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Full text of "Biography of the Hon. W.H. Merritt, M.P., of Lincoln, district of Niagara, including an account of the origin, progress and completion of some of the most important public works in Canada [microform]"

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Mft>t.'Mt) MM MK .I'tTK 



M 



BIoaRAPHY 



OF THK 



HOI. ¥. H. MERRITT, M. P., 



w 



LINCOLN, DISTRICT OF NIAGARA, 



INCLDDIKO AH ACCOUHT Oy ITEIl 



ORIGIN, PROGRESS AND COMPIoETION OF SOME OF THE 
MOST IMPORTANT PUBUC WORKS IN CANADA. 



COmriLKD PRINCIPAJXY PROM HU 



ORIGINAL DIARY AND CORRESPONDENCE, 



-•<«^<^;o«- 



B'Z' J. 30. I^BRrtlXX. 



CT. CATHARINES: 



» 8. LliAVKNWOBTH, BOOK AND JOB PBIKTINQ B8TA3HSHMBMT. 

1875. 



A/'ArA^/^/y/' ;t^(^ 







/ 



Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, 1876, by J. P. Mekritt, in the 
Office of the Minister of Agriculture. 



h-^r- 



PREFA CE. 



It is not without many luisK'ivings tLat the fbllowini; pages are now 
Hubiuitted to the peojile ofCanadu. Althougli we cannot but hope that to the 
student of ^' our country's history, they nuiy in sonie respects be foutid inte- 
resting, and to the general public, entertaining, us an attempt to pourtray 
the numerous characters in which a public man, lising among his fellows, 
may find himself placed during his, role as an actor in connection with 
the events of hi time. Yet the position of the Biographer, as a near rela- 
tive, may, in many instances be coustrueu into that of an egotist, wliere 
nothing of the kind was intended. 

. For this reason, and to the beat of our ability in endeavouring to aink 
the individuality of relationship, we have sought only to place the cha- 
racter of our subject in the position, we have every reason to think, it 
should occupy, i. e., as a sincere and ardent lover of his country, and a 
statesman, as far as his limited abilities pern:itteii. 

As a country, the position of Canada is a peculiar one, with all the 
adjuncts of a great nation, with resources unbounded, and the necessary 
intelligence to use them, it cannot be denied that it has not kept pace 
with other sections of the same family on this continent, nor acquired the 
respect which after 100 years o^ endeavour, it should now command. We 
believe this to be no mere idle assertion, anil although it i.s not our pro- 
vince to investigate the cause, yet if .ve can in the following pages shew 
that there Avas one at least who loved his country and longed for its pros- 
perity, our work will not be in vain. 

That our subject during a long and eventful career, tried to place liis own 
country and its interests, always first in every consideration, will bo found 
amply illustrated within, and although iron! time honoured traditii)ns he 
loved Britain with a Briton's love, yet he loved Canada more, nor was his 
devotion a mere sentiment, as in no instance can we find that he ever 
was willing to place liis own land in a secondary position to any other ; liy 
a tiifling transposition of the sentence we might justly say with Macauley 
in his eulogy on the illustrious Pitt, that he loved Canada, "as an Athenian 
loved the city of the violet crown-— as a Roman loved the ' JJaxiina rerum 
Eoma: " 



// 



II. 

TLe liiuited space at our disposal disbarred us froui giving more than a 
synopsis of tho leading political and local events, with wliicL our subject 
was connected ; still we ti-ust that sutticient matter is given to incite the 
investigator to trace rtvents onward to their ond. Wo have copiously 
used the opinions ot" the press, and although at this date it may sefm strange 
that a local newspapei (the St. Catharines Juurnal) t'urnished most ot" the 
items, yet it must be remembered that in the times we write of, this paper 
did its duty as a public exponent, a task which has latterly fallen to the 
tlaily papers of the large cities. We have entered fully into the question 
of Public Works, not entirely because our siibject was engaged with 
tho,se of his time, but for the reason that in all matters honestly intended to 
foster and encourage trade, he found them the source of a nation's greatness. 

Such were the ideas of our subject, and it will be seen that in almost 
every instance of trouble, he was prepared with some resource to counteract 
any evils \/hich might fall on the laud through mistaken statesmanship, or 
ungenerous legislation. 

That errors may have crept in, and umbrage be expressed for many 
statements, we fully expect, and as ordinary mortals are hardly responsible, 
or expected to be perfect in these matters, we claim tlie benetit of the saying 
that to err is human. 

Fault may be found with the minuteness of some, and the apparent 
slightness of other matters. In this we are convinced that it will lequire 
the experience of another generation to fully appieciate the soundness of 
Mr. Merritt's views. 

In local matters we have been as particular as the circumstances would 
admit, and forebore bringing up issues at ajiy time unpleasant, but would 
ask the reader to mark well the change of public sentiment which actuated 
the friends of our subject in assisting him in those schemes, which benefitted 
not only his own locality but the country at large. This change is apparent 
in the appreciation in which his responsibility was held by the CJovei-nment 
in the early days of the Welland Canal, and the reverse in a similar enter- 
prise, the W. R. R., at a later date. 

To the critic we may state that no efforts have been made to rendei' 
the work attractive by sensationalism, or introduce the finer arts known to 
those who write for elfect. We have simply endeavoured to give the bio- 
graphy of a plain man, in as plain a manner as we could, and if we have 
succeeded in doing so our utmost expectations will be accomplished. 

We thankfully acknowledge the obligations we are undei' to numerous 
friends for their advice and assistance in compiling these pages. 

J. P. M. 
Sx. Catharinbs, 1876. 



iiore than a 
our subject 
iueiti-' the 
re copiously 
Weill strange 
most of the 
it; this paper 
['alien to the 
the ejuestion 
iH'aKe<i with 
ly intended to 
n's greatness, 
hat in almost 
to counteract 
esiuanship, or 

sed tbi- many 
ly respouaible, 
t of the saying 

the apparent 
will require 
soundness of 

[stances would 
lit, but would 
■hich actuated 
lick benefitted 
;e is apparent 
Government 
Isimilav enter- 

ide to render 
Lrts known to 

I give the bio- 

II if we have 
lisbed. 

to numerous 

t P. M. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Projenitors American Loyalists 

fIrand-Katiier anil two eldest flee to New Vork 

Removal to U.C. 

Settlers on Niagara Peninsula, 

Chihlhood and Schooldays of our subject 

To Lower Canada 

■'■ Quebec 

" Halifax 

" St. George, Bermuda, returns to New York 

" St. .lolin, N. B, at School 

Keturns home by New York 

Store kpej)ing and Farming . . . = 

1812. 



Paob. 



War 

Detroit 

Queenston 

Results of First Campaign 

Reverses at Ni'igara 

Stoney Creek 

Beaver Dams 

Indian Engagement with U. S. Ti'oops outside of Niagara 

Goes to Montreal , 

Blockade of Niagara 

Second Retreat 

Advance — Memories of the Gore District 

Burning of Niagara 

Burning of Buffalo- Sickness 

Disaster at Chippawa 



7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
li. 
15. 



16, 17, 18. 

19. 

.. .. 20. 

21. 

... 22,23. 
24. 



Skirmishing 

Lundy's Lane 

Prisoner 

Marriage 

Prendergast Family 

Settled down at St. Catharines .. .. 

Discovery of Salt 

Extended business 

Surveyed Canal 

A Yankee, Canadian and Scotch Doctor . . . . , 

" Golden Age " local — Change of names — Slavery 



25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
36. 
36. 
37. 



39. 

40. 
.. 41. 
42, 43. 

45. 
46, 49, 



// 



w. 

Pao«. 

Anxiety — (!liri.stio.'is --(!aiiiil tlioii^Hiis -Ho[»c ijul ilespoiulftiicy 50. 

Htnail lj();^inuiii„'s Inwiiitl tliouglits 51, ^'2. 

Get ii|) a .subscription 53. 

Apptial to (Juvtuiuii- Maitlaml and Sii-. J. Harvt^y 

CliHwitt'.s route — Local jisaloiisit^s 

Mtititiii;^ (H)iiven«(l aj'pointf^tl agent 

Miturc'l plans -Kncoiiragtinient 

Visit Works (, 'I Kiiti »!an.:i! 

Company Incorporated 

Pndiminaries -Kaniily afl'hctions 

Wintfa- journeying to (^uol sc- -First .tlOOO 

To New York in Fall-Mr Yates — Brocks >FonniTient 

Turning the first . sod of Welland Tanal Speech 

Old Church — State of the Country 

Provincial Assesments 



54. 
65. 

56. 
57. 

5*. 



(^0- 



59. 
-61. 

62. 

63—67—68. 

69-70. 

71. 



182o. 



Work progreflsini^ 

At Bar of House 

Report- Bishop StrHchaii -Opposition in Nia(,'ara 

To New York — Enlarged Canal »Stock taken 

St. Lawreics Route Surveyed 

At York for Amendment of Charter 



71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 



1826. 



St. Catharines " Joi'RNAl " Started . . .. 

Honorable settlement of Merritt and Ingeisolls business 

Establisment of Mail routes 

Albany — Governors visit — Burlington Bay Canal .... 

Removal of residence 

St. Catharines Landmarks 

Report . . 

Rideau Canal commenced 



78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 



1827. 

,£25,000 granted %o Welland Canal 
Offices removed to St. Catharines 

" Feeder ' 

Grand River 



85 
86. 
87 
86. 



1828. 



For England 
Accident on returning 

Proceedings 

Deep Cut disasters 



89 to 109. 

no. 

111. 
112. 



Pao«. 

icy 50. 

51. V2. 

53. 

64. 

65. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 

60—61. 

62. 

63—67—68. 

69-70. 
71. 



T. 



71. 
72. 

74. 
75. 

76. 



77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 



85 
86. 
87 
86. 



89 to 109. 

no. 

111. 
112. 



Politics — Land lisputes 

Fortifying Canada '.' 

Policy tending the trade 
DepartnrP of Govprnor Maitland 



Paoi. 
113. 
114. 
116. 
116 



1829. 

Opposition from Radicals 
Visit and de.scription of Canal 
Oranthani Academy 
Oovernors vinit <fec 

Coinpletionof Canai --First vesgel' through' 
The Roll ot Honor 



118—119- 



117. 
120. 
121. 
122. 
123—124. 
125. 



1830. 

LobbyinK in the House for Loan to Canal 
Article on improvement of St. Lawrence 
(ATinl not opened nntill July 
Welland Canal Company turned Forwarders 



126. 
126. 
127. 
128. 



1831 



Lobb) ir M-;*h J B. Yates 
Milling with O. Phelps 



.... 129, 
130-131. 



1832. 



New Customs Office 

W. L. AlacKenzie re-elected 

P.nii^'rjition —Cholera 

Elected to Haldirnand &c 

Bill against imprisonment for debt 



Canada Co— Grand River 



1833. 



Parliament business 

House opened 1 at June 

W. L. Mackenzie '" 

Relief of^S ^«^^.^^-f— P''l«ion.f MacKen.ie ' 
Keliet of Mennonites andQuakers 



132. 
133.. 

134. 

185—187. 

138. 



... 139. 

140—142. 

14:^. 

144. 

144. 



1834 



Welland Canal breaks occurred 
il-nd of Legi.sliture 
MacKenzie IMayor of Toronto 
Choice of a Loyalist Parliament 
92 J resolutions in Lower Canada 



146. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 



// 



f5f%:2 



VI, 



1835. 



Radical House — Compariaons 

Knglisli Gfliitlomen to St. Catharines 

Mo Keiizie examines Canal accounts 

Resolutions on the State of the Province — Mr. Merritt .ind the 

to c;any them to F^ngland 

[jord Duihaiiis report obviates going to England 

Act p.M ying Stockholders in Canal 

Newspaper discussion on the appointment to England .... . . 

Private ditto 

S|)eech favorable to Report 

Preparing to get the best advantages for his Country 

Rents his Mill 

Correspondence with J. Nelson in L. C, and various otherB in U, 

Speech at Rainham 

New (iovernor - T^arliament oj-ened 3rd December 

Pjoniises places of importance to Canadians of talent 

Sympathy vvith banished Canadians 



Paok. 

. . 151. 

. 156. 

. 157. 

Speaker 
195. 

196. 
197. 



Commissioners High and Low 
Attended House 
Writing of Governor 



199. 

200. 
(( 

C. 20l' 

II . 

202. 
203. 
204. 
206. 
206. 
207. 



1836. 



Jn House — Mr. Hinckf? 
Grand River ... . 
Death of Mr. Yates 
Address to Electors 
House 



158—160. 

161. 
162—163. 

164. 

165. 



1837—8. 



General Matters 

Moneta ry Crisis 

Gov»«'nois Policy 

MacKenzie tried for defamation 

Rebellion , . ... 

Important Letter to Lord Durham 



166—167—168-169—170 

171 

172 

173 

174 :o 186 

186 



1839. 



Important Trade diverted by Hudson Bay Co 

State of the Country 

Governor at St. Catharines --Mr.Merritt's views 
The Legislare - -Remarks in PrivateJournal 

The Sole Business — State of Province 

House met — Notice injudiciously given, and Mr. 
for address 



190. 
193. 



Merritt in Committee 



▼w. 



Page. 

... 151. 

. . 156. 

. .. 157. 

Speakfir 

!95. 

196. 
197. 

199. 

200. 

<( 

r. C. 20L 

202. 
203. 
204. 
206. 
206. 
207. 



58—160. 

161. 
62—163. 

164. 

165. 



69—170 
171 
172 
173 

^4 to 186 
186 



190. 
198. 



)mniittee 



1840. 



Presidentof Canal— After thi tie years absence 

Favorable report from his old Constituencv, not an opposinc voice 

Why fnends were not forthcoming to complete ihe work 

Still Jinds time to write 

Death of our pastor— Queenston Heights Union 

P'^'oular anxiety— About Parliament "" 

Union Act unfa\oi able to Canada 

Visit of Go.eruor Via 

Board of Works 'V.'.." "..'.'. ' 

ChoseL by Kefo"m Convention 

Correspondence with the author and H. 11. KillalV 

1841. 

Christmas Holidays 

Refugees 

Jarvis and Baldwin 

A. Morse on Elections 

Robert F. '"Jouriay ^nd result of Elections ...." 

Congratulatory letters 

Consolidated Union 

Canal and C;and River opened 

Domestic 

Parlian.ent opened at Kingston .. , _/ 

Nine days debate o.i speech 

Canal stockholders to be paid ' 

Residts of first Session satisfactory 
To New York 

Co-operation of Eastern Provinces 
Lett'-rsfiom IMr. Holmes and Dr. Prendergast 
Chief Justice Robinson 
Rev. R. Blacow 



Page. 
211. 
212. 
212. 
213. 
215. 
217. 



—219 



223. 
223. 



224. 

225—226. 

227. 

228. 

-231. 

232. 

-235. 

236. 

237. 



230- 



233— 



184r^ 

Departure for England 

Correspondence with Members of Imperial Parliament ' 

To Cambridge 

" Paris : nd Bonn 

" Scotland and Ireland . ' . 

Home 

Letter to George Adams. President Agri- ultural ' Society 
Disturbance on Canal 
Il(»uso met 

Special (Jommittee on Finance 

Passes (h.wn <' Lost Channel " Rapid's on Ht. Lawrence 

Home anans 



238. 
239. 

240. 
241. 
-'42. 
242. 
2^3—244. 
245. 



246. 

247. 
248. 
249—250. 
251. 
252. 
253. 
254. 
255. 
256. 
257. 
258. 



// 



Till. 



1.843. 

Page. 

Death of Mother 259. 

Appointed Coinmisioner for Lunatic Aslyum .. 260. 

Governor and other distinguished visitors to Canal 261. 

Letter to son in Bonn .. 262 — 263. 

On removal of seat of Government 264. 

Resignation of Reform Ministry 265. 

Oflfer of Inspector Generalship refused 265. 



1844. 



Chairman of Bible Society 268 — 269 

Uncertainty as to party 270—271—272 

Partial adherence to the Draper administration ... 273 

Confusion in Governmeut departments ... ... 274 — 275- 

L^tter to Draper 

" from Duke of Wellington on Welland Canal 

Suspension Bridge thought of ... 

Inspector Generalship again declined and given to VV, B. Robinson 



-276 
277 
278 
279 
280 



1845. 



Death of Mrs. Prtndergast — Parliament in Session 281 

Refers to loss in Mill business .... 282 

Ap})ointed Commisioner of Inteicolonial to England — Did not accept 283 



Niagara and Detroit Railroad 

Visits Boston and N»w Yo>'k for Railroad 

Great Western opposes ... 

Local enterprise for R. R. .... 

Tugs on St. Lawrence 



284 
285 
286 

287 
288 



1846. 



Railroads 

Canal enlargement ... 291- 

Great Western and Southern R. R. Controversey 

Refusal to extend Charter 

Disastroufi results prognosticated — change of Imperial Policy 

Retires from business — Reciprocity 

U. C. Municipal Bill ... " 

A.pplication for Government employment 

Great Western Railway ... 308 — 309 — 310 311 

Fii-st Provincial Exhibition .. 



289. 

-292. 

293. 

294. 
295. 
305. 
306. 
3U7. 
-312. 
313. 



IZ. 



Page. 
259. 
260. 
261. 
—263. 
264. 
265. 
265. 



1847. 

Urges Free Trade with U. S. 

Lord Elgin Arrives 

Intel colonial Railroad— Meeting for relief of Irish Famine. 

£le< ^ric Telegraph 

Trav'eliing 

rt ...... 

<)|)ening of Parliament 

Meeting in St. Catharines .... 

Fami 1 y affairs 

Reciprocity Correspondence 



Page 
3U. 
315. 
316. 
317. 
318. 
319. 
330. 
321. 
322. 



-269- 
-272- 
273- 
-276- 
277- 
278- 
279. 
280. 



1848. 

L. J. Papineau 

Journey to Montreal 

Proceeding.s in Parliament 

Change of Ministry 

Letter to the Premier 

Home journey 

f iiossed Suspension Bridge in a basket 

Invited to Washington 

Death of Dr. Prendergast ... 

At Washington 

J. F. Crampton 

Too hasty about repining 

To Chicago-^ Called to Government 

Cause sof entering Governujent 

Services on lieciprocity Measure 

iveciprocity retarded by the then member 

Hostile threats by Conservative press 

They are in favor of our subject 

Extracts from Private Journal 

Detaling usual Offiical Routine 

D. B. Sullivans plan for Emigrants 

Letter home 

NoticBS passing down a schooner for Europe 

His measures on Loan Fund now taken up 

*' Journal " takes an opposing view 

Hinoks' plan of Finance 

Remarks on ditto and summary 



323 
324 
325 
326 
.337—328 
...329 



330 
331 
383—333 
33i 
335 



336 
337 

338 
339 
340 
341 

342 
343. 
344 

S45_346 

(I 

347 



1849. 

^ Opening of Parliament 

Oovei-nors Speech 

Reciprocity resolution by Papineau 

" Journal " on act passed 6th March 



34f 
34& 

349. 

350. 



/.' 



1 



z. 



Letter or. proceedings in Parliament 
Tugs to bo built 

W. L. Mackenzie returns 

Caricatures published 

Parliament Hovse burnt 



Paob. 
350 

(< 

350 
.352. 



1850. 

Meeting at St. Cathariaes, &c 353 

Occupation after (^lose of Session 354 

Visit of Family at Saratoga 355 

Issue of Government Bills 358 

To 'Vashington 360 

Spea :s of Journey Home — 

•' " to Mayville 361 

Halifax 362 

Oovernor, <fec., at the Falls 363 

Annexation Manifesto 365 

Remarks on do. 368 

Grovernor in Toronto 369 

Keeping House in Toronto 370 

House Met 371 

To the Electors 3734 

Opening of Canal 376 

Chief Commissioner 376 

Unsatisfactory to L. C. Members 385 

Christmas at home 386 

1851. 

Letter to Wm. H. Merritt, Jun., 387 

Opening of the Town Hall 388 

Improvements on Oak hill 389 

Merrittsville Road 390 

Pioneer Propeller 391 

Speech Explaining his Resignation 392 

Scheme for Union 395 

Canal Tolls 396 

Election — Letters on Sepai'ate Schools 397 

1852. 

Increased Canal Business Require Increased Facilities 399 

Reformers Exultant 400 

Temperance 401 

1853. 

Reciprocity Measure 403 

Welland Railway 404 

Brock's Monument — Corner Stone 406 



1854. 

Reciprocity Treaty Signed, aud Electiou .... -^Ina 

bpeech— Explanation ... ^"^ 

Money for Russian War '^' ^^"^ 

Zot'ertin "^ ^''^''''''^'^^^^' -^ Sale of Cle.-gy Reserves '. '. .' .* \ '. [ [ tu 
412 

1855—6. 

The Adjournment 

Suspension Bridge Opened ^]^ 

War did not Benefit us ". '. *7 

As Chairmau of Finance Committee f !? 

Free Trade with West Indies ^ 

Railroad to Toronto opened ^^^ 

To England to procure stock for W. R. r'. ' ' ..".".".'.'".'.' l\l 

1857. 

Large Outlay for Improrements in St. Catharines .... 4.9 

J^mancial Depression _^ 

To England again in behalf of W. B.. E^. ..'.'.'.[. [[[[[ ^^^ 

1858. 

Son William to England on R. R. Bnsiness 43] 

i)welluig destroyed jto 

4.^^ 

1859. 

Fourth and last Visit to England .... .„, 

Historical Digression *^^ 

Financial Difficulties . . *^* 

Position taken by the St.Cathai-ine. Council in the" R.' R.' Interest 426 

1860. 

Returned home last time. . . 

Death of second Son . '*^^ 

Health failing .■■.'.■ *2< 

Moved in the New House ...............[[ « 

1861. 

Attended Parliament 

428 

1862. 
Mr. Merritt's Death, near Cornwall . . ^on 



// 



// 



INTRODUCTORY 



The subject of the following Memoirs is desceiuled from u loa.-,' lino of 
the early settlers on this Continent, who from various motives wore letl to 
traverse the broad Atlantic, and seek a home in the yet unbroken forests 
of a land which is now considered by many as the centre of civilization 
and advancement. In looking back on the past history of those hardy 
pioneers, the careful observer must see that the lirst settlers of this 
country were men of no ordinary coi rage and endurance : they required to 
to be fully in possession of all these ennobling gifts with which natunj hafl 
endowe(' her children, and at the same time to bo posscssetl of no ordinary 
share of that intelligence, whiclj at all times enables the cultivated man to 
subdue the forces over which the untaught mind has no control. It may 
be a question for philosophers to decide whether an ordinaiy training would 
enable a man, suddenly transposed from luxury and refinement into the soli- 
tudes of an unbroken wilderness, to find the wherewith to sustain life, without 
the aids of other faculties and endowment; ssuch as an inborn couiage or 
stamina which fe^ired no dangers, and a determined resolve, well kept, to 
accept the situation as found, and make the best of it in the face of all 
drawbacks. Of such material we believe the early settlei-s of the Western 
plantations and colonies of Great Britain were formed, and we have good 
reasons for thinking that the blood of those " iron men," wlio, from the 
days of Richard the Lion to Oliver the Protector, had never shimnod 
danger, still coui-sed with a lively glow through the veins of those hardy 
settlers who first attempted the diillcult task of making the wilderness 
blossom as the rose, and converting the mighty productions of an unknown 
world into the most necessary wants of niankijul. Amongst the long roll 
of these old adventurers wo find that the paternal ancestors of our subject 
played no unimportant part. 



/> 



U I OO II A I^H Y 



OK THL 



HON. \\\ H. MERRinV^M.P. 



-««}««0 



i 



Wii.MAM llAMii.iON Mi:imrrr's ^'mndfulher, TboniaH Merritt, like th« 
i-oflt of his kiiiilrcil, rcsiiltvl upon a farm between BetlforJ and Ix)ng Island 
Sound, two miles fioiii ilir 'atter place, and called in these days "Mile End," 
from a mile sijuan.' uf land being j^ranted to an anceator of his, for survey- 
ing at an early date the ('ounty of Westchester, of -which it Ik the extreme 
limit south-east from New Ytirk State. Ileing the oldest of thre<i orphan 
children, he oociij)ied the acknowledged position of gvnirdian, but was unable 
to divert the rest of the fanjily from the new opinions :uul parties which 
resulted in the Revolution in later years. 

Tlioiii.'is Merritt, the oldest son, was sent early to school, he l>eing 
dftstined for tlu medical profosaion, and was in due time transferred to 
llarvi:rd (.!ollege, the nearest institution for pursuing the higher studios of 
his intended cai'cer; but the troubles of the times soon put an end to all 
peaceful avocations, and following the military traditions of the fainily, (hia 
maternal gi-andfatlier having held a commisvion as Capt;vin under George II.. 
in the Conquest of Canada,) ho entered the Ropiment of .Simcoe's " Queen's 
Rangers," as a Coronet. In the moving of the division to the South in 1779, 
ho fell in love with and married Miss !Mai'y Hamilton, of South (Carolina. 
On the return of the division, they resided in New York, whore the corps 
were disbanded ; l)ut not choosing to make that place their homo, they went 
to St. John, N. 15., having lost their Invit-born before setting out on their 
joui'uey. A short stay in the cold climate of New I'runswiek forced thoui 
to try the Carolinas again, — not however till misfortune visitod them in the 
loss of another child. These troubles, with other ditUculties, decidcnl them 
on moving once more, v.hen they settled near the ohl family homestead on 
King Street in Bedford, where the birth of a son and daughter occurred, the 
former — the suViject of thi.s Memoir- being boin on the 3rd of July, 179.3. 
They there movc<l to New York, where they resided a short time until their 
final move to Tipper Canada. • ^h. 



n 



Aft<M' th<i Hcpariition hivfl rommoncocl l>y thi> RojiiIiHtH protest inp ngainfli 
tlii> IJattln of Ii(<xin;,'t.on, IiIm fiitlirr was luroHto'l, tried Ity somo of tlin WliigH 
of WcbtchrslcM-, iiiiil liart'ly cscaiKd dcatli for liis ojiininii.s. His own family 
rcinaiiiod jji tho old liou.sc, but ho and tlio two oldost kohh osrapod over thn 
lino into tlio loyal part luiyond, wli«'n» llm two latter cntiMrd tlio army. 
TliiH locality lias Ioujl; boon tho (ifM of ()\n roinanc(! writci- under the title 
of the "(lebaialile j;roiiii(l." In order to jirevent the enli.stment of the 
rojnainin^ Kons, of whom thero were tive, Mrs. Alerritt dcstroyeil tho family 
reeord. The oxcitei.innt, howovei', waa too grout for her to cnduro, and who 
diod before tho Ilovolution was over. 

On the prochiimiiii; of peace, and permiH.sion b('inL,';j;lven to tho loyali.sts 
to roLnrii and oeciipy their lato homes, Shid)ael M<'rritt, the second Ron, 
j-etnriier|, and wliih; lod^'in;,' opjiosite to hi.s wife'.s family residenee, he wa.s 
Hiirprised by an or;,'ani/,cd liand ol" Wlii/^s, iiiid shot. The ne.xt oldest Hon, 
David, with his father, was allowed as a ^'Q',\.i favour to give his dead 
boily decent burial, and then havijig no other refuge they loft (he country 
und sailed with other persecuted loyalists like themselves, in 17)^3, (o the 
Province of New lirunswiek. 

His maternal ancestors were descended from the early settler.s <tf Ncnv 
I'liigland. i\w home of the Puritans, liis great grandfather, C'apt. Purdy, 
took an active. j)art in tlm French wai-s, as well as tlie ISIerritts. Thus he, 
with tlio other loyalists, had at least the satisfaction when forced to leave 
their homes, of settlini; in a section of countrv -wilderness thou'di it misrht 
b(! called -which was dear to them as being mainly won by the gallantry of 
thoir ancestors, who in years gone by, had wi-ested the land from its French 
jtossessora. When there, the father, Thomas Merritt, did not receive any 
land or otliei- lemuncration fo)- his hjst property in tlio Colony, but was 
compelled to follow the occupation of fishing, which perhaps in the end 
afforded him a better return, as the land there was anything but fertile ; 
and where he died in the year 1S21. 

The pifK'lamation of his old ('olouel Simcoo. offering settlers favourable 
inducemenis in tho Province of Upper Canada, caused ]\Ir. Merritt to visit 
Niagivra, the capital of the Province, and so favourable wjis his reception by 
the Govern(»r, who promised him lands in an eligible jiart of the country, 
that in the following year (179G) he moved with his family to the Province 
of Upper Canada, his rnuto being facilitated by tlie imjtrovements of the 
Mohawk Kiver at ('ohoes and Little Falls, lately completed, rendering the 
navigation contin\io\is. Tiicii- progress was for the mcst jiart through a 
wilderness, the Indians still having possession of Western New York, 
under llie protection of the Pritish. Leaving the sloop at Albany, a 
batteau.x carried them up (he Mohawk ; from thence by a short portage to 
Wood Creek, they descended into Lake Ontario at Oswego. The British 
ofHeer in cliai-ge of (liat post kindly permitted the passage of their goods 



dttf 



V 



'V 



testing ngainHt. 
of tljo Whigrt 
lis own fjiniily 
•a|)(Mi over tho 
ml tlio iirmy. 
mdiM- tho iitlo 
stnicnt of tlif> 
y«Ml tlio fiiinily 
iiihirc, uml slin 

;o th(» loyuli.sts 
)<• sooond son, 
•lenco, he wiis 
pxt oiliest Hon, 
;,'iv(' IiIk (load 
ft (lie country 
17.^3, (o thf 

ttlors of Now 
, (\])l. Punly, 
its. ThuH 1)0, 
orcod to loavo 
ion.i,di it might 
10, giillaiitry of 
oiM its French 
)t receive! any 
loiiy, hut was 
)H in the end 
ig but fertile ; 

Ts fav()uriihh> 

on-itt to visit 

s reception l>y 

the country, 

the Province 

nionts of tho 

rendering the 

\vt through a 

1 Now York, 

at Albany, a 

rt [)Oi"tago to 

The British 

of their goods 



^ 



froo of duty to Niagira, whnro thoy arrivod Rafoly aft(u* a h -ig and tinwoino 
voyage. The lands of tho Niagara District having been all taken up by 
tho men of ihithu-'H llangors a force which had rcndereil most iinpoi-Uint 
HiTviccw to the (irown in ft)riiier <hiyM-and th<> frontier being settlod, Mr. 
Morritt, not wishing to croaa to tlie other side; of the lako to York, whom 
tho Hoat of Government had just boon ronioved, and wliere lie must roHido 
in order to take advantage of tho (loverninent grants, hn lii'wt purehiuted 
liot N(». I.'i, in tliM '1th Ooncession, but sliortly afterwards he removed to 
l/)t No. 20, in the .value Concc8.sion, a more (digiblo sj»oi, it being situate on 
the Twelve Mile Oeok. 

Horo, within a few miles of the base of tho moujiUiin, .iiul close by 
the bright waters of Old Ontario, on the ba.iks of the broad and delightful 
estuary of the "Twelve," surrounded l>y tho towering giants of tlie forest- - 
the oaks, the walnuts, and the lonlly pine.s W(>re the tirst eaily improssions 
of the new land conveyed to tho youthful mind of the suliject of this 
.Momoir. 

As i)reviously stated, the lifn and haljits of a pioneer is one which calls 

into full phiy at all times the entire janvers of both mind and body: t<> 
supj)lant the mighty monarchs of the virgin .soil for the more u.sefuJ'amJ 
necc8.sary grains and roots, rctjuired for the <laily fare ; to build ; to fenco ; 
and to prepare for tlie coming rigours of a Canadian winter, arc tiisks which 
leave the Jirst settlers but little leisure to bestow on outside aflairs, so that 
tho early Uf^ of lur subject must have been one of active indu.stry, helping 
his parents in the cultivati(m of the the farm, and doing his daily part 
towards tlio comforts of the house. 

It has been remarked that every one wlio has made a luinio for being a 
friend to manlcin')., liius sho\vii a coiTCsponding devotion to his parents and 
family : in fact, tho self-denying practices of the oni;, becomes a .school for 
the practice of the other, and without which, a man can never persistently 
perform the j<^le of a bcniefactor. One of the most trying family duties in 
winter is the starting of tlie morning fires : Hamilton j)erfornied this duty, 
always rising tho first in the morning. In the absence of Bcrvants, Mrs. 
Merritt set the ciamplo. A party of friends would often droji in upon the 
family, when there would bo i.o helj) in tln^ house ; Mi's. Merritt would then 
take tho position of cook, and, with the assistance of the children, i)reparo 
<liniier for the visitors, to which, after changing tho attire, tliey would sit 
down, she with her husband, wlio liad occupied the guests in the meantime, 
wholly unconscious of (hcso ]>roceedings. 

An incident which Mr. Merritt n.se<l to relate, shewed the lino feelings 
of the children towards eacii other. Himself and his eldest sister, f Caroline, 
wero one day picking cherries at Colonel Tenbroeck's. She was standing on 
an extremity of a limb of the tree, along which, against her most anxious 
.admonitions, he pei-sisted in going. The result was, the limb broke and 



both (^rno to the gi-ound ; lio wiw nuinjuro<l, but slic, iift^r ascertaining 
his safety, ami a-skin;?, "Aro you lini-f?" fiiintod away, much to the horror 
of IFamilton, who Ixsliovcil a dreadful cahimity hiul liajjpeued. 

Ono favourite occupation of liis was taking the grain to the mill, his 
oarliest oxpwlition in this capacity being on his fifth birthday, and was in 
company with the servant girl, to Servos' Mill, near Niagara. His father, 
when with hiui in the iiold, would oft(!n got the fanneix when going on this 
errand, to let him perform that service for them, while they would assist at 
hoeing until his return. Thoma.s', on the Twelve Mile t/roek, was the mill 
generally j)atronized. 

At one time, Jas. Dittorick was overtaken while pui-suing the route and 
a race occurred on the road, which was full of stumps, whereby the latter 
received a severe fall over ono of them. 

nie time wiia not pa.ssed, however, without mental improvement, as ho 
attended the log school-house at the "Conici-s," situated near his subsequent 
residence. 

In 180G he was sent to Burlington, at the head of the lake, and hero 
he attended Mr. ('/OokeroH's sclnol, where ho received mathematical instruc- 
tion, field surveying, etc., etc. Being an only son, his indulgent father, 
wishing to make him an efiicient hoi-seman, presented him with a fine pony, 
on which he could make extensive expeditions around the head of the Bay, 
from which the f(!W main roads in those days radiated from each side of the 
Lake, — east iicross to Ijake Erie, and we^st to Ijake St. Clair. Tliis practice, 
besides adding to his health, givve vigour to body and mini, which wr^s not 
without being severely tested in his expeditions with the " light horse," half 
a dozen years aft(T, when his extensive knowledge of the country and his 
skill as a dashing cavalry officer, was of the greatest importance to the cause 
of the Crown. The holidays, e>speoially Sundays, v.ero well spc.'nt with his 
fellow-student", sons of tho Hon. Mr. Halt, of whose hospitable domicile ho 
entertained mmy pleasing recollections. 

Soon after this, his teacher, Mr. Cockerell, removed to Niagara, doubtess 
exjiecting a higher reuiuneralion for his .services, as that town was compara- 
tivt-ly large, and contained a number of government ollici.-ils. 

His father at that time was Sheriil' of tho District, and frequently in 
Niagara, so that the removal of the teacher was a pleasing change to them 
all. Here he finished his home education, xmder the <lirection of Mr. 
Cockerell, ana the Kev. John Burns, a Presbyterian clergyman, wlio was a 
highly gifted and talontoil man. This was all the classical knowledge ho 
over attained, which afterwards was absorbotl by tho practical and useful 
routine of active life. 

At Niagara he saw a great deal more of society than either at liurliugton 
or home, llie military gentlemen stationed there were u fine rfct of follows, 
who always strove to make their presence agreeable, and funiisheil a vast 



J 



•,-.^'»">-s?!r^s^ 



vsccrtaining 
) the horror 

he mill, his 
and was in 
His father, 
)ing on this 
lid asaist at 
ras tho mill 

e route and 
Y the latter 

uont, as ho 
subsequent 

, and hero 

cal instruc- 

;ent father, 

a fine pony, 

of tho Buy, 

side of tho 

lis practice, 

ch WiS not 

lorso," half 

ry and his 

,0 tho cause 

t with his 

omicile ho 

a, doubtess 
compara- 

juently in 
U;n to them 
11 of Mr. 
v.lio was a 
wlcdgo he 
uid useful 

Uirliugton 
of follows, 
ed a vast 



fund of variod ontcrtainmentB, so that time passed over very ploasantly. Aj> 
Bocioty incr<!aso<l at Niagara, it also (extended to his own neighbourhood on 
tho banks of tho *' Twelve." Numbers of his father's old companioiis-in- 
ai'ms during tho llovolutionaiy War located themselves around that plivce. 
Tho ofEcors of " Butler's Rangers" had drawn their lands in this vicinity. 
Paulding, Tonbroock, Tuniey, and others, who oft in tho fierce din of battle 
had made their opponents quail, were his immediate neighbours, so that his 
father and family soon became reconciled, as their prospects brightonod, and 
tho dark shadows of former years vanished from their path, and tho pleasing 
Tisions of devoted loyalty in days gone by wero about to bo realized in a 
new land, far away from the once happy homos of ancestors and kindred. 

At tho age of 15, wishing him to see a little more of the outside world, 
and hearing that his imclo Nehemiah, from N(;w Brunswick, was at the port 
of Quelwc with his vessel, he was fitted out and sent to that city. Ho 
fortunately had the companionship of Col. John Clark and Mr. Jas. Secord 
during part of his journey. At Niagara, they found a schooner bounii for 
KingKton, commanded by (Jaj)t. .Simpson. The an-angements for the voyage 
were soon made, and in due time they reached tliat place. They had 
now got upwards of 200 miles on their way, and finding some batteaux 
which wero proceeding to Montreal, they transfeired themK(^lve,s and luggage 
to those old-fashioned but useful modes of conveyance. 'J'ravolling in those 
days was a very tedious affair und required a large stock of patience, to 
which, however, from custom they wore well-used : at all evcmts, it gave him 
leisure to survey and admire the most beautiful sceneiy of the Ljike of tho 
Thousand Isles, and those wonders of tourists from ov<!ry clime, the Rapids 
of tho St. Lawrence River. 

When they reached Montreal, they were greatly pleased at finding so 
fine a city, for even in those days IMontreal was a busy place during the 
summer season, lie fortunately met with Mr. Clark, of the firm of ('lark 
h Street, merchants. Mr. C entertained him very kindly, and told him 
that ho had scon his Uncle Nehemiah at Quebec with his ship tho " Lord 
ShfJ/iekl," which waa then loading with fiour for St. Croix, in Uio West 
Indies. 

Having romainotl in Montreal a few days, ho bade adieu to his 
friends and companions, and took jiiu^sage in a schooner, which, in a short 
time, landed him at Three Rivcru, a disUince of !)0 miles from Montreal. 
Uoro he was hospitably ontertiiiried by some of his father's friends in tho 
Fort. Being then but 15 years of age, and of an ardent und sanguine 
temperament, he enjoyed his trip amiuingly. After surveying this old 
hifltoric spot and seeing (ho R. C. (.athedral, he prepared for his departure. 
Ilia object being to reach his undo before he left Quebec. So finding thtire 
▼OB no veesel going down by the river, ho hired a caleeho, r.nd was virivea 
ike rest of tho distajicc along tlio Uuik of the St. Ijvwrenco. 



/> 



10 

The country on the route was well sottlod ; and BaptLste tho driver waa 
rus communicativfi as drivers ufsually aro ; so tlio timo and distance flew past 
quickly till tlioy an lAod at the ancient city of Quolxx;. lUHiuixang his 
driver to return, he went down to the wharf and found his uncle, who gave 
hiru a cordial weloonie. Our youthful ti-avell(;r was soon in deep converse 
with his nowly-found relative, to whom he told all tho news of tho groat 
and new country in tho West, of the largo lakes, of tho Niagaia Falls, and 
particularly of his father and family at tlieir homestead on tho " Twelve." 
The lu-ight and intelligent youtli soon became a gi'eat favourite with 
his uncle, who, wliilst they remained in (Quebec, took him to s^e all tho 
wonders of that cpiaint old city, with its churches, hospitals, barnicks and 
fortifications, including tho aid Castle of St. Louis, and famoxis Plains of 
AViraham, where nearly 50 years before, the illustrious warriors of England 
and France, under Wolfe and AFontcalm, had struggled for the prize of 
half a continent. His romantic niind was delighted with his rambles 
around this historic jdace. Jle visited the ruins of the Old French 
Fvvt, of which scarcely a vestige remained. Strangers strolled round to 
examine the foundation walls, where occasionally might be found amongst 
the rubbish an old bottle or other drinking utensil, from- which perhaps 
the Boldiers of Ja Belle Fi-ance in days gone by had (puifTed their favourite 
wine. 

His uncle hml j)rocured him on his arrival a complete suit of sailor's 
clothes, so that Hamilton in liis uniform no doubt felt proud of the "Blue 
Jacket," which in tliose days of desperate naval engagements, was the pride 
of the British sailor. 

The vessel having completed her cargo, in a f(!w days all was ready, 
and they bade good-bye to Quebec with its pleasing memories, and were 
soon speeding down the noble river with a tine breeze and an ebb tide. Tho 
really tine scenery of the Lower St. Lawrence, with its towering capes, its 
lofty range of l.rfiurentian mountains, the numerous beautiful islands which 
dotted tlie surface of tiie broad river, the shoals of white pori'oi.-e.-J and 
flying tish, hail all attractiont} for our hero, which delighted him beyond 
measure. 

Whilst on tho voyage, he made himself acqjuiinted with the names of tho 
roi>os and the mysteries of sailing, and occasionally doing some writing for 
his uncle, who ent(^rtained him with descriptions of tho French settlements 
(in the shores which they passed. 

They cast anchor of!' the Island of Bie, and liere they spent a day 
iu enjoying themselves. All along the coast of Bimouski and Givape, it is 
wild and romantic, with mountainous sceneiy and sea fowl in abundance. 
l>eaving tho Island of Anticosti on their loft, and the groat Bay of 
Chaleurs on their right, they made into the open (Julf which aeparatod 
Nova Scotia from Cape Breton. Hero Mr. Merritt lirst experienced tho 



■■I: 



11 

horrors of swi-sicknesa, which no doubt dlspelle<i much of tho romance of 
ocean life from his youtliful mind. Th« calm v.-aters wliich ancci'fvlod on 
reaching tho Gut of (Janso soon niadf him well, and were huoIi at to iniprotw 
him favourably with iidand navigation, — a decisive step in after life. 
Happily, they all arrived safe at Halifax, ufti'r a pleasant trip, which ho 
often looked back to and Hpoke of in after yeans. This was the tinio of tho 
war with France, so tliat Halifax wtis full of life and bustle. 

Hero he had an opportunity of seeing for the fir.st time tho nobh* ahip.s 
of war which England kept on this staticm. Tins king's naval yaid waa an 
extensive })laco then, being supplied with every kind of stores for tho grovt 
"Wooden Walls" which lay at anchor in the l>ay. a.s this was the most 
important foreign station that the British possessed, and wjia the cajutal of 
JJritish North America. 

As his uncle's ship wa:< about to sail for S. Croi.x under convoy of the 
frigate Lc Epervler, an event occurred which had a future influence on hb« 
whole life. Capt. Nickoll, whom his uncle brought from Quebec, had 
contracted the fatal ha])it of drinking to suoh excess that at times ho was 
not tnistworthy ; so that instead of Mr. Merritt accompanying his relative 
home to New Brunswick, his nncl,> determined that he should bo his 3Uj)or- 
cargo for the voyage, with full powers to carry out his instructions. 

The Lord t^heffieki had a general cargo of lumber, flour, itc, 8uite<l to 
the West Indian market, and the season being well advanced, they were 
anxious to get away from Halifax ; but a."? thoy were about leaving tlie 
harbour, three of their ninn were im]>ressed for Her IVIajesty's service, and 
tivken away from thorn ; but through his uncle's influence they woi-o soon 
restored, and proceeded on their voyage. 

This voyage was in every sen-se a most unsucce.ssful one, as a suc- 
cession of Bovcrc gales caused the shi{) to spring a leak, so that they 
were compelled to part with theii- deck load of lumber, and to bear up for 
Charleston; but moderat- weather induced them to alter their course towards 
the Bermudas, a:id they arrived at the Island of St. (,Jcorg(!, after battling 
with the elements for over five weeks. On entering tho hail.'our, thoy wore 
nearly lost by mistaking the channel ; but a negro pilot, Conung on board, 
brought them safely in, where tliey anchored after a most i)eiilous voyage. 
'ITic Caj)t!iin, Mr Laing, Mr. ^lerritt and Mr. Hamilton wont ashore, glad 
t.o bo safe on terra jirma ;i;;ain. Whilst they were seeing after the refitting of 
their vessel at St. (leorgn, one of those violent hurricaiices which aro so 
j)revalent in the Wtst Indies and aro usually so destructive to life and 
property, suddcidy arose, and such was tho violence of thf! storm that the 
.ship parted her (;abl(>s, and was drive:; on to u danger in the harbour, known 
as tho " Forks." Capt. Alwood reported his v.'ssel, and obtained a.=».>ii.stanci» 
in getting her off and mooring her at S'lcldon lc Oooirich's wharf, whort^ 
they prepand to^ uiilcaJ. A survey by the authoriti'^.'i w&.'i lield upon 



n 



12 

tho ship, when it was found that fho was so badly Ktraincd and damaged a.s 
to bo j>ronouiicod unseawoi thy, so that sho wjus dismantled and sold by 
auction ; ccrt,unly not a very favourablo beginning for our young supercargo, 
who 80 far liad rogularly kept a log-book of his voyago, and put t<j a practical 
trial tho theory of navigation which ho learned from his old twiclicr, Mr. 
Cockrell, at Burlington, a few years before. Fortunately, Mr. Merritfs 
uncle had coiTcspondents hero ; so thoy wanted for nothing, but spent their 
time on tho Island in enjoying tho beautiful climate for which the Bermudas 
aro famous, and seeing overj-thing worthy of notice. 

Thoy were compelled to stjiy hero for six weeks, until finding a vessel 
bound for New York, they engaged passages at $50 each, and left St. Georg(. 
on the 23rd of D(!combor, 1808. On the 31.st of Decemb.M-, they had the 
ploasuro of sighting tho Jersey shore between New York and Philadelphia- • 
a remarkably quick passage, and finally reached Newport, Long Island, 
having only boon 12 days on the voyago. Arriving at New York, ho 
fortunately found a vessel called tho Union (Capt. White), bound for St. 
John, N. B., for which port they sailed on the ITHh of January, 1809, and 
experienced a very rough passage, which can be better undtn-stood by those 
who know what a voyago across this particular part of the Atlantic is in 
this season, at a very low teniperatun!, wh(>n every cloud of spray, and 
every dash of foam which t)io ship oncountei-s is inst^intly converted into 
solid ice. The perils of this const are at all timos very seiious, but (loubly bo 
in winter, when every rope and block is held by the iron gj'asj) of the Frost 
King, and tho crew so benumbed that exertion is no easy task. On ono 
occasion the vessel came ne.-ir beinji oaught in the fatal embi-aco of tho 
breakers which lash with awful g;-andeur upon this rugg(!d and rock-bound 
coast ; but by the ni -vcy of Providence, thoy .♦brtv.ately escaped shipwreck, 
and at length sigliti-il Partiiugo Island light -house, at tlio mouth of tho 
harbour of St. Joliii. Tho captain and Mr. Merritt got ashore, and obtaiuod 
a boat and crossed the river to St. John, where ho lost no time in hastening 
to his uncle's, and relating his adventure.^. 

Hia friends were all delighted to mo(!t him, an I show him everji-hing 
worth seeing in tlie country. During his stiiy hero, he continued his 
oducation at a good English school, which was well patronized. On tho 
13th of March, his uncle sailed for E:gland, leaving him with the family 
during his al)sence. 

8t. John w;is founded by tlie American Loyalists at the time of the 
Revolutionary War, and was a refuge for them — Mr. Merritfs gi-and- 
fathcr and uncles among the number. It stands on a rocky peninsula, 
at the mouth of the River St. John, contivincd houses built of wood, and 
had a largo and extensive commerce. Mr. Merritt's father, gi-andfathw. 
and part of his family emignitod here in 1783. 



I 
t 



f 



Ig 



1 






f 



1 
I 



13 

HtTo lio sturiifd r»ook keeping, and aho made furthpr (iflvaJKc;j in 
navigation, surveying, algebra and Ijiitin. On the Cth of June he entered 
college. Mr. Molxjud taught him trigonometry, and other sciences suited 
to an enquiiing mind. 

Kt. Joliji wiis a busy tov/n and a capital place for a young man to gain 
an insi^^lit into buaincsa. The fctir and bustle of a large seaport is always 
favoiirabii! for observing the many road.s there are to fame and fortune, by 
indnnti-y and j ier.se veifuioe. Mr. Merritt hud an ojipoilunity of being 
introduced into tho society of the ladies, who in tliat locality were fame<l 
for tlioir goovl looks, good humour, and social habits. On reference to hia 
memorandum book, wo find stated his impressionfj as a youth ; — "Tlio ladieu 
" arc numerous here, very handsome, fi'e.«h, brisk, rosy and delicate, fond of 
" o)it-i!oo:' c.NorciHe ; in fine weather tho .streets are full of them ; gl id to Bee 
'• young fellows of an evening to ehat Avith, as beaux are somewhat rcarco." 
As a specimen of tho manner in which Mr. IMeiriit occupied hia time, wo 
extract tho following from his well-kept diaiy : — 

" April oO. — Heavy snow-.storm ; spoiled the lad; s' promenade. 

" May 1. — Herrings begin to make their ap) icai?,nee, 

" lOLh.— -Went to grandfatlu I's to see them cure and pack fhsh. 

'* llth. — Commenced practical surveying. 

'•■ 14th.— Went to grandfather'^ to see tho process of catching fish ; very 
cold ; glad to get to bed early, so benumbed. 

" inth. — Great many ve.s.scls arrived. 

" 17th. — To tho fishing grounds ; got 12 hogsheads at one haul. 

" 2lKt. — To church the third time since arrival. 

" 23rd. — Morr.ing at college ; ai'ternoon to Jlr. Mclx)ud's for algebra. 

"Juno 5th. — Wrote a nuniber of letters to old friend.s in Canada- 
father, motlier, sister, John Clark, Johnson, Builrr, Mr. Jarvia, Mr. Secord, 
(fcc; all .sent to Frederick town to go by niet;sengor. 

" 24th. — Packet from Englaml arrivcil. Ifeard of ITnclo Nehemiah'.s 
safe arrival there ; ho only obtained .£1,000 for his brig, fyurd S/icJ/icUl, and 
damaged cargo ; groat loss to him. Went t) talco lunar ob.«ervationH ul 
Partridge Island ; came on foggy ; nothing done. 

" 25th. — Ivainy and dreary ; wish to be homo again. 

" 27th. -Went to a quilting bee- very agreeable. 

" 29th. --Received a letter from father, dated May 15th, so that there 
was only a week's ditlenmee betwet^n it and the letter from England— lattt^r 
dated 9th May. 

'' July ;3rd.- Birthday; sixteen yeara of age. 

'' 8th. — Went sti-awberrying with a nice party- lotfi of fine young girls ; 
very delightful. 

'' 22nd.- To church. Confirmed by the Bishop of Nova Scotia; abou< 
100 candidates; two-thirds of them females. 

" 24th, ---Uncle Nehemiah arriveil from England, soon after which con 
eluded to retuiri to Niagara ; spent time plea.santly until departure." 

Havinsr taken leave of his relations and all kind friends in St. John and 
its vicinitv. Mr. Merritt mado arrangements to return home, we think, in 



/t 



H 

OcUibcr. Thoir vessel Avas latlen with plaster, find after fo.vrting along the 
shori', and t:.';ing refugo \i\ somo b.'irbour every night, until a galo at last 
, Hprinj^ing u|>, they were driven aahoro on Martha's Vineyard, an island 
lyin;,' off tVio ooast of Massachusetts. Hero they had to remain until they 
found a sniuU schooner, bound for New York, which freed them from their 
involuntary imprisonment. They reached " Shrogg's Neck " in Long Island 
Sound, where another detention occurred, so that he shipped on a small 
' Bk>op which took him to the old homestead, then called liyram, now Port- 
chestcr, where ho remaine<l for .several days with his Uncle and Aunt 
Lyons. They were much pleased with the account of Iiis adventures, and 
agreed with liim that, in the m.ijority of cases, ocean romances arc highly 
coloured. 

From this old soiit of his family ho went to Now York, where he 
remained a few days to ianuso himself There were then no steamers on 
the mighty Jludscn Kivcr, and travellers had to take their chance in any 
trailing sloop or boat going to Albany, at which place ho ariived in due 
time. There purchiusing a horse, Lo rode to Uatavia, through the Cherry 
Valley turnpike, and from thenco on to ]jewiston, where ho cros86<i 
the Niagara Kivcr by the feiry, and rode home to hi.s father's residence on 
the "Twelve." lie arrived home just in time to eat his Christmas dinner, 
and enjoy the festivities of the holiday season, which was then well kept, 
much to the gratification of his pai-ents at his safe return, and of his many 
fiiends who were delighted with his numerous adventures and miraculous 

escapes. 

* ♦ ■ # * # * * 

Tho timo had now arrived for Mr. Merritt to turn his attention to the 
more sober affairs of life, and being of an active mind, ho was deter- 
mined not to remain long idle. A thriving village was then sjiringing up 
near his home, — a store having been started diiring his absence, which 
seemed to bo well patronized. Ho thought there was a good opening for a 
more general store, as the farmers were continually wanting something, and 
ha<l no time to go a groat distiince to obtain supplies. So ho entered into 
partnership with Mr. Chishohn, who kept the store alluded to, and had an 
appropriate building. Having good recommendations tho supplies wore 
obtained from Montreal, which then was tho general mart for tho wliolo 
country, and has continued so since. Money was very scarce, and business 
■was almost entirely carried on by trade or barter. They received all kinds 
of farming produce in oxcliauge for their goods,— ashes, pork, staves, honey, 
hides, lumber, and fruit, — which they shipped to ^Montreal in payment of 
their purchases there. Hero ho found the advantage of a good system of 
book-keeping, for there Avere so many intricate accounts, that tho utmost 
care was required to kcop affairs straight. In fact, Mr. Merritt always 
thought that the failures in those days was principally for want of a good 
knowledge of book-kw^ping. 



g along tho 
5alo ftt last 
I, an island 

until they 
t from their 
jong Island 
on a small 

now Port- 

and Aunt 
intuies, and 

are highly 

, where he 
itearaors on 
,nco in any 
vod in duo 
tho CheiTy 

he cros8e<l 
esidonco on 
mas dinner, 
I well kept, 
of his many 

miraculous 



;iou to tho 

was deter- 

ringing up 

nee, which 

ening for a 

ething, and 

itcred into 

nd had an 

)plies wore 

tho whole 

id business 

:1 all kinds 

ves, honey, 

)aynieut of 

system of 

;ho utmost 

itt always 

of a good 



15 

Mr. Merriit continued in business with Mr. Chiiiholin until a aiiort 
time lK3fore the war broke out, when ho sold the iuterost he had in the 
business, and went on the homestead farm, which reijuirotl his attention, fts 
his father's time was wholly taken up with tho duties of his office as Sheriff. 
Ho Wits now ill his nineteenth year, and drawing towards manhood. Tliero 
might also ha\ been another inducement, as ho became warmly attuche<i 
*0 an amiable young lady, Miss Prendergast, whoso family were located in 
the vicinity. The business of a country store waa too contracteil for his 
ideas. lie required the open air, tho verdant tioldd and nature's book to 
carry out to perfection the ideas which were then germinating in his fertile 
brain. 

lie therefore resolved to turn agriculturist, and began farming on a 
most extensive scale ; so that with his father's 200 acres of land, he rcnUxl 
the adjoining farm, belonging to an Englishman, Mr. k!amuel Wood, in the 
Commissariat Office, whoso occupation, like that of his (Mr. Morritt's) 
fatlier, took him from hoin(\ With the procvi <Is of l,is share (f llio l;iti> 
mercantile business, ho purcl.'ased teams, lior.ses, cattle, an<l a com])lete stock 
of farming implements sufficient for both farms, and in a short time ho had 
nearly 200 acres of land under cultivation, — nearly 120 in grain alone, — 
besides roots and other supplies for horsos and catthi, and everything that a 
family stood in need of ; also two orchards, which suppliotl a largo quantity 
of fruits. This occupation ho found conduced gioatly to his healtli and 
spirits, and many of his operations and darling schemes in after life were 
planned, like those of the Romans, beneatli tho shade of trees and m the 
groen pastures. 

But everything is unstable in this uncertain world, as ho found by 
experience tho following year, when tho war-cloud burst on his peaceful 
neighbourhood, and compelled him to exchange the ploughshare for the 
sword which his fathers had wielded in years gone by. 

■ ' # ■ # #■ ' # ' * ♦ * 

The stream of Time pursues its ceaseless course, and tho Whigs and 
tLeir descendants of the Ivevolution had become a nation; and in extending 
their territory thoy came in contact with men of a .similar origin, tho sub- 
jects of (Jreat Britain in tho Provinces. Tho Colonists also frequently 
visited the Western Counties of New Yoi-k, — "going back to tho Colony " 
as they called if. Twenty-tivo years passed in mutual services, and friendly 
intercourse had nearly obliterated the ill feelings engendered by tho Revolu- 
tion. War was waged at a distance, but newspa|)ers were few and wore long 
on the ror.to to tho back settlements, and uncertain of arrival. Some of 
thoso in tho interioi-, like jMr. Merritt, had visited tho sea-board, and 
thus came in contact with actual war ; but to tho great body of the settlers, 
war was a distant and uninteresting theme. The discussions regarding the 
trado on tho higli Sea, brought on a coldness in the regions of tho great. 



/> 



16 

liiikoa, and nn ombargo waa put on thoir ciomniorco, which Icxl them to 
lUiticipati) that war mi'jht roacli tlioir peaceful honuvs. A Militia Act of 43 
BOctionH waa piuaod on tho mooting of Parliamont on tlio IGth of March, 
1808 ; and not too Hoon, as Hubsoriuent cvciit^s will show. Mr. Morritt ha^l 
roceiviHl a comii.Lssion of Ensign, and a T^ioutt^nancy just beforti tho war 

bn>ko out. 

War was announcini about tlio anniversary of tlio Battlo of BunJror'rt 
ITill, on tho 19th of Juno, and Mas known hero on tho 27th of tlio samo 
month. An cxproHs waH .sontto tho (Jovcrnorat York, who arrived at Nia- 
gara tho noxt «lay. "On the 29th" wiya Mr. Merritt, " I had tho honor of 
•' l>oing presontiid to him ; on tho 30th I had an order to repair to Chippawa 
" with 20 men, and place iny.st-lf under the commaml of Col. Clark, of tho 
•' 2nd liincoln Militia. Hero 1 found 20 more, over whom with my 20, I 
•' was phuicd in commaiul. We were moatly cnf,'aged in patrolling up tho 
•'banks of tho river, exp(>('ling an attack, eapocially on tho ni'^dit of tho 4th 
•■ of July." 

Tlu> IJufTalo (Jazcttf, itoticed COO Voluuteens on tho frontier at tho 
oommcucomot\t of tho war. On the ."Oth June, it .said: '* Iniminlijvtoly 
'•■ on a ropoi-t of a declaration of war, tho militia in tho neighbourhood of 
•' tho lines were ordered out. Tho ammunition and aniui dei)o.sitod at 
■' Canandaigua wero dospatohod for ihcir use at 15!;>.ck Tvock." 

Tjio following oxtmct from Mr. Merritt'a printtMl journal of tho war, 
gives a vivid description of tho feeling during these stirring timoa : — 

" The flank companies, and all corps took a prido in doing their duty, 
which was v(*ry severe, i\.a wo were in momeulaiy exixH'tatioTi of an attack. 
Patrols were kept up with little intermission along tlie whole lino from 
Fort Cicorge to Fort Erie. Those olT duty wero on fatigue : notwithatanding 
which they im[)roved rapidly in their iliaciplino. IJatterios wero erected 
ou {>very eligible positii)n on i.\\» \i\w.». ^ Tho greatest jiossiblo cixortions 
were making for a vigorous roKisfcance, uiuhu" the eyo of our commander, 
wiio was continually on tho move, visiting ovcrv |M)st. This continued 
until tho 20th." 

IVFr. Moiritt has said that riiling along tlu^ Niagar.i lliver from CJhippawa 
to the ferry, lirst suggested tho idea of a canal to his mind ; and it is but 
rea.sonablo to stipposo that while on duty his thoughts and eyes would bo 
mainly towards the flowing river, on whose opposite bank wero mustere<l 
tho invading horde : and sometimes in fancv thev would ascend the slusrjjish 
waters of the Chippawa, when an imaginary channel would be made to the 
aourcea of the Beaverdams, where thought would connect with those dwoll- 
iiig on tho Ten Mile Creek, or, perhaps, down tho " Twelve," on whoso 
banks stood tho ripened grain now falling to decay for want of tending. 

Tlio circumstance.s of Mr. Morritt receiving a medal for the taking of 
Detroit, when ho was not at that place until tho following day, requiroa 
explanation at length, and as it aftbrd.s an inatiiuco of the extremely small 



I 



Iwl them to 
itia Act of 43 
^th of March, 

ftforritt had 
foro tho war 

^ of TJunJror'H 

of tho sanio 

rrivcd nt Nia- 

tho honor of 

to (Jhij)pawa 

darlc, of tho 

ith my 20, I 

oiling up tho 

ht of tho 4th 

intioi- ut tho 
Inimwlmtoly 
ibotirhood of 
(ioix)sitod at 

of tho war 

ica : — 

tlioir duty, 
;^f an attack, 
lo lino from 
vithHtanding 
vero erected 
lo (exertions 
commander, 
us oontinuod 

tn Chippawa 
id it is but 
!3 would bo 
fo mustered 
tho sluggish 
nado to the 
those dwell - 
" on whoso 
tending. 
3 taking of 
ly, requiroH 
smely small 



17 

inoauH by which great rennltH wore attained in our renmrkable Ktrugglo, will 
not bo without interest to the reiuler. 

At this time, ljy a fortunate ooxiurrence, the order given to tho force oji 
tike north we.st(!rn IVontier to act on the oHonsivo, w.w, before tho counter 
ord(!r nirived, carried out by Lieut. RobertH, who, with hin garri.son of 
iavalids from tho Tenth Royals, stationed at tit. Joseph.H, and Ids allies — 
the servants of the Northwest Company, and their Jndiaas - in all number- 
ing over 1000 men, with two ])i(!('('s of iirlillery, embiuked from St. Joseph.s, 
on the morning of the l()th of duly, and arrived at tlie KorL of Mackinaw 
the ne.\t day, wliicli pla;;o they promptly invested ; and aft<u' a short 
parley, the States forces there surrendered themselves as prisoners of war. 
This most important event open' I tl'.e alliiinee with the North-west and our 
Indian allies, and re inltcv.i in the capture of tlie v/'iole Mtat,()S torritoiy west 
and north- wt'st of the Alaum'X!, and svi fir south as til. LouIh. 

(leneni! Rrock, tho I'resiilont, or liie;it.-(Jjvornor ivt tho olR :jr is now 
termed, had on hit arrival, to make use of tho material at ha:ul : liis Ktiperiors 
in Raglaud, uiiitlil? (> aTtrd hi»o any ol^oel•:^ or men, and Hir (Jeorgo 
Prevost being vinwiiiln;,', i,i liiv) iiii •. iLain state of aflairs, t<} risk any of hi.s 
forces above Kingston. Of his Attorney-rioneral ho ma lo a milit;iry 
Lieutenant, succwxled by his clerk, Kir tl. U. Robinson, also a militiaman, 
ami not of age ; another of his militjiry family Wivs R. Nicholl, Commissary 
(a merchant), and J. Clark, of tlu) -Ith Lincoln Militia ; T. Merritt, formerly 
Cornet in Simcoe's Rangers, his Commander of Cavalry, Tho g'j.utlemeu 
mentioned being all intimately known, it is not to bo wondered at that 
placed (US he was, a situation should bo given to a youth just turned 
19, who had displayed some zeal for his country, and that he should 
receive a medal when tho .service was pei-foimoJ, t?i'> .same as the veteran 
Col. Proctor. 

Tlie cami)aign of Napoleon against Russia made the Government of the 
United States more compliant with the views of tiie democrats witii regard 
to tho expansion in America. The concpiest of Spanish America was 
for the preiient postponed. Tho arrival of the Wasp shxjp of war with 
tho s{x*cial onvoy, afforarxl the signal for commencing tho war, which was 
declared, as was noticed, on tho 17tli of June, 1812. 

A t;dent<;d writer in tho United Stiites lately, says, in his Biogx'aphy of 
President Harrison : — " Even before tho deolai-ation of war, Kentucky had 
" made railitaxy preparations for the expected campaign. Tho Governor 
" hiul organized ten regiments of volunteers, and Ohio had boon eciually 
•' active." 

Governor Meigs was requeated to call for troops to assemble at Dayton, 
Oliio, in April. Next month, throe regiments were assembled under 
Brigixdier-General Hull, of tho United States Army. On the Ist of June, 
the army commeaced its m uvli : it preceded the dejlavatioa of war, and 2D 



ii\ 



h 



W 



18 ^ 

dayH was conHiiKirotl onoiigli for it to |>h».h from tlioOliin to ilic vulloys of t]i« 
Sfc, Tjawroiifp. The namo <jioun(l in |»nrt was piissoil tin- vvar hoforo uiulcr 
Harrison, mikI tonniiiatod \\s tlio siicccssful Iiniinii liattio of Ti|>ito<'nnop, on 
tlio WaWasli. "Fn inarcliiiii,' tliioiigli a wildt rncss," saysHnll. " iiitMii(iral)Io 
•' for siiva,;,"' Imilmrity, it will Im^ imi)os.sil)lo to rcpiosH the feelings of indigna- 
'' tion, and wliich the spirit of an indignant people^ can no longer endure." 
At Urbana they wei-o joined Ity the 4tli Kcgiuient, stationed iIkmc. under )i 
triumphal arch decorated with the mottoes of TijipecaJioe, »t'c. I'as.sing tho 
•watershed, they leachcd Mnumeo near the close <>f the nmiitli. Hull's army, 
for fear of ainlmsh. desjate of example in similar e.\pcdi(i(ins through an 
Indian country, had left the Indian //■«//, and tiie season heing rainy, tliey 
wore diitaii'.ed on tlnMnaich. md liter-ally ''stu"k in tiie uind." which the 
Indians 1)\ their c.\[ierieiire tVoni tirne inuueinoriiil li:id leai-ucd to avoid. 
'J'his circunistaiieo found him (tn his ai'rival at tho lake stripped of his 
hor.ses. wagijons, kc, tor want of wliich ln^ made use of a couple of 
seliooui'is lying at t.liM mouth of the river, and in crossing it, he was first 
made iic(|uainr,ed l>y a di'Sp.itcli, uilli the di'clarat ion ot' war. and notified to 
he on "his guard.'' IFpto this time (he expedition, tliough large, bore 
th" a,j)p,'araiie,,! of au Imlian invasion, and only to Hjip(!arances I'eaping the 
fruits of Harrison's vicioiy of the Ttli of Novendter la.st, on tlu' Wabash. 
This 0()idd n )w no more be maintained, ami the sule object of the camiiaign 
• -the compiest of (laiuida must now 'pe i)uldished. St. (icorge, the nnlitia 
offieei". ha\iug receive<l an order tu act oidy on the defensisc. alone pi'cvcuted 
JTuH's advance being opposed, as inti-iiigenct! of the war had reached him 
before it did the States (ieueral, who anived at Detroit on tlie oth of July. 
ICis \e^scl the (!iii/ii.(/ii was taken by a party uniler the command of 
<.!aj>t. Ibx'hellc, of Andierstburgh. .After a week's delay, the (loneral 
crossed llie riv» r. and entrenched himsi'lf at Sandwich, nearly o]>posite ; 
front wliicli Ik' sent, out .si'\eral expeditions. f>ne of them reaching t<» 
Delaware. 

Colonel Proctor, who, a'cording to ^Morgan, lanl brought over the Ust 
Regiment a f(?w years previous, was not with the detachment opposite 
Detroit on the declaration of war, and the control of atTairs was thrown 
into the hands of the Militia-Colonel St. G'eorge, who froni the surprise or 
other real oV)stiiietions. oould not eommnnieate with the Governor until 
the SOtli. 

(E.VTHACT F1!0.M ]\Ilt. MEKltnV.S JoUItNAL.) 

" Infornnition arrived on that day (the 20th), which changed our front, 
and lessened tlin necessity of watchfuhu^ss here. I got leave to visit ray 
home on the ' TVelvo,' which was tho first leave of absence I had since the 
beginning of the war, although a number of tho Sedentary Militia had been 
allowed to go home and gather in their crops. On arriving, I found mine 
destroyed, except a small portion, which had been saved l)y an old iKjnsioner, 
under mother's directions. In fact, tho war had put an end to my future 



% 



I 



\ illIt>VS of tllH 

Ix'foro uiulor 
l|>|i('ciiii()(*, on 

" lIKMlKHablo 

5s of iiidigna- 

iger onduro.'' 

\\('Vi\ miller n 

I 'as,' in;,' tlio 

Hull's iiijiiy, 
i (lirouvjli art 
,' laiiiy. tlioy 
." wliiitli iJic 
»'il to avoid, 
ilipcd «)f liis 
a ('(iui>l(i of 

III' was first 
1(1 iiotitifd to 
I largo. l)oro 
i rcaj)iiii,' tlif 
tli»' Wabasli. 
Ii" canijiaigii 
lio Fiiilitiii 
110 prevented 
veaolioil iiini 

."itli of July, 
idniinund of 
I- CJenrral 

y opjjo.site ; 
cacliin!.'' to 

■er the 41 .st 
lit oi)posite 
NviLs thrown 
surpriso or 
n-iior until 



1 our front, 
o visit my 
d since the 
a had been 
bund mine 
l)ensiouer, 
n\y future 



10 

fiinniiicc openition.s, and I never workod u diiy at tlmt ocu'Upiition ag.tin. I 
had not arrived niany liour.s, when I was followed hy my fatlier and six men, 
with an order from (Jeneral Uroek to proceed to Delaware, alous; the llivor 
ThamoH without tlelay, and keep open the eonimunieation with Aiiiherst- 
hurjLj. Ho achlod, 'I am well pleased with your e.xertiou.^. and wish you to 
see more active .service.' I immediately piepai'(><l for tlepartiire, and went 
oil' the samo afternoon. ()n tlie followiiifj day I arrived at Oxforii. {\>\. 
IJostwick WHS there with the militia who had just assemliled. I li(;ard of 
Mr. Watson heing at Delaware with !<• or ] 'J un>u. I pushed cui with the 
design of surprising; him. A few miles hefui-e I arrived at the place, 1. fell 
in with Mr. Till'any, wlio appi'ised mo of his beinj,' at Allen's, with a nunil)er 
of men well ai'iiied ; likewise tliat the country would all Join him. I sent 
back to('ol. IJoslwick for a few of his men. 1 took po.ssessionofahou.se 
about six miles from Allen's, and called ourselves Yankees ; the peopio 
diseovercd their .sentiments to us, so I inado a dozen of them prisoners, 
detained all but one until the morning. AVlieii Col. jtostwick arrived, we 
took two of the party, moved un and .suriounded old Allen's hou.se, but 
Watson had made his escape; W(! took Allen ami the tN\o prisoners with us, 
and rt;tuiiiod to Oxford, i loft a .sergeant and four men there : heard of 
Major t'hambers. of the Ust Regiment ap])roacli : met him at Hurford, he 
did not retard my return to b'ort ({eorge with tht; jirlsonei's. (.)ii arriving, 
[ found that Oen. I>rock had sailed for Vork. I followed him in a boat, 
and reported niy.self. He was well jdea.sed with my proceedings, and .sent 
me back with a detachment of L*i-' men, I was too well satisiied with my 
command, to he long on the jourjiey. Major Chamber's \\as ar, O.xfoid, with 
•1(1 Keguhirs and lOO .^^iIitia"." 

On the road they woi-e detained by (.'ol. Talbot, and did not. reach Detroit 
until the day after the occupation was made. Jt is unueces.sary to detail 
the incidents of this action .so cnulitable to all engaged on our side. 

Mr. !Merritt remained here, foraging for the troops until the 7th of Sep- 
tember, when he returned to Niagara, which he reached in (nght ilays, 
they being in expectation of an attack on that frontier. Whilst at Detroit, 
he wrote a letter to his alhanced, detailing these events in full. 

Im the Trnflalo (hm'.lti' o{ Sejjtember the Sth, an account isgisen of the 
meetuig of the County of Niagara, at Dutl'alo, and of the appointment of a 
Committee of Safety. A import that Ci-and Island (the Indian reserve) had 
l^oen taken by the British, hrought out the Indians undei- I'ed Jacket, and 
from the same paper of the "J'.tth of Sejitember wt; extract: — 

" Aliout 140 warriors of the Seneca Nation from the Alleghany ilivei-, 
arrived in town la.st week, and are encamiied near, moi-e being expocte<l 
from difi'erent i)arts. Several Councils were lield. Yesterday they per- 
formed a war dance iii the streets, itc." 

General Brock h:id i-eturned to the Niagara i'rontier with his force; and 
the West being comparatively safe, ho hastened to make every disposition 
for defence, as the arnii.stice was near ended. Mr. Merritt was stationed 
at Fort t; eorge duiiug the bombai-dment that succeeded the armistice. No 
ca.sualtie3 oecuj-red, although the troopers, with their horses, were quartered 
in an exposed situation on the bank of the river. 



-hi 



/ 



20 

Karly on tho moniin^ of tho 13th of Octobrr, 1812, (Jononil Itrock, 
whoBo hra<l((uiirt«'i*s wen' at B'ort CU-orfjo, rowivcvl a (li^patcii hy omi of tluv 
(Iru^^ooriH wlio wrro patiol!i;if^ tho river, to tin; cHoL't tliiit {.Im eiii'my had 
lai\(lt!d lit Quoonston, in i-ousiiliTiiblc fon-o, midcr the Militia-(Joiii>ral Van 
llciuiillcr. (loiuuiil lliuck, witJj liiw iimncdiato rtall', li;i.:t(iiiiMl to tho soono 
of action, leaving tho availahlo icservcs at Niafjani to follow ; nmon;^ tho 
fiifit of th«'Ko to arrive wero tlio cavalry uiuler tho oonunniKl of Major Mor- 
ritt. To their surj>riKo and clu^jrin, they mot a lunnher of Kti'a!.'<,'lers from 
tho militia, who, when asked \vhy tiny were iM.'haviii:,' iu tin's manner, 
replied that they oidy followed tlio exanijilo of (ho r('p,adar.M, whom thoy 
hiul l)Oatou in Ihoir retreat, llninours weio now v.l.isjMred about of tho 
death of tho (ioneral, who had been reported only wounded. 

Tho following extract from Air. M(!rvitt'H printed jovirnal will explain 
Hubsei[uent events: — 

"TiiM nti'ii',';;l(;rs haviii,c; eoll<>eted at nurhain'.s, (tibout a ni'lo distant on 
tho Nia;^ara road), (ient-ral Sir It. II. Sheatl'e, havin;.,' a.'^Humed eonuuand, 
Major Menitt's dragoons wero ordei-nd to advance. The.se, with tho Indianii 
under Captains I'rant, Norton, and Keri', kept the onony on the heights 
which they Jiad flr.st oeenpied, and so allowed (len. Sheaflo to form in their 
vrtir. So near were the pickets stationed that whilst waiting for tho action to 
connnenee, I\!r. Merritt and the IT. S. oilker eommanding e.\rhange<l nhottf 
in uui'llo fashion, emh taking a Jlreloek from their men, who had been 
carrying on a fnsiladc^ on tlieir own account." 

It is unneces-siiry to detail the ])articulars of this memorable battle, in 
which, although tho nuinliers wiw Hmall on both widoH compareil with other 
actiouK, yet tho spirit and bravory evincfld by the militia during the combat 
was fiuoh as to show (heir iirm re>;olvo to defend their .soil. And tho 
action has since been Uioked upon as the Bunker Hill of Canada. 

Major Merritt, holding the position of commandor of tho militia cavalry 
of Uppt'i- Caiiad.i, was deputed by CJen. Sheaffe to receive the Bword.i of 
tho ono'.ny, which was done by riding along the column and placing thorn 
on his saddhi-bow, making cpiito a largo load. Son\o of the.se weapons 
remain in the family to Uu; present day. Mr. Merritt remained with 
L..; troops palioliiug tho river dining the rest of the campaign, with the 
exception of a week's absence on tho L*Oth of November, to the Detroit 
frontier, on a confidential mi.ssion from (Jon. She^iftb to Col. Proctor, Tho 
only thing notublo during this expedition was tho crossing on tho ico of 
tho River Thames— the first of tho season. Mr. INIerritt was st^xtionod at 
Fort Erie during tho demonstrations of (Jen. Smith, of the 17. S. i-egular 
army, who, since tho defeat of Yau Rensallcr of tho militia had taken 
the command of tho frontier. 

During the winter of 1812-13, important changers were made in tho 
organization of the forces on tho Niagara frontier. Volunteer regimonts 
were fomied to serve during tho war, amongst whom Colonel Robin-sou and 



1 



> 



21 



noriil IJrock, 
»y out) of llu» 
» eiu'iny had 
Policial Van 
ti) tlm soene 
; iiiuoii;^ tli(» 
f Major Mor- 
iti;.'<,'lcrH fi-om 
tlii.H iii:inner, 
. wlioiii tlioy 
ulumt of thii 

will pxplaiu 

lo dintrmt on 
'il comrnimJ, 
It tli'j liidi-ina 
1 thu lieifjliLs 
form in theii' 
tho action to 
■hancfod Hhotu 
lio had been 

)\e battlo, in 
d Avith other 
tlie combat 
il. And tho 
la. 

ilitia cavalry 
10 Hword.i of 
)lacing thom 
eso weapons 
niaintxl with 
ign, with tho 

tho Detroit 
'roctor. Tho 
)n tho ico of 

stiitionotl at 
IT. S. rejifular 
a had taken 

made in tho 
;er reginiontf 
\obin.sou and 



othrrs diHtin<,Miishn«l thfmvilvc.^. Tho militia w.^rc! .still liable to bo callvl 
for duty at any m:)in.''nr.. Tlio r)ilo\vin;.( j:jra;»hio lottfc, t/) thn fiami> party 
at l)>!troit, \\-ritliMi by .Mr. M<'rrilt at tliis timn, k.1u'\v.< prv-tty cloarly tli(! 
K.tato of all'aii-s, and i]\v ficlin;;^ of tlifi juvtjjlo in tlii.s Koction, on his niturn 
froMi Kiiigiton, w!iit!ii»r h > In 1 b u.i d •.^^^at ;h.i I for r.Mnfort;(Mn ntn : — 

"Nl,\f:.u-.A, K.O.nniry, IHI.'V 

'• I liavo not brcM a nioj'.th in tlio huiho placo siiir-o last 

.luno. I liavi' now rctiirui'.i from Kin;^Hl<jn; my Hitnation ia i(otIi honorablo 
and biorativr. Our winter has been piui.sed ,t,'aily; wt- luwl a splendid as,sornbly 
liUit niglit, ^'ivtii by('(jl. Mycr:-', comniaudin;,' otlloer hero. A I'.riiiadn of TtO 
and (ill Hlni'.'liH, with sUires and trooj/H, from Ixjwcr ('ai.ada, arrives hero 
wcokly. Every exertion has Insen made for onr defence. Tlio coldewt 
weatlier has never deliiyiMl oni" v/orkmiin. You would l>n astonislie<l to Rfo 
the alterations which have tal:en phii',« on thn lines nincf! you left here. 
Niai^ani lias been battered pretty well. The Yankees endeavored to set it on 
fire, but tlie activity of the inhal)itaiits dis.si'.iipointed them, th»i ('ourt llou.so 
Ix'irig the only biiiMing l)Ur:ii-d, so far. I wish the ensiiinf,' Sprin;,' wius over, 
-not that 1 dread the event, as T iK'lieve we will always be victorious, with 
the help of < lol ; but I .i^rievc to think of so many brave fellow.s losiu'^ 
their lives to no purpo.^(^, except gratifyini,' the ambition of Mr. Madixiui or 
l5onaj>arte. Cieneral \Vinchcster and staff ntill remain (>pj>asite. W»! Hont 
over SOO jirisoners attain yesterday. All has l,(H)n very <[uieL here for somo 
time pa.st. I'lvery family have moved back, i.M anticij)atiou of a coming strug- 
^'lo. So far, 1 have liad the jilea.suro of Feeing all our oxertioiss crowned 
V. itli Hucce:- !. 'i'hero are tvto families in ev(.'ry houhi> at tho 'Twelve,' and 
two families are occu]iying your former residence on the 'Ten.' All tho 
young men tVom that j>lace are in a picked company. Jame-i j)ittrick has 
distingui.she.l himself, .lames Turmsy liiiii been down. Most of th<i young 
men hen^ think themselves vtiterans, h.-iving be<'n so fortunate in every en 
cDuntiir with the enomy. With regard to the female jiartof the community, 
on tlm alarm, the ]ilaco will be filled witli women — every one coming to hoo 
if tlie objc'i't (;f their aireotion was safe. 1 .am Horry to say we have hxst 
.•^OHK! very valnabh^ men — more by sickness than by the sword. (!ol. John- 
win amrihomas ] hitler I inentionod in niy hist." 

Mr. Merritt, in hi.s journal.!, glvr.-; us the fo!lo\vi;ig incidf rils coucerning 
tho Hwond invasion of the Niagara frontier :-- 

"On the L'.")th of F(^bruary, I retiit'd from the service and went homo 
to tlie 'Twelve,' and while there, I received a note from Lieut.-Col. H;u-vey, 
Major Olegg, and other oiricors, asking me to raise a troop of horse, whicli 
duty, after a peiiod of two or three weeks at honie, I uiiilertook. In H 
days I liad 42 naik and tile enlisted. On tlie 'Joth of March, they were in 
orders, and stationwl en the Niagara Ttiver, where we saw the entuny wero 
collecting in for.-*'. We \.er(» ap]>rehensi\ c of im att;iek, tho en(!my having 
command of tlu^ lake. On tlu> L'Oth of Ajiril the militia were calliKl out, 
liaving benm reinforced I'V some of the Gleng.uTys, Newfoundlands and 
Kings. A week later the attack was made on York, a place comj)arativolf 
undefended, where tho I-:>giHlatiiro had but lati-ly iiri.sen, and wliero but 
three days previously the 1/oyal and Patriotic Society h.-id held a meeting 
tor the pur])oso of appropri:vting suraa of money to thost; who laul Xh^'h 
U-reft of friends in the tlefi.-noe of the c<juntry. 



/ 



"Oil 1(1'' 'Ai'imi- ot fhu L'lKli <■! .\|iiil. I nus ili'initcd hv I'l ij^ailici iicu. 
N'ituM'iit (" ti'iti;; (liiWM all the IidjiIh from I!iii'liti,L;t')ii, \\ liicli ashh iii'crini 
|ilis|n'i| ill 111 lioiii'^. 'rill' ciii'iiiy witli tJicir (Ici'l. itLiii'IkmI (o Toi't. y'lt^Mni. 
I"'i»in tliiK liiiit' till llii- 'J7(li May, tvciy inaii nmih (iirin'il out, al. two n'rlork 
ill (hr niuriiiiii,'. aixl ri'inaiiMMl iimlrr anus, Sonic in*<ii were (wdvo iii<,'lit.H 
ill MK'ci.sHioii oil iriiard. Oiir stiiiiil lorcc was j'uniH'd inlo (luce <li\ isioiis : 
Col. INIycrs witli ' K iii^js,' and (wo comiiaiiii'.s of tiiilitia. dffcndrtl tlio !ak<* 
rniiHl (o (Im> l''oiir .Mile (Vrck. < 'ol. Ilat\(<v, willi (lifft' roiii|iaiiii'K of Ncw- 
I'lnindlaiids and lliri'o coiniianir^i ol ( Hi'ii^^ai ryw, oni' ronipaiiy of tli«' Mst, 
one conipaiiy of tlic I Kli, iind two ol' miliiia. w|i tlir livcr To (^iH-riiKtoii. 
(U'w. N'iiii'cnt. witli (lie I'.ltli |{i\ninii'nt., and militia in mir of Fort (Jkoiwc^ 
U) H<it us uccasioii iiii;,dit i i>«|niii'. ( 'ol. I lar\ cy and inyHplf rodo np and down 
(III' rivt-r diiriiiL; (In' ni_i,'li(, ainl .slrpt at. day. On (lio 'J.'idi (lie <>n(Miiy coin 
nicnccd ojn'rat ion.s liy (■aiiiioiiadiii;^ l'"or(, < ■coi';;c, wliicli (licy lairiicd. I''oi 
waii( of aiiiiiiiiiii( ion w c witc nnalijc (,, return (licir (lie. On tlio L'Ttli, at 
4 in (lir morniii;,'. tlicy wi'ic discovcrctl iimlci- co\cr of a (liick fofj. 'Ilicy 
commcnccil (o land liy !• ,\. !\l. < *nr iii;litaiid left divisionn were obliged to 
fall hack on (lie reserve, wliieli, niiiiilierinj^ but H()(l men, wfire forced U> retire. 

" .After findiii!,' (lie boa(H commanded by ( 'onimodore Uarclay, avIio w<m'(' 
a( Twenty Mil(> Creek, witli (he li;,dit <'oni]i:iny of tlie Kim^'s, !in<l ordering 
(lie troops down, I returned wi(li tliem as far as ' Sliiiiman's,' where j was 
mot by a mo.s.sa^'o, and ordeiod to ;;<> (,<) DeCew's, (o wliicli place (lie army 
bad retrea(ed. I.'einaiiiiiij,' all iiij,dit, I took (be party tbroii^di tlie wood,-i. 
;irriviiiy tlierc iic\| morniiii,' at It o'clock on (be "jNtli May. 

"'riiis day (lie militia were distiandcd, and (be j!<>^'ulars marclcd to 
(Irini^by, on (be w av (o linrlin.i,'(on lleiirlds, Marly on (be 'JUtli I n>lnnied 
to (be 'I'wehe, a( Sliipmaii's, w bere (be iMiemy bad its advance j^iiardH. 1 
remained at my fatber's until iiiidni,i,dit, wbeii I returned t.o(lrimHby toreport. 
ll«>re I w.'is ordereil (o remaiii witli (be troops and a few militia nntil 
drivcti off by (b(' cnem\, 'riieir appearance next day was witli a (la.i,' of 
(riioo. sliordy followed tiy a par(y wliose forco cansed me to retreat, (o Stony 
Creek, on (be ls( of Jnne, I )\irin;,j' (be next week we bud si'vcial skii niisbos, 
in wliicli ! lost .some of my men." 

As it is not our intention to enter upon a ;,'cncral bistory ol' (lie ,v,ir fnrtbei 
(bail is ncccss.ary to brieilv sbow llie events wliicli our Kiibjcct was eii'^a^cd 
ill. otbeiwije we could ,L;i\c a prominent place to tlic creditable ent^a^emcnt 
Jit Hrown>tow 11, on (be "Jlst of .liinuai y, an 1 at (be KImi- IJaisin, wlierc our 
troops niub'r Troctor i^aiiied a decisive victor\ over (be eiii'iuy. .\lso (be 
i,'Hllan( comluct of tlic liowcr Canailians in kcepiii;.; at bay an overwlielmin;L^ 
Con-o from (ho Cbamplain Distrid. Wo will (berefore I'ollow Mr. Merrit( 
through the remaiiiiii^' cvcnls of the war, iiy ;,'ivinf4 copious exdwts from 
his joiiMials and otber impoilaid documents r«'lalinif (o the Kiibje<'(. Ifow 
cvrr, v.H the i\'^\\\ at "Stony Creek '' was to a great extent (be (iirning point 
of this year's campaign, and i(s results most im]iortaiit upon the (ben present 
welfare of the Niagai'a frontier, wc consider (but our work would lie incom- 
plete without fliis vory important eiigagrinent. 

After tb<» <iu'niy bad siicoee(lt!il in obtaining u foothold on tb«) Niagara 
pruinsula. it seemed to all the rcsidcids of th i( loeality, (bat the policy tlion 



ailii'i ('f]]. 
as iii'i'nni 
•t K'«y;ani. 
wo o'clock 

divisions : 
(1 tin- !iik<» 

liK of N(^W- 

tli.' Mat, 
f,^ 1 1 cm stun, 
lit (JfMirf^r, 
I mill down 
!n«iny coin 
iiird. Kor 
lie 'JTIli, at 
fo«. TlK'y 
■ oliligcd to 
I'd (,o retire. 

•, Avlio \VC1«' 
nd ordciinjij 
here I was 
•c tlic juniy 
til"' woodrt, 

niitri'lii'd (o 
h I ictiinn-d 

},'iiiu(Im. 1 
liv toi"|iort. 

ilitin until 
h ii (la- <»t 

;it to Stony 

sl<iinii.slic's, 

,v,ir ttirtli"') 
Alls cn^a^cd 
cn;4a;icmcMt 
1, wlirn- our 
Mm. tic 
CI wiiciinin;^ 
Mr. .McM-itt 
;(iacts IVoni 
jcct. How 
rninf; iioint 
Iicii present 
lie inconi- 

iie Niagara 
jiolicy then 



.i? 



tii<is( Hiiiiarcnt wa-^ (Im; idi'indmiiii;' it" tliis Keehini i.t' (Jin ■hiihIin I-p i\y. ('ate. 
'I'lic militia, wlio \vei<' |iic|iaied t.o rcKixt tlie invader ;iiid eontfPt cv(iy iri'li 
of llie wav, wrie |plaiiiiv I )ld tliat ••tliey nii;^lit ;^o liorne if fliey c}i(;Ke." ho 
that the |ii'<iH|ie t inld out to those dwelliM;^ in the loealily, and also serrin^ 
tlieii- rounti V with a ;,'enuine /eal, .va^ anything,' hut iileasin^;. NundicrK oj" 
(lieiii wrfi- men 111' taniihr, or had (■■.nneelion in the neii^hhourho'id, ho that if 
niiuifcs no streteji otilp' ima^dnai iun to I'jiney I lie I'eeliti;,"! of tho-*e (ri"M 
who had already hy their ai'diious wat;<diinyK alon;,' the ni;,':4ed Imnks 
ot the Niaijaia river, liy their ira^cKHant devotion to military ride and disci- 
iiliii". Hiid liV their uiidaiinttHJ couraj^e and jiluck in tuinin;( a d' I'eat itit^) a 
>icloivon the Hl«'e|i aee|i\iticH of tjiieenston Hci<,dit><, when flcir stiihlioiii 
\alour alone had tor a lime sav"d tlir rountiy fV'iin th- hoiiois of m 
iiivatlin;,' foe, anddiiv ■n li,ed< the tide of war over the Idui" water-* of thu 
iniehty slreaiii, ]i?cservin;,' lor iJritain, who.se. name they oidy know hv tradi- 
tion, a continent which in lat^- year.s has Ikmmi di^nitied hy a ro\al laurcftle, 
with the >,i^ni(ieant words of "the true North." No wondei- that tJiey 
muriiMireil ^t ilif order t i " j/o home if they eho.se," instt-.ad nf lii^htin;^ iJio 

eiieiiiN, ulcMi llies w c'intident, and felt well ahh- to li"a' liim as tlioy'd 

tjorie li^fire. Witli heart hnrninj^ feelings no dotdit. .Mr. .Merritt at tliis tini'i 
|icnned iho folhiwin;^ wonls in lii.s journal ; "I felt in a siid dilenirna- tlin 
"thouditof ahaiidiiniri'.' the I'onntiv. and leavin:; everythirc' that was near 
"and dear to nie, wa^ nio^t distres.'-.inL; ; Mtillinore .so, the iinhaiijiy .'■atuation 
"of iiiv faiiiilv, whom we left totally un|ii'ite.'te |. ,M y fatlcr kuowin;^ (.iif> 
" iieiills III' would he ! uhjc ;t to if Ic ieni;uiiei|, d"'eiiiiiiic ] to f.illo-.s t'j.' arniv, 
" I'oi' nil' tliere was no alternative, nr I slioiM c'ut.iinly hive remain" 1 heljind 

'•tojirotect my mother and sisters." ^ 

This was no solitary ca".c of devotion, as many mrlitinmeii in tho 
district followed the .anny. in their retreat ti 15 irliiiLttoii, laioyod np liy tlm 
liojK' that !i stand mi;,dit still he mad" witjiin iii.' limits of tie- .il | |)istrict. 
During this re'rcat, Mr. .M"r;itt with Ids (li'a'^o m-, k"|it ili" r : i of the 
I m . coveiTd, and hy his knowlodL!;e of tlm country was well informed of 
the whcrcahuuts of tin' advancing,' foe, aIthou;|,di tho duty was an ardi'.us oic, 
as the men were witliout rest or sleep for six or eij/htdavri. 

Wlicit .Mr. Merritt rca,ehei| llui lin^jton, a leHef was Kent to tl." r«Mir in 
!i is place ; here lie met hissister, Mr-. ( lordon. and h"r hushaiid. wJkj was 
^tatiollod in Dinidas. and for a hiief .spae" wa.-, in ^.'ood i|>ia,rters. 

On the '»th and Citii of .liine, tic e lemy kept pressin;,' on, and drov« iti 
the pickets of till' rear ;;iiard as fai as Aikin.m's. On th" Gtii .Mi. Merritt 
diiHHl with Mr. (ojrdon, in l)undas, and on Jiis return to (juaitersat I»ur- 
Iin<,'ton, was ordereil to fall in with the m.iin liody at IJaniard's, wlirrc the 
troops were furme<l in line of hattl •, e.xpcctin;^ th'i euieiny every inonieiit. 
.\ reconnoisance hy t\d. Harvey and Coronet MeKftnney, )(.'ve4ilfd tlie fiu,'t, 
that the enem\ W"rc i iicainpcd for the lii^^ht at Stony ('icca. and that 



/ 



24 

tliey Lud a party of 1 ,500 mm on tho Lake slioiv. On the nituvn of the 
party fcraetinio near uii(lni<;ljt, wl.cn Mr. Menitt and a number of oflicers, 
■were lying on iLogiaf-H fat-t asltcp, aMiggCblion was made cither by Coronet 
JlcKonney or Mr. Groigo, an Ensign in tbo Militia, that it would bo a 
good id(a to aitack llio (nnny in tlnir c my, and pi cl ably huijinKo Ihcm 
beforo daylight shewed tlio real Ktate of their niiinbers. Col. Ilarvoy 
approved of tho plan, and p»ropo.se.d it to (jleneral Vincent, who after a littlo 
deliberation proceeded to cfiny it into eflwt, nmeh to tho joy of all who 
left their liomes a few dayB ago in giief and .sadness of heai-t. 

In tho dead silence cf a waim summer's night, tlio order to advance 
wa.sqnietly given, and never wcro preparations for a deadly gi-apple with an 
invading foe more heartily rocoivcd. It ha.^ been tndy ami eloquently said 
tluit the l)attlo of Stony Crook wa.s neither a Wate-rloo noi- an Inkermann, 
but, that the i.^sues at ttakc for tlio men of tho Niagaia peninsula wcro, every- 
thing equal, !vs inq)ortant in thoir results as tho succok.s of the most dearly 
won field that over tho conquerora j-ested uj)on. 

Mr. Merritt in his journal of tho war, gives tho following account of this 
important fight; — • 

" The order came to movo forward; wo had to march six miles before 
wo cauK^ \\p to their i)ieket.s; our force eonsisU'd of oidy 500 men, witii one 
tield pioeo in the rear, which was of no nianncr of u.so. All my hopes 
<lepend<(l u] c^n this bold enterprise, for liad we not attacked tliCin they 
would have advanced tl'.o next mojning, anil in all ]>robal)ility we .should 
have ri-tired without risking r.:i iic-tien, ius cur foieo was not one-third of 
tlieirs. Proctor and tho whoIf> v.pper countiy would l.avo fallen. 

" On our iinival at Davi.s's we heard a rejiort of a gr.n ficmi their 
picket ; the detachn'.cnt baUfnl, formed into s-ections, and tl.o loading was 
drawn from each gun. 'i'jie light ccmj.anies of the 4'Jth Ivings were in ad- 
vaiiCO ; (len Vincent and t.lail'at ihe 1 ead of the column in their rear. I 
wa.^ attached to l:iin for tho night. The enemy were (ucanqied on (Jagn's 
field.'f, in a very advnntageoua position ; 2,000 of their men wen; on the hill 
to tho right of ih.c road, and HOO in a lano on the loft, in advance of their 
artillei'v, v.-hi(;h was situated on a hill diiectly in front of the road that our 
troops i:Uist come ; their |/iokot.i nearly a h.alf mile in atlvance, also in tho 
woods. Tiieso \\{) madf; pridoncra, without giving alarm. On oui* entering 
the cle.i.uig we were fired on by tho sorond picket, who were more alert. 
'Hie 500 on our k-ffc were t'lo first that were discovered. 

"(Jin. N'inciul oidered a charge, and our men set u]) a tremendous 
shout, whii Ii co;:tinuod iilong the whole line, and wa.'i the eaus ; of throwing 
the cneuiy into tlie grimtest disorder and conftision imaginably. Our two 
light ccnipanies of tho -IDth routed the 500 befoie the main binly liad time 
to com'> iqi. (V)ronet Ceorge was by my side, and told nu^ tho fight wa»s 
over, aiul the vietoiy ours. 

"I liapiieue<l to cast my eyos around, and diocovered tho fiies of the main 
lioily, whicli I shewed him. Col. Harvey and the ofliici-s were nsing every 
exertion to get the men fcrmiMl, wh.eu the eiieniy oj)ened a most trenumdou-'j 
fire on u.s fron) the liill, and likewL-^e opened frum their guns on tho opposito 
sidn. Our me»i were dispersed in every direction ; and hail not Colonel 



rntuni of the 
bor of ofiiocis, 
or by ("oronet 
it would 1)0 a 
huijuii-o them 
Cul. Ifarvoy 
) iift-er a little 
oy of all who 

ir to advance 
applo with an 
loquontly said 

I lukorniann, 
a wcro, eveiy- 
3 most dearly 

ccoutit of this 

iiulcs lioforo 
inen, with ono 
Ul my hojx'S 
d thoin thoy 
ity wo r,hould 

ono third of 
en. 

II iVdiu their 
loiulinjf wafl 
;s wcro in ad- 
thoir iviir. I 

ed on (Jiif:fn'H 
r(: on the hill 
aiioo of thoir 
road that our 
"f, also in tho 
our oiitoring 

more alort. 

. (ronipndouH 
! i>f throwing 
y. Our two 
odv had timo 

1 ho light wa.s 

's «)f the main 

n.sing every 
t tiTincndou.'! 

1 tho ()}»j)OHito 
not Colonel 



Pondorletho, with 30 men, rharg'-d and caj)t\ircHl their guns, we should havo 
been coiupletcly defe.iloJ. I iirVfr hoard no rapid a discharge of musketry; 
the hill wiiH a oontitiual Hiioot of lire. Ilowciver, after c.-ipturing their artil- 
lery and botii their general.s, they thought j)roper to retreat fi'oin tho field. 
At the app >araii;'e of d.'iylight we foUuwed tiiciir example, fearing that when 
they di.iCdv I ;-('d our force they would renew tho attack. 

''After v,-o left tho field, t'ol. TIarvey desired me to return, and if poe- 
Bible find 'InJ. (Jen. Vincent, suppo.sed to bn either dead or wounded. Not 
thinking of the enemy, I was challengfHl l)y a sentry under old Ciago's hou.se. 
I was on tho point of surreudering, as my pistols wore both in my hol.stors," 
when I adopted the Ktriitagom of eiupiiring 'who plac('<l him thei(i1' and 
rode up to him. lie, by my blue military coat, took me for one of Iuh 
own i)arty, and answered 'his Captain, who had just gone into tho houao 
witli a party of men.' I thm empiinMl if he h.ad found llie I'ritish (Jenoral, 
and pull'>d out my pistol, which luade him drop his gun. At that moment 
a man without any gun ran down the hill ; T calle<l iiim ; he came, when J 
had the good fortune t(» .secure both, and bring tln.-ni otf. This Ktratagom 
had micceeded once bt-fore, or I slioiild not havo thought of it." 

TliO enomy retreated next morning, followed l>y droves of Indians ami 
militia, who on hearing of the light gathered from all pai-ts. ]\tr. Merritt wan 
rejoiced to get back once inert' to tlie old homestead on the "Twelve," although 
luH outpost had only iinivcil at tli<' Twenty Mile Creek. The ordinary ex- 
citement of outpost duty seem.s to havo had a charm for him at this time, 
as he volunteered to keeptlie advance of the army, tMid in conse(pn'nco ran 
Hovcre risks of Ixang eitlier killed or nnule prisoner; in fact hi.s energy and 
activity, coupled with his intimates knowledge of the country, made him so 
obnoxious to the enemy that tlu'y sevrral times tried to eireet the capture 
of him and his Huiall pai ty, but without success. On tlio L'lth June, Col. 
lioastler and about G'JO of thi; eiiomy endeavoured to take them, but got 
caught at the r>eiver<hiii'.f^ and had the moi-tification of bring defeated anil 
inatle prisoners, with hi:>\\lK.le force, e.\i-ept six men who < scajied. Mr. 
Mi'rritt's jiarty formed the escort, who took tho jjrisoncrs to lujail ipiarters 
on the " Kuriy." 

The duty at tliis time v/as v.tv harra.ssing, as it included neaily every • 
tiling that outjto.sts are cngagcfl in. At one time f;'«'ling the lines of tho 
opposing force, or learning the when'abouts of their scouting jiartie.t ; and at 
ttthers, hunting the country fur forty i>r tifty miles round, after necnted spias ; 
KO that, taken on the whol<^ V(>ry little time was giv(>ii for rest or relaxation. 

The head (piaiters of the iirmy lijui now moved on to tlie "'I'welvo;" 
Oen. Vincent taking up Ids (juartersat Squire Adam.s' homchtead. On the 
'2'Mh, an ahirm came that the w hoh; Sfsites army wore ajrain .advaneiiii'. whioJi 
caused y.v. M. to bo sent off to ascertain the truth, which wan, that thoy 
h;ul never left tlieir entrenchment,s. On tho 1st of July, the advance wa-i 
puhhed on to St. David.^. On the 2nd, l>cing at the "Twelve," Mr. M. wa/» 
pr«v-ft«ted to Major (Ifti. Do IJottenburgh, who had arrived to tako comraamJ 



/ 



2G 

o( the mriiy, as well .'iH b( iiig I'rosidciit of tlio I'rovinco. Mr. M Sh.vb, 
" He liMiiirbt w it I him a mtv jjK'al iiaiiir, so we (^xportcil ho would do 
wiiiidciK. lit i'iu'i lin did iiotliiuf^. " 

'Vhv. ',Wd wits his birth day — ho hoiii^' twenty years old which hia friondK 
at the "Twt'lvtt" i olohiated with a fuio dinner |ir«'|),vrod by liis uiothor. TliP 
■•idvainc was thou .it tho Ei^lit Mile ( 'nHsk ; niid Mr. M. being sent witli a 
(Ing of trwee, was math' prisoner liy .i Majoi- Forsyth, who detftined him for 
a ft'w l.oniii, iind ueated him nnd liis piirty in a most rascally manner ; wliicli 
bt^ing ropresented to the States (ieneral, I >earlturn, dimniHed the Major. 
He was aftoiwards killed at « >dell Town, I^. (\, by u skirmi.shitig party. A 
number of Indians now arrived from the west, and were received by their 
dusky conipanion- with the rirmy, in grand Ktyle. 

On tho 6tli, Mr. M. wan scut down to CasKell ("horns, near Niagara, in 
company with Cnjitain Hamilton, Jaivis, MoKenny and Mall, to find .some 
mtHHeiiie which wrvs bmied there. \VliiIst on this expedition, thev had a 
slight skirmish >sitli some States dragoons, without any result. Next dav 
th<»y prv'cnreil a vaggon. hail tlie chest dug up and sent ofl". Whilst at 
breakfast, in Squire 1'. Hall's, a light commenced between the Indians \inder 
< 'ai>tain Norton ;ind < 'hief lUackbii'd, and about 'IdO of tho States Fnfantry. 
Into this tight .Mr. Merritt and his j'arty wom reluctantly drawn; but by 
their example. th(> indiamj liecame master of the field ; the enemy's loss 
'icing .'">() in killed and taken ]>risoners. Mr. Merritt suy.s: " For this rocontro 
I was " montion(\l in geuerid (U'ders. and got inoi'tM-redil than I deseived, 
"as I was drawn into it against my will. ... I was rather flattered 
" by this mark of distinction, c(Uiscious the service had been well performed.' 
The Indians wero very troublesonn' in the neiifhbonrhood whore they 
encamped by the 'I'lii. am! Mr. Merrill removed to that station with the beat 
part of his troo|>. which kept them in c'.u'ck, and undei- better discipline. 
Tho Iiead (juarters were now removed to St. Davids, with tho army at the 
Four Mile Creek, i.nd the adv;uice a mile fiuther tm, in entrenched jio-sitions. 
po that the old ground was nearly all reg'dned. Whilst here, Mr. Meiritt 
says "he had very little to do exci'pt taking tea with the ladies." JTore he 
was taken sick for a few days, but soon recovered. On the 20th a troop of 
the llUh Light Dragoons arrived, and Mr. Meiiitt obtained perniis.siou to 
go to Montreal to bring u)) the long promised appointments for his troop, 
the men of which were by tliis time nearly naked. The saddles and bridles 
were in a bad state, nud the men wore made c(>mplete "post boys" of; still 
they did their duty in the mo.st patient nninnor, although they were often 
sadly abused an<l overworked. Having obtained letters from Col. Harvey 
and others to Col. Baynes, the Adjutant Con., on the 128th Mr. Merritt left the 
Twj'lve, c^i rontf for Montreal, on horse-back ; atul accompanied by liis servant, 
I'.e i.rrived in Kingston on the 'Jnd of August, and hero met another troop 
of tho null Dragoons on their way up. He jireseuled his letters to the 



-St 



woiihl do 

his friondN 
ther. 'Pile 
lit witli a 
h1 him for 
ler; whidi 
he Major, 
pnrty. A 
d by their 

iugura, in 
find solium 
ifl}' had a 
Next day 
Wliilst at 
aiis under 
Itifjuiti-y. 
n ; hut })y 
'niy'H losrt 
s recoDtro 

flatten '(I 
orincd.' 
1 Pi 1(1 thpy 
tho bt'st 
iHcipline. 
y at the 
ositinuB, 
Meiritt 
I Tore he 
troop of 
iasiou to 
is ti-ooj), 

)iidlo8 
of; still 
re often 
Haivey 
t left the 
servant, 
er troop 

to the 



Adjutant (ion., wlio kindly received him : he was also preHcnted to Sir (Jeo. 
i'revost and other distinic<iished individualH; hut on ap|><yinj^ for theajipoint- 
merits for his troop, ho was iiiforiiied tliat the removal of the IHth Ite;,'ulais 
lad done away with tlu^ nceessity of I iif'ir services, and that had it not been 
for Mr. .Moiritt's personal e.xertions, tlie troop would have been dislianded ; 
further, that tho war could not possibly last six months lon^'cr. Tiiese 
rem-.rks so annoyed Mr. Merritt that he immodiately t(!ndered his resij^jnation, 
which, liowcver. was iu)t acco]>ted. Me acknowledges th<' fiiendsbip of 
^fajor Fulton upon this occaHion. 

Ife then proceeded on (« Montreal ; but his oi)iiiion of the Conimandei in- 
Chief was not quite so favcurabh" as foimerly : in fact he learned for the 
first time that there irtis a prejudice against the militia by military men, 
which was getting to be very annoying to the inhabitants. He found that 
he was a particular favourite when on ]iaiti«Milar ser vice, but ///'t< being over, 
he was forgotton. 

[n Montreal he waited on Sir it. ii. SheafVe, and ('apt. Koring, ids 
Aidecamp, who from old acquaijitaiice f^ake treateil him kindly and did every- 
thing in (heir power for him. He procured clothing for his men, but 
eould not get the other appoiiitnients, as they ha<l not arrive<l at Quebec. 
He sjtcnt three weeks in Montreal, and ha<l the pleasurt» of finding that his 
friends in the I'ppcn' Province had full eicdit for everything they had done in 
defence of the country, and was pleasud in finding that the llegulars liad 
not obtained all the glory. Mr. Meiritt aniveil in Kingston on his way 
home, on the 2!^th of August. 

A trip uji the Lake at this time partook of no small share of general 
excitement, as ]Mr. ru'oomheail, an Kiiglish gentleman, who accoinpaiiied 
Mr. Merritt to Upper Canada, for the purpose; (^f .seeing Niagara Falln, must 
have found out. K.Ktraot from Jom-nal: — 

'•After an infinite deal of trouble, 1 obtained a Iioat at Kingston, and 
left there in the first part of September, in company with two other boats. In 
passing l^res(pie Isle, I heard a cannonading between the two fleets. It 
was a ninning fight from thefienesef! llaibor to Kingston. On th<; loth, early 
in tht» morning, i left Smith's (Jrrek with a fair win<l ; diHcoNcred two sails 
ahead; fearing they might be tho enemy, 1 prudently put back to the (,'reek; 
I took a boat and reconnoitred and found them to b(> enemies — I retuined 
liiid landeil everything from the boats, one of which had a ijuantity of sptvie 
for the ConinuHsariat. We drew nji our forces at the mouth uftlie ('reek 
(consisting of 20 men with 12 muskets only.) 

"I sent expresses in all directions for the militia; the vessels (aine 
ojtposite to us an<l laid of?' for some time, but did not think )iri)p<'r to land. 
Nothing jparticuhir occurred during the r<'mainder of tin* pa^sage to the 
Twelve Mile (.'n^ek, w here wo arrived on the iJOth of Septeinbt i-. " 

During his absence his family were very ill, but were reco\eiihg wlnn 
lie arrived. A iiaval engagement also occurred ou tlie Lake o]iposite the 
entrance to the "Twelve."' where, on tho 4th of August, Sir James Yeo 



[ I 



•11 



28 



bore down on part of tlio oneiny's lloct, and captured two of them, another 
hhlp uj)S(5t, au'l went to Ui<^ bottom witli all handu, an«l tho roniaindor 08<"n.po<l 
to li harboiir. Wlu.ii Mr. Morritt arrived from In-low, ho found the 
proKp<;ct v(!ry gloon;y; llioanny was sickly and diHpiritod ; mjiny wcro desert- 
ing ; jioarly all tho Indians I'.ad gone. His own truoj) w;'..s in a moat 
wrokhcd «tato. 

If ho liafl not foared that liin motives tiii^'ht have been niisinterpro- 
t«d, he would liavc roKJgTied, an act ■whioirno doubt would havo l>een justified 
under tho citouiiistanpos, as tho duty was both onerous and fatigueing, and 
the i-ewai'd, nothing — hardly tho thanks of his superiors in tho regular army. 
IIowev<;r, his feelings arose with tho genond depression, and lie turned his 
v/holo attention to his trooj), which rapidly improved, both men and hoi-sos; 
in fact his deterniinution of rwoiving justice or leavir.g tlio Bervico proved 
of tho grwitfist advantage, as his men received eveiy allovt-anco that wius 
evt<>ndod t(» tlio I'Jth llogulars. He discai'ded tlu^ inipcrfect Iiorses in his 
troop, and like ji, pi'udcnt and Jiigncious olTioor, re funii^-bcd his stud at tho 
cxpouse of the enemy, by making an occasional furay where ItJiUit expected, 
and carrying off their berst Jiorscs. 

A geneml movement of the cnomy from tlio Niagara frontier down to 
Sackett's Harbour, or nither liower Canada, cause*! CJencral Do Hotton- 
burgh luid suite, with Col. Hru-vey, to go to Kingston. Tlioy were followed 
by the -19th and KiltJi Vviltigeurs, and GlengaiTy I/ght Infantry llegiments, 
which materially diminiilicd the strengtli of our force, and made many feel 
unexsy at tlio weak .state of tho army. 

Ccuftrid Yinceufc wa« left in command witJi part of the 100th ricgiracnt, 
King's Iluyal.", one; coiupauy of tho SOth and one or two comj)anie-i of tilen- 
garrys. Tlii.! small force ki'.pt (Jcnaral Hoott, with about l.UUO U. 8. regu- 
lars anil a good force of militia, closely bloc-kadovl within tlio prooincts of 
Fort (.Jen-go nu'l Niagara town. 

t)ri tin 7th of Septombor, ths-y made it:i attack on the outlying pickets 
I'n thofw.iiiiji rf.jul, wlio fuliowed anil drov o iIk-tii into the iMnnaon. On 
return'iii;.-', llicy found our forci", when a Icngthly skinuish occun-od, and 
(••cntinued witliout intermission until evening, when eacli ]>arty withdrew. 
Tho loss v. .13 IriHiiig. Ca>1. Murray, who commanded the rear guard, behave<l 
in a most gallant manner, l^-om that time forward ]Mr. Meiritt courtetl his 
friendship more than any otlier officer in the army. 

In the beginning of Oi;tober, Mr. Merritt's brother-in-law Mr. Coi-don, 
left tho "Twelvo" for Ihulington, in a boat, containing his wife find family. 
On nearing tho Forty Milo Creek, they encountxjred a violent storm, and 
were nearly drowned. They were accom[)!mie<l b\' a younger sister of Mr. 
Merrltt'a \s ho was ill at tho time. Tho severity of tlie voyage, and tho 
welting she got, brought her to tlio verge of th« grave. 

On tlio 7th and 8th of Octol)er Mr. M(>rritt got two days Iwivo of alwence, 



i 



20 



em, anothftr 

I found tlie 
wcro desert- 
in a moat 

niisinterpro- 
teen justified 
igueing, aud 
Dgular army. 
B turned IiIb 
and lioiuos; 
•vice provod 

CO tllUt WiUS 

orst'H in hia 

stud at the 

mt expoctod, 

ici" down to 
Do Itotton- 
'ero followod 
r lleginientH, 
.le 111 liny foci 

I llogimont, 

iio>! of Glen- 

J. S. regu- 

iraoiricts of 

;ig pickets 
rihou. On 
cunxid, antl 
withdrow. 
I, iKihnvcil 
court(Ml his 



JTt 



^Ir. Coi-don, 
and family. 
Btorui, and 
sLer of Mr. 
gti, and tho 

of al)senc«, 



to go up to soe hor, cxjiocting to find lior a coi-jwo; but to bis nurpriso and 
pl-rasuro, c.n lii.-i arrival lio found li<-r much better. 

On tho morniag of tho i)th, whou preparing to return, ho hear.l from 
Captain Ilcrtvliy that tho wholo urniy wuh on tho retreat to liurlington. 
It secniB that ( n the ('th (Jcncral Vincent licard of Pnwtor'H defeat, and 
fearing (Jenora! Harrison would follow up his victory on tho Thaniofi, and 
got po^.sossioii of Burlington Height^^, he destroyed all hi ; fitoroa, but left a 
large quantity of flour, part of which fell into the hand.s of tho enemy. 

Mr. IMerritt Wius a.'sloni.'died, and rodo back iv.\ Ikst as pos;jibh), 1f> find 
c 'orything in confusion, and tho men Bcattt^red in all directions; bo mot 
tbo advance guard at the Fifteen Mib Creek. His father detonninod to 
follow tho army ; but Ix-'ing very ill, after much persuasion ho con,sautod to 
remain at home. The trials of his family were very Hovore at tlii.s impor 
tant time, a" Mr. Mcixitt'ii Journal Khows:— - 

"There wa.s no help to bo had, for everything rnmair.od exposed in tho 
houF;o for tho liif t marauding party to plunder, whidi T v.as eertaiu vvou''.l 
be done. ■Nliria rctiinujd and slaye.i with iny iV.liicr, ij'.jtli'.'r and bi.st v at 
tho Forty Mile Creek, moi'o dead than alive. Caroline, her husband, and 
two children at IJurlingtoii, all sick, and myself on the way wheitivor 
fortune clioae to bear me. 8uch another scene I hope never to witness again. 
There wa.s not a dry cheek to b^^ hoen in [larting with the good people, as 
they were confident wo muat be off, this being tho second time." 

Mr. Mcrritt loft home at 10 o'clock at night, and marched as far aa 
Couse's in a heavy rain; ho breakfasted at Mr. Nellas's, with hia mother, 
who wiLS nearly out of her senses ; his invalid hiater he found fast recover- 
ing. Ifo arrived at IJurlington, and from there was sent to Dundas. Hero 
ho heard from Yin fatlier, to whom tho States troops under Col. Chapin had 
bohaved very well. A traitor named Wilcox had the management of tho 
civil olliccjj of the districts. Mr. Menitt and some of his friends would 
•xicasionally ride as far as tho Forty Mile Creek to see t'-e huiies, and wore 
nearly taken prisonoi-s one evening when returning. Cn the 10th or 12th 
of November ho was sent to Fort George with a flag of truce, and if po.ssiblo 
to find out tho strength of tho enemy, and ostalilish a correspondence, so 
that information could be got of their movements. On arriving at t}*.-) 
Fort, ho heard that his father had been mitde prisoner by tho traitor Wil- 
cox. This circumstance so enraged Mr. Merritttliat in his Journal ho tolls 
ua of "having taken many a long and weary ride, i:i the lonely hours of tho 
night, in hope of catching Wilcox and making an example of him, and all 
triutors," of whom it appears there were not a few i n the district. Ho was co.n • 
duct<>d blindfold to General Hanison's quart^>rs, and was treated with every 
attention by the States General, who sent across tho river for Mr. Merritt's 
father, and promised to send him homo in a day or two. 

A report having reached General Vincent that tho fleet on I>ake Erie 
was driven ashore at Point Albino, bo despatched Mr. Merritt across the 



/ 



!| 



80 

country U> asceituin tlu; tnitli. ami tlcstroy tlir tlcft Hoonor than lot them 
fall into the liaiidHof the tuit'iny. After riding forsevenil days in niiserablo 
woathei , and over roads aluiust iinpasfyibU', )io found tho report to bo 
false. AVliilo hpie, he licard that the lU'ct on I/uke Ontario was in the samo 
predicament, whioh made hiiu hasten back, as the report if true, was far 
more important than tlie other. 

Wliilsi (111 the ret\irn l)aek a strange afl'air ooen rod, whereby he and C!or- 
onet jycKonny, his bosom friend, were near shootin,!,' each other in the dark- 
ness, they having mistalcen each othei' for one of the. enemy's pickets. 

Afr. Moritt icmained some tinn* in JJnndas, and believed that his leadei-.s 
had given up tht^ idea of retaking the countiy. The ohl town of Dnnda.-;, 
peacefully reposing at the lase of tlie mount;iin, was a pleasant jdaco to 
live in dining these stirring times, containing a nund>e)' of the oldest and 
most resp(H'table fan\ili»'H then settled in the district, whose hospitality wa.s 
proverbial, and whose liouses weic always ii|ieji to the loyal defentlers of 
the ooiintry. Jt is not to be wonthMt-il at that the oMicers <piarterod at 
JJurlington, )iaid (jceasioiiiil visits to (lie old valley city, where the kindly 
greetings and jdeasaut smiles of the fair ,se\ gave a coi-dial welcome to tho 
war-worn soldiers, and lightened theii- troubles with the fashionabh' amuse- 
ments of the times. 

On the eveninf; of the 1st of l)tiem))er, 1S1,'5, wli^-n the iiiro\irs of a 
Canadian winter was felt without, and the sound of the merry .sleigh-bells 
tinkled over the frozen roads, which then wound with devious twistings 
through the ])artly cleared fuicsts. whose silence was uiibr<dven save by tho 
\-oice of the solitary owl or the harsh bark of the jirowliug wolf,— a large and 
select party was a.s.sem))led at the hou.se of Ali.>s (Jooley, where, for tho 
evening, were gathered the bravo and the fair of the old di.strict. (»lad 
music, the dance, and haiii>y song of other days soon chased the short hours 
nway. No doubt luit that the oft-tohl tale was told again, and the pleasing 
iccollections of other days were again repeated, to atld t(.» the joys of the 
night -wdien suddeidy the harmony of the meeting was disturbed by the 
loud knock of an orderly dragoon, who came to summon the otKcers there 
assembled, from the tests of lov(*to the Hterner duties of war, as orders hatl 
been issued for the army once more to assume the aggre.ssive, and march 
immediately. The i)artiug good-by and the .secret .squeeze were .soon given. 
At midnight i\[r. Merritt and and hi « troop were on their way to the 
Forty Mile Cieek. where they an ived by day-break, taking several prison- 
ers. They soon pushed their outposts to the Twelve. Mr. Merritt procured 
40 or .')0 sh'igha, and on the morning of the Dth proceeded to Ball's Mills, 
lomled a number of them with flour, and sent them back to the main body ; 
with the others, he pushed on to tlie Twelve, and brought oft" liis father 
who was ill, and several others?, heside.s what valuables he could from his 
house, as (he enemy in Ihei- retreat threatened to b\n'n the houses. On 






I 



.5 



I lot them 

I nmer.iblo 
»oit to be 
n the samo 
lie, vras far 

le ami ( 'or- 

II the dark- 
le (its. 

his leadei-s 
uf Dimdas, 
it pUvco to 
oldest and 
litulity was 
icfeiidors of 
nart(!rcd at 

tho kindly 
cH)ine to the 
ihh^ anuise- 

[ii;o\irs of a 
sleigh-V)ells 

twistings 

ve by tho 

a large and 

e, for tho 
ict. (J lad 

lort hours 
le pleasing 
oys uf the 
jed by tho 
leers there 
orders had 
\ud inarch 
oou given, 
way to thi' 
sral prison- 
tt procured 
[all's Mills, 
|nain body ; 

liis father 
from his 

buses. Ou 



M 

informing (*ol. Murray of his exfiedition, li.« wu^ .>-o'. <iti) repriniandt-d. 
iSoon after, a flag of truce made its ajijieunmc'. Mr. Mcmtt rode ovei- 
to me<?t it, and received a letter ft)r (Jenenil Vincent. l>y a jiidiciuurt 
iUTani'ement of his small force, ho made the be.iiers of the Hag belitnn that 
the whole army waH advancing, and tho greatrr pai-t of it at tlie 'I'svr] vn, 
whereas the advance was only at the ''Twenty. 

.l>urii\g tho night lie di.sfoveicd by the glare, that the town of Niagara 
was on fire, whicli caused the whole foi-ce to niovf on. as tliey knew Iho 
(Miemv were in a hurry to gel out of tho counti'v. (V.l. .Muii'mt and jmrt of 
th'' I'.'t'a dragoons soon came up, and they iid\iitiied near the bnrning town. 
When a sad sight preaented itself, as tho following e.\tiact from his .Journal 
il'-scribes;. - 

••Nothiiig but li -aps of coals, iind liic streets full ot tuiiuiuro tiuit liio 
inhabitants were t'<)rtunat(i enough to get out of their houses, met the eve in 
tdl directions. Mr. (Jordou's house, my old ijuarter.". wms the only one left 
standing. The garrison was aliandone<l. Mmiy tents left standing, tho 
barracks and wood-work nearly consumed. \Vo weie very appre]iensi\ e 
that a mine was left for our desl ruction : a musket cartridge burst ujxui 
our ascending tho cavalier bastion. Each took it for a n\atc)i ton concealed 
mine, and gave our lives up for a rise in the air, foi-tunately our fears were. 

groundless 1 returuiul to the llev. .Mr. Addison's, almost famished 

with cold aiul hunger, and had a good sleep. (.)u tlie 12th tlu! whole army 
were on the move from Burlington Heights. Tho general stuff, and a cap- 
tain j>roceded to Fort F^ric, and nuule some prisonejs." 

Niagara was in ruins I Of the ouco stirring little town the hop<^ ajid 
pride of the surrounding settlers — little remaine<l save a lieajt of smoulderini; 
ashes. The small satisfaction it atforded the invaders was bitterlv felt ajid 
auijdy revenged by the bold and .succe.ssful njovement which occurred in a 
few days afterwards, when Bufl'alo Hhareil the .same fate at the li,ands of our 
t roops. 

Colonel Murray had now ri^solved tu cari'y the war oscr the li()rdcr, and 
[ireparatitms were immediately made to transport the troops acro.^s, and 
attack Fort Niagara. Mr. Merritt was busily employed getting teams to 
convey the boats down fnuu Burlington. He also crossed the river with u 
llag of truce, and canu^ near [lershing, in his conveyance, (a. snudl punt) which 
was drawn into a whirlpool, and almost swamjied. 

On the arrival of (jronerals Drummond and Riall, and Col. Harvoy, the 
attack was post[ioned until Captain Kirby arrived from lUirlington, with 
the boats, which were soon brought down to the FourMilo Creek, and from 
there drawn to Wilsons (the place sleeted for the embarkation ) unforeseen 
dithculties prevented their crossing, although the men were cui tho Hj)ot 
waiting erery night. Tho excitement pervading all ranks arose to fevisr 
height. The cold and j)iercing winds whicli at that season of the year swept 
over the mighty lakes and barren hills, failed to damp the ardour of these 
aieti who were burning with indignation to rais<) their Hag upon the enemy's 



! )i 



soil, and M ith blotxl aud lire avcngo the destruction of Niac,'ani, and wipo 
out tho insulLs whic'.i thoy had twice sufforod from thu invsidiji;,' foo. 

Eaor/^y imd activity waa tho order of tlio day ; every man waa doing 
his sharo to forward tlio jirojiarationn for attack, and conuucnce pervaded 
all Ui':" rani;;!. UnforLuiiatcly for our suljtict, tlie vioh'^L excrcixo and hard 
•work, both montally and iiliysically, wliidi he had und«'rgo.io (hiring tho 
past few dayH, brought on a Bovero iUne.ss, and to his bitter inortilicaiion ho 
was taken liomo in a sleigh by his fatlier, dangerously ill, just at tbo time 
when ho was to have crossed tho Niagara lliver witli C-'olonnI Murray, and 
l)arti(!ipiito in tlie honour of witnrssing its ca[)turi\ Although absent soix'ly 
against his wish, still his services v/ere nob forgotten, as the following ox- 
tract will slunv :-— 

" On Saturday niglit thoy crossed ovo)-, aud were crowned with kuccokb. 
TIiIh was another of my most unfortunate iriilitury events; as 1 Jiad been em- 
ployed in all the other movements aud honourably mentioned, and now 
deprived of sharing in the most glorious affair that happened in tho Upjwr 
rrovi;i-;e. (jii\)t. .Kir!\'.' v,'a:< p;U'ti(".'.!ar!y and diM'-rvoilly mentioned in tho 
public. d.!St>atches. Colonel "Nlurray, however, entitled nu; uad my troop to 
a share of the prize money of tho place, for our services.'' 

After a sharp contest, Buffalo was eaj)tured and burnod, in retaliation 
for Niagara ; and our subject, though still coutined to tho house, had tlio 
pleasure of hearing that for the present the country was rid of all its ene- 
mies, (.roneral Druminond left for Kingston, with tho satisfaction of 
knowing that things "were nioro prosperous than when ho assumed command. 

Lieut. Ingorsoll and Coronet McKenny wore sent to Quebec with their 
priaonei's, Col. Chapin and Capt. Leonanl, Avho connnandotl Fort Niagara. 
And thus terminated the C'ampaign of 1813, vhich from every point of 
view retlects no discredit upon our aiius. 

Service in the Campaign of 1814. 

When Mr. Jlerritt recovered, tho army was in winter quartern, and 
everything was quiet along tho frontier. Repairing to Quooustou, whoro 
his troops -were (piartered, he found that they had l>een totally neglected. 
Aud there was no immeiliato occasion for tlieij- .servicea, ho obtained leuvo to 
change their quarter to the " Twelve," so tliut he could bo as near a.s possible 
to his command. Ho soon got everj'thing in good order, recruited more men, 
and found horses, so that when Ingersoll and McKcnny returned from Que- 
bec, at the end of February, they found a bettor state of affairs, and a eonff- 
donee, which had not been felt hitherto existijig amongst the army and peoi)le. 

He was then ordered to Fort Ueorgf^, and got stables up and th(^ men 
comfortably (juartered. On tho 1st of Juno he sent McKonny to Ix)ng Point 
ajid Burlington, to relieve Lieut. Ingersoll, whom ho sent up six weeks 
previously, with 16 men, to t^i patrol this section of tho country, as an 
attack was expected at that place, which might poLssbly enable tho onomy 
to i>enetrate as far ae Burlington. 



33 



On the tliiicl day of July Im arrived at Unit importnnt jioriod of life 
wlion youth is supjiosed to liavi; UHTiftMl into full iiiiudiood ; hui! in hoTior of 
liis iittiiiuiny inajority, his |niiMits at tlic' homcHttad on thf 'I'wclvc pii']iiirod 
n grand dinner, to wliich a 1,iil;<' nuiiil)(>r of frionds wrve invited. At four 
o'clock, when just sitting d(jwii to dine, a (hagoon ai rived in hot liaste, with 
iutelligenco that the enemy liad ian(h!d at Foit Erie. The anniverHary, it ia 
nefnUess to say, was eelelinitij<l without the onlijiary aflei' dinner 
oratory, and in a lew moments 31 r. Meiritt was (juickly spuninj; on to 
Fort George, where he iouiid everything in activity, and all the troojjs which 
could lie spared rnjiidly fileing ollun the road to Chippawa. Jle went in the 
aftcu-noon, with the intention of remaiiung, liut was sent on to Col. Stewart 
who eouunamled at Fort («eoi-ge, as it was e.\poet<'d that the* enemy's fleet 
would attack on the lake shore. 1 )uring his iihsiiice ati eiigiigeinent took 
])laco at Chippawa, in which although successful, the enemy, sufl'end more 
than our peopl(^ The following renmrke on this battle, from Mr. .Merritt's 
Journal are well worthy of notice: — 

"It certainly is a very delicate thing to censure a coimnanding oflicer, 
particularly one so jiopniar and hraxe as (ieneral iiiall, still, in this case, ho 
acted ha-stily, iicithei- did he empli-y all the means in his jiower. lie sent 
nway the l.st Utiginu^nt of militia in the morjiing, who were the best Hankers 
in the country. The Kl.Srd Ilegiment wei'e laying at liurlin-^tou, S(iO 
strong, which could have been down in two days. There were likewise all 
the militia of the country, which, when asHombleil, would have ensured buc- 
ce.ss. Had they attacked us in the entrenchment, they would have fought 
to a great disadvantage. 1 came up in the evening after the action, with a 
party of the troo]); every house was tilled with the wounded; 1 stop])ed 
at Street's, and sjjent a very unpleasant night; mjiny of the otHcers were 
lying wounded, groaning with pain. Such wat) the residt of the battle of 
Chijipawa." 

