd to Chki Justice Wood- 
ward for our hall'-acrc parks antl l)road avciuics 
bordcri'd willi thrifty elms and maples. His su.;;- 
i;cstious were cmbodictl in one of tiie earliest Acts 
of the (lovernor anil Judv^es, which made provision 
for tile planliuJL;' of tries on tlie streets, s(|uares, and 
a\eiun's. of all the smaller parks, the (irand 
Circus is the most beautiful. As we rest in the 
.shade of the trees, enjoy the plash of the fountains, 
or watc the children at play upon the lawns, it is 
hard to re;ili/,e that up to 1844 these parks were 
ponds ;nul marshes, enii\eni'd only by the musit- of 
the bullfrog;', and used as a place of dc])osit for 
refuse of every kind. in that year a number of 
citizens combined for their improvement, and, imder 
the direction of II. M. Leroy, the i;roinuls were 
raised from one to four feet. 

In 1S46 the coiHicil ;ii)pro])iiated a lot on the 
southwi'st I'orner of ClilTord and Ailams Avenue, 
and also a lot on wi'St side of Macomb A\enue near 
ClilTord, to pay for additional im|M'o\emcnts, and 
diri'cted that the lots be sold at auction on July 26, 
— the lirst lot to be sold for not kss than $150, and 
the other for at least §125. In the s|)nn,i^' of 1853 
the further sunt of S'. 500 was ixpendcd in setting 
out trees and building fences. Tlu' |iark on the 
west side of Woodward A\enue receixed the most 
attention, a fountain being there erected antl walks 
laid out ill the summer of i860. In September, 
1 866, tln' speaker's stand was movid from the 
Campus Martins to tlie j^ark. It was erected on 
August. 27, 1862, on the p.^es'-nt site of the City 
Hall, for use at the reception if Ceneral O. Ii. Will- 
cox. In 1874 a fountain vis p acrd in the Mast 
Circus I'ark. Two years lat^r it was removed to 
Adelaide Campau Park, and replaced by another. 

In order to insure the perfect rooting of the trees 
and grass, the parks wc-e kept closed until May, 
1866, when they were opened to the publii- on Sun- 
days. In July, 1873. the fences wiTc removed from 
all the parks except the Clinton and Cass. The 
fence of the latter park was reduced in height at the 
same time, and in 1879 w;is entirely removed. 

All the smaller parks have been much used and 
appreciated since they were thrown open. Linden 



Park, located in the township of I lamtramck, is three 
miles from the City Hall, about three fourths of a 
mile beyond the eastern limits of the lity, and half a 
mile north of the ri\er, between Lincoln and Bald- 
win .Avenues. It contains twenty-five and seventy 
one-luuKlredlhs aiTi'S. It was given to the city by 
.Moses W. i'icld, on Oitober 1, 1875, upon condition 
that the city a])proi)ri.ile §3,000 annually for im- 
proving it. On February 25 Mr. Field gave an- 
other piece of land .six hundred feet wide, on the 
north side of the park, and so modified the condi- 
tions of his tirst gift that, upon sjiending $4,500 in 
improving the groinids, the city should have a full 
title. Including l.indi'U Park, seven of the ihirtieii 
parks have been given by iiulividuals. The list is as 
follows: 



Namk. 



KIlOM 

C'lawfdril 

Ci.ss 

SlaiU(Pii 

Maicmil) 

Aiielaiclit'ain 
pan 



I.CHAIUIN. 



\ llltlT-l-c. Clf 5II1 

( aiui t Mt.hard, 
\ hitcrsrc. of 5tli 
I ami lli){li, 
\ :il Si 1)1 1. i.ed- 
( yai<l aiul liaKK 
1 liinrsif.iif i7tli 
( and Mariiiullr 
1 liilcisic.iil' i7tli 
* and Ki)sr, 



hilirstct. 



C'atiipaii and 
/ I'lintDn Avcs. 



( .1\ KN II V. 



("rant' iV ^V(■ss^>n 

C'ranr \' Wesson 

Lewis Cass, 

' S. K. Stanlon, 

[ S. K. Stanton, 

It. i. \ I). J.I 
i C'anipaii, i 



WllKN r.l\ KN. 



Dei-. -S, 1850 

I )cc. ■.■8, 1850 

July ui, i860 

July ;•!, 1861 

Inly 23, 1861 

Sept. 6, iSCs 



Centre Park, named February i, 1840, is between 
Farmer, Farrar, and (iratiot .Streets, and is occupied 
by the Public Library. School Park, between Ciris- 
wold, Rowland, and State Streets, is occupied en- 
tirely by the High School buildings. Clinton Park 
is part of the old City Cemetery. It was dedicated 
as Clinton P.irk on August 7, 1868. It is located 
between Cinitiot, Clinton, Paton, and .St. Antoine 
Streets. Randolph Park was .so named April 27, 
1869; it was formerly called Miami Square and also 
North Park. East Park is located between Farmer, 
Pates, and Randolph Streets. In 1883 it was given to 
the police commissioners as a site for anew building 
to be occupied as their headquarters, West Park 
lies between West Park Place, Park Place, and State 
Street. The following table shows the number of 
acres in each park, except lielle Isle : Adelaide 
Campau, 95-100 acres; Linden, 25 and 71-100; 



l7d 



■4 



THE PARKS. 



Kaiul(il|)li, 24-100; CriUiT (ii- Library I 'ai'k, 27-100; 
Scliodl. 524-1000; Wist, 524-1000; ('.rand Circus, 
4 and 5c;5-iooo; CiiiUon. 1 and 32-1000; l^iton, 
703-1000; Crawford, 703-1000 ; Siaiitoii. ()ii-iooo; 
Maccinii). 4.S<;-iooo ; and Cass. 4 and iS-ioo. I'olal, 
40 and 53-100 acrts. 

The most prominent inihlic s(]tiarr is tin- Camptis 
Martins, so namrd afirr tlu- prinripal s(iu;iri' at 
Marietta, tiic lirst settlement and capital of the 
Northwest 'IVrritory. That s(|uare was named 
Campus Martins by tin; directors and agents on July 
2, 1788, lu'cause tlu; blockhouse stood in the centre 
of it. The Campus Martins of ancient Rome was 
the most celelirated of its parks or public i^rounds. 
It was at first set apart for military exercises antl 
contests, but afterwards became a public park or 
pleasure-iL,n'()uiKl, with i,^'irdens, theaters, batlis, etc. 
It received the name of Martins from beini,M)riyin- 
ally consecrated to Mars, the Ciod of War. One 
would think that our Campus Martins hail i)een 
dedicaed to every deity, for everythinij in ttirn has 
centered at this hub of the city. It has been occu- 
pied as a hay and wood mai'ket, as a standin.n-ijlace 
for farmers' waj^ons, and a rendezvous for hucksters 
and peddlers of e\ery kind. Here patent medicine- 
men, •• linhtniniL;' calculators," cheap jewelry auc- 
tioneers, peddlers of knife-shar|)eners, cements, toy- 
balloons, oranjLjes and bananas, have tilled the air 
with their cries: and " liftin,;;'," "strikini.c," "electri- 
cal" ami " lun,n' testinv;" machines have all been 
operatetl on this famous square. Huije bontires 
have often illuminated the snrrotindinij^ buildin.i;s, 
and hundreds of political speeches have here beiMi 
made to the thrones that so many limes gathered at 
this strand old mcetinii^rplace. It was not always so 
attractive as now. Roii^h. muddy, unpa\eil, and 
uneven, onlv a prophet could have foreseen the 
present beauty of the place and its surroundinj,fs. 
The first ste|) towards its im|irovement was m.ide on 
April 22, 1S35, when the reconler of the city stib- 
mitteil a resolution for a committee to cause the 
Cam]ius Martins to be graded, encloseil. planted with 
trees, and sodded. The resolution was adopted, and 
the recorder and .\itierman I'almer were a|i|)oiiUed 
as said committee. Under their direction the s(|uare 
was j^raded down fully four feet, and the earth duij 
away used to till in the \alley of the Savoyard. The 
decoratinif was left until more recent years; and now 
the wide walks, the jilats of grass, the fountains, the 
Hower-beds, and the view afforded, are worthy of any 
city. 

A Committee on Parks was first appointed on 
May 30, 1854; and in 1863 'i superintendent was 
appointed to ser\-e durincf the summer season. 
Since 1 870 the smaller parks have been under the 
care of the Board of Public Works. The followinj^ 
persons have served as Sii|)erinti'ndents of P.irks: 



i8()2, Timothy Ryan; i8'>3, C. K. Jones; 1864- 
i8()7, Timothy Ryan; 1867, Luke Daly and A. 
Illnmma; 1868-1870, Cieori^e llenrion; 1870, 
Au,i(ust Cioebel. 

No history of the parks would be complete without 
some reference to the Park Oueslion which a.vjitated 
all Detroit fi-om 187010 1873. The desirability of 
a pai'k or parks and a boulevard had been the sub- 
ject of numerous articles in the daily jiapers tlurinj;" 
the fall of 1870, and on June 24, 1871, an informal 
meetimj of citizens was held at Yoiinif Men's Hall 
to consider the subject. The project of layin.y; out 
a laru^e park met with .ijreat favor, ami on April i 5 
the Leij;islature passed an Act appointinj.f commis- 
sioners to receive i)ropositions for sites and iij'ivinn' 
them power to decide as to kication. 

The commission met and orjjanized, and soon re- 
ceived offers from various parties for locations in all 
parts of the city and its suburbs. They deeided 
that the most desirable location was a tract of land 
in Hamtramck, a little over three miles from the 
City Hall, embracinif parts of Private Claims 180 
and 734, with a river frontavje of half a mile. The 
decision of the commission was unsatisfactory to 
many, but the council approved their action, and on 
November 21, 1871, a resolution was offered anthor- 
i/ini>' the i:omptroller to prepare bonds to the amount 
of $2C)0,0(X) to pay for the ijrounds. 

The resolution was postponed for two weeks, 
>vhen, on December 27, at the call of the mayor, a 
citizens' meetimj was held in the Circuit Court room, 
to vote on tile question of issuing' the bonds. There 
was an immense crowd present, and amid ^reat con- 
fusion the vote was (lecla"eil carried; but there was 
so much doubt and dissatisfaction that neither the 
council nor the citizens re!L;arded the vote as decisixe. 
In order to obtain a more satisfactory \'ote the 
council, on April 19, 1872, requested the mayor to 
call another meetinjL,^ to reconsiiler the ([uestion. 
Accorilin.i;ly, on May i, a meetinvr was held at the 
Ciriswold Street front of the City Hall. Aijain a 
j^reat crowd assembletl. There was plenty of 
amusement and much confusion, but no decision 
was reacheil. 

This was the last so-called citizens' meeting. It 
was unsatisfactory to all good citizens, who were gen- 
erally agreed that some better methoil of approving 
the ta.\ estimates should be devised. Meantime, on 
March 14, 1873, the Legisl.iture, by .special Act, 
gave the Park Commissioners power to purchase 
the grounds, and directed "the council to provide 
means to pay for them." Soon after they passed 
Acts abolishing citizens' meetings, providing for a 
Board of I'.stimates, and annexing a large part of 
the townships of Hamtramck and (Ireentield to the 
city. It was generally believed that these .Vets were 
drawn in the interest of those who wished to have 



TllK I'AKKS. 



75 



the park located m Ilamtranu'k, and the opponents 
of the park united in an endeavor to seeiire a Hoard 
of Estimates who would oppose tlie purciiase of tiie 
])ark. On Apiil 2 liiey iu'ld a l.iri;e nieetinij at 
Vounij Mens Hall, and so successful was their pro- 
test that on Ajiril 7 a ho.ard was elected composed 
of persons known to be unfavorable to the location 
of the park in I lamtramck. 

The (piestion, however, was still iinseltled, as both 
the council .and the P.irk Commission desired to 
]iurchase the i;rouiiil selecteil for the jiark. Those 
opposed to the plan did not relin(iuish their efforts, 
and on Auv^ust iS and 21 anti-park ineetinv^s wci-e 
held to protest a,i;ainst the iirovidiiii;^ of money by 
the council to pay for the lands contracted for. The 
I'.irk (."ommissioners, howe\cr, proposed to C(jmplete 
the purchase. The question of their ri,i,dit to tlo so 
was broui;ht before the Supreme Court, and on 
December 3, 1S73, they reported to the council 
that the t'ourt h.id decided they had no power to 
bind the lily to pay for the lands; they tlu'refore 
asked the council to d<'tcn.iine what action they 
shoukl lake. The coiuicil look the .!L;roim(l that, as 
the I'ark Act said, "Thecoimcil sh.all provide money 
to pay for the pun-hasc of the |>ark," they were under 
()i)lij;ations todo so. and on December 1 2 they recom- 
mended the issue of boiuls to the amount of §200,- 
000, and directed the com|)trolkr to prepare them. 
On Det'cmber 16 Mayor Moffat disapproveil of 
the action of the council, as the law creating the 
Board of T'-stimates provided that no bonds should 
be issued unless authorized by them, and the coim- 
cil, on the same ilay, again directed the coni])troller 
to prc|)are bonds. On December 30 the I'ark 
Commissioners reported that they h.id bought the 
lands. Meantime the bonds had not been prepared, 
and on January 6, 1H74. the council again directed 
the mayor and comptroller to issue them. On Jan- 
uary 9 Mayor Moffatt returned un.approved that 
part of the proceedings relating to the.se directions 
for the same reasons given by him on December 
16, and said moreover that the council was without 
authority over his actions and could not compel him 
to sign the bonds. The council, for the third time, re- 
peated its order to issue the bonds, and on February 
20 ilirected the city councillor to take legal proceed- 
ings to compel the mayor to sign the Park Bonds. 
The council jiersisted and the mayor resisted, and 
finally the(|uestion was brought before the Sujireme 
Court, where, on May 12, 1874, it was decided that 
the purchase must be ajiprovetl by the Board of 
Mslimates. Their ajijiroval could not be obtained, 
and the subject drop]>ed. 

Thus ended one of the most persistent and bitter 
conflicts in regard to municipal matters that ever 
transpired in Detroit. The iilea of purchasing Belle 
Isle for park |>urposes was first conceived by 1.. I.. 



I'arbour. He consulted the several owners, ob- 
taineil refusals of their interests, and arranged that 
the contracts to sell shoukl be made in the names of 
several gentlemen whom he interested in the sub- 
ject. On .Apfil 8, 1879, the.se gentlemen. Messrs. 
Cieorge C. Langdon, J. J, Ikigley, liela Hubbard, C, 
1. Valker, .M. S. Smith, and D. O. Farrand, sent a 
communicaticjn to the council suggesting that the 
city purchase Belle Isle; they stated that they had 
procured agreements which would give the city the 
entire island for S200.000, and that the ])r()i)osal was 
entirely devoid of any personal or pecuniary interest. 
Another communication from leading citizens |ie- 
titioned the council to seek legislation for the pur- 
pose of buying the island ami building a bridge. It 
was a favo'.ible time to present the i^roject, for the 
(luestion of bridging or tunneling the; river for rail- 
ro;ul purposes was then being discussed. The 
communic-.aiion w.is f.isorably received, ami a reso- 
lution was .adopted |iraying the Legisl.ature to ])ass 
an .Vet .auchori/.ing the city to issue bonds to the 
;imount of $700,000 to purchase ISelle Isle and con- 
struct ;i bridgi'. 

.Many cili/i'ns objei'ted. but on May 27, 1879, the 
Legislature authorized the city, with consent of the 
lio.ird of ICstimates, to issue bomis for the amount 
•jiroposed, a portion of them to be used to secure the 
building of eitlu'r a bridge or a tunnel. The Act 
also g.ive the council power to improve [larks either 
within or without the city limits. 

On M.iy 27 the Legislature ]iassed an additional 
Act authorizing the council, with consent of the 
lioard of ICstimates, to purchase the island and 
improve it as a |)ark, to issue bonds for not more 
th.an $200,000, ami giving them power to erect a 
bridge to the island. 

On June 30 the Bo.irtl of F.stimates approved of 
the purchase, and on September 25 it was consum- 
mated. The care of the park was next considered, 
and on December 23. 1879, acting under the old 
Park Act of 1871, ^Layor Langdon nominated and 
the council confirmed six commissioners. On Jruiu- 
ary 3, 1880, they organized, and on May 28. 1880, 
the council voted to turn over the park to their care. 
The next day, during the absence of Mayor Thomp- 
son, Charles Fwers, as acting mayor, apjiroved of 
the proceedings of the council. During that same 
day Mayor Thom|ison returned, ami in a communi- 
cation to the council disapproved of their action of 
the 28th. on the ground that the Act under which 
the commission had organized was a nullity. He 
also claimed that the approval of the action of the 
council by the acting mayor was not legal, inasmuch 
as he had not been absent from the city long 
enough to make action upon the iiroceedings neces- 
sary. The opinion of Mayor Thompson was sus- 
tained by the Suprt'iiie Court in a decision rendered 



76 



Tin 



'Al 



\()\riiil)ur lo, i(S,So, anil a iiir- 
tlur (Ifcision on Jiiiu- 1 5, 1881, 
(IccLiii'd that tlu' commi.ssioni'rs 
apixiiiitcd by Mayor l.an^doii 
had no iii;al control over lU'lU; 
Isle Park. 
I'ndcr ordinani-f of Au,ij;usl 29, 

1881, Mayor 'I'honipson nonii- 
nati'd the followiiii,^ persons as a 
JJoard of I'ark Commissioners: 
M. I. Mills, A. Marxhausen. \Vm. 
A. Moore, and James McMil!..ii, 
for terms of one, two, thrt'i', and 
four ye.-irs I'espectively, and a 
commissioniT w.is to he ap- 
pointed annually. W. \'>. Mor.ui 
sueeeedeil M. I. Mills on Srp- 
lember 1, 1SS2. J;is. MrMill.an 
resit^ned in iSHj, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1884 by I). M. Ferry. 

The board ()rv;.'Uii/.ed on Seji- 
li'iiiber 8, i8Si ; on Deeiinber 
17 elected |ohn Stirling;' as sec- 
retarv, and soon after eonii'acted 
with Frederick l.;iw ( )linsteadto 
lay out the park. A sin-\cy was 
made by luij^t'iie Robinson in 

1882, and the work of ])lannini; 
and ]irep,iri!i,t;' the island for 
park ]nii-piises was l)C'.;un. In 
1882 the coimcil appropriated 
§20,000 for the park, andy4,(.x)() 
additional was reci'ived loi' rent 
of lishinv;' i^rounds, ice pri\i- 
k'j^'cs, n'StaiH'ants. vie. ( )f these 
amoi'nts,Si4,5o4 wire expended 
in that \far. Hy law of March 
28, 1883, the board was i;i\en 
full CDUti-nl (iver all taxes le\ii'd 
for the |)urpose of maintainin;;- 
the park, 

.\lnindant indications of the 
.nppreciation of the jjrivi levies of 
the island are .atforded in tln' 
fact that between June 1 ,ind 
October i, 1882, 268,000 ailults 
visited the park. 

Durinjr 1 883 the eircidar canal 
at the upjier end of the island, 
shown in the proposed ])lan, was 
C()m|)leted at a cost of about 
$11,000. The canal is live feet 
deep and fifty feet wide. 

DinMniL,^ the i'ViMich ()ccui)ancy 
of Detroit, Belle Isle, a portion 
of it at least, w.is treated as an 
.appendage of the j^arrison atid 




BS 




^ s. i> 1i^^:;:^-^■^•.^::;^•:v^-^^■■^^•;\V:".;i•7;:••v,•,•?^^/■,7 







V,.,! ., 




i^v:;v|(:K^;.V.f':-*. 

;<>>.■•.'•■'■>•, 'i }'/'?'•■■■■."'%■■-.'''■. •• 
rv".v •l'"-? '.' • ' 11 .f/ 






L_ 






used as a 
the i;overni 
IJouville Di. 
was not coi 
tions that 
control ovei 
On May 
diseovend, 
and thtding 



rill': i'AKKs. 



// 




Poi.in- Station, T1i:m,I' Tsi.k. 



used as a place for pasturai^H-. On June 12, 1752, 
the ^overnDi" and inlendanl s^ranled the island lo M. 
Douville Dequindiw but it is ])roljable that this ^rant 
was not {•onhrnud by the kin^', as there are indica- 
tions that the (iovernnient continued to exercise 
control over it. 

On May 9, I7''>3, when I'ontiac's conspiracy was 



and two childrt'n, killed tlicni. and also the twenty- 
four cattle belon^iiii;' to the .garrison, which had 
been left in their char^^e. During;- the subse([ucnt 
siei^e most of the wood for the fort was o!)taiiu'd 
from the island In* scndin;^' larv;^' j)arties there tuuler 
the protection of armed schooners. 

On May 4, I7(')S, deort^e III. and liis council ,v;avc 



discoveri'd, a jiarty of Indians crossed to the island, to Lieutenant deoriLje McUou;^all permission to 
and fmdinir there Serjeant James Fisher, his wife oceuin' the island so lung as the military establish- 




Superintendent's House, Belle Isle P.\kk. 



78 



■||II': I'AKKS. 



nioiit was i-i)iuiiuif(l .ii Dciroit, provided ili.ii lu' 
could do so williout causing ilissaiisfactioii to tlu- 
Indians, and that tlu' iinproveini'nis lie made should 
bu of such character as to be of service in su|)|)lying 
the wants of the fort and i^arrison. On June 5 of 
the followinjr year Lieutenant McI)oui,mII bou.v^ht the 
island of the Ottawa ami Chippewa Indians for live 
barrels of rum, three rolls of tobacco, three jiounds 
of vermilion, and a belt of wanipinn. an acUHtional 
three barrels of rum and three poinuls of paint to 
be delivered when possession was taken. The \alue 
01 the isl.md was estimated at /194 lo.v. 

In 1771 Lieutenant McDou.nall had it surveyed 
by a Mr. Boyd, who reported that it contained 
seven hundred and four acres. The same yiar Mc- 
Douvjall built a dwellin,i,r-house .and out-buildini;s, 
and his tenant, one Cassity. cultiv.ated about thirty 
acres. After ,'i few years John Lou,i;hton took L'as- 
sity's lease. There were then two farms on the 
island, comprisinjf eij^hly acres of cultivated land, 
together with houses and barns. One of the farms 
was cultivated by a man n.anied Ridley. 

On January 15, 1778, Lieutenant-Ciovernor Ham- 
ilton wrote to Ciovernor Carlton as follows: 

Tlu" iiihahiKiiUs li:iviii.i; n-pri-sciiU'd to m<- tin; Icissi'S mul c.aiiiai;!' 
tlii-y siifTtr l>y briiiv; iliprivcd nf tlii: cuiniiumaKi' of H(j>; Ulaiul, J 
have diriitcd Captain McI lini.naH's hmtlur-in-law, wlio is his 
attciriiry at this place, to acquaint him that, unless 1 have your 
excellency's orders to the contrary, the inhabitants shall \)i: re-in- 
stated in the possession of it on the ist day of May, 177 I, which 
is time snilicieni for him to prove a riv;ht. 

Meantime McDoug.ill died. ;iiul < ieiieral Ilaldi- 
mand, who had succeeded ( loxi'i-nor Carlton, wrote 
to \Lijor He I'eyster at Detroit that the eyecutors 
of Colonel McDougall must not be allowed to olTer 
Isle ail Cochon for sale, as he intended to recl.tini it 
for the use of the garrison at Detroit. I ies.iid further 
that Mrs. McDougall "need not be alarmed"; that 
he would see that her rights were protected. 

On July 13, 17S0, in a letter from llaldimandto 
De I'eyster, after informing him that in ortler to 
raise food and diminish expenses he proposed to 
have ground cultivated at each post, he added : " 1 
have therefore to desire you will immediately re- 
claim for his Majesty's use the ground commonly 
known by the name of Hog Island, and appropriate 
it to the above-mentioned purpose, exactly upon 
the .same ti'rms and fooling with those at Ni.igara, 
agreeably to the enclosed articles." The articles 
alluded to provided that he should establish set- 
tlers upon the islanti, and furnish them with 
implements. This letter c-ontained also this direc- 
tion: "As I wish to m.ike Mrs. McDougall a reason- 
able compensation for wh.it houses, etc., ni.iy be 
found upon the island, you will please to appoint 
proper persons to a|)praise theni and tr.insmit ine 
their report." 

Accordingly, on .September 5, 1780, the buildings 



on Hog Isl.md were a|)pr;iiscd by Nathan W illianis 
,111(1 |. r.. Craiie, nia.ster carpenters. Their report 
w;is as follows : 

I (Kvehin,;,' iionse £■■?•' i olil h.irn willioula top. £ iR 

1 " " (o A fowl lioiiS( 

I " " 10 Some hnnbc lo 

Total (N. V. currency) £ 334 

On September 9 De IVyster wrote to Ilaldiniand, 
saying: "I propose to settle Mr. Riddle's family, 
with three other families, on the island as soon as 
possible, reserving p.irt of tb.e meadow ground for 
the gr.t/.ing of the king's cattle." 

On October lo he wrote: "Agreeably to your 
excellency's di'sirc, I have fixed loyalists upon Hog 
Island conformable to the terms prescribed. * * * 
The island is, however, sut'licient for two substantial 
families only, there being much meadow ground and 
swamp on it, and it being absolutely necessary to 
preserve a run for the king's cattle; that being the 
only place of security. * * * 1 have sent your ex- 
cellency ;i sketch of the island, which contains only 
.seven hundreil and sixty-eight acres." 

ICventually William .McComb, guardian of the 
heirs of McDoug.ill, petitioned Sir l'"rederick llaldi- 
m.iiui, the govenior-generai, for redress against De 
I'l-yster, who then otfered six hundred guineas for 
the isl.uid. This offer was rejected, and De I'ey- 
ster w.is compelled to restore the island, and to 
erect a barn ;ind furnish ;i scow as compensation for 
the use of it. 

On November ii. 1793, the heirs of McDougall 
sold the island to Willi.tm McComb. Like all titles 
originating jirior to American occupancy, the claim 
to this island was passed upon by the United .States 
Commissioners. The deed from the Indians was of 
but little force, ;is neither the llritish nor the Ameri- 
can Covernment recognized deeds from Indians to 
private parties; but as the McCombs were in posses- 
sion before the .Vmericans came, the commissioners, 
on November 6, 1809, confirmed the island, or si.K 
hundred and forty acres of it, to the heirs of William 
McComb. No one claim at that time was allowed 
lo incliule more than six hundred and forty acres, 
and then, and even as late as 1833 (when surveyed 
by J. Miillett), it was considered doubtful if the 
island contained that amount of land. On January 
7, 1817, the register of pnjbate and a committee 
assigned the island to D. B. McComb, as one of the 
heirs of William McComb. On March 31, 1817, D. 
15. McComb conveyetl it to H. Campaii for $5,000, 
which amtnint, tradition .says, was paid in bills of 
suspended Ohio banks. On November i, 1823, the 
United Stales Commissioners on Claims recom- 
mended that, the entire island be confirmed to D. 
Campau. 

The island has borne no less than four different 
names. Originally called Mah-nah-be-zee, " The 



Swan," by 
French Isle 
with rallU- 
allowed to 
eventually i 
island cami' 
Island. Di 
island bec.a 
[licnic p.irtit 
announced i 
picnic party 
Accordingly 
having assei 
called to tl 
elected seen 
was rcsolvei 
lielle Isle 
(|uently patri 
The isl.iiK 
ni,'i|)le. and 
natunil lawn 
city, two avi 
to end, and 
around the 
found to CO 
extent it is n 
During th 
1S71 to 1875 
tage that wo 
ing entirely 
subject was 
the Legislati 
Commissiom 
the townshi 
Springwells, 
Public Work 
The menil 
the first Mo 
three years, 
and all were 
authori/.eil u 
hundred am 
in llamtran 
might be a 
condemn aiv 
way that ro.i 
ized to cons 
established, 
by general t; 
The first ( 
Hamtrainck 
(ireusel: Cii 
The com 
A. S. liag 
C. Clippcrt. 
The routt 
That portioi 



./ 



TIIK I!()ULi:\'ARD. -I'ASrUKKS AM) I'OlJNDS. 



79 



Swan," by the Indians; it was rc-nanii'd by liu; 
l''rc'ncli Isle Si. Claire. At one lime il was overrun 
with rattlesnakes, ;inil a luiinber of hoi^s were 
allowed lo run al l;iri(e in order to (k'slroy llieni; 
eventually tlie ho,;;s beeaine so numerous thai ihe 
isl.uid eame lo be known as Isle au Coelions, or lloij 
Isl.and. Durini,^ the years jusl previous lo 1845 the 
isl.ind became a very |)o|)ul,ir plaee of resort for 
picnic p.iriies, ;uid jusl prior lo July 4, i<S45, ii was 
announced in the d.iily p.ipers llial on the Fourlh ,1 
picnic parly would ,i;ive it a more eu|5honious name. 
Aceordinjfly, about five o'clock i>. M., a l.iri;e number 
havinji^ assembled on the island, .\Iori(;in Hates was 
calleil to the chair, .and William Duane Wilson 
elected secretary; .and on motion of .Mr. (ioodell, it 
w;is resolved lh.it ihe island be known hereafter .as 
Helle Isle, possibly in honor of the ladies who fre- 
quently patronized it on picnic occasions. 

The isl.ind is covered with beautiful hickory, o.ak, 
maple, .and elm trees interspersed with numerous 
n.atur.d Lawns. At the time of its purchase by the 
city, two avenues, lifty feet wide, e.xtended from end 
to end. and it was possible also to drive entirely 
around the shore. It w.as surveyed in 1882, and 
found to contain nearly 690 aires; in its jjreatest 
extent it is 10,800 feet lon^f and 2,400 feet wide. 

Durinir the .av^il.ilion of the I'.irk (jueslion from 
1871 to 1875 much w.is said concerninjr the advan- 
t.a.ne that would be tlerived from ;i boulev.ard extend- 
ing entirely around the city. Six years later the 
subject w.as aif.iin .a.nit.aled. and on .M.ay 21, 1879, 
tlie Le^islaliu'e provided for a Ho.ird of IJoulevard 
Commissioners, lo consist of one person each from 
the townships (jf Creentield, llamtr.imck, an'd 
Sprinijwells, lotjelher with the m.iyor and Board of 
Public Works of Detroit. 

The members from the townshijis were chosen on 
the first Monday in .\pril, 1880, and were to serve 
three years, or until their successors were elected, 
.and .ill were to serve without pay. The board was 
authorized lo l.ay out .1 boulevartl, not less than one 
luindreil .and fifty feet wide, from Jefferson Avenue 
in ll.amtr.amck to such .a point in Sprini^wells as 
mi,n;ht be .a.^reed upon, .and were jriven power to 
condemn and take possession of Lands in the same 
way th.it ro.ads .are opened ; they were also author- 
ized to construct .and imjinive the bouk'v.irtl when 
established, the cost of the boulevard to be raised 
'^y general l.axation from both city and townships. 

The first commissioners for the townshi|)s were : 
Hamtramek, J. V. Reuhle; Sprins^wells, John 
Cireusel; Cireenfield, I^. Chope. 

The commissioners for 1883 were: Hamtr.imck, 
A. S. H.ajft^; Greenfield, K. Chope; Sprinv^wells, 
C. Clippert. 

The route was established on February i, 1882. 
Th.at portion between Woodward Avenue and Rus- 



,sell Street w.as ijiven !)y property owners on the 
route, .111(1 the boulev.ird w.is formally dediciU'd on 
September 28, 1882. Tlie List of the (k'cds of land 
for the bouk'V.ird from Woodw.ird .Avenue to 
Twelfth Street was obtained in November, 18S3. 

I'.ASI'URKS A.NI) POUNDS. 

A Lirire portion of the commons about the stock- 
ade of Detroit w.is once used for pasiurai^e, .and in 
eomp.ir.ilively recent years much of the Land within 
the city limits w.is unenclosed .and used as public 
pr()i)erty. Prior lo 1850 the milkman's bell was un- 
known , almost every f.imily ki'pt .a cow or cows, or 
boui^ht milk of their iiei,i;hl)ors. The cows were 
turned out. in the mornini;-, and found their way to 
unoccupied Lands, where they browsed .at their 
leisure, or ptM\h.iiu-e, if lliis public feed ,i;rew scarce, 
they were driven lo .and from .an enclosed field. 
These (usioms h.ave .almost entirely p.assed .aw.iy. 
The milk-carls traverse every street, antl the call of 
"Co' bos!" "Co' bos!" can no longer be numbered 
among the street cries of Detroit. 

Prior to the tire of 1805 the narrowness of the 
stri^ets m.ade it necess.ary ih.il .anim.als .and fowls 
should be prevented from running .at Large. Pounds 
wi'fe therefore established .and pound-ki'epers a|i- 
l)oinled at an early d.ate, .and if .age confers dignilv 
on an olFice, then that of pound-keeper is the most 
" ancient .and honorable " in the city, for there is none 
other so (*1(1. 

On M.irch 12, 1801, ICli.is W.illen w.as .apjiointed 
pound-keeper, and the old records of the Court of 
Common Pleas for W.ayne County of that date have 
this entry : 

'I'ln^ t'ourt iif C'omnicin IMcas, «itli tlii' a|)pr(il);itinn of Major 
limit, cimimaiiiliiiv; oIVhit nf llic Kanison of Ditroit, order that 
tlic yard of tlu' INiiimil lloiisci \n: iisi'd as a I'ouiul. 

The eoun<il house referred to w.as located near 
the river, between what .are. now (Iriswold and 
.Shelby Stri'cts. Although the dignity of that local- 
ity m.iy be somewh.it disturbed by this reminiscence, 
there can be no doubt of its truth. 

Ihider ordin.ince I'f iSjO ;uiy person could t.akc 
up an animal running .at Large and be p.iid twelve 
.and one h.ilf cents .1 (Lay for its kee|)ing. Notice was 
to be given within twelve hours to the m.arshal, .and 
after advertising four days any .anim.al was .sold. 
The marsh.al received ten per cent on tot.al proceeds 
for his services ; the person impounding h.ad one 
h.alf of the b.iLince, .and the other h.alf w.as to go to 
the Poor Fund. None of the e.arly ordinances as to 
pounds were strictly enforced, .aiul up to very recent 
times cattle were allowed to roam at their owai sweet 
will in various parts of the city. By ordinance of 
1855 two pound-keepers might be, and in 1861 two 
were nHjuired to be, appointed to serve for eight 
months, at a salary of $45 a month. Under ordi- 



/ 






V" 



8o 



I'ASIl'Ki:S AND POUNDS. 



nam i' of March 2.\. 1S70, amciulrd May 4. llir pniiiKls 
were lo 1)1' (ipti) hclwccii Apiil I and l)((inil)(r 1, 
and ilic keepers were paid $<>o pei' nidnlli Ini- the 
liiin (if eii^lit nKinllis. /\fler 1.S74 lluy were 
appninied for ilie full year, and |)aid tlw same 
iunounl per imintli. 

The |)nunds are loealed on ihe same ]L^rounils as 
the Wdod and hay markets, Tlie followiiij; persons 
havi: sei'ved as pound-keepers: 1^54, I'. I.. Shaw; 
l<S55, IVter I.aderool ; 1.S56, J. J. Keid, D. !.. Shaw; 
1857, A. 15. Solis, J. Normandin, William Parry; 
1.S5S, C. C.ehhart, C. k. I'a^e; iS5(>an(l iSf.o, J. C. 
Seluilt/., !•■. h'ulda; 1.S61, II. II. Covcrl. John C.reen- 
wood; i.S62,j. Stork, John Urennan ; iiS^^atid iS(i4, 
J. Stork. K. Sulliv.in; i.Sd^ ,ind iSr/), N. |Mn,v;l)hit, 
John Ivers; 1X67, J. Dicier, J. Ivers; iS^.S. J. 
Dieler, (i. (). W'.iiki'r; iS^h;, ,\, l',inl)its, ( '.eoriL^e 
Kidetle; 1X70, .\. T.inhiis. J.imes Joy; 1.S71 .and 
1S72, Harris Jacobs, Kohcrt Watson; i.S7',,ind iiS74, 
A. Peine. I'". C, Neipoth ; 1.S75, A. Peine, J. I\ifs; 
i87('). Noali Sutton, (;eori..e Cr;il)l) ; 1S77. Charles 
Schmidt. H, Keiliy ; 187.S, K. W'. Pind.ir. T. 
M.ihoncy; 1879, I'lastern District. !'.. I'iert/., W'est- 
rrn District. D.J. Spinninvj; iS.So, ri.istern District, 
D.J, Mri.nxs. W'l'sti'rn District. II, Ja<ol)s; iS.Si ;md 
1882, I'lastern District. Thomas Rooks, Western 
District, Henry Cross; 1883. Mastern District, II, 
Stehner, Western District, II. dross. 

in icSc), the Law provided ih.it tiu'ownerof "every 
don three months old and upw.irds, kept bv anv one 
person or family, sh.ill pay a t.ix for the same of 
fifty cents." There cm he no doubt that .1 doi; t.ix 
w.is then necessary, hir in 1805, with only live ium- 
dred .and twenty-t'ne heads of families, there were 
two hundred .and nineteen do^s in the town of 
Di'troit. .\ like jiroportion now would -ivt' eivht 
thousand doi^s, but there wei^e only .about two thou- 
sand licensed in 1883. 

Doy;s were deemed I'ssenti.al .as ,1 protection av(,iinst 
the Indians in just t inn, and some f.imilies evidently 
believeil in " pruteclion." Duriny die War uf 1812, 



.alter tUe ,irri\.il ol I l.uri-^on's troops, a I' reni hman 
c.imc one day to the oIlMcr of the d.is, .md com- 
l)lained, " The soldiers 1,1st ni.^lu killed most all my 
d(n;s." " liow ni.iny did they kill.^" •• \ine." — 
"llow 111, my li.ive yon left.''" "()nly eii^hi," 
Considering llu' condition of iliinv;s which then 
(j.Nisted, and continued to exist for many years, it is 
no wonder tli.al the <|ueslion, " Would ,1 diminu- 
tion of doi^s ill the city of Detroit and its \iriniiy 
ri'dound to the imblic benelii?" was proposed in 
1819. .as .a subject for disiai.ssion in the Detroit 
lyceimi. 

C"oniin.i; down to recent years, we lind that ,111 
or<lin,iiu'i: providini^' for the li( cnsini; of doi^s w.is 
apjirovid on M,iy 2, 1881, and ,1 do,n-pouiid estab- 
lished on July 1. No recoiil W.IS kept of the num- 
ber of doi^s impounded until NoNcmbcr 1, 1881. 
[''roiii ih.al date up to November i, 1882, there 
were c.iptured iii^hleeii hundred .and sixly-eiv;ht 
unlicensed do!L;s, .and of this iinmber lifleeii hundred 
.and sixteen wert' drowned, oiu' hundred .and foiir- 
tei'ii redeemeii on p.aymeiit of the pound or license 
fei', seveiity-s( veil released on proof of h.axinj; been 
licensed, sevi'iitv-livc sold, sixty i;i\en to mcdic.il 
colleges for dissection, I'lii^hteen escaped, .and eii;lit 
died a natur.al death. The luimher of doj;s 
captured in 1883 was liftcv-n Imiulred .ind six. 
Drowned dovjs .ari: di'lixi'red to the city scavenger. 

I'nlicensed dot;s ari' caiitiired by iiR-.uis of ,a net 
attached to .a loni^ pole, .and are then deposited in .1 
covered w.in'on for coina'yaiice to the pound. A 
|ioliceman is det.ailed to catch tlu' dovjs. .and there is 
.also ;i driver for the w.ai^dii. The license fee for 
m.ile doii^s is one doll.ar. for fem.ales two doll.irs, .and 
ten cents ,addiiion,il must be p.aid for the br.ass 
license-check which is re(|iiired to be .att.achcd to 
the coll.ir of .all doiis. The money from licenses, 
.and all moneys obt.ained tliroui,di the doj^-pound, are 
reiinired to be paid to the city treasurer. 

The (Ion-pound is located .at the foot of Uiopclie 
Street and is in charge of a iiolicem.aii. 



PART 111. 



GOVERNMENTAL 



Tiir, fiRl 

I'" ranee, aiK 

iiieius, wert 

Fraiieu to 

Added lo t 

ainbilioiis I 

will) feared 

furlher die 

Jesuit order 

where the L 

traveled. C 

deeds done i 

discoursetl ii 

M. de Cliani 

eminent ela 

Canada, .ind 

was varioi 1 

or Canada. 

During- l''r 

tliree ri'irent 

its surroiindi 

May 14, i6i( 

ix^ent, and 

Louis .\|||., 

kin,i(slii|), T 

appointed as 

1642. (Jurir 

was captured 

possession, w 

treaty of Mai 

to tile I'"rencl 

iiis widow, A 

Cardinal .Max 

in oi'fiee nnti 

Austria endec 

of fourteen, 

deati^, .Septen 

then became 

XV., then on 

king. I^urin 

Canada was 

General Jeffn 

1760, Detroit 

mandant Belli 

1763, by the ' 



CHAPTER XV. 



FRENCH AND KNCl.lSll KILI':. 



Tlir. lish of Newfrniiidlaiul, tlio furs of Novv 
FraiU'f, and l''rciu!i jealousy of Spanish arhirvc- 
iiiciUs, wvix- all priiiiL' I'aclors in llu' ciforis made l)y 
I'Yaiiic to ohiaiii possession of this new world. 
Added to these, there were political and I'tliijions 
ambitions that knew no limit, inearnati'd in nu'n 
who feared noihiniLf and would dare e\erytliinv; to 
further the interests of /<r Iwlh' h'raiii,- and the 
Jesuit order. I'luy went everywiiere. and evi'ry- 
where the l.ily and the Cross marked the route they 
traveled. Colonies (ollo\\ed in their w.ake, and ;ill 
deeds done in eaeh wt're spread before the kin^, and 
diseoursed iii)on by his ministers, from the time 
.M. de Champlain visited the Lakes, the I reneh ( iov- 
ernnu'nt cLiimed this re,v;ion as its own. .\\\ of 
Canada, and what is now known .is the Northwest, 
w.is varioi ly desiifiiated ;is New I'raiue, l.oiiisian.i, 
or Canada. 

During' !•' reneh rule, no less th.in three kin,u;s .and 
three rej^eiits e.\ereised authority over Detroit ,uid 
its surroimdimis. .\fter the death of i lenry i\'.. on 
M.iy 14, 1610, his widow, Mary de Mediei, bt'cime 
re.nent, ■a\\(\ eoininui'd ;is sueh until \(i\~. wlien 
Louis .Nil!., ;it the a^e of sixteen, assumed the 
kiii,i(ship. The eele[)rated Cardinal Richelieu w.is 
appointed as iiis prime minister, and served until 
1642. DuriniL; his sway, on July 29, 1629, Quebec 
was captured by tiie Mnglish, and remained in tlu'ir 
possession, with i.ouis Kertk as ,y;overnor. until the 
treaty of March 29, 1632, when it was surrendered 
to the French. Louis XI II. died May 14, 1643, and 
his widow, Anne of Au.tria, l)ecame recent, with 
Cartlin.il Mazarin as prime minister. Ik- continui'd 
ill oilice until 1661. The regency of Anne of 
Austria endetl in 1651, ,and Louis .\'1V., at the ;ii;e 
i)f fourteen, bei'amc kini^;'. lie reigned until his 
deatlj, September 1, 1715. The Duke of Drie.tns 
then became rey^ent, servinii; until 1723, when Louis 
.W'., then only thirteen years old, was crowned 
kinj;. Durinj.^- his rei^-n, on Sejitember S. 1760, 
Canada w,as siu'rendered by Marquis Wuidretiil to 
(icneral Jeffrey Amherst, and on November 29, 
1760, Detroit was niveii up by the French Com- 
mandant IJellestre to Major Robert Ro.ijers. in 
1763, by the Treaty of Paris, sometimes called the 



Tro.ity of W-rsaillps, it was fully surrcnflcred, .ind 
(ieorvfe III. ol FnjL^'land became the sovereii^n ol 
Detroit. I'our kin;^s, therefore, h.i\'e ruled this 
re,i,don. 

L'luler the French ( 'lovernment, .1 j{overiU)r-v;en- 
eral, .appointed by the kin.i;, comm.anded at (Hiebec. 
Local coinm.indants were appointed for Detroit ,ind 
other jxists with jilmosl plen.u'y power, but they 
were supposed to, and probably did, conform theii 
authority as far as |)ossibk' to French law. They 
Were held iv'sponsible to the ^o\'ernor-i;eneral, to 
whom they reporit'd. 

rile followin,i4 is a list of the I'"rencii j^overnors of 
Ni-w fr.mce: 

1CKJ3 |C)I2, M. Cli.auvin, Commander de Chastes, 
and M. de .Monis. 

1612-1619, S.imiiel (U' Chani|)lain, with Prince de 
C'onde as actinj.^ governor. 

1619 1629, .Admiral .Montmoreuci as acting j,;ov- 
ernor. 

1633 1635, Samuel de Champlain. 

1636, M. de Chateaufort. 

1637 1 647, M. de Montm.iijny. 

1647-1651, M. d'.Xillebout. 

1651- 1656, M. Je.in (k' Lauson. 

1656-1657. M. Ch.irles de Lauson-Charny. 

i657-i65tS, M. d'.\illei)out. 

1658-1661, X'iscount tlWri^fcnson. 

1661-1663, IJ.iron d'.\\an.trour. 

1663-1665, Clu'v.ilier de Saffrey-Me.sy. 

1665-1672, Chev.ilii'r de Courcelles. 

1672-1682, Comte Frontenac. 

1682-1685, M. Lifebere de la Barre. 

i685-i68(;, M.ir(|uis de Denonville. 

1689-1699. Comte Frontenac. 

1699-1705, Chev.ilier de Callieres. 

1705-1726, Mar(|uis de X'audreuil. 

1726-1747, M;u"(|uis de P.e.auh.irnois. 

1747-1749, Comte de la Cialissonere. 

1749-1752, Marquis de la Jon(|iiire. 

1752, Baron de Loni^ueuil, acting jrovernor 

a short time. 

175- ''755' Marquis Dtiqucsne de MennevilU'. 

'755 '760. Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de \'au- 
dreuil-Caviijjnal. 



[83] 



84 



|-Ki:\CII AM) I.NCLISII RUI.i:. 



Aflir tliir siirrciulir of C^.iii.id.i by ilic Mar<|iiis 
Vaiidiviiil to riciicral Amiicrst, tlic folliiwiiij; mili- 
tary .v:"\'''''>'"'s wi^n: a|)i)iiiiitt(i : CiriuTal Jami's 
Miiir.iv li> commaiiil at <)iii'Ih'i'. ( ii'iicral <iai;i; at 
Moniiiil, and t ojoncl itciilon at 'I'liicc Kivcrs. 

Ill I7^>5, by i)r<irlaiii.iii()ii of ( iiorj^c III, the 
boiiiidaiv of (JiicIkt and odiir indvinccs was cstab- 
lislicd, bill no pari of the territory iiortluvcst of tlu' 
Ohio was ini ludfd in any of the proviiu'fs tlifii 
'■rfali'd. 'I'lic sail." prociainalion appointed (ieiu'ral 
James Murray i^Dvernor-^eiierai. and pro\'id< d for 
his forniiiij; a eouneil composi'd of llie iieiiteiiant- 
.H()\ernors of Montreal ami Tliri-e Rivers, the chief 
jiistiir, the inspcetor of nisioins, and eij,du leading; 
citizens. 

On Jiiiu; 22, 1774, under the sn-e;il!ed Onebec! 
Act, a civil .ijovernmein w.is first provided for the 
territory which included Detroit. ISy the terms of 
this Act the lei^isl;iti\'i' power w;is xcsled in the 
ifo-'.'riior, lieiiteii .iii-n'overiior or comm.inder-in- 
ciiief, ,ind a (■oimcil of noi less ili.in se\cnieen nor 
moH' than t weiitv-ihree persons, to be ,ip|)oinli'd by 
the kiivi;. 

None of the v;o\-ernor-n'ener;i!s. however, exercised 
:iny authority over this re,v,don, except r'ls milil.iry 
ollicers. As under I'Vcnch i^^ovi'mmeiil, so .ilso 
under lui]L,dish rule, the resident coinaiaiidunt exer- 



cised the fiinrtions of both a civil and a military 
olTiccr, subject to the orders of the ronim.'mdiii); 
j,;cner;il ; and all |)osts west of Detroit were j^ov- 
erncd from this est.iblishmeiit. 

A l;i\v divi(liiiv( the |)rovincc of Oiubi'c into the 
two jrcncral provinces of rpperand Lower C'.inada 
bec.imc opcr.itivc on Dicember 26, 1791, and ;is the 
Ott.iu.i kiver w,is the dividing line, Michij^an there- 
after formed p.trt of I'pper (.'an.id 1. 

The followini; is .1 list of the lJi;;lisli j,rovcrnors : 

17(10 1763, ("icncral Jelfri'y Amherst. 

'7^'3 I7f'^>. <lener.il J,imes Miirr.iy. 

1766 , r.uilius I'.melins Irvine (President of 

l''.\eciiti\c C'oiincili, for 3 months. 

17^/) 1770, Sir (liiy t arleton ( Lieut. -Ciovernor). 

1770 1774, I lecioir. t'r.im.ilie ( President of \'.\- 
eeiitive (.'oiincil). 

'774 ^77^' ^i'' • ''ly ^'arleton. 

1778 1784, (leiier.il P'rederick I I;il(lim;md (Lieiit.- 
< ■|0\<-rnon. 

17S4 . I leiiry ll.imilton 1 l,ieni.-( i<ivrnor). 

1785 , Idlonel Henry Hope (President of 

Coiineil). 

1785 171;-. < ".iiy t-'arlcton, .'IS Lord Dorchester. 

1792-171/), John ( ir;ives Simeoe ( Lieut. -( "lovernor 
of Upper Canada). 






'rill. (|ue 
orij^in.il col 
the West h, 
of X'ilxinia 
the other .St 
fact th.it sh 
attem|)ted h 
Territories 1 
1 77«. as a|)|i 

P-'K'f 557). t 

territory on 

i\tississi|)pi, i 

Colonel Join 

.shown by a 

to the Pies 

American Si 

that I'odd 

[-e,v,fr;is, .md 

various .acts 

This would 

of the rights 

I )issensi()n 

States hinder 

of the St.ites 

'l"o prepar 

passed in Oc 

to be ceded .• 

benefit of the 

therein shoiil 

one hundred 

mill's s(]nare. 

March 1 , 17 

Virjrinia, on } 

19. 1785; am 

and .May 30, 

inj,' Detroit w 



On July 13 
for the ^ovcs 
States northv 
of Beverly, M; 
.School of Cai 
with the auti 
how^ever, no [ 
ordinance wer 
ago as Octol 



C " \ I'Tl': R \v\. 



TKKuriouiAi. AM) SI All: ( ;( »\i:knmi:n'is. 



TiiK (|iicsti()M as to what State, i)y virtue nf its 
oriijinal toloiiial charter, pDssfsseci this portion of 
the West has been freiiiieiitly ilisciissed. I'he elaiiu 
of \'iri^'iiiia seems as well founded as that of any of 
the (It iier Slates, and her elaiinswere forlilied by the 
faet thai she was the only colonial Slate thai ever 
atu-nipted to exercise .iMthority or jurisdiction in the 
Territorii's north .ind west of the < )liin. In ( )ciol)(r, 
1778, as .appears by llie Statutes at i.arvje (Vol. l.\., 
p.-ii^e 557), tile Assembly of \'irifini,i or;,Mni/',ed llie 
territory on the west of tln' ()liii>, .idj.icent to the 
Mississi|)pi, iiilo the county of Illinois, and .ippoiiMcd 
Colonel John Todi I milil.iry coinm.uid.mt. It is ;ilso 
shown by a letter from W'inihrnp .S.uniiU, .iddressed 
to the {'resident on biK' .?'. I7'><>. and <|unied in 
American Si.ue I'.ipei^, Public Land Sciies, \'ol. I., 
tiiat Todd tr.uisfcrred cert.iin powers to a Mr. 
Lt'),(ras, and ili.u .1 i-ouii w.is held ,ti \'iucennes ;uul 
various ;icts performed undiT diicction nf its judges. 
Tiiis would seem to i)c almost conclusive e\iilenec 
of the rivjhts of V'irj,nnia. 

Dissensions in rei^ard to the claims of the several 
States hindered the form.iiion of the Union; l)ul all 
of the States finally surrendered their cl.iims. 

To |)ri'|)are tiie w.iy for the ci-ssioii, .i l;iw was 
passed in October, 1780, i)rovi(liiij; ih.it the territory 
to be ceded should l)e disposed of for the common 
benelit of the whole Union ; th.it the .Sl.ites erected 
tiierein should be of suilai)le extent, not less lii.in 
one hundri'd nor more liian one hundred and fifty 
miles s(|uari'. After the passavje of this l.iw, on 
March 1, 1781, New York released her claims; 
Viririnia, on March 1, 1784; Massachusetts, on A|)ril 
'9. '785; and Connecticut, on .September 14, 178^), 
and .May 30, 1800. I'he particular rei^ion embrac- 
injr Uelruit was ceded by Massacliusetts. 

VV/f Xort/norsf Trrr/fory. 
On July 13, 1787, Conjrress passed ;in ordinance 
for the irovernment of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio. Natli.in D.me, 
of iJeverly, Massachusetts, founder of the Dane Law 
School of Cambridije. has been (fcnerally crediti'd 
with the auliiorship of the ordinance. There is, 
however, no jirobability that the vital points of the 
ordinance were oriijinated by Mr. D.ine. As lonj; 
aj(o as October, 1841, ;in article apprared in the 



North American Review eontniiiin,i>j eopions extracts 
from the diary of Dr. M.in.isseh I'ntler, in which lie 
distinctly claimed tlii* ;iulhorslii|), without .imend- 
nieiit, of portions of the ordinance. /\s the ordi- 
nance was expressly fr'-ned in the interest of the 
laiul I'ompany he represcnti'd, it is pri'sumably the 
portion excludiiij; s!,iv<'r)- .uid providing for schools 
that is .ittribut.iblc to him. Lurlhcr evidence of bis 
■ lutiiorship is contained in .an ei.ibor.ite article in the 
s.inie periodic.il for .April, 1876, written by William 




Mai- oi' 'I'i:kki iiiKi.M. Hoindakv. No. i. 

V. I'ooie, libnirian of the Public Library of Chieajio. 
lie shows that .at the time the ordinance \\;is fr.imed 
tlu' country w.is in debt .and in i^reat need of money; 
;md that the ordin.ance w.is desiijned to insnri' the 
sale to Dr. M.massi'h Cutler. ;it;ent of the Ohio Com- 
p.any of .Vssoiiates, of one and one h.alf million acres 
of Land in the Northwest Territory. Further, by 
the history nd l.iniju.aire of .all the prect'dini,' pro- 
jiosed ordin.iiii'es, and of the committees on them ; 
by a com|)aris()n of the I.in;j[uaije of the ordinance as 
p.issed, with the .style of Mr. Dane .and the state- 
ments of his own bioj^rapher ; by the names of the 
eommittee who reported the final ordinance ; by an 
an.alysis of the vote by which it was passed ; by a 
history of the orijaniz.ition in 1 786 -1787 of the Ohio 



[85! 



■ 



86 



TERRITORIAL AND SI ATK CUVKRNMICN IS. 



Company of Asscjciates ; and, finally, hy direct ({no- 
tations Ironi Dr. L'ulkr's o\\ n ni(.inoiaiul;i. in which 
there are evidences ol I'lear-luaded business capa- 
city, ,in<l rare abili'v as a writi-r, diploiual. and cor- 
respondent, he pro\cs that Dr. Culler was the aulhor 
of the lanv^na^e u hich i^ixes character tt) that most 
reniarkabk' document. 

Ml". I'oole ;ilso shows that ( "icneral St. Clair, tlu'ii 
presidiMit of Cuni^ress, was induced to aiil in the 
promotion of the scheme by the |)i-(iniise of bein:.,^ 
made irov-ernor; and lh.it W'inll- <\t Sargent, the 
first secretary of the Northwest Ti rrilory, was one 
of the ollicers of the conipan\- which founiled the 
first settlement at .Marietta, Ohio. 

The ordinance provitled for theappointmi'iit, from 
time to time, by C()n;<re.ss, of a i^overnor, who.sc 
commission siiould continue in lorce three years, 
unless sooner re\i>ked. lie was to reside in the 
district, and, while actiiii;- as _s.,a)vernor, was requireil 
to have therein a freehold estate of one thousand 
acres of land. The secretary, whose commission 
was to continue in force for four years unless 
revoked, was also to reside in the district, and was 
refjuired to possess five hundred acres of land ^ liile 
in otiice. 

Hy law of 1793 the United States Secretary of 
State was directed to provide a seal for the ollicers 
of the Territory. The seal furnished was really 
syi. oolic. It shows the short, thick trunk of a 
prostrate tree, evidently a Iniekeye, felled t)y a wood- 
man's .axe, while near by stands an apple-tree laden 
with fruit. The l)uckeyc is a species o! the horse- 
chestnut, indit;enous to and very numerous on the 
banks of the OIiIq .and tributary streams, and not 
found elsewhere. I'mm this f.act the tree derives 






»&um 



Seal (11- Noitinwiisr I'ljiiainuv. iJi.vact she.) 

its specific name, O/t/oinisis. 'l"he abund.mce of 
these trees .cj-ave tiie name (jf Ikickeye .State to Ohio. 
The tree is called i)nckeye from the resemblance of 
the nuts to the beautiful brown eyes of the native 
deer. The presence of the buckeye tree was an 



unfailintf evidence of the richest soil, yet the trei- 
w.is worth little except for its sli.ule. 'l"he fellint; of 
the useless buckeye, .•iiul the substitution of the 
fruit-tree, i^i\es force to the motto, " .Meliorem lapsa 
loc.ivit." (The f.illen h.is in.ide room for ;i better.) 
'ilie aptness of the seal ;ind motto is enforceil by 
the fact th.it Ohio orch.irds, .almost from the first, 
h.ave been noted for the profusion and i;ood quality 
of their fruit. In cai^ly il.iys most of the supply for 
Detroit c.anie from that .State!. 

The first tt'rritorial oniccrs were .aiipointed on 
July 13. 17.S7. They were as follows: Arthur St. 
Cl.iir, irovernor; Scamuel II. Parsons, J.ames M. 
\'arnum, and John Cleve Symmes, jud,i,res ; and 
Winlhrop S.iixent, secretary, (iovernor St. Clair 
continued in ollice, even after the Territory of Indi- 
an.a was created, and \v;is the only i^'owrnor this 
ret^ion h;ul under the Northwest Territory. Win- 
thn)|) Sarj^^'iU was succeecK'd on June 2<S, 1798, by 
William Henry ll.arrison. and he in turn by Ch.arles 
\\'illinj.j Hyrd. John Rice Jones w.is attorney-ijen- 
eral in 1800, and William .Mcintosh, territorial 
treasurer in 1801. 

Hy law of May 7, 1800, 
the Northwest Territory 
was divided, and the 'I'er- 
ritoryof I ndi.ana created; 
.and on April 30, 1802, 
Conj.;ress provided th.at 
when the citizens of the 
ri'^ion to be called Ohio 
adopted ;i constitution, 
conformiin;- to (xrt.iin 
londitioiis prescribed by 
Cons^fess, the rei^ion in- 
cludin)i^])etroit should be 
attached to the Territory 
of Indian.a. Althou,t;h a 
ni.ajority of the people of 
the Territory were; op- 
posed to the holdinir of 
a convention, and the 
creation of the .State of 
Ohio, yet a convention was called. It bej;an at 
Chillicothe on November l, 1802, and clo.sed Nov- 
ember 29. Notwithstanding;- the fact th.at the jiro- 
posed State of Ohio embraced a portion of what 
was then W.ayne County, and the population of the 
entire county w.is < ounted to make up the re(|uisite 
numberof inh.abit.ants for a State, yet delejr.ates from 
\\'ayne County were not admitted to the convention. 
Neither was the constitution which the convention 
framed submitted to vote of the peoi)le. 

The convention nioditied the conditions made by 
Congress, the modifications wcreacce|ned on Marcli 
J, 1803, and the admission of Ohio w.is thus com- 
pleted. 



N. W. TERRITORY 

"TN^.M.iy'V, J 800 




' Kentiicfiy R. 



'i'|-.l;Kr]C)UlAl. ]!lil NDAin-. 

No. 2. 



Half o 
includiny- 
Territory 
zens, and 



The ofll 
nection w: 




M M 



governor, \\ 
Oibson (it 
Logan mad 
generals, J. 



Sral c 

officials of l! 
relation to D 
a temponiry 
on Septeinbei 
inindred and 
Assembly, am 
in.ition th.itth 



TKRRITORIAL AND STAIi: (lOVERNMENTS. 



87 



Half of what is now tlie State of Miclii;^an, 
iiicliulin.L;' ])ctroit, was thus aniK'xcd to liuliana 
Territory willK)iit tiie wish or ronscnt of liic citi- 
zens, and ill ik-l'iance of tiicir protests. 

The Tcnifory of fiii/iaiia. 
The officers of Indiana 'territory, durincf otir con- 
nection with tiiat coninionwcaltii, were as follows: 



INDIANA TERRITQffT 

Ajiril 30, ia03. 




M \l' 01.- Th.Uia hIKl M. Imm Ml \l;\ . — Nci. ). 

governor, \\illi;ini Henry llarrison; secretary, John 
tjibson (it was to him tiiat the ceii'i)rateci chief 
Logan made his noteil s|iee(li in 1774): attorney- 
generals, J. R. Jones and licnjamin Park. The 




Seal ok Inoian.v I'liUKEioKV. (Exact size.) 

officials of Indiana seemed indifferent as to their 
relation to Detroit, or realized that it was only oi 
a temporary character. A vote of the 'territory 
on Septeniher ir, 1804, showed a majority of one 
hundred and thirty-eight in favor of a (ieneral 
Assembly, and Ciovernor Harrison issued a procla- 
mation that till' Territorv had passed into liie second 



grade of government. On Saturday, (Jctober 13, 
1804, a town-meeting was held in I)-troit to petition 
the ( "ieneral ( 'lovernment for a separate territory. 'I'iie 
"Annals of Congress," pages 20 and 21, show that 
on December 5, 1804, Mr. Worthington presented 
the petition of James May and others, praying that 
that part of Indiana Territory north of an east and 
west line, extending to the southern boundary of 
Lake Michigan, may be a separate territory. On 
December 6 Mr. Worthington also presented the 
petition of " The Democratic Republicans of the 
County of Wayne, in the Territory of Indiana," 
signed by their chairman, Robert Abbott, praying 
for a division of said Territory. It recei\ed the 
same lefereiic as tile previous petition of James 
May and others. 

While these proceedings were being iiad, an Act 
of March 2(1, 1804, which took effect October i, 
1804, placed under the government of Indiana all of 
till! newly acijuii'ed Territory of Louisiana which lay 
north of an cast and west line on the thirty-third 
degree of north latitude. !'"or a pt'riotl of three 
months Detroit was thus included in a territori.al 
government which had jurisdiction over all of the 
present .Slates of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Min- 
nesot.'i, .Missouri, Arkansas, and Nebraska, nearly 
all of Kansas and Wyoming, o\er one third of Col- 
orado and Indian Territories, ai. " all of Dakota, 
Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. 

T/ic Tcrn'tory of M/o/iii^aii. 

On January 1 1, 1805. by a law to take effect June 
30, 1805, (.Congress dividetl Indiana Territory into 
two tciritories,'nan!etl Indiana and Michigan. The 
latter was to include that i)art of Indiana Territory 
lying north of a line drawn east from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan to Lake Ilrie ; and on July 
2, 1805, the oath of office was administered at De- 
troit to the C.ovenior .and Ju.lges. .-\ territorial seal 
was adopted on July <;, 1805, |)rol)ably identical with 
the private se.il of ( lowrnor Hull. A seal, designed 
expressly for a territorial seal, was described by 
Ciovernor Cass, and reiorded on December I, 1814. 
The motto, " randem tit surculus arl)or" (The shoot 
at length becomes a tree), iiulicated that a measure 
of independence was secured by a separate territorial 
government. 

On February 16, 18 18, the people of tlic Tf-rritory 
voted on the tiuestion of passing to what was known 
as the second grade of government, and, strange to 
say, the majority w.is against it. In April, 18 16, 
Congress took a strip from the southern p:irt of the 
Territory, and incluck'd it in the bounds of the new 
State of Indi.ina. Two years Later, on April 18, 
i8t8. Congress increased the si/e of the Territory by 
adding to it all of what is now the State of Wiscon- 
sin .and the western half of tlu' I'pner I'eninsiila. 



88 



TERRITORIAL AND STATE (GOVERNMENTS. 



By Act of Congress of July i6, 1819, the Territory 
was authorized to elect a dele.i;ate to Con,i(ress. On 
March 3, 1823, Coni^ress transferred tile ,i,n)vernnient 
of the Territory from the Ciovernor and Judiijes to 
the governor and a council of nine persons, to be 



MICHIGAN TERRITORY 

— or— » 

Jdniiarjr 11^1 80S* 




Map uf Tekkitokiai, HofNDAKv. — Ni 




Skai. <iv riiK I F'.KKi 1 i»Kv i>i' Mu,iii(.AN'. {H.vact si'zc.) 



MICHIGAN TERRITORY 

BY-LA.-W- 

01 

APRIL, 18, 1816. 




Mat ok I'kkkiiiiuiai. Ucjcnuakv. — Nu. 5. 



selected by the President from ei,v(hteen persons 
elected by the people of the Territory. 

r>y Act of January 29, 1827, the people of the Ter- 
ritory were authorized to elect thirteen persons to 
constitute the le,ii;islative coinicil. A second addition 
to the territorial limits of Michigan was made on 
June 28, 1834. All of the present States of Iowa, 
Minnesota, Wisc-onsin, .Michi]L;,'ui. and a large part of 
Dakota, were then included in Michigan Territory. 
On January 26, iS35,the legislative council provided 
fur the election, on April 4, of eighty-nine delegates 
to a convention, to form a State constitution. 'I"he 
convention assembled at Detroit on May 11, 1835, 
and concluded its l.ihors on June 24. 

The following delegates from Wayne County were 
present at the convention : Caleb Harrington, John 
McDonnell, Amnion Brown, John R. Williams, 
Theophilus I". Tallman, Alpheus White, (ieorge W. 
Eerrington, Amos Stevens. Asa II. Otis, Conrad 
Ten Eyck, Charles !•". Irwin, Louis Heaufait, Wm. 
Woodbridge, I'eter \'an livery, John Hiddle, J. 1). 
Davis, and John Norvcll. 

The convcniion proposed to Congress that certain 
lands be sit a]iart for the establishment of schools 
for the university, and for the eri'ction of public 
buildings; ami also that the State have a certain 
number of the salt s|irings, and a percentage on the 
sales of all public lands lying within the State. It 
also asked that the northern boundary should be 
fixed in accordance with the provisions of the ordi- 
n.iiice of 1787 and the Act of 1805, which created 
Michigan Territory. 

The constitution, thus jirepared, was adopted by 
the people at an election held the tirst Monday of 
October, 1835. 

The officers of the Territory of Michigan, so far 
as known, were as follows. The list is necessarily 
somewhat incomplete, becau.se the records of ap- 
pointments by the governor, ijrior to 1814, were 
destroyed in the War of 1812: 

(.f)VKKN01iS. 

