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Full text of "Report of the fifty-fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science [microform] : held at Montreal in August and September 1884"

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OP THE 



FIFTY-FOUETH MEETING 



OP THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



MONTREAL IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1884. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1885. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemarle Street, Londox, W. 



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CONTENTS. 



Pa^e 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxiii 

Places and Times of Meetinj,' and Officers from commeuceiuent xxxii 

Presidents and Secretaries of tiic Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xxxix 

Evening Lectures liii 

Lectures to the Opeiative Classes Iv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Montreal Meeting Ivii 

Treasurer's Account lix 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings Ix 

Officers and Council, ] 884-85 Ixii 

Report of the ( 'ouncil to the General Committee Ixiii 

Supplementary Rt-povt Ix vii 

Recommendations adopted by the (xenei'al Committee for Additional Re- 
ports and Researciies in Science Ixix 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixxvi 

Places of Meeting in 1885 and 188(5 Ixxvii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 
I for Scientific Purposes Ixxviii 

Arrangement of theGeneral Meetings Ixxxviii 

Address by the President, the Right lion. LoKi) RAYr.Eifiii, ^I.A., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.U. A.S., F.R.G.S., Professor of lOxperimental Physics in the 
University of Cambridge 1 



REPOirrS ox THE STATE OF SCIENcrE. 

I Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Wilmam Thomsox, Professor 
A. \V. \Vir,LTAMsox,Mr. W. 11. PKi:i;n:,Mr.BAi!Low,andMr.J. M. Thomson 
(Secretary), appointed to consider and advise on the best moans for facilitat- 
ing the adoption of the Metric System of Weights and Measures in Great 
Ih'itain 27 

Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor Bali'our Stewakt (Secre- 
tary), Professor Stokks, Mr. G. Johnston i; Stoni;v, Professor Sir II. K. 
Uoscoi;, Professor Schustkk, Captain Ahnky, and Mr. G. J. Symons, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of considering the best metliods of recording the 
direct int nsity of Solar Radiation 28 



.^3 S I 



iv CONTENT.S. 

I'age 
Report of tilt' Oninmittcc, consistiiifr of Pre -mn- G. Cakky 1''oster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayktox, Professor J. Pkkky, Professor 
W. G. Adams, Lord IvAylkioii, Professor Ji;.\kix, Dr. O. .1. liOixii;, Dr. 
JojiN F[oi'KiNsoN, Dr. A. Muikuead, Mr. W. II. Punix'i;, Mr. IIkuiiekt 
Taylok, Professor I'-veukit, Professor Sciiustkk, Dr. J. A. Fi-KJirNfi, 
Professor G. F. FiTZ(iEUAM), Mr. 11, T. Glazeiikook (Socn>tarv), Professor 
CiiKYHTAL, Mr. II. Tommnsox, and Professor W. (iAKNirrr, appointed for 
the ])iirpose of const met iiig and issuiiiir ])ractical Standard:: for use in 
Elect rical Measurements 29 

Ileport of the Oomniittee, consisting; of Mr. Uoheht II. Scorr (Secretai'v), 
Mr. J. Nokman Lockyeu, Professor (!. G. Stokes, Professor lJAi,i''ot'H 
Stewart, and Mr. G. .1. Symon.s, appointed for the })urpost! of co-operatinj; 
with the Meteorolof^ical Society of the Mauritius in their proposed pnhlica- 
tion of Daily Synojttic Charts of the Indian Uc(mui from the year iNtil. 
Drawn up by Mr. II. If. Scott ." 32 

Second Keport of the Coniniittee, consistinf,' of I'rofessoi's (1. II. Dakwix and 
J, V. Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of 'i'idal Observations. Ih'awn up 
by Professor (1. !!. Dakwix 33 

iteport of the Committee, consistinf^ of Professor Pai.koxtk Sti;wart (Secre- 
tary), Mr. Kxox liAuoHTON, Mr. (I. .1. Symoxs, Mr. I{. II. Scott, and Mr. 
JojixsToxFO Stoxi'.y, Rp])ointed for the purpose of co-optM-atinji with Mr. E. 
.1. I.owi; in his project of establishinfr a Meteorolofrical Observatory near 
Chepstow oil a periuanent and scientilic basis 35 

Report of the Committee, consisting,' of Professor Ckum Bkowx (Secretary), 
and Messrs. D. MiLXK IIoLME, Jonx Mukkay, and Ai.exaxdek Dlcuax, 
appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the Dii'ectors of the Ben 
Nevis Observatory ill makini.' Meteorological Observati(nis on lien Nevis 36 

Report of the Committee, con,sisting of Mr. James N. Shoolbki;!) (Secretary) and 
Sir Wii.MAM TiioMsox, appointed for the ])ur])ose of reducing and tabu- 
lating the Tidal Observations in the l-higlish ('liannel made with the Dover 
Tide-gauge, and of connecting them with Observations made on the French 
coast 37 

F'ourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schustku (Secretary), 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Sir 11. E, Roscoe, Professor A. S. IIek- 
sciiEL, Captain W.de W. Abney, Mr. R. IT. Scott, and Dr. .T. II. Gladstone, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the practicability of collecting 
and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of considering the question of under- 
takino^ regular observatitms in various localities 38 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, 
Dkwak, Frankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, Odling, and .Vrmstrong, 
Messrs. A. (i. Vi:hnon Harcourt, J. Millar Thomson, TI. B. Dixon 
(Secretary), and V. II. Veley, and Drs. F. 1{. Japi' and II. Fokster 
MoRLET, rea])pointed for the purpose of drawing up a statement of the 
varieties of Chemical Names which have como into use, for indicating the 
causes which have led to their adoption, and for considering what can be 
done to bring about some convergence of the views on Chemical Nomencla- 
ture obtaining among English and foreign chemists 39 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and Professor 
II. E. Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 74 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. II. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Pliyllopoda of the Paloeozoic Rocks 76 



20 



32 



33 



36 



38 



39 



74 



76 



CONTENTS. V 

rivgo 

Tenth IJcpoit dt'tlio ('omniittw', consistiiiir of Profossor K. Iltrr.i,, Dr. II. W. 
Crosskey, Captain Douoi.as (Jaltox, Pr(>tt'.>ssor.s J. 1*kkst\vu:ii and 
G. \. Lv,wn\i, tind Mfssis. Ja.mi;s (Ji.aisiikk, ]<].]{. Maktkx, (?. H. Moimtx, 
Jamks I'aukkk, \V. l'i:s(ii;i.r.Y, .Iajids I'lant, 1. lioitKiirs, Fox .Stuan-g- 

WAYS, T. S. SrOOKK, (i. J. SY.MONS, W. 'I'opr.HY, TYI.DDN-WKKilir, K. 

\VKTiti;itKi», W. WiHTAKKK, and (J. !•;. Di: Uanci; (Swrotaiv), amxiintod 
for the purpose of invi'slin;alinir tlio Circulation of I'ndcr^'rouncl Waters in 
tlio J'l'rnu'ablii l'"orniationrt of I'liij^'laiul and Wales, and tin- (Quantity and 
Charactt'r of tht* Water sup})lied to various '["owns and Districts from tliosf 
Pormatiou.s. Jhawn up by C K. De Uanck 06 

Fifth and last U('])ort of tiio Ooniiuittet', consisting' of Dr. 11. C. HuunY, 
FMt.S., and Mr. (J. K. Vim;, ajipointifd for the purpose of repcn-ting on 
Fossil Polyzou. Drawn up i»y Mr. Vine 07 

Twelfth Report of the Ooniniittee, consisting of Professors J. Prestwicii, 
W. DoYo Dawkins, T. McK. llu(iui;s, and T. G. Bonndy, Dr. If. W. 
Ckosskky (Secretary), Dr. Deane, and Messrs. ('. E. De IIance, 11. G. 
FoiiDiiAM, J. K. Lee, J). Mackxntosji, W. Penoelly, J. Plant, and U. Fl. 
TiUDEMAN, api)ointed for tlie purpose of recordin|,' the position, height 
ahovi^ the sea, li'hological characters, size, and oi'igin of the J'lrratic Blocks 
of iMigland, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for tlieir preservation 219 

Repoi't upon the National Geological Surveys of Europe. Dy W. Torr.KT, 
F.O.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E 221 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. U. P>. (iRANxhaji, C. E. D:^ 
Ranci;, J. B. UiiDMAN, W. 'i'oi'i.KY, W. WiiiTAKKR, aud J. W. WOOUALL, 
with Major-General Sir A. Ci-arki;, Sir J. N. Dou(iiiAss, Captain Sir F. O. 
Evans, Captain J. Parsons, I'rofessor J. Prestwicii, Captain W. J. E. 
Wharton, and Messrs. Vl, I'Ivston, J. S. Nalentini;, and E. F. Veunok 
IIarcoukt, appointed tor the purpose of innuiring into the Rate of Erosion 
of the Seacoasts of I'higland and \\ ales, and the Inliuence of tiie Artiticial 
Abstraction of Shingle or other Material in that Action. Drawn up by 
C. E, De Range and W. Toi'I.ey, Secretaries 238 

Report of the Conunittee, consisting of Professors A. II. Grken aud L. C. 
Miall and Messrs. JoiiN JjRiu(i and James W. Davis (Secretary), ap- 
pointed to assist in the E.xploration of the Raysrill Fissure in Eothersdale, 
Yorkshire 240 

Fourth Report of the Oomnnttee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridoe, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, and Professor JoiiN Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating tiie Eartliquake IMieuomena of Japan. Drawn up by the 
Secretary 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Mar- 
shall, Professor A. C. Uaudon, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at th« 
Zoological Station at Naples 262 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, i\Ir. IIowakd 
Saunderp, and ]Mr. Thiselton-Dyer (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Natural History of Timor Laut 203 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smitu, Professor be Cuau- 
MONT, Professor M. F\)sti;r, Professor IJuunoN Sandkrson (Secretary), and 
Mr. W. North, appointed for the purpose of investigating the Influence of 
Rodily I'jxercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the e.\periments to be con- 
ducted by Mr. North). Drawn up by Mr. North 2G6 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committer, coiiftistiiijr of Mr. Jons CoitOKAfX (Scon'tary), 
['roftwor Nkwton, Mr. J. A. IIakvii'.-Hkhwn', Mr. \\ ir,i,i\.M Ivvtiii; Clakkh, 
Mr. U. .M. lUiuaN(ir(i.\, mid Mr. A. (i. Moui;, ii]ipnintod lur the j)ur|Mis(! of 
obtiviniii<r (witli tho con.sont of tlio Mnslt-r and llretliroii i>f the Trinity 
IIouHi' luid tlin (^oiiiiiiissioners of Northern and Iri.-^li Li^iits) ol)st'rviitiona 
on till) .Mip'iitioii of Jiirds at Lij.Hitlioii.-t','< and ]JL'litve.s.>*('ls, iiiid of rcpnrtiiifr 
on the Humo -' '^ 

l{t>port of tho Commit tci', consist iiiy of I'roffssor Nkwton (Secretary), I'ro- 
fes.sor IiANKKSTi;i{, and I'rofcssor (iAM(ii:i,', a|)jtointcd fur tiio j)iir|t()se of pre- 
paring a liil)lioi,'rapliy of certain (irou|i.s of Iiivortebrata 270 

lioport of the Oomniittco, con.si.stiiiM^ of Sir Joski-ii IFooKRit, Dr. (li-NTUi-u, 
Mr. IIowAUit Saumii'.iw, and Mr. 1*. L. Sci.ati.u (Secretary), appointed 
for tlio imrposo of f).\))ii)rinjr Kilinia-njaro and tli« adjoiiiiiij,' mouiitaiiis of 
. Eaatorn I']quatorial Africa 271 

lieport of tlio C'omiiiittce. consistiiijr of tlic I'ev. Canon 'I'kistka.m, tlie llev. 
F. Lawuknck, and Mr. .1 amim (Ir.AisiiKit (Secretary), for promoting' tiio 
Survey of lOastern Pale.st iuo 272 

lleport of tlie (joinmitteo, coii'^istinf,' of .Mr. ISuAititooK (Secretary), .Mr. 
r'KANCis (lALToN, Sir IxAWsoN liAWsoN', niid Mr. ('. lioiiiniis. appiiinted for 
the ])nrpose of defraying tlie expenses nf CDinpIetiiif^ the preparation of the 
tinal Ueport of the .\iitlin)pometvic Coniinittee 27i) 

Report of the Conmiittee, oon,sistin<r of Dr. .T. II. Gladstone (Secretary), -Mr. 
WiLUAM Shai:n, .Mr. Sti:i'iii;n Bouhne, Mi.-.s Lydia Hi'.ckeh, Sir .John 
Lubbock, IJart., Dr. II. \V. Okosskfa', Sir llnxiiY I']. ]>o.scoe, Mr. .James 
IlEYWoon, and Professor N. Stoky Maskei.yxe, appointed for tiic pnrjiose 
of continuing the iiKjuiries relatin<i' to tiie teadiiiifr of Science in I'llenientary 
Schools .". 2H3 

Second Report of the < Committee, con.si.stinpr of Sir Joseph WiiiTWOirrn, Sir 
AV. Thomson, Sir F. J. DKAM\VEi-r,, Mr. A. Stuoii, Mr. Reck, ^Ir. W. 11. 
Pkeec'e, Mr. 10. Ckomi'TON, Mr. K. Rku; (Secretary), Mr. A. Lk Ni;ve 
FosTEK, Mr. Latimer ('lark, Mr. II. Trceman Wooh, and Mr. Uuckney, 
appointed for the jmrposo of determinint,'' a Gaufre tor the niannfactnre of 
the variou.s small Scro\v.s used in Tolef,'rapliic and I'llectrical .\i)paratus, in 
Clockwork, and for other analofrona piirpo«'s 287 

Report of the Committee, consistintr of Sir Freiiertck Buamweli. (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir William 'I'iiomson, Mr. 
St. John Vincent Day, Sir F. .Viiel. Cajitain Doiolas (talton, Mr. K. 
H. Carhuxt, Mr. Macroky, Mr. II. Trueman Woon, Mr. AV. IF. Harlow, 
Mr. A. T. Atciuson, Mr. R. K, Wiohster, Mr. A. Carpmael, Sir John 
Luunocic, Mr. Theodore .Vston, and Mr. Jami;s Prunlees, appointed for 
the purpo.se of watching and reportiiiir to the Council on Patent Lef,nsIation 293 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Park Harrison, General 
Pitt-Rivers, Mr. F. Galton, Profe,s.sor Flower, Profe.s.sor Thane, Dr. 
Beddoe, Mr. Hrahrook, Dr. .Muikhead, Mr. V. W. Rudler, Professor 
]Macalister, and Dr. (Iarson (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
defining the Facial Characteristics of the Races and Principal Cros.ses in 
the British Isles, and obtaining Illustrative Photographs with a view to 
their publication 294 

Report of the Committee, conslstingof Professors Dewar and A. W. William- 
son, Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain .Vbney, Dr. Stoniov, and Professors W. 
N. Hartley, McLeou, Carey Foster, A. K. IIitxtixgton, IOmiorson Hey- 
NOLDs, Ueinold, Ltveing, Lord Uayleigh, and W. Chandler RoBEitrs 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the present state 
of our knowledge of Spectrum Analysis 295 






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Oi 

On 

On 
Im 

On 



270 



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f'ONTRNTS. Ij 

° taiS™;;;;;; !:■ IS"" """'""^ """ '"'"""" '■ ■""..•..■..■■■liri;,: ■"" 

p. , , 44(j 

On the Theory of the stoaniw.:„.in.'r"'ii;y>;;;;^;^;,;;„;;;;;"ii;'T;;;;;;ox ^oo 

ISy^'loV/^hir' '"'^"r"'^; .-V^l' Supplcuontary Remarks on the New 
On American IVrnmnent Way. My JusKi-ir M. Wir.sox, A.^f., M.IuM.C.E. 593 



283 



287 



294 



295 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.—MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

TIIURSBAY, AUGUST 28. 

Page 
Address bv Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., I.I..1>., D.C.Ii., F.R.S.L. 
& K., F'.ll.A.S., Proddfiit of the Section G13 

1. On the Action of Fjubricants. By Professor Osiiorne Reynolds, F.R.S. 622 

2. On Kinetic lOlastirity as ilhistratiiifr the >reehanieal Theory of Heat. Ry 
Professor Osiioune Reynolhs, F.R.S , 622 

3. On the Vapour-])ressuie of a snhstance in the solid and liqnid states at the 

same teni])eruture. By Profe.ssor AViLiJAM Ramsay, I'h.I)., and Sydney 
Young, D.Sc 622 

4. On the Law of Total Radiation at Iliprh Teiuperntures. By Professor J. 

Dewak, M.A., F.R.S 623 

6. On Jjoss of ileal l)y Radiation and Convection as alVected ))y the diinr^n- 
sions of tlie coolinii' budv, and cm Coolini^ in Vaciiiur Bv J. T. ]'.>ttom- 
u.!Y,M..\.,F.R.S.K : ;. 623 

6. On a Gyrostatic Workinj,' Model of the Majmetic Compass. By Professor 

Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.15.S 625 

7. Recent Ln])rovemen'i in A))paratus and Methods for Soundinj^ Ocean Depths, 

By Itear-Admiral Uaniel Ammen, T.S. Xavy 629 

FlilDA )\ AUaUST 21». 

1. The Seat of the lOleciromotive Force.s in the Voltaic Cell. ]iy Professor 
Oliyek J. Lou(ii;, U.Sc 631 

2. Report of tiie Committee for constnictinj.' and issuin},' practical Standards 

for use in lOlectrical Measurements 631 

3. On certain prattical applications of a new Mechanical Principle. By Pro- 

fessor H. S.IIele Siiaw 631 

4. On some Irregularities depending on Temperature in Bailv's experiments 

on the Mean liensity of the Earth. ]iy Professor AV. M. lIiCKS, M.A 632 

5. On Safety Fuses for Electric Circuit-s. Bv Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, LL.'D., F.R.S ' 632 

6. A Lecture Experiment on Induction. By Professor Lord Ratleiqh, 
LL.I)., F.R.S 632 

7. On Telephoning tlirough a Cable. By Professor Lord Rayleigh, LL.D., 

F.R.S 632 



622 



622 



623 



631 

631 

631 

632 

632 

632 

682 



CONTENTS. ix 

Vngo 
8. On llif Iiilliit'iifi' of .Mttfjiit'tisiii oil tlio Disfliaixo (if Mli'ctricity through 
QaMt's. By I'lofesHor AiirubU Sciiuhieu, 1'".U.S \ 033 

0. On a fiahimonictt'r witli Twenty Wires. 15v I'loffssor Lord liAYi.RKiii, 

l.L.l)., 1".1{.S ; 033 

MO.XDA Y, si:rTKMni:ii i. 

1. On the ('(innection Ix'twccii Simspols and T'-rrcslrial i'h'-nomt'na. By 

I'rolessor AiauuK .ScJiusii;ic, I'.lt.S .*. (534 

1*. On corUvin .Sliort IVriods coiunion to .Solar and Tfrn'strial Motcorolop-ioal 
riicnoniena. \\\ Professor JJali'oik SniWAur, M.A., LL.l)., l'\li.8., 
and Wm. LAXTCAKnoNTEK, JJ.A., J{.Sc., I'.C.S 634 

3. Second Report of the Commit tto tor t he Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Obser- 

vations 034 

4. lieport of tht! Committee for reducinjr and tfl,hulr> 'iig tlie Tidal Observa- 
tions in the lOnglish (Jhnnnel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
eonnecling them with observations made on the Iniieli Coast 034 

0. (hi the Importance of Tidiil Observations in the (hdf of St. Lawrence and 
on the Atlantic Coast of (he !>ominion. By Professor Johnson, LL.l)... (334 

0. lleport of iht; ConmiiilHo for considering tin- l)e8t methods of recording 

tht! IJirect Intensity of Solar I{a<liation 035 

7. Fourth J leport of the Committee on Metemic Dust 0;i5 

8. On the Spot Spectrum from D to B. By the Bev. S. J. I'f.kuy, I'Ml.S.... 035 

I). On llecent Progress in Photographing the Solar Spectrum. By Professor 
H. A. ilowLANi) 035 

10. On an Induct ion Inclinometer adapted for IMiotographic Kegistration. By 

Chaklks Caiu'makl, -M.A 035 

11. On an Electric Control for an Iviuatorial Clock-movement. By the Eari, 

01" ItossE, F.lt.S 030 

12. On Polishing the Specula of lietleeting Telescopes. By the IOakl of 
JtossK, F.K.S 037 

13. An Account of some preliminary lv\i)eriments with liiram's Anemometers 
attached to Kite-wires. By I'rotessor \\. Douglas AKCiiinAi.n, M.A 639 

14. On the recent Sun-glows and Ilalo in connection with the lOruption of 

Krakatoa. By Professor 10. DouoLAs AkciiiiiaM), M.A 641 

15. On Whirlwinds and Waterspouts. By Professor .Iamks Thomson, LL.D., 
F.K.S ; 641 

16. On the Formatiim of Frasil Ice. By O. 11. IlENsnAAV 644 

17. Note on the Internal Temperatui'e of the lOarth at Westville, Nova Scctia. 

By n. S. Poole, F.G.S 044 

18. On the Formation of Mackerel Sky. By Dr. II. MuntiiEAn 044 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMJlini '2. 
Subsection of Mathematics. 

1. Note on NeAvton's Theory of Astronomical Uefraction, and on hiw Expla- 
nation of the Motion of the Moon's Apogee. By Professor J. C. Adams, 
F.Il.S 645 

2. Historical Note on Continuity. By the Bev. C. TAYLoit, D.D 045 

3. On a Model of the C!ylindroid, showing the Nodal Line. By Professor 
Roberts. Ball, LL.D., F.K.S 046 



*. CONTKNIS. 

Page 

4. On Solvable IiTeduciblt^ Equations of Prime Degree. By Professor George 

Paxton Youno 64G 

5. The Tactinvariaiit of a Conical Section and a Cubic Curve. By Profes.'ior 

F. LiNDEMAN'N, PIl.D 647 

6. On the * Analysis Situs ' of Tlireedimensional Spaces. By Professor 

Waltiikk Dyck, Ph D G48 

7. On the Expression of the ("o-ordinate of a Point in terms of the Potential 

and Line of Force at the Point. By Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A 049 

8. On the Pressure at a Point inside a Vovtex-rinjif of Uniform Vorticity. By 

Professor W. M. IIicKs, ^[.A '. 049 

9. Transformation of tin- Stereo<rraph ic Equatorial Projection of a sphere by 

means of a certain form of the Peaucellier Cell. By Professor A. W. 
PnrLurs 040 

10. A Geometrical Theorem in connection with tiie Three-cusped Ilypocycloid. 

By R. F. Davis ". '.... 649 

11. On the Discriminatinfr Condition of Maxima and ^linima in the ('alculus 

of Variations. By E. P. Oulveuwull, M.A 049 

12. On the Invariable Plane of the Sc^^r System. By Dayid P. Todd, M.A. 651 

Subsection of Physics. ' './ " 

1. Report of the Committee for facilitatinjj the adoption of the Metric • 

System of "\Vei»lits and Measures in Ch-ent Britain 051 

2. On the Colours of Thin Plates. Bv Professor Lord Rayleigh, LL.L., 
F.R.S .'. 651 

3. On Olark'.-i Standard Cells. By Professor Lord Kayleioh. LL.D., F.R.S. 051 

4. On an Analo<rv between Heat and Electricity. Bv Professor G. F. Fitz- 

gerald, F.R.S '. 052 

5. The Telemeter System. By J. Urquhart Mackenzie 052 

6. The Influence of an Electric (hirrent on the Thinning of a Liquid Film. 

By Professors A. W. Reinold and A. W. Rucker 052 

7. On the Diffusion of Metals. By Professor W. Chandler Rouerts, F.R.S. 053 

8. On some Plienomena couTiected with Iron and other Metals in the solid 
and molten states, with notes of experiments. By \V. J.Millar 053 

9. On the Velocitv of Light of Different Colours. By Professor George 

Forbes ". 053 

10. On the Velocity of Liirht in (Carbon Bisulphide and the Dilterence in 

Velocity of Red and Blue Light in tlu) same. By Albert A. Michelson 654 

11. On a Systematic Researcii for Stars with a Measurable Annual Parallax, 

and its Results. By Professor RoitERX S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 054 

12. On an Electrodynamonieter, with extremely light moving coil, for the 

measurenieii*: »f small alternating currents. By Dr. W. II. Stone 054 

13. On the Law regulating the Connection between Current and Intensity of 

Incandescence of Carbon Filaments in Glow Lamps. By W. H. Preece, 
F.R.S 054 

14. On the Equations of Dynamo-Electric ^Machines. By Professor Silvanus 

P. Thompson 655 

15. On Earth Currents. By E. O. Walker 055 

16. Description of a (Hdindrical Slide Rule or Calculating Apparatus. By 
Edwin Thacher 056 



649 



.. 652 

.S. 653 

lid 
.. 653 

... 653 



CE, 


654 


?us 


655 


. . > • 


655 


By 


656 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

17. On the Inconveniences of the present Mode of quotinp; Scientific Journals. 

By Dr. II. Horns, F.C.S , 056 

18. An Account of unusual coloured Bows observed in Foos. By Philip 
Burton 656 

10. On the Temperature of the Interior of a Block of Melting Ice. By James 
B. Francis 057 

Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by Professor Sir II. K IloscoE, Ph.D., LL.D., F.Pv.S., F.C.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 659 

1. On Complex Inorfjanic Acids. By Professor Wolcott Gibbs 669 

2. On an Example of Chemical Equilibrium. By A. Vernon IIarcourt, 

M.A., LL.D., F.li.S 671 

3. On the Incomplete Combustion of Gases. By II. B. Dixon, M.A 671 

4. Spectroscopic Studies of Explosions. By Professors Liveing, F.R.S., and 

Dewar, F.K.S 072 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2'i. 

1. On the Constitution of the Elements. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 672 

2. On the Cliemical Aspect of the Storage of Power. By Professor E. 

Fkankland, D.C.L., M.I)., F.It.S 673 

3. On the Magnetic Rotation of Compounds in relation tn their Chemical 
Composition. By VV. H. Perkin, Pii.D., F.R.S 673 

4. On the present state of our Knowledge of Refraction lOquivalents. By Dr. 

J. IL Gladstone, F.R.S 674 

5. On the Diflusion of .Metals. By Professor W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. 675 

6. On some Phenomena of Solution illustrated by the case of Sodium Sul- 
phate. By Professor William A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.R.S 675 

7. A Theory of Solution. By AV. W. J. NicOL, M.A., B.Sc 675 

8. On Evaporation and Dissociation. By Professor William Ramsay, Ph.D., 

and Sydney Young, D.Sc 675 

9. On Molecular Volumes. By Professor William Ramsay, Ph. 1) 676 

10. On Calcium Sulphide and Sulphocarbonate. Bv V. II. Veley, M.A., 
r.C.S \ 677 

11. On the Action of Sulphuretted Hydrogen upon Silver. By Professor 

F. P. DUNNINGTON '. 678 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee upon the present state of our knowledge of 
Spectrum Analysis 678 

2. Second Report of the Committee on (Jheniical Nomenclature 678 

3. On Coal-Tar Colouring Matters. By W. II. Peukjn, Ph.D., F.R.S 678 

4. On the Manufarture of Soda and Chlorine. By NV. Weldon, F.R.S 679 

5. On the Chemistry of the Natural Silicates, By Professor T. Sterf.y 
Hunt, LL,D., F.R.S 679 



aoi CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. On the Liquefaction of Oxygen and the Density of Liquid Hydrogen. By 
Professor James Diiwak, M.A., F.R.S G79 

7. On the Physical Constants of Solutions. By Professor W. L. Goodwin, 

D.Sc, and Professor D. H. Makshali., M.A., F.li.S.K C79 

8. On the Production of Permanent Gas from Paraffin Oils. By Dr. Steven- 

son Macadam, F.H.S.E 680 

9. On tlie Dianiondiferinis Deposits of South Africa and the Ash of the 

Diamond. By Professor Sir II. E. UoscoE, Ph.D., LL.D., F.U.S G81 

10. On a Redetermination of tlie Atomic Weight of Cerium. By II. Robinson 681 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Chemical Changes in their relations to Micro-organisms. By Professor 

E. Frankland, D.C.L., M.D., F.R.S [ 681 

2. On Nitritication. By R. Wakington 682 

3. On the Assimilation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Plants. By Professor 

W. O. AXWATEB .'. 685 

4. On some points in the Composition of Soils, with results illustrating the 

Sources of Fertility of Manitoba Prairie Soils. By Sir John B. Lawes, 
Bart., F.R.S., and Dr. J. II. Gilbert, F.R.S 686 

5. On the Velocity of E.\plosious in Gases. ' By II. B. Dixon, M.A 688 

6. On the Colour of Chemical (Compounds. By Professor Thos. ('arnelley, 
D.Sc 688 

7. Preliminary Notes on a Blue-colouring matter, found ' . certain wood, 
undergoing decomposition in the forest. By Professor G. P. Girdwood, 
M.D., and J.Bemrose,F.C.S 689 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THUUSDAYy AUGUST 28. 

Address by W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S., Sec.G.S., F.R.G.S., President of 

the Section 691 

1. Results of past experience in Gold Mining in Nova Scotia. By Edwin 
Gilpin, Jun., A.M., F.G.S., F.R.S.C 711 

2. A Comparison of the Distinctive Features of Nova Scotian Coal-fields. 

By Edwin Gilpin, Jun., A.M., F.G.S., F.R.S.C 712 

3. On the Coals of Canada. By II. A. Budden 713 

4. On the Geology of Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia. By the Rev. D. 

HONEYMAN, D.C.L., F.R.S.C ; 714 

5. Gleanings from Outcrops of Silurian Strata in Red River Valley, Manitoba. 

By J. lioYES Panton, M..i 715 

6. The Apatite Deposits of the Province of Quebec. By G. 0. Brown 716 

7. On the Occurrence of the Norwegian ' Apatitbringer ' in Canada, with a 

few notes on the microscopic characters of some Laurantian Amphiholites. 
By Frank D. Adams, M.Ap.Sc 717 

8. On the Acadian Basin in American Geology. Bv L. W. Bailey, M.A., 
F.R.S.C : 717 

9. Pennsylvania before and after the Elevation of the Appalachian Mountains. 

By Professor E. W. Claypole, B.A., B.Sc.Lond., F.(;.S 718 

10. On the Occurrence, Localities, and Output of the Economic Minerals of 
Canada. By William Hamilton Merritt, F.G.S 719 



CONTENTS. 



Zlll 



689 



712 
713 

714 

715 
716 



717 
717 
I. 718 
f. 719 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Page 

1 . Phases in the Evolution of the North American Continent. By Professor 

J. S. Nkwherry, M.D 719 

2. Marginal Kames. By Professor II. Carvii.l Lewis, IM.A 720 

3. Twelfth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland ... 720 

4. On Fluxion-Structure in Till. By IIugu Mili.kr, A.R.S.M., F.G.S 720 

5. On the Glacial Origin of Lake Basins. Bv Alfred II. 0. Selwyn, TjL.D., 

F.R.S 721 

0. On Points of Dissimilarity and llesemblance Ijetween Acadian and Scottish 

Glacial Beds. By Ralph Rich ardsoit , F.R.S.E 722 

7. Upon thi! improhability of the theory that former Glacial IVriods in the 

Nortliern Hemisphere were due to l']ccentricity of the Earth's Orbit, and 
to its Winter Perihi'lion in the North. By W. F. Stanley, F.G.S., 
F.R.Met.Soc 723 

8. On Ice-Age Theories. By the Rev. E. Hill, M.A., F.G.S 723 

9. On the recent Discovery of new and remarliable Fossil Fishes in the Car- 

boniferous and Devonian Rocks of Ohio and Indiana. Bv Professor 

J. S. Newiierry, M.D \ 724 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On the Fossil Reticulate Sponges constituting the Family Dictyospongidse. 

By Professor James Hall, LL.D 725 

2. On the Lamellihranchiata Fauna of the Upy lelderberg, Hamilton, 

Portage, Ohem\mg and Oatshill Groups (equiv. to the Lower, Middle 
and Upper Devonian of Europe) ; with especial ■ - rence to the Arrange- 
ment of the ^lonomyaria and the Development and Distribution of the 
Species of the Genus Leptodesma. By Professor James Hall, LL.D... 726 

3. On the ArchsEan Rocks of Great Britain. Bv Professor T. G. Bonnby, 

D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.G.S .". 727 

4. The Eozoic Rocks of North America. By T. Sterry Hunt, LL.D., 
F.R.S : 727 

R. First Impressions of some Pre-Cam1)rian Rocks of Canada. By Professor 
J. F. Blaki;, M.A., F.G.S \ 728 

6. On the Southward Pending of a great Synclinal in the Taconic Range. Bv 
Professor James I). Dana, LL.D \. 729 

7. Notice of a Geological Map of Monte Somma and Yesuviiis. Bv II. J. 

Johnston-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S .' 730 

8. Report on the National Geological Surveys of Europe 730 

0. The Value of detailed Geological Maps in relation to Water-supply and 

other Practical Questions. By W. Whitaker, B.A., F.G.S \ 731 

10. On the Mode of Occurrence of Precious Stones and ^Fefals in India. Bv 

V. Ball, M.A., F.R.S .'. 731 

11. What is a Mineral Vein or Lode? Bv V,. Le Neve Foster, B.A., D.Sc, 

F.G.S .' 732 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Plan for the Subject-Bibliography of North American Geology. By 
G.K.Gilbert '. 732 

2. On some remains of Fish from the Upper Silurian Rocks of Pennsylvania. 

By Professor E. W. Claypole, B.A., B.Sc. (Lond.), F.G.S '. 733 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On American Jurassic Mammals. By Professor 0. C. Marsh ... 784 

4. On the Geology of South Africa. By Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S ■ '. 730 

5. On the more Ancient Land Florals of the Old and New Worlds. Bv 

Principal Sir W. Dawson, O.M.n., LL.l)., F.R.S .". 738 

(5. On tlie Relative Age.s of tlie American and the English Cretaceous and 
Eocene Series. By J. Starkte Gardner, F.L.S., F.G.S 739 

7. Ou the Structure of English and American Carboniferous Ooals. By 

Edward Wetmered, F.G.S., F.(^S .'. 741 

8. Second Report on tlie Fossil Phyllopodaof llie Palaeozoic Rocks 741 

9. A preliminary ]"]xamination of +he Silicious Organic Remains in the 

Lacustrine Deposits of thr Province of Xova Scotia, Canada. By 
Alexander Howard Mackay, B.A., B.Sc 742 

10. Tenth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters in the Perraenhle 
Formations of England, and tlie Quantity and Character of the Water 
.supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Formations 742 

11. Fifth and last Report on ros.sil Polyzoa 742 

12. Report on the ^Exploration of the Ray gill Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire 742 



wjwy^SBAy, SHPTHMJiEii ;}. 

1. Tlie Geological Age of the Acadian Fauna. By G. F'. Matthew, A.M., 

F.R.S.(^. 742 

2. The Primitive Oonocoryphean. By G. F. Matthew, A.M., F.R.S.C 743 

3. Report on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea Coasts of England and Wales... 744 

4. Fourth Report on the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 744 

5. The Geology of x . ine. By Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 744 

6. Notes on Niagara. By P. IIallett, M.A 744 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
T II i'RSn AY, AUGUST 2S. 

Address by Professor II. N. Moseley, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.(^,.S., 

F.Z.S., President of the Section 746 

1. On the Geographical Distrilmtion of the Macrurous Crustacea. By 

C. Si'ENCE Bate, F.R.S 753 

2. On the Geographical and Bat hymetrical Distribution of tiie Crinoidea. 

By P. Herbert Carpenter, D.Sc 758 

3. On the Origin of Fre.sh- Water Faunas. By Professor W. J. Sollas, F.G.S. 760 

4. On a F^ish supposed to be of Deep-sea Origin, By the Rev. D. IIoneyman, 

D.C.L., F.R.S.CJ 701 

6. On the Trapping of Young F'ish bv tlie Water Weed Utricuhiria vuh/aris. 
By Professor Mo'^i/uEY, LL.D., F.R.S '. 761 

6. On the Coiu'ordance of the Mollusca inhabiting both sides of the North 
Atlantic and the intermediate Seas. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, IjL.D., 
F.R.S 701 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



741 



742 



.. 742 

.. 743 

. 744 

.. 744 

744 

744 



758 
LS. 760 

... 701 



iv.s". 



7G1 



•til 



■(il 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

Page 

1. Fourth Report of the (.'ommittee for the Investi',''ation of tlie Natural 

I listory of Timor Laut 761 

2. Report of the Committee for the Exploration of Kilima-njuro and the ad- 
joiiiinjj; Mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa 761 

3. Report of the Committee for arranginy: for the occupation of a Table at 
the Zoolofrical Station at Naples 761 

4. Report on the Record of Zoological Literat ure 761 

5. Report of the Committee for preparing a Bibliography of certain Groups 

of Invertebrata .' 762 

6. Report on the Migration of Birds 762 

7. On the Characteristic Features of North American Vegetation. By Pro- 

fessor Asa Grav 762 

8. On the Identity of the Animals and Plants of India which are mentioned 

by early Greek Authors. By V. Bai.i,, M.A., F.R.S 762 

9. On the Classification and Affinities of Dinosaurian Reptiles. Bv Professor 

0. C. Marsh '. 763 

10. On the Rudimentary Iliiid-Limb of the Tay Whale, Mofjaptera lomjimana. 

By Professor J. STRurnERs, M.D ". '. '. 766 

11. Note on the occurrence of Bacteria on the Surface of Coins. By Professor 

Louis Elsberg, A.M., M.U 766 

12. On the Comparative Variableness of linnes and Muscles, with Remarks on 

I'nity of Type in Variation of the Origin and Insertion of certain 
Muscles in Species unconnected by Unity of Descent. By G. E. Uobson, 
M.A., F.R.S 767 



MONDAY, HKPTEMliER 1. 

1. On the Value of Nerve-Supplv in the Determination of Muscular Anomalies. 

By Professor D. J. Cunningham, xM.D 768 

2. On the Mutual Relation of the Recent Groups of Echinoderms. By Pro- 
fessor A. Milnes Marshall, M.D 768 

3. On the Foetal Membranes of the Marsupials. By W. II. Calpwell 768 

4. On the Progress of his Investigations in Australia. By W. II. Caldwell 768 

5. An Attempt to exhibit Diagrammaticallv the several Staires of Evolution 

of the Mammalia. By G. E. Dobsox, M.A., F.R.S 768 

0. On some Peculiarities in the Geographical Distribution of certain Mammals 
inhabiting Continental and Oceanic Islands. Bv (i. E. Dobsox, M.A., 
F.R.S. ■ 770 

7. On the Geographical Distribution of the Larida; (Culls and Terns), with 

special reference to ('anadian Species. By IIowaud Saunders, F.L.S.... 771 

8. Result of the Investigations of Insular Floras. By W. B. IIelmsley 772 

9. Some Observations on the direct descendants of Bos Primigenius in Great 

Britain. By G. P. Hughes 772 

10. On Natural Co-ordination, as evinced in Organic Evolution. By Dr. W. 
Fraser , ' 772 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Subsection of Physiology. 

Page 

1. On tlie ('o.'if,'ulati(in of Blood. By Professor II. N. Martin and W. It. 

IIOWELL 774 

2. On the Blood :,f Li.nnhiti Poli/p/iemu-i. By FfiA>cis Gotcit, B.Sc, and 

JosKPH P. Laws, F.C.S 774 

3. On Vaso-motor Nerves. By Professor II, P. Bowditch 776 

4. DenionstratioM of tlie Co-ordinatini; Centres of Kronecker. By T. Wesley 

Mills, M.A., M.I) 776 

5. On tlie Cardiac Nerves oi the Turtle, Bv Professor Hugo Kronecker 

and T. Wesley Mills, M.A,, M,I) ". 776 

6. On the Functions of tlm Marfrinal Convolution. By V. IIorsley, M.B., 

B.Sc, and Professor E, A. Sch.afer, F.Iv.S 777 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMIiETi 2. 

1. On the Ova of IMonotremes. By Professor II, N, Moseley, LL,D., F.R.S. 777 

2. E«port on the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of 

Nitrogen \ 777 

3. Remarks on the f Caldwell Automatic Microtome 777 

4. On Sensory Nerve-sacs in the Skin of Amiurus (Siluridffi). By Professor 

R. Ramsay Wright, M.A., B.Sc " 777 

5. On the Function of the Air-bladder and its relationship to the Auditory 

Organ in Amiurus. By Professor R. Ramsay Wright, M.A., B.Sc. ... 778 

6. On the .Tessop Collection, to illush-ate the Forestry of the United States 

in the New York Natural History Museum. By Albert S. Bickmore...' 778 

7. On the Structure and Development of Loxosoma. Bv Sidney F IliRMFR 

B.A., B.Sc ;. ■ ' [ 779 

8. On Anatomical Variations : (I.) Par-occipital Process occurrin"- in Man. 

(2.) Secondary Astragalus. (3.) Pei-sistence of the Left Duct" of Cuvier 

in ^lan. By Professor Shepherd, M.I) 77c) 

{». On the Presence of Eyes and other Sense Organs in the Shells of the 
Ohitonidfe. By Professor II. N. Moseley, LL.D.,F.R.S 780 

10. On the Structure and Arrangement of the Feathers in the Dodo. Bv Pro- 

fessor H. N, Moseley, LL,D., F.R,S ' "...„., 782 

11. On the Presence in the Enteropneusfn of a structure comparable with the 
Notochord of the Chordata. By William Bateson 782 

12. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Fhtftopti. Bv Professor 

P. McMurrick ,' \ ^ 7g;, 

13. On the Diatomaceous remains in tlie Lake Deposits of Nova Scotia Bv 

A. II. Mackay ■ ^ 7gg 

Subsection ok Piiysiolooy. 

1. On the Demonstration of an Apparatus for recording Chan<i-es of Volume 

By Professor E. A. Sen AFER, F.R.S [^, ' 73^ 

2. Remarks on the Problem of Aquatic Breathing. By Professor McKen- 

drick, M.D., F.R.S _' '^ ^ 7g3 

3. On the Biliary Concretions ; demonstrating a Uniformity in the Construc- 

tion of Concretions in the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Iun"'doms 

P)j Dr. G. IIarley, F.R.S " '733 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

Page 

4. On the Secretion of Oxalic Acid in the Dog. BvT. Wkslkt Mills, M.A., 
M.l) '. 783 

5. On the Mechanism of VLsorption. By Professor V.. A. Schaper, F.R.S. 783 

On a Method of studying the In-ha'-iour of the Germs of Septic Organisms 
under Changes of Temperature. By the Rev. Dr. Dallingku, F.ll.S.... 785 

7. Or. a Vegetable Organism which separates Sulphui-. By A. W. Bknnett 785 

8. On the Physiology of Therapeutics of the Cliloial Hydrate aud Ansesthetics 
generally. By Dr. W. Alexaxdiju 785 

9. On the Growth of Children. By Dr. 0. S. Minot 785 

10. On the Proteids of Serum. Bv W. B. Halliburton and Profe isor E. A. 

SCHAFER, F.R.S ". 785 

11. On the Climate of Canada and its relations to Life and Health. By Dr. 

W. H. IIlNGSTON 785 

12. On the Production and Propagation of the American Trotter and Classifi- 
cation of the Spermatozoa and Ova. By Dr. W. McM'jnauh 785 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



777 
778 
778 
779 



Til Lit SD AY, AIGUST L>8. 

Address by General Sir .T. 11. Leproi-, O.B., K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., 
Vice-Pres. R.G.S., President of the Section 787 

1. A Communication on Mr. Joseph Thomson's recent Exploration in Eastern 
Africa. By General Sir J, II. Leproy, O.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S 802 

2. A CommunicuLl^.a from Sir Joliu Kirk on Mr. II. Johnston's Kllima-njaro 
Expedition. By General Sir J. II. Lkfroy, V.K, K.C.M.G., F.R.S 802 

3. The latest Researches in the Moeris Basin. By F. Cope Whitehotjse, 

M.A 802 

4. On Maps of Central Africa down to the commencement of the Seventeenth 
Century. By E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S 803 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 2<.». 

1. The remarkable Journey of the trained Indian Explorer A. K. on the 
Frontiers of India and China. By Trelawnev Saunders 80:> 

2. The First General Census of India. By Trelawney Saunders 804 

'6, North Borneo. By E. P. Gueritz 805 

4 Mount Roraima, in Guiana. By Everaru F. im Thurn, M.A 800 

5. Object Lessons in Geography. By E. G, Ravenstein, F.R.G.S 80(» 



'MONDAY, SKPTEMliER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee for promoting the Survey of l"]astern Palestine... 807 

2. Comparison of the Climates of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. By 

Dr. J. Beaufort Hublbert 807 

3. Some peculiar Storms on the North American Continent. By Dr. J. 
Beaufort Hublbert 807 

4. On Dominion Surveys. By Trelawmey Saunders 807 

1884. a 



XVlll ('ONTENTS. 

I'age 
*>. An AutDiiuitic Souiuler. ]>y .Tamks Du.i.ox, ^I.riist.CK 807 

(5, On tlie ]lrili»h C()mini.'VCi.il G>'o<,'riiphieal Sooiety aLoul to be foundcrl on 
the proiiosal of Cominnmlei' V. Lovott Oaiueron, O.B. By Conimandor 
V. J.OVBT. Camtjkox, O.li «08 

TULSDA r, SEVTEMJIEII 2. 

1. Arctic I'Liperiences at Point Barrow, By Lieutenant P, If. Kay, U.S.A... ^08 

2. llecent Discoveries in Nortliern Greenland and in Grinnell J^and. Bv 

Lieutenant A. W, Qreely, U.S.A ^ 808 

•'». A Searcli in British Nortli America for lost Colonies of Northmen and 
Portu^'uesB. By H. G. IIalihukton •'^10 

4. Note snr (|uelque3 ba.>'8ins hvdvofjrapliiques dn Dominion Oriental. Jtv ilu> 

Rev. Abbe .J. U. {.AKLAMJii;, A.M .' 811 

5. On Surveys of the Dominion I^ands — Xorth-Western Territories of 

Canada. By Lixdsay Blssei.l 811 

0. On the former Coimection between North America and the I'lastern side 
of the Atlantic. By Professor W. Boyd Dawkin.s, M.A., F.ll.S H12 

7. On Oliarlcs "Wiimeclce's Explorations in Central Au.stralia, with Notes on 
the Employment of Cameb. By J. S. O'Halloran, F.U.G.S 812 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.O.S.I., CLE., D.C.L., LE.D., F.R.G.S., 

President of tlie Section 813 

1, What makes the Rate of Wages? By E. Atkinson 824 

'- 2. The Post Office Savings Bank System of Canada. W\ J. Cunningham 

Stewart \ 834 

' 3. Dominion Savings Banks. By T. D. Tims 835 

>' 4. Loans and Savings Companies. By W. A. Douglas 835 

6. Irish Emigration. By S. Tuke 835 

C, The British Empire in Nortli America and in Australasia. By W. W'est- 
gartii 835 

FllID A. Y, A UG UST 29. 

L Media of lOxclumge : some Notes on the Precious Metals and their ICquiva- 
lents. By John B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S 8.37 

2. National Debts. By Michael G. Mulhall 8.38 

•13. Canadian Finance. By J. McLennan 841 

4. On the Production and Consumption of Meat in the United Kingdom. 
By Major P. G. Oraigib, F.S.S., Secretary of the Central Chamber of 
Agriculture of Great Britain 841 

^ 5. Britisli and Canadian Agriculture. By Professor J. P. Sheldon 847 

0. The Position and Prospects of British Agriculture. By Professor 
AV. Fkeam, B.Sc. F.L.S., F.G.S 847 

•J 7. The Agricultural Resources of Ontario. By John Carnegie 848 

J 8. On the Agricultural Resources of Nova Scotia. By Major-General Laurie, 

D.O.L 849 



CONTKNTS. Xix 

MUSI) AY, SEPT KM Hint 1. 

1. lloport (if thft t'ommifteo luv do fraying the expenses of completing: the 
final Report of tile A nthroponicLric Ouinmitt'^o 8r»l 

2. Ilt'])ort of the Committee for co»^iniiiii;j: tho iiK(uiries relating to the 

teaching of Scier.ce in Elenit'iitary Sch lols 851 

3. The Intei'dependence of tho several portions of the liritinh Empire. Bv 

Stkphkn Bourne, F.S.S .'. 85] 

4. Tile Factory Acts. By II. WiiATEr-Y OooKE-TAvnoK 85;i 

' C. The Phosphate Industry of Canada. By Roiii'iiT ('. Adams 853 

^ a The Fisheries of Canada. By L. Z. JoMGAS 854 

•J 7. On the Application of Scientiiic and Practical Arhoricnlture in Cana<la. 

J{y I'rofessor Brown 855 

■^ 8. Tlie Distribute ni of Oanadi in Forest Trees. By A. T. Duummond 855 

0. The Forests of Canada. By Uobf.rt Bst,l, M.D., LL.D 850 

10. Forests their Value Meteorolofricallv and as National Reserves. Bv 
a. P. Hughes '. .". 800 

- II. The Future Policv of Forest Management in the United States. Bv 

F, B. IIouGir .....' .'. 801 

TfrKSDAY, SEVTEMJiEIt '_'. 

1. Internal Comniunication bv Land and Water. \\\ Cokxelius Walfoud, 
F.S.S \ \ 801 

J 2. Transport by Land and Water. By 1-'. Wuagge and Alexaxdeh 

McDouGALL. ." 802 

3. On Land Laws. By Emile he Lavelkye 802 

4. Female Emigration. By Miss Maria Rvi: 800 

5. Female Emigration. By Mrs. Burt 800 

G. Female Emigration. Jiy ^Ir>. Joyce 800 

J 7. Population, Immigration, and Pauperism in the Dominion of Canada. Bv 

J. Lowe \. 800 

8. On the Probability that a Marriage entered into at any Age will be 
Fruitful, and tliat a Marriage wliicli Iiik been Cliildless for several years 
will .«ubsequently become Fruitful. I5y T. B. Spkague. M.A \ 800 

!l. On the relative Dangers of Coal and Metal Mining in tlie United Kingdom. 
By C. Le Neve FostivR, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S '. 808 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER :i. 
, 1 . The Banking System of Canada. By II. J . Hague 808 

2. Prospective Prices in Europe, America, and Asia. By Hyde Clarke, 
V.P.S.S 808 

' '•), Harmonies and Antagonisms in the Social Forces. By W. H. Douglass, 

B.A 800 

4. Notes on Friendly Societies, with special reference to Lapses and Malinger- 
ing. By the Rev. G. Cecil White, M.A 809 

5. Tlie Commercial Relations of Canada with Spain and her Colonies. By 
Don Arturo de Marcoarttt 870 

I). Forestry. By J. Beaufort Hurlbert, M.D., LL.D 872 

7. The Forests of Canada. By J. Beaufort IlrnLDERT, M.D., LL.D 872 

ft 2 



zx 



CONTENTS. 



Section <;.— ME(^HANICAL SCIENCE. 

THUIlSiDA Y, AUGUST 28. 

I'uge 
Address by Sir F. J. Mkamwhu,, LL.D., F.R.S.,V.P.In8t.C.E., President of 
the Section ^^75 

1. The Forth Bridge. Uv Bknjamin JIakeb, M.Inst.O.K 884 

2. The Severn Tunnel Uiiilway. lly J. Olarkk IIawksiiaw, M.Inst.C.K.... 884 

3. On Sinfrlt'-Track Uiillways. Hy W. K. MuiR 885 

4. On American IVrmanent Way. By Joseph Wri.HON, A.M., M.Inst.C.E, 880 
6, On the Canadian Pacific Kailwny. By Vkrnon Smith 885 

FlUnA Y, AUGUST 29. 

1. On the Tlicory ol'tht' Stcani-Kiigine. By Professor ItouiiUT IT. Tiiuuston 885 

2. Steam- l';n>.'ino practice in the United States in 1884. By J. (!. IIoADLEY 88(> 

3. Pumpin}.' Machinery. By E. D. LKAvrrr, Jun 889 

4. The Anthracitt! Hurnini^' Locomotive of America. By J. 1). BAKNirrr 800 

5. On EnfyliHh Locomotive Engineering. By A. McDoNNiir.r, and J. A. F. 
Asi'lNALL 800 

6. On the Construction of L(«omotive Engines for the London, Brighton, and 

South Coast Uailwny. By W. STRoxJoi.iiy 800 

7. On Valve Gear. By David .Toy 800 

8. On Heating Buildings hy Steam from a Central Source. By J. IL Barx- 

LETT ' : 801 

MONDAY, SEPT EM It Ell 1. 
L On the Lighthouse System of Canada. By William Smixji 801 

2. Improvements in Coast Signals ; with supplementary llemarks on the 
new Eddystoue Lighthouse. By Sir James N. UoiiG'r.ASS, M.Inst.C.E.... 803 

3. The Watt and Hor.se-Power. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 803 

4. Secondary Batteries. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 893 

5. Domestic Electric Lighting. By W. II. Preece, F.l! . S 803 

6. The Portrusi Electric Railway. By Dr. A. Traim... 803 

7. Electric Tramways. By IIoluoyd Smith 893 

8. A New Volt-Meter. J5y Captain Caudew 893 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Report of the Patent Law Committee 894 

2. Report of the Sci-ew Gauge Committee 894 

3. Report of the Sea-Coast Erosion Committee 804 

4. Some Points in 1 )ynamo-Electric Machines. By Professor S. P. Thomp- 

son, D.Sc 804 

5. On the Heating of Conductors hy Electric Currents. By Professor 

G. FoRHEs .' 894 

G. Automatic Sprinklers for Fire Extinction. By C. J. II. Woodbury 894 

7. On the Friction of .lournals. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S... 895 

8. Grain Elevators. By V. C. Van IIokn 895 



of 

... 876 
... H84 
.... 884 
.... 885 
.E. 886 
.... 886 



CON 886 

LEY 88(i 

889 

890 

.. F. 
890 

and 
890 

890 

Aivr- 
891 

891 

( tbe 
:.... 893 

893 

893 

893 

893 

893 

893 

894 

894 

894 

OMP- 

894 

ev«8or 
... 894 

.... 894 

l.S... 895 

.... SOS- 



CONTENTS, xxi 

Pngo 
f). On the Flow of Water tliroiigli Turbines and Screw I'roiwllera. Jly 
Arthuu llKfo 895 

10. On the Ventilation of Ocean StoamshipH. By A. Lai'THohn Smith, B.A., 
M.I) 806 

WIWNESDA y, SKPTKMniJIl \\. 

1. Tbe Kxtent to whicli ii Qeolopficiil Formation is aviiilable as a Galburing- 

aroimd for Water Supply. By W. Whitakkh, IJ.A., F.H.S 896 

2. On Flood lU'fjulators. By . I. Dillon 806 

.'). On Agricultural Implements. By D. I'idokon 806 

\. On tbo Destruction of Town Ilefuse. By .John Brown, M.D., B.Sc 806 

5. On the Prevention of Accidents at Sea. By Admiral J. E. Commkkkll 897 

Section • H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Til U USD AY, AUGUST 28. 

1. Tbe Ilanj^t! of the Eskimo in Space and Time. Bv l'rofes,S()r W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.B.S '. 808 

± Notice of Exploration of a Group of Mounds in Ohio. By F. W. Putnam 800 

3. On the Cln^.siHcation of North American Languages. By Major J. W. 
Powell .' 800 

Address by E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President of tlie Section ... 890 

FlilDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. Instructions Anthropometriques Elementaires. By Dr. P. ToriNAHD 010 

2. On Myths of the Modoc Indians. By J. Ourtix 910 

Vu On tbe Nature and Origin of Wampum. By Horatio Hai.e 910 

4. Marriage Laws of the North American Tribes. ]{y Major .7. \N'. Powell 911 

5. lleport of the Committee for defining the Facial Characteristics of the 

Races and Principal (Jrosses in the British I.-iles 914 

MO XI) AY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. llemarks on the Cu,stoms and Language of the Iroquois. By Mrs. 
Erminie a. Smith 914 

2. On the Development of Tndu.strial and Ornamental Art among the Zunis 

of New Mexico. By F. II. Cusuino 914 

3. Tbe lluron-Iroquois, a typical race of American Aborigines. By Dr. 

Daniel Wilson 915 

4. Anthropological Discoveries in Canada. By C. A. IIirschfelder 916 

5. Observations on the Mexican Zodiac and Astrology. By llYm; Clarke 916 

(i. Facts suggestive of Prehistoric Intercourse between l^ast and West. By 
Miss A. W. BucKLAND 916 

TUESDA Y, SEPTEMIiEIt 2. 

1. Report of tbe Committee for defraying the expenses of completing the 
preparation of the final Report of tbe Anthropometric Committee 917 

2. Notes on the Races of the Jews. By Dr. A. Neubauer 917 

3. On a Skull from tiie Lii&s of Podbaba, near Prague, and a Skull found in 

alluvium at Kankakee, Illinois, along with a Tooth of tiie Mastodon. 
By Dr. Daniel Wilson 917 



XXn rONTKNT.S. 

Pago 
4. IJt'Cfiit Mxcaviitidus in I'lJii Vilt*. Si)iiier.><i'lBliin'. Wy llio Ui'v. II. 11. 
WlXWOOl) i»lH 

C). On nouu) (Idubtt'iil or iiitcnut'(Uatt! Aiticulatioiis. IJy IIouatio IIat.i; ... 018 

(1. On I''(M)(l IMiuit.i nnt'd liv tlic Xortli AnuTiciin Indians. By I'roi'es.sor 
(Ji;()K(ii; L\W8()N, l'li.I).,"LL.I>., F.I.C, I'.U.S.d 018 

7. Kxliil)iti<in of IMioto^rrupliM of I'lpikiino Relics. l»v liituiiennnt .\. W. 
Ghi:i:i,y, H.S.A '. 019 

8. Ilaljit.s and ("ii.>»toiu.s of the Inn of the Western Shore and Point Harrow. 

My Lientenant I'. II. K.vv, U.S. A 019 

9. Custoni.s and K.'!iM;i()ii9 IJiU-.-* of the niaclcffcl. \\y II. (>. II,\MBUKT(>N ... 020 

10. Notes on th(! AHtronomical (^u.stomH and R('li;.'-ion.s Ideas of th(! Ohoki- 
tapi . or iUac'kfoct Indian.s. liy Jk.vn L'lIiauKU.v, .M..\ 021 

11. Notos on the Kekip Scsoufor.i, or Anciont Sanrificial Stone of tlie N.W. 
Tmitory of Canada. T.y .Ii!.\N L'lIrouHKU.x, M.\ 021 

12. liac I'll.'nifnt.snf tiR' .Malii^jrasy. By ('. St.\nmi,.\M) W.via;, M.A.I 022 

13. Note,«i on Ki'.searcht'.s as to American Orifrins. Hy llvni; Ci,.\UKi; 022 

W i:i).\ESI)AY, SFA'TEMItlAt 3. 

1. On lla^ Lainihiry Sculptiive.s of tlie Dohueii^ of the Morbilian. Hv Admiral 

F. 11. Tiunii-CTT '. 023 

2. .\n .\ccount of Small Flint Instnnnent.s found beneath Peat on the 

Pennine Chain. By R. Law and .I.\mi;s flousK.vLr. 024 

3. On the Priuiarv l)ivision.s and Oeogiaphical Distribution of Mankind. By 

Jamem Dallas, F.L.S ". 024 

4. Notes on .«ome Tribes of New South Wale.s. Dy A. L. P. Oamhron' 024 

Appkndix I. Addresses presented to the Association in Canada 025 

Api'KNnix 11, Foundation of a IMedal at MeGill University, Montreal, in com- 
memoration of the visit of the Dritish Association to Canada 020 

Inukx 0;}.") 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.— III. 

Illustrative of Profe.ssor Schuster's Communication, 'On the Connection between 
Sunspots and Terrestrial Phenomena.' 

PLATES IV. ANi) V. 

Illustrative of Sir James Douglass's Communication, 'On Improvements in Coast 

Signals." 

PLATFS VI.— VIII. 
Illustrative of Mr. J. M. AVilsou's Communication, ' On American Permanent Way.' 

PLATE IX. 

Illustrative of Mr. G. E. Dobson's Couimunicatiou, ' An Attempt to Exhibit 
Diagrammatically the several Stages of Evolution of the Mammalia.' 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



lU E C T S. 

The Association contomplatos iiu iiiterforonco with tho grouiul occupitil 
by other institutions. Its oljjects aro : — To give a strongor impulse and 
a more s^'stematic direction to scieiitilic inquiry, — to promote tho intir- 
courso of tiioHO who cultivate Science in diffei cut parts of tho Britissh 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosoi)hers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to tho objects of IScience, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

li U L K S. 

Admission of Member)^ and A^wclates. 

All persons who have ati'jndcd the first Meeting shall bo entitled to 
become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an ob jation to 
conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in tho British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Associa- 
tion, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Sidt script Ions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pound.s. The}- 
shall receive gratuitomhj the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Suusckiheus shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously tho Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay unthuut intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lone for that and 



XXIV 



UU]-i:s OF TIFE ASSOCIATION. 



all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at 
any subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a compositio i. 

2. Life Members who in 184G, or in subsequent ye- 3, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership 
after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates tor the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life !^^ember^ who have paid Five Pounds as a com- 

position for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a fui'- 
ther sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 
1845, a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members tvho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members^ Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publi- 

cation Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds 
as a composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum 
as a Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume 
for that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) 

any of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up 
to 1874, of which viore than 16 copies remain, at 2s. 6t7. per 
volume.' 
Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Sti'eet, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, £10 the set. 



IIULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



XXV 



ir 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Conimittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Moet'mg, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons -. — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the A.=30ciation. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those ftubjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Couticil, they must 
he sent to the Secretary at least one mouth before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of 
the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temi'Ouary Members. 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained.' Claims under this Rule to he sent to the 
Secretary before the opening (f the Meeting, 

2. Office-beai'ers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims tmder tin's Rule to he ajtproved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are subm'^*^ed to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committeea of the Sections at their first 

' Keviscfl by the General Committee, 1881. 

- Passed by the Generul Cominillec, Kdinburgh, 1871. 

^ Noficr to Coiitril/tito/'s of JI/cnnrirK. \nl] wis are reminded lliat, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Alemoir.s, and llie days on which 
tliey are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizini;- dmimittces 
lor the several Sections hiforr the hcf/hurhif/ of the ^f<^(•filH/. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to tlie Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Autlior should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of alengtli suitable for insertion in tlie published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, togctlier with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 



XXV) 



r.ULES Of THE ASSOCIATION. 



m jeting. Tlio Sectional Presidents of former years are ex ojficiu members 
ol'tho Organizing Sectional Committees.' 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as aix 
Organizing Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution (if the Sectioned Coiaitiittees:^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the Pre;:ident, Vice-Pi'esi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those proviouH Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who maj'^ desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the IMembci's (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance tliey may particularly desire. Tlie Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional ]Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is chai'ged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectioned Comviittees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on tlie 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,* Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Ctimmitiee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.''"' 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 

before , uddressod tlms — '(lontTiil .Secretaries, liriti.sli Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, Ijondon, \V. For Section ' If it should he incon- 
venient to the Author tliat his 2iai)er should be read on any particular da\s, lie is 
reque.sted to send ini'orinatioii thereof tothe Secretaries in a s(^]iarate note. Autliors 
who send in their MSS. three comjilete weeks before the IMeetin.L;-, .and whose papers 
are accepted, will bo furnished, httfore the Meetinir. with printed copies of tiieir 
Reports and Abstracts. No lleport, I'aper. or Abstract can be iii.scrted in the .Annual 
Volume unless it is hiinded either to the Recorder of tlic Section or to the Secretary. 
bi'forc the foiirliisio/i off/ir Mrrfini/. 

' Added by the CJeneral Comuiiltce, Shellidd, IS"'.). 

- Uevised by tlie (ieneral Conunittee, Swansea, IHSO. 

' Passed by the General ('mninittee. Kdini)ur,i:li, IS"!. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional bv the ("ieneral C'oiumi'tee at 
Southport, 188:!. 

' These rules were adopted by the tient'ral Committee, riymouth. 1877. 



KULES OK TlIK ASSOCIATION. 



XXVll 



of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of t!io Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.' The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday sliall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business througliout the week shall be provisionally a|)- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Electing the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to bo r(,'ad. The 
Prii.rcr is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second diiy of the Annual ]\[eoting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as ])0ssible to the Prii'ter, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Seeretai'ies of each Section (generally the Reconler) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the ])Voof each evening. 

Minutes of <.he proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the ]N[inute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting oi 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the ]\Iinute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs awl Copies or Abstracts 
of Meuinirs fiiriiislied hi/ Aufhnrs^nre to hi.' fonvurded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetiiii/s, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary^Iombers of the General Committee (r/(/e ]).xxv),and will receive, 
on application to the Trea.snrer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
theni to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions w'liieh may 
he offered by their iNfembers for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially reciuestrd to review the recommendations adopted at precedi?i"' 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite jtoints of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches; and to slate 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the tunds' of the Association, by applicati( n to 
Govei'nment, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Connnittees for special objects of Science, 
it is ex])edient that all Memtiers of the Committee should, he named, and 
one (f them appointed- to act as Serretari/, for iiisxriiuj attevtio'ii to hnsivess. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they mav require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
bo registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy o 
each is to be forwarded, without delny, to the Secretary for presentatiou 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this he done, the llecom- 
meiidations cannot rrceiue the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first he sanctioned Inj the Committee of that Section befoi-e they 



• This and the following seutciico weir added by tlic General Committeo, 1871. 



XXVlll 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



can be referred to the Cummittee of Recommondations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.' 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom gi-ants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the px'osecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries oi* Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting: nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms anil approaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or otlicr pnr poses than those of the Association, 

At 11 pi'ecisely the Chair will be taken, ^ and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 P.M. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' Passed by (he General Cotniiiittoe at Slicfficld, 187!). 

'^ Tlio ineetiiifr on Saturday may bc<>in, i f desired by the Committee, at any time not 
•earlier than 10 or later tlian 1 1 . Passed by tlie ( ieneval Committee at ISouthport, 1 88;S. 



IIULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



XXIX 



mmum- 
p.M. the 

ves into 
^ications 



I time not 
rt, 188;i. 



A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originall}' called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of tJiP Doovheepevs. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to Avhich they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Ti-easui'er, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

o. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only bo admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. f 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the Geneml Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into considrsration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Corresponding Societies. ' 

(1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

(2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June pi'eceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nom.i- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the jn'eparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee .sliall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as the}- may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or 
before the 1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, 
' Passoil by tlu' (ioncral Committee, 1884. 



XXX 



BULBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



properly filled np, wliich will be issued by the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, and which will contain a request for such particulars with regard to 
the Soiuety as may be required for the information of tlie Corresponding 
Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall bo inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; tliose papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognizance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

(G.) A (Corresponding Si^ciety shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Llembpr of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 



Giivfereucc of Ddegates of Gorresponding Societies. 

(7.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall 1)0 annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresjionding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(8.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meeticgs during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(9.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of lie- 
commendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and tlie Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

(10.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that tliey and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearlv and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shad be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making ari'angements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi,cers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



K|:LRS of TlfR A8,S0f;iATI0N. 

Cou/nc/'L 



XXXI 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXX IX 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE 01'' SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GEXERAI, PHYSICS. 

18;)2. Oxford ) Davios Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. ,llev. H. Coddington. 

18:{:{. Camln-idjic Sir U. IJrowster, F.U.S IVof. Forbes. 

1834. Edinburgh i llev. W. Wliowell, F.ll.S. 'Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1830. I'.ristol 

1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 



SECTIOX A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Itev. Dr. Uobinson ...Prof. Sir W. li. Hamilton, Prof. 

j Whcatstone. 
i:i.'v. William V\niewell,F.R.S.!Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

i Jerrard. 

Sir D. lirew.ster, F.K.S ;W. S. Harris, Pev. Prof. Powell, 

I Prof. Stevelly. 
Sir J. F. W. Herscliel, Bart., Kc^v. Prof. Ulievallier, Major Sabine, 
F.P.S. I Prof. Stevelly. 

183!l. r.irmingliam llev. Prof. Wlie\.-'dl. F.ll.S.... J. D. C'liance, Vv. Snow Harris, Prof. 
I Stevelly. 

1810. Glasgow ...Prof. Forbe.s. F.K.S llev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

i Arcli. Smith. 

1811. Plymoutii !Jlev. Prof. Llovd, F.ll.S Prof. Stevcjlly. 

1812. JlanchesteriVery liov. G. Peacock, D.D., Prof. M'Culloeli, Prof. Stevelly, Kev. 

F.K.S. ; W. Scorcs!)V. 

1843. Cork | Prof . M'CuUoch, M.R.I.A. ...'j. Nott, Prof.' St (a ell v. 

1844. York |The Karl of Kossc, F.K.S. ... Kev. Wm. Hey, Prof."stevelly. 

1845. Cambridge I The Very Kev. the Dean of Kev. H. Goodwin, I'rof. Stevelly, G. 

j Fly. ; (i. Stokes. 

ISlfi. Soutliamp-iSir John F. ^Y. Herschel, John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. (r 

ton. 
1847. Oxford... 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Kirmiiigham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfa.st 

1853. Hull 



1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Part., F.K.S. Stokfs. 

Kev. Prof. Powell, ALA., Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. (i. 

F.K.S. Stokes. 

Lord Wrotteslev, F.K.S Dr. Stevellv, G. G. Stokes. 

William Hopkins, F.K.S Prof. Stevellv, G, G. Stokes, A\". 

llidout Wills. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., W. J..MacquornKankine,Prof.Smyth, 

Sec. ll.S.E. Prof. St e veily, ProL G . G. Stokes, 

llev. W. Whewell, D.D., S.-fackson, W. J. Macquorn Kankine, 

F.K.S. Prof. Stevellv, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A.,!Prof. Dixon, W. J. Maequorn Kan- 

F.R.S. L. & E. I kine, I'rof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

The Very Kev. the Dean of'!!. P.laydes Ilaworth, J. D. Sollitt, 



Ely, F.K.S. 

1854. Liverpool... Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 
U.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Kev. K. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 



Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., ]\I.R.I.A. 

Kev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.K.S. 



Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forljes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. i'.rooke, Kev. T. A. Soutliw^od, 

Prof. Stevelly, Kev. J. C. Turn 11. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, i*. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Kankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnsliaw, J. P. Hennes,sy, 

Prof. Stevelly, IL J. S.Smith, Vy(^f 

Tvndall. 



zl 



REPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1860. Oxford. 



1859. Aberdeen... Tlie Earlof Rosse,M.A.,K.P., J. P. Henncssy, Prof. Maxwci:, H. 
F.ll.S. I J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 

Rev. B. Price, 'S]..\., F.R.S.... Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 

1861. Manche. or G. R. Airv, M..\., D.C.L.,'Prof. R. U. (Mifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

' F.R.S. " Smilli, Prof. Stevellv. 

1862. Cambrid<.'e Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Prof. R. 1!. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

F.R.S. t Smitli, Prof. Stevelly. 

1863. Newcastle i Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankinc, R(!v.N.Fern'rs,Prof.Ful]er,K.Jenkin, 

C.K„ F.R.S. Prof. Stevellv, Rev. C.T. Whitley. 

1864. Bath Prof. Cnvlov, .M.A., F.R.S., Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G, 

F.R.A.S. " ; Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 

1 86.5. Birmingham W. Si)()ttis\voode,.M.A.,F.R.S., Rev. T. N. Hutcliinson, F. Jenkin, G. 
F.R..\.S. S. Matliews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

i J. M. Wilson. 

1 866. Nottingham Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., FleemingJ("nkin,Prof.H..J.S.Smith, 

F.R.S. I Rev. S. N. Swann. 

1867. Dundee ... Prof. Sir W.Thomson, D.C.L., Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C.Foster, 

F.R.S. I Prof. Fuller. Prof. Swan. 

1868. Norwich ... Prof. .J. Tyndall, LL.D., Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

F.R.S. i R. B. Havward. 

186!>. Exeter Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

! F.R.S. I W. K. Clifford. 

1870. Liverpool... J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

i LL.D., F.R.S. I Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

! j Whitworth. 

1 871. Edinburgh Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. !.. C^laisher, 
Prof. A. S. Herschel,(r.F.Rodwell. 

1873. Bradford ... , Prof. H. J. '.. Smith, F.R.S. Prof. W. K. (Jlifford, Irof. Forbes, J 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. .\ S. Herseliel. 

1874. Belfast ' Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 

I M.R.I.A. 



1872. Brighton ... W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herseliel, 
Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F, 
Rodwell. 

1875. Bristol iprof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., Prof. W. F. l'.:uTett,J.W.L. Glaisher, 

i liL.D., F.R.S. ! C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 

1876. Glasgow ... Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., Prof.W. F. P.arrett, ,T. T. Bottomley, 

j D.(;.L., F.R.S. Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

■ T. Aluir. 

1877. Plymouth... ' Prof. (i.C.Foster,B. A., F.R.S., Prof.W. F. Harrett, J. T. P.ottomley, 

j Pres. Pliysical Soc. J. W. L. (ilaisher, F. (t. Landon. 

1878. Dublin Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Filzuerald, J. 

} D.C.L., F.R.S. i W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. . I. Lodii-e. 

1870. Sheffield ... Georjze Johnstime Stoney, A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 
M.A., F.R.S. ' O. .J. Lod-e, D. MacAlister. 

1880. Swansea ... Prof. W. (irylls Adams, M.A., W. K. Avrton, J. \V. L. Glaisher, 

I F.R.S. Dr. O. J. Lodae, I). MaeAlister. 

1881. York 'Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., Prof.W. E.Ayrton. Prof. (). ,1. Lodge, 

. LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. D. MacAlister. Rev. W. Routh. 

1882. Southamp- Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleiirh, W. JL Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

ton. M.A., F.H.S. ' ' D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

LH83. Houthport l'rof.O.Henrici,Ph.D.,F.R.S., W. M. Hicks, l'n)f. O. .1. Lodge, 

j D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

1884. Montreal ...iProf. Sir W. Thomson, M.A.. C. Carinnael. \V. 1\L Hicks, Prof. A. 

I LL.D., D.C, [.., F.R.S .]ohns..n, I'rof. O. J. Lodge, Dr. 1). 

I , Miic.Mister. 



PKESIDKNTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xli 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE Oi' SCIKNCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MUN'ERALOGT. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



18:52. Oxford Jolin Dalton, D.C'.L., F.R.8. 

l,s:i;(. Cambridge John Dalton, D.C.L., F.li.S. 
1831. Edinburgh Dr.Hope 



Secretaries 



-lames F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. .Miller. 

Mr. .Joliiiston, Dr Christison. 



]8;{r). Dublin. 
18:i6. Bristol . 



18.37. Liverpool... 
1838. Newcastle 

1830. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

184.5. Cambridge 



SECTION li. — CHEMISTUY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.U.S IDr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Rev. Prof. Cummiiig JDr. Apjohii, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hora- 

path. 
Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Keynolds. 
Prof. Miller, H. L. Pat tinson, Thomas 

liicliardson. 
Dr. (ioldinir Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. It. D. Tliomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
I Dr. li. Playfair. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.U.S Ij. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 

I Tweedy. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.U.S. Dr. L. Playi'air, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
Prof. Ajijoiin, M.U.I. A U. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 



1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingliam 

1850. Edinburgh 
ls.51. Ipswich ... 
1852. Belfast 



Michael Faraday, F.U.S 

Rev. William Whewcll,F.R.8. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.U.S 

Dr. Thomas Tliomson, F.R.S. 



Prof. T. Graliam, F.U.S. .. 
Rev. Prof. Camming 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



18.57. Dublin. 
1858. Leeds , 



aishcr, ■ 


185!>. Aberdeen... 


.odge, ■ 
■ 


1860. Oxford 


liodge, ■ 
u'dson. ■ 
Lodge, ■ 


1861. Manchester 


1862. Cambridge 


{owe. 1 
of. A. ■ 


1863. Newcastle 


Dr. 1). ■ 


mi. Bath 


1 


1865. Birmingham 



Michael I'araday, D.C.L., 

F.U.S. 
Uev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.U.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, .M.l)., F.R.S 

Dr. Christ ison, V.P.R.S.E. 
I'rof. Thomas (iraliam, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andre ws,M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playl'air,C.l!.,F.U.S. 
Prof. 15. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C. B., F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
I'rof. W.A.Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. \V. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W.Odling, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. .Miller, M.D.. 

V.P.R.S. 



Dr. L. I'lay lair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. -Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

15. C. Brodie, R. Hunt. Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

U. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Ander.son, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. I'earsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. (iladslone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Pruf. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pcarsall. 
Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstono,Dr.Pricc. 
Prof. Krankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Hursley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

liviin. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
.1. S. Bra/.ier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Hurcourt, G. 1). Liveing, 

A. B. Northcole. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkius, Prof. 

Waiiklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1866. NottiiisliamlH. Bcnce Jones, M.D., F.R.S. J. H. At!;erton, Prof. Liveing, \V. J. 

llusscU, J. White. 



A. Crum Ihown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

VV. J. Kus.sell. 
Dr. A. Crum P.rown, Dr. W. J. llus- 

bell, F. .Sutton. 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 



1867. Dundee ...Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

' F.K.s.i':. 

1868. Norwich ... Prof. K. Frankland, F.R.S., 

F.C.S. 

ISG'.i. Exeter i Dr. H. Debus, F.K.S., F.C.S. .Prof. A. Crum P.rown, Dr. W. J. 

I ; Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

1870. Liverpool... Prof. H. E. Roscou P..A., Prof. A. Crum P.rown. A. E. Flctclu']-, fi 
F.R.S., F.C.S. Dr. W. J. Russell. 

Prof. T. Andrews, .M.D., F.R.S. ' J. T. P.uchan:iii, "W. N. Hartley, T. 

[ E. Thorpe. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. ,J. Itussell. Dr. T. Wood. 
,Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... jDr. Armstrong, Dr. :Mills, W. Chand- 
I I ler lioherls, Dr. Thorpe. 

1874. Bclfa-st jProf. A. Crum I'.rown, il.D., Dr. T. Cransloun Charles, W.Chand- 

I F.Pi.S.E., F.C.S. i ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

1875. Bristol jA. G.Vernon Harcourt, ALA., Dr. H. K. Armslroni;-, W. Chandler 

' F.R.S., F.C.S. Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

1876. Glasgow ... W. H. Pevkin, F.R.S |W. Diitniar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

I I J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

1877. Plymoxith.,.:F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... Dr. Oxland, \V. Chandler Roberts, 

! J. M. Thomson. 

1878. Dublin Prof. M.-ixwell .>impson, M.D.,W. Chandler Roljcrts, J. M. Thom- 

i F.K.S., F.C.S. son. Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

1870. Sheffield ...Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 'h. S. P.eli, W. Chandler Roberts, J, 
I AI. Thomson. 

1880. Swansea ... Josei)li Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., H. 1?. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 

F.R.S. kinsoii, P. Pliillips liedson, J. JI. 

I Thomson. 

1881. York Prof.A.W. Williamson, Ph.D., I'. Phillips P.edson, II. P.. Di.xon, 

j F.Pv.S. T. (iough. 

1882. SouthiUi\p- il'rof. U. 1). Liveing, M.A., P. Phillips P.edson, H. P.. Dixon, 
ton. i F.R.S. * ,T. L. Notter. 

Dr. J. 11. Gladstone, F.R.S... I'rol'. P. Phillips P.edson, H. P.. 

1 Dixon, 11. Forster Jlorley. 
Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 'Prof. P. Phillips lie<lson, H. B. Di.xon, 
LL.D., F.R.S. T. AleFarlane, Prof. W. 11. Pike. 



188:S. Southport 
1881. Alontroal ... 



GEOLOGICAL (anh. lxtil 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OK SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAl^HY. 

1832. Oxford R. I. Alurchison, F.R.S John Tavlor. 

18:5:5. Cambridge. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

18:54. Edinburgh ., Prof. Jameson Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 

i Rev. J. Yates. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GIOOORAPHY. 

18.So. Dublin R.J.Griffith Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

18:56. Bristol Rev. Dr. P.uckland, F.R.S.— William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 

I (t('<)f/)'(ijj/i I/, II. J. }ih\vchison.\ T. ,1. Torrie. 

' f.r'.s. 

18:57. Livcrpool...|Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— Caj.tain Portlock, R. Hunter.— 6'( c- 
G'wr/;v//;/(//,G.15.Greonough, ffriij/hi/, Captain H. M, Denhani. 

1 F.R.S. ' R.X. 

18:58. Newcastle. . I C. Lycll, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. 

I Gtw/mpfii/, LovdPvnd\H)i)c., Gcoiiraj^hij, Capt. Washington. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES; OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 



1 830. IMrmingham 
1840. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Rev. Dr. P-uckland, F.Pt.S. - Oeorne Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
fifiif/rajjIii/jG.UXireenough, land, Charles Darwin. 
F.ll'.y. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— TA'c- W. J. Hamilton, D. Jlilne, Hugh 
I qi'itphii, G. 1$. Greenou^h, Jlurray, H. K. Strickland, John 
j 'KU.s". Scoular, :\[.D. 

1811. Plymouth... I H. T. De la Beche, F.R.R. ... W.J.Hamilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 
I R. Hut ton. 

1842. JIancliester !r. I. JIurchison, F.Pi.S E. W. I'.inncy, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

j Lloyd, H. K. Strickland. 

184;i. Cork Richard K. Grittith, F.R.S., Francis .M. Jenninus, H. E. Strick- 

JI.R.LA. land. 

1844. York ' Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. Prof. Anstcd, E. H. lUinhury. 

I Geol. Soc. 

1845. Cambridge . I Itcv. Prof. Sedgwick, jI.A., Rev. J. C. Cummino-, A. C. Ramsay ,^ 

I F.R.S. ' Rev. W. Tiiorp. 

184li. Southamp- | Leonard Horner, F.R.S. — Gi'o- Robert .\. .Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 
(iviiiiliii, (i. B. tireenouiih, Prof. Oldham. — Gc(i(jruj/hij,Dv. G. 
F.li.S. ' T. Bekc. 

Veryltev.Dr.lUickland.F.R.S. Prof. Anstcd, Prcf. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Sir H. T. Do la Becho, C.B., Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

F.R.S. Prof. Ramsay. 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., J. Beet e Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 
F.G.S. " j .v. (!. Ramsay. 

18.50. Edinburgh'; Sir Roderick J. .Miirchison, i A. Keith -lohnston, Huuh Miller, 
I F.R.S. ' Prof. Nicol. 



ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1S48. Swansea ... 
1840. Birmingham 



SECTIOX C (coiitimieJ). — GKOLOGV. 

1851. Ipswich ... I ■\VilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormcrod, 

I Searles Wood. 

1852. Belfast ! Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.K., James lirvco, James MacAdam, 

• F.R.S. I Prof. M 'Coy, ProL Nicol. 

185;!. Hull ,Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S : Prof. Harkncss, William Lawton. 

1854. Liverpool .. Prof. Edward Forbes, F.B.S.i John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

! G. W. Ormerod, J. W. ^\'oodall. 

1855. Glasgow ... SirR. L .Murchison, F.R.S.... James liryce. Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodio, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, lulward Hull, J. Scougall, 
T. Wright. 

1857. Dublin ' The Lord Talbot de Malahidc Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 

1858. Leeds I William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 



185G. Cheltenham 



Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.. 



1850. Aberdeen... 

18G0. O.xford 

18G1. Manchester 
18G2. Cambridge 
1863. Newcastle 



F.R..S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. I'rof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. .Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. Nicol, PL C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw, 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Lonumuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, (i. W. Ormeroil. 



J. P.eete .Jukes, iLA., F.R.S. Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Dagli.sh, H. C. 
Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 



Prof. Warington W. Smyth. 
F.R.S., F.Cr..y. 

' At a meeting of the General Ct)nimittee held in 1850. it was resolved 'That 
llie subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,"' for I'resideuts and Secretaries of which see page xlviii. 



XllV 



HEPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 



rrosidents 



Secretaries 



W. B, Dawkins, J, Jolinston, H, 0. 
Sorbjs W. I'eng'elly. 



18C4. Dath Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.Il.H., F.G.S. 
1 8G5. Birmingham Sir R. I. Amrchison, Bart., Ri'v. P. P>. iirodic, J. Jone.s, Rev. E. 

K.C.P.. I Mvers, H. C. Sorby, W. Poni^elly. 

1 8CG. Nottingham Prof. A. C. Ramsav LL.D.,;R. Ktheridoc, W. Pengelly, T.' Wil- 

i F.R.S. : son, O. H. Wright. 

18G7. Dundee ... Archibald (ioiliie, F.R.S., Edwara Hull, W, Pengelly, Henry 



F.G.S, 
1808. Norwich ... R. A. C. Godwin-Auston, 

1 F.R.S., F.G.S. 
18G9. Exeter Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.(;,s. 

1870. Liverpool... Sir Philij de M.Grey Egerton, 

' i'.art., .M.P., F.R.S. 

1871 . Edinburgh Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

1872. Brighton... R. A. 0. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
187:5. Bradford... Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

I F.R.S., F.G.S. 
1874. Belfast IProf. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

i F.G.S. 
187r,. Bristol ' Dr. Tiiomas Wrii>lit, I'\R.S.E., 

i F.G.S. 
187G. Glasgow ... Prof. Jolm Young, M.l) 

1877. riymoutli...'w. Pcngolly, F.R.S 



Woodward. 

Rev. t). Fislier, Rev. J. Gunn, W, 
Penurelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Penirellv, W. Boyd Dawl.ins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pungoliy, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, .J. Geikie, T. JIcKonny 
Huglics, L. U. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
To|ilov, Henry Woodward. 

L. ('. Afiall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Toplev. 

F. Drew, I-. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
IL H. Tiddeman. 

L. 0. Miall, K. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J, Armstrong:, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Toplej'. 

E. T, ILanlman, Prof. J, O'Reilly, 
R. II. Tiddeman. 

W. Tojiley, G. I'.liike Walker. 



1878. Dublin lohn Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

; F.S.A., F.(i.S. 
lS7i). Sheffield ...'Prof.P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

i F.R.S., F.G.S. ; 

1880. Swansea ... H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., | W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

F.G.S. I 

1881. York A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., ij. E. Chirk, AV. Keeping, W. Topley, 

' F.G.S. \V. Wliitakcr. 

1882. Southamp- :R. Etlicridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. ^T. W. Shore. W. Topluy, E. West- 

ton. ! hikf, W. Wliitakcr. 

1883. Southport Prof. W. C. Williamson, j R. Uetlev, C. E. I )e Ranee, W. Top- 

j LL.D., F.R.S. lev. w'. Whitaker. 

1884. Montreal ... I W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 

I G.S. I Topley, W. Whitaker. 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, HOTAXY, t'HYSIOLOQY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. P.. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. I'rof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge' Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.JC. ('. P.abinglon, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham | W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 

SECTION D.- — ZOOIiOGY AND BOTANY. 

1835. Dublin jDr. Allman T. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

1836. Bristol ! Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Dun, Dr. Riley, S. 

i ' Roolscv. 

1837. Liverpool... I W. S. MacLeay C. C. P.alnngton, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swiiinson. 

' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomj' were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of wliich see p. xlvii. 



niEyiDKNTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 

1838. Newcastle 

ISIiO. Birmiriirliam 
1810. (ilasgow ... 

1841. riymoutli... 

1842. Mancliester 

184:5. Cork 

1844. York 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1S4.5. C<aml)rid,i;e 
184ti. Soutlip.nip- 

toii. 
1847. Oxford 



Sir W. Jardine, liavt 

J'rof. Owen, F.ll.S 

Sir W. .1. HiHikcr, M..1) 

JolinUiclinrdson, M.D., K.li.S, 
Ilf.n. and Very Jtev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.T)., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very liev. tlie Dean of .Alan- 

cliester. 
Uev. Prof. Hensldw, F.fj.S. ... 
Sir J. Uicliardson, iM.D., 

F.K.S. 
II. K. Strickland, .M.A., F.ll.S. 



.J. K. (iiiiy, I'rof. Jones, R, Owen,, 

Dr. Kieliardson. 
K. Forbes, W. Ick, II. Patterson. 
Prof. W. ('oiii>er, K, Forbes, 11. Pat- 
terson, 
.!.('( itich, 1 )r. liaiikest er, It. Patt erson. 
Dr. I.ankestcr, 1{. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allnian, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wolhiston, H. 

Wooldrid^e. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Jlelville, T. V.. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (ciiiiti'iilted). — ZOOLUOV AND liOTAXY, INCLUDING PnYSIOLOQY, 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and PIiysiolof,ncal Sub.sec- 
tions and the temixirary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xlvii, xlviii.] 

1848. Swansea ... L. W. Dillwyn, F.IJ.S 



184!1. Pirmingham 
18:)0. Edinburgh 

18.")!. Iijswich ... 

1852. P.elfast 



18-):;. Hull 

i8")4. Liverpool... 

18")"). (Jhisuow ... 

18")(;, Cheltenham 



18.".'. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

185ti. Abenleen... 

ISC.O. Oxford 

18()l. Manchester 

1802. Cambridge 
18():i. Newcastie 



1804. Batli 

1865. Birmingham 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof, (ioodsir, F.li.S. L. \- E. 

Rev, ProL Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
\V. Ouilby 



('. C. P.aliin-ton, :\1..\., F.R.S. 
Prof, Balfoin-, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleemiiui', F.R.S. F. 
Thomas P.ell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S, 

Pn)f. W. H. liarvev, :\r.D., 

F.R.S, 
C. C. P.abington, JI.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

l!ev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S..,. 

Prof. C. C. Babinglon, I'Mt.S. 

Prof. Huxlej", F.R.S 

Prof. !5alfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson. :\I.D., F.ll.S. ... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. I.ankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. P.eimett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. .Mhnan, F. W.Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lanki'ster. 
Rol)ert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Bycrley, Dr. 1']. Lank('st(>r. 
William Keddie. Dr. Lank(\ster. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. lUickman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Pat t erson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Pleat on, Dr. E. 

Lanke.ster,'Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
\V. S. Ciiurch, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

li. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wriirhl. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P, L. Sclater, Dr. E. P, Wright, 
.Vlfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, R(!V. H. 

P.. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wriaht, 
H. P.. Brafly, C. E. Bro,)m, H, T. 

Stainton, Dr, E, P. Wright. 
Dr. J. .\nthony, Rev, C. (Jlarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright, 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1 884. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology. 



m 



Date and Place 



18(5(5. Nultin^liam 



1807. Dundee 



18(58. Norwicli 



1661'. Exeler 



1870. LivLTporl. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. r.riffhton 



187.S. Bradford 



1874. r.elfast 



1875. Bristol 



187(!. Gliisffow 



1877. Plymoutli. 



Presidents 



Prof. Ilnxlcy, LL.l)., F.R.S. 

• — I'/n/,ii(ili>i/iri/l iJi'/K, Prof. 

]Tmni)liry,' .M.D., E.U.S. 

Aiif/im/ioliK/iiuil IJrjf., Alf. 

IL W:illac(', F.U.(J.S. 
Prof. Sliarpcy, Jl.!)., Sec. U.S. 
JJrj). of Xool. and Hot., 

Georuc^ ISusk, Al.D., F.U.S. 
Rev. ^i. J. P.crkolcy, F.L.8. 

Dij}. of I'iiiiitioloiiii, W. 

H. Flower, F.ll.S. 

George Busk, F.Jl.S., F.L.S. 
— JJcj). of Jiof. loul Zool., 
V. Sponee liate, F.U.S. — 
D('l). of I'^thno., K. P.. I'vlor. 

Prof.C. Uolleston. M.A., :\I.D.. 
F.li.S., F. I>.S. — i^ry;. of 
AiKit. and J'/n/.\-ioh.,l'yoL'M. 
Foster, MA).,' F.L.ii.—JJc//. 
of Ethiio., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, ^I.l)., 
F.R.S.--7>y/. of Jiot. and 
iry()Z.,Prof.Wyvil!cThomson, 
F.Il.S.— 7A7). of A nthroiwl.. 
Prof. \\. Turner, M.D. 

Sir.I. Lubbock, l!art.,F.Il.S.^- 
Dei), of Anaf. and. I'Injsiiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
VAl.'S.~])cp. ofAnthropoL, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman. F-K-S.—ZAy;. of 
Anaf. and 7Vi'//.sy(i/.,Prof. Itu- 
therford, U.i).—Dip.ofAn- 
throjMl., Br. Iteddoe, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Redfern, M.D 

Xonl. and Jiof., Dr. Hooker, 
( '. P..,Pres.R.S.-- 7>y;. of A n- 
t/mij>.,>^h- W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, VAm.— Dcjj.of 
. I naf.and- I'/i>/s'iol.,Vrnf.C\e- 
land, Jl.D., FAl.S.—JAp.of 
AnfliropoL, Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
VAj.H.' JJrp. of Zonl. and 
Jiof., Prof. A. Newtcn, M.A., 
F.R.S.— 7)ry;. of Anat. and 
PhymoL, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
dri'ck, F.R.S.E. 

.J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.Iy.S. — Dcp. of Anat. and 
Ph)/.md., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — J)(j). of Ant/irojjol., 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
!!. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright, 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainlon, Rev. H. 
P.. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
-M. i''ostor, I'l'of. Lawson, IT. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. 1>. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. JL Fost er, 
E. Ray Lankestor, Prof. Jjawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. IL B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Tlios. J. ^loore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. PL P.. Tristram, 
C. Stanlland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Frascr, Dr, Arthur Gamgce, 
E. Ray Lankcster, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. ^V. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. flnsclton-Dver,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, .1. H. 
Lam])rey, Dr. (iamgee, E. Ray 
Lankestcr, Dr, Pye-Smith. 

Prof, Thiselton-Dver, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lacldan, i)r. Pyc-Smitli, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. AV. Rudler, .1. 
H. riam])rey. 



J)/'j). (j/'jW.T.Thiselton- Dyer, R.O.Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. .1. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smitli, .J. .1. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 
E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. ]\l'Xab, Dr. .Martvn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smitli, Di\ 
W. Spencer. 



I 



E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 



Jluirliead, 
son. 



Prof. Jlorrison Wat- 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
('unningham. Dr. C. A. Hingstoii, 
Prof. W. R. 51'Nab, J. B. ilowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 



FrancisGalton, M.A.,F,R.S. 

■ At a meeting of the General Committee in ISGii, it was resolved: — 'That tlie title 
of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules for conduct ing the business of the Sections, the word" Department" be substituted." 



1, Rov. H. 
er, K. I'.. 



l)boW, Dr. 
n, Rev, H. 
nrncr. 
Firtli, Dr. 
on, II. T. 
Tristiarn, 

^r. Fosl(;r. 
'. hawson, 
[. B. Tiis- 

ian Evans, 
Moovo, PI. 

, Trislram, 
Ray I-an- 

irGamiice, 
f. Lawson, 
and Wake, 
, Kt'lburne 

\ St aim on, 
idler, J. H. 
K. Itav 
th. 

[. Lawson, 
■ Smith, E. 
Rudlor, .1. 

( 'uiniinu- 

Ih: l\ H. 

,l,y, K. W. 

Irick, I'rof. 
yn, P. W, 

"iiiitli. Dr. 



urke, Di" 
•Nab, Dr. 
ison AVat- 



l)r. D. J. 
Hinustoii, 
I!, ilowo, 



at the title 
on," in thc^ 
bstituted.' 



niESIDENTS ANL 8ECRKTAUIES OF TlfB SECTIONS. 



clvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1879. Sheffield 



18S(). Swansea 



1881. York. 



Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. ^\. 
Piir.ser, J. P.Uowe, F. W. Rudler. 



J. n. Rowf, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiife: 



1878. Dublin Prof, W. H. Flower, F.R.S,-- 

i" JJrj). of A iithrnpnl., Prof. 
I Huxley, Sec. R.S. Ihp. 
I of A nut. inid J'fn/»iii/,, R. 

McDounell, .M.D.,'f.R.S. 
Prof. St. (ieor^e Mivart. .Arthur Jackson, Prof, W. R. Af'Xab, 

F. U.S. - Hrj/. of . ijii/ii'ojio/., 
I E. n. Tylor, li.C.L., I-'.R.S. 
! — JJfji. of Ainit. and Phij- 

K'iol., Dr. Pvc-Sniith. 
A. C;. i,.(iiuitii<'r, .M.l).,F.K.S.!(i. \V. liloxani, .lolin Priestley, 
Ihj). of AiKit. tiiid J'/n/- Howard Saunders, .\dani Sedg- 

KioL, F. ',M. I'.alfour. .M.A., wick. 
■ F.U.S. — y>c/A ('/' . I iithropol. 

V. \V. Kudlcr.'K.d.S. 
Richard Owen, C.l!., .M.D„ 

l'M!.S. l)ci).ofAnthri>itol., 
, Prof. AV. 11. Fiowcr, Mi.D., 
I F.iv.S. Jh'ji. of Aiiaf. tiiiil 
I i'//./,s-/(;/,, Prof. .'[. 8. I'.urdon 

Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

I'ntf. A.Oaniuve. M.D., F.R.S. G. W. lUo.xiini, W. lleapo, J. P>. 

\ Di'p. of Xiiol. and Jlof., 

I Prof. 'SI. X. Lawson, M..\.. 

I F.L.S. Drp.of Aiiflu'opol., 

Prof. W . lioyd Dawkins, 
I M.A., F.H.S. ' 
ISS:!. Southport' Prof. K. Ray Lankcster, M.A., 

VAl.^.—Dcp.ofAnf/trojjo/., W. Ueape, \V. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

\V. Pcno-elly, F.R.S. Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

(i. A. Woods. 

1881. ^lontrcal-... Prof. H. N. Moseley, ALA. ,, Prof. AV. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
I F.R.S. I Sedgwick, Prof. 1!. 1!. AVriglit. 

ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCI'^S, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 

is:?:?. Cambridge Dr. Haviland Dr. P.ond. .Mr. Paget. 

18:i-l, Edinburgh Dr. .Abercrombio Dr. Roget, Dr. AVilliam T]iom.son. 



18S-.'. Southamp- 
ton. 



Ci. \V. l)loxam, W. \. Forbes, iiev, 
\V. C. lley. Prof. W. I!. Al'Xab, 
W. North, .lohii Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, II. E. Spencer. 



Nias, Howard Saunders. A, Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, juii. 



G. AV. Rloxani, Dr. G. J. Ilaslam, 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE 

18:!,->. Dublin 

18;?(i. Bristol 

18:i7. Liverpool... 



18:i8. Newcastle 
1 18:^1). Birmingham 

1840, Glasgow ... 

1841, Plymouth... 



1842. Alanchester 

184:^. (!ork 

11844 York 



Dr.Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. AV, Clark, M,D 



T. E. Hcadlam, :\LD 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Roget, M,D., Sec. R.S. 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

Dr. Sj'monds, 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., .Tames Long, 

Dr. J. R. AV. A'ose. 
T. M.Grcenhow, Dr. .1. 11. AY. A^ose. 
Dr. (L O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. i'uge, Dr, R. S, 

Sargent, 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr, R. S, Sargent. 
Dr. John Popliam, Dr. R. S. Sargent, 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent, 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, JLD. 
J, C, Pritchard, M.D 

' liy direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

■ By authority of the General Committee, Anthro))ology was madi- a separate 
section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 



xlviil 



KEroRT — 1884. 



SECTION E. — PHVSIOLOQT. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



I 



.Secretaries 



1845. Canil)riil;,'c Prof. J. Haviland, AI.D. . 
184f5. S(mtliam|i- Pnil'. Owen, iM.D., F.U.S. 

t(in. 
1847. Oxford' ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Dr. 1(. S. Siirirent, Dr. Welister. 
, C 1'. Keelo, Dr. T.a3'Cock, Dr. Sar- 

^'(•iit. 
, Dr. Tlionias K. Cliambcrs, \V. 1'. 
I Ormerod. 



PHYSlOTiOGlCAr. SUIJ.SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

1850. Edinburirh Prof. ISeiinctt, M.D., F.ll.S.E.I 

1855. Gla.s<,'nw ... Prof. .Mleii Thoinsoii, F.U.S. 1 1'rof. J. TI. f'orbett, Dr. J. Strutlier.s 

1857. Dublin Prof. It. Harrison, .M.D Dr. U. D. Lyons, Prof. Iledfern. 

1858. Leeds Sir ISenjaniiM lirodie, H.'vrt.. I (!. (i. Wbceihouse. 

F.lt.s! 
185!). Aberdeen... Prof. Sliarpey, M.D., Sec.K.S. 

18G(). Oxford Prof. G. liolleston, M.D., 

I F.L.S. 
18(;i. Manchester Dr. Jolin Davy, F.R.8.L.& E. 

1802. (^ambridue (i. K. Pa>iet, .M.I) 

1803. Ncwcaslie Prol'. Kollu.ston, M.D., F.U.S. 

1804. Until Dr. Edward Smitli, LL.D., 

] F.U.S. 
180,'). Hirniinf;'- ;Prof. Acland, Jl.D., LL.D., 
bam.-^ I F.U.S. 



Prof. Uennett, Prof. Iledfern. 

Dr. U. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smitli. 
Dr. W. Uol)erts, Dr. Edward Smith, 
(r. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Harlrum, Di. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P, Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secrc^taries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. xlii.] 

ETIIXOI.OGIC.M. SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 
184G.Soulhampton|Dr. Pritchnrd Dr. Kinu-, 

1847. Oxford |Prof. H. H. Wilson, JI.A. ... Prof. Uuckley. 

1848. Swansea ...\ (t. Grant Francis. 

184!i. P.irmingham 'Dr. U. G, Latliam. 

1850. Kdinburgh Vice-Admiral Sir A. ilalcolm Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. I'.elfcost 

185;i. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 
1850. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



SFCTION E. — GEOGRAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir 11. L Murcliison, F.U.S.. 

Pres. U.G.S, 
Col. Cliesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.U.S. 
U. G. Liitham, M.D., F.R.S. 



Sir U. L Murcliison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir II. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.I'.. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. U.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murcliis(m,G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S 



U. Cull, Rev. .J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
U. Cull, U. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Sliaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Sliaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

lime, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. lilackie, U. Cull, Ui'. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hart land, W. H. 

Ramsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Forguson, Dr. R. li. 

JIadden, Dr. Norton Sliaw. 
R. Cull, Francis (ialton, P. O'Calla- 

ghan. Dr. Norton Sliaw, Thomas 



Wright. 

' I>y direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of 'Section D — Zoology and l>ol any, including Pliy- 
siology ' (see p. xlv). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. * J'uli^ note on page xlvi. 



PRESIDENTS AND .SECRETARIES OK THE SECTIONS. 



zlix 



P. Heslop, 
. \V. Turner. 

3ES. 

e Soctiou C, 



Jind E were 

lluding' Pliy- 

in 1851 to 



Date and Place 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 
I8G2. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Mirminghan) 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwicli ... 



Presidonts 



Rear • Admiral Sir James 
Clork Uoss, 1).(\L., K.H.S. 

Sir K. I. Murchison, D.L'.L.. 
F.H.H. 

John Crawfurd, P.R.S 

Franci.>J Gallon, F.K.s 



Sir U. I. Murchison, K.C.H., 

F.ll.S. 
Sir II. I. Murchison, K.C.B.. 

F.ll.S. 
Major-CJonoral Sir H. Itaw- 

lins.m, M.l'., K.r.r.., F.U.S. 
Sir (;iiarli's Nicliolson, Dart.. 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



apt. fi. H. Richards, R.X., 
F.R.S. 



SccrotarieH 



Ricliard Cull, I'n.f.Oeddos, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

('apt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Li'inpri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Ivin)4:sl»'y, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, \V. Spoltiswoodc. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greentield, 

C. R. Markliam, R. S. Watson. 

H. \Y. iSates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. .M. Murciiison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Kvans, (). Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wrigiit. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, (Jyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (couHnueil). — geography. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 
1884 



Sir Bartlo Frero, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murciiison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



Francis Gallon, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S., F.IUJ.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C. B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof, Sir C. Wyvillc Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.&K. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir J. H. Lofroy, 
C.B.,K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.L, 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G.,F.R.S.,V.IMl.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. I'atcs, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. (!. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

II. W. ISates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J. S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance, 
c 



REPORT — 1884. 



'I'i 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTKK OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 



Pate and Place 



I'rcHidcnts 



18.13, CambridKi! 
1834. Edinburgh 



Prof. Habbagp, F.ll.S. .. 



Hecrt'tarlcs 



J. E. Drinkwater. 



Sir Charles Lemon, Hart Dr. C'leland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



183B. Dublin, 
1836. Bristol, 



1837. Livcriiool... 

1838. Newcastk- 
]83!>. Pirmin^ham 

1840. Gla,sgow ... 

1841 Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmin-4liam 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow . 



Charles Babbago, P\R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Hart., PMl.S. 

lit. Hon. Lord Sandon 

(!olonel Sykes, P.Il.S 

Henry Hallam, V.U.S 

lit. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.ll.S. 
Licut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

a. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.H, 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G, 11. furter, F.ll.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 
III. Hon. Lord Lyttclton..., 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.K. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. , 
His (iracc the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood. M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tookc, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. (ireg. Prof. Longfield. 

Rt'v. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
VV. 11. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W, C. 

Taylor. 
\V. ('argill,J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. ISaird, Prof. Ramsay, 11. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, («. vv'. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Hullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. C. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt, Jl. Short rede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G, P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Kdward Cheshire, W. Nevvmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
1856. Cheltenham lit. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, AV. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baincs, Prof. Cairns, S.Brown. 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. 5L 

Smith, Dr. .lohn Strang. 

1860. Oxford j Nassau W. Senior, M.A lEdmnnd Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

I I Rev, Prof, J, E, T. Rogers. 



1857. Dublin His Grace the Arch' )i shop of 

i Dublin, M.R.LA, 

1858. Leeds Edward Haines 

1859. Aberdeen... Col, Sykes, M,P,, F,R.S 



FRESaiENTt^ AND 8KCRBTARIKS OK Till; SKCTI0N8. 



li 



Date and Place 



I'rowidcnts 



Secii'laries 



18()1. MiincliewtiT i William Xt-wmarcli, F.U.S.... David Chad wick, I'mf. 11. C. CliriHtie, 
i ; K. Macroiy, Uev. I'rof. J. K. T. 

I Ilo^rcis. 

1802. Cambridfjc Kdwiii Clmdwicik, f'.IJ IF. D. Maclfod, Kdnuuid Macrory. 

18(i:t. Nowcasllc? . Williiini 'rile, .M.l*., F.Il.S. ... T. Douhlfday, Kdmund Maciory, 

I I^'rcdciick I'lirdy, .lames I'oft.s. 

1864. Batli William Fair. M.D., D.C.L., V.. Macroiv, K. T. I'ayrie. F. I'urdy. 

i F.U.S. 
18(i'). HirmiriKliamj Ut. Hon. lionl IStanley, LL.D., (J. .). !>. (inudmaii, (J. .1. .Jolmston, 
I M.l". 1 K. Maon.ry. 

18»lfi. Notlinjfliam Prof. ,1. K. T. Uojicrs H. I'.irkin, jiiri., I'rof. Loone Levi, E. 

j Macrory. 

M. ]<]. (Jrant Dull', M.l* Pro!'. I.coiu; Levi, K. Macrury, A. J. 

WardcMi. 



1807. Dundee .... 
18G8. Norwich... 

18U!». Exeter 

1870. Liverpool., 



1871. Kdinburgh 

1872. P.ri^diton... 



Samuel Itrown, Prcs, Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Ut. Hod. SirSliill'ord II. North- 
cote, Part., CM., .M.P, 



Uev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 



Kdmund Macrory, I''rt'dorick Purdy, 
Charles T. I). Acland. 
Prof. W. Staidey.Jevons, M.A.ICluis. U. Dudley I'.axter, K. Macrory, 

.1. Miles Moss. 

.7. (r. Filch, .lames Meiklo. 

.1. (1. Fitcii, liarciay Pliillips. 

.1. (i. Fitch, Swire Smith. 



lU. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henrv Fawci^tt, M.P. ... 
187;t. Pradford ... Ut. Hem. \V. K. Forster, M.P, 

1874. Belfast Lord O'lla^nin jProf. Dcmnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

I I Hans MacMordie. 

1875. Bristol James Hey wood, .AI.A.,PMl.S.,' F. P. Fellows,!'. (J. P. Hallett, E. 

I Pres.S.S. I .Macrory. 

1876. Glasgow „, | Sir George Campbell, K,C,S.I., A. MXeel Caird,T.(i. P.llallett, Dr. 

I M.P. W.Neilson Hancock, Dr. W.Jack, 

1877. Plymouth... Ut. Hon. the Karl Portescue ,W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim, 

1878. Dublin Prof, J. K. Ingram, LL.D.,iW. J. Hancock, C. MoUoy, ,L T. Pim. 

M.U.I.A. I 

G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. ' Prof. Adamson, U, E. Leader, C. 

s.s. , :moi1(.v. 

1880. Swansea ... G. W. Hastings, M.P N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 

1881. York i lit. Hon. M. E.Grant DuflF, C. Mollov, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

i JI.A., F.U.S. Moss. 

1882. feouthamp- iRt. Hoi.. (J. Sclater- Booth, G. Baden Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 

ton. I JI.P., F.U.S. well, A. Milnes, 0. Molloy. 

1883. Southport U. II. Jnglis Palgrave, F.lt.S. Uev. W. Cunningham, Prof. II. S. 

, Fo.wvell, .). N. Keyne.s, C. Molloy, 

Sir Ilichard Toniijle, Bart., ' Prof. H. 8. Foxwcll, J. H. McLennan, 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.U.G.S. Prof. J. Watson. 



1879, Sheftield ... 