On the 7th, preparations being made for a retreat to Fort f reorge, Mi'. 
Merritt rode over to his father's, and had the iiio«t valuable things removed 
to Burlington, as he belived that the country woidd be again exposed to the 
enemy. On his return h(^ met the Indians '.rho had decamjH'd fi'om the 
army, and wei'e robl)iug the farm-yarda and country atores. 31 r. Merritt 
was sent next morning from Foi-t Ocorgo to the "Twelve," with 15 of his 
troop to watch the movements of the enemy — it not being certain at this 
time whethtn- their object was Durlington or Fort George. Jn either case 
Mr. Merritt was to retire on JJurlington, aftei' comniuincating with Fort 
George. His father sent away all the stock from the farm, and went to J5ur- 
lington, but his mother could not be persuaded to leave the old house, as 
by this time ahe got to be well used to invasions. 

;Mr. Merritt says, "The country was never more destitute than at this 
" time, a.s all the militia had retired to Burlington, taking their stock with 
" thorn, and forced to leave their families totally unjjroteeted." 



i 



I 



34 # 

Mr. M<M'ril( w r. sml f'l |!rr!in;.;tii;i, (u < rdi'i' iluwn ('i.|i.iirl i-'r.ill, vnIih 
liihl tiMKiMiililcil m!I tli>' iiiililiii >'!' lltt* riiiialrv , I inliiiiiH, I'u , I lc iilnniiil lint 
next iiutnii|i).j iirici' t\ lii\r«l iiml rupiil ri.lf, liasiiin in;rtiiii|ii;.'.||nl llir jiuiiiicy 
(if iii'Mi'lv lull liuuitr •! mill's in iiiiii< ami omt liull' lioiii:. 

TIk' pr«'Hi>mv' (i!'Uii> iuvailiii'j; army wan iiumk .'.I'vir.-ty (',.li |,y |||,, |„'n|.l(>, 
oil tliirt nci-'asion t!iaii on tli > iircvi'His niics, as tiny serin (o liavc ailopli'd n 
ptilify ••(■ iiilimitlaliitu tnwaiils the iiilialiilanlM, wjil'li liisL was mIidvvii liy 
tlicir icI'iiMal to ijivf till' Ix'ilir i nl" ihc uiilit i.imru svho wcic Kiilclul. <'lii|p 
|tMwa, Id lliiMi- t'l ii'iitlH t't>i' (icn III liiuial : aii>i iiIim liy liu> MyattMnalic maiiin'i- 
il» wllicll (llKV |iluil'llM'<'(l till' piTlllr. rvctl (lie I'llii^ili s, (iffvi I'Vtiiili';- mn\ill.|(\ 

J'lxtiai't I'lom Mr. Mi'n-iK'.s .l>Miiiial 

"Tlio ('iiPtiiy's maraddiu^- pai-ty li.'nl iml. r';icli<'i| iIm- 'i'wcivc y«'t, t'nr 
lii'atiii;.,' a |mrty was llicrc, tlicy (iiuhiilily imaniiicil il wmihi lie, urNiimd I'mro, 
M> fur 111 ail\ati<v' of liiirliiiL;ti>ii. I'liiL «>l' tim ( ilciii^iiriv s jiirivcd iiiKJcr 
( '.•(|>(aiii Kil;'.( lilil'oii, formerly of (lie l!)t li, wlio liad ko ^iilliUilly distiii:;iii.,Iied 
himself heretofore at Heaver h.iiii.i. thiili,. |,'»|li ||ii< l«i iteifimenl of 
liiililia were stationed nl flu Tea Mile ( 'reil;, I'.n.wn';, ; ili<' Itli IJe>;iiiieiil, 
a! Ilutt's; two others III the i'.eaver hams. 'I'lie miiiliir were dnilv .shir- 
misliiii:.; ami drivimj in Slates' |iarli'>>. wlio wei(« |pliiiideriii',' every house 
thev eoiih! !j;« t. al. ; tli<\ve\eii ]iliiiidei<'d women of every t him,' they juid. 
'rii»> two last w,ii,'i,'oiis w«'re taken hy voiiii!,' li.ill, with a. party who were 
earryin^j; oif soft soap, after eleariie;- the house of evi'i\ thiii-^. The lie- 
wildered families were olilij^ed tohuvi- llieir homes ami plaeo (,liem;;elve,s 
under the proiertioii of the army." 

.\s on pi'ex ions oeeusioiis. M r. M<'rri( t had his full shai e ol' out post dul ' 
varied h_\ an oeeasioiial skirmish with the enemy. .Miinili ilO ol' the nio-t 
robust and deti-rmiiu' 1 men in the militiii, mostly olliceis, of uhoni our .suli- 
joet was one, \dliuileeied as a eoips of oht-ervation, under command of ('ant, 
FitzdiM'on, Part of their amnsemi'iit, was to haiiif on the skirts of the; 
ononiy, and ann.n thorn hy wveiy jiossiMe means. 'I'iiey spent a week at 
tlii.'i e\i'itin„' \\ or!:, and nsmil'y had live or six skiriuishe,, daily, hut willi- 
out any results wor;h mentioning;, unlil tlair party, froiii various <'aiises, 
wore nvliK'Oil to 11. wlien ihey aliaiidoned tiii.s mode of warfare I'orthe uKu-e 
roijuiiir duties of their corps. Mi', ^l. al.s) joined a similar juirly umlei- 
I'ol. l)runuiioud, of tlie lOltli tJei,iiin'nt, witli similar resulis. Whoii, n . 
oeiviiiL; intKlliijence of the eiu'iny movin;;- from C^iiieenston, (hey prepan^d for 
storner woik, as suhsequeiit events e\t:;id(d from Mr. *!.'« journal will v:.o 
plain : — 

" The army was put in motion at S o'eloek, and J arrived with part uf 
iiiv trooji lit l.uudy'K I-ane, at o o'clock, of July l!;")t!i, 181 I. Col. I'ier.sou 
with tlio Light Brigade ai living shortly after. We proceeded on as far as 
I'.ridiiewater. A ft-w drauoons weio sent on to the Falls to reconnoitre the 
camp at ('hi[ipawa. At S o'clock we I'ell hack on Luniiay's Lane, leaving- 
an advanced ])icket at 3Irs. Wilson'.s : hut at h o'clock tlie enemy •was uh- 
served advancing'. Shortly after, tlu'Vihove in onr advance ))ick{tK. Tlio 
mlitiii and Lii,'iit r.rii,':ijlj v.ero ordered to retreat, as thi; main aimy wero 



:»r» 



ill, \\\\" 

I ni'tl 111" 
jiiiirni-y 

(' |i('n|il(», 

(Imili'il IV 
luiwii liy 
III, ('liip 
• imiiniiT 
innsiililo. 

y««l, I'nr 
iiiu* I'ni'cn, 
('(1 umltT 
iii;;in.-li<'il 
ifiiiirni <»r 
I!('s';iiiu-iil- 
•lily sl<ir- 
civ Ikmiso 
lll'ry liM'l- 
who sn'io 

'I'lii^ Ix'- 
Iii>iii;.('lv»'S 

poHl <lul; , 

t'llO lllOht 

til our sub- 
liifCaui. 

ts i>r tiio 

l.ut willi- 

ir (Ik- iiioro 

ily umlfr 

Wliou, i( - 

ren:\r(Ml foi" 

III will ex- 

1, ii I'mt of 
)!. I'icrsoii 
a as fur as 

M.nllro llitl 

ii,', h'aviii;; 
.i\ was i>li- 
lk( ts. Thtj 
i my wcio 



Hcvcml niilc'n i'l (lie ••<'iir of '^Mt'i'iiHluii iiiii| St. JJiiviils. (uncial I >i hiiiiih.ikI 
III living', iiril< i'>'<l liiitiii Imik, iiml iriiul.i iliHjMiiitioii Cur ;,'iviii;,' Imltlf ; tlio 
( !|i>ri','iii'rvH iuhI itii<ii|)i»i'iit('(| milifia, 70U Mtrunj;, iot'»>ivtt| IImi (In.t fiif in 
till' wiiddw, two liuiiilnil yanlH in a(l\ utic»i ; two kix |i(aiii(lcrH \v«to pluccil 
iii'iir tli'^ < 'liiMi'Ii, nil MM fiiiidcuco. Tilt' St.li IJt<;,'iiii('nl, TiOO Htrniijf, with a 
ili'lalcliini'iit of tlio \hi Knyiil HciiIn, iIiiiI, iiiiiiiit'iil. itnivcd, mid wt'io |iiiK'f(l 
in tlio iciir I'l" IIh' j^iiiia ; my im-ii on tlic lij^lit, willi (hiiith Id jnin tlin lUtli 
(III iIh' Itt't, ill (.^iiifnistnu Ivund. 'I'lir I'iM'iiiy, on uii|irniicJiiii>( tlio lii'ld, fiic'l 
oil' (i» tliK ri'^dif and it'ft., rxiKni'l In i lii> lin- of l!i(( two field |(ii'r«'H, which 
did litilc «'xi'i'uli.iii, Amid (t a ;^n!lin^,' lire from tlw ( Jicir^'aiiyM iind militia, 
tlir («tiaiay adviMi''i>d n|i Id Hk^ ^iins ulinoHt nii|ii;r<'ri vrd, wIm ii a nioNt •^'iilliiiit 
r.MiHlaiii'i- was ma't" liy our ini'ii. 'I'li'" mlilliTy ihdii wcrt" fxpnwd to liolli 
our (ii'cand (lial of l.lic I'lii'iny ; al I iiLitli, tla-y were under (Ik- necfi-irtity of 
li'iivini; tlii'ir ;;iniM, wliii'li fur u inoaii'iit wrm in |ioKHi'HHioii of Lin- <'in'niy. 
Tin' <lrai;oiins on llm left, ninlt-f Majni' Lisle, rdiiMlcd an far as MmMy IImii, 
oiii' and a half iiiiI'M. Tho I'lirmy's rii.'|it ontlliinkcd ii.s ; and ii coiiipany, 
Kliortly fnllowi'd Ity a r<",:iiin>nt . j^mL |ioN,;i',HHiMii <\' t||M road l«'',\vi-on tlif diii- 
•,'uo!iH and dm lint' in rriail,. Majta' (Jciii'ial lli.dl receiving,' a sf.tn-e waiinl 
in till' sliouldcr, wuh t.ikrii |iii.soniT, iflnriiiii;,' liy Ilit> road with ('.ipluin 
IjoriO'.,', A. I >.' '., I<i (IcntMal I 'runiiii'aid. and inaiiy other tdlictirrf. Attliirt 
tiiiii' it wa t i,'t'tliii;^ liaik, ho ihut it vr.as iuiposHiMM t'l ilisctjvr frionilH from 
encmii'H at twenty van's dislaneo. Tliu tiist if^^iiiient of militia, under 
iMajoi- I'ohinHtiii, comitit; up at this monitMit, imuie a ilispt^Kition tif eliar^iii;.', 
in hop<\M of retakiii;,' Major ( Ji'IhumI Kiall. I wuh sfiit to eommMiiitiito liia 
intention |.o the troop.s tm the iiill to on)' riylit. On my rtiturn to Join my 
tifiop, I went rather too much tt) the ri;^dit, fallini,' in with the erioinvH 2HtIi 
i'e;,dmeiit. It wa-; impoHsihle to make mi CHeape, as I wan eouiph;t»'lv sur- 
roiindtvl. A fow momtuitH after, liiiii„' eoriimenced from our men on tlio 
hill, ("aptain Clarke was taken priKoner marly at the sami' time. I wan 
taken prisonei- hy hIx fellows whtt -were .'tkulkin;^ from the fire which then 
ra!j;ed with threat fury. This put an fiid lo my expeditions and observation.H 
of what was pro(;oediji'< in our mililaiy ari-aii;,'ements. .My fivoiirite horse, 
ilydcr .\!]y, w;is id.';o taken. < 'u pussin^' l'\>rsyth'.';, on luv \vav to ea|»- 
tivity, ! heard the liro reiiewi-d, as the Idth had just arrivcti, who drovfi tho 
enemy eonipletely off the held, leaviie.^ us victors. Tioops n-'ver eoiild liavo 
lieh;*ve,d with ,','reat"i' '•oolncss and hiavery than our.-,. Tir'V fom/ht aLTainst, 
live times tle-ir immh-rs ; the ;,'ii'ater part of the army waH six miloB in tlu) 
rear when tin- ii'tion commeiu'ed. We were.;. it that nii;ht tt) Si-hlosser, as 
prisoiir!?!, It i.'i mii.iinc ; Major < it iifral Kiall, wtaindetl. Captiun \jjy\n<j, 
Mtdit-an, N.d!i,', (ioio, \\ ushbourne; I.ieuts. \'fii:le, Fraizer, Iloliins, AVaHft^ 
(^•uariei' .Mastei-s iiiiiu and Caini-), Knsi<.ii K iloonif and ( 'apt.iin \V. \\. 
iderritt of l!,o i!ra,L(oi>n.'. ^V^) were ji>iii.'d iu tin- inorninu' by Captain 
Ih'ov.ii, Lieut, ('iiue, ami Lamont, lOnsiirn Lever ami .M<>nt>^r,jnii>i'y, who 
v, ,re taken iu tin! last part of tin- aetioii - makiiiL,' in all, [',) oliiixrs and 1 I iJ 
privates taken piisim(»rs." 

"The ,t,'nMiter |):irt t)f t!ie oHieers uoro takiii l>v mistakiiif,' tlie enornv 
for friends, in Oonsetpif^net^ of the dai'kness <.f the ni^^dit. We whii- kept oiit 
all night arouml a tire ; tents tvmld not i)e jirovitltMl until ui'.xt morniji:.'. Wtt 
were all mueli fatiguetl ; many had bt-en for sevt-ral nights witliout sleep, 
AV(> were mareheil under a strong e.seurt to iJiiHitlo, 'J 1 miles, so that on our 
arrival we wciu comi)ietely woi'n out. '.flie oilictr who luid charge of us, £ 



3Q 

cannot sj.oak iiuich in f;iV(>r of. We were sent to Pomeroy's Inn, whore we 
procured n good sujipor, and took a very coinfortablo nap on the tables." 

"Tlio following day tliov woro parol d for Greeid)iish, in tlio interior of 
Massacluisotts, and their yniird dismisj;!cd. Tt is not do»?niod necpssary to 
give tlio particuhuTi of the nuum.-'r in which o\n- suUjnc.. passed his time 
whilst a pri.HomM- of war, althonifji hi-i well-kejit journal is l)()th interesting 
and anuisin;f on that point, as the few extracts hero f,'iven will show : — 

"Aui'-iist 2Stli. If' avy rain all ilny ; spent the afternoon with Captain 
Daw.son ; party in tlie oveninLi ; heard many anecdotes, particularly of Mrs. 
Norton's aifairs. Croeic rosj very high, carried off the cotton manufactory 
at Adamstowu." 

''■ 21)th. Took a long ride in lli:^. nioriiin<4 with Mr. Howe of the Navy ; 
visited Mr. Mills, the waggon niiiker ; crii'ket in the nfternoon ; received an 
answer to the letter I v.-rot:> to .Aiajor M^'lville, on the 27th. Mr. Foster 
bi-onght a report fi'om Pittsfi;;!!! of I/ord Hill havins^ taken possession of 
Washington ; to celebrate the ewut, v,e liad a dinner partv which lasted 
till 1-2 o'clock." 

" Wept. 0th. Took a long ride ; ])laye'l I)ilUards, and strolled ahout, read, 
and at last drowned my Ciur;i in tho ar;.is of Morpheus, &.C.. ikc." 

" 2:'ird. Wet, coM, i-ainy w;'ather ; wmt to chur!']i. Elilers Ler- 
law a)id JiOiieh h-^ld forth to a large congregation ; a nmnber of beautiful 
|!:irls there. This day two months I had tlic misfortune to be made prisoner, 

As tho foregoing is a BanijAo, f.hev>-ing how time was passed by all the 
otlicers, wo will conelmlo this chapter by staling that Mr. IMerritt was de- 
tained a prisoner of war for about eight months, wlien tho pnsoners got 
their froedoni by tho closing of tlie wa:-, an 1 he reached home about the end 
of March, 1815. 

We cannot clo.so this brief sketch of Llio war of 1812 without noticing 
the ini[>ortaut results which often spring from such causes, so that a race of 
peoi)le who in a measure felt only a temporary estrangement, should have 
by this act completed in eveiy respect a s.ijiaration which has now led to the 
establishment of distinct foi-ms of government tantamount to nationality ; 
B[)rnug from a common stock, and sp.;aklng the same language, yet 
liaving laws and traditions us wide apart as the old countries of Europe. 
Whatever might have been the feelings of the old U. E. Tories in Canada 
to their Wing opponents on the other side, of the line, the attemjit of the 
latter, in the v.ar of 1812, to complete the compao.st of the Northern part of 
tho continent, and absorb their old oppionents, aroustid a spirit of successful 
oj)position that led to a detining of Ijoundarles, v. hicli in a short time culmina- 
ted in the laying of the foundation for a new nation, which under proper 
guidance will eventually it is hoped take no unimportant position amongst 
the nations of the earth, and conclusively prove that however weak or un- 
prepared for a struggle a country may be, tho designs of an all-dispensing 
Providence cannot bo set aside, and that tho Croat Disjtoser of men and 
things may i)lace a limit to the ideas and actions of ti:e most aggressive. 



37 



The reader who has patiently followed the course of this narrative, can 
liardiy fail to have romaiked the extraoidiuaiy activity and the energetic 
disposition which characterized our subject in eveiytiiini,' which ho atteni{)t- 
ed to accumplish. Few nieu seem to have appreciated 1 lie important valuo 
of time more than he did; hence, in a few days altei- the proclamation of 
peace, and his consequent liberation, we find him at the home of his atlian- 
cied Miss Catharine Pi-endergast, in Mayville, N. Y. Str.te. 

The marriage took jdacB on the 13th Cif March, 1815. So we may 
fairly state tliat he, at least, lost no time in exchanging the lionds of warfcr 
those of matrimony. The aimable young lady whom for the future becomes 
the sharer alike of his joya and troubles, was the daughter of Doctor 
Prendergast of Jfayville, N. Y., a gentleman of consideiable means, an 
influential member of the N. Y. Legislature, and an individual highly 
esteemed by all who know him. His father was a native of Waterfoid, 
Ireland, and a professional ship-builder. He came to St. Johns, Xewfound- 
land, in the early part of the la.st century, and carried o;i business there for 
a time ; from thence he moved to New York, and married Mahitable Wing, 
daughter of Jedediah Wing, of Duchess County, wheie the Doctor was born 
in 17G4. In 17GG he was charged with being implicated in some local re- 
bellion, and judged by the severe code of those day;;, he was sentenced to 
death, but was fviUy rej)rieved by his gracious Majesty, (Jrorge the Third. 
He then moved to Pittstown, near Bennington; from here a nuiiil>cr of people 
started to the South-West, with the intentidu df c. lionizing Tennesp.e. 
Amongst them was the Doctor, and others of his family. The climate of tlio 
South did not agree with their health, so he returned in the fiili of ISO.'), 
and decided on settling in Canada. In descending the mountaiu ii";irl)o- 
Cews, the light carriage used by the ohl peijile broke duwii, which 
caused them to locate in the vicinity, till near the breaking out of the war of 
1812, wlum they returned to the States, and resided at Mayville. It Wiia 
during their stay in Canada that ]Mr. Aferritt tirst bvH'ame avquaintcd with 
the lady whom we havti now introduced as his wife. After spcudiug part 
of the honeymoon at the home of his bride, they Ic.do adieu to their affec- 
tionate parents, and came on to thcii- f-iture I'esidcncc on the " Twelve.'' 
The joui'uey was made on horseback, it being the most couveni(>nt mode of 
travelling in those days. They arrived at l»uHalo, whi,-Ii v.-as licing I'ebuilt, 
and crossing the river at I'dack Itock, were soon at the home of their old 
friends, where, it is needless to say, they received « hearty welcome. In a 
few months afterwards, Mr. Merritt having occaaion to visit hcnd (juarters 
at Quebec, in reference to some un.settled military ir.atti is. left his wife at 
her father's in Mayville, and returning to Niagaiv., he .sailed from that 
j)lace, ami arrived at the ancient ca|>ital on the (Ithof d;iiy. Having finished 
his bubiness, he left Quebec on the llth of the same iii"!itli, in a steamboat 
ciuwded with passengers, an ongst whom was his old friend Cul. Clarko. 



If 



i! 



'' Fi 



38 

This was about tlio time when stoani iiavij^ation v/as introduced upon our 
waters. A rfif9i'euco to his journal describes the trip to MdUtroal : — 

" Stopped to wood up at Tlirofi lUvors. We unfurtuiiatfdy ^^roundod 
5it Sond. This boat makt-s the round trip, botwcn t^tuobce and Montreal 
in ;i weolc. There is iinothor boat on tiie line, making two iiassagesj a week. 
We could not <j;et off from Horel, by anyfixertion, until the othorbuat tamo 
ulon:^'. We had the utmost diiiioulty in ^.toniming the current, owing to 
tills, r.ltliough due in the evening, we had to remain on board all night." 

The rates of travelling in those days nv.int liavo kept niany would-be 
pleasure-seekers and tourists at home, as the journal gives the following ex- 
penses of the ti-i]). " Niagara to Montreal, £•"). 2. (i, N. Y. ("y ; Monti'eal 
"(to Quebec, by steam boat,) £3. 0. 0. Quebec to Montreal, £■]. 10. and ex- 
"ponsos, 12s. Gd. Steamboat on Lake Chaniplain to Burlington, Vermont, 
" £1. 0. 0. From Albany to New Yoik, in a stoandjoat bearing the classic 
"name of ' The Cur of Neptune,' ^7 GO." 

1\\ ?donti-eal Mr. M. made a number of puicliases to be sent up by the 
fir.st " brigade of boats," under the charge of Mr. Nelles. Leaving iNIontreal, 
he crossed the river to Longeuil, and from thence, via .stage and boat to 
Albany, where he remained a short time, and then proceeded to New York 
by steamboat, the passage occupying 14 hours. In New York he learned 
that his uncle Nehemiah from New Brunswick had l)een there but a fort- 
night |.reviously. He also purchased goods to the amount of $1,700, which 
he forwarded on to Canada ; and having obtained an agency to transact 
some busiaiiss there, ho took his (U^pai'ture, and arrived in Buffalo in about 
eight days, having tra\eled most of the journey liy stage. Sending his trunk 
on to Niagara in charge of Sir. Stocking, he proceeded on horseback to the 
rasideiice of his father-in-law at Cliatau<p'.(', wht»re his wife was then ...opping. 
He remained a fortnight at this delightful spot, and left for Niagara, where 
he found his goods had arrived safe tViun New York. The late war having 
completely cleared oil" n(>arly all tin; merchandise in the countiy, Mr. 
Merritt ju'.igod that a first rate opportunity presented itself for a merchant 
to comnieiar- business. He accordingly purchased l*.') acres of land at 
oliiM!!;;in ( "orners," for which he paid .'?()L'5, and forthwith commenced to 
build a Luge house, pai't of which he intended for a dwelling, and the re- 
mainder for a .store ; and it being situated on the main road tVom Niagara, 
was in a g)od location, and became a pleasing addition to the risnig settle- 
ment. Afterwards it was converted into an hotel, known as the 
'* St. ('atharines House," an<l was eventually burned down. 

During the time las building was going on he opened part of his goods 
at Niagara, ami .some at Qiuu'nston, that being the ])rincipa1 rendejn-ous for 
fur and other traders. He nl.so took some to the naval station on the (Ji-and 
lUvei'. At all of those places he found a ready .sale for his stock, and soon 
created a Iarg(> and profitable business. 



39 

From Qneon^ton lie op^ne 1 a corresnoiilenoe '.vitli IMes.vs. Tinvnsenvl it 
Co., of Oh%v>*.'0, ill rnfcroiice to tho price of patent salt, dflivornti at <,|\1'''0t.s- 
toii. From Niagara l)o wrotii t<> Mfssi-s. Vnn Winkle S: Co., telliiicj tlinii 
tliat he had opened tlio IjooIch mIiii'Ii he puvolmsed from theiii, for ^vliich he 
hoped to ]\n\- } a >'eady sal', so tliat in tlie i'iill ho niii^ht jiiw them another 
order. 'J'here w:)rc no books for sale in the country then ; so that to Mr. 
Merritt ])eli)ngs the credit of ln-ing the pioneer dissenmator of kninvled«i;e — 
in fact the iirst book-neller in this part of the Province. He also oi)enet> a 
land a'^'cncy. which was very mnch needed at that time. 

Wh"n in New Yoi'k he madi' tlie acipiaintance of IMr. Druce, n iri-aiul- 
son to Divid llamsay, who had been hft by will 1,400 acres of land, one 
lot of which was locate I four miles from York, uow ToroiiCo ; in tho.se 
tran.sactions there was a large correspondence. 

There being no paf,t-oliice at Queenston, communication with tlie States 
was very exjiensive. Mr. Merritt has left a memorandum which shews tln^ 
expense incurred in forwarding a letter to his correspondent in Xt-w York, 
viz: — " Ferry, and sundry other ex])enses ^•hich had to be borne before I 
could mail my lett<M-, four dollars." Canadian postage was also expensive, 
and conveyance siow. And as to cominnnication with J]ngland, letters 
could oialy be interchanged once or twice a year. 

In tho fi\ll of the year he went to INlayville, and returned v/ith Mrs. 
Merritt to Niagara, where they resided witli his father, the SheritI", who 
now lived there, as tho old homestead on the "Twelve," liaving been verv 
much used during the war, needed repairs. 

In February, IS IT), ho proceeded to York, where he had business with 
the authorities, relative to his claims ; and having .satisfactorily settli'd with 
t'lem, return"d borne, where he had some conversation with Mr. Thomas 
Adams, relai e to a mill-site on his pro))ertv. 

]\ir. Adams built the fir.st tavein, in 1707, which ]i(> aft.M-wards sold to 
Mv. lUitler. and he to Paul Shi|unan. hence the earl »- name of the settle- 
in(>nt, " Hliipnian's Corner's," ai.d Kt. Paul street naw. 

The ju-operty )>urchased by Mi-. Adams was part of the Hamilton estate, 
wliich was ultimately sold t(j dili'crcnt indi\i-.lu;ds. ( ):i the mill-site whicli 
Mr. Merritt was in treaty for, stood a small sawinill. almost worn out, 
bciii'' erected veais a''o by ^Ir. Thoinaa ^Merritt. Thomas Adams and ( 'aleb 
IMulkens. In about a month thi> bargain was concluded, and Mr. Merritt 
agreed to pay oil' the incumbrance to the Hamilton estate, and 61, '>()() to the 
then ju'oprietors. This purchase con.sisted of the mill privilege and about 
r»() acres of land. The document relating to the purchase is dated r\rarch 
-7, ISIG. Th> builder with whom ho oontracte I to er 'ct his store fail-d bv 
fore tinishing the job ; and it was ultimat<dy completed by Mr. Paifiis Wright. 

Before the house was ready, Mrs. Merrit;. again visited her f;iuiily in 
Alayville, accompanied by her husband, who afterwarils rcuirii-d to sijper- 



4 



m 



i 



40 

intrnd liis luisincHH. Tlio Riiw-niill lie roimircd in kucIi a iiiaiincM' nn in sooti 
lifivi^ it ill ^'0(1(1 nuiniiiijj <ii<l(<r; and witli tli<> lumboi' wliicli lio cut lin lo- 
Imilt the griHt mill. TJii.s f'ullv ocoiH)i<«d liis tiiiio until tlio fall, wlitm IiIh 
ht)Us(> waN in rondinoss forcccivi' MrH. MoniLt, wlio rctiinicd from Mayvilln, 
escortt'd liy li(>r fa(li(>r, Dr. I'lmdcrir'VHt. 

Willi tlio cxfi'ption of tlio actual uccossnrioH of lift', tlit'io i.s no aiticlo 
iiK^ro indis|)t>nuiil)le to innnhind than salt. It has hcon jooulaily rciiiarkod, 
that " wore it not ftr salt, pork and (lour, tho foroKts of Aincrini would still hn 
Hlandiiii^, and tlu^ land uns(>ttli'<l." How tni(> tho forctfoin;,' may ho. wo will 
not say ; hut it ran hardly he deniiMl that salt is a necossary ])arti('uhr.ly 
iiulis|u'n,sahlo to tho sctthMs in a new country, and a strady supply of thin 
ooiiiniodity is always a souivo of anxioty to a;irioulturali8tH and otliors at a 
distjiiuv from tho sealmard. Iji early days tho inhahitants of this district 
had to import thoir salt from tho cast, which, owinji; to tho iir perfect modo , 
of transportation, rendered that, article a costly commodity. It is known 
that wild animals will travel vast tracts of ciiuntry in search of this relish, 
and tli<< Indiiins always found thoir best door and other animals in tho 
vicinity of thoso briny rills, familiarly known as "salt licks," which aro 
occasionally to bo found in ditToront parts of tho country. 

Tn 17i).'^, CJovernor Simcoo folt tho want of havin-^ a homo supply so 
much that ho ostablished works on a small scale at one of those licks, in 
/pai't of the District now known as tho Townshiii of Louth. 

As the works iit dnoiuhii^a incroasinl, salt booauu) conijiarativt^ly cheap,, 
and these works were abandoned. But durini,' tho war of 181'J tho scarcity 
Mas HO <;i-.>at th.it each one was allowed to boil his own salt at the ({overn- 
nicnt works. Jt was worth from $H) to .i^lf) per bushel, and very .scarco 
at tlies(> enormous prices. One of these salt springs were on Mr. IVIoiritt's 
property, on tho Tw(>lvo. Anioni>;st his other undertakings h»> had tho 
spring cleaned up and propeily curbed; and in August, 18l(i, ho com- 
menced to manufacture salt by simply boiling tho water from the natural 
spring. Afterwards he increased the works, as thc! following extract from 
a letter written to Mrs. Merritt in May ville will shew :--" The lower .spring 
" I have takon in liaiul, and stopped out the fresh water entirely; and will 
"commeiico drilling through tho rock this week." 

h\ the saino letter h(> mentions tho withdrawal of his stock from tho 
(Jrand iJiver. the naval e.>tablislimont at that place being about to bo re- 
moved. 

TJie salt work.s soon became in a flourishing state. We find the follow- 
ing entry in his journal :— " Loaded 50 barrels of salt on schooner Industry^ 
for Poit Hope." kc. 

Mr. Merritt also built a pot-ashery. 8o that at this period it must bo 
evident to the reader that his time was fully occupie.1 with trade and im- 
provements. 



41 

AftfT the war of |S| 2, Sfvcnil nf iIk^ oflicfi-H who liad l.-cii •■ii;^H;;fMl 
therein scttleil nroiirul llii'^ plilco. ClmrltH lii;;<'isoll, one of ii family of 
nirly H<'ttl<TH wlio licM ii lar^'c tiMct of IhikI in Oxfnnl, took ii jjfroiit fiincy to 
tha iKM^'lilioiirliood of the " 'I'wdvt-," wlierc li<! built n lionse, himI soon afttT- 
wanlH ciittdHMl into ])mtnpiMlii|t wit ii Mr. Mf-nitt— to whoso Hooond aiater, 
Maria, \u^ was maniiMl on tho bih of ScptiMiilicr, ISKi. 

Mr. Morritt now icmoNrd tli(! n'lnaiinliT of hin wtockH from tlie Htorcs 
at Nia^rara and '.^u'cnHton, and thfy c.arri.'d on an «',\t('iisiv(i liuHincHH in tho 
liovisc Mr. IngnrHoll l.nilt. Mi'. M. in tlm nn-antinio convcrtin;,' liiti own 
building,' into a dwelling liouHo. Mr. M. liad <,'ood laiHincKH coiint-xioiiH in 
Moiitrml with (Jirard, (iilli-Hpio iV- Co., and FoiHytli, HifhardKon ik Co. — 
from wiioni tlioy rocoived largo HupidicH of goods. 'I'hcir biiHiiuiSH waa car- 
ried on for thr(!o ycNirs ; but from ovor-trading and bad (h-bts it waH wound 
u|» at tho (>nd of IHID, and Mr. IngoiKoll r.'tiirnod to Oxford, iji proccsH 
of timo tho doiioioncy was all |)aid ; tho moiohantH with whom thoy «loalt 
testifying to tho honourable oharaotorH of MoHHrs. Menitt iV Ingi-rsoil. 

Mr. Morritt also OHtaliliHhod a distillory, whioh ho oariied on upon a 
Bmall soalo, it being imjxmsiiile with a limited ca[)itiil to do an oxtonsivo 
business the proceedH going to Hati.sfy for tho goods of tho iirin. 

In tho autumn of this year iMrs. Meiiitt was conllned with her first- 
born, which they nanuHl Thomas, after his grandfather. 

1817. This year was noticeable for tho meiuis taUm to divert tho tide 
of emigration moving from tho Mritish islands to tho United States, towards 
Canada. The pi-ospect of a peiiiianent peace with tlu! State's, and tho fact 
of tho ISritish (iovcinmiojit oireringfree, pas.sagos, and a grant of land, induced 
many to leavo the country of their bii tli, and try for their fortunes in tlio 
"forests of Canada," as this (country was then considered. Among thesM 
was the famous Robert (iourlay, whose advent into tho colony was trumi)oted 
by a grand .scheme of peopleing the waste lands by his tfMiantry ami families 
in Scotland. Tho e\ent was f<'lebrfiti'd by demonstrations of tlie inhabitimtH. 
At one of th(i.S(!, (a ball lield at Sliipmaii's,) where ho was, ho was partner 
to Mrs. MfM-ritt at tho Urst H(it of country dances. 

The deferred payment of wai- lo.sses, by liarrowing the minds of the 
population, all'orded a most favouring c(jndition for operations. Ho 
soon set to work to sow the secsils of encpiiry, by calling jaiblic meet- 
ings to brood over imaginary wiongs. Jjusiness was neglected to listen 
to his speeches. Many happy homos were r«'nder(!d mis»;rable by the intro- 
duction of }»oliticH, which caused neglect and misfortune to ensue to those 
who might have been better occupied in attending to their farms and stock, 
iusteatl of endeavouring to realize visionai'V schemes which time and jierso" 
verance in their individual pursuits alone; could acicompli.sh. No doubt there 
were many things lemiss in the colony, among them the <lolay in settling war 
losses, which men hardly yet free from the ravages of war, would feel 



! 



42 

keenlv ; lnit still, we (juestion if raiupiiiit .T.;il;i(ion by iiny nuniV.or of Ktni^- 
gling scttlf>!-s, wLo iavariubly liavt! tlicir luiinis full at home, could ])vocuro 
a ri'incily, and least of all for an individual wiioso Lusineis;- wrui liuvl agonl, 
and whu oxpoi.-tod to draw hu';;^ tracts, wlicu tlicir war losses wore to l)e made 
out of lands. }Ia;>i»ily t!ipr« was wiKdom ononj'Li in tlie coiuitry to neo 
through th(! toii-adva;iocd scliPines of Mr. (.'ourlay, and^put ii check to thciii 
by sending hitii out ov" the country. Asa .statistitian. he has ilonv; a sorvico 
by giving us a true estimate of the country at the time. 

During th*- wet seiison, the new saw mill cut a large <juantii';y of lumber, 
))artof wliich Mr. Merritt, on the anjiroach of settled weather, conveyed by 
raft to XiagiVi'a, also >ending flour and aslies by schooner to Kingston. 
To thoso intimate witli Ijim in after life, some of the incidents that oc- 
enred in youth would iippear sti-ange and uncharacteristic ; but the change 
was produced by a mature ealcuhition. ( )!ie of these inoidcTits the author 
has often lusard him relate, to )»oint the moral of forbearance and the folly 
of contesting by force with the unreasonable and sui-ly ; — 

His raft of staves was in jeoparday dui-ing a storm ; and a limiberman 
not helping r.s ordered, angred liim so, tliat he raised a handspike towards 
him, which, dodging, the man closed ; and wore it not for one of the other 
hands knocking down his assailant, Mr. Meri'itt would probably have got 
the worst of it. 

Tn the summer of 18I(^ he went to Montreal on general business, but 
owing to the approa-'liing tinui^ial ci'isis referred to, cash was very .scarce, 
so that lie git a low priv- foi- his coinmoditi'^s, nnd tlie Vmsinei^s prospects 
appeared had. as tliis country was l)?innnin-r to fen] the etfects of the groat 
monetary crisis whidi wns about troubling England. 

This year 7\\r. I^Ierritt derided upon putting to use an idea wliich lie 
quietly conceived y^ais bof-ire, lint always kept j-rnminent in his active 
brain, end wliii-ji ultimately resulted in one of the niost gi^;'antic and im- 
portant j.ublic works on tlds contin"nt. A scarcity of v,-,ater foi' liis mill 
supply o^cur'^], and was a'we.vs uncertain iv, warm weather ; so he lielieved 
a rem''dy foi- t!iis could be fouml liy havin;^- a cojumunication with the 
Ohippawa iliver. Calmly weighing the stupendious re.sults wliich might 
yet accrue f.'om the a m . lie det'rmineil to make a rough survey of the ground. 
There V)eii;g no regrdar levelling instiii ncnt at hand, he borrowed a water 
level from iVlr. Becket. who k^nt a small mil! at the "Short Hills." With 
this instrujuent, and aceompanied by Mr. Keefer, I)e Cev,-, and other 
neighbours, they started on their tour of survt ying. They commenced 
at the south branch of the Twelve Mile Cj-eek, now Ai'dubim/fi, which is 
about 3') feet above its exit into l^ake Ontario — IVom thence they ran their 
line for a distance of two niiles, due south, to the Cliippawa; .and upon 
reckoning up tlie result of thiir .survey, they found that the dividing ridge 
or heiglit of laud was ab )ut thirty feet above the lovols. This was the 



43 



fli-.st survey of tho V/clland Cfinal ma-lo, and of tlio losults wliicli Imvo 
siiico traiis])ir(Hl, few uvo uiiM;'(juaiiitcil. It is, liowmti', ju-oixn- to state timt 
owing to tliH im|ieifc'i't inshMnuculs wiili vliidi tlicy couuiinttd llio Kurvev, 
tliey made a nii..take of 30 feet ; tho actual iieiglit \K'm^ afterwards provoil 
to he 60. 

In this simjile and apj)arently uDprolitablo act, vo have tlie best ilhistni- 
tion i)ossil>h> of tlio jjvedomiiiant seiilimeiit of Mr. Meri'itt's mind, that great 
residts may flow fi'oiii the most trivial ailairs. This survey, althouiili very 
defective, was sullicient to 7)im-e i/ic vicniiiain ; as it drew attention to tho 
question, and set jieoplo toconsitler and talk over the matter, more especially 
as Mr. IMerritt had ex})ressed his firm convietiou that the conneetion between 
the lakes could be cai'i-ied out by means of a canal. The long. ])ent-up, 
and treasuj-ed idea now burst foith, lehdinL^ vigour and will towaius its ac- 
cumplishment. IVIr. Merritt drew up a meuioiial to the Legislature, to which 
the names of all the influential settlers were attached, asking for an api)ro- 
priation to be made for a correct sur\-(>v. This lumourable bodv then con- 
sisted of twenty membeis, and on the question of the memorialists being ])ut, 
thirteen of them voted that the stim of ,£2,000 be given for a survey of the 
route, as well as that of the St. Lawrence. So it will be seen that the simple 
act of a few early settlers laid the foundations for the greatest water ways 
in the world. 

In interesting the Legislatuie, ^Ir. Merritt gained a grand point, and 
after his dei>arture, he left the plan and papers with Col. Burwell, who toek 
gi-eat interest in the idea. Sir IVregrino Maitland was then administrator 
of the Government, and having ti.xed his residence at Stamfoi'd, not far 
from the projected route, was a firm '"vieiul and sup])orter of the canal. 
For the present Mr. Merrilt was, hov/over. doomed to disappointment, as tho 
Government Engineer, M'r. Chewitt. siirv«nvd a route \'ov a canal I'O miles 
long, in a diflcrent part of the country, liy commencing at the Grand ItivcM", 
and passing through Caid)ro', Caistor, Gainsboro', and Clinton, iis asununit ; 
thenco descending towards the Twenty Jlile Creek, and proceeding westerly, 
Jiaralell with Lake (~)ntario, and terminating in r>urlington Bay. The 
whole afiair was as absurd as it w:is expen.^ive, and hap[iily l)ore no com- 
paiifion with Mr. I\territt'h route, wliich was only L\S miles Ion,-;. Nothing 
further was done by the (Government in IHIS, as the available funds were 
wasted upon Chewitt's ini|)racticable survey ; but llr. Merritt mana;4e<l to 
obtain data, which enabled him to judge of the probable co.st of his route. 
So the subject was i)ostponediu cou.se(iueuce of other troubles in his private 
all'aira. 



On the 2:5rd of July, in this year, the first steamboat was put upo.i 
Lake Ei'ie,— previous to this, tlu^ \M'<Axw of the W(>st mad.^ its way to N. 
Y. State as In st it could in sailing ve.^sels. This part of Canada. aUhou.;!. 



nsmg raj.idly, was yet in its infancy, and the time had not arrived to c^ 



om- 



44 

peto for tlio wostorii canying tnulo. Such wa« tho roport of tlin com- 
missioimrs wJio rci (timiK'iided tlm hiilijoot tu Ixs ljiou;j;Iit Imfoio tLo lloiae 
tlovci-amput, " trusting tiuit tlicy might IWI tlisposod to oju;ii tho n-suurcoa 
of tho country." 

Our suhjcct wtts iiulofatipvhli' and porHOvorviug, but there ih a limit to 
nil things : and hy having too nuu'h bu.siue.ss on haiid, tho tirm «if Morritt it 
IngcraoU b.H-anio ttMnpurary iiiHolvont. and was torminated by iNl r. Ingorsoll 
going out, as hcrotoforo ataUtil. 

Mislortuaos randy conio singly, as thoir favourite child Thoniiw, thoir 
first-born, was sraldod to doatli in tho bogiiiuiiig of tho yoar, and thoir little 
daughter was also laid in tho grave ero tho soason ended, so tJiat tho almost 
heart-brokou parents had thoir share of tho bitter cup, but were calm and 
resigned, auil meekly boweil to tiio ruling of an all-wiso Providence, although 
at tho time it wixa a sore trial, coupled as it was with tho deningemonts of 
their mercantile aHaii's, and the depi-eciatiou of business in general. 

At this time ho had a largo stock of lumber on hand, but could obtain 
no money for it. lu business, tliey had tmisted tho farmers largely, but 
could get no return from them till after tho harvest, and even then produce 
was so low as to bo unprotitable ; wheat being only worth from 40 to 50 cts. 
per bushel in tho C^ueenston market. 

However, being a man of determination, lie bore bravely up, and luckly 
at this time his Uncle Nehomiah from St.Johns, N.B., made his appearance 
and liberally helped him, so that he was enabled to save his jiroperty, and 
bring his atfairs into a better state. He gave his mill as collatei'al to one 
of his Montreal meivhants, for money due. On the fourth of February, 
1820, his father, Thouias Mevrilt, resigned the shrievalty of tho district, 
which office he honourably held fur 17 years. The j)Osition of Sheriflf' is 
never a very desirable one, and in a country where but little money is .stirring 
and hard times seemed to be considered as a settled fact, the duties ))er- 
taiuing to tho office, are. to a sensitive mind annoying ; and I\Ir. Merritt 
beii^g a humane man, always felt a delicacy in j)usliing defaidtera, or in 
.■nforcing the sentence of the court, where, from the state of society then 
prevailing, eacli neighbour knew of tho other's troubles. Complaints of 
delay in forcing executions, reached head quarters, and tlien reverted back 
on him as the cause — so that wo are not surprised that tho Sheriff, sooner, 
than continue in office at this time, sought to be relieved of tlie duties thereof, 
and felt j)leased, after a respectal)le career, to retire into private life, still 
retaining his appointment of Commissioner of Woods and Forests, and his 
half pay which he received for consiilerable military service in " Simcoe's 
Rangeis," during the Revolutionary War. He was considered by all who 
knew him as an honourable, biavo, and determined officer. And having 
always taken a deep interest in his son's prosi)erity, he now disfjosed of his 
homestead, a fine property of 200 acres, for the bum of §0,000, out of which 



V 



46 

lid lihorally aasistoil our siil»joct to canml his ()}tlij,'atinnH ami r(»n»'W his 
former strn','i;l<\ Tlio purohastu", Mr. Job Northrop, hotter known as tht> 
"Commodoro," wuh a groat afiiuisition to tho iM'iLjhl)oiirhooil. aud his Kcttliiii; 
horo was thn prolixin to othfMS roniini^, so that in a short tinio a niiinlior of 
rcspactahlo ami wealthy sottliM's c'athcnMl in, who all lived on tho inont friondly 
tonns with naoh otlan*. A Dr. Ilowi^;on spont tho winter of I'^ID-'JO hero, 
and ke|>t his oOieo at Paul Shipnian's Hotel. Ho appeared to have boon a 
njan of Inoan^, and piai-tised hnt littlo at his [)i'of»'SHi')n, Hpomlinp; mo.st of 
his tini(* in visitinfj nionml tho noiyhhouihood, whero Ids Kooioty was much 
approciatod. On returning to Knudan<l he puhlished th(! resiilt of hia oli- 
serviitions in a ijjooil-aized volume, for the information of those intending to 
emigrate, the sidistanco of wiiich was that tho conntrv was unfit f(U' a jii'O- 
fo.ssional ni;in of gooil education, wlio o.\[)Octod to nuike an income hy th>! 
praotico of his jirofession. 

One little incident connoetfid with ^Ir. IMorritt's family, from whom ho 

I'cctuved unhounded hospitality, lie does not rcdate ; and as the doctor's hook 

is prol)al)ly out of print ami his visit f(a';;otten liy this time, we take th(^ 

liberty of referring to it. In April, an excursiijii to sou a theatrical j)er- 

formance at Niagara, was improvised. 'I'he party consisted of JNli.ss ISIorritt, 

Misii r.aker, and tho doctor. Tho turn-cait was a ))urely lural one. Di-essrd 

in Spring attiro, with white jiants of une.xceptional blanchetrio, lie drove 

up to Mr. Merritt's house. Tho vehiclo consisted of a ono lioryo waggon, 

impoited froin tho Eastovu States, and which Isad probably donegotjd soi-vice, 

for tho Fraus and IMyhneers in their first emigration from the Moliawk Valley 

after the lievolution. Having but oiie seat, a chaii- had to b'; juit in foi- tho 

doctor, whoso first essay showed that tho safety of tho ladies dojtended more 

on tlio gentleness of the horse tlian the skill of the drivijr. Things went on 

smoothly until their i-etniai, when an extra "I'ut" in tho last mile of tlio swamp 

caused a separation of the vehicle, leaving tho driver and ladies in the road, 

and considerably dimming the lustre of tho doctor's snowy unmentionables, 

and dotraciting from his skill as a navigator. l''ortunately no sei-ious injurv 

hajipenod to the party, who walked on to tho "Ton," when; all was adjusted, 

aud they arrixed home in safety, enjoying a hearty laugh at the iloctor's 

mishap, and added anotlier item to the day's amnsmienfs. 

On the opening of navigation, Mi: ISrerritt slii]iped 300 baiTols of llour 
to (ieorge Davis, directing that the proceeds should bo handed over to 
Forsyth, Pachardson, tt Co., so that by steaily pei'S(;vprance, ho ultimately 
overcame all tho ditllcultics. The greater part of this year lie was engaged 
in boring the middle salt spring, so as to establish his manufacture of that 
article on a profitable basis. At last ho succeeded, and having ei*ected a 
building, coppers for boiling the water wei'e obtained, and a salt comjtany 
afterwards formed, so as to find more capital. Dr. Chase, lately arrived from 
the States, took a prominent part in the concern, and being a good chemist, 



m 



% 



' [ 



40 

tlirv stidii \\('\•^^ alilc to immiIih'i- m Imtti'f Mi'ticli', wliirli, Cor !i liiii" rcliii'iUMl. m.^ 
wli.'ii lir.st lidili'd, afiiir pnilil ; luitpvciitutilly it Iiiid t.> Ixi iilpiiml(,iu'(l, hh tln-y 
c'OuM iii)t siiccesHt'iiUy ^oiiijicto \vi(li (!u' ljii;4f iiiiiiuifiict(»ri"M nf llit) IJiiitivl 
Stttt(>H, will) »-.'.iioit<'il <;r('!it (|U!iii(ilii'-t to Ciiimtla, iiiul hoM it very clu(a|>. 

P('<)]>1(^ lit tliis Morioil liiul in; ciiiiso to j^'iinnldd (Hi iif'ouiit of trixiitioii. 
Ily tlio Astiossiiioiit li(»li fortlioTownsIiipordiaiiMiiiiii, wli( rrlii "Sliipiiiaii'.s 
(.'oruors" was sitimlctl, 2'.)'i ixn-s^jris woiv asscsnivl for property to tlio valiio 
of.t'NS. 1. L'., and fur Mciiil.cr of rarliaiM.-iit, .17. I"-!. •'''., niakiiig in all, in 
cuvroiicy, Sii^L'. 72. which is only «!?l i^ ■* for each hoiisfholdri-. So that 
alth()ii;;h produce was low in prii'c, wliil p(>opl(; were tliriviii",'. Flour Hcnt to 
Montreal sold for $') 7r>, from which deduct $1 20 for exixnisos, would ntiil 
leave $i .'»(» for the market pi'ice at that time. 

On till) IsL of .luue in thi.s year, another son was !>oni. and tho ,i,'rief 
ouca«ioncd by the less of the previous childitMi was <.,'i"eat!y le.SHoned hy tlio 
prnseiie(» of this one, whom they named Jododiali, after a kind lioarted 
5,'randfal.aei-, dedediah rrundcr.j.is.t. 

The titore, wliieh was cKwed since l\I.i'. lnger.suir.s dcpiii tiirc, was a^cain 
oponed, and Dr. C'haso opened a <hni;,' store in connoctitm willi tho huHiness, 
so that tho cone -rn liad an ii l.liLion to its now inereasin;; trade, l)y supplying 
dru,ij;s, as well as all otlier kinds of ^joods, which lie got from Jlantroal. In 
this fre.sh openiiii,', his father-indaw, nr.lVendergast, and his uncle Nehemiah 
handsomely contributed to his assistance!, and a want sadly felt since tho 
eloaingof theold business, was relieved, to the satisfa'.-tion of the neii^ddjour- 
hood and the large farming conun unity wliich were Hettlcd for numy inile.s 
around. Tho busines.s prcspered boyond Ids most sanguine expcctrttions, and 
the daik doud.s wlncli erstwlnlo thrcatonod tlie prosperity of this most re- 
solutt> and energetic man, now .seennnl broken, and tlie tlioughtH of hotter 
(hiys dispelled the sorrows of tlio past, and instilled new lifo and energy into 
his aotions, so that hope, tho fountain of all .joyH, was again lirmly lixed in 
his mind, and he became as it wore a new man. 

Crime was scarcely known in the disti'ictat this period. Pvaroly had tlio 
mngir,tratos to deal with iuiything more .serious than potty assaults. Tho 
pfople fi'lt Hoouro in their dwidlings, snd vt-ry few took the precaution of 
bolting or barring their doors .-it night, llnrmony an<l good will seemed to 
prevail all round, and this may bo termed the "golden ago" of the settle- 
)uent. Places of worshiji M'ore few, as the I'ummunity were scattered over a 
large spat-e. Dr. llowison says that "Churches were a rarity in tho land." 
In the whole Niagara Di.strict ho found but two bidonging to th3 Eytablish- 
mont. Others were 50, 100, and 200 mihis apart. ^Marriages were per- 
formed by the m;igistrate.s, as iu the States. At "Shipman's," ho says, ho 
followed tho crowd mto a church where the service was Presbyterian. The 
clergyman was dressed in a showy blue coat, white pantaloons, top boots and 
spurs. There was no more decorum than if it wens in an inn. They had a 



47 



lliitoiind (lii,iiool<it for iinisioncc()iii|tr.ii.viiig ii Ji; inn, aCt'.r wl.icli tln< n'iii|.iii)v 
(lisi>«'rs<(l. Tlici.! wcif many iMulIioiHm^ wlm uk t. two or liirro limes a 
wiH'I; at t'lirli otiicr's Luiim's. TImtc whs ii liuildinpc < ri'ittd iiciii- pint of .Mi\ 
Mcnitt's |ii(iii«M-ty for thost? wlio bcloii/ifd to tlic! Kstalilislicd Cliun-lj, and si 
parcel of p'-mnd adjniniuLf fur u Imiyiiij; plari'. I'm- many yi'ars tli(! iJtvd. 
Mr. AddiHOM of Nia^/arn, wlio (nine frofu Kn^dand in (lovt^nior Simcnc's tiuu!, 
was till- only flcrj^jyinaii of tlir ( 'Inirrdi (.f Kji;,dand in llm ,\iR;;ara l)iHtri(.t. 
lie ilid duty at tjuicuston, Sl.ipman'it, ami tlm '• Koity." 'i'lit! IJcvd. 
ycntlrninii I'iiptizfid Ml'. Mfrrilt and lii.s (ddi'i' (•lnldr''n, and ri';,'i,'.lercd tJie 
samo in tlio n'>,'i.stry wliicli i.s .slill pir.scrvcd in tlr.; Niaj^aia ('luiirli. Still, 
it must not Im a.ssumc<l tliat a lack of rflij,'iouM frclin/.; t xistcil in tho coni- 
rnunity,aH in (ivi-iy lioUM-a, I5i!.l(^and otiicr liooks oi'dtivotion CMuld bi- fount', 
wliicli cnaKlcd thu liwads of families to a.ssenddt) tlieii' Ijou.scliold.^ and join in 
family worsiiip. JCacli farm nhu posscs.sed its own Imi'yinx j.luce, a luindicr 
of such (n'iiif,' still usni foj- tli.'.t puiitost- at tint piescnt time. 

At tlas period lie paid off tlio Lalaiict; iluo on tli(! rear lialsci; of lof;; IC, 17, 
18, and 1!), piirts of the Hamilton estate, wiucli was covered with pine and 
oak, situated neai' ins own ndll, the piiee heiny c\\ per ai;re. Owin^' to the 
increase of population in the iieii.;h!)our!iood, hotiicd t) induce Jii.s father-in- 
law, tlie doctor, to como and .settle in Canada ii^'ain, latt on account of that 
•fentleuiau having a hw^c. nml lucrative huHine.ss in Mayville, Jie was com- 
n«'lled, -we l>ollevo reluctantly, to decline the invitation. Shortly aftei-. 
wirds the doctor, Ix-int,' in New ^'ork, neojotiatetl some hills for Mr. Merritt, 
and with the .proceeds, {)urchased for ivady cash, a hu'i^^e <iuantity of -^'oods, 
8uital)le',to the Canadian market. Thti venture tiU'ned out a very successful 
one, as Mr. Merritt was soon afterwards enabled to purchase Isack hi.s mill 
property, which he previously had given ati collateral to his Montreal 
creditors. 

Whilst tlir..-; cnp;a;;ed, his iinele William an I cousin Thomas had each 
diMwn lands, and w( re prospei'in:^ favourably. At this time, in writing to 
his uncle in New Brunswick ho explains all his allaii's, and looks hoi'efully 
foi-v/ard to coming prcsperity. His amiable disposition and st(;rling integ- 
rilv .secured him a nxunber of good fi-ionds and corres]»c:ndcnts, w!;o were 
always anxious to so've liiifi. Anion-st tiiem were Absolom Shade, of 
(iait, an CiU'ly and prosperous settler, *"rom iJulfalo; Mr. Salsbury of same 
plac((, John McCauley, (leorge Kidout, and others. Ceoi-ge Davis, of Mont- 
real, was liis jnincipal agent for disj)osing of his llour, ashes, ite. 

Some troul'le seems to have ari.sen at this time between him and his 
old neighbour Mi'. Adam.s, in consequence of the erectiim by th(! latter of 
one of those fruitful soun-es of litigation known as raill-dams, in cicse prox- 
imity to Mr. M.'s mill, and on the same stream, thereby preventing tlie 
waste water of Mr. M.'s mill from escaping. To make matter.s wor.se, 
some of Mr. Adams' timi)er had been cut by Mr. Merritt's men, who over- 



.1 



48 

roachotl tlin liomuliiry, ho Unit it whh a Ion;,' linn; lid'oni tlm tiinlLfr WiiM 
>i<)ttIo<l. Tiiiif »'v«»iitiiiilly reooiifiloil tlawt olil iVicndH, uml thoy ri'tiiaiiind 
U8 Hitcli loll;,' ufttTwanls. 

I)r. William (". dliuro proved ii ^ihh] l>iisin<'NH man ; and tJi<^ Halt 
WKiks licini; in "]>oiiitii»n, Mr. M. \vi?<)ti' to Iuh frit-nd Mr. VV. Kerr, 
of Wi'ilin'^tnn Si|iiar(', who liad niarriod into tlio Jlra-nt family, anil was a 
mcnnher of Parlianu-nt, ri-lativt^ t<» tlu) lionnty wliiidi was nmlcihtoud lo l)(> 
ofl<Mi'd for thoHnceossful production of snlt. Itcccivin;:; a favotnalii<Minsw(!r, 
lie |iror(ifdf>d to Y(»rk, in Koliniary, IKlil, tli(> lionsn bi.'in,'^ thru in Kessioii. 
Ifr cnconntcnd a fearful snowstorm on tlio journey, ami on liis arrival 
jtn'stnitt'd liis memorial tlirou;,'li .Mr. Kimi- ; Kut owin^' to a ilcliatc tlu'n .ijoinj,' 
on iijum the marria^'e art, it was docidt'd to postpone matters for tlio 
proHcsnt. 

Duiinj,' his stay in Y»)i'k a petition was presented to tlio Homo Covoni- 
nient askin:,' fnr a half pay ;,Tant to tlio olli<'ers of tlio incorpivatcd militia 
who had di;<tin:.^nif-he(l themselves duiin,;,' tlm war of lSi2, he with others, 
put in their claims — as tho f^enoral ojiinion sefancd to he that tlio reipie.st 
was only a matter of justien to those who had I'isked overythin^L,' in a i|nari'td 
whieh in reality thoy were not interested in. The memorial was duly for- 
warded to the {^)lonial Seert'taiy, and that was the last <!ver heard of it ; as 
the ^'entlenuMi in Dowjiinsj; street thought that as the Jlritish Ciovcrnment 
had, after tho llovohition, given liberal grants of lands to the U. K. Loyal- 
ists, it was the duty of their desrendants to defend tho same ; although it 
might with truth he said that instead of the lands enriching the U. K. liOy- 
alists, the case was reversed, as had it not l)een for their sttM'ling devotion 
to the Crown, during the tirst ju'riod, JJritain would have had very little 
la. ids on this continent to give away; and their descendants, tho militia of 
Canada, certainly lent a willing hand towards ])reser\ i;ig what they did get, 
as well as these vast tracts of country wliich eventually enriched English 
corporations, as in tho case of tlie Canada, the Hudson I'ay and other Coiii- 
jiunies. 

Whilst in Toronto, ho was cordially received and kindly entertained hy 
Sir Peregrine Maitland and his aimablo latly, who was a daughter of the 
Duke of Richmond, and much esteemed for he* many fine qualities. 

Al)Out this time we find that a now set of luimes are beginning to bo 
used in reference to the ditTereut localilies. Thus wc have " Sliipman's/' 
"The Corners," or the "Twelve," which all alluded to the same place, now 
changed into " Saint Catharines" — done, we have every reason to believe, 
by ]\lr. Merritt, out of compliment to his wife, as his correspondence to her 
at ]\rayville, N. Y. was usually dated as such. Other places in the district 
followed the cxample,and tho "Ten," '-Twehe,"' "Twenty," "Thirty," "Forty," 
itc. — places which received their names from a supposed distance from tho 
Niagara River — now became Homer, St. Catharinos, Jordan, ic. 



49 



5<till, to Wn liist<»rioa!ly acciii-nti), (lio niimo "Ht. ('iithnrinon" priv-fvJfxl 

ft!! of Uk^ho, ll»lviIl^' l»«>«Mi miiiiod rm itH fii-Kt Rnrvt-v in 1H()I>, nftor Mth 

Cathiiiiiio Huiiiilton, tlio wnrtliy consort of l!uli««rt Ifiiiiiilton, lately 

(IncoiiHod. Y«!t, th« naniH wuh nimly or <'V(;r uh»mI until Idr. Morritt fnt^^nvi 

into l)UHinoHH oxtouMivoly ; as in a Ifitter dattiil, " Ht. OathaiinoH, May 2Uh, 

IHin," ho writ»w; --"TIk! villaf,'o will <lo orodit to itH favr>iijit(» saint whoso 

nanio it lioarH. Tim iiiillH must do rrodit to its Kaiiit wJio in n\\\\ on t-artli.' 

Wo think his lir.st !«ii:sin<«KH leltor, datod St. ('atliarinoH, wuh uftor this tinm. 

1)S'J2. Aftor tiio UHunl ('hristinas foHtivitioB, Mrs. Mr-rritt, with h«»r 

riiild, paid thoir wintor's visit t<i Mayville - hfin;^ drivon thfro by Hankfl, 

tlio hirod iMiin, who clainiuil to Im a son of Sir Joshua's. Soon afterward^', 

Mr. Mcnitt joined her, and aftor a niontli's stjiy, thoy roturncd, jiussinj,' tlio 

('anadian boundary on tho ico, over tho Iak(^ No Hoonor hud ho nrrivod 

homo, than ho found it nucossary to rotiaco his slops, as his fatlioi' liad ho 

romo partly involved by tho failure of the *^ Xidi/iira Spurfntor," a [ia[)er 

publisluMl thoro sinrJi 1^17, and predecessor of " T/ie d'hiimr," edited 

hv Mr. Amos Mcdvonny. The typn mid oilier plant were purehasod from 

Mr. Salsbury of IjiiU'tlo, to which phuM* our suhje<-t had to pi, in lolVironco 

to a settlement of tho aU'airs, and afterwards to York, on tho same busine.sfl, 

return i n;j; fdjout tho 1 7th <if iMurch, having .sati-tfactorily settled tho trouble. 

111! did nit make his usual journwy to Montreal this soaso[i, but \\\.i 

partner, Dr. Chase, went, and suceeednd very well in his purcha.ses, also 

ahewinghis general knowledge of gooda s\iited to tho market. 

Another new resident, and vary desirable accpiisition to tlie rising 
settlement, now airived in tho person of Doctor I'eiidh-, a gentleman of 
very ploasing manners, who wus much lespected by tho people 

Crime, though of raro ooouronce, happened souietimes. Mr. Morritt 
mentions of having to send a negro to jail for stealing a ijiiantity of hi.s salt. 
Negro slavery had been long abolished in Canada : yet, in the State of 
Now York slaves wore still kept and sold as, a letter written at tliis 
time by Mrs. Merritt to her mother in Mayville, contains the following 
allusion to what hius since been termed the " jieculiar institution:" 

'•12th April, ]K22. 
■' You don't .say whether you intend bringing Nan, (a favourite slave.) 
I would bo loth to sell her, without it is her chcnce. Let her know every 
circumstance that will atteml hor on coming liore, A'c." 

On the .'ith of July, 1822, their second son, William Hamilton, waa 
born, aiul aftor all the family having the usual autumnal fevers, then so pre- 
valent in these parts, Mrs. Merritt and the children returned to Chataufiuo, 
being escorted there by Mr. John Chase, a young lawyer, and a brother of 
the Doctor's. They readied there on tho 22nd of October. This was a 
jTotracted visit, and was the occasion of many letters from Mr. Morritt, 



iii 



r.o 

wliirh givivK wa nil iiisi^lit into liis itl(<MH hihI pliinM at litis liiliTchMiig {i«>iiotl, 
wh««t» (hno!(,m»l Hulijoi't liAtl Hjjaiii onpigvd IiiH Hllciilion. 

'V\u\ AutuiiMt <>r (lit< )('nr Imil Icrii \iiuimiiilly ImistcK uh, ii mhm )Hi« n ot 
honvv KtuniiH Mowing f(ir ixmly tlirm^ wooks, Ikhii llio souili wr^l. Stiuio 
v<\sH«<ls w«r(» loHt on Uio InkcH; and lio \vui« in ii Icvt r of linxicly, wni(inf( llio 
lurival of tlioir goodw, to tlio viilnt* of $ I ,(•(>(». l''o!lniiiit('ly, tlio vrsHil 
won(l\«'n'(l Uio Hloini. and lUiiTod, J.liongli in ii I'jtltnid condition. i'lii.H 
\v;i.s a gn>ut roliof not only to liim, Imt to llio wliolo m<tll»'nn"nt — na (lio 
loos of a genoral nirgo m tlicao daya %\iin .i v<My HninoH niMllcr to liic con;- 
inunity. 

Tlic ('liviKtnms timo was Kept, in j^'iand old st,yli'. IxMn;:; « cdntinniil 
ronnd ol' i\'sli\iti(>s; balls, parlii'N, ulri-^li rides, soi 'in 1 visit innj. luikfV ^liootin^, 
A'O. Ii\ lact it stvHood as if (lii> aniMcnl day:*of tho \'nIo i)n<l tin' Holly woro 
n»vivod in (lie wostorn woods) as almost tnrry tcltlor krpt oju ii lion»(>, 
with a \N;uin wilccnK' to all coniriw. and a Kindly tlioui;Iit towanls his 
pcvn'Of n(>ij\lil)onf. A _u;iv»nd dinner wjin "'jTcn l>y ( 'nninuKlnn' N'Mlliiop, |,> 
wlvioli alliiionds were invitmi. Ilarnnmy and i'otd \\ill pnvailrd ll,ri'n;^li 
out.. 'I'he silk, tin' poor, and nnfortunati' wi-ic Kii>k<d al'lei-. as wero all 
t>lao v.l»o couM plead tlislres.^. 'Ihe little Clmreli v .is adoitu'd, liavinj^ re- 
ceived a piv.uMit from tlio nishop towards its afeoni|ilislinnnl. 

Hnwinesa wtws fair, altlioni^li nioiu'y wa^^ \ ery'" ^■^aree, .md Imrtev Iho 
»tV<>ptotl nu'dinni i>f eoniineree. A ureal <piantity of pmk eliaiiijod liuinis in 
this way. Wlieat wa.s oidy wortli lifty cents in specie, .so lliat. a j:;o(id profit 
was nnvde on Ihnw, wliieli wa^ cliiclly exported to tlic lower pr<ivinces, in 
IS'i'J. N(nv I'runswick ali>ne takin-f I •">.()IH) h.arrels. .\ consideraMe anionnl, 
of wheat was pnrcli;n-ed I'V Imvers I'roin the States, wliiili assisteil (o.snpply 
the nmcli netnled circnlatini» nuvlinin. 'i'lie sleif^liinii; was ^oc.il, and a laigo 
amonnt of out. door work done. 

On a Snntlay nn>rniM,L,', jii.st at the elo.se of tho winter, tin- little t'lmreli 
was ahno^t hi rned dt>wn, ' 'vini; cai-',dit nn t'l' asi'il time l>i'''(,rc ti*^ 
service coinn.ciuuHl. IW greal. oxeitions, tho small coni;rej,'ation, who wer« 
just gathering, m'aiuiged to Siwe it., wliich was fortuhate, a.s it answered tln> 
pnrjKisc until a new omi wji-s hiiilt. 

At this time, Mr. Mcrritt presented the Mt•tho(^i^t.'^ villi a lot (.fLionnd 
en which tliey could hnild, for the n.'^o of their congregation. 

Diir;i\g tho winter, on hif« return from ChatiiutpH'. wlnro one of his 

chih^ren had broken a leg, he thus writos: - 

•'Saturday , Ul'nd VoU., I8'j.'t. 

" As 1 paase:! i"!ridgowater on my ride from lUack Kock, thinking of 
rell'fi (!.tnal, brought up the idea again." 

Whatever may have been liis tbo«£ht.i during tie S;t»irday of that lonely 



61 

wintor'a li'l'' nloiij^ Uio bmikH of tlm Niiij^iini Itiver, lliiH Ih hII wd know : 
V«<l, wf linve nmHoti lu lif«linvit, Unit i(lnu4 vnIiIcIi fiiHt (iiif^iriatdd diirin^r liiu 
huiiiH (if Hdliliii V out |"ihI (Inly, over lli<» miiiih- [KiIIi diiiiiif^ I ho wur of I HI 2, 
worn now inaliii'oti, ami ilotilitltwt, willi llio cncoiiuij^iii/,' Iio|hh oHi-nKi \iy a 
(lociidfMif |i(>iico, lio, |>rrli(i|tH, forowiw the fu(>ir(* iifiCdiiiiiliHhtiicnt of IiJh d«'ni^'ri. 

IIi"t nii'iMoiiiii<la III. IIiIm (itiic r<'vi'iilH lo iih, in many <'af;cH, liin inmortt, 
tliouf^lits ; and on nsionally wo meet willi |iaHHa|i;<'H alioiindin;^ wilh I, ho nioiit, 
wuif^Mini) ho|ii<ii, and iil olhi ik, n di'M|iond<'n<y cnliroly novo| In hi'i (•n<T;j;ot,i(i 
«:liara«:tor. Slill, wIkii lh<> nhilo of lh(< coiinLiy jh coiniKiicd wilh Kimiliu* 
HoctionH in llio SialoM, wo aro nol »<in jiiii cd thai. Mr. Mori ill, hlionld di'|ilor(> 
llio hu'k of iMioi'^^y (whiliitod I lit(iii;;hoMt. iho land; and |i('i'lia|iH UHk 
wlioliiof no lii;,di«'i' a'*iiiiaiion(i Ihan IIuiko of a, viila;.;o iiKicliunt Khoiild nof; 
|i() williin liiH icarli. AitlioiiLdi a. modcial-o |ir'()H|ioril.y W!i;i felt, in hin 
in'i^dilioin iiociil, yol, laiididiy H|ii!il. iiit', lliiiifjjH wit<! at a i^latid hUII outKido. 
Doiditioss, Iho iMii'toM wliicli afructod hini i'l ali'oidiMJ in (ho cxanijiio of 
n tfrritory siniilaily niliialod at l.lm ihtmomI, tiino, an IhiK wct.ion of UiR 
country wasi as i-tolalod in all niatlfrii of intcrcoarMO and tlf. nuanM of tranHit, 
HH waH Maiiilolia, on itn fnundinj^ an a provinco. Wo havo noon thin in tho 
tinio and mcMtis of lian!;il, for t.lio n(H'(M<sury waiitn of I. ho p ■o|i|<', ijio low 
prill' of llicir prodiirts, ami the idrnosi rntir.) want of Hpo«-i(v Aiitli(!ritii! re- 
turns sliovv, liiat for tho 'lOycai-H pr<'vioiiM, thorc had lioon only an inr.n;n,s(! of 
ID faniilicH in I ho 'I'dwuship of ( Iranl.hani. 'I'ho war had a. [lorrnanojit 
clVcct. and llio Ktiniidiia of I'.ritisli ^old, after ten ycarH, liad, at i'M »toppiiij,r, 
jt'fl Iho valuo of land Ich:; ihaji licforo. Ail thc:,o <'ircinnHtanr<'H corrdiinrrd 
tv) pn'Stiil an nnra\(Miralilo improKRion on iIk^ mind of a }outi;( and om-rj^ctic 
man wiili a ri.sin;; family — vvhilHt acTOSH tin' Ixird'^r ovc.rythin;^ was rovoiwtd. 
Tho stir and Imstlf^of tho threat I'lri; ( 'anal, then i.',<nii'^ on tho rioiKo of 

whose lilantin;( and cxiavatini^ could almost Ixj licard on our own frontier 

shewed that these piiipie were fully alivo to Uio jfroat waidH of tho country 
and wore lit sul'iei Is lor a conleinplal ivo triind sucli us lii.'!. So that wo 
often tliink it ^lranL'|' that at ihi: Lime lie so Hlr-a.lfaHtly rcsi^tod iTjo 
^■olicitalionH sent to him from Lia fat! i r in law, who was a monduir of ' lio 
New Voik Le;,'i.slature, as wi^ll aH Imk many fiiimlH in Ihe StatciM, to leave a 
loantry ho devoid of enterprise, a.nd li(M-oine a citizen of tlioyounj,' and riHiny 
Uepulilic. I'.ut the spirit which, in ISI'J, led him and Iuh (;»»nnlrymen to 
feel that they had a cmuilry worth look irif,' after, now Hpurrcd liim on to 
the dooibion, that now, if ovoi-, ( ianada uiuht awaken to the itiiprirtanco of 
her <,'i(Mit natural a<lvantai^<'.-!, or for(!ver fall li.ick I) -fon* Icsr moro entornrisin'' 
noinhbours. Wo believo, under thoHc- circuitiHtaMdeM, Ik; formed his r<;Molv<!3 
never afterwards to l»o diaturbod. Durinj^ thin HeaHon wu luivo rousoa to 
think tluit all tho pliikmophy whicli he, was mimtor of, was l)rou<:;ht to bear 
luatudying his own positiou. In writing to Mrs. Mtsrritt, ho says: 



' 1 |ii«\i' li.>(>i» iM \y.\\ M|)irilH niii>'<< inv ntnin liom ( 'liii(nui|ih' I think 
twnci mi>ii' HO 111 ii>v \\\'i\ I \vrili> niiu'li, iniil I'liiiilov m\'<i>ll mirununllv \n 
UOM10 (liinjjB, \n\{ slill I't'ol II v.iiil " 

" I lia\«< (he i'!\tn]» imn li -iI.I.m.I pi (.-i-l m i .•iini.i nf llii> ullii'i'., wliciij 
I k<><';> :\ ijooil (iiv. lUiil wnl.-dll '.I oi lit 1' M 

I'hiM |i|:\ri\ w liirli ;tt'li'r\\ iiiil'. luvami' cli(> ('iniiil < MVii'<<. wnn \\ Ikmi' Mr. 
M»M'li(( till! Iu< I'tnulC IminiIIi'hm. :vI)iI « Km s-lhlftti-'l m( (Iii> I'lli-K nl' (Im> 
]v>»rliiMr. to tlio lolf i>l' tlii> liiill, wiiii'li wn.i ('('ii\i i Inl itHn n dmiii^ inom 
wluMi tl»o j»lui<.> l(Oi'iui\i' !U» l\ol*>l '|'l\(> l\nnMi>. lnMii", \M>11 Kiiowii itH n liivi'in, 
stood on ll\o \\\aA 1o;>i1im>j; to NijicKru. iiml tlio mill I'Mciny tin' t^diocnHlnii 
rv>:»il, i>l" \\ lui'li SliipniiniN \\:\n {\\o iMiniM' nii llu' npjiniilr tiiil»>, lurtluM ilnwii 
NvrtH tli<» r|.«mo, ami in v^'iw. llii> lilMo t'lnir.'li hIu'miU Mpokcn ol 
In ono \<l" his Icl (iM"< (his '-ptin'.', lie p.'IVh 

" \V<> h;n<' tmnpiKod tho ron.j thton.jh th.> vilhii-o Mr Aihllnnn 
|M'Oj»i'hi>(J li»!'l ><t\n<l;t\ H.'ivi* v-toind jinil ncn) i-d' Il>i' Iii\ih'Im nl" (hiur. 
Vho \\\'\\\\ h:<\i> not l>(><»n iitlo on.> lnnir. ii:i\ of ni!,jht. wh^n the wnlof nt'i'vow 
'rh<>sj«lt "-OfUs arc thnm; Ix'tlci than omt tloo.i Milr:i n< »"■ I per |i;iin'l. 
'V\\o liistiUiM-v lUiikin;; iiH jjiiUons pcM il,\\ 

In <M>hM' to !\i\o iUi iih'rt o|" lhi> iinpro\ i-miinli* Mlri'iulv nindr m tlin 
Mlh»'*<\ \\ (^ nu'jht nnMition <h:ii ho hiol Imililin.';* {'>>v linn^rll' ainl llmno in 
hiH (MUplovnirnt. vi/ : (iwcllin^ hotiso, (.niMil l;ons<> nclininin;, t'oopofH* 
lion.s<> !»\i«l sl(op, l>lK^■k^»nlitI^•^ honso anil sliop, wall woiks, aii<l two honHOM 
;ii|joimns». snw n<\ll. jrnNt null. >listill<'v\ . and a nninluM (ilothrr slrni-tnri'H, 
NUt'h iUS Ivuns. stHl»loH, sho<ls. Ac Also, I'lvo ilwcllini; lionHcH, occnpiod ro 
rtVijHvM i \ ol \ In Hr (Miaso. Honry Mottloli(>rf;i r. olork ('hailos. hirod nuiit ; 
tJiUson, sorvH)\t . .lossio, and .lohji th* Indian . hosidi'H (Mnployin;.r uhont Ttt) 
|MM"sons on his ditVoront outc'rprisws. 

Am<>n!;ljiH many on:;paij^'inonts. he in'x.'i lost sii,,di( of his dailmij projool 
tho canal 

Roforvinj; to Ids joiirnal for tho no\i Sunday, wi- tnid il wrillrn in a 
jkvuliarly solemn tono. and coniliidiiii; as follows 

"M«T 1 ohviviMvMlio truth. I piny most (ii'\i)tcdly that my Ihoiij^hlM 
n».>iv Ix* ol\rtsti' and jn<)u;«, and that our lloaxiMily Kalhcr will ondosv mo with 
wLsdom." 

Ajpun. at'tor r<»onninjj to Iiis family aflairK 

"O Ixwl ! my ho.irt ovortlow.-< with ijratitndo whou ! rodtvton (In'poaoo 
of mind and h.ippiniv^s I onj<\v by liaTimi; .so worthy a i-onsort. (alluding to 
Mr. Williams, uiinistor. l.atoly diM-ca-sod.^ M.ay 1 rofmiu IVom ovorgixiiig 
an imfavoumldo opinion of a follow mortal lioroaftor." 

In ln« lottor. tho tollowinij Sunday, aft«<r nvov.ntini^ tho civil and ro 
lijjious news of th«» \ ill;\c;o, ho says ; 



r.:» 



llio 



irii)iM"t 



" TIlO WHti'lH 111 llic ' 'lll|i|i''\M» will liKiimsii (|h\ "Twrlvo" III I / (1 vArc, 

Ao.' 

My lliniH'xl MhIimiImv. '.' 'h'I Mum |i, Im lni'l, willi JiIh fiirfiils, millici' nil y 
niiitiiiMl liiM |)laii, HI) III in liiiM ImhI'iihI iiiit'liiiir m Slii|iiiiHii'!< lioUl Anil. 
Iin HHy« 

" It in my ili'IrfM iniiril mil, nl |)i<<'<twil In |iiirf!ii(< t.hf (.li)C(l 'triKJiiv 

'I'liiH MHH>)inj/. Ill ii'iilily, WHH (lio (fiiiiiriPiirpHieiil of til" ''Himl, u|tli<>ii|{li 
Ml, M»>iriU rnloiH in \i mh f<p|lowN : 

" A( IliK I 'liii^^iiii Siitnnlnv, iiolliiii)^ wiim wfledfd MuhI, of rrn-H liavn 

iiMiKW niiiiilii 'I'liov luiiiKil. ((iiiiiiihIioikI liny fnofimiiH Ifryond tlifir 'luily 
conrniiH. 'I'lii'y tiro roiiiriil of Kollll^ iiiiii>/i!iiiiy «vil, hihI do no*, dwrll on 
tlio |iiililic ^ood. r Mill, and lio|in will lif, wine moiij^li rvi-i h> I»m nvtmo Ui 
piiMii' iMi«>1iii>/M. Iliivn iiMVor ytii b«'»»ii iiiiy ^ood miw froni (li'in. WV 
/niri', /loirri'i'r, tli'lrriniin'il iiii. Ituvinij llw {jrounil. Hiirri i/nl , ami i/itliiv/ ihr 
lioiiih /niiti I'vrni fn'rumi firliii/ on thv rnnlv, i(r " 

And ufl.i'r r<'voilin;Mii the luinilv imd iiiiHin»H?i diflinilticK w lncli Imd 
|i|i>viuiih| V diM'l'liMl lilH 111 lout inn Cioin lliui oliiint, lie MuyH ; 

" My mind i'l h<» wliully nc'riiincd, iimif with lMinin''hM Hiid worldly 
iiiiitt.riM, iImiii divini^; iiiid I Ihimi^ miiIiIiiiio kIimh tliiil dritw iih nt'iii out Mak«'i, 
irt oxrliidrd I piiiy, IriHiii" will I'CMHordfd irif in ^lln«ti||l«^, |o iiMviifj ifioi'i 
Htiirdy (,o LliKiii iiiidllml I iiifiy r«'"'ivi' I ln' ono lliinjj; ii«M'd('iil W*i ' iirifiot 
|MiHHilily. in lliin lioiildi-Knint' woiM, ciijoy ||m< lili'MHiii/'M ^.^ivn m-., v.illiout 
t',\|)<>i ifMiriii^ mi;il'orliinr " 

(til llii> '.''id iiC Ajiiil, Ik wiilif", Hiiyiii^, ■ Unit lie luiji In, in in Ni{if(»iiii 
fur H wi>o!< " In. Ill llic Vlli, In llic liitli W'liilsf lnMc, 11 !• iil.j/ii|dion wu- 
t>|u>ni'i|, Iji jili'd liy Ml 'I'lioniiiH ("hi k, for tin- |mii |#osc of iiii.<iiiig fiindK {«i 
oiiiploy nil iiiM|||(Mr to tiiiiki I HiMvry of llu- niriiil lu.inci.iuU ly iiff< fwardn, 
uol,wilJiHlundin>.( (lie I'l i;.,liiriii Ktiitn .(ftl.r rond.s, (ind j.'fin lidly, dim^i' «ttld»j 
wcntlicr, wn liiifl liiin ul Mimk IhiIit, in ronrinino \\illi a Mr 'I il>! d*, .i 
civil (•ii/^inri'f, who wah iIm'Ii mii v'^yiii',' u loiiln lor u cu,;!,! iiionnd lli<' I'uIIh, 
nil till' SliitcM mkIi", (.If wlinli II rli'iiifi Ind liri-n |;il,rl\ ;i|ijiii''.d for, irom (.lui 
lii'l^iHliidifo. Mr. Tililcls (oiild not Icii^n IiIh cii^iirriiif nt iiidil \\ic Ttli of 
May, wlirii, (Inn, in <'oiii|i|iny v.itli Mr Miriilt, l;«* went ovrr liiK tout*', 
iiiid iiiTiiii^i'd III)- |<ltiti, wliji li vMm Moil.i'd oiil., iitid iiintrd in I h<- Nia^'Miii 
(/A'ff^cr wi(,Ii tin iiddrcHM to Imii l'io\ irici-K, .July liitli An iirtiiU- in i\i»- 
wnno |ia|i('r, diil,i'(| A|nil i'Jtii, I ■'^l^.i, «»iyH: 

" A siiKHcri|>tioii lias Ix-im n|ifiicd liiif al Hi- la^t mcihoiih. foi ()/»■ |njrp<rf<^ 
of raisiiiLj nioni'v for siiivcyin;; and takiii;,' tlm ]<vil of lln' land Ijint^ }<*• 
Iwi'cii (lie < 'lii|)|nv\a liivi-r iind llic ti<jin.s(. t-lnarn l<;idiii^ into \,nkc 
OiiUirio — ^witli a si<w of coniK-itiii'^' (hose wat<iH, tlat tli»:y may l>f'COin« 
iiavii^'iililc foi' lioiitH. Wi' iiir li.'ipjiy to Hfc (lie nainiK of our most n+j^X'c- 
lubli^ and inlliiiMitial inlialiilaiils at the licad of liio list, and (ruHt it will U) 
libwnilly HU|»|ioi-t*'d. 'I'lii* nilmcripdon |iiij>t'i- viil la-W-ft with MrCrcKiks, 
It is olivioiis a lioat uavigiitiun would lie iinuiiMliatidy idietU'd U'wt'«n [jike 



54 

Krin and l,jil<(» ()i\tari(>, i>\(v»pt Mm piU'h of tlio niounlnin, wliidi run I'o 
oasily ascoiidiMl or doHCcnilcd l>y iiu'aiiH of railwavH, at a Hni:ill cnik-mmv In 
a month or so, wo liopr (o pnhlisli (Iio irport, of (lio rni;ini>.M« on (liis in 
tort^stino; sul)j<>ct." 

'I'lio lioats m11ii<1(>(1 <o Ihm-o W(<n> of li;j;lit ilr.uiylit,. Tlio /uif/ranr, wh'wU 
coasted tlu> lako, and willi wliii'Ii passajfos were inside l>y (lie rapids, on tlio 
St. l,a\vrt>n<MV 'riio.:i< ,)„ (liat part of tlie I'lrie canal, now iinislied, (wliieli 
wo see, Mr. l\l(\iritt (lion,i;lit afterwards to pureliase) were of ^li^lllly lar;.;er 
dim<M»sions, ami a nil or tianiway liad l)een i>niU. by the oM l''i< neli (raderH, 
at I/Owiston, a l)iiniln>d years previoiiH. 

I li;\< he w;is entirely nnpossessed with (he idea of speculation, or a 
desiro to enhaneo tho vaino of his own property, will he seen fiDni 
the followinu; Ie(ter written to (he Hon. W. nieUson, a( NinLTaia, ami dated 
ir)th of May in (lii:» year, n'la(ive to his jiroiualy. lots 17 and IS. 

"^o^l have talion hack the lands of other p(<ople in Ihis plae<>, and have 
oflen'd it (o (liein at nun-h less than tlH> oiinnal price. I hiivw paid to (ho 
osl vl ' nearly ."?4,()0(), for property not. wortli the half of it. I will relin 
quisl; (he land, two hoii.si»s, a liaiii and shed 1 have bniK, and pay yon the 
ball . -e of the interest ttc." 

t'u the ISth of May, he drew np a menuM-ial to Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
on the finhject, whon>in hi^ shewnd his Excellency the many advanta;j;ea his 
nnite possa><8ed over the one heniofore mentioned as havini; heen siirv(>yed 
by Mr. C^liewitt. The (Jovonu)r was then livini,' at. Stamford Park, and 
i\1r. Merritt handed his miMiiorial to Col. Cotlin, the Secretary, accoinpaniod 
with a slioi-t ex|>lanatory note, wherein he says : 

" I'aii'losed, ! |d.ici> in your hands a i'oni;h ontline t>f tln^ proposed canal, 
from the month of the Twelvt* Milt> Creek to tlii^ I'iver Wclland, which will 
ofleot The juncliitn of I.;ikes Miie and Ontario i>y boat navigation. ilavin^i; 
been r(>pi'at(>dly ovt>r ev(>ry t'oot of ground on tlii> proposed rout<\ I shall l»t) 
linpjn', at any time, to have fnrlher oommunioatiun with yonr Kxcellonry, 
on this very important .snbjoct," 

On the iMth oC May. l.e aisi) viote to his old friend and eoni])anioa in 
arms, Sir John Harvey, who was commander of the forces at Qnehoc, 
stating his object and plans, and callini^his attention, in a military point of 
■view, to the fact, that in case o\' another war with the I'nited States, tho 
facilities it W()uld alford f'or the transjiortation of troopa and mnnitions of 
war, between tho Lakes, and endin«]j as follows : 

" ()ur commissioners wonld never survey or level tho ronte, alh>;:jing it 
wad too near the frontier, — oonsonuently wo wore ol'iged to em])loy on© 
oui"selve3, and endeavonr by similar exertions on onr [)art, to prevent the 
States people fi»>m taking all the frontier for themselves. T can bring every 
])art of this r )ute forcibly to yonr recollection. It commei\ces 1t> mil«^s >ip 
the Chippewa, passes Do (\>w's, (the honse we retreated toon th(> first night 
after wo weru beaten from Fort Oeorge,) and terminates at the Twelve Mil« 
Ci-eek, (the placo our boats landed generally, during the war.) <tc." 



Allhon!,'li Mf. ( 'liPwittH roiit'i wiis .mirviyi'd nndrr lliow pro! n'lilitioii, 
li(\iii;; loniltxl HO fur iiiliiml, wh Uiiiik Mi". Mfriitt, nnver Inilicvol lliat in 
caHf) of inviision, tlio^fdifiiiy ruiild fvcr hold tlui fiontior lon^ ••tunij^li t<> 
Tiiako Jitiy iiraclinil hkc (if (lie rimnl iiiojcctnd hy liiiiiRtdf «h «'V«'|i(h in tli« 
war Hliownd (liul. tJiw fi('(ni|iiil,ii,»ti df our noil \>y thu foo waH alvvnyn u Hoiirro 
of iiiorti rofil iiiiKasiii 'hh to IJkmm tliiin to oi/rHclvcH. 'I'lioro vvnK iilso lUioMirr 
Kl.iiinilfiiil. in tlio matter, iih Uio V,v\i' (Inniil was fiiHt approaoliin;^ ilH ronrm; 
tioiiwil.il liio |,ak<', Ko tliat a fivoiualdi- opporl unity would iirc^Hciil, it^olf 
to pxporifiircd conlraftorH and woiknuii wlio W(»idd lio tlicn out, of oinjdny 
n)"iil, to coniM in iiii 1 iindorlako wurkn on oiii' canal, iia a Hul)HO(jiiMnt inn/or 
of Mr. MtMritt's niwntioiiH, 

At lliis liiiio LIm! (•Iicc^rin;^ nowH (to miitiy, wlu) liad waitod lonj^ anil 
|ta.tii)nlJy,) was lii'iini, lJiat> tlin Utinoivcr f lonnrai Jiad powcnn from I/)rd 
l'>atliurnt to draw lor X'<t<l,()t)() (d-r,, (owardn drfrayiri!:^ (Iio Iokhoh in tlio lato 
war. Tlio an.4]iii'ioiiH nvinl wan liailod with Katinfaotion, iw many of tho 
jifoplo liad huiflVriiil Rcv^rcly in liiat. ntru^j^h'. Major MctrittH Iohsch alono 
won* ostinial.od n.l,llio lar;,'cHiim of.l'l.o^* I , of which, with otherH, hcrecoivod 
nl)otit oiio fomlli. 

1 1 must not 1k' suppon-d that th(! time licforo tho oporiin^ of tho l;«if^H 
lature was pasm'd in idloncsB, as we, know that a luimltoi' of important 
affairs in coniifction with tlio cause required his unrcmittiiif^ attention. 
Thus WH (Ind tho editor of the (,'b'atirr dehiye*! the notice of the meetinj^ hfild 
at Heaver Dams until the day it was to \)i- lield, viz: 'JHtli .Tuiir, and ac 
coinjianied the same with some, romarks in favour of tht; Nia;.;ara, or rather, 
tho Qneoiislon route, which were calcvdated to «auHo 1dm Kome uneasiiiRfw, 
lest liy a conflict of l(i<'al jcHlonKii-s entirely foroi;:jn t,o the main object, ihn 
affair t-houM have fallen throu</li. TIk! article in <pM!Stion ^^avo riso to 
nnotli(>r from Mr. Merritt, and is the, fiist hearing,' Ids si;,'nature, dated oth 
of July; and after ,','oinfj; over the arguments in favour of tho route t]irou;.h 
the 1'welve Mih* Creek, ho Miys : 

" Wo aio confiih nt no private coTiipany can complete a canal on any 
other I'out'-, the same method, viz: a private snrv<?y is open to examination. 
If you will show us a better one hetween thi.s time and the noxt stission of 
Parliament. tLe samn coni|>any we aro now endeavouring to form, will join 
you. Until tliis is done, do not prejudice our exertions, <tc." 

Thus it will 1)0 seen, that although lie M'as, as we hare Khewn, firmly 
impressed with the idea of his own jtrojection boinp tlio shortest, cheajjcst, 
and most feasihle, (which subsequent result.^ liavo fully liorne out,) —yet, 
being thoroughly convinced of the urgent nocossity of a canal in any fonn, 
between tho lakes, we find that he, Booner than have none, is ■willing to re- 
linquish the credit justly due to him, in order that tho country at large 
might be benefitted. And we think, in expressing himself as he did on the 
occasion, that he shewed a ypirit of <lisinterostednc88 which few men would 



it 
I 
.1 



iil 



i! 



56 

liHve thousht of, aftfr tho ciicumstjinces recounted in tlio earlier pageH of 
this memoir. It ia an oiwy task for men to suggest iinprovements and d«- 
vise Hcliemes when ilio preliminary parts of the work are laid before them, 
but we always find that innovators and critioB are tlie first to shrink from 
tho dinienlties wliicli surround the bold man who proposes any new idea, 
with the perspicuity, and we may almost say the spirit of prophecy that 
possessed our subject at this time. And although we might fill a few pages 
in describing tho local jealousies and petty troubles wliich should have li»en 
forgotten in the one grand national object, we think it better to refrain from 
noticing the ridiculous attempts to thwart liis endeavours at this critical 
time, and will therefore pursue the narrative as it goes. 

On the *J8tli of Juno, a meeting of the residents, called by an advertise- 
ment in The GUamer, a week previous, was held at MctUolland's, at the 
BcAver Dams. It was patronized by only two gentlemen from the frontier, 
Me^rs. Clark and Dickson. On tho motion of Mr. Woodruf!', Mr. Merritt 
wajs appointed (heir :'-gent, to carry out their j»lanR. Mr. (Jeorge Keefer 
waa chairman of the meeting. 

ifune 28th. — An juhlress w;is pre^sonted by Mr. Merritt, which was 
swjcopted ; and it, with Mr. Tibbet's leport, was ordered to be printed and 
circ\date(l as generally as possible. As for exjienses, Mr. Merritt had to bear 
all. The small meeting, though attended by wealthy men, contributed 
nothing. The documents were accompanied by a note ; — 

"Hoping you will insert it in your jmper gratis ; and any favourablo 
remark you may mako will bo duly appieciatod, etc." 

(Signed,) "W. H. Meruitt, Agent." 

The object of this address is plainly stated, also that the six months 
notice, for the incorj)oration was advertised, noticing that tho engineering 
facilities fur our route, so long advocated, was now confirmed by a professional 
engineer. 

"The extraordinary exertions wliicli our neij,:hbours liave made for the 
improvement of their country, point out to tlio.so wJio wish well to us, 
the necessity which exists for similar exertions — foi", unless eome efTort-s 
le steadily resoi-ted to, we must lose our trade." 

"The prairie country of the far west not yet being settled. 

" It is a melancholy subject to reflect upon — the immense tracts of fine 
timl)ered hind, which, for want of facilities, aie at present wholly unpro- 
<luctive. From this circumstance, much of their hewn timber, staves, and 
other descriptions of lumber, although in constant demand at Quebec, for tho 
supply of our West Indian colonies, are not forthcoming." 

Aft«4' this, he notices the favourable state of the soil and climate for 
ftgricidture, but to render this valuable, he liranches out : 

"It i.s necessaiy to the farmer that he .shi)>dd po.«isess the means, not 
only of shipment, but of converting his produce into a fit state for uee. 
Mesjiis. Clark ii. Street's mill at the Falls, from Long I'oint, on the shorefl of 



67 

l>ako Erio, rouinl to Dundaw. fit tho iipppr end of I.ako <)nt.aii<>, (and hr 
nii^ht }iiiV(« cxU'iidcd it to an illiinitiililf distiinop tlicncr,) is t!ic cnly mill 
|K)BH«)H8ing laciliticH to carry on a iinircliarital)le bnsintKB. " 

]Io lets tlio Canadian public know, liowovor, " If a snfficient dc^o*^ of 
jniblic spirit should not bt; found in tlie two Provinces, to conijiiete so great 
and noble an object, others will be appealetl to." 

Wliilo writing bin scliemo to Governors and Commanders, he correapondw 
with his old business agent in Montreal, to whicli this is the answer : 

" I ai.i most happy indeed to learn that the canal from the " Twelve " 
to Chippewa, as laid down l)y you, is at length likfdy to take eire(!t so soon. 
The undertaking is trifling indeed compared with tlie results, wliich, in my 
opinion, may be looked for from suidi a work. I have^very littl»( doubt that 
such a scheme would meet with liberal support in the way of taking up 
stock from the inhabitants here — and 1 shall certainly feel gratified in 
lending it every assistance in my power. (jEOROE Davis." 

On the 4th of July a practical meeting was held at St. Catharines, 
and a petition was drawn up for pre.sentatioii to tho Legislatuie, for 
an act to form a ('on)j)any with i)owerH to cut and build a canalj 
after Mr. Merritt's projection. 

On the 17th of July, Mr. Merritt was instructed to visit Lockport, and 
examine tho works on the Krie Canal, and obtain information, Ac. In his 
diary at this time, he expre.'-Res his admiratimi of the energy of the jieople iu 
pushing this great work ahead, ami almost enthusiastically exclaims ; 
" An enterprising people can efVect wonders ! " 

llio following extracts relating to his journey and general impresHions 
will also be found interesting: — 

"18th July to '27th, no stir in fjewiston, or appearam^e of business. 

"19th. — lj<'l"t, for Jiockport. A.s rough a road as can well be travelled; 
i)roke a waggon bolt. Jjockport bids fair to become! a large and llourishing 
city. Tho e.-mal pi-ogresses as fast as it can, from tho slow progress of 
blasting the rock. Mr. Roberts, the head engineer, gave me a<'ertiliicateof 
etiiciency for Mr. Tib'.)its. Observe no intemperance, and much cordiality, 
directions given in a mild unassuming manner. 

" Ixjft for lloohestor in stage; arrived at 1 o'clock. 

"Monday tJlst entered on board Montezuma packut, made a minute sur- 
vey of freight Itoat, »l'c. 

"Tharo is no impediment whatever in our plan ; the com-.se of this canal 
and all f have CLnvorsed with confirms me iu this opinion ; an advantage 
will be derived for l.egining early, as many of the contractxjra being out of 
work will have all theii' trxjls on haml and prepared to commence immediately; 
the boats on this ininal will be ready to pass over, and with the lciA.st enter- 
prise we will do tho greatest part of tho buainess. Tho St. liawronce is the 
natural outlet for iheir staple produce; every merchant in (Jenesee County 
now send their ashes to Montreal, itc. Mrmo.- " See Mr. Tibbits, or head 
engineer, about jiice per yard for excavating, ttc." 



58 

Tl»o ciroular ulliiilt'I to was ordcrod to hi> sent to ;ihiiost <>vorv jhmhoii of 
inlliu'iirc ill tho I'rov iiicf, aii'l to every Post-inn.stPr, witli Mi. Tildtit's rojKji t 
on tho ciuml. Sulisciiptiou lists were also Kent, with an appeal b&Hod <»n 
patriotic trroiiiids, re<|uestiii^ tlie |)arlieH (o he.eoine ai^'eiits townnls the enter 
Jirisrt. 'J'hey wero iil^o went to l,(jwer ( 'aiiiida ; and notices (n Mr. (leori^n 
Davis, of Montreal, as being the aj:jont for that Provinee. So. we lind that 
durinjif this period, he had written llie ononnonsly l:irj,'e ii\imher of oii'- thou 
amid hitters on the suhjeet of th(> e.in.il. .\iid, as various articles from his 
pen appear from tinn^ (o time in Tin' (r'/raiirr, with tlu^ circulars and fitlier 
niattcis alUided (o, all slunv (hat the pi'oject was then fully committed to 
tho pul>lic attention and crilicism. 

After his i-etiiiii from visitiii',' the works on the Krie Canal, and attcndiiifj 
for a time to hi.s private all'air.s. we iitid him visitin,i; Niagaia, tlie county 
KCat and local capital, on legal Itusim^ss, on or about th>' 10th of September, 
and tlie usual advertising notices in reference to the eaiial rcappeai-s in 77ie 
(ll'dinr. lie then lca\es f>i' ^'ork. for tlie purpoNe, wp pre.>^iimi\ of att<'nding 
to the time honoured custom of "lobbying" (ho (raiial bill through tho 
House ; as, pn viously, we find that he was very anxious, and not without 
some misgivings as to tho action of the A8.semiily on the bill. 

Four days after the opening of ParliauKint, Mrs. Morritt wrltoH, IfHh 
November ; 

"11 set out ti-day f->r York, on the canal business. Jle is de 

birous to do all he possibly can, Ac." 

On tho 1 Itii of November, 1S'J3, the Parlinment oponoil. and the Ciover- 
nor. Sir P. MrJtland, in his speeeh, told the House that many important 
measures rclativ;> to internal imimivenn'nts would be brought forward, tto. 

(hi th« U»th day of January, 1824, the Act j.assed. incorporalitig 
Messrs. (iPorge Keet'er, Thomas Merritt. (Jeorgo Adams, William Chisholin, 
Joseph Stnitli, Pan! Sli'pma!i, ]iA\\\ l">ecew. William Hamilton MeiaiH, and 
others, as a c ompa'iy Lobe known as liie •' \\'ella'id Canal (Vimpany," with 
a capital of /!i/7;/ ilioiisawl poioi Is, divide;! into shares of £1.!. 10 each, Ac. 
Very little op|>osition was ollered to the bill, as UKist intelligent men now 
saw the noi'essity of somo bettei- means of communication across the ponin 
sula ; anil the luci 1 mannei' in which our subject explained his project con- 
viuced most men of its prac ii-abilitv. 

On the 1st of January, 1 S24, in a long letter to the editor of 7Vw Ol^nner, 
he notices the pa.ssago of tli' bill through b(jth Houses, and ends by comj)li- 
inenting Niagara harbour f.ir a terminus. 

On the llth of iFanuary, h« writes to Doctor Proadorgast : 

"There are some important measures taking jtlace in this country, in 
which T am likely to be an actor ; ami am tlierefoie anxioua to see you, to 
profit by your advice, Ac." 



1 5tb 



de- 



Aii'l nft'r cift.iiliiij; liis idpMS on tin- "<!»'P[i <'iit " rontK, lio hi\m : 

" Tlioro Ih to lift Hn(itli«-r rut to tin- (liiiiid l{iv<r, wliii li will oprn Uio 
wliolo wcstfiii country at once. A'C. ''"^ * W'f iiittiud Hcndin;,' an 
ii<,'fnt to MontiBiil sliortly." 

Tlio mind of our siihjcct was now pariiiilly rcliovcMl, and his imxt olijoct 
wftH to iiwlui't! capitaliitH to tako up tli" stork, an an'aii- wliirdi wa« not 
acconiplis^K'd without nn rnoi iiious anionnt. of h.ud work i>u>\ piinsuasion ; 
an tho Kccrct lay in the fa<t of" llii> pipvcrty of thn npp<^r country, aftt>r tho 
tryin;,' linancial crisis thoy had undcr^jono. I'Vw in the I.owcr Provinco had 
bulllciont surplus funds to invest in what nii;j;lit |)Ossildy 1)(> an un]irofif,aMo 
hpi'cuhitinn. Mr. Merritt was well awjiro of these t!iin;,'s, iirid theicforo in- 
Kteftd of iinniodiately invitin;^ capitalists to cnnio forward, he puhlished tb« 
comprehensive article alreedy noticed, minutely descrihiiij^ tin; wliolo 
ftOkir, its prospects, difriculticH Ac; in fa<t jilacin;,' the inatter in ko jila'n a 
li<,dit that the most uneducated ctadd uniler.>taii<l th" (piestien. This was 
woU circulated thiough the (i/''iiiiir, and (jIIk rv. ise, ;,nd cauKc d tlie (picstiou 
to be discussed from ovory point of view. 

On the .'{0th of January, I'^lil, a larire ami iidliicntiid mfctinj,' wns Indd 
in Nia;,'ara, ami a committee of seven was furnied ituler the power (^f tho 
Act, who were to ox(>rt themselves in their various localities to obtain sub- 
scril)ers for tho slock. A rosolutioji was also passed, author i/in;.,' Mr. M(m-- 
ritt to proceed to Lower Canada, and induce tie int'^rests of Montreal and 
Quebec to oo operate. The meetinj^ sejtarat('<l in harmony, a cinumstanoo 
Mr. Morritt hardly e.xpocted ; as already lo'al j'-alousies were ciopping out 
which altiiou<,di ]iremat'irc, were to be foared at this •imo. 

Mrs. Merritt writes to her friends ; — 

"St. ratharines, Jan. 10, 1824. 

* * * " If.'imilton is so much taken up with his i.'re!it e.ina,! 

scheme, that lie cannot yo at jtreseni,, t!i(<u Ji he snys he s!io\dd bo jdejised 
to do so, and I will not ^'o witliout him. He I; !,'ettin'4 over head and cars 
in public business, as if he hail not enouj,di of his own to attend to. It 
app(>ars he has lieen writing a hjiiL,' jiiece in the (Ih-.tmr about the eana'. 
and will soon have to jjo ami attend putilic mRetin.(s, et-. There is talk of 
sendiu'^' him U) tho I e;rislature ne.xt s(!ssion. All the talk is about the canal. 
I have wiitten this h'tter while a Canal Commissioner was talkim^ to nio ; 
for we were both in a hurry, ho expectim,' Ifanulton's comint;, and I expf)ct 
injj the post, lie is just in fro?n Nia^rara. where he says the people are 
encpiirini,' ' if this route was practicable.' Oh, says he, ' Ye mu.st subscribe 
liberally, it will be the making of your country.' They say ' Yos, if you 
vnll/iWh it to Niagara."' 

On tho 8th of Ft^bruary, Mr. Merritt and family exporionoed a moat 
melancholy and lieart-rending shock. Mrs. Clordon, liis eldest sister, and 
her daughter, aj^ed l.'> years, in company with a Miss Stephens, were cnxw- 



' t 



m 



i llUIW 



CO 

ing in tho f»<rry fnuii Qiioonsdm to l-owiMtnn, wIkmi a liir;;» pinrn nf llontin^' 
ice wii.'i ilrivtM) hv liit^ (ovfv of IIk^ t.'\iri(-iit it/^aiiisl llm lioiit, (■ii|mi/.iii;r it, liiiii 
throwiii;^ tilt* IiuHhk uikI f«'rn ii\im iiilo dm ni|iiil rivn ; (lii-y iiiami>,'i*<i to 
cling (4) it us |()nfi( as tiicy cmild, Imt MisM SlitpliouM uuii tlio cliiM himhi 
Hank, iiKvrr <(• In' Ncni iigaiii. A hcow |iasNiii;,' ni {ho time (nok oH' MrH. 
Utirdon ami tli«> man, whuiii (hov t'onvryi'il to tin- shorr ; ami alllioiiL;li mndi- 
cul assistaniv^ waH proniptly iit luind, Mi'h. (!. f>x|)in>d, throu^li cold and itx- 
liAiiHtion, Imt tlic man rocovi'iod. Ilrr hody was convoytMl to St. (-allia 
lincK, for intfiiniMit in the family Imrial iilac««. SIio waH i'. Ii«r .'K<rd yt'iir, 
Hiid lici' I0S.S wan ko«>nly felt, not only l)y Ium' disconsolatn IniHliand, who 
wiw diiv«Mi almo.st to dislraction, Imt by tlic Nnudl c'onim>inity who Indd 
hor in liij;h ostrom for hor many nobh* i|ualilicalionH. 

StM)n aftorwardH ourhnltjtvt went to York, on liiK way to Qnol«H\ Thcire 
ho met with his first cnfonraponnMit l>y the lloi\. ,1. 11, iMinn, llet-fivor 
ttonernl, proniising to take stoi-k in tho canal, and also aj^'iooinj^ t<» aciHipt 
the |>r«'sid«>noy of tho nt'w comiiany. I'l-oniiscH won- also nuuhs liy Mi". Ito- 
I'inson, aftorwanls ("hit'f J uslioc, and many others of inllvH-ni'tv llo thon 
UK)V(\d t>jistward l>y stago, stopping; at every plaee and calling on th<^ leading 
nuMi, explaining his project, leaving his hooks iin<l eiivnlars, and invariably 
gettinjj fail- promises iVom all. At Kinystim ho had an interview with 
M(>«si"8. Ilagannan, Markland it MeAnley.and also with Commodore Harry; 
In (Jananoqne he sn.v the McDonalds, who had large mill.H ihvro ; in Proii- 
rott he left circnhtrs with rwlhi I'lint, K»i\.; from tlntnco hi> travelled in a 
Ktjige sleigh to Cornwall, and afteiwards in a carioh^ to Montreal a long 
and dreary journey, rendered worse by beiii;; don(^ in mid-winter ; and yet 
ho had really not received an actual subscription on tho route. Althongii 
promises were })lenty, thev all acted with cantion. In Montreal, lu! stop})od 
ftt the Kxcliange Motel, and innno>liately called a !m'eting of the morchaniM, 
pave lK>oks and papers to Messrs. Uat^'s & Davis, who underlt>uk to cunviuw 
tho city. 

Oiiriug the whole of this journey ho was very careful to keep Ids friends 
adriiJed of his proceedings One of his letters to Mr.«. Merritt, written from 
Quebec, the furthest point «»f his niLssion, is here iuserted, und will afford a 
fauiple of idl the rest : 

"Quebec, March 14, 1824. 

" T cannot say T am any nearer the day of dcp:irture than before ; by what I 
pee, it appears necessary I should remain until 1 get all the stock taken up that 
is to be exjtected from this place. They will do nothing after I leave, and it 
would bo rather foreign to leave tlie business half done, now I am on the sp«jt, 
1 have the satisfaction to say that I will succeed in my object, although it is 
►low. hard work: everybody wishes the undertaking well, but when it coiuea to 
the needfull, they keep their hands from paper. The business was tuken up 



f)I 

wnniilv 1»,V "'.V "I'l riictnl, llio I |oii»iral»lo .Iiuihm Irvm , lin i«tlni only (^'ctitloim'n 
lliiil I lifivc yil. iiirl with, tliiil lias HU|i|i()rlrc| mr in llm liiiMinit.'iH hh tlii'jr mii^lit 
to li.ivo dune." 

"W II. MiKIUTT." 
On ilio 4tli of M;irrli lio nnivml lil TliroM IJivwiM, ami llii'iico to (.^nolmo. 
MiTi> Ihi wiiH i'oc*<i\i<i| in tlic kiiidi^hl miinnci llr ullcn<l«)i| llic iiroru^fil.jon 
of riirli.'inicnt., utnl iIuhmI witli Mr. Iivimv lie Ii;ul n\\ intftvicw willi llio 
CliiiiriiiiUi <if llio lii)ui'<l (if Tiwl*", wliii ciillcl n, nioolin^' to liKl«<n to IiIh vIowm. 
Ilo iiImo |uiiil lii« ruHports lo l,<ii(l I )alliii'n.ic, tin' < luvci tioj-. 'I'lic fullowini» 
(liiy tli« iii(<«Liiij( wiiM lii'lij, liniii;^ iildy o|iimh«<| \<y lint lion Mr. Irvinn , arnJ 
tlw firtt llnnuintil ;iri(///i/'< win Hulisriil»( .1. In C^ntlnc Mr Mi-rril.t nuulo a 
iiiiml ;:i of good frirnnln, wlmli aflriwiirds piivrd tlni way loi furtln-r hijc 

(»n till' .^niH'' dav, li'> tidln tis "lii« iitt<Midcd (dnin-li, ;ind liiaid uii <x<'m| 
li'iil srrrnnii iVofn l)r Mill,';." In nil I'i.s intinontiidu un inviirialdy fiinl 
wliivt tdinrcli lir uUcnd' d nii IIk- Snldiat.li <lays, (In- i,iiii,i' of (})•■ minislcr. .V(v; 
S.I tliJiL alMioiiLjIi liu ::ily (iii;;i;;id i'l svork.'i nf i^'ciim.d ul,ili!,y, \w wu.s nuvor 
iMiniimlfwl of tlio lioina;^<i dnc to liin < 'nalor, I liron^jli wIhls'* fiiNonr aji no 
lid ii<'kno\vl<'d;^<'s huccjish to Im poHsildo. 

On tilt' Killi Iio ridicd on l,ord I >,illio\i.Hi(i H}'ain, wli<i Kcrivid Idm witJi 
rv(>rv hindln«HH ; aino promising' to hrin;,' Inn H(lnnic lifloKi ilc ll-imo ao- 
(lioritica, nH 11 is I'^ctdlrncy was very favoiiraljly iniprcHud willi Mr. Mor 
ritt'H idnaH. Utrn Im> ;4ot a fiioular |<rint('c| in I'roiicli, U>r tin; liciicdt of 
tlio.so Canadians who did not ninlcrsland our laiijj;ua;,'<', liopin;^ to int(!r^^Kt 
tht'ni nnioji;; tlu^ rwt in thn opening oi a wator pa,sKaf,'n to th«* Frumdi ('una 
diali SI ttlonientH op|)OHit«i Dotroit. 

Ilo then Inft for Montreal, wlnwo ii<^ foniiii \*-\\ ]ittl<> had tpi-cn dunr' in 
his alisonctv On tlif 2(1111 In- returned Ity way of New WurV State, callin;,' 
at Troy for i\w pnrpoH • of Kccin;^ |)o Witt (Minton. thn ori^dnatoi' of tho 
MridCanrtl. Thc! pxpt-nsfw of tho ronnd triji am ro about y\M). JlMoon 
sidorcd the journey a ,sui!<'c.ssful one, as he lu-d <^ni ,^5(),()()0 Huljsorihwl 
towards tlio work; and now felt so .san;,'uine of ultimate success, that he in. 
s^^rt^'d an advertisement in tho paper, s^atinj,' that Mr. Clowes, the Kngino(<r, 
was then cinployod in taking Wnels of the route, so that any peracni desi- 
nius of oontraetini^' for the work could exanune tlie groun<l prior to tlio loth 
May. when lit* supposed tho Company would lie, in a position (o reoeivo 
proposals, as he was an. kIuus to commence work on the W'elland Canal iin 
noon as possible. 

On the IDtli of May following:;, the adj()urn"d meeting' was held at 
Niagara for the election of directors under thn Act. All were present except 
Mr. Dunn. They decidcil to postpone their operation.s until the entire 
sto<.'k was suhsci-ibed for, and estimates j;iven of the whole route, that of tbo 



, I 



(>2 

(irAiid Kivnr inoluiiod. Iti ronniutntiii^ on tlioso piuomHlingH, The dUaiirr of 
May 2'Jntl khvh ; ** This ia an it ou^lit to \m." 

Oil till! iJtli of Juiit), a inoctiti^ of tlio DiroctoiN \vii,s Iwld in Slii|iinaii'N 
Ilotv^l, St. CjitliiirinPs, when (l('(ir;,'o Kcrl'iT, of 'riiorolil. was t'lpclod I'nmi- 
doiit, iuHti'sid of tlio Hon. il. II. Diiiiii, wlio.so dutittH iit |ii'('8<>iit a.s lici^piviM- 
(■(UUTul did not jicnnit liiin to dt-voto tlio ntvtvs.smy tinu* to tin< pniti'ipriho. 

In.hdy, tlio Mossix Clowes, from a new niiivey,jL,'iivo in llicir ii-port of tlif^ 
routo, and probaldi! cxpondittiro. Land owncr.s alon^ tlio lino wen- appoulod 
to for frco j^iants of tlio land n)(|uired, as was tlio »!a.so on llm I'liio (;anal. 

In August, tliof^iMitual olprtion occupiod tlioir attontion livci candidates 
Wini; in tlio fiold for Lincoln. Col. Jolm Clmk, of I,ontli, icccivod tlio 
inoHt votes for Ids Uidiii;^, lio being niuro rcspcctod and popui.ii tlmn nnv 
of tho others. 

An (m;i of tjcncral hopo and |irospi'rily .si i«iiin| to iiuvo lio;^'ni\, and tlio 
nuccHsitics of coniiniMvo rcj^aincd ; ns Ili(« nH)sL evident sij^us i>f activity was 
witncsseil on t>very hand. 'I'lie count ly w;is rapidly elemiiii; up -new hou.ses 
liein^ linilt, new di'-tric's op.'iicil for s"MI leini-iil,. 300 vessf.-Is had IrfL 
Quebec for JJritish and forei;;?i ports; and in this y<'iu- tlu; larj;est vessel in 
the world was succo.s,sfulIy l,niii(lieil in tiiat city her diinonaioiis beiivir .*{()(> 
ft. lonj,', fiO ft. wide, I'D ft. deep. ;uid drawing '20 ft. of water when loaded. 
She was iiained C^nhiiiihuK, ami was cap«liIo of carrying i<,(lOO (mis of timber. 

X few Kiiglish Members of rHilianient vihited the i-onntry this year, on 
ft tonr of observation. They wore- Mr. Wortley, Hon. Mr. Stanley, and 
Mr. Dennison— -alHnfluential men in Kngland. 

Mr. Morritt was kept busy with the salt and other works, as well ;is Hr. 
Chase, in tho store. Somo of Lis friends had wished him to oiler him.self for 
Parliament, but ho respectfully ileclined, thinking lie had enough on his 
hands at that tinu* to keep liim occupied. 

A .stiiamer wa.s building it Black Rock in anticipation of wulir comniuni 
cation v.ith the lower lakes. 

In family aiTair.s lie iiionlio:is hisciliildri n as urow Ing. 

Mr. (rordoii had ercci,ed a nice iiionuuieut to t,ho iiiomor} oi" Lis Jute wifii 
and daughter, and Miss Stephens. 

So far, all a]>i>Iicalions t'oi- t.he lu'ces^arv cnpilal to imiM the canal was 
made only to tho Canadian people, but as we have seen that the money of- 
fered at homo boro but a small proportion towards the amount refjuirod, a 
mooting of the Canal Bo;ird was convened on tho 0th of S'^jilember, and it 
was doomed advisable to exteud th«ir operations to wealthier commuuities 
outside. Under these circumstances an appropriation was made, and Mr. 
Morritt was rofiuested to go to New V'ork, then as now tho great money 
coutro of Amerie^a. If e left on the 17th and arrived there on the 24th, 
having made what was then consivleroil a lomarkably <piick trip. 



c,:\ 



on his 



IH.1 was 

i)\w.y of- 

linnl, n 

and it 

lunitit'H 

iul Mr. 

mont y 



In Nfw \'..ik W(( find tliM minm cnor^^y diHjiliiyod by our Hiilijoct, nfl ho 
HUOWMMlcd in intcrostini,' il. 1>. YiiteH, Kh(|., in tli« prcijrct, 'I'liiit ;,'<intl«)inan 
wiiu ufUw'Wiii'dH littciinir a warm HU|>|)(ni<T «>f tlm ciinsc, imiiK'diiitfly tiikinir ' 
up 1?'5(), ()()(» woitli i»r tlin Htdck, us well iiH Mr. AM'icd llovoy, who took 
$10,0(10 worth. 

Tho editor of tlio Xitin Yurh Spvclator, ihm un inlhicniiai ni^whjuipnr, 
»ftrr calling attention to Mr. Mrrritt'» iiroHcnt'o tht-ri', noliring reports from 
Canadiiin iiapcTS for tlio paHtycur, A'c, HayH; 

" 'I'ho phmsanfl piH)ti'cH we have at Icn^'th Hfrn. .*rin,OnO whm Hiil>H('ril't«(l 
in this city nn Satnrday last. We (ton;;ralulatn o\ir iViend.s in that conntry 
on tho prospect of iMiprovonientH liefoie them, 'i'lie whole Hcheme or projnet 
iip|>ears well di'si','n()i|, and Ii.-im he.en carriecl on with a dcpi'c i»f fn< ij/y ipiitn 
iinusn.'d in that ^country, and we sincerely wi.sh it may lio cariicd on witli 
the name spirit until oompleted." 

Also notices tlu! nioetin;; to Ikj Ik Id at I'tii-a (Hi thp L'Olh, and 
ll>M luster (lU \\w 'J;5rd, ile. 

After what ho ealls .v " iiinst .sni-'eensrul minHJon {.%y heyinl his «'Xpec- 
talion.s," li-' nlniiiijd on the l.Sth (if October, Cuming by way of Clia'.aufpm, 
where Mrs, Merritt was staying dnriii;^ her eonlirienn^nt. Owing to this, 
and having to meet with coritriictors. tV\, he was delayod longer than ho ex- 
pectisd, and dtM(ply rogrotteii not being honir ii. titno to fussist in the removal 
of the remains of thf^ heroii^ Jirock U) the moiuiment croetod on tiueonston 
Ifeights, by and at theexpeusp of a grateful ))eoj»lo. 

On the ir)th of Novend)er, cimtr.icts were taken by resjionsildo men for 
comph'ting the canal from the I'hippewa to tho eiitcanec? of the Twelvo Milo 
('reek ; and ou tho .'{0th day of Novemlier, IN.M, an interesting gathering 
ef about *J00 persons, took place at a flat near the head of one of the branche.'i 
of the " Twelve," for the jiurposc of witnessing the important < ( rcumny of 
" 'I'lirning the first sod of the WeUand Canal." The ojit>rations were under 
the directions of Mr. Hall, and Mr. Clowes the engineer. 

•Mr. Mertitt niade tl'o following speech on the occasion, which liettrr 
explains the nianagenieia of the enterprise than any matter at our ili.spo.sul r 

"Having l)een appointed an agent by the President and Diroctor.H of tho 
VV'clland (..'anal Company to manage tlm affairs for the time being, they have 
honored nie with nn opiiurtnnity of acldrerfiing yon at this time, and J as.snre 
you that nothing could atiurd me great':- satisfaction, was J not con.sciou.s, 
from want of ability, and not being ii tho habit of public speaking, I sJiall 
fall far short of (hiing common Justice to the occasion. We an; a.sscmblcd 
here this day for tho [)urpose of removing the tir.st ei>rth from a canal which 
will, with the least, and !)>' the shortest distance, connect the greatest extent 
of inland waters, in the whole world; and it gives mo peculiar ])!easuro to 
find the line of this canal has Vieen located in this neighborhood, the inhab- 
itants of which have turned out on nil occasions with a zeal and alacrity 
worthy of the undertaking. Their homes have been open at all times, and i,> 



t 



wiM'o ;iwiiro <it' llio iiiiiural lacilitios of tlie i.)iiti\ tlio Hiiiinlr (act (if tiiiil.iii;^ so 
yi'iit ;iii cxlciit of wtttrrs nt so Iritliii.,' ,'iii <^\|M>ns<* would lie u Hiillicictit iii 



6i 

iJicir jH>it<i>iial o\o!tio;iH we an< ^Tciitly iiKlobUid for i(,H Hpoody noiritiionco 
inonl,. ^'oll iirn now. i^cntloiucii, jilioiil icM-oivini.; (lie jiiwl, and woll rrmril.od 
rewinds for your liin»* .'ind lin.s|iilalit y. Tliti lirs(, !it(,(iin|it lliHl was tiimlo to 
lovdl iluH routo wius in |H|,H. A nuHitin^ was liold at. tlio Horivnr Divtns, a 
|da.ii diawM out., and a pclilion Hciit to tlio li<<;^i;daluro, pMjUf.sliug tlmj 
would KiMid all oii;,nii(vr to ft,\|p|oin tin* I'outo. Ilsadvaiila;j;('.s wtMd not at that 
linio fully roni|iroli(Mid(Ml, and our r(U|un.st was not atttwidiMJ to. 

In ISIS tli(> L«Vr,''^lii'"'''' i'l'l"'*^!"'"''*'"''' "■"'"" <>' "i'»H('y tocxpioro tluM'ountry 
hctwccn liakoH lOrio and ( >idaiio. ('oniini.ssioiuTH wi^ro a|>|ioint(Ml, to wliom 
w»> a|i|ili('d, stilt iu;j; tlio natural a<lvanta^('H oftlic route, and r(i(|u<vst(id it 
HJiould 1)0 oxpl.M'oil, 'I'liry considered it too invir (lio iVontier, and wo woro 
ayain disa|i|"oiiited; I S I'.t. Ilavint; taileil in our applieatiotis. we were seiisililo 
if wo did not make une of jjreat personal exertion we could iievi'r Krini,' tlio 
«ul)jeet properly liefoni t!ie pulilic. We wer(( fully aware of tlie supjioHod 
ina>;nitude of the iindertakiiii; ; we were Hensilije that the jicr.sonal inliireHt 
of the capita!, ami taliMit of tlu^ <iistiict were a^'aiiist lis, and that we had 
no co-operatit>ii to (^x[>eet from them, which tlio result fully proved. Kvery 
attempt li.'is hreii mad(> to ijet thi.s |)roj ct taken ii]> hy ahle h.iiids, hut not 
one individual in the pf(uin(H> of extensive capital, or in any hii^h ollicial 
stat.ioii li.i.> I'.lveii it. til.' hM.-.t assistanre. e\v',eptiii,!4 tlm lion, dolm II. |)unn. 
He came forward at an early day, and haa i;iv(Mi us his steady and w.irmest 
support. At I he same time we wore conscious it' disinteresied eapilalist.s 

le simple fact ( 
<* would lie a 
du.-*(Miient. t"or them to endiark in it. We thcrolore deterniiiied to depend 
on otiiors no lo!iif«r, Imt apply our own slmulder.s to the wheel, and not 
ahout it in ^ood earnest. A siih.scription j>ap -r was m;;dc out at the April 
■U'ssioii, I'^^J.'J, a small sum of money raised, an enj^ie^i-r employed, and a 
roport of the saiiio laid before the puMic mi tin lOlh of May. An 
Act of incorpuniti(Ui was olttaincd at the next sittini,' of the l.e^'islature in 
Kehrii.iry IS'JI. Suhscriptions were made at Quebiic and this place in May 
followinij to the amount of near '$5t),t)(ll). It waBo-.ir intention at that tiino 
to follow it up imm(>dialely. and commence the work at this point in Juno 
hust. However, as some gentlemen in this Di.stricl, who where wholly itiiH 
informed ro.sp»>etitii( th-- situation of the route, thou.ht proper to write be 
low, stiiliiii; the whole scheme to be entirely visionarv, and w(»uld most 
pn biibly result in a total loss to t.lip siiliHcrilierH, we wore under the nooossity 
I uispendimj; ojierations until survey.s and reports w«(ro obtained by diller 
lilt OKgineers; which have already been published, and have given |iorfoct 
satiafacti./ii. We tlimi sent to New York and obtained the aid rerpiired 
to cover tii>', tirst estimates, and h.ive iiov/ )>iit this part of thi? line under 
caiitract, as was the original design. Wo have had diiricuUies and prejiidice.s 
to contend with, but not as many as were apprehended ; and taking every 
tliiii!,' into ■.•"nsiderati(m, wo have commenced as soon as could reasonably 
be expeotoil. A report having been roeently circulated that the stockholderH 
in t^>uebec refuse to juiy the amount of their subscriptions, we })eg leave to 
read an extract of .a p.iper rccived from the ('oiu'.tittee in (Jueliec, through 
our agents, ]\Ios.sra. Irvine, McNougi t ik (Jo., mldreHsod to the President, 
(Jworge Keefer l']s<). ;- - " Sir, at a general meeting of the Sl.()ckh<jldorrt 
resident in the Di.st'ict of tjiiobec, held on Monday la.st, the reports, letter 
and documents received from vou and Mr. Merritt wero submitted, and tho 




f.f. 



wliolo l^)^v*^;;;rl>i^,t aati'<f!i'!l ion. Tln' ^''iior.i! moctiii;;^ Im vinf» fvorj coiifulnurA 
ill tint jud.i^riMUi'. (liHcnitifiii, aii'l prii'lcut iiMii;i;,'(!r(n'iil of ifn; I hiwtotT: in 
n )iiilui:iiii;? tlif! /;()ii()r;il coiicftrJiH of tli"> VVfilliunl (!;miil ( !i)iri(>;iny, hh woll m 
in 111") (vvtiiMinical cxiK'ndilin'c of (In- fiiii'ls coiiliflcl t,(» (hfir diiifti'tn, }i)iv« 
withdr.iwii (in! i" ;l i iit.ions lirr< t,(>|i)r<- (liniixfit' ihm-cs ;iU'v. 'I'ln; lt\vtH-Uir% 
ncdd not tuilrrt.i'ii juid dmlit <A' llrf din; )i;iym';iiL hy (!if Stock liold^n.^. 
'I'liny mtiiitiiiii tliis hot only with n, vi.'w nf HitisfyiiiL' tfio |Mil)li<;, hut moro 



OS 



no 



|)o<"iiilly tlifj ODiitravtur.-i, iiM wn wIhIi tliciii to rt't.iin I'.vi-ry c'i)ii(id('in!i! in tl 
Dir'i'itorn, and to niHt asKiii(«l of tlio jmrKdiud fnifiliiifnt of onr ('h^'!i;^»;rricrit4i 
in Qur'.l);!(t of tlio inslahncnt't wlicn (•■•illcd for, t! cir doiilitM in tl.o (!X(Hidi(!ncy 
and udviiid.i4(i". of I'n: iMidtirtakinx l^'in;^' <|iii(t) rc.tnov»i<| ; and an altc.'vlj 
Ktato I, in tlHMutogrity of your nianii;.:«'inciit tlicn' rest witli itjipli'-it ndiaiicd." 
'rii(;r(! still roniainH altont S'.'Ml.ddO lo Im Hnli.'cniifil to fill no (Ik; )i.nionrit */ 
our rapital. Il was tins wisli of tlio Directors to liavr 1;! 1 00, (100 taken np in 
tliii |irovinv'r.H, and .■:'.'")0,00() chcwliore, that wu ini-dit have a /^rcati-r int«:n>Ht 
in a \V(nl; wliicii no malcriidly conci'rn.s n'l. Wo liopo an'I trust cvorj 



!ariM"r aim 



inlialii(ant w ii Inn (lie iiiflm-nft' of (liin (wiiuil will iiiakn thr 



111 



f.lvcM int'irnstiid in tin* nndrrtakiii'.^, liy Hulxrihiii;,' for rn.ire or h'ss idiarv.i. 