William Hull, March 1, 1805, to October 29, 181 3. 

Lewis Cass, October 29, 181 3,' to August 6, 1831. 

(ieorge H. I'orter. August 6, 1831, to July 6, 1834. 

Stevens T. Mason. July 6, 1834, to September 
20, 1835. 

John S. Horner, .September 20, 1835, to Novem- 
ber 2, 1835. 

SKI KttTAKIKS. 

Stanley C.riswold, March 1, 1805, to March 18, 
1808. 

Reuben Atwater, March 18. 1808, to October 15, 
1814. 

Wm. Woodbridge, October 15, 1814, to January 
•^15,1828. 



James V 
Jolin T. 
Stevens 
1835. 




Ma 

John S. I 
ber 13, 183: 

FrcdiTick 

Elijah l!ri 
13. 1813. 

Robert A! 
1830. 

Levi Cook 




Rtibert Abb 
-Solomon Sil 
(George Mel 
Richard Sm 
James McCI 



James May, ( 

r,cf)rge Mc 

August 2, 18 18 



TERRITORIAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. 



89 



James Witheirll, January 15,1828, to May 20, 1 830. 
John 'I". Mason, May 20, 1830, to July 12, 1831. 
Stevens T. Mason, July 12, 1831, to September 30, 
1835. 



MICHIGAN TERRITORY 

■B-X"_Xj-A."V7' 
April 18, 1818. 




Mat (II' 'rKRKMiiiuiAi, linrMiAK'v.— Ni). 6 

John .S. Horner. Septenii)er 30, 1835, to Novem- 
ber 13, 1S35. 

TRKASIRKRS. 

Frederiik ISate.s, 1805 to November 26, 1806. 

Klijaii ISrush, November 26, 1806, to December 
13, 1813. 

Robert Abbott, December 13, 181 3, to January i, 
1830. 

Levi Cook, January i, 1830, to February 19, 1836, 



\. MICHIGAN TERRITORY 

Juno 28, 1834. 




Map of Tkrritoriai. FiorNDARV.— No. 7. 

AL'DITOKS OF PUBLIC AiCOLNTS, 

Robert Abbott, 1809 to February 19, 1836. 
Solomon Sibley, October 4, 18 14, to 181 7. 
(".corii;e McDoujjall, October, 1 814, to 1817. 
Richard Smyth, December 21, 1817. 
James McCloskey, August 8, 1817. 

' ADJI'TANT-r.KNKKAI.S. 

James May, October 3, 1805, to September 29, 1806. 
("tcorije McDougall, September 29, 1866, to 
August 2, 1818. 



Joim U. Williams, August 2, 18 18, to April 14, 
1829. 

l)e darmo Jonis. .April 14, 1829, to October 23, 
1829. 

W. L. Ncwberrv, October 23, 1829, to March 14, 
1831. 

John ]•". Schwartz, March 14, 1831. 

JrUCH-ADVnCATIiS. 

A. C. Whitney, to September, 1823. 

B. F. H. Witherell, Sept<'ml)er, 1823, to — . 

ofAKTKHMASTKK-CKNKKAI.S. 

James McCloskey, August 14, 1818, to — . 

.skai.fuf; or i.kathkr. 

Calvin Haker, August 10, 1822, to — . 
Jefferson Morris, Mar-Ji 7, 1834, to — . 

yV/f S/it/(- of Mii/i/ji^an. 

The history of tlie legislation in regard to the 
boundaries of the Territory and the State of Michi- 
gan is a history of alternate enlargement and con- 
traction of her possessions. The autocratic and un- 
justitiable exclusion of delegates of Wayne County 
from participation in the convention which carved 
ont the State of Ohio has already been mentioned. 
In 1828 a pro]iosition was made in Congress to 
organi/.e a Territory by the name of Huron, and to 
make the Lake Superior region 
a part of it. On February 1 5, 
1828, a meeting of citizens of 
Detroit was held to protest 
against it, and the project failed. 
The next effort of this kind, in 
1835, was more successful, and 
is described in connection with 
the Toledo War. 

On March 18, 1836, a public 
meeting was held in Detroit to 
protest against jiermitting Ohio 
to possess the territory in dis- 
pute, which consisted of about 
four hundred and seventy scjuare 
miles on the southern boundary 
of the State. Meantime, by .Act 
of April 20, 1836, which took 
effect on July 3, 1836, the State of Wisconsin was 
created. 

All protests against the curtailing of the southern 
boundary were unavailing; and on June 15, 1836, 
Congress passed an Act admitting Michigan as ;i 
State, i^rovidcd she would accept of boundaries 
which gave the disputed territory to Ohio. A few 
days later, on June 23, Congress passed another Act, 
accepting the proposition of the convention of 1835, 
with some modifications, which denied to Michigan 
the boundary she claimed. This last proposition of 



90 



TKRRITORIAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. 



/""^STATE OF MICHIGAN 



"1 



April 20, 1.838. 




.MaI' ()|- TlilCKITOUI.M. LiOLND.\K\ .— \<l. S. 

Congress occnsiuncd nuR-h controvi-rsy, at;itatinir 
the public mind all throu,v;h 1836. Meetings wi-iv 
held in Detroit, on September 2 and October \ 2, to 
oppo.se the yielding- of the territory to Ohio, and 10 
arranyje for the election of county ofticc vho would 
oppose it. Finally the legislature of Miciiigan Ter- 
ritory, by .Vet of July 20, ICS36, [irovideil lor the 
election of deleg.ites to a convention, which was to 
be assembled to settle the ([uestion. The lollowing 
delegates from Wayne County were elected on .Sep- 
tember 12: Titus Dort, 1). C. McKinsiry, Louis 
Beaufait, B. B. Kercheval, .Amnion Brown, Kli 
Bradshaw, 11. A. Noyes, ;mtl John McDonnell. The 
con\enlion nu't .at .\nn .\rbor September 2(>. 1836, 
antl decided ag;iiiist ,'iccepling admission with the 
bound.iry ,-isiiroposed by Congress. On November 14 
following the Democnitic County Commiliee issued ,1 
circul.ar, recommending llu' holding of .another con- 
vention at .\nn .Arbor on Decembir 14. 'i'hey 
urged th;it the pi'ople of the St.ate elect dck-g.itcs to 
such .a convention, .s.iying that, although the vole of 
the Washlen.iw County deleg.ates defeated tln' .ac- 
ceptance of ihi' proposition of Congress, tlii' peojile 
of that county had since then clectt'd numbers of 
the Legislatiu'e who were in fjuor of acctining the 
terms of Congress. They further urgetl th.at speedy 
action was nec-essary, in order to secure to the new 
State ,a share of the surplus reveinie th.at Congress 
was about to distribiili', and .also the i)ercent.ige on 
sales of public Lands in Michig.an. 

C.ovi'rnor M.asou favored the project, .and the 
coinention was held .as proposed. 'l"he following 
persons were jiresent, .as dek'g.ates from W'.ayne 
County: John R. Willi.ams, Ross W'ilkins. Charles 
Moran, Mar.shall J, Bac<in, D. Cioodwin, B. I'. II. 
Witherelt, J. K. Schw.artz, Reynold C.illett, I'.li lir.id- 
sh.aw, II. A. Noyes, IClihu Morse, Warner Tutlle, 
.\. V. Murr.ay. James iUicklin, Josiah Mason, .and 
Charles F, Irwin. 

This last convention un.inimously resolved to 
accept the prescribed conditions of admission; .the 
v.ilidity of its action w.as- recognized by Congress, 
and on J.anu.ary 26, 1837, the St.ate was, by ,1 new 



Act, form,il!y ailmitlcil .as the twenly-si.\th Stale of 
the Cninn. 

It thus apjiears that a convention, called by a 
political jj.arty ,as sui'h, brought .aboiu the .admission 
of .Michigan as .1 .St.ate. A suggesti\e feature of 
the convention was the f.act th.at there weri' no 
deieg.ites ]iresent from .Monroe County, in which 
Toledo w.as tlu'ii loc.iti'd. The .action of the I'on- 
vention that jii'ovided for the admission of ( )hio in 
1802, .and refused to .admit dek'gates from Wayne 
County, was thus fully e(|ii.alk'd. 

The people were now ri'licvi'd of an .anom.alous 
government, neither territori.al nor st.ate. Without 
specitic congression.il .authoritv, tlu'\' h.ad possi'ssi'da 
state go\ei"ninent, wilii .a full set of ollicers, for a 
period of nearly two and .a (|u.irter years behire the 
St.alt' was ri'cognizctl as such by Congress. I'nder 
the ordin.ance of 1787, the people of the Territory, 
howi'Vir, h.ul .1 right to .a st.ate goxernment, as the 
Territory cont.ained sixty thous.and inhabitants. 

The citizens were exceedingly pleased at the final 
si'ttlement of the (|ueslion of .admission to the 
I'nion ; .ui ! on l''el)ru.ir\- 9, 1837, .a great cek'lir.a- 
tion w.as h.ad in honor of tlu' event. The Brady 
Ciiiards p.ar.aded, twenty-six guns were fired, Jefferson 
AviMuie w.as illumin.ated, .and bontires tl.amed every- 
whi'rc. 

.\ State st'.al w.as .adopted by the constitutional 
convention of 1835. On June 2 the president of the 
convention st.itetl th.at lu' h.ad receixcl ;i ci"sign for 
.a sell ; ,ind on the same day .Mr. W'ilkins of Lena- 
wee offered the following: 

Kt-^i'/vcif, llKit till' pri->ii(li.m (if llu- ciMivciilinn tciulir to Iloii- 
or.dilr l.iwis Ciss lli<' 111. inks uf lliis i .nivriitiuii, nprociitiiii; llic 
piiipii- (if iMiiliij,'an, feu llu- liaiulMinie .SuiU: Seal presented by 
him til llie fcirllu'iimiiiK Stall'. 

This resolution was Laid on the table, .and adopted 
on June 22. On the s.ime d.iy ih.at the design was 
presented, on motion of .Mr. .Norvell of Wayne, the 
follnwing was .a(lo|)ted ;is p.art of the ])rop()sed con- 
stitutidii: ".\ gre.at seal sh.ill be |)rovided by the 
gf)\ernor, to cont.ain de\ice .and inscription, desia'ibed 
in papers relating thereto, signed by the president of 
the coiu'cntion, .and depnsited in the office of the 
Secret.ary of 'I'erritory." Concerning the mottin's 
on the seal, D. 15. I )iirfieki. in .a letter to Ceneral John 
Robertsnn, (juoted in his " Fl;igs of Michig.an," gives 
this information: lie s.ays, " When a Law student 
with M.ijiir Lewis Cass, in the year 1841, we h.ad 
some ci)n\crs;ition on the subject, .and .as I now recall 
it, he then slated th.at * * the late C.eneral 

C.iss .selected and modilieil the celebrated inscription 
upon the bl.ack marble slab that marks the tomb of 
Sir Christoiiher Wren in the crypt of St. I'.aul's 
C.athcdr.il, of which he w.as the distinguished archi- 
tect." That insifipiion reads, "Si inonumentuin 
rci|uiris, cinaimspice," (If ymi re(|iiire a monu- 
ment, look iiroiind vou.) 



In view e 

its peninstiL 

inscrii)tioii ; 

"iiuaris pi 

" monunieni 

iK'w form, 

pcninsuLa, L 

f.acls .as t(i 

surmised lli, 

tion of Mil 

iirilish terrii 

by the desii 

hold the tei 

Ohio. The 

prominent pi 

ventioii th.it 

the seal s.iys 

li.and. The 

cdly, the ide; 

not ,a soldier, 

" Tuebor," I 




fil-'I'.M' SfAl I 

After fifleei 

' 1 
W.as deemed 

second coiistii 

.at L.ansing. ! 

The following 

County: l(. J. 

I 'iter Dt'snoye 

Cibson. Tlu' 

the people, .an 

November, 18: 

1851, The ci 

Constitution of 

By the Constit'i 

officers. H,'xce])t 

were .appointet 



TERRITORIAL AM) STATI-: ( ;()\'I:RN.MI:N TS. 



91 



111 view of tlu' (listiiinuishiiiv^' fcatiiri' of tlic Stale, 
its ])L'ninsular cliaractcr, ('.cnci'al Cass moditied tiic 
iiiS(Ti|)tioii as ^ivcn on W'l-cn's torn!) 1)\- sui)stitutiii,ii^ 
"(jiia-ris |nniiisulam aiiKinam" for tlie words 
" iiionunuMitimi re(|iiiris," so tliat tlu' niotlo, in its 
new form, wniild rcid " if you seek ;i |)lc,-is;int 
peiiiiisul;i, lool< around you." Mr. Dullicld li;id no 
facts as to wliy tin- word luihor w.is used, hut 
surmised tli.at it li.id refei-ence to tiie fi'ontier ])osi- 
tion of Miciiii^an, ,is ;i defender on tiie border of 
Ili'itisli tei'i-iloi"\'. More proij.ihly it w.as sui^xested 
bv tile desire and deii'rmin.ition of the iK'oj-)le to 
hold tile territory on the south, then claimed by 
Ohio. The lioldiny- of that tt'rritoi-y occupii'd a 
prominent place in the discussions of the \t.'ry con- 
vciuioii that adopted the se.il. The (k'scription of 
the se;il s.ays ih.at it shows a ni.an with ;i \^\\\\ in his 
h;uKl. 'I'lie word " m.in " was evidenlly used design- 
edly, the ide.a bi'inj^- tli.it it was a citi/.eii or settler, 
not a .soldier, that stoi-d ready with his gun, sayinj;', 
" Tuebor," I defend. 




f'.ui-:Ai- S|-\i 111 rin-; Siaii-; o|- Mu iiu.an. {I'.xact si.r.) 

.\fter lifleen wars of i^i'owth, . a new constitution 
w,is deemed desii-,ible ; and on June 3, 1.S50, the 
second constilulion.il con\enlioii o|)ened its session 
;it I.ansini;-. It concluded its work on .\u,t;iist 15. 
The following;' persons were delei^ates fi^oni W'.avne 
County: 11. J. .\l\oril, J. II. ISavin, Amnion lirown, 
Peter Desnoyers, K. E. I'.aton, II. I'r.ilick, ;uul John 
(libson. The new constitution was submittetl to 
the jieople, ;uid approved on the lirst Tuesday of 
Xovembcr. 1X50, becoming;' opi'nitive on January i, 
1851. Tlu! chief points of dilfereiice between the 
Constitution of icS^j.aiul th.it of 1X50 ;ire ;is follows: 
I5y the Constitution of 1X35, ;il!-iudvies .and all State 
piVicers. ^except the i^oNcrnor ;ind l(euten;uit-i;'o\'eriior, 
werc^ appointed, ;u,id iheii' sal.iries determined, by 



tile lA'nisI.ature. The Constitution of I1S50 made 
these otticers elective, :{m\ tixi'd their s.al.iries. The 
oriiL^injiI constitution |)ro\ided tli.at the Lei^islaturc 
niii^ht est.ablish courts, ;uid .appoint reiicnts of the 
university; tli.at of 1X50 presci-ibed what courts 
should be established, .allowing' only municip.al 
courts to be created by the l.ei;islature. .and pro- 
vided for the election of rev;eiits of the university. 
The Constitution of 11X35 pi''>vided for .annual ses- 
sions of the I.i'nislature; th.at of 1850. for biennial 
sessions. 'I'lie one of 1S35 prohibited the passa}.(e 
of Laws for j^i'iieral corporate orij.ani/.ations, and 
authori/ed s|)eci,il ch;irtei-s; that of 1 850 prescribed 
a courst' directly the reverse. The first constitution 
providi'd that |)riv;ite ])roperty niii^ht be taken for 
jiublic use by allowini^ just compensation, and the 
|iovvers of bo.ards of sii|)ervisors were (luite re- 
stricted. The Constitution of 1850 m.ade more 
slrin;.;i'nt provision ,is to takiiiv,"' private pro[)erty for 
liublic use, .and i;.ive larger le,i;isl;itive ])ovver to 
boards of supervisors. The Constitution of 1835 
said iiolliiiijj; .about the licensing;' of the sale of licinor: 
th.at of 1850 pi'ohibiti'd the Lei^isl.ature from .author- 
i/.inir licenses for its s.ile. 

.\ ihiid coiistitution.al convention came toi^ether 
;it I.,iiisiiin-. on M.iy 15. 1867, .and continued in ses- 
sion until .\ui;ust 22. The dilci^.ali'S from W'.ayne 
County were Robi'rt McClelland, I ),iiiii'l Cioodwin, 
I'eti-r Desnoyers, Win. .\. Smith, Jonathan Shearer, 
•and W. I".. W'.arner. The result of their labors was 
disapprovi'd by the people. 

In 1873 a coiistitution.al commission, iirovicled for 
by the I.e.nisLiture, held sessions .at L.ansiiiv^, from 
Au.v;ust 2j to ( )ciober i''), 1873. Asliky Pond anil 
]•-. W. .Medd.iUv;h were dcleiL^.ites from the lirst dis- 
trict, which embr.aced W'.ayne County. Nearly .all 
of the recommeiulations of the commission f.iik'il 
of .adoption. 

The Constitution of 1835 ]-)rovided tli.it Detroit 
should be the c.apit.il uniil 1847, when the tiiial 
location w.is to be determined by the LeiijisLiture. 
Cnder a bill ;i|iproved M.irch if>, 1847, the capital 
vv.is lociti'd at I..uisini;, .and on December ::5 it was 
there est.ablished. 

The n.anie Lansim;' w.is probably it^iven to that 
town bi'c.ause its first settlers came from i.,aiisinv;. 
Toni|)kins Cmintv. X. \'., which town w.as n.amed 
.after John Lansiiiv;-, Ch.anct'llor of the .State of \ew 
NOrk from 1801 to 1814. 

The State officers .and their terms of office, h.ave 
been : 

'I'llUMS 



Sti'vens T. M.ason 
William Woodbridj^x' 
J. Wright ( iordon (,aciin,ii:) 
|oiiii S. Il.arrv 



iii-:(.A\. 


KNIIKI). 


if^35 


1840 


1840 


I 84 I 


1841 


1842 


1842 


1846 



92 



TERRITORIAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. 





\i 


KMS 




T 


KKMS 




llH(i.\.N. 


KNDKl). 




HHCAN. 


i:ndkd. 


Alphcus Felch .... 


1846 


1847 


William Jenney 


. . 1879 


1883 


William L. (ireenly (artiii..;) 


1847 


1848 


Harry A. Conant 


. 1883 




I'Ipaphroditus Ransom 


1848 


1850 








John S. Harry .... 


1850 


1852 


S/ii/r 'rr(Uisiirrrs. 




Robert McClelland 


1852 


'853 


Henry Howard . 


1836 


'839 


Andrew Parsons (acting; i 


■853 


1855 


Peter Desnoyers 


■ . 1839 


1840 


Kinsley S. Binj^ham . 


.855 


1859 


Robert .Stuart 


1840 


184I 


Moses Wisner .... 


1859 


1861 


George W. Germain 


. I84I 


1842 


Austin niair .... 


1861 


1865 


John J. Adam 


1842 


1845 


Henry H. Crapo .... 


1865 


1869 


George Rcdlield 


. . 1845 


1846 


Henry ]'. Baldwin 


I 869 


'873 


George B. Cooper 


1846 


1850 


John J. IJa^Iey .... 


"873 


1877 


Bernard C. Whitemore . 


. 1850 


1855 


Charles M. Crosswell 


1877 


I88I 


Silas M. Holmes . 


• >855 


1859 


D. H. Jerome .... 


1881 


1883 


John McKinney 


. . 1859 


1861 


J. W. Bejjole . . • . 


1883 




John Owen .... 


1861 


1867 








Ebenezer ( ). Grosvenor . 


. 1867 


187I 


Liciifriiintf-GoTi-riiors 






Victory !'. Collier 


1871 


1875 


Edward Mundy .... 


■835 


1840 


William B. McCreery 


. . 1875 


1879 


J. Wrii^ht (iordon 


1840 


I84I 


B. D. Pritchard . 


1879 


1883 


T. J. D;ake (actiiij;) 


I84I 


1842 


Edward H. Butler . 


. 1883 




Origen 1). Richardson 


1842 


1846 








William L. (ireenly 


1846 


1847 


, I U(f //(>?■-( rfl 


rr(t/s. 




C. P. Hush (acting) 


1847 


1848 


Robert Abbott . 


1836 


1839 


William M. Fenton 


1848 


1852 


Henry Howard 


. . 1839 


1840 


Andrew Parsons 


1852 


1853 


luirotas 1*. Hastings . 


1840 


1842 


G. R. Griswold 


'853 


1855 


Alpheus Felch 


. 1842 


1842 


George A. Coe .... 


1855 


1859 


Henry L. Whipple 


1842 


1842 


I'xiinund B. Fairfield 


•859 


1861 


Charles G. Hammond 


. 1842 


1845 


James Birney .... 


I86I 


I86I 


John J. .\dam 


• 1845 


1846 


Joseph R. Williams 


I86I 


1862 


Digby V. Bell 


. 1846 


1848 


Henry T. Backus 


1862 


1863 


John J. Adam 


1848 


1851 


Charles S. May .... 


1863 


1865 


John Swegles, Jr. . 


. 1851 


1855 


E. O. Grcsvenor .... 


1865 


1867 


Whitney Jones . 


• 1855 


1859 


Dwight May .... 


1867 


1869 


Daniel L. Case 


. . 1859 


1 861 


Morgan Bates .... 


1869 


1873 


Langford (i. Berry 


1 861 


1863 


Henry H. Holt .... 


1873 


1877 


Emil Anneke . 


. 1863 


1867 


Alonzo Sessions .... 


1877 


I88I 


William Humphrey 


1867 


1875 


M. S. Crosby .... 


1881 




Ralph Ely 


• • 1875 


1879 


^ 






W. Irving Lattimer 


1879 


1883 


St'cretari'cs of Sfafe. 






William C. Stevens 


. 1883 




Kintzing Pritchette 


1835 


1838 








Randolph Manning 


.838 


1840 


A/foriuy-C!f 


wrah. 




Thomas Rowland .... 


1840 


1842 


Daniel LeRoy . 


. 1836 


1837 


Robert P. Eldridge 


1842 


1846 


Peter Morey 


1837 


1841 


Gideon O. Whittemore . 


IS46 


1848 


Zephaniah Piatt 


. 1841 


1843 


George W. Peck 


1848 


1850 


YAon Farnsworth 


1843 


1845 


George Redtield .... 


1850 


1850 


Henry N. Walker . 


. . 1845 


1848 


Charles H. Taylor 


1850 


1853 


George V. N. Lothrop . 


, 1848 


1851 


William Graves .... 


'853 


i8;s 


William Hale . 


1851 


1855 


John Me Kinney 


1855 


18^9 


Jacob M. Howard . 


• • 1855 


1861 


Nelson G. Isbell .... 


1859 


1861 


Charles Upson . 


1861 


1863 


James B. Porter .... 


1 86 1 


1867 


Albert Williams 


. . 1863 


1867 


Oliver L. Spaulding 


1867 


1871 


William L. Stoughton 


1867 


1869 


Daniel Striker .... 


1871 


1875 


Dwight May . 


. 1869 


•873 


E. G. D. Holden 


1875 


1879 


Byron D. Ball . 


1873 


•874 



Isaac Marst 
.\ndrew J. ! 
Otto Kirchn 
J. J. Van Rii 

Conn, 
Digby V. Be 
Abiel Silver 
Porter Kibbc 
.Seymour B. ' 
James W. S^i 
.Samuel S. L; 
Cyrus Hewit 
Benjamin D. 
Charles A. F 
Leverett A. ( 
Benjamin F. 



lERRlTURIAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. 



93 



Isaac Marston . . 
Andrew J. Smith 
Otto KiiTlincr 
J. J. Van Riper . 

CoiiDii/'sstoncys of S/atr 

I)i,i(l)y V. IJell 
Abie! Silver 
Porter Kibbee 
Seymour 15. Treadweil 
James W. .Sanborn 
Sanniei S. I.acey 
Cyrus Hewitt 
Henjamin I). Pritchard 
diaries A. Edmonds 
Leverett A. Clapp 
Benjamin F. Partridge . 



Terms 




'I'kkms 


IlKOAN. 


KNI>KI). 




IIKl.AN. 


l'..SI)KI). 


. '874 


1875 


James M. Neasmith 


1879 


1883 


1875 


■877 


Minor S. Newell 


. 1883 




. 1877 


1881 








I88I 




Superintendents of Pulilic 


Instruction 




Lull,/ Office. 




John I). I'ieree 


■ 1838 


1841 


. 1844 


1846 


Kranklin Sawyer, Jr. . 


1841 


i«43 


1846 


1850 


Oliver C. Comstoek, Sr. 


. 1843 


1845 


. 1850 


1855 


Ira Mayhew 


1845 


1849 


• '855 


1859 


Francis V/. Shearman 


. 1849 


1855 


. 1859 


1 86 1 


Ira Mayhew 


1855 


1859 


1861 


1865 


John \I. (irei>ory . 


• 1859 


1865 


. 1865 


1867 


Oramel Horsford 


1865 


'873 


1867 


1871 


Daniel H. Briu^gs 


• 1873 


1877 


. 1871 


•873 


Horace S. Tarbell 


1877 


1878 


1873 


1877 


Cornelius A. Gower 


. 1878 


1883 


. 1877 


1879 


Hersehel R. Gass 


1883 





C U A VT 1<: R XVII. 



LEGISLATl'RKS AND LAWS. 



TllK firsl l.ci^islaiurc iiinliT Mni^lish nilc was 
called l)y proclainalion from Kinn'sion, in tlu' name 
of iIk- kini;. (in July I'l, \7')2. l.ieulcnant-i^ovi'rnor 
Sinicnr. of Canada, llu-n drtiiK-d ihc limits of ninc- 
tfi'n connti'.'s. Krnl C(.iini\' includi'd llu' rri^ion 
L-mbracini; Detroit, and w;is to li;i\c two mem- 
bers of the l.ei;isi;itnre. In Anv;ust, 179J, an ek'C- 
tion was held, .ind Win. M.aeomb and Wm. Cirant 
were electetl as members of the' first Legislature of 
L'pper Canada from the eoimty of Ketn. 

The k';.^isl;iti\e session beiujan .Si-pieinbi-r 17, at 
Newark, now Ni;ii;ar;i, and closed ( )etober 15. 179-- 
The seconil session bt'i^an at Newark on M;iy 31. 
1793. and lasted till July 9. The third session 
bi'^'.an June 2, 1794. and closed July 9. 'I'he fourth 
session lasti'd from Julv (>, 1795, to Autjust 10. and 
the fifth from M.iy 10 to June 3, 179C). 

Under the .\ct of Congress of 1 7S7. the (iovernor 
and Judj^es of the Northwi'st Territorv constituted 
the Legislature. T1h'\' anivcd at Marietta on Julv 
9. i7cS8. and their lirst enactments were dated from 
that ])l;ice, and published bv bt'lnt;- nailed on a tree 
on the l).inks of the Muskinmim. As Detroit was 
in possession of the ]-'.nt;iish, none of their laws 
were in force here until .after July 11. 179C1. The 
laws of the (io\ernor and Ju(.lv;es weri' issued from 
Marietta, X'incennes. and Cineinnati. 'I'his last 
named ]ilace w;is orinin.illy c.ukcI Losantiville ; it 
was so named by Israel Ludlow, one of the ori'^in.al 
proprietors. As the town was opposite the mouth 
of the Lickiniu;' River, he took the lirst lettt'r of th;a 
name, the Latin word os (the mouth:, the (Ireek 
word ii//// (oppositei, ;uk1 the l-"rench rv//,' la towni. 
and btiilt np the n.ame, thus rivalliiij;' in his ini^emiity 
the linguistic fe.ats of our Judj^e Woodwaril. Cin- 
cinn.iti was made the seat of justice on January 2. 
1 790. and in 1 795 the Governor and Jud,i(es assembled 
there to revise their former rej^tilations and adopt 
new laws. 

By the ortlinance of 1787. as soon as there were 
five thousand free male inhabitants in the Territory, 
an assembly was to he elected, with one member for 
each live hunilrvMl free white males. \\'hen the 
number of delejj;;ates reached twenty-tive, the assem- 
bly was to r(\i|fiil;itt' the nitio of representation, 
Havini;; ascert;iined ih.at there were in the i^erritory 



the requisite number of male citizens, over iwenly- 
une years of a.^v. (iovernor -St. Cl.iir, on ( )ctol)er 29, 
I 791, issued ;i procl.im.ation. directini;- the electors to 
choose repi-csentali\(S to a ( '.cncr.il Assemblv, which 
he oi'dercd to convi'iie at L'incimi.iti on |;uuiarv 22, 
1799. Three members were allotted to W.avne 
Cotmty, and ;m election was held on the third Mon- 
day of Deci'iiibcr, 1799. Owini;- to some informality 
or fraud, .another election w.is dei'iiied necessarv, 
and w.is held at Detroit, and in other parts of 
Wayne Cotmty. on J.inuary 14 and 15, 1799, result- 
uv^ in the I'k'Ction of Solomon Sibley, J.icob \'is,i.;fr. 
:o^d Ch.irles ]■". Ch.ibert Jonc.aire. .Although the 
.\ssi-mbly was to ha\'e met on J.anuary 22, 1799, its 
sessions did not bei^in tmtil l'\'l)rii;u'v 4. 

•An upper house or council, .as it w.as ( rilled, was 
created, consislini;' of Uvc pe|-sons, selected b\' the 
rri'sident ;uid contirmed by Cons^ress, from pi'rsons 
nominated by the Assembly. This first council con- 
sisted of J.inies Lindl.iv, J.acob lUirnct, Henry \',ui- 
derburi;-, D;i\id \',mce, and Robert ()li\er. 

( )n the i-re.ation of the Territory of Indi.ana. Judi^e 
Wanderbur!.;'. who li\ed within its limits, lost his seat 
in till' council ; Solomon Sibley, of Detroit, was ap- 
liointed in his pLici', ;md Jon;ithan Schiefllin was 
t'lected Sibley's successor in the Le,i;isl<alive y\s- 
sembly. The dele<;;ites from W.ayne County, at the 
first session of the second Asst'iiiblv, on November 
23. R^oi, consisted of Ch.arles !•'. ChabiTt Jonc.aire, 
(ieori;e McDoun'.all, and Jon.ath.ui Schieltlin. It is 
;i curious f.act. illustnitini;- the ])lianl j)rinciples .and 
politics of that day, th.at Schiel'Hin .and Jonc.aire, both 
of whom served under (ioNi'rnor Hamilton, and 
joined with the IiKh'ans in killiniL;' and sc.alpini;' the 
white inhabitants in the Territory, wert' afterwards 
elected to represent in the Territorial Li\v;'isl;iture the 
very re.^ions they had ravajreil. 

As late as iNLay, 1797, Jonathan SchiefHin h.ad 
officially declared himself an l'"nsr|ish subject, and 
affirmed th.at he did not intend to become an Amer- 
ican citizen, 

.After the nomination of ten persons as coiincilmen 
hv the .Assembly, it was proroi^ued by the vjovernor, 
until September 10, 1799. ;it which time he ordered 
it to assemble at Cincinnati. Wlu'ii the .\ssembly 
convened, there w.as present only one member of the 



f4] 



council, Jacu 

.Messrs. (ioi 

Ily SeptemI) 

rived, and b 

session till i: 

business, tin 

the .AssembI 

inj,' Novembi 

Aii.ifiist 20. I 

the seat of ; 

cothe, and 01 

at that pl.ice. 

On Novell 

a,y;ain met at 

Janii.iry 23, 

governor, to 

d.iy of the f( 

mov.al of the 

inh.ibitants ol 

the house ,it ' 

were bo.ardii 

dticed ,a br.aie 

iSefore the A 

law of .\|)ril ; 

X'an to Indi.ai 

not t.ake full e 

plied with, ;m 

3. 1803. 

l-nder liu 

provicK'd for i 

nor Harrison. 

time for holdii 

sembly, to m.e 

procl.am.ation 

and no electi< 

sent. Other 

I'"ehru;iry 7, r, 

n.ames were to 

which number 

council. .Am 

James .May am 

Jefferson decli 

with the pi'rso: 

Harri.son. Mt 

1805, Michijrai 

nor and the th 

I^ci^dslature, m 

business. 

The first lav 
dated July 9. if 
for the Territoi 
nor and Judije 
as a whole at 1 
had been draf 
desi^-n.ated as ' 
printed in Was 
Woodward wr( 



l.lUilSl.A 1 LKLS AM) LAWS. 



9.-^ 



coiiiicil, Jacol) lUiriK'l.aiul l)ui fourrcprfscMU;ili\fs, — 
Messrs. (iofiirlli, McMillan, Sinilh, and I.udlow. 
15y .ScptcnibtT 24 the rest (if i\\v iiuiiibirs had ai- 
riwd, and i)()th houses nrnani/.ed, and conliiuied in 
session till Deceniher 19. wiu'n, havinj; Ihiishcd their 
business, the ,i;'o\crnor. at their re(|uest, ])roro)L;Lied 
tlic Assembly until the first Monday of the follow- 
injr November. After the closing' of the session, on 
Au,i;ust JO, I7<>S, Con.i^ress |i;issed ;i law removin.vf 
the seat of nnvernnK'nt from Cineiniiati to Chilli- 
cothe, and on November 3, iSoo, the Assembly met 
at that pl.ice. 

On November 23, i<Soi, the denerai Assembly 
ai^-.-iin met ,it Chillieothe, continuin.t;' in session imtil 
January 23, iiSo2, when it w.is adjourned by tiie 
governor, to meet at Cincinnati on the fourtii .\b)n- 
day of the followinjL;' November. The projxised re- 
mov.ii of the seat of jrovernment did not pk'ase the 
inhabitants of Chillicothe, and some of them att.icked 
the house at wiiicli tiie ijovernor ruid Mr. Schiel'tlin 
were boardinv^. The member from Detroit pro- 
duced ;i bnice of pistols, and the mob soon dispersed, 
liefore the Assi'Uibly a.y;ain conventd, Coni^ress, by 
law of .April 30, 1S02, attached what is now ^bchi- 
H'.m to Indiana Territory. The law, howevt'r, did 
not take full effect until certain conditions were com- 
plied with, .'ind these were not fullilk'd until March 
3, 1.S03. 

I'nder indian.a Territory, no I.ev;islature was 
pi-o\ided for until called by proclamation of (iovci'- 
nor llarrisoii. lie t'lxed Jaiui;u-y 3, \^o^. ;is the 
time for holdini;- ,an election for members of an .\s- 
semblv, to n;eet ;it X'incennes on l'"el)ru.UT I. The 
proclamation did not reach W.ayne County in lime, 
and no election was held, anil no representatives 
sent. Other representatives .assembled, and on 
Kebru.ary 7, iiSoj, they elected li-n persons, whose 
names were to be forwarded to the I'rt'sideut, from 
which number he w.as to select five to constitute the 
council. .Amonvf the ten n.inies sent wt-re those of 
James M.ay.and James Henry of Detroit. President 
Jefferson declined to seli'cl, ;is he was unacquainted 
with the persons, ;uid left the selection to Ciovernor 
Harrison. Meantime, by Law taking- effect JuiH' 30, 
1805, .MichijL^an Ti'rritory was created, 'I'he ijo\er- 
iior and the three judj.;es, who were constituted the 
Lev;islature, met on July 4, 1S05, and organized for 
business. 

The first law passed and jniblished by them was 
dated July 9, 1S05. It describi'd and adopted a .seal 
for the Territ(jry. The laws adopted by the C.over- 
nor and Judi^es, prior to -May, 1806, were adopted 
as a whole at that time. Mo.st, if not all, of them 
had l)een draftetl by Judx;e Woodward, and were 
desiii^^nated as " the Woodward Code." They were 
printed in Washinijton, and on June 18, 1807, Judj^e 
Woodward wrote to the Secretary of State that "the 



laws of the Ti'iritory had just arrived, and that 
hitherto tiiert' had been but one copy in the 'I'erri- 
tory, and of the Norihwestern and Indi.ina laws 
there is not a com|)leie copy in iht' Tirritory." 

In view of their ollici.il position, the disregard of 
the Sabb.ith by the Ciovernor .'ind J udi,a-s is especial- 
ly noticeable. Oti Sunday, I'ebru.iry 26, 1807, one 
of the jud.vjes introduced a bill, which was re.ad three 
times .anil i)assetl; other sessions were also held on 
the S.abbath. 

Many of their sessions were held in Richard 
.Smyth's ta\ern, on Woodw.ird Avenin', near Wood- 
bridi^c Street. There w.as constant disa>;feenient 
and trouble between ( loxcrnor lliill .and Judi4e 
W'ondw.ird; and on ,all points of dil'ference, the \()te 
jjener.illy stood ilull .and li.ates, or Witherill, a,i;ainst 
Woodward and ( 'irillin. Jud.ire Woodward also dis- 
aj^reed with .St.ank'y Ciriswold, the secretary of the 
Territor\. ( )u M.irch, 17, 1808, he wrote ;ts follows 
concernin.i;- the i^overnor and the .secretary: 

I lia\i' fniiiid it cinliarrassirn; ami aliiicist an impc>»il)l<- lask to 
a\'<ii(l tlu- cninity ft tiirir rrsiniti\( aclhtTrtUs, aifiir(liii>i as I 
liapix'ii t(p 1)1- sill 1 i's>i\ily sii>|iii till of fasiirinv; ihf mu; nr tilt; 
(itlicr. 'I'lic only imulc I I'niild adopt was tti a\'uid, as f.ir as pfac- 
tlialilr, paitiriilar inlcriiiiitsr with lintli. I'or sixtrin mimtlis past 
I liavf had tin intriTdiirsL' whatrvrr with the sicrilary, and fir 
abuiii ciiiht inonlhs imiic with thr ,i,;ovi:niiir. 

.Anions;' the curiosities of the k'v;isl;ition of this 
peiiod w;is the jjassaj^i- ol .an .\ct on September 14, 
iiSio, "To rci^iiLate tlu' inti'rn.al ,nd\ernnu'nt and 
]iolice of tile se\er,il districts of the 'territory of 
Michi^-.iu." It pro\i(led for the election of live 
st'lectmcu, or councilors, in each district, with |)ower 
"to |iro\ide for the su]i|)ort of the poor, for the 
iii.iinten.ance and repair ol roads ,aiKl bridi^es, .and, 
j^eiKi-ally. for the internal yovi'mnu'iit .and police of 
the district, for the education of youth, and for these 
.and otiiei- pui-posi's sli.tll k'vy .and collect rates and 
taxes." ruder this iVct, Richard -Smylli, C.abriel 
Ciodfrov, .Sr., IV'ter Desiioyers, .Vui^tistus 1!. Wood- 
w.ird, and lames McL'loskey wi'fe elected for the 
district of Detroit, 011 October 8, 1811, and in 1812 
the s.ame iiersoiis were si'rvinv;', excejit that H. J. 
Hunt h;nl takt'ii the jiLice of .\. 11. Woodw.ard. 

The Ciovernor ;ind Jiidi;es seeiiieil to ha\e a 
morbid fear tli.it sonu' of the old lui^i^lish laws 
woukl remain in force, .and therefore, at intervals of 
every few years, ,a new Act was jiassi'd, abolishintj, 
either s]iecit:call\' or generally, all Acts of the lui^iish 
rarliament. .An .Act of February 21, 1821 (jiai^e 
Soo, section 12, of N'ohmie I. of Territorial Laws), 
repeals "so miu-li of any law, or supposed law, as 
miiiiht operate to require four kni.n'hts ifirt with 
swords to be on the jury for the trial of the issue, 
joined in an action of rinht, be, and the same is 
abolished, abroij.ated. and repealed." An Act of 
M,iy 1 1, 1820 (p.ane 586, X'olume L), abolished trial 
by battle, .and this w.as ayain specitieally .abolished 



96 



LKc;iSI..\ riKKS AM) LAWS. 



l)y law of Felmiary 21, 1.S21 (pa,i(e 802). As laic as 
April 12, 1827, a law ,i;ra\rly provitkd that "tlu' 
bcnctit of cleri,ry siiall be, and thi' same is lniThy 
abolished." The term "eleri^y," orii^inally limited 
to ecclesiastics, had lout; been construed to mean 
any person who could read, and all such, at one 
time, were exempt from capital punishment. I5c- 
tw'cen 1820 and 1824, a few laws were adopted, and 
printed in |)amphlct form. 

The followini^ judi^es, with the j^overnor, or the 
secretary of the 'I'erritory as actinjj |i(overnor, consti- 
tuted the I.etjislature; 1805 to November, 1806, .\. 
IJ. W'oodwaril, I''. Hates, John ('irillin; November, 
1806, to October, 1808, A. H. Woodward, John 
("irit'fin; October, 1808, to June 7, 1824, .\. 15. Wood- 
ward, John (IriHin. James Witherell. The following- 
jXTsons acted as setTctaries to the noxcrnor and 
judj;cs in their legislative cai)acity: 1805 to 1807, 
I'eter .Audrain; 1807 to 1817, Joseph Watson; 1817, 
John Stockton; 1818 to 1823, A. O. Whitney; 1823 
to 1825, !■:. A. Brush. 

.Many of the doings of the (iovcrnor and Judges 
were so utterly de\()i(l of justice ;iiul such ;i mock- 
ery of government that the inh.ibilants, almo.si ,// 
/f/ussc, were enr;ii;cd and distrusted. There is 
abundant evidence that the picture of their mis- 
doings could sc.ircely be owrdr.iwn. So inlolcr;ible 
did their action become that John (lentle, in 1807, 
published in The Philadelphia Aurora an.d Pittsburgh 
Oa/.ette a scries of articles detailinj^ the ni-ie\aiices 
of the people in lannLiajLje that was far from beini;- of 
the tenor the author's name mi^lit indicate. 

These artiiles criticized not only the doings of the 
(Governor and Judges as legislators, but also their 
court proceeiliui^s and tluir .actions as a Land Hoard; 
and intimated that they were conlrollin;^ for their 
own pecuniary advantajre the lots in the city 
and the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract, and that the 
Detroit iSank was a .scheme desii^iied to further the 
same object. Ciovernor Hull and Judge Woodward 
especially were charjred with intriv^ue, deception, and 
untruth; and the charires were apparently proven. 
It was believed by many of the ijeo|)le that Hull was 
in league with .Varon Hurr, and that his design was 
to impoverish the people and drive them out of the 
Territory, that his plans might be more easily carried 
out ; some even affected to believe, or did believe, 
that the burning of the town the day before the 
arrival of the ("lovernor and Judges was a part of 
their conspiracy. 

It was claimed in the articles of Mr. Cientle, ami 
also in other published articles, that (Governor Hull 
fabricated stories of Indian attacks and e.xcited false 
alarms, in order to divert the thoughts of the people 
from his wrong-doing. 

It does not appear that Oovernnr Hull nwade any 
published reply to the articles of Mr. Gentle ; he cer- 



tainly did iini in llic |);ipcr which coni.iiucd the 
charges, in 1808 Judge Woodward replied in a 
series of articles published also in the Pittsburgh 
Commonwealth. His defence consisted chielly in 
attributing the articles to spite, caused l)y the rejec- 
tion of the author's claim for a donation lot, and in 
denying that he was in any way interested in lands. 
The records, however, show that, if not then inter- 
ested, he soon after became an extensive owner of 
real estate in this regioi; and though a jlesire for 
retaliation may have inciteil the articles of Cientle, 
their truthfulness, at least in the main, must be con- 
ceded. Judge Woodward made no attemjit to 
defend Cioxernor I lull ; on the contrary, he intimated 
strongly that the governor was interested in the 
1 )etr()it H.ink, as ;i matter of speculation, and conceded 
that he had been prcci|)itate in erecting fortifications 
and stockades. 

The i-h.irges of Mr. (ieiille seem more than half 
pro\en by the lame defence of Judge Woodward, 
and by his testimoin in regard to (lovernor Hull. 
In so far as Woodward was concerned, the articles 
in the Delrnii (la/.elte of October and November, 
1822, man)- of them writtin by James I). Doty, 
afterwards ( lOvernor of Wisconsin, show that Wood- 
ward's conduct w.is so unexampled, so extrav.igantly 
illcg.'il, that any one in ol'lici.al position, who, having 
the power to prevent or expose his ;ict!on, neglected 
to do so, mu'.l have been I'ither in sympathy with 
him or cowartll\- in the extreme, 

.\t the time Mr. Cicntle published iiis articles, 
there w.is no jKiper issued in Detroit. Oentle says 
he published ;i portion of one (jf the articles in 
Detroit. John L. Talbot, in his sketch of I'arly times, 
written nearly forty years .ago, says this was done by 
writing each .article, which was then "hung out tlur- 
ing the tlay from the houses, guartled by arms, and 
t.ikeii in ;it night." 

The fact that they were resisted and det'ied in De- 
troit greatly t'x.ispenited the Ciovcrnor and Judges. 
Mr. Cicntle was .attacked in his own house by some 
of their friends, but was protected by Mr. Campau. 
It is stated in the ( iazctte for November i, 1823, 
that he was indicted for libel. " When arraigned, 
he i)leatl th.at he was guilty of the writing and \n\h- 
lishing, and offered to prove the truth of every fact 
stated." In those days, however, the truth of a libel 
could not be given in e\idence, and he was found 
guilty. The majority of the people, however, did 
not approve of the \erdict. 

One of iiis articles says : 

A meelinj; of the citizens cif I )etr(iit was Uijiiin called to draft a 
nicinorial to tile Keneral kii\ eminent, praying for redress of onr 
grievances. K. H. and (1. .Mel)., \vh.) still remained ntniter, now 
came forward (or rather were sent forward by the governor), and 
declared in favor of the people, and hy the force of their eloquence 
changeil the intention of the meeting into a resolve that a com- 
mittee he chosen to draft an impeachment against Judges W^iod- 
ward and Bates, and they had the address to have themselves 



chosin (in the 
iind II. K. .\|^„ 
several (lays, fr 
was appoinli-il I 
of jndgc; Dales, 
court. I'rogres! 
(ill at last It was 

A memori 

taiits, d.ited 

to the Presii 

and Woodw 

'i'he Oovei 

the yVct app( 

laws of the ( 

best suited t 

they violated 

ordinance of 

of merely ad( 

States, they 

laws of one .^ 

different St.at 

origin of ;i tei 

following st.it 

true. They v 

States before 

the laws of .> 

Virginia, won 

tences from tl 

the laws t^f K 

of Connecticu 

trouble themst 

the original S 

find, .\ftor a 

whole subject, 

ing statement ( 

Several allempts 

the (Jovcrnor and 

IjeiTig and good go' 

ancient and proviri 

distinguished hy ih 

The governor fir- 

after the usual rout 

elates, we suppose, 

Hut we were, as iisi 

Judge Woodward d 

l'ro\-ed, which cov. 

cxhihiting, at one vi 

odized I hat was eve 

thieves for the g',,ve 

this Territiiry of tin 

enlarged, and Impro 

circinnstances of A 

forward in great nur 

our disapprohation 

suhordiriation hy h 

although symbolical 

doctrine of non-resi 

the reports of their 

people out of doors 

'loors, the (iovcrnor 

the adoption of the 1 

They made Ia\ 



LLLilbLATL Kl.S ANU LAWS. 



97 



(liiisiii iin llic- comiuittit:, iil.iin{ with Jiiiiics Aliliuit, J. Ilaivi y, 
,111(1 II. K. Martin. I'lii! .ciiiiiuitt. c •.at at Mr. li.s, iiml lal.i.n.l 
Hcvir.il (lays, fr;iiiiiii< llir inipcu limciil. .Ml oil a Miildi ii, Mr. 11. 
was apiHiiiiliil by llic Kovcnmr treasurer nf llie I'errildry, in |il,ii ■■ 
(if jiuUe Hates, mult;. M( I >. w.is appniiiled clerk el llie dislri. I 
cDiirt. l'r(i<ress (if tlie iiiipe.K liineiit w.is then liy clenrees relaxed, 
till ,it List it W.IS till, illy ali.mdiiiii il 

A memorial, si^nicd l)y alxmt fniir liiiiulrfd inliahi- 
laiits, ilalud Si-pUnuljcr i, hSoS, \v,is, hdwivcr, stiU 
It) the I'rcsidi'iU, prayiiv< for Uif rinii.v,il of Hull 
and Woodward, l)iit it was unheeded. 

The (iovenior and Jiidvces were empowered, by 
the Act api)oiiUinv; ihem, to ", adopt " .such of the 
laws of the orij^in.il thirteen States as they deemeil 
best suited to the needs of the Territory, 'i'hat 
they violated both the letter and the spirit of the 
orilinanee of i/'S; is .ibiindantly evident. Inste.id 
of merely ailoptin,;;- l.iws from some of the oriv^inal 
States, they would take the title of the .\et from 
law.s of one State ami i>arts of Acts from laws of 
different States, and this so fretjuently that the 
oriirin of a territorial law could not be traeeti. 'i'he 
followinir statement m.iy be t.aken as almost literally 
true. They would "parade the laws of the ori:snnal 
States before them on the table, and cull letters from 
tile laws of .Maryland; syllables from the laws of 
N'iri^inia, words from the laws of New NOrk, sen- 
tences from the laws of Pennsylvania, \erses from 
the laws of Kentucky, and chapters from the laws 
of Connecticut." Ami many times they did not 
trouble themselves to make seiections from laws of 
the oriirinal States, but used any tliat they could 
find. After a full and c.mdid e.x.iminaiion of the 
whole subject, I h.ave no doubt that even the follow- 
ing statement of Mr. (lentle was true: 

Sevural atlempts were made about this time, December, iSort, by 
the (lovcrnor and Jiidnes to revive and introdiK c, fur the well- 
being and >{iiod Kovernnient of this Territory, that famous code of 
anciiMU and provincial laws, by the N'i'w Kn>;l:ind folks, commonly 
distin,i;nished by tin: appellation of the I'lhie Laws of Connecticut. 

■file ,1,'overnor first [iresinled his vcrsiiin to the I.i.-ijislatiire, and 
after the usual mutino of ilispiil.ilion, it was rejected by his asso- 
ciates, we siipiiose, for its lyranniial and de .tniclive teiuleiii y, 
lint wit were, as usual, e.itrexiously mistaken ; for the day luUowiiii,' 
Jndv'e Wuiidwaril displayed a second edition, enlari;ed and im- 
proved, which covered the surface of several sheets of paper, 
exliibitin>,', at one view, the most rcMiied system of birbarity meth- 
odized lliat was ever proposed, even by the ringleader of a den of 
thieves for the K'.vernuK'nt of banditti. The transmigration into 
this Territory of the aforesiiid lUue Laws of Coniiecti( ut, revised, 
enlarged, and improved, "as far as necessary, and suitable to the 
circumstances of Michigan," e.xcited serious alarm. We went 
forward in great numbers to the li'gislative board, and manifested 
our disapprobation and abliorrence of this diabolical system of 
subordination by horrid grins and dismal smiles, expressive, 
although symbolically, of our aver..,i()n to, and disbelief in, the 
doctrine of non-resistance and passive obedience. I''indiiig, by 
the reports of their spies, that the sentiineuts entertained by the 
people out of doors coincided with the grimaces of those within 
doors, the (Jovernor and Jud,'es deemed it expedient to ))ostpoiie 
the adoption of the liliu' Laws until a more conveniint season. 

They made laws themselves, ami fretiueiitly passed 



IS 

<.(1 




r.s 

1)S 


los 


.£. 


loS 



them without deliberation. .\ sinele judv;f would 
draw up ;i law, .'ind tin n r.irry it arouml t<i the lodv;- 
in.^s of the other judnfs to be there sij;lied. The 
]i;()\frnor. on one occasion, midertook to si,v;n a law, 
and publish it, without the re(|uisite majority of the 
bo.ird. The ju(lv;fs pronouneed this a violation ol 
tlu: l.iw. and a i mitest arose. The v,'overnor issued 
an inll.immatory iiroclam.itioii, c.illin.^ the milit.iry 
lo his aid ; the judj.;es declared his .action c.ilumn'ous, 
deuiumced him for e.illinv;' for ;ii<l from the military 
;iuthorities, ;uid deeided th.at if they j^rjintcd the 
mand.imus, retiuesled by the Liw in (iiiestion. they 
would subvert their own decisions. This ended the 
matter, .and the di.niiity of the court w.is linally sus- 
t.iined. The jud;<cs often siibmeri^fd their ilii^iiity 
,ind reversed their own decisions, but they h.id no 
idea of allowin.;^ others to do it for them. 

Thom,di the Governor and |ud,i;es observed no 
rei^iil.ir i)l,tce or time of meetinif for ollicial duties, 
the time for refreshments was duly observed, as the 
foliowinv,^ .luthentic copy of a bill against the Terri- 
tory clearly shows: 

October .•«, i8o^). 

'I'l'iuijniiivV lit Mi(.iiii;.\.N'. 

To James May, Dr. 
Six bottles of cider Sept. cj, for u>e of l.egislatiin , 

Six black bottles ' 

Three [lint tumblers, double Hint ( ut, " . . 

Six bottles cyder September It, for use o( "... (is 

During the winter of dSoS I1S09. while Judge 
Woodward was absent at W;tsliinglon, under the 
supervision of Judge Witherell m.iny r.idical changes 
wt're m.ade in the Laws, forty-four new .Acts were 
p.issed, and what was called the Withei'ell Code, 
took the place of the Woodward Code. When 
Judge Woodward returnetl, he rt fused to recogni/,e 
the leg.alilyof the .Acts passed in his .absence, assert- 
ing th;it they were not properly .attested, and the 
business of the courts was greatly deranged, in 
connection with this dillicully. on .August 24. uSio, 
Judge Witherell introiluced the following preamble 
and resolution: 

U7if>'i;ts, by the mosc cxtraordin.iry and tinwarraiUable stretch 
of piiwc-r ever attempted to be exercised by the Judiciary over the 
Legislature and a fri e government, two of the judges of the 
Supreme Court of this Territory, at the September term of said 
Court in i8i«^, did declare and decide on the bench of sjiid court, 
in their judicial capacity, that the laws adopted and published the 
preceding winter, by the (lovernor and two of the Judges of s;iid 
Territory, were uncon.stitutional, and not binding on the pe(.ple of 
the said Territory, under the frivolous pretext that they were 
sigiu (1 only by the ( lovcrnor as presiding officer ; and whereas, by 
till' said declaration and decision of the said judges, the peace and 
happiness, the rights ; nd interests, of the good people of this 
'Territory have been and are still very much disturbed and put in 
jeopardy ; and whereas the good people of this 'Territory, after 
nearly one year and a half ac(];iaintance with the said laws, have 
manifested strong wishes that the same, with a few exceptions, 
should b(' continued in operation in the said Territory, in order to 
effect which and remi.N-e all diiibt on the subject, 

Kfiv/TVi/, that the (lovcrnor and Judges, or a majority of them, 
do proceed immediately to sign said laws. 



98 



I.I,(ilSr..\IIKi:s AND I.WVS. 



'riiis icsoliiiidii w.is considered .iiid lejeeted ; and 
for nearly a yi'ar then- ensued alternate vietnry and 
defeat for l)otli parlies. Kinally Jtidv;e Witlufell 
triinnphed, al least in part; and many of the laws 
iii question are emhraeed in the reprint of the terri- 
Ic; iai laws. It should \)v ineniioned here th.it the 
severest eriti<isnis were ap|)lied to the doin.v;s of llu' 
it'jfislativc board before Jiid.vje Witherell was a|)- 
pointi'd. In iiSi6, durint^' the adniinistr.itioii of 
Ciovernor Cass, some I'lUire l.iws. and portions of 
others, were eollected. and printed al Detroit in one 
volume, ,ind this w.is desi^rnated .is the Cass 
Code. In iS::o they were a,i;ain collected, and 
those printed at that time are known as the Code 
of 1820." 

In tile winter of iSiy, and until November 27, 
1820, JtKl.i;e Woodward absented himself entirely 
from the lei-islative bo.ii-d. Judv^e (Iritlin took no 
interest in the nn'isioii of the laws and drew up but 
one statute. 1 e is (jiioted as havini^ said that the 
others made a mere driidye of him. 'l"he eccen- 
tricities of Jud^e Woodward became at len,i(lh ut- 
terly unbearable. The people were weary of being 
governed by four men none of whom were chosen 
by themselves. From being restive they became 
determined. On March 11, 1822, a meeting was 
held at the Council House to petition Congress "to 
separate the juilicial from the legislative power, and 
to vest the latter in a certain number of our citi- 
zens." A petition was duly drawn up and for- 
w.arded, setting forth the fact that Congress had 
failed to correct or review the acts of the Ciovernor 
and Judges, except in the single instance of the Act 
incorporating the Hank of Detroit and praving theni 
to take action in behalf of the peoiile. On October 
26, 1822, a numerously signed call brought the citi- 
zens together in the CouikmI House, and again ;i 
committee was appointed to draw up a petition to 
Congress. The names of the committee were, John 
Diddle, A. K. Wing, John L. Leib, James McClc 
key, A. G. Whitney, .Shubael Conant, Ric 
Smyth, John S. Roby, David C. McKinsir 
Dequindre, Calvin Haker, John Meldrun: 
Sheldon, Kbene/.er Reed. 

In January, 1823, they sent to the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of Congress what was called a "statement of 
facts," giving reasons why a change in the govern- 
ment of the Territory was necessary. Their state- 
ment, printed in the Detroit Gazette for January 24, 
1823, says: 

The legislative board do nut meet tn do business at the time 
fixed by their own st.-jtiites for that purpose, and thev h.ive no 
known place of meeting ; and when they do meet, no public notice 
of the time or place is Kiven ; and when that can be ascertained by 
inquiry, they are found sometimes at private rooms or offices, 
where none have a riitht, and few except those immediately inter- 
ested in the passage of the laws have the assurance to intrude 
themselves, or can find room or seats if thev should. Laws 



iiir (ii,|iiinlly jKisMd iind ulliirs n pcilrd, which lake effect 
lioiil llii: il.ilr, an<l vitally alfi i l tin- ri,<lils of the clli/iim, an<l 
arc nol proinulyaletl or made known to ihu tommunily for iiuiny 

lUoUtlls. 

This .statement of f.acts was effective, and on 
March 3. icSj^, Convjiess eiiacied ih.ii the govi'rn- 
inent of the Teriitory be transferred to the governor 
and .1 council. The people wen: to elect eighteen 
persons, from whom the 1 'resident w;is to .select 
nine, who should, on conlirmation of the .Senate, 
constitute the COtmeil of llu: Territory. The m.iil 
which .irrived at Detroit at noon on Thursd.iv. 
.M.inli 27, I(Sj3, brought the news of the p.issagc of 
this l.iw. Colonel Smyth, of the Sagina Hotel, was 
at once ri'ciuested by sewral citizens to pre|)are ,1 
sujiper. .\t sunset CajJlain Woodwortli's companv 
fired a federal salute, with an extra gun or two for 
Michigan; ;ind at eight o'clock there was music and 
firing of guns and crackers. Supper was .servetl 
.soon after, Ciovernor Cass presiding. 

On June 7, 1824, the first tcrrittirial council was 
held in Detroit. One of the sessions was opened 
with prayer by Rev. Father Richard, the Catholic 
priest, who jirayed that "the legisl.ators may make 
laws for the people, and not for themselves," — a 
prayer that might be ajjpropriately made at every 
se.ssion of a legisl;itive body, i'.y Act of February 
5, 1825, provision was made for in<'reasing the si/e 
of the council by the election of twenty-six persons, 
from whom the I 'resident was to select thirteen, to 
constitute the council. 

\iy Act of April 12, 1S25, Wayne County was 
made the first district, and was to elect eight of the 
twenty-six i^ersons whose names were to be for- 
warded to the President. I5y Act, approved Jan- 
uary 29, 1827, the people were authorized tti elect 
thirteen persons, who should constitute the council, 
without requiring the approval or confirmation of 
the President. The passage of this Act caused 
■ ':h rejoicing. 

The members of the legislative council from 
sV'ayne County were as follows: Fii"^ Legislative 
Council, June 7, 1824, Abram Fdwards. Second 
Legislative Council, November 2, 1826, Abram 
Mdwards, Henry Connor, Robert A. Forsyth. 
'I'hird Legislative Council, May 5, 1828, Henry 
Connor, William Brown, .Abram Kdwards, John 
McDonnell. Fourth Legislative Council, May 11, 
1830, William Urown, William Hartow, John Mc- 
Donnell, William A. Fletcher. Fifth Legislative 
Council, May i, 1832, John McDonnell, Jo.seph W. 
Torrey, Charles Moran. Sixth Legislative Council, ' 
January 7. 1834, Charles Moran, John McDonnell, 
Elon Farnsworth. 

A second session of the sixth legislative council 
was held at Detroit, lasting from August 17 to 25, 
1835. They passed an Act providing for the elec- 



tion of a (It 

oils other / 

What is 

IcgisLiiive I 

uary 6 to 1 

of John S. I 

tioii Coiigrc! 

Territory o 

adopted I,, 

pri.ition to si 

Wisconsin 1 

was afterwa 

council, vi/. 

I'lic Territor 

senied. ( iov 

W. .S. H.imil 

w;is secret.ir\ 

In 1X24 till 

tion of the 1,1 

of these e.irl' 

plele .set of ai 

In 1855 the 

and published 

«. '«36, Willi; 

pare a vmh- , 

wards appoin 

Harrington ai 

the governor 

session of the 

cd, .111(1 becam 

'«3S. Ill 1 84 

Judge San ford 

laws, which is 

••V>-" In If 

compilation in 

the " Compilet 

James .S. Dewi 

prepared .1 sinii 

ill two volumes 

of 1871." My 

preiKired by Ju 

authorized to b 

clia.se of nine tl 

was orderetl. 

The laws of 

J^in,!^'. and since 

systematized wli 

and local laws ii 

in aiK/tlier. Coj 

county clerk, wli 

all judges and j 

county officers, t 

e.-'.oh township, a 

and 1874 copies 

obtained were | 

volumes. The c 

in that it omits . 



I.i:(.ISI..\ ll'Kl'.S .\\1» I AWS. 



99 



tion (if ;i (lcl(v;,itf to Coii.nTrss, tovfctluT with iiiimcr- 
olis nlluT Ai Is. 

What is soMut' nes dcsiv^iiati'd as the si'vciiih 
Ifyjisi.iiivtr cDiiiicil was held at (Ircfii Itay frnm jaii- 
iiaiy 6 to IV 1H36. It was calicdhy prcM lamaiinii 
of Joiiii S. I lorner, actiiij^f )r()v<Tnor, in oiilcr to peti- 
tion C'onj^ri'ss to provide for tlii' 01 viani-^ation of the 
'I'l-rritory of Wisconsin. A nienioi iai was also 
adopted to hi' pri'senled to ConjLjrcss for an .ippro- 
prialion to secure liie iniprovenii'nl of the l''o.\ anil 
Wisconsin rivers. Only three eonnties, in what 
was afterwards Wisconsin, were represented in the 
conncil, vi/., iSrown, Milwaukee, and Crawford, 
'riie 'i'erritory now known as Iowa was also repn- 
senlcd. ( "lovenior 1 lorncr not heinjf present. Colonel 
W. S. li.aniillon w.is eiiosen president. A. (i. i'illis 
was seeret.iry. 

In i.S_'4 the ie.iLfislative ixiard pui)!isiu'd a coniiiila- 
tion of the laws tlu'n in force. Most of the copii's 
of these early laws have disappearetl. and a com- 
plete set of all the laws cannot now he founil. 

In I1S33 the Laws were ajL^ain condenseil, arranijed, 
and published by the le.vfislative council. On March 
S, 1.S36, William A. Kletcher was api)()intcd to pre- 
|)are a code of laws for the State. He was after- 
wards ;ip|)ointed chief justice, and Messrs. \i. H 
I l.irrin,i;lon and E. Y. Roberts were appointed by 
the yrovernor to complete the work. At an extra 
session of the !,ej,Mslature the re\isions were accept- 
ed, and became the law of the State in September, 
183S. In iH^(). by authority of the Legislature, 
Judj^e Sanford M. ( Ireen i)ri'pari'tl a revision of the 
laws, which is known as the " Revised Statutes of 
i.S.|.6." In 1857 Thomas M. Cooley prepared a 
com|)ilation in two volumes, which is desiirnated as 
the "Compiled Laws of 1S57." In 1S71 Jiiilne 
James S. Dewey, by authority of the Leijislatiux', 
prepared ,1 similar compilation, which was publisheil 
in two volumes, under the title of "Compiled Laws 
of 1 87 1." I5y law of M.iy 4. 1883, a compilation 
prep.ired by JudiL^e .Vndrew llowell, of Adrian, was 
authorized to be received as evidence, and the pur- 
chase of nine thousand copies, at live dollars each, 
was ordercnl. 

The laws ot i\u"li session are published at Lan- 
sinjL;', and since 1871 they have been somewhat 
systematized when published, by issuing; the private 
anil local laws in one volume and the jreneral laws 
in aiu/ther. Copies of all the laws are sent to the 
county clerk, who furnishes them free of charnje to 
all judjijes and justices, revjents of the university, 
county otlicers, to the supervisor and town clerk of 
e.''A'h township, and also to the city clerk. In 1871 
and 1874 copies of such territorial laws as could be 
obtained were published by the State, in three 
volumes. 'I'he compilation, however, is incomplete, 
in that it omits all the laws passed at the second 



session of the sixth lei;isl;ilive council, A list of 
early l.iws, known to be missini;'. is j,(i\in in one 
of the volinnes; since Hun ,1 number of them have 
been found. 

I'nder a provision of the Constitution of 1835, 
;ind ,inticip;itin,;( .admission us a State, one reijular 
.and oni' extra session of the Lt-ijisl.iture w.is lu'ld 
in 1S35 and 1836, before the State w.is form.illy 
.idmilted to the Union. The first reifular St.ate 
Lenisl.iluri' be).;.in its st.'ssioii Janu.ary 2, 1837. 
.\nnu.il sessions were lu'ld up to 1851, since which 
time, in iiccordance with tin; Constitution of 1850, 
regular sessions hav: been held every two years. 

The last rei^ular session in Detroit I'losed on 
M.irch 17. 1847, The sessions since then have been 
held at L.msin.v;, which city, .after th.it year, became 
the .State cipit.il. l'|) to 1 883 nine extra si'ssions 
had been held, the occasions for thi'Ui and their 
diites beiniLj as follows: In 1851. to provide for 
payinv;- the indebtedness of the State and for a new 
lei^isl.iti\e ,ind com^ressional apportionment, also to 
provide for elections .and other matters m.ide neces- 
s.iry by the new I'onstitution. in 1858. to redistrict 
the State for circuit courts, and to provide for payinj,' 
Sl.ite bonds. In 1861, to provide men and means 
for the w.ir tlvn in proijress, and to furnish relief 
for f.amilii's of \olunteers. In 1862. to consider the 
(juistion of assuminif a portion f)f the direct tax 
projjosed to be U'vied by the Cnited States, and to 
provide for enrollinv,' the militi.a. In 1 864, to provide 
for lillini^ the St.ite (|uota of troops, to provide a 
St.ue bounty, .and to .arr.in^e for receivin.if the votes 
of soklii'is in the fu'ld. In 1870, to provide for 
submiltiii).;' an amendment to the constitution, 
.iuthorizin;( ji.iyment. by counties, of bonds \'oteil by 
them in aid of proposed r.ailroads. In 1S72, to make 
new .apportionments for representatives to Conj^^ress, 
anti provide for investitj.ation of the St.ate l;md otlice. 
In 1874. to ])rovide for exlendin,i( time of comiiletion 
of r.ailroail from M.ackinaw to Marqnette, and to 
m.ike |)rovision for submitting;' the nuestion of woman 
sulfr.ixe at ;i State election. In 1882. to m.ake a new 
congressional apportionment, provide a new tax law, 
:md to aid sufferers by fires in Lastern Michigan. 

liy Constitution of 1835, the Stale Ilouse of 
Representatives was to consist of not less than 
fortv-eight nor more than one hundred members. 
The Sen.ite w.as to number, .as near as possible, one 
third .as m.any members as the House. Under Con- 
stitution of 1850. the Ilouse was to consist of not 
less than sixty-four nor more than one hundred, 
and the Senate w.as to have thirty-two members. 