1884. Montreal 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE, 

SECTION a. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 



T, G. Bunt, G, T. Clark, W. West, 
Charles Vignolcs, Thomas Webster, 
U. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T, 

Webster, 
W. Ciirpmaid, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J, Scott Uussell, J, Thomson, J, Tod, 

C, Vignoles. 
Henry Cliattield, Thomas Webster, 
J, F, Bateman, J, Scott Uussell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
Prof, J, Jlacneill, M.U,LA, ... James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.U.S 

Uev. Dr. Ui)binson 

Charles Bablagc, F.U.S 

Prof, Willis, F,U,S,, and llobt. 

Stephenson, 
Sir John llobinson 



,Iohn Taylor, F.U.S 

Uev. Prof. Willis, F.U.S 



Hi 



REPOBT — 1884. 



Date and Place 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridfjfe 
184G. Soutliamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1 8oO. Edinburjih 

1851. Ipswich 

18r)2. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Ciieltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwicli ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

George llonnie, F.U.S. 



Secretaries 



Charles yitrnolcs, Thomas Webster.. 
Rev. W. T.Kingsley. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. Wlliam I'.etts, jun., Charles Manby. 



Rev, Prof .Walker, M. A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, JNI.P., 

B'.R.S. 

Rev. R. Roliinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

.John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E.. 

F.R.S. 



J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesuricr. 

R. A. I.e Mesurier. W. P. Struve. 

Cliarles .Manby, W. P. Marshall. 



W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S 



Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawksliaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawkslev, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.CJ.S. 
Prof.AV. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkiii, F.it.S. 

F. J. liramwell, C.E 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Fronde, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 



Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. I'ateman, C. P>. Hancock, 

Cliarles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldliitm, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... Jolin Graiiu im, J. Oldham, J. 

Tiiomson. 
L. Hill, jun., AVilliam Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jctfery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
.1. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. i R. Abernetliv, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison. 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Booster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea. W. 

P. Blarsliall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Isolin, 1\1. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Jolin P. Smith. 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, ('. 

Manbj', ^V. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbrcd. 
H. liauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster. 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbrcd. 
W. 11. ijarlow, F.R.S 'Criuvford Barlow, H. Bauerman. 

E. H. I'arbutt, J. C. Hawksliaw. 

J. N. Shoolbrcd. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbrcd, Jolin 

Smyth, jim. 
W. R. Browne. H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N, 

Shoolbrcd. 
A. T. Atchison. R. G. Svmes, H. T. 

Wood. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



liii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1879. >Sheffiekl ... 


J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 


A. T. Atchison, Emerson Rainbridge, 




Eng. 


II. T. Wood. 


1880. Swansea ... 


James Abcrnetliy, V.P. Inst. 
C.E.. F.ll.S.E. 


A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 


1881. York 


Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.P.., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.K.S. 


A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 
11. T. Wood. 




1882. Southamp- 


John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 


A. r. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 


ton. 




A\'ood. 


1883. Soutliport 


James Krunlees, F.R.S.E., 
Pres.Inst.C'.E. 


A. T. Atchison, E. lligg, 11. T. Wood. 


1884. .Montreal... 


Sir F. J. P.riimwcll, F.ll.S., 


A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 




V.P.Inst.C.E. 


Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SKCTION n. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 
,1881. :\Iontrcal...| K. li. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ...|G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



ISl."}. Cork 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton, 



1847. Oxford 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Swansea ... 
Piirmingham 
Edinburgh 



Led uror 

Charles Vignoles, F.ll.S 

Sir M. I. Rruncl 

R. I. ^lurcliison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falcorer, F.R.S 

G.I'..Airy,F.R.8.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. :Murcliison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.I)., F.R.S. ... 

Cliarlcs Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. R. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... . 
John IVrcy, M.D., F.ll.S i 

W. Carpenter, J\I.D., F.ll.S.... 

Dr. Fiiradav, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. \Villis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

iDr. Mantell, F.R.S 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The (ieology of Russia. 

Tlie Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the ..Egean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

(ieology of North America. 

The (iigant ic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delia of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosivesubstanco 
discovered bj' Dr. Schcinbein; also 
some Researches of liisown on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Sliooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

Tiio Dodo {IHdiiK iiicpfiis). 

Metallurgical Oijeratioiisuf Swansea 
and its luughljoiirhood. 

Recent Microsc<tiiical Discoveries. 

Mr. (liissiot's Battery. 

Transit of dilferent Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of tlu! Blood through the 
minitte V(>sselsof Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 



liv 



IIKPOKT 1884. 



Date and Place 




W\ 



1851. 
1852. 



Ipswicli 
Belfast.. 



185a. 

1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 

1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 



Prof. 11. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.Il.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. (J. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlosk, R.E., F.R.S. 



Hull Prof. J. Pliilllps.LL.D., F.R.S. 

F.G.S. 



Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 



Liverpool 

Glas.iifow 

Cheltenliain Col. Sir H. Rawliiison 



Dr. W. li. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Iiicut.-(!ol. H. Rawlinson .. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Dublin Prof. W. Tliomson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Leeds Prof. J. Phillips.LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Aberdeen... Sir R. L Murcliison, D.C.L... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Oxford Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 

j Cjvjjtain Slierard Osborn, R.N. 
Manchester Prof.W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 

G.I!.Air3-,F.R.S.,Astn)n.Royal 
Cambridge Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Newcastle Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



Rath 

Birmingham 

Nott inghiim 
Dundee 



Norwich ... 
Exeter 



James Glaisher, F.R.S., 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livini^stone. F.R.S. 
J. ISeete Jukes, F.U.S... 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. .L D.Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 



Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillip.s, LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.... 



Subject of Discourse 

Dist incl ion between Plant s and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent dis-covery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Pliysical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researclies in Terrestrial 
]\lagnctism. 

Cliaractors of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, witli the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlat ion of Physical Forces, 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

Tlie Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Nortliern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in 
rarefied Media. 

Pliysical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Sf )ect rum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

Tlio Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Cliemistrj'. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
liritish A.ssociation. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to tlie position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the ilid- 
land Counties. 

Tlie results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding jNIeteors and Meteorites. 

Arclueology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. — •». 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nobulie. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin .... 

187!). Slieffiekl . 
1880. Swansea . 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. ISIacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford .'.... 



1881. York. 



Prof. AV. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir Jolin Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottisvvoitde,LL.D.,F.R.S, 

F. .1. HramwoU, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.L.S.E 

Sir Wyville Thomson, F R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Pro!. Dcwar, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



1882. Soiithamp. 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 



W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Rav Lankcstcr, F.R.S. 
Prof. W." Royd Dawkins, 
F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 

Prof . Sir Wm. Thom.son, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. X. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Hall, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKcndrick, 
F.R.S.B. 

Prof. (). J. Lodge., D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



The Sclent ific Use of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorpliosis. 

The Aims and In.struments of Scicn- 

tilic Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hyi)()tlicsis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
i The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances, 
B'orce. 

The Cluilli-ngcr Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
Tbe new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palieon. 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distanco 

of the Sun. 
Galvani and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Jlodern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool... 
1872. Brighton ... 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W,Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Clialk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun andother Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 



Ivi 



IIBPOTIT — 1884. 



m\ \ 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

187.5. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877 Plymoulh... 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

ll.N. 
W. H. Preece 


Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 
A Piece of Limestone. 
A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and tlie Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The Norlh-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 


1879. Sheffield ... 


\V. E. Ayrton 


1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 


H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 

Sir F. J. Braniwell, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S 


1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southpor. 

1884. Montreal ... 



a '■ 



Ivii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

MONTREAL MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 
F.R.S.L. & E., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. C. Adams, F.R.S. ; Professor R. S. Ball, 
F.R.S. ; Professor J. B. Cherriman, M.A. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, 
F.R.S. ; Professor O. Henrici, F.R.S. ; Professor S. Newcomb. 

Secretaries — Charles Carpmael, M.A. ; Professor W. M . Hicks, M.A. ; 
Professor A. Johnson, LL.D. ; Professor Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc. ; D. 
MacAlister, M.D. (Becorder). 

SECTION B. — CHKMICAL SCIENCE. 

Presidetit.—ProieasoT Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Dewar, F.R.S. ; Professor Wolcott Gibbs ; 
Professor B. J. Harrington, Ph.D. ; W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., Pres.C.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; H. B. 
Dixon, M.A. ; T. McFarlane ; Professor W. H. Pike, M.A. 



President. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

-W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S., Sec.G.S. 



Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. Geikie, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Hall, LL.D. ; 
Major J. W. Powell ; Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. ; A. R. C. 
Selwyn, F.R.S. 



Secretaries.— F. Adams, B.Ap.>:5c. ; Professor E. W. Claypole, B.Sc. 
Topley, F.G.S. (Recorder) ; W. Whitaker, F.G.S. 



W. 



SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

P/-m'de«^— Professor Moseley, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. E. Dobson, F.R.S. ; Professor George Lawson, 
LL.D. ; William Carrnthers, F.R.S. ; Professor A. Milnes Marshall, 
D.Sc. ; Professor Schiifer, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor W. Osier, M.D. ; Howard Saunders, F.L.S. 
(Recorder) ; A. Sedgwick, M.A. ; Professor R. Ramsay Wright, B.Sc. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1884. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President— GeneraX Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Vice-Pres. R.G.S. 

Vice-Presideiits.— Colonel Rhodes; P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Rev. Abbe Laflamme ; J. 8. O'Halloran; J. Fraser Torrance, 
B.A. ; E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. (Eerorder). 



SKCTIOX F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCK AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., C.I.E., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.G.S. 

Vict'-Presidents. — J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. ; Professor J. Clark Murray, 
LL.D. 

Secretaries. — Professor H. S. Foxwell, F.S.S. {Recorder) ; J. S. McLennan, 
B.A. ; Professor J. Watson, LL.D. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAI; SCIENCE. 

President.— Siv V. J. Bramwell, LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor H. T. Bovey, M.A. ; E. P. Hannaford ; V. C. 
Van Horn ; J. F. LaTrobeBaternan, F.R.S. ; W. H. Preece, F.R.S. ; 
Professor Thurston ; Herbert Wallis ; Sandford Fleming. 

Secretaries. — A. T. Atchison, M.A. (Recorder) ; W. B. Dawson ; J . 
Kennedy, C.E. ; H. T. Wood, M.A. 



SECTION 11. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Daniel Wilson, LL.D., F.R.S.E. ; Major J. W. Powell; Sir W. 
Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, F.L.S. (Recorder) ; Walter Hurst, B.Sc. 



.^ 'I !0 — C lO 

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BKPORT — 1884. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



i8:n, 

I8:{2, 

18;$4, 
18;{5, 

18H(>, 

18:{7, 

18:!8, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1851), 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 



Sei)tu 27 
June 19 
June 25 
Sept, 8 
Au},'. 10 
Au-r. 22 
Sept, 11 
Auir. 10 
Auj,'. 26 
Sept, 17 
July 20 
June 23 
AuK. 17 
Sept. 26 
June 19 
Sept. 10 
June 23 
Auj,'. 9 
Sept. 12 
July 21 
July 2 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 12 
Aug. 6 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 22 
Sept. 14 
June 27 
Sept. 4 
Oct. 1 
Aug. 26 
Sept, 1 3 
Sept. 6 
Aug. 22 
Sept. 4 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 18 
Sept, 14 
Aug, 2 
Aug. 14 
Sept, 17 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 25 
Sept. 6 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 19 
Aug. 27 



Where held 



York 

Oxford .... 
Cambridge 
Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Hirminglitun 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Jlanchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxf(ud 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 



Presidents 



Nottingham , 



Dundee 

Norwicli 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh .. 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymoutli 

Dublin 

Sheftield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 



The Earl Filzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The ilev. \V. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Uev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
Tlie Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
Tiie Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev, W. Vernon Harcourt 
Tlie i\Lirquis of Brcadalbane.,. 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herscliel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. i\Iurchison,Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Jlarquis of Northampton 
The Rev, T. R. Robinson, D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, .\stronomer Royal 
Lieut. -General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Artryll, F.R.S, ., 
Prof. C. (i. B. Daubcny, M.D. 
Tiie Rev.Humi)lirey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. .,. 
WiniamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S, 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lvcll, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Pliillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S, 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B, 
Dr. Josepli D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof, G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxlev, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Car]ienter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A, W. Williamson, F.R.S 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
SirJohn Hawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S, 
Prof. T, Andrews, M.I)., F.R.S 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 
W. Spottiswoode, ]\I.A.. F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., ;?\R.S..., 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavlov, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. .., 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


65 


.((I 


303 


169 




109 


28 


71 


226 


150 


45 


313 


36 


ill 


241 


10 


65 


314 


18 


1!I7 


149 


3 


54 


227 


12 


•13 


235 


9 


128 


172 


8 


61 


164 


10 


63 


141 


13 


56 


238 


23 


121 


194 


33 


142 


182 


14 


104 


236 


15 


l.->6 


222 


42 


111 


184 


27 


125 


286 


21 


177 


321 


lis 


184 


239 


15 


I.-.0 


:.'03 


36 


154 


287 


40 


IS2 


292 


41 


:'I5 


207 


31 


218 


167 


25 


m 


196 


18 


226 


204 


21 


229 


314 


39 


303 


246 


28 


311 


245 


36 


280 


212 


27 


237 


162 


i:^ 


232 


239 


36 


307 


221 


35 


331 


173 


10 


238 


201 


.18 


2ilO 


184 


16 ' 


239 


144 


11 


i:i 


272 


28 


313 


178 


17 


2,53 


203 


(iO 


330 


235 


20 


317 



d Receipts 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

A nnual Meetinr/fi of the xlssociation. 



Ixi 





■ 




Attended by 








Amount 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientitic 

Purposes 




3 ] 


^cvr Life ^ WM 
VIembers :Mj 


Old 
Annual 
cmliors 


New 

Annual 

Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


For- 
eigners 


Total 
353 


received 

during- the 

Meeting 


Year 




... 1 


... 






1831 
1 832 










:;; f 


id 

75 


317 
37G 


";s3t 


1100* 

60* 
331* 


... 

:5'4 

40 

28 


900 
1298 

1:550 
1840 
2400 
14:!8 

1 :i5:{ 

891 
1315 






18:53 
18.«54 
18:55 
18:^6 

1 837 

1 838 
1 8:59 
1840 
1S41 
1842 






£2o'"o'""o 

1()7 

435 

922 12 6 

9:52 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 










'" M 






65 ■ 
16'J H 


























OQ ^1 


71 
45 
!)4 

(15 

107 

54 


185 
190 
22 
3<> 
40 
25 


• 

'"s't 

407 
270 
495 
376 


160 
260 
172 
196 

2oa 

197 


... 
... 
35 
36 
53 
15 


107!» 

857 

1 ;52() 

819 




1565 10 2 
981 12 8 
831 9 9 

685 16 
208 5 4 
275 1 8 


1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 


150 H 
3(> ■ 











' 1 






£707 




12 ■ 


{13 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


96:5 


159 19 6 


1849 




*'* 1 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


;545 18 


1850 




8 ■ 


61 


47 


244 


141 


:!7 


710 


620 


:^9i 9 7 


1851 


10 ■ 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 () 7 


1 S52 


111 ■ 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1 853 


23 I 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


;-580 19 7 


18.54 


:^:5 1 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


21:53 


2311 


480 16 4 


1 8:,5 


u I 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


18.56 


15 ■ 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


.507 15 4 


1 857 




42 


111 


id 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




27 


125 


17!) 


1206 


821 


22 


25()4 


2782 


684 11 1 


18.59 




21 


177 


5!) 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




113 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 




15 


l.-.() 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1 862 




ii6 


154 


20!) 


1704 


1004 


25 


;5;^35 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




'10 


IS2 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1 864 




44 


i;i5 


14!) 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1 865 




:-ii 


L'18 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2:^0:5 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1 866 




25 


I'Xi 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1 739 4 


1867 




18 


221) 


117 


720 


682 


l.-| 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




21 


2211 


107 


678 


600 




1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




■M) 


m 


1!)5 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




28 


nil 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




:^G 1 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


253:5 


2649 


1285 


1872 




27 I 


2:^7 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


i:^ ■ 


232 


85 


817 


6:w 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


:^6 1 


:!07 


1)3 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2:597 


960 


1875 




35 


:5;5i 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1 876 




W \ 


2:58 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




18 


2SI0 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




16 


2S9 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1 879 




11 1 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


5 880 




28 


m 


176 


12;-50 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 3 1 


1881 




17 


25:i 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




(50 


3:50 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




20 1 


:517 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1.538 


1173 4 


1884 



lliilies were not admitted by purchnsed Ticliets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

Itacliuiiiif; Ls^lics. § Fellows of tlip A.niericiui As^oci;ltion wore inlniittfil as llouurary Alumbers for this Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1884-85. 



PRESIDENT. 
Tin: IthillT Uii.N. LolfO lUYLlUdir, M.A., D.c.L., LL.D., Rll.S., K.R.A.S., F.ll.O.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



IIIh Excellency the (iovKB.N(»il-Gi;N'i:u.\L OF Can.vd.v, 

O.C.M.(i., LL.n. 
The lli^'ht 11(111. sir .Tdiin Ai.exandkii M.\ci)ON.m,d, 

(i.C.lt., U.O.L., I.L.l). 
The lUght Hon. Sir J, vox ri,.sYP.Mii, K.C'.U., M.r., 

Ph.U.. LL.D.. IMl.S. 1,. & K., F.C.S. 
The Hon. Sir Ai.k.xa.mikii Tim.o<h (i.M.r, G.C.M.(i. 
The Hon. Sir C'HAiir.Ks Tcitkii, K.C.M.G. 
Chief .Justice Sir A. A. Oi.iiiov, C.M.(!. 



rrineijiiil Sir WiM.ivM D.twsON, C.M.O., M.A., 

LL.n., IMl.a., F.O.S. 
Tlie 11(111. Dr. CiiAUVKVlJ. 
rrofcssiir I'loWAiii) l''ii\.NKLANi), M.D., U.C.L., 

LL.l)., rii.l)., F.H.S.. F.C.S. 
W. H. JliXdsio.N, VmI; M.l)., D.C.L., L.H.CS.E. 
Thomas Stkuky IIlnt, Esij., M.A., D.Se,, LL.D,, 

F.R..S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The Rkiht Hon. Sin LYON PLAYKAlit, K.CMi., .\I.l'., Pii.I)., LL.D., 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



F.R.S.L.&E., P.CS. 



His Grnee tlie Duke of llicliMONii .wn G(iimo\, 

K.fl., D.C.L., C'liaiicellor of the University of 

AbPrdcen. 
The Kitrht IFon. th( Karl of ApkudEEN, LL.D., 

Lord-I.ieiiteiiiiiit ol .MjenleeiHliirn. 
The llif-'lit 11(111. th'' Karl of Cinwi'iiiil) AXD Baf^ 

(■AUiii.:,sM.A., I.L.1)., IMt.S.. F.lt.,\.S. 
Jamks Maitiikw.s, Ks(i., Lord I'mvost of tlie t'ity 

of Aberdeen. 



I'rofcssor .Sir Wii.i.iam Tiiom.son, M.A., LL.D., 

F.H.S. I..&E., F.lt.A.S. 
Ai,i;xAM)i;ii llAix, Es(|., M.A., LL.D., Rector of the 

University of Aherdcin. 
The Very liev. l'riiici]iiil PiiiiK, D.D., Vloc-Chan- 

cellor of the IJiiiveraity of Aberdeen. 
Professor W. II. Fi.dwku, 1.1..D., P.R.K,, K.L.S., 

Prcs.Z.S., F.a.S., Director of the Natuml History 

Museum. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
■7. W. I'lioMiiii:, Esq. Dr. Axdus Fuasku. rrofcssor G. Pikik, M.A. 



LOCAL TiViASURERS 
.lOIlN FlNDLATKIl. Ks(I. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS 
AliNKY, Cnptaiii \V. liK W., 1".R .S. 
AiiAMs, Professor W. (.i, F.ll.S. 
Ham,, Professor 11. S., F.R.S. 
liATKMAX. .1. l". L\ TiiouK, Esq., F.R.S. 
liKAMWEi.i,, Sir P..],, F.R.S. 
Dawkixs, I'lofessor W. Both, F.R.S. 
Dk La Rn;. Dr. Waiiukn, F.R.S. 
Dkwah, Professor .T.. F.R.S. 
Kvaxs, ('aptiiiii Sir F. J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
I'MiWKir, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
(li.ADsroxK, Dr. .1. H., F.R.S. 
Cil.AlsiiKIl, .1. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 



FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
RoiiKiir Lr.MSDKX, Esq. 

OF THE COUNCIL. 

OonwiN-AlSTKN, I.ieut.-Col. 
llAWKSllAW, .1. (LAKKK, Esq. 

llisXiiK I, Professor 1 1., F.R.S. 
llidiiKs, I'rofessor T. M(;K.. F.G.S. 
.\l(isi;i.KV. Professor II. N.. F.R.S. 
Om.maxnky, Adiiiinil Sir E., C.B., F.I 
PkX(!1U.i,y, W., Ks(i., F.R.S. 
Pkiikix. Dr. W. II., F.H.S. 
PiiKSTWicii, Pidfcssor, F.R.S. 
Sci.ATKii-I!(iOTM, Th(^ Right Hon. G., F.R.S. 
Soiinv, Dr. 11. ('., F.R.S. 
Tk.mim.k, Sir It., li. O.S.I. 



. H. H., F.R.S. 
F.G.S. 



'.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

C'aptsiin Doudi.As Galtox, C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.H., F.G.S., 12 Cliestor Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. VmiNiix llAitcoiniT, Esq., M.A., LL.D.. F.K.S., F.C.S., Cowley (irange, ().\fora. 

SECRETARY. 
Professor T. 0. Boxxky, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., Pres. G.S., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Profes.sor A. \V. Wii.i.iamrcix, Ph.D.. LI,.l)., F.R.S., I'.C.S., University Colle^'e, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Fleet, the PresMents of furiiier years, the Vice-Presidents and 
S ir Presidents Fleet, the General and AssistaJit G(ineral Secretaries for the iiresent and former years, 
tilt =!cretary, th( (ieneral Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir JoHX LnmocK, Bart.. M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayi.kkih, M.A., D.C.I^.. LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyox Pr.AYFAllt, K.C.I3., M.P., Ph.D., I.L.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Sir G. B. Airv, K.(;.B.. F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Riehaiil Owen, K.C.U., F.R.S. 
Sir W.G. Armstrong, C.l!., LL.D. 
Sir William I!. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph 1). Hooker, K.C.S.T. 

GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Pres. R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.ll.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyudall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir John Hawksliaw, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. Andrews. F.R.S. 
Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir .Tohii Luhhock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Caylcy, LL.D., F.R.S. 



F, Galtoii i;s(i., F.R.S. 
Dr.T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



George Griffilh, i;sq.,M..\., F.C.S. 



Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Selater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S.l 

AUDITORS. 
I John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. i W. Hugglns, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Ixiii 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the year 1883-84, prci^ented in the, General 
Comitrittee at Montreal, on Wcdnesdaij, August 27, 1884. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
Genei-al Committee this day. 

Since the meeting at Southport, Dr. F. Lindemann and Dr. Ernst 
Schroder have been elected Corresponding Alembers of the Association. 

The present meeting of the British Association, the tifty-fonrtli in 
unraber, is likely to be long memorable in its annals, as the first held 
beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. It marks a new point of 
departure, and one ])robably never contemplated by the founders of the 
Association, although not forbidden by the laws which they drew up 
The experiment was doubtless a hazardous one, but it seems likely to be 
justified by success ; and it may be hoped that the vigour and vitality 
gained by new experience may ultimately compensate for the absence 
from this meeting of not a few familiar faces among the older members ; 
there will, however, bo as large a gathering of nienil)er8 of more than one 
year's standing as is usual at a successful meeting in Great Britain, and 
the eflforts which have been made by our hosts to facilitate the coming of 
members, and render their stay in Canada both pleasant and instructive, 
call for the warmest acknowledgment. 

The inducements offered to undertake the journey wei-e indeed so 
great that the Council felt that it would be necessary to place some 
restriction upon the election of new members, which for many years past, 
though not unchecked in theory, has been almost a matter of coui'se iu 
practice. Obviously these offers of the Canadian hosts of the British 
Association were made to its members, not to those on whom they might 
operate as an inducement to be enrolled amongst its members. The 
Council, therefore, before the close of the Southport meetmg, published 
the following resolution : — ' That after the termination of the present 
month (September 1888), until further notice, new members be only 
elected by special resolution of the Council.' Applications for admission 
under these terras were very numerous, and wei'e carefully sifted by the 
Council. Still, although the Council, as time progressed and the number 
augmented, increased the stringency of their requirements, it became 
evident that the newly-ele -l members would soon assume an unduly 
large proportion to those of . J^er standing, so that on May 0, after electing 
130 members under this rule, it was resolved to make no more elections 
until the commencement of the Montreal meeting, when it would be safe 
to revert to the usual practice. 

The details of the arrangements made for the journey have already 
been communicated to the members, m that it is needless to make any 



Ixiv 



IlEl'OUT — 18H4. 



; hut tho Council have to acknovvlodge 
ed ('ablo Companies in granting, under 



further special reforonco to tlicni 

tlie groat liberality of the Assoeiatet 

certain restrictions, free ocean telegraphy to the members of the Aasocia- 

tion during the meeting. 

Tho death of Sir William Siemens has deprived tn Associaticm of one 
of its most earnest supporters and friends. It was during his presidency 
at Southampton that the invitation to Montreal was accepted, and ho was 
appointed at Southport a Vice-President for this meeting. Tiu; Council 
nominated Sir .1. 1). Hooker a Vice-President, but he was unfortunately 
obliged, for domestic reasons, to resign tho nomination in the early part 
of the summer. 

It has been tho custom at meetings of the Association to invito the 
attendance of distinguished men of science from all parts of the world ; 
but the Council considered that on ihe pre.sont occasion it would be well 
to offer a special wohiomc to tho American Association (of which also 
several eminent Canadian men of science are members) ; they have 
accordingly issued an invitation to the Standing Committee and Fellows 
of that Association to attend the meeting at Montreal on the footing of 
Honorary Members. 

The Council were informed some time since that the General Treasurer 
would bo prevented from attending the meeting at Montreal. They 
decided accordingly on tho present occasion (as the unual assistant to the 
General Treasurer could not be present) to appoint a Deputy Treasurer 
and a Financial Officer ; the latter to undertake the duties discharged by 
the assistant, together with some of those which usually fall upon the 
Treasurer. To the former office they have nominated Admiral Sir 
Erasmus Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. ; to tho latter, Mr. Harry Brown, 
Assistant Secretary of University College, London 

Four resolutions were referred by the General Committee to tho 
Council for consideration, and action if desirable :— 

(1) That the Council be empowered, if they think fit, to form a sepa- 
rate section of Anthropology, and to give to tho section of liiology the 
title ' Section D. — Biology (Zoology, Botany, and Physiology).' 

The Council, after consideration, resolved to form a separate section 
of Anthropology, with the title ' Section H.— Anthropology,' but con- 
sidered that it was better to continue to designate tho section of Biology 
by the simpler title ' Section D. — Biology.' 

(2) That application be made to the Admiralty to institute a Physical 
and Biological Survey of Milford Haven and the adjacent coast of 
Pembrokeshire, on the plan followed by the American Fisheries Commission. 

The Council, after appointing a Committee to consider the necessary 
details, duly made application, and have been informed by the Lords of 
H.M. Treasury that they regretted to be unable to institute such a survey, 
as the Adniii-alty had no vessels available for this service. 

(3) That the Council of the British Association be requested to 
consider the report of the Committee of Section A respecting the suppres- 
sion of four of the seven principal observatories of the Meteorological 
Council, and to forward a copy of the same to the Meteorological Council. 

The Council, after consideration of the above report, communicated 
with the Meteorological Council as directed. A reply was duly received, 
and in view of the statements therein made, and of supplementary 
information that arrangements had been made whereby three out of the 
four observatories relinquished by the Meteorological Council would be- 



IlKPOUT OK THE f'ODNClL. 



Ixv 



confiiiiicd, t.lioupjli oil a Hoiiicwliafc (lUr«'roiifc footiiitj, it was ooiiNulored 
iicoilloHs to proceed lurllior in tlio Jiiattcr. 

(4) Tiiat the C^ounoil of tho Uritisli Association bo retiucated to com- 
niniii(!ato iit (lie carliost opporf unity with tlw! I*]xuciitiv(» ( 'oiiunitti'o of tlio 
liitornatioiial l"'ishori('s Kxliibitioii, in order to iir^'e '.{ion that body the 
appropriation of a sufficiont sum out of the snrplus funds reniainintr in 
tlioir hands iit tlio closo of the I'Jxhibition, to found a hiborafory on tho 
British Coast for the study of .\rariiio Zoohigy ; and to point out, as a 
reason for such appropriation, the j;;reat value to science, and to tho 
jirospcrity of tlie fisheries industries, of sueli an institution. 

A eoiiiniiinieation was (hily niacUi (o tlie Kxeeutive Comnutteo of tho 
International Fisheries Exhibition, but there does not seem any prospect 
of such an iippropriation of the surplus funds. 

'flu; Council have been informed that, tiiroii<fli nii inadvertence, tho 
resolution of tho Sectional Corainittee recommending the reappointment 
of the Committee on Screw (lan^e.^ was not transmitted to tlu; Secretary 
in time to bo considered by the Committee of liecommendiit.ion.s, and ,so 
did not receive tho sanction of the General C'ommitteo. Tho Council, 
having regard to the importanee of the work carried on by that Coni- 
raittee, have rc^quested them, tluHmgh their Secretary, to continue their 
labours and make a report as if duly appointed. The Council ask that 
this action of tlieirs be sanctioned, and that tiie above-named report bo 
received and printed among tlu^ reports of the committees duly appointed. 

The report of the Committee on Local Scientific Societies, mentioned 
in the report of tho Council presented at the Southport meeting, has been 
printed in the volume for 18H3; and the Couiuiil, believing that the sug- 
gestions made therein will be for the advantage of the Association, have 
considered the .alterations which their adopticm would make necessary in 
the rules. It is proposed to reserve the consideration of this question by 
the General Committee for the meeting to be held in liOndoii in November. 
The following are the alterations which will be necessary : — 

No. I — In Rules, General Committee, Class B. — Teraporaiy ^lembers. 
To replace the first clause (The President .... representing 
him) by the following: ' Delegates nominated by the Con-espond- 
ing Societies under the conditions hereinafter explained.' 

No. II. — To insert in liiilcs, between the sections headed respectively 
Committt'e of Tter.onuiieiulatiuns and Local Ooinviilttee^ tho following 
sections : — 

CorresponiUng Societies. 

' (1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

' (2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must bo addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the first of June preceding the annual meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

' (3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the Genei-al Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 

1884. d 



Ixvi REPORT — 1884. 

themselves p^enerally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
pubHshed by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

' (4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or 
before the 1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, 
properly filled up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, and which will contain a request for such particulars with regard to 
the Society as may be required for the information of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee. 

' (5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
|j I i a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corresponding 

Societies during the past twelve months which contain the results of the 
local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only being included 
which refer to subjects coming under the cognizance of one or other of 
the various Sections of the Association. 

' (G.) A Corresponding Societ}'- shall hav( the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the annual meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time a 
member of the General Committee. 

' Conference of Delegates of Gorreftjwndinr/ Societies. 

* (7.) The Delegates o^the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
|| stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 

taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

' The Conference of Delegates shal i be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during ef'.ch annual meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any member or associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

' The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to the 
Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommendations 
forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of Corresponding 
Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates 
shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend the meetings 
of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their objects and of the 
precise way in which they would desire to have them carried into 
effect. 

' It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar with 
the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favoura,bly before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of o]<era- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results.' 

The vacancies in the Council to be declared at the General Committee 
meeting in November will be Lord Rayleigh, who has assumed the Presi- 
dency, together with the following who retire in the ordinary course : 



REl'ORT OF TI[K COUNCIL. 



Ixvii 



lending 

papers 

•t to the 

i in the 

', on or 
chedule, 
Associa- 
■egard to 
ponding 

sociation 

^ ponding 

ts of the 

included 

other of 

[nate any 
3 its dele- 
ihe time a 



shall con- 
md Secre- 
ied by the 
■esponding 

secretaries 
Associa- 
te to take 

mit to the 
lendations 
ocommen- 
sponding 
Delegates 
meetings 
and of the 
ried into 

liliar with 
le Confer- 
gs may be 
jfore their 
^ions bear- 
of opera- 
Is.' 

'ommittee 
IthePresi- 
i-y course : 



Mr. F. Darwin, Mr. Hastings, Dr. Hnggins, and Dr. Burdon Sanderson; 
and tbe Council will recommend for re-election on that occasion the othor 
ordinal y M'mbers of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose 
names are distinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



♦Abney, Captain W. de V/ . 
Adams, Professor W. G . 
*Ball, Professor 11. S. 
Bateman, J. F. La Trobe, Esq. 
Bramwell, Sir F. J. 
Dawkins, Professor \V. Boyd. 
De La Rue, Dr. Warren. 
Dewar, Professor J. 
Evans, Captain Sir F. J. 
Flower, Professor W. H. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq. 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H. 



Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq. 
Henrici, Professor O. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK. 
Jeffreys, Dr. J. Gwyn. 
*Moseley, Professor H. N. 
*Ommarmey, Admiral Sir E. 
Pengelly, W., Esq. 
Perkin, Dr. W. H. 
Prestwich, Professor. 
Sclater-Booth, The Right Hon. 

George. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C. 
*Temple, Sir R. 



In accordance with the decision arrived at by them at Southport, the 
General Committee will meet on Tuesdaj% 11th November, at 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon, in the Theatre of the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, 
London, W., for the transaction of the following business, viz. : — 

To elect the President, Officers, and Council for 1884-6. 

To fix the date of meeting for 1885. 

To appoint the place of meeting for 1886. 

To consider the alteration of rules necessaiy to give effect to the 
recommendations of the Committee on Local Scientific Societies. 



Su^yplementari/ Beporf presente', to the General Committee at the Meeting 
held at the Royal Institution, London, November 11, 1884. 

During the Meeting of the British Association at Montreal, a pro- 
posal was made to commemorate tbe first visit of the British Association 
to the Dominion of Canada, and the reception at IMontreal, by founding 
a Gold Medal in the McGill University, as a permanent memorial of the 
Meeting. 

There are at present five Gold Medals in the Faculty of Arts of the 
McGill University. Two of the five are for Science subjc^cts, but for the 
special Faculty of Applied Science there is only one Silver Medal. 

Although the final decision as to the details of Llie awai\l would be 
left to the authorities of the University, it was suggested that the Medal 
should be given annually to the Gi'aduating Class in tlie Faculty of 
Applied Science, any surplus income to be expended in prizes in that 
Faculty, 

In support of this proposal private subscriptions from Members and 
Associates at Montreal were paid or promised to the amount of nearly 
500?., and it is believed that many Members of the Association who were 
unable to attend the Meeting, or who had left Montr 1 before the close 
thereof, will be glad to contribute to the fund. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1884. 



m 

ilii:; 



The Council are of opinion that this commemoration of a ]^I(^efcing 
which was held under such exceptional circumstances, and which proved 
so eminent a success, should not be wholly left to individual Members 
to carry out, but should also bear the impress of being the act of the 
Association ; they would therefore suggest to the General Committee 
that their sanction be given to the Council to obtain, at the expense of 
the Association, a die suitable to the occasion, and that the General 
Ti'easurcr of the Association take the necessai-y steps to receive the fund 
from the Treasurer of the Committee which was formed at Montreal, and 
transmit it in a suitable manner to the authorities of McGill University. 



lil'l 



Ixix 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Montreal Mketing in August and Septkmher 1884. 

[When Committers are appointed, the Alemlier tirsl named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 



Involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart (Secretary), ]\Ir. Knox Laugliton, Mr. 
G. J. Synions, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stoney be reappointed 
a Committee, with power to add to their number, for tlie purpose of co- 
operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe iu his project of establishing a Meteoro- 
logical Observatory near Chepstow on a permanent and scientific basis, 
and that the unexpended sum of 25^. be again placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert H. Scott, Mr. J. Norman Lockye- Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of co-operating with the Meteorological 
Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publication of Daily Syno^itic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 18G1 ; that Mr. R. H. Scott be 
the Secretary, and that the still unexpended sum of iiQl. be again placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. James N. Shoolbred and Sir W. Thomson be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of reducing and tabulating the Tidal Obser- 
vations in tlie English Channel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
connecting them with observations made on the French coast ; that Mr. 
Slioolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 10/. bo placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, Sir William Thomson, 
Mr. James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of calculating certain tables in the Theory of 
Numbers, connected with the divisors of a number ; that INIr. J. W. Ji. 
Glaisher be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100/. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Crum Brown, Mr. Milne-Holme, !Mr. John Murray, 
and ]\Ir. Bnchan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish IMeteorological Society, in making meteoro- 
logical observations on Ben Nevis ; that Professor Crum Brown bo the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 50/. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Schuster, Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor Stokes, 
^[r. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abuey, and 
Mr. G. J. Symons be reappointed a Committee for the purposo of con- 
sidering oho best methods of recording the direct intensity of Solar Radia- 
tion ; tliat Professor Schuster be the Secretary, and that the sum of "JO/, 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



IXX REPORT — 1884. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Sir H. E. Roscoo, Professor A. S. Herschel, Captain W. de W. 
Abney, Professor Bonney, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone be 
reappointed a Committee for the pui'pose of invtwtigating the practica- 
bility of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dnst, and of considering the 
question of undeTtaking regular observations in various localities ; that 
Mr. Murray be the Secretary, and that the sum of 701. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Tilden and Ramsay, and Mr. W. W. J. Nicol be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the subject of V.apour Pressures 
and Refractive Indices of Salt Solutions ; that Mr. W. W. J. Nicol be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 25Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Williamson, Dewar, Frankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, 
Odling, and Armstrong, ]\Ie6srs. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, J. Millar 
Thomson, H. 13. Dixon, and V. H. Voley, and Drs. F. Japp and H. Forster 
Morley be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of drawing up a 
statement of the varieties of Chemical Names which have come into use, 
for indicating the causes which have led to their adoption, and for con- 
sidering what can be done to bring about some convergence of the 
views on Chemical Nomenclature obtaining among English and foreign 
chemists ; tliat Mr. H. B. Di.xon be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
5/. be placed at their disposal for the ])urpose. 

That Professors Ramsay, Tilden, Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants 
of Solution, especially the expansion of .saline solutions ; that Professor 
W. L. Goodwin be the Secretary, and that the sum of 20/. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That ]\Ir. H.]5auerman,Mr. F. W, Rudler,and Mr. H.J. Johnston-Lavis 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Volcanic Phenomena 
of Vesuvius ; that Mr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis be the Secretary, and that 
the Rum of 25/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. H. Green, Professor L. C. Miall, ]\Ir. J. Brigg, and 
Mr. J. W. Davis I)e reappointed a Committee for the purpose of report- 
ing upon the Rayfrill Fissure, Lothersdale ; that Mr. J. W. Davis be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 15Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. T. Gray, and Professor J. Milne be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Earthquake 
Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor J. jMilne be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 75/. bo placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. ]<]tlieridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. R. Jones 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks ; that Professor T. R. Jones be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 25Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. W. T. Blar.ford and Mr. J. S. Gardner be a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting upon the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and 
Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom ; that Mr, Gardner be the 
Secretary, and that the sura of 50/. bo placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. W. Car- 
rnthers, F. Drew, R. B. Newton, F. W. Rudler, W. Topley, E. Wethered, 



HEC0M5IKNDATI0NS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



Ixxi 



omson, 
. dc W. 
tone be 
ractica- 
ing the 
s ; that 
at their 

ol be a 
ressures 
Jicol be 
I for the 

Brown, 

Millar 

Porster 

ig up a 

iito use, 

for con- 

of the 

foreign 

sum of 

id win be 
ionstants 
J'rofessor 
placed at 

on-Lavis 
momena 
md that 

•igg, and 
report- 
is be the 
for the 

Vlilne be 
I'tliquake 
land that 

|R. Jones 
le Fossil 
[a be the 
Ll for the 

kmmittee 
liary and 



be 
for 



the 
the 



W. Car- 
tethered, 



and W. Whitakcr be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of carrying 
on the Geological Record ; that Mr. W. Whitaker be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 50/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. R. B. Grantham, C. E. De Rancc, J. Ji. Redman, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker, J. W. Woodall, Major-General Sir A. Clarke, 
Admiral Sir PJ. Ommanney, Sir J. N. Douglass, Captain Sir P. J. O. 
Evans, Captain J. Parsons, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, Professor J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. Jj. Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. P. Vernon 
Harconrt be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into 
the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the 
Influence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other Material in that 
Action ; that ^lessrs. C. E. De Ranee and W. Topley be the Secretaries, 
and tiiat the sum of 107. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Pox 
Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden- Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Ranee be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England, and the (Quality 
and Quantity of the Waters supplied to various towns and districts from 
these formations ; that JVIr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOl. be placed at their di.sjiosal for the purpose. 

That Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Poster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haduon, 
Pi'ofessor Moseley, and i\Ir. Percy Sladen be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples ; that Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of lOOl. bo placed at their dis{)osal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. B. C. Rye be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological 
Literature ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of lOOL 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Cordeaux, j\Ir. J. A. Harvie Brown, Professor Newion, 
Mr. R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. G. More, Mr. .). Hardy, and Mr. W. 
Eagle Clarke be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtaining 
(with the consent of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity 
House and of tlie Commissioners of Northern Lights) observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Liglithouses and Lightships, and of reporting 
upon the same at the meeting of 1885 ; that ]Mr. Cordeaux be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 80Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Giinther, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. 
Sclater be reappointed a Connnittee for the purpose of exploring Kili- 
ma-njaro and the adjoining mountains of p]qnatorial Afiica ; tnat Mr. 
Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sura of 25/. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby and Mr. G. R. Vine be a Committee for 
the purpose of reporting on Recent i'olyzoa ; that Mr. Vine be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 10/. be placed at theii' disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Cossar Ewart, Professor Alleyne 
Nicholson, Professor Mackintosh, Profe.-sor Young, Professor Struthers, 



]xxii 



RKPORT — 1884. 



and Professor McKondrick he u Committee for the purpose of promoting' 
the establishment of a Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland ; 
that Mr. John Murray be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100/. bo placed 
at their disposal for the pur])ose. 

That Professor Huxley, Mr. Sclater, Mi-. Howard Saunders, Mr. 
Thiselton Dyer, and Pi-ofessor Moseley be a Committee for the purpose 
of promoting' the establishment of Marine Piological Stations on tho 
coast of the United Kingdom; that Professor Moseley be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 150/. be placed at their dis])osal for the purpose. 

That General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Lieut. -Colonel Godwin-Austen.. 
Mr. W. T. Blanford, Mr. Sclater, Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Thiselton Dyer, 
Professor Struthcrs, Mr. G. W. Bloxara, Mr. H. W. Bates, Lord Alfred 
Churchill, Mr. F. Galton, and Professor Moseley, with power to add to 
their number, be a Committee for the purpose of furthering the Explora- 
tion of New Guinea, by nuikiiig a grant to Mr. Forbes for the purposes 
of his expedition ; that JVIr. H. W. Bates be tho Secretary, and that the 
sum of 2001. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General Sir J. H. Ijefroy, the Rev. Canon Carver, Mr. F. 
Galton, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Moseley, Dr. E. B. Tylor, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, ^Ir. G. W. Bloxara, and Mr. H. W. Bates be a Counnittec 
for the purpose of furthering the scientific Examination of the country 
in the vicinity of INIount lloraima in Guiana, by making a grant to Mr. 
Everard F. im Thurn for the purposes of his expedition ; that Mr. H. W. 
Bates be the Secretaiy, and that the sum of lOOZ. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Frederick Bramwell, Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Sir F. Abel, Captain 
Douglas Galton, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. Trueman 
Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. A. T. Atchison, Mr. R. E. Webster, Mr. 
A. Carpraael, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Theodore Aston, and Mr. James 
Brunlees bo reappointed a Committee for the purpose of watching and 
reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation ; that Sir Frederick 
Bramwell be tho Secretary, and that the sum of 5Z. be placed at their 
disposal ior the purpose. 

That Dr. J^]. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. 
Daniel Wilson, Mr. Horatio Hale, Mr. R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. George 
W. Bloxam be a Committee for the purpose of investigating and publish- 
ing reports on the physical characters, languages, industrial and social 
condition of the Novth-wtstern tribes of the Dominion of Canada ; that 
Mr. Bloxam bo the Secretary, and that the sum of SOL be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Park Harrison, General Pitt-Rivers, Professor Flower, 
Professor Tliane, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Dr. Muirhead, Mr. F, W. 
Riidler, and Dr. Garson be reappointed a Committee for tho purpose of 
defining the Physical Characteristics of the Races and Principal Crosses 
in the Jiritish Isles, and obtaining illustrative Photographs with a view 
to their publication ; that Dr. Garson be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



Not involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigb, 



HECOMMENUATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTKE. Ixxiii 



lOtmg' 
iland ; 
placed 

s, Mr. 

arposc! 

in the 

retary, 

le. 

Lusten,, 

Uycr, 

Alfred 

add to 
ixploi'a- 
urposes 
liat the 

Mr. F. 

ro lessor 
mmittee 
country 
b to Mr. 
•. H. W. 
at their 

:'rofessor 
Captain 

Trueraan 
ter, Mr. 
James 

nng and 
i-ederick 
at their 

froy, Dr. 

George 

publish" 

id social 

; that 

at their 

Flower, 
F. W. 

irpose of 
Crosses 

1 a view 
Ithe sum 



'rofessor 
Uyleigb, 



Professor Jenlcin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muir- 
head, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor lOverett, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomliiison, and Professor W. 
(larnett be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of constructing 
and issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements ; and 
that Mr. (flazobrook bo the Secretary. 

That Professor G. Forbes, Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. 
Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Har- 
cou'"t, and Professor Ayrton be a Committee for the purpose of 
reporting on Standards of Light ; and that Professor G. Forbes be the 
Secr(!tary. 

That Professor Sir William Thomson, JNIr. W. H. Barlow, Professor 
A. W. Williamson, Mr. W. H. Preece, and Mr. J. M. Thomson 
be a Committee for the purpose of promoting arrangements for 
facilitating tlie use of Weights and Measin-es in accordance with the per- 
missive clauses of the Weights and Measures Act, 1H78 ; and that 
Mr. J. ]M. Thomson be the Seci-etary. 

That Professors A. Johnson, ^lacgrogor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. J. 
Bovey and Mr. C. Carpmael be a Committee for the purpose of pro- 
moting Tidal Observations in Canada ; and that Professor Johnson be 
the Secretary. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon be 
reappointed a Committee for tlie purpose of calculating Tables of the 
Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; and that Professor Cayley 
be tlie Secretary. 

That Professor G. H. Darwin and Professor J. C. Adams be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations ; 
and that Professor Darwin be the Secretary. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart and Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, Sir Frederick Evans, Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor G. 
Chrystal, Professor S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, and Professor 
Schuster be a Committee for the j^urpose of considering the best means 
of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations ; and that Professor 
Balfour Stewart be the Secretary. 

That Professors Everett and Sir W. Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor PJdward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
.Mr. Galloway, Mr. Josepli Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
and Mr. A. Strahan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature down- 
wards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water ; and that Pro- 
fessor Evei'ett be the Secre'ory. 

That Professors W. A. Tilden and H. Vj. Armstrong be reaopointed 
a Committee for the purf jse of investigating Isomeric N'^'^hthalene 
Derivatives ; and that Professor H. E. Armstrong be the Seci 

That Professors Dewar and A. W. Williamson, Dr. Marshes, r atts, 
Captain A" 7, Dr. Stoney, and Professors W. N. Hartley, McLeod, 
Carey Foster, A. K. Huntington, Emerson Reynolds, Reinold, Liveing, 
Lord Rayleigh, and W. Chandler Roberts be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our knowledge 



ixxiv 



REPORT — 1884. 



of Spectrum Analysis ; and that Professor W. Chandler lloborts be tlio 
Secretary. 

That Professor Sir H. E. Roscoo, Mr. Lockycr, Professors Dewar, 
Liveing, Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Captain Abney, 
and Dr. Marshall Watts be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
preparing a now series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 
Elements ; and that Dr. Marshall Watts be the Secretary. 

Tliat Professor J. Prestwicli, Professor T. McK. Hughes, and Mr. 
W. Topley be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of assisting in the 
preparation of an International Geological Map of Europe ; and that Mr. 
W. Topley be the Secretary. 

That Professors J. Prestwicli, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Ur. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 
Do Ranee, H. G. Fordham, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. 
Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking 
measures for their jireservation ; and that Dr. H. W. Crosskey be the 
Secretary. 

That Sir L. Playfaiv, Professor Moseley, Admiral Sir E. Ommaaney, 
Mr. P. L, Sclater, and Mr. A. Sedgwick be a Committee for the purpose 
of preparing a report on the aid given by the Dominion Government and 
the Government of the United States to the encouragement of Fisheries 
and to the investigation of the various forms of marine life on the coasts 
and rivers of North America ; and that Mr. Sedgwick be the Secretary. 

That the Rev. Canon Tristram, the Rev. F. Lawrence, and Mr. 
James Glaisher be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of pro- 
moting the Survey of ]*alestine ; and that Mr. James Glaisher be the 
Secretary 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Gladstone (Secretary), Mr. 
Wm. Sliaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir Richard Temple, Sir Hemy E. Roscoe, Mr. 
James Heywood, and Professor Story Maskelyne be reappointed a Com- 
mittee on Science Teaching in Elementary Schools. 

That Mr. Mollison be requested to report on the present state of our 
knowledge of the Mathematical Theory of Thermal Conduction. 

That Mr. R. T. Glazebrook be requested to draw up a Report on 
recent progress in Physical Optics. 

That Mr. J. J, Thomson be requested to draw up 
Electrical Theories. 

That Mr. W. Topley be requested to continue his 
^National Geological Surveys. 



a Report on 
Report upon 



Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual 
lleport of the Association. 

Professor Schuster's paper, opening the discussion on the Connection 
of Sunspots with Terrestrial Phenomena. 

Professor O. J. Lodge's paper, opening the discussion on the seat of 
the Electromotive Force in the Voltaic Cell. 

Professor Bonney's paper ' On the Archaean Rocks of Great Britain.' 



BKCOMMENDATIONS ADOPTKI) »V TIIK (JENKRAL COMMITTE .. 



Ixxv 



I be the 

Dewar, 

Abney, 

I'pose of 

of the 

tnd ^tr. 
g in the 
that Mr. 

Hugbos, 
s. C. B. 
igcUy, J. 

purpose 
aracterfl, 

Ireliind, 
id taking 
>y be the 

nmaaney, 
e purpose 
ment and 

Fisheries 
the coasts 
3cretary. 

and Mr. 
se of pro- 

er be the 

tary), Mr. 

Lubbock, 

iscoe, Mr. 

led a Com- 

Ute of our 
leport on 
[Report on 
(port upon 



Dr. Clwyn Jeffreys' pa|)er, entidod ' The ("oncordance of the Mollusca 
jnbabitirig both sides of the Nortli Athmtic' 

Professor Asa Gray's paper, entitled ' ilomarks on tlie Characteristic 
Features of North American Vegetation.' 

Professor Thurston's paper ' On the Tlieory of the Steam-engine.' 

Sir James Douglass's paper ' On Improvements in Coast Signals,' 
with such diagrams as may be found indispejisable. 

Mr. J. M. Wilson's paper ' On American i'ormanent Way,' with tlie 
necessary diagrams. 



Ri'sohitiona referred to the Council for Gonshleration, and Action if 

desirable. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to communicate 
with the Government of the Dominion of Canada in order (1) to call the 
attention of the Government to tlie absence of trustworthy information 
concerning the tides of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the adjoining 
Atlantic coast, and to the dangers which thence arise to the navigation ; 
(2) to urge upon the Government the importance of obtaining accurate 
and systematic tidal observatitjns, and of tabulating and reducing the 
results by the scientific methods elaborated by Committees of the 
Association ; and (.'}) to suggest the immediate establishment of a sufficient 
.series of observing stations on the coast of tlie Dominion. 

That the Council bo requested to examine the feasibility of instituting 
a scheme for promoting an International Scientific Congress, to meet at 
intervals in different countries, and to report thereon to the General 
Committee at the next meeting of the Association. 

Tiiat the attention of the Council be drawn to the advisability of 
communicating with the Admiralty for the purpose of urging on them 
the importance of the I'linployment of the Harmonic Analysis in the 
Reduction of Admiralty Tidal Observations. 

That the Council memorialise the Canadian Government as to the 
urgent necessity of encouraging investigation and publication of reports 
•with respect to the physical characters, languages, social, industrial, and 
artistic condition of the native tribes of the Dominion. 

That, in the event of that part of the lieport of the Council concerning 
Corresponding Societies being accepted by the General Committee at their 
next meeting, the Council be empowered to form the Committee therein 
mentioned (see Report, Correspondiiuj Societies, Section 3). 



inual 



;3onnection 

I the seat of 

it Britain.' 



Ixxvi 



REPORT — 1884. 



Syyiojpsis of GrmifH of Money oppropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Montreal Mi^eting in 
September 1884. The Names of the Members who are entitled 
to call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants 
are prefixed. 



Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
*Stewart, Profossor IJalfour. — Meteorological Observations 

near Chepstow 25 

*Scott, Mr. R. H.— Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean 50 

♦Shoolbred, Mr. J. N.— Reduction of Tidal Observations 10 

*Cayley, Professor — Calculation of Mathematical Tables 100 

*Bro\vn, Professor Crum. — Meteorological Observations on 

BenNevis 60 

* Schuster, Professor. — Solar Radiation 20 

*Murray, Mr. John. — Meteoric Dust 70 

Ghemistry, 

Tilden, Pnjfessor. — Vapour Pressures and Refractive Indices 

of Salt Solutions 25 

♦Williamson, Professor. — Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Ramsay, Professor. — Physical Constants of Solutions 20 

Geology. 

Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 25 

*Green, Professor A. H. — RavgriH Fissure 15 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 75 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palteozoic 

Rocks 25 

Blanford, Mr. W. T.— Fossil Plants of British Tertiary and 

Secondary Beds 50 

*Evans, Dr. J.— Geological Record 50 

*Grantham, R. B.— Erosion of Sea- Coasts 10 

*Hull, Professor E. — Circulation of Underground Waters ... 10 

Carried forward £635 

* Reappointed. 



ific Pur- 
"eting in 
•e entitled 
Grants 



£ s. d. 

25 

50 

10 

100 

50 

20 

70 



25 








5 








20 









'25 








15 








75 








25 








50 








50 








10 








10 








635 









SYNOPSIS OK GRANTS OF MONKV. " j^^^.. 

Brought forward ^ ". d. 
<535 

•«e»u,to„.M...,r.T.-R„eora„fZ„o,;.i-e„,u.;,,„;„ 2 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J.-Afigration of Hinls ^ 

S<..-by, Dr. H, C.-Kocont Polj..oa ^25 

Sgro7/rr"'°'°«'™''^'''""-""C-'"f United ' 

150 

Of.ogrcqdii/. 

r.efr„y,06„e..alSirH.-Expl„,.atio„„fNowGai„oa . -OO n 

l-of,.oy,,,o„e,.aISh.H.-i.;.p|„,.ati„„„fM„„„tB,™i,„,:,.:: ioo 

MecIidNics. 

^B.•am^velI, Sir F. J.-Pateut Legislation . , , 

^ 

^ntliropolor/ij, 

«;r&i«'i.5:";''--^''^»'--'«--'<>™'-„f,,aeo:/,i " ' 

10 

£"1515 
* Keappointed, " — 



The Annual Meeting in 1885. 
The Jtotiugat Abenloon will commence „„ Wodnosday, September 0. 

Place of Meeting in 1886. 
Tbe Annual Meeting ef the Association will be held at Birmingham. 



:|f : 



Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1884. 



Oenerid Statement of Sums which haue been paid on. account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



18H4. 



Tido OiHcussionH 



tf. 



•JO 



18:i.-). 

Tido DisciissidiiH i>- (• 

Uritisli Fossil Iclitliydloyy ... !<'•■> <• <» 

£l(;7 



1830. 

Tide V)iscii.ssions 

Uritisli Fossil Ichtliyology ... 
Thermonictric Obsorviil ions, 

kc 

Fxporinicnis on long-con- 

tinui'd lli^iit 

l{ain-(iiiu;^i's 

Hofract ion Kxporimonts 

Lunar Xiilation 

TliermometiTs 



ii;:; 



. GO 
. IT) 
£4:15 



I 

K! 



fi 





£i»22 12 



isas. 

Tide Discussions 21t 

British Fossil Fislics 100 

Jleteorolo^^ical Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) <J0 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservationof )... 1!» 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 7.5 

Mud in Rivers )! 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 207 

S t cam- vessels 1 00 

Meteorological Committee .^^ 'M 

' £i)32' 






1 

12 





;t 

8 


J) 
~2" 








50 



18:57. 

Tide Discussions 284 I 

Clicmical Constants 24 \',i 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Mristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temjierature {):{ :? 

Vitritication Experiments ... 150 

Heart Kxperiments 8 4 

r>aroiiietric Observations :») 

Barometers II 18 











10 
10 


6 


7 

5 
' 'J 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observat ions 
at Plymouth, &c 0:mo 



Mcchnnism of Waves 144 

lUistol Tides ;J5 

Meteorology and .Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitriliciilioii Kxperiments ... 1» 

(,'ast-Irou I'ixprrinienis 100 

Uailway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

St earn- vessels' Kngines 100 

Stars in Ilisloirc! CCleste 171 

Stars in Laeaille II 

Stars in U.A.S. Catalogue ... 100 

Animal Secretions 10 

Sleam Kngines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 10 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Itodies :{ 

(Jases on Sohir Sj)cctruni 22 

Hourly Met(!orological Ob- 
servations, Invernes.s and 

King)issie 4!' 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£r51l5~ 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

SubtcMiaiiean Teuii)(?ralurt ... i:{ 

Heart Kxperiments 18 

Lungs Kxjieriments 8 

Title Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Ltnel 6 

Stars (llistoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Laeaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 204 

Atmos])heric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic liodics 7 

^Meteorological Observations. 52 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 

Working I'opidation 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 



n. 


(f. 


^ 


(1 


18 


(> 


11 





4 


7 





(» 


7 


2 


1 


4 








18 











10 





10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


•> 








II 











i:t 





1!) 





l.'{ 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 














(1 


17 


Ii 


1 


(•> 





II 








7 









1 :{ !i 



£1540 10 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Elarthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons G 

Veins and Absorbents ;{ 

Mud in Rivers 5 



10 



8 



7 



<* 





UKNKUAL MTATUMKNT. 



Ixxix 



int of 



t '.' tt 

5 18 «> 

:i n 

y 4 7 

)() »> 

i9 7 "i 

n » * 

71 18 6 
11 

(;(i ifi (> 

10 10 

M) 

IG 1 

40 

;j 

22 



4'.i 7 R 

118 2 <•» 

500 

15115 li t> 



100 O 

i:{ i;5 f. 

18 10 

8 \•^ *> 

50 I) 

f, 11 1 

242 10 l» 
4 15 
'Jfi4 
15 15 
10 
7 
52 17 •'' 
112 1 <■> 
100 
50 
184 7 

40 

80 
J85J_«_J' 

r54 6"T63i 

■M 



8 


8 





10 








17 


7 





fi 








S 





(» 


5 









Mariiu' Zoold^ry 15 12 H 

!Skflc'i"ii Mfij"* 20 

Miiuniiiiii I tan "meters (i 18 «• 

Stiiis (llistoiic Celeste) IH5 

Slurs (l.aciiillc) 7!» 5 

Stiirs (Noitioncliituro of) 17 \\> <> 

Stars (CaiiiloKiio of) 40 

Water (111 iron 50 (» 

Mcteoroloj,ncal Observutioiis 

111 iiivcnu'ss 20 

Mctcdrolo^rical Observaliotis 

(rfductioii of) 25 

Fossil llei.liles 50 

iMirciK'i Memoirs (J2 I! 

Hail way Sections :!8 I 

Is.rms of Vessels ilCI 12 

Meteorological Observat ions 

at riymoutii 55 

Mau'netical Observations til 18 8 

Fishes of tlie Old Ked Saiul- 

slone illO 

Tides at I.eitli 50 

Aiuinoiricler at Edinbiir<.ch.., (ill 1 10 

TabiilatimrObsorvations !> (» 11 

IJae.sof Men 5 

Kadiate Animals 2 

■i'T2ri5~10 11 



1812. 

Iiynamomelric Instruments... 1 1:> 

.\noj)liira liritanni;e 52 

'I'ides at r.ristol 5!) 

(lascs on Li};:ht ItO 

Clironomolers 2(i 

Marino Zoology I 

I'.ritisli Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Kducat ion 20 

i\larino Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Ilistoire Celeste) 5i> 

Stars (llrit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Hallway Sect ions Hi 1 

Ih'itish liclemnites 50 

I'ossil ll('])tiles (publication 

of KeiH.rt) 210 

Forms of Vessels 1 80 

(ialvanic Experiments on 

Uocks 5 

Mt^teorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 08 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mometric Instruments IK) 

I'lirce of Wind 10 

i-iudit on (iTowtli of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 

Questions on Human Kace ... 7 

^£i 4411 



12 



8 





14 


7 


1- 


(! 


5 



































10 
























8 II 































1 


11 


il 





7 


8 



Revision of 
of Stars 



184:$. 

'lie Nomenclature 



K(Mluction of Stars, llrilish 
.\ssociat ion ( 'alalogue 25 

.Vnomalous 'i'ides, Frilli of 
Forlii r.'O 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Mel eorological Observat ions 
at Plymouth 55 

Wlie well's Meteorological 
AuemonicttM' at Plymouth . 10 

.Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Heihiction of Meteorological 
oliservations 110 

.M (it eorological Instrumi-nts 
and (Gratuities Ill) 

Construction of Anemometer 
at lnv(>rness 50 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological UecoitU'r for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of (Jases on Light 18 

Establishment at Ki'W Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
l''\uniture, and Sundries ... lii!! 

Kx[>eiiments by Captive I'.al- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Hails of 
Ita i 1 ways 20 

Publication of Iteport on 
Fossil Uei)tiles 40 

ColoiU'ed Drawings of l!ail- 
way Sections 147 

licgistration of Earthquake 
Shocks ;S0 

l!(!port on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Mar.clujster 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 

.Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Ueport on lirl- 
.ish Fossil .Mammalia 100 

Phvsiolotrical Operations of 
Jledicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics iiO 

Additional Exjicrinients on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Mfjrin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 61) 

p]xperiraents on the Strength 

of .Materials 60 

£1565 



». 


d. 














12 


s 





<♦ 




















G 





12 
8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


:! 














4 

:? 





14 


6 
8 



11 













5 


8 




















14 


10 








10 


2 



I 



IXXX nKPORT- 

£ H. <>. ' 

1841. 
!M(;tniiviil()<4iciil Obscrval inns 

ill Kiiiuussie iuid IiivcriK'Ss 12 
Coiiiplot inu' Oliscrvatioiis at 

I'lyiiKiiith :!;■") 

^liiuiiciio ;iu<l .MutiHivdlofriciil 

Co-oporalidii L'.") K t 

l'ul)licatiiiii ol' llic lirilisli 

A.ssDcial ion r'ataloi;iie ol' 

Slars :i") 

Observations on Tides on the 

KastCnast (>r Scotland ... 100 
lUivisionoi' tin; Nomenclatnn; 

of Slavs IHH' 2 ;» C, 

Mainlainin^- tlic Ksialdisli- 

mcnl in Kew ObscM'va- 

lory 117 17 .'! 

Insii'inncnts for Kcw Obser- 
vatory afi 7 ;! 

Tnllnenco of Lijilit on I'lanis 10 
Subterraneous Teniperatin'c 

in Tr(>]and 5 t) (I 

Coloured Drawinii's of l!ail- 

wiiy Sect inns ]."> 17 

Livest iiiiit ion ol' Fossil Fishes 

ul'tiieriOweiTertiaryStrala 100 
Ro<;islerinii- the Shocks of 

Kiirth(|iiakes 1812 21! 1 1 10 

Structure ol' Fossil Shells ... 20 
Kadiata and Mdllusea of the 

yE.ueau and lied Seas 1S42 100 
Geoi;rapIiic;il Histributionsof 

Marine Zoology 1812 10 

Marine ZooloLiyoi' Devon and 

CJornwall ....' 10 

■Marine Zoology (if (lorfu 10 

Exi)criment.s on the Vitality 

of Siu'ds '. ;» 

Ex[ierinu'nts on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1812 8 7 . 

Exotic .Vnoplm'a 15 (i 

Streniijth of Materials 100 (» 

C'oin])letin^^ Kxperini(Mits on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into .Vsppyxia 10 

Investinatinns on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals .^O 

Constant Indicator and flo- 
rin's Instrument 1812 10 

~i:!l8r 12 Ji 

181.-,. 
Publication of the HrilisliAs- I 

social ion CataloLiue of Stars ll,")! 14 (') 
Mc^leorolofiical Observations 

at Inverness liO IS II 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-ojieration ICi l(i 8 

Miiteorolouical Instruments 

at Kdinburtili 18 11 

deduction of Anomomc^trical i 

Observations at I'lymouth 2.5 



-1884. 

£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 4:', I" 8 

Mainlaininj^' tin; Fslabli.-ii- 

meiit in Kew Oliservatoi-y I IIP 15 

For Kreil's liaroinelroL'rapli 25 

(Jases j'l'oiii I run i'^irnaces... 50 

The Actinoo-raph 15 

Microscopic Structure .if 

Shells 20 (» 

Exotic Ano))lin'a 184.'! 10 O 

Vitality of Seeds I84:i 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1S44 7 

.Marine Zooloj^y of Cornwall 10 () 
I'hys! ilogical Act ion of ^ledi- 

cin.'s 20 (I 

Statistics of Sickness aii<l 

.Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1841! 15 14 S 

t's:{| <( '.) 

I84(>. 
liril ish Association t.'atalomie 

of Stars rs44 211 15 

F'ossil Fishes of the London 

(May 100 o o 

Conqiutat ion of the (iaus-ian 

Constants for 182!) 50 

Maintainin'_'- the Establish- 
ment at K(!\v Obser\atory IK! 10 7 

Strenuth of Mat(!rials f.O 

Ilesearclies in ,\sphyxia (> 1(1 2 

l'',xainination of F'ossil Sliells 10 (» 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1.S45 7 12 I! 

^larine Znolouy of ( '(irnwall 10 

Marine Zoolouy of i!ritain ... 10 O 

Exotic Ano]!lura 1S(4 25 

i;x)ienses attendinu' Anenio- 

ine'ers 1] 7 <I 

Anenu/iueters' Repairs 2 ,"! fi 

.\tinospheric Waves ;! I! .'! 

Captive Malloons 1844 8 1 'J 8 

Varieties of the Human I{ac(; 

1S44 7 (! 
Statistics of Sickness and 

.Mortality in York 12 (i 

"^tw^TTTr u 

1847. 

Conqiutation of tiu' (Jaiissian 

Constants fo • 182il 50 

Il.'ibits of .Marine Animals ... 10 u 

riiysioliiuical .\ction of Medi- 
cines 20 I) 

.Mariiu' Zoolofiy ,f Cornwall 10 n 

.Mmospheric W.'ves (I ',1 :! 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 ' 

Alaintainin<r the Kstablisb- 

mcnt at Kew Obseivatory 107 8 <i 

£208 5 I 



s. d. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. Ixxxi 

£ s. d. ■ 

1818. ' i8r,:?. 

Maintaininc; llio Kstablisli- Maintniiiins- the Kstahlisli- 

niiiil at Ivew OhsiTViiloiy l"l 15 11 niuiil at Kcw Obser\al(iry 1G5 

Atiiiiispheric Waves ;! !() '.) Kxperimijnts on tin; liilluciici; 

Vitality ol' Seods li ir» of .Solar lladiat inn 1") 

L'nini)litii)n of Calalogiu; of Hosearchoa on tlu; lliiiish 

Stars 70 Annelida ID 

On ('(iliinrinj;- JIattors 5 Droduinn' on tin; Kast ('oast 

On (irowtli of Plants 1.") ' of Scntland !<) 

I'L'T", I S Ellinolog'ical Queries "> 

I iL'or. 

IS I'.), I 



























II 


tl 





il 



Klpctrical Observalinns at 

K('\v Observatory 

Maintainin.i,' lla^ IvsiaMisli- 

mcnl at ditto 

Vilalily of Seeds 

On (iruwtli of rianls ... ... 

Kci:islralion of Periodical 

Plicnonier.a 

i'.ill on Accnunt of Aneniu- 

uii'trical Obs','r\ati(ins 



no 

~c> -2 r, 

r, s I 

T) 

10 o 

I -.', 

i'i.')i! lit <; 



isr.o 

Maiiitainintr the l']>lablish- 

uient al Kew Observatory L'.".") IS It 

Transit of I'larllitjiiake Waves 50 i) 

Periodical Plienomena 15 I) i) 

Jlutuoroloyical Instruments, 

Azores."; 25 



1851. 

.AfainlaiiiinLr tlie Ivslalilisli- 
inenl at Kew Obsei'valory 
(incliidin,ir balance of 

I'nrmer grant) ;i;iO 

Investigations on l'"lax 11 

lOll'ccts of 'i'eniperaturu (Jii 

Wrought Iron 10 

liegislraliiiii of Pt'riodical 

Plienomena 10 

P.rilish Annelida 10 

Vitality I , >eeds 5 

Conduction of Ileal 4 



u 








I) 


I) 








II 


'2 


o 


*> 






iliSO I'.l 7 



1 85 



1 855. 
Maintaining the Kslabli>h- 

nu'iit at Kew Observatory il'5 il 

MarlJKiuake ^lovements 10 II 

Phvsieal Aspect of the McMiii II 8 5 

t;il5 IS (I Viialily of Seeds 10 7 il 

■ .Mai>(if tli(! World 15 II i. 

ICthnnlogical Queries 5 I) i) 

Drudging near Pel fast 4 ii 

£4S0 III 4 



;ill'.) L' 
I'D I 



Maintaining the Mslalilisli- 

iiicnt at K(^\v ()bser\atory 

(includes part of yrant in 

islli) ' 

Theory of Heat 

Periodical Ph(uinmena<il .\ni- 

mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 i\ I 

Inlluenct! of Solar Padial ion ;>o o II 

Ethnological Iiiipiiries Il' II SIriekland's (Irnilhologiea 



1 850. 
.Maintaining \\\o. Ksiablish- 
ment at Kew Obsei'va- 
tory : — 

l"851 £' 75 (^ ryr 

1S55 £5011 0/ ' 



Researches on Annelida 



• 10 Synonyms 100 

L':>',i| '.t 7 Ilredging ami Dredging 

"~~— — — — Forms '.I 

Chemical Action of Pighl ... 20 

Strength of Iron I'lates Ill 

Uegisli'alion of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon Ill 

I7:il 







u 



I85L'. 
Maintaining the Mstablish- 
'.enl at Kew Obserxatoi'v 
(inchiding balance of grant 

I'lr 1S50)'. ' L':;:'. !7 

H.\"lii'riments on I hi' ( 'oiiduc- 

tioiioflTeat 5 2 ',1 

hilhience of Solar Itadia ions 20 o il 1857. 

'li'oldgicc' iMaj) of .'r(!land ... 15 Mainlaining the Kslablish- 

Uesfarchcs on tlie Pritisli .\n- ment at Kew Observatory ;i50 

iiplida Ill II Kartlujuake Wave K>:pcri- 

^'itality of Seeds 10 C. 2 meiits 40 

■^tifni^th of Boiler I'lates 10 O il Dredging near Px^lfasl , 10 

£"i04 r> 7 ' Dredging on the VV^esl Coa.st 

1 of ScolLnd 10 



1.". 




1 ^ 


II 


(t 


II 


n 


II 


\) 


i:i 















1884. 



e 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 1884. 



£ K. d. 

Invest in;at ions into tlio .Mol- 

Insoii of Caliroi-niii 10 

Exfit^inicnls on Flax fj 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar i^O 

llesoarclics on Itritish Anne- 
lida 2-> 

llcport on iNatural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artilicial J'ropa.yation of Sal- 
mon .' 10 

Tempei-ature of Mines 7 8 

Tlii'rmometers for Subterra- 
nean ()l)S(U"vations 5 7 I 

Lifc-buats 5 

£507 ir> I 

1 8r,s. 

Jlainlaininsr tlie Mslablish- 

ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Eartli()nal<e Wave Kx])eri- 

ments L>5 

Dredudni;- on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredu'i 111,'- near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

l)redL;in^L,Miear IJelfast IS i:! 2 

lii'ljort on the Hritisli Aiuie- 

lida 25 

Kxjieriments on the jiroduc- 
tionofJIcat by ^Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Ileport on tlie Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

'"^fllS 18 2 

i8n;t. 

Maintaining the Kslablish- 

ment at Kow Observatory 500 

Dred,uin^' near Dublin 15 

Ostcolooy of P)irds 5() 

Irish Tuniciita 5 

Manure Kx])erimcnls 20 

Mritish Medusidie 5 

Dred.uini;- Conunittee 5 

Steani-vessids"Performanc"... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of [reland |0 

PhotoLirnphic Chemistry lo (I 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Dalloon Ascents ;i!) 1 1 

iTisi 1 1 I 

ISfiO. 
Maintaininu-- the I'lstablisli- 

menl at Kew Obscrvatctry 500 

Dreduintr near Delfast h; c, 

Drcduing- in Dublin iiay L5 

Incjuiry into the rerforniaiioe 

of Steam-vessels ]21 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Don ... 20 



Chcmico-meclianical .\nalysis 



£ 



of Jiocks and M'ncrjils. 



i 


(I 

! 

(» 

\ 


(I I 
(I 
1 




Itesearciies on tlio Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts ;]0 

Uesear(!lieson t he( Jonst it ueni s 

of Manures 25 

lialance of Captive P.alloon 

Accounts 1 

£'7(!li 



ISOl. 

Maintainin<i- the Kslablish- 
ment of Kew Obsei\atory.. 500 

Earthijuake Fxperimcnits 25 

Dred,i;ing N(trlh and Fast 
(Joasts of Scotland 21! 

Dredyiny Comniiileo : — 

1S()0 £50 1 

l.S(jl £22 j' 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 

St earn- vessel Performance . . . 

Fossils of Lesmaiiago 

Fxplore' ons at Uriconium ... 

( 'hemi( .1 Alloys 

Classilied index to the Trans- 
actions 

Dredi^ing in tlie Mersey and 
Dee n 

Dip Circle ;iO 

Phot ohcliograpl lie Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

(.iauL'hiL'' of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of JManures 25 

£1111 



s. 


d. 


























1;! 


G 
(i 



















72 



20 






20 






50 






15 






20 






20 








100 




(» 







G 10 



^5 10 



1802. 
Maintainincr the Kstablisli- 

ment of Kew Observatory 

Patent Laws 

M<illuscaof N.-W. of America 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Ttlarinc 

ridal Observations 

Photoheliomoler at K(^w 

PhotoLiraphio Picture.', of ilie 

Sun 

IJocks of noneiial 

Dreduinu- ihnliam and Norlh- 

umbeiland 

Connexion of Sloiins 

Dred.uinp: North-east (Juast- 

of Scotland 

Itavau'es of Teredi > 

Standards of Electrical Ite- 

sistance 

Itailway Accidents 

IJalloon Commiiloe 

Dredging Dublin \\,v 



500 
2! 
10 

5 
25 
•fO 

150 
25 

25 
20 

() 

;{ 

no 

10 

200 

10 





C 









II 

u 





'.I fi 

11 u 



(I 







M 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxiii 








■i 



no 

20 

5 10 


r> 10 



)0 








>.\ 





1) 


10 








5 








25 








•10 








50 








•_'5 





u 


25 








20 









no " 

10 II 

L'OO 

10 



£ s. d. 

Drcdfrine: tlic Jler.scy 5 

rrisoii Diet 20 

Oiui.-iiiKof AVatcr 12 10 

Stc'imsliips' roifoiniiincc 150 

Tlicrmo-Elcctric Currents 5 

£'i21t:i IG « 



C s. d. 



18(3:1. 

Maiiidiiiiiii.u' tlie l';.stiil)lisli- 

nicnt of Kcw Ohscrvaldry.. (iOO 
IliiUoon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (otlier ex- 
penses) 25 

Eiitiizoa 25 

('(jal Fossils 20 

Hcrrin.L'S 20 

(iranitesol' Donepil 5 

I'rison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmosplieric i\Iove- 

ments H! 

Dreilning .Sl\etlan<l 50 

Drediiina: North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

l)redi;in.u' Xorthumljerland 

and Diu'liani 17 

DrcdLrinuC'onnnittec superin- 
tendence^ 10 

Steamship rerforniance 100 

llalloun Ctmimitlee 200 

Carhon under ]>rcssurc 10 

A'olcanic Teniperalurc 100 

liroinide of Ammonium S 

Electrical Standards lOO 

Construction and Distri- 
bution 10 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kcw Additional lluiklinLis for 

riioioheliograph ....'. loo 

Tlici'mo-Klectricity 15 

Analysis of liocks S 

Uydroida ^ 10^ 

,l'l(;d8 

ISC.l. 
Miiinlaininp the Kslablisli- 

ment of Kcw Observatory.. (100 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vortical Atmospheric JIovc- 

ments 20 

l)rc<ljj:iny Shetland 75 

UrcduinLT Northumberland... 25 

Hiilloiin ('ominittee 200 

I'iU'bon under pressure 10 

Standards of Kleclric lle- 

sisiance 100 

Analysis of liocks 10 

Uydroida 10 

A>kliam"s (iift 50 

Nitrite of Aniyle 10 

Numenclature Committee ... 5 

l!am-(iauirf . lH 

Cast- Jvou Invest iffat ion 20 


















































:! 10 



















(1 












































(1 



:{ 10 

































10 





|0 









































15 


8 









Tidal Observations in tlic 

Hunibcr 5() 

Siii'ctral Itays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£12 Sir 

1 805. "" 
Maintaining: the l']sl;iblish- 

ment of Kcw Observatory.. (!()(» 

r.alloon t-'ommittce 100 

Uydroida .* 1 :{ 

Itaiu-Oauu'es ;!0 

Tidtd Observations in the 

llumber (> 

Ilexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Com])(junds 20 

Irish ]''lora 25 

American .MoUusca ;> 

Oruanic Acids 20 

LinLiula Flaus lOxcavat ion .,, 10 

Furyi)terus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Alalia Caves Kosearches ;>() 

Oyster Hreeding 25 

(iibraltiir (^a\('s liesearcbes... 150 

Kenfs Hole l']xc;ivations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ;!5 

I\larine l''auna 25 

Dredu'in;;' Abcrdecnsliirc 25 

Dreduine- Chjuiicl Islands ... 50 

Zoohiuical Nomenclature 5 

liesislanccof I''loat in^' I'.odies 

in Water 100 

iiath Waters Analysis 8 

Lumin(jus iMeteor.s 40 

X'I5'.)I 

]8fi6. ^ 

Mainfainini!: the J'iStablisli- 

mont of Kew Observatory. . COO 

Eunar Committee M 

iialloon Committee 50 

Metrical Comniitleo 50 

i'.ritisli llainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal I'^ields 1(1 

Alum ISay Fossil Leaf-lied ... 15 

Luminous IMcteors 50 

liiu^ula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl ('oni])oiinds 25 

Eleclricid Standards loo 

Malta Caves Exploration ;!0 

Kenfs Hole J'^xidoration 200 

Marine ]''auna, (Sec, De\oii 

and Cornwall 25 

Dreduiny Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

DrediiinL;- Hebrides Coast ... 50 

DreduiuL;' the ^lersey 5 

ilesislanceof Float iny Uodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyuuides of Organic lladi- 

c"als^ 20 

' • 





















15 


8 






















8 



















!) 










































































10 


10 







7 


10 





1 '* 




1 














(1 






























































I) 





























Ixxxiv 



KEPORT — 1884. 



£ s. (1. 

Ripor Mortis ll» 

Irisli Annelida I"' <> 

Catcalojxun i)f Crania ;">(» 

Didinc lUrds of Jlascarcne 

Islands 50 

Tj'pical Crania Kosearclios ... '.W <> 

Talcstino Kxploration Fund... lod 

1 8n7. ' 

Maintaining' tlic Kslabli.sli- 

nicnt of Kow Observatory.. COO 
Meleoroloaical Instriiuient.s, 

Palestine ".() 

Lunar Conimitteo ll^O (» 

Metrical Conimil tec ;!0 (I 

Kent's Hole Kxploratiuiid ... loo 

Palestine Explorations oO (♦ 

Insect Fauna, Palestine iiO 

British Kainl'all 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 'i:> o 

Alum llaV Fossil Leaf-lied ... L'5 O 

liUniinous .Meteors JJO 

I'.ournenioulh. tVc, Leaf-P>eds ?•,{) 

])red-in<r Shetland T.') 

bteaniship lleporls Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

F.tjiyl and :\telhyl series 25 

Fossil (!rustacea -5 

Sound under Water '1\ 1 o 

North (ireenland ]'"ainia 75 

Do. Plant ISeds 100 

Iron and Steel ]\lanuf;icture... '2T> 

Patent Laws :iO ()_() 

£17:{i» '4'~0 

1 8(iS. 
Maintaining' the Establish- 
ment of Kew Ob.scrvatory.. fiOO 

Lunar Committee 1^!0 o o 

Metrical (Committee 50 

Zoological llecord 100 (» 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... \'A) 

Steamshi]) Perf(jrmanccs 100 

British Kainl'all 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Orizanic Acids (H) 

Fossi! Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series L>.-, 

Mercury a id i'ile L'5 

Oriranic Itemains in Lime- 
stone Rocks L'5 

Scottish Earthquak(is I'd 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. Ilo 

British Fossil Corals ,")(i 

Bat;shot f.eaf-Beds 50 

Greenl.'ind Kxplorations loo 

Fossil Flora L'5 

Tidal Observations ioo 

[Tnderuround Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Invest ij;ations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, (kc 150 

Britisli Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna Ll-Ji^ 

£1!)40 

18(!!t. """" 
Maint.-iinin,? the F-tMlili^.h- 

inent of Ki'w Oli.-ei atory. . 000 

Luniir Commiltoe .50 

Metrical Connnittee 25 

Zooloirical Record 100 

Coiniiiillee on Gases in Decp- 

W(41 Water 25 

Britisli Rainfall 50 

Thermal Condiielivitvof Iron, 

\c '. 30 

Kent's Hole Explor;vtioiis 150 

Steamship Pcrformanc'cs ISO 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel .Manufacture 100 

iMetJiyl Series 30 

Orpmic Remains in Lime- 
stone ilocks 10 

Fartlupiakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil (Jor.vls 50 

Bas'sliot Loaf- Beds :10 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observatiniis 100 

Uii(h'rL!round Temi)erature ... ;>(l 
Sjiectroscopic Invest iuations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Si-wagx' 10 

Products oi' Digestion 10 

"£17)22 

IS70. ""~~" 
Maintaining the l";stabli>]i- 

ment of Kew Observatory (iOO 

^Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record TOO 

Connnittee on JIarine Fauna 20 

Hars in l''ishcs ]() 

Chemical Nat ure of Cast Iron 80 

Lmiiindiis Meteors 30 

Heat in the I'.lood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conduct i\ity of 

Iron, A;c 20 

r.rilish Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole I'Lxplorat ions ... 150 

Scoitish ivirlhiiuakes \ 

Bagshnt Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcon Quatries Fossils ... 20 



X. d. 




















') 

































































(1 









































{) 





























(1 








(J 




















t) 























(1 





II 











(1 





(1 























II 





















GENERAL .STATEMENT. 



Ixxxv 




£ 

Jlountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilizjitioii of Scwa.L'o 50 

Or;iaiiic t'licmical Compounds :iO 

Omiy liiver Scdiinont i? 

Sli'cliaiiical Jviuivalcnt of 

ileal .J. no 

I87I. 
Mainlaininir llio Mslahlish- 

nicnt of Kcw Oliscrvalorv (JOO 
Slonllily ]ic])orls of I'roLirfs.s 

in Clicmislry lOO 

Metrical Commit teo iT) 

Zoolosrical Uecord loo 

Thermal K(|iiivaloiits of the 

Oxides (if Chlnrino 10 

Tidal Ohsersaiioiis 100 

Fossil l''l(ira 25 

I/tuiii nous . Meteors ;!0 

r.ritish Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in llic PJood 7 

r.ritish Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Kx[ilorat ions ... 150 

Fussil Cruslacca 25 

diethyl Comjiounds 25 

J.unar Ubjects 20 

Fossil Coral .Sections, for 

riiotofrraphin,!! 20 

P-afrshol Leaf-lteds 20 

Jloali Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

"±'iT72" 

1872. 
Maintainincr the Ksfahlish- 

ment of Kew Ohscrvalory ;>()() 

Metrical Connuittce 75 

ZooloL'ical Kecord loO 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals i'5 

Orpniic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of .Moab 100 

TerMto-Embryokinical Inqui- 
ries ]0 

Kent's Cavern Exploratiim.. 100 

liUminous .Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossi! Crustacea 25 

Fossil Klc))hants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Cbjects 20 

Inverse Wave-Leni:tlis 20 

r.riiish llainf.all...! 100 

Poisonous .Substances Antaii'o- 

nism 10 

Es.sentiid Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, i^c ■!() 

Miithomalical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 



.1. 


d. 
































o 






£ s. d. 











































2 


















































2 


6 



































































































u 






'ir^o 



1873. 

ZooloLrical lieci ird 

Chf-m ist ry liec )rd 

Tidal Committee 

Scwii.ue Committee 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 

Carboi\iferous Corals 

i-'ossil lile])liants 

Wave- Leiitrt lis 

lirilish Kainfall 

Essential Oils 

.Matlicunatica! Tables 

Gaussian Constants 

Sub-Wcalden Exjiloral ions... 
llnderiiround Temperature ... 

Settle Cave Exjiloration 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 

Timber Denudation and liain- 

fall 

Luminous .Mot a us 

Ti 



100 








200 








•KM) 








100 







I,-.() 







25 







25 







150 







100 







:io 








100 








10 








25 





(> 


i.-,o 








50 








20 








20 


n 





:!() 









(iS5 



1871. 

Zooloijical Fipcord 

Chemistry Kecord 

.Mathematical Ta))les 

Elli[>tic Fiuictions 

LiLi-htning Cmiductors 

Thermal Conductivity of 
lloclss 

Vnthropoloj^ical Instructions, 
&c 

Kent's (.'avern lOxploralion ... 

Luminous .Meteors 

Intestinal Secretions 

liritish Kainfall 

Essential Oils 

Sub-Wealden l']xi)lorations ... 

Settle Cave Explor;ition 

Mauritius Meteorological Ke- 
scarcb 

Matrnetization of Iron 

IMarine OrL^anisms 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 

PhysioloLTical Act ion of Light 

Tnules Uni(ms 

M(umtain [..imest one-Corals 

Erratic Flocks 

Dred;_duL.'-, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 

IliLrli Temjicrature of liodies 

Siemens's P,vromoter 

Labyrinthodonis of Coiil- 
Measarus 



100 








100 








100 








100 








10 









10 



50 








1 50 








IIO 








15 








100 








10 








25 








50 








100 








20 








:jo 








*) 


10 





20 








25 








25 








10 








28 


f) 





.^0 








:t 


6 






i'll5l 



1 5 _0 

KV 



187.';. 



Elliptic Functions 100 

Mairnetizatiou of Iron 20 

British Kainfall. 120 

Lumino"' Meteors 30 

Chemistrv Cocnrd 100 


































Ixxxvi 



UKPORT — 1884. 



£ K. 

S|n'oi(ic Volume of Li(|ui(l';... 2i) 
Estimation of Potash and 

Pliosphoric Acid 10 

Isonu^tric Ci'csols L'O 

Sub- Woaldcn Exploiiil ions... KM) 

Kent's Cavern lv\'])l(ira( ion... 100 () 

SctlU; ('av(; Mxploral ion ")0 

lOiirtlKiuaki's in Scotland 15 

Und(;r-i-oand WattTH I 

Development ol' .Myxinoid 

Kislies '. L'O o 

Zooloj;ical Uecord 100 

Instructions Tor Travellers ... L'O 

Intestinal Secretions L'O 

Palosliue Exploration . 100 

t'lMi(T''7P 



lS7(i. 

Print in.u- :\Iatliematical Tables 1 ."'.i 

P.ritish Jtaint'all 100 

OInu's Law 

Tide Calculating- Machine ... i'OO 

Spocilic Volume of Liipiids... 25 

Lsonieric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Promobnty- 

ratc on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acct ate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

I'hosplioric Acid 1 ;i 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Gcolo;,Mcal Piccord lOo 

Kent's Cavern Ex])loration... 100 
'''hi^rmal Conductivities of 

Pocks 10 

Underiiround Waters 10 

I'^artlKpiakes in Scotland I 

Zooloi,dcal Pecord 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiolocfical Act ion of Sound L'5 

Zoolojj-ical Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 

bitanis of Pritish Isles ]?, 

Jleasurinir Speed of Sliips ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels .... 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks n 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Met(!ors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Diptcrocarpw, Rci>orl on 20 



I 2 



1 5 











1 :i 

ft 









10 











15 





5 












£10112 


4 


2 















11 


7 







































iMeehanical E(juivalenl of 

Heat ;i5 

Dcnible Comiiounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Undi'rground Tein]>eraturcs 50 

Scuttle Cave Ex]iloration 100 

Underground \VaU:rs in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

.Vclionof Elhyl Hromobuly- 

rato on Ethyl Sndacelo- 

acetat(! 10 

Prilish Karthworks _5 

Atmos])heric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Devi'lopment of Ligiit from 

Coal-gas '. 20 

Esliniaiion of Potash and 

Piinspiioric Acid 1 

(Jeological Recoi'd 100 

.Anthropometric ("onnnittee III 
Physiidogical Action of Phos- 

plioric Acid, ^:c 15 



s. d. 

































8 











it 7 



1878. 
Ex])loratinn of Settle Caves 100 

(ieological Record 100 

Invi'siigai ion of Pulse Phenij- 
mena by means of Syj)hon 

Recordtr 10 

Zoological Station at N'a]il(;s 75 
Invest i^-alion of ITnder^'rouud 

Waters ' 15 

Trail sm i ss i on of VA e c t r i cal 
Impulses through Nerve 

Structure '. ?,i) 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Jlillion 100 

Anthroiximeiric Conuniltee... Gti 
Chemical Com[)osi1ion and 
Slruclure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Jvi'ut's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 10(t 

Fermanagh Caves Exjiloration . 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 

Luminous .Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 

1870. 

Table at the Zoological 
Station, Naples 75 

lliocenc Flora of tlie Pasalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a ]\Ionograi)h 
on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 























































10 


f) 














16 


G 























4 If) f' 
llO 

I25 



75 

I20 

17 

loo 

I25 



GENEKAL 

£ s. (I. 

Kxiilovation of Caves in 
I'.iiriii'O "jO 

Kent's Cavern Kxi)loriit ion ... 100 

Ueeoi'd of tlie I'lo^^ress of 
(Icolotiy 100 

Firniiinasli Caves Kxploiiit ion 5 

Kleeti'olysis of Melallic Solu- 
tions and S(iluti(ins of 
Coniiioiuid Salts l?5 

Antln'opoinetvie Commit tee... 50 (I 

Nat uial History of S()<'otra ... UK) 

Calculation of I"'ac1or Tallies 

for 5tli and Gtli .Millions ... 150 

Circ\dalion of Underu-mund 

Waters 10 

SleeriuLr of Sen'w SleamcM's... 10 

Inipi'ovomenis in Astrono- 
mical Clocks .'50 

Marine Znology of South 

|)(!V(in .".! l-'O 

Determination of ^leclianical 
Ki|uivalent of IFeat IL' 15 G 

Specilic Inductive CajiacKy 
of Sprenuel Yacimni 40 

Tallies of Sun-lieai C(j- 

eilieients .'50 

Datum i.e\el of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tallies of l-'undanu'iiial in- 
variants of Aludiraic Forms lid It i) 

Atmosplieric Electricity Ob- 
servations in M.'ideira 15 

Instnunciit fur Detecting 

Fire-damp in .Mines '22 

Inslruments for Pleasuring' 

the S]ieed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Ol)ser\ati(ins in the 

English Channel 10 

£10S() 1111 

1 880. 

New Form of High Insulation 
Key '. 10 

Undoi'ground Temjieraluri' ... 10 

Determination of tlus Me- 
chanical Ecpiivalenl of 
Ilcat S 5 

f:iasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous ^leteors .'SO (I 

Lunar DisturbaneeofCravity l!0 

Fimdamenlal Invariants S 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

8[iecitic Indnc^tive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Cninjiletion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coetlicienls 50 

Iistrument for Detection of 
Fire-dam 11 in Mines 10 

Induol ive Capacity of Crystals 
and raratlines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 



STATEMENT. IxXXvii 

£ .«. d. 

Caves of Soutli Indand 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 

s.iurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exi)loral ion... 50 

(ieological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the I'.asalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of I'er- 

mian Formations 5 

Ilecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Invesligation of tlu^ (ieology 

and Z(X)logy of ^Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

latent Laws 5 

£7:il 7 7 

IHSI. 

Lunar Disturbance of (iravity ;>0 

Underground Tempera! lU'e ... 20 

High insulation Kiy 5 () 

Tiilal Observations 10 

lM)ssil Poly/.oa |0 

Underground Waters 10 

Earlh(piakes in .Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scoltisli Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Z(jological Station ... 75 

X.atural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zooldgieal Record 100 

"Weights and Heights of 

Human lielngs ,'{0 

Electrical Stanilards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Sjiecific llcfractions 7 li 1 

£470 li 1 

1882. 
Tertiary Floi-a of North of 

Ireland 20 

Exjiloration of Cavesuf South 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants fif 

Algebraical Forms 7G 1 11 

l\ecord of Zooldgieal Litera- 
ture ." 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural llistoryof Ti.'nor-laut 100 
Conversion of Sedimentary 

l^Iaterials into Metamorpliic 

Ko(^ks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Circulation of Underuround 

Waters 15 

Migration of Hirds L" Q 

E."rth(iuake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1884. 



£ a. d. 

fionlop:ipal Map of Kuropo ... 25 
Kliiiiiiiiition ol' Nitrogoii liy 

I'xxlily KxorcNc HO 

Anihnipnnictric I'diniiiiltrc... 50 
I'liolo.ur.'ipliinn; Ullr;i-\'iiilrt 

Spark Spectra LT) d 

Kxfiloriit ioii iif lliiyuill Ms- 
sure '.. L't» 

(.'alihnit ion ol' Mei-riirial Tlier- 

Tiioriielers L'O 

Wiivc;-lenfi;t]i Tal)l<'s nf S|iec,- 

tra (>r Kleiiieiils ".() 

CeoloM-ieal \Ww\\\ 100 

Standards for lOleclrieal 

.Measnreinenis 100 

Kxplnral ion (if Centra'. Afriea 101) 
Albuuiinoid Subslanc.'es of 

Suriiiu 1 

iTIlL't! 1 11 

i,ss:!. — — — — 

Natural History of 'I'iinor-laut "lO 

I'.rilisli Fossil i'olyzoa 10 

Cinailation of Underground 

Waters '. 15 

Zoologieal Literature Rocord 100 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

nia-njaro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Kng- 

landand Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax I'O 

I'lliniination of Nitrogen by 

r.odiiy I'iXercise US ;; 3 

Isomeric Naplithnleno Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoolop-ical Station at Naples SO 
Ins'estigatiou of LouglUon 

t'amp 10 

Earth(|uake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Leu Kevis HO 



t s. d. 
Fossil Pliyllopoda of I'alreo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Migration of liirds '20 

(foological Record 50 

l']xi)loration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 

Screw Gauges 5 

£i()s:i :( ;( 

18S1. 

Zoological T.iloniture Record 100 

Fossil I'oly/oa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

nia-njarc), Kast Afrii'a 500 (i 

Anthro|ioinetri(! Coniniittee... 10 i) 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International (Jeological Map 20 

Erratic P.locks of Kngland ... 10 o 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Coagulation of lUood 100 () o 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
IJibliograijhy of (!roups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Earthipiake Phenomena of 

Jaiian 75 

Fossil Pliyllopoda of Paliuo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

.Migratiouof lUrds 20 

Collecting and Investig.'iting 

Meteoric Dust .". '.. 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra-Violet Sp.-irk Spectra ... 8 4 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Obscrvat ions 

ou Ben Nevis 50 

£1173 -1 



General Meetings. 

On ■Wednesda\-, August 27, at S I'.M., in the (^icon's Hall, Professor Cayley, M.A„ 
D.C.L., LL.l)., F.'R.S. (represented by Professor Sir Williiini Thomson, M'.A., LL.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S.), resigned the otlico of President to Professor Lord Itayleigli, M.A.. 
D.C.L., F.K.S., F.U.A.S., F.R.O.S., wlio took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for 
which see page L 

On Thursday, August L'S, at 8 l'..^r., a Soiree took piae(! in the IMcCill IJnivcrsity. 

On Friday, .\ugust 2!», at 8.30 i>..M., in the Queen's Hall, Professor Oliver .J. Lodge, 
D.tSc, delivered a Discourse on 'Dust.' 

On Monday, Sejitenibiir 1, at 8.30 P.M., in the Queen's Hall, the Rev. W. II. 
Dallinger, LL.D., F.K.S., d(}livcred a Discourse on 'Tl.e IModern Jlicroscope in 
Researches on the Least and Lowest Forms of Iiife.' 

On Tuesdaj', September 2, at 8 r.M., a Soiree took place in the Skating Rink. 

On Wednesday, September .3, at 2.30 r.M., the concluding General fleeting took 
place in the Queen's Hall, when the Proceedings of tlu; (leneral Committee and the 
Grants of Money for Scientilic purposes were explained to the .Alembers. 

The fleeting was then adjourned to Aberdeen. [The Meeting is appointed to 
commence on AV'cdnesday, September 9, 1885.] 



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PEESIDEiN-T'S ADDEES8. 



1884 



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P1M':SIJ)ENT. 



Jr is no ordinary mCcfIni>' of the IJritisli AsHocIatiou wlu'ch I liavo now 
I ho lionour of addressing. For moro than fifty years the Association has 
hold its autnmn gathering- in various towns of the United ivingdoni, and 
within those limits there is, I supi)Ose, no place of importance which wo 
have not visited. And now, not satisfied with past successes, we arc 
soeking' new worlds to conquer. When it was first proi)osed to \-isit 
Canada, there were some who viewed the project with licsitation. For my 
own part, I never »|uite understood the grounds of their ap[)rehension. 
Perhaps they feared the thin edge of the wedge. "Wlien once the principle 
was admitted, there was no knowing to what it might lead. So rapid 
is the development of tlie J5ritisli J'hnpirc, that the time might corao when 
a vifiit to such out-of-the-"way places as London or ^Manchester could no 
longer ho claimed as a right, but only asked for as a concession to the 
susceptibilities of the ]"]nglish. But seriously, whatever objections may 
liiivo at first been felt were soon outweighed by the consideration of the 
iniignificent opportunities which your h(jspitality affords of extending 
ilio sphere of our influence and of becoming acquainted with a part of 
ilio Queen's dominion which, associated with splendid memories of tho 
[uist. is advancing daily by leaps and bounds to a position of importance 
such as not long r,go was scarcely dreamed of. For myself, I am not a 
1 stranger to your shores. J. remember well the impression made upon me, 
hoveuteen years ago, by the wild rapids of the St. Lawrence, and tho 
I '.;loi>my grandeur of tlie Saguonay. If anything impressed me more, it 
was the kindness with which I was received by yourselves, and which I 
Uloubt not will be again cxteniled not merely to myself but to all tho 
[Kuglish members of tlic Association. I am confident that those who 
Ikve made up their miuds to cross the ocean will uot repent their 

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4 llEPOKT — 1884. 

decisioD, and that, apart altogether fi-om scientific interests, great 
advantage may be expected from this visit. We EngHshmen ought to 
know more than we do of matters relating to the Colonies, and anything 
which tends to bring the various parts of the Empire into closer contact 
can hardly be overvalued. It is j)leasant to think that this Association 
is the means of furthering an object which should be dear to the hearts 
of all of ns ; and I venture to say that a large pi'oportion of the visitors 
to this country will be astonished by what they see, and will carry home 
an impression which time will not readily efface. 

To be connected with this meeting is, to me, a great honour, but also 
a great responsibility. In one respect, especially, I feel that the Associa- 
tion might have done well to choose another President. j\[y own tastes 
have led me to study m.ithematics and physics I'ather than geology and 
biology, to which naturally more attention turns in a new country, pre- 
senting as it docs a fresh field for investigation. A chronicle of achieve- 
ments in these departments by workers from among yourselves would 
have been suitable to the occasion, but could not come from me. If you 
would have preferred a different subject for this address, I hope, at least, 
that you will not hold me entirely responsible. 

At annual gatherings like ours the pleasure with which friends meet 
friends again is sadly marred by the absence of those who can never wore 
take their part in our pi'oceedings. Last year my predecessor in this 
office had to lament the untimely loss of Spottiswoode and Henry Smith, 
dear friends of many of us, and prominent members of our Association. 
And now, again, a well-known form is missing. For many years 
Sir W. Siemens has been a regular attendant at our meetings, and to few 
indeed have they been more indebted for siiccess. Whatever the occasion, 
in his Presidential Address of two years ago, or in communications to the 
Physical and Mechanical Sections, he had always new and interesting 
ideas, put forward in language which a child could understand, so great 
a master was he of the art of lucid statement in his adopted tongue. 
Practice with Science was his motto. Deeply engaged in industry, and 
conversant, all his life, with engineering operations, his opinion was never 
that of a mere theorist. On the other hand, he abhorred rule of thumb, 
striving always to master the scientific principles which underlie rational 
design and invention. 

It is not necessary that I should review in detail the work of Siemens. 
The part which he took, during recent years, in the development of the 
dynamo machine must be known to many of you. We owe to him the 
practical adoption of the method, first suggested by Wheatstone, of 
throwing into a shunt the coils of the field magnets, by which a greatly 
improved steadiness of action is obtained. The same characteristics are 
observable throughout — a definite object in view and a well-directed 
perseverance in overcoming the difficulties by which the path is usually 
obstructed. 



ADDItESS. 



These art, indeed, the conditions of snccessful invention. The world 
knows little of such things, and regards the new machine or the new 
method as the immediate outcome of a happy idea. Probably, if the 
truth wore known, wo should see that, in nine cases out of ten, success 
depends as much upon good judgment and perseverance as upon fertility 
of imagination. The labours of our great inventors are not unappreciated, 
but I doubt whether we adequately realise the enormous obligations 
under which we lie. It is no exaggeration to say that the life of such i 
man as Siemens is spent in the public service ; the advantages which he 
reaps for himself being as nothing in comparison with those which he 
confers upon the community at large. 

As an example of this it will bo sufficient to mention one of the 
most valuable achievements of his active life — his introduction, in con- 
junction with his brother, of the Regenerative Gas Furnace, by which 
an immense economy of luel (estimated at millions of tons annually) 
has been effected in the manufacture of steel and glass. The nature 
of this economy is easily explained. Whatever may be the work to 
be done by the burning of fuel, a certain temf)erature is necessary. 
For example, no amount of heat in the form of boiling water would 
bo of any avail for the fusion of steel. When the products of com- 
bustion ai'e cooled down to the point in question, the hccat which they 
still contain is useless as regards the purpose in view. The importance 
of this consideration depends entirely upon the working temperature. 
If the object be the evaporation of water or the warming of a house, 
almost all the heat may be extracted from the fuel without special 
arrangements. But it is otherwise when the temperature required is not 
much below that of combustion itself, for then the escaping gases carry 
away with them the larger part of the whole heat developed. It was to 
meet this difficulty that the regenerative furnace was devised. The pro- 
<iucts of combustion, before dismissal into the chimney, are caused to 
pass through piles of loosely stacked fire-brick, to which they give up 
their heat. After a time the fire-brick, upon which the gases first 
impinge, becomes nearly as hot as the furnace itself. By suitable valves 
the burnt gases are then diverted thi'ough another stack of brickwork, 
which they heat up in like manner, while the heat stored up in the first 
etack is utilised to warm the unburnt gas and air on their way to the 
furnace. In this way almost all the heat developed at a high temperature 
■during the combustion is made available for the work in hand. 



As it is now several years since your presidential chair has been occu- 
pied by a professed physicist, it may naturally be expected that I should 
attempt some record of recent progress in that branch of science, if indeed 
such a term be applicable. For it is one of the difficulties of the task that 
subjects as distinct as Mechanics, Electricity, Heat, Optics and Acoustics, 
to say nothing of Astronomy and Meteorology, are included under Physics. 



EEPORT — 1884. 



Any one of these may Avell occupy tlio life- long attention of a man of 
science, and to bo thoroughly conversant with all of them is more than 
can be expected of any one individual, and is probably incompatible -with 
the devotion of much time and energy to the actual advancement of 
knowledge, Not that I -would complain of the association sanctioned 
by common parlance. A sound knowledge of at least the principles of 
general physics is necessary to the cultivation of any department. Tlio 
predominance of the sense of sight as the medium of communication with 
the outer world, brings with it dependence upon the science of optics ; 
and there is hardly a branch of science in which the effects of totiferaturc 
have not (often without much success) to be reckoned with. Besides, the 
neglected borderland between two branches of knowledge is often that 
which best repays cultivation, or, to use a metaphor of Maxwell's, the 
greatest benefits may be derived from a cross fertilisation of the sciences. 
The wealth of material is an evil only from the point of view of one of 
whom too much may be expected. Another difficulty incident to the task, 
which must be faced but cannot be overcome, is that of estimating rightly 
the value, and even the correctness, of recent work. It is not always that 
which seems at first the most important that proves in the end to be so. 
The history of science teems with examples of discoveries which attracted 
little notice at the time, but afterwards have taken root downwards and 
borne much fruit upwards. 

One of the most striking advances of recent years is in the production 
and application of electricity upon a large scale — a subject to which I have 
already had occasion to allude in connection with the work of Sir W. 
Siemens. The dynamo machine is indeed founded upon discoveries of 
Faraday now more than half a century old ; but it has required the pro- 
tracted labours of many inventors to bring it to its present high degree of 
efficiency. Looking back at the matter, it seems strange that progress 
should have been so slow. I do not refer to details of design, the elabo- 
ration of which must always, I suppose, require the experience of actual 
work to indicate what parts are structurally weaker than they should be, 
or are exposed to undue wear and tear. But with i-egard to the main 
features of the problem, it would almost seem as if the difficulty lay in 
want of faith. Long ago it was recognised that electricity derived from 
chemical action is (on a large scale) too expensive a source of mechanical 
power, notwithstanding the fact that (as proved by Joule in 184G) the 
conversion of electrical into mechanical work can be effected with great 
economy. From this it is an evident consequence that electricity may 
advantageously be obtained from mechanical power ; and one cannot help 
thinking that if the fact had been borne steadily in mind, the develop- 
ment of the dynamo might have been much more rapid. But discoveries 
and inventions are apt to appear obvious when regarded from the stand- 
point of accomplished fact ; and I draw attention to the matter only to 
point the moral that we do well to push the attack persistently when wc 



ADDRESS. 



can be sure beforehand that the obstacles to be overcome are only diffi. 
caltics of contrivance, and that we are not vainly fighting unawares against 
a law of Nature. 

The present dovelopment of electricity on a largo scale depends, how- 
ever, almost as much upon the incandescent lamp as upon the dynamo. 
The success of these lamps demands a very perfect vacuum — not more than 
about one-millionth of the normal quantity of air should remain, — and it 
is interesting to recall that, twenty years ago, such vacua were rare even 
in the laboratory of the physicist. It is pretty safe to say that these 
wonderful results would never have been accomplished had practical 
applications alone been in view. The way was prepared by an ai-my of 
scientific men whose main object was the advancement of knowledge, and 
who could scarcely have imagined that the processes which they elaborated 
would soon bo in use on a commercial scale and entrusted to the hands of 
ordinary workmen. 

When I speak in hopeful language of practical electricity, I do not 
foi'get the disappointment within the last year or two of many over- 
sanguine expectations. The enthusiasm of the inventor and promoter 
are necessary to progress, and it seems to be almost a law of nature that 
it should overpass the bounds marked out by reason and experience. 
What is most to bo regretted is the advantage taken by speculators of 
the often uninstructed interest felt by the public in novel schemes by 
which its imagination is fired. But looking forward to the future of 
electric lighting, we have good ground for encouragement. Already the 
lighting of large passenger ships is an assured success, and one which will 
be highly appreciated by those travellers who have experienced the tedium 
of long winter evenings unrelieved by adequate illumination. Here, no 
doubt, the conditions are in many respects especially favourable. As 
regards space, life on board ship is highly concentrated ; while unity of 
management and the presence on the spot of skilled engineers obviate some 
of the difficulties that are met with under other circumstances. At present 
we have no experience of a house-to-house system of illumination on a 
great scale and in compel ition with cheap gas ; but preparations are 
already far advanced for triul on an adequate scale in London. In largo 
institutions, such as theatres and factories, we all know that electricity is 
in successful and daily extending operation. 

