(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The French genders taught in six fables [microform] : being a plain and easy art of memory, by which the genders of 15,548 French nouns may be learned in a few hours"

Having carefully read this little Book, I can 
recommend it to all learning the French lan- 
guage, as not only generally useful, but as the 
best assistance to obtam a speedy knowledge 
of the Genders, always considered one of the 
most difficult parts of the French language. 

Professor. 
McGiLL College, 
Sept. 23, 1859. ■' '\:-;'^M:. ■-'''''''' ':'■'.""/ 



FRENCH GENDERS 

TAUGHT IN 

SIX FABLES: 

BEING A 

PLAIN AND EASY 

ART OF MEMORY, 

BY WHICH THE GENDERS OP 

15,548 

FRENCH NOUNS 

MAY BE LEARNED IN A EISW HOURS. 



EE-PEINTED BY MRS. BLACKWOOD. 



MONTREAL : 

PRINTED BY JOHN LOVELL, ST. NICHOLAS STREET. 

1859. 



t/'. 



a 






' ■• % :i 



PREFACE. 



In the publication of this work I am influ- 
enced by a thorough conviction of its utility^ 
Its object is to remove the greatest obstacle 
to the acquirement of the French language j 
by fixing indelibly in the memory, the genders 
of the French nouns ; without a perfect know- 
ledge of which, it is impossible to speak that 
language with even tolerable propriety. 

French is now learned by almost every class, 
and its importance duly appreciated. It is a 
species of universal passport. I am persuaded 
therefore, that this little book will prove gene- 
rally acceptable ; as by a plain and easy me- 
thod, it leads the learner over the most diffi- 
cult step in this useful and elegant acquirement. 
The most striking difference between the Eng- 
lish and French languages consists in the 
genders of their nouns. In English, we call a 
male by the masculine term he ; a female, by 
he feminine term she ; and anything inanimate 
by the neuter terra it. The French likewise 



tftll a ftiale he^ and a female shej as We do ; but 
by a fault in the genius of their language, they 
have no neutef, but call every inanimate thing 
either he or she^ making it masculine or femi* 
nine ; and hence arises the difficulty. A child 
learning French Can see no reason why a chair 
or a table should be called she^ or why a hinge 
Or a nail should be called he ; these things are 
neither males nor females, and it therefore ap- 
pears strange to the learner that they should 
be classed as masculines and feminines ; but 
they are so classed, and must be learned cor- 
rectly. To accomplish this is a very great 
difficulty to all persons learning French ; it is 
extremely troublesome to pupils even of the 
quickest talents and most retentive memory, 
who learn from the French grammars now in 
use. Though some of them are extremely well 
' arranged for grammatical instruction in other 
' respects, in regard to thB genders they are en- 
' tirely destitute of any contrivance to assist the 
memory, while the almost endless lists of rules 
and exceptions are fit only to harass and dis- 
courage learners of even the readiest abilities. 
" So impracticable are these rules, that I have 
known masters to recommend their pupils to 
go completely through the French dictionary, 
and copy out all the nouns, prefixing the gen- 



der to each,— a labor of weeks ; and I mncfa 
question whether a twentieth part of them 
would by that method be fixed in the mind^ 
unless the copying were many times repeated j 
and, after all the trouble and consumption of 
time, the pupil, being without any certain rules^ 
would seldom feel an absolute confidence in 
the correctness of his memory. 

To obviate the necessity of this disheartening 
labour on the one hand, or recurrence to a 
confused labyrinth of insufficient rules on the 
other, the learner is here furnished with a 
plain ^' Art of iltfemori/," from which I am 
convinced that the genders of all the French 
nouns may be learned in a few hours, and learn- 
ed so as never to be forgotten. I feel the more 
confident on this point, as a French teacher of 
great experience who has taught French in 
England during the last 42 years, assured me 
that many natives of France would derive great 
benefit from this book, in fixing the genders in 
the memory. I offer it, therefore, to the public in 
general, and to teachers in particular, with a 
certainty that it will fully answer the purpose 
desired ; and by putting within the reach of 
all, what has hitherto been scarcely attainable 
by any, it will be found equally beneficial to 
the teacher, the pupil, and the adult* . ^1 



Knowledge and learning Cannot be acquired 
without exertion ; those who aspire to possess 
these distinctions, must prove by industry and 
perseverance that they deserve them ; but much 
may be done to assist the memory by art and 
method, and it is the duty of every teacher to 
render the path of improvement as smooth as 
possible. •■.'..'.-'' 'i' ■■;!■: 

' /r M. Blackwood, 

/ '; ^ Beaver Hallj No, 16, :' 

Montreal, 1 Sept., 1859. , ; 



:.;..■> ■ ■ ■.' . .( '■ 






^V :;,..■ ;,:i'v"Yi' 



■'&'•' ■■/■ • ■ ; ' . ' . . :■ ;. : ; ■■ '■'■■:, H\ii. 






. ) 



• 






I 



«,- INTRODUCTION. . ■;.:.»>« 



;-,">'• 



'- 'M. 



The system by which the genders of the 
French nouns may be most readily and 
firmly fixed in the memory, begins by 
classing them by their final syllables. Thus ■ 
there are 643 nouns ending in er, which 
are all masculine except two : there are 
144 ending in oir, all masculine without a • 
single exception : 70 in a/, 24 in ais, and 
83 in arc?, all masculine without exception : 
and 305 in et^ all masculine except one 
word. Therefore, if these six endings can 
be fixed in the memory, as masculines, the 
learner will know the genders of 1269 
nouns. 

But the difiiculty is to remember long 
lists of terminations, and to fix in the mind 
the gender of each. There are many 
grammars where whole pages are filled 
with terminations and exceptions ; but they 
contain nothing to assist the memory, — no 



clue by which the ending is connected to 
its own particular gender. Those who 
learn from these books may perhaps re- 
member that all nouns ending in ais are of 
the same gender; but there being no guide- 
or catchword to assign ais to the mascu-- 
lines, they must be continually in doubt. 

My plan to help the memory is this: I 
have introduced the masculine endings in 
three Fables^ the actors in which fables are^ 
masculine. Every noun in these three fables 
is masculine ; and no nouns are admitted 
into them but such as give the rules. 
Thu& the endings mentioned above are 
given in the first four lines of the first fable^ 
which a pupil can easily learn in half an 
hour, and thus acquire the genders of five 
thousand seven hundred and ten French 
nouns* ' 

Le Cheval et le Sanglieb. 

Un sanglier fier de son pouvoir^ 
Prenant ]efrais dans un bosquet^ 
Eencontra un beau soir 
Par hazard un bidet* 

Here the word cheval will fix the nouns^ 
in al ; sanglier, those in er ; and so of the? 



rest. Having learned these fables by heart*- 
perfectly, which, as they are only three in 
number, may be accomplished in a very few 
hours, the pupil, when he meets with a 
noun ending like any one of those nouns 
given in the fables, will easily ascertain 
the gender by recurring to the guiding 
word : for instance, if he wants to use a 
word ending in ais or in ard,^ he will im- 
mediately call to mind ihe^ordsfrais or ha- 
zard^ and, remembering that those nouns oc- 
cur in the fable with wusculine actors^ viz. a 
wild boar^ a horse^ and a man, he will 
decide at once and with confidence thatai« 
and ard are masculine terminations, and 
that the word he wants is masculine. The 
feminine endings, being introduced in three 
fables having a female speaker in each of 
them, and every noun in them feminine, 
will be fixed in the memory in the same 
manner. The exceptions, which are not 
very numerous, must be learned by heart. 
The pupil must remember that the nouns 
ONLY give the rule; they are printed in 
italics to be more readily observed : but of 
course a person learning French cannot 
be so ignorant of grammar as to find any 
diflSculty in distinguishing the substantive 
from the other parts of speech. 



10 



; In the perusal of these fables I trus^tthat * 
the reader will remember, that, as the plan : 
required a certain number of endings to be • 
introduced with connection in a fable, all 
the masculines being in one place and all '• 
the feminines in another, there could be 
little choice as to words and phrases. This 
ought to disarm all criticism against the 
construction of the lines and sentences. 

For the peculiarity and oddity of some 
of the lines, I shall make no apology, as 
the practice of Von Feinagle ir his admi- 
rable " Art of Memory," and the experience 
of all who have formed systems to aid the 
memory, agree in proving that eccentric, 
quaint, or, as they may be called, outrof- 
the-way expressions^ are much more easily 
fixed in the recollections than sentences 
unmarked by any peculiarity. 