It will 1)'. a |ti!i'uliai' r,;iliKfac(ion In yon, onn ;riid all, I > ;,*o lo vonr own 
11 ills ami iii;(cliiin<ry cvryUtiii/j you tjikc (o tlifin, lifsidf.nyour 'OLNfuifn' n, 
will lio j liiii,' money in yoiirown |ioikcts. \Vf; wl:<li (.'ii:( t.to-'k (,o licroinu 
;,'i'in'r,tl, and you uiiiy nly if you let tliii ojijiurliinity pass, you will Imvn 
riMSoii to n\u;ret it. Tln-rc! is not tlw least doiiiit hut it will ho t!ie nm.st 



prolit.a!)! 



lipJion of s(o(dc. Tins i.-: the opinion of jil.nnr.t every intell. 



^eiiL man v. lio lias j.;i\'en liiniself the tiMiiMe tiiorouihiy to e.xaniine th«» 
jjulije.et J. It. ^'al-eH, \>\., has (aken fti.ek (o the vain"'- of $:;J0,()00, Mr. 
Alfn>d llovey S|(),000. 'I'licse <,'eiit|emen have in) inlt-re.-t in tin; countrr 
wh.itover ; Init havo (iiken il for no o'Jier ohjeet (.haii the retii/iis (Iny ai» 
hi'ie.iller to receivo. ( !ent hnien this rinial, from it* p'-enlcn arid most 



fj 



ivonv.i 



l.)le : ituatioti, will he the unMiis of < lejttiu'' within ilndf, oi \,\ its owr 



erootion, ii .i,'rea(,(!r ainonut of Iranspoiliition th;ni will puy the intenjit i>f 
the (capital (^xjcnded, over and ahov() t!ie tian.sit it v. ill liiav.- fr' m I/ik.» 



Mrie, an I tli« proiit 



o: I 



ts hvdraulio .situation. It is w(dl known (o von tlij,t 



(he hanks ol the lliv. r Well.ind and the (irand lliver a'oonnd with an r.imohi 
iiie.'ihan.stihio KUpply of pino (imher, now nsele.'iss, whieh v/ill he (loat^-d 
down tfi our ostaltlishmentf;, converted into lumher. ami ( ran; ported to (l.o 
enlnincc! of the .\n:rii<-an caiiid .it Ton-wiiiida, where i;, mu.^t ever find a 



i'on.-.tant iuid 



(Iv d 



emand, as their 



hoi'd* 



ers n:>.' (iestidiU- < 



.f tl 



le artiele 



Tlieie are likewise imiiortant i|uari ies of the |ture.»t wldte (.'ypMim, or planter, 
on the hordtuaof the (! land Kiv(>r, whieli will soon l)eeomeupif)(i!alile i.rtieln 
of eomniereo. Staves i-aii he conveyed from ihenee to l-!tke Ontario for $'j 
or ."$!< pi r KjOO. All tin- piDdiicf; from the mo;:t remot<- (ownnhipK of that 
river and N\(ist of it, wliitdi now ijoe.s to iiurlin;r(<.n, will come throueh tl 



IiM 



Ciinnl 



he traiihi 



t of th 



loso articles, and many more too numerous to mention, 
will ho created hy its eiTctioJi, hcsides thousands of hairels of llour, width 
will 1)0 d.vawM frtun the sill roundin<; ei.untry to it.s mills. Uy • nti'iin;^ tlio 



ili<l 



raw a 



mouth of the({rand Kivcr om- month < arlicr very Sprin 

tin.' uarlv tr-msil iVom llio .Ameiican sliore, c\en sliould they i iin tl 



II 



lifir 



own canal a;.j;.Hiii at lonawatida. I his h an a<ivanta;:;e of the ^/reatost iui 
portaiioe, ami oiii; wliicli this will ever leUiin, as nature ha'i |diict'd Much a 
hrtrrior to tin- entranci' a'. UuHUlo, hy tlw ico, thai with all lli.-ir entoqjri*»» 



^1 



mmm 



66 

hikI ir»j[j;t«niiil V llioy will iicniM' Ito iililo (,o (ivcicoiim' it,, fii rjisf' it. ulimiM 
hiin'uftcr 1><( losnul cNiwIii'iif, \>y Uio rrotl.ioii of (hic Idrlc willi ii ('mir fool 
lift. lit. l''<)r(, l''ii'iii Of W'jtl.rrloo, iiinl iiiiiUiii;; ii low |)iilli on iJio Nin;.;!iiii or 
(Uiippawii riviMM, wliii'li cnii I'O !u'i'om|iliNlnMl al ii mikiII cniicmso, vcmioIh can 
Im> towoil ol" any hurl lion froiii liiiko I'liio l,o I, nko Ontario. 'I'liin prniMila it< 
wholly (ir»!!lil,ii!u of a situation lor livois, llial. can ('\<'n l>o considcird nior^ 
rantili', l.lio r.ills ol" Nia;,'ai;i o\0(>pl.otl. 'i'iiis canal having,' llio Niii,L(aiii lor 
its Av'ilcr at (Im roiniui^nciMiionl, will aflon'; Lin- 1 "st ami iniwi iniincrouH Hit- 
nations for niachiiiory, \villiii\ lln> .satno (liMlMiiro in America; wet. ordry, 
-vviinii »»r colli, we always liavo tlic sann* almndanl aii<l htcady NUpply of water. 
^vllicll will l>i>aili'rna(cly mad" use of wit lion t any dctiiiiMMit. I(» lraiis|iorlal.on, 
until its torminatioM in Kidvc ( )nlario. 'llic very idea, of tlioso conteiii|ilalcd 
improvements lias a tendency to evliilni.ite onr spirits. Instead of icmaiii 
iiiij in tliis dull, siipiiu) slate, in wlii<'li we have Ik en for yiais jiast, we will 
tninijlo in the linstle and aelivo scones of hiisinesH; onr coniinoditieH will ho 
eiih;uiC(>d in value, and a u;eneral tide of prospei-'ly will lie witnessed on the 
whole liin» .and sniroiMidin^ <'onntry. In ^;horl, /gentlemen, \v<* are sitnated 
Ml a C(mniry tavoured with (>vi^ry advaiitai,'(>, hitli in .soil, (ilimntcMUul Hiliift- 
tion : ils n soni'cs only remain to he Know n to draw men of capital anion^^st 
ns; and we trust, now impro\cnients ha\<' <"(ininienced, it. will iiurease, and 
thai wi> may w ilu. ss tiie same spirit of ent.ei'prise here, wliitili onr niij,diluniiH, 
the .American:, possess in so eminent a ilegree. \\'<> have now slated tjio 
local advan(;ij;>s of this canal, and tlio rea.sonahle expectation we havo to 
think it will hccoiivo a jirotitahle siuM-ulatioii to the shaicholderH. You may 
think wi» are ha/.ardini( a hold assertion ; Imt I v<iily helieve it to Ikj a« 
j;reut a /;ri,'/(i/'(i/ ol'ject to the Provnce as the I'lrie ('.•mal to the Slatoof Noiv 
York. 'I'lu'y have ajipropriated ;J=8,lH)0,l)t)t( for the purpose of eonnct^ting 
l,ak<< Krie with the Hudson Kiver or the Ocean, we will ell'ect the same 
i)hi(>ot for one liiVielh port of the mom-y, and \\ill reajt e(|ual if nut superior 
advantages hy the Welland. This canal is tli(>commenoemeiit of a simi- 
lar un»h rtakirit;; it isthe nmst important link i»i that cliain of communica- 
ti<>n we hope to see ctlectcd within t!u\'e years. \V<' renuive the onlj 
natural harrier of importance- tho Falls of Ni«i,'ara. The rajdds lietwc<Mi 
Troscott and I .achine comm.intls the next consideration. If the suhjeot i» 
properly heforo the [,»\i,'islalurc of the twii I'rovinces this winter it «an he 
»«uniueuc«'d the year toUovvinL'. There is not hinj,' novel, new or intricate Iti 
the uuilertakiiii;, or the m.'lliod to hv» jiursued. Let us only follow the plan 
adopted hy that colchiated and onli^jhtened statesman, l)o \\'ilt Clinton, 
and it will sut'cectl without t-.xinj,' the country on« fartliin<;. ]f they »"iii 
mako a canal 1^00 miles without taxation, T trust we can do thi^samo for OO 
miles hy foHowini:; similar means. When wp oontemplat«^ tli« natural aci- 
vft-ntas^cs we possess over the Americans in our vvator communication, it ti 
aj^tonishing to to think of the ajiathy md indilleronco tliat has hitherto pre- 
vailed amongst us on this .'^•iihject. If wo impiire tlm cause, nine tenths of 
118 would hlauw the ( uivonnnent. There never was a more prroneou.s idev 
We nie ever inclined to move the harden from ojfr shoulders, and we can only 
blame ourselves. Nor ought wo to suppose <mr Governors are ah imuiediatft- 
ly iiitorest^id in any i)art or porvion of the country, as the inliahitants who 
uro living on the spot. If you were a-sked in what hranch of the I^egiBlatur* 
should those meji-surei emanat*, you would readily^ miswer, tb» hr&ncb com- 
jH>.-*etl of the Couiuioui! ; Uiey »r« K<eut froin umongfct us j their iQt«>reet ie ourm 



tllH of 

u only 

ts -who 
slftiur* 
com- 



67 

^nd if w»' do iiut. firnl cxerlioii lunotii^ llicm, \v1i«t<' iiri' W(i (o l(p<il< f(,r iti Slr'>w 
nio II iiiciiHtiii' (.lial liiiM |>;l^'^.^•ll (lijil. Imily lor (lio iin|irnv« iii< iil of llif coniidy, 
and yoii will (iiid it Iiiih icccivcd tlio coik ui icik c !'ii<l iaiiiti(.ii of tliij ollur 
lirmi(OirH. It in It. r;»io ncciirroiK'r (liat. inrjiMiii'i of ;.'r<!it i/iilioi iil iiriprovc 
iin'iit, oriKiimto IVoiii tJic Hdiiiiiiihliiilioii of tlio (lovniiiiM'iiL. I(, wiis nol, ( li»> 
(lovrnior of New York who first rocoiniin'inlcd llic ICi i<! ( 'luifd, il was liroii^liL 
forward liy flic |M<iplc, wlio were tlii^ iiio^t, indiif (oil. 'I'lio HyulMii oi' jlaii 
wiiH iiialiirud liy Mr. Cliiilon in an iiirly day, and (lio ar;(, finally |iann( d m 
I HI 7, dm in^' llio adininiKfration of Oovcrnor 'ronipkini^. I nicnlion lina 
('iri'niiiHl;i,ii('i' more |)arliciilai'l y as a most. nnfouiid<-d idea is inlci tiiim-d not 
oidy iimioiil; oiii'iu'Isom ImiI, in t.lit! Dniti-d Stairs, tljat llio oaii.so of our nr-j^di 
j^cncti and inat,(,cnl,iort to t,li«) inipiovniKwil, of tlio ('oiinlry ori;^inat^H in iln-, 
(lOVcinnn'iiLof lliccoluiiy.aiul lian a ti^ndoncy to pre \ cut (n!o|il'' of <:a,|iit/iil froni 
miikiiiLj it. tlioir rcsidi'iico. W'r sliall .>;oon Ix'^^in t<j rculi/o tin; lionidil, iniH 
in!( from llio American ciuial ; (liis will cn-at" a compf ti!,i<'ii l»otw«-fn t lio 
rival niaikfts NcwYork and Monliral or (,>ii< lice and lin a gciu-nil liomfit, 
to tlio wliol(! coniitiy aliovo ns. All tli*! |irodii(:i' from tlio Amtriiun Hido 
will Ix! cariicd down tlio St. Lnwronro, foi' wt! will Jiavo nearly the name 
advantages in tiannit iih heretofore. It will lie, the mejuis of tho moio e.loi-e 
ly unitint,' the intcircHts of tla^two I'rovineeM and ino'easiii",' this charaeter 
and repiitatinn of I r(;onntiy ahroail 'i'lie hireeLoih iia\ c rea;ion to lje|i(v«r 
th«y hav(» heen fortunate in ohtainin^ contractoiH every way quulified for 
the' nnderlakiii;,' ; and it is to he hoped in your future elioii:e you will Kilei^t 
men of inle;^iity and perseveranei*, wiio will eariy on the work as !-a|'idly a,H 
under existinj^ circnm.stant'eM it has eoinnHiiei d, that, tiny may command 
the piTlcct. eiiiifidcnci! of the eonlracloiH, and lie .so fdrtimute, im t.o oftain 
contractorH wild will he entitled to the conlidenee of th'ir meii. In t.hat. 
ouHP ovory lirancli will harmonize, and thoie will he no dillicndty in complot 
iii;^ the all important underta.kin;^. 'fh.it it may has(! a Hpeedy and smicf.iiH- 
ful torniination, is tlu; most ardent vvi.sh of the Wtilland (Janal Oomjiany." 

Mr. llall then dolivorod into tho hands of (J'to. Keefer, KHtp, l*r(fHid»jnt 
of th« Hoard of DiroctorH, a Kj)a<h<, addresKinj^ him a.s fullowH: 

"Mr. President, I lic,;^ loavH.to present you with this Hpiulo, fortli'\iair 
pose of r(!rnovin^ the first earth from tlie Wellnnd Oanal." 

Mr. Keefer, on taking the upadc said: 

"(lentlemcn. it i.s with |ileasn!i- that f reiiio\c ;iii: tii'st earth fium the, 
Welland Canal, and ardently hope the work may eouliniie iinint''rniptod 
until the wliolo is comph.ted." 

'I'ho rent of the ^(!ntlouu;n tlem proiuicded in rotation to reinovn eueh his 
shovelful of eailh ; when a nhoit and appropiiate address was deliwrcd hy 
John (Jlark, Khci., M. 1*. P., stutinj^ that he would Kup|i<irt the inl«-rests of 

tho V/elland (Janal, both in an out of l^irliatiiiint, with all his influcncf. 

After tliroe choer.s, the company adjouined to liie Inn, v^luiua very ;,'fM'(| 
di'xner was Horved hy Mr. lieadj^cnley, to thirty four genth'nien. (Jeo. Kee 
fpr Ksq., wid John Clark, Esq,, did th« honors of tlie tuhle. After the cloth 
^aa removed, toastfl wero prop08o<l and unanimously carriotl, wJien the com 
pany Mparatf'd about dupk, highly pIcMwwHl with the triuiHaction of tiie day. 
1i « « » 



M 



J 



65 

It is l)ut an act of juRtiw to tho people of St. Catliftrines, to fay, that 
they turned out au'l gave their ready asaistaiico, as well as those on th« 
mountiun, to tho eiitorpri.so. Mr. Henry Mitthiber^er, (noticed before) who 
wiiH living at the tiino with Mr. Merritt, has Idmily allowed access to hiK 
journal. Tiii-s journal i.^ very coniploto in I'ogard to canal matters, having 
au account of the first meeting on tho 22nd March, \S'2',\. 

" May 0. Messrs. Monitt and Chisholm went to Queenstun U< bring up 
the engineer- -tliey were engaged on the deep cut. 

"8th. — Mr. Merritt and j)arty down the niomita''; to Camidiell'.s, nnd 
then rotui'ued lioine. 'i'he opinion of the engiuoer is \ ;y favourable so far. 
We intend proeticding to thi'Iako to-morrow. « 

" Dth.- Went to Pete<' llykert's to get a few hiin^is to attend thein. 
StiU'tftd for Canipbell's afttsr a rain. Made Iho best of the v/ay down to 
Mr. Adani.s' saw mill, levelling all tho way down, when all hands disperstwl 
c.xc'pt Mr. MtM-ritt aud the engineer, who followed him to the Jjake." 
* # * * 

Things wc!-o not adjUKted to the i-atisfaction of the frontier people 
yet, as tli" f lilowing proceedings exLrarle 1 friui the (I'lurnrr, terminating 
lOfh 1.)i!eei;ibtn-, will .'^hevv- : 

" A meeting was a Ivcrtise 1 on tli<^ 20th Novvnil'Cr. A very n :-])ectiiblo 
numltcr convencvl. (701) shares,— $-^r),4r»0, were sribtcribed.) Holmes, 
Ura'dcen ridge, George Kecfer, and 'J'homas liutler were the principal i)er- 
tonagen. 'J'he route was not to, be <lecided ujitil after the new dircctoi'a 
were chosen. MviMw person pre.^ent was disposed to lake shares, pro- 
> ide<l it should terminate ;.t tiiO NiaL^ura river. A number was taken that 
evening, and 100 ju>;t day. Aft> i re.solutiims, meeting ailjourned r.jitil 
l.st l\'.'eni!)er, when a manager was appointed, iiml niuiM stock taken." 

8th December. Another, in MJiich was < ..r lished the grant of right of 
T. »iy uf hind ('U tlic route. 

Doc'mbe.r 11th.- The Cfetucr'.v commetita were of the opinion that all 
vof<s -Is drawing flora 7 to \'^. ft. of water, couid load at Niagara Win uld 
tiodicr continue an article of exjiort. of which tlicre was no doubt, it 
eould be leaded or uidoatled in line or fjiil weather : 

'■ It must a[i|iear Xo the pulili'.-, ih^w \\\nu {]■.' nutter is brougld I efr.rc 
them, ir, was a strangi- plact* that was contemj)lated, at tho mouth of tho 
Twelve Mile Creek." 

Shortly after, a meeting was hehl as St. Catharines, at which the saain 
<pi -ries were prejiosed to engineer Clews that were jtrepo.sed to engineer 
Hall by the Niagara one and were answered eipially to their satis- 
faciiun. The (Hh resolution was in strong language, and it, with tho 
othei- iloeumeiits was eiivulated to tlie stockholders. 

/,'< <(ih\'(l, We forbear noticing the mean, unmanly, insinuation hold out 
by the Niagara committee in the clow of their communtoation, being con- 
vuuus it will DKM'twith the contempt it mcrit,s. 

S. Wood, (..'hairman. 

O. RyKi.itT, Secretary. 



6'J 



all 

M 
il 

( re 

■Am 11 



,vit. 



Ihiriiig tho \vinU>r aft<>r tlie coiiimiincoinent of tho cai';il, Mr. Mt i rilt 
romaiiiod Jihout lioiiif, fre(iiiciit!y visiting tlio woiks at Alhiiiburi^h. 

Mi-s. MiM-ritt luul tho cliildniii did uot anivo from ChatiiiKiun in 
December, so that they wcro not all together aijaii\ at CLri.stmns. lli.s 
ftiixiety was relieved by having diapo.sed of half cf tho suit workn to an 
Knglislnnan named Clowsi, wlio undertook the .superintendence, which f;et,hiif» 
at libcriy to inu'suo lii.s avocation on (lie canal, as that woik henccl'c ith 
would re(juii'e his attention during it.s progress. 

At this period of our history, it may not be unprofitable, after the 
lapso of half a century, to revert lack to other important evcntt;, and in 
a brief way enrpiiro into tho moral wcliare of the people whom we arenow 
writing about, particularly that portion of their history relating to (.'hurcJi 
matters. 'i'lie general observations made by Do(;tor (.'annilf in hi.-! 
" Settlement of Upper Canada," is as aj)plicablo to tho peoi)le of this 
district as to any other. 

"The circumstances of tho settlers in Upper Canada worn not such as 
would conduce to the growtlj of n^ligion and morality. A j)art fioni the ed'ect 
uix)n them resulting from aeixil wai", an<l b.-ing lirivcn away from heme, 
isolated in a wilderness far removed IVom civilization — thert) were circum- 
stances inimical to the observance of religious duties. 'I'he earnest eoittest 
for life, tlie daily struggle for food, and ii:i,ne especially the ab.'-eiite of 
ministers of tho gospel, all eombinid to create a feeling of apathy and in- 
diireronee,if not a looneness of morals." 

From the habit of emigrating, the statistics alre;idy given, shew that tie 
iiicrease uj) to this,time was but ."^mail, and the evidence of there being a 
church built on tho " Twelve," (over a cpiarter of a century previou.s to this 
time 18'25) and a congregation gathered thereto, and inaiutuinod without 
the supervision of a regular pastor, shews tliat the feelings ef I'ynl'n, which 
first drove (hose p(!0jtle to the wilderness, was also tinctured v.ith deep 
religious convictions. We find amongst tho oaily records of the KotUenirnt, 
tliat on the 1 7th of February, ITOo, a list of sulsvribers is made out, with 
the amouu+a given by oath, tow.nrds building a church. There are 41 niiniea 
app<.>ndod to this old document, and amounts varying from £20. 10.fi, N. Y. 
currency, which was given by ^fnjor Ditterick, intersporsinl v.'ith £10. 
from Mr. John Hainer, and £12 from Mr. J. Dackhoi.se, to t!i') snrill 
Bum of l);.'.— in all, j^/,v7./J subsoribnd — is oiiered for it.« aceomp'.ii-hmo t 

Tho original document is headed " Ap[)ointment to tho Church at 3'. 
Catharines, with their respective sums next to their name»." No hint ia 
given why this name is used, furtlier than tho fact that Cutharino Hutter, 
the wife of their revered leader, had died tl^ree yraia before — 1793. .A 
plan of tho church acet^npanies the document, shewing it to lave had one 
doscn liouble pows, 7 ft. .\ i, surroundo'! Vv an ahsle A ft. wide, wlach en- 
cii-sed 8 single pews, 15.3 ^ '^ht * *^ ^ gallory ou three hide* — and without 



70 

Etee[)lo or belfry. The building bein^ the modpst size of 30 ft. x 34, and 
ligJitod by. moans of four circular topped v/indowH. 

Oil tho 24fch of Jiinnary, I7iJ8, wo find that thoy got a doed for four 
acres of land from Mr. R. Hamilton, and that in tho year IHIO, Mr 
Ditterick and T. Adams, oar|)ont(Ma, havo an account for making fo.ir circular 
windows -also bills for lumbor, &c., amounting to £'^0, N. Y. currency, 
by I^KW(!ll Ma^hows. 

On tho 25th of March, 18(1, wo find Chisholm and Morritfc credited 
with £25.10.7, and afterwards, Thomas Mcrritt, father cf our subject, with 
tho hand.somo sum of £■>■>. Again, wo find: — "At a meeting of the 
trustees of tho (Uuuch of St. Catharines, called by request of the inhabitants, 
on Saturday, 3rd July, 1819, signed by W. 11. Mei-ritt, E.sq., Secretary, tho 
following trustees were present, viz : — George Adams, Jacob Ditterick, 
Thomas Mcrritt, and Paul Shipnuvn. The following resolutions are adopted: 
Tliat tho trustees are requested and authorized to fence tho buiying ground 
an<l church, to be appraised as to value hereafter, by disintcrestefl parties 
chosen by tho trustees. Owners of pews to be notified to come forward and 
make their payments before the Ist October — also, that we petition tho 
Bishop of Quebec to Bond out a pious clergyman, we paying him £50 
currency per year, Jind provide him with a respectable pai-son ago house, &c." 
The repairs here mentioned were rendered necessary for the reason that 
during tho war the cluirch was often used for an hospital, and that the fences 
and other parts were burne<l or otherwise destroyed. Wc also find that 
Mr. Leoming j<roachod on Sunday morning; and that on August 25th, Mr. 
r»ethuiio " gave a sermon ;" and that on tho first Sunday in tho month, in 
tho afternoon, Mr. Stuart was throtigh here, and visited without preaching. 
In Mr. Mittlebergor's journal we afterwards find *^ < following: — 

"Juno Ist, 1823.— Went to church and read tho responses. Captain 
Morritt road prayers, and Mr. Thomas Morritt gave a lengthy discourse, <kc." 

Thus we find that our subject was not unmindful of his duties as » 
(!hristian, and when by his oftbi-fs on the canal, a large and prosperous popula- 
tion gathered in, by whose aid tho old stiu "ture which had served its pur- 
pose so well, was replaced by a building of grander proportions, surrounded 
by its fellows in a better locality, we can imagine his feelings when reverting 
to other days gono bye. In his latter days he did not take an active part in 
church matters, and as hi.^ entire efforts followed the bent of his peculiar 
talents, he took a more Catholic view of many things — so that it cannot 
but occur to the observer that tho dli'octiou of liis aims were moi'e for tho 
benefit of his country and its people. 

Boforo again resuming our account of the progress of the canal, we think 
that a brief view of the statistics of the Province will not bo out of place, 
aa they servo to give an idea of the state of our prosperity : or, to uae a 



m 



71 

merchsintilo phraao, "what wo woro rated at" dO yoair. a,':;o. In tha 
"York Alnmnac ami Roy»l (^'ahindar of Upper Canada, for the year 182r)," 
pnlilislicd by Cliarlos Fotlierg'll, EKq., printer to tli« Kinij'o Most Kxccllent 
Majosty, we find a ,i;v<'at dcnl of useful inforinatioM, and a comparison bu 
tweoii tlion and now may not bo uninteresting to thuL'o v.ho liavo not 
watched tho inarch of ovonts : — 

The ProTince beini; ilivided into twelve dis-triota, wo find that tho 
Eastern is Tallied at £182,1)90 — the assessment at £7()l!.'J,2, and tho rato 
1 penny. The Ottawa, £1 1.0. .'5.1). Johnstown, £187,;588. If-. (5. I'-athursfc, 
£85,0'ir).7.0. Midhxnd, £:i()(),470, rate 1 penny. Newcaf<tIo, §1 15,91 1. 10. 
Homo, £231,2^4.7, rate 1 penny. Town of York, £!V.\.']78, rato 1 penny. 
Gore, £170,104, rato 1 penny. Nia<,'ara, £2.')r),Or)2.1.l7. London, £20i), 
824, rate I penny. Western, £429.2.10, rate 1 penny, j^iving a grand 
totiil of £1,909,074.13. 11, with an average rate of aa.sessment of one penny 
in the pound, not, wo think, by any means, a " Groariivj Tax." 



1 8 2 5. 

A letter dated r2th January, with a long statement of the canal pro- 
ceedings, and recounting Iiis loneliness, was sent to Mr.M. Merritt: 

" I am solibs. Eat at Chaeo'.s, and sleep in tho office. Tho house is shut 
up, and looks likv, a monivstery. Canal meetings have bcon hold bore and 
at Niagara." 

" I leave this early for tho Tunnel. We arc getting on well, as tha 
weather is favourable. I attend one or two days in tko w( ok. W. Chaca 
sends a shop up the first sleighing. It is near 12 o'clock, my usual bed- 
time." 

He was not destined to see them this wiutor. 

He writes, January 30th: — 

" We have been delayed in getting our shaft down for ?,omv, time, and 
there are iudicat'ons of tho abandijnment of the tunnel scheme." 
" Writa by candle light, and going to tunnel again." 

The winter, so far, luid been remarkably mild, so that for want of sleighing 
he was compelled to relinquish iiis usual vihit to Mayville. On the'3rd of 
February ho left for York in a single sleigh. And in writing fiom there to 
hix father in-law, February 13, shows his opinion of this work: 

" I have labored under a disadv.'i.ntage, not having any per.sons of capital 
for suppoit. llowevoi-, tho company ap[)oint(>d me before l left home with 
power to act as I thought proper. I havo consecpiently cluingod the whoio 
scheme or system of our canal. Tho stoekholdecs in New York writ* 
constantly to keep in view sloop navigation." 



liri. 



"TUK CoMMISSIoNKUS \lM'()INTi:i> BY Till'. floVKUNMKNT fnr intoilial iir. 
provcmciits, laid cut asovnn foot ciiiiiil from (liiiiul llivi r to lUiiIiiiglou, una 
my f^oat aim luts Ikhmi to turn tlicir attontiou to thin ixuticular routo for 
hlooj» navi-^ation." 

" Ah tltoy do not understand, or soarcr-ly liav<^ an idea of oannllng, it in 
fihRoIi'.tcly nc(H.'ssary I sJiould remain at tlio ell)o\v of tlK) meml)er9 until 
tho husinctis is coniplftcHl." 

" r mot tliem all lii-ro, suhmittod my plaiiH, and t'lioy liavo given their 
ontiro approliation. 'I'hc only thing that romains to l»c done, is to got tlw 
a-H oxt^wided, and a loan." 

" My arguments are, liy making a sloop n:i\ igat ion largo enough to admit 
any v(^«sel on l.aho Mrie, wo will draw tlio transit to New York through 
our camil ; a.i a \ cs-scl can sail from any point on I^iko Krio to Obwogo, at 
onoo." 

"'Hion comes tho oomparixon of <li."-tances and piices, leaving $iV 50 per 
ton in favor of the Canada route." 

(y'losing the sul'jetjt with this suhlime sentiment: " I am nen.'-ible it 
will not f)e m.s pi-ditahle for L'O or '.)() years, »n the; other. J)ut it will be 
a greaUr jiublic g(>o<l." 

in another Ii'lt.r of l.'Uh Fohruary, ho .says: 

"Tlio canal is lilco monoy- hard to get, and hard to keep." 

To wi-ite leltii-s to his friends, or to address audiences on tlio line (,f the 

•iinal, Mr. Meriitt Id!, an easier matter than .'■peaking to the House. 

On r)th Mar» h he writes Mr.s. Merritt : 

''Councillor Steward was heard at tho bar of the IIoupc, in favour of 
Ni.igani. 1 in reply, in favour of the Twelve Milo Creek. It was my first 
a! tempt to expn's.s my Hentiments before so formal a tribunal. I was con^ 
winced no person can speak well without practice, which I never ha<l ; but 
Tn;uio up my mind not to !il< embarraf.sed. T must confess, for the first 
Rcntenoc^ or two, 1 wascion.sideiaidy a-itated. llowcvir, they sav J acciuitted 
myself bettor tlian the. lawyer." 

"Noticing sonK; of tho members, tho Attornoy-Coi\orai and Dr. Rolph 
c<;lipsed the V hole. Tiiey are on (>])posit<' sides of tho IFousc. They aro 
both classically educat.'id, with extraordinary talent, and display more of tho 
elegancies of language than I ever heard." 

Among his frit tula in high places at York, none took a warmer interest 
and did all lio co-.ild to assist aiid cncoui-age him, t])an Dr. Straohan, tlieii a 
moaiber of the rx'gi..lativo Council ; not alone with his valuable pat'-onage, but 
giving him the advantages of his extensive! and matunnl exptaien ;. 

Wo see tlio first iTport drawn up during the long detention at Vovk, 
under the Doctor's eye take« a :nore comprelicnsive view of tlio enlarged 
naTig;\tion, than any heretofore. 

The following is extractt-d from a pamphlet for the interest of tho 
iBtoftkLoliIen.. in 1(S52: 



bill 



14fJ 


oft 


tJje 


J 


on t 


who 



Twel 



7.1 



" An ablo Report, which wiw published l)y order of Iho I'cajfl of 
Dircfton^, at tho clow of tho yoiir, is iivpniiil-iil lioreto, in ordnrto I'liow that 
tho comprehensive views tiioi\ rnt<;rtaii)(Ml, arc now roulizcd, as v.cil tin tiio 
ruiason why tho private Stock was not Lhon Kuliscrihcd, and tho great lots 
tlm Sharoholdcis wort! HulijocLod tu iu ooiiscijuonco. 

Tlio present Ijord Bishop of Toronto, Dr. Straclmii, who v.afj then a iricni' 
ber of tb« Iie;ri8lative Oounoil, took a warm interest in tliis nuv;niliL'eut 
undert;iking, from tlie fust, and did all that wim in his power to lUi^isL and 
omxjurai^e thoso wlio wcro labourin.( f> r its iiccomplii.hiueut. 

As early as 1823, when the work was iu its infancy, bitterly opposed 
by Home, and distrusttid and thouj^ht liditly of I)y otliers, ho ilrov/ np a 
[uvpcK' setting forth the inostirnablo advantages it nnist jiroduce to tho coni- 
morcc and a'^-iculttiro of tho country, and urging its acconii)lishmcnt by every 
rfToi-t, and at whatever cot,t. Tho Directors, purlaking those sentiments 
•vik] opinions, wore liappy to introduce, with his permission, his elo(punit ap- 
peal int<^) their lleport ; and tho paper I liavo last referred to, with tlie ex- 
ception of such passage^s as relat<j to the details of the Company's jirocecdinga 
ooniains Dr. Strachan's fiontimcnts and hi.s early views of tho chanictcr and 
objocts of this great work, in Ins own language. They are introduced here 
fi-om a conviction that it will be no l()ss gratifying to the venerable Prt-late 
than to his many friends, Jis well as inteiosting to tho public, to ob.serve how 
clearly he predicted, when tho comj)any was Htrnggling with its greatest 
difficulties, tho inevitable progresjj and kikjocss of the noble work they were 
engaged in, and the .s])!en(iid results it must produce throu^'hout a country 
which forms a largo portion of tlie globe. When lie rcrnarks, in language 
which many at tho time may have thought nxfcravagant, tliat the Welland 
C:uxal will, in tim.i, yield only in Im])orti\nce to tho Canal which may here- 
afU'r unit(! tlio Pacific witli the Atlantic ocean, through Uio Ththmus of 
Darien, it is interesting to reflect, that ho was then ontemplating a work 
which, after a iatei-val of twenty-six j'^ears, wo now find engaging tho at- 
tontion of tho business world on both continents." 

April 10th. — "After having been here eight weeks, and tho bill nearly 
through, had to leave foi- Niagara to attend a meeting of dii-ectoi-s; when 
a repotii was .stmt over by ]\Ir. Ifall, that the botfom of tlio Lake, opposite 
the mouth of the Twelve was hard rock, and coiild not bo niado into a 
harbour." 

He surv(;ye«l tho harbour, and went back to his post iu time to see tho 
bill triuraj)hantly ])as30<l. 

A meeting was held at Vork, iirmediatoly on tho rising of tho housA, 
14tl» A])ril, and as itturue<l out, was too cautiouh in reserving a largo jiortion 
of the st< :ck for England, wliich wo will see, was an untortunato resolve fi;r 
tlie immediate and easy completion of the canal. 

A very able document, b'wring evidence of being prepared by Mr. Yates 
on tho 17th of May, 1820, i:i favour of this locality, wa.s sent to tlio Poard. 
who appear to have 1h;ou then c nsidering the routes 

On tho 10th of May, a paper with Mr. Hall's i-ej>ort, ininn"cal to tho 
Twelve i-outo, was got up to Ikj circulated among}.t all the Ehardi eiders. 



: .J 






74 

44 pora(>nB rnproBOiiting 170 shares, on which £18. la. hail h«en paid, 
principally from Niagura, withiiruw thoiriiainoR liotweou 1 1th May and 12th 
July, in coriHetjiienco of the alteration of tho routo ; 10 from othor cauuea, 
rr presenting 43 Hhares. 

.)uno Stii. A lottor from Mr. Morritt, on IiIh rnttirn from Nnw York, on 
lK>ani Htoamcr l/lica, to Dr. J. I'rci.Mlergast, dolaila the concurring ovenUi. 

•' [ am ploased to have tho satisfaction to acquaint you, that I havo 
BUCceo(lo<l thus far in ovory particular. Our hoanl of directors being fully 
awaro of the magnitude of tho Hum wo hud to rai.so, dotsrminod, that beforo 
wo eiitored into any contracts, tho mon«y should bo procured. With this 
riow, I was sunt to Montroal and Quobcc, having to take in Now York on 
my return. $"00,000 was apportioned for Now York, and a like aura for 
Uppor and l/jwcr Canada. Tlio remaining $400,000 in London." 

"Tho New Yorkers, my old Htockholders, took at once f 300,000, and 
tho whole wotdd havo been inunediately Kubscribcd in that plac«. If all ia 
well, 1 shall reach homo on tho 12th, so aa, on the Ist of July, to let out tho 
greaLor pait of tho canal on the enlarged plan." 

A letf/Cr from Mrs. Merritt, who wrote shortly before, to her friend* in 
Chat&ucpie, 4th July, says: 

" The people began to flock here on Thursday, the greater part from tho 
othor side. Private families had to open their doors. About 200 strangers. 
15ut 00 proposals given in. They all went off like a fog, and by sunnet, 
yestenlay, there was not a stranger iu tho place, except Mr. Dunn and Mr. 
Boulton." 

In tho midst of all this bustle, tho inn-keeper, who had served tho public 
BO long, passed away. 

" Our old neighbour Paul Shipman died 25th June. Mr. Eastman 
preached his funeral sermon." 

Mr. Merritt, in a letter to Dr. Prondergast, in reference to the St. 

Ijawr»;nc« Ca'tals, says : 

" Arrangements are making for a canal fj-om Pretcott to INTontreal, of tho 
flame dlmoiKsions as our own, which will add very much to the value of tho 
Provirice, as woU as increase tho bubiness in ouv canal. I have no doubt it 
will bo completed in 5 years from this time." 

Tho Niagara oi)position seema to have been put out, by relieving them f){ 
the paying up of their stock, and we find them co-operating in •tarting 
another canal, — tho St. Lawrence one. 

From the (7/ertuer of September 24th, 1825 : 

" At a respectable meeting of the inhabitanta of tho district of Niagara, 
asBombhid at the Niagara Hotel on the r)th September, for the purpose of 
taking into con.sideration, and adopting measures to obtain an immediate 
■urvey of tho River St. Lawrence. 

" Tho Hon. Mr. Clark was called to the chair. 

" William Hamilton Merritt, ICsquire, oiiiciatod as Secretary. 



, 



with 



75 

"WliPii it Tras rfianlvoti, Tliut tliis mcctiriK Imvinj;; long witnc«««d 
the vtixatioii, dtilay, and heavy o.\|K'nHf) attou'liii;;,' tli«* iiavijjatii.n of tha 
Ht. Lawrciico, hntwcfii Montn-al ami VicHnott, and In-int,' hatisfiftl Uiat a 
imiiect canal mivin;ali<)ii can Ijo niado IkiIwcch tliosM places, ut a nio<!iMat« 
oxpensc, cotnjtanMl with tho ohjoct of tht) undertaking -do iTconiiuond ft 
8uh8('i-i))tit)M to la', opcufd ininiodiatcly, in hoth I'rovinros, for thii jiurpoM 
of rmiployin',' a sciontitlt! and piactical on;,'iiiocr or (Mii,'inocrs, tocxpIuD tli U, 
and niako out an OKtiinato of tho exponso of constnu:tinj< a oanal aloii;; th« 
hanks of thn St. Kawroncn, or olhorwisf^. as inav ])rov<iniost t'li.,'il)lo, — in ordar 
that tlu? aamo may l»u laid hofore llio iiOjiislatiirc of the two province*., »i 
kh© next session of thoir re.spcctivo hfgishition.s." 

York, Kopfc. 'J'jth.- -A hotter to Mr. Morritt from tlnur solicitor, on the 
«ve of luH doparture for England, for auhscnhprs tc tho stock alluded to above, 
in allusion to the «xpou.so of con.struoting a canal down tho St. Lawrencu, says: 

" I havo crot a favourahlo account of the Petit nation Fiver, which head* 
•bout five or .six miles hack of Pn^seott, down which, I think, a canal can \i« 
made : this should lie exaujined. The place i>f conimencenient should he, in 
my opinion, above Prescott, anil up that to Petit nation, or else froua 
Johnstown." 

H. J. UOUI.TOH. 

It will 1)0 Hoen from the foregoing that Mr. Mcrritt looked on this great 
undertaking in a different way from many of his intimate friend.s. llis wa« 
no potty schenio intended only to benefit a particular locality, llis broad 
and expansive views penetrated beyond his own profit ; as he well and 
truly reasoned that the noble St. Jiawrence, then, it might be .said, flowing 
alrao.st idly into the ocean, was not phiced there by the Clreat Maker for niftro 
ornament, but would eventually, become tributary to the powers of clover 
men, and be the broad pathway to bear thegohlen products of the great Weat 
to the millions of toilers, whoso voices were raised in Europe for tho cry of 
cheap bread. Could thoi?o merchants in MOntreal but .see tho results whicJi 
hia idea brought about, and the change whicli they wrought on their suc- 
eessors, what a wondei-ful picture would be presented to their imagination ; 
to behold a mere trading town gradually assume gigantic proportions, its 
streets lined with stately warehouses, and its docks become tho pride of » 
country, noble merchant-men and floating .steam palaces thronging its har- 
bour, ready to carry to the ends of the earth the great staples so bounti- 
fully bestowed by nature on the boundless acres of the far we.st. 

It is not our intention at present to enter into Mr. Merritt's connectioa 
with the improvement of the St. liawrence, sutlice to say that he sncceedod 
in getting the work oonimenoed ; as hy the aid of tho funds raised at the 
Niagara meeting, Mr. CHowes and Mr. George Rykert were enabled to bo 
«ent down, and make a survey of the River banks, which act was tho'be 
ginning of those great works afterwards undertaken to open a water way 
round the rapids. 



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76 

Jt is not to bo concsaloil that the St. Lawrcncs canals had for a number 
of years a formiflablo competition in the Ottawa (.nnal. Tlie British Govfirn- 
nont this winter dosiriiig tho work for military purjtoRoa, offered tho P"ovinco 
a loan of £70,0i)0 stoj'ling if thoy would uadartako the work. It is a matter 
of history that tliey oom])h'ted this work, tlio Kideau'Canal, at their own ex- 
|>onsc, thus postponing tho improvement of the St. I awrencc river, to which 
the attention of cv.r Parliament was continnouhly directed, and keeping 
bat^k tho profits which tho projectors of the Wellund Canal naturally ex- 
pected from the extensicm of their solicmc. 

A letter from his friend, Dr. llolph, dated Charlottville, 2'2nd October, 
contains the following compliments to our subJ3ct : 

"Tlie mania for tho improvement of navigation may bo trace<l to you. 
11»at is some apology for reipiesting you to use your influence in sending 
Mr. Clews to survey the canal at Jx)ng Point. J. IloLrn." 

2Gth October.- -The Board, at their hist meeting in St. Catharines, hav- 
ing let the excavation from tho Welland liiver to Outiirio, gave to Messrs. 
Beach, Ward, Ilovey and Phelps the contiuct for the wooden loci s and 
waste weirs at .£.')5U per lock. At the same meeting Messrs. Bejich and 
Keefer were awarded a grant of the free use of the surplus water from tb« 
first weir for a flour mill of four run of stone, to bo ready on the opening 
of the canal. 

1 7th November. — Mr. Merritt left in stage for York. House met tho 
8amo day. The ball is opened. 

Nov. 22nd, the place of meeting for tho Board was changed to Voik, 
«wiug to a majority of tho directors residing there. 

2:Jrd November. -An article appearwl, signed "A Friend to Internal 
Improvements." 

Noticing tho variovis subjects of the potitionoi-s against tho canal, one 
against the new route, that the levels would prouuce sickness. 

"I have beim here four or five week.'?. IVtitioned for loan of $100,000 
and romi.ssion of duties for canal uses, and anu'ndnient of act, so as to como 
liown iJick's Creek instead of tho 'J'welve." 

Among other opponents as petitioners, one individual, James Gordon, 
Mr. M.'s brother-in-law, petitioncvl to have the WJute changed, an<l sug- 
gested a line ni^arly in tho new cut, across from Shaver's direct to the 
mouth of tho creek, in.steail of coming round by St. Catharines. Tho 
ground of tho petition, was, from the delay for o\»taining tlie stock in Eng- 
Uuid ; whereas, tho stock was not obtained at all: an<l the !? 100,000 now 
was, in a business point of view, unusually large foi he assetts of the 
•ompany. 

lie idludes to the ripoits on tl.oso pi-oceotlings, of which 350 copies have 
boon printed. Alludes to the scarcity, and moneUry depression, us caus- 
ing tho failun; to get sU ok in England. 



77 

TLo liarvest'tluH year was an abundant one, and ii gtmcrai iJoa of im- 
prov jraent acenied to pervade all cle -ses ; business was good throufjhout 
tlie country ; work on the caniil xvaa going on rapidly ; six Luiulred labour- 
ers we'-o employed, and nioi-o wanted. It wjus expected that the whole l>u» 
would be under contract by S|>ring. The marked change along the 
route was wonderful. Where the foi-est stood a short time ago, was now 
a scene of life and bustle. The sharp rattle of the axes hewing and carving 
their way through the old woods ; the unceasing liammering of the pick on 
the clayey banks, and occasionally the ci-;i>;h of a falling tree, iiiingliiig with 
loud gunpowder ex])!osions M-hen a blast was discharged, nil hut a charm to 
the woik which none enjoyed more than oui- subject, whoso busy bnua 
found ample swing ; now at onr^ place, now at another, superintending, 
watching, settling disputes, arranging details. In fact, if ever man had his 
"hands full," Mr. ]M. at this time lial his. Oie hundred dwcllitigs wcrw 
on the summit, occupied by mechanics, labourers, tailors, shoe-mak(!rs, store 
keepers and others. 

At the entrance of the Twelve Mile Creek, the witrks on the haibour 
wer<? iiuuigurated ' y the erection of a inimber of shanties, matei'ial colleetod 
A'c, for the extensive works required at that place. 



t ■ 



i !; 



lO 



1 8 2 G . 

One of tlie important events whicli oecured during the year, wwi 
the active part our subject took towards establihhing a newsjiaper, ihe/irtil 
in St. Catharines, and the T/oua^/cst of ((crcii now being printed in th« 
Trovince. Tn his account book we find the fullowing entry, dated Dec. 19, 



Paid Proctor A Swift's account. 

For Hiram Leavenworth's tyi)e : 
Postage, ink, and juipej- : 



40..'-.0. 



$104.'i;v 



He was not forgetful of the A-aluable aid a goo(J pujier would bo towanU 
Ids canal scheme, as well as the benefiUs it v.ould confer on the locality - 
although to Niagara belong.s the credit of having established the fiiTst ikws- 
jiajser in the Province. "^I'his sheet was calleil the " rjipcr ('(imuln <i<ui'He," 
and wivs started in 1 793, and continued to be sujipoi-ted in the district until 
the Parliament moved to York, w hence it was tranaferreil. Another j)aper 
w;u» started by the notorious Joe Wilcox, and again after the war of 181:^, 
was su(;ceeded by tlie " Sjiccfator,' already nmntioned in c<;nnection with 
Mr. Thomas Merritt's tinancial dJ'hculties. The '• Spntatin-" was eventually 
.suec/eeded by the " Glea}Kr" which, so far, had been the organ on c*nal uiif"aiT». 



. I 



78 

One great objoct Mr. Morrittliad in viewwhcn he assisted in establislnn<' 
the newspaper iu St. (.'atharines entitled tlie ^^ Farmer' s Journal, ami Wf /land 
Canal Intelligencer, was to circuhite general useful information around tho 
country. In the address to th« public, it states : — "Our j)rincipal objsct 
will bo to publish a correct and accurate statement, from tim« to time of all 
interesting and im))ortant matters relative to the Welland Canal, which is 
now rapidly progressing under the most fiivourable auspices: to endeavour to 
ih« utmost of our limited talent, to draw the public attention to 
the splendid plans now in embryo, for the improvement of general navigation 
iu this colony : to awaken a spirit of inquiry and enterjtriao in regard to 
canala and other improvements of vital importance to our ])rosperity and 
happiness : and to develope by every proper means, the various lesourcea of 
thin fertile land wo live in." 

This paper, ushered into tho world in tho most unpretending manner 
was emiii'nitly successful. It Mas well printed — so accurate, that an error 
was very feldom detected, either iu spelling or dictation. It was Mr. 
Leavenworth's })rido to be considered tho best printer in the country. It 
fully maintained its credit, and supplied the farmers with every information 
collected from the most rtiliabk sources. 

Wo have, bo far, refrained from mentioning 8omo of the petty 
Blanders with which our subject was assailed during his earlier struggle! 
towards the accomplishment of this great national work, and would not refer 
to them now, were it not to show that in tbe midst of all his trouble and 
excitement, ho was not forgetful of any of his honest and honourable 
obligation!. It will be remembered that some years previously, the failure 
of his business, when in partnership with Mr. IngersoU, left him heavily 
involved to parties with whom he done business, in Montreal ; and tho 
following letters received from his old creditors, conclusively shews that 
neithtn- the thoughts of dishonesty nor pecuniai-y aggrandizement jjossessed 
him at ar.y period duriiig his connection with tho cp.nal; for, if at any time 
of his indeutification with this work, he needed jroperty or motwy, it was 
at this period, — when every fair resort was tri«;d to obtain funds for tlie 
aocomplishmcnt of tho undertaking: 

" Montreal, Ai)ril Cth, 182G. 

" Dkar Sib :— Your letter of the 22nd contained a deed of 100 acres of 
liuid in Zorra, and we had previously received deeds for 400 acres. We 
therefore enclose your bond, and in doing bo, we feel it is incumbent on us 
to say, that this voluntary act on your part, is highly creditable to you, and 
assures us that if you continue to be successful, which we sincerely hope will 
be the case, the remaining part of the promises conveyed to us in your letter 
of March 2-lilk, will in due time be fulfillod. 

Yours truly, 
"W. H. Merritt Gillisitk, MorfAT. *-. Oa" 



79 

" Montreal, 8th May, 1826. 
" Dear Sir: — "Wc duly rcceirol your favour of tho 16th March, with 
(leod for 400 acres in lllonheim, which we accept of in full .satisfaction of 
the deduction made (rom our claim on the late firm of Ingersoll «t l^Iorritt, 

PoitSYTil &, Co." 
W. H. Merritt. 

it is necessary to state that the most of these lands were granted to Mr. 
Merritt's family for services in tho Revolutionary war. Mr. T. Merritt re- 
ceiving as Lis share, 2,000 acres. Tlie lands had by this time so increased 
in value that they were considered an equivalent for a cash aniount. 

Mr. Clowes remained in Montreal, and obtained occupation from th« 
Covemment, as wo see by a letter from Major Ilillier, Governor's Secretaiy, 
to the Welland Canal Board. Mr. Rykert returned, and found employment 
in sur/eyiug the lands for right of way. Tho St. I/awronco survey was not 
entirely abandoned, as tho work was continued by Mr. Clowos and others. 
Mr. Merritt at this time was in receipt of a communication relative to a canal 
from tho Bay of Fuiidy to the St. Lawronco. I'^ngineers were em})Ioyed to 
examine this route also. As a sample of the public tone at this time, tho 
following article from the Canadian Freeman is worth noticing : 

'* For our part, wo would wisli to see canals intersecting ovory part of 
this Province : and as the few entei-prising individuals who are embarked 
in the Welland Canal line have commenced this good work, wo hope it will 
Ve continued." 

During February the work was pushed on with great energy, aa tho 
aeaeon was fav'ourable. 

After seeing the amended act fairly under way, Mr. Merritt returned 
to attend to the prosecution of tho canal businoes. Tho circumstances of 
the Board having their meetings in York, rendered his stay a short on*. 
Before setting out however, ho makes a careful memorandum of details 
necessary for their information. From one before ua headed for the fir»t 
meeting in February, we extra:^t : 

"Tlieroaro 27 2 acres in tho doep cut — consisting of over \\ million* 
of yardu of excavating. It will coBt 23 mills per yard, laid at the shortoet 
distance — equal to £G4,000." 

Memorandum : 

•' Speak to Vice-PreKident Allen on the mail-ntage routes. And, 
touching on a very delicate- sulyect, V>y which powerful patrons might bo 
■ eaiily propitiated or offended — to decide on the names of varioua placea on 
ibo oanal." f 

At this meeting which he attended, it won resolved that not any part of 
tb« loan of £25,000 cuuld be touched, according to tt'> act — and that 25 
]Mr oont be raised from the present aubscribers. In order to accompliah thia, 
•b4 I« make pereonal explanations to the skareholdora, ho Mi o«t in ilv« 



'i ): I 
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1 t * 






80 

mid lie of February for New York, travolling by stjige. Ho arrived tlicro 
ou tlio '2 ; 8t, whon it was a^reo;l to pay 8 f>or cent a month of tho stock sub- 
Bcribcil, in order to carry on tho works as rapidly as [wssiblo. 

On (.he 3rd of April, the annual election of the Directors took plaoo 
at St. CathariuGS. Col. J. Clark and Hon. J. B. Robinson were appointed, 
and shortly aftorwArd.s (May 9th) Mr. Merritt paid a visit to Albany, and 
procured documents and plaiii'. cT tho Erie Canal. In an interview which 
be had at ihia time with the Governor, De Witt Clinton, that <,'entlema!\ 
made tho following remark to Mr. Merritt, which, we think, was highly com 
plimenlary to our subject: "You have physical advantages on yourt^ide, but 
you want rasu of enterprise, like yoursbolf, to carry them through." 

On the Otli of May, II. I'l, the Lieutoaant Governor, and several uireo- 
tors visited Uic works ni\ the carnal, — and the Govprnor cxpresticd his 
high gratifuation at tho progress of tlio works. As an instance of the im- 
provement t!ic canal was making ou its s;urroundinj<ip, welind an advertise- 
ment in t/io "JovrrMl" of May '3vt\, oft'ering 50 vill:i;;o loUs for sale in tli« 
flourishing village of St. Catharines. 

On tho 7Lh of Jutie, we see a notice that Mr. Chace, Mr. M.'s successor 
in the salt works, hud made marked iniT)rovement in that line ; and amon"^8t 
other things liad lilted up a bathing establishment, where hot or cold t-^alt 
water baths could I)e obtainetl, Avhich it was believed would be of <'re,'it 
benciit to invalids, and would eventually become a jmblic re.->ort as famous 
'M tho S[)aa of Europe. 

On the 2'Jnd, an imjjortant meeting was helil in York, to devise ways 
and means for earring on the work, and Mr. Yates was instructed to procure 
II K.an of .-C'MI.OOO or .C40,000 in New York. 

On the l.st of July, the opening of tho Burlington Bay (!anal, in pro- 
senco of the Lieutenant Governor and fust dignitaries of the country, iws 
place. The Governor passed tlirough in an open boat, an<l w.ir, receivo^l 
at fcihermau's wluuf by a guard of honoui-, under Col. Crooks, and two Begi- 
meuts of tho Gore Militia, attendod by tho Band of the 70th Iletrlment from 
York. Thi3 was tiie first public celebration t^) comnuimorate the openinc 
of any public work in this province soon to bo followed by others of far 
greater nuignitude. A steamboat was also running from Bufl'alo to 
(!ai{)powa. 

Mr. Merritt's apjilieation for mail accommodation ot\ the line of tho 
canal lunv begins to come into operation ; and wo notice tJie advei-tisemonts 
of letters from tiie Thorold P. (.)., J. K^'fer, Msq., P. M. From thence to 
St. Ciatharines a semi- weekly mail was ciirried, and proved a great boon to 
the people. 

in August, the arbitrators who were to settle tho vexed (pu'stion of the 
valuation of th« land on the route wens appointed. 






u 



..u£*k4'.-. .;-.;.. -LA*i.i J *..■*.> 



81 



Mr. Merritt's memorauilum tor 20tL Jiiiio, states tliut he visited 
every person whop.e lantls wero wunteil on the route, and received tlieir 
offei-s for a settlement. Yet, afterwards, tliero were many di.ssatisHed at 
havinj^ tlio canal pass through their farms, iind tliey liehl a meeting at 
HeaverdaniH, favouring the route by the Twenty Mile (^cek, Niagara, or 
any other place but that along the " Twelve,'' The arbitration was held in 
tlie old tShipmau Tavern, then kept by a man named Jakes — and for a montlt 
or two duiing the warm season, this place was the scene of much excitement. 

There were 27 cases in dis[)ute. The award for Mr. Merritt and his 
father was j£tJOO for 7 or 8 acres of hind and tJie mills. As respects their 
t)ther lands, to the amount of U^ 'icres, the advantages of the canal were 
eijuivaleut to tlie lauds proposed to be taken. Of the twenty-five arbitratoi-s 
appointed to try the casiis, but one is now living, Mr. Ifenry M'.ttleberger, 
of St. Catharinet), whose wann intei-est in this undertaking wo have noticed 
in extracts from liis journal. The land ivotually arbitrated on amounted to 
323 acres in all. 

Two of the coi.tractoif), Hovey and Ward, had given up their contract for 
the ileep cut. After this peiiod nearly all local o[>position ceased. 

In other parts of (^'anada, things were beginning to move. Two steamers 
rsere placed on the Ottawa and Lachine route, and six moi'o were plying 
on Lakes Ontario and Erie. Tlie works on the canal v/ere often visited by 
the curious, and a mania for canalling seemed to possess the people. Mr. 
Menitt was daily in receipt of lettei-s from diflerent part* of the country, 
about various canal schemes, itc. On the 27th of October, the Board met 
at the " Deep Out." Mr. Yates inspected the whole line, having previously 
obtained £25,000 in Now York. In their report of this meeting, the 
following minute appeals :— -" Tha Directois have gi*e.it pleaaui-e on this 
occasion in expressing their full approbation to those wliose attentions have 
been lunremitting, etc." 

Owing t^) the numerous gatherings which canal matters |)roduceil in this 
locality, Mr. Men-itl determined du moving from his old residence ; and as 
it was more from necessity than choice, ho advertise<l his dwelling for a 
tavern, which was accepted by Luther Dyer, whose practice in this business 
in Bufialo, made him a suitable tenant. The mail stages already alluded to, 
of which this 1,'acamo the station, W(>ie owneil and managed by K. W. Ste- 
phenson, from the san\o place. 

Our subject and his family removed on the lOth of November to his 
father's residence, now the cottage at Springbank, where he remained until 
the completion of his own "Oak Tlill Mansion,"- on the canal bank, three 
years afterwards. 

The census of the town taken at this time, gave the place 400 inhabitants. 
Our recollections are that a considerable village then existed. The opposite 



hi 



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! t 



82 

side of St. Paul Stivct, heyoiul Climn-'M, was oiviipicd by Koach'd hat aliop, 
tF. F. Mittltilit;ii;»'r, watolmiuker, Uirlianl Kilziccralirs atoir. now occiijiit'd 
by tin- T'ntt.i's |)riiiti!i:i ollic^a ; iMcKoiiiiy's rosi'lciict", Valo it NVaUi's' tin 
rthop, Saiub'fson'h blnc|<,smith shop, <InMi villi's ^Toot.TV, and wiciuw St'iait'.s 
reMulcufc, tt,'nnii>atin<j; with "l»i'4 " J. Wri^^ht's tavt;ni. Oji tho othor hith?, 
Hkidiiig tlu! |iiii(!M btiyoiid Shi|iniaii"H l>!nii, w;i-. W.ud's .saddk'iy, Captain 
Dittoric-k'a liotcl and butcher alio)), I'llias A<lai)is. FuiTst, Dr. Moorp's, and 
thf (thnins. On Ontario street, Ionian Parsons' poltoiy. FJufiis \N'iii;lit ; 
x\ndurHon'.s, Tlionias M-niitL's and (ioorge Adan.s's beyond ; o))posiltt Wits 
old Mrs. Lawn-nci', Mrs. Shipman, witli whom rcsitU'd K. W. Stt-phon.son 
rtud fjiniily; and liis hist ujoiuories wcrt' the cxciivatious going on in tlio f^nt.ss 
l)lot fronting the church, for the site of liic large frame l)uilding known jih tho 
M(!rchant':> lUock, in whioli afterwards wa.'i tlio W'eliand Car.nl Otfici-, and 
rioavenworth's printing olllce. 

Of all the new coiitors t-i .St. CatliMiiiics, ('oinniodoi't> Xortlmiti was tli'> 
greate.st aeipusitiou to the plii.ce, in hi? osvn |»icnli;i,r Hue. Jle with Mi^. 
N. and an only daughter, Elizabeth, coming lipre in iSJl. The ConiTnodori' 
being employed in the Uoliviau ser\ ice, made occasional cj iiises in tho (inlf 
of Mexico, and at each time of his return to St. (^itharines, Mas in possv<;s 
aiou of a rospectal)le .share of tiio "'needfid." Privatoer, biicea)ieeror cummo 
dor«, his roh' among us a'hs to s}>eiid nioney. Mis turn-outs wejv tho l>es|, 
his dinners the (incst, and his social «iualitie.s nu!">nuded, of which fl. < 
author has often been a recipioiit. 

One eircuiustance about liim wo ramcinber. wliilo residing at wh.!'; 
l>ccanie afterwards th" Merchant's Ifot.el. 'J'he hoists which the ( 'omniodorii 
used in his family carriage, became restive and ran off down the 12 mil » 
hill, and when the animals and the deby'iM uf the vehich! weie recovf red aiid 
liroiight back, he ordored them away, saying ho neve]' wovdd drive them 
again. It was no matter of surprise that tho voirKde was given to tin? tinder, 
as on a former occa.sion wo have known him to hand his daughter a bill 
for jdaying a tune on the i>iano for tho aniusoment of hi.s guests. When 
the dam at the haibour had converted the IL' mile oeek into a m'niaturc 
lake, and the works there being an object of attracticm, the author has fre- 
tfueutly witne.ssed the spirited style of the (Commodore's turn-out on the ice. 

Th(! way of conducting Municipal ek»ctions in those days were not as 
exciting as at present, and the only addres.s we can lind to the electors of 
(Trautham, is one headed "Self Nomination," and signed by Job Northrop • 
promising faithfully to fuUil the im[)ortant duties of Pathmaster, should th« 
free .and indepemlent olectoi's clioose him for that position. 

The same individual, p/eviously wishing to have tlie fourth conceasioii 
opened along his propei-ty, aaked the nmgisti-ates to fissendde at the* 
"Oornerrt," whence, after a s<.H«ial glass, and discuaying the road (question, 



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<li\>vo them ovnr tliP locality, wlifii no fiirtlifr ceroinony was iKHvJefi, ami the 
magiHtrnte-H declfirctl thp roatl opfU. 

Tho Coininodoic fin<liii.( tlif cxcitumtMit iiflfonli'il l»y thn prospoct of tiio 
i4)»otMly •;))»'iiiux ot" tlio c.iiial, Hiilliciciit in(luc«;JiK'iit to remain iu'n*, !iilv»?rtia«(l 
liis tiinn, oonuKoiienl hiiilding tho liouse now owunil Ity .John L. Kuiiney, 
ihovcmI one of hi.i oiit-hoiises up for a stoi-n, staifccil a fijrwanlinx company, of 
which the kfiel of tho pioneer vessol was laid, just holow the site of his uhvv 
iMsidniice. 

Th(i holidays woi*.- speju by Mv. Mfrritt in his attendmioc at the Board 
in York, a Hnal nit ,vtin>' foi' tho voar beiny hehl there on tlif L'8tJi iKveniber. 

()i\ tlie 'M)t\i of November was hold tlie Hi-st annual celebration to (;oin- 
momorate tho aiMiiversary of the canal. A piddic dinner was held in tlio 
hotel, wliicli was imnnn-ously attended. Speeches were made, loyal and 
patriotic toasts were tliunk, and tin- event honourtMl in :i style whicli would 
do credit to nion; modern assemblie.s. Tlie ,/oiirunl of Dec. IH'2C>, in refer- 
ring to the denionstratioTi Hays :— 

* * * " Notvvithstandin;; all those discotira^'ements, it 

has buen prosocntcil witli untiriii^ viijouf, and tin- .success which has attend<wl 
the ellbrts of tho little l>!ind of pati-iots in the cau.se of their ••ounfciy's wul- 
far(f, wlio plaiuied and matured the scheme, nmst bw unexpected and aston- 
i.HliijiLj to tluMMselves : a.nd ultliouirh it is a sa<l aniioyancf n» n f''W. yet, it will 
undoubtedly i!veiitualJy greatly I'tulound to the credit and hon(.r of all (con- 
cerned, a.H well as the Pi'Ovinoe at lar;:;e." 

The Annual RepDrt of tlie Canal Convpany, dated ISth December, lH2t), 
ntdtes: 

■ inongst otiier items, ihi-y are j,fr!(t;cfid to the ( lovernmeiit for their 
gra.i. .)f l."),OiM) acres of land in Waintleet, lyin^' nn both sides of the canal 
e.xfcf ■'!. to the trrand Iliver. Al.so, that up to this time a lump sum of 
$2^ /,../("> h.id bf'cn spent on the work.N, for wliicli tlie followint,' results are 
givftii : The tirst st-ctiou whicli conimeiicfd at the Wfllaiid Iliver. (now Port 
llobiiLSOu) was comjdeted, to the extent of '.V.) chains, with t<jw-path, and 
water let in, and ja-esentoil a fair s|ieciineu of the work when linishod. 
ll^])war<is of one and a half million of cubic yards of earth had lieen removed, 
and ten miles of the canal tinished. The greater part of the timber for 
locks, and material, was got out, and in readiness for use. and several of 
the contractors were already (MMisidcrably ahead of their contract work, 
owing to the extraordinar}'^ zeal with which the contractors pushed on tho 
undertaking. .*(},<)00 in claims for land h:id been paid. £00,000 would 
yet be nniuired to fini.sh the deep cut." 

On the .")th of December, Parliament assembled, and in. the (lovernor's 
speech, referring to the Welland ('anal, ]>laces it second to the Rideau, 
hut .saying in its commendation : • 

"Although we owe it to the enterpri.se of private individuals, I most 
strongly rccouimend it to your favour and protection." 

This was not a mere comiiliment, as the Governor had alway.s person.<»Ily 
taken a warm interest in tho progre,ss of the Welland Oanal. 




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A noting' vory op|iiiitiino rirciiin.itanco also occurod at this tirnf, in tho 
I'ac't that it was now known by a (lispatch from ("ol. Hillier, tiiat tho Im 
|K*iial (lovonnncnt luwl given a grant to tho WeUand Canal Conijiauy, of 
£10,000 sterling. 

At this time, our old friend Dr. Beadle went to York, and succeeded in getting 
the contract for twenty years, to convey the mails from Qucenston to Sandwich, 
which proved a profitable undertaking, and which was known for many years 
afterwards as being under the conduct of W. A. Stephenson. A Mr. Wilkin- 
son, who left for Brantford, was a partner. 

On the 14th of September, in this year, occurred an event which caused a 
profound sensation throughout this country and tlio United Stjitcs. The facts 
known at this time wore, that an individual known as Col. W. Morgan, a citizen 
of the .States, hud written a book purporting to be an expose of Freemasonry, 
and shortly afterwards the author suddenly disappeared. The newspapers at 
the time were full of stories, somo of them very sensational in reference to 
Jlorgan ; and it was even stateil that one of the Brants of Wellington S((aare, 
and several other prominent Masons in Canada and the United States had con- 
pired, jmd captured Morgan, confined him in N. Y. State, on a trumped up 
charge, and afterwards conveyed him to Fort Niagara, from whence they tran- 
sported him out into the lake and drowned him. It is needless to say that the 
>;entlenien charged with tlie connnission of tho crime strenuously denied the 
i nplication. The results however were that two strong parties sprung up, 
known as Masoiis and Anti-Masons. To the latter side our subject became 
allied, and ever afterwards he was known to be opposed to secret societies^ 
under every form and guise. 

Aitumg tlie genenil transactions of this period, was tlie re-establishraent of 
the Cnlnniol Advocate, by Mi'. Wni. Lyon McKenzie, it having boon stopped 
by tlirowing all his type inta the bay. He collected $1,500 jus damages. 

As Ottawa has heeoino an important place as the seat of ffovornment 
for united (.■aniula, the ceremony for the cominMicing of the Kideau Canal, 
will })e given. 

On tho U4th of September, Ix)rd Dalhousie and suit arrived at tho 
iMiaiuliere, proceeded to P. Wright's, Ksq.j when, on the '27th, accompanied 
by (Japtiiiu By, ami<lst a large concourse of gentlemen from the surroun- 
ding settlements, laid tho foundation stone, jus commencement of the 
Bideau Canal. After the ceremony of laying the foundation stone was 
completed, his lordship, lady and suit dej)art«d in a barge rowed by 
fourteen oarsmen, cm their return to Quebec. 

November 1st. - -It ia stated in the Montreal Ikmli that £20,000,000 
h.-^d aiipropriuted for fortifications in Canada. 

A party of enginewrs, im the general plan of fortificttion, was sent bo 
snrvey the Chutaiigue. 



they, 



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As noticed, the II()U!<o iiiot, iiiiil I\Ir. Morritt, not now in the Hoard of 
Maiiiifrer."!, whose duly made it iieeossary thMt his jireseiice should mostly he 
on the works, h.ad liowover to visit York, and attend the Hoard mectiiiu;s and 
other husine.«> in the interest of the CompMny. The loss of his friend and 
:idviser Arclideacon Straeh'in, whose interest in the rising i^eneralion had eaused 
lii-* titmporary iibsciice to Isn^laml, in order to raise funds lor the fnundiiii; of 
a I'niversity, was more than made up by the prosencc of the Honourable J. B. 
^.\TKs, of Chittcnanjio, N. Y., who resided in York, and atteniled tlic House. 
A petition havin<; been pri'sented by the Wellaml Canal Co. for the (roveru- 
ment's assistance, askintr them to take a part in the undertakin;^. and one from 
Niajjjara askinjj; for a I/itcnil cu — ;i committee was appointed to investijrate the 
subjects. Mr. Yates addressed a letter to Arch. McLean, the chairman of this 
committee, and also gave his verbal testimony before the same, in wliieh ho 
uivcs a calculation that the work will pay interest by carryinjr the products at 
SI r)0 per ton, for r)(>,0(l(» Canadian.^ — and that the Oswego Canal, now under 
way, would be the means of aceomodatinj^ many more from the other side, 
Ijosides adding to the value of vessel property, by .giving tliem two or more 
lakes to navigate. The ideas of Mr. Yctes were based upon known estimates 
in connection with the Erie Canal, and so convincing to the committee were 
they, that they recommended I'arliament to take stock in the canal to the 
amount of $200,000; but still, from the unreasonable condition of the arrange- 
ment, it amounted to nothing more than a loan, as the company were bound to 
jiay interest on the same, as well as the previous sum advancet*. 

18 2 7. 

At the termination of the session on the 13th February, a meeting of 
the Directors was bold, and a resolution was passed authorizing Mr. Merritt 
to proceed to Quebec, for which £125 was voted, with a petition from the 
Hoard to the Parliament of liower Canada, praying that tl.at body would assist 
the Company by becoming subscribers, as it would be an equal benefit to the 
ports in their I'rovince. Another resolution commisioned him, in conjunction 
with Mr. Yates, if unsuccessful, to have the balance procured in New York. 

Arriving in Quebec on the 23rd of February, he spent the time intervening 
until the opening of the House on the 2nd of March, seeing the different 
members of the Ciovcrnmont, and explaining tlie prospects and progress of the 
Company's works. In this interval he writes hon)e : 

" I have been introduced to most of the members. Every person says it 
is a loss of time to say one word to Jean Uaptiste, as he will not give ujs a 
dollar. I, however, have strong ho])es, and one week will determine the 
measure, &c." 

He also was the bearer of a dispatch from Sir P. Maitland to Lord Halhousic, 

the Governor and Chief, at Quebec, on the same subject — which His Excellency 
laid before the House by message. A bill was immediately brought before 
the House, authorizing a grant of £25,000, which was passed through all it* 



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brnncJu'H, Mr. Mcrritt arrivcl homo, by way of Albany, on tlic ll>th Murch, 
inuklii^ tlie most fXjKiditiouH and huccesrtf'ul jyurney in t'ouuection with tiie 
Ciiuiil yet rocttnli'd. 

In tlio annual met'tin;^', wliich was hold at St. Catharines ou 2nd April, 
the Hon. Ci)l. WoIIh toolc tlio place of Vice-rroHident Allen, and .1. H. Boultod' 
that of Mr. W. H. Morritt, who whh now aotin;^ as Ajiont. Several nioetingB 
were afterwardn hold alon^ the liii>', and at one of them it was resolved : that 
the otticc! of the ('ompatiy be removed to St, Calh'irine.s, and that JamcH Hlack 
be appointed resident seeretary — salary X,2iH). And tliat an oflice be built 
here for the agent, secretary, and engineer, by ettntract — 3Ir. Merritt agreeing 
to pay for the same at any time they may clioose to relinijuish it. 

In tlie Spring of 1H27, a letter from Mrs. MfMiitt, sayK : 

" There liavo been a gr««it many people heio. Kvery house is n-owdMl 
with two or more families. IJnilding is- going on." 

Mr. <jonh)n left, finally, with bis son — the only rcMuaining menibei of 
his family, after twenty years so-jonrn in this country. Tlx^y returned to 
Kdiiiburgli, where his soii .lame« received a finished education for the 
medical profession ; passing a creditable «>xaininBtion at tlie exjiense of his 
health, which ultimately caused liis premature death, at Paris, in 1830, 
much regretted bv his friends in St. (^itbarincs and elsewhere. Mr. Crordon 
afterwards lived in lA)nd()n, where he died in 184 0. 

The [loople of Fontbill are perhaps not aware of the importiuice their 
jjosition once hehl in the thoughts of the counti-y's iiilers at this tiine. 

On the 25tli of July, R. H. Bonnycastle, R. N. ( -ommander at Kingston., 
writes to Mr. Moiritt : 

" r have stiggested to the Home (JovernnuMit tlie practicability of a 
canal from yours t<j the Short Hills, either liy ISaJI's \ alley to SJeckitt'h 
Mills, or, above the Deep (Jut." 

Beginning late in the season, under the enej-gctic direction of the con- 
tractor, Mr. (). S. Phelps, the works on the deep cut liad been ]iuslied on 
with unexampli'd spewl. '['he wet weather setting in fjuly, it wa.s aban 
(loned for the s(^asoii. 

<)i») of the institutions .seemingly necessary on the works, was an indi- 
vidual who tigui-es amongst others as the " grog-man." We are not aware 
tliat in the.se days of buasted enlightentnent such a phrase ever occurs in 
tlie reports or estimates of any great public work ; but as tlu^ word fre- 
(luently a])[)rars on the old pay-list of the canal, we conclude that the un- 
])rocedented amount of work daily accomplished was in .sonu) nuiasure stlin- 
ulatfM] by this inii>ortant personage. 

Against the opinion of the President ami Directors, Mi'. Meiritt advc- 
caUid strongly the undertaking of the canal directly to Port [Maitland. 
This idea coming before the present one was finish* d, caused some commo^ 



II 



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tioii '» tiio lioiu.J, but \s&H 11 fdrtiiiiatt' mutt*-!-, as witliout it tlie ciinal 
would tiiive to W al>arulouwl, owiaj; to ilic iiiiiiiy laml sHjih which oci'ui«'<l 
ill the <ln<)j> tut iu th«? in*xt fall. 

Mr. MenlttH ur!.'uiut>iit for the f«'t'd<'r iiuw iv, tlint <(jiiun<!; in at our «'iul 
there, will Ite a fall the whole way,- -uk, by throwin;^ u ilaiii over the 
Chippewa, we e,oi have dfep water We have plated our towiiifj path 
above the surface for this purpose. As tiiis deepeiiiuj,' is not Iik«'ly to take 
piaee for yeurs : it is not advisable to publish it niiw, liy eu<'ouni<i;iuju' v»>nhel« 
U) be built Avith a hirju'cr drauj^lit than eij,'ht feet." 

Oil the 1 lith of Septeiiilier. notices were j'iveii for i:ine miles exca\atioii, 
bfitwetui the forks of t!ie SVellaiid and I'ldail (.'reek to lie liuished by the 
1st of October, 1H2S. The eoutruct was taken by Moiisoii, Simpson. Si < 'o., 
on the ;<rd of October, w lio advertised for 1,000 hands, which were readily 
supplied from the deep cut works, now idle. Tlie idea of this work e.\ten<le.d 
lieyond the Welland, oi- scheme of connecting the two lakes- as histhou^ditR 
wer«; now turned to another scheme, viz: the imjudveinent of the (irand 
IMver, which he commenced l»y openiu;.' a eorrespondenct! with the leading 
men of the section of country about to be benefitted. This eorrespoudeuce, 
which we have in ou: possession, shewB that Mr. Merritt wiwhed to be fully 
in possession of all facts of intei-est in refereiwe to the country affected. A 
series of leadiuj^ (juestious on trade, jiroductions, aj,'riculture, A'c.. ite., were 
jti'oposed to b.' answered, and from which a reliable data could be j^ot, were 
expected. Also, reiiuestiny them t^i raise subscriptions to have the route 
regularly surveyed, as was the case with the ]>lans of the Welland and St. 
IjHwreiice. 

Tlie progress of the St. Lawreuoe extension durinj,' this year is given iu 
the report of Messrs. l-lowes it Hykert, to the (Joveriior, in whose service 
Ml'. Clowes, as intimated, had been since the 9th of June. These jtlans in- 
< luded two sizes for the canal— four, and eight feet ; and after giving the 
engineering particulars of oach route to the J.. (,'. line, lu^sxims up by saying 
that it is highly gratifying to state, for the information of His Excellency 
and others, that the advantages for the canalization of tlie St. Lawrence, 
far exceeded our most sanguine expectati<jns. And although making this 
statement, we see by a letter to Mr. .Mr^rritt from King.ston, (hited .SOth of 
January, he had left the St. Lawrence. The report eoidaintid in several 
jriaces favourable notii es of tlie J*ideau ('anal. Mr. Clowes had found 
emjdoyinent ?uore profitable than that of his early patrons in Niagara, 
iu tiie rival project of tlie ( Htawa. 

In Mr. Meiritt's projierty, alluded t« in church matters, was left a space 
ftn an eddcational establishment ; and ou A}iril li5th. a geaeral meeting was 
held in St. Oatliarines, for the piii-jiose of building an academy, ou it, 
which was attended by the leading gentry cf the neighbourhood. Pr. 



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IJraUd ocnijiied tlu^cliair, iiii:l Ht'ury Mittlel).'r-or, Hsij., acted jus s<>crotary — 
wlicii, a Kuildiiij,' to cost 84,000 was ugiverl u))on, to ho paid for by !;haros 
of .^10 (>af''li. Si, ;').")() wa.s snbsoribed outli'' sjiot, and a i'(;miiiittt'o formed to 
collect (lie lialancc. The l)iiildiiig was the iirst suiicvioi- iiistituiioii of 
h'ariiiii!» in tliis inivt of tlio Pioviuce, ])iY'u?eding the Dislic^p's College at 
Toronto, for which h(^ oUtained from the (Joviniinn'nt assistance to" tlio. 
amount of 100,000 acres of land. 

A meeting iu Brantford was advertised in the d'orc (!<r^:iip, on tlie l.')th 
December, and was well attended ; Mr. Morritt making his oxjdanation.s in 
reference to the Grand River imjirovements. 

Without waiting, hftwever, for action to b(,' takcju on this, and the 
season being late, he sent nj) !Mr. Cusack as enuineer to survey the i-oute. 

A letter, from Mr. Gi'aut, of Aucaster, on the Ifith of Oct'iber, adv'ocates 
that the survey should extend to Gait, A'C. 

On the 8th of October, a lettei- was recei^e(l from Mr. Whitehead of 
Buiford. in which he states : 

"1 feel sanguine in the improvements of the Grand lliver idea, after 
the plan suggested by you. A few inllueiitial individuals that I have con- 
versed with, are desirous to undei-take it. but want to know what is the 
e.\i»ense fm- levelling and surveying a route from where tiie Wolland ('anal 
enters the (irand Ihver, to Ihantford." 

'* I will immediately set u]i a subscription to defray jn-eliminary ex- 
)»wnses." 

And in anolhei- letter, he says : 

" 1 have not be en as successful iu raising money as I anticipated, Arc." 

Wo are not aware that any mo]u\v was raised at tjiis time, but Mr. 

( Jusack the engineer died soon afterwards, and we find tlic following amongst 

INIr. ]\rorritt's nicmorandas, from his widow : 

" Mr«. (/usack has re(]iu»stod me to apply to you for tlie ainount duo to 
her late husband for surveying the Giand Iviver." 

A lou't hater from J. D. Noi-ton, Black Bock, Mas also leceived this 
yeai', relative to the disposal of Gyjisuni, shewing how oxteusivo wei-e his 
jdans for the developement of the rosourses of the country. 

A letter was received from the Presideiit on the 124th of December, in 
wjiich ho says : 

■' r hope you will have everytliing ready for the llepoit V»y the time 1 
write you to come over : it shall be as soon as Mr. Peter Bobinson makcH 
liis appearance. We can do nothing till he comes." 

On returning from Brantfcrd, Mi*. Merritt met with a very seriovis 
Accident, caused by the upsetting of the coach in which he was travelling, 
i)etween St. Catharines and Haniilt<}n. The shock ho received was 
auliicient to confine him to his bed for some -lays, and from which he did 
Jiot recover l»efdre his Journey to England, whii^h was undertaken soon aft#r. 



89 



] S 2 ,8 . 

On till? 12tli of J;i?iuirv, 1S2S, a tiio'.>tin,' o])p()«eil i > t!i," j):-oj>ji'\l ( JraU'l 
Risoi" roiuti, was liold in AnciistiT ; tlu^ Mt-a ciitLM'taiin'il liy tliust' ])rcs(iit. 
l)eiiig, that a canal fro. i tliu*^ river to llaiiiiltnn. aii.l even from llw licail 
wateis of tlio Thames, -would be the eorreet thin;^'. Twelve lung resolution:-! 
wero passed, and it afterwai'ds beinj; found that the summit cutting' on the 
proposiul I'oute would be one hundred fe(>t, and deeper than the dee}> cat 
on the tho Welland ('anal, the idea was abandoned, and %ve believe never 
afterwardp meutioneJ —at least if IVlr. ('aiireol'sKcheme nni^lit be considered 
a similai" one. 

As the whole work on the canal is now under way, it wa.s found 
absolutely necessary to raise more funds. The Italance still on hand 
amounted to .£."i9,00#, and it was found that more than doubh^ that sum 
would be required to finish the work. An ellbrt was to be made again to 
obtain tlie $l'()0,()00 re.served for England. 

During the series of Board meetin,;s held in York, commeiaing on the 

"J 1st of January, that on the Hth Fel)ruary contains a financial htaten)ent 
from Mr. Merritt, by wliicli he says : 

"No embarrassment for want of funds will ' i; felt until the 1st of 
August, before whii-h time some inoai s must lie divi.sed t« obtain ij.")(),000 
for the remainder of tho season.'' 

lie also proposed five diflererit schemes towards laising this anunuit : — 
1st. — To enlarge tho capital another £l<)0,0()(). "Jnd. — To endeavoui' to st»ll 
stock, or efieet a loan in the United States. .'5rd. — To send an airent to 
iCnglaud to obtain the one nintli jirt^mised on the eidarged capital. 4th.- - 
To endeavour to sell stock there, oth. -t)r endeavour to ailect a loan. 

The Board were at the end of their invent inn. To (udarge the capital at 
present was a useless measure, as the New Vork stockholders having iin- 
])lied, nothing more coidd be expected from that ipiarfcer. JJut another trial 
was to be made, and the agent once nioi-e. with discretionary powers. was sent 
down to see if money could bo obtained. Tho st-nding to Kngland was tlio 
l;ust thing, but who was to be the andiassador ? Mr. Meri'itt's readiness to 
do anything for the canal, they knew. 'j'o a Colonist, a fr-./' trip to the 
old country is the great object of his life. He always looka to going /lonif, 
aiul a jiolicy that will culminate of b{>ing eommissioned there, is considered 
worthy of a life's energy. 

But it Wiis hardly ex]>r>(«ted that Mr. MtMiilt would und(;i-take the ta.^k. 
Fnmi the expressions of surprise, after his success, by the Pntsident : '' Indi- 
vidually, I must thank you for the success of your mhssion, which /.v lUDte 
than I erjKCteiJ." Had not evmy envoy faih>d. already : and liad they not 



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agon Is in F]n;,'Iand of ;,T('at wrtaitli und aluir.st luiiiotiiidiMl iufkuMic; wit.h 
tlif! Hfiriitj (ioverntii'!Ut in ( iinadiaii iitlairs, wliilc Mr. Meritt, witK uU l,i8 
zciil for tiie cuiiiil, wa.s witlioiit infiiuuice to raise tlic iieccHKury f'lindR. 

W« will not say what infiuoiioe this natural fnoliug may liav«; had for 
our suhjcct, on this his tiist voyaLff'. fn the alisfiico of any tc^stiniony Uy 
the i-ontrary, we niusteall it a " self ajUJointinent." 

We know he refused a lucrative connnission ataiiothtn- tiuie, and alwayH 
avoided trips for pleasure. 

Under these circurnstaiK-es, Mr. Merritt a;L;iiin visited the Unit(>d St.iitcs, 
jroiiig by way of Kinjrston an<l Sackett's hiirhour to Philadel|>hia, where, 
consulting S. (Jirard, he retui-ned to New York. While thero, he stjiyod 
with Mr. Yiites, and inducted that genth.-inau to beconio security for $40,000 
- -Kuftifient to carry on tlie work for a time. Not being able to accomplish 
tlie full object of liis mission in New York, and aftei- waiting until the last 
moment, he hnally dec-ided to go pcisonally to Kngland and his journey 
thence, with his observatiojis, successes, itc, will b<; found in his journal 
and correspondence, which is lieie coj-ied. 

" Left home on Tuesday, the 2()th day of February, 1S2S, in a sleigh — 
thi snow Jiaving fallen the day beforf^ Paid Mi'. Btevenson $2, instea<l of 
$1.50, the regular fare to 8t(tney (!re.ek. From thence, went inanother 
sleigh over the Ixiach to Ho[)kius ; thence, same night, to Corey's. My side 
extremely painful at times : sudden thumps of the sleigh, almost in- 
sup}K)rtable." 

" 27th. — Into York at 10 o'clock. It havi'ig laiued hard during the 
night, most of the snow disappeared. Called on Attorney-General, Major 
Hill, Dunn (t Bolton. Met in the evening at Mi-. Orew's. No business 
transacted, or }»r(!paratious made." 

" i?8th, 'J'hursdrty.—(^uite unwell yesterday and to-day, from eftect« of 
my u|iset. ProcunHl from Major Hill a letter to ("ommodore Barrie. Made 
other preparations to leave in the morning : and ha\ t! the necessary pa])erH, 
(not now prejiared,) sent on by Mr. Proudfoot. He leaves fo)- I'inglaiui on 
Monday, which gives me a few (hiys longer in America, to make an atteinfit 
to liitluf get the inonev bv loan, or dispose of the stock." 

" L'Uth, Friday. Left York at 2 o'clock, with J. .lones, P. xMciJill, and 
J. (Jeorge. Went 40 miles; the sleighing passable, snow having fallen tin; 
day previous." 

" 1st March, Saturday. Travelled to Moyer's Creek, about SO miles. 
My si<le improving daily." 

" Sunday, L^nd March. Went to Hath. 40 miles, to breakfast. Arriveil 
in Kingst(.)n about one or two o'clock ' 

"Monday, IJrd. Called early on Commodore Hany ; nnide every 
arrangement with him. Saw Captain r.oniiycaslle and |jieut(M)nnt-C()lonel 
Smiih. lloyal Lngineeip. Left Kingston at half-past thr«!e. Crossed to 
Navy or (irand iKland with a sleigli and horses. More snow 3 est -day. 
This island is seven miles long. Kiom thence, crossed ^o (Jravelly Point 
in a boat. Sometimes boat drawn on ice, and soim times in water ; being 
iieitiitr one thing or tin) other. Crostiiug, Linnl Major-deneral Paniediot, 






ifi 



91 

Avlio was in tlie town Kcliifii,' shcfip, to c-arry /rui out to Tirowrisvillf! foi .4'.'. 
lie wjiK a thorough UniviTsalist, au-l Jackson xniui. Luckily anivod u few 
minutes l>«fore the staij;f;. which catno from Saokott's harbour. 

"Sunday, 4th -(!ot in, and reaclit'd Htioa. 

" Mon<lay,r)th. — Arrived at AHiaiiy: !sto|)|)e(l at tli<^ hottd oj»j;o.sit«; Skin- 
ner's. 

"Tuoisday. (!th — ('alifd on Messrs. Youn^, Sfynioni-. Hank, W'illkson, 
(to., <t(-. Took |)as'.afj;c on boaid st»>antboHt at four o'clock- -very niucfi 
crowded. A poor unfortunate ttenthMnan died on hoard ; <lie passen<;e».s 
playing canis, all unconcerned, (as nio.-t of us g'Mierally are in this world 
at the Husfoitunes of others.) 

"7th.- Arrived at New York at e,it(ht. Stop]>ed at the Franklin 
Hot<d on Jiroadway. 15reakfasted, and then went with Mr. Yates to liis 
residence, 112 Greenwich Street. Mr. Mills, the en/^ineer, whom 1 met 
oftcHi before, came from Utica with me. Tlie pain in side iniprovin;.^ daily. 

" !Sth. — Left New York in the lhii(Mi Liiu^, for Philadeljihia. at hulf- 
pawt t«;n, for the purpose of interesting Mr. (Jerard In our jtroject if jK)ssi- 
bie. Steamboat to Brunswick— a delightful excursion. St^iges through 
New Jersey to Trenton, I'S miles, where we .-jlept. 

"Sunday, !<th ]\Iai'ch. After a good night's nwt, embarkt'd on board 
the Trenton st^'aniboat for Philadelphia, wh«tre we arri\('d at ehiven o'clock, 
after another pleasant .sail on tlie Delawaie, whit-h divides the two Ktat«3s. 
Examined the water works cm the Schuylkill, which are the most perfect of 
the kind in America. Am preposseissinl rather against than in favour of thft 
place, which falls far short of my anticipations. 

"Monday, lOth.- Called on J. H. Kobinsoji, Ksq., tlie IJritish ('onsul, 
and wrot<' a letter to Mr. (Jerard, explaining the object, to which he puts 
Ids \vU) at once ; in conse(|uonce of winch we returned to N(!w York. Em- 
burked at twelve o'clock in steamboat, and aii'ived iu New York at eleven, 
tlu; following morning. 

"'i'ue^sday, 1 1th Made niy first ajiplication to Prim vt Co., who rejecte*! 
it at once — " would hav(> nothing to do with it." 

"Wednesday, lL!th. ('ailed a meeting of .stockholders, who were plejisfwl 
with the situation of the w<.»rk. Messrs. Yates and M.elntyre caiiu^ forward 
and not oidy agreed to pay up the i-einaing shares, but ndNance .*1(),()()0 
more, to be replaced in Kngland liy letter u> Mr. Merritt. 

"Thursdav. l.'ith. Called on Jacob Astor, a (Jrrmaii, who thinks well 
of it. 

"Friday, lUh. -Madea number of att(!mpt*i in vajious (piarters. but 
with verv little .succes.s. 

"Saturday, l.'ith.- -Having made ajiplication to a noted Frenchnui c 
(lernifiii and (.Quaker — closed with a Jew, agent of liothcliild. to whom f 
addi-(!ssed the following letter : 
Messrs. Phinii»s d- ( 'o. 

(lENTLKMKS : 

"You will tiotice Vty looking over the map of the Lnite<l Stiit^js an<l 
Canada, that the Welland (.'anal, the |)lans and prolihss of which were shewn 
you this <iay. unites Lakes Krie and < aitario, by shir» navigatieui, thereby 
connecting the greatest extent «if navigable waters in the world, in the 
shorttist lUstaiice, aiid with the least exttense. I am prejtared to prove, and 
any person in the city knowing the geography of that country, will inform 



. .;!f 



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» ' I 1 



92 



yoii of tlirsnnic, that tlin Ohio Canal, wliicli fOU!i(>ct.s that rivev with Erie, will 
bring id! tho ])ro(hiots of tlic country, nhovc St. liouis, to Lako Erii^ ; which 
Lake will also receivf tlip products of Michigan, that juirt of Ponsylvania 
und Now York honlcring, and the western ]>artof ('anada. Fiuther, when 
tlie products of that wi^st 'ra country arc afloat on Like Ei'in, they will ]).iss 
through the) Wellan.l (Unal if destined (Utiior for this or the Montreal 
market. As von .suggested, 1 will call on Messrs. llowland it Co. in London ; 
and I will thank you to foi-ward thei'o whatever inforiiiation you may tliiidc 
lit on th-.' subje -t. Tiiere lias hcen tixpr-ndcdou this work .S7()i),0l)M. There 
remains only .•? 100,000 to be taken up — but you have not time to decide on 
this before the packet sails. " "W. H. M." 

"Sunday, l(ith March. — Left New York. Sundav is a day mariners 
appear to select for ])uttiiig to sea. ^t haj)])ened however to fall, in our case, 
on the regular day for sailing. The ^ 'ori'/<i, Cajit. Tiiu;olm, is the good shiji 
in which 1 am at }iresent. Thei-e are four lady passengers — Mrs. and INIl-.s 
-Ruse, Miss Meyers, and the captain's wife. Nine gentlemen — Mr. Proudfoot, 
.and Mr. Cameron, from Canada ; Mr. AYalker, from Sarnia: llecse, of Liver- 
pool ; Mr. Cluin, of Nashville; Mr. Ireland, anil three ot!iers for England. 
We had a fair wind on leaving the harboui', a\)Out eleven o'clock. IJisciuvrged 
the pilot off S.uidy Hook, at one ; and in the evening was out of sight of 
land. Passe, I ii great number of shij)s at anchor, ju.st arrived, and some 
.still underway and beating up. About four, observed a ship 'heaving to,' 
for purf)jse of sp^.uikiug us : bore down. Shs wanted to enquire what 'land- 
a-head.' Proved to be a shij) from the Sandwich Islands, Pacitic Ocean. 
One cannot but sympathize in the gool feelings and joy a sailor must ex- 
perieujj iu siglit of land, aft?r a voyage of two or three years from his native 
land. She was bound for Nantucket, la len wMth oil — ^where she must have 
arrived tlie n;)xt day, as th? wind shifted to the eastward. 

'•On Monday and Tuesday, 17th and 18th, a heavy blow from N. E. 
All the passengers except three quite sick. 

"On Wedn;^sday and Tliui-.sday, 19th and '20th, wind dead ahead. 

" Friday, :21st, '.\ P.M. — \Ye had come into Lat. 37. 4 : 5. — -Cro.ssing the 
Gulf Stream at (i : 7. — Put about, and found ourselves in the middle of it, by 
an obsei-vation on Thursday afternoon. 

" Saturday, 2llnd.- — -Aljout i.'iO miles from New York. Last night the 
wind shifted at thwo o'clock : iu the morning. \>\<iw luird. and raijied. Wind, 
N. by E. — )urcours(^E S. E. A heavy ln-ad .s."-.'!. Sliip goilig at S^ knots. 
The sea aj>pears delightful, although we are tossing at u great rate. Many 
sick. Myself not well. 

'•Sunday, 2;}rd March — The vind continues favtmrable. Still a heavy 
sea ; but on the whole, ])leasant. 

"Monday, 21th. — 'Fhe wind hauled around somewhat u'.. favourably last 
night. Rain again this morning. Studding .sails displayed, as yesteiday. 

" Tue.sdiy, 2")th. — Commenced overluuiling papers. Calm last night, 
and this day. Yesterday, was in liat. -10.21. Ijong. 49.25. Dull sailing, 
although pleasant weather. 

"Wednesday, 2(ith. — Had a li^iht breeze from the southward. Increased, 
and hauled arontid to the west. The sea smooth, and the weather iiiM). 
Ship going at the rate of !iine knots. All in good he-iklth and .spirits. 

" Thunsday, 27th. — The wind continues fair. Have made lapid ju-ogi'esH 
for the last 24 hours. We commenced |daying whist last night : this with 



th 



. 'f 



93 

reading or writing, form.i tho only uniusemeufc, or means of occupyinc; tinip. 
Lat. 39, long. 43. — wbidi brings us on tho European map, or eastern lialfof 
tho Atlantio. 

liofore cloising tl;'^ 'uap of America, he casts a retroHpcctive glance over 
its expansive territory, .sj)ying out its facilities for water communication to 
the seaboard, and theuoe to the old world. 

Memorandum — The distances and prices of freight from tho commence- 
ment of the Ohio Canal at Hciota in Ohio, by the Mi.ssi.ssip})! to New York, 
3,800 miles, ^I'J per ton, in 27 days. To Lake Erie, 1)40 miles, for^l'Ji in 
18 days. 

Thus it will bo seen that tho exports can be made v, ith a similar expense 
in two-thirds of tho time. The merchandiso for the suj.'ply of this soutlieru 
country was brought, before any canal was built, by land from Philadelphia. 

There is a prospect, that as far down as C^iiro, and up the tributaries, the 
Ohio included, up tho Alleghany ^Mountains, must bo su])plied by the lakes 
of the west of coui-se. 

I received much valuable information of tho southern country from my 
fellow-pa.sseugers. One of the a<lvantages of tho iiorthoru route, is the 
salubrity of the climate. When the St. Lawrence canal is finished this ad- 
vantage, as well ;ui chea[»nesH of freight, will bo in favour of tnat route. 

" Friday, '?.Sih. — As we are about approaching England, the geography 
of which I undei-stand very imperfectly, I have conmienced this day in ex- 
amining the map, and the principal situation of towns in (Jreat Britain. 
Thj tirst land we are likely to a[)[)ioach is Ireland, which is situated on the 
left of tho Channel. Capo Clear apjiears tho point generally noticed. 
Our course is up St. George's Channel, passing Cork, Wexford, itc. This 
la.st place, with ^Millford Haven, oi)posite, on the .south side of the .sea which 
divides or sepaniten Ireland from England. 

" Did not sleep one hour la.st night, or tho night before. Was tpiite un- 
well yesterday, but feel much bettei- to-day. The pain iu my side i.s lest;eri- 
ing very nu;ch. After dinner we were called on deck to aeo two *^ wafer- 
spouts," to the north. It was blowing fresh, and occa.sionally .s<pially. 
'Hiero was nothing remaikable in their ap})earance Tiiore than tho appearance 
of a thick dense mist rising from tho oce^ui to a cloud, and moving along 
in a body in tho diioution of the wi)id, from west to east. Tho mate pro- 
nounced it a " loaterr.povl" and said that ho saw one in tho P.'icitic Ocean 
which took up empty bArrels to a great height. However, this proved no- 
tiling more or less than a piussing cloud of mist, a.s we ireiiuently see on land. 

" Saturday, 2'Jth. — We passed a iianpie tliis day, standing to the ea.stward 
— the weather very rough, and perhatis we were 80 or lUO yards a()art : the 
sight is cheering and plea.sant ; altlicnigh there would be no possibility of 
boarding each other. All cheerful and pleasant. The wind tair. Going 
ftt the rate of nine or ten knots an hour. llemend)ered Saturday night at sea." 

"Sunday, 30th. -This is tho 14th day, or one fortnight since we left 
New York. We ha^ e been most highly favoured with fair winds and fine 
weather, for which wc should bo grateful ttj tho A'luighty. The weather 
iifcild, but wet. Wind still fair. I-'it. 47, Long. 20. 



!! 



[H 



m 

m 



'•T\iP»ilay, April 1st. — Pashod tlio n!)in " Iinhin-Ifooif," of Hostoii. Six 
tlavHoiit from I^-ivorpool, bouiul for Now York. Jlopoi-t the " Fhridn " all 
woll. By tlii.^, titling^ w'M vPiich Iioiik', \ trust, of our siifoty thuy far. 

" Wi'iiiK'sday, liinl A|)ril.— No oli.sfTvatioii yf'.>itcri:lay. Tlic wind lulled 
cjilin. Caiiu) on from the eastward with a gentle lireexuand some rain. All 
tlie |Kisseii'j;er,s in ^i-eat glee, expectinj; a fj'.vourahlf aud sliovt vuy„.(fo. Thi.i 
Homewhat dampens their spii'its. We hav' reasoii to he satisred for the 
long continuance of favourahln weather and fair wind this year, and ahouhl 
not e.xpeet at this .se.'i.->oii its continwanio throii;.jhoiit tho voyage. No observa- 
tion ye.sterday oi" to-day. Tho east winds same eold and un|)leasant. 

'' Thursday, o Ai)ril. — Tho wind still eontiinies froin the eastwanl very 
light, and no ap])eara.noeH of a change. We are driven fur to the northward 
of our course, heading towiuds N(n-wa.y ahout L'oO oi- 'M\() miles from \,\w 
westeiJi (;<»ast of Ireland. 

" ' Zimmermans's .I.i)vers,' and ' (Jaiter'fs Travels,' form a ['art ofou" 
library, and ' |{. Hale's Travels.' 

" Friday, 4th Tl'.is day o'f>tained an observation : find ourselves in Lit 

f>2. ."»(>. Tj'mg. 1'), and .some minutes directly oppo,sit<' tho town of Jjimerick, 
on the Shanmrn. Quito calm. Still have made no ilirect progre.ss for t.ho 
last three days. 

"April .'>th.- — Clear. ISO ndles from Cape (!lear. Wind fair. 

'•Sund:iy, (ith. — Call.'td up at o, to see C.ipe (.lear lighthouse, when witliin 
l."» miles, pas.sing at a Ha.fe distance the furthest rock on the reef of tho 
Cape. We bore tovrards land. This [lart nf the coast is mountainous. 
]li'lade Kinsule head, near where the Alhion was wj-eeked. Wo came ohiso 
enough to see tlie given fieldii, which were enclosed with stone fe)iee.s. Tii.^ 
J'hnerald isle, at this pait of the coast, does not prescMit the vi\id grandeur 
whi(.h 1 expected. It M'as with no little feeling of [)h;a,siire my eyi>>j ga/wi 
on the land of my ancestors : and the <Hnintry to me presented a similar ap- 
j)ea\'anee to that of tho East rivei-, wliicli was tlie home of my ancestors 
in America." 

He eloses Sunday with ]ii()us i-eJloctions and grateful e.\]>ressi(ms towards 
the Almighty, that He has thus rendere<l the voyage .so wife and pleasant. 

Tho i>assage was not yet over, but tho many dangers of the Irish Sea 
was yet to be encountered, more thati now for the lack of .steam. J^ut 
great precautions were taken dm-ing the voyage. 

His observations in the city of Liveri)Ool may be ]iassed, as the imi)rovo- 
ments there have made it another place since then. But tho journe-,' ujt to 
London we will learn from a letter to Dr. J. Prendergast : 

1\> J)i>r/,or Jededlah I'voiderynff. 

liONDON, 4th May, 1828. 
My Dear Sir : 

I have taken a few moments this morning to give you a detail of this 
to tlie, wondei-ful coiu»try. 

1 was prepared to meet great splendours and extreme mi.sery. 1 have 
found everything so different from what T o.vjiected. From Liverpool iw 
Jiondon, '2().S njiles, [ rode on the outside of a coach-- - passed a number of 
manufiicturing towns— examined every place as far as my e^^ would roach; 



\'f 



ii 



95 



*iw jiDlliiii'^ Iiiil. |)('iu:»', |»I(Mity jfiMxl lniiii>»ur, ;uiil iu)t a!i ilniivMciil wlio Itsul 
not good flotliii)!:; .•iiul hIuh's. .Met verv tVw tra/ellt'is, excfpt in n>;u;l;pH. 
The wln)l« ooitiitry, with soiuf cxfi'ptioii.s, IwK) 'i:;s to nobli'Tnen, ami ex- 
t«)isivi> i)n)jirirt(M*s. Tlu'rc is not oiie y:u'il oft- tli not (Miltiviitoil, to nil 
a|>i)i?iuunct', as wdl a-; our ganlcus ; (>\('nn)unil lie salt works, wliich wo 
jtiirtHOil. TliH pooplc an? iinluhti^ou-, to a «iei;rfi». a^ni takiii;,' all things into 
^•onsldoration, porliaps tor tlii.s country no better systtMn can be atlopteu t'or 
tlic "UviMioii of pioporty- although it would never answer for Aniei»ea. I 
wiia ten tlays in Lonrlon Iwfore F met a drunken person. Them is le«rf of 
thi» vii-e in tlu' pojiulation of I ,")00,()l)i) pe-dple in this eity than in oiu' of 
ouv iutelliL,'ont villa.;4:es. I was jtrej'ared to meet reserve in the extreme, 
nutl even iiisolenc(.>, ami was advised not to appear as ii stranger. I havo 
found ('very dispositioii to be eonuinmieative and in(juisiti\ e, in some oa.sea 
oxcedin;^ any Jonathan [ ever met with ; and when 1 mentioned l)eini^ a 
strangiM', which 1 alwayft "vave as my a)>ology for ini|iiisitiveness, \ -.vns 
treated witli double attention. 'I'he eapaeity of ji man, here, is oontin.ed to 
his [tartioulai' Icislnoss or dnty, '.vholly uidike o\n- [lopuhitioii. You euii ob- 
tain no infonnafcion o!\ anv local subjeet with whieh thev are not ent:airod. 
I have scarcely heard an oath in the whole country. (Meaidiness uu«l neat- 
ness in ovpry cottage is remarkably eonsjiionous. Noticed bnt oni^ wind.)w 
not cleaned, iVrc My opinion of the I'-'-iti-li (lovernnieiit is, that tlio 
Ministry manage, all the home coueerns, their colonies, und pay attention ^ 
to f'M'cign relations. To ))reserve wUnt th(ry havM is ijuite sutlicient, and i 
the stibj;^cfc of their most anxious attention. Hverything is diviiled into dc 
paifcnnMits. The colonial office ha'j our business, with that of otlier colonios 
The members of Parliament appear to be the greatest fags. They have th^^ 
uiuot uj'duous lal)ours to ]»erfoi'ni. It is tlifv v,'!io govern the kIiigdo:ii. 
There is .-in investigation going on in Parliament re.sjiecting the (bivei-.i- 
menf of Canada. I iiolievi' their unexamj'led success is owing to a Hxe.d 
inde, to adopt a nieasure, and decide upon it from princi[)li' ahuie. Tlio 
public oliices are open from one \iti!l five, dniiy. ]Meas\n'e is indisjiensiblo 
with them good living i^ the grearest. ci.juyiu(Mit. Hinner hvsts from 
twolvo untilltwt), itc." 

"ith.—Hont Dr. Prondergast a letter. 

5tli. (Sdlcil ujion Clian(;elloi-, who appointed Tues<lay. Ib'tunied and 

wrote, letters to the (^llicials, separately. 
6th.' — N(j inteiview. 
7th.— Ditto. 
8th.— Ditto. 

9th. — t'alled daily, and am put oil' on some pretence oi' other, either real 
or imaginaiT, all the same to me. Wrote home of my success thus far, by 
('ameron, who was returning home by next packet. 

1 1th. Snn<lay. --Attended Sidmoutli (,'hapel and Magdalene Asylum. 
12th.--(.'all(vl upon Chancellor. Put oil" till next day. 
l;Uh."-\Vent back, and wrote ^Ir. (ioidborne, Huskinson, and Hay, 
stating the necessities of the Company ; and on account of Mr Cnmeron's de- 
parture, ui-ging an immeiliato decisuni. At hftlf-pa.*»t tive this aftoruoon, I 
receired a letter from Mi-. (Joulboi-ne. 

1 Ith. — Which 1 Rent immediately to Mr. Cameron, along with Iett;<>r.H 
t.o Mr. Dunn and Yates, who fortunately received them before the Hjiiling 
of tho imoket. 



Hi 



00 



ISth, — Drew out a Htatemont of t}ie progress of tho canal, and after n 
miinber ofattein})tH succeeded in getting it inserted in th« TiincH." 

In referencn to tliis entry, wo think the cii'cunistancoa connected there- 
with worth relating, as oui- subject used to tell repeatedly a rather laugh- 
able anecdote on the same. 

It seeuis that Mr. Meriitt alwaya had a great opinion of the power of tho 
prees,-— but particularly ho when in England, where the ThtiPH, then as now, 
wjis the leading organ of public ojiinion. He repeatedly sought an inter- 
view with tho editer, for tho purpowe of explaining his scheme, but was 
alway.s i)ut oil' with the excuse of " heiiiy too Luki/ ju^t now." At last ho 
tleterniined to bring the matter to a crisis — and when the usnal answer waa 
given, our Hubject replied by stating that ho could describe tho whole affair 
in Jim minntes. The editor immediately pulled out his watch, saying, 
" Now, as you are a man of business, I will give you that time." Mr. M. 
at once drew his maj) from his pocket, and spreading it before the editor, 
in a short and concLse manner exclaimed : 

" Here is Lake P]rie — here is the Falls of Niagara — this is Lake Ontario 
— and this, th(i iSt. Lawrence, and the Atlantic : and lure is the route of 
the great Welland Canal." 

Immediately closing the map, and ending the interview. The astonish- 
ment of tho editor may bo better imagined than described. Yet, in the 
next issue of the paper the article appeared, and had a marked effect upon 
the success of hia scheme, as evinced by a niraber of congratulatory letters 
afterwards received. 

17th.— Visited Mr. Bliss, a legal and literary gentleman, of the Inner 
Temple, who took stock, and helped by correcting and assisting in the pub- 
lications for the English public. 

ISth. — At Church at Jlolhoiii, with Mr. Sabine and aimable family. 

l!)th to 21st. — Spent in printing and correcting the statement. 

22nd. — Went to the Epsom races : was pleased with all but the gambling. 

2:h-d, 24th, 2r)th.— Writing letters. 

2t)th.— -Visited his frieiuls Major Crlegg and (len. Vincent. 

The remainder of this month was spent in calling on the notabilities of 
Tx)ndon, both in and out of Parliament, and distributing his pamphlets, ex- 
plaiui'.g his scheme, «fcc. — when an unexpected occurence happened, which 
was likely to impede his negotiations with the Government — namely, a 
change of ministry, which occured on the 28th of Ma}'. 

June 8th. — Wrote to Mr. McQueen, editor of the GUimjo-w Courier. 1 
had no satisfaction at calling at the Colonial Office. 

9th. — ('ailed on Mi'. (Irant, who promised a.ssistance. 

Hth. — Wrote to the President of the C'anal Co. Made an excursion 
to St. All)ana, to an agricultural show. The fields crowded with labourers, 
women, and children, busy making hay. A beautiful red lilly in the fields 
took my attention. St. Albans is a y)lace of great antiquity. Tho abbey 
is one of the largest in England. The borough sends two members to 
Parliament. Lord Verulam has an e.state close by. Returned in a Leeds 



Ea 



5)7 



coaoh. TluK is the Uiiiil Lime, 1 have |iasw(l (vou\ 8t. Albuiis to Lojuloii, 
cacli tiuK.' by u new roiid. 

Juno Kith. — Il»iturncd, exjieotinj^ the Wulhiml (Janal Imsiuoss to be 
brought before tho liouse. Paid half-a-crowu for u seat in the j^allory 
There are six or ('ijj;}it rejtorUjrs hero, busily engaged in taking notes. 

18th. — (Jailed ou the Chancellors. Still in susix'n.sc. 

lOtli. — Went into the city. Saw a representation of the battle of 
Waterloo, <.»f whidi this is the anniversary. 

21st.- To Mill Hill. 

23rd. — Ileturned to London. Wrote to the Chaneellov after seeing tli© 
Attoi-ney-Cteucii-al's letter. 

2tth.— Was summoned before the ("'antida Committee. [Mr. Alerrit's 
evidence tlirows .so much light on the eommereiiil and politiial interests of 
the province at the time;, though at the exjiense of a souiewhat hingthy 
<li|^ession, that we insert it in full.] 



, ' I 



Eidracf. from .Ii>'port o/ S"Jecl CoininUlf" on f/i-: CltiU Gomnnmitt of Cunfufd. 

Arc you a native of Upper Canada?---! am. 
ti proprietor in that Province? — Yc.^j. 

To what causes do you attribute the difTTonce in the value oflimd in Upper 
Canada and in the State of New York ? — The jaincipal cause is in the present 
boundary Hue or division of the country, which excludes u.^ from tlio advan- 
tages we should derive by participating in the commercial weillh of the country, 
and enabling us to improve its internal conmninications. Lands in Upper 
Canada are not one-fourth of the value they are in the State of New York, and 
real property not one-tenth. 

To what particular districts of country do you filludc? — 1 allude to the 
whole extent of bath province.*, with the exciptiou of ITjO miles on the St. 
Lawrence in Upper Canada, between the boundary lino and Kingston ; in this 
distance we pos.sess e({ud advantages in our interna! conmninications, and 
property is equally valuable on cither side, accordinn' to its local situation. 

Will you point out some ](articular part of l^])pcr Canada to which your 
observations »'ipply? — From Ivingston upward ; particularly on Luke Erie, or 
above tlie Niagara River. 

In what way docs the wani- of a sea-port tmvn aff'ct tl'.e valu'; of land in 
Upper Canada? — Py excluding us i'rom any participation in its wealth. The 
capital of all countries centres in its cities; for in.stance, the wealth of the State 
of New York centres in the city of Now York, and the wealth of Upper Canada 
centres in Montreal : they bring a portion of that wealth back I'rom New York 
to improve the country, by building mills, making roads, canals, kc, &o., in 
conse((uence of which, together with the cheapness, facili:y. and regularity in 
their conunnnications, they cm en)p!oy capital once a ?nonth during the navi- 
gable part of the year, in converting grain into flour, and sending it to nuirket. 
Wheat always brings a better pric' with them, although tin' niarlict may be 
better with us at Montreal than with them at New York : this has a tendency 
to make property more valuable, and to change hands readily ; whereas, with 
us there is not a single instance of a Montreal or Lower Canada merchant ever 
expending a farthing in I'pper Canada. It i.s true that thny posseas large 
tracts of land in tliat Province, which they have b -cu under the necessity of 
taking in payments of bad debts, but never lay out 1<. in iiuproviOj^ them for 



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the Rcnoral advantage of the country. We have not live flourini; uiilU which 
can be considered mercantile within sixty inihis of tlio Niajiiira frontier, while 
the Stntca people have upwards oi' fifty ; the <onsc(|U('nce is, while wheat always 
coMimanda cash with thctn, it can only be bartered with us, and instead of oneo 
a month, we cannot employ capital in purehasin<x jyrain to make a remittance 
oftoner than once a year. I'roperty is merely noiuinal, it euiinot be turned 
into money. We think iy jtossesniuif n sui-j)nr(, we would impiove the interior: 
make it an ohjcci for indiviJinifs to invest monri/, rieate hiisiiiess, produce nn 
entire choiige, ond p/urr ourselves in full ns tjood a situnti « as our nriijhitoiirs. 

If a merchant ill Montreal had capital to dispose of, and had an opportunity, 
uf eniplovinp it advaiitaireously in I'pper Canada, would he be prevented from 
doinf;^ so by the circumstance of the territory lyinu under a different jurisdic- 
tion ? — No ; but we know Upper Canada is not now in a situation to have capi- 
tal advantageously anployed, and we tliink it m ver will as long as that un- 
natural territorial line o.\ist>. Almost every British merchant, I'or years past, 
liaH been dis.satisfiod with the country ; and a great portion of the capital ac- 
cumulated in i^lontreal has been sent either to this country or the United 
States. Wc hope to place it in a situation to induce the inhabitants to look 
forward with a view of making Canada their permanent residence, and produce 
<t favourable change even in this feeling. 

Is it solely with the view to the probable return of capital into the country 
that is amassed at Montreal that you reconuneud this nieasure, or is it with a 
view to any commercial object? — It is with a view to the yfueral interests of 
the eonntrtf in ever)/ respect, the ftcersf<ion of hot h eajiifal and credit, that port 
would give us, would enable us at once to set ahimt the improvement of the 
St. LdWrenr, In/ fjUnw'ng the exnmjde of the State of JVew York. Within 
three years wc would itiake <i sea-roast of all those upper lakes, and possosn 
nearly the same natural advantages over the U. iS. people, in our access to the 
ocean, wc did before the conipletiou of their canal, relieve ourselves from paying a 
tax of £4. 10s. sterling per ton on all our imports, £1. 4s. on our exports: save 
the country from £100,000 to £200,000 per annum ; matciially promote the 
agricultural and conimereiul interest of that country, as well as the mercantile, 
manufacturing and shipping: interest of this, and etdianee the value of all 
property fully e(|ual to what it now is in the state of New York. 

Then your complaint is that the Assembly of Lower Canada does not im- 
prove Montreal as you would improve it ?— Our complaint is not with respect 
to the city of Montreal, but the whole country ; the improving of one part will 
benefit the remainder; they have only one general interest. 

Is your complaint, then, that the Assembly of Lower Canada does not 
meet you in improving the navigation of the St. Lawrence between Montreal 
and your limits ? — When we see a neighbouring state, without the aid of any 
revenue from foreign commerce, or duties on imports of any description for ita 
own use, connect Lake Eric w'th the Hudson, from Buffalo, Lake Ontario 
from Oswego, and I^ake Champlain from White Hall, by canals ; to construct 
which they had to ascend high summits and surmount the most formidable 
obstacles ; while the natural outlets of all those lakes are in the St. Lawrence, 
and could have been connected with the ocean in Canada by a steam-boat or 
ship canal, for one-fourth of the money it required to construct their boat- 
canals, we have reason to think there has been at least a very great want of 
attention to the subject. At the same time I have much satisfaction ir 
stating that the L^islaturc of Lower Canada contributed to the connection 



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v^f 1 ako» Eric and Ontario by tukin^ .itock to the lunount of 'J5,0()0I. in tha 
Wo 'linid Caniil Company, and manifcHtcd at the time tht; best dispuhitton t( 
promote any useful improvopient, and many individual members jiinec then 
liiive xprosscd their readincsH to assist in tho improvement of the h't. J^aw- 
riii.ce, althouf^h it is not reasonable to suppose on general prineiplcs tho people 
of Lower (Canada can feel tho same interest in improving? the country above 
thorn as those who have to pay, for every barrel of flour they send to Montreal, 
onr-thlrd of its vuluo for freipht, and on our heavy and most useful articles 
from Montreal, onn-half the amount of its cost. I will mention a case in point 
to prove this. Every member from the city of New Vork opposed the, appro- 
priation of money for tho construction of the Erie canal; it was carried by the 
influence and number of the western members, who felt the sumo interest in 
tho undertaking; we do in this ; and although it \m.\ proved e(|ually beneficial 
to the city, they would not have had a canal to this day if the state hud beeu 
divided or separated a."} we are in Upper and Lower (^mada above Mont- 
TCal. 

How can u line which only separates two jurisdictions prove .such an insur- 
mountable barrier to tho wealth of I'pper (Jauada ?--The reason is simply this : 
Upper Canada cannot participate in the comnicrcial wealth and advantages 
of a sea-port. It is the same as it would be in the state of New York if there 
was a line drawn across the state above Albany, and it was laid out into two 
separate states; tho upper could not participate in the wealth of New York, 
and W(»nld remain poor. The main cause of tliu prosperity of that state Is in 
having capital returned I'rotu the city, and the liogislature po.s.sessing power to 
oommand the ensdit and capital of the whole for the nuitual benelit So satis- 
fied are they that their boundaries could not be bettered, that with all their 
propensity to change and to try experiments, no man ever dreams of cutting 
tho state into two parts ; they change the constitution; cut up into counties, 
and create nn many new ()fficos as they can, but, the natural boundaries of the 
state remain untouched, although their population is about 2,000,000. Every 
state in tho union, where an angle can by possibility be run to the ocean, pos- 
sesses a sea -port; and it 80 happens that the money to eflf.>ct the intern;d im- 
j)rovcments in those states is always provided in those very cities from internal 
resources. When we see two countries lying side by .>ide, as the western part 
of the state of New Vork and Upper Canada, posvsessing cfpial advantages in 
soil and climate, and tind the one increase in the most a.stonisliing manner while 
theolher, comparatively speaking, remains stationary, our attention is naturally 
drawn to discover the true cause. The whole country, within near 800 miles 
of the Niagara river, 4G years since was a perfect wilderness. Our side of the 
Niagara frontier settled and improved full as fast as theirs until the late war, 
since which their rapid increase has taken place. They borrowed 9,000,000 of 
dollars on the credit of their state, constructed their canal, added 100,000,000 
of dollara to the state by the increase iu the value of property. The tolls now 
pay the interest of thcmoney, and will redeem the principal in a few years. It 
is impossible to conceive the effect opening those communications produces in 
ft new country unlcs.H they arc witnessed. This is the true cause of their pros- 
perity, which they could not have effected without the aid of the city of New 
York ; and I maintain we only want the city of Montreal to enable us t,o produce 
similar results ob a much greater and more beneficial scale. 

Do you contemplate as necessary for the attainment of that object the 
uaion of the two provinnas, or do you think that your object would bo suffioieat- 



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ly nttiiincd, if tho division of Tipper Cnnnda wcro to extend as low n» Montrojil?" 
• — 1 think that wonld bo sufficient without a union. 

Do you coneeive thatsueh a division would answer all the purposes of com- 
nicrcial intercourse, and ^^ould be more advantageous than an incorporation of 
the two provinees into one? — I think that ultiniatoly a union would be more 
advantageous, but we would avoid all the ditlieultioH that the people of Upper 
Canada anticipate if a union was to take place; they think they would be under 
llio influence, ofa majority in Lower Canada. 

Would it be pos>iblo to make such a geogrnphiea] division of tho provinces by 
running a line down the river Ottawa, and then pa.ssing south and west of Mon- 
treal, fio as to include in tho upper province none of the seigncurics of the 
lower province ? — Xo ; it would not : tliore are four or live small seigncurie,-: 
lotwtcn Montreal and th(! present boundary line. 

ISnpiHjsing a similar line were rnu from La Prairie, on the other side, totlxi 
liver Kicholieu; are there any Heigncuries .«outh and west of such u line? — Yes, 
there are four or tivo. 

Ih not a great proportion of the English population in Lower Canada 
included in the town and j-oigniory or inlaud of Montreal? — Yes. 

Do you conceive that a majority of the jtroperty an 1 wealth of the town 
of Montreal is in the hands of the English orof the French Canadians? — The 
numbers are in favnr of the French, but I should think the commercial pro- 
perty is in favor uf the i'lncrlish. 

Were not the whole of the seigncurial rights of Montreal in tho hands 
of the seminary? — Yes, 1 understand they were, but the Government had a 
claim to tlitm. 

Are you aware that tho Ciovemmcnt have come to an agreement by which 
they have in their power those original seigniourial rights, with the intention 
of making a mutation of the tenure? — No, I was not aware that they had. 

Would the v.'oninie'-(!i-d objeet of t!io Upper Province bo answered by an- 
nexing jMontreal to it? — Yes. 

in what way can goods be carried to ^lontrral ? — Any vessel of 400 tons 
enn g>) direct from this to Montreal; and, as 1 bclbre mentioned, although the 
distance is .'{,2IH) miles, the freight is only £1 2s. (Jd. per ton ; whereas tho 
next 400 miles it is £0 12s. Dd. 

r>o you think, if you had the town of ^Montreal as a port of entry, you 
would be abi ^ to control your own imports and levy your own duties? — Yes, 
without any rt'ifiicnlty. 

Without interfering in any manner with tho province of Lower Canada? — 
Yes; the inhabitants of each country should be allowed to purchase freely in 
the other. 

Supposing a ve.s.ael bound for Upper Canada were to pass through the St. 
Lawrence, and no duties were to be collected on her at Quebec, would it not 
be possible for her, in her pat^age up the St. Lawrence, to smuggle those goods 
into Lower Canada for consumption there? — They could not smuggle into 
Lower Canada between Quebec and Montreal with any greater facility than 
they can now smuggle between Quebec and Autieosti. There is no smuggling 
now, that I am aware of; and it would be much against the interest of this 
country, as yvell a.-? (Lanada, to put on such high duties as would tempt smug- 
gling. We are not, and should not be put on a footing, or considered, as two 
foreign nations with separate interests. A manifesto, or clearance, is put on 



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bonnl tho vi's«Hel in tliis oouutry ; tlicy would cuter at Quebtoorat Monlreul, 
hi they ploascil. 

Do you ohjpct to tlio arr!Uij,i'inont that has beon mude with rognrd to the 
tllvi.sioii of the duties between tiic upper aud lower jirovince \ — No: I do not 
think the <livisiori of duties iuiportaiit: it is of very little consequence to tlio 
general prosperity of the country, whether u few pnuiidx, more or IcBa, are 
paid either to Jjower or Upper Canada ; their ji;eneral interest is, or rather 
should be, tlio same, I am warranted in my opinion respccjting tlie effeet of 
dutic;^ by witnessinj; their proeecdinj^s in the State of New Vork, from which 
I draw my reference!*. She derives no partieular advantaj^e from tlie revenuo 
of her imports; tliey are exclusively under the control of the general govern- 
ment; still, she is enabled to appropriate large sums annually for edueulion ; 
pays her civil list, and nceomplishes the most extensivo internal improvement, 
witliout any aid from the general government; while we, with a revenue of 
£900,000 per annum, cannot pay even our civil list. Tlie])rineipid object aud 
flie'greatest advantage the provinces will derive by the accession of Montreal to 
Upper Canada, is, that by placing the internal wealth of the country nt her 
own dispo.sal, she will be enabled to appropriate .i portion of that wealth in tho 
improvement of the interior, and make the country rich enough to defray its 
own internal expenses, and not depend wholly on taxing British eommerco for 
every local purpose. 

Do you aj»preben(l that there would be any serious objection, on the 
part of the French Canadians of Montreal, to 1)0 transfernui to the uj)pcr 
province? — I cannot say. My own opinion is, if they iiud an opportunity 
to compare their pres( ut situation, with the udvuntagps tliey nnist derivo 
by the change, they would not; and J know that evoiy man in Upper ('.anada 
would he in favour of it. 

Do you think it woubl be just to introduce among that po)>ulation a now 
law, with all its incidents'! — 1 do not see the necessity fur altering tho law 
as it at present stands. The French law, I have no doubt, would be gradually 
Altered, as changes might seem advantageous. Tf the aci-ession takes place, 
they would rapidly become English, if we can jiulge from the result at Now 
Orleans : and as this state of things, from our local situation must take place, 
r think it just ami politic to i)ring it about us soou as possible, that we may 
bo one jieople. 

It has been stated by some of tho witnesses before this Committee, that 
it would be easy in practice to establish such a system of custom-house regu- 
lations, at the present point of division between the two provinces, as to 
enable the inhaljitants of Uppei- (.^inada to impose what taxes they pleaso 
uiKfU goods coming into that pi'ovinee, and to levy them without any ilanger 
•of smuggling from tho lower |)rovince, in case of any variation of duty be- 
tween the two provinces ; is it your o])iuion that ibat would be a [iracticable 
arrangement! — No: I think it (juite impracticabb\ 

Will you state why you think so ! — There are mar.y reason.s. If a temp- 
tation was offered for smuggling, it could not be resisted : for instance, in 
the winter the country is covered with suow, and they could go into Upper 
Canada whenever they ]ileased : they might enter in various ways, by boats, 
sleighs, waggons, »fec., as they formerly smuggled between the United States 
and Canada. 

What is the extent of tho frontier, between Upper aud Lower Canada, 
throughout which smuggling might be carried on ! — M.any milew, from St. 



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7l?giK, opftoslte Cornwall, noar the whole length of li-akn St. Francis, thonc« 
along the houndary to the river Uttjiwa, and sootiall the line of tJiut river. 

Supposing Montntal was the port of entry in the upper province, what 
would prevent smuggling from the upjjcr province into tlic lower province t 
-There, would he no neciissity for that. The inhaljitants of Lower Canada 
might go and buy from the port of Montreal, and the inhal)itants of Upper 
Ciuiada might go and ')uy from the port of Quebec, the same im they do now. 
Tliey pay no duty on ero.ssing the line between Montreal and Upper Caniula. 

Supposing an ino<piality of (hity in the two provinces, and that no 
article wimo t>^ })Ay a le,ss (luty in Upj)er Canada than it jiaid in Ix)wer 
Canada, what woiild there b« to present that article from being smuggled 
into Ijovrcr Canada in oonsecpienee of that inferiority of duty ? — If either 
province were iinjiolitic enough to ptit a higher duty on any one article than 
wa.s paid in the other provinces, the consequence would be that everybody 
would go and buy in the jilace where it was the lowest : but, as T have be- 
fore mentioned, there .'^ilioiild be no second duty after goods are once landed, 
either at the port of Quebec or Montreal. 

Supposing that l^ower Canada inipose«l a duty on rran, and that the 
Upju'r Province imposed no duty n})on rum, wo'dd it not be the interest of 
the inhaliitants of the Lower Provinci^ to buy their rum in Montreal, and 
to lanng it into consumption in tlio Lower Province 1 — It would. 

Do you suppose it possible that there shouhl be different .scales of duties 
in the two (Panadas under any circumstances?— 1 do not. The duties at 
present an; regulated by thi> Trade Acts ; and if a much higher duty on any 
one article were imposed, it would nrove injurious to ourselves as well as to 
the grower or maiuifactujer. For ii-istanc(i, rum, coti'ee, sugar, to our West 
India colonies, who receive our Hour in exchange, and on goods to the 
mauufiictnier here. The cheapc r these can be introduofnl into Canada, the 
jnore witll be disposc^l of, and w(( will obtain a much greater revenue fix)m 
tower dutiofi than from high ones. If Lower and Upper (Janada wen; two 
distinct <;onntrif,s, with separate interests, like the United States and Can- 
ada, some restrictive measun>,s, in crossing the boundary line, would be 
n4Kws.sary ; a.s tlu^y are, it is nt)t. 

You are aware that by the schednle of the Tradf; Act in 1824 and 1825 
various duties were imposed upon articles which ndght be imported from 
the United States into the two (^madas : do you conceive that in Upon 
CWmda th(! payment of those duties is avoided in con-seipience of the difH- 
culty of preventing smuggling? — Not iii genei*al ; there may be some articles 
smuggled in consequence of the duties u|ton them being too high, but in 
gen-.'ral they are not. 

Mention the articles vi|>on which yo\i conceive smuggling Xa* take place. 
— T cannot mention any pf.rticular articles. 

Are you of opinion tliat, in conseipience of the nature of the frontier 
between the Ignited States and Upptu- (.'anada, itnevtu- would be practicable 
to enforce the payment of duties upon articles which can be afforded cheaper 
from the United States to Uj per Canada thtu) from England, including the 
expense of freight ?- No. I think not; if you place a higher duty upon 
articles from the United States than will pay the exfiense of risk, they will 
Biuxiggle them in, and it will lie- impossible to prevent it. For iustiince, the- 



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103 

vhole (if ITftpt-r ('utuwlrt was Hiippliifd with trti tVom tlic I'liitcd Status l)p- 
fore the India Coinptitiy sfut thoir ships tu C^iiflnH; diruct, ultlioiti,di the 
;^viticle was prohibited altoj^ethei-. Now thu tahh's are turned, the U. S. peo- 
ple will be supplied thvouj(li Canada with Biitish nuinufaoturos, because 
we take less duty than they do ; tju^y will suniifi^le one hundrod to one 
ruore than we do. The JJritish manufactures will be sent in by the St. 
Lawrence, and if w(j improve the facilities they will be carried io the re- 
motest part of Upper ('anada, and they will be smuggled in great tjuaiititieH 
Inlto the United Stiites along that line. 

What is the law that prevails with respect to[)er,sonal property in Upper 
G'anada '! — ITie .same as here. 

Does it differ in any way from tlie administration of the law, us to per- 
sonal property in I;Ower Canada? — 1 am not .•ii'ipiaiated witJi ili i a»lu'inis- 
tration of the law in Lower Canada. 

Is there, or is there not, any difterence with respt.H.-t to tlie law of personal 
property in Upper Canada and in liower Canada? — I cannot sav. 