When the necessary power can be obtained from the fall of water, 
instead of from the combustion of coal, the conditions of the problem 
are far more favourable. Possibly the severity of your winters may 
prove an obstacle, but it is impossible to regard your splendid river 
without the thought arising that the day may come when the vast powers 
now running to waste shall be bent into your service. Such a project 
demands of course the most careful consideration, but it is one worthy of 
an intelligent and enterprising community. ', , ; f' 

The requirements of practice react in the most heclthy manner upon 



i 



•8 



REPonT--1884. 



ilit 






■!!;: I 



scientific electricity. Jnst as in former days the science received a 
atimulas from the application to telegraphy, under which everything 
relating to measurement on a small scale acquired an importance and 
development for which we might otherwise have had long to wait, so 
now the requirements of electric lighting are giving rise to a new deve- 
lopment of the art of measurement upon a large scale, which cannot 
fail to prove of scientific as well as practical im})ortance. Mere change 
of Ecale may not at first appear a very important matter, but it is sur- 
prising how much modification it entails in the instruments, and in the 
processes of measurement. For instance, the resistance coils on which 
the electrician relies in dealing with currents whose maximum is a 
fraction of an ampere, fail altogether when it becomes a question of 
hundreds, not to say thousands, of amperes. 

The powerful currents, which are now at command, constitute almost 
a new weapon in the hands of the physicist. Effects, which in old days 
were rare and difiicult of observation, may now be produced at will 
on the most conspicuous scale. Consider for a moment Faraday's great 
discovery of the ' Magnetisation of Light,' which Tyndall likens to the 
Weisshorn among mountains, as high, beautiful, and alone. This judg- 
ment (in which I fully concur) relates to the scientific aspect of the 
discovery, for to the eye of sense nothing could have been more insignifi- 
cant. It is even possible that it might have eluded altogether the pene- 
tration of Faraday, had he not been provided with a special quality of 
very heavy glass. At the present day these effects may be produced 
upon a scale that would have delighted their discoverer, a rotation of the 
plane of polarization through 180° being perfectly feasible. With the aid 
of modern appliances, Kundt and Rontgen in Germany, and H. Becquerel 
in France, have detected the rotation in gases and vapours, where, on 
account of its extreme smallness, it had previously escaped notice. 

Again, the question of the magnetic saturation of iron has now an 
importance entirely beyond what it possessed at the time of Joule's early 
observations. Then it required special arrangements purposely contrived 
to bring it into prominence. Now in every dynamo machine, the iron of 
the field-magnets approaches a state of saturation, and the very elements 
of an explanftion of the action require us to take the fact into account. 
It is indeed probable that a better knowledge of this subject might lead 
to improvements in the design of these machines. 

Notwithstanding the important work of Rowland and Stoletow, the 
wholo theory of the behaviour of soft iron under varying magnetic con- 
ditions is still somewhat obscure. Much may be hoped from the in- 
duction balance of Hughes, by which the marvellous powers of the 
telephone are applied to the discrimination of the properties of metals, as 
regards magnetit.m and electric conductivity. 

The introduction of powerful alternate-current machines by Siemens, 
Oordon, Ferranti, and others, is likely also to have a salutary effect 



wi 
au 
mt 



ADDHK-Sy. 



in educating those so-called practical electricians whose ideas do not 
easily rise above ohms and volts. It has long been known <hat when 
the changes are sufticiently rapid, the phenomena are governed much 
more by induction, or electric inertia, than by mere resistance. On this 
principle much may be explained that would otherwise seem paradoxical. 
To take a comparatively simple case, conceive an electro-magnet wound 
with two contiguous wires, upon which acts a given rapidly ])eriodio 
electro -motive force. If one wire only be used, a certain amount of heat 
is developed in the circuit. Suppose now that the second wire is brought 
into operation in parallel — a proceeding equivalent to doubling the section 
of the original wire. An electrician accustomed only to constant currents 
would be sure to think that the heating effect would be doubled by the 
change, as much 1 eat being developed in each wire separately as was 
at first in the single wire. IJnt such a fonclusion would be entirely 
erroneous. The total current, being governed practically by the self- 
induction of the circuit, would not bo augmented by the accession of the 
second wire, and the total heating effect, so far from being doubled, would, 
in virtue of the superior conductivity, bo halved. 

During the last few years much interest has been felt in the reduction 
to an absolute standard of measurements of electro-motive force, current, 
resistance, etc., and to this end many laborious investigations have been 
undertaken. The subject is one that has engaged a good deal of my 
own attention, and I should naturally have felt inclined to dilate upon 
it, but that I feel it to be too abstruse and special to be dealt with 
in detail upon an occasion like the present. As regards resistance, I will 
merely remind you that the recent determinations have shown a so greatly 
improved agreement, that the Conference of Electricians assembled at 
Paris, in May, have felt themselves justiGed in defining the ohm for 
practical use as the resistance of a column of mercury of 0° C, one square 
millimetre in section, and 106 centimetres in length — a definition differing 
by a little more than one per cent, from that arrived at twenty years ago 
by a committee of this Association. 

A standard of resistance once determined upon can be embodied in 
a ' resistance coil,' and copied without much trouble, and with great 
accuracy. But in order to complete the electrical system, a second standard 
of some kind is necessary, and this is not so easily embodied in a permanent 
form. It mifUt conveniently consist of a standard galvanic cell, capable 
of being prepined in a definite manner, whose eloctro-motive force is once 
for all determined. Unfortunately, most of the batteries in ordinary use 
are for one reason or another unsuitable for this purpose, but the cell in- 
troduced by Mr. Latimer Clark, in which the metals are zinc in contact 
with saturated zinc sulphate and pure mercury in contact with raercurous 
sulphate, appears to give satisfactory results. According to my measure- 
ments, the electro-motive force of this cell is 1'435 theoretical volts. 

We may also conveniently exjiress the second absolute electrical 



10 



RKI'OIIT — 1884. 



measurement necessary to tlio completion of tlie system by taking 
advantage of Faraday's law, that the quantity of metal decomposed 
in an electrolytic coll is proportional to the whole quantity " elec- 
tricity that passes. The best metal for the purpose is silver, deposited 
from a solution of the nitrate or of the chlorate. The results recently 
obtained by Professor Kohlrausch and by myself are in very good 
agreement, and the conclusion that one ampei'c flowing for one hour 
decomposes 4<"(>2o grains of silver, can liardly be in error by more than 
a thousandth part. This number being known, the silver voltameter 
gives fi ready and very accurate method of measuring currents of 
intensity varying from -j',, ampere to four or live amperes. 

The beautiful and mysterious phenomena attending the discharge of 
electricity in nearly vacuous spaces have been investigated and in some 
degree explained by T)e La Hue, Crookes, Schcister, Moulton, and the 
lamented Spottiswoode, as well as by various able foreign experimenters. 
In a recent research Crookes has sous'ht the origin of a brij'ht citron- 
coloured band in the phosphorescent spectrum of certain earths, and 
after encountering difficulties and anomalies of a most bewildering kind, 
has succeeded in proving that it is due to yttrium, an element muck 
more widely distributed than had been supposed. A conclusion like thi» 
is stated in a few words, but those only who have undergone similar ex- 
perience are likely to appreciate the skill and perseverance of which it is 
the final reward. 

A remarkable observation by Hall of Baltimore, from which it 
appeared that the flow of electricity in a conducting sheet was disturbed 
by magnetic force, has been the subject of much discussion. Mr. 
Shelford Bidwell has brought forward experiments tending to prove 
that the effect is of a secondary character, due in the first instance to the 
mechanical force operating upon the conductor of an electric current when 
situated in a powerful magnetic field. Mr. Bidwell's view agrees in the 
main with Mr. Hall's division of the metals into two groups according to 
the direction of the effect. 



Without doubt the most important achievement of the older genera- 
tion of scientific men has been the establishment and application of the 
great laws of Thermo-dynamics, or, as it is often called, the Mechanical 
Theory of Heat. The first law, which asserts that heat and mechanical 
work can be transformed one into the other at a certain fixed rate, 
is now well understood by every student of physics, and the number 
expressing the mechanical equivalent of heat resulting from the experi- 
ments of Joule, has been confirmed by the researches of others, and 
especially of Rowland. But the second law, which practically is even 
more important than the first, is only now beginning to receive the full 
appreciation due to it. One reason of this may be found in a not un- 
natural confusion of ideas. Words do not always lend themselves readily 



ADDRESS. 



Ill 



[peri- 
and 

leveu 

full 

un- 

idily 



to the demands tliat are made upon them by a growing science, and I 
think that the ahnost unavoidable use of the word equivalent in the 
statement of the first law is partly responsible for the little attention that 
is given to the second. For the second law so far contradicts the usual 
statement ol' tlie first, as to assert that ecjuivalents of heat and work aro 
not of ecpial value. While work can always be convei-ted into heat, heat 
can only be converted into work under certain limitations. For every 
pi-actical purpose the work is worth the most, and when wo speak of 
equivalents, Ave use the word in the same sort of special sense as that iu 
which chemists speak of ecjuivalents of golil and iron. The second law 
teaches us that the real value of. heat, as a source of mechanical power, 
depends upon the tomperatui'c of the body iu which it resides ; the hotter 
the body iu relation to its sui'roundings, the more available the heat. 

In order to see the relations which obtain between the first and tlie 
second law of Thormo-dynamics, it is only necessary for us to glance at 
the theory of the steam-engine. Not many years ago calculations were 
plentiful, demonstrating the ineflicicncy of the steam-engine on the basis 
of a comparison of the work actually got out of tho engine with the 
mechanical equivalent of the heat supplied to tho boiler. Such calcula- 
tions took into account only the first law of Thermo-dynamics, which deals 
Avith the equivalents of heat nnd work, and have very little bearing upon 
the practical question of efficiency, which requires us to have regard 
also to the second law. According to that laAv the fraction of the total 
energy which can be converted into Avork depends upon the relative 
temperatures of the boiler and condenser ; and it is, therefore, manifest 
that, as the temperature of the boiler cannot be raised indefinitely, it is 
impossible to utilise all the energy Avhich, according to the first law of 
Thermo-dynamics, is resident in the coal. On a sounder vicAv of the 
matter, the efttciency of tho steam-engine is found to be so high, that 
there is no great margin remaining for improvement. The higher 
initial temper-'iture possible in the gas-engine opens out much Avider 
jwssibililies, and many good judges look forAvard to a time when the 
steam-engine Avill have to giA'e Avay to its younger rival. 

To return to the theoretical question, we may say Avith Sir "W. 
Thomson, that though energy cannot be destroyed, it ever tends to be 
dissipated, or to pass from more available to less available forms. No 
one Avho has grasped this principle can fail to recognise its immense im- 
portance in the system of the Universe. Eveiy change — chemical, thermal, 
or mechanical — which takes place, or can take place, in Nature, does so 
at the cost of a certain amount of available energy. If, therefore, we Avish 
to inquire whether or not a proposed transfonnation can take place, the 
question to be considered is whether its occurrence would involve dissipa- 
tion of energy. If not, the transformation is (under the circumstances of 
the case) absolutely excluded. Some years ago, in a lecture at the Royal 
Institution, I endeavoured to draw the attention of chemists to the import- 



12 



KiionT — 1884. 



ance of the principle of dissipation in relation to their science, pointing 
out the cri'or of the usual assumption that a general criterion is to be 
found fn the development of heat. For example, the solution of a salt in 
water is, if I may be allowed the phrase, a downhill transformation. It 
involves dissipation of energy, and can therefore go forward ; but in 
many cases it is associated with the absorption rather than with the 
development of heat. I am glad to take advantage of the present 
opportunity in order to repeat my recommendation, with an emphasis 
justified by actual achievement. TJie foundations laid by Thomson 
now bear an edifice of no mean proportions, thanks to the labours of 
several physicists, among whom must be especially mentioned Willard 
Oibbs and Helmholtz. The former has elaborated a theory of the 
equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, wide in its principles, and wo 
cannot doubt far-reaching in its consequences. In a series of masterly 
papers Helmholtz has developed the conception of frei' eiierrm with very 
important applications to the thcoi'y of the galvanic cell. He points out 
that the mere tendency to solution bears in some cases no small pro- 
portion to the affinities more usually reckoned chemical, and contributes 
largely to the total electro-motive force. Also in our own country Dr. 
Alder Wright has published some valuable experiments relating to the 
subject. 

From the further study of electrolysis we may expect to gain improved 
views as to the nature of the chemical reactions, and of the forces concerned 
in bringing them about. I am not qualified — I Avish I were — to speak to 
you on recent progress in general chemistry. Perhaps ray feelings towards 
a first love may blind me, but I cannot help thinking that the next great 
advance, of which wo have already some foreshadowing, will come on this 
side. And if I might without presumption venture a word of recom- 
mendation, it would be in favour of a more minute study of the simpler 
•^chemical phenomena. 

Under the head of scientific mechanics it is principally in relation to 
fluid motion that advances may be looked for. In speaking upon this 
subject I must limit myself almost entirely to experimental work. Theo- 
retical hydro-dynamics, however important and interesting to the mathe- 
matician, are eminently unsuited to oral exposition. All I can do to 
attenuate an injustice, to which theorists are pretty well accustomed, is 
to refer you to the admirable reports of Mr. W. M. Hicks, published under 
the auspices of this Association. 

The important and highly practical work of the late Mr. Froude in 
relation to the propulsion of ships is doubtless known to most of you. 
Recognising the fallacy of views then widely held as to the nature of the 
resistance to be overcome, he showed to demonstration that, in the case 
of fair-shaped bodies, we have to deal almost entirely with resistance 
'dependent upon skin friction, and at high speeds upon the generation of 



-•ja iiiiiiiaHcaaBi'; 



ADDUEsiS. 



13 



e in 



surface waves by which energy is carried off. At speeds which aro 
moderate in relation to the size of the ship, the resistance is practically 
dependent upon skin friction only. Although Professor Stokes and other 
mathematicians had previously published calcalntions j)ointing to the 
same couclnsion, there can bo no doubt that the view generally enter- 
tained was very diiferent. At the first meeting of the Association which 
I ever attended, as an intelligent listener, at IJath in lH(j !•, I v/ell remember 
the surprise which greeted a statement by Hankine, that he regarded skin 
friction as the only legitimate resistance to the progress of a well-designed 
ship. Mr. Fronde's experiments have set the question at rest in a maimer 
satisfactory to those who had little confidence in theoretical prevision. 

In speaking of an explanation as satisfactory in which skin friction is 
accepted as the cause of resistance, I must guard myself against being 
supposed to mean that the nature of skin friction is itself well understood. 
Although its magnitude varies with the smoothness of the surface, we have 
no reason to think that it would disappear at any degree of smoothness 
consistent with an ultimate moluciilav structure. That it is connected 
with fluid viscosity is evident enough, but the modus operandi is still 
obscure. 

Some important work bearing upon the subject has recently been pub- 
lished by Professor 0. lleynolds, who has investigated the flow of water 
in tubes as dependent upon the velocity of motion and upon the size of the 
bore. The laws of motion in capillary tubes, discoveix'd experimentally 
by Poiseuille, are in complete harmony with theory. The resistance varies 
as the velocity, and depends in a dii-ect manner upon the constant of 
viscosity. But when we come to the larger pipes and higher velocities with 
which engineers usually have to deal, the theory which presupposes a regu- 
larly stratified motion evidently ceases to be applicable, and the problem 
becomes essentially identical with that of skin friction in relation to ship 
propulsion. Professor Reynolds has traced with much success the passage 
from the one state of things to the other, and has proved the applicability 
under these complicated conditions of the general laws of dynamical 
similarity as adapted to viscous fluids by Professor Stokes. In spite of 
the difficulties which beset both the theoretical and experimental treat- 
ment, we may hope to attain before long to a better understanding of 
a subject which is certainly second to none in scientific as well as practical 
interest. 

As also closely connected with the mechanics of viscous fluids, I 
must not forget to mention an important series of experiments upon the 
friction of oiled surfaces, recently executed by Mr. Tower for the Insti- 
tution of Mechanical Engineers. The results go far towards upsetting 
some ideas hitherto widely admitted. When the lubrication is adequate^ 
the friction is found to be nearly independent of the load, and much 
smaller than is usually supposed, giving a coefficient as low as xinnr* 
When the layer of oil ia well formed, the pressure between the solid 



t4 



HKPORT — 1884. 



■fiiirfaces is really borno by the fluid, and the work lost 'm spent in 
shearing, that is, in causing one stratum of the oil to glide over another. 
In order to maintain its position, the flnid ranst jiossoss a certain 
de<^reo of viscosity, proportionate to the pressure ; and even when this 
condition is satisfied, it would appear to bo necessary that the layer 
should be thicker on tho ingoing than on the outgoing side. Wo may, 
I believe, expect from Professor Stokes a further clncidati(ju of the pro- 
cesses involved. In tho meantime, it is obvious that the results already 
obtained are of the utmost value, and fully justify the action of the 
Institution in devoting a part of its resources to experinientnl work. 
We may hope indeed that the example thus wisely set may bo followed 
by other public bodies associated with various departments of industry. 

I can do little more than refer to tho interesting observations of 
Professor Darwin, Mr. Hunt, and M. Forel on Ripplemark. Tho processes 
concerned would seem to be of a rather intricate chai'acter, and largely 
dependent upon fluid viscosity. It may be noted indeed that most of the 
still obsciire phenomena of hydro-dynamics require for their elucidation a 
better comprehension f)f the laws of viscous motion. The subject is one 
which oflTers peculiar difficulties. In some problems in which I have 
lately been interested, a circulating motion presents itself of the kind 
Avhich tho mathematician excludes from the fii'st when he is treating of 
fluids destitute altogether of viscosity. The intensity of this motion 
proves, however, to be independent of the coefHcient of viscosity, so that 
it cannot be correctly dismissiid from consideration iu consequence of a 
supposition that the vis(^osity is infinitely small. The apparent breach 
of continuity can be explained, but it shows how much care is needful iu 
dealing with the subject, and how easy it is to fall into error. 

The nature of gaseous viscosity, as due to the diffusion of momentum, 
has been made clear by the theoretical and experimental researches of 
Maxwell. A flat disc moving in its own plane between two parallel 
solid surfaces is impeded by the necessity of shearing tho intervening 
layers of gas, and the magnitude of the hindrance is proportional to the 
velocity of the motion and to the viscosity of the gas, so that under 
similar circumstances this effect may be taken as a measure, or rather 
definition, of the viscosity. From the dynamical theory of gases, to the 
development of which he contributed so much, Maxwell drew the 
startling conclusion that the viscosity of a gas should be independent of 
its density, — that within wide limits the resistance to tho moving disc 
should be scarcely diminished by pumping out the gas, so as to foi-m a 
partial vacuum. Experiment fully confirmed this theoretical anticipation, 
— one of the most remarkable to be found in the whole history of science — 
and proved that the swinging disc "was retarded by the gas, as much 
when the barometer stood at half an inch as when it stood at thirty 
inches. It was obvious, of course, that the law must have a limit, that 
at a certain point of exhaustion the gas must begin to lose its power ; and 



^ 



ADDREJSS. 



15 



the 
ler 
liev 
the 
Ihe 

of 

lisc 

a 

3n, 

ich 

|ty 

iat 
id 



I romcmbei" discussing with Maxwell, soon after the publication of his 
exiicrimcnts, the whereabouts of tho point at which the gas would cease 
to produce its ordinary ett'ect. His apparatus, however, was (juite un- 
suited for high degrees of exlianstion, and the failure of tho law was 
first observed by Kundt and Warburg, as pressures below 1 mm. of 
mercury. Subsequently tho matter has been thoroughly examined by 
Orookcs, who extended his observations to the highest degrees of ex- 
haustion as measured by MacLeod's gauge. Perhaps the most remark- 
able results relate to hydrogen. From tho atmospheric jiressuro of TOO 
mm. down to about ^ mm. of mercury the viscosity is sensibly constant. 
Fiom this jioint to the highest vacua, in which less than one-millionth of 
the original gas ronuiins, tho coefficient of viscosity drops down gradually 
to a small fraction of its original value. In these vacua ^Mr. Crookes 
regards tho gas as having assumed a different, ultra-gaseous, condition ; 
but we must remember that tho phenomena have relation to the Lher 
circurustancos of the case, especially the dimensions of the vessel, as well 
as to the condition of tho gas. 

Such an achievement as the prediction of Maxwell's law of viscosity 
lias, of course, drawn increased attention to the dynamical theory of gases. 
Tho success whioh has attended the theory in the hands of Clausius, 
Maxwell, Jioltzmann, and other mathematicians, not only in relation to 
viscosity, but over a large part of the entire field of our knowledge of 
gases, proves that some of its fundamental postulates are in harmony with 
tho reality of Nature. At the same time, it presents serious difficulties ; 
and we cannot but feel that while the electrical and optical properties of 
gases remain out of relation to the theory, no final judgment is possible. 
The growth of experimental knowledge may be trusted to clear up many 
'ioubtful points, and a younger generation of theorists will br'ng to bear 
improved mathematical weapons. In the meantime we may fairly con- 
gratulate ourselves on the possession of a guide Avhich has already 
conducted us to a position which could hardly otherwise have been 
attained. 

In Optics attention has naturally centred upon the spectrum. Tho 
mystery attaching to the invisible rays lying beyond the red has been 
fathomed to an extent that, a fev/ years ago, would have seemed almost 
impossible. By the use of special photographic methods Abney has 
mapped out the peculiarities of this region with such success that our 
knowledge of it begins to bo comparable with that of the parts visible 
to the eye. Equally important work has been done by Langley, using 
a refined invention of his own based upon the principle of Siemens' 
pyrometer. This instrument measures the actual energy of the radia- 
tion, and thus expresses the efi'ects of various parts of the spectrum 
upon a common scale, independent of the properties of the eye and of 
sensitive photographic preparations. Interesting results have also been 



16 



REroRT — 1884. 



obtained by Becqaerel, whose method is founded upon a curious action 
of the ultra-red rays in enfeebling the light emitted by phosphorescent 
substances. One of the most startling of Langley's conclusions relates 
to the influence of the atmosphere in modifying the quality of solar 
light. By the comparison of observations made through varying 
thicknesses of aii-, he shows that the atmospheric absorption tells most 
upon the light of high reftangibility ; so that, to an eye situated out- 
side the atmosphere, the sun would present a decidedly bluish tint. It 
would he interesting to compare the experimental numbers with the law 
of scattering of liglit by small particles given some years ago as the result 
of theory. The demonstration by Langley of tlie inadequacy of Cauchv's^ 
law of dispersion to represent the relation between refrangibility and 
Avave-lcngth in the lower part of the spectrum must have an important 
beai'ing upon optical theory. 

The investigation of the relation of the visible and ultra-violet siiectrum 
to various forms of matter has occupied the attention o£ a host of able 
workers, among whom none have been more successful than my colleagues 
at Cambridge, Professors Liveing and Dewar. The subject is too large 
both for the occasion and for the individual, and I must pass it by. Bat, 
as more closely related to Optics proper, I cannot resist recalling to your 
notice a beautiful application of the idea of Doppler to the discrimination 
of the origin of certain lines observed in the solar spectrum. If a vibrating 
body have a general motion of approach or recession, the waves emitted 
from it reach the observer with a frequency which in the first case exceeds, 
and in the second case falls short of, the real frequency of the vibrations 
themselves. The consequence is that, if a glowing gas be in motion in tho 
line of sight, the spectral lines are thereby displaced from the position 
that they would occupy were the gas at rest — a principle which, in the 
hands of Huggins and others, has led to a determination of the motion 
of certain fixed stars relatively to the solar system. But the sun is itself 
in rotation, and thus the position of a solar spectral line is slightly 
different according as the light comes from the advancing or from the 
retreating limb. This displacement was, I believe, first observed by 
Thollou ; but what I desire now to draw attention to is the application 
of it by Cornu to determine whether a line is of solar or atmospheric 
origin. For this purpose a small image of the sun is thrown upon the slit 
of the spectroscope, and caused to vibrate two or three times a second, in 
such a manner that the light entering the instrument comes alternately 
from the advancing and retreating limbs. Under these circumstances 
a line due to absorption within the snn appears to tremble, as the result 
of slight alternately opposite displacements. But if the seat of the ab- 
sorption be in the atmosphere, it is a matter of indifference from what 
part of the sun the light originally proceeds, and the line maintains its 
position in spite of the oscillation of the image upon the slit of the spec- 
troscope. In this way Cornu was able to make a discrimination which 



r; 



large 

Bat, 

your 

ation 

ating 

dttcd 

;eeds, 

itioiis 

n the 

sitlon 

ti the 
otion 
itself 

gbtly 
1 the 
d by 
ation 
iberic 
c slit 
d, in 
atcly 
ances 
■esult 
c ab- 
wliat 
IS its 
spec- 
ivliicli 



ADDRESS. 



17 



1 



can only otherwise be effected by a difficult comparison of appearances 
under various solar altitudes. 

The instrumental weapon of investigation, the spectroscope itself, 
has made important advances. On the theoretical side, we have for our 
guidance the law that the optical power in gratings is projiortional to the 
total number of lines accurately ruled, without regard to the degree of 
closeness, and in prisms that it is proportional to the thickness of glass 
traversed. The magnificent gratings of Rowland are a new power in 
the hands of the spectroscopist, and as triumphs of mechanical art seem 
to be little shoi-t of perfection. In our own report for 1(S8-, ^Ir. Mallock 
has described a machine, constructed by him, for ruling large diffraction 
gratings, similar in some respects to that, of Rowland. 

The great optical constant, the velocity of light, has been the subject 
of three distinct investigations by Cornu, Michelson, and Forbes. As 
may be supposed, the matter is of no ordinarj' difficulty, and it is there- 
fore not surpi ising that the agreement should be loss decided than could 
be wished, j'rom their observations, which were made by a modification 
of Fizeau's method of the toothed wheel. Young and Forbes drew the con- 
clusion that the »-elocity of light ///, vacuo varies from colour to colour, to 
such an extent that tlie velocity of blue light is nearly two per cent, 
greater than that of red light. Such a variation is quite opposed to 
existing theoretical notions, and could only bo accepted on the strongest 
evidence. Mr. Michelson, whose method (that of Foucault) is well suited 
to bring into j^rorahience a variation of velocity with wave length, informs 
me that he has recently repeated his experiments with special reference 
to the point in question, and has arrived at the conclusion that no varia- 
tion exists comparable with that asserted by Young and Forbes. The 
actual velocity differs little from that found from his first series of experi- 
ments, and may be taken to be 299,800 kilometres per second. 

It is remarkable how many of the playthings of our childhood give 
rise to questions of the deepest scientific interest. The top is, or may bo 
understood, but a complete comprehension of the kite and of the soap- 
bubble would carry us far beyond our present stage of knowledge. In spite 
of the admirable investigations of Plateau, it still remains a mystery why 
soapy water stands almost alone among fluids as a material for bubbles. 
The beauti%l development of colour was long ago ascribed to the inter- 
ference of light, called into play by the gradual thinning of the film. In 
accordance with this view the tint is determined solely by the thickness 
of the film, and the refractive index of the fluid. Some of the phenomena 
are however so curious, as to have led excellent observers liko Brewster 
to reject the theory of thin plates, and to assume tlie secretion of various 
kinds of colouring matter. If the rim of a wine-glass be dipped in 
soapy water, and then held in a vertical position, horizontal bands soon 
begin to show at the top of the film, and extend themselves gradually, 
<lownwards. According to Brewster these bands are not fox'med by the 

1884. c 



18 



REPORT — 1 884. 



* subsidence and gradual tliinning of the film,' because tliey maintain, 
their horizontal position when the glass is turned i-ound its axis. The 
experiment is both easy and interesting ; but the conclusion drawn from 
it cannot be accepted. The fact is that the various parts of the film 
cannot quickly alter their thickness, and hence when the glass is rotated 
they re-arrange themselves in order of superficial density, the thinner 
parts floating np over, or through, the thicker parts. Only thus can the 
tendency be satisfied for the centre of gravity to assume the lowest 
possible position. 

When the thickness of a film falls below a small fraction of the length 
ot a wave of light, the colour disappears and is replaced by an intense 
blackness. Professors Reinold and Riicker have recently made the re- 
markable observation that the whole of the black region, soon after its 
formation, is of uniform thickness, the passage from the black to the 
coloured portions being exceedingly abrupt. By two independent 
methods they have determined the thickness of the black film to lie 
between seven and fourteen millionths of a millimetre ; so that the 
thinnest films correspond to about one-seventieth of a wave-length of 
light. The importance of these results in regard to molecular theory is 
too obvious to be insisted upon. 

The beautiful inventions of the telephone and the phonograph, although 
in the main dependent upon principles long since established, have imparted 
a new interest to the study of Acoustics. The former, apart from its uses 
in every-daj' life, has become in the hands of its inventor, Graham Bell, and 
of Hughes, an instrument of first-class scientific importance. The theory 
of its action is still in some respects obscure, as is shown by the compara- 
tive failure of the many attempts to improve it. In connection with some 
explanations that have been offered, Ave do well to remember that molecular 
changes in solid masses are inaudible in themselves, and can only be 
manifested to our ears by the generation of a to and fro motion of the 
external surface extending over a sensible area. If the surface of a solid 
remains undisturbed, our ears can tell us nothing of what goes on in the 
interior. 

In theoretical acoustics progress has been steadily maintained, and 
many phenomena, which were obscure twenty or thirty years ago, have 
since received adequate explanation. If some important practical ques- 
tions remain unsolved, one reason is that they have not j'et been definitely 
stated. Almost everything in connection with the ordinary use of our 
senses presents peculiar difficulties to scientific investigation. Some 
kinds of information with regard to their surroundings are of such para- 
mount importance to successive generations of living beiu^^, that they 
have learned to interpret indications which, from a physical point of 
view, are ot" the slenderest character. Every day we are in the habit of 
recognising, without much difl[icnlty, the quarter from which a sound 



ADDRESS. 



19 



aougli 
Darted 
s uses 
^11, and 
heory 

jara- 

somo 

cvilar 

y ^^ 
f ilie 

solid 

in the 

, and 
have 
ques- 
initely 
)f ouv 
Some 
para- 
[t tliey 
iut of 
Ibit of 
Isoand 



proceeds, but b}' what steps we attain that end has not yet been satis- 
factorily explained. It has been proved that when proper precautions 
are taken we are unable to distinguish whether a pure tone (as from a 
vibrating tuning fork held over a suitable resonator) comes to us from 
in front or from behind. This is what might have been expected from 
an a priori point of view ; but what would not have been expected is 
that with almost any other sort of sound, from a clap of the hands to 
the clearest vowel sound, the discrimination is not only possible but easy 
and instinctive. In tliese cases it does not appear how the possession of 
two ears helps us, though there is some evidence that it dot ; ; and even 
when sounds come to us from the right or left, the explanation of the 
ready discrimination which is then possible with pure tones, is not so easy 
as might at first appear. We should be inclined to think that the sound 
was heard much more loudly with the ear that is turned towards than 
with Lue car that is turned from it, and that in this way the direction 
was recognised. But if we try the experiment, we find that, at any rate 
with notes near the middle of the musical scale, the difference of loudness 
is by no means so very great. The wave-lengths of such notes are long 
enough in relation to the dimensions of the head to forbid the forma- 
tion of anj'thing like a sound shadow in which the averted 3ar might 
be sheltered. 

In concluding this imperfect survey of recent progress in physics, I 
must warn you emphatically that much of great importance hsr een 
passed over altogether. I should have liked to speak to you of the ^r- 
reaching speculations, especially associated Avitli the name of Maxwe. in 
which light is regarded as a disturbance in an electro- magnetic medium. 
Indeed, at one time, I had thought of taking the scientific work of 
Maxwell as the principal theme of this address. But, like most men of 
genius. Maxwell delighted in questions too obscure and difficult for hasty 
treatment, and thus much of his work could hardly be considered upon 
such an occasion as the present. His biography has recently been pub- 
lished, and should be read by all who are interested in science and in 
scientific men. His many-sided character, the quaintness of his humouv^ 
the penetration of his intellect, his simple but deep religious feeling, 
the afiection between son and father, the devotion of husband to wife, 
all combine to form a rare and fascinating picture. To estimate 
rightly his influence upon the present state of science, we must regard 
not only the work that he executed himself, imiiortant as that was, 
but also the ideas and the spirit which he communicated to others. 
Speaking for myself as one who in a special sense entered into his 
labours, I should find it difficult to express adequately my feeling of 
obligation. The impress of his thoughts may be recognised in much of 
the best work of the present time. As a teacher and examiner he was 
well acquainted with the almost universal tendency of uninstructed minds 

c2 



20 



RBroRT — 1884. 



to elevate phrases above things : to refer, for example, to the principle 
of the conservation of energy for an explanation of the persistent rotation 
of a fly-wheel, almost in the style of tlie doctor in ' Le ^lalade Imaginaire,' 
who explains the fact that opium sends you to sleep by its soporific 
virtue. Maxwell's endeavour was always to keep the facts in the fore- 
ground, and to his influence, in conjunction with that of Thomson and 
Helmholtz, is largely due that elimination of unnecessary hypothesis 
which is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the science of the 
present day. 

In speaking unfavourably of superfluous hypothesis, let me not be 
misunderstood. Science is nothing without generalisations. Detached 
and ill-assorted facta are only raw rprterial, and in the absence of a 
theoretical solvent, have but little nutritive value. At the present time 
and in some departments, the accumulation of material is so rapid that 
there is danger of indigestion. By a fiction us remarkable as any to be 
found in law, what has once been published, even though it be in the 
Russian language, is usually spoken of as 'known,' and it is often for- 
gotten that the rediscovery in the library may be a more difficult and 
uncertain process than the first discovery in the laboratory. In this 
matter we are greatly dependent upon annual reports and abstracts, 
issued principally in Germany, without which the search for the dis- 
coveries of a little-known author would be well-nigh hopeless. Much 
useful work has been done in this direction in connection with our 
Association. Such critical reports as those upon Hydro-dynamics, upon 
Tides, and upon Spectroscopy, guide the investigator to the points most 
requiring attention, and in discussing past achievements contribute in 
no small degree to future progress. But though good work has been 
done, much yet remains to do. 

If, as is sometimes supposed, scienc i.sisted in nothing but the 

laborious accumulation of facts, it would soon come to a stand-still, 
crushed, as it were, under its own weight. The suggestion of a new 
idea, or the detection of a law, supersedes much that had previously been 
a burden upon the memory, and by introducing order and coherence 
facilitates the retention of the remainder in an available form. Those 
Avho are acquainted with the writings of the older electricians will under- 
stand my meaning when I instance the discovery of Ohm's law as a step 
by which the science was rendered easier to understand and to remember. 
Two processes are thus at work side by side, the reception of new 
material and the digestion and assimilation of the old ; and as both are 
essential, we may spare ourselves the discussion of their relative impor- 
tance. One remark, however, should be made. The work which deserves, 
but I am afraid does not alwaj-s receive, the most credit is that in which 
discovery and explanation go hand in hand, in which not only are new 
facts presented, but their relation to old ones is pointed out. 

In making oneself acquainted with what hag been done in any subject, 




ADDRKSS. 



21 



it i good policy to consult first the writers of highest general reputation. 
Although in scientific matte.-s we should aim at independent judgment, 
and not rely too much upon authority, it remains true that a good deal 
must often be taken upon trust. Occasionally an observation is so simple 
and easily repeated, that it scarcely matters from whom it proceeds ; but 
as a rule it can hardly carry full weight when put forward by a novice 
whose care and judgment there has been no opportunity of testing, and 
whose irresponsibility may tempt him to ' take shots,' as it is called. 
Those who have had experience in accurate work know how easy it would 
be to save time and trouble by omitting precautions and passing over 
discrepancies, and yet, even without dishonest intention, to convey the 
impression of conscientious attention to details. Although the most 
careful and experienced cannot hope to escape occasional mistakes, the 
efiective value of this kind of work depends much upon the reputation of 
the individual responsible for it. 

In estimating the present position and prospects of experimental 
science, there is good ground for encouragement. The multiplication of 
laboratories gives to the younger generation opportunities such as have 
never existed before, and which excite the envy of those who have had to 
learn in middle life much that now forms part of an undergraduate course. 
As to the management of such institutions there is room fo a healthy 
difference of opinion. For many kinds of original work, especially in 
connection with accurate measurement, there is need of expensive 
apparatus ; and it is often difiicult to persuade a student to do his best 
with imperfect appliances when he knows that by other means a better 
result could be attained with greater facility. Nevertheless it seems 
to me important to discourage too great reliance upon the instrument 
maker. Much of the best orisrinal work has been done with the homeliest 
appliances ; and the endeavour to turn to the best account the means 
that may be at hand develops ingenuity and resource more than the most 
elaborate determinations with ready-made instruments. Thei'e is danger 
otherwise that the experimental education of a plodding student should 
be too mechanical and artificial, so that he is puzzled by email changes of 
apparatus much as many school-boys are puzzled by a transposition of 
the letters in a diagram of Euclid. 

From the general spread of a more scientific education, we are war- 
ranted in expecting important results. Just as there are some brilliant 
literary men with an inability, or at least a distaste practically amounting 
to inability, for scientific ideas, so there are a few with scientific tastes 
whose imaginations are never touched by merely literary studies. To 
save these from intellectual stagnation during several important years of 
their lives .'s something gained ; but the thorough. going advocates of 
scientific education aim at much more. To them it appears strange, and 
almost monstrous, that the dead languages should hold the place they do 
in general education ; and it can hardly be denied that their supremacy ia 






22 REPORT— 1884. 

the result of routine rather than of argument. I do not, myself, take up 
the extreme position. I doubt whether an exclusively scientific training 
■would be satisfactory ; and where there is plenty of time and a literary 
aptitude I can believe that Latin and Greek may make a good foundation. 
But it is useless to discuss the qu?stion upon the supposition that tho 
majority of boys attain either to a kr'OTledge of the languages or to an 
aj)preciation of the writings of the riiicitii*" .(.athors. Tho contrary h 
notoriously the truth ; and the defenders of the existing system usually 
take their stand upon the exceUence of its discipline. From this point of 
view there is something to be said. The laziest boy must exert himself 
a little in puzzling out a sentence with giamraar and dictionary, while 
instruction and supervision are easy to organise and not too costly. But 
when the case is stated plainly, few will agrej that we can afford so 
entirely to disregard results. In after life the intellectujil energies are 
usually engrossed with business, and no further opp'^jrtunity is found 
for attacking the difficulties which block the gateways of knowledge. 
Mathematics, especially, if not learned j'^oung, are likely to remain 
unlearned. I will not further insist upon the educational importance of 
mathematics and science, because with respect to them I shall probably 
be supposed to be prejudiced. But of modern languages I am ignorant 
enough to give value to my advocacy. I believe that French and German, 
if properly taught, which I admit they rarely are at present, would go 
far to replace Latin and Greek from a disciplinary point of view, while 
the actual value of the acquisition would, in the majority of cases, be 
incomparably greater. In half the time usually devoted, without success, 
to the classical languages, most boys could acquire a really serviceable 
knowledge of French and German. History and the serious study of 
English literature, now shamefully neglected, would also find a place in 
such a scheme;. 

There is one objection often felt to a modernised education, as to 
which a word may not be without use. Many excellent people are afraid 
of science as tending towards materialism. That such apprehension, 
should exist is not surprising, for unfortunately there are writers, speak- 
ing in the name of science, who have set themselves to foster it. It is 
true that among scientific men, as in other classes, crude views are to be 
met with as to the deeper things of Nature ; but that the life-long beliefs 
of Newton, of Faraday, and of Maxwell are inconsistent with the 
scientific habit of mind, is surely a proposition which I need not pause to 
refute. It would be easy, however, to lay too much stress upon the 
opinions of even such distinguished workers as these. Men, who devote 
their lives to investigation, cultivate a love of truth for its own sake, and 
endeavour instinctively to clear up, and not, as is too often the object in 
business and politics, to obscure a diflRcnlt question. So far the opinion 
of a scientific worker may have a special value ; but I do not think that 
he has a claim, superior to that of other educated men, to assume the 



. 



ADDRESS. 



23 



attitude of n prophet. In his heart he knows that underneath the 
theories that he constructs there h'e contradictions which he cannot recon- 
cile. The higher mysteries of being, if penetrable at all by human intel- 
lect, require other weapons than those of calculation and experiment. 

Without encroaching upon grounds appertaining to the theologian 
and the philosopher, the domain of naturj.l science is surely broad enough 
to satisfy the wildest ambition of its devotees. In oilier departments of 
human life and interest, true progress is rather an article of faith than a 
i ational belief ; but in science a retrogra le movement is, from the nature 
of the case, almost impossible. Increasing knowledge brings with it in- 
crciising power, and great as arc the triumphs of the present century, we 
may well believe that they arc but a foretaste of what discovery and 
invention have yet in store for mankind. Encouraged by the thought 
that our laboura cannot be thrown away, let us redouble our efforts in the 
noble struggle. In the Old World and in the New, recruits must be 
enlisted to fill the place of those whose work is done. Happy should I 
be if, through this visit of the Association, or by any words of mine, a 
larger measure of the youthful activity of the We?*; could be drawn into 
this service. The work may be hard, and the discipline severe ; but the 
interest never fails, and great is the jirivilege of achievement. 



BEPOETS 



ox THK 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



« 
i 



I 

J{ 

IK 

sn 
.S( 

be 
an 
Bt 
th( 
thi 
un 
me 



EEPOIITS 



ON TIIV. 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



RepoH of the. Committee^ consistlu;/ of Sir William Thomson, Pro- 
fessor A. W. Williamson, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Harlow, and 
^Nlr. J. INI. Thomson {Secretary), appointed to consider and advise 
on the best 'means for facilitating the adoption of the Metric 
System of Wei;/hts and Measures In Great Britain. 

Yoi'R Committeo have held several meetings daring the past year. 

They wish to take this opportunity of expressing their very deep 
regret at the loss which the Committee has sustained in the death of 
their colleague, Sir William Siemens, I'Ml.S., since the last meeting of 
the British Association. Sir William Siemens had taken a very pro- 
minent part in the formation of this Committee, and had himself under- 
taken personally much of the business of the Committee, and his 
colleagues further regret that his sudden and unexpected death has 
prevented them hearing from liim more particulars of the resulta of the 
inquiries which he had undertaken to make. 

Your Committee have boon in correspondence with the Board of Trade 
on the subject of the introduction and wider employment of the metric 
system in (ireat Britain ; but the answer received has not been so favour- 
able to the general adoption of the system as they could have wished. 

After due consideration, your Committee determined to memorialise 
Her Majesty's Government on the subject, and endeavour to induce the 
English Government to become members of the ' Bureau International 
des Poids et Mesures.' 

Understanding that the Royal Society had already entered upon 
negotiations with the Government, and wishing to pi'oceed upon the 
same grounds, your Committee put themselves in communication with the 
Society. 

From the Royal Society your Committee learn that the former has 
been, and is still, in communication with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and that the chief difficulties in the way of the Government joining the 
Bureau are (1) the expense, especially the arrears of payment, and (2) 
the question of being able to contribute to the Bureau without joining 
the Metric Convention, Her Majesty's Government — they are given to 
understand — regarding this latter step as committing this country to the 
metric system, which they are unwilling to do, as being opposed, in their 
judgment, to the public opinion of the country. 



28 



iii:r(»UT — 1MH4. 



On receipt of this information from tlio II0311I Society your Com- 
mitU'o, takinfjT into consiilcrution, not only tlic late period of the present 
SeH.sion of J'arlianietit, lnit also the hliort (iiiie that remains before tho 
dissolution of tlie present Parliament, have determined that it will bo 
more advantageons to defer appi'oaching Government on the subject till a 
later period. 

Your (.'oinmittee still wish to hold the matter under further considera- 
tion, and they therefore ask tliat the Committee be reappointed without a 
grant of money. 

Noli;. — Since the above Report was drafted the Government have 
agreed to join tho ' Hiireau International des I'oids ot Mesurea ' 



Report of the Coininitti'e, consisfluf/ of I'rufessor Balfour Stkwakt 
(Secretarf/), I'rofcssor Stukhs, .Mr. U. JuhnstonkStoney, Professor 
Sir I f . K. Kosicoi;, Profes.sor Sciiustkh, Captain Ahnky, and Mr. G. J. 
Symons, aijpointed for the. jtarpoMe of iunwideriiKj the heat 'methods 
of recordliifj the direct intensiti/ of Solar Radiation. 

This Connnittcc, actin<^ on a suf^'n'cstion made by General Strachey, have 
chiefly devoted their attention to the subject of a self-recording actiuo- 
metcr. 

The sell- recording actiuometor of Mr. Winstanley would not bo 
suitable,' becaase it is influenced by radiation from all quarters. Other 
actinometers require manipulation on the part of tho observer which would 
make it almost impossible to make them self-recording. It was suggested 
by Professor Balfour Stewart that a modification of his actiuometor might 
bo adapted to self-registration by taking for the quantity to be observed, 
not the rise of temperature of the enclosed thermometer after exposure for 
a given time, but the cxce.«s of itsteiuperaturo when continuously expo.sed 
over the temperature of the envelope. After making some calculations 
as to the behaviour of such an instrument, Professor Stokes came •'^o the 
following conclusions : 

(1) The enclosure should be of such a nature as to change its tem- 
perature very slowly, and of such a material that the various portions of 
the inteiior should be at the same moment of the same uniform tempera- 
ture. For this purpose an arrongeraent somewhat similar to that used in. 
Prof. Stewart's actiiiomoter is suggested ; the outside to consist of polished 
metallic plates, then a layer of some non-eonducting substance, such as 
felt, then a thick co})per interior which need not be polished. Into thiS' 
copper is to be inserted a thermometer which Avill give the temperature 
of the copper interior from moment to moment. 

(2) In tho middle of the enclosure is to be placed the thermometer, 
upon which tho heat of tho sun is made to fall by means of a hole in the 
enclosure, either with or without a lens. This thermometer should be so 

' • This is the case at present, bnt tlieie would not be any great difficulty in 
modifying it so as to act as loqiiired. It is ijuitu a iniittcr worth consideration 
whctlier a dilTorential air-thermometer would not be very suitable, one bulb silvered 
and tho other blackened or of green fila-ss, as I suggested to the Meteorological Council 
some years back, liy this means only one reading would be necessary, whilst in the 
plan suggested two would have to be recorded, and the measurements would be^ 
more difiicult.' (^Xoti- hij Cupiain Ahncij.') 



jO 



meter, 
in the 
be so 

ulty in 
leration 

ilvored 
Council 
in the 

uld be 



(IN DIKKCT IXTKNSri'Y OV Sol, All UADIATION. 



S9 



constrnctod as to ho n-adily RnsceptihU; of solar influcncos. Tt is prcposofl 
to muko it of prccn glass (a good ahsorher and radiator), and to givo it 
a flattered snrfaco in the direction pcrpendicnlar to the hght from the hole. 

Sueli an iiiHti'iiniont sliould he no adjusted as to receive the snn's light 
continuously ihrougli the hole, and tlio ohjects of I'ccord would he the 
siiuultancouH heights of the two thermometers, the ono giving the tem- 
perature of tlio enclosure, and the otliorof the central thermometer. There 
are I'.vo conc(!ival)lo methods by wliich the necessary adjustment with 
regard to the sun's light might be secured, namely, («) the enclosuro 
might be subject to an ecpiatorial motion so as to follow the sun, or (/5) 
the enclosure might be kept at rest^ and the solar rays kept upon the holo 
by a liehostat. Captain Abm^y is of opinion that the latter arrangement 
is, mechanically, much preferable to the former. 

As the direction of the earth's axis may be chosen as that into which 
the sun's light is to bo reflected, a heliostat of a very simple construction 
will sufhce; and as the angle of incidence on the mirror of such a heliostat 
chanye-i only very slowly with the season, tliero is no difliculty in applying 
the small correction required for the change in the intensity of the reflected 
heat consequent on the change in the angle of incidence. It is assumed 
that the mirror of the heliostat is a speculum. 

It has been remarked by General Strachey that some such instrument 
as this now suggested, even if not made self-recording, would have the 
advantage of giving an observation without the objectionable necessity of 
putting the light on for a given time and then shutting it ofl", operations 
oidy suitable for trained observers. We think that it would be desirable 
to construct an enclosure with its two thermometers such as herein 
recorded. In all probability tiie loan of a heliostat and of an actinometer 
might be obtained. By aid of the heliostat the sun's light might be kept 
continuously upon the holo of the enclosure. The two thermometers 
would be read, and the results compared with the simultaneous reading 
of an ordinary actinometer. I3y .such means it is believed that the best 
method of constructing such an instrument and observing with it might 
be found. 

We would therefore ask for a continnanco of our Committee, with the 
sum of ;}0/. to bo placed at our disposal for the purpose herein specified. 



Report of the Committee, consistlnr/ of Professor Or. Carey P'ostek, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Paylekhi, Professor Jenkix, Dr. O. 
J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. II. 
Preece, ^Ir. Heuih:rt Taylor, Professor F'ERETT, Professor 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. P'LE.NHNtf, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. P. 
T. Glazehrook {Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
sox, and Professor W. Garxett, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in Elec- 
trical Measurements. 

The Committee report that during the year the construction and testing 
•of standards of electrical resistance has been proceeded with. The 
toils of 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 B.A. units, mentioned in the last 
Report, have been compared with the standard unit coils. An account 



30 REroRT— 1884. 

of the comparison made by the Secretary and Mr. H. M. Elder, with a 
table of the values arrived at, is given in Appendix I. Further ex- 
periments on the temperature coeflBcients of these coils are in progress. 
During the year, twelve coils have been compared with the B. A. 
standards, and certificates of their values issued by the Secretary. A 
Table of the values found is given in Appendix II. 

At the Southport meeting of the Association a grant was made to 
defray the expense of procuring standards of resistance in terms of the 
ohm. At a meeting of the Committee held in March, 1884, it was 
decided to defer the purchase of these till after the meeting of the Paris 
Congress, and a resolution was passed to the effect that ' In the event of 
the Paris Congress adopting any definite standard of resistance, 
standards be ordered for the Committee in accordance with that value.' 

The Paris Congress adopted as a standard, to be called the ' legal 
ohm,' the resistance at 0°C. of a column of a mercury 106 centimetres 
long, and one square millimetre in section. The standard resistances at 
present in use being B.A. units, it became necessary to assume a relatiL'n 
between the B.A. tinit and the legal ohm, in order to construct coils whose 
resistance should be one legal ohm. This relation has been determined 
by various observers with slightly different results, and a meeting of the 
Committee was held on June 28 to consider the question. At this meet- 
ing the following resolution, proposed by Professor W. G. Adams, 
seconded by Lord Rayleigh, was carried : — ' That, for the purpose of | 

issuing practical standards of electrical resistance, the number of B.A. fl 

units adopted as the resistance of a column of mercury 100 cm. in length, 
1 sq. mm. in section, at 0°C., be "9540. 

Taking this number, then 

1 legal ohm=l-0112 B.A. units. , 
1 B.A. unit=-9889 legal ohms. 

Coils having respectively a resistance 1, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 
legal ohms have been ordered, two of each value, so that, by frequent 
comparison of one with the other, an accident to either may be checked. 
These standards are to have their correct values at temperatures near 
1-5° C. 

The two 1-ohm coils have been sent by the makers, and their testing 
is being proceeded with. When this is complete the Committee will be 
in a position to test and certify to the values of coils in terms of the 
legal ohm. 

They propose that the certificate shonld run as follows : — 

* This is to certify that the resistance coil X li^s been tested by the 
Electrical Standard Committee, and that its value at a temperature of 
4° centigrade is P legal ohms. 

' It has been assumed, for the purposes of this comparison, that 1 legal 
ohm is equal to 1-0112 B.A. units.' 

The coils will be stamped with the monogram ^ and a reference 

number. 

A portion of the grant has been expended in some additions to the 
■wire bridge belonging to the Committee, which have added greatly to its 
utility, while two thermometers for the testing room have been purchased. 

The Committee would ask, in conclusion, that they may be reappointed, 
•with the addition of the name of Mr. W. N. Shaw, in order to continue 
the work of issuing standards of resistance. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



31 



. legal 



Appendix I. 

On the values of the B.A. standards of resistance greater than 1 B.xi. unit. 

The coils of approximate value 10 B.A. units marked Elliott Bros., 
No. 6(j and No. Ql, or ^ 20 and 21 respectively, were compared with the 
B.A. standards by the method described in the last report,' with the results 
given ill the following table : 



Mark of cuil 



Elliott No. 06 
^ No. 20 



Elliott No. G7 



t.> 



No. '_n 



Elliott No. G8 



f^N. 



I Elliott Xo. ()',i 

I ^ No. 23 

Elliott No. 70 
^ No. 24 



Date 

July 5 
July 7 

July 5 
July 7 

July :.' 1 
Anu-ust 11 

July 24 

August 11 



Elliott No. 7 



t.> 



No. 



Elliott No. 72 
^ No. 2(5 

Elliott No. 7;'. 
^ No. l>- 



July 2G 
August 11 

July 20 
August 11 



Valiic touiul ill 1)..\.TJ. 

lo-ooor. 
loooi:! 

lOOOGO 

loooi:; 

]oo-(i;is 
inoiin 

100-024 

10O'0!)7 



August 11 



9!)9'71l 
1000-78 

9tt!)vSl 
1000'7i) 



August 1 1 



10000-2 



i0(K>(;-'.t 



u. 


'roii)|it'raturc 




llt°-l 




I8°;i 




19°-1 




IS'-S 


1 


lG°-7 




19°-9 




lG°-7 




19°-1» 




15°-8 




19°-9 




in°-8 




]9=9 




19''-8 




19°'.S 



The coils were immersed in the water bath, the temperature of which 
remained constant during each observation, for some days before the 
measurements were made. 

The values thus found wore used for the determination of the coils of 
higher resistance, the methods of the last report '-' being employed in this 
case also. The insulation of the various parts of the apparatus was tested 
carefully. Each result given in the table is the mean of two or more 
determinations at the same temperature. The readings of the thermo- 
meter used were compared witli those of a standard instrument. 



' r.. A. lloport 1883, p. 43. 
' 13. A. Report 1883, p. 44. 



:J2 



REPORT — 1884. 



Appendix II. 
Table glciaij Urn ralacs of the Coils iested for the Coinmlttce in 1883-4. 



Mark 


it'Cdil 


Certificate 
value 

•1)9936 


Temperature 
13°-9 


Destination 


Elliott Bros 


, No. 05 




can 


t^5, 


1 -00337 


l.'->° 


Prof. Stuart. 


CU G 


4-^^' 


1 00237 


ir,°-u 


Prof. S. P. 'i'honipson. 


Warden, 45r 


t.-^:^ 


•'.»[)920 


1.5° 


Mason College, Birmingham, 


Elliott, ID 


4. .4 


•i)it937 


17°-7 


Cavendish Laboratory. 


Elliott, 41 


t.5r, 


•t)tl9r>0 


13°- 8 


Mcp«'s. Elliott Bros. 


Elliott, 50 


'^ r>r> 


■911949 


1 3°-8 


»» 


Elliott, 113 


t.- 


1 -00000 


] 3°-8 


Prof. Adams, King's College. 


Sininioiis, 4 


t.->s 


lOOlOI 


1 0°-3 


Jlessrs. Simmons. 


Elliott, i)2 


4 v,, 


1-00109 


18° 


Philadelphia Exhihifion. 


i'niiott, 


*i CO 


1 -00007 


18°-1 


»» 


miiott, 


3^, 01 


10-0103 


19°-8 


" . 



Report of the Committee, consisting of My. IxOhekt H. Scott 
(Secvetarii), ]Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor Gr. (f. Stokes, 

^ Professor Bali-'OUR Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons, uppointed 
for the purpose of co-opjerating luith the Meteorolof/ical ySociety of 

■ the Mauritius in their proposed puhlication of Daily Synoptic 

^ Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861. Drawn up by 

< Mr. K. H. S(*0TT. 

As no application has bot>u made for any portion of the grant placed at 
their disposal, the Commiitec ask that they may again he reappointed, 
with a continuance of the grant. 

The present condition of the proposed publication may be learned 
from the following extract from a letter trom Dr. Meldrum, dated 
Mauritius Observatory, July 9, 1884 : — • 

'Our synoptic charts from January and March, 1861, have been 
lithographed by ]\Iessrs. Johnston, so far as the winds and weathers are 
concerned, and all that is wanted to complete them are the isobars. I 
regret that I have been unable to complete them for the meeting. The 
tracks of the cyclones for the Indian Ocean for each year since 1847 are 
ready.' 




ON TlIK IIAUMOMC ANALYSIlS OF TIDAL OB^EUVATIO^'S. 



33 



Cfham. 



Ucgc. 



on. 



Scott 

OKES, 

iited 

ty of 

optic 
P kl 

iccl at 
iiitcd, 

arned 
dated 

been 

s are 

s. I 

The 

»■/ are 



Second licporf of the ('ovimittee, consistliifj of Professors G. H. 
Daru'ix and J. C. A])\Mii, for the Hariuoiilc Analysis of Tidal 
Observations. Brawn up by l*rofessor G. H. Darwin. 

DuJiiN'o the past year Major Baird has been engaged in the transformation 
of the tidal constants for the sereral Indian ports, as deduced from tho 
observatiors of previous years, to the form reconimendod in our first 
report (18S3). ]ie also intends to treat the European tidal results, pub- 
lished in pi-evions Reports of the Association, in the same manner. 
Under his superintendence auxiliary tables have been prepared and 
printed in India for the use of the computers ; a portion of these tables 
vsras given at the end of the Report of 1883. Tho current work at 
Poona is now being carried out in accordance with our suggestions. 
Forms have been pi-eparcd by Mr. Roberts for the redaction of the new 
compound tides MK, 2MK, MN (see Schedule H., Report of 1883) ; but 
I have not heard whether the range of any of these tides has been found 
to be sufliciently great to make it desir.able that the reductions shoxild be 
continued. The recommendations with regard to the tides M, and L have 
not been yet sufliciently tested, but the procedure is certainly theoretically 
correct. 

An unexpected delay has occurred in the preparation of tho new 
forms for the tides of long period, but they are to be comjilete by the 
beginning of November. 

It has been found expedient to depart soraewliat from tho form 
recommended in Schedule R for the entry of the diurnal means fi'ora 
which these tides are reduced. The table is now divided into two parts ; 
the rows marked 'change' are put together, and form tho second half of 
the table. In the case of the tide MSf, to which Schedule R applies, 
the mode of the entry in the new forms will be thus. The values for 
days 0, 1, 2, 3, are entered from left to right in the first half; then, in 
the second half, entries 4, 5, C, 7 are inserted from right to left, and 8, 9, 
10, 11 from left to right ; then we ascend to the first half again, and 
enter two rows, namely, 12, 13, 14 from right to left, and 15, 16, 17, 18 
from left to right, and so on alternately. In both halves of the table the 
positive entries are put to the left and the negative to the right. The 
summations arc carried out independently in the two halves, and the signs 
in the sums of the lower half are changed, before the final sums of both 
halves are formed. 

In the preface to the Report of 1883 the intention was expressed of 
sending copies of tho computation forms to certain public libraries, and a 
grant of money was made by the Association for the purchase of these 
copies. Complete copies have not, however, been as yet obtainable, on 
account of tho delay in tho preparation of the forms for the tides of long 
period. 

Up to the present time the forms have been privately printed for tho 
Indian Government, and as they have not been on sale, this method of 
harmonic analysis has been inaccessible to the public. To meet this want 
I have been making arrangements for producing an edition for sale. In 
the course of a month or two the copies will bo on sale,' at a price noc 
yet determined on. 7 have received much assistance towards the ex- 

• Tly the Cambridge Scientific luslrument Company, St. Tibbs' Row, Cambridge. 
1884. ' D 



34 



REPORT — 1884. 



penses of publication, and therefore the price will be considerably less 
than that which would pay for the printing. The printers for the India 
Office still had about fifteen pages in type, and permission wns obtained 
through General Strachey to have copies struck ott' from these and from 
the sheets of tlie long period forms as they were ready. The remaining 
eighty pages of the work have been copied by photo-zincography at the 
office of the Ordnance Survey at Southampton. ]Mr. Roberts kindly 
corrected a few errata with the pen before sending tlio originals to be 
photographed. I have to thank the officers of the Royal Engineers in 
chargo, and especially Major Holland, R.E., for the attention which was 
bestowed on the matter. 

It was through the exertions of General Strachey that permission 
was obtained to have this work done at Southampton ; and in consequence 
of a correspondence between the India Office, the Board of Works, and 
the Treasury this part of the work has been done free of charge, on tho 
condition of my supplying a certain number of copies to the Admiralty. 
I am also assisted in the publication by a grant from the fund admini- 
stered by the Royal Society. 

It is to be regretted that notwithstanding this requisition for compu- 
tation forms it appears that the Admiralty is satisfied with the old method 
of tidal reduction, and has no intention of making any contribution to 
our tidal knowledge by instituting harmonic analysis of tidal records. 

Dr. C. Borgen, of Wilhelmshaven, informs me, in a letter, that the 
tides of the North German Sea are now being reduced according to the 
harmonic method, presumably for the Imperial Admiralty, and he writes: 
' It is intended to publish the results for the German coast in exactly the 
same manner as you propose foi" the English, so that they may be stiictly 
comparable. The calculation for Heligoland, 1882, is begun and will be 
completed in about a month or so (from the end of Juno 1884').' 

I learn from M. Bouquet de la Grye, of the Bureau des Longitudes, 
that he has been engaged for some time past in the reduction of a large 
mass of tidal observations according to an harmonic method devised by 
bimself, and that the work approaches completion. 

Mr. Noison, now in charge of the Natal Observatory, expresses his 
intention of reducing the tidal observations at Natal according to our 
methods, and I shall supply him with computation forms. 

Mr. Gill, Astronomer Royal at the Cape, will also undertake the 
reduction of the tides of the Cape Colony, and will be supplied with 
forms. 

There seems to be a possibility that some of the Australian Colonies 
may be induced to take up the matter. 

Major Baird will probably undertake to draw up a manual of practical 
instructions for the erection of continuous tide-gaugrs, and the practical 
experience of one who has supervised so much work of the kind will pi'ove 
of great value. 

The fate of the tide-gaugo erected by the Portuguese Government at 
Madeira aiFords a proof that it is not of much use to direct tho establish- 
ment of a tide gauge, unless the work bo placed in tho hands of some one 
who has had experience in the matter. It is said that the tube which 
was sunk into the sea from the Loo Rock at Lladeira was open at the 
bottom, and that the platinum wire attached to the float was broken at 
once by the pumping up and down of the water, I believe that nothing 






T 



ON THE UAllMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSKRVATIONS. 



oU 



has been done to remedy this defect, and that the instrument has remained 
unused during several years. 

On the whole we may congratulate ourselves on the amount of activity 
which is being displayed in the matter of tidal research, and we may 
hope that in a few years we shall be in possession of a large mass of tidal 
information, arranged in a form which will lend itself satisfactorily to 
theoretical examination. 

As wo already have a considerable amount of data with regai-d to India, 
extending over seversil years, I have requested Major liaird to supply me 
with the values of mean watei'-mark for a series of years, and I am in 
hopes that an examination of these results will give us the amount of 
the ninetccn-yearly tide, if not with great precision, at least with some 
degree of accuracy. The result will be of much interest for the purpose 
of evaluating the degree of elastic yielding of the earth's figure. 

A few errata have been detected in the Report of 1883, but only one 
of them has any importance, viz., that in Schedule [I], as noted below. 
The corrections to be made are as follows : — 

1. First of (40), for W read R. 

2. First of (43) and second of (44), multiply the expressions on the 

right by ^- 

■Mo- 

3. First of (50), multiply the numerator by Jc.^. 

4. Schedule [I], entries Ka, K,, third column, multiply the numera- 
tors 1'4(3407 by Jc. This important error arises from the mistakes (2) 
aud (3). 

5. After (67), in the next transformation, the v,'s which occur before 
(i'l+^a)'" ^nd {^\~^-iy> *^'^ to be deleted; the subsequent analysis is 
correct. 



large 



10 the 
with 

)lonie3 



lent at 
tablish- 
mc one 
which 
at the 
)ken at 
lothing 



Report of the Coinmlttee, consisting of Piiofessor Balfour Stfavart 
(Secretary), Mr. Knox Laughtox, Mr. Gr. J. Symoxs, My. R. H. 
►Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stoney, appointed for the purpose of 
co-operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing 
a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstoiu on a permanent and 
scientific basis. 

Mu. R. H. Scott and Professor Balfour Stewart have been in corre- 
spondence with Mr. Lowe, and the former has seen the site of the 
proposed observatory, which appears to him to be* good. Professor 
Stewart purposes visiting the site at the end of July, and reporting the 
result of his visit to the other members of the Committee. Meanwhile it 
is proposed that the Co nmittee be reappointed, with power to add ta 
their numbei', but without any further sum bein,^; placed at their 
disposal. 



D 



80 nEPonT— 1884. 



Report of the Committee, consisthifj of Professor CiUM Browx 
(Secretary) and ^Messrs. D. Milne Homp:, John INIurkay, and 
Alexander 15lciiax, appointed for the jynrjjose of co-operatin;/ 
with the Directors of the Ben Nevis Observatory in mahinrj 
Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. 

A GRANT of 501. was made to tho Committee by tlio British Association 
in 1883 to aid tho Directors of the Ben Nevis Observatory in making 
meteorolof^ical observations on Ben Nevis during the summer months of 
1 883. The observations were in continuance of those made by Mr. Wragge 
in 1881 and 1882. As Mr. Wragge was unable to make the observations 
in 1883, owing to a contemplated visit to Australia early in the autumn, 
the observations wore made by Messrs. Whyte and Rankin, who had been 
assistants to Mr. Wragge in 1881 and 1882. The obE?ervations began 
on June 1, and were continued to October 31, 1883, with scrupulous 
regularity and accuracy. 

The observations included two series at The Lake (1,840 feet high), 
one on ascending and the other on descending the mountain, and five on 
the top, at 8, 8.30, 9, 9.30, and at 10 a.m. ; and, with these, simultaneous 
observations near sea-level at Fort William, to which one series was 
added on starting for the mountain at 4 a.m., and another on returning 
at 2 P.M. 

In the meantime the building of the permanent observatory Avas 
pushed forward with such success that the observatory was formally 
opened on October 17th. Shortly thereafter Mr. R. T. Omond, superin- 
tendent, and Messrs. Rankin and Duncan, the assistants, went into 
residence, and the regular observations began in the end of November. 
These consist of hourly eye-observations by night as well as by day. The 
Committee have much gratification in reporting that from November to 
the present date (July 25), the barometric observations have been made 
without the break of a single hour, and, since May 7, all the observations 
have been made without intermission. The omissions of the thermometrio 
and other outside observations were mostly in winter and during the 
night, when tho stormy state of the weather rendered it unsafe to venture 
out. Not unfrequently the observations were made by two of the 
observers, and sometimes all the three, roped together for safety. The 
Directors are making arrangements, by additions to the buildings and 
the introduction of new instruments, to secure, for the future, a more 
continuous record. 

In connection with the Ben Nevis observations, Mr. Colin Livingstone 
makes eye-observations at Fort William at 8 and 9 a.m., 2, 6, 9, and 
10 P.M., these being the hours at which observations n,r._ chiefly made in 
the British Islands. Mr. Livingstone is also furnished witli a barograph 
and a thermograph, by which extremely valuable data have been contri- 
buted. Normals for temperature and atmospheric pressure at Ben Nevis 
Observatory have been calculated from the simultaneous observations 
made there and at the sea-level station at Fort William for five months 
for each of the years 1881, 1882, and 1883, from June to October, and 
seven months, from December 1883 to June 1884. 









ON JIKTKOUOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



3; 



The following Table gives the normal raontlily temperature and 
pressure at sea-level at Fort William, taken from Mr. Buchan's 'Papers 
on the Climate of the British Lslanda ' (' Joui'nal of Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society,' vol. vi. pp. 4—40), and the calculated normals for the 
Ben Nevis Observatory : — 



Moiin tcmporature 


Jan. Feb. 


Mar. Apr. 


May 


June July 


Aug. 


Sept. 1 Oct. j Nov. 


Doc. 


Yenr 


Fort Willimn . . 

Ben Nevw ulisov- 

vatiivy. . . . 


1 

' 

38-!) , 38-9 

1 
23'2 ' 22'0 


41% 
23-4 


' 

40°0 4§-8 
27-5 32-7 


03°7 
88-7 


o 
57-8 

..1-3 




.57-0 
11-1 



r,rli 47-5 

37-4 1 32-.". 


2B-2 


39-8 
249 



47-2 

30-!) 


Jlean rressurc— 
Fort AVilllnm . . 


1 

ins. 1 ins. 

29747 2y814 


ins, ins. ins. 

29-800:29'878 29-934 


ins. 1 ins. 
29-91-l'->»-8H4 


ins. 
-.'9'8:.,'; 


ins. 

29-821 


ins. 


ins. 
;9-84l 


ins. 

J9-793 


ins. 
'J9-838 


lieu N'fvis oliser- 
viitory. . . . 


! 
25-141 25-194 

1 


.'3-19U 25-29(i,2.5-:i8( J25-41( fiS-iOU 

1 1 1 


25 37:1 


1 
i3-31'li. '5-241 


.'5-23!t 


25-189 


25-281 



These normals for pressure at the Bon Nevis Observatory have been 
arrived at from a table of corrections fv)r the height (4,40G feet) which 
lias been prepared directly fr6m observations of the High and the Low 
Level Stations, the observations at the latter being reduced to sea-level. 
The approximate corrections have been calculated for each tenth of an 
inch of the sea-level pressure, and for each degree Fahr. of the mean 
temperature of the stratum of air from sea-level to the top of the 
mountain. The arithmetical mean of the temperatures ac the base and 
the top has been assumed as the mean temperature of the intervening 
stratum. 

The results of these observations will shortly be published, in detail, 
in the ' Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society.' Thereafter a 
more complete examination of the observations at both stations will be 
resumed, and comparisons made of the two sets of observations, more 
especially as regards the relations of the varying results to the changes 
of weather which have preceded, accompanied, and followed them. 



ngstone 
9, and 
nado in 
TOgraph 
contri- 
u Nevis 
rvations 
months 
ber, and 



Report of the Committee, consistinr/ of Mr. James N. SnooLiiHED 
{Secretary) and Sir William Thomson, appointed for the pur- 
pose of reducing and tabulating the Tidal Observations hi the 
English Channel made xvlth the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
connecting them ivlth Observations made on the French coast. 

The Committee beg leave to report that the tidal curves of the self-register- 
ing tide-gauge at Dover for the years 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883 have 
been kindly placed at their disposal by the Board of Trade, for reduction 
and tabulation ; and that the Belgian Government has been good 
enough to present to the Committee copies of the tidal curves at Ostend 
during the same period of four years. 

The reduction and tabulation of the high and low water registers of 



38 nEi'oiiT — 1884. 

these two seta of tidal curves has progressed satisfactorily, and will be 
shortly completed. 

It is hoped also that a like rcdnction will bo soon coramencod with 
other self-registering tidal curves during the same period at several other 
points, both on the English and the French coasts. 

The Committee recpiest to be allowed to transmit to the Board of 
Trade, and to the Belgian (iovernmeut respectively, the thanks of tho 
Association for their assistance and donations in furtherance of this 
inquiry. 

The Committee I'oqucst to bo roajtpointed, with a grant of ten pounds 
to defray the expenses of rcdnction, &c. 



Fourth Report of the Coriimittee, consisting of Professor Schuster 
(Secretary), Sir \N'illiam Thomson, Professor Sir 1[. K. Koscok, 
Professor A. S Hersciiel, Captain W. de W. Arney, Mr. 11. H. 
Scott, and Dr. J. H. GhADHToyE, ap2Dolnted for the purpose of 
invest if/at in <j the practicability of collectinf/ and identifyin;/ 
Meteoric Dust, and of considering the question of undertaking 
regular observations in various localities. 

DuRfNG the past year a grant of 201. has been spent in constructing a 
new instrument for collecting continuously any cosmic dust, volcanic 
dust, or other impurities mechanically suspended in the atmosphere. The 
essential part of the instrnmt nt consists in a series of filters of fine 
platinum wires through Avhich the air is continuously drawn by an 
aspirator. 

This instrumeui; is being experimented with at the Marine Station for 
Scientific Research at Granton, and a complete description of the instru- 
ment and dust collected will be given in next year's Report. Large 
carboys furnished with glass filters, fourteen inches in diameter, have been 
arranged for collecting the dust carried down by rain on the top of Ben 
Nevis, Lord MacLaren's residence in Rossshire, Inch Mickry in the Firth 
of Fortli, and at the Scottish ^larine Station. 

The dust from these different points and elevations will be carefully 
compared with that collected by the new instrument, by Messrs. Murray 
and Renard and by members of the Committee. 

A full report will be furnished to the next meeting. 

T^he Committee also consider it to be of great importance to collect 
dust on the island of Bermuda and on another coral island in the Pacific, 
say Longalubon, and hope to obtain a sufficient grant of money to enable 
them to carry out their intention. 



ON CHEMICAL N0MEXCLATUI5E. 



39 



will be 

^d with 
il other 

aard (<f 

of tlio 

of this 

pounds 



•IIUSTEK 
LlOSCOK, 

. K. H. 

pose of 
itifyiw/ 
irtakhuj 



acting a 

volcanic 

re. The 

of tine 

by an 

tion for 
|e instru- 
Large 

,ve been 
b of Ben 
|he Firth 

carefully 
Murray 



collect 

Pacific, 

lo enable 



Second Report of the ComrnAttee, conalatmg of Professors William- 
son, Devvar, FitANKLANO, KuHCOi;, CiiUM Bkown, Odling, and 
AuMSTKONci, Messrs. A. G. V'f:RNoN. llARCOUirr, J. Millar Thom- 
son, H. li. Dixon (Scartar)/), and V. H. Velhy, and Drs. F. K. 
.Iapp and II. Fokster Moijlev, reappointed for the jjurpose of 
drafuinr/*up a statement of the varieties of Chemical Names ivhich. 
have come into use, for indicating the causes which leave led to 
their adoption, and for consideriwj what can be done to bring 
ubodt some conven/ence of the views on Chemical Nomenclature 
obtaining among English and foreign chemists. 

CH KMICAL NOMEXCLATURE. 

HlSToKKAL N'OTi;S. 

\Jv to about the year 1780 no systematic attempts were made to give to 
chemical substances names in any way indicating their composition. 
The names used were derived for the most part in three ways : either 
they were relics of the nomenclature of the alchemists, who named the 
common metals after the known planets ; or the substances bore tlie name 
of their discoverer ; or lastly, chemists, adopting, jis Dumas said, the 
language of the kitchen, gave names to substances on account of slight 
external resemblances with bodies in common use — e.g. oil of vitriol, 
butter of antimony, milk of lime, and cream of tartar. Lavoinier ascribes 
to !Macquer the credit of being the first to classify substances under 
generic names, by introducing the terms vitriol and nitre, to indicate the 
classes of sulphates and nitrates respectively. 

The term salt was applied in the writings of the alchemists to any 
substance which could be dissolved in water, and which affected the sense 
of taste. So bodies as different in nature as sal-ammoniac, sal-petrnc, 
nnd sal-nitricum (HNO^) came to be classed together. In the eighteenth 
century the three most distinctly marked classes of soluble substances — 
namely, those which are now commonly called acids, salts, and bases — were 
distinguished as salia acida, salia media, and salia alkal'.na. The salia 
media were also known as salia salsa or neutral salts, a name which sur- 
vived long after the separation of the acids and alkalies from the salts. 

The foundation of the present ideas as to salts is to be found in two 
papers presented to the French Academy in 1744 and 1754, by G. F. 
Rouelle. He excludes the alkalies and acids from the class of salts and 
defines a neutral salt as the product of the action of an acid on any body 
which can act as a base. This is the first definition of a salt based on its 
chemical properties. 

The first complete attempt to devise a system of inorganic nomen- 
clature was made in 178'2, simultaneously and independently by Bergmann ' 
and Guyton de Morveau.'^ The names proposed by the two are nearly 
identical, and resemble to some extent the names still in use. De Mor- 
vcau lays down five principles to be observed in the choice of names for 
chemical substances : — 

1. A phrase is not a name : the name ' I'alkali Prussien ' is therefore 

' Rero^mann, Ohsrrv. tie Sjistemntc FoHsilinm Xnturali. 

■ Journal da Phi/sh/uc, vol. xix. April, 1782 ; also as Cit. Guyton, Ann. Cliim. vol. 
XXV. p. 203. [1798.] 



i 



^40 iiEi'0UT~1884. 

to bo preferred to the other iianio in voj^no at tliat time — viz., ' liquonr 
alkaline satureo do la niatioro coloranto du bleu do Prusse.' 

"J,, The name should bo as far as possible in real cornispondcnce with 
the object. As corollaries to this rule ho lays down that whore a name is 
made up of an adjective and a substantive the more essential and unalter- 
able constituent should bear the substantive form ; also that the names of 
discoverers, since they stand in no essential connection with the bodies 
they discover, should find no i)]ace in the system. 

3. If the constitution of a body is unknown, it is better to give it a 
name which convoys no moanintjf, than ono which convoys a wrong one. 
Hence ho prefers to call the body of unknown composition which we now 
know as potassium ferrocyanide, 'alkali Prussien,' rather than 'alkali 
phlogistiquo.' 

4. In the choice of new names it is advisable to derive them from 
roots in the best-known dead languages. 

>). Names must bo adapted to the structure and natui'o of tho difTerent | 

languages in which they are to bo used. 

De Morveau ap])lios these principles to the nomenclature of 474 sub- 
stances, belonging to tho four classes, earths, alkalies, acids, and metals, 
and the products of their union. In tho naming of salts he forms words 
for all tho acids known to him, on the analogy of tho terms vitriol and 
iiKn introduced by ^Macqner, so that the salts I3aSo.„ CaClj, acetate of 
iron, are called respectively vitriol barotique, muriate calcaire, and acoto 
martial. He also tries to hx one /lame lor carbonic acid gas, and calls it 
acido mcphitique, and its salts mcphites. The principal advance which wo 
find in Do Morveau i.'?. tlien, that acids receive names with uniform 
terminations, and salts receive names indicating their being compo8ition& 
from acid and base. 

In 1787 Lavoisier and Do ]\Iorvcau,' with the assistance of Berthollet 
and Fourcroy, prepared and laid before tho French Academy a scheme of 
chemical nomenclature based on the dualistic hypothesis, and their 
proposals form the basis of the nomenclature still in use. A system of 
nomenclature is necessarily bound up with a classification of known 
substances, and so we find that Morveau and Lavoisier give a table of all 
the substances to which they assign definite names arranged according to 
their relationships ono with another. The elements retain their ac- 
customed names, except that the names oxygen, hydrogen, and azote are 
introduced. The term oxide is introduced for the first time, and oxides 
are looked on as substances in a state intermediate between the element 
and its acid. Thus tiiey call the two oxides of arsenic oxide d'arsenic 
(white arsenic) and acid arsenique; and tho two known oxides of 
molybdenum, oxide de molybdene and acide molybdique. The corre- 
spondence of the terminations '-ate ' and '-ic,' '-ite ' and '-ou3 ' in acids and 
salts is introduced for the first time. Tho nomenclature of salts thus 
came to be nearly identical with that now used. In this classification tho 
French chemists do not distinguish by generic names between higher and 
lower basic oxides. 

The views thus developed by Lavoisier and Morveau found acceptance 
all over Europe. Girrtanncr translated the French names into German, 
and several English chemists, such as Dickson and Kirwan, Chevenix and 
Thomson,* adopted the system in its main outlines. Additions Avere made 

' Compt. liend., translated by George Pearson, M.D. 1794 ; 2nd ed. 1793. 

'^ System of Chi'mistry, ci\. 1^02. , 4 



ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



41 



from 



of 



corre- 
lids and 
Its thus 
lion tho 
ler and 

sptance 
Jerman, 

lix and 
le made 

[a. 



to it ''rotn time to time, such as tliat of Thomson,' wlio distinguished the 
ditlerent metallic oxides as protoxides, doutoxidoa, &o. 

Berzelius '■' made a more exact ('lassificatioii of salts, and added some 
now forms of names. Ho laid down tho rule that tho names of tho 
simplest compounds should ho formed by adding to tho namo of the ono 
element tho termination ' -ido ' or ' -ure ; ' to that of tho other, tho termi- 
nation ' -eux ' or ' -ique,' with tho further provision that the moro 
electronegative of the two constituents should have the substantive form. 
Instead of the terms protoxide, &c., ho adds tho terminations ' -ous ' ami 
'-ic' to the luimo of tho other constituent- -c.j'. ferrous oxide. Among 
tho compounds of elements with oxygen ho separated tho compound."* 
with electro-negative elements — the acids — from the other oxides, with- 
out thereby implying tho existence of any fundamental ditlerence between 
them. Tho halogen compounds of hydrogen lie cnlls liydracids. In tho 
investigation of salts he was tho tirst who made clearer distinction 
between neutral, acid, and basic salts ; instead of these terms ho used tho 
terms supersalts and subsalts. 

From time to time systems of chemical nomenclature have been pro- 
posed which entirely discard the arbitrary names given even to tho best 
known substances, and introduce artificial words, each of whoso vowels 
or consonants means either a substance or a number. Thus Gmelin*' pro- 
poses a system in which the different vowels and diphthongs represent tho 
numbers from 1 to 9, and tho elements are described by monosyllables 
with tho vowel <i, thus: — K = Pate, IMn = Ganne, Ac. In combining' 
the names of the elements tlio vowel is altored according to tho number of 
atoms of the element to be denoted. Thus, if O = Ane, and Fo = IMart, 
then Fe.jOs = Mertin, and Fe;,0, = Mirton. Laurent attempted a system 
of the same sort but found it unworkable. For organic substances New- 
lands ' has devised a series of names, some of whrch might be useful. 

Laurent^ enter.s into au elaborate comparison of the qualities of the 
compounds of hydrogen, zinc, gold, silver, and platinum, and shows 
that in respect of crystalline structure, behaviour on heating, and power 
of entering into chemical combinations tho corresponding compounds 
of hydrogen and zinc — i.e. tho hydrogen salts and tho zinc salts — show 
a clo.ser analogy with each other than the zino salt does with those of 
the other metals. He concludes that if hydrogen were not gaseous and 
its oxide were not volatile, no one would hesitate to place it among 
the metals. Ho therefore looks on the acids as belonging to the same 
chemical type as their salts, as being, in fact, hydrogen salts. Laurent 
proceeds further to show that there is no essential distinction to be drawn 
between acids and salts and oxides. The differences between hydrogen 
and other metallic salts are as a rule not greater than the differences 
between the salts of two such metals as platinum and potassium, or two 
such bodies as a chloride and a carbonate. The reactions of the hydrogen 
salts are not always more energetic than those of the other metallic 
salts : thus, sulphate of hydrogen attacks metallic oxides just as the 
sulphates of gold and platinum do. Tho distinction which has been made 

between them is due to the non-metallic appearance of hydrogen, and the 

* 

' Si/stcm of Cheinutry, od. 180i, 1807, 1810, &c. 

■■' Journal de Physique, vol. Ixxxiii. p. 2i)i} : uFso in Lehhrvch der Chemie. 
' Handbook, vol. vii. p. 141). 

* ('hem. Nmx, 1861. • ■ 

- * M(i,]wdc de. Chemie. i : i . ' > • 



42 nKi'ouT— 1884. 

rendinc'srt witli which it ciin bo removed from a componnd in flu; form of 
wiitcr. Laurent thus conchides that oxides, liydrogeu suItH, and other 
salts may with perfect propriety be classed together. 

Acii» AND Basuj Sat/is. 

Roiiolle was tho first to call attention to the fact that a given acid 
und hnso can eoinhine in ditfercnt proportions. Ho p'-epared tho salt 
now known as KllSO., from potassic siilpliato (tartre vitriol*'"), and in- 
vestigated its properties, i le distinguislied three different classes of salts. 

1. He calls 'neutral salts with an excess or superabandanoo of acid,' 
Halts which, besides the amount of acid which makes them quite neutral, 
have an additional quantity of av'u\ Cdiiiliiiifd with them, and ho knows 
that this o-xce.ss of acid has its point of saturation. Such salts, ho says, 
are as a rule more soluble than the corresponding salts of his third class. 

2. What wo call neutral salts ho calls ' sels neuties parfaits,' or ' sols sales.' 
ii. Tho third salts he calls ' neutral salts with tho smallest possible 
quantity of acid,' At first sight these classes seem to correspond with 
what wo now call acid, neutral, and basic salts, but Kouello's examples 
show that this is not tho case. Tho only acid salts which ho seems to 
have known is tho hydric potassic sulphate which he was the first to 
prepare, and he puts in tlio same class with it mercuric chloride and other 
persalts, while calomel is given as tho typical instance of a salt with tho 
Kmallest possible amount of acid. This confounding of hydrogen double 
salts with salts containing as largo an amount of acid as tho base can 
saturate continued up to tho end of the century. 

1787. — In course of time, however, more salts of tho two abnormal 
classes were discovered. In tho 'Morveau-Lavoisier* nomenclature, salts 
of tho acid class wore called acidulous salts, thus: KHS04=sulphate 
potassiqne acidule, while salts with an excess of tho basic constituents 
wore called alkaline, or supersaturated salts. Salts generally are called 
neutral salts. These terms were translated directly into l^higlish in 
Pearson's translation of 1704. 

In an essay on 'Chemical Nomenclature,' published in 170G by 
Stephen Dickson, be proposes to denote the predominance of acid and 
base respectively by prefixing tho prepositions ' super-' or ' sub-' to tho 
adjective the name of tho acid. 

Thus:— 

KHSO,=snpervitrIolated vegetable alkali. 
Cu2CU=submuriated copper. 

1809. — In Murray's ' System of Chemistry ' we find that a distinction 
is at last made between the relation of KjSOj to KHSO.1, and that of 
HgClo to HgaClj. Ho says that submuriato is not a good name for this 
last salt, as it contains enough acid to make it neutral. He does not, 
however, propose a systematic name for this substance, but calls it mild 
muriate of mercury. Similarly, ho rejects tho name of super-snlphate of 
iron, and distinguishes the two sulphates as red and green sulphates. 

1810. — In the fourth edition of Thomson's treatise, we find yet 
another method of naming these salts. Thomson, following Lavoisioii's 
theory of oxygen acids, considers that the difference between calomel and 
corrosive sublimate is that in tho latter the mercury is in a more highly 
oxidised condition. He therefore calls HgCl., oxymuriate of mercury. 
This leads to a confusion with chlorate of mercury, then called by some 



ox CHEMICAL NOMRNCLATUUK. 



43 



i net ion 
that of 
for this 
.'s not, 
it mild 
iiate of 

L>s. 

id yet 
jisieif's 
Jiel and 
(highly 
prcury. 
some 



clicinifltfl oxy-, bv otliors hyperoxynmriato. Thomson also calls 
nicrcnric nitrate, oxynitrate, ami says tliat tm addinj^ hot water to it an 
insoluhlo subnitrato and a soluble supornitrato are formed. 

1811.— In Kliiprolh a. ' WolfFs ' Dictionary of ChemiHtry ' (Fronoli 
tranH.), wo find tlio name.s sulphate acide do potasso, nulphato dti k-v 
oxidulo (=FoSO,) ; for tbo two pota.ssium carbonates, the names carbonate 
sature and nonsatun'-. 

1811. — Berzelius ' nses entirely distinct means of denoting tho two 
classes of salts with which wo have been deali*^ To mark the degree 

of oxidation of tlio base of a salt, ho adds tht crmi nation -ou.s, or -ic, 
to tho name of the metal — e.(j. nitms mcrcurosus and nitras morcaricns., 
To denote tho degree of acidity or basicity of a salt, he prefixes super- 
or enb-, to tho name denoting tho acid. From his language, it seems 
as though ho had invented this method independently. In tho cases 
where more than one acid or basic salt is found, he denotes tho most acid 
salt by the adjective supremus, and tho most basic by infimus, e.r/. — 

Superoxalas kalicus supremus. 
Subnitras plumbicus infimus. 

1829. — In his later works — e.t/. in tho French edition of his Treatise, 
1829 — he makes a difl'erence in tho nomenclaturo between haloid and 
araphid salts. In the case of acid haloids, he adds the \\ord acid to tho 
name of tho salt, a.tj. — 

Fluoruro potassiquc acide. 
Basic salts of this class are named thus : — 

Chlorure plombiquc bibasiqnc. 

,, „ tribasique, &c. 

In the case of acid aniphid salts, ho drops the word acid, but prefixes to 
the name of the acit' a suffix indicating the number of acid molecules, 
e.;/.— 

Bisnlphato sodique. 

Zweif'ach phosphorsaures natron. 

Basic salts are named thus : — 

Sous-sulphate trialuminiquc. 

1827. — A somewhat similar system is adopted by Thenard.- He 
introduces into tho name of each salt the full name (accordiog to 
Thomson's system) of the oxide suppo.sed to exist in it, thus: — 

Sous-sulphate de deutoxide de mercure. 

All these attempts at naming acid salts Avere founded on a false idea 
of their composition, inasmuch as it was not known that hydrogen is a 
constituent of bisulphate of potash. Thus in Turner's ' Chemistry ' wo 
find the formulce : — 

Sulphate of potassa, KO + SO3. 
Bisulphate „ KO + 2SO3. 



' Journal de Plajgiqve, vol. Ixxii. p. 2G6. 
« Trait 6, 5th ed. 1827. 



44 



REronT — 1884. 



Graham seems to Lave been the first to maintain that hydrogen existed 
in these salts otlierwisf than as water of crystallisation. 

1847. — It Avas Gerlardt ' who first clearly stated that the three sub- 
stances, hydric sulphate, hydro-potassic sulphate, and potassic sulphate, 
stand to one another in the relations represented by the formuhe 11.2804, 
KHSO., KqSO.,. lie called salts of the type K.2SO,, which correspond 
to acids formed by the direct combination of water with an 'anhydride,' 
cqnisfls ; while for acids and basic salts he u.scd the old names, sur-sels 
and sous-sels. 

TABLE I. 

In this table of the nomenclature of the oxides of carbon, it is seen that 
the r.ames carbonic oxide and carbonic acid, Kohlenoxyd and Kohjensaiire, 
oxide de carbon and acidc carbonique, have been solely used by English, 
German, and French nhemists for the two oxides of carbon from the time 
of their identification until twenty years ago. In ^Miller's ' Elements of 
Chemistry ' we find the term carbonic acid used in the two first editions, 
in the later editions the term carbonic anhydride is introduced. In 
Fownes' ^Manual we find the term carbonic acid used from the fourth 
edition to the ninth ; in the tenth and eleventh editions we find both the 
terms carbonic dioxide and carbonic oxide applied to the higher oxide, 
and the terms carbon monoxide and carbonons oxide applied to the 
lower ; in the thirteenth edition we find the terms carbonic anhydride and 
carbon dioxide applied to the higher, and carbonic oxide and carbon 
monoxide applied to the lower. So that in difl'erent editions of the same 
manual we have the term carbonic oxide first applied to the lower, then to 
the nighcr, and again to the lower oxide. In Watts's Dictionary (18t]3) 
the lower oxide is called carbonic oxide, the higher carbonic anhydride ; 
in the first Supplement (1872) the lower oxide is called carbon, monoxide 
and carhouovs o.riilc, the higher oxide rarhon dioxide and carbonic, anhydride. 
In Franco and Germany the terms oxide de carbon and Kohlenoxyd, 
acide carbonique and Kohlensaiii'c, have continued to be used almost 
nniversally to the present day. Among English and American chemists 
of the present day tliere is a diversity of practice : carbonic oxide and 
carbon monoxide being most generally used for tlie lower oxide, and 
carbonic acid, carbonic anhydride, and carbon or carbonic dioxide for the 
higher. 

TABLE II. 

In the nomenclature of the oxides of nitrogen, we find the names oxide 
amtenx and oxide a::otl([ue, applied to the first and second oxides of nitro- 
gen by the French Committee in 1787, have been employed by many 
chemists to the present day. In the first edition of Thomson's ' Sy-steni 
of Chemi.stry ' (1802) we find the terms nitrous and nitric oxide used ; in 
a later edition (1817) ho introduced the terms protoxide of azote and 
deutoxido of azote, calling the third oxide hyponitrous acid,a,nA.i\\eiovivi\\ 
nitrous acid. In Brando's ' Manual ' (1810) we have the term nitrms acid 
giv n to the third oxide, but most chemists adopted Thomson's nomen- 
clature. In Berzelius (French edition, 1829) i^'o find gas oxide nitreux, 
gas oxide nitriquo and acide nitreux for the three lower oxides, and the 
term acidc nitroso niiriquc for the fourth. In Graham's ' Elements ' (1842) 

' Journal de Pharmacic, vol. xii. p. h'. 






ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



45 



we find the tevms hijponUric acid and peroxide nf nifroncn applied to the 
fonrth oxide, the other oxides being called nitrous and nitric oxides, nitrous 
and nitric acids. 

In the earlii3r edition of Fownes' * Manual,' the terras protoxide and 
binoxide of nitrogen are applied to the lower oxides, nitrons acid to the 
third, hyponitric and nitric acids to the fourth and fifth. In the tenth 
edition the terms nih-aijfa inoiui.vitk' and dioxide are adopted for the two 
lower and tctroxide for the fourth oxide; the terras nitrous oxide and nitro- 
gen trioxide are given to the third, and the terms nitric oxide and nitrogen 
pentoxide to the fifth. The terms nitrous and nitric oxides here applied 
to the fourth and fifth oxides had previously only been applied by chemists 
to the first and second. 

TABLES III. V. 

The older chemists were agreed in designating the two oxides of 
sulphur the unlplinrov}^ and tlie ,->idplinric acids respoct^'vely. In Fownes' 
'Manual,' ed. 18G.'), the alterrative names sulphur di- and triti.iu'de are first 
introduced, whic^h, among the later writers, have gradually superseded 
the former Jiaraes. 

In a memoir in the ' Jahresberitht,' 1842, BcTzelius recommends the 
introduction of the names Di-, Tri- and Tt'trathionic acids. This nomen- 
clature has superseded the older names hyposulphuric, monosulphyposul- 
phuric, itc, acids, though some few of the later writers rjtain the term 
hyposulphuric acid. 

The discovery of the true hi/pnsulphurous acid by Schiiizenberger 
caused the acid, hitherto known by that name, to be designated tJiiosul- 
l^hurir acid, as derived from sulphuric acid, by the replacement of one 
atom or oxygen by sulphur. Ilydrosulphurous acid, the name originally 
proposed by Schiitzenberger for his acid, seeras to be retained only by the 
French writers. 



Is oxide 
nitro- 
many 
jysteni 
led ; in 
He and 
fourth 
Kis acid 
liomen- 
litreux, 
Ind the 
:1842) 



TABLES VI.-VII. 

The oxides of chromium afl'ord an instance of change of names owing 
to the discovery of another member of a series of compounds. Thus the 
green oxide of chromium was designated the protoxide, until the isolation 
of an oxide cotitaining one atom of oxygen to one of the metal. The 
latter compound was then called the protoxide, while the name of the 
former was altered to scsqitioxidr. 

The potassium and lead salts of chromic acid afford a good example 
of the want of imamimity of nomenclature among the older writers in 
those ca.ses in which there are derived from one acid two salts, the one 
neutral, containing one equivalent of basic to one equivalent of acid oxide, 
tlie others containing an excess of either of the oxides. Thus the acid or 
rod potassium chroniate is called indifi'erently potassium di or /u'chromate, 
but the former prefix is equally applied to the basic lead chromate. The 
later writers have avoided this confusion of prefixes by introducing the 
di or /// before the name of the acid or metal according as the salt con- 
tains excess of the acid or the basic oxide, respectively, thus ; — ■ 

Potassium (?/chroraate, but (//plumbic chromate. 



wi^^r-y 



m 



iiEroRT — J8S4. 



I 



TABLES VIII.-X. 

From the above tables it will be seen that many names have been used 
in more than one sense. Thns the terms phosphoric acid, phosphorous 
acid, and hypophosphorous acid were formerly exclusively employed to 
denote the oxides, but are now chiefly nsed to denote the hydrogen salts. 
Graham's researches were published in 1833, and previous to this date 
chemists made no distinction between anhydrous and hydrated phosphoric 
acid, but called one phosphoric acid, the other a solution of phosphoric 
acid ; hence, when it was necessary to explain the differences between 
ortho- and pyro-phosphates, this was done by ascribinpf them to differences 
in the arrangement of atoms in tno group PjO;,. When, therefore, the 
older cliemists speak of the different varieties of phosphoi-ic acid, it is the 
anhydrous acid that they mean. For instance, Berzelius's a, (3, and y 
phosphoric acids are all three regarded by him as anhydrous. The term 
phosphoric oxide is applied to anhydrous phosphoric acid in the editions 
of Fownes edited by Watts ; this term was formerly used to denote a, sup- 
posed lower oxide of phosphorus, P4O. (Gmelin, edited by Watts, 184'J). 

The term ' neutral phosphate of soda ' Ims been applied both to trisodic 
phosphate and hydrodisodic phosphate. Diphosphate of soda has been 
applied to trisjdic and hydrodisodic phosphates, and biphosphate to 
dihydrosodic phosphate, so that the thi'ee phosphates have had almost 
identical names. 

Tiio term ' acid phosphate ot soda ' has been applied to both hydro- 
disodic and dihydrosodic phosphates. 

The term ' phosphorchlovid ' has been applied to both chlorides of 
phosphorus. (Cf. Liebig and Poggendorff'.) 

It appears that when a numerical prefix is employed, the number ought 
to be understood as multiplying the word to which it is prefixed and not 
some other word. This rule has often been violated : thus trisodic phos- 
phate has been called ' triphosphate of soda,' also ' diphosphate of soda ' 
and ' sesquiphosphate of soda ; ' in all these cases the prefix is intended 
to indicate the number of molecules of soda to one molecule of phosphoric 
acid. So Turner calls hydrodisodic phosphate :aid dihydrosodic phos- 
phate, 'triphosphate of soda and basic water' and ' acid triphosphate of 
soda and basic water ' respectively. 

It is to be observed, however, that in the older form of nomenclature 
ambiguity was avoided in the case of compounds containing double the 
usual amount of acid or of base by using the prefix : 



■ J 



Thus : 



bi- to multiply the acid, 
di- to multiply the base. 

Na20.2Si02, bisilicato of soda. 
2Na20.Si0.2, disilicate of soda. 



might have been 



The prefixes * tor-' and'ti'i-,' ' quater-' and ' tetra- 
employed in the same way, e.g. : — 

NajO.SSiO.j, tersilicate of soda. 
oNajO.SiO.j, trisilicato of soda. 
Ca4H(P04)3, totracalcic terphosphate. 
Ca3(PO|)2, calcic triphosphate. 

But satisfactory evidence that they were so used baa not been found. 

(Continued on p. 73.) 



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ON CHEMICAL >'OMENCL.VTi:iJR. 



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50 



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BEroRT — 1884. 







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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATDRE. 



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ci<!h 



ON CnEMICAL NOMENCLATDKE. 



55 



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3 



ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATUKE. 



57 




Name 

Bichromate of i>ot- 
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Bichromate of pot- 
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ta'sa 

Bichromate of po- 
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Bichromate of pot- 
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Neutral chromate of 

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pota?se 
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lium 
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Elements, 1st cd. . 
Kloments, 3rd cd.. 


c 


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Coemistry . . . 

' Lecture Notes . . 

' Les-sonsin Chemis- 
i try, 1st ed. 
Treatise .... 

Outlines .... 

1 Dictionnaire . . 

Lehrbuch . . . 
1 Principes . . . 

Chemistry, 3rd ed. 
1 Metals 


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ON CllKMICAL KOMENCLATUKK. 



63 



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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATDRE. 



t II 






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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATDRE. 



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Tho employment of sncli terms as ' Phosphorsupercbloriir,' 'intcr- 
mediiirei" Chlorphosphor ' for the trichloride, and tho corresponding 
' I'hosphorsuperchlorid,* ' Chlorphosphorsepim maximum ' for the penta- 
chloride, is explained by the fact that a solution of phosphorus in the 
trichloride was formerly supposed to be a lower chloride of phosphorus, 
' Phosphorchloriir,' ' Chlorphosphor im minimum.* 

The followinfj: observations relate to the prevalence of certain names at 
different periods : — 

1. Anhydrous Pli(is))hiirovs Acid was formerly called phosphorous acid ; it 
is now usually culled phosphorous anhydride, and to a le^■s extent phos- 
phorus trioxido. 

2. Hydric FlinKpJiUe was called (v.hen obtained from tricbloride of 
phosphorus and water) a compound of phosphorous acid and water. 
From 1810 till 18(Ji) it was called hydraio of phosphorous acid or hydrated 
phosphorous acid. It is now called pho.'^jjliorous acid. The term hydric 
phosphite has been very seldom used. 

.'!. Anhydrous Vhns)diiiric Arid was originally called pjiosphoric acid ; it 
is now usually called ])liospliotic anhydride, and to a less extent phos- 
phorus pentoxide. The teini anhydrous phosphoric acid has been fre- 
fpiently employed. 

4. Hydric I'hosphalc was called hydrate of phosphoric acid or hydrated 
pbosphoric acid till 18G() ; it is now called phosphoric acid. The term 
iiydiic phosphate has been seldom used. 

5. Trichloride of Phofiphnrus. — The terras protochloride of phosphorus 
and phosphorous chloride (or Phosphorcloriir) were of equal prevalence 
till 18G8, when the former expired. Trichloride of plios[)horus is tho 
name now chiefly used. 

G. Similar remarks apply to pnitachhrridr of phonphoras, except that tho 
term porchloride of phosphorus has been more largely used than plios- 
phoric chloride, although it expired in 18G8, 

TABIiE Xr. 

In this table we find that the names 'chloride of copper,' 'dichloride 
of copper,' and ' protochloride of copper," have all been applied to tho 
lower chloride, and the names ' chloride of copper,' ' deutochloride,' 
' bit^hloridc,' and ' protochloride of copper,' have all been applied to the 
higher ehloiide. Th. Thomson int' oduced the names proto- and deuto- 
chloride for the 1st and Stid chloride respectively, but later on ho adopted 
the names snbchloride and chloride. Brande, in the iirst edition of his 
' Chemistry,' calls the two bodies chloride and bichloride of copper, but 
in liis Gth edition wo find the names dichloride and protochloride, signify- 
ing that the first has two atoms of copper and the second one. Some 
chemists have followed this rule, others the system of Thomson, so that 
while Brande, Watts, Rognault, and Bernays apply the name protochloride 
to the higher body, Thomson, Thenard, Gay-Lussac, Naquet, and Har- 
court apply the same name to the lower body. 

Oenkrai- Ri;m.\i:ks ox tui: Pim:limi\,vry Rki'Ort. 

The usefulness of any system of nomenclature rests mainly on its 
permanence. 

Tho tables in this Report, summarising the history of the nomcn- 
clature of certain typical chemical com[)ounds, clearly indicate tho 
conditions most essential for permanence. Names have been given to 
bodies expressing particnlar opinions on their ultimate constitution, whilst 
other names have been given expressing no theoretiivil views, but simply 



74 ' REroKT — 1884. 

stating experiniontal facts which admit of no tlispnto. These tables 
bring prominently forward the fact that those names have endured which 
express no particular opinion on the ultimate constitution of the bodies 
to which they were applied. Where the names have expressed such 
opinions the ndvance of knowlrdgo has necessitated change. Sixty 
years ago the names ' Bi-chloride of phosphorus ' and ' Percbloride of 
phosphorus' were both applied to the higher chloride of phosphorus. 
Th.^ I'ormtr name has not lusted because it expressed a particular view 
as to the nundjcr of atoms in the molecule, which view is no longer 
accept(!(l. The other name has endured because it merely expressed the 
experimental fact that the compound contained more chlorine than the 
lower chloride. To secure permanence for the future this principle 
should 1)0 acted on. As a general rule those names are to be preferred 
which have shown the most vitality and have leil to no ambiguity. 
Wliero fhcre are. firo cniipcamls cinnjtoseil of tlicsanif cJemi'iitu the termiii'itiims 
ous and ic Hhonhl he ciiidoijed. These terminations have been nsed in the 
same sense by the great majority of chemists since Lavoisier. The 
terms 'cuprous chloride,' ' chlorure cuivrenx,' ' Kupferclilnriir ' for the 
lower chloride of copper, and the terms ' cnpric chloride,' 'chlorure 
cuivrique,' ' Kupferchlorid ' for the higher chloride hnvo been used by 
English, French, and ( ierman chemists consistently and without ambiguity. 

The prefixes jiro/o, (7e«/'), &c., introduced into chemical nomenciatui'e 
by Thomas Thomson, were not intended by him to indicate the number 
of atoms in a moler "e, but to mark the first, second, or third compound 
of a series. Thus lie styled the lower and higher chlorides of copper 
' pi"OtochIori(le ' and ' dentochloride ' respectively ; but other chemists 
have styled the higher cldoride the protocldoride, thereby indicating that 
the molecule contained one atom of copjier, and the lower chloride the 
dichloride, thereby indicating that the molecule contained two atoms of 
copper. Where the pretixes yroto, dmdo, &c., are retained they should 
always be applied in the sense used by Thomson as indicating the first, 
second, &c., compound of a series. 

A name once given to a particular body should not be taken from 
that body and applied to another without the gravest reasons for the 
transfer -reasons accepted by the majority of chemists. The name 
rarhoiilc tu'iile lias been regularly used to denote the lower oxide of 
carbon from the time of its discovery. Uiitil quite recently, the name 
' carbonic oxide ' served without ambiguity to indicate a particukar 
ocnipouud. Tills name has lately been applied by certain chemists to the 
higher oxide of carbon, and a new nsimc has been given to the lower 
oxide. On account of this transfer the name has become ambiguous. 
A return to the common nomenclature would involve less change, and 
would, therefore, bo preferable to the adoption of two new names to avoid 
this ambiguity. 

Report of the Couimlttee, consisting o/ Professor W. A. Tildkn and 
Professor H. E. Anyn^mo'SG (Secretari/), appointed for the purpose 
of investigatiii;/ Isomeric Xapldhalene Derividives. 

The Committee have to report that some steps have been taken towards 
commencing the work ; but, owing to the unfortunate tire at the London 
Institution, whereby much of the material was destroyed, and the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Armstrong to tlie (Jhair of Chemistry at the Central Technical 
Institute, the results are not yet in a state tit for publication. 






ON THE FOSWI- PIIYI.LOPODA OF TIIK rAI.KOZOIC ROCKS. 



75 



[Two otlier Reports road in Section B, having been unavoidably delayed, 
will be found immediately before the Papers printed in exletisn.'] 



Second Report of the Committee, conslsfiiifj of 'Mr, R. ETn'<:Rin(iK, 
Dr. H. Woo! -Mil), and Professor T. Ri TEiiT Jones {Secretary), 
on the Fossil hyllopoda of the Pahcozoic Hocks. 

In our former Report (1883) we offered a Synopsis of the known genera 
of the Fossil Phyllopods, and we have not found reason to modify the 
classification tliere proposed, as far as the univalve genera are concerned, 
except (1) that the term 'flat-shield' is incorrect for a group in which 
several forms are slightly convex or subconical ; (2) that one (Di])- 
terocarifi) is bent along the back in a ridge-likc manner; (3) possibly 
Pinnocaris is really bivaived, without a I'ostral piece, and not merely 
sutured along the back ; (4) probably Crcscentilla may be placed near 
Pterocan-f and Vqitcrocaris. Last year we offered observations on some 
genera that have bent or folded carapaces (Hi/menocaris), and on somo 
that are bivaived (Cari/ocaris and Liinjulornris') ; but we have now to take 
up the tkt-shielded or subconical forms, excepting the Ditlii/wcarides. 

I'^xaniining all the species of which specimens or figures are within 
reach, we find the following genera and species; and we have briefly 
described or re-described them on one uniform plan, so that comparison 
may be the more easily made. 



List of thi; Simx'ies ov thi: Fnssii, Univalved Phtllopoda 

(EXC'KI'TING DlTilYUOCAUls). 

I. Shield not sutured alonrj the hach. 



1. Posterior vuiryhi riitirr. 

1. DiscrsocARis, II. Woodward, 18CC. 
.1. Krowniana, II. W. 
2. dubii, F. A. Koeincr. 
:!. lata, II. W. • 
•t. triasica, IIcus.k. 

.■). >|1. iiov. 

(>. iMMigcncr, Clarke. 

7. / Ki.^'i*^) ff- ^^'^• 
'2. Spathiocauis, Clarke, 1882. 

1 . Emcr.sonii, Clarke. 

2. )inj,fulina, Clarko. 

;}. ruoLADOCAUls, H. Woodward, 1882. 

1. Lceii, H. W. 

2. sp. nov. 

4. LisoocAUis, Clarke, 1882. 

1. laitheri, Clarke. 
."). Ellu'socaui.s, II. Woodward, 1882. 

1. Dewalquei, II. W. 

2. sp. nov. 



Vosfrr'wr marfjlii. trvvratr, indented, 
or gliyhtlij notched. 

Caudiocauis, H. Woodward, 1882. 

1 . Koenieri, H. W. 

2. bipartita, II. W. 
;;. Veneris H. W. 
4. Koeueiii, Clarke. 

8. Posterior margin- deeply notched. 

DiPTEROCAKis, Clarke, 1883. 

1. pes-cervie, Clarke. 

2. vetusta, d'Arch. i: de V. . ,.• . 
;(. procne, Clarke. ; 
4. pennsu-dicdali, Clarke. 

(■). Etlieridgei, nobis. 
I'TKRocAais, Harrande, 1872. 

I. bolieinica, Itarr. i f 

Crescentii.la, ISarrande, 1872. » 

1 . pugnax, Uarr. . ' 



76 kepout — 1884. 

II. Sutured along the hacli. 



1. Xiu'hol gutiirr anf/nl(ir. 

10. APTYcriopsia, niiriiuule, 1872. 
1. priniii, Harr. 
lA. var. .secuiida, nnv. 
'2. Wilsoni, H. Woodward. 
;{. Lapwortlii, II. W. 
4. glabra, II. W. 
'). ap. nov. 
it. sp. nov. 