FIRST MASCULINE FABLE. 
Which gives the gender o/* 5710 Nouns. 

Lk Cheval et le Sanglier. 

Un sanglier (1) fier de son pouvoir, (2) 
Prenant lefrais (3) dans un bosquet, (4) 
Ren contra un beau soir, ^ 

Par hazard (5) un bidet. ^ ' ■ 



' . y. 



11 



Ho 1 maraud^ (6) dit-il en furieux^ (7) T/i. 
Qui te rend si audacieux? ^^ i > ^^s* - .^-n rl M 
Que faia-tu ici malotru? (8) *^ > •' ^ ;- M 
Oh /7m / (9) Rien dis-tu ! 
Je suis le roi (10) etlemattre (11) ici, 

Pardi! ^ • 

De e/m/z (12) a Mai, (13) de Mercredi a 

Mardi : (14) 
Et \A des V instant, (15) sans dire mo^, (16) 
Tu ne tournes pas le dos, (lY) 
Fat! (18) je te mangerai commeuii gigot. 
Le cheval (19) en ce cas, (20) 
Retourna sur ses pas; 
Vite, comme de lait (21) ou de vin (22) un 

ocean (23) 
Coule dans Yestomac (24) d^xrn ffourmand; 

(25) 

Aussi vite qu'un oiseau (26) ou le vent, (27) 

Notre cheval en furibond, (28) 

Pour se venger de cet affront (29) 

A Yhomme (30) s'adressa; 

Et son antagoniste (31) lui nomma. 

Oui, dit I'homme, mais un mord, (32) un . 

licoii, (33) 
II faut te mettre sur le cou. 
II n'aime point le licou, 
Et il croit que le/mn, (34) 
N'a pas le bon goiit (35) 
De Vherbage (36) ou du grain, (3*7) 






12 



_,^'i."7^ ^j^ 



Neanmoins il part, et dans le viandis (38) 

II trouve son ennemi. 

Plein de courage et de Jlel^ (39) 

Comme Veclair^ (40) feu du ciel, 

lis s'elancent sur le tyran ; 

Et le chasseur (41) mort I'etend. 

Le cheval le rernercie 

Avec beaucoup d':spn7; (42) 

Et maintenant que j'ai mon hut^ (43) 

Adieu ! dit-il ; mais Phomme I'arrfete d*un 

refus ! (44) 
Non ! non ! mon pauvre fou, 
J'ai besoin (45) de vous, 
Dit le chasseur, et puis 
II Ten train e au logis. 
Ainsi Yorgueil (46) et 1' outrage, 
Furent punis dans le sanglier : 
Et le cheval par un dur esclavage, 
Paya cher \q plaisir (47) de s'etre veng6. 

NOTES TO THE FIRST MASCULINE 

FABLE. 

1, Sanglier, — There are 643 nouns 
ending in er^ all masculine except la mer, 
the sea, and une cuiller^ a spoon. I re- 
commend those learners who are advanced 
beyond childhood to fix all exceptions in 
the memory, by forming them into short 
sentences, after the manner of Feinagle, iu 



13 



his "Art of Memory." For instance, they 
might say the man who attempts to learn 
without method^ is like one who tries to 
empty th'C sea with a spoon ; vider la mer 
avec une cuiller. After which it is scarce- 
ly possible that the words mer and cuiller 
could enter the mind, without being re* 
membered as exceptions. 

2. Pouvoir, — There are 144 words in 
oir^ all masculine, 

3. Frais. — 24 in ais^ all masculine. 

4. Bosquet. — 305 French liouns end in 
et : the only one feminine is une for6t, a 
forest. 

6. Hazard, — 83 in ard; are all masculine. 

6. Maraud. — 22 ending in aud, all mas- 
culine. 

7. Furieux. — The learner will observe 
that this adjective is here used as a substan- 
tive. French adjectives are very frequently 
made substantives^ There are 50 nouns in 
eux^ all masculine. 

8. Malotru. — There are 49 nouns in w, 
of which glu, birdlime, tribu, a tribe, and 
vertu, virtue, are feminine. Bru, a daughter- 
in*law, is feminine of course. Words which 
are masculines or feminines absolute, as 
designating males and females, it is not 
necessary to except particularly, as their 
gender must be immediately obvious. 



14 



0. Hien, — 78 in erij all masculine. 

10. Boi. — Of 24 in o^, Joi and foi, law 
and faith, are the only fcrninines, except 
parol, a wall, which is chiefly used in tne 
plural. 

11. Maitre, — 4 in aitre^ masculine. 

12. Juin, — 1 in uin^ masculine. 
15. Mai. — 17 in m, all masculine. 

14. MardL — There are 98 nouns in ^, 
of which the feminines are merci, mercy, 
fourmi, an ant, and I'apres^midi, the after- 
noon. 

15. Ins taut, ^--123 in ant, many of which 
are pv iciples converted into substantives J 
are all masculines. 

16. l/o^— Of 102 in ot, the only femi- 
nine is la dot, the marriage portion. 

17. Dos,' — 12 in os, all masculine. 

18. Fat, — 138 in at^ all masculine. 

19. Cheval. — 69 in al^ all masculine. 

20. Cas, — 68 in as, all masculine. 

21. Lait, — 15 in ait, all masculine. 

22. Vin, — Of 239 in in, fin, the end, is 
the only feminine. 

23. Ocean, — 95 in a?i, all masculine. 

24. jEJstomac. — 21 in ac, all masculine. 

25. Gourmand, — 13 in and, all mascu^ 
line. ' - 



26. Oiseav. — Of 226 nouns in aw, peati, 
the skin, and eau, water, are the only 
feminines. 

27* Vent.' — Of 719 nouns in entj gent, 
a nation, and dent, a tooth, are the only 
feminines. 

28. Furibond, — 10 in ond^ all masculine. 

29. Affront.~(j in ont^ all masculine. 

30. Homme. — There are 13 in omme^oi 
which somme, a sum, gomme, gum, and 
pomme, an apple, are feminine. Somme, 
a sleep or .ap, is masculine. 

31. Autagoniste, — Of 151 in iste^ piste, 
a footstep, batiste, cambric, and liste, a list, 
are feminine. 

32. Mord. — 13 in ord^ all masculine. 

33. Licou. — 41 in ow, all masculine. 

34. Frein. — 9 in em, all masculine. 

35. GoM. — 23 in out^ all masculine. 

36. Herbage, — There are 374 nouns in 
agCy of which the following are feminine : 
rage, rage, image, an image, page, a page of 
a book, cage, a cage, nage, the act of sailing, 
ambages, doubtful expressions, and passe- 
rage and saxifrage, the names of plants. 
The two last are seldom used. 

37. Grain. — Of QQ in am, la main, the 
hand, is feminine : it takes its gender from 
the Latin manus. 



';■ • *•; ■ 



16 



8B. Viandis, — Of 127 in /s, soutis, a 
tnouse, vis, a screw, brebis, a sheep, and 
fleur-de-Ii?, are feminine ; as are Iris and 
Themis of course, as females. 

•89 Mel. — 45 in tl^ all masculine. 

40. Eclair, — 1*7 in aeV, all masculine, 
tjxcept la chair, the flesh, which is derived 
from, and follows the Latin caro, carnis. 

41, Chasseur. — As words of this ending 
occur very frequently, the learner must be 
quite perfect in this note. There are 1234 
words in eur^ all masculine but 67 : but 
though the exceptions are so numerous, 
they may be learned in two minutes. Re- 
member that, except six, all the masculine 
nouns in eur designate men in their ac- 
tions or trade, and are derived fi^m verbs, 
or Latin nouns in or, as parleur, jaseur, 
acteur, lecteur, &c. The six masculines in 
euVj which do not designate men, are heur, 
luck, and its compounds bonheur, malheur, 
with bonheur^, deshonneur, and pleurs, tears. 
Therefore, except the above six, whenever 
the learner meets with a word in eur, which 
expresses a living creature, he must remem- 
ber it is masculine ; and if it does not, it is 
feminine. The 67 feminines in eur, ex- 
press properties and qualities, as laideur, 
ugliness, hauteur, height, rongeur, red- 
ness, &c. 



42. Esprit — 44 in ity all masculine. 
48. ^lA^. — 22 in w^, all masculine. 
44. Mefus, — 34 in us^ all masculine. 

46. Besoin. — 15 in oin^ all masculine. 
The reader will observe that I could not 
well include oin in the rule otin^ait in the 
rule of ity &c., as, though the gender i the 
same, the pronunciation is so different that 
the memory would not easily refer besoin 
to vin, or lait to esprit. 