By .an amendmcr"; to the constitution, adopted 
November 8. 1874. the House of Representatives 
may consist of not less than sixty-four nor more 
than one liundrcd persons. No township or city may 
be divided to form repre.« 've districts ; but all. 



1(H) 



i.i:c.isi..\TrKi:s and laws. 



friim I'ach city, ;ii'c lo hv i-k'cird on a ,;;t-ncral licki't. 
Couiuii's (.■ntitk-il to more than one r(.'i)iTSfiU.iti\c, 
are to \k- ilividi'il for fk'ciion purposrs, l)y lln' Hoard 
of Siipi'r\isors. 

W'ayiKJ coinily has always l)ccn in the first sena- 
torial district of tile State. The c-onvention of 1S35 
pro\iik'd tliat it akme sJioukl constitute tlie tirst dis- 
trict, with three senators. ISy law of .\pril 3. 1838, 
the first district was t(- have i)iit two senators. My 
law of April 12, 1841, Wayne. Macomb, St. Clair, 
Sanilac, and Huron Counties were constituted the 
first senatorial district. 

By .\ct of March 10, 1846, the first district was 
composed of Wayne, Macomb, and St. Clair Conn- 
ties. An Act of June 27, 1851, provided that 
Wayne County should be divided into several dis- 
tricts, as follows : 

First District : Third, Fourth, Si.xth, aiul Seventh 
Wards, Mamtramck and Cros.se I'l inte. 

Second District: First, Second, Fifth and 1-ighth 
Wards, Sprin^wells, Cireenfield, Fcorce, and Mon- 
guas;on. 

Third Di.strict : lirownstown, Huron, Sumpter, 
Taylor, !\omulus, \'an lUiren, Canton, riymouth, 
Livonia, Xankin, Dearborn, and Riclford. 

Hy .\ct of February 13. 1S55, Wayne County was 
divided as follows : 

First District ; Third, Fourth, and Seventh Wards, 
Hamtrainck, and drosse I'ointe. 

Second District : Second, Fifth, and Sixth Wards. 

Third District: Firs and Kii;hth Warils, C.recn- 
field, Sprini^wells, 1-Lcorce, and .Monv;iiai.(on. 

Fourth Di.strict: Plymouth, Livonia, Redford, 
Dearborn, X.uikin, Canton, \'rui lUiren, Romulus, 
Taylor, Hrownstown, Huron, and Sumpter, 

ISy .\cts of M.ircli 15, 1861, and .May 1, 1875, the 
distritts in Wayne County were as follows: 

First District: Second, Third, Fourth, Seventh, 
and Tenth Wards, C]reenfield, Ilamtramck, and 
Gros.se 1-ointe. 

Secoiul District: First, Fifth, Si.\th, Eighth, and 
Ninth Wards. 

Third District : All towns except the three above 
named. 

The names of State senators from Wayne County 
in various vears have been as follows: 



'•^35 ''"^j?' J'>hn McDonnel 



Conrail 'I'en Fyck, 
Wm. Woodbridi,^', 



Jonathan 1). l)a\is. 

1838-1839, 15. 11. Kercheva 
John McDotmell. 

1840 1S41, Dc vl.irmo Jones, 15. !■". H. Witherell 

1S42, Jonathan Shearer, Lyni.m ("iranger. 

1843 1844, Jonath.m Shearer, 

1845-1846, William Hale, -'' 

1847, A. T. Mc Reynolds, John E, Schwartz. 

1848, John I'". .Schwajtz, (ieo. \{. ("iHswold. 

1849, (}eo. R. Ciriswold, Titus Dort, 



1850 1851. .\. Il.arvey. Titus Dort. 

1853, C. R. C.riswo'.d, .■\. 11. Stowcll, H. Fr.ilick. 

1855, r>. Wight, Ci. Jerome, N. L.idd. 

1857, A. H. Redfiekl, (i(.'o, Jerome. 11. l.edyard, 
J. L. Near. 

1859, \. Dudgeon, H. ISarns, T. F. Hrodhead, 
W. 1:. U'arner. 

i86[, Willi.un .\dair, H. 1'. Haklwin, H. T. 
U.ackus, J. 1.. Near. 

1863. Wm. .Vdair, W. C. Duncan, W. E. W.irner. 

1865, \\'m. .\d.iir. Joseph ( iodfrey. .\d;un Minnis. 

1867, Paul dies, .\lanson Slieley, Oliver C. Abell. 

1869, \\'m. Adair, Lorenzo M, Mason, Elliot T. 
.Slocum. 

1871, James W. Romeyn, Alanson Sluley. Robt. 
D. !••• ;s. 

187^,. W. li. Wesson. D. M. Richardson, W. C. 



/J' 
Sutton. 

1875. 
1877, 



Wm. Atlair, John Cireusel, James I. David. 
Wm. Adair, Thos. H. llinchman, Matthew 
Markey. 

1S79, J. D. Weir, T. W. Palmer. W. W. Duflield. 

18S1, James Caplis, John (ireusel, Thos. .Morrison. 

1883, James W. Rome\n, John Creusel, James 
Hueston. 

The convention of 1835 provided that Wayne 
County should have eight rejiresentatives. .Subse- 
quent apportionments have given it the following 
numbir of representative's: .Act of 1838, seven. 
Acts of 1841 and 1846, six. .Act of 1851. seven. 
Acts of 1855, 1861, and 1871, nine. .Act of 1875, 
ten. 

The names of representatives have been as fol- 
lows : 

1835-1836, Peter Van Every, Chas. W. Whiiv 
ple, Jonathan P. Foy, Amnion lirowii, il. .\. Noyes, 
Cic'o. W. Ferrington, John Strong, Elias liradshaw. 

1837, Chas. W. Wliip]ile, Wm. Munger, Job 
Smith, loliii M.iriin, .\mnioii Urowii, N. P. Th.ayer, 
Caleb lierriiigton, Cieo. W. I''erriiiglon. 

1538, \. W. lluel. Louis Beauf.iit, Levi Cook, L. 
tloodnian, J. M. Howard, Joshua Howard, Chas, 
Moraii, Theodore Williams. 

1539, Louis lieaufail, J. L. Near, A. Mack, Harry 
Saunders, l'2benezer Eaton, 'I'. 1'". Sheldon, Titus 
Dort. 

1840, Chas. Moran, Joshua llo'.v.ird, 1). J-",, ilar- 
baugh, A. T. McReynolds, H. T. liackus, Wm. S. 
(■regory, John l'"orbes. 

1841,' John Piddle, A. T. Mather, F. A. Harding, 
Roswell Root, luirotas Morton, L. E. Dolsen, Shad- 
rach C.illett. 

1843, Titus Dort, James (Umning, Thos. Lewis, 
John Norvell. John .Scott, 15. F. H. Witherell. 

1843, Ceo. A. O'Keefe, D. H. Rowland, J. C. 
Vaughan, Peter Codfroy, .A. ^'. Murniy, Daniel 
Goodell. 



W 

H. 
Pel 



'844. J- 
Hlindbury, 
Davui h'. 

'845. A 
Schwartz, 
Pullen. 

1846, G 
Eye!-. l.:iij 
Lewis 

1S47. !•:( 
Heiv.y i.>al 
Geo. 15. Th 
1848. Je( 
Noves, Hii-i 
P.uel. 

1849 
ley. Jr 
Ttitilc. 
1850, 
Sackett 
paiigli. 

1851, 15. 
Alfred 15. G 
1853, Fir: 
Callagh.in, ^ 
Irwin. Thii 
District : W 
Warner. 

'855. 
A.sa P. 

Aubin. 
District: W. 
JCdwards. 

'857, Firs 

O'Flynii, .M. 

Second Distri 

CiiV.cy. Fot 

L)istnct : Wn 

'8y^, First 

13. P. Hush 

Second Distr 

J- P. Wallae 

weather. Fifi 

1 86 1, First 
Wm. Phelps, 
Second Di.stri 
J- S. Tibbits. 
District : Ira I 
1863, First I 
ton, L. ^L .M 
Second Distric 



mVsI 
.Mo( 
Th 



LKC.lSI.AllRi:s AM) LAWS. 



lOI 



1844, Jolin V. R.nihlc. Jr.. H. \. Walkrr, John 
l>lin(ll)urv, Harry Sauiulcrs, J'.lijah IlawKy, Jr., 
I)a\i(l 1 1. Row land. 

i<S45, Aiidrrw Ilarvi'v, \\'m. O. I'losi-, John \'.. 
Scliwartz, Arcli. V. Murray, Win. Munj.^tr, N. W. 
'I'ulk'n. 

1846, ("r. K, Hand, {ic(irt;c' Moran, Conrad 'I'ci. 
Eye!-, Elijah Ilawlcy, Jr.. M. i:. Ames, Ihos. 
Lewis 

icS47, I'ldward C. Ealon. tu'o, W. Ecrrinsjjton, 
Hop; y l'"rali(i<, J.inu's .\hl'';irlan, (ico. W. Moore, 
('(.'(). H. Tliroop. 

1848, Jed. !'. C. lunnions, Cyrus Howard, ISitiuiel 
Noyi's, Hinun H. Stone, .\hrani P. \'ounj;', A. W. 
lUii'l. 

i84(;, Will. I". Cliitlcndcn, Orrin David, K. Haw- 
k'y, Jr., ("H'ornc Mor.in, Amos Ste\cns, Warren 
'Lutlle. 

1850, H. 1). Carpenter, Jonathan Hudson, David 
S.ackett, lletiuiel Noyes, As;i IL Otis, Hiram Mills- 
p.ui,i;ii. 

1851, B. E. Hyde, Jonatlian Shearer, Levi Eaton, 
Alfred B. (lulley, Jared Se.xton. (ieori^^e Martin. 

1853, First District: Wm. K. Chittenden, J. O. 
CalL'iJLihan, John Reno. Seennd Di.strict : W. W. 
Irwin. Third District: Thos. I'. Matthews. Fourth 
District: W. LL (iregnry. Eifth District: W. ]•:. 
Warner. 

1855, First Di.strict: H. H. Wells, Pliny Power, 
Asa !'. Moorman. Second District : F. C. St. 
Aubin. Third District: Chas. Noble. Foiu'th 
District: W. H. Grevjory. Fifth District: Arthur 
Edwai'ds. 

1857, First District: Sheldon McEnij^hl, C. 
O'Flynn, ^L .\. Chase, i:. Kanter, J. >L Davis. 
Second District: S. Ludlow. Thiril District : A. B. 
■'iul'ey. Fourth District: W. H. C.reiroiy. Eifth 
Disfict : Wm. Muni;er. 

iSjv First District : A. W. Buel, T.J. Campau, 
D. P. Bushnell, John McDermott, Paul Cics. 
.Second District: R. H. Connor. I'hird District: 
J. B. Wallace. Fourth District: Ceo. A. Stark- 
weather. Fifth District: J. I. David. 

18(11, First District: J. F. .ly, J. Ci. Peterson, 
Wm. Phelps, T. W. Lockwood, Wm. Chapoton. 
Second District: John Strong;. Third District: 
J. S. Tibbits. Fourth District: A. J. Leetch. Fifth 
District : Ira Davis. 

1863, First District: T. W. Lockwood, .\. Chapo- 
ton, L. M. Mason, S. G. Wii^dit, Wm, W.irner. 
Second District : H. W. Ucarc. Third District : 



.\lex. Tinham. Fourth District: li. Ilod;^kinson. 
Fifth District: R. i:. Clark. 

1865, l'"irst District: Wm. S. I>ond, J. Lo^;ui 
Chipnian, P.aul (lies, Rich.ird Ilawley, Wm. P. 
Wells. Second District: Bi'iijamin May. Third 
District: Titus Dort. Fourth District: John M. 
Swift. Fifth District : Moses R. Xowland. 

iHr.;, JMrst District; I'.dw.ard C. Walker, Thos. I). 
I lawlcy, 'Thos. R. SiH'iice, Jefferson Wiley. Wm. 
W;irnir. .Second District: Chas. P>. Chauvin. 
'Third District: C. C. Smitli, Fourth Distri.'t: 
C.eo. W. Swift. Fifth District: Jared A. Se.xton. 

1869, First District: J. W. Romeyn, C. N. Rio- 
pelle. P. KUin, W. Purctll, 'T. W. Harris. Second 
Distr: t : IVter 'Ternes. Third District: R. \'. 
lirii^ns. Fourth Di.strict : Ceo. W. Swift. I'ifth 
District: James Stewart. 

1871, First District: Lyman Cochnine, W. C. 
Hoyt, J. CireuscI, J. Ciibson, J.imes Mc(iones;al. 
Second District: L. Dalton. 'Third District: B. 
Pier.son. I'ourth District: O. R. Patten,v;il. Fifth 
District: P. D. I'earl. 

1S73, First District: J. C.reuscl, J. Burns. II. 1). 
Edwards, J. Ciplis. J. J. Speed. Si'cond District: 
M. M.-irkey. Third District : O.D.Pierce. Fourth 
District: Winfield Scott. Fifth District: Henry 
Cordon. 

1S75, First District : Cleveland Hunt, J.ames Daly, 
Wm. Livingston, Jr.. J.ames Craig. Peter Klein. 
Second District : Michael Cireiner. Third District: 
H, N. Ocobock. Fourth District : D. I>. Northrop. 
Fifth Di.strict : Cady Xeff. 

1S77, First District: R. ILiwlcy, F. .\. P>aker, 
P. MeCiinnis, E.. F. Conely, Stephen Martin, Louis 
Dillman, Paul dies. Second District: (ieo. W. 
Crand.ill. Third District: Myron Coon. Fourth 
District : Thos Morrison. 

1S79, First District: A. doebel, J. C, Donnelly, 
F. A. Noah. Ceo. H. Hopkins, J. E. dirardin, J. 
Kuhn, deo. W. Moore. Second District : I". W. A. 
Kurth. 'Third District: I"., W. Cottrell. Fourth 
District : Joseph Waltx. 

1881, First District; deo. H. Hopkins, deo. B. 
Remick, .\d;im 1'.. Bloom. Robert \'.. Bolt,a'r. M. \'. 
Bor;.,Mnan, Chas. I'wers, Henry Klei. .Second Dis- 
trict; C. P.. Hubbard, Third Di.strict: i:. W. 
Cottrell. Fourth District : A. P. Youns,'. 

1SS3. First District: (k'o. H. Hopkins, Robert E. 
Boli^er. Conrad Bittin,i,aT, W. IL Coots, L. A. Brant, 
John Devlin. O. N. Case. Second District: IL W. 
Riopelle. Third District : George TinhaiTi. Fourth 
District; M, IL Ellis. 



CHAPTER XVI 1 1 



i'ri;sii)i:n riAL i;i.ix tors, cai'.ixi:i" oificiiks, and mi:mi'.i:rs of conc.rkss 

FRO.M DF:TRU1T.— rRLSlDENTlAL \1S1 TS TO THE CFIV. 



ruKsinKxriAi, klkciviks, cAHiNrr officers, 

AND MIC.MDKUS OK t()N(;KKSS. 

Til K direct connection of liic Stale .uid tlic city 
wilii tiic ( 'io\ iTiiniciU of the riiilcd Slates conies 
primarily lliroU)i;ii the appointiiienl. by vole at the 
|)rcsidentiai elections, of as many presidential elec- 
tors as the whole number of United States senators 
and reiM\'sentati\es to which tlie State is to be 
entitled when the I'resident I'lected comes into olfH'e. 

These iiresidential electors are l)ound by honor 
alone to cast the vole of the Slate in favor of the 
candidate of the ticket upon which they were 
elcclcti. 'I'hey are required to meet on the first 
Wednesday of December, in their own Stales, and 
dciiosit their xotes. The record of their votes is 
then cerlit'icd to and sealed, after whii-h some one is 
ap]ioinled to (leli\(.T it personallv to the ])resi(lenl of 
the Senate, at \\"ashin,v;ton, before the lirst Wednes- 
day in Janu.ary followini^' their meelinij. Another 
copv is sent bv mail to the same olticer, and a third 
deiJositcd with the jud.i^e of the district. 

Only .St.iies fully achnilted into the I'nion may 
choose i)rcsidential electors. 

The first presiilenlial election in which Michi,i;an 
participated was the thirteenth, it was held in the 
fall of 1836, and placed Martin \'an iUiren in the 
presidential office. The names of the ijrtsidential 
electors of Michijran, who have lived in Detroit, are 
as follows ; 

Thirteenth i:lection, David C. McKinstry; four- 
teenth, none from Detroit; fifteenth, Louis Heaufait ; 
sixteenth, L. M.Ma.son; seventeenth, D. J. Campau; 
ei,i{hteentli, none from Detroit; nineteentli, Oeorye 
W. Lee and Rufus Ilosnier; twentieth, none from 
Detroit; twenty-fir.st, William Doeltz and John 
lUirt; twenty-second, V.. 15. Ward and Hennan 
Kiefer; twenty-thinl, William Doeltz; twenty-fourth, 
E. n. lUitler. 

All the presidential candidates voted for by Michi- 
jjan have been elected except Cicnerals Cass and 
Fremont, and Detroit has furnished the foUowinif 
cabinet officers : (General Lewis Cass, Secretary of 
War under i'resident Ja(~kson, and Secretary of 
Stale under I'resident Buchanan; Ciovernor Robert 

I. 



McClelland, Secretary of Interior under President 
I'ierce; anil Zachariah Cliaiuller, Secretary of In- 
terior untier {'resident (irant. 

I'luier the Northwest Territory the following iier- 
sons were dele]i(ates to the L'niled .States Conj.;-ress : 
1799-1800, W. 11. Harrison; i<Soo-i8oi, William 
McMillan; 1801-1803, i'aul Fearini,^ During our 
connection with Indiana Territory W. 11. Harri- 
son was ajfain cho.sen delei^ate. 

As a 'i'erritory, Michij,^'in had no repre.sentative 
in Con,i;|-es.. .inlil, by Act of February 16, 1819, .she 
was authorized to elect a delegate. 

The following persons servetl as delegates for the 
terms named ; all of them, except Messrs. \\'ing and 
Jones, were residenls of Detroit: 1S19- 1821, Wil- 
liam Woodbridge ; 1821-1823, -Solomon Sibley; 
1823-1825, C.abriel Richard; 1825-1S29, A. E. 
Wing; 1829-1831, John liiddlc ; 1831-1833, A. E. 
Wing; 1833-1835, Lucius Lyon; 1835-1836, Cieo. 
W. Jones. 

I'liited .States senators are elected every si.x years 
by a majority vote of the State Legislature in joint 
convention. Of the sixteen different senators elected 
under the Stale organizati- 1, the following nine 
ha\e been from Detroit: I036-1840, Lucius Lyon; 
1836-1841, John Norvell; 1840-1845, A. S. Pf)rler; 
1841- 1847, Willi.am Woodbridge; 1845-1857, Lewis 
Cass; 1857-1875 and 1 879-1 881, Zachariah Chan- 
dler; 1862-1871, Jacob M. Howard; 1881-1883. H. 
1'. r.aldwin; 1S83- , Thomas W. Palmer. 

I'liited States representatives for the .several dis- 
tricts are elected directly by the people, for terms of 
two years. The population of the State at the time 
of its .admission entitled it to only one represent.-ilive, 
but its growth was such ;is to treble the number in 
1843, The counties of Wayne, i\lonroe, Lenawee. 
W.ishlenaw, and Ilillsd.ile were, by Act of March 2. 
1843. m.ide the first district. The census of 1850 
showed that the State was entitled to four represeiU.i- 
tivcs, ;uid the Act of June 26, 1851, made the first 
district to consist of the counties of Wayne, Wash- 
tenaw. J.'ickson, and Living.ston. In 1861 the State 
h;ul become entitled to .six representatives; .and an 
Act of March 15 provided that the first district 



should eml 
Leii.iwee. .1 
of 1870 sho 
sentatives, c 
first district 
census of 
eleven rejire 
State Law 
County as tl 
Under tht 
repre.sentati\ 
persons ha\-- 
the whole i 
Detroit : Ja( 
McClelland. 
Field, A. S. 
Lord, and W 
The p.iy ( 
various laws, 
teniber 22, i 
day while all 
each twenty 
J}y law of A 
§1,500, withoi 
This law was 
ary 22, 181S, 
d.ay, and eigh 
Uy law of A 
$6,000 for tl 
Dec-ember 23, 
tiiey were to 
A law of .Mar 
with actual t 
se.ssion. 

I'RKSIDI 

The city h.i^' 
the presence ( 
visit or subse( 
The lirst w.is ^ 
on \Liy 10, I 
ag.iin, on the ti 
ber 29, 1813, ( 
September 8. 1 

The first tin 
presidenti.il vis 
ticipated iiitolli 
th.it President 
Oener.ils Prow 
were .at the mo 
three miles of 
of citizens w.is 
Woodbridge in 
as .secretary, .im 
Sibley. M.ajor y 
A, ]■:. Wing, Ch, 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS— PRESIDENTIAL VISITS. 



10 



slioultl eiiibrai^o the counties of Wayne, Monroe, 
Lenawee, and Hillsdale. The United States census 
of 1870 showed a population entitled to nine repre- 
sentatives, and an Act of March 29, 1872, made tiie 
first district to consist of Wayne County only. The 
census of 1880 showed a population entitled to 
eleven representatives, and the apportionment under 
State Law of March 14, 1882, continued Wayne 
County as the first di.strict. 

Untier the several enlariifcments of the number of 
representatives, uj) to 1883, si.xty-seven different 
persons have been elected from Michiifan, and of 
the whole number the followinji^ ten were from 
Detroit: Jacob M. Howard, Lucius Lyon, Robert 
McClelland, A. W. Buel, W. A. Howard, M. W. 
Field, A. S. Williams, John S. Newberry, Henry W. 
Lord, and William C. Maybury. 

The pay of senators and representatives, under 
various laws, has been as follows : By law of Sep- 
tember 22, 1789, they were each paid six dollars a 
day while attendinij the session, and six dollars for 
each twenty miles traveled in goini; to Convjress. 
By law of March 19, 18 16, they were to be paid 
§[,500, without mileage, for each Conj^rcss attended. 
This law was repealed in 1817, and by law of Janu- 
ary 22, 1818, each was to be paid ei^ht dollars a 
day, and c'v^ht dollars for each twenty miles traveled. 
By law of August 15, 1856, they were to receive 
$6,000 for the two sessions, also mileage. On 
December 23, 1857, the law was so amended that 
they were to receive §250 per month and mileage. 
A law of .March 3, 1873, fixed their pay at SZ-Soo. 
with actual traveling expenses for one trip each 
session. 

PRKSIDKNI'I.M, VISITS Vn TIIK CI rV. 

The city has been favored, at different times, with 
the presence of pt:rsons who, at the time of their 
visit or subse(|uently, filled the ollice of President. 
The first was W. H. Harrison, who was in Detroit 
on May 10, 1803, as (iovernor of the Territory, 
again, on the first day of the rc-occupalion, .Septem- 
ber 29, 1813, on October 6 following, and also on 
Sei)teml)er 8, 1815. 

The lirst time that Detroit was honored with a 
presidential visit was on August 13, 1817. I'nan- 
ticipated iiUelligcncc was nci'ived, about 8 A. M., 
lliat President Monroe, with (iovernor Cass ;ind 
(ienerals Brown and Macomb with their suites, 
were at the mouth of the river, and would be within 
three miles of the city at Wn o'clock. A meeting 
of citizens was immediati'ly calk'd, with Willi.im 
Woodbridge in tlu' ch.iir and Major Charles Larncd 
■ IS secretary, and a committee, consisting of Solomon 
Sibley, Major A. Edwards, Captain J. McCloskey, 
A. E. Wing, Charles Larncd, Colonel Stephen Mack, 



Captain Antoine Dequindre, and O. W. Miller, was 
appointed to make suitable arrangements for a 
reception. At ten o'clock a large number of citi- 
zens, in carriages, on horseback, and on foot, col- 
lected at Springwells, and proceeded to the river 
Ecorce, where the presidential party had arrived in 
barges from the ves.sel. Solomon Sibley, on behalf 
of the titizens, congratulated the President on his 
arrival. A procession was then formed, which 
escorted the I'resident to the city. When opposite 
Fort Shelby a .salute was fired ; the procession then 
moved on through the principal streets, escorting the 
President to the residence of (iovernor Cass. At 
night the city was illuminated — the bill for which, 
paid to Abram Edwards by order of the Common 
Council, amounted to the sum of §23.26 ; the ves.sels 
in the harbor were tastefully decorated with lights, 
and there was a display of fireworks, under the 
direction of Lieutenant Howard of the United States 
Ordnance Department. 

The following day the city authorities waited upon 
the President, and an address was delivered, by 
Major Charles Earned, on behalf of the city author- 
ities and the citizens. The day after, at 8 A. M., 
the troops of the post, under command of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Smith, were reviewed by the Presi- 
dent and (ieneral Brown; after which a sword, 
voted by the Legislature of New York to General 
Macomb, was presented to him by Governor Ca.ss. 

( )n I'"riday evening a ball was given at B. Wood- 
worth's Steamboat Hotel, the President and other 
notables being in attendance. On Sunday President 
Monroe attendeii divine service in the old Indian 
council-house, located on the site now occupied by 
Firemen's Hall. He remained in Detroit five day.s, 
during which time he receivetl many testimonials of 
regard, among which was the gift of a carriage and 
s])an of horses, presented by the city. On Monday, 
August 18, he was accompanied by a number of 
citizi'iis to Springwells, where he embarked in a 
b.irge, to meet a vessel waiting for him at the mouth 
of ih -iver. 

Our next visitor in this list was a vice-president. 
Colonel R. M. Johnson, rei>uted to have killed 
Tecumseh. He was here in ;ittendance on a demo- 
cratic meeting, held .September 28, 1840. l']x-Presi- 
dent Martin \'an Buren made Detroit a visit on 
{•"rid.iy, July 8, 1842, on his return from a trip to 
L.ike Superior. The steamer l''airport, bearing a 
party of cili/ens, went up to Lake St. Clair, and 
met the Gre.it Western, on whi<li he was a pa.ssen- 
ger. The two bo.ils were Lashed together, rmd 
Major Kearsley, chairman of the committee of 
arr.ingements, welcomed the noted politician and 
ex-president. At 3 r. M. the !)oats arrived at the 
city, where Mr. \'an iUireii w.is welcomed by ^L-»yor 



■HHHHIH 



104 



PRESIDENTIAL VISITS TO THE CITY 



lloui^lium and (iowrnor ISarry. A procession of 
citizens ami military was then formed, and he was 
escorted tliroiij;!! tiie jirincipal streets to tlie Ameri- 
can Hotel. A (ompany ,i;athered on tlie tipper 
l)alcony. and lie replied al some len^tii to an address 
l)y Alderman Ten Eyck. In thi' evenini;-, and also 
on Saturday niorninv,'', a reteption was heitl at the 
hotel, ;ind on Saturday evenin.i;- Mayor I Ioii,!L;iiton 
,y;ave him a reception at the residence of Dr. i'itchcr. 
On Sunday morniiii; Mr. \'an Ikiren attended the 
Mcthodi.st Church, ;ind in the afternoon visited the 
Roman Citholic and I'pi.scopal Cluirciies; in the 
evening' .another reception w;is held at the hotel. 
On Monday mornin,i<- he visited .Ann .Arbor, return- 
ini;- in the afternoon, when a foiu'th adtlress was 
made by John P.. Schick, on behalf of the (".erman 
citizens. At X I'. .M., on .Mond.ay, he took his 
departure for Cleveland on the steamer Fairport, 
receiving- a i)artin,iL( salute of twenty-six guns. 

In i<S45 ("icneral Zachariah Taylor, afterwards 
twelfth President of the United States, was here 
on a visit to Captain Joseph Taylor, his brother, 
then stationed at Detroit. 

President Cir.ant ;it one time lived in Detroit, as 
the accompan\in!L( letter shows. 

On his first .arrival Lieutenant (irant boarded at 
the Nation.il Hotel. In July, 1849, he moved to 
the house, still st.indini;- on its original site, known 
as No. 233 Fort Street ICast. From there he moved 
to wh.'it, in Liter years, was known as the ISacon 
House, whicti he occupied in company with C.'ipt.ain 
Core. The house stood on the northeast corner 
of Russell Street .'md Jefferson .Avenue. It was 
sold and juoved away in 1X73. C. R. Hacon has in 
his possi'ssion p.art of a pane of ,i;iass, from one 
of the chamber wiiulows. on whicli is the name 
" Lieutenant I'. S. Crant.;" it is believed that he 
traced it while an occupant of the house. His 
occupani\- of the Fort Street house is verified by 
the fact that the directory for 1850 contains the 
following': "C.r.ant, Lieutenant I'. S. .A. N. S. I*'ort 
street bet. Russell .and Riv.iril." The l'"ree Press 
of M.iy 25, 1850, contained this advertisement : 

For Sali\ Roit^ or E.wlutngi: — A two-story dwell iiiK-liouse on 
Fort StriTt, bi'twciii kivaril and Russfll Strcrls, now occupied hy 
Lieutenant (Irani of tlie I'. S. A. possession ^iven innnediat('ly. 
I'"or further particulars inipiirc of (i. M. Rich, on the corner of 
Fort and Randolph Streets. 

On many occasions Ciener.'il C.nmt h;is sliown a 
lively interest in the welfare of his old home. His 
remembrance of old ac(|uaintances in Detroit has 
always been hearty, and appreciative. Even those 
not jiersonally acquainted have noticed his j^iad 
rei'oi;iiition of former citizenship. The writer well 
remembers the morninj^ of Deeen;ber 17, 1S64. 



Ilavinij called at the White House to see Mr. Nico- 
lay, tlie President's secretary, 1 was directed by the 
jiorter to j^o up stairs. Re.achin.i,'' the landinv;' 1 
found the doors leading; from the hall all closed, 
with no indication as to which mi.ij^ht .ijive admit- 
tance to Mr. Xicolay. Retracing- my stejis, 1 said to 
the porter, "The doors ;ire all closed, and 1 did not 
find him." A cheerful, bright-f.aced boy near by 
s;iid, " 1 think 1 can find him. Come up stairs 
again." And u]5 we went, he with a sort of Hying 
leap, as though he felt at home, and surely he had a 
right, for he was none other than "little Tad." I 
h.'ive alw.'iys been gl.id for this brief knowletlge of 
one so dear to "our Lincoln." Opening the door of 
one of the rooms. Tad called out, " Is Nick here.''" 







Ciii.\i:i{.\i. Gk.xnt's Old Ho.mk on I-'uki Si kicki'. 

The reply was, " He is at the War Department." 
To the War Department I went, and there learned 
that (inint had come from the army, then before 
Richmond, and was in consultation with Lincoln 
and Stanton in an adjoining room. Possibly a dozen 
persons were waiting in the lorridor. Very soon 
.Mr. Stanton came out, and immediately after fol- 
lowed the tall, thin form of Lincoln — thinner and 
homelier th;in any represent.ation 1 have ever seen; 
his eyes were s.'id, and manner burdened. Stanton 
made some ri'iiiark, which did not reach my ear. 
Instantly Mr. Lincoln responded, in a tone vibrant 
with .anxiety and care, and .almost harsh in its ini- 
periousness, "What's that, Mr. Secretary?" A 
moment more, and he w.is gone. Immediately after 
C.eneral Grant appeared, .and there was at once a 
rush to greet him. One gentleman stej^ped up, .say- 
ing, "I am from New Ilamjishire. we occasionally 
hear of you up there." "Ah," .said (Irant, " I hope 



^ 
-? 






:^ 



if^'^^^^^i^J^ 







F.\l-S1M11,I! Ill' T.KTTKR FROM OkNKK.M. U. S. OkANT. 



io6 



PRESIDENTIAL VISITS To THE CITY. 



yoti 11 hear of me in Richmond soon." I tiien jjave 
my residence. "From Detroit.?" said he. "Why, 
I used to live there once. Have yon seen Charley 
Trowbridvje lately.'*" The name of Detroit proved 
a passport to his attention, and he evinced jjreat 
willinijness to hear of his old iiome. it so happened 
that a detaileil account of (leneral Sherman's 
advance on Savannah liad ajipeared that morninif 
for the first time; the papers were also full of den- 
eral Thoni;is' victory over Hood. To an allusion to 
the jjood news from Sherman he replied, "Yes, and 
(ieneral 'I'homas is doinir splendidly, splendidly." 

On Aui,nist 12, 1865, he visited Detroit, and 
received a welcome that must have been ijratifyin^;. 
He was accompanied by his wife and four childien. 
At Port Huron he was met by a committee wl.i'-h 
had jjjone there for the jiurpose, and on n^achinij 
Detroit, at 1 1 A. M., he was ijreeted by immense 
thronj^s, which almost block.ided the streets. 

In the eveniiii.;- he held ;i reception at the Riddle 
House, where addresses were made by 'I'hcodore 
Romeyn and Jacob M. Howard. Later in the evcn- 
inji^ he visited Ex-CIovernor Cass. On Sunday he 
attended .St. Paul's Church. Monday morning-, with 
a party of .about one hundred, he enjoyed an excur- 
sion on the United States steamer .Miehi,iL;an. In the 
evening Senator Chandler gave a reception in his 
honor ; and at 4 P. M. on Tuesday he departed from 
the city. On June 15 and 16, 1882. he again visited 
Detroit, participating in the reunion of the Army of 
the Potomac. 

On September 27, 1849, \'ice-President Millard 
Fillmore paid a visit to Detroit. He was the guest 
of Mayor Howard, who gave a reception in the 
evening. 

Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth President, was 
here one day. ruid part of another, in June, 1861, on 
a visit to Kx-Secretary McClelland. 

Andrew Johnson came September 4, 1866, while 
"swinging round the circle" and " ^ipholding the 
Constitution " in true stump-speaker .style. 

President Hayes, with his wife and two sons, 
accomi^anied by General W, T. Sherinan, arrived 
September 18, 1879. The mayor, George C. Lang- 
don, with a party of citizens, went down to Grosse 
Isle to meet the steamer Northwest, which was on 
her way to Detroit with the presidential p.arty. 
The steamer was hailed, the reception party taken 
on board, and the President duly welcomed. A 
response was made by General Sherman. On reach- 
ing Detroit, at 9 A. M., the party proceeded to the 
resideni'c of Ex-Governor Baldwin, by whom they 
were entertained. About eleven o'clock, escorted 
by the military, the party \nsited the Fair Grounds, 
where the President delivered an address. While 
Mrs. Hayes w;is on the grounds, Messrs. Pingree & 



Smith, leading shoe manufacturers, eausetl the 
measure of her foot to be taken, and an elegant pair 
of I'Vi-nch kid buttoned boots were cut out, made, 
and ])resented to her, all the work being done ui 
twenty-three minutes. 

In the evening a reception look place in the lower 
corridor of the City Hall, which was eleg.intly decor- 
ated for the occasion. An immense throng was in 
attendance. The following day President Hayes 
visited the Fair Grounds, Recreation Park, and the 
Nation.al I'in Factory. A recejition was given at 
I-2x-( iovernor lialdwin's in the evening, and the fol- 
lowing night the jiarty left the city. 

Our I'ity was honored more th.an we then knew 
by the jiresence of the lamented Garfield. He 
visited Detroit no less than four times, on two occa- 
sions, at lea.st, accompanied by Mrs. Garfield. At 
each visit he was the guest of Rich.'ird Hawley. 
His first visit was ])rob;ihly in the summer of 1863. 
Ill comp.my with Mrs. R. il.awley, J. ('•. and T. D. 
Hawley, he and his wife went to M.ircpiette, return- 
ing to Detroit the latter part of .September or e.arly 
in October. On the way down, two of the boat's 
crew (iu;:.rrelled, and were just about to attack each 
other, one being armed with a knife, ami the other 
with a heavy b.ar of wood or iron. Word was 
brought to the captain, who seemed to hesitate; not 
so the strong-armed Garfield, who, rushing below, 
laid hold of the men with a power that thoroughly 
subdued them, then flung them apart, and the strife 
was ended. 

One Sunday afternoon in the summer of 1864, 
probably in August, he spoke briefly in the Jeffenson 
Avenue Christian Church. In the evening he spoke 
from Romans xiii., 1-7, on the general subject of the 
duty of the Christian to the State, or " Christianity 
in its Relation to Civil Government." On one of his 
visits, believed to be this one, he delivered a political 
address in Merrill Hall. On another occasion, in the 
fall of 1866, he ag;iin .spoke in the Jefferson Avenue 
Christian Church. Rev. A. J. Hobbs, then pastor 
of the church, says, " He was with us on Lord's 
day. He declined to occupy the pulpit, morning or 
evening, but con.sented to speak at the communion 
meeting in the afternoon. His subject was, 'Christ, 
the Tried Stone.' The Scripture was Isaiah .xxviii., 
16, ■ Heboid, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a 
tried .stone, a pri'cious corner stone, a sure foun- 
datiiMi, he that believeth shall not make haste.' He 
described the various practical tests to which build- 
ing stones are subjected, to prove their cap.ibility of 
resisting heat or frost, moisture or pressure. He 
then reviewed the tests to which Jesus Christ h.ul 
been subjected, and at l.ast the final tests of Geth- 
semane and of the cross, showing thus his true 
divinity and fitness to be the foundation of the 



PRESIDENTIAL VISITS TO THE CITY. 



107 



temple of (iod. The whole discourse was instruc- 
tive, impressive, tender, and calculated tn prepare liis 
hearers for a joint participation, witli himself, in tlie 
Lord's Supper, which was then celel)rated." 

Mrs. Jolm Iharvey has a clear renunthr.anct' of 
the sermon, as has also 1', C. Cjray, who recalls the 



circumstance of walkinj; with him to church, their 
w.'iy takinij tliem p.ist the |irescnt City Hall, whose 
foundations were tlien heint,^ l.iid. It was undoubt- 
edly those \cry found.ation stones that suijijested 
the tluuK' of his brief but weil-remeinbered dis- 
course. 



ciiai'ti-:r XIX 



roiji'ifAr. I'Ai-t rii:s and campaicns. -i:i.i:c"I'1()\s. 



I'Ol.niCAl, I'A Kill's AND C AM I'A M AS. 

Till'. Anuiicin sysicm of novfrniiu'iit is hasi'il 
upon llic supposition tiiat tlu' propic will always 
ffi'l tnoiij;h inliTi'sl in llir nianai^iiiunl of local 
and national affairs to pi-<i\i(lc for cirtain pnlinii- 
narii's for ck'Otions withoul bi'iiii;' rc<iuircd to tlo so 
by slatntc. 

'riu- ])rini,iry I'lcnicnts in all flections arc the 
nominations, and tlu'sc .arc usually arraniijcd by self- 
appointed coniniiltees, or Jjy coniinitti'es appointi'tl 
at a political nieelinir. A caucus is held, .uul 
nominations m;ide I'hui TOir, by ballot, or by sclccl- 
ini( (U'le^ati's to a noniinatinj^ coiuention. 

The expenses of conventions and jiublic nu'etiiins, 
includinj,^ the ])rinliiiif of tickets, etc., are voluntarily 
l)rovi(k'(l for by tin; various candidates. Tlie ex- 
penses directly connected with the holdini,^ of an 
eli'ction, such as the proxidiin,^ of |iollini;- pl.ices, 
publishinv,^ registration lists, ;ind jiayinv;- insjiectors 
and clerks, are defrayed by the city. 

The followini,'- caucus notice of the olden time, 
I)efore party politics j^overned city elections, is from 
the Detroit (lazette: 

City K/ivtion. 'I'lu rili/iiis of Dclmit are rrtiuisiid to nui't 
at thr lldtc'l ol t'itptaiii llcnjajiiiii W'cpiuhvoilli to-niorriiw cvcii- 
iiiK, at ( aiullc li>;liliii>;, for tlm piirposi! i)f lakin.n into coiisiilir- 
aliim till! propriity cif foniiiii),' a li. kit, loin- siippurtcd at the 
rlritidii (if ciirpirraliciM cilTiicrs, on Miiiulay ni:.\t. 

Diikoi r, SeJ<U-iiU'er 3, 1824. 

One of the earliest political parties bore tlie 
name of "Democratic Republicans." 'I'his party 
had an existence in Wayne Couiity almost as soon 
as the coiiniy was ori^ani/ed ; and ever as late as 
iiS4o a call for ,1 meetiiiir of members of that i)arty 
was published in The Detroit Free Press. 

The Democratic party afterwards succeeded to 
the first half of the old name, and about 1832 the 
Whiy; party ijave the Cirst sii^ns of vii^orous life. In 
the interest of the latter jiarty. D.iniel Webster 
deliveri'il a speech on the tinanccs, July 1 1, 1837, in 
a v,'rove on the Cass i'"arm, located, ;is the city is 
now laid out, near l-"irst Street, am' between I'"ort 
and l,.ifayette Streets. Some tifteen hundred ladies 
and irciiilcnicn were iiresent at the meelini,r, .after 
which, at 4 i'. \i., a dinner was served under tlu* 
trees to .about live hundred people. Mr. Webster, 



with his f.amily, came to the city on July S, p.artly 
to \isit his son, Daniel !•". Webster, .1 Lawyer, then 
residiuj;' in 1 )etroit. 

We of the pre flit day have littk; realization of 
the intensity of the party feelinij lh.it existed, espe- 
cially bi'lweeii the ye.irs 1830 aiul 1S44. In the 
effort to win a victory at the polls, ;iny and every 
method was ileemed lenitimale. \'olcrs by the 
dozen, and even by the hundred, were imported, 
previous to elections, .and their expenses p.iid. 
Many other methods employed in those days to 
inlluence votes were no better tli.iil those more 
recently in vo,;;uc. Wh.at was done, however, was 
tlone oiienly. The followini; notice is from The 
.Advertiser, of M.arch 30, 183S: 

I'oilie Voi'r. Till' Whijits will ilisttihuti- diii' hiiiulnil ilcillars, 
i]i l)n-a(l a[ul pork, ainoii),' the city poor lo-iiiorrow rvmiiij;. hen: 
iiotiii: of llic lionr and place will lie kIvcii in llie Tnornini; pa|ier. 

Accordingly, on Saturd.iy they distributed brc.ad, 
pork, .and lish to .ill who called at their hcadi|uai-- 
ters; and in some inst.inccs the s.ame persons c.alled 
attain and ;ii;;iin, and their clforts to obi.iin ,as much 
as possible were supplenunled l*y the elforts of 
others who c.anu; eviai from Canada to obt.iin a 
share of the i)ouniy. 

On election d.iy, .\pril 2, both parties were out in 
full force; and there was .an abundance of noisy 
music, processions, wliiskey, and broken hc.ids. 
Surely, we need not retjret the " fornur times." 

'I"he presidenti.il c.im]).ii.i;n of 1840 is remembered 
by many .is the time wlien. ,is tlie stump-spi.akers 
said, "the |)r;iiries were abl.aze, the settlements in 
fl.ames, and the woods on lire with i rtthusi.istic 
zeal." " 'I'ippecanoe and Tyler too" .and " I'olk 
and Dali.as" were the p.irty Shibboleths. And al- 
most every four corners in the west h;id its Tippe- 
canoe club, with loy^-cabin .and h.ird cider. 

On April 15, 1840, ,a Ioil,^ cabin w.as niised on the 
northeast corner of Jefferson Avenue .and Randolph 
Street, a bottle of Il.arrison br.and h.ird cider ix'inv,^ 
pl.aced beneath each corner of the buildim;-. The 
cabin mcasurtjd forty bv fifty feet, would hold nearly 
one thous.and people, and cost one thous.and dollars. 
On one side of the door w.as ,1 grindstone, with a 
scvthe hanji'lnij abo\e it ; over the door w.as a musk- 
rat-trap. Stuffed owls, wildcats, .and r.iecoons, .1 



[.oRl 



live bear, ,ai 
tilt: place, 
of the Decl 

ini,rto|l's |.";,| 

Sl.ates. Sir 

<'orn, .and il 

pended froii 

displ.iyed CI 

lion, roiiv;iil\ 

of dedicitioi 

were ctllcd i 

I'rcid, and si 

he.irts and ii 

A|)ril J I \\ 

.'iiui .at 4 I'. I 

entr.anci; of i 

they had pre] 

the attend.m 

room. The 1 

att.achrd to tl 

• IS ,1 cliandelit 

w.as soimdeil, 

tile sitk's of 1 1 

hominy, musi 

parched corn 

drniik with h; 

On June 1 1 

lield on CeiK 

l'"ort .Mei^s. 

I)resenee to th 

i'Vee p.ass.ajTi 

attend. Delev 

the St.atc TJi 

•md then m.irc 

the < lener.al V 

Macomb, were 

two thousjind i; 

a s.iliile of twe 

'i'he meeting- w 

a sham b.mk: \ 

works .and h.an 

.t^r.itilicition of 

that lime, this 

hekl in [he W 

tember 30, by 

Detroit, at wine 

were present. ; 

public houses 

citizens, even th 

constr.ained to o 

tlll•on,l,^ I'iven t 

provided with b 

two persons slep 

and three w.aifoi 

came in from !■ 

I'lynioiith .111(1 I 

came, on bo.tts ,t 



rOLITKAl, fAMl'AlC.NS AND I'.l.l-.CIloNS. 



109 



live l)(ar, .111(1 ;i l'.il)l(' were amdnv; tlic altraclinns i<( 
\\\v. place. 'I'lu: Willis were (jccDiMtcd willi ,1 ('npy 
(if tin; I )('cl.'ir,ili()ii of ln(lc|)cnilcni'c . 111(1 i)f W'.isli- 
ini;t(iirs l'";iri'\\cll .\(l(lrcss, .-lud ;i m.ipof tlic I'liiicil 
St.ilcs. Striii'^s (if dried .ipples, i)iimpkin, ;iii(l seed 
(■(irii, ;ind llilciies (if venison .iiid bicoii were sus- 
lieiided from lie.nns .ind r.iflers. 'I'liere were .also 
displ.iyed e.iric.itiires of the \'.iii liiireii .idministr.i- 
tioii, roiiv;hly fr.innd with barl<. I'rior to the d;iy 
of (ledie.ition. by notice in the Adxcrliser, the l.idies 
Were called ti|)oM to siip[)ly for the occasion "corn- 
bread, and such other loj;-cal)in fare as their kind 
hearts and iM.^eniiity iii.iy diet.ate." 

April _M w.is Iked ii|)on ,is the d.ay of dedication, 
.and .at 4 1'. M. the cabin w.as thrown open for the 
t'nlr.ance of the W'hii; ladies with the i^ootl ihinns 
they h.ad prei)ariil. in tin; evening it was dedicatt'd, 
tin; .attendants l)riM),;in),j candles lo ilhiniinatt' the 
loom. The main lii,dit, however, came from candles 
.att.aehed to the roots of a tree hiinij from the roof 
.as ;i ch.andi'lier. After the addressi's a dinner-horn 
w.is sounded, and then, from invitin.t,^ tables aroinul 
the sides of the room, piimpkin-pie, pork and licans, 
hominy, mush .and milk, johnny-caki-, venison, and 
p.arched corn were ser\i'd to all .alike. Toasts, 
drunk with h.ird cider, linished the d.iy. 

On Jinie 1 1, 1840, .an immense W'hi^ mei'tin^^ w.is 
held on ( leni'ra! Il.irrison's old li.ittle-.nroiind .at 
i'ort Meii^s, the ,;^ener;il himself .addim;' by his 
prt'sence to the enthusiasm of the occasion. 

I'Vee p.ass.aij^e was proxided for those who would 
.itiend. I )elei;;ites came to Di'troit from .all over 
the St.ate. They met at the cabin, h.ad .1 free lunch, 
.and then m.arched to the wharf. I'ive stcimbo.ils. 
tlu; ( "lener.al V'.anci', l'"rii', Michij^r.an, Huron, .and 
.M.acomb, were lo.aded with these political passengers, 
two thousand in ,ill, .and at y A. .M. on June lu, .afttr 
;i s.alute of twenty-six y;{\ns, they went on theii- w.iy. 
'I"he meetinv,^ W.IS a j^re.il success. J l.arrison sjxike, 
,a sh.im b.attle w.is fought, .and in the evi'iiini; lire- 
works ,and h.ird cider "ti/./.eil" t'\-erywhere, to the 
Hr.iliticition of twenty thous.and pcM'soiis. I'p to 
that time, this w.as the l.ai\!i;i'st political .i^'.athcriui;' 
held in the West. It w.is supplemented, on Sep- 
tember 30, by .1 ,t;re.it St.ate W'hi.i;' meetini;- in 
Detroit, at which, it w.as estimati'd, fifteen thousand 
were present. So i^M-cat w.as the: multitude th.it the 
public houses could not cont.ain them, .and .all 
cili/ens, even those of opjiosili; political f.aitli, wi're 
constrained to open their houses to .accomnd.ati: the 
thronj^. lueii then the numbia' w.as too irre.it tobt: 
provided with lu'ds; at one priv.ate hotise, twenty- 
two persons slept on the parlor Hour. (Jne hundred 
and three wai^ons, cont.iininij six liundred persons, 
came in from i'",armin,nton, .anil seventy-three from 
I'lymouth .and Livonia, it mined, but .still they 
came, on bo.ats .and cars, on foot and on horseback. 



till it seemed .as if the ('( mntry would be de|)opiil;ite(l. 
riu' (ielev;,ition from Dearborn came in .a loi.^ cabin 
drawn by twenty yoke of oxen. The ,iii;inj;cments 
for feediniLi these muliitiides were fortunately ample. 
One delei;,ition brought .1 johnny-cake twelve feet 
lonj;. W'illi.ims I'v Wilson's w.arehouse w.as the 
proxision depot, .and there two t.ables, each one 
hundred .and twenly feet lon.i;, weri' .spread with over 
a ton of food. 

The procession was .an immense aff.iir. lis prin- 
cip.al ft.itui-e of .attraction w.is tlu' ship t'onstitulion, 
full ri]ijj;ed ,an<l m.anned, .and dr.awn by six j;r.ay 
iiorses. Some dele).;ates carried ll.ai^s .and b.aniier.s, 
■and otliirs busied themselvi'S by keepinir in motion 
.a hu,ne leather ball, some fifteiii feet in di.amelcr, 
silminv; .as they waait, " The b.all is rolliiiij on." A 
newsp.aper cut of a scene simil.ar to this Last 
appeared in almost every Whii; p.aper of that d.ay. 




1''.i.f:( iiciN Ci r, ii;(im .\i)Vi:k i isic u, ()<; idiuck j.', iH.\n. 

In tlu" eveninij meetiiii^^s were held at the Capitol, 
City ll.all, Lo,i( Cabin, and the N'ellow W.arehouse. 
Ily such nn.ans the finht w.as won. Duiiii).; the 
camp,iiiL;ii barl)e( lies wci'e freiiueiil, .at which oxen 
were ro.isted whole, .and other jtroxisions were 
furnished to the crowds who came toj^ether to liear 
soiui; noted s|)e.iker. 

On SeptembiT 28, 1840, a Dcmocr.alic !)arbe(ue 
w,is held on tlu; Cass l'';irm. Colonel Kich.ird .M. 
Johnson, \'ice-l 'resident of the I'nited .Slates .and 
one of the heroes of the W.ar of 1812, w.as |)reseiit. 
Crowds came to hear him, but llu' enthusi.asm on 
the other side w.as ;n;,ainst tlieiii, ;ind many of the 
r.ank and file "only kept their spirits u]) by iiourinv; 
spirits down." .Mthoimh defeated in th.it year, a 
resolution, a(lo|)ted a few yi-.ars Later .at .a Democratic 
meetinv;' in the sixth w.ird, shows some members of 
that p.arty still e.a.i;er for the fr.ay. It ri id : 

/u'i('/7'('(/, that we uinmsc tin- inaiiy-riainrd monster, now di-sij.;- 
natiil Wliij^.is'iry, and frailcssly ciijj.inc llial, tliou^li In- hail ;is 
many hfads as names, wir wonid chop them olT, and tianiph: his 
nondescript carcass in the I!la( k Swamp. 

(iKouia': Kiniii, Seoitary. 

DiciKiiir, Mnrth •.c, iS.( ■. 

The ])residenti,al cimp.ai,i,m of 1844 was li.ardly 
li'ss excitini; tli.an th.at of 1840. I'"ach ji.arty erected 
buildinifs for their meetini^s. The \Vhi)r cabin was 
iiicknametl the C'ooii Pen; that of the Demoerats 



I lO 



I'ol.irU Al. I'.WII'AKiXS AM) I'.I.IX TK »\S. 



was c.illfd Ilickiiry Hall. As In'forc, lai^i- ^^^atll(•r- 
iiijfs look |)laiL'. 'I'lic \\'liit;s licid a flay and I''iv- 
liii),diuysfii mfctin.n', fur WayiU' and St. Clair 
coiintii's, on Octdhcr 17, 1844.. This linic tlir I )finn- 
crals were victurii)us. 




" Tii.vr Sa.mk Old Cou.s." 
Ki.KCiio.M C'lT, A|)\i:kti'.i;i!, 0( T(ir.i-;i; is, 1852. 

The RL'[)ubliian parly, orvjani/id at Jackson in 
1856, was the first to make use of rc\v;iilarly otru-eml 
political coni]Kinifs. They were uniformed in caps 
and calces, anil hcinjj^ well drilled, presented an at- 
tractive appearance. M.'iny thousands of them 
came together in Detroit on October 2 to attend a 




Ki,i-:( riov ("i r, 'J'kmu'NI'., N'(>\'KMHKK>5, 7856, 

State Repul)li<an meeting, which w,is held on the 
v.'icant lot now occupied by the Ccntr.il Methodist 
Episco]xiI Church. 



These were the d.iys of bonfiri's and firch.ills, ,iiul 
often sevi'r.il c:irds of wood wert' burned on the 
Campus M;irtius, whole b.irrels of rosin giving bril- 
liancy to the llimes. The ;iitive help of mischievous 
boys could ;ilw;i\s be counted upon to ,idd fresh 
fuel to the ])ilc; and woe to die unlucky merch.ant 
who h.id left boxes or barrels in sight, for they were 
confisc.ited ;it on<-c, ;ind the huge pyr.unids and 
the hopes of m.my c.indid.ites wt'iit U|) in smoke 
together. lioth p.irties eventually avaik'd them- 
selves of drilled torch-bearers, whose ni.in(i;uvres 
enlivened the campaign, as they marcheil to " ranch " 
or " wigwam." 

During the campaign of I1S60, when Lincoln was 
running for his first ]iresidential term, there w;is a 
grc.it Republican meeting, In Id on September 4, at 
which thirty-tlve hundri'd \\'ide-.\wakes were on 
parade. In the evening the multitude listened to a 
speech from lion. William II. Seward. On the 
fifteenth of the following month, an immense Demo- 
cratic throng gathered to hear ;in address from Hon. 
Stephen .\. Douglass, the " Little Cjiant" of Illinois, 
and candidate for the presidency. 

So great w;is the desire for harmony, in the early 
days of the war with the South, that a uni(jn politi- 
cal convention, held on October 26, 1861, c(jmposed 
of members of both political parties, decided to 
nomin.ite but one city ticket. 

During the campaign of 1864 a grand Union and 
Republican demonstration was held on the first of 
November. Thirty thousand strangers were present. 
Orations were delivered by Hon. Salmon P. Chase 
and others, .and an immense proccssi(,n took place 
at night. In the election of this year the soldiers in 
camp and field were allowed to vote, commissioners 
being .appointed by the State to afford them the 
opportunity of so doing. 

(^n October 28, 1866, just prior to the State elec- 
tion, (General I!. F. lUitler m.ide ;i speech at the I). 
& M. R. R. Depot; and on November i following, 
Hon. Schuyler Colfax spoke in Young Men's Hall. 



KLKCTIONS. 

Territorial Elections under Northwest Territory. 

When the first election was held, Detroit had 
only a township org.inization. The occasion was as 
follows: In 1798 a census showed that there were 
five thousand or more inhabitants in the Territory, 
and in accordance with the i)rovisions of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, C.overnor .St. Clair issued a procla- 
mation, ordering an election to be held on the third 
Monday of December, 1798, to elect delegates to a 
General Assembly to be held at Cincinnati. Mven 
in this first election there was the cry of fraud, and 
Judge May went to Cincinnati to consult Cfovcrnor 



St, Clair in n 

.another electi 

ary 14 and 1 

"i'oee. The si 

judge of the 

inspectors. 1 

of their powe 

tli.it the cand 

adjourning fn 

first day. Di 

ninety-eight \ 

election, in a 

finished on tli( 

al Cincinnali, 

four times to 

mended to tlii 

nerve in their 

Wheri'upon ok 

one hundred d 

ers. This fact 

An Act of 

election for rep 

which was to 

1800, and eve 

were to be ope 

remain open l 

adjourned till i 

be kept open u 

The same A( 

twenty-one ye; 

former citizens 

been two year 

provided they |: 

county, or any I 

imi)rovements. 

An Act of D 

election district 

County, and th 

polls to open at 

.Saturday, Septe 

Ses.sions, at De 

the three elect 

First Di.stnct, fi 

River, inclusivel 

to be the centra 

trict, from Rod 

Detroit as the 

Milk River Poin 

Territorial Ei 
The only gene 
zens of Detroit 
Indiana Territor 
held to determ 
(lenerai Assemb 
and thirty-eight 
favor of an Ass 



KI.KC'I IONS. 



I I I 



St. Clair in n ■)>;,• in I in il. As a rrsiill of liis visit, 
aimliicr cii'itioii was ordered. Il was lui<l on Janu- 
ary 14. and 15. 17'/;. 'liu' votin.i; was done :'/;'ii 
7>(Ht'. 'i'iif siicriff, with I'lUr McNilf, and amitlifr 
jud).ji' of the Court of Cdnunon Picas, acted as 
inspectors, 'i'hey were very ari)ilrary in the exercise 
of tlicir powers, rcfusinj,' sonic votes on tlie .uround 
tiiat tiie caniiidatc voted for w.is not eiij;il)lr, ;ind 
adjourninjr from ten o'clociv to tliree o'clo( k on liic 
tu'st day. Durin.ij; tiic two d.iys, one iiundred and 
nincty-cijrjit votes were called. Concernini.; this 
election, in a letter coninienced on the 14th and 
finished on the 15th, addressed to James May. then 
at Cincinnati, I Vter .Audrain says: " McNiff came 
four times to tlu' stri'ct iloor, and earnestly recom- 
mended to the friends of Wisewell to e.\ert every 
nerve in their power to yet more votes for him. 
Wheri'upon old Cissne and Christian Clemens offerid 
one hundri'd dollars for ten voies to several bystand- 
ers. This fact can he proved upon oath." 

An Act of December 6, 1799, provided for an 
election for representative to the Ciencr.il .Vssembly, 
which was to sit the second Tuesday of ( )ctober, 
1800, and every two years thereafter. The polls 
were to be opened between 10 anil 1 1 A. M., and to 
remain open till 5 \\ M. the tirst day, to be then 
adjourned till 10 A. M. next day, when they were to 
be kept open until 5 I'. M. 

The same Act provided that free male inhabitants, 
twenty-one years (;ld, resiilents of the Territory, 
former citizens of other .Slates, or perso' , who had 
been two years in the Territory, should be voters, 
provided they possessed fifty acres of land in any 
county, or any land in their own county which, with 
improvements, was worth one hundred dollars. 

An Act of December 9, 1800, provided that three 
election districts should be established in Wayne 
County, and that elections should be by ballot, the 
polls to open at 10 A. M, ;md to close at 5 I'. M. On 
Saturday, September 5, 1 801, the Court of Quarter 
Sessions, at Detroit, deter'iiined that the bounds of 
the three election districts should be as follows: 
First District, from the foot of the Rapids to Rocky 
River, inclusively, the Presbytery on the River Raisin 
to be the central point, or voting place. Second Dis- 
trict, from Rocky River to Milk River Point, with 
Detroit as the voting place. Third District, from 
Milk River Point to Lake Huron. 

Territorial Elections under Indiana Territory. 

The only general election participated in by citi- 
zens of Detroit while under the government of 
Indiana Territory was that of September 11, 1804, 
held to determine whether the people wanted a 
General Assembly. Duly a majority of one hundred 
and thirty-eight, in the whole Te.ritory, -vere in 
favor of an Assembly; but in accordance with the 



l.iw, ( "loveriior I I;irrison issued ;i pnicl.iniation order- 
ing .in election in e.uii count)-, nn J.tuu.uy \, 1N05, 
to elect deleg.ites to ihe Assi'mbly. This |)ro(l.tm;i- 
tinii did not rcich W.iytu- County in lime, and 
therefore no ekciion was held. 

Territorial I'.leetions under Mie/ii^an Territory. 

The lirsi U'rritorial election was held on Mond.iy, 
February 16, 1818. to decide whelher .1 Cicner.il 
/Xssi'iiibly should be held, and ihe second grade of 
gtivernmenl adopleil. .\ majority of votes were 
c.ist ag.iinst the proposition. 

liy Act of I'ebruary 16, 1819, Congress provided 
for ihe election of a delegate to that body, and all 
free while male citizens, above the age of Iwenly- 
one years, who had resided in the Territory one 
year, .iiul paid a county or Urrilorial tax, wcw made 
voters. 'Ihe time for hokling this election was fre- 
quently changed. It was tirst held on the tirst 
Thursday in September, 1X19. In 1S24 the lime 
was changed to the tirst Monday in Ajiril. In 1825 
the last 'I'tiesday in May was selected, and the elec- 
tion was to occur every second year. 

At the election for delegates in 1825 there were 
three candidates, Austin JC. Wing, John Hiddle, and 
("■abriel Richartl. The ins|)ect()r's return of voles 
gave Hidille seven hundred and thirty-two. Wing 
seven hundred and twenty-eight, and Richard seven 
hundred and twenty-two. 

That the number of votes for the three candidates 
was so nearly eijual, in an otiice voted for by all 
electors in the region now covered by both the 
Stales of Wisconsin and Michigan, was a most 
remarkable showing, and probably no similar in- 
stance luis ever occurred. Father Richard con- 
tested the election, on the ground thai his supporters 
were intimidaled and maltreated by sluriffs and 
constables. The Congressional Committee decided 
that there could have been little intimidation, 
when his votes so nearly equaled those of the other 
candidates. 

In 1827 the time for the election of delegates was 
changed to the second Monday of July, the polls to 
be open between the rising and the setting of the 
sun. In 1835 the first Monday of November was 
fixed as the time for holding the election. 

Members of the Legislative Council were tirst 
elected on the last Tuesday of May, 1825. liy Act 
of April 13, 1827, the day of election was changed 
to the first Mond.-vy of November. 

On Ajiril 4, 1835, an election was held for dele- 
gates to the constitutional convention. Under the 
first Constitution, all voting was done by ballot. 
The first election was held the first Monday in 
October, 1835. and continued two days. 

The constitution provided that the electors should 
be while male persons, twenty-one years of age, 



i;i.i.iri<)NS. 



wlio resided ill the Sl.ite at tile time of tile ad(i|ninii 
iif tin; eoiistitiitiDii, or for six iiioiitlis preeediiiiL; any 
clrctioii, and iimvidi-d also that they siioiild iiave 
resided in tlic district voted in. It will Ix- nntieed 
tiiat this provision reduced the time of ri'sidcncc for 
voters from one year to six niontlis, and it also did 
away with the former reciiiirement that votiTS should 
he tax-payers. As a consi'(|iience, and for tiie lirst 
time, jfreat numbers of fiM"eiv;n-l)iirii persons had 
the jirivilej^e of votin.i(, and many of the lili/eiis 
wt-re j^ffeatly dispK'asi'd ; one of the papi'i's com- 
plained that a majority ol the votes cast were those 
of llritish aiKJ ( ■■ernian subjects. 

Ill arraiiifin^r the iireliniinaries for tin- Siale dov- 
ernment, deleiL^^'iles to .i coinentioii held to consider 
the {|nestion of acceptini; tiic ixnindaries of tlu' State 
l)i\'scril)ed by Ldni^ress were elected on the second 
.Monday of SeptembiT, i^>3''). 

l'"ollowin.i^ the custom of elections, as held under 
the territorial govcrmnciits, a law of 1836 provided 



that the polls should be kept open for two d.iys ;it 
the eli'ctioiis of .Si.it(; and coimly oMicers. 

Some of the scenes which occurred at the Stati' 
electi<in of 1X37 are portrayed in a p.iiutinv,^ made 
by T. II. (). 1'. I!uniliam, an artist, and a publisher 
of th.ii period. Mrs. .\, S. W'illi.inis, for m.iny 
years the forlnn.ate possi'ssor of the picture, h.is 
kindly pi'rmitted it to be en^T.ivcd for this work. 
The l.trire building- on the ri^lil will be reco],,Mii/ed 
;is the old City I bill; the buildin;^ in the ci'iiter, 
with the cupola, represents the old J.iil, then occu- 
pyiiii,Mhe site of the iiresent Public l.ibniry. The 
houses on the left, and iie.ir the foreground, were on 
the site of the Detroit • )pcni Mouse. C. C. Trow - 
bridvfe was the Whivf c.mdid.ite for -nvernor, and 
Stevens T. M.ison, who was the secret.-iry of the 
Territory and ;ict ill;;- governor, was the Deiiiocr.itic 
nominet'. A portion of a W'hi.v;' procession, ha\iiiv;' 
passed down on the further side, is seen .idv.uicinyf 
towards the front of tiic City I bill. In the center 
of the picture, and forming' a ii.irt of the Wlii.i;- pro- 
cession, is the Ship of State, witli various mottoes, 




Eluction Scene.— First State Election. 



one o wl 

l<i.i(lits. a 

ill),; the ins 

eriior, C. C. 

offered to tl; 

of I.apeer;" 

'I'ile pole of 

procession o 

surniouiiled 

a tish. 'I'll 

l)anuer, Ii.ivl 

period. At 

just .'ippro.ic 

ch.ir.icter of 

on his inevii 

not shown in 

.ifarlanded ,11 

After these 

citi/ens from 

on city wuxV 

chnitic thicke 

that carried t 

front of Still; 

Kinsiry, (ieo: 

of the Mornir 

known cip, , 

and procl.iimi 

dates. The 

near the cen 

represents tin 

hands, and |) 

On the ticket 

T. .Mason." 

ereijrns," one 

in air, from \ 

yahela. 

In those d, 

prime politic.il 

men of worth 

and trustees, \ 

they used thei 

days of "auld 

Under the . 

ojiened betwe 

continued ope 

authorized to c 

when all pre.se 

On Monday 

iiS45, a two ( 

time, an Act o 

elections then 

Tuesday of N< 

Under the 
classes of jiers 
male citizen, e\ 
the State on th 



KLJX'noNS. 