7. Saltcri, H. W. 

8. sp. nov 



2. Xtichal suture rounded. 

11. Pkltocaris, Salter, ISGil. 

1. aptynhoidcs, Salter. 

2. ? anatlna, Salter. 
;{. .sp nov. 
4. .sp. nov. 
"). .' llarknessi, Salter. 

3. I'omtilij truly hivalnil, wUhout 
a rostral jiiiTc. 

12. riNXOCAnia, R. Ethcridf^fe, Jan. 1878. 
1. Lapworthi, E. E., Jr. 

Before we proceed with the comparative descriptions, we may remark 
that some specimens of these Uttle fossil carapaces were noticed long ago 
by pala;ontologista, before their Crustacean characters were recognised. 
Their general likeness to the opercula of Ammonites ' led some observers 
to suggest that tliose little fossils may have belonged to Gonintites, an 
' Amnionitidal ' cenhalopod found occasionally in strata of the same forma- 
tion (Devonian) as that in which certain of these Aptychus-like fossils 
occur.'-^ Many of the species, however, occur in beds in which Goniatites 
are unknown. Only one specimen has as yet been found in close asso- 
ciation with a Goniatite;** and nothing is yet known for certain of any 
real opercula of Goniatites. Herr Kayser found and noticed the occurrence 
of a ' Sjuithiocan's^ in the body-chamber of a Guniafites iiitmncscciis from 
the Devonian of Nassau. Small fossils are very commonly met with in 
a similar position in the body-chambers of Goniatites and other Cephalo- 
poda, as also in the cavities of various shells. 

Of the Phyllopodous forms under consideration we have some, like 
Discinocaris, which could not, on account of their shape in general, and 
the presence of the frontal piece in particular, have belonged to any 
Cephalopod, much less to Gn^iiatites, even if it possessed an opercnlum, 
which is by no means proved. Next we have a large series of forms 
■which occur in beds wherein no Goniatites have been found. Lastly, as 
is the case with specimens from Nas.sau, the Eifel, Hartz, and Petschora- 
land, some occur in beds containing Goniatites, but their outlines do 
not, even in these instances, correspond exactly with the apertures of 
the shells of such Cephalopods. 

As other Phyllopods, such as EMherin, arc imbedded in Devonian 
rocks, it is not strange that these Phyllocarida should be there also. 

Whilst, however, we are far from denying that some forms, now 
associated with nndoubted shield-bearing PhijUopoda, may hereafter be 
shown to be Molluscan, we are ccitain that some have no relation to 
Molluara; and with regard to such cases as those in which there is any 
possibility of doubt, the umis probaiidi must rest with those who are dis- 
satisfied with and do not accept our views regarding their affinities. 

We are the more strengthened in our opinion of the affinities of these 
palajozoic Crustacean shields, because their ornamentation agrees with 
that of knowia Phyllopod carapaces, both in the minute, ridge-like, con- 

' Calcareous and bipartite, Aptychus: ex)rncous and undivided, Ana/itychus. 

■ See, for instance, Herr Dames' remarks in the Xiiteit Jahrb.fiir Mm, &c., 1881, 
vol. i. pp. 27i")-27». 

• See Kavscr, Xeitsch. fl. deutseh. (jeoJ. (iis. xxxiv. 1882 pp. 818, 810; and vod 
Kocnen, ^\'ucs Jalnh.fiir M\n. &c., 1881, vol. i. pp. 45, 4(1. 



ON THE FOSSIL PJIYLLOPODA OF THE TAL-EOZOIC ROCKSl 



77 



centric lines of growth, and, in some cases, in the delicate surface orna> 
ment between them. 

Another objection to the supposed Aj)tychus nature of many of these 
circular and ovate shields arises from the fact that they were not origi- 
nally flat discs or plates, as may be seen by examining a series from 
various localities. 

Thus Discinocaris Browniava was in some degree convex, with a 
low conical apex ; Asj)!iIocaris triaslca was evidently conical, as may 
be seen by the split state of the outer rim, caused by the flatten- 
ing of the whole shield ; others, as Spatldocaris EmerKonii. and 
Itii^gocaris Luthrri had e]e\'ated subconical carapaces. Apfi/ch()2)s{s not 
unfrequently exempiiSes the same condition and similav breakage. A 
median mark, caused by the depression of the central portion in 
Cardiocaris hipnrtiia and 0. Korrieju, is also the result of flattening in a 
toughish subconical shield. Again, some of these carapaces were bent 
like a low ridge along the dorsum, as shown by Mr. J. M. Clarke's de- 
scription and figui'e of Dipterocaris i^vocne — all which conditions are com- 
patible with the nature of Phyllopods. 



as 



rhijllo2]odoiis Shields figured hy earhj observers (1S32-1850). 

1. 1832-48. — One of the above-mentioned little fossils has been re- 
corded as ' Aph/chus hvvigatus (Goldfuss) ' in von Uechen's German 
Iranslation of De la Beche's ' Manual of Geology,' ' Handbuch der 
Geognosic,' 1832, p. 529 ; and it was entered in Bronn's ' Index 
Palajontologicua,' 1848, vol. i. p. 00. As we know of no figure, we cannot 
ofl'cr an opinion as to its generic relationship. 

2. 1842. — The ' Aptijckas vctvstus ' of d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 
' Transactions Geol. Soc. London,' ser. 2, vol. vi. 1842, p. 343, pi. 2G, f. 
i\ found in the Devonian beds of the Eifel (rare), is one of these little 
apparently bivalved but really tripartite carapaces, with a front notch, 
and an open split at the hinder part of the median suture. If this latter 
feature be an original condition, as it seems, the species is referable to 
Dlpterocaris. 

3. 1846. — In 1840 A. von Keyserling gave figures and descriptions of 
some small Aptychns-like fossils in the ' Wissenchaft. Beobacht. Pets- 
chora-Land, Geogn. Beobacht.' p. 286, pi. 13, f. 3-7. These he referred 
to as being probably the Aptychi of Goniatites. The figures show no median 
line of suture; and therefore, instead of looking like the more common 
Aptychopsis, they resemble the allied Discinocaris, with an undivided shield, 
and with a rounded or elliptical nuchal or cephalic notch. If this latter 
feature be real, we have a form here which comes near Ellipsocaris. One of 
his figures in particular (fig. 3) reminds us of this genus.' 

4. 1850.— In the * Paloeontographica,' vol. iii. p. 28, pi. 4, fig. 18, 
P. A. Roemer described and figured his Apfychus duhiiis, from the Upper 
Devonian beds of the Hartz (Goniatite-limestone of the Kelwasserthal), 
M. Barrande in 1872 was inclined to refer it to Aptychopsis (' Syst, Sil. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Snppl. p. 450) ; Mr. J. M. Clarke thought it might be a 
iSpathiocaris ; but we regard it as a Discinocaris. 

5. 1850. — In the same volume of the 'Paloeontographica,' iii. p. 88, 
t. 13, f. 13, F. A. Romer also illustrated what he regarded as an Aptychva 

' We are informed tliat unfortunately these Russian specimens cannot now bo 
found ut ISt. retorsburg. 



^^~^'^»T^7»'^wwir^p*w^^pjl5fWTPf»^|if^^^^npp-fIjp?5^^^%wwH^»ff^^w»^^*r»^BPP^ 



•8 



UKroKT — 1884. 



of a GoTiiatite, from the Cioniatilon-Kalk of Altcnau, in the Ilixvtz. In 
general aiipoaraiicc the figure approaclies I'hd.'aducuriA; 



Sy\oit;cai, Plan ok thk Discinocakida. 



Sliliild witli'tiit (I mediiin 

tLirsal suture. 

(Tyi)(', Discinocarh.') 

1. Postorior iimrjiiir 

cntii'i! and rdiiiiilcil. 

I. Cepliiilic notch 
(-^nuchal suture) 
iin<ruliii' 

1. Shield not rid^'cd 

iKir furrowed 

2. Shield liaviiifj; ^ 

rndiatc furrows nnd iii. rnoi.AixiC'.vitis 
ridjjos . . . ' 

II. Ceplialio notch ». j. 
rounded. . . i 

tJ. Posterior margiir 
iinirular ; .sli i eld 
■with radiate ridne<. 
(Cephalic notch 
rounded 

3. Posterior margin in- | 

dented; ceiihalic vi. ('AitMioc.vitis 
noteh an,t;ular . ) 
A. Posterior margin") 
deeply notched ; 
cephalic notch, 
nni^uhir . 
A. Concentrically 
striate, like Disci- 
nociiris, &c. . .J 
II. Not concentrically 
striat'i. 

1. Test with radiate 

ornament 

2. Test smooth ; mi- 

nute . 



notch hroad 

i. l)l.S(IN(l( AltlS 

notch iiniTuw 

ii, Si'AriiiocAUis 



I'SOCAIMS 



V. l.isiMK Ai;is 



S/iiipe nr outline of Shield 
Species. (complete, .nnd measured 

outside the notches). 

/ Tirowniana, duhia, lata circular. 

tritisira . . . oval. 

, sp. MOV. . . . ohovate. 

\ rimiinirr . . , ohlonj;'. 

( Kmeraonii . . fihlonij. 

■j V small form . ohovate. 

\ viiguliiia , , . oval. , 

f Lveii .... cuneiform. 
t sp. nov )hovate. 

( Dewalquei . . 



( sj). nov. 



Luth 



oval, 
suboblonj:. 



( Jiiiiineri, hipartita 
( Veneris, Koeneni 



, pes-cerva', vetustu 



J pes-ren 
. , ' nriicne 

j pciDilv-dirditlt 
V l^tluridjii , 



viii. PncilfK AliIS hahemicn 
ix. Citr.scKNTii.i.A piignax 



siibpcntagonal. 



narrow ohovate. 
hroad ohovate. 



ohovate. 
suhquadrate. 
suhobiont^, 
oval. 



ohovate. 
oblate. 



As in all other natural groups, it is difficult or impossible to arrive 
at a perfectly linear arrangement ; the order, therefore, in this plan of 
the Discinocarids does not quite correspond with that in the foregoing 
list of genera and species, which is followed in the descriptions. 

I. DisciNOCAKis, H. Woodward, 1806. * Quart. Journ, Geol. Soc.' vol. 
xxii. p. r>0o ; and ' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. 18G0, p. 71. 

This Phyllopod has a ronnd, oval, ovate, or oblnng shield, slightly 
conical, without a median suture, but crossed anteriorly by an angular 
nuchal suture, often leaving a corresponding notch. Concentrically 
striate, like its congeners. 

1. Biscinocaris Jiroivniana. H. AVoodward, 18GG. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
8oc.' vol. xxii. p. 504, pi. 25, figs. 4 and 7, andf. 5 side view, &c. 'Geol. 
Mag.' vol. iii. 1866, p. 72. 'Catal. W.-Scot. Fossils,' 187G, p. 7. 'Catal. 
Catnbr. and Silur. Foss. Pract. Geol. Museum,' 1878, p. 28. 'Proceed. 
Belfast Nat. Field-Club,' 1877, Appendix, p. 122, &c., pi. 7, f. 25 a and 
25 c. 

This is a circular shield, 15 mm. in diameter. Slope of nuchal 
suture, 60° ; diameter of disk-shaped carapace, 7 lines ; width of nuchal 



ON IllE FOSSIL rirVLLOPODA OF THE I'VLiKOZOlC HOCKS. 



■y 



In 



portion nearly one-sixlli of the entire circumference. A larp^or ppocimcn 
folded tofretlier probably measured It lines iu diameter, ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.' vol. xxii. p. !ji)4. 

Found in tlio Anthracitic Sbalcs of the JIofTat district, at Dobbs Linn, 
Dumfriesshire, iiud Giirpoolburn, Moll'at ; and iu equivalent Silurian beds 
at Coalpit liay, co. Down, Ireland. 

2. Disciiidcaris dnhia (P. A. Roomer), 18')0. Aptiji-lms ihib!n/>, V. A. 
Roemer ('Palncontoffraphica,' vol. iii. part 1, p. *2-\ t. 4, f. IH). Sputhio- 
caris duhin, J. M. Clarke, ' Nenes Jahrb. fiir Min.' Ae., 1884?, vol. i. pp. 
129 and 188. 

Nearly eireiilar when perfect, but Boraewhat narrowed posterioviy, 
thus becoming' sliort-obovnte. ISoteh rather shallow. Originally about 
25mm. long, 2 1 mm. at tlie widest; slope of nuch;d suture, 3U". Cor. 
centric lines Avido apart, as ])reserved, and otherwise obscure at the 
centre. This is referred by Mr. J. ^l. (JIarke to his geiuis Sputkiocuris. 

Roemer's specimen was found in the Cioniatite-limesttme of the 
Kelwa-s.serthal, in the Hartz. 

3. Viscmocaris luta (H. Woodward), 1882. CarcZM)c«m Za/tf, II. Wood- 
ward, ' Geol. Mag.,' Dee. 2, vol. ix. p. :\^'f^, pi. 0, fig. 1:5. Similnoraris 
lata, Clarke,' Neu(!S Jahrb. fiir ^Min.' &e., 188-1', vol. i. p. IHl, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Shield broadly obovate, nearly circular, v.'ith broad and deep cephalic 
notch ; not indented behind. If complete, it would be about 22 mm. 
long, 18 mra. wide. Slope of notch-sides about 45 '. As far as the 
fig. 13 shows, this may be a Discinocan's. 

From Biidesheim, in the Upper Devonian of the Eifel. 

In Mr. Clarke's paper this appears as having a round shield, slightly 
broader anteriorly than behind; with a wide notch reaching to the centre. 
Length (complete) about 19 mm. accoiding to the figure, width 19 mm. 
Slope of notch nncertain, probably about 50°. 

Not rare in the Upper Devonian, at Bicken, near Herborn, in Nassau. 

4. Dhciiwniris^ tn'asi'ca (Ueuss), 18G7. A^iiiiJorarlx iriusicit, llenss, 
' Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wissen.sch. Wien,' math.-nat. CI., vol. Iv. 18G7, 
j)p. 1 cf'scrj. pi. O, f. 1-5. 

As Dr. Woodward ims alroad}^ intimated ('Geol. Mag.,' D(^c. 2, vol. ix. 
p. 38G), there is apparently no real dillerence between the late Dr. A. E. 
von Renss's genus hero mentioned, and Discinordrii-', to which Reuss 
thought it to be closely allied. Reuss's specimens indicate, however, a 
different species. It was oval in outline, when perfect, and had a wide 
and deep notch, with its apex near the centre of the test. The dimen- 
sions of the fossils are somewhat increased by forcible depres.sion of their 
original somewhat conical form : fig. 2, length about 36 mm., width 
about 29 mm. ; tig. 3, length about 25 mm., width about 19 mm. The 
slope of the nuchal suture is 40^ in the fossils, but Dr. Reuss was pro- 
bably right in restoring it at 50° (fig. 4). 

From the Raibl beds, near Hallstadt. 

6. Discinocitris sp. nov. 

In the Cambi'idge Museum we notice a PhyllopoGous test, broadly 
sagittate, or sharp-shovel-shaoed, in its present state, the cephalic portion 
being absent. Originally «bovate, with a narrow pointed posterior 
margin, it lias been truncat»!d in front by a nuchal suture of slight 
angularity, which has left a broad shallow re-entrant angle, wit'^ -fs apex 
reaching back about one-third of the shield's original lengtl ' its 

sides reachir 'ic margin almost before they run into the curvi. the 



80 



REroRT — 1884. 



front border. Original length about 24 mm., width l.' mm. Slope of 
nuchal suture '{0°. 

From tho Coiiiston nmdstono (Upper Silurian) of Skclgill IJccrk, 
near Ambleside, Westmoreland (at tho lower foot-bridge). Collected bj 
Mr. J. E. Marr, I'MI.S. 

G. Dlsrhiornrin nnirjrncr (Clarke), IHH-t. SpathiornriH (Cardioraris ?) 
convener, Clarke, 'Nencs Jahrb. fiir Aliii.' &.c., 1884, vol. i. p. 183, pi. 
4, f. T). 

This also seems to be aJ^lschwraris. Shield, when complete, elliptical- 
oblong ; in the fossil state deeply notched at the anterior end, leaving on 
each side a nn'-.cw tapering projection. Mr. Clarke says that the fossil 
is 14 inm. long and H mm. broad. The slope of the notch seems to l)e 
abont C)o°. 

From the Upper Devonian, at Bicken, nesir Herborn, Nassau. 

7. Discinocariii / qlqas, H. Woodward, 1872, ' Geol. Ma'.;.,' vol. ix. 
p. 5G4 ; ' Report Br\i. Assoc' for 1872, 1873, p. 323. 

A sub-triangular fragment of a Phyllopodous shield, showing delicate, 
concentric, parallel lines, was referred in 1872 by Dr. IF. Woodward to u 
Discivncnris, possibly ' 7 inches in diameter.' This was from the Moffat 
Graptolitic shale at. Dobbs Linn, Dumfriesshire. It is in the British 
Museum ; also an oblong fragment with line parallel lines. Some relics 
of body-rings, 45 mm, in transverse width, and varying from r> to 10 mm. 
fore and aft, from tho same beds at J'Jttrickbrigend, Selkirkshire, arc 
in the same ooUection. 

At Cambridge two fragments of the same large kind of carapace are 
in tho University Museum, from tho Conistone mudstone of Skelgill 
Beck. Collected by Mr. J. E. Marr, F.G.S. 

DiSCIXOCARIS. 

JJittcinocfirin lirflrvniana .... I.owor or Middle Silurian. 

Upper Devonian, Hartz. 
Upper Devonian, Kifel and Nassau. 
Tins, Ifallstadt. 
Upper Silurian, Westmoreland. 
Upper Devonian, Nassau. 
Lower and Upper Silurian. 



dnhia (in CJoniatite beds) 
lata „ 

tfianica .... 

sp. nov 

ro/iffeiirr (in Goniatitc beds) 
I'giffan .... 



II. SpATHiocAnrs, J. M. Clarke, 1882. 'American Journ. Science,' sor. .'!, 

vol. xxiii. p. 477, and vol. x.xv. p. 120, and pp. 124, 125. ' Noues 

Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c., 1884, vol. i. p. 181, &c. 

Judging from Mr. Clarke's description and figures, this Phyllopod 

seems to have an oblong or obovate, sabconical, patelloid shield, with a 

narrow anterior or cephalic notch (referred to as being posterior, loc. rif., 

but apparently as anterior in the 'Neues Jahrb.' loc. cit.), reaching back 

halfway along tho shield, ornamented with concentric lines, and, in .sonic 

specimens, with delicate radii also. In essential particulars this agrees 

with Discinocans ' (if regarded as described above) ; but its notch is 

peculiar, being very narrow. 

' ^Ir. Clarke, at p. 478, comparing: this form with Dixchiocarix, sjioaks of llie wedge- 
shaped cleft as being analogous to the notch of the latter, but says that there is here 
no 'rostrum or plate acting as another valve to cover the cleft,' and lie evidently 
regarded the notch as abdominal, somewhat like the posterior hollow in thesiiidd of 
Apus, to allow of the protrusion of the abdomen (xw also ' Amer. Journ. Science,' 
fCT. ;J, vol. XXV. p. 124). In the 'Neues Jahrb.' 1884, linwcver, Mr. Clarke refers to 
the notrh as being anterior, but ligures it downward in the plate. 



ON THE F08SIL mYLLOl'ODA OF THE I'AL.EOZOIC ROCKS. 



81 



i.v. 



aro 



lopod 
ith a 

3. Cit; 

back 
some 
pjreos 
ch is 



vodgc- 
is lier<^ 

(IciltlV 

kll lit 
iicncc,' 
fors to 



1. Sp. Einemnnii, Clarke, 18S2. Op. n't, p. 477, pi. 0. fipf. 1. 

This is elliptifal-oblojig', or elegantly oblonjr with rounded cndfl one 
of which is parted by a narrow clel't. Length 42 mm. ; width 27 mm. by 
the figures. 

1a. ^7'- J^iiiersoni i (r), lac. ctf. f. 2. 

This is referred to as heing a young form of the foregoing, but it is 
obovato ' (not oblong), and may be specitically di.stinet. Length 12 mm. ; 
width 8 mm. 

111. Sp. Emersonii {?), loc. rlt. f. o. 

This shows an elliptico-triangular shape, which may bo duo to ira- 
bedmcnt in the matri.x, and resembles a lateral portion of an Aptijchopsis, 
but it is regarded by Mr. Clarke as a folded Spnthiocaria. 

(If belonging to the former, the shield, when comjjlcte, would have 
been about 40 mm. long and 40 nmi. where widest; in shape obovate, 
with narrow, pointed po.sterioi-; and with a relatively shallow nuchal 
suture, sloping jit 20°, and cutting off a broad cephalic portion.) 

Mr. Clarke has found man}' examples of Spalluocaris folded laterally 
(see 'Amor. Journ. Sci.' ser. 15, vol. xxv. p. 124). 

Spathtocnris EmevKonn, as described in the ' Amor. Journ. Sci.' for 
June 1882, has been found by ^Ii*. Clarke abundantly in some of tho 
Devonian strata of New York State. In 1882 he had already obtained 
thirty specimens from a layer only a few inches thick ; they varied much 
in size, from a length of 4 mm. to 00 mm.; and a fragment of a largo 
individual, probably 80 or !•() mm. long, was met with. 

They occurred in these beds : — 

Chemumj Group. — Chemung proper, Naples, Ontario co, ; Lower 
Chemung Sandstone, Canadice, Ontario co. 

Portaije Group. — Upper Portage Sandstone, Wyoming co., Portage- 
ville ; Upper Black Band, Naples, Ontario co., aad elsewhere ; Lower 
Black Band, Bristol, Ontario co. 

In the lower muddy shales the associates are the common fossils of tho 
Portage rocks, including Gonlatites complanatus, II. &c. In the bituminous 
shales of tho ' Upper Black Band,' they occur with fish-remains (PalceO' 
niscus, &c.), conodonts, annclidan teeth, plant-remains, and sporangia of 
cryptogams ; in the Chemung, in the lowest horizon, with Leiorhynchus 
incsacosialh, Hall : and in tho upper only with Crustaceans allied to 
tSpathiocaris, namely, Dlptcrocarls {op. cit. p. 121, &c.) 

2. Spathiocaris ungnlimi, J. M. Clarke, 1884. ' Neues Jahrb. fUr Min.' 

&c., 1884, vol. i. p. 182, pi. 4, f. 4. 
An oval shield ; length (complete), judging by the figures, would be 
about 34 mm. ; width 2G mm. Cephalic notch narrow and deep, reaching 
nearly to the centre ; slope about 75°. Hare, Upper Devonian, from 
Bicken, near Herborn. Very closely allied to Biscinocaris. 

< Spathiocaris. 

r Upper Devonian, New York State. 
o .,. . „ .. J Wilbout Goniatite.s in the Chemunpr and 

^ ' I Upper Portage Groups. 

I^With Uoniiitites in the Lower Port; ge Group. 
„ w/>^?*Zt«a, (in Goniatitc bed) Upper Devonian, Nassau. 

' If looked at, according to our plan, with the anterior end upwards. 
1884. a 



82 REroisT— 1884. 



III. Pholadocauis, H, V'oodward, 1.S82. 'Geol. Mag.* Dec. 2, vol. l\. 

p. oH8. 

The shield of this Phyllopod is ]iGCuHar, and is dosoribed in careful 
detail, hic. rit. Its main features aro that two furrows radiate from tho 
centre backwards, enclosinf^ a narrow triangular space, marked witii 
parallel radiating lines. Radiating and concentric lines ornament tlio 
lateral ])ortions of the carapace. In front of the centre two slightly 
raised elliptical ridges enclose a small space behind the apex of the large 
V-shapod nuchal suture, and in the fig. 16 remind us of the two forward 
ridges in L'lKijncaris ; whilst the two furrows behind feebly represent its 
posterior ridges. 

1. rholaducans Lceu, H. W., 1882. Loc. c!t. pi 9. f. 16. 

The only s{>ecimen described with the above characteristics has a 
triangular-obovatc, or nearly cuneiform shield ; broadly rounded in front 
(when complete) ; narrow and rounded behind. Complete, about 34 mm, 
long; 10 mm. broad at the widest part. Rostral piece about 10 mm. 
long, and 10 mm. wide in front; slope of notch about 60°. From the 
Upper Devonian of Biidesheim in the Eifel. 

2. Plioladocarin, sp. Aiihjchus of a Goniatitc, F. A. Roemer. ' Palaeon- 
tographica,' vol, iii. 1850, p. 88, pi. 13, fig. Vi. 

Tliis neat figure of an obovate, notched, concentrically marked, black, 
filmy fossil from the Goniatiten-Schichtcn of Altenau, in the Hartz, would 
serve for some Dlsn'nnrnris, if it were not that the posterior portion is 
marked with a dark (sunken) elongate-triangular space, beginning behind 
the centre and widening out slowly to the posterior margin. Altogether 
we may take the figure to represent an ill-pi'eserved Phuladocaris, neatly, 
tat possibly not quite correctly, drawn. 

Pholadocakis, 

Pholadocans Leeii, (in Goniatitc bed) , , . . Kifel. 
„ !<p. „ , . . . Hartz. 

IV, LiSGOCARis, J. M, Clarke, 1882. 'Amcr. Journ. Science,' ser. .j, 
vol. xxiii. p. '\!1S, pi. 0, fig. 5 ; vol. xxv. p. 124. 

This also belongs to the group of fossil Phyllopods which havo 
shields without a median dorsal suture. It has concentric lines of 
growth also, following the marginal contour of the test. 

The dil?erenco between this and. Discinocaris is that it has a rounded 
or elliptically cut cephalic notch (if looked at as wo regard it, instead of 
posterior or abdominal, as at p. 478, op. cit.) Its outline is symmetrically 
subpentagonal. Three ridges leave the apex or centre of the shield, one 
central and one on each side, and radiate to the hinder margin, which 
they stretch out, as it were, into three points, with two intervening 
concave spaces. In front two low ridges pass away obliquely forward 
and outward from the centre, and between them is the long, narrow, 
round-ended cephalic notch, the shape of which is distinctive. 

1. Lisijocaris Luthcri, Clarke, 1882 Qoc. cit.), is the only described 
species, and exhibits the features above-given. Its figure is about 40 mm. 
long and 30 mm. wide ; cephalic notch 10 mm, wide at its entrance, 
17 mm, long, and not narrowing very much before it begins to curve 
round at its apex. 



ON THE FOSSIL riKYLLOPGDA OF THE PAL.KOZOIC ROCKS. 



H3 



IX. 



From the base of the * Hamilton Group' of strata, in Ontario County, 
Western New- York State. 

Subsequently Mr. Clarke expressed liis wish to include Lisgocarls 
with Spnthiocaris (op. cit. p. 124), because ho was certain they agreed in 
having no median suture ; and he thought that neither of them had the 
rostral piece so often present in Diicinocaris and Peltocaris — wo may add 
Apti/chop'iis and Oanliocans also. In this view Ave do not coincide ; and 
wo think that SpathiocariH and Lisfforaris, owing to the form of tho 
cephalic notch, may bo distinct from each other and from Disrinocaris, as 
far as the value of that feature goes, but that, having no median suture, 
they avo very closely allied to that genus. There are OonlatiteH in tho 
'Hamilton Group' of strata from one of which Liegocaris was obtained. 






V. Ei.LU'SOCAnis, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Annales Soc. Geol. Belgique,' 
vol. viii. 1882, Mcmoiro No. 4, p. 45; 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. i.\. 
1882, p. 444. 

Shield or carapace without a median suture, and with a curved nuchal 
sutui'c. As Dtscinocaris corresponds with Aptijchopsis in having an 
angular nuchal suture, so ElUpsocaris corresponds with Peltocaris iu 
its rounded nuchal suture. See the remarks and woodcuts figs. 1-4, 
loc. cit. 

1. EUipsocaris Deivalquci, H. Woodward, 1S82. Loco citato and 

woodcut fig. 4. 

Shield elongate-oval ; nuchal suture semi-oval, not reaching to tho 
centre of the shield ; tho lateral projections bordering the rostral piece 
in front are necessarily curved, tapering, and sharp, like flat horns. 
Complete, the carapace would be about .'')2 mm. in length ; width 24 mm. 
Tho rostral piece may have been about 15 mm. long, by 12 mm. wide. 

A most interesting feature of this species is its ornament, not con- 
sisting merely of numerous fine concentric lines of growth, but retaining 
the delicate interlinear cross-bars and minute transverse wrinkles seen 
in Esther ia, ' Geol. Mag.' loc. cit. p. 445. 

From the Upper Devonian of Comblain-la-Tour, Province of Liege. 

2. EUipsocaris, sp., 'Opercula of Goniatites,' A. von Keyscrling ; 'Wissen- 
schaftliche Beobachtnngen anf einer Reise in das Petschora-Land 
in Jahre 1843 ; ' ' Geognostische Beobachtungen,' 184G, p. 286, pi. 13, 
figs. 3-7 (see above, p. 3). 

Figs. 3, 5, and 7 have a more or less oval outline, which, with the 
rounded notch, is suggestive of EUipsocaris Dewalquei. Figs. 4 and (5 
are more obovate in their complete outline. Fig. 3 is li> mm. long, by 
12 mm. wide ; fig. 7, 7f mm. by 4"8 mm. ; fig. 4, 11 ram. long by 9 mm. 
wide. 

In the Devonian (Domanik) beds of Petschora-land. 



ELLirSOCARTS. 

Mlijisocaris Dervalquci (with Goniatites ?) , 
„ sp. (in Goniatite be(ls) . 



. T'.clgium. 

. I'etachora-land. 



VI. Cardiocaris, H. Woodward, 1882. 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. ix. 

p. 380. 

Shield obovate, usually elongate, sometimes short ; contracted in the 

g2 






84 iiEroHT— 1884. 

posterior third, notclicd deeply in front in the fossil state hy loss of tho 
rostral portion; more or loss truncate, and often indented posteriorly. 
This modification of tho posterior extremity is regarded by Mr. J. M. 
Clarke as of only specific valne ; but with us it constitutes the differenco 
between Cardionu-in and Ih'uriiu .ari^, and tho indentation leads us to tho 
cleft posterior margin of Viptr.rnmris. 

1. Cari1ii.can.-< I : onrie rl, li. Woodward, 1882. ' Geol. Mug.' Dec. 2, 
vol. ix. p. 380, pi. 0, figs. 1-7. 

Shield long-obovate, slipper-like. Cephalic portion narrow-triangular, 
about In mm. long in a shield 40 mm. long. Good specimen IJ5 mm. long 
(about 45 mm. wlicii mnipleto), 20 mm. in greatest bi'eadth. Fragment 
of larger shielil, probably once 05 mm. long and 40 mm. wide. Another 
may have been r>()rani. broad and !J0 mm. wide. Some small (young) 
forms, one of them not more than G mm. long and 4 ram. broad, aro also 
figured. Slope of nuchal suture at about 60°. In one small specimen 
tho cephalic portion is preserved in place (op. cif. p. '.\S7 and f. 5). The 
presence of this little frontal piece is quite antagonistic to tho adaptability 
of Cnnliocaris as an operculum to a Goniatite. 

Upper Devonian or the Eifel, at Biide.sheim, between Gerolstein and 
Priira. 

2. Cardlocaris hipartita, H. Woodward, 1882. 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, 
vol. ix. pp. 383, 388, pi. 8, figs. 14 and 15. 

One of those (f. 14) is much like G. Boevwri in shape, but is said to 
have a dor.sal suture, in which case it ought to be placed in or near 
Aptycliopsis ; probably, however, tho dorsal line was merely tho mark of 
an imperfect fold or break along tho middle (as in Mr. Clarke's figure of 
Spaihiwariit Koeiicnl, ' Neues Jahrb.' 1884, vol. i. pi. 4, f. 1). Tho .side- 
margins are rather less convex than in G. Jioemeri, and the hinder end, 
•which is indented, is proportionally broader. Complete, it may have been 
27 mm. long, by 15 mm. wide. Angle of nuchal notch, G0°. 

In shape, f. 15 (which is imperfect posteriorly) differs from f. 14 ; it 
seems to be more oval, and is certainly more deeply notched in front 
than f. 14. It was probably 32 mm. long, when complete ; 17 mm. wide. 

Both the specimens were found in the Upper Devonian at Biidesheira, 
between Gerolstein and Priim, in the Eifel. 

3. Cardiocaris Veneris, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Geol. Mag.' 1882, p. 387, 

pi. 8, figs. 8-12, 
Shield relatively broader and shorter than C. Roemeri, and consider- 
ably wider in front than behind. The cephalic notch is also relatively 
broader. Dr. Woodward gives the following measurements : — 

licngth (complete), about 30 mm. ; greatest breadth, 23 mm. 
»> ji "0 ,, ,, lo 



»i »••«•" >i 



» 10 



The angle of tlie slope of the nuchal furrow is uncertain ; it varies in 
different specimens, according to the result of pressure and disturbance, 
40° and 45°, 45° & 55°, and 60° and 65°. 

4. Cardiocaris Koeneni (Clarke), 1844. 

Spathiocaris Koeneni, Clarke, ' Neues Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c., 1884, vol. i. 
p. 182, pi. 4, f. 1. 






ON THE FOSSIL rilYLLOrODA OF Tlli; PAI-KOZOIC HOCKS. 



85 



387, 



A broadly obovato Bhiold, when complete and looked at with an- 
terior margin placed upwards. 'Pho fossil is broadly cordate in its 
present condition, having a wide and rather shallow cephalic notch. It 
IS trnncato behind, along the niiddle of the posUirior margin, with a lin«» 
(einuons by uncciual pressure jirobably) ccpial in length to half the 
width of the carapace. Tho iigured specimen has the dorsum bent in 
along a median lino, but not sutured. According,' to the figure tho 
length (complete) would be about 48 mm. ; width where broadest •!•!> mm. 
Nuchal suture sloping at 40°. Five specimens, Upp(;r Devonian, Uicken, 
near Herborn. Tho largest example (Mr. Clarke says) measures 45 mm. 
from the apex of tho notch to the posterioi- margin, and S")!") mm. broad. 
The fossils mostly measure about .'{.'{ mm. long, and about 4^) m.u. broad. 
He regards Spntli. Koeneni as a link between Sinilln'ocurix and Canl'uicariti ; 
but tho truncation of the posterior margin puts it with Canliucaris, and 
its wide notch is strange to Sitnlliivcariti. 



CAniMOCARIS. 



"7'i ~j 
fifa\ . 



Ca rtl ioca fin It or iiinu 

n/ii r I (t, y^ ill Ooniatitc beds 



I 'cncris [ 
KocHi'iii J 



[ niincslu'im"! 

J Hiidcsliciiii ,. ,, . „ 

\ „■• 1 1 • , Upi)er Devonian. 

tUickeii J 



VII. Dii'i'KiioCARis, J. M. Clarke, 1883. 'Amer. Journ. Science,' scr. 3, 
♦ vol. XXV. f. 121. 

A variety of fo.ssil Phyllopodous shields, oval or ovate in general 
outline; but this is interrupted by two notjhes of varying width and 
depth, one in front and one behind. The anterior or nuchal notch is 
angular, and analogous to that in Discinocaris, AptijcJiopsis, ^x. ; the other 
varies from a mere split to a broad ojien A-shaped notch. Tho shield 
seems to consist of one piece, and was probably ridge-like to some extent, 
but occasionally pressure has caused the median line to be specially 
depressed, or otherwise affected, so as to look like the place of a suture. 
The shields have concentric lines of growth for ornament. 

1. In Dlpterocaris pes-cervco, J. M. Clarke, op. cil. p. 123, figs. 4, 5, 
the front notch is open, with its outer width almost equal to one of its 
sides. The hinder notch is very narrow, and reaches up half the length 
of tho shield. Lower Chemung sandstone ; Canadice, Ontario co., New 
York State. 

2. Apti/chus vetvst US, d^ Archiac a.nd do Verncuil, 1812, ' Trana. Geol. 
Soc* 3er. 2, vol. vi. p. 343, pi. 20, f. 0, from the Devonian rocks of the 
Eifel, is a Diptcrocarix, with a very broad, angular frontal notch, and a 
narrow hinder split. 

3. JJiplfrocan's procne, J. M. Clarke op. cit.\). 122, figs. 2 & 3, has tho 
two notches both wide and deep. It is ridgeliko iii its dorsal bend. 

Middle Chemung (sandstone) ; Hoskinsville, Ontario co., New York 
State. 

4. D. pcnncc-da'dali, J. VL. Clarke, op. cit. p. 123, f. 1, has tho notches 
large and deep and unequal, leaving only a small isthmns near the 
centre to nnitetho lateral portions. Lower Chemung ; Dansville, Living- 
stone CO., Now York State. 

5. These characters — small isthmus, deep notch, and large laterals, are 
present also in figuic 21, of Plato 14, in tho ' I'Vssils of Oirvan,' 1880, 
and regarded as an nndetermincd PhjUopod at p. 212. The specimen 



T 



86 KBroRT— 1884. 

was fi'oni the Lower Silurian of Pcinvliapple Burn, near Girvan, Ayr- 
shire ; and we Avish to give it the name of IHpterocaris Etheridyel, in com- 
pliment to Mr. R. Etheridge, inn., who has worked so well among the 
palfioozoic! Phyllopods and other fossils. 

Whether or no the hinder cleft in Bipterocaris was ever occupied by 
a triangular piece, lost after death, we cannot say. No direct evidence 
supports the idea that there was a portion of the est filling in this 
posterior notch ; but the elongate triangle define by the radiating 
furi'ows in Pholadocaris Lecii, and by ridges (P) vii Ph. sp. (F. A. 
Roemer's ' Aptychus '), seems to bo an analogous feature. On the other 
band, the posf orior notch in Dijiterocaris may have had reference to the pro- 
j trusion of the abdominal somites, as suggested by ^Ir. J. M. Clarke, ' Amer. 

j Journ. Sci.' 3, vol. xxv. p. 124, Mr. Clarke, luc. cit., considers it pro- 

1 bable that the anterior cloft was also permanently open, for the convenient 

j protrusion of the cephalic appendages ; bnt a'.tilogy with other Phijllo- 

\ ntrida, and especially the abi u[>t termination ol' the concentric lines of 

{ growth on the edges of the notch (as if the lines were continued on a 

I cephalic piece, as in allied forms), are our reasons for retaining the 

views we have already expressed. 

DlI'TEROCARIS. 

Dipterocar^s jtes-cervrc Without Goniatites. Upper Devonian, New York State. 

„ ri'tmta With „ „ ,, Hartz. 

„ proBne ~j ("■.!>. New York State. 

„ pcniKP-dcrddU '. Witliont „ J „ „ „ „ 

„ Mheridgci J [_ Lower Silurian, Scotlanil. 

t VIII. PinuocARts, Barrandc, 1872. PL bohemica, Barr. ' Syst. Silur, 

Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. p. 4G1, pi. 2'), figs, 25, 20, 

A single specimen (a cast) of this interesting fonn has been carefully 
described by M, J, Barrande in detail. Its apparent relationship to 
Apiychopsis and other fossil Phyllopods is pointed out ; its anterior, 
triangular, apparently fixed, rostral piece, and its open and deep posterior 
cleft, are described and figui'cd, together with the radiate ornament of 
the lateral pieces of this cast. The fossil is flat. Broadly obovato in 
outline (outside the notch). Length 12 mn: vidth about 12 mm. 

In general shape Pferocaris corresponds Wi... Biptc ocaris, and indeed, 
exhibits the cephalic or rostral piece, which has been lost from the other 
specimens known. The ornamentation, however, aa preserved on the 
cast (apparently of the inner or lower side) is peculiar, being stria; 
radiating from a straight line which reaches along the greatest length of 
each wing or lateral piece, and is parallel to the median line of the 
isthmus ; or rather the stria) look as if they would converge centrally on 
the isthmus, if they were not intcrru'^ted by the longitudinal line on each 
wing. In Bipterocaris the ornamental lines are concentric with the 
isthmus. 

From the quartzite of D d2. (Lower Silurian = Llandeilo and 
Caradoc) at Mount Drabow, with Caryon hohemicum, Zono::ne, 2 spp., 
and Cytheropsis testis. 

The last-mentioned foF.sil is an internal cast apparently, as M. 

• Barrande suggests, of some half-shut Entomostraean bivalve ; side-view 

elongate, subelliptical, with a straight dorsal edge and neatly roundeel 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOrODA OK THE PAL.KO/OIC llOCKS. 



0< 



ends. The edgo-viow of the cast is like a half-opened bivalve carapace, 
Avitli a definite Ktroiif^ anterior notch and a small weak posterior indenta- 
tion between the ends of the valves. 

Gijtheropsl'^ is . >t a t^ood jreneric terra; but we cannot offer any 
additional information on this peculiar form. 

Zonozoe covaplrxa. and Z. Jh'uhon'eitxin (np. cit. p. 554, &c.) iiiay 
jiossibly prove to be syinmetrical operculii of some shells. 

M. Barrandc's Cnjptocarin ( ap. ril. pp. 460, &c.) was )ilaced by him 
next to Apti/c/iopsia with considerable doubt. Wo incline to the belief 
Ihat most of the examples of this little form con-espond with oporcula of 
Gasteropods, and thus are comparable with such fossils as I'dtariov, 
which is now known to be the opereulo of a Nerit(ipsi>t. Wo may suggest 
also that some of tho forms referred to Cri/pttii-nrin have a distant like- 
ness to tho opercula of such Corals as (I'diLuqiln/llinu, &c. 






IX. Ckescknttlla, Barrrnde, 187:2. Cri:i"-n,itilla pnrjna.r, Barr. ' Syst. Sil. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. p. ')07, pi. 20, ligs. la-i. 

Placed among tho doulitful lOntomostracan forms by our late friend 
Barrande, this curious little fossil seems to us to fall into its natural 
i;rouping near I'lerocaris and Diptcronin's, for it is open bpJiunl, ar,d, 
though found in separate parts, it Avas also found with, sides united, and 
it may have been sutured along the very short line of junction which the 
shape of its laterals allowod. 

If we look at M. Barrando's fig. 1 h in a position reversed (upside 
«lown) to that in which it is drawn, we shall readily ob. "ve that the two 
reniform lateral pieces, meeting at their convex borders, have the charac- 
teristic triangular cephalic piece at one end, and an open notch at the 
other, just as in Ptcrocaris. The shape, however, of the nearly semi- 
<ircular or short-reniform laterals, with their outside crescent points, 
makes them markedly distinct. The test, apparently smooth, and faintly 
convex, has been replaced by iron-oxide. It is minute, being only a little 
more than 1 mm. in fore and alt measurement, by about 2 mm. ac.oss. 
Specimens were found in Etage d ; some in d 2, near Trubsko ; mosi, in 
d o, near Trubin : a few in d 4, near Chrustonitz, and d o, near Koenigshof. 

' Thus,' says M. Barrande, ' this species ranges nearly throughout the 
Quartzites D, c to d of tho Faiinc seivndr.' 



X. Al'TYcnoi'Sis, Barrande, 1872. ' Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. 
pp. 4;{G, 455; and 11. Woodward, 1872, ' Geol. ^lag.' vol. ix. 
p. 504 ; • Report Brit. Assoc, for 1872, 187:3,' p. 323. 

A circular or elliptical, slightly convex, tripartite shield or carapace ; 
divided by a median ' donsal ' suture extending from the posterior margin 
f "• ,vard to within half, or a third, oi" a fifth, of the length of the test, accord- 
ing to the shape of the latter, and then meeting the api!X of a symmetrical 
V-shapod suture, which extends to the front margin at different angles in 
different species. This angular ('nuchal') suture forms a line of much 
weaker resistance than the longitudinal suture ; and the carapace has 
very fiequoutly given way after the death of the animal, and allowed the 
triangular (' rostra' " or ' cephalic ') ])ortion to bo removed, together with 
the anterior limbs and soft parts of the animal, as suggested Jby Dr. H. 



ML'- 



REPORT — 1884. 



Woodward.' Thus an angular notch is often present in the forepart of 
the fossil carapace. The median sutnrc has often been pressed inwards, 
but more frequently it has parted, leaving the two larger parts of the test 
separate. These remain as subtriangular plates, straight-edged but 
angular on the inner margin, and either elliptically curved or almost 
semicircular on the outer or free borders. They occur usually as black 
<;arbonaceons films on the bed-planes of the sti-ata ; but sometimes they 
have a somewhat corneous or chitinous appearance. 

A concentric linear ornament covers the whole shield ; num-rous 
delicate ridges and furrows, following the curve of tlie outer margin, 
converge and are concentric at the point where the doi'sal and nuchal 
sutures meet, at or in front of the centre of the test. The style of orna- 
ment is similar to that of the bivalve Estlieria, which shows a neat 
arrangement of raised lines of growth, concentric with the umbones. 
In the case of TJllipsocaris, even the interlinear sculpturing is present. 
('Geol. Mag.' Oct. 1882, p. 415.) If the two valves of Jhthcria, be laid 
open, their surface would represent the shield of Apfycliojisig ; the open 
angle then formed by their anterior margins would be analogous to tho 
nuchal notch ; and for that of their hinder margins we may find an 
analogue in the split posterior border of Di^terocaris and other forms 
allied to Discinocaris and Apiycliopsis, 



1. Ajjf !/cJio2^st8 
entre la 
Boheme,' vol 
' Leth. Geogn 



prima, Barrandc, 1872, and var. Secunda. 
Boheme et la Scandinavie,' 185G, p. G2. 

i. Suppl. 1872, p. 457, t. :];5, figs 1-21. 

187G, t. 10, f. ;{ct, 'M) (after Barra ue). 



' ParallMe 

Syst. Sil. 
Koemer, 



This includes, according to ]\[. Barrande, both round and somewhat 
obovate forms of the tripartite shield-like test, which both Barrande and 
H. Woodward termed Aptijchopfiis independently in the same year (1872). 

Among the figures on plate IV.i of Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. 
circular forms are represented by figs. 1-8, 12-18, 20, and 21 ; and more 
or less ohovate tests by figs 9-11 and 19. 

In tho British Museum (Natural History) are somi3 specimens labelled 
by M. Barrande many years ago, as ' Aptijchits ? primus ' and ' AptijcJms ? 
necunclus.' The former were decidedly obovate forms, when perfect, with 
the two lateral moieties and the frontal (cephalic or rostral) in place; and 
the latter (when perfect) were nearly or quite round. Evidently our 
deceased friend had decided to group the two kinds together, by tho time 
he published the Supplemental volume of his great work treating of these 
Pbyllopods. The circular shields found in Bohemia arc chiefly from tho 
schistose or slaty mudstone of Borek, Avith some from Litohlow and 
Kozel — all in Etage •]'] e 1 ' ; and tlie ovate or obovate forms come from 
the same geological origin, but in limestone at other localities, as 
Butowitz, Slawick, and Wohrada, and rare at Kozel. 

Wo think that it will be advisable to distinguish the two forma, by 
regarding one of them as varietal. Keeping M. Barrande's specific tarvn 
Aptycliopsis prima, because his extensive series of specimens gave him 
reason to regard the majority as being rather longer in tho fore and aft 
diameter than in the transverse direction, and therefore not essentially 
circular, wg may look upon the elongate and decidedly obovate forms as 



Quart, Jour. Geol. Sac. vol, xxii. p. C04'; and Geol. Mag. Dec. 2, vol. be. p. 387. 



ON THE FOSSIL rnYLLOPGDA OF THE I'AL.BOZOIC KOCKS. 



89 



typical, and know them as Apti/chopsis prima, about 2.5 ram. lonpr by 
20 mm. in width ; and with the nuchal suture at an anpflo of 50°. Two 
specimens in the liritish Museum (Natural History) in limestone from 
Butowitz, and labelled * Apti/chus ? 2)nmus,' belong to this form; also figs. 
0-11 and 19 in pi. oli of the ' Sil. Syst. Bohome,' &c.; and two small 
round individuals labelled ^ AptycJnis ? seciindus' (15 mm, in each 
diameter ; nuchal suture with slope of 40°), in shaley mudstone from 
Borck, belong to the varietal form, Aplijchopsls prima, Barrande, var. 
secunda. 

M. Barrande included with doubt another form in this genus — namely, 
his ApUjcliopsis ? ivjlafa, 'Syst. Sil. Bohem.' vol. i. Suppl, p. 459, pi. 33. 
figs. 22, 23. But this seems to be an Entomis, and may stand as Enlomis? 
inflata (Barrande), from the hills between Lodenitz and Bubowitz, 
Etage Ee 2. 

There are no Goniatitcs in ' I5tage E,' representing the lower part of 
the ' Fauna III.,' which is equivalent to the Upper Silurian. There are, 
however, some Goniatitcs (five species), rather higher up, in ' Etage P,* 
which is in the middle part of ' Fauna III.' 

M. Barrande's careful and elaborate account of what was known of 
Aptijchopsis up to 1872 is almost sufficient in every respect. See tho 
' Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. 1872, p. 455. 

In the Sixth Report on Fossil Crustacea to the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, in 1872, Dr. Henry Woodwai'd defined 
some Phyllopodous species and grouped them under the same name (inde- 
pendently arrived at) as M. Barrande proposed in the same year (see 
above). See also Dr. H. Woodward's note on Peltocnris, Disclnocaris, and 
Aptijchopsis in Nicholson and Ethcridge's 'Fossils of the Girvan District,' 
1880, pp. 210, 211. 

"M. Barrande (np. cif. p. 455) states that Aptychopsis had been found 
by Professor Angelin in Dalecai'lia and Gothland in Upper Silurian strata 
at about the same horizon as that in which they occur in Bohemia. We 
cannot, however, learn of tho existence of any Scandinavian specimens. 

2. Aptijchopsis Wilsoni, IT. Woodward, 1872. ' Sixth Report on Fossil 
Crustacea — Report British Association for 1872, 1873,' p. 323 ; 
' Geol. Mag.' vol. ix. 1872, p. 565. 

This species has a discoidal shield, and was briefly described, in 1872, 
as having a straight (not circular) nuchal suture (making a triangular 
cephalic plate) and a well-marked median or dorsal suture, and as mea- 
suring l.\ inch in length, by IjJ inch across. There are three specimens 
of Aptychopsis Wilscni in the British Museum, and they would probably 
be almost round in outline if quite perfect. Thoy arc from the Riccarton 
beds (Upper Silurian), at Sliankend, Slitrig Water, near Hawick; Gad's 
Linn, near Hawick ; and ElliottsGeld, near Hawick, Dumfriesshire. 

We may add that tho cephalic notch is not so deep as in some allied 
forms; its iipex was about one-third of the length of tho median suture 
from the front edge of the shield. The usual concentric lines are apparent 
on some specimens. 

One largo specimen would measure 40 mm. in each diameter if com- 
plete ; its nuchal suture slopes 40°. Another specimen (imperfect) 
measures 30 mm. across, and has a nuchal slope of G0°; difference of 
pressure has caused this discrepancy. 



90 



BEPOKT — 1884. 



3. Ajif i/chopsis Ltipworfhi, H. Woodward, 1872. 'Sixth Report on 
Fossil Crustacea,' in 'Report Brit. Assoc, for 1872, 1873,' p. 323; 
' Geol. Mag.' vol ix. 1872, p. oC5 ; ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxiv. 1878, p. 331. 

This Phyllopod shield was also briefly described by Dr. H. Woodward 
at the same time and in the same Report with the foregoiii]^. It is oval, 
8 lines lon<^ by 7 broad (1 lino = ,'.j inch). It is concentrically striate in 
most of the examples preserved, and in one case it retiiiiis the cephalic 
plate. The best specimen has this plate in place, but 1li(! several >arts 
and tho edges of the notch have been slif^htly damaged and disturbed by 
pressure, so that its angularity is somewhat modified. This is from tho 
Birkhill Shales in Eldinhopc Burn on (ho Yarrow, Selkii-kshire. This 
division of the upper part of the Moffat 81iales ' is regatded as equivalent 
to the lower part of tho Middle Silurian (Lower Llandovery). Another 
specimen in the British Museum is from the Birkhill Shales at Sund- 
hope Burn, in tho same neighbourhood, and another from the (Jrieston 
Shales of tho Gala Croup, at Inverleithen, above the Moffat Croup, and 
equivalent to the upper part of tho Middle Silurian. A good specimen 
measures 17 mm. long by 14 mm. broad. Another appears to have been 
23 mm. long by 18 mm. wide. The angle of the nuchal suture may have 
been about 50°. 

A specimen of Apfi/cJiopsiii very similar to, if not identical with, 
Aptychojisis Lajnvorthi, is in the University ^Museum, Cambridge, from 
the Lower- Wenlock beds of Rebecca Kill, Ulverstone. It is 'abelled 
' Peltocaris anatina, Salter,* and is referred to under that name in the 
' Catal. Cambridge Fossils, &c.,' 1873, p. 03. Tho frontal notch is 
angular, the median sutural lino is raised along the depressed shield, and 
concentric striae are present. 

In another specimen in the same Museum, the test has been narrowed 
by latei-al pressure, acting obliquely across the long axis of tho shield, as 
is indicated by imperfect cleavage-planes crossing tho modified test at 
an angle of about G0°. The frontal notch has been narrowed, its sides 
made unequal, and its apex somewhat rounded. 

This specimen is from Skelgill Beck ; collected by Mr. Marr, F.G.S. 

What seems to be a similar example of a modified Aptychopsis, 
squeezed into an even naiTower and more lanceolate shape, has been 
figured by Mr. James Dairon in tho ' Transactions of the Geological 
Society of Glasgow,' vol. vii. pi. 7, fig. 3."), and referred to in tho 
Explanation of tho plate as ' Dtscinocaris Browniana, var. ovalis, Dairon.' 

All the little Phyllopod tests figured in this plate 7 are termed 
* Discinocaris Dnnrnitma ' by Mr. Dairon ; but they appear to belong to 
other genera. Fig. 20 looks like Peltocans aiitychoidcs. Figs. 31 and 
34 are round shields of probably A. glabra, H.W. Fig. 8.5 seems to bo 
a specimen of either A. Lapwortki or A. glabra much narrowed by 
pressure ; but it may be otherwise. Figure 32 is a discoidal Aptyclwimny 

• The classification of the successive formations in tho Mofr'at district and vicinity 
has been worked out by i'rofessor Lapworth, •^o (ivot. Mag. vol. ix. 1874, jip. n:};j-53(5; 
Quart. Jour, Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. 1878, pp. 240-.34(i ; and Proceed. Jielfant i\at. 
Field- Club, ser. 2, vol. i. part 4, Appendix IV. 1878; also Cntal. Wcxtcrn-Scottiik 
Fossils, by Armstronjj, Younpr, and Robertson, 1876, p. 24. Although numerous 
Phyllopod shields have been met with, no Goniatites have been recorded from these 
beds. 



ON THE FOSSIL PIIYLLOrODA OF THE rAL.tOZOIC BOCKS. 



91 



but it is rather wider than long (oblatcly circular), and it has a very 
wide and deep notch. 



' about 7 linos ( ,^ 
and concentricallv 



4. Aptychoims rjlahra, H. Woodward, 1872. ' Sixth Report on Fossil 
Crustacea, Report IBrit. Assoc, for 1H72,' p. 1^23 ; ' Geol. Mag.' vol. \. 
(1872) p. 5G5. 

Tliis is an almost circular shield when perfect, 
inch) in diameter,' with a wide and deep notch, 
markt;d. It is like A. Wilsoni in general appearance, but is smaller and 
<lifferent in proportions, having a relatively larger notch. It is also near 
io the discoidal forms of A. prima, Barrando (var. secnnda). It is from 
the Buckholm beds of the Gala group, Meigle, Galashiels, Dumfries. 
About 18 mm. in diameter ; nuchal suture sloping at an angle of 50°. 

It may be the same as Gucullella angulata, Daily, ' Explan. Sheet 13"), 
Geol. Surv. Ireland,' 18G0, p. 13, fig. 4 (woodcut). From the Lower 
Silurian; Cloncannon, co. Tipporary. 

Specimens closely resembling A. glabra have been noticed and figured 
by Mr. Dairon in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. vii. (1883), 
p. 177, pi. 7, figs. 31 and 34, from the Mofl'at Shales. 

5. Aptychopsis, sp. 

A single lefthand portion of the shield of an Aptijchopsis iu black 
shale is preserved in the British Museum, unfortunately without locality, 
which may belong to a distinct species. It has the usual cUiptico- 
triangular shape of these separate moieties, but it is relatively broad in 
front, with its anterior angle rounded, and the slope of the nuchal suture 
is at about 35°, which makes a low wide cephalic notch. It has delicate 
concentric lines, and very delicate radiating ruguhr (besides radiate lines 
due to breakage under pressure). Jt measured, when perfect, about 27 
by 25 mm. 

G. Ajttijchopsiii, sp. 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, London, are five specimens of an 
Aptyr.hpsis, from the Cambrian slaty or schistose strata (known as 
Tremadoc Slates) at Garth, near Portmadoc, North Wales. They consist 
of elliptico-triangular moieties of an ohowaiG ApfyrJiopsis Hh'ni\(i in difl'erent 
states of preservation. The apex of the notch is above the centre of the 
test (unless altered bj pressure), and its slope is at abont 50". The out- 
line of the whole tripartite shield would be broad obovato. Concentric lines 
are faintly marked. The shape was probably (when perfect) broader than 
the long foi'ms of Barrande's A. frlma. It approaches A. Lnpu-nrtlu also 
in outline, but it is not quite so lull in the posterior curv'c, though larger 
altogether —probably 82 mm. long by 30 mm. broad. 

7. AphjcJiopals Sailer!, H. Woodward, 18H2. 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, 
vol. ix. p. 389, t. 9, tig. 17; 

This distinctly marked bpecies had an ovate outline when perfect, 
broadest in the hinder half: nuclial suture sloping at about 45°, its apex 
reaching back a little more than a fourth of the whole length of the test. 
Length about 35 mm., width 2G mm. 

Upper Silurian (Wenlock Shale), at Pencarreg, Caermarthenshire, 
South Wales. 



92 



REPORT — 1884. 



8. Apt.jclioims, sp. 

In the University Museum at Cambiiilgc is a small tliscoidal Apti/. 
chupsis (laV'lled ' .1. unatlna '), which is subcircuhir or oblately circular 
(that is, transversely oval, with a broad elliptical contour). It is rather 
convex ; the sutural lino remains raised along the somewhat depressed 
aarfaco ; and perhaps the test is now rather broader than at first, but not 
far from the orijjfiiial si/.o and shape. Concentric ])arallel lines ornament 
the surface ; nuchal suture at an anjrle of about 0(1'' ; (ho notch occupying 
about a third of the length of the shield, which was -0 mm. long by 
26 mm. in width. 

Collected by Mr. ^larr, F.G.S., in he Bi-alhay (Lower Coniston) 
Flags, at Nanny Lane, Troutbeclc, Winilerniere. 

A similar form from iloffat has been fijrurcd by Mr. James Dairon in 
the 'Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. vii. part 1, 188;?, pi. 7, f. '-Vl. 

There is a somewhat similar oblately (circular Ajiliiiltopsis in the British 
Museum, from the Gala Group, Gala Hill, (ialashiels ; but it is smaller, 
and has a relatively larger notch. It seems to have been mm. in length 
(fore and aft), and 12 mm. wide. The slope of the nuchal sutui'e is 
about r)0°, and the notch reaches half-way down the tost : this, however, 
has suffered considerable vertical pressure. 







(Jeoloijical 




Shiipo 


horizon 


Aptychopsis. 






1. A. prima, liiirrandc 


Obovalc 


Upper Silurian 


1*. A, prima, var. urcuiuht 


Hound 


Upper Silurian 


2. ^1. Wihoni, 11. \V. 


Hound 


lIppiT Silurian 


;{. A. Lajmwf/ii, H. W. 


( )val 


Middlt! Silurian 


4. A. glabra, 11. AV. . 


Hound 


Upper Siluriati 


5. ^. sp 


Obovate 


•I 


(!. A. sp 


Obovatc 


Tromjuloc Slates 


7. A. Saltei-i, H. W. . 


Ovate 


Upper Silurian 


8. A. sp 


Oblate 


Upper Silurian 



No Goniatitos have been found witli any of tlie abovn. 
[N 15. — The new species will receive names wlien they are figured.] 



XI. Pkltocakis, Salter, 18G3. Dithyrocaru, Salter, 1852, 'Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. viii. p. 391 ; Ceratiocaris, Salter, 1800, ' Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' ser. 3, vol. v. p. 161 ; Fdturaris, Salter, 1803, ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. p. 87. 

This Phyllopod has a discoidal, round or oval, tripartite shield, with 
a straight median dorsal suture, and a curved nuchal suture, which, giving 
way after death more easily than the other, has left in some instances a 
rounded, elliptical, or semi-oval cephalic notch in the shield. The separate 
lateral pieces of the test have an inner concave curve meeting the convexity 
of tb ^ outer margin, instead of a straight .sloping inner edge as in Ajih/- 
chophis. These two lateral moieties, however, are not so frequently found 
separate as is the case with Aptiichoiysifi. In some instances a smaller 
notch appears at the bottom or apex of the curved notch, sometimes with 
a little escutcheon peculiar to it ; but this feature requires much more 
attention. The shield is concentrically striate as in Aptychipsis. 

1. relfocaris aphjcholdes, Salter, 1852, * Quax-t. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. viii. 
1852, p. 391, pi. 21, f. 10; this figui-e shows a specimen oblately circular, 
and probably squeezed obliquely. 'Ann. ^lag. Xat. Hist.' 1860, I. c. 



ON Tin; losjiiL rj[YF.LoroDA of tub paleozoic nocKS. 



93 



parato 
ivexity 

fouml 

vmallev 

3 with 

. more 



ol. viii. 
icalar, 
I. c. 



* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. IRGo, p. 88, f. 1 (woodcut) gives a cir- 
cular form ; but at p. I'U, f. I- (woodcut) gives an oval outline. 

In 18GG (^ Quart. Jonr. Gcol. Soc* vol. xxii. p. 504, pi. 25, f. G) Dr. 
]I. Woodward gave a eareful figure of this species from a good spocimen 
(niea.suriiig 12i mm. in length ii'<.d 10 mm. iu width '), giving it its true 
oval outline, nither hhuit at the cads, the rostral piece making a distinct 
curve of its own at the front (^loHat). A distorted specimen is figured 
in the 'Proc. Uelfiist Ts'at. Field Club,' 1877, Appendix, pi. 7, f. 24a, by 
Messrs. Lapwortli it Swanston, from Tievcsliilly, near Portaferry, Co. 
Down, Ireland. This is from either the top of the Middle Silurian or the 
base of the Upper Sihirian ((7;. n't. p. 122). II. Woodward's figure is 
reproduced in illustration here, fig. 24i ; and again by Mr. J. Dairon, 
♦Trans. Geol. Soc. Ghispow,' 1883, pi. 7, f. 2!t, for a Motfat specimen. 

Some specimens in the Museum of the Geological Survey are oval. 
One (D;f*.), almost perfect, is a pyritous film, with the rostral piece in 
place, and with obscure coneontrio lines; from the Llandcilo formation; 
locality unknown. Specimen 1),^ is a black film; the shield has been 
oval, but one half is modified by pressure. Upper Llandcilo ; Duif-Kennel, 
Dumfries. 

In the ^luseum at Jermyn Street there is also an imperfect Peltocaris 
(D ^"^g, from Motfat), of relatively largo size, length ?, width 24 mm., very 
delicately and regularly concentric in its linear ornament; and it seems 
to show what Mr. Salter intimated at p. 88, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. 
— namely, that the umbonos, or angles at the front end of the median 
sutures, may come away by the weakness of a small curved sntural lino 
bounding them and concentric with the stria>. See also Mr. Salter's 
drawing of the notch in 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. viii. pi. 21, f. 10. 

In the British I^Iuseum, a specimen (from the Grioston beds, Gala 
Group, Rotten Gair, Inverleithen), slightly modified by pressure, was 
probably almost oval in outline, 15 by 14 mm. Another, also broadly 
oval when perfect, length about 10 mm., width IG mm., has somewhat 
sinuous sides to the notch, that is, it widens in the middle and then con- 
tracts, forming a small notch at its apex. Something like this, but not 
quite the same, is seen in the figures of the natni-al size and enlarged at 
p. 88, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix.; it more closely resembles 
fig. 10, pi. 21, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Sue' vol. viii. 

2. PcUoraris anat'nm, Salter, 1873. 

In the ' Catal. Paliooz. Fossils Cambridge,' 1873, at p. 03, Mr. Salter 
mentions this species, but it is not figured. The diagram annexed to it, 
and given in illustration of the generic type, is P. aptijchoulen. That a 
Pcltocan's was intended here is evident from the words, ' its semi-oval 
rostrum is seldom found ; ' but the specimen (from Rebecca Hill) labelled 
with this name in the Cambridge Museum is an Apti/chopsis (with angular 
notch). Mr. Salter's intended species cannot therefore be recognised at 
present. 

In this Museum there is an oval Phyllopod shield, with a semi-oval 
notch, but it has been somewhat narrowed by lateral pressure, and the 
notch may have been modified by the same cause. The suture, however, 
cannot be made out : if it be absent, tlie specimen belongs to another 

' The statement that tlio tiguvc is magnified throe times seems to be a mistake in 
the explanation of tlui plate. 



94 



liLi'OiiT -18H4. 



genus, of course. Leii|L,'t,li (us \t is) 2o mm., width 12 mm. This fossil 
was colloctod by !Mr. iMiivi', F.d.S., at Lonu; Sh-ddalc in a (Iraptolitic 
niudstono of the Conistoii scrioH, and has buou thought to bo such as 
Salter intended for his 1*. auutina. 

3. I'dtocarifi, sp. 

In the llritisli JIuseum, two specimens of a small PcUncarla in tlio 
Mofl'at Anthracitic shalo from Wustliopo Burn, at St. Mary's Loch, shows 
an obovate outline, broad and round anteriorly (when perfect), narrowed 
and pointed behind ; almost cordate. A portion of tlie front phito 
remains in tlio scmioval notch of one of the specimens. Longtli probably 
14 ram., width 10 mm. 

4. reltocuris, sp. 

In shape much like AptijrJioj)8is No. 8, i)age 18 ; small, oblate or 
transversely oval, but with a very wide ncniicirciilar notch. In the 
British Museum ; from the Moffat anthracitic shale of Belcraig, Annan- 
dale (either the Birkhill or Hartfell serics= Lower Llandovery, or 
Caradoc-Bala). Length fore and aft (shortened by pressure) probably 
mm. ; transver.so (rather increased) 13 mm. 

In the Cambridge Museum is a similar but still smaller I'eltocaris, 
shortened and widened by the mudstone having been squeezed horizon- 
tally. Fore and aft diameter probably G mm., transver.so (increased by 
squeeze) i> mm. Collected by Mr. Marr, F.G.S., in the Coniston 
Mudstone at Skelgill Beck, near Ambleside. 

5. Peltucitriii? HarLucssi, Salter, 18G3. 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.* 
vol. xix. p. 89, fig. 2 (woodcut). 

Shape indeterminate ; it may be a piece of any large species, and the 
author was uncertain as to its alliance. Anthracite beds (of Llandcilo 
age), Dumfriesshire. 





rKi.Toc.vni.s. 


Slmpe 




(loological horizon 


1. 


Pcltocaris ajytychmdeg, Salter 


. Oval . 




/Lower and Middle 
I. iSiliirian, 


2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 


P. anatina, Salter ? . 

P. sp 

P. sp. .... 

P. 1 lltirhussi, Salter. , 


1 
*. Oblate* 
. Oblate 
? 




•I 

Lower Silurian, 
r Lower or Middle and 
l_ Uj)per Silurian. 

Lower Silurian. 



No Goniatites have beeti found with any of these. 



i 



XII. PiNNOCAKTS, 11. Ethcridge, .Tun., 1878. 'Proc. 11. Phys. Soc. 
Edinb.' vol. iv. 1878, p. 1G7 ; Nicholson &, Etheridge, Juu., ' Fossils 
of the Girvan District ' (1880), p. 207. 

Carapace bent and probably sutured along the back. Lateral pieces, 
found apart, in outline like the valves of a rinna ; dorsal margin straight ; 
front edge rounded (in some cases semicircular, in others clliptically 
rounded) ; ventral margin sinuous, fully convex anteriorly, sloping and 
sometimes partly concave posteriorly. Concentrically striate, with 
delicate lines following the contour of the margin and centering on a 
kind of umbo situate at about a third of the length of the valve from its 
front edge. 



ON THE FOSSilL rilYI.LOrODA OF Till; TALKO/OIC liOCK.S. 



9o 



Soc.» 



"Whcro llio front ('(lijes aro cllipticaliy ronndi'd, thoro wonld ho a 
nlipfht notch in tho saiiio poHitioii as that in Ai>hjcli(ipsis; but thorn is no 
«!vitlenco of any cephalic or rostral pieco having occupied it. On tho 
contrary, tho genus may have been truly bivalve, like Httflicria and other 
such l*hyllopods. This genus is known in tho Lower and I fppor Silurian. 

1. Pinnocnris Lnjurnrfhi, R. Ethoridge, Jun. ' Proc. R. Phys. Soc. 
Edinb.' vol. iv. (1878), p. lt;i», pi. 2, tigs. 3-5; ' Fo.s8ils of Girvan,' 
Ac.' p. 280, pi. l.J,, tigs. 17-21). 

Figs. 18, 10, and 20 have ihe postero- ventral edge of tho valve much 
more contracted than fi<r. 17 (imperfect) would have if completed accord- 
ing to tho contours of its remaining linos of growtli. Possibly a varietij 
is here indicated. Moreover, tlie front edge of tig. 17 is much more 
rounded (more semicircular) tlian tlio others, mlrnittiug of little or no 
cephalic piece. These aro from the Lower Silurian at IJaleletchie, 
riirvan, Ayrshire. A specimen of tin; form orviiriety sliown by fig. 17 — 
that is, witli the hinder portion less piiiclied in— i« i" the Uritish Museum, 
from tho Upper Silurian of Kt-ndal. 

The shield is triangular -obovate, if tho two lateral pieces bo laid out 



getlier. 












Lont;th 


( 


ircntcst witllli ot 


(lilR'ri'rit cxiur.plos 




inm. 




nun. 






88 




12 






80 




10 






28 




8 





No Cioniatites accompany these specimens. 

CaUDAI, Al'l'KNDAGES. 

From the analogy of allied forms, we should expect that these 
Apudiform Crustacesins had more or less extended abdominal segments 
and caudal spines. With reganl to this part of their organism wo have 
not much to remark, except that a few such styles or stylets as aro 
attached to th(> telson in known forms liav(( been found in strata containing 
Discinoi'uris, Pultvcavh, or Ajihirhiipxi,<. Thus, at the Skelgill Beck, 
Ambleside, in tho Coniston (U|)per Silurian) mndstones, in which 
Disi-lnocaris and Feliocaris occur, Mr. J. 10. Marr found a small tapering 
caudal spine, 15 mm. long, and delicately striate (now in tho Cambridge 
^[u.seum). This may have belonged to one of tho forms just mentioned. 
So, also, there is a small thin spine, '.\h mm. long, and apparently dotted 
with tho bases of minute prickles, in tho British Museum, from the 
Riccarton (Upper Silurian) beds of Shankend, near Hawick ; and two 
(probably the remnant of a .set of three), one o") mm long and fluted, 
and the other 20 mm. long, from the Buckholm beds (Upper Silurian) of 
the Gala group, Meigle Hills, Galashiels. These are large enough for 
Ceraliocariii, but only AptijcJiopsis apd I'ellucariti are known in these 
strata. 

We may add that a few small caudal spines, 20 ram. long, have been 
found by Mr. Marr in tho Upper Arenig Slates at tho Nantllo tramway, 
Pont Seiont, near Caernarvon. Here they aro associated with Giryocaris. 
See ' First Report on tho Palaeozoic Phyllopoda.' 



06 REPoni — 1884. 

Tenth Report of the Committeo, conslntui;/ of Professor K. Hill, 
Dr. II. W. Chosskkv, Caytain Doucjlas (ialton, I'rofl'ssors .1. 
PuKSTWiCH and (J. A. Lf.iioi^h, rt7?(^ Messrs. Jamks Glaisiikh, K. 1?. 
Mahtk.n, (r. II. Moi{ton,Jamks Paukkk, W.Pknoklly, James Plant, 

I. JiOHKHTS, Vox STHAN(i\VAYS, T. S. StoOKK, (r. J. SyMOXS, 

\V. Toi'LLV, TYLDKN-WiiUiiiT, !«'. Wktiikrki), W. Whitakkk, 
and C. K. I)k Kanck {Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of invent if/at I ni/ the Circulation of Undenp'onnd ^Vatern in the 
Pemaeahle Formation.'^ of J'Jii(/land and Wales, and the Qaantit/f 
and Character of the Wider mippUed to various I'oivns and 
Districts from, those Formations. Drawn up by C E. 1)k Kanck. 

The Chairman and Scorctniy of your Conimittco are both unavoidahly 
oblip;ed to be absent at tlie Mdnti-ciil iiiceliiif,', whicli is a source of regret 
to tliemselvcs ; tlio more so tliat, tliis hulu^' flio case, it has been tliought 
advisable to delay presenting their linal Jloporfc on tbo Circulation of 
Underground Waters in South Britain until next year, when the Com- 
mittee will have been twelve years in existence. During these years 
particulars have been collected of the sections passed through by a very 
large number of wells and borings; a daily record has been obtained 
of the height at which water stands in many of these wells ; invcstiga^-ions 
have been carried out as to the <]uantity of water held by a cubic foot 
of various rocks, by Mr. Wethcred ; and as to the filtering power of 
Bandstones, and the influence of barometric pressure and luiuir changes 
on the height of underground waters, by Mr. I. Roberts. During the 
present year the attention of the Committee has been directed to the 
remarkable influence of the earthquake which visited the east and east- 
central counties of England, in March last, in raising the levels of the 
water in the wells of Colchester and elsewhere. 

More detailed information is still required as to the proportion of actual 
rainfall absorbed by various soils, over extended periods representing 
typical dry and wet years. Information on these heads and on other points 
of general interest bearing on the percolation of underground waters, 
referring to observations made in Canada or the United States, would be 
gladly welcomed by the Committee, and would be incorporated in their 
eleventh and final report to be presented next year. 



Appendix — Copy of Questions circulated. 

1. Position of well or .shafts with which you are acijuaintcd ? Xa, State date at 
which the well or shaft was ori;;inally sunk. Has it been (leopeiierl since by sinkin<? 
or borinf; ? and when ? 2. Approximate height of tlie surface of the ground above 
Ordnance Datum (mean sea-lcvcl) ? 3. Depth from the surface to bottom of shaft 
or well, with diameter. Depth from surface to bottom of bore-hole, with diameter/ 
3a. Depth from \\\i\ surface to the horizontal drift-ways, if any ? What is their 
length and number .' 4. Height below the surface at which water stands before and 
after pumpin<:i; ? Number of hours elapsine- before ordinary level is restored after 
pumping ? 4rt. Height below the surface at which the water svood when the well 
was first sunk, and licight at which it stands now when not pumped? 5. Quantity 
capable of being pumped in gallons per day of twenty-four hours ? Average quantitj- 
daily pumped ? 6. Does the nater-lerel vary at different seasons of the year, and to 
what extent ? Has it diminished during the last ten years ? 7. Is the ordinary 
tvatcr-lcrel over affected by local rains, and, if so, in how short a time ? And how 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



97 



does it stand in rojranl to tho level of the water in the nci>.'lil)oinin>j streams, or sea ? 
•. AnaljiK'S of the water, if any. Does the water possess any niarl<ed iwculutrity 1 

9. Scctuni, wilii nature of tiie rock pass(.'d tlirou^rii, iiieliidiii^,' cover of I)rift, if any, 
witli t/iicliiinK .' 9ti. In wliieh of tlie above nicies were siniri^'sof water inlercejited ? 
10> Does till! cover of Drift over tlie roclt cnnttun »iir/(irf /•///■iuyn ! 11. If so, arc 
t\\i:»v land /(/;//«(//( kejit entirely wC of tlie weli .' 12, Are any iar^'e/rt«/<« Icnown 
tf) exist close to tlie well .' 13. Were any hriuc Hjiriiii,* passed tiiroii;;li in niulcin^ 
the well / 1ft. Are tliere any »alt x/>rini/s in the neiKldx'urhood .' IB. Have any 
wells or borin>;s been discontinued in your nei^litK>iirhood in «;onse(|iience of tho 
water bein<j more or less hiachinh.' If so, please ^dvt; s»'ction in reply lu (luery No. U. 

10. Kindly j,'ive any further information you can. 



date at 
sinking: 

nd alMJve 
of shaft 

liameter ? 
is their 

efore- and 

red after 
the well 
Quantity 
quantity 
,r, and to 
ordinary 
And how 



Fifth (Old last Report of the Comiiuttee^ coasidlnrj of Dr. H. C. 
SoRHY, F.H.S., and Mr. (1. K. Vink, appointed for the purpose of 
reportuit/ on Fossil Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vink. 

Tin; classification wliidi lias been adopted in this Report is that 
formulated by tho Rev. Thomas Kiiicks for his work on Jlritish ^fariue 
Polyzoa, vliich seems to be in the main accepted by Mr. A. W. Waters 
for his various papers since the publication of Hincks's work. 

The classification of D'Orbigny ' was based upon certain characters 
which, as Mr. Hincks says, had one good feature at least : his family 
groups had a wide range, and embraced many diversities in tho mode of 
growth. ' His genera, on tho other hand, are often founded on utterly 
trivial features, and have been multiplied indefinitely to represent every 
insignificant variation of habit.' Mr. Waters, in his pajier on tho 
' Bryuzoa from the Pliocene of Bruccoli,' says that tho classification was 
based upon many characters by D'Orbigny, without his ' understanding 
their zoological signification, and the consequence was that some forms 
could actually belong to several genera .... D'Orbigny attached much 
greater importance to the form of tho cell than to the mode ot aggregate 
growth, and in some cases signified the Ibrm of a colony by an allix, so 
that there was Eschara and .Utpt-ei-cJiara, the first erect and the second 
incrusting.' His knowledge, however, ' of Polyzoan form is perhaps 
unsurpassed, and by his clear dingnosis and splendid plates ho has given 
us a lew revelation of the structuiul variety and beauty of the class."'' 

' We owe to Professor Smitt the first serious attempt to substitute a 
natura. system for the purely artificial arrangement hitlierto in use. . . . 
He has aimed at a genealogical classification, starting with the proposition 
that the variations of species follow the line of their development, and 
may be in a great measure explained by it.' In dealing, however, with 
this question Mr. Hincks points out how diflicult to tho mere systematist 
tho attempt to classify upon genealogical principles would be — ' if it 
should ever be feasible' — and if this would bo dillicult in dealing with 
living, the difficulties would be innumerable in dealing with fossil species. 
In spite of this, then, there is another important fjature in Pi-ofessor 

Smitt's system that is far more practicable ' the place 

which he assigns to the Zuoecium in the construction of families and 
genera. The mere mode of growth he treats as a perfectly subordinate 
character, and bases his divisions chiefly on the essential element of the 
structure of the cell. In practice, this principle applies chiefly to the 

' Pal. Franq. Ter. Crvt. vol. v. * Hincks, <»/;. c'U. p. cxx. 

1884. H 




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98 REPORT— 1884. 

Cheilostomata — but. the revolutionary step involves the breaking up of a 
large proportion of the older genera and the wide dispersion of forms 
hitherto most closely associated . . . . The variations of habit, which have 
been made the criteria of genera, may occur within the limits of a species. 
It is not the mode in which the cells combine, but the cell itself that is 
the true test of relationship and the essential basis of a natural group.' ' 

With the Cyclostomata we have an increase of difficulties when dealing 
with the cell alone, and it is almost impossible to suggest or carry out a 
natural grouping of forms belonging to this sub-order. Yet even hero wo 
have many special features in cell structure and cell arrangement that 
may be advantageous to the systematist, and it is to be hoped that my 
endeavoui's to keep certain groups intact may not bo wholly illusory. 

With regard to the second and third divisions of my Report, a few 
■words will, I think, suffice for the general student at least. At the 
present time it is almost impossible to obtain a copy of the works, or 
even lists of the species, alluded to or described by many very successful 
labourers in my own special line of research, and, even if it were possible, 
the descriptive text is as a matter of course found only in books published 
in the mother tongue of the describers. Thus we have works on Fossil 
Polyzoa published in the Swedish, Dutch, German, Italian, and French 
languages, but very few, until quite recently, in the English. I now 
reproduce, for the benefit of others, these almost inaccessible treasures, and 
for the first time, I believe, have furnished to the pateontologist, if not 
complete, very nearly complete lists of all known Polyzoan forms, from the 
Upper Cretaceous epochs to the latest of the Glacial beds of Scotland. 

It may be well to address a few words to special workers on this 
group. I shall be glad to exchange material from Silurian, Carboniferous, 
Jurassic, and Miocene beds of North Italy, for material from any horizon, 
not so much for the purpose of the mere possession of forms, but for the 
higher purpose of making a critical examination of the whole of our 
Fossil Polyzoa. In the exchanges — if any follow my request — I shall 
regard of greater importance fewer forms if the strata whence obtained are 
carefully noted. In the work on which I am engaged it will be evident 
to all that specimens indifferently selected, or whose horizon is unknown, 
are of but small value in a palajontological study lilco the present one.^ 

Sub-order I. Cheilostomata, Busk. 
Familv I. Aeteids. 
• ■ ■ Aetea, Lamouroux. 

Family II. EiicRATiiDii:. 

, . EuCRATEA, Lamouroux. Hdxleya, Dyster. 

Gemellaria, Savigny. Brettia, „ 
SCRUPAKIA, Hincks. 

Family III. Cet.lularhd^. 
Cellularia, Pallas. Scrupocellaria, Van Beceden. 

Menipea, Lamouroux. Cadebea, Lamouroux. 

Family IV. Bicellabiid/E. 
BiCBLLARiA, Blainville. Beania, Johnston. 

BuGULA, Oken. 

' Hincks, ojf. rit. pp. cxxi. and cxxii. 

» Address, G. R. Vine, Attcrcliffc, Sheffield. 



up of a 
)f forms 
ich have 
, species. 
f that is 
roup.' ' 
1 dealing 
Tj out a 

here we 
lent that 

that my 
5ory. 

irt, a few 

At the 

Yorks, or 

accessful 

possible, 
iublished 
on Fossil 
i French 
I now 
iures, and 
st, if not 

from the 
tland. 
s on this 
oniferous, 
jT horizon, 
ut for the 
>le of our 
;— I shall 
tained are 
be evident 
unknown, 
it one.^ 



\ 



2eden. 









ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 

Family V. NoTAMiioa;. 
NoTAMiA, Fleming. 

Family VI. Oellariid.e. 
Cellaria, Lamouroux (part). 

Family VII. FLUSTniD.^:. 
Flustra, Linnoaus. 

Family VIII. [Membranipgrid-K. 

Megai'Ora, Hincks. 

MiCUOPORIDyE, 

Setosella, Hincks. 



99 



Membranipora, Blainville 

Family IX 
MiCROPORA, Gray. 
Steganoporella, Smitt. 

Family X. 
Ckibrilixa, Gray. 

Family XL 

Mioroporella, Hincks. 
Diporula, Hincks.' 

Family XII. Porixid.e, D'Orb. (part). 



Cribrilinids. 
Membraniporella, Smitt (part). 

MlCROPORELLID^:. 

Chorizopora, Hincks. 



PORIXA, D'Orbigny. 
Axartiirgpora, Smitt (part). 

Family XIII. 

Sciiizoporella, Hincks. 
Mastioophora, Hincks. 
EHYNCiiopoRA, Hincks. 

Family XIV, 
LicpRALiA, Johnston (part). 
Umboni'La, Hincks. 
Porella, Gray. 
EscHAROinKS, Smitt. 
S.MriTiA, Hincks. 

Family XV. Ckllkporidj:. 



Lagenipoba, Hincks. 
Celleporella, Gray. ; 

MyRIGZGIDvE. 

ScHizoTHECA, Hincks. 
HippoTHOA, Lamouroux. 

ESCHARID.?:. 

PlIYLACTELLA, Hincks. 
MUCRONELLA, „ 

Palmicellaria, Alder. 
Retepora, Imperato. 



Cellepgra, Fabricius (part). 

Sub-order 11. Cyclgstgmata, Busk. 
Family I. Crisiid.e. 
Crista, Lamouroux (part). • ' 

Family II. Tubuliporidj^. » . 

Stomatgpora, Bronn. Entalophgra, Lamouroux 

liBULipoRA, Lamarck. Diastopora, Lamx. (nart)' 

Idjionea, Lamouroux. ^' 

> In tlic body of the work I have inserted from his writintrg on Foreftm rhn^^ 
Srf'' '\"^^''''f ^'f • ^^'t- '^""^'"^^ family-MoNOPOREi^UDi-foSndfd bv Mr' 
S Mr'wJters:" '"'""'''' '" '''' ''''''' ^Vo,u,,orclla. seven tossil species are L/ribed- 



&3 



100 



MEPORT — 1884. 



Family III. Horxi:rid.e. 
HoRXEKA, Lamouroux. 

Family IV. Lichkxoporidj:. 
LiciiP:NorORA, Dcfrance. Domopora, D'Orbigny. 



Class POLYZOA. 

= Brtozoa, Ehrenberp, Rcnss, Roemer, Marzoni, Waters, &c 
= Brijozoa in part of American writers on Pala)ozoic Polyzoa. 

Sub-class HoLOBRANCHiA, E. Ray Lankestcr. Group a. Ectoprocta, 

Nitschc. 

Order Gv-mxclemata, Allman. 

POLTPIARIA Infundibllata, Gervai.i, 'Ann. des. Sc. Nat.' 1837. 
Polyzoa Inflndidulata, Busk, ' Brit. Mus. Catalogue.' 

Sub-order, Cheilostomata, Busk. 

= Cklleporina, Ehrenberg. 

* Orifice of the zocecium closed by a movable opercular valve. Ova 
■usually matured in external marsnpia (ova-cells). Avicularia and vibra- 
cula (appendicular organs), frequently present.' — Hincks' ' Brit. Mar. 
Polyzoa,' vol. i. p. cxxxvi. 

Family I. Akteid.'e, Hincks, Smitt. 

In Mr. Busk's classification which pi'efaces the ' Crag Polyzoa ' Mono- 
graph, published in 1850, the gcuus Aetea is one of the genera of the 
group HippoihoiJie. But Smitt and also Hincks place the species of 
Aetea in a fa!?aily by themselves. Mr. A. W. Waters «iiys,' ' the difficulty 
is very great as to the position of Aetea, as it has relationships with the 
Cheilostomata, and also with Gleiiostoinata, in having a collar, as seen in 
the Naples specimens, and which Smitt pointed out in 1867 ; and 
whether it will have to bo placed in a new sub-order — Stulunata, Carus, or 
Stolovifera, Ehlers — is yet problematic' Mr. Hincks, however (op. cit. p. 
2), admitting that the Aeieicke constitute a peculiar group, agrees 'with 
Smitt in ranking them as a family distinguished by the Ctenostomatous 
cast of its strHctui*e. On the other hand, it must bo noted that they are 
allied to Eucratca through the character of the polypide and in some 
other points.' 

The family contains a single genus, and so far as my knowledge goes 
I have but few notices of fossil species ; nevertheless, in making a full 
record of the whole of the fossil Polyzoa, it appears to me unwise to pass 
over those genera of which we have few fossil representatives, especially 
as one of the objects of this Report is to furnish the student with as full 
a list of synonyms, both of genera and species, as the means at my disposal 
will allow. 

> • Bryozoa of the Uay of Niplcs' Ann. Maj. Xat. Hist., FeLruai-y 1879. 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



101 



)CiA, 



M. 



re. Ova 
nd vibi*a- 
rit. Mar. 



a ' Mono- 
ra of tbo 
species of 
difficulty 
with the 
as seen in 
67 •, and 
Cams, or 
(^0/7. cit. p. 
ees ' with 
jstomatous 
t thoy are 
in some 

edge goes 
iiig a full 
ise to pass 
especially 
ith as full 
ny disposal 

1879. 



Genus Aetea, Lamonroux. 

1812. Aetm, Lamx , Busk, Smith. 1812. Anguinaria, Lamk (with- 
out character), Johnston. 1815. Falcaria yS, Oken. Cercaripora (for 
Aetea truncala, ^'c), Fischer. 

Generic character. Znnria calcareous, tubular, erect, with a raem- 
branous area on one side ; distributed along a more or less adherent, 
creeping fibre, dilated at intervals ; orifice terminal. Ooccla none. 
Hincks (op. cit. p. 3). 

Mr. A. W. Waters (' Bryozna Nap.' op. cit. 1879, p. 1 15) says : ' I have 
noticed in the Brit. Mns. Collection that the Ai'tehhv, dissolved the shells 
on which they grew, and thus a permanent record is left. It is known 
that several J3ryozoa have this power ; and the idea suggests itself that 
some of the phenomena mentioned by Fischer ' are of tbis kind, and it 
may not be useless to point out that in many cases it is impossible to 
distinguish fossil Aetea from Hippothoa.' I am glad to give currency to 
these hints, because in the Palajozoic rocks of Cincinnati there is a 
species described by E. O. Ulrich, which he named liopalonaria venosa, 
Ulrich, which the author describes as being related to Ilippothna (which 
I question) 'but in the form and arrangement of the cells they differ 
widely ' (' Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. Ap.' 187*J;. I have in my possession a 
specimen of this species iuerusting the Coral Strcptelasma corniculum, 
Hall, and wherever the cells are broken the former existence of the 
fossil may be traced by the method of ' dissolving ' referred to by 
Mr. Waters. Two species of Aetea are recorded by Manzoni: — 

1. Aetea kkcta, Hincks='r' Ji5. sica, Couch: ^lanzoni == Hippothoa 

sica, Couch? (See Hincks's note, p. 7, 'Brit. Mar. Pol.') = 
Stonmtopora gnJIica, D'Orb., 'Pal. Fran^*. Terr, Cret.' v. 836= 
A. sica, Norman, ' (^uart. Jour, Micr, Soc' n. s. viii, 216= 
A. niKjiiiiia, B, forma rrrta, Smitt (see ref. in Hincks) =^l, sica, 
Couch, JIanzoiii, ' Castrocaro,' p. 6, pi. vii. fig. 69, '■^ 

2. Aetea ant.uixa, Ilincks (Busk, Heller, Smith, Norman), A. an- 

gnina, Hincks. (^lanzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p, 6, pi. vii., pi. vi. 
■fig. 70.) 
Both these species are described as ' frequent by Manzoni at Castro- 
caro, and also Jiving. 

A long list of synonyms of this species is given by Hincks, * Brit. 
Mar. Pol,' p. 4. 

Family IT. Eucratiid.tc, Hincks. 

Tliisfamilj-embraces the genera Eucrafea, Lamx.: Cemellaria, Savigny; 
Scruparia, Hincks; Iliifleya, Dystcr, and Brdlia, Dyster, and the whole 
of the Family Gi;MKr,LAiun.i':, Busk, except the anomalous genus Notamia 
{Dimetopia and Calwellia). Dic^ymia is distinguished by a different 
type of cell. 

Genx^s Fuoratea, Lamx., 1812. 

1812. Eucratea, Lamx., Johnston, Smitt. 1813. Scruparia, Oken, 
Busk ; Sertnlaria, (pt.) Linn. ; CeUnhiria, (pt.) Pallas ; CeUaria, (pt.) Ellis 
and Sol. 1830. Unicellaria, (pt.) Blainv. 1850. Catenaria, (pt.) D'Orb. 

' Iftipopliorrlla cTpahta, ' Kin T'oitr. zur Kenntn. dor munrendcn IVyozoen, 
von Ehiers, Kon. Oesellscli. <1. Wissensch. (Idttingen, 18G7. 

* Alecto 2»ira*itn, Hellor : Manzoni in Index to Tlntcs, p, 63, 'Castrocaro.' 



102 



REPORT — 1884. 



Genus Gemellaria, Savigny, 1811. 

Gemellaria, Van Ben., Johnston, D'Orbif»ny ; Busk, 'Brifc. Mus. Cat.' ; 
Smitt. 1815. Scruparia, P, Oken. 1820. Semicellana, Blainv. Lon. 
caria, Lamx., and Crista, sp. Lamx. 1^28. Notamia, Flem. 1S30. Lori 
cula, Cuvier. 

Neither these nor the other genera accepted by Hincks contain, so far 
as I am aware, fossil species. 

Family III. Ci'.LLULARiiD.f:, Bnsk, 'Brit. Mas. Cat.' 

Cellularldai, (part) Johnston ; Ccllnlariadce and Cahercaihc, Bask, 
Brit. Mas. Cat. ; Cell idav ken, (part) Sraitt. 

* Zowcia, in two or more ^eries, closely united and ranged in the same 
plane ; avicularia and vibracula, or avicularia only, almost universally 
present, sessile. Zoarium erect, dichotomously branched.' — Hinck.s, op. 
cit. p. 30. 

Genus Cellulaeia, Pallas. 

' iiOartM))?. jointed. Zooscia in two or throe series, many in each intcr- 
node, contiguous; dorsal surface perforated. Avicularia and vihrncida 
usually wanting : occasionally an avicnlarium on a few of the cells in an 
internode.' — Hincks, <i^. cit. p. 33. 

Ihid. Busk, Smitfc, part ; Bugtda, part Gray. 

3. Cellulaeia Peaciiii, Busk (See Hincks, p. 34, vol.i. pi. v. figs. 2 5, 

vol. ii. 1880)=.C iieritiiia var., Johnst. 'Brit. Zoop.' p. :]40= 
JJugula neretina, var. h, a, c, d, e, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.' 
This is the only recent British species of this genus. ^Ir. Hincks says 

that in some points of the structure there is an approach to the genus 

Nellia, Busk, op. cit. p. 35. 

4. Cellulakia Peachii, Busk, ' Cat. West Scotch Fos.' p. 134, ed. 1S7G. 
This foi'm is present in minute fragments in the Garvel Park beds, 

but the form differs slightly in the shape of the cells — less elongated — 
from recent forms. In the Miocene Beds of Montecchio, North Italy, 
there are small fragments of a form similar to the Garvel Park specimens, 
but I cannot satisty myself that these are really allied to CcUularia as 
here defined. 

Post-Tertiary formation : Scottish Glacial beds, Garvel Park. 
(?) Miocene : !^Iontecchio !Maggiore beds. North Italy. 

Genus Men'U'ea, Lamx. 

1812. Hid. Lamx. and part Crisia, Lamx. ; Menipea, Lamx., Busk, 
"VVyvillo Thomson ; Tricdlaria, Flem. ; CcUularia, (part) Johnst., Smitt. 
1849. OeUarina, (part) Van Ben. ; Emma, Gray, Busk. 

' Zou'cia oblong, widest above, attenuated and often elongated down- 
wards ; imperforate behind, with a sessile lateral avicularium (often 
wanting), and usually one or two avicularia on the front of the cell.' No 
vibracula. Zoarium jointed.' — Hincks, op. cit. p. 36. 

The type of the genus is M. cirrala, Lamx., a large species with six 
cells in the internode, and is described as found in the Indian Ocean, and 
also in the Mediterranean Sea. The genus has a wide geographical 
range, but I fiind hardly any records of the existence of fossil species. 



\ 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



103 



far 



One of tho two British recent examples is M. Jeffreysii, Norman, and of 
tliis minute fragments only were obtained in the Shetland dredgings 
V»y ^[r. Jeffreys and Mr. Korman, particulars of which are given in 
former reports by those authors. 

T). !Menipi;a teuxata, Ell, & Sol., var. Norman (?)=Cellaria ibid., 

Ell. & Sol. (See Hincks, p. 38). 
Post- Pliocene : Glacial beds, Garvcl Park. 

The fragments found in the Garvel Park beds are very minute. * Cat. 
West Scot. Foss. 1870.' 

0. Mknii'EA innocua, Waters. ' The front surface corresponds very 
much with 3/. Jelf'reysii, Norman, but the dorsal surface is 
different.' — Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. 
p. 201, pi. ix. f. 24. 
]Mioccne : ^It, Gambier, South Australia. 

Genus ScEUPOCELi.AiUA, Van Beneden. 

Jji'ccllaria sp., Blainv. ; Cellaria sp., Johnst. & Smitt; Cellaria sp., 
lOIlis & Sol., Lamk. ; Scruparia sp., Oken ; Canda sp., Busk. 

'' Zonriiun, jointed. Zooecia numerous in each internode, rhomboid ; 
iipertnre with or without an operculum ; a sessile avicularium placed 
Literally at tho upper and outer angle, and a vibraculum in a bend or 
sinus on tho lower part of the dorsal surface; frequently an avicularium 
on the front of tho cell.' — Hincks, p. 43, op. cit. 

Post- Glacial deposits ; Coralline Crag. 

7. ScRurocELLARiA sCRurosA, Linn.; Van Ben., Busk=J?tceZZaria ibid. 

Blainv. =CeZ/'H/rtriti ibid. Waters. 

8. ScKui'OCELLARiA KLLii'TiCA, Reuss (range in time from recent to 

Up. 01igoceue) = Jjac<r/(?i"^nu clh'pticum, Reuss, 'Foss. Bry. Ost.- 
ung&r.' =iBactridi am cUljftic nu),llcuss, 'Pal. Stud. Alt. Tert.Alp.' 
= CainJa elliptica, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fran^.' v. p. S72^ Badridtum 
firannli/ernin, Reuss ' Ost.-ung.'p. o(}=Caitda gramdi'fera, D'Orb. 
' Pal. Frany.' v. p. 332 = Canda grannlifera, Reuss, ' Foss. 
Fauna Steinsalz ' = Jh'cellaria firanulifera, Reuss, ' Zeits. 
Deutsch., etc' — Scrapocellarid uicnnis, Norman, ' Quart. Jour. 
Micr. Sdc' n. s. viii. 215, 1808. 
9. ScRurocELLARiA Hagenouii, Reuss, Miocene = Bactridium ibid. 

10. ScKUPOCELLARiA scilizosTOMA, Reuss. Mioccne = Bactridium ibid. 

' Ost.-ungar.' p. 5<5=Canda schizoslonia, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fran9.' 
V. p. 332. 

11. ScRL'POCKLLARiA scAiiRA, Van Bou. (Glacial deposits, Scot. 

Miocene, Australia). For synon. see Hincks 'Brit. Max-. Pol.' 
p. 48; Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. 

12. SCRUPOCELLARIA REPTANS, Linn. 

13. ScRUPOCELiiARiA SCAIIRA, Van Ben, Glacial deposits, Scot. : Dun- 

troon, Paisley. 

14. ScRUPOCELLARiA SCADRA, var. ELOXGATA, Sniitt, Glacial deposits, 

Scot. : Garvel Park. 
IT/. ScRUPOCELi.ARiA (Canda) fossims, Waters. ^It. Gambier, Australia. 
Waters, ' Quart. Jour, Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 322 ; ' near 
Cauda arachnoides, Lamx.' — Waters. 

Mr. Waters, in other papers, cites different localities, 

Tho identification of fossil Scnipoccllaria; is difficult, because, the 



104 



REPOHT — 1884. 



fragments of species being minute, the cbaracters have to bo made out 
very cautiously. 

Cienns Caderea, Lamouronx. 

= Cellaria sp., LamV. ; Flnstra sp., Flem., Jobnst. ; Selhia, Gi'ay ; 
FlahoUaria, Gray; Canda sp., D'Orb. 

• Zoarlum not articulated. '/(urcla in two or more series, sub- 
quadrangnlar or ovate, with a very large aperture. Sessile avicularia on 
the side and front of the cells, the lateral avicnlarinm minute. Vibra- 
cnlar cells very large, placed in two rows, stretching obliquely downwards 
across the back of the Zoo'cia, which they almost cover, to the median 
line, notched above and traversed through a great portion of their length 
by a shallow groove. Seta3 usually toothed on one side.* — Hincks, 
'Mar. Polyz.' p. 57. 

Fossil Caherea are, like the Scrvpncellaria previously described, also 
diflBcult of speciBc identification ; but the genera being so cosmopolitan, it 
would be surprising indeed if fragments were not distinguishable. The 
size of the vibracula is one of the peculiar features of Caherea, and tlie 
many characters of the genus given by Mr. Hincks ought to make the 
study of species peculiarly attractive. But much of our knowledge 
concerning fossil forms is furnished by ]\Ir. A. W. Waters in his series of 
Papers on Australian Bryozoa. Even he, however, has had to depend in 
one instance on a single row of cells, while in others the ' opercula,' and 
the large erect aviculavium have helped in the determination of specific 
forms. 

Caherea Eij.ipii, Fleming (Hincks, p. 59.) = Flustm ibid., 
Flem. ; F. nelarea, Flera., Johnst. ; Cellular ia Ilookerl, part, 
Johnst. ; BiceUnria lloolceri, Blainv. ; Caherea Hooker)\ Busk, 
Gosse; Flalcllaria setacfii, Gray. Glacial and Palaeolithic. 

Cabebea Bouyi, Audonin, Waters = Crista Bory!, And. = Selhia 
r-danica, Cnhprni ibid., Gray, Busk ; Caherea Boryi = C. 
jmtagonica, Bnak^Canda Boryi, D'Orb, ' Pal.' ; Glacial, British ; 
Miocene, Australia. 

18. Caheuea nUDis (?), Busk. Glacial, British; Australia, Miocene. 
Waters, ' Qnnrt. .Tonr. Gcol. Soc' vol. xxxvii.. vol. xxxviii. 

19. Carerea CiKANOis, Hincks. Glacial, British ; Australia, Miocene. 
Waters. 

20. Caberea lata, Busk. Australia, Tert. Poly. Etheridge, jun., 
' Synopsis.' 



16. 



17. 



Family IV. Bicellarifd^'e, Busk, Smitt. 

Genus BiCELLARiA, Blainville. 

In his remarks on the family Bicellariids Mr. Hincks says : * The 
zcarium assumes two very different and strongly contrasted conditions 
within the limits of this family ; and it is only after carefully examining 
the entire series of forms included in it that we recognise the close 
affinity of such divergent genera as Bicellaria and Bugula. The two are 
connected and linked together by the genus Bugula and the genus 
Biachoris, of which latter we have no representatives on our coast.' — 
' Brit. Mar. Pol.' 64. We have no foaail Bicellaria, and only one, I believe, 
of Bugula. 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



105 



ibid., 



Genns Bloui.a, Okcn. 

There lias been a variety of names for species of this {jonns, the most 
distinctive of which are Ornithopora and OniUhoitorlna, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.,' 
and Achdmarchis, Lamx. 

* Zoarium erect, phytoid. Zowcia boat-shaped or Ruhqnadrangular, 
elongate, united in two or more series; aperture occupying a large pro- 
portion (occasionally the whole) of the front, not turned upwards or 
oblique. Aricularia in the form of a bird's head, pedunculate A\d 
jointed, usually one on each cell.' — Hi-icks, 'Urit. Mar. Pol.' p. 73, and 
ifor synonyms, &c. 

21. BuGULA TURniNATA, Alder. = Cdlularia avicularia, Pallas. Scotch 
Glacial bods, Uuutroon. 

Genus Beania, Johnston. 
No fossil representatives known to me. 

Family V. Notamiid,?:, Hincks. 
Genus NoTAMiA, Fleming. 
No fossil representatives known to me. 

Family VI. FusTRiityE, Smitt. 

In the placement of this family I have put it before rather than after 
Cellariidj: — Fam. VI. of Hincks — more for convenience sake than for 
the desire of alteration by any suggestive change. The FrA'STRiD.i': is 
Fam. VII. of Hincks, but as my real work upon fossil species will begin 
with the Ckllaimidx;, and as I have no record of fossil forms which 
belong to this family consisting of a single genus, Fhistra, Linn., I wished 
to prevent a further break in what will follow. 



]un. 



(Catenickllida:, Busk — 'Crag Polyzoa.') 

Mr. A. W. Waters, in his papers on ' Australian Fossil Bryozoa,' has 
given a list, with details and descriptions, of sixteen species of fossil 
Catenicella, but as the classiticatory position of this group is not as yet 
decided upon, I can do no more than give the names of the various 
species and then refer the reader to the papers of the author, already 
fully referred to in this Report. In the paper on ' Fossil Bryozoa,' &c., 
* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 1883, Mr. Waters has given diagrams of the 
' globolus ' of Catenicella and the names of the various morphological 
structures. The following are the species of Mr. Waters which he 
considers as new : — 



1. 


Catenicella 


CRIBRIF0RMI3, 


10. 


CATE^'1CELLA 


ALATA, Thomson. 






Waters. 


11. 


>? 


Harvevi, „ 


2. 




flexuosa, „ 


' 12. 


11 


i:i.E(iANS, Busk; 


3. 




marginata, „ 


13. 


)> 


„ var.BusKH, 


4. 




AMPLA, „ 






Thom. 


0. 




SOLIDA, „ 


U. 


»» 


VKNTRICOSA, Busk. 


6. 




intebxodia, „ 


ir,. 


», 


IIASTATA, „ 


7. 




LiEVIGATA, „ 


10. 


>i 


TALRINA, „ 


8. 




LONGICOLLIS, „ 


1 






9. 




CIECDMCINCTA, „ 


! 







106 REPonT — 1884. 



Family VII. CEf-LARiiDyT;, Hincks. 

= SALiconxAKiAD.t;, Busk; and Rcuss (part); ? Vinculaimad.!:, ]{usk ; 

Ceij-akie.k, Siuitt. 

* Zocccia usually rhomboidal or hexanf^nlar, disposed in series round 
an imaginary axis, so as to form cylindrical shoots. Zoariam erect, 
calcareous, dichotomously branched.' 

In this diagnosis Mr. Hincks (op. cit. p. 103) says : ' I have not 
included the jointed condition of the znarium, as it must bo accounted 
more than doubtful whether this character is of sufficient importance to 
warrant the relegation of such closely allied forms as Cellarla and 
Vincularla, Defrance, to different family groups.* .... In a portion of 
his work ('Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1881, p. ir).5), 'Contributions 
towards a (Jeneral History of the Marine Polyzoa,' Mr. Hincks appro- 
priates the genus Vincitlaria, Defrance, in part, as a genus of the family 
!Mit'i!OPOKir>.K — referred to further on — remarking on F//)c»Z«n'a a/; (/.«s;Vo/a, 
Smitt, that the ' Zococial cliaracter of this generic typo' is 'essentially 
Membraniporidan ' Acting upon this hint, and in accordance with the 
general thoroughness of his work, Mr. Waters, in several of liis suggested 
changes of generic names, places many forms, which other authors 
may regard as Vincularla, among the Mcmhranipora, with the remark, 
* Vincularla forma.^ As the name is likely to linger in our lists, but 
without any genuine generic fixity — or, in other words, without generic 
meaning in Mr. Hincks's classification — it may be as well to give as full 
a history of the fossil group as possible under present circumstances. 

Defrance says (' Diet. d. Sc. Nat.' tome 5H, p. 214) : 'Wo have given 
the generic name of Vincularla to little quadrangular bodies which arc 
scarcely the size of a horse-hair, and which we find in a layer of the 
Calcaire Grossier (= our IJrackleshani beds) in the environs of Paris. 
They are two or three lines long, but they are not obtained perfect to 
their terminations. . . . They have small grains on the four sides of the 
little cells, the end one of which seems to be a sort of very small hole.' 
Defrance gives several localities where the genus has been found, but one 
particular form which he names V. fraijilis is briefly described and 
figured in the ' Vilnes du Mus.,' and the author infers that his Vinndaria 
may have had some relationship to Fhislra (? F. fistidnsa, Linn., 'Fauna 
Suec' ii. 2234), which Hincks gives as a synonym of Cellarla fistulosa, 
Linnieus. 

The next considerable addition to our knowledge of so-called Vincu. 
hiria — in this country, at least — is furnished by M'Coy (' Carb. Foss. of 
Irel.' 1844). M'Coy says ho accepts the genus of Defrance 'for those 
species witliout lateral branches, and having more than two rows of 
pores. I have not separated those specimens which have the pores all 
round from those having them on one side only, as it seemed impossible 
to separate gcnerically such species as V. parallela (Fhistra ? parallela, 
Phillips) from V. raricosta, M'Coy.' Since M'Coy wrote the above the 
species have again had to submit to changes, but both the species of 
Vincularla given by him were transposed to D'Orbigny's genus Sulco- 
retepora. 

M. d'Eichwald, in his ' Paleontology of Russia,' as well, I believe, 
as in his other writings, adopts Defrance's genua Vincularla, and he gives 
Glauconome, (part) Miinster, as a synonym. He describes several new 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



107 



usk ; 

round 
erect, 

vc not 

ountcd 

Mice to 

la and 

•tion of 

butiona 
appro- 
family 

ijsslrola, 

lentially 

vith the 

IT crested 

autliors 

remark, 

ists, but 
generic 

e as full 

COS. 

ve given 
liich are 
T of the 
uf Paris. 
Brfect to 
1)9 of the 
all hole.' 
but one 
ibed and 
iiindarici 
, 'Fauna 
fislidosa, 

ed Vincn. 
Foss. of 
for those 
rows of 
pores all 
nipossible 
parallda, 
above the 
species of 
lus Sulco- 

I believe, 
d he gives 
veral new 



Bpccics — V. innri'cnta, ornafa, and raripora. Through tlio kindness of 
Prof. Ferd. Iloemer, of Breslaii, I have received tracings and descriptions 
of D'Eichwnld's species. The author says that ' the Polyzoary is micro- 
scopically cylindrical or angular, Avith from four to twenty corners, fi.xed 
l)y the base, simple or ramose, and that the branches are of the same as 
the principal stem. The genus is rarely found in the Greywacke, in the 
Carboniferous limestone, and is more frequent in the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary strata.' ' Vincnlaria murirafa is very much like Al'Coy's 
V. megaatoina, and V. ornata appears to bo the more perfect form of 
V. muricata — all allied to, if not identical with, Mhahlomvson (Millepora) 
fjrarilr, Phillips. V. rariiiora, D'Eich., is different from the others, bnt 
the horizon (Carboniferous) is the same. The author says: 'This very 
graceful polyzoon is in fragments of two lines long by a quarter of a line 
in width. It is cylindrical, bi- and tri-furcating. The cells elongate, 
oval, rather deep, almost tlat ; tliero are from three to four in a trans- 
verso row, separated from each other by a sufficiently wide space, which is 
sometimes of the width of the cells themselves.* I know of no British 
Carboniferous fossil that would answer wholly tho description of 
D'Eichwald. In the peculiar mode of branching and bifurcating tho 
nearest approach to it is the lli/phasuKipimi of Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun., 
but in this fcssil there are so many peculiar features that, if these had 
been seen by D'Eichwald, he would have directed attention to them. 