A^. Orgueil. — 78 in «7, all masculine. 

47. Plaisir, — 17 in ir, all masculine. 
The learner will observe, that though in 

these fables a termination is sometimes re- 
peated, yet none are to be found but such 
as give the rule, therefore the repetition 
will help rather than confuse the memory: 
thus, for a word in of, or age^ if mot and 
herbage do not instantly occur to the mind 
as the guiding word, gigot and courage 
very probably may : and so of the rest. 



SECOND MASCULINE FABLE. 
Which gives the Gender q/* 1470 Nouns. 



LeS deux MiLITAIRES ET L^OuRS. 

Deux fils (1) de Mars (2) frais et gaillards, 
Pour voyager prirent leur depart : (3) 

B 



T r 



J^sr 



Et firent entr^eux le marchi (4) 

De mutuellement s'assisten ' f ! 

Au declin du/owr (6)'' 

lis entendent un grand bruit ; (6) 

Et hurlant un ours (7) . 

D'un bois (8) sortit. '; ' * 

II vient droit k nos militaires ; (9) 

lis ne peuvent fuir, et que faire? 

Un d'eux leger et dispos, 

Laisse son compagnon (10) seul; 

Et 8'elan5ant d'un satitj (11) 

Grimpe sur un tilleul. (12) 

L'autre, qui toujours le rosbif (IS) aima, 

Et qui buvait comme un Czar, (14) ou un 

jBacAa, (16) 
Et qui etait aussi gras et gros 

[Qu'un moine, (16) ou q}!^ un populo : (17^ ^ 

' Dans un sillon (18) s'6tendit, 
Tout de son loriff ; (19) et le mort (20) 

contrefit. 
fours s'approche en courroux: (21) 
Mais il manque son coup ; (22) 
Car en lui flairant le corps^ (23) 
II prend notre homme pour un mort. 

. Et comme aux cad&vres (24) il ne touche 

pas, 
Comme ymdogue (25) grognant il s'en va. 
Le matamore (26) de Varbre (21) descend^^ 
Et djemanda ce que Fours avait dit : 






V'i*.' 



W: 



Car du haut dit-il j'ai observfe 
Que de pr^s il sembiait te parlen r 
" Ouil il m'a averti lui dit-il, ' 

Que celui qui d^serte son ami, 
Dans le temjJS (28) du piril (29) 
N'est digne que de m6pris. 

NOTES TO THE SECOND MASCULINE 

FABLK 

1. Fits. — ^There are 6 nouns in t7«, all 
masculine. 

2. Mars, — 7 in ars, all masculine. 

3. Depart, — Of 24 in arf,hart, a halter, 
part, a part, and its compounds quotepart 
and plupart are the only feminines. 

4. Marche. — Th>e learner must take par- 
ticular notice that nouns ending in i with 
Uhe acute accent are to be divided into two 
tlasses: viz. l«t, those which end in t6, as 
bont6, beaute, «fec., and 2^d, those where 
the final 6 is preceded by some other letter 
than t, as marche, cur6, abbe, cafe, &c. 
It is only with the latter class we have to 
do in this place, as te is a feminine ending, 
and is noticed in note 20 of the first femi- 

■ nine fable, at the word beaute* 

Remember therefore that everyone of 

the 347 words ending in 6 with the acute 

<''^jaccent, not immediately preceded by t, is 



20 



d *v", '/v'""' 



masculine, except these 4 ferninines, piti^, 
pity, moiti6, moiety, amide, friendship, and 
iniraiti6, hatred ; which may be fixed in 
this sentence, — C'estgrande piti6 quand un 
homme change Vamitii qu^l avait pour sa 
moitie en inimitie. 

5. Jour, — Of 28 in our and 6 in ur, all 
are masculine except coury a court, and its 
compounds, and tour, a tower, a castle at 
chess. Tour, a turn, a trick, a turner^s too!^ 
is masculine. 

6. Bruit. — Of 15 in uit, nuit, night, is 
the only feminine. Minmt, midnight, is 
masculine* 

7. Ours. — There are 11 in ours, all maa- 
culine. S sounds in un ours. 

8. JBois, — Of 23 in m, the only femi- 
nine is fois, time* 

9. Militaire. — There are 198 words in 
aire. They are all masculine except 11 
names of plants, as zedoaire, Ac, and af- 
faire, business, aire, a floor, glaire, the 
white of an egg, paire, a pair, grammaire, 
grammar, chaire, a pulpit, and jugulaire, 
the jugular vein. 

10. Compagnon, — As about one ninth 
part of the French substantives end in an^ 
the learner must be very exact in their 
genders. They are subdivided into 4 classes, 



21 



— nouns in ion and aisorij which belong 
to tb^ feminities, and iilon and ott, which 
belong to the masculines. For illoa see 
note 18 of this fable. Of those which end 
in on {without being in ion^ aison, and 
illon) there are 405. These are all mas- 
culine except 4 designations of women, as 
laideron, &c., and the following, which I 
have formed into a sentence to help the 
memory : Get homme en pamoison, qu^on 
^ntraine en prison avec des maudissonSy a 
coramis une trahisorij car on I'envoya pour 
acheter du ble, dans la moisson^ pour en 
fournir k foison^ toute la garnison ; mais 
suivantsa/afon, il d^pensa tout en boisson 
et chansons, II a vendu sa toison pour sa 
rangon. Cette legon doit ^tre sa guerison. 
The exceptions in on are in italics. 

11. SauL — 14 in autj all masculine. 

12. Tilleul, — 10 in eul^ all masculine. 

13. Roshif, — Roast-beef. The French 
also say un rosbif d'agneau, a roasted quar 
ter of lamb. There are 47 nouns in i/j all 
masculine. 

14. Czar, — ^ in ar^ all masculine. 

15< Bacha. — The 65 nouns in a are all 
words adopted from other languages : they 
are all masculine, except sepia, bandora, 
talpa, falaca, and vinula. 



22 



16. Maine. — Of 12 in oine^ all are mas- 
culine except the names of plants and 
stones. 

lY. Populo. — Of 43 in o, mostly bor- 
rowed from the Italian, the only exception 
is virago, which is feminine of course, as 
denoting a female, 

18. Sillon. — 44 in ilhriy all masculine 
without exception. 

19. Long, — 2 in ong^^ both masculine. 

20. Mortj here means a dead man. La 
mort, death, is the only feminine of 21 in 
ort. 

21. Courroux, — Of 9 in oi^cc, toux, a 
cough, is the only feminine. 

22. Coup, — 5 in oup^ all masculines. 
2S. Corps, — 2 in orps^ both masculine. 

24. Caddvres. — 2 in avre, both mas- 
culine. 

25. Dogue. — Of 26 in ogue^ the only 
feminines are drogue, eglogue, vogue, sy- 
nagogue, and pirogue, a canoe. 

26* Matamore, — Of 19 in ore, mandra- 
gore, metaphore, and pecore, are feminine. 

27. Arbre. — 3 in arbre, all masculine, 

28. Temps. — 3 in emps, all masculine. 

29. Piril, — 62 in il, all masculine with* 
out exception. 



'■'V'V;; a17'. ^T vi^l f'^?:''^'^^ ' ~ V''. I " :^V;>''T ■ ■ '^ "" "/"'^^' > V-'i'f*^' ■^: ™ 



^ V^t 



2r 

THIKO MASCTJLlilf MLK 
TFiiicil ffiveii the Gmdefr of 567 Nounsi, 



L'AviDE (1) trompe et puni. 

A un Arahe^ (2) esbldve (3) a Rome, (4) 

on avait dit. 
Que dans un dnotaphe (5) il y avait nn 

trisor, (6). 
Yers le minuit il s'y introduisit, 
Croyant y gagner un kilofframnie {^)d^or^ 
Un sac de cutr (c Vpesant il y trouva, 
Que tout j oy eux il emporta : 
Mais il trouva du micompte (9) qiiand il 

I'examinait : 
Car au lieu de For quMl attendait, 
II n*y trouve que nombre (10) de Lares 

(11) AQphmh (12) 
Et de cuivrey (13) auxquels les pr6tres de 

Rome. 
Des dieux des aires (14) donnaient le Twm 

(15) 
Les jparens (16) du difunt (17) inform6s 

du sacrilege 
Entrainerent le coupahle (IJS) devant le 

siege (19) 
Du coTisi^Z (20) de Rome, des juges (21) 

unjprodige (22) 



2i 



^^J^W7'"r^-7f'r^"'"Z^'-^^^^ 



Qui dit, le hienrStre (23) du public (24) 

exige 
Que ce vol (25) d^iconoclaste (26) soit 

puni ; 
Et que vififft (27) coups de baton soient le 

prix (28) 
D'avoir meprise Vasile (29) des morts, 
Et les emhlemes (30) des dieux que Rome 

adore. 
Par le travail (31) du ministre (32) et du 

disciple (33) du droit 
Le hilitre (34) souffre avec stoicisme (S5j 

le chatiment de son exploit (36) 
Et a ses compagnons dit de sangfroid (3Y) 
Messires I (38) avant de courir aucun ris- 
que (39) sachez pourquoi ! 