1 1 



diiv' (I uliii li reads, " P'rio Trade and Sailors' 
Ki,;;hls, a l)aiiiHr fdllnws the Sliip of Stale bear- 
in,^ tlic iiisiri|)tioii, "Wlii); Noiiiiiiatiim for (iov- 
eriior, C. C. Tnnvljrid.^je." The hill which is hv'm^ 
offered to the hoy with the basket is on the " IJank 
of Lapeer;" tin: other inseriplions can all be read. 
'I'he jiole of the banner carried at tlu' iiead of the 
procession on llu' exlrenie left, it will i)i: notici'd, is 
snrnionnted with a lo.if of bread, a piece of pork, and 
a tish. 'I'hese emblems, and tiie motto on liie 
banner, have referi'nce to actual occurrences at thai 
period. At the lii'ad of a Democratic pioeession, 
just approachimj on the e.vtriiiie rij;ht, is .seen a 
character of the jjcriod, -the ri'(|oub'ai)le Stillson 
on his inevilai)le horse. Following' him, althouijh 
not siiown in the picture, were sever.il yoki: of o.xen, 
j,jarlandi'd iind decor.aled with libbons and lla,i;s. 
After tiiese cime some two hiuulnd newly made 
citizens from tlie i'".merald Isle; they were employed 
on city work, and as tiny .ill voted the "Dimmy- 
ihralic thicket," they formed the "balance of power" 
th it earrietl the day for M.ison. (lathered about in 
front of .Stillson are repri'si'tilalions of Major Mc- 
Kinsiry, (ieor).;eC. Hates, F. II. Il.irris, Kingsbury 
of the Mornini; I'ost,and Frank Sawyer, in his well- 
known cap, all supposed to be eagerly disputing, 
and proclaiming the praises of their favorite cantli- 
dates. The bl.iek-coated and silk-hatted figure, 
near the center of the picture, towards the left, 
represents the candidate, "'I'om Masun," shaking 
hands, and presenting a ticket at the .same time. 
On the ticket are the words, " For Ciovernor, Stevens 
T. Mason." Near him, on the right, are two "sov- 
ereigns," one with a pick, the other with bottle high 
in air, from which flows a stream of old Monon- 
gahela. 

In those days the possession of muscle was a 
prime political necessity; and there are living staid 
men of wt)rth and solidity, men now deacons, elders, 
and trustees, who, when in the mood, will tell how 
they used theii boots and their fists on the election 
days of "auld ling syne." 

Under the Act of March 21, 1S37, the polls were 
opened between the hours of 9 and 11 a. m., and 
continued open until 4 i'. M., the inspectors being 
authorized to close the polls temporarily at any time 
when all present had voted. 

On Monday and Tuesday, November 3 and 4, 
1845, a two days' ekn-tion was held, for the last 
time, an Act of May 16, 1846, providing that State 
elections thereafter should be lield on the first 
Tuesday of November. 

Un'ler the Con.stitution of 1850 the following 
classes of jiersons were made voters: every white 
male citizen, every white male inhabitant residing in 
the State on the fourth day of June, 1835, and every 



white male inh.ibit.ant residing in tin; Slate on J.inu- 
ary 1, 1850, also eviry man who has declare<l his in- 
tention to become a citizen of the United .Stales, si.\ 
inniiihs jjrior to an election, or who, having nsided 
in the State two yi-ars .'ind six montlis, declares his 
intention as afores.iid; besides the above every 
civilized male Indi.in, not a member of any tribe, 
was also constitutitl .111 elector. I'iach elector, how- 
ever, must be owr twi'iity-one years of agt, and 
must have nsided in the State three months, and in 
the .rard, wnere he proposes to vote, for the ten 
clays next i)i"i'ci>(ling an election. 

'I'he declaration of intcn'iion to become a I'itizen 
is called "taking out firsl i).ii)ers." 'i'lu'se are is- 
sued usually by the county clerk, but may be issued 
by any judge or clerk of any court of record h,iv- 
ing ;i common-law jurisdiction. These jiapers (|ual- 
ify tlu: holder to vote .and hold local offices. I'lukr 
"second papers," so-c;illed. the holder may be 
elected to State, legislative, ;uul United Slates 
oflices; but these papt'rs cannot bi' issued, until two 
ye.'irs after the "first papers" have been taken out. 

On June 27, 1851, an Act w;is passt'il fixinj^ the 
lime for the .St.ile election on tlu' firsl Tuesday after 
the first Monday of Niwember, and no change has 
since been made. State officers are elected every 
two years, the election being held in those years in 
which the last figure in the date of the year is an 
even numlier. County officers are elected at the 
same time as State officers, and all of them for two 
years, except the judge of probate, who is elected 
for four years. Township officers are elected yearly 
on the first Monday of April. Two judges of the 
Supreme Court and two regents of the university 
are also elected on the fir.st Monday of April, every 
two years, for terms of eight years each. 

Colored people were first allowed to exercise the 
right of suffrage at the State election of November 
s] 1870. 

After the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States, some per- 
sons claimed that it gave the right of suffrage to 
women. Upon this supixisilion, at an election for 
State officials, on April 3, 1871, Mrs. Nannette Card- 
ner, who had previously registered her name in the 
ninth ward, was allowed to deposit a vote, but the 
act was protested against as illegal. The subject of 
woman suffrage was soon after agitated all over the 
State, and the I.egislature submitted the question of 
conferring the right to hold office upon women, in 
the form of a constitutional amendment. 

At the election which decided the ciuestion, com- 
mittees ()f ladies were stationed at the various poll- 
ing places, and nvittoes in favor of woman suffrage 
invited the attention and the ballots of voters. 

The suliject was thoroughly canvassed and dis- 



114 



ELIXTIONS. 



ciisscd. aiul in Novcmln-r, 1S74, tlu' pt'oplL. by vole 
of 1 35,957 against 40,077, dcciiii-d ayainsl ilic anicnd- 
ment. 

( 'ity h'.lictioiis. 

Under Act of Januai-y iS, iSoj, incorporatinjr tiic 
town of Detroit, tiic tirst i)iirily local clci'tion was 
held on May 3 of that yi-ar. 

The Act of September 13, 1806, which gave the 
eity its tirst city ch.irtcr, provided tiiat tlie first elec- 
tion for members of the I'ppcr House of the Com- 
mon Council should be held on the last Montlay of 
September of the same year ; members of the Lower 
House were to be elected on the fust Monday of 
October; and all jiersons over twenty-one years old, 
who had rented a house within a year, and i)aid 
their public taxes, were made voters. 

The city charti'r of October 24, 1815, ordered a 
special election for October 30 of the same year, 
and provided that the regular election should be on 
the first Monday in .May. 

In those earlier days there were but few issues in 
the corporate elections, and oftentimes there was 
practically but one eandidate in the field. At the 
city election, on April 4, 1825, John R. Williams was 
chosen mayor by a total of one hunilred and two 
votes against eleven scattering. 

Three years later John lliddle was elected to the 
same otilice, by a total of one hundred and ninety- 
nine votes, five other persons receiving one vote 
each. 

By Act of September 4, 1824, a special election 
was to be held for city officers on September 6, and 
regular eity elections thereafter were to take place 
on the tirst Monday of April. Under this law, up 
to 1833 or later, it was customary for persons to 
apply to the Common Council to have their names 
registered as vott'rs. 

An Act of March 27, 1839, ordered an election 
for city ofticcrs on the third Monday in April follow- 
ing, and provided that after iS39the city election 
should be held on tlie tirst Monday in March. 

At the time of the city election of 1853, it was 
believeil that the regul.ir Democr.itii' nominations 
had been made in the interest of persons opposed 
to the public-.school system. An independent Demo- 
cratii' ticket was therefore nominated, and success- 
fully elected. 

Two years later occurred the great struggle in 
whiih the so-called Know-Nothing p.irty sujiiiorted 
what was styl'-d the native American element. 
The candidate of this party for mayor received 
2,026 votes, against 2,798, rmd they elei-ted their 
aldermanic candidates in the tirst, second, hfth, and 
sixth wards, or one h.ilf of the whole iuimi)er. 

On February 12 of this yc.ir a charter amendment 
provided that after 1855 the city election should be 



held on the tirst Tut'sday in February. Two years 
later, on ]'"ebru.iry 5, 1857, a new law provided th.it 
the city I'lection should be held on the tirst 'I'uesday 
after the tirst Monday of November. 

In c.ise ,1 vacancy ociuirs in the otiice of mavor, 
councilman, or ;ilck'rm;in more than si.\ months 
]irior to tin; time of an .annu.il election, the Com- 
mon Council must order a special election. When 
possible, these speci.il elections .are held on the tirst 
Monday of April, the time ti.\ed for the election of 
certain state oliicials. \\s special Act, the .school 
inspectors are also required to be elected at that 
time. 

.Several noticeable coincidences have occurred in 
connection with city elections. In 1862 the rival 
candidates for tlie office of .school inspector, in both 
the third and the fifth ward received the same 
number of votes ; and the same state of facts 
e.visted in the first ward as to candidates for over- 
seer of highways. ^Vnother curious incident oc- 
curred in connection with the regular city elections 
of November, 1868 and 1869. On both oc>-asions 
Lucien Zink was a candidate for overseer of high- 
ways in the tenth ward ; and at both elections 
there was a tie-vote between him .-"id his competitor. 
By provision of the charter, in such cases the presi- 
dent of the council determined by lot who should 
hold the office; and each year the drawing was in 
favor of .Mr. Zink. In the same ward, in April, 1873, 
three hundred and thirty-live votes were cast for 
each of two rival candidates for the Board of Esti- 
mates. 

Much interest was felt in the election of April 7, 
1873, at which a lioard of Estimates was elected 
who were opp<;sed to the expending of money for a 
public park. The local election of November 2, 
1875, also excited much iiiterest, Alexander Lewis 
being elected mayor on what was called the Law 
and ( )rder Ticket, supported by those who favored 
the closing of saloons on the Sabbath. 

During the winter of 1877 a State law was passed 
re([uiring s.iloons t(j be closed on all election days, 
and on Noveir.ber 6, 1877, for the first time in the 
history of Detroit, the saloons were closed on the 
day of an election. 

Under Acts of 1824 and 1827, the mayor fixed the 
time when polls should be ojiened. At the election 
of April 5, 1830, the polls were opened at 9 .\. M. and 
closed at 10 i'. M. Five years later, on April 4, they 
were openetl at 8 A. M. and closed at 6 P. M. At 
the present time they are opened at 8 A. M. and 
closed at 5 V. M. 

Qualifications and Rf;^istrafion of Voters. 

By Act of 1802 all freeholders or householders 
paying an aiuiual rent of forty dollars were consti- 



tuted voter 
provision, i 
Mrs. IVove 
others by j 
'Si 5. retail 
tion of voti 
of the vote; 
the electors 

An Act 
wJiite males 
resided in 1 
might vote, 
must have n 
the ten d.iys 
nieals were t 
dence. 

By Act of 
a voter must 
to thirty day 
the time of 
provided tha 
three month 
March 12, i; 
voter should 
resided, or v 
located. 

In 1859 ;i r 

designed to p 

law and subst 

13. '871, and 

the city, with 

Board of Aid 

con.stitute the 

districts, and 

Registration. 

the |)urpose 01 

voters, are hek 

years, countim; 

second Wediu 

tion, and cont 

1'. M. In the y 

tration is not n: 

Thursday, Frid 

general State e 

also on the sect 

ceding the regu 

the purpose ol 

sessions of the 1 

can be written 

re()uest of the i 

board, or to .soi 

voter of that w 

required to be pi 

tian and surnan 

the day and yea 

the dwelling and 

.street name, ther 



KLKCTIONS. 



115 



tutcil voters, without rcfcrc-iicc to sex. Under tliis 
provision, at tiic election of 1.S04., four ladies voted, 
Mrs. I'rovencal and Mrs. Coates in person, and l\v(j 
others by j^roxy. The city eharter of Oetobir 24, 
1S15, retaini'd the same provision as to (inalitiea- 
tion of voters, hut also provideil for tiie arceptiniL^ 
of the votes of such other piTsons as a majority of 
the electors voted to admit to llu' pri\ilci.;e. 

An Act of May 3, kSji, provided lliat all free 
white males over twenty-one years of av;e, who had 
residi'd in the city one year, and piM a city tax, 
mi;^ht vote. ]>y law of March 27, 1.S39, a person 
must have resided in the ward in which he voted for 
the ten days prior lo tin: election, the ward in which 
meals were taken being reckoneil the place of resi- 
dence. 

r>y Act of April 13, 1841, the time diirinj;- which 
a voti.r must have resided in a w.ird was extended 
to thirty days. The Constitution of 1X30 restoretl 
the time of residence in a ward to ten days, and 
provided that voters neeil reside in the city only 
three months instead of one year. An Act of 
March 12, 1861, proviiled that 'lie residence of a 
voter should be construed lo be where his family 
resided, or where his regular boarding-i)lace was 
located. 

In 1859 a registr.'ition law was enacted which was 
designed to previ'nt fraudulent voting. Under this 
law and subsequent laws of February 5, 1S64, April 
13, 1871, and the charter of 1S83, the aklcrmen of 
the city, with enough other jiersons rqipointeil by the 
Hoard of Aldermen to make two for eacli district, 
constitute the Registration Hoards for the several 
districts, and together they form a City Hoard of 
Registration. .Sessions of the District Boards, for 
the purpose of making an entirely new registry of 
voters, are held in each election district every four 
years, counting from 1880. Sessions bej.;''! ' ^ the 
secontl Wednesday pret'eding the Novembei elec- 
tion, and continue four days, from 10 A. M. to 8 
I'. M. In the years when a new and general regis- 
tration is not made, st'ssions are held on the second 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday next preceding the 
general State election, from 10 A. M. to 8 r. m., and 
also on the second Friday and .Saturday next pre- 
ceding the regular charier and spring elections, for 
the purpose of revising the registry lists. The 
sessions of the board must be public, and no name 
can be written in tlie register without the i)ersonal 
recjuest of the a|ii)licant, unless he be known t 
board, or to .some member thereof, as a qualified 
voter of that ward and district. All names are 
recjuired to be plainly written in ink, with the Chris- 
tian and surname in full; and opposite eai h name 
the day and year of the entry, with the number of 
the dwelling and name of the street, or if there is no 
street name, then a description of tlie locality of the 



dwelling in which the voter lives. The board are 
recjuiri'd to ask each person unknown to them whether 
he is (.iitillcd to vote, and whether he has previously 
registered or resided in any other district; and no 
l)erson may be registered in any tlistrict who is not, 
.'it the time of ri'gistralion, a resident of said dis- 
trict, and (lualil'ied to vote. At the close of each 
session (jf the Board of Registration, the registration 
lists must be signed by each member of the board, 
and deposited with the city clerk. At least two 
Weeks before any session of the Board of Registra- 
tion, these lists are printed and pcjsted up in each 
ilistrict. 

The City l>oard of Registration, composed of the 
I)istrict Boards, convenes at y A. M. on the Monday 
preceding every election (except it be a special elec- 
tion for ward officers), and e.\aniines the registers of 
the several districts. No name may at this time be 
added lo the voting list, but if any name is found 
regisleri'd in two or more districts, the examining 
olficer may designate on the registers in which dis- 
trict the person is, and in which he is not entitled to 
vote. A i)erson who has changed his residence to 
some other district between the time of the last 
meeting of the Board '.)f Registration and the day 
of election, cannot vote ; and no iierson can register 
on election ilay withcnit stating on oath that sickness 
of himself or some ne"" relative, or absence from 
the city on business, pre . ^nted his registering at the 
proper time. 

I'.lctiion J)/str/its. 

Prior to 1828 the polls were held at the old Coun- 
cil House on the corner of Jefferson Avenue and 
Randolph Street, at the City Council House on 
Larned Street, and sometimes at W'oodworth's 
Hotel. After the erection of the City Hall, and up 
to 1839, that was used as the polling place. 

On ;\pril 15, 1839, elections were held in the 
several wards for the first time, the places for hold- 
ing them being designated by the Common Council. 

The charter amendments of March 12, 1861, 
>.arch 27, 1867, April 13, 1871, and March 29, 1872, 
gave the council power to divide wards into two or 
more election districts. An Act of 1872 provided 
that no election district should embrace i)arts of two 
wards, or contain less than five hundred electors. 

L'nder these provisions, in .Vugust. 1868, for the 
first time, several of the larger wards were divided 
into ekction districts, (^ther wards were subse- 
tiucnlly divided, and the boundaries of districts 
changed. 

After the entirely new arrangement of ward 
boundaries made in 1881, the Common Council, by 
ordinance of August 30, laid out the following elec- 
tion districts : 

FiKsr Warik — First District, all that portion 



ii6 



ELECTIONS. 



north of Brady Street ; Second District, all that 
portion between I5rady Street and Adelaide Street; 
Tliird District, all that portion between Adelaide 
Street and Adams Avenue ; fourth District, all that 
portion south of Adams Avenue and east of Ran- 
dolph Street; Fifth District, the portion south of 
Adams Avenue .and west of R.-UKloljih Street. 

Second Wakd: — First District, the portion 
north of Bagg Street ; ieccjud 1 )istrict, the portion 
between B;igg and High Streets; Third District, 
the portion between High Street and ;i line running 
through Adams ,\ venue to (H-and River Avenue, 
thence westerly along said avenue to the intersection 
of First Street; Fourth District, the portion lying 
between the Third District and Michig.an Avenue ; 
Fifth District, the portion lying south of Michigan 
Avenue. 

Third Ward: — First District, the portion lying 
south of the center line of l''ort Street ; Second 
District, the portion lying north of the center line 
of Fort Street, to (initiot Avenue ; Third District, 
the portion lying north of the center line of Cratiot 
Avenue and south of the center line of Wilkins 
Street ; F"ourth District, the portion north of Wil- 
kins Street. 

Fourth \Vari>: — First District, .south of the 
center line of Michigan .\venue ; .Second District, 
between the center lines of Michigan and (Irand 
River Avenues ; 'I'hird District, between the center 
line of Pitcher Street and drand River Avenue; 
Fourth District, north of the center line of Pitcher 
Street. 

Fifth Ward: — First District, south of the 
center line of Fort Street; Second District, between 
the center lines of Fort Street and (Iratiot Avenue; 
Third District, between the center lines of dratiot 
Avenue and Witson Street ; Fourth I3istrict, north 
of the center line of Watson Street. 

Six in Ward- — First District, .south of the 
center of Abbott Street ; Second District, between 
the center lines of Abbott and Plum Streets ; Third 
District, between the center lines of Plum Street 
and Grand River Avenue; Fourth District, north 
of the center line of (Irand River Avenue. 

Skvknih Ward:— First District, all .south of 
the center line of Fort Street ; Second District, 
between the center lines of Fort and Maple Streets; 
Third District, between the center lines of Maple 
and Alfred Streets ; Fourth District, north of Alfred 
Street. 

Eighth Ward: — First District, .south of Baker 
Street ; Second District, between Baker and Locust 
Streets; Third District, between Locust and Myrtle 
Streets ; Fourth District, north of Myrtle Street. 
• Ninth Ward: — First District, .south of Cro- 
ghan Street ; Sc-ond District, between Croghan and 
JaySt.eets; Third District, between Jay and Detroit 



Streets; Fourth District, portion north of Third 
District. 

Tk.vth Ward: — First District, .south of Baker 
Street; Second District, between Baker Street and 
Michigan Avenue; Third District, between .Michi- 
gan Avenue and Myrtle .Street; Fourth District, 
north of Myrtle Street. 

I"i,i:vi.:nth Ward: -First District, .south of 
Fort Street ; .Second District, between Fort and 
Catharine .Streets; Third District, between Cath- 
arine and ("icrman Streets; Fourth District, north of 
German Street. 

TWKi.K lit Wa r I ) : -Mrst 1 )istrict, south of I?aker 
Street; Second District, the portion lying between 
Baker St^'eet and a line running along lUitternut to 
Twenty-fourth Street, thi'uce southerly through 
Twenty-fourth to the alley north of Michigan 
Avenue, and thence to the city limits ; Third 
District, all that portion lying north of Second 
District. 

Thirtf.knth Ward : -First District, .south of 
the center line of Fort Street; .Second District, 
bet\veen Fort and ("icrman Streets; Thiril District, 
north of German Street. 

/■'./(•</ /('lis, /i(Hi> loiitiui/tti. 

The Bn,ii-d of .Mdcrmen, from time to time, deter- 
mines the several places at which the polls shall be 
held, and the city clerk advertises their location. 
Two inspectors of election for each district are 
appointed by the Board of yVldermen, and one other 
is selected viva voce by the electors on the opening 
of the polls. The inspectors of each district appoint 
two clerks, whose duty it is to keep a list (jf all persons 
voting at the election. Tlie ballot-l)o.\es, the printed 
registry lists for each ward or district, and all neces- 
.sary books and blanks for the election are furnished 
by the city clerk to the in.spectors of election. It is 
the duty of the inspectors to challenge the vote of 
any person whom they suspect is not a qualiticd 
voter. The Inspectors must preserve order at the 
polls, ;uid they are authorized and reiiuired to cause 
the JU-rest of any person who disturbs the good order 
of the polling places. 

From the time of the incorporation in 1802, the 
voting has always been by ballot. Each person de- 
livers his h.illot, folded, to oiu' of the inspectors, in 
presence of the board. The ballot must be of paper, 
written or printed, or ])artly written and partly 
printed, containing the names of all the ]ier.sons for 
whom the elector intends to vote, and designating 
the office to which each person is intended to be 
chosen. 

After the polls are closed the insiiectors must 
carefully count the number of ballots, and compare 
the number with the number of electors registered 
on the poll lists. If the ballots in the bo.\ shall l)e 



found to e 

poll list.s, t 

of the insj: 

and destro 

equal to t 

agreeing, < 

stated, the 

estimate tli 

result. Su 

■'ind at lent 

each office, 

votes were , 

person; am 

be (leliverec 

After ex; 

two hours o 

of e.'ich (lis 

true return t 

and ballots, 

the clerk of 

number is 

the Board o 

chosen form 

They must n 

at three o'cl( 

office, or in 1 



electi'j:is. 



117 



found to exceed the whole number of names on the 
poll lists, they must be rcplarcd in the l)ox, and one 
of the inspectors must publicly draw out therefrom 
and destroy unoj^ened, so many ballots as shall be 
equal to the excess. 'I'hw ballots and poll lists 
aujreeinj;, or beinij made, to aijree, in the manner 
stated, the board must then proceed to canvass and 
estimate the votes, and draw up a statement of the 
result. Such statement shall set forth in words 
and at length the whole number of votes i^iven for 
each office, the names of the persons for whom the 
votes were i^iven, and the number of votes for each 
|ierson; and one of saiil statements shall forthwith 
be delivered to the city clerk. 

After examining; the votes, and within seventy- 
two hours of the closing; of tlie polls, the inspectors 
of each district must make and certify a full and 
true return thereof, which, totjether with the poll lists 
and ballots, must be delivered, carefully sealed, to 
the clerk of the city; at the same time one of their 
number is chosen to represent his district in 
the Hoard of City Canvassers; and the persons so 
chosen form the Hoard of Canvassers for the city. 
They must meet on the Saturday next after election, 
at three o'clock in the afternoon, at the city clerk's 
office, or in the common-council chamber, and pro- 



ceed to open and canvass the said returns, and de- 
clare the result of the election. 

When two or more jierscjiis are found to have an 
ecjual number of votes for the same office, the elec- 
tion is determined by the drawinj^ of lots, in the 
presence of the Hoard of Councilmen. The name of 
each person, written on a sej^arate slip of paper, is 
deposited in a box or other receptacle, the presi- 
dent of the Hoard of Councilmen draws out one of 
said slips, and the person whose name is drawn is 
considered elected. 

The mode of conductin),^ State and county elec- 
tions is the same, except that the returns are made 
to the county clerk, and the inspectors, appointed 
by the inspectors of election in townships and wards 
to attend the county canvass, constitute the Hoard 
of County Canvassers, and meet on the Tuesday 
next followinir the election, before one o'clock in the 
afternoon, at the office of the county clerk, who is 
secretary of the board. 

The followinij table of votes cast in Detroit, in 
various years, will ^Wc some idea of the (growth of 
citizenship: 1820, — 66. 1825,-115. 1835, — 261. 
1840, — 671. 1845, — 1,368. 1850,-1,443. 1855, — 
4,824. 1860,-8.389. 1870,-11,323. 1875,-13,058. 
1880,- 21,676. 



Clly\PTi':R XX 



'I'Ih; acli 
i"''S[)(iii(l(ni 
.111(1 ill a I, 

Iji;r6, \yc)( 



WAYNK COnNTV: IIS i:s rAllLISHMKXr AND liOUNDARII'.S. 



^ 



r- 



VlRC.INlA, in 1778, ffcrU'd all of ihc N'ortlnvist 
Territory into a county called Illinois, .Sul)sc(|iuiiily, 
and before the surrender by llie ISritish, by procla- 
mation of l,ieiitenant-(k)vernor Sinieoe, on July 16, 
1792, all of what is now Michii,'-an, with other terri- 
tory exteiidini; norlhwa-d as far as Hudson's liav, 
was included in the county of Kent. Under 



American ,i,a)vernmint tin: county of Wayne, the 
third ori^fani/ed in the Northwest Territory, was 
established b\- proclamation on Aui,Mist 15, i7</i, by 
W'inthrop Sari,a'Ml, secretary of the Territory, .and 
actini4' iinv,.|-,,,„- A fac-siniile of the procl.un.ition 
is here ^'i\('n. The size of the ori^in.il is fifteen 
by eii^hteeii inches. 






fy- 



y- an-^rtjm X ^if..,,, f,^,,/;,j,H7r:iA/f 



/>Kifi.-'^t ^ ^■"■'■'■^'■t ^- ' 



/^- 






/ \ / \ 












^OMefttl*, » ft'nm~y^ctfii9t^^Af,» 






■-/•^■L. 



'•"7 















Ki.n.yt„,/^^C^.t,.^gy^ 



Mit ..- -*»;tr^ 



u.^C^^tA 



T' 

1 









-Zit-i A- 



^^euef^- 










rA'^MC-' ^/^^'t-^ &Me^t .^^^a, 



Fac-Similk oi- FtKsT PrcocLAMATioN R?!TArw.rsmN(; Wwnk County. 



u\m~ 



L 



Ma 

Dkah Sir;,— 
"ii my ;iiriv,il 

tiKlllxlll fit tc, ;„,. 

sinci' li;irn<rl, iIk. 
(■•Mintry lli.-n-.ilii,i 
aniDiiK wlidin is \| 




WAVNI", CorNTN'. I'I'S I'.S'I'MU.ISI IMl-.NT AND IK )t N DAk II'.S. 



119 



'I'lu; aclidii iif S;ir.v;fiil ,i;a\r rise In a sliarp I'or- 
rcs|)(iii(lciicc hiiwccn liini .iihI ( ii)\(rii(ii" Si. t'laii', 
and ill a Ictlci' to I hm. jaiiics Koss, dalcil Scpicni- 
bcr 6, 171/y, CiDvcrnor Si. Clair says : 



WAYNE COUNTY 

BY PEOOLAMATION 

, — or- — 

Angaat 16. 1789. 




Mlvaijlins. 

CO 



R Mmn. 
/iiiiTCliilljcQtl[e.J 



Cleielaiij. 
Cuyahoga R, 

LsurcDS. 



/ -V-^Tuscarawas R. 
Muskingum R. 



^v»A^ ^«%r. 



MaI' ni'' CcilMV liDllNDAUV. No. I. 

Di'AU Sir,— 

Oil my iirriv:il ;il lliis pLiri', I foiiiid ll>;it tin- wrri'l.iry li;i(l 
tli'.niv(lit (U li) nrcoinpatiy (iiiii-ral W'aym; to 1 >rtrnit, .'uul I Iia\'i* 
siiuc Irarnicl, ihniif^h nut from liiinsill, tli.it hi' lias laiil ntit llir 
ctniUry ihcrralxtiits intd a roimty, .'ind appi)ii)trtl tli'- (ilVirrrs. 
anions wlioni is Mr. Audrain, prmh'inni.iry. 




'I'h.at c'irt'uin^taiii I- iias;ii\iii me s.'itistail ion, tlnMi^;h 1 am dls- 
plrasi-d at tiic prnrri'din).; ;^rni-r.'illy, for it was nnl m)' intriitiDn to 
li.ivr moved in tin! Iinsnicss niitil I ii.id nrilvi'd tlii' din i i ions (jf 
llir Prcsidrnt, wliirh I li.nl rrason torxprtt; jiiid two >io\rrnors at 
one ;ind I In! same tinitr in the samt; <-onnlry, and pt-rhapH conntrr- 
ai lin.i,' i.'ii li ollnr, ninsl impn ss tin si- ni w .snlijcrts mifavoralily 
witli rrsprct to llir i;ii\'rrmiii'nt tlicy li.i\(* fallrii imdcr. Sonir 
I xpi (liinl, liowiAc r, niiiilit have- In c n Imindto niidcr lln- impio- 
|iric ly less slrikihv;, li.id I ;4iiiic to I )i iimIi ; Iml I lie si c ril.'iry liavinx 
l.ilrly );,iiii' III Mil liiliinai iiiar, my nirilihv; liirii tlu'ir, in ilic liltli: 
linn- I cniild jiossilily st.-i\', w.is \-rr)' nnn-rlain. 

I'nim oliur letters it apjiears that Cioveriinr .St. 
(lair was at l'ittsl)iiri;h when the eoimty was ori^aii- 
i/.ed, and Sar;.;cnl claimed lli.it his .ariimi was insti- 
lled hy the facts, lie cnnsniled the eili/.ens as to 
what name should ]k- i;iven to the eoiinlv, and ihey 
agreed th.it it should be named after ( iennal 
Anthony Wayne, who was then in the eiiy, and sent 
him an address, notifyin;.; him of tiie fact. In reply 
lhe\- receiv'ed the follow iii'j: 




M \)' iM ("iHNI\* jJiiIMi Mv'W \.^ 



MaI' 01- C'OIMV I! 



7',' till- Ciirr ,iv</ Inha/'itiinii of I'elyi'i/^ umi the Officers^ CitH 
,ind Military, of the ( 'oimly ,■/ /' n ynr : 

< H S I'l.KMliN,- 

I liavr ri'Ci'ivrd with innt li iilrasiirr yonr polilr .iddriss iif tills 
d.iii', w'hit'h not only diinaiids my xrattfiil arknowlt'd^inint for 
till flattering tistimoniis it lontains of your eslci'in, lint attords 
nir an oppiirtnnity to nmurk with what plcasiirr I liavr oliscrvrd 
till-' Kiiiiial salisfartion wliirli has appiarrd to prevail .'inii>n>; the 
citi/ens of 1 letroit and its nei>;hliorhiiod upon the eslalilislimeiit of 
the i^overnnieiit of the l!iiited Slates, and the alai rily and laud- 
alile desirtr they have <'\ iiii ed to promote the due exeeution 
thereof; acondint so wise, while it merits the warm re>;ards of 
their fi-llow-i iti/eiis of the I'nion, must insure to themselves all 
till- adv,nilav;es whii h will flow from and l«: the natural i-ITect of 
the administration of j;ood I.iws, under so liap|iy a noverninent. 

I will with much pleasure riimniunieati- to the President the 
w.irm sentiments of zeal and altai hinent whiih you have expressed 
toward ilie l ioMriinii lit of the t'nited States; and I lannot permit 



I20 



WAVNI'; COl^XrV; ITS KSTAIILISFIMKNT AND nol'N'DARlKS. 



myself to (Upart hciiif without a-siiriiii; you tliiit I shall always 
lake a piTiiliar iiitrrest ill whatever may eoiitriliulc- to |ironii>le 
the happiness aiui prosperity of tliis luiiiity^ to whith my name 
lias tin; honor to lie attached. 

I have the honor to he, vientlenu ii, \\ ith much esteem^ 
\'our most ohetlienl antl \ery hninhh; ser\ant, 

ANr'v W.WNK. 
Mkadi.h- AuriiKs, liinKon, .\'(K'e)ii/;i- 14, 1711(1. 



^ WAYNE COUNTY 



\ 



Aftor formation of 6tatO 
of Ohio, 



By Law of April 30, 1802, 







Map 111- CoLNTv Ijoindakv.— No. 4. 

The boundaries of the county, as defined I)y Sar- 
gent, were as follows: " ]ieginnin,ir at the month 
of the Ciiyahoija Ri\er, npon Lake Erie, and with 
the said river to tlie portaj^e between it and the 
Tnscarawa braiuli of tlie Miiskinijuni, tlunee down 
the said branch to the forks, at the carrying place 



WAYNE COUNTY 

BY PEOCLAMATION 
JanuaTjri4, 18C3* 




Mai' op County Bounoarv.— No. 5. 



al)()ve I'ort Lawrance,' thence by a west line to the 
eastern boundary of Hamilton County (which is a due 
north line from the lower Shawnese Town, upon the 
Sciota River), thence by a line west-northerly to the 
southern part of the portage, between the Mi.'imis of 
the Dliio ;iiul the .St. .M.iry's River, thence by a line 
also wi'st-nortlirrly to the southwestern part of the 
portage, betwcin the Wabash .and the .Miamis of 
Lake lu'le, where Fort Wayne now stands, thence 
by a line west-northerly to the most .southern part 
of Lake Michigan, thence along the western shores 
of the .same to the northwest part thereof (including 
the lands lying upon the streams emptying into the 
said lake I, thence by a due north line to the terri- 
torial boundary in Lake, .Superior, and with the .said 
boundary through Lakes Huron, St. Clair, and Lrie, 
to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, the place of 
beginning." 

The creation of the Territory of Indiana, by Act 
of .M.iy 7, iSoo, reduced the limits of the county 
about one half. Its boundaries were fiu-ther cur- 




WAYNE COUNTY 

.Alloc formation of MichigoQ 
Terntory, 

Byliaw of Jan. 11, 1808. 




Map 



CoUNTV r.OfNUAKV.— No. (J. 



tailed by proclamation of July lo, iSoo, under whicli 
that part of W.iyne County lying cast of a point about 
five miles west of the present city of Sandusky was 
included in a new county, named Trumbull. The Act 
of April 30, 1802, which created the Slate of Ohio, 
attached this region to the Territory "f Indiana. It 
thereftjre became necessary to define tlie bmuulary 
anew; and on January 14, 1803, William Henry 
Harrison, governor, and commander-in-chief of 



1 AUhongh the orijijinal Siiys " I'orl I.awrancc," it is evidently a 
n'i.-,tako arising from the iiromiiuiation, as the fort in (piestion 
was named Laurens, in 1778, in honor of the president of Congrcs.s. 



Indiana 
cennes : 

1, Willi:,,, 
the aiilhorit 
of the 'I'trt 
formed i,i il 
di'siirnateil 1 
the hound. ir 
point where 




c.vtromity of 1 
lin<- passini; I 
Ihenee north : 
<lary of thi> IJn 
point where ar 
extii'inity of I 
alon^' the last 1 



WAYNE COUNTY: ITS ESTAHLISHMENT AND BOUNDARIES. 



121 



Iiuliaiin Tcfritory, issued the ful'uwiiig from Vin- 
cennes : 

I, Willinm Henry Harrison, ^ovvrnor of Indiana Territory, by 
the anthority vested in me liy tlie ordinance for tile government 
of tlic Territory, do ordain and deelare that a eonnty sliall In- 
formed in the nortlieaslern part of ihi' Territory, to be known and 
desii,'nated by the nain<' and style of the county uf Wayne. And 
the boundaries of said eounty shall be as follows; liejj'nninK at a 
point where an cast and west line, passing through the southern 



WAYNE COUNTY 

BY PEOCLAMATION 

• — ot- — - 

Novembor 21, 1815. 




Map of Coini v I'oi'NDARv.— No. 7. 



extremity of Lake Miehiean, would intersect a north and south 
lini' passini; throui;h tin- most westerly extreme of said lake, 
theme north aloni; the last mentioned line to the territorial lioun- 
dary of the United .Stales, thence aloni,' the s;iid boUPr!:;-y lim' toa 
point when' an east and west line, passing through the southerly 
evtremily of Lake .Miihigan, would intersect the same, thence 
along the last mentioned line to the place of beginning. 



Tlic creation of tiie Tcrrilory of Miehi,i(an in 
1805 riiani;((i tile western boundary of tlie county, 
slijrlitly reduiini; its size. 

The next cii;in,i,re in boundary was made by proc- 
lam;ition of (lovernor Cass on November 21, 1815. 
Under the terms of that ilocument, tiie county was 
made to include all of the Territory of Miehijiran to 
wliich Indian title had been e.\tin,i,niishc(l. 

liy the terms of the treaty of ("ireenville, of 
Alienist 3, 1795, the foHowinjr territory constituted 
the re).;ion to wliicli tlie Indi.in title had been e.xtin- 
iruishetl, and therefore detinetl the limits under his 
proclamation: " IJej^inninijat the mouth of the Miami 
River of the Lakes, and runninv,r thence up to the 
middle thereof, to the mouth of the ,iLjreat Au.^lai/e 
River; thence running due north, until it intersects 
a parallel of latitude to be drawn from the outlet of 




PereMarq'teR. 



WAYNE COUNTY 

BY PfiOCLAMATION 
JulyTdTiai?. 



lllttM. y~~. 



COPVRIQHriailV, BY SILA* FARMER, 



MaI' Ol- COLNTV IJol-NDAKV.— No. y. 



-t WAYNE COUNTY 

S BY FEOOLAMATION 
^_^ 1 October W, 1815. 




Mai' of County I!oi;nuahv.— No. 8. 



Lake Huron, which forms the river St. Clair; thence 
runninjj^ northeast, the course that may be found 
will lead in a direct line to White Rock in Lake 
Huron; thence due ca.st until it inter.sccts the boun- 
dary line between the United States and Upper 
Canada, in said lake ; thence southwardly following 
the same boundary line down said lake, through the 
river St. Clair, Lake St. Clair, and the river Detroit 
into L.ikc Erie, to a point due ea.st of the aforesaid 
Miami RiviT ; thence west to the place of begin- 
ning." Also, "The post of Micliilimackinac, and 
all the land on the island on which that post stands, 
and the main land adjacent, to which the Indian 
title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the 
French or ICnglish governments ; and a piece of the 
main land to the north of the island, to measure six 
miles on Lake Huron, or the Strait between Lakes 
Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back 



1 22 



WAYNE COUNTY: ITS ESTADLISIIMl'-N T AND r.OUNDARIKS. 



from the water oi the L;;ke or Strait ; and also the 
Island de Bois Blanc." 

These two tracts included all of the present 
county of Wayne, and also the now existing coun- 
ties of Washtenaw, I.ivinijston, Lenawee, Macomb, 
Monroe, St. Clair, Lapeer, and Oakland, with a large 
portion of Jackson, Ingham, Shiaw.'issce, Genesee, 
Tuscola, .Sanilac, and Huron counties, together with 
the Islands of Mackinaw and liois Blanc, and a small 
.strip of land on the main land north of these 
islands. 



WAYNE COUNTY 

BY PBOOLAMATION 



January 16, 1818. 




Mai' oi- Cell Niv Udindakv. — Ml 



Less than a year after, on October i8, i8i6, 
deneral Cass issued a new proclamation, adding the 
district of Mackinaw to the county. That district 
h.iil been created by proclamation of Governor Hull 




WAYNE COUNTY 

■BY rEOOLAMATION 
September 10, 1822* 



on July 3, 1S05, and its boundary was defmed to 
"begin at the most western ;uul northern point of 
the 15ayof .Saginaw, .and shall nuuhence westw.irdly 
to the nearest part of the river Marquette ; thence 
along the southern bank thereof to Lake Michigan ; 
thence due west tp the middle thereof; thence 
north, east, and .south with the lines of the Territory 
of Michig.in and the United States to the center of 
Lake Huron; thence in a straight line to the begin- 
ning." 

It will be noticed that by this proclamation the 
county consisted of two tracts, entirely separate 
froni each other. On July 14, 1S17, the boundary 
of the county was curt.iiled on the .south by the 
organization of Monroe County, which took in all 
of the old county of Wayne south of Town 3, of 
Ranges i to 9, to the Huron River. 



■'Vta^ 



VJ^ 



WAYNE COUNTY 

Aftor organization of Wash- 
tenaw County. 

By Act of Nov. 20. 1826. 




iMaJ oi- CulNTS' Hc3l'M>ARV. — No. II 



Mai- cm-' Cuinty Hoindakv. — No. 12. 

By proclamation of January 15, 181 8, organizing 
Macomb County, the " base line " of the United 
States survey in Michig.an became the northern 
boundary of Wayne County. 

The present limits of the county were established 
by proclamation of Governor Cass on September 10, 
1822. On the same date Washtenaw County was 
laid out, to include all of the present county of 
Washtenaw, and also the four southeast towns of 
what is now Ingham County, the eight most eastern 
townships in Jackson County, and the southern half 
of the present Livingston County. Washtenaw 
County, however, was attached to Wayne County 
until it should be organized ; and for all practical 
purposes it remained a part of Wayne County up to 
the definite organization of Washtenaw County on 
November 20, 1826. 



L\ the 

aff.airs w 

crs, ajipt 

Under an 

the appn 

office wa: 

to be chc 

Ready 

county n( 

the con in 

issuing, u| 

From that 

bills of the 

$1.50. $1. 

$10.00. I 

per cent d 

iniS33i.ssi 

On Octobe 

ami clerk, and 

Under t 

issued two 

hundred ar 

and fifty of 

By Act ( 

commissioni 

of 1838 rev 

abolished b) 

transferred 1 

Board of Su] 

Under Nc 

sioners wen 

Jacques Can 

Territory, iS 

Joncaire, Fr 

James Henr 

William Bro 

wards; 1819, 

1820, Abran 

McCIoskey ; 

A. Edwards, 

Levi Cook, J( 

L. Cook, J. V 

James Williar 

lett, J. Shean 




tjitiiar*" 



CHAPTER XXI. 



COUNTY OFFICERS AND TIIKIR DUTIES. 



County ConiDiissioHi'rs. 

In the early days of the county its financial 
affairs were managed by three county commission- 
CTS, appointed by the Court of Ouarter Sessions. 
Under an Art of May 30, 1818, the governor became 
the appointini,^ power. On April 21, 1825, the 
office was made elective, and commissioners were 
to be chosen on the second Tuesday of October. 

Ready money to meet the obligations of the 
county not being forthcoming, as early as 1818 
the commissioners began tlie issue of due-bills, 
issuing, up to 1827, an average of §2,000 per year. 
From that time to 1S33 they issued §1,000 yearly in 
bills of the denominations of $1.12;^, $1.25, $1.37;^, 
Si. 50, $1.62;^, $1.75, $i.87X, $3.00, $5.00, and 
§10.00. In 1830 these due-bills were at twenty-five 
per cent discount, but the board persevered, and 
in 1833 issued bills for §3,000, and in 1S34. for §1,000. 
On October 7, 1837, the Board of Supervisors 

Ri-sch'Cti, that $4,000, in small bills, be signed by the president 
and clerk, and dclivirtd to the treasurer for change. 

Under this resolution, the treasurer and clerk 
issued two hundred and fifty bills of §10 each, two 
hundred and fifty of §5.00 each, and two hundred 
and fifty of $1.00 each. 

By Act of April 12, 1S27, the office of county 
commissioner was abolished. The Revised Statutes 
of 1838 revivt^ the office, and it continued until 
abolished by Act of February 10, 1842, which Act 
transferred the duties of the commissioners to the 
Board of Supervisors. 

Under Northwest Territory, the county commis- 
sioners were: 1800 and iSor, B. Huntington, 
Jacques Camjiau, Jacob Visger. Under Indiana 
Territory, 1803, Charles Curry, Charles F. Chabert 
Joncaire, Francis Lasalle; 1804, Charles Moran, 
James Henry. Under Michigan Territory, 1818, 
William Brown, John R. Williams, Abram Fxl- 
wards; 18 19, James McCIoskey, Robert Abbott; 
1820, Abram Edwards, William Brown, James 
McCloskcy; 1821,?. J. Desnoyers; 1822 and 1823, 
A. Edwards, P. J. Desnoyers, J. P. Sheldon; 1824, 
Levi Cook, John Whipple, John P. Sheldon; 1825, 
L. Cook, J. Whipple, P. J. Desnoyers; 1826-1827, 
James Williams. L. Cook, J. Whipple; 1839, R. Gil- 
lett, J. Shearer, B. F. Fox; 1840, S. Conant, J. 

1 



Shearer, B. F. Fox; 1841, Adolphus Brigham, S. 
Conant, J. Shearer ; 1842, Peter Godfrey, S. Conant, 



A. 



]>righam. 



Board of Siipeniisors. 

This body, in connection with the auditors, per- 
forms duties f)riginally attended to by the Court of 
General Quarter .Sessions and the county commis- 
sioners. By the Act of March 20, 1827, creating 
the board, they were authorized to examine, settle, 
and allow all accounts, and estimate the yearly 
expenses of the county; they were also authorized 
to repair county buildings, and to offer bounties for 
the killing of wolves and panthers. Their sessions 
were to be of not more than eight daj's' duration, 
and they were to be paid §1.00 per day each. An 
Act of March 20, 1837, increased their pay to §2.00, 
and it was subsequently made §3.00 per day. An 
Act of June 30, 1S28, required them to meet the first 
Tuesday in October. 

Under Act of June 26, 1832, sessions of the board 
were held on the first Tuesdays of March and 
October. By Act of 1842 they were retjuired to 
meet on the first Monday of July and third Monday 
of September; but since the revision of the statutes 
in 1846, they have met only in October. 

Since the Act of 1844, creating the Board of 
Auditors, the supervisors have had no control over 
the county expenditures, and might be called with 
propriety the Board of County Assessors. For a 
representative body, they have remarkably few legis- 
lative powers. Their chief duty consists in ec|ual- 
izing the valuations of property and apportioning to 
each city and township its proportion of the taxes to 
be raised, these apportionments being based on the 
assessors' books of the city and the township rolls 
of the several townships. 

Under Acts of April 13, 1827, and April 17, 1833, 
which treated the City of Detroit constructively as a 
township, the city, up to 1841, was represented on 
the board only by its one super\'isor, elected for the 
purpose. After an existence of eleven years, under 
the General Statutes of 1838, the Board of Super- 
visors was discontinued, and its duties transferred 
to three county commissioners. By Act of February 
10, 1842, the office of county commissioner was 



124 



eouN■^^■ ()i'Fin:Ks and -i'iii'-ir Driiiis. 



abolished, aiul a llnard of Supcrxisors was a,i;aiii 
proviili'd for. I'licir first lUfi'tin^j was luld on the 
first Monday of July, 1843. An Act of l''i'l)riiary I'l, 
1S42, iiro\i<lc'd tliat the waril assessors of Detroit 
shfiiild act as supervisors. A siii)se(iuent Aet of 
January 30. uSjO, provick'd that tiic city shynld ha\e 
hut lliree assessors, instead of one for eaeli ward, or 
six in all. The eity thus lost three members of the; 
ho.ird. I lowiAer, it soon rei;,iiiu(l its (|uot.i. for by 
Aet of .\pril 8, 1S51, the alderman of e.ieh ward 
has'iny; the shorti'st term w.is .authorized to ;iet ;is a 
supervisor on the ho.ird, .-ind on l''el)ru.iry 5. I1S57. 
the Lei.^isl,iture .authorized the eity .assessor .and both 
aldermen from e.uh w.ird to meet with the bo.ird. 

Up to ilie date of tliis last Aet, iinav.iiliny strug- 
iLiles h.id been ni.ade ye.arly by the rcpresent.it ives of 
the eity to secure siuh an e(iu;iIizatioii of the t.ixt's 
.as they deemed just, but their efforts were almost 
entirely futile. 

Since the Aet of iS57the city h.a.s had an cver- 
incri'.asinu; number of members on the, bo.ard; and 
had the representatives of the eity at any time 
nnited in any effort, they might have effected their 
purpose, as they liad votes enough to outninii- 
ber the represent.atives from the rest of the county; 
but the justice of their cause, or their skill in m.in- 
.agement, has en.abled the supervisors from the 
townships to preserve nearly the s.inie pro rata of 
assessment between city and county that has pre- 
v.iili'd for m.any ye.irs p.ast. 

When .any ch.ange is made in the relative amount 
of taxes to be p.iitl by city and county, it h.as 
nsu.illy bi'en done by r.aising or lowering the v.il- 
uations on eiihiT side, thus naising or lowering the 
percentage of the total t.ax th.it I'ither w.as to i);iy. 
The eity, in 1S83, w.as paying nearly five si.xths of 
the tot.al of the county t.axes. 

The board meets on the second Monday in (Octo- 
ber of e.ach year; speci.al si'ssions may be lield to 
extend the time for payment of t;ixe"s, or for .any 
pur|)ose deemed imi)ortant. 'I"lie k'ngth of their 
sessions is not limited, but they are allowed by l.iw 
to draw p.ay for only fifteen tlays, whicli is the usu.al 
duration of their sessions. 

The increase in the number of persons composing 
the bo.ard, and in the number of members from I)e- 
trf)it, is shown by the following t.able : 
1837 1S30, y members, i of them from Detroit. 
1830 1833, 10 " I " 

1S33 1834, 12 •• I " 

1834- '835. '3 " I " 

1 835- '839. i^^ ■■ ' " 

1839-1842, No board in existence. 

1842- 1847, 22 members, 6 of them from Detroit. 
1847- 1848, 23 " 6 •' 
1848-1850,24 " 6 '• 
1850-1851,21 " 8 " 



1851 1S37, 1(1 mcmhci's, 3 (if I'll in liom i)(troii. 

1857-1870,3'; •• 21 •■ 

1S70-1873. 41 •• 21 " " " 

iS73-'87^'. 43 " ^3 

■87^-7— .47 _ •• -V 

It will be noticed th.it the luimlHT of members 
from country townships reached its maximum in 
1848; the only increase in the board since then. 
outside of members from Detroit, being two mem- 
bers from W'y.mdolte, .atlmilti'd since 1S70. A 
reference to the artiile on townships will show in 
what year each township was first representeil on 
the board. 

Hoard • ' tty Auditors. 

This board divi( . die IJoard of Supervisors 

the honor of succeei ng to the j)owers of the county 
commissioners. The ofliee w.is created by Act of 
M.ireh 11, 1844. Three .auditors were to be elected 
in November, 1845, who were to decide, by lot, 
their first terms of one. two, .and three years t'.ich. 
Auditors subsi'iiuently chosen wen; to be eUctcd for 
three years, one annu.illy at each jjeiier.il election; 
.and not more than one member of tin: bo.ard w.is to 
be elei'ted from the s.ame township, \ill.age. or city. 
The city of Detroit, though it alw.ays p.aiil more 
th.an two thirds of the county taxes, w.as often with- 
out represent.alion on the board, dreiier eijiLility 
was secured by the Act of M.iy 31, 1883, which pro- 
vided th.it two members of the bo.ard must be 
residents of Detroit, iiy Act of February 12, 1855, 
in ease of the expiration of a term of office in a year 
when no gener.il election w.as to be held, the ISo.ard 
of Su|)ervisors were authorized to fill the vacancy. 

In importance, the office is .second to none in the 
county. The bo.ird h.ive v.astly more power in 
county matters th.an .aldermen have in city affairs. 
They h.ave almost entire control of the county funds, 
and although they report to the ISoard of Supervisors, 
they .are not subject to their directions, neither are 
they responsible to them, or in f.act to any one but 
the chief executive of the St.ite. It is their business 
to estimate the .amount annually needed for county 
expenses, to audit ;ill bills, .and to m.ike all disburse- 
ments on beh.alf of the county. They appoint three 
superintendents of the poor .and two county phy- 
sicians. 

.Section loof Article loof the Constitution of \hi^o 
provides th.at they shall h.ave "exclusive power to 
prescribe .and fix the eompens.aiion for all .services 
rendered for, and to adjust all (^l.aims against " the 
county, "and the sum .so fixed or defined .sh.all be 
subji'ct to no .appeal." 

The powers of the auditors were further enlarged 
by Act of M.ay 24. 1879, and since J.anuary i, 1S81, 
they h.ave h.ad ]iower to " determine the number of 
clerks to be employed in .all county offices and thg 



wages 

the Cor 
They a 
jieiiditii 
all t.ix I 
to p.iy 

the Judi 

Clerk, .1 

each," 

kind, col 

are rei|u 

my." ■ 

nierly $ 

April 13 

pnnided 

\'\\ it .at ; 

th.an §2. 

sal.ary. 

The fo 

'«4S. ^ 
iS4^>. W 
1847 ,84 

Fr.alick ; 
liain li. II 
Brown; 
<^uirk; 18 

'85s '85/ 
i857-i8r)c 
i860, M. 

1 86 1. Chai 

1862, W. 1 

1863, J„hi 

1864. John 
1867, JoIh: 
1867, John 
J. i'atton. . 
A. 15lue M 
'V'isger, ,Sai 
J. S. Tibbi 
betts. I'. C. 
T. C. Limb 
1879, \\'illi.-i 
1880 1883. 

1 883- 1 884, 

1884- 

Sheah.an. 

This ofiice 
of the NortI 
appointment 
who w.as req 
live per cent 
as compen.sa 
cember 17, i 
Under the T 
gan, the govt 
By law of Nc 



COUNTY OFFICKKS AND I II KIR DUTIES. 



125 



waj^cs to \h: paid lluin, In li\ tl\c ((impinsalinii of 
tliu coroiKTs and tlu: salaries of all county olllci-rs. 
Tlu'y also ki'ij) a rrcord of all tin- receipts and ex- 
penditures of till- C'ounty 'Ircasiin'r, coinitersii^iiini; 
all lax receipts issued by him. 'I'liey are authorized 
to |)ay tin: Triasurer from !j)3,txxj lo ;i|(5,(xx>; and 
tile Jud,v;c of Probate, I'roseeutin);- Attorney, County 
Clerk, and Ke.nister of Deids, from §2,500 to 83,500 
each." ruder the same Act, "All fees of whatever 
kind, collected for sir\i<es performed in these ollici'S, 
ari' ri'(|uii'ed to be turned o\-cr to the C'ounty 'I'reas- 
iny." The s.ilary of each auditor, which was for- 
merly if;i,o<xj, was incrt'ased to §i,joo by Act of 
.April 13, 1.S73, and a further Act of .May n;, i<S<S3, 
provided thai ihi' circuit jud,;;es of the county mi^ht 
fix it at any amoimt, not less than $i,2ixj, nor more 
than §2,500. The larger sum was tixed as the 
salary. 

The following;' persons havi: si'rsed ;is auditors : 
1845, William 1!. Hinit, Job Smith, A. II. tJtis; 
1846, William l>. limit, J. .Smith, II. Kralick; 
1847 184S, Amnion lirown, William 15. Hunt, II. 
Kralick; 1849-1852, II. .Saunders, .\. ISrown, Wil- 
liam H. Hunt"; 1S52, S. I'oup.ird, James Sal'ford, A. 
Mrowii; 1853, S. I'oupard, James Salford, I). L. 
(jiiii'k; 1854, J. Safford, 1). L. (Hiirk, M. Anderson; 
1855 1857, M. .Anderson, S. l'oii|)ar(l, ("■. Carson; 
1857-1860, M. Anderson, (i. C.irson, I). Saekctt; 
i860, .M, Anderson, ("ico. Carson, W. II. Craij,'; 

1861, Charles Steward, M. Anderson, W. II. Craii^; 

1862, W. II. Crail^^ Charles Steward, William Taft; 

1863, John Hull, Charles Steward, William Taft; 

1864, John Hull, C.eo. Carson, William Taft; 1864- 
1867, John I'atton, (icorije Carson, Heiij. Sackett; 
1867, John I'atton, .Alex. liluc, Henj. Saekctt; 1868, 
J. I'atton, .Alex. Hlue, J.imes ,A. \'is,v;er; 1869-1873, 
A. Hlue, Michael Kennedy, J. A. \'isi;er; 1873, J. A. 
Vis^iT, Samuel /uij, John S. Tibbetts; 1874, S. Zu^, 
J. S. Tibbetts, I". C. Limbockcr; 1875, J. S. Tib- 
betts, T. Ci. Kimbocker, J.imes Ilolih.in; 1876-1878, 
T. (i. Kimbocker, J. Ilolihau, William .Sales; 1878- 
1879, William Sales, II. U. Thayer, C. K. I'ill.ird; 
1880 1883, W. Sales, J. Ilolihan, C. K. I'illard; 
1883-1884, W. Sales, Alex. Mitchie, (',. V. I'illard; 
1884- , W. -Sales, Ale.x. Mitehie, Jeremiah 

Slicahaii. 

Couii/y Ticasurcy. 

This oflk-c dates from .Auijiist i , 1792, under an Act 
of the Northwest Territory which provided for the 
ap|)oinliiiciit by the i^overnor of a county treasurer, 
who was recjiiireil to njive $1,500 bonds, and received 
live per cent of tlni moneys comiiijjf into his hands 
as compensation for his services. Hy Act of De- 
cember 17, 1799, his bonds were increased to $3,000. 
Under the Territory of Indiana, and also of Mielii- 
jifan, the governor continued to appoint the treasurer. 
By law of November 25, 181 7, he was to be paid by 



,1 pircent,i,i;i; on all moneys which he receiveil and 
paid out. Under the same law Duncan Reid 
bec.ime the lirst and only assessor the county has 
ever had. Under .Act of April 21, 182,, the com- 
mission of the treasurer then in oHice ceased, and 
.after iSj6 county treasurers wi're elected. The 
term lasted but a year, liy Act of \\>\\\ 13, 1827, 
till' ti'rm w.is lengthened to three years. Act of 
June 26, 1832, made the treasurer the auditor as 
well, but his action was subject to re\ision by the 
Hoard of Supcrsisors. An Ai't of .April 13, 1833, 
provided that the treasurer should ntain for his 
.services not over three per cent of the moneys 
received by him; and any excess o\er one luuidred 
dollars was to bi' cri'dited to the coiuitv. 

Under and since the Constitution of 1835, the 
treasurer has bi'cn elected for terms of«two years. 
The |)rotits of the ollice, in former years, consisted 
not only in the salary received, but in the interest 
received on county funds, deposited with, or loaned 
out, to b.inks or individuals. Up to 1881 the tre.is- 
urers furnished their own books, and took them 
aw.iy when their term closed. Many important 
details of i)ast doings are, therefore, not in possession 
of the public. An Act of May 27, 1879, i)rovitled 
that after January i, 1881, the books of the treas- 
urer should be provided and o\\ ned by the countv, 
aiul that the treasurer shoukl deposit his receipts 
daily in .some bank, to be ilesijrnated by himself and 
the auditors jointly, and that the funds should be 
drawn out only on the order of the auditors and the 
treasurer. 

Under law of May 24, 1879, and from January i, 
1881, the .salary of the treasurer has been $5,000. 
I lis assistants are paid by the county. 

The county treasurers have been as follows: 

1801-1805, Mattl; w Krnesi; 1805, Richard 
Smyth; November 26, 1817, to October 17, 1825, 
Conrad Ten Kyck ; October 17, 1825/833, I'eter 
Desnoyers; 1833-1836, D. Krench ; 1836, IClliot 
Cray; 1 837-1 840, O. Spencer ; 1840-1843, K. C.il- 
lett; 1843-1845, I'eter Desnoyers; 1845-1850, D. 
J.Campau; 1850, J. H. .Schick; 1851 1855, (i. M. 
Rich; 1855 1857, William Ilarsha; 1857-1861, G. 
M. Rich; 1861-1863. John IJloyiik ; 1863-1867, 
Georye Miller; 1867-1869, E. P. Henoit ; 1869- 
1873. Paul Gies; 1873-1875, John K. W. Thon ; 
1875-1879, Geori^e II. Stellwa.v,a'n ; 1879-1883, 

Kin 15. Crosby ; 1883- , 15. N'ounijblood. 

County Clerk. 

This otfice was unknown to Wayne County until 
created by Act of May 8, 1820, which provided 
that the clerk of the county courts should act 
as clerk of the county. On November 5, 1829, 
additional provision was made for this officer, and 
he was to be paid by the fees received. 



126 



COUNTY OFl'lCKKS AND TIIKIR DUTIES. 



Fonnurly llic clirk rcicivuil $2,500 a year and 
fees, his deputy clerks bein^' paiil by the eoiiiuy. 
All Act of April 19, 1873, iiu-rcascc! his salary to 
$6,000, witl) fees additional, ami he was to p.iy his 
own assistaiUs. I5y law of 1879, ami since January 
I, 1881, all fees received by him arc p.iid to tile 
county treasurer, ami his salary, nf noi more tiian 
$3,000, is fixed by the county auditors. 

From 1850 to 1.873 ''"^ county clerk, or liis 
deputy, was clerk of the Sujireme (.Hurt of the 
State at the terms held in Detroit. At tiie present 
time he is clerk of the Hoard of Supervisors and of 
the Circuit Court. All of the township oliicers 
report to him. All the records of liic Circuit (.'ourt, 
the n.tlurali/.ation papers, ,-uid tiie election n'turns 
for the county ari' ilepositeil in his otlice. All arti- 
cles of incorporation of I'dl societies, and business 
corporations of every kind, .also partnership a,v(ree- 
nients, ;ind ;ill niarriai.;es, and the ycarl;- record of 
births and deaths .are recorded in his ollice. 

The county clerks li.ive been as follows: 1826, 
riiilip l.ccuyer; 18:17 ''"'I i'^-8, Jerenii.ih \'. k. Ten 
Eyck; 1829-1832, J.anies H. Whipple; 1.S32 1836, 
Isaacs. Rowland; 1.S36, (1. .Mott Willi.uns ; [S37, 
T. K. Tallm.ui; 1838-1841, Charles I'cltier; 1841 
and 1842, Theodore Williams; 1843-1847, Cicorvre 
R. driswold; 1847 ;uid 1848, 1). C. llolbrook; 1849 
and 1850, S. .\. U.iv^if; 1851 ami 1852, Jeremiah 
Van Rensselaer; 1853-1857, K. Hawley, Jr.; 1857 
1861, Knos T. Throop; 1861 .ind 1862, D.ivid 
Walker; 1863 and 1864, J.ireil I'atchin; 1865 1869, 
J. D. Weir; 1869-1873, Stephen 1'. rurdy ; 1873- 
1877, Ray Il.-.ddock; 1877-1879, Jeremiah She.ihan ; 
1879-1883, R. A. Liijjrett ; 1883- , J. J. Knright. 

County Siipcrintiiidi-nt of Schools. 

This oll'ice was created by Act of March 13, 1867, 
with the desiijn of promotinij the ell'iciency of coun- 
try schools. The salary w;is from $1,000 to $1,500. 
The ollice was abolished by Act of March 20, 1875, 
which provided for township superintendents. 

The followinii; persons served as County Su])er- 
intendents: 1867-1873, Lester R. Brown; 1873- 
1876. G. C. Gordon. 



Drain Commissioners. 

Provision was first made for this office by i.iw of 
M.in li 15, 1861, wlu'ii the JSoard of Supervisors was 
,i;ivcn [lower to .appoint three Drain Commi.ssioners. 
iJy i.iw of March 22, 1869, only one was to be 
chosen, .and he w;is to be I'Iccted on the first Mon- 
day in April, to .serve for one ye.ir, and not to be 
paid over $4.cx) a d.iy. A further l.iw of April 13, 
1871, provided for the election of a dr.iin tomiiiis- 
sioiuT in each township, to locate and construct 
ditches for drain,i,i;e purposes; .iml all ditches were 
to be m.ide under his direction. 

The followiivi; have served as county comniis- 
sioniTs : 

18C1 1864. T. I'. M.irtin, L. J. Ford, F. M. Wing; 
1864 1866. T. 1'. Martin, Ale.x.ander Hluc, 1.. J. 
Ford; 1866, J.ared D.ividson, D.ivid S.ickctt, Il.ir- 
vcy Mer.-ell; 1867-1869, H. Mcrrell, J. D.avidson, 
I'clcr 'I'crnes; 1869-1871, H. .Mrrrell ; 1871 1S73, 
Amos Otis; 1873, .Scth Smith; 1874, T. 1'. .M.trtin; 
1875-1884, Wellington Kills; 1884. W. Whitacre. 

County Siin><yor, 

This olfu cr is the legitimate successor of the office 
of district surveyor, which w.is .authori/ed by Acts 
of September 14, 1806, .and June 8, 1819. The offi- 
cer was .ippoinlcd by the governor, and p.iid by the 
fees received, liy .\ct of July 31, 1830, each county 
was designated ;is ;i si!r\eyor's district, and one sur- 
veyor for e.ach was to be a[)pointed by the governor. 
Under and since the Constitution of 1835, county 
surveyors are elected with other county officers, 
serve two years, and they h.ive no s.alary. 
The following have .served as county surveyors : 
1830, John Mullett; 1831-1837, John F.'irmer; 
1837 1841, Fli lir.idshaw; 1841-1S49, V.. liawley, 
Jr.; 1849-1851, Willi.im H. Brown; 1851-1853, 
Henry Brevoort, Jr.; 1853 1855, Thom.is Camp.iu; 
1855-1860, N.Thelan; i860, David Gninger; 1861 
1863, William B. Kna])p; 1863-1865, William Ives; 
1865-1869, \. Thckm; 186(^-1873, A. H. Wilmarth. 
1873 1875, K. J.Goodell; 1875-1877, L. D. Harris; 
1 877- 1 88 1. C. H. Ellis; 1 881- , E. Goodell. 



TDK 



J5Y laM 

(>. 1790, t 

ized to (I 

'y, as e.u 

li.nl been 

troit, M;i 

1802, or 

K.'inized. 

n.aw was 

the towns 

elude the 1 

it w.is ;ig;i 

include dr 

Cass est.il) 

tr.imck, M, 

'I'lie re.i 

river const 

townships. 

n.irrowed t 

divided int 

crc.it ion of 

^^^7' l)ounc 

of Detroit, 

Brownstowi 

lin. On Oc 

!^hips were ( 

which ceasi 

towiisliip iia 

.'ind by ;i lau 

townsiiip of 

sa.ne townsl 

niation of Cii 

ship of Dear 

Act of Marcl 

to Dearborn. 

On .M.irch 

W.IS formed ( 

wells. On M 

W.IS formed 

I-ivoni.i w.as 

been einbr.ice: 

then in Nank 

formed out o 

By law, takiiii. 



ClIAPTEK XXII 



'JMII': TOWNSIIII'S Ol' 



WAVNM C()lINrV.-I)i;kl\'AII()N OK ■lOWNSIIII' 

T<j\VNsiiii' ofiici;ks. 



NAMi:;;.-- 



Tf)\vNsirn's. 

By law of tlic Northwest 'iLrritory, of Novenilxjr 
6, i7yo, the Court of Quarter Sessions was autlior- 
ized to (lividi- couiuit's into towuships, /Vcconliiii,^- 
ly, as early as November i, I7<>S, four townsliips 
liad l)i'eu createil ill Wayne County, namely, De- 
troit, M.ukiiiaw, S;irv;ent, and Il.imtramek. In 
iSoj, or earlier, the township of .St. Clair was or- 
j^^anized. On June 8, 1803, the township of Macki- 
naw was newly defined. On December 2r, 1S03, 
the township (jf Detroit was e.xtended .so as to in- 
clude the f.irin of John Askin, and on June 4, i>So5, 
it was aj^ain e.xtended as far as Huron River, and to 
include (Irosse Isle. On January 5, 181.S, Ciovernor 
Cass established the townships of .Sprinirwells, Ilam- 
traiiick, .Moj;u;i}ro, Huron, and St, Clair. 