In his various writings Dr. A. E. Reuss adopts the genus Vlncularui, 
Dcfrance, for certain forms having a peculiar ' Escharidean character,* and 
one characteristic of Vlnnilaria, of Reuss, is that the cells are arranged 
round 'an imaginary central axis'; but Dr. Reuss honestly states 
('Palojon. Stud.') that he is unable to distinguish between Vincularia 
and tho Escliarkhv. 

As, however, other authors may have some doubts about the Gdlariiilcr 
character of some of the species of VhicitJaria of the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary epochs described by llagenow and Reuss, I shall for the present 
keep the genus distinct, placing against tho described forms tho.se 
synonyms which seem to be the most likely to bo correct, or otherwise 
giving tho references and restrictions furnished by the authors them- 
selves. ^Ir. Hincks, however, upon reconsideration, suppresses the name 
V'mndaria as a distinct genus for recent species. I merely retain the 
name for fossil species for the convenience of future workers, and because 
many of the forms described are not in my cabinet 

Genus Vl^'CUI>AUIA, Defr. = Glauconomc, (part) Goldfuss. 

Division Urc'EOI.ata, Hagenow, 

Maestricht Beds. 

22. ViNCUr-ARiA AUEOLATA, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 12, ' Die Brj'ozecn 

der Mastrich. «Sbc.' 1851. 

23. ViNCULAKiA 13ELLA, Ilogenow, Tab. VI. fig. 13, 'Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

24. ViNCULAuiA CANALiFERA, Hagciiow, Tab. VI. tig. 14, ' Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

25. ViNC'ULAiuA PROCERA, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 15, 'Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

26. ViNCULARiA GoLDFUSsii, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 15 = Cellaria 

ibid., Hag. 

• LctJuca conica, pi. 2. 



108 REPORT— 1884. 

Miocene. 

27. ViN'Ci'LARiA rucL'Li.ATA, RcMiss, lor. n't. p. CO, ' Fo8s. Brv. Ost.-ungar.' 

(\). 72, Encharn raufnta); Eschnra ]{«'iinsi\ t'tol. (Rss. * Faun, 
ik'utscli. Uberoligoc'iiii.' ii. p. >\i'i) ; Viiicitlarla llaiditujert, Rss. 
(*PaI. Stud. Alt. Tert. Alp.' ii.;. 

28. ViNClLAItIA IIINOTATA, RoilSS. 

21>. ViNCi;(,AUiA (;eo.mkti!Ii'a, Reuss, pi. ;»:>, fig. ir>, * Pal. Stud. Alt. 

Tcrt. Alp.' 
SO. ViNCUfiAiUA rxARATA, Reuss, pi. ?>\, fig. 1 = Celltn'a ibid., 'Pal. 

Stud. Alt. Tert. AIp.s.' 
.'11. ViNCULAiiiA iMi'i!E.ssA, Rcuss, pi. o4, fig. 2, ' Pal. Stud. Alt. Tert. 

Alp.' 

Jjower Oligoccne. 

32. Vlxcui,ARiA ESCHAREKLA, Roeincr, Tab. I. fig. 1, 'Polypar. Nord- 

deutscli. Tert. Oebirgs.' 

33. ViNCUi-AHiA I'OKIXA, Roenior, Tab. T. fig. 2. (Tlio other species of 

Roemor are referred to Goldlnss's types.) 

Genus Ckli.aima, (part) Lamouronx. 

Cellitrin, (part) Solandor, Lamouroux ; Saliroriwria, Cuvior, Rusk ; 
Farcimia, Fleming ; Salicornia, Schweiggor. 

^ Zoariuni jointed at intervals, the internodes connected by flexible 
horny tubes. Zoo'cia depressed in front and surrounded by a raised 
border, disposed in quincunx. Ariculuria immersed, irregularly dis- 
tributed, situated above a cell or occupying the place of one. Ouecia 
immersed.' — Hincks, op. cit. p. lOt. 

' The genus Cellarla reaches back as far as the Cretaceous epoch at least, 
during which they formed a very small group, -while at the same period a 
large number of the allied group Vincularia flourished .... and the 
genus ranges from shallow to Aery deep water. Sir Wyville Thomson 
found forms referable to thefamily which were obtained during the "Chal- 
lenger" voyage a: depths between 2,000 and 3,000 fathoms.' — p. 106. 

Mr. A. W. Waters, in the first of his very valuable contributions' on 
the Fossil Bryozcia of Australia, gives some very technical points which 
came out in a ra'^her prolonged study of recent Cdlaria, and confirmed 
by him in the closer study of fossil forms. As some of his observations 
will ba of extreme value as a check in the creation of new species out of 
forms belonging to one or other of the few known types, it may bo 
well to reproduce some of his remarks, especially as Mr. Waters has 
been compelled to found at least two new species in the course of his 
investigations. 

Mr. Waters says : ' The shape of the cell is so variable that it is 
perfectly useless as a character .... then the bordering rim, which is 
a character of G. Johnsovi, Bur^k, is sometimes found on one part of a 
colony of G. fislulcsa and absent in other parts ; next I found the shape 
of the ovicellular opening equally unsatisfactory — for in most undoubted 
specimens of G.fishdosa Irom Naples it occurs in some cells as a minute 
orbicular opening, then it is elongate oval, and in other apparently 
older ovicells a broad semicircular line is formed, which changes to 
a transversely oval opening, resembling that figured by Hincks as a 

• Qtiart. Jour. Gcol. Soc. August 1881, pp. 319, 320. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



109 



ingar. 
' Fann. 
/. Us8. 



d. Alt. 
., ' Pal. 
:t. Tert. 

'. Konl- 
lecies of 

, liusk; 

If flexible 

a raised 

arly dis- 

. OvecM 

li at least, 
period, a 
and the 
Tbomson 
he"Cbal- 
lOG. 
tions' on 
[its wbicb 
confii'ined 
lervations 
lies out of 
t> may bo 
'"aters bas 
rso of bis 

tbat it is 
, -wbicb is 

part of a 
the sbape 
undoubted 

a minute 
apparently 
cbanges to 
incks as a 



cbarftctcr of C. sinuosa. In tlie same specimen, before any ovicolls are 
formed, tbo aperture is very near tbo top of tbe zocncium ; bnt aflcrwnrdH 
its position is near tbe centre. Having found tbo position of tbe aperture, 
tbo sbape of tbo ovarian opening, tbe shape of tbe zocucium and of the 
bordering rim unsatisfactory characters, there only remained tbo avica- 
lai'ia ; and in all tbe specimens I have examined I have found one form 
constant. Tbe 0. Jislulosa from the Mediterranean bas its rounded 
avicularium above tiio zooecium ; the C Hnaoea bas a diagonal avicalarium 
pointed downwards, with the lower part raised ; tbo G. Johnaom, from 
Rafallo, Italy, and Now Guinea, bas a zooecial avicularium with a project- 
ing hood above, as figured by Hincks. I find my observations on the recent 
species entirely confirmed by the examination of a large number of fossil 
forms.' It is very evident from this, that of tbo whole of tbe synonyms 
given below from Reuss and others, many still merit re-examination, and 
it must be remembered tbat in giving them from these respected authors, 
I give them upon their authority only. Of course Mr. Waters's synonyms 
may bo taken as evidence of work along the lines wbicb be himself bas 
laid down, 

2i. Ckm-ariafistulosa, Linn., Hincks, 'Rrit.Mar.Polyz.;' Reuss, 'Foss. 

Bry. Ost.-ungar.' ? =: Salicornaria farciminoidea, Jobnst., Husk, 

Renss (for other recent forms as synonyms see Hincks, p. 146) 

= S. farciminoides, Stoliczka, ' Foss. I3ry. Tert.* Griinsand, 

Orakei Ray = Glauconome marginala, Miinst., Goldf. ' Petrefac. 

Germ,' p. 100 = Gellaria manjlnata, Reuss, ' Wien. Tertiiir.' 

p. 59 = Salicornaria marrfinata, Stol. loc. cit. p. 150 = Vincn- 

laria inarginaia, Room. ' Pol. d. Norddeutscb. Tert.' p. 105 = 

Vincularta suhmarginata, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. GO = Vinculana 

Eeiissi, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 00 = Vincularia Reussi, D'Orb. 

'Pal. Fr.' V. p. i)0 = Glancunome rhomhifera, Miinst., Goldf. 

' Petrefac' p. 100 = Salicornaria rhomhifera, Reuss, ' Fauna 

dcutsch.* ii. p. 15 = CeUaria ajjinis, Reuss, ' Sitzungsber. iilt. 

Wiss.' 1855, p. 259 = Vincularia rhomhifera, Roem. loc. cit. G 

= Salicornaria crassa, S. W. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

= Salicornaria crassa, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 22. 

Localities. — Living, widely distributed. F'cssil : Mount 

common ; and also from the Pliocene and Miocene of Europe. 

wo cannot be quite sure of the descriptions of Reuss and others, that 

Salicornaria jarciminoides docs not include other species, it is best to 

refrain from giving localities.' — Waters. 

35. Ckllahia malvineksis, Busk = Salicornaria ibid.. Busk, ' Mar. 

Poly.' p. xviii. pi. Ixiii. figs. 1, 2 = Gellaria ibid.. Waters, 

Bryoz. S. "Victoria, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 321, 

pi. xiv. fig. 3. 

Localities. — Living : Falkland Island, South Patagonia (Darv^in). 

Fossil : Mount Gambler. 

30. Cellaeia ovicellosa, Stol. = Salicornana ibid., Stol. 'Foss. Bry. 
Orak.' p. 151, pi xx. figs, 9, 10 = Gellaria ibid., Waters, op. cit. 
p. 321, pi. xiv. figs. 4, 5, G ; pi. xvii. fig. 02. 
Jjocalities. — Orakei Bay, New Zealand (Stol.), Mount Garabier. 
37, Cellauia gloholosa, Waters, op. cit. p. 321, pi. xiv. figs. 16, 17, 
Differs from Gellaria (Eschara) aspasia, D'Orb., and also from 
Melicerita angustiloha, Busk, whicb are near allies. 
Localities. — Yarra Yarra, Victoria. 



xm. p. 7 

Gambler, 
'But as 



no 



BBPORT — 1884. 



38. Cem.aut.v peramit.a, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Gool. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii. p. 200. 
LocaJltii. — Mount Gambier. 

3'J. Ci'.t,r,\Ri.\ ANGUsTiriOijA, Busk=3f«'//fer/^? ibid., Rusk, 'Quart. Jour, 
(ieol. Soc' xvi.p. 2(31 = Melkerita ibid., T. Wood, ' (ioo. Obser. 
Soutb Aust.' p. 73 = MeUcerUa ibid., ' Foss. .l]ry. Orak.' p. 155, 
p. xx. tigs. 15, 18 = Ci'llaria avrindiloha, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 2G0, pi. ix. fig. 28, 21), oO. 
LocaliHi?s. — Mount Gambier (Woods), Orakei Bay (Stol.), Bairns- 
dale. Muddy Creek. 

Related probably (as Cellar la) to Meh'cerifa ('harlesworthii, M.-Ed. ; 
Encharinella clp(ian.<!, D'Orb. ; Mcir:hranipora stcnostoiiiata and Eschara sp., 
described by Hagenow. 

40. Cellaiua sixuosA, Hassall (see Hincks, p. 100) = Farcimia ibid. 

Hassall, ' Ann. N. H.' vi. 172, pi. vi. figs. 1, 2 = Fardmia, fpathn- 
losa., Hassall, ibid. xi. p. 112 = Salicornaria, sinnosa, Johnst., 
Bnsk, Alder. = Salicornaria farcimhidulcs var., Busk, ' ]?rit. Mus. 
Cat.' = Salicornaria farciminolde'^, ? Manzoni, ' Bry. Fo.ss. Ital.' 
pt. iv. pi. i. fig. 1, 2 {fuh Hincks). 
Localifji and llamjc. — Kng. Crag, Bnsk ; Ital. PHocene Qnat(>rnary, 
Livorno (Manzoni). Near Mt. Gambier, South Austral. (Rev. J. I'l. Wood). 

41. TunuCKi.LAiiiA CEKEOiDES, Ell. and Sol. (Onchn2)ora, Busk) = Cel- 

hirla Michelini, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. d. W. Tert.' p. 01, pi. viii. 
figs. 1,2 = TubiiceUarla opuntloides, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 330 
= Cellarla Michelina, Stol. 'Foss. Bry. Orak. Bay: ' Reuss, 'Pal. 
Stud. alt. Tert.' p. 47 ; ' Foss. Fau. Steinsalz.' p. 9G. 
Locallii/. — Eocene, Grignon ; Oligocene, Mi(jcene, many localities in 
Austria and Hungary ; Pliocene and Recent Seas. 



? 



Family VIII. MEMnRANiPORin.f), Smitt. 

Celleporlda', (part) Johnst. ; Flnstrellarida'; (part) D'Orb. ; and in part 

Escharidcii, Eacltarelllnida;, FlustrcUidai and Elcctrlnldn; of D'Orbigny, 

' Pal. Fran. T. Cret ; ' Memhranlporlda', (part) Busk. 

* Zoarlum calcareous, or membrane-calcareous, incrusting (and erect). 

Zoacia forming an irregular continuous expansion, or in linear series, 

v/ith raised margins, and more or less membranaceous in front.' — Hincks, 

p. 120. 

The family MEMnRANiroRiD.E represents, says Mr. Hincks, an earlier 
stage of zotvcial development as compared with the two which follow— 
the Mlcroporido} and the Crlbrilinldce — in that the calcification of the 
cell is alwaj's more or less imperfect. In a large proportion of cases the 
whole of the front is merely closed in by a membrane. — Op. clt. p. 120. 

Genus Memhr.vnii'ORA, Blainville. 

Eschara, (part) Pallas ; Flustra, (part) Linn., Lamarck, Fleming, 
Lamx., Audouin ; Discnpora^ (pf rt) Lamk. ; Gellrpora, (part) Hagenow, 
Reuss, D'Orbigny (for species with a calcareous lamina) ; Anmdlpora sp., 
Conopenin sp., Callapora sip., »,nd Amphliblestrum sp., Gray; Marginaria 
and Dermatopora sp., Hagenow. 

' Zoarlum incrusting. Zouxla quincuncial, or irregularly disposed, 
occasionally in linear series; margins raised, front depressed ; wholly or 
in part membranaceous.' — Hincks, p. 128. 



ox FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



Ill 



42. ^[f.mt.RANIPGRA Lachoixu, AudoTiin = Flnslra Lacroixii, Savigny, 
Egy])te, pi. X. fig. 9, Hircks = Flustra ih'stans, Hassall, *A. N. H.' 
vii., IH-il, p. 360 = Fii.<tm rearJui, Couch, ' 0th Rep. Cornw. 

, Polytech. rioc' 81 = Mouliranljwni I'eachii, Coucli, ' Cornwall 
Fauna,' iii. 120 = ? Mcmhranipora mcmhranac.ca, Johnst. ' B. Z.' 
2nd ed. pi. Ivi. fig. 11-12 = Cdnapenm roticuluvi, Gray, ' B. M. 
lliid.' 108 = Mcmhraiilpora LacroLrli, ' Brit. jl^l. Cat.' ii. p. (>0 
^ Memliranijyjra reticulum, llenss, ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wiener 
Tertiiirbock.' 98, pi. xi. fig. 25 = Bljhidra Lacroixii, Smitt, 
' Flor. Bryoz.' pi. v. 18, p. iv. t'g.s. H,5, 80. Reus.s gives 
= Membranipora Savurtii, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' p 31. 

Localitij and Ilawji-. — CornlHno and lied Crag; (part) !Mid. Pliocene ; 
Pala3oliihic (A. Bell) ; Austro-Hungarian Miocene and Pliocoiio deposits, 
Vienna Basin (Renss) ; Italian Pliocene beds, Voltcrra (Manzoni) ; Post- 
Pliocene (Dawson). 

'io. MKMliRAXU'OUA MONOSTACUYS, ' Brit. Mus. Cat.' ii. 01 ; ' Crag 
Poly.' p. ;31, pi. ii. fig. 2; llincks, 'Devon Cat. Brit. Mar. 
Polyz.' p. 131, pi. xvii. fig. 3-4; pi. xviii. fig. 1-4 = /'7?f,s<ra 
(listnns, Landsb. = ? Fiiistrellaria pustidosn, D'Orb. ' Pal. Frany. 
Terr. Cret.' v. 52() = r' Membranipora iiobilift, Reuss, ' Foss. 
Polyp. (1. W. Tertiiirb.' 98. 

Locality and Ravrje.- — Red Crag, Vienna Basin, Reuss. 

44. MiOMUHAXH'OitA CATrA'ULAinA, Jameson, llincks, p. 134 = Tijripora 
ramosa, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. .539. 

Localitij and Uaiuje. — Palajolithic, Red Crag, and Cor. Crag, Scotch 
Glacial Dep., Post-Pliocene dep. Canada (Dawson); Italian Pliocene, 
Calabria (Manzoni) ; Pliocene of Bruccoli, Sicily (Waters). 

4."), Memishanh'Owa I'ir.osA, Linna3ns, Hincks, p. 137 = lieptflcctrina 
ibid., D'Orb., and Pi. dentata, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franv- Terr. Cret.' 
v. 334. 

Locality and Eanye. — Cor. Crag, Paleolithic (A. Bell) ; Australia 
(Waters). 

40. ]\[KMiinAXiPOTtA MEMiiRANACKA, Linn. (H. p. 140) = lleptoflustra 
telacea, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fran^. Terr. Cret.' v. 328. 

Eaiifie. — Coralline Crag, Pala?olithic (Bell). 

47. Mi'MiiiiANii'OUA LiNKATA, Linn. (H. p. 143) = lioplcctrina ibid., 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Franv- '^'err. Cret.' 334. 
Uanrjc. — Italian Pliocene and Miocene dep. (Manzoni) ; S.W.Victoria, 
Australia (Waters, 'Quart. Jour. (ieol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 323). 

48. Mkmi'.uami'Oha CHATicui.A, Alder (II. p. 147), Scotch Glacial dep. 

(Geikie). 
40, Membrampora unicornis, Flem. (H. p. 154), Scotch Glacial dep. 
(Geikie) 

50. Membranipora Dumerilii, And. (H. p. 15G) =; M. I'ouilletil, 

Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 32 ; Scotch Glacial dep. 

51. Membranipora Flemingu (H. p. 102). 

lianqe. — Pliocene, Castrocaro (M.) ; Scotch Glacial beds (Geikie) ; 
Palaeolithic; Clays of Western Scot. (Bell). 

52. Membranipora var. grei/aria. Heller, ' Bry. Bay Ifap.,' * A. M. 

N. H.' Feb. 1879 = M. ibid., Heller, ' Die Bry. des Adriat.' = 
M. aperta, Manzoni, 'Bri. del PI. di Castrocaro,' p. 9, pi. i. fig. 
4 = y M. aperta, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 34. 
Range. — Pliocene ; Fng. Crag ; Castrocaro. 



112 



REPORT — 1 884. 



So. Mkmbuaxii'Ora Roselli, Aud, (H. p. 166), ? fossil. 

5-4. Membranitoka TinFOUUiM, S. Wood (H. p. 107), Busk, 'Crag 

Polyz.' 32, pi. iii. Bgs. 1, 2, '.i, 9 (part). 
Range. — Cor. Crag, Red Crag (A. Bell). 
ho. MEMiiRAMPOKA ANGULOSA, Reuss (Waters, B. Nap. Bry., A. M. 

N. H. p. 122) ; Reuss, ' Bry. O.st.-ungar.' p. 93 = Cellepora ibid. 

Reuss, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. 398 = J5Js(7tom t.ccavata, Reuss, 

' Foss. Pol. W. B.* p. 72 = Eschara suhexcavata D'Orb. I.e. 

p. 103 = ? Memhrnmpora deplauaia, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. W. T.' 

p. 72, pi. viii. C, 3G = ? Ilemeschara trapezoidea, Reuss, ' Bry. v. 

Crosaro,' pi. x.\i.v. tig. 14. 
liange. — Abundant in the Eocene, ^Miocene, and Pliocene, from many 
localities in Austria, Hungary find Italy; Rhodes (Manzoni). Living: 
Florida, ? J/o//ta atitiqua, Smitt; ? McJiihramporaantiqua, Husk, ^ Qn&rt. 
Jour. Micr. Soc' vol. vi. p. 2(32, 

50. MEMni!ANiroi!A CYLiXDRiKORMis, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii. p. 323, pi. xviii. fig. /4. 
Mt. Garabier, Australia. 
o7. MEMBKAXiroRA JiACROSTO-MiA, Rouss (Vincularia forma), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 323, pi. xiv. tigs. 18-19 = 

Cellaria macrosbima, Reuss, 'Foss. Pol. d. Wien. Tert.' p. 04? 

Jji'jlustra iiiacrostdtna, Reuss, ' Die Foss. Anth. u, Bryoz. der Sch. 

von Crosaro, p. 27-i = Fluslrellaria inncwstuina, Mau/ioni, ' I Bri. 

Foss. del Miocene d' Anst.' &c,, p. 67 = ? Brflustra papillata 

Stoi., ' Foss. Bry. Orak. Bay,' p. 154 = ? M. loxopora, Rss. 

Bairn-sdalc (Eschara forma). Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc* 

vol. xxxviii. p. 504. 
Localiti/ and Uangf. — Oligocene (Bartonia), Val di Lonte ; Miocene, 
Nussdorf (Manz.) ; Orakei Bay (Stol.); Mount Gambler, Australia 
(Waters). 

58. ME.Mi)RANiroi;A arui;:', D'Orb., Waters (op. cit. vol. xxxvii. p. 324, 
pi. xiv. tig. 20, 21) = Viihiilan'aargu.'i, D'Orb. ' Pal. Frano.' p. 253. 
Jiange. — Cretaceous: Meudon, S.W. Victoria, Australia (Waters). 
5'J. Memhraxii'OKA coxcamerata Waters (Vincularia forma), np. elf. 

p. 32 4', \i\. xiv. tigs. 22-23 = ? Vincularia gracilis, D'Orb. 

' White Cli. France.' 
Jxangp. — C'l't'tacooiis r : 8. W. Victoria, Australia. 

00. MKMnnAMi'ORA LLSORiA, Waters, (Vincularia forma), op. cit. p. 324, 

p\. xiv, fig. 14, pi. xviii. fig. 82 Y allied to Xellia simplex, Busk, 
Q,uaJricclliiriii sp., D'Orb., iV. lusoria var. coarctata. Waters, 
'Quart. Jo;m'. (!l'o1. Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 434; allied to Cellaria 
cadiforniis. D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' pi. 501, figs. 1-4. 
Tinngc. — S.W. Victoria, Busk ; variety, Waurn Ponds. 

01. Membranh'OKA maouica, Stol. (Waters), (Vincularia forma), 

' Quart. Jour. Geo). Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 325, pi. xiv. fig. 09 = 
VincuJiiria id. Stol., 'Foss. Brj'. Orak. Bay,' p. 153 = Vhiciilaria ? 
viaoricd, Hut ton, 'On some Australian Poly.' p. 23 =-Vinctdaria 
laaorica, T. Wood, ' Corals and Bryz. of the Neozoic Period, N. Z.' 
liange. — Living: Ta.^mania (Hutton). Fossil: Orakei Bay; Hutchin- 
son's Quarry, Oamarn ; Up. Eocene of New Zeal, geologists. 

02. MEMniiANH'OKA (lEMiXATA, Waters, op. cit. p. 325, pi. xvi. fig. 55 

(S. W. Victoria. Aust.), H. W. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 202, pi. ix. fig. 25. 



Zl 



ox FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



113 



64 



, Busk, 



forma), 
If. 00 = 

Jo . ,. 

Icidarvi' • 



03. Mkmerakipora coxflukns, Ronss = Exclianna conjiuens, Reuss, 

' Yerstein. der bohm. Kreid,' p. 08 = Memhranipora covjluciis, 
Reuss, M. peihmciilata, Hiiicks. For remarks on allies of tlio 
above, see paper of A. VV. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxviii., p. 202. 
Itanrje. — Livinj; : Ceylon. Fossil (Cretaceous), Hundorf and Strehlen, 

Schillinge, near Bilin (Cenomaiiiaii) ; (Pliocene), Castel Arqaato ?, 

S. W. Victoria, :Mt. Gambler. 

04. MEMr.RANiPORA ovALis, D'Orb. 0/1. c'lt. p. 202. ^Ft. Gambler. 

05. Mi-MnPvANii'ORA TRiPUNCTATA, Waters, pi. i. fig. o.5, op. cit. p. 202. 

Mt. Gambler. 
GO. Memrrampora raimcifkra, Hincks, pi. ii. figs. 26, 27, op, cit. p. 262. 

Mt. Gambier. Living : Bass's Straits, 
or. Mkmp.ranipora dextata, D'Orb. Ojt. <-lf. p. 200, pi. viii. fig. 14 = 

Fludrclldrla ilcufaht, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' p. 52.") = Memhranipora 

aiinnla.<>, Manzoni, ' liri. Foss. Ital.' 4ta. cont. Castrocaro, p. 12, 

pi. i. fig. 0. 
Havgc. — Cretaceous (Senonian) ; Pliocene (^Canz) ; Helvetian, Zan- 
dean, Astian and Sicilian beds. Mt. Gambier, Anst. (Water.s). 

OS. Mkmprampora articulata, Waters (Vincnlaria forma), op. cit. 

p. 204, pi. viii. figs. 15-10. 
00. Memisranipora PEiiVEi; Waters (Vincnlaria forma), op. cit. 

p. 204, pi. IX. fig. 32. 
BfDK/e. — Mt. Gambier. 

70. I^Iemijranmpora appendiculata, Reuss (Eschara forma) ; Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 5L'4, pi. xxii. figs. 2 
to 5 = Celleponi ibid., Rss. ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wien. Tert.' p. 00 
= Meiiihranijiora ibid., Rss. ' Die Foss. Bry. des Ost.-ung.' p. 41 
= \lcmhranl jtora Cijclrps, Busk, ' Mar. Poly.' p. 01. 
Jiaiujc. — Fossil : Miocene, Europe ; Upper Oligocene, Astrnpp ; Mid. 
Oligocene, ^It. Gambier, Austr.alia. Living : New Zealand. 

71. !Memi!RANmpora rororata, Hir.r;ks, ' Gen. Hist, of IMar. Poly.,' ' Ann. 

^lag. Nat. Hist.' ser. v. vol. viii. p. 00, Watei's, 'Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 438. 
h'aiigc. — Fossil : Waurn Ponds, Australia. Living (bilaminate) : New 
Zealand. 

72. ]Mi;mrranipora ocplata, Busk (Waters) op. cit. p 434, pi. xii. fig. 

22 = NfUia ocniata. Busk, Smitt, Macgillivi'ay. 
Tlanrie. — Living, widely distributed ; fossil, Waurn Ponds, Australia. 

73. jMemp.uaxipora Arethusa, D'Orb. (Waters), np. cit. p. 434, pi. xii. 

fig. 10 = Eschara ibid., E. act^ra ; E. gaVlca, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fran?.' ; 
and allied to Sruiieschara (Usjnirilis, D'Orb., as well as many 
other sp. of D'Orb. 
Range. — Cretaceous, Franco; Muddy Creek, Australia. 



Ii. fig. -^"^^ 
Geol. 



Genus Megapora, Hincks. 

Only one living species of this genus is given by Hincks (' Brifc. Foss. 
P.' p. 171), which is Meijapora rinijcits = Lepralia ibid., Busk. I know 
of no fossil forms. 

1884. I 



114 



REroRT — 1884. 



Family IX. Mickopouidj:, Smitt. 
Hincks, op. cit.]). 172. MembraniporUhe, (part) Bask, 

* Zoccia ■with the front wall wholly calcareous; margins elevated.' 
— Hincks, p. 172. 

This family gi'oup is a very important one, as it entirely eliminates 
from the series all those forms that have a membranous area in the front 
of the cell. 

Genus Micropora, Gray. 

= R(p(escharclllna, D'Orb. 

* Zoariiim incrusting. Zowcla with pi'ominent raised margins ; front 
depressed, wholly calcareous ; ori6ce semicircular, or suborbicnlar, 
enclosed by a calcareous border.' — Hincks, p. 173. 

74. Micropora complanata, Norman (Hincks, p. 175) = Lcpmlin 

ibid., Norman, 'A.M. N. H.' Jan. 18G4, p. 84, pi. x. fig. 4 = 
Memhranipora Smilti, Manzoni, 4th Coutr. ' Ital. Fo.ss. Bryo/..' 
Banrje. — Living, but of unknown locality : Italian Pliocene deposits. 

75. Micropora hippocrepis, Goldf. ('Petrefac' i. p. 20; tab. 1), f. 3) ; 

Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 2G4 = Celhpnra 
ibid., Rouss, ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wicn. Tert.' p. *J4 ; Hagenow, ' Die 
Bry. Maest. Kreideb.' p. I'l, pi. vi. fig. \7 =^Mcmhraniporn 
liidens, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 34, and ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xvi., p. 2G0 = Memhranipora liosselii, Manzoni, 'Bri. Foss. 
Ttal.' 4th Coiitr. p. 11 = Memhranipora hidens, llss. ' Die Foss. 
Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 43; Manzoni, 'Bri. Castrocaro,' p. 15; 
Waters, ' Bry. from Bruccoli.' ' Tr. Manchester Soc.' vol. xiv. 

'Range. — Fossil: Cretaceou.'^, Maestricbt; IMioceno ; Phocene Cor. 
Crag, Castrocaro ; Bruccoli, Sicily. Living, only at Capri, from the coral 
fisheries (A. W. W.). 

70). Micropora ordixata. Waters (Eschara form), Waters, op. cit., 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 435. No figures. 

77. ^Micropora cavata. Waters (Fschara form). Waters, op. cit., 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 435. No figures. 

Range. — Miocene ; Australia, Waurn Ponds. 

Genus Stegaxoporella, Smitt. 

Memhranipora, (part) auctt. ; RcptescharelUna, (part) D'Oi-b. ; Smitt, 
*Flor. Bry.' Steganuporclla. 

' Zoarium incrusting or (occasionally) rising into foliaceous expan- 
sions. Zocecia with the external characters of Micropora, but haviug an 
inner chamber occupying the whole of the cavity below, and above 
narrowed into a tubular passage, which either communicates directly with 
the orifice or opens into a second chamber immediately beneath it,' — 
Hincks, p. 1 70. 

/». Stkganoporella Smittii (Hincks, p. 178) ■= Memhranipora AnJe- 
gavensis, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' p. 35, pi. ii. figs. 5 and 9. 

Range. — Coralline Crag. 

79. Steganoporella patola, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., pi. ix. fig. 31, p. 205 {Micropora patida, Waters), loc. 
cit., Aug. 1881. 

80. Steganoporelia MAGXiiAnRis, Busk (' B. Mus. Cat.' p. 59), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 205 = Steganoporella elcgans, 



f> 'if' 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



115 



Smitt, 



Ande 



Smitt, ' Flor. Bi-y.' p. 15, pi. iv., firrs. [){] and 101 = EschareU 
Una sp., D'Orb. (Smitt) = Mei)ihranipora ma<jnilahris, Busk, 
' Mar. Poly.' p. 02, pi. Ixv., fig. 4. 

81. STKGAN'oroiJELLA 5IA0N1LAHRIS, Busk (Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 506, pi. xxii., figs. 7 and 7a, Waters = 
Lepralia Jirma, Reuss ; Bijluslra crassa, Haswell ; Vmcularia 
iico::olavLca, Busk; Stegatwiiorella magnilabris, Hincks, Mac- 
Gillivray. 
Jlange. — Fossil : Mount Gambier & Victoria, Australia ; Mt. Gambier, 
Busk. Living : Florida, Smitt. 

82. Steuaxoi'ORKli-a RoziEUi, Aud.; var. iudica, Hincks, * Gen. Hist. 

Mar. Pol.,' ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. v. vol. iv. p. 339, 8180 ; 
Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 505 = Eschara 
■ignohiUti, Ileuss = VincAdaria Novcc IFollandicc, Haswell, loc. cit. 
p. 5U5 = Vincularia sfeganoporides, Goldstein. 
Range. — Living: India and several other localities. Fossil: Miocene, 
Sol in gen. 

83. Stecianoporeli-a pehfokata, MacG. ; var. clansa. Waters = Alem- 

hra.7iipora, ibid., ' /ool. of Victoria,' decade iii. and decade iv. 
Witters, ' Quiirt. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 505 = ? J/ojio- 
2)orella Icpida, Hincks. 

Genus Setoset,t-a, Hincks, 

No record of as a fossil. 

Family X. CniiuaLiNlD.E, Hincks. 

^ Zoarium adnsito, forming an indefinite crust, or erect. Zooicia 
liiiving the front wall more or less fissured, or traversed by radiating 
furrows.' — Hincks, p. 182. 

Genus CniiiiULiNA, Gray. 

Brpti'schtrelJd, D'Orbigny ; Eschar ipora, Smitt, ' Oefs', Kongl. Vet. 
Ak. Forhandl.' 1HG7, Bihang. t'ellepora, (part) Fabr. ; Lepralia, (part) 
Johnst., Busk. 

Zoarlmn incrusting. Zocc'ia contiguous, having the front more or 
less occupied by transverse or radiatii-.g punctured furrows ; orifice 
semicircular or suborbicular.'- — Hincks, op. cit., p. 184. 

84. Cnir.RiLiNA ijadtata, Moll., Hincks, p. 1S5 = Eschara radiata, Moll, 

' Seerindo,' (i3, pi. iv., fig. 17 = Lepralia innomiaata. Couch, 
Busk, ' Crng,' p. 40, pi. iv. fig. 2 = Lepralia innomitiatn, Man- 
zoni, ' Pliocene Ital.' 1st Contr. 8, pi. ii., fig. 13 = Lepralia 
muHiradiata, Reuss, ' Oberburg,' 31, pi. x., fig. 5, ' Pala}on. St.' 
= Lepralia srripta, Rss. ' Sity,ungsb. K. Akad. d. Wissen., pi. xv. 
f. G3 = Lepralia scrij^ta, Rss., Manzoni, ' Snppl.' &c. 5, pi. i. fig. 
6 = Lepralia prefiosa, Rss., ' Bryoz. d. deutsch. Septarieuth.' 
= Lepralia calovurrpha, Jisn., loc. c. 62, pi. xi. fig. 10 := Lepralia 
raricushita, Rss., ' Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 26, pi. i., tig. 8 = Lepralia 
TlJvdlicheri, Rss., loc. cit. p. 31, pi. i., fig. 'J =? lleptescharella 
py<imea, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Tert. Cret.' v. 468 = ? Reptescharella 
radiata, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Tert. Cret.' v, 468 = GrihriJina 
radiata, C. iimominata, Smitt, ' Flor. Bry.' = ? Ijepralia crihrl. 
Una, INlanzoni, ' Bri. di Castrocaro,' p. 27, pi. iii., fig. 40 = Le- 
pralia elcganlissimi, Seguenza*( //d^j Watei-s), 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 265 = Lepralia viegacejyhala, Rss., 'Polyp. 

I 2 



116 



KEPOllT — 1884. 



(1. "Wien, Terliar.' p. 83, pi. x. fig. T). Smi'tt says those specks 
sbuLiIil bo placed very iicai to present or\c.'—Scmicschiirii)orn 
frcKjilii, D'Orb., 'Pal. Ter. Cri't.' v. p. 480; Scmiescharipom 
brevis, D'Oib., 'Pal. Ter. Crct.' v. p. 485; tSei)tiesch<triponi 
tn-iiUs', D'Orl)., p. 4^8 (jhJr Sraitt, ' IJry. Florida/ &c.). Some of 
Eeiis.s's species are described as Cr.Uepora. 
Range. — Vlng. Clialk : Vine, ' B. Assoc. Rep.' 1883. !Miocenc : several 
localities in Austria and Hungary ; Mount Garabicr, Australia : Plio- 
cene, Post-Pliocene. I have also in my collection a specimen simil.u* to 
our own Cretaceons form, from the Yellow Limestone (Cretaceous), 
Timber Creek, N.America. Living: rather widely distributed. 

85. Crihrilina punliata, JIassall (Hincks, p. IdO) = Lepral ia ibid., 

Hass., Johnst., Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 40. pi. iv., fig. 1. 
Ifir,'^ie. — Coralline Crag, Recent, very widely distributed. 
8G. Ckithmi.ixa annclata. Fabric. (Hincks, p. i93)=CeUf'pornawinI(ifa, 
Fabr. = licpieschareJla Ileennannii, Gabb & Horn, ' Monog. 
Polyz.' = F^chirlpora aniiulafa, Fabr. (Smitt, ' Florid. Bry.'). 
luivge. — Scotch Glacial deposits. Living : Brit. Seas ; Florida 
(Smitt); Gabb & Horn's sp,, Santa Barbara ; Miocene (?). 

87. CRir.Rir.iNA iigulaims, Johnst. (not 0., ibiil. ; Smitt:, Florid. Bry.). 

Allied forwis, Escharrlla Anjc, D'Orb. (See Hincks, p. 197) 
= Lepralia Ungcri, Renss, ' Ost.-ungar.' Seems to be a con- 
necting form between C. figularlit and C radiata. Lfjirdlla 
Tlmicri, Reuss, closely allied to present form. 
T><t))i/e. — ? Cretaceous, D'Orb. sp. ; Miocene, Reuss sp. ; Lower Coral- 
line Crag (Bell). 

88. CRiniiiLiNA TEKMIXATA, AVatcrs (IlemescJiam form), 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii , p. 32(3 ; ibid. vol. xxxviii., p. 507 ; Ihiil, 
vol. xxxix., p. 4o<!, pi. xii. fig. 17. 

Allied forms, Lfpnilln .'nudulafa, Busk. 

The marginal cells of the American Cretaceous E.schara diijitata, Lonsd. 
have their surfaces punctured below the orifice in a very similar manner 
to G. fcrtinnata, Waters, only not so thickly. The other cells are quite 
plain. 

lianrir. — S. W. Victoria; Bairnsdalo (Gippsland) ; Muddy Crock, 
Austral i.i. 

SO, Cj;iiii;ir,i\A dextipora, "Waters (Bnctridiiform), 'Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p, ;5"2G, pi. xv. f. o'6. 

Havfje. — S.W. Victoria, Australia. 

1)0. CRinRiLiXA srnuKRK.vs, Waters. (Eschara form), o}). cit. vol. 
xxxvii., p. 327, pi. xvii. fig. 75. 

'Tliis is a most curious and instructive form, in which wo are at the 
outset met by a difi^iculty as to its generic position ; for, looking at the 
aperture, we find it might belong to Cn'hrilina or Mucroiiella. With 
the latter, however, in other respects there is little in common ; but 
with Crihrilina we find the radiating character of the pores, and 
although DO known species has such a bristling surface, yet in C. Gaflijir, 
C. crlhrosa, Heller, C. Jirjularis, &c. thei'e is a row of slightly raised pores 
round the edge of the cribrifona area.' — Waters. 

lianije. — S. W. Victoria, Australia. 

91. CRir.Rir.iXA tuulmfera, Hincks. Waters, oj;. c'd., vol. xxxix., 
p. 4;3G. 

Jiatifje. — Living, Bass Straits, Hincks ; Fossil, Muddy Creek, Australia. 



\ 



111 
a J 

aj 

c.l 

I'd 

w| 

(1 

M 

iiij 

fel 

hi[ 

fa 



ral- 



) 



vol. 

at tbo 
t the 
With 
; but 
, atid 
iatlij"', 
L pores 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



117 



1)2. CuinUTLlNA MONOCETvOS, Busk (iion Reuss) = Ze;;mZui ibid., Busk, 



P- 



(2 



Lepnilia ibid., MacGill., 



'Zool. Vict,* 
'.]2 --=■ Crih'-ilina, Hincks, ' Proceed. Lit. & Phil. 
Soc. Liverpool,' April, 1H81 ; ' Ann. 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' Jaly, 1881. 
Jtanfie. — Living : Bass's Straits. Fosril : Bairnsdale (Gippsland). 



'Mar. Poly.' 
decade iv. p. 



Genus Mi:.mi!i;anii'ORi;lla (part), Smitt. 

Ijercnicca, (part) Flem. ; Lr^iraUa, (part) Johnston, Gray, Busk ; 
Mcinhranipiira, {YAvi) Snaitt. 

' ZoariuDi incrusting, or rising into free foliaccous expansions, with a 
single layer of cells. Zowcia closed in front by a number of flattened 
calcareous ribs moro or less consolidated.' — Hincks, 100. 

03. Memhuanu'OHELla nitida, Johnst. (Hincks, p. 2U0) = Escharoides 

ibid., j\Iilue-Ed.=7it'm/i/t'i;a ibid., Flem. ; M. nitida, Waters. 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 4;3G ; Lepralia cximia, 

Seguei'za, ' ije Form. Terz. R. Accad. dei Lincei ; (?) Fliophlcea 

sdrjcna, Gabb & Horn, Monogr. (Cret. Bry. New Jersey). The 

authors give the following synonyms for this species = Flustra 

sagena, Morton, ' Synopsis,' p. 70, pi. lo, fig. 7; Escharina ibid., 

Lons. 'Quart. Jour. Gtol. Soc' vol. i. p. 71; liepteschariyieAla 

ibid. D'Orb, ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 420. 

liaiirje. — (?) Cretaceous, Timber Creek, New Jcr. ; Waurn Ponds, 

Australia (Waters) ; Zanclean Calabria (Seg.). Living: Northern Seas ; 

Capri, 225 fathoms (Waters) ; New Zealand (Hutton). 

Family XL MicuorOKELLiTt.i:, Hincks. 

Celhporidce, (part) Johnst. ; ^[emhrnniporidtp, (part) Busk ; Puriuidce 
(part) D'Orb. ; EscJian'poridw, (part) Smitt. 

' Zixccia adnata and incrusting, or forming erect and foliated or 
dendroid zoaria ; orifice more or less semicircular, with the lower margin 
entire; a semilunate or circular pore on the front wall.' — Hincks, p. 204. 

This important family group is founded upon well-marked structural 
features, one of which is the ' semilunate or circular pore,' in the front 
wall, given in the diagnosis. Mr. Hincks indeed says, ' Wo do not know 
the physiological import of this detinitely shaped ojiening .... but 
the character which is constant may be fairly accounted of considerablo 
importance, and taken in combination with the form of the apertui-e is a 
good diagnostic mark,' (/. c. p. 2Uo). Further particulars of this mark 
arc given by Mr. Waters (' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 313), 
Ho says, ' In studying both recent and fossil forms, I have often been 
impressed with the frequency with which open pores are replaced by 
avicularia, and think that it is a matter worthy of most careful examin- 
ation.' Mr. Waters says, however, that the 'genus MicroporeJIa must be 
extended ; for we are able to trace relationship from M. rinhicra with a 
round pore to the vnvicty Jissa with an elongated pore (tig. 7'S). Then 
we have M. Yarranensis with two or three denticulated pores in the 
depression, and, in this way on by ^f. rosrinopora and var. ai-mata to 
M. symmctfii'd (fig. 83).' The fossil Microporellidic are well represented 
in the Australian deposits, and the necessarily reduced number of generic 
features in the group has increased the number of synonymous names ; 
but in spite of this, the three genera which Mr. Hincks includes in the 
family, in his ' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' are well marked and easily 
identified. 



118 



KEPOllT — 1884. 



Gcuus MicnoroRELLA, Hincks. 

EsrJiara (pai't), Pallas; Ccllvpora, (part) Linn., Audouin ; Fhi,^'rft, 
(part) Aud. ; licrruiiwa, (part) Fleiii. ; Lcpraliii, (part) Joliiist. ; J'Jsrlniiiini, 
(part) M.-E(l\v., Gray ; Hcrentia (sp.), (ifay; luiil'ipurlnn, (part) D'Orb. ; 
Porhia and Furi'lUnn, Sniitt (iion i)'Orl).). 

^ Zoariiim incrnstiiiLT. Zon-rla, with a soinicircnlar apt-i'ture, the lower 
margin entire, and a semi-lunate or circidar pore below it.' 

t)4 MiciiOPOUiciJ.A (JU.IATA, Pallas {Earlmni ibid., Pal.) = Esrlmrii, 

•oiil'jan's, var. j3, !MolI., ' Seerinde,' (jli, pi. iii. tif^. 11 = JJi'vcuii-i' i, 

7ifriculi(la, Flem. 'Brit Anm.' -"'oli = Lipni! id riliafa, Jo\n\s\., 

Busk, Brit. M. G. ; Cray Pol. lii, pi. vii. liu;. = lii'ptoporeUinn. 

.snhviil,/nri>; D'Orb., ' Pal. i:\. Terr. Cn;t> v. 477 = Le^rralia 

luunta, :\IacGil., ' Tr. Phil. In.st. Victoria,' iv. 18G0, p. 150 = 

Celliqioni crcnUabn's, Rss., ' Fos.s. Poly. Wien. Tertiiirb.' 8S, p]. x. 

fig. ti2 = CeJIipora jilcnnipura, Rss. ' Poss. I'oly. AV'ien. Tertiiirb.' 

p. 8C>, pi. X. fig. '21 = Lcjjatlia utriculns, ^Manzoni, ' Bry. Pliocene 

Ital.' = ? Lcprtilia i/lahru, liss. smooth vai*., ' Poss. Bry. (Jst.-unir.' 

17,pl. iv. lig. 3. 

liav'je. — English Coralline Crag; Middle Pliocene beds (Bell); 

Vienna Basin (Henss) ; Italian I'lioceno beds (Manzoni) ; Sicilian 

Pliocene, Bruccoli (Waters) ; Australian Pliocene, ^It. (Jambier (Waters). 

Living, widely distributed. 

95. MiCROl'ORKi.LA jMalusii, Aud. (Celh'pora ibid.) = Itcpfuporina ib., 
D'Orb. ' Pal. Fran(,>. Cret.' v. p. A43=Lcpmli<i ib., Busk, ' Crag 
Pol.' 53, pi. viii. fig. 3. 
liinifie. — English Coralline Crag ; Pliocene, Italy ; Australia, frag- 
ments (Waters). Living, Avidely dihtribnted. 

9G. MiCKOPOUEr.LA imi-kessa, Aud. (Fliisfmih.') = Lvpralla piiiriforml>\ 

Busk, ' Crag Poly.' 51, pi. v. fig. 3. 
BaiKje. — Eng. Crag. Living : British seas, rather widely distri- 
buted, &c. 

97. Micnoi'OKELLA violacea, Johnst. = Lcpralia phujiopora^ Busk, 
' Crag Pol.' p, 44, pi. iv. fig. 5 ; Lcpralia riolarea, 'Crag Pol.' 
43, p!. iv. fig. 3. j\Lanzoni, ' ]}rioz. J'lioc. Ital.' 1st Contrib. 
5, pi. i. fig. 9 ; Lcpralia diversipora, lleuss, ' Poram. Anthoz. 
n. Bryoz. d. Deutsch,' 
. 98. MiCKOi'OUELLA VIOLACEA, var. fissa, lliucks. Waters, ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 329. 



.ng. 



Cr 



Ital. Pliocene ; S.W. Victoria, Australia, !Mt. 



Hanrje.- 
Gatnbier. 

99. MiCROl'OREi/r.A jekeea, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. See.' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 330, pi. xvii. p. 72. Mt. Gambier. 
99.* jMiCRorouELLA lERUEA, var. pcijurnfa, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc.' vol. xxxviii., p. 2C7, pi. viii. fig. 4. Mt. Gambier. 

100. MlCRorOREiJA ELEVATA, T. Wood, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' 

vol. xxxviii., p. 207, pi. vii. fig. 03-04 ; pi. xviii. fig. 90. jMouut 
Gambier. = Esrhara ibid., T. AVood. 

101. Micuoi'ORKLi.A Yakraensis, Waters, (/. c, vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. XV. figs. 27-28. 

102. MiCEOi'ORELLA cosciNOi'ORA, Reu.ss, var. annata, Waters (/. c, 

vol. xxxvii., p. 331), pi. sv. fig. 25. Mt. Gamlaier. 



D 

or 

Ai 
^^J 

bef 
Tl 

sell 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



119 



fraj.'- 



Quart. 

3.' vol. 

1-. Gcol. 

. Soc' 
^Mouut 

p. 331), 

rs ('. c, 



103. Ml' lOronKLLA iEXiCMATrcA, Waters (/. c. vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. XV. fijTs. 2'J-30. Mt. fJambior. 
l')4. ]VIicuoi'()i:i;Lr,A kymmethioa, Waters (/. c. vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. xvii' i\^. bo. ;M(. (Jainbier. 
105, MicuoroiiFiM.A clavata, Stol. (/. c. vol. xxxvii., pi. xviii. fip. 

H i = /7«,s7/v//«, ibid., Stol. ' .''^oss. JJry. Orak. JJay,' p. 13:». 

!Mt. (lajiibier (?) E^chnva tdniMmna, lleus.s, ' Sitz. Ak. W. 

Wien,' IHlit. ]Mt. Gambicr. 
lU(3. ^MiCRoroiiKivLA MACiiop MtA, 8tol. (Lopralia forma). (Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Ucol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. -07) = Lcpmlia ibid., 

Stol. 'OlifT. Ury.' 
J?(/»7C.— Now .species: Water.s, Mt. Gambler, Victoria (S.W.) ; Bairns, 
dale, Australia. 

107. ;MicuopoRKi-r,A decouata, Ilonss (Cellfpora id.), Waters, 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. .')'>H, pi. xxii. li'^. 1 = Celh'pora 
ibid., Rhs. Toss. Pol. Wicu. Tort.' p. S«», pi. x. fig. 'J-j = 
LnpraUit ibid., IVIanzoni, ' Bry. Foss. i2nd Coiit. Bry. Castrocaro ' 
=i Lrpraliii ibid. Qvij^uci\7.:i = Lcprah'ii, Sturi, Hhh. ^liry. O.st.- 
ung.' = Lppralia fonnonn (rj, Scguenza. 
liange. — Miocene, Hungary; Australia Bairnsdalc; Pliocene, Castx*ocaro 
(^liinzoni). Living, Madeira (30 fatli.). 

108. :;Mici{orORi;r,i,A ciu.iiUr.osA ]\Iac(;il. (forma Adkona), AV^aters 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., ]>. •137 = IHchiupora ibid., 
^luc G., ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Vic' iHtiS = Adcona ibid., Kircheu- 
paner. 
luinye. — Fossil: Muddy Creek, Australia (Waters). Living: Qneens- 
cliflb. 

1U9. ]Mici!OPORKLLA iNTi.'OVER.SA, Waters, loc. cit., vol. xxxviii., pi. ix. 

figs. 3.3-134. Tliis would bo Vipornla, Hincks. 
llanije. — Mt. Gambier, South Australia. 

Genus Diporula, Hincks. 

Distinguished from Microporella by the structure of the orifice. The 
genus is founded upon a single species, Diporula (Eschara) rerrucosa, 
Peach. Mr. Hincks cites as a synonym E. Jiinariti, Waters. 

110. Diporula linaris, Waters, ' Bryoz. from Pliocene of B'-uccolo, 
Sicily,' 'Trans. !Manchcster Geol. Soc' 1878= ? Furellina 
lahiata, lloomer — ' I believe this is the same,' Waters. 
Range. — Living : Sicilian Pliocene, Waters ; Obcroligociin, Lattorf, 
Roemer. 

Genus Chori/.opora, Hincks. 

Flnslra, sp. Audouin ; Lipralia, sp. Johnst. and Busk ; MoJIla, jit., 
D'Orb. 

' Zoo'cia more or less distant, connected by a tubular network ; tlw) 
oritice semicircular, with the inferior margin entire; the special poro 
wanting.' — Hincks, p. 'I'l'l. 

This peculiar genus is founded upon the Flustra Brongniartii of 
Audonin. In his description of Lepralia Brongniartii, And. (' Bay of 
Xap. Bry,' p. 35, 'Ann. M. N. Hist.') Mr. AVaters says the 'connections 
between the zooocia arc short tubes as shown in Savigny's tig. . . . 
This is interesting as showing the first step towards more widely 
separated cells, lite Diachoris : and Hutton calls a form closely allied to 



II 



120 



REroRT — 1884. 



this Diachoris BusJcii.' It is very evident tlint the tubular processes 
cannot be relied upon as generic guides ; both in the genus Chon::iipurii, 
and also in 1) aohorin as now understood these tubular processes vary 
considerably, as lias already been pointed out by Mr. Waters in the de- 
scription of the species T). jiuti'llarin, var innUijunrla (Hry. IJay Xap.). 
111. CllOuizoi'oiiA BuoNc.iNiAiMii, Aud. = Jjcpniliii, ibid. Husk, ' Crag 

Poly.' 4(», pi. vi. titf. i. ; Manzoni, ' JJry. Foss. Ital.''Jud cont. 7. 

pi. ii. fig. 'J = Mulliii' inbercnlitlit and JlnnK/in'drtii, D'Orb. 

' Pal. Fran^. Terr. Crut.' = r' Ueiiti'Hcltaridlituila rhdinhouhilin, 

D'Orb. = Le^yralia capitata, llss. ' Bry. d. Ost.-ung.' 21, pi. iv. 

fig. 7. 
liangc. — Coralline Crag; Pliocene, Voltorra and Castrocaro (Manzoni); 
Austro-Hungarian Miocene (Kcuss). Living, widely distributed in Brit, 
seas. 

Family ^MiCRoroiiKf.LiDiK. 

Genus Monoporeli-a. 

General cliaraclcf. — Zooocia destitute of a membranous area or 
aperture, and of raised margins; orifice arched above, with the lower lip 
entire ; no special pores. 

This group is formed for species with a ^licroporellidan orifice, but 
destitute of the median ])ore, wliieh is so striking a character of llio 
genus ^[icroporella. It is difficult to believe that this structure has 
no special significance; it is at least a much better duo to affinity than 
mode of growth. If this bo so, the Mioroporellidaii form from which it 
is absent may well be set apart as a distinct group.' 

Family XII. Mon'OI'Okei.mk.k. 

Mondimrvlla, Ilincks. 

Provisionally at least it will be better to keep the genus !MonoporelIa 
apart from the Microporellida;. If (as seems probable) the special pore 
of the latter is represented by the oral sinus of the ^Myriozoidn?, IMicro- 
porella will have closer affinity with such forms as Schizoporeila than 
with the present. 

\s yet the species of ]\Ionoporella described are but few, and wc 
have hardly material for a thorough study of the type. — ' Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' ser. 5 vol. ix., p. 123. 

M. lepida 
' M. 710,1 nhjcra )>' Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist.,' Feb. 1882, Uincks. 

M. albicans 



112. MoNOPORELT.A CRASSicAULES, "Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Gcol. Soc' 

vol. x.xxviii., p. 270, pi. viii. fig. 23. 

113. MoNOHOREiwT,\ CRAssATiNA, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii., p. 270. pi. viii. fig. 23. 

114. MoKOPOREM-A hkuktata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 



xxxviii., p. 271, pi. vii. 



fig. 11. 



t>\ 



' Smitt's genus Escharipor.i (as far as I uuderstand it) is founded for Jliero- 
porellidan forms with more than a sinpjle pore. But tlio physiolopical siji^nilicance is 
the same, whetlior there be one or many, and the distinction seems to be unimpor- 
tant ; so also are differcEces in the shape of the pore. — Ann. <$■ Mag. Sat. Hi»t. 
July, 1881. 



\1 
if 

b| 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



^421 



IV. 



115. MoNOPOKKM-\ oiiLONaA, Watot'H, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 271, pi. vii. fig. d. 
Jftwgc. — Mioconc, AuHtralia (Wau-rs). 

116. MoNOl'(tiii;t,i,A si:\ANt;ir,Ai;:s, (joltlf. =: Eschnrn ihid., lln<fenow, 

' Maostr. Krcid,' jt. Hi, pi. x. tigH, Ili.') =: Ksr/mra (Jlarh'l, 'V. 
Wood.M, 'On some Tcit. An.stralian I'olyzon,' A(!.= Monnpoi-fUd 
srjuiiijuhiriti, Waters, ' C^uait. Juur. (Jeol. Soc' vol. \xxix. p. 
435. 
Tlanrje. — Cretaceous, ^lacstricht (Hagenovv) ; ^Miocene, Australia 
(Waters). 

117. ^[oNd'OUKLl-A AMilCANS, Hincks, ' Coiitrlb. towards (ion. Hist, of 
Alar. Poly.," Ann. :\Iafj. Nat. Hist.' IVI). l.sSi>, ser. .'., vol. ix. p. 
1'2:{, pi. V. figs. .'>, r>ii, .'")b = CflU'pora nlhlcdiiti, Water.s, 'Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxviii., p. ol'J. 

Ttuvge. — Miocene, liairnsdalc, Australia (Waters) ; Living, Australian 
seas (Hincks). 

In certain remarks on the above species Air. Waters saya (/oc. cH. p. 
512), ' I liavo already imintcdout that Cvllepora sdnluiiica, Watei'.s (" Bay 
of Nap. liry./' A. M. N. H. March lH7i>, p. I'.Mi) ; C. Ynrracnsis, W. ; 
C. intermedia, MacG ; C. ciiiii2)rcii8it, liusk ; and C fossa, llasw., should 
be formed into a s>ib-g{ inis ; and the present form should bo added to 
the list. I am not, however, inclined to think that they will ultimately 
find their place with Mimoiiori'lln, Hincks.' These forms, as Mr. Waters 
is inclino<l to leave them with Cilh'jxiva ])rovisionalIy, will bo found 
further on. This form alter due consideration I place in the genus 
MoHa)iorclla. Mr. Hincks describes other forms besides the one given, 
but of which I have no fi^ssil record. M'lnoiwrdla was originally placed 
as ]Ia})hi}tordla in the family Mirroporclllda'. 

I'^amily XIII. I'oiuxiD.i: (part), D'Orbigny. 
Memhmiiij^iorido', (part) Busk; Escharoporihv, (part) Smitt. 

' Zoariitm incrnsting, or erect and ramified. Zoacia with a raised 
tubular or subtubular oritice, and frequently a sjjecial pore on the front 
wall.'— Hincks, p. 220. 

In the absence of the special pore, and also the ovicell, it would be 
very easy to mistake fossil specimens of I'orina iiibuhimi for Dlastopora, 
or even liidlastujiani — but the .special characters ought to be sufticient to 
keep the genera distinct ; and although I have met with fossil si)ccimens, 
which I place fcarle.s.sly with Jh'axtdpont, yet in some of the zooocia there 
ai'C faintly indicative structural peculiarities that cannot be accepted as 
normal features of Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. These, however, should bo 
closely studied and noted. In some of the Torinuhv described by Air. 
Waters, the characters are still very diflicult to understand or identify ; 
yet, notwithstanding the apparent anomaly in his synonyms, I think that 
we cannot but be thankful to him for the labours he has bestowed upon 
the group, especially so when we look over synonymous genera given 
below from Hincks. 

Genus PoraNA, D'Orbigny. 

Eschara, (part) auctt. ; Bidiastopora, (part) D'Orb. ; Pustulipora, 
(part^ Sars ; Lcpralia, (part) Busk ; Oachopiora, (part) Busk ; Quadri- 



m 



. 122 



nEroiiT — 1884. 



i\ 



rrJlaria, SfiVH. fnot D'Orb.) ; Avditlinipnnt, (pJirt) Sniitt ; Tessa radon lit 
(part), Nornmii ; <'i/liii(h(i]i(irill(i, hp. llincUs. 

* Zixicld tubular or subtubuliir above, witli a toriniiml circulai" oriflco ; 
a median pore on i\w IVout wall, /mtriitin iiicrii.stiiif^, ' or erect ami 
ramos('.'- Hincks, p. 2-7. 

118. PoiiiNA TUiiui.osA, Nortnan = Lppnilla tnhulnsd, Norman — seo 

Hincks, p. lioU. 
Tiimgo. — Scotch (llacial deposits ((leikio) ; Palu'olitblc, A. liell. 
Livintr, Slielland. 

lil>. l*oi:i\A roi.'oxATA, Houss (Crlhtn'n ibid., IJss.); Wiitors, ' (^nart. 

Jour. (Jeol. Soe.' vol. xx.wii., p.:!:!:!. pi. xvi. li^. o7l = ('rllan'a 

coroiHita, Jlss., * Foss. I'olyp. dcs VVieu. Tert.' p. &2, j)!. viii. 

fig. ;! = I'jsclhtra caiifcrta, Hss., Inr. fit. p. 71, pi. viii. flu. .']'J = 

Aciuipord corttiiitla, ii.s.s., ' Foss. Aiilli. it Hry. d. S. von C-rosara' 

= Spiriiptiriiiii vcrlflirdlls, Stol. ' Fo.ss. Jby. Ornk.' p. lOG =: 

Spiid/Kirluii ri'rlrhriilis, T. Woods, ' tVd". it Hry. Neozoic 

Period,' p. 2'.\ = I'driint, J)lrffni})ucliiniia, Stol. {Jm'. oil. p. ]'.i'>) 

^I'onuii Jh'iifi'iiliicJiiaiKi, T. Wood (/oc. c/V. ]). l.'i.')) =: K.^chara 

.]lHsh;,\ T. Wood, 'On some Tert. Aust. Poly.' = /'/^s7v(/o;)ora 

aiujuhdii, T. Wood, "IVrt. Anst. Poly.' Isrc, p. \:,() r= Mijrio- 

zouiii anslralicufx', IFaswcIl, 'On some Aust. Poly.' 

lunnje. — Foss.: Uartouiaii ; Valdi Lojiti; ^b)nlrcclio Abj^'Cfioro, Vienna; 

Ilntchinson t^)n!irry iiud Oaiiinru, New Zcahmd (Lovvor Fov'ene of New 

Zealand Geolo<rist.s) ; Blount (iainbier, S.W. Victoria, Australia. Living: 

Queensland. 

1'2U. PoKiNA ci.Yi'KATA, Waters; Waters, up. cit. vol. xxxvii., p. 332, 

pi. xvii. tig. i'^7. 
Tidntjo. — Foss.: S.W.Victoria; ^Ft. Gand)ier. 

121. PoKiNA ?r<)i,UMNArA. Watc'.s, 'Ouurt. Jour. Gcol. So(!.' vol. xxxvii., 

p. 334. ])1. xviii. tig. ^iH. 
I'robably related to Eschara /(cfrrosli^uui, llss. ; EscJutra <1 iqil 1 c at a ylisa. 
For interesting particulars see paper as above. 
liangc. S. W. Victoria, Australia. 

122. PoiiiNA T.AKVAi.is, :MacGill. ; Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Gool. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii. p. 2(i*J, pi. viii. tig. Ill (tig. bad) =: Li'pralia ibid., 
MacG. 'Nat. Hist, of Vict.,' decade iv. \). 3U. 
Txiinge. — Fossil: Bairnsdale, ^It. Gambier (Waters). Liviug : Victoria 
and iJondy Bay, New South Wales. 

Genus Ci;Li,r:i'Oi:i:LLA, Gray. 
See Hincks, p. 413. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Genus ANAiniiRoronA, (part) Smitt. 
Hincks, p. 232. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Genus Lagenipora, Hincks. 
Hincks, p. 23.5. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Family XIV. Myijiozoidje, (part) Sniitfc. 

CelleporiiJce, (part) Johnston ; Vorinidcc, (part) D'Orb. ; Memhrani- 
poridm, (part) Busk. 

■ In the British species. 



] 



ON FOSSIL POLY/.OA. 



123 



vni. 



^ '/oar! inn incnistinf?, or risiiitr into foliiicooiin eximnKions, or dendroiil. 
Zi icia calcnrt'()U8, di'stitute ul' ii mcmljiiiiuins nreii uiul raised margins ; 
oritico with a hiims on tho lower lip.'— Jliucks, p. ''I'.M. 

Genus Si'iii/ni'Oi;i:r,r,.\, lliiicks. 

hrprah'ii, (part) .Folinst. and Husk; /'/Vc/nn/nd and licplojujrimi, (part) 
|)'()rl). ; J'juclinrillii, Molliii, Jlijijidllinii, (part) Sniitt. 

' /(iirctii with a somicircuhir or suhorhicular orifii;i', tho infi'vior inar<;ia 

with a central sinns, Avicuiaiia usually lateral, suniutiiues median, with 

nil acute, or rounded, or spatidato mandible, oocasionally wanting, 

/(lorinni incrusting or forming t'oliaccoiis expansions.' — -llineks, ]). -•'J. 

123. Sciii/.ni-ouKM.A rNKxn.'Ms. .luhnst. (see Jlincks, p. 23S) = Li'iinilln, 

ibid. Johnst., Jlusk, ' Crng I'ol.' p. 4''», pi. v. fig. 4= Lfjn-nlld. 

t>j)!iilfrrii, var. niiicdrnis, Alan/oni, ' 13iy. i'lioc. Ital.' Prima 

Oontrib. p. 7, pi. .ci. fiT. 11 = Lcin-clia auHntii, .Johnst,, Jleus.'i, 

' Rry. ( )st.-ung.' ])1. i. p. \X, pi. vi. fig. Vl = Lcprnlin (wmifa, 

^lanzoni, ' Jh-y/. boss. It.' Conti-ib. iii. p. '.» =: Lrpnilia trlrdiinna. 

Ess. ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wiener Tert.' p. 78, pi, i.v. tig. l'.», i'orma 

iinicoriih, ^Manz. ' Bry. Foss. L'lioc.' (.'ontr. iii. := Li'prnlla 

(tnsaht, \iir. tfti-aijunii, and var. y^onwr, IJeuss. ' ( )st..ungar.' = 

h'eptnporhia tclrmjonu, D'( )rb. ' Pal. Fr. Ter. Cret.' v. 412. 

liiingc, — Foxvu luilcdriiis, Cor. Crag, Vienna Ihisin, Austro-llung. 

!Mioeenc ; Itidiau Pliocene ; Scotch Clacial ; Paleolithic. Form aiisata, 

Cor. Crag; Vienna Basin; Ital. Pliocene; Paltvolitliic. 

121'. S(.'iu/.oi'<M;Ri,r,A vui.caims, ]\I()11. (i-iXcA. n) = Cullrjvira ofaphnnt, 
licuss, 'Polyp, (1. Wieu. Ti;rt.' p. 00 = Lepralia raijnata, Ks.s. 
' l?ry. d. deuLsch.' p. 02 = Lcpvdlia hifi..- iicdia, Kss. ' Bry. d. 
Ost.-ung.' ]). 209 = ? Lfpmlia tnmida, Manz. ' Bryo/oa di 
Castro.' p. 25. 
RaHfjc. — Vienna Basin, Hss. ; Anst.-ITung. ; Pliocene dcp. Bruccoli. 
Living. 

i2o. ScnizoPOi;r:[,i,A i.inkauis, Hassall = Le^ira/ia tenclla, Ilss. 'Bry. 

d. Ost.-ung.' p. 2:5. 
This species in a living state varies very much, and it will be well to 
refer to both ^Ir. J lincks, ' Brit. Mar. Poly.' and Mr. Waters's paper en. 
Ih'y. Bay Na])., before dosci'il)ing new fossil species or varieties. 

liKinie. — Austro-Hung. Pliocene; Pliocene beds, Calabria; Australia 
(Water.s). 

120. Sc!ii/.oi'()i;i;r-T.A diai'EIM'a, J\Iichelin (Esrhara) = LeprnVui ibid. 
Busk, ' Crag P.' p. 47 ; ]Man/,oni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 21 = lii'pdu- 
pnrhia ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Ter. Cret.' 
Tknuiif. — English Crag ; Castrocaro ; ^Miocene, Done, France. Form 
esrliKrifunni.t, Sicil. Plioc. Bruccoli (Waters). 

127. Sciiizoroiiia.LA aukiculata, Hassall : I'oss. Australia, "Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Gcol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 273. 
Var. r.KOiN riNiKNSts, Waters, ' Bry. Pliocene, Bruccoli ; ' Waters, ' Man- 
chester Geol. Soe. Trans.' vol. xiv., p. 408, 1878. 
Rnnije. — Sicilian Pliocene. 

128. SciiizoPOiucLLA sinuosa, Busk (soe Hincks). 
lianije — Canadian Post-Pliocene, Dawson. Living. 

129. ScHizoi ouELLA CRUKNTA, Normau = Lcpralia viulacea var. cruentaf 

Busk (Scotch Glacial), 



124 



UKroRT— 1884. 



!■ 



130. ScuizopOUKLLA UVALINA, Linna:a3 = CcUcpora and Lcpralia of 
authors. 

L'a.')i;in. — Scotcli Glacial; Post-Pliocene, Canada ; Coralline and Red 
Ciajj. Living, very widely distributed. 

lol. ScHi/.oi'OiJKLLA YENUSTA, Norman ?= Lepralia ohvia, ^Manz. ' Cas- 

trocaro.' 
Rtnigp. — Scotch Glacial ; ? Pliocene, 3Ianzoni. 

132. Sciiizoi'Oui.LLA VKiiLANS, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 328, pi. xiv. lig. 13. 

133. ScHizoroKKMA I'liYMATOi'ORA, llss. (Esckaru ibid.), ' Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc.' vol. xx.'vii., p. 328, pi. xv. fig. 31, 32. 

131. ScuizoroiiELLA VKNTKicosA, ? Has. (Onchopora ibid.), 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxvii., p. 328. 

135. SciiizoroKEiJiA i-knkstrata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. So'.}. 

136. ScHizoroKELLA cuii-MKHSA, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340, pi. xviii. fig. 8-j. 

137. ScHizoi'OUELLA coxsEUVATA, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340, pi. xviii. fig. 81. 

138. Sciiizoi'(»PvELi,A si'iKOi'ouiNA, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340. 
130. ScHizoi'OKELLA KXCUBANS, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. 341, pi. xvi. tig. l>i) ; \)\. xviii. fig. 80. 

140. Scm/.oiMiRKLi.A AMi'iioiJA, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 311. 

141. SciiizfU'DiJEr.LA AiSTRAM.^i, T. Woods, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 341, ])1. xiv. iig. lo = Tel miliaria ibid. T. Woods. 

142. ScHizorouKLLA Cecili:, Aud. (Fliistra ihid.), 'Quart. Jour. < >co\. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272. 

143. Sciiizoi'Oi!i:i,i,A cokmta, Gabb and Horn, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272, pi. vii. fig. 5 = lieptcscJiarclliua 
c<iniuia, G. & H. ' Foss. Pol. of Second and Tert.' 
14-4. ScinzoroKELi-A humisyci.va, Waters (op. clt. p. 274, Waters), 

pi. ix. fig. 30. 
145. ScnizoroKr.ij.A MAitfiiNii'OUA, Reuss (np. cif. p. 274, Waters), 
pi. vii. fig. 2 = Ccllejxira ibid. Jlss. ' i'oss. Polyp. Wien. Tert.' 
:= h'epfefirharcllina j^rtih'fcra, Gubb & Horn (a]), clt.). 
ScHizoi'OiJEr.LA ACU.MiNATA, Uiucks ("/). clf. ]i. 274, Waters). 
SciliZdi'uuia.i.A i-ii.uoKMis, Waters {Vincnlan'a foi'nui), cp. cit. 
p. 274, Waters, pi. vii. fig. 12. 
148. ScHizoi'oitELi.A sciiizosio.MA, MacG. (Lcpmlia ibid.), op. clt. p. 274 ; 

Waters, and vol. xxxix. p. 439. 
Ranije. — The whole of the above .seventeen species of Scliirjiporella are 
given on the faith of Mr. A. W. Waters. They are nearly all Australian 
fossil forms, one or two doubtfully related to European and American 
forms. Very full particulars — especially of the new species — ai"o given 
by Mr. Waters in the various published papers already quoted. 



I4r.. 

147. 



Zo 



Genus Masi'igoi'HORA, Ilincks. 

* Zocrcia with a semicircular orifice, the inferior margin straight, with 
. a central sinus : furnished with lateral vibracula. Zoarium iucrusting.* 
— Hincks, p. 278. 



1 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



125 



vol. 



2llii(a 



iters), 



Tert. 



cit. 



274; 



\Jla are 
alian 
liericati 
eivcn 



It, witli 
isting. 



I'iO. Mastigopiiora DuTKUTiiKT, Aiul. (Flastm ihid)= Lejiralia Womliaua 

Busk, ' Crag Poly. ' p. 42, pi. vii., tigs. 1 and o^Lepralia 

aurita, Renss, ' Bryoz. d. dentscli. Soptarien.' p. G2=L(prah'a 

otnphojri, Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 2o (nou L. ntophora, Itss.). 

Itange. — Cor. Crag, JMitLcluligocau (Kss.), Older Pliocene, Castrocaro. 

Living. 

Genus Rnvxrnoi'ORA, Hincks.' 

No fossil species recorded. See Hincks, ' Brit. ^Far. Poly.' p. GS"). 

Genus SciUZOTIIK'.a, Hincks, p. 283. 
No record of fo.ssil species. 

Genus HirroiiiOA, Lamouronx. 

G((teni''i'lli', (part) B!aln\.; ? Turchn'poru, D'Orb. ; MuUiii, (i)art) 

Smitt. 
' ZoLVclii distant, caudate, connected with one another by a slender 
prolongation of the lower extremity, so as to form linear series ; branches 
given off from the sides of the cells; oriKce subterminal, suborbicular, 
with the lower margin sinuated or produced. Zoariuia adherent.' — 
Hincks, p. 2«G. 

150. HiPPOTiiOA divakh'Ata, Lanix=7/. pnfa'joui'cd, Busk, 'Crag,' 

p. 24, pi. i. fig. 5; //. loinjicdw.h'ii, Fischer=//. imtarjonica, 

Busk. 

Unvfic. — Pliocene, Castrocaro, rare (]\[an:^oni) ; Scotch Glacial ; 

Pala)olithic ; var. patai/onica, Cor. Crag ; Hippurite Limestone, St. 

Grcgoire (Michelin). 

1-51. Hii'rOTiiOA Kxi'AxsA, Dawson (see Hincks for description, op. elf. 
p. 2l,tl). ' The species is distinguished from H. Hivitricata by its 
large size.' — Hincks. 
linngo. — Post-Pliocene. I'oaufort and Itivicro-du-liOup, Canada 
(Dawson). Living, Shetland. 

152. HiiTOTUOA FLAG ELLUM, Manzoni, ' Bryoz. Foss. Ital.' 4th Contrib. 

C, ]). 1, f. 4. ^ 
limnje. — Pliocene, Calabria; Castrocaro (!^Lanzoni). 

Family XV. EsciiAuiim-:, (part) Smitt. 

This is by far the most important family group founded by the Rev. 
Thomas Hincks in his wnvk on the 'Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' and the 
iloscription of the genera and species occupies over 100 pages of the 
work. So far as the diifert'nt genera have been worked, the grouping 
appears to be perfectly natural ; but at the same time, as our knowledge 
increases of the foreign II' 'cent as well as Fossil fc>rms, some of the 
genera might require moditication. Under present circumstances it is 
best to adopt the family as it is. 

' Zmiriam calcareous, incrusting, or erect and lamellate, or ramose. 
Zud-cia without a membranous area, or raised nnirgins : (<«) with a 
simple primary aperture, horseshoe-shaped, or semielliptical, or subor- 
bicular; or (/j) with an elevated secondary orifice inclosing an avicu- 
larium ; or (y) with a primary orifice having a dentate lower margin, 
and a secondary orifice channelled in front or entire ; or (^), with the 

M ' This trcnus is wrongly placed among the Escharidtc. It belongs to the family 
Myriozoidic. 



126 



iiErouT — 1884. 






55 ' 



lower margin elevated into a mncro ; in all cases destitute of a trao sinus 
and special pores.' — Hincks, p. '2il"i. 

;Mr. Hincks gives (p. 29G) a brief synopsis of this group, made up of 
three divisions : — 

I. Species vith a simple primary orifice. Geneva: Lcpi-nlla, JJm- 
honiiUi } 

II. Species with a secondary orifice differing in form from the primary, 
Genei'ii : Porelhi, Escharoidefi, Sniiltia, I'/ii/Inctelld. 

III. Species with a mucronatc elevation of the peristome. Genera : 
Mncrunclhi, Pdlmicelldria, Jihi/uchopora.^ 

I. With a simple primary orifice only. 
Genus Li:ri{ALiA, Johnston (part). 

' Zod'cia usually ovate, with the orifice more or less horseshoe-shaped, 

arched above, contracted at the sides, and with the lower margin entire 

and generally slightly curved outwards. Znariinn incrusting, or rising 

into toliated exjjansions, composed of one or two layers of cells.' — P. 'J'.'7. 

153. Lki'RAI.ia Paij-asiana, Moll. {Eschura). Busk, 'Crag Poly.' 

jil. ix. fig. 7; Waters, ' liruccoli Paper.' 
Viiwje. — Pliocene: Pruccoli, Sicily, Crag. Living: Scandinavia, 
British." 

lo-i. Lei'KALIa folia(i:a, Ellis and Sol. ; ^Eanzoni, ' Brioz. Foss. Ital.' 
4th Contr. p. IS, pi. i. f. -l' ; ])1. iv. f. li t. AVaters, ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 208, pi. vii. fig. o. ' There is a slight 
diflerence ii. i.he placement of the avicularia in the Australian 
form.' — See paper by Mr. W^aters. 
Hangc. — Bairnsdale, Australia ; Italian and Sicilian Pliocene ; Bruc- 
coli (Waters). Living, various localities. 
ir»r). Lepkama I'KHTUSA, lOsper (f'ellcjiorn). 

luuir/e. — Fossil: Scotch Glacial; Palaeolithic (A. Bell); Australia 
(Waters). 

150. Letkalia ADi'iJESSA, Busk^z^Lepniliu lata, Manzoni, ' Bri. Plio. 

Ital.' IstCcmtr., pi. iii. f. 2. 
Jinvf/e. — Fossil : Italian Pliocene, Manzoni. Living. 

157. LiiruALiA uii'i'oi'us, Smitt. 

liavije. — Post- Pliocene, Canada (Dawson). Living. 

158. Lepkalia edax, Busk {Cellejwnt, ibid.), ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 51>, 

pi. ix. fig. t), pi. xxii. fig. ?> = CtimaHpura inKjiddla, \ . 

Munst"., llss. ' Septaricn.' p. Go, pi. viii. fig. 12=/v. edd,r., Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 270. 
Tiiinrje. — Fossil: Australia, Mt, Gambier; Sellingen (lleuss.) ; Crag 
(Busk). Living. 

15'J. Lepkalia coniiUOAiA, Watei's, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxvii., p. o35, pi. xvii. fig. 00. S. W. Victoria. 

100. Lepkalia monimpeka, M.-Ed., var. dnudid, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 335, pi. xv. fig. 24. S. W. Victoria. 

101. Lepkalia SI atui, ATA, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
|f. 335, pi. xviii, fig. 87. S. W. Victoria. 

1G2. Lepkalia l'Lkihostoma, Smitt, var. rotamla, Watei-s, 'Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 335, pi. xviii. fig. 02. S. AV. Victoria. 

' I'mhonella in text, pj). 2!)(; and 151 G. 

- Tlif; j;cmis Itliynchnjiora is not given by ilr. llincks in the introduction. I luive, 
however, includeu it : Bce p. ii. 



J 






ON FOSSIL rOIAZOA. 



127 



1G3. Lepualia Burlingtonirnsis, Waters (Vincularia forma), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 270, pi. vii. f. G, liainisdale. 
1G4. Lki'Kalia I)i:i'i?i:ssa, Uusk, var., ' Quart. Jour. Qeol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. .^)09. 
IGo. Lei'RAma Baikxsdalei, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 50i). 
1G6. Lki'KAMA GirpsLAXDii, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. .^)01», pi. xxii. f. 12. 
llanrje. — The whole of the above are fossil species and varieties, 
described by ]\Ir. Waters as occurring iu his 'Australian Miocene' ? Material. 

Genus Umeonula, Hincks (.see Brit. M.P. p. olG). 

1G7. Umiionula vhrkuc'CSA, Esper (? Cellepom ibid.). 
Range. — Scotch. Glacial ; PaUeolithic (Bell). Living. 



Crag 
)c.' vol. 

■t. Jour, 
tctoriii. 

xxxvii-, 

|rt. Jour, 
'ictoriii- 

I. Iluive, 



II. With a raised secondary orifice. 
Genus PonELT-A, Gray. 

^ Zoie.cia -with a primary orifice, semicircular; secondary (or adult) 
orifice elongate, inver.sely sub-triangular or borscshoo-shaped, inclo.sing 
an avicnlariuni u.sually with a rounded mandible. Zonrhnn incrusting or 
erect; foliaceous, with a single layer of cells, or ramose.' — Hincks, 
p. ^20. 

1G8. PoRELLA CONCIN'XA, Busk (LcjiritJia ihlL].) = Leprah'a, Belli, Dawson 
' Rep. Geo. Surv. Canada.' J'urelhi, i-uncLuui, Waters, ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. '271. 

Uanr/e. — Scotch Glacial; Palaeolithic; Post-Pliocene, Canada; 
Pliocene? Mt. Gambier, Australia (Waters). 

1G9. PoRKLLA JiiNUTA, Nornian (Lepridut ih'n\.) =^? LcjrraUa ch'doi)ora, 
Manzoin', ' Castrocai-o,' o2, pi. iv. f. "^1. 

Jlanrje. — Older Pliocene, Castrocaro (^lan/.oni), ' If I am right, in the 
identification' (Hincks). Living: only a few British localities — Shet- 
land, Hastings (Jelly). 

170. PoKELLA KMEND.vi'A, Waters, ' Quart. Joux'. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
p. 330, pi. xvii, fig. O'J. 

171. POKELLA DEXTicuhATA, Stol. (Waters), 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. 'j;50, pi. xvii. fig. 70=:Flus/n:lla ibid. (Stol.), 
' Eoss. Bry. Oi'ak.' p. 18S, pi. xx. fig. 2. 

172. PoKELLA MARSUi'iu.M, MacG. (Waters), op. clt. vol. xxxix.,p. •437= 

Z(Cj)ca//(i ibid., ilacG. 'Trans. Roy. Soc Vict.' 18(58. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters); !^lacGillivray. 



Gemis EsCHAROiDES, Smitt. 
No fossil record. See Hincks, ' Brit. M. Pol.' y, 



"■'0. 



Genus Smittia, Hincks. 

' Zocecia with the primary orifice suborbicular, the lower margin entire 
and dentate; peristome elevated, and forming a secondary orifice, which is 
channelled in front ; generally an avicularium below the sinus. Zoariuvi 
either incrusting, or erect and foliaceous, the cells in a single or double 
liiyer.' — Hincks, p. 340. 



128 



REroirr — 1884. 



17o. Smittu Laxosiiorvii, .luiinst. ; Lf'pnilta ibid. See Hiiicks for 

minute pat'ticnlars, pp. ;)lI-340. 
1 ri'. Vav. criistallina, Normiiii. 
/uw/t'. --Geikie records the variety as occiirrinc' in Scotch Glacial beds. 

JvlVlIlL'. 

17-J. Smittia 1!i;tici;lata, IMacd. (LvpniUa ibid.); Waters, 'Qnnrt. 
Jour. Geol. Soe.'vol. .\x\viii. ; Hincks, ' 13rit. Mar. Pol.' p. ^iiO, 
pi. xlviii. figs. 1-."). 
7'((H.f/«.- -Fohsil : IJairnsdalc, Australia. Living: Northern Seas, Brit., 
Australia. 

17('). S.MITTIA ciiKir.osTOMA, Manzoui = //''^irif/A/ ibid., ' Bry. Foss.' 

.'b'd coiitril). p. lo, pi. iv. tig. 'J2. 
HifiKjp.- — Italian Pliocene. Living, abundant, South coast. 

177. Smittia tiusi'inosa, Jchnst. = D/.s'co/;or(? ibij., Johnst. ; see Hincks, 

p. ^,^7)'.^ = »S'. trispbiiisd. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
.xxxriii., p. 272, pi. viii. tig. 2(». 
/i*ff»j/r'. -Miocene, Australia (Waters, Mt. Gambier) ; Post-Pliocenc, 
Canada (Dawson). Living: Very widely distributed. 

178. S.MiTriA ckxtkai.is. Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 

p. ?i'i7. S. W. Victoria. 
171*. S.MiTTtA CEN'TUALis, var. Icfviififif, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc.' vol. xxxvii., p. 8157, pi. xiv. figs. 7 and 8. S. W. Victoria. 
ISC. Smittia Tatki, T. Woods. {I'Whnm ibid. T. W.) 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. ;!:j7, ])1. xvii. fig. G-"). ^It. 

Gandner = Eschara porreda, T. AVood, ' On some Tert. Aust. 

Pol.' • 
181. Smittia anckps, !MacG. (Lq^ralla ibid.) Waters, 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. ;5;37, pi. xviii. fig. V'l. 
ls2. Smittia iu-ixcisa, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., 

p. 272, pi. vii. fig. 1. 
//.///J/''. —Miocene, Australia (Waters), 
is;!. Smittia skpiata, Reuss = Lfjinillo ibid. Rouss, ' l^ie Foss. Bry. 

des. Ost.-ung.' p. 32, pi. ii. fig. 12 = Siniltia ibid. Waters, 

'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272, pi. ^iii. fig. ]7. 
Jxiviijc. — Miocene, Baden (Rss.) ; Australia, !Mt. Gambier, V»''aters. 
181'. Smtttia ISai'Ieki, NVaters, 'Quart. Jour. (Jeol. Soc' vol. xxxix., 

p. 4:38, pi. xii. fig. 14, 
h'ttiige. — -Miocene, Napier; New Zealand; Waurn Ponds, Busk. 
185. Smittia tukiuta, Sniitt = Lrprulia ibid.. Sm., ' Floridan Bry.' 

p. 0-5, pi. xi. figs. 220-228= S. inrrihi, Sm., Waters, 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., ]). 43^. 
//(///r/c- Miocene, Australia. Ijiving, Florida. 

Genus Puyi.act::lla, Hincks. 
Lnpraliii sp., auctt. Ali!<ld(i{a sp.. Bask. 
* Zoo^'^ia with the primary orifice more or less semicircular, the lower 
margin usually dentate ; peristome much elevated, not produced or chan- 
nelled in front. No avicularia. Zoarium incrusting.' — Hincks, p. 350. 
185a. ThijJadelhi, coZ/ar/s, Norman (Lepridta ih'ul.) = Sniitiia collaris 
var., Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 438, pi. 
iii. fig. 10. 
Mr. A. W. Waters, in bis remarks on Smittia collaris, Nor., given 
above, says : ' I have always found the greatest difficulty in distinguishing 



Ga? 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



12!) 



between TJnjhirlflht and Sinllti'it, and have always expressed m}' doiil)ts 
as to the advisabilit}- of using llic sliapo of tlio peristome as a geiierio 
character ; and tlie present form, wliioh is closely allied to, if not identical 
with, J'. rdUans, Norman, has decided me to only use the narao Sniitlia 
for what arc looked upon as l)el()nging to these two genera.' 

Range. — Miocene, Australia, Waarn Ponds and "NVaurn Qnarrv 
(Waters). Living. Jirit. localities. 

18G. Piivi-ACTi:rj..\ i-ahuosa, Ikisk = AhjdJain ibid., 'Crag Pol.' p. 20, 
pi. xxii. lig. 7. 

Manrje. — Jied Crag. Living, several Brit. localities. 



|Hry.' 
)uavt. 



Ilower 
Ichan- 
550. 
VAlaris 

k pi- 

I given 
lisbing 



Iir. With a mucronatc peristome. 

Genus jNIucKOXKr.LA, Ilincks. 

'■ Zmrrla with a suborbicular or semicircular orifice; the peri.stomo 
elevated in front into a more or less prominent mucro. Zoariiun in- 
crusting.' — Hincks, p. .3(!0. 

187. ^IrciiONKiJ.A PiiACiiiT, Johnst. = Leprulia ibid., Busk, 'Crag 

Pol,' p. 48, pi. V. figs. <"., 7, d ; pi. vi. fig. 4. 
lianr/f. — Coralline Crag, abundant ; Mid. Pliocene beds, Suffolk Craf ; 
Upper Pliocene; Palaeolithic (A. Bell) ; Scotch Glacial (Geikie). 

188. Ml('I!OM;li,a ventricosa, Has.sall =■ Lepralia ibid., Busk, 'Crag 

Pol.' p. 4'.», pi. vi. figs. and = Lt-praUn ibid., ar recta, Ilss. 
'Bry. (")st..ungar.' p. 24, pi. ii. fig. 11. 

/iij;/^^'.— Coralline Crag ; Aus. Mid. Pliocene, Pahrolithic (Bell) ; 
^Miocene, Austro-liung. (Reuss). Living, rather widely distributed. 

180. ^[icitoxi;r,i,A vaimoi.osa, Johnst. = Lcpnilid ibid.. Busk, ' Crag 
Pol.' p. 4!^, pi. iv. fig. (') (? fig. 8), and pi. viii. fig. 8 = Lepralia 
scrndafa, Kss., 'Bry. Ost.-ung.' p. 27, pi. ii. tigs. 2 and 8 = 
Le]iraVut tenera, Rss., ibid. ]i. 27, ])1. ii. fig. 4. 

I'lti/'je. -Miocene, Anstro-llungary (lieuss) ; Mid. Pliocene; Coralline 
and Red ('rag. Living : Northern Seas. 

190. r ^Mltuqm-.ij.a MiCKOSTOy.A, Norman (Hincks, p. ;]70). AVaters, 
'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxwiii., p. 20.5. 

liaiiije.- Doubtfully, Australia, Mt. (iandjier. Living, Shetland. 

I'Jl. Mi'i'i;oNELi,A cocciNKA, Johnst. (Ilincks, p. 271) = Lepra Ha mn. 
mllhila, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 40, pi. vi. tig. •') = Lepralia 
iiiauillhtta, ]Man/.oni, 2iid Cout. p. 0, pi. ii. fig. 8 = Lcpralia 
pfernpcra, Ueuss, ' Pol. Wien. T.' p. 81. pi. ix. iig. 20 = Lc. 
jn'ulla pteropi'ra, ^Man/.oni, ' Bry. Foss. Ital.' .'5rd Cont. p. 1, 
fig, 3 = Dhlaiis esrluirellina, ibid., D"()rb., ' Pal. Frany ; ' 
Lcpralla jtorei/riua, Man/oni, loc. cif. p. 0, pi. i. fig. ,5 = 
r Lepraliit fahjurnns, Manzoni, lor. n't. p. 7, ])1. i. fig. ; Lepratid 
quinlriconiKta, Dawson, * Canad. Naturalist,' 1857; Lepratia, 
resiiplnata, ^lanzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 20, j)l. ii. fig. 20 ; Lcpralia 
resupinata. Waters, 'Bry. Bruocoli,' hn-. cit. p. 474; MurroncUcb 
corrinea, Johnst., Waters, ' (^uart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., 
p. 200. 

Jiam/e. — Fos.sil : Foccnc ; INliocene, Europe ; ^Miocene, Australia, Mt. 
Gambier; Pliocene, Crag ; Quaternary, Livorno, j\Ianzoni. Living. 

l'.)2, MuCRGNELLA MLCUONATA, Smitt = Esrhmponi ibid., ' Floridan 
Bry.' p. 24, pi. v. f-gs. \\?,-\l-, = ? Esrhara Hfcrsidrjii, T. 
1884. K 



130 



REPORT — 1884. 



r 



Woods, ' Teit. Aust-,. Pol.' 18"(), p. :> = M. mnrnmala, Watern, 
' Quart. Jour. Guol. Soc' vol. wxviii., p. 028, p, xvii. liy. GO. 

JRaDfjo. — Miocene, Australia. Livini,' : Florida (Smitt). 

193. MuCRONELLA UDi'LiCATA, Watci'H ( Vlncuhirut form), ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxvii., p. ;)2.S, pi. xvi. fig. '(l'. 

19'1'. MucKOXKi.LA EMUJANS, Mac(!. (var. ?),' Quart. Jour. Gool. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. o29, pi. xviii. fig. 91 = ? Eschara cleg<(ns, 
MacG., ' Aust. Poly. Trnns. R. Soc' Victoria. 

195. MucuoNi:r,LA nitida, 'Vvvv\\\ = J}i\^i-opora ibid., Vcr., 'Amor. 
Journ. Sc' vol. ix. p. 4\'>, pi. vii. fig. 3, 1875 =■ Lcpmlia ir. 
tu'idata, var. 'uui'quali-<, ^\^ators, ' Bry. of Naples ' =: ^[wrovclUt 
tiifvla, Wai-ors, ' Quart. Jour. Gool. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. !')07. 

Jlange, — Miocene, Australia. Living, M. eleijans and iiitida. 

190. ]\rL0HOM;Ll.A I'OROSA, Hincks, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
(.Addendum, p. 512) vol. xxxviii.- Hincks, 'General Hist, of 
Mar. Polyzoa;' 'Ann. M. Nat. Hist.' ser. 5, vol. viii. p. 124, 
pi. i. fig. 4. 

Uanrje. — Fossil: S.W. Victoria, Australia. Living: Curtis 11., Singa- 



pore, 



Tasmania. 



Genus PALMicr.r.r.AKiA, Alder. 
' Zooerin with the primary orifice orbicular, or ranging from semi- 
circular to seraielliptical ; the peristome elevated taround it, so as to form 
a secondary orifice, and carried out in front into a projecting palmate or 
mucronato pi'occss with an avicularinm on its inner aspect. Zoarium vvccb 
and ramose, or lamellate,' — Hincks, p. 378. 

197. Palmici:li,aria Skknei, Ell. and Sol. (Millepora ibid.) = Lep-alia 

hicornis, ' Crag Pol.' p. 47, pi. viii. figs. and 7 ; ' Brit. ]\Iar. 
Poly.' p. 380 = r. Sl-oiei, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxviii., p. 511. 
Unnr/e. — Fossil: Crag (^[r. Waters puts?); Bairnsdale, Australia 
(Waters). Living: Northern Seas. 

Genus Hktri'Dra, Imperato. 
See Hincks, oji. cit., for special details, pp. 388 io 397. 
' Zod'cia disposed on the front surface of an erect and ramose zoarinm, 
the branches of which usually inosculate and forni a reticulate expansion ; 
orifice semicircular or semielliptical, with a prominent rostrum on the 
lower margin, bearing an avicularium. Zonn'utn adherent by means of 
an incrusting base, composed in great part of aborted cells ; avicularia 
developed on both r/no back and front of the zoariura.' — Hincks, p. 388 
(op. cit.). 

198. RETFt'ORA Bi;aniana, King (' B. ]\r. Pol.' p. 391), ibid. Busk, 

' Crag Pol.' p. 75, pi. xii. figs. 2, 5, 0, and 7 ; Waters, ' Qnnrt, 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 439. But Mr. Waters doubts 
whether the species described by Stoliczka is really ii'. Beajiiana. 
— ? Leprah'a luhat'i, Busk, ' Cr.ag Pol.' p. 50, pi. vi. fig. 7 ; pi. 
xxii. fig. 4, the young state. 
Jlange. — Fossil: Coralline and Red Crag; Miocene, Australia ; Waters. 
Living. 

199. Retkpora Couchii, Hincks (op. cif., p. 395) = B. cellulosa, var. 

Jlfiouiana, Manzoni, 'Bry, Foss. Ital.' 4th Contrb. p. 19, pi. v. 
fig. 20. 
Range. — Italian Pliocene beds, Manzoni. Living. 



y-..vv„ 



■•ij!])ei: 



f 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



131 



[mm, 
lion ; 
fi the 
IS oC 
ilaria 



husk, 
Jnavt. 
loubts 

b •, pi- 

raters. 



I, vav. 
pi. V. 



200. RKTEPonA MAHsri'iATA, Siiiitt (' Floridan Bi'y(y/.on.') = rhil(i(Joj)Jiont. 

hibiatd, Gabb &, Honi, ' Polyzoa of Second and Tert. Form, of 
X. America,' p. lo8, pi. xix. fig. 21 ; Waters, ' Qnart. Jour. Geo!. 
Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 842, pi. xv. figs. 134- 8G figs. r)i)-Gl, 70, 77. 
Tlanrjc. — ^Miocene, S. Barbara, Amer. ((r. tt H.) ; ISlt Gambier, Aus- 
tralia. (Waters), jjiving : Kloridan sens (Smitt) ; 'reiierill'u (13nsk). 

201. Hirnu'OKA iu.mata. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
p. ol-8, pi. xvi. figs. 4H, 35. 

202. Rktki'oka di;si:i!TA, Waters, ' Q^art. Jour. Gcol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., 
p. ,M1. 

luiiirje — S.W. Victoria; ]\It. Gambier, it. rima'a; Jjairnsdfilc, li. 

Genus Cellki'ORa, (part) Fabi'icius. 

Celleponrriit, Lamk. : Reuss, D'Orb. (for branched species). Spoxjitcs, 
Okeu: liqitocellc})oraria (sp.), D'Orb. (for incrusting species). 

' Zoii'ciii arceolate, erect or sub-erect, heaped together, or irregularly- 
disposed ; the orifice terminal, witii one or more ascending rostra in con- 
nection with it, bearing avicularia. Zanriiun incrusting, often composed 
(ii many layers of cells, or erect and ramose.' — Hincks, p. 398. 

200. Ci;i.M;i'OiiA I'Imicosa, Linnasus. (Sec Hincks, oj;. cit., p. 399.) 

y Manzoni, 'Ital. Plioc Foss.' 
Eruigr. — Scotch Glacial (Gcikie) ; Ttal. Pliocene ? (Manzoni) ; G, 
j'>'.„ilcosa, Pusk (noil Linn.) ; Australia (^\''aters, oj), cit., vol. xxxviii., 
p. 514). Living, generally distributed. 

204. Ci:r.i.Ei'or!A i:A.Mur-OSA, Linn. (Hincks, p. 4ol, op. ell.) ; Busk, 
' Crag Poly.' p. .58, pi. ix. fig. 2 ; Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss.' 4th 
Contr. p. 12, pi. v. figs. 29, 29', pi. vi. figs. 30, .'30', 30". 
Ttdngc. — Coral Crag ; Ital. Pliocene, liiving, widely distributed. 
20-5. CivLLBrouA TLMiiGEUA, Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. GO, pi. ix. figs. 8 
& 10 ; Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss.' 4th Contr., p. 14, pi. iv. tig. 
2.5 {•;). 
llangc. — Coral Crag ; ? Ital. Pliocene (Manzoni). Living. 
200. Cellei'Oua CosTAZii, And. (Hincks, op. cit. p. 411) = Cellepom 
Zfrtssa////, . ' Brit. Mus. Cat.;' Manzoni, ' Bri.' 4th Contr. p. 17, 
pi. iv. fig. 22. 
Unnge. — Icalian Pliocene (^Manzoni). Living. 

207. Ckllkpoua YAKUAENSis, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxvii., p. 343. See ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 
.512, pi. xxii. fig. 8. 

CKTiLiU'OKA I'OSSA, Hasvvell (Waters), 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. 343, ])1. xviii. fig 89 = Sphnnpora, iind., Hass., 
' On some Poly, from the Queensland Coast.' 
luiiige. — Pliocene, Australia (' Waters), and Mt. Gambier. Living (C. 
/.-■'■'.') : Holborn Is., Queensland. 

Sub-order II. Cyclostomata, Bask. 

Cijdostdmafa, Smitt ; Tnhiihyorina, !Milne-Fd., Jolinst. ; Auloporlna 
and Miiriopnriaa, (part) IChrenb. ; Ccrioporina, (part) Bronn ; 
C'eiilyifugiuea, (part) D'Orbigny. 

^ Zoffcia tubular, with a plain inoporculatc orifice; marsupia and 
iijipendicular organs wanting.' — Hincks, p. 139. 

k2 



20? 



132 



IIKPORT — 1884. 



-I 



Group T. RAPlcr.M.ATA, D'Orbifrny, Smitt. 
ArticuJtild .s'. raiUuta, Bnsk, 'Crag Polyzoa.' 
' Zonrinm erect, articulatud, attacliod by radicai tubes.' 

Family f. Ci.'Isiid.k, .lolinston. 

' Zoariuin dendroid, calcareous, composed of segments, united by 
corneous joints. Zouccia tubular, disposed in one or two sei'ies.' — llineks, 
p. 117. 

Genus UxiciasiA, D'Orb. 

Type Unicrliilii vi'nJohoiienxin, D'Orb. 

lam not familiar, otluirwise than by ligure, willi D'Orbigiiy's species, 
but the form described and tigured by Iteuss in liis ' V'al di Lonti 
Mryozoa,' is jjresent also in the Bryo/oa material from Montecchio 
Maggiore, Xorth Italy, though not given in the lists of the autlior. 
The r.oarlum is uniserial, but unlike any otiier uniserial Cri>^ui k?io\vn to 
rae. The r.iKrrJa are borne upon a kiiid of stoh)n, out of which tlie cells 
are devfloped, and these are pyriform ; the proximal part of tlie cell 
contracting and tlie distal pi'otrudiug from the stohjn. 

1. U.NicinstA TKN'KUKiMA, lleuss =? {/"///(•;•/.•>■»( vindiihonennln, D'Orb., 
' Pahvontol. Tcr. Cret.' = Cri^la vinduhonensis, lieuss, ' I'oss. Pol, 
d. Wien. Tert.' 

Itaugc. — Miocene, Val di Lonti ; Montecchio Maggiore, X. Italy. 

Genus Crtsia, (part) Lamouroux. 

' Zoojcla in a single eeries, or in two alternate series.' — Ilincks, p. IIS. 

I have no knowledge of Fossil Gri>^ia of the type Crlsia corvula, Linn. 
The only unicellular form known to me is the one already described, and 
this is so unlike any Grlsia known to occur in a recent state, that 1 jilace 
it in the group out of deference to Rcnss and D'Orbignj-, and because the 
fragments are too small to allow of proper location in this or in any other 
group. Tlie following, however, are true CrLsiic but 1 am not certain 
that all the identifications of authors are correct. Anyone who has 
studied this efenus in larsre masses must hv convinced that the characters 
upon which species are founded vary considerably. Those characters are, 
for the most part, the number of cells to eaeli iiiternode and the positions 
from which tlie branches arise. Thus we iindthat C. ebnnicaJ C. Jeidicn- 
lata, C. acropora, G. clurneo-denticulata, and G. margaritacea have, so far 
as features ai'O concerned, a common likeness. In G. e!o)igafi( and ('. 
sinchtroisis we have another special feature, especially so in the crowded 
state of the minute foramina of the cells. In G. Jistidosd, G. tuhuloxa, and 
G. JloldsmortJiii, we have dill'erent characters again ; while in G. I'hJ- 
id G. cniiferta we have two additional types of ::(iii:ci'n, and also 
a fossil state, it would be diflicult indeed to distinguisl' 
specific characters in the first grou]), but not so diiiicult with the other 
groups. In the following list, then, so far as 1 have a personal knowledge 
of the forms, I will distinguish the first as Group «. The others are 
suflicieiitly characteristic to allow of proper identification in the fossil 
state. 

' iScc BjU. Mils, (.'afiihiijui', pt. iii. ; ' Marine rolyzoa,' Dusk, and ilatcs. 



\vard>^inna ant 



zoarnuH. 



I 



11 



h 

ni 

])0 

].rf 

.A 111 
vol! 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



133 



i\nn. 
and 
)lace 
tbo 
other 
•vtaiu 
biis 
acters 
•s arc, 

■ iiticn- 

SO fill' 

kind C. 
Dwded 
-•((, and 

nd also 

e iithev 
iwledgo 
ev3 arc 
e fossil 

?3. 



droup n. 

2. Ciusi.v EIUJRNMA, Linii. o. CiMsiA DKNTifiur-ATA, Latnk. = Cn'tiiu 
nt(l)(riji(itll>i, Kcuss, ' Paliiout. i-itud.' ^= Crt'sid ijnirilifi, Jtocmcr, 
' Nurddoutscli, 'j'erfc. itc' p. 2'S, tab. iii. :I = Crixia, iiiulescribcd, 
'Austriiliaii liiyozini^ = Ci'ltiiii, uiidfseiibcd, 'Australian IJryozoa,' 
C L'liiiiiintii type = Cn'si'ii dcnticnlila? IJusk, 'Crag Polyz.' p. 
1)3, pi. i. fig. 8. 

luliiije. — Scotch Glacial; Post-l'lioccuo, Montreal (Daw.son) ; SufTolk 
Crag, Pala'olitliic (Hell) ; ^lioceiio, Australia, nndescrihcd,' but 
in my cabinet; Austro- Hungarian ^Miocene, Jleuss. T sec no 
reason for separating from tbo above group the North Dutch 
species of Rocmer, or the North Italy species of Keuss. 

4. CuisiA ilSTULOSA, Heller (non Busk), ' 13ry. Bay of Naples, Ann. 

:Mag. Nat. Hist.' Ap. IBGD, p. 268 = C. Hanerl, Rss., ' Foss. Polyz. 
des W. Tertb.' p. 51., pi. vii. fig. 2-J-21 = Y G. churtiea, Manzoni, 
' Bri. Foss. del .A[ioc. Aust.-Ungh.' p. 3, pi. i. fig. 1. 
J\<i}i(jv. — Miocene, Nassdorf ; Berchtoldsdorf and Wieliczka, Pliocene ; 
Rhodes (M.). Livin,',, Najilcs. 

5. Ckisia ELOXGAiA var. angusfa/a, Waters, * Bry. Bay Nap.' Joe. cit., 

p'. 2G0, pi. xxiii. fig. i = ? C. J'Jdwnnlsil, Reusr^, ' Die Polyp. W. 
T.' p. i>o, pi. vii. fig. 20 = ? C. Edwiinlsii, Manz. '1 Bri. Foss. 
Aust. ed Ungh.' Tiie above are the suggested identifications 
by ]\Ir. Waters. 
BiiiKjc. — ^Miocene, Austro-Hung. Living, Naples. 
I have a fragment of a species Avith ovicell like C. covfcrta, Busk 
('Brit. Mus. Catalogue,' pi. vi. a, pt. iii. p. 7), among my material from 
]\[ontecchio Maggioi'c. I would be glad if local students would search 
for and describe the form. 

The following are given by Reuss in his ' Fos.s. Pol. des W.' as occur- 
ring in the Marine Limestone of Nussdorf and Eisenstadt. 

C//.s/(i jE'JdvnvZsr/, Reuss ; C. Horn en ii, 11. ; C. ILiucri,^ Rss. ; CrisuUn 
riii'liihducnsis (Unicrisia). 

Group II. Lnckustata, D'Orbigny, 

' Centrifugenes empalees a cellules nan operculees,' D'Orb. (pars); 
' Inarticulata; sou adfixa',' Busk, ' Crag Pol.' ; In'CKKsta, D'Orb., Sniitt. 

/oarinia continuous, calcareous, not divided by corneous joints, or 
furnished with radicle tubes ; erect and attached by a contracted base, or 
recumbent and immediately adnatc, either wholly or in jiart. 

In my last ' Brit. Assoc. Report on Foss. Polyzoa ' (Southport, 188;]), 
T felt compelled to found the Family Stomatoi)orida^ for the inclusion 
of jieculiar Pakeozoic a]id Ma'sozoic forms. Jii this grouping I took 
Stviii'ilojifira as the typo of the family, The Recent Kitoiaaiuptira'. are, 
however, so multiform in habit that it ^eemsto me unv.dse to increase the 
dilficulties by placing in the way of the student any ill-digestcd or 
unnatural associations. But the ca.se may be stated thus : the Storaato- 
l)ora' of the older rocks difl'er in many points from those existing in our 
}ireseut seas. The simple forms such as N. ijntnulata, Edw., agree with 

' since this was wiilton Mr. Waters has sent his promised paper on tlie 
Australian Cyclostoiiiata to the (Jeol. Soc. (read June, 1881), anil it will be found in 
vol. xl. (^hl(lrt. Jour. (irol. Soc. ((i. U. V.) 

- C JJaiicH, ll>s. ; similar to C. churnca Lanix., Uss. 



134 



iu;rouT — 1884. 



iniiny of tlio Crotaocousaiul Junissic! snccics in (lio'i- miiccllnlur clininctt.'i', 
and Sloiiitifoi'ont iintjir, oxcopt in tlio want of fi'iicstiat ion, soi'in In In- 
allied to foi-tiis (K'^crihccl \)y I'mf. Xicliolsoii IVom (ho ('iiiciniiati rocks of 
America, but my own unism-ial I'orius clill'cr IVotii tlm .luiiis 'ic' 

Family fl. 'I'l ;;ri.iroiMi>.i:. 

/iKiriimi. I'litiic'ly adlu'rcnt, or more or less Ircc uiid ( rci.'t, mull i!'ui i;i, 
oftcMi liuoar, or ilabclliitD or johuti', f-omctimcs cyliiiilrifal. '/.•■irr',,i 
tul)ular, dispos'i'd in cuntij^uoiis si'iics, or in sinuli* lines. Oirriinu an 
inllation of the sni-fiii'o of t,lu> zoai'inm at curtain points or a nujdilicd i-cll. 