NOTES TO THE THIRD MASCULINE 

FABLE. 

1. Avide. — ^There are 38 nouns in ide: 
the feminines are ride, a wrinkle, bride, a 
bridle, guide, a rein, with ^gide, pyramide, 
and cantharide. 

2. Arabe. — Of 12 in abe^ all are mascu- 
line but Souabe, Suabia, and syllabe, a 
syllable. By a singularity, the compounds 
of syllable, as monosyllable, &c., are mas- 
culine. 



25 



8. JEsclave. — Of 19 in ai;^, the feminines 
are cave, a cellar, rave, a raddish, with oc- 
tave, have, entraves, and 6paves, strayed 
animals. 

4. Home. — 2*7 in ome, all masculine. 

5. Cinotaphe. — Of 31 in aphe, all are 
masculine except <5pigraphe, ^pitaphe, or- 
thographe. 

6. Tresor, — 12 in or, all masculine. 

^. Kilogramme, — There are 19 nouns in 
amme ; of which all that do not end in 
gramme are feminine, as are anagramme 
and epigramme. 

8. Cuir, — 1 in uir, masculine. 

9. Mecompte,—1 in ompte, 2 in omte, 
all masculine. 

10. Nomhre, — 9 in ombre, all masculine 
except ombre, shade. 

11. Lares. — The Lares were, among the 
Romans, household gods, or gods of the 
fireside, where small metal images of them 
a few inches long were placed. They were 
so called from lar, home. Of 19 nouns 
in are, the feminines are cithare, tare, fan- 
fare, and tiare. 

12. Plomb. — 4 in omh, all masculine. 

13. Cuivre. — Of 8 in ivre, livre, a pound- 
weight, is the only feminine. Livre, a book, 
is masculine. 



26 

. 14, Aire.'^20 in air^, all masculine but 
fin&tre, bad silk» 4 in arire^ all masculine 
but tartre, a salt. 

16* iVoT^i. — 7 in om, all masculine. 

16. Parens. — 11 in ens, all masculine. 

17. Ddfunt. — 3 in W/W^, all masculine. 

18. Coupabit ?0 in able, all mascu- 
line except fable, table, and etable. 

19. SUge. — 11 in ige^ all masculine. 

20. Consul. — 8 in ul, all masculine. 

21. Juge, — 10 in uge, all masculine. - 

22. Prodige. — 14 in ige, all musculine 
except tige, the body of a tree. 

23. JSien-Sire. — Of 36 in Stre, gu6tre, a 
gaiter, and fenetre, a window, are the only 
feminines. : = 

24. Public. — lb in ic, all masculine. 

25. Vol.— ^19 in ol, all masculine. 

26. Iconoclastey from two Greek words, 
signifies a breaker and despiser of sacred 
images. Of 10 in aste, all are masculine 
except caste, a tribe, and haste, a dart, 
which follows the Latin hasta. 

2Y. Vingt — 1 in ingi, as le vingt de ce 
mois, masculine, 

28. Prix. — Of 11 in ia?, perdrix, a par- 
tridge is the only feminine. 

29. Asile. — I have taken a licence to 
call a cenotaph, " asile des morts : " but it 



27 



means an empty tomb. Of 24 in ilCf the 
feminines are pile, virgile, lie, bile, file, and 
their compounds. The learner must dis- 
tinguish ihj from ille, which belongs to the 
feminines. , . / : V 

30. UmhlSme, — Of 36 in ime^ br^me, 
cr&me, and trireme arc feminine, and a se- 
quence at piquet, as la septieme. When 
part or share is spoken of, the numerals 
become nouns masculine, as, un douzieme, 
a twelfth part. 

31. Travail, — 24 in ai7, all masculine, 
as are 6 in astre^ 4 in usire and 7 in estrcy 
except orchestre. 

32. Ministre, — 5 in istre, all masculine, 
as are 6 in astre^ 4 in ustre, and 7 in esire, 
except orchestre. 

33. Disciple. — 4 in iple, all masculine. 

34. Belitre, — Of 18 in itre^ vltre, a win- 
dow, epitre, mitre, and litre, are feminine. 

35. Stoicisme. — 110 in isme^ all mascu- 
line. 

36. Exploit. — 10 in oit, all masculine. 

37. Sangfroid. — 2 in oid^ and 2 in oids^ 
all masculine. 

38. Messires. — 20 in ire, all masculine 
except cire, satire, mire, ire, and Hegire. 

39. Misque.^-Q in isque^ all masculine 
except bisque, an advantage, and brisqu^ 
a game at cards. 



28 



: ■.').^>j»"rr 



The pupil, having learned the three pre- 
ceding fables by heart and read the notes 
with attention, will know the genders of 
7747 masculine nouns. I will add two 
easy rules, which give 377 more, and there 
will then remain only a few masculines in 
I mutej which, by those who wish to be 
fery exact, may be learnt separately. 

, RULE L 

There are 310 nouns which end with 
A CONSONANT, and are of terminations dif- 
ferent from all those given in the six fables. 
These 310 nouns are all masculme^ except 
faim, hunger, paix^ peace, chaux, lime, clef, 
a key, moeurs, manners, soif, thirst, croix, 
a cross, noix, a nut, poix, pitch, voix, the 
voice, and La Toussaint, AH Saints' day. 
Remember, therefore, that the guide to this 
rule is the final letter being a consonant. 

RULE IL 

There are 66 nouns of which the last 
vowel that sounds is a Y : these are all 
masculine, except a few words seldom used, 
viz. hydre, clepsydre, idylle, sibylle, hymne, 
lymphe, nymphe, crypte, lyre, martyre, 
analyse, and amethyste. 



29 



Masculine Words in e mute not compre- 
hended in the preceding rules. 



Tin sabre, a sabre 
TJn cand61abre, a chande- 
lier 
Le sacre, the consecration 
TJn acte, an act 
TJn pacte, a compact 
Le diaphragm e, the dia- 
phragm 
TJn aigle, an eagle 
Le vinaigre, vinegar 
TJn glaive, a sword 
L'anibre, amber 
Le bUme, reproof 
TJn drame, a play 
Le camphre, camphor 
15 n cancre, a crab 
Le change, change 
TJn melange, a medly 
TJn angle, an angle 
Le manque, want 
Le chanvre, hemp 
TJn vacarme, an uproar 
TJn charme, a charm 
TJn cigarre, a cigar 
TJn masque, a mask 
TJn casque, a helmet 
TJn asthme, an asthma 
TJn saule, a willow 
TJn aune, an elder-tree 
TJn royaume, a kingdom 
Le baume, balme 
TJn psaume, a psalm 
L'axe, the axis 
Le luxe, luxury 
TJn buste, a bust 
TJn muscle, a muscle 
TJn volume, a volume 
"Un rhilime, a cold 
Le costume, dress 
Le cultCj worship 



TJn tumulte, a tumult 
TJn vestibule, hall 
TJn scrupule, a doubt 
TJn pendule, a pendulum 
Le crdpuscule, twilight 
TJn globule, a small globe 
Le Sucre, sugar 
TJn microscope, a micros- 

<!ope 
TJn telescope, a telescope 
TJn soliloque, a soliloquy 
TJn divorce, a divorce 
TJn orme, an elm 
TJn poste, a post 
TJn pouce, a thumb 
TJn tube, a tube 
Le coude, the elbow 
Le rouge, rouge 
Le comble, the height 
TJn ongle, a nail, or claw 
TJn in sect e, an insect 
TJn dialecte, a dialect 
TJn spectre, a spectre 
TJn remade, a remedy 
TJn c6dre, a cedar 
TJn si^cle, an age 
Le r6gne, rei^n 
TJn signe, a sign 
TJn labyrinthe, a labyrinth 
TJn philtre, a potion 
TJn chiffre, a cypher 
TJn trdne, a throne 
TJn code, a code 
TJn carosse, a carriage 
TJn poeme, a poem 
TJn coffre, a trunk 
Le linge, linen 
Le bronze, bronze 
TJn vignoble, a vineyard 
TJn cloltre, a monastery. 