(^an you inform the Committee how I'ar the Englisli law of descent 
prevails in Upper ( 'anada ? has it been moditied by local statute ? —ft lias 
not ; a bill was passed in the Lower House, but not in the Up[)er. 

(■an you iidbrm the Conuuittee of the modification which that bill pro- 
pose<l ^ -[t was making a certain distribution of the property when a poj-son 
died intestate, but I do not know exactly what the division was. 

With respect to the law of raoi-tgage in that c(.>lony, can you state jire- 
cisely how that law stands l- -A mortgage is given as h security ^j)on 
property: any person can forechwci it and stdl it. 

Is money, in point of fact, lent upon the secuiity of mortgage? — It is. 

Is there a general system of registration ?- Yes, the registration is very 
simple : each county has ii ivgistry oflice ; if a person wants to buy property 
Le goes i«ul ]>ays la. Od. aiul he finds iunncdiately whether it is incund)erttd 
or not ; for if the person had incund)eted it and not registered it, the person 
who bought it and registered it would hold it. 

Then all mortgages must be registered iu order to l)e eti'ectuai ;' ^'e.s, 
everything afVwting the conveyance of huul. 

Is that system found tow well ?- It is universally appro\<'il of; 
there is not a person in the cou y that does not feel the advantage of it. 

Do you know in what form marriage settlements aic drawn ( — There 
are no marriage settleir.ents there that 1 know of: it is very seldom that 
any thing of the kind is entereil into. 

Js there any system of ent;iil of jtropei-ty '/— No. 

How do they provide for widows ? -They get o!ie third at the death of 
the husband ; they are entitled to dower according to the Knglish law. 

Do they get one-third both of all tlm original landed jjroiierty of the 
husband, and of all after acquired land '( — Of all ho has at the time of his 
death ; if he sells any pioperty, she bars her dower on the deed. 

Can you state what is the prevailing practice in willing? is it the prac- 
tice to make an eldest son as it is called, or to leave the property eijuiilly 
distributed ? That depciiids altogether upon the wish of the person. 

Have yon known instances of both '?-~Xo ; if a pei.son does not wish to 
divide his property, he does iiot make a w ill, because it then goes to his 
cldefit eou. 




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Wlucli is tho iiun-e frequent ocourrenco of the two 1 — The geneial prac 
tico is to rn!ii<o wills. 

Do you conceive that tho Ainerioau setth'rH who have settled in Upper- 
Canada are attached to the laws of Upper Canada, or that thoy have u 
])rofovonco for the laws of the United States? — I think they are decidedly 
attached to the laws oi Upper Canada, which are vei-y similar to those of 
the Uniteil States. The inhabitant.s of Ui)j)or Canada are iHoro attached to 
the present form of government than they are to that of the United States. 
They gavo the most convincing proof of it by their conduct during the late 
war, at tho commtmcement of which there was but one regiment of regu- 
laa soldiers on the whole frontier between Kingston and Sandwich. 
The couutiy wa': repeatedly invaded during the year, and to its inhabitants 
as then convpoM'd, is its defence during that period principally to be ascribed. 
Those people wer<! admitted into Canada on the most liberal princij^les be- 
fore the war, and the most impolitic and injuiious measure the Covernment 
of this country ever adoj)ted was in excluding thcMu since. Many people, 
to my certain knowledge, sold their pro|>eity in the state of New York, 
where they were dissatislied with paying he.avy taxes for the support of 
what they conceiveti an unjust war, with a view of settling in Upjier ('an- 
adfi, came to the frontier, found a restriction, and proceeded on with their 
capital to the state of » )hio, to the unexampled increase of that state. We 
most jnaterially contrilaite to the very great injury of Upper Canada, and 
the deprcciatiou in value of property. The U. S. people are the most useful 
and enterprising people which can settle a new country ; and their principle 
is to defend the country they live in, not the one of their birth, and many 
who had not settled in Canada one year were as faithful to it as any native. 

However loyal the general chararter of the American settlers might have 
been, were there not some excej)tions ! — Yes : there were a few ; but full ii3 
many among I'luropeans, in proportion to their number. 

Are you a native of Upper Canada 1 — I am not a native of it. My 
father was an Ami-rican loyalist, and I hapjiened to be born in the State of 
New York ; but 1 have lived suica childhood in Upper Canada, and my 
feelings are wholly Canadian. 

Do you consider it to be the jrrevailing wish of the Upjter Canadians to 
remain connected Avith this country 1 — Yea : there never was a country 
more happily sitinited than Upjier Canada in her connection with this 
country. From her soil, climate, and situation, she must be wholly agri- 
cultui'al : you receive her produce on more favourable terms than tho pro 
duce of the U. States ; we receive your manufactuies on paying a moderatt* 
duty of about two and a half per cent, while they are now ]mying a duty 
fi-om lifty to one hundred — conse(piently, we must obtain our supplies at a 
cheaper rate. Every person will not only see, but feel this advantage; to 
that, by securing our interest, you have the best guarantee of our attachment 
and connection. We are are naturally rivals to tho U. S. people ; we grow 
the same articles, seek the best markets, and endeavour to draw the pro- 
ducts of each other through our difl'erent communications. The only thing 
we require, as bcfoie stated, to place Upper (Canada in the most enviable 
.situation, is unrestricted immigration, an uninterrupted communication to 
tho occAU, and the possession of a commercial [)ort. 

riulependeutly of tho a<^;iJiRi<,'<:is tliey derive from the trade of this 
country, do you conceive it to bo their wisli to contiiiuo a province of this 



105 



I'ountvy ! — Yp« : tho only nioiwin-o udoptod by our( Jovcnimont, tluvt J know 
of, which jravo general dissatisfactioii, was in placiiii; vestrictiDii on riiii;;;ra- 
tion* The reason I heai'd assignod i\>v this nioasure, ininiediatcly at'ttM- l\u^ 
war, wlien it toi)k place, was that thu adnii.s.sion of Auicri'-au settlors wt)i!lil 
hy a moans of (iis.sonunatinL( (k'niocratioal i>nni;iplcs, althotii,di no evil Inul 
arisen from those who canio b-^foi-e the wai' ; on the contrary, they proved 
'?(]ually zealouH in its (hifenoe. If, in truth, their form of Government is 
better adapted for our country, it is (piite impossibh-, froTii our continual in- 
tercourse with them, to prevent oui' iiuhihin^f those principles; aiid any 
attempt to prevent it conveys an admission that we thijik it the best, uml 
does far more injury than service. That portion of the inhabitants of the 
United States who would settle in Canada, would gi\ea deeided jurlVrcnco 
to our (xovernment, and would make the best subjects and .settlers, uyion 
the same i»rinciple, and for tln> same cau-e, ihat the great nutjority of 
English, Scotch, and Irish who settle in America l>ecouie the must violent 
democrats in that country ; for neither i)arty would go and settle under any 
government without In'ing predisposed in its favoin-. The only ditlrrenco 
in the form of govennnent in the State of New York and Ujijier ('anada, 
consists in the ap})ointment of Governor, Upper House, or Legisl;iti\e 
(youncil, and INIagisti'ates : the former, with us, is apppointed by thf Crown, 
<lnring pleasure, the Upper House for life, (independent of both (.'rown and 
people,) Magistrates, itc, by the executive : our parish uthcers elected by the 
people. They, in New York, elect the wliole, ami in this only do v.'i' diflcr. 
Wo have the full benelit of their democi-acy without its attendant evils. 
They are continually electioneering and changing every olKcer in the state, 
from a Governor to a constnble; constitution and all. In a late change in 
their constitution, they adopted 'universal suffrage' .is it is termed, p.-iying 
no regard to property. This is found on trial to create nuich dissatisfaction 
among themaelve.s. A man in oltiee being dependent on po])ular favoui-, 
(if he wishes to retain his .situr.tion,) makes it a study to ]ilsa.se the majority, 
right or wrong, and cannot act independently. Many of tlnni tVel th<i 
etfect of this, and we see it; and I am sen.sible but few, if any, in ('anadn. 
desire a change. Therefore, indejiendent of onr interests, which is tlie 
governing motive, we have good reasun to be satisfied with our t'uiin of 
(iovernment. 

Then you think it the prevailing wish not to make the (Jovernment 
more democratic than it is at pre.sent >. 1 do. 

Have you any I'eason to believe that persons of dillcrent reliijiou- j>er- 
sua.sions are in the habit of confonning to tho woi-.ship of the Church of 
England when churclies are built and clergymen provided /- -I do nut think 
they are ; 1 do not think they lik(^ the form of it generally ; my reason is, 
that there are more of other persuasions than of the ('hurch of Knghind. 

What persuiision do you b.dong toyDurs.'lf ? -I belong to tli.> < 'hurch of 
Kngland. 

Do you happen to know liow many niemi)erR of the As,sembly in Upp(»r 
(>anada are members of the church of England I I do not. 

Are the churches fully attendeil, as fai- as you know ( \n some plaoeH 
they are ; it depends altogethei- upon the situation of them. 

Are you acipiaintod with the Act by the nanu? of the Sedition Act? Yes. 

l->o you know the history of that ^ ct ? — It was an Act pa.ssed a long 
time ago, during the tro\ibles in Ireland, in order to prevent Irishmen who 



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inight \n; comdwcA to •'iitcitain daii^'oroais principJcK from comiiijc,' into tht 
country ; thw cmly iiistanct! I know of its ever bcinj,' iu!t«'(l upon was in th«' 
case of Mr. (tonrlay. 

What are the; powMTS ti.'at it yiv^'s / — It j^ves power to a coinniissioncr 
of th<! (Jourt of Kinji's l^cucli to onlor a person out of tlie eonntry : if 1 ^'o 
and take an oatli that I holieve that such a person lias not taken tl)e oatli 
of alle,t,'ianc(' within a c;ej-tain tinie, ami tliat he is a (hm^'crous jnan, the 
coniMiissionei- orchis tlie person out of the e«iuntry ; if he does not choote to 
go, lie is then eontined. 

Fs there no appeal? -No. Mr. ( louriay is a case in point: he was 
bnlercd to leave the coui*try ; he would not f^o, and was put in gsiol. 

Has the House of Assembly re|ieatedly jtasseii hills to do away with 
that Act? —It has. 

Have, th<n heen eonstantly rejected hy the liegii4ative Council 1 — They 
haxe. 

[t is tiien in existence at this moment i — It is. 

Do you happen to know by what majorities in the Hotise of A.SHemhIy 
those hills were carried'! --'riiey were carried almost unanimously in th»? 
House of Asnemhly. 

Hji-s it not been for some time p;ist the first bill that the Houst) of 

Assembly passed before it ]irocee(led Lo other business? A^'s. 

Do you know upon what principle the liCgislative ('ouncil refused to 
rep(*al the Bill ] — [ have heard the Bill wais rejected becatise they conceived 
Tio evil had arisen from the existenc<^ of the Act. and they did not conceive 
it necessiiry to repeal it. Hit in my opinion, it woulil be a good thing if it 
was done away with. It is a useless law, and gives needless diissatisfaetion. 

Do you follow any j>rofession in Canada? - Nt). f do not. 

Do you hold any situation under the Covernment ? N«)thiug but an 
honorary one. I am a (Commissioner of the Peace. 

Are you a holdei- of land in Upper Canada ?- 1 am. 

You state; that a law was made for jireventing Irish from coming into 
Upper Canada, is there any ]>rejudice at this monuint against the introduc- 
tion of Irish emmigrant'i ( — ()ji the contrary, tliey conceive it very beneticia'. 

Ik it the general opinion in Up{)er Canada, that their interests and their 
resourses would be; materially advMuced by the increase of their jKipulation? 
— (*ertainly, the interests and resourses of X'pper Canada would be matorially 
advanced by the increase of ))opulation. 

Do you think the Legislatuie of Upper Canada would be piepared to 
concur in any measure for the introduction of po[iulation into that country? 
- 1 think they would, but it would dep<'nd upon what footing their con- 
currence was reipiired, they could not contribute money just now, if their 
natural situation is improved in the way I llav(^ mentioned, they will be abl«> 
lo assist in any thing. 

Do you think that if they had the means of assisting i;!)ey would be dis- 
posed to assist in it? Yes: if we are placed in the situation that the hUxU) 
of New York is, by possessing a port of our own, we will be enabfcd t«) 
contribute to any measure for the atlvancenient of the country. 

What [)art of Uf iper Canada do you reside in?^— In the district of Niagara. 

Do you know anything of the udmiuifitration of justice there ?^YeB, 



107 

In it in a respectahlr «t«to, or Ik it diejijiftrove'l of'/---Jt is in a rospec- 
table ijtate. 

Are they satisfitMl with the constitution of the liegiHhitive (.'onnoil, an 
it at present exists f- They are, so far a.s I liave any knowlcdfie. It would 
be better if they ai)pointed, in the I^igishitive Council, men more generally 
distributed over the province, instead of so great proportion beinj? resident 
at York, as it M-ould add more weight to the body ; and I think late apj»oint- 
luenLs have been more distant. They were at an early day. 

Arc you at all acquainted with the disputes now going on in that I'rovince, 
respecting the clergy reserves? — I am not particularly acquainted with thcai. 
I know the situation of the clergy reserves, and the way they are hold. 

Are they satisfied with the etnistitution of the clergy coijxniiUcm? 'j'lifne 
thiit do not belong to the Church of f:ngland arc not. 'I'he Church of 
.Scotland W(;nt to get a share of the property, and if they vrere t<:) gei it, 
a»id it were only between those two churches', j think tlie p(>uple in general 
would be more dissatisfied than they are now, bex^ause all the otlier de- 
nominations would lay claim to it. 

What is the prevailing religions beli<'f in tlio Upper Province '{ — They 
are divided among a number ; I think the ;^^ethodiHts are the prevailing 
ofiinion, and I think they have done more good than any others. 

bo you mcun the Wttsleyan Methudists ? They are of the .same faith., 
but belonging to a conference established in the state <if New York ; they 
came into tliat country when it was very new. 

Do they connect themselves at all with the (^JhurcJi of Kngland ?— No, 
f.hey .'U'e quite se|>«irate. 

Are tlieir ministers generally Americans or Knglishnieu ? — They are 
divided ; there are u number of lJpj)er Canadians ainong them. 

Is the improvement of the country materially retarded by the manner in 
which the clergy rcse"\es have been laid out? Yes; their being .scp.irated and 
distributed through the country proves injurious to the settlement of the re- 
mainder, as they do not equally contribute to the genenU improvement. 

Do you think it would be pos.sible to sell any large portion of the clergy re- 
serves in the course of a few years? — I think it would, if the country was 
properly improved ; but in the present fSituation of that country it is impossible 
to Sell land at any thing like its real value : and to this subject 1 am particularly 
desirous to draw the attention of the Committee, to show the relative value of 
property in Upper Canada compared with the State of ^icw York, and the 
price of land in the two countries. 



i!7th.- -Received a letter from Canada, stating that they have a greater 
force employed than in former years His Majesty had, on the l;?th of 
May, decided upon making us a loan ; which circumstance was notified by 
Mr. (Cameron. Since the change of the ministry on the 28th, the (Jhaneellor 
of the Kxchequer has been so much engaged, that it has not yet been brought 
before the Iwuse. 

"July Mrd. — -I am this day 36 ycju-s of age, and think I feel as I shotild, 
gmt*!ful for Vieing preserved so long. 

" Wrote a letter to the Chancellor. 

"Attetuled a meeting at the Freemason's Tavern, to raise money for the 
Thames Tunnel. The Pukes of Cambridge and Wellington wi re present 



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108 

— great <;nt!iii«iiism manifested. I considor the compliment* paid to tho 
Duko <jf Wcllin<,'ton rather fiilHOTiie and ill-timed. Good feeling liowovor 
pro vailed, and much money Hub.seribed. 

" Gtli. — Visited Riclnnond and Twiekeidiam. The visitors primipaliy 
foi-ftigiun-H. liichmond in a beautiful place, famous witli us for tho song, 
"Tho TiMSH of Richmond Hill." It consists of a large park. Tlie deer re- 
iiemblH mil- calves, well fed on milk. Kew gardens consi.st of very 
exteusiv(! IJoyal (iomains. Neivr \>y is Zion House, the residence of th'> 
Duke of Nortlnind)erland, said to have three hundred and sixt^'-tive windows. 

" July 7th. — Visited <ho British Museum, and was plea.sed with thw ex- 
hibition of l)irds in particular. 

" In the evening attended Parliament. If eard a most interesting debate 
(to me) oil the fortirication of Canada, and the IJideau (Janal. 

" 1 Ith. Attended the debate on the Budget. The a[)))roj)riation for tho 
Wellund Canal passim] unanimously. 

" 12th. — (Called upon the Chancellor, and left with Jiim a blank pow^or 
of attorney to be tilled up. 

1; " 14th.— Called u])on my ohl fri(>nd Ry*'r.son, also upon Mt. R!iie.>. Pro- 
cured a letter of oi-edit for "£10,()0() ; and another to Yates A IMcIntyre for 
a similar amount. Wrote to President of ('anal Company, also to Mr. 
Rlaek, tlm Clerk, ofthe.se proceedings. 

"l.^tli. — Walking with Mr. (Jrantand Mr. dale, when the latter was 
robbed of his gold watch by a pick-pocket. 

" IGtli.-— Went to witness Mr. (iurney's steam coach in operation. 

"l!)th. — At Brompton to see a coach which was propelled by gas. Tf 
tlii-t pi-in(;i:)le is |)i'acticable, the power created will be cheaper tlian steam, 
and .supersede all others. 

'• 20th — Sunday. — Heard Mr. Trvine the celebrated Scotch Divine. 
His attitu'le and gestures not graceful. He preached from the single word 
" (!!n'ist." II.-: is odd and eccentric, but ])ossessea great talent, particularly 
in the int'-rprefcatiou of tlioso mysteries to which he appeared to turn hi.< 
attention." 

vVfti'r a inimber of business transactions, unnece.s.S!iry to be recorded, 
we a;^aiii revert to his diary. 

"26th. - Vi.sited tho Museum of the East India House. 

"2'.>th. Mr. Loitan took sonw shares. No other house interested in 
Canada took any shares yet but his. 

"August 2nd. — Visited the Bazaar in Oxford street, where tho trunk of 
the large Walnut tree which I liave frequently seen while growing in all 
its n;i.tive majesty on the banks of Silver Creek, Lake Erie. It is hero 
comparati'.ely unnoticed, although at home it was the attraction of every 
traveller. Saw McPlierson, just from Canada, who re]>orts a wot season 
there. 

" ;]rd. To Westminster Abbey. 

" 4th. -Had a long interview with Sir George Murray. 

'• .'")th. With Mr. Fja3thope, of the Canada Conipany'a Office. 

" loth. — Heard an extempoi-aneous sermon in Bow Street ('hui-oh. 

" IGtli.-- At the Treasury and Solicitors — prepared for home. 

" 17th. — ^In the morning at St. James' Church. 



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• 

" 18Ui. — To tin; Tn-nsuiT at 1 1 o'clock. Cot the aj^iccrnK'nt rxcciittMl, 
and made v.vorj necoKsary arrangtmient for the pnyinent of the X'50,()0(). 
L'alhid on Sir Goorgo Murray, with whom I left a letttT for tlie l)ukc of 
Wellington, ho jtrornising to hoc and speak with him on my uHaiis. Left 
( ity at half-[)ast 1 in tlio Manchester coach "Telegraph" for St. Alijans. At 
haif-past 9 took an outside seat for Birmingham in " Grey H<mnd." 

" IDth. — Visitodthe manufactviring (tstablishnients, and at '2 left in th« 
Warrington coach. Sto[)jiod at lUhton, and examined the iron works. 
Was surprised at the wearying service of tlio women, wJio were em])loye(l in 
making brick, carrying and loading coul, ttc. The ajipeaianoe of those 
works and furrkaces gives a better idea ftf the power of (!reat J'.ritain than 
all the foriiiications, garrisons, and ships tliat we see. Slept a coiiple of 
hcnivs, and jumped in the royal mail coach for Manchester. Fouiul at War- 
rina;ton tlu't .seats wero all engaged. Paid two sovereigns to a tJermau 
wouum for lier seat. Tins appearanco of the eountiy at night i:s ^iniilav to 
tlie aurora in America — pointed Hashes of light, and the luiid glare of tho 
blast furnaces which border the niad, has a strange and stiivtling ellect. 

" 'JOtli Arrived in Manchester at half})ast wven. Went to bed for 
tv«<) or three hour.s, and aftfu-wards visited the ditferent manufactoi-iew in 
tiiG city. Left for Fjiverpool at half-past six. 

"li"rd.- Visited Duke of Uridgewater's e;inal. and ilirou-.di an extensive 
fait establishment. Examined tlie locks on the Huucorii canal, and roturued 
to Liverpool at eleven o'clock. 

"Sunday 2 Itli-- Attended divine service at an Asyhira for the lilind, 
where the service was chanted. A A'(n-y interesting scene. 

2r)th — Visited tlie great pottery, and afterwards went on Itoard a lln.ssian 
ship from Ai'chaugel, 820 tons burthen. The sailorK' l^read is rye, of a dark 
colour. Also a Dutch gallot of 130 tons. Tho Captain v.as accompiiuied 
by his wife. Visited an enormous distillery, which pays an excise (hity of 
£500 per day. 

2C.th. -xiftcr seeing all the Kic^hts, tnibarked on board the packet 
Kapolson. Tiie day was fine. Wind E. Scene exeei-dingly anin;ated, as 
in company with a great numlier of ve.ssel.s, wo passed down tlie, Mersey. 
Nearly IfiO sail, all liead of us. In a few vniuutes the ^uj)eriority of our 
vessel was manifested, as we passed one after the other of them ; and at 
hust we formed the centre of a semicircle, which reminded mo of tlie jKisition 
of tho French ami Spanish fleets at Traf;Jgar. Amongst or.r jassengers 
were four t'aruidians, two Hamiltons, ar I Grant. 

29lh. - -Passed Cape Clear. Weather tine. 



Tho voyage homo was accomplished without any unusual occurrence, 
ntid occupied his time by writing out a memorandum for the Legislatures of 
LTpi>er and Lower Canada, in reference to the project of the St. riivwrenoe 
Canals. 

Monday Sept. 2Uh. — Siglited laiul, and pilot came on board about 
seven miles from Sandy Ilook. They an'ived in New York the same evening. 
And our subject in his journal does not forget to record Ids gratitude t« 
the Ahuighty, for Hir protection during the voyage. 



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In a Ipttwr, diitod from Brookport 4tli Oi,>tolH»r, to Dr. P.,*li« says : . 

" I loft N. Y. on Sunday, (two days after landing) and travelled in « 
atago. Near (loddosburgh, on Tuesday afternoon, we were upset, causing 
the breaking of my thigh bono in two places, one in the thinner part of 
the limb, six inches above the knee, and the second, four inches higlier. 
Tho Syracuse doctor who set it, says it is in the most favourable position. 
I date this from a lime boat near the heading of this letter. 1 liave written 
Mrs. M. Wo were detained two or three days this side of Palmyra, owing 
to a break in the canal. 1 am la.shed up as effectvuilly as a man iii a straight 
jacket. This has been a damper. Still, I have a good ap])etite, and in good 
spirits. T have be<;n visited, during my detention, by your brother John, 
who has given me the news. I have many things to write about, but a.s my 
right knee i ins my only desk, you may judge by the scrawl, that the ac- 
comodation . not very suitable. Young Mr. (leorge Keefer happening to 
hear of my nceident while at Rochester, }iu.s come down, for which I feel 
thankful, with the other." 

Vours truly, 

, WiLMAM Hamilton Mkbeitt. 

In answer to his lett^^-r, Mrs. Mei-ritt immediately started ofl", and met 
him at HUurk Rock, where he arrived on Tuesdny the 7th. In her letter to 
ln»r mother, she says : - 

" I never saw Hamilton look so well in my life." 

At eight o'clock next morning, he was renvoved into a large I»oa», and 
they passed down the river to tho mouth of tho Ohipfiewa, where tliey ar- 
i-i ved at twelve o'clock, arul i)assing up that river to within three niilo.i of the 
canal, he was met by a delegation of horsemen, and a large ntunber on 
f(.x)t, who brought him to his home in St. ('atharines. amidst the most joyous 
demonstration of his many friends. The village was illuniinat<;d at night, 
and the contin\U'd rattle of small arms which greeted liis arrival, strongly 
resembled some of the older tlays on the l>»nks of the Niagam River. 

Dufinghis absence in England, tlu; age)it, clerk, engineer, and contractor 
hi-d been very active in their respective departments. The engineer, writing 
to Mr. Merritt on tho 7th of Aj)ril, .says : — 

" I shall not leave the line. Be a-ssurod that I feel tiie imi)ortanoe of 
being here more than when you were present." 

Although, from the length of time oui- subject w-w absent, some impedi- 
ments had occured. 

Thompson & C!o. commenced the deep cut on the 'ifith April, and liavo 
now a heavy force on. Mr. Pheli)3 commenced on the 10th. There never 
was a finer time. Every part of the line is in motion. Three sections 
are finished. The locks are progressing. Tow-path going on. A heavy 
gale pnMluced no damage to our piers at the harbour. The excavatioiw at 
tlio Chippewa end will »il l>e done by the 20tJj of tii'iH month. 



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With rognnl to tin* oihitv improvciiitMit.s, tbo flitch is l)oiiii,' n\;t(io tlirotigh 
thtt inai-Hli, but otbor oixTatioiiH in tiiat qimrtci" nie sus|imi(lo<l Thw »>stiuittto.<i 
up to Hie 1st of April iiro S'^O.OOO. 

Krom the advunocHl jiosition tliw workH lia<l now uhmuiiuhI, a new fiuitui-H 
in i(Mii()vinjj the earth by scows m'hs i^oufi into by tlitt contractors on tho 
deep cot, whereby they ih»posite(l the stn-plus earth along the l)ank.s of tliH 
Welland River, in order t<<> ii^akc a tow-patJi, which means wan found very 
convenient. 

Abont this tinie, the ('hnrch iilready spoken of, h;ul nct-ived itft first 
refular miniattir, in the person of ;i Mr. Parkin, ilo came from ('hand)ly i)i 
liOWrti- ("Janada, ami scons to have Itecu well liked by tln^ little conijre{,'ation, 
who always kept the (Jhurch well lilled. 

On A)»ril the !Hh, the annual election of ilir"ctors is noticed, and Mr. 
.Mcrritt was «;hosen ai one <lurijii( liis aVisence, and the other nienibei-s wrre 
re-ele<.'ted. 

Mr. liolton left, during tlie season, for Newfoinulland, and Col. .1. Clark, 
was the .secietary and acting- agent iluring tlio absoicc of Mr. Mturitl. On 
the "iDtli of April, (-oininodoro Northr(»p's vcs.sel, the '• Wt'llanil CfuKil," wa^ 
launched — and cm the !)th of Alay, the ("ommodure invited His H.vcellency, 
the Jjientenant (lovernor, and the board of dii-ectors to a gi-jiinl spread on 
hoard. They sailetl from St. <.^ithaiines to Port l^alhovi.«ic. niiich to the 
"vatitication of tho nuiltitudos who crowded the banks of tlie canal. TIim 
vessel let": afterwards for Kingston, with l,(i(lO bbls. of flour, thus being t.lio 
pioneer fron> the cunitl. 

A menagerie and circus from the States made its apite/tiiirice this \i>i\v, 
lilniH sliewing that tho village was i-apidly becoming known to tho onisido 
world. 

A daily stage to PnilValo was intuiginiited on the L'Hth Hay, in this yeiw, 
Mr. Stephenson being one of the coni]»any in St. ('athaiines. 

The election of members for the tenth Pariianient was more llian usually 
lively, in this dititrict Mr. Merriit was again uurulnated, wijich showed tho 
good will of his friends towards him. 

Among the e.xtraordinary canal projects of this year, was one for forming 
;\ continuous canal from r»idlalo to l>etroit, along tho lake shore. Yet, as 
tho tendency of public opinion, we see an article in the paju-is of tin's time, 
4th June, headed "J'ailroads r.v. (,'anals," .showing tlutt tho pul)lic woro now 
"rowing tirod of the numerous schenxes of water comuuinication, and that 
their thou"ht.s were beginning to turn to other means of titvnaportation. 

Kighteon months had elapsed «ince the last census of the villag« was 
taken, and now th«y retvirned a population of (lOO — increase of 200. 

By the adyertisenients in the paper, we see a marked chang«5 in tho 
biLiinfiaw entei-priao ; among iluun, one coime<ited with tho e.xpectod opening 



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112 

of the ainai v.is a forwai dinq; scheim', by MoHHrK. MuiiKoii A' (.'o. "Wo. Ke«; Di-. 
♦ 'liiW (ulvcrth«^fi .'?,0()() l))i8li»'ls ot'Hult, iit t)() c«!nt8 per biibhcl. 

Tho (Icatli of Di! Witt (Jlinton, at tlu! early age of 08, was tlio sultject of 
u groat (leal of ii('W.s])U])er talk, KUggeKtionti for a jmblic moiuuriont by the 
citiz(!iis of N. Y., arul tc'stiiiionials to his family, «tf. A bill waH bioiiglit in 
t(» the Ijfgislatiire at Alliaiiy, to grant to his children the Kiim of $10,000, 
but was thrown out on the third reading, tJiercby shewing that giuierous 
gratitude to a great and good man, arc as rare in R((jiublicH aw in other itlaeeH. 

'Jlie monnniont to tho illustriouH (ieiieral J'rock, ei'ccted by the Canuilian 
militia, from whom a penny HubKeriptiou wasi-iiised, was this year eonipleted. 
'riiii gives evidiUUH! of the gratitude and ajipreoiation of the IJjijjer 
Caii.idiiuis. 

l()th .Sej)tenibei*.^ — Mr, Dlaek, in iiobnowJedging remittances, gives a. sad 
account of the sickness on the canal ; 

" J. hiinont to say, there is little |n'os|ieet of finishing tlie canal this f;dl, 
although six vve;;k?t ago wo hud good reason to belIe\A it would have b(vin 
liiiislied. There has not ben a groat du'.d done in the marsh. Not a person 
Kick there, wliere it was nu)Ht expected. Mr. Yates' negotiation failed. 
Boulton was sent to New York, :ind got acce[itances of )i?24,00(), from what 
yoi\ unght g't in Kngland. .Half of it was negotiatod at the Bank of Upj-et 
(.''anada, for a (ionsideration, which, witli i?oiiltou's charges, makes it a \\ot:v 
as!ii>^tance. Tho engineer and contractor ni'O at loger-heads." 

During his Siicknoss, Mr. Merritt received many answers to his qtiestions 
ill reference to the St. Lawrence Canals, viz: from Mr. Macaulay of Kingston, 
Mr.Wliitiag ofPre.scott, and Mr Jon is Jones, from llrockvillo. And, in re- 
ference to his Grand lliver scheme, from iMr. Whitehead, and several otheiH. 
Also, letters 01 commissoration from the President of the (^inal, Mr. Dunn, 
J. B. Vatos, Peter Kobinson, (.'harle.s Small, *Vo. During the worat period 
of his illness, the new.s of the tieri<)\is sli[is iu thi; deep cut svin, luought tci 

hiru. 

It mu.-t not bo supposed that the oidy didieulty experienced up to this 

time lay in the task of gctiing the immey to carry on the works. In the 

d<'ep cut, a ssries of most disastrous and annoying land .slips occurred, 

caused by the (iuick-Siiii<l and the great wei,i,dit of the banks, but which were 

of so serious a nature as to imperil the future prospect of the work. Few 

can have any idea of the annoyance caused br these slides ; and in the 

{•resout inslanoe tho management were almost driven to <ic.';peration to 

overcome them. Other pj.rts of the canal were either finished or rapidly 

approaeliing completion ; but the deep cut was the Hidncon on which the 

whole energy of the ali'air required concentration. Under the circwm.stan- 

ces a further digging out of tho cut was itot to be thought of. iSo tlie ideu.s 

of our subject were directly tinned to the utility of his extension of the 

Canal to l^ake Eiie by jneans of a feeder or cut to Port Maithuul, which by 

its higher iuvel and more certain supply of water, would keep a depth in 



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the (Ipep cut more than •ulllcient fur all future casualties on that unfortu- 

Qftte Bpot. 

On the 14th Novfrnber, he writos to Mr. Phpljis, oonti-actor, as follows : 

" Send me Mrord l)y Mr. Clark, particularly, whother there is anr indi- 
cation of a new slip. Whother you intend timbering through your slip, and 
what time you think it will tako." 

A meeting of the dirootora was also called to consider the nuitt«ir, and 
after sundry ])ropositionH to remedy the evil, it was decided to leave it in tho 
hands of Mr. Merritt, who at once commenced uiK)n pushing the work on the 
feeder from tho (irand Iliver; although it may easily lie inferred that at thii 
particular time tho ]>osition of our .subject was .such as to severely try a 
bohler man. The accounts coming in from tho deep cut, where hundred* of 
thousands of dollars hatl already l>oen spent — the utter impossibility of deal- 
ing with (piick-sand iu such a i)lace, added to the troulde of a fractured 
limb, with occasioual fever, are diBcuuragementa which can bo bettor ima- 
gined than described. 

Mr. Geddes, a leading engineer on tho Erie Canal, was also sent for to 

consult with Mr. Barrett on the grave matter, and Mr. Uarrett writes : 

" I have travelled thnnigh the deep cut. Judge CJoddes left the upper 
end of the feeder and has been to the mouth of tlie Crand Kiver, and ex- 
amined it for a harl)our. Shall go through from Mar.sliviilo to St. Catharines 
with him. My deep cut levels to the bank near Coulter's shanty, givo 
14 feet above the (Miippowa, or 22 feet for deep cut. Tliis level we can 
sustain throughout." 

As the general affairs of a country are at any time interesting, wo hope 
that a slight digression will be pardoned, in order that a passing glance 
may be taken at impoitant events now transpiring, which, to a great extent 
affected the future welfare of this country. It is not our object to enter into 
British politics, yet it is necessary, since they, in coniuiun with other Kurc- 
pean maratime nations, consider their possessions as held for their peculiar 
benefit, and are not decided on what their peculiar beuetits are, it is neces- 
sary to givo a comprehen.sive view of the whole field. 

The European policy, undertaken by the Congress of Verona in 1822, 
had changed Kngland'a j)olicy in America, making it agree with President 
Munroe's doctrine regarding the possessions of Spain in this country, and 
strongly fortifying their own. 

The causes of Revolution are often le.os under the sui-face than the actors 
in them are willing to acknowledge, iu our case being directly o)i the surface. 
It is strange, when there was such an abundance in America, that avidity 
for land should be one of the most potent causes for disturbance. The 
French wars, succeeded by the Berolution, had this object. Gourlay 
found an almost universal support by joining the people against Governor 
Simcoe's monopolies of the crown grants, and Mr. McKenzie's importance 
from opposing the Canada Company's purchase of tho same. 



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The object rtj)j)oar8 to bavo hoen to ftitabli.sh a. lino of foi-tifications ulony the 
froutiwr to iiiHcouni}^o omi;,'rutioii from tho SUitcs : to iiiuko thfi lui'scnt in- 
Iiabitanta uuhsiu'viont to th«)ir iiiton(«t.s, and to porpotuutc them, by shij jing 
thoir suriilurtpopuhition to Ujipor Canada. 

Sir Caiujicliaol Smith hail been deputed by the Government, of which 
the Duke of Wollin<,'tou was a member, as British CouimisKioner, to examine 
and report upon the military state of tlie I'rovincoB, reported very favourably 
on tho canal enterprise, and especially the harbour at tho entrance of the 
"Twelve," which would admit vessels drawing 12 feet of water, audassucli, 
•qual to Niagarp as a naval entrance. Ho also recommended the re- 
establishing of Port I\laitland at the mouth of the Grand Kiver, whicli iind 
been abandoned and dismantled at tho close of tho war, and the fleet Rank. 
He also laid out the wites of two forts on tho lands lately j)Uichaf<ed by the 
Goverumant, at tho Short-hills — one to bo called Wellington Heightji, and 
tho other Fort St. George. 

Tho long voxe<l question of the boundaries having lately been settled. 
Th« British Government wore particularly liberal in giving up a fortresfj 
on Lake Champlain, on our side of the lino, and also paying tliem 
$1,204,000, said to V)o by ardent Democrats claims for depredations com 
mittcd in tho taking and burning of Wa.shingtuu by Lord Howe; the claims 
being smoothed oyer as a general charge for negro slaves who escaj)ed at this 
time; although, strange to say, no ofl-set was asked for or allowed for the 
burning of Niagara, or the numerous depredations committed on our people 
during the same war: tho whole afl'air strongly resembling the Geneva Ar- 
bitration of later years. The answer of Lord I'athurst to tlie address of the 
previous House, to remit duties or disliabilities on contractors, labourei's 
and others, into the Province, was construed into an opposition to the Im- 
perial policy : 

" I have laid l)efoi'e the King the Address of tlie House of As-sembly of 
Upper Canada, piaying that His Majesty would 1)0 graciously ])leased to 
promote the settlement of tho Province, by ofVering encouragement to emi- 
gration from the Tluitcd States. I am commanded to acrpiaint you that 
His Majesty will be always ready to give any encouragement to the cidtiva- 
tion of the waste lands — but is assured of the loyalty of the people of the 
Province, and of their paramount attachment to Great Britain. That he 
is convinced that the House would see with extreme regret, the adoi)tion of 
any system "which could interfere v/ith tho measures now in contem{)latiou 
for the encouragement of emigration from His Majesty's United Kingdom 
of Great Britain to Upper Canada." 

The Canada Company's notice, signed by Mr. Gait, at York, to squatters 
to vacate their lands, appeared about this time, shewing that already the 
interests of English monopolists were beginning to clash with the best 
interests of the country, as expressed by the resolutions from the last 
Parliament, favouring emigi-iation from the United States ; this had 



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been tlie case for tlio lust lialf contniT, ciiuBiiig the 8ottlf>mcnt of tlie countrr 
by a lojal ami oiitoi-|nisin|,' class from tho other aide, to whom ahnoHt all the 
cnteritriso was diu). This j>()licy was iittoinptoil to be changed on tho pas- 
siiyt) of the Uct'onu lUIl ; and Col. lly and muuy other cii^^dnseriug officors 
called homo, but not soon onou;,'h to av(>rt tho Robollion. A cohlnesK 
in tho colony towards the parent state grow up, an<l Mackenzie's rebellion 
was tho necessary conseiiuenc* of those proceedings. ]\Ir. \V. Jj. McKenzie 
was a man of groat intellect and iintiring energy. That temporaniont should 
aflTcct inon in weighing the burthen of their grievancos, is exemplified in a 
striking manner by the contrast of the way the subject was taken up by these 
two individuals. Mr. Merritt, whoso family had lo,st all in the ti'Ouble«, and 
who w«re therefore cntith'd to tho waste lands, in intimate connection and 
fiiendship with their agents, and using tlie company in Englaiul to transact 
their busine.ss, while Mr. McKenzie kept up an eight years .struggle of war 
to tho knife with what he considered an unjust monojioly. The lesson of 
hasty decisions could be answered hy asking, " Which of the two Las the 
claim of being tho greatest benefactor to hia country 1 " 

His journey to England, irresj>ective of tho business connected therewith, 
formed a new epoch in tho life of our subject. The interrogation ho under- 
wont before tho Committee of tho House of Commons on tho leading .sub- 
jects of Colonial policy, l)rought his attention to politics, from a position 
where he could more readily form an opinion than in his native country. 
Being now of an age when one is supposed to be well able to discriminate, 
wo have reason to believe that ideas which afterwards developed themselves 
in the political economist and politician, which resulted in advocating Earl 
Grey's sliding scale in favour of Colonial products, and when Sir R. Peel 
took off this advantage, in the advocacy of Reciprocity ; and again, when 
Responsible GoTernment proved a failure, in advocating a Confederation ; 
which will be seen as our work progresses. 

One of the important events occurring at this time was tho departure 
of the two Governors, Lord Dalliousie and Sir P. Maitland, both of whom 
were a lone time in the countrv, and were firm friends towartl Mr. Merritt 
aiid the Wclland Canal. Lord Dalhousie had left befcre Mr. IVlerritt's 
arrival, and passed him on tho ocean. His Lordship's term of office in this 
country had lasted eight yeara, wliich were very eventful ones in the his- 
t(jry of Canada. He was awarded with the Governorship of India, where, 
in his Imperial Palace at Calcutta, under entirely opposite circumstances, 
surrounded by Mahometan and Hindoo princes, he possibly l)ut seldom 
thought of his friends in America or their aflairs, but such was not the case 
with them ; Port Dalhousie, one of tho termini of the Welland Canal, was 
named after him, in gratitude for his exertions in their behalf. 

The Lieut.-Governor, who left soon after, was more identified with tho 
works, and as such wc think a short notica of him will not be out of 2ilace 



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in these pages. In the journal of that time we find the following notice of 
His Excellency's departure : " On Satui-day last, 25th Oct., a deputation 
*' from the inhabitants of the village and vicinity, consisting of Messrs. 
" Geo. Ketfer, Jno. Clark and J. Barrett, waiteil on His Excellency at his 
" lodge at Stamford Park, and presented to him an address on the occa- 
" sion of his departure from this Province," in which they say : "Among 
" tho many public works commenced during the administration of your 
" Excellency for the improvement of the Province, tho Welland Canal, now 
" drawing towards its completion, will afford a lasting monument to your 
** Excellency's zeal ; and to your Excellency's favorable recommendation 
" are they indebted for the means of its accomplishment." To which 
he replied: "I receive with great satisfaction this address from the 
" inhabitants of the village of St. Catharines. It has afforded me sin- 
" cere pleasure to witness the great works suggested by an individual of 
" your village, so prosperously advancing. It has not wanted my hearty 
" recommendations, wliicli I hope the recent assistance of His Majesty's 
" Government will render certain of completion. Allow me to assure you 
" that my removal to a more extended command will not impair the intex'est 
" I lake in your welfare, nor be sull'ered to obliterate tho kindness and 
" attention I've received during my residence in vour vicinitv.' 

We also see notices of the militia being out at this unusual .season, which 
was no doubt for the purpose of forming a guard of honoi", and paying their 
rfepects to His Excellency. A letter from Geo. ^Manners, British Consul 
at Boston, dated Dec. 9th, gives an account of his departure for his new 
Government in Nova Scotia. He says : "At S p.m. on the 25th I saw 
" (hem on board the Chcbucto. I assure you tiiat I shook their hands with 
" the greatest regret," etc. Sir P. Maitland took kis departure, with 
his high-born dame, after a sojourn of eight years. He had the finest 
appreciation of the beauties of our natural scenery of any of the Governors 
who had heretofore enjoyed the appointment, differing from his kinsman, the 
Governor of tho Ionian Isles, called " Sultan Maitland." He built a house 
and laid out grounds on the brow of tho mouniain, jicar the Falls of Ni- 
agara, visiting the people in their wild isolation. Tho author has heard 
from one of the.se, the daughter of Col. Turney, near DeCew Falls, that the 
Governor would often &ur[iriso them with a visit, and ccmpliment the 
hostess by saying he preferred their little falls to Niagara. lie used to 
visit the canal frequently, bringing his guests to see the works thereon, in 
■wliich he appeared to take a deep interest. He was hospitable, often in- 
viting the ex-Sherilf to liis entertainments. He served a term in Nova 
Scotia, and then to the Cape, whore the Kaffir war terminateil his duties 
as Governor. Tho author came across his path while travelling in 1843, 
«njoying his characteristic aestotic puisuits at liausanne, in Switzerland. 
The item circulated in the jiapcrs that Sir P. Maitland had called some of 



117 

the townsliii>s after his lii'ly's lap dogs in of small momont, as ho hail no 
doubt diiiiculty in nmking names, from the fact that during tho first year 
of his adnuuistrrttion, in I81IO, twelve new townships were laid out. A 
letter was received by T. Merritt, Sr., then Surveyor of Woods and Forests, 
asking j)ermission for the Crown right of timber for townshijis bearing the 
names "Artimesia," " Mariposa," "Zone," "Zero" "Java," "Dawn," 
"Rama," "Mara," "Sol," "Ops," "Olden," " Oso ' 



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After being confined to the house for about two montiiS, our subject at 
last was sufliciontly recovered to take an* active part in tho works, and on 
tho I'lth December we find that ho drove down to the harbor to look at 
improvements there, and shortly afterwards, on the 1st January, he at- 
tended tho meeting of the Board at York, bringing with him tho reports of 
Messrs. Geddess and Barrett. They were adopted, and wo fin<l that, with 
the additions now i)roposod, the expense would be £90,000. Mr. Merritt 
Avas instructed to let out the necessary contracts immediately, which he did, 
and returned towards the end of the month, after enjoyin„' the hospitality 
Ci' the Governor, Mr. Bolton, etc. The Parliament opened on the 9th, and 
Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Colborm*, in his s}ieech mentioned the 
improvements in the Gore and Niagara Districts. As thi.s Pailiameut was 
the one in which our subject may be said to have received the most ojiposi- 
tion, it is worth stating that it was a decidedly radical one, or, more pro])erly 
speaking, a nationality in Assembly, approaching more to the views of tho 
Lower Canadian House tJian any of the previous ones. It consisted of 48 
members, of Avhom 4 were natives of Ireland, C of Scotland, 7 of England, 13 
of Canada, 3 of other British Colonies, and IT) of the United States. Among 
this number were W. L. McKenzie, Mr. Bidwcll, Jno. Wih;on, Dr. Kolph, 
Capt. INIathews, and other men who afterward participated in tho unsuc- 
cessful rebellion with their feliow nialcont«nts in Lower Canada. After 
the meeting of the Board, ^Ir. Morritt remained in York until beyond the 
middle of the mcmth. In a letter to Mrs. Merritt ho says (10th Jan.): "I 
" dined with His ?]xcellency last week, Dunn, Allan and Boulton, and de- 
" clined all other engagements." On his return to St. Catharines he writes 

to Dr. P (10th Feb.) as follows: "The whole line was put under con- 

" tract on tho 3lRt of January, and is now in e.xecution. I hope wo will 
" be in a position to open it by June, at which time I trust you will be 
"here. We have formed a ci>ui]>any which undertakes to convey jiroduce 
"from the Grand lliver to Lake Ontario for 20 cents per baVrel for Hour 
" — grain in proportion — and 10 cents from the upper end of the Deep Cut 
" to the lake. It is intended to connect with a coui2)any in Cleveland, 







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" Ohio, who will guarantee conveyance to the commencement of our canal 
" at a fixed price. Another company will be at Oswego to transport to 
" New York." 

After his trip home, Mr. Me>.*ritt proceeded to York, and attended at the 
rising of the Parliament, where the Act giving the Canal Company the 
necessary rights on the new route was passed and received the Royal assent. 
This was an important affair, as the route wont through the lands of the 
Government at the mouths of the Chippewa and Grand Rivers. He was not 
so successful, however, in lobbying a bill through the House having refer- 
ence to the Academy and laying out of the roads in the village, as the 
Ul)per House refused the measure after its passage through the Lower. 
This action may in some measure be traced to the fact that the Bishops or 
U. C. College had just been started in York, and it was thought that one 
institution was sufficient at the time. The Act of Incorporation for the 
Grantham Academy, however, passed both Houses the following se.ssion. 
Acts were passed at the previous one for the building of lighthouses on 
Lakes Erie and Ontario, showing that the country was beginning to feel 
the effects which the contemplated opening of the Canal would have on the 
trade of the Lakes. As an indication of the rising of the ill-feeling between 
the Government and the popular branch of the Legislature, we may men- 
tion that at this session .33 bills were tlu'own out from the Upper House, 
and only 25 were passed. 

Arriving home, he started, on the 23rd, up the line, terminated by the 
Grand River, and afterwanls returned to York on financial affairs. 

On the 24th of March, Mrs. Merritt writes a most intere,sting letter to 
her parents, wherein she graphically describes the adventures of a sleighing 
party, of whom she was one, who went from St. Catharines to the Grand 
River. Proceeding by the Deep Cut seven miles up to the Chippewa, where 
they found the piers sunk for the aqueduct, and then travelling four or 
five miles through a thinly settled country to Marsh ville, they met some 
friends, amongst them a cousin. This place was the headquarters of the 
Engineer on the Feeder. After dining, they proceeded in a straight course 
for ten miles through the marsh, ]>assing occasionally a few shanties, where 
peo)«lewere at work digging. The road was uloiiu- the embankment made 
by the ditch. She expresses surprise at the licMltliincss of the i)0'iple, and 
associales it with the fact of the water liein',' impiv jiiturd w itii tamarac. 
At kli'^ end of the marsh, near the site of l^uunvili.% there were a li>df dozen 
of iitmsc'^. The coiitrnctov. Simpson, and M r. ('aim I iiud a store. A;s the 
acconimo(hition there \^as insutlioicnt for tlieir paiiv, they drove down to 
the mouth of the river, n«>w Port Maitland, where, finding good aeconimo- 
dation and huge fires in the inn, after their long riilo they enjoyed them 
selves after the usual manner of the times in the back woods. Stopping all 
night, in the morning they observed on the oi)[)osito side of tho river a few 



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wliitewashed huilciinga, which were used for the naval establiahment. The 
(lay being fine, and the air and sky clear, they could distinctly see the farms 
and woods on the other side of the lake. They then proceeded five or six 
miles up the river, and returned through Canboro' by way of the Twenty 
Mile Creek, much pleased with their winter's drive through the woods. 

At the election of Directors at St. Catharines, April 0, at which Mr. Yates 
was present, a new foature was the election of Messrs. Ljiflerty and Dixon 
as Government representixtives at the Board. On the Gth and 7th of May, 
the Directors \'isited +he line, and inspected the Grand River dam. Owing to 
the fact of the original site at the mouth being objected to be the military 
authorities, they were compelled to move it about four and a half miles up 
the river to its jiresent position at Dunnviile. Contracts for the job were 
entered into with "Mr. Wilkinson and others for the completion of the work 
"by the middle of July, for the sum of £12, .500. On the 8th the Directors 
met in St. Catharines and confirmed these proceedings. 

Shortly afterwards Mr. Merritt accompanied his wife and two sons to 
Mayville, where he remained a few days and returned by steamboat to Buf- 
falo, and thence to St. Catharines. On the 12th of June he writes from Thorold 
to Mrs. M. : "As I have no particular inducement to go home, I generally 
" remain over night where the nece^ities of the works find mo, though my 
" occupation is chiefly on the upper end. The brush dam over the Grand 
" River is getting on well ; by present appearances it will bo finished next 
" month." The vessel called the Wclland Canal, owned by Commodore 
Northrop, kept on her usual trips, but from the numerous allusions we find 
made to her and her gallant owner we are led to the conclusion that in 
many respects .she answered the purpose of a yacht, in which his friends 
enjoyed themselves with an occasional cruise on tlie cool waters of Ontario, 
and no doubt partook largely of the commander's hospitality, as we find, in 
a letter from Mr. M., dated June 30, that "his father had just returned 
*' from a trip to Prescott with the Commodore." About Ihis time St. Cath- 
ariuos was visited by the Lieutenant-Governor, who, in company with Mr. 
[Merritt, inspected the works on the Grand River. He describes Sir John 
Colborne as a very hard rider, having started from St. C. at 6 o'clock in 
the morning, they reaching the dam at 3 p.m., returning the next day, so 
that our subject, although well accustomed to be on horseback, found his 
match in the old veteran from Badajos. 

On the 15th of July he writ^^s from Marshville, wliere Ids lieadquarters 
now are, describing the state of the works, and telling Mrs. M. that he is 
sleeping in a room oif the ofiice, on a bed 3^ feet wide, with very little of 
the comforte of life, as food is scarce and some necessaries nofc to b« had, 
and his daily journey over the woiks aniounts to 28 miles. He says: " 1 
•'had the pleasure of escorting Mrs. "Wilkinson, the contractor's wife, over 
"the dam on the Grand River," so we presume that at this date that work 



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was finished. Having in the interim visited Mrs. M. at Mayville, we find 
that on tho l.st of August ho writes as follows from Marshville : " On 
" Saturday T readied this phice. Sunday, up ihe Grand IJiver, and re- 
" turned to Burgars" (now Wellaud). " Monday, to Loclcport on canal 
" Vtusiness. Tuesday, to St. Catharines, and on Wednesday .started for 
" York in steamboat from Niagara, and returned on Thui-sday to St. C, 
" and then went up the line," where he is on Friday. In those few lines 
we have a tolerably fair idea of tho amount of labor which our subject 
accomplished, and it was often a source of astonishment to the author, who 
accompanied him during part of the journeys mentioned, how he wa.s cTer 
able to stand up against the strain whicJi he wa.s then subjected to 
and we can only account for it from the fact of tlie iron constitution 
and indomitable will with which he was possessed. The management 
of an ordinary business is a severe sti ain on the most of men, but when we 
consider th« manifold duties which he was required to perform, the ever- 
rising current of difficulties against which he had to stem, and the nuuier* 
ous vexatious questions arising from unforeseen eventualities, financial 
affairs, workmen's disputes, sickness, and, what was even worse, the oppo- 
sition of many who should have been friends, it seems almost impossible 
that he could have borne up against them. Along the line of the works 
on the feeder the fever and ague was raging ; strong men were wasted to 
skeletons, and the general feeling of despondency and discontent wliich all 
those vicisitudes bring in their train was felt in the ranks of the workmen 
who were there employed ; to stii* them u]i, and to cheer forward the work, 
was a duty which devolved on hiin, and few who now read these pages can 
form any idea of the pain and annoyance which a sensitive mind like his 
often felt under the circumstances. The season had been a dry one, and 
consequently the miasma from tho stirred uj) earth was more severe in this 
section than usual ; so sevp*'e 1 ad it Iteen tliat the work was delayed in con- 
sequence. On the 2Uh of August he writes from St. Catharines: "From 
" the sickness on the Grand River we M'ill be detained getting the waters 
" through until about the middle of the next month." Again, on the 7th 
of Sei»tember .• " I am ptill in very bad health ; the fever has not left me 
" entirely, but I think I am mending." 

The works were now apjtroaching completion, and from -the financial 
statement exhiliited at York on the 2nd of July Ave find that tho Directrra 
were in a tight jdace for want of money. Every resource had been tried 
to keep up the supply ; the plant used on the deep cut was sold, as well as 
all unrequired tools, and yet more was wanted ; in fret, the actual state of 
the finance."! showed that they were in the pi>ssession of £58.5 in cash 
after passing the yearly estimates ; tludr other assets wore jirincipaliy in 
paper, and in promises which might not be redeemed. Eesolutions were 
passed appointing Mr. Dunn, Mr. Robinson and Mr. Merritt to a.sk the 



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Governor in person to guarantee a loan of £10,000, also to draw oti the 
Directorti of the Canada Coini)any, wlio had promised to take Ktock, and to 
apply to the Bank of ITpper (.'anada with ample security for an advance to 
cover the estimates for August. C)n the 2-4th uf September the 15uard met 
at Niagara, and it was there resolved " tliat the President, Directors 
" and Agent do hereby agree to save, defend and bear liarmless the Lieu- 
" tenant-Governor of this Province of and frora uU personal riak and re- 
" aponsibility for making the advance mentioned at the previous meeting." 
Where tire rest of the money was to come from they were in doubt, but 
the following letter from H. J. Bolton to Mr. Memtt shows that the Di- 
rectors' responsibility was not unanimous : 

" York, 4th Sept. 
" With regard to the money arrangements which you speak of as hav- 
ing been made, I am quite in the dai-k." 

On the 21 at of September Mr. Allan, President of the Bank cf Upper 
Canada, writes : "I did all I could to advise the Bank Company to advance 
"the £6,000 on the security agreed upon, but I fear eircumstances will 
"prevent its being done." On the 2r)th J. H. Dunn writes: "I did hope 
" no more money would be required until the water was through, but ex- 
" pect when that takes i)lace we shall have no ditliculty in obtaining a loan 
" — at least through the medium of Sir John — for £10,000. I made you 
" an advance. Come over." On the 28th Mr. Yates, in answer to an 
application, advocates for the Company to issue bank bills, as the laat 
resort, at this time the water was let in, and, notified by Mr. INIerritt. 3Ir. 
Gordon, from Amhcrstburgh, writes in answer : " It would be a mo.st 
" gratifying spectacle for the inhabitants of Ainherstburgh to see a vessel 
"from Lake Ontario." November 12th, Chief Justice Robinson says : '•! 
" fear the very severe frosts may bo troublesome to you, still a schooner 
" must be passed through." 

On Monday, the 14th September, in this year, was opened for th.e tirst 
time, the Grantham Academy, which for the future was destined to become 
the seat of superior education for the Niagara district. When the Gover- 
nor was in St. Catharines, on 22nd June, he visited the building, and ex- 
pressed himself highly gratiticd with its appearance; and sincerely hoped 
that the institutioi: would become a popular and successful one, as the college 
opposite the Government House in York had just that month been ten- 
dered for. 

One of the great events of this year was performed by an individual 
named Samuel Patch, who, by jumping into the water under the Niagara 
Falls, and escaping unhurt, earned himself a name ever afterwanls in 
American history. The same nmn terminated his jumping and life together 
sliortly afterwards in endeavouring to perform a similar feat at the Genesee 
Falls, near Rochester. Others, who were fond of excitement, got up a 



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grand exhibition at the Falls, and finished the attractions of the day by 
letting an old schooner, containing a number of animals, drift over the 
" Horse Shoe." The journals of the time (Oct. 7th) were filled with ac- 
counts of the event, which, wo are told, passed oflfmuch to the satisfaction 
of the counties., spectators. 

Another of the events was the establishing of a total abstinence society 
at Thorold, under the management of Mr. George Keefer, Mr. Barrett, and 
ultimately enlarged by Mr. Phelps, who may be said to have been, by his 
zeal and influence, the father of Temperance in this neighbourhood. 

After a sickness of six weeks, and a consequent abser.ce, he writes in 
his journal: "On the 3rd of October it was fully determined to let the 
" water into the Canal, but owing to the settling of the dam at G, R. it had 
" to be deferred until the damage was rcpaii-ed." On the 4th, he writes : 
*• Sunday — Returned to dam. All han<ls at work raising the banks. Found 
<< every job bo deficient that I had the water stopjied at Broad Creek. Went 
" through with the engineers, and took a roiigli estimate of what was re- 
■" (juired." The Canal was now tented fur the first time, and it was found 
that, owing to the hurry in which the contractors went on with their work, 
several of the levels were not correct. From this and other circumstances 
the opening of the canal was postponed for a month or six weeks. 

Now we find him, when others in his position would have })een despond- 
ent, making out estimates for a through extension of the line to Gravelly 
Bay, now Port Colborne, so that, with all the drawbacks at this critical time, 
we have reason to think that from the beginning his ideas were to mature 
this scheme by degrees. 

On the 7th of October, in company with two officers from the naval 
station at Port Maitland, he passed down the feeder in a boat from Broad 
Creek to Marshville. From the 22nd to the 29th he was in York, raising 
funds, and succeeded to the amount of £3,000, and returned to Niagara in 
the steamer Alciope. Whilst in Toronto, it was arrangunl that the opening 
and celebration of the canal should take j)lace on the 24th ult., and after 
his return the time was fully occupied in getting down the water, making 
arningements for the celebration, and in close correspondence with vessel 
owners in Oswego, Buflfalo and elsewhere. On the 14th of November two 
scows wore sent from the deep cut to the Grand River. On the 17th the 
prospects were so good that ^Ir. Black was sent to Niagara and York, to 
see after vessels, which wore procured. Invitations were issued to the 
Lieutenant-Governor, and tlie officers of the 71st regiment, in Toronto, 
which wore accepted ; their fine band was engaged for the occasion ; 
and colons, guns, ammunition, etc., were procured. The locks and 
embankm«»*f5 were inspected and found safe, so that all was in readiness 
for the grand demonetratiou. 

Bufc the icy baud of winter interposed, keen frost set in, old Boreas 



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in 



assumed control on Lake Ontario, The departm-e of the Directors from 
York was delayed, owing to the storm; and at last, after maturely weighing 
the difficulty, it was decided to delay the public opening until the ensuing 
spring, much to the annoyance of our subject, who had everything prepared. 

The storm abating on the 26th, tlie schooner 7?. //. Boughlan, of Youngs- 
town, N. Y., arrived at Port Dalhousie to pass the canal, and on the fol- 
lowing day, the Annie <L' Jane, from York, for the same purpose. Tlie 
weather again became mild, and, notwithstandin,; the absence of the Presi- 
dent, Mr. Merritt decided to carry out a part of the progmmme, at least, 
by sailing through the canal. The journal of tliis date says : 

"On Friday, the 27th November, 1829, the inhabitants of this village 
and its vicinity were highly gratified at seeing, moonKl in the basin oppo- 
site, the schooner li. 11. Bouyhton, Capt. Pheatt, and tlie schooner Annie <£• 
Jane, Capt. J. Voller, which vessels were destined to make the first voyage 
through the canal from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The Annie d' Jane 
I)a8sed by, displaying a number of flags, ensigns and pendants, also a 
beautiful silk flag with the words "The King, God bless Him !" imprinted in 
gold letters, sunuounied by the Crown, ex-ected on her bow, and took her 
station in the lead." The banks of the ^anal were crowded with people, 
and the enthusiam displayed on the occasion testified that those who 
witnessed the display were now fully satisfied as to the prospects of the 
great work which had so long occupied their attention. 

The vessels arrived safe in Buffalo on the 2nd of December, and 
were received with a salute, returning the next day to the canal, which 
they passed down in safety, and with good despatch. 

In a letter from Chippewa, dated the 30th of November, to Mrs. 
M., he says: — "We liave arrived this far in safety. The first evening 
" we lay in the level above Thomas Kerr's ; got on most nobly. On Satur- 
" day we ascended the mountsiin with ease and facility, after which we had 
" much trouble in breaking through the ice, and had a detention of some 
" hours at the first lock on the deep cut by a chip getting under the gate ; 
" got into the deep cut after sundown. Sunday : had much difficulty in 
"getting through deep cut, owing to the timber and ice; passed the other 
" two locks, and grounded on a bar, where, being Sunday, we remained 
" all day. Monday, — got off at 9 o'clock a.m., and towed down to this 
" place against a heavy head wind, snow, etc. However, on the whole we 
" Lave been successful, and have tested to my satisfaction that a vessel will 
" pass on the canal in twenty-four hours. We leave for Buffalo in the 
" morning, and will return in a few days." The Buftalo Rejyublican, in an 
extra, thus mentions their arrival : 

"The First Vesski.s fkom Lake Ohtario. — To the suqmse of the 
citizens of Buffalo and Black Bock, the lake schooners Ann ((• Jane, of 
York, U. C, and Ji. H. Boutjhton, of Youngstown, arrivet^ in our harbr . 



''1 
il 



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;]i il 



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•'ill 



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124 

on Wednesdiiy last, liftviiif; on board the entorprising projector of tlie Wel- 
land Canal, Williaui Hamilton Mt-rritt, with a company of gcnfclomon (whose . 
names the subjoined certificates disclose). The British vessel led the van. 
The locks wore passed on the .'^(Ith of Novemhor, just five years from the 
commencement of the imjiortant work. Tlie question is not, wliether this 
work will increase or diminish the receipts of the Erie canal ; wo trust that 
we possess too much nationaf pride to complain of the success of even a 
rival work, began by our tieighbois before ours was completed. Its pro- 
gress to its termination is flattering, and the news we now conununi- 
cato, that of the passitge (>/' vexnefti /ram hikt to lake, must be cheering indeed 
to the stockholders and gratifying to the inhabitants of Upper Canada. 

" Both vessels passed into the Black Rock basin through the sloop-lock, 
and were saluted by the atenmhoat If eny-i/ Clai/, and cheei-ed by the citizens. 
On their arrival in our harbor, they were met with bursts of applause, and 
honored by discharges of artillery from the Terrace. The gentlemen pas- 
sengers then repaired to the Eagle tavern, where they were greeted by 
many of our villagers, who called to shake the hands of the navigators of 
the Deep Cut. 

" The passage of the first vessels was to have taken effect, by a notifica- 
tion ">f the W. C. C. Directors, 24th nit., but, owing to storms and unfavor- 
able .tate of the weather, was postponed. The zeal of the projector and 
persevering agent, could not be satisfied with a "postponement on account 
of the weather," so he, and the gentlemen who accomi)anied him, made the 
attempt; and, after cutting ice, in some places three inche.s thick ; ascending 
thirty-two locks, at the mountain; passing the deepest of all "cuts;" lucking 
down into the Welland River ; sailing down that river and touching at 
Chippewa ; stemming the strong and 1)road current of the Niagara ; and, 
finally, the Black Rock harbor, which has been blauied beyond measure, 
opened its arms and gave the 'tars from Ontario' a glorious hug. 

" The success of our neighbors may give an impetus to our national or 
state governments, or a body corporate, in making a canal or railway from 
the Niagara river at Schlos.ser to the same river at I^ewiston. 

" Truly, the bold features of the enterprizes of the New World throw 
those of the Old far in the shade." 

On Christmas day, after the family dinner with his father, now at E. S. 
Adams', Mr. Merritt left for York, to attend the meeting, and make his 

report. 

The Welland Canal was now an accomplished fact. The artificial wed- 
ding of the great lakes of the west and north, with'the waters of the Ontario, 
and eventually with the St. Lawrence and the ocean, was complete ; and 
the pathway which opened its extended gates to the great commerce of the 
eastern world, who.se pioneers were to carry civilization and intelligence on 
their course, was at last gone over, and pronounced a success. Although in 
Lis memoranda at the time we find no particular allusion to the im})ortant 
event, yet we have reason to believe that beneath the placid exterior, there 
burned a manly glow of pride and exultation, on the accomplishment of 
his design, which had made him the instrument of good to his felloAv- 
creaturca, and a feeling of deep thankfulness to the Great Disposer of all 



I 



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125 

things, on whose aid he thus, all his life, steadfastly relied, and in whose 
words of encouragonioiit he fixed his eternal hope, that the praise and the 
glory was given to, we have no doul)t. And now, when wo see the almost 
stupendious results which sprung from his primal idea of a navigable canal, 
we cannot but think, in all his dilliculties and manifold troubles at the time, 
a more than human strtMiyth of both body and mind sustained him through- 
out. As well as Mr. Alorritt, there were others to credit, and although our 
special business lies with him, yet amengst the warm supj)orters and un- 
Hinching friends whicli ho had at this time, there were none perhaps who 
remained so steadfast to him as J. B. Yates, Esq., of Chattemvngo, N. Y. 
With money, advice, energy and inOuence, he assisted our subject more, we 
think, from a firm belief in the practicability of his ideas than from any great 
returns which he might immediately get therefrom. Others we might men- 
tion, and where corporate aid was required it cannot be forgotten that 
the gentlemen in Yoi*k known as the Family (^'ompact were able and 
patriotic a.ssistants toward the scheme. Foremost on the roll stand the 
late Lord Bishop of Toronto, Dr. Strachan . J. B. Robinson, Chief Justice ; 
Mr. Diinn, and numerous others; and lust, though in eti(piette first, weie 
Lord Dalhousie and Sir Peregrine Maitland, whose names, with the others 
it is hoped will bo forever identiiied with the realization of the whilum 
dreamer, W. H. Merritt, and the Welland Canal. 



1830. 

He stayed at York all winter, as many affairs c(jnnected with the cantil 
required lus attention, and his juesence on the sjjot was neces.sary. While 
here, a number of meetings of the Dii'ectors was held, and .some verv im- 
portant measures suggested and inaugiiratod. Amongst them was the 

extension to Port Colborne — the race and acqueduct to St. Catharines 

also the usual petition to the Legislature for moi-e funds, as the work 
was only opened, to enable to pay off their liabilities and perfect its con- 
struction On the 9th of January he writes to Dr. P- : "I have been 

" here for some time attending the Legislature, from whom we Jiope to get 
" another $100,000 to enable us to finish the canal as it should be. You 
" are aware of the expense attending such operations after they are Dro- 
*' nounced finished." 

About the 18th he returned to St. Catharines, in conse«juence of Mrs. 
Merritt's illness, who, since lier confinement and return from Chatauque, 
had been in very delicate health. Next week he went back to York, to 
attend a meeting of the Board on the 1st of Fel)ruary. On the 7th he 
writes: "The decision whether we will get assistance or not, and in what 
" way, will be discu3.sed to-morrow." Again, on the 27th : " I have been 



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*' in constant oxpootation of a termination of tho qucHtion from daj to day 
" and from week to week. The bill has boon rojiortod, and vro get the 
" money unshackled." 

Havin<' now conclusively astabliahod tho first oanal iu Canada, our sub- 
ject found HulUciont time to agitate the question of tho worka on the 8t. 
Lawrence. This scheme, which was a part of his original plan, although 
kept in abeyance during the prognsss of tho \Vellau<l, was neveithelesa 
always considered by him as a part of tho grand chain which, to make the 
water comniunicatiou of the countiy of any worth to tho peoplo, would have 
to be finished. Ho was not a man who propounded his plans in one great 
undertaking, believing that in a new and comparatively poor country like 
Canada things must bo done by degrees, and consequently his approaches 
to these works were made in a spirit of caution which often eceins at vari- 
ance with his known habits. Occasionally, during the progress of the 
Welland wo find an odd article in the pajiers of the time referring to the 
St. Lawrence, again a survey, and at other times a personal remark thereto. 
Thus the minds of the country were gradually prepared, and the way to a 
certain extent pave I for works which it would require large sums to accom- 
plish. Hence we find on the 20th of January, 1830, a long and very im- 
portant article in the York Freeman on the necessity of a boat canal from 
Montreal to Prescott, with vfluable data, etc., like its first survey five 
years previous, showing that his ideas at the time were identical with those 
first proposed on the Welland, but which, like that, should result in a work 
of far greater magnitude. 

On the 7th March he again writes to Mrs. Merritt from York as follows: 
" The Bill authoiizing a loan of £25,000, passed on Friday night about t) 
o'clock, (the day previous to the prorogation.) Never in the course of my 
life had I so unpleasant, tiresome, and dilUcult a job. I have experienced 
the eft'ects of hope deferred in its fullest extent, and feel grateful for its suc- 
cess • and not the least for its relieving hundreds from misery and want, 
whose just claims this loan enables us to satisfy." 

The Grantham Academy, noticed as opened last year, held on the 26th of 
February, the first examination. After the usual exercises, in a programme 
in-inted at the time, we find the names of some who have since been leading 
actors in our country's aifairs. Professional men — men of business. Nearly 
all have left their marks. Some, alas ' have gone out of the annals of our 
country. But owing to the want of encouragements hereafter shewn to the 
natives, many of them, like it is at present, have been compelled to benefit 
outsiders with talents and energy that have been improved here, in which 
they covild be ill-spared in the land of their bii'th. 

He returned home on the 1 2th of March, and his time was occupied with 
the usual office business, and in settling up with contractors and others. 

Mr. Barrett, their engineer, now left the canal, in the care of his able 



127 

lussistiint, Mr. Keofor, who had been brought up from childhood on the 
work, and went down to mako iinother Burvev on tho St. Lawrence. 

On the 7th of May, ^Ir. .Min'ritb wa.s at Tiako Eric, •xumining thi- dif- 
ferent hayH from which to schfct a harhour for the extension. 

On the lOtli lie left for Now York, aitd returned by Oswego, after a 
fortnight's ab.sence.. 

Canal boats wore established to run between Port Robinson and Dunn- 
ville three times per week, which continued on the route under tne command 
of Mr. J3roadman. lie was succeeded by IMr. John Alessinore, who for 
many yftars afterwards carried on the business. 

Arrangements were also made for having a steam-boat to nm between 
Hamilton and Queenston, calling regularly at Port Dalhousie. 

Fuur large barges, laden with l,tt()0 barrels of flour, were brought down 
from the Orand River, and carried through the caiud. 

On the letting in of tho water, a celebration in honour of tho opening 
took place at Beverley (now Port Robinson.) A large number were present. 
The chair was occupied by Mr. Merritt, and a harmonious evening was spent 
— rather a numerous party, as four hundred are chronicled as the guests. 

The people of Oswego, then, more than now, evinced a warm interest in the 
welfare of tho canal ; and, we are therefore not surprised to find that the 
Report on tho Canal for 1829, was extensively circulated by the merchants 
of that place amongst their friends in the lake States. A letter from a 
gentlemen there, to Mr. Merritt, dated March 2nd, gives an idea of the pre- 
vailing sentiment : — " We send you a copy of the Welland Canal Report, 
" (which was reprinted.) We have commenced a general circulation of it, 
"and shall do it thoroughly, for we look to the Welland Canal as ouu maix 

" STAY, BOTH AS KEGAUDS THE GROWTH OF THIS VILLAGE, AND OUR OWK 
" BUSINESS." 

The time of the election of Canal Directors was now changed to the 1st 
of June, as that was found a more convenient season now that the work was in 
operation. At this meeting Messrs. Dunn, Allen, Bolton, A. H. McDonald 
and Mr. Merritt were chosen, Mr. Keefer retiring at his own request, and 
with the conscious feeling of having always stood well by the canal. The 
Directors chosen by the Government were Messrs. Lafferty and Dixon, both 
frontier men, but not particularly friendly to the Welland Canal. Mr. 
Dixon afterward resigned, and was replaced by Mr. R. Randall. After 
Mr. Barrett's depai-ture, his place was ably filled by Mr. Goo. Keefer, 
assisted by S. Keefer. 

After numerous drawbacks in connection with the water supplies, the 
canal was at last, by the month of July, got in working order but M-as not 
much used till the fall trade, when we find by a letter to Di\ Prendergast, 
that a brisk trade was doing. 

In order to show who wore the pioneers in navigating the canal, we 




f^il 




128 

miijlit statu that in August of tliiH yoar the Lieutonant-Governor, Sir John 
CuUiorno, iiispectod the canal in a Uovei-nment vessel under command of 
Lieutenant Jones, R. N. The schooner Krie, 11 tons, Capt. Bocjuet, from 
(.'leveland, bound for Youngntown in ballast, was the iLrst to pass down 
from Tiuke Erie. Mt^ssi-s. (!an»p k Koniicdy l)rou^ht down several rafts of 
stavf's from the fJraiul Kivei'. Messrs. Norton it Bliss, from the same 
<juarter, took 150,000 feet of lumber to Bufl'alo and Lockpurt, etc. 

About this time the news of the death <jf Iving (J«orge the Fourth 
arrived. The Journal of that date was i)rinted in deep mourning. Shortly 
afterward the exciting news of the French revolution came, and furniKhed 
the press with ample theories to speculate upon. A proclamation from the 
flovernor was i.ssued dissolving the Parliament in coiLwcjuence of the 
King's death, and ordering a new election to bo held on the 18th October — 
also proclaiming tliat his Majesty William the Fouiih was now the Sover- 
eign, etc. 

The regidations for the navigation and numagement of the canal were 
now published in a form containing I'J clauses. That tlie machinery was 
in fair working order is shown from the following item, taken from the 
York Courier at this time : 

" Welland Canal. — We have ju.st been informed by Capt. Finney, of 
the soiioduer ('harks <f' Ainiif, that he left, this port on the 15th inst. for 
Buffalo via the canal, through the wliole linn of which he j)assed in less than 
24 hours. Capt. Finney, from the reports lie had heard to its disparage- 
ment, ex[)ected to have nuit with some di'awl)acks in the passage through, 
but was agreeably surprised to iind none. The Captain is contident that 
tlie canal will fulfil all that its promoters promised. He left Bulliilo with 
a load of pig iron and castings on the 2'2nd, and arrived here on the L'Oth, 
making a sjilendid passage." 

Oil the 21st of August a grand diuiier was held in Oswego in honor of 
the success of the work, and ^Mr. Merritt's health was drank amidst most 
unbounded api)lauso. 

3[r. Yates, who had bpcn to England, was back in time to be present at 
a meeting of the Board on the 2Gth Oct., when ho offered to purchase the 
hydraulic privileges on the line of the canal, for the sum of $100,000, which 
was accepted. The extension of the line direct to Port Colborne was also 
decided upon. To accomplish this object, and to build store-houses, furnish 
boats, ifec, as the company were partly compelled to become their own for- 
warders, a further sum of $200,000 was found necessary; and it was at once 
decided to again petition the Legislature on the subject. After a great 
deal of negotiating by Mr. Yates, Mr. Merritt, and other.s, the i-esult was 
that the G-overnment, on their next meeting, acquiesced in terms which 
will be exjdaiubd as the work progi-esses. 

During this jv'^ar 3Irs. Merritt was very ill, and they also experienced 
the loss of their last child, a daughter, who died on the 19th of September. 



129 

Mi'H. M. wnH not convaleHcont until the cold weather set in, nncl was not 
jicrfectly rcHtored to honltli before Christmas. 



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183 1. 



Tho new Parliament mot on the Gth of January, and the Governor in 
his .speech alluded to the iuipoitant iim>i ovumenta being made in our in- 
l.ind water conimunication.s, and atfmitted their HUCcosHful operations, 
tliough still favoring the military work to the Kideau. 

Shortly afterwards Mr. Merrittand Mr. Yates left St. Catharines for York, 
to press tho necessities of the Wellaud upon the Government. 

As this, under the present circumstances, was the last loan asked from 
the Goverament, and the composition of the House being Conservative, 
wiio viewed the question from a patriotic staud])oint comj)ared with tho 
former or radical House, little dilHeulty was experienced in getting tho 
bill pas.sed, yet the money was granted under circumstances which involved 
our subject, whose property was all in tho country, and Mr. Yate.s, with 
his nephew, A. Y. McDonald, from Cornwall, to so large an amount as to 
render its success neces.sary for their jirivate interests. They were respon- 
sible for one-half the principal of 81(J(),000, and the intere.st of the whole, 
amounting to .fl 0,000 per year, payable in London. Although the Provin- 
cial debentures were given on their })ei'sonal secui'ity, tho money could not 
be used for any other purpose than the canal extension to Lake Erie. Whilst 
in York, Mr. M. prepared and got printed a circular for distribution amongst 
the members, wherein he urges strongly the immediate undeiiaking of 
the works on the St. Lawrence. By a careful and elaborate expose of data 
respecting our commercial prospects, he proves tho advantivges which pro 
ducers, merchants and consumers would derive from improving the river 
route ; and although his speculations were based on the prospects of an 
enoiTnous increase in the trade of the St. Liiwrence, yet the facts are there 
shown that a ton weight of mercliandise from Liverpool to jMontreal, 3,000 
miles, cost the importer thirteen shillings, whilst the cost of transpoi*tir^ 
the same from Montreal to Prescott, a distance of 12() miles, reached the 
high figure oi four pounds, so that to tho.so yet further west the charges on 
articles imported by way of the St. Lawrence were simply prohibitory; an<l 
we are not less pleased to see that in summing up his able arguments tho 
following patriotic language is used : 

"It is a reproach upon the intelligence and enterprise of the countiy 
that this improvement was not commenced long .since. It should not 1 o 
<lelayed another yejir. If the present House cannot comprehend the supeii* 
ority of a ship navigation, or do not feel satisfied that the present populr.* 



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130 

tion of the weRtern country demands it, there should be no hesitation in 
appropriatinj^ £50,000 for a boat canal. The tolls will pay the interest 
and redeem the j)rincipal without ever being felt." 

Among the proceedings of Parliament that had an ultimate interest to 
our subject, was the contested election for Haldimand, Mr. Brant i)rot('sting 
against the return of Mr. Warren for that county. Mr. ^\'arren still re- 
tained the seat when he was cai-ried oflf by the cholera epidemic, and also 
his opponent, when Mr. Merritt was elected to lill the vacancy. 

A bill was also brought in by the ^i^olicitor-General to prohibit Orange 
processions, but was ineffectual, as many bloody riots can testify ; so that at 
this time we see the evils of Old Country feuds beginning to awaken legis- 
lation. Mr. McKenzie, though in a minority, kept the Hoxise active 
by his resolutions on the Chaplaincy ; and the debates on this question fill 
many pages of the papers of the day. The official returns of the population 
of Ui»per Canada for 1830 were kid before the House, showing that there 
wei-e 211,187 persons in the Province — about the same ninnber as the 
city of New York contained. Having obtained the Government sanction, 
tendera were immediately asked for, to complete the canal to the lake. 
The debentures were negotiated by Mr. Yates, and the money obtained 
from the Bank of the United States at the terms required ; and on the 
meeting of the Directors in St. Catharines, on the 2ud of June, the con- 
tracts were let to different parties, amongst whom wo notice the new 
but now well known names of the Boyles and Bradleys. Improved 
arrangements for the management of the canal were also made at this 
meeting — their entire affairs thus devolving upon !Mr. Merritt. Attention 
and vigilance being the qualities necessary, competent assistants were re- 
(juired ; and from the items relative to shii)ping, which wo find in the dif- 
ferent Journals of the day, we think iilso the canal was kept tolerablv well 
employed — as well as such a new work could be expected to be. 

In June, Mr. Keefer was instructed to make a correct sui'voy of the 
boundaries of the canal, and Mr. Barrett, who had returned from his jMont- 
real survey, was appointed engineer over the new works. Mr. Merritt 
also visited the dififerent i)orts and places along Lake Ei'ie in reference to 
the quantity of grain likely to be shipped in the fall, and had comi)leted 
a dry dock near the lake, being the first in the country, for repairing 
vessels. 

One of the enterprises of this year was the opening of the grist mill, 
now known as the " Red Mill," in St. Catharines, which was owned by Mr, 
Oliver Phelps and W. H. Merritt. 

"For the first time in our histoi-y," says the Buffalo Journal of the lOtli 
'•August, "the rapids of the Niagara were overcome by the power of steam. 
" The steamer W. Peacock, on Wednesday last, towed a schooner of GO tons 



131 

" from Port Robinson to Buffalo, in 3 lira. 50 inin." The usual manner at this 
time, was by towing the vessels along the Niagara river, and also by the 
use of windlasses placed at the ra})ida. When the vessels were heavily 
laden, the ascension liad often to be delayed until a strong breeze from tlie 
north came, which helped them to stem the current, esjtecially at Fort 
Erie. "We see by the Canal Report that there was yet a large business 
done by way of the portage between Queenstou and Fort Erie — yet> 
although the canal was in its infancy, it at once was given the preference 
over this mode of transit, as a comparison of the year's traffic shews there 
was more than half the valuable merchandise conveyed by canal: " By the 
" canal— 30,000 barrels of flour. By land— 1 1 ,000 barrels of Hour. By 
"canal— 210,000 bushels of wheat. By land— G,500. Over 1,000,000 ft. 
"of lumber paf«ed through the canal, and only 2,000 ft. went by land," so 
that already it may be said that the close of the portage, after over a 
century's use, was sealed, by its more powerful and cheaper rival. 

The work on the Lake Erie route progi'essed but slowly, through a 
scarcity of haiuls, although liberal inducements were held out. The want 
of canal lers was sadly felt. Advertisements were inserted in the pajters, 
calling for hands ; and althougli a uunjber of emigrants were daily arriving 
from Europe, yet, the prosjjects of becoming producei-s, and getting a good 
price through forwarding facilities, and lands being yet cheap, diverted 
many to agriculture. 

In August, Mr. Merritt, Mrs. Merritt, and the author, paid a visit to 
the old family residence at Byroni, on Long Island Sound. Meeting there 
others of the family fi-om New Brunswick, this joui-ney, like others at the same 
time, was accom})lished partly by stage, canal and steamboat, and was re- 
markable only for a part of it being gone over on a railway, one of the first 
then completed in America. This road ran from Albany to Schenectady, 
and at the time of our visit, had stationary engiuos for pulling tie cars up 
tlio grades. The cars, or rather coaches, were drawn by horses, on the 
plateau between. The rails were of wood, covered with a b;Mul of iron. 
And in all its extensions, for 10 or 12 years, our recollections of the trip are 
still as being full of adventure, by land and water, i)articulurly on the rail- 
road. We returned by way of (Oswego, on the 20th of September. 

About this time Mr. Merritt formed a project for the puri»ose of establish- 
ing a Bank in St. Catharines, as, owing to the largely increa.sed business 
now tranMi)iring in the old district, principally through the canal operations, 
tlie want of a local monetiiry institution was felt in the vicinity. On the 1st 
of (Jctober, a meeting was held, which was presided over by Mr. Merritt, 
and Mr. H. Mittleberger acted as secretary. Messrs. Alexander McDonald, 
W. H. Merritt, Robt. E. Burns, I. T. Bowery, H. Mittleberger, James 
Little, and George Rykert, were appointed to draw up a petition foundeil 



\\m 



nm 



132 

upon the resolutions of the meeting, and to ai)i)ly to tlie Legislature for a 
chaiter. 

The Parliament met on the 17th of November. The House was con- 
gratulated on the prosperous state of the coimtry, and the rapid advance- 
ments making in its every quarter, especially its water communications, 
which were principally in the upper countiy. The petition already alluded 
+0 in reference to the establishing of the Bank was presented by Mr. John 
Clark, and a bill for the same purpose was brought before the House, but 
was not carried this session. 

Owing to the new poi-ts of entry which were ci*eated by the opening of 
the canal, considerable patronage was now in the hands of the Government 
in the appointment of customs officers, etc. It is but natural and reason- 
able to suppose that the influence of our subject on these matters would be 
regarded, especially as he had been entrusted with the Company's patronage, 
and as a consequence the collectorship of customs at the new harbor of Port 
Colborne was asked for from the Governor by Mr. Merritt for his old friend 
and companion Col. John Clark, M.P. We think that there are few who 
are aware of the part our suV)ject took in the Welland Canal inception and 
accomplishment, but will admit that he at least should have liberty to 
solicit a favor for a tried friend. Yet such was not the case ; and, as is 
usual when Government officers are wanted, a claimant appeared upon the 
stage whose only connection with the canal lay in his being an agent fur 
subsci'ibcrs at a distance who held £4,000 stock in the work, without any 
further influence than 'jeing a military gentleman from home and a friend 
of Sir John Colborne, Hearing that IVIr. Merritt had retpiested that jMr. 
Clark should get the appointment, this officer takes our subject to task in 
the following manner: «' * * * If you furnish me with authority to witli- 
" draw your application for Mr. Clark, I shall let the matter rest as it is. 
" If not, 1 .shall consider it my duty to see the Governor immediately, and 
"give my own explanations of the whole transaction. I fear not for the 
" result, if I choose to exert myself about the appointment." 



m 



11-11 



1832. 

As this may be said to have been a period of revolts, the good people of 
Ul)per Canada were likely to be furnished with one on a small scale. 

The re-election of Mr. Mackenzie, who had been expelled from the late 
House, occured on the 2nd of January, in this year, anudst great demon- 
strations at the chainu'j. He was placed on the platform of a large sleigh 
owned by Mr. Montgomery. They pasfied the Government and Parliament 
Houses, followed by a large concourse of peoi)le carrying flags, «S:c., on which 



133 

Wiis coiisi)icuou.s the motto : " Liberty of the Press." Another was. "King 
William IV. and Reform." — " Bidvrell, and tlie glorious minority," ito. 

Daring the Spring, Mr. Mackenzie went to England with a petition 
signed by 18,000 peofjle, asking for the recall of the Governor, tlie dissolu' 
tion of the House, itc. The storm was dissipated for the present by political 
meetings ; but the disputes then engendered, fomented by injudicious di)-- 
tribution of official patronage, eventually grew to more impoi"tj\nce than 
even many of its chief actors supposed it would. Mr. Mackenzie was again 
expelled, and declared ineligible to sit in the existing Assembly, but was 
elected after the House was prorogued. 

Among the acts for the extension of navigation introduced this session, 
was one entitled " A Joint Stock Company, to improve the navigation of 
the Grand River." 

The attention of our subject at this time was also occupied i'l getting 
the canal in repair for the opening of navigation. Owing to tlie action of 
the severe frosts, considerable damage was done to the work, bv shifting 
sands and sHpping in of the banks, all of which he caused to bo pv:t in order. 
By the 1st of May the water was let in, navigation opened, and a brisk 
trade was going on. The store-houses on the Grand River were tilled with 
produce from (Jleveland, as the communication in that quarter was acces- 
sible from the lake, whilst the Niagara river was yet blocked with ieo. 

During this period of excitement, we are not aware that Mr. M. rritt 
stayed in the provincial capital, but devoted his wliole attention to the 
progress and interests of the Welland Canal. 

By his memoranda dated 1 8th February, we see that he has the whole 
scheme of the Grand River Navigation Co. maturcil ; and at the meeting 
held imdcr the provisions of the Incorporation Act, obtained the last session 
of Parliament, he i)r()posed the same. We see by the report of this meoting, 
on the 27th of February, that his iil.>as were adopted, and a conipany 
formed to carry out the scheme — whicli consisted of dams, locks, and other 
necessaries, to extend the navigation to Gait. The capital was ii^r)0,000, 
divided into proportional shares. 

The Canada Company luid not taken any interest, after all their pro- 
testations in favor of the Wei laud. We see from their letters that they looked 
at the Grand River in the same light. For this reason the extension further 

than the rapids below Brantford was no longer entertained. 

"March 20th, 18.32. 

" It will be out of my power to attend your meeting, nor will Mr. 
Dunlop be able to attend, either. He is now on his way to Lake Huron, 
At the same time, tlun' are willing to re.'eive the advantages of the works. 

" We are now makiu'^ arrangements for the conveyance of emigrants 
against the 0[)3ning of navig.ition, and you will oblige by informing me 
what m-jans you have of carrying them through the Welland Canal, rate of 
passage, rate of baggage, etc. J. Jones, Cum, C. Co. 



U.i 



i 



134 

lu answer : 

" The forwarders are Northrop «fe Smith, who carry emigrants for 2? 6d. 
per head, and Cd. per cwt. for baggage." 

About 50,000 emigrants from the British Islands arrived in Canada, 
principally owing to the change which the passing of the Reform Bill in 
England had wrought on that country, although the Canada Company 
claimed the credit of diverting them to this country, through their agents 
in England. 

Another survey of the Grand River was undertaken, as the following 
letter from Mr. Emery indicates : 

"Two Miles above Davis's, 11th May, 1832. 

*' Dear Sir, — We have levelled from Highflyer's to this place, and find 
the rise in the water from Highflyer's to below Davis's dam 11^ feet. At 
Davis's dam the water is 2.64, which makes the surface in the dam 13.89 
feet above Highflyer's. I do not see any objection in making Davis's dam 
the first dam, and from that make a cut to Highflyer's. The cutting is 
exceedingly favorable by making two locks. We shall get up as far as you 
required us to-night ; then we shall i)roceed to making our estimate for 
damming the river, and Cushman can inform you concerning the plaster bed.s 

•' Mr. James Davis has been exceedingly kind. We stayed with him 
and he rendered us all the assistance we have required of them. Other 
influential j)ei*son3 here take very little interest in the improvement of the 
river. 

" Yours, truly, Wm. K. Emery." 

"To W. H. Merritt, Esq." 

As previously mentioned, a great difliculty was experienced in getting 
a suflieient number of men to make the works on the Lake Erie extension 
go on, as was desired. But now, the ominous tidings of another and more 
frightful obstructor was hoard — and the alarming stories of its ravages in 
the old world were wafted to the new, so that those who felt immunity from 
the pests engendered in the confined cities of the Eastern Hemisphere, be- 
came alarmed on hearing of the arrival of Asiatic cholera on the Western 
continent. Following in the track of the great tide of emigration now reaching 
our shores, it appeared almost simultaneously in New York, Quebec, and 
otHfer cities on the sea-board. In a short time, its dire presence was felt — 
almost as far westward as civilization had reached ; and in almost every 
town and hamlet, it carried its victims to the grave. On the canal it 
raged with great violence, falling like a thunderbolt among the workmen 
and others. Strong men and women wore stricken down, to expire in its 
agonizing grasp, and as each new name was added to the death roll a dread, 
soon resulting in a panic, took place, which in a short time left the whilom 
busy scene almost as quiet as the lone woods near by. A few only re- 
mained — those, probably, who could not leave, or whose philosophy was 
stronger than their fears. Its eflfects were serious to all, as its appalling 
pre.sence cast a shadow and gloom over the country. During its prevalence 



135 



in this quarter, Mrs. Merritt ami the family went to Mayville, where its 
influence was but little felt, but our subject reniaineJ at his post, anl by 
care on his part he providentially es ;apeil. 

" Mabshville, Welland Canal, Sunday, 21st July, 1832. 
"My Dear Catherine: — 

"On Monday last, I breakfasted at Mi-s. Bennett's, Grand River, on the 
same kind of fish the boys and I cau'^ht at Chautauque lately. 

'• Left the dam on Monday, at 1 o'clock ; went to Crreabel's. Heard that 
the cholera had commenced its mvages that day at Gravelly Bay — three 
deaths. Went on to the Bay that evening, and found Coonrod, a contractor, 
^the man who married Miss Shaw,) with a man by the name of Henry, 
working on the lock, and one Ross, a labourer, at the same place, was dead, 
and taken only that morning. Tl r.'c or four others were considered dan 
gerous. One only has since died, the others recovered. 

"On Tuesday, went through the line with Mr. Lewis, and as no new cases 
occured that day, the men generally resumed their work. 

"Slept at Holmes,' Deep Cut. That night Lewis was taken : in the 
morning, (Wednesday) sent to St. Catharines, for Drs. Cross; and Converse, 
who was lip at Gravelly Bay. Lewis was very much alarmed, and 
I could not leave hira until Cross arrived about 2 o'clock ; Mr. Fuller had 
bled him, and I gave him two pills of opium ; he got better immediately, 
and is now well. Returned to Gravelly Bay that night, to quiet the minds 
of the men respecting Mr. Lewis, We found all who got medical aid 
and were bled, recovered ; as it was chiefly among the intemperate. Had 
hopes of continuing the work, but on reaching Gravelly Bay, found Dr. 
Ellis and Mrs. Boles had taken it. Remained there until 12 o'clock, 
Thursday, and left for Dam with a determination to let every one take theu- 
own course — stopping the sale of liquor, and providing doctors on the spot. 

" Friday — went to Nelles' settlement. Saturday — returned to Dunnville, 
and have got this far to breakfast ; am on my way to St. Catharines, where I 
have not yet been. I thank God that I am in good health, and will take 
every j)ossible care of myself. Should the disease continue, I will go over 
to JVlayvillo next week : if not, will remain until the middle of August. 

" With ray host wishes and prayers for your safety, 

" I remain your affectionate husband, 

"W. H. Merritt." 
On the approach of cold weather it gradually disappeared, and by degrees 
tliose who fled on its approach returned, and things soon asenmed their 
wonted appearance. 

On the 29th of September a fine schooner of HO tons was successfully 
launched at St. Catharines. This vessel was built by Russell Armington 
for a company ; and as a compliment to our subject, was named the W. If. 
Merritt, a name which, we believe, is held by one on the canal to the pre- 
sent day. 

The following from Mr. Merritt's journal, among similar items, is in- 
serted to show that the scarcity of tlie circulating medium wes compensated 
hy the low price of labor. This transaction represents the one-half value 
of the old red mill, now called the Phcenix. 



: ! 



136 



m 



mr 



" 5th August, 1832. — Sold Mr. Phelps my proportion in the Grist IMill, 
at £1,125." 

Our .siiV»ject having for several .sessions represented the County of Hal- 
dimand during its early history, we insert a few items of interest prior to 
its separation from the County of Lincoln : 

The Six Nations Indians possessed six miles of land on each side of the 
Grand River, from a grant by Gov. Haldimand, in 1784, the boundaries of 
which were confii-med by the Land Board of tiie District of Nassau in 1791. 
Some of these lands were in process of being sold by the Indian Department 
for the benefit of the Indians. They also became stockholders in the navi- 
gation improvement. The Government still retained the river mouth. Mr. 
Dixon owned Sherwood forest and swamp. 

Mr. Smith, sheriff of Western District, obtained from Government 
for his services, in procuring the rights of the North West Co., at Fort 
William, the year after the Avar, the Township ot Moulton. Some diffi- 
culties, induced him to obtain the legal services of D'Arcy Boulton. 
Mr. B. afterwards appears as owner. From him, Mr. Oliver Phelps pur- 
chased the three west lots of 150 acres each. These are where the village of 
Dunnville now stands. ]Mr. P. built Davis' grist and saw mill ; the material 
foi" which was the first freight on the feeder. Mr. St. John, yet living at 
St. Catharines, and Orson Phelps, (Mr. P.'s oldest son,) conducted the busi- 
ness. This property was shortly afterwai'ds sold to Messrs. Street and 
Merritt. 

The dispute relative to the representation of Haldimand, before referred 
to, was settled by both the member and the protestor dying with the cho- 
lera, ami thereby leaWng the riding vacant. A very respectable requinition 
from the electors was presented to Mr. Merritt, recjuesting him to ofler 
himself as a candidate. At the urgent request of his friends, and particu- 
larl}' of Mr. Yates, who told him he could benefit the canal and Gi'aud River 
prospects better by being in the House, he accepted the nomination. His 
opponent, Mr. DeCew, was a man of great respectability and local influence. 
But the material benefits which our subject was the means of developing in 
the locality, particularly to those settlers beyond the river, who, previous 
to the building of the dam and other works had very imperfect means of 
communication with the back country during the summer months, enabled 
him to carry the election, which commenced on 30th Oct., and tei'minatwl on 
the 2nd of November. 

During the election he was ably assisted by his old comrade, Col. J- 
Clarke, and Mr. Randall. The following letter from the Colonel gives a 
good idea of how the contest went in Haldimand at that time. Writing 
to Mr. Martel, deputy post-master at St. Catharines, the electric telegraph 
being undreampt of, he says : 



! '( 



137 



(t * 



* * The ball opened yesterday at 10 o'clock. Mr. Merritt, Mr. 
DeCew, C. Richardson and W. J. Kerr are candidates. The latter is 
strenuously opposed to Mr. M. There has been much speechifyiag, and 
much villifying, on the occasion, and very little to the purpose u.iloss from 
Mr. Merritt. DeCew is strongly supported by Mr. Thorbum, W. and R. 
Woodruff, and A. Brown, all for the frontier interest. Mr. M. keeps up 
liis spirits, and shows himself superior as a jtublic man. His management 
gains him fnends. Since I have been here I have seen much change in his 
favor. He will receive the suffrages of the honest yeomanry of the county, 
as the Hoovens, Griobels, etc. The Opposition are much out at !Mr. Ran- 
dall and myself. We were told we had better be in our seats at York. 
All I hope is that when we go we shall have Mr. Men-itt along with us." 

When the result was known, the most unbounded enthusiasm was dis- 
played along the canal, and the people of St. Catharines gave way to expres- 
sions of good feeling on a scale of grandeur surpi-ising for the times. We 
see by tlie Jouinuil that an illumination took place, and all the parapher- 
nalia of genei-al rejoicings were indulged in. 

The Parliament opened on the 31st of October, and Mr. Merritt, 
immediately after his return, proceeded to York ard took his seat. He 
was soon afterwards placed upon the Finance Committee. One of the first 
acts during this session was to ask for a select committee to inquire into 
the management of the affairs of the Welland Canal, thereby answering 
the inuendoes whicli had been hurled against him by Tslv. McKonzie and 
other opponents to that, great work, and is in keeping with the general 
tenor of his acts. We also find that his maiden speech was one in favor 
of a motion, moved l)y Mr. Frasier, whicli strongly urged a free trade in 
grain and cattle coming in from the States, as the following will show : 

" Fealbt's, St. John Street., 

" 10th November, 1832. 
" My Dear C.:— 

" My friends hero appear to be highly gratified with my election, and I 
assure you my situation is far more comfortable to my own feelings — I now 
feel a degree of independence in being on an equulity with those, who before 
could say what they pleased without my having a chance of replying — the 
situation is new, but I do not feel that embarrassment I expected. I have 
already broken tlie ice. The first day I took my seat, made two motions and 
one speech on admission of articles, duty free from U. S. 

"William H. Merritt." 

During this session he strongly advocated the bill, which in some shape 
or another had been before the House for several .sessions, for the abolition 
of impj'isonment for debt, and his speech thereon was considered a very 
convincing one, as the outrages committed under the license to imjirison 
were of the most gi'ievous kinds. In his I'emarks he stigmatized the law 
as a relic of barbarism, and although, ho said, the lawyers would not like 
the proposed change, yet the interests of humanity, common sense and 



i 



138 

reason were in favor of it. He mentioned numerous cases of false arrests, 
sliowiug the abuso of the law ; that it was also the cause of crime and per- 
jury ; that, in nine cases out of ten, it proved ineffectua] to recover tlie 
amount claimed. He narrated a long list of cases which came to his own 
knowledge, wherein per-sons were immured in prison at the instance of a 
lawyer — many times his clerk ; where many of the parties did not owe any 
one ; where exhorbitant bills of costs were tacked on ; and that, on the 
whole, there was no satisfaction to the creditor, as the expensive machinery 
of the law required all that could be wrung from both plaintiff and de- 
fendant to satisfy the costs; and concluded an eloquent speech by stating 
that the law was in antagonism with justice ; was abhorred by Turks and 
infidels, who thereby foi-med a low opinion of men who called themselves 
Cliristians ; and was only a lever of tyranny in the hands of a fraternity 
wliose only thoughts were the filling of their own purses. Although the 
bill did not become law by receiving the royal assent at this lime, yet the 
discussion on it had such an eSect that the sensibilities of the leading ad- 
vocates were turned, and the evils then complained of were suffered to sink 
into oblivion, regretted by none save the most hardened in the pro- 
fession. 

Whilst the House was in session he found time to write and publish a 

I^amphlet on the inland navigation of the Canadian Provinces, wherein 1 e 
shows the manifold advantages which the country would gain by an exten- 
sive system of canal navigation. In it ho urged tko abolition of the bound- 
ary line between Upper and Lower Canada. It contained suggestions of 
the greatest importance to this growing country. The pamphlet was signed 
*'A Projector," and its effects were such that a commission was ajipointed 
to investigate the subject. It was conij)osed of Messrs. Morris, Robinson, 
Solicitor-Genei-al, Attorney-General, Merritt, 8amson and Chisholni, of 
which he was appointed chairman, who duiing the session made extensive 
in(iuiry, and gathered a large amount of information on the subject, which 
led to a bill being brought into the House and passed, whereby the sum of 
£10,000 was granted towards the proposed St. Lawrence canals, showing 
that the spirit of enterprise which commenced in uniting Lakes Erie an<l 
Ontario was now preparing to overcome tiie hitherto inaccessible rapids 
of the St. Lawrence, and opt i the way to Montreal and the ocean without 
waiting for the co-operation of the people from Lower Canada. 

An application was made by the Welland Canal Company for a loan of 
j£25,000, on which Mr. Merritt in a letter soys: "This week the Welland 
*' Canal question will come up, but there a)ii»ears little chance of success. 
" Our Bank bill will not pass the Upper House. The Salt Works incor- 
" poration has passed." 

An application was also made from the Welland Canal to the Parlia- 
ment of Lower Canada for a loan, but was coolly received, so that the com- 



panl 
rem 



not 

Prej 

spirl 



of 



130 



pany were for the present compelled to look to other sources for the funds 
required to complete the work to Port Colbome. 

Up to this dato the total expenditure on the canal had been £316,000. 



1833. 

As the experience and confeBsions of a now member of Parliament do 
not often come under the eyes of the public, the following letter to Dr. 
Prendergast may be interesting, as it better explains the feelings and the 
spirit in which Mi*. Merritt entered Parliament than anything we can give : 

"York, Sth January, 1833. 

« # # # After my return from Chatauque, I was solicited by a 
deputation from the inhabitants of the county of Ilaldimand to stand for a 
candidate. I consulted Mi"s. ]M. on the subject, who, with her usual good 
sense, as-sented, conceiving that a ))art of my time woidd be retpnred hero 
on account of the canal. I succeeded against a violent opposition, and came 
in as what we term a Tory member. I was immediately selected on the 
most important committees, an>l have applied myself industriously to the 
different subjects. The greatest difficulty I experienced was in speaking. 
I was forced to break the ice, the lirst day I took my seat, on the subject 
of duties on goods from the United States passing our waters, and it hap- 
pened, fortunately, to be one I underetood. The only questions in which 
I take an interest are, improving our water communication, abolishing im- 
prisonment for debt, extending the jurisdiction of our magistrates, and 
annexing Montreal to this Province, so that we may obtain a i)ort of entry. 
On the second and third items I have had the misfortune to contend against 
the lawyers ; we have seven in the House, most of whom, directly or indi- 
rectly, oppose tho.se measures, and you are aware that they are no feeble 
opponents in any Legislature. It is my intention, as soon as the Welland 
Canal question gets disposed of, to leave this business ; and, although it is 
much pleasiinter to be hi the House than waiting in attendance, I finil 
legislation so tedious that T am heartily tired cf it, and if 1 remain in the 
same way of thinking I will never return again." 

The following letter to Mr. T. Merritt, Senior, will give an insight into 
pacliamentary affairs at this period : 

"York, 7th January, 1833. 

" Respfxted Sir, — The House frequently opens without a quorum. 
The hon. member for Haldimand styles us a lazy lot. Altogether, I must 
say a gx-eat deal has not as yet emanated from their united wisdom : it will 
come, I suppose, by and by. My.self Jind the hon. member for Haldimand 
are all ready and at bi-eakfast by 9 o'clock every morning. We enter the 
House before or at 10. The working members go in oonmiittee and take 
their seats in the hall to bring forward measures or debiite. About 1, a 
lunch is set at our quarters, which the messenger keeps in readiness for us, 
adding a glass of beer, when we go on with our work until 6, when we 
proceed to our quartei-s, next door to Chief Justice's. Beer, whiskey or 
wine, as you like, for dinner. Generally retire to a well furnished sitting 
room, the member for Haldimand i)reparing matter for the House. He is 
well, but wearing himself out for Upper Canada. 



! ') 



m: 



||||l;i 






140 

"15th. — Mr. Mcrritt niiylit have been one of the St. I^wrcnce com- 
iiussionor.s, but dccliiu'd tho honor." 

"Ah rogiirda the Wo'.hnd Canal, I cannot bring myself to think that 
this, the mo.st oulightenod Pi'.rlianitMit in the annals of Upper Canada, will 
abandon so great a work botbi-o it is Ir ought fairly into existence. Wo 
liave been voting away money for the imj)rovement of ourselves and the 
country, and among the many thousands wliat do you think we have liad 
the magnanimity to vote ? — £7,500 to tlie Welland Canal — not half of 
what is recpiirod. We will take it, and trust our private means for the 
residue. J. Clakk." 

During the session he was identified with the War Losses Bill, the 
Grand River Improvement Act, and several other imi>ortant measures, 
which occupied the House until its adjournment, 3rd of February. 

The foreshadowing of the fate of the company appeared, strangely 

enough at this time, in a communication to the merchants of New York : 

"Alhaxy, February 12, 1833. 
"Did not know what to answer. If I shall bo ro(juired to make any 
further sacrifice, it would at least be proper th.at the full proposition should 
be known. Your continued suggestion for a .sale, or rather an offer to sell, 
to the Government, is ])articularly painful to me. * * We have every 
reason to chei-ish a confident hope of full success. * * a year or two 
more will prostrate all o])j>osition, and remove the delusion of the [lublic. 
If I shall prove to be dolu(l(Hl myself, [ hope at least to satisfy my friends 
that the loss of my prrperty, if fairly lost, will not distress my (piiet. 

" J. B. Yates." 



"The Welland Canal will most probably pass fi-om the hand.'s of indi- 
viduals into that of the Government, negotiations between the parties 
having, it is believed, already taken place. An Old Merchant." 

The pecuniary difiiculties Avere very gi-eat at this time. Almost every 
thing in the shape of property tl).oy possessed was mortgaged. The Bank 
of Upper Canada refused them any more credit, much to the mortification 
of the Director.s, who in reality considered the Bank under an obligation 
to the comjiany. 

During the attendance at the Legislature, the business of the canal was 
not neglected. 

A rather sharj) corres[iondence occurred between the President and the 
Agent, which re.sulted in their both tendering their resignations. 

" 1. St February, 1833. 

" I have no objection at all to the arrangement proposed by you, and 
will join with those named, bearing a share of my part of it. This vdW 
relieve me from the Bank engagement, of course, which I shall be most 
liappy to see off the Bank books, as the sole engagement for that sum of 
money, anil secures my name as a creditor to the large amount. 

" Your.s, truly, John H. Dunn." 

" P.S. — This will also settle my advance of £250, of which I .stand in 
want, as well as yours, if you cau make it convenient before vou leave 
York. * J. H. D." 



141 

" YoKK, fith February, 1833. 
" Deak Siu, — You havo my perfect concurrence to do anything you 
|il('nse. What J intemled to do I have, in conHe<|uonce, of your letter, 
withhold. I sliall not put n»y name to any instrument whatever which 
iiiiiy make me liable to pay what I cannot, and perhapH may involve me. 
You may think as you like ; I havo my own oi)inion, wliicli shall guido me. 

" I am, Sir, yours, obediently, John }f. DrxN." 

• 

"YoKK, 7th February, 1833. 

" Mv Dear Sir, — The course I intended when I became respoi.sible 
for a loan to pay oti" the debts duo to the Welland Canal contractors, was 
proci.sely what I was willing to do — that I would give my bond for njy pro- 
jiortion of .£12,000, but not be liable for the whole amount. Ths-re is no 
person who can lament the situation of the contractors more than I do, and 
if I could I would afford them relief. I cannot agi-ee with you, however, 
tliiit there can be any discredit to the Welland Caiiul Company. The con- 
tnictors from the commencement have had a full knowledge of the com- 
pany's art'airs, and have been told, for guarding theu» against diHicultie.i 
which might occur in the progress of the work. W(j have, more from 
aijcident than good fortune, been able to sustain good faitJi. You nnist 
remember that you have laid the case and our em}>arrassuients before Par- 
liament, who havo more interest in the canal and its benefit to the I'olony 
tliaii the sliareholdors. If discredit fall upon the company, and cortaiidy 
it will, lot it fall on those who deserve it. I ct^rtainly cannot hazard to 
iiiuintain the credit of the Welland Canal Company, a property which does 
ii'jt belong to me. 

" I felt grieved at your note of yesterday, and think you misundei-stood 
me, or I did not fully explain my intention regarding the extent of my 
security, but I did mean exactly wliat I was willing yesterda}' to perform. 
We have been engaged tcgether in a work perhaps the most arduous and 
embarrassing that ever was undertaken in any country. Anotlier such I 
would not have anything to do with for the whole value of the Province. 
My good wishes towards you are unabatiMl, and the good fooling you so 
kindly express toward myself and Mrs. Dunn I fully reoipi'ocate ; and allow 
1110 to close by hoping that the friondship which has ever fxistod between 
us may not be imi)aired by a moment's anger on either side, and that we 
mutually look upon each other as friends, whether as canalors or indi- 
viduals. Sincerely yours, John H. Du\x." 

"York, 12th February, 1833. 
" Mv Dear Sir, — I am particularly engaged this evening, as Mr. JMc- 
Donald is here. You can have a Board without me, competent to transact 
uuy business. I have so mucli labor to perform for the Province this year 
ill 'my own office, that it will be wholly out of my power to leave York. 
It is therefore my intention to withdraw from the canal, and cannot under 
any circumstances incur further responsibility on account of the canal. It 
is therefore unnecessary, under the circumstances, for me to attend. 

"Yours, truly, J. H. Dunn," 

A meeting of the Board was held in York on the 13th of February, and 
tlie sul)ject of raising money to pay ofl' the debts owing on the canal, to tlie 



i I m 



it>W 



i m 






142 

amount of .£11,000, was discussed. Owing to tl>o Government holding a 
mortgage on tlio hydraulic works, the Company did not receive auy benefit 
from tlio money paid by Mr. Yates for the same, but now they agreed to 
relintjuish the mortgage to the company, on their giving a bond and pledg- 
ing themselves to spend the same in paying off the minor debts, etc. In 
tliis meeting Mr. Merritt informed the company that the work was com- 
pleted, and, finding his duty to liis constituents would ba neglected, ho 
tlierefore tendered his resignation, wliich was not, liowever, accepted at this 
time. Another ineeting was lield in St. Catharines on the 18th of Feb- 
ruary, wlien the resignation of Mr, Dunn as President was tendered, but 
not accepted at this time. 

Tlie next mooting was at St. Catharines, 27th of February, but for want 
of attendance it was resolved that Capt. Creightou and Ceorgo Keefcr be 
summoned forthwith by a special messtniger. When, at the ailjourned meet- 
ing, it was resolved that a communication be made to the commissioners 
ai)pointed by the Legislature of the necessity that one of them should give 
his personal attendance. The 1st of June meeting after that consisted of 
but four members. 

Although the House at its last session did not grant the company^the 
loan asked for, yet the Govei'nment, for the first time since the inception 
of the canal, took up the balance of the unsold stock, to the amount of 
£7,500, and three commissioners, viz., A. Slade, J. McAuley and W. B. 
]\obiuson, were appointed to superintend the division of the same, by this 
means they were enabled to push on the work to Gravelly Bay, so that by 
Juno the first vessel — the schooner Matilda, from Oakville — passed through 
to Cleveland by Port Colborne. 

Under the circumstances, Mr. Merritt was authorized to pi'oceed to 
York with a statement of their affairs, and lay the .same before the Gover- 
nor ; also, to make application there or elsewhere, as he thought fit. In 
the midst of this dilemma, IMr. J. B. Yates again came forward, and laised 
them sufficient money to finish the new harbor at Port Colborne, which 
was now declared a port of entry, and by permission named after the 
Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Colborne. 

The regular annual meeting of the Canal Board was held at St. Catha- 
rines on the 5th of June, and our subject, who had previously tendered his 
resignation as agent, was now, at the election of Directois, chosen as one of 
them. When the election of the executive was proceeded with, Mr. Merritt 
was chosen President and Alex. McDonnell, Esq., Vice-President. 

The following item is inserted to show the value of village property at 
this time. Through the absence of paper currency these figures represent 
a greater value than at the present day: 

" 22iid April, 1833.— Mr. Phelps bought half of the North side on Lake 
Road to Niagara, (now Niagara Street) at $75 per acre." 



143 

On tho Gtli of Juno, I'nteH of toll were settled upon, and armngonionts 
miiiU* for Imildiny a liglithouHO at Tort Colbornt', and also fur putting down 
autither i>i«'r at tliat placo. Mr«. Merritt, in returning from Cliatauquo, 
passed through Port Colliorno, acconiprniod by her family, and thus t!e- 
s?ril»e8 her visit to that locality : " At the stone bridge which crosses tl.e 
"canal we met Mr. Gn^bel," (who, with Mr. Hoover, was the leader of tl.e 
Mennonites in this section, and a strong supporter of Mr. Mon'itt) " who 
" invited us to go u]) and spend a night at his house. We walked from the 
•• bridge up to the bay, 1 J miles. There we met T. Merritt and Mr. Kan- 
" (lall. There was a vessel coming into the lock, some boats, etc. The 
" gi'onnd here is all marsh on both sides of the canal. There is a small 
•' riilge, with one white house and a store, and some shanties. We accepted 
•' Mr. (irebel's invitation to his home, promising to see the Sugar Loaf. The 
'' road is very jileasaiit up there fo" four miles, winding through the trees, 
" with the hill on the left, and a large marsh or pond, three miles long and 
•'about one broad, on our right. We tried to count the eagles' nests in 
" the tops of the trees ; there were six or seven of them. !Mr. P. and J. 
•' went to the top of the Loaf, but the leaves were too thick to have a good 
" view. * * On Thursday morning we took another road to tho Ijridge. 
" Saw several vessels jtass, and a small steamboat, which makes a trip 
" round from Buflalodown to Chippewa and up the marsh every second day." 

That the canal wa.9 now rapidly coming into public use is seen from a 
statement published in the Journal, showing that from the 1st to the 20th 
of Jime in this year, 34 vessels had passed up the canal and 20 went down, 
and in the following month 219 schooners, 1 38 boats and scows, and 30 rafts, 
loaded with produce of all de.scri; tions. 

Mr. W. L. McKensiie, who had been in London for more than a year, 
returned to Canada in August. While there he had interviews with ]\Ir. 
Stanley, Mi'. Poulette Thompson, and others, in reference to the colonial 
(liiH?ulties. Ho was enthusiastically received on his arrival at York. 

A time-honored institution lost its usefulness about this time, thougli 
called in exercise at the breaking out of hostilities. It was the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, or Board of Magistrates, held for this district at Niagara, 
which had existed from the first settlement of the country, and wa-s com- 
posed of the leading men. It now gave place to what was known as the 
Court of Requests, having a smaller territory but a more extended jurisdic- 
tion, and was in that sense the germ of our present expensive and inefficient 
rtuuiicipal system. 

For the first time since the opening of the canal a serious break occurred 
at lock 2, the four gates of which were carried away by a schooner on the 
night of the 5th of September. No spare gates being ready, navigation was 
suspended for a week, and Mr. Merritt in a letter mentions that, owing to 



Hi 



the urgency of the case, he had again commenced to give his personal atten- 
tion to the canal until matters were placed in a better shape. 

As it may be interesting to the members •£ tlie Loyal Canadian Society, 
■we find that in the early part of October, arrangements were made in 
Hamilton to celebrate the glorious battle of Queenston by a dinner, to take 
place on the 14th of October, (the 13th being Sunday,) the Hon. James 
Crooks consenting to preside on the occasion. 

On the 7th of October, died at his residence in St. Catharines, our oM 
friend Job Northrop, deeply lamented by the village community as a mo.st 
"enerous and warm-hearted man — sincere in his actions, and beloved by all 
who knew him. 

After superintending the repairs, and attending to other duties on the 
canal Mr. Merritt now prepared to attend his place in the Legislature, 
which oi)ened on the 19th of November. One of his first acts was to intro- 
duce a Bill having for its object the relief of those religious sects known 

as Mennonites and Quakers, who, previoiis to the passing of this Act, la- 
boured under serious disabilities. 

Notwithstanding the fact that William Lyon McKenzie's last e.xpulsioii 
from the House was disapproved of by the Imperial Government, and that 
two of his most active apponents, Messrs. Bolton and Hagarman, werti 
dc'iirived of their otlioes, as a conciliatoiy proceeding ; yet, it was a})parent 
that at the opening of this Session, Mi-. Mackenzie wished to become of 
more importance, having l)een agai-. returned for the County of York, prc- 
seJited himself in the House for the purpose of taking his seat. He was ac- 
comiianicd by a large body of his supportovs, who tilled the bar and galleries, 
and durin<' the debate which arose in reference to his admission, behaved in 
a most boisterous manner, by alternately cheering anfl hissing the speakers 

expressing like or dislike. The intimidation was carried to such a i)itch, 

that the sj)eaker ordered the House to be cleared of all outsidei-s; and on 
the vote being taken for McKenzie's admission, a majority of four was found 
against him : McKenzie's organ, the " I'or/c Adi'ucatr," bitterly attacked our 
subject for his vote on this occasion, and the language used towards Mr. 
Merritt was uncalled for, yet failed to influence him in the smallest degree, 
as his conduct to Mr. Mackenzie on all occasions was such that we believe 
he felt more incUned to pity him than anything else. Mr. Merritt's speech 
on this occasion shows conclusively that although he was inclined to be gen- 
erous to a fault, yet he still retained suthcient respect for his character as 
a member not to permit himself to be bullied l>y faction. He said " he had 
come down to the House yesterday to vote that Mr. Mackenzie should takf 
his seat, but his conduct would have induced him to vote him out of the 
Asaemblv, even if he had been a sworn member. Had not his supporters 
assumed the character of a mob — hissing down one set of men, and crying 



the 

1834 

nor. 



145 

up another. He was disgusted -vritli the disgraceful scen«, and their conduct 
brought back to liis memory the worst days of Revolutionary France, <tc." 

Owing to the bad roads, he was compelled to remain in York during 
the Christmas holidays, and in a letter written home on the Ist of January 
1834, he says, " he spent the day with Mr, Yate«, in calling on the Gover- 
nor, and some of the gentry of York." 

In the Legislature he introduced Bills on the subject of mantaining the 
poor, and on emigration, besides moving for a committee to onquiie into 
the law of arrest in civil cases. 



1834. 



After the holidays, the business of the Legislature was carried ou as 
usrial. The work commenced in the House was not very important, con- 
sisting principally of private legislation. Amongst the (juestions brought 
forward, was another petition from the Welland Canal Company, for a grant 
of £25,000, to enable them to pay ofTsoniP of tht'ir iufWbtedness. From the 
able manner in which our subject advocated the claims of the Company, in 
the House, he made a numl)er of friends therein : many of w^hum were now, 
perhaps for the first time, convinced that tliis canal Avas not a mere jirivatd 
speculation, but a work upon which vhe country could look with pride, and 
one which, in after years, would become a monument to the perseverance of 
its supporters. A long and warm debate on the (piestion occured, and finally 
emerged into the idea of the rrovernment purchasing the entire work from 
the Company. The results were, that the cai)ital stock was permitted to 1 o 
increased to .£250,000, and the Government subscribed towards the same 
the sum of £50,000, thereby enabling the Directors to pay oft' mimerous 
small debts, anil also put the canal in good working order. As previously 
noticed, after Mr. Merritt gave up the duties of agent, and wa.s appointed 
PretAdent of the Company, the same vigilance was not dis])Iayed in the 
maiiagenient of tiie work as was observed il . • ag his direct superinten- 
dence. Several delays occurred, ai I not a Tow breaks in locks and banks, 
airtady told that a work of this kind reqiiired the earnest attention of an in- 
terested man. He, after what had transjtired, took charge of the works 
personally, as we see by the following letter to Doctor Prendergast : 

St. Catharines, March 1 7th, 1834. 
" I have again turned my [larticular attention towards the canal. They 
have given me a salary of $1,600 per year, as president, and full control of 
the works." 



m 



• 

In a man's family letters, we see tlic motives of las actions more than in 
his publications, speeches, or votes. We have seen from tlvse letters, that 
Mr. Merritt disliked the contracted role of an M. P. P., j-.tl would ratlior 
get rid of the Wclland Canal. He argued that the direction of the canal, now 
that it had passed by its many windings from lake to lake, thou"h its 
having the Erie for a feeder, was only a matter of time ; the work could 
be carried on by any man of moderate attention to his business. Yet, the 
disasters in carrying away four lock gates, for which no aderjuate provision 
had been made, with the settling and caving in of work laid in frostv wea- 
ther, showed i»lainly enough to all interested in the w^ork, that the same at- 
tsntion was nece.ssary for keeping it up as had started it. Mr. Merritt 
had not let pass, while in the company's service, opportunities for private 
advancemant by investing in both the terminus at Port C'olborne and 
Dwnnville, and natural instincts would be excited to imj)rove them for his 
rising family. ' 

We hare assumed that duty and honor were the key note of all his trans- 
actions. The Canal Board by both pu1)lic and private accounts, depended iipon 
the lobbying process, (another name for begging from the Government,) for 
means to pay its obligations ; and wc have seen, direct or implied, that ho 
had been the promi)ter in inducing stockholders and conti-actors to go on 
with it. For a man with but half his conscientiousness, this must have been 
fraught with uneasiness, and we cannot wonder that he enibi-aced the first op- 
portunity that occured last year, of gracefully retiring fj'om it. 

At this time, a sermon from his respected j)astor at York, fell in to avid 
weight to the public side of the balance. 

" Sunday, 2nd JMarch, 1834. 
" My Dviar Catherine : 

"I have this day heard a mrst oMcellent practicable sermon from Arch- 
deacon Strachan, fiom the following text: 'To him that hath, .shall be given; 
and from him that hath not, eveutliat which he liiith .shall be taken uwav.' 
H'J api)!ied it to the various pursuits of life. Those wliom the Almighty 
had favoured with any peculiar talent, rose to eminence, was entrusted l.>v 
his fellow men with the coutrul and dii'ection of their jjroperty ; and if a 
man of industry, application, and honesty, he would continue to increase, bv 
commanding the respect and confidence of his fellow men, as well as Divine 
favour. Urged strongly the absolute neces.^ity of per.sevoring in those 
qualities ; and the moment he dejtarted from them, and gave himself up to 
sensual and worldly gratification, the Divine favour, as well as the confidence 
of men, would be taken from him, and the text in that case would assuredly 
bo verified. 

" By a steady perseverance, and close attention to them, I have baen re- 
markably favoured this .session in carrying through the House those measures 
in which I have felt an interest." 

Noticing his return from his parliament.-iry duties, and canal matters : — ■ 

" I am interested in the Grand River navigation, and would remove 
tlierC- I have purchased one half of 200 acres at Gravelly Bay, but will 



i'l III 



I ' 



147 

make no tlecision till I see you. It is an important subject — not so nuicli 
in ft pecuuiaiy point of view, as with inudcuce, we need be under no 
ai)ijrelienMion from that score, but for our family." 

During tlie session, he also obtained from the Government increased 
postal facility on the route of the canal, so that Port Kobinson, Lyon's 
Creek, and Port Colborne wet-e given Post Offices, which was a great con- 
venience to the settlers who lived there. To his untiring exeitions are tlie 
people of Dunnville and the country lying beyond the Grand lviver,indebtetl ; 
by a great deal of perseverence, he succeeded in getting a grant of £1,500 
from the Government, with which to construct a g(.)od bridge over the Chand 
Kiver, on the foundation used for the dam at Dunnville, and a large grant for 
roads. 80 that, with his parliamentary and other labours, we assume that 
his time was well occupied during this long session, which lasted nearly live 
months. He also had the satisfaction of s((eing £350,000 granted towards 
the works now in progress on the St. Lawrence Canals — which were to be 
built with stone locks of large capacity, etc. 

During this winter he corresponded with INlr. W. Allan and ^fr. 
Kidout on the subject of a branch Bank in St. Catharines. His ideas on 
the subject of Banking were, we know, opposed to private corporations, 
believing that the profits derived from such undertakings should belong to 
the country, and a general Provincial Institution established to contrt)! the 
monetary aflUirs. But in this instance lie was prepared to do liic best for 
liis locality, and strongly tried to have a Branch from the Bank of L'j)per 
Canada established here ; without success, however, }irincii»ally owing to 
the facts that a Branch was established in Niagara, and afterwards through 
Mr. Street's influence, in Chippawa ; and also in consequence of a larg<i 
jtortion of the stock being owned by frontier men, who were naturally fav 01- 
able to it. 

On the Gtli of ]\fairh in this year, tlic nourishing little town of Wik It- 
cuine, by act of Parliair.ent, a city; taking for its future name the beautiful 
Indian word " Tokonto," having for its tirst Chief Magistrate, Mr. Williaiu 
Lyon ]\IcKenzie. The author visited the caj>ital, and .spent a short tiuio 
attending the debates, and in the society of the lialf-dozcn nu'iid)ers who 
lodged there ; he was })ai'ticularly struck with the contrast of their grave 
demeanour in the House, and their hearty unbending, oven to jocularity, 
out of it. He was listener during the discussion of that question to many 
remarks on the ambitious aspirations of muddy Little York. Now tliJit the 
prospects of an improved communication with the ocean ])resented itself, 
the mind of our subject turned upon the jiossibility of having free markets 
for the grain of Western Canada, in the harbouis of the British islands ; 
and in consequence thereof he busied him.self to bring about an understand- 
ing with the Imperial Government, whereby the grain duties might be abo- 
lished in the United Kingdom, so that our farmers could enter their maiket 



iM 



148 

on the siiinc footing as those from Scotland, Ireland, or other parts of the 
British Empire. The address frame' I iu the spirit of these ideas passed the 
Assembly by a large majority. 

During the long session there were many applications for his influence 
for }»oth public and private interests, for his o^Yn and other countries, for 
roads, bridges, and Post Ottices — and one for fi\ e years protection for a 
glass company, by Samuel Wood, of Grantham. 

A letter, with subscription list, was received from the Kevcrend E. 
Crcen, of Niagara, soliciting his influence in building an Ej)iHcopal 
Church near the C4ernian Lutheran Church, at Thorold. An ai»plication 
WAS then made to the Bishop, and the following shews the views of Dr. 
Strachan on the request. Extract from the Very i-{everend Archdeacon 

Strachan : 

" YoKK, 21st February 1834. 
"Dear Sir: 

" I am of opinion that the members of our church have a light to have 
the ministration of religion afforded them gratis, as in England, from the 
cleigy reserves. And, were the friends of the church to e.vert themselves, 
as they ought to y\o, the hypocrites and infldels who seek to approj)riato 
the lands to other purpo.scs," would soon be defeated." 

" Yours truly, 
♦' To W. H. Mehkitt, M. P. '• John Strachan." 

. The session of Parliament, which clo.sed its labors on the Oth of March, 
was a remarkable one in numy respects, as it may be said to liave been the 
last Parliament where the Loyalist element, devoted with a single eye to the 
interests of the country, were assembled. Numerous are the cases which 
serve to show, at this time, that a jiublic spirit, and a feeling of true loyalty 
to the land of their birth and the British Crown, animated them on all oc- 
casions; where the country at large was likely Vie he benolittetl. they voted 
liberally. To many it may .'^eem stningf, when rea<liiig of the lai-ge sums then 
devoted to improvements and jmblic woiks, that other ideas stiould encourage 
the Government in such an expense; and iu all probability Mr. ]\Ioriitt or 
Mr. Yates might have talked or written for yt-ars, without accomjtlishing 
anything. But when we see the appropriations springing up from tens to 
liandveds of thousands of pounds, wc are apt to conclude that a n«w spirit 
■was infused into the rulers of the country ; and that things, owing to a 
general jieriodof prosperity, an accumulation of internal wealth, and an 
extraordinary influx of emigrants with suftlcient means to possess and cul- 
tivate the new hinds — all combined to make the Government think that 
the tiuie had now arrived when public improvements nuist be pushed on ; 
and that the gioAving wants of the countiy rcijuired a wider and bolder 
policy to keep pace with the demands of the time. 

The important question of the Wellaml Canal becoming public property, 
■was long and earnestly discussed during this session ; and after a debato 



i 



U9 



ig.< 



which occupied four days, tho motion of Mr. Robinson, tliat th« works be 
come the jn-operty of the country, was carried by a majority of oxi:. Thus 
were the cherished ideas of Mr. Mci-ritt, wlio always looked upon the oanal 
as a great national work, first recognized by the Parliament of the country : 
and althougli tho Government did not actually asanme the work until eight 
years afterwards, when all ojtposition to the measure had ceased, and when 
its practicability for all commercial purposes were fully tested and acknow- 
ledged — yet the (juestion was laiil open for the consideration of the people ; 
and had it not been for tho troubles which afterwards ensueil, might hare 
been sooner accomplished to the benefit of all concerned. 