The rear lifie of the Private Claims aloniL,^ the 
river constituted the western boundary of these 
townshi|)s. It was not until the county had been 
narrowed to its present dimensions that it was all 
divided into townships. Simultaneously with the 
creation of the Hoard of Supervisors, on April 12, 
1827, bound.iries were established for the townships 
of Detroit, Sprinvjwells, llamtramck, Monyuagon, 
Urownstown, I'lymouth, JCcorce, Huron, and Buck- 
lin. On October 29, 1S29, Nankin and I'ekin town- 
ships were created out of the towusiiip of liucklin, 
which ceased to exist. On I\Iarch 21, 1833, the 
township name of Pekin was changed to Redford, 
and l)y a law which took effect on April i, 1S33, the 
township of Dearborn was created out of part of the 
.sa.ne township. On October 23, 1S34, by procla- 
mation of Ciovernor Porter, the name of the town- 
ship of Dearborn was changeil to IJucklin, and by 
Act of March 26, 1836, it was changed back again 
to Dearborn. 

On March 31, 1833, the township of Greenfield 
was formed out of i)art of the township of Spring- 
wells. On March 7, 1834, the township of Canton 
was fornu'd out of Plymouth, The township of 
I.ivonia was created on March 17, 1835; it had 
been embraced, first in the township of Bucklin, and 
then in Nankin. The township of Romulus was 
formed out of Huron, by Act of the same date. 
By law, taking effect April 6, 1835, Van Buren was 



formed out of part of Huron. Sumpter was org.m- 
ized on .April (>, 1840. On l-'ebruary 16, 1842, apart 
of P.rownstown was attached to Monguagon. On 
March ly, 1845, the n.ime of Romulus was changed 
to Wayne, and on January 26, 1848, was changed 
back again to Romulus. Taylor was created out of 
Kcorce, on April 1, 1847, and Crosse Pointe out of 
llamtramck on .\pril i, 1848. On March 3, 1849, 
Crosse Pointe was increased in size by the addi- 
tion of territory from llamtramck. On .April 2, 
1850, Creeiitield was enlarged by the aiklition of 
territory from Springwells, and on March 25, 1873, 
it was diminished by taking from it certain territory, 
which was added to Springwells. 'I'lie At'ts of 1832 
and 1836, enlarging the limits of the I'ity, took cer- 
tain territory from Hamtramck, a i)ortion of which 
was restored in 1842. In 1857 and in 1875 other 
territory from Hamtramck was added to Detroit. 
The township of Springwells contributed a portion 
of territory to Detroit, by .Acts of 1849, 1857, and 
1875; and a small portion was al.so taken from 
Greenfield and atlded to Detroit in 1875, 

In 1883 the limits of the several townships were 
as follows : 

. Bro7unstinun was bounded on the north by the 
town line between Towns 3 and 4 .south of 1< 10 K ; 
on the south by the Huron River; on the east by 
a line running .south through the centers of Sections 
2, II, 14, 23, and 26, and thence east on the south 
line of Sections 26 and 25 to the Detroit River ; and 
on the west by the town line between Ranges 9 
and 10. 

Canton included all of Town 2 South Range 8 
east. 

Dearborn was bounded on the north by the town 
line between Towns i and 2 south of Range 10 
east ; on the south by the town lines between Towns 
2 and 3 of l^ange 10 east ; on the east by the town 
line between Ranges 10 and 11 ea.st, the west boun- 
daries of Private Claims 670 and 31, and a line there- 
from extending to the river Rouge. 

Kcorce was bounded on the north by the river 
Rouge; on the .south by the town line between 
Towns 3 and 4 south of Ranges 10 and 1 1 ; on the 
east by the Detroit River ; and on the west by the 



[•^7] 



i_>S 



!)i:kl\ AIION OF ToWNhllll' NAMIIS. 



■si liiu' of l'ii\;iU' Chiiii 



1 ;i , and 11k- scclmn liiir (i 



II lo lasl. lyirij; \mm of ilic wtsL line of Stctioiis 



llii: wisl side of Sictions 2, ii. 14. j;,. 2(>. and 
of 'I'owu 3 Soiiili Kaiim' 10 last. 



(/ /■<ISS( 



I'oiiili' was homuk-d o; 



11 tl 



\v north l)\- 



til 



CDimty liiK'; on tin.' soiitlt and lasl liy Drtioit l\i\ir 
anil Laki; St. (.'lair; on llu' wist by tlu' si'ction iinr 
on west sidi' of Sirtions .: and i 1 in Town 1 south 
of K;;n,v;i' \i I'ast, by tiic north iinr of Private Claini 
394 and Connor's LiTi-k, thr sitlion line on east side 
of Seetion 11, and the west line of Private Claim 725. 

Liiiiiifii/d was bounded i n the nor'li by the 
countv line; on the south by a line runnini; east and 
West throu;^h the lenter of Se tions 4, 5 inu (< in 
I'owii 2 of Kan;^e I I east, extendinj; east initil it 
interseels a line drawn parallel with the east line of 
I'rivate claim 2(^0, ,iiul thenei; ea.>t aloni; the rear 
line of farms to the line of Twelfth .'■Hreet, in the eity 
of Detroit, and the south line of the Ten- Thousand- 
Aere 'I'ract to the I'ontiai- koad ; on the east by 
the town line between l\.in,ii;es 1 i and 1 2, the north 
line of the 'I'en- Thousand- Aere Traet, and tin- 
I'ontiae koad; on the west bytlietown liiie between 
kani.;es 10 and 1 1. 

Haiiilrtviiik' was bounded on the north by the 
county line; on the .south by the Detroit kivirand 
the south line of the Ten-'rhousand-.Aere Traet and 
the quarter line of Seetion 2iS; on the east by the 
west bounilarv of Crosse I'ointe; and on the \\est 
by the i:ast boimilary of Cireenlield and the eity of 
Detroit. 

Huron ihcluded all of Town 4 south uf Kaiii,re y 
east. 

Lh'oniii ineliided all of Town 1 south of Range 

9 east. 

Jfoni^iicii^oii was bounded on the north l)y the 
town line between Towns 3 and 4; on the south by 
the south line of .Seetions jj and 26 in 'Town 4 
soutli, Range 10 ci, it, and incUideil ali of (Irossc 
Isle on the east; on the west it was boinided Ijy a 
line I'lnning nortli and south thn ugh the eenter 
of Seetions 2, 1 1, 14. 23, and 26. 

.\'ii Ill-Ill ineliidetl all of 'Town 2 south of Range 9 
east. 

Plymouth included all of I'own i soutli of Range 
S east. 

Rciiford included all uf 'Town i south of Range 

10 cast. 

Romulus ineluiled all of 'Town 3 souih of Range 9 
east. 

S/)r/ii^:o,//s was boinided on the north by the 
.south boundary of tM-eeiilield ; on the south by the 
river Rouge; on the cast by the cast line of Private 
Claim 78; and on the west liy the cast boundary of 
Dearborn. 

Suiiifitrr included all of Town 4 south of Range 
8 cast. 

Tayloi included all of 'Town 3 soiilh of Range 



II, 14, 2},, 26, ,-ind 



/■ 



lillltl! 



liicluileil 



.f 1 



own 



soutli o 



Range 8 e.isl. 



lilKI\\rin\ (11- TOWNSIIII' NAMI'S. 

I l.imtr.iiiuk w.is named in honor of C'oloiiel John 
!•'. Ilamtramck, tirst Ciiited ,Siates eoniniaiider of 
Detroit. 

'\\\v name of .Springwells has reference to the 
numerous s|iriiigs which there .iboiind. 'The early 
settlers called this region lielle-fontaine. 

Ilidwnstown ileri\eil its name from .Xdani lirown, 
an T".nglislim,in, who, when about eight years old, 
was c.i|niired in N'irginia in ( )ctober, \'](i\, by the 
W'y.indolte Indi.uis, among whom he grew up, be- 
coniing one of the iirincipal chiefs of the tribe. I le 
lived at, or iie.ir, what is now Ciibrali.ir, and had 
charge of the archives of the tribe, lie was living 
as late as 1812 or 1813. 

Moiiguagon, o'- Maguagoii, was the name of a 
Potowataniie chief, who li\ed on the Detroit as early 
as 1755. 

Plymouth township was probably named in honor 
of the first iVnicrican settlement at Plymouth Rock. 

Rcorce takes its name from the ri\er l^corcc, or 
Bark River, which llows through the township. It 
w.is so called by the I'"rciich and Indians because of 
the birch and other barks procured along its banks. 

'The name of Huron comes from the old Indian 
trilie which frequented this region, 

Hucklin was named after William iUicklin, a jus- 
tice of the peace, ;ind the lirst white settler in the 
township which bore his name. 

Concerning the names of Nankin, Pckiii, and 
Canton, the following facts appear in the Legislative 
Journal. A law of April 12, 1827, prohibited the 
incorporation of any township having the same 
name as any post-ot'tice then existing'; in the I'nitcd 
.States. 'The legislative council, : )raiU or forget- 
ful of this law, on October 20, i8_.y, p...,scil an Act 
creating the townships of Lima and Richl.uul out of 
the township of P>uckliii. (io\crnor Cass returned 
the bill the iie.Nt day, unapproved, for the reason ih.at 
it coiiilicteil with the kiw in question. 'The council 
then determined to se'.ect names that Wdulil dupli- 
cate no oth'Ts 111 America, 'i'hcreuiion the names of 
X.inkin and Pekin were substituted in the bill, and 
the townships were duly created. It is a coinci- 
dence worth noting that in 1829, the year these 
townshii)s v.cre named, the first ymeriian mission- 
ary started for China. 'The name of Pekin was 
changed to Redford in 1833,1)111 tin ncM year the 
townsl«p of Canton was created, the council being 
apparently determined to have two Chinese names. 

Redford, or Ro.igc-ford, is probably so called 
because of the fording of the river Kouge, which 



1^ 



'lOWXSllll' ()| 1 ICKRS. 



129 



llows llirouj^li this towiisliii), by llic Indians w lini 
till tluii" WAV from llif iinriii lo Kdii Maldm, to 
ivciivc tliL' annual j;ilis of tin.' iiriiisli ( ioxcrnnKiit. 

I)iaii)orM was nanuil in iionor of ( itiiiTal I Iciiry 
I)i-ail)orn, of the I'liilnl Stairs Army. 

'I'iii; vriy n.inif of I iri'i'iilicKI sn;^\;rsis its orii^in, 
and its j^iwn licids arc IjoiIi hi-aiitifnl and prodiic- 
tivf. 

Livonia, as a lownsliip naiiu", is donhlliss liu: 
iX'sull i)f an rffori to pi'muiv a name noi dnplicati'd 
tisfwlurc in tlu' I niird .M.itrs; ii is iTohai)!)' named 
after one of llie \wstern provinces of Kiissi.i. 

l\omiilus reminds 11s at oiuc uf the founder and 
i<in;;- of aneieiil l\on\e. 

\'an lliireii is nanieil after Martin \'an ISureii, 
i.i!L;litli I'residi'ni of llie I nited .Slates, wiio was 
nomin.iled llie year llie township was erealu!.!. 

Siiniphr. ,iltliouj;li ineorreetly spelled by the aiidi- 
lion uf Uie letter/, commemorates the name uf the 
revoiiilionary patriol, (leiieral Thomas .Sunilcr, one 
of llie independent Southern yenerals, who, willi 
M.uion, ditlsiieli \alianl .serviic. 

(iros.su roiiUc is so iiaincd because of il.s size, ami 
its projection into Lake .St. L lair. 



'i'aylor w.is n.inied in lioiior of ( leiier.il Zachary 
'I'.aylor, iwelftli I'ri-sidciit of the Inited St.iles, ,ind 
hero of the Me\ic,m W'.ir, which eloseil the year 
llie luwiislii[) was or;.^ani/ed. 

riiWNsiii I' I Ml icr.Ks. 

I'lulir the Northwesl Territory, ,1 law of January 
i.S, iSoj, pro\ided fnr thi' election in e.icli township, 
on the lirsi Mond.iy in .\i)ril, of one or more super- 
visoi's. ,1 township clerk, three irustees or man.ii^i'rs, 
two or more overseers of the poor, three feiiee- 
viewei's, two appi'.iisers of houses, one lister of ta.\- 
ablc properly, and one or more constables, I'lider 
Micliii^.in i'crrilory the same oltices existed. lly 
law of M,u"cli 30, 1SJ7, town eleclions were held as 
before, and ihe followini^ township olliiers were 
provided for; a supervisor, town cleik, three or li\i' 
assessors, a I'olleclor, two o\ersi'ers of the poo|-. 
three lomniissiouers of hij^hways, ami as iiiaiiv 
fe ■e-viewers, constables, and pouml-masiers as the 
|)eoiile cliosi- to elect. l>y Revised Stalules of iSjS, 
the town oUuers were to ct)iisist uf a supervisor, 
clirk, treasurer, three assessors, a collector, three 
school ins[)t3Cturs, two directors of poor, three com- 



OAhLAXV CO 












^i>' /•■ 






MACO.UB CO. 









', n- j t-j. i^■vV 



Aivsnoe CO. 




l'o»N-.|lll' M.M' OK WaVM'. CdCNTY, 



I30 



TOWNSIlll' ()|-|-ici:rs. 



niis.sidiicrs (jf liij;li\\ay>, and siiih ntni:l)cr of justict-s 
Jis tin: people (li-sirt(l. I»y Kcxisid Staliitrs of 
ICS46, tin; olliccrs wtTc tin; same, <m cpl llial llicru 
was to 1)0 no in-asiirtT or rolluclor, aiul biiL two 
assessors. 

TIk" ('oiisiiuilinii of 1.S50 i)ro\i(lc(l for llu; clfction, 
on till- lirsl Monday of Api'il, of a supervisor, a 
elerk, a (diiiniissioiicr, and an oscrsecr of lii.i,;li\vays 
for I'aili (lisiricl, a treasurer, not more lli.ui four 
constables, ;ind .1 school inspector, this l.ist oHici; 
lo lie lilird by the <lcrk. A law of April 13, 1.S71, 
providid for drain <-onnnissioners. 

The supervisor is .it the he.id of the township 
j^oNcrnnient. Ili' ni.ikcs the ;issessnient roll, .and is 
allowed $J.<j<J .1 day for his services. The town 
I Icrk keeps the town reiiirds .and .1 re;;ister of 
ih.ili'l niori'^a^cs; he receives $1.50 .1 d.iy for the 
time employed in his duties. Tlu' commissioner of 
hi^liw,i\s deterniines the number of ro.id distiicis, 
.and receives S'-j" •' day for lime em|)loyed. There 
is .in overseer of hi^hw.iys, or p.ith-m.isier, for e.ich 
ro.id district; he is elected by the |)eoi)le, rvVvr Toir, 
the numbi r of such othiers bein.if determined by tin; 
luimber of ro.id districts. 'I'hey serve without p.ay. 
The township treasurer ( ollccts the town t.i.\es, .anil 
rei ei\es olR- pir ((.lit oil .'ill .inioiuits colliMled be- 
fore J.iniiary 1 of e.icli year, .and four pw cent on 
.amounts collccled after that d.itc. The inspector of 
schools determines the bounds of school ilislricts, 
.and receiv(;s ^2x)o per d.iy. A townshi]') superin- 
tendent of schools w.is provided f(.ir by Act of 
Man h 20, i<S75. lie inspects the schools, and, with 
the inspector, m.ay ch.inj^e the bounds of school dis- 
tricts. I ic; receives $2.00 .a d.iy for time spiiit in his 
duties. 

K.\(T|)tin.yf those for Detroit, the only n.iniLs found 
of supervisors .servin;^' prior to 1S27 .are .as follows : 

I l.imir.tm<k : ilSi^!, Henry Connor .and John Mel- 
drum ; i.Siv. Willi. nil Little; 1823, I' \'.in livery. 

.S|)riii!i;wells : i.Si.S, W'.irreii llow.ard; i.Sk^, I'r.iii- 
cis L'icolle; 1S21, James .M.ay. 

Monv;ii.i.ni)ii : 1 8 i.S, Jason Thurston ; i8i(j, A. C. 
Truax ; 1.S20, 15. Rowley; 1822, Arleiii.as llosmer. 

The ii.imes of the super\isors of .all townships 
.and ( ities, e.M ciil Detroit, •ince 1827 .are as follows: 

ll.wii K.AMi K : 1827 1853, C. .Mor.in, 18^; 
1837. I'. \'.in I'A'ery ; 18^7 1841, I.oiiis I5e.iuf.iit; 
1841, John Kirby; 1X4J. I.ouis lle.iufait; 1843, 
.\nlhonv D.imito; 1844, W, I',. 1 hint ; 18 4:;, (■,eor^re 
.\lo|•.ln ; 184O, I,. .Mor.in ; 1847. Jed. I'. C. Kmnioii^ ; 
1848, A. Daiiiito; \H^>) 1 .S6j, John M. .M.a- k ; i,Sr,2 
iHfx), Henry W. Deaic ; i.S6(y 1871, I,.iwreni c \V. 
D.illon ; 1871, II. W. Dc.ire; 1872 1875, J.imes 
llolih.in; 1875, John Kevciiy; .876 1883, J.imus 
A. X'lsj^cr; 1883 , W. C. M.thonev. 



Si'KINOWKI.I.S: 



1827 1830, I'eier (iodfrny; 1830, 



1837 l,S.4i), j'eler ( lodfroy ; I 840, (ieor;;e \\ . r.idell; 
1841, I'cter (iodfroy; i,S.j2 1845, .S.iiiiuel Trudell ; 
1845, William I l.arsha ; 184O, Joseph ll.aron; 1.S47 
|84(>, S.amuel Medill ; 1849 1851, .S. Trudell ; 1851 
183,, W, \V. Irwin; 1855, Hernaid II.k kill ; 1856, 
S. Iriidell; 1857 185(^,11. Il,ij;i;erty ; 1859,11. M. 
D.ivis; i8ri() 1863, II. i|;n;v;crty ; i8f)3 180^, Ij-ne.st 
k.anspach ; i8()9 1875, II. Il.ii;!^erly ; 1873 1881, 
Conr.ad Clippert ; 1881 1884, I,. 1). I l.mmrty ; 1884 
. J. II. Cli.sby. 

.\ln\(,r AdD.N ; 1827 1829, A. C. Tru.a.N ; 1829, 
James Willi.ams; 1830 1832, Ar.i Spr,it;ue ; 1832, 
II. I', rowers; 1833, Henry K.aymoiid ; 1834, 
kii hard .Sin\th; 1835 1838, II. j'. Tout is ; 1838, 
John .\. kiicker ; 1839 1842, A. C. Tni.ax ; 1.S42 
1844, Thom.is Lewis; 1844, W. J. AKurd; 1845, 
II. .S.iunders ; 184^1 1849, (',. I!, l-iloi iiin ; 184(^,11. 
(if.iy; 1850, 1 1. S.iiinders ; 1851 1855, J. I. D.avid ; 
1855, Thom.is Lewis; 185^1, II. .S.iunders; 1857 
1859, J,inics( .ampbcll ; nS^i;, D.ill.as N'orvell ; i86(j 
i.Sr,4, Willi.iin l\es; 1 S64 i8r,C,, D.ill.as Ndrvell ; 
i.S^O, ,\. Dudv^con ; 18^17, W'm. Ives ; 1868, (.'. Ives; 
18^,9 1871, John (lee ; 1 87 I , J.iines I. D.ivid ; 1872, 
.\lvin .\. Turner; 1873 1875, J.imes 1 1, \reel.iiid ; 
1875 1877, D.miel Ke.anme; 1877 1879, Willi.iin J. 
Duddlison; 1879, James 1 1. X'reel.and ; 1880, W.J. 
Duddl(son; 1881, John C lee ; 1882-1883- , Louis 
Ciidh. 

l)Ki)WNsi')\v\ : iX-\7, Mo.ses Roberts; 1828 
1830, .Sell) Diinh.im ; 1830, C, Ilrown; 1831. D. C. 
\reel.iiid; 1832, D. Smiih ; 1833 1835, John T'orbes ; 
■'^35 '"^.^7» I honi.is ll.irrym.iii ; 1837 1840, John 
I'orbes; 1840, John fook ; 1841 1844, 'Thos. I l.irry- 
ni.in; 1844, I). (.. \reel.aii(l; 1845, II. I'. X'.aii Lleve; 
i.S4r), John Forbes; 1847, Jo.seph Seidell; 1848, J. 
T'orbes; 1849, John Cook; 1850, li. T'. Knapp; 
1851, J. L. N(.ir; 1852 1854, ( leorj^e Carson ; 1854- 
1857, li. I'. Kn.ipi); 1857, J. W. \'an Riper; 1858, 
li. 1'. Kn.api); 1859 1861, J. N. Iliti li< r.i k ; 1.861- 
l.Sr,5, John W. \an Riper; 1,865-1,868, J. N. Ilitcli- 
co(k; 1868, 15. I'. Kii.api); 1869, W. II. Hooper; 
187 J 1875, William Stolid ; 1875, John Wood; 
t876 1878, Samuel T. Hendricks; 1878- , Win. 
F. Stollet. 

I'l.vMotrni : -1827 i8jo, William l5.artovv; 1830, 
R. Root; 1831, J.ames I'urdy ; 1832-1834, I'hilo 
'T.iylor; 1834, Roswell Root; 1835, I. M. Mead; 
1836, II. .\. Noyes; I037, Jon.ath.in .She.irer ; 1838. 
J.imes De Mott ; 18^9, Roswell Root; l84(j 1842, 
Henry li. Ilolbrook; 1842 1845, F. J. I'eiinim.an; 
1845 1847, II. li. Ilolbrook; 1847 1849, J. She.irer; 
|84(;, H. T"rali( k ; 1850, T",. J. I'cnnim.in ; 1851, J. 15. 
Covert; 1852, II. T'ralick ; 1853 1855, J. .S. 'Tibbetts; 
1855, C. .\. St.irkwe.ather; 1856, J. S. Tibbetts; 1857, 
II. linidley; 1858 i860, ('.. A. St.irkwe.ather ; i860- 
1.S62, Willi.am 'T.ilft ; 1862. C. A. St.irkwe.ather; 



K. A. Forsyth ; 1831 1837, William Woodbridj^c , 1863 1866, Winlield Sc<nt ; 1866 1872, Hir.im li 



I'h.iyer 

rii.ayer 

'■^9. \ 

H. H. I 

( loodcll 

( ioodcll 

•inl Sutii 
'«47.J.( 

."y 
Ill.'Ko 
Amos 1/ 
ford; iX 
Crowfoot 
nier; i,S3 
'^40. Er; 
■1". J. Do 
'''^'49. Jos 

1852 (.S54 

'•vans; (,s 
T. Kv.ans; 
•"^niiiji; |,s^ 

iX.Su, II. I 
. Joscp 

'if'cKi.ir 

N \ N K I .\ 
"• ^'h.inij); 
Aiiiiiion lir, 
^\\ifi; i.S4( 
'•'''-12, .M. .sv 

\olney W'ij 

'^5". A. |!r, 

l>. Walker; 

W'.ilkcr; i,S: 

Slr.ii-lii ; I.S' 

W.ilkcr; i,S6 

•"^1' llw.i^cii ; 

S.iiniiel A, ( 

''VS '878, J,, 

>>^7') 1881, ( 

H.iywciod; |,s 

i'i:Ki\ • I 

Ferrini-toti. 

I'tr.DIOK.i,. 
'''^'4-'. Hir.im S 
'■'''45. A. Sloek 

'''4<j. <;. W. F 

<;• V\'. Ferrin;^ 
D. S.ii kett ; i.S 
'^■ivid .S,„kitt; 
'^"'M'cr, i,S66 I 
•"^"lilli; i,SY„;, y 
■'^'K'ch.in ; ;X7i 
''^"^'•1 It. I'ierc^ 
^Voodriiff, i,S7,* 



TOWNSIIII' Ol'FlCF.kS. 



'.>' 



riiaycr; i<S7J, W mricld Scnlt ; 1875 1.S75, II. 11. 
I'liayir ; 1.S75 i,S7,S, W . S( oil ; i,S7.S, I Ic iir\ 1 liinl ; 
1X71;, W. .Scoll; iiSiSu hSSj, S. J. S|)riii;;(r; 1882, 
il. I!. I'liaycr: 1.S.S3 . C. I). Durln-. 

I'.i ipKi.'i: : il-iJ7-i8jv, J. I i< oiic ; 1.S29 183^, I). 
<i<ii)(|(ll; 1835 18;/), John raliiur; 1836 |83(;, Jonas 
( ioiidcll ; 1839, C'hailis Sliwaid; 1840 184J, Kii li- 
■nnl Stillilf ; 184: i84r), John I'.iddic; 184^,, J. Xisi^cr; 
1847. J. (ioodcll ; 1848 1856, I,. C'icolU-; 1856 iXOj, 
E. V'isj^i-r; i86j 1867, Janus A. \'is,i;cr; 1867 
, llyaiiiiilii; !•'. Ki(i|)( lie. 

IliiuoN; i8j7 i8jv, l'i(js|)cr l.anicnsc; i8_'(;, 
Amos 1 loWL- ; 1830, A. M( Natli ; 1831, J. (raw- 
ford; 1832 1S34, I!, liiadsliaw ; 1834 1836, Joliii 
Crowfoot; iX^i'i, S. II. Downs; 1837, /Xilcinas I los- 
nicr; 1838, I',. rira<lsliaw; 1839, Martin II. P'ord ; 
1840, jj-aslus I'ricsl; 1841, John Crowfoot; t842, 
T. J. Downs; [843 t84'^), John Crowfoot; i8.[C) 
t849, Joscpl) I'Aans; 1849 1852, I.. Scviraruc ; 
1852 (854, \V. S. liosnicr ; [854 i8r,8, Jomi)Ii 
i'.vans; 1868 1871, Moses K. Now land ; i87i,'!'lico. 
T. I'.vans; 1872, A. I'. 'I'liaycr; 1873 1875. C. W, 
Smith; 1875, J(jsc|)h Wall/,; 1876, Ih nry \Vav;ir ; 
1877 1879. 11. !,. Slollcl; 1879. Myicn II. i:ilis ; 
1880, II. I.. .StolKl ; 1881 1883, M. 11. i;iiis; 1883 
, josijili Wall/.. 

IIiickiin: 1827 1830, Marcus Swift. 

Nankin: 1830 1833, Man us Swift; 1833, C. 
D. Cham)); 1834, /Xdolpims r.rit;liam ; 1835 1838, 
Ammon I'irown; 1838,(1. D.Chnl)!); 1839, Marcus 
Swifl; 1840, \'. Wii^him.ui; 1841, S. I". Cady ; 
1842, M. Swift; 1843, .Ammon llrown; 1844 1846, 
\'ohicy Wi-hlman; 184(1, I'.. Ilawlcy, Jr.; 1847 
1850, .\. I'.rowii; 1850 1855, W. iMJmoiids; 1855, 
I). Walker; |85(), W. i:dmonds ; 1857 1859, D. 
Walker; 1859 i8()i, Wilh'am I'.dmonds; i8()i, D. 
Slr.iii^ht ; 1862 1864, W. l''.dmoiids; 1864, D.ivid 
W.ilkir; i8(.5 i8(,8, J. J. rainier: i8(.8 1870, (ieo. 
St( llwa;,;iii ; 1870 1872, William ImJuioikIs ; 1872, 
SamiK-l A. C.idy; 187^, 1875, ( ,e()i\;c Slellwa,;;e!i ; 
1875 iS78,John I'.. Wallaic; 1 878, Oscar S. Slrai.i.;hl ; 
|87<; 1881, ( hailes II. Cady; 1881, W illi.iui II. 
Il.iywood; 1882 , C. II. (adv. 

I'KKiN • 1830 1832, C. Ten l^yck ; 1832, C. W. 
l''erriin;loii. 

KmiIiikh: 1833 1840, C W. l'"ciTiiv.4toii ; 1840 
1842, I liiam Sc;,;iir; 1842 1845,(1. W. lerrini.;toii ; 
1845, .\. St(M kwcll ; 1846, I'. K. riioiii|)son; 1847 
|84(;, {',. W. l''errin;,;ion : 1849, .\. Stockwcll ; 1850, 
('.. W. I'crriin^loii ; 1851, D. Walker; 1852 1856, 
D. Sacketl; 1856 1862. Alfred Harris; r8C2 1864. 
D.ivid Sa. keit ; i8'S4, Alfred Harris; 1865. |. J. T. 
/ic'^lcr, i8r,r, i8r,8, J. J. I'rindU;; i8r)8. William A. 
Smith; i8ri9, A. J. Wi\om ; 1870 1872, Jetcniiali 
Sliech.iii; 1872 i.i74, Alfred Harris; 1874 1876, 
Ansel H. I'ierre; 1876, John M. Lee; 1877, A. S. 
Woodruff, 1878, Asa H. Wilmarlh; 1879 1881, H. 



I. Iiurijiss; 1881, Da\ id < ieiiey ; 1882 , John 

M. I.ee. 

Di:\KH((KN: [833 1839, C. 'ren V.yrk ; 1839, 
Cyrus Howard; 1840, M.iriin \'roonian ; 1841 '1844, 
W. <;. i'orter; 1844, Tiins Dort ; 1845, T. M. 
.Swceiicy; 184(1, Joshua Howard; 1847 185(1, Titus 
Doll; 1850, Cyrus Howard; 1851 1855, II. Wi;,^lit- 
iii.ui; 1855, T. Dort; 185^1 1858, II. Wiv^hlm.iii ; 
1858, T. Dort ; 1851;, H. Wi^litmaii ; i860 1862, K. 
C.ardiier; 1862, T. Dort ; 1863 1867, Willi.un Daly ; 
1867, T. Drui; 1868 1870, Willi.uii D.ily ; 1870 
1872, J.tred ,\. Sexton; 1872, Cli.ii les N. I'.r.iin.ird ; 
1873 1876, Willi.am Daly ; 1876 1 S78, John Coshcy ; 
1878 1881, W. Daly; 1881, Charles N. Ilraihard ; 
1882 , W. Daly. 

C.UKKNiiii.i) : 1833, N. I'. 'I'liaycr; 1834, John 
r.urb.ink ; 1835, J.icol) lianai^cr; 183(1 18^8, \. 1', 
'I'liaycr; 1838, I,. ( ioodman ; 1831;, Is.iai W. T iillon ; 
1841), D,i\id Smart ; 1841, Willi.im C. Maples ; 1842 

1846, John lllindbury; 1846, Jolin C. Williams; 
1847 1852, A. II. Otis; 1852 1854. J. Mcl'.irlaiic; 
1854, A. II. Otis; 1855. J. M( I'.irlanc; i83(), John 
.Stron;^ ; 1857 18(14, J.inics Mcl'.irlane ; |8(')4 18(19, 
I'clcr Teriies; 1869 1871, C.eorne F. I'll lard ; 1871, 
Anlhony 'rernes ; 1872 1878, Cicornr I'. I'ill.ird ; 
1878, Waller Ikiidcison; 1879, William A. Mcl'.ii- 
laiic; i88l) 1882, Waller Henderson; 1882 1884, 
Willi.im A. Mcl''arlaiic; 1884 , W. Henderson. 

( animn: 1834 1836, J.imes Salford; kSjC) 1838, 
A. \. Murray; 1838 1845, riiilandcr l!ird; 1845. 
A.Skvciis; 1846, I). I). Cady; 1847 1852, J. Sahord; 
1852 i85(), David Cady; 1856 i8(.i, J. .S.illord ; 
i8()i 1873, lir,idshaw llodvjkiiison ; 1873 1878, John 
Huston, 2(1; 1878 1884, J, lines .\. .Sal ford ; i88.| 
, II. F. Horner. 

I.ivonia: 1835 1839, Adoljiluis ISrij^ham; i83(; 

1841, (J. C. i.tacli ; 1841, Joshua I'.aiK y ; 1842, W. 
'rmile; 1843 1845, Luther Dean ; 1845 1847, (.'. C. 
I.ea(h; 1847 i85(j, S. I!. Smith; i85(j 1853, Charles 
Nohlc; 185;,, A. J. Crosby; 1854 1857, C.C. I.eaih; 
1857, C. Noble; 1858, S. Smith; |85(;, C. C. I.ea(li; 
18(10 18C2, J. S. 'libbctls; |8(.2. S. I',. Smith; 1863 
Charles Noble; 18(14 18^7, Alc.x.uidcr Dlue ; 1867, 
K. I.. .\lc.\;in(ler; 18(18 1870, S. 15 Smith; 1870 1872, 
Ira J. Ilradncr; 1872. William II. Smith; 1873-1875, 
kansom 1.. AlcNandcr; 1873 1881, Willi.im T. Kal- 
icnbury; 1881 1883, John I.. X'roomaii ; 1883, W. 
H. Fwini;; 1884 , .Abram Sirins^er. 

K(i\li;i,us: 1835 i83(>. I). J. I'lillcn ; 1839, Setli 
Marsh; 1840, N. W. I'ullcn; 1841, 11. 15. Atlams ; 

1842, N. W. I'ullcn; 1843, John T". Smith ; 1844 

1847, John Carr; 1847, N. W. I'ullcn; 1.S48. A. 1'. 
N'ouii^;; |84<;, 1,. ISi^elow ; 1850 1853, (1. W. 
Moore; 1853 1857, A. j. I'nllcn; 1857 i85(;, J. C. 
W'inkleman; 18391868, A. J. I'lilleii ; 1868, 
.Ambrose I'. Ndiin^; i86<> 1872, l^'dward Hiii.i,d(' ; 
1872, Cieorgc Frosl; 1873, Hiij;li iiradlnirn ; 1S74 



13-' 



TOWNSIIll' nl'l ICl'.kS. 



1.S77, William Whit.u ic ; 1.S77 1X71^, Kdjicii C. 
Mini; i.S7'> iSXi, \\ ill:. 1111 Wliil.Kif; 1881, K. 
Hin,v;l(: , i<S.Sj , I'ciii ( . Ilinl. 

Van liiKi n : 18^3 18 57, l-.hi m/.tr ('. l''..it(pn ; 
1857, J. ('. \;uiv;lm, 18 j8, IvC'. l-ildii ; 18 (v. J"l> 
Smilii; 184.) 1845, J. I'. Wiiii^lm ; i8.|^ i8.|v 1-li 
Itradsli.tw ; 1845 1847, (i.op^c Jrwcil ; 1847, J. 
Iliirl ; 1848, I ('. WuikIiii; 184V. '••• *• l.ilon; 
1850. k. I', (lark; 1851 i8i;5, 1,. S. AmIciMm; 
1855 i8(.;;, Willi, 1111 !•'.. W'ariitr; 18(15, Jaiiics C 
\'aiiv;lui; i8h(, 18(18, I., k. I'.iowii; 18^)8 187^, ('. 
J. I'.ailnw ; 187^ 1877, W. !■■.. W'.iiiici-; 1877. ( ,ill)crt 
I'.niwn; 1878, W'. !•'.. Waimr; 187.; 1881, Jaiiirs 
A. SicMiis; 1881 . I|(iii\ 1 1 ivis. 

Sl'MlM IK : 1840 184.1, h.i 1'. I'.cach; 184^-, 
kdhirl Mcirill ; \X.\] 1847, M. 1 1. I'lird ; 1847 184.;, 
•S. ISciincll ; |84(;. \1. II. hold; |8!;() 1858, I', I', 
Martin; 1858. 11. I'himl) ; 185.; i8r,5, T. I'. M,,riiii ; 
186^, Miiirav Slirniian ; 18^4 1871,!". I'. Martin; 
1871 1875, W'.liiii'^tnii i:ilis; 1875 1878, V. I'. 
Martin; 1878, |()s.|)li ('. Merrill; 1879, Illias 'I'. 
inv^i'isoij; 1880, j. I'.nina|i; 1881 , (li.irlis 

M-'rivil. 

I W i.oK; — 1847-184V, JarciJ 1di;.\Iuii; ib4'j-i85i, 



rclrr (iian, 1851 18(14, *liailis .Sltwaid, 18^)4, 
(i. ('. I'ulnani; i8()5 1871, J.inics l'.\;iiis; 1871, 
John A. \iooniaii; 1872, J.uiics I'.vaiis ; 1873 
1878, j. J. \rooiiiaii ; 1878 i88i), I'dcr lioll/ ; 1880, 
<;. I', (o.ui; 1881 188;, I'ticr Hull/; 1883 
I' . A. .Srliiiinan. 

(iKossh; I'oiNii:: 1848, ( ;corv;c Moraii ; i84(^, 
l);iniil ( orliv ; 1850, ( iroii;!- M;irtiii; 1851 1858, 
k. M. Kirl)y; 1858. k. Il.( oniior; 1851;, J, A|)|)ly; 
i8fi() 1863, k. M. Kiilis ; i8()} 1871. John C. 
I'iil<ii<r; 1871 1875. k. M. Kiihy; 1875 

I),l\i(l Troliililrv. 

( I I \ III W's wiMii 11 : 1870, Jolm Moivjan and 
Is.i.ic Simnv; ; 1871, l.iMiidri I cr^nsoii ,inil (. hark:s 
Wilks; 187J, ( icurv;c Mars and 1 .onis Stil/ci ; 1873, 
<ii(jr',;<- M.irx and 11. 11. I liy; 1874, ( .cor^c .\lar.\ 
,iiid lames Kiiisi ii ; 187:;, ( .eoii^c M.irx .and ( Ni ar 
S.inhiirn; 187(1, !• r;ineis Min4)hv and Jos( |ih < iirardin; 
1877, ( ;<'ori^e M.ii\ and i'atriek I'ury ; 1878, k. W'. 
I.einhton .ind J. J. Thoii ; i87i>, K. W. I,(iv;hluii 
;iiid |. I'. Del.o; 1880 |88.;, k. W'. I.ei'^hloii and 
k. M.ison; 1882, Jul. Drennan and .S. 1). Ilinds; 
1885, |. l)renn;in and S. J. I ..iwiciicc ; 1884, Charles 
S(.liullarl arnJ h. j Lavvrcnti;. 



C II A V'VKR X X f I I 



■rill'. KAKi.N' <invi:K\Mi:\r oi' Di.iKorr. incokpokation as a 'iowx. kni.i: ok 
rill'; (.()\ i;k\(»i-; and h;|)(;i;s.' ki:\'i\'AI. ov i.ocai. (;()\'i;k\Mi;N t. 



I'fir, F.MM.v r,ovr.u\'\ii-.v r of i>i rnoir. 

'I'lic v;iivciiiiiiciil .mil iIk' Im ,iI .ill.uis uI hciroii 
li.ivc .iKv.iys !( c ciM-d .illciilinii. Kiii^s, (|iiicris, and 
(■.inllll.lls, .lie lll)isl|i)|)s. I.KJics of lliv;ll (lri.;rcc, ;;i)V- 
ti"ii(ii-v;iii(rals, and i;iniials nf \\\r i( lii^iuns nrdcis, 
all ill Inrn have v;i\iii liccd in mailers loiiccrniiig 
llic " ( 'oiiiny (if ilic StiMJi. " 

kcli'^ious priijfcis. iDmincrcial ciiicrpriscs, (.(rave 
poiilic.ii sciicmrs and rniin .imdiiis were inlcr- 
\vii\cn wiili ilir m.in.iv;i'nicnl nj ilu' |ii)sl. Al 
iliirri'cni limes, p.iiii.ireji.il, miiii.iiy, aiilDir.iiie, and 

re|)lesenl.lli\c Inel In ids lia\ e liefe held su'.iy. I )e- 
l.iils cif some (if llie doings mider these dilferenl 
forms ol pouer allord r.ire iieins in the hisiory 
(il I he |i.l>l. 

{"lie v;riu\lh .md proi^l'ess of Ine.il ^ovemmenl. 
under .\meiie.iii rule is shoun ill ihe eliroiiolimieal 
lalile of eli.ulers and laws.' I)iirinv; ihe i'l't'iicli 
ii'i^iiiii-, local aiilliority was vested almost exclu- 
sively in llie eomm.ind.iiils. I'nderihe l.iicr years 
(if I'lnnlisli rule, the Court of < ieneral (hi.irter Scs 
sions exercised many of l he preroi^aiivi's appertain - 
int; to recent muuiiipal v;(i\'ernmeiits. 

INCdUI'OK \ I lo.N. 

After alownship orv;ani/.iiion w.is ohlained, tlu; 
same ((Uirl ih.il i;r.iuie(l il administei( d the few 
simple rev;Mlalions that the small si-ttiemeni re(|iiirfd. 

In January, i8()», .i petilion of citi/.ens of Detroit 
W.is |)reselited to the I .ej.jislat lire of the Northwest 
'reiritorv, ,it ( hillit olhc, askiiiy; for tlie iin i upor.itioii 
(if the lown. To this end ,i iiill w.is iiitrodui ( il in 
the Assemhly hy Solomon Silile\'. The I'pper 
I louse or ('ouiicil |)roposi(l wirimis ;unendments, 
lull ihe .Assemlily would not ,i',;ree to ilu in. I'inally 
a eommiltee of conlerelK !• W.IS ,ippointed, and as 
tile result of their dejilieralions, the liil! was p.issed 
in its ori;,;in.il form on j.inuarv i'^. Tlic .\i I w.is to 
t.ike elfeci on the jirst of l''el)ru.irv. .\t the lirst 
elecliiill of the corpo'Mtidn, the freedom of the 
lowii W.IS ('(inferred upon Mr. .Sifiley in rec(n.;iiition 
of his efforts in lieh.ilf of ihc hill. Tiie Act named 
ihe follov'.iiiiLj persons as (illiecrs, and tliey were to 
serve iinlil .in election should he lield : 



.\|l|Mlllll\ II. 



Tnistcos, John Askiri, Jniiu DndciTifafl, James 
Ileiiry, ( h.irles l''rancis ( lir.irdin, .and Joseph (am- 
|i.iu ; Sei rei.iry, j'eler Audr.iin; Assessor, Kolierl 
Ablioll ; Collector, J.icoli C'lelllelis ; .M.ush.ll, I'.ii.is 
W.illell. 

At tin: lirst nieeiinij of ihe trustees, on l'"el)ruary 
(J, 1802, Messrs. (iir.irdiii .iiid W.ilien wert- .ihseiit 
from homo, J.imes Henry w.is appoinied ( h.iirm.m, 
and John hodeine.id. iriMsurer. J.unes I'eliier w;is 
m.lde inessi ii^( I ol the liustees. 

The lirsl election, on .\I.iy \, iSo.!, icsiilled in the 
rctelllion of .ill the old I riistees except John .\skill, 
( ieori^c Meldrum l)eiii;>f clecled in his ste.id. Tin; 
secrel.iry, .assessor, and in.irsh.il were continued in 
ollice. W'illi.im Smith w.is elected eolleitor; lu; 
resii,;iie(!, .iiid llu: iriislees .ippointed (dnr.id Seek. 
■|'1k; old ch.iirm.m .ind trti.xsufer were re.ipiioinied. 

( )n M;iy J, iSo^, the follow iiiv; ollieers ucrc 
cIccIimI : Trustees, Koliiit Alilioti. ( h.iries Ciirrv, 
J.unes ,\I, IV, I). W. Scott. I'., r.riisli , Se( rel.iry. I'eler 
Audr.iin, Assessor, 1. Mct'l'.ie; C(ille( lor, John 
lieiitley. M.irsh.tl, Kich.ird .Smyth. 

J.imes M.iy w.is .appointed ch.iirm.in, Robert 
Abliolt ire.isiirer, .and Louis I'eliier messeiiirer. 

'i'lu! <'leciion of .\I.iy 7, 1X114, resiilhd in the .111- 
poiiitmeiit of ili(t followinv; ollnirs: 'rruslees, 
.Solomon Siblev. |.inies Aliboll, lleiiry iierllielet, 
Joseph Wilkinson, Kicderick it.iles; Sec rel.irs', I'eler 
Audr.iin; .\ssessor, John W'.ilson ; Cdlleeior, I'eter 
I )esnovers ; M.iishal, 'riiom.is Mc('r.ie. 

.\t .1 iiieeliii;.; Ill the inistees on M.i\- 11, 1804, 
Solommi Silile\- w.i, iii.ide 1 li.iiriii.in, ,iiid the former 

tre.lSlirer .Uld messclivjer were eolllinued. ( )u 

Ai||.;usl 6, I.S(>4, |. I'.te. ri(|tlelle w.is .ippoilUed (ol- 
Ici tor in pl.n e of Mr. Desiiovers, who w.is .ibseiil, 
.111(1 on I )ecemlier \, |S()4, John Connor w.is .ippointed 
m.iish.il in pl.iee of '!'. McCr.ie, " who lias lefl llio 
coiintrv." 

The List olCiccrs elected under llie Acl were 
chosen on M.iy (■>. iSot;. .and were .is follows; Trus- 
tees, l.iines Abbott. Dr. W'illi.im Hrown, Dr. Joseph 
Wilkinson, {■■fed li.iies, .and John W'illi.ims ; .Se( re- 
t.irv. I'. Audr.iin; Assessor, J. W.itson; Colleclor, 
J. lite. I'i(|nelle; M.irsli.al, Joiin Connor. The 
Iriisleis were sworii in mi May 11, and on the s.uiio 



r->4 



RULE OF THE GOVERNOR AND Jl'DCES. 



clay ai)i)()iiunii'ius \wvc mado as follows : Joseph 
Wilkinson, chairman; Jaiiu's Ahholt, tn-asiircr ; 
1.. IVItiiT, nn'ssciivicr ; and John Connor, cliTk of 
m.'irki't and police olliccr. 

Just one nionih later tht: fire of June ii wiped out 
not only the town, but the corporation as well, and 
iiuroiluced the administration of the ("lovernor and 
Judijes. 

KIM.K OF TIIK C'.dVKRMtR AND JUIiCKS. 

This title desijrn;ites a form of (government unlike 
anythinir afforded by tiu' history of ,iny other \)\:n\: 
in the Uniti'd Slates. An irresponsible ;ind uncon- 
trolk;d autocracy f.istened itself upon the pt'ople, .tnd 
for a lonv;' st'ries of ve.ars this anom.ilous government, 
a strani^e compound of lei^ality .and assumption, 
held absolute sw.iv. exercisint;' almost unlimited con- 
trol over the lands and laws, the persons .and 
pro|)erty. of the town. A condition of affairs ex- 
isteil. at once so exceptional .and so sintjular, that the 
relation of .ntu.il f.icts seems like ;i record of feudal 
times. To obt.iin anythiui^- like ;i clear conci'ption of 
those days this .article .should be re.id in connection 
with the ch,ii>ters on " I.ev^isl.itures and Laws," 
" I'ublie Dom.iin .and Ciovernor and Judyfcs' I'l.an," 
"Supreme Court of the Territory." '• IJanks and 
n.inkinvr." and " Militi.i." 

liy a str.mi^e conjunction a( oirctmistances. the 
Oovernor and Judges of the Territory, who liad 
btuii .ip|iointed Janu.ary 1 1. just live months previous 
to the tire, arrived on the tl.iy following; tliat event. 
There was l)ut little left in the town for the old 
trustees to exercise authority upon, ;ind both trustees 
and people n.atur.illy turned for assistance ,and 
counsel to their territori.il riders. The Ciovenior 
and Jud,!.(es. havinij a whole Territory to care for, 
niiii;ht very ajipropriately h.ive av.ailed thi'inselves of 
the services of the ollicers of the town in the en- 
deavor to bring order out of chaos, especially as the 
very Act that created the corporation of 1X02 had 
been p.'issed upon .and .approved by the body that 
appointed the (iovt'rnor .and Judges, and bisides, 
there were among the trustees and citizens men who 
Were the efjiLils of the new territori.il ollicers in 
learning antl ability, and fully capable of acting in 
any capacity. 

(iovernor Hull ;ind Judge Woodward, however, 
seeing an opportunity to obt.iin increased power ;md 
p.atron.ige. did not f.iil to improve it. Tiny ])assed 
by all the prominent citizens of Detroit, ignored the 
officials and the corporation of 1802, and procured 
the p.isKage of the Act of April 21, 1806, which 
gave to them alone the pov\-er to lay out a new town 
and dispose of the town lands. I'rom this time 
they acted in a (htal cap.acity, becoming, in fact, the 
executive ollicers of the town, iis well as (,f the Ter- 



ritory. That they intended to do away with the 
old .i\ct of 1802, and control the .administr.ation of 
loi al affairs, is evident from the f.act that on Si'p- 
temi.er 13, 1806, they p.issi-d .an Act [irovidiiig for 
the inc<"'i)or,ilion of the city of Detroit, tlie real aim 
of which is shown in the liMtcrs of John (lentle, pub- 
lished in the rillsburgh Conunonwi'.ilth. The Act 
itself, still in existence in the original manuscript 
signed by tlu- Ciosernor .md Judges, shows th.it Mr. 
("icntlc's statemeius ;ire true, .and th.al all the jiower 
was re.illy \esled in the m.iyor. .ind th.it he was 
.appointed by the g<i\'i'rnor, who thus rel.iincd the 
ultim.ite control over the affairs of the city. Mr. 
Cientle says: 

'I'liis siiniimr the lojjisl.uive Im.ird passrd a l.'iw inriirp(>i..tinK 
tlic town (if Dclniit iiUi) a city. 'I'tu' jjovcTiinr cuiifrrnd ihi' 
ntayorsliip on Siilniiion Sil)lcy, wlio a<l\'rrl Ucd tlir (-ili/t-ns t*» 
assf-mlilr fur tlur piirpcmc nf rhoosiii!^ a first and srcind <'inni('it, 
ti) ciinsist of tlirci! nicildnrs I'acli. Arcordinvjly llir followini; 
prrsons wrrc rlcitcd: l''irst ('onncil, Stanley (Iriswold, Jolni 
llarviy, IN Icr Dcsnoycrs; Scioml C'onniil, Isaai: Jonis, Joint 
tii-nllf, Jantrs I tocK-incad. 

A fiw days afUr tin; (dcctinn, Solomon Sibley relinqnislied tlis 
tnayorsliip, and l''.!ijali i'.rnsli was appointed by llie >;oviTnor 
mayor of tin; rily in liis stead. Some time in the nionl'i of 
|le(tnilier followini;, tlx' (lovernor and Jn(li;<s weri' com milting 
some depredations upon the striits nf llie new town, entin ly 
111 PI kint; np one, layin.i; it out in lots, and disjxisin^; of them al an 
mormons price, to the >;reat dam.i>;i' of the adjoining settlers; uii(. 
removing; .inotluT street aliont fifty feet, on purpose to make thu 
liank form the corner of the two streets, and eiilarKi- the .iveinie to 
the j;overnor's mansion, to tin; >;real damage (if the prim ipal 
ian>;e of honsi s in tlut new town. I'hesi: ilai^rant infra( lions on 
the rights and privileges of thu citizens did not fail to allrac t the 
.nltcnlion of the city coinicil. They assemliled to cvaniiiie, for 
the first time, the corporation law, and to ascertain the extent of 
their jnrisdiction. lint how ureal was their astonishment when 
they disi (ivered that the w hole of thu corporation powers centred 
in the mayor alone. 

♦ ***•♦♦♦♦**♦ 

'I'hat the dec lions of the ciinncils was .1 mere mockery, .and an 
insult lo the iniderstandinKs of the c!li/cns, will evidi ntly appear 
liy the following exlra( t from the corporation law itself: "And l)e 
it farther enacted, that every Hill, or Act, having passed l)y a 
majority of both chambers, before it becomes a law shall be pre- 
sented to the mayor, :ind if not approved by him shall not take 
cffeil.or be(oriie a law, but shall be retnrned, with his objeit ions, to 
till chamber in whi( h it last passed, thereto remain (for here it 
sloppedl /« xf,ifii quo until the day of Jiul.v,'nient, without fnrlher 
reionsideration." lint they ought lo have added a few more 
words, to the following etTect: Who shall enter the obj( i lion at 
large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it, and if after such 
reconsideration, two thirds of that chamber shall agree to pass the 
I'ill, it shall be Sent, together with the objections, to the other 
« handier, by \vhi( h it shall also be reconsidered, and if approved 
of liy two thirds of them it shall Iiecome a law, etc. 'I'lieii the 
powir of the iwochamliers would lie complete, and in exiict simili- 
tmle with tin' power vested in ('very (ither body lorporate in the 
Christian world, lint as the Detroit (^ iporation .\tt now stands, 
<if wl.il h the forejjoing extract is the most important p.irl, I defy 
the most enliijhtened age to produce anything so ridienlonsly 
alisnrd. Hy it the mayor is dothed with an .ibsohite negative in 
all cases whatsoever, and by it the two coiiniils are clothed wilh 
absohite insignific.ince. They are, if i may be allowed the expres- 
sion, a body without Rllts. Instead of having power to open one 
street, and prevent the removal of another, they had not power to 
open a hog-pcn, or prevent the removal of ii hen-roosl. 



RF.VIVAI. OF LOCAL COVKRNMKNT. 



i:>5 



So i,ac;it was tlu- iiKlij^natioii of tlic people tlial 
offu-ers were clccu-d but once iiikIct this corpora- 
tion, and on l-'cbruary 24, 1809, tlie law was re- 
pealed. The next act in the farc-e was the repeal, 
on Septeml)er 16, 1810, of all laws jiertaininy; to 
Miehiiran that liad bcH'n adopted l)y the Levjislature 
of tlu; Nortiiwest Territory. This j,oive tlie k^al 
finish to the Act of 1802, and, as had been the case 
from the d.ite of the fire, tlie (ioveriior ;ind Jndvjes 
conliiiiieil to exercise control o\cr tlie affairs of the 
town. They had lots to sell and lots to \i\\t.: aw.iy ; 
they lired salutes, buried the dead, and supi)orted 
the pau|H'rs. 

In an old play, Robin Rouijhhead is rei^resented 
as sayinij^. on coniiiiir into possession of a fortune, 
"There sha'n't be any widows, for I 'II marry 
them all, nor any orph.ms, for 1 '11 f.ither ibem 
all"; and if there had been no objection, the dov- 
ernor and Judjjes, seemint,dy, would have been 
e(|iially vjenerous. In ;i word, they .acted as alnion- 
ers-jrencnil, p.iyinij out moneys from the Detroit 
Fund without consult.ition with any man or body 
of men, and renderinij no account therefor. This 
st.ite of aff.'iirs continued until after lie War of 
1812. 



kKVI\ \l, ()|- !,()( Al, (;f)VKRNMKN r. 

b'niler the j^'overncjrship of (ieneral Cass, an Act 
of October 24, 1815, restored the control of local 
aff.iirs to the people. Five trustees were elected on 
October 30 to .serve until the first Monday of .NLiy, 
i8i(), .after which d.ate olTicers were to be electeil 
yearly. The followini^ persons served as trustees: 
1S15, Solomon .Sibley, chairman, J.imes Abbott; 
iSif), (',eori;e McDoufj.'ill, ch.iirm.m, Stephen Mack, 
A. Kdw.irds, O. \V. Miller, i'der Desimyers, and 
Oliver Williams, the last named in place of Mc- 
I )ou,i(.iII for about two months; 1817, Abraham Fd- 
wards cliairman, S. Mack, Charles Larned O. W. 
Miller. Antoiiie I)e(juindre; 1818, John R.Williams, 
ehairm.m, L. Deciuindre, Richard Smyth, C. Ten 
I'lyck, Joseph C.imi\m; 1S19, J.imes MrCloski-y. 
cliairman. A. I)e(|iiindre. .Xbr.ih.im Weiidill, James 
Connor. Thom.'is I'.ilmer; 1820, James Abbott, 
chairm.in, J. McCloskey, 1'. J. Desnoyers. 'ihom.is 
Rowland, John Hunt; 1821, A. ('■. Whitney, ehair- 
m.m. A. K. Win^^ Levi Cook, S. Con.int. J.icob 
Eilert ; 1822, A. < '.. Whitney, chairman, A. K. Winn, 
Calvin Baker, Levi Cook, Ch.arles Willcox; 1823, J. 
Abbott, ch.iirm.in, Louis Defjuindre, IL J. Hunt. 
John P. Sheldon, C. Uakcr. 



CHAP T K R X X I V. 



Till". COMMON COUNCIL OR iiOARD OF ALDKUMKN.- I'.OAKD OF COKNCILMEN. 
oRniNANCilS. OFFICIAL VFAR.— CITY SISALS. 



COMMdN ((UN( II., 

TllK vjoveriiiiu'ni uiulcr tiic ii.iiiif of " i'lu' Hoard 
f)f Triistcfs" came loan iinl. and tiu' Common Coiiii- 
ri! was created by Ail of .\ii'.;iist 5, 1.SJ4. i'lic tirsi 
.session was iield on Se|)tiini)ir Ji, 1.S24. The iiew^ 
ol'l'ii-ials were e\'idenl!\' determint'd to jiave ,ill tlie 
"lii,du" possii)le in order to the proper dis('liarv;e ol 
their (Itities. as tiu' proci'edin;^s for September 25 
show that tin- marshal uas ordered to '• pureiiase 
for tile use of tile eouiifii and m.iyor's eonrt four 
brass eandlesiieks, two pairs of sniitfers, ten |)oniuls 
of sperm candles, and a bo.x for the safe Iseepini; of 
the s.mu'." 

'The si'ssioiis wore held at v.irious places as eoii- 
veiiience seemed to dictate, sometimes at the store 
oroHice of one of t lie aldermen; sometimes at \Vo(jd- 
worth's Hotel; and now and then at tlio old Coun- 
cil Mouse. When the i ity came into possession of 
the Military Reserve, one of the old biiildinirs, kimwii 
as Military I lall. located just wt'st of I'"ort Shelby. 
was .i|)propriated, and a .session held therein on No- 
vember 15, 1836. On May i, 1.S27, a nieetini;- \v,is 
held on the banks of the river Savoyard, between 
Oiswold and Ca.ss Streets, for the purpose of e.x- 
aniinin,i( the stream with a view to i-haii'^inir its 
course. On M;iy iS. 1827. a session w.is held ;it the 
market on Woodw.ird Avenue, just south of Jeffer- 
son Avenue. From iS^/to 1.S34 si'ssioris wert' held 
in .Military I Fall, which w.is newly ehrist'Mied as the 
Council House. On .November 10. 1X34, it was de- 
cided to hold sessions in the old Council House, on 
the corner of Jefferson .Avenue and R.indolph Street. 
In icS^j sessions were held in Williams' I'.lock, on 
the southeast corner of Jefferson .Avenue and Hates 
Street. The <'iiy Hall was conipk'ted the same 
year. ;ind a small mom ii the first story w .as used 
for the niectiiii^sof the i'()un(il. The old I'irenu'n's 
H.all, on the northwest ( orner of L.irned .ind IS.ites 
Streets, w.is the next pi. ice of nleetinl,^ 'i"he I'irst 
.session w.as held there on DecemtuT 24. iS^)' "' -'"i 
upper room. In the suu.,ner of i,S52 the council re- 
turned to the old City H.all, the upper p.irt of which 
h.ad been fitted up for its use. This continued to 
be the place of meetiiiv; until Julv iS, i,S7i. wluii 
the old buildini,^ W.IS formally v.icited, uid sessions 



were tlu're.ifter held in the council ch.amber of the 
iH'W e'iiy I l.ill. 

In 1825 si'ssions were held on Mond,i\ e\ciiinvi. 
Ourim;' the choler.i season of 1834 sessions wt're 
held twici' .ad.iy. On .\\m\ 13. 1835.it w.is resoKed 
to nu'ct on Wednesd.iy evcniiii;. Oi; .\uv;iist 31, 
183^), the linu' w;is ch;inv;ed to Tuesda\ . After 
.\u,;;i; -, 1838, the council for ;i short time held its 
sc'-^ions ;it 2 I'. \l. on Tuesd.iys. Cnder Act of 
.■.|.ril 5. 1869, the council, on June 8, bc^j.in holdin.ij 
sessions on Tuesd.i)- .and I'rid.iy cxeiiinns of e.ii'h 
week. .\ct of June 6. 1881. provided th.it but oiu' 
si'ssion .1 wi'ck should thereafter be held. ,uid .ifter 
th.il d.ite si'ssions were held on Tiiesd.iy I'Veninn'. 
Speci.il mei'tinns I'an be liild on the call of the 
president, thouijli no business can be ir.uis.acti'd that 
is not mentioned in the call. 

I'nder .Act of 1824 live .ildermen. together with 
till' m.ivor ,aiid ri'corder. constituted the cmnicil. 
An .Act of 1827 iniTeased the number of .ildermen 
to seven. I'nder Act of 1839 two .ildernuii from 
each w.ard. with the mayor ;ind recorder, composed 
the fourteen members of the council. In 1848, by 
the creation of tlu' seventh ward, two more mem- 
bers were .added. The new eighth w.iril. in 1849, 
)i;.ive two additional members, , and in 1857 the ninth 
■and tenth w.ards. four more; but .as the .Act of 1837 
jirovided that the m.avor ;uid recordi'r should no 
longer sit as members, the council consisted of but 
twenl) members. In 1873 the twelfth w.ard .added 
two members, .and for .about two weeks in 1874 two 
meml)ei-s from the then illei^.allv constituted elesenlh 
w.ard sat with the council. In 1875 by the creation 
of the eleventh .uul thirteenth w.ards, four members 
were .added, increisiii!,; the number of members to 
t wenl\-six. 

( )ri'.^in,ally. .a m,ijoiii\- of ail the members, includ- 
hv^ tlie ni,iyor ,iiid ri i-order, edustiiuii d ,1 (|uorum. 
Cnder .Act of i83(;, the presence of the niasur. 
recorder, .and six .aldermen w.is necess;irv. liv 
.\ct of 184S till- m.iyor, recorder, .and live .aldermen 
formed .1 iiuorum. I'>\ .\ct of 1S51 the m.ayor 
,and .a m.ajority of the ,ilil< rmen were suHicient ; 
since |8|;7 .a iiLijoi-ity ol .all the .aldermen constitutes 
.1 (|Uoruni. In case .a (juorum is l.ickini;. by \()te of 



Ic'l 



a m.ijor 

m.iy .ser 

meetin,;^ 

Thc'l 

were ,1(1 

rules ari 

meiits ol 

l)V the el 

no i|uest 

be p.assiv 

.and no 1 

lion in w 

of .a tie 

of one f(i 

by the eh 

ill 183^ 

on Cl.iini: 

Heilth, ; 

abo\e coi 

mittces 01 

Licenses. 

added. I 

li.<lits, Sev 

there wer 

ch.ir;;e of 

sever.i! n;i 

.Mean.s, Jn 

Life Limit! 

.Sewers. T 

Markets. , 

Licenses, ( 

fliarter of 

Aldermen. 

It I losses 

I'ower to si 

by Coiii^iv 

I" the l.an 

<See .article 

ceedinifs of 

in book for 

exception of 

i.ssued <-()nt.i 

of city order 

city ijovernn 

I'rior to I 

recorder, pr 

ch.arter of 18 

its own |)resi 

In iSr,7 a str 

5. look place 

aldermen vol 

and I'.iul (iie 

This contest ( 

ni.ary 14, 186; 

existed in tin 

preside until t 

File jiresid 



HOARDS ()!• AI.DI'.KMKN AND CorXCII.MI'.N. 



'.V 



a iiiajorily of tlu' akltiiiicii piisiiu, ilu' president 
may send an oltici'r to brim; the (lt'lin(|iii'iUs t<> llu- 
iiii'ftiiii;. 

Tlu' lirsl riik's for tlir ,i;()\viiinu'nl of lIu' council 
were adopted on Aiiijust i6, iSp, and the present 
rules rire snhslantially tlie sanu'. Petitions or docn- 
nicnts of anv propi'r sort niav he presented cither 
hv the cli'rk or an aldi'rnian. If objection is made, 
no (|iiesiion invoKinvj llu' expenditure of money can 
he passed upon at the nu'etini; wheii it is introchieed ; 
and no membi'r of tln' council may vote on a (|ues- 
tion 111 \\iiicl' hi' is jMH-uniarily interi'sted. In ca'-c 
of a tie \n , the iiuestion is lost. ( )n the demand 
of OIK- fourdi of the number iJixsent, or if callcil for 
by the chair, the ;iyes and noes must bo taken. 

In 1S3C) there were live slandinn commitleis, vi/., 
on Claims and Accounts, Ways and .Means, Streets, 
Health, ;md I''ire I)e|Virtment. In 1.S42 ,ill the 
,abo\(' committees were in existence', ,uid also com- 
niittdson Hydraulic Works, .Markets. I'rintinir, and 
Licenses. In l''^49 a L'ommittii' on T.ixes w.as 
added. In 1S55 eommittei's were named on ( 'i.is- 
lii^hts. Sewers, I'ublie r.uil(liii!L;s, ,ind Parks. In 1.SS3 
tlii're were twenty sl,indiiv< <-ominittees, ha\in,n 
I'hari^e of such matters as .ire indicati'd by their 
several names, which ,ire as follows: Ways and 
Means, Judiciary, Claims and .Accounts, Streets, 
I''ire Limits, House of Correction, Public P)uildin;^s, 
Sew'ers, 'I'axes, P.irks, Street ( )pcniii',4s, Printini;, 
Markets, Health, ( lasliijhts, < >rdin,inccs. Pounds, 
Licenses, City Ilospit.il, and Li(|uor Ponds. Tlu' 
ch.irter of l<SiS3 desii;natcs this body the Ilo.ird of 
Aldermen. 

It ])ossesses a singular sort of authority in its 
power to sit .IS ,a Land ISo.ird, a power conferred 
by Compress in 1S4J, when the City suirec-ded 
to the l.ind trust of thi' (lovciiior ,ind Judges. 
(See .article on Land lio.irds.) Since i.S5:;tln' jiro- 
ceedinv;s of the council li,i\c been luiblished yearly 
in book form; and .innii.illy from 1.S66, with the 
exception of one or two \e.irs, ;i m.inu.al h.is bei'ii 
issued conl.aininu the rules of the council ,ind n.uiies 
of city ol'liccrs, with wirious det.iils concerniin^ the 
cit\' i^overnmciit. 

Prior to 11^37, the m.iyor, or in his .ibsenci', the 
recorder, jiresided over tiie council. I'nder the 
eh.irter of i<S57 the council was ,authori/itl to elect 
its own president, anil also .a president //<' Icinpotc. 
In i8^>7 .1 strii,i(jL;^le, l.astiny; froin Lmu.ary S to March 
5, took place over the election of a presitleiit. The 
aldermen voted for were H. C. Kni,i,dU, |. 1 ). Weir, 
,111(1 P.iul Ciies. 'I"he last n.amed was linalK chosen. 
Ibis contest eau.sed the pass,i,i;e of the Act of Feb- 
ru.iry 14. 1867, which provided that when a vacancy 
existed in the ollice of president, the clerk should 
]>resi(le until the otiiee w.is lilled. 

The president appoints .all standing committees. 



the first person chosen on acommitloe to be chairman. 
I'.itlier of the elected presiding otlieers may eali 
upon .any of the .ildermen to .lel as temporary ch.iir- 
m.an. CiKler .Act of 1.S57, in the absence of the 
m.iyor, the iiresideiit of the council di.sch.arges his 
duties. I>y l.iw of iS.Si .uid ( h.u-ter of 18S3, the 
president of the Ilo.ird of t'oiinciliiK'n, or in his 
.absence, the president of the Hoard of Aldermen, 
becomes .n'ling mayor. 