These 78 nouns, with aK those (31) end- 
ing in acle, asme, uple^ oxe and ordee, com- 
plete the enumeration of the masculines, 
which amount to 8415, including 182 de- 
signations of men, ending in e mute, as 
ap6tre, an apostle, oncle, an uncle, and the 
like, which I have omitted, as respecting 
their gender there can be no doubt. 



END OF THE MASCULINES. 



FIRST FEMININE FABLE. 
Which gives the Gender of 4048 Nouns. 



L'Attknte DI&5UE. 

Une jeune^We (1) avait une douzainc (2) 

De belles tasses (3) de porcelaine, 

Avec des coupes (4) et des petites crucheSy 

(6) 

Des ventouses (6) et d'autres fanfreluches, 

Que aur sa tSte (7) a la vente^ (8) 

Portait la jolie dehitante. (9) 

Je les vendrai, dit-elle enriverie, (10) 

Et une chance (11) a la loterie 

Puis j'acheterais, 

Avec la monnoie. (12) 

Et de certitude (13) certaine, grande/or^t*- 

ne (14) je gagnerai 
Parceque la derniere lune je I'ai r6ve : 
Et riche alors et bien mise, 
J'aurai une montre (15) comme une mar* 

guise, (16) 
Done j'irai a la danse (17) 
Et toua me feront la reverence (18) 



32 



Quelle taille! (19) dira-ton, qu'elle beauti ! 
(20) 

Et puis on me pnera k danser. 

Pleine de la vanity 

De cette fausse idee, (21) 

EUe secoua la t^te, et ioxxi-k-Vheure (22) 

Arriva une terrible mesaventure : (23) 

Cette secousse (24) dotruisit la belle crea- 
tion (25) 

De son imagination : 

Sa marchandise est cassee a sa vue (26) 

Et dans une minute (27) voila sa rickesse 
(28) perdue. 

NOTES TO THE FIRST FEMININE 

FABLE. 

1. Fille. — There are 99 nouns in illOj 
all feminine except vaudeville, a ballad, 
mille, a mile, codicille, quadrille, spadille, 
and trille. 

2. Douzaine. — 47 in aine, all feminine 
except Le Maine, a province of France, and 
capitaine, a masculine absolute. 

3. Tasse, — 48 in asse^ all feminine but 
Parnasse. 

4. Coupes. — 13 in oupe, all feminine 
except groupe. 

5. Cruche. — 16 m uchcy sltiA 19 in ouchey 
all feminine except baudruche, a technical 



^^ 



•word, pi6douche, a pedestal, and 2 nouns 
denotinifr ineri, 

6. Ventouse, — 15 in ouse, all feminine. 

7. TSte. — Of 80 nouns in ete^ all are fe- 
minine except 6 compounds, as coupc-l6te, 
&c., and the names of men, as prophete. 

8. Vente, — 35 in ente, all feminine ex- 
cept le trente, the 30th day of the month. 

9. Debitante, — 49 in ante, all feminine, 
except three names of men, and rossinante, 
a mean horse. 

10. .Reverie, — There are 715 nonns in 
iCy all feminine except genie, genius, in- 
cendie, a conflagration, 2 names of men, 
one word from the Greek, perihelie, and 
Le Messie, the Messiah. 

11. Chance. — 1G4 in ance, all feminine. 

12. Monnoie, — 14 in oie, all feminine 
except le foie, the liver. 

13. Certitude, — 47 in ude, all feminine 
except prelude. Most of these follow the 
gender of the Latin, being derived from 
nouns in udo, 

14. Fortune, — 23 in une, all feminine. 

15. Montre, — 8 in onire^ all feminine 
except le pour et le contre, pro and con. 

16. Marquise, — 49 in ise, all feminine. 

17. Danse* — 7 in anse, all feminine. 

o 



34 



1 8. Rivirence, — 1 34 in ence, all feminine 
but le silence, silence. 

19. Taille. — Id in ailky all feminine. 

20. BeautL — There are 612 nouns end- 
ing in te ; they occur very frequently and 
are all feminine except a few, viz. pi\tt, .. ' 
pie, c6te, a side, le bonudicite, a prayer, 
and a small number of names of men deriv- 
ed from participles, as depute, revolte, &c. 

21. Idee. — There are 271 nouns in ^e, 
all feminine except musee, a museum, tro- 
ph6e, and a few words derived from the 
Greek, as Hym6n6e, coryphee, scarab6e, 
&c., which are very rarely used. 

22. Heure. — 11 in eure^ all feminine. 

23. Mesaventure, — Of 305 nouns in «^r 
all are feminine except augure, parjure, ana 
raurmure. | 

24. Secousse. — 12 in ow5se, all feminine. I 

25. Creation. — Particular attention must 
be paid to nouns in ion, which amount to 
11 73. They are all feminine except 8 de- / 
signations of males, and pion, a pawn at 
chess, septentrion, the north, croupion, the 
rump, scorpion, a scorpion, -with fanioi; 
gabion, gallon, talion, and trillion. \ 

26. Vue» — 44 in ue^ all feminine. ( 

27. Minute. — 13 in ute, and 14 in out^ 



•> 



r 



36 



all feminine but parachute, and ^doute, 
doubt* 

28. Richesse, — 90 in esse^ all feminine 
without exception* 



SECOND FEMININE FACLE. 
Which gives the Gender of 1451 Norms, 



La Jolie Julienne, la Tulipe, et la 

KOSE. 

Julienne^ (1) 1^ "^osiire^ (2) reine^ (3) de la 

f6te, 
Avec sa couronne (4) siirla t&te, 
De sa conduite (6) sans tache (6) digne re- 
compense, (Y) 
/' Courait dans les allees s'echappant de la 
danse. 
D'une onde (8) pure elle ariose. 
Ssi favorite, (9) sa chere rose. (10) 
La tulipe, (11) de la rose voisine. 
A \a jaunisse (12) de jalousie faisant la 
mine, (13) 
^ 'PeLT pique (14) dit a notre Heroine, 
Pourquoi, Mademoiselle (15) de grace, 
Faut41 que je cede \a place (16) 
A cette rougeaude, (17) cette idole, (18) 
Dont tu sembles etre/o?/e .^ (19) 
Pourquoi sans rime (20) ni raison, (21) 



36 



Perdrais-je a la comparaison ? 

Dans ta robe (22) en guirlande (23) tu la 

places ; 
Ou dans tes boucles (24) tu I'enlaces. 
N'ai-je pas une excuse (25) d'etre en coUre^ 

(2§) 
De te voir avec xneLrlvale^ (27) cette nahote^ 

(28) 
Et qu'^ moi toujours on prefere 
GQite 2^ii^biche, (29) cette sotte'i (40) 
Ne soit point en peine, 
Reprit la vie^^ge (31) reine : 
Ne le prends pas en grippe, (32) 
Jalouse tulip e : 

Dans la gelee je te couvris de naite, (33) 
Mais tu I'oublies ingrate ! (34) 
Neanmoins sans adulation. 
Tu merites notre admiration : 
Mais souviens-toi que la beaute exterieure 
Cedera toujours aux beautes interieures. 

NOTES TO THE SECOND FEMININE 

FABLE. 

1. Julienne. — There are 22 nouns in enne^ 
all feminine. 

2. Rosier e, — Of 297 nouns ending in 
iirey all are feminine except cimetiere. 
Words in ere are classed separately. At 
Salenci, in France, a young woman is an- 



37 



nually chosen " queen of the rosej^ La Ro- 
siiiRE. This honour is conferred for super- 
eminent virtue and correctness of demean- 
our. The queen is crowned with a garland 
of roses on the 8th of June. Madame de 
Genlis has written a little play in which 
this pleasing and honourable ceremony is 
admirably described ; it is called La Rosiere 
de Salenci. 

3. Heine, — 12 in eine, all feminine. 

4. Couronne, — 30 in onne^ all feminine 
except personne, nobody. Personne, a per- 
son, is feminine. 

5. Conduite. — 12 in uite, all feminine. 

6. Tache. — Of 30 nouns in ache, the only 
masculines are gamaches, gaiters, panache, 
a plume, rel^cbe, relaxation, and 3 or 4 
names of men, as bravache, a bully, <fec. 

'7. Recompense, — 8 in ense, all feminine. 