Jn JJnsk's ' Crai,' I'olyzoa,' [). !'l, tlio Tnlailiporida' incliulo the tlircr 
genera — Mrsrii'fn'/ii>rii, HIainv, Ti'hiilijuirii, liiuuk., and .Hrr.'n (Stoinatn- 
pora) Lamx, In tiie ' 111. JJrir. iMus. Cata!()!:,nio ol' Poly/oa,' p. 2o, -I/"'", 
iStdDiatnpiira and Tnhiiliiiord only aro incliulcd. Tho Mfsi u'l rijxirn is 
relegated to the Diastoporida'. In iMr, llineks" 'Brit. ]\larinc( Polyzon,' 
tlie Tubuliporidu' iu'dndi' tlic genera — 

SroMATOrouA, Bronn. Kntai.^'Iiioi.'A. Lamx. 

Tl'UL'MI'uua, Lamk. Diasioi'oua, (part) J^amx. 

Ii>moni:a, Lamx. 

Genus Sto.matoi'OI.'A, Bronn. 

1821, Aleclo,- Lamx. ; 1825, SloDuifojiorn, Bronn.; l&2('>, Aidcjiont, 

Cioldfnss (part). 

Zoarii'vi rejwnt, wholly adnate, or free at the extremities, or giving o!V 
erect processes, simple or braneluul ; brandies more or less lign!at(\ 
Zoor'tit in givat part immersed, arranged in a single series or in se\i'!-.;l, 
which take a linear direction or arc very slightly divergent. — Busk, 
'Brit. ]\Ius. Cat. 111.' p. 2:'. ; llineks, ' Brit. .Mar. Polyzea,' ]>. -VIA: 

Of my own knowledge I have but little to furnish icspecting Tertiary 
Sfonmtopnra below the 'Crag.' IMy c(mtincntal material, both Iloeene 
and !Miocene, has only yielded to me a few veiy minute riagments of two 
species. In his work on the ' Biyozoa of Castrocaro ' (Pliocene), .Manzoni 
describes three species of Shr,niil(ipnnt (Alecto) as found by him. One 
species of very frt'ipient occnrrenee is named by him JAv'o CW.-.//v/rf(;v,-,s,'.-, 
Maiizoni. It is a very line example of this type. The large and peculi.-ir 
character of the cells is noted by the author (' Ijrioz. Castro.' p. dO, pi. vi. 
iigs, 71, 71'). Tlie.vo^c/"' are grannlose and ]iunct!ite, but exccj)t that he 
speaks of the grand dimensions of the cells we are left in entire ignoi'anee 
of their natural size. Besides this beautiful form ^lanzoid deseiibes and 
figures two other (S7(j;;nx/o;)()r't' — N. (Alcctu) rein in^;^ Wood, and S. (Alcrlij) 
jyarasita,^ Heller. 

In the 'Crag Polyzoa' (p. 112, ]d. xx. fitjs. ."), 8, and ibid. figs. (1, 7) 
Mr. Bask describes and figures .1. rcjuum, S. AN'ood. and .1. dilulidis, W. 
Thomson. I cannot regard — so far as I may be allowed to t'xpress an 
opinion by comparing the figures in the absence of sjiecimens of ^lanzoni's 
type — the A. rcjwn.'i of ]?v;sk, and the A.rrpoii? of Man/oni as one and the 
same species. The Crag specimens in my cabinet show A-ery well the 
characters of Busk's species, but none of the cell characters of JManzoni's. 

' 8oe 'Silurian Uniscrial Stoinatoponi; and ^Vl.'nl()^k I'nlyzDa' (uiilii'', Qiiurt. 
Jour. Ccol. Xir,- AiiL'. 1881, Feh. 1SS2. 

- Nanio pnn'ionsly used for a yroup of iM'hinodeniis l)v Loach (181t). 



'l!!i 

-i:;i!i 



Ibid. tav. vi. li 



Tav. vii. li--. C.lt 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



135 



'■>, ' ) 

[ess nil 
Ir/oui's 
Iwl tlio 
Ml tbe 
lizoni"^- 

(Jtuirt. 



In liirt ' Hryozoa of ilio Buy of Naplfs ' (]>. '27'-'>, op. ci'f. Aji. Is/'t), ^Fr. 
NViitofS iissnciiiteH witli ^1. rrjicits. Wood, tlio Iliiisliijinrd er/iiint/ii, Kss., iiiid 
J). r<7i. //.'», Smitt, inul descrihcs, Imt diu's imt li<j;ur(', a variety of vl. rvpfii!^, 
AVdoil, ns ^1. ft'piii^, var. ciliiria^ia (ImliituL on Ttrcbnilnld ri'mi). ^Ir. 
lliiK'kH, lio'vcvci" (' Hrit. Mar. J'oly/.oa,' j). I'J"), jfivos tlio Inllnwinj* 
sviionyniy : Stuiiiiilnjinra iiKiJar, •lolinstoii := Tiihnlijiunt rejicim, S. V. Wood 
== Alrrtn rrjiiiis, iJusk, ' Craj,' Polyzoii.' pi. 1 1 J, iig. H Cnol. Ilir. Ti). 

C, Stoma roi'OiJA (iiiANM.'i, ATA. .M.-ImIw., llincks, p. -IJ.'., pi. Ivii. ti^-s. 1,1'; 

Uiisk. ' I'lit. .Mus. Cat. III.' p. -j:!, pi. xxxii. tit;. I = N. </n» /,"//'/", 

D'Or!); N. ui'-r,i.<.<,tia, D'Oi-b., ' I'al. Fi:' = ? JlrrI,,' ji(tnis;i,i, 

IIcUlt, ' Ury. Adr.' p. Id, pi. iii. l\n;. ](» = r* .lAr,',/ ^Htnislht, 

Mau/.oiii, ' CJastrocnvo," p. II. pi. vii. tl;^'. Ci'.i = ^ StiDUdfcjiniv- 

iniin'iii't, RoLTncr, 'J'ry.' woodcut, p. '12, pi. iii. ii<_r. '2. 

'Iiaii'ir. — llinck.s says, '(iivs vert iidVi'ii'Ui-, France ; Xorddcut. Tort. 

()lii>-oc;iii' (lloonicr, S.viiuinKt) ; Castrocaro (Manzoni). iiiviuq;: Adriati(5 

and IJrit. Soas. 

7. Stoma roi'oi.'A iM'cn.osA, Rss. ; At'lupura ibid. Ess. ' Foss. Pol. doa 

Wiener Tort.' .Marino Liniest. 
S. Stomat(ii'()|;a itivAi;K;ATA, K.sh. ; Aid<ip(ir(i,\\m\. llss. ' Fos.s. rd. dca 

Wiener Tert.' !^larine Jiiuiest. 
0. Sto.matoi'oua iiECiULAiMS, Gabl) it Ilorn ; .l/r-'/,, ibid., G. it 11. ' Mon. 

Foss. Pol.' CrotaeeonH. Xew Jersey. 
1 <^ivo the above on the authority oi the author.s rather than suj)pre,s3 
the L.unes. 

10. Stomahu'OUA MA.ioi;, Johnsl.; llincks, ' Prit. !M. Pol.' ]). •t2r, 

pi. Iviii. and ])1. l.xi. iig. 1 = Y 'riil.>"lij)iini rcprufi, S. Wood; 
Alfch> ibid.. Busk, 'Cra^i; Poly.' p. 1 PJ, j)l. x.\. li<.-. 8 (not ,0) = 
Tuhnh'iii'ra Juiilniafii, r ^lichelin ( i>u.sk, lnr.cit, p. lP2) = 7'/(»('//c(t 
nni.ntu:, \Y()vh. ji. tJ:J-2, ligs. 1, 2 (Pusk, 1<m\ c'd.y. IPJ) ; Water.s, 
' Pry. Pay Naples,' Inc. ell. p. '27'S, as Alcrto rcpcns, Wood. »Syn. 
Waters, JJinstupnra ccJiiiin/ii, l\ss. ' Foss. Polyp, dcs W. T.' p. •~>'2, 
pi. vii. tigs. 11', 1-j ; J^n/.s'/cjfi/j-a rcixnis, Smitt, ' Krit. Fiirt.' jj. ol).'), 
iSGf).,. 
h'aiirfc. — Miocene, I'^isenstadt (Pss.) : Plincono, ('rt'.cf, ('astrocaro 

(Manzoiii — as S.Jinij'ii; Ilks.), Coralline anil IvedCrai;. Living: Several 

localities, Prit. Seas ; Xaples. 

11. STo.M.vrol'(»l'.A ini.ATANS, Johnsj . : llmclcs, 'P. ^M. Poly.' p. 4'J(l, 

pi. Ivii. figs. ;5, ;{a = .Prr/„ ibid., 'Crag Poly/..' ]). 112 (.1. 
ilildlaiis, W. Thomson, pi. xx. iig.s. (!. 7) = ? Alrflo rcpiiis, 
!Manzoui, 'Castrocaro,' ]>. vi. tig. 72 (llincks) = (Syn. Pusk) 
iJiiislopnra echliudd, liss. ; Iihaoiwn dinirii-ata':', T. (/-yi/'o'.s/i (":'), 
I. vt'iuiumna (?), 7. vlcijau^ (?), D'Orb. Couiparo the synonyiuy 
of S. viajor and S. dihifaii^. llincks gives 't I'mhn/icina ramiKsii 
= Idmiiiiea rrnoinaiut — as syn. of f>tn)iiiif<iporti' cqutima, llincks, 
' Brit. M. Poly.' p. .132, pi. Ixii. fig. 1. 
Tiaih/r. — pTiglish Crag (Busk) ; IMioccno and Pliocene (remains for 
closer comi)arison). Living, Prit. Seas. 

12. St('.matoi'oi;a inchass.sta, Smitt (snb-gonus Prnhas'riiia, Sniitt), 

Hincks. ' Prit. M. I'oly.' p. -ioG, pi. lix. tigs. l\ 3 = Fdisparsa- 
ibid.. D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' p. !-il7. For other synonymy see Pnsk, 
' P. M. Cat.' pi. iii. p. 2t. In a fossil state it is almo.st impossible 
to correlate, ■with any degree of positive exactness, these and 
recent forms. The relationship which these synonyms aro 



m 



I ::! 



> 



130 iiKrouT— 1884. 

PuppoBod to iiulicato an! only in a ccrtiiin scnso corrocK Tlu! 
olileT I'oi'iiis may, upon ('Xiiiiiinatidii, '^\\i^ cliaractfi's not fduntl 
in vc'C'ont specit's — and (/■.• {-crxi!. 'I'liiis Sinitt (* Scandinavian 
]3i'y.') ^ivi's Husk's Alrt-ln rrpi'ii^ as Jh'dKlnjinrd il)id., witli the 
fiillo\vin<7 additional synonyms Prulinsfiiiiit iHilintuuni^ U'Orli.j 
/'. Toi'raciniia, D'Orl). 
liauj,: -CO 

(lunus Tii;riJi(u;A, Lamarck. 

Ceriojiont, (pt.) llap;cjio\v ; I'lnthtrnji Ihi (sp.), Clray ; Ohel'ia (Hp.), 
Lainx. ; lifjitofubiijerti, U'Orh. 

Znariiim adnatc or dcciunbcnt or subcrcet, forinin<jf a vavionsly sliapcd 
expansion, cither entire or lnhatc, or brnnclied. Xnaciii, tubular, ])iir. 
t:ally Ireo and ascending-, arranged in divergent scries,- -1 liiieks, p. -143; 
I5iisk, ' Cyclostomata," lirit. :Mus. (ait.' pi. iii.p. 2-i ; ' Crag Pcdyzoa,' llU. 
For additional synonyms. Husk, ' Cyclos,' ' ]}. Mas. Cat.' 

This genus I retcrred to briefly in my -Ith JJrit. A.ssoc. Report on 
Fossil Polyzoa, as being ono ot" tlioso genera very poorly represented, 
il'atall, below the Tertiary rocks. After carefully studying some very 
iiiu! forms of the Tahalipovit, found amongst the Crag Polyzoa, and com- 
paring theso with recent forms, 1 can fully endorse tho remarks on the 
'/enus made by the Rev. T. llincks ('Jirit. ^Tarine Polyzoa,' p. 1 lil), 
that the colony oi Tithiilipoi'a tu'igiuates in a discoid body, and that the 
after development from this primary stage is by a ' .second cell,' usually 
])ent in the opposite direction ; ' followed by an increasing number of 
series which diverge more or less on each side. In some cases a simpK 
flabellato crust is thus formed ; in others it divides into lobes, which 
again subdivide.' Although ii\ some respect f 'I'lihiiliparii may res(MnbIe, 
on tho one hand Vlastdjtora, and on the other Stoinafupnrd, there is a 
distinct facial character in tlie group which, under j)rc.sent circumstances 
at least, keeps the genera distinct. It v.ould be lolly, hf)wever, not to 
recognise that in the ^lesozoic rocks .sonu; of the JHnsldjinra ])reserve 
tho flabellatc character until the colony is considerably advanced, but 
these, instead of following tho lino of colonial development as found 
in Taliuliponi, nltimately assume the norninl dis.oid habit and not the 
branching and rebranching of typical Tnhulijiorit. The beautiful species 
described as Tnhnlipurd jlnhi'llari", (':) Fal. (sp.) by ^Ir. J>usk in ' Crag- 
I'olyzoa,' p. iii., and tiguretl pi. xviii. lig-. o, pi. xx. lig. !', is given by 
!Mr. Hincks as T.fimhria, Lamk. ('Brit. Alar. Polyzoa, 'p. 1 tS). I have; 
before me a very tine example of Busk"s species iigiired in pi. xx. fig. \\ 
' Crag Polyzon,' and I can therefore aece])t the strictures of Mr. lJinck.>^. 
■when ho remarks (p. 4 I'J) that T. Jiiiiltriu being distinguished by its flat, 
fan-.shaped zoarium, difl'eis from the zoarium of T. jlul/i lliiri>!, in 'being 
horizontal and destitute of the very tall sub-erect extremities.' The cells 
are not arranged in series, or at all connected together. There is, how- 
ever, an element of doubt in identifying the Crag form with the recent 
T.y??/iZ/;-/(7, for the reason that I have been nnable to trace the ' trans- 
vei'scly wriidvled ' aspects referred to by Air. Hincks. I shall not there- 
fore differ from Afr. Hincks in his general appreciation of the types 
accepted by him, bnt follow him in his identifications, in tho hope that 
further study will throw some light at least upon tho doubtful points 
referred to. 



I 



-Sea 



T 



ON lOSSir. rOLYZOA. 



137 



is a 
nces 
to 
•we 

\)Ut 

ami 
the 
cirs 

■n by 

s ttat, 
bciii'j; 
e c'tllrf 
how- 
•cccnt 

tlitn-o- 

typ*-'^ 
3 "that 
points 



l;>. Triiir.ii'OKA i iaimi.i.auis, Kah., lliucks, ' Hiif. Mar. Polyzon,' ]>. 
■\W> ( i'dst-lMiot'cuo (ilacial di-posits) ; Syiioii. = 7'. y'/i'(/(///(/((f, 
Husk, 'Craj^ I'ol.' j). iii. tiir. G, pi. xviii. (Coralline Crnjj;) = 
T.jl'il'i lhiri'< (.Nfaii/.iitii) = iJidsloiKtiut jiliunulu, Iti'u^s (' Jlioiiono 
(IV tria,' ^laii/oiii). 
J 1-. Tfiiui. OKA I'lMHUiA, Jiamk., Hincks, ' T3fit. Alar. Pol.' p. 148 = 
T. jlnlirlhin'y, Hnsk, 'CraLT I'ol.' )». iii. pi. xvii. ; lif,'. :i, pi. x.T. 
tlf^. l> (similar ranj^'o in Tiiiie) = r* I'mLnsfind latij'olt'a, D'Orb. 
' J'al. Fr. Terr. Cri't.' p. Ht? (? (Jrotacoous). 
It will bo siHMi by tlio above) that tlic I't'ccnt origin of this peculiar 
form is somewliat established insomuch as reliable oli.servation and study 
reduce tlie Tubal ipura to two well-marked tyjies, both of which uro 
locent. The lignre of T. jlnhflUirls ;.,nv('ii by Alanzoiii in ' Hryozoa of 
('astrocaro," pi. vi. lig. !'•), and briefly described in p. l-! of the same work, 
is identified us the sair.e Northern form, fully desciibed by Smitt, 
' Kritisk iM'irteckn. (ifver Skand. Ilafs-Bryozoi'r,' j). lOl, tab. i.v. fig. (i-S, 
and with lhi.>-k's figs. an<l referenccF ])reviously given. It will be seen, 
la)wever, that this is referred to T. jiiiihn'd by Mr. Hineka. Notwith- 
standing thoal)ove, I give below a list of Tnbiilipora at present accessible 
to me. 

1.^. Tli!i:lii'Oka parasitica, llagenow, 'Die IJryo/. der Aliistrich. 

Krrid.' itc. fab. i. fig. 1. 
li'iUHji.'. Up. ('lirtlk, Alaestricht. 
Ji;. Tiiiui.ii'oiiA TuiKAKiA, Koemer, ' Polyp. Nord-dentsch. Tort. Gcb.' 

]). '2'2, tab. iii. fig. '2. 
17. TL'i'.ri.ii'OiiA KciiiN.vrA, \'on ^Miinst. (Celiepora), Goldf. * Petvefac.' 
tab. xxxvi., fig. l-l; Koemer, Itir. rlf. p. 2'2. Diastupura tchuiata, 
ll-s. 'Foss. Polyp. (1. W. Tertiiirb. 
luDiijc. — Koemer gives Oligoeiin von Solingen ; for (loldf. sp. 
dberoligociin ; Goldf. cites Tert. Merg. Asfrupp. 

It will be seen from the above, against which I place (?), that 
Koemer identifies flu; d'Hrpurti cchlnntd, Goldf., as Titlniliiiora, whilst 
.lales llaime in his ' Jurassic IJryozoa ' speaks of the same species as being 
an exanij)Ie of I'riih".--i'hi'i, and remarks that it is well placed between 
S'oiiniliipitrn and lihiioiirn. In nil probability, judging from the brief 
I'.iagnosis given by (ioidfu.ss, ' repens, raraosa, cellulis tnbnlosis, ostiolis 
oibieularibus ereetis,' Koemer is more correct in the identification. 

is. Ti'iiiLiroKA riiALAXdKA, Conch (see note), 15usk, 'Crag Poly.' p. 

iii. ])1. xviii. fig. (i ('i'. juilmafa. Wood). 
10. Tiiui,ii'i)i{A Ki.Ai;i:i-i..\i!is, (r) Fab. (sp.). B sk, 'Crag Poly.' p. iii. 
pi. xviii. fig. Oy pi. XX. fig. \.^ = iJ/.'^rajKira ■p^i^ni'tti'it Kenss = 
Dinstapi'ra vasniaceiisis, D'Orb. ' Tor. Cret.* p. dcxxxv. p. 12 and 
lo = Ih'asfojKira plitntiila, J{eu.ss, 'Foss. Poly. Wien. Tertiarb.* 
p. r>l, pi. vii. fig. 11. 
llit)i[li'. — Miocene ? Kss. ; Cor. Crag, Bu.sk ; Living. 
As rJinliDificllii, Gray (Tnlmlipord in this Report), Smitfc in his 
Scandinavian Bryozoa gives the following species and synonymy: — 
•Jo Tl'UUI.il'OKA I'AL.MATA, Wood (snb-geinis PhahuxicJIa, Gray) = T. 
pdlniata; Wood, Busk = Alccto iJilalaiis, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 112. 
TiiULii'OiiA I'iMiiiiiA, Liimk. = Frnhosrina serpens, D'Orb. 'Pal. 
Yi:' I.e. p. 847 =Tuhullporajlahellaria, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' p. iii. 
Tciu'LU'OUA FLABEM.ARis, Fab., 'Tithuliporii verrucar'ia, iJ'Orb. 'Pal. 
Fr.' I.e. p. H32 = Tahulipora phala)i(jea. Busk, ' Cr. Pol.' p. iii. 



!1. 



O) 



T 



138 



REPOKT — 1884. 



i 



i<i| 






Genus Idmonka, Lamourous. 

Iilninnea, Lamx., Blainvillc, I'llilno-Kd., .lolinstoii, Reus.s, D'Orhii^'iiy 
('l).u'fc),l{iisk. ; Jicfi'pora, (pt.) Goldfnss, Liiiiik. •,J)insfop(>ra, (pt.) .Micliflin, 
'riiJjidijjdrd, ([)t.) Liuiik. ; Cfitfii/d, ('))('.) D'Orb., Siuitt ; Tnhitl'qiora, sub- 
genus Idvioii'Jii, Smitt. 

'■ Zoariiua erect and ramose, or (rarely) aduale; brandies usually 
trianrjular, Znntrla tubular, disposed on the front of the branches, 
rauyinrr in parallel transverse or ()i)liq>ie rows on each side t)f a mesial 
line.'— Sec Hincks, p. 450 ; Busk, ' Cra^- Polyzaa,' p. 1(»1-. 

This peculiar i^-euus seems to have originated in early Mcso'/dic times, 
but the speci !S described by Ijamouroux as J. 'n'qiwtni, jis occurring in 
the Jurassic rocks, especially in this country, is far less specialised than 
those forms found in the Cretaceous rocks of ^Alaestricht, and in the 
Faxoe Limestone of Denmark. The unusual character of some of the 
species descri'jed by Goldfuss as .Uclepora dnHirata and A*, distichn, 
induced Hagenow to break u[) the foi.us grouped togetiier by Goldfuss, 
out of which several new species were founded, described and ligurcd. I 
do not say, after having studied the Faxoe material, that Ifagenow was 
wronsr in his redistribution, but I think that even he has tiiven us more 
species than were needed or that the doubtful character of some of 
the forms wari'anted, but his beautiful figures have niatei'ially assisted 
the student in raastei'ing the details of the group. Yet it seems 
to me a rather invidious practice, in the present state of our 
knowledpfc, to criticise unfairly the labou'-s of other authors on this 
peculiar group of fossil forms. It is not a mere matter of opinion as to 
whether this aiul (hat form arc identical, because unless there is a 
sufficiency of material to connect by intermediates links foi-m and form, 
mere opinion in this dii'cction is useless. 1 have hundreds of specimens of 
Reuss's Idiiiiiiii'it (/i-aci!/iiii(iivoni the Montecchio Maggioro beds, and it is 
quite possible to ei-ect two or more species out df the various specimens 
accordingly as we accept the young or the matured .stages as types. As 
I have been able to trace this form from a sino-le clomjated cell on each 
side of the mesial line up to four and live cells on ea(di side of the mesial 
line, I can only say that mere growth is a fallaeiuns factor in the deter- 
mination of a species. In the enumci'ation of the following I shall take 
into consideration other s])ocial features, leaving the inimber of cells in 
the branch for workers to deal witli separately, if they so desire. I shall 
take the species as 1 liml them in the works of authoi's accessible to me. 
As my friend jMr. A. V^. AVaters has gone over the Tertiary species for 
his work on the J>ryo;,oa of the Bay of Naples, I shall take his references 
to fossil species as woik accomplished, because ho has had a fuller access 
to foreign works than I cuuld ]iossibly obiain. 

Before passing on to tlu! numerous fossil form:, described by authors 
it ma}' be well to dispose of the two recent species which are now pretty 
well known to zoologists. 

2;j. In:\ioNK.v atlantica, Forbes, j\lS. See Busk, ' Cyclostomata ; ' 
Waters, 'l:?ay of Naples Bryozoa;' Hincks, 'Brit. Mav. Polyzoa.' 

' Zd/iriniu. irregularly branched, branches triangular, cells one, four, 
five in each series, the, innernujst the longest, dor.sal surface of branch 
not perforato' (Busk) ; 'dorsal surface, lineatedand minutely punctate' 
(Hincks) ; peristome entire , . . . 'I'ho largo tubular cells, mode of 



ox FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



139 



ill tako 
CL'Us in 
I sUall 
to mo. 
jfies i'or 
'rreni;es 
access 



oniatfi ; 
Polyzoa.' 
iiie, four, 
f hroTicU 
)Uuctato ' 
mode of 



arranjrcmcnt, triangular brancljcs, and entire peristome ai'e good features 
in tins species. 

The abandaneo of specimens of tbis species in the Ciarvel Park 
deposits have enabled mo to study tlie form in all its varying features. 
It is a peculiarly Northern ty])e, Avhereas the Lhuonca nuliinif', Lamarck, 
its nearest ally, is as peculiarly Southern, 'i'he Fossil specimens from iho 
Carvel I'aik beds are, I have no doubt, closely related to, if not identical 
■with, the J. rudians of JJeneden; and besides this, Mr. jjusk and ]\lr. 
Hincks give as synonyms, thoutrh doubti'uliy, /. cnroiwpi^, JJef., and 
I. anijiintdtd, l)'()rb.,as well. .Mr. Waters (' liay of Xaples IJryozoa,' (7;. ril. 
p. tiO*J) remarks of the /. (jrurlUimd of lleuss, * tiiat specimens in his 
possession, from Val di Lonti, correspond with recent /. atlnnilini. 

It is very jjossible that if tlie various specimens of tliis beautiful 
species were isolated, or found in dilferent localities even of the same ago 
as the Glacial deposits, they may be characterised as dilferent species, 
but minglii'g will: such abundance in these beds, all the gradations of 
variations may be t.'accd, and it seems to me impossii)lo tose])arate them. 
With regard to the J. f/racillinia of Jleu.ss from the Miocene beds of Val 
di Lonti, and also from the iMontecchio .^b^ggiore beds of Nortliern Italy, 
although specimens resemble, in some cases closely so, recent Ithinniea 
atlaniica, 1 shouLt rather hesitate to ])nt the one as a synonym of the 
other. It nir.y bo possible to establish a connection between the 
/. f/raciUiiiia, ileuss (non IJusk, ' Cyclostomata,' p. II), and some of the 
still undescribod Cretaceous species, and it may also be possible to show 
gradations of typo from J. gnu-iUinia to I. atlaiifica. 

21-. Iii.MONK.v scRi'KXs, Liuna^us = Tiih!]>orn ibid., Linn., ' Syst. ISTat.' 
ed. 12, 1271. Tii.hiiltporn ibid., Flem., Couch, Johnst., .I>usk. 
Tdmonea scypGuti, Van. l]en., Smitt (su'o-genus), Jlineks. (See 
for references, y>- l-^S, 'Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' vul. i. I8S0.) 

This species, as a fossil, has a far more limited range than the above. 
I have specimens in tlie young state from the Glacial Beds of Scotland. 
A specimen, figured by ilan/.oni (' Bi-yozoa of Castrocaro,' p. lo, fig. 78, 
tuv. vi.), Mr. Ilineks accepts, on the auth(jrity- — Pliocene, Castrocaro 
(Manzoni) ; Sicilian Pliocene (Waters). \\\ his synonyms, ]\lr. Hincks 
also refers to this species — Ttihidipora tnnt.tvcri'a, Lands. , and Idniflvcii 
ibid., ]\lilne-l']dw. and D'Orb. In my own investigations 1 have not been 
able to place Idniouca s''rjH-'i"^ — ^JV^ accepted by Hincks, ^lan/.oni, and 
Waters — below the Pliocene beds. 

For fuller particulars, see Husk, ' Cyclostomata, l>r!t. IMus. Cat.' pi. 
iii.pp. 2ij--2C,; und Hincks, 'Brit. Mnv. Poly.' (A/c. cif. {). 4.");V). 

25. IdmiiNI'a TKIQIKTI.'A, Lauix. (author's) (' Jura foi'mntion,' Kanville). 
Brit, locality, Juras. rocks under J^ondon — Professor Judd's 
material. 

Though not abundant, I have a few specimens of this species froni 
the maiorial referred to by Professor Judd. Th species is evidently 
founded upon its peculiar triangular character r ,nei' than any special 
features in the cells. After a careful study of the British s])ecimens, the 
following results have been obtained, which I give rather as a description 
than as a diagnosis. I. Zoariuvi triangular, rjiccia arranLicd in lines — 
sometimes flattened, some lines slightly produced ; the flattened cells are 
'Lepralia 'like, with a senucircular orilice, with the area jjunctured ; the 



140 



KEPOUT — 1884. 



m 

H 



])ro(luco(l cells arc tubular, occasionally passing off into the Lcpralia- 
iilvo form of a cell. The general features are tliat of Idnioncd, but the 
cell chiiriictcrs are abnormal, and one would incline to place the one form 
in two dilTerent genera. The same feature is noticeable in some of the 
cells of Tircl»'lhin'a. Mr. Ihisk, in remarking on 1. ffucs/rdla ('Crag 
Poly.' p. l('o), says that his species approaches 'in some respects the 1. 
In'(iaetra, Lamx., as well as a recent species met with in South Africa, 
which, if not identical with the Caen fossil, is unilistinguishablo from it.' 
The form referred to by Bu.sk is before me, and there is cortjiinly a hke- 
noss between the Jurassic iind the Uecent form, but the lieccnt form has 
the adviintage of being more highly specialised and also larger in both 
the colls and in the size of the zoariuni. ^Ir. Busk, howcA'cr, says that 
the brandies of I. tii<ia<tra are very much thicker than the Uecent form. 
This dilference of opinion nuiy arise from difference in size of fragments, 
but anyhow I Ciinnot regard the ./. fi'iivstrafa, Busk, or the /. fciu'strata 
(Busk), Smitt, ' Scand. Biyozoa,' as being one and the same species. This 
being tiie earliest record that I have of Lhnoin'a, I think it would bo 
unwise not to keep the species separate. It will be well, however, if 
students will direct their attention to the several features referred to. 

Goldfiiss, in his ' Petrcfacta,' describes and figni'es what he gives as 
tivo species of lielcpura — 1\. cauct'llittn, C; It. rhtUirafa, G., and K. 
/ic/tf)iin\les, G.; li. tninciifa and li. disiicha — all from the Chalk. It is 
very evident tliat Goldt'iiss neglected to sort out his species, and the 
consequence is that we have an assemblage of forms anything but satis- 
factory ; consecpiently the labour of Hagenow on the group is all the 
more apprecial)Ie, because he worked from fresh material, and, from 
what L understand from his text, with full ..l'ccss to the type species of 
Goldf'\ss. I also have been able to stiulj the Faxoe Linu'stone material, 
already referred to; and if I oll'er any remarks upon the species of 
Hagenow, it must be understood that I do so with specimens before me 
which seem to be the same or of near the same horizon as those oi" 
JIagenow's ^laestricht beds. To prevent a repetition of Hagenow's and 
GoldCuss's works, I shall give the reference to the plate and lig. only of 
the two authors. 

2(;. Ii)Mu.Ni:.\ MACLT.ATA, Hag., H. Tab. II., fig. 3. 

InMoNKA ('i,atiii;ata, Goldfuss (Ri'teihira), n. Tab. II. tig. "2; 

(!old., ' Pet.' Tab. IX. Hgs. V2 c and d. 
Ih.MONEA vi:i{Kicri;Ai'A, Goldfuss (]\cl<'j)ora), II. Tab. H. tig. 5; 

Gold., 'Pet.' Tab. XXXVI. lig. H> h. 
Iiimo:,-i;a LiciiKNOinKs, Goldfuss (Reteiwra), II. Tab. II. tig. ti ; 

Gold., 'Pet.' Tab. XXXVI, lig. 13 a and h. 
Id.monka rANCioiJ.ATA, Goldfuss (h'clqiura), II. Tab. II. lig. 7 = 

Idmonra ibid., Rss. 
Tdmonka MAiir.iiNTA, lln-r. (Tii'tep(ira)^ II. Tab. II. tig. 4. 
al. Idmomoa :>isru'iiA, Goldf. {lii'tejtoni), II. Tab. IJ. tig. 8 ; (Joldf., 
'Pet.' Tab. IX. tigs, lo <•, d =^ Ji'etcpora ibid., Goldf., Lamx., 
Blainv. = ? Rctcjmra, ^lichelin, ll(!uss. 
'So. InMONEA I'SELDO-DisTU'irA, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 0; Gold. 'Pet.' 

Tab. IX. fig. 15 n-b = R. disticlia, G., in ])art. 
Si. Idmonka doi.-sata, Hag., II. Tab. II. tig. 10 ; Goldf., 'Pet.' Tab. IX. 

figs. 15 (f & 11 = Ixeii'pava iiisllr.ha, G., in part. 
3."). Idmonka gi:o.mi;tijica, Hag., II. Tab. II. fig. 11 



27 



')>; 



2'.). 



3U 



31, 



'ii]. Id.MONEA SL'LCAl-A, 



12. 



ON FOSSIL rOI.Y/OA. 



141 



Ok' 



tig. o; 



tig. 0; 



ig. / = 



Lamx., 



37. IDMONKA UNKATA, Hilg., H. Till). II. fig. 13 ; Cioldf., 'Pet.' T:lb. 

IX. lig.s. loc, /. =^ lich'purit dt'fficJi(i, (t., in jwrt. 
3!-!. Tdmon'ka fiinnosA, Hag., H. Tah. II. fig. 14. 
:5it. Ii)MO\i:a c.KNicui.AiA, Hag., H. Tub. IH. fig. '> ■ Goldf., ' Pet.' Tab. 

IX. fig. 12 <', f = licli'piint rliUJinttd, G., in part. 

40. lUMONKA TETKASTICUA, Hag., H. Tab. IV. fig. 3. 

Some of tlio.se Ilagenow de.scribes as ibund in tlio !^^acstl•i(•llt. and 
Falkcnberg beds. 1 cannot give tbo range of the specie.s other than tliat 
givon by the autlior. In my Faxoc material I have several IJmnnpjv., and 
it wonld bo quite po-ssiblo out of the varied form.s to construct a number 
of species, but I should bo inclined to place the majoiifcy in three species 
only oftho.se described above— J. Jurgnht, T. I'nieata, or I. liticndu-distichd. 

Sub-{jcnus Tui'N'CATit.A, llajjenow. 

Out of the Jietrporn. trnvcufii, Goldfnss — with other species as allies — 
Hagenow constructs the sub-genus Tnnicatuln. Although the facial 
cliaracter at first sight appears to be like Idmoncn, a closer studj' of tlu* 
iurm shows certain features altogether different. The more prominent 
are these : — (1) On the different sides of the mesial line the cells ;ire 
clustered together and nob separate. This appears to bo a ni.i nial 
fer.ture. (2) The reverse of one species at least — U. trnnrdta is very 
peculiarly striated, or, speaking -with more exactness, the lines of stria* 
seems to bo the line markings of the individual cells seen through a 
very delicate membrane which covers the reverse. It this be a cori'ecl 
description, ibunded upon observation of a limited number of si)cciniens 
from the Faxoe Limestone material, then 1 cannot see the necessity for 
retaining the sub-generic term. 

41. Ti;cNCATi:i,A mi,ix, Hagonow, tab. iii. fig. 4. 

42. TiaxcATur.A TUiiNCATA, Goldf., Hag. tab. iii. fig. 2. Goldf., 'Pet.' 

tab. ix. fig. \\.= Rflt'pora ibid., Goldf.; Lamk. ; Afilnc-lul. 
= Lh)iiiiif:a ibid , Blainv. 

43. TitiMiATur.A 1{i:pi;\s, Hag., tab. iii. fig 1. 
R(ini/c. — Hagenow cites Maestricht and Falkcnberg. 

I have several lists ct' fossils from the C'retaceous beds of America, and 
a fine suite of fossils as -well, many of which are undescribed as yd. 
Taking the order of the strata as given by Lyell, Mmraons, and othei's, ;is 
Upper Cretaceous, the following species of fJniniieic correspond to some; 
extent with tho Llindintc already given from Hagenow and Goldfnss. 

Tdmonka coNTORTii.is, Lonsdale, 'Qnai't. Jour. (icol. Soe.' vol. i. p. {\>< = 
Crisisi)Hi and Idiiinnea ibid., D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr.' vol. ii. and vol. v. 
Lnrah'fi/. — Timber Creek, New Jersey. 

The Tertiary Idmoiun', both of Furope and America, are of a very 
special character, and the I'acies of the several species wonld all'ord 
valuable details for the study of the PaUeontology of the grouj). '^riiero is a 
sliglif diflerenee between some of the American and European forms; 
hut there is a wide difference in the faeies of others. I know of no 
American Tertiary ihuovciv similar in (!haracter to those described by 
Ueu.ss from the Xoi'th Italian de])osits. The localities are those given by 
the several authors. 

41. Id.mon'ka MAXir.r.AUis, Lonsdale, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol i. 
p. 523 = C//s('»(';ei ibid., D'Orb, Prod, 2, p. o\^~=Td)nuu(:a ibitl. 



142 



liKPORT — 18S4. 



■ ■ 

- 



Gabb and Horn, ' !^^on. Foss. Poly. Sec. and Tort. Formations,' 

X. America. 
Jjocnlilij. — Eocene (G. and If.), 8. Carolina. 
•1-5. — Idmonka comxiiscens, Lonsdale, lui-. cit., p. o2-i=Crlsisiiia ibid., 

irorb. 

Lni-alih/.- — Eocene ; Rock's I'ridirc. 

•10. Idmonka calikokmca, (i;d)l) and Horn, lor. dt. 

Lncalitji. — Miocene (G. and H.), Santa Barbara, California. 

47. Idmoxka CAUiNATA, Roemer,' Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. des Wiener Tert.- 

beck.' Marine Limestone. 

48. IitAiuxi'A I'liit'irsA, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. des Wiener Terfc.-beck.' 

Marine Limestone. 
40. In.MONKA ('OMrt;i:s.SA, Renss (up. rit.). ^Marine Limestone. 
Ii'iuii/a. — From the Topliaceons Chalk ot'^Iaestricht to Eocene. 
i)0. Idmonka foi;amixosa, Rhh., {Cn'.<fiiiiit) Stoliczka, ' Oligoceno Brj^. 

from Latdorf.' 
T)!. In.MONT.A Gn:iii;r,i, Stol., (Tahiijera) Stoliczka, ' Oligoccne Bry. 

from ]jatdorf.' 
^2. TDMO^'^.A *di;licatui.a, Bnsk, Stolic/.ka, ' Oligoccne Bry. from 

Latdorf.' 
53. InMONi' 'irNL'isuiX'A, Rss., Stoliczka, 'Oligoccne Bry. from 

Latdorf.' 
.')4. L'.monka HoRXEsii. Stol., Stoliczica, ' OUgocene Bry. from Latdorf.' 
.55. Id.monea KETici'LATA, Rcuss, ' Palivont. Stud. Tert. der Alpen,' 

pi. xxxiv. fig. lo. 
5G. TuMONEA GUACiLLiMA, Reuss, 'Palaiont. Stud. Tert. der Alpon,' pi. 

XXXV. fig. 1-2. 
5". Idmonea concava, Renss, ' Pala-ont. Stud. Tert. der Alpen,' pi. 

XXXV. figs. 3-4. 
Lncalilie.'i. — Val di Lonti ; Monteccliio i\[aggiore, N. Italy. 
58. Iii.m:)XKA puxctata, D'Orb., sp.=La/c?vrrn-n', JJ'Orb., pi. dcclxxii, 

figs. 11-12. Bnsk, ' Crag Pol.' pi. xv. fig. 5 ; pi. xvi. fig. 3. 
TiiDifjo. — Cretaceous (D'Orb.) ; Crag (Busk). 
50. Id.monea fenesthata, ]]usk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 105. pi. xv. fig. (>. 
(iO. Id.monea *delk'atui,a, ,, ,, „ j». IOC, pi. xv. fig. 8. 

(>l. Id.monea iNTiacAurA „ „ ,, p. 10(.1, pi. xv. fig. 7. 

lianije. — Coi'alline Crag (Sutton), 



Genus ENTAiiOi'iiORA, Lamx. 

=:.Vaslnloponi, (pt.) Blainv., M.-Edw., Lamk., Busk; Spiropora, 

Lamx., J. Haiine. 

'■ Zoarimn erect and ramose, rising from a more or less expanded base, 
composed of decumbent tubes; branches cylindrical. Zoteciti tubular, 
opening on all sides of tlie branches.' 

I have already in my former Reports on Fossil Polyzoa, 1882 and 1883, 
given the history of this group, both as Thitalopliora and iSpirupora, in 
strata of the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic ages. All that remains for the 
present report are the species described in the Upper Cretaceous and Tert. 
rocks of America and Eurojie. I cannot however furnish, from my own 
knowledge, a very detailed list; excepting a few of the species described 

' ' Quite agreeing witli the .specimens from the Macstricht beds of Fauqueniont, ' 
(Roomer). 



PI' 



fial)e 

ellipt 

i,'rcaf 

T 

inpJiH 

linvo 

wliii'li 

iii'e \\i 

specie; 

(is. 



o:). 



pi. 
pi. 



1 

% 



ON FOStilL rOLYZOA. 



143 



hy Ronss, Giibb ancl JTorn, and Roomer. Tiio list is thcreforo, for tlio 
present, a compilation rather than the result of special work, and it may 
in tlio fntnro have to bo modified. The recent sj)ecies are very few, and 
their range is limited. In the JJritisli seas oidy one is recorded ; in the 
]klediterranean Mr. Watei-s records threo .species, and as these have fossil 
representatives as well as recent, i cfivc^ Mr, Waters's list first — 'Bry. 
Bay Naples,' 'Ann. :\Iaf?. Nat. Hist.' 1870. 

(52. KNTAr.oriiouA rROiiosciUKA, Forbes. See Bnsk, ' Cyclostomata,' 
p. 21, pi. xvii. A right ivj;.=:I'J. attnuuttit, Rss., ' Die Foss. Anth. 
tind J3ry.' p. 74, pi. xxxvi. lip:s, 1-2. 
7ia«[/e.— IMiocene, Val di Lonti. Living: Shetland; Bay of Naples, 
common; Madeira. 

G3. Entai.oi'HORA hei'LIAA, Qo\\vh — Tnstuloi)orachiva!a,M\\^\s., 'Crag 

Poly.' p. 107, pi. xvii. fig. 1. 
Tiiinr/c. — Pliocene ; Crag. Living. 

CA: E.NTALOi'HOKA UL'ciOSA, D'Ovh=TJ. riifjnsa , ' Pal. Fran(;.' p. 7il5 = 
Fustnlopimi riKjnlosa, Manz., 'I Brioz. Foss. del Alloc. d'Aust.*= 
Fusfulopornriujoxt' , Waters, 'Bry. from Pliocene of Briiccoli.' 
Ttnvije. — Chalk; Miocene; Pliocene; Bruccoli. Livinjr, Naples. 
The following are the identifications of Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' 
pp. 107-108 :— 

O-l ENTALOi'iior.A CLAVATA, Bask=7'».</«?f)j)0/vr ibid.. Busk, 'Crag Pol.' 
p. 107, pi. xvii. fig. \=I'it'^fiilo])(ira iir(trili,i, 'Sl.-VA\.=Pu,stidopora 
Eoemeri, D'Orb,; Alichcliu. Enfaloplinra linearis, D'Orb. 
C,C). ENTALOruoKA I'ALMATA, ^'iask^rnstuhipom ibid.. Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 

p. 108, pi. xviii. fig. 2. 
(17. Entaloi'Iioka svV'yv.nnciU.xiw, 'Bns\<.=: Piistulophora ibid., Busk, 

' Crag Pol.' p. 108, pi. xviii. fig. 1. 
Jlange. — Coralline Crag. 

Genus Diastoi'OKA, (part) Lamx. 

Bn-ciiicra, Lamx ; Mcsentcripora, Blainv., Busk (for foliaceous 
bilaminate forms). IJiscosparsa, D'Orb. 

' Zdariuin adnate and crustaccous, or foliaceous, usually discoid or 
ilabcllato, less commonly irregular in form. Ziraria tubular, with an 
elliptical or subcircular orifice, ci'owded, longitudinally arrano-cd, in 
great part immersed.' — llincks, ' Brit. Alar. Pol.' p. 4.'")7. 

Tiie Diastoponx! of the Tertiary i-ocks, even as defined above, which 
include the foliaceous forms, are not abundant. So many difi[erent forms 
liave been included in the group that it is difficult frcmi the lists to say 
wliii.'h are true Diastopoiw and which arc not. The following, however, 
are the identifications of two of our best workers on Recent and Tertiary 
species ; so the synonyms may be relied on as beinti- tolerably correct. 
OS, DiASToroliA i.Ai'OMAitGlN'ATA, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fran^'.' p.' S27, pi. 7o8, 
figs. 10-12, Waters, ' Bry. Bay Nap.' ' Ann. Alag. Nat. Hist.' 
1870, p. 272 = Y Biaslopora sparxn, Manzoni, ' Fos^i. Bri. d'Aust. 
ed Ung.' 
09. DrASTOPOi'.A flabkTjLU.m, Reuss, Waters, <ip. cit. p. 273 = Reu.ss, 
'Die Foss. Poly]), der Wiener Tertb.'=77m.s'/(yH^m ibid., Alanzoni 
(Pliocene) = Diadopora simpler. Busk (non D'Orb.), ' Crag 
Poly.' p. 113. 
70. DiASTOPORA PATINA, Lamarck (Hincks, p. A^M) = Biscnsparsa 
VHinjiuata (proliferous form), ' Pal. Fr. 'I'err. Cret.' v. 822. 



U4 



ni;rouT — 1884. 



71. DiASTOPORA nijKLiA, Joluisi. (lliucks, p. 4G2), I'ost-Piiocone of 

Ciniiuia (Dawson). 
7'2. DiASTOi'ouA suiioi;i!ici;r,Ai;is. Jliiicks (llincks, p. 4G4) = D. sluijih'.v, 

IJnsk, ' Ci'iiGT I'olv.' ll'">, pi. XX. fig". 10, not Ih'sr.i.ipaysa sliiipli'.i: 

of D'Orl) (\\\ucks)=? JKJhthrllnin. lieuss (Hiiioks). 
The foUowitii^ arc tlio iduiititications and di'scriptions of the dillbreiit 
antlior.s. 

7o. DiASTOi'OiJA i.iN'KATA, Gabl) and Horn (Cretaceous), • Approai'lics 

D. reijalarls, U'Orb.' ((J. & 11. op. rit.). 
74. UiASTOPOKA DisciFOKMis, Hagonow (Cretacoons), op. elf. pi. i. 

fig. 7. 
7 1'- DiASTOi'OUA DisciFORMi.s. Goldf, L p. Oligoceiie, Roemcr, ' Polvp. 

Nord. d. Tcrt. Geb.' 
7-">. DiASTOi'OKA MINIMA, Reuss, ' Marine Limestone, Nus.sdorf'.' ' Foss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' 
7('i. DiASToroRA i!OTi"r,A, Ren.ss, ' ^larinc Limestone, Eisenstadt,' ' Foss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' 
77. DiAS'ioi'ORA SPAKSA, Ilouss, ' Marine Limestone, Eisenstadt,' * Foss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' 
7iS. DiASTOi'ORA FLAiiKM.iM, Rcuss, ' jNIarine Limestone, Eisenstadt,' 

' Foss. Pol. d. \y. Tert.' 
Two other species are given by Renss — 7). pluninla, Rss., ajid 7). 
crhiiKild, Cioldf. These have already been referred to Tubulipora. 

7'.X DiASTOl'OiiA I'ATiNA, Lamk. ; Pliocene, Castrocaro, Manzoni, ' Bri. 

di Castrocaro,' p. 44. 

80. DiASTOi'ORA siRiATA, J. Hainic ; Plioccnc, Castrocaro, Manzoni, 

'Bri. di Ca.strocaro,' p. 44. 

81. DiASTOi'ORA KXTANSA, Manzoni ; Pliocene, Castrocaro, Mai;zoni, 

' Bri. di Castrocaro,' p. I."). 

82. DiASTOPORA MEANDKiNA, S. Wood,' Crag;' Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 10;i 

= }[i;sciiteripor(t ibid.. Busk, pi. xvii. iig. 'J; pi. xviii. fig. 1; 
pi. XX. fig. 2 := 1). I'Jadcai.iii'i, AL.-Edw. (y) = Vifo^id <-n}iij>rt'.^-<ii, 
(r) Coldf., Hagenow = Mcscnk'ripovaiu-dCdiiiiru^ix, D'Orh. ' Tor. 
Cret.' 
The following synonyms of this species are given by Smitt, ' Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa' : — 

Ccn'iipora cnmpri'ssa, (loldf. ; Pnhifn'ma, D'Orb. ; Dihi.n'd, Hag. ; 
Mrsfuti'tlpurd^ D'Orb. ; JU'dooitiipurii, Mli-hcrniu, D'Orb. : Mexentcrip")-,!^ 
ibid., D'Orb. ; Ilidastopiira and Mi'sentcripunt Uadrsiiuni, D'Orb. 

Family 111. IIoRNERiD.K, Smitt. 

' Zf^c cut opening on one side only of a ramose ;;oar/«///, never adnate 
und repent.' 

The family lloKNi'.Rin.K, as defined by the Rev. T. llincks, is capable 
of veiy wide extension, and cn.n bo made to include the Polyporida' 
('Brit. Assoc. Rep. Foss. Poly.' 1883), in which I have placed the Fnlji- 
pora and PhyUopova of the Palieozoic Rocks. It may seem, however, a 
very ([uestionable proceeding to include so many apparently diversified 
forms in one family gronp, especially as we have no gradational Hides by 
which wo can unite the Polypora of the Palajozoic with the well-detined 
Jloniern of the Tci'tiary Rocks. But, irrespective of the peculiarity, 
I see no sutlicient reason for keeping the group sei)arate if wo ai'C to 
accept Mr. Hincks's diagnosis. The same remarks may appl}^ to the 



an 

dif: 

be^ 

the 

cor 

caul 

anc 

syn| 

Jrr.i 

Fi/i 

violi 

1 1 

totjj 



ON FOsiSIL POLYZOA. 



145 



10'. t 



■n'/i"''''' 



udnato 

,'ovcv, a 

j-cvsifioil 

(inks by 

-dotincd 

iliarity, 

|c are to 

to tlio 



Thamniscida^ as well. It is when we come to study the vai'ious pfenera 
that would, in all probability, form a natural group, that several doubts 
arise as to the wisdom of tliis arranpfcmeiit.' 

In his definition of Ilnnieni (' Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 467), Mr. Hincks 
savs that the ::infcia arc tubular, and this is well shown in the figure 
o{ IT. lichnioiclfs, fig. i. pi. G7, ' Jirit. Mar. Pol.,' and also in H. viulacea, 
fig. G of the same plate. Then, again, it is said that the ' oivcium {gonoa- 
ciani) is a distinct chamber — not a mere inflation of the surface of the 
zoarium, placed dorsally or in front.' These are elements of structure 
that indicate distinct characters, and though I have not been able to 
detect the gonoecium in any of the specimens found in the Crag, or in the 
Miocene described by Reuss, the tubular zocccia are, in many respects, 
similar to recent forms described by Mr. Busk (' Cyclostomata ') and Mr. 
Hincks. Then, again, the characteristic cell orifice, with its waving lines 
surrounding it- given by Mr. Busk ('Cyclostomata,' pi, xx. fig. 3) — is 
entirely unlike any cell-orilice known to me in any of the species of the 
genera named as found in the Palseozoic rocks. I do not, however, set 
so much value upon the * wavy anastomosing ridges ' indicated by j\lr. 
Hincks in his diagnosis of his genus Ilornrra ; nevertheless they are 
peculiar, and may merit some consideration in our definition of species. 
In the Pohjpora of the Carboniferous rocks there are wavy lines which 
seem to he merely ornamentations of the surface, yet these, too, may be 
analogous with the wavy ridges of the Hurncra of more recent times. 
The Messrs Young, of Glasgow, in their joint paper On New Carboni- 
ferous Polyzoa (' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' May, 1875), describe as new a 
species which they provisionally name 'fhamniscus ? Ranlcini, Y. & Y. 
pi. ix. his, and in their remarks (loc. cit. p. 330) they say, 'The generic 
position of the fossil is uncertain .... !^[eanwhilo, though strongly 
disposed to regard the fossil as a true Horiicra or a member of a closely 
allied genus, we think it safer to leave it in the Palaeozoic genus Thamnis. 
<«,->•.' This species is certainly (superficially considered) more closely allied 
to Ilm-nera than any Palcoozoic species known to me ; yet it, too, lacks the 
peculiar cell orifices, though partaking somewhat of the tubular cell 
structure of true ILirncra. In the Mcsozoic rocks — excepting a few 
doubtful forms in the Upper Chalk — I know of no Jlorneiu or allies of 
the genus. 

In his ' Crag Polyzoa' (p. 0.5), Mr. Busk says, 'Several fossil forms of 
Hornvra have been noticed, and some of them figured ; but from the 
want of precision in the details of the figures, and in the absence of 
any determinate specific characters in the descriptions, it is extremely 
difficult to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion respecting them. The 
host figures are those contained in Miluc-Kdwards's excellent memoir on 
the Crisiff!, &c. ; but even these are by no means sufficiently precise to 
convey a correct idea of the specific differences or resemblances.' This 
cannot be said of the species figured by ^Ir. Busk in his ' Crag Polyzoa,' 
and I feel confident that I cannot do better than follow him in his 
synopsis of fossil forms. 

In characterising one of his forms in the ' Bay of Naples Bryozoa,' 
Mr. Waters draws attention to the very beautiful species which he names 
Fillsparsa tuhHliisa,Bnsk. This is, in all probability, a variety of thelTonfera 
viulacea, var. tabnlosa. Busk ; but, as Mr. Waters points oat (' Bay Nap. 

' Exception to tins association has boon taken by Mr. Ulrich in his contribution 
to tlio Cinein. Joiirn. A'ut. Jlist. April 1884, and, acconliiig to hi.s views, rightly so. 
188i. L 



146 



RfiroRT — 1884. 






Bry.,' 'Ann. 'Mag. Nat, Hist.' April, 1870, p. 275), aftor in.spoctiiin^ a 
Novthcvu ][. n'dlac'U h'om tlio cabinet of Rnv. A. M. Norman, tlioro 
is ' hardly anytliin<<' in common ' with the two forms. Ho also remarks 
that ' the pjenns FllifijxirfKt is, as pointed ont by D'Orbigny, intermediate 
between llnnifirc and Idmoiu'n. ... I am, however, somewhat in donbt 
as to whether the genus will permanently stand' (/(»•. cit. p. 27''>). Of 
this I am not .so certain. Filisjxirsa fnlmhisn, Bnsk and Water.s, and 
F. vnruiHft, Kenss, are neither IdvKmraxwr J [an ur a, ami it seems to me to 
be far preferable to chai'actorise an intermediate form by a generic name, 
rather than simplify too much our generic nomenclature. If, however, 
it can be found that, in dealing with fragments of species of the genus 
Homera, the differences in character arise from diflerences of growth 
— like the FciiesfcUd, of the Carboniferous rocks, then tho.se remarks will 
have no weight ; but so far as I have been able to study species of the 
genus Ilonicra and FiJisparsa they appear to me as distinct. 

There ai'c a few fossil species of Horneni found in material from 
several localities in Australia, especially the Yarra Yarra district, but us 
these have not as yet been described it would appear rather invidious to 
anticipate ]\Ir. Waters's work, the completion of which — Cyclostomatous 
Forms — has been promised by him.' 

Before concluding these remarks, it may bo well to refer the student 
to Mr. liincks' matured opiniou of the genus Homera (Inc. n't. p. 407), 
because he includes in the one genus the true typical Ilonwra with its 
' wavy anastomosing ridges,' and the tubular II. riolacp.a, Sars, which is 
destitute of the characteristic ' fibrous crust ' found in II. lichenoides, 
Linnaeus. 

Genus Hoexeka, Lamouroux. 

= Beteimm, (pt.) Goldfuss ; Siphodielavi, Lonsdale. 

Zoarium erect, ramose, sometimes reticulate. Zoo'cia tubular, opening 
on one side only of the branches, disposed in longitudinal series, the 
celluliferous surface often traversed by wavy anastomising ridges. 
Oo?ciuin a distinct chamber, not a mere irregular inflation of the surface 
of the zoarium, placed dorsally or in front. 

The care with which Mr. Hincks has drawn up the above diagnosis 
ought to satisfy the ordinary critical student of Fossil Polyzoa, but tlu' 
most valuable element of structure is the peculiar ocecium. In tlie 
absence of this, there are other elements which may serve as a guide and 
a check to overhasty identitication. In his work on the ' Bryozoa of the 
Maestricht Beds,' &c., Hagenow gave a synopsis of thi' whole of the* then 
known Hornera, ranging from the Ecccnt to the Upper Silurian. In the 
last foi'mation the Ilorncra (.•)Y(.s.svf,- Lonsdale, is the sole representative; 
excc|)ting this no true Homera is given by the author below tlu! ' Kreide- 
formatiou.' I reproduce below Hagenow's list, because in his work he 
only describes and figures one species. There are several Ilorui'ra 
described by Reuss and Bnsk, and there are still many undescvibed forms 
among the Australian Polyzoa of jMr. A. W. Waters, and also in my own 
cabinet. 

B. Tertiarformation. 

83. HoKKEUA HiPi'OLYTA, Dcfrance. 

84. „ GRACILIS, Philippi. 



' See remarks ante. 



* Tliis is not a Iforncru, but a Thamnisrns, 



m 



\ 



85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 
90. 
91. 
112. 
i»3. 
94. 
95. 



ON F08SIL roLYZOA. 
HOHN-EltA nrSRUFATA, Pllilippi. 

„ AiFiNLs, .Milno-Ed. 

„ .STItlATA, ,, 

ANDKliAVENSIS, ]Micliclin. 
IIII.OMA, Jioiiss. 
VKf.'KfCOSA, JleilSS. 
SKKIATOI'OKA, ,, 

KAuiANs, DelVfiiK'o (non Lamx ). 
ciasi'A, „ ^ 

Er,EOANS 

i>i:cn-iExs, Ki'clnvald. 



147 









,,„ ^-. ^- Ki'eiJoformatioii. 

• 0. UonsKux LAxoKTirALi, Hagonow. 



or. 

9H. 

91). 
100. 
101. 
102. 



OCUf.AJA 

t'OMl'UKSSA 

TI.'KIOXOl'OliA 









'll^liL'MFIiUA „ 

(ll'MONKA) COXTOUTILIS, Loil.sd 

CARIXATA, ReUSS. 

as l^JS,::r K"rS B^S^^St! ^^^* of oightspecies ona.no.o. 
and only on°o, 7. /./.y«./°. Lamv hrth^, '^' n^"^"?^"!^ *° ^''^' «t'^g« C, 

Mr. Busk's list C Cra^ Pov.'oa^ . fT!^ ''' '^'' Juraformation. 
with which he has worked til^kZlZf '"^ ^"'°"°^' ^^ *''« ^'^^^'^ 
fication of the fossil fornV csci bed l.Tl •'' ^^^^"^P-'^^'^on and identi- 

Polyzoa. ]3usk describes el V teei- sol'nf""i;-\"r""° '"'^ ^^^^ 
bo now, others arc referable tn fnJ^^ ' ^ , ""^ '''^'°'' ^^^ considers to 

those are given unde^KlVdivS^^^^^ '^^"'^"^^^^ '^^ -^^^-s ; 

Fenestrate and Eamos.k 



»» 



)) 



lUd. HuKXEKA 1XFUXDI13ULATA, Busk (C. Cra-) 

pi. XIV. fig. 1. ^ '^^''o;. 

104. Hoi!xei;a i:etepoiucea, M -Edw 

pi. xiv. fig. 2. ' " 

105. HORXEIJA canaltculata, Bask 

pi. xiv. fig. ;]. 

10b. HORXERA IMni-IS, Busk, 
pi. xiv. fig. 4. 

107. IlOKXERA nUMlLlS, Busk, 

lAQ „ P^- ^iv. figs. 5 and 0.' 

iW. HORNERA PERTUSA, Busk, 

pi. xiv. fig, 7. 
109. HoRNERA HIPPOLYTA (r), Defrance 

S'ftt'e'"" '-' = ^- ^^^i'"'^^" "/'^'i>«?.^/'-;'M..Edw."and 
no. Hcn^ERA ..XATA, Busk (C. Crag), < Crag Bolv.' p. 102, ,, ,,, 

111. HC^-'~EA^ W.^a Crag), ^.ag Pol,.' p. 102, pi. 

iniJepora ^.Lp nrEllif & S~l - S ^^^"^^ = 

Pallas, Esperii/on.. IvS M £ -T ^"'"''"'f'^ ^^^^-^ 
Micheliu. a.mis,u..Kd. = Horneraandejavensis, 



Crag Polj.' p. 07, 
» p. 98, 

»» J. 

» p. 99, 

» p. 100, 

>i p. 101, 



L 2 



1 



148 



. iiKi'oiiT — 1884. 



11-2. IL.UNKiiA srniATA, M.-K(lwnr.ls {('. Cvn^) ' Crnrr l>oIy.' p, 103, 
))1. XV. fig. 3; \A. xvi. fig. •) = llonicin strinta, AI.-IMw., 
Lliclieliu. 

113, HoUNKKA iMiO.MiiOiDAMS (C. Crag), 'Crag Poly.' p. 104, pi. xv. 
lig. -k 

Tlio following forms !Mr. IJusk was unablo to identify with the Crag 
form.s (pp. DO *J7) : — 

Hi. IIoKNEKA ir.AnKLMionMis, Blainv. = Itctopora ihid., Blainv., 'SVi- 
ehelin, ' Icon. Zoojih.' p. 314' = ^ J/oj'^t'ca /'t'r««S(((//', ^licii. ? 
Eoeeno ; Mioct'iie. 

ILj. HoiiNi;i;A scor.iNOSA, ^lichelin ^ Retepora ibid., !Micli. I.e. p. olO; 
[Miocene. 

11<'>. HoiiNKKA AiiiN'is, M.-l'idw. Upper Tert. of Sicily. 

117. „ L.f.vis, ,, l.c.\).'2(). Pliocene, Dap. 

Stoliczka gives the following list of ILniiura in his ' Oligocene 
Bryozoa, from Latdorf.' 

118. HOKNERA Hii'POLYTA, Def. = Jlonwrtt (iracilis, Philijipi. 
Hi). ,, HKTEPORACKA, ^I.-Kd.= ,, xnhtinnulata, Philippi. 

120. ,, VKRKUCOSA, Reuss= ,, serlaUiyora, lleuss. 

121. „ I'OHOSA, Stol.= 



Under the family name of Lhnutiichv, Professor Beiiss describes and 
figures in his ' Bryozoa, Pala'on. Stnd. iiber die iilteren Tertiiir. der 
Alpen,' the following species of llunicra. Some of the s])ecies seem to 
bo widely distributed in the Alpine Tertiaries, but arc most abundant in 
the Val di Lonti and Montecchio Maggiore material. 

122. HoRNERA coxcATENATA, Keuss ; op. (-it. pi. 35, fig.s. 5 and G. 

123. ,, TUAUECULAKIS, „ „ ,, i\g. 7 = ? H. kippO- 

lilJiKS, ])ef. 

124. „ ASi'ERULA, „ „ „ figs. H and !•. 

125. ,, SKKRATA, ,, ,, ,, ligs. 10 and 11. 

126. „ d'Achiardii, „ „ „ fig. 12. 



Prof. Roemer, in his Monograph of the ' Polyparien dcs Xorddeutsch. 
Tert.-Gebirges,' gives the following list of five Ilorneva as found in the 
Lower, and one in the Upper Oligocene :— 

127. HouxERA liU'UXCTATA, Roemer, op. rit. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 4. 

Lower Oligocene. 

128. HoRXKRA suLcoi'iNCTATA, Roenicr, op. fit. p. 23, Tab. 111. fig. 5. 

Lower Oligocene. 
120. HoRXEUA TORTUOSA, Rocmer, op. cit. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 0. 

Lower Oligocene. 
130. HoRXERA NiTEXS, Roemer, op. cit. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 7. Lower 

Oligocene. 
13L HoRNERA LAMELi.osA, Roemcr, op. cit. p. 24, Tab. III. fig. 8. Lower 

Oligocene. 
132. HoRXERA GRACILIS, Philii)pi, Beitfiige, Tab. I. figs. 7, 8, 9. Upper 

Oligocene. 



\ 



I 



ox FOiiSIL rol.YZOA. 



IVJ 



fig. -k 



fiff. ')■ 



fig. 0. 



Lower 
Lower 
Upper 



Family IV. LiiIIi;xii1mii;ip.i;, Smitf. 

= r>i'<rnpn;-i'hr^'l]nsk, ' 15rit. Cyclop.'; DIumpDri'Iluhv, Husk, ' ^^l;s. Cat.' 
pt. iii. ; darrnhr, (p:irL) 'l)'( )rl). ; Tnhijorhlr^ (piU't) D'Orb. 

' /<i(M'//n/^ discoid, si:npli! or CDtiiiHi.sitc, iidnato, or partially iVoc and 
Rtipitiitc. Zi)n'i-l(i tiil)uljir, nroot or siiluMvct, dispo.sod in nioi'O (.r less 
distinct scries, wliich nuliato fV(nn a I'rcc (neutral area ; the intennediato 
suriacc cancellated or porous.' — Jlineks, p. -in. 

Wlietlier this I'iitnily will i-eniain intact as we get a nioro perfect 
knowledge of the structure of tlu; fossil forms below the Tertiary rocks, 1 
;im, at present, unable to say. It, woidd be unwise to displace the 
'I'ertiary f mmiis that would naturally fall under thi.s head, and the few 
^Mesozoic species known to nu) tnay also lind a resting-place here, for 
unless we knew morc! of the structure of the Jurassic species it would bo 
also unwise to disturb tlie placement of these ; bub when wo c>nno to the 
few disc-like forms of the I'aheozoic rocks, wo- meet with pocidiaritie.s of 
f.lructure nnknown to mo in the more reccMit Ijirlii'iiopdriilir. Thive 
species are described in the ' Silurian System ' as Dlscnpora, and ligured 
ill IMate 15 of that work (tigs. '21, 22, 2',V) ; these are named: — 

Disr'i2)iim aiitiqita, !Milne-Kd. '; zzzCdli'ivtrn dutiijiia, Cioldf. 

Monhrtiiiijxino ,, ]51ain\'. 
„ svpiamnfa, Lon.sdalo 
., ? fiivof^a ,, ^=Gellep()ra favam, Goldf. 

Within the last ft'W years the aflinities of these forms have been the 
subject oi" ii good deal of controversy. \)v. Gustav Lindstrom ('Ann. 
iMag. Nat. Ilist.' Ser. 4, vol. xviii. )). ', and se(jnel), in speaking of the 
(levelopmcnt of MniiUciillpurii piffrnpiililiniii, i'auvier, says that — ' ft- 
begins .... as a Ib-yo/oon, us a hix'-ninircll'i, or, as what, JIall has 
termed CfninKipant, iuilirii-dfn (' Pal. N. Y.' vol. ii., p. 10!), ])1. xl., figs. 
la-ii). There can be no doubt that this is closely allied to the recent 
DUoporrlltt. (See Fr. Siiiitt, 'Ofv. Vet. Akiid. Forb. LSti'V p. 470, pi. xi. 
tig. 4).' This opinion has been contested by Prof. Nicholson in his 
work on the 'Tabulate Corals,' p. 2H'.), wherein he says — 'I have en- 
deavoured to give a faithful account of the views Dr. Lindstrom hay 
published as to the develo[)mont of the }rnnficah'pora,m\d npon which he, 
in large part, bases his view that the fossils of this genus are really 
Poly/.oa.' Since the publication of the works ' iMontieuliporidiV ' and 
'Tabulate Corals ' of Prof. Xicholson, ^Ir. John Young, of Glasgow, has 
'discovered specimens of another Bryo/oon, or Poly/.oon, as 1 prefer 
to name it ... . that is (dosely allied to tlu; Siluriun C>'riiiiuiporit, 
and which I have been enableil to follow clearly in all its stages of 
growth until it becomes a true Mit)dicit.Jipin'a,' ('On the Identity of Cera- 
lunpora niegastoma,' &ic., 'Ann. ^lag. Nat. Hist.' Dec. i8S2). The stages 
through which this form passes before it assumes the Moiitiruhpord iovix. 
are similar to, or prf)b;ibly the same as, the stages indicated by Dr. 
Lindstrom — the FidiiUpora and Thei'oMiujafi'i^ stages. ^Ir. John Young, 
however {Inc. rif. p. 43u), does not commit himself to give an o[)inion on 
'the vexed question as to the zoological position of the organisms showing 
tliese changes, bnfc only states that, as regards the Carboniferous form, one 
of two things seems certain, viz., that if Fisf.alipo)Xi minor (AE'Coy) be 
held to be a tabulated coral of the Montli'uHpioridia group, then Cemmo- 



150 



ni:rouT— 18H4. 



jwra virgnsloiiKi (^['('oy), is only its yoiuii^'or stnj^(> ; and if, on llic otiipr 
Imiul, tlio liittcr t'orin l)o liuld to he ii I'oly/odii, llicii its later slii<^(! is only 
a f'lirtlu!!' (lovcloidncni. of I'nly/oii! lilV, mid Fix! iili^iin-n iiiiiinr, and tlio 
other Ibnns inditatcd in Dr. Ijindstroin's papoi' in tlie " Annals," iniisL of 
necessity hc^ removed from tlic Tuhnlato Corals.' 

It. is impossihlo to gainsay the Ii)i,n(! ol" Mv. .lohn Ycainix, liowevcr wo 
may be inclined to eontroveit tlio views of those who still liold the I'olyzoal 
aflinity of Silurian liixrtijKira. I do not, howcn'er, speak witiioiit a full 
knowledjje of the whole of the foi'nis previously referred to, and at present 
it; would be better to defer any positive opinion in the faeo of the really 
lionest work of Dr. Tiindstrom, Sinitt, Prof. A. Nieliolson, or Mr. John 
Youn<^. Yet I cannot forbear reniarkint; that, so far as I can rely upon 
my own work, I cannot speak in favour of the views of those who hold 
the belief that any natural alllinty exists between the Dixcoponi of the 
Silurian I'oeks, and the lUxcnjidrcllaof present seas. In this review, then, 
I must except the FalaMi/oie forms alto<j;ether, and I would prefer, for 
the present, to leave also the Mesozoic as will. 

Genus LiCKKNOPOUA, Defranc. 

* Zoar!i!m(\if coin, raised, .simple, or compo.sed of many confluent disks, 
ontirel}' adnate, or partially free, and sometimes stipitate, developed on a 
thin lamina, whieh usually forms a border romul it. Zuacia distinct or 
connate in single radiating lines, or nmltisorial.' -Hincks, ji. 472. 

13o. Lli.'HENOi'OKA iiisi'inA, Flem. (ITiiK;ks,p. 47'^)=Dim>porcUa liiKpida, 

Gray; Ihisk, 'Crag Pol.' p. ll-"). Ih'scucjirfa (LirJiciKipdni) 

aculcdta, D'Ovh. 'rUctcrujxjrclla iwUiiUt, Busk, 'Crag I'ol.' 

p. 127, pi. xix. iig. 2. 
TiniK/f. — rCor, Crag (S. Wood) ; Scotch Glacial Deposits (Geikie) ; 
Post-Pliocene, Canada (Dawson). Living. 

1;)4. Lk.'IIKNOI'OUA liAiti.vrA, And. (Hincks, ]>. 47G)=:D{sro2iorcJI<( sp., 

;^hulzon^, ' Bry. du Plioc. de Rh.odes.' 
.7i'«»7t\ - Pliocene ; llhodes (Man/.); liruccoli, Sicily (Waters). 
Living. 

loo. LicHKNdi'OKA VKUuncAiMAjLinn. I'abr. (Hincks, Y).l7>^) = Vimicavra 

and Uniciirca,D'Oi'h. ' This in nuiny respects resembles I). 

radiatd. It is not the DiscajKiyelhtverniciirin of ]\Ianzoni (']?ry. 

Foss. Ital.' 4tli Contr. pi. vi. fig. -VS), which nuxy be Jh'a- 

stnporajliiht'lliiiu, Llss.' (Waters, ' Bry. Bay of Naples,' p. 271). 
Ranijc. — Living. Fossil (?). 
18G. LicnEXOi'ORA cuassiusoit.a, Smitt (Scand. \ivyo-A.) — Tahid'iiiora, 

Gri(piovensi's, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. IIC). 
Jianrje. — Crag (Busk). ]jiving, Xortheru Seas. 
137. Liciiexoi'OEa keuulakis, D'Orb. (Hincks, p. 170) ; B'Orb. ' Pal. 

Fr.' 
Mange. — French Cretaceous beds. Living, Shetland. 

Genus DoMOrOKA, D'Orbigny. 

Dowopora, D'Orb., 1874, ' Prod, de Pal.,' Busk ; Defrnncia, (part) 
Reus.i, Hagenow, Sars, Manzoni ; Ceriopora, (part) Goldfuss ; Stellijjora, 
(part) Hagenow. 

' Zoanum massive, cylindrical or mammiform, simple or lobed, formed 
of a number of subcolonies superimposed one upon the other ; the whole 



(iL'I 



P(,l 

to c 
the 
wel 
!-pef 



4!:*,^ 



ON FOSSIL roLV/OA. 



151 



dij^ora 



, Tal. 



>> 



» 



>) 



s--{'ii('(' iiorouH. Zniiciii. disposed in nidiiit itii.^ liiit'S, coiiHisiinpf of oiio or 
nioi'i' sorit's, on tlio IVcu cxlroiiiity ol tlu; stum oi" lobes.* — lliiicks, p. IHI. 

l;!S, DiiMni'dKA STETJ.ATA, (loldf. ; Ifiiicks, p. '181; (■{oliif. ' Potrcfac' 
i, p. ;il>, pi. XXX. >ii^. \'1 = Slil/fi>tirn s/rHnfn, Hug. ' IWy. Alacsh' 
p. U-= Drfnnirik sf>-lhil,i. Itciiss, ' FosH. I'ol'. Wicii. T.' '.\7, 
])\. vi. fig. 2 ; Miui/oiii, ' Uri. Foss. Mioc. d'Aiist.' 

luiiiijo. — ' In Htnitis nreiioso-nuirtrucois,' Wcstphaliin (Cloldf.) ; Anstro- 
ilurijr- (.MiiTizoiii) ; V'ioiiiiii, Masiii (IUmiss). 

13'.>. DniiANciA DisrniiA, JliiL,niio\v (n with smooth iutor.spaccs), 
Till). IV. <itr 1. 

110, ])i;i'i;,\N-('iA Midi i;i, INT, „ 

Tiih. IV. tig. r,. 

111. DiaiiANcrA cocnt.oiDKA, „ 

Tab. IV. lig. H. 
1 i-2 ])i;iT!AN('tA DiAKKMA, Ooldl'. (/:? wit)i porous intov.spaccs, Ilag.), 

Tab. IV. fig. !>:{ =i(U'rini>,mi ibid., Goldf. 
It:'. Dr;i-i!ANTiA Kirncrr.ATA, Hag. (ft with porou.s interspaces, Hag.), 

Tab. IV. fig. t. 

1 11. I)i;i'l!A\CIA l'ARIO.SA, „ „ ,, ,, 

Tab. IV. iig. C. 

II-'). I)i:it;axcia SKi.r.iT.A, „ ,, „ „ 

Tal). IV. Iig. 7. 

Ji'm/v'.- Tli(> first and fourth of Ifagenow's spooics arc fonnd both 
nk, ^lacstricht and l'"alkenberg, tlio rest aru ^laestrielit. ]>nfk, ' Brit. !Mus. 
(!at ' p(. iii. p. ;!•'), gives 1). trnttada, Jameson, as a lleccnt Northern foi-m, 
and he gives Ccrlapniui stcllttfa, (loldf., as a synonym. 

This is the end of ilic cla'ssitieation of the Cyclostoniata, so far as 
.Air. llinck.s givos any details. JJut Mr. IJusk, in his 'III. Brit. ISIns. 
Catalogue,' admits the following. 

Family VI. Fiiovdipokid.i:, Smitt. 

= FuHcu-uUncrr and Fuscif/cn'df, D'Orb.; T\-(HHliii(iri(J(f nnd Cori)mbo])oridcp., 
Smitt; Cci-iii^inridd; Busk; C e r /(qiar in a, llagcnow. 

' Zoarliini massive, stipitato, simple or lohed, or ramose. Zocxia 
connate, aggregated into fasciculi, and continuous throughout the length 
ol' the fasciculus, at th.c extrmiity of which only they open ; walls of 
cells porous; no intermediate pores or cancelli.' 

Fascici [,ii'Oi!A, sp., arc found in the Juras.sic strata, and Frojjdipoka. 
also arc probably as old as the Chalk; but in this Ileport I can give no 
details respecting the species. 



Part II. — llinloricid Lalmirs oh tlic Croup, 
Cretacfiol-s Polyzoa (Pt. ii. Foreign Species), 

Sec Cketaceoi'S Polyzoa (Pt. i. Brit. Species), Brit. Assoc. Rep. Foss. 
Polyz. (mihi), 1883. 

It is impossible at the present time, and with our present knowledge, 
to comprehend the full meaning of the grouping of the Fossil Polyzoa by 
the older naturalists. The genera were few in number and not always 
well defined, so that the history of any special group is, comparatively 
t-peaking, the history of advancing knowledge — not, however, based upon 



m 



152 



iiEroKT — 1884. 



I 



i 



strncturo, but upon oxtcnml form only. Tiien, again, t!ic form aiiu habit 
of an individual typo served as a pretext for founding new genera and 
new s])e('ies, without, in nr.my cases, tho least regard to structural 
peculiarities. I do not put tli! ; down as a rcpi'oach, but rather as one of 
tho primary reasons wli}- these tiinc-honouri'd naturalists are disregarded 
by younger workers. For myself, I have no desire to ignore the lielp of 
eai'ly investigators, and I wish particularly, in this division of my lleport, 
to give as full a history of the grouping of Fossil Polyzoa, together with 
as full an account of the species, as possible. I do this in tho interest of 
two different classes of workers. In the first place, I desire to give — 
beginning with Goldfuss — the PakTontological history of the Poly/.oa, 
ranging from the Cretaceous beds to the liighest beds of tho Tertiary ; 
and, in the second, to place in the hands of fellow students a full histoiy 
of species described by the successive workers also from the time of 
Goldfuss to the present, giving, as far as I am able, the modern elassifi- 
catory name. This part of niy Ke)H)it may appear, to all but the two 
sets of workers named above, a tedious piece of labour. Bat when it is 
remembered that many of the works, papers, or monographs of the earlier 
workers are at tho present day inaccessible — or almost inaccessible except 
to those who reside in the viciuity of large liliraries — the tediousness will 
bo more apj)arent than real. I think it will be admitted by all, that the 
whole of the lists of s])ecies of Polyzoa must bo accepted by the 
Palaeontologist — unless by carefull}' working ovc-r the old work many of 
the early names are reduced to syiumyms. In many cases I know that 
this is their ultimate destiny. Until new students, then, are conttmt to 
work along the lines fully elaborated — from the consecutive labours of 
the Rev. Thomas liiucks and ]\lr. A. W. Wateis in the earlier part of 
the present Report — confused and ill-digested compilation must follow. 
I have been asked, over and over again, why not woik alonyf tlie lines 
laid down by U"Orbi.<';uy in his grou[)ing of tlie Poly/oa ; or if not, give 
ray reasons for neglecting him. I have no wish to do either. So far as 
D'Orbigny gave to us original work 1 am proud, and even glad, to follow 
him in his groupings ; hut I do not believe liiat a dozen men exist who 
can ado])t his method with any satisfaction to themselves. Professor 
Roemer adopted D'Orbigny's cliissiiieation for iiis work on tho Norddeutsch 
Bryozoa ; and so have the Messi's. Gahb and Horn for their monogra[)h 
of the Secondary and Tertiary Polyzoa of Xorth America ; and a pretty 
full digest of D'Orbigny's system is given in ^l. Pictet's woi'k on 
Palajontology, and also a goodly number of ligures to illustrate the numy 
divisions. 

In ouG of Professor Smltt's elaborate papers — ' Floridan and Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa' -the author has given identifications and probable 
relationships of his own with sonu; of D'Orbigny's genera and species, 
and I have availed myself of Smitt's valuable lists for the .sake of syno- 
nymy alone. With regard to Ilagenow, Reuss, !Manzoni, Bask, Waters, 
and some few others, I think that no two opinions can exist as to the 
value of their special labours, and the very full list given from these 
authors will, I think, be fully ap])reciated by the working student at 
least. It may be well now to explain the principle by which I have been 
guided in compiling this part of my Report. In every case in dealing 
with an author's work T have not disturbed his grouping or arrangement 
— except where it was necessary to break up the list for the purpose of 
giving a stratigraphical arrangement. In an opposite column I have 



rivc 



lo.v 



iVllO 

•;soi" 



tscli 



I 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



153 



given, where I could, the modern find, to nie, more ficcpptablc n.ainos ; 
otherwise the work is practically that of the author named. 

At first I only intended to give tlie history and classificulion of 
Cyclostomatons Polyzoa, leaving for future work, or for others, tlie 
history, &c., of Cheilostomatous forms ; not because I had no desire for 
the complete task, but because of the limited time for the continuous 
application necessary for the success of the Report. In making my 
wants known to my ever constant friend — ^liss E. C. Jell}' — her answer 
was prompt and welcome : 'The Cheilostonuita linnet be done, an 1 you 
can command my services to any extent in the work.* Of her labours I 
have gladly availed myself, and I owe to iier the coiupilation of many of 
the elaborate lists given below; the arrangement, however, is m_v own. 

Tt must not be supposed that what follows aro mere barren names, 
which are ea.sily wrjtten and as easily passed over. 1 have a line suite 
of the Faxoo Limestone Polyzoa — almost equivalent to those of the !Maes- 
tricht beds — and also of the Cretaceous rocks of America, and whenever 
1 have made remarks on an authoi^'s work, I have only done so alter a 
study of the species in my possession. The same remark will apply to 
the Australian forms described by Mr. Waters, and numy of the .species 
described in the works of llocmer, Keuas, and ^lanzoni. Of the Ciag 
Poly/oa and Post-Tertiary species, 1 may .say that it was the study of 
these forms that gave to nie my first and longing desire to make myself 
as fully acquainted as possible with the whole of our Fossil, as with our 
Kecent Poly/.oa, and, thanks to Miss JO. C. Jelly and to Miss Gatty, my 
desire to a lary-e extent has been fjratitied for llccent and Fossil forms. 
I am greatly indebt'xl to Profoisor KoeiDor of Breslau, and to ^iv. J. ]\1. 
Xickles of Cincinnati, for material irom Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons 
which have been of great advantage to me in my vaiied labours on these 
Keports. 

For reasons that may bo easily umlerstood, I jilace Smitt'.s list as a 
preface to this part of my Iveport, ratlier than in the first part, where it 
ought to be placed. In it the student will iiiul the fullest synonym}- that 
I have yet met with from D'Orbigny, and this in itself is a iittiiig intro- 
duetiim to the works of lloemor and the ^lessrs. Ciibb and Horn. 

[•'. A. Smitt, 'Floridan Bryozoa,' \^7-l--i (Cheilostomata).— F. A. 
Smitt, 'Scandinavian Bryozoa,' lH(J4-(i<'^ (Cheilostomata), and Cyclo- 
stoniata. 

In the above works of Professor Smitt, we have not only tlu> a\ithor's 
systematic arrangement of genera and species, but a most I'luborate 
synonymy, and the two works aro evidently amongst the finest of original 
memoirs ever offered to the scientific public on this special group of 
animals. I have not thought it in any way necessary to alter or 
ditarrancre th.etext of the author. 



Scandinavian C ii i: i io<y< i.\! ata. 

C'lIKll.'KSTOMATA. 

Sub-order C':r.nt.Ai:iN \. 

1. Ai:ti:a angiina, Linn. ; ibid , D'Orl). • Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. p. II. 

-. ,, ,, (a) i'ovniii sjid/liiilatc 

/. c. p. 836. 



ri'clu — Sloi}ui/i)j^>ortr /jiHiat, (?) D'Orb. 



154 



KEroRT — 1884. 



l^A 



?i$'' ft 



EuCTtAiKA, Lamx. = Cateuaria, D'Orb. /. c. p. 43. 

4. Cellularia tkrxata, Sol. (Mcnipea & Scrnpocelhrria, Hincks). 
r). ,, (a) fovnvii'erhafa = Meiilpca ibid. U'Orb. I. c p. 47. 

(5. ,, UKi'TANH, Linn. = CelUdaria, D'Orb, /. c. p. 50. 

7. ,, SCRUl-OSA, „ „ _ „ ,, 

8. Gemkllaria LORirATA, ,, = GemclJana, „ Z. c. p. 46. 
'.). Bici'J.LARiA cir.iATA „ = Cellularui, „ „ p. 40. 

10. BUGLLA AVICULARIA, „ = Ormthopo'u „ „ p. 322. 

11. „ forma jlitJielhda = Ornitliojiorina avicnlaria, D'Ovh. J. i;. 
p. 322. 

12. Bl'GUI.a hvmsi fa)iti'(/!nta = Ar(iviarchi.% D'Orb. Z. c. p. 324. 

13. ,, Mu'iiKAYANA, Sm. = Orn'dhoimi-tna dllata, D'Orb. 7. c. 
p. 323. 

Snb-order Flustrixa, 

14. Flistka mlmrkanacea, Linn. = Reptoflnsira fclacra, D'Orb. Z. c. 

p. 32S. 
li>. Flustka six'UIMFRONs, Pall. = Ibid. D'Orb. I. c. p. 55. 
1(3, ,, I'Ai'YUKA ., = Semijlustmta carhasca, D'Orb. Z. c. 

p. 320. 
17. Fr,L'STi!A FOf.rACEA, Linn. = Efdmra ibid. D'Orb. Z. c. p. 55. 
is. Cellaria KisTUt.osA, Linn. = Ccllaria Ralicoruia, D'Orb. Z. c. p. 28. 

(See ante for synonyms, Hincks & lleuss.) 
10. !Mi:.\tr.RANivoRA linkata, Linn., forma craticida, AWcv = liqdiifhi'--- 

treUii arcUcii, D'Orb. Z. c. p. 571. 

20. ;^[E:M!lRA^•I^Ol^v forma h'iieiita= Repfdi'drina ibid. D'Orb. Z. c. 

p. 334= Mendiranipuva scdeciindmdata, D'Orb. Z. c. p. 542. 

21. !MKMi;r.\>'ii'ORA forma S'pthia', Busk = lu'pioilustrina arctica, 

D'Orb. Z. r. p. 5K2. 

22. ^ri:Mi;i;A.\n'Oi;A ftn-raa mncricana, W Orb. ■= Rcptoilnsiridhi ibid. 

D'Orb. Z. c. p. 571. 

23. ]\Ii:Mni!A\n'Oi!A akctica, D'Orb. = Semifhistrellaria ibid. 

D'Orb. MS. 
2!'. Mi'.Mi'.K'ANipniiA Flemixgh, Busk, fovnid trifniinm = M. trifoh'um, 

' B. Crag Pol.' p. 32 = M. Pouilhtu, ' B. Crag Pol.' p. 32. 
25. ilEMFiRANiroKA i'ii.osA,Linn. (typica) =. Jiiplelectrina pilo.ia, D'Orb. 

' Pal. Fr. Ter. C v. p. 334 = Ih'pfi'Irrtrliui. dvnlata, D'Orb. Z. e. 

p. 334= Elextruiit lamellosa and cijUndrica, D'Orb. /. c. p. 188. 
20. "MEMHRAXiPOifA forma vunioafacJiys, Busk = Fbistrellaria inti<tidosa, 

(?) D'Orb. Z. r. p. .V20. 

27. Mejip.ranipoka forma r.afevrdaria, Jameson (non Hippotlwa 

cafenularia, D'Orb. ' Pul. Fran.') = Fyripora raiiioiin,'D'Orh. I. c. 
p. 530. 

28. MEMi!KANiroi!A fomiii momlirdhdcca, MnW. = ibid., D'Orb. Z. c. 

p. 512. 

Sub-order Esciiarina. 
Family Eschar i roi; id.t5. 

ESCHARII'OIIA, D'Orb. 

20. „ PUNCTATA, Hass. (' Crag Poly.' p. 40). 

30. ,, ANNUi-ATA, Fabr. = Repteschardla Uecrmannli, Gabb 

& Horn = Cnhrillina, Hincks. 






iijii?:SL'ii3 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



155 



c. 



■)poth(ni 
1). I c. 



31, 






34. 

35. 
3G. 

37. 



Z. C-. 



39. 
40. 



41. 
4-2. 

43. 



14. 



PORINA, D'Orb. 

„ MAi,r,usi., And. = Eej^tejwrina ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. 
C: \. h c. p. 443 = Reptcjwrina he.mrjona, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. T. C 
V. I. c. p. 444. 
PoiMNA ciMATA, Pall (LepraJla ibicL, ' Crag Pol.' p. 42) = Pijrijlus. 
trella arcfica, D'Orb. /. c p. 5/0. 

EsciiAKKrj.A, D'Orb. 

EsciiAUKLLA Li:i;i:NTi[,ir, And. = Cellepora ibid., D'Orb. (op. rlt.) 

I. c. 401 = Rcptopurina, D'Orb. = IxeptescliarcUa siimdaht, D'Orb. 

7. c. p. 4G5. 
EsciiAiJEMA Jacotina, Aud. = Jicpfpurlinrclla Jacotina, D'Orb. I. c, 

p. 4G5 = Seniiesclidra himelloisa, D'Orb. /. c. p. 3GG. 
EscuAHKi.i-A i-i\i:ai!1S (forma typica) = Scmiporlna pnlrliolla, 

D'Orb. /. c. 440 = SeraicscJtarclh'na vhlonga, D'Orb. I. c. p. 450. 
E.schai;i:m,a i,i.\i:ai;is forma hlaparta = lieptopoy liuihiajM' ria, D'Orb. 

I. r. p. 44-2. 

IMoi-MA, Larax. 

„ ilVAMXA. 

,, ,, forma (lii'(irlcata,Tjan\x.=IIi2^pot]ioa dicaricafn^ 

D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 3.S:] = Hlppnthoa cafnndaria, D'Orb. ' P. 
F. T. C V. p. 383 = Wppothoa Sa>:ni,niava, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C 
V. p. 383 = HippotJtoa homdi-^, D'Orb.' ' P. F. T. C v. p. 3S4 = 
Hipp<dJwa vicddcrranra, D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C v. ]>. 381.= 
Hippothoa Bohertina, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 384 = Hlpputhoa 
patatjonica, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 24. 

Mykiozouji. 

,, rnusTACEU^r, Sm. = (?) Esrliavn uicisa, ]\r.-Ed\v., 

MloliL4in = EAchara iiirlsn, D'Orb., Dusk, ' Crag Pol.' 
Mvi.'iozor.M suBGKACii.i.-, D'Orb. = Escluira incis<t, D'Orb. 'Pal. F. 
T. C /. c. p. GG2. 

ESCIIAUID.E. 

Letkaija ]iutoi'US, Sm. = (?) E-^cham I)pshiiirs!i\ !M.-Edw. 

(•KRVicon.MS, Pall. = ibid. D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C /. c. p. 

344. 
LEi-KAfJA EKEGAXTUi-A, D'Orb. = ibid. D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C I c. 

p. 101. 

ESCHAUOIDES, M.-Edw. 

Sai:sii, Sm. = (?) E-^rhara lohafn, D'Orb. J. r. p. lul 
= (?) Escliard 'jrandi'pora, D'Orb. /. c. p. 345. 



,', Gabb 



Family Discoi'OiaD.^. 

45. Discui'ORAcocciXEA, Abbildg. = Lq5ra?m vnriulmia, (pars) L. Peachti ; 

L. rciitrii'iind, lUissk, ' Crag Polyz., pp. 48 and 41). 
4G. Discoi'Oi;a forma ucalis, Hass. = L. variolosa, (pars) Busk, ' Crag 

Polyz.' p. 48. 
47. DisCGi'ORA Skenii, Sol. = L. hicoml.'i, Busk, ' Crag Polyz.' p. 47. 



156 



iiEroRT — 1884. 



m. 



Sub-orJer Ci:i,i,i:i'Oi:i\A. 
Family CELi-EroiMn.K. 

48. CEM-ETOnA r.AMLii.osA, Linn., forma tuln.rnsa = lu'pforcUvjJordrlti 

fuherosn, lYOvh. ' P. V. '\\ C \\. (purs) p. 428 = Cdlejwm 
tuhif/erd,, J3Lisk, 'Crag Pol.' p. GO. 

l''orma ramulnsa =: ibid. Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 58. 

49. Cem,i:i'i.i;auia inckassata, Liim. = Ibid. D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C." v. 

p. 41!». 

Family Ri:ti:i'(ii;ii>.>:. 

r>0. Riri'Ei'OiiA CEi.i.i'r.osA, Limi., forma v(ifnjhn-hyf> (a, forma iiJi'H'n) 
= liclepiiva nohijiiO'lnis, Busk, ' Criig Pol.' p. /'>. 

Floridan Ciihii.osto.mata. 

51. i\lKMr,i;AMi'OiiA CANAiMKNsis, P., ' Sill. Fl.' ')1. ii. f. 10 = Ciqjnloria 
ibid., Busk, ' Cr. Pol.' p. 87. 

5-2. Me.mi;i;ani1'0UEM.a AdASsizii, Sm., 'Sin. Fl.' pi. ii. f. 11. Com- 
pare l'jt<chariiiora fi}lfi>vuii.-<, B'Orb. /. c. |). 282. 

53. Cii'Ui.AuiA UMiii-.ij.ATA,' Dcf., ' Sm. FL' pi. ii. f. 14 = ibid. ' BrI. 

Plio. Ital.,' ManzGui, 18G9, p. 2G == ? iJiscaparrJId Henniulldiia, 
D'Ovh. 'P. F. T. C p. 474= ? Dismpordla deidicnlata, Gabb 
& Horn. 

54. Cui'L'LAiUA DOMA, D'Orb., ' Sm. Fl.' pi. ii. f. 1-3. DidcofJusfyclla 

ibid., D'Orb. Z. -•. p. 5G1. 

55. SiKGAXOroKiiTJ-A ' KLKOANS, IM.-Edw., ' Fl. Brv.' pi. ii. f. 15 = 

Esrharellina, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 41W. " 
55*.STKr,ANOi'OKi:r,LA Bo/.iehi, Aud., ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. \(j=-Uopteschar. 

dliiia, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 45:). 
5G. BiFLtsniA Lackoixii, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. IS =Jjij!u>)lm and Iicpfo- 

jluslra ibid., D'Orb. 

57. Bii'Lt:sTi;A dknticulata, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 18=?Memhravipora 

fuherathtta, Busk, ' C. P.' p. ^0=Ui'ptnflustm, D'Orb., ' I\ F. 
T. C.'v. pp. .",28-;J29. 

58. Bii r.usTKA Savai.'TII, ' Fl. Bry.' jil- ii- f. '1^^= Mumhranipora, D'Orb. 

/. c, p. ^y\rlz=.> Fhistrellaria tnltulosn, D'Orb., I. c,, p, 532=: 
'tMembriDiipura Lifirriensin, D'Orb., /. c, p. h^A)=?M(imhravlpova 
Savart'i, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' j). 'Sl = ?Jlll!ii>itia dclicalnia, Busk, 
' Crag Pol.' p. 72. 

59. CiniiiJiLiXA IJAIUATA, !Moll, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 22, 'Very neartotbe 

present speoies, and its allies must bo placed,' SeinicscJiarijiora 

fmciUlf, D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C v. p. 480 = Semiesrharipora hrrvis, 

"D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C v. p. 485 = Semiescharipora ovalis, D'Orb. 

' P. F. T. C.'v. p. 488. 
CO. Ckibuimna INNOJIINATA, Coucb, ' l*'l. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 22=:Lrpra1i(i, 

ibid., Busk,' C. P.* p. 4:{^=? Reptescharella pi/gmrea, D'Orb., /. c, 

p. 4GH. 
01. PoRKLLiNA ciLiAiA (see Microporella, Hincks), ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. 

f. 1C)-=l\cpiopor('Uinti anhrulgaris, D'Orb., /. r., p. 477. 
C2. PoKiNA viOLACEA (sce Microporella, Hincks), ' Fl. Bry.' })1. ii. f. 30 

= Lepralia ibid.. Busk, ' C. P.' p. 43. 
C-), PoRiNA I'LAUioi'OKA. ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. ^Q=Lepralia ibid., Busk, 

' C. P.' p. 44. 
. . ' Stcginojwrella, Sm. 



I 



Cm,. 



ON FOSSIL POI.YZOA. 



157 



j/o- 



ynlid, 
1. c, 

1)1. ii. 

I. f. '30 

Busk, 



Gi. Mamillgpora cupula, Sm., 'Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. S'l^ConenchareUina, 

D'Orb., /. c, p. 44(). 
<il Gi;mii.t.ii'OI{A kiuknka, Sm., ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. Zi>='(IIipiiotlioa 

elegants, D'Orb., /. t-., p. 384. 
tJG. Hii'i'OTliOA IsARKLLiXA, D'Orb., ' Fl. Biy.' pi. ii. f. M=lteptu2)0- 

riiKi, '[yOrh. = ?Schi:cup(>n'Jla unicornis, Hincks. 
or. EsciiAitKLLA KAN(iUiNi:A, Sm. = 'r'(7cZ/(>po?-a sultoninata, D'Orb., I. c, 

p. 399 (Schizojwrclla, Hincks). 
G>^. KscMAUKLLA TKUTUSA, Espcr = Gelleponi, D'Orb. {Lepralia, 

Hincks). 
09. EscilAiiKiJ.A AL'DOUiN'ii=(?e/A'j*o?v/, D'Orb. ; G. Amloulnii, D'Orb. 

=?G. oruidea and G. suhovoidea, ' Pal. Fr. T. C p. 402 {Lepralia, 

Hincks). 

70. LiU'RALiA ixoRNATA = Ce?/(7)ora ibid., Gabb and Horn. 

71. Li;riJALiA edax, Busk = (^e//«3;;om cdax, iiusk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 59. 

72. Rr.TErouA MAUSui'iATA = 'r'iVt/JwZo25oni Inhiata, Gabb & Horn. 

7o, DiscorOKA AMiiitosTius (forma typ\cn)=.Cellepora reratomurphd jJifiS., 
' Fos. Pol. W. T.' p. 80= rGellepura cncnlina, INIich. ' Icon. Zoo.' 
p. 324. 

In ffivin^ these lists of Gheihisfomata from the Floridan and Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa of Professor Sraitt, I have not thought it necessary to 
curtail any of the synonyms, or alter into the more modern genera any of 
the forms described by the author. The student will see at a glance how 
very different Smitt's and Hincks's genera are, and hoAV readily the latter 
autlior has adopted from Smith the generic terms that could be adopted 
with safety. It will be for those who take up the study of either Recent 
or Fossil Polyzoa to ari-ange their species after any author whomsoever 
they may choose to follow. I believe, however, that for the first time, 
both Palieontologists and those who take up the examination of Recent 
or living forms, have been, by the publication of the present Report, 
put in possession of lists which will facilitate resv?arch and prove 
advantageous to future scientific exposition. 

Smitt: Cyclostomata (Scandinavian). 

Tribe iNFUXDiiiULATA, Gervais. Order Cyclostomata, Busk 
( = Ge)itrifn(jiiii(, D'Orb.). 

Sub-order Radickllata, D'Orb. ( = Arl!<'nl((ta, Busk). 

Family Crisik.t^: : Lks Ckisies (M.-Kdw. ) = Grisiadce, D'Orb. 

CinsiA, La X. ( = Gns!a, Uiiirrisia, Jjirri.tia, Gn'sidea, Filicrisia, D'Orb.). 

1. CrisiA cornuta, Lum.=Filicrisia, D'Orb. ' Pal. ¥v. Terr. Cret.' v. 

p. G04. 

2. Crislv li cou^m\\ = GrlskUa, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. 0-53. 

3. Crisia EBURNKA. Linn. = 0/v'.s-/(/, D'Orb. „ „ „ „ „ ,"98. 

4. Crislv dkxtk'ULATA, Linn., Crisin, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v., 

p. 599, and Busk, ' C. P.' p. 90. 

Sub-order Ixcrustata (= Iiuuiindata, Busk). 

I. TuDULiNEA, D'Orb. Family Diastoporid.e. 

DiASTOPORA, Lamx. ; M.-Edw. 

5. Di STOPORA REPKNS— ^i/re^o, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. '\\1=Frohosclna 

dirhotoma, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. Cret.' v. p. 84.7:=Prohoscim Tou- 
casiatia, D'Orb. (r) I. c, p. 85G. 



lo8 



BKroRT— 1884. 



f 



^''lil 



11 



G. DiAsiiH'OU.v siMTLKX, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' p. 1115 — (non D'Orb.). 

7. DiAsrni'OUA hyalina (<«), D. ohclia, Johnst..=ljrjrenicea 'prominens, 

iJ'Orb. /. r., p. 8G2. 

8. DiAS'iniMiKA iiYAM.VA (/5), hitomartjhmta, D'Orh. =iDia.stopura ibid., 

D'Orb. /. <:, p. 827. 

9. Diastoi'()i;a I'Ai'iNA (/•]) forma typica = D/".'-'''*.'.7)a/','?(t iridn/inata, D'Orb. 

I, <•., p. S'22=Ucplomnlfi'<]iarsa cmigesta, D'Orb. (r) 1. c, p. 87H. 

10. DiAS'ioruKA I'AiiN'A ' •/) formiiraiJidta^liaiUol :'hi(jera, D'Orb. sp. ? = 

riUmellaproliijeru, Busk, ' Crag P.' p. 104. 

Mi:sKN'Ti:iiii'Oi;A, Blainv. 

. I^Insr.XTEiui'ORA MKANDHiNA, Wood; D'Ovh. = Cerioiior(i compres/ta, 
(loldf. 'Pctr.' vol. i., p. o7 =roh/trcm<i, D'Orb., 'Prod. Pal. 
Strat.' vol. ii., p. 27i)= Dita.via, Hagciiow, ' Bry. Miist, Kreid.' 
J). ^)0=:lild!ast(q)orii and Mescnteripora MlchfHu!,WOvh., ' Prod. 
P. ^' ■^Bidlastopora and jSFciie.nteriporit FjiKlesinna, l)'Or'o.= 
Mescntci-ipora vteaudri'na Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. l{)[^=Mesent(!ri- 
pora ncorumicusls, D'Orb. 'Pal. F. T. C.' p. 80H. 

Family TuitL'liii'OKiK.i:. 
Tij'iiULirouA, Lamx. Sub-geuus Idmonka, Lamx. 

12. Ti:i;ULii'ORA atlaxtica, Forbos, forma crccta=Lhnonoa romnnpiis, 

D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' Z. c, p. 72'J=Llmonea angustata, D'Orb. 'Pal. 

Fr.' I ('., p. 7;n. 

13. Tli;i:lifoua FKNKSTRATA (Busk?) (Tdmonca) ' Crag Pol.' ]). 105. 

14. Ti'isULii'ORA SERi-EXs, forma cvccta-=Idmonea dilatuta, D'Orb. 'Pal. 

Fr. T. Cret.'p. 7;;i. 

15. Tnu'Lii'ORA SKiU'ENS, forma serpens =z Jieptotuhif/era tidmlifcra, 

D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. Cret.' p. 7rrl=Vu'ptotuhi<jL'ra confluens, 
D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. T. Crot.' p. 752. 

(Sub-genus PllALANGKLiiA, Gray.) 

IG. Tri;ir.ii'ORA palmata, '\Vood^=Tuhallpom ibid. Zooph. Crag 'Ann. 
!Mag. Nat. Hist.' xiii. p. 14=^/('c/o d'llatam, Bu.sk, ' Crag 
Pol? p. 102. 

17. Tiiiri.ii'ORA iiMi;i!t\. Lam. = Prohosclna. serpens, D'Orb. ' Pal. 

Fr. T. C p. Si:7 = Tuhidipora jiahellaris, Busk, 'Crag P.' 
p. 111. 

18. Tiiulii'Oi:a flahellaris, Fab. =Tnhul!pora vernknria, D'Orb. 

'P. Fr. T. C V. p. 8'32 = Tnhidlpora phalanrjca, Busk, 'Crag 
Pol.' p. 111. 

Sub-gcnns Prohoscixa, And. 

10. Tinrr.ii'OUA ixckassata, D'Orb., for-ma crcda=Filesparsa Incra.isata, 
D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. C p. HU^Filesparsakihujera, D'Orb., ibid. 

20. Tlhumi'ORA ixcrassata, D'Orb., forma serpens = Stomatopora, 

D'Orb. (':') ibid. p. oH{j-=Sto)iiatoporai)icrassnta, D'Orb. (?) ibid. 
=Stomafopora reciiculnta, D'Orb. (?) ibid. p. 84il=Prohoscina 
serpens, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr.' I. c, p. 847. 

21. Ti:i;ii,n'Oi!A pexicillata, Fahr.=Defra)icia striaiula, Busk, 'Crag 

Pol.' p. 117. 



'i 



I' 



pave 

the 

Keus 

'-•hari 

iu-oit 

abo\ 

endei 

arrar 

comb 

befo 

bo, 

scope 



T] 
generl 



ox FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



159 



Pal. 

r.' 

rOrb. 

Crag 



x.ssa/rt, 
,, ibid. 
apora', 
) ibid. 

OSCi'llil- 

■Cvag 



Fani il y Ho i! \ i-: uwjf:. 
Hoi!Ni:i!A, Lamx. 

22. HoiiNKnA i-icnF,.\oii)i:s, lAim.:=IIor)itra lorcalis, Busk, 'Crag 

Pul.' pp. 05 aud 103. 

Family LiCiiEXOPOKiDiE. 
DiscoPOKELLA, Gray. 

23. Discoi'OitKiiLA ^'i:i!i:i"(;ai!(A, Linn., Fabr.=Z)/scocaraa, D'Orb. * Pal. 

Fr. T. Cn't.' v. p. 0i>8=U>nravra conveMt, B'Ovh. 'Pal. Fr. T. 
Cri't.' V. p. 072. 

24. Discoi'OitEiJ.A ci;ASsirs('ui,A, i>m. = TiiIml ipora Grifjuonensis, TJnsk 

Crag Pol.' p. IIG {iwib M.-Edw. )=.Defranciarugosa, Busk (?) 
7. c, p. 118. 

25. Discoi'ORELLA iiiSTiuA (FIcm.) := Lichennpora inediterranen, Miuli. 

' Icon. Zoo.' p. 6S = iruicavra, j)'Orb., ' Pal. F. T, C ]^. 071 = D/,s- 
cocavea (iraleatd, D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' I.e., j). dt)^=lIcfijro2)orella 
radiata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 127. 

II. Fascicllinea, D'Orb. Family FitONDiroiaD.i:. 
FnONDiroitA, Blainv. 

20. FuoNDii'OiiA ((() UETit'iLATA, Linu.=F/-o/;f?;por(T ibid., D'Orb., 'Pal. 
Fr. T. C V. p. 077. 

Fi:ondipoj;a (p) niiTicLiiA'iA, li'mn.= Frond qwra verrucosa, D'Orb., ' Pal. 
Fr. T. C V. p. G78. 

Family Cohymiiopokip.^. 

CoitYJIIiOPOKA, Mich. 

27. CoRVMiioPOi.'A FixoiroiiMis, 8m. = Fanr/clla proUfera, Hag. (?) 

'Miist. Krcid.' p. 'd7=Fn.^ciculipnra, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T.'C.'v. 
p. GGS=:Fim(jeUa quadrlcrp^, Busk (?), ' Crag Pol.' p. 110. 

DeI'KANCIa, Bronn. 

28. Defraxcia LUCERXALiA, Say.=Discof(tsc{fjera cupula, D'Orb. (?) 

/. c, p. 075. 

1 Avould .strongly adviso tlio student of Fossil Cyclostomata to com- 
l)ave tlio species named, if in Ids power to do so, or contrast at least 
the lists given iu this report from Hincks, Busk, Hagenow, and 
Ileuss. It will bo seen what diflerent estimates arc given of Zoari;d 
characters by the diflerent authors. The multiplicaticm of species is nn- 
iivoidable if we take into consideration habit only. In Smitt's list given 
above, the author certainly deserves the thanks of workers for his 
endeavour to combine leading facial characters in his simple Family 
arrangements, and I think I may venture to say that Smitt's Generic; 
combination embraces all, or nearly all, the structural features that may 
be found in the study of this peculiar sub-order of the Polyzoa. It may 
be, however, quite possible to give simplicity of arrangement too wide a 
scope. (See Hincks and Busk on the Cyclostomata). 

Dr. August Goldfuss, ' Petrefacta Gcrmanioe,' 1820. 

The ' Zoophytorum Reliqnia) ' of Goldfuss were classed under forty-five 
genera, and the genera Escuara, Cellepora, Retepoka, aud Ceriopoua — 



r 



16i) 



REroiiT— 1884. 



all Hint concerns us in tlio present Report — are placed after the numbers 
14, IT), 1(5, and -0 in bis cosmopolite list. It is useless to reproduce the 
definitions of these genera as given b}' Goldfuss, for the very simple 
reason that these names now used are much more restricted, and, com- 
paratively speaking, have a different meaning. With regard to the use 
of the generic name Ceriopora, I may say that authors differ in opinion 
as to the necessity of its further retention. Generally speaking I agree 
with those who de.sire the sujipression of the word ; still, there are some 
forms given by Hagcnow, which will be referred to further on, that may 
conveniently retain the name, but the genus Ci:uioroi;A, Goldfuss, embraces 
many typical forms that have been handed over to at least five distinct 
genera. The Cretaceous Rkti;i'Oi;.v of Goldfuss, and also the Cellepoha 
and EscoAiiA, are also placed in hostile relationship, which will be more 
apparent when I review the labours of Hagcnow. I cannot attempt any 
suggestive arrangement of Goldfuss's genera and species, because by so 
doing I should anticipate work that will be done further on. I merely 
take the lists given by him as found in the Maestricht beds, and the 
Cretaceous rocks of Kssen. 