The following persons li.ive served .as presidents: 
1S57, II. .\. Morrow; 1S5.S .md 1831;, Willi.im C. 
Dunc.in; 1.S60, X.ith.aniel P. J.acobs ; 1861, J.icob .S. 
I'.arr.ind ; 1862 and 1863, Fr.ancis |{. Phel|>s; 1864 
.iiid 1.S65, S. Dow KIwood; 1866, Willi.im P.rodie ; 
1867,111(1 i8r),S, P.aiil C.ies; i8r,(y, Willi.im S. Pond; 
1870, Willi.im Koxen; i87i,(;eorge W. P.ileh; 1872 
1875, Willi,im II. L.ingley; 1875, W. (i. 'i'liomii- 
son ; 1876, ('.. W. Hough; 1877, Henry lie.imes; 
1878, T. I). Il.iwley; i87(; 1.S82, Ch.irles Kwers ; 
1882. 1'.. K. Roberts ; 1883, J. i;. \'incent, Henry 
Klei; 1884, W. !•;. .Moloney. 

lloAkli Ol' COINCII.MKN. 

This body, origin.illy called the City Council, was 
created by .\ct of Ajiril 12, 1881. The ,ict pro- 
vided for the election of twelve |)ersoiis from the 
city ,it l.irge. The first twelve members, chosen in 
November, 1S81, were elected in grou|)s of three for 
terms of otie, two, three, and four ye.irs, and three 
members were to be I'lected ye.irly ihere.ifler for 
terms of four years eacii. This body w.as origiii;illy 
supposed to possess the jwiwers formerly exercised by 
the Hoard of I''.stimates. and all proceedings rel.iting 
to the levying of t.ixes, the ex|H'nditure of money, or 
the incurring of li.ibilities of .any sort, were re(|iiired 
to li,i\-e its .ippro\Ml. liy the revised eh.irter of 
1883 the Ho.ird of Coiincilmen has only e(|u.il power 
with the Pio.ird of .Aldermen in so f.ir .is m.ilters of 
t.ix.ition .111(1 legisl.ation .are concerned, but tliev 
.aloiie, on ihe iiomin.ition of the m.ayor, eonlirm ;i 
in.ijorily of the leading officei's of the city .and mem- 
bers of the sever.il bo.irds. Resolutions of .any 
kind m.iy origiii.ite in either bo.ird. Hotli bodies 
• ire rc(iuired to meet in joint session when the .aniiu.il 
report of the m.iyor is ni.ide, .md they m.ay unite .at 
other times. 

.\ m.ijority of the councilmen constitutes .'i f|iiorum. 
'ihe rules are much the s.inie .as those of the 
Hoard m Aldermen, ,ind the st.inding committees 
.ire the same, ex( cpt th.it this body h.is no commit- 
tees on I'irc Limits, Licenses, or Li(|uor Hoiids, ,iiid 
h.is committees on l'"r.incliiscs .iiid Privileges, on 
Rules, and on joint Resolutions, which the other 
bo.ird floes not h.ave. Weekly sessions .are held on 
l''rid.iy evening. 

'I'he t'ity Council held its first meeting on J.inuary 
10, I S82, ,111(1 org.ini/cd by electing .as president A. 



■ ;v^ 



OUDINAN'CF.S. OF-KlLl AI. YI.Ai:. CUV Si:Al.S. 



II. Kaynor; he was re-clocted in r<S.S3. In 1.S84 
llrnry I). MarnaiHl was ili'ctcd president. His 
death occurred soon after, .md he was siieeet'dcd by 
'I'hendnre Rent/. Tlu' names and terms of the first 
ineml)ers wi're as follows: l""or one year, A. II. 
Kaynor, A. .M. Henry, .S. A. I'lummcr; for two years, 
J. T. I.owry, .S. (1. Caskey, II. K. Newlxrry ; for 
three ye.irs. S. C. Watson, John MeCirevjor, Thomas 
Merry; for four years, !•". \V. .Swift, J I. I). iS.irnard, 
.S. U. ( irummond. The niemhers tiected in 1.S82 
wtTc A. 11. R.iynor, M. H. Ch.imherl.iin, and Theo- 
dont Kent/, i'he menihers elected for rcijiiiar terms 
in I.SS3 were Morse Stew.irt, Jr., R,il|)h i'lieljis, Jr., 
and Henry \'.. Ch.impion, .md at a speci.il election on 
Deceinlier 27, 1.S.S3, August ( loehel was elected 
for two yi'.irs, in place of .S. li. ("inimniond resigned, 

okhlNANCKS. 

The Act of 1S02 ifave the trustees power to 
ord.iin rules for the ^-ovi'mment of tlu- town, but 
their ordin.inces wert' to be siibniitted to the \-oters 
at the annn.il nx'etinv;-. .iml if dis.ipproved were 
there.ifter to be null .ind \i>id. .\ pro\ision for the 
submission of ordinances to the people was also 
cont.iined in the .Act of 11X15. I'nder this provision, 
at the ,innu,il election in M;iy, I1S20, an ordinance 
concerniny^ hov(s rtninini; ;it larijc was voted out of 
c.xistetice, and in the followinvr ye;ir one in rei^.ird to 
tires, i>assed live years before, was re|)eale(l because 
"uiie(|ua! and oppressive." 

The by-laws and ordinant-es were first printed in 
1825. On Febni.iry 13, 1.S26. the marshal was 
directed to leave "one copy . it every house, where 
the owner or occupant h.as not alrc.idy been fur- 
nished." 

In 181 3 the council rules reqin"red every ordinance 
to be re.'id three; times befon- bcinj,^ fm.illy voted on, 
and an ordinance could be read but once at the same 
session, unless by special vote. The first and second 
readinyfs are usually by title only, and all ordinances 
are required to be approved by lioth councilmen ;ind 
al<lermen. In addition U) the ordinances printed in 
pamphlet form in 1825, revisions in book form were 
issued in 1831, 1836. 1842, 1855. 1863, 1871, and 
1878. 

OFFICIAI. YKAR. 
Under the Acts of 1802 and 181 5 the trustees 
were to qualify within ten days after the first Mon- 
day of May. By Act of 1824 aldermen were to 
qualify within fifteen days after the first Monday of 
April, and by Act of 1839 their term of office beij.in 
as soon after the first Monday in March as they 
took tile recjuisite oath. An Act of 1855 provided 
that the official year should begin on the .second 
Tuesday in February. ]?y Act of 1857 the .second 
Tuesday in January was ti.xed upon as the time for 



the first session of the new ( ouncil. In so f.ir as 
elected ollicers .ire concerned, their terms still be.:.,dn 
;it th.it time, but since iM7<; the terms of ollicers 
.ippointed bv the <<iunril, except members of tlu; 
sevi-ral commissions, bej^in on the first day of July. 

(irv SKAl.S. 

The first se.il of the city was adoi)tiil on J.inu.iry 
3, 1815. Thomas Rowland w.is then secretary. 
The records of the i'.o;ird of Trustees show the fol- 
lowing; : 

I'titil a cnrponitc scitl shall In" pnn urrd, tlir st-rrrtary of iho 
I'li.ird I'f Iru-tiMS shall use and apply his private si'al, wliiih is 
liiri'liy adiipii'd and inailr ihr sial cif ihr < iirpiiraliiin uf Dcliuil. 

The ne.xt se.il of the city w,is also a pri\;ite one, 
beloniijinvf to John R. Williams, the mayor. It was 
tempor.irily adopted on .September zt,, 1S24, ;ind w.is 
desi-ribi'd .is ix'ini;' m.ide of red c,ii iv li.m set in .iljoUI, 
octagon.il in form, .md .iboul one :■ ',\ in dianu'ter. 
In the center was eiivjraved .1 shield with three 
di'urs delis; underneath the shield w;is the motto, 
" I..1 justice mon de\iiir," ;ind )\e!' it the letters J. 
R. \V. 

The third seal ;idopted was likewise priv.ite prop- 
erty. The official proceedinyjs of the Common 
Council for May kj, i 8 2''i, contain this record: 

AV-nV™/, that a wall h-sc.il l)ilcin>,'iii(t Ik .May^ir lliiiil lie, and 
thir s;uno is h<Ti-l)y adciptcd as a temporary seal of the city of 
Ketroit, til Im! nsi-d until a permanent seal shall lie pnieured. Said 
s<'al (imsists of a topaz set in ),'old, on whieh are enis'ravid the 
initial letters H. J. II. 

The fourth seal belonjfed to Jonathan Ki'arslcy. 
and the Common Council I'roceedinns for November 
13, 1826, show the ;ido|)lion of the followinit;' : 

AV.V('/rv*/, that a brass seal, l)elonxin.< to the Keeorder of this 
eily, and heariukj the initial letters J. K., he and the s;Mn<: is 
hereliy adopted as the seal of the c iiy until a perntanent seal shall 
he prorured. 

The fifth .md present se.il was ski'tched by J. (). 
Lewis, for which service he w.is p.iid live dollars. 
The foUowinv; history of this se.il is t;iken from the 
Council Reconis for March 26, 1827: 




Si'.AL oi' iiih, Cuv. {l-.\act size.) 



CITY SEALS. 



'39 



Till' Miiyiir pri-wntL'U to the Cninmon C'oiiiuil ii xt'iil pniriirfd 

l>>' him friiin Mr. Williain Wiijjiiir, of Yiirk, I'ciiiis) Iviiiiiii, in piir- 
-■iiiiiic c of a n'Hiiliitiiin |la^s<'(l mi llw lifliiiitli clay of January liixt, 
Nshirrnpiiii it was 

A'cfi'/rW, llial (lie samr siiil lie adapted, and shall licrrafliT !«' 
and ri'inain the pcnnanrnt sial nf the illy nf I'ltrnii; and lliat 
I lie folliiwin>; he n-rordt'd as (he drsrription of thi* siiint'f tii wit ; 
rill' pirinani'lit wal of ihr rily of Urtroit is I'oniposrd of mcdtcn 
lirass, (ini! inili and nine IrntliH <if an iiu h in diamitrr, and xix 
linllis of nil ini li in (hickniss, licariiih; this insi ription in a ciri In 
nriinnd thi- tid^r ; "Cilyof Dilroil, Miihiyan." Within ihr i ircle 
111 llir fon'tfronnd nre rrprrsiiilid two fini.ilr livjiirrs, the one 
wi'i'piiiv; over a lily in lluiiu s, and the other pointing tu unothcr 



city in a KTowinx itate; iKith of which arr rrprt-aentcd in ihi- dis- 
tance, nn opposite sides of the circle. Over the whide, in a 
circidur form, is insirihnl the words, "Spcrainiis nieliora," ami 
beneath, in a like c in iilar form, the words, " Ki'Mir)-el i im rihiis," 

This sij^nificant tlt'vice commenioratfs tin- t'lri' of 
June II, 1S05, .It which time Di-troit was (•niisimicd. 
Oiir siihstanli.il i)iii)lic hiiildinj^s, costly stores, ant! 
tlcir.int rcsidciiccs indicate the fiiltilmfiU of the pro- 
phetic inscriptions. It iii.iy !)•' tnithfiiliy s.iid of 
Dciidit, "it h.is risen from ihc uslics " aiul " W'c 
hope for better tilings." 



#. 



«'^'4^ ^' 



<>:^..^- 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-S) 




y 




A 





^ 

is^ 

















1.0 



I.I 



1.25 



IM 



1^ 1^ 

Mi 1^ 

!!■ 1^ 11 2.0 



iiiii 



1.4 



1.6 



Vi 



<^ 







7 





L<9 




CHAPTER XXV. 



MAYOR.— CITY CLKRK.— ClI'V AiroRNlA'. CIIV COUNSELOR.-CITY IIISTORIOG- 
RAPIIKR: DUTIKS OF EACH OFFICIAL AND NAMF:S OF TIIK IXCUMJJENTS. 



MAVOK. 
As shown in the iiisiory i)f tlio rule of tlic fiovcr- 
nor and Judges, two jji-rsons, Solnmon Sibley and 
Elijah Hrush, were appointcil mayors under tiie Act 
of 1806. Praeticaliy, liowevcr, the ollice has existed 
only since the charter of 1S24. Originally the 
mayor presided at nH'etin,!L;s of the louncil and over 
the sessions of the mayor's court, which took coji:;- 
nizance of all violations of the city ordinances; he 
served without pay. The charter of 1857 ])rovided 
that he should have a yearly salary of $1,200; it also 
abolished the mayor's court, and jirovidetl that the 
mayor should no Ioniser sit in the coinicil. The 
mayor nominates the members of the Hoard of 
Public Works, and of the \Va*er, Fire, Health, 
Park, and Poor Commissions, the city counselor, 
the comptroller, the receiver of taxes, the assessors, 
anil the inspectors of the House of Correction; 
by virtue of his otUcc, he is also one of the com- 
missioners of the Sinking Fund. All licenses, 
for ordin.'iry business, or for theaters or exhi- 
bitions, are issued only on his order. He also 
passes upon all pnx-eedini^s of the council, havinjj; 
the power of vetoing any resolution which he 
disapproves. He is elected for terms of two 
years. The following persons have served as 
mayors: 1824 and 1825, John R. Williams; 1826, 
Henry J. Hunt ; 1827 and 1828, John I5iddle ; 1829, 
Jonathan Kearsley ; 1830, John R. Williams; 1831, 
Marshall Chapin ; 1832, Levi Cook; 1833, Marshall 
Chapin ; 1834, C. C. Trowbridge, Andrew Mack; 
1835 and 1836, Levi Cook; 1837, Henry Howard; 
1838, Augustus S. Porter, A.sher B. Hates; 1839, 
I)e (iarmo Jones; 1840 and 1841, Zina Pitcher; 
1842, Douglas Houghton ; 1843, Zina i'itcher; 1844- 
1847, John R. Williams; 1847, James A. Van 
Dyke; 1848, I'Yederick lUihl ; ^849, Charles How- 
ard ; 1850, John Ladue ; 1851, /.ichariah Chandler; 
1852 and 1853, John H. Harmon; 1854, Oliver M. 
Hyde; 1855, Henry Ledyard ; 1856 and 1857, O. M. 
Hyde; 1858 and 1859, John Patton ; 1860 and 1861, 
Christian H. Huhl ; 1862 and 1863, William C. Dun- 
can; 1 864 and 1865, K. C. IJarker; 1866 and 1867. 
Merrill 1. Mills; 1868-1872, William W. Whea- 
lon, 1872-1876, Hugh Moffat; 1876 and 1877, 



Alexander Lewis; 1878 and 1879, (ieorge C. Lang- 
don; 1880-1884, William (i. Thompson; 1884, 
Ste[)hen I>. {"irummond. 

CITY Cl.KRK. 

From 181 5-1824 the clerk of the I)oard of 
Trustees was styk'd the secretary, and the olTice was 
tilled as follows: i8i5-i;-)20, Thomas Rowland; 
1820, < "ieorge McDoug.ill, J. I). Doty; 1821-1824. 
J. v. R. Ten Ilyck, 

The charter of 1824 created the title, and provided 
for the appointment by the council, of a city clerk. 
An Act of 1849 made the office electivt'. The 
term of ollice is two years. It is the duly of the 
clerk to make a full record of the i)roceedings and 
resolutions of both boards, and to present it to 
the mayor for his approval or disst'ut within 
forty-eight hours after every meeting, also to at- 
tend to the publication of all notices re(|uired to be 
published. He is the custodian of the ol'licial imbli- 
cations of the city, and administers the oath of ot'l'ice 
to all incumbents. At the beginning of each ot'ticial 
year it is his duty to call the Boards of Aldermen 
and Councilmen to order, and to preside over the 
meetings and all subseijuent sessions until presi- 
dents are elected. He has charge of all the ballot- 
boxes, blanks, and books re<|uired at any election, 
sujiplying the same to the jiroper persons ; keeps the 
list of house numbers est.'iblished by the city engi- 
neer; is the depository of all chattel mortgages, and 
keejis a record of the saiae. The bonds and reports 
of all city officers are filed in his office. In 1832 the 
salary was $1 50 a year; in 1836 it had increased to 
$500; in 1883 the salary was $2,500. The office of 
deputv clerk has existed .since March 6, 1857. The 
following jiersons have served as city clerks: 1824- 
1828, \'. Spalding; 1828-1831, John J. Deming; 1831 
and 1S32, John L. Whiting; 1833 and 1834, John 
Winder; 1835, Felix Hinchman; 1836-1841, (Ieorge 
Byrd; 1841-1844, C. F. Davis; 1844- 18 50, R. E. 
Roberts; 1850 and 185T, Jer. Van Rensselaer and 
A. T. Hall; 1852, D. Munger; 1853, H. S. Roberts; 
1854 1858, Richard Starkey; 1858 and 1859, F. W. 
Hughes; i860, R. C. Smith; r86i, H. A. Lacey; 
1862 1866, F. Pramstaller; 1 866-1 872, H. Starkey; 



1872-1 87 
man; iSJ 



The of 

was not < 

Appointii 

Since Act 

elected ei 

projjosed ( 

jects refer 

to .'ittenii 

the Comni 

against or 

$2,500. s 

attornev, w 

attorneys 1 

1S26- 1829, 

JS30-1S32, 

Eraser; 18 

1S36, J. A. 

i«39. J. A. 

F2. Tavlor; 

W. a'. Ho, 

1S49, W. A 

Mandell; j8 

J. Knox (;.' 

and 1861, \\ 

.McEntee; 1 

1^72, James 

.sell; 1876-1 

'88i, F. (;. 



The office 
of March 12, 
council, on 1 
tliree years. 



[140] 



CITY ATTORNEY.— CITY COUNSELOR.— CITY lIISrORIOC.KAI'HIlR. 



141 



1S72-187S, C. II. liorijinan; i(S78-i882, Louis Dill- 
man; 1S82- , Alex. .\. Sacnj^cr. 

CUV AIIOKNKY. 

The oITice of city altonicy existed in 1825, but 
was not created Ijy ordinance until March 8, 1837. 
Appointments were orijjjinally made by the council. 
Since Act of {'"ebruary 2\, 1 849, attorneys have been 
clcctctl every two years. The attorney drafts all 
|)roi)oscd ortlinances, ijives leijal opinions on all sub- 
jects referred to him by the council, and is expected 
to attend its sessions. When directed to do so by 
the Common Council, he attends to suits instituted 
atjainst or by the city. The salary in 18S3 was 
§2,500. .Since 1876 there has been an assistrmt city 
attorney, who is appointeil by the council. The city 
attorneys have been as follows: 1825, U.S. Cole; 
1 826- 1 829, E. Karnsworth; 1829, Cyprian Stevens; 
1830--1832, E. Farnsworth; 1832 and 1833,.!. I). 
Fra.ser; 1S34. J. .M. Howard; 1835, A. IS. Hates; 
1836, J. A. VanDykj; 1837, A. W. T.uel; 1838 and 
1839, J. A. \'anl)yke; 1840-1843, C. O'Flynn; 1843, 
E.Taylor; 1844 and 1845, 1). IC. liarbauirh; 1846, 
W. A. Howard; 1847,1). P.. Dutfiekl ; 1848 and 
1849, W. A. Cook; 1850, William Cray; 1851, .\. 
Mandell; 1852 and 1853, J. B. Withercll; 1854-1857, 
J. Knox Cavin; 1857-1860, J. L. Chipman; i860 
and 1861. William J. Speed; 1862 and 1863, T. M. 
McEntee; 1864-1868, Thomas II. Hartwell ; 1868- 
1872, James J. I5rown; 1872- 1876, Frank C.. Rus- 
.sell; 1876-1880, William C. Mayhury; 1880 and 
i88r, F. C. Riis.sell; 1882- , j'. B. Corliss. 

Cri'Y COITNSKI.OR. 

The oliice of city coimselor was created by Act 
of March 12, 1861. .Appointments are made by the 
council, on nomination of the mayor, for terms of 
three years. The counselor is required to attend all 



sessions of the council. His tluties are chietly ad- 
visory, the intent ui the oltice bcinji^ to insure (.greater 
legal certainty in city proceedings, and to this end 
the attorney and counselor are supposed to co- 
operate. In all suits in which the city is interested, 
brought in the Circuit Court of Wayne County, the 
Supreme Court of Michigan, or the United .States 
Court, the counselor appe.ars in behalf Of the city. 
The salary in 1883 was $2,000. The following have 
served as city counselors : 1863-1870, William ( "nay; 
1870-1872, J. I'. Whittemore; 1872-1878, D. C. 
Ilolbrook; 1878-1881, F. A. Baker; 1881- , H. 
.M. Dullield. 

CII'V mSl'ORlOORAI'HKR. 

The origin of the otfice of historiographer is as 
follows: On September 6, 1842, a petition for its 
creation, signed by Z. Pitcher and others, was jire- 
sented to the council. The jielilion was ri'fcrred to 
the recorder and city attorney, and on January 24, 
1843, an ordinrmce establishing the oliice was 
ado])ted. On January 31 Colonel Henry Whiting 
was appointed historiographer, but being soon afti'r 
ordered to another post, on June 6 he was succeeded 
by II. X. Walker. Mr. Walker gathered together 
several valuable documents, which were subse- 
(lucntly placed in the collection of the State Histori- 
cal .Society; he held the office only a few years, 
other duties claiming his time. In 1855 B. F. H. 
Withercll was appointed, and served until his death 
in 1867. The ofhce was then vacant until 1876, 
when Levi Bishop received the appointment. His 
death occurred in December, 1881, and on January 
3, 1882, Silas Farmer was appointed to (ill the 
vacancy. The office is purely honorary. The duties 
consist in gathering and preserving books, docu- 
ments, and historic material pertaining to the city of 
Detroit. 



CHAPTER XXYI. 



Scott, Hai 
J. Dcstioyi 
Hartsliorn 
Lathrop. 



ALDERMEN: THEIR DUTIES AND NAMES. 



This office was first named in the Act of August 
5, 1824, which proviticd for five aldermen, to be 
elected from tlie city at large. The number was 
increased to seven by Act of April 12, 1827. No 
ward aldermen were elected until April 15, i^yj, 
when, at a special election, two were chosen from 
each of the si.x wards created that year, one to serve 
two years and tiie other one year. The inspectijrs 
of election determined by lot which should .serve for 
one year and wliich for two years. In all wards 
since created two aldermen Ivive been provided for, 
and at all yearly elections an alderman for each ward 
is chosen for a term of two years. Under the charter 
of 1824 two aldermen were selected, from time to 
time, to preside with the mayor over the mayor's 
court. By Act of .Ipril 13, 1841, one alderman 
could hold a session of the court. These duties 
ceaset! after the recorder's court was established. 
The charter of 1857 provided that the aldermen 
then in oflice should continue to serve until January, 
1858, and provision was made for the election, in 
November, 1857, of two aldermen from each ward, 
one of whom was to serve for one year only. In 
1 88 1, when an entirely new division of wards was 
made, the Conunon Council was authorized to 
assign the aldermen who had been elected the 
previous year to the several new wards. Under Act 
of June 6, 1881, no person could be elected a mem- 
ber of the Common Council unless he was a free- 
holder. The charter of 1883 made no such provision. 

On .\pril 8, 1837, a committee was appointed to 
inquire into the propriety and expediency of paying 
for the services of the mayor, recorder, and alder- 
men. That committee did not report, and the alder- 
men were apparently content to serve without pay, 
until May 13, 1857. On that date a series of single 
res(ilutions, offered by various aldermen, provided 
that the chairman of each committee should receive 
§300 a year, and as each alderman was chairman of 
a committee, all, on the approval of these resolu- 
tions, would h.ive received com|)ensatit)n. .Mayor 
Hyde disapproved of this" action, and for ten years 
longer no salary was attached to the ol'fice of alder- 
man. Finally an Act of March 28, 1867, authorized 
the payment of a sum, not to exceed one dollar and 
fifty cents, for attendance on each regular session ; 
but under ordinance of October 20, 1870, no alder- 



man can receive pay unless he is present during the 
entire session, or is excused from attendance. Pay- 
ment was made from the general fund until 1873, 
and since then from the contingent fund. By law of 
1 88 1 the sum of three dollars is now paid for each 
regular session attended. No alderman can hokl 
any other city office, or any county or legislative 
office except that of iu)tary [)ul)lic. Since Act of 
April 8, 1 85 1, all of the aldermen, as representatives 
of the city, have been members of the Board of 
Supervisors. The following persons have served as 
aldermei ; where the names of more than two per- 
sons to a ward apjiear in any year, it is becau.se 
death or resignation brought in a third person for 
part of the year : 

^■lldi'niicn at Larij^c. 
1824, Shubael Conant, Melvin Dorr, Orville Cook, 
David C. McKinstry, Peter J. Desnoyers ; 1825, O. 
Cook, D. C. McKinstry, R. A. Forsyth, Thomas 
Rowland, William Woodbridge ; 1826, Antoine 
Deciuindre, Marshall Chapin, D. C. McKinstry, 
Thomas Palmer, Obed Waite ; 1827, P. J. Des- 
noyers, De (iarmo Jones, M. Chapin, Thomas 
Palmer, Jerry Dean; 1828, H. M. Campbell, J. P.' 
Sheldon, John Mullett, Levi Cook, John Farrar, 
Charles Jackson, Jerry Dean, Obed Waite ; 1829, 
Thomas Palmer, B. Campau, 1 1. M. Campbell, II. 
V. Disbrow, Peter Desnoyers, John I). Cray, R. 
Cillett, .M. Chapin, E. Brooks; 1830, P. J. Des- 
noyers, De Ciarmo Jones, B. B. Kercheval, T. S. 
Wendell, T. Palmer, Stephen C. Henry, John 
Palmer; 1831, O. Newberry, F21liot Cray, John 
Palmer, David French, J. Farrar, Ceorge A. O'Keefe, 
Alonzo Merrill; 1832, H. V. Disbrow, T. S. Knapp, 
A. C. Caniff, Walter L. Newberry, John Hale, John 
Roberts, Thomas Rowland; 1833, C. C. Trow- 
bridge, John Garrison, T. Palmer, H. Newberry, 
Henry Howard, Charles Moran, James Williams; 
1834, linoch Jones, Julius Flldred, Stevens T.Mason, 
Job F. Howland, Henry Howard, T. S. Wendell, C. 
Moran, T. S. Knapp, T.Williams; i835,T. Palmer, 
A. C. Caniff, ( ). Newberry, N. T. Ludden, D. Cooper, 
T. Williams, Julius ICIdred; 1836, D. Cooper, J. 
Eldred, J. Farrar, Thomas Palmer, O. Newberry, 
John Owen, D. Lamson ; 1837, John McDonnell, C. 
Moran, James Hanmer, George B. Martin, John 



1839, F 
Second \V 
Ward: A. 
Ward, P. 
M. Bull, I 
James Stei 

1840, F 
Second W 
Ward: F. 
A. Gruenii 
Fiske, ( \. P 
Chittenden. 

1 84 1, Fir 
Ward : C. ; 
M. Goodins 
M. L. Gag 
F'iske. Si.\ 
Ruehle. 

1842, Fin 
ond Ward: 
Third Ward 
Ward: (;. 
Tobias Lov 
Higgins, H. 

1843, Eirs 
Second Wc 
Third Ware 
Fourth Ware 
W. !•:. Ste; 
James Stew^i 

1844, F'irsi 
ond Ward:, 
Ward : V^. 
Ward : P. D 
M. Hyde, V 
Andrevvs, J. , 

1845, First 
Ward: B. \\ 
Ward: B. \\ 
C. Moran, P. 
O. M. Hyde. 

1846, First 
Ward: C. j 
Ward : U. W 
C. Moran, N 
Moore, C. C. 
L. Baldwin. 

1^47. First 
Second Ward 
Third Ward 
Fourth Ward 



Li4»J 



ALDERMEN : THEIR DUTIES AiND NAMES. 



143 



Scott, Harlow Beardslce, Tliomas Chase; 1S38, P. 
J. Desnoyers, De (iarmo Jo ics, 1'. E. De Mill, A. 
Hartshorn, J. M. Mead, Nathaniel Prouty, H. B. 
Lathrop. 

Ward Aldermen. 

1839, iMrst Ward: (".. C. Pates, H. H. LeRoy. 
Second Ward: C. Hiirlbut, John Palmer. Third 
Ward : A. T. Mc Reynolds, J.J. Garrison. Fourth 
Ward, P. Desnoyers, C. Moran. Fifth Ward: C. 
M. Bull, A. M. 'stowell, (1. I'aull. Si.xth Ward: 
James Stewart, W. F. Chittenden. 

1840, I''irst Ward: A. Ewers, H. H. LeRoy. 
Second Ward: C. Hurlbut, J. Palmer. Third 
Ward : F. Cicotle, J. J. Garrison. Fourth Ward : 
A. Gruenlich, C. Moran. Fifth Ward: D. W. 
Fiske, G. PauU. Sixth Ward : J. V. Ruehle, W. F. 
Chittenden. 

1 84 1, First Ward: J. Moor.'^, A. Ewers. Second 
Ward : C. Hurljjut, P. J. Desnoyers. Third Ward : 
M. Gooding, F. Cicotte. Fourth Ward : C. Moran, 
M. L. Gage. Eifth Ward: J. H. Bagg, D. W. 
Fiske. Sixth Ward: W. F. Chittenden, J. V. 
Ruehle. 

1842, First Ward: A, C. Caniff, J. Moors. Sec- 
ond Ward: J. Scott, J. Abbott, W. W. Dalton. 
Third Ward : A. Ten Eyck, M. Gooding. Fourth 
Ward: G. M. Rich, C. Moran. Fifth Ward: 
Tobias Lowe, J. H. Bagg. Sixth Ward : S. W. 
Higgins, IL R. Andrews. 

1843, First Ward : O. B. Dibble, A. C. Caniff. 
Second Ward : B. Woodworth, N. Tonilinson. 
Third Ward: J. A. ^^'m Dyke, A. Ten Eyck. 
Fourth Ward : C, Moran, C. O'Flynn. Fifth Ward : 
W. !•:. Stearns, A. S. Williams. Sixth Ward: 
James Stewart, H. R. Andrews. 

1844, First/Ward : J. Owen, O. B. Dibble. Sec- 
ond Ward : B. Woodworth, X. Tonilinson. Third 
Ward : E. Chapoton, J. A. Van Dyke. Fourth 
Ward : P. Desnoyers, C. Moran. Fifth Ward : O. 
M. Hyde, W. Iv Stearns. Sixth Ward : H. R. 
Andre \vs, J. Stewart. 

1845, F'irst Ward : F. ]3uhl, J. Owen. Second 
Ward : B. Woodworth, C. R. Desnoyers. Third 
Ward : B. Wight, E. Chapoton. Fourth Ward : 
C. Moran, P. Desnoyers. Fifth Ward : B. B. Moore, 
O. IVL Hyde. Sixth Ward: W: Barclay, J. Scott. 

1846, F'irst Ward: F. Buhl, M. Stevens. Second 
Ward : C. R. Desnoyers, W. Duncan. Third 
Ward : B. Wight, Theo. Williams. Fourth Ward : 
C. Moran, N. Clreusel, Jr. Fifth Ward: B. B. 
Moore, C. C. Jackson. Sixth Ward : W. Barclay, 
L. Baldwin. 

1847, First Ward: G. C. Bates, Marcus Stevens. 
Second Ward : J. H. Harmon, William Duncan. 
Third Ward: William Burnell, Theo. Williams. 
Fourth Ward: G. R. Griswold, N. Greusel, Jr. 



Fifth Ward : U. .\L Hyde, C. C, Jackson. Sixth 
Ward : W. F. Chittenden, L. Baldwin. 

1848, First Ward: G. W. Howe, Ci. C. Bates. 
Second Ward : W. Duncan, AL P. Hutchins. Third 
Ward : Abram Tuttle, William Burnell. Fourth 
Ward : B. Wight. S. 15. Morse. Fifth Ward : John 
Norton, O. ^L Hyde. Sixth Ward : James Stewart, 
Lyman Baldwin. Seventh Ward : F. E. Eldred, 
W. A. Bacon. 

1849, First Ward: A. Ives, G. W. Howe. Sec- 
ond Ward : W. R. Noyes, William Duncan. Third 
Ward : John Patton, Abram Tuttle. Fourth Ward: 
H. Ledyard, B. Wight. Fifth Ward : J. P. Whit- 
ing, John Norton. Si.xth Ward : John Hull, J. 
Stewart. Seventh Ward: F. E. Eldred, R. C. 
Smith. Eighth Ward : A. T. Hall, A. Marsh. 

1850, Vksi Ward: J. L. Carew, A. Ives. Second 
Ward: C. H. Buhl, W. R. Noyes. Jr. Third 
Ward : N. Tonilinson, J. Patton. Fourth Ward : J. 
M. Davis, H. Ledyard. Fifth Ward : A. H. Stowell. 
J. P. Whiting. Sixth Ward : J. Stewart, John Hull. 
Seventh Ward: Ezekiel McDonald, R. C. Smith. 
Eighth Ward : A. Marsh, L. C. Fletcher. 

1851, First Ward : C. W. Jackson, A. Ives. Sec- 
ond Ward: J. A. Slaymaker, C. H. Buhl. Third 
Ward : J. McReynolds. J. Hoek. Fourth Ward : 
S. G. Wight, J. Cornfield, C,co. Miller. Fifth 
Ward: E. Shepard, A. H. Stowell. Sixth Ward: 
S. B. Morse, J. Stewart. Seventh Ward: R. C. 
Smith, E. McDonald. Eighth W^ard : L. C. Fletcher, 
A. Marsh. 

1852, First Ward : C. W. Jackson, J. B. Clark. 
Second Ward : J. A. Slaymaker, W. V. Chittenden. 
Third Ward : J. McReynolds, George Foote. Fourth 
Ward: S. (".. Wight, A. T. Ladue. Fifth Ward: 
E. Shepard, A. H. Stowell. Sixth Ward: S. B. 
Morse, D. Riopelle. Seventh Ward : R. C. Smith, 
E. Doyle. Eighth Ward: L. C. Fletcher, G. B. 
Avery. 

1853, I'Mrst Ward: John Gibson, James Collins. 
Second Ward: W. F. Chittenden, W. II. Craig. 
Third Ward : G. Foote, John Patton ; Fourth 
Ward : A. Ladue. E. Lyon. Fifth Ward : A. H. 
Stowell, J. Hull. Sixth Ward: D. Riopelle, W. 
Barclay. Seventh Ward : E. Doyle, P. Fischer. 
Eighth Ward : G. B. Avery, S. Martin. 

1854, First Ward: James Collins, W. C. Duncan. 
Second Ward: Wm. H. Craig, E. A. Lansing. 
Third Ward: John Patton, I. W. IngersoU. Fourth 
Ward: Edward Lyon, Isaac Finehart. Fifth Ward: 
John Hull, H. H. LeRoy. Sixth Ward: William 
Barclay, W. W. Wilcox. Seventh Ward: E. Doyle, 
William Fischer. Eighth Ward: Stephen Martin, 
Francis Mayhew. 

1855, First Ward: W. C. Duncan, Albert Marsh. 
Second Ward: E. A. Lansing, W. H. Craig. Third 
Ward: I. W. IngersoU, Anthony Dudgeon. Fourth 



144 



ALDKRMKN: TllLlK DUTIllS AM) ^•A.^FI;S. 



Ward: Isaac Fiiu'liarl, li. 11. 'Pliompson. Fiflli 
Ward: II, II. Likoy. K. W. Kiiiir. Sixtii W;ii(i : 
A. SliL-k'y. \V. W. VVilrox. Scvciuh Ward: i'-. 
Doyle, R. Rt'aiiiiK-. lj,v,duli Ward: F. Mayiiuw, 
StcpliL'ii Martin. 

1856 1S57, First Ward : W.C. Duncan, A. Marsh. 
Second Ward, (icori^c Nilus, W. H. Craii^. Third 
Ward: I',. V. CicoUc, Josepii Hock. Fourth Ward: 
K. N. Lacroix, IS. H. Thonipson. I'"ii'tii Ward: Wn\. 
(".il)l)in;<s, R. W. Kiny;. Sixtli Ward: W. Dyson, 
A. .Shcley. Seventh Ward: IC. Doyle, R. Reainne. 
Eii;litii Ward: S. Martin, P. (".alla.nlier. 

i85«. lirst Ward: W. C. Dniican, (1. (). Williams. 
Second Ward: deors^e Niles, W. II. Craiy. Tiiird 
Ward: 1^. \'. Cieotte, Henry Miller. Fourth Ward: 
F. N. Lacroix, Solomon Wesley. Fifth W.ard: Wm. 
(al)l)inj.;s, A. S. iiaj^.i;-. Sixth Ward: William Dyson, 
J. D. Fairb:inks. Seventh Ward: E. Doyle, (i.Mil- 
ler. I':i;j;htli Ward: H. Cordon, F. CalLii^her. Ninth 
Ward: W. L. WoiKlbridi^e, Henry Wilson. Tenth 
Ward: H. Zender, Theo. Campau. 

1859, First Ward: (}. O. Williams, N. P. Jacobs. 
Second Ward: W. H. Crai.v^, Willi.im Hale. Third 
Ward: Henry Miller, T. Willianis. Fourth Ward: 
A. Dudireon, A. Barlavro. Fifth W.ard: A. S. Bag^. 
Wm. c;ibbin,i,rs. Sixth Ward: J. D. Fairbanks, M. 
Flanivran. Seventh Waril: (".eorge Miller, John 
Manx. Eiv^hth Ward: Henry t lordon, N. Triickey. 
Ninth Ward: Wm. L. Woodbridge, J. W. Sutton. 
Tenth Ward: Henry Zender, H. H. Swinscoc. 

i860, First Waril: N. l\ Jacobs, George Foote. 
Second Ward: William Hale, E. LeFavour. Third 
Ward: T. Williams, J. J. Uagley. I'ourth Ward: 
A. Barlage, F. 1}. Phelps. Fifth Ward: Wm. Rib- 
bings, J. S. F'arrand. Sixth Ward: M. Flanigan, 
Stephen B. Morse. Seventh Ward: J. Marx, Fiank- 
lin M. Wing, lughth Ward: N. Triickey, P. M. 
Phillips. Ninth Ward: J. W. Sutton, H. T. Backus. 
Tenth Ward: H. H. Swinscoe, ("icorge W. Olewine. 

1861, First Ward: G. Foote, Joseph Godfrey. 
Second Ward : F. Le Favour, M. Howard Webster. 
Thirtl Waril : J. J. Bagley, T. Williams. Fourth 
Ward: F. B. I'helps, J. C. D. Williams. Fifth 
Ward: J.S. Farrand. II. H. LcRoy. Si.xth Ward: 
S. B. Morse, James Shearer. Seventh Ward : F. M. 
Wing, Joseph Cook. Eighth Ward : P. M. Phillips, 
William Purcell. Ninth Ward : H. T. Backus, John 
Ford. Tenth Ward : G. W. Olewine, F. C. St. 
Aubin. 

1862, First Ward: Joseph Godfrey, George S. 
Frost. Second Ward : M. H. Webster, E. Le Fa- 
vour. Third Ward : Theodore Williams, Joseph 
Hoek. Fourth Ward: J. C. D. Williams, F. B. 
Phelps. Fifth Ward : H. H. LeRoy, J. S. Farrand. 
Sixth Ward : James Shearer, A. Lingeman. 
Seventh Ward : J. Cook, George Miller. Eighth 
Ward : William Purcell, Patrick Gallagher. Ninth 



Ward : J. Ford, Wm. S. I'.ond. Tenth Ward : F. C. 
St. Aubin, Paul ( "lies. 

1863, I'irst W,u\l : George S. Frost, K. C. liar- 
ker. Second Ward: F. Le I'avour, P. .McGinni:.. 
Third 
Ward : 
Ward : 
W.ird 
W.ird : 
Ward: 
Ward : 
P.uil ( ; 



Ward: J. Hoek, F. II. Cieotte. Fourth 

F. I). Phelps, John C. (lorton. Fifth 

J. S. F.irrand, Joseph Granger. Sixth 

; A. Lingeman, Benjamin I". Hyde. Seventh 

S. Dow Elwood, Jas. McGonegal. Eighth 

P. (lallaidier, William Purcell. Ninth 

Wm. S. Bond, F. E. llldred. Tenth Ward : 

lies, Milton I'rost. 

1864, First Ward: Peter J. Ralph, X. W. P.rooks. 
Second Ward: P. McGinnis, David Thompson. 
Third Ward : F. H. Cieotte, John T. Mcldrum. 
Fourth Ward : J. C. Gorton. James I). Weir. Fifth 
Ward : Wm. Gaboon, I leiiry C. Kni;;hl. Sixth 
Ward: B. F. Hyde, A. She'ley. Seventh Ward: 
Jas. McGonegal, S. D. Idwood. Eighth Ward: 
William Purcell, P. Gallagher. Ninth Ward : Clem- 
ent Lafferty, Wm. S. Bond. Tenth Ward: ^L 
Frost, P. Gies. 

1865, First Ward: N. W. Brooks, Wm. Brodie. 
Second Ward: P. McGinnis, A. T. Camjiau. Third 
Ward: J. T. Mcldrum, Joseph Hoek. Fourth 
Ward : Jas. D. Weir, M. W. iMcld. I'ifth Ward . 
H. C. Knight, Robt. McGinnity. Sixth Wari' : 
A. Sheley, George C. Codd. Sevenlii Ward: S. D. 
Elwood, Jas. ".\IcGonegal. Eighth Ward: P. Gal- 
lagher, Wm. I'urcell. Ninth Ward: Wm, S. Bond, 
Peter Henkel, Tenth Ward: Paul Gies, F. C. St. 
Aubin. 

1866, First Ward: Wm, Brodie, (ieo. F. Bagley. 
Second Ward : A. T. Campau, Ale.x. W. Copland. 
Third Ward : Joseph Hoek, Wm. B. Howe. I"ourth 
Ward: M. W. Field, J. D. Weir. Fifth Ward: R. 
McGinnity, H. C. Knight. Sixtli Ward : G. C. 
Codd, James D. Allison. Seventh Ward: J. Mc- 
Gonegal, Enos Lebot. Eighth Ward : Wm. Purcell, 
John Considine. Ninth Ward: I'eter Henkel, A. 
H. Schmittdiel. Tenth Ward : F. C. "St. Aubin, 
Paul Gies. 

1867, First Ward: G. F. Bagley, Wm. Stewart. 
Second Ward: A. W. Copland, W. H. Langley. 
Third Ward: W. B. Howe, Christian .Melius. 
Fourth Ward: J. D. Weir, Frank Kremer. Fifth 
Ward ; Wm. Phelps* Walter H. Coots. Sixth Ward : 
Jas. D. Allison, G. C. Codd. Seventh Waril: Enos 
Lebot. Frederick Ruehle. 
Considine, Wm. Purcell. 
Schmittdiel, Eugene Laible. 
Gies, G. W. Olewine. 

1868, First Ward: Wm. Stewart, Francis Adams. 
Second Ward: W. H. Langley, A. II. Emery. 
Third Ward : C. Melius, Wm! B. Howe. Fourth 
Ward: F. Kremer, Richard Hawley. Fifth Ward. 
W. H. Coots, Wm. {'helps. Sixth Ward; G, C. 



Eighth Ward : John 
Ninth Ward: A H. 
Tenth Ward: Paul 



Codd, PI 
Frank Bli 
dine. Ni 
Hughes. 

1869, 1 
Adams. 
H. I'lmery 
Fourth W 
I'"ifth Wa 
Ward: G 
F. Rue hit 
Mahoney, 
Wm. .S. B 
N\'illiams. 
1870, Fi 
Second \V 
Third W;, 
Ward : Fi 
Ward: W 
C. C. Coi 
Ruehle, E 
Mahoney, 
Hill, <;eo. 
W. H. Ba.N 
1871, Fii 
Ward: G 
Ward : Wi 
Ward : T. 
A. S. Bagg 
Allison, .m! 
Frederick ] 
Mahoney. 
Tenth War 
1872, Fir 
Second Wa 
Third Ward 
Ward : J. I 
S. Folsom, 
Christian, P 
F. Ruehle. 
Ninth Ward 
A. O'Keefe, 
1873. Fir 
ford. Seco 
Langley . 'I 
Fourth Wan 
Fifth Ward: 
P. Parsons, 
Ruehle, M. 
Shanahan. 
Hough. T< 
1874, Firs 
Second Wan 
Ward: C. M, 
Ward: Chas. 
Ward: G. Gt 
J*- Christian, 



ALDKRMKN; lUKlR DLllKS AM) NA.MKS. 



145 



Ciidd, I'liilip Klinn'. Suvl-iuIi Ward; F. Ruelilc, 
Frank 15kiin. Ki.i;iitli Ward: W. I'urccll, J. Coiisi- 
diiiu. Niiilli Ward: W. S. liond. K. Laiblc. T. F. 
llui-lics. Tenth Ward : C. W. Olcwinc, Paul C.ics. 

1869, First Ward: Aaron W. Tyrrell, Francis 
Adams. Second Ward: W. II. Laiii;iiv, y\umistiis 
11. Fniery. Third Ward : C. Melius, Wni. 11. 1 lowe. 
I'ourih Ward: Frank Krenier, Thos. Henderson. 
I'iflh Ward: W. 11. Coots, Wni. l'hel|)s. Sixth 
Ward: (.'•. C. Codd, Philip Kiint;. Seventh Ward : 
F. Riiehle, Frank Blum. I'.ii^hth Ward : Tinioihy 
iMahoney, J, Considine. Ninth Wai^l: I'eter Hill, 
Wm. S. Bond. Tenth Ward: David Knapp, Juli;in 
Williams. 

1870, First Ward : Aaron W. Tyrrell, Wm. l'"oxen. 
Second Ward: Wm. H. I.aiiL^ley, Ceo. W. ISalch. 
Third Ward : C. Melkis, Wm. Wilmot. Fourth 
Ward: Frank Kremer, Thos. Henderson. I'iflh 
Ward: W. H. Coots, A. S. Ikii^'i;-. Sixth Waid : 
C. C. Codd, J. ]). Allison. Seventh Ward : 1". 
Riiehle, Elijah Smith. Ei.i;hth Ward: Timothy 
Mahoney, Dennis Dullea. Ninth Ward: I'eter 
Hill, (ico. Sutherland. Tenth Ward : J.Williams, 
W. H. Baxter. 

1871, First Ward : W. Foxen, F. Adams. Second 
Ward: C W. ISalch, W. H. Langley. Third 
Ward : Wm. Wilmot, Charles M. Welch. Fourth 
Ward : T. Henderson, Joseph Kuhn. I'ifth Ward : 
A. S. Bajrjr, Simeon Folsom. Sixth Ward : J. D. 
Allison, M. P.Christian. Seventh Ward : IC. Smith, 
Frederick Fulda. Ki;<hth Ward: 1). Dullea, T. 
Mahoney. Ninth Ward: G. Sutherland, P. Hill. 
Tenth Ward : W. H. I5axter, Arthur O'Keefe. 

1872, First Ward: F. Adams, Smith R. Wooley. 
Second Ward : W. II. Langley, G. F. Hinchman. 
Third W^ard : C. M. Welch, James Flowers. Fourth 
Ward : J. Kuhn, Wm. Lichtenberg. Fifth Ward : 
S. Folsom, David Preston. Sixth Ward: M. P. 
Christian, Philo Parsons. Seventh Ward : F. Fulda, 
F. Ruehle. Eighth Ward : T. Mahoney, D. Dullea. 
Ninth Ward : P. Hill, James Daly. Tenth Ward : 
A. O'Keefe, Chas. Stange. 

1873, F'fi^t Ward: S. R. Wooley, Albert Hots- 
ford. Second Ward: G. F. Hinchman, W. H. 
Langley. Third Ward: J. Flowers, C. M. Welch. 
Fourth Ward: W. Lichtenberg, Chas. M. Garrison. 
Fifth Ward: D. Preston, G. Grelling. Sixth Ward: 
P. Parsons, M. P. Christian. Seventh Ward: F. 
Ruehle, M. Broeg. lughth Ward: I). Dullea, D. 
Shanahan. Ninth Ward: James Daly, Geo. W. 
Hough. Tenth Ward: C. Stange, A. O'Keefe. 

1874, First Ward: A. liotsford, J. 15. Hinchman. 
Second Ward: W. H. Langley, John Horn. Third 
Ward: C. M. Welch, Wm. C,. Thompson. Fourth 
Ward: Chas. M. Garrison, J. B. Schmittdiel. Fifth 
Ward: G. Grelling, W. H. Coots. Si.xth Ward: M. 
1*. Christian, Jacob Guthard. Seventh Ward: M. 



IJroeg. W. A. Owen. Eighth Ward: D. Shanahan, 
John D. Finnegan. Ninth Ward: (ieo. \\\. Hough, 
J. Daly. Tenth Ward; A. O'Keefe, W. H. Baxter. 
Elewnlh Ward: Jas. Ilolihan itwt) weeks), R. S. 
Dillon (two weeks). Twelfth W'artl: Anthony 
Groslield, Henry Ileames. 

1575, l'"irst Ward: J. B. Hinchman, Geo. Wilkes. 
Second Wartl: John I lorn, Jr., John Schmitt. Third 
Waixl: Wm. G. 'I'liompson, J. A. Kurtz. Fotuth 
Ward: J. P>. Schmittdiel, Chas. C. Blodgett. Fifth 
Ward: George Dunlap, .Seymour Finney. Si.xth 
Ward: Jacob Guthard. ^L P. Christian. Seventh 
Ward: W. .\. Owen, Paul Gies. Eighth Ward: J. 
D. Finnegan, I). Shanahan. Ninth Ward: James 
Daly. (;. W. Hough. Tenth Ward: W. II. Baxter, 
John P. Rowland. Twelfth Ward: II. Ileames, 
(ieorge Dorr. 

1576, First Ward: George Wilkes, Rolx'rt A. 
Liggett. Second Ward : J. Schmitt, Lewis B. Clark, 
Chas. Ewi-rs. Third Ward : Jos. A. Kiulz, 'I'hos. 
Jackson. Fourth Ward: C. C. Blotlgett, Jas. I. 
•Mitchell. Fifth Ward: S. Finney, G. Dunlap. Sixth 
Ward:M. P. Christian, J. Guthard. Seventh 
Ward: P. Gies, W. A.Owen. Eighth Ward : I). 
Shanahan. J. D. l''innegan. Ninth Ward: G. W. 
Hough, Michael Ilaller. Tenth Ward: J. P. Row 
land, Geo. W. Herriek. Twelfth Ward : Geo. Dorr, 
Henry Heanies. 

1877, First Ward: R. A. Liggett, T. D. Hawley. 
.Second Ward: Chas. I'2wers, J. Schmitt, Th'rd 
Ward: Thos. Jackson, J. A. Kurtz. Fourth Wiird: 
J. I. Mitchell, August Schulte. Fifth Ward : Geo. 
J)inilap, Seymour Finney. Sixth. Ward : J. Guthard, 
Stephen K. Taft. Seventh Ward : W. A. Owen, J. 
C. Jacob. llighth Ward : J. D. Finnegan, John 
Monaghan. Ninth Ward : M. Mailer, J. B. Moore. 
Tenth Ward: G. W\ Herriek, Jas. D. Weir. 
I'lleventh Ward : N. Seiininger, J. Lingeman. 
Twelfth Ward : II. Heames, G. Dorr. Thirteenth 
Ward: P.ernard Youngblood, S. C. Karrer. 

1878, I'^irst Ward : T. D. Hawley, Geo. A. Foster. 
Second Ward: John Schmitt, Chas. Ewers. Third 
Ward : J. A. Kurtz, T. Jackson. Fourth Ward : 
Abel R. Torrey, J. I. Mitchell. Fifth Ward: S. 
Finney, F. G. Russell. Sixth Ward: S. K. Taft, 
Jas. B. Lauder. Seventh Ward : J. C. Jacob, Chas. 
M. Rousseau. Eighth Ward : J. Monaghan, D.:miel 
Guiney. Ninth Ward: J. B. Moore, M. Haller. 
Tenth' Ward : J. I). Weir, G. W. Merrick. Ele\enth 
W.ard : N. Senninger, John 15. Ryan. Twelfth 
Ward: G. Dorr, Henry Gross. Thirteenth Ward : 
B. Youngblood, II. Klei, S. C. Karrer. 

1879, First Ward : George A. Foster, P. J. Ralph. 
Second Ward : Charles F.wers, Thomas Manning. 
Third Ward : Thomas Jackson, Wm. Boydell. 
Fourth Ward : A. H. Raynor, J. L Mitchell. Fifth 
Ward : F. (;. Russell, S. Finnev. Sixth Ward : W. 



146 



ALUEKMKN: TIIEIK DUIli:S AND NAMES. 



:a 



K. Warriiicr, W. II. Connor. .Seventh Ward: C. 
M. Rousseau, J. C. Jacob. Kiirlitli Ward: I). 
Guiuev, J. M()nai,dian. Ninth Ward : M. lialler, T. 
J. GrilVm. Tent'li Ward: G. W. Herriek, C. II. 
Chene. Eleventh Ward : J. H. Ryan, Francis Alter. 
Twelfth Ward: II. Cross, M.Daly. Thirteenth 
Ward: Paul (lies. S. C. Karrcr. 

i<S8o, First Ward : P. J. Ralph, C.eor.ire A. Foster. 
Second Ward : Thos. Manning', Charles lowers. 
Third Ward: Wni. Hoydell, .M. \'. i5ort,nnan. 
Fourth Ward: A. H. Raynor, II. D. Barnard. 
Fifth Ward : S. Finney, J. I'"., \1ncent. Sixth 
Ward: W. H. Connor, W. IC. Warriner. Seventh 
Ward : J. C. Jacob, Henry Heck. ICij^dith Ward : 
J. Monatjhan, D. Cuiney. Ninth Ward : T. J. 
Griffin, M. Haller. Tenth Ward : G. II. Chene, 
W. E. Todd. I'Mevenlh Ward : F. Alter, Joseph 
Eintjeinan. Twelfth Ward : M. Daly, Geo. Dorr. 
Thirteenth Ward: Paul Gies, Henry Klei. 

i88t, Finst Ward: G. A. Foster. C. W. Coolidge. 
Second Ward : C. Ewers, T. Manning. Third 
Ward : M. V. Bori,mian, Thos. J.ackson. Fourth 
Ward : H. D. Barnard. JMfth Ward : J. !•:. Vincent, 
S. iMnney. Sixth Ward : W. K. Warriner. l".. K. 
Roberts.' Seventh W.ird : H. Heck, W. A. Owen. 
Eitfhth Ward: D. Guiney, P. Shanahan. Ninth 
Ward: M. Haller, Chas. Appelt. Tenth Ward: 
W. i:. Todd, H. Merdian. Eleventh Ward: J. 
Linirenian, Vl. W. Simpson. Twelfth Ward : Geo. 
Dorr, .\lfred E. Hamlin. Thirteenth Ward: Henry 
Klei, John Kessler. 

1882, First Ward: W. E. Warriner, A.Grant. 
Second Ward : Seymour I'inney, J. E. Vincent. 
Third Ward : I",. W. Simpson, J. B. Book. Fourth 
Ward : C. W. Coolidge, J. W. Fules : Fifth Ward : 



W. A. Owen, A. Ruolf. Sixth Ward : !'. Shanahan, 
J. I'"alvey. Seventh Ward : Thomas Manning, 
Henry ileck. Eighth Ward: K. K. Roberts, W. 
!•:. Moloney. Ninth Ward: H. Merdian, Paul 
(iies. Tenth Ward : Chas. Appelt, George Dorr. 
Eleventh Ward ; Thos. Jackson, Henry Klei. 
Twelfth Ward ; Alfred K. H.imlin. Wm. H.Taylor. 
Thirteenth Ward : John Kessler, A. I.emmer. 

1883, l'"irst Ward : Wm. K. Warriner, Thomas 
Fairbairn. Second Ward : G. A. Chase, Seymour 
Mnney. Third Ward : James B. Book, F. 
Wettlaufer, Fklward Sweeney. Fourth Ward : 
James W. Pales, C. W. Coolidge. l"ifth Ward : 
Augustus Ruolf, Thomas Beggs. Sixth Ward : 
Jeremi.ih Falvey, P. Shanahan. Seventh Ward : 
Henry Heck, Augustus Kaiser. I'.ighth Ward : Wm. 
E. Moloney, John L.Warren. Ninth Ward: Paul 
Gies, Joseph Nagel. Tenth Ward : George Dorr, 
A. G. Kronberg, Chas. Appelt. Eleventh Ward : 
Henry Klei, Henry Merdian. Twelfth Ward: Wm. 
H. Taylor, Geo. W. Loonier. Thirteenth Ward : 
August Lemmer, John Kessler. 

1884, I'"irst Ward : Thomas Fairbairn, Thomas 
Jackson. .Second Ward : Seymour I''inney, George 
A. Chase. Third W.ird : ICdward Sweeney, Levi 
A. Wilcox. Fourth Ward : Peter J. Ralph, John W. 
Westcott. Fifth Ward : Thomas Beggs, I'"rancis 
Alter. Sixth Ward : John Kellcy. Jeremiah Falvey. 
Seventh Ward : Augustus Kaiser, Henry Heck. 
ICighth Ward : John L. W'arren, Wm. I". Moloney. 
Ninth Ward: Joseph Nagel, Paul Gies. Tenth 
Ward : Charles .Appelt. Louis B. Littlefield. Eleventh 
Ward : Henry Merdian, Charles J. Wicser. Twelfth 
Ward : Geo. W. Loonier, Bernard O' Reilly. Thir- 
teenth Ward : John Kessler, August Lemmer. 



CHAPTER XXVII 



TIIK WARDS: ■|IIi:iK KS TAnLISIIMI'.NT AND I'.OUXDARIES. 



Four wards were c-n-ntcd by nrdinnnrc nf May 
14, 1825, for the sole purpose of fonnini; disiriris 
for the fire wardens. A lifih ward was created 
on Seplcmber 23, 1835 ; hut none of tliese (li\isions 
were wards in llie sense in wliieh tiie word is now 
used, neither did they inelude all of the city. 

The first real division of the city into wards was 
by Act of March 37, 1839. Tiie Ixnindaries then 
defined would now be described as follows: First 
Ward, all between Shelby Street and east line of 
Forsyth Farm, and south of Michi;^an Avenue to 
the river. Second Ward, all between Randolph and 
Shelby Streets, and south of Monroe and .Michigan 
Avenues to the river. Thirtl Ward, all between 
Randolph and St. y\ntoine Streets, .and south of Cro- 
ghan Street to the river. An ordinance of March 
17, 1857, added to the Third Waril the territory be- 
tween .St. Antoine, Randolph, Cros^han, and (iraiiot 
Streets. By Act of 1839 the Fourth Ward em- 
braced all south of the dratiot Road to the river, 
aiul between St. Antoine .Street and the east line of 
the Witherell Farm. I5y Act of February 15, 1842, 
the Witherell Farm was thrown outside of the city, 
ami Deiiuindre Street became the east boundary of 
the Fourth Ward. Si.\ years later Rivard Street be- 
came the east boundary, under the Act of January 
25, 1848, which created the Seventh Ward. The 
Fifth Ward, by Act of 1839, embraced the territory 
between Woodward Avenue and the west line of the 
Jones Farm, and north of Michigan Avenue to the 
city limits; an ordinance of December 12, 1875, 
added to it that part of the addition to the city limits 
made by Act of May 3, 1875, which lay north of and 
between an extension of the east and west boun- 
daries of the ward. As established in 1839, the 
Si.Kth Ward embraced all cast of Woodward Avenue, 
and was bounded on the south as follows : On Ml 
roe Avenue to Croghan Street, along Croghanto Si, 
Antoine Street, up St. Antoine to Gratiot Road, and 
along Gratiot Road to the east line of the city. 
The Act of February 15, 1842, which put the With- 
erell Farm back into the township of Hamtamck, 
after it had been for six years a part of the city, 
made Dequindre Street the east line of the Si.xth 
Ward, thus reducing the ward in size ; it was further 
contracted by ordinance of March 17, 1857, which 
added to the Third \\ ard the portion bounded by 

[ 



St. Antoine, I^andolph, Croghan, and Gratiot 
Streets. By ordinance of December 17, 1875, which 
created the Eleventh Ward, the Si.xth Ward was 
shorn of .ill the territory lying e.ast of St. .\ntoine 
Street except that portion of the block bounded by 
St. Antoine, Hastings, Montcalm, and High Streets, 
lying west of an alley running north and south 
through said block; this jog in the boundary was 
made because at that time one of the aldermen of 
the Sixth Ward lived in the block indicated, and it 
was desired to retain him in the ward. An or- 
dinance of April 7, 1880, remedied this break in the 
ward line by making St. Antoine Street the east 
boundary of the Sixth, and the west boundary of 
the Eleventh Ward. Ordinance of December 23, 
1875, added to the Sixth Ward all that part of the 
addition to the city limits of that year that an ex- 
tension in straight lines of the east and west boun- 
daries of the ward would include. 

The Seventh Ward, created by Act of January 25, 
1848, included all of the city south of Gratiot 
A\enue to the river, and between Rivard and De- 
quindre Streets. The I-j'ghth Ward was created by 
Act of February 20, 1S49, and included all of the 
Forsyth, Labrosse, and Baker Farms added to the 
city by the .same Act. An ordinance of December 
23, 1875, ;iddecl to the Eighth Ward such portion of 
the addition to the city limits as would fail within 
its east and west boundary lines extended north- 
wards to the city line. The Ninth Ward was created 
by Act of I''ebruary 12, 1857, and embraced all the 
territory west of the east line of the Woodbridge 
Farm, east of the west line of the Porter Farm, and 
south of the Detroit & Milwaukee and Grand 
Trunk Railroad tracks to the river. An ordinance 
of May 30, 1873, created the Twelfth Ward, and 
made Seventeen-and-a-half and Eighteenth Streets 
its west boundary. It was slightly enlarged by the 
ordinance of December 21, 1875, which added to it 
such of the territory added to the city in that year as 
an extension in a straight line, northerly to the city 
limits, of its eastern and western boundaries would 
include. The Tenth Ward, created at the same time 
as the Ninth, included all the new territory on the 
east side of the city, and embraced all east of De- 
quindre Street, west of Mt. Elliott Avenue, and 
north of the river. An ordinance of December 17, 

U7l 



148 



Till': WARDS: TIIKIR KS TAlJLlSliMKNT AND liOUNDA Kl I.S. 



i(S75, wliicli (lividc'il it. and created tlie 'I'liiiUeiUli 
Ward, defined its nortli boundary as follows: 
Catherine Street east to IClnnvood Avenue, ii|) Illni- 
wood Avenue to Ciernian Stri'et, and thence east to 
Mt. Kiliott Avenue. 15y ordinance of Jeceniher 23, 
1875, all of the territory added to the city that year 
that an extension of tiie east and west l)oundaries of 
the 'l^'Utli Ward in straiijht liiu's would include was 
added to the ward. An Ael of .April 2y, 1S73, an- 
nexed part of Oosse Pointe and Ilamtranick to the 
city, and defined the annexed territory as tlu: 
I'-Ieventh Ward, but the Suiirenie Court pronounced 
the Act unconstitutional, as it interfered with the 
political ri.ujhts of voters. The failure of this Act 
exi')lains why the 'I'welflh Ward existed two years 
before the Eleventh Ward. The Eleventh Ward 
was definitely created by ;ui ordinance of December 
17, 1875, which took effect October i, 1876. It 
included all east of St. Antoine Street, cxcejit the 
piece of land noted in connection with boundaries 
of the Sixth Ward, and all west of Decjuindre and 
north of dratiot Street to the city limits. The ordi- 
nance of April 7, 1880, corrected the broken ward- 
line, makini:^ St. Antoine Street the west boundary. 
The Twelfth Ward was created by ordinance of 
May 30, 1873. It embract'd all west of .Seventeen- 
and-a-h.'df and Ki^hteenlh Streets and east of west 
line of I'orter I'arni, and extended from the river to 
the city limits. IJy orcHnance of December 21, 1875, 
such jiart of the territory added to the city that year 
as an extension of its east and west boundary lines 
in straijjht lines to the new city limits would include 
was added to the ward. The Thirteenth \\'ard 
was created by ordinance of Decemlier 17, 1875, 
taking effect October i, 1876. It included that part 
of the city lying east of Dequindre Street and west 
of Mt. Kiliott Avenue. It was bounded on the 
south by Catherine Street to Elmwood Avenue, 
thence on I^'lmwood Avenue to German -Street, and 
east on Cierman Street to Mt. IClliott Avenue. 

The authority to divide and create wards was 
formerly vested solely in the Legislature, but on 
April 17, 1 87 1, a charter amendment gave this pre- 
rogative to the city. The council, however, was 
loath to exercise this power, and up to i88r there 
was great inequality in the area and the population 
of the wards. Several of tho.s", lying along the 
river, in the southern part of the city, were con- 
trolled almost entirely by those who had least at 
stake in the government of the city. These facts 
led to the radical changes in boundaries made by 



Act of the Li'gislalure on M.iy 5, i>SiSi. liukr this 
Act all the w;irds were m.iile to extend from the 
northern limits of the eit\' t" the ri\i'r. 

In the new arraiigcinenl, e;ieh w.'ird includes a 
portion of the residence, manufacturing, and river 
disti'iets. Much gre.iter e(|u;ility in valuation of the 
wards and char;icttr of the population is securi'd, 
and strei'ts, instead of f;u-m lines, have become the 
division lines of all the wartls. The change is of 
great value in .apportioning voters and assessing 
|iroperty. The boundaries, as established by Act 
of iSSi, are ;is follows : 

First Waki> : Hctwcen Woodw.urd Avenue and 
Heaubien Street. 

Skcon'I) Ward: All that part of the ciiybounded 
on the east by Woodward Avenue and on the west 
by First Street, from the Detroit River to Crand 
River Avenue, up Ciraiul River Avenue to Second 
.Street, and along Second Street to the city limits. 

Third Ward: All between lieaubien and Has- 
tings Streets. 

Fourth ^V^\R^ : All between the west boundary 
line of the Second Ward and Crawford Street, from 
the city limits to Cirand Iviver .Vvenue, down C.rand 
River Avenue to I''iflh Street, and down Fifth 
.Street to the Detroit River. 

Fii'TH Ward: All between Hastings and Rus- 
sell Streets. 

Sixth Ward: All between the west boundary 
of the l'"ourth Ward .and Trumbull Avenue. 

Skvknth Ward 
Decjuindre Streets. 

Eighth Ward; 
Trumbull Avenues. 

Nixi'H Ward: 
Chene Streets. 

TkN'TH Warp : All between the west line of 
Twentieth Street and Wabash .Avenue. 

Klkvexth Ward: All between Chene Street 
and McDougall Avenue. 

TwKi.FTH Ward : All lying west of the west 
line of Twentieth Street. 

ThirtefIVith Ward: All lying east of Mc- 
Dougall Avenue extended on the south to the 
Detroit River and on the north to the city limits, 
and also the parcel of land known as Belle Isle. 

In all cases where the streets are not open to the 
river or extended to the northern limits of the city, 
the w.ird lines are where the lines of the streets 
would be if opened or extended. 



: .All between Russell 

All between Wabash 

All between Dequindre 



and 

and 
and 



CH apti<:r XXVIII 



FRKNCn AND KNC.LISIl TAXATION'.— TERRITORIAI. TAXI'.S.— STATK AND COUNTY 
TAXKS.— CITY TAXATION AND FINANCES.— UNITED STATES TAXES. 



FRKXCH AM) KNCI.ISII lA XA IK )N. 