8. Onde, — Of 14 in onde, the only mas- 
culine is monde, the world. 

9. Favorite, — Of 40 in ite^ all are femi- 
nine except the names of men, as satellite, 
Areopagite, &c., and merite, demerite, gite, 
site, and rite. 

10. Rose, — 15 in ose, all feminine. 

11. Tulipe. — Of 12 in ipe, the only mas- 
culines are participe and principe. 

12. Jaunisse, — 14 in isse, all feminine. 



38 



13 Mine. — 157 in ine, all feminine ex 
cept la platine, platina. 

14. Pique. — There are 116 nouns in 
ique. The masculine exceptions are 26 
designations of men, as eccl^siastique, lai'que 
&c. and portique, a portico, pique, at cards, 
topique, and tropique. 

15. Mademoiselle. — Of 123 in elle the 
only masculines are libelle, a libel, vermi- 
celle, vermicelli, isabelle, a colour, and 
violoncelle, a violoncello. 

16. Place. — 27 in ace^ all feminine ex- 
cept espace, a space. 

17. Rougeaiid. — 19 in aude^ all femi- 
nine. 

18. Idole. — Of 70 in ofe, all are femi- 
nine except symbol e, mole, a dyke, mono- 
pole, a monopoly, pole, and role. 

19. Folle. — 12 in olle^ all feminine. 

20. Rime. — 28 in ime^ all femine except 
regime, crime, centime, and dime. 

21. Raison. — 41 in aison^ all feminine 
without exception. 

22. Rohe. — 7 in ohe and ohbe^ all feminine 
but lobe and g'obe. 

23. Ouirlande. — Of 37 in aric?^, the only 
masculine is le multiplicande. 

24. Boucle. — 3 in oucle^ all feminine. 

25. Excuse. — 11 in use^ all feminine. 



39 



20. CoUre, — Of the 73 nouns in ire, 
the masculine exceptions are 7 designations 
of men, with visceres, myst^re, ministere, 
cautere, adultere, ulcere, cratere, and a few 
words of very rare occurrence. 

27. Bivale.'-'Of 50 in ale, and 12 in 
alle, all are feminine but scandale, inter- 
valle, ovale^ petale, and the compounds of 
balle. 

28. Xabote, — 47 in ote^ all feminine 
except the names of men, antidote, and 
vote. 

29. Pimhiche, — 17 in eche^ all feminine 
but preche, a sermon. 

80. Sotte, — 37 in otte^ all feminine but 
tirebotte, a boot-jack. 

31. Vierge. — 11 in erge^dXl feminine but 
cierge, a taper. 

32. Grippe, — 4 in ippe, all feminine. 

33. Natte. — 11 matU\ all feminine. 

34. Ingrate. — 35 in ate^ all feminine 
except the names of men, and stigmate, 
which is used only when speaking of the 
marks of our Saviour's v. ounds. 



40 

THIRD FEMININE FABLE. 
Which gives the Gender o/* 1408 Nouns. 



La Villageoise et la Belette. 

Une villageoise (1) k force (2) (Tattrapes^^^) 
Troiiva, enfin dans sa trappe (4) 
Une imprudente belette, (6) 
Qui mangeait en goinfrade (6) ses poulettes. 
En phrase (7) adroite la captive (8) dit, 
O belle pay Sonne ! (9) epargne ma vie : 
Me tuer serait grande injustice, (10) 
Car des vermines je suis la destructrice, 
Et de i^^ ponies (11) la sauvegarde (12) et 

la protectrice. 
Quelle vergogne ! (13) dit la fille, quelle 

histoire ! (14) 
Je mourrais de honte (15) d'etre si niaise, 
Que de me laisser croire 
De ioih^ fadaises ! (16) 
Aux poules confiees k ma charge (1'7) tu 

fais la guerre, (18) 
Aussi sur que plein de sdve, (19) 
Nonrries de la houe (20) de la terre, 
Les branches (21) d'une citrouille, (22) o^ 

d'une gadele (23) s'elevent. 
Si tu n'eusses pas use ^QfeinteSy (24) 
Je ne t'aurais point punie, 
Mais je n'ecoute plus iesplainteSy (25) 



41 



A cause (26) de ton hypocrisie. 

Tu n'apportes dans ma cabane (27) que 

jplaies (28) et bosses ; (29) 
Et aussi sur que j'espere aller a mes noces^ 

Trompeusey (31) tu mourras ! et puis sur la 

tete 
Notre hegueule (32) avec une mailloche 

(33) assorama la bete. 

NOTES to THE THIRD FEMININE 

FABLE. 

1. Villageoise, — There are 17 nouns in 
oise^ and 2 in oisse^ all feminine. 

2. Force, — 7 in orce^ all feminine but 
divorce. 

3. Attrappe. — 14 in ape, all feminine but 
Pape, the Pope, a masculine absolute. 

4. Trappe, — 8 in appe^ all feminine. 

5. Belette. — Of 276 in ette^ the only 
masculines are amulette, squelette, and 3 
compound words, as porte-mouchettes, a 
snuffer-tray. The learner will observe that 
words compounded of a verb and a substan- 
tive are masculine, even though the noun 
be feminine, as porte-lettre, tire-balle, casse- 
noisette, &c. 

6. Goinfradc—Oi 139 nouns in ade^ 
stade, a stadium, is the only naasculine. 



42 



7. Phrase. — Of 23 in ase, vase, gymnase, 
P6gase, and Caucase, are the only mascu- 
lines. 

8. Captive. — Of 4S in ive^ all are femi- 
nine but convive : but we say, II faut etre 
sur le qui-vive, we must be on the alert. 

9. Paysanne, — 1 3 in anne^ all feminme. 

10. Injustice, — There are 142 in ice. 
The masculine exceptions are rather nume- 
rous, but may be easily fixed. Eqmeraber 
that except 6 all the femi nines in ice 
designate women. These 6 feminines are 
malice, milice, delices, notice, police., and 
premices. Therefore, except these 6, when 
the learner meets with a noun in ice that 
does not name a female, he will know it to 
be masculine. 

11. Poule, — 13 in oule^ all feminine but 
moule, a model. 

12. Sauvegarde. — 37 in arde^ all feminine 
but pericarde. 

13. VergOLjne, — 14 in ogne^ all feminine 
but Bourgogne, Burgundy, where vin^ is 
understood. 

14. Histoire. — There are 80 words in 
oire. This is the most difficult ending in 
the language, as there are nearly as many 
masculines as feminines. The learner 
must remember that all places in which 



43 



any persons assemble are masculine, as 
ret'ectoire, a refectory ; all law and church 
terms are masculine, as offertoire, the offer- 
tory, petitoire, an action at law; and the 
remaining masculines in oire must be com- 
mitted to memory ; boire, i voire, vomitoire, 
d6boire, genitoires, purgatoire, territoire, 
and macbicatoire. 

15. Honte. — 12 in (?n^ all feminine but 
conte, a story. 

16. Fadaise, — 15 in aise^ all feminine 
except malaise, mesaise. 

17. Charge, — 8 in arge^ all feminine ; 
but we say le large, the ofHng. 

18. Oaerra, — Of 12 in erre^ the mascu- 
lines are cimeterre, verre, parterre, and 
tonnerre. 

19. Sive, — 12 in he^ all feminine but 
reve and eleve. Eleve is both masculine 
and feminine, 

20. Boue, — 23 in ouCy all feminine. 

21. Branches, — 14 in onche, all feminine 
but Dimanche, and manche, a handle. 
Manche is feminine when it means a sleeve. 

22. Citrouille. — 18 in ouille^ all femi- 
nine. 

23. Gadele, — Of 19 in ile^ the mascu- 
lines are zele, modele, parallele, and infi* 
dele. 



44 



24. Feintes, — 12 in einte^ all feminine, 

25. Plaintes, — 6 in ainte^ all feminine. 

26. Cause, — 3 in ause^ S in awsie, all 
feminine. 

27. Cabane, — Of 50 nouns in ane^ all 
are feminine but ane, an ass, crane, the 
skull, manes, ghosts ; and organe, an organ. 