CliniLOSTOMATA, Busk. 

Genus Eschaua, Lamarck. 

Type E. komacea, Lamarck. Lepkalia fomacea, Hincks. 

' Nearly stony, and not flexible, with depressed lamellary fragile expan- 
sions, extremely porous interiorly, entire or divided; cells of the polypi 
arranged in fives on both sides.' ' 

1. EscuAKA CYCLosroMA, Goldfuss, 'Petrefuc,' Tab. VIIT., fig. 9, 
Maestricht. 



•1 


EsCltAKA PYKllOHMIS, „ 

]\Iacstricht. 


>i 






10, 




ESCHAKA SThlMATOl'IinKA, „ 

Maestricht. 


>> 






11, 


4. 


Es«;hai;a skxangui.aims, ,, 
Maestricht. 


)> 






12, 


5. 


Est'nAKA CANCia.l.A lA, ,, 

Maestricht. 


» 






V3, 


0. 


EsCHAKA ARACHNOIPKA, „ 

Maestricht. 


«) 






14, 


/ . 


EsCirAKA DlCnOTOMA, ,, 

Maestricht. 


»> 






15, 


S. 


E.SCHARA STRIATA, „ 

Maestricht. 


>» 






10, 


i». 


EsCHAKA I'll.OGKAXA, ,, 

Maestricht. 


1) 






17, 


10. 


ESCIIAHA DISTICHA, „ 

Maestricht. 


>» 






1«, 


11. 


EscHARA suBSTiiiATA, Miinst., 
Tert. ]\Ierg. Astrupp. 


»» 


Tab. XXXVI. 




1>, 


12. 


EsCHAKA cklleporacea, MUnst., 
Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 


j> 


51 




10, 



Brown's Zooln'jist'i TcxtBouli, p. r,GG, cil. 1833. 



ox ro.<siL roLvzoA. 



IGl 



Oenus Ci;M,t-i'oi:.\, Linn. 

= Crlh'pora and Disciionf, Lamlc. 

,;i^:""'"'"'' ^'"""'^'^•' '^ >"■"• '"'h- ••. »yn„„j-m of Mcmlranlj.,.,;,, I!l„l„ 



2. Ckllei'or.v Hipi'oci;ei'is, 

Macstriclit. 
,3. Cfu.i.KPOR.v Vkla.mex, 

^lacstrichfc. 
4. Ci:i,Li;i'ORA pkxtata, 

Maestricht. " 

T). ClilLLKl'OKA CIJL-STL'I.EXrA, 

Maestricht. 

0. CkLLEI'oua IUPUA'CTATA, 

Maestricht, 
7. Cellepora escharoides, 

Cret. Rocks, Essen. 
<'^. Ckelki-oka l-rceoeai;i8, 
Tert. Merg. Astnipp. 
1'. CeI.EEI'OKA ANXll.ATA, Milnst., 
Tert. Merg. Astrupp, 
10. CeEEEPORA TlilSTOMA, (Joldfuss, 
Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 



I. 



M 



»» 



)) 



Tab. XII. 
Tab. IX. 
Tab. XXXVI. 



1-, 



Cyclosto.mata, Busk. 

1. Ceriopora MicROPOiiA, Goldfu.ss, Tetrefac' Tab. X fi. 4 
Maestricht, Essen. °" '"' 



» 



(Entalophora) ; 



2. Ceriopora cryptopora, 

fig. 3, Maestricht. 
o. Ceriopora axomatopora, 

fig. 5, Maestriclit. 

4. Ceriopora diciioto.ma, 

fig. 9, Maestricht. 

5. Ceriopora verticii,i,ata, 

fig. ], Maestricht. 
<-i. Ceriopora pustui.osa, 

fig. 3, Maestricht. 
/". Ceriopora gracilis, 

fig. 11, Maestricht, Essen." 
<'^. Ceriopora mii.leporacea, Goldfuss, 
^ fig. 10, Maestricht, Astrupp. 
^'. Ceriopora madreporacea, Goldfuss 
fig. 12, Maestricht. 

10. Ceriopora tuiupokacka, 

fig. 13, Maestricht. 

11. Chr.opora coMPREssA, Goldfuss (Dlastopora), 

fig. 4, Maestricht. i >" 

12. Ceriopora disciformis, 

1881. '^'''^' ^^^^^^- ^S- l, Maestricht, Astrupp 



(Heteropora); 'Petrcfac' Tab. X. 



I) 



Tab. XI. 

5) 

Tab. X. 

Tal). X. 

Tab. XI. 



» 



M 



1G2 



iiErouT — 1884. 



14. 

15. 



IG. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

'JO. 
■Jl. 




Ckrioi'01!\ si'in.M.is, fi<^. 2, Miic'stricht, 
CKUiorouA vAi;iAiitMS, !Munst. 

Tiib. XXXVII. ti>?. t], :Mucstriclit, Astrupp, 
Ci;i!I()1'()i;a vknosa, GoldfuKs, 

Tab. XXXI. lijr. 2, Maestricht . 
Ci:i!Ioi'(ii;a vknosa, (loldfu.s.s, 

fig. 7, Maestricht. 
Ci;ui()i'oi!A i'<)r.Y.\Kii;i'iiA, ,, 

Tab. XXX. fig. IJ.KsHcn. 
Ci;i!K)1'oi;a sp(ingiti;s, „ 

fig. 14, Maestricht, Ks.scn. 
Ceimoi'Oiia sti:i.laia, GoMfuss, 

Tab. XXXI. fig. 1, Essen. 
Ckkioi'oka J)iai)i;ma, Goldfuss, 

Tab. XXXIX. fig. 12, Ksseu. 

Tab. XXXV] I. fig. ;i „ 
Ci'.Kioroi.'A .MiTiiA, Goldfuss, 

Tab. XXX. fig. ]:]. 

CkUIOPOIJA (.'lilBKOtiA. ,, 

tig. IG. 



' Petrcfac' Tab. X 1. 



Tab. X. 



Tab. X. 



1. Ri:ti:poi!A ci.atiiijata, Goldf. 
fig. 12, Maestricht. 

2. Rkti;i'Oi;a i,ichi:noii)i;s, „ 
fig. lo, Maestricht. 

3. RlOTEI'OUA 'JlU'.NC.VrA, „ 

fig. 14, Maestricht. 

RkTEI'OUA IMSTICIIA, „ 

fig. 15, Maestricht. 

RkTKI'OKA CAN(*i:r.LATA, „ 

Tab. XXXVI. fiir. 17 



(Idmonea) 



Tab. X. 



„ Tub. I.\. 



.Maestricht. 



Maestricht Beds, 



HaGfcuow. 



The most systematic work that has yet been published on the Cre- 
taceous Bryozoa (or Polyzoa) i3 that of Frederick V. Uagenow — ' Die 
Bryozeen der Miistrichter Krcidcbildung,' 12 plates, 1851. In this mono- 
graph the writer figures and desci'ibes about 200 species of Polyzoa, 
many of which aro new, others arc re-described, from Goldfuss chiefly ; 
and, as Hagenow had access to the original specimens of Goldfuss, J 
think we may pretty safely rely upon his judgment in the redistribution 
of types. The classification of the author is very simple. For a portion 
of the Cyclostomata, Busk, Hagenow adopted the division A, Tibui.i- 
PORINA, Milne-Edwards ; for another poi'tion he adopted Bronn's division 
B, Cerioporina. His division C, Salpingixa embraces oidy two doubtful 
genera — Escharites,-'Rdm., and Inversarut, Hag. — which in one sense may 
be considered as passage forms ; still it is very doubtful whether some of 
the Salpingixa do not belong rather to the CvcLOSTd.MATA than to the 
Cheilostomai'A. The group D, Ukceolata, Hag., are Cheilostomatous. 
Except that I shall begin with the latter groups — C and D — first, I shall 
not otherwise disturb the arrangement of the author; but I have not 
thought it necessary to load my text with reference to all the plates, 
especially as the species are numbered. 



ON i-Osaih I'OLYZOA. 

Sab-ordor Cui:n,usr(i.\tAT.\, Busk. 
I). Ui£Ci;or,ATA, Ilaj^enow 
i%,n-«.^. ,,......«, j,u,n.mo, nallopodia, Eln-enberg. 

^''"\'r"' "'^- = ^^^'----»--'. (pars) Goldf. 
1. V. AK.X.LATA, llageu,nv, Tab. VJ. fi.r lo 

y. V. IIELLA ,, "■ • 

•'}. v. CANALIFKRA ,',' " 

4. V. I'KOCKKA , " 

5. V. GoLDKUSSii ,',' (Cdlana)! 



163 



„ 11 



KscifAijA, Lamarck. 
A. TiaxcAT.i;. IJ. IUmos.k. 
«. lutermmahe. — In this divi'^i'r.n +1- u 
walls, and so far as I have boon S o sf n ' "'' "°' '^f "^^'^'^ ^ Ji«t'"«fc 
certain that in the grouvm'rt Icro am n ^ '''?''' ^^ *^'" '^'^'^^"'^ ^^ ^^ 
character that would am^ly^ repay t^ c t;'""i^7,°^ ^^^iations of coll 
bestowed upon them. This Cn Z T ^i "'' ^''"''"'" "'^^ <^o»W be 
have access to material r^nZ\^^^;\ '7^^\^f ^'^'j V tho.so who 
•lerived from the Faxoe Limestone snoin 1 ,'' ^^^ °^^ knowledge is 
of Hagenow. -^i^^tstone species, which are nearly akin to those 

E.S( .iiARA, Lamk. 

11. E. FOVEOr.ATA, H 



1. E, PL'SILLA, H. 

2. E. QUINQIEPCXCTATA, H. 
3- E. VAUIAlilMs, H. 

4. E. GONIOSTO.MA, H. 
T). E. VICLVALIS, H. 
(!. E. C'OUOXATA, II 

7. E. Ki.Eim, H. 
^. E. JussiEi:i, H. 

i>. E. liONDELETf, H. 
10. E. FILOGUAXA, Goldf. 



12. E. Pevssonelij, H. 

l-"{. E. .SEMLSTELUTA, H. 

14. E. Dekmakksti, H. 

I'J. E. I'Of.VSTO.MA, If 

KJ. E. Pekont, H. 
17. E. Dei ijAxciA, H 

1'"^. E. BoilYANA, H. 

li>. E. AucHiAci, H. 
20. ]-]. Vehxeuiu, H. 



wulls--a rather nnnatni^ gi'i^^ I^J '^ «- T"''^' ^^ ^^'"^^-c^ 
genera are mingled together. ^ "' ' ^'^"^ ^^"^ °^^«'-«' ^^"7 types of 



^1. E. STK-IATA, Goldf. 

22. E. lUIO.MIiEA, H. 

23. E. Savigxvaxa, II. 

24. E. SCIXDIEATA, H. 

25. E. ICHXOIDEA, H. 

oS" -'^' Edwardsiana, H. 
2^. E. akaciixoidea, Goldf. 



CAXCELEATA, H. 



2 . E. CcvrnRf, H. 

30. E. Lesueuri, II. 

31. E. Mjleeri, H. 

32. E. MICROSTOMA, II. 

33. E. La.molTvOlxii, H. 

34. E. stigm-atoriiora, Uoldf 

OO. E. LAiMAKCIil, ij. 



3(;. E. AuDouixj, H. 

-}7. E. PYRIEORMIS, Goldf. 

•IH. E. CVCLOSTO.MA, 

'^^. E. mPUXCTATA sp. Goldf 

- Cellepum ibid., Goldf. = 
Memhrnnipora ibid., Blainv 
— Ihscopora ibid., Lamk. = 
Marglnaria ibid., K6m. 

40. E. XAXA, H. 

41. E. Erjjsr, H. 

42. E. Soeandri, H. 

43. E. DETRITA, H. 

44. E. LEPIDA, H. 

4-5. E. Nysti, H. 

40. E. nicHOTOMA, Gofdf. 

i.1 2 






ill!!! I 



164 



IlKrOUT — IHHl. 



•17. E. 13iAiNviLt.i;i, 11. 

4H. E, l-ATYKACKA, 1[. 

4l>. E. I'luti'iNyUA, J I. 

bO. E. SliXANOl'LAUKS, Goldf. 



.M. E. Esi-i:i;t, H. 

r»2. E.Qro/iANA,l{()S(|iu't inlitt.. 

M. l'].CiAi;NAi;i>i,n()S(iuetiiilitt. 

54. E. I'AVOMA, 11. 



GeruH SiritoxKLi.A, ling. 

There arc only three spei'ies (Icscribcd by the nutlior ; (hey ure tlelieute 
and beautiful forms, and I Inivc siiriilur, if not identical species from 
Faxoc, Denmark. 

1. S, (.VMNUItlCA, II.. Tub. \'I. fig. ,1. 

2. S. SUnCOMl'UKSSA, II. „ '1. 

3. S. El.KtiANS, H. „ 7. 



'i- 
1: 




■ 




■?,' 


i ■ 


i 


lii. 







Genus Ci;m.i;i'()ka (Goldf.), Hag. 

With thi.s group many diverse forms are placed, some of which have 
been redistributed by authors, and many others will have to be. Hagonnw 
himself seems to have been pii/zled as to liow ii natural division could bo 
arranged, and failing this ho gave the following synonymy of the 
genus : — 



2 



6. 
7. 



Cellei'OUA, Fabr., Lun'k., 

ihk;, 

CEiXEi'OUAniA, Lamx., IS'21. 

UlASTOl'OKA, „ 1821. 

= Home Ilia, Rom. IKH. 
Bkre.nicea, Lamx. 1X'21. 

E£(/iiAUuiDi;.s, xM.-Ed. IHMG. 
p]sciiAiuxA, „ 183(5. 

Discoi'ORA, Lamk. fnon 



Uoemor) 18 10. 

8. DiSCOi'OUA, Uoerner 1841. 

9. Maroinauia, ,, 1811. 

10. Mk-MRRAnh'Oua, Blainv. 18;M-. 

11. Ce[.lulii'oi;a, U'Urb. 1850. 

1. C. SlIBINI'LA'l'A, H. 

2. C. (Escharoidcs) I'l siLLA, „ 

3. C. „ IMNGLIS, ,, 

4. C. (Eschavina) Lr.ssoM „ 



6. 
6. 
7. 

8. 
9. 






C. 
C. 

c. 
c. 

C. (Discop. ) 
Goldf. 

10. C. CDiscop.) SnUilJANLI.ATA, U 

11. C. „ MoiiLi, , 

12. C. „ r.ii)i:\.<^, , 

13. C. „ niN(ji:.\ri, , 



COHNITA, ,, 

I'LICATEl.l.A, ,, 
EMOGAMl t,A, ,, 
BlUiNdXIAUTI, „ 
UIl'l'OCREI'lS, 



14. 


C. 


(Discop.) 


lUKEC.ll.AKIS, 11. 


15. 


C. 


?) 


nEi'i;K!-sA, 


10. 


c. 


») 


OWEM, „ 


17. 


c. 


(Margin.) 


(JKA.VTI, ,, 


18. 


c. 


>» 


JJt'CllASTKI.I, ., 


19. 


c. 


n 


VAtilNATA, H. ,, 


20. 


c. 


u 


OIJONTOI'IIOI.'A, „ 


21. 


c. 


)i 


1)esiiaye.<i, „ 


22 


c. 


)) 


KOXINCKIAXA,,, 


23! 


c. 


?» 


CAMEIiATA, „ 


24. 


c. 


(Discop.) 


SUHl'IKirOK.MlS,,, 


25. 


c. 


)» 


SiaXATA, „ 


20. 


c. 


(Margin.) 


Pallasia.va, „ 


27. 


c. 


11 


YE LAM EN, 






Goldf. = 


Bifscopora ibid. 






M.-Edw. = 


= Maryinaria ib., 






Rom. 




28. 


c. 


(Margin.) 


CIUSTULEMA, 






Goldf. = 


Eschara ibid. 






lilainv. ^ 


Discopura ibid. 






M.-Edw. 




29. 


c. 


(Dermatop.) .moxieukka, H. 



30. C. „ LYXA, „ 

31. 0. „ ORXATA, Goldf. 

32. C. „ Faxjasi, H. 

33. C. „ DEXTATA, „ 

G. ibid. Goldf. = Memhi-ani' 
pura ibid., Blainv. = VU- 
copora ibid., M.-Edw. 



Genus Stictiopora, Hag. 
Stictiopoka clypeata, Hag., Tab. XII. fig. 14. 



5 



ON FOSiiilL roi,V/OA. 



()-> 



Genus LuNUMTES, liiinik. 

ri. CONCENTKIC.K. 

1. L. irAiii-Nowi, Bosqa(«t inlitt. Tub. XII. fi^r. ir, 

/}. IiiUEfiur,.\i;i;s, J lag. 

287, Tub. V. p. 10) = /.. il,i,l„ Koto. (' Kr. (iob.' p. If. 18 tl) L 
Jy. ibid., •Gviin.' p. 024, isid). ^ ^ 

Genus Cy.miiai,ui'Oi;.\, ling. 

C. i;\i)i.\T.\, Hag., Tab. XIT., fig. 18. 

The CyKi.oi'uvMA, Uss., of llagciiow, appear to be ovicclls (?) oi" 
(Ins species. 

C. r./>:vi,s, Hag., Tab. II. lig. 1.%, o,, IVuncUnlhia rcpni.--: 

C. <'0\8Ti;iriA, ling., 'J'nb. If. lig. K;, on Lhnonen tc/rustich„, 

C. .inANUi.ATiM, Hag., Tab. II. Jig. Ifl, op. „ Uchnwuhs. 

Passage Furms. 

C. SAM'lNdlNA, jr. 

EsciiAi;iTi:s, Hiim. 

1. E. Di.sTANs, H., Tab. I. figs. l(i and 17. 

2. E riHACiMs, sp. GohU. = dennjmra. ibi.l., Goldf. = Alrcolil,,^ ibid.. 

JJIainv. = Mdlccritiks ibid., liiiin. 

Invi:i;.=!ai;ia, ]I. 
1.1. TRIGOXOl'OK'A, H., Tab. VI. fig. s. 

li. r. Tnupr.KAriiA, Goldf. = (',r;<^.,r„ ibid., Goldf. = AhooliU-s ibid., 
iJJaiiiv., jjanik. 

;]. I. Mu.LEi-om'EA, Goldf. sp. = Ccnn^>nni ibid., Goldf. = Alveolile^, 
Jjlainv., Lamk. 

II. Cvci.osTOllATA, Busk-lliueks, Wakr.s. 
Ak 1 have already de.«cribed the Cyelostomata in a former division of 
ns Jieport there will bo no necessity for enlarging upon them here, 
iielow are tlie whole of Jlageuow's species : - - 

A. TujiLi.ii'OiJixA, ]\1.-Edw. 



TiinLii'onA, Lamk. 

„ I'AKAsrriCA, H. 

DlASTOPORA, M.-PJdw. 



ExTALOPuorvA, Lamx. 

,, IM.SLlFOKMl."^, H. 



PusTULii'ORA, Ue Blainv. 

1. P. Xl'BULOSA, H, 

2. P. vii;GUf,A, K. = 'Jerior,ora ibid., H 

:}. P. XANA, H. . 

4- P. RrsTicA, H. 

5. P. Bexedeniaxa, H. 

C. P. rus^iTLOSA, Goldf. = Ceriopora ibid., Goldf. = rusiuUpora ibid. 

Blainv. = Pustnlipom ibid., Lamk. = Pustulijwra Qoldfussi, 

iiom.=Pustidipora x>mtnlosa, :Michclin. 



I 



I 



i6(; 



REPORT — 1884. 



!-7 



P. MADKKi'OKACEA, sp. Go\df.=Ccriopora ibid., Gold{.= Fust nlipdni 
ibid., WiSiinv. =rustiihpora ibid., Lamk.=PMi7M/;j«/?*a ibiil., 
lirown-=Pnstulipora ibid., Reuss. 

8. P. VARlAlilMS, H. 

9. P. in r.iA, H. 

10. P. OEMINATA, H. 

CuicoroiiA, Blainv.(=»S|/j?'rojjom, Lamx.). 

1. C. VKUTlciTiLATA, G. = Ceriopora ibid., Goldf.=P».sfM/tp()/a ibid., 

Blaiiiv., M.-Edw., R6m. = (??)(7n'cojcioTO ibid., Mich. 

2, C. Rcrssr, H. = 6V'n"ojiom annnlafa, H.=-('yico2»o/v/ nininhita, Reuss. 

CvRToroK'A, Ha<,'enow. 

„ Kf.IidANS, II. 

Ti';i;ia!i;Lr,Ai;iA, Lamx. 

,, .sriBALis &p., Gold, 

HoKNKKA, Lamx. 

„ TntULIFKKA, H. 

IwiONEA, Lamx. 

1. I. MACtLATA, H, 

2. I. CATIIKATA, Goldf. sp, 

3. I. VERKici LATA, li.=: Uetoporci clathmta, Gold., in part, pi. ix.,fig. I'J 

c and d. 

4. I. LICHENOIDES sp., Goldf.=Ee/'7;ora ibid., Gold.; Lamk, pi. ix., 

fig, 13 a and h. 

5. 1. CANCKLLATA f.p., Goldf. = 7te/t'jKira ibid., Gold., Lamk. pi. xxxvi., 

fig. 19 h.--?Idmonca ibid., Rouss. 

G. I. MACILENTA, H. 

7. I. DISTJCHA sp., Goldf. =-Reicpora, ibid., Goldf., Lamx , r>lalnv.= 

?lleteiiora ibid., JMich., Reuss., pi. ix., fig. 15 c and d. 

8. I. rSEUDO-DiSTiciiA, H.=7i', distkha, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. V' 

a and I. 

9. I. DORSATA, K.=li. dlsticlia, Goldf. in part. pi. ix., fig. 15 g and //. 

10. I. OEOME'IRICA, H, 

11. I, SULCATA, H, 

12. I. LIXEATA, H.=Ii!. disticha, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig, 15 e and/. 

13. I. GIliliOSA, H. 

14 I. GENicuLATA, ll.=R. clathrata, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. 12 e and/. 

15. I. TETRASTICUA, H. 

Tri'ncatula, Hagenow. 

1. T. FELIX, H. 

2. T. truncata sp., Goldf. = lidepora ibid., Goldf. = Eetepora ibid., 

Lamx. =iiW(75ora ibid., M.-Edw.=7(?»(0Jica ibid., Blainv. 

3. T. KEl'ENS, H. 

B. CERioroRiNA, Bronn. 



Fung ELLA, Hagenow. 

1. F. TROLIIERA, II. 

2. r. I'LIOATA, H, 

3. F. DUJARDINI, H. 



Loi'iiOLKi'is, Hagenow. 

1, L. RADIANS, H, 

2, L. ALTERNANS, H. 

3, L, IRREGULARIS, H. 



0\ KOSSII. POLIZOA. 

l)i:Kn.\xcrA, Bronn («), with smooth interspaces. 

1. D. DISTICIIA. IT \ o T\ 

2. 1). MicHKUM, 11. I ^- ^- '^'^""-oroKA, H. 
;>, with 23orotis interspaces. 



167 



C>. D. CARIOSA, H. 
7. D. SELLUf-A, If. 



•!■. I). iJiAi)i;MA,sp.Goldf.=(:V,')-/o 

'pora ihki, Goldf. 
-■■>. ]). BL'rncULAXA, H. 

., ,. STi:i,i.ij'onA, Hao-enow. 

b. EOSQDETIAXA, 11. '^ 

Pf-i:Tii(i[-oi;A, Hagenou-. 

1. P. VERRICOSA, If. I Q T) 

2. P. i'SKUDO-TOK,, ATA, If. | '^^ ^^ '""'''''''^ ^^ 

Hi;teu(ipoi:a, Do Blainv 
'■ "' "' 'Slmk."' '•'■' »°'*=C'''™2«'" ibid., CoMf.=a ibiJ., Blainv., 

•>. H. UNDUr.ATA, H. 

4. H. TENKRA, Tl^^Ceriopom cnjptopora, Goldf. 

TV. Neiroi'Oka, Bronn. 

A. C'RETACEA. 

DiT.wtA, Hagenow. 

i D. co.Mi.,,Ess. sp., Goldf. =C«,-,Vo,.a ibid., Goldf., lilainv. 

Ci:iiiO[«.\, Goldf. 

4. C. M,™o™,a; Goldf. ! r. C.S.,tH: ■""" 

Cavauia, Hagenow. 

I. C. KAMCSA, H. 1 o n ..r 

-'. C. i.fSTULosA, H. I " ^- ^'^^'''^^''^'^^ H. 

C. TORQUATA, H. ^^^^■°"^'^"^'^-^' ^agenow. 

. ' Cretaceous Polyzoa, North Americ,.,' Lonsdale ; and Messrs. 

babb & Horn. 

i" the ' Ouarfc Jonr Ponl ^ ' following hsts arc from Lonsdale's papers 



1G8 



iiEroRT— 1884. 




Chi'llostomaid. 
Poi/fzOA (Polyparia, Loiisd.) from 'rimber Creek, New .Terse}', N. America. 

i. Ci:li.ki'Oi;a TiiniLATA, Lonsd., ' Quart. Jour. Geo!. Soc' vol. i. 

— Cretaceous. 
•2. EsciiAKiNA ? SAdENA, Lonsd. = Mciiihrnnipnrrlla nitlda, Johnst , 

Fluslra, ibid., Morton, 'Quart. Jonr. Geol. Soc.' vol. i. — 

Cretaceous. 
o. EsciiAKA DiGiTATA, 'MortoTi ? = Eschara dichdmna, Goldf. ' Quarf. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i. — Cretaceous. 

Ciji-lostomata. 

■I'. TniUMi'iiKA MmiEi;.". Lonsd. 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol, i. 

— Cretaceous. 
.'). luMONKA coNTORTii.is, Lousd. Sco nnb', Ilornera ibid. = ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' Cretaceous. 
To this list of five species ^Messrs. Gabb &, Horn add the following 
additional tliirtv-live also from American Cretaceous rocks. 

ChcUostoiiiatn. 
Ci:r.r.i:i'(iRA, Fabr. 17H0 (non Lamk. ISOl). 

('•>. C. i'i;OLiiiCA, Cr. «t II. = C. hiliihlala, G. & H. — Cretaceous, 

Timber Creek, N, J. 
7. C. IH-SIKLA, „ „ 

Timber Creek, X. J. 
S. C. t;xsi"i;ta, ., „ 

MallicalliU. 

9. C. Jaxewayi, ,, „ 

' 7 miles below Yarn, Miss.' 

■REi'TOOi;i.i,i:i'onAi;iA, D'Orb. 1851. 

10. R. ASi'KUA, Gabb & Horn .-^Cretaceous, Timber Creek and jMaUicft 

Hill. 

11. EsoiARU'OUA TVi'ii'A, Gabb & H. = Cellepora ibid., G. d H. 

— Cretaceous, Timber Creek, X. J. 

12. E. DibTA.Ns, Gabb & H., Cret. 

Timber Creek, K J. 
1;3. E. iMMEi.'^A, Gabb & H., „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 
1-1. E. Ani'.OTiii, Gabb&H., „ 

MallicalliU. 

15. Ri.iti:s(Iiai{ii'i->i:a marginata, Gabb & H., 



.Mallica H 



lU. 



IG. EsntARiNEi.i.A MniAi.is, Gabb I't II,, 
Mallica iiill. 

17. Ri:i"rEstiiAi>M:Li.ixA prolifera, Gabb & II. 
^rallica Hill. 



Pi.iorHLyEA, Gabb & Horn. 

18. „ SAGKNA, G. & H. = Mcinhranipnrclla nilidi, Jolmst 

(^mite) = Flustni .■^iifjena, ^Mort. ; Escliarhia ibid., Lonsd. 



ox VOSfiU. POI.VXOA. 



169 



>» 



VX BiFM-ST.A TOIM-A, Gabb & H. -^ Mnnhraniyora ?, Cret. 

limber Creek and Mallica Hill 
•20. B. DisjuxcTA, Gabb & H. 

Timber Creek. " " 

'21. ]\[i:.Miii!AXii'OiiA AiJOKTivA, Gabb .t Horn 

Timber Creek. ' " 

22. M. 1'i:i;ami'la, 

Mallica Hill. " » 

23. Al. i'i,i;i!i:iA, 

Mallioa Ilill. 

ii 1-. Pv|;1I'0|;A IRHKCILARIS 

Timber Creek. 

25. ^Ri:'"TOi''-;^:n;i:r-r.\ ]n:Ti:i;ui.n,;A, Gubb A Horn, 
jNJallica Hill. 

Cj/diis/oiuntii. 

20. Ri:ti:lka .pvalis, Gabb & U 
:Mallica Hill. 

2S. Fascii'oija amkui.an-a, Cul,!, & H., 

Timber Creek. ' " 

20. SiMKOPouA^'ALAMCS, ., = Entalophora, 

limber Creek. " 

30. ENTArorii,,i;A (ji-adcaxcu.ai;!^, fiabb A: H., 

Mallica Hill. 

ol. P]nTAI,OI>IIii|;a CnxnMJII 

Mallica Hill. 

limber Creek and .Afallica Hill ^'^^ anre, 



Cret. 



'"> )> 



o4. Sto 



'reek, N. J. 

MAT01'0I;a KKGITAIMS, C.ibb il' H. 



Timber Creek 



Reti 



Iv, .N . 



Cret. 



rri.ii'oi.'A ,sAGi:xA. 



Timber Creek, >}■. J. 
>G. Ri;tici-|.iimi;a imi iiotmm 

Timber Creek, X. J. 
5". Bjcrisixa Ai;i!(itti, 
^Timber Creek, X. J. 

M i: I'TOM ULTK 'A VA C i : IT [, A 
Timb(>r Creek, JV. .J. 



= /Id> 



rorritia ibid., G. it H. 



as. 



i;i,- 



oil Cl{i:.SClS LA II I ATA, 

Timber Creek, N. J. 
10. Mrr,TK'Ri:s(is r pauvickfj \ 
Mallica Hill. 

1 bave thought it best not t. 
.111(1 Horn have cataloj^iied. I 1 



= hhiimiea ibid. 



A doubtful form, 



and 1 find that tl 



the 



lat number at least 
specific names of some of tl 



o su])pres.s a single form that ]\[es.srs. Gabb 

jiro- 
■,sey, 



may bo allowed to stand ; but 



lese ni 



even 



synonyms. In comparing them witli Em": 



ay very safely be reduced to 



any material dilTei't 

by Goldfuss aud (.fttL''eno\v. 



'lice between the Amer 



'O 



ipean .species I cannot detect 



■ican forms and those d 



escribed 



p 



170 



KEPOIIT — 1884. 



Nl 



' Cretaceous Bryozoa of Bolicinia,' Ottomar Xoviik (sec Bibliograpliy). 

This work I liave not been able even to look ut, and I am indebted to 
the ' Oeoloffical Record ' for 1878 for the information given below. In 
the work, Novilk describes forty-five species, thirty-three of which bear 
new names ; and in a table he gives their range in ([>) Cenoraanian, 
(4) Turonian, and (G) Senonian times, which according to Lyall (* Ele- 
ments,' p. 2GG), are representatives of our (5) I^pper Greensand and 
(4) Chalk !Marl, in part. The list is therefore valuable for the purpose 
of establishing links between species of Polyzoa from Continental, British 
and American areas. 1 should like to possess a copy of the work, if any 
of my friends liave one for sale. I give the list as in the Record, separating 
only the Cheilostomata I'rom the Cyclostomata. 



I -J 



8. 

4. 

5. 

0. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



1. 

2_ 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



5» 
)) 



)1 



I. kSuborder Cheilustomafa, Bu.sk. 
HiiTOTHOA LAi;iAi.\, Novilk. 

„ HKSniKK'ATA, „ 

MkMI!1!ANII'0I;A < TUTA. „ 

i'i:i;i.-i'Ai!SA, Noviik. 

MI'.nVATA, 

n i!i:i;osA, 
Li;ri!AMA i:i (ii.vi'iiA, Noviik. 

BiFLLSTItA PlfAZAKl, „ 

„ SUM'A, „ 

Si:mii;sciiai;a ti;i;i:s, ., 

MKrJccin iii.s doikns, Xoviik, ? Cheilostomata. 

II. Suborder Gi/dostomafa, Busk. 

Behkxioka roLUM, Noviik. 

,, i,A('I!i.m(iI'oi;a, Noviik. 

,, iMi.dSA, Noviik. 

KADIAXS, „ 
DiASTOPOKA ACLl'vXCl'ATA, Noviik. 
StOMATOI'OKA Sl.Ml'LICISSIMA, 
PROIiOSC IXA r.OICKM ICA, 
PIIMKN'S, 

lixgia'ia, 
ixti:i;mi:i>ia, 
Sii;ssi, 
Entaloi'ikhia ano.mai.issima, Noviik, 

IKtlNDA, ,, 

KuLINKNSIS, ,, 

MULTKLKA ORl'HAM S, „ 



J) 

5) 



J5 



)) 
>» 
)) 
>) 
)) 



Osci'LU'Oi.'A Novak (? New Gen.). 
,, i'r,Kni:iA, Noviik. 

THUNCATII.A TKNllS, ,, 

Hetkuoi'ui.'A niKA.MiMLKXTA, Noviik. 

KoiiTCANJ-XSIS, „ 

LET IDA, 
MAGNi.i'lCA, 
PeTAL01'01!A SEUIATA^ 









ON I'OSSIL rOLY/OA. 



171 



Tlii.s is tlic whole of the lists of Ci'etaccons Polyzoa that [ have hcoii 
able to obtain. Thoro avo several species described by D'Orbigny find by 
other authors, but their works were not accessible to me. It is to hv 
lioped that in the monograph of Cretaceous Polyzoa promised to the 
Pahrontogruphical Society by Mv. Busk, that the whole of the Polyzoa of 
various horizons will be fully examined. In my fourth British Association 
Report T gave a fair digest of what is known of British species. 



'Part [II. — Tertiary Polyzoa, North America,' Lonsdale. 

In the first volume of the ' Quart. Jour, of the Geological 8oc.,' Mr. 
William Lonsdale described twenty-si.K species of ' Polyparia ' from the 
' JJocene Tertiary ' of North America. Nino species are Anthozoa, seven- 
teen Polyzoa (six Cyclostomata, eleven Cheilostomata). In the same 
•lournalhe described ten species from the ' Miocene Tertiary' formation f>f 
N.A., three of which are Anthozoa, seven Polyzoa (only one of these 
a Cyclostoma). As the monograph of [Messrs. Gabb & Horn is a later 
publication, many of the species of Lonsdale arc rearranged or reduced to 
synonyms. 

1. 'Eocene Polyzoa,' Lonsdale * Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' vol. i. 

2. ' Miocene Polyzoa,' Lonsdale ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' vol. i. 

1. Esc'iiAEiXA TUMiDii,A, Lons. — Lnc. Petersburg. 

2, LuxULiTKs DEXTiciLATA, Conrad, 'Silliman Journ.,' Oct. 1841 

(vol. iv.) — Loc. Williamsburg, 
o. CEiJ,i;roi!A INIORMATA, Lons. — Jjiir. Petersburg, Virginia. 
4. ., I MiiiLicATA, Lons. — Loc. Petersburg. 

,, QrAi)UAN(iur,ARis, Lons. — Locs. Williamsburg, Evergreen. 



6. 

7. 



Hi:Ti:itoroRA ? 



siMlLis, Lons. — Loc. Williamsburg. 



TOiJTiLis, Lons. 



-Loc. Williamsbui'ir, Petersburg. 



Cyclostomata. 

1. Tumr.U'ORA riior.osciDEA ? — Loc. Hock's Bridge. 

2. „ — one imperfect specimen. — Eutaw. 

3. Idmonka MAXiLi,Anis, Lons. — Luc Wantoot, S. Carolina. Viewed in 

front, this coral resembled a Miistricht fossil, considered by 
Goldf. as a young condition of Idmonea gradata (' Pet. Cor.' p. 
244. ' Retepora disticha,' p. 20), but it diflers essentially from 
mature specimens of that species. 

4. I. COMMISCENS, Lons. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. In the triangular form 

of the branches, this fossil i-esembled the Tertiary species of Do 
France or Mil.-Edw. under the names of Idmonea gradata and I. 
coronopus (' De F., Atlas dcs Sc. Nat.' pi. 4(>, f. 5. M.-Edw. 
' Recb. Polyp. Mom. snr Ics Cris.' pp. 24, 2:"^.) 

5. Iemonea sp. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

6. LiCHENOi'ORA sp. — Loc. Eutaw. 

Cheilostomata 

1. Faucimia sp. — Lor. Rock's Bridge, Eutaw, in S. Carolina. 

2. ViNCULARiA sp. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

3. Hiri'OTHOA TuiiERCiLi M, Lons. — Ijoc. Rock's Bridge. 

4. EsCHARA Ti;i!ri,ATA, Lons. — hoc. Wilmington. 
h. „ PETiOLLS, Lons.' — Loc. Eutaw. 



172 



UKPOUT — 1884. 



:| iijli: 



0. EscilAi!.\ iNcuMnKNS, Lons. — Loc. Rock's Bridge 

7. ,, LiNi'A, Lons. — Im(-. Kutaw, 

H. ,, VIMINEA, Lons. — -hor. Eiitaw. 

'.». LrNiMTKS SEXAN(!Ui,A, Loiis. — Lor. Wilminrfton. 
1<». „ jJisTANS, Lons. — T.or. Wilmington — Wan toot ? This 

I'cserablo.s //. nvlialii and //. nrrrolafit, Goldf. (Pet. 1- 1'. (J, 7). 

11. L. ('(iNJTOUA, Lons. — Ijoc. Wilniint^ton. 



'North American Tcitiaiy Species, described by Messrs. CJabb & Horn.' 

1 have already <i;iven selections from this monograph when dealing 
with Cretaceous I'olyzoa, and now that 1 have to give the list of Terticary 
fossils, I am confronted by a difhcnlty as to the horizon of the species. 
The authors speak of ' ^Miocene ' and ' Pliocene,' but in two foot-notes, one 
especially below Cel li'p<ira formoHd, 1 imd the following: 'In regard to 
the use of the tei-ms '' Pliocene '' and "Miocene " in this country, it will 
probably bo found on more careful examination that there is no real 
division existing between tiio two so-called ftn^nations ;' and at the end of 
the monograph is the following : ' Since the writing of this monograph, 
Mr. W. M. (jabb lias been called to the post of Palieontologist to the State 
of California. In regard to the Santa I'arbara and the San Pedis deposit 
lie writes, they are amoiifrst the most recent deposits, almost all the 
species being still extant. Instead of Post-]\Uocene, they should be called 
Post-Pliocene.' 

in their identifications of species, the authors give many synonyms 
from D'Orb. and Lonsdale, but when Prof Smitt wrote his ' Floridan 
Bryozoa,' ho could only identify about three species as belonging to 
recent Polyzoa ; these are given in the text. I wish, however, to direct 
the attention of students towards the Fossil Polyzoa, of North America, 
Cretaceous and Tertiary, for from what I have been able to judge of 
species sent to me 1 feel confident tliat a rich harvest of forms has yet 
to bo described from many localities; and it is to be hoped that future 
students will direct more special attention than has yet been givini to the 
])urely structural features so ably formulated by both Hincks and 
Waters, full details of which will be found in tlie former part of this 
report. Li this monograph also 1 liav(> adhei-ed to the text and arrange- 
ment of the authors. As a piece of palceontological work I cannot speak 
very highly of this monograph. "^I'lie creation of new names — both of 
genera and species— is much to be regretted. However, I have done as 
full justice to the work as was possible under these circumstances. 



I::i4 



Family Fj^iiiauid.k, D'Orb. 18ol. 

Order I. Cki.i.clata, non Ori;i;cii,ATA. 

Sub-Family 1'];x']iai!1X.k. 

i']sniAi;A, Lamk. 1801. 

I']. TiHULATA, Lonsd. (see anir), Eocene, Wilmington, Carolina. 
North. 
2. E. rETiOMS, Lonsd. (see toifi), Kocene, Entaw, Carolina, South, 
o. E. INCU.MBEN3, ,, ,, „ Rock's Bridge. 

4. ? E. ? VIMINMA, „ ,, ,, Entaw, ,, 

T). E. Ti:x'rA, Gabb i\: H. „ AVhite Limcstc. 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



(5. 



173 



8. 

:». 
10. 
11. 
U. 



I.5. 



E. ov^a,s, Gabh ct II Eocene, P Claiborne, Ala 

rivci-= .^ Cdh'pnra inmlda, D'Orb. = 
liiN-.i,m;s, Lan.k. 1801. ^"^'^channa ibid., Lonsd. 

Disnxs. Lonsd. ^ '^^""'O '^oceno, Wilmington. 

J.NTKIiSTITIA, G. ct ]I. " .,, ., 

«o\ri(iiTA, Lonsd. "' >- Ciaiborno, Alu. 

„ ui;r,o.\(iA, Emmons " < p„.^ r, 

Geo. Rep. N. Cu-o ' 
P- 312, f. 2o-* '>r,'i 



SiiMIESCIIAK'A, D"Orb. IS.^il 



TlliL'UTA. 



' Eocene,' Claiborne, Ala ? 



14, 

ir.. 

IG. 

17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 



2.{. 



24. 
25. 

2G. 



C...,.,™„,, ,,.,„.. ,;«o („„l C.ft,„„.„, L„„,.) Cenopo,.a i Disen^ 

■ v.i.oiiis, G. & n 'Kjccno ' ''""'' ^'""'■''■' ^'■""- '**'"• 
l^■"..^•^T.,,G.&H. n,^„u^M,, s„M. 'l..,„,,j Bry ' 

DKi-iiKssA " " f»!""i»g of this paper, 

_,., •' J 'Pliocene.' 

iR.KorATV r ^ TT u'^^'""''^'^^"'^« Creek, 
o^i^^^^"-''^^^'^^"^^^-''/^- Jersey. 
13eu.ei!Opuon ,,' ''"^^ Barbara. 

Rei'TOCEi,m;i'orai;ia, D'Orb. 1881. 

AiA, j> uib. ^Gellepom uiformata, Lon.s. 

»» QiAJ<r;A\G(-| VIMS — /^' /; •. ., (•'^^^ a»/!e), 

''"' -'--'^^flcpom ibid. Lous, (see 

, wio. -Gt'//f^ora ibid. Lons. (see 

nitic). 






7> 
1} 
!> 

)> 



2-, 



-.o.v„:,,..v,,s CI. i It. .,.;„eo„,,. vi^l-I';/;^; 

-Missip. 



KsoifARE/.r.A, D'Orl). 1851 

Mi.'i;oi.ora, G. & 11. ' E,.ccnc-.' 
Kkite,schai;ei,i.a, U'Oi-b. 18ol. 



i> 



2\}. 



;!0. 



yi. 



>i 



-OUNKXSTSG. ct H. (rare), 'Eocene,' Wl.ite 
HEEKMAvvr, 'r-^-% 7-t of Charleston, S.a 
^f'. fe n Miocene Cal. Santa Earb 

I'^vxA, G. .t II c^tTP'''' ^"""^"^«' Smitt. 
Ji. . tubninui annuhifa, Hinoks, 

PiiiDOLOPOi.'A, Gabb & It. S'lnie locality! 



lim 



174 



J2. 



;i:5. 
Hi. 
:}5. 
ac. 

38. 

;!!>. 
to. 
-ii. 

4-2. 
I-:;. 
14. 

•ir>. 
k;. 

47. 

4S. 
•ID. 



UKi'ouf- 18H4. 

Oiii(i()ri:i:scr.\i, G. &, II. 

,, VK'Ksiii'itGKNSis, rS. it H. = I ill II III lies il)i(l. = Upper 

JOoccne, VicK'sburg, Miss. 

Ksiii.\i;im:i,i,.\, D'Orl). 

„ ? i.iNKA, Ci. ct II., Eocene, S. Cai-oliriu. 

I'iNNALI.ll'OliA. (I. A' ][. 

,, ',>iAi)iiANi;Li,Ai!is, G. & II., ^Miocene, I'otersburg. 

Disroi'OUULl.A, D'Orl)., IH.")!. 

,, im:ni'1( TLATA, G. 11. = LiiiiiiIUph ibid.. Con. 

.Ui:i'i<)i'r)i;i\A, D'Orb. 

,, CAKINATA, G. it ir., Santa IJarbai-a. 

,, i;U.ST(i.\lATA, ,, 

;Min,rii'Oi;iNA, (^i. it H. 

,, UMiiir,i(ATA, G. it H. = Cellepora ibid., Lonsd. 

I{i rri;si iiAKLi.LixA, D'Orb. 

Disi'AiJiLis, G. tt IT., Sanfa IJarbara. 
? .lli:i;i{.MANNii, „ „ 

COIiXLTA, „ „ 

l''i,usri;i:i.i.Ai:iA, D'Oi'b. 

., .Mui;rii'Oi!A, G. it II. 

Disooi r,t siui-LLAUiA, D'Orb. 

,. Bo\vi:i, G. it H. = Liiiialihx ibid.. Lea. 

C( rti.AiiiA, Tia-m. 

,, insiiUDEA, Lam. = Orhllolites ibid., Ijoa. 

1Ii:ti:i!AC'is, G. it M. = ., ,, 

,, ,, DrcLOSii = /y/ni(i///r.s ibid., ,, 

Mi;mi!i;anii'oi;a, Blainv. 

,, SEXITNCTATA, G. & H., Ilori/.on, doul)lfnl. 

Sl'KOlOSA, ,, „ „ 

„ CALIKORXIOA, „ Suiita Mavbava. 

., ]iAUI!AKi;N31S, „ „ ,, 

l'v];iri,i,sTi!ET,LA, D'Oili. 

,, TLBLUCULl'.M, jyOvh. = Jfijijio/jKia, ii)id.. Loiisd. 

„ „ ,, z= I'l/ripnra ,, D'Oi'b. 



J) 






o 

•s. 



C). 



Order 11. Ci:.\TKii'U(iiNATA {C ijdosto maUt , IJusk). 

Family TuniUEiUD.i:. 
Id.monka. 

„ MAXiLLAKis, Lotisd. (See aide). 

,, ,, ,, = Grisinina ibid., D'Orb. 

„ COMMISCKNS, „ = „ „ 

„ CALiFOH.MCA, G. it H, (?), Santa Barbara. 
SEMirrniOKK'A. 

„ TUliA, G. & II., „ 

EXT.VLOl'UOKA. 

„ rROi!OSCiui:oiDi;s, Lons. (TahuUpora ih'u]., Lous.). 

„ rixc'TDLATA, G. & H., Santa Barbara. 



I 



Jiiol 

al)I.^ 
it ,f 

\cr 
vali'j 
Jiiiel 
com 
cell 1 



1 



or 



ON 10J«SIL I'OJ.YZOA. 1 /■> 

CUISINA. 

7. „ SKUiSATA, G. & H., Santa Bai-bavii. 

C^AVKA, D'Oih. 

8. „ ruiscA, (}. it II. 

LlCHIiXOl'tiUA, Dot". 
!». „ CAMIUUMCA, „ „ 

Mil,Tli'i;i:s('is, D'Orb. 
10. ,, loiMiLis, G. it n. = ? lletcrdpoi'ti ibid., LonsJ, 

'Tertiary Polyzoa," Dr. August Goklfus.s (' Pot re facta Gcrmanica '). 

Tlu! Tertiary Polyzoa desoribed arid fitjnred by Goldfuss are few in 
number, bnt bis species liavo been adopted, re-deseribed, or referred to by 
every autbor wlio bus taken up tbe study as a speciality. 







Cheilostonm 


ta. 


1. 


Gl.Al CnNOMi; MAKCINAKIA 


Goldf. 


[) 


Fl.rSTHA 1 ONI'KXTA, Goldf. 




( \'i'ncalan\i,()V 


Cellar ill. 


10. 


SrVl'lllA AliTICrr.ATA, ,, 




of. 


intlior.^) 


n. 


EsciiAUA .SI i;,>;ti;iata, „ 




,, IMlOMliOl'OKA 


, Goldf. 


1-2. 


,, (•]:Lr,i:i>()i!Aci;A. 




., TETKACiOXA, 


)» 


K5. 


RinEroi.'A viiucAi'A. 


4. 


„ HI'XAiiONA, 


>) 


14. 


Li xri,iTi:t! KAiuATA, Lamarck. 


.'■). 


Cr.LLKl'OKA t'OX(iLOMEn.VT.^ 


) » 


ir,. 


,, 1 Ui.'KOI.ATA, „ 


G. 


,, AX.MLATA, 


)> 


10. 


„ IJIIO.MIIOIUALIS, 


7. 


„ TIM.STOMA, 


j> 




^^liinstei 


8. 


„ (IRACILIS, 


>» 


17. 


„ riTvl'ORATA, „ 



)US.). 



Cyclostoniata. 

1. Ri,jr.i'oi;A ri:xESTRATA, Goidf. 3. Ckllei'Oka klulxata, Miinster, 

2. „ fVATIIIFOHMIS, „ 

'Eocene Polyzoa, Pritisb.' 

The almost barren record of Pritisb Eocene Polyzoa lias been remarked 
npon by previous autbors, but I am afraid that we owe tbe barrenness to 
the want of researcb rather tban to tbe scarcity of sjtecies. Mr. liusk 
describes three species from the London Clay at Jligbgate, found in tbe 
collection of Mr. Wetlierell, 'Geo. Mag.' vol. iii., -luly 1800: — 

1. MKMi;i!Axiri>i;A Lacroixii ? pi. xii. fig. 1. 

2. Biim;sti!A eocexa, Busk, pi. xii. fig. 2. 

3. DiTTOSAUiA Wetiierei,!,!, Busk, pi. xii. fig. 3 (Gi:Mi:r.LAurAD/E, Busk). 

The ^Ffmhranipora described by 'Mv. Bnsk is rather more linear than tli(> 
more recent form generally met witli round our coast ; but some tinu; 
.since Professor iludd ' sent mo a specimen of what I consider to be refei'- 
iible to the ^^. Lacroixii, and this was from the oyster beds of Col well Bay. 
it dilfered from ]\Ir. Busk's figured specimen, but as the species varies 
very mucb in habit, this I considered of but snudl consoiiuenoe. The 
value of the specimen sent was this. When tbe c"lls .separated in the 
lino with tbe side walls I was able to detect the ' Rosettenplatto ' or 
communication pores tbrougb whicli tbe endosarcal cord passed from 
cell to cell. These were tbroo in number on tbo side walls, and they 

' Discovered by his assistant. 



170 



IIKPOUT - 1H84. 



Im 





■were well preserved: dtlierwlso the bciiutifiilly croiiiilutod wall surroiiiid- 
iiig tlio orilice was siillicieiitly iiidicativo ol' tlie iioriiial type. 

In tlio ' Cataldj^iie of 'lY'rliai-y Fossils in tlio Scliool of Mines ' (1*^"^), 
tilt' only species iiKlicated iVom diflbreiit horizons are as follows :-— 

4. Fmstua ckassa, IJesni., Thanofc Sands, p. 7. 

., sp., ., Woolwieli and [{eaditi;^ iJeds, [>. 10. 

('•. ,, CKAS.-A, ,, Jjondou Clay, lliylij^ate, p. 14. 

7. Poi.V/'.DON, ,, „ Sydeninim, p. li. 

In Mori'is' ' ('atalorrne of British Fossils,' and also in the Pala,'on- 
tologieal i)ajt, of flukes' 'Students' Manual of (leology,' the following 
species are indieated : — 

ft. EsciiAifA BKUNiiXiAKii, Lonsd., London Clay, Ih-aeklcsham Bay. 

!•. Fr.rSTKA (.'RAs>a, Dcsm., ,, „ Primrose Hill. 

10. CKi.lii;i'Ol!A ri'.TiuMS, Lcnisd., ^lid-Foccne, ]>racklesliatn. 

11. LuNi;i,rn:s ii;ci:or,Aii's, Lam , ,, ,, 

= Cdiicluiijiun's jiilfulns, Phill. and Wixxl. 

12. Iij.moni;a cukonui'I s, IJefr., ]\Iid-Eoeene, IJraeklesliani Bay. 

Besides the aI)ove I have no further record, but I have some few 
fragments by mo of undescribed forms from the j\Iidd!(< Moeene, British 
series. It may be jxissiblo that there are still in the rabincts of collectors 
specimens of Poly/.oa that are awaiting deserijjtion ; if so, I shall bo glad 
to hoar of such. 

' Terliarv, Koceno and Pliocene Polvzoa,' Professor A. E. Rcuss. 

I. In dealing with the following throe works of Dr. Reuss I have 
been careful to present his text with his own indications of synonymy. 
In the earlier work, published in 1847, the author described and figured 
no fewer than 120 species of Cheilostomata and 4',l species of Cyclosto- 
mata. This work of course was published bolore Mr. (jeorge Busk issued 
his * British Museum Catalogue,' and also before Professor Smitt gave 
to the scientitic world his principal writings on ' Classification,' ttc. ; yet 
in it we are surprised to hnd how this careful investigator was working 
towards a natural classification. 

II. In the second work, published in 18G9, Professor Reuss had the 
advantage of correcting much of his previous labours, and in the ' Pahe- 
ontological Studies ' many of the species of ' Fossil Polyparia ' were re- 
duced to synonyms. In this work, too, Reuss evidently had carefully 
studied both the classification formulated in the ' British Museum Cata- 
logue ' and also the ' Crag Polyzoa ' of Mr. Busk. Nearly every species 
described in this work I have carefully studied from the material supplied 
by Professor Roemer. 

III. In the third work — ' ^Miocene Fossil Bryozoa of Austria and 
Hungary,' 1884-5, which the author did not live to complete — we have 
such a piece of work of which no author who has taken up the study of 
Fossil Polyzoa need to be ashamed. In this we have full revisions of former 
identifications — more species are reduced to synonyms — but, what I regret 
most, the Cyclostomata are not touched. Dr. Manzoni completed the 
second part of this grand work, but, as would be expected, he did not 
give so many synonyms as Reuss would have done, had the work left his 
bands in a complete form. 



^ 



ON FOS«iII. POI.Y/.OA. 



} 



( I 



• Fossilon-Polyparien des Wiener TcrfciiirbockenPj' F., A. E. Kuuss, IS 17 

Div. 11. Ci:i,i..\i!ii ,i:, IJlaiiiv. 

JjACTUiniu>r, Rss. 

„ GRANULiFKitUM, Wss. rkfiirino Lirnc'stoiie. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 



5. 



0. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 



M 
It 
>» 



EM-II'TICIM, 

SCIIIZ(»ST().\IA, 

HAOENOWir, 



)» 



I* 



'9 



Lrxui-iTKS, Lamk. 

„ Haidixgkki, K8'3., similar to L. rliomoho'ulal'is, (lolil., 
and L. ]'a>i(h-rhci:/:!i, Midi. 

Cei.laima, Lamk, = Viiicularlti, IJcfr., (Uauconornc, Gold. 

.MAiJdiNATA, Goldf. sp. Marine Limestone. 

Haidixukki, Rs.s. 

CUCUI.LATA, Rss. r = V. fl'CKjllis, Dcf. 

loxARATA, ,, V. lefragona, Goldf. 

I'OI-YSTIOIIA, „ 

MiCHELiN'i, „ ? = ]'. fmijilis, Mich., similar to C. 

cereouhs, Lamx. 
D'jPLiCATA, Rss., sinn'lar to No. 11, 

CORONATA, „ 
J.AIiROSA, „ 

SCHREinERSI, Rss, 

scrobiculata, ,, 

Haueri, „ 

stenosticua, ,, 

5IACR0ST0MA, „ similar to Glauc. elliptira, Hag. No. 2. 



»> 



» 

>» 
>» 
»» 

» 



liacT tlie 
kc ' Pala^- 
jwcrc re- 

carofuUy 

lim Cata- 

|y species 

suppUed 

Istria and 
-wo liavo 
, stvidy oi 
[of former 
at I regret 
Lleted tUo 
|e did no*- 
Irk left lii3 







Div. C. E>-('UARi\A, Ehr 






] 


*].'?CHARA, 


Lamk. 


:3L Es 


CIIARA 


SYKIXOOI'OI.-A, Rss. 


20. 


>> 


FISTDLOSA, Rss. 


32. 


)» 


UXDUI.ATA, „ 


21. 


n 


EXIIJS, ,, 


3.3. 


1) 


PUNCTATA, Phill. 


22. 


)) 


RUr.CIMAKGO, „ 


34. 


11 


IMBRIC.VfA, Rss. 


23. 


)) 


MACROCIIEILA, RsS. 


3.). 


11 


LAKVA, 


24. 


» 


BIAUKICULATA, „ 


36. 


11 


PCI.YSTO.MKI.I.A, Rss 


25. 


j> 


AMPLA, „ 


37. 


11 


VAlilAXS, „ 


26. 


^> 


lilPUNCTATA, ,, 


38. 


)» 


COM'-EIITA, „ 


2G*. 


)) 


ACICULARIA = Aci- 


39. 


)» 


DIPLOSTU.MA, ,, 






cularia pavaniina, 


40. 


11 


POI.YOMMA, ,, 






D. Arch. 


41. 


11 


TE.^SUr.ATA, ,, 


27. 


» 


TDHULIFERA, „ 


42. 


11 


EXCAVATA, „ 


28. 


>> 


COSClXOPnORA, „ 


43. 


>) 


C'OSTAI'A, „ 


29. 


)j 


OBESA, ,, 


4i. 


>> 


CRKX.VTIMARGO, „ 


30. 


>> 


PAPILLOSA, „ 









Vagixopora, Defrance = I'Jscharites and Meliceritites, Rom 

45. ,, TEXTURATA, RsS. 



40. 

1884. 



11 
11 



POLYSTIGMA, 



47. Vagixopora GEMINI PORA, Rs.s, 

48. „ i'ii5.SL"i;i:).LA, „ 

N 



178 



KEPOIIT — 1884. 



Div. D. Ci:i.r.Ei'Oiu\A, Ehrli. 

Cf.m-ei'01!A, Liunk. = Cclhpom, Hlaiuv. : DiHcnpom, Lamk. iindM.-Kil. ; 
I'Jsrharlna and Tlsrliaroiilrx, M.-Ed. and Worn. 



49. 


Cki.lrihm; 


A (II.OIlfl.AKIS, 


llronn. 


H2. 


CELLi:r(ii;A waripunctata, Itss. 








= Sciipliincdliihisa, 


83. 


>) 


IRKiONOSTOMA, „ 








Goldf. 




HI. 


51 


I'l.l.CROrORA, „ 


50. 






iMltAMINOSA, Ils9, 






= AmpliiHteqhiii. 


61. 






i'i:(ii,iri:itA, 


j> 






Jfaurri, U'Orb. 


52. 






l'OI.YTHi;i,K, 


)i 


85. 


n 


(:i!i;Nir,AiiUis, Rss. 


53. 






I'lil.YrilYMA, 


j» 


86. 


M 


KKCORATA, „ 


64. 






liosri.A, 


>» 


H7. 


)i 


I'liOrUliERANS, „ 


55. 






TI'TRAQOXA, 


»t 


88. 


M 


Dlniceri, „ 


56. 






ANNUUATA, Go 


Idf. 


80. 


•( 


UTdl'HOUA, „ 


57. 






VKliRUCOSA, 


Itss. 


00. 


(1 


OVolDKA, ,, 


57* 






CKUATOMOllI-nA, „ 


01. 


>) 


I'ACHVDERMA, „ 


58. 






MONOCKKOS, 




02. 


»» 


I'l.ATYSTOMA, ,, 


50. 






lYI.lXDUK.'A, 




03. 


1* 


CIIEll.Ol'ORA, ,, 


60. 






AIUJEOTA, 




04. 


>» 


TKKNATA, „ 


61. 






I'TKKOl'ORA, 




05. 


M 


.MICROSTOMA, „ 


62. 






MK(1AI-0TA, 




06. 


)» 


KNTOMOSTOMA, „ 








.similar to G. plero- 


07. 


>> 


Pautschii, „ 








von 




08. 


)) 


Baiiraxdi, „ 


63. 




)» 


i~ !>: .• IIERI, 


Rsp 


00. 


>> 


AN(;rr,o.sA, „ 


64. 




j» 


S'li; .ISTATA, 


?) 


100. 


)) 


STKNOSTOMA, „ 


65. 




5» 


SCIUPTA, 


n 


101. 


)) 


(IRACIMS, Goldf. /. C. 


66. 




5> 


UAJilCOSTATA, 


11 






i. p. 102. 


G7. 




J1 


MEOACEl'IIAI.A, 


M 


102. 


t) 


MINUTA, RfiUSS. 


68. 




rt 


ITl'UU, 


)» 


100. 


>» 


HIl'l'OCREVIS, Gold. 


60. 




>) 


IIaueki, 


M 






I.c.i. p. 20. 


70. 




)) 


Ungeki, 


)> 


104. 


)) 


I'Al'YRACEA, Rss. 


71. 




>; 


JIAGNIFICA, 


)> 


105. 


)J 


TENEI.I.A, „ 


72. 




)» 


SCHIZOGASTEI!, 


)) 


106. 


M 


QUADRATA, „ 


73. 






Heckeij, 


>) 


107. 


M 


FORMOSA, „ 


74. 




)' 


CIRCUMORNATA 


> 7) 


108. 


5> 


I-EPTOSA, ,, 


75. 




n 


SERRUUTA, 


» 


100. 


'> 


PIU'r.AXATA, „ 


76. 




M 


mYSOC'UElhA, 


>J 


no. 


»> 


THAl'EZOIDKA, „ 


77. 




>) 


SCARAB.-EUS, 


»> 


111. 


)> 


Al'i'ENDIC'Ur-ATA.RsS., 


78. 




)? 


GRANUIilKEIiA, 


)5 






near C. velamcii. 


79. 




)) 


lEGUI.ATA, 


>> 






G. Miinst. 


80. 




n 


rONCIXNA, 


)) 


112. 


>» 


VENESTRATA, RsS. 


81. 




J? 


GUNIOSTOMA, 


M 


113. 


!) 


I.OTOPGEA, „ 




114 


. Mi:MBRA.\ri'01!A RETICULUM, B 


lainv., 


' Man. 


d'Actin.' p. 44. 




115 


, 


„ NOBILIS. 










IIG 


• 


„ DIADEMA. 









117. Cffil-OPUYMA (iLAIiRUM, RsS. 



118. CaXOPHYJIA STRIATUM, RsS. 



Retei'ORA, Lamk., removed from the Cijrlosfomafa in the division 
C. EetejJora. 



119. 
120. 



5> 



CEM.uiiOSA, Lamk. 
RuBESCiiii, Rss. 



121. ReTEFORA ? ELEGAN3, RsS. 



-2(1 



■n. 



;is. 



I 



Gold. 



1' 



Rss. 






OS FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



T. St'i.i;aoi'iii>i.\, Klirli. = CYci,f>siOMATA, I'.umU. 
A. ('I'RlOl'Oi.'A, (loldf. = I'l.-n'ojioni niul Alrcdlllr.-', Bluiiiv. 



I. Ci:i;ini'oi;A 'ii.onuMis, Khh. 

•J. „ SPuM;inSA,l*liillil). 

;;. „ f'YI.lNDKK A, l{ss. 



I'. Ci:i!l()r(il;A AKIiUSi I I.UM, llss. 
.'). ,, MKHAI.orOK'A, ,, 

(). ,, riii.vt'i.KNui>i;H, „ 



iri;ii:i:oi'Oi:A, IMfiiiiv. 
7. „ ano.mai,oi'im;a, sp. Goldf, = Ccruqiura ibid., G. 

S. ,, .STll'irATA, liss. 

!•. „ MciloTO.MA, Gold. = Ccriopiini ibid., G. 

lit. ,, KTi;i,l,UI,ATA, Rss. 

Di:i'l!AN<'iA, Broin. = Vdajjhi, Liiinx. ; Li'chnwporit, Dcf. 



11. 



|:i. 



inu-oitMrH, llss. 

I'dli.MOSA, ,, 

sti:m,ata, Gdldf. = 
Ccriopura ibid., (!. 
rKui.m:i;A, ll.s.s. 



ir», DkIRANCIA, SOCIAI.I.^', R.ss, 
1*'.. ,, ((il.'OM'I.A, ,, 

17. ,, I'lMIMAlA, ,, 

is. „ I'LIMA, ,, 



li> 



Ai'isEUDKsiA, Lam. 

., rAh'cKLT.ArA, Rs3. Similar to A. dianflnts, Hlainv. 

II luiites in itself the cluiractcis ui' JJi'j'raiwia and Chrysudrn. 

t'lMcoi'oiJA, Ulainv. = Siiirniinrd, Laiiix. 



-2n. 



VEUTICtr.LATA, .Mitdi. I lil. CrICOPOKA I'ULCllKr.LA, Rss. 

2-1'. PUSTLT.OPORA ANO^rA^,A, RsS. 



Pi > 1 1 • r,o POKA, Blainv. 

,, cr,AV( I.A, l{,ss. 

„ SPAIISA, „ 



r lvKri:i'(ji;A, Lamk., (loldf. 

Hoi!Xi:i{A, Lamx. 

p.ii.onA, Rs.s. 

„ VKUKUCOSA, R.SS, 



27. Hopxr.p.A nippoi.rnir.-^, Dof. 

28. „ SERIATOPOIfA, llss. 



21>, 

:J1. 
:!2. 



Idmonea, Lftinx. 

„ CAKINAiA, Rom. 

,, PiiRTl SA, Rs.s. Similar in liabit to 7. th'sfirha, G. 

„ DtsTiCHA, Goldf. = lieti'poiu ibid., Goldf. 

„ ( 'MPKI;SSA, Rss. 

„ cAXCKi.i.ATA, Goldf. = Eeteiwra ibid., Goldf. = Rktkpora, 
Lamlc. Three species placed under this head removed to 
Chcilostomata, Xos. 119 to 121. 

II. Thaklopodia, Ehrb. 
A. AiJ.OPORiNA, Ehrb. 



oG. TuiiULTPORA STEI.l.Il-Ol.'JUS, Mich. 
37. ,, ECHINI I.ATA, Rss. 







Ti:p,i;lipora, Laralc. 


I, Rss. 


•■; 1. 


„ CONGKSTA, Rss. 




•'■'. 


„ FOLIACEA, „ 


division 


1 :;k. 


DiASTOPORA, ;N[.-Ed. = Dlat 

„ MIXIJIA, Rss. 


Iss. 


1 ■'>'.'. 


uoirt.A, „ 




1 l<A 


SPARSA, „ 



41. DiASTOPORA ll,Al!i;iJ,UM, Rss. 

42. „ F Pl.lMULA, „ 

43. „ ? EcuiNATA, ]\rans. 

N 2 



180 



iiKroRT — 1884. 









U. 



40. 
47. 



Aui.oroRA, Goldf. 

„ RUGULOSA, llss. 

CuisiA, Lamx. 

Edwardsii, Ess. 

HiiUNKSII, „ 
CuiSIDiA, Edw. = Tin i cellar! a, Blainv 

„ VlNDtilioNKNSIS, llss. 






•i-j. Arr.oi'OUA kivaru'ata, Kss. 



48. ClUSIA HALTUf, Rss. 



49. 

In his ' Bryozoon : Paliiontologisclie Stndicn iiber die iiUcstoii TortJiii'- 
Rcbichten der Alpen,' Pro.. Reuss gives to ns the results of studios of tlie 
Bryozoa from different localities fi'om which he obtained material, some 
of which Avero remarkably rich in species. For myself, I consider that 
this is one of the most important of his works, and in addition to mere 
opinion, I am more acquainted with the forms described from tlu; several 
localities mentioned in this work than the others. From all the localities 
mentioned, it would be quite possible to add considerably to the number 
of species, but it will bo better to deal with the work as left by tlio 
author. 

A. Bryozoa, Taff. von Sangonini. 

1. ESCHARA UNDUr-ATA, RsS., pi. xxxii. fig. 0. 

2. ,, PERFGUATA, Rss., pi. xxiii. tig. .5. 

B. No Bryozoa. C. No Bryozoa. 

D. Crosara: o. Cheilostomata. 

MembrAiNIPORA, Blainv. 

laxa, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. It. 
HOOKKRI, Rss., pi. xxix. Hg. 0-8. 

ANGULOSA, Rss., pi. Xxix. ligs. 0, 11 = Ci'Ilipnni 

ibid., Rsb. 
4. Mkmbraxiporaoceani, D'0rb.,sp. = 7!/.-,v//'U-///'/ ibid. ' Pal. Fr. Tcrt. 

Cret. ; ' ItepteschareUlna ibid., D'Orb ; M. uccani, Busk, ' Cro"' I'.' 

p. 35. 
T). IMi'.MfiRAXiPORA leptosoma, Rss. = Cellijjuni ibid., Rss. 
0, „ MuxsTERi, Rss. 

Lepralia ((/). 

7. „ squamoidea, Rss. 

H. „ Seguenzai, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 11. 

Grotiaxa, Stcl. 

RA1)IATA-GRANU^0SA, Rss. = L. Ili'rncsi, Rss. 

MULTIUADIATA, RsS. 
h). 

SuESSi, Rss., p'i. xxxvi. f. 17. 

EXCENTRICA, RsS. 
ANNULATA, RsS. 

MONOPORA, Rss,, pi. xxxvi. fig. 10. 
OEIGOSTIGJU, Rss., pi. xxxiv. fig. 10 = L.annnl'itdyV.^l 
sp. 

PTEROPORA, Rss. :- ^SX., T *■ 



1. 


»> 


o 




*■* 


)> 


o 






>) 



9. 




rj 


10. 




>> 


11. 




j> 




Le 


PliAI 


12. 




>> 


13. 




!) 


14. 




J5 


15. 




)> 


16. 




>> 



17. 



>> 



111 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



181 



Jhll-OTirOIDEA = Alysklota, Bnsk. 
IS. Ar.YSIDOTK rUOMIN-ENS, Rss., pi. XXX Vi. fio^. 8. 

EscTFAKA, Kay. 

^•*- ,, I'Al'ILLOSA, Rss. 

p. Ctclostomata. 

DiASTOI'Oiaii.K. 

I)i:ii;axcia, Bromi. 

'• " '-VIHl.-UUPTA, Rss., pi. xxxiv. f. 12 : pi. XXXV f. 9. 

S roNFATOPOKA, IJronn. 
"' " "rCL-LOKA, Rss. = .Ulnpnrn ibid., Rss. ' F0S3. Pol.' 

Raimoi'Ora, D'Oi'b. 
'■>• „ rii.ixuus, Rss., pi. xxxvi., fig.. 12 = Bomo^wva ibid 

iNrur/riTUBKiKKA, l)'Oi-b. 
^- '. JHCKOPOiu, Rfs., pi. xxxvi. f. l.j. 

y^. BiiYOZOA, Schists, Val di Louti. 

CllKlLOSTOMATA: a. AimcULATA. 

Cellulauid.t;. 
Sci;urocELLARfA, Van Ron 

ibid., Rss. 
" GRACILIS, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 4. 

SaLICORNAIUD/E. 

Sai.icokxarta, Cnv. 

- „ Ri:rssi D-Orb. sp pi. xx>., fig. o ^ cW/.r/. .,-..- 

<jinata, Rss. = \ luculariu Reussl, IJ'Orb. 
Cellaria, Lamx. 
4. 



„ MlCIIEMXI, Rss. 

„ SCHliEUiEKSI, Rss., pi. xxiv., figs. 5, (J. 



11 
>) 



(i. IXARIICL-LATA. 

Mi:.\ini;Axii'ORA, Rlainv. 
''• HooKEiir, Rss. 

^lON^roKA, Rss., pi. x^[>^.^^^r.7^M.appcndicu^ata, 

AXGUMJSA, Rss pi. xxix figs. ^:^-ll^Collcpora ibid., 

KKPUNATA, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 12 = Cel!rpor. ibid., 

Li;1'i;ama 

H'. .„ SPARSIPORA, R?S., pi. XXX. ficr j 

. I i. „ pteroi^ora, Rss. pi. xxx. \\^ l = Ccll.pnya ibid., Rss. 

■ Ci;i.i.epo;;akia, Lamx. 

I ^~' ,7" . .^'.'■OBl-LAWS, l{i-01Ui. = Ct/A7*nmibid Bvonu ■ 1,'rnfn 

. I ^v/Zejwmrm ibid., D'Orb. '"»'•, -uionn. , /tr^^/u- 

I 1-. Clf,I,EPOKARIA PKOTEIFOKMIS, Rss.. |.l. xv-x fi,.s o n — J.\nl 

I diplostoma, Rss. ' ^'^ ' -"'*' = l^scham. 

I 



182 iiKPOKT— 1884. 

l>,\Tf)l'ni;\, R.«s. 
Ik ,, Mi;i,Tii;\i)i.\T.\, Jlss., pi. xxxi. figs. ] l. 

IjACTIIilh'lM, llss. 

io. ,, JI\(;i:no\vi, Kss., pi. x.\xi. lit^s. •" (;. 

J{i;ii:i'Oi;\, Iihixt. 

10. „ HiMri.KX, liiisk, ])1. xxxi. fi'/ 7. 

17. „ ('1:1,1, ri.osA, J;,, |)l. xx.vi. fi<r. s. 

18. „ Ti:i!i;i:cii..\TA, Jt.s.s., i)I. iii. li-'. 1» ](>. 



l''i,rsTi;i i.i,\i;;a, D'Orb. 
]',). ,, ri;Ai'K/i)iiii:A, Its.s., j)!. xxix. fig. ]-\. z= (Jcllrjinrn 

ibid,, K.ss. 

K'.sciiAiiA, Uiiy. 

syi;;N(;iiit,i;a, Ks.s., ]i1. xxxii. lig. 1. 

rAiii.i.OSA, ,, ])l. xxxi. iigs. II 17. 

,sTi'N(i.'>'HCiiA, ,, j)l. xxxii. lig. 2 ^=z{ Icllnriit ib. ]?ss. 

I'lji.v.S'l'li'liA, ,, ])1. xxxii. lig. ',', = ( 'i;l In rid ib. J(s.s. 

SimilAlM ACI.A, D'Ai'cli. 

si,.Mii,,KViH, Us.s., pi. xxxii. fig, 7 •S=/'>'. Auv.v/, I{,s.s. 

Si K.ssi, „ ., „ It. 

i;isi:i,(;a, ,, „ „ 10. 

\()m,i,ii'i:i;A, ., ,, ,, 11-12. 

M!('i;()l)UNT\, ,, ,, ,, l.'i. 

iiAri.Ki, ,, ,, ,, 14' 1G=^ V/,'fO-/'/ ib,, Rs.s. 

= I'JscJuini crciKil'iiiiiiri/ii, Rss. 
riiVMAKii'OKA, Kss., ])l. xxxiii. lig. 1, 
r\;;Ai.i,i:i,A, „ „ ,, 2, 

>i:.m;ti;i;i;i,()sa, „ ,, ,, '.">. 

Mi.Noi;, „ ,, ., ■!.. 

llni;\i;si, „ ., ,, (I 7. 

iiri'i,;cATA, ,, ,, ,, S I M = f ',■//(//•/'( ib.. IJ-^s. 

]li;Ti:i;nST()MA, ,, xxvi. ., .".. 

,\i.iki,i;a ,, xxxiii. ,, 1 I. 

B;i'i,u.«Ti!A, D'Orb. 

39. „ .MAci;i.sT()MA,lls.s. pi. xxxiii. figs. 12-13=C(j//(n-/'/ ib., I'ss. 

VlN'CI"l,Ai;iA, Dcf. 

40. „ 11a I)IN(;i:i;i, liss.pl. xxxiii. lig. 11— l-"> = CV'//'(mt ib., Ks.-., 

41. „ ci:()Mi:ii;icA ,, ,, ., ir». 

42. „ ixai;ata ,, pi. xxxiv. ,, \ — del In ria ih., Mi^n. 

i.\ii'i;i;ssA. 



-^0 






)i 


21. 


)) 


22. 


)) 


23. 


?5 


24. 




25. 


5) 


26. 


'» 


27. 


?> 


28. 


J' 


29. 


'J 


30. 


•) 


31. 


11 


32. 


)> 


33. 


)> 


34.. 


J> 


36. 


)) 


30. 


J' 


37. 


»> 


38. 


)) 



13 



»> 



M >J 



A(;it()l'iii;\, ItsH. 
•II. ,, I'liiJONATA ,, pi. x.\xiv. ,, ;>-5 = CV//aa'a ib., 

I'lsrluirn '■iiiifrrlii, Uss. 

Ski-enauid.k, 
Ci'!":i.Ai:iA, Liuiix. 

4.". „ i;iiii;ntata, Rsk., )»1. xxix. llg. 1-2. 

LlNll,iTi:s, Liirnx. 

40. „ i,iUAni!AiA,llss., pi, xxviii. iig. 18. 



OS FO.SSIL POLYZOA. 



183 



L.SS. 






(-V'l.OSTO.MATA, iJusk. 

Ci;i.s;i>.K. 



Unicim.sia, D'Oi-l). 

. , i.iiK^. iL'i. 1.1.; C/v.s//f iHiuhibuncnsif!, Jts 



SH. 



4. 



(^*lClSi\, hlUll.V. 

,, Kkwakusi, Rss. 

SI li.KiiiAi.is, iiss., |)1. x.vxiv. fig. 8. 

]Ji.s.osrM;s\, D'Orb. = pATiM:i.r,A, Gray. 

" TllMIS, Rss., ])l. A-xxiv. figs. 1>-10. 

Di;fi;a.\()a, Mi-omi. 
^' " 1^1 1'^'^inA, llss, pi. xxxiv. fig. 12 ; pi. xxxvi. lig. !). 

BiSKIA, liss. 

''• ,, •ii'iii i.iri:i;A. llss. 

I|'.m<i\i:a, liiunx. 

a „ inrnou.ATA, Rss., pi. xxxiv. lig. ]:J ( = Cw,/,,„). 
•'• " '■i:aciij-ima, „ XXXV. „ 1-2. 

'■• " "'^■'•^^■^ ., „ „ :J-4. 

IloiJMoi.'A, Lamx. 

' ',- " CONCATKNATA, llss., pi. xxxv. figs. 5-fj. 



If. 

ir,. 



T!{Al;i:oi|,\|;i> 

D'.Arcli. 
a;'I'i;iu;i,a 
si:iti;ATA 
ii'A i;i'iiiA''i'ii 



>' )> 



7=7/. hIppoi;i/nis;Dci'., 



„ in n. 



ir. 



1 s. 



KiMSI'AKSA, D'Orl). 

>. VAUiANS, liss. = Paslulnpora ,inniml:K llss. = i7.»r«ovt 

liihiliii, Mss, ' - ' » 

E\TAr,oi'iiiji;A, liamx. 

II)., Mol.; i uHtniojiord <iuom(il(i, Rss. 
Si'ik()|'(h;a, Liirnx. 



••nXFKRiA Rss., 1,1. xxxvi. fig. ?> = Gr!coiHrra vcrti- 
ri/ldld, J las. 

!;*• " i'Ui.<Hi:i,r,A, llss., ],]. xxxvi. fig.s. 4-r, = (7m 

-0. „ TKNUISSIMA, ,, „ ,, 0. 



tcopor<i ih., Rss. 



21. 



Ukti;i;oi'(ii{a, IJhiijiv. 

„ hijj;i;kticijlata, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 7. 



BryozocnBchicliLo von i\r.ontcccluo Maggiorc. 

SAMCOimuiA, ClvitT, Cl.:i,.,A.MA. 

I{KLSS1,, D'Orb. 1 2. , SCHKKiBKKSl, lUs. 



184 iiHPORT— 1 884. 

Mj'.MnRANirORA, 

„ HooKKiu, J. JIaine. 



4. 
5. 






liKPRALIA. 



t . 

8. 



5» 



ANGl'I-OSA, RsS. 
DKPLANATA, ,, 

MUT/riRADIATA, RsS. 

LAIilO.SA „ pi. XXX. fig. 5. 



CKM.ErORAKIA. 



10. 

11. 

12 

i:?. 

14. 
15. 



10. 



18. 
10. 



rKOTi;iFOi;Mi.s, Ess. 

IvsciiARA, Ray. 

„ I'APILLOSA, Rss. pi. xxxi. f. 11-17. 
„ SYRINGOPORA, RsS. 
„ POLYSTICHA ., 

,, msULCA ,, 

„ NODl'UFt;RA ,, 

„ DUPMCATA ,, J)!, xxiii. fig. 8-9. 

„ fi:n'K8Trata ,, pi. xxxiii. fig. 5. 

BllI,LSTl!A, D'Orb. ViXCULARlA. 

„ 51ACR0ST0.A1A, Rss. | 17. „ HAlDlNUi:i;i, Rss. 

AcROrORA. 

CORONATA, Rss. 

DUPLICATA „ pi. xxxiv. fig. G. 



5» 
5J 



CVCF.OSTOMATA. 
EjiTALOPUOHA. 
1. „ ATTENl'ATA, Stol. sp. 

FiusPARSA, D'Orb. Idmonea. 



2. „ varfans, Rss. I 4. 

3. HOKXERA concatenata, Rss. I '5. 



55 



GRACir-MMA, Rss. 

concava. 



This is the comiilete list of snecics from this locnlily as yivcn Ijv 
Rcnss, but from tho material sent to me some years since by I'ro)'. 
Roeraer of Broslaii, I have been able to find nearly the whole of the 
species described from Val di Lonti. 



Terebratularienschiclite von Prabona. 

1. Mi'.MBRANiPOKA ANGULOSA, Rss = Po7//esc7iam, Rss. 

- „ GUACiLis, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 13 = Gelh'pora ibid., 

Goldfuss ; Escltara aiidecjnvcnsis, Mich. ; Lepralia (jracilis, Rss. ; 

Mem bran ipord anilcgaceiisis, Busk. 

3. Lepralia spaksipora, Rss. 

4. „ ANtilSTOMA, pi. XXX , fig. 3. 

r>. Ceelkporahia conolomkrata, Goldf. sp. 

0. „ CIRCUMCINCTA, RsS., p'.. XXX. figS. 10, 11, 

7. BaTOPOHA MUI/riRADIATA, Rss. 

8. EoCUARA PAPJLLOSA, Rss. 



ON FOSSIL I'OLYZOA. |y/ 

Sail Martino. 

1. MK.MnilAMl'OKA ANCULOSA, Rss. 

2. Ckllei-oharia conglomekata, Goklf. 

0. Li;\II,ITES gi'ADRATA, Rss. 

(C'l/r/iisldmafa) 

1. Rai.ioi'Oija lior.KTiroKMis, Rss., pi. xxviii. fig. 27. 

San Vito di I5romlola, 
Ci:r.r,i:i'oi;Ai;iA conglomki;ata, (Joldf. 

l^i-yozoenscln'chtcn von Granella. 

1. Ci;i'i i,ai;[a iiidkntata, Rs.s. 

2. Llmmtes QlAni!ATA 

loolfc nTnS" "'" "■'"■'" ■"' "'" "^" »''™ I'y K™- from the several 

Bkvozoa (Ehr.) 



Cni;ii,iiSTOMATA, i3nsk. 

„ AKTICULATA Rss. 

Samcorxaiua (Cellar ia of Hincka). 

„_ ^ FAECIMINOIDKS, JollUSt. 

i e/larn( Jistulasa, Linn. 
Ci;r,nARiA, Lamk. 



1. 



I'or sjnonynis see ante, 



-• ■, CKKEOintS, E11.& Sol '01i(rnf.:i„' — r',7/, • ir- / ;• . -n 

^' p ''5?t^-- ]r;^-'^ rr'''^ t ^':'*^t(;:'iS^-;.:: 

(I'ou Def.). ^ • '''■ = ^ "'CH/„na .//a^iV/.v, Uich. 

.ScRII'OCELLAKIA, v. Ben. 

;■ «• f OSS. 1 vv. p. SO = Bactridium ibid. 'Pal. Stnd alt 
Itit. = C(nu/a ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Pj. ' v n JK -./.,/; 

— /'/. 77 • ,.V P' "^^ (anda </rn,ni /era, D'Orb A- Rs.« 

— J^icellana f/rauulifera, Rss '' '^ 'Jiu. cv itss. 

IXARTICULATA, R.ss. 
,. MeMIJRANII'ORII.F. 

J^i:im;atja, 
••• ,, UNGERr, Rs.s. ~ Cellepnrla ihk] Rss / r n \d ~ n n 

ibid., DOrb. . Pal. l.C.' V. ,,. .H J, i' eUl.a^I.'o " '^*'"""' 



'I 



jHG 



iiKroiiT — ]HHA, 



I M'^ ? 



G. LlU'UAl.iA SKMICRISTATV = CrI/rpnni, ibitl., llcUSS. /. C. p. 92 = h'rjil. 

rsrinirrll,! ibid., l)"()rb. 'I'ul. Fi'.' V. p. 4:):}. ' SiiililiU- to L. 

V(ii'i(il(iii(t,' .lohiist. 
7. Lki'hama r.iNATA, liss. 'Foss. Ih-y. ().s^•,.-^tlJ:,^' 
H. „ ]V\i;i;a.ndi[, Rss. = Cclli'jxira ibid., Rss. 7. c. p, 92 = 

7i' j,hyr/Hirrinna ibid., D'Ovb. ' J'al. Fr.' v. p. 4r)2. 
i>. LlOi'iiAMA ri.KLKiii'oRA, HuA. ■= C'llcpura ibid., Kss. /.<.•. p. 8S = 

Ci'lh'jKini. criiiildlin's, Ivs.s, /. <•. p. ^^S = }ti'i)tc>;<'hai'(Uina iilcnro- 

jxira. I ) ( )il). 
].0. TiKi'iiAi.iA (iAsrKoi'Oi;A, Jlss. ' ^littol Ob'goL'iiii. Ost.-unij:.' Similar io 

L. pi( Ill/I II ■•<, iiss., ' .SL'[)t;irieii." and J/, tunln'iicala, liimi. 

II. lji;iM;Ar.i \ ixamikxa, Jlss., 'Ost.-unir. IJryozoa.' 

L'J. ,, 1)i:0(ii:a lA, l{ss. (= MlrroporcUn, llks.) = Manzoni, 

' lirj. I'Vjss. It.' ii. p. l- = ('ril(>ii,int. dccofntn, Kss. /. c. p. 8'.'. 
IL'. Li;ri;Ai,iA miniai.ata, IIss. = Ccllc/mra ibid., Ilss. /. c. p. Si = 

Ji'rpfrsrJnrrlpnr.i, ibid., l)'(Jrl)., 'Pah Yv.' v. p. 4lt0. 
J !•. IjKI'kai.ia I'KKSdNATA, Hss. ' Osi .-luij^. l>ry.' : ' approacbus ' L. 

riii'ai'i'ii, .lobnst.; /;. j'lcfiijinrii, iiss. ; L. sfcnita, Maiiz. 
1."). TiKiMiAMA itii'CiMOA, Jolinst. (= MncviiiifUa, llks.) = Cfllrpora 

jilrnipiir(t, Kss. I.e. p. til. = Dtsfaiis cschdri'lliiia ibid., J)'(Jrb. 

' Tab Ft-.' V. p. 151 = Lrjimlia ibi(b, Maiiz. ' Fos.s. It.' iii. p. 8 

r= Lrpndid ii>iniii)iil!ul(t. ^lau/,., ' Fo.ss. It.' ii. p. 4 = Oligocencof 

Crosara. 
IG. Li;i'i;Ai,iA oiHtNiosiOMA, Hss. ' b'o.ss. Bry. 0.st.-ung.' 

17. „ Alk'Eor.ATA, Rss. „ „ 

18. ,. lil.AlUIA, lisS. „ „ 

19. ,. -MicitnsTO.MA, Rs.s. = Cilh'porit ibid., Rss. /. c. 92 = Erj)t- 
osi-liarrlHiui ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Yv.^ v. 453, Lcitliakalko. 

20. Li.i'K'AMA (jt)UNiiii:i!A, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

21. „ KNTOMOSToMA, Rss. < )bor 01ifj;ociin = CrUi-para ibid.. 
]{ss. J. r. p. ti2. ]i'rplrsrharelli,Hi ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. 
p. 452. 

22. Li;riiAiiiA ansata, .Tolmsfc. (Srhiuoporelht ■itnirornis, Hks.). 

22'(. ,. var. I'OiiosA, Obcr Oligociin = CrlJcpura Danker!, Rss. /. c. 
]}.W = J,\'i,h:icharrllimi ibid'., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 452 = 
Li'pi'uJia uplnifcra, Maiiz. ' Bi'y. Pli. It.' p. 7 = Lfjrralia uulcumls, 
Busk, ' Crag P.' p. 45. 

22/'. Lei'KALIA, var. fcfiri'jdtm, Rss. = Gflh'pm-a il)id., Rss. /. c, p. 7^ ; 
Li'pi-(iUit\h\([., ^huv/.. ' I'oss. Ital.' p. 0, and iii.p. 8 = Ri'ptoporiiid 
ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 442. .Miltel and Ober Oligociin : 
Eng. Crag 

23. Lki'kalia GoNVKiisi, Rss. ' Fo.ss. Bry. ( )st.-iing.' 
24 „ lima 
26. „ iNTiiiiMr.niA, Uss. , 

26. „ viciNA ,, , 

27. ,, CAi'iTATA, Rss. (= Ch()n'::o])ora Broiujniartii), ' Foss. 
Bry. Ost.-ung." 

28. Lei'KALIA claylila, jVIan/,., 'Bry. Fos.s. It.' iii. p. 8. 

29. „ sciiiZdUASTKR, Rss. = Cellipom ibid. Rss., 7. c. p. 84 = 
irollla ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 888. 

30. Li:i'itAT,iA TiMGONOSToMA, Rss. = CcUcpora ibid,, Rss. /. r. i, p. 87 

z= :h\ ptnporlnii ibid., D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 442. 

III. Li:i']{AL[A HYi'sosTd.MA, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' ; nearly allied to 

L. mcgnlol.a, Rss. 



)5 






} 



ON FO.'SIL I'OI.Y/.OA. 



187 



p. 78 ; 



Foss. 



8-l = 



h. p. '^'i 
allied to 



tSi 



3L*. Li'.i'KAr.iA Stl'IU, llss., ' Foss. Hry. ( ).st..uiiL,'.' ; nearly allietl to 

L. 'Iill'ijnlatit', KsH. 

;!;'.. lii;ri;AiJA vioi-Atpa, Jolinsi. {MirrnpnrciJi^ I Iks.) = Cflh-pard 
llrrhli, Rss., /. r. p. ,S5 = r. /A, ■/.•,//, Man/,., ' 15ry. Pli.It.' IHG'J, 

]{onss says, ' Perhaps this is the place tor Jj. ilici'rsiju'i'K, llss., from the 
,Se])tarienUu)ii.' 

;M. Li;i'i!Ai.rA Ti:Ni;r,i,A. Kss. (Sr]i,!::opnn'lla, vt'il' AVaters) = Cdh'iwra 

ibid., llss. I.e. p. i»l.; Jlrphipurhnr ibid. D'Orb, 'Pal. Vi.' v. p. 

1 t"2. 'Zr. rndi.'^, !Manz., from Caslcllarqiiato is very similar, if 

not. identical with thissp.' — IJss. ' ]\[uch vt'i^i'uMv^i, L. subiniinersit 

and anccpK. MaeGill., ridi' Waters.' 
;!"». Lki'RATJA OTOi'MouA, llss. (S''///,v«^(0/v7/(t 'J/V'/'/'Z/vV, I Iks.) zzzCcIlfpnra 

ibid., llss. /. r. p. Ut). 
;](;. Li;i'1:ama I'Aii'KI!, llss.. 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung." 
:;7. ,. AuiMXTA, „ = f'clli'pDra. ibid., IJss.. /. r. j). Si = 

Crllrjioni ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. :\'J^. Similar to the 

Olififociiii />. < Ifiifn'iuii, llss. 
;!s. Li:i'i;alia scimita, llss. (('riliriliiiarivh'i/it, llks.) r= Crllcjiora ibid., 

llss. I.e. p. H2 = Crih'pora ibid., D'Orb. ' I'al. Fr.' v. p. 3:i8 = 

Cellepord luef/iiapJinla, llss.,/. '•. p. 88. Simikn-lbrms to this: Jj. 

hivoynlvdhi. Couch; L. ainmliitu, Fabr. sp. ; L. tiitiltiradiata, 

llss. !Manzoni describes two forms: one from the Miocene of 

Turin, the other from tlie Pliocene. 
:)9. LiM'KAr.iA itAltr.i'osiA, llss. = ('I'llopora iltid., lis-;. /. r. p. S'-) ; 

Mnllla ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. :{'^'S, 
4U. Lki'Kalia AuiNcKiM, llss., 'Fol. 15ry. Ost.-nng.' 
■II. „ FlJi'iisi „ „ ., similar to L. f/rn- 

friaiti, llss. ; L. J'eacliii, Busk, ' C. P.' 
[2. Li:i'[!ALIa sKUiii:r,ATA, llss. = C'Ucpnm ibid., llss., /. c. p. S.", =. 

Ci-lb'porii ibid., D'Orb., 'Pal. I'l-.' v. p. :5S'.» = frllcjumi rrass;. 

laJ)ri.9, llss., /. c. ]). 40; lirpfopor'nin, cnis.silnhria, D'Orb. 
■['.). LKi'iiALiA tio.\(;ka, llss., 'Foss. Bry. O.st.-ung." 
41. ,, TKliNATA, ,, = <'eJI(')i(ira ibid., llss., /. c. p. 'Jl ; Reptcs- 

chardUmt ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. )i. io-l. 
45. LePKALIA KKiiLTiAKIS, llss., ' Foss. Bry. ()st.-ung.' 
4(). „ INCISA, „ „ ,, 

47. „ cuii.oi'OitA, ,, = Ci'llcpiira ibid., lis.-;. /. -■. ]>. 91. 

48. „ PAUTScrir, ,, Ccllcpom ibid., ILss. /. r. p. '.'1; Hepln. 
;).<r/Hail)id., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. •212. 

•!;». Li;Pi!ALiA foMi'McATA, llss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-un^'.' 

oO. ,, RUdULOSA, ,, „ „ (near to L. 

71r(i7i>jin(irfi!, And.). 
T)!. Li:niA)JA vknisia, l-liehw., s})., Cellepora ibid,, Fachw., ' Lctha 

rossiac ' iii. }). 811; CrJhpora ibid., JNIanz., 'Bry. PI. Ital.' ii. p. 8. 
.')2. Lki'KALIA ;\iu.\0(i:i!OS, llss.; Crllepimt ibid., llss., /. c. p. 80; 

Celhpora ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 4ti5. 
"r2*.LEi'KAi,lA Hauejm, llss. =■ Cellepora ibid., llss. = Jicptescharclla 

id., D'Orb. 
l>:]. Li'i'KAi.iA I'Ki.rATA, llss., 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 
•M. „ Max/.o.xii, „ „ ,, 

0.5. ,, Fndi.iciikiii, Il.ss. (JjDihoiii'In rl'n^ncn.^'l,\']^■)cv) : Ccllepnra, 

Rss. 7. r. p. 82; lirptnpnrina ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.'' v. p. 442; 

? Cellepora orhleula, Fiehw. 



\\' 



188 



KKroRT — 1884. 




50. Lki'RAI.i.v sr.\i{.M:i:i:s, Rss. {Vmhouvla yenvf'uw. Espor) ; CeUepora^ 
Uss. /. r. p. 80, and J)'()i;h. 
SKUiAiA, llss., 'Foss. Wry. Ost.-nnrr.' 
(ii.'AXi i,ui;i!A. liss, ; Cidlcjwra ibid., /. c. p. ^0, niid D'Orb, 

• I'id. Fr.' 
LATA, Busk ; Miinz. * Brv. Fo.sh. It.' p. 4. 
Asi'i;i;i;iMA, l{.ss., 'Foss. liry. Ost.-ung.' 

OCilVAI.IS, „ 

^'l;DA, „ 

CINCII.ATA, ,, 

cllJCUMdliXAlA, llss.; Crilejwm ibid., Ks.^^. /. c. p. 85; 

nq^lcxcharelJa ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 1-55. 
Ai'KinA, K.ss., 'Foss. ]jry. O.st.-untr.' 
ci;i;ai()M()i;i'iia, Rss. ; Ct'lh'jxtrtt, IIh9. J. c p. sQ ; 7iVj><. 

esrhirrellitia ibid., ])'Orb. 'Pal. I'r.' v. ]>. 1-21». 
(iiAssA, R.ss. 'Foss. Brv. Ost.-niiu'.' 
i:ai!i;i'i;xct.vta, liss.= Cdlcimra il)id. llss., /. c. 



"/. 


i» 


58. 


?l 


50. 

00. 


?? 


01. 
02. 




o;j. 

04. 




05. 


M 


00. 


)> 


07. 

08. 





11 






00. 

70. 
71. 
72. 

7:i- 

7a. 

74. 
75. 

76. 

77. 



p. ^7, !ind 
D'Orb. 

cipNhiSTo.MA, lls.s. = Cellepara ibid, llss., /. c. p. 87, and 

DOrb. 



11 
>» 

11 



)i 



>i 



rvi:i,ofr:i'iiA[,A, ILs.s. 'Foss. Bry, Ost.-ung.' 

TUIJCKSi'KNS, 



11 
11 
11 



sur,cii'i:RA, 

INSIUXiS, 

I'r.ANICIil'S, ,, 

C.KOSSIIHJRA, „ 

GUANOSO-rOUOSA, lls.s 

llss. ; similar to L. rudis, ^Nfanzoni 
AN'isosioMA, llss. ' Foss. Bfy. ().st..ung.' 

1-1I,0CINCTA, ,, „ „ 



)' 
11 
>1 
>> 

11 



51 

»» 
>* 



,, similar to L. tcnclhi, 



Mkmukanii'Oka, Ulainv. 

78. ,, . SL'iiTiLi.MARGO, liss. ' Foss. Fauna deut. ObcroHgo- 

ciin,' ii. \). 17; M. laxa, Rss. ' Alt. Tert. Alp.' ii. ].. 10. 

70. jMiomhraxipoka elmi'TIca, Hag. sp. = CeUcpum ibid., Hag. = Mar- 
(jinaria ibid., Jliim. 

80. ]\Ii:mI!RANII'01!A i.o\orOKA, Rss. = Cdlrjiortt ibid., Bss., /. r. p. 07 

= n-ptojludrella ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. j). 571. 

81. Memhranh'ora iexi:.strata, llss. = GcUepora ibid., JJss., /. c. p. 07, 

and D'Orb. 
8:^. MEMisRANiroitA Laci;iii\ii, Sav., sp. = M Savartii, Busk, ' Crag P.' 

p. 31 ; JMan/.oni, 'Bry. Foss. It.' ii. p. 3 ; M. retirulnni, Rss., /. c. 

p. 08 ; !Mich. ' Icon. Zoo.' p. 74. In the Pliocene of Voltura and 

in the Red Crag. 
82a.]\I. LACROIXII, var. Diadeina, Rss., /. c. p. 08. 
83. Memijraxii'ORA ai'I'Kxdicui.ata, Jlss. = Cclh'pora ibid., llss. I. c. 

00 ; Itt'plojliidrcUa ibid , D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 571. 
'The nearly allied M. rrlavien, Goldf., differs in form of cell and 
absence of vibracnla. Our species is very similar to many forms of the 
M. trlfiiliuiii, Wood.' — lleuss. 

81. Mk.mbranii'OKA semiai'euta, Rss. 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

85. „ ri.ATVSTO.MA, „ = CelU'pova ibid., llss. /. c. p. 01. 

86. „ IXCORKUI'TA, ,, ' Foss. Bry. ()st..nnir,' 



IK 



J 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZO.V. 



189 



■oligo- 
Mar- 
p. 1)7 
p. 97, 

bs.,/.c. 
Lvii atiil 



kd. 



z. <.-. 



Lu aiitl 
of the 



01. 



87. 
88. 



Mi'.Mr.nwironA nor.osTOMA, S. Wood, sp.; JJiisk, 'Crag Pol.' p. .'JO 

= Fliisfni holosdnna, S. Wood. 
;>ri;Ml!HAMPOUA ItlDKNS, llaj,'.. sp. ; C(;Uipi>ni hi'ppocrppiH, llss. /. c. 

p. iH; C. suhhippoarpis, D'Orb. 'Pal. Ft:' v. p. :598 ; f. holcnx, 

Wwf. ' ^Macst. Kivid.' p. 92; M. h'uh-nx, Biiisk, 'Crag Poljzua,' 

p. :M. 
7u((/;/' .--Tufaticons Chalk, ]\rai'.striclit ; Pencil Chalk, Uiigen ; PJnglish 

Crag. 

iS'.t. !Mi;Mr.RAXii'OiiA miicuta, Rsa. ; VflJrpura ibid., Hss. /. r. ]>. !);{ ■, 
Jirptrsriiiirrllii ibid., D'Orb, ' Thi.s species occupies, us itAvcre, a 
iniddlo place behveeii if. (jrdri/ix iuul }[. Iiiilcnx.'' — lieuss. 

'.to. Mi;mi!IIA\i1'()UA ciiACiMS, V. Miiii. sp. = Cfllcpuru ibid. Cloldf. 
'Pet. Germ.' 182G, p 102; CrIJrpnnf ibid., Ks.s. /. c. p. (>;] ; 
Kschdrn iui(h'i/(iri'>isii,; Mich. ' Icon. Zoo.' p. .■5211 ; Lejirdlin grdcUis, 
Kss., 'Fauna Dcutsch. Oberoligocen'; jlf. umlcijdfensis, Bu.sk, 
'Crag J'ol.' p. '■)'); M. dni}<'gdrcitsis, Manzoni, 'Pry. Fo.ss. It.' ii, 
p. 2.' 

91. ]\Ii;MI!1!AN1I'01!A FOIi.MOSA, Kss.; Ct'Ufpard ibid., Rss. I.e. p. D.J ; 

Cr//*7)r.m ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. :;i»8. See M. trlfullnui, 

iJu,sk, 'Crag Poly.' 
02. Mkmrkanii'Oka papyuacea, Hss. ; CeUqiard ibid., llss. /. c. p. Oi ; and 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' p. 398. 
0;>. Mkmiu!AN'IP(ii;a Anguf-osa, Celh'pord ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 0.'>; and D'Orb. 

'Pal. Fr.' ; E)>rhdyd e.rcdvahi, Jissi. I. c. p. 72; h\ suhexcdvata, 

D'Orb. )). 72. Rss., 'Pal. Stud. Alt.' and ' Foss. Foram. and 

Pry.' ' This is doubtless the place for M. ih'pJdiidta.' — Reuss. 
91, !>[i;.Miii;AXiPoi;A stenosto.ma, Rss., CeJIepord ibid., Rss. /. c. p. 9."^, 

and D'Orb. 

Part II. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ungar !Miocen,' Manzoni. 
In the second part of this work Manzoni made fifty-two additions of 
species, so as to complete the list left unfinished by the lamented author. 
Manzoni's arrangement differs considerably from that of Reuss, but in 
accordance with the general principle that I have heretofore been guided 
by, I give the arrangement of that author rather than interfere with the 
text. It is only necessary to give the catalogue of species, bat it is 
greatly to be regretted that Reuss did not live to revise the whole of hia 
species, as he has done in the first part of the work. 

BkYOZOA, CnEILOSTOMATA, CkI-LEPOIMD.E. 

Ci:lli:pouai:ia, Lamx. 

VEina'COSA, Rss., ha: cif.^ p. 79. 
GLOHULARIS, Bronn ; Rss. loc. cit. p. 70. 
POLYTIIAr.E, Rss. „ „ ]). 'il. 

CUA.'^SA, Manzoni, ' Ost.-ungar.' 

AVICL'LU'EUA, „ ,, 

Ci'Ml'Lii'Oi.'A, ]\Iunstcr. 

,, TKANSiLVAXiCA, Rss. ; Rss. in Mss., Upper Marl of 

Lapugy. 

Batopora, Rs.<?. 

„ liOSLLA, R.ss., Inc. cit. p. 78 ; ' Bry. deutsch. Oberoligociin,' 
tab. i. fig. 7 ; tab. ii. tig. i. Marl of Baden. 
' Fosi. !'(<!. Mien, Tcrtliirhech. 



1. 
o 

o. 

4. 



5) 



)> 






w 



I 




I 



190 



i!i;iv)UT— 1SS4, 



IIkMIISi IIAI.'A, I'.usk. 

8. „ Gi.MiMi'iiiiA. Jisa., /. r. p. 7 !■ ; ' I''()ys. Fauna Stoinsal/,' 

0. „ roitdsA, Kss. Ill Mss. I p. l(ij, 

10. „ MAitoi.N'ATA, Itss., ' ()st.ung.' !MarI ol' Lnpu^'y, 

11. ., r Tii!i(ii;i;A, M.nv/.. „ 

1']s(;iiai;a, liny. 

MAf iMjriiii.A, Uss. /. r. p, (i,"). 

ciliitAnRA, „ ill jM.«s. 

(lipi i;i ANA, ,, ' l''iiniia deutsc'li. Obcrolii^ociin ; ' ' IjI'v. 

(Initsfli. Sept.' p. I'if'i. 
IM'AXSA, Heu.sH, ill ^Iss. 
m;i,( i.MAiiiio. ,, J. r. p. (!5. 

rii,isi'Ai;sA, a\riin/,„, ' O.st.-uiigar.' 
AMI'I,A, Uss., /. c. p. (j(j. 
i;iAii;ii ( I.A'IA, liss. /. c. p. (I(i. 
.MiiMi.ii i;i;a, ^I.-K(1.. /. c. p. (»',', ' Ch'ai>' J'olv/.oa.' 
STii'iiATA, J{ss., ill Mss. Marl of Lapug}-. 
iMi;i;i<'ATA, Hss., /. c. p. 09. 
i:i;uui,Ai;!s, Uss., ' Dfutscli. Soptar.'.p. »"i'.,i ; ^Maiizoiii, 

'IJry. Foss.' iv. 
iNMtci ATA, Rs.s., /. c. p. 08, 'Foss. Fauii. Stcinsal/.' 
cosi'iNOi'HoKA, Il^s., /. c. ]). 07, ' lU-y. dcMits Sopfav. ;' 

' Fauna deub. Olu'roligociin,' p. oO = il/'c, . vIlii ibid., 

forma (irnuitd. Waters. 
i'<ii,ysroMi:i,LA, Kss., /. c. j). 70. 
I'OI.YOMMA, ., ,,71. 

•rnssiLATA, „ ., 71. 

(ONl'EinA, ,, _ ,, 71. 

DELicATA, Manzoni, ' Ost.-ungav.' 
I'OKOSA, ISl.-Edvv.. 'Crag Poly.' p. 00. 
lOUMosA, Manzoni, " Ost.-ungar.' 
MIN-AX, „ „ 

NFCLECTA, ,, „ 

(HULAIA, „ „ 

I'LAIlKLr.AinS, ,, „ 

I'ATll.A, „ „ 

BlKLlSTKA, D'Orb. 

37. „ CONTAHILATA, llsS., in IMsS. ' 

38. „ KXiAVATA, „ I. C. p. 72. 

Flustkki.laima, D'Orb 



V2. 




13. 




14. 




15. 




16. 




17. 




18. 




10. 




20. 




21. 




22. 




23. 




24. 




26. 




25. 




26. 




27. 




28. 




29. 




30. 




31. 




32. 




33. 




34. 




35. 




36. 





30. 



40 
41 



p. lOo. 



ti:\tii;ata,Rss., 7. c. p. 7o, ' Foss. Fauna Steinsalz,' 



5) 

>1 



MACROSTOMA, Rss., 1. C p. 04. 

AU'iocTOXA, Manz., 'Ost.-uugar.' 

llKTKi'or.A, Imp. 

42. ,, fi;i,i.ui.osA, Linn., Its.s., 7. c. p. 48 ; 'Crag Poly.' p. 71. 

43. „ llnu'sciiii, Kss., „ ,, „ 

ViXCUI.AIMA, Dofr. 

44. ,, cii'L'LLA'iA, Kss., 7. c. p. GO; 7. c. p. 72, as Escliant, 
onfata; 'Fan. deutsch. Obcroligociin ' as Iv'. lu-tissi, »Stol. ; 'Pal. 
Stud. Alt. Tcrt ,' Vhicularia Ilaidintjeri. 



Poly: 
A. 



Til 
•listribi 
(Icsciip 
i text of 



(IN I'USSII, I'OI.Y/.OA. 



1!)1 



I-".. ViNCULAUiA r.iNdiATA. Rss. ^Ms.«.. ' Osf .-urigar.' 

^lvi;ln/(iL'M, IJdIlilti. 

4(!. „ I'lNcrAM \i, I'liill., HsA. I. i\ p. T'-'t ; ' I'luui. dcutsch. 

Olxiroligocilii,' p. •">'•; ' Mry. iloiitscli. SL^pt.' [>. 71-. 

CuiTi.AiiiA, fjamx. 

47. M llAii)i\(ii:i:i. Kss.. /. c. p. .^S. 

48. „ CAXADLNsis, ikisU, • Uriig Polv/.nii,' p. ^7; .^^an/,(mi, 
' Hry. Fosa.' i. p. 10. 

Lixn.n'DS, Lanix. 

49. „ ANi)i:nsA(r>, Alt.. Miui/. • 15ry. Vn^^.' i. j). 1;!. 

In an apjicndix Mau/.oni gives tho follow iiiy : 

50. ? GlCMKI.I.AKlA, Sav. 



salz,' 



t). / 



i'al. 