Undkr French rule the iiiliabilaiUs of Detroit 
paid to the receiver of the domain, as rent to the 
Crown, an annual tax of from one to two sols per 
foot front. Tile Enyiisii commandants required the 
occupants of farms ailjoininj;' tlie town to support 
the troops .and to furnisli at lirst one c<jrd of wood, 
and tiien two cords, for cacii acre of fronta.t^e on the 
river. In 1762 tiie ta.\ on the inhabitants within the 
fort amounted to one iiundred and eigiity-four 
pounds, tiiirteen siiiliinijs, four pence; two years 
later it was one iuindred and fifty-eij;lit pounds. New 
York currency. In 1768 a tax of one sliiliinu; per 
foot front for lots in the fort, and ten shillin,ns per 
acre for tlie farms adjoining, was ordered to be 
paid; tiiis would have yielded about four thousand 
pounds, New York currency. The inhabitants |)ro- 
tested against this tax as exorbitant, and asked to 
have the work done by commissioners, whom they 
agreed to p.'iy. The indications are that their plan 
was adopted. 

TKRRrrORIAL TAXKS. 

Under the Northwest Territory, by law of August 
I, 1792, the Court of Common Pleas appointed 
annually a commissioner of land tax, with collectors 
for each district. Act of December 19, 1799, trans- 
f(;rred the ap|)ointment of tlu^se officers to the Court 
of Ouarter Sessions, who were required to lay off 
the districts. All the lands in each district were to 
be divided by the commissioners into three classes, 
the first grade to pay eighty-five cents, the second 
sixty cents, and the third twenty-five cents on each 
hinidred acres. 

Detroit was in the district or township of Sargent, 
and the following copy of an old French letter, 
found among the archives of the county, shows 
that delinquent tax-payers are not a modern insti- 
tution : 

RiVRK Raisin, 13th August, 1799. 
McNsiniM} F. I. Bki.i.ixouk, — 

I liave received orders from you to ap|)car at the fort to-morrow 
to render my account of I'axes. 

I have to announce to you that it is iinposslhle for me to quit. 
My harvest at this moment is bcini; ravaged hy blackbirds. The 



|)i'ople don't pay, not liavlng any mnney, and I (an't very well 

(iinipil tliini. Do yon know what you have to di>, it is to send 

your orders so as to give more force, so as to constrain them to 

pay. 

I am your humble serv.mt, 

IMS 
JciSKl'll X MkNAKI), 
MA UK 

Colltctoy /or district 0/ Sargent. 

The fort was then the most prominent object in 
the place, and "going to the fort" was the cus- 
tomary phrase of people going to the town. M. 
Hellecour was evidently collector of the land tax. 
Etienne Dubois, who served in 1801, is the only 
other person known to have acted in this capacity. 

The following officers were appointed in March, 
1801 : lister of Lands for Detroit and Huron dis- 
tricts, A. Dequindre; apjiraiscrs of houses for town- 
ship of Detroit, Joseph Thibeaut and Cabriel (Jod- 
froy; collector of territorial tax, Elias Wallen. On 
June 13, 1801, Francois I'etiuise was appointed to 
take the enumeration of jiersons and property for 
Detroit township, and on June 7, 1803, T. McCrae 
and C.abriel Godfroy were apjiointed assessors and 
appraisers for Detroit. On December, 1803, they 
were succeeded by Joseph Thibeaut and Joseph 
Campau. Undor Michigan Territory, a law of Sep- 
tember 10, 1805, imposed taxes as follows: "On 
every coach, chariot, phaeton, chair, calash, chaise 
or other riding carriage, one dollar for every wheel ; 
and on every sleigh, carriole, or other conveyance 
for riding in winter, two dollars, — one half thereof 
to become due upon the first day of April in every 
year, to be collected by the Marshal," The law also 
declared that "every male inhabitant in the Terri- 
tory, over the age of sixteen years, should pay 
annually the sum of one dollar as a capitation tax." 
The number of tax-payers in the Territory on 
October i, 1805, was five hundred and twenty-five, 
and an aggregate assessment of $1,143 seems to 
have been nearly all paid. The highest sum assessed 
to any one person was eighteen dollars and fifty 
cents, and the lowest one dollar. A few of the 
names and amounts on the old roll are as follows : 
James May, $18.50; Joseph Campau, $10.50; James 
Abbott. $8 ; Solomon Sibley, $2 ; Elijah Brush, 
$4.50; IJarnaby Campau, $3; Archibald Horner, 



[mqI 



I^O 



STATE AND COUNTY TAXES. 



$2; Ciabricl Ridiard, S3; Al)raiii Hull, S3, .ind 
I'etcr Dc-snoycrs, $1. 

Under tliis law, on June 5, iSo7,tlu' Disiriet Cnuit 
for Detroit appointed the following,' ol'lieers: Stanley 
(jriswold, ire.isurer ; John lii'nry, Charles Mor.an, 
and Chahert Jonraire, assessors ; W'ni. MeD. Seotl, 
eolleetor. 

In addition to tlic reijiilar taxes, lieenses were 
reciuired from nicreiiants, tavern and saloon keepers. 
The total territorial reeeipts from all sources were 
estimated, in i8o(S, at §5,000; but no one save the 
Governor and Jud,y;es knew the amount eolleeted, or 
the use made of the money. Meanwhile ("lovernor 
Hull and Jud).(e May erected their expensive resi- 
dences, and their expenditures seemed so lavish 
that the Grand Jury of the Territory undertook to 
investii^ate the accounts of the assessors, collectors, 
and treasurers; but to their jL^reat surprise, they 
founil that neither of these officers could be com- 
pelled to render any statement whatever to the 
people. Indeed, the Governor and Jiidjjjes told the 
(hand Jury, "The laws do not authorize you to 
inciiiire into these matters," which information the 
Grand Jury, thouj^di surjirised and indii;nanl, could 
not gainsay. In the words of a contem|iorary, 
" The Governor and Judi^es continued to serve as 
the raters of taxes, the assessors, the colk'ctors, the 
treasurers and expcnders." 

In a memorial to President Madison, the followinvf 
complaint was made : 

'I'ho taxes ()n our pcdj:)!!* arc \'rry h('a\ y, and tin* piil)Iif ntonc)', 
whin intrusted to tin: discrution of Mr. Hull, is wantonly wasted. 
He aiithori>!ed a niniilierof eonimissioners to explore a road to tlx^ 
Miami, in the dead of winter, when the coinitry was hut one sheet 
of ice and snow, -and which it would be inpossihle for thi' same, 
or any other persons, to find again in l.ie siiniiiKT time, -and 
expended four hundred and eighty-two dollars, raised by taxes oil 
a sparse and poor population, on this useless and injiidieious jiro- 
jeet,— money whieh inii;bt be productive of some good if the 
diitatesof common sense* bad been complied wilb, and a propir 
season of the year selected for the purposi*. 

From 1812 to 1820 there was no direct territorial 
t.a.x on lands, but license fees were required from 
stores, taverns, and ferries. 

On May 8, 1820, provision was made for taxing; 
personal property and lands in each county ; and in 
case the taxes were not paid, and no personal 
property could be found upon which to levy, the 
sheriff was authorized to imprison deliiujuents. 
Under law of April 21, 1825, provision was first 
made for the sale of lamls for non-payment of 
taxes, and the first enforcement of this law created 
great indignation. 

STATE AND COUNTY TAXES, 

These ta.xes originate as follows : y\ppro|)riations 
made by the Legislature arc aiiportioned by t!ie 



auditor-gtncr.il, who communic.itis the iiroportion 
of the county to the Mo.ird of Supervisors, through 
the county clerk, and the bo.ird apportions tliiin 
with the regul.ir county t.ix. The amount of the 
county tax is determined by the Bo.ird of Auditors. 

Once in live years the .Stale Hoard of I'.tiu.iliz.a- 
tion ex.imines the apportionments of the State tax 
m.ule by the aiiditor-geiicr.il, ,iiul, as far .is possible, 
equ.ilizi'S the .amounts. 

I'ndcr the tax law of March 14. 18S2, and Act of 
June T), 1883, the State and county taxes, for each 
current year, become a lien on the property on 
December i, and one per cent on the amount is 
.allowed tl township treasurers for colk^cting the 
same. A J.inii.ary i four jicr cent is .allowed 
the township treasurers. Within the city of Detroit 
the tiixes are payable to the county treasurer tij) to 
December 16 without any percentage. If not paid 
by December 16, four per cent is added to the 
amount of the original tax, which must be paid by 
the first of I'"ebruary, unless the time is I'Xtcndi'd by 
the Common Council or the Township Hoard ; but 
not over one month of additional time c;in be 
granti'd. If not paid by the first of March, two per 
(\'nt addilioii.il is added, and then one jier cent a 
month up to June 1, and if not then paid, ;i further 
sum of twenty per ci'iil per yi'ar is charged until 
paid. 

On the first of M.arch a list of all lands on which 
the taxes are unpaid is forwarded by the idtiiity 
treasurer !(• the auditor-gencr.al, .and if tlu' t.axes 
remain un|);ii(l one year or more afti'r liie first of 
July, the lands are then sold on the first of May in 
the next ye.ir. The sale is made by the county 
treasurer, who, within twenty days after the sale, 
must file with the clerk of the Circuit Court a list of 
the lands .sold, and unless objection is made, within 
eight days thereafter the sale is confirmed. Al any 
time within one year thereafter the court can set aside 
the sale, ujion such terms .as .ire deemed just ; but 
no sale can be set aside after the purchaser or his 
assignee has been in possession for live years. 

A tax receipt, to be valid, must describe Ne 
])roperty as fully as it is described on the t.ix roll ; 
and it is well for persons to observe for themselves 
that the tax is marked "I'.aid" on the collector's 
books. 

Cnder law of 1827, and up to 1879, the county 
taxes in Detroit were collected by the ward col- 
lectors under direction of the Common Council; 
since 1879 they have been p.iy.ible to the county 
treasurer, or to collectors of his a|5pointment. 

The total territorial and county, and State and 
county taxes, for several decades, with other inter- 
esting facts, are given in following table ; 



Year. 



1830... 
lS|o. ,. 
ia,o... 
l8i;o. .. 

I8(K>... 

>«7 

1.SS1). .. 



CITY 'lAXAlloN AM) FINANCKS. 



15' 















Year. 


Total Co. 
lax. 


'I'lital State 
aiKlCii.'i'ax. 


I'aiil liy 
III iKiit, 


C'oimty 
Dclu. 

5.U10 


Popiilal'ii 
of to. 


l8ao. .. 




• $1,688 

5i7-'" 

.•14."<i7 

67,466 
■AV 1.658 
406,5 J I 




i8(o... 


l..,7l6 

.•1,51J 

S.l.'N'J 

177,804 


i.,,6.o" 
'•.)5' 

5i,H8fi 
181,441, 

2~),),Jjii 




184..... 
t8s'). .. 


24.'7J 

42.756 

75.547 

I i(,,i)68 

166,444 






1S70... 
18K0... 




1 17."5" 



Formerly many county oniccrs were entitled to 
the fees reeeiveil, hut under Acts of May 22 antl 24, 
iS/i;, tlie fees received hy all county ollicers, after 
that year, wi'fe re(|iiired to be paid to the county 
treasurer, and credilt'd to the _y;eiuTal fund. 

The credit of the county and its linances were fur- 
ther cared for by an Act of June 7, 1881, which pro- 
vided for funding;- the debt of the county for ten 
years, at foiu" and a half per cent interest, and for 
the raisini,r by tax, each yi'ar until paid, of not less 
than one tenth of the ainouhl of the county debt. 

CITY rAXATIoM AND FIMANCKS. 

Under the town incoriioralion, the first tax was 
voted on .April 17, 1S02. The amount was $150, 
and it was to be paid by an assessment of twenty- 
live cents upon each individual of the aije of twenty- 
one years and upwards, and by a tax of one fourtii 
of one per cent on "fixed propert)." In practice, 
the " fixed property " was then deemed to mean 
houses, anil not lots or lands. Under the rule of the 
(lovernor and Jud.nes, no city lax is known to have 
!)een levied. Fri'edom from such taxation was, 
probal)ly, the one blessing of their ri'^/inr. 'I"he 
territorial treasurer ke[)t an account known as the 
Detroit Fund, and the (iovernor and Judifcs tfave 
orders on it, which were paid by recei|)ts obtained 
from sale of lots. In 1S15 the citizens aj^ain as- 
sumed the ni.anaii^enH'nt of llu'ir own affairs, and on 
Sepiember 21, 1816, ;i tax of §1,500 was voted for, 
and was chielly used in buildinj,^ a market-house. It 
was raised by a poll tax of one dollar, and by a lax 
on real and personal [iroperty. 

On February 13, 1817, the IJoard of Trustees 
ai^reed to levy a tax of forty cents on each one hun- 
dred dollars, aiul the total valuation of the city was 
fixed at $1,787.37. On May 10, 1819, the treasurer 
of the corporation made the following report for the 
year : 

Riccmi'TS— Rent of Market Stall, $64.06 ; Kiiics, $(,.;. ii, ; 'ravcni 
Lieciisus, $79.93 ; Use of Hay Scales, $17.06. Total, $254,24. 

Kxi'KNniriuKS— On account of Market, $13.19; l''ire Hooks 
and Handles, $64.13; Salary of t'iiy I'lerk, from September 5, 
1817, to May 11, 1819, $115.43; Commission on moiu'ys received 
and paid by Tr" isurer, $13.31 ; Deputy Marshal, $47.43; Sheet- 
iron for Council House, 75c. Total, $254.24. Outstanding Hills 
against the City, $583.93. Amounts due City, $180.77. 

Act of April 4, 1827, authorized the "citizens' 
meeting," by a plur.ility of votes from qualified 
voters, to levy a poll ta.x of not exceeding one dollar 



upon every qualified voter. I'he .same Act empow- 
ered the city lo fill up the lots on low grounds aloiu' 
the river and in other loc.ilities; and if the improve- 
ments were not jjaitl for by parties owning the lots, 
the city was authorized to lease them for seven 
years to .any person who would p;iy the amounts 
due. By Act of April 12, power w.is given to lease 
lots so assessed for twenty-five years. As might he 
expected, there was much trouble in enforcing these 
laws, .and speci.al power w.as given to the city 
m.arsh.il under which he could summon citizens to 
his .aid ii, onlcr to p. lersons into possession of the 
lots they hail le.ised. 

We now reach the record of events that seem 
■almost incredible, and that mark an era in the his- 
tory of Detroit. In the year 1827 the city cnlc;''il 
upon .and beg.in to l.iy out the m.ignificcnl iiroperty 
known .as the Milit.ary Reserve, which h.id been 
gr.anled by Congress the i)revious year. Roughly 
described by present .street-lines, ihe Ir.icl embr.iccd 
all the hand between .Michigan Ave.iue .and I.. irned 
.Street, and C.riswold .mil Cass Streets. 

Like some boyish heir, who has miexpectedly 
come into p )sses.sion of .a large estate, the city did 
not know how to properly enjoy and utilize such 
wealth, .and the saying " IC.asy come, easy go" 
proved as .applicable lo corpor.ate as to individual 
fin.ances. Property which to-d.iy is in the hc.irl of 
the city, the income from which, year by year, would 
pay the entire city expenses and meet our bonded 
debt besides, was frittered away and siiuandcrcd. 
Twice in the hi.story of the city a Landed dom.iin 
which would be .a l.irge factor in the wealth of 
<a Rothschild has been lost by the mism.anage- 
ment of those who should have preserved it. First 
the Ten-Thousand-Acre Tract and hundreds of city 
lots were disposeil of, .and then the Milil.iry Reserve; 
and to-day the city has literally nothing left of those 
magnificent gift.s, — gifts such as no other city in the 
Union ever received from the (iener.al ("lovernmcnt. 
No other city on this continent was ever so highly 
favored, and none could h.avc made a much poorer 
u.se of such a donation. If the city h.ad .sold, or 
even given away, every alternate lot, and leased the 
rem.ainder of the lots, if the aldermanic fathers 
had done one half .as well for the city as the owners 
of the Cass and Mrush Farms did for themselves, 
the city revenue would now be so great as to pre- 
clude any necessity for tax.ation, and Detroit would 
be the citizens' paradise, the Utopia of burdened 
tax-payers. 

When the city began to improve its possessions, 
it had not money enough to p.ay the laborers. The 
council therefore resolved to p.ay for the work in 
their own notes. Accordingly, on April 10, 1827, 
two days before the legislative council had granted 
them authority, the Recorder .and Alderman Jones 



IS 2 



CITY TAXATION AM) FINANCES. 



were apixHiUed ;i committee to attend to the printiiiif 
of the due-bills. On .\|)rii 12, the le^Mslative eoiincil 
jrave the city power to issue tiiese bills, to an amount 
not e.\ceediiijr S5.000 at any one time; and on May 
I the first lot of one hundred duc-l)ills, for ti\-c 
dollars each, was issued ; and soon after fifty, for ten 
dollars each. On .M;iy 31 it was 

AViWrvv/, that the snin of iivc liiiinlii'd (li)llars lie issued in cnr- 
poration iiDtcs, of a (IciKiiniiiatioii not U'ss than live dcillafs, at tlic 
disi!rcti(in of llic ni.iynr. 

Diirinjr the year, hills of the (k'noininaiion of 
three doll.ars, two dollars, and one dollar, and e\cn 
of fractional ;ininmiis, were issued, and a total of 
$3,349.78 was put in circulation. In 1828 the issues 
of 1827 were redeemed, and §2,300 additional siijncd 
and cinuilateci. It was found, however, that tlu' 
people did not sustain this " fi;it " currency, and on 
July 28, 1828, a special committee of the council 
made the foUowinir report : 

The ciimmittce instructed to e.xamijie into the state of tin; 
credit of the paper, heretofore issued by tliis corporation, etc., 
h.ive to report: That on inquiry it was found that at ri,;;lit of tlie 
stores of the principal merchants of Detroit, which were in siii- 
cossion visited hy a resptu:tahle individual, a discount of eiiLi:htci'n 
cents on a dollar way. dcMUantled, when taken for >;oods. 

The couiuiittee have learned that in several instances a much 
Rreater sacrifice has been required of those who offered the paper 
of the corporation; and in <^ne instance, ,'ibout forty percent dis- 
count was exacted of a laborer, who h.id been in the employ of 
the street comniissionei-, and who wished to buy ,i barrel of pork. 

In fine, it appears to the committee that m place of a desire on 
the part of many, who, it might be supposed, are mainly inter- 
ested in the welfare and improvement of the city, to support and 
assist the exertions of the Cominon Coimcil, and to maint.iin the 
value of the means which are at its disposjil, there exists a paltry 
and dis.i^'raceful propensity to speculate on these means, and to 
increase private wealth, at the sacrifice of the c:ommon property. 
* ♦ * The street commissioner, and others who are calli-d on 
to employ labirers for the corporation, find them.selves under the 
necessity of paying one or two shillings more for a day's work, in 
the notes of the corporation, than the s:une would cost in money, 
or bills at par. .-Vnd every article reqiured for the corporation, and 
paid for in its paper, is charged in a like proportion. * * * * 
Tlie committee beg lea\'e to suggest 

I''irsty th.'t no improvement wliich will require pecuniary means 
he imdertaken until the bills of the corporation shall be within fwe 
per cent of their nominal value. 

Si-ctmil, that all works which have been undert.iken, whii h 
ri'qnire pecuniary means, and which can be relinciuished without 
prejudicing the pidilic health or interest, be discontinued. 

/V///"*/, that all debts now due the cori)or.'iti(^n be immediately 
collected; and 

FiK >-th, that, if it be necessary to restore the <redit of the 
papi'r 01 he corporation, a number of lots be inunediately sold for 
that purpo^.', or that a loan be obtained of either the Hank of 
Michigan or the Itank of Monroe, at the legal interi'st, and pay- 
able; in the manner money is usually paid when obtained on what 
is called Ace<iminodation Notes. * ♦ * 

Ri;sp(;cl fully subnrlted. 

Jiui\ I'. SiiKi.noN, 

1'. I'. II. WrriM.:ui.;i 1,, 
Jil.v 18, iSj.S. Coiiiniitter. 

The report produced but little effect, and matters 
ji^rcw worse and worse, fhc toi.il citv receipts in 
1828 were $20,836.20, of which §1 1,765.95 was from 



sales of lots, and $1,689.36 from lease of lots 011 the 
embankment. I'he expenditures were, for debts of 
the previous ye.ir, $i,i 17.66; for roads and super- 
visor, $1,697.80; for .sewers, $1,278; for embank- 
ment, $7,718; and for o|X'iiinjr streets, $1,754. 

.\lmost as soon as the city bcir.in to dispose of 
the property i;i\'en to it, tlu' cor|ior;uion l)c,n;in to be 
in w;tnt. I'lip-iid debts of previous years were 
c.'illcd for. Improvements p.aid for in dc|)reciated 
due bills were charged for iiroportionately, and cost 
much more than they were really worth. The city 
continued its issue of due-bills, netrlected ta.\;ition, 
and snjd its lots for almost any price, often taking; 
in p.tyment its own notes, boui^'ht at thirty ,-ind forty 
percent discount. .Most of the funds th.at were rc- 
cei\-ed were expended in improx'in^' the wx\ lots 
sold. \. series of so-called imiirovcmcnts was 
entered upon, many of them of a temporary char- 
acter, and others solely in the interest of siiecuiators. 
The Steam Mill Wharf, at the foot of Woodw.ard 
Avenue, was tilled in at a cost of several thousand 
dollars, for the benefit, as was soon found out, of 
private owners. The river front or "embankment" 
w;is really improved. The result of the needless 
expenditures and bad fin.'incicrint;" is indicated in the 



followino^ resolution, " ' 
22, 1S29: 

Risoh'cd, that ,,ie corporat! 
Ss", for the tirm of ninety da 
a like term; tlu; same to be a 



by the council on June 

..m of till' ilank of .Michigan 
ith the permission to renew for 
iriated for the uses of the poor. 



In the following;- ycai . committee, api^ointed by 
the Common Coinicil. reported that "they had 
■applied at both of the b.anks of this city, and had 
been unable to obtain any definite terms from said 
banks ujion which they would loan money to the cor- 
poration." 

When we look .at the city of to-day, with its im 
mense wcilih .and unass.ailabic (Tedit, receiving- .and 
expendino' o\'cr ,1 million of dollars yearly, it seems 
stranv^e indct'd that its credit was e\'er so poor 
and its future so entirely unforeseen. 

In 1830 the city became more moderate in its ex- 
pendiliires, and the total amount paid out was 
$4,542.75, of which $4,426.63 w;is rei^eived from 
s.ale of lots. Whenever money w.is w.anted for any 
purpose, the city ollicials diil not, as ;i f.armcr mii,rht 
do, take a sheep to market, but thcv sold a lot of 
land instead, .11; 1 iliiis, ye.ir by year, the city lived 
upon .and devoured its substance. On November 
12, 1830, a committee was ".appointed to obtain a 
loan for the purpose; of r"decmiim' the cori^oration 
money," and this year the city redeemed $2,610.07, 
and issued $i,5l;6. In March, 1831, the due-bills 
were subject to .a discoimt of twelve and ;i half per 
cent. Still the |)rinters were kept busy, .and on 
/\pril 14, $1,000 in corporation notes were issued, 






CITY TAXATION AM) ITXAXCKS. 



>l.-) 



and the same amount in i<S32. On July lo, 1834, 
the last of the llrst series was issued. Up to that 
time $21,208 liad i)een circulated, and on Au.iijust 1 
tliere were $6,830 outstandin,;;;. On Oitober 22 it 
was decided to cease tile issue of these liills, and lo 
redeem all that were outstanding;-. 

It should l)e rememheretl that, during' the years 
named, neither under the town incorporation of 
1802, the rule of the ("lovernor and Jud.i^es from 
1805 to 1815, nor by the regular city government 
existing from i Si 5, were any city taxes levied upon 
ri-al estate. Is it any wonder that those who owned 
broad acres in single farms within and adjoining the 
city grew rich as the years went by. almost without 
effort or care ? However, " nothing is surer than 
deatl; and taxes," and city taxation of real estate 
came as tiie direct result of the deaths in Detroit by 
Asiatic cholera. The expense incurred by the city 
during the prevalence of the scourge of 1832 was 
too great to be paid by the methods previously in 
vogue. The county refused to pay any portion of 
the expense, and finally, as a last resort, the citizens 
voted to tax the real estate. It was found, however, 
that the city had no power to tax the property of 
others than the citizens, and as much of the taxable 
property was owned by non-residents, no tax was 
then levied. Application was soon made to the 
Legislature, and an amendment to the city charter 
was obtained on April 22, 1833, which authorized 
the council, with the consent of the citizens' meet- 
ing, to levy a tax of one fourth of one per cent on 
real and personal property, and to levy on goods or 
chattels, or sell real estate for a term of years for 
non-payment of taxes, on notice of one month to 
residents, or three months to non-resid.nts. This 
law helped the city out of the tinancial slough into 
which it had fallen. 

Seven years having elapsed since the city received 
its donation from the C.eneral ("lox'crnment, a com- 
mittee was appointed to ascertain the eontlition of 
the city hnances. On March i, 1834 an elaborate 
report was made to the council by C. C. Trowbridge 
and J. Williams, showing that there had been an 
almost entire lack of system in the keeping of 
accounts by the various city officers ; and that 
during the previous seven years, out of $5,000 bor- 
rowed from the banks of the city, only §600 had 
pas-;cd through the treasury. The ri'])ort further 
set forth that between 1825 and 1834 the average 
annual receipts from fines and licenses was $1,100, 
and the average annual expenses, excluding amounts 
paid for laying out streets and improving roads, was 
$1,800, and that the yearly deficit had been ])aid by 
the sale of city lots; also that more than two 
thirds of all the money which had been received 
from .sales of city lots hail been expended on streets, 
roads, and cmb.inkments. 



Up to .March i, 1834, the city had sold ruid dis- 
posed of all the property donated, e\cept three frac- 
tional lots, the sales aggregating $54,423; $15,000 
of this amount was then due for lots already sold. 
Largely tiirough the efforts of Mayor Trowbridge. 




Fac-simile of i2j<5 Cent City Siiini'i.astrr of 1838. 

this $1 5,000 was used in erecting the old City Hall. 
That building has now disapjieared, and a few 
Parks are all that the city has left of the extensive 
donations it received. 

The report of the coiuicil ((jinmittee recom- 



154 



CITY TAXATUJN AND I L\A\Ci:S. 



mended, aiul tlie eily adopted, plans for the more 
perfect keeping;- of aeeonnts. On ( )etol)er 22. a 
committee was .'ippoinled to devise a system of tax- 
;ition on real and personal ]iro|)ertv ; and at a eili- 
zens' meetini( on October 31, a real estate t.ix was 
voted. It was limiteil to one fourth of one jier cent 
on the valuation. 

I'roin this time the credit of the city l)e.i,^'m slowly 
to improve; and with jjreater needs, additional 
powers of taxation have been granted by the Legis- 
lature. An Act of .\pril 13, 1841, authorized the 
city, with consent of the citizens' meeting, to niise a 
tax of one half of one per cent. One of the first 
symptoms of enl.arged crecht w;is the agreement of 
01i\-er Newberry, on October 28, 1835, to purchase 
$100,000 in city bonds. I lis offer was ac'cepied on 
November 13, and the lirst bonds issued by the city 
were thus sold to a <'ilizen. They were dated 
October i, 1835; um: half of the amount was then 
issued, and the balani:e just one vear later. 

The simplicity, or duplicity, of those days is illus- 
trated by the fact that the bonds were delivered 
before thi'V were paid for, and the money jiaid over 
from time to lime, ;is wanted. 

'I"he panic, of 1837 created a demand for a new 
issue of city shinplasters, and on August 8, $2,000 
were ordered issued in small bills, of the denomina- 
tions of six and one fourth, twelve and one half, eigh- 
teen and three fourths, twenty-live, thirty-seven and 
a half, fifty, and sixty-two aiul ;i half cents. On 
Saturday, October 21, 1837, Alderman Ch.asc offered 
the following, which w;is atlopted : 

Ke.\o/"vii, that tlu! I'ity Ireastiror, uiicUr the clirictii)n of the 
maycir, liaw jiriiitcd upon l)auk-ni)tc paper, (liK:-l>iIls to the 
.'unoiiut of ^ii^j*)'), of tht; forms jircx-ionsly adopted hy the board, 
of the dtMioniiiialioiis of fifty and se\'enty-ri\'e cents; $i,ik)>» of 
s:iid Sinn I < he made payable at the Hank of Miehij;an; $!,<>«) at 
tlie Michigan State Bank; and $i,.«x) at the I'armers and 
Mecluinicrt' Hank; and wluii filled up and signed, tliat the ainoiiiu 
he placed to the credit of the city, the treasurer j;ivini,' his receipt 
therefor. 

On April i, 1831), .a report of the city clerk showed 
that there were in circulation, mi March 31, 183S, 
$15,615.04 of these hills, , and on March 30, 1839, 
$12,323.45. On May 14, 1831J, $10,000 were ordered 
printed, to redeem muiiltted bills. The mutil.ated 
bills were redeemed by the city treasurer, who had 
ihe care of them, until they could be destroyetl by ;i 
committee of the council. In those d.iys there wt're 
no public s.afes, and the city officers had none of the 
modern conveniences for the safe keeping of \alii- 
ables, conse(|uently the bills were packed in ;in 
immense " hair trunk," -;i trunk covered with horse- 
hide, tanned with the hair on. 

On one occasion, when Saturday night came, the 
trunk was crammed full of these ])romises to ji.ay, 
and the treasurer was obliged to convey it to his 
own home ; and, with double-barrelled gun and I)r,ice 



of ]iistols loaded .and primed, he kept watch .and 
w.ard (i\iT the trunk all through the .Sabbath, ;md 
on Monday turned the money over to be burned. 

r>y Act of I'ebruary 11, 1842. the city was pro- 
hibited from issuing any more due-bills. Little 




Kac-si.\iii,k oi- CiTV 18% Cr.NT City Siiini'Lastek ok 1841. 

heed, liowevcr, was paid to the l.iw, and their issue 
continued until even the ti'ii.ants of the city h;id 
no f.'iith in their l.indlord. The following notice 
appeared in the d.iily ii;i|iers : 






m 



CITY TAXATION AND FINANCES. 



155 



\Vt', till,' iin(li!rsi>!m-cl, liiitilurs i[i lli(> City Hall Market, luive 
hcicimc sjitisllcd that, in onliT to snslaiii inirseh rs in our biisiiuss, 
wo niiisl iliscontiniic to rocuive lorporaticm sliiiiplasttTs for iiii'al, 
from this date, 'rnistin.s; the |)iil)lic will sustain us in the stand 
\vhi( li necessity alone has eoniix'lled ns to take. 

S. 11. MousK, 
li. Ta! T, 

Damki. Oir.m.AN, 
John Hi 1.1, , 

CHAUI.KS r.clNDWKU, 

John IIkss. 
■Drtijoit, April 18, 1842. 




Tlie notice seems to have borne some fruit, for on 
Novemi)er i, 1S42, the Comr.iittee on Ways and 
Means reported that tiiey li.id destroyed $6,4.^4.84 
in warrants and due-l)ilis. This j^ood work was 
continued, and on January 24, 1843, the committee 
reported the destruction of $4,708.24 additional, and 
four hundred and eij^hty sheets of blank due-bills. 
On the 7th of I'"ebruary follnwinj;. six inindred more 
sheets were burned. On March 19. 1844, the coun- 
cil resolved "that henceforth no shinplaster or w;ir- 
rant shall be issued by the corporation." 

In 1845 Rawdon, \\'rii;ht, <!v: Match were paid 
$888.51 for printin.if due-bills previously issued. On 
March 13, 1851, $3,472.62 of this corporation money 
w;is still outstandinir, and as late as 1871 the sum 
of $21.87 \vas redeemed. 

Expiiisrs of Ci'iy. 
The expenses of the city for several decades, and 
the amounts exiK'iided for the most important pur- 
poses, are shown in the following' table : 





1830 


1S40 


1850 


l8(K. 

$10,771 


Kite Department 


$,!5f> 


$i/'39 


3.2.S9 


Schools 




.3" 

53 


8,i>'3 


40,667 
35.7-'5 


PiiMic SfwtTs . . 


246 


Intcrt'st on 1 )cl)t 




'4.395 


24.231 


19, 8v' 


CanM.f Poor.... 


V 


2,046 


2,1) Ij 


1 1 ,62 1; 










186 

2,^0! 


City Printing. . . 


Cm 


297 


6S5 


City Lights 









8,S8o 


Cilv roliee 








2,475 


Citv Courts 


68 


1,171 


7'5 


■4" 


Care of Streets.. 


I. '53 


1,998 


3.432 


i8,(,i.-' 


l*a\inv; St's and 










Intersections. . 


445 


40 


1.232 


33..i">J 


Water Works 




30,080 


12,469 




Salaries i>fAlder- 




tnen, Citv < IfTi- 










cers;ind Clerks 


588 


1,212 


4.'4'i 


18,047 


Kleetion l-,.\pen- 










ses 





301 


364 


1.(14 


Total expendi- ) 










tnri's for ordi- 


$4,542 |()i,of« 


$127,260 


$294,436 


nary piirp sus ) 


1 







1870 

$78,223!! 

'7.!.'»74 

1 I2,fH.7 

52,318 
■7.332| 

4.333 
13.633 
20,010 
64,706 

8,112 
44.1571 

''5.294 



35.5-'<' 
2,780 



18S1 



,198 
172 

i.';93 
.325 
I029 

.952 
909 
i94S 
,022 
,469 
002 



57.974 

73.483 
12,935 



$693,014 $902,889 



Amounts for iScSi are ,i;iven because the rcjiorts 
for 1880 included a periotl of seventeen months. 
The amounts appropriated in any one year for any 
certain purpose do not always indicate how much 
w.-is expended for that purpose durin^^ the year. Of 
the appropriation for any ycir, only the amount col- 
lecti'd can be used, but b.ilances left over, or 
amounts collected as back taxes, can be used. 

A variety of interesting; facts concerninji;' the tax- 
ation and hnanees of the city arc herewith ^iven : 



Fac-si.mile of Tui;.Nrv-i'i\ ]■; Cicni (.iiv Siii.m i am i.i; m 1S38. 



Years. 


Valuation of 
Real Estate. 


Valuation of 
Personal Prop. 


Total Valtia- 
lion. 


1 8 'o 






$711,680 
.(,f'io,c)5i 
2,372,6)9 








iSco 






i860 

1870 

1880 

1884 


|i4,'->27.i:i3-.-- 
16,872,333.... 
64, ,,6.085.... 
8«,890,955-- 


$2,186,690 ... 
<'.7.3".994---- 
19,807,705... 
s7.931.040.-. 


16,213,823 

23,'>'3.327 
85,363,790 

110,721,995 



156 



CITY TAXATION AND KINANCES. 



Years. 



1830 

1840. ... 

1850 

i860 

1870 

l88a 

1884 ... 



Total City 'J'ax. 



Net City Debt. 



$..i,,8(.j-- 
129,484.. 
631,872- • 
885,830.. 



$;,I0.S- 
l86,5(») 

304,845 

707.794 

l,36o,4(:xi 

* 906,5^x1 



In Siiikiii>; 
Kiiiiil. 



$11,123 

37. •-";2 
528,(.2a 

*yo6,7C)4 



♦July, 1884. 



50 CHIKTS^ 




Fac-simile of Fiftv-Cent Shinplaster of 1837. 



In ;uklilii)n to llic n ;^iilar bonded dcl)t of the city, 
l)(.'in>il is also liable f,)r about live si.xtlis of the bond- 
ed debt of the county, and for all the bonded debt 
created by the Bo.'ird of Water Coniniissioners. Hv 
the charter of 1803 the bonded debt of the city may 
not be o\er twc per cent of the assessed valuation of 
all property. An Act of March 8, 1873, whicii 
authorized tj-.e 'expenditure by the Water Commis- 
sion of mosL of tiie amounts constitutinji^ tiicir debt, 
made it ti'.e duty of tlie council to assess an annual 
tax of $75,000 for the use of the board, a portion of 
wliich »vas expected to be set apart as a sinlcinir 
fund : l)ut the council appropriated nothinij until 
187^, when $25,000 was appropriated, and since 
then $40,000 has been appropriated yearly. 

'I'lie increase in tlic wealth of tlic citv is sliown by 
the fact tiiat the valuation of 1830 would .i^ive each 
inhabit.-uit $321, while that of 1880 would allow each 
person $728. 

The rate of taxation per capita in 1850 was $3.26 ; 
in i860, $2.83 ; in 1S70. $7.94 ; and in 1880, $7.61. 

C/'/j' Debt aiiif Si^!/://i_ij- Fund. 

Under Act of March 21, 1851, provision was 
made for creatini;^ a sinking- fund to meet the indebt- 
edness of the city, and in 1852 the first tax, of 
$5,000, was levied for this purpose. The proceeds 
of this fund are invested chiefly in city bonds, the 
city thus actin,i^ as its own debtor and creditor. 
The fund is in charge of the mayor, comptroller, treas- 
urer, and the Committees on Ways and Means of the 
Boards of Councilmen and Aldermen, as commis- 
sioners of the fund. The bonds and other securities 
are deposited I)y the city treasurer in a "strong 
box," which, up to July, 1SS2, was kept in the vault 
of the bank acting as " city depository," and since 
then in one of the safes (jf the Wayne County .Safe 
Deposit Company. The box has two locks, the 
mayor and treasurer each having a key, and when 
the box is opened, necessity compels the presence of 
the comptroller also, as he alone has the key to the 
particular safe containing the box. 

Under law of 1879 '•'i'^ council was recjuired to 
levy a tax, of not less than $5,000 nor more than 
$10,000 yearly, to be credited to the sinking fund. 
The charter of 1883 did away with this jirovision, as 
there seemed no further necessity for such a tax. 
The ordinary additions to the fund come chiefly 
from interest on investments, from percentage on 
taxes not paid when due, from interest on deposits 
of city funds, and from the taxes on liquor dealers. 
These latter taxes were credited to the contingent 
fund, and balances left unused were yearly turned 
over to the sinking fund. After July i, 1S85, they 
may be used to pay tlie current expenses of the 
city. 



CITY TAXATION AND FINANLKS. 



157 



The total ainoimts received from liquor taxes in 
Detroit since the State law took effect are as fol- 
lows : 1875, $74,196; 1S76, $88.44:;; 1877, §57,- 
471; 1878, S65.175; i"-;7y, and to July 1, 1880, 
$109,452; 1881, $99,890; 1882, $95,494; 1883, 
S141.657. 

The amounts transferred to the sinkinj^ fund have 
been as follows: 1875, $71,999; 1876, $69,695; 1877, 
$51,000; 1878, $58,000; 1879, and to July i, 1880, 
$90,000; 1881, $85,000; 1882, $90,000; 1S83, 
$[30,000. 

The city officers were formerly entitled to the fees 
they received, but under law of 1879 all fees received 
by any city officer are reciuircd to be jiaid over to 
the city treasurer, and credited to the ).;eneral fund. 

67// '/'(I. It's : xoIilII and lunj payahh:. 

The estimates for taxes, as submitted by the comp- 
troller, art required to be adopted by the Boai'd of 
Aldermen before April 5 of each year, and by the 
lioard of Councilmeii on or before i\pril 15. While 
the members of these lioards are considering the 
estimates, the iSoard of Assessors have lieen com- 
pletintr their valuation of the property to i)e taxed ; 
and, at least two weeks before April r, they are 
required to .^ive notice that they will sit until April 5 
to hear eompl.'iints and make corrections in the val- 
uations. After this has been done, on or before the 
third Tuesday of /Vpril, they send the completed tax 
roll to the 15oard of Aldermen, and within a week 
thereafter the Hoard of Aldermen and the fJoard of 
Councilmen be.irin to hold joint sessions as a Board 
of Review, to hear complaints, and, if necessary, to 
correct the rolls. Their sessions continue not over 
sixteen days, after which, usually about the middle 
of May, the rolls are fully contirmed. The assessors 
then compute the amount of taxes payable on each 
valuation contained on the rolls, and taxes may be 
paid during; the month of July without percentage. 
Since the law of 1879, if the clerks in oifice are so 
busy that they cannot receive all the taxes offered, 
lists of property, with names of owners, may be 
handed in on or before July 25, and the parties can 
have until August 10 to pay the amounts, if there is 
no opportunity of paying sooner. On the first of 
August interest, at the rate of one per cent a month, 
is added for July, and at the same rate the first of 
each month until tiie first of January, unless the tax 
is paid. If not paid by the first of January, the six 
per cent that has accrued is added to the original 
tax, and interest continues to be charged at the rate 
of one per cent a month until the tax is paid. If 
not paid by the first of February, the receiver of 
taxes is authorized to advertise the property for sale, 
but as it takes some time to prepare them, the lists 
are usually not printed until about May i , when the 
property is advertised for sale for four successive 



weeks. .After this the cost of advertising, amount- 
ing to about fifty cents, is added, and interest con- 
tinues to be rt'ckoned at the rate of one per ci'iit a 
month. If the lax is not })aid the propi'i'ty is sold 
about June 1, the exact day bi'ing discreliunary with 
the recei\rr of taxes. The sale indicates only that 
the purchaser is entitled to the use of the propeity 
purchased for the number of years agreed upon at 
time of sale; but if the owner neglct'ts to redeem 
it, the sale is contirmed by a regular transfi'r of title 
by the city. Rec()rds of sales are filed in the city 
treasurer's office. The property can be redet'iiied at 
any time within one year after sale by paying the 
.amount due at time of sale, and interest at the rate 
of fifteen per cent per annum. .Soon after the sale 
a list of all property on which the taxes h;i\e not 
been paid, nor caiuH'llcd by .sales, is furnished by the 
receiver to the city treasurer, to be thereafter col- 
le<-ted through him. 

At the annual s.ale, unless some private person 
bids the amount of the tax, all lands on which taxes 
are unpaid are sold to the city, and the amounts re- 
ceived for back taxes in the treasurer's ol'llce are 
credited as receipts from "City Bids." 

l"rom 184410 1863 tile unpaid taxes on real estate 
accumulated to the amount of $50,360. The city 
treasurers slioultl ha\e collected these amounts, but 
through ignorance and carelessness they neglected 
to do so. On l'\-bruary i, 1877, a department for 
collection was established in connection with the 
city treasurer's olTice, and nearly $40,000 collected 
the first year. 

I'rior to the law of May 31, 1S79, the taxes on 
personal property were placed in the hands of ward 
collectors, but there was no ade(]uate provision for 
e'^f(jrcing tlieir collection. Many refused to pay, 
and no further effort was made when collectors 
failed to obtain the amounts. Since the law of 1879 
the city is authorized to levy for the collection of 
personal taxes, and a much larger proportion of the 
amounts is now collected. The charter of 1883 pro- 
vides that other property than real estate may be 
seized and sold at auction for real estate taxes. 

Spca'al Taxes. 

Ta.xes or assessments for the building of side- 
walks and sewers, or f(jr the paving of streets, are 
kept entirely distinct from the regular city ta.xes, 
and are payable within thirty days from the time ' 
the rolls are confirmed by the council. If not paid 
within sixty days, the receiver of taxes can, at his 
discretion, advertise for sale the property on which 
these taxes are levied. 

Kinds of Property taxed. 

The assessors are obliged by law to lax all real 
estate (lands and buildings being estimated separ- 



'58 



Cri'Y 'I'AXA'riON AND KIN'ANCl.S. 



atclyi, also all sincks. bonds, and niorii;am's luld 
l)y iiulividiials <jr corporations; ail kinds of inir- 
chaiidisc and movable propiTty, ton'i'tlu'r with 
horsos, cattle, and c.irriaijcs. In addition to llicsc 
taxes, real i-statt: located on iinpavec' streets is as- 
.sessed specially, and pro rata for road taxes, ac- 
cordint^ to tln' ; niount estimated to be necessary 
for each ward. l'|) to i<SSi each house or store 
with a <'ellar was .assessed one dollar, and, if the lot 
was draiiH'd, fifty cents additional, as specitle taxes. 
A (lonl)t as to the le.iL^ality of the assessment on 
cellars, arising;' from a decision in a case somewhat 
similar, caused the discontinuance of assessments 
on c-ellars after 1880. All household proptTty over 
two luindred dollars in waluc: is liable to assessnu'nl. 
All houses of iniblic worship, and their fixtures and 
furniture, .also the land on which they stand, and 
any parsonaiLie owned and occupied as such, are ex- 
empted by law ; all cemeteries, all city property, and 
the property of any person who, in the opinion of 
the assessor, is nnable to ]iay, are exempt, also other 
properly of various kinds, as the result of special 
enactments. 

An Act of February 15, 1859, ijave the assessor 
discretionary power in tlxini.; valuation of pnip'/rty 
in the outskirts of the city; and up to 1872 projierty 
w.'is as.sessed at only about one third of its value. 
An .'\ct of April 17, 1871, made it obliijjatory upon 
the assessors to rate property at its cash value. 

In order to show the actual valuation of the city 
in 1880, the followiuij property then exempted should 
be included : 

VAl.rATUlN. 

Public school-houses and sites . . % 732,955 

Police stations and property . . ^'C'.j^j 

Fire enijine houses and property . 417,867 
Other city property, such as City Hall, 
Public Library, House of Correction, 

Water Works, .Sewers, Parks, etc. 7,065,282 

Cemeteries ..... 224,000 

R.ailroad Lands and biiiklinns . . 2,700,000 

Street railroads and e(]uii5ment . 684,320 

Charitable and benevolent institutions 600,000 

United States property . . . 400,000 

Chiiri'h property ..... 2,573,625 

School property belonging to churches 295,000 



Total 



$15,739,172 



Fiiiaiuial Methods and Accounts. 

When the city was first incorporated the fiscal 
year was uniform with the official year. In 1859 it 
was changed so as to begin March i instead of 
April I. In 1873 it was changed to begin February 
I. By Act of February 23, 1879, it was ordered 
that the fiscal year begin on the i.st of July. 

All moneys received by the city treasurer were 
originally placed in the common fund. The first 



(k'|);irtui"i' from this method w.is m.ide undei- .\t't of 
l'\'brn,ary 13, 184:5. which rc(|iiircd ih.at all nioncvs 
collected for .■-■chool ]iiirposes should be kcjit in .a 
sjieci.-il .account. St'p.irate aci'ounts were not kei)t 
for otlu'r funds until rc(|tiirc(l byihi' ch.arter of 1857. 
The number of tlu'si' -qiecial .accounts is cor,tinually 
incri'asing. the council, from time to time, tlesignat- 
ing some new object, the money for which is to be 
ke|)t si'p.u'ate. 

In order th.at the condition of the funds for which 
s|ieci,al .ipproprialions .are made in.ay be readily ascer- 
t.ained, the citv treasurer keei)s two .accounts of each 
fund. One .account is la-edited with the entire 
.amount <aiipro|)ri.atc(l, .and ch.irged with the .amoint 
expendi'd ; the other .account is cretliled with I'le 
.amount .aclually received, .and eh.arged with the 
.amounts p.aid out. The titles of the .accounts, as 
kept by the treasurer, .are, most of tluMii, clearly 
iniHcative of their char.icti'r. The account n.amed 
" Redemption Fund " shows wh.at h.as been receised 
from individu.als in redemption of lands sold for 
non-p.aymeiit of t.axi's, .and whether the moneys 
so received were p.aid b.ick to those who bought the 
pro]-)erty at tax sale, or credited to the city, which is 
supposed to bid for and buy all the lands thus 
offered, not sold to an iiulividu.al. 

The account called "City ISids" includes the 
entire .amounts due the c-ity for all back taxes, and 
when any of these b.ack taxes .are paid the amount 
is credited to the year in which the t.axes became 
due. The amoimts la'edited to "City Ch.arges " are 
m.ade up of the office charges and interest which 
has accrued on the back taxes. 

The " PuMie Sewer Fund" has reference to ac- 
counts connected with sewers paid for by general 
tax, the "(ieneral Sewi'r Fund" to accounts for 
sewers jxiid for by local assessments, the " Cicner.al 
Ro.ad Fund" to amounts received and expended for 
gener.al rep.iir of streets and sidewalks ; the " Road 
District Fund" has reference solely to amounts 
r.aised and paid out for cleaning the streets. 

;\11 moneys due for city taxes are originally pay- 
,able to the receiver of taxes. The receipts given 
are numbered consecutively from the beginning of 
eiich fiscal year; and since 1871, in order to be 
valid, they must have, not only the receiver's signa- 
ture, but that of the comptroller also. The receiver 
pays over each day to the city treasurer the funds he 
has received, and reports the amount to the comp- 
troller, and the city treasurer repcjrts daily to the 
comptroller the full amount of his receipts and dis- 
bursements, with t'l: .'-'ounts credited or charged 
to each account ; h.j :.■. riso recjuired to deposit daily 
all the funds received by him in whiitever bank 
has been designated by the Common Council. The 
bank so designated is known .as the city depository, 
and pays such rate of interest on monthly balances 



in its k( 
upon, 
cent on 
the inter 
The city 
the ainoi 
ceding tl 
out any 
by the c 
belongiii! 
which ar 
boards, 
except pa 
and laboi 
the city 
written < 
eomptroll 
the Comi 
men .and 
examine a 

UNri'K!) 

One of 

States to ( 

1797. wliii 

to be fu 

niemoranc 

much of t 

lent .spec in 

the Law w; 

nected wit 

l>roviding 

August 2, 

sales, and 

and licen.^ 

b.anks, and 

percentage 

amounts re 

cemljer 23, 

The nect 

w.ir debt j 

which prov 

comes of o\ 

the sever.al 

1862, reciuii 

of liquors, ; 

eatihg-housi 

jugglers, CO 

peddlers, dr 

lawyers, doi 

were rei]uiri 

certain perc 

under $io,o( 

comes of ()V( 

cent on the 

July 20, 1 86) 

Detroit h; 



INTERNAL REVENUE TAXES. 



159 



in its kcepinir as may from timu to time he a.ijrcLd 
upon. In 1SS2 the rate \v;is four and one ei.ijhtii per 
cent on monthly haianees of §100,000, or over ; and 
tiie interest received i)y tlie city amounted to §26,763. 
The city depository notifies the comptroller daily of 
tile amount deposited hy the city treasurer the pre- 
cediiii,' ilay. The treasurer is not allowed to pay 
out any money without a warrant or order sij^ned 
hy the comptnjller, except in the case of moneys 
helonyinjif to the i'olice ;uid Educational Funds, 
which are paiti out on orders from otlicers of these 
hoards. All payments made hy the city treasurer, 
except paynieiils on ordinary pay-rolls of city ollicers 
and laborers, are rccpiircd to he m.ide by cheek upon 
the city depository, aiul the chec-ks must have 
written or pi-inted upon llu'm the warrant of the 
comptroller for the payment. Once in each month 
the Committees on Ways and Means of the alder- 
men and councilnieii are recjuired to inspect .and 
ex;iniiiie all the affairs and accounts of the treasurer 

UNITKI) STATKS INTKKNAI, RKVKNUK TAXKS. 

One of the earliest efforts m.ade by the United 
States to obtain a revenue w;is by the law of July 6, 
1797, which pr(jvi(led for the use of stamped paper, 
to be furnished by the (Government, An old 
nienior.andum book of Peter Audrain shows that 
much of this paper w.as usihI at Detroit, and excel- 
lent specimens are preserved. On March 31, i7yiS, 
the law w.as repealed, exi'cpt as to documents con- 
nected with exports and insur.ance. The first Law 
providinj^ for an internal revtMuu; tax w.as p.assed 
.\u.v;ust 2, 1813. I5y it ;i tax was levied on .auction 
sales, and on sut^.ar refined in the United States; 
and licenses were retjuired from li(iuor dealers, 
b.inks, .and b.ankers. The collector was paid by a 
perci:ntai;e of from three to ei,v;ht per cent on the 
■amounts received. This kuv was abolished on De- 
cember 23, 1817. 

The necessity of a revenue to pay interest on the 
war debt ijj.ave rise to the l.iw of Aui;ust 5, 1861, 
which provided for a t.ax of three per cent on in- 
comes of over §800, and authorized a direct tax upon 
the sevenil States of §20,000,060. A law of July i, 
1862, retiuired licenses for the m.anufaeture and sale 
of liciuors, and from bankers, p.iwnbrokers, hotels, 
e.atihj^-houscs, brokers of all kinds, theaters, circuses, 
jui;,i;lers, confectioners, livery .stables, soapmakers, 
peddlers, dru.u;,i(ists, photoijraphers, manuf.acturers, 
lawyers, doctors, and dentists. All m.anufacturers 
were required to make monthly returns, and to pay 
certain percentajres. Incomes of over §600 and 
under §10,000 were t.a.xed three per cent, .and all in- 
comes of over §10,000 were required to pay five per 
cent on the excess. This law was in force up to 
July 20, 1868. 

Detroit has always been the headquarters of the 



tlrst collection district of Michij^an, and by an 
.amendment to the Law takin,if effect Auv(ust 7, 1883, 
the district was enlarired W include the counties of 
yVlcoiia, .(\lpen.i, Areii.ac, 15ar.is.^a, li.ay, ISranch, Cal- 
tioun, L'lu boyvran, Chippewa, Clare, Clinton, Craw- 
ford, Dclt.a, (Iciu'see, (il.adwin, Cratiot, Ilillsd.ale, 
Houghton, Huron, Ingham, loni.a, Isabella, Isle 
Roy.ale, Jackson, Keweenaw, Eenawee, Livingston, 
I..a]K'er, M.aconib, M.ackin.aw, Marciuette, Mtnomi- 
nee. Midland, Monroe, Montmoreniy, ()).;cm.iw, 
Ontoinijon, Oscoda, Oakl.ind, Otseijo, i'lesiiuc Isle, 
Roscommon, .St. Cl.air. S.mil.ac, S.a.^in.iw, School- 
craft, Sliiawasse, Tusol.i, W'.iync, .and W'.ashtenaw. 

The tisc.al t.ax year bej^ins May i.and the special 
taxes imposed by the l.aw, when paid, are reckoned 
accordiny^ to the number of months left in tlii' year. 
The speci.al t.axes up to July 1, 1883, imposed by 
law .and p.ayable yearly, wi're .as follows: rectifiers, 
§200; ret.ail li(iuor-de.ilci-s, §25; wholesale licjuor- 
de.alers, §100; wholes.ale dealers in malt liijuors, 
S50; retail dealers in ni.ilt liciuors, §20; wholesale 
dealers in leaf-tob.acco, §25 ; retail dealers in leaf- 
tobacco, §500; .and on sales of over §1,000, fifty 
cents for e\cry doll.ar in excess; di'.alers in m.anu- 
f.aclured tob.acco, §5 ; m.anuf.aclurers of stills, §50 ; 
for each still m.anuf.actured, §20; for each worm 
m.anuf.actured, §20; m.anufacturers of tobacco, §10; 
manuf.acturers of ci,!.;ars, §10; peddlers of tobacco, 
first c'lass, with more tli.an two .animals, §50; ped- 
dk'rs of tobacco, .second cl.ass, with two animals, §25 ; 
peddlers of tobacco, third class, with one animal, 
§1 5 ; pcdtllers of tobacco, fourth cl.ass, on foot or by 
public convey.ance, §10; brewers of less tli.an live 
hundred barrels, §50; brewers of live hundred bar- 
rels or more, §100. In adtlition to the above, up to 
July I, 18S3, every packaii^e of one hundred matches 
reciuired a one-cent stamp, obtainable only at Wash- 
ington ; and all packages of p.atent medicines, perfu- 
mery, aiul cosmetics reciuired .a one-cent stamp for 
eai'h twenty-tive cents charged for the same; a 
two-cent stamp was required on every check drawn 
on .a b.ink ; and all s,-ivings b.anks and b.anking insti- 
tutions of every kind, except national b.anks, were 
recjuired to pay a tax of one twenty-fourth of one 
per cent per month on their capital and average 
monthly deposits. The national banks paid every 
six months one twentieth of one per cent on their 
a\-erage circulation, one fourth of one per cent on 
their .aver.age deposits, and .also one fourth of one 
per cent on the amount of their capital, over and 
above the amount invested in government bonds. 

By law of March 3, 1883, taking effect July i, the 
tax on wholesale dealers in leaf-tobacco was fixed at 
$n. .and on retail dealers at §2.50 ; and thirty cents 
on each dollar of the amount of their monthly sales, 
when the sales are over §500 per year. Dealers in 
manufactured tobacco pay j)2.4o. Manufacturers 



l6o 



iNi'i.RNAL Ki:\' i:\ri: taxks. 



of l()l);i('(() or cijLiars, $6.00 I'.uli. Pcdillirs of the 
tlrsL class, $30; second das-;, $1 5 ; third class, $7.50; 
and fourth cl.ass, §3.^10. The tax on snuff, sniokintf 
and nianiifaciurrd toliacco, was fixed at ^liiS.oj per 
pound. Ci.^^ars pay a tax of S3.00 per thousand, and 
cis^arctles, from fifty cents to S3.00 per tliousruid. 
The taxes on deposits and capital of all b.mks were 
rejiealed, and also the tax on matches, perfumery, 
pjitent mi'dicines, and hank checks. 

The total collections in the district embracinir 
Detroit, for the fiscal year endinij June 30, 18.S3, 
we're $1,251,409, the l.arijer ]iroi)ortion of which was 
from the city. In 1883, there were twelve jjersons 



connected with the ol'tice. These ollicers are ap- 
pointed by the collector, and their salaries ran.ye 
from S90U to §2,000. The salary of the collector is 
§4,500, and the total yearly expenses of the olTice 
.are about $16,500. The office of assessor was 
merited with th.it of collector in 1873. 

The I'liiteil States assessors have been as follows: 
1S62-1867, Jo.seph R. Bennett; 1867-1873, Mark 
Flanitjan. 

The collectors have been : 1862-1865, L. G. lierry; 
1S65-1860, 1) R. ITarbau.ijh ; 1S69-1873, 11. 15. Rowl- 
son ; 1S73- 1875, Mark Flaniij.an ; 1876-1883, Luther 
S. Trowbridge; 1883- , James II. Stone. 



! 



C H Al'T ER XXIX. 



CITIZENS' MEETINGS.— r.OARI) OK ESTIMATES.- AUDITORS, COMI'TROLLEKS, AC- 
COUNTANTS.— CI TV A.\I) WARD ASSESSORS.— IJOAKD OF Ri:Vli:\V. Cll'V AND 
WARD COLLECTORS— CITY TREASURERS.- RECE1\'ERS OF TAXES. 



citizens' mf.ktincs. 

From the incorporation of 1802 to 1873 it was 
the iiistoni to siiijniit tlie amounts proposed to be 
raised for various purposes to a viiui %iocc vote of the 
citizens, at a yearly meeting- called for the purpose. 
At these nieelinirs threat differences of opinion were 
frecjuently manifested, and amounts estimated to be 
needed for various purposes were sometimes stricken 
out, frequently reduced, and oftentimes ordered by a 
Very close vote. The meetini;s seldom brought 
toi^ether more than four hundred or six hundred of 
the larger property owners. The appointment of a 
Board of I'ark Commissioners, under an Act of 
April 15, 1871, and the proposal to include in the 
yearly estimates the sum of $200,000 in bonds for 
the purchase of a park, brought a large number of 
persons to a citizens' meeting held on December 27, 
1871, in the Circuit Court room in the City Mali. 
Both those who favored and those who opposed the 
purchase were excited and determined, and there 
was so much confusion that a decision could not be 
reached. A subsecjuent meeting to further consider 
the subject was held on May i, 1872, at the Gris- 
wold Street entrance to the City Hall. An immense 
number of both citizens and non-residents were 
present, and again there was so much excitement 
and confusion that no definite result was reached. 

After these meetings it became apparent that no 
expenditure awakening general interest could be 
properly considered in so large an assemblage as 
would be likely to gather. This conviction resulted 
in the passage of the Act of March 28, 1873, which 
abolished citizens' meetings, and provided for a 

BOARD OF ESTIMATES. 

The coincidence is noticeable that the last citi- 
zens' meeting was held in the same month, and 
within two days of the time, when the first town 
meeting was held, seventy years before. 

The first election for members of the Board of 
Estimates was held on April 7, 1873. Five persons 
were elected from the city at large on a general 
ticket, to serve for two years ; and two from each 
ward, one to serve for one year and one for two 
years. After 1873, and until the board was abol- 



ished by Act of April 21, 1881, one member was 
elected annually from each ward, and live al large 
every two years. 

The president of the Common Council, chairman 
of Committee on Ways and Means, city comp- 
troller, counselor, presidents of the various boards 
and commissions, as well as the senior inspector of 
the House of Correction, were ex offii/i> members 
of the board, with the right to participate in its 
deliberations, but not to vote. The estimates, after 
being considered by the council, were submitted to 
the Board of F^stimates, which convened between 
the first Monday of March and the 1 5th of April, 
whenever the council indicated that the estimates 
were ready. The board had power to reduce, but 
not to increase, the estimates. Under Act of 1881 
the powers of the board were transferred to the 
L^pper House or City Council. 

The following persons served on the board in the 
years named : 

1873, F"irst Ward: V. Adams, W. Foxcn. Second 
Ward : B. P. Mumford, H. Walker. Third Ward : 
W. R. Candler, W. G. Thompson. F'ourth Ward : 
W. N. Carpenter, Joseph Kuhn. Fifth Ward: R. 
W. King, A. Ives. Sixth Ward : Wm, Duncan, N. 
Senninger. Seventh Ward : J. M. Millar, Fl. 
liccard. Flighth Ward : D. Guiney, Thos. Griffith. 
Ninth Warcf: D. M. Richardson, M. Haller. Tenth 
Ward : M. Frost, Chas. Byram. 

1873, At Large : T. W. Palmer, W. C. Duncan, H. 
P. Bridge, E. li. Ward, P. Henkel. 

1874, First Ward: Francis Adams, George 
Wilkes. Second Ward : B. P. Mumford, Hiram 
Walker. Third Ward: Wm. R. Candler, James 
Flower. F'ourth Ward : W. N. Carpenter, J. P. 
Ilensien. Fifth Ward: R. W. King, J. W^ Ker- 
mott. Sixth Ward : Wm. Duncan, Thos. Hill. 
Seventh Ward : J. McMillan, Edward Eccard. 
Eighth Ward : Daniel Guiney, M. F. Hogan. Ninth 
Ward : D. M. Richardson, J. Witherspoon. Tenth 
Ward: Milton Frost, J. D\\7er. Twelfth Ward: 
Jos. Loranger, John Diedrich. 

1874, At Large: J. Greusel, Julius Stoll, Thos. 
Baxter, Wm. Doeltz, E. B. Ward. 

1875, First Ward : S. R. Wooley, Francis Adams. 



[161] 



l62 



AUDITORS, COMI'TROI.LKKS. ACCOUNTANTS. 



Second Ward: Hiram Walker, Clias. I. Wa,kcr. 
Third Ward : Louis Harie. Win. K. Candlrr. 
Foiirili Ward: J. I'. Iliiisitii, Kidiard llawley. 
Fiftli Ward: J. W. Kcrmoit, R. W. Kiii.v;-. Sixlli 
Ward: T. Hill, W. Duncan. Seventh Ward : I".. 
Eccard. J. McMillan. lu.^lnh Ward : M. F. I U>y;nn. 
D. (iuiney. Ninth Ward: J. W'itherspoon, Jos. 
Nicholson. Tenth Ward: J. Dwyer, .M. Frost. 
Twelfth Ward: J. Loranjj^er, A. F. Il.iinlin. 

1875, At Larirc: J. dreusel, J. Stoll, T. Baxter, 
W. Doeltz, U. C. Hodyes. 

1876. First Ward: F. Adams, J. D. Hayes. 
Second Ward: C. I. Walker, Fouis Dillman. Tiiird 
Ward: W. R. Candler, 1'. Herlihy. Fourth Ward: 
R. Hawley, W. N. Carpenter. Fifth Ward: R. W. 
Kini(, J. W. Kermott. Sixth Ward: W. Duncan, 
T. Hill. Seventh Ward: J. McMillan, E. Eccard. 
Eiy,dith Ward: D. (kiiney, M. F. Hogan. Ninth 
Ward: J. Nicholson, C. Lafferty. Tenth Ward : M. 
Frost, Thos. Berry. Twelfth Ward: A. K. Ham- 
lin, J. Diedrich. 

1876, At Lartre: S. C. Watson, J. (".reusel, N. 
Avery, W. Doeltz, W. C. Colburn. 

1877, First Ward: J. D. Mayes, C. B. Hebbard. 
Second Ward: Louis Dillman, T. N. I5irmint(ham. 
Third Ward: l\ Herlihy, W. R. Candler. Fourth 
Ward: W. N. Carpenter, Mor.se Stewart. Fifth 
Ward : J. W. Kermott, R. W. Kin.i^. Sixth W'ard : 
T. Hill, D. M. Ferry. Seventh Ward: E. Eccard, 
M. \L'irtz. F^ighth Ward : NL F". Hogan, J. Connor. 
Ninth Ward: C. Lafferty, (i. C. Lanv,fdo-,. Tenth 
Ward : Thos. Berry, (}. Hendrie. F^leventh Ward : 
M. Dederich, ^L Bl'ay. Twelfth Ward : J. Diedrich, 
M. Steyskal. Thirteenth Ward : Frank Whitman, 
John Japes. 

1877, At Larire: J. Greusel, N. Avery, O. Bourke, 
W. Doeltz, W. C. Colburn. 

1878, First Ward: C. B. Hebbard, R. W. C.illett. 
Second Ward: Thos. N. Birminj^diam, Wm. K. 
Coyl. Third Ward: W. R. Candler, P. Herlihy. 
Fourth Ward: M. Stewart, Theo. Romeyn. F'ifth 
Ward: R. W. King, A. E. Leavitt. Sixth Ward: 
D. M. Ferry, H. L. Kanter. Seventh Ward: M. 
Martz, Adam Schehr. Eighth Ward : J. Connor, ^L 
F. Hogan. Ninth Ward : C. Lafferty, G. C. Lang- 
don. Tenth Ward : G. Hendrie, J. B. Gravier. 
Eleventh Ward: M. Dederich, W. L. Streeter. 
Twelfth Ward: M. Steyskal, Thos. Densham. 
Thirteenth Ward : F. WMiitman, J. Japes. 

1878, At Large: M L Mills, Wm. B. Moran, A. 
Pulte, J. Atkiason, J. A. Dudgeon. 

1879, First Ward: R. W. Gillett, F. Adams. 
Second Ward: W. K. Coyl, E. L. Schmitt. Third 
Ward: P. Herlihy, Theo. Chapoton. Fourth Ward: 
Theo. Romeyn, J. L Lewis. Fifth Ward: A. E. 
Leavitt, R. W. King. Sixth Ward: H. L. Kanter, 
Theo. McGraw. Seventh Ward: Adam Schehr, Z. 



Dewey, i'.ighth Ward: M. V. Iloii^an, Tiieo. Rintz. 
Ninth W.ird : C. Lafferty, H. Hastings. Tenth 
W.ird: J. B. C.r.ivicr, P. .McCormick. I'.lcvcnth 
Ward: Wm. L. Streeter, M. Bl.iy. Twelfth Ward: 
S. I). Bush, S. A. Plummer. Thirteenth Ward: J. 
J.'ipes, A. Trost. 