During Februaiy of this year, the first seriou.s public agitation, which 
afterwards rcsultinl in a rel>ellion which drew Upper Canada into its wake, 
ocoured in Quebec, by the presentation of the historic id/ipfi/-two resolutions 
to the Parliament of that Province by M. Papineau. A great deal of ex- 
citement was manifested in the Upper Province, and it b«ing previous to a 
general election, the newspapers of the time were full of si)eculations on th<' 
effect those resolutions would have on tho country at large. The rcsolutiona 
passed the Lower Canada House on the 12th of February, and ^Ir. Morin 
was afterwards deputed to jirocced with them to England, and lay thorn be- 
fore the Imperial Government. 

In the early i)art of May ^Ir. INI. left home to attend a nif« ting at Nel- 
les's settlement, on the Grand River, as the works on that si'ction were not 
prospering as well as tlesired. In the month of Afiril he had ofi'ered through 
the new.spapers a reward of $100 for the best model of a lock and dam for 
the Grand River, the pattern to be .shewn at this meeting. 

At a meeting of the New Court of Requests, held in Niagara the early 
part of July, Mr. Merritt was unanimously chosen Chairman of the Court. 

As one of the results of the Canal, and his visit uj) the (iraud J'.iver, wft 
may mention, that at this time we find that a lavgi' schooner is nearly 
finished, and a steamboat on the stocks at Dunn\ il!e --airi that the works 
for tho improvement of the Grand River are now fairly underway. 

in August, a slight panic was felt, from the fact that the cholera had 
again appeared: although its eflects were felt for a short time in Q\iebec anil 
Montreal, yet, fortunattdy, the smaller towns throughout the interioi", did 
not suffer to any remarkable extent. ]\Ir. ^Nferritt's time was kept fully oc- 
cupied, during the reces.s, with the canal, where several breaks occureil ; and 
owing to the great increase in the traHic, it required t'le most careful atten- 
tion to keep up the confidence of .shipping, as the canal was now apparently 
taxed sometimes cmmi btsyond the capacity of its wooden locks. The con- 
tracts for the woi'k -ju the St. Lawi-once Canals, with stone locks, were now 
given out, and the prospects of busy times for some years, is noticed in the 
journals of that time. The turning of the first sod took place on the lOth 
or 12th of AuguBt. 






l.-)0 

Early in tlio season jNIr. Mcrritt wont, as notioerl, to tlio fti-and River, 
to attend a mootin;^ at Nellis' settlement, (now York.) This niooting was 
hckl for tiic purpose of re-organizing the Grand River Iniprovouient Co'y., 
as the pi'evious qtticers and directors of that (Jonipany had failed to accom- 
plish anything of real benefit. Tho old oHicers were replaced by the follow- 
ing gentlemen, viz : James Winnett, President, — W. H. Merritt. S. Street, 
T>. Thompson, and W. Richardson, Directors. A new subscription list was 
opened, and capital stock about £50,000 sul>scribed; our subjc^ct alone tak- 
ing one thonsaml shares, of .^25 each, in the undertaking, besides taking 
for his relations and friends 1,400 more shares, viz ; N. Merritt, N. B., 
1,000, Henry Yates, 200, and A. Mclntyre, 200. 

Two other enter[)rises occupied his attention this year, viz: the erecting 
of tlie large stone grist mills at Port Colborno and kSt. Catharines ; tho 
former being a steam mill, owned by our subject and his friends, under the 
management of Mr. Slate ; and since purciiased, with a largo amount of 
])roperty, by the Government, when the enlargement of the canal took i)lace. 
The mill at St. Catharines was his own i)ro[»crty, autl was of great benefit 
to the town, and country adjacent, both as a c\istom and manufacturing in- 
stitution. 

About the midtWe of September, tho writs for a new election in tho 
Province were issued. In Haldimand, Mr. Merritt was opposed by Hill, 
I'itch, and C. INIeKenzie, but was returned by the handsomo majoi-ity of 53 
votes. In Lincoln, Mr. Geo. Rykert was elected over his Radical opponent. 
Darling. ]Mr. IMerrittgavo Mr. Rykert a strong supi)ort on this occasion, 
liaving assisted him during his canvass, as long as he i)0s.sibly could. The 
result of the elections were, however, favourable to the Radical party — and 
during the interim before the opening of the House, many were the specu- 
lations an<l opinions indulged in, as to iis effects upon the country. 

The important di.scovery of coal, was made in the State of Ohio, during 
this year ; and it was expected that the canal, and the country generally^ 
would be greatly benefitted by the same. 

In November, Sir J. Colborno visited the works on the Grand River 
and was pleased with the great progress made in that section. 

A letter to Mrs. Proudergast, discloses the state of feeling of our subject, 
on the close of this year's business : 

"St. Cathakines, November 23rd, 1834. 
" Dear Mother : 

"The Welland (Jaual has dosed for the season, and I hope to have more 
liosure than heretofore. 

"The boys are all gi-owing finely : they appear to possess full as great 
capacity as we can expect at their age. They are learning the higher branches 
of education, getting on well, and appear desirous to please. I trust you 
will find a great improvement in their manners also. Wo have a good 
school near us, so that we possess the double advantage of having them at 
home. 1 renuiin at home until after the holidays, so that mc only want your 



ii 



151 

auil fatlicr Prontlpi'f,'astV; scciety to venilcr uh as comforluble as falls to tl.f» 
l(.t (if iuuDau I'ciii^js. His hfin;,' witli tlio boys, after a few vccks. would 
impart great satisfaclioii aiul instruction to thow, ami would he equally 
pliMsiu'^' to liini. Wo keop a pair of horses, siut,'ln and doulilo sleiL;!), and 
liave every convenienco wa iieed to make us comfortable. For my own 
pait, I am so thorou;j;!ily satisfied we are so much better otT, and every way 
liajipier than we ilest-rve, tliat my only melancholy reHvction is, at times, 
that it will not continue — l>nfc tliis train of feeding I endeavour to check, 
and placo my dojendanco wholly on the All-wiso and just Providence, who 
alone sends us that i)eace of mind that I think we all realize, and feel most 
grateful t(j Ilim for permitting us to ])0ssess. Wo have been over to 
spend the day with father and inotlier. He is feeble, but better. Mother 
in good health. 

Believe me, 

!My dear mother, 

Faitlifully and dutifully yours, 

\V. IIasJ&i.ton MnKKlTT."' 

In the Re[)ort of the Company, dated December 24tli, 183-1-, we .see 
that work was well advanced, four locks being finished, und a great deal ot 
the other obstructions overcome. 



1835. 



On the 15 th of January, the new House of Parliament opened ; and on 
tl:e lOtli, the Speaker, Mr. Bidwell, was elected. Tlie Governor's speech 
on the occasion was a tame one, when the protestations of the party in power 
is considered. 

;Mr. 3Ierritt went to Toronto, by way of the Gi-and Eiver and Hajniltou. 
On arriving in that city at neon, on the 1 3th, ho attended a caucus of 
the friend.-s of impi-ovcnient, ani in writing, says: " Parliamentary proceed- 
" ings have commenced, — and although we have lost tlio appointment of 
" Speaker, yet I tiiink we will have a good House;" but on 8th Feb. he says : 
"I am engaged in drawing up a report for a Provincial Bank, and the 
" scheme is making quite a .stir amongst our bankers. I would have gone 
" homo, but the roads are intolerable. We still have nothing to do for 
^' eight or ten days yet. Tlie House is doing no good, and I doubt whether 
" they are likely to." Being desirous of further facilities for ihe transmis.sion 
of mail matters in his owu riding, as well as other sections on the canal 
and frontier, lie corresponded with the Imperial Deputy Po.st-master General 
at Quebec, and received the following : — " Believing that Poet Offices are 
'• much wanted in the section of country pointed out by you, shall take up 
" the subjects of your recommendations, and endeavour to carry them into 
'effect." 



152 

During this comparative cessation of public measures in the House, 
work was going on in an adjoining committee room, considering grievances 
that -were now necessary to be removed before any real progress could be 
made ; though the wrongs of the country were hidden from the notice of the 
public by th« mass of grievances discussed, some of them being the most 
Conservative institutions in the country — as the organizidion of the Episco- 
j)al body, and Government patronage. 

The waves of agitation which commenced in Lower Canada, and whose 
•ccasional ripples were barely noticed in the Western Province, had now 
set in with increasing force ; and in spite of the endeavours of the more 
modei'ute, here, its advance could not be stopped, until, like the others, 
it had spont its vigour on the strands of loyalty, and relapsed to its former 
bed. Under these circumstances, the present Parliament may well be 
said to have been a boisterous one. Mr. Mackenzie, who v/as returned 
for on© of the ridings of York, took his seat in the new House, and 
soon after its opening, his influence was felt — and day after day, his rest- 
less sj)irit became more turbulent. Basing his arguiaents on the celebrated 
letter of Joseph Hume, on Independence, he, for tlie jieriod of three and 
one half hours, oocufiied the time and attention of the House ; but did not 
succeed in having any action taken thereon, so that the mention of it is 
hardly found in the Parliamentary journals of the day. Following soon 
after, by the appointment of his Grievance Committee, wherein was raked 
up a mass of evidence, in many cases condemnatory of every institution in 
the Province, shewing a grave state of affairs. Yet from the composition 
of the committee, and m many known cases, the distorted state of the evi- 
dence, the report presented by tho.se gentlemen, although a valuable histori- 
cal document, must not be taken as all truth, nor yet the perfection of fair 
dealing. Tlie published rejiort of this committee is a master-piece of Par- 
liamentary book work, going into the most minute details on every subject, 
and fully bearing out Mackenzie's rei)utation as a keen and cai-eful critic. 
The few specimens which follow, will give an idea of this extraox-dinary pro- 
duction. 

That the document had its birth in a private personal feeling of 
Mr. Mackenzie's, there can hardly remain a <loubt ; and from a careful re- 
view of the state of the country, at the commencement of this agitation, we 
have no hesitation in believing that the Province of Upper Canada was in 
a very prosperous state ; and if comparisons are worth anything, the rapid 
rate at which improvements and settlepients were going on, up to this time, 
has hardly had, all things considered, a parallel since. Great public works 
had been comjileted, and others were advancing; the country was rapidly set- 
tling, and numerous schemes were in consideratioH for other useful projects^ 

A list of the private bills which were to be brought before this sitting, 
is in our possession, and those who fancy that men of 1835 were slow, will 



153 

think to the coul'*ary, on reading the following Parb amentary bill of fare, 
viz: — A bridge over tlie Grand River. A harbour av Giimsby. A lock at 
Cornwall. Continuation of Yonge Strewt to Holland liiinding. A harbour 
at DufEn's Creek. A canal between Lakes Huron and Sinicoo. Lands 
towards the St. Lawrence Canals. A feeder to the Rideau Canal. Im- 
provement on the River Lin. A Bank in Hamilton. A wharf in Haldi- 
mand. Improving the River Scugog. A boat canal from the Grand River 
to the Thames. A grant for the Desjardin's Canal. A canal across the 
Toronto peninsula. A railway or canal from Toronto to Lake Simcoe. 
Improving the navigation of the Ottawa. A railway fi-oin Port Stanley to 
St. Thomas, London, and Goderich. Water works in Toronto. A bridge 
over the Welland River. A railway from Hamilton to Port Dover. A 
harbour at Goderieh. A street railway in Hamilton. Navigation of the 
River Trent. A canal aci'oss Wolfe Island at Kingston. A Wesleyan 
Academy at Cobourg. So that we here behold evidences of prosperity and 
advancement not often suii)aKse(l in older communities. 

On the r)th of February tliey met, Mr. William Lyon Mackenzie in the 
chair. He commenced by interrogating the Governor's Secretiiry, Lieutenant 
Col. Rowen, and he v/as recpiired to give answers to more than Hfty 
interrogations on public aflairs, which his duty, as contidential Secretary to 
the Governor, forced him frequently to reply, " It is not in my powei- to 
answer that question." 

After him, the member for Middlesex, whose incarceration in London 
prison for three or four months next year, need not necessarily vitiate his 
testimony of what occured in liis own riding. 

" Are not the grants to a conijtany of speculators residing in Europe, an 
" improper transfer of the properties of the Government 1 " 

Answer. — " I have alw^ays thought the Canada Company one of the 
"greatest curses saddled upon the Province." 

" Ought not the revenues arising from these lands, to have been applied 
" to the liquidation of war loss claims'? " " Ye.s." 

" Have not the Assembly, by its liberal grants in aid of inland navigation, 
roads, itc, given to the public lands their greatly incrcafSed value ?" "^'es." 

Mr. Dunlop inten-ogated. 

" What was the original value of shares in the Canada Com]iany 1 " 

Answer. — "£100; £17. 10s. paid in: value of stock is more than double." 

The Canada Company was chartered for raising the funds tb pay war 
losses. Also considers the St. Lawrence Canals unnecessary. 

169. Would it not be desirable that the Clergy and Crown Reserve.?, and 
all reservations of land, otherwi,so than for education, were disposed of for 
public purposes, under the control of the Legislature? — I do not think so, for 
I think the Legislature have shown themselves utterly incapable of managing 
their own matters, as witness the Welland and St. Lawrence Canals. I con- 
sider the St. Lawrence Canal not necessary in the present state of the country. 

Colonel A. G. W.. G. VAN EGMOND, lioss, Ilulkt Tp. Huron Tract, 
called in aiul examined. 



^fiiifi' 



m 



m 



wm 



ir)' 

201. What price diJ tlic Coiiip.iDy pay for the Huron tract? — About 
two shillings and ttjnpcncii half-poiiny pm- acre, sixteen ycsurs credit, without 
interest, and £18,0(10 .--terling, allowed olT to improve their own land, which I 
believe would be e([ual to about one .shilling sterling; por acre. 

202. What a:e they spelling the lands for?— Fronj 12n. Gd. to IS-". 9J. 
per acre. 

20!^. What is the extent of the tract? — They got ono million two hundred 
thousand acrce, from which one hundred tiiousand were deducted for a swamp. 

20-1. How lon;^ have you been settled in the Ilurou Tract? — ^Six years 
this Christmr.s. I am the oldest settlor in that tract. 

205. Have the company taken proper moans to encourage and promote 
the scttlcnient of the tract? — For the first year, in Goderieh alone; since then 
they have taken no pain."? to assist the settler.^. Last year, there was a 
steamboat employed to brinp: settlors from Detroit to Goderieh. Instead of 
attending to tliat they went several time.^ on pleasure trips up Lake Huron, 
once for three weeks or so at a time. l>y that trip the .settlement lost (JO 
Scotch families. From tlie best iiil'ormatidn T c;in obtain, we lost from 250 
to 300 fimilies, who clii(Hy settled in Michigan and, the other states, bccau.«o 
the Company neg'cctod thoni. 

200. Are the agents to tlie Company ki!j*l to the settlers ? No: they are, 
with the exception of Mr. Wilson, very arbitrary ; tiiey are very tyrannical. 
I speak of the agents residing on the tract. 

207. What magistrates and Court of lie((uest Commissioners have you ? — 
Charles I'rior, Jno. Brewster, and Captain Dunlop. They do just what they 
please. There are nineteen Townships in the Huron Tract, and only these 
three ^lagistrates. 

208. Have the Compiny any road in the tract? — Yes, one from Wilniot to 
Goderieh, and one from Vandorsburg to London vill ige. These roads extend 
upwards of ninety mile-*, and will cost about £17,000, which is allowed them 
out of the purchase money. The Conip my hare also laid out about £5000 
for Grist and Saw Mills. 

200. Ha\e any !^Lttl(■rs been ojrctod from their firms? — Yes, they are 
scared out of the tract and ejected without any I'orm of law or justice. .^Iany 
pcr.-ons have boon driven out of the Territory; there is no o.her law there, 
e.\copt what the Couipany's servants make. We must be very polite to the 
Auents. 

210. Are the Company empowered to impose on settlers such terms as 
they please? — Yes. they are. 

2n. Is there any difficulty in getting titles of letters of occupation? — 
They have sometimes to wait u little, but tiiey get them. Public lands sell in 
the United States at Cs. and 3d. per acre, and are likely to be brought down to 
3s. 9d. 

212. *Do the Company tiikc large sums out of the country? — Their profits 
in 1833, were £28,0li0, sterling, alter paying all expenses. The ^tockholers 
chiefly reside in England. 

213. Do the European working settlers express themselves satisfied? — 
Dissatisificd in the hiiihcst degree, from whatever fjuarter they come. 

214. Are there any schools? — One in Goderieh. The Company do not 
now support any other school that I know of. 

215. Is money plenty? — Perhaps as much so as in any other place. Mr. 
Taylor keeps a private Bank, and issues notes from one dollar to a pound — 
they circulate among us, 



155 



9J. 



216. In case Huron shouUl be formed into a county, where woulJ bo the 
best pollinj^ plnccs? — One at Godoricb, and one at the pliico where the big 
ThanicH IJivcr crosses the Huron lload, about tlilrty-three miles from Ooderieh. 

217. Where do the ma^i.-itrates lay out tlio monies they rccuivo lor wild 
land taxes? — I do not know. 

218. What is the established religion in your Tract? — There arc no 
ministers of religion of any kind in tho Tract, nor is tliere any militia. 

219. Whit is the population of the Tract or country ? — Ui'port says 2,000. 

220. How do the Company pay for the work they p^et done ? — For the 
first live years they paid two-thirds of the labor in land, at 7s. Gd. (which cost 
tljem not nuieh more than one shilling an acre) and one tliird in money. 

Dn. STKACHANm/Av/tM; 

543. Docs not a vast annual additional expense fdl upor tho Province, 
owing to tlie continual rejection of bills of a general cliaraeter, sent up by tho 
House of Assembly, rejected in the Legislative Council, and again introduced, 
debated and sent up by the House of Assembly ? — I bi'g leave to state that tho 
Legislative Council reject no bill without good reasoiH, and th'it body has 
always appeared to me to have undo tlie good of tho Province nuicli more its 
study than the House of Assembly, and need fear no comparison in true 
patriotism, wisdom and ability. 

545. Would not the British Constitutional system, by which the head of 
the government is obliged to chcosc his councillors and principal officers from 
among men possessing the confidence of the popular branch of the Legisl.ature, 
be more suitable to the wants and wishes of Hie country, if adopted in Upper 
Canada, than the present irresponsible mode of government. I do not believe 
the government is an irresponsible one ; the rest of the i[uestion is too vague to 
admit of a definite answer. 

54(5. In what way is the government of this colony responsible to public 
opinion, as expressed by the representatives of the people in Parliament? — 
I could not answer that question otherwise than by saying, that tho govern- 
nifiit is quite as responsible as any other government. 

547. [The witness is shewn ihe Post Office Return, and asked] What 
mode would you reccoinend for tho bjttor governiujiit of the Post Office, and 
for allowing the controul thereof to the Colony ? — I have not given the subject 
consideration. 

550. Do you think Lieutenant Clovernors, of themselves, possess sufficient 
knowledge of the inhabitants of the several districts to enable them to select 
judicious persons as justices of the peace? — Certainly I do, for they have the 
best sources of information, and are quite independent. 

Beyond tlie samples given, Ve have grievances of olHcials of all grades, 
ministers of all sects, complaints to the Grovernor, and with liLs sharp replies. 
The evidence contains accusations of a Catholic Priest against his Bi.shop, 
supported by correspondence; and as tho tes' iniony principally terminates two 
or three years back, most of the grievances appear to have been iniported from 
home. It contains a sad interest however, as a little over two years after, 
the chairman and members were incarcerated, banished, and some of the 
witnesses even suffering the extreme penalty of the law in hanging. And 
we may well imagine, showing its progress it was untastofiil, and that tho 





w%. 



15G 

itenin, liowever niiiniatiiig to tlio actorH, yet in a <1oz»mi letters during tills 
session, from oirr subject, have a clause of " notliing doing." 

Mr. M. returnod from Toronto on the lOth April, and made preparatioa 
for the early opening of the camil. The old steaniar ('itroline, which had 
previously plied on th(! canal between Port Kobinson and Buffalo, being 
found too much worn for the service, was ropainjd in St. Cathaiines, and 
renderod more powerful. Two other boats were placed on the route from 
Buflalo to Chip|)awa. An effort was also made to place a fa.st steamer on 
the lower lake l)etween Port Dalliousie and Toronto, Init failed througli the 
opposition from Niagara. Tlu; (Jrand Kiver Company oflennl tlio use of 
their route to passenger steamers, free from toll, so that every inducement 
was held out to make the transit as rapid and commodious as possible. 

A large and respectable class of emigrants came to this country during 
the summer ; amongst those who chose 8t. Catharines for their home, was 
Mr. Taylor the father of our present eminent brewer. This gentleman, in 
connexion with Messis. Truscott k Green, of Toronto, first started the 
Farmers' Bank, which for a timti was a great benefit to the country in sup- 
plying the wanted circulation. He afterwards went into the brewery 
business, in partnership with Mr. Bate, who had previously purchased the 
business carried on here, by Messrs. Garrison ifc Little. Tln^y removed the 
works to the site they now occu]iy, near the old distillcrv grounds owned 
by our subjtict twenty years jirevious, and at pi-esent extensively carried on 
by Messrs. Taylor it Bate, botii .sun.s of tlie forniei- gentlemen. 

Among the new comers whoso appearance requires notice, as being iden- 
tified Avith the improvement of the place, was a widow lady named Myers, 
from London, related to Charles Rolls. The family taught drawing lessons, 
and the works of her son Hopner still decorate some of our oldest drawing- 
rooms. 

St. Catharines was much noted at this period for being a haven of refuge 
for the numerous runaway slaves who escaped from their southern task- 
masters. In July of this year a daring attempt was made to kidnap a num- 
ber of them over the line ; and those engaged in this nefarious business 
succeeded in bringing off a man named Stanford, with his wife and child. 
On the fact becoming known, a large number of the coloured people arotmd 
turned out and pursued the would-be captors ; overtaking them near Buf- 
falo, and bringing them back, as well as two ruffians of their own coloux-, 
who assisted in the kidnapping — one of these was sent to the Penitentiary 
for five years, the others got clear. 

Since the departui-e of the last incumbent, the church had been presided 
oxer by the Rev. Mr. Clark. He came in company with Rev. Dr. Mack ; 
these gentlemen, with others, were sent out by the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Christian knowledge. 



Mell 

roriil 

Acul 

demi 

pleti 

an ii 

pliai 

dosci 

of tl 



157 

The old Episcopal Church of St. CatharinflH having hoen Hold to thrt 
Methodints, ou Monday the 27111 of July, waa laid, with Masonic honours, thd 
rornor-atone of the now Episcopal Cluirch, on what was then known as 
Academy Street, in St. C'athai iues. The afl'air was the occasion of a grand 
(Icmonstration in the village, and the huilding erected, though long in com- 
pletion, was for nuiny years considered one of tho finest in the district, and 
an important ornani'Mit to the plai ». The now church was nuJMr'd in com- 
pliment to (Jcorge Adams, Esip, if not the oldest, from tho niiinhur of his 
descendants who attended there, was entitled to be consiilered the ])atriarch 
of the society. 

On the canal Mr. iSIerritt cau.sed improvements to ho made. A number 
of imperfect locks were thoroughly repaire«l, and the tow-path and other ac- 
cessories were put in good order; so that all the racpiirenunitH of the time 
were fairly met by tho company — and the tratUc passed on .satisfactory. 

Navigation being closed, the usual Anniversary celebrating the compln- 
tion of tho canal was held at the St. Catharines House on the ;}Uth of No- 
vember, with a great amount of enthusiasm and good will. TJut occur- 
rences transpired in the mean time that called another meeting, not (piite 
80 peaceful in its demonstration. The occasion of this had been that 
during this yej r Mr. Mackenzie was apiwinted one of the Canal Board, 
on behalf of the Government. He spent the entire Autumn in looking 
over the books of the company, and we regret to state, that whilst enjoyiu" 
the friendship and hospitality of our subject, he .so far forgot his ))osi ion, 
and transcended the limits of propriety, as to obtain his (Mr Merritt's) private 
memoranda, and afterwards publish the same in his genei-al charges against 
the olHcials of the Welland Canal. At this nucting Mr. Meri-itt observed 
that Mackenzie had directed his attacks against others, indeed ; Ijut he had 
no doubt the whole Wiv. intended for him. Akhough the eiiors he men- 
tioned are too small and unimportant to be taken notice of, yet we ini'dit 
say, that there are few undertakings at that, or the present time, of any 
iinjiortance, where every interest had to be wielded to the best po.ssible 
purpose, which will bear the same scrutiny as what wo now teini "the 
secret .service of the Welland Canal, and Mr. Merritt's connection therewith." 

The unusual emigration to the Prairie States, and tho slioitn.'ss of the 
crops, changed the course of shipments ; so that we sec a coi:;, ^nnieat of 
grain arrived this fall, in Queliec, from Hull, and wo lieu, of a cargo of 500 
barrels of tiour sold at Chicago, for .?9 per barrel. 

Tho last day of the year has an ai-ticle on the entire opposition between 
the Parent Government and Lower Canada. The Governnunt had sent 
out a Commission with the new Governor, to settle the dilliculties. Tiieir 
Parliament had met a fortnight before, and were given the unconditional 
management of their funtls. But their first act was to donate from them a 
salary to an agent to proceed again to England, although their former agent 



153 

had buen sajjorsedod by tlie Co'.ninission. Tlie Constitutionalists, composed 
of the En,:^Iisli inliabitants of Montreal, raised a rifle corps iminbering'.SUO 
men, and though hoc acknowhjilged by thi; Ooveniineut, oUered th('__first 
sorious resistance to the national nioveinont. 



18 3 6. 

The ITonsc opened on Jainuiry 14th. Tlie Oovernor in his spoecli iiotiood 
the falling of our securities in Kng]aTid,an(l other checks to progress tln-ougli 
the stand taken l)y the Lower (/'anailians. TIk! subject of the war losses 
-was bi'ought into it, by an ofl'or from the Imperial (jovcrnment of £;3G,()(lU 
if the Canadians would pay .£:iO,000. 

(3n the 21st of January, Mr. Merritt rose in the 1 louse to answer the 
charges brought against the canal management by Mr. INlackenzie, and his 
spetich on that occasion is a suflieiciut (evidence that the agitating nu^mber 
had for once met his match. We need oidy state that the posi*'.<,a in whieh 
he places Mr. Mackenzie is neithei' flatteiing to that genthtman, nor credit- 
able to his backers in the House. Those from the frontier, we have already 
shown, were, from the beginning, op[)Osed to the canal. 

On the 21st of January the new (jtovernor. Sir Fi-ancis I'ond Head, late 
Poor Law (yommissioner from Kngland, accomp iuIimI by his son and Mr. 
Josci»h, a clei-k in tlie Colonial (JJhi-e, drovi; up to the St. Catharines 
1 louse, and tix^k up lodgings for the night. An opportunity so favourable 
for the disjday of the people's loyalty was not neglected. So an add.ress was 
jH'eacnted next morning before leaving foi- Toronto. They wisely eschewed 
all political intent, and congratulated ills I'jxcellency on his arrival in the 
most ]irosperous part (.f the I'lovinee, hoping that this jtrosperity would 
still bo continueil under his adnijiistiatiou, .v sati.-.fit':tory answin' was 
returned, adding as a favoi'alde au_'ury that this lirst addre.ss was altogether 
unconnected with jiolitics. He arrived in Toronto on the L'iith, and enter- 
ed at once into the administration of the Government; SirJ.John Collxjrne 
taking his leave. 

'i'here are b<it few (..'oliur.il Governors whose biography will pay the 
trouble of searching out, ; i those f(!W fnjm their huigthy stay, identilied 
with American history. Sir John Colborne is one of them, who.se admiii- 
istidtion led to a revolution in ( 'anal.i , and then with extended authority 
the military power of Great J Britain ci'ushed it out. Tho.se who were wit- 
nesses of the improvements, both social and educational, ar(^ willing, how- 
ever, to give him cicdit for theii- g<Kjd intentions towards the people over 
whoso inton sts he was api)ointed to superintend. 

(.)n the li7th, coninjenced the labours of the Co.nmissiyn apnointed to 
investigata the charges of Mr. Mackenzie against the olHcers of the Welland 



■■V.'A\v(V.j»." 



ir)9 

f'iiniil Company. Tliuir ropoil forms one of tlic largest voluiiicH of tlofu- 
nioiits on a 8ubi(!ct of ]irovinciiil intt^rest. Its cost to tho country in tliat 
!ii,'lit was but tl)0 siniiU sum of £20,000. It Ikih Ix.'on of cs.sential usi- in 
this l)iograi>Iiy in obtaining correct and rcliablo data of our public iinjirovo- 

mcnts. 

"Toronto, 17tli April, 183G. 
'' My dear Catherine : 

" I would not have wrote you this day, if I returned ininiediatt'ly at the 
close of the sessit))!, which will be closed on Wednesday next, but as I ex|)e(.'t 
to remain here a few days lungf^i', until Satunlay, drop you a few lines to 
account for it, — and when on the subject, wisli you to write to your Pa cv 
Ma, mentioning that the Committee* lias reported cm the Welland Canal 
iillaii'. The farce has ended. An<l aft 'r being tiied by our cneniifS, \ve 
iiave been uccpiitted with credit. Even my political oj)ponents expressed 
t'.icir astonishment. The editoi-of the 'foj-res/xunfinif und Ai/rnctifi;' w)'ote 
ii'.c a letter on the subject, and everything has ended as satisfactory as T 
(i.idd desire. l!ut it is no gratification to mo personally. My hope is that 
;,'reat good will arise from it to the undertaking itself. Wo have piissed a 
liill through our House, which, if carried into etl'cct, will satisfy me v/ell for 
tlie loss of this entire wintei-. 

I am, your faithfid husband, 

William Hamilton Mekiutt.'' 

The author of the"]iife of Mackenzie" iiu'utions a luiinber of gi-ave 
cliarges in connection with the rnanageuient of the AVelland Canal, and 
liases tht^ir correctness on a private letter v.iit jsn Ity Fi-ancis Hincks to 
Mr. Mackenzie, at the time. As ii samph) of this authoiitv, we extract 
llie following from this letter, viz: * ■^- * * " T now repeat, and am 
willing (() stake tny character on the truth of it, — that for several years 
tli'vare fidl of i'alsk and rn rrnoi's (;ntrios — so much so, that if / wtin on 
Oath, / n»il'l hanlbj say ioh'Uh<'r J Ulievc there are vim-e true than falM 

Ml', licslie, in liis introduction to liis father-in law's lif«, savs ; " In the 
"private documents in my jKjssession, I found much that had never seen 
" tlie light." We can hai-<l!y say for this extract that " th(* use I have made 
" of the.sH do(Miments, will, I presume, not l»e regarded as ir/nnnn'aiifii/." 
Nor, will the plea that ho had never been in Canada till several vears after 
the rebellion, excuse it. Mr. Ifineks' evidence lieforc* a Parliamentary 
ComniitcH', consisting of ten or more pages, was to be had — which, for the 
Kake of th(i gentlemen with whom oiir subject had miu-h intimate connecjtion 
it is oin- unpl(!a.sant duty to correct, by a short extract from the .said evidence : 

"(/'an you, from the manner in which tlui IJooks of the Company have 
"been kept, imputi* fraud to any one connected therewith 1" 

Answkk. — "I Lave already stated that J rra/li/ do itot think that n,nj 
" FKAUDULKNT INTKNT i'du attach itself to any individual connected with the 
" Books of the CoiiijMHiy." 



i I 



160 

''My Dear Sir: "Toronto, Gth March, 1836. 

" I have delayed writing you for some time, in hopes of having closed my 
present concerns here — but as this is not likely to take ))lace for some time, 
will delay no longer. You are avifare the House of Assembly appointed Wm. 
Lyon Mackenzie, a violent and unprincipled jmrty man, one of our Directox's 
last year. This man, for certain party ])uri)oses, j)urchased a paper called 
* I'he Wel/aiid ('(uial,' making sundry charges against the management of 
the Company, but principally aimed at unjxelf. At the opening of our 
present L'^gislature, I called for an investigation; giving in my remarks a 
brief statement of his proceedings. A committee has been appointed, con- 
sisting of seven memljers, six of whom are of his party, and fivt his ptTsoual 
fiiends. He also has a decided majority in tin; House, which, of course was 
the cause of obtaining a committee of his pai-ty. Now, as you are well 
aware of the 'jt'..stire ' which partisans or party men generally .award to 
their opponents, you uiay readily infer what chance we have of a fair and 
impartial investigation : add to this every person -vho has or may entertain 
any personal prejudice or ill-will against any officers of the Company, or 
against my>>elf, respecting any transaction relating to the Company or my 
])rivate business, fur the last thirteen years it is ))r()duced, and we have had 
transactions with some f/tonsui/da during that })eriod, all of which gives our 
adversaiy such a manifest advantage, that our proceedings must have been 
rather more than Inuuan to escape censure, and to subserve every possible 
circumstance he has preferred — thirty-two separate and distinct charges. 
Nevertheless, I am sanguine we will refute every one of them, but it requires 
great diligence, ivseandi. and much troubl'?, and after all, no gratiticatiou, 
and no useful jiurpuse gained when ended, even should our management meet 
with every apiirobation. Uut .so it is, we are lnought into it, and must re- 
si.st. I mi'iition this circumstance to sIkav that you are not alone in diffi 
culries ovei' which you could have no control, and which no hvnnan prudence 
could avert. However, I assure you I feel more anxiety and ai)pi"ehension 
<in your aH'airs than my own, inasmuch as you have ai'rived at that time of 
life wheji rest and quietness should be your I'cward. Whereas, I am still in 
the meridian of life, and feel every inclination to call all my faculties int(j 
action to resist the most heartless persecution 1 have yet met with." 

'' I remain, your atiectionate son, W. H.\.Mii;roN' Mkriutt." 

The old church in St. CatharLiies, after forty years usefulness, was com- 
pletely destroyed by tire, as we see by a letter from Mr. Mittleberger to 
our s\ibject, at this time. It runs thus : 
<'Dear Sir: " St. C.\thakines, r)th March. 

"In cons<'(|uence of a [irotracted meeting being held in our old church la-st 
last night by the Canadian Wesleyan Society, we are dejn'ived of it alto 
getlier. It is not known exactly how the tire occuivd, but thi! presumption 
is that it was occasioned either by the stove jiipe, or more probably, by an 
accidental candel spark, about the pew of (i. Adams. 

"The iiiain object of this, is to ask whether you and Mr. Clark, as Trustee.^ 
of the Ci-antham Academy, have any objecticms to our using the upper part 
of the building for the performance of divine service, until the new Church 
is completed ? Yours faithfully, H. MiTTl.KBERGKil." 

'•To William Hamilton Merritt, Ksq., 

M. P. P., Toronto, Out." 



161 

Very little useful legislation was effected this session, (except a motion, 
wliicli was moved by Mr. Park, in the House, that the sum of £r)0,000 be 
appropriated for roads and bridges, which was carried almost unanimously,) 
iilthough it was remarkable for a great amount of free, not to say treasonable 
speech, which resulted in the stopj)age of the usual supplies to sup|)ort 
the Government. A motion was also made to pay William Lyon Mackenzie 
ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS for his semices as Government director of the 
Welland Canal; and although pressed with all the \igo\u\'which hi)>ii/e/f 
and his friends possessed in the House, still, failed to pass. Mr. Merritt 
was at home during part of the session, preparing his communications to 
luoet the accusations of Mr. Mackenzie. 

The House adjourned on the 20th of April. 

On the 28th of May, the Governor dissolved the House and ordered a 
new election, the writs to be returned on the Kith of July. Among (he 
improvements we notice a fine steamer, the IlaUimmul, was launched at 
Dunnville, for the express purpose of plying on the Grand River. 

The Niagara District Mutual Insurance Co. was also started in St. Ca 
liarines on the 18th of May, in this year. And the subject of opening a 
direct communication with the Junction, afterwards incorporated under the 
name of Merrittville, with other improvements of a similar nature was 
discussed. The Government had b^sen very liberal in its appropriation l)y 
macadamizing the .stiigo road ; but the financial depression and political 
disturbance that followed, put a stop to all local imjirovements. 

The su))joct of a through line of railway from the Niagara to the Dftroit 
River, had for sonie time occupied the attention of the people on om* West- 
ern frontier, and on the 1st of June in tliis year, a lai-ge and inrluential 
meeting vv'as held at Sandwich, presided over by the late Col. John Prince 
Tlie ordinary organization was completed, and stock books were opened 
tlirougliout the country, those for the Niagara district being placed in the 
bauds of Mr. Mei-ritt. 

The Haldimand election resulted in IVIr. Merritt being again successful, 
altlioughNie was strongly opposed by Mr. Davis, a local gentleman, and 
professing to be of the same political party jus our subject. 

The election occun-ed on the 1st of July, 1836, and the author, who was 
jirosent, has for remembrance a gathering which, for riot and drunkenness, 
though his own village could get up no tame display, exceeded everything 
he hatl ever seen before, and challenges the world to beat the Grand River 
rearers in their peculiar line. 

Things looked pretty dark for the first day or two. The roads were bad, 
and the farmers disinclined to come out. But when Scpiire Evans, after a 
great deal of coquetting, cast his vote for Davis, the Dutch came out in 
troops, and the day was ouv«. A celebration had been indulged in on the 
return of the victor at St. Catharines, Mr. George Rykert. On Monday, it 



162 



•WHS ascertained that Mr. William Hamilton Merritt had been elected 
for the County of Haldinmud, by a handsome majority. Accordingly, 
in the evening tin; usual demonstration of joy was enacted, kept tip by a jmblic 
dinner, on Tuesday, for both of the members. 

Whilst political strife was e.xciting the ))eople of Western Canada, 
wo have, at this stage of our biography, to record the death of an American 
citizen, who in reality was more to this co\intry than many jxttriota who 
aspired to that dignified title. On the lOth of July in this year, 
J. 1>. Yatks, Esq., died at his residence in Chittenango, N. Y. , and as the 
deceased and our subject, in connection with the Welland Canal and other 
im}>ortant works, were on more tlian intimate terms, we proj)Ose to enter 
briefly into an account of this gentleman. Descended from a highly resi)ec- 
table family who inhabited the Valley of the Mohawk, his father being an 
ollicer with the rank of Colonel in the continental army, during the llevolu- 
tion, connected by the ties of kindred to the.se good old loyalists the Butlers 
of the Rangers, and others. Mr. Yates was brought up with all the ac- 
quirements of a well-to-do citizen. At the early age of eighteen he graduated 
at Union College, and afterwards ai)i)lied liimself to the study of the law, 
in which he was subsequently distinguished. In 1812 he held the i)osit'.on 
of a Captain of Militia, under General Wade Hampton, and during a part 
of the war he was actively engaged on the Niagara frontier, and was after- 
wards appointed aid-ile-comp to the Governor of New York State, with the 
i-ank of " Colonel." In the fourteenth Congress he was elected for Scoharie 
and Schenectady, and was afterwards a})pointed Government manager of tlie 
New York State lotteries, also the Judge of Madison County (.'ourt, and 
afterwards Chief Justice, together with being member of the Legi.slature 
of his native State, which position he held at the time of his death. In his 
regular visits to his relatives the Butlers, near St. Catharines, and through 
perhaps Dr. Prendergast, he became acquainted with our .subject, and, 
as already mentioned, when the Welland Canal scheme was first pro})Osed 
by Mr. Merritt, Mr. Yates was the principal cajntalist, who advanced a 
large jwrtion of tlie necessary lunds. His expansive views at once giasjjcd 
the magnitude of the work, and principally by his advice its enlargement was 
decided upon. 1\\ its numei-ous phases he was aliomja its friend, and his con- 
fidence in our subject was manifiested on every occasion where a great work 
was pi'ojected and funds required. It is unnecessary to be individous, yet 
we think, that were it not for the assistiince of Mr. Yates, the success of the 
canal, at this time, would hardly be accoinplished ; and his death was deeply 
regretted by all the well-wishers of the enterprise. One of the principal 
streets of St. Catliarincs now bears his honoured name, and the following 
lines from the Chittenango llerakl truly describes the character of this great 
and good man : — 



inte 

offi 

sive 

pow 

ofh 

wer( 

even 

his 

jireh 

]iu1l 



1G3 

" In contemplating the character of Mr. Yates, we tind high moral and 
intelloctual worth most harmonioiislj' blended. Possessing naturally a mind 
of fine texture and liigh order, it had been adorned and cultivated by exten- 
sive literary and professional attainments. These he brought to bear with 
power on erery department of life. As a public man, he shone in the lustre 
of his native character in every statioix of honour, trust, and influence, which 
were conferred upon Kim. Prompt, decisive, energetic, and persevering, 
even at the sacrifice of health and personal comfort, in the performance of 
his public functions. His views and plans were of an enlarged and com- 
prehensive nature, beyond the scope of ordinary intellect. But, while in 
]>ublic ^ife he shone with lustre, in jirivate he gleamed with V)rilliancy. By 
liis s\ ior intellectual and moral attainments, by his urbanity of manners, 
by the overflowing benevolence of his soul, by his amiability of disposition, 
lie was pre-eminently fitted to gain the affection and secure the confidence 
and respect of all who knew him. Universally beloved and esteemed, not 
through the eflect which wealth or honour produces, but as the necessary 
and invariable result of the private virtues of his character. Every one 
was his friend, and his praises dropped from the lips of all." 

August 4th. — The project for erecting a chain Suspenwion Bridge ovei' 
the Niagara River, at Queenston, had been set on foot. "The bridge," adds 
the Journal, " will have the largest span of any in the world of the stime kind." 

September IStli. — The Governor, after an extensive tour of the Province, 
north and east, proceeded to St.Catharines from York, via Niagara," whence," 
says the St. Catharines JourtKif, " after staying all night, departed on hoi-se- 
hack, with his son and secretary, Mr. Meiritt and others, up the line to 
Port Colborne,^thence to Marshville and Dunnville. The Governor and suite 
then proceeded to Sandwich, and returned by London, Brantford, and 
Hamilton. 

October 13th. — Lower Canada troubles, at the termination of the T^egis- 
ive Assembly, shews that further parley would be worse than useless. The 
King's ministers must either knuckle to Lower Canada, or they must exercise 
the strong arm of the law. 

The Montreal Gazette says, " A Legislative union is now inevitable." 
The author visited Quebec at the opening of the session, where he had 
the satisfaction of a personal interview with the distinguished L. S 
Papinoau, speaker, and most influential leader in the House. 

Mr. Merritt addi-essed the electors of Haldiriand, in October, after his 
third contest — noticing the great prosperity of the neighbouring republic, 
and especially New York, since the completion of the Erie Canal : this was 
effected by the Government borroNving the funi]^ necessary to finish the canal ; 
and that credit had been procured, carrying out the expansion ol businei-s 
necessai-y to its full use. 

After complimenting the liberality of the Legislature in voting £300,000 
for the improvements in the St. Liiwrence, he says : " Your county per- 
haps, has been more benefitted than auj other i>ortion of the Province." 



164 

The following is extracted from Mr. Mcnritt's aiMross "to the frechold- 
eis of the County of Huldiinanil," on the absorbing topic of i)olitic8 : 

"The Government of the State of New York beiiiLj administered by 
a Democracy, this is, by many, considered the bestada| trdtoa new country, 
and their prosperity is ascribed to that cause ; but this ar;:,'umeut is falla- 
cious. If the Government was the true cause, it wmiUl not only be our 
duty, but our individual interest, as well as the interest of our posterity, to 
\ise every peaceable and legitimate means to bring about that form of Gov- 
ernment, which producers such beneficial eli'ects. But by extending our views 
to Gn^at Britain, the delusion vanishes, since we perceive tliat similar effects 
ai"e produced in the mother country. In England and Scotland, you will 
find the cheapest and best articles. They excel the different Ijranches of 
business in America, in the .same ratio that they excel us. The. form of 
Govermnent, therefore, not being the cau.se, we must look for some other 
]irinoii)le of action ; which is none other than an extetuled xi/xtem of jniMic 
credit. In England, a merchant, mechanic, or operator, can carry on as ex- 
tensive a business on £4 capital, as in this province on illUU — the command 
of cai»itiil in business being nearly efpial to the po.ssession of it. 

" In America, £*) will command .£100, and this is the real and true cause 
why different branches of business can be conducted with greater certainty 
and protit, on the other .side, than with us. The practical o)>eration of each 
separate branch of business could be easily pointed out, through every stage; 
but two or three instances are sufficient to elucidate the subject. 

" The extensive system of credit, so successfully adopted in New Yoi k, en- 
ables a wholesale mercliant in that city to com maud ready money, with 
which he can purchase goods at the cheapest rate in the manufactuiing 
towus of Britain. The same si/stem has established si)lendiil lines of packets, 
to convey them at regular an(l stated i)eriods, with the greatest facility and 
expedition, across the Atlantic. The same sijstem gives him time to realize 
the ])roceeds before payment of duties. I'he name system provides the 
Western or country trader witli ready money to pay fur them, which thus 
enables the importer to make quick returns, whereW he transacts an ex- 
tensive business with a very limited capital. 

'•All I reipiire for my fellow countrymen is a fair trial. I^et our LegLs- 
latnrearou.se from tlie torpor which lias subdued tht-m heretofore. '<et 
them bring into action the public ci'edit of the province — obtain a sea-purt, 
and establish a Bank immediately, to rej)resent the entire wealth of Upper 
Canada ; and lend us as much money as we require, on the best security. 
If we do not in three years, .show more enteri)rise, greater industry, and 
more euei-gy, than the citizens of the state of New-York, or any other state 
— fi>rever brand us as an inferior race of mortals^ — but not uu il after thd 
trial is made. 

" To the present Legislature, we may look with confidence for the adop- 
tion of bold and energetic measures, so as to retrive this province from the 
incubus which lias for many years retarded its prosperity. All are aware 
of its necessity ; and if another session passes over without effecting the de- 
sideratum required, no one will feel a greater disai)pointnient than 

"Your obedient servant, 
"October, 1836. " WM. HAMILTON MERRITT." 

That, and the next one ])assed without it ; and then came the Rebellion. 
October 29th. — A meeting was held at Thorold, for the purjiose of pe- 



1C5 

titiouiiig Piuliiiineut for the removal of the County buildings from Niagara 
to a more apjjropriate place. 

On the same tlay, a meeting of the young men of St. Catharines was 
calleil, for the purjiose of forming a debating society, in which Pelton, Emery, 
Lewis, and the author, appear as a committee to draft a constitution and by- 
laws. As this i)receeded the Athenreum, and was the first attempt of the 
kind, it must be i»ut down as the inception of literary and other associations 
of tliis place, and father of the Mechanic's Institute. 

During the Summer, several surveys were made on the canal by Mr. 
Miicaulay, the President, who also belonged to the Royal Engineers, and by 
Messrs. Baird and Killaly, of the Irish Board of Works. 

The name of James R. Benson appears among the Mutual Insurance 
oiti eel's. 

The Report of the Canal Board appeared on the 4th of November, 
giving a favourable statement of the year's business. 

Mr. Merritt set out in the stage, on the 5th of November, to attend the 
Hou.se. 

November 8th. — Tlie House opened the first session of the thirteenth 
Parliament, 7th year, William IV., Sir F. Head, Governor. In his speech 
he said : 

" As regards the duties of my station in the legislature, it is my inten- 
tion, as long as tliey may be conlided to me, to occupy myself to the best of 
my i.bility, in the internal improvement of the country ; in the impartial 
administration of justice, and in maintaining unsullied the commercial integ- 
rity of the Province." 

The House organized under Archibald McLean, speaker, and returned 
a favourable reply to the Governor's address. 

9th Noveiubcr. — Mr. Mertitt gave notice of a Provincial B mk schema, 
whoso profits for ten years were to be loaned for finishing the public works. 
He also brought in a measure to regulate the expenditure of district funds. 

The preliminaries in an entirely new House, occupied much of the 
time, and a pereonal exhibition of the Canal being neoes.sary, within the 
fortnight, we find him back again. From Mrs. Merritt's journal we read : — 

"Mr. Merritt got home about 9 o'clock at night. Left again at daylight, 
with a party of gentlemen for Port Dalhousie : returned at 10, but never 
sut down, and started for Gravelly Fiy." 

This inspection occui)ied him for the rest of this month. On his return, 
tlie contested election of William Lyon Mackenzie, with others, occupied 
tlie attention of the House, and not much was done till the Christmas 
holidays. 

On the 29th, appeared the Report of the Select Committee on the Welland 
Canal, which reported the arrangement with the stockholders, ultimately adop- 
ted — that when the receipts amounted to £50,000 per annum, the Government 
should pay six per cent, interest upon the stock : from the date of paym int, 



166 

the revenue from the canal in 1852 was £50,000— when the stockholdor3 re- 
ceived the whole of the principal and back interest. 

November 28th. — The Welland Canal Company hold its last celebration 
coalescing with the St. Andrew's Club. E. W. Stephenson, Thomas Cibson, 
A. K. Boomer, stewards. Col. Clark presiding and z-etiring in favour of 
the Engineer, Hall, president of the St. Andrew's. 

December 28th. — The Grrantham Academy was advertised to be sold by 
the Sheriff, to weather off financial difficulties ; but the catastrophe was for 
this time averted by the stockholders satisfying the judgment, and stoppirg 
any further expense, by handing the use of it and entire management over to 
Mr. Thompson, in consideration of his keeping therein a .school for classical 
and commercial instruction. 

Mr. Van Bureau elected President of the United States. 

Mr. Mei'ritt left with his second .son, who was a student of the Upper 
Canada College since Easter ; fro'u whose journal we (^uote : — 

" At Christmas, Pa, with the other members took a holiday. Several 
went home with us. It was a royal time — cold to excess. Mnt our large 
cloaks, and high spirits (at least, mine) kept off the cold." 

His further account describing the holidays, we reluctantly omit. They 
were terminated by returning to Toronto by stage. 



» 



1837. 



Mr. Mcrritt, in noticing his trip to Toronto, says : 

" We had an expeditious, but cold trip. An accident occurcd on our ar- 
rival : turning down Bay street the sleigh upset, by which one of my ribs was 
injured. 

" On the 4th attended the House. 

"9th. — Not as well as usual, having a cold added to my damaged side. 
I hope the ensuing week will bring forward some measure in which I do take 
on interest." 

He also orders that the young members of his family, during the evenings 
when not engaged at their own studies, teach the domestics — adding, it would 
be of more service than their wages : a very little time will offoct it. 

After the 16th, side better. No more mention of the up set, except on 2.3rd. 

" I have entirely recovered. Tell your Ma her dream is partly verified. 
There is effectual aid granted to the V7eiland Canal of nearly $1,000,000." 

On this grant, his old friend Chief Justice Robinson, writes: 

" I have very great satisfaction in congratulating you upon the liberal and 
decisive measures which the Legislature have at length adopted. It is of great 
consequence that the grant now made by the Legislature, should be judiciously 
applied ; and it is no less due to the stockholders than to yourself, that your 
name should continue to be associated with the work, at least, until all difficulties 



10 



>l 



are removed, lie is well acquainted with the interests af the work, whicli, 
perhaps, none of the New York stockholders, sinca ihodjath of Mr.Yates, were." 

He writefl, on the 3rd of April : 

" I apprehend great difficulty will bo found in raisin;^ raonoy to carry iiit("> 
effect tlie act passed lust session. If you are not a director of the c mal, I 
should hope tlie Doard will offer you the appointment of superintendent. If 
they do not, however, one of the Government directors, Mr. J. Wilson, 
should resign." 

The Report of the Select Connnittee on t!ie subject of " Trade and Com- 
merce," with its appendages, would form a respectable pamphlet, carefully 
prepared. It compares the former advantages of the St. Lawrence? saying, 
" up to 1820, our products and property commanded higher prices than similar 
articles and property on the opposite side of the frontier." Showing th it ad- 
vantages would again arise, under a judicious Legislature, when the St. Law- 
rence c.mals were Qnished. 

"The antagonism of the Lower Canada Legislature, is shewn by an act this 
Spring, subjecting our trade to an inquisitional examination ; and it was so 
absurd in its provisions, that it could never be carried into operation. 

"Tlicy charge SI for e.aoh boat, and the declaration at Coteau De Lac, which 
is similar to that, entering from the sea: — Name of vessel, and master: num- 
ber, and country : destination, &c: account of lading: number: (juantity ; 
quality : consignment, including the particu! .r marks and bulk unbrokou 
since loading. 

Then the distribution of the revenue coll.t't /d being ac^irliiu ti the 
cumber of the popubition, which, being less than iiower Canada, was as 7 to 8, 
the product of Upper Cinada. To remedy ;dl this, they recommended an 
address to petition the Imperi;il (lovornment for a sea-port. They also bring the 
subject nearer home, by pniying for the reform of their restricted tariff, with a 
hint tliat it would be better for both parties to leave the regulations of their 
commerce to the local assembly. The continuance of these restrictions 
on our trade, has a tendencv to create mischief, by enabling persons to name 
articles prohibited by Imperial Act, and subject to higher duties when im- 
ported from other ports. 

" We also pray for the admi.ssion of our products in Great Britain free. 
"February 15th, 1837. W. H. ME lllUTT, Chairman." 

During this Session, a number of important bill.s were passed through 
the House, anl a large share of IjOgislatiou was seemingly bestowed upon the 
Welland Canal. Acting on the series of resolutions whieh the ('oinnMtt«>o 
Lad brought before the House, a bill was brought in for the puivhase of tlio 
canal by the country, which passed through the House without much opposi- 
tion. By this Act, the piivate stockholders were not bought out ; but tho 
several loans of the Province to the conij)any, were converted into stock, 
and a further sum of £J4.''),()00 subscribed by tiie Government. Arrange- 
ments wore also >nade towanls paying tlie com[)any's debts, proviiUng for 
the construction of enlarged stone locks, ifec, &c. So that at last, we find 
that the utility of this work is fully recognized. By this measure the direc- 
tion of the works was vested ia the Government, they having a majority at 



1 . 



168 

all moetiiigfl of the Board. The Bill for the CHtaMiahment of a Provincial 
Bank, wliioh was hroiiglit in by cur Hubject, and, wc think very well managed 
and explained by him, failed to pasH, although a majority of " one " wa.n 
only recorded against it on the journals of the HouHe. He occupied tlie 
important positions of Chairman of the Committee on Trade and Commerce, 
and also Chairman of the Committee for the improvement of the St. Law 
rence, during this session, in which he strongly urged upon the Government 
the advisability of pushing on those works. 

Mr. Merritt, as usual, when he felt his measure secure, delayed not for 
the formal closing of the House, but set out at 5 o'clock on B'riday evening, 
arriving home at 3 o'clock, P. M. next (ky. 

After the closing of the House, he attended to his usual business en 
the canal, whore, from recent legislation, strenuous efforts were put forward 
to accomplish the extensive repairs required, before the opening of navigation, 
going through the lino by the feeder, 12th March. 

In his memoranda of 21st March, we find a scheme whereby the original 
canal stockholders should bo participants in the increa.sed income to be de- 
rived from the new canal, they paying their fair share of the expenses. He 
also urges the necessity of supplying the enlarged work with water direct 
from Lake Erie, as he seems to have some doubts as to the cajtacity of the 
feeder to fully meet the requirements of the enlarged locks, &c. 

Mr. Merritt also endeavoured to get the Government to jjurchase and con- 
trol the Grand River Navigation Company's works, but failed to do so, in 
consequence of wliich his heavy interest in that undertaking became worth- 
less, and has never since its being finished, realized a cent. 

As mentioned before, he had become, along with Mr. Yates and McDonnell, 
personally responsible for the funds which were required to complete the 
canal to Lake Erie ; and the conduct of the House in this instance, reflects 
the highest honour upon their patriotism, as it presents a striking contrast 
with their political opponents in the last House ; but to get action from the 
Government was still 'm be effected. 

At the annual election of the canal Board this year, we find that Mr. 
Merritt's name is not in the direction. This was a rather under-handed 
attempt to "sack " him from the Board, wjiich was solely the cause of his 
declining to serve, as the following memoranda of his own will show : — 

'• April 3rd. — The election took place for directors for the private share 
holders. Captain Eccles showed me a letter from Creigliton, naming 
McDonald or Butler lor directors. This gentleman had been to New York 
for some days, and had returned, keeping everything secret until this 
morning I have no reason to complain of the decision of the Stockholders, 
bat, my conduct heretofore has never warranted this secret, suspicious, 
distrustful pioceeding. I had 88 votes on the old proxies, and there were 
only 66 against me. However I declined exercising my power, and allowed 
the election to terminate as the New York shareholders wish, <kc." 



169 

Ah already iiitimiitcd, new dirpctorH wore olocted into the CaTml Hoard, 
and the occurrcuce wiw the cauw of conHiilerablo j»ei-Honal annoyance to Mr. 
Merritt, who wiw fully convinced that means outsidi^ of the onlinary course 
were re8orte<l to, in order that thiw act Hhould bo accoinpliMhed. That the 
proxys of the New York stockliolderH should bo given to Mr. Eocles, soonia 
strange; and can only be accounted for, either through uiis-HtatomentH on the 
one wide, or a lack of knowledge on the other. No doubt, liopes had risen 
among the Niagara people, from a large grant of the canal of the liwtHe.snion, 
that the termination might be changed to their own town. How far our 
ideaH on this point may be correct, the following corresi)ondcnce will shew : — • 

"AuuNY, April 14th, 1S37. 
" Pear 8ir :— 

" I received, three days ago, when nuicli indisposed, your letter of the 
4th instant. I am yet unwf^ll, but will no longer delay answrniig you. 

"Some time in tlie latter oml of February, C^ipt. Kccles, of Upper Canada, 
called on me, in relation to the Weliand Cannl, and the act of your Legis- 
lature concerning it, which had just pa.'^sod. He .stated that lie was on his 
way to New York, to consult the stockholders there, and procvire their assent 
to, or acceptance of the law ; anil he informed um that Captain Creighton 
wa« then in or near New Yoik. 1 static! that 1 could not then say or do 
anything in tte business, but that I would acipiiesce in any mea-sures that 
Mr. Heniy Yates and (Jharles Yates might agree on. Captain Eccles im- 
mediately proceeded to New York, and very soon thereafter, I received your 
letter of the 21st February, and presuming it might have intluence on their 
deliberations in New York, I sent a copy of it l)y the next jmst to Mr. 
Henry Yates. Some time afterwards, Captain Eccles returned, with powers 
executed by my friends in New York, to vote for ilirectoi*s at the next elec- 
tion, which I executed also, as a matter of course. I gave the nuitter but 
little consideration, my wife at the time being dangerously ill, and I do not 
now recollect who was named as our proxy. 

" It appears from your letter that you are impressed with the i«lea that 
your character has been assailed by some one to us. I can assure you thai 
it w^as not done to me. Caj)taiu Eccles informed me that it was in con- 
templation to change the route of the eastern end of the canal, as I think, 
from the foot of the summit to the mouth of the Niagara River, «fec. 

" lam, dear sir, with sincere respect, your most obtnlient, servant, 
"To William Hamilton Meruitt, Esq. A. W. McINTYUE." 

Although the ordinary course for him to have taken under the circum- 
stances, would have been to have looked after his own interest, yet, from 
his memoranda, we find that he is acting with all ilie eneigy iit his dispo.fal 
to secure the interests of the private shareholders as well. On 3rd Apiil, he 
writes to secretary Joseph, on the subject of relieving himself and friends 
of their private responsibilities, and the answer he nceived thereto was t uit 
and unsatisfactory ; yet, stating that the Governor would see him pei- 
sonally, on the subject. Accordingly, on the 2"Jnd of April, he went to 
Toronto, but received no satisfaction. On the 28th, the Board met, an<l 
apI>ointed Mr. Macaulay, of Toronto, as President of the Comjiany. Mr. 




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170 

Merritt accompanied the new Board over the line, to Dunnville, where 
he left them, and proceeded to Seneca, where the annua' meeting of the 
(t. R. N. Co. was to be hehl on the Ist of May. At this meeting he de- 
clined re-election as a director, on the grounds of living so far from tlie work. 
On the 8th of May, he again visited Toronto, (the Board having again 
in a measure established their head-cpiarters in that city,) but failed to 
oVjtain any answer from them on the subject of a money advance. 

Although the Legislature had, at their last session, provided ample moans 
for large im[)rovpmpi:ts, and paying off the obligations of the company, yet 
we find that with the novel management of the canal, procrastination was 
undoubtedly the order of the day ; and no action was taken in tiie matter 
until the monetary crisis of this year set in ; when, with the premonitory 
synn)toms of rebellion, and state of general confusion prevailing, it was at 
that time almost impossible to obtain the necessary funds : hence, Mv. 
Merritt remarks : — 

" The evil of procrastination on a work of this magnitude, importance, 
and utility, cannot be foreseen. Before leaving Toronto, (at the close of 
the session) I had written the Governor, rerpiestins,'; him to issue the deben- 
tures to the old directors, before the election of the new ones, that their 
obligations might be provided for, and they be relieved from their resjtonKi- 
bilities. I had made arrangements with the Bank, in a way that £20,000 
cash was secured on those debentures. I also in-ge(i Mr. Josejth, on the day 
of election. On the 10th of April the panic had occurred, owing to 
failuies in England, when no money couhl be obtainetl. The same procias- 
tination has prevented the piers at Port Colborne and Grand Biv(T, from 
being repaired, and also the lock at Dunnville. Everything remains in 
a state of suspense." . ' ' 

And after nmntioning the names of eleven professed engineers, and as 
many commissioners, who had examined and reported on the canal, since the 
beginning, as well as the annual reports of the Company, since 1824, he asks : 

" Whence the necessity of creating further delay, by employing more 
engineers and commissioners ] " 

Small as well as large interests were affected by procrastination. 

Cayuga, 10th May, 18*^7. 
" Dkar Sir :— • 

"I am retpiestcd by John Norton and J. J. Lymburner, to inform yor 
that the contractor for building a bridge over Norton's Creek, has commenced 
the work, 'and according to his agreement with the commissioners, will re- 
quire an advance of money very soon. Will you have the goodness there- 
fore, to order the money granted for building said bridge, to be forwanled 
to the care of Mr. St. John, Dunnville, that the work may not be delayed 
for want of funds. 

The inhabitants of this part of the country must feel under gi*eat ol)liga- 
tions to you, for enabling them to get britlges erected over Nor'„on s and 
Tunis' (Greeks. I am respectfullv. dear sir, 

" Your vcrv obedient servant, ROBERT HAYTI BRUCE." 

•< To W. H. Meukitt, Esq., M. P. P., St. Catharines." 



171 



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As a matter of vit..l necessity that their attention slioiiUl be bestowed 
on the subject, on the 25th of May he visited the city of New York, and 
induced tlie executore of the hito J. B. Yates to come witli him to St. Catha- 
ai'ines, where a better understaixding was obtained regarding their trust by 
these gentlemen, who after their jjcrsonal inspection of the aflairs (^f the 
estate in Canada, handed over its management entirely into the hands of 
Mr. Merritt and Mr. McDonnell, with instructions to close up the aflair 
immediately. 

However, on the 10th of Juae, an extra session of the Honse was 
held, in consequence of the monetary crisis which had reached and was 
impoverishing this counti'y. The Bank of Upper Canada experienced 
a heavy pressure, in the sliapo of " a run," and the stagnation of business, 
■md general depreciation of property, &c., was severely felt by all classes, 
iuul was a genuine premium to the stock of the conspirators, who were 
now rapidly bringing their scheme of Annexation to a crisis. 

The Govei'umont obtained a measure for raising the value of tho Eng- 
lish .shilling to 2-5 cts.; and they thus succeeded in preserving some of tlie 
currency in the country, without resorting to the su.spension of specie pay- 
ments. Mr. Merritt after the session again proceeded to the U . S.^seaboard. 

While in New York Mr. Merritt interested himself in iiaving a favor- 
able sample of our flour displayed in that market. Ho writes : 

" New York, 4th October, 1837. 
" Mr. J. Bowery, 

"Sir : — You will request Mr. Stevenson to consign to Richard Irvin, l*Jo. 
98 Front Street, New York, one hundred barrels of best superfine flour. It 
is intended to give the flour a character, and to give the two markets a fair 
te.st. From enquiry, I And the duty will be, per barrel, 871 cts. ; Freight, 
7-5 cts. ; from Oswego to New York C2c.; commLs.sion, 2-^c.=21 ; cartage, 
cooperage, storage and inspection, | ct. 6ic., ikc, 12.^=.^1.9G. Deduct 
(lifl't.rence in excliango 3 per ct. on price of bbl. ii?S. 50=250.; total, .'?1.71. 
Value with you ^0.79. If sohl on wharf here, theise 12^ cts. will be gained. 
The true diflerenco in this and the Montreal maiket at present, admitting 
tlie charges eijual, is, for duty, less 3 per cent, exchange, 87 J cts.; making 
precisely tive sliiliings York. Whenever the market here sh(>ws that dif- 
ference, it is our interest to send to this port. 

" Yours trulv, 

"W. HAMILTON MERRITT." 

The following letters shew what was the result of the trust, and per- 
ha[)s regarding tho personal security of .$200,000 alluded to : 

" To the Ca-shier of the Bank of Upper Canada. 

"Sir: — You will please deliver to William Hamilton Merritt, E.sq,, 
the debentures lodged in your hands, on aecou lit of the Hydraulic Conip;iny. 

" Dated at S«-. Catharines, September 13th, 1837. 

"W. K. FULLER, 

" Exfcutur anil TruMef of the EMate of 

" Jediah Criohton, "J. B. Yates, d«itis 

•A. McDoXNEL." 



172 

He having met with a patisfactory answer to liis mission, returned to 
Canada; and applying to Sir Francis Bond Head, received tlie following: 

" Govemvient I/oune, 

"Toronto, 23rd October, 1837. 

" Sir : — His Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor, has had nnder ccii- 
sideration your Memorial of the IDth October, inst., addressed to His Excel- 
lency in Council, and in substance, requesting, that the amount due to you hv 
the Welland Canal Company should be paid in debentures, at the rate for 
which they have been disposed of to othei-s; or, if required, at five percent. 
l)remium. 

" You state, as your reason for making this request, that you had come 
under engagements to furnish the debentures, -ind that you had incurred ex- 
pense and lo.ss of time in the negotiation of them. 

"His Excellency, in answer, desires me to say, that upon the jjassageof 
the Act of the Provincial Parliament, authorizing the issue of debentuies 
j)ayablo in England, His Exc^;llency was most anxious that the olject of tlit- 
Legislature, namely, the raising of money to carry on the public works, 
.should be carried into ell'ect, anil that with this sole view, dei)entures were 
sold at the highest rate that could be oljtained for them, in the Prcjvince, 
that is to say. at par, no higher amount having bei ii otlered. 

"Since this sale of debentures, information from England has shewn, that 
in Loudon the confidence in the credit c^f the Province had become sufficiently 
restored to give ri.se to an opinion that debentures could bo safely remitted 
and drawn against, immediately, with the expectation of a ready sale of the 
secni'ities, which opinion woulil not have been warranted by the previous 
intelligence, at to the state of the money market. 

" The imi)roved value of the debentures, not producing, as might have 
beeii expected, higher tenders within the Province, tlie Government was 
forced to consider whether it might not be more advantageous to dispose uf 
the securities in London, v s the Provincial demand did not seem .sufficient 
to ensure the sale of the debentures at their current value. 

"This course has been adopted with respect to the whole sum pi-^poseJ 
to be expended for the Welland Canal, during the current year. 

" His Excellency being dr.sirous that the debts of the canal should be im- 
mediately discharged, and that no further imj)ediment should be found in 
tlie way of that im])ortant work, desires me to say, that while on tlie one 
liaml the public faith would have jn-evented him from authorizing the pay- 
ment of a Provincial debt, in securities not equal to the legal currency of 
the Province — on the other, he does not feel that the public interest permits 
him to direct such payment in a medium more valuable. He has felt tluit 
simple payment in the currency in which the debt was contracted, was tlie 
only safe and just method of dischargiiig juiVdic engagements, and in fact, 
the only one which the law authorized. 

"His ExcelU^ncy regrets tliat a disappointment on the part of the Bank, 
in not being permitted to ^legdtiate del enturt's at par, has caused you in 
eonvcnience and ex])eiise ; but he cannot jiermit private engagements I'l 
(lisiippointments arising from them, to interfere with the unift)rm course 
wliii'li he has felt liimself bound to follow, namely, the discharge of the 
public liabilities in the currency which the Legislature of the Province Ims 
seen tit to .sanction, and in no other. 



173 

"Arningements have been made, as above stated, with the least pos.sible 
<lplay, to enable the Welland Canal Company to dischai7,'e the debt to voii : 
and His Excellency has every reason to believe that the amount is furth- 
coming, when you see fit to apply for it. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

"J. JOSEPH. 
"To William Hamilton Mkrritt, Esq., 
" St. Catharines." 

The following trial of slander against one of the officers of the Canal 
Company is from Charles Lindsay's Life of Mackenzie : — 

"The trial came oft' at Niagara, on the 12tli October, 1837, before Mr. 
Justice Macaulay and a special jury. In accoi'dance with his usual practice, 
in such cases, Mr. Mackenzie undertook his own defence ; his Solicitor Mr. 
Price, making occasional suggestions as to the examination of witnesses. 
Mr. R. E. I3urns and Mr. Holland Macdonald, of St. Catharines, were 
counsel for the Plaintiff", Beaton. 

"Mr. Miickeazie, before the suit \vas commenced, admitted in writing to 
the plaintiffs attorney the authorship of the alleged libel, and contident of 
tlie truth of his statements he had challenged much higher game than Boi'tou 
to make his allegations subject of judicial investigation. What JNIr. Mac- 
kenzie did say was : 'If Mr. Merritt and his friends choose to co a step 
farther, and place all my numbers before a jury of the country, and assert 
tliat they are imtrue and publislied from unjustifiable motives and foi- im- 
proper purposes, there also will I meet them ; the whole bar of Upper Canada 
Whig and Tory, is at their service: the Judges are not said to be prejudiced 
ill my favor, nor the Sheriff, and as to the proofs of authorship and publica- 
tion, I will deliver on demand coi)ies of the several numbers, each endorsed 
liy my own signature, to any person Mr. Merritt's attorney may name." 

The Judge allowed the whole of the papers to be brougnt into Court 
and thus permitted IMr. Mackenzie to accuse our subject before a Nia-'ara 
audience, to whom he had every reason to believe his accusations would not 
lie distiisteful. Mr. Merritt attended the trial, which terminated in a ver- 
dict in favor of his friend, Mr. Beeton. 

Tlie St. Catharines Journal of November 23rd, a fortnight before the 
(leiuonstration back of Toronto, says : 

" We understand that the young men in the neighbourhood of Lyon's 
Creek, and the Chippawa, under plea of opi)osing a draft, have su]ipIiod 
themselves with rides, and are frequently seen training." 

After a long lectuie, it concludes with a more i»ractical warning : 

" At any rate, we are quite satisfied that the first u.se of the.se rifles in 
opposing the necessary act of the Government, would elevdte their owners 
full as high in the eye of the public, as they now stand in tlieir own 
estimation." 

Extract frouj Mr. Merritt, junior's, journal : 

" We heard much of disaffection beginning to manifest itself atnong the 
people of Yonge Street, to which we gave little attention. It was none of 
our business ; why should we 1 When the last company of military left us, 
we wore at the college gate, seeing their departure, and gave Mackenzie (who 



174 

followed to see them cleai-) a very hearty liiizza. He very j>olitely bowe<l 
to us, iuul passed on. I felt at the time a sort of dread for the man, for 
•which 1 could not explain. 

"In December the rebellion broke upon us most tinexpectedly. The night 
before, we had heard of jtreparations being made, but considered the actual 
event a thing far off. The ringing of the alarm bells tliat awoke some 
of the bovH, was considered merely a lark of the jtorter. In tl»e morning, 
however, the full force of the reality came uj)on us most startling. We got 
freed from college by it, and perhaps were not very nnich grieved at the event. 

" How astonishingly it effectiul Mr. Thomas Kefsfer, who, though in bed 
from a flesh wound which I gave hii- in sp(»rt with a horse-whip vhe niglit 
before, and quite unable, as heaffiimed, to attend college, found his sinews 
80 strengthened, that lu. was up and well able to rui. as soon as any of us. 

"It was a curious sight to behold ! Guards of civilians hanging about the 
Oov'Bi'nment House ! The shops all closed ! People hurrying silently in all 
directions, some with arms, aiul some witliout. And there, at the Town 
Hull, where were assembled the cannon, with torches ready to be liglited, 
and the arms distributed. Melancholy exhibited in every countenance. 
All was new and Strang*^ ! Nothing was done that day, but various move- 
ments took place in the town. Bt^i-acading the streets, and tilling liouse.s 
with men. All was exciting. It was indei'd a change, agreeable from our 
dull business at college. This was something like life ! We had often read 
in history of rebellions — -war- — but had never experienced the feeling of the 
immediate presence of conflict ! Of a real state of things when human life 
is held at a very cheap rate. Next day, by going too near where the rebels 
were stationed, we were taken prisoners. AVliile in durance, I saw a .sentry 
aim his rifle at a ))erson who was running away, but the action seemed so 
commonplace, so business-like, so suiteil to the time and place, that we took 
little warning from it, but sleeked away ourselves in like manner. 

" On Tuesday, as college was entirely broken u]), we asked permission 
to go liome, and obtained it. Fortunately for us, a steamer left that night 
for Hamilton, in which we took })assage, namely, Jas. Ingersoll and Thomas 
Keefer. Arrived in the morning, and took stage immediately. ]Jut on ac- 
count of the badness of the roads, did not reach the termination of our jour- 
ney until three o'clock next morning.." 

Monday, 4th December, 1837. — McKenzie and his forces appeared in 
the vicinity of Toronto, which gave rise to the most alarming reports. 

Mrs. Merritt's journal says : — 

"Tuesday, 5th December. — In the morning we were talking of the troubles 
in Lower Canada, little dreaming of their being so near our own doors. In 
the afternoon heard that Toronto was taken. The report was, however, 
shortly afterwards contradicted. 

" Wednesday, Gth. — Mr.Merritt went up to J\)C " Short Hills," hearing 
of meetings thei-e. Saw their chairman Mr. Brady, from whom he learned 
they were all of one mind for reform, but wished it bro\ight about in a peace- 
able way — and that they had no intention of taking up arms. 

"Thursday, 7th.— J. P. went down in company with the troop, who in- 
tended going to Toi'onto. In the evening, the boys who were at U. C. 
College, returned by Hamilton, gave us the account of the rebels being driven 
back, with killed, and prisoners, and that the place was crowded with militia, 
and were more in need of provisions than men. 



175 

" On the same Rvening, some scouts made a reconnoisance to tlie "Short 
Hills," and brought in two j»risoners,whom thoy found armed. Notwithstand 
iiig the protestations given to Mr. Merritt formerly, tliat there were uo 
armed gathtrings intended, as it was considered impolitic.to i)roceed rigour - 
ously at present, tliey wei e relea-sed. 

" Friday, 8th. — Our cavahy, conipo.se(l of the young men of this village, 
have tliis instant returned from Niagara, galloping round and liurrahing at 
fcvory street corner. 

"On Mr. Meriitt's return, be had prepared to leave tlie ensuing day, 
with one hundred men, for Toronto — but on liearing that it was re- 
limed, and filled with the militia, he turned his attention to .sending supplies. 
There is a vessel, tlie " Jennie Woud," laden with beef, pork, and Hour, reaily 
to go from this place. 

•■ Sunday moi'uing. — The soldiers were aroused fi'om a sound sleej), by 
orders for every one to go to the lines— that there weie five liundred coming 
over. All got oft" by 7. The excitement is on the increase, and may end in 
more bloodshed. 

*' O ! what a Sunday we spent. The boys liave been busy in mahin'j 
cartridges and running bulleLs. What will another week bring forth fc;r 
our poor di.stressed countiy 1 " 

A lumber of the magistrat vs being gathered at Niagara, it was considered 
advisable to assemble, and use their magisterial authority for the preservation 
oi'the peace and safety of the commmity. Yet mo.st alarm prevailed in the coun- 
try. The training and assembling of armed bunds, similar to wh;it had occurred 
at Toronto, in the interior of the district, f.)ruicd adecpiate occ ision tor these 
alarms. Mr. Merritt was appointed chairman. And leaving tlie tDop to the 
guidance of his lieutenant, entere:\ heartily into his magisterial duties. Many 
persons were arrested by the patrollers and scouts ; these were at once dis- 
missed, after due examination, and no person was incarcerated for his radictd or 
even republican opinions. This policy gave Mr. Jlerritt great popularity among 
the crest-fallen end defeated radicals, especially when contrasted with the 
severity with which they were treated in other places, as Hamilton, London, and 
Toronto. 

The alarm had reached and aroused the furthest stiition, among his re- 
mote constituency, as the following spirited offer will testify : — 

"Cayuga, December 8tli, 1837. 
" William Hamilton Merritt, Esq., 

" Dear Sik :— 

" 1 have a meeting at Windecker's tavern, and have 55 volunteers ready 
to march at a moment's notice, whenever their services may bo re«piiretl at 
anyplace in the province. Please give me directions, and I will maivh im- 
mediately." Yours truly, 

"JOHN CROCKER." 

Mr. Merritt had taken an insurance agency from the St. Lawrence 
Marine Company. But a notice in a business letter fi'om the agent, contains 
an item for a su]>position that in this time of turmoil, it was not satisfactorily 
attended to: — 



^'^>^: 



176 

•'PiiEscoTT, 15th Dec. 1837. 

" Sir :— 

* * * * " As you have so much other business to attend to, 

I think it would bo well to ajuwint J. T. Bowery as a<,'ent in your place." 

" Yours truly 

"A. JONES, 

« Secretary." 

Two days after Mackenzie's effecting his escape, his old friend the Engi- 
neer, writes : 

" Lock rouT, Wednesday, 13th December, 1837. 
" William Hamilton Merritt, Esq., 
" Dkak Sik: — 

" T have just hoard this evening that William Lyon Mackenzie had de- 
livered himself last evening to a large auditMico, having obtained the 
theati-e for the purpose, in Buffalo. His object is evident, but I have not 
heard the result. Probably he endeavoured to .stir up their pure minds by 
wav of remembrance. There are always enough to li.sten on such occasions, 
whether it is a history of real evils, or the images that till a madman's l»min. 
News came also that ho was to a isit this place to-morrow, but I antici|)ate 
that he will nuiet with dlsaj)[)oiutment. I do not believe that there is a man 
so weak as to be intluenced to participate with him. The impression is 
general here, that they have taken up arms for their love of revolt, or to get 
the advance of events that may hai)pen. 

"I am, with much esteem, 

" Your oV)edient servant, 

"A. BARRETT." 

The attraction of Canada soil had drawn him to Navy Island, the occu- 
ifation of which by his Buffalo band was doubtless the matter cf importanc 
which "reciuired their utmost ingenuity to meet." 

"Chippawa, Saturday, IGth December, 1837. 
« William Hamilton Merritt, Esq., 
" Deau Sin : — 

" If you can come over to-night. Col. Cameron desires me to say he would 
be nuich obliged. Matters of importance have occurred, which require our 

utmost ingenuity to meet. 

" I am, yours truly, 

"WILLIAM KINOSMILL." 

Another extract from Mr. Merritt's journal of Sunday, 17th, says : — 
" H. received information to go to Chippawa. Mackenzie & Co. is on Navy 
Island Fhowing their presence by firing on a boat. He left at 4 o'clock in the 
momio'g. ThdTG was but 40, but they would have done what they could to 
prevent a landing. He rode the whole night, up and down, from Black Rock 
Ferry above, to Fort Erie, considering that the most available part. Drums 
and fifes were going all night opposite. J. P. with his company of Horse 
there in the afternoon, and returned next day." 

A communication from the Chief shows how our proceedings were looked 
on from the capitol : 



1 



I I 



"Toronto, 27th December, 18:]7. 
" W. IT. Mcnitt, Esq. 

'' My Dkar Sir : — My brother has been most laboriously and incessantly 
occupied here, in assistini^ the Commissioners in inve8tii;:itinL: the cases of 
pri;-oiiers. His extensive knowledge of the people of the very pirt of the country 
where this abominable insurrection was hatched, has enabled him to bj most 
useful to the Government on the one hand, and to the persons charged, and 
their unfortunate families, on the other. I believe there is a strong fooling of 
gratitude on the part u{' many of these poor people, for tiie trouble he has taken 
to see that they were not too harshly dealt with. It was so strongly urged upon 
him to visit that part of the country, and particularly l>y the inhabitants them- 
selves, that he could not decline. 1 expect liim back to-day. 

" As the Legislature meets to-morrow, 1 dare say you will not be absent 
long, if ftt all ; and I have therefore little encouragement to write at any length, 
as I hope so .soon to see you. 

" What is now taking place on our frontier has not surprised me half so 
much as the events in my own neighbourhood. From tlie moment it was made 
evident, as it has been in most Xii' the .States of the union, that the most terrible 
outrages against the laws are beyond the control of their (jrovernment ; when- 
ever large bodie.-? of people favor them — from that time the probability of such 
an occurrence as the present, has never been absent from my mind. It is clear 
that a natioii with only a standing army of 5,000 men, scattered over a country 
as large as Europe, is not to be depended on for preventing 20,000 of their 
people from rushing into tliis Province, to join in the work of confusion, wlion- 
cver they may fancy they sec an opening. 

" From the instant the slightest demonstration was made at Buffalo, I 
thought it of infinitely more consequence than anything that had yet hap- 
poncd. And if it had depended on me, I would have, with 50 of the Koy::l 
Artillery, and a regiment of the line, hastened to the spot with all possible ex- 
pedition, and have militia added to them as fust as they could be assembled. 

" If this should get ahead, we shall have serious times yot, and let what may 
come of this, unless the British Government act now like a great nation, and 
establish such defences on our frontier as will speak plainly that they mean to 
keep the country, we may make up our minds that we shall have no peace or 
security in Upper Canada. 

" I have a good deal to say to you on this subject, when we meet. It does 
astonish me, tliat no American officer of high standing, Scott, Worth, or Gaines, 
for instance, should liave been sent instantly to the frontier from Washington, 
to see that thfir laws wore enforced. I can hardly think but that the inter- 
position of such a power as of the Governor of the State, on the spot, would 
fail of being effoctual. Their militia should be called out, and stationed on 
the frontier, so as effectually to cut of!" communication with the island. By a 
prompt measure of this kind, the rebels would be caught in a trap, and must 
(surrender at discretion. Sooner or later our neighbours must give us serious 
trouble . The present affair I hope and believe, may yet be controlled before 
matters become much worse. 

" Yours sincerely, » 

"J. B. ROBINSON." 

Oar subject did not enter into any of the military proceedings of the times, 

but rather discountenanced them. From his previous experience of 

actual conflict, he always designated Mackenzie's attempted revolition and 



178 

llic invusinn of syniputhizers and brigands nftorwards, as the " Monkkv- 
Wah." Wc will close with noticing that Mr. Morritt spent the end of the year 
between home and Niagara, at the IJoard of MagiHtratos trying the prisoners; 
vr at least ac(juitting thcin, and as alludcfj to, and on the threatened frontier. 
The following odrrcRpondence will explain some of the circumstances altendin" 
the occupation of Navy Island, in which our subject was interested. 

(.'hristiuas. — H. and the boys on the lines. The iiexi day he and Lr. 
Boadlc scut on commission to Butfalo* 

'• Ik KKAi.o, 28th December, 18;J7. ' 
" Doctor .1. I'rcndergast. 

" iMv Dear Sir:— I came over yesterday to see your Marshal Mr. <jarrow, 
Avho was sent for the purpose of putting your luws into execution, and prevent 
individuals arming, and carrying on a war again>t us —but l.e acknowledged 
Very candidly his doubts whether tlie cisil autiiorilios can carry the law into 
execution. We will therefore have to deiiend on ourselves. We have a lar^c 
iiiree of militia, about IJ,()()0 men on the iiiu'. Kxptct two regiments of tioops, 
-4th and o2nd, up in a few days. The rebellion is put down most effectually 
in Upper and Lower C;inada, and we have liothing more to fear I'rom internal 
fctrife. •• Vuurs \"e., 

'• W. II. MEIIKITT." 

'• BrFi'ALo, 2itth December, 1837. 
" Hon. William Hamilton Merritt, M. JM*. 

'IIkad Quartkhs, Cmi'PAWA. 
"Sir: I'erniit me to iritroduce to your ac(iuaintanee, Judge McLean, 
(if tlii.« e'ty. who goes to Chippawu with a message to Colonel McNab, itr. 

•'1 am, viiur obedient servant. 

" IJ. W. KOUKllS." 

'• December 30th, 1837. 
•• To Merritt, Kykcrt, or any other Magistrate : 

•• 8ia : -The bearer of this informs me he has a Durham boat 70 ft. long. 
lit for .serviqe, but he has no means of getting her liere. Will you be plea.^ed to 
afford everv jissistar.ee in your power Inwards having her forward' d here with- 
out delay, as il is most material for Her Majesty's service that wo should have 
her. I ain, sir, your most (ibedient servant, 

"ANDKLW DREW. 

"Capt. Koyal Navy." 



Mrs. 3Iorritt's journal, as well as that of her son, is full of incidents 



during the outbreak. 



But wc forbear givi.ig further extracts. 



3 8 3 8. 



" St. Catharines, 9th January, 1838. 

" My Dear, Parents : — W. H. Merritt went to Toronto last week, a.s 
the Parliament is in session. He only stayed two days. Said he could 
he more useful in this quarter, at the present. He left yesterday for the 
frontier. ^- -i*^- 



17'J 

Mr. Merritt, wlio liad been atteiuHiig in liis jihu-e at the Paili.iiiioiit in 
Toronto, on liRaring that the ininihor of the Canadian refujjpos and «yn»pa- 
thizcrs from thn States wlio had takon, still held Navy Lsland, re- 
tuniod hotni\ and in Imh cajiacity an a ina<,'i.stratc, in conjunctiDn witii Col. 
McNab, wii(j coiniuaiuk'd tlio Militia, |»ruco(!d'd to anaii^'o nu^asurcs for tlio 
defence of tko frontier, and the fxpvdHion of the invaders. Our subject had 
been engaged in arrangenunits for a coniuiissary su]»iily, and providing 
boats for the contemplated atta<'k on the islaud. A nunilter of boats were 
collected, and many of them drawn over land by ox-teains, from the canal to 
the Niagr "a Kivei-. A council was held, in which he volunteered, with tho 
Militia, to attack the island, but the argument that this wuiihl cause a loss of 
valuable lives, and the fact of the I'nited States authorities juoving in tho 
matter, decided them not to niakt; an immediate assault. Demonstrations 
were set on foot by (AjI. Drew and his naval vohmteers, by sail- 
ing round the island, and isolating them from their base of supplies, and also 
destroying their steam ferry the " ('(irnlinr." This was considered enough 
for the present. The duty on the fi-ontier was severe, as a nuud)er of the 
Militia died through sickness, brought on Iiy ex])08ure, itc. Three men 
were killed by cannon shot from the island, 'ihe 2nd Cavalry Troop from 
St. Catharines did good service. A comj)any of lU'gulars aftei-wai-ds ar- 
riving, a number of the ^lilitia were relieved from duty, and allowed to 
roturn home. Thi'ough the enei'gy dis|ilaye<l en both sides of the Niagara 
frontier, the defence ceased by the middle ot .iunuary, and the invaders 
(k'cani[)ed, moving westward. 

A general movement of troops and change of high officials occurred. 
Lord Cossford left by the ^leppepediac ^load and Halifax. The 34th regi- 
ment started on the 17th January, for Quclur. The 71st Highlanders 
arrived in February. There werr, with tho reinforcements at this time, 
abo\it 10,000 Regulars. 

A letter to the Governor on the question of passing through the States 
from Mr. Merritt, elictits the following rej)ly. 

Febnary. 

" My Dear Sir : — Yon must lie well aware that the ])ubHc always know 
my plans before I know them myself, and this is really the case in the i; 
stance to which you kindly allude, for I have not yet had time to think whioi. 
way I had better return, and until I liear that Sir Ceorge Arthur has actu- 
ally arrived, 1 think it is useless to form any ])Ian which should of course V>e 
influenced by the existing circumstances, at the moment of my depai'ture. 

" If it shoidd be advisable to go the roiite you propose, I will immedi- 
ately communicate with you on the siibject, and in the meanwhile beg to 
thank you for your obliging note. Yours very faithfully, 

"F. B. HEAD." 

The author visited the Capital during this session, and stopped at Per- 
ry's boarding house. Being in the vicinity of the Parliament, it was occu- 



ISO 

))!<'(! \iy tho in ^;iil> Ts, of wlium li« rciiuMiiltcrs CoIdju'I nnrwcll, ('t>lvilli», 
Akkinaa ami Sludo. TIichu won* t)f all sliadfs of iii)litifs. A ^rvtit dcul of 
warinth was (ixprcssoil. Amtnij,' the iiumhIku-h, Col. Priuco was particiilarly 
(h^iiioiiHtiMtivc, liaviii;^ (Undarod ho would oxeoiito tho iK-xt invadcrK ofom- 
country, which throat Ik* carriod into execution at tho oud of tliis year. 

( )iir suhjoot, in tho moan tinio, attondiut^ to his dutios in tho Houso. At 
tho Olid of th" Hossion, Sir V. Jiond I load icturnod to England, and was 
Kuccoodod l>y Sir ({o()rgo Arthur, 

On tlio Ctth day of March th») Houso closed, passing eighty-two jjills, 
nearly half of which won) rojoctod iu tho Uit[i(M' House. 

Amongst the many who were arre.stod for particij)ation in tho lato roh'>l- 
lion, wore twt> men named Fiount ami Mattlu'ws. Thoy were sontenced to 
1)0 hung. Petitions for their reprieve* were got \ip, containing 10,0(10 namo.-s, 
moi'o or less; those from Jlaldimand and Niagara were hrouglit ovei- to 
Toronto by Mr. Merritt, and presented to the Governor — we insert one — 
but without ellect, a8 thoy were afterwards executed. 

7'n /lis Kxi'i'lhiiL'jj, Sir (I'ciinji: Arthur, LiiuitciKdit Ctorerjwr of (h<' /'m- 
riiice v/" Cjipcr CatKula, Mafor (jiucnU cumin tivHinj J/is Mnjiffti/s 
ftirces (herein, Knight Coininander 0/ (he L'oj/(if Uanovarinn ilidphi: 
OrJrr. 
" May it ploa.se Your Excellency — 

•• We tho undorsi;;ne.d Sliorill", jNIagistratos, Eo])rescntatives, and Free- 
holders of tho District, of Niagara, beg leave to congratulate your Kxcelloii- 
cy on assuming the govornmeut of this province, at the same time tlioy deep- 
ly sympathize with ycmr Exc:'llency on being called u])on, at so early a peri- 
od, to excerciso tho lloyal porogative, on those who have justly foi'foited 
their lives, by committing the most aggravating oU'euHe recognized bv our 
law. 

'• The Almighty, in his intinite mercy, was ])leascd to preserve the ('api- 
tal of this ProvMice, and permit his Majesty's subjects promptly to supprcs-i 
tho la.st rebellion with tiie loss of but one individual. 

"That mercy which is consi(h*rod the most noble attribute of the lloyal 
porogative, is now vested iu you and if your Excellency entertain the opin- 
ion, that it can be exorcised with eipial eii'ect for tho public good, by bani.^li- 
ing beyond the seas, those individuals who arc or msiy be condemned to 
death, your Excellency may fool assured, this act of clemency and mercy, 
■will meet the most cordial apju'obation of tho undersigned, who most sin- 
cerely pray your Excellency may, by the wisdom of your councils and 
government, be enabled to contribute to the prosperity of this rising 
Province. 

"Thomas Merritt, Ex-Sheriff, &J. P., 
- "Alkxaxdeu Hamilton, Sheriff N. D., 

"W. Hamilton Merritt, M. P. P. & J. P., 
" Geo. Pvvkert, M. P. P. & J. P., 

" H. MiTTLEBERGER, J. P., 

" E. Adams, J. P., 

" Richard Woodruff, M. P. P., 

" David Thokuurn, M. P. P. 



isi 

Tho following Inttor ^iv(>s n xHiiipHo of f»'«ling iu the Fiower Provincps, 
after the oxcitonioiit in tho Unitoil SiatcH, by the (U'structiou of tlie Hteuuiei- 
'• CaroUne." 

" fti>i'crunifnt Ifouni', 

" KllKI>Klll(KTuN', Ftil). 2lHt, 18;J8. 
•■'8ik:— 

"(Jroat (fVfiits have occurri'd in tho Cainula^ siiicM I have l)t>('ii tlio re- 
<i|tit'iit of a Iftti-r tVoiu you. This Proviuoo is hiijul to n titan. Jt is ho ob- 
vioimly contrary to tlio interests of Knglund and the Unitetl Statt^s, to go to 
WAV with t'acli otlifc-r, tliat I cannot bring myself to entertain th(^ sliglitost 
a]»|iiclu;iision on tiiat head. You's, ii:c. J. JlAilVEY." 

hui'ing this period of military excitement, there was more done in the 
Honse than passing laws for treasonabh^ ottendcrs. l$ut so entirely 
diiinged was the legislation of tin; day, that it was considered politic l)y 
the Military Engineer and President of the Welhind (.'anal, that no more 
outlay should b(« made in that direction, but sliould, we suppose, be devoted 
to fortifying and military defences, at least for more immediate necessity. 

It was late in the season boforn tho rej)ort of tho Directors, for tht* jtre- 
cee.ling year, was imljlished. A letter of sympathy from liis friend. 
Chief Justice Jones, at the gloomy prospect of the fate of tho stoppage of 
our juihlic works, enclosed the following : 

"ToKOXTO, nth March, 1838. 
" To the Honounible Mr. C'hicf Justice Jones: 
"My Dkau Jfi)(;E : — 
'• You will have seen by the Report of the Welland Canal Commissioners, 
Imw it is made to appear that an average loss (if £14, (Mil) per annum has 
beui sustained by the Province, since the period when, according to the 
ll"l>ort of the Directors at that time, the canal was completed. In this 
sum, no account is taken of the interest paid for loans madt^ by the public, 
to take np their amount of stock ; neither is a:'.y mention made of the fact 
that about £20,OoO of inU-rest (or more) is due to the Jiritish (Jovernment. 

" It is ([\iit" crtaiii that within tht; next seven years, the greater ])art 
of tlie present locks will require to be renewed, at what cost, the Re[)ort of 
M'.'ssrs. Baird and Killaly will shew. It will, iij fact, be at a charge of not 
l.•^s than £20 0,000. The harbours of Port Dalhousie and Port Coll)ornB 
will also require a very considerable outlay, whether the project of Me.ssrs. 
P) lird and Killaly be exeoited or not ; but that i)roject would be of such 
manifest advantage to the Province, even without a canal, that I cannot but 
hope that it will be carr'.ed into effect. 

" Assuming that .£280,000 will be sufHcient to put the canal in a state 
of perfection, equal to any that can be attained by a similar work, there 
must always be a large item of expenditure in the shape of repairs — towing 
paths, swing-bridges, gates, and uredging, to wit. 

" TTp to the present period, the receipts of all kinds have average<l very 
little more than £.'3,000 per annum, the greater part of which is derive<l from 
toll on goods from Amej'ica to American ports. 

" If at any future peric<l, the trade should so increase as to make the 
construction of a canal on the American side a profitable sjjeculatiou, such 



182 

canal will lio fortbwitli iiiailo. It is, ir. fact, already in contoniplation, and 
tlie Aniorican ftovoi-innont lias pxpondod larf^e sums in procuring preli/ninaiy 
re])Orts and ostiinates for such an undertaking. 

"Nearly all the trade from Am*»rica to American ports, would pass 
tliro>\gli tlieir canal, when constructed, rather than oui-.s. We might count 
on the jirst threi^ or four weeks of S')ring. and no more. But the heaviest 
shipiuents of goods upward.s, is in the Autumn. 

"I can see no reason, therefore, An- assuming that wo are going, for any 
lengch, or even for a short ti'ue, to enjoy tlu? hfiiefit of the incivased trade 
which may ultimately l)e carcieid on l)etween the two lakes. In the mean 
time, it is certain, that if we com]>lete tlio canal, wo shall sin;: not 
£1 4, ()()(), as 1 said in mv report, l»nt £in, ()(»() at least, per annum, toj;ether 
with the interest on nil the money already expemled. P'or what period we 
muHt sustain such loss, it i.s, ofcour.se, impossible to foresee ; I think, pro- 
bably, aboit sev(>n years, when the canal may. if comphited, begin to pay 
its expenses, and some |)ortion of the interest on the Provincial loans. 
These are not very flattering prosi)ect3, 'tis true, but I do not wi."?!! to induce 
any bidief in others, in whieh 1 do not myself participate. If the Province 
can allord to go on with this work with such littlti hop(; of advantage there- 
from, in a pecuniary jioint of view, I should be the last person in it to say or 
do aught whiidi could have the effect of deterring our financial rulers ; because 
I believe that, until we become a ))ortion of the Republic (which I hope 
not to see) this line of water communication i.s essential to the defence of 
our Niagara fi-ontier. I have no intention of refusing my services, so long 
as th"y may bo rcipiinvl, in carryiui,' out the views of the Legi.slatiu-e, nor 
am I ini!lin<id to adunt that because I liavs a clear conception of the ruin- 
ous exp;mdituro to be incurnnl, I .should fail to use my best endeavours to 
keep that expenditure at a minnium. 

"Believe me, verv trulv voms, 

" J.MACAULAY. 

"Remakks ok the Rei'out ok thk DiHKCToiis or TJiK Wklland Canal Co. 

i-oR 1837. 
"This Rep.ort states, that there is a great increase of tonnage, although 
the tolls have fallen .short of the tvi'o preceding yctars. Names £1,(100 in 
th(( single ai'ticle of nunvhandist;, and admits that but for the comnu'rcial 
ditlicultics, tlu! tolls would have exceeded any preceding year. It then 
states the average annual ex])enditure at ^21,039. 8. 'J. And the average 
anutunt of tolls at ,£•), !)!)!). 0. (i. Shewing an average iinnual loss of £1 1,0 40. 
2. 3 ; in confirmation of which, it is a.s.serted that tiie canal can be maintained 
only at this saci-ifice, and concludes by recommending the abandoi>ment of 
the work. The most superficial ob.server will at onco perceive the erroneous 
data in which tho.se ccuiclusions have bet^n formed. 1st. — The annual ex- 
penditure of a work which was not finished, is assumed at £21,03!). When 
after the completion, repairs will not cost much ovor the interest on the 
principal of the same jtei'iod last year. 2nd. — The average; amount of tolls 
ifec, is assunvcil at £l,i)'J'J. 0. 0. for five years )>ast. This data suji])oses the 
work must reced(! f »r uve years to coma. T think in 1832 the tolls were 
not over £300. I have no doubt, if the work goes on, that in fire years 
from thi.s time, the toll will be £r)0,000, in jjlace of £4,U'J9. 6. (). The aban- 
doniinmt would bo as justifiable on public grounds, as Huicide in a ])rivate 
individual, is the opinion of W, JI. MKKRITT.' 



M 



183 4 

"St. Cathauinks, Maivii IS, l.H3>S. 

' To Dll. J. PuKNOEnCAST. 

''Mv l),:\n Siu : J{aviii:i; returnod from tlio L'^gislaturo :ib.):it .i \\\h>Ic 
since, I wil' give you a Ijiicfsiu'voy of our [)roociHliu;j;s. My last Icttt-r was 
(lireeued from IViflalo, ainl as an attack was tlun, ami sometimt^ aftoiwanl. 
daily expi'ctHil on Navy Tslanil, F did not j^'o to Toi'onto until t!:t' l.")tli oi' 
January. I was then apiMjinted (,'hairman of tlu.' Finanuti Ctimmilttt'e. and 
was closely oui^ai^od diiriu;^ the wintjr. Some useful nuMsurcs \vci • pass- 
ed, and a numhci- of resolutions on the union of the Provinr^'s, wliich I 
drew up, and a m.ijority of the it )us^^ was for sendin.; m;^ as a ( "ninuiission- 
erto '"ai^jland, but I declined. We want but one Legislature in thes.j Pro- 
vinces, and I ti'ust that obji'Ct will bo effected. 

" \V(! have no apprehension of a war with the Uuiteil States, and the 
rabble who have given us s> much troubh' has been gener.illy disjterseil. 
Great ehani(es will uinjuoUidiably take place here, and I trust for our bi-n- 
efit. I intend applying myself to milling. Will have six I'un of stone 
vcadv this week. 

"W. If. M.' 

" T have lost a vessel, containing 4,000 bushf-ls of wheat, five niih^s 
from the (traiid lliver. The men came oil", and when the wind changt'd, 
sho drifted out int I the la'v". This wheat at a value of lis per bushel, 
would liavt^ amouiit''d to over j$<),0ltO." 

Tlieell'oct of our reljelliou in Kngland, was t'; ' iiringing in liy L >i-d fins- 
sell, and the passage of a bill through thelnipeii.d Parliament, ! > a.iiiul the 
con.stitution of Lower Canada for six yeai's, and appointing (Hlth i>f,lauu- 
ary,) Karl Durham ( Jovernor < ieneral and High ConimissiomM'. 

Wi' have given biog)';t|jhii'S of ( iovt'rnoi's of long residence in the coun- 
try, but this one, whoso residence on the soil of Upper Canada was but a 
few days, had the greatest inHuence, perhaps, of any who ever visited u;-. 
Of gi-eat connection being the son-in-law of Earl (!ray, he had attained a high 
station of influence, but unfortunately for his usefulness in this monarch- 
ical colony, his pnlities were low. 

Lord Durham had been an ultra reformer, from the time he took his 
seat in the House of (Vnnmons, in the 22ud year of his age, as Mr. liambton. 
He is now iii his IGth year. 

The Tini'S roui irks, "If his L>rdshiii giv.vs satisfa.!ti.)n, he must plfa-^" 
Joseph Hume and Mr. Crote, "Com multis alias "' of that description, as well 
as Lord Melbouiiie and John Ivussell, who are (iepemU'nt on Josejth and 
(!rot(i, for their existence as ministers." 

Tt was rather an unfortunate state of affairs that great ])olitical changes 
will be nuide through this influence, but the colonist of native origin has the 
satisfaction of kn cvin^', if there be any satisfa.-tiou iii the fact, that be they 
whig or tory, it is all the same to him. 

28th May. — Lord Durham arrived at Quebec, and issued his proclama- 
tion, calling on the co-operation of the lionest and conscientious reformers, 
for amelioration of defective iuititutions, and says : — 



* 184 

"They will receive from mo that assistauco and oncourageniPiit that 
their patriotiKni has a right to conimaiid." 

Ill answer to this, Mr. jNIerritt. considering tliat his attention to the 
iiifasun.'S for thu sotthunciit i)f the country was tho most iinjiortant sr.hjt'ct 
tu whicli ho couhi at present devotti his time, visited the ( Joveruor at Quel'cc, 
and left with him the resnlts uf his experience in a memorial, a copy of which 
is before us. This correspondence waa renewed later in the season, and as 
it throws liglit on the circumstancs of Mr. Merritt's having adopted l^ord 
I^urham's report, we see that much accords with, if it is not incorpo- 
rated in lli.i Iiordshi|>'s Jieport, whicli was puMislied in f^ondou the 
ensuing January. We give an extract of tlie first one. 

" Albion Hotel, Quehec, May oO, 1838. 
" CiiAS. Eri.LKii, Secretary. ' > ^ > 

"Sir : — Chance having brought me to this j)laco on the arrival of His 
Excellency, tho Earl of Durham, Gov. Gen., and having read with great 
satisfaction his proclamation of yesterday, I availed myself of the invitation 
therein contained, and felt it my duty to call the attention of His Excellen- 
cy to one subject — and one only — which embraces the vital interest and fu- 
ture welfare of these provinces, viz : The union of T^^pper and Lower Canada. 
'•The State of New York is governed by one united Legislature, with a 
population of two millions of people, and lays siile by side with the Pro- 
vinces of Tpper j'.nd Lower Canada, which have three-quarters of a million 
inhabitants, and is governed by two distinct Legislatures. It atlbrds a most 
striking illustration of the practical etiects of the two systems. 

" A niiiti'd Lnji.^ldtun' has completed the most gigantic improv(>ments 
uniting Lakes Erie and Chaniplain, both being tributaries of the St. Law- 
lence, with tlie Hudson, and diverted the greater part of the trade of the 
Western country from its natural channel, and the seajiorts of ^lontreal 
and (.Quebec, to New York. While a dirii/cd Lnji.-^Uttiire possessing every 
natural ad> antage, with the most magnlficient water communication in tho 
world, has not, up to the present moment, finished any one imi»rovemeut. 

" Tliose general assertions, the truth of which can be prov(>d to a demon- 
stration, is quite suthcient to elicit impiiry, %vhich is the only object in 
presenting th(>m. The only efl'ectual remedy is a union, all other measures 
ai-e of .>-ei'ondary consideration. Establish one common interest and our 
exertion will 1m) directed to one conunon object. Upper Canadians, Lower 
Canadians, English, Irish, and foreigners, will unite in improving our situ- 
ation, and making a pro.s[)erous country of Canada, it will allay all 
jiarty feeling and restore a proper spirit. Lower Canadians may at first 
oiipose the mciisure. The citizens of New York opposed the commencement 
of the Erie Canal, but when they perceived their inteiest promoted by the 
measure, they i-eadily came into the spirit of it, and so with the Canadians. 

" By adopting this measure, His Plxcellency may truly say, he has laid 
the fouiulation of a sy.stem of governnunt which will determine, whethei' 
the arii\al of your Excellency on our shores is to promote our future 
jiiospeiity foralltimeto come, or confirm our remaining many years in 
the same state of apathy in which you will find us. 

"His ExcKLLiCNcv, LoRi) Dlhham. " I have th.e honor to be 
" Most respectfully, your Exctdleney'.s obed't, 

" W. HAMILTON MEEKITT, M. P. P." 



185 

The political and finaDciul troubles had put a stop to the work on the new 
Kpiticopal Church. The conirrogatinn had been forced to occupy the Academy 
since the destruction of the old one. This Spring a irrcat deal of correspon Jcuee 
between "Old Hundred" aid " Amicus, " a friend to the completion of the 
('liurch and "Flagranj" r(.suli"d in an action at the Kahttr Uieeting, tliat pro- 
duced tiie UiUch needed improviincut. 

The sea.son of navigation liaviiig oix-ned, he visited Clevcdiind, on hi.s 
own private business. Whilst in the .States, he tocdi every o])poitunity of 
giving information in refen^nce to the canal. On bis return, be went to 
(.Quebec and met tlio new Governor-General, tlie Earl of Durbam. 

On returning from Quebec, ho again started for C'levoland. On resting 
at Cbijipawa, lie was informed by his obi friend (\)\. C'nmmings, that a r«- 
jiort had arrived of a numlx-r of mini having crossed the river, and were 
secreted in tbo woods; and the following deposition wa.s made : 

'• XlAOAHA DiSTKKT. | 
TO WIT. / 

"Tliomas Darling, of Grantham, appeared befon> me, W. Hamilton Mer- 
ritt, one of Her Majesty's .Justices of tlm Peace in and for the afore.said Dis- 
trict, and dei)OseH, that on Saturday evening, the Kith of June, he heard 
John l^urger, of Pelbam say that 10(10 men had crttssed tberivei-, undoubt- 
edly they were radicals, and wcie soiiiewbci'e eonoealed, pl.-ue not described. 
Also heard Jacob Kussell say on Sunday the 17th inst., that be bad infur- 
luation irum some person fi-om tlie United States, (name unknown) that a 
luunber were secr»!ted in the Short Hills, and ilejionent i(elieves tl>ei'e are 
men secreted in that neighborhood ; but in (jrder to more clearly ascri'tain 
tiu' fact, will go and obtain furtboi- infoi-mation, and either bring the parties 
ailbrding the same before me oi- .s(nne otJjer of His Majesty's Justices of the 
Peace, on this day Monday, or give such information as he may have obtain- 
ed ami the facts u'ore clearly asc<'rtaiiied. 

".Monday morning, 1(» o'clock, lOtb June, l!^3H. 

W. H. MEKlllTT, J. P." 

As already nurnerou.s similar stories, to the injury tf trade, had 
been circidated, lie disbelieved it, but ottered bis seivices to fuitber 
iiivfsrigate the matter. The offer not being encouraged, he ]>roceeded on 
bis way to Clevcdand. F'ortunatelj, it iras .w, as the ruir.otir. in a few days^ 
was found to be true. A body of men being in possession of the " Sboit 
Hills," in a strong j)()sition. However, a detachment of " Lancers " were 
sent from the Falls, and were attacketl l)y this party on tb(^ ns Jiniug of the 
I'./'th of June. On the news reacliing St. Catharines, the " Lancers " weio 
re-inforcrd by tlu; Sedentary Troop of Cavali-y, who, together, succeeded in 
routing the invaders from their ramp, and making a mimlier of prisoners. 
The wounded were recovered, and taken to the Fulls. A general scouring 
of the section then took place, when nearly all the disatfecteil found in arms 
were arrested, and taken to Niagara Moreau, tlie lender of the party, was 
hung. 



1 so 



Mr. Killiily liMil lict 11 n)>|»<)iii<(>il resilient (Mi^^iiH'cr, ir»tli May. AHsislcd 
\>y Mr. HohiiKsoii .tiiil d'corj^c ('oM-ndv, lu' iiiM|)<M't«Ml tlic (Irniid Kivt-r, fin 
the |uir|)osi> of the ( !<« (>;iniieiit huyiii;,' oiil llie ('nin|miiy. lie re|i()rlc<| o;i 
it l(>(h Nitveiiilier. Aller (he umikI iiimiiiii eleclion of (iireedirs of (lie 
(Jraiiil Hivj'r Nnviufilinn ('oinp.'inv, Mr. Merritt hiul heeii ii|i|ioiii(e(| |ii(".i 
<hM\t tli<' preeediiiLj year; fiiid in his report to (he (loverinent, a;<r«'ed to tlie 
s,il(>, !)ii Ix'half iif (heoonipiiiy, iihout the miiiie time. 

<<'e(). l'r(>sfi)(( WHS appointed Hecretiiry of the r.'m;il, Ist Noveiiiher, and 
Me now .sei> iiis naiiu* to (hensnal ii Ivin'tisements (or (he ekM-lion of the stock 
holders. Il( niitintKvl in the (Mii|doyin(>nt of thi> ({overnnieni, on the cudiI. 
us seerotary and payinastiM-. (ill hi.s deiHvi.si-, twelve years aftiMwards. 

<*ne iinndred and (liirty ves,'-i(ds pas.sed (hroni,di the <'ana.l in on(> nionlli. 

In .Inly. \'].\r\ |)iii'hain ariivi>d in (his section, and visited the Falls, 
wh(>i(> a series of i,'rand reviews, fetes. A-c.. w<M(> hold. 

Me ri'in.iiiied t'oii!- days, dniinj; which was ladd a sham ii;,'ht hetvvi'cii 
the .'Uth llii,'!d,tndeis and tlu> olhei- corps on this frontier, in their National 
oostnnie; all which, added to (ho natiiral attractions, cansed an nnnsnal xi\\]\ 
onn;j;of Tnited States visitors. 

Lord Dariiain returned liy the river and lake. In tlaj fall dispatches 
:irnv»>d di.sannnllint; some of his Lordship's acts, cansint; him to resign. 

(K'tolit'i- 1 I til. The people of St. Catharines presented an luldress to 
l.v>rd l>nrhani on hisr(>iurn to Kn!;land. 

iMr. Merritt took occassion of stMidiuLj liy tV'lonel (Mark, the special 
agent appointed (o carry it. 

'riie followiiii.'^ io Karl l>',irhani, from our suhjcct. shows (hat a seii'^e 
of tlit> iniptntiince iMimected with the mission of His Lordsliip. not the en- 
cvmragement pcrson.-illy received, induced a renewal of t ho correspondence. 

7^1 t/it /iKf'it llo,ioin\ihl<\ JoJiu (iiorijr, K.i"/ nf Jhir/idni, (I'ltr'niorC'iitnil 
oj British Sorth Aiiwriai, ^(^^'., i(c., lOc. 
•• ^"^h I,oRn:~ St. Catiiauinks, Oct. 5. 

" It was not my intention to have addressed you on the future <{ov(>rn- 
nient «>f these colonies, fnnn a conviction that (he plan recommended hy the 
ojiposition, to the pr*'seut ministry in Kiij,'land. and which .ippears to lu; ad- 
hered to by your K.vcelleucy, does not alTord the best uunuis of obtaining 
the in(\>rmati(Mi you dt>sire. 

" The clause propo.sed by Lord John Russell, composing a council to he 
selected from the body of the people, to advise on the formation of a consti- 
tution for thoir fut\ne <jrovprnment. would have ])rovod at least satisfaetory. 
as their por-sonal interest in p\ cry measure proposed wouhl have secured tho 
coutidoiice of their constituents, ami if they erred, their motives would have 
becji duly appreciated. 

" Hv the amendment proposinl by Sir Robert Peel, that clause wa.s un- 
happily ex})un«i;pd. and a system of goveruiuant is now to be jiroposed hy 
your Excellencv. aided bv such information as vou mav glaau from otlicial 
^ources, imparted by indivi<luals vvlio, with the best po.ssible intentions, have 



187 

iKit IiikI an o|t|)(»(l.iinity of riiin^^lin^ with tlip poojilt^, hfiiiiii),' tlipiimintiiiioiiiB, 
iiikI iic<|tiiriii;^' Hiidi |iiit(ticiil iiiCoriiiiUioii iih to tMiiiltNi tlii'iii to form a <'oi ii-it 
jiiil^'mciil, on iiiiuiy imMiMmrH wliicli ancot oiii iiiti'ionli. 

" N'oiir Kxccllciicy rriiiy now and tlmn icniivo a Mtra;^<^lin^ (vinnniinica- 
tion from individiialH, jfivin;^ an o|iinioii on Honn^ alistrai-t Hulfjrrt wliicli tli'-y 
niii,dit vnry, cliiiniM-, or nlmiidon on tlii" first Honiid olijucti.ni Itcini^ otl'cri-d ; 
liut a full, f\tH\ iind optni diHciisMion of all tli<^ ivri,'nnn'ntH, y;A» anij run, on 
cacii Hoparato Hidijcct, from |ira(;ti('al nn-n, who poHwmH th» (*)nrid<ni«! of a 
grciit majority of tlm inimhitantM, yonr Mxcfdh-ncy cainiot |iosh<>hh. 

" It is rninoinod that (ho mnv cotiHtitntion which yonr Kxn-lhinry )<ro- 
poscH to rocoinnicnd f<»i' onr fntnrr' j,'ovcriitiifnt, will (in imhh yonr Kxc<'JI<!n<'y 
slionid roniain, of wliicli I never mitrrtained a doiilit,) lie proinnlf^atcd ii<-Kt 
iiioiilh , and as yon iiHsiimo (ho ontiro rcMpoiiMihility of the frieiimirr-, it \-i 
iiatnral yon shonlil adhere (o yonr lirwt iiiipresHions ; niid tliiH cons-ideration, 
and this alone, inilMi'i'i nut to aildress your lordshi]! on the unhject ; and al- 
llMint(li (he nieaiis whieh have liei-n inhtpted to olitain the iie<'eHsary inroriiin- 
tioii on so im|ioi(aiit a (pie.'.tioii are at variance with my iiid;,'ineiit, Iain not 
inHensildo of the anxiety vonr l']\crl|eiiey must fer| in atloptin;,' sncli aHycleiii 
as will insure the peaco and prosperity of these provinces, |inrticiihirly as 
your Ciiture fame must he mat"iially allectiMl hy tie- wisdom oftlie nieasiiroH 
you may recoiiiiiii'iid. i thorernro take it fur j,'rante(l, lliou;,di not a;^'reeing 
to every aiiii'iidiiKMit, that a f ( w su;,';,'estions from an individual whose only 
oliject is an ardc^il desire to promote tlu^ fiitnnj welfaro of his fullow-uountry- 
incn, may not he consich-red intrusive. 

"'I'lie iii'st act. of yonr I'lxcellenrv, was issuing,' a pro'lamjition, nmh-r date 
of May last, in which y<»n state yon wish for inloi-mation. This expresHion 
inspired a (h-j^ree of confKhiiK^e thronLjhont tlie (Panadas, umon^ all classes, 
for all I'eid the ncct ssit.y of this <'liani,'e. 

" The f^'rand (h^sideratnm is to maktHhis chaii;^'e ell'ectual when made, 
and to (his sniiject the attention of yonr Mxceilenry is partteulurly diifcteil. 

" Kraniin;,' a constitntion for the fntur*^ ^oviM-nment of a oonntry situa- 
ted as these I'rovinees are, may he cnnsi<|ered u most ditlienlt ami eom]ilex 
measure. I?nt when we have the governments of ( Jieat I>ritain, the I'niled 
Statey, and tin* ihitish Nortli American I'rovinec^s for onr ;j;uir|e, it ean 
only HMpiire a tlioroU},di and c(a-re<'t knowled;^'e of the practical operation of 
their diderent systems, to fraiin" a ci.nst itutioii wliicli will place those I'ro- 
\incesinthe situation which your Kxeellericy has promised. 

" We find, after tliP experience of centuries, Kiii,dand, Scotland, [i-e!and. 
and their d(^pend«ncies, with nearly thirty millions of jioople, eoiiipj-isin;( 
tlilVerent races- with a diversity of creed, and ap|ian)"tly separate interests, 
concentrated and comliined for the mutual mid ;.,'einual interest of all, in 
iiiiii viiiti'ii IjfijislHtiiri'.. 'J'he uid)oun<led prosperity and othar advantat,'es 
those three kinjjjdotns poswHs over most other nations, is l)y the host autlM»rity 
entirely attrihuted to their forming our, uiKlioiilni state, or this conceutra- 
liun of power. 

" Wo find the United States, from the oircnnistanee of their haring been 
()ri<,'inally Provinces, similar in « i\K<^vf^\ to the prosent l5ritiKh Provinces, 
formed into a numhar of state l.^^jislatnres, who aL{ain appoint one jjoneral 
Congress for the ^rovernment of the wlade. The local hijnndarifts of those 
spates wore established with as minch wisdom as human ingenuity at the 
time posses.sod. Still, jealousies and contradictions are daily developing in 



iss 



iimiiy |>i\rlM oCtliMl <'\lot\nivo utiinn, ami ulllioii^li tliriiKi-tu'rnl pri)M|inity is 
ji'linilli'il, lli«« ri'siilt ol" )1h> cvpi'ii'iiciit, iifd"!' ii (Iimihk |Mi|iiiIii(iim, invumoH 
tMinMi'-licil. is liy iii> iiiouhh certain. \V«> liiiil in UiiliMli Nmtli Aiiicricn. 
K('|inr;i(<' l<'i<iNla(ui("« <«HlaMi;ilu>il. t>acli one liavii>^ a ilircit niiiiiiiiinii-atii'ti 
Milli a liraiwli of (lir irnTi'iinnoiil in |i'iis.;liniil. at tlic licail nf wliii'li lui iinli 
xuliial is (V'liii tiino In (itac a|i|ioiii(i«il, ralltMi a i'd/onin/ Sim turij, wlio, in 
fai'f. is (lt(» jjfitvoinnii'ul hCimhIi dl" ihimo ProriiiccH, us all iiinlnii'tionH In miii 
(ioviMUitiH (wliiili an» ooiisiddird law) (>iiiunat(< rniiii liini. 

" Tlic t'onsrihition was dcsitjncil (o assininlalo as near as |ira('(icalili> to 
t'lttt <'t(li(' nnilln'i('<aiti(rv (i»<'tMisis( ofdnci'Hi'itaiatnand iliHiintI, InantlioH, 
oaoli possi'ssini; Hicir dih> weij^lil,. 

" A( (Ih' |«Mind wlii'n il was (Irsi I'aiiicd into o|HTaliiii\, (1m< I'roviiiro 



was iliinlv s(>ttli' 



mW 



|irr.s(iMs |tiisst'ssint^ s\ilhi'n>nl inii'iii 



Hi 



ileili 



^('Uv'o rosidi'd in ToiiMilo, and (lie most. Huitahlo |u>rH(Mis wcn< (Ihmi 
to r.in\iti>s»> lli(' f'xc.Mitnc and l(\!,'islalivi« cnnncils iVnni llial (own. 



»mc<' 



hai 



>i'niid, vi'i'v srrrat clianiri's liavo (akt>n iiImi'c in (lio sitnatinn 



o\ 



th- r 



itiviiu'(>. anil many ''cndcniiMi ol intcilfrcncc and vvci.idil it'snn" m 



t '.u> dilVcriMit dislrii'Is. «lio jmsscss tlicii- ilnc Iti.-al wcitjlit, in llii'ir localities 
" l'iu> <nics(ion ot a res|M>nsilile c\ecnli\e y;overiiinent !ias nf lad' lieeu 
fally disonsscil. and llie administration of Sir |''iancis Hoinl Head. altliou',rIi 
it sncoi>cde<l for a time, lias placed tlic Colonial Olliee in a most nni,'iacioiis 
liulit. iiinl wliat must iillimatolv oeciipv tlie most iiiipo|nilar |osilion, liv <!<> 
oiariii'; fliev wcii> not rcsjumsiidc* to the people, and coiild not l»e made \<< 
i." so in a Colonial Covornmcnt, 

" Auil as it' to prove inconteslaMv lotliis i'rovinee, lliat tli<>y conld ex 



»MMSI' 



tl-.at p 



lower to llie iniiiiy ot' its inlialiilanls, lli(< Mxcciil ive pivortinieiit 
iindcr flic same administration, c.aitraiv lo liie expressi-d opinion of the in- 
habitaiits. fi-o;u all ipiarlers. and ontiarv to the exiirossed opinion of tlicir 
veprcs(Mita'l\ cs in tlie llonse of Assend'ly, ]a>rsisled in cariyiiii; into eH'ct 
a measure, with' regard to .iprrif ti.ii/iih'iifs, wliii'li almost aiiiii 



Idlati 



\hi 



trad 



e, commerce 



llld 



credit ot till' coniitrv. 



•' Tiiis pr.actieal test ereatid tlie most ijeneial discontent, and had the 
otVect of producing more ad\ oc.vtes a .jaiiist the Colonial piiwers, than all 
th;> aixiiniiNits e\er hefore a<l\ I'leed. , 

•• The l-cuislativc Coiun'ii do not possess thi> eetilidcncc of the cotintry. 
Thire ;ire luiii<nir;d>le pxce)>tioll^, hut 1 spcnk oi' them as one hrimeli of iI.l' 
C^vcnuhent. Mjiny hehl i>t1ices, Miid apjicnr to possess a separate and distiiut 
interest from the hody ot' the peejile. llcau'c, the Ciovenior, the Kxiaitivc 
I'oiincil, and the l.ejrislatiTe (\)uiu'il are ooiisiilercd as one branch, in contra 
d'.stiiiotion to thp Hcmicc of Ci>iiini<M!s. 

'•If a durahle siiuiTnnunt is formed for the-e eolonies. it must lie inore 
popular in its oonstitulion : and to work well, oaeli of the three Itranehe.s niuj^t 



posse,<s Its s parate and uu.--" wc!:rht. 



Tl 



lis e:\n 



only he effected hy the Kxeciitivo 



i'ounoil Willi; eoinpe<ted of iinlividu:ils from dilTcrent parts of tlie I'rovinco. 
wht» may he called upon to iidviseon any imiiortaiit (jiustioii whieli relates to 
the ironeral oiMnnuinity, whciiorer the tiovornor thinks proper. 

" The other branch fhculd bo fscloeted from individuals from dilVercnt 
{itstricts. at least one from etich. the remainder pro rain with their population, 
and should not hold any office under the I'rovinei.d lioTemmcnt. 

■• I can see no i:ond reason why the same prinoiplos which predominate in 
the Goyornuiont of Great Ikitaii, if iutroJueod hero, would not produce the 



1H9 

PHiiKM ITicIf* ; nnd .'iltli<pii;^li I <ln Hot ii|i|ii<ivr (ifflin olcotivo priiK^iplo liciii;; in 
lrii(in('i'<l ill till' ^l'|^i^lalivt• ('(iiincil, (ijiiidoiir (•(UiifM'lH mi! to Miiy tliat, n LTd/it 
iiDijiiiity "'' III"' |H<n|il(' vviiiilil ('(•(•! Iictlcr HiliHlii'd if at. IciHt a jiart, waH ciiotril 
t'liim ill"' ilill'tTi'iil iliMlrictH, 

" It in ri'|Hii led tliat ydiir lOxcrllciicy lia'* l.il;<'ti an '•TtciiHivcari'l cui |iicln n 
sivc vi«!\v (if "Mir ( JuvciiiMMiil, luiiiH'ly a iini'irMirall tlicrnlinr IJritiHJi I'niviiKw. 
Tliix iiic'iKiit'iMM ituikin;^' tluMiKiMr, faviiural)!)' iiiiprrKHiiin, tin; ihod- il. va diM- 
cUHM'd, aiMJ iryiiir l']x('rll''iicy caiMinly I'llrct, tliia one iilijrct, imivcrH.d sat- 
iNl'acliiai would iit unci', and (Hi Uk; (inl.«t't, hi; Mlaiii|iid on tin; iiicaHiirr, 'I'lic 
im|)iiilaiirc nl' wliicli, n-iulrrH it uocoHHHnry that itn vn\'.<'Xn Hhouhl ho wll <;)ii- 
sidcird, in all th<'ir hfarin(:;H. 

"A uiiinn 111' I '|iprr ami linwi'i' (/V'mi.hI.i would lie (wiually witinCarfory fo 
||ii> inlialiilaiil'4 of this I'loviurr, |inividi'<| ii |irrpiiui|i'raui;<! win i^ivfii to tlm 
inliahilaiitM id' Hrilish oiiiiin. 'I'ft tliiH proji'cf, ohji-otioiiH an; nr^iul hy thi' in 
lialiilantHid' liowcr Caiiad I, lln'jiistirc (d' which it Ik iisidrsH to at pn-Hirit di-< 



cuss. 



" Till' Mirasurc propoHi'd hy your Kxiinllmfy, to unit(! all tli'! IVovinricfl, r<! - 

iiiovrs lliosc oliji clioMs. Till' only (|nrslioti Cordi^^iMisHion tln'ii is - win ihir flu; 

i'ruviiici's rould lir hcst ;_'ov:rni'd hy a united l<(';i;islitur", as in I'litiin, or 

I'roviiicial or Statu Ic^islatun', with a finrral (lovnriiiniiiut or Coii;^r<;Hn, hh in 

the I'nitrd Stati's. 

" 'i'ln' nnitcxatinii III' il si'ii port, III I 'ppcr ( 'iiiimiIh in ailinil trd to ln' ah- 

Holiili'lv iKM'csKiii'y l>y all pai'lifH, and I'Vfn l,liii< (•liaii;.^' alone wonhl l.f- nnt- 

isfartory t<» the inhalutanlH of I'ppi r Canada. 

"On llio piiii'lical opi'iation or llnul n:Hnlt of this rpicKtion, will t!if 

liihiri'lanio ol" yoiir I'lxi'i'lli'iii'y i'<'Ht. 'I'o insnro it Ixiyond the poHHiiiility of 

il'ir.iil or cavil, llic fiilowin;; sinipli' nii'llii! i is most ri'Sp«!('tfnlly nuliniitlfcj. 
" In caso y<»ui' i'lM'idh'ni'y roiiMiil'TH fnithrr dolay ininc('i'f;Haiv', a/id in- 

trndH rcfuiniiicndiii;,' iiroiisliliition at onri', for Iho appidv.il of tin; Iniporial 
I'arlia.nicnt, di'ridi' on ono lii'/^'inlaturo for- ihi^ whoh', and a repiial of our 

local li"4i';hilnri's, and ndii'vc uh from the iinncccs.saiy expense of niaintain- 

iiif^ useless and powerlcus ( {oveininiMits ; (thoeivil list of thi.s I'l'ovince uloii", 

cxceediii},' £.5(1,000 per aiiiiiini.) 

" \i>\\v I'Acellciicy will lie asHured tlif? inlialiitantn are firmly attaehed 
tot!iM i'lritisli cons! it ut ion, as now eHtalilished, and desire no elian;,'f'. Tli'; 
unliiased opinion of the |)eop|e can lie ascf-rtained oidy hy those wIk) u.sho- 

(■i!ili' willi them, to whom they freidy communicate: and if I am to takri iho 
opinion of those with whom I havc! conversed, in two or three dist.riets, 1 
do not 111 lieve that there is one out of one hundred satisfied with thr; pre.s- 
ciit (lovernment of this Province, an now a<lmini;;tei-ed. 

" And i'iivtli(M', they never will ho satisfied until those Provinces licootnf! 
oiHially as desirable a, placo of residence as the; L'nited States. 'J'his is in 
the power of yom- i'lxcellency to effect, and oven make it inons .so, }>y con- 
centrating the powor in one liC^^islature, without which it will he in vain 
to make further exptn'imonts in the land-;^rantin^' ihipaitmcnt, to encoiira;(<) 
extensive emigration. Tho attempt has heen mad(! a^^aiii and a;,'ain I Homo 
thirty thousand souls came out for two or three years in .succession, tliifM*- 
fourlhs of which, at least, and many think nine-tonths, found their way to 
the l'nited States. And whatever ommigrat ion may hereafter he made, we 
will continue to he only a mere thoroughfare to that country." 



l!)0 

Afffr piTln^MM r^xi'ollom'v hii ni'i'«niiU of flip »'«»inini>n«liil n<lv»lll^.n^0N of 
tlnM)i>u;Mn»»vii(K M»n)i<H, from ll\i»ii' linviiv; Monpin In itinl iiii|ii'itvi<in<iiil.f4 cnii 
)\is(in,v; (liiMt) witl\ (lio inti'i i«<i . (In' Ixlloi (oi inut.ili'H IImin 

" WliiU N huiuiliiUiuj; •"piM'Im'lo I'oi iiM iliion tliiK mIiiU> hI' IImiij^m |iii'nfiil, 
wlioM «'i<\>tn»Ht«'tl «i(li (li«« |ui>m>iil Mitunliiiii ol l'|i|ini itml l<<iw«i|' ( 'iiiiiiiln, 
wIum-*' wo iM't' rww |nit>li(' xmmK in iiIm>>iuu'i<. |iiili|h- • i cilil niiiiiliil.tlcil, 
jin>|>i'rtv vi»lu«l(>sM, 1(11(1 iim only ImpK iff^l m..; on tli«i cnutMiipliiloil cliiiii^n 
III o»ir p«i>MOi\t hvhUiu. 