28. Plaie, — 49 in aie^ all feminine with- 
out exception. 

29. Bosse, — Of 12 in osse, the only mas- 
culines are carrosse and colosse. 

30. Noces, — Y in oce, all feminine but 
negoce and sacerdoce. 

31. Trompeuse, — There are 263 nouns 
in eu&e^ all feminine without exception : 
they almost all designate females. 

32. Begueule. — 10 in eule^ all feminine. 

33. Mailloche, — There are 30 nouns in 
oche^ all feminine but proche, reproche, 
coche, and medianoche. 



The pupil having learned thus far, will 
have fixed in the memory the genders of 
6907 feminine nouns. There remain about 
220 more, which I could not introduce : 
many of these are designations of females., 
as, une dagorne, a shrew, veuve, a widow, 
femme, a woman, sage-femme, a midwife, 



45 



and the iike, the gender of which is in- 
Btantly obvious. The rest are added in 
the following list : — 



Feminine words in e mute not comprehend' 
ed in the preceding rules, 

TJne lieue, a league Une orange, an orange 

TJne queue, a tail Les louanges, praises 

Vne meute, a pack of Une huppe, a tuft 

hounds Une perruque, a pcruque 

TJne preuvo, a proof La lutte, wrestling 

Une oeuvre, a deed Une hutte, a hut 
Unemanoeuvre,amanoeuvreUne fugue, a fugue 



Une fl^vre, a fever 
Une I6vre, a lip 
Une bible, a bible 
Une fibre, a fibre 
Une afflche, a placard 
Une corniche, a cornice 
Une miche, a roll 
Une niche, a niche 
Des bribes, scraps 
Des besides, spectacies 
Une ferme, a farm 
Une citerne, a cistern 
Une lanterne, a lantern 
Une caserne, barracks 
La gouverne, direction 



L'huile, oil 
Une tuile, a tile 
Une huitre, an oyster 
Une couple, a couple 
Une source, a source 
Une bourse, a purse 
La douane, the custom- 
house. 
La bourbe, mud 
La fourbe, deceit 
Les annonces, the banns 
La provendc, provender 
Une 16gende, a legend 
Une amende, a fine 
La tempe, the temple 



Une giberne, a cartridge- Une larme, a tear 

box Une alarme, an alarm 

Une serpe, a bill-hook Les armes, weapons 

Une controverse, a con- Une harpe, a harp 



troversy 
La perte, loss 
L*alerte, alarm 
Une d(3couverte, a dis* 

covery 
Bes conserves, preserves 
ilJes verves, whims 
Une drachme, a dram 



Une carpe, a carp 

Une remarque, a remark ' 

Une barque, a bark 

L'ame, the soul 

Une cellule, a cell 

La cuticule, the cuticle 

La mule, the Pope's slipper 

Une pilule, a pill 



46 



Vtid cataraxjte, a cataract TJn virgule, a comma 

L'epacto, the epacto Unc pcniiisule, a pcnitisUhi 

Une raontagne,amountam tJne pendulc, a clock 

La carapagne, the country La sauge, sage 

tlue chdtaigne, a chcsnut L'db^ne, ebony 

Une baguc, a ring Une scCne, a scene 

Uno vague, a wave Une bibliotiiOque, a library 

Une aile, a wing Une valve, a valve 

tJne d^faite, a defeat La lOpre, leprosy 

Une retraite, a retreat Lea vOpres, vespers 

Les Alpes, the Alpes Une gu6pe, a wasp 

Une jupe. a petticoat Une goutte, a drop 

La fresque, fresco Une boite, a box 

Uno horloge, a clock La pointe, the point 

Une logo, a lodge Uno bom be, a bomb 

La pompp, pump Une colombe, a dove 

La moelle, marrow Une tombcj a monument 

Une tourte, a fruit pie La peste a plague 

La fange, dirt Une veste, a waistcoat 

La frenge, fringe Les cendres^ ashes 

Une grange, a barn Une r<5ponse, an answer* 

These nouns, with all those in Sse^ arte^ 
ourde^ and ampey 28 in number,, added to 
some female designations, and a few words 
seldom used, complete the feminine listi 
which amounts to 7,133. This number, 
added to the masculines, 8415, will give, 
the total amount of the French nouns, 15,- 
548, a calculation which I believe agrees 
as nearly as possible with those made by 
the French grammarians. 

As soon as the learner h^s committed the 
six fables to memory, he ought to exercise 
himself in the application of them. This 
may be done by his teacher taking a dic- 
tionary and calling the nouns, while the 



47 



pupil, as each word is called, refers it in his 
memory to the guiding-word in the fable, 
and answers as to the gender, A very 
little practice will enable him to refer in a 
moment to a word in the fables that ends 
like the word he wants to know the gender 
of. For instance, suppose the word asked 
him be haleine, the breath, his memory 
will refer it to reine^ or peine, and as these 
words occur in the fable about the queen of 
the rose J a female, he will know at once 
that haleine is feminine. 

Gibier, game, he would refer to sanglier ; 
metal, to cheval ; enfance and esperance 
to chance ; gravite, to beaute ; fente to 
attente ; carquois to hois, and so of the rest. 

The following list comprehends all 
those nouns which the French make mas- 
culine in one signification and feminine in 
another. I should recommend students 
who have made some progress in the 
language, to copy them all, three or four 
times, as the surest means of impressing 
them on the memory. 

Une aide, help 

Tin aide, an assistant, as aide-de-camp 

Un aigle, an eagle 



4« 



L'aigle Impferiale, a standard 

L'aise, comfort, ease,/ew. 

Le malaise, discomfort 

Un aune, an alder-tree 

Une aune, an ell-measure 

Un barbe, a Barbary horse 

Uno barbe, a beard 

Un barde, a bard 

La barde, a slice of bacon roasted with a 

fowl 
Un basqu(5, a Biscayan 
Une basque, a skirt 
Un berce, a bird 
Une berce, a plant 
Un braque, a setting-dog 
Lesbraques,/e/7i, the claws of sbell-fish 
La caraque, cocoa 

Une caraqiie, a carrack, a kind of ship 
Le carpe, the wrist 
Une carpe, a carp 

Un cartouche, an ornament in designing 
Une cartouche, a cartridge 
Un coche, a waggon, a passage-boat 
Une coche, an old sow 
Le connetable, the Lord High Constable 

of France 
La connetable, his lady 
Un couple, a man and his wife 
Une couple, a pair, a brace 



49 



Le chrome, or cr6me, consecrated oil 

Le cr6me de tartre, a drug 

La cr6me, cream 

Un critique, a critic 

TJne critique, a criticism 

TJne dame, a lady 

Le dame dame, a sort of cheese 

Le double, a duplicate, twice the value 

La double, the second stomach of a rumi- 
nating animal 

Un enseigne, an ensign, an oflScer 

TJne enseigne, a flag, a token 

Un exemple, a precedent 

Une exemple, a writing-copy, a pattern 

Le faux, falsehood 

La faux, a scythe 

Le follicule, the gall- bladder 

La follicule, the seed-vessel in plants 

Un foudre, a tun-vessel, a wine-butt 

Un foudre de guerre, a thunderbolt of war, 
a great warrior 

Une foudre, a thunderbolt 

La foudre de Dieu, the wrath of God 

Un fourbe, a swindler 

La fourbe, knavery, deceit 

Un garde, a guardsman 

Une garde, a defence 

Le grefie, a register 

La greflfe, a graft 



50 



Les gueules, gules, in heraldry, mas. 

La gueule, the jaws of a beast 

Uii guide, a guide 

line guide, a rein 

Le haut-paye, a soldier in extra pay 

La haute-paye, extra pay 

Uu heliotrope, a sunflower 

Uiie heliotrope, a spotted precious stone 

\J\\ hymne, a chaunt of the ancients 

line hymne, a Christian hymn 

IT II iris, a rainbow 

Uae iris, the circle round the pupil of the 

eye 
Les Larves, mas, evil spirits 
La larve, a worm or grub 
TJtie ligne, a line 

Ua interligne, a space between lines 
TJd litre, a measure for liquids 
Une litre, mourning hangings used in 

churches 
Un livre, a book 

Une livre, a pound-weight, a piece of money 
Un manche, a handle 
Une manche, a sleeve, the channel 
Un martyre, a martyrdom 
Une martyre, a female martyr 
Un matamore, a boaster 
Une matamore, a slave prison 
Un memoire, a bill, a memoir 



51 



La m 6 moire, the memory 

Un mire, a bar 5 years old 

XJne inire, an aim, the button at the muzzle 

of a gun to take aim by 
Un mode, a mood, accident 
La mode, fashion, custom 
Un mole, a pier, a mole, a dyke 
Une mole, a tympany, a false idea 
La mort, death 