1579, At Large: M. 1. Mills, W. B. Moran, A. 
Pulte, J. Atkinson, J. .\. Dudgeon. 

i.SSo, First Ward: F. Adam.s, W. A. Butler. 
Secoiul Ward: F. L. Schmitt, C. D. Flrichsen. 
Third Ward: Theo. Cha|)oti>n, Jos. Kurtz. Fourth 
Ward: J. I. Lewis, Theo. Romeyn. Fifth Ward: 
R. W. King, J. S. Vernor. Sixth Ward: Theo. 
.Mc( iraw, J. D. Standish. .Seventh Ward: Z. Dewey, 
.S. Kirchner. Eighth Ward: Theo. Rentz, D. Dono- 
van. Ninth W.ird: H. Hastings, Robert Miller. 
'I"enth Ward: P '. McCormick, .S. B. Grummond. 
Eleventh Ward: A. Blay, W, L. Streeter. Twelfth 
Ward: S. A. Plummer, J. B. W^ood. Thirteenth 
Ward: A. Trost, A. Haischer. 

1580, At Large: A. Chaiioton, Thos. Berry, John 
Greusel, O. C. Wood, W. C. Colburn. 



AUDll'ORS. — COMPTROl.LKkS. — ACCOUNTANTS, 

The office of city auditor was created by Act of 
March 11, 1844. It was the duty of this ofl'icer to 
audit all claims and accounts against the city, and 
to examine and adjust, as often as once in three 
months, the accounts of all city officers. The city 
clerks .served also as auditors until 1850, when A. 
T. Hall was appointed solely to this office. By Act 
of F'ebruary 12, 1855, the name of the office was 
changed to that of comptroller, and the term of ser- 
vice was reduced from three to two years. In 1861 
the term of office was again extended to three years. 
The office is intended as a safeguard in the manage- 
ment of the city finances. The estimated expendi- 
tures of the several departments of the city are for- 
warded to and collected by the comptroller, and 
after being tabulated, are presented by him to the 
council. He keeps a record of all bonds issued by 
the city, all of which are signed by the mayor and 
comptroller, and attested by the city clerk. When 
bonds are redeemed, the comptroller gives a war- 
rant, drawn on the city treasurer. It is his duty to 
keep a complete list of the property of the city. He 
is nominated by the mayor and confirmed by the 
Board of Councilmen, and must give a bond in the 
sum of $30,000. In 1883 the salary was Ss.ooo- 

I-'rom 1850 to 1854 Amos T. Hall served as 
auditor. The names of the comptrollers, and the 
dates of the beginning of their terms, are as follows : 
Chas. Peltier, July 11, 1854; J. M. Edmunds, April, 
1859; B. L. Webb, March, 1861 ; D. C. Whitwood, 
March. 1862; A. '; Redfield, October, 1863; B. G. 
Stimson, January, 1868; Wm. Purcell, June, 1870; 



CrrV ANIJ WARD ASSKSSOKS, 



163 



E. I. C.articld, March, 1.S71 ; 1 1. I'. ISiidvjc. Mari;li, 
1877; I.iitluT S. 'I'r()\vbriil>,'i', July, 1883. 

The (liilics of tlic ciiy accouiu.iiil arc intimately 
related to the ()ri,i,Miial duties of the auditor and 
comptroller. 'I'hc lirst .ippointcc was J. J. Norris, 
who w.is charjred \n 1877 with the duty of cxamin- 
injjf the methods of bookkeepin,i( and the condition 
of the accounts in the sevenil city olhces. His re- 
searches were of value, Jind resulted in an improve- 
ment in the manaj^'cment of scver.il of the ol'lices. 
In 1878 he was succeeded i)y Kirhard Trcii^askis, 
and in 1884 was re;ip|)ninlcd. Appniiununts to the 
ollici' ;ue made on nomination of tiie mayor, for 
terms of two years, or luitil a successor is selected. 

CITY AND WARD ASSKSSORS. 

The city charter of Octoljcr 24, 181 5, authorized 
tile election of ;ui assessor, and old records show 
that on May 5, 1817, he was paid $30.75 for collect- 
ing' taxes on personal property assessed at $1,787.37. 
The extensive imi)n)vement of land and the virc.iter 
number of property owners, i^q-owinij out of the sale 
of lots on the Milit.iry Reserve, letl the council to 
increase the number of assessors; and in 1828 three 
were appointed. 

An Act of March 27, 1839, provided for the elec- 
tion of one assessor in each of the six wartls. Act 
of April 13. 1841, retpiired tiie assessors to make 
out the rolls between the first Mondays of ^hu•ch 
and April, and ^avc them the same power as the 
county commissioners, and by Act of February 16, 
1842, they were made members of the Board of 
Supervisors. By Act of February 23, 1846, the city 
was divided into three a.ssessment districts, of two 
wards each; and of the six assessors elected in 1846, 
three were to serve one year, and three for two 
years, the length of term of each to be decided by 
lot. All assessments of property were to be made 
between the second Mondays of March and May. 
Under Act of January 30, 1847, the taxes were re- 
quired to be assessed and collected before the first 
Monday in March, Act of l<"ebruary 22, 1848, pro- 
vided that the council should divide the city into 
three assessment districts ; the tirst district to em- 
brace the first and .second wards ; the S"Cond district, 
the third, fourtli, and seventh wards ; a. id the third 
district, the fifth and sixth wards. The Act also pro- 
vided that in 1849006 assessor should be elected for 
eacli district, the assessor for tlie first district to 
serve one year, for the second district, two years, 
and for the third district, three years ; and after 1849 
they were to be elected for terms of tiiree years. Act 
of I'^ebruary 21, 1849, provided for the election of 
one assessor for the seventh ward, and that the as- 
sessment districts of the city should be as already 
constituted by the council, except that the seventh 
ward was to be attached to the second district. 



On J.inu.iry 30, 1850, the Legislature provided for 
the ek'ction of three city assessors, who were to 
tleciile by lot what should be their terms of office, 
one of them to serve for one year, one for two, and 
the other for three years • and after 1850 one asses- 
.sor was to be elected aiMually. 

By Act of February 12, 1855, the plan of ward 
assessors was again introduced, ;iiid in 1856 one 
was electei! for e.icli ward, the whole number con- 
stituting a Board of Assessors. Assessments were 
to be made in March of e.ich year. In May, 1855, 
the rolls were seriously tampered with, the assess- 
ment of some persons biing reduced, and that of 
others increased. It was difficult to determine who 
had committed or connived at the wrongdoing, but 
on February 5, 1857, the wards system was again 
abolished, and provision was made for an assessor 
and two assistant assessors, who were to be appoint- 
ed by the Common Council. 

l'|) to July I, 1883, there was but one chief asses- 
sor; his salary was §2.500, and he was appointed 
for terms of three years. Under ordinance of De- 
cember 30, 1861, the city, on J.anuary i of each 
year, .appointed two assistants to serve for three 
months, at two dollars and fifty cents per day each. 
By ordinance of Novemlier 2^, 1865, the time of 
service was increased to six months ; and in March 
of the same year the pay was increased to four 
dollars, and afterwards to five dollars per day. Tlie 
assistants were re(iuired to reside one on each side 
of Woodward Avenue. 

By the charter of 1883, the office of assistant 
assessor was abolished, and a board of three asses- 
sors was provided for. The one in office was to 
continue for his regular term, and two others were 
to be appointed whose terms were to commence in 
July, 1883, and to continue for two and three years 
respectively. Beginning with 1884, one assessor is 
to be appointed annually for a term of three years. 
In 1883 the salary was §2,500 each. The charter 
of 1883 transferred to the assessors part of the 
powers formerly exercised by the Board of Review. 
The president of the Board of Assessors is a mem- 
ber of the Board of Super\'isors. The assessors pre- 
pare not only the lists of taxable property for the 
city, but also those for the stat.: and county taxes 
for the county treasurer. 

T'le following persons have served as assessors : 
1816, Antoine Dequindre ; 181/, H. J. Hunt; 1818, 
Henry Brown; 1819, Robert Garratt ; 1820-18^3, 
D. C. McKinstry; 1823, B. Woodworth; 1824, 
MelvinDorr; 1825-1828. J. Moors ; 1828, E. Doty, 
M. Dorr, J. Moors; 1829, John Scott, Justin Rice, 
F. P. Browning; 1830, S. Conant, J. L. Whiting, P. 
Desnoyers ; 1831, John Roberts, John Garrison, 
Thomas Palmer; 1832, S. Conant, P. Desnoyers, 
D. French; 1833, D. Cooper, T. S. Knapp, E. P. 



W .ji.^.i,j^.j| J 



164 



HOAKIi OK Ki:VIK\V. 



Hastinjs's; 1834, I). C. McKinstry, I'. Disnoytrs, 
N. Sutton; 1835, N. Sutton, A. Hart shorn, C. 
Moran; 1836, \V. Kusscll, Joliii rainier, N.Sutton; 
1837. H. NfwlK'rry. S. l'ou|);-cl. M. Story; 1838, 
T. S. Wendell, J. rainier, II. Ne\vberr>-. 

1839, —First Ward : T. J.Owen. Second W.ird : 
1). Cooper. Third Ward : /\. K. Mather. iMiurlii 
Ward: N. Sutton. Fifth Ward: I). W. Fiske. 
Sixth Ward : W. Barclay. 

1840, First Ward: l'. }. Owen. Second Ward: 
Levi Cook. Third Ward : Chas. WillcoN. Fourth 
Ward: Cullcn lirown. Fifth Ward: C. M. I'.uli. 
Sixth Ward : Wm. Barclay. 

1841, First Ward : T.J.Owen. Second W.ird : 
L.Cook. Third Ward : D.French. Fourth Wan! : 
C. Brown. Fifth Ward: W. K. Noyes. Sixth 
Warel : H. Beauhicn. 

1842, First Ward : T. J. Owen. Second Ward: 
Ellis Doty. Third Ward : I". H. Stevens. I'ourth 
Ward: Peter Desnoyers. Fifth Ward: ('.. I'aull. 
Sixth Ward: Joim (ireeiit'ield. 

1843, First Ward : T. J. Owen. Second Ward : 
Joliii Farrar. Third Ward : Louis 15eaul)ien. Fourth 
Ward: John Reno. Fifth Ward: 11. II. I.eRoy. 
Sixth Ward : J. Godfroy. 

1844, I'Mrst Ward : T. J. Owen, 1'.. r.iiitjham. 
Second Ward : J. I'arrar. Third Ward : L, Beau- 
bien. Fourth Ward : J. Reno. Fifth Ward : J. H. 
Hill. .Sixth Ward: Henry Beauhien. 

1845, First Ward: Thos. Palmer. .Second Ward : 
R. J. C'.nnor. Third Ward : M. Goodintr. Fourth 
Ward: J. Reno. Fifth Ward: J. II. Hill. Sixth 
Ward : H. Beauhien. 

1846, First Ward: M. Palmer. Second Ward: 
N. B. Carpenter, Third Ward: G. Spencer. Fourth 
Ward : J. B. Vallee. Fifth Ward : D. Edsall. Sixth 
Ward : H. Beauhien. 

1 847, First Ward : M. Palmer. Second Ward : 
N. B. Carpenter. Third Ward : G. Spencer. Fourth 
Ward : J. B. Vallee. Fifth Ward : Thos. Hall, A. 
C. Powell. Sixth Ward : H. Beauhien. Seventh 
Ward : R. C. Smith. 

1848, First District: Wm. Stewart, I. Ckiodrich. 
Second District : J. B. Vallee, Wm. Stead. Third 
District : J. S. Jenness, David Weeks. 

1849, Finst District: J. Fitzmorris, N. B. Carpen- 
ter. Second District : I. Goodrich, James Robinson. 
Third District : W. Stead, John Mullett. 

1850, George Blakeslee, Robert Reaume, W. 
Stead. 

1851, First District: R. Reaume. Second Dis- 
trict : John McCurdy. Third District : S. T. Dyson. 

1852 and 1853, First District : J, Hanmer. Second 
District: R. Reaume. Third District: J. McCurdy, 

1854 and 1855, First District : J. Hanmt. jecond 
District : J. Reno. Third District : A. H. Stowell. 

1856, First Ward : S.S. Barrows. Second Ward : 



N. B. Carpenter. Third Ward: William .Moore, 
Fourth Ward: John .M.D.ivis. Fifth Ward: A. II. 
.Stowell. Sixth W.ud : I'.hen I'rcutis. Seventh 
Ward; A. II. Rcdfield, llighth Ward : Jonathan 
Teai^an. 

1857 isr)3. w. w. Wilcox. i8r,3-i8r/), v. k. 

i:idied. 1866- 1869, A. y\. Kabitieau. 1869-1872, 
Jeremiah Godfrey. 1872-1878, II. 1 1. IxRoy. 1878- 
iSSi, G. W. Gilbert. 1S81 Julv, i8«3. J. D. .Stand- 
ish. July, 1883, to , J. b. Standish, C. W. 

Coolidge, J. McBride. 

HOARD (IK RKVII.W. 

Lender .Act of March 27. 1839, .after the .assess- 
ment rolls were completed, the as.sessors of the 
several wards met together, on specified days, to 
review their work. Under Act of Fei)ruary 12, 1855, 
they met on tin; Urst Monday of April, and sat two 
weeks to hear complaints and correct the rolls. By 
Act of February 5, 1857, the city asses.s()r, comiv 
troller, treasurer, attorney, and the t.'oiuiiiittee of 
Ways and Means for e.'ich year, were constituted the 
ISoard of Review. Act of M.irch 12, 1861, made 
provision for the appointment by the ccunicil, on 
nomination of the nuiyor, of three resident property 
owners to hold ollice three years, who were to con- 
stitute a Board of Review. The three persons first 
appointed determined by lot the terms of their 
service, and after 1861 one new member was ap- 
pointed yearly. The amount ])aid for their services 
was determined by the council, and was usually the 
dollars per day. The board met yearly at the 
assessor's office, on the first Monday in April, and 
were required to finish their labors on or before the 
first of May. It was their duty to equalize, amend, 
alter, and correct the assessment rolls ; but no 
assessment could be increased, or new assessments 
added, without notice to the persons whose interests 
were affected. After a law of 1879, and up to July, 
1883, the board consisted of five persons, three of 
whom were nominated by the mayor and two by 
the president of the Common Council, and all con- 
firmed by the council. The first three nominated by 
the mayor were to determine by lot who should 
serve the terms of one, two, and three years, and 
afterwards one new member was appointed each 
year for a term of three years. One of the two 
appointed annually, on nomination of the president 
of the council, was required to reside east, and the 
other west, of Woodward Avenue. The charter of 
1883 abolished the office, and transferred its duties 
in part to the Board of Assessors, and to the alder- 
men and councilmen in joint session. The following 
persons have served as members of the board : 

1861 and 1862, J. Gibson, J. Godfrey, J. Burns; 
1863, J. Gibson, J. Burns, J. Hanmer; 1864 and 
1865, J. Gibson, C. Van Husan, E. Orr; 1866, J. 



! 



CITY AND WARD COLLECTORS. 



165 



Gibson, C. Van lliisan, J. C. Warner; 1867, J. 
Ciibson, ("ifo. M. Kiili, J. J. Warner; nSriS and 
\Mt(j, C. Van Ilnsan. ('.. M. Rich, J. C. Warner; 
1870 and 1871. A. A. Rabincau, G. M. Kicii, J. C. 
Warner; 1872 and 1873, A. A. Rai)iru;ui, ('•. M. 
Kieh, James iUirns ; 1S74, A. A. Kaiiineaii, A. 
Sheley, J. Ihirns ; 1875, 1876, 1877, A. A. Ral)ineau, 
A. Sheley, W. A. lUitler; 187S, A. A. Kahiiieaii, A. 
Siieley, W. 15. Moran ; [S79, A. Slieley. ii. M. Dean, 
L. I,. Harixmr; 18S0 and iSSi, A. Sluley, 11. M. 
Dean, L. I,. iJarixnir. M. lialler. W. K. Warriner ; 
1SS2. A. Slielcy, .,. L. Harixnir. Waiter In^ersolLJ. 
H. \'incent, A. Grant; 1883, A. Sheley, K. Kanter, 
W. Ingersoll, George Dorr, Joim Kcssler. 

CITY ANM) WARD COI.M'.CTORS. 

The office of city collector l)e),^-ln with the incor- 
poration of the town in 1802. It was again provided 
for in the Act of 181 5, and up to 1824 its dnties 
were combined with those of the marshal. In 1817 
the ofTirer was paid by a fee of live per cent on 
amoimts collected, which percentage yielded him 
S89.36. Hy ordinance of 1836 tlie salary was S50 a 
year, in addition to the iiercentage allowed for col- 
lecting ctninty taxes. After 1846, when ward col- 
lectors were provided, the city collector no longer 
received the comity taxes. 

The following official notice, which appeared in a 
daily paper of Septi'inber, 1.S45, must have struck 
terror lo the hearts of delinquent tax-payers: 

CITY lAXKS. 

Positively tlie List ninlit. 'I'liu council has granted a short 
cxtcjision of time for tlie payment of taxes. Persons interested 
will do well to call at Fireman's Hall, common council room, and 
pay up. 'I'liey will find me there every day during this week, 
from o'clock A. M. to i^!^ o'clock v. M. On Monday, the 
liflecnlli inst., I shall proceed to summary miasurcs with all 
delinquents. I,et no man, if dclirupuiit, Halter himself that he 
will be overlooked or passed by, for I will positively make a clam 
sweep. 

MoHG.\N P An F.S, 

City Collcxtor. 

Under the charter of 1855, all special assessments 
for street paving, sewers, and sidewalks were depos- 
ited for payment in the office of the receiver of taxes. 
If not paid in thirty days, they were then trail: '^rred 
to the city collector's olTice, five per cent was added 
for collection, and one per cent for each month they 
remained unpaid. Prior to 186 the license fees, for 
carrying on various kinds of bu' ness, were also pay- 
able to the city collector, who w.is ajipointed yearly 
by the council. The of.ice was abolished by law c 
1879, and its duties transferred to the receiver ot 
taxes. 

The following persons served as city collectors: 

1 80 1, Chas. Francis Girardin; 1804, Jacob 

Clemens; 1816, John Meldrum; 1S17, Duncan 

Reid; 1818, II. O. Bronson ; 1819 and 1820, J. W. 

Colburn; 1821, Robert Garratt; 1822 and 1823, 



Smith Knap|»; 1824, Griflith Roberts; 1825, A. C. 
CanilT; 1826. John Howard; 1S27 ;uid 1828, A. C. 
C'anilf; 1829, S. I'helps; 1830 and 1831, A. C. 
Canilf; 1832, J. Karrar, 1833; A. C. Caniff; 1834, J. 
(). Graves; 1835, J. Moors; 183^), A. C. Caniff; 
1837, James Cicotte; 1838, J. Farrar; 1839 and 
1840, A. C. Caniff; 1841, J. I). Maldwin; 1842. H. S. 
Fariisworth; 1S43, F. II. llarris, II. J. Caniff; 1844, 
C. Wickware; 1845 and 1846, Morg.in Hates; 1847- 
1855, no appointments were made ; 1855 and 1856, 
J. W. Kelsey; 1857, F. S. I.eadbeater; 1.S58, R. II. 
Finley; 1859 and 1860, Win. Cook ; 1861, De Witt 
C. Hart; 1862, John Snjdcr; 1863 and 1864, Wm. 
Dyson; 1865, Chas. Meyer; 1866 and 1867, John 
Schneider; 1868, E. N. Laeroi.K ; 1869, E. W. 
Flint; 1870, Thos Joyce; 1871 and 1872, John 
Mcl'.ride; 1873-1876, Wm, I'arkinson ; 1876, \V. II. 
Christian; 1877, J.im 's Daly; 1878, Jacob Young- 
blood; 1879, John ■\rcher. 

The oflice of ward collector w.is created by Act 
of February 23,1846. The duties of the oflice con- 
sisted in collecting the city, school, state, and county 
ta.xes. Act of May 10, 1861, authorized the collec- 
tors to collect such other taxes ;is the receiver of 
taxes and other city officers might place in their 
hands. The office was abolished by law of 1879, 
which gave the receiver of taxes and the county 
treasurer power to appoint their own collectors. 

The ward collectors were as follows : 

1846, First Ward: J. Moors. Second \vard: R. 
J. Connor. Third Ward: I). .Michael. Fourth 
Ward: A. O. Madden. Fifth Ward: Moses Ben- 
nett. Sixth Ward: E. r.eiiham. 

1847, First Ward: Wm. Cook. .Second Ward: 
L. B. Willarcl. Third Ward: I. (Goodrich. Fourth 
Ward : Geo. Smith. Fifth Ward : E. AL Church. 
Si.xtli Ward : R. Hopson. 

1848, First Ward: H. D. Carjienter. Second 
Ward : John Farrar. Third Ward : S. P. Hopkins. 
Fourth Ward: G. Smith. Fifth Ward : M. Sailer. 
Si.xth Ward : J. Bramaii. Seventh Ward : Robert 
Reaume. 

1849, First Ward: H. D. Carpenter. Second 
Ward : John Campbell. Third Ward : Paul Cios. 
Fourth Ward : Joseph Grimes. Fifth Ward : L. 
W. Beebe. Sixth Ward: J. W. Clark. Seventh 
Ward; J. Keusch. Eighth Ward: M. McLaughlin. 

1850, First Ward: John Collins. Second Ward : 
John Campbell. Third Ward: A. Stewart. Fourth 
Ward : Joseph Grimes. Fifth Ward : John Sharp. 
Sixth Ward: J. W. Clark. Seventh Ward: J. 
Keusch. Eighth Ward : M. McLaughlin. 

1 85 1, First Ward: R. Storkdale. Second Ward: 
A. Stewart. Third Ward : J. Deville. Fourth 
Ward: Win. Baton. Fifth W^ard : J. Sharp. Sixth 
Ward : W. Paton. Seventh Ward : A. Wing. 
Eighth Ward : Thos. Trehey. 



1 66 



CITY AI> J WARD COLLECTORS. 



1852, P^irst Ward: D. Stewart. Second Ward: 
Chas. O'Ncil. Third Ward: R. IL Laviiulur. 
Fourth Wanl : C. (".ies. Fifth Ward: M. Doraii. 
Sixth Ward : F. Briitfgermaii. Seventh Ward : E. 
Lebot. Eighth Ward: AL Diillea. 

1853, First Ward: E. S. Leadbeater. Second 
Ward: C. (VXeil. Third Ward: 1). W. Fisi<c. 
Fourth Ward: C. Ciics. Fifth Ward: J. C.odfrey. 
Sixth Ward: A. 1'. and E. F Plant/.. Seventh Ward: 
E. Lebot. Eij^lith Ward : J. Culiinane. 

1854, First Ward : David Stewart. Second Ward : 
C. O'Ne'l, Third Ward: W. S. Montjromery. 
Fourth Ward: Adam Orth. Fifth Ward: Orville 
S. Allen. Si.Kth Ward : K. F. Plantz. Seventh 
Ward : J. Hilsendegen. Eighth Ward : J. Cul- 
iinane. 

1855, First Ward: D. Stewart. Second Ward: 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward : Wm. P. Roberts. Fourth 
Ward : A. Orth. Fifth Ward : John Sharp. Sixth 
Ward: E. F. Plantz. Seventh Ward: J. Hilsen- 
degen. Eighth Ward : Nicholas Burke. 

1856, First Ward: D. Stewart. IJecond Ward: 
T. Anderson. Third Ward : D. Lanigan. Fourth 
Ward : A. Orth. Fifth Ward : Wm. Stead. Sixth 
Wi rd : E. F. Plantz. Seventh Ward : J. Hilsen- 
degen. Eighth Ward: J. Moynaghan. 

1857, First Ward: D. Stewart. Second Ward: 
T. Anderson. Third Ward : G. Evans, E. T. Sher- 
lock. Fourth Ward : A. Orth. Fifth Ward : Wm. 
Stead. Sixth Wa-'d : E. F. Plantz. Seventh Ward : 
J. Hilsendegen. Eighth Ward : J. Moynaghan. 
Ninth Ward : John Mulry. Tenth Ward : F. St. 
Aubin. 

1858, First Ward : John Collins. Second Ward : 
J. Calnon. Third Ward : T. J. Sherlock. Fourth 
Ward: Charles Lotz. Fifth Ward: Thomas J. 
Barry. Sixth Ward : E. F. Plantz. Seventh Ward : 
J. Reno. Eighth Ward: Thomas Holley. Ninth 
Ward : Cieorge W. Burchell. Tenth Ward : James 
Dubois. 

1859, First Ward : Albert Marsh. Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward : F. Gies. Fourth Ward : 
Charles Lotz. Fifth Ward : T. J. Barry. Sixth 
Ward: E. F. Plantz. Seventh Ward: J. Reno. 
Eighth Ward : T. Holley. Ninth Ward : G. W. 
Burchell. Tenth Ward: James Dubois. 

i860, First Ward: David Dickson. Second 
Ward : C. O'Neil. Third Ward : Leonard Richter. 
Fourth Ward: Alois Katus. Fifth Ward: T. J. 
Barry. Sixth Ward : F. Baier. Seventh Ward : 
John Hornbogen. Eighth Ward : Thomas 
Ninth Ward : Matthias Lenz. Tenth Ward 
Plass. 

1861, First Ward: J. Collins. Second Ward: 
C. O'NeM. Third Ward: L. Richter. Fourtli 
Ward: Alois Katus. Fifth Ward: T. J. Barry, 



Holley. 
. Henry 



Wm. Powell. Sixth Ward : William L. Streeter. 
Seventh Ward : J. Hornbogen. Eighth Ward : T. 
Trahey. Ninth Ward : J. C. Curry. Tenth Ward : 
H. Plass. 

1862, First Ward : D. Dickson. Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward: L. Richter. Fourth Ward : 
J. J. Dicdrich. Fifth Ward : Alonzo Eaton, E. C. 
Eaton. Sixth Ward: W. L. Streeter. Seventh 
Ward : Xazaire Marion. Eighth Ward : T. Trahey. 
Ninth Ward : Thos. Ciorman. Tenth Ward : Henry 
A. Blenman. 

I S63, First Ward : D. Dickson. Second Ward; 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward: L. Richter. Fourth 
Ward: J. J. Dicdrich. Fifth Ward: S. J. Martin. 
Sixth Ward : W. L. Streeter. Seventh Ward : N. 
IVIarion. Eighth Ward : T. Trahey. Ninth Ward : 
Wm. Binder. Tenth Ward : Peter Dunn. 

1864, First Ward: Hugh O'Beirne. Second 
Ward : C. O'Neil. Third Ward : Leonard Richter. 
Fourth Ward : J. Funke. Fifth Ward: Wm. i'ark- 
inson. Sixth Ward : Alonzo T. Ray. Seventh 
Ward : N. Marion. Eighth Ward : Wm. Ryan. 
Ninth Ward : M. Lenz. Tenth Ward : Philip Rapp. 

1865, First Ward : If. O'Beirne. Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward: T. J. Sherlock. Fourth 
Ward : J. Funke. Fifth Ward : Wm. Parkinson. 
Si.xth Ward: Alonzo T. Ray. Seventh Ward: A. 
Werthmann. Eighth Ward : Wm. Ryan. Ninth 
Ward: J. Daly. ' Tenth Ward: Wm. Wunsch. 

1866, First Ward : H. O'Beirne. Second Ward : 
CO Neil. Third Ward : T. J. Sherlock. Fourth 
Ward : J. Funke. Fifth W^•lrd : Wm. Parkinson. 
Sixth Ward: A. T. Ray. Seventh Ward: J. Blank- 
enheini. Eighth Ward: Patrick Dv.yer. Ninth 
Ward : T. Rattenbury. Tenth Ward : W. Wunsch. 

1867, First Ward : Wm. Harsha. Second Ward : 
C. O'Ncil. Third Ward : T. J. Sherlock. Fourth 
Ward: J. Funke. Fifth Ward: Peter Huy.ser. 
Si.xth Ward: Ulrich Kreit. Seventh Ward: J. 
Blankenheim. Eighth Ward : P. Dwyer. Ninth 
Ward : J. B. Haas'. Tenth Ward : W. Wunsch. 

1868, First Ward: Wm. Harsha. Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward: Augustus Paulus. Fourth 
Ward: J. Funke. Fifth Ward : P. Huyser, Sixth 
Ward: U. Kreit. Seventh Ward : G. L. R. Steckel. 
Eighth Ward: P. Dwyer. Ninth Ward: J. B. 
Haas. Tenth Ward: W. Wunsch. 

1869, First Ward : Wm. Harsha. Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward: James Mc(;rath. Fourth 
Ward : J. Funke. Fifth Ward : W. Kydd. Sixth 
Ward : Edward Grevels. Seventh Ward : G. L. R. 
Steckel. Eighth Ward : P. Dwyer. Ninth Ward : 
Albert .?luma. Tenth Ward : W. Wunsch. 

1870, First Ward : J. Danahey. .Second Ward : 
C. O'Neil. Third Ward : Henry Roediger. Fourth 
Ward : J. Funke. Fifth Ward : W. Kydd. Sixth 



■■M 



"** ^■^■JJJH^WjwjSSgJJ^V** 



CITY TREASURERS.— RECEIVERS OF TAXES. 



167 









Ward : Nicliolas Senninsrcr. Seventh Ward : C). L. 
R. Sieckcl. Ei.i^htli Ward : Thos. O'Neil. Ninth 
Ward : Adam Eigenbrod. Tenth Ward : W. 
W'lmsch. 

1 87 1, First Ward: D. Dickson. Second Ward : 

C. O'Neil. Third Ward : H. Roediger. Fourth 
Ward: Wm. Carroll. Fifth Ward: W. Kydd. 
Si.xth Ward : U. Krcit. Seventh Ward : Daniel 
Fleper. Jughth Ward: P. Dwyer, Ninth Ward: 
J. ]}. Haas. Tenth Ward : W. Wunsch. 

1872, ]'"irst Ward : John Stewart. Second Ward : 
John C. Schiietz. Third Ward : H. Roediger. 
Fourtii Ward : W. Carroll. Fifth Ward : Robert 

D. Huff. Sixth Ward : H. Kueniniel. Seventh 
Ward: I). Fleper. Eighth Ward: V. Dwyer. 
Ninth Ward : Conrad Fey. Tenth Ward : W. 
Wunsch. 

1873, First Ward : James Clark. Second Ward : 
J. C. Schuctz. Third Ward : H. Roediger. Fourth 
Ward : N. Sutton. Fifth Ward : 1'. Huyser. Si.xth 
Ward: H. Kuemniel. Seventh Ward: C. B. Max- 
son. Eighth Ward : Wm. Ryan. Ninth Ward: 
C. Fey. Tenth Ward: W. Wunsch. 

1874, First Ward : D. Dickson. Second Ward : 
J. C. Schuctz. Third Ward : H. Roediger. Fourth 
Ward: N. Kummer. Fifth Ward: J. Parkinson. 
Sixth Ward : Henry Zeiss. Seventh Ward: Herman 
Sucker. Eighth Ward: W. Ryan. Ninth Ward : 
C. Matzen. Tenth Ward : J. Happe. Twelfth 
Ward : A. Bauer. 

1875, First Ward : D. Dickson. Second Ward : 
L. P. Desnoyers. Third Ward : H. Roediger. 
Fourth Ward : N. Kummer. Fifth Ward : W. 
Kydd, Sr. Sixth Ward : Henry Zeiss. Seventh 
Ward : John Caspary. Eighth Ward : W. Ryan. 
Ninth Wa<d: John Taylor. Tenth Ward: J. 
Happe. Twelfth Ward : A. Bauer. 

1876, First Ward : D. Dickson. Second Ward : 
L. P. Desnoyers. Third Ward : H. Roediger, 
Fourth Ward : N. Kummer. Fifth Ward : G. W. 
Owen. Sixth Ward : H. Zeiss. Seventh Ward : 
G. L. R. Streckei. Eighth W^ard : P. Madigan. 
Ninth Ward : J. Taylor. Tenth Ward : Henry 
Wunsch. Twelfth Ward : Chas. Steyskal, 

1877, First Ward : Philip Roos. Second Ward : 
L. P. Desnoyers. Third Ward : Martin Fo.x. Fourth 
Ward : N. Kummer. Fifth Ward : G. W. Owen. 
Sixth Ward: W. H. Connor. Seventh Ward: G. 
L. R. Steckel. Eighth Ward : P. Madigan. Ninth 
Ward : M. Embach. Tenth Ward : H. Wunsch. 
Eleventh Ward : l'"rancis Alter. Twelfth Ward : 
C. W. Appel. Thirteenth Ward : Fred W. Feld- 
man. 

1 878, First Ward : Philip Roos. Second Ward : 
L. P. Desnoyers. Third Ward : Martin Fox. 
Fourth Ward : N. Kummer. Fifth Ward : G. W. 



Owen. Sixth Ward : W. H. Connor. Seventh 
Ward: G. L. R. Steckel. Eighth Ward: P. Madi- 
gan, W. Ryan. Ninth Ward : M. llmbach. Tenth 
Ward : Peter V'anDamme. Eleventh Ward : Joseph 
Kohn. Twelfth Ward: Joseph Kulnan. Thir- 
teenth Ward : F H. Ellair. 

1879, First Ward : Robert Knox. Second Ward : 
L. P. Desnoyers. Third Ward : Geo. McManus. 
Fourth Ward : Wm. Carroll. Fifth Ward : G. W. 
Owen. Si.xth Ward : F. Harting. Seventh Ward : 
J. T. Widman. Eighth Ward : Wm. Ryan. Ninth 
Waril : F. Cronewith. Tenth Ward : P. \'an 
Damme. Eleventh Ward : A. Worhofsky. Twelfth 
Ward : Jesse Sterling. Thirteenth Ward : F. H. 
Ellair. 

CITY TRK.ASURERS. 

The olTice of treasurer dates from 1802, and under 
the various charters and amendments, appointments 
were made by the Board of Trustees or Connnon 
Council up to 1849, since which time the office has 
been elective. The duties have never been materi- 
ally changed. The money received from various 
sources is turned over to and paid out by this officer. 
His term of office is two years, and he is elected at 
the regular city election. By ordinance of 1825 he 
was allowed, in lieu of .salary, one per cent of his 
receipts, and also one per cent on the amount he 
actually paid out from moneys belonging to the cor- 
poration. In 1832 the salary was §75 a year; in 
1840 it was §300; in 1856 it had grown to $i,oqo; 
and in 1883 it was $3,000. He gives $200,000 
bonds. To aid him in his duties, he has several 
assistants. 

The following is a list of the city treasurers : 18 16, 
and 1817, O. W, Miller; 1818, Louis Dequindre; 
1 8 19, A. Wendell ; 1820, T. Rowland ; 1821, Joseph 
Campau ; 1822, Levi Cook; 1823, Calvin Baker; 
1824, Peter Desnoyers; 1 825-1 829, H. S. Cole; 
1829, J. T. I'enny; 1830-1836, R. S. Rice; 1836, 
I). French; 1837, P. Desnoyers, C. Wickware ; 
1838, John Farmer; 1839, J. C. Williams; 1840- 
1842, F. X. Cicotte ; 1842-1844, D. J. Campau; 
1 844-1845, Theodore Williams; 1846, D. Smart; 
1847, John Winder; 1848-1850, W. A. Howard; 
1850-1854, N. B. Carpenter; 1854-1860, John Camp- 
bell ; 1860-1861, D. P. Bushnel! ; 1862-1866, A. A. 
Rabineau; 1 866-1 871, E. S. Leadbeater; July, 1871- 
1876, E. C. Hinsdale; 1876-1884, Wm. Parkin- 
son; 1884- , John S. Schniittdiel. 

RECEIVERS OF TAXES. 

The office of receiver was created by Act of March 
12, 1861, and all city ta.xes are primarily payable to 
this officer. Up to the passage of the charter of 



i68 



RECEIVERS OF TAXES. 



1883, he was appointed every two years by the 
Common Council, on nomination of tlic mayor. 
The charter of 1883 lenijthened the term to three 
years. The salary in 1883 was $2,500, the receiver 
givini;- $50,000 bonds. 

The following persons have served as receivers : 



i86(toJuly, 1862, B. Franklin Baker; 1862-1868, 
Thos. R. Cununings; 1869-1873, Wm. Y. Rurnney; 
1873-1877, W. A. Throop; 1877-1879, Robert K. 
Roberts; 1879-1881, J. M. Welch; 1881- .Jacob 
(kithard. 




PART IV. 



JUDICIAL. 



JUST 



In cc 

legal adi 
one of t 
to secun 
in this \v 
of the (1 
the Enj; 
A comp 
first sett 
sented a 
grims of 
William 
various c 
from th 
jealousit 
colony, 
only cle 
other Ft 
with air 
at pleasi 
son whc 
nevertht 
and to 
plaints f 

Abou 
council 1 
dilfercnt 
any one 
used ; tl 
cane, an 
tile roon 
matter 
paid to 
cities of 
pelled t( 
cile, so I 

Notvv 
people, 1 
main, tl 
both m 
their pc 
to alien; 
constani 
and gov 
fort anc 



CHAPTER XXX. 



JUSTICE IN THE OLDEX TIME.— UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT.— DISTRICT 
COURT.— UXriED STATES OFFICERS.— BANKRUPTCY COURT. 



In considerincf the subject of ju;>tice, and its 
Itgal administration, it should he rcmcnibcred that 
one of tlie objects of the settlement of Detroit was 
to secure and maintain the supremacy of tlie French 
in this western rei^ioii. For this reason, and because 
of the dangers from hostile Indians as well as from 
the Enijlisli, a military settlement was a necessity. 
A company of soldiers was therefore sent with the 
first settlers, and the beginnipi.',s of the colony pre- 
sented an appearance qtn"te unl'ke that of the Pil- 
f^rims of Plymouth Ro-k, or of the Ouakers with 
William Pcnn. The treachery of the sava.ijes, the 
various exigencies arising among settlers far removed 
from the restraints of ordinary society, and the 
jealousies and ambitions of leading members of the 
colony, all combined to make military rule not 
only desirable, but necessary. Cadillac and the 
other Freneh commandants were therefore invested 
with almost plenary powers. They coukl imjirison 
at pleasure, or even run their swords through a per- 
son who grossly offended ; they were amenahle, 
nevertheless, to the governor-general at Quebec 
and to the colonial minister in Frante, and com- 
plaints against them were not infrequent. 

About 1720 the inhabitants ccjmplained to the 
coimcil that Tonly was "judge and party in all the 
differences which arose respecting commerce, and if 
any one attempted t(3 claim his rights, he was ill- 
used ; that in f)ne case he struck Du Ruisson with a 
cane, and trampled him under foot, so that he left 
the room covered with blood," and that when the 
matter was reported to \'audreuil, no attention was 
paid to it. In 1722 there were judges at the three 
cities of New France, and each inhabitant was com- 
pelled to elect some one of these cities as his domi- 
cile, so that notices could be served and cases trietl. 

Notwithstanding the occasional complaints of the 
people, there is every reason to believe that, in the 
main, the government of the commandants was 
both iTiild and judicious. The circumstances of 
their position were such that they could not afford 
to alienate many of the settlers. The necessity of 
constant watchfulness and foresight in dealing with 
and governing the savages, who clustered about the 
fort and freelv mingled with the people, made it 

[ 



impossible for them to indulge frequently in freaks 
of temper, or to allow or commit injustice. A 
coolness and an intrepidity, seldom found in mean 
or malicious natures, were important attributes of 
the men who should successfully govern the settle- 
ment; and in many respects the government was 
almost jxitriarchal in its character. The conmiand- 
ants were called upon to witness all import.ant pri- 
vate transactions, and no wedding or christening was 
cjuite satisfactory without their presence. 

During the earlier years of Pjiglish rule the gov- 
ernment was .still of a military character, auvl the 
fatherly offices of the commandants were, if possi- 
ble, even more frecjuently exercised. Conniiandant 
De Peyster both married and baptized those who 
desired his ser\'ices, using the forms of the English 
Church. If offences were conmiitted the conunand- 
ants went through regular forms of law, and tried, 
and as faithfully executed, those whom they deemed 
deserving of death. In a letter dated April 20, 
1763, addressed to Genertil Amherst, Major Cdad- 
win said, "The Panis (a Pawnee Indian slave) who 
escaped from the guard last winter got off to the 
Illinois ; therefore 1 thought it best to try the woman, 
who was sentenced to be hanged for being an 
accomplice in the nuirder of the late Mr. Clapham ; 
which I had put in execution in the most public 
manner." 

The original manuscript of the letter has the fol- 
lowing explanatory memoranda, probably added by 
the aide-de-camp of (leneral Amherst: 

'I'liis nuirdcT Wiis coiuiiiiltL<l last siiinnur, aiul was attcncud 
with several shocking circumstances. Mr. Clapliain was a trader 
cciniini; from the Deiroit, witli liis two Pauls slaves, a man anil a 
woman, who, by their own ccinfession, murdered him by cutting otT 
his hiad, and tluowinj^ his Imdy into the river. They were de- 
livered up by a party of Indians, whom the Panis charged as be- 
ing tlic principal perpetrators of the murder; but this the Indians 
denied. The general, however, sent a warrant to Major Clladwin 
for the trial of the murderers ; and by this letter it appears tliat 
the man has made his escape, but that the woman, being found 
guiky, has suffered according to her crime. 

With regard to the jurisdiction of the local com- 
mandant, and the division of power between him 
and the resident governor, Thomas Smith testified 
before the Commissioners of Claims, on July 14, 
1 82 1, as follows : 

■7'1 



172 



JUSTICE IN THE OLDEN TIME. 



All military comiUiindaiUs wi.re civil oflicers t:v oj/iciff, wliullier 
so commissioned or not, and they dicidid qncslicmsof property, 
and put liti|;unts into tho guard-lioiise who di.. obeyed their decis- 
ions ! there were civil magistrates, who acted under, and in uil 
matters of importance consulted, the commandant. The com- 
mandant was considered the chief magistrate, and acted often 
witln rUt consulting any other magistrate. If any debtor at tempted 
to remove from the country, and tlie creditor made complaint 
thereof, the commandant refused permission to such debtor to de- 
part until the creditor was satisfied, and the debtor was accord- 
ingly detained until the decision of the commandant was complied 
with. 'J'he will of the commandant, in whom it is presumed con- 
lidence was always placed by the British Government, was sub- 
mitled to, and wascertainly the then law of the land, whether it 
be called civil or military law, or whether that will related to civil 
or military matters. Alexis Maisonville, on the opposite side of 
the river, was one instance, where the commandant sent a party 
and removed him, upon complaint made to such commandant by 
the Indians that said Maisonville had settled upon certain lands 
by them claimed, without the permission of such Indians. 

John Askin made complaint to the then commanding ofTicer 
that a certain person, whose name witness does not reeolle-.t, but 
who was a Kreiiehman, had settled upon certain lai.ds at the 
grand-marais claimed by said AskIn, on the Detroit side of the 
river ; and Jiat the commandant sent men, and that the french- 
man was removed was notorious. This witness does not know 
that Governor Hamilton was commissioned by the Kinjr of tireat 
Britain, asgovernor resident at Detroit, but believed that he was 
so commissioned, but witness knows that his authority was dis- 
puted by the then commanding ollicer, Cai)taln Montpasant as 
witness thinks, and consequently decisions of civil matters were 
made by (lovernor Hamilton, but his authority wiis never recog- 
nized by Captain Montpasant, who considered this as his exclusive 
prerogative. 1 



The manuscripts of .Sir William Johnson show 
that in 1 767 there \\;is much trouble and conrtict of 
authority between the commandant and the com- 
missioner of trade, each of these officers claiming 
the right to settle disputes between the traders. 

Under both Erench and English rule, the notarial 
office was one of great importance, as it practically 
combinetl the duties of court clerk and register of 
deeds. The notary kept copies of all papers wit- 
nesseil by or before him, registered marriage con- 
tracts, and was connected with every transaction in 
business and in social life. 

Among the notaries acting between 1734 and 
1760, or later, were Robert Navarre, Simon Sanjui- 
net, Ikiptiste Campau. and G. Monforton. About 
1760 the name of Philip Dejean begins to be of fre- 
quent occurrence in old records of every sort. He 
was appointetl justice of the peace April 24, 1767, 
and on the 201I1 of July following, Robert Bayard, 
major commanding, appointed him second judge of 
a temporary court of justice, to be held every month 
to decide all actions of debts, bonds, bills, contracts, 
and trespasses involving large amounts. 

It would seem that Dejean's doings did not meet 
the approval of all the citizens, as a committee of 
investigation, consisting of ten persons, was ap- 
pointed by Commandant George Turnbull. On May 
21, 1768, they reported themsrhes as of opinion, 

* See chapter on Revolutionary Wan 



I'irst, that the fees established h the t.i'nmittee appointed by 
Major Robert Hayard, in the est; ./lishmenl of the Court of Jus- 
tice at Detroit, are just and reasonable, and ought not tube less. 

Second, that every prisoner conlined hi the guiird-hoiise, 
whether for debt or misdemeanor, shall on being set at liberty pay 
one dollar, ami every batteau or canoe arriving here, loaded with 
merchandise belonging to any person or persons not possessing in 
property any lot or building within this fort, shall pay two dollars ; 
the moneys accruing from thence to lie applied, as in the time of 
the Krench government, to keep in good and sufTicient repair the 
fortlficaticms around this town. 

Third, no person having appeared before us, to make any com- 
plaints against s;iid I'hilip Dejean, with respi'et to his public 
ortice, we are of opinion that they were ill-founded and without 
cause. 

SigncJ, Jamks Stkhlino, Colonei, Andkews, T. Williams, 
William Edc.ak, John RoniSdN, Kistache Gamklin, P. 
St. Cosme, I. Caiiasie, T. Moi.ikke, .\. Harthe. 

Dejean's character being thus approved, he was 
further honored, on June 14 following, by being 
newly appointed notary, with jiower to examine by 
oath and evidence, but could give no final award 
except by joint request. Matters settled by arbitra- 
tion were to be approved by the commandant. 

The records of St. Anne's Church show that 
Pierre St. Cosme was acting as a justice of the 
peace on September 15, 1762 ; and Philip Le Grand 
is named as a justice on March 18, 1764. 

T'nder the Quebec Act of 1774, the criminal law 
of England was introduced as a guide in the admin- 
istration of justice ; but as the same Act aboli.shed 
all courts of justice in the province, after the first of 
May, 1775, and as the laws of England were but 
imperfectly understood, and much discretion was 
allowed to or assumed by the governor and com- 
mandant, many enormities were perpetrated under 
the semblance of law. 

When Henry Hamilton was appointed lieutenant- 
governor, a judge, assessor, and sheriff, were alsf) to 
be commissioned, and to be paid one hundred and 
fifty pounds per year each. The judge was not 
immediately named, and on Fe'nruary 2, 1777, Gov- 
ernor Carleton wrote to Hamilton saying : 

As nothing better could be done at the time, you were included 
as commissioner of the peace for the jirovince at large ; and in 
that capacity ycui have a right to issue your warrants, for appre- 
hending, and sending down (to Montreal) any persons guilty of 
criminal offences in the district, at least, such as are of conse- 
quence enough to deserve taking that journey; but these orders 
must be signed by you, and not by Mr. Dejean, whose authority 
is unknown here. 

Subsequently a Mr. Owen was appointed as judge 
at Detroit, but he died, and in a letter dated April 
26, 1778, Hamilton says his loss " mu.st be doubly 
felt, while I am obliged to act as judge, and in 
several cases executor of justice. There is no execu- 
tioner or gaoler, nor is a gaol yet built, though 
greatly needed." In another letter, dated August 
17, 1778, he says : " Our law proceedings here are as 
vague, and perhaps irregula'" as can be, but our 
situation must excuse and account for it." About 
this time he sent a man named Gardener (believed 



JUSTICE IN THE OLUEN TIME. 



to have nui'ilcrcd liis wife), and also witnesses, io 
Montreal for trial. Turniiiyj^ back two years, we 
find that soon a^ter he arrived at Detroit, John Ct)ii- 
tincinau and Ann W\ ley — the first a former servant, 
and the woman previously a slave of Abbott and 
Finehley — were accused of stealing,' about $50 in 
furs and money from their late employers. They 
were arrested on June 26, 1776, trieil, convicted, and 
on March 26, 1777, at twelve o'clock, were han,i;i(I 
on the i)ui)lic common. The following- letter, con- 
tained in \'oIume \'l. of Almon's Remembrancer, 
published at London, and written by John Dodi^^e, 
of Detroit, jrives interestinj^ details concerning Ham- 
ilton's doings in the Coiitincinau and other trials : 

(JUKiiKC, Sept. 21, T777. 

SiH : Vcstcrcliiy his Kxccllcncy Sir (luy «;is iilcasid to si.i;n my 
pass, a few htiiirs \>vhiTc lie set out for Moiitri-al, notwithstaiKlinff 
any oppo.-^iiioii lliat nii^ht have in-vn made l>y ttiir l>ctroit new 
lieutenaiit-g.is'enuir, Hamilton, \vlii>, you know, Is now in town 
here. Front what yf)U have heard of his cruel and tyrannieal dis- 
positicm, you must Ijc well convinced how unhappy we are under 
his government ; you know what severity he used against me un- 
justly, how he has treated Mr. IlcntK y, and confessed to liim in 
presence of se\'eral witnesses that he knew \'ery well his prtieeed- 
ings against him were illegal, but that he was above the law, and 
added, " Vou may sue me if you please, but you'll get nothing. 
Government is obliged to support me in wh.it I do." A very fine 
confession for a lieutenant-governor set over a free people ! 

You know how he wanted to hurt Mr. Isiiac Williams, and the 
cool manner in which he treated Mr. Jonas Schindler, silversmith, 
whom, after being honorably actiuilted liy a very respect.ible jury, 
he ordered to lie druininid out of the town. Captain Lord of the 
I'lghteiMilh Regiment, late eomniandant of the Illinois, and at that 
time commanding the garrison at iJetroit, silenced the druiii wlu-n 
it enter. 'd into tlie citadel, in order to pass out at the west gate 
with the [irisoner, and said I.ieutenant-Oovernor Hamilton might 
exercise what acts of cruelty and oppression he pleased in the 
town, but that he would suffer none in the citadel, and would take 
care to make such proceedings known to some of the first men in 
Kngland. All these things are cruel, but nothing like hanging men. 
Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, to whom a commission as justice 
of the peace was sent up only two or three months ago, which is 
the first that ever was given by proper authority to any one in 
Detroit, took upon bim in thefall of 1775 to nominate and appoint 
a certain Philip Dejean (who ran away from Iioiiie some years ago 
and lied to lietroit to screen himself from his creditors) to act as 
judge on the trial of Joseph Hecker (formerly a furrier in this 
town) for having killed his brother-in-law. Monsieur Moran, in a 
quarrel. Judge Dejean passed sentence of death upon him, which 
was ajjproved of by Governor Hamilton, and put in cxicution a 
few days after, under a j,uard of soldiers who surrounded the gal- 
lows whilst he was hanged. In the spring of 1777 they condemned 
and hanged also John Coutincinau, a Canadian, for having stolen 
some money, etc., from his master, and having been concerned 
with a negro wench in attempting to set fire to his master's house. 
You'll readily allow that these criminals deser\'e death, but how 
dared Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, and an infamous judge of 
his own making, take uiion them to try tlu'iii and execute them 
witliout authority ? I mentioned all the above circumstances to 
Judge Lewis, and to .Mr. .Monk, the attorney-general. They were 
very much surprised at such rash and unwarranted proceedings, 
and said Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton and his Judge Philip 
Dejean were both liable to be prosecuted for murder. I beg you 
may make these things known in England, that we may be freed 
from usurpation, tyranny and oppression. 

The proceedings of the Council of A'irginia, under 
date of June i8, 1779, give details as to the cases of 



Mr. Dodge anil others. In spe.'iking of (lovernor 
Hamilton the record says: 

They find that his Irealinent of our citizens and soldiirs, taken 
and I arricil within the limits of his coniniaiui, b.is beiii cruel and 
inhuman ; that in the case of John 1 lodge, a cilizi n of these sl.ites, 
^vI1icll has been particularly stated to this board, he loaded bim 
with irons, threw him into a dungeon, without bi'dding, without 
straw, without fire, in the dead of winter and severe climate of 
Detroit ; that in that state, lie wasted him with incessant expicta- 
tions of deatli ; that ^vhen the rigors of bis situation had brought 
him so low that dealli seemed likely to withdraw him from their 
jiower, he was taken out, and somewhat attended to until a little 
minded, and before he had recovered ability to walk, was again 
returned to bis dungeon, in which a hole was cut, seven inches 
square only, for the admission of air, and the siimct load of irons 
iigain put on him; thataiipearing asecond time in iminimnt danger 
of being lost to them, he was again taken from his dungeim, in 
which he had lain from January to Jum-, with the intermission of 
a few weeks only before mentifined. 

It will be remembered that these records were 
made after the capture of (lovernor Hamilton, 
riiilip Dejean, and otiiers at \'incennes, and while 
they were confmetl in \'irgin'a. The document con- 
tinues: 

It appeals tliat the prisoner I lejean was on all occasions the wil- 
ling .'uid cordial instruiuent *if Governor Hamilton, acting both as 
judge and keeper of the jails, and instigating and urging him, by 
malicious insinuations and untruths, to increase rather than to re- 
lax his severilies, lu'ii;liteniiig tliecruelty of his orders by his man- 
ner of executing them ; offering at out; time a reward to one man 
to be hangman for another, threatening his life on refus;il ; antl 
taking from his prisoners the little property their opportiinities 
enabled tliem to acqiuie. 

Mr. Dodge was eventually sent down and con- 
lined in jail at Quebec. He escaped from there on 
October 9, 1778, and on July 13, 1779, wrote from 
Pittsburgh to " Philip Poyle, merchant at St. Duski " 
(Sandusky), as follows : 

It is with pleasure that I inform you that I have made my 
escape from (Juebec. I h.ave the honor of wearing the Captain's 
commission, and the managing Indian affairs. You may depend 
on seeing me there this fall with a good army. Fisher and Grav- 
erat are here, and desire to be remembereil to their brotlu-is, and 
bid them to be of good cheer. There has been a battle at Carolina 
— the F.nglish .".:e entirely defeated ; seven hundretl lay dead on 
the ground, the rest are prisoners, with all their cannon and bag- 
gage. 1 enclose to you the proceedings of a Council. I am going 
to Willlamsbiirgh in .1 few days to prosecute Hamilton, and that 
rascal Dejean, I.amothe likewise. Hoiiiiniy, hey ? they will all 
be hanged without redemiJtion, and the Lord have mercy on their 
stuils. My compliments to all the gooc Whigs of r>etroit. 
Money plenty, fine times for the sons of liberty. lam just now 
drinking your health with a good glass of Madeira. GotI bless you 
all, and we will soon relieve you from those "tyrants. 

Returning to Governor HamiUon, we find that 
notwithstanding the outrageous character of his 
proceedings, Ciovernor Haldimand rather justified 
and excused him, especially in the Coutincinau 
case ; but the grand jury for the district of Montreal 
did not, and on Monday, September 17, 1778, they 
indicted Governor Hamilton for allowing Dejean to 
perpetrate such enormities. They said that in De- 
cember, 1775, Dejean illegally acted as judge, and 
caused one Hecker to be apprehended for the 



174 



UNlli:U STATMS CIRCUIT CUURT. 



imuikr (if one Chas. Muian, sentenced him to 
death, and tarried the sentence into exeriition ; and 
that on or about Marcli, i77C), he arrested Jolin 
Coutineinau and Nancy, a ncv^ro woman, charged 
willi atleniptinn' to burn llie dwellins^- house of 
Abjjott and Kinchley, and also willi liavinji,^ stolen 
money and pt'ltries ; that he sentenceil Coutineinau 
to death, anil that on or about July, 1776, he was 
hanj^ed ; that Nancy remained in prison a time, and 
was pardoned on condition that siie serve as execu- 
tioner, which she did, and that then Dejean handed 
her also, and that without law or authority. He also 
fined for offences. An action was also brought 
a.i(ainst Dejean, and on December 4, 1778, (lovernor 
Hamilton wrote to Haldimand, s;iying : 

A Icltcr from Mr. (Wiry^ the (Upiity sluriff at Mdiitrial, 
ac(|ualiits iiu' tliat siiinc k),':il iirucfss lias liccii ciminuiicid a^'aiiist 
Mr. Di'jcaii, for actiiiji iiiulir my diri'dion in rexard lo criminal 
inatlLTS. I l)i'j; leave to reeommend him to yonr lv\cellcncy's pro- 
tection, as a man who has created enemies hy doini; his duty. * 
* ♦ 1 hope 1 shall alone he responsihle for any malversation of 
his, as he has only acted by my orders. * * * Should any com- 
plaint against myself be lodged jnilicially, I am perfectly at ease, 
persuaded your Kxcellency will allow me to vindicate my conduct, 
witliout I ncountering the chicanu of the law. 

In March, 1778, Thomas Williams, father of Cien- 
eral John R. Williams, was acting' as justice of the 
peace. In July, 1784, he declined to act longer, and 
induced Mr. Monforton to attend to the business in 
his stead. His commission, is.sued by Sir Frederick 
Haldimand, (iovernor-deneral of Canada, in 1779, 
is in the possession of his grandson, J. C. D. Williams 
of this city. An immense wax seal, half an inch 
thick and four and a half inches in diameter, bear- 
ing many devices, is attached to the document. 

Thomas .Smith served as commissioner of peace 
in 1778. In 1779 the commandant suggested the 
establishment of a Court of Trustees, with jurisdic- 
ti(jn extending to ten pounds. lughtcen of the mer- 
chants then entered into a bond that three of them, 
in rotation, would hold a weekly court, and that they 
would defend any appeals which might be taken to 
the courts at Montreal. This court lasted about 
eighteen months, and then, as legal objections were 
made to it, the court was abolished. This pleased 
the careless, but was unsatisfactory to merchants, 
and on March 28, 1781, they petitioned De Peyster 
for relief "to enable them to collect of those who 
were able but unwilling to pay their debts." De 
Peyster was at a loss to know what to do, and on 
April 3, 1 78 1, he wrote to Ceneral Haldinumd, ."ay- 
ing, "Fori lerly summons were issued by the justice 
and decisions given, but since we have learned that 
they have no such powers, that mode has ceased." 

The establishment of regular courts dates from 
July 24, 1788, when several districts were created by 
the Canadian council. Detroit was embraced in the 
District of Hesse, and William Dunmore Powell was 



the first judge. In 1789 Courts of Common I'leas 
were provided for, with jurisdiction without ajjpeal. 
exce])t to the governors and council. The wealthier 
citizens were made judges, and they banished, 
whipped, and imprisonetl at pleasure. In De- 
cember, 1 788, a .session of the court was held at 
Detroit, by Louis Heaufait, senior justice, with James 
May, Charles C.irardin, Patrick McNiff, and Nath- 
aniel \\'illiams as associate justices. 

There was, however, a great lack of proper courts, 
and much uncertainty about their action, almost up 
to the surrender of the post. On April 30, 1792, 
Major Smith of the Fifth Regiment, then in com- 
mand at Detroit, said, "It is strange that a man, 
for petty misdemeanors, shall be conlined, ami his 
property sold antl confiscated for debt, when another 
shall commit the crime of murder, rape, and robbing 
with impunity." 

On October 15, 1792, the name of the di.strict was 
changed from Hesse to Western District, and in 
1794 a court was provided for, to be held in Detroit. 
The law was repealed on June 3, 1796, as it seemed 
no longer expetlient to hold sessions in Detroit. 
Under the Kngiish Covernment, Courts of (leneral 
Ouarter Sessions were also held, the last one on 
January 29, 1796. 

UNITKU STATICS CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first Circuit United Stat(?s Court for the State 
of Michigan was provided for by Act df July i, 1836, 
the court to be held the third Monday in June 
and first Monday in November. By Act of March 
3, 1837, the Stiites of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and 
Michigan were made the seventh circuit, and the 
time of United States Circuit Court sessions fixed 
for the fourth Monday of June. By Act of March 
10, 1*838, the sessions were changed to the third 
Monday in June and the first Monday of November. 
By law of March 31, 1839, the fall session was to 
begin on the second Monday of October. On July 
14, 1862, it was provided that an additional session 
should be held, beginning the second Monday of 
February in each year. By Act of July 15, 1862, a 
new ilivision of circuits was made, and Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Illinois were made the eighth cir- 
cuit. On January 28, 1863, the circuits were again 
re-arranged, Ohio and Michigan being made the 
seventh circuit. The terms of court, by Act of Feb- 
ruary 21, 1863, were to begin on the first Tuesdays 
of June, November, and March. By law of July 23, 
1866, the present sixth circuit, embracing the States 
of Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee, was 
created. 

The court is a court of appeal from the District 
Court. In general, its power may be thus defined : 
it may hear, and try originally, all cases coming 
under United States Law, except admiralty cases. 



UNITKI) STATES DISTRICT COURT.— UNITED STATES OFFICERS. 



1/5 



It has also jurisdiction in cases between citizens of 
different States, and between citizens and aliens, in 
casi's either of law or iqiiity, involvinj,' anioiinls of 
more than five hundred doll.irs. Tlie salary of tiie 
circuit judije is Sfi.ooo. He is nominated by the 
Pres..'ent and confirmed by the Senate, the term 
beiny for life. 

The first sessions of the United States courts in 
the State of Michiijan were held in the Wiiiiruns 
Building-, on the southeast corner of Jefferson 
Avenue and Bates Street. In IcSjq sessions were 
held in the City Hall, the United States payintj^ $500 
a year rent to the city. In 1840 the courts were 
moved l)ack to the Williams T?ui!dinj,^ On June 
19, 1843, sessions began to be held in the building 
purchased by the Government in 1842, located on 
the southwest corner of Oriswold Street and Jeffer- 
son Avenue. The building was sold, October 4, 
1855, to the Michigan Insurance Company Bank, 
and the court was soon after moved to Young Men's 
Hall, on the north side of Jefferson Avenue, midway 
between Bates and Randolph Streets. The sessions 
were held there until the completion of the (iovern- 
ment Building on the northwest corner of Griswold 
and Earned Streets, after which the courts were 
held in the upper story of that building. 

The circuit judges of the United States, for Mich- 
igan, have been as follows: 1836- 1862, John Mc- 
Lean; 1862-1870, N, H. Swayne; 1870-1878, H. 
H. F'mmons ; 1878- .John Baxter. 

The clerks of the United .States Circuit Court 
have been as follows: 1837 to June, 1S57, John 
Winder; June, 1857 to April 1 5, 1870, W. D. Wilkins; 
April 15, 1870 to June 6, 1882, Addison Mandell; 
June 6, 1882- , Walter S. Harsha. 

UNITED STATES DI.STRICT COURT. 

By Act of February 13, 1801, provision was made 
for the holding of the first United States Court for 
this region, which was then in the District of Ohio ; 
sessions of the court were to begin in Cincinnati on 
the loth of June and December, except when the 
loth fell upon Sunday, when sessions were to begin 
on the following day. There is no evidence that 
this law ever took effect, and the necessity for it is 
not ajjparent, as the judges of the Northwest, Indi- 
ana, and Michigan Territories were all of them 
direct appointees of the President, and endowed 
with power to try offences against United States 
law. In fact, the Supreme Court of the Territory 
took the place of a United States Circuit Court, and 
their District Courts were also District Courts of the 
United .States. 

United States District Courts for the State of 
Michigan, first provided for by Act of July i, 1836, 
were to be held on the first Mondays of May and 
October. The sessions of both Circuit and District 



United Slates Courts, for the entire State, were at 
first held only in Detroit. By Act of February 24. 
i8f)3, the State was divided into two judicial dis- 
tricts. The court held at Detroit is now known 
as the District Court for the luistern District of 
Michig.'ui. Sessions are held on the first Tuesdays 
of March, June, and November; and for admiralty 
cases on the first Tuesday of each month. The 
District Court has jurisdiction in all cases of infrac- 
tion of United States law, and in admiralty cases, or 
cases arising in connection with trade or travel on 
the rivers and lakes. 

The jurors for both Circuit and District United 
States Courts were formerly selected by the clerk 
and marshal; by law of June 30, 1879, a (•oiiimis- 
sioner, who in politics must be opposed to the clerk, 
is appointed by the presiding judge to assist the 
clerk in tiie selection of names. 

On the second Monday of November of each year 
they select the names of not less than two hundred 
persons from different counties in the district; these 
names are placed in a box, and at least twenty days 
before court term begins, the clerk and marshal 
draw out, in the presence of the district attorney, 
twenty-three names as grand jurors, and twenty- 
four as traverse jurors. The jurors are paid two 
dollars per day. 

Judges of the District Court are appointed by the 
Senate on nomination of tiie President. The term 
is for life, and the salary is $3,500 per year. 

The district judges of the United States at De- 
troit have been, 1836- 1870, Ross Wilkins; 1870- 
1875, John W. Longyear; 1875- , Henry B. 
Brown. 

The clerks of both Circuit and District Courts 
are appointed with the concurrence of both judges 
and hold office at their pleasure. The clerks are 
paid by fees appertaining to the office. F'or services 
and clerk hire they are allowed to retain fees to the 
amount of $3,500 per year. 

The clerks of the United States District Court 
have been as follows ; 1 837 to October, 1 848, John 
Winder; October, 1848, to June, 1857, W. D. Wil- 
kins; June, 1857, to April 15, 1870, John Winder; 
April 15, 1870, to , D. J. Davison. Deputy 

Clerk, John Graves. 

UNITED STATES OEEICEKS. 
Attorney. 

This office, directly connected with the adminis- 
tration of justice in the United States Courts, was 
provided for by Act of September 24, 1789. It is 
the dut- of the attorney to prosecute all offences 
again^ iie Government, its property or laws ; to 
attend lo the collection of all debts due to the 
Government, or of the forfeited bonds of any 
government officer. The appointment is made by 



176 



UNirKi) STA ri;s oi-fickks. 



tlic Siiiatf (111 iioininatioii of the I'lisiiiciit. 'I'lir 
tiiin of oU'ru is iiulclinitc. The salary is $200 and 
fi'i's not ixct'cdiii^ i3)6,o(x>. 'I'lu- olfRc in 1880 was 
worth about §4,000 per aiiiuiiii. 

Tiu' salary of the assistant attorney is $2,000, and 
for many years J. W. I'"inne\- lias filled that position. 

The following persons have been I'niled States 
attorneys for the years named : 1 S08- 1 8 1 1 , II. 11. 
Hieknian; 1811-1814, K. 15 rush ; 1814, L'has. 
Larned; 1815 1823, Solomon Sibley; 1823-1824, 
James U. Doty; 1824-1827, Andrew d. Whitney; 
1827-1834, Daniel l.eKoy ; 1834-1841, I )aniil Ciood- 
win; 1842-1845, (ieorye C. Bates ; 1845 1850, John 
Norvell; 1850-1852, (ieorye C. Bates; 1852, S. 
Barstow; 1853 1857, ("leorj^a' K. Hand; 1857-1861, 
Joseph Miller, Jr.; 1861, \V. L. Stoughton ; 1862- 
1869, Alfred Ru.ssell ; i8<''9n877, Aaron B. May- 
nard; 1877- , S. M. Culeheon. 

United States Marsluxl. 

This offiee was first created September 24, 17S9. 
It is the duty of the marshal to make arrests of all 
who offend against the United States or its laws, 
such as smugglers, counterfeiters, etc. In fact, the 
marshal is the high constable of the government of 
this district, and attends the sessions of the United 
States Courts to see that its rules and orders are 
obeyed. He is appointed by the President and 
Senate for terms of fo