" '|'li<» oiuiso wlii>'l\ l\!>n oNtt'iiNiMv |iro(Iii.'»>(l lliin i'oh(immI '\h (|iim In |||,' 
\\\\ i>.ion ol" I'own iu om I .I'lMMliihin'M nl I |i|n-i miil I.owim ( 'mimlu. 
" I liior lilt' lioiKMii lo l>i<. niy I. (till, 
" N o\ir iuohI oIumIkmiI Ncrxniil, 

•WILLIAM IIAMII.ION MKinillT 
"St v'lUlumiH"., lh<ln>t ol' NinjvMiu, 

" I poi 1 « 'iinoiiii. " 

Tliis WrtN N\toornlf»l l»v oilui eoinmmiu'iilionN. j-lviiij; Mm Kx»'«<IIrii(v ilir 
\s*M>hN of liiN long I'vi-^incs^ iiihl I I'lviMlaliM" cvjicriiMicc. wliii-li Iiiim< nlrnidv 
Ixvnslimxn (o soiuo rvU'iit \\\ ('His woiK. hikI will lio fnr(ln-r oxlultilcil 
tlwrins; (1\<' swlininistrulions llinl wfic Mppoiii!.>>I t.i.'uriv owl l.onl I )iiiliiinrs 
Moliov. Wo 0!U\not lm( rr.^^Mnnon.l Sn l^'inuris lli'iiil's iiiuiii(i\i> in iiiinwrr 
with tUo iv|>orl. ;» < liioN liodi lonn ini|nirl;inl iloiiiiiK'nlN in our ("iiiuiilinn 
liistvM'v. ;\n>l ;uv l>.>l!i tolx' l"> in.l in tin' I .oi',iNlnli\ t< |(roct>o(lin_i;N nf IH.'lK. 

Siv .John ('oll'ovnr onloicil into tl\e inlininisluilioii of llic < oivcriiiiioiil. 

A j>uvlann<!ion >.*( unmosly Ikmii-^ issnod on lli«» 'J?inl of Octnhor, \\y 
Sir <;oovg«» Aitlniv. was sn.-crrilo.l liy s\ <',ill of (li(> niilitin, 

1 .oiil l^nrhinn'K oonciliiUoiv s|v>i>,lii»« |i:i<l no clfoi'l ii|ion Ow ifvulnl ion 
ists. «ho still ortiJ'irti on llirir I'lols t\> (ooihl n /tt/iii!i/ii' /inf, n( ii soir 
ilist;\iu^ on tlu« othor si«lo of tl\r liTor, 

NovtMulvr ITtli. An atlnok on Tirsootl. follownl hj one iit Windsor. 
\(\\l\ Nonio iloswitovv Inirnings ulouj; iIk> frniiti«»r, woroull llu' llo^tilo or niili- 
t«vv ilomonstn^tions »»»vomplisli»vl. 

'I'luMivuMos thrttworo r<M\t'v\(>vl in tlio tiill, iiiv (lins notii'cd l>y onr siili- 
itvt in i« lottor to Pi- rivn«lt»ruast ; 

"St. ('.•.tuauinks. Not. IStli. IS.'^S. 

• My Pkak K.VVHKK :- ♦ * * >f; Yon will havo li«'artl, lirforo this 
»v,"*ohos you. Trtvious aivoinit.'j of tlu» rtMiow.il of lioNlilitios, hotli in l^pprr and 
l.owor <.\»iirtda. 'V\u truth is, tln> oountry is in u bad stato. inasinnoli a.s all 
business is iu a iiiannor suspiMidod, and I foar it may nMnain so for a year 
ov t*o. but T\o pei"sou nrod boundiM'rtny a|>j>roli«»iision .hr to the r»'siilt. 'I'lit^ 
outlnvak in l.owor I'auada is ■witliout ooiiorrt, nioiioy, luatorial or mou. In 
Upjvr O.-iiiada an att^iok lias boon uiadeat .lobnstown. bolow Prrsoott, by 
two or th'.V6 hunditsl nion, who havr boon all killod or tnkrn. and wo have 
no ro«s\Mi to npprohoiui uny danjjor from th« attaok« of any hrijjands of this 
doscviptiou : my only fo.ir is thoy will ombioil tlio nations in a war, if so. it 
will bo a givat evil, and the pros{>ority of both countrios will bo not only 
greatly imj>e<U\l. but most seriously injurod. 



I '.'I 



" IlmiiHr «iiVN w « III III- iiiMii|r,| \,y MDiiiK iiivi>iii>|i> \,,i\ i'mm (lie hi. 

1.11(11(0 mIiiii.', t.lmt iiiiiiH'ruiiM mi-i-liiiKM iii»< lii>M, imhI h |iii|/(. f,„,•,^ coiiimi/ 
tVniii ^1il■lli^llll Id liKwiHttiii, lull I (III iiul. Iiclidvft il,. 

" Hclii'Vii iiii«, iiHi'dinniilcIv v<'iii'< 

" vy. n \Mii;ioN MKii'idrr- 

I »««ii'iiiIpM /XllilMii el' lli« iImv, nlif'ililijr lliii (|r|i|PMwif.li rif ) |,«. |,i|,„,^ 
WMti "liuwii ill III" ilnni'HNff of l.lit |iii|iiilnliiiti i,f lliiriiillon, |||i.|, iiiii,il,f„i|,j, 
.\,'.\\'?. TJ.ti tlrnciiMr, ^ 

'I'liK milling liiiMiiimm, in whirl r iiiilii(.c|, wuh liii^jfly iiil,iii<Ml,o(| |ihi| 

iiiiw lnMiimoiHi <'\h«'iiiii viMiriil i in | mi Inn I Iniiin'li nf oiii niiiniif'iiil,iii"H, ilml l\(r 
Mi'i I ill. Iiii'l iiitoinlv I Hliililiiiliiil II |iin|ll,il.|(. IiimI" ill Ni'w Vr)il<, wlicn., |,y 
ill.- riii|.i«i im it V of \\m (Iiitir, il. ^iiiin-il n .ri.,,.! tiiiiniv 'I'liin y,.„|. |,,. (|r.ri.|(.,| 
ii|ii.ii III ill I'lii lli«r r<<l«>n<liii;^' liin Iriulc, iiii'l I'liii.niinxii.iii'il Mr. < 'ovcnli y, jii-i 
oli'iU. wli iWMi Kiiin;;l..i Mii;iliiinl. I.o vinil, lii»i I'l inniln, |,it (,ir.,|- /'.hk iJiunHiinil 
Iimiii'Im I'liiHiiln in lln' l<iv(<r|Miiil inuikrl, wlii. Ii n.ili' wmt Miion ••irr-cl,iv|, i,ui\ 
Hlii|ini(<nlH ninliniKMJ willi viiiyin;^ Mntu^i-HH, ii|. h. liiw iliM|i.iiiMl nl' Iii»i mhIIh. 

'I'lic linlli I II"' '•iiitiil, iliii III!; lilt" iiiiiiiiiHi l.iiMi?icHH, Hlifiwnl nii in«-i'«<fiHf 

..riii'iulv lillv |i.>i '••'III., nllli'pii;;li Miirmiliiy. I,li.' I'l «••;) |,.||i' .,| 1 1,.. |;,„,i,| |,„,|_ 
III liiH liinl ro|M»il. I'lir llm ynn- |H:I7, mUi'inl 11..' i<l>iiii>|iiniiii nl ..r i|i,. r.„ini| 
liy I, ho ( J.ivoriimcnl., mm In* <liil tiul, l.hink il, wniilij r\^,\- |(|.,vc h j.,iyin^' ii, 
\rst,iu('nl.. llM iini'i'fviii llii'< vmi' wn't im (l-iiilil, i^rfnil.ly (liic Id t.ii«« cici IJuiih 
ininh' liy M V. MiNi'ill, wiio, wIhImI dm liii pri vnh' Iiiihiip«,.. ji, (,|,(. Sfdi,,..,^ vv.i-i 
fdliliniliillv li'lii.n ill'.; niijcrli.niH h>, ;ilii| ml v ii>'iil,ili;^' |,|.(« ".M|i('ii(||»it,v ol' fiii; 
n.iilo. When III. luiiii" II'", an Im-I'dih, nM'ilcii liiiii'.i-ir with l!i.' (iiiiJioi itic^ 
ill powrr, II) liiivn us iniirli lciii''ii<y nln^w n an |i'i(i!;il.|c to tl.c i.iiMifioiM mii 
fjiiiijcij mm wliii wi-rn imw Iji"^' i" •'!"" |'ii.H<>iiH, fui pui Licijciljon in tho 
iiivaMloiiM; mill wo liiivn ifiistdii lo lirliiivo l.liaf, liiKrlliiilH in this «liic«!ti*jii 
was nol. wliiilly iiii!ui.'c('sr<riil, an iiiiiiir«inii'i mwH ciin liuti fy ; iiinl liaiiiKJinn'i.t, 
WHS, ill iiioHt CiiHim, Hiilmlitiil.cil Cni- ••n|ii(.iil |>niiiMliin»Mil.. Sdium caw-M nf hiui 
ishiiiont, (if Liiwor ( "lUiniliiiiiH U> l?Miiiiiihi., iinL with tln^ <li;«i|-).ioviil of {\i<- 
(Viloiiial S(>cit'>t.iiiy in liondon ; ami liiii«l Dm IiamconKidMin;,' hiw jiiiiH<li<;ti«<ii 
iiil(>rrni(!il with, inHi^^mMJ, luid n-tiinm<l Ut Kii;,'lami. 

A HBcnit Hocirly waw at wmk in tho lliiitcul HtatfH, and Mr. M<Mritt aiirl 
his rricmlHuii tlm otiicr sido, dcHiring jHMicd, caiiwd IIh-mi to pay too litth; 
KlUMitioii to llirir macliiiiationH, as tho Col lowing,' (^(jnoHi.oiidonf'f) will hIiov. 

" (I'ovcrnmeid JIouhi; 'Jitli I)of;ofnl)or, 1838, 

" .My DnAK Siu : 

" 1 havo to iioknowlodgo tho loooipt of your two favourn, date«l .'JOtli ult., 
anil loth iiint., wliidi camo to;,'otlifr on I 1th in.Htadt ; hut siiifo that tiim*, 
tli« piosHuro of tliity has Ixmmi suoli, that I havo found it inijuacticublfe to 
iuiswor tlieiii at an i-ailior date than tho proHcnt. 



for 
O 



ir»»(:i i;ilT7iii (vufni '•ki.-^-- -. — -.— ^ 

'■ I roLTot to obnorvo, that you havo takon tli»! rf-rnaikH rontainod in my 
rmor lottor, in a Honso foifUf,Mi to that w hich was intended to ho conv!;yo(i. 
will" to tho incrodulity which prevailed with many good and zealouH hub- 



jocts, respocting tho ext«nt and danger of the conspiracy whicli had been 



Ill -J 

foniii'il witliiii llii' Ami>riciiii l»niiiiliirv, Mini wliirli tlicv tli<l not In sitiid' to 
avow tli*< i-nll \i|ioii tlic coitiilrv, w liicli I lie l.iriiti'iiiiiit ( iovri-imi' coiisiiliicd 
it iii'foshiirv ti> iiiiiko, was not cvi'iywlinn ic'crivt il in tln» spirit wliicli tlic 
iictdiil crisis (lid most iMTliiiiily ii'i|uiii>. Tlu' injiirv llmwilonc w. s iiiuiiiCtKl, 
mill lu\(l il not lii'cii for tln< iiii rv'ftii' foiirsc imumii'iI liy tin* ' lovciimirnt, 
ti»it{lit Imvo lici'K irrcimralili'. I tlH'rclor do nut. tliiiik yon cuiild liiivf unv 
^'roiiiid oi" i"( iii|ilainl , or of otl'ciifc, if in iiddiCNsiiiL; you as a ■.'•'iillcinuii nl' 
a|>|>ro\('d loyalty and zeal, I poiiitt'd out llic evil conMMHirnci ,s ol' laisinj; 
donltts ill tlio pulilic mind rrs|icctiii;,' iIh- iicrcssity of tin* foinsc a(ln|pt((l iiv 
tlu> (!o\('niiinMil. I''t'\v now rcniain in tin- ronntry wjio do not admit lliai 
tlii» iiitrllit;<Mici> olitaincd liy tin' < Jovcrnincnt i'('s|H<('lin!^' tlic plots oC tlic A iin' 
rican liri;,'aiids ami Canadian I'oriim'i'H, was Niii^jiilai ly corn'i't. and irrcivi'd 
at so «"arly ii |ii'riod as to cnaldf His l'l\i«llcncy to tinstiatc llic plans i;<i<i 
for suipiisinu; sonu" impoiiant pianls on tlic IViiiiticr. It is to iic liopi'd 
\(ai also liavo ln't'ii conviiu'cd on this |ioinl liy iccnl octui ifnccs. 

" I haxf laid I'd'orc Sin (Iiumuji: Auihi u li-.th ycnr Idlers, iis wcU as 
till' eoniiuunieations you rt'ecivfd iVoni Mr. SlaiK wcallirr of t 'Icseland, and 
Mr. ( "ro.Uer ot" C>sw(>i,'(). Tliosi" two gentlemen proiialdy liold a plaic anioiii,' 
the more rt'sp(>ctal>Ie ot .\merieaii eili/i'iis, mid inordinary times and rir- 
eumstanees, 1 should not hesitate with y<ai to iitlaeh implicit credit to tlieir 
divlaratioiis. At present, their statements are to he received with exti'i'nie 
caution and jealously. N'othini,' need lie added (o my foinier ohservalioiiH 
upon the letter of Mr. Starkweather. ( M' Mr. Crocker's, it need only lie re- 
marked, that it eoulains declarations which no one e.in credit, who knows 
tliat the plots ot" the iiinti/iinj vifijaboiuh were sent to no iiihaliilant ot' 
(tswet;o. Mr. Crocker rtiay perhaps not he a sworn hunter, l>ut the teiiour 
ot' his letter shews that ho is not uurriendly to tlieii' |>rojects. 

•' All n-llectinu men will, like yourself, eoncui- with His lOxcelleucy in 
(leprociitiui: a war, although all may not he eipially sauLruine in tlu-ir hopes 
that the existini; violent spirit within the American lines may ever lie siih- 
ilned without a national collision. 

"His Kxcelleucv desires nu> to say. that he considers the views you 
have exiucssed respcctiiii; the draftiii'j; of militia men for actual .ser\ ice, de- 
serve great nttentiim. You can have no idea of the troulde which has hcen 
occasioned to Sir (Icor^e Artluir liy the lUH'cssity of a sudden call iipcn t\u' 
militia, t'or tV.e prott>ction of the Province, and tlie dilticulty of wieldiin,' a 
force hitherto so much overlooked as respects organization and discipline. 

" 1 am now to ii'tuni you the two letters you Mere so i;nod a.s lo send 
for ]icrus,il ; altliouiili you intimate that these are the last you will thus ti'aiis- 
mit, you will doubtless continue to conimunii-ate any that you may considei' 
useful to the CJovernment. 

" 1 lun, 

" AIv dear sir, 

*' Your's very truly, 

" J. MACAULAY." 

To show that this caution Avas not witliout its evils, tlirough the 

reports of the Governor's agents, the high rewards given to informers, 

caused a great many among the oldest and most respectable families to be 

viewed with suspicion. Amorg tliese were Col. Nellis and our subject. 

The year closed with the prospect of anything but a speedy settling down 



( 



1 D.'J 

to |)iNirnfiil piirNiiits. 'I'lir iiiilitiii wnv. Hiill iiinlcr (iniiH. Tli«» |if()|(lM wf>r« 
<»('ttiiiji UMoil to tlif iiiilitiiiv |>it»|VMMii)ii, mill (In- ;4l(uiiiiiH tniilitiini of tlmir 
iincKHtoiH prowoHH iM tin* last war' mailc tin-in, cMiicciiilly the youii^, not 
avofHo to tli<M-oiilli(-l. Tin* |>a|M'rH on Itotli h'u\vh inltli'd tu tln> lluiin*, hy 
oxa^j^cratcd icportH of hordcr ontiuf^nH. 

To hhow thn injiii-y tloin- tin- I'loviini' l>y ilivtirtinx tin* fur tnnlc tliroiij{li 
irinlHon'H I'.ay tin* last <|iiiii't('r of a (^t-iitiiiy, tln-ir valin- wan tliirt y»iar 
L'-';"»(>,(H»(), nil that \v<<i« it'i|iiiitM| in tliis coiintiy li;nl tu In- it«piir(;liaHti<l 
froni tin) coiiipaiiy'H stoio.s in London. 



18 3 9. 



'i'ln* Holiday 'h were spiMit witli lln' family at Iikiim- ; diiiini,' at his 
fatln-i's on ( 'hristnniH, a social party was In-ld at lii.s plaic Ni-w Voar'H day. 

On tin' .".1(1 In- l<*ft for llaMiniainl, on a vi.sit to Ids lonstitin-ntH, and 
aiTanj^in;,' tin- Inisinnss of tin- (Jraml iJivi-i- Navi;,'ation Co. 'I'lnMf liad licttn 
no n*|ioit pMlili.sln'd for fonr yrars. Tin* principln ohjiict of lln* luffscnt 
visit was tin* ;,'('tlin!.,' out of astatcnn-nt foi- tin' next liCj^islatnii*. Tlif report 
was dated lUtli January, at Seneca. It was tin* wann- as tin- Weliand 
Canid, vi/: Tliattho (Joveimnent should, in failure of iis.siHtanci*, a.ssuin(! 
(i\vin'ishi|i of the whoh* work. 

Mrs. Mei-ritt f^ives sonn* items peculiar to this tinn' of troulile ami anx- 
iety, in a l(*tter to her nmther, Mrs. I* , dated the Dili of January. 

" At New ^'eal■'s a lar^'C family party dined here, the hoys wei'e all 
life and animation. New Vttar's Kvi*, K — and ('. A wei'o Iierc*, tlmy Hat 
\\\> till 2 o'clock, and took their cannon out to the street, and tired it twice, 
it was heard at tin* fiirtla!!' (siid of the villa;,'e. Most p(*|-.sons knew what it 
in(*ant, thouLjh sonio were frij.,ditened. Mrs. R — told ine tliatshe thought 
it was a signal that tin* rebels had conn*. 

"II. got lK)nio from hi.s tour to Kraiitfoi'd and Haldimaiid on Wediios- 
day evening. l\o says times through the country appear gloomy and di.s- 
couraging. Sonn* of the farm(;i's .say they don't intend to do mudi ; if the 
fences fall down they Avill put them up, Imt will not split a rail to make 
new ones. There is no emigration into the country, ami still .some going 
out. H. says the country is luinisd foi- years to come. We don't see it 
in tliis (puvrter or any where on the lines, for in truth it's jtretty well Hlleil 
up with troo))S, but in the hack townsliips, from Oxford to ^lahlen, and 
on tlie Hi vor 8t. Lawrence. Some talk pretty strong of war with the United 
States. H. is often drawing comparisons of the ditl'erence of prosperity and 
improvement of the two countries. 

"Governor Arthur hasjust gone to Maiden to see the state of the country. 
H, says he hope.s the roads will all break up, so he may ju.st.see what roads 
we have. 



194 

On hiH rotuin from hiH military iiiNpoction, extending uh fur us Miild«'n> 
Sir (Jeorgo Arthur i»iihh('<1 Ht. ("athnriiiOH on thn 22inl to tlio Niagara 
frontier, ri'turuiii;^ tilt! L'.'Jnl. Shortly after, ^fr. ISIoiritt addressed a series 
of lettois at the (tovernor's re(|nest, to him, on tho finaneial all'airs of tlie 
Province. They an^ similar Ut those a<ldress(Ml to "the High Commissinner, 
Lord Durham, and consiHt of seven, dated from the 10th to the IHth, which 
may ho summaricMl as follows : 

" >ray it please your Kxeellency, with a hope yotir Excellency may 
hav«' an oppoitunity of ilevotirij,' a small portion of your time to the civil 
alhiirs of the Province, which yo\ir callinj^ of the Legislatiire Hcems to indi 
cato, and in compliance with yonr personal rc<pu'st, 1 will devote a portien 
of my time diiiinL; the present week, in pointinj,' out the prominent causes 
which have produced the present unprecedented depression, and in fUf:},'est- 
ing foi- your consideration, such measures as are likely to aflbrd the most 
sjioedy ndirf. 

Ist. I.S a rcHume of his financhil attts in which In; had been engaj,'ed as 
member. 2nd. Atlvocatin;^ public credit for })ublic works. 3rd. Pritish 
trade on the St. l/iwrence rivaled liy Mississi])pi. tth and Hth. Adnutting 
our f,nain free of duty to (Jreat Hritian. (ith and Tth. Foi- union, and for the 
ri<,dit to initiate acts of trade. C'losinf(. " My remai-kH are not intended to 
lit! either personal or political, they are directed against onr ]tresent system, 
under which the wisdom of Solomon conld not nuiko this a pros])erous 
country. ^ W. H. M." 

A f(!W days before leavin;( for the Lei^islature, jNfr. INIerritt, as was his 
custom, wrote thnvn the subjects most necessary for attention during the 
session. This memorandum is dated 'JOth February. The giving notice of 
empiirii.,- into the state of the Province, was a chief subject for Legislation. 

On the 27th of February, Parliament opentMl, and in tho Governor's 
speech, I'cference, in a congratulatory manner, was made on the suppi-ession 
of the rebellion ; and hopes expressed that trade wouhl again resume its 
ordinary cour.se as heretofore, in peace and harmony. 

Notice was given on the first day, (2 Uh,) for a committee of the House, 
on the state of the-Province, for Wednesday 28th ; and Mr. Merritt with Mi'. 
Robinson were api)ointed a committee to draft an address to iiis Excellency^ 
respecting the resignation of the Earl of Durham. 

March 2nd. For Committee on Finance ho got the"most ballots. On 
the 14th the Finance Committee reported, and 2U0^copies ordered. 

March 23rd. Three resolutions on the state of the Province were 
brought in by the committee — 11 to 35, for a union, and sending agents to 
England. The amendment to dissolve the House was lost by 11 to 33. It 
is melancholy to i-ecord that an amendment not to di.senfranchise the French 
Canadians of their national rights was defeated by a large'majority. 

On the 24tli it was re.solved that the Engli.sh shouldbe the language in 
the united Legislature. 

The 14th resolution was that the Si^eaker, Sir A. McNab and Mr. Merritt, 
member for Haldimand, be commissioned to proceed to* England to repre- 



105 

sent tlio r«'Koliit*oiis, and advooato tliciii Wfore th«* Tiiiperial Pailiatnont. 
1(»00 copies of tli(! llcjiort wtMo printcil. Tliis rt'purt was sent to tlio LfgiH- 
lativo (y'ounril for co-operation. 

To add to tlic complications, th« acts of sympathizers in tlie States taking 
part with our malcontents in ('anada, was copied in the eastern section. 
On the 24th of Janiuiry, a military expedition from AFainc had marched 
into and taken possession of the disputed territory hetween MainiMind New 
Brunswick. This loused the war discu.ssion ouoe more ; l»ut the evil wuH 
averted by forbearance, and surrondoring the greater part of the territory in 
disjtute. 

An address had been passed in the litter jMirt of ^rarcli, reriecting on the 
conduct of the aggresion of the State authorities of Maine, and was as follows: 

"That this House would be alike wanting in giatitude and patriotism, 
were we to hesitate U) assure the gallant New Hrunswiirker's that, however, 
we should regret a war with the United Stat(!s, wo nevertheless pledge 
ourselv(!S that should such a result procee<l from th(^ conduct of Maine on 
this occasion, that we will HUp|)ort, maintain and deftnid the rights, itc, 
with our energies and our lives, and to infoiin Sir John Harvev thereof. 

"A. McNAB, Sl'KAKEK." 

On the 1st of .Vpril a u'iw oommittoo was struck on the state of the 
Province, particularly concerning the foreign invasion. Prince, Sherwood, 
Chisholm and Robinson were members. 

About tlie same time appeared the report of Lord Dui'ham's administia- 
tion in the provinces, and this, without the action of, or of course, appro- 
bation of the Imperial Parliament. The entire proceeding was against the 
popularity of his lordship, and the coldness of his associates, so worked on 
his sensitive nature, that passing into retircMnent, he sliortly afterwards 
sickened and died. 

On the 9th of April appeared the Report oi the Select (Jonuuitte on 
Finance, of which Mr. Merritt was chairman. It gave a most favourable 
account of the increase of the revenues, now ecpialliug one million of dollars. 
They recommended that without a(Ming any more burdens on the people, this 
sum be judiciously a}»plied to improving our navigation, so as to become a 
revenue to the country, and prevent ever thereafter the imposition of more 
taxes. The management of the canal appears to have been left in the same 
hands, and little doing except preliminaries. 

The Governor in answer to an address from the House for information 
froi.i the Colonial Office, on the subject of union, made the following reply: 

" I have received no communications on the subject, except a copy of the 
Report from the Earl of Durham, which has just reached me, anil which I 
readily place in your hands." 

" We think it just to give the opinion of the President of the Canal, 
after another year's experience on the subject of improvements, and allow- 
ing his extended pi-actical and patriotic view of the Union. 



196 

" ToHONTO, Febuary 20th, 1839. 
'" !My Dkar Sir: — I bog to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 18th inst., ami to say tliat I lia\e duly laid before the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, all the j)aperT which you have recently trannniitted for His Excellen- 
cy's consideration, and whi<'h I .sliall endeavor at my tirst leisure moments 
to obtain an oj)[)ortunity of reading. 

" We agree generally, with respect to the importance of impi-oving tlie 
many great advantages of our country, and the necessity of promoting the 
increase of our trade and intercourse with the Mother C'ountiT, and with 
foreign states. On all these points, too, I derive great profit from the infor- 
mation which you are continually ac'cumumulating. 

"My remedy is to add to Upper Canadiall of the lowei- province, except 
the north bank of the S. Lawrence, from Argenteuil, eastward, and the 
Districts of Quebec and (rai-po, which are alien in almost every respect to 
■us. We should then have a noble Upper Province, and a seaport, and if 
wo could not then manage our own affairs under a discreet metropolitan 
supervision, we should, in some measure deserve the anarchy that would be 
in store for us. " " Yours faithfullv, 

" J. MACAULAY." 

The following shows an important act, being a tardy remuneration by 
tlic Legislature for a public enterprise : 

Circular to the wiijiiuil Hh'.irehuhh'rs in the IVeflinn/ Canal Co. 

ToHONTO, U. C, Gth May, 1839. 
Sir: — ^ly object in making this communication is to prevent the 
original shareholders from disi)osing of their Stock under its true value. 

An act has this day passed the Commons House of Assembly })y a veiy 
large maji rity, authorizing the Uovernm<,'nB to purchase ct the private 
sliareholders in the Welland Canal, aiul there is no reason to suppose it wilt 
not meet the concuirence of the the other branches of the Legislature 
iiuthorizing the Goverment to jiurchase. The terms are as follows : 

"1st. The Provincial Government is authorized to issue debentures in the 
usual manner, payable in twenty years, foi' the amount of stock held l)y each 
individual, bearing interest at 2 per cent, for the tirst year, 3 per cent, for 
the si'cond year, and so on thereafter. 

" It further jirovides, that so soon as the sum of £30,000 pei- r nnum is 
i-oceivod from tolls, each shareholder shall Ik; entitled to receive the amount 
of their back interest, since the dates of their resi)ective subscrijitions were 
paid in -the interest on these ilebentures is secured l)y the income to be 
derived from the work. 

" I cannot refrain from expressing the gratification I feel in being cn- 
sibled to announce to the original subsoribers, that they will ultimately 1)0 
paid principle and interest o) their investment, in a work, which for mag- 
nitude and utility, cannot be surpassed on the continent of Aiuerica, and 
■for the construction of which the public is indebted to their earl j^nterprisc. 

" I have the honor to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" W. H. MERRITT." 
A change had occurred inimical to the decision of the House, regard- 
ing the delegates to England The upi)er House had returned the bill, sub- 
stitutinir J. B. Robertson for Mr. Merritt. A discussion arose in the House 



197 



u tlu> 
eacli 
iwt. for 



o 

ill, sub- 
House 



on its reconsideration. Neither ^Mr. Merritt, Robertson, oi- Sir Allan luul 
the opportunity of representing the wishes of their country to the British 
people, before the Imperial Parliament. Tlie following correspondence iind 
article from the St. Catharines JimraaJ, will tend to explain the circum- 
stances of this change, not altogetlier indicative of the very consistent views 
of some of the members of the House. 

" Mr. Merritt, as ho himself asserts, was nover a party mm, yet we 
ourselves, were under the impression that prior, and at the cointnencment 
of Ills Legislative course, he was sonifiwhat too strongly tinctured with 
principles at variance with tlie peace, prospf^rity and good government of 
this colony, — we mean Toryism ^although we were, and still arc unable 
to name a solitary public or private act, that could justify such a suspicion- 
It miist have arisen from his conn;jtion wltli, and sup,)Oit of, the 
Episcopal Church in this place. Wo have watched his })rocyedings in the 
r^ygislature, and have ever found him the constant advocate of measures 
which he himself considered of beneticial inijiortance to the Government, 
and the unilinching and independent suppressor of all svich as ha I a con- 
trary tendency. 

" Happily for the peace of the Government, Loid Durham's mission to 
Canada has formed a rallying point, around which are assembled those 
who embraced the interests embodied in the Repoit, anil i-esulutely deter- 
mined to enforce its adoption, and by having a responsible government, 
with constitutional ]»rinciples relieve the Province from impending ruin. 
" Nothing more conclusively shows the narrow, envi-jus and spiteful 
character of the Hagerman cUque, than their sjjiteful cond i ■\. \\\ relation t> 
.sending a commis.sion to England. It is well known that Mr. Merritt and the 
S{)eaker were appointed by the House to this important mission, to which 
the Legislative Council refu.sed to assent ; but, by way of amendment to the 
Assembly's bill, they sti-uck out the name of ^Ir. Merritt, and on their j>art 
added the name of Mr. Robertson, now in P^nglaud, and return t he bill to 
the House for their adoption, who on this occasion very justly as.seited 
their dignity, ;; for the insult offered them, in the person of ^Ir. Merritt' 
literally kickec t the I'ill altogether. 

" Such has ueen, and such will be, the thanks which every one may 
expect who pursues such an independent course.'' 

Mrs. Meri'itt notices wliy the Commissionei"s were not sent : 

" H — came over on the 20th of April for a short timr^, and gave as a 
reason for not sending commissioners, that tlie Ctovernment for the colonies 
were to be settled in the British Parliament about Easter, and they coulil 
not arrive in time to be of any use." 

His son William in the same epistle, refers it moie directly to the report. 

" Since the arrival of Lord Durham's report Pa will not go to England, 
as th-at corresi)onds .so much with their views and wishes." 

"Government House, Toronto, 4th May, 18.39. 
" Mv Dear Sir: — With reference to a re.">;it c )nv(u'sation at the 
Private Secretary's office, between a member of the House of Assembly and 
a gentleman provisionally in the service of the Governiuent, which has, 
unfortunately, become a matter of notoriety, and in wlticii \oui- name was 



198 

particularly introduced. I assure you that I have not heard of it without a 
degree of regret, which has l)een considerably lightened l)y a consideration of 
the place where it haiipened to occur. 

" I have the honor to he, my dear sir, 

" Yours very faithfully, 
To W.M. H. Mehhitt, E.sq. . " GEO. W. ARTHUR." 

" Rowsell's, Monday morning, Toronto, May Gth, 1839. 

" Mv Dear Sir : — I have boon informed that a remark I made in the 
course of private conver-sation, with reference to your having been sent as 
an agent to England, has been brought forwai'd, with much aggravation 
and in a most unaccountable manner, within the walls of the House of 
Assembly. I therefore deem it due to myself to let you really know what 
I did .say ; and, when I have briefly done so, I think you will agiee with 
me in saying that the freedom of sjteech, in a British Legislature, was never 
more arbitrarily and unjustly exercised than when it was used, on the 
occasion to which I allude, for the purpose of blasting my prospects in 
j>ublic life. 

" While talking one day, at the Government Office, with Colonel Chis- 
holm, the member for Halton, I believe I remarked to him — (I say believe, 
because I have no distinct recollection of .so trifling and casual a matter) 
that you were not a fit person to represent the British inhabitants of Upper 
Canada, in any mission to England, because you were so American and 
Democratic in your opinions. These might not have been the preci.se words, 
but such, I am sure, must have lieen their exact tendency, for such is the 
opinion I have ever entertained of you in your political character. 

"After the pei-soual kindness I have experienced at your hands, I deeply 
regret that any fair renuxnd of mine — which obviously was never meant to 
be repeated to you, and which, according to the rules of society, never ought 
to have been conveyed to you— should have been magnified into .such a 
grave and ridiculous importance, or, if such has been the ctuse, should have 
caused you a n\oment's annoyance. 

" As a public man, you will readily concede that you are public proper- 
ty. You have long been prominently before the public, and whenever I 
have joined in any conversation, of which you were the subject for the 
moment, I have never failed, while remarking on what I conceived to be 
your Democratic bias on politics, to render my humble testimony to your 
domestic worth, your charity, and your hou.sehold virtues, and to your 
2>ractical loyalty as exhibited during the last war. 

"Believe me .still, my dear sir, 

" Yours very sincerely, 
'' To W. H Merritt, M. P. P. JOHN KENT." 

In Mr. Merritt's speech, on the last day of the session, upon the discus- 
sion of this (juestioUjin the Canadian House, May 11th, he say.s, in advo- 
cacy of the views embodied in Lord Durham's report : 

" The plan recommended by Lord Durham is briefiy this : 
" 1st. To remove the Colonial office from Downing Street, London, to 
this si<le of the Atlantic — to transfer the power now vested in the Colo- 
nial Minister to the (Jovernor. 2. Tiie Governor to represent sovereigl^ty, 
to bear the same relation to the peoj>le of Canada that the Queen doe.s to 
the peojilc of England. 3rd. To select for his advisers men at the head of 



199 

our Pioviiiciiil Dd));irtnient. 4tli. To retain their places no longer than 
they arid supported l)y the Legislature. 

" This is no Repu'ilican or elective institution. Here is no upsetting 
the fouuihitions of society among us ; there is no turning men out of office, 
from one end of tlie country to the other, iiTcspeotive of the manner in which 
they discharge their duties ; here is the simple application of the tried 
j)rinciplcs of the British Constitution in a British Province ; intelligent, 
j)atriotic and loyal, and worthy of all the civil rights, as they possess the 
intellectual and moral atti-ibutes of Britons. 

'* Tiio only objection, that any but a Kopublican and Democrat can 
argue against it is, that it would render this Province independent." 

He also argues that the personelk of the Ministry would be a matter of 
iudirterence to Britain, and it would ensure men of the first ability in the 
country, and would remove all distinction of origin. The Governor stands 
bone fide as the representative of Royalty — the sacred emblem of power, 
the supreme administrator of the laws, and he will be placed also above 
the order of the Imi)erial Minister. 

" 3rd. Lord Durham's remedy will remove all danger of separation, and 
will be an etiectual prevention against the introduction of Democratic or 
Republican principles among the inhabitants. Give us the full benefits 
of the British Constitution and we will become the admiration and envy 
of the United States, an 1 retain what they do not possess — a strong execu- 
tive gover.:ment. 

" But I will at all times adhere to those measures that will secure the 
peace, and promote the prosperity of Upper Canada." 

The desertion Mr. Merritt had experienced from his friends, worked 
upon liis feelings. There was a field of honorable distinction open, and in 
which he had evidently set his mind, for by being made a representative 
to England, right or wrong, concieved that he would be of great benefit to 
his country, and he had the unpleasantness to experience that while engaged 
iu the material improvement of the country, he got their support ; but when 
attempting to rai.se himself out of the party role they had placed him in, 
trying to advance himself and his countrymen politically, by representing 
them at the British Court, he felt by this act, that it was their opinion " he 
had better stay at liome." 

His first object on returning was to get clear of the entanglement of 
private busine.ss. He intimates this late in Juno, in one of his familiar let- 
ters to his fatliei*-in-law, and that he will perpetuate his views by bringing 
uj) one of his sons thereto. 

" It is my intention to get out of active busine.ss. William H. Merritt, 
Jr., I trust will at leasst make a .statesn)an." 

For this purpose, and partly to advance his political scheme, he visits 
the Lowei- Province. 

He was accomjianied by the son alluded to, whom, on reaehing Albany 
on their return, lie gave introductions to visit his friends at Byrom, near 



200 



New York. This was partly a reward for studious condvict, and a prepa- 
ration for the serious study of the hiw, for which he hiul passed, according 
to the Chancellor, the best exannnation. 

On his return he completed his arrangements of leasing the mills ; and 
the following advertisement appeared in the August number of the Jourmil: 

"All business in connection with the Welland Canal Mills will hereafter 
be conducted by J. INlittleberger & Co. Signed, W. H. Merritt." 

The first use he made of his leisure was to address a letter on public 
affairs to Mr. Nelson, member of the Executive Committee, in Lower Canada. 
It appears in the ilournal of the l.^th, and is prefaced by a paragraph from 
the Toronto Examiner: 

" The admirable speech delivered by Mr. Merritt in favor of Responsi- 
ble Government has been copied into several of the Lower Canadian jour- 
nals, and has been reviewed at considerable length in the Quebec Gazette.^' 

Mr. Nelson accuses Mr. Mei-ritt of asking the Government of Britain to 
give millions for improvements, and in defence of the country, to a body 
against whom they would have no security. Mr. Merritt controverts that 
by the exami)le of the two public works. 

" The management of the Rideau Canal is under some power of England, 
to wl n those in charge here are responsible. The Welland has been un- 
der the direction of those interested in the Province, the result, the people 
of Upper Canada for the one have to pay an advance of from 5^ to 100 
j)er cent, from Kingston to Montreal ; while on the other, the freight from 
Detroit to Kingston is only what it was from Chijipawa to Queenston, in 
old times." 

With regard to the formation of a House of Lords, for which the Coun- 
cillor accuses Canada of having no adecpiate nuiterial, he says, " We possess 
" men of equal intelligence and wealth, compared to the |)opulation and 
" wealth of the country, and to those with whom they Iiave to come in con- 
" tju;t, as the people of England, compared to the population and wealth of 
" that kingdom, and to the individuals with whom they have to come in 
" contact." 

The Canadas take six million dollars of Britisli manuf^icturos — half of 
which is paid by English expenditure in this country — and closes by re- 
marking : "Wo require an eijual or greater concentration of power than the 
union of England, Scotland, Ireland have produced — like the State of 
New York — that we may utilize the advantages of our position." 

The evil of the unquiet and uncertain state of the country was .'itill 
going on, for, in the .Awrnrt^ of 11th July wo i-eml : — "Emigration from 
Upper Canada to the Western States is going on very rapidly." A corres- 
])ondent in the London District writes, " that nearly half the poi)ulation of 
that district intend emigrating. The Toronto Examiner is of opinion that 
the Upper Province will lose one-fifth of its population by emigration to the 
Western States. 



201 

Public meetings were now being held in various parts of the country; 
some, as in Brockville, were the occasion of a riot. The following letter 
relates to an important meeting held in Hamilton : — 

" Your views res)iecfeing co'-nniittees, addresses, and union of Beformers, 
coincide entirely with our own ; and we are busy organizing local commit- 
tees. I beg you to understand I should have avoided calling together public 
meetings had the choice rested with me, but the Reformers are at present 
a straggling flock, and act without concert. I should be glad to hear tliat 
you have determined upon a snug meeting in Toronto of a few of the lead- 
ing Reformers of the Province, men of influence and character, who shouhl 
determine on a plan for the guidance of the districts. 

" E. Cartwriuht Thomas." 

In September, a large and influential meeting was held at Niagara, the 
County town, and still the most imi)Oi'tant place in the di.strict, to take into 
consideration the state of the country, and Lord Durham's report thereon. 
Mr. Merritt prepared a resolution (which he inti'oduced by a speech) "That 
this meeting fully concur in the union, and a government according to the 
model of Great Britain." Passed unanimously. 

This initiation of the new reform in the old borough, was carried on by 
circular. Similar meetings were held in other sections. 

Some of tlie coadjutors for the work of reconstructing their country is 
indicated in the following list of correspondents : — July 15. — E. Cartwright, 
Thomas, Hamilton. Aug. 10.— Peter Perry, Whitby. 12— Hon. D Fer- 
gusson, Woodhill, Nelson. 24. — A. Manahan, Montreal. G. H. Detlor, 
Brighton. 27th.— J. H. Boulton. 28th.— Francis Hiiicks. 23d.— Tlios. 
McKay. October 19. — A. D. Robling, Napanee. Richarsdon, Sandwich. 
G. Tiffany, Hamilton. Nov. 18.— J. W. Powell, Townsend. Nov. 5.— 
Attorney General Spence. August 12. — O. R. Gowan. Aug. 27th. — J. 
Lockhart, Niagara. Sept. 12. — Cooper, Rainham. Sept. 4th. — Dr. Jarold, 
Dunnville. 30. — D. ThorVtum, Queenston. Joseph Clarke, Haldimand. 

Mr. Merritt, just befoi-e the meeting of Parliament, delivered his views 
to his constituents at a public meeting of the freeholders at T, linl.am. A 
letter from one of them, an Orangeman, gives his views and that of his fel- 
lows on the great question of the day: — 

" I am a Briton, and consequently dissent from the .sentiment e.\j)res.sed 
in your speech. We want, my friends, a total change in the laws of the Pro- 
viTK-e. We require the choosing of our own rulers, and to get rid of for- 
oigii thmldom, and this shall before long be the case, and must be the case." 

On Lord Durham's departure, the vejjort he had made on the country, 
was 80 agreeable to the views of the respect^ible portion of the people, that 
after a year of administration by Sir John Colborne, further delay 
was considered impolitic ; and a member of the Imperial Ministry, Sir P. 
Thompson, was sent to carry them out. 



202 

On tlio lOtIi of Octolx'i- iii»i)0!u-f'(l tlio iiroclnination of tlit» i cw Govpinor- 
Cleiienil, Hon. P. Tlioniitsou. He airivt'd at Toronto on the 2()tli of Nov. 

Mr. I\Jerritt, pi-eviou.s to tlie opening of the Hou.se, went over aiul vi.sited 
the Governor. 

3rcl of Deceniljei". — House met. 

Steam communication witli the colony was promised in the Governor's 
tipeccli, together with ah.stract of reforms. 

The character of the new Governor is given in " Sketche.'- of the 1 3tli 
Parliament," by Krinensis, a fellow countrymen, said to be the J. Kent 
noticed in Sir George Arthur's employment : 

'• The Eight Hon. C. P. Thompson, Governor General of the North 
American Provinces, had long Ix'cn an enemy to the Canadian tindwr 
trade, and an advocate for those measures which the great body of the peo- 
]ile repudiate. He was considered one of the mo.st thoi-ough-going Ivadicals 
in the Cabinet — a man of great ///^cs.w, and a true reader of cliaracter. As 
u commercial financier he .stands almost unrivalled. It was thought tliut he 
might prove tiie most proper per.son to win from the Canadians an expres- 
sion of confidence, and he has proved himself well calculated for the task. 
In his per.sonal address he is mild and art'able, ready of approach and free of 
conversation. Opposed to his line of politics, and convinced that his mi.ssiou 
to Canada will be [)roductive of no good, if not of absolute evil, I nni.st give 
him the talent of consummatt^ management ; he has hitherto succeeded so 
as to carry idl his measures, and it is most unaccountable by what almost 
magic influence he cajoled some members intj a desertion of previously eii- 
tertainetl opinions." 

Tho author, then attending his studies in the Provincial Capitol, who 
liad conu; o\ er with the members, wrote home his observations on the new 
Governor : — 

" Saw the House ojjened ; it was (piite a grand aflair, filled with ladies 
and gentlemen. Governor Thomp.son, a man of slight stature, in a blue 
dre.ss coat, breast auii skirt covered with gold lace, was surrounded l)y his 
suite, which, with Sir George Artiiur, Lieutenant Governor's suite, nuule 
an imposing spectacle. The Governor read his spetch in a very afi'ected 
cockney tone." 

"A despatch from Lord John Pussell, which was in the papers a few 
days ago, made a practical commencenumt of the new .system of llesponsi- 
ble Government. The peroration of the despatch is as follows : 

'The Queen's Government have no desire to thwart the representative 
u.s.send»lies of British North America in their mea.sures of reform and iiii- 
j)rovement. They have no wish to make those provinces the resource tor 
patronage at home. They are earnestly intent on giving to the talent auJ 
character of leading per.>ons in the colonies, advantages similar to tho.se 
which talent and chai'acter, employed in the public service of the United 
Kingdom, obtain. ' 

The Toronto livarJian of 18th December remarks : — ''Almost the only 
" topic of discussion in Parliament the last eight days, and the principal 
"topic of general conversation has been the union of the Provinces. The 



203 

" poMitioii of tlic puvtios is uovpI and soinctinifs ainusint,'. ^ffssrs. Mpiiitt, 
"Aiikniim, Koliiu.son, Park, il-c, lieatlcd l)y the Solicitor ( Jcnoral for th« 
" (Jovcrnincnt party, and Mfssrs. (t. H. IJouIton, Rattjin, Miirncy, Oanible, 
" Cartwri^dit, &c., in oppoHition — tlie lattor making attacks on the Gover- 
"nor, and some of tlieui talking strongly of sejiaration." IIci ailds, " that 
'• for tyros this first assailnuMit of Responsible Government in the ITouso 
" may he considered satisfactory." 

Says the St. Catharines Jonrndl :—'^ Mr. Merritt made one of his host 
"speeches — advocating the nnion of the Pi-ovinces ; that it would add 
" 1,000,000 British to the j)opulation at once, and thus niake tlie reforms 
"that were advocated, j)OHHihle, hy such an accession of the Anglo-Saxon 
"element in the Asscmhly." 

An interru[)tion to the general direction of legislation was attempted hy 
the introduction of the measures of the symj)athizers into the House, but 
which acted only as an amusing diversion to more important debates. 

On the 10th of December, Mr. Boulton brought in a bill to disipialif}' 
certain persons from being candidates, or ^•oting at elections. Mr. Merritt 
considering the imputation it inferred, as questioning the loyalty of the 
people, moved to give it the six months hoist. Mr. Cartwright said there 
were lodges in several di.striets. It was sworn before liim that there was 
one in St. Catharines. Mr. Parks, — -"There are none in the London dis- 
trict." Mr. Cartwright believed there were nu)re there than anv other dis- 
trict in the country. Information was received by the Government last 
i.iglit that an attack was to be made on the Niagara District. Thomas H. 
was the head of the lodge in St. Catharines. Mr. Merritt ilenicd that any 
lodge could exist in St. Catharines. Mi\ Sherwood replied as iiaving heard 
ualer oath that the Hunters posse.ssed a written statement over hi« signa- 
ture :— '' As »i)o:\ as you c )iivince me you are strong enough to effect any- 
thing in Upper Canada, I will take command of you." Mr. M. .said it was 
wholly untrue. [Loud cries of Hear, hear, from all paits of the House.] 
He had received no such communication or jtroiMjsition cither verbally, Ijy 
writing, by signs, or in a y other way or shape whatever, conseipiently he 
could lave returned no Sitch answer. 

The Journal in an article of over a column on this debate .says : — "Early 
" in the j»ast season the Clnnrh and Star began to foretell invasions, and to 
'■ jtromulgate that the Durhamites were in league with the ' Patriots ' to 
"overthrow the Govenunent. Thev next proclaimed that Hunter's lod"^es 
"were being establishecl in various districts of the Province, and that the 
"various meetings held there weie in aid of the ' Patriot' cause; one of 
"them, the Stitr, stated 'on correct information,' that overtures had been 
" made to Mr. Merritt, to take command of the biigands in their next in- 
" va,sion. ^Vhat answer did he give them ? ]f Mr. Merritt is guilty of 
'' the charges preferred against him, let liim be not only expelled, but [uit 



2in 

" ni)On liis trial for treason ; aiul if lie is innocent, let the guilt rest wLero 
" it shonlil, ujton liis accusers." 

We liavo nqticed the measures of our subject to avoid prosecutions in 
his own district, and to have initi<(ated the sentences uf his fellow-country- 
nien deluded into overt acts of rehellion. Among the 885 persons wlio 
underwent trial, imprisonment, execution and banishment, whoso fate drove 
tens of thousands from their native soil, was Bonjamiii Wait, living 
now in one of the Western States ; he was banished to Van Dieman's Land. 
His heroic wife, now numbered with the dead, determined on leaving her 
residence in Lockport, and imploring his release at the foot of the throne. 
In Wait's narrative, page 273, we find tlie following: 

"Here I left my dear child, and commenced operations by collecting, 
among my husbiind's accjuuintances, oertifiontes of his foinier good character. 
I went to Haldimand, wlieie we had last resided, and obtained a great 
number of most respectal>le testimonials, which were ratified by the signa- 
ttu'e of Wm. H. ]\Ierritt, Es(j., the wortliy and distinguished mend)er of 
Parliament for that constituency, who seemed not a little ustonished that I 
should have conceivetl the idea of going to England, considering the circum- 
stances in wliich I was placed, though he readily and most kindly gave mo 
letters of introduction and recommendation to othcial characters in England, 
with one to Richard Irvin, Estp, of this city, containing, as I afterwards 
learned to my advantage, a check on that gentleman for twenty dollars, 
whicli was most gi-atefully accej)ted, and will, with Mr. IMerritt's corres- 
ponding kindness, be remembered with that deep sense of gratitude so emi- 
nently due." 

" Sir John Franklin, the Governor of Van Dieman's Land, has sjKiken 
to me, (one of the prisoners,) of having received communications from Wni. 
H. Merritt, E.scj., and has written him, in re|dy, that he would grant nie 
every indulgence, consistent with his duty, as Clovernor. I certainly feel 
thankful to liim, but mon; so to Mr. Mei-ritt, to whom I beg you will ten- 
der the best wi.shes of a sincerely grateful heart." 

In the House Mr. Merritt had drawn up a scries of I'esolutions on the 
state of the country, for transmission to England; and himself and Sir Allan 
McNab were dej)uted to lay the .same before the Imperial Covernment. 
But before this was consunnnated, the appointment of a new Governor (Hon. 
P. Thompson) h;id oci;urred, who came fully empowered to bring about the 
much needed refornnitiou. In a volumniors correspondence, he gave his 
experience on the political state of the country, and its commercial relations 
as a colony. A brief summary of his views may here be stated. They may 
be seen in one important particular to differ from the Governor, Ids prede- 
cessor, and the Imperial Ministry who sent them ; namely, in the race, na- 
tion or people wlio were to hokl olHco to carry out ReHponsiV)le Govern- 
ment ; and, as a natural consequence, in whose interests the Government 
should be carried out. In the one instivnce it was natives of the country, 
or tnoso unequivocally identified therewith. With the Ini[»erial party. 
otKcers who would advocate primarily the interests of Great Britain. 



205 



a ffreat 



" Instca'l of liavina; moasuros eniaiiate from the Ilouif' (Joverninont, who 
neccsMiirily Iviiow i)ut little of tlio British -Anu'ricaii jw^ople, such meaHures 
«houlcl 1)0 initiated here, by the intelligent portion of tlie community, ami 
tlien submitted to the (JovernnTent for ooncurroiice. * # ♦ They all 
tiliunld l»e iiiiited iiiidei- one (Jovernment. ^- ■'•' * Should this not be 
jiracticable froju the many conflicting treaty clainiH and interests in liOwer 
(Canada? Montreal should be at once annexed to ITppf.i- Canada, in order 
that *liat Province might have a sea-port undei- their own control. 

lu Sir liol)ert Peel's speech on Canadian afl'airs, June 5 : 

" They (the iJritish Govornment) had but one object in view. They 
did not wish to make the g(*vernmeiit oftiio Provinces the means of obtain- 
ing any paltry lu'cuniaiy advantages, and they might say to the Canadians, 
wo mean to make you a British Colony, and subject to our Dominion, (huar- 
liwir) but wo will take care of this, that we will not make ourselves respon- 
silile to def(!ud you fiom foreign enemies, and then allow us to bo constantly 
threatened and opposi^d V»y you. 

The lengthy au.l exhaustive report of 3'yO pages, on (Janadian affairs, 
commences l)y o!)servations on Lower ( 'anada, but extends to all the Pro- 
vinces, and says: "The real struggle is iu)t one of principle, but of races. 
The report is intelligilile, while the distinction is between French and En 
glish, but between English and American it is certainly confounded, and 
witli considei-able ditliculty we can come at His JiOrdship's real views. It 
is liopf'd we do him no injustice in saying that for English he moans Euro- 
pean born, and not the English speaking people of tlie Provinces. 

Earl Durham in the pamphlet of his icpoii, recommends the necessity 
of adjusting the constitutional (piestions intlie North American Provinces. 

"J needed no personal observations to convince me there were evils. I 
found in all these a foiin of government neaily the i-anie, and interests, 
ft'clingfi, and habits, in common. The North American Provinces already 
contained one and a half million jieople, besides the vast po[iulation these fer- 
tile lands are destined to support." 

Oblivious that this pojuilation w ere here from attachment to the British 
cause, and entitled to the security and the enjoyment of it for their families, 
lie changes the obligation. 

"The count"} which has founded and maintained these colonics, may 
justly expect its compensation in turning their una]tj)ropriated resources to 
the account of its redundant ])opulation, they are the rightful patrimony of 
the English people;" and going on to show the policy of getting new .set- 
tloi-s: — "These advantages may yet be seemed to your Majesty's subject.s. 
and a connection secured by the link of kindred origin, and may continue 
to bind to the P>ritish Empire the am])le territt)ries of its North Americiiu 
Provinces, and the large and flourishing population by which they will be 
assuredly filled. " 

"If I should have miscalculated the |>roportion in which the friends and 
enemies of British connectioiv may meet in the united Legislature one year 
of emigration would redress the balance." It would have to bo greater 
than any that has taken place yet, as not a third of European birth aat 
iu the last Upper Canada Legislature. 



20G 

" It iH Ity a Houiul Hyhtem of colonization, tliat wo can nnuler tluw ex- 
tensivo regions availahln for the- hcnufit of tlui Piritisli ]i«'oiilt'. 

'* [ ontcrtain no (loul)t ati to the nulittiuil clittnicler, it iniixt bu that nf lln', 
lirilish Kiiij)lrr, that wliich innst ho |)r»'ch)niinant over the whole North 
American continent. 

" The |ir(!(loniintint fct^lin;,' of the Kngliwh was that of devoted attaciiriient 
to the Mother Coinitry. 

"The ])rotentions of the Frendi Canadians to tiie exclusive possession of 
T.ower (!anada, would (lel)ar a yet larger population of Upper t'aiuida and 
the townships fioui access to tho ocean." 

"The experiment of keeping colonies, and governing them well ought at 
least to hav(5 atrial, er<^ we abandon forever the vast dominion, which iiiight 
supply tin! wants of onr surplus population, and raise* u|) millions of fresh 
consumers for our manufactures, and producers of a supply -for our wants. 

Recommending the municipal institutions to this end, he says : 

" Tho true principle of linnting populai- j)ower, is that of apportionment 
of it in many dilferent depositories, and gn'atly multiplying the mnnher of 
municipal hotlies." 

We will close with tho extract, which is alik« applicable to British 
North America. 

" The amazing i)rosperity of the United States, is owing to the un- 
limited supply of fertile land, which maintains succeeding generations in 
an undiminished alHuence of fertile soil." 

With regard to the premature i)ublication of Lord Durham's Report, 
subsecjuent events have proved it to have been injurious in the Provinces. 
Hasty legislation might have been calculated, from its universal resultn 
elsewhere, to have i)een injurious, hi this case, the position of the country, 
with a subdued nationality, were of such a delicate nature, that extraoidinary 
attention .shouhl have been taken, so that no feelings of repiisal, founded on 
national antagoiusm, might mar the work of our future union. But the 
enthusiasm of the people here, on the publication of the report, showing 
tho way of immediately getting out of their dirticnlties, prevented them al- 
lowing tlio time that was noce.s.sary for maturing tho contemplated union of 
Upper and Lower Canada, and throwing away the consummation of tlie plan 
contemplated at home, by altering the map of Canada, so as to annex the 
Island of Montreal, and make the St. Lawrence to i(s mouth, the boundary 
between the Canadas, so that a union of all the British-speaking people 
of the Provinces might hereafter be effected without altering their auton- 
omy. 

That his view was opposed to the advancement of tho country oculd 
not for a moment be denied by the loyal natives of British origin, whatever 
justice there might liavc been in it towards the French. The impolicy of 
this distinction is proved by concurring events. There was then, as now 
majority of native inhabitants in the country, and in Upper Canada our in 
crease was doubling in ten years. By our last census the rate of increase is 



\\ 



207 

only douhliii;,' in sixty yoarH, TIio rate of our ncij,'lihorH' iuoroaso \h doiibliuLf 
every twoiity-live years, thereforu tho Hecurity from our (rncroaohinir nci>'h- 
Iior IS »'V('ry year niore jeoponlizcd. 

Tlio author was iu tlio Ifousn on tlio Saturday of tho lirst wook of tie 
H'-ssioii, when the (Jovoriioi's dHspatoh, which contaiiicMl a iiiiiii.st<'rial pn - 
t,'r!iimn(', was l)rou;:,dit dowu. It waH evident tho nn^inlu'rs Iiatl to deal with 
siihjoi'tH witli whicli tlu^y had hitherto lieen unac<|uainted. 

" l.'Uh I)"o. — liast ovenin;^ attended a very animated debate on tho 
l^iion ; will continue perhaps a week ; and it may be the last (piestion 
iM'foi-e the present Ilnnse, as there is talk of a dissolution. 'I'his was tho 
tlni'at, Imld over tho House, if they refused to pass tlie reforms proposeil 
liy the Ministiy. 

We give our subject's ojdnion of the n(^w (rovernor : 

"DearC — Tarn much pleased with tlie Governor (Jencral; I think 

liini a statesman. Have ilitu'd with him twice ; no meat or ve<'etable8 

till c;uri(>d round ; dessert tho same ; wine carrii-d round a few times, when 
all rctiroil to drawing-room, where lie had somt'thint,' to say to each one 
present." 

The St. Catharines party, tin; ^lessrs. Boomer inclmled, returned in 
an open wagon, tlie ground being well frozen, and all spent the holidays with 
tho usual fellowship and good feeling. 



1S40. 



The last session of the last Parliament for Upper Canada, closed on 
Ft'bruary 10th, and very little work had been accomplished, owing partly 
to tho fact of the important constitutional changes likely to occur, and also 
to the unsettled state of affairs generally. 

With regard to the surreudin- of the Constitution of Ui»per and Lower 
Canada, retjuired by the Imi»erial (government previous to passing the Act 
of the union of the Provinces, iu 1840, it is an error to say there was any- 
tliing in it of the natui-e of a compact or treaty between the Canadians and 
British. 

The right of the French Canadians to have any voice was denied, and 
the semblance of a treaty was only alfoi.'ded to English Canadians ; and 
wliat was the ecjuivalent offered thoai for surrendering the power of the 
I'ln'se 1 The casual and territorial revenue, which one would think, 
viewing the sjicrilices Britain had made elsewhere for a national object, she 
would readily have granted to a country that had made so beneticial a diver- 
sion for the revenue of the St. Lawrence, which was to \v\y for the improve- 
ment thereof. 



>« 



'f 



208 

Thoro ai»poaro(l then, us now, a nervousnosH with men in jiowor of uc- 
knowlt><l<^ing tliut thoro were any except the lato eniigiants, who wore not 
rebtils to l^ritain in tho two Canailus. 

Sir F. B. Htjatl, in a narrative oppoHetl to tlio uspprsions in Lonl Dur- 
ham's Report of the loyal Cuiiadian.s, appears not ^o have a correct idea ol 
our peoplo, or his view was distorLeil l)y patriotism, and says, " that oui 
"interests are to he suhsorvieiit to the British empire, of which this colony 
" is but an atom." 

If the late House had refused to take the grave responsibility, allowed 
a convention to bt' called, or even a new election, which, happening just 
after the- Durham meetings, the electors were siilliciently enlightened, theic, 
woidd have been respect for the act; but for a Conservative House remain- 
ing over an extra term, to barter the only safeguard to the liberty of their 
country, is one which leaves their conduct open to the imputation of subser- 
viency, self-interest oi' inattention. 

Our subject retunuMl immedi.itely afttr the holidays, and gave atten- 
tion to the me.isages of the Ciovernor sent down to tlie JIoum- iVom time 
to time, meant to nuiture a bill for the Impeiial JjCgislature. He also 
wrote extensively to the Governor General, giving him his views on the plan 
for a Provincial Government, but to which his secretary, Mr. Murdock 
sent ii brief reply, saying that /i^' had read them. 

While thus eiignged, a word of cncouragenioiit ifs received from the sea- 
board, showing that one hope actuated all loyal Americans, however di>taut 
their abode. 

" Halipax, N. S., Jan. 9, 1840. 
" Dear Sir : — 

" Permit me to addre s you as a member of the great party who, with these 
Colonics, arc laboring to introduce the .«ound principles of the Bjitisb Consti- 
tution ; and you may i'ecl assured we feel a deep sympathy in the success of 
your exertions. Your obedient servant, 

" GEO. N. YOUNG." 

The Act making the salaries of the judiciary independent of the people, any 
more than that of the J^xccutive, had not yet been enacted , and Mr. Merritt 
congratulated 3Ir. B. on the promotion of a fellow countryman into the office 
of Solicitor General. 

" Toronto, 3rd March, 1840. • 
" Dear Sir :— 

" The receipt of your letter of the 27th ult. has afforded me much satis- 
faction, as conveying the assurance which I understand it to do, that under 
the peculiar circumstances in which I was placed I had done right in accepting 
office from the Governor General. 

'< It is, as you say, most important to have in the new Parliament men 
devoted to this great principle, and resolved to carry it out with modera tiou 
and firumess. The other elections will, as you remark, require to be attended 
to as early as possible, after the division of counties is known. 

" I remain yours, &c., ROBT. BALDWIN." 



209 

In the inulHt of liis luost engHging piihlio diitioH, the atlvancpment of 
his family w/ih never lost sight of, if coiiHiileiing tho roln of HtnteHinau in- 
tendod for him, W. H. M., Jr., tliiH was oonihiiiing hoth. Tlie inten- 
tion in exetnpliliud in liiH familiar letters : 

"ToHOVTO, l-2th Janniiry, 1B40. 
" Mv Db.vh Hoy : — It is my intention to have a consultation with Mr. 
Boulton tliis weisk rospoctini^ your oomini; over. Mr. McKyos thinks you 
hinl hotter roiii;iin wliore you are, and oontine yourself to roadin;; for a year 
or two — but will not object. Much depends with yoiirseK. Your future 
success can only he ensured hy dili;^ence ami attention. As regards tho 
last, may I eutpiire wlu'ther you ever thought of semling mo a coj)y of 
the letters I marked in tlie letter hook and left on the side hoards, rehiting 
to the Wtdhmd Canal — and which you were to have sent the Wednesday 
after I loft you. I also expected a description of your l)all from Thomas, 
and of the tlieatres from you, hut writing apjtears a serious task to you 
all. There is very little before tlie House, and I don't think anything of 
cunsecjuence will pass the Legislature this season, e.Kcept tho Union. 

"Truly afl'ectionato father, 

"W. HAMILTON M EH KITT." 
"Mr. William Hamilton Mekiutt, Junior." 

'•Toronto, 12th January, 1840. 
" My Dear Oatiif.rinr — The Clergy Reserve (juestion is now under 
discussion, and when disposed of we will soon be dismissed. We have had 
amcotinj' of tho board of directors of the (rrainl River Navii;ation ('om- 
p«uy, and am in hopsis of i)rocuring money to Kiiish that work. After this 
is done, my present intention is not to interfere with any further public im- 
jtroveineut. Mr. Retimne jtreached to-day in the (Jathedral. It is a 
splendid church, but altogether too large. Remember nie to all friends, 
nm\ believe me, as ever, 

" Your all'i'ctionato Imsband, 

"W. HAMILTON MERRITT." 
Our svibject sometimes absented himself froni the House for more con- 
centration of thought. The author visited him while thus occupied. Ho 
was busily engaged drawing up the St.Lawrence Canal report, having gone 
home to his lodging for more (juiet. 

iV memoir, copied from a statistical report, notices our dependence fon 
supplies, as most of our trade was with England. The value of British 
manufactures consumed in the year before the rebellion in British North 
America exceeded that of the exportations to all Europe, being 31s. 6d. per 
liead — nearly double the rate of that to the United .States — carried in 
1,273 British vessels ; 75 only being by others. 

Returned home, being now relieved from legislative duties till again 
called upon to resume them by the voice of tho people in another election, 
Mr. Merritt's journal of March 4th shows how watchful and attentive 
he was of the progress of his country towards liberty, and of the pro- 
ceedings of those in authority ; 



210 




'• Mr. Yduii;; wiotf on iiHolutionH 3*1 Fi'luuiuy, haying Sir Colin ('amp- 
licll, tlie (lovernor, aitfd on tlu* (h'SpHtcli of .'Ust Au^uRt: *! filiiill lie glad 
to Uarn tlial you lia\o tliouglit it »'X|i('(licnt to give HcatH in it to koiik' of 
th*< leading men in tin* AsMnddy.' Contract tliiti (tin; nunK.randnni adds) 
witli 11h' dis|ia(( li of Kith ()<t<dier, and wiio can donlit tin* decision of tins 
HoniP (Juvernnient. 'J Ids tests the point; \v(> will seer if it Ih to he eon- 
ceded." 

"IIamkax, Ftlinniry, 1840. 
" 1>!'.AU Sir T adilressed you a few weciks ago calling your attttntion 
to the series of letters then a|i|>earing in the lialiiii.x iVurdsmtia)! upon ic- 
ponsllde (lovernnient and the lienrtitofa Kedeial I'nion. ( )ui- Ilou.se have 
lust week (liscussednt large the ( 'onstitutional |irinci|ile of " l{es|tonsiltility," 
and have j)assed a series of resolutions deelaiiug tlu-ir want of conlldeiice 
in the jiresent Kxeetitive Couni-il of the Province. 'i'hey wailed on Mon- 
day last in a body on His lOxeellency with these resolutions, and I refer 
you to the XordKCofltDi of this date for the deliates and proceedings. 

" In my last hotter several of my friends hen; think I have lelated a dis- 
tinction which relievos the (juestion of rcf.sponsiliilify of )nuch jtractieal 
ditliculty. 

" Yours very truly, 

"CJKO. N. YOUNG." 
"Touo.NTo, :U\ March, 1810. 
" I)r.AK Sill 'Pile receipt of your letter vt' the 27th ultimo has nllorded 
me inueli satisfaction, as conveying the assurance which J undeistand it to 
«}n, that under thepeiidiar ciicumstance."i in which I was placed 1 iiad done 
right in accepting ollice from the Oovernor (SentMal. 

" J do most e» rtaiidy adiiere to the princijdo of the advisers of the 
(Vown lieing selected from tJiose who possess the conlidenco of Parliament, 
and hxdc to it us th(> only means of .secui-ing the connection with tlie 
Mother Country, to whitdi I am sinceiely attaclie<l. 

" It is, us you say, most important to liave in the new Parliament men 
devoti'd to this great principle and resolved to carry it out with motleratiou 
and tirnniess. 

"The other oh'ctions will, as you remark, reijuire to ho attended tons 
early iia possihlt- aftei' tin; division of counties is known. 

" 1 remain faithfully yours, 

" HUBERT BALDWIN. 
"W. II. Mi-.uuiTT, KsQ., M. P." 

Our suliject was again a) "pointed a director on the canal, and elected 

jtresident of the same, where his energy was once more felt. 

A congratulatory letter from the old presidi'iit shows at a glance the 

changed state of atlairs : 

"TouoNTo, 11th April, 1840. 
" My Dkah Sih — T am truly glad that you have heen again elected tlio 
President of the Canal, to which you may claim the consideration of being 
its father. I expect very soon to get some tidings from London on the 
suhject of the .€15,000. I wrote in February last I should not hesitate to 
proceed to England, but I am only waiting the commands of the Govcrn- 
meut. I am sure it will require my presence there. I asked at the requcKt 
of the Legislature hist year for permission to go to England for their beuetit, 



211 

])ut I was told Unit wlioii HIh Ex(!()II< ncy Haw tlin iiwcssity, In* would HfMul 
iiK*. I tliiiik iiftry this tli.'it I could not ask Itnivo, li'.it w.iit for ordoiH, 
wliioh I am ready and willing to olj«y. • 

" Youth very truly, 

".JOHN l[. DUNN.'* 

Homo of tlio now oniooi'H wora afraid of im lurtakiiig too niviich : 

"CitowN Lands On-wK, IHtli April, 1840. 
"My Dkau Sill — I ant in u'Mn\>t of your privates note of tlio liUh 
instant. Von niuKt ))(> awai(! tlmt liowcvcr I niny disiif,'r<'ti with y«)U 
rcHjH'cting otlicr great iniprovcincniH, I am a most ardent well wisJier to tlio 
Welland. I am oMiged to you for your notts, and will attend to its con- 
tents, Ko far as I have powor and opportunity. 

" YourH moHt truly, 

"H. W. SIM.LIVAN. 
" W. H. Mkiuutt, E<(|., St. CatharinoH." 

With i-iigai'il to Mr. Wilson's disinisHal from tlio Wclland Cinal, tho 
Journai of "J.'Jd A|)ril sayn : 

" What is his oHence ! Ifu votod for Mr. M«*rritt instead of Mr. Mc- 
Cauley." 

It tlion givoH a rotroHpcvstivo glance over tluH transaction : 

" When it was known that Hir K. H')ad had doolin-jd tho re-appointmont 
of Mr. Merrittto a situation which Im had held so long, and to which tho 
pul)li(; thought he \ as so justly entith^d, oui" citi/.'ins assemlded spontano- 
ously, raised funds Ity voluntary sul)scrij)tion, and s(Mit a memorial to I lis 
Kxcclhiucy, stating in tho strongest terms the injustice done to Mr. Mer- 
ritt, and expressing tln>ir i\'nir, that the sime eiieigy au<l perst^verance 
which Iri, 1 previously heiui exercised in tho pros(tci!tioii of this great und(!r- 
taking woidd not continue) to 1m! a provailing characteristic in tho operati .mis 
of those! placed in charge of tho work. Tliroe years have- pa.SHed away an<l 
wo an; as we wore." 

The Governor's answer to Mr. Merritt gives another and more reliable 
reason for tho change. 

"GOVKKNMKNT IlousK, ToiiovTO, 24th A)»rii, 1H40. 

" My Dkau 8ih — Your lette^r marked " confidential," of tlio 24th inst., 
1 received last night. Pray allow me to l»<!g tluit you will dispossess your 
mind of any uncomfortal)l«! feeling of a poi-soual nature! as reigarels the ap- 
pointiiient of Mr. (Jayle)y in place of Mr. Wilson. To Mr. Wilson I make 
no e)l)je)ction beyond his we!ll-known elesire te) carry e)n tho Works u|)on tho 
Wellaud (Janal upon a scale of expe!nso which, under the circumstances of 
this country, 1 shouhi consider, atprevsont, epiite) impre)]K'r. The whole pei- 
cuniary elitliculties of the Province the (lovernor-CJesne'ral has takesn in hainl 
with a view to extricate it from its jtresciit embarras-sme-nt, anel thereiforej I 
feicl it to bo an obligation upon me to keep matters as much as po.ssiblo in 
Hutu quo. 

" I Lave the honor to remain, my deuir Hir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" GEO. ARTHUR." 



m 



212 

"DuKDURN, April 19th, 1840. 
" " My Dear Merritt — Ycur letter of yefiterday astonished ine not a 
little. Mr. Willf-on has been bndly ii.sed. But the f,ufKtion i.s, what is to 
be done — if I can do anything, I am ready and willing. Perhapa yon 
had better see him on your way up, and we will consult. If the Government 
has done wrong, they oiight to give some oneof the Directors a hint to resign 
and re-instate Mr. Willson. Let me know the day before you come, that 
I may be at home to meet you. We will make out tlie ticket for the G. 
R. N. Co'y. Shall I secure proxys ? 

" Yours truly, 

"ALLAN N. MAC NAB." 
The following from one of his supporters shows how our subject was es- 
timated in his constituency : — 

" MouLTON, April I'Tth, 1840. 
" Sir — I acknowledge the roccij.t of yours of the 28th Maicli, also of 
the St. Catharines Juvrntil. I have also done my best to niuke your sen- 
timents known, and I am jiroud to say, as far as my knowledge extends, 
that I believe there will not be an opposing voice, but a unanimous call in 
your favor at the next election. 

" I am, sir, your humble servant, 

" WM. EGARS." 
" Wm. Merritt Esq., M. P. P." 
The first resolution of the Board, April 8, was that the President, Engi- 
neer and Suj)erintendent examine the canal throughout, j)revious to its 
opening for business. 

This investigation was followed by applications for assistance that were 
not considered equally necessary by his correspondents. 

Not waiting for these letters, Mr. Merritt went down to Quebec. On 
his way the following letterj^ was written by him to Mr. Killaly, whose 
knowledge of the work and influence with the Governor made his recom- 
mendation of consequence : 

" Kingston, 13th May, 1840. 
" My Dear Sir — I will thank you to give me a letter to the Governor- 
General stating — 

" 1st. The necessity of commencing the reconstruction of pier at mouth of 
Gi-and River, immediately, foi- the convenience of the canal service, 

" 2d. The benefit the service would derive by constructing the lock at 
Dunville large enough to admit steamers in peace as well as war — without 
it protections must be confined below the dam — as a steamer could not 
make the interior. Consefjuences of further delay may be sejious — or 
anything further you may suggest. Truly youi-s, 

" W. H. MERRITT." 
"Government House, Montreal, 9th May, 1840. 
" Sir — Your letter of the 23d ultimo, and the accompanying report, 
have been submitted to the Governor General, and I am commanded by 
Hia Excellency to say that, not being at present in the immediate adminis- 
tration of the Government of Upper Canada, he must refer you for a 
more particular reply to your application to the Lieutenant Governor, who 
ia now charged with that duty. 



213 



"At the same time, aa the public works of U[)pei- Canada, as well as 
the financial condition of that province, have engaijed his recent serious 
att3ntion, bith dirin^ hisi al:niiistr.itioii of the Gr)vern;nint thore and 
Hince, His E'ccallency dirscts me to say that he sliould feel great diffioulty 
in giving any authority for the issue of so larg-3 a sun of debanturas as 
that for which you ai)ply. 

" By the terms of the Union, as proposed to Parliament, the debt of 
Upper Canada is to be borne by the United Province, and the amount of 
that debt hiui been stated, so far as it could be ascertained at the time, when 
the rej)ort of the Legislature was transmitted homo. To increase that 
debt now, except under the most absolute necessity, would, in his opinion, 
be im[)roper, and he never hesitated to declare to all who applied to him, as 
well foi; the Welland Canal as for any other public work in the province, 
that fwch was his view of the case. That until arrangements would finally 
be made for settling the finances, now, as you are well aware, involved 
far beyond the means even of supplying the interest of the debt, these 
works, however important, would not i)roceed, and that the only exi)endi- 
tiire which he would consider justifiable under the circumstances was such 
as might be indispensable for the fulfilment of engagements, or the 2)reven- 
tion of serious-! injury by dilapidations. 

" In order to ascertain the extent to whicli this nece.ssity miglit amount, 
His Excellency directed a survey to be made of various public woi-ks in 
progress in the Province, but with regard to the Welland Canal he was led 
to believe by the director that what was required merely to effect this 
purpose would be svxpplied by the tolls and property at the disposal of the 
canal company itself. If this should not be the case, then tj that extent, 
but to that extent only, would an outlay bo recommended. 

" Whilst His Excellency, therefore, takes a deep interist in the ulti- 
mate improvement of tl)at great channel of communication, ami is most 
anxious to see the time when the work n)ay proceed, he cannot depart in its 
favor from the principle which he has laid down, and the justice of which 
seemed to be generally admitted and felt. * 

" I have the honor to be, sir, vour obedient servant, 

"T. W. C.'MURUOCK, Chief Secretary. 
"W. H. Merritt, Esq., St. Catherine's, U. C" 

Government House, Toronto, 11th May, 1 840. 

Dear Sir — I return you the report on the Welland Canal, an d as I 
am not to be moved to Siinction any expenditure \ipon any work w hatever 
until the existing debt of the Province is placed on a sound footing, and 
additional funds provided on desirable terms, you cannot l)e wrong in sub- 
mitting, as you wLsh to do, the whole case to the Governor-Ceneral, to whom 
1 have very briefly written on the subject. Of the work itself I cannot 
hesitate to rep sat what I have fro(iU'Mitly personally said to you, that I 
consider it m>re important khan any other undertaking — that I have not a 
doubt it will give a m jst liberal return for any reasonable outlay in making 
it a permanent work — to the full extent, in lead, which I reported to the 
Secretary of Stiite, £25,000, and th.it an iu'r^isiu^ in3)m3 — vnd having, 
last year, examined all the locks, I am of tlia opinion that it is of great 
consequence that no nure money sliould hi sunk in repiirin^ t!ie present 
locks than in unavoidable in order to koijp open tin com n micatiou. 



" I beg to remain, sir, yours very sincerely, 
Wm. Merritt, Esq. 



CJEO. ARTHUR 



214 

He retunuMl on the 28th witli a more successful answer to his requ isi- 
tion for fiiiuls for the necessary improvements than these letters received 
during his absence would indicate. 

" St. Cathakines, 23d June, 1840. 

" Mv Deak Cathakine^ — On Monday, after you lefL this, I went over 
to Toronto witli William, and returned the day after. The money lias 
been at length procured, and the board, wliich assembled yesterday, lias 
consented to pioceed with the jiermanent woik. On Friday I meet the 
board at the Grand Kiver, and take a turn through Haldimand the week 
after, so that I shall bo very little at home for the coming fortniglit. 

" Your affectionate husband, 

" W. HAMILTON MERRITT." 

In June, pre})aration3 were made for the enlargement, material col- 
lected, <fec., under his supervision. The head olHce of the works was at St. 
Catharines, as formerly, and the engineering staff was comj)Osed of Captain 
Macaulay, R. E.; Hamilton Killaly,. Assistant ; Mr. Coventry, Clerk ; Mr. 
Prescott, Secretai-y and Treasui-er. 

While apparently attending to no higher occupation than his canal af- 
fairs tilt following letters passed, showing that our subject was not forgetful 
of the more extended business in law and other reforms that would occupy 
them in the future united Parliament. The publication of the act was in 
daily expectation and politicians moving. 

'♦ Tuesday Morning, July 7th, 1840. 
" Mv Dear Father — I was surprised to see that you have written so 
many letters as an " Upj»er Canadian," as you have been iitm home so 
much, and the articles have a))peared in such quick succes.sion. The editor 
pays a tacit compliment to the importance of their contents Ity occupying 
so much of liis editorial in contradicting their statenients, as the editors 
scarcely ever make long comments on communications from anonymous cor- 
respondei:ts, if they notice them at all. Mr. La Fontaine is now in Toionto, 
the Patriot says, canvassiiig for the t^peaker's chair in the United Assembly, 
and abuse's him most unmercifully. The laces will cc mmence to-monow. 
I shall endeavor to go one day, as there are some of the fastest horses from 
Canada and the States. I have finished Chitty's pleading, and will read 
next Tidd's jiractico. Have just conimenced to read the history of France 
in French, and as Mr. DelaHaye has the Code de Napoleon in French, also 
I think I will read it, as you have always appeared anxious to become ac- 
quainted with this system of laws. 

" Your afiectionate and dutifid son, 

" W. H. MERRITT." 

" St. Catharines, July 9th, 1840. 

"Mv Dear Sox — The editor of the Montreal 6Vf;:e^/<? does not under- 
stand the subject, ai,d ctnldits himself with as-seriions and misrej)resenta- 
tions. Hcwever the obj«'tt must be attained, the ini))rovement of so noble 
a river cannot riniain neglected much longer. I am hap])y to find you re- 
verting to your studies, and shall be glad to liear you mention from time 
to time the books which have last occupied your attention. Chitty's 




plead 

and t 



215 

])loa(lings and Tidd's practice is a commencement, and tlie Histoiyof Fmnce 
and tlie Code Naiiolcon will jnuve intcrcstinji;. I have 1 een anxiius to 
find the code on civil law pointing out the nifthod of collecting small debts, 
with costs, etc. I have seen the general maxims or | riiiciples on which the 
code is founded. I wish you would .send me a coj)y of your ex] er.ditures, 
and I will, on seeing the saine, send what money you require. A strict 
account must be kept and proni|)tly furni.shed that we may enter it in our 
cash account. Truly adoctioiiatelv vonr.s, 

" W. HAMILTON MERRITT. 

"I am also happy to hear you intend to improve in your writing, to do 
wliich, good pons, ink and paper are desirable." 

The following is the record of an occurrence that cast a gloom over the 
whole «omuuinity, and occurred while tl.o author and tlie Rev. James 
Clark were crossing the canal to Port Dalhousie. It is from Mrs. Merritt's 
journal of July 12 : 

" We know not wliat a d,iy will brin':^ forth. At 11 o'clock attended 
Divine service fur the sacoud tim? in our new church, and listened to our 
aged and beloved minister as at other time-*, little dreamiii.j it was the last 
time we should enjoy that privilege. Tliat very afternoon he met with an 
accident that caused his death the following Tuesday. Why we should be 
visited with so afflicting, so awful a dispensation without doubt we shall 
know here ifter. It is our duty to submit, and, oh, may this sad bereave- 
ment be sanctified to the good of our, his Hock's souls, and also to his dis- 
tressed family." 

On the 23rd of July an important meeting, presided over by 8ir A. 
^McNab, was held at Queenston Heights, for the purpose of rel)uilding the 
monument to Sir Isaac Brock, which an outlaw, named Ben. Lett, had 
blown up since the reballion times. Mr. Alerritt at this meeting made 
an eloquent and stirring speech, recounting in glowing words the battle, 
the first a'.id consecpiently the most important of tlie war of 1812, with 
which, being on the spot, he was familiar. 

A subscription list was opened, and the noble shaft which now crowns* 
those historic heights and does silent honor to the illustrious departed, 
attests the success of the undertaking. 

It is worthy of note that the table used by the Secretary of the meet- 
in •, was the one used by Governor Simcoe, when he held court in old Niag- 
ara, nearly a half a century previous, and was lent by Mr. Woodrvitt" of St. 
Davids, for the occasion. 

Sliortly after, the news of the passage of the Union Bill was received : 

Dear Father— You have no doubt h'^ard the (to you) gratifying intel- 
ligence of the passage of the Union Bill. The St. (r*^ )rge brought the 
first news a few hours since. No papers have as yet arrived. It is not 
well received here, particularly the inform ition that Montreal is to be the 
seat of Oovernment. It is thouglit, however, that it is v\n-n supposition 
as to its i)osition. Your atlcctionate and dutiful son, 

"W.'H. MERRITT." 




'■'•11 



216 

We read of a person divested of a limb feeling the pains incident there- 
to ; something of the kind must, in the absence of a Legislature and on the 
passing of the Imperial Act, have disturbed the body politic. 

The St. Catharines Journal, on the new consolidation of Canada pays : — 
" Much of our future welfare is as a jieople connected with its administra- 
tion iinder a wise, {)rudent and Liberal Governor General. If the people do 
their duty to themselves and their posteritj", it may work well ; on the con- 
trary, much mischief and vexation may occur, and instead of proving a 
blessing, we may tiud ourselves in a retrogradive position. As the country 
increasos in material numbers and wealth, the more ];ower and weight our 
representatives will obtain in the councils of the colony." 

Electioneering plans were formed, as if a Parliament were about to 
meet with the ensuing winter. 

The following is from the advocate whose long experience in the prac 

tice of law in Canada, and from whose forensic skill our subject had bled 

profusely, and whose talents, in the opinion of those out of the pi-ofession, 

might be turned to the advancement of the country in the coming 

struggle : 

" Toronto, July 10, 1840. 

"My Dear Sir — Yours of 4th in.st. came duly to hand. I appi-ehend 
there is no doubt but that Toronto will return two members, and I have no 
doubt that I could be returned with certainty, ifthe Eeformerswill as a party 
heartily give me theirsupport, and I think it would be well if you wouldcome 
over and be one of a select meeting to di.vcuss and organize the matter. 
Widmer has spoken to »ie, and Baldwin himself will give his support,but 
it must be brought about, not by soliciting support, which might be 
construed by some as evincing an anxiety on my jiart to attain some ulte- 
rior object for myself. They can't undeistand a man coming forward on 
])ublic grounds, and therefore a suspicion would at once be created by my 
showing an anxiety about it, and consequently those who are anxious that 1 
should be returned must get up a requisition to which of course I can re- 
spond. Committees should then be formed and all would go regularly on. 
There are many modeiate men of the Tory side who would vote for me as 
a man in whose loyalty they would confide, and who would trust to my 
judgment and the large stake I have in the town to do nothing that would 
endanger the peace of the country, and thus I would get Pujiportfrom many 
who would prefer me as a man of property and experience to other candi- 
dates not having the same hold upon them. Write and tay what you think. 

" Yours truly, B ." 

"Toronto, 10 July, 1840. 

Dear Sir — I believe as you do, that Mr. P- is sincere in tlie 

opinions he has avowed, and thinks that it would be an object to have hini 
returned by the reform interest to the next Parliament. In this ©pinion 

Mr. H , I am satisfied, participates as well as seme other refoimers 

here, but there is, as I have told Mr. l- himself, a very great general 

distrust of him — in fact so much so that I have had complaint made against 
me fur having I ecu understood to Lave expressed the foregoing opinions, 
and have been cautioned that it will aflTect my election if I appear promi- 



217 

nently desirous of his return. I have been anxiovis that there should bf^ 
a meeting of a few of tlie Reform i)arty here to consider the suV»ject, but no 
one seems willing to entertain it until it is ascertained with certainty that 
the city is to have a second member, and whether the election is to be by a 
joint vote or by wards. Mr. Dunn and D. Widmer also have been s]>oken 
of, and if either of them would stand, I am satisfied there would be no 
chance for any other persons. 

" Believe me, vours truly, 

" R. W. BALDWIN." 

"Toronto, 15 J ily, 1840. 
"My Dear Sir — I was much pleased to find by your let* ar that your 
canvas in Haldimand had been so successful, as I feared tlir Mr. Thomas' 
address might have caused a diversion. T do trust there w' . be no further 
opposition, and that you will stick to Haldimand. 1 fea: iiuch that your 
coming forward for Lincoln, which has been announ. , d, would cause 
trouble and perhaps a split among our party, which is not strong enough to 
bear anything of the kind. I get credit for being one of the extremes, but 
I assure you I have to bear a good deal of abuse, and unmerited suspi- 
cion, because I do not go far enough. When I was over in Queenstown 
and St. Davids with Mi. La Fontane, Mr. Thorburn heard Mr. Woodruft' 
denouncing my course as highly improper, and there are plenty here to 
say the same thing. I do not mind this, however. I am determined to act 
widi all who will in good faith support the Liberal party. I care not by 
what name it is called. I am not disposed either to rjuan-el with such men 
as Mr. Hari'ison, who stops short of our views and who will not yet identify 
themselves, with our party. We must accept a few such men, but as few 
as possible. They will probably, if we act with temper and judgment, form 

right in the lead. You know how unpopular Mr. B is 2}frso7ially, 

and how suspicious peo|)le generally are of his |)rinciples. I had a letter 
yesterday fi-om Mr. I.A Fontane, and he mentioned having heard from you. 
He writes in good spirits and says his friends are well satisfied with his 
report of the feelings towards them here. There is a very excellent article 
in Le Camufien, edited by Mr. Parent, of Quebec. It declares that they 
must abandon all idea of nationality, and jirepare gradually to become 
identified with the people about them. I shall translate and copy it. 

" Believe me, dear sir, yours very truly. 



"Toronto, 25th August, 1840. 
" My Dear Sir — I have been so much occuiiied in one way and another 
that I have not been able to snatch half an hour to answer your two let- 
ters. You will have seen by the papers that my business has been partly 
political, and I must say the further I advance the more disgusted I get 
with the factious c induct of the Corporation or Tory [tai-ty here. They 
oppose responsible government, and say we are a colony and must submit 
to the final authority and decision of the Home Government, but when the 
Home Government api)oint a Governor (Thompson) of politics diflfering 
from their own, they denounce his policy and do all they can to return an 
oj)position member to defeat his views. This would be quite right for 
vesponsibles to do, their desire being to carry out their own j)olicy without 
reference to the Government at home ; but when they i)rofess to submit to 
the Government at hojie and to d'fer theirs to the judgment of the Sec re- 



)l*fS 



:il8 



m 



tary of State, T cannot understand liow they can oppose the Governor 
sent from lionie. Tlio truth is, us lung us the (Jovennnent at Homo con- 
sults their wishes and looks through their eyes, it is quite right to bo loyal 
and do as you are bid from homo ; but let the Home Oovernment be 
changed and got into other hands, and thou wo hear a great deal about 
respect for the Homo Government and nee a great deal of party virulent 
opposition to it. My idea is that the Govei-nmont here should be conduct- 
eil according t,o our wants and wishes and in harmony with the dominant 
l)arty for tho time being, and quito independent of party politics in Eng- 
land. Changes of Ministry there should have no influence upon our affairs 
here. At a meeting tho other night I acquiesced in a dej)utation waiting 
upon Dunn to otl'er foi- th« town, to which he is to give an answer in a day 
or two. If he does not come forward I shall be put in nomination ; but 
lie was, and I tliink corri'ctly, considered to be the most popular man in 
the city, and therefore ho was named. 

" B." 
" W. H. Mkiuutt, Esq., St. Catharines." 

The synopsis of the Imperial Act has in it most important articles, as 
follows : It is entitled 

An Act to re-unite the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for 
the Government of Canada. 

Six;. 4. — Only a subject eligible for a Legislative Councillor to be sum- 
moned by the (.u)V(?rnor. 

y — (Unernors to ajjpoii't their Speaker. 

2ri— Ho ji))points time and place of election. 

I5''- — Oath — 1 (!o sincerely pn)mise anil swear that I will be faithful 
and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, as lawful Queen 
of Great J^ritaiu and Jreland and of the Province of Canada, dej.'fnilant on 
and bi'loHjimj tuthi: mid United Kingdom, and that I will defend her to 
the utmost of my power. 

•"'- — Tiiat out of the consolidated revenue fund of the Pi-ovince of 
Canada there shall be payable in every year to Her Majesty, .£'45,000 for 
Governor, Lieutenant (ioveruor, I Chief Justice, 4 Provincial Judges, 10 
Council of iiower Canada, 1 Chief Justice of Montreal, W Provincial 
Judgt%s, 10 Juilges ; pensioners, etc., .£20,000; Civil Secretary, Pi'ovinciul 
Secretary, Receiver General, Inspector General, Executive Council, Board 
of Works, etc., the.so cost, .§300,000. 

53 — Tiie independent civil and judicial list. 

54 — Sunender the territorial and casual revenue belonging to the 
Crown, three-llftlis to consolidated revenue till five years after the demise 
of Her ]\lajesty. 

50 — Fust charge on the duties, expense of collection ; second, the in- 
terest on public debt; third, the clergy ; fourth, civil list, £45,000: fifth, 
judicature, £30,000; sixth, old accounts. 

57 — Tnat it is not lawful for the Legislature to originate or pass any 
vote, resolution or biil of appropriation except by a message of the Gov- 
ernor. 

tJO — Labrador, from St. Johns, to be taken from Newfoundland and 
annexed to Quebec. 

Two more unim])ortant sections finish the list. 



219 

We do not wish, in pasHing through the acts of Miiiistors, to ohlitcmte any 
good intentions towards this distant i»ortioii of Her jNlajesty's possessions, 
nor is it our business to undertake to write a political history further than 
to relate the connection of our sulycct thereto ; hut the clauses of the 
Ui\ion Act quoted above show that in surrendering their jjower to stop 
the supplies and to originate important bills, ministers had legislated so 
ii8 to place tlie i)eople and CJovernment of Canada entirely under their 
power, and the history of our Government, detailed in this biography, 
shows that our subject, with other fellow-countrymen, ceasing to have the 
power to originate bills or to have any power over the money granted, left 
the Government in the hands of the Ministry, who always represented Im- 
pei'ial interests, so that the British Government, being res}>onsiblo for all 
the acts, l)y this act, adioitly M'orded, nuide it to appear tho responsiliility 
as belonging to the j)eople of Canada. 

The gradual weaning fron; some of hift canal imi)rovements is shown 
ill a letter to the author at Toronto from Ht. Catharines dated Aug. 17th. 
This had taken up a good deal of his time, as he had visited the Grand 
River every month since the opening of navigation: 

" My Dear Son — T returned from the Grand River on Friday. The 
improvements will l)e finished all well this week, and I hope to be tliere- 
after relieved from further attention to that object." 

H. K., in a long and contiilential letter, notifies liini of the departure 

of the Governor (General from Montreal for the West, and remarks that 

ho took a wide range in the Eastern Provinces, being upon the Vermont 

frontier. 

" MoXTRKAL. l.'Uh July, 1840. 

" Mv Deak Sir — The Governor told me that immediately, on his retuin 
from Halifax, he would go west. He niav be here the latter end ot this 



week. 



H. K." 



"Montreal, 14th August, 1840. 
" Mv Dear Sir — I received your letter here on our arrival from a 
tour in the eastern townships. The Governor General desii-es me to in- 
form you that it is his intention to leave this for Ujtper Canada on Tues- 
day next, and that he expects to b? at St. (.'athariui^s on Thursd.iy or Fri- 
day, and that he proposes to stay at Niagara for a few days after that. Any 
arrangements, therefoi-e, which you may desire to make could be made at 
tliat time. 

" Believe me, my dear sir, very faithfully yours, 

"T. W. C. MURDGOK. 
" W. H. Merritt, Esq." 

In August, the Governor Goneral, Sir P. Thom])son, visited this 
neighborhood, and was entertained by the ]>eople of St. Cathai-ines with a 
public breakfast. He afterwanls went up the canal in company with our 
subject, and left for the west at Port Colborne, in a government steamer. 



U|' 



220 

"St. Catjiarines, AuKust 30, 1840. 

"My Dear Thoma.s — Wo had tho (tovonior (tciu-ral at St(*j)lienHon'K 
yeHterday iiiorninj^. There was <juite a reH|i<Tt«l>l(i luiinhcr nu-t him and 
I (resented an adilroKH. Your father aacomjuinied him and Kin*- to Port Col - 
home. Father HavH he (the Governor (Jeneral) \h very nincli pleased with 
tlie canal. Your afl'ectionate mother, 

"C. M." 

Tlie changes in the constitution had now i*endered a now election neces- 
sary, ard a convention beiuf; liehl at St. Catliarines, cotnjtoscMl of delegates 
of the advocates of the union, from different townHhijts, and they being 
pleased with Mr. Merritt's course therein, ofi'ered liim the rei»resentation 
of the county, which after consideration, believing they fully rei)resent«'d 
tlie majority of tlie people of the county, he accepted. He afterwards paid a 
visit to his old constituency in Haldimand, and delivered his farew ell address. 

There was not at this time great concord in the Governor's liouse- 
liold, as tlie following from the former engineer of the Welland, and now 
promoted to the presidency of the Board of Works, will show : 

" Board of Works, 20th October, 1840. 

" Mv Dear Sir — I do not wonder at the mortification you express 
respecting your affairs in the Welland, but I cannot understand at all how 
matters are now going on. If I understand aright stones are being got 
out and prepared, but in what system, and without an aim to what class of 
work or specification ? Because it may be very easy to, as it were, 
strengthen the justice of the extravagant estimate by the rate of what is 
now doing. 

" I never heard of the letter sent the Welland Board, by order of the 
Governoj-, to furnish, him with an estimate, and presuming (at least I fear) 
it was suggested to him to do so through the late Military Secretary, 

Major Hall, prompted probaV)ly either by or iome of the corps, 

who are very clannisli, and will bear each other out, if it be possible. Hall 
has left, for which I am not sorry. 

" Tell Richard Boyle his petition was referred to me, and that I strong- 
ly urged his claim upon the favorable consideration of His Exaellency this 
day, and that he will shortly be settled with. 

" Faithfully yours, 

" H. H. KILLALY." 

" Office of Board of Works, Nov. 6th. 
" Mv Dear Sir — Not to permit our correspondence to drop, I take up 
my pen, although I have little to say. The Council is and has been sit- 
ting these two days closely. They are now hard at work at the Registry 
Bill, which I believe to be a most excellent one, and cleverly drawn up — 
rather long, but it is said unavoidably so. The sitting, it is generally su])- 
posed, will last about a fortnight, and I have I'eason to believe that no time 
will be lost in bringing the Union into play and holding the elections. It 
is generally represented to His Excellency that a reaction against the Ex- 
ecutive may take place if longer delayed. My opinion is so, and I think 
some of the late men started upon supposed Government interest and in- 
fluence, will not contrive to keep that influence in good odour with the 



221 

people. NeilHon, you obsorvo, i.i Iminincring awny. He \h doing much 
iniHohiof — not ntopping at any thing to work liiH ontlH. Among othfin, he 
is getting up little losrt timn rolxjllion against the Hleigh ordinanco, which, 
throJigh him, ciiuHeH great excitement just now. 

" All the otiioial and private letters from the foreign de|iai-tment unani- 
nioiisly concur in stating all fear of war is over. Thank (rod ! 

" The Colonel's estimate and Hpecilioation affords nnich amusement to 
all the ofliuers of his corps 1 meet with. They all concur in saying he 
knows nothing of practice, and that some trcwiti.ses |mblished by him in 
his more immediate department some time ago are laughed at hy ofticers. 
You can do nothing except through the liegislature. The Governor Gen- 
eral will not sanction any expenditure or del)t until then. Wilson's "tax- 
ation without representation" may have confirmed him in this. 

" You have, you may dej)end on it, .several and active friends, who have 
bellowed sutKcieiitly u|)on " Meri-itt'a sjwjculation, extravagance, chimerical 
ideas," etc. They are all above iii your city. 

" With esteem, faithfully yours, 

"JI. H. KILLAl.Y." 

" Okkic'e of the Post Office Commission, Montkeal, Nov. I'J. 
" Sill — I have to request that you will furnish mo, for the information 
of the Post OlHoe Commissioners, with the least po.ssible dtday, a return of 
your pay and emoluments as Post Master at St. Catharines for the year 
ending ."ith July last, distinguishini; therein the various sources from which 
your income has been derived. You will please al.so to state, under the 
head of observations, what expense.^' you have actually incurred, during the 
same period, for clerk hire, orfice rent, etc. 

" The Commissioners desire to bo further informed whether you rcu 
larly ailbrd your personal services to the tluties of the olHce, or whether 
the management devolves u\)on an assistant. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, 

"CHHIST. UUNKIN." 

Our subject, in reply to the above comnuiuication, sent the information 
required, which was as follows : 

" I allow the clerk the entire percentage of this office, wliich is £r)3 
Gs. li'ld. ; he pays office rent ecpial to £G 5s. Od. ; tire wood, £2 10s. Od. ; 
net proceeds, £4-4 lis. 3|d. I have the benefit of frankii.^' my private let- 
ters, and attend at the office when recjuired to answer any conimuuications, 
making up returns, »kc. ; but the daily management devolves on the assist- 
ant, who is at this moment William Copeland." 

October 20. — A strong protest, signed by several who have since 
borne prominent situations in Canada, against the Act of Union, appeared 
at this time, these dissentients being mostly in the Lower Province. 

The views of Mr. Merritt's siipporters in his own county with regard 
to his (jualitications for their representative may be gathered from this re- 
port of the convention, taken from the Journal of December 31, 1840 : 

" That, as it was generally understood that the services of Mr. Merritfc 
or Mr. Thorburn would be required, the committee lost no time in waiting 
on these gentlemen. Mr. Merritt having, at their unanimous solicitation, 




222 

jirorniHt'd to acoodt^ to tlicir wisIicH, provided th«* l.ittcr did not, ftiid tlie 
latter runninj,' for the South Kidin^', we have the haitpiiiess to congratulate 
you u))ou Mr. Morritt'n accoptHnce of tlio noniinn.tiuu. 

" Kellow Hul»jectH — As we are now apj)roaehiiiL; a nioht iuiportnnt crisis 
in our }iolitical atl'airH, it bccoineH our duty to phice liefore you a few con- 
.sideratiouH wliicii liave iniiuenced us in Helectinjj Mr. Merritt as the mont 
fitting,' candidate. 

" It will 1)0 tiio duty of the timt United LegiHlature to eHtaldish such a 
system of Guvonunent a-s will restore confidence and tnuuiuility to the 
c<»untry, and insure our future jiciico and conHei|uent prosperity ; and deeply 
inipresssd with the lielief that ih'V Majesty's Kuljjoets in ('anada are entitled 
to the same political privile^'es as are enjoyed by their fellow nuhjects at 
hotno, and at the same time most anxiovis that the connection with oiu" 
fatherland should be perpetuated, we have solicited one known to entertain 
enlarged and liberal views of Constitutional Government." 

The princijiles of the British Constitution were not as well undei-stood 
hero as at homo. An instance is given in the jiassage of the Reform Hill 
to illustrate its practice there. The committee then continues : 

" B^'fore the appearance of Lord Durham's report, many worthy men 
believed we were already in possession of the British Constitution — since, 
they now assert we cannot have the British Constitution while a colony of 
the British Empire. 

" It is most surprising that any portion of our fellow subjects can be 
found advocating a syst.em that ilid produce discontent iii the old colonies. 

" The committee conscientiously believe that the British Government 
desire to make the people of Canada happy !t»id contented. Tliat British 
statesmen can have no motive or interest in withholding from us the 
beneficial effects produced Ijy the practical working of their own constitu- 
tion. That the system reconnnended by Lord Durham's report would se- 
cure us all we desire — the management of our internal aflairs. That such 
a politic and liberal comiession would form the strongest of all possible ties 
by which we would be attached to the Government and Empire of Great 
Britjiin. 

" Being composed of King, Lords and Commons, neither of them could 
carry on the government without the co-operation of tho other. If any 
has the most power it is tlie people's branch, for they })ossess the [)ower to 
withhold annually the su iplies. 

" To secure these inestimable blessings, therefore, your committee would 
recommend tho selection of Mr. Merritt as their representative for Up- 
per Canada in the United Parliaatient." 

As the committee acknowledged ignorance on the subject, a gi-eat deal 
of confidence was necessarily reposed in our subject, which he recipro- 
cated, we believe, and felt, therefore, the weight of the responsibility. 

That he did not forgot his family interests, the following letter to the 
autlior will show : 

"St. Catharines, 7th December, 1840. 
" My Dkar Son — Yours of the 1st instant directed to me, and one of 
the 3d instant to Thomas, requesting him to send you $20, is at hand, and 
the amount is herewith enclosed. You request more correspondence from 



not, and tlie 
congnitulut(^ 

jiortnnt cri8is 

u u few con- 

t tiH the muHt 

iiltliHli such ii 
iiility to tlie 
; and deeply 
a art' cntitli'ti 
V Hultjects ut 
ion with our 

I to tiitt'itain 

II undorstoo'l 

I Reform 15111 

H : 

woitliy men 
iiition — since, 
le a colony of 

hjects can he 

e old colonies. 

Government 

Til at British 

from us tiie 

own constitu- 

jort would se- 

•8. That such 

II possible ties 
ipire of Great 

of them could 
ther. If any 
i the power to 

nmittee would 
tatire for Up- 

t, a gi-eat deal 
■h he recipio- 
nsibility. 
g letter to the 

mber, 1840. 
ue, and one of 
1 at hand, and 
pondence from 



223 

home, but yoii do not provoke it by writinif many or lonj^' letters rourself 
although it would appear you ha<i, not only mon^ leisure, but tliat it would 
be more Kcrvieeablo to you, by pnietiHing wlnit you will in ftfter life have 
much to do, if well and useful in any sphere of life. 

" Mr. Atkin.son preaehed two .sermons on Sunday, and aIthoui,'li very 
stormy, they were well attended. He in getting a very lai-go congiegation 
and 1 pray may do us all much good. 

" You anticipate Much pie isure in spentling the holidays at home. I 
hope it may be realized. The season is so boisterous that unlesa the duv 
is fair do not come over in the steamer. Yon can select a good dfty and 
get a wagon in Niagara — there is generally some down fr»)m tlu- country. 
I will thank Mr. Grasette to give you a description of the lots in the deed 
sent for his son, together with thf! name, so that I may have them wrote 
\iy William on parchment. I will write William on the morrow. 

" Your atlectionate father, 

"W. HAMILTON MERIUTT. 
" Mr. J. P. MF.nuiTT." 

"Board ok Works, 7th December, 1810. 

"Mv Dear Sir— T have just had yours of the 2Gth ultimo. The same 
post brought me a letter from Mv. Adams, enclosing one of your addresses 
to the electors, which I have not yet read, as Mr. Murdock got hohl of it 
and brought it over to the Governor, from whom I have not yet got it. 

" t)ur Special Commission is doing very little — travels at snail's pace. 
I have just heard the E.\.ecutivo Council has been summonad. I think 
but little time will be lost now in declaring the Union. You will see by 
the papers that all idea of Quebec being the seat of Government is aban- 
doned. This place is, also. I believe it will ultimately end in Kingston. 

" I am glad to see by your letter that Hall is making an estimate, so 
that your nuitters will be fully prepared against the meeting of the Legis- 
lature. I have not seen anything further of Mr. Mauley's docum«>nt8. 
Those sent to us are merely throe plans of hi.s lino and location of locks. 

" Yours faithfully, 

"H. H. KILLALY. 
" W. H. Merrht, Esq." 

Messrs. Merritt and Rykert generally acted together and voted uni- 
formly in the direction of improvements, even up to the la.st acts of the 
last Parliament, whose act in surrendering the Constitution we have found 
it necessary to condemn. They voted with the forty-three for the Union, 
including the jiermanent judicisU list. The difference increased during the 
canvass, and the election turned on the Union and " responsible" govern- 
ment. Concord returned when the latter left the electoral contest. Mr. 
Rykert turned his attention to local affairs, while Mr. Merritt attemptetl 
to carry out the interests of the country in Parliament, with what succe.sa 
remaining pages will show. In the meantime, the contest was carried on 
through the columns of the Journal and Constitutionalist in an internecine 
paper war. 



224 



1841. 

An anomaly in tlie history of Canada — no Parliament had been called 
before the holidays, and our sulyect hid the leisure to enjoy them in the 
bosom of hia family. The following epistle gives in homely atyle the occu- 
pations he and they were engaged in : 

" St. Catharines, 3d January 1841. 

"Mv Dear Mot'IER— Christmas and the New Year holidays, with all 
their m<>ri'y making and social greetings are past. The custom of gentle- 
men making calls on the first day of the year is practised here pretty gen- 
erally. Many who liave no communication the rest of the year will on 
that day call at each other's hoiKses and take a bit of cake with the lady. 

The young men made great reckoning on paying Miss A a visit, aa 

they remembered how bountifully they were regaled there last year with 
hot cotfee, etc, and they fared quite as well this year, by the account our 
boys gave. We allowed William lo have a party Tuesday evening, and it 
was pretty well utttMided. Uncle Elias, Aunt iSusaii and Dr. Chase were 
among the young folks. 

" Oar new chuj-ch looked very neat on Christmas day — the pillars 
wound with evergreens, and festoons in front of the gallery; but best of 
all, we have a good faithful clergyman a'.:d a large and attentive congre- 
gation. Only the family dined with us, as Mrs. M. said some years ago she 
would never give another dinner on Christmas; she thinks it is not a 
proper day. 

" Your aflectionate daughter, 

"C. M." 

The wail of mourning for the rebellion had not yet died out in the land, 
and while most are enjo3'ingthe season in the society of family and friends, 
some have to pass it in solitude, sorrowing for those banished to the farthest 
extremity of the habitable globe : 

"Bertie, January 12th, 1841. 

" Dear Sir — I have just been informed that you have received a letter 
from Sir John Franklin, of Van Dieman's Land, saying that the liberty 
of the island had been granted to Mr. Wait, and my inten.se anxiety to 
know the truth of this pleasii.g intelligence induces me to trouble you 
with this note. I have recently received a letter from Mr. Wait, which is 
rather encouraging, in which he speaks most highly of the country, wishing 
nie to come out, if possible, and Mr. Roberts, the gentleman to whom him- 
.self and Mr. Chandler were assigned on landing in that country, has also 
written to me, holding out inducements for me there, saying that from a 
knowleilge of my exertions for my husband, whom he respects from acquain- 
tance, he is disposed to render me services on my landing in that country, 
aiid that I may rest assured of a comfortable and happy home. This was 
indeed unexpected, though I was aware of every influence being exerted on 
my behalf by my friends in E^igland, and fain would I go could I see the 
possibility of my doing so, but this I must leave to Him who is able to pro- 
vide. I fear the time is distant when I shall be permitted to lay my case 
befora the United Legislature, as the Governor General seems disposed to 



225 

withhold that privilege. I am stopping at Mr. S. McAfee's, where I hare 
a school three miles below Fort Erie, from which post office a line will 
reach me, should you kindly oblige 

" Your most grateful servant, 

"MARIA WAIT. 
"W. H. Merbitt, Esq." 

" St. Johks, N. S., April 30, 1841. 

" Dear Sir — While I have to mourn the loss of a kind husband, I am 
at the same time doomed to waste my strength in endeavoring to procure a 
living for the large family of little ones which he has been doomed to leave 
me. I have been led to these reflections in order to impress you with the 
conviction that it is through necessity that I make this appeal to you, hop- 
ing that you will exercise your influence in a liCgislative capacity, and, per- 
adventure, procure the return of my husband to the bosom of his family ; 
and in so doing you will infinitely oblige 

*' Your humble servant, 

"ELIZA CHANDLER. 
" W. H. Merritt, Esq." 

The past year was a remarkable one in many ways. Extraordinary 
powers were placed in the hands of the Governor. The seat of government 
was changed to Kingston, and in accordance with his promise to the Cana 
dian people, that steam communication with Europe would be established 
by the Imperial Government, it resulted in a contract being given to Mr» 
Cunard ; but instead of being a real benefit to Canada, it was the reverse, 
as the vessels only stopped at Halifax, and alternately went on to Boston 
and New York, thereby benefitting the Erie Canal, and the commerce of 
the United States, and diverting our own from its natural outlets by the 
lakes and St. Lawrence, to the ocean. 

The annual report of the canal, under Mr. Merritt's presidency, was 
published, and showed a promising statement. The traffic had materially 
increased, the tolls rising to the large sum of $80,000 during the year, with 
a bright f)rospect ahead. The results of the past season put a damper on 
those wJio opposed the canal, and all now looked forward to the grand im- 
provements as calculated to place this work far in advance of its previous 
position. 

"St. Catharines, 28th January, 1841. 
" My Dear Sir — I beg leave to enclose you for the information of His 
Excellency the Governor General a copy of the report of the Welland 
Canal Company for 1840. This document proves that the amount of stock 
and loans held and made by the Provincial Government of Upper Canada 
prior to 1837 did not exceed £209,000 sterling. Secondly — That in con- 
sideration of the interest on X50,000 sterling, the British Government are 
secured by a Provincial statute to the free transit of the canal for all 
Government stores, and that the one-ninth of the cost of the canal, which 
it was the intention of the Ministry at that time to grant, has been re- 
served. Thirdly — That the work has been constructed at a less cost than 
any similar work in America of equal magnitude. That its progfes-sivo 



226 

income has exceeded the amount set down by it.s most sanguine promotei-s. 
That a revenue of only „£25,650 for an average of three years will not 
only pay the interest on loans since 1837 — six per cent, dividend on pri- 
vate shares — but the interest on a future outlay of .£400,000. 

" With this favorable result you may imagine my deep regret in being 
compelled to announce that another year has p;ussod away and the canal not 
one hour nearer its completion than when placed under the control of the 
Executive Government of Upper Canada in \S'M. I feel this disappoint- 
ment the more keenly from a conscioutmess the money could have been ob- 
tained, the feeder to (rrand River widened and the material prepared foi* 
one-half the locks by the opening of the ensuing navigation, out of th'* 
resources of the canal itself, had the Executive continued that counte- 
nance which has ever boon reposed in my judgment by the private share- 
holders. With a hope that the Union will take phic>> in time to put 
the work under efficient management, 

" I am, sir, yours, <kc., 

"W\ HAMILTON MERRITT. 

"T. W. C. Mlrdock." 

"BoAHD OF Works, 3d February, 1841. 

" My Dkar Sir — I go to Kingston in the morning to prepare for the 
meeting if the Legislature. I am ordered to be ready by the 1st of May. 
This takes the bull liy the horns, that place being fixed by the authorities 
at home and here as the proper site permanently. The Governor is certainly 
right at once to get there and sot the question at rest. Going to Toronto 
for a soa.son or two would only keej) up the agitation of this question, as 
wo'l as bolster up tlu^ hopes of the party now expiring. 

" The Council expect to rise on Saturday, but I don't think they can 
until Tuesday. The proclamation will follow itintaatii): Harri' on and 
Draper are down here. Tlie French ai-e exerting themselves m.ich, but 
quietly. 

" Faithfully yours, 

"H. H. KILLALY." 

Among the items of etigineering and political gossip, from his Irish, and 
consoipiently, animated correspondence, the really imitortant measure of 
adajiting the scresv for projmlsiou is here foreshadowed : 

Kingston, 9tli February, 184L 

♦' Mv Dkar Sir — I have just had yours of the 2l)th ultimo. You ask 
what has become of me 1 Why, I have written you two letters lately, in 
which I mentioned all my proceedings with respect to being here busily en- 
gaged in preparing for the meeting of the 1 jegislaturo early in May. The 
London election, I have reason to know, will be on the 1st of March, the 
county about the 7th, and all the others at the same time. 

" You see the re{)ort is short enough, but on the whole very satisfac- 
tory — in fact nothing more can be said. I believe I stated to you that I 
got Lord Sydenham to write to the Admiralty for olUoial information of the 
practical results of the various trials and improvements making for some 
time back in that department and the Post OHice, as to the jjowers of the 
Screw driven vessels. Slioulil it be found to answer, beyond all doubt 1 
conceive it settles the question of our scale of locks here at once, as one of 
24 or 20 feet wide will permit a steamer to pass through of the capacity and 



227 



oil ask 
toly, ill 
isilv eii- 

•ch, the 

satisfac- 
tliiit 1 
n\ of the 
or soiac 
sof the 
doubt 1 
IS one of 
,city and 



tonnage of tlie Groat Britain. I should like very much to see Mr. Hall's 
maps. I got a copy of the proclamation the day before yesterday, but I 
have not yet heard of its being officially received. It is dated the Sth, and 
and proclaims 'That on and after the 10th instant, the provinces are unit- 
ed, &,c.' 

" Yours faithfully and with esteem, 

"H. H. KILLALY. 

" Marks has at last come out here. The Admiralty say he must resign 
liis situation if elected. I think Forsyth will get in for this place. Barkus 
has resigned. Cartright, I am told, will not come in, but tliis is questioned. 
1 left Draper and Harrison in Montreal." 

As a record of the links of the . improvements in the communication 
to the sea-boai'd, the following items concerning the Chambley Canal will 
not be entirely out of place : 

" St. John's, L. C, 12th February, 1841. 
'* Dear Sir — The Commissioners of this canal have been singularly un- 
fortunate in its prosecution and management. A series of disasters of one 
kind or other has attended them from the beginning. They at first got into 
difficulty with the contractors, who took the work too low, and although 
they were allowed for a good many extras, they still have an unsettled 
claim against ihe Commission of some £20,000, which although in a course 
of prosecution will never be paid. They next got at loggerheads with their 
engineer. Their work was left in an unfinished state, after expending all 
their money. They made an attempt to recommence it in 1839, and ap- 
plied for my services to superintend it ; but after making up the estimate, 
plana, specifications, ttc, they were unsuccessful in obtaining funds, and of 
course I left theiu. Ijast year thoy were more fortunate, for they succeeded 
in obtaining a pai-t of the amount, and the work was recommenced under 
Mr. Baird, who unfortunately became deranged, and got everything in a 
most awful state of confusion, and although upwards of £8,000 was spent 
(luring the last season, I do not think the work is a bit farther advanced 
than when I made the estimate in 1839. If their present engineer retains 
his senses in putting tilings in order and doing what has been undone, he 
may consider himself most fortunate. It is my intention, however, to do 
the best I can, and hope I may be so fortunate as to see this work com- 
pleted. With kind rememln-ances to Mrs. Merritt and family, 

'' I remain very truly yours, " G. KEEFER." 

"Toronto, 11th February, 1841. 

" My Dkak Sir — I was absent at Tyondenagha on duty when your let- 
ter of tlie 2Gth January reached this office. I have laid it before the 
(lovernor. The surrender of the land from Green's to Brantford Bridge 
letpiires consideration, and should not bo done hastily. That it is highly 
importiiut to Brantford to have the canal continued to that place 1 admit. 
Mr. Wilkes' plan of doing it from the Indian monies would never meet 
with th(» sanction of the Indians, and I think it will recpiire great manage- 
ment to induce them to contribute in any manner to it. 

"The Lieutenant Governor, on the 8th instant, directed me to include 
my name in the list of directors for the ensuing year, to represent the In- 
dian stock, and I have written to Mr. Jackson to transfer in my name the 
uuniber of shares necessary to qualify me for the office. 



228 

*' I shall be most happy to co-operate iu anything which may make the 
stock productive. I know Mr. Wilkes in making great exertions to get t'te 
control of the direction, and I have bean told has divided a few shares of 
stock into many parts, to command a majority of votes. 

" Whatever course is adopted in reference to the continuing of the work 
io Brantford, none should be rashly entered upon, and I have been directed 
to make myself master of the subject before assenting to any proposition. 

" Believe me, my dear sir, yours very faithfully, 

" S. P. JARVIS." i 

The necessity of keeping a connected record of the events of this very 
important period in the history of our subject in the items of intelligence 
conveyed by his various correspondents necessitates occasionally going 
over the same field. In the present letter, the information of when the 
elections would probably be held has already been conveyed authoritatively 
from head-quarters. 

"Toronto, 18th February, 1841. 

"My DearSir — I havejust received your note of the 16th. With respect 
to Norfolk, a difficulty has arisen not anticipated, and which might have 
very seriously embarrassed the party. As it is, however, 1 tlo not think 
it will signify. I have a requisition from Lennox and Haddington, one is 
coming from Hastings, another from the North Riding of York, and they 
•re getting up another from the Enst Riding of Halton. I am not yet de- 
cided as to the one which I ought to accept. Mr. Mcintosh has greatly 
offended his constituents by offering to retire. By the latest information 
tliat I have, the arrangement was to have the elections on the 8th and 15th 
Mai'ch. On tho former for the towns and on the latter for the counties. 

•' Believe me yours truly, 

"ROBT. BALDWIN.". 

The following mode of influencing men of a foreign nationality, and 
other electioneering items of that day, may not bo without their instruc- 
tion to present aspirants for political honors. The character of being a 
" plain man" will go a great ways with men who are straightforward in 
their dealings, as the Dutch Menonesse of Clinton proverbially were : 

" Beamsville, February 18. 

" Dear Sir — I received your note, and beg to ac(iuaint you that I have 
used every endeavor to obtain the informatiou you required, but I found it 
quite impossible to acquire a correct and accurate list. However, I feel 
quite confident that you will get a majority of voters. Some few of the 
Dutch who live near Patterson will vote for llykert, but the great majority 
of this class of citizens will vote for you. Several Dutchmen told me 
that they felt convinced that Rykert could not obtain a dozen out of their 
Dumber. Many will not vote at all. 

" Patterson has turned out to assess a month earlier than usual, and 
may infiuence their miuds somewhat, but, I think, not to any extent. Should 
you happen to be in their neighborhood, call upon them and use them after 
their own fashion. I will just mention that many of them like you and will 
vote for you because they think you what they call in their homely fasliion a plain 
man. This I mention by way ot a hint, as it goes a great way with them. 



229 



iuai. and 

Should 

icm after 

and will 



I win continue to exert myself, as usual, as much as possible, and should any* 
thing turn up I will send you word. 

" I will say no more, but shall be happy at any time to further your views 
ID any way you may point out. 

" Yours sincerely, 

"W G. DICKINSON." 

" Smithvillb, 8th March, 1841. 
" My Dear Sib — I forward to you the proceedings of the committee at 
the last meeting, and have to regret that I cannot attend the hustings at 
present, on account of one of my children being very sick. I employed or 
opent two days in following up the " great Chronicle," with good effect. This 
part of Grimsby remains untainted. Every committee man in this section 
has been awake. Mr. Rykert has conducted himself in a manner truly as- 
toniiihiDg. We hope to bid him farewell. 

" I am, sir, trilty in haste, 

" ABISHAI MORSE. 
"Wm. H. Mrrritt, Esq." 

" N. B. — Our friends are coming down by loads. "A. M." 

At a meeting of the Committee for Townships at Beamsville on Monday, 
let, March, 1841, it was 

" Eetiolved — That this committee add to its number a.M follows : 

" Caistor— Henry Miller, Andrew Gregory, Hiram Lymbourne, Josiah 
Nclfion, Peter Simmons, Paul Horton. 

" Gainsborough — Wm. J. Stuart, Bobert Comfort, Gilbert Lane, Thomas 
Eohins, Ab. Crow, Luke Cavers, Alex. Garner, Wm. 0. Eastman, Jacob Ken- 
nedy, Wm. Gardner. 

" Grimsby — Peter Buckbee, John Harris. John D. Bearaer, George 
Adams, John Ness, R. C. Griffin, D. Wolverton, D, Palmer, Wm. Merritt, 

" Clinton — Daniel Smith, Daniel Freeland, Isaac Teeter, Nathan Gilmore, 
John Buchner, Dr. Dickinson, Philip Gregory, Adam Adair. 

" Louth — Wm. Adams, Adam Brown, Wm. Purdy, Isaac Overholt, 
Ben. Gould, Geo. E. Reed. 

" Grantham— John Gilliland, Pat. McClinchy, Ab. Hosteter, John Darby, 
Deacon Smith. 

"2. That a part of this committee attend at the hu.sting8 as follows : For 
Caistor — James Tisdale, John Merritt. Gainsborough — Thomas Hardy, 
John Page. Grimsby — Henry Smith, David Palmer, D. Wolverton, F. A. 
Morse, by request of Mr. Merritt. Clinton — Rowly Kilboru, Tim Hixon. 
Louth — B. Gregory, Isaac Overholt. Graatham — All. 

" 3, That the members of the committee at St. Catharines are hereby 
authorized to send teams to the members of the township committees 
reepectively, who are r equired to give the address of those persons that will 
support the election of Mr. Merritt, and this committee will use every exer- 
tion to effect that object." 

We have mentioned the name of Robert Gourlay in the earlier part of 
this work, and we have shown that he was supported by our subject at no 
little sacrifice. Subsequent events will show him to be still a warm friend 
and advocate, but his views of infringing the rights of the British subject 
were unappreciated by the mass of the electors, and though the local press 



230 

had been crowded by hia narratives for months previous, be failed, for want 
of a personal canvass, to be nominated as a candidate for the United Parlia- 
ment. The following remarkable document on the subject of the election 
was written by him : 

" Indiana, U. S., February 2G, 1841. 
" To W. II. Mei-ritt awl G. Rykert, Esquires : 

" Gentlemen — I am to make to you an extraordinary request ; but one 
compliance with which will do you the highest honor. I ask you to relin- 
quish for the present your desire to represent in Parliament the North Rid- 
ing of Lincoln and exert yourselves in getting me elected. My address to 
the electors was published prior to yours. You, therefore, oppose me ; not I 
you. But your opposition has in no way altered my mode of action. I 
never meant to canvas for votes or contend with any individual. My mcau- 
iug was to give the mhabit.intl of Niagara district an opportunity to do me 
justice, and that in the most noble manner. This is what I mean, and it will 
bo in your power to explain my meaning to all, which I cannot do, confined 
as I am by sickness. On the 4th of May, 1818, I became tho»6orvaut of 
the people of Niagara district, and to please them, drafted an address tto the 
Prince Regent, which, after being submitted for months to the inspection of 
the people of Upper Canada, was by them universally admired and adopted, 
engrossed and despatched to England for presentation by Lord Erskinc. 
Had that address been sustained, the Province would assuredly long ere now 
have been the most enviable spot on the habitable globe. 

" Gentlemen — Should you lay aside hostility to each other, and go forth 
to nominate me — should electors thus cheered on to unanimity, appoint me 
as their representative in the Parliament of Canada, who wonld not applaud 
your conduct, and what would you lose by it ? Comparatively nothing ; for 
after one session I would vacate my seat, and leave you to contend for the 
remaining honor. For myself, I want only an opportunity to plead against 
wrong, and thus have a chance of regaining my rights and my property, with 
a home in b'cotland. 

" 1 have caused the records of 1818 to be reprinted, that all may be well 
understood. A generation has grown up since then, and many have come 
from distant parts who, without these records, may be incredulous. These, 
with your good will, are sufficient, and even my presence at the hustings may 
be dispensed with, should ill-health continue, or other circumstances hold me 
at a distance. 

" I am, gentlemen, in all sincerity yours, Ac, 

"ROBERT F. GOURLAY." 
The election for the North Riding of Lincoln, came off on the 9th of 
March. In Mr, Merritt's speech, wo find a eulogy on the late lamented 
Earl of Durham, to the adoption of whose report on the state of the Pro- 
vince by the Imperial Government, we ov/ed the present hopeful state 
of the Province. Many of the suggestions in the report were made by our 
subject, but required an influential man like the Earl, to carry them out in 
England. 

The result was his election by a largo majority over his old associate, 
Mr. Rykert, who was opposed to the scheme of the Earl. 



231 

The prominent members returned at this election were — Morris, who 
succeeded Gowan, for Leeds; II. Smith from Fontinac ; Baldwin and M«r- 
ney, Hastinjrs; Harrison, Kent; I'rice and Baldwin, York; Morritt and 
Thorburn, Lincoln; David Thomson, Ilaldimand ; Alan McNab, Ilamilton ; 
F. Hincks, Oxford, and T. Parke, Middlesex. 

We have dwelt more on this election than any other, because of its im- 
portant result. The national feeling was the paramount element of Lower 
Canada in opposition, exceeding that of sect, many of the contests at the 
election being between Irish and French. Riots and loss of life occuirod in 
the election of Caleb Hopkins, John Gilchrist, Dunn and Buchanan, la 
D. M. Armstrong's election at Berthior seven were killed. 

The very natural desire to celebrate their liard-earned victory at the 
hustings is evinced by the party who bad suffered so much by implication, 
if not co-operation in the rebellion. Farther on, we will have to give some 
of the wire-pulling that prevented their success from producing the fruits 
they HO ardently anticipated. 

"Hamilton, 3Iarch 27. 

"My Dear Sir— Many of the leading members of our party have had 
it in contemplation for some time past to commemorate the Parliamentary 
return of a majority of Liberal candidates by giving a reform banquet at 
this place iu the course of the ensuing month — say on or about the 15th 
proximo. 

" We propose to invite as special guests Messrs. Dunn, Baldwin and 
Harrison, Buchanan, Small, Price, Hincks and any other Liberal member 
whose residence at Toronto would enable him to attend, David Thorburn, D. 
Thompson, yourself and our three county members. We anticipate being 
able to accommodate from 250 to 300 persons in our Town Hall, and pledge 
ourselves to do the thing in good style, if we obtain the concurrence of our 
proposed guests. A festival at Hamilton will not prevent similar demonstra- 
tions at Toronto or other places, if desired ; but we think it particularly de- 
sirable to hold one here- firstly, because we can do so without fear of Oranga 
rioting, and, secondly, because, as Fergusson says, it would be under the very 
nose of Sir Alan McNab, who is one of the few "compact" ?nembcrs sent to 
Parliament. We think the meeting of great importance, both to the Govern- 
ment and lleform party, because the social union of the present Liberal 
administration with the Reform members of the neighborhood would indicate 
a union of political sentiment, the exhibition of which would tend beyond 
all things to seal the fate of our political enemies and place us in a firm and 
distinguished position. 

"I have been instructed by a committee to address you on this subject, 
and shall be glad to hear that you are disposed to accede to our invitation. 
I may state that our arrangements are not sufficiently formed to enable us to 
give them publicity ; but the parties connected with them are — The Hon. 
Adam Fergusson, the Dundas reformers, Wilks and Moyle (of Brantford, 
I believe), Ferrie, Young, Tiffany, Stinson and all in this place, and the 
neighboring farmers have in many instances promised their support. 



232 

" Do me the favor to answer this at your earliest convenience. I shall 
endeavor to communicate with Mr. Thorburn and Mr. Thomson and , the To- 
ronto gentlemen bj this night's post. 

" I am, dear sir, very faithfully yours, 

"E. C. THOMAS: 
"W. H. Mkrritt, Esq." 

The patrouago of the canal, with other public measures, by the new 
arrangements centres in Govornment. Tiie President of the Board of 
Works and Councillor is now dictator of the position, vice Councillor and 
Secretary McCauley. 

Kingston, 9th April, 1841. 

" Yours of the 25th was forwarded to m« here. I am about to leave for 
Montreal where I will be for ten days, after which I return here, I am very 
anxious to sec Hall's plans. I saw your engineer in Toronto for a moment. 
He appeared chagrined. I also saw Dr. Hamilton, who said, " The engineer 
had given up a good deal of his expensive notions." I was sounded as to his 
being again elected president. I said, of course, he should instantly vacate 
his office. This did not appear to go. I fear an attempt was made to oust 
Kecfer. Has this been so, and what is the result? I am very anxious to 
know, but I heard in such a manner that I could not hint it to you with- 
out breach of trust. Write to me and inform me sure, 

•' Yours with esteem, very truly, 

"H. H. KILLALY." 

Immediately after the election contest our subject began with all his 
sanguine and energetic disposition to smooth the way for a real union with 
pur French fellow-subjects, by corresponding with the leading politicians . 

The following is from an ardent Canadian — though not the one who 
engaged in the rebellion : 

" QuEBKC, 27th April 1841. 

" My Dear Sir — Your letter of the 15th instant only reached me yester- 
day. I shall, of course, consider it as ' private and confidential.' 