Un 111 Oft, a corpse, a dead man 
Un moiifle, a pulley, a set of pullies 
Une moufle, a mitten 
Un moule, a model, a pattern, an example 
Une moule, a muscle, a shell-fish 
Un mousse, a ship-boy 
La mousse, moss, froth 
Un novice, a novice, a cabin-boy 
Une novice, a female preparing to take 

the veil, a nun expectant 
Une nuit, a night 
Une malenuit, a restless night 
Le mi nuit, midnight 
Le grnnd oeuvre, the philosopher's stone 
Un oeuvre, a literary work 
Les hors d'oeuvre, mas. small ragouts, side 

dishes 
Un oeuvre, an action, a work, a deed 
Un ombre, a sort of fish like the salmon 
L'ombre, mas, a game at cards 



52 



Une ombre, a shadow, a ghost 

Les ombres, ma$, is applied to nDinrited 
visitors introduced to a feast in ancient 
Eome, by thoi invited guests 

Un orgue, an organ 

Les orgues,/gm. a pair of organs 

Uorge^fem. barley 

L'orge monde, peeled barley 

Un page, a page, an attendant 

Une page, a page in a book 

Un paillasse, a theatrical clown 

Une paillasse, a mattrass 

Un palme, a measnre of length 

Une palme, an advantage 

Un panache, a plume 

Une penache, a pea-hen 

Un pantomime, a pantomine player 

Une pantomime, a pantomine 

Un parallele, a comparison 

Une parallele, a parallel-line 

Le passe passe, juggling 

Une passe, a pass in fencing, a hen-sparrow 

Un pendule, a pendulum 

Une pendule, a clock 

Le periode, the heighth 

La periode, an epoch, a period 

Personne, mas, nobody 

Une personne, a person 

Un pique, a spade at cards 



53 



Un pique nique, a pic-nic, a party where 
each contributes provisions 

Une pique, a spear, a quarrel, 

Un pivoine, a kind of snipe, a gnat-snapper 

La pivoine, peony, a plant 

Un plane, a plane-tree 

Une plane, a plane, a carpenter's tool 

Le platine, platina, a metal 

La platine, the plate to which a watch- 
moyement is fastened, a copper plate 

Un plinthe, a squared body of soldiers 

Une plinthe, a plinth, in architecture 

Un poele, a stove, a coffin-pall 

Une poele, a frying-pan 

Un Polacre, a Polish gentleman 

Une polacre, a polacca, a vessel in common 
use in the Mediterranean 

Le ponte, punto, one who gambles 

La ponte, the laying of eggs 

Un poste, a station, a situation, office 

La poste, the post-office, the mail, travel- 
ling post 

Le pouipre, purple, the purples, or spotted 
fever 

La pourpre, used figuratively for the power 
and dignity of a king, pope, cardinal, 
&c., 

Un pr6texte, a pretence, a pretext 

La pretexte, an ancient Roman dress 



54 



Un pupille, a male pupil 

Une pupille, Ihe apple of the eye, a female 

pupil 
Un regale, an organ-pipe 
La r6gale, the holding a vacant bishopric 
Le relache, relaxation 
Une relache, the touching at a sea-port 
Un remise, a glass coach. 
Une remise, a coach-house 
Le serpentaire, a constellation 
La serpentaire, dragon- wort 
Le sinople, vert in haraldry, a chalk 
La sinople, anemony, a flower 
Le solde, payment, balance of an account 
La solde, the pay of a soldier. 
Un somme, a sleep, a nap 
Une somme, a sum of money, a load 
Un souris, a smile 
Une souris, a mouse 
Une syllable, a syllable 
Un monosyllable, a monosyllable 
Un Polysyllable, a poUy syllable 
La terre, the tjarth 

Le terre a terre, short leaps of a horse 
Le rezterre, a surface even with the ground 
La tete, the head 

Un tfete a t6te, a tete-a-tete j 

Un torse, a torso, a mutilated statue ^ 

Une torse, a turner's tool 



Tin triomphe, a triumph, victory 

Une triomphe, a trump-card, a game at 

cards 
Un trompette, a trumpeter 
Une trompette, a trumpet 
Le vague, empty space 
La vague, a wave 
Un vis-a-vis, a carriage 
Une vis, a screw 
Un voile, a veil, a cover 
Une voile, a sail 



tj 



LOVELL'8 8EBIES OF SCHOOL BOOKS. 

IN THE PRESS, 
To be published in the Spring of 1860: 

\ mm\i rjor^RiPDw. 




BY 

J. GEORGE HODGINS, M.A. 



Embellished with about 40 superior Maps and 100 
beautiful Engravings* 



This GEOGRAPHY, while it is designed to furnish 
a satisfactory resumie of the Geographical knowledge 
of all parts of the world, will give equal prominence to 
the BRITISH COLONIES, concerning which such 
meagre information is generally found in works of this 
kind. It is designed and will be a suitable Text-Book 
for children in CANADA, NOVA SCOTIA, NEW 
BRUNSWICK, NEWFOUNDLAND, PRINCE ED- 
WARD'S ISLAND, the EAST and WEST INDIES, 
AUSTRALIA, &c. 

The Maps and Wood-Cuts are now in course of pre- 
paration, and every effort will be made to expedite 
publication. The work will, at the latest, be in the 
Bookstores in the Spring of 1860. 

PRICE $1. 

A liberal discount will be allowed to the Trade g,nd to 

Country Merchants, 

JOHN LOVELL, PublUher. 



IN PREPARATION : 

EASY LESSONS 

IN 

fiElVEBAL (iEOCiRAPHY, 

FOR THE USE 
ov 

YOUNGEH PUPILS ; 

BBINa INTRODUCTORY TO 
TO BB 

Embellished with Maps and Illustrations, 



BY 

J. GEORGE HODGINS, M.A. 



JOHN LOVELL, Publisher. 



LdVELL'S SEBIES OF SCHOOL BOOKS. 



IN PREPARATIOI^^ : 



A SCHOOL 










OF CANADA, 



AND OP THE OTHER 






PROVINGEa 



WITH 







BY 



J. GEORGE HODGINS, M.A. 



JOHN LOVBLL, Publisher. 



LOTELL'8 SERIES OF SCHOOL BOOKS. 



JUST PUBLISHED : 



OUTLINES 



OP 



CHRONOLOGY, 

FOR THE USB 

OF 

t 

SCHOOLS. 



EDITBD BY 

MRS. aoRDoisr 



JOHN LOYELL, 

Publiskerj 



CAHADi. Directory Oppiob, 
Montreal, August, 1859. 



IN THE PRESS, , 

« » 

7o 6e ptibHshed in October^ 1659 : 

A 

TREAm ON ARITHMETIC, 

IN 

THEORY AND PRACTICE; 

RX:VIS£D, IMPROVED, Sc ABAPTBB 

TO THE 

DECIMAL CURRENCY, 



BY 

J. H. SANGSTER. 



This work will be on Sale in the Bookstores 
throughout Canada, 

JOHN LOVELL, Publisher. 



liOViSLL'B BEKUS OF BCUOOL BOOKS. 



IN PREPARATION : 

FIRST BOOK 



OP 




IN 



BKGHM&IL 



CURRENGT, 



&c., &c. 



BY 



J. EC. 8A.]SrGSTER. 



JOHN LOVELL, Publisher. 



LOVELL'S 8BBIES 07 SCHOOL BOOKS. 



A IVEW SPELiIillVG-BOOK. 



IN THE PRESS, 
To he published in October^ 1859 : 

THB 

CLASSICAL ENGLISH 

SPELLING-BOOK; 

IN WHICH 

THE HITHERTO DIFFICULT ART OF ORTHO- 
GRAPHY IS RENDERED EASY AND PLEA- 
SANT. AND SPEEDILY ACQUIRED. 

Comprising all the important 

ROOT-WORDS FROl TOE ANGLO-SAXON, 
TUE LATIN, AND TDE GREEK; 

AND 

Several hundred Exercises in Derivations and in 
Verbal Distinctions, 



BY G. G. VASEY. 



JOHN LOYELL, Publisher. 



JUV V JUllll M 9*d 



IN THE PRESS, 
To be published in October ^ 1859 : 

GRAMMAR 

MADE EASY 

TO THE 

CAPACITY OP CHILDREN ; 

IN WHICH, BY PLEASANT EXERCISES, A EINOWLEDGE 
OP THE PAETS OP SPEECH IS EASILY ACQUIRED. 



BY a. a. VASEY. 



The above works will be prepared with great 
care, printed on good paper, and bound in the 
most substantial manner. 

j1 liberal discount will be allowed to the Trade 
and to Country Merchants, 

JOHN LOVELL, 

Publisher, 
Canada Directory Office, 
Montreal, August, 1859.