" The members elected in this part of the country, as disapproving of 
the Reunion Act, will adhere to the principles of the circular to the electors, 
of which I enclose a copy. They do not, as you will see by that circular, 
pronounce absolutely in favor of the repeal of the Union, but on its repeal or 
amcndt ent, so as to do away with the injustice done to the late Province of 
Lower Janada. They may put on record the refusal of the majority of the 
people of Lower Canada to give their consent to the Reunion Act, and their 
representatives, I conceive, will readily concur with the representatives of Up- 
per Canada in any amendments to the act which may tend to make it more 
consistent with justice to both provinces, and for the maintenance of the rights 
of the representative body and the acknowledged liberties of British sub- 
jects, without distinction of national origin, religious belief, place of birth or 
residence. They will, besides, I have no doubt, readily concur in such 
measures as may tend to secure an able and impartial administration of jus- 
tice, and a faithful discharge of the duties of all executive officers, and a 
proper system of responsibility and accountability. The facilitating the 
settlement of the Crown lands, the freedom of industry and the improvement 
of the great channels of commercial communication, will have their decided 



233 

gapport, without any partiality to parlioufar tntcronts or loealities ; keeping 
always in view the meanH of the country, and the obligation of not ioTolving 
onrBeWes or our poRtcrity in extravagant projects and Bpeculationn, such a» 
are bringing 80 many difficulties on our southern neighbors. With respect tO' 
education it must be facilitated to all alike, without distinction. Religious 
BocieticB must support themsolves, there must be no interference with their 
peculiar privileges, and allowing no power by the one over the other. In so 
far as the consent and co-op iration of the British Oovornmcnt is concerned, 
I should conceive that many goo*! and useful laws, advantageous to both por- 
tions of Canada, will be more readily obtained by the representative body 
of a million and a quarter of souls than could be obtained by thorn when 
divided. You and I have, I believe, always differed in opinion on the ques- 
tion of uniting the Provinces; and we probably will continue so to diflFer. 
The project originated in a desire to place the persons and property of the 
subject at the mercy of the office-holders and their connections ; and it bears 
marks of being completed in that design. The sacrifices that the assembling 
of a representative body to treat of the common interest of a people extend- 
ed over upwanis of twelve hundred miles of territory, different in language, 
laws, religion, institutions, climate and circumstances, the manner in which 
the revenue of the country has been appropriated without its consent, and the 
Assembly bound down, leaves us only a mockery of free government and of 
the British Constitution, which could not last in England, and still less in 
North America. I have no doubt, however, that even this sham representa- 
tion of the country will enable men who have a permanent interest in it, to 
eome to a better understanding with one another, for the common advantage, 
and will in replacing the population in a condition likely to remain in connec- 
tion with the British Empire, and consistently with the allegiance which we 
all owe to the British Crown. 

"I speak of what I believe are the views of the representatives of Lower 
Canada — those who disapprove of the Reunion Act. I have had no consulta- 
tion with any of thera, but I am not apprehensive of any mistake. They 
ask justice for their constituents, the common rights of British subjects, and 
are ready to promote for all the other inhabitants of the Province what they 
ask for themselves, On pari!icular questions, they will be ready to form their 
conclusions indifferently to all parties or private interests. I can have no ob- 
jection that these views should be known to everyone. 

" I remain, very respectfully, your obedient and humble servant, 

"J. NEILSON." 

The following is from one who retired from the jiublic arena for the 

position of collector at Port Colborne, whose kindness of disposition and 

Kuavity of manner, characteristic of the Irish gentleman, endeared him tu 

all with whom he came in contact : 

"London, April 2lRt, I84L 
"My Dear Sir — Yours of the 9th in.stant reached me in good time, 
and my only excuse for not answering it immediately is that I did not kBOW 
how. One of ths questions you allude to is so very important and extensive 
in its connections — coupled with the tortuous deceit that long, scheming heads 
in and out of the House of Assembly will bring to bear on it, even putting 
on the garments of angels of light — that I find I am utterly incapable of giv- 
ing my views in the short compass of a letter, or, indeed, of placing them cor- 
rectly and fully on paper at all. The first question you allude to — that of 



234 

tipeaker--with the friends of responsible government there can be no two 
opinions. The Ass'^mbly should stamp its character indelibly by their choico 
of a Speaker, iDciudingulso the consideration that if not a Lower Canadian, 
he should bo a person iu whom that portion of our fellow subjects have CTcry 
confidence, in order to show them that the reforuiors of Upper Canada have 
every disposition to respect their feelings, and treat tlunn in that friendly, fair 
way that alone can make the Union any way palatable to them. * ♦ j 
have uo personal acquaintance with the men returned from the Lower Province. 

" I am, my dear sir, is esteem, truly yours, 

"THOMAS PARKE." 

" AMKiiiASDUKon, May 3d, 1841. 

" My Dear Sir — Yours of the 10th ultimo was duly received. I 
agree with you that the success of our new aduiiiiistratioii must dejnsnd 
upon the wisdom of the measures they iulvocate, ami it is all importiuit 
that wo agree with them, if wo can do so without sacriiico of principle, and 
I trust we shall iu no ciuto be called upon to do so in order to agree with 
them. I very much dread the civil list (piestion, aiul I fear the Tories will 
endeavor to drive us into that ground if they can. Should they do so, 1 
think our bettor plan would be to endeavor to evade it, till we give thH 
new CWstitution a fair trial, as it is an exporimout, and if we go to mend- 
ing it before we try it, should it j)rc)ve a failure w(i may have ourselves to 
blame for it. We have a most diHicult task before us. I expect an atteuipt 
will l)«i iiiiide to got us into a scjuabble with the Governor (jeneral respect- 
ing .some of the elections iu sonic! part of the Province. IJotli Tories and 
Republicans would glory in getting us into difficulti(^s of that kind, but 1 
think our earthly .salvation depends on our agreeing with His Excellency. 
As it re.si)ects the Speaker, I agree also with you that if we can get a man 
who can sj>e!:k both languages it would be j>r(!f('iable, and if we could get 
a Lower ('anadian who would answer the puqiose it would, perhaj).s, Iw 
the means of conciliating them, ami certainly they deserve some considera- 
tion. I intend being in town on Monday (svening, und ho\)ti to see you and 
many other frioiuL on Tuesday, the day preii^ous to the assembling. 

"I remain yours truly, 

"J. ROBLIN." 

^ " Hamilton, May 4th, 1841. 

'♦My Dkar Sir — Your favor of the lOth ultimo is before me, and its 
rej>ly has been postponed to the pre.sent time from unavoidable circuai- 
stiinccs. 

" You do me th« honor to ask me if I think ' that the present Pro- 
vincial Ministry will feel it necessary to consult the representatives of the 
people, witli a view of ascertaining in what manner certain questions will 
or should he disposed of. I ajiprehend that the Ministry have no alter- 
native l)ut to do so, unless — ^which 1 am reluctant to believe possible— 
they place .'iucli great contidence in the venality or apathy of tlie Parlin- 
ment and the people as to apprehend no purcessful opjiosition to themselves 
by a selfish and despotic .system of government. 

" Your qiiery appears to refer })articularly to the civil litst, and the 
propriety of amending the Union Act, and you say that you >::ive been 
asked, ' Can the ju-inciples of the jRritish Constitutic n be maintained with- 
out having the jx-wcr of granting supplies vefcted in the represeutativa 



no two 

if choice 

'atiadian, 

ivo every 

laila havu 

i<lly, fair 

* I 

'roviDCo. 

It 



235 

liianch of the Lej;i«Iaturi», and what in Hiihstitutod as an e(iiuval«>ut T 
TliiH i8, incicod, a difficult iju^Htion -^)ne on which I must ofFur an o|)iiuoii 
with great ditlidoiico, and would rather that my Koutinuuits wero rccciv(Mi 
as liumblo suggestions than aa tlie dcliborato feelings of a matured judg- 
niont. I am continually struck with the inaccuracy of the asstation that a 
colony enjoys in all respects ' tlie image and transciipt' of the jtareiit .State, 
and the present question offers an additional proof of the inaccuracy, 

" We have the written pledge of the Imperial Parliament that wo shall 
1)6 ruled henceforth by men j)ossesHing the confidence of the people, and 
that the acts of Government sliall be in acconlance with the wishes of the 
people's representatives. To break this pledge would be, in my opinion, 
to deprive us of a constitutional right, and would in fact — if 1 might so 
say — extinguish the Constitution. lJej)end upon it, if the people of 
Canada are true so themselves, no Ministry and no (lovernment «iiire alter 
one iota of this recorded pledge. So w ieketl a step will soon be atten)pted; 
aiid, though I acknowledge the inferiority of the machinery ff colonial to 
that of imperial representation, I arn satisfied that honesty on the |)art of 
our repre.sentatives, and energy and wisdom on that of ourselves, will al- 
way.s secure to us the full measures of practical responsible or self Ciovern- 
nient. I think, moreover, that the question of a civil list has been, to a 
certain extent, constitutionally disposed of by the respective Provinces, in- 
asmuch as the Upper Canada Jjegislatui-e and the Lower Canada (Jovern- 
meut (such as it was) have determined that a sufKcient civil list should be 
g. anted for the life of the present Sovert'ign. I say disposed of to a certain 
extent, but I by no means imply theiefrom that the amount of the civil Mst 
lia.«s been constitutionally determined uj)on, nor do I yet know by what 
right the Tmperi.il Parlianu-nt has saw tit to fix that .sum at ,£7r),()(iO per 
annum. It may be too much — it may be too little ; but, be this uh it 
may, I doubt the power of the Imperial Legislature to define the sum at 
all. The people of Canada stand pledged to the grant of a huflicient civil 
list ; they have yet, I conceive, to determine the amount of that civil list, 
and, as an independent member of the Legislature, I should C(jnceive it 
to be my duty to consider maturely this branch of the .subject, and to in- 
sist upon the right of the House to grant as nnich, oi" as little, as in its 
wisdom may be considered sufficient for the payment of the several salaries 
of the Crown. This will probably be the great bone of contention in the 
ensuing session, and it will be a question legitimately the province of the 
House to determine. I hope it may be approached in a conceding, yet 
firm and manly spirit, and that neither factious opposition or venal hu}>- 
missioii may be displayed upon it. 

"With respect to the clauses of the Union Act generally, I cannot 
think it politic to attempt to disturb them at present. They have been 
assented to by the Imperial ParliameTit after a temi)erate anil patient dis- 
cussion of the whole ([uestion, and, though .some of the olau.ses are highly 
objectionable, I am convinced that the bill, as a wh<de, is the l)est that 
could be obtained at present from a Parliament in which the balance of 
power rests so broadly in favor of an anti- Liberal aristocracy. We must 
give tha bill a fair trial, after which such claust;s as are proved to afl'ect us 
injuriously or unfairly may with reason and justice bo protested against. 

"My great fear respecting the well-doing of the country arises from the 
discussion in the Reform ranks. It cannot be doubted that tliero are 



■■■ 



236 

utany who pnjfnsH thorrtiielvea to be ReformerH, who are ready to bo the 
wilHn;^ tools of any (iovorninont. On the other hand, there are not a few 
haHty and Hin|>ici(m8 tempera who will create discord where firraneH8 and 
moderation would answer a better purjM)Be ; and a^ain, there are those wlio 
will bo cont<nited with nothing short of Republican institutions : but these, 
1 am willing to bolievo, are now very few. 

" But I am writing more than you will care to read, therefore shall only 
sidd that T shall at all times find pleasure in receiving your sentiments on 
political cpiestions, and shall readily afford you in return my humble and 
imperfect ideas of tlie same. 

" I am, dear sir, faithfully yours, 

"E. C. THOMAS." 
"Toronto, 6th April, 1841. 

"Mv Dear Sir — T beg to congratulate you on the result of the North 
Lincoln election. ♦ # * The Speakership will be 

the first (jue^tiou before the House, and I tliink that there can be no 
second opinidm that a Reformer should be placed in the chair. You have 
heard, no doubt, that Mofl'att is spoken of, and is said to be the Govern- 
ment candidate. The latter is doubtful. I presume feehjrs are put forth. 
McNab, of course, is in the field, and, without nianagemout, may run bet- 
ter than we now think. He is a canny fellow, and will try to gain the 
anti-Union party in Lower Canada. How, then, must we manage 1 I 
think one of our Reform party in this Province, or else a moderate anti- 
Unionist below, must be the man. You will observe that anti- Unionist is 
a most .incorrect name. They are opposed to the details and not to the 
principle of the bill. The advantages in favor of the latter are, of course, 
his speaking both languages, which could be urged in favor of Moflatt. 
The only men I can think of are Austin Cuvilier or yourself. I know 
not what your views are on the subject, but I think you must see that we 
must be a good deal governed by our frieude below. I think we should 
try and get them to act with us from the outset. Pray, write me confi- 
deutially your views on these subjects, and believe me 

" Yours very truly, 

" W. H. Merritt, Esq." 

Tlie canal was opened on the 30th April, fifteen or twenty vessels be- 
ing collected waiting for passage. 

On the fourth of May, the launch of the Chief Justice Robinson took 
place at Shickeluna's ship yard. 

A flaming notice of the opening of tlie salt water baths, with a chemi- 
cal analysis of the contents, was published on June 1st, by C. W. Hellems. 

Sixth Annual Report of the G. R. N. Co., approved at the meeting of the 
stockholders, presided over V)y D. Thompson, M. P., at Simcoe, May 4, closes 
with this notice of the improvements : 

" It is understood a steamer will ply daily from Buffalo to Port Robinson 
this season, from whence a packet boat will run t<} Dunnville, and a steam 
tug thence to Cayuga. A number stand ready to complete it to Bunnel's 
liiinding. A regular line of boats or scows front Port Dalhojisie would 
soon find employment in the transit of all the merchandise destined for 
consumption west of Brantford. W. H. H." 



237 



l>o the 
lot a few 
less and 
lose who 
lit these. 



In one of hiH familiar letters to his futher-in-law, among other liiatttnn 
regarding his family, occurs this uHtiinate of the capaliiliticH of one of tho 
family, whom ho fondly hoped would bo his Hucccssor in the reform of th« 
higher l)rancheH of legal jurisprudence : 

Dr. P : William has selected tho law, and as I have lieretoforo mentioned, 
my aim is to make him a statesman, as he poHsesseH rare ability for hiij 
years, and a judgment, which, if he continues to improve, without being 
led into dissipation and vice, will place him among tho highest rank ot' 
competitors. I have been so long sutisHeil of this, that I leave his pursuits 
and studies wholly to hini.self. 1 find in figures and book-keeping a degree 
of promptness and facility far exceeding anything I over |>osKeKsed. He 
commenced learning French with Mr. De I^iHaye. Within a year 
he has become a finished French scholar, speaks and pronounces the pure 
Parisian, and reads and writes the language with ease. In December 1 had 
a German to teach him. He ha.s already made great progress. He atteudit 
his oflico hours regularly, and a])plieH himself to his studies before and after. 
He says in another year— after he is master of French, German, and per- 
haps Spanish and Italian — that he will apply himself to law exclusively for 
two years, and place himself at the top of his profession. He shall have 
every facility from me. No expense shall be spared to forward his studies. 

Perhaps I may be in a delusion, as every father views his children with a 
partial feeling, but it is a dtikusion which aflords me hap])ine.ss to indulge in, 
and I am growing day by day more interested in his welfare. W. H. M. 

A Kingston papor notices tht* arrival of the Government ofiicials at 
Kingston. They are composed of the Hon. H. Killaly, President of the 
Board of Works ; Colonel Forbes, Commander of the Forces ; Colonel 
Mackenzie Frazer, Deputy Adjudant General of Militia; Hon. John Mc- 
Caulcy, Inspector General ; A. V. Hawk, Emigration Agent. His Excel- 
lency was still detained at Montreal by an attack of gout. 
, This was soon followed by a notice of the meeting of Parliament, which 
took place on the ir)th of June. The Gazette of the day previous con- 
tained one or two additions to the Cabinet, and a VvAt of twenty-four Legiji 
lative Councillors, noticeable for the paucity of French- etjual to four, and 
the number of Scotch — indicated by the prefix "Mac." 

The Governor's speech notices McCloud's continued imprisonment, and 
tho measures taken by the Government to procure his release. It uoticeH 
a reduction of postage across the Atlantic; the guaiantee of the Imperial 
credit for one and a half millions sterling, the multijdieation of municipal 
institutions, and the extension of education by means of common schools, 
and closes thus : " The determination which I am also empowered to stato 
on the part of the Govei-nment, to devote annually a large sum for the dej 
fence of the Province, and the fixed determination that the North Ameri- 
can Pi'ovinces shall be maintained at all hazards ; also that Her Majesty 'tt 
Government are pleased to assist in facilitating the passage of the emigrant 
from the port at which he h landed to the place where his labor may be 
made available." 



/. 






238 /'- 



On the op'^ning of the House of Parliament, one of our subjwt's 
firht acts was to second the motion, wliich was made by Mr. Cuvilier, 
that Mr. Morin should be the Speaker of the new House, thei-eby paying a 
compliment to his fellow subjects from Lower Canada. He also advo- 
cated a measure, having for its object, the maintainanco of the poor, by the 
inhabitiiiits of each township. He also brought on again his plan for a 
National Bank, in which he pleaded for the interests of the people, that the 
profitf of banking, which had now reached over $2,000,000, might be made 
of use to the country, in public works, instead of going into the pockets of 
private individuals. The bill was again defeated by a small majority, and 
he never afterwards sought to revive it. He also advocated an Alien bill, 
whereby five years residence in the Province constituted citizenship, and 
Buccossfully carried it by a large majority. He again drew the attention of 
the House to the question of the inland navigation. 

In a debate on the speech, which lasted for nine days, Mr. Merritt was 
" surprised at what he had heard (from Mr. Draper.) To retain office with 
a majority of the House against them, was persisting in managing the 
country contrary to the wishes of it. This would be only a protrac- 
tion of the injury, and he hoped that Ministers would state ejqjressly 
whether that is to be the system of Lord Sydenham or not." 

Mr. Draper cloii^ed the debate by saying that they would resign if oji- 
posed b^ a majority. 

One of his constituent's opinions on these proceedings is as follows : 

"Saint Davids, June 28th, 1841. 

" My Dear Sib — I again take the liberty of addressing you a few 
lines, that you may understand that your friends ai'e thinking and feeiing 
anxious to know the result of the session. 

"Your proceedings so far, I tliink, have given pietty general satisfaction 
to all parties. I see you have drawn the Attorney General out. You were 
right. It was mysterious. Why not come out at onoe. I >?are not a cop- 
per for his professions, let us see what his actions will be on all matters of 
importance. It may be policy for him and the Governor General, if they 
do not me;in right, to mystify ; but I hope that is not the ciuse. You must 
be on the alert. Your country is watching you, and I trust they will 
have no reason to complain. I am sorry to see the Keformers disagree 
on small points. The question about an adjournment, I think, was 
not worth debating on. It tended to weaken the i»arty. To try the real- 
ity of the men, the question must bo something that the country has more 
interest in. The news here is, that after carrying your amendments to His 
Excellency's speech, he sent for you the same night. The next morning 
Vou brought in other amendments to do away with your former ones. I 
hardly credited that. We only receive the news weekly. I may be far 
behind the proceedings of the day. Give His Excellency all the assist- 
ance you can, but guard the rights and privileges of the people. Try and 
make this a strong and happy country as it was formerly. All that is 
wanted is that liberality that every Government ought to brstow on its 



niVjjoct's 
Juvilier, 
>aying a 
lo advo- 
by the 
for a 
that the 
be made 
jkets of 
ty, and 
ien bill, 
lip, and 
'ntion of 



239 

subjects. I am aware this is your feeling, and I hope that should you 
not accomplish that, you will not fetter the Province with your consent. 
I hope Mr. Baldwin will still bo the leader of the party. Let me hear 
from you soon. 

*' Your obedient, humble servant, 

"RICHARD WOODRUFF. 
'• W. H. Merritt, Esq., Kingston." 

On the 7th July, Mr. Merritt published a letter to the stockholders of 
the Welland Canal, stating that the Royal assent had been given to the 
act, which we have already detailed, for purchasing from the stockholders 
by the Government, .showing the advantage of the measure and calling for 
iicquiescence thereto. 

A reprint of the report of the CoSimittee on the Bank Bill, dated 
April 1 3th, 1835, was given in the Journal of April 29th. It takes up seven 
or eight columns, with another of editorial in its favour ; but failing to 
become a Government measure, much to the disappointment of our subject 
and friends, the country was deprived of the profits of banking. 

Mr. Hincks brought in a bill to abolish the Usury Law, which we can- 
not but think, though of temporary protit, as tending not a little to the 
periodical depression of trade and the failure of individuals. 

The resignation of the Hon. R. Baldwin, at this period, revived for a 
time, the old animosities, and our subject in an able speech, pointed out the 
advisability of quietly proceeding with bu.siness, rather than waste time 
in stirring up unpleasant discussions. His advice seems to liave been 
lulopted, as a better feeling .soon prevailed. Some of the best measures of 
the government he permitted to pass unchallenged, but the measures of 
granting large sums all over the country, on plank roads, and other politi- 
cal favoi's, he bitterly attacked, and succeeded in beating the Government 
on the question. His anxiety to have the Cornwall canal opened caused a 
giant of a million and a half dollars to be given towards that object. 

'Hie pi'oceedings of the House terminated on the 19th Sei)t., by Lord 
Sydenham being thrown from his horse, from which accident he never ral- 
lied. After his burial the members returned home. 

Mr. Merritt proceeded to New York, and had an irterview with the 
stockholders regarding the best disposition of their property, and a liberal 
offer being made to our subject, he agreed, on communing with liis familv 
10 undertake to do their business for them in London, the great monetary 
centre. 

The remaining incidents of this year were the attempt about the 28th 
October, to blow up the Big Level lock at Thorold, and the release of Mc- 
(.'loud from his long imprisonment. 

The Journal has again turned to the mild direction of the faithful 
and scrupiilously correct editor and printer, Hiram Leavenworth, and 



240 



though we do not see so many political articles on Church and State m 
during Mr. Sears' occupancy of the editorial chair, yet the course of eventu 
is sufficiently depicted in its pages to present " the mould and figure of the 
times." 

News was received, headed very important, that the Queen had given 
birth to a Princess ; that St. Jean D'Acre was captured ; the Chinese war 
still p'-ogressing; the States' people were succeeding in Texas, and that our 
■own fellow-subject, Alexander McCloud, was still a tenant of Lockport jail 
for participating in the Carolina affair. 

As a sign of the insecurity of the times, especially in the matter of 
horse property, we notice the formation of a " vigilance society," com 
posed of John Gilliland, J. Wright, Alexander Wilson, Joseph Godfrey 
Samuel Hill, Thomas Oxbury, H. Mittolberger, Wm. Chase, Sam. Harris 
John Soper, John Clark, A. K. Boomer, J. Clendanning and D. P. Hainee, 

Mr. Merritt issued an address to the freeholders of the county of Lin 
<5oln, dated September 23d, which .says : " Gentlemen — The first session of 
the fii-st United Parliament has closed, £45,000 being granted to the com- 
mon schools and £1,500,000 for connecting our inland waters with the 
Atlantic. Lower Canadian members are entitled to your gratitude, for to 
their noble and disinterested conduct are we indebted for ready access to 
the sea. Notwith.standing the heavy debt they have already a.s8umed, 
and the very great disproportion of expenditure in this section, they 
voted to a man for the completing of the Wellandand St. Lawrence canala, 
Eighty-eight bills have passed, but fifteen, including the Municipal Bill, 
reserved. Confidence has been eHtablished., the prosperity of Canada com- 
menced, and the stability of the Union being cemented by the harmony 
And good feeling which prevailed among the members from the difier«nt 
part of the Union." 

The result of the first session's work was satisfactory to most of the in 
habitants, including the distant members on the sea-board, who vied with 
their fellow British Americans on the borders of the St. Lawrence as being 
the originators of colonial independence. In this we think they were mi»- 
taken. 

The report which contained the principles on which our future govern- 
ment was to be carried on, but for. the results of which, neither our subject 
nor any native of this country is in the slightest degree responsible, " wu 
subversive of the existing institutioDs of the colony and as much a revolution 
aH if the rebels themselves had succeeded. 

It was followed by the annexation manifesto in 1859, on the return 
of Mr. McKenzie, which our subject had also an influence in putting down 
The result of this policy on his future usefulness, will appear as we proceed 

One object for diminishing power was multiplying its depositories; and 



241 

municipiil institutions were not giving the coloi.iea the management of their 
own affiiirs, but rather tended to reconcile them to an administration 
entirely opposed to British American interests. 

Towards the end of the year the elections for municipal conncillors 
occnpied the columns of the newspapei-s. The Journal says : " There are 
twenty -eight Councillors for Niagara district — quite a snuill Parliament in 
its way." This was about the n\imber of townships, the expense of 
which at the time was £3,447. The number of councillors and the ex- 
penses have about increased in equal proiiortions. The question will siig- 
I'ost itself — have the advanta-'es been commensurate with the cost ? They 
assembled under the leadership of Mr. Thorburn, Mr. llykert taking an 
active part in the representation of Grantham. 

The appropriation being adequate, work was at once commencetl on the 
canal, numerous stone cutters, masons, and laborers employed. Mr. Merritt, 
as usual, was elated with the proposed improvements, which proceeded tri- 
muidiantlv to the final success of his scheme. He was in dailv communi- 
cation with all parts of the work, and gave it his unceasing attention while 
in the neighbt)rhood. 

During the year 1841 a large portion of his time had been spent in superin- 
tending the works on the Canal, ])articularly along the Feeder — which was 
intended to be enlarged to the full size of the Canal, so that vessels pass- 
intr thi'ou"h it dining the time that the works were L'oint' on at Port Colborno 
would not obstruct the passage in that direction. And on the setting in of 
winter he made preparations to leave for England on imj)ortant business 
connected with finance, politics, free ti-ade, the negotiation of Government 
debentures, ttc, as well as to mako arrangements towards placing hia 
sons, the author and William, in the ' ^niversity. 

« Albany, October 12, 1841. 
" ]\Iv Dr.An Sox — You exprejised a desire to visit Enghind with me, on 
my leaving home, and on reflection, as this is most probably the last time I 
may ever have an opportunity to cross the Atlantic, I have decided that 
vou and your brother may accompany me. 

"^Y. H. MERRITT." 

Our subject, as well as his correspondents, considered it of the utmost 
imi)ortance — now that the disposition -t' the luveuue was all uiider ono 
Legislature — that the public in Lower Canada should be acquainted with 
tl'.e benefit the improvements of the navigation of thd 8t. Lawrence in West- 
ern Canada would bo to the country at large, ns well as the all-absorbing 
subject of local self-government in which the American colonics were equally 
interested. 

Previous to departing he received the following from his friends James 
Holmes and Jose])!! Howe, who had been visiting there the same autumn • 



imn 



242 

"Halifax, Oct. 7, 1811. 
" My Dear Sir — I received your favor of the Ifstli September a few 
days ago, and wa.s glad to find that you were well sati.siied with tlie results 
of the session. I have watched the procet'dings narrinvly, iiiid have been, 
on tlie whole, most ])leased and gratilied with what has been done and .said, 
always exco))ting the weakness and twaddle with wliicli the cam))aign was 
opened • ^^ * -i= There need be no fears of Executive responsi- 
bility. You would liave liad it in full perfection, had you ever mustered a 
majority to beat the d'overruacnt and with coinmou. j)rincijjl('.s and union to 
form another. Here, nobody dreams of the old stalking liorse of a minority 
government — the thing is ab.surd, and the few who cliui; to the idea are re- 
garded as old^Waterloo soldiers, or some dreamers of times gone past. Mrs. 
Howe begs me to present Jier respects, and thank you for all your attention. 
I am right glad to find tliat tlie great 8t. Lawrence river improvtsments are 
to be vigorously dealt with. You deserve gi'eat credit 'iov your jiersever- 
ance, and I trust will reap some profit as well as honor by your exertions. 
With best respects to all friends, believe me, 

" Yours truly, 

"JOSEPH HOWE. 
" W. Hamilton Meuuitt." 

"]MoxTREAL, 23d November, 18-41. 

" Dear Sir — I received your letter, dated the 8th inst., only a few days 
since. Where it has been in the meantime I cannot say. The communi- 
cation for publication, enclosed in it, you will find in the Herald, which is 
the pai)er enjoying most influence and the greatest circulation here. I shall 
j>robably follow it up by publishing your *' Keport," and by observations. 
If you have any to send me 1 shall be able to get insertion for them in tlie 
lleraU or some other joui-nal. (Jan you send uie any back numViers of the 
St. Catharines Journal ^\\i\iAi contain ob.servations on your great object^ 
If you can, do so, as it is a difficult thing to write with effect about what one 
really umler.stands but little. I am. 

" Yours very cordially, 

"JAMES HOLMES. 
" Hamiltox INIerritt, Esq., St. Catharines." 

The following he received from his father-in-law in answer to his letter 

regarding the education of his son William, which we commend to the study 

of our embryo politicians of the present day ; 

Mayville, December 14th, 1841. 
My Dear Sir: — I received yours of the 12th of October, dated at 
Albany, in which you ob.scrvcd you were about to go to England on busi- 
ness of the stockholders of the Welland Canal. 

" So you wish William to ])0ssess a knowledge of politics and legislation, 
as well as law. Politics and legislation are only to be obtained by tlio 
society of politicians, and in the legislative haU. The laws of particular 
goveriniients and national law are tiiught in seminaries of leaining, and con- 
stitute a branch of learning wliicli is very nec(5ir.sary to (pudify a man for ii 
politician and for tlie legislative hall. But still tli** great fle*ld for that study 
is not ill seminaries C{f learning, but is obtained by the knowledge acquireil 



243 



l)y the study of the interests of nations, and tliat partioidarly of our own 
And neighboring countries. Tliose interests will !e fuund to be and ought 
to be the governing viotives to all action between nations. It would be no 
(litHcult matter to form laws in conformity with those interests if the legis- 
lative body would act in concert. But here you are met by a thousantl sec- 
tional and i)ersonal interests, clashing with tlie interests of the government 
or state, and nine tinu's o>it of ten the.se interests are mei-e pretenses to cover 
some selfish design, and for this cause it becomes more difficult to discover 
and unveil the motives of these men than to discover and manage the inter- 
ests of government. The subject of politics and legislation, and the im- 
proper motives of men in oi)position — their intrigues and designs, which 
would subvert the ends of all fair legislation, I might have omitted, these 
being superfluous to inform one who requii'es no light on these subjects. 

" With sentiments of great regard, 
" Yours, 

" JP:DEDIAH PKENDERG AST. 
" W. Hamilton Merritt." 

Mr. M. wi'Oto to the Chief Justice, who had just returned from England 
for an introduction to some of his influential friends there. The "Chief" 
makes this an opportunity to read him a lecture not to take advantage of the 
Canal stockholders, and closes, with regard to Lord Stanley : " I should 
not feel it agreeable to address him except officially." Our subject demands 
explanations, whence appeiu-s the following. Without saying that persons 
ill public employment should not occasiomdiy enter into stock-jobbing, it is 
to Ije wished that the standaid of public morality and honor was ei-ected on 
a sinular level in these days : 

"TouoxTO, Dec. 7, 1841. 
"My Dear Sir : — I have jvist received your letter of yesterday. You 
do not mention on what day you intend setting out ; and I am therefore 
doubtful whether this will reach you or not. I lose no time, however, in 
writing to you, because I am aiixious that there should be no misunder- 
standing between us on the subject to which it chiefly relates. There can 
bo few persons, if any, who have; had a bt^tter opjiortunity than I have had 
til judge of your conduct aiul motives in regard to the Welland Canal, and 
I need not tell you that I have never looked upon you as actuated by any 
other than the best motives in giving up, as you have done, the greater pai't 
of your life to the promotion of that work. I fully belitsve you to have been 
disinterested in all the eftbi-ts you have made to forward it, and you are well 
aware that I have on many occasions publicly borne my testinu)ny to that 
effect, when I found your motives antl character unjustly attacked ; and in 
private I have done so thousands of times when you, of course, liave known 
nothing of it. jNIy opinion in that res[)ect is not in tlu; slightest degree 
changed. That you have always done all you could to guard the interest of 
the absent stockholders is quite well known to me, and I did and do sincerely 
trust that you will continue to act in the same manner towards them, by 
making them aware of the situation in which they really now stand. I 
confes.sed that hope in my letter, and it was the persuasion of my mind that 
But, I will be quite candid with you, and state precisely what 



you would. 




244 

I mi'ant by wiitiii<ij as I did. Nobody had said one word to inc about your 
visit to England, or tlio probable object of it. No one had given the remot- 
est hint to nio that they sus|K!eted you were bent upon any speculation con- 
nected witli the ('anal ; but 1 <lo know that lately some persons have beconio 
alive to the real value of tho Welland (.'anal stock, while the assurances 
which the act liolds out of future advantaj,'(^H, and that .stock has been bou;,'lit 
ni> at a good specidation. I am well awan; that the debentures are to open 
for the actual amount of each person's stock at par, bearing interest as the 
act provides, but what 1 feel anxious about is that the English stockholders 
should be put on their guard and made Ui reflect that the debentures will 
be really worth much more than (lu'ir accruing amount by the certainty tho 
act atl'ords of the biu'k interest being ullimately paid. If you think they 
are sure of coming to tlu^ knowledge of this, without any jtains Ix'ing taken 
to explain it, 1 think you are mistaken, because 1 know that within a fort- 
night stock has been sold here at jiar, which of course involves a needless 
loss of all the back interest. Tiiis has made nu^ ajipichend that if smh a 
speculation coidd be carrieil on here, upon the spot wliere the best meaus nt' 
infornuition oxi.st, it is more likely that the same thing could be dont> with 
the stockholders in Kngland, and f should be extremely sorry to hear that 
such men as I\lr. I'.lacow, after having lost the use of their money for years, 
should be induced hastily to accept an oiler which, veiy probably, before this 
time has been mail" to them, and which precludes all pos<ibility of their 
being ev(>r indemniliiMl for what np to this tiiiK^ they have lo.st. 1 hoped 
that your going homo migiit ]>revent this, and so I sai<l in my letter. At 
the same tinu' 1 confi'.ss it diil occur to me as possible, though I did not think 
it jn'obable, that you might make an offer for tho stock of any who might 
choo.^e to sell and might acquire it, and 1 should have deeply regretted if 
you had erred in judgment so much as to do it, liecause though you might 
have considtri'd tht; traiusaction iu no way blamable, it would have rcceivcti 
the worst constiuction. I felt that it would be taken as a confirmation ut' 
what I had luard marjy times slated to your prejudice, and what you well 
know 1 have again and again contradicted, staking my own reputation upon 
tho purity of your motives. Anything of that kinil, however openly you 
might hav(> acted, would with mankind iu general have wholly destroyod 
the claim which you now have to be regarded as the person who has prac- 
tically conferred the most important benefit upon this country. If yuu 
took it that I had heard one word said about your having any such inten- 
tion yon are wholly in error. You are equally in ei-ror if you supposed that 
I believed that to be your object. On the contrary 1 really did lioj)e, as I 
said, that your visit to England would be made to answer exactly the oppo- 
site ]iurpose. But, I freely confess a fear crossed me that you might fall 
into an error, and I meant that my letter should in some mea.sure have the 
effect it has had, though I did not think you would take it exactly iu the 
sense you have done. 

" As to my own trifling amount of stock, I should always have disposed 
of it at par from the time of my becoming a Judge, because every now and 
then something was coming up in th.e court iu which I presitled and in whi vli 
the Company were more or less concerned, although the interest was too 
minute to be talked of. I neeil not tell you that we live in an ill-natured 
world, and I should always have been better plea.s«.\l at being free, as I 




245 

oiu:;Iit to }»o, of ivll diivot ]>0(MiiHiirv iiitiM-cst in the Ooin])iUiy. Ah kg )n as I 
Wiis told of a poison wlio w.mld trivii £21)0 for mv stock I did not lii-sitato 
to piirt with it. J'lit I shall nt^vcn- ftMd hjss intorest in th(i woik than I ha\o 
dou«, nor tako less pleasure iu seeing those who have sujuiorlcd it satisfac- 
torily rewarded. 

" I am, my (hiar sir, 

" Yours very truly, 

"JOirN 15. R0BIN80N." 

No people on earth understood the btjsiness (<f stock-jol)l)inf/ better tlian 
the jieople of En^^land, and those from whom Mr. Aferritt had olitained stix-k, 
witli one or two e.\oe[)tions, were hankers and eapitulists of tins lirst stand- 
ing iu tlie City of London, tlie Minister of Liverpool Ijoing an exception. 

There was more danger that the holders in Quebec and New York would 
fail (o get the advantage of the Imperial guarantee, than the British shave- 
hulders. 

Fortunately at this period the following letter wns r.iceivod in reply to 

(ln^ Judge's sunnises: 

" LivKiU'ooL, No. 2r> Nile Street, Nov. 17, 1811. 
" Mv Dr.vk Sik :— T liave had the pleasur^i and satisfaetion of receiving 
your gratifying letter of the :27th inst., stating, as it does, that tlie i)roperty 
HO long cinbarktMl by the private shareholders in the Wellanrl Canal, and for 
years cousideri^l iu so much jeopardy, will at length belrtMlcemod. and still 
more gratifying tliat I may so sodu have the |il(Msure of sfMiing you and your 
sons in Liverpool. Your intimation, too, of a future bDuusfor the hazard 
they in:'urred in lending their aiil to so noble a work, whicli must ultimately 
prove of such imnunise b,uit!tit to the Province, bfsspeaks a c(jntinuauce of 
those liberal feelings you havt; always manifested in their behalf. 

"I trust our new ^Finistry will give every encouragement to emigration, 
as nothing would so essentially conduce to the wtdfare of the eo\intry. It 
would at once I'edieve us from the; burden of our pool- rates, and soon form 
an outlet for all our manufactures. Tn fact, it would make us independent 
of the whole world. Wo could get all we want from our own T'^donies, and 
supply them with everything needful for themselves, and thus form a bond 
of union that would be mutually beneficial. 

" Believe me, my dear sir, 

" Veiy sincerely your.q, 

"RICHAIID BLACOW." 

Before leaving St. Catharines, his fellow-townsmen waited upon him, and 
offered him a public dinner, which, owing to the short time at his dispo.sal, 
he was compelled to decline. He left on the 27th December, after spending 
the Christmas at his father's, and joined his sons in New York. 



mmm 



24G 



saELi 



1842. 

Tlioy onihiirkod on tlic 20th Jiimiaiy, in tlio good sliip " CfolmnlmH," for 
Liverpool, \vli(>ro tlicy iirri\ od afti i a favorahlo trip of t\voiity-om> days, land- 
ing on the 11th F(0)iuury, and jiut up at tho CJrociau llutol. Thoy s])fnt 
a few days in Liveriwol, socing tho gi-oat docks and other wonders. Here 
he left his sons to amuse th(!niselves, and procecnlod to London. Ho occu- 
pied his old (juartors, No. 19 l"5ury Sircet, where in 1828 ho was a fellow- 
lodger with Thomas Moore, the poet, the house being a great resort for 
Lritish American travelleis. 

He soon had tho pleasi;ro of meeting Mr. Gordon, his brother-in-law, 
in whose care ho jilaced Ids sons, as his own time would be fully occupied. 

Whilst on shipboard he matured a number of communications to Lord 
Stanley, then Colonial Secretary, on the subject of admitting Canadian pro- 
duce into England duty free. In these letters ho fully explained the in- 
justice done to Canada in this matter, by tfixing tho industry of a people 
who were striving to extend her tn)pire, whilst they at the .same time were 
receiving the bulk of their goods from the production of the parent State. 

He also visited many of his old associates, Messrs. Gladstone, Goul- 
borne, Smith, Buller, Pomberton, Bosanquet, Cubett and others, to whom 
was imparted a great deal of information in reference to Canada, and also 
attended some of the public entertainments, one in particular, held in the 
London Tavern, at which we find that he made a speech. 

He attended the Imperial Parliament, which assembled on the 3rd inst. 

The following is some of the correspondence from otficials, and Members 

of Parliament : 

"Whitehall, Feb. 15. 

" Sir : — I am directed by Mr. Wm. E. Gladstone to acknowledge the re- 
ceii)t of your note this morning, and to thank you for the opportunity which 
you offer him of ascertaining your opinion on the subject of his Resolutions 
respecting the duty on the importation of corn into Canada. Mr. Glad- 
stone will be at liberty to see you to-morrow, the 16th inst., at three o'clock. 

" I am, sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" RAWSON W. RAWSON. 
" W. Hamilton Merritt, Esq." 

" Downing Street, Feb. 18, 1842. 
" Sir : — In reply to your letter of the 17th, I am desired by the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer to state that he will be happy to see you on Monday 
next at one o'clock. I am, sir, 

" Your very obedient servant, 

" RAW^SON W. RAWSON. 
" W. H. Merritt, Esq." 



147 

"No. DCiiAi'Ki, Stk. ;;t, Bcl^'r.ivc Sciiiarc, Fell. 10, 1S42. 

" Sm : — iruviuf^ been iiifortiKnl by Mr. (J. Franks and by Mr. (lillHspie 
that you aro Hpecially iIlt('r(^st<'(l on btilialf of (Canada in thrs (|iu!stion relat- 
iiii,' to tlio fi'c(' adinission of C!olonial j,'rain into tlie liritisli markets, it 
would give mo much pleasure to see you pn^vious to my motion in the 
House of Commons for a reduction of the duty t(j one shilling per (piarter. 
I am almost always at honu^ till about two o'clock, and if convenient to you 
to call bef(n(! that hour 1 shall feel very much ol)li<'ed by vour allowinj' mo 
to see you at No. l> L'hap(d street, or J will call upon you on any day you 
may appoint lietween the hours of fouf and fiv(! o'clock in the afternoon. 

"Jf you liavc any nKMuoranda, Avliich \ou think tend to eluciihite the 
.subject, or if any point speedily suggests itself to you as wortliy of notice, I 
shall bo very glad to give them my best attention. 

" 1 have the honor to be, 

" Vour obetli(fnt servant, 

"WILLIAM T. O'liUIEN. 
"W. H. Mekritt, Esq." 

" Mr. Gladstone moved for imposing a duty upon Colonial produce, which 
%vent into (effect, and Mr. O'Brien's amendii'.ent was lost. 

" WiiiTKHALL, Feb. 22, 18 12. 
" SiK : — I am directed by Mr. Wm. E. Ulatlstone to acknowledge with 
his best thanks your letter of the I8th inst., upon the subject of the proposed 
measure for regulating the trade of the Colonies, as it all'ects Canadian 
iiituresta. I am, sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" llAWSON. W. RAWSON. 
" W. H. Mekritt, Esq." 

" Downing Street, Feb. 25, 1842. 
" Sir : I am directed by Lord Stanley to acknowledge the receipt of the 
letters which ynu addressed to his Lordship on the 21st inst., respecting the 
expelioncy of allowing Canadian corn to be imported into this country duty 
frue, and to convey to you his lordship's thanks for those communications. 
" I have the honor to be, sir, 

" Your n.ost obedient humble servant. 

"G. W. HOPE. 
" W. Hamilton Merritt, Esq." 

"Whitehall, March 1, 1842. 
"Sirs: Mr. Wui. E. Gladstone presents his compliments to Mr. Merritt and 
Mr. Williams, and has the honor to acquaint them, in reply to their note of 
this morning, that it is not intended to propo.se any duty upon the importa- 
tion of wheat into Canada. " Yours respectfully, 

" W. E. GLADSTONE. 
" W. II. Merritt and Mr. Williams, Esq's." 

" Downing Street, March 3rd, 1842. 
" SlR:~ I am directed by Lord Stanley to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 22d ult., and to thank you for the information conveyed to him 
by that and your other communications. 

" With respect to the intentions of Her Majesty's Government on the sub- 
ject of the trade in corn both from the United States into Canada, and from 



218 






C*»niulii to (Iroiit Hritiiiii, Lord Sliuiloy dosircs mo to Htftto tliat, ntW the din- 
cuhhIoiis wliioli liavo ivot'ntly takfii j)la(!o in tlit! IIoiiho of ('oihihomh, lio IW'Ih 
it uiuieci'SHary to oiittT into details, but iH liappy to bo ublo to rol'or to tlioso 
disciiHsions, as sliowini; that it is from no indisp.)sitioM to promoto to tlio utmost 
of tbeir ability to do so, consistently with othor considcratioiiH, tho intorosts of 
Canada, that Her IMajcsty's (iovornim-nt must docliiio at present to acreedo to 
the proposal of an unrostricted importation of corn from thence to(ireat liritain. 

*' I have tli(^ honor to be, sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

"(J. W. HOPE. 
" W. II. Mkuritt, Esq." 

After leaving tho matter for tlio consideration of tho Ministry, ho at lonytli 
found time to attend to his sons. 

Ou thi> Sill of INIareh he wt<nt to ( ■aMiI)rid.i;(! University, where he placed 
hin son Jododiah. Boinn; furnished with hitters of introduction, ho was iii- 
vitoil by tho Society of Ftdlows, and din(«d with tho sinco colobratod Dr. 
Colenzo ami INFr. Paloy, and tho magnates of St. Jolin's Colleg<'. 

" London, March •_'(), IftfJ. 
" Mv Dk.MI Catiiauink :-- Your alfcctionate and most admirable letter 
of thetith February reached mo this day. iMr. Gordon will enclose it on Mon- 
day, as I leave in the moininn' to join \Yilliam at Paris. I went to Cam- 
bridge on tho 7th with Jedediah, expecting he would obtain an entraneo ne.Kt 
October. He was examined in (Jroek, Latin, Algebra, and Arithmetic — 
pas.sed, obtained a eertiiieaU!, procure<l iiis cap and gown and dincid in the Hall 
tho same day, by which be has gained a term. Mention this to tho Rev. Mr. 
Atkinson, and say to Mr. A. if my means will admit he shall have the silver 
service. T have been pricing at a nMnd)er ol" pl;ic(>s, but the price is much the 
same. 1 go over lor the purpose of .seeing William properly settled, and will 
bo absent about a fortnight. W ith regard to business, everything is getting 
on as well as 1 anticipated. Tin' (Jovernment have overlooked the Colonies 
in tlieir great conunercial and financial transactions, and all parties interested in 
tho Colonics here, which are, however, few, appear dissatisfied. For my own 
part, I feel that the basis has been laid for our future prosperity, and expect 
before tho close of another session to .see the produces of Canada admitted into 
the ports of the mother country free from duty. Sir Allan MeNab 
called on me last night, lie came over in the Oxlbrd packet, by way of Que- 
bec. I'oston and New Y'ork. Give my love to all our relatives and friends, 
particularly father and mother, who 1 hope may be spared to meet us again 
in this world. W'c arc all hastening through it; and I cannot but remark 
how changed my feelings arc since 1828 — fourteen years. Then, I had an 
inclination to see everything; now, I would not give a straw to see anything. 
I have not been inside of a theatre or s\riat one penny in sight .seeing. I'cr- 
haps I may luive uktj curiosity in Paris, as everything will bo new. Mr. 
Gordon spends the evening with me generally when 1 don't dine out. Charles 
Morritt accompanies me to France. 

" I'our affectionate husband, 

"\V. HAMLLTON MERRITT." 

He sent liis son William oil to Paris, in order to observe a little of the 
grandeur of this gayest of cities, whore ho afterwai'd? joined him. From 



240 

I'iuis tlioy procooilod to Htrasltonr:^, thein'c to llcidnllxT^, when* In- ImW 
iiitnuluotioiiH, ami llionnt to Hoiin in \vlio-tf< Hj)l(»niliil iiniviM'sity ho [tliu'«"l 
hi.sHoii — ami ivtiinu'd to liondoii. 

" No. <) I{i:ilY Sthkk.T, St. .lamcH, Apiil Ki, I HI'.'. 

'• My Demi Sox : Ilavin;; arrivi'd tliis (!V('iiiii;^. I t.iki' tlio c iilifst fipjior- 
tuiiity to L'ivi; you a liiifruiitliiic ol' my pnxiociliiif^H siiio»! my lant luttcr. At'icr 
Icaviiif^ this, in company with Cli'irlt's MiMritt. had a jdc.i.snit sail down the 
Thami'8, ciUHscd the; Chaiiiii-l, and arrivi'il nt I{iuloii;:;ii(r the .sauK! d.iy, or hy 
ton o'clock at iii>;ht. In one day and niu;lit arrival hy djlii^nnci! to \':\rU, pass- 
im; thniu;;h a country (Jcvoid (d' interest. On my arrival in I'arJH, I hid 
Slime diHicnity in findin;; William'.s hotel, in conHCi|neM<!(! of liin iieLdif^'Uico in 
rorinin^ ids letters, rcadin:; Motel Farcnt, widcli was unknown or did n 't cxi-it, 
(I notice this as a hint for yonrsell") Al'ter fin lin;; the hot 1, I found he h id 
I'liinineneed his studies with a Frcicli toichur; .sent for him, and sp jiit ftuiWO'k 
in selectiiijj; a suitalile pbiei; for him to return to, h ivini; muht up my mind to 
accompany liim to (jicrm my. lie will live in tin; family ofa I'nd'essor id' L'lW, 
l''raricois (,'oipulle, at 1;{I( francs por month, and be undiir the direction of Mr. 
|).;strcus. Avocat, a la ('our Royal, No. ('» Place Dmptiine, who will i^iv. liim 
lessons or direct his studii's in the civil law. I will li in.' Wd'i im's journ il for 
your perusal, to which 1 refer for a description of Paris. Passed the prov- 
inces of ChampaiL'-iu!,. Ijoi'raine, and .Vlsae.!, tln<iu.,di a heiutiful comitry, hut 
hetween J'aris .'ind the first the country is sterile and hc.irs the appearance of 
poverty. On Tuesday, the 5th inst., le't Paris in a dili^'cncc for Strishnurg 
on the llhine, a place imted for its (J ithe Iral or Minster, said to he one of 
the noblest (Jothic edilices in Kiirope, with the hit^hest spire; in the woild, 171 
feet above the puvoment, 140 feet hitrhcr thiui .St. Paul's and 21 fiet hii:her 
than the ;:rcat pyranad in i']L:ypt. Imoiu Strasbonr;;- we descended the llhine, 
pas.iing Spires, Worms, and mniy .ancient towns, until we readied Mayc^nci;, 
thence took a railroad to Frankfort. On our arrival found there wis no uni- 
versity and no |.l u'e suitable, therefore procured letter.-, iiir Fleidelbiru'. but 
nieetin^' wi;h the J! 'v. .Mr. II:irvt:y, was recomnundeJ by hi n and other Ivi^'- 
lish ;.a'ntlemeu to lir.st visit Bonn, the University where Princi) Albert received 
his education. Followed their advice and arrived there wit'i )Ut lettiTs or in- 
troduction from any person, cKoept a note from a I'riend of .Mr. Harvey's to a 
Professor Sumner, who he onco met by chance. Keturned to Miycnce, thence 
down the Uhine to 15'inn, which part embraces the mo-t piiituresipie scenery 
on that celebrated river, but I will not attempt a descrij)tion but refer you to 
" Murray's Hand Hook " for a brief and <:ood account. You will make your- 
self familiar with those places before yon see tiieni. Found no <lit!iculty on my 
arrival. Doctor Sumner, Professor of Theoloi:y, a Protestant minister, was 
extremely kind, as all the (Jerman t,'Oiitlemen we met were, and in two d.iys 
-succeeded in plaoini; William with the f miily of Alfred Nicolovious, Professor 
of Law. lie married a lady from IjtM'lin, neither of whom can speak En'.dish. 
He has only two small children, and consented to take him in consideration of 
nis beini,' a i'orei-^ner and unprotected. The expense will be £80 per year. 
Althons^h a strict examination is instituted before a native is admitted, no ox- 
lunination is necessary for a forcit^ner. At 18 he enters this University, has 
free access to the library and the benefit of lectures on every science, and they 
have the most eminent men in Prussia at the head of each, so say Eiiju'lish resi- 
dents. If u young mau desires to learn lie will h:vve every opj»ortunity ; if not, 



tlicy will iKtt ln' urpd. Tlit; stmliiits livo wlioro they |ilfaHC. I thoui^lit it 
iiuwt !nivisiil>ln to jihict' William first in (JiTiiinny, bwauHu I sliouM It'cl better 
siitii^fioil ill Huciiii; tlit- jtoopK' willi wlimu lio wmiM rt'sido iit hotii pliKics. A 
(ifrtiiaii is II HC'ioiidaiy cuiisidcriitioii, by loaniiiii; it lirst lie will siioncr fbr^Mit 
it tluiii Kri'iKili, which will bt; tho most icwiitly iiiipriissod on liis iiiciiiory. J!o 
will coimiu'iici! his I'lX'iicli li'ssons us Sfxtii n» lie ouii spoak tli»! (iitriiiaii and un- 
derstand it ; and 1 wish to make his stay in Paris as shitrt as possiblo. litd't 
liiin on Tuisday last, and returned by way of (!olo;z;no, Aix lia (Jhapellc, liiet^e, 
Brussels, (liioiit, Hru;j;es and Ostoiid, alter visitin;^ Waterloi. It is my inten- 
tion to pay you a visit bel'ore 1 leave, whieli cannot be before the iHtli of May, 
and we will (hen consult respecting a tour throULch that country, fiie ensuing 
year, during your long vacation. If I can afford it I will give you tlio oppor- 
tunity, as it will not only be iiighly iiiterestiiig, but beneficial to your health. 
Hy tliat time William will thoroughly undorstand French, I'jiglish, and (Jer- 
man, and ho has a great iinxiety to visit Switzerland. Some gentlemen are 
much in the iiabit of travelling on loot, particularly Knglislimen. T came 
(ivir with a young officer ol' tht^ sr)th, who travelled through Bavaria, Switz- 
erland, and Italy, with two others, one a German ; was absent three months 
and only expended .i'25, and a i>art of tlie way took diligence and visited 
theatres and ])ublic places. At the same time 1 found travelling (juite as dear 
there or more so than in America. With a hope of hearing from you shortly 

" I remain, 

" Your affectionate father, 

«'W. HAMILTON MEKRITT." 

On bis return to London lu« first l)UHine88 wa8 witli tho Ministry, as 
will be Hcen by this note : 

"WniTKnAi.i,,May 17, 1812. 

" Sir : — I ani directed by Mr. W. E. (Jhulstone to ucknowledgo the 
receipt of your letter of yesterday, upon the subject of the jiroposed clau.se 
in the British PussessiouH Trade Bill, by which the free importation of 
certain articles for tho use of the Fisheries is permitted. 

" The Government is sensiV)le that objections may lie against the system 
of exemptions, but as it has f(jund them established in this instance in favor 
of a particular branch of industry, it does not feel itself justified in inter- 
fering with thom. I am, sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

"KAWSON W. KAWSON. 

" W. Hamilton Mekuitt." 

The following appeared in tho Jotirmd of the 1 4th of April, being in 
time to reach our subject before his mission was clo.sed. To realize the grati- 
fication and encouragetnent this was likely to supply, we must consider Mr. 
Merritt was without a Croverninent appointment. His appeals for adequate 
introduction, necessary to smooth the way for the self-appointed envoy, were 
but partially ro.spouded to, and serious discourag(unents thrown in his way 
during its progress : 

" We have been favored with a communication from Mr. Merritt, now 
in TiOndon. This indefatigable friend of his country is at the present mo- 
ment laboring hard at the seat of the Imperial Government for the welfare 
of Canada. 



251 

"Stfixily <o <li(i princi|iIi'H of nifoiiii mid fit'i* tiwlo, Iif is lioMiii:,' on tlio 
" pvcii tenor of IiiH way," ami will, no doiilit, pcrKovitro in his liin<liii>l<' nndiT- 
takin'^'K hu lon^ uh \w rontiniutH in pnhlii; lifi\ 

"Tin) country in ^'<'n(^iiil, and St. ('atharinfH in jiartioulivr, fii'f dccjily 
ind<)l)t«d to liis entT^y and lt";,'iHlativ(i wisdom. 

" It iH (Imoiitly to Im wihIukI tluit liiH vulnalilo lifo may 'oo Ki>Hr««d to lio 
an incii'iiHin:; lilcsRiiij^ to tlio |irovinc(<, ttnil Mint wlii-n his fncf shall ho iii,'ain 
tinned towards hi.s kindre<I and this western world he may he favored with 
L,'entl(» ^aloa and propitions skies as tlm meaiiH of ooiidtictinj.; him in saltity 
to tlio HOPUOH most dear to his Innirt." 

ITe then imnuMliiitcdy ohtained the royal Hanetion to the Nia;.;(ua 
histriot IJank Oliartcn-, hnt failed in tho most important part, hccause a 
douhh) rcsponsihility had Iteen inserted in their charter, viz., ohliiin- 
inj; Htockhohlers in tho liank. JIo iil.so oommnnicated with tho leading 
ciipitalistH with niforcnco to tho dobenturos, which ho deposited with <ilyn, 
Mills (k Co., from whom ho rocoivod anthority to draw upon them for the 
amount, wliich answcn-nd hh woll as their actual Halo in this caho. 

" No. 6 liuKY Stkket, St. James, May 10, 1812. 
"(Jkntlkmen: — The Provincial Iie;,'islatur(W)f United (!ana<la, during 
tlioir last .se.ssion, authorized tins purchase of tho privato shares held in tho 
Welland Canal Company by issuing debentures, ])ayable in twenty years 
at the otlico of tho Hoceivor (J-^sneral in C'aniida, it an int'-rcst of two ])or 
cent, for tho first two years, throe;, four, five and six per cent, up to the sixth 
year, and thoroaftor at tho same rate. Tho Receiver General will nnike 
tliHso bonds out for any amount recpiired, and remit the interest to any 
lious(! in Lomlon iit tho usual rate of exchange. I am authorized to dis- 
jioso of about .£70,(»()() in the.so bonds. 

" I will thiink you to inform mo if you will make an ofTer for these 
liond.s, if iu)t, what you think they would command in this market if a sale 
was forced of tho same, and in what manner you would recommend them 
to be altered, and on what terms you would dispose of them when so 
altered. 

" I am, gentlemen, 

" Your obedient .servant, 

" W H. M." 

From tho metropolis tho proceeded to Cambridge, and the summer 
iiolidays permitting, proceeded with the author on an extended tcjur through 
Scotland, England, and Ireland, In Scotland they visited the Court of 
General Sessions, which took the place of tb». old Parliament, and lieard the 
colebrated Dr. Chalmers deliver an able adWross on the Kirk Secession, 
afterwards the Free Church, which was then exciting the [joople of 
Scotland. After seeing Edinburgh and its ancient monuments they went 
by rail to Glasgow, where thoy visited the manufactories of that rising city, 
and from thence by steamboat to Belfast, and though late in May, in passing 
D nnbarton and the Highlands, they observed the hills covered with snow ; 
ahio seeing Ailsa Craig and tho many seaside beauties of North Britain. 



^ili 



, 252 

As Anioiiciiiis, tlioy were surin'iswl at tlio long cvoiiing twilight, w]iiol> 
always hcmmiih stiuiigo to tlio visitor IVotn luoro SoiitlifM-ri coimtrios. They 
found liclfiist a largci and ))i()S]>(!n)US t-'ity, ami whilst thcro tlniy called on 
the fVicinds of jNlr. lioonici-, hoforo incntionod as oonnoclod with I\Ir. I\l.V 
family; also, tho Chirks, at Annngh. Wishing to soo the inhabitants, of 
■whom ho had seen so much on the Canal, he visited a number of the cot - 
tagors, and took notf's of tlunr circumstanccK and position in life. Going 
Koiithw'.rd thfy visitcul l)rogh(Mla, and travollod through the* romantic and 
liistoric (;ountry of tiio lioyno, and linally r(iachi;d J)uldin aftor a very agi-ee- 
able jouriun'. T!i(!y]»ut up at an hotol in Sackvillo Street, and sjient a few 
days in visiting the principal sights, including the old University of Trinity 
Colh^go, where many of his Canadian Irish friends had graduated ; »I.o, St. 
Patrick's (/'athedral. They wei'o veiy nnu'h ])le!is(!d, and hospitably enter- 
tained, and on leaving by steamei' foi" JiivcM'pool were delighted with the 
tiublinie srerKjry of Dublin J>ay and th<'. ',v icklow Mountains. Arriving in 
Liv(!rp(Mil, in (inic to t-aUt' the mail s((';;nishi|>, " Creat Ib'itaiii," which was 
going to New \'ork, leaving his son to return to ( ';tnil)riil^e, lie took pass- 
ag<s home, and arrived Mile in twenty days, which was considered a wonder- 
ful fast pas.sage at tlie time. 

On his arrival at New ^'oi-k, the first lunvs h(» le-ai'd was of th(j ileath of 
his uncle and early ]>atron, Nehemiah MfM-rItt, Ksip, of St. .Johns, X. B. 
After a hasty interview with his New York friends who were interested in 
tlie linancial ol>j(*ct of his mis.sio!i, in^ left at oikh) for St. .Johns. 

During his absence another new < Jovernor, Sir (Inu'ii'S Bagot, the tiftli 
in as many yeai-s, iiad aiiived in the country, followed Ity a special envoy, 
li'ird Asliiiurton, wlio caiue to settle the boundary ipmstion. 

The Canal had opened on the 18th of A|'i'il.nn<l wo notice that for the 
first time a steam vessel jiad pass'vl througii the Canal to ()sW(!go, and one 
froiu St. Thomas to AlonLreal, although thci Cornwall Canal wa-< not yet 
(piite eoMipleted This was looked Upon as a great feat and augured well 
for till future. 

'i.e death of his umde was not the ruily sad event which awaited him, 
as h<^ al.so h- aid that his veiierabh^ and respcct(Ml father had also passed 
away at the i'i|><5 ohl agis of eighty two. Although in apparent good health 
wh(m our sulijeet left, yet, after a short illness lu^ died on the I'Jth of May, 
highly este(Mneil l>y all, and deeply regi-etted. His memoirs were drawn 
up by Mr. (loorgo Coventry, and deposited with those of other eai'ly settlers 
in the archives of the Province. 

As our subject was daily expected back from ihiglaud, w(5 tind in the 
Jonnud ui' ,]uiu' ;$() that steps w(!re immediately taken arid an influential 
committee of his fellow townsmen apfiointed for the purpose of making him 
a hamlsouia present, as u nuirk of their apiueciation of his conduct. And 



253 



|<iiig hiui 



Ann 



altlioii^li Hovonil of his political opponoiits inrlustiiouKly circulated tlio story 
tliat the afTair was got u}) l»y his own family, it is ncc'illcss to adil that it 
was groiindloss, and in acoorda'too with liis fixnd ideas on tho duty of a 
public man, ho firndy yot tliankfiiljy refusud to he tho recipient of any 
testimonial. 

Inimediatcly after liis return home, there api>eared a letter to George 
Adams, President of the Agricultural Society, in which he says : 

" SiK : — From the distinguished situation which you have long ludd in 
this District, you ippear to he th(i most direct and appropriate channel through 
which any comiiiunication to tlie public on any sulfject r(;lating to tliat 
Ijrauch of industi-y can be made." 

In this familiar c he notices the various addresses 

to the Imperial Parliament for an adcfjuatc protection against foreign pro- 
ducts, when Ouio are admitted without duty; and if wc cannot, on tlicso terms, 
•sufficiently compete with foreigners, w(.' have no right to C(»rnj)lain. It is both 
unreasonable and unjust to rocjuire our fellow subjects in liritain to impose 
any duty or (ho articles they consume for our benefit. He then relates tho 
history of the measure in an address to the Legislature, fifth March, 18IM, p. 
149 of this work. 

lie (juott the speech in the Imperial Parliament, bearing on the subject, 
by 8ir Robert Peel, that Canada must be treated as an integral part of tho 
liritish empire. That to accomplish this desirable object, they should remove 
all duties in Britain of tho growth of Camida, and all duties on any article 
manufactured in Britain; and extei'd the coasting M-f. le in the remotest part 
of Canada. 

He advises patience with the Home (lovernnient desirous of imposing any 
duty on our products lor the purpose of revenue : as the eilect will be to give 
the Canadian grower the full benefit of the market of the mother country us 
well as our own. 

If our readers can reni'Miilier (be remarks made on page ll'J, tliey will 
find bow persistently he pursued this sultjeet, and also see that during his 
lat(! visit he pressed the subject on tho Imperial (/overnnunt in sueii a man- 
ner as to evoke fiom Sir K. Peel the remark, " ihat < anaila nnist in effeet 
be treated as though sho was an integral part of tlu; empir(>," as well a dis- 
patch lieiu" receivcid by tho (Jovernor, wiiich stated " that if our (Govern- 
ment would repeal all duties on liritish goods, and impost} a reasonable 
duty on all foreign importations, that tho products of Cana<la shall bo allowed 
to enter tho l»orts of (Jreat Prilaiii du(y free." In con)menting on this, bis 
ojiponent, the Niagara Cfirunirlf says : " For ihis happy result wu are to a 
coubiderable e.vtent in<lebti-d to the exertions in England of Mr. W. II. 
Merritt." Tho text of tho (Jolonial Customs bill was published on the 2I.st 
of July, as follows : Wheat from the Statca wa.i admitted free to Canada, 



254 

unil <'aniuli;in Hour \v;is rcihicod iu two .sliilliii^'.s oiil^' in lOiigliuul. So tliat 
i\u'. liiiliiiK'o HnvM to this country was iil)out ;?4,()()(l,()(l() pci- aiiiiuin, iind 
coutiiuuMl witli iuficiising |)i'osiierity to (Jaimdii lor nciuly (iv(^ ycins, until 
Kui^liuul oiicnttl licr iniirki'ts diroct to the; Unit«!d Statrn. 

During- tli<^ alKicucc of Mr. M. in England ;i di.sjMtcli was roi-civcMl from 
til*' lioino (joviM-nnumt hy Sir (J. JSagot, ropudiating tlio jn'iiuiijdo of appro 
priating any of tlin puhlio funds for building roads ami biidgcs. Tin- poli 
tical opponents of our sulijfict chiirgod liini with bcsing concerned in this 
matter, which ho most indignantly denied, directly or indin^ctly, ailirniiiitr 
that in his corresjMJivdenco with Loid Stanley, or othei- ministeis, he never 
expresse<l an opinion on the sultject, or that it was ever (!V(?n allu(l«;d to. 

l*revi(jus to the calling of the JiCgisiature, on the 8th of Septeinher 
soMu^ changes were made in th(( (Jovei'imu-nt, and amongst them was the 
appointment of Mr. V. ffincks as Inspector (^tiueral. This g(!ntlemou had 
previously successfully fdhsd tin; situation of political editor to the Exinidnp.r 
newspaper, and had gained such pojuilarity that he virtually stepped from 
the sanctum to the Council. 

"J. S. ( 'aitwright, to whom the? position of Soliisitoi' ({enei'al foi' Canada 
West has just Iteen otiercd Wv His Kxcejleiicy, has declined accepting it. 

" In ansNvei' tw liis (picstion wheth(0' Mr. Ifincks was to lie made Inspec- 
tor Ceuei-al and have a seat in the (!(»uncil, the Clovernor (Jem^ral replied in 
the atlirmative."--./o»r//fA/, June ••. 

After a sliort breathing tini" he was again in harness, and his first duty 
was to look at his old friend, the ( !anal, \\\\ which ho accompanied Mr. Kil- 
laly. During his al)sence 'li^^UW emigrants, principally from IrHland, had 
arrived in Canada, and a goodly number of these* fouml employment upon 
the works on the (!anal. The old faction tights were n-newed again in the 
new country, and the glories of Cork and Connaught wei-e as loudly vaunted 
arouiul the shanty fires as they ever iiad lasen in the Teniiisula under Wel- 
lington in past years. Uroken heads and sometimes worse was often the 
order of the day, and it became a serious matter to the contractors and others 
to devise means wherein' this continual turmoil could be slipped. Whiskey, 
of course, wasihe [uimary cause. 'I'he iihsa suggested and carried out by 
our subject, was that of separating the " rival clansnum " and placing them 
at dillerent divisions on the route. This, although in the main successful, 
did not always fully accomplish a cuie, as the vivacity of the Hibernians 
was often rais<>d to such a jtitch that they either fought for the fun of thing, 
or, to use an Irish expression, " were growing rusty for a batin'." 

On the 1st of August, going to Toronto, ho visited the new (Governor, by 
whom he was well received. From Toronto he wont westward, visiting his 
sister, Mrs. Ingorsoll, and othons, around Oxfoi'd, returning by Paris, Dundas^ 
Flamborough, aixd other adjacent places, calling on many of his old ac- 
ipuiintancos on the route. 



;j;) 



old ac- 



A^^fiia, on liis an'ival lioiiic, lui was nn-t l)y a mimliiT of visitors from 
the Htatos wiio caiiit) to rco tint (!aiml. To tlioso lioactcil tho part of a cicc- 
roiic, showing them all lln; objocts worthy of noto on tho Canal ami in tht^ 
vicinity. 

This Hcasoii was romarkablo for very riotous comliujt on tlic part of tho 
laliorcr.s on the ('anal cnlar^'cninnt. So H(M'ions (li<l the matter hcuomc tiiat 
tlu! woll fliisposcil pcophi of St. Catharines came forward in iargt; nuinlxirsto 
l)(! sworn in as spcc^ial constahhis for tiio prt^servation of the poace. On tho 
ass()nd)lin;,' of the Hoard of Magistrattis a nnmlter of resolutions wore passed, 
f^iving siillicient power to the people to suppre.ss any demonstration of a 
I'iotouM tendency. 

Tlie following stfitoMiont, in our subject's own hand writing, dated St. Ca- 
tharines, August 17, was prcsontod to His E.Kcellency : 

" In eonso(|uenoc of public works being generally advertis'd, infornrition 
h.is been pid)lished that the works <in the canal W(!ri! to be pn)ee::(leil with ini- 
ni(;(Iiately. In the early jiart ol' the season a nundxT of canallers asseinttled 
ailing the line. iJy Hie 1st of duly it becwne (fvident that greater nuiid)crs 
h.'id arrived th.in euulil be employed on the work. It weuld bo neeifs.sary to 
employ military lo pr.ivent any .serious breaches of the pe;i(;e. AecorditiLrh ou 
the otii iipplieafions were made by the ^Varden, David Thorburn, to Ills Kx- 
cellency, to station some of tl? ■ military on the line, !md to s(;ii 1 ;i Unv .stands 
ol'iirms for the militi.i. A reply was received on th(! lolh, from the Secretary, 
.Muidoek, refusing the ajiplicMtion. In the <!iirly part of August tlu! numbers 
had inere.i.sed from l,.5()l) to 2,0iM) men. Arraii^rements had beiai matured 
by this time to employ ;i part of those who had th(; largest families, amounting 
to about f)!)') or (lOO. The.se were attacked by the unemployed, and I'oiced to 
desist. Under the.se circumslanc(!S the migistrates met and renewed the ap- 
plication for the assistanc: of nulit.iry to fli(! Colonel commanding at Ni gara, 
Init with the samir results. Today th(! canallers asscanbled, and had' broken 
into the contractors' stores, taking off flour ami jiork. This was succeeded by 
the breaking in and robbing of mills at St. Catharimis." 

Peace was restoied by the united action of the citizens and magistrates. 
All opposition in the society being merged in tho presence of n common danger. 
Mr. KykiMt and our subject, the former presiding, in the meeting of magis- 
trates. Special constables were sworn in, armed and organized to preserve the 

pCJlCC. 

On tlu! liStli of August he le.ft for Kingston, where wo think bo re- 
nniine<l until tho opening of the House on the Hth of September. 

Sept. 8tli, Jloiist; ni<!t. I Ith -A want of eonlidtsnei! is movc^d in' Mi', 
lialdwin. There was a Lower Canada advocatt; who led tho Lower Cana- 
dian wing, with whom Mr. I>aldwin appears to have had a treaty oHensivi; 
and defensive regarding tin; ollieial appointments The .speech was agreed 
in by all l)ut live, and the business of tins country proc(;ede(l. 

liOtli. — Tho debate on a duty on States wheat was carried on — Mi". 
Hincks and our subject on ojiposito sides. 

On tlm Sth Octol)er appears the repoit of the Special Committee to 



25G 

wliicli w,is rcfeiTi'd tlic iictitioii of tlif North AnKiican Colonial Socifty in 
Louilon — of the Muiiicijiiil (Joiiiicil District of Niagara, and tho Kcverul dis- 
jiatelK's on iuiiiortation of wlicat and flour — tivo resolutions accompanied. 

" I'liat tho dcsirublo oliject of (.*aiiada being treated as tliougji slie were 
an integral i)art of the empire, can only he obtained by removing all duties 
from its ])ro(hicts. 

"'i'lif J^cgishitive Assembly will take the earliest opportunity as soon us 
the tinances of tho Province will admit of recommending the removal of iill 
duties on the manufactures of tlic M(jth'r Country. 

"That they have every coniidmcc, when the leading public works are 
finished, that the revenue from foi-eign commerce and tolls will enable the 
Provincial («ov(!rnment to recommenil this. 

"WiM. li. MERRirr, Chairiuan." 

With this end in view, and for economy, he firings in a motion for the 
exhiliition of the public accounts, with what immediate success the present 
aiiswer from the leader of the Government will show. 

" DlFFlELD, Oct. 11th, 1842. 

Mv DkakSih: — You have a motion standing over from yesterday respect- 
ing the ])ublic accounts, which I trust you will consent to let it lie over until 
next session. I have not had tiiiu! to look over the njotion which, from its 
variety of details, it would be embarrassing to give an opinion on without 
much more time for consideration than can now he applied to it. f trust I 
need not assur(> you that the present udministrtition have every desire to plnce 
the accounts of the public income and expenditure before the country in that 
shape best adapted to afiord the fullest informati on these importnnt subjects. 
Neither need 1 assure you of our desire to meet every suggestion coming 
from you as one coming from a IViond. We at the same time are not pre- 
pared just now to assiiit to your motion, though we will give it every consid- 
eration during the recess with a view to act upon your suggestions as far as 
practicable. Believe me, yours truly, 

EGBERT BALDWIN. 

As, we infer, the result nf his interview with tho Colonial Secretary 
when in London, a despatch was received from the Imperial Government 
during tho intei'im, stating that if the Colonial Legislature wished to have 
free trade with l^ritain they would coincide with the propo.sal. Gu the de- 
flate which arose uj)on this im|iortaiit (piestion it is i-eniarkable that tiie 
men who in reality re}ii'csented the early settlers of both Cjijier and Lower 
Canada were in favor of the measure, while its chief opjionents were those 
who had udt been many years settled in the countiy. The residt was tliiit 
owing to the strange compositicm of tlu* House, this measure, so vital to tlie 
inteiest of this new aiul ju-oduetive country, which would have made Canada 
the envy of its neighbors, was put off until the next session. Very little 
w(irk was done aft«'rwards, and the House closed on the 12th of Gctobei'. 

The Hoard of Works, estafilished fiy S, P. Thompson, had effected luimer 
oiis improvements, whi<;h wen^ highly gratifying to our .subject, particuhirly 
those on the Ottawa for facilitating tlie transport of timlior. 



257 



iociety in 
veral lUs- 
piiniod. 

slic won-! 
all duties 

as soon iis 
;)valof:''l 

woi'ks arc 
juablt; llie 

'luiirnian." 

ion for the 
],(• prebent 

h, 1842. 
;ay respect - 
c over until 
li, from its 
on without 

I trust I 
lire to place 
ntry in that 
int su])jocts. 
tion coming 
ire not pre- 

cry consid- 
as far as 

J)\VIN. 

St-'crctary 
!ov(nTiiv.05it 
cd to liavo 
On tilt de- 
(' that the 
mid Lower 
were those 
t was that 
,ital to the 
ado Canada 
\-ery littlr 
Octolier. 
•tod nunier 
Viirticuhiily 



Tlic principal act of the pri-vious short session liad been the report of the 
Coinniittee on free trade with Kiif;land, of which our suhjict was Chairnian. 
It appeared to tend to draw closer the eonneetion cd' natural interest between 
the Colony and the Mother Country, and on wiiieh a lengthy .speech is reported, 

Mr. Menitt had entered into the system of ])arty government, like 
everything else, with great energy, olferiug the interest of his .seat to tlii^ 
Premier. 

After the eloso of the Tfou.se lie proeeedeil to ^Montreal on jiublic busi- 
ness, and n^turned home on tjio Itli of NovtMiibcr. Taking tiie opportunity 
of pcr.sonally inspecting thi! works for the improvement of the St. L'iwienci3 
River, pa.ssingin an open boat, (an account of whieli is mysteriously alludjl to) 
determined tlic feasibility of tiic lost channel. Its success was heralded in 
the other conimunicution. 

"CoHNW.VM,, November 9th, 1S42. 

" Dear Sib: — -I was much disappointed when I learned that you had passed 
through Cornwall ou your return home from your late t.)ur to Beanharnois, 
without aifording me an opportunity to see you, p:u'tieularlv as you g.ivc me 
to understand that you would make a stop here (d' at least a tew linurs. 

" To my disappointment, I iiave now to add my surprise and extreme regret 
that at your suggestion in accompanying you to Hungry Hay, I have elYei-ted 
nothing but a eonlirmation of u desire on my part, which some imj^uted to 
uie at Kingston, during tlie late session of Parliament, o annoy and oppose 
the IJoard of Works. Mr. John 8. Macdonald, the Member from (!lemi.iiTy, 
iiifiirmed nie sonn; five or si.x days ago tliat you had exjiressed yourself to Mr. 
Moffat, in Montreal, quite satisfied from your recent examinatiou that the 
Channel at Hungry Bay i.rii3 all that jou could wish it to be, but that you 
dared not give expression to tiiat opinion at the time of making the examina- 
tion for fear of being thrown overboard from the lioat in which wo cro.ssed. 
This la.iguage is .so unlik(! what T have always seen in you, and what I wouM 
slill expect, that I an slow to believe it; yet at the same time 1. cannot re- 
train from remarking that after consulting mo cunjithndlalh/ as yi>H dH on 
more occasions than one whilst at Kingston on this subject, I thought I hr.d 
convinced you of sincerity at le.ast in the statements which I made, however 
tar my judgment may have differed I'rom yours in the matter, 

■'Then again your opinion, as given ((uite iVeely, both on Clark's Island and 
au'ain at Mcl'herson's Point, in reference to the .shoals and badness of the 
Channel was as strong and pcinted as any opinion that I have or shall ad- 
vance for this reason. 1 must repeat my disbelief that you could have made 
the alleged stateuK'nls to Mr. Mcffat, although Mr. McDonald ,says he iiad it 
from Mr. Killaly as coming from .Mr. Molfat. 

" If what you said to me whil.st in the boat was through fear of being ill- 
treated by me or those who aeeompanied us (which I cannot for a moment 
believe), why not on the first opportunity that offerei] after the danger was 
jiiist, communicate to me your real opinion, for which I have always had the 
lii|^die.st respect, particularly on canalliag. ]iut you will, I feel persuaded, 
attribute to proper motives the feeling.^ which dict'ited the addressing to you 
this letter, and under the circumstances I think you will allow was not uncalled 



'or. 



" If I have misunderstood you ia whai, you said in rejorence to the Chau- 



'ins 



tiel umU^' coii.-idiT.ilior', ami if my stiitciiionJs ni;i<lc t,o jnii <!finfi(UHilia]iy tin 
woll as in my cvi(|(;iicc hcinn; tin; ( ■ommiltnu arc; not liorno out, I hope you 
will do me the juhiicc to inform mo wlinrc tlio (li.scrcpany II'-m. 

" I remain, doar hir, ytur vorj obedient seiv.mt, S. Y. C'lIESLKY'." 

" KiNOHTON, .'5oth Nov. 

" My Dkar Silt : T have the pleasure to announce to you that the ///V///- 
/rtw(/e/' arrivi (1 hen; yesterday. SIk! ran tiie rapids in great Mtyle. She 
leaves to-morrow, and will ru?i (Icar down to the (!ot(!au. Have you seen 
NIL'oit'n C'd-jtiif lie hii.s a very loni; artiiile for an Anifirican paper as to the 
absurdity of our fini-hirii: and enlar^riii<r the St. li.uvrenee naviL'ation. "It 
Weijihs mueh with many." Vou (iiiiiht to take llie subjccrt up ; it i-t altogether 
again.st your doctrine. ,\ylwiii vvas just now talking,' of it, and aay.s it has 
made a {j;reat impriH.Kion. Faithfully yours, in hasti'. 

'• II. II.KILLALY." 

All iiiioiiyiiiuiiM IcU(iijf IMli I icci'iiiher, from wlioni it is easy to ima 
j^ino, and whose ar/.,'uiiH'iits it is uniieeessary to rcH-apitulatc, to lion. ,J. 
Nelson, M. 1'. P., CKinliafs t lie olijci't.ioHs to iiii|irovin:,' tli(! St. Lawn;iie<!, as 
8tate<l ill the States pajn r alltidcii to. 

As Ml. .Merritt'.s le„ishitiv(M'iiga).,'eiiieiitH did not pi'event his Iteing at 
liumo on the holidays, we licro make an («xtiaet from Mr. .McMiitt's .Journal . 

"20th Dee. — Thomas lias Ipccii assLstiiiir to decioratc our eliureh for 
Christmns. Mr. M uiray, tho Kn<,dish lOpiseopai eler;i[ynian, of Lewi.ston, 
and <latigliter, spciiL the wim'U witii ns. 

" I Wits \efy l)usy all the work mukiiif;' prepaiatioiis for (.'hristmas. The 
eliureh was very full, ('liristnias coniiii;.,' on Sunday. Mr. A. ;4av<! us a 
;^ond diseour.'-:!', as Im always docs (in this occasion. When th(! church was 
half over, who should eonu; in i>\il LCiandma, with my own najther. When 
leadiiiif her f(U w,u'<l, how often li.ive I tlmu^dit very likcdy it was the last time. 

" .Monday, 2()tli. The family .iiid conueetions dined with us. When 
tho cloth was removed, II. jn-oposcd tht; memory of him who was with us 
lust Christmas, our father and i'ricnd. 

" J7th. — Had a .sleigh-rid;; to the Kails, a\iiii 17 in eomjiany. As nsmd 
with so lii\!.(! a parly, there was some noli paired to suit. T. took in his 
earria-c S. luLjersoll, and (!. .\. Alex. Stiachan and .Miss A. Hopes Mr. 
Kissoek and '!'. Kcefer took no ofi'euce at tint refusin;,' to let Mi.ss A. go, and 
atthelast permitting it. Iieiidc/.vou.seil at tin; Pavillion. W^; promeiiadi-d, 
ehat'ted, and partook of sandwiclics, cakt! and wine, while Miss A. of our 
jiaily alternately witli a huly there, playecl on the piano. JiCaving the 
young peoph; (Mijoying a d;inci% we leturned by 'I'hoi'old, where W(( saw tho 
men at work — tiiey residi! in shanties, along tlus side of the mountain." 

On till! Kith, in company with Mr. Killaly, he again inspected the works, 
which were now going on with a large force of mi;n busily (Uigaged. 

The year had been a I'omarkable one fur having an abundant harvest 
throughout the world, and produce of evtuy description was very low in 
price, yet the great public works going on in Canada proved a boon to the 
farmers, as they found a homo market for all their surplus products. Yet 
oui" subject was a loser, from being Hocurity to the milling buniness before 
alluded to, and in which he was a silent partiuir. 



250 



1 8 1 3 . 

Ill .huiuiii'v lli(! pldasiii;^ iiiUllii^'ciK-e arii\>:(l IVmih I']ii;;lniiil tli;it lln- 
<l»^l)iMitiii'<!,s which our .siil>i(M!t had h'l't with Messrs. l'(iiisiiM(|iirL \Vfr«f suld, 
with all (iX|Ktlis(',s, at oiid per cent,. iiii(iei' par. We doulit if an event like 
this has siiico ocourrwl in tlie I'ai^^'li.sh mkhk^v niarlcet. ^ /^ ,n~-ijt j 

On tho 27th of" Kehruary anoth(M- new («<nornoi', Sir 'liLwtrtH^ Metcalf 
arrive(l. Alth()wi,'h w<! holieve ho was a sinci^rely ifood man, vet we think, 
his Ion;,' rosithMico of thirty-four years in the i'last Indies an<l three years 
ill tlaniaiea were not thu .sc-hools to nithtir lit him jthysicilly or mentally \o 
manage parties in (.'unada. 

Wti copy the followin^i; brief notices fi'oni tho Hn;^lish Culoni'til (I'Kzetln, 
of January 2.'$ril, resptjctin;,' liord iMetcalf's appointment: 

"Sir (!. ISlc'tealf has neithei' tiio aristocratic connections, nor the jiarty 
claims, nor the parliamentary inlluence. wliich aiu comiminly the title to 
ollices cnferrin.; the, \ icerir^jal power and dignity. i'arly e.xi^^oiieies and the 
agi'eeahle e.xerci.sci of pa,tn)nai,'e, are eipially set at nou ,dit in fii.Vfa- of peai'e 
and g(;oil <,'()ve,rnineiit for a <list,ant [»rovinc(!." 

Ai;d concliuh's a list of ;j;oo(l(pialities l»y sayini^ that "he po-i-ies.ses a love 
of justice, souudue-is of ju(li;inent, a'ld unswerving liniiue,-:!-;, wi en his mind 
is made up." 

iti the House of Commons, March 1(1, during the d-jhile uiioii the (Queen's 
sitoech, Jjord Stanley said : 

" And I do not hesitate to say that, hi'.;hly as I vidiu; Canada, and impor- 
tant as I think it for this country, that .sjic .-hoiild hav<; tlie control of tlntsi' 
ij;reat coloni(!S in North .Snairican. Vet from the day that w<! shall cease to 
hold Ca-.iada by the atlection and ^iiod will ni the ^^reater [lart of the inhabit- 
aiitrt, I sh- 11 cea.sc to desire to maintain it." 

In tlio same debate, Ijovd Uussell noes farther, and speaks a.s follows: 
" My opinion is, that your ladd upon (/'anada ou.Ldit, in tint first in.>;taneo; 
to depend upon your ;_dviri;r to them a constitutional iiovnuaieht, by which 
the interests and aflections of the peoph- of Canada may be so re;.iulatcil as to 
lirevcnt the jirobability of any wish ari.-ing on tla:ir part to separate from t!u-< 
country. " 

Ihil, to become better aeijuaiiited with t!i(^ |»e(<ple and tlu! eoiinliy, a 
long recess waH inaiutaiuf-d l»f*for(! he ciiHed his Parliament to assemldei 
and we believe him to liave l)een active in his endeavoiirs to eondni t his 
j,'overnment by giving' an e(pial I'epre.sentatiim to the nationalities of which 
Canada in conij»ose(l. 

On the 'Jlstof Mareli .M;'. .Mercitt sulfercid another allliction in the 
<loatli of his motlior, aged 82, to whom much was dnt; i' >r In-ingiug up a 
lai'i,'e family in a n(!W and ahnost unsettlwd land, and instilling her (diihli-en 
with proper notions of duty to thftir Creator and country. Shewasagreat 
favorite witli the rest of hoi' husband's family, and, as «, mark of esteem 
lier brotlior-in-law, Nohcniiah, had pi'cvious to liis deatli left u bcjiiesst of 



2fi0 




.t^)(}0 for ii iiioininiont in whi<'li Ik r iinrno as well as hor liuslmmrK was to 
lif! (•oiniiiciiK'ratcil. Tlio stoin^ (Hi which tUit ii)scri|>ii()ii is r«'('ni(h'<l was 
hrouj^iit fVoiii Ui(! (ihl family hninostnad in W'oHtchcslcr, N. V'., antl lunv 
forms tlio tahlfit in tlin front of the towor of tiio Kpi.soopal Cliurr-h in S(. 
Catliarincs. This (tliinch hail been linishod just httforo tlio occupancy of 
Mr. Atkinson, undor whoso i!))l(', and (tonHistont administration tin- con- 
gro;(a(ion had lai'.i^ttly incrcasiMl, rontlrrin;^ an addition totlic Itwildinj^ ncccs- 
Hary; and o\ir sul»jr»ct, on whom the ftxcnaition of this trust icstcd, devoted 
it to the ]»ur|)OKo of this ('nlarL,'cm<'nt. 

On the apiti'oach oi' tine weather new survc^ys wcire made for the e.xtr'ii- 
Kion of the St. Lawrence « 'aiials to Montreal, and tlu; route of tlio iJeanhar- 
I'oi.s section was d(H!ided to he on tlie south Hido of the St. Fiawreiicci, whicji, 
for ])olitical ,.ur|ioses, was a wise decision, liavinjf in vi(!W the ultimate con- 
nexion of the maritinn^ provinces in a straiglit liiu; from the np[iei' country, 
therehy unitint^ all the I'litisli America;? people, aii act which suhseipieni 
events have home out to he the Ix'st and wisest for this country. 

'{'he n(rw woi'ks on tin; ("anal, aIthou;,di pushed forward with <,'reat vi<,for, 
did not materially interfen! witli the ti-allic, as tlie route ]iy Port Maitlaml 
was (sxtensively used, and w(^ find that durinjj; this y<'iir a iuijuIhu' of Swed- 
ish, NorweL,dan, ami (Ji-rman ennf,'rants passed through tlie C-anal ett route 
for the far West, being the jiioneei's to those ]>opnlous ami thriving di.s- 
tricts whiidi now occupy tlu; thcMi almost unknown lands of Wisconsin and 
f llinois. 

Mr. Merritt arriv(!(l honu! from Kingston, on the 20tli May, wher(! he 
had an interview with tlie Clovernor and I'oard of Works, and entei'o<l 
immediately info the consideration of his own affairs in connection with 
th(! mill. This with ^rr. .M . had gnnt responsihility— .£25,000 to tho 
^I(nitr<'al lirm for stocking the mill. And he writes to his son to this ott'ect : 

" Mi's. .M. .saj's : 7th- FT. to Toronto on mill hiisiness. 12th- Retni'ued 
from Str(!et's on business. Air. M(!rritt and John Mittleberger are engaged 
talking ; I wonder what the uso can bo after the injury is donel Mx-. IMcr- 
ritt return(!d from Toronto, where he had been tliiit(!en days. With sou 
Thomas to Uncle William Mcrritt's. Thc^y told us the report there and at 
Lewiston was that W. H. Merritt and Geo. Adams had 'broke all to smash.' " 

About midsummer ho received a comtnunication from tlio (iovernnieut> 
in nsferenco to the establishment of a Provincial Lunatic Asylum, wheraiii 
ho was deputed to nuike e.xtensivc in((uiries, and collect information in tho 
United States in reference to the sul)ject, He visited New York, Boston, 
Utica and various other i)lacea; and in Utica gleaned a large amotint of in- 
formation from hi.s fri(!nd, Doctor Brigham, who had charge oft' > Asylum 
there. From tho exjiorieiice gained, ho prepared an able repoit,. id traii.s- 
mitted the same to the Provincial Secretary. 

During this journoy of in.spcction he was ficcompanied by Mrs. Merritt, 
from whose journal wo copy : 



2G1 

** We arose Mondiy, l()t,Ii July, .«t 4 o'clock, and to(»k a cup ofcofrti!; and 
with soil 'riimiias for drivcir, arrivod at Nia;^ura at H, in lime tor stiMiin-r 
(jiiten, to Toronto. Tlieri; was sinootli water, and a littli; rain Cull duriiijj; tlie 
«ail. Passed \\w. (Hiiif J imlin' iwuX St. Liiinrniin;. Oonver.si'd witli Mrs. (Jil- 
lospie, ol'dalt, and witli lier three eliildren ; she is very chatty and |>leusaiit. 
Toronto at 12; sloppcid at North Anicriein llottd ; drove to IM-Dlmsor I'olter's, 
when, after an liour, einie haek hy (^'oll»^j:;e Avi'iinc and Mr. (Jra.ssett'B, and 
hack in ti-ne i'or tea, and drove to steamer St. /.iiiorinirn at 8 ; cros.sed to ()s- 
wef^o; went on board a canal boat at 7, sat on deck till !), when we ;<ot lodi^od 
three tier hif^h ; up and dressed at 2. At Syracuse to ik anotiicr eanal packet 
to Chittenanyro landin;', where we drove to Mrs. Yates', wlio received us with 
•.'real demonstration, shewin}^ us tlirou;;h the ;,'rounds, flowers, plants, f^reen- 
liouse, all surround. -d by a well cut hed,^e. After tita Mrs. Y. escorted us to 
.'itation. I!tie,i at half-past U; stayed two days ^ <iur friend's home. Started 
for New York by Albany , arrived at 8 o'clock 2kh July ; put up at the Astor 
House. After .seeing tin; siix'its, went to visit Col. Arnol 1, at i'crth Amhoy. 
lstofAu;^ust found us at Hjston, per steamboat down Jjon;^ Island Sound, 
and railroad ; thenee we returned to Utie i, where we visited the Asylum, 
reaching hom»! ISth August, after a month's travel. 

Soon aft«rwiirds lie, was notilied by thcf Secretary that the fJovnriior- 
(li'inTiil inteiidod to make u tour to the westta'ii .section of the I'l-ovinee, 
lad would call at St. Catharine!) to sim; the (Jaiiil, for which he eau.sod ample 
lirejiurations to b(Mn;i,d(^ for his rcHTptioii. 'i'ho (Jovcrnoi- anavtid on the 
lllth September, by couch from Ifamilton, provi(l<;d l)y Mr. D. P. llayncs. 
lie was received by si dtiputation at the St. (Jathariims House, jirul after 
breakfast was escorted up the canal ii ratln-r (lilHciiIt route to travel, in 
conse<[nouee of the ci:hir;,'emeMt f,'oiu;,' on. Mr. M"nit,fc however ;,'uiile(l the 
party ill safoty. Leaving the (Mual, he th"n took his dnpurtiu'o for tip- 
Falls ; and aftei' a shoi-l, slay, left for Kiu<^ston, the thou Proviii(;ial capitol. 

As was usual at this .season, a number of <listin^uished stran;rcrs visite 

tlic Falls ; amonij them was Profes.sor Potter, oi" L tad >n University, now ol 

Kiu'z's ('((llegc, Toronto, and liis lady, }i;ranild iiiihtcr of .M.-. N-lK's. -Mrs, 

Merritt'.s Journal of 24th says: 

''Prof, anil Mrs. Potter came on Friday, from the Fdls. We talked of 
(.'ainbridiic, they both haviufr resided there. Mrs. P. pointed to m my wdl- 
known places in the views of ('ambriiljc. After dinner our in ui too'c th iin on 
to (Jrimsby, to visit Mrs. Potter's relatiojis." 

< >n the 28tli of September the House nu!t, and a i.-onriiltLiv, was ajtp'jiuted 
to consider tlic quesLion of eoh>niaI free trad<f. Our subjoctwis on this 
committee, and wns eariicstly in favor of tlui (jlij^-el, as lie. i)eli(!V(!(l that a 
free iiitcreoiir.sc in all commcr.'ial i raiisacticHiH between t\u\ dill" -n^iit eoloni'-s 
would nniLerially tend to tln^ir consolidation, but although various .sugges- 
tions were offered, nothing was done at this time. 

Among the nunuM-ous corresponden's, thei'c arc ni'inbcrs of Larliane'ut 
ill and oiit of the ({ovormucut with letters to his family. Sonu' of them, 
are Jiere inserted. 




202 

111 w'riLinj( lu liis son AVilliam lio ur;,'cii(ly iiii|ii'<'MS('s ii|tuii liiiii tlin 
iiecoHsity of nmkiiijt; liimscit' |irulicii'iit in (Im! Kr('in;h laii;,'iiiig(', a« tlio poli* 
ticiil appoaninon of tlio tiiii'i jtoinlid Lo a piiniiauont Parliainont in Moii- 
f real, a.ii<l llir iiciirial iisci of Ixttli llio Kn'^'Ii.sli and Fronoli lan^ua^'* s tlieicin. 
l[t) alno says tliat ho far, tlid (JovonmuMit lias licon conductod npon his fav- 
orito tiioory, viz., rcspousihility l,o tli(» pcojih^ [(ovcrncd, from which system 
he s(U!Mis to ha\<' had tho ;.,'i'cati'st i',\]i('('(ations. 

'■ llorsK OK AssK.MitLV, Oct. 7, 184:5. 

"Mv l>i:Ait Sox : Yours of tin' l.'^th of ,\n;|nst, from Zurinh, was re 
ciiivcd l)y thd last pacUr't -this ufocs hy tho " Acadia," v,dii<'h h-avc's nM the 
loth, Vonr mother copied yoiii- Icttei- .md sent it to nw.. >Slin leaves foi- 
Mayville to-morrow, with all your letters, views, hooks, it(!., wdnch, witli 
tlioH(! of your hi-otlier, will l)e a rich ti'cat (,o your remaining,' <{ranil-par6ntH. 

" If your lirotlifM-'s health is i-est.orfid by fi'avelliiii,', we will rejoice, and, 
I ti'iist, feel grateful. II iviuL,' written k(j fully in my last letUsr, I will eon- 
lino myself to /jfivin;^' you a hrief narrative of passing events liere. 

" 'I'lie (Jovernmeut is <-nniheleil on my favorite theory — responsihility 
lo tho people f^ovt-i'ia'd. Tiic Weliand and St. Luwrence (Janals will he 
finished (»n your nturn, the resources of tle^ country fully developed, the 
comuK'i'ce with the niothei- (•odnlry phe'cd on a perfect system, hy the re- 
moval of duties on the eouimoditirs of each when eiiti-rin;^' the othei', and 
1 trust the pros])erity of your native country estahlished on a yternifinent 
hasis. The seat of (Jovernment will he rtMiioved to Montreal. The (pn'stion 
is to 1)<! h;ft to the dei'ision of the liegislature,and a majoi'ity will he aj^'.iinst 
Ul)per Canada that was, hence the impoi'taiic(! of youi- lujing enabled to 
sprak in French ; if you succeed in speaking' with facility, it will, in ciisi^ 
you hecome, a puhlic man, he of <,'ri;at adv'anta:,'(i, and ;j;ive you a decided 
jn-efereiice over your fellows. The session is expected to last some throe 
months, and T hope to hear from you a;,'ain whi'e here, in aiiswin- to this. 

"Th(!.Jury Law, Division Coui'ts, iMuiiici[)al (Councils, Education liill, 
and many other acts, will be repealeil and amend(Ml; and I hope to live to 
see tins day when you will hrinir in a gemsral system, or code of laws, 
.adaptcid to ( lanada, on soim; uniform system. At present we have two sets, 
the civil law for Lowr-r, and common, for llpi)cr Camilla. J dare say Mi: 
I'apineau can and will point out tin; altcsrations made in France since tlanr 
adoption in Canada some c(!nturics ajjfo, and I should lik(! to hear if he thinks 
tho.se alt(!rations important, (u- a better system than the existing one in 
Lower Canada. The StattJ of Louisiana has a Cixle peculiar to itself, origi- 
nating with Mr. Livingston, ami vei-y highly spoken of by Jjord Durham, 

" Your ad'ectionate father, 

" W. HAMLLTON MEllRITT." 

A large poition of our subject's time was occupied in corresponding with 
his friends in t^W parts. He wrote and received long letters from iiis son 
William, who was pursuing his studies at IJonn. The subject of & new code 
of laws for Canada was earnestly distaisscd, and the po.ssibility of introduc- 
ing into the country tho simple and inexpensiva Code Na])oleon hintetl at, 
as one of the mean.s which might arlvance and consolidate tho distant {)arts of 
the country. He earnestly urges his Kons to closely attend to their studies) 



2 1 IP. 

as tim proHpoct of tlitir hocotiiin;,' useful in IIkmi- iiiiti\i' luml \s<)iil(l n!- 
(|iiiro tlKMuiniPNt Ui<)u;^lits of ulilo infii hikI i ii vol vi^h ideas on all s<iJ'.i('etH 
whioli Wduld I)' l> Ml •liiiial to tlio coiiiiUy, iiml lii-l|. lu iiii;r«as« its yri'iitnoHH. 

" IfoiTHK OK AsSKMItl.Y, No\ . 11, I S I 3. 

" My DiCAli Son : 'I'lif (JovcriiiiH'iit ?ii"s.si'ii;^fr Icuvi's in l!ii' rnnniiii;^ 
for llo.stoii, ami I liavc takfu up u ftnv in niiciils wliilo sittiii;;,' on a «'i)iiimit- 
t(»n to iiiv('sti;,'at(' tlio inniiinr of dispo iiii;^ of In li.iii lands, to !,dvt) you a short 
sk«>t(!li of pasHJiig oocurn-iici-H. .Mfssis. Dunn, Haiirum, Morin/PlioiniMon, 
'('liorl)urn and niywlf coiiiposo tlio fonnnitto". danif.s iiitdc, lvs(|., ( 'apts^. 
Kurt- and darvis, with many others, all of whom lire known to you, 
are lun-e as evidenre. Messis. Onnii and Thompson are fniioiis, and wliilt^ 
they aro deluitiii;,', I am Ki-iihhliiii,'. An a Idicss lo the (Jneen, pr.iyiiiL,' for 
a rfjmoval of the scut of ({overnnii'nt to Montr'al, i,'oes to lMiL,'liiud l»y this 
paek(^t. Shonld the pv-tition he ;;rinted, and yon heconi'^ a h';.;is!ator, your 
Freneli will (M)ni!>ine utility with aviompiislnnent. A hill has hecu intro- 
diieed iilleriii;,' the .Municipal Councils Act, the School Act, the Kxeise and 
Duties, JiirispriideiKie of Lower < 'aii.ida, du y liill, amcndiie.,' Nia-ara i)is- 
tii(!t IJaiik Charter, which we hope lo ^fct into ouci'utioii, and I trnstthat 
yon may at some future day liecome its solieitfjr. 

Our pr.^so it (Jov 'rnor (lOiKiral is popular, and a Ljood man. I hopo you 
havo seen his letter to the Uritish Amhas.sador, which I enclosed to I). I)aly, 
Hanker, Paris. It will i,'ive you an opportunity of seeinj< state <(randeur, or 
tli(^ splendor with which our diploiiiac-y is surround'-d in Miirope, to talk 
ahout lier(!after. It is all the ^'(lod it will ilo. I will send yoii a paper 
coiitainini,' th(! dehattts on the .seat of (lovernment hy this packet. Tho 
Jiieiid»(!i'H of the lIp|)(M- llousc!, or- a pail of them, left in dudgeon. Mr. 
Harrison, Secretary West, has resii,'iied, and lo.ses a salary of .CI.-"() per 
yar. We have a hill to amend the act for yraiitin^ de'tentiires to tho 
private shareholders in the Welland Canal Company, whii-li I hope will ho- 
aouxc a law. If. so, it may take me over the .Atlantic! once more. Another 
month will decide. I will write you the result in due time. We are ahout 
a|)plyin;^ for a p(a't td' entry and a warehousing;- |iort, which will aild very 
(■oiiHi<h'r;d)ly to your small estate in St. ( 'alhaiiiies. The Wcllaud and St. 
Lawronoo (Jaiials are, getting on well. Within two years all our cyinmuiii- 
cutions will he opened. 

"If you re(;oJlect, at the last (deetion I assured my constituents that the 
British (jrovenunniit intendt'd to carry out the system of res'ionsihility to 
tlio people gov(U-ned, and assii,'iied the i-ea.son why ; also, that the first fruits 
of the union would bo opiuiing all our communications to the oeeau, and, 
thirdly, that tho agricultural interests would he promoted. It so ha])pon3 
that my predictions liavc^ hecui cari-ied out to tla^ V(U-y lettei-. AUhou.;li we 
owe much to Lord Syd<uiliam, he nev(!r intended to concede respon.sihln 
government. J)uring tho first H.^don in IS 11, if yon recollect, tho Houso 
passed a seri(>s of resolutions, declaring that hen^after the practical opeiatioii 
of our Provincial (Government should Ik; assimilated as nearly as pos^ildo 
to tho cons itutiim of tins mother country, and the K.xoaitivo Council should 
command the conlidenco of the Ifouse of Assemhly. Sir Charles IJagot 
came out, d 'termined not toadheri^to that |U'inciple, liut in the first session 
of 1842 wai compidlcd to ado]jt it. and call Me.ssis. Lafontaim;, l»aldwin, 
and Morin, to his Council, or dissolve tlie Houso of As.somhly. Sir Charles 




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264 

Metcalfe came out, under the same impression, but has no alternative. Our 
Council is therefore composed of Baldwin, l>unn, and Daly, in addition to 
those heforc named. Harrison having resigned, that oHice is abolished. 
The completion of the Canals is also secured, and the trouble I took to im- 
press on the mind of JiOrd Stanley the impoitance o"" admitting oir j)roduce 
into the ports ot Great Britain without duty, has been fu'ly compensiited. 
Coj)ies of those letters have been jmblished and most extensively circulated 
in this Province, and admitted by all to contain sound principles and useful 
information. It is gratifying to find so nnich has been done in so short a 
time ; but much more re({uires to be accomplished. Our system of judica- 
ture is expensive. Our numicipal institutions do not yet work well, in con- 
sequence of attemi>ting to create two ojjposing j)owers in the same district, 
the one, the magistrates appointed by the Executive Government, and the 
councillors, elected by the people. 

" Your atl'ectionate father, 

"W. HAMILTON MERRITT." 

During the session ho strongly advocated that the proceeds derived from 
the sale of Indian lands should be set aj)art solely for the use of the abori- 
gines, and when on the committeo for this purpose he earnestly insisted on 
the same course being pursued towards these people. 

One of the acts of the new Parliament was the establishment of our Com- 
mon School system, which was placed under the charge of the Kev. E. By- 
erson. 

The system so far has i)i-oved in many respects unsatisfactory, owing to 
i-eligious controversy ])roducing sej)erato schools. A very exj)ensive system 
of management, besides creating the fallacious idea that as men progressed 
in wea'.th they should still, among other communistic doctrines, compel the 
State to pay for the edujation of their children, instead of doing it them- 
selves. 

Mr. ^Icrritt made a lengthy ppocch on the removal of the scat of Govern, 
ment, taking the opporianity of going o/or the who'j h story. His •' attention 
to the subject of the lluion was first directed, from contrasting the relative pros- 
perity of the adjacent State of Kew York as early as 1822, since which no op' 
portunity tending to bring it about hud been neglected. It was with the view 
of having a seaport for his Province of I'ppcr Canada that, before a committee 
of the House of Commons in England, six years after, the annexation of Mont- 
real was advocated. He addressed this letter to the Colonial Secretary, Sir 
George Murray : 

' At present a majority of the itdiabitants of both Upper and Lower Canada 
are averse to the Union ; the former for fear of being controlled by the French. 
* * * On 'he other hand, by the annexation of a sea- 

port to Upper Canada and the improvement ol' tlie St. Jiawrence, commerce 
will be extended, population doubled, the value of property increased, so that 
both would soon realize tlic wisdom of the measure, ami not only become recon- 
ciled to it, but solicit a reunion.' 



265 



Canada 

e French. 

of a sca- 

;oiuiucrcc 

so tli:il 
no rccou- 



After rending th) foregoing, Mr. Merritt continued : 

" T'-irco of the most di^•tingui&hed members of this Home, including the 
honorable the 8peaker, were then in liondon ; and although the measure was 
opposed, the object has since been off.cted to tlie fullest extent. Tiie first 
fruits of the session (and he hoped we should never forget that we were indebted 
to their Lower Canada friends for it,) was to secure a passage to the ocean. 
Up to the present moment the union had been gaining ground. Tiiis had been 
brought about with the seat of Government in Upper Canada. Why, then, 
by attempting a change, endanger it ?" 

At the termination of the session ;i break-up occurred in the ministry 
in con.sequenee of which the House was hastily adjourned. 

A new ministry being in progress of formation, the office of Keceiver 
(Jeneral wa.s offered to Mr. Merritt, but believing tluit iu his present position 
as committed to the B.ildwin-Lxfoutaino ministry, and as expecting to be 
Inspector of the Canals, lie coukl be of more use to the country, he de- 
clined the honor, although strongly jiressed by Mr. Harrison to accept it, 
this gentleman refa ingto rejoin the Cabinet unless our subjt;ot came iu also. 

He writes from the House of Assembly, Kingston, Dec. 1st : 

" My Dear C : We are all in confusion here, the result of which 

you will hear in a day or two. I have quite recovered ; (a previous letter 
notices his being indisposed;) but will not return before the holidays, even 
were the House adjourned. W. H. M." 

Fnm the same place, Dec. 7: — "From present appearances the House wi.^ 
be prorogued this week." With some notices of their legislation in the inter- 
cf^ts of the canal stockholders, enclosing remittances, he adds: ''(Jive our 
friends the usual Christmas dinner, whether I am with you or not. W. H . M ." 

The seat of Government debate was succeeded by the resignation of the 
Ministry. This news was conveyed iu a postsi-ript to the Jounud of Nov. 
30th : " We have received a h'tter from IVIr. ^I. conlirming the resignation 
uf all the Cabinet except Mr. Daly." A sul).se(jueut number contains an 
aiticle fromthe ))en of Mr. Wakeliehl, from wliich we copy the following: 

"The union of the two Canadas has brought under the control of one 
Lcgisbiture two nations so to speak, which widely diller in origin, language, 
liws, customs, and haliits of thought. li"gislation must I)) eairied on i)i a 
f"diT;il principle. Of this the late ( 'anadian Ministry appears luncr to havo 
liiid any clear view, or even a glimpse. Tiiey had the inconeolvable folly 
to depend upon the Lower Camida majority as a means of carrying tlirough 
Parliament measures for Upper Canada— tiie As.sessnient J'ill of Upj>er 
Ciinadaand the University Dili. Tills letter was Mr. Daldwin's own, ami a 
great favorite. He would probably have been com;>elleil to w itlidraw it on 
tlie Alondav after the Suudav on which he resi^nied." 

After im])uting this act to •'lio p'M'sonal vanity of the Miuist-M-, he 
cjntinues . 

"I cannot doubt, however, that ^Messrs. liahhvin nu'l Lafontainc lad 
arranged to get ujjou bad terms with the Governor some time licfore this. 
No Ciovernor of a colony, most assuredly, ever carried out the principles of 



■'""■■^f 



200 

resi>on,sililo govoniincnt so An- as Sir Chnrles has done in Canada, nor was 
f-vcr licf'un! in any colony a |irovincial ailniinistration wliicli, wliilo tliey 
jiossessod on the one liand tin' (■(intidfncc (jf tlic icprcsfntative hody, ciijuyed 
on tlie other ho nun-li executive jiowei- — had their own way so entirely in 
their capaeity of ministers, as the said \j. and I>. Adniinihtnition. Yet it 
ajipearr hy all accounts that the two leaders wore not content with such 
unusual jtower, hut also wanted to play the part of niaHtifl's over the (iov- 
ernoi-, representing Sir C'harle., as an old Indian, disliking free institu- 
tions, closing with the i ■.coni[»etency of its leaders the tiue cause of the 
dowid'all of the government." 

But what the public and consequently the papers did not know, was that 
overtures had been made to Mr. Merritt to enter tV.e governnicnt. His Ex- 
cellency's long experience in tlie administration of government over diverse 
natioMalities iiuUiced him to perceive there was a people in this country whom 
it would be politic as well as just, to have represented. He would have a na- 
tional, not a Hincks-Wakefield any more than a Baldwin-L.ifontaine Cabinet. 

And it was a rea.sonable inference that the one who had made the first com- 
munic.-.tion to render profitable that interchange through the colony to the 
Mother Country was the one to complete it; and we think this feeling was par- 
ticipated in by the inhabitants, as well as His Excellency and the ndnistry at 
home. But the inherent evils of our constitution favoring monopoly, and 
putting party above country, rendered it abortive. 

Viewing the want of co-operation among liis Reform associates in his 
selieme for retrenchment, wliich he had experienced, his confidence in tiie 
necessity of party must have been strong to refuse such an api)eal as tins : 

" Kingston, Jan. T), 1S44. 

" Mv Dear Sir : — It is with great regret that I have ]terused yours of 
the 3(lth ult. You nnist be sensil)le that however strong my desire to be a 
party to a refoi'in of that duralile and sid»stantial character of which we 
spoke, without some one who understands the sul'jfct well, and has skill to 
develop and enei'gy to jiursue it, there is no chance of my ever being able 
to bring it about. 1 know no one who to the necessary qualities adils the 
necessary knowledge but yourself, and I should regret more than 1 can ex- 
press the want of your assistance in this matter. Never was there an occa- 
sion more favorable than the present, or more deserving the andntion of a 
well-wisher of his country. We are now, I think, safe in Eastern Canada 
— at least, so I am led to believe, not merely by persons here, but by those 
from whom I hear in ^Imitreal and Quebec. With i/unr aid and that of 
tho.se others on wliom you are aware I rely, it docs appear to me we can 
command a successful iss\ie, and this I say notwithstiinding some threaten- 
ings in the jjolitical atmosphere about Toronto. 

" I hope to be in Toronto for two or three days about the 14th or l-">th 
inst. Pray write to me there, and say that you will not desert the good cause. 

" Youra faithfully, 

" W. Hamilton Mkkuitt." " W. 'if. DRAPER. 

Added to this he was appealed to in a long communication from his coun- 
trym m, E, Rycrson, which being marked " private and confidential " prevents 
our giving it in full. 



267 

Though not enabled to accept of office, he pleads for the contiim nice ol" 
his old associate in the cnnal, now a quarter of a century in the Receiver- 
General's cffieo. Q'he following is the reply : 

" GovpiiNMENT House, Dec. 30, 1843. 

" My Dkak Sin ; — I jiad not the ploiisuro of nreiving yuur note on the 
subject of the Kecoiver tu'iiL'nil'.s ulllce until tiMiipurjiry iirnini,'t'nuMits had 
been made for relieving ^Ir. Dunn, (lia-stcned at his own r(M|uest), until a 
jicrnianont successor can be appoiuti-d. The ( iovcrnoi-ticneral, li(.\vi'ver, 
desires nie to oiWiV you liis tlianks for the suj;Kc.-ti()n, hoping that your ap- 
prehension for the effect that the change might have on the credit of the 
Provineo may ]»i-ove grouudles«. I trust we sliall suon .see you back again, 
and I am, mv dear sir, Yours very truly, 

" W. Hamilton- Meukitt." ' " J. 11 !(}( JIXSOM. 

The ./unriKii of Decemljer 28, IS 13, closes the proprietoi-ship of 31 r. 
Leavenworth for Mi-. J. ITolmo.s. A vahvlictoiy of a column contaihs the 
following : " Nearly seventeen years have we toiled to cater for the piildic 
ta.ste." What that catering should l)e ln^ defines. " Canada is now in a 
condition to act a ]iromiii(Mit part in North America. Nations, likf indi- 
viduals, mu.st be the architects of their own fortunes, and eolouios, ri^iing 
into kingdoms and empires, cannot attain the highest point which civiliza- 
tion can reach M'ithout a strict regard to the ])i'inciples of justice, tht^ culti- 
vation of the moral virtues, and a watchful jealousy of pulilic liberty.'' 

A new engineer, Mr. Power, was appointed on the Canal, and on tin* 
return of our subject he accompanied this gentleman over the entire route. 

The organ of each party was now started. The Xatli-e CanaJIfin, edited 
by iMiijor I\ichard.son, says, it is to be i.ssucd in January. 1844, advocating tho 
invaded rights and privileges of the native inhabitants of the country. The 
Pilot in Montreal, by Francis Hincks ; and the (i'/of><\ i\\ Toronto, by Ocorgc 
Brown, appeared in the Spring, and far outstretched, especially the latter, all 
competitors. 

A dispatch was received by D. B. Vigor, the new President of the 
Council, on December 15, ordering the release of five (Janadians, wIkj had. 
been transported to New South Wales for [lolitical oH'eiices. 



18 4 4. 



Although busily engaged in his temporal matters, we lind that lie wa."; 
not forgetful of other and more important affairs, hence \. e see that at this 
time he takes an active part in the deliberations of a missionary meeting 
which was held here. A very good speech delivered by liim on tho occa-sion 
is fully reported, wherein he expresses a spirit of thankfulness and a liopeful 
Tiew of our social and political positions, dmwing some fine comparLsouw 
between the present and the past. 



268 

" My Fkiends — I am sure you all feel with me deeply gratefijl in beiu^i 
pennittt'<l to assemble ouce more to commemorate the anniversary of this 
most usoful and iutenisting society. 

" Every sucectHling year more clearly and more fully developes the object 
which this, as well as all otlKfi- similar institutions, are df.'signed tonccomplisii. 

'■ Even the most absurd ideas, which the ordinary mind, that only looks 
at the surface, supposes to be n^tarding, is tending to accelerate the event. 

" The old prediction that this world would be annihilated has been again 
revived duinng the past year, and many have gone s-o far as to predict the 
very day. Tliis is not singular ; many wi.ser and better men in all ages have 
fallen into the same error. FrtHii my » arliest childhood iny mind has been 
Hrmly impressed with the belief that instead of this world being destroyed, 
that its inhabitants were destined at .some jieriod to realize the blessings 
])romised by the Almighty and enjoy a perfect millenium. 

" I cannot refi-ain from availing myself of this opportunity to endeavor 
to impre.s.s on the minds of motliers the great im|)ortvnce of directing 
the early att(Uition of their ollsjiring to reading the Bible, and explain those 
priaoiples which every intelligent mind should fully comprehend. One pious 
:., •tlierwilldo more good in her generation than a score of fatlieri^ in hastening 
this event. Make a cliild once believe tluit j)eace must reign en earth — 
tiiat man will regard his fellow man as his brother — and you arm that child 
through life against ei'ror. When he hears a ftdlow-man ]tn>dict the end of 
tiuie, or witnesses signs and wondtu's in the heavens or convulsions of natur(\ 
his miuil is not disturbed- -he has not yet witnes.sed the millenium. When 
he hears a minister of that religion which is founded on love and peare to 
all mankind, rail againsf, his fellow-niun, or nny other sect or society what- 
ever, he will fall back and still hear the voice of that pious mother, 
and Siiy to himself, tliat man does not b;'liove in the millejiiuni. 

" Have we po,sitiv(! evidence that this time is approaching ] Since my 
arrival to the age of manhood every obsiirvation made on ineu and passing 
events tends the more linnly to convince my reason of the certainty of this 
prediction b»ing fullilled. Aye, T can trace it step by step in small matters 
as well as great matters — from my earliest recollection in tliis veiy neigh- 
borhood. 

" W^liat was the state of society among us forty years since 1 At eveiy 
bee, evtMT nn'litin training. v\ m at our dances, swearing, cursing, qvuirrel- 
liu;,', fighting, biting, ami even gouging, w.is of common occurrence. It 
was sanctioned !e/ the publie opinion of the day. Let nu^ ask you if such 
revolting setMies would lie t'llerated by jiublic opinion now. Let us extend 
o;ir views. Look into t!ie |>;i^t history of Eui'ope, tht> original formation of 
governments, their gr:id;ial inipi-ovenH'iit from iyranny — when men were 
made the willing instruments i>f men — to constitiitiomd freedom, where tin- 
tyranny of no mni can e.\ist. U:)wl)n.j;is it since governments waged war, 
one with another, on the most frivolous orasions, taxing tlieii- subjects, 
desji.itiug countries, and inflicting scenes of niistny on tin' human race, the 
bare idea of which makes the stoutest heart shudder. Look at the present 
day. The injst impoi-tant matters are settled in thos.> very governments 
by reference to other powers — -simply by arbitration, in the same manner 
that every right-nnnded ujan should settle his ditferenoes with his neighbor, 
ins -ad of r)rcing him into law. 

" I mention tlu)se facts to prove that civilization has during my short 



269 



Ufi' iidvaucod witli rapid strides, and this civilization will luing about tlx- 
iiiillcniviin. 

" Ijt't us now examine what visildo means are in oponition to ensure 
this d«'sii-at)lo event. Hvery element is at work, all apiiai-ently se|)arate and 
distinct, but all conibinin;jf to produce and ensure the oliject. Thi^ mo.-l 
[irominent is education. Without general intelligence it is impossible to 
comprehend those great objects which will best promote our individual in- 
tercut. Next is temperance. Experience has proved that this Society has 
(lone more to promote virtue and lessen vice since its establishment than 
any other a.ssociation of men. Every religious society of every name and 
creed, JJible .societies, missionary .societies, abolition of slavery, legislation, 
arts, science, commerce, all, in their own partictdar sphere, ditluse intelli- 
gence, enlarge tla^ mind, and hasten this event. There is anoth(>r and all 
powerful element at work, which has during the jiast year attained a degree 
of importance, and is likely to produce results that few of us can compre- 
hend. I allude to the principle of free trade. We see in a recent article 
in the Timen that £;')0,00(> per year is subscrilied to advocate the anti-corn 
law league ; that one, two, three, four, and live hundred po\inds sterling is 
paid by individuals. Their ostensible object is to remove the duty on human 
food ; but their onwi.rd course will not stop there. It will extend to every 
article consumed by man, and what must bo the result. Dej)rive govern- 
ments of the revenue they derive from indirect taxation, and standing armies 
will disappear. Nation will not L-e armed against nation. The very cause 
of sti'ife, of hatreil, and of war, will cease to exist, and peace will be estab- 
lished on earth. 

"The next question is: When are wo to look for this liap])y period T 
Judging from past experience — our only guide for the future— we iind the 
Almighty brings about His own wise purposes by natural means. The pio- 
i;ress of civilization must necessarily be slow. Tf we draw just comparisons 
between the inhabitants of diiferent countries it yives a most 'doomv and 
disheartening result. When T find the inhabitants of my own country, the 
cultivators of the soil, at least one century in advance of some parts of 
E\iroi)e, then I see we are not warranted in looking for it in our day or 
V'oneratiou. Nev««rtheless, it will assui-edly be realized by our ])ostcrity — it 
will b(( for them to realize the blessings which are in store for mankinii. 
No feelings of bigotry, intolerance, or exclusivene.ss will embitter their 
luinds. All that remains for us is individually and collectively to hasten 
the event by every means within our power. Let us connnence now. Thi.s 
is one of the elements in eflecting that great work. Jt caiuiot be etlected 
by faith alone. We nuist show by our works that wo are really in earnest, 
and to this particular object I now beg to direct your attention. 

" I am indebted to our excellent friend, Mr. Par.sons, for the report of 
last year, which I have read with attention, and commend it to those who 
have not had a similar opportunity. In the meantime 1 will call your at- 
tention to a few slun-t extracts, which contain the most interesting and 
I'leasing information." 

From the importance of Bible teaching during the generation of peace 
succeeding a warlike age, he hastily anticipates the advantages arising frem 
the institutions during an ago of perce. 

Having a high regard for Mr. Thomas Stveet, ho writes him a letter 
of advice, on accepting a municipal situation, to which the following is a repl\ • 



270 



" FallMim-s, ("liii.i.awn, Jan. 22, 1S44. 

" My Dkar Sir : — I tliank you for yourfriciully ami (lisiutfrostpd letter. 
I accept it in tho spirit in wliich it was written, and shall en<l(>av<)r to profit 
})y your <,'<)(n| a^^vi(•(^ F iMitt-rtain no ultra opinion in politics, anil sbill 
ever bi; rfady to advanco to tlio host of my ability the gt^neral interests of 
the inhabitants ot this District, without reference to party or j>olitical con- 
sideiiitions. I iun, of course, as every other inhabitant of the Province 
oufjht to l)e, a staunch supporter of the British (Jrown, an admirer of British 
laws and institutions, and naturally jealous at any attempt to le.s.sen or 
weaken the authority of the (iovernment by unreasonable demands, or the 
followiii;,' up a system of executive policy entirely at variance and incon- 
sistent with what 1 undiu'stand to be Ker Majesty's prerogative as exercised 
in this Province through her legal representative. 

" I am and always iiave been anxious that the inhaV»itants of the coim- 
try should have their fair share and influence in all matters in whidi they 
are direetly or pt^r.soIlally interested, but when that influence is employed in 
such a iiumner as to endanger other and superior rights, then 1 think thi- 
time has arrived when it beco nes every man entertaining the o))ini()ns that 



^- further encf)uragement. 1 shall en- 
discharge my duty in .such a way as 
rf [ fail, it will not be from the 
.in any apathy or inattention on my 



d advice alw.ivs in view, and will not fail to act 



STKEET. 



I do to r«'joic*( at a check being 
deavor while in the ])i.strict ( 
to ifive Katisfaction to mv c 
want of good will to serve th. 
part. 

" I shall keep your good 
upon it in all cases in which 1 can conveniently do so. 

" Believe me. wiy dear si)-, 

" Very ti'uly vours, 

"THOMAS C;. 
"W. H. MKRi:nT." 

The Jiiiirnii/, of JIarcdi 15, iiftcr copying a rumour by the Kingston Xeu:.^, 
that Mr. Thorburn would retire for Mr. Harrison, says: " The Sfain^nifoi, not 
to be outdone by the Xt n-.s, observes, that among other members of Parliament, 
Mr. M. has given in his adhesion to the present .system, and will supjiort tho 
new administration. Being in the h;d)it of iilmost daily intcrcour.so with Mr. 
M., and having enjoye 1 uninterruptedly for many years his confidence upou 
all public matters, we may naturally be presumed to have as intimate an ac- 
(|uaint;incc as the Statct<maii. Mr. M, is not the man to conceal from his 
friends his views upon matters of public policy ; and when ,so great a change 
conies over him as thiit mentioned above, it will be promulgated through a 
channel entitling it to .some degree of credit." 

The correspondence here given shows that with all the private friendship 
displayed towards his fellow townsman, he had not made matters of state his 
daily subject of conversation, and that he is still writing to the Ministry, say- 
ing that if certain measures were adopted he would join them. 

'•Toronto, March 24, 1844. 

"Siu:- T have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your fa\'or of 
the inth inst,, in which, I am glad to find, his Excellency apjn-oves of the 
principle of the plan submitted for his consideration, altliough I regret to 
licar that he entertains doubts as to the practicability of the proposed reduc- 



271 

lions. TIk! wliolc oltjiH't of my, T fear, ti'ilioiis ('oniMiuiiii'iitinn, was to |>ro- 
duci' siK'li pruitf, l)asLHl on praotical ami ito.sitivc i-i-snlts alicatly rcaliznl, as 
I li(tp«'<l would have reinovod all douhts us to tho f<*«siliiiity ot' tlic plan. 
WitlnMit roMiovin;,' thostt doultts, and cslab'.i.sldnt; confidence in tlif I'csidt 
as well as tlu! plan sultniittod for altfrinj^ it, any attempt to .securo it wo\ild 
lie usele.ss. I endeavoi'nd to imprcs.s on the mind of his K.\n'!leney a fact 
.scMuni l)rou!,'Iit under the considei'ation of ii ({oveiuor l)y his Coiincil: — 
That the ;i,'ross revenue of (.!anaila iimounted to fjOO.OOd ; that the yro.s.s 
revenue of the State of Now York Wiis Imt .fOL',n7.") ; that we had resources 
from four distinct and separate ohjects whidi they hail not, amouiitin>( to 
(ihout .ii34'J,li.'{r) : that by adoptin:,' tlu! sunui system of finance as thev 
adapted the wholw of that money wouhl he saved. 

" I find iniiny men hi<,ddy intelligent on yeneral siibjects reinarkahly 
deficient in comprehendini,' tinancial matters. They i,<,'noraiitly class finance 
and republicanism toj^t^ther. They assert that the cause of the expendituro 
•ill the State of New Yt)rk bcuiig so low is the eH'ect of the .systtun of a re- 
publican i;overnmeiit. This [ deny lit fi>fo. i/)W salaries, f admit, is in 
must cases the efi'ect of a repiililicaii administration, but I deny that repub- 
licanism afiects the dill'erent departments or l)ranches of a yoverument. 
Thi'V have as many departments as we, but they have better laws and rules to 
rc;,'ulate them, and 1 teel as satislii; 1 as of any event not reali/.ed tiiat we 
only re<juire financial experience and talent to ei^ii'ct the savin:.f named. »• 

" I am, mv dear sir, vouis verv trulv, 

<■' W. ilAMIl/roN .MKIUMTT." 

"St. (.'.vriiAiuNKs, April L*(i, 1S44. 
- ; — I have the honor to enclose herewith an al)>ti'act of the details 
of tin a'oposed reductions, (tint items are not transcrilmil, but will i)e found 
ill tl. 'ledules referred to, lettered and iiumbenMl, in p!W)lii- a'-coiints of 
184:",) .IS required by your letter of the 1-Jth of Ararch, and prijiiiiseil in my 
last from Toronto. 

" From the hurried manner in which [ have maile thos(> extracts, having' 
been detained by other atlairs until the jtresent week, jierfeet accuracy must 
not be looked for. A minute detail can be arriveil at only by a i-iyid iu- 
vostiijatiou of the ditferent departments. A yeuoral outline of the proposed 
reformation is all I can feel warranted in recommendiiii,'. If it is oonsiilered 
of suilicieut importance to make fui'tlier investigation, competent heads could 
soon mature, ])repare, and recommend a simph." and elhcieiit system for tin; 
cousideratiou of his Excellency. 

" Their attention wouhl first be directed to the Provincial (Governments, 
the number of departments considered necessary, and their r(!Si)ective duties 

clearlv defined. 

"The present system of laud grautini^ dej)artments is a reproach to any 
Government, inasnmch astlKMv is not a sutHcient sum of money i-eceived for 
the sale of land to pay for stationery, and all the olH -ers of the (h-partment 
ure paid from duties derived from customs, and could be contrasted with a 
.system which pays all expenses for about five to ten per ce-nt. out of 
the proceeds of the'land, and a permanent fund created with the remaining 
ninety per cent, for the education of our youth for all time hereafter. 

"The real and true value of each separate fund would be shown by itself, 
ill place of being mystitied and mixed up so as not to lie understood, with- 



■272 



(jBift 



out <^nMit liibor ami loss nf tiiiio, cvpii liy tlioso wlio lulministfrfil tlif (lovcni- 
iiiont. 

"Tlio |)i'(!H(«nt nu'tliod of oollcc-tiiigaiul «'Xi)OiHlinif thiMlistrict rcvrniH', to 
wliidi r liavf ii(i(, allii(l(>(l, cdiild also lie coiitrasU-d with tln^ oik* |>ro|ii).sf(l. 
" (.'(;rtaiii <,'ciitk'iiit'ii, as magistratt's, asscinlil« oiim in tlirco inontJis 
Thoy appoint one trcasurcn', ono clork of the peace, aiul re^'iilato the piiot'^ of 
tincH. 

A Hocend power is cn'ated liy electing c(;rtain disti'ict comiciilors, 
who name one clerk — Hanie duty as clerk of the i)eaco — two auditors, ami 
one Kiii'veyor. There is one inspector to collect the revenue fi'oni stills 
inns, shoi>s, iVc, making returns to Inspector Uuneral of ("ustoins, and wlio 
grants licenses to auctioneers, making returns as above. Another set of 
otUcers codect marria^^e licenses ami return tla* same to the Provincial 
Secretary. The Siierill'makcs returns of other lines to the Inspector (Jeneral. 
The district taxes are levieil and collected by assessors and collectors ai)- 
pointed at each town meeting, and ]>aid to the Treasurer. * 

Jt is evident this divei-sity of power and responsibility is unnecessarv 
inconvenient, and could bo contiasted with a simple system winch woiilil 
bo recommend(id, not to its advantage, containing one inspector in each dis- 
trict, who would re]iort din-ct to the Inspector (!(*neral as well as to the 
district authority, thus establishing a nnitual check for }irovincial and dis- 
tinct funds, by which a prompt collection woido be insured, and but one set 
of oHicers re(pured for collecting the extra provincial revenue, and another 
for district revenue. 

" Tlu! main object to be effected is to relieve the inhabitants from taxa- 
tion. The adjoining States of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana are 
largely in debt, without any exti-aneous resources. The apprehension of 
direct taxation ultimately, to pay this debt, directed emigration last year to 
the territ( ry of Wisconsin, where no taxa*ion is in expectancv. (,'anada 
has greater resources than any pcn-tion of America, and can bo relieved 
from all taxation unless imposed by the districts themselves for some local 
improven O'lt. I et it be generally known that the indirect resources of 
this country are ample to relieve the inhabitants from all apprehension of 
direct taxes ; that the j)i'oceeds of all the waste lands of the Crown aro ai)- 
propriatid to create a sinking fund for the education of youth and no other 
purpose, 1 n 1 few can predict the consc(juences which it would produce. The 
very idea wo(dd go farther to command ca})ital and emigration, and insure 
the riipid and steady prosperity of the country than any other measure yet 
proposed. With these few brief remarks I will clo.se, with a hope that Uio 
short time at my command will claim indulgence for not explaining the 
matter more fidly and ably. 

" I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

" W^ H. MERRITT. 

He further showed his appreciation by joining, in a semi official capacity, 
the administratioa of public works. 

"KiNosTON, May 8, 1844. 

" As you have, fi-om the comments of the Boaril of Work.s, expressed a 
strong desire to avail yourself of my local knowledge and experience in con- 
ducting the public works in Canada, the time has now arrived when it can 
be done mutually beneticial to the jjublic as well as myself. 



273 



(Jovcni- 

• 'linc, to 

ir()|iOHf<(l. 

riioiitlis 

prirt^ uf 

mrilliiis, 
.iiVH, ami 
III stills, 
ainl will) 

■!• Sl't of 

roviiiciiil 
(IfMicral. 
I'tor.s ap- 

lOft'ssaiy 
•li would 
(jaoli (lis- 

IS to tJK! 

and dis- 
it one ,sft 
1 another 

•oni taxr.- 
liana aro 

nsioii of 

t year to 

Canada 

relieved 
jnio local 
oui'ces of 

nsion of 
n aro aj)- 

no other 
ice. The 

id insure 
asure j-et 

that the 
iiiiiig the 



RITT. 

capacity, 

1844. 
pressed a 
lo in con- 
len it can 



" Thn ronioval of thnsoat of Govorniiinnt from Upp^r Canada 1 1 Mo'itroal 
will j^nmtly incroasn tin iaooiivcnieiuM* uln>:idy oxporien • mI, the powers h '\nx 
couoontrated at ho ;(reat a distaiK'o from tlie sp it where it in'ist li(» exeroist.vl. 

"The reincily proposed, as the cunt'-niMlate 1 alteration in the Aet cm- 
iiot bo attained for hoiii ' tiiir), is to ajipoint, nud-'r the present II ) ir 1, s Jine 
[lersoii to siipcrinteM 1 all th(i w.)i-ks west of th.- Nia'jfir.i Riv.-r. 

"Ill the first p!a"e, this p.iition, altlidiiu'li most reiiioM" frn:i Montreal, 
is the most important, iiiasnineli as the entire trad- of th ■ whole Province 
uiyeiids on the ipiantity we may divert from the wesiciM eou'itiy, whi 'h of 
itsidf is siitlieicnt to oeenpy the entire alte!>ti.)i> of oi:" mind. 

" The d>ity of this snj) 'i-visioii can b;* clearly d 'tin • 1, and the j)03sibility 
of collision on it avoided. The pn;,dneers continue to rejairt, esti- 
iiiite, and pay contractors, as heri'tofori', on all contr.e-ts heretjfure ent'-r,- 1 
i'lto, bnt every now matter or unforeseen obstacle arising, to b-^ referre i to 
r!ie individual on the spot, and a r(!,^'ul,ir I'eport mi 1 ^ thereon, as-ii,gnin;; th" 
li-asons for or a;,'!iinst, for the approval or rojojtiua of the JJ jaivl, a r.'^'ord of 
which will be entered into a bjok, to bo kept for the piirpos", on'JO in eacli 
month. 

" The money now paid wet^kly to the banks by the colleclors, a state- 
ment of which is furiiisheil the Receiver (jenoral. should be returned monthly 
to that otHce I»y each colhictor, and thence to the Inspector General, as wt-U 
as the Board of Works. The object is w secure a check from the local in- 
f'trmation recpiired, which cannot exist nnder the jiresent system. 

" This duty should also extend to the Clraiid River invitation, with a 
view of devising means to finish that work to Hrantford ; to the (Jueeiiston 
and (irimsby road, and thence to Hamilton — to bring forward a bill and 
piopose means to finish that work also. 

" The economy of this .arrangement will be tested by ex| iMice — the 
increase of revenue, which will not be less tlini £'_'.'), 00(1 tliis year, jKiid to 
the public chest, over and above charges, hydraulic rents, itc. The s.iving 
of expenditure in j)oliee, law eo.sts, postage, and other items, will in the 
aggregati; form no inconsideraltle sum. 

" The convenience of an immediate refei'ence will lie Jiiyhlv satisfaetorv. 
The books removed by tlu; late Inspector (Jeneral siiould be returned at 
niice, as the gn^atest inconvcnienee is experienced almost daily for want of 
it'ferring to matters there reconled, and can refer to no other public mattei- 
than the Welland Canal. There can be no possible advantage to the public 
service by removing those books to Montreal. The stock books are of no 
consequence, now that every shareholder, except two or three, are settled in 
* 'anada. 

" You are aware that I liave spent almost my entire time since IS.TG in 
affording such information as was lequired, gratuitously. That inuirina- 
tion has been considered serviceable on many occasions. i\Iy circumstances 
arc now altered. I can no longer allbrd to lose my time. Tt cannot bo 
f'inployed .so usefully for the public, or agreeably to myself in anv other 
situation, ai^d as far as regards individual claims, if those works are reallv 
useful or beneficial to the Province, it will lie conceded with one accord 
tlnoughout the land that I am personally entitled to consideration ; therefore, 
if you think the public interest will be promoted by this arrangement, it 
iiiay be carried into operation immediately. Truly yours, 

"Hon. H. H. Kill.\lv. W. HAMILTON MERRITT. 



274 

Tli(> ffiilifS sliow tliiil llif ;,M('uti.st (((iirii.sioii was tlif i(>nlt of I,((r(| 

Syilriiliain's iin'aii;,'ciiiciii, uiul liaviii;^ tlir wlnilc of tin- |iiililii' works i-on- 

(luutoil liy oiH' oHicr, iiu<l tint licail olliocr not iiKlfpfiidcnL kI' tlic i-liaiiyo of 

Ministry. 

K I NiisToN , ^! ay D 1 , I s 1 1 . 

" M\ i>KAi: Sii: : I a:ii in rt'cri|it this il.iv of ytt'iis of tin' i'.iili. | 
liavc not li'-anl one syll.ilili- sjicf V'MI went of our prMjioscd ai'iMii;(i'incnt. 
J havt' asU'-d two or I'nrc tiiufs, iiulci'd, |in'<sci! it as iiuicli as I coiilil, Imt 
' C'liuM 'lt» iinlliiu^' until tin' Conn 'il, witli |)i-aiii r, (1< lilu-rat.'H on it, itc.,' 
is tin' answer, 

" Kvcry thin;,' is as ynn Irft it. Ilaiiison i^ down a;.;;iin. Imi' \ ly ill — 
tliP .Sana- iiinmi' of his takin.:,' ollicc 

" Slli'l'Wood is ht'l'c. jn-'uxiirj, \ an tnhl, the < Ii)\ 'lll'i;' In ajijidnt his 
Conn^'il lii'foi'i' he i,'iirs ilown. oiIki- . ise In- is t.)li' vi>it"d l.y tlic diiffid 
indi'.,'nalion of //m /'"/•^/. 

"41' i>< \\ri)n;;;all topsyturvy, (iod knnw s s\ Lcif i! will cinl. I will 
writi' Villi wlaii anytliin^ o^'cni-s. 

" Faitlifnllv viuns. 
^ "li. II. KILl.AI.V. 

'• W. I i.NMii.roN .Mi:iiiii rr." 

<'.MoNTi!i:.\i., .Inly .'5, iSj I. 

*' y\\ l):;\i;Sii! : 1 li:m Jn.^l icccivcd yn.ir mtv wi'lcDnn' irtlfp. Since 
I wintc to yiiu last I have mil. Iirard imc word on the snlijcrt, alllii)ni,di I 
liavc seen 1 1 i'^'^ins.m daily and have )>rt'ssi'i| him on it. I will m;d<e it a 
jioint lo sec him ihis day and lri\c it at nni'c lixcd. The |irinci|i|f I)rin<j; 
adojit.'d. ! eannnt eonciivr what slniis tin' carrying ont of i«. As to the 
points : 

" 1st- -Letter of inlr>liii'tinn. iV''. Il shall he dune the monient I have 
llig.i^insou's autli(ii'ity, ntlieiaMy oi' dtherwise. 

" 'Jnd -I will see to the a]i|iiiintmen(. 

" .ii'd Wilkin.SdM left this t'ei' the W'elland two days a-'o, and I have 
not ti.e slightest a|i|ire|ii>nsion t.^it his work will li'' the cause of delnv. 

"Ilh W'elland Honk shall he done. 

** I am glad to hear jioor Power is reeovering. .\ll kinds of rumors. 
J>raiieran(| Sherwood are here. 'Die report priueipally is that Daly goes 
ont. This I think will lie, as he has been told often enough that he is the 
olista-le an I stumlding hloek to the foi-mation of any .Ministry. Then that 
tlio greater part of the ComiivM are to be iiower Canadians, who will be 
assisted by till! ('ons(>rvatives, and thus beat what are called tho Heformors. 

'• I. trust such an attempt as this will not b(t made. I do not believe 
liatoiitaine will accept without, jiahlwin, and I do not bcliovt! l>aldwin will 
throw otf his [larty, and without them I do not believe any Jliiustry can be 
formed to last. 

" J canio down the Kapids all night's ride for once, but as a channel of 
trado I I ! This will, F have no doubt, be abinidant [iroof of tin* wisdom and 
truth of the old saying, ' The pitcher whii^Ii goes often to the widl is broken 
at last.' 

'• llav*' yon seen how Wakeliehl liginvs ? £7.oO() for working out the 
s.dc of the j)ro|ieity ; I'lL*,."'^"' f'"" working out the Canal ! Waeivdid thi.s 
goto? And I suppose as much if he got thi' Company formed. 



275 



" W«? arc ^(•ttiii^ on ;,'nmtlly all iiloti;,' tlif .St. Liiwicii i-. Wv will pusH 

liiats t'tifou'li td n MiiIiuniDis in .fiiiu' next. We will lie in a vnv n 1 

w ly yn :ill tlnHttlnirs IImm si'iisou. 

" Vours with t'sti't'iii, fiiitliriillv. 

" II. II. KII,I-.\LV. 
" W. II. Mi'ititnr." 

Tlit> t'uliowiii ' iii'licutus Ui(! n(iui!ilv iiscil : — 

"TOIIONTO, .\lU'. IX, i'^M. 
" M .• I)i:\ii Silt: -.\s yon aiv M)W Maini'.,'"!' of tin; Wi'ljaml ('anal, I 
liMjijy ri will ui'u;fiin lli" liack 'liti'lii'^, t'sjurially tliat fivtiii Mroail (.'I'l'i-U to 
Afarslnillc, iiuilli of tin? ('anal. 

" v.. MIS faitlitnllv, 

'• II. l!i)||.T(»N. 
'•\V. II. M I ; It I! ITT." 

Tlii-i is i'(.|ii,.il in .Air. .AI'nTitl's Iriiiilwritiii.;, ullnil •■« to the jiriiieipil 
luerii^uro ho eff'ctdl, vi/,., securing ii boau.s to tht; cuntractoiv^ (or going on with 
«nd opening tlii.v work: 

"Sir: — From tlm intt'r"st yon have lythcrto tik mi in this ciinso, w'*>, tho 
contni.'tims for i!oin;ili'ting the locks lit'twticii TIioroM aii'l Si. Cithariin^s, 
havo taken tin; lilicrfyto rcipu'st yon to rcjnvsciit the sif.uatioii of" this woi'k 
to th»' Hoard. , 

"< )nr contracts o.\|iir(! on the 1st Xovcni'icr n"xt. Tiio I) larij, and tlif. 
puiilio t'xpcot those l((,"ks to lie linished and ill I'eadiiiess iiei'oro thi' ojtcning 
<>!' the navigation in \>^['k 'l'\i>- past Winter has lieen in )st nnt'avorablo for 
proem ing th(^ dtdivery of stone; sve ai'c jiressed for money; wages for labor 
have inereased; provisions, and also tic material which is indispeiisable for 
the W;rks; and ii", iiv nunsnal exertion, we are enal)led to fnlti! the |)nl>- 
lic expeotution, it must lead to inei-eased expense. 

"N'iverthehis.s, fetdiiig the iinpoilauee of iicetingthe \ i"ws of the IJoard, 
and rcU-'ving tlie pnldic, not only from the expense of ke-ping np tin; old 
lucks another yi^ar, l)iit of insiiriin,' an inereasi! of toll, we will push tic win-k 
with i vigor heretofore nnexa npled. if a rea.o:iaMe e,iieoniM,'e neiit is lieM 
oat for tlie same, an I will engage to siirm cmt .ill ditli ■nlty. and have it in 
readin "-s by the 1st April. 

Yours, ■ 

The following is yiv. M 'rritt's nionurandu'ii of proc;.';'din^s oii the n 'W 
work:— • 

"Cjiiiineucod ^fondav 22\u\ Jnlv, answcrcl .Mr. Hah-v's letter and iiut 
myself in conimnnication with tlu^ Chairman of the Pioard of Works. 

'• Notilied M -ssrs. Pow.dl and Prescott tli.at '^ had acjcpti'd the situation, 
also ^Ir. Burford the contractor. 

"It ;ippe.ir.s to bo in )st desira'il(> to .secnrR t.lc completion of the harb )nr.^ 
aid tjio iu;w locks so as to open the navig.ition on 1st April wxt on tin* 
oulargcd scab*. 

'■Consulted Pago as to increasiii-' the nnm'terof men, wa^t(' Wiirs must 
!'■■ put Uiuler contract, lock gates in readiicss it'.-. 

" Wednesday, lil. Ascertained from Mr. Bernard tliat ho was willing to 
render Mr. Tiioinpson every assistance after completion of his lucks, wljicli 
Would take three nrniths more. 



276 



"i 



'Signs of fmtlier disturlianco among tlie men appearcil on Siiiinay. 

■ AHoertainccl from Collier in case we fail to complete the new line, the 
state of locks on the old line, and what will be tlie expense of jjroparing tl.om, 
for a few months, for spring navigation, 2 locks at Allanldirgh tu Ik- renovKl 
and extended, aqueduct to be repaired ; this is all that is neces.-ary. 

"With regaid to the sajJiily from Grand River level in place of Lake 
Erie, the Clrand lliver dam should be maiie perfectly tight at once, raise all 
the embankments, inchuling Port Colborne, from Dunnville to Allanburgh. 

" Monday, 29th. Examined with Mr. Powers the line of canal, in- 
spected gates, waste weirs, etc. 

"To Caimichael T. French, to get another machine immediately. 

"Friday, Aug. 1. Passed \\\> tl.e line with Kev. Mr. McDcnoufh, a r. um- 
ber of men having met previously at Thorold and made threats. Called on 
most of the contractors, enquired into the assaults said to have been commit- 
ted, remained several days, is.si;ec! a warrant, no per.sou appealed to convict, 
the prisoner dismissed, inferred no danger. 

"Sept. 13. The most unexampled activity continues on this work, 
seven locks are all eady finished between this and Thciold, twelve others will 
be finished by the end of the month, -leaving only a few courses on four to 
complete the whole twenty-three. 800,000 tolls to 1st Augu.st. 

" rtetuiuing to the f^ubjcct of the Ministry, he addresses the' Premier : 

"St. Catharixe.s, Aug. 14, 1844. 

" Mv Deak Sir : — leaving been unpleasantly hairassed by those inter- 
ininaVde law suits, \\itli some few indispensaljle canal matters, not a moment 
since my last has lieen left to devote to those of public policy. An- 
other and ])riiici[ial reason for the delay arose from the confident assertions 
of those arriving from Montreal that the ISlinistry had been formed, which, 
as far as either you or myself were concerned, would have rendered any sug- 
gestions useless. However, from your letter in June, I had no reason to 
suppose any hasty decision woi.ld be had. In reviewing the .situation of 
our country we must not niisunder.stand the existing state of j)ublic feeling. 
A statesman will then decide, if adverse, Avhether he has reasonable grounds, 
from any measure tl at he has matured, that he can change' that feeling — 
and that, too, in Mitiicient time to meet the Legislature, ensure a majoiity, 
and conduct l.is Government in accordance with the priuciiiles now fully 
admitted. 

"Piefcrring to j ast transactions, or attempting to adduce a single reason 
to prove who was right cr wrong, or what measure should or should not 
have been adopted, would lie a waste of time. Matters and things should 
be taken as we find them. Whatever change may have taken place in pub- 
lic o])inion or feeling in Lower Canada, it' is generally supi)osed that in 
Upper Canada it has been in fiivor of the Ministiy. If so, what is to be 
gained by calling the ])iesent House together! Will it not rather prouuoe 
irritation, widen the breach (if possible), and do nuich harm. 

" This position being admitted, the only chance of iiroducing a change is 
by a di.ssolution, and procuring the return of other memliers, although if in 
truth no change has actually taken |»l.ice in piddic feeling, the same result 
must follow. Whatever effect appointing a commission to investigate and 
recommend a change in our financial .sys^^^em wouhl heretofore have produced, 
so fully are men's iiiinds engrossed with one idea— the apprehension of 
losing responsible Government, and tliat his Excellency is opposed to the 



277 



principle, an I the late ISIiiiistry in favor of it, tint ni\v m maas ire liowever 
lienetijial will di\XM't thiMu; an i any niaH attempting to oontravort it will, in 
most constituencies, k'S3 tlii^ii- conti lauis. 

" If this bi) a corrp.t statement of public feeling, what is the ramely ? 
No statesman can ro^omin^nl a daviation from this principle, therof)re a 
mijority in tlie represent itivo branch must b.) sec ired. \Vj tinl that <lirti- 
cuities, appearing insurmountable, have been removed, and what has been, 
can again be effected. 

" In looking back a few years, we find, in the adjoining country, the 
jiopulation in a state cf civil war. All attempts at conciliation had failed. 
One master mind, Henry Clay, proposed a com[)romise. His celebrated 
A-t produced a magical etfjct, trau'iuillity was restored, and he is now 
about reaping his reward. 

" During the administration of Lord Sydenham, circumstances placed 
vou in the most res[)onHiljle and conspicuous situation in tlie Government. 
You found the House of Assembly, before even proceeding to business, de- 
termined on having a clear and distinct avowal of the principle on which 
the (Tovernmeut was hereafter to be conducted. Contrary to your own 
feelings and judgment you con.S'Mited, restored tranipiillity, and l)y means 
of that concession conducted the Government against, or without eitlier Mr. 
Balhvin or the leaders of that large and compact body of Lower Canadians 
being in the Government. 

" Circurastances placed you in a similar situation during the administra- 
tion of Sir Charles JBagot. You then felt it necessary to bring that party 
iu:o power, and to effect which you resigned tlu; honor and emoluments of 
office, and again i-estored harmony. Circumstances have for the third time 
placed you in a similar although far more delicate position. Tf you can again 
restore harmony, if you feel satistieil that a majority couM be secured, unless 
^lessrs. L.ifontaine and Baldwin are restored, which was your tirst impres- 
sion, you deserve a civic crown, and will .assuredly reap your reward. I 
a;n aware of the dithoilty which must at every stage meet you in atterM})tiug 
it. If his Excellency would listen to any arrangement, the obstacle would 
vanish in a moment. Could furnish a letter disavowi)ig any intention, ex- 
plaining away misapprehension, making all discrepancies satisfactory. 
Tlie whole affair would iilow over within ten days. Let u-i. divested of all 
[(crsonal feeling, take an enlarged and statesmanlike view of this question. 
S ifjp He those s,'jntle!n3n vest jr.J 1, and suppose, (which T do not bdieve) they 
wi-ro to .show the least vanity, or exult in the event, how long wimld it last 
on this side of the Atlantic I Their capacity is to be testeil by the success 
of their measures, and there must be a speedy change. Sir Cliai'les wi uld 
thus [trove his adherence to tht; principles he has advocated, and wo\dd be- 
come the most popr.lar governor that ever ruled a colony. What effect 
would it pi'oduce in England? Not the slightest to his di.Nidvautage. The 
Government and the people there look oidy to the result ; they can know 
nothing of details, and care less. Reliexe them from trouble, establish 
eonteutment, and tliey ai'e satisfied. Sir Chai'les would hi' consideicil, and 
ju.itly, too, a statesman, who, with the most discordant materials, placed 
himself above all personal feeling, and will leave the country in perfect 
harmony and in the most jtrosperous condition. Believe me, T entertain 
the .strongest personal feeling for the Governor General, and on this account, 
apart from the desire of witnessing harmony among my countrymen, aiu 
extremely desirous he should return to England crowned with success. 



rl 



■ '■mmm 




278 

" There are many, I am aware, who take a narrow view of public mea- 
MU'Cs, and rather than not carry a point wonhl never concede an iota. 
Judging from tlic past, this is not your chai'acter, neither is it tliat of the 
(iovernor Generah All I can add in conclusion is, that if you think it 
necessary and feasible, I woidd lie most ''^r '^v Xo be instrumental in any 
way you may p<jiut out in bringing itibout. j fully concur in the opinions. 
exj)ressed in your last, which induced me to pen the above. 

" Verv truly yours, 

-'W. HAMILTON MEllRITT. 

" Hon. W. H. Drapeu." 

Journal, Aug. 30: "A Ministry at last, it is said in a P. S. to the Pi/of ^ 
the use of the last nann^ in the list places it in the category of rumours." 
This was Mr. M., Tnsjiectoi- General. The author, who was a passeng'T 
on the JiriUinnid, heard this rumour, while stopping a few hours in Halifax. 

When the Government assumed the control of tlie ("anal, Mr. iSFerritt 
wrote to his Grace the Duke of Wellington, informing him of she act, and 
t Uing him that the smn originally subscribed V)y him towards the Ganal 
would now l)e repaid, with intert st. At the same time he reminded his 
Cfrace of the circumstances of his tii-st signing for the old stock, which was 
done as an example to others in liondon, and our subject now politely hinted 
that if he would transfer th.e amount to the Grantham Academy, which 
much needed it, the name of the institution would be changed to that of 
Wellington. By means, not necessary to explain here, either Chief Justice 
Kobinscn or the Bishop of Toronto had made a prior apjdication, and the 
result was that the money was bestowed for the founding of the Wellhigton 
Scholarship in King's College, Toronto. 

" Walmer Castlk, Sept. 28, 1844. 

" Sir : — I received in due time the letter which you were so kind as to 
address me on the 20th of February last, on the subject of the stock held by 
me in the Welland Canal, and your suggestion as to its disposition. 

" Having corresponded with Chief Justice Rolnnson on the same subject, 
he has remitted to me another letter from you to liimself, dated the lOt.h of 
July, and the act of the Legislature by which the Grantham Academy wr>s 
incorporated. 

" Upon the whole, however, it has occurred to me that the most suitable 
disposition which I could make of the stock belonging to me in the Welland 
Canal, was to authorize tin; sale of it, and with the proceeds thei'cof to foiinii 
a scholarship in the Ki" g's College, I^pj.er Canada. T have given direc- 
tions and authority accordingly to Mr. Chief Justice Bobinson. 

" I avail myself of this opportunity of returning you my thanks for 
drawing my attention to the interest wliich I had in the Welland Canal. 
" 1 have the honor to be, sir, 

'' Your most obedient humble servant, 

" WELLINGTON". 
" W. Hamilton Mkuritt, St. Catharines." 

It will not bo out of place to introduce an incident, though unwit- 
tingly, with which the author was connected. 



270 

Thero woro ffw inon of his time iiioro capalile of taking hold of uii idea 
;iiul working it to a pi'ai-tical (.'onclusion tlian our .suhject, as the following 
siinjilc though important naiTutive will illustrate. We have already meu- 
tioned two of liis sons, the authoi' and William, Iteing left at European univer- 
sities to conH)lete their education. We may therefore state that it was eu.> 
toTuaiy for Mr. IMcrritt to tak<' an occasional lioliday, and convey his family 
into the country, tlierel)v resting his mind as well as hodv, and uatheving 
fi-esh energies for each forthcoming event. A favoiite resort of his was vn 
or near the hanks of the Niagara Kiver, near where the town of C'lift(.n (then 
called Elgin) now stands. At no period of the year did he enjoy this trip 
iietter than when (jur hcautiful Indian Summer first set in and lic^'an to 
iidorn the foliaire with wliicli the biinks of this ri\('r is covered, lendii>vf an 
enchantment to tlie sctniery, wliicli, to he thoroughly appre;ii:t( il, nm>t ho 
observed at this timo. Going oil" from 8t. Catharines for tlils purpose with 
the members of his family, ms we may suppose, he called at the Post Oliico 
before going, and received a package from Eurojic which he cai'i'icd along with 
liim to read at his leisure thei-e. On arri\ ing tlicre, tlie usual picnic 
arrangements were made, and the ainiual simple feast was spread, after 
wliicli, when peace and quietness pervaded the party, tlio foreign lett-r 
was produced, and proved to be from the travellers, who w<'re then visiting 
Fribourg in Switzerland. Amongst th*^ many wonders of the strange land 
of Tell, it told thtur parents of a wonderful suspension bridge which they 
had seen spanning the River Sarren in the midst of n mountainous country. 
A full description of it followed — its length, its height, and the manner of 
its construction were all minutely detailed. [Mrs. M. remarked: "I wonder 
if a suspension bridge could not be made to span this river."] So strongly 
(lid the remark impress the niin I of our subject that the idea at onco 
occurred to him of the possibility of spanning the mighty Niagara with just 
sudi a bridge. Soon afterwards a consultation with engineers followe'l. 
Laughed at by some, and favored by others, still the idea grew, and the 
ultimate result is a bridge across this river, not such as described at Sarre: f 
but one of a magnitude surpassing all others, of which we will have reason 
to speak hereafter. 

The autlior on his return, was sent up witli S. Woodrulf, Engineer, to 
ascertain the shortest line for a suspension bridge across the NJaganu 

On the 2.'?rd of September, Parliament was dis.solved, and preparations 
at once made for a new election. !Mr. liykert opposed our suliject, but he 
was again returne(l by laO majoiity. 

On Friday, l-^th October occuiTod one of the severest storms experienced 
on Lake Erie. The piers of Port Colborne, among'other ports were partially 
destroyed. But the focus of the storm appeared to concentrate on Buf- 
falo, where the loss of .*200,000 worth <>( property, and iiO or 10 lives 
attested to its destructive power.i. 



230 

It Wiis succeeded, ut tlio end of the month, hy a snow storm, and Airs. 
Merritt noticed that on the Tuesday of the election, Mr. M. attended in a 
slcirjh. 

On the 1 2th of Xovt'nibov,onhis farm near Port (Jolhorno, died the cousin 
of our subject, known on the oaual, from itii commencement, as an honc-^t 
and popular contractor. The fevers in the Cranberry Marsh, no doubt, 
laid the foundation of ill-health. Ifud he remained on his faim near St. 
Catharines it might not have occurred. 

On the 2Sthof November the '^ouseoponcd, andagain the ofFerof Inspector 
Genoral in the new ]Ministry was made to IVIr. Merritt, wjiich he declined. 
It was then gi\en to 3Ir. W. 15. Ivol)in.son, who had been Suj)erintendent 
of the Welland Canal; Mr. ^Merritt having taken liis place on the same, as he 
believed that by so doing he would, under the circumstanees, be of more 
use to the country. 

In December he renewed his measure of retrenchment, and published an 
elaborate view of the resources of Canada, conij)aring tliem with the State 
of New York, wherein he showed that with a larger revenue our e.rpaifiei' 
were in excess of theirs, and what was required of our Administration, and 
strongly urging retrenchment — the present Ministry, any more than the oh', 
not agreeing with him on those (juestions, which he showed would relieve 
the people from direct taxation. This was one of his reasons for declining 
the proli'ered seat in the Cabinet. This publication of his views, however, 
resulted in the Government adopting his policy, and his being called into 
the jNIinistry four years afterwards. 

Commencing this session a protest against hiselection was sent in, in conse- 
(pience of his Government engagement on the Canal. It was tried in the 
House, but having i)i'oved that he ilid not receive a salary for this service, 
however much he neeiled it, the protest was (juashcd. 

The following extracts, copied from the election trials, show that Mr. 
Merritt had more honor than [irotit and no little risk in his connection 
with the Draper administration. II. II. Killaly interrogated : 

"A salary of .£500 per annum liaviiig been attaciied to the otllce men- 
tioned in your letter to Mr. Secretary Daily, and Mr. iSIerritt liaving accejit- 
cd the same, do you know wliy the same or any portion thereof was not 
drawn by Mr. Merritt ? I cannot tell, it was never applied for. 

"I conceived a larger j)ortiou of the business to be performed by Mr. 
Merritt was more connected witli tlie Inspector General's department, but 
that he did discharge some of the duties of the Board of Works under the 
appointment in ipiestiou." 



ml 



281 



1845. 

During his attoiuluuce at tlio sossiou in Montroul, lit! wus reqiiested liy 
tl.'j Mercantile Library Assuuiatiuu of that city to deliver an address on 
'• TLo Trade and Commerce of Canada." His lecture was well attendei', 
and the sentiments enunciated wai'inly received, acconii)aiiiod by a vote of 
.thanks at the close. The following is a familiar letter to Mrs. M.: 

" I am living as (juietly as po.ssible with Mr. Barrett. INIrs. B. is making 
i!ie as comfortable as she can , cotibe every day at dinner, have not drank 
twj glasses of strong water since my arrival in Montreal, and wine only 
t\vi..e. 

" February 8th. 'J'o the author — I presume the article to which you 
refei- on the Hnance of France is in Thiers' ilistory, as I am not a nioment cut 
of tlie House, have no time to examine. I regn^t exccedini,dy, however, that 
I did not bring all the publications sent by Dr. King, including the school 
iiiaJ:ter. What has become of all my pamphlets J" 

Mrs. Prendergast died at St. Catharines on the 1st day of robruary. 
A letter to his bereaved father-indaw from the Li'gislaturo, March 3.1 
containing messages of sympathy closes with his own pursuits : — 

" My habits have become so sedentary, T shall (God willing) retire from 
{'ublic life in a very few years. I am jireparing a measure of moment, viz: 
the appropriation of all oui- waste lands to create a fund to supjiort common 
.'■'-•Louis, and establish distrivt libravies throughout the province. The plan 
is alluded to in my pamiddct, which appears to be well spoken of in all p:ul.s 
of the pi-ovince, excejjt among officials." 

Daring tin's so.ssion St. Catharines was incorporated into a town, to the 
gii-at satisfaction of the inhabitants, who expected imiKutant results, whicli 
wi.ie only accompanieil with an expense by them often afterwards regretted. 

He also took an active part on the Crown Lands Committee, and re- 
commended their Ijoing the monetary l>asis of our Common School systeip, 
instead of their being 8up[)orted by annual tax as at present. 

"CioVEKXMKNT lloL'SE, March 13, 184'). 

" ]\rv Dkak Sir, — -T have had the pleasure of communicating your note 
I I the Governor (ieneral, and I am desired to assure you that His Exc( 1- 
ii n y is fully sensible of the great labour and pains that you have bestowed 
ii[Hm the very important (picstion as to the future disposal of th(> WMste 
lands of the Crown. His Excellency coiu'eived that your [iroposition was 
uiicicr the consideration of the Executive ('ouncil, fi-om your lieing in con:- 
niM.nication with some of its nu-mbers ; but he will again call tiieir atten- 
ti'iii to it, I am, dear Sir, 

" Vcurs faithfullv, 
" Hon. W. H. Mkkiutt, M. P. P. j'. M. HIGGINSON." 

'I'liat the value of the sei vices of our subject as a working nu?niber, 
tli'Ugh in a tory House is evinced by the number and im[iortance of tli(> com- 
niittees he was on. , 



Ajifil 3. f'oiiiiiiittoo on crown lands vci)ort, W. IT. Merritt, elmiinian. 

A Icttor wiiK rcccMvcil (Imt at tlio closi- of tlic Lc^'islattiro lie wouM 
Jno(!t^[l■.s. Merritt in I'.rooklyu. While liorc, tlu' folluwinj', ;Voin the iuithur 
announced thtur liaving arrived : 

•' I hii\f ainiiscd myself wliilo in New York hy htokiiii,' u|> Anieiicau 
iinlicniities, and wa« h-d in my search iiuti-c particularly into ol)sorvinu; tho 
locality of our ancestors in the iKughltourhood, all'ording i.ot only tho la;i- 
t"iry and trials of the old times, hut casting tho cliarm of |ierKonal intf>reht. 
over tlie early history of the settlers in fact rcn<lcriiig our own the ri,srs 
and progress of the American democracy." 

Mr. ^leri'itt, writing from ?doiitrcal to Mrs. Merritt on his travcN, en 
2nd Api'il, closes ;,.s follows : 

"The session has ended, 1 fear, without doing as much a« we shonld 
t'or the good of our fellows, hut prospects are cheering nevertheles.s. As 
you arc no jiolitician, I have nothing anuising to communicate. It was my 
intention to have returned liy way of Alhany to meet you, hut the roads 
are so intolorahly had that I am compi^lled to go up river. 

" 12th. Not getting a steamer, have gom> u|) hy land, as far as Toronto ; 
was two nights in an o[)en wagon, and the last in a snow .stum." 

With regard to the suit in which he was engaged, a letter of March ■^, 
from his son Tlioiinis, who was in company with Mr. Jas. R. Benson, says': 
" We have heard the unpleasant result of the partnershii) in Toronto." 
Tliis decision of Chief Jiistice Robinson, involving our subject in uU the 
losses of J. Mittlelterger it Co., renders it necessary for him to hurry home. 
and make prepurrtion for a lo.ss of all his property ; and on his return, in 
the middle of April, his firist business was to Mayville, where Dr. rrendei- 
gast promised him all the assistance he might retpiire. 

May 1. Appears for the last time, after nineteen years, our subject's 
name to the list of advertised letters, and that of the author for nearly as 
long a period, signals these items in the Jovrixd. 

2l)tfi. Letter to G. P. llidout on ditl'erential duties. 

On the 29th of INlarch the House being prorouge<l, Mr. i\[. i-eturned ; 
and soon afterwards, on tlie tenth of May. the works on the new Canal 
were successfully completed and the water let in, bringing on the route a 
large and noble-looking class of vessels and propellers, which carried niuii- 
bers of emigrants to the Western States. 

In answer to an invitation to witness the o])ening of the new canal 
on the 21st of ^fay Mr. IJurwell, an old friend of our subject, wrote to 
Mr. Merritt a letter of congj'atnlation on the successful results of his long 
and unwearied canal agitation. He also enclosed an old document, drawn 
by Mr. Merritt twenty-seven years previously, and left with Mi'. Rurwei', 
when a member of Parliament, wherein our subject showed hi.i original plan 
of a canal, and modestly asked for a grant from the country to assist the 
surveys. This survey is related at large in the earlier pages of this book; 



283 

Mr. ^Mcrritt'H id^ii of tlio great SuKji(Minion lirid^c Intd liy tliis tiiuo 
;iiriv»i(l at tniiturity. A cli.-iitti' was ti) lie olitsiiiicil, stork sul>scril>(Ml, and 
[ircpanitioiis made fur its (•oimncncenu'iit. 

Ht) writ(!S, Jmifi 2iid, a loiiif jettor to Mr. Kidmit oii tln^ advaiita','*;:-* of 
lu'viiig tu,iL,'s (111 the St. Lawrence, a criticism uf which \h iiuticed in tlio 
JonnKil of . I line 12: 

Tlio editor of the F],mmhin'\\A'^ iinhilLfcd us wiili live (•oluiiiiiH of criticism 
on Mr. IVIerritt's hotter. We confess an inaliility of disciivcriii^ any ar^'ii- 
iiient wliatever, and our fiine docs not admit of Icii'^tliy ic'plii'H to 
iiirre verl)a^<', and it was only answered l)y our .suliject wh'-n reilerat<-d ill 
Kiancis Ifiiick's jiaper, t!ie /V/<»^ 

III .Fiini' a coniiiany was formed in Montreal to liiiihl a railway to con- 
nect itwitli Portland. Afr. (ieorge Motlat was the Prfsiilcnt, and through 
liim £.300 was offered to Mr. Merritt if ho would visit I'^urope an<l endeavor 
to sell tlio Company's .stock. Our siiKject acce{)te<l the offfr conditionally^ 
;\iid received letters of intro<liiction from the Governor to the (Jolonial 
Secretory, l»ut afterwards cfmld not agree with thr views of the Company, 
and reliiKjuished the nii.ssion, which was then undertaken hy "Slv. (Jalt. 
The Huccoss of this gentleman in FiUgl.ind induced Sir Allan McXah and 
Mr. Widdor, of the CanadaC'o., to start on a similar one in connt>ction with 
tlie(!roat Wostorn Jlailway iiroject. They were not succeHsfiil at tLi.s time, 
80 the .scheme had to re.st for a few years longer. 

"St. Catharines, Jnnc 10, 1845. 

" Mv Dear Sir: — The committee, to whom the management of tlie 
St. Tjawrence and Atlantic Uailroad is entnisted, have requested me to pro- 
ceed forthwith to Knglaiid. I have as.scmtt'd. provided the Provincial (Jov- 
I'lument will recommend certain changes, which are indispensahle, and can 
lie better exftlained in a personal interview. I havc! this day written to- 
Mr. Higgin.son on the ijuhject, and only await his reply to proceed direct to 
Montreal. 

" The Drawback Bill, which removes all duty on articles passing through 
tie United State.s for Canadian consiimiition, is not at present adapted to 
the trade, but no doubt will be amended next year. If in addition to this 
iliey removed the duty on our products, which we must look for, whatw(;uiil 
have been the sitnation of our trade this year \ They would command onr 
ontiro exports. Yon have now the ball at your foot, and if the Provincial 
• iovernmeut have not already made all the communications necessary, you 
have still an opportunity to do ,so, and net only presi^rve our present trade, 
liut greatly increase it ; and I feel quite .satisfied the f mperial Government 
will not only sanction any measure necessary to presei-ve our present trade, 
liut enable you to become pnipari-il to inerease it, on th" coinpletion of our 
I'liblic work.s. It requires no Imperial legislation. A .flight change in the 
Provincial Act would efTect the obje.'t. , 
" I am, my dear sir, 

" Yonr obedient servant, 
" Ho.N. W. H. Drai'ER. W. HAMILTON MP:UUrn\ 



284 

A proposition to form a coiniuiiiy to vnn a line in coinifctiun with 
tli<' States, from (^hieonstou to Hamilton, wuh now iir.st mootctl. 

Tlie Boauliai-nois Canal, a <^nin<l work, being also opened, Mr. Merritt, 
liad a long correKpondonce with tlio Government in regard to the estahli.'-h- 
meiit of an extensive tug system for the Lakes and the River 8t. Lawrem-i'. 

Wo have already noticed that a charter had been granted in 18.'5() for n 
railroad fiom the Niagara to the Detroit River, in which our subject wa.'s 
interested. Owing to tlie troubled state of the country no action was taken 
in the mattei-, and at this period the time of the charter had nearly expired. 
Mr. Merritt thought it a fitting opportunity to attempt to revive the .scheme, 
and conseijucntly (i[M'ned a eoiivspondencc with some of the leading capital- 
ists in JJoston. fleeting with encouragement, he made a personal visi^ 
explained the scheme, and was agreeably surprised to find the leading capi- 
talists there in perfect accord. The stock was instantly taken up, and iri- 
lluential contractors, who were also large stockholders, agreed to finish the 
work Avithin the time and before the expiration of tlie cliarter. It would, 
however, seem that things which are easily obtained are not so a])"; to be 
successful, and our subject, who had bettn promised support in getting a re. 
newal of the charter by his political friends, now advised a d(day, which 
I'loved fiital to the .sclieme, as it stoj)i)eil the railroad develepiiieiit of Ca- 
n.uhi another decade, and then not on a rational or conse(jiieiitly remune- 
rative jilan. The next Parliament oflered a violent opposition, from distant 
q\iarters ott' the line north of l^ake Ontario and Jjower CiUiaila. Tlie cajii- 
talists alluded to at once invested their money in the South Shore route, a 
line which from the start took the lead and has since continued to keeji 
it, rendering its Canadian rivals, which came later into the Held, unprotit- 
able speculations to -til interested. 

"The opposition to ^Ir. Merritt's railroad scheme exhibits itself thti--, 
in the Toronto t'obmist of July 3rd :— ' Mr. W. H. Merritt, M. P. P., has 
been for some time ] ast in the United States, ami from the contents of u 
jMintei.l pamphlet entitled ' Sundry J3ocumeiits relative to the Niagara ami 
Dotroit Railroad,' we learn that Mr. Merritt's intliience in New York, Bos- 
ton and other places is being used to forward that undertaking. The Nia- 
gara and Detroit Railway will be es.s<'ntia!ly a work, if carried out, for the 
hrnvjtt of Aiiirrlraii tracehu:-t, olfei'ing no particular advantage to the Province 
through which it will pass, but the great disadvantage that it will be along 
the line of an extended frontier, without protection, and entirely at the 
mercy of our neighbours. Mr. ^[erritt takes good care to point out, when 
addressing at lilaek Rock the committee from Albany, that the charter is 
liberal, Mr. Merritt knew the parties he was addressing. If they take 
up tlie work with the characteristic spirit and energy of the Yankees, when 
tliere i.s not only a fair prospect, but a [iroximate certainty of its being good 
stock, till rj is no doubt but they will manage to carry it out speeilily to 
completion. The agency of ^Ir. ^lei'ritt, who is very well known among^* 
them, is no trifling stimulant to immediate action. The attention of our 
Toronto and Sarnia Road ought to be at once directed to this matter." 



285 

"WlieiviiH it lias beon rfprfsenU'd to tlio iinilfrsi;,'iu'il, Jiv an Aot inror- 
lioiating tlio Nia;,'ara and Detroit Kivor Railroad ('(tnipany, l)a.ss<'d by tlie 
Provincial Legislature in 18;{(), to whicli ahoiit £7, '»(•() of stork was Hub- 
s/riVio I, tlinrtois diosen, an instalment paid in, the route surveyeil, and 
jilans and reports extensively ciroulated — that in oonnnon with all similar 
works, in consefpunico of the distin-l)"d state of the Province in l!^'}7, this 
waH also suspended, hut lias a,;^ain been renuwed with a fair prosjtcct of suo- 

ceSR. 

" This Act, which will exj)ire on the 20th April next, authoi-izes tho 
construction of eitlufr a wooden or iron railway. The first can belaid in 
time to secure the charter, but the shareholders prefer constructing an iron 
r.iil of the most durable description ; to effect which, an extension of two 
years, and a revenue of £2r)0,00() will be recpiired. As it is important tin- 
sliareholders should ascertain as early as possible whether any objection is 
likely to be nunle to their api)lication, and as no pi-ecedent within our 
knowdedge exists where a similar application has l>een refused, we will 
cheeifidly suppurt the same. 

" John Bruce, j're.sident ; Jo.seph Wood, E. Ermatinger, James f 'uni- 
niings, J. \V. Powell, and Wni. Hamilton 3Ierritt and Kolland Macdoufdd 
ga^•e their assurance." 

Extract from Mr. M.'s private journal, in tin; interest of a railroad 
across our peninsula to New York, for which he set out 1st July : 

" July 1 2th. Met C. C. Trowbridge of Detroit, called on Jacob Riddle, 
presi<lent of the New York and Albany Railroad, Garden (J. llowland, presi- 
dent of the Utica Railroad, Davis, Brooks and Co., Sedani and S.ige, W. B. 
A stor. 

" 21st, The last day in New York. Met with ^fr. Fisk, ])resident of 
the Long Island Railroad, and James J. Shipman, the engineer, wdio con- 
structed it at a cost of i?8,r)00 a mile, he tiiinks as good a road, similarly 
situated, can be made for 87,500 a mile. 

".Some of the names in Boston, with wliom we transacted l)usiness, wore 
the Hon. Ujorge Biiss of Sitringfield, president of the Western Railway, 
Joseph Quincy, Thayer and Bro., Francis Young, A. Gilmour, W. F. Wihl, 
A. Lawrence. Before leaving Boston, wrote to Mr. Power to ascertain tlie 
width of the Niagara River, having ascertained that that of Fiei'nurg, 
tiy Challey of Lyons, was 981 feet long, 22 wide, 181 high above the water. 
Tlie one on the Mersey is 580 feet long, 25 wide, 130 above the water. 

"Boston, July 24, 1845. 
• Wm. Hamilton Merritt, Esq., 

" My Dear i^ir : — I have examined your plans and estimates for a rail- 
road from Buftalo to Detroit, and such is my opinion of the jtroject that I 
shall be hapjiy to take two hundred shares in the stock. 

" I do this because it establishes a direct line of communication Vietween 
New England and Chicago ; because it increases the value of every railroad 
lietween Boston and Buflalo ; because it unites us with our brethren in Ca- 
nada in a common interest and a common olyect ; and becau.se I have no 
doubt of its being an excellent investment. This last reason, like a lady's 
postscript, I presume you will think the most weighty consideration. But 
I can assure you it is secondary to the desire I feel, in common wHh my 
fellow citizens, of uniting in closer bonds the kindre<l nations on the two 
sides of the St. Lawrence, Niagara and Detroit. These communications 



28G 

\sill Vjiini,' us togf'tlici', niid T cannot doiilit as wc know one anotlicr nioro 
W(> shall like one onotluT In'tt"-)'. 

"P. S. — ^Ii-. IMiss, tli(! Pri'sitlcnt of the \V«>storn I'ailvoad, autl.'orisos 
111*' to Hulisfviln' lor two Inuiilii'd sliarcs on liis account. 

'• 1 am vcrv i<'s|M'otrnllv vnurs, 

"JOSJAir QUINCY." 

" Montlay Aii'.'. IS. Ai'iivi-d liuiiic, nict f V>1. Prince, and airanircd a plan. 
1st. To ajijioint sonic person to olitain a pledge of support and increa.se of 
capital, and e.Ktend the time of completion to unite with Hamilton peo|i!f, 
appointed next Monday to meet tie' diiectoi-s of the Hamilton road. 
\\'licther they unite with us or not, Cul. Prince was to call a meetiii;^ of 
].)irt'ctors, which I am to atteml witji full powers. Open liooks forth 
■with, i>ay Is. 'M. per share to secure an en^'ineei- tJ estulilish a line and 
■where the junction must he made, write to J. Stanton to send power of at- 
torney for diiectors to .save time, item, interest we have in St. Catharines 
and Hamilton mad. 

'•Tuesday I'.'th. Mr. Slater has a.-certained the width of the Kiairaia 
river to he ll-'O only. Olitain the ii;j;lit of land, and an a't of the I.ej,'i^- 
latui'e of New York State as well as Canada, to construot th(3 .same, with 
the riijht of extending' raili-oail t > intei',sect any yiven point, to any railroad 
now or licreaft r to In- maih'. Tii(> present ohj.'ct is mainly to unite Man- 
chester as far up as ('hij'pawa, reaching the town of Niagara via St. Davids, 
-west to St. Catharines and Haiiiilt< n. 

"Idonday, 2'itli. Visited Hamihou to meet directors of (Ireat Western 
Kai'.way. A resolution was projxwed hy 31 r. 'I'ithtny wliicii did not .suit 
us. Next day, Tuesday '_'7th, I proposed the followiiiM;- 

"Thursday Au^aist I'Ttli. I proposed the dii'cctoi's of the (Ireat West- 
ern Kailway unite tlieii interests with the Niagara and Detroit River Rail- 
wav. on the following terms:- - 

'•First, that a line he run to a point, wh<'r<' they diverge to JIamilton 
and ButValo by the .shortest and nmst direct route. That in case the above 
be aci'«^<?d to, subseiiption books shall lie o]iene<l inimciliately at Deti'oit. 
Canada, the terminus of the trieat Western Uoad, in the States and Boston, 
Sir A. McNab ap]irised of the amount, the rL'iuainder to be obtained l>y him 
to finish both, estimated at S.*»,0()((,()OU. 

"ChKAT WkSTKKX RAIMiOAl) Ol'KK'K, ) 
Hamilton, liSth August, 18},'). j 
"W. H. 3Ii:i(UiTT. K.sip, St. Catliarines :— 

" SiH,— 1 am instructed liy the Poard of Dii'ectors for the (ii'cat West- 
ern Kailroad Company to con.munieate to you the follo-vving i-esohitioii 
ado}»ted by them at tl.eir meeting this day, which they liope will prove 
satisfaetcn-y to the stockholders and others interested in the " Niagara and 
Detroit Ifivers Kailroad Company : 

" y.''>eZ'V(/, That the termination of the Great We.stern Railroad on the 
Niagara River shall be at or near Fort Erie, and that the point of intersec- 
tion between that branch and the main trunk from Hamilton to Windsor 
.shall be at such place as on proper investigation will be found most con- 
ducive to tlie interests of the stockholders. 

(Signed,) "G. S. TIFFANY, Chairman." 

'' I have the honor th be your most obedient servant, 

"J. P. GIRKISON, Secretary." 



287 



"St. rATirAiiixi:,s A«ig. 31, IStn. 
"To .1. V. (liLiusoN, Hmj., Sfc'y (Jiviit W.'strni I!. It. Co.: 

" Dfjir Sir, -I (Iflayml reply in;,' to your conimiiiiiiMt ion of the 2.'*tli 
iiii-tiiiit until lu'iiiiny fioni Mr. TiHiiiiy, whose letter reuolieil me l»y lust jiosi" 



a. I 



il oi\ly r fleets tlie comlition of tin; Directors of the (J. W. |{. ( 
" The Ke.soliition |iro|>os('il did not, in my jiidLmient, eh'iuly and fully 
nice the intenliou of tiie partieH. I therefore prop(»s<(l the followin;^ : 

" /,'':i(ih'f<l, Tliiit tlie Directors of tlie (Ireat Western ll.iilroad Company 
a;;r>'<' to unite their interests with the Niagara and Dntr(»it Kivers ItaiJroad 
Company on the following' ttu-nis : First, that a lint* he run from Detroit 
to a jioMit where they call divci't,'o to Hamilton and Ihitl'aloon the shorte.st 
and h st I'oute. That in ea.se the ahove he ai^reed to, we will join. 

" My rejusoUH for preferriuLJ the latter, is, that it places the two compa- 
nies o:i precisely the same footing,'. Without this rel•o^'lliti(»n, any attempt 
at n"j,'otiation would l)i) idle. It also clearly expres.ses the ohjetrt and in- 
l.n'i)n of diveriiiiif^ as soon as practicahle from Detroit which will he in 
tlie vicinity of Ilui-ford (as we suppose) and the stock will he suh.scrilied 



wi 



;!i tl 



lis view 



1 am, ilear sir, vours, li:^ 



WM. II. .MKKIM'IT 



A map was ifot out showing their line to run from Toronto to Saruia 



ojlowcd iiv se\x'ral 



int'.i.soctcid liy tlie (liviat Westei'ii at (iaelpli. Tliis was f 
meeting's in Toi'outo and Hamilton, and liy tia' .sendiiiji,' of V. Widiler and 
l<ir A. MacNah, as It 'fore alluded to, to England hy steamci' of lillh Aug., 
in t!."ir joint 'iutoro.st, which, unfortuiiat"ly for all conccrui'd. they succeed- 
ed, not in getting stock, but in stopping .Mr. .Mi rritt's sch'-me, for wliich the 
stuck Iiad already hcen providf^l. 

Mr. Merritt and his friemls were not inactive as we see hy an ai'ticle 
from t;i<^ St. Thomas Sl.nu<hirJ, of Octolier 2nd : 



A;i intimation li.is ln'i-n sent hv Mr. .Merritt lliat the stocl 



l\ can he pro- 
cured lor the continuation of the Niai;ai'a and D.tioir, Kailroad, and reipu'st- 
ing tliat the inlialntants on and near tlie I'oad should petition for a renewal 
of the charter, all to he sent to the meeting at Sandwich on the I'lith inst." 

This meetijig took place at Sandwich, an<l was succeeded hy others. The 
Jiiih'uiJ of 7tli Novendjer says : 

'• A railroad meeting took place at Port Coll»oi-ne, at which Lachla:. 
Hell a)i'l .Mr. r.irks made spcuiclies, insisting on tlm necessity (jf ix'titiouing 
for a railroad charter and the taking of stock." 

The following is th(i reply to ^Ir. Hincks' sti'ictures regarding his j»nl - 
lications : 

"St. C.xTiiAiMNr.s, Docemhcr 17th, 184"). 
'■ To '.It-: KilUor of tlu' >'f. ('iifh'irim's Joiiriinl \ 

'• Sir: My attention has been (liricte(l to an article in tlie Mtudrenl. /'i/of, 
of tliC 'Jml, on the subject of the St Tiawreiice Canals, which, for gross 
absurdity and misrepresentation, has .seklom been eijualled. The Kditor 
asserts that .some scheme, the honor" of originating which is attributed to 
aie, has been proposed by the Hoard of Trade in .Monti-eal- -"the professed 
object of which is to reiliin; the cost o/jhrivardlixj, a scheme just as tantali- 
iiing to the public (should have been forwarders) as the one for getting an 
uicrcased i^rant for common .schools." 



288 

" Tlio nditor of tli(< l*ilnt may continue to niiHloiul apartion of tin' iniMii; 
f ( r a tinu' lu> niav niakt" tlifni liclicvc tlmt rontiimin;,' to wnstc the piililic 
liiiids, iiisti>i»il of t'.ciiiiiiL; a |icr|M'tiial fund out of tin' iinicrcd.s tlicn-of for 
^'(lucatinn their cliiliiien, is /'er lluir bfii<Jil tliiit eontinuiu^' the |.r(seiit 
ex«»rl)itant ]tnceH for transportation, and l>aninhinK coinnieiTe finni nnr 
waters is for lln'n' hrmjil. lie has lieen consistent in opposini,' this iiiipiii\e- 
luent siiiee his liist appearance in the l,i'i,'islative Assendtly, in JStl. ( Mic 
million of pounds has lieen expended, and no tolls will lie leceiveil m \t 
year to pa V the interest on this capital. lie will witness the <leui'th his |.i n 
iia.-t heen lent to create, lie will proniamce the canals a failure ridi' iile 
the follv of tlioso who advocated them, and exult in the fidlilment of iiis 
iiredictions ; hut the day of retrilaition will cimie the line tlii'ou<ir|i,,nt, 
(how(!Ver tardy) vill h<' completed the existiii;,' iiiculpt'.s on the c(ininnrc<> 
of an entire country will h'? romovod the savin:,' in the cost of transit, iiiid 
extension of commerce will he visilde to all. and the pulili>' will then re.ili/.e 
the wisilom of the measure proposeil." 

Another on the same sidijcct follows: 

''St. Catiiahinks, Dec. 22, IM.". 

•i.^jii — The importance and nece.s.sity of constrnctini,' a continuous tow ii!>' 
path, or providiii;.^ a steaui p,)wer in li<Mi thereof, can only ho rtialized hy 
con I rand III/ thp, cjectn proihiceil on different public works wlioro tlioy arc. pro- 
riilnl, ami where they (ire nut. 

" First, witness the Wclland Canal, connectinj,' Lakes Hrie and Ontario— 
from the (iiand liiver, 40 miles, on which a towii.^: path is provided, aiul 
throufili which, with the aid of one ])air of horses, a vessel can pass at tlio 
expense of our /la/j'/iriini/Jor a harnhifjloirr, and not exceeding' one s7i!//iii</ 
fir a ton of!/ooJ». On the Erie (.'anal — .'Mid mih^s from Tiulfalo to Alhaiiv — 
the change last ^oason was nlnr-pcna' per barrel. On the St. Jiawrence— 
I'M) to 'IW miles, from Proscott or Kiiiijston to Montreal the oliari,'e was 
one-shillin«^' and ninc-ponce, or including; insurance, two s/tif/iiajs per ItarrrJ, 
(tolls not included in either.) Thus we see the j,'rower in ITppor Car.ada is 
Kuhjoct to an additional chartie of at least one shilling and six-p<'nce on {■% crv 
ton of merchandize consumoil. 

" As certain as like causes jtroduce like effects, hy supplying' the entire 
line with this continuous connection, this exorbitant tax would he remov»'(l; 
Init in order to leave no i)retence for misunderstanding, J will proceed to 
i)oiut out more in detail, the causes which have pi-oduoed those excessive 
prices. 

"First, control of canal under monopoli/. Su])jiose tlie CJovevnment, or 
a company, were to construct a railroad between given points, and were to 
permit one or two individuals to build or control the Kxiomotive engine or 
steam power, the one being dependent on the othei- for jiassing the road, 
they might as well give the whole. You would think the managers insane. 
Stiil, this is precisely the case with tlie St. Lawrence canals. The forwarders 
have the control of them as effectually as if they were constructed with their 
own capital. They are a powerful and wealthy body, and have managed 
to concentrate that power and wealth by a combination, which, from its re- 
sults, proves they understood their own interests much better than those 
entrusted with the management of the canal did those of tho })ublic." 



2R9 

Tlic Governor liiirrii;il lioiiic, the victim of a ii\ort(il inalndy, regrettetl and 
rcopoctcd for hi« many virtue*. 



18 4 6. 

TliiH year of war fiiininn, as woll as niilrouil iu)iii|>ctltion, waHOiio frniii^ht 
with f,'i«)at j<;()]>ar(ly to tlin iK'riuaiicnt wdll liciii;,' of tlio coiiiitry, and con- 
soiiuontly (liK|)layin<( an unusual amount of atlioitiicHH and imergy for tlio 
M'proHontativcs of tlui |M'o|tl«\ 

A period of [jrosju'rity iiad for Hoino timo oxiHtod among our rural i)Oj)U- 
lation, and aH it waH traood diroctly to tho favourablo ito.sitiou of tliuir pro- 
ducts in tho motlicr country, aided l»y tho ahwuico of most of tho dinaf- 
fectcd, tho j»niH|)(>ctH of a ipcucoaldc Colo.iial connection for an undctcrminod 
period were hopefully indulged liy our suhject. 

Tho greatest discpiiot anticipated, was a peaceful rivalry with our indo- 
pendent but not more prosporous neighbors in the carrying of our mutually 
increasing productions. lint the news transmitted from Ixindon (tho capi- 
tal of tiie IJritish empire and monetary centre of the globe,) was that of 
panic and uncertainty, produced piimarily by the failure of the jiotatocrop, 
aided by war in Fndia and Now Zealand, with tho prospect of ono iu Amer- 
ica, from the disputed boundary on its far off Pacific border. 

]?eturning to tho record of current events, we see in a private letter to 
Mr. Draper, at the close of the year'x work for which he was expressly 
connnissioned to see completed throughout, dated January 1st — he says : 

"Otdy two locks will bo necessary to pass the largo class of ve.s.sels, 
on finding they woidd not be done in November, I wvnt down expressly to 
insure the oidy nu^thod hfft, a winter's job. There still is timo, but I have 
lost all hope of having them finished. 

licgarding the unfinished work on the canal already alluded to, ho 
receives the following cheering intelligenco : 

"January 24, 184G. 

" Mv Dear Sir : — You v.ill be glad to learn that at tho eleventh hour 
the work of enlaigement is ordered by the Committee, The Government 
have agreed to advance tho sum — not to exceed .£2,500. I was truly sick 
'jf the whole business. The beaiefits wero-admii/ted ; but tho (piestion as to 
whether they would not advance tho paltry sum or was about to deprive 
the country of them. 

" Yours faithfully, 

" W. Hamilton Merritt. H. H. KILLALY." 

We copy the following to show how our railroad stocks were fii-st re- 
ceived on tho London Stock Exchange, and how near to gambling the modo 
in which business was there conducted. 



JUO 



From the, l.ondon Tlmtw : 

"Much piiiiHO liiiH l)(»oii l)(mt(»wt<(I ill I.Ik^ (;ity on a (rominuiy ontitloil 
* Tim (Jrciit. WcihUmii of ('iiniula,' wliicli in iilioiit. to wind u|> its iidiiii-.s, iiM'! 
projHwcm to nttin-ii to tlin Hulmfiili<MS tlio wliolo lunount rcccivt-d in pronii 
umH. TliJH (UM'tiiinly IooUh woll, l>ut hoiiio, at IdaHt, of tlni piirtioH intoroHtoil 
tAk(^ H ilili'iTt^nt view of lUv niuttiir, as will appear hy tlio annoxtnl lonjarkM 
of a corrtNitondtint : 

" In i:onstM[nencn :;r Kiicli names as Hudson, M. 1'., Masteiiniin, (/'liaplin, 
MoHH and otlini-H *Mptally inlluential, i was teniptod to <<ni)>ai-k in thii (iroat 



West 



i>rn o 



f ( 



lunula 



Hail 



way. 



'I'lio cN^veii ilireetors take the tiO.OOO sliaies 



thuniselves (oii;^lit tliey not to pitive having paid the deposit () anil then 
iHHiU) them to tht> pnltlic at a pieniiuin of £'d lOn. I lielieye, intleed, that 
only the personal fricMids of the diinctufs ;j;ot. (hem at, this piiee. Happen 
in^ to know two eases of a di lector sent I in;,' his putienlar friemls lifly shan-s 
OHcli, unasked for at this pri(;u, .£<'( U^s. premium. 1 1 told net what the 
director thought of them, and I purchased .SOO shares al I.', pr.'iiiimn. 'Phis 
was the lirst or second day of their liciii;,' me,i(ioned in ilie market, and I 
am j^rieved to say my example induced friends to take 7l>'l more, they pay- 



lu^i; •> pr<'iuium 



panic 



lilies, and down tiimiihi the ('anadians ii 



almost a few hours. lUit now comes my j^'iound for complaint. 'The dirtM- 
tors havo issued but .'ill.OUO of the ()(»,(»(»(», haviii;,' in reserve ;{(»,(H)() for 



which they eoniuit lind a market, and it is ('ertain that, they will ;^et rid ol' 
no more iii .'{J premium. In this dilemma, it is said, they intend to ;;ive 
hack .CI I .'»s. premium on eac!' share ; and when complainin;^ to one yes 
terday of not having at least '2^ hack, I was told I ouj,dit to consider my- 
Helf lucky at only losiu,!^' .C'JOK liy thn shares, and that the directors were 
laihavin;.,' most i^emu'ously. lie added as a reason why tlmy cimld not ;,fivi! 
back the i?^ premium, tliat they had ,i,dven It), 110(1 shares to the ' hou.so' — 
a hrihe, in fact, to the stock brokers for piidiii;.,' the concern. I consider 
this dishiuiest ; the pul)lic were tohi (hat ;<,', premium was the <uily price 
tlioy could be obtaint^d a(, and it' was on this supposition t.liat. i and others 
purchased them. If the panic ha<l not occurreil, they would have pocktsted 
|;17r),(MHI.' 

"They aro still in hopes of;;ettin:,' a renewal of the cliarter for the Mertie 
ami Sandsvicli Koail, as the foliowiii:^' letters from his r>ulf.do and VVind.soi- 
t'orrespondenls. with the enj:;ineer's report show." 

I'lTK.M.o, .laiiiiary Dtli, iS|(i. 
"AI V |)k.\I! Sill : ..'ud<;e W'aldcii called on nil last \ve(d{ with your note tu 
him, <lated December .{1st, in which you reipiest iiie to procure and forward 
t^) you th«^ sub.scriptimis to (he stock of the N. and D. 11. |{. I{. Company. 
1 enclose you heritall hitherto made in (his i-ity. 1 liav.i written to .luili,'t) 
Whitthwiy of Uoehost»^r, iii whoso hands 1 nn lersfeaml is tho Hubscription 
liNt for (hat .section, and on i(s r(M'eip(, will .send it (o you. I am not aware 
of any other subscription actually made f<ir the road in the Stato.-i, if any art! 



l>i 



oeun'd, I will also forwaril them as soon as receiv<^4. 



I not 



ice your reipiest for subsciiptions hh riq 



i)idlv 



as 



iios.sible. On 



thiH subject, I havt^ communicated with .ludj,'e Walden repi^atedly, Mr. (loe, 
Opion 1,00 and others, who all a^^ree that no attainable, or ofl'eotual oHorl 
can be made at present for tln^ objoc^t, and ther«'foro any attempt had better 
he postponed until .some futuro contin^^oncie.s have boon Hottlod. Thoy wish, 



201 



"1. To wait lor llm reiiow.il of tlio cliartcr by your Puliiimunt, anJ hco 
'whiit arc itH comlitioiifl. 

" li. To r(!(!(!iv<! iIh- report of tint Hurvcy niid cstimnto for tlio route. 

"3. 'I'lifi HCttloiJKitit of tlio t(!iii|)oriiry tt;^itiitii)ii of tlio ()r(';^oti <|U(!stion. 

"1. Tilt! t(!niporii;y itn'si^un- oC tht* inoiit-y iii.irk<'t, wliioli iti iliis St.ito is 
always cloHo III ill irt H(!ii,Moii I'rom tlu; iioi^rssity of Mmk r'ltoitH hnin;;; iiruli!, 
ami (wihIi (tf oourso boiiii^ dull, otus w;ih of hIiowiii^ an l:irj^<! iwhoIm on hariJ M 
posHihlo. 

" Wci <!ori(i(l((iitly look for tlu; rc.ili/atioii of all thcMn ooritinftoiicicH within 
♦ho ciiHuinf.'; <iO or IM) diiyn, wlii'ii a ui'.vr issue (viii hi! iiiiiil(! Ixifori! tlu! public, 
and wo r:i\\ <^<t before; tlicm willi (M)iilidi!iit!t! of hu(!(;(!Hs. Many u'entlcMnt;!! |tli!d,ri: 
io int! a fair subscription. It will bo hw.w that but lew of our wealthy inctt 
iippoar on thu paper, and some of thoni say they will lar^'ely increase their 
Hubseri|ilion. I do not tliink it advisable to exliibit the within list as th it of 
Hull'alo, as I am (urlaiii that it may be increased by several tinies it,s amount 
when the pro])cr time arrives. 

" I noti(;e tht; sever(! ehetrk to tin; Hamilton ro i<l, and it would seem that it 
liiust prove ii permanent one, if llie st;it(;ment i liavi; se(!n is to be rtilii'd on. 
If ytm hiive any prucise reliable information on the subj(;ct 1 would like to re- 
ceive it. 

" I siiw Mr. Wallace, ye.slerday, on his return from the West, who rtiportH 
a very favorable proirress. 

" I have not a shallow of doubt as to the nuc(!Oss of this projeet, and any 
and every thinj; 1 can do to I'orwanl it shall be done. We move slowly and 
cautiously in Hnll'alo, but a satisfaelory amount, I am eon(idi;rit, will bo sub- 
Hcribed heri! on the renewal of the charter. 

" Till! route alon^^ the Southtirn shore of hike. lOrie, to which you allude, is 
one that cannot be (!ommenccd for y(!irs, nor till lon;^ after the (Janidi road is 
i'uWj established and has a(!i|uired its full |e^'itimate business, which it will 
thorcafter bt! able to n-tain, 

" 1 be^' to remain, very tiaily yours, 

"U." !.. AIJ.KN." 

" I1(»N. W. II.V.MM.TdN MkIUIIT'I'." 

" Wl.MKSoit, .January II, 1810. 
" Dear Slii : — I have the pie 'e herewith to enclosi! you one hundred 
^crip (Certificates for 'ISO share.-i eai,.i, and numbered from 2'M to ;51J(j inclu.sive. 
Al.so a copy of the ri!solutions 

" 1 Hhull .send u copy to each Director inimediaiely, niid a copy of the reso- 
lution for till! meeting.' to Mr. ihakc, in St. 'J'homas, witli a rcjnest that he 
will have it in.se rtcd in the St. Thomas newsjiapiir. 

" 1 shall .send a copy of resolution for the meeting: to Simcoe. 
" The returns come in slowly and poor, in fact they have no money. Chut- 
liani cannot be prevailed on to taki! a sinirle share. 

" 1 send this to Detroit this afternoon, and ho|ie it will not be delayed long. 
" 1 remain, diiar sir, yours truly, 

" KOHKKT MEUCLll, Secretary. 
" Wm. Hamilton Mekkitt, Esq. 

Wai.I'oi.i:, January L'Oth, 1«IG. 
"Hon. W. Hamii.tdn' MKiiurn : 1)i:aii Siu, Since commeneing our 
survey of the N. uiid 1). II. K. II., uur time has been chi<'(ly oeetipied in 
getting a topograjdiy of the country by riuiniuL,' raudoju lines, and taking 



292 



«<i' 



levels. Ajt( r crossiiii/ the (Irmul Ji'inr, / soon ilisrovercil tlmt it loan vmch 
easier to draw lony stnilij/it /iiies v)i jxiper, f/iati to find suitdhle, (jround to run 
thin upon. I liavt- now lixed ii]ioii tlie iDealion ol" (»ir routci helweeii tlio 
(imiul Iviver aiui W Cstiiiinstt r, and lniv»( iuKtnieted two |(aili(;H to stake it 
out, and capy '*■ level over it as (juiek as ]iosHil)!(\ One jiarty eoniinences 
this iiiuniinj.j on the west, haidv of < )tter ( "reek, and the* otlier will eoni- 
ineneo to-morrow on tht^ cast hank of the (Jrand Ixiver ; and the moment 
they meet, 1 will he prepared (o make a profiln and esdmato of the line, 
the tiuH' is very limited. 

"This lin(> passes thionj^h the town of Norwich, and will intersi-et tlio 
plank road hetvveen London and St. 'riiomas, soniewliere near h m. stakes. J 
have also run a lino tSaut/i, as far West as Simcoe, and will extend it to St. 
Thomas, as it is necessary to have at least tioo, in order to «)I>tii.in the right 
of way. 

"You have of course heard from Mr. Ixoss ; J am in ho|)es of meeting 
him to-day at l)nnnville. I would have wiitten sooner had anything of ini- 
portanc<> occurn'd. I heard iVom the conti'actors a few days ago ; the.y aro 
ready to execute ail the papers. 

" My contidcnce in (he siu'ctiss t)f this grand woi'k increase's e\(irv day. 
Yours of the 'JTtli 1 'ecemliei' was received, and the instructions it coiitaineii 
will bo attended to. 

"Respectfully your obedient servant, 

"WJLI.IAM WALl.vVCE." 

^The Queen's speech on (he optiiing of the Parliament of Creat I'ritain, 
on the 'Jl'nd of January, in the; pn-nionition of expected scarcity, espi^cially 
in Ireland, recommends the reduction of duties on articles of food. 

T\w J'Juropatii 7V»i(',s' .says, "Sir Robert Peel, England's powerful and 
brilliant ^linisti>r, has dcvi'lojud his future commercial i)oliey — free trade." 

The Governor's .speech, after noticing his pernuinent appointment as 
successor to tlu^ late lauient(>d (!ovei-nor (icneral, says, " 1 should not under 
any circumstances have directi'tl your early attiMitiou to the consideration 
of the militia law, but the unaltered state of the negotiations which havo 
been for .some tinui jia.st carried on betw(>en the Imperial (tovernment and 
the United States, reiulers it innterative upon me to press more immedi- 
ately upon your consideration the necessity of a rctu-ganization of that arm 
of tiio public det'ence. 1 feel the nu>st uubonnded contidenco that the loy- 
alty and patriotisn\ of every class of Her Majesty's subjects in Canada will 
bo conspicuous as they have been heretofore." 

Mr. !M. went to Montreal by Troy through New York State, and owing 
to the very heavy f'jiUs of snow, was 8 days on the joui-my. Very im]>ortaut 
business was to be done <luring the session. C>ur subject moved for a I'cturn 
shewing the state of the Provincial revenue in an iti'mized^manncr, but did 
not succeed in obtaining the object of his desire, as few Governments wish 
to expose the details of their financial proceedings. A new Militia 15111 
was brought in, on which he expressed a preference for the old law of 1808, 
inaugurateil under the immortal Prock, whereby flauk companies here al- 



293 

way« ki'pt ciirolkMl iiiiil tniiiK-tl for an fiM<M';,'t^iiry, tli(!n'l)y foiiiiiiig an activo 
f()rc(^, ready at any tiino to tako tho licsid, and form a nillyini,' l)<>dy for tlio 
ro.st. Tlio vvisdoni of tliiw selicnio was w<fll trioil in IHl'J, wlicn nearly tl.e 
ontiro Militia forc(» waH roady to tako Uio Held in drfcncf" of tiicii- c mntry 
in from I 'i to 21 hours after tli(! detdaration of war, as aln^ady stated in 
theHO jiaf,'eH. 

Kvery olfort was still made to lirocuro a re-eliarter for tle'ir r.iili'oud. 

" AuiANV, Ai-ril y, ISK)." 
" Dkaii Sill :- r liavn just arrived liern on my way tf) lioston. Innue- 
diiitely after i-e(;eivini,' your letter of flie .'iOtli of Marrli, I went lo .Mount 
Morris, jj^ot, six of tin- eon tractors tosi^^n tlie explanation mentioned in your 
letttM", and it will 1)(' Hi;j;ne(l hy all the otluirs wIkmi I return hrre from 
I'ostoii. 

" Kvery day's ex|ierienee shows the importance ijf making,' eaeh new link 
in tlio chain of railroads which is str(!tc;hin;.( from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
as direct as possible ; and, to make a raiir'oad throu'^h t 'anada one link ill 
this chain, the very i)est location nuist )»e maile. 

" Truly vours, in haste, 

"NVILLIA.M WAIJ.ACK." 
" Hon. W. II. Mkukitt." 

April IS. The important news was rectuved, that ''the House has 
refused to (ixtend the charter of the I). Si N. II. 11." 

The followin;,' ci)rresi)ondenco after the division of tlie Legislature lia<l 
put an end to iMr. Mei'ritt/s project of havini^ a direct route through ('ana- 
da, to connect with United Stati-s railroads, toJvvhi(;li those for the particu- 
lar convenienc.) of (Jan.ida shouM act as liranches. They rtsfu.sod througli 
the inter(!st of United States capital ; and that a road througli central 
('anada should he laiilt, and that the agency of l>iitis)i capital he a<lopted. 

"Detroit, May G, 18 IG. 

" My Dear Sir: — As I iirlicitcd to you in my letter som,; time atro on 
the suhject of the Northern Railroad, the project has now received its <|uictus. 
It was yesterday vetoed by the Exccutiv*!, und up jn tlie hill's going bick to 
the Hous-^ and Senate, it was rij"''ted by both V)y a very lar^'e inijority. So 
there will bo, as I said, no Port Hiiroa Railroad at prcicnt to connect with 
I'ort Sariiia and the middle of Lake Michigan, 

" D is a mittcr of derision here that such representations a.s arc said to 
have been made before the Cinadian committee, by Americans, to the effect 
that the Americans did not care where the Canada road ran to, or whether it 
was level or not, and would in cithiT case e(iually connnind the American 
travel, should have the least weight attached to them. If such statements were 
made by Americans, it is very certain they wore persona not only who spoke 
without knowledge, but wdiose opinions are not asked by .\mcricans thoni><elves 
on such subjects. The fact is, that the level road is the only one wliieh can 
deter competition. Whether this hn'ol road was the one first contemplated, or 
whether it resulted in such a modification of the Wistern by branches a.s to 
make a level line from one point to the other at the extremities, is not so 
material. Hut tliis is(|uite material : that the central line road would not put 
boats on the Lake against the level road, but they would put boats on agaiust 



294 



a road which had to ascend a mountain or a part of a mountain ; and what is- 
more, thty know they can keep them there. And what the Central road 
would do, the Jiiike combination wuuld do. 

" It seems to be thought that all the travel from American sources would 
be equally secured in Ciinad'v by one road as anoiher. But there arc thes-e 
two (litTcrenccs. One, that there are now boats on the Lake that can rua 
through in 18 hours, and nothing; but a rapid transit over a level road can 
divert people from such boats. The other is, tliat if people are coaxed into 
Canada by the consciousness that they can <j;o through in the shortest time, 
if tlunj pli'dsi', tlicy don't care so much about it after they are got in, but scat- 
ter and spread off into other routes ; because, like Falstaif, they know there is 
no ''compulsidn." The very same people who would in,sen^•ibly (iud them- 
selves on Ijake Ontario and St. Lawrence in one case, would, in the other, 
never take the first step to cross the line. 

" However, when people have tarried a little longer at Jericho they will 
find their beards longer. Experience makes every body pay, not only for 
knowing too little, but for knowing too murh, 

" Your friend, 

"E. A. BRENT. 

'•Wm. II. Hamilton, Esq." 

The Parliament had opened on the 21st ]\Iarch, under the new Governor, 
Lord Catheart, a gentleman whose chief (pialitieations lay in being a thoiongh 
military niun. 

The news of tlie j)rocee(lings in England, miri'ored by the Queen's 
speech and that of the membevs, especial] v of Sir Itobert Peel, was the sub 
ject of newspaper articles on this .side. One of them, in the INIontreal Wit- 
ness, writes in favor of the measure on the gi-ounds of phihintliropy, and 
say.s, " that the Colonists ought not to put up tlieir snmll claim against tho 
great good that was to ensue from free trade witli all mankind." But wlien 
the message from the Oovernment, < -nciating in plain tei'ms that tlie eain- 
in<'S of the Colonists sliouhl be sub.scrvicnt, or of seeondarv eoiisideration 
to the dwellers in liritain, it was receiveil with astonishment, not unnuxed 
with a lively apprehension for the future well-being of the country. 

The message was received, and was acquiesced in in an extraordinary 
manner, and answi'r sent on the opening day ; Mr. Baldwin, showing his 
])ronqitness to create conciliatory feeling, said " that he viewed with pleasure 
this disposition on the part of Oreat JJritain to protect the interests of her 
colonies." 

jVIr. Merritt, on his ai-rival, took the first opportunity of moving an ad- 
dress respecting the tSt. Lawrence canals, to ex[)resshi8 appreciation of tho 
situation, and tlu! duty left to representatives, saying, "and now that tho 
Colony was entirely left to its own I'esources, it was the duty of tho Legis- 
lature to endeavour to reduce tlie price of transportation." 

A letter was published in the Montreal Cazette from a leading shipowner 
iu Britain, dated 1-th December, 1645. '■''' 



* 



* * 



* 



295 

"The privilege we claim for trade tD Canada slionlil also in couuuou 
justice be extended to her other colonies. They would tend to attach our 
colonial brethren still nioie strongly to the mothor country, the juouarchy 
and our glorious constitution, and gain the assurance that our colonies wcro 
recognized as integn^l jiortions of the British Empire, whilst at the same 
time, we should virtually establish free trad(> in corn with the western States, 
and tluis neutralize their protective tariff by a flank movement, and calling 
forth in fact (to use the words of the lamented Canning) " a new world into 
existence," for such Upper Canada may yet be considered. 

On the 20th of April a judicious statement ap])eared in the Jourmil: 
" The most important business transaction of the Assembly last week re- 
lates to the transit and manufiicture in Bond of American wheat." 

The Parliament seems to bo attending to matters generally of a local 
nature or of minor importance, and the country manifests but little interest 
in the proceedings. 

The next Journal, of May, contains Mr. Merritt's speech, and a leader 
in favour of it, he copies from the Exdiniun; who opposes these views, 
and ends with the obser\ ing of the .si)eech, " it is too lai'ge to be digi'stcd 
all at once." 

Monday, May 4, 18-46. 

Our subject having prepared himself for the new policy, brought for 
ward a series of resolutions, which he prefaced by the following speech : 

Mr. Merritt, in moving the resolutions on the subject of agricultural pro- 
tection, said : The rci-olutious which will be submitted for the consideratiouof 
this house, are designed to counteract t! o cflVct which the recent change in the 
commercial policy of Britain is likely to produce : no subject of greater im- 
portance is likely to occupy the attentidii of the Legislative Assembly during 
the present session ; I trust, therefore, the house will indulge me with more 
time thiin usual, to bring the subject fully before them, particularly as no 
measure hns yet been proposed to meet the altered circumstances of the country. 

It is true, the bon. Inspector General has gained great applause, by hid 
exposition of the finances and revenue. I feel much .satisfaction in congratu- 
lating him on his promi.se of future usefulness — for few, with his Parliamen- 
tary experience, could have done so well. At the same time, I must couiesa I 
have been disappointed to find a measure, which, above all others, most mter- 
osts the inhabitants of Canada, wholly overlooked : a measure which, brought 
forth one of the most able and poweriul speeches ever produced by any states- 
man, in any age, or in any country. In which every conflicting interest was fully 
cauvaf^scd and balanced one against another, and the advantages so clearly pomt- 
ed out that jiiejudice and interest gave way to reason and intelligence, one 
which occupied twelve nights' debate, against which the agriculturalists of 
Eiigand cannot feel a deeper interest than the a;jriculturalists of Canada. 

Except a war with the llnited k:?tatrs of America, no event could 
have created greater apprehension in the minds of the agricultural population 
of Upper Canada than this unexpected change in the commercial policy of 
Great Britain. This apprehension arises from the fact that : since 1842, when 
wheat and flour was admitted at a nominal duty in the ports of Britain, they 
have been in a state of unprecedented prosperity — their products yield a fair 



296 

profit— a stimulus had been given to industry — the culture of whc.U h.iil been 
extended — cajntal IVooly invoated,and property increased in value, they realisivi 
those ndvantagos and f'olt content. Ask any farmer to what cause he attributcl 
this iiicroafcd price for wheat ; his reply will be protection. Although in P]ii^ 
land a dillorencc of opinion u) ay exist between tlie landowner, farmer and la- 
bourer, on this subject, no difference of opinion can exist here, as the three 
arc united in one. Notwithstandin.,' this union of interest anionjj; the popula- 
tion, there is a n arked dift'erenee in its representation in the councils of the 
province. There the agricultural interest predominates, here it fi.id.s a tard^- 
advocate ; still, 1 can liardly believe there is a single menihor who will not 
admit that, under the existing system, the agriculturalists in Canada owe the 
present pro.spcrity wholly to protection. 

I desire not to be misunderstood I do not allude to the alleged protection 
imposed by the colonial duty on articles passing through our inland waters to 
distant markets. I allude to tlu! protection they received in the markets of 
Britain — this protection will soon bo withdrawn ; what equivalent or what 
compensation is proposed to the agriculturists in Canada in lieu thereof] It 
is to mo unaccountable, to witness the apathy which prevails here on this sub 
jcct. On the first announcement, in the part of the country I represent, an 
immediate change in the minds of all was apparent; buildings were suspended 
and property decreased in value, to an extent no other circumstance would have 
j)roduced, and you may rely upon it that all who hold a stake in the pro.sperity 
of Canada are now looking to the Legislature for some remedy. It is my inten- 
tion to go back to the time when this protection was first promulgated, and follow 
up every movement relating to it, that it may be fully understood. In the 
first place, what says Sir 11. Peel: "I am not prepared to select that great 
interest, connected with the agriculture of this country, and call upon them to 
resign protection, unprepared at the same time to call on other protected iu- 
iuterests to make the same sacrifice." The protection withdrawn from the 
agricultural interests was, duty on cattle, provisions, corn, othor grains, and 
various articles, the reduction on wheat to cease in th"0c years. The 
equivalents ibr this reduction were : The removal of all duty on the raw mate- 
rial except timber. Cotton manufactures, calico prints, now subject to a duty 
of 10 per cent — to be free. Cotton made up to protect the industry of the 
country, now 20 per cent — reduced to 10 per cent. Woollen and linen goods 
made up, now 2(» to 10. IMetals, 15 to 10. Brocade, earthenware, carriages, 
now 20 to 10. Silks, 30 to 15. 10 per cent to be the maximum, lie also 
makes other arrangements afi'ecting the interests of other parts of the com- 
munity, but which will materially benefit that interest in whose welfare the 
country is so deeply interested, which are thus enumerated: First — The great- 
est burden which is justly complained of by the agriculturalists, is the rate 
levied on highways, which is reduced from 6d. and 9d. on the pound to l^d. 
and 3d. Second — The law of settlement, which will relieve agriculturo from 
an oppressive burden, besides injustice on the labouring man. (Amount of 
this reduction not stated.) Third — The encouragement of agricultural indus- 
try, by the government loaning money on the security of land, for draining and 
improving the same, which will devclope agricultural improvement throughout 
the country. Fourth — Charges of expenses of prosecution now paid from local 
rates, to be borne altogether from the Treasury, estimated for England and 
Ireland at £117,000. Fifth — In Ireland the whole expense of the police 
force is borne by the land, hereafter by the Treasury. Sixth — One-half of 
the medical relief sustained by poor laws, by the Treasury, in England and 



iit ha<l boon 
hey roalisoii 
attributeil 
ugh in Bliig- 
luer anj lu- 
as the three 
the popula- 
iiciln of the 
i.itls a tard^' 
vho will not 
ida owe the 

d protection 
d waters to 
markets of 
!nt or what 
hereof] It 
on this sub 
■oproscnt, an 
e suspended 
! would have 
le prosperity 
, is my iiiten- 
d, and follow 
od. In the 
; that great 
pon them to 
)rotocted in- 
n from the 
grains, and 
oars. The 
le raw mate- 
ct to a duty 
ustry of the 
linen goods 
re, earriagcs, 
n. Ho also 
of the com- 
welfare the 
—The great- 
is the rate 
and to l^d. 
iilturo from 
Amount of 
tural indus- 
iraining and 
throughout 
d from local 
n gland and 
f tha police 
One-half of 
England and 



297 

Scotland, £l 15,000, and expense of prisons in Scotland £12,000. Seventh — 
Education of youth in work-liouses, ostim:itod at £30,000; poor law auditors 
£15,000. On being asked, what would be the whole amount of tliose various 
charges? he replied, the estimate upon the consolidated fund was £530,00'), 
Thus wo have a clear, practic il and substantial e(|uivaleiit f(»r the agricultural 
int« rest, althougli it was considered ina(Ie(|nato and so admitti'd . 'I'hc removal 
of import duties on tlie articles they rei|uire for consumptiDii, the removal of 
taxes and other buidens from land. It is to be reirretted tliat the agricultural 
interest of Canada (lid not occupy some smill portion of his comprehensive 
mind ; if it had, all duties on our products wduM have been repealed when ad- 
mitted into the markets of IJritain. 

Wc find in the speech of Flis Excellency the (Jovernor Oenoral a mo^t 
appropriate allusion to tliis impfu'tant cha?igc, from which the country is 
led to believe that their claim to protection is admitted, and will not ultimately 
be overlooked. A iVw days after we find, in a despatch from the Colonial 
Secretary, ,'5rd March last, tlie policy which her .Majesty's governm:!nt recom- 
mended for the Provincial Legislature. After an assurance that the interests 
of Canada liave occupied the place to which they were ju.stly entitled on this 
important subject, he states, " With regard to corn, 1 have mueli satisfa(!tion 
in reflecting, that if Canada will have to enter into con)pctition with the West- 
ern States of AnuM'ica, and to engage in this rivalry, when no longer covered 
by any protective duty, at least bhe will not be called to make the effort with- 
out some advantages on her side, among wliich I view her light taxation." 

It is by no means surprising tliat the Colonial Secretary .should fill into this 
common error. It is but reasonable to suppose that a government, with a reve- 
nue exceeding £400,000 from imports, should 1 e in a position to relieve its in- 
habitants from every other description of taxation ; bu* so far from this bcinir the 
case, not only are the local taxes in Upper Canada higher than in the Western 
States, but the people possess many advantages whieli we do not. The Cana- 
dian farmer is subject to high duties on all American manufactures, as well as 
on tea, coffee, and many foreign articles, from which tlie Western farmer is 
exempt. It may be said as an offset, that the latter pays higher prices for 
wool, fine fabrics, and hardware, and those articles on wliich a high duty is 
imposed, for the sujipcrt of their Federal (iovernment, and for the iirotection 
of their manufactures. But whether it arises from an evisioi of the duty, 
facilities in obtainintj supplies, quick returns, small profits, or whatever ciuso, 
those articles are sold as cheap there as hr e, or so near it that you cannot 
discover any material difference. Of the truth of this, e cry m ^reliant in Mont- 
real must rest satisfied what amount of liritish manufactures are consumed 
in Vermont, where no impediments exist for smuLrgling. The same result is 
experienced on the borders of the St. Lawrence, Niagara and Detroit rivers, 
as every member of this house well knows. 

Another advantage pointed out is " the assistance Canada has roceived from 
British credit for internal communications, and tin; means of carriage without 
transhipments by the St. Lawrence, which cannot be iiad by way of the Erie 
canal,"' From the same cause, the Colonial Secretary has fallen into the same 
error. Who could be made to beli.eve at a distance that one of the most mag- 
nificent navigations that any country, either in Europe or America can boast 
of, should, through neglect or mismanagement, increase instead of cheapen 
transportation 1 Such, be it known, is at Ibis moment the situation on the St. 
Lawrence Canal. 

The Colonial Secretary thinks the price of transit from Montreal to 



2D8 



(irriit Hrit tin will l»c nn clu'iip an from Now York. Tlio hiiiik! opinion 
iH t J!prrsH(><l I»v our InHpootor (Jciiciiil, iiltlion^'li iit tliiH niomfiit, tlio oliar^^n on 
tt liMircl uC ilour In In. <i(l. from tlio rurtnir, iind In. ('iii. IVoni llio letter. It in 
Mippo.icd Hull tlio inort'iiHt'd dcinmul for Aniorioiiii i»rodii(;t« in nritiiin will 
luivc !i (cndcnoy to inoit'iisc llio pric(> from New York, and llins njuidizi" I'rriylit, 
li<'(\v<'«'n (lie (wo pnrlH , lint it is (|nt'slionfilil(' wlutlirr tlic intiii'iisr ol' Hliippiru'; 
will not korp p;u<(< with lliis dcniMnd. 

It is iir}:n<'d, on tlio ollur Imnd. by tlio InspiM'tor (JcnorMi, (lifit tlic ^router 
tlir stocks at (purine, tin" nioii' vcss' Is will conn" ont, and thus clii'Mpi-n tlii> 
fiviglit by oonipotition, I c linridc in tlio view taken l»y llio Attorney (Jonc- 
ral on lii.t nnliji^i't. iMcrcase yonr inipml trade: tlii>< will i^ive IVeiiijlits Iiotli 
Wliys ai I lessen prices ; ImiI under any eireninstanees, I have my appiehenMioim 
tho lVoi,i;lits will not he roduceil IVoni llii,«< tn Ifrilain as low as iVoni New 
York. 

Let us IK w refer to the measures inlrodueeil hy the provineial ;^overnment. 
The first was a Inll hy the Attorney (ieneral, e(|uali7,ini^ taxos in proportion to 
the value of lantl. leaviuLtlhe hnrden to ho sustained hy land, lid — Uy the In 
hpeotor (ieneral. to impo.si'. a d\ily id' Lid. per i^alhai on whisky. This tax is 
nl.«o homo by tho tjrower, nnd plaoed on hud. Its ohjeet is to relieve tlioHUV- 
oral distriet revenues from (he e\|iense of the adniinis(r!i(ioii of justice, nnd 



placii\j;' i( on (he provincial reveiuK 



The cHeet is this: Instejid (d' boil 



taxed directly as usual in each district in Westorn Canada, and p'lyiuf^ tho 
money into th(> dis(ric( (rc;isury, (he money will he paid in(i> the pniviinMMl 
troa.><ury, ;ind the (ax paid out of (he oo.'irfic t^rain in the atiuw, dis(rio( ; i( im- 
poses an addidoiiiil (ax on the mower in Lower Canada, it is tru(\ but it alFords 
no relief ti> thi>i:rower in l'p|)er Caiiaila - it is merely payini:; out of one pnoket 
instead of the other. I should have been ^ra(ilie(l to Iind soino |)ro])ositiiiii 
fiU" tho reduction (d' internal taxes, duties on imports, and the public expendi- 
ture worthy of notice — some incisuro to save our rcm;iinini; public land, ami 
creatiiis;- a fund (herefrom (o oduca(o (ho risiiiji:; |ii;enoratioii ; some measuro (o 
rdiovo (he burden on l;md, ;ind apportion our taxes more .siiil.ihly on other 
property, or soino 0(juiv.'ilent to tho agi ioultur.'il interest ; .soim! iiKS'isuro or 
soiuo attempt to meet the ij,roat change to which this country must shortly ho 
subjoot. 



Tho disp.itch, prayine; for a rcmov.al of tho Ih. per ((uartcr duty 



on 



wl.c;it, urain, pulse. <' 



A'c., is well ,'is tar as it u'dcs ; hut it should have oxtcaidcd 



to all jModu. ts. The measure di>si;j,iied (o benelit (he mercantile, o;n'ryin'.C''ni J 
shijipinp: interests for the next thrco years, is tho removal of tho throe shillinf^s 



per ijuartor on wheat pas.^ii 



th 



rou^li our waters to distant oimntries ; as 



thii 



rill so ,'*oon become iiiepcrative, it is to he regretted the .aet will no( come into 
imiuodiato operation. Tho r.ipid inoroase, and oxtent of tho groat wostorn 
oouiitiy has been well ami (riily dcj'ciibed by (ho Inspecttir Ceneral; it is a 
prize worth ciai(cndiii;;' for, ;tml one which we c;in scouru by .adopting the 
pro]>cr remedy; but we liavo iiitellii^ent, active rivals, who arc not to bo m<'t 
by li'ttinii' everything; take its course, as heretofore. Sir, it is {)loasini^ for mo 
to witness tho striking; chaiiL^e which has come over tho minds of those who 
fbruiorly opposed tho construct ioi of tho St. Jjuwrcnco Canal ; now hut ono 
feelinc; is entertained respectinj:; it ; on that work alone rests .all your hopes of 
eouimandiny; this trade. ^Vh;lt would have been your prospects if it had not 
been constructed on the enlarged .s<wlo, or bad it bovin suspended under Lord 
Sydenham's administrtitioii, and the remainder of our duties to create a mil- 
liou and a half stiuandered away for what is called iuiproveiuciits, without an 



299 

(xiK'ctnlion of (iny rclurn v/liiilevcr ? In DKOoinltrT lust., I pndoavnurcil to 
drnw tlio iitfftitioti uf Mi() f^oTcniinetit ntid tln! pulilid to fliin wnrk, hy iimkiti^ 
a cdinimriHoti dl' tlm o1hii(j;(>h iiiiidc l»y IrtrwardcrH on tlio Krio (Iiinul rmin iJiif- 
I'lilo to Alli.iiiy, prior to •July, IHir», on wliicli ii Imrrcl ol' flour wmb convcyud 
;i(i»l inilcH lor !M., wlicn 1h. !»d. per liiirnd wiis rli.in^'-d Cor IHo mili'H from 
Kini,'Hl(in to Montrciil (IoIIh huI. iiioliidcd uu ritlnrj TIk; lion, f.lic IrHpi-i-tor 
(icnf-rid, on llic trun purtinjin HyHtiiU'., lurnH tlioHi! fi^^un^H at^dnKt iw., miyn it 
ffiiiiid Inid the pnlijio lo lii'lif vi' llic IoHh wcro f(|n!d on hotli roiitcM, linn in- 
(•ri'Msiiif,' llic prim III' fVcjfrlildii till! St, ijawn-nri! over tlin Kri<! (jiinaj. IIa<l 
lie ri'ad that letter, lio wouNI find it Rtat«« lliat tlin i^ovorritnent an; not only 
•li [irivfil of all I (ill, Imt Mie iiioiiih oCniiHJn^ a icvenMi- - tln' lurward'TN di^c'iirf- 
iii;; till! St. iiawrcnec river vvitliout poyinent of toll, and ascending the llideau, 
not hiavitig uh inueli an would pny tli(! loek tenderH. I hIiouM not have alluded 
til (liiH, exci'pt ('(ir the piirpo.se ol' repi'lliii;^ a charj^e wlii(!h wa,4 not warriiiited. 

I am not hurpri.sed at the j:;overiinieiit expn!SHin^ homio I'eelin;^ on this .milijeat ; 
hceauso their itiattontion or ne^jleet has nulij<;ete<l the entire ooniineroc of 
Canada to a ni(js| oppressive and unneeeSH-ny tax durin;^ the. eoniin;^ se.aHon. 
Sir, it is unn('ee.-,.sary to (-ntiir into any ealeul itions to prove the St. I<awren(;<! 
will he a clioaper conveyanei! than by tlu! Krio (!anal, heoauw! all thoKO ealcu- 
hilinns depen<l upon eireuniHlaiiee.s lieyond our (iontrol ; fur inHt;itie(!, if you 
leuiid your ealeulatioii,s on the. ^ov(!rnnient of New York keepint^ up liii/her 
Idll.H, to pay tJHi inter(!Ht on their canal debt, vou will iiiid by the coniptroller'H 
nport ol' l.SIC, that the debt croated for public iinproveinentH was iis:!1,:',:il),(».'{r» 

III ISII, ii was rediieed Id 'Jit, 7 1 i'., 1^05 

In IStO, on Isf .January, to 17,'Jl(;,lia 

While our e;in!i| (Irbt is rapidly inereasin;.', we will also find that in lH4r>, 
while, the toil on the i'lrie Canal iiierejwd *l!i;),Kl)H, the toll on the Welland 
Canal, deercased about ^L'O, ()()((. 'j'o what eaur^c is this extraonlinary r(\sult 
U> be attriliiited ? The Inspeetor (ieneral says, " to the. fluetuation (d' trade," 
why has this trade fliietuatrd all one way, loavin;^ the St. Jjawronet! and .seek- 
ing: the Hudson ? lie will find the true, cause to be a vi^^'ilant, int.elli;i;erit 
|M rsonal siipfriiiteiidcnoe on the one part, and a total nei^loot, arising from an 
iiiipraetieable system of inaiiaf^ement on the. otlii'r the oni! le.Hsenin;.' prices of 
iiii;;hl, the other iiiereasini^r if. 'rhidu^lioul the world the prices of frei;.;lit 
flic u,ovi riicfl by one rule — tli(! larf^er the bo ly of water, lon;^(!r the voya;,;c and 
l.iij^'er the canal, withdut traiisbipinent, the cheaper tlie price of I'reiL'ht. - 
Cnnipare the tlimensions of the iiaviiration on the St. liawrence with tiie Krie 
<'mial with this rule, a<linit both works to rciduee tlie toll to tin! lowe.nt mini- 
Ilium, which will ultimately take pbice, and no fierson can doubt, which mu<t 
I'lnve, under eijnal mana^emeiit, the cheapest route. 'I'lu! In.spec^lor <»en(!ral 
iiilers, from the .statement of prio(!S of wheat in the IJaltic, produced by Sir 
bobert I'eel in IKJU, when he first commiricfjd redueiiiL' protectinii; duties, 
lliat the Canadi'.n ;,a'ower can suec(!H.-fully compete with tli'; j^rower on the 
continent of J'luropc, aj^ainst cheaper labour and cbca|>cr froi<^bts. ft apprars, 
liDWever, from the returns of exports «i' breadstulTs from tlie fnited Slate.'*, 
not over three per cent of tin; (iiitirc (|uantity reaches the in-irket.s of Britain; 

II these Ktatemcnts be true, and Americans from tb(;ir more .southern ports can- 
not sucees,'<fully (!ompete with them, it is doubtful if the Canadian, from the 
iiii're distant markets, witb othtjr impediments, can. IJut a<lmittiri'^ the Can- 
'iJa grower can successfully compete with the European, and that the marketa 
fl Hritain will insure a fair jirice for wheat, he will still have to compete with 
'lie Aujcrican yrowcr on Lis border, this is the only competition wo have to 



300 



fcnr, iinil no Hnntnl ronsoti lias IxM'ti iissii^iicil wliy tlio prices of prndiKM' will not 
1)0 liijjlior ill till' lliiiti'd Sliiti's lliaii in Caiiatln. 'I'lio ri'coiit lotli'is pubiislitiil 
by Isaac Itiiclianan on this suliji-ct lnv»> Immmi citlicr pissed over umiotioed, or 
treated willi lidieule. lie recomiiieiids ulilainiii'^ IVee aeeess for our pnidiK-ts 
into till' iiiaikels iil" tli(» I 'idled States, l'eean''e, in lii-4 jud;^iiiiMit, tlu! New 
York market will oU'er n liii,dier price tlmii llie Knulisti iiiirket : in lliis opinion 
I fully coiienr, slionid tlie L,'io\ver in ('inida imt obtain as liii^h a price lor lii-i 
]>roiluets as t lie grower in t lie W.cstern States. The conseiiiieiKU! antieipati'd 
by Mr. Hnelianan are not to he disrcu'irded. We only difVer in the means to 
olitain access to the markets id' the I'nited States, Mr. Ilnehanaii reeoniineiid-i 
the imposition id hi^h dnlies, to force them to tidmil mir products. This 
would he inipraeticahle, but. by drawint: their trade thrnnv;h mir chaniiel.s as Inn,' 
us wo can, they will be induced to reinovo restrictions to regain or iiKToasu their 
trade. 

It ri'i|uires no ri'j;urcs or calculations to prove whiidi will b- tlio Sc«t 
market. Alter ISIS, the western rarmerwill have access to two, the Canadian 
but one, assumim: (he limiti>d dem.'ind for the Montreal market will h • irovcriii.'il 
by the prices in Kntiland. This adv;ml.'ti:e will ^ivc the .\iiieiicaii miller and 
inendiant the entire command of the wheat tr.ide (except for our limited con- 
suni]ttion) of t!e western states. What lulluws? On the one side cipital 
will be lively invested, and every descrijition id' property increased in valui', 
while, on the other side, everythiiii^ will remain stationary, if not retroj;radinL,', 
nnd a]>Mthy and dissatisfaction will piev.dl. This is no mere assertion; the 
same was witnessed in 1S'15, "M't ; ;ind examine the journals of I'pper Oaiiaih 
during that period, you will find the efforts then made to ()btaiii access to the 
markets of' the I'niti'd States. A pelitioii. numerously signed, was forwarded 
to Congress, praying for .adn.i.ssion of our products, 'i'he state of the mar- 
kets, no doubt, was one id' the ruling causes which led the inhabitants of 
I'pjH'r I'anad.i to open rebellion and a resort to ;irms in 1SI57. If no reiiieilj 
is provided, the same cause will again exist in 18 lit. Let us then apply our 
minds to the application (A' a remcily. (Vm we adopt the American policy - 
oncour.age manufactures by iirotecling home market — to consume the ])rodiu'ls 
of our soil'/ No, we eonnot ; and why'/ First, an advo'i'se interest would iui- 
mcdiiitely arise between the mother country and the colony, which would inev- 
itably produoo sejiaration in the shortest possilile time ; and secondly, the ex- 
tent oi' boundary and ficilities olh'red for smuggling, renders it imjiracticahlii, 
Sir Kohert I 'eel very, justly ob.serves, that high duties, called protection, is a 
false reliance, a delu^'.on on the part of the labourer, and a clear loss to the 
revenue; both are robttd by the suiug^ler. llous.'siii l*aris will guarantee 
the delivery cd'mods in London for fifteen per cent. If. with their numerous 
excise, coast guards, and cruisers, goods can be smuggled their at fifteen por 
cent., they can here for one half — seven and a h.df per cent. No person can 
be induced to embark capital in manufactures in Canada, under the expectation, 
that any duty, however high it may ap])ear. will protect biin from competition 
in the same aitiele from the I'liited States. It is evident, Mr. S|ieaker. 
that if protection be withdrawn in the markets of ]>ritaiu, it is imiiractiealile 
in Canada ; we have no means of enfoiving it, wo are powerless. Wo have, 
then, but ono other course open to us ; that is, the Vemoval of all restrictions 
on eonimevoe, the aijrrieultural interest may then safelv relv on the increase 
of that commerce to create a population, and tlioreby en.sure a homo mar- 
ket for the jiroduetions of the soil — as well as obtaining everything then 
consumed at the lowest prices. This policy fairly carried out, will prove 



:joi 

;i HOMiul. iiiliiiMliIc I'l'iiii'fly, und will not. only ^{ivc iiii iiiii|il(i (!<|niviilcMt, to tJio 
ii^i iriiltiiialiHl (if ('iiiiiiilii, liiit pliicx liiiii iit a fur iirllcr iMiHilioii iJian tJio 
t'.ii'iiKM- ill tlio WttHldi'ii tStat«!H. To attiiiii thin t^!i(l, it iH prup'iWMl to Hiilmiit 
(lie roljfivviii;^ ii-HuliilioiiH; 

1, /,'tsi)/i'ii/, 'I'liiit, in iiil(i|itiii;^' tilt! |ii-iii('i|)li; I'ciiiijiiiK'iiili'il in IId- iImh- 
|i;it(|i of tlio (!oloniiil SM'ii'tiiry of llin 'Anl Ftilini.try liiHt, in which wn uro 
iissuii'd, "Tliiit it iH tim ilfKirt- of lli r MiijfMly's ( iovcrnnicnt, that tliotiiulo 
(tt CiiMiiiIii may, fii. nil ixh/hvIh, a|>|»i(ia(li an nearly to |n'rlrct fitfMioni an tho 
(lf.s(ri|ilionH of tho inhiiltiUmtH, and tho oxi^'cncios of the iniKlic rovcniuj 
tJK'ro, may |icrmi(," it iH joht and loaHonalilo that (ivciy (txintiny ifHtrir;tioii 
(III tho Iradr of ( 'anada hhoiild lio rcniovod. 

2. /I'isiilii'il, 'I'iial, under tho oxiKtinj^ (loloniul policy of (iicat liritain, 
lliiH provinco Iuih nmhutakon tho constnu^tion of |iiililii; works of ^roat ina^- 
iiitmlc, for which a Iar;,'o dcht Iiiih Ihimi incurred, and that its itmncnt ii^jri. 
cultural proHperity is chiclly attiilmtalile to tlii! prulcciioii its pi'oducts havo 
recoivod hiiico tho reduction of <hitics on wlunit and Hour in 1>(|,'{, in tho 
iimrkcitH of tho mother country. 

;{. /uxdircd, That, folly appreciatin<^ tho adviinta;,'eH this provinco 
oii^ht to |)OHHeHK, o\M'r the Western States of Ameri(;a, inaHiiiiKth as the citi- 
zoiiH of thoso HtiitoH pay duti((H on imports for tho Hiipport of th(( Federal 
(loveinmcnt of tlio Unit.eil StatoH, while tin; iiiiialiitantH of Canada are not 
Miliject to any Himilar duties for tli(^ support of the llritish (Government, 
ncverthtdoHH, from our preHiiut fiHcal Hystf^ii and oxiHtinj^ rf;Htnctif)ns oti 
loiMiiierce, and other causes, they arcs not realized, iiul there is reason to 
iilp|irelienil the contemplated chanj^e in the coiiiinercial poli(;y of (ireat. Hri- 
tiiiu, will coiifei' Htill f,'r(!at(!r advantaf^(!H on thocitizouH of tho Unitod StatoH, 
than on th(^ inhahitants of ('anada. 

•t. Jii'Kolrril, 'i'hat, iiiiiHmuch as it is jiroposcsd to relievo commeire and 
extend an ('(piivahuit to tho a^'riciiltiiralists, in IJi-itain by a redin^lion of 
iiii|iort duties on all ai'tiides consunicd, }»y iciiiovin^' vai'ioiis hurdens on 
land and liy jiroviding for tho pncoura;:,'m(!nt of a;,'ricultiiral industry, hy 
iiicniis of loans raised on tins credit of ^^overiimtrnt to im]irovo tho same, tho 
ui,'riculturalists in Canada havo re -son to Ijoliovo that Her Majesty's ^'ovoru- 
iiiciit will readily extend a similar o(piival(Mit to them for the protection 
iibout to he withdrawn. 

T). Ifcsolvcd, — That an hiimbhi address b(! jiresented to Hor Majosty, 
prayinj,' that she will 1m^ pleased to admit all articles, the {growth and pro- 
iliR'c of Canada, into the markets of the mother country, froo from duty. 

C. ALso, — Tliat slio will bo pleased to recommend, to tho Imperial Par- 
liiuiu'nt, that all imj>erial acts relating to duties on tho imports, revenuo 
;ui(l trade of Canaibi, may be nipealeil, and luir commerce i'eli(;ved from all 
restrictions exceitt what may bo injjjosed by th(! provincial Jjcgislatuie. 

7. A/^io, — That Her Majesty may bo jdeased to open a negotiation with 
tlic government of the United States for th»! ]»urpose of obtaining access for 
the products of Canada into the mai-ki^ts of that country on tho same ttirms 
that American products ai'e to be admitted into the markets of Britain and 
Canada. 

8. Also, — That the Rivtir St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario to the Ocean, 
may be opened to all nations, subject to no greater restrictions than now 
exi.st in passing through the Welland Canal around the Falls of Niagara, 



302 

in order tliat rv revenue from tolls may he ensiircd to ropay the cost of the 
conHtniction of the canals connecting thos*" waters: 

The first resolution requires no coinnient ; the truth of the second will 
nlso he admitted. The third drawH the attention of the government of Great 
IJritain, our jirovincial government, and the country to a fjvct, which no 
■quil)l)ling, no soj)]iiKtry, can control, and no man can deny. Tbe atlvanta^cs 
we are entith-d to, as a colony, have n(>verl)een fully roali/.cd. Never iiav- 
ing been left to our own resources, thn necessity for a rigid examination into 
our actual position never occurred ; that time has now arrived wlien a thor- 
ough investigation cannot fail tt) prove lieneticial, and give a proper ami 
correct tone to public ojiinion. 

Suppose a separation to take jilace, and this ])roviiice to he united with 
the American States, what advantages would we gain ? We would, in the 
first place, not only> Ix* conn>idled to sun-ender all our jiublic land, but 
become subject to a lieavy duty on imports; for what? for tlie ])rotection 
of the federal government: and in addition, we wouM have to support our 
provincial government without the aid of either of those resources. Thf 
government of (Jreat ]*>ritain extends that prot<'ction to us at this moment, 
without exacting our land, duty on impoits, or any tax whatever, but merely 
for the extension of her trade and commerce. 

To illustrate this contrast more fully and more strikingly, sujjpose 
the government of Clreat Jiritain had appointL'ti lier own oUicers of custom, 
collected all duties on the articles we consunmd, and remmitted the amount 
to her treasury ; precisely in the same mannwr as the siinie revenue is col- 
lected in the (lill'erent states by the United States government, and paiil in 
to her treasury. And sujtpo.sing a despatch from the Colonial Secretary stat- 
ing that Her Majesty's government had with Irawn all jirotection in thf 
markets of Dritain on our jn-oducts ; but, as an ecjuivalent, she has rejiealeil 
nil duties on our imports, withdrawn all her ollicers of customs, and thus 
enabled our farnu-rs to obtain every article they consume at the cheape.st 
rate, not only placing them in as favourable a jwsition as the farnu-r in the 
■western states, but wholly relieving them from the tax to tlie federal govern- 
ment ; and, in addition thereto, the government of (ireat Britain will con- 
tinue to perform the same duties as the gt)vernment of the United States. 
Would n )t iho announcement of such a despatch, conferring so great a boon, 
make any farmer in Canada feel he had received a full compensation for the 
protection withdrawn. 

Now all Ills can be brought about. It is in the power of the pro- 
vincial government, and a heavy responsibility rests with them if they 
do not avail themselves of this oj)portuidty. 

4. The advantages hero referred to arc more fully pointed out in my 
remarks on Sir R. Peel's speech. 

5. This resolution is in accoi'danco with the principle by whicli I have 
been governed for many yeurs. Since tlie removal of all duties between 
tliis and the mother countiy in 1842, 1 have advocated placing discriminating 
duties on our imports from foreign ports, as an eqiuvalent for the jirotection 
our products received in the markets of Britsiin. However, as this ])rotection 
will be withdrawn, it is but reasonable we should urge Her Majesty's gov- 
ernment to concede to the jtroductions of Canada what she recommends the 
home government to concede to other countries. The principal articles will 
be butter, cheese, hops, &c., but it is not so much the amount of the duty 



808 



cost of the 

( second will 
lont of Oreiit 
ct, wl'icli no 
ic atlvantiij^es 
Never liav- 
inination into 

wlu'U 11 tlioi- 

t jiroper uml 

le tmited witli 
wouM, in tlik? 
)\\c land, l)Ut 
;he ])rotpotion 
,() Hupport our 
n)mr«'.s. The 
; this moment, 
ei', bnt merely 

ingly, siqipose 
ors of custom, 
eel the anK)ui\t 
■evenno is col- 
iit, and l>!ii<l i" 
Secretary stat- 
itection in the 
le has reiiealfd 
bonis, and thus 
the ehea))i'st 

fanner in the 
'ederal govern- 

•itain will con- 
United States. 

) i^n-eat a boon. 

isation for the 

,'fr of the \>vo- 
them if they 

11 ted out in my 

which I have 
uties between 
discriminating 

the protection 
this protection 
Majesty's gov- 
ecommends the 
pal articles will 
uit of the duty 



or the extent of the trade on those articles for which we contend, as for the 
[irinciple. 

When the primo minister declared as early as 181*2, that Canada, for 
all purpoBes of ti'ade, showhl be considered as if she were an integral part 
of the empire, wo should not, in 1845, be placed on the same footing na 
foreigners. 

G. Tiiis resolution pmys for the repeal of all imp(>rial acts relating to 
tlie nsvenue or commerce of Canada ; 't does not includt? the navigation 
laws of Hritiin, because, as colonists, they confer eipial advantages on us ; 
the interchange of our |»roducts for her mainifactures will be continued in 
our vessels : it api)lies particularly to the imperial act, Hth and Gth Victoria, 
cap. 4'.), i)a.sHed in J\dy, '4l', *or regulating the Ihitish pos.se^sions abroad ; 
it will remove existing discrimination duties, and the bonding system which 
subjects all articles from foreign parts to an additional duty, which is directly 
contrary to the spirit and bearing of the late despatch, and the late com- 
mercial policy of (Jreat Britain. 

7. I am sensible, I\lr. Speaker, that many men of sound judgment 
entertain the opinion that if a free intercour.se were opened with the United 
States, on the same; terms as lietween the citizens of tin' ditl'enuit states, 
that it would lead to a .separation from the mother country ; this opinion 
was expressed in the address of the North American Colonial a.ssociatiun in 
January last. They apinehended a change in tiie .sentiments of the colon- 
ists, if no preference in the markets of the nmther country, in case they are 
oilered a free interchange of coninujdities with the United States. 1 enter- 
tain the very opposite opiuiun. A change in the .sentiments of the colonists 
can only arise, in their liiung deprived of this free intercour.se. In support 
of tliis position, which is highly important to understand, I will assign but 
one reason : a farmer values liis market l)y compai'ative not renninerating 
prices; if equal on l)oth sides of the boundary, and wheat came to 2s. Gd., he 
would re.st satisfied, but not if he received 4s. 4d and the Anu-rican farmer 
4s. t)d. jier bushel. This inecpiaiity may not lead to tin; same result as in 
'37, but it will produce a .strong inclination to favour a part of the United 
States. f)n the contrary, were our products adtnitteil into their markets, no 
diti'erence in i)rice would lio visible ; the Canada farnu'r at all times would 
he placed on an equal footing in all respects, with the Western farmer. 
This is all the favour he asks ; still he will be jdaced on a much bettei' foot- 
ing — always bearing in mind that lu! will be relieved fr(jni the imj)ort duty 
to which they are subject ; and so far fi-om feeling any desire to change his 
political situation, he Avould realize the advantages he possessed, and resist 
any political change. 

After obtaining all that the government of Britain can gi-ant, or all we 
ask for in this address, nuich still remains to be done to meet the altered 
circumstances in which the coimtry will shortly be phiced. The Provincial 
Cabinet need be under no apprehension ; though their jilaces may be cov- 
eted by othens, no half measures will nuset this crisis. If ever ability and 
attention was required, it is at this moment. Hereafter Canada nuist rely 
on its own resources, extravagance, uuist be checked, economy practised, 
and the expenses of the Provincial Government reiluced, and its resources 
now wasted and negected must be preserved and developed. 

We insert (regi-etting the want of room for more) a pai-t of the despatch 
in answer to the address, the subject of theec resolutious. The fiction of law, 



304 

Tuakiii<^ tlio QiU'dii roHponKiMe for tin; act dojuiving Ikt siihjfcis in ('aiia<la 
of n.'iMUiicratiDii fur tlicir iinliiHtry, was never ho f,'Iai'itiL,' as tho jireseMt. 

" Duwiiiii},' St., JuiH* .'{rd. 
"With r('K|ioct to that jiortion of the a(hlr<'KS wliieli prnyH Her .Mnjesty'H 
f,'Overiinient to invitfi the (Jovernnieiit of the niiited States to estalilish an 
ei|iialitv of trade, lietweeii the doniains of (he Ue]tul)li(; ami thi^ Itritisli 
North Aniericau (■olonieH, I ain eommanded to instn ct your LordsIii|i to 
assuiiie to the AHSonihly, tliat Her Majesty will reaflil" cause; directions to 
he j;iven to the minister in Washinfjfton to avail hiniscdf of the euriiivst suit- 
ahle opportunity to press this important siihject on tlit) notico of that (Jov- 
• •rinnent, and that it will not'allord Her Majesty's the most sincere satisfac- 
tion, if any comnuinication Nvhich nniy hereafter he held for this purpose, 
shall liave tlio oflbct whicli is desired by hor faithful oomnioiis of Canada." 

Tho important mineral discoveries, whicli liave since convortcid thc^ ste- 
rile fcliores and islands of liake Superior into wealthy locations, were now 
heconiing talked of, and ca|iitalists were invited to assist in (h'velopini,' tlu; 
hidden treasureH of this almost unknown section of country. 

To assist in the work, he purchaseil 400 shaics in the Lake Superior 
Copper Mining Oom]iany, hut havin;.; no idea of permanently connecting 
himself with the undertaking, hi! disi)os(Ml of them afterwards. 

As till! duty on liooks interfered with tho liusiness of hookselliuL,', ie- 
whii'h the author was eui^ayed, he represents his views on the suliject. 

From the Chief Superintendent : — "'Price of Irish national h<»()ks can 
he impoited from Ireland am) sold at nnich hiss price. 

liegislativo A.SK(!nd>ly, April K!. — "I should \h'. most happy to remove 
duty on hooks, as (Ui all other artich^-s, as you will liiid shortly, hut it will 
take some time. 

The much talked of project of a canal, .connecting Lakes lluroii and 
Superior found great favour, and ho earnestly urged its conunonce- 
ment hy our (Jovernment, as it \»ould materially assist in developing the 
mines of the North-West. Tho Governujcnt, however, thought the scheiao 
premature, and tho result was that the j;eople of the L^nited States completed 
a canal on thi-ir side of tho river, a jiroceeding in no ways creditable to our 
(Jovernment, some of whom it was then said were not averse to letting 
Uncle Sam control the route, which was liable to the worked to the disad- 
vantage of Canada, as was seen during tho troubles in Manitoba. 

Juno 1st. — Mr. Morritt brought up his resolutions on the subject of 
Trade and ('ommerco. Mr. Haldwin ajipears now to have received light, 
and says ho was afraid that the r-nv policy of England woidd have a moat 
injurious eifect u]>on Canada, hut li(! trusted he might be mistaken. 

Mr. Caley looked upon this resolution as bring an interference with tho 
sovereignty of (U-eat Britain, and as holding out a threat that if she did 
take off till! protection from our produce, we were pi-eparcd to cast off her 
soveivignty. Mr. Couchon oj»posed it — referred to a select coiumittee. 



305 



; ill ('aiiiula 

i.> :?nl. 
M- .Majesty's 
r-KtiililiKli im 
tlic I'l-itisli 
/hiIkIiI]) to 
ircctioiiK to 
I'urlifwt Kuit- 
F tlint (!ov- 
loro Hutisfiic- 
lis |iur|M)K<', 
of CJaiiadii. " 

t(!(l the Hto- 
K, v.cro now 
■olupiiii^ tlio 

ko Sii]>(M'i()r 
• coiim;cting 

okHfllin;^, in 

uiKjcct. 

I l)<>()kH can 

ly to remove 
hut it will 

Jliii'oii and 
conimeuce- 
eloping tlit> 
the scluMHO 
OS compU'tt'il 
table to our 
10 to lettin;,' 
o the lUsad- 



iiiia 
11 



subjei.'t of 
I'ived light, 
have a nioHt 

Irn. 

ice with the. 
, il' siie did 
cast oil' her 
iiiiiittee. 



At the eoiiiincnceiiieiit of the s -ssioii he ilecided upon retiring fr-dn 
Ijiisiiiass, and (ievotiiii,' himself to the all'airs of tlio uouutry ; in eonsetjuence 
of'whi(di he (lisjioseij of his larLfe milliii;^ interests to his sonTlnjmas. DoiiWt- 
liHH he then thought that in order ,.0 eariy out liis matured idi'ason the (jues- 
tiou of Reciprocal Trad<;, that the tiino at liis disposal would bo fully occupied- 

( )ui- subject fust brought Ixd'ore thf House his schemn fur our alterp<l 
loliitions, and heralded foith a Cominereial Itecipi-ocity ^vitli the United 
Stat(;s. As tli(! hitherto almost oxolusivo trathi between (Jreat Britain 
and her colonies was now aiuogaled by the repeal of the Mnglish Corn l-awH, 
and all countries placed on the same levid, tlH'i(djy encouraging tlie commerco 
of a powerful foreign rival lik(* the United States, at the expense of a weak, 
struggling colony, Mr. Meiritt believed tlmt when stdfish statesmanship 
ignored the colonial trade r(dations, ami virtually gave a bid for the best 
lUrttomer under any circumstances, that the duty of the colonists was plainly 
to uiftke the best bargains thoy could with their nearest noighbour.H. 

The novtdty of the idea created some sensation, liut mature deliberation 
vonvinced many that tlm measure would uitimately be adopted. 

The Imperial Act taking oil' the dutie.s on |irovisionH in Kngland was 
not an ordinary bill. It was jue reversing the practice of the kingdom, 
which heretofore was encouraging "ships, colonies and eominerce ;" and 
that had been the policy since the (•ominonwealth, and by which Kngland 
liud bcconm a great maritime nation ; it had established her power to an 
unexampled extent, exci'cdiiyr the nations among the ancients, rnd Portu- 
^'al, Spain, Holland or h'tanc'c iuimng the moderns nmny of her possosidous 
b4>ing the spoils of v ar from these! States. She was imw trying the experi- 
ment of pi'cserving her maritime suprenuicy by the abundance of the " sin- 
ews of Will'," and the [tower of liei' na\y, without any adjuncts from the 
iielp of the colonies, which ha<l ijeen hei- traditional policy for two centuries, 
i^ir 11. IVel and Mr. (Gladstone may have calculated the oostH, and found 
the cash balance in their fivour, l>ut it was with a ilitVeicnt summation to 
the loyal colonists who weigluMl this report. They had adhered to the [lolicy 
uf a Uiuted Kmpire, of which an ocean wa.'? not to bo the boundary. 

Our subject was pi-ihaps tin' most alive to the measure. He esjiecially 
>l<'])recal/(,'d the haste in which it win hurried through, both in lOngland and 
ill the Provincial legislature ; ours seemed even to luujuiesce before the 
iJiirticulars arrived or the Act passed- to acnuiescc in a<lvance to all the 
luinihtry might propose. His writings, speeches, and wc suppoKO conversa- 
lion with his fellow passengers during the journey down, had nil been on 
(nir sujierior advantages as colonies over the 1 'niteil Statws. What m\ist 
have been his disa|ipointment to lind the tables turned, and to find the ad- 
\antuges in the markcit of the mother country handed over to brotlier Jona 
ilian without a deniami for a corresponding benefit (!) 



Tht> following, iin extract fioin the <,}ik('1i's sitcrcli, of January 22nd, 
givoK notioo of clianj:;es by wliidi ilio industry of tho j)rovinooN need l)o no 
l<)n{j;cr diHtinguiKliod, and hor aj^jrobation to tli<* nieanure rak-idatod to ox- 
tond fonuiKMic iuid to .stinuilatc doin.'stii- skill and industry, liy tlic ropcal 
of jiroliiliitory ami tlic relaxation of |iro(rcti\ f duti(!s : 

" T rwoimntMid you to take into your t-arlicst (•onsidfratioii w ln-tlicr th*< 
l>rinciples on wliicli you liavc acted may not with adviinta<,'o lio yot mon* 
extensively Mpplied to make sueli fnrtlu r reductions as may tend to insure 
the contiiuiancc of the i,'r<'at Iwnctits to which 1 iiave advertecl, and to 
stren/^'then tlie honds of amity with forei;,'n lowers." 

Following this policy, which it i^ unnecessary to s;iy throiinh the I'ritish 
constitution was tliat of tlic M inisti r, and not l lie (^>iieen's iiidi\ idual s(Miti- 
ments, th<^ T'rcniicr. Sii' IjMii.'i't I'cd, says : 

"Wearied with cur Ion:;- and unavailing,' etlorts to enter into a satis 
factory commercial treaty with othei- nations, we have resolved ;it leni,'th U) 
Corisi(/t our own intercs/s. And yon uiay depend up )ii it. whatever may be 
the imn)e(li;ite etl'cct. our c\ami>lc will l>c idtiiiiatcly t'nlliiw cil." 

Ami (o >.!i(i\v whom he was tryiii:,' to inthienoe by this amiable doctrimo 
th(Mcpoi(cr adtls, '• Here the Kight lion. I'aronet tpiotcd a passagcMVoni 
a report of .1//-. U'ulkn; S^cnfm'// n)i'/ 'frrnsi'rrr cf //ir Cii/i'l Sf'ifrs." 

Let us take a review ot' the .state ci' the country, and of tiie char.icter of 
the re|n'esentatives !o whom were (Mitr\istcd its destinies at this ev(Mitful 
period. W'r see thai the natui-al abinidauce of our productive .soil had pro- 
duced prosperity, and with it an inditl'erence to'the acts of the (iovernment. 

'I'he incrt'a.se of the inunigrants of IS.'U- .'52, who would from a.ssociation 
be inclintul to view favourably a policy that would ja'ovide cheap bread for 
those to whom, foi- all thev knew, they were related by the ties of blood 
retui-ncd as memlicis men of similar views, as Killaly, llincks, I'arks, 
Col. .lohn Pi'ince, Dr. Dunloji. instead of N'on I'.gmont. |)urand. (Jibson. 
J^uncomlfc, and Mackenzie. 

We have seen the Bull'alo and l) 'troit line vctocil. the best scheme, as 
is ju'jved by the Ail' Lino constructed since. IJy the following report in 
the coniluct of siniihir enterprises we catch a faint glimpse of their design, 
matured into a finished }>olicy since :" The re]iort for extending tho 
(treat Western to Toronto, and a letter from ( ietn-ge Hudson that the Act 
gf incorporation might be granted to tlieni, weie fiivonrably received. 

The F'rench members voted, if not in sympathy, at least acquiesced in 
their views when I'pper Canada measures weie to be decided, as seen in the 
amendment to the Municipal bill fca' Up|>er Canada cairied through thi.s 
session, allowed by the government as a bid for popularity ; namely, tho 
election of the wardens, treasurers, clerks, and sui-veyors, .and to be alloweii 
pay for their services. 

Mr. Draper moved an act to indemnify certain publh; oHicers and othei;) 



307 

who may not liiivc takfii tin' oath \>y hiw rf(|uin'(l, followed \iy a Httlo 
Nceno in the I louse when Speukcr raiiincau's back Halary was ^'ranted, 
wlicii the ]Iou. iMr. Moiin was allowed to take the Speaker's eliair for tlie 
ocoasioii. 

At tho o|ii'niiii,', March 'JllUi, Attorney (Jeiieral I)rji|)ei- had laid on the 
table inijioitant despatches, dated al»out seventeen days befor(>. 

Jlis K.Kcellency finisnes his address to tholfousej 2(>th March, with tho 
foHowin!,' oracular lines : — 

" The last intellij^ence from tho motli«r country indicates a most im- 
portant chani,'e in the (^ommei'cial |»oIi(,'y of tho empire. 

" Until we have a fuller exposition of the piojected scheme, which a few 
days will probably brin^' us, it would b<^ jireiiiature to anticipate that tlip 
claims of this province to a Just measure of protection, has lieen overlooked." 

Tin; following despatch from iMr. ( Madstone, which arrived after the 
clcsci of the ll(nise, conveyinj,' the; decision of the Imperial I'arliament 
closed thr- discussion, as fai" as any legal enactments could be gaim^l in any 
of the colonies : ^ 

" l)ow.\iN(; Stkkkt, .June ;?rd, IStO. 

" The interests of Canada have occupied the jtlace to which they aro 
justly entitled in tluMleliberations <jf Jier Majestj's government npon the 
important subject of (changes in the IJritish Corn l>aw and upon others." 

" After noticing the failurt? of Heciprocity 'i'reatie.s with foi-eign powers, 
;iud their determination to have free trade, should th(! government of the 
I'nited States continue to maintain the scale t)f imj)ort dutirs now in forc(? 
upon its frontiers, Ifer Majesty's (Jovernnient will vi(>w with regret a policy 
irijuriotis to Canada ; Imt they will rellcct witli satisfaction on the pre\'alence 
nflaws more favourable to commertteon the ( 'a