Part III. ' Foss. I5iy. ().st.-nn<rai'.,' !Manzoiii. 

In tlio ' (it'oloijfical lloconl ' lor 1^77, p. I»l.'), Professor Xicliol.son 
U'ivcs a brief note on Part TH. of tho • Fossil Pryozoa of the ]\liocene of 
Austria tincl Hungary.' This Avork f luivo not seen. It deals with 
siiccics belonging to the Cyclostoniata. The new forms described are : — 

1. Idmonka viiucAi'A, !Manz. 0. Pi siri.ni'ouA rnouosciNA, !^^anz. 



2. FlLISl'AllPA ELIOOAXTISSIMA, ,, 

;{. „ ASTALIS, „ 

4. „ TYI'ICA, ,, 

!). Pl'STDr,f)l'01!A HUGULOSA, „ 



7. PaTINET,I,A CYATUII'OU.MIS, 
H. DlSCOTtllilGEKA INSir.NIS, 
0. ,. ACTINOIDI'.S, 



'Polyzoa (Bryozoa) from the Pp|U'r siiul Low(n' OHgocene,' 
Professor Koemer. 

Professor Uoemer, in his ' Xorddeutsehen Tertiiir-Gehirges,' Cassel, 
cJ. 18G3, adopts a classillcntion similar to that of .^[ons. Pictet in sumo 
respects, but with tliree divisions instead of two. Pictet ' divides tho 
Polyzoa or Bryozoa thus : — 

A. Ckli.UI.ata, D'Orbigny, have three families (Ciilii.o.sid.maia, Buslc). 

J. C'i:i.l.A]!10ll»KS. 

11. Es(iiAi;oini:s. 
111. Ki.rsii;i:i.i.Hii,.i:. 

B. CK.NTUiruGiN.i:, with three families ((-"vilostomata, Busk). 

I. EAhicci.i.i:. 

IT. OL'KUCI I.IX.K. 
III. Tri:i i,lp(ii;ii>.>:, ]\rilne-Ed. 

Roemer adds another family literally another division. 
C. CEniOl'ORlD-TO, D'Orbigny. 

The 114 species given by Rocmcr as described in his monograph arc 
distributed under .V2 genera which, in the introductiou that ])rel'aces tho 
de.scriptive part, lias a rather elaborate synopsis. I have not broken tho 
text of the autlior. 

' Jukes' ^fainucl </ (It'olofjy. 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




1.0 



I.I 



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■' m 



2.0 



1.8 





1.25 1.4 


1.6 




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///. 



Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




^^^^^■M 



€^. 



P. 



% 




I 



192 REPORT — 1884. 

A. CEM.ur.ATA = Cheilostomata, Busk. 

Cei-lakia, Lamk, 
1. „ AFFiNis, Reuss, Upper Oligocene. 

ViNCLLABiA, Defranc (Cellaria pt.)- 

MARGiXATA, V. Miinst. Upper Oligocene. 

HKXAGONA, 

TKTRAGOXA, 

KHOMBIFKKA, 

ESCHAKEI.LA, Rom., Lower 

PORINA, 



2. 

4: 

7, 



>> 






55 



)» 



>5 

)> 
T5 
55 
)> 



0. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
1(3. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20, 
21. 

22. 

ii! 



24, 
25 



26. 

27. 

28. 
29, 

30. 

31, 



Cellei'ORARIa, D'Orb. 

RAMULCSA, L. (= Cellepora ibid., Hincks), Upper 

Oligocene. 

CVCEESCIIARA, Rom. 

MARGIN ATA, Rom., Lowcr Oligocene. 
EsCHARA, Lamk. 



>» 

55 
55 
55 
55 
S> 
)5 



HETEROrORA, 



55 
55 

5> 
55 

55 

15 



55 

55 



3 1 

Upper 



SURTERFR, 

DEEORMIS, 

Sl'ONGlOSA, 

PL'XCTUEATA, 

ORNATA, 

GLABRA, 

PoRiNA, D'Ofb. (adopted by Hincks). 

CONFLUENS, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 



55 
55 

■;5 



55 
55 
55 
55 



QUADRATA, 
DUBIA 
GRANULOSA 
OCCULATA 



55 

55 



JJ 
55 
>5 



5) 
55 
55 



Upper 

ESCHARIPORA, D'Orb. 

„ SDBSTRATA „ ",.,-,-, ^. • i • 

ESCHARELLA CAUDATA, R. (* :Might be United With E. apus and m 
that case would be the only species occurring as well m the 
Upper as in the Lower Oligocene,' — Rom. p. 10). 

ESCHARELLA AFFINIS, Rom., Upper Oligoccuc. 

CELLErORACEA, Vou. Munst. „ „ 

PORELLA, Rom. 

„ MONOPS, Rom., 

PORELLINA, D'Orb. 

DECAMERON, Rom., 

LARIATA 

ELEGAN3 

E^CHARIl'ORA, D'Orb. 

,, I'OuosA, Phill. (r), 

BiFLUSTRA, D'Orb. 

„ PUNCTATA, Rom., 



M 



55 
55 
55 



Lower 



55 
55 



55 



»l 



5> 
»» 



Upper 
Lower 



ox FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



32. 



Cellepora, D'Oi-b. 



33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 



>> 
ft 



■6" 



M.u„u,.vrA, Phil, Upper Oligocene 

= Vixnqnmi. ibul., Pbill 
oi:(.MinuiCA, Hr.ni. HJuiide) 

■y^vuA, Worn. tipper 01.>ocene 

JiiLLEt-uxcTATA, Rom. Lower 

''''^^'<^^^^^ Upper ;; 

RETKPoraxA, D'Orb. (.ir/-v,,,.,.e//„ p Hinoks, 
^^- » i>ERTUSA m-nu. Lower Oligocene 

'^«- ,. LMniunATA, Hon.. Upper " 

^^- " ASrEREi.LA, Rss. 

^^ REPTESCiUiMauxA. irOrb. (Micropn.::^t. IIi„;i,,). 

42* " 'J''i'CEP3, Rtim., Upper Obgocene. 

I!ECTANGLI,A, Ess 

REi.TEscnAnEu,A, D-Orb. ((^.;A./Z.W,;t Uincics). 

jf* »» tiLOnULOSA, 

T;* » coccrxKA, Rom., 

M OKXATA, 

Repteporellina, D'Orb. 
7°V » '''-^NA, Rom., 

i;i-.r.uA, „ 

Reptescharipoiia, D'Orb 
40 
^Q " TinSTOMA, Goldf. 

51." 



" J) 

(Hildesbcim). 
Riindc. 



Upper Ob'goeeno. 



52. 



I) 
>» 



, Biindo. 
TETUASTO.MA, Rom , Upper Ob-gocene 

.SrcPLWCTATA, , i b ^. 






'i'UIPOKA, 

Membeanii>oi;a, Rhiinv. 

rf " SIMPLEX, Rom., 

tt " ^'^'ata, 

'''^- » Syltana, 

Reptoflu.stri.na, D'Orb 

^ ' " "■AunicuLATA, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

Cellulipora, D'Orb. o ■u^- 

X" » A.NMILATA, V. Miin., 

°" » (iLOuus, Rom., 

CU.MULIPORA, Von j\rim.ster. 
.... " I'lMicosA, Riim., 

Jj'y- " FARACEA, „ 



Upper Obgocene. 
(Miocene, Isleof Sylt). 



Biinde. 

Lower Oligocene. 



50 



»> 



FAVOSA, 

_^ Sticiiopora, Ilagenow 

^"- » [■■R'AiilMS. 

LLNULFfES, Lamk. 






Upper 



» 

»> 



M 



» 



03. 
64. 
C5. 

1884 



>> 



HEMiSPH.EHicLVS Rom., Lower Ob-gocene. 



POI.YPORIS 



SE-Mirr.EXL's, Rs.s., 



it 



If 



193 



194 



REPORT — 188-1. 



60. LuxuLiTKS MiCRoroRUS, Horn., Upper Oligoccnc. 
(37. „ HirrocuKi'is, L. „ -i 

gg. „ I'KRVOKATIS, Goldf. „ M 

Discoi-i.rsTiJKi.i.A, D'Orb. 
aq Haidinokri, Rss. 

"^' " (= CnpuJaria ibid, llss.) Miocene ? 

jTQ ^^ cAMrvxiLA, Rcim., Miocene. 

DiscoKscnAiuTKS, F. A. R. 
71^ ^^ MAMii-LATA, Rom., Lowcr Ohgocene. 

y2[ " IRREGULARIS, „ Upper „ 

13. Tlhui.U'ORIOKA = Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Stomatotora, D'Orb. (? Bronn). 

1 ^^ MINIMA, Rom., Upper Oligoceno. 

Tl-hl'lii'Ora, M.-Eclw. 

2 „ TRiFARiA, Riim., Upper Oligoceue. 
3P II yi:ciiiNATA, Goldf., Upper Oligocene. 

DiASTOrORA, Lamk. 
4. „ Discii'ORMis, Goldf., Upper Oligocene. 

Crisi.\, M.-Edw. 

„ CRACII.IS, Rom. 

HoRNKRA (no author's name) 

C. „ I'.Il'lNCTATA, Rom. 

7. 



5. 



)j 



5) ' ' 

„ TORTL'OSA, 

8. „ NITENS, 

„ I.AMELI,OS.\, 



■5 



0. 
10. 






„ Lower 

GBACIMS, Plilll. Upper 

Idjioxea, Lmck. (? Lamx.). 

11. „ BISERIATA, Phill. „ V 

12. „ MINIMA, Rom. Lower ., 

BuHASTOrORA, D'Orb. 
13P J, ? DENT.viA, Rom. Upper ,. 

MESENTERirORA, Blainv. 
14 „ CUSl'IDATA, „ » 

Peripora, D'Orb. 

15. „ vARTADiLis, Gold. (= Gcnpom ibid.) Upper Oligocene. 

PusTULiPORA, Edw. (? Blainv.) = F)itah>pom. 

16. „ RAMOS A, Rom. Upper Oligocene. 

17. ,, iNCRAss.vTA, Rom. „ » 

EscuARiTES, A. Rom. 
Ig. ., inj:qualis, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 

19. „ punctata, „ )» 
CiiiSMA, Lonsd. 

20. „ HETEKOPOROSUM, Rom. „ „ 
ECIIINOPORA, D'Orb. 

21. „ SULCATA o »» 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



oo 



Mvr;rozorM, Donati. 



195 



WXG.^vcjf, Ru.u, Upper Oli^-occno. 
Ri;tei>oi!.\, Lamk. 

23. „ VIBICATA, Goldf. 

IlETKi>oi;ii)i:.\, D'Orb. " " 

xi- '» GKAcrr,is. Phill. 

n,, " , '^"'-^■'■^'•■•^'•'■SKom.; Upper Oh-goccne. 

,4^' genera and species 18 to 2. W no rigbt to ,. placed in this 

C. Ceijioi'oridea. 
i'riiiiiNiA, :MicheIin. 

'"■ p " 'f;;^-^-^^''^''' ■^■. R'>">.. Lower Oligocene. 
Pelagia, D'Orb. 

-'■ '' J"'FKANCIANA, Mich, 

AcTiNorojjA, D'Orb. 

-^- - •^IMPLEX, Horn. 



20. 
•30. 



5> 



■9 

I ppcr 



>> 



PLAXA, 
ML-LTIPOif.\ ., 

STEM.iroR.\, D'Orb 

'*^* » TRUNCATA „ 

Radiopoi.'a, D'Orb. " " 

^^ Pf'ETiiopoRA, Hagenow, 

:- „ f^;^ °^-^' «"'^- Upper OHgocono. 

„ liKEMs, ^^ Lower 

_ Heti;i;opora, Blainv. 
;i;|' " '■'•-^CTATA, Phill. sp. (Millepora). 

CEiaopGRA, Lamck. (?) o'^t^enc. 

'^f' » •^EMINLLA, Ron,., 

'■I"' » UTNULA, „ " 

"**-'• J' INCRAS.SATA. TT '■ 

]■;• V INEQUAMS, „ •^^''-' 

■^-- » -M;ni-s'cui,i;s, „ " " 

' Oligocene Bryo/.oa from Latdorf.'-Stoliczka. 
P^,,. T Cheii.o.stomata.' 

(_ Ef.LARIA, Lamx. 

^- ,, M'CHEMN., Rss., 'Pol. Wiss. Beck'i, i;| - I- / • 

JrarfiUs, Mich. ' Icon.' p ir5 ' ~ ^ '"-•«/« na 

Bevrichi, Stol., Latdorf: 
Li:i'i;Ar,iA, Johnst. 
?• " Grotuiaxa, Stol. , 

:• » I'EDICI I,ARIS, „ ^l 

''• 5» MACROI'ORA, „ 

«>2 



J) 



r 



196 



iiKroRT — 1884. 



t;. 

7. 
7. 
8. 
0. 

10. 
11 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 

10. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22 

23, 

24 
25 



7. 
S. 
<». 

10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
16. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
10. 



)7 

M 

51 

55 

55 
55 

55 



^ri:Mnr;\\:rnn.\ = Flmtlnllan'a, D'Orb. 

,, i:oiiL-.STA, Rss. 

Mr.Mi!i!\.N'ii'iti!A = SfinlJltistriJIa, D'Orb. 

,, ANirAr/nvA, Stol., Latdorf. 

* Alveouuia Busk!, Stol. 
BiFf-USTRA CLATHiiATA, PLill. (as Esrliaro) 

0I,A1!1!A „ „ 

EsCHARA (= Escharlfnra, D'Orb.) 
MdiiTi'.sKiA, Stol., Latdorf. 

OI!NAllSSi;UA „ ,, 

CliEMT.ATA „ 

sriiovATA ,, (= Flustrina, D'Orb.) 

ri i.cnnA ,, (= Porellia, „ ) 

MONii.ii'EiiA, M..Ed. (= Eschart'pom, D'Orb.) = iv. 
pimrfata, Phill. 

I'BOTia's, Rss. 

Rr:i:ssi, Stol 'r* = E. codata, Rss. ' Pol. W. Beck.' p. 7_'. 

cosciNOi'HonA, Rss. p. 72. 
„ POBULOSA, Stol. (= Poritia, D'Orb.) 
. CEr.LKi'ORA OLonui-Auis, Bronn, Rss. 'Pol. W. Beck.' p. 7<'». 
. ORbiTi'LU'onA Haiiungiori, Stol. 
. Ri;tki'Ora Rubkt.sciii, Rss. ' Pojjp.' p. 48. 

,, FASCIATA, Stol. 

. S'nciioroRixA Riaissr, Stol. 

LUN'LMTKS sriil'I.A.VA, Rss. 

,, i,\i'i)Oi!i"i:xsis, Stol. 

Cyci-ostomata. 

Pu.^TUI,ni'(H;A AITKXUATA, Stol. 

,, I'li.ciiKiJ.A, Rss. = Or/copora id.,' Pol. W. Beck,' p. 10. 

„ i;i:i'ifei;a, Stol. (= Glausa). 

Hoi!Xei;a iiii'i'oi.YTA, Def., Busk, Rss, 
i:kti:i'Oi;aoea, M.-Ed. 

VERRLCOSA, Rss., ' Zeit. deut. Gesell,' 1851. 
I'OROSA, Stol. 
„ i;i:Arii.i,s, Phill. 

,, siMiANNLLATA, Phill. (and = hixerlnfa, Phill.) 

„ SKRIATOl'ORA, Rss. = IdllKHICd, D'Orb. 

FlMSl'ARSA TENKLLA, Stol. 
I|)MOM:a EORAMINOSA, Rss. = Cri^iiKt. 

,, GiEi!i;r,i, Stol. = Tubiijcra. 

iHM.M'ATi i.A, Busk „ Crag Polyzoa. 

•I'KNIISI I.CA, Rss. ,, 

„ HOrnesi, Stol. ,, 

DOMOPORA I'ROI.II'EIIA, RsS. Sp. ' Pol.' p. 07. 

Pavoti liiiiERA Amiai-tina, Stol. 

HkTEI.'OI'ORA f.lMll,iy, Stol. 



55 
55 
55 



55 
?5 



' TcM'tiary 15ryozoa of N, W, Germany.' — Phillip!, 
1. Ce[.i.ai!1a iii:xa(!ONA, V. M. = Glauconome ibid. 



o 



TinUAflOXA, 



M 



3. 
4. 

'!>. 

0. 

/. 

8. 

!'. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

i;]. 

14. 

15. 



ON FOSSIL rOLY/OA. 

CEr.LARIA MAROINATA, V. SL = GhlHCOnonie. 
„ KHOMliIFi:i;A, „ = 

GUAciLi.'^, Phillipi. 

ESCUAIJA fiLABKA, Phill., allie.l to 

„ TERETIU.SCIM, I'liill. 

„ I'L'NCTATA, 

,, POROSA, 

„ CI-ATHRATA, 

„ I)iri.OSTO.MA, 

„ CELf.ErORACEA, GoI(]f. 

DiscoPO-A ciRCUMCixriA, PJiill. (Lppndia, Jolm.sfc.) 

llETEi'ORA ci:r,Lui.osA, Lanik. 

MiiJ.MPORA TRUN-CAJA, = Mijriopo.a, Blaiuv. 

Li xi;i,iTEs rat>iata, Lamk. 



197 



5> 



Cyci.ostomata. 

1. H0R\i:ra (iBAClLIS, Phill. 

7 " lusERiATA, „ (soo Stollc/.ka). 

'•>• M SLIiANMLATA, Phill. 

4. CeRI0I-01!A VARIABIMS, Goldf. 
•'">• „ STKIJ.ATA, „ 

*j- » SPIRALIS, ,, 

"• ,» MI.NTTA, „ 

'Bi-yozoa of the Neozoic Period, New Zealand.'— Rev J E T Wnnd^ 

F.G.S. ' 

As I l\ave given a very full list of the Bryo.oa from Australia wlien 
leahng with the Papers of Mr. A. W. Water4, I need only .\yolhTM. 
owing list, without the elaborate but valuable details of Mr Woods 
1 think, however, that it would be unfair to the author not to give hfs 
views us to the horizon of the species. ^ 



J) 






CHEIl.O'-iO.MATA. 

EsciiARA, Kay. 

MOXiMFEKA, M.-Ed. Mioceiie or Upper PJocenc 
AMPLA, T. Woods. Oamansu 

„ BUSKII, „ 

Pt!-XA, D'Orb., 18o2. 

„ DlEFEENBACiriAXA. Stol. 

Celf.eporaria, Lamx., 1821 = Gellepom, Busk. 

GAMBiERENSis, T. Woods. Upper Eocene. 
PAPIET.08A, T. Woods. Napier. Upper Eocene. 

„ XLMMULARIA, Busk. 

Samcornakia, Cuvier. 

„ IMMERSA, T. Woods. 

VixcuLARfA, Defr., 1829. 

„ MAORICA, Stol. 

Cei,i,ai;ia, Ell. and Stol., 178?. 

„ PUNCTATA, T. Woods. 

Selenarfa, Busk, 1852. 
^^- » SQUAMOf<A, T. Wood. Upper Miocene. 



1. 



4. 

5. 
6. 
/. 

8. 

y. 

10. 



I 



1 1 Hi 



115 ■. 
iir 



'ill 



198 EErouT— 1884. 

Cyclostomata. 
Entai.iii'Iioua, Lamx., 1821. 

1. „ /EALANDicA, Mantell. 

2. „ NODOSA, T. Woods. 

Sl'IltOl'dlMNA, Stol. 

."». ., VEi;TEni!Ai.is, T. Woods. 

4. „ IMMEUSA, „ 

Fi:m;i:i,i.a, Hag. 

5. ,, i.oHATA, T. Woods. 
Idmonea, Lamx., 1821. 

G. „ Al.TEIiN'ATA. 

7. Fa.-i ;c'i i.ii'iii;a ivrEUMEmA, T. Woods. 

8. ,. K'AMOSA, ? ,, 

'A SynopsI^^ oF tlie known Species of Australian Tertiary I'oiyzoa."— 

Robert Etheridgo, jun. 

Previous to the publication of ]\[r. Waters's papers on Austi'aliaii 
Polyzoa, Mr. Etheridge wrote the Synopsis now under review. It was 
road before the Koyal Society of New South Wales in 1877, and I think that 
it would be unwise to ])ass it over. Much of the information is embodieil 
in the fuller papers of Mr. Waters. The paper is especially valuable on 
accoant of the bibliogi-aphy ; but as the new species, &c., are embodied 
from the MS. notes of Mr. Busk, many of these have been disregarded by 
Mr. Waters. Mr. 13usk'.s notes were published in the ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' 18Go. 1 give the list from Mr. Etheridge. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



Cheilostomata. 

CaNDA AMILLATA, Busk. 

Onchoi'ORa pusTuiiOSA, Busk (MS.) 
„ vi:i!Ti:ih;ams, Stcliczka.' 

SAMCOnNAHIA (IKACIJilS, Busk. 

Parkeri, „ (MS.) 
sr.NL'OSA, Hassell. 

„ TEXLIROSTIUS, Busk. 

CABERliA LATA, Busk. 



»» 
»> 



9. Ceij-ei'OEa oostata. Busk (MS.) 



10 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



i1 



KCHiNATA, Start. 

( lAMBiEKENSi.'!, Busk (MS.) =Escha7'u cellcporiacea, Sttm-t. 

iiKMisi'ii^RiCA, „ „ =■ Celle'pora escharoidcs, ,, 

Sl'ONGlOSA, „ 

TLBLLOSA, „ 

Ca:i;i>ciiAi!A Ai STRAINS, Busk (MS. genus and sp.) 



16. EscHAitA AuciTA, Busk (MS.) 

17. 

18. 

10. 

20. 

21. 

' fit/riro/iori/u/, Sfol., Mr. Dusk considers to he, according: to this list, a Chcilosto- 
matous and not ii t'\ clostoiiiatous form. See Wood's list Is'o 55, Cycles. 



r.I.MAROlXATA, 


Busk (MS.) 


lIASTKiKRA, 


» j> 


INORXATA, 


n j» 


OCILATA, 


fi n 


I'AI'II.I.AIA, 


>? M 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



199 



22 

2:J 
•24 
llo. 
20, 



27 

28 
29 

;:io 

.SI 
32, 
33. 
34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

40. 

47. 

48. 

49. 

50. 

51. 

52. 



1 



>> 
>) 
>> 

91 

>» 

>> 
>) 
>> 
» 



» 

>> 









EsciiABA piinioii.Mis, Sturt. 

siMiM.KX, Bask (MS.) 

sp. ind., Wood.s' ' Gcol. Observations.' 

sp. iud., Sturt. 

CAVKK.NOs.x, T. Wood, from 'Rot. Soc. N.S.W.' vol .x 

187/. 
I'OiMtKCTA, T. Wood. Mount Gambier. 

Ci.A];ki:i, 

Vi:i!l!l('(i,>^.\, 

Rlstica, 

Ki.i:v.\T.\, ., (p = monolifoni, Bu.sk). 

Livi:i!siiMii:i, T. Wood. 

pcLi.ATA. T. Wood. 

Tat,:,, „ 

Lei'iui.ia domioi!.\,;s, Busk CMS.) 
Stawi:,,i,i;xsis, M'Cuy. 

SLfJCAlUXATA, Busk (MS.) 

.srnMARdiNATA, Busk (MS.) 
LuNLLiTF.s, sp. ip'l., T. Woods. 
Mku:cerita anoi .sni.AnnA, Busk (MS.) 

MEMHRANil-ORA Al'l'IiK.^SA. Busk (AJS.) 

Jiiin;\.'<, Haf^onow. 
cvcLOi'S, Busk. 

,, ST,iN0.S10MA, Bn.sk. 

PsiLEScnARA I'lsTi I.OSA, Bu.sk (pfeiuis and sp. MS.) 

„. Miisn.cAVA, „ (MS.) 
Retepora DrsT,ciiA, sturt. 

M'CoY,, R. Ether, jun. 

M0XI,.1FKRA, McGil. 

„ VI liiCATA, Sturt (non Goldfuss) ? = /,'. Beaniana, Kinir. 

bCLTL-LARiA I'Ri.MA, Busk (genus and sp. MS.). 

Cyci.ostomata. 
Crisia eburxea, Linn. ' Only one species has as yet been noted 
Irom the Australian Tertiaries ' (R. Etheridge). ' I have 
several species from the Yarra Yarra material ' (G R V ) 

llORXERA GA5IR,ERENSIS, Busk. ' 

„ Ri'iiri.osA, ,, 

Idmoxea ].I(;ui.ata, Busk. MS. 

„ M,,.xi;axea, D'Orb. 
Entai.oi'hura distan,-^, Busk (rastidopora, Eth.) 

„ rNGLI.A'l A, Woods. 

„ CORRLdATA, „ 

TuBiLiroRA ga.m,„i:ri:xsis. (Mount Gambier. Xo author's name). 

Mr. George Busk. 
It seems to mo to be ahnost out of place to make any elaborate remarks 
otthe place which the masterly work of Mr. Busk, ' Fossil Polyzoa of tho 
Uag occupies m the literary history of the Polyzoa as a distinct group. 
m thi.s work the author not only described and figured all the then known 
i-oljzoa from the Crag, but we owe to him the elaborate synopsis of tho 






3. 

4. 
6. 
0. 
7. 
8. 
I). 



'1:' 



200 



UKrOllT 1^^H4. 



in: 



ii 



Choilostomata and Cyclostomata whicli prefaces tlio two groups of fossil 
forms. In addition to lliis wo liavo another, a preface which deals with 
morphological details, which have been, and always will ho, of supremo 
advantage to tho Pala;ontological student. I think tliat it may he said 
that tho publication of this work inaugurated an epoch out of which later 
writers have emerged witli difliculty. Tho work, however, of Mr. Busk 
dealt only with sui)erticial details, and but very rarely with structure. 
It may bo said, however, that the authors who gave to us tho elaborate 
monographs which this report fully indicates by tho lists given, dealt only 
with superGcial characters ; and it was reserved ftn* later writers to deal 
with and interpret the meaning of tissue and structure of tho fossil by tho 
study of living species. Hence tho publication of the works of Mons. 
Joliet, Claparedc, Nitsche, IJarrois, and others, has given a new direction 
of thought in the study of fossil forms ; and, so far as superficial character 
can possibly indicate the relative positions species should occupy in a 
natural grouping, the coll and tho cell-orifico f urni.sh us with details only 
dimly visible to authors who wrote previous to Professor Smitt, Mr. 
A. W. Waters and also Rev. T. Hincks. I have j^iven to tho student in 
tho first part of this Report ample material by which Busk and others can 
bo brought into harmony with the more modern classification. It is be- 
cause of this that I had no desire to alter tho text. 

' A Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Crag.' By George Busk, 

F.R.S., &c., 1859. 

Sub-Order I. Chkilostomata. 

ScRUi'OCKLLAKiA, Van Ben., p. 10. 
1. „ scpai'OSA? Linn., pi. i. fig. G, p. 19. 

Salicoiixakia, Cuvier. 
'' (BASSA, S. Wood (as CdJaria), pi. xxi. fig. 4-G. 



3. 



siXLOSA, Uassall (as Farcimia), 



fig. 5. 



Hiri'OTUOA, Lamx. 



4. ,, I'ATAGONiCA, Busk, pi. i. fig. ^ = Alcdo vesiculosa (?), 
Mich. 

5. Hii'VOTHOA AissTERSA, S.W., pi. xxii. fig. G = Lepralia ibid. S.W. 

= Crisirpia pyriformis (?), Mich. 
G. HiproTHOA DENTATA, S.W., pi. i. fig. 7 = Cateuana ibid. S.W. 

Alysidota, Busk = Fhi/ladella, Hincks. 

7. „ r.ABROSA, Busk, pi. xxii. fig. 7 = Lepralia ibid. Busk. 

8. „ CATENA, S.W., pi. vii. fig. 7 = Lepralia ibid. S.W. 

Membranh'Ora, Blainv. 

9. ,, TUBERCULATA (?), Bose, pi. ii. fig. l = Flustm, 
ibid. Bose = F. membranacca, Esper = F. crassidentata, Lamk. 

10. Membranipora iMOnostachys, Busk, pi. ii. fig. 2 = Flustra pustu- 

losa (?), D'Orb. = Memb. nobills (F), Reuss. 

11. Membranipora Savartii, Aud., pi. ii. fig. G = Flustra ibid., Sav. 

= M. Lioeriensis (?), D'Orb. 

12. Membranipora dubia, Bask, pi. iii. fig. 12. 

13. „ TRiFOLiuM, S. Wood, pi. iii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 9. 

14. „ FouiLLETii, Aud., pi. iii. figs. 4, 5, 6 (as Flustra 
ibid. Aud.). 



ON 1-((.SS1I. I'OLYZOA. 



201 



)f Tossil 
lIs with 
mprcmo 
bo said 
ich later 
[v. Busk 
ructnre. 
laborato 
jalt only 
1 to deal 
il by the 
•f Mons. 
lirefitiou 
iliaracter 
ipy in a 
aila only 
fiitt, Mr. 
udent in 
thers can 
It is bc- 



3 Busk, 



4-G. 
5. 

".ulosa (?), 
bid. S.W. 

s.w. 

d. Busk. 

S.W. 

= Flustra, 
i,ta, Lamk. 
stra pustu- 

ibid., Sav. 

9. 

as Flustni 



15 

\7. 
IH, 

ID. 

20. 
L»l. 



20, 
27. 



20. 

;io. 

31. 

;i2. 



, MKMnuAxiPunA llvNviioTA (Bu.sk), pi. iii. il^. 7 = M. h-lfullum 
(.''vnr.), S. W. 
:Mi:.\iiii!ANii-ouA Ai'i:r;TA, Busk, pi. iii. fiy. ];!. 
„ oi!i-CN«iA, Busk, 1)1. ii. iTjr. ;{, 

„ » iilDKNS, llnpeiiow, pi. ii. lig. ■i.=zCdlfpi,ra ibid. 

Jlag, = f. Jiippori'cpix (>), lis.s. 

MKMitiiANU'uKA an'I.k.;avi.:xsis, Midi., pi. ii. fig. ', = j:,,Jun-a ihid 

Mich. 
Mi;.\iiiRANii'OKA I rs.siRATA, Biisk (no figure), p. '.\'>. 

M • T r T...^ ,«J^'-'^>". D'Oib, pi. iii. tFg. H L j-Uclain.:<i {Ctth'inmv 
ibid.), J) Orb. ' 

MivMiiUANH'OHA iiut.osTo.MA, S. W., pi. iii. fig. H (as Flnstra ibid.), 

Lepuama Johnst. (Busk gives, p. :\7, 10 synonymous genera for 
fbe old Lejn-nha.) . 

1. Ak.mat.k. 
(") With oral spiii(>,->. 
Lepkai.ia pinctata, IJassall, pi. iv. fig. i. 

„ INNOMI.VATA, CoHcb, J)!, iv. i\g. 2. 

„ PINCTl RATA, S. W., ].l. vi. fig. 2. 

„ WOODIANA, Bu.sk, pi. vii. figs. 1-3. 

„ PciMATA, Linn., pi. vii. fig. (5 (? Mia-oporoUa, Hincks) 

= Cellcpiira creni'lahri's!, Kss. 
„ :Morkisiana, Busk, pi. vii. fig. S = nrJIrnnm trlstoim (?). 
Goldf. 

('>) WilJtoat oral spines. 
Leprama VIOLACEA, Johiist., pl. iv. fig. 3 (MicrujwrcUa, Hincks). 
J'i,.\(!i0P0RA, Busk, pl. iv. fig. r. = Cdlepom Hechelii (? 

Kss.). Name suppressed by Busk. 
Edvvard.siana, Busk, pl. v. fig. 2 = L. Mihu-ana, Busk = 

Edwardstana, ' Ci-ag Polyzoa,' p. l:}2. 
iN^OliNLs Johnst., pl. iv. fig. 4 = Gellepura tdragona, 



34, 

3r>. 

3(1. 
37. 



38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 



43. 
44. 



I) 



Rss. 
AN.SATA, Johnst., pl. vii. fig. 2 = Cdlepora Bunlccri, Kss. 

= C. protnbirans (':'), liss. 
BROXGNiAnii, And., pl. vi. fig. 1. 
MAMII.LATA, S. W., pl. vi. fig. 5 (as Collepora). 
iJicoRNis, Busk, pi. viii. fig.s. (5, 7. 

PmAPERTA, Micb., pl. vii. fig. 5 = ^sr-Aam ibid., Mich. 
Icon. 

II. Inar.matje. 
(a) 117/ // oral spines. 
Lei'RALia VARIOLOSA, Johnst., pl. iv. fig. 4, 8 ; pl. viii fi<r 8 
Peachii, Johnst., pl. V. figs. G,7,H; pl. vi. fig 4 
ventricosa, Hassall, pl. vi. figs. 3, 6, 8. 
BOWERIUNKIANA, Busk, pl. vii. fig. 4. 
J.OBATA, Busk, pl. vi. fig. 7 ; pl. xxii. fig. 4. 

(h) Without oral spines. 
Lepkalia rYmFOR.Mi.s, S. \V., pl. v. fig. 3. 

iiYALiNA, Linn., pl. V. fig. 1 (Cellepora ibid., Linn.). 



>> 

J) 



I 



^4 



4r.. 

4(5. 
47. 
48. 
40. 
AO. 
61. 
£2. 






202 HKi'DitT -1884. 

LrriJAi.iA I'AiM.i.ATA, JJu.sk, pi. V. f. r>. 

„ Hai.\ii:si:ana, Jiusk, pi. viii. fij?. 1. 

^Iam.i'sii, Anil. (J'^sr/urrn), ])1. \iii. fij^. 3. 
Ui;i s.siA\A, linsk, pi. viii. lij,'. -. 
inhndiiu lata, Husk, pi. viii. fi;,'. 4. 
Pai.i.asiana, Moll., pi. i.v. fij,'. 7. 
MKc, \si(iMA, Husk, |)1. viii. ti^i;. '». 

Mii.m:.\na, IJiisk (Si'o 'Cnii,^ P..1.,' p. V.Vl) - L. E,K 
wardsiana, Busk, No. ol above. 

CKl.t.EPoKA (par.s), 0. Fab. 1780. 

((/) Ifinume, vot enn'iiKti'iKj. 

.'>3. CEM.ri'ORA CnROXOI'IS, S.WoOll, pi. IX. ilgS. 1-J = Sci/pJdu ii'lUllusa ? 

Goldf. 
iiAMi i.osA, Linn., pi. ix. lig. -. 
C(i.Mi'i!i;>sA, Husk, pi. ix. fig. •!•. 
» Esi'iTosA, Husk, pi. ix. fig. 5. 

(l)) I'liimi.'itiiiij, aduiili', nnissirr. 

i;i»AX, linsk, pi. ix. fig. »'»; j)l. xxii. (ig. .*>. 
tli!I(;i;ka, Bnsk, pi. ix. fig. H-lU. 

Sl.'IMl'OSA, IJusk, „ ,, 1». 

I'AUAsrncA, Mich., „ „ 1 1 -l;». 
tKNTA lA, liusk, pi. ix. fig. 12. 



54. 


>? 


65. 


» 


66. 


>» 


f)7. 


»> 


6S. 


» 


r)9. 


M 


<50. 


>» 


{Jl. 


II 




ESCIIA 


62. 


»> 


68. 


5> 


64. 


5? 


65. 


>» 


66. 


)» 


^7. 


>» 


68. 


>» 


69. 


M 



70. 



73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 



Hay. ('() Fuliaceons. 

1>ET!TL'8A, M.-Edw., pi. X. fig. 2. 
INCISA, „ „ „ o. 

roKO.^A, „ pi. xi. fig. 4. 

sixiosA, Bu.sk, pi. x. fig. <). 

COKXITA, „ pi. iv. fig. 7; pi. X. fig. ^j. 

(h) Lohatc or ramose. 

SEi'iiWH Kii, ;M.-Ed\v., pi. x. fig. 1. 
MONii,iri:uA, „ pi. xi. tig.s, 1-23. 

sot'iAi.is, Busk, p. 131, pi. xxii. fig. 1. 

Melicerita, M.-Edw. 

„ CuAui.EswoitTiu, !M.-Edw., Y)l. X. fig. 4:^ Mcllcrrlina, 

ibid., Ehrcnb. = Ulidiimi ibid., S. Wood. 

BiiLUSTitA, D'Orb. 

„ DELICATU1,A, Busk, pi. i. figs. 2 and 4; pi. ii. fig. 7. 

FLr.STi;A ? DiiiiA, Busk, p. 132, pi. i. fig. 3. 

Retepoka, Imp. 

„ CEM.II.OSA, Linn., pi. xii. figs. 1-7. 

„ Beasiana, King, „ fig.s. 2, 5, 6, 7. 

„ NOTOI'ACHYS, Busk, „ fig. 4. 

„ SI.Ml'LEX, „ „ fig. 3. 

HEMEScnAiiA, Busk =: .S'c7)i/Vsc/;a?'a, Scmiescharipora, Mnlllescliarl- 

pora, all D'Orb. 
Hemesciiaua imhellis. Bask, pi. iv. fig. G; pi. x. fig. 7 = Enclcara 

pertusa (?), Mich. 



ON 1U«SII. rOLY/OA. 



20:) 



:Jtci'rtina, 



ig. /. 



l*'iiiiiily Vir. Busk. Group LUx'nr. 
Sr;i.i:NAKlii.T:, Busk, Is.".:; = IJuc/nirihi; (pars) D'Orh; l\<lij}>li is jorttuiinri', 
liiiiuk. ; Ciil((ii(fit, (piirs) IJlainv. ; J//7/«/j(/(vr(f, (pars) Laiiix. ; Ashri'. 
(Usiuiut, Lonsd. — Dixon, 'Geo. (if Sussex.' 

* Zdiin'iim free (r ). orbicular or irrcj?ular, conical, or dcjirt'ssctl, convex 
on ono side, and phiiie or concave on the otlier; composed of a sin<,'le 
layer of cells, usually of two kinds, wbicli opon on the convex surfaci; 
oidy.' — 'Crap Polyzoa,' p. 7K. 

This fannly Mr. Uusk {•oinmont-} upon very fully in tlio above work, 
and as bo bas bad nuiny more lacilities of studying tbo proup than I can 
ever bope to liave, 1 trladly refer tbo student to tbo ])ages of the ' Crat; 
Polyzoa' for tbo prencral rernarks. Tbo following is tbe synopsis of 
fjcnera and also a full list of known fossil species bolow tbe Crag, whieb 
will be, I feel confident, acceptable to students who have not access to tbo 
author's works. 

Syiuipsis of genera (four admitted). 

1. CupUiiAKiA, Lamx. 

((t) Each cell witli a vibracular chamber at its apox or disfnl 
extremity. 

2. LiNi-MTKS, Lamx. 

(6) The cells and vibracular chambers disposed or separate, 
usually alternate rows radiating from the centre. 

3. Seij:xai!IA, Busk. 

('■) Certain of tbo cells of a dilTerent conformation to tbe rest, 

furnished with a vibraculum. 
Stichoi'OEA, Hagcnow. 

((/) No apparent vibracular chambers distinct from the true 

coll. 

4. CoNi:sciiAREi.i.i\A, D'Orb. 

('•) Vibracuhi replaced by small avicularia; mouth of cell 
circular. 

Ckktackols geuera and species. 

Selenauia comca, D'Orb. = !,/(» »/i7ej.- ibid. Defr. 
Sticuoi'Oua cr.Yi'KATA, Hagenow. 
Cl'I'I'lauia Ml nsteui, „ 

Llxuijtes plana, D'Orb. 
rosacea, „ 

PKTALOIDES, D'Orb 
EEGUI.AKl.'J, 
I'APyKACEA, 
TUnEliCL'I.ATA, 

CRETACEA (? Defrance) 
(? D'Orb). 

EOCEXE, 
CUPL'LARIA RIIOMIIOIDALIS, Mimster. 

„ Haidixgeri, Reuss. 



» 

n 

» 
>» 
»» 






LoxLLrn:,s Bolrgeoism, D'Orb. 

DOXIA, „ 

CIA'PEIFOR.MIS, „ 

Hagknowi, Bosquet. 
GoLDi'issi, Hagenow. 

MITRA, „ 

SEMIIAN'ARIS, 

SPIRALIS, 



»> 
>) 
)> 
)) 
)) 
II 






LUXI'LITES URCEOLATA, Lamk. 

(nonGoldf., Lamx.). 



>» 



EADIATA, 



LuNULiTES covfK^.rA, Lonsdale. 

,, DISTANS, „ 



»> 



SEXAXGULA, 



>l 



l?^^' 



204 



RErouT — 1884. 



fill 



!MiocK\R, or more recent than Koccno, 

Ccvrr,ARiA -JENTICULATA, Conrad. 

„ ]nti:u.mi:d;a, Michellotti. 

„ iMiiKLLATA, JJcfrcancc. 

„ Vaxdkrukckei, !Mich. 
LuNL'LiTES AnduosA('i;s, Michellotti. 

„ Ci viKKi, Del'rance. 

„ coxiCA, ,, ' Crag.' 

„ I'lNCTATA, Leymerio. 

Doubtful forms ; uncertain as to position or genus: - 

Luxi'LiTEs sroxciiA, ^lorren. 

,, ])i<'i,oisiA, Lea; Claiborne, Alabama. 

„ BOUKI, „ „ „ 

„ i)i:rui:ssA (?), Conrad. 

„ I'lXiiA (?), Risso ; Defrance. 

„ QLlxci'XCiALis, Dujardin. 

Only two of the fonr genera admitted by !Mr. Bu.sk are represented in 
the Crag. 

(Crag Polyzoa — continued.) 

CuPULARiA, Lamx. = Lunulite.1 (pars), Defr., Goldf., Blainville, 
Lonsdale, Deslougchamps -- LunuUtcs spiralis, Hag., Geinitz., 
Grund., p. Gio. 

78. Cltulakia dexticlt.ata, Conrad, ' Crag P.* pi. xiii. fig. 1. 

79. „ CAXAiMEXsis, Busk, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

80. „ I'OROSA, „ „ „ 5. 

LixrMTE.«, Lamx. 

81. ,, CONICA, Defrance, pi. xiii. fig. 4 
L. tirceolatit, Goldf. 



var. ((, depressa = 



Sub-Order II. Cyclostomata. 

Crisia, Lamx. 

1. „ dexticulata (?), Lamk. sp., pi. i. fig. S = Gellaria ibid. 
Lamk. 

Horxera, Lamx. 

INiaXDIlREATA, Bu.sk, pi. xiv, fig. 1. 
RETEPORACEA, Milne-Ed., 
CAXAMCIEATA, Bl'.sk, 
RIIIPIS, „ 

}ILJIILIS, „ 

PERTUSA, „ 

iiippOLYTA ('?), Defr., 

LL'XATA, Busk, ])\. xvi. fig. 4. 

FUONDici'LATA, Lamx., pi. XV. figs. 1-2; pi. xvi. fig. G. 
STRIATA, M.-Ed., pi. XV. fig. 3; pi. xvi. fig. 5. 
RlIOMnOIDALlS, Busk, pi. XV. fig. 4. 

Idmonea, Lamx. 
13. „ PixcTATA, D'Oib, pi. XV. fig. 5 ; pi. xvi. fig. 3 = Latero- 

cava ibid. D'Orb. 



2^ 




3. 




4. 




5. 




<5. 




7. 




8. 




9. 




10. 




11. 




12. 







2 




M '^' 




„ 3. 




„ 4. 




figs. 5-G. 




fig. 7. 




figs. 8-9. 



ox FOSSIL rOLTZOA, 



20J 






14. 
15. 

16. 



>> >> 



17. 

18. 
10. 

20. 



21 
22 



23 
24 



2j 



26 

27 

28, 

29. 



30. 
31. 

32. 
33. 

U. 

35. 



Ii>.MO.\I:A I C.VKSTItATA, Bnslc, pi. XV. fifr. G 

" r>i:MCATir,A, „ „ ° h. 

,, IMniCAIMA, „ 

Plstuloi'Ora, Bldinv. 

i . ,r/, ///<,/„ , Ronier = EntalopJwra Ihimri^, D'Orl) 

PLSTir/Jl'OlJA i'AI.MATA, Bu.sk, pi. xviii. fig. 2. 

SI i!vi:RTiciLr,ATA, Ba.sk, pi. xviii. fig. 1. 
Mi;si:\ti:i!ii'(.i;a, Blainv. 

" „ ^ ^^"aNDIUNA, S. V7., pi. xvii. fig. 2; pi. xviii. li.. 4' 
pi. XX. f.g. 2 = Z).a./o;,cmibi,l., ^\ooA^b'. EndLiann,U.V^y 

(7) D'Srl""'^"'"'' ^"'^^•' ^^''=- = ^^-^«^«->--« --■-..Vh.'}; 
TruLMi'DRA, Larak. 

„ rii.u.ANGKA, Couch, pi. xviii. fio- G 

., I KAIiKLLARlS (?), Fab. ap., pi. x^viii! fig. 3 ; pi. XX ficr 

= I),a.tornra rassiacensis, D'Orb. = D. phuuula, l4' 
Amx'to, Laiiix. 

«6W<,, Rs3. = Idmonea divaneata, dcj^ressa, Ccnomana, clegan,, 

Dia8toi'(u;a (Dladopores simples, M.-Ed.). 
si.Mi-i.i:x, Busk, pi. XX. fig. 10. 
Pati\i:i.i,a, (Irar. 

1>R0I.IGKRA, Busk, pi. Xix. fig. 1 ; pi. xx. fig. 3. 

D]8coroRr:i,r,A, Gray. 

Kisi'iDA, Johnst. (?), pi. xviii. fig. T) 

• IRUiNOXEXSIS (?), M.-Ed., pi. XX. fig. 4. 

Di'iRAXciA, Bronii. 

FuxcKM.A, llagenow. 

,, gi-ADRicEi's, Busk, pi. xvil. fig. 3. 
Mid.. '"■''■''"'"''' " " "° '^^■J^'romUpovaM.n'snin, 
FUXGCI.I.A INFi:M)lIiUr-ATA, Busk, pi. xvii. fig. 6. 
H];ti:i;oi'(ira, Blainv. 

. i/. ^*-/*//y, Unsd. = f M'ulfi-oiiopora romosa D'OH. — v /r 

(xoWl. - /A./cTo^...« »...»o/.j,.;v,, Kss. = Ceriopori tholeoidca? 
Hm:Rj)PO.a UKncnxTA, Busk ; no fig = C^^/opom rf/c^lo/.,,,., Goldf 



It Mm 



206 



REPOKT— 188-i. 



^ I: 



30, Hi;ti;imi'iii;a i..kv;i;at,\, I3nsk (]J'()rI). sp.). pi. xix. S^r, :, = Crrio- 
poni Jichdt. (Joldf. = Zniiopura hi viijulii, l)"(Ji'b. = Mnltr^Diumoi-n 
iUjeriensis, J )"()rb. 

Hi;Ti:i:iiri)i;i;r.i,A, Yin?,\z. =^ Tii'ptnmnUii-'trii. ('t). D'Oi-b. 
:J7. ,, nAiuATA, Busk, pi. xix. liu'. '_>. 

38. „ I'AKAsrncA, „ pi. xxii. tij;-. .">. 

Thi:oxuidi:.i:, Busk. 
' Zoarium massive, snbglobose, ov irroguliU' ; cells contigaous, cr >\vdetl.' 
-Busk, 'C. P.' p. 1-27. 

Ai.vKoi.AiMA. Busk. 

00. ., si'MinvATA, Busk, pi. xix. fig. 4; pi. xxi. fig. 3, section 
= JJlniiiodidcliinni, Sowerby. 

Fasciti i.ai;;a, Milne-EJ. = Tlieonoa (sp.), S. Wood ; AIeaiidii[)ora, 

D'Or)). ; Apsendesia, (jiars) Blainv. 
•lO. Fasck'ii.auia TiiiiroKA, Busk, pi. xxi. iig. 1. 
•il. ., AiRANTiLM, M.-Ed., pi. xxi. Iig. "2 = Jpe/uZcA-i'rt cerc- 

hrij'oriuls ?, ]31ainv. 

' Bryozoa (Polyzoa) from tlio Pliocene of Bniceoli (Sicily).' 

The following list of sjiecies is compiled from one of the earliest and 
most important papers of .Mr. A. W. Waters, as pnblislicd in the Trans- 
actions of the ^lauchester Geological Society, vol. xiv. p. 4(15, read May 
I.H78. In it ^Ir. Waters describes — some of which sire tij^nred — 43 species 
of Polyzoa, and besides the synonyms he has given some account of their 
i-ange in space and time. As the geological horizons of the Pliocene beds 
are almost or about the same horizon as our own English Crags, 1 look 
upon ^Ir. AVaters's paper as a lit seqnel to that of the work of Mr. Busk, 
I have not generally nuide any special point of dealing with the history or 
sequence of the geological horizons in which Polyzoa have been found, 
but it may perhaps be well just to give the section, as furm'shed by Dr, 
Fuchs, of these peculiar beds. They are given in descending order : — 

((() Upper Pliocene sand, gravels and limestone, Fosa. : CfrifJilnra 
valiidfum, (,'. scahrum, 2htrcji tmni-uli's^ ]ii.i>ioii, Tiirho, Troc/iu*, 
Mnnuiloidii, Ostrea. 

(h) Yellow sands without fossils. 

(c) Blue marl, Jhn-n'mun seiiiinirin'mp, Drutal'iiiii, <h'phniluiHm, &c. 

((/) Bryozoa bt'ds, Corals, Brachiopoda, Vccli'u oimn-ndin's, itc. 

From the works of Seguenza it sjems that the Bryozoa described by 
!Manzoni from Sicily and Calabria, are also Lov.-er Pliocene. I have 
given the original arrangement of i\Ir. Waters, und as the work was com- 
pleted before the pvxblication of ^Ir. ITincks's Avork, I have been more 
desirous to give ^Ir. Waters's opinion of the fossils rather than the mere 
identification and range of his species. 

Gheilostomata, 

1, Samcouxauia lARcrMiNOiDEs, Ell, & Sol. = ,S'. ninuosii, Hassall ; 

Vinculnriii and Cellar in mdrijinain, Goldf. 

llange from Bartonian : Up. Eocene, North Italy; Oligocene, North 
Germany ; Miocene, Austria-Hungary. Pliocene : Italy — common iu 



ON KOSs'lL rOI.YXUA. 



207 



Corio- 



iwdetl.' 

section 
ilvipora, 

sia cere- 



Host aiu\ 
ic Traiis- 
cad jMay 
1.3 species 
,t of their 
cene beds 
ITS, I look 
Vlr. Busk, 
istory or 
1 foiiiul, 
od bv Dr. 
ler :— 

'I'ritJiiiO'i'^ 
Troclni^, 



lUd, &C. 

scribed by 
I bave 
was com- 
been more 
the mere 



H assail ; 

tone, North 
ponimon iu 



Sicily, about '■]<) locah'ties. Coralline Crag, Kiigland. Jlv(;eiit : generally 
distril)ute(l. Cliaractcrs vary. 

'2. IMiCMiiKANirOKA iiiDKNS. llf\r'eno\v:=Ce1lrpo)-ii liijipiii-i-cjiis, llenss ? 

M. IiossnIh\ Manz. ' 4th Contr.' 
Ilange from ^laestricht : Uj). Miocene, Aust. il- I lung., English Crag. 
'lit. 3r. Laciioixh, Sav. : Miocene, Aust. and J lung. M. S((ciirtu, 

allied, from Eng. Crag. 
:>, M. ANDKiiAVRNSis, JNlicli., var. papyracca. Waters (tig. '.], plate), 

]}ruccoli. 

•I'. M. A NOT LOS A, Rss. 

Kange from Bartoiiian : i\Iiocene ; Pliocene ; fjiving, ^Mediterranean, 
' 'I'hero are probabi}' a number of species which should bo reduced to 
synonyms of this form, and it .should be noti(;ed that in tlie Chalk there 
!iro several 30-callcd Eschavio described, which liave cells like the above, 
bnt which would now bo called Biflustra.' — Waters. Even the uamo 
Bitlustra. is now become obsolete. 

."). Li:i'iJAi.iA ciMATA, Villi. z^CrlJt'pora ('renihihrtf, Kss. 
Kange from Pliocene: Pliocene. Living, Avidt'y distributed (tig. 
•J, plate). 

(i. L. I^lOKUlSIAXA, Busk. 

Hiuige from Pliocene: Cor. Crag; Leghorn; (Manzoni, '2nd Con- 
trib.'). Allied sp., L. plmiropora, hiummna?, Rss. 

7. Li;i'i;ama vllgaris, Moll. (fig. 22, plate) =.Gdle'p. 'lophora, Jiss. 
Lepralia id., Rss. ? L. himkla, Manz. L. Interi. id, Rss. 

Range from Miocene : Aust. and Hung. ; Oligoceno. Varieties : Pliocene, 
Castrocaro ; Living: Madeira; Mediterranean. 

S. L. I occinka, Aud. = L. IBallu, Johnst. ^Miocene of Eisenstadfc 

(Hungary), Pliocene. Living. 
0. L. i.N'NO.MiXATA, Coucli. Pliocene: rare at Castrocai-o; Crag; 

(^)uaternaiy, A. W. AV. 
10. L. AUUiX'TA, Rss.; Celh'pora id., and Lepralia id., Rss. ^Miocene : 

Eisenstadt. 
IL L. ANSATA, Johnst., var. porosa, Rss.=Z(7j. unicornis, ' Crag Pol.' 
Obei'oligocene of Doburg ; Miocene, Aust. and Hung., Crag (as 
anicoririti). 
L. Ai uiCLiiATA, Hass. One specimen, Bruccoli. 
L. „ var. Leontiniensis, Waters, (fig. 5, plate), Bruccoli. 

L. nin LATA, Manz. (fig. G, plate), ' oi-d Contribution.' Miocene, 

Pliocene. Living. 
L. Bo\\"i;riuxkit, Busk, ' Crag Pol. ; ' Manzoni, ' Lst Contr.' CoraL 
Crag, Eng. and North Italv. 
T<'>. L. Kr.si TiNATA, Manzoni (fig. 7, plate "). Pliocene, t.'astrocaro. 
17. L. sciiiiTA, Rss. = Jv. iiipf}(tci'ji/iala, Rss. ^.Miocene, Hungary; 

Pliocene, Tuseany and Sicily. Living. 
IS. L. Pam.asiaxa, Moll. 

' Probably several fossil species are L. I'allasiana, which have received 
other names.' — A. W. W. Known range, C. Crag, Sicily. 

10. Ci;r,M;i'ORA couONOrrs, S. Wood. Pliocene, C. Crag. Living. 
20, C. TcniGi-iiA, Busk (figs. 20, 21, plate). Pliocene. Living, Brit, 
and Foreign Coasts, Mediterranean. 



12. 
1:3. 
14. 

1-'.. 



:im 



208 



nEi'OBT — 1884. 



21. C. i;\Mti,0SA, Linn. Pliocene, Cor. Crag. Living: Scandinavia; 

Naples, 40 fatlioms. 

22. Hiri'OTJiOA ("A'JKXir.AUiA, Jameson. Pliocene. Living. 
2H. EscifAKA ;,i NAiiis, "Waters (fig. V, plate), IJrnccoli. 

' I believe that it is the same as Poriua labiala, Rom. The name is 
given from the serailunav pore, which occurs frequently in Lcprallo, but 
there are a few Esehara* with it. This would be called ForclUua cilUda 
by Sruitt.' — Waters. Pliocene. Living : Naples, 40 fath. 

24. EsciiARA fi:i;vicoRNis, Pill, and Sol. Pliocene. Living. 

25. E. iiiAi'KiiTA, Mich., forma J'Jsihari/ormis, Wat. (fig. 8, plate), 

Prnccoli. 
20. E. I'liKii SA, M.-Ed. (fig. 4, plate). IMioccne, Doue. Pliocene: 
Crag. 

27. E. roi.iACiiA, Lam., vixv. fasciah'.". Water?. Pliocene. 

28. Biii.usTRA liYXCHOTA, Waters (fig. 1, plato), Bruccoli. 

29. RKTKrouA CKLMi.osA, Linn. Miocene, Pliocene. Living, ' having a 

wide range.' 
80. Myuiozoon Titrxc.vrUM, Pall.=T'(f'//Hoj)ora polystigma, Rss. Myrio- 

zoon pviictatiim, Ksa. Miocene (as punctatum), Keuss. ; Pliocene, 

Manzoni. Living, Mediterranean, com. 
Gl. Cirri.AUiA Ei.lssiana, Manzoni=(.'/(^>«Z(U7'a tZojHrt, D'Orb. 

Cycloatomafa. 

32. DiASToi'OiiA ii.AiJKi.i.iM, Rss.=Z>. simplex, Bask (non D'Orb.). 

Miocene, Pliocene. 

33. Ai.KCTO MAjoi;, Lonsd.=/l. rej^^is, S. Wood (Waters). Pliocene. 

Living, Arctic S 

34. PiSTUi.oi'OHA I'RonosciDr.A, M.-Ed. Bruccoli. Living: Shetland, 

Medit., Naples 30 fath. 

35. P. KL'GOSA, D'Orb. = En/a7r)/)/(or(r, id , D'Orb. ; Pustuloporarngidosa, 

Manz. CuAi.K, stage 22, as riii/iisa. Miocene. 

36. Discoi'ORF.r.t.A Mkdiiiirraxka, Blainv. (figs. 11, 12, plate) = Lichen. 

opora id., Blainv. 

37. D. RADiATA, And.=Discosparsa pntiiia, Heller. 

38. DiASTOPORA CLTI.I.A, D'Orb 

cupula, D'Orb. 

39. Frondii'Ora Ri7ncLi,ATA, Blainv., forma verrucosa, Waters, Bruccoli. 

40. MksI'NTKripoua, sp. (figs. 17 to 19, plate). 

41. Hoknkra FRONDicufiATA, Lamx.=li. affinis, Milne-Ed. = 21. an<k- 

(javensie, Michelin. Pliocene. Living : Naples, in the deeper 
dredgings. 

Of fig. 16, plate, Mr, Watei-s says : — ' This seems the same as Manzoni 
(' Bry. do Castrocaro ') has fijjured as Aetea slca, but 1 do not see from his 
figure why he does not call it Alecto, and believe it is the same which 
usually grows with more cells along the line of growth, and which ho 
figures as Alrdo repens.'' There is no doubt in my mind but that both 
the figures of Mr. A. W. Waters, and also of Manzoni, are indicative 
of true Sfomatojxira (Alecto), but I did not suppress the name out of 
deference to so good a worker, nevertheless I doubted the affinity in 
the first part of this Report (see Aeteidae). In his description of the 
plate vi. fig. 09 (fig. 5, plate vii.) Manzoni says 'jSJJtea sica, Co\ich= Alecto 
j)arasita, Heller.' 



(figs. 13, 14, plate) = Biscosparsa 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



209 



ihiavia ; 



name is 
'alia, but 
III ciluilO' 



8, plate), 
Pliocene : 

' having a 

Lss. Myrio- 
; Pliocene, 

•b. 

,n D'Orb.). 
, Pliocene. 
r: Shetland, 
na rngulusa, 
) = Lichen- 

D!scosparsa 
21-8, Bruccoli. 

n the deeper 

le as ;M.aiizoni 
t see from his 

same whicU 
nd which ho 
but that both 
ire indicative 

name out of 
„he affinity in 
[ription of the 

louch=i4?ei'(o 



' Italian Pliocene Bryozoa.' — Manzoni. 

In the earliest of Dr. Manzoni's vtritings, entitled 'Briozoi plioconi 
italiiini,' the author describes seventy-four species of Cheilostomatous 
and three Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. The work was published in 1869 
iind 18/0, and was fully illustrated, as all Dr. Manzoni's works are. I 
have not these papers by me, and I can only give the list as supplied by 
Miss E. C. Jelly. Many of the names will be familiar to the student of 
the ' Crag Polyzoa,' but twenty-seven are new. I wish to preserve the 
divisions of the author, I., II., III., IV. 



I. Sub-Order Cueilostomata, Busk. 



1. 

o 

8, 
4. 
6. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



]\[EMnEANiPORA Rel'ssiana, Manz. 
Lepra MA kedis, Manz. 

,, LMBONATA, Mauz. 

„ BoWERnANKlANA ?, Bk. 

„ LATA, Bk. 

„ VENLSiA, Eichwald. 

„ DISJL'XCTA, Manz. 

„ VIOLACEA, Johnst. 

„ TETBAGOXA, Rss, (Celle- 

pora), 'Fos. Pol. 

Wien. Beck.' p. 78. 



10. Li:PKALiASPiKiFERA,v. unicomis, 

Johnst. 

11. „ UTRiCLT.us, Manz. 

12. ,, iNXOMiXATA, Conch. 

13. Ckllei'Ora scruposa?, Bk. 

14. „ pcjjctata, Manz. 

15. CUPUI.ARIA TMHELLATA, Ddfr. 

16. „ CAXARIENSIS, Bk. 

17. „ Reusstana, Manz. 

18. LuNULiTES Andhosaces, All. 



Zoo. 



329. 



II. 

19. Membranipora exilis, Manz. 

20. „ andegavensis, Mich., ' Ic. 

21. „ ocEANi, D'Orb., ' P. Fr.' 

22. „ Lacroixii, Sav. = M. Savartii, Aud. 

23. BiFEUSTRA deeicatuea, Bk. 

24. Lepralia decorata, Rss., 'Wien. Beck.' p. 89. 
, Moruisiana, Bk. 

, MAMtLLATA, S. Wood. 

, Broxgxiartu, Aud. 

, UNICORNIS, Johnst. 

, pertusa?, Auctt. 
Ceelepora systolostoma, Men. (Coll. del R. Blusco di 8c. Nat. di 

Pisa). 
CufL'LARiA ixTEii.\ii;r»iA, Micliellotti. 

III. 

Leprama SCRIPTA, Rss.. ' Wien. Bock.' p. 

p. 29 ; ibid. ' Deut. Septa.' p. 50. 
Lepralia pteropora, Rss., 'Wien. Beck.' 
p. 45. 
.'54. Lepralia linearis, Hass. (He- 
ventia, Gmy). 
PERi'.r.RiNA, Manz. 

El'LGURANS, „ 
STRKNUA, „ 

PAPll.l.ll-ERA, „ 
CI LI ATA, Pall. 
TURGIDILA, Mar.z. 
ELECAMTLA, „ 



25. 

26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

31. 



3: 



no 
OO. 



35. 


n 


8G. 


M 


:^7. 


,, 


38. 




■i9. 


»» 


40. 


n 


41. 


»» 




1884. 



82 ; ibid. ' Deut. Oberol.' 
p. 81 ; ibid, von Crosara, 
Manz. 



42. 


Lepralia 


delicatui.a, W 


43. 




GIHUOSI'LA, 


44. 




axnulatopora, 


45. 




LUCERXir.A, 


46. 




cupulata, 


47. 




CUEILOSTOMATA, 


•1-8. 




OBELISCUS, 


49. 




scGRrininES, 



i 



210 REPOBT — 1884. 

rv. 

50. SATjcoRNAmA FARCiMi NOiDES, Johnat., Manz. * Saggio di Conch. Foss. 

Subalp. 186M,' p. G9. 

51. Satjcorxaria cspioA'n, Manz. 

.52. HiPPOTHOA OATKNUURiA, Flem., D'Orb. 'Pal. F.' p. 383. 

53. „ PLA(!K',r,UM, Manz. 

54. Mkmbranipora anxums, Manz. 

55. „ pi:T)LNCUr,ATA, Manz. 

56. „ RiOTiCL'H'M, Mich, (non Blainv.). 

57. „ ANiiut.osA, Rss., 'Wien. Beck.' p. 03; ibid, 'von 

Crosara,' p. 41. 

58. „ si'miLiMARdO, Rss., 'Oberol.' p. 17. 

59. „ LINKATA, Bk. 

60. „ RossEMi, And. 

61. „ Smi'ttii, Manz. 

62. Leprat.ia ligl'lata, Manz. (= Cheilostoma). 

63. CEriMa'ORA ramllosa, Linn. 

64. „ coROxopus, S. "Wood ; Bask, ' Crag ' p. 57. 

65. „ TunifiERA?, Busk. 

66. „ PUMicosA, Linn. 

67. „ Pur.CHRA, Michellotti. 

68. „ PAUCIOSCI'LATA, „ 

69. „ Hassallh, Johnst. 

70. EscHARA HEr,r,ERii, Manz. 

71. „ FOLiACEA, Lamk. 

72. Retepora CEr,i,ur,osA, Lamk. 

73. LUNDMTES QUADRATA, RsS., op. cit. p. 66. 

74. CUPULAEIA RIDENTATA, RsS., Op. cit. p. 65. 

II. Sub-Order CYCr.osTOMATA, Busk. 

1. Stomatopoea (Bronn), Tauri.xensis, iManz. 

2. Idmonea serpens, Linn. 

3. DiscopORELLA VERRUCARrA, Linn. = ' Discovparsa patina, Lamk. 

' I. Briozoi del Pliocene Autico di Castrocaro,' IManzoni. 

ScRUPOCELLARiA, V. Bened. 

1. „ ELLiFi'iCA, Rss., Tab. I. fig. 1. 

Salicornaria, Cul. 

2. „ FARCiMiNOiDES, Jolmst., Tab. I. fig. 2. 

Myeiozoon, Donati. 

3. „ TRUNCATUM, Pallas, Tab. I. 3 to 3a. 

HiPPOTHOA, Lamx. 

4. „ DiVARicATA, Lamx., Tab. I. fig. 15. 

5. „ FLAGELLUii, Manz., Tab. I. fig. 14. 

Aetea, Lamx. 

6. ? „ siCA, Couch, Tab. VII. fig. 69. 

7. „ ANGUiNA, Hincks, Tab. VI. fig. 70. 

Terebkipora, D'Orb. 

8. „ Archiaci, Fischer, Tab. VI. fig. 68. 

' Is not this a mistake of the printer for Disco.vparsfi 7 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



211 



9. 
10. 

11. 
12. 
18. 

14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 



21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 






» 



» 

»> 



33. 
34. 
35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 

60. 

51. 

52. 

63. 

54. 

55. 

56. 






>> 






Membranipoka, Blainv. 

OATENULAm, Jameson, Tab. I. fig 8 

A^•G..osA llss Tab. I. fig. U Jk' untiqua, Busk 

= Moiha anfiqna, Smitt. ^ 

APKRTA, Busk., Tab. I. fiff. 4 

TKIFOLIDJl, S. Wood, Tab. I. fiff 7 

iimmjuB,s. D'Orb., Tab. I. fi^ 5 = M. tncUpUra^ 

T-iNEATA, Linn., Tab. I. fig. 6 
Fr.EMiNCiir, Busk, Tab. II. fig 21 
ANNULUs, Manz., Tab. I. fig.s. 9, 9a, 9& 0, 
cat,pi.:nsis. Busk, Tab. I. fi^'r,. 16 ''''''' ^'• 
Hor.osTo.MA, S. Wood, Tab. I. fig 10 
RossKLii, Aud., Tab. II. fig. 15 "' 
BiDKxs, Hag., Tab. II. fig. \Q, 

Lepealia, Johnston. 

DECOBATA, Reuss, Tab. II. figs. 18a ISh 

coccinea, Johnst., Tab. II. fig 19 ' 

FULGURANs, Manz., Tab. II. fi^ 20 

STRENuis, Manz., Tab. II. fig 20 

iNNOMiXATA, Couch, Tab. VII. fi^ 85 

SCRIPTA (?), Reuss, Tab. II. figg^bs 25a 

«URGEXs, Manz., Tab. 11. fig 22 

ANSATA, Johnst., Tab. II. fig 24-24a 

BESUPINATA, Manz., Tab. II. fit, 26 ' 

Brongniarth, Aud., Tab. II. fig. 27 • Tab IV fi,, "i 

BiAPEBTA, Michelin, Tab. II fi/os ' ^- ^^- ^^' 

Pr-ANATA, Manz., Tab. III. fi^ 29 * 

MiCANs, „ Tab. III. fig. 32a 

SCHIZOGASTEB, Rss., Tab. Ill fiff 34 

MarioxXensis, Busk, Tab. Ill fi% 30 
VIOLACEA, Johnst., Tab. IV. fiff 45a ' 
OTOPHORA, Rss., Tab. III. fig. 3b-30a 
ciLUTA, Pallas, Tab. III. fi| 34 
CRAssiLABRA, Manz., Tab. III. fi^ 33 

TDMIDA, fi 00 , «« 

--,' :; Tab."lV.fit-4''^'''^- 

ANNULATOPORS, „ „ fi|_ 42" 

malusii, Aud., ;; fi|;j^- 

DisjCNCTA, Manz., Tab. III. fi^ 35„ " 

CBIBRILINA, „ ,, fi|_4o- 

VAscuLA, „ Tab. V. fig^56. 

RARECOSTATA, Reuss, Tab. VI fitr 7Q 

VENLSTA, Eichwald, Tab. IV. fi^ 50 ' 
Reussiana, Busk, Tab. VI. fig 55 
SQUAMoiDEA, Reuss, Tab. IV. figs 46 and 46« 
OBviA, Manz., Tab. VI. figs. 44?44a ^"• 

Haderi, Reuss, Tab. V. fig 65 
LINEARIS, Hasaall, Tab. III. fi^'s; 
RETICULATA, Busk, Tab. III. fig. 36L36a 
cccuLLATA, Busk, Tab. IV. fi/47 
PKRTcsA, Johnst., „ fi|;48; 

V2 



J» 



)> 



I 

4-j 



II 



212 



67. 
68. 
69. 

CO. 

61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 

65. 
G6. 
G7. 
68. 
69. 

70, 

71. 

72. 



1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 



REPOUT — 1884. 

Lepkai.ia systotostoma, Manz., Ta1>. IV. figs. 49-49a. 
„ ciiir.t PORA, Rss., „ fig. 54. 

„ TL'HA, Manz., „ fig. 52-52a. 

CeIjLKI'Orem-a, Nrrnian. 

„ Castuocaren.sis, Manz., Tab. V. fig, 57. 
C^llkpora. 

TUniOKHA, Bnsk, 

sYSToi.os'i'O.MATA, Manz., 
RETUSA, Manz., 
RAMULOSA, Linn., 

EsCHARA, Ray. 

,, EOI.IACKA, Lk., 

„ coLUMNAUis, Manz., 
i,iciti:NOlDi:s, Lamk., 
Skdgwk.'kii, M.-E(1., 
CKRVicoRMS ?, Lamk. 

BiFLUSTRA, U'Orb. 

„ Savartii, And., Tab. II. fig. 17. 

RkTEPORA I.Ml'ERA'l'O. 

? sp., Tab. VJI. fig. 84. 
CuPUr.ARiA, Lanix. 

„ UM13ELLATA, Def. = C. intermedia, Micli., Tab. V. fig. 67. 

Cyclostomata. 

Alkcto, Lamx. (Stomatoiwra). 

„ CASTROCARENSis, Manz., Tab. VI. fig. 71. 



)l 
>> 



)> 



» 


fif?. 


60-61. 


Jt 


fig. 


58. 


>t 


fig- 


59. 


!» 


tig- 


62. 


)) 


fig- 


6G. 


>/ 


fig. 


65. 


)> 


tig- 


64. 


») 


fig- 


63. 



RKPENS, S. Wood, 

„ PAUAsiTA, Heller, 
Idmonea, Lamx. 

„ ixsiDKNs, Lamx. 

„ SERPENS, Linn. 

HoBNERA, Lamx. 

„ FKONDICULATA, Lainx. 

Plstulopora, Blainv. 

„ ? sp. 

TuBDLiPORA, Lamk. 

„ FLABELEARis, Fabr. 

DiASTOPORA, Lamx. 

PATINA, Lamx. 



95 






VIL 

VII. 
VI. 

VIT. 

VII. 

VI. 

VII. 



72. 

69. 

78. 
78. 

80. 

82. 

73. 

77. 



STRIATA, J. Haine (Berenicea), Tab. VI. fig. 74 ; Tab. 
VII. fig. 79. 
„ EXPANSA, Manz., Tab. VII. fig. 85. 

Ceriopoua, Goldf. 

„ GLOBULUS, Reuss, „ VII. „ 81. 
Heteroporella, Busk. 

„ . eauiata ? Busk, Tab. VI. fig. 75. 



mi'mui 



*'M FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



1^3 



V. fig. 67, 



ig. 74 ; Tab. 



'Post-Tertif.1- Polyzou.' 
In the Catalogue of Western ScoHish Fossils comnilrrl T.^ T 
Armstrong, John Young, and David l^>bin«oT (GT^sTot \S^(/whn 
authors give a list of spoeies found in the Glacial Beds of srotland^' tI 
authors wore assisted in this work by the R .v AM ^''"*"'"'*- J^^^ 
valuable labours on the group nreviou^Iv n.^rJ' r" /," ■^?^'"'^". whose 
Shetland dredgings, nrofe ZV^fi'Z Z ^"l^^'Y .^" ' '« ^^^Ports on the 

There is still a^lai^^'mri^^LiuiXtuut^ofM^^^^^^^^^ 

soon L, published. TheeTZ.i:^^^^^^ ^W-i" 

other lists, I have re-arrancrod tL Jj, ■ ''^ ^'"'^ ^^^^- Unlike 

accord with the an-a^gren^ if t K T. H^'n^^^^^^ '' '" '"°^ '' -*° 

ClIKILOSTOMATA, Busk. ' 

Ckllularia, Pallas. 

Mkmpka, Laux. 

2. „ '1'i:RNata, var. Ellis and Sol. Garvel Park. 
Scklpockllaria, Van. Ben. 

^' " ""'nosS S^"h- /"'^^Tertiary and Glacial de- 

posits, Scotland ; Dui,troon, Paisley 

''pSN^'h • P°:;^-T--tiary and facial de. 

posits, Scotland ; Caithness 
scAiiKA, Van. Ben. 

r.m-Pn* T ^a^-- I'^f-O-^'^ATA, Smitt. Gar vel Park. 

LABEREA, Larax. 

G- „ Ellisii, Fleming. Garvel Park. 

Blglla, Oken. 
7. „ AvicuLARiA, Pallas. Duntroon. 

MeMBRANII'ORA. 

q- " FM.;.M>xrm, Busk. Garvel Park; Lochgilp. 

10 " Ti;n,.:Rcr,,ATA, „ „ ,, ^'^P" 

1- " LrrlJiTr; 'l''^-- ^''^•^^'^>' ' °'^'-""- 5 Duntroon. 

"s^^u^tiSniir^'^^'^^^"'^^^-^^^^^^ 

Cribrilina, Gray. 

12. „ ANNLLATA, Fabr. Garvel Park. 
PORINA, D'Orbigny. 

13. „ TiBiLOSA, Norman. Garvel Park. 

SCHIZOPOREfJ.A. 

1^- " HTAEiNA, Linn. 

1«: :: ^"^ '"'""'■ C?',"'"';-. ^ BouWer aay, 

17 " bfiMtEKA, „ Dalmnir. 

CRUENTA, Norman. Garvel Park. 
HippoTiiOA, Lamx. 

18- „ DiVARiCATA, Linn. Caithness, in Bouldor Clay. 



4. 



5. 




;i! I ■! 



214 BEroRT— 1884. 

Leprama, Johnst. 

„ im;rti'sa, Espor. Dalmuir. 

U.MiiONULA, Hincks. 

„ VKRRUCOSA, Espcr. Dalmuir ; Duntroon ; Oarvel Park. 

PonF.M,A, Ciray. 

„ CON'CIN.NA, Busk. Garvel Park ; Lochgilp. 

„ STIU'MA, Nonnan. „ „ 

Smittia, Hincks. 

„ ORYSTAi.MNA, Norman. Garvel Park, 

McCRONElJiA, Hincks, 

„ PiOACiiii, Johnst. Cnnnbrae College ; Caithness, in 

Uoulder Clay. 
Var. I.ABIOSA, Busk. Caithness, in Boulder Clay. 

Oellepoka, Fabr, 

,, I'LMicosA, Linn. „ „ „ 

Cyci,osto.mata, Busk. 

Crista, Lamouroux. 

„ KDLKNEA, Linn. Dalmuir, Lochgilp, Crinan, Duntroon, 

Paisley, and Garvel Park. 
„ DKN'iicihAiA, Linn. Caithness, in Boulder Clay, 

Idmokea, Larax. 

3. „ Atlantic A, Forbes. The most important of individuals 
in Garvel Park beds. 

TunuLiPORA, Lamk. 

4. „ Fr,Ani:i,i,AUiA, Fabr. Dalmuir. 

5. „ I'HALANdKA, Couch. Dalmuir, Duntroon, Garvcl Park. 

6. ,, ? sKRi'ENs, Linn (Idmotiea). Dalmuir, „ „ 

DiASTOPORA, Lamx. 

7. „ onEMA, Flem. 
DiscopOHELLA, Gran. {Lichenopora) . 

8. „ iiispiDA, Flem. Paisley. 

9. „ Gu. uXONKNSis, Busk. 

10. „ Fi.oscuLLS, Hincks = Lichenopora radiata, Garvel 
Park, 

11, „ RADIATA, Busk, Garvel Park, 



19, 

20, 

21. 
22. 

23. 

24. 



25, 



20. 

1. 
o 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

It may be that the student, in casting his eye over the following brief 
bibliographical notes, may detect an absence of certain names which are 
generally included in a section like the present one, I did not, it is true, 
seek to give a full list of authors, but in selecting the works now given I 
had more regard for special work than for furnishing a list of names in 
which remarks on the Class Polyzoa may be found, but in which no 
special plan of working is adopted. It was to the simple memoirs, 
whether brief or exhaustive, that I desired to direct attention, and I am 
not aware that I have overlooked any special papers, or authors. If I 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



21o 



have Hiimod on this hcoi'C, T shall bo glad if iiotico of the omisHion is given 
to mo, and I hope also that authors will forj,'ivo mo it' I have? nopfloctod to 
fnrniflh notes on their labours. I only profess to give a bib'iography of 
works on species found in the Cretaceous and Tertiary liocki^, 

Qkokok Husk. 

I8i'2. Ciitalnpuo of Marino I'olyzoii in the collection ot the Hritish Mu.souni. 

iL'mo. liomlon. Parts i. ;iii(l II, Contairiliit; rcfi-rciiccs to fossil spocios. 
ISW*. Mono^^raph of the Fossil I'olyzoa of the ('raj,', i'rintod for tho I'aliconto- 

graphical Soiui-ty. 
18(1(5. I)escripti(jns of Thno Species of i'olyzoa from the London Clay at HiKhgato, 

in tho Collootion of N. T. Wotheroll, !-".(!. S., MJool. Mag.' vol. ill. No. 

XXV. July. 
1875. Cyclostoinatous i'olyiioa. I'art III. Hrit. Musouni Catalogue. Contains 

references to Fossil species. 

lloiiuiiT Kthekidui;, Jan., F.d.S. 

187". On the Occurrence of a lSpoci(>s of lUivpora allied to li. phwn'u'va, Husk, 

Tort, lieds. uf Sclmapper i'oint, Hobson's Itay, Victoria. 'Trans. U. See. 

Vict.' vol. .\i. pp. 1:(, 14. 
1S7(!. Post-Tertiary I'olyzoa. '(iool. Miig.' Doc. L', vol. iii. Prof, liusk dosca-ibcs 

with !i tigure a new sjiccios from tho Post-Tert. Clays, Carsl., Memhratn- 

pora Jutfirrii/t/ii, liusk. 
1877. A Synojisis of the known Hpecics of Australian Tortiarj- Polyzoa. Read 

bcloro the Hoy. Soc. Now South Wales, Sept. 1877. Pp. lo, 8vo. Sydney. 

In this synopsis ^fr. Ethoridgo gives very full referonces to the 
bibliography and species described by various authors up to date. I have 
given elsewhere a list of ]\Ir. Ethcridge's species as found in tho synopsis. 
Some of the species have been described or referred to by Mr. Waters in 
his vai'ious papers on 'Australian Fossil liryo/oa (Polyzoa.).' 

J. \V. 1) SWSON. 

18()9. Additional Notes on tho I'ost-l'lioceno Dejiosits of the St. Lawrence Valley. 
' Canad. Nat.' vol. vi. pp. 2',i, 31t, with sixteen engravings. 

The author in tho above describes and figures the Foraminifera; and 
Bryozoa of the Post-Pliocene deposits of Lower Canada. He enumerates 
six species of Polyzoa, of which Leprdh'a (jiuidncoruis is described as 
new. 

W. ^I. Gaub and (). II. Horn. 

18C2. Jlonograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Secondary and Tertiary Formations 
of North America. ' Journ, Acad. Nat. Sci. I'hilad.' vol. v. 2nd series, 
pp. 111-179; three plates. 

FRIEDRICH v. HAtiENOW. 

1846. ' Pryozocn ' in Geinitz, (irundriss dor Versteincrungs-Kundc. 8vo. Dresden. 
1851. Die Uryozoen der MaestrichterKreidebildung. Naturwissensch. Von Fischer 
in Cassel. 

Rev. Thomas Hfncks. 

1880. British Jlarine Polyzoa. London : John Van Voorst, two vols. — one text, 

the other plates. 
187!i."l Various PajK-rs and Contributions to General History of the Polyzoa: 
1884./ Annals and Mag. Niit. History, vols, issued during these years. — Treat 
chielly of Recent species, but contain references to Fossil also. 

P. H. MacGillivray, M.A., M.R.C.S. 

18fiO. Notes on the Cheilostomatous Polyzoa of Victoria, and other parts of 
Australia. ' Trans. Phil. Institute Victoria ' vol. iv. part ii., pp, 159-168. 
plates 2, .3. 



;i'I 



I 

il 



ll!! 



210 



nEPoiiT — 1884. 



18<)0. On two New (ioiicrii of rulyzon. 'Trans. Uoy. 8oc. of Victnria.* Tlu'sc 
aro l)liM,ni'()UA ^ Mrmhrdiiijiorn, and Dknhm'OUA oouniroATA = 
Uiii'TOimni ffrricnniin, D'Orli and Waters. 

1881.? On s(inn' New Spocics (if ('alcnicella and Dictvopora ; and on Hnx-olipora. 
a New (icniis of I'cilvzoa. * 'I'mns. Uoy. Noe. Victoria' I refer to tlicr-i' 
papiMs iieeaii.se it will In; possililo to identify tiie recent witli fossil spucio 
of .\iisU;diiin I'olyzoa. 

WiLMAM LONSnALE. 

184.'). A(!count of twenty-six species of I'olyparia, obtained from tlic Eocene 
'i'ertiary l''iiriniiiion of Ndilli .\ineriea. ' (^niirt. .lour. (leol. .So(',' vol. i, 
pp. ,")()'.•- r);t;{. Seventeen enttravin^^s. Five Corals ;ind eleven I'olyzoa. 
„ Account of six species of rolyparia, ol)(aineil from 'I'iniiier (,'reel<, New 
.Jersey, five species of I'oly/.oa (Cretaceous), <)/i. cif. vol. i. pp. 
(i"i-7."i. Six en};ravinj;s. 
„ Account of ten species of i'olyparia olitained from the Miocene Terl. 
Formations of Nortli Amerie;i. Oji. rit. vol. i. pp. I'.io-riO'.i. Ten engra- 
vings. Seven species are I'olyzoa. 

18.")0. Deseriiitious of I'olyzoa in l)i.<on's * Fossils of Sussex.' 

s. (I. .MoirroN. 

1831. Synopsis of the Orfranic I'emains of th(> Cretiicenus firoiip of the United 
States. This b(ioi< is referred to liotli by l.onsdalc and Messrs, Gabb \ 
Horn, in tlieir descriptions of American Crotaceoua I'olyzoa. 

Dr. A. Manzoni. 

1809. ]5rio-/oi pliocenici itiiliaiu. Four contributions on It.aiian riiocene 
l5ry<izoa, in wiiicii the author deserilies seventy-seviui sjiecies and gives 
tigiu'cs of many. Sitz. der K. Akad. d, W'issen.seh. 

1871. SuppU'inunto alia (lei I'.riozoi .Medit. I'p. l-lo Three plates. Op. Ht. 

1875, I Jiriozoi del pliocene aniico di Castrocaro. (ISryozoa of the Older Pliocene 
of Castrocjiro, Itologna). This work is, I believe, now out of jirint. I']). 
01. Seven plates, ito. 

1877. I Hriozoi Fossili del .Miocene d' Austria ed Ungheria. I'arte ii. Celleporida', 
K.s(Oiarid:e, \'inculaiida', Selenaridie. (Miocene Itryozoa, Austria and 
llunjrary). Denk.schr. K. .\k. Wiss. Wien, bd. xxxvii. abth. 2, pp. 
r.»-7X. Seventeen )ilates. 

1878.' Fossil liryozo.-i of Aust. and Hun^'ary. J'ait III. Cyclostoniata. A continu- 
ation of the work of lieuss, which ^orms the first of this series. Oj). cit. 
ill., bd. xxx\iii. pp. 1-24. I'lates i.-xviii. 
„ ' Bryozoarics du I'liocene de I'lle de Ithodes.' Memoires de la Societe 
G6olog. de France. I'aris. 

Ottomah Novak. 

1877. Cretaceous IJryozoa of Rohemia (iJeitrag zur Kenntniss der Bryozoen, i.'tc). 
Denkschr. K. Ak. AViss. Wien, bd. xxxvii. abth. ii. pp. 72-120. Ten. 
plates. ' (Jeohjgical Record,' 1878. Tub. 1882. 

D'OuniGNY. 

1839. Voyage dans TAmeriquo ^lerid. vol. iv. ; plate, Zoophytes. 
,„;..,■ I Paleontoli5gie Fran(,'aise, Terr. Cr6taces, v. 
1851. Zoological Researches, kc. 

Dr. A. E. Recss. 

1845-0. Die Versteinerungen der Hohmischen Kreidc-Forniation. 
1847. Fossilen-rolypari(;n des Wiener Tortiarbcckens. 4to, Wien. 



' Of this work I seem not to have furnished any account. See anic, brief note 
from Gaol. liecurd. 



ON KOMSII. I'OLYZOA. 



21 



■ Thes, 
rdATA » 

leoliporn. 
r til tlicsc 
^il spccie.- 



10 Rocotu' 
()(■•' vi)l. i. 
l'.)ly/.iii>. 
ri'i'k, Nf'-^ 
vol. i. I'l'- 

ccuc Tfit. 
Tun eiigia- 



thc Uniled 
s<r8. Giibl) \ 



Professor Kittku von IIkijhs. 

1»74. Die fo.s.sik-n llr.V(i/.<>rn, \('. (lAissil Itryo/cui of tin- Aimtro-HunKiuian 
MiocL'tm). Sit/,1). K. Ak. Wiss. Mulh. Naturw. ClfiMsc, nbtli. i. 1h1. Ixviii. 
liefto It-f), pp. L'l'.i '2'2'J, A brii'f iRilioo of nii'miiir wliicli was to apjiuHr 
in tlio Dunksclnil'lcii. 
„ Valiiontolo^^isrlu- Sludicn. (l'al;i'nntoloyy of llu' older Aljiino Tertiaries.) 
„ Micieeiio P.ryozoa of Aiislro-lliiimary, Part I. Iteiiksclir. K. Ak. \Vi>is. lul. 
ul)lli. i. p|i. Ill lilt) d'liiles 1 to I'.')- Dex'iities iiinely-(ive spe(des, of 
wliicli foily-oneait' new Aiy^/v///"' iiml I wo urenew Mi iiihraiiiporir. (Tliis 
work was completed liy Pr. Man/.niil, in whose iiaiiie reference ean now 
bo made.) 

FuiEnuioii Adoi.imi Uormku. 

18G;1, Die I'olyparicn des Norddeut.sclieii Tertiar-CJebir),'es. Abdrucknns Paliuonto- 
grapbica. Cu.ssol, Verlaj,' von Fischer. 

Captain (HAKLua Stuut. 

18153. Two Kxpeditions into the Interior of Soutli Australia. London, 2 vols. 
,Svo. ; V(j1. ii. p[). !'.");!, L'.">1 (plate W). 

Tertiaty I'olyzoa in Australia wei-o fii'st collected by Sturt ; but ' tlio 
reference of liis specimons to specie.s iit that time known as European . . . 
will not, I think, stand.' — ' Synop.sis,' U. Ktheridgo, jun. 



an riioccne 
is and give> 

Op. rit. 
[der Pliocene 
,f print. I'p- 

Cellcporidie, 
Austria and 
abth. 2, PI'. 



•les 



A continu- 
Oji. c't- 

la Societe 



i-yozoen, kc). 
2-120. Teu 



,)/(', brief note 



l>r. Stoi.iczk.v. 

1864? Austrian Xovara Expeditions to Australia. In one of the .ols. Dr. Stoliczka 
describes ' Fossilc Itryozocn aus deni Tertiaren (iriinsandstein tier Ura.'iei 
Day, Auckland,' pp. 87-158. 

A. William Watkivs, F.G.S. 

1877. Kemarks on the Recent Geology of Italy. ' Transact ion.s of the Manchester 

Geological Society,' 1877. Taper read June 2(i. 

In this paper ^Ir. Waters gives some account of the liryozoa Limestone 
of Calabria, with lists and range of species. No descriptions or plates. 

1878. On r>ryozoa. ' Proceedings of the Literary and Phil. Soc' vol. xvii. No. 10, 

1877 and 1878; Manchester Jlicro. and Nat. Hist. Soc. Pajier read 
March 1878. 

In this j)aper Mr. Waters treats of the structure of the Polyzoa, more 
particulai'ly of the character of the cell and the minute details in connec- 
tion with its structure, for the pur2)0se of comparison and study of fossil 
species. 

1878. iiryozoa (Polyzoa) from the Pliocene of Bruccoli (Sicily). ' Proceed. Jlan- 
chcster Geol. Soc' Paper read May 1878. 

In the Sicilian deposits the debris closely resembles that of the Crag. 
From the Bruccoli bed Mr. Waters describes forty-three species of Poljzoa 
— thirty-two species of Cheilostomata and eleven of Cydostomata. One 
plate of illustrations. 

1878. On the Use of the Opercula in the determination of the Chcilostomatous 

Bryozoa. ' Proceedings. Lit. and Phil. Soc' vol. xviii. No. 2, Sessions 
1878-9. Paper read Oct. 1878. One plate, thirty-seven figures. 

1879. Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of the ISay of Naples. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. History,' .ser. v. 

vol. iii. 1879, Jan., pliitesviii. to xi. ; Feb. 1879, plates xii. to xv. ; March, 
1879, plates in previous parts; April, 1879, 'Cydostomata' plates xxiii., 
xxiv. 



218 



REPORT — 1884. 





Professor G. Sequenza. 
1879-80. ' Bryozoa,' in his work entitled ' liC forniazioni terziarie nelle provincia 
(li Ileggio.' Ten of the species described as new by the Professor 
critically revised, and the new names are replaced by old and well- 
known forms, by Rev. T. Ilincks. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' April 1884. 

In this series of papers Mr. Waters not only refers his species to recent 
types, but identifies some of the Bay of Naples Polyzoa as recurrent 
species which date back to Miocene and Eocene times, and some few to 
the Chalk. This is a valuable contribution to the history not only of 
recent but of Fossil Tertiary species. 

1880. On the terms ' IJryozoa ' and ' Polyzoa.' ' Ann. M ig. Nat. Hist.' Jan. 1880. 
1879? On the occuTence of Recent Heteropora. ' Journ. Soy. Micr. See' Paper 

read May 1879. 

In this paper Mr. Waters makes .some reference to the zoological position 
of Heteropora, and refers D'Orbigny's Plethopora cervicornis, D'Orb., to 
Heteropora. 

1881. On Fossil Cheilostomatous Pryozoa from South-West Victoria, Australia, 

Plates xiv,, xviii. 'Quart. .lour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. i?09. 

In this paper Mr. Waters describes seventy-two species or varieties of 
Polyzoa, many of which are new. As the whole of the species described 
may be found included in the lists in the first part of the present Report, 
it will not be considered as any slight to the author in only mentioning the 
titles now. 

1882. On Fossil Cheil. Pry. from Mount Gambler, South Australia, ' Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 257, plates vii. to ix. 
„ On Cheilostomatous Pryozoa from Pairnsdale (Gippsland), ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' ibid. p. .■)02. 
18815. Fossil Cheilostomatous Pryozoa from Jiuddy Creek, Victoria, &c., ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 12;{, pi. xii. 

In this paper Mr. Waters gives diagrams of the ' globolus ' of CatoiiceUa, 
with a new nomenclature of the parts of the zoircia of species — a valuable 
addition to structural knowledge of these peculiar forms, and will help 
in the placement of the group. It is only I'ecently that Fossil Gatenicella 
has been discovered. 

11. AVatts. 
186i'3. On Fossil Polyzoa. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria,' vol. vi. pp. 82-84. 

C. S. WILKIS.SON, F.G.S. 

18C4. Report on the Cape Otway District. Pp. 21-28. 

Reports of the Director of the Geological Survey of Victoria, containing 
references to Polyzoa. As the reports contain very meagre references to 
fossil Polyzoa, it seems to be useless to multiply names of papers, &c. 
Mr. Robert Etheridge's (jun.) ' Synopsis,' referred to under his name, con- 
tains ample references to, I believe, every important paper, including and 
in addition to the Australian papers already given. 

Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods. 

1859. Remarks on a Tertiary Deposit in South Australia. 'Trans. Phil. Institute, 

Victoria,' vol. iii. 
ISfiO. On the Tertiary Deposits of Portland Pay, Victoria. Oj). fit. vol. iv. plat« ii. 
pp. 169-172. In both tneso papers the author refers to Polyzoa. 
„ On Some Tertiary Rocks in the Colony of S. Australia. 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' London, vol. xvi. pp. 25;J-2G1. As an appendix to this work Mr. 
George Pusk furnished a list of Fossil Polyzoa ; but as there were no 
descriptions, and as the names were in l^IS., but very few have been 
retained by ?Ir. Wati^rs. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



219 



incia 
essnr 
well- 
l. 

jcent 
L-rent 
\v to 

lyof 

1880. 
I'apcr 

jsitlon 
•b., to 



18C2. lioolopical Observations in S. Australia. London, 1863, 8vo. In this worlc 

Pulyzoa aro refi-rred to — fifteen genera and tliirtj'-soven species. 

1865. On .some Tertiary Deposits in the Colony of Victoria,' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

„ On some Tertiary Foss. in iri. Australia. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria,' vol. 

vi. pj). i$-G (plate), lioth of these papers contain references to Polyzoa. 

1877. On some Tertiary Australian I'olyzoa. ' Journ. Hoy. Soc. New South Wales,' 

vol. X. p. 147. 

Searles Wood. 



1850. 



1833, 



Descriptive Catalogue of the Zoophytes of the Crag. • Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,' 
xiii, p. 10, kc. 

S. Woodward. 

Outlines of the Geology of Norfolk. 8vo, Norwich. Mentions a few species 
of Polyzoa. 



istralia. 

3ties of 
j5cribed 
tleport. 
ing tlie 

irt. Jour. 
,rt. Jour. 
., • Quart. 

valuable 
?ill help 

tenicella 

^4- 



jntaining 
ences to 

pers, &c. 

ame, con- 
ding and 



Institute, 
iv. plat« ii- 

Jour. Geol. 

work Mr- 
re were no 

have been 



'Twelfth Report of the Committee, consistinf/ of Professors J. Prest- 
wiCH, W. Boyd Dawkixs, T. JNIcK. HuGHf:s, and T. G. Bonney, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey (Secretary), Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 
De Kance, H. G. Fordham, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. 
Pexgelly, J. Plant, and IL H. Tiddeman, appointed for the 
purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, litho- 
logical characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of 
England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of in- 
terest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation. 

This Committee is continuing its researches into the distribution, 
position, and general characteristics of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, and is preparing a connected account of the general 
results obtained, which it hopes to be able to submit at an early 
meeting of the Association. 

Meanwhile, the following details respecting newly observed erratic 
-jlocks are recorded. 

Esoex: Neivjj^rt. — Mr. George Linney, of Saffron Walden, has furnished 
an account of a large erratic now standing on the high road from 
Cambridge to Bishop's Stortford, about 225 yards south of the entrance 
to the Sholgrove demesne, on the side nearest to Newport, and about a 
mile from Audley End L'^tion. 

The dimensions above ground are, height 6 ft. ; width, at top 3 ft. 
<5 in., at base G ft. ; thickness 2 ft. 

The general shape is irregular, but the sides are nearly flat. Height 
above the sea-level about 180 ft. 

It is composed of millstone grit. This boulder has no local history, 
except that a vague tradition exists that it was placed in its present posi- 
tion as a mai'k for a Lepers' Hospital, which was done away with by 
Henry VIIL 

Warwickshira. — Mr. Fred. Martin has drawn up the subjoined account 
of erratic blocks which have been exposed during the process of 
enlarging the West Suburban Railway, which runs from New Street, 
Birmingham, through Edgbaston to IGng's Norton, a distance of about 
5| miles. 



220 



REPORT — 1884. 






The cuttings generally are through drift, composed of varying propor- 
tions of sand, clay, and gravel, resting on a fairly regular surface of the 
New Red Sandstone rock of the district. Except near King's Norton, 
this drift, so far as it has been i-xposed by these excavations, is entirely 
free from erratic blocks, the largest stones not averaging more than 3 in. 
or 4 in. diameter. 

At a point on the railway near the village of Stirchley, about 4?, 
miles from Birmingham, the drift is composed of a tenacious marly clay 
unstiiitified, and with very sparsely st'attci'ed Bunter pebbles. A few 
erratic blocks (presently to bo catalv^gued), averaging in size about 1 ft. 
6 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft., were found, mostly of a felsitic rock. 

About 50 yards to tlie south of this point, the nature of the drift 
changes to a dark red clay with angular gravel, which gravel consists 
mostly of fragments of broken-up slate. This angular gravel overlies a 
dark red clayish gravel made up of Bunter pebbles, but having no angular 
fragments. 

Below these gravels is a band of pale-coloured loose sand, about 2 feet 
thick, and much contorted. 

Below this again is a sandy gravelly clay resting immediately upon a 
green shale or marl, the basal bed of the Keuper. All these gravels con- 
tain erratic blocks in large numbers. 

About a quarter of a mile from this point a few ei*ratic blocks have 
been obtained from a matrix of very sandy clay, interstratitied with beds, 
about two or three inches thick, of a more gravelly clay, and containing 
rounded pebbles, and angular fragments of coal shale, carboniferous grit, 
&c., besides small blocks of the basal rock of the Keuper above mentioned. 

At this point in a dell at tiie side of the railway is a large felsitic 

boulder (No. 2 in the subjoined list), measuring G ft. ;> in. x4 ft. 9 in. 

X 3 ft. 9 in. : only about one-thii-d of it is visible above ground, the rest 

being buried in clay. The ground was dug away from it in order that a 

photograph might be taken, but was subsequently put back again 

Near the junction of the new railway with the main line to Gloucester 
is another large boulder (No. 1 in subjoined list), measuring 9 ft. x 8 ft. 
X 3 ft., and is at the time of writing this paper lying in its original posi- 
tion, about 9 ft. below the surface. 

The earth being removed fi"om round it to a depth of G ft., a very good 
photograph was obtained. 

The erratic blocks found in these gravels vary in cubic capacity from 
1 to 21G cubic ft., and include shales, slates, ashes, felsites, pure quartz, 
carboniferous sandstone and grit, though the majority of them are 
felsitic, and derived from the neighbourhood of the Arenig and Berwyn 
Hills of North Wales. 

A few of these blocks, more especially those derived from slate rockp, 
retain ice-markings and smoothing. 

The majority of them, however, have rough surfaces with no ice- 
markings of an/ kind. 

Subjoined is a list of the chief erratic blocks found in the above 
Stirchley gravels, which have been examined and identi6ed by Di'. 
Lap worth. 

1. Rough, bluish-green, folspathic ash, with crystals of felspar ; no 
stria9, no smoothing. Size, 9 ft. x 8 ft. x 3 ft. 

2. Rough, amygdaloidal or brecciated green felstone ; no smoothing, 
no strioe. Size, 4 ft. 9 in. x G ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. 



ropov- 
3f the 
or ton, 
itirel>' 
a. 3 in. 

3ut 4!, 
ly clay 
A few 
ut 1 ft. 

le drift 
consists 
erlies a 
angular 

at 2 feet 

y npon a 
vels con- 

cks liave 

iritli beds, 

ontaining 

I'ous grit, 

lentioned. 

ge felsitic 

I ft. 9 in. 

1, the rest 

[er that a 

an 
rloucester 

ft. X 8 ft. 
Lnnal posi- 

very good 

|acity from 
re quartz, 
them are 
,d Berwyn 

slate rocks, 

Kth no icc- 

the above 
|fied by Br. 

1 felspar ; no 

smoothing, 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCK!? OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND lUKLANU. 221 

3. Coarse felsitic ash ; no stria), no smoothing. Size, 4 ft. G in. x 4 ft. 
x2ft. G in. 

4. Piilo felspatliic rock, probably an altered ash or fault rock from 
Arenig ; no strife, no smoothing. Size, 3 ft. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. G in. 

5. A'ery coarse streaked volcanic ash, with crystals of felspar ; no 
stria?, no smoothing. Size, 3 ft. (» in. x ;{ ft. x 2 ft. 

G. Dense felspathic ash with crystals of orthoclase ; no striae, no 
smoothing. Size, 3 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. 

7. Altered felspathic ash with crystals of orthoclase ; no striae, no 
markings. Size, 2 ft. G in. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. !» in. 

8. Ironstained greenish grit with enclosures of shale. Size, 2 ft. x 
I ft. G in. X 1 ft. 

9. Rough felspathic rock with enclosures of grey felspar ; no stria), no 
smoothing. Size, 2 ft. G in. x 2 ft. X 1 ft. G in. 

10. Felspathic ash ; altered, from Arenig ; no stria?, no smoothing. 
Size, 1 ft. G in. x 1 ft. G in. x 1 ft. 

11. Well-bedded striped mndstone flag, probably of Silurian age. 
Size, 1 ft. G in. x 1 ft. X 3 in. 

12. Fragments of slate showing ice-groovings and smoothing ; 
probably Silurian blue mndstone from the Berwyn Hills. 



Report upon Xatlonal Geological Surveys: Part /., Europe. By 
W. ToPLKY, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E.j Geological Survey of 
England and Wales. 

Introduction. 

Im the following pages a brief account is given of the organisation and 
publications of the chief Geological Surveys ' in Europe. The statements 
are taken from official sources, or from an inspection of the publications. 

Information has been kindly supplied by the directors of the following 
surveys — Austro-Hungary, Bavaria, Belgium, Italy, Norway, Portugal, 
Saxony, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland ; most of these have since corrected 
the proofs of the parts of this Rejiort referring to their respective surveys.^ 

In the preparation of this report my colleague Mr. W. H. Dalton 
has given rac much assistance ; my thanks are also due to Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Rupert Jones, and Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

The libraries of the Geological Survey (Museum of Practical Geology), 
and of the Geological and Geographical Societies, contain a large collec- 
tion of the maps and other puljlications of the various surveys (see the 
* Catalogues' of those libraries). The more important publications are 
noted as they appear in the ' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society ' 
(November number of each year), the * Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society,' and in ' Petermann's Mittheilungen ' (Gotha). 
The ' Geological Record ' gives descriptions of maps published in and 
since 1874. 

The official title of the Survey is first given, with the place of the head 
office, which is also the place of publication unless otherwise stated. 

' The exact equivakiiit of the English term 'Surrey' is not used on the Con- 
tinent; it is that of Committee, (^om mission. Inquiry, Ifintitute, or Service. 

' Some corrections and additions, including those thus supplied, have been made 
since the Report was read at Montreal. 




I 



222 



REPORT — 1884. 



The mode of issue varies greatly, and therefore the exact titles of the 
publications arc p;ivcn, as far as possible. 

For information upon Topographical Surveys reference may bo made 
to the ' Notes on the Government Surveys of the Principal Countries of 
the World,' ])repared at the Intelligence Branch of the War Officf, 
London, and published in 1883 (price Os.). This gives the scales of all 
the chief maps ; plates, with descriptions, of tho various signs employed ; 
full tables of all raciisures of length and surface, with their English equi- 
valents. Brief mention is sometimes made of the Geological Surveys. 

In the following pages the natural scale of maps is given, this being 
the method almost universally adopted on the Continent. Tho following 
table gives the equivalents, in English inches, of the scales referred to : — 







Inohos to 




Xaturnl Scale. 


one Mile. 


Countries. 




10,000 


. «•:{:$(; 


. Upper Sik'sia, Italy (part). 




JO,r)(!0 


. fiOOO 


. United Kingdom (part). 




20,000 


. ;M68 


. Belgium. 




2r),ooo 


. 2-r>u 


. rrussia, Saxony, Alsace-Lorraine, Italj 
(part) 




50,000 


. l-2fi7 


. Swetlcn (part), Italy (part). 




6;{,;{fio 


. 1-000 


. United Kingdom (j)art). 




75,000 


. -845 


. Austria and Hungary. 




80,000 


. •7i)2 


. Franco. 




100,000 


. -tliJa 


. Italy, Norway, Switzerland, IJavaria. 




144,000 


. -440 


. Austria and Ilungary. 




200,000 


. -317 


. Netherlands, Finland, Sweden (part ). 




400,000 


. -hVJ 


. Spain. 




420,000 


. -150 


. Russia. 



The meridian adopted for the maps varies much.' As a rule it is that 
of the capital of the country. The exceptions to this are the maps of 
Germany and some of Norway, where the meridian is Ferro, and Switzer- 
land, where it is Paris. Paris has been taken as the meridian for the 
map of Europe, now being prepared by a committee of the International 
Geological Congress ; scale 1 : 1,500,000. This map, in 49 sheets, will 
be based upon those of the Geological Surveys hereafter described. 

The International Geodetic Congress at Rome in 1883 recommended 
the adoption of Greenwich as the universal meridian. The Congress 
met at Washington in October 1884, when the provisional resolution 
passed at Rome was conBrmed. 

On the Continent a large number of official and semi-official publica- 
tions have been made by Government mining engineers and others ; but 
these are not here included unless they form part of a systematic survey 
or give the main results of such survey. 

The earliest detailed survey is that of the United Kingdom, 1832. In 
all its essential characters this is now much the same as when left by its 
founder. Sir H. de la Beche, and probably no other survey yet rivals it 
in the variety and completeness of its publications. Many of the more 
important Continental surveys have beeu commenced during the last 15 
years. 

Much difficulty has been felt in deciding what small general maps 
should be mentioned. The Catalogues already referred to give the 
titles of many of them. For the most part those only are here mentioned 

' The relations of the ileridians to that of Greenwich which are given in this 
Report, are taken from the J^'iitrn on Oorcrnment Surreys referred to above. 



on 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SDRVEYS : — EUIlOrK. 



223 



of the 

) made 
ries of 
Offico, 
of all 
cloyed; 
ih equi- 
vcys. 
IS being 
llowin^f 
d to :— 



inc, Italy 



which are official, or which are reductions of official maps ; and of these 
the nrttices are necessarily incomplete. 

Some interesting results come out from this investigation as regards 
the relative amount of work done by private and official geologists. In 
England the foundations of the survey, and in fact of all detailed field 
geology, were laid by private workers, and a very large proportion of 
English geological literature has always come from them. On the Conti- 
nent this has rarely been so ; nearly all the surveys are directly due to 
the Governments, and much of the geological literature comes from 
those connected with the surveys, or from official mining engineers. 
There, also, many professors of geology are connected with the surveys ; 
this is not now the case in England, altliough many of its professors have 
at one time served on the staff. 

The publications of the English Survey are confined to questions re- 
lating to its work and progress ; but this is not always the case abroad. 
The staffs of the Austrian and Prussian Surveys have always been active 
in working at the geology of districts outside their own special areas, 
which arc by no means small. The best work of late years relating to 
the geology of Turkey and Greece has been done by officers of the 
Austrian Survey. 



lavariii. 
Q (pavt ). 



! it is that 
le maps of 

Switzer- 
an for the 
ernational 

leets, will 

)ed. 

ommended 
Congress 

resolution 

lal publica- 
thers ; but 
,tic survey 

1832. In 

left by its 

^et rivals it 

f the more 

the last 15 

ineral maps 
give the 



tioned 



to 
meni 

I given in this 

BVC. 



AnSACK-LoRRAIXE. 

Gommission filr die Geologische Landcs-Unfersuchung von Elsass-Lothringen 

(Strasburg). 

The director is E, Cohen. The map — ' Geologische Specialkarte von 
Elsass-Lothringen,' is on the scale of 1 : 25,000. 

The publications are ' Abhandlungen,' with atlas, dating from 1875 ; 
the first volume contains a Bibliography of the geology of Alsace-Lorraine, 
by E. W. Benecke and H. Rosenbusch, pp. '!'?. 

A map of the environs of Strasburg — ' Geologische Karte der Umge- 
gend von Strassburg,' by E. Schumacher, 1 : 25,000, 1883 — gives special 
agricultural information, like the maps near Berlin (see p. 230). 



AUSTRO-HUNGAUT. 



KaiserUch-Kdnujliche Oeolo'jische Belchsanstalt (Vienna). 

This Survey was established in 1849, with W. von Haidinger as director; 
he was succeeded in 1867 by F. Bitter von Hauer.' Dionys Stur has 
been vict director since 1877. 

The field work of the survey, which is mostly done on the scale 
of 1 : 25,000, is at present divided into four sections: — (1) under G. 
Stache, in Tirol ; (2) under E. von Mojsisovics, in N. Styi'ia ; (3) under 
C. M. Paul, in the Galician Carpathians ; (4) under E. Tietze, in the 
western and north-western parts. There is a large staff of assistant 
geologists and others. 

There are in all about twenty-three official topographical maps of 
Austro-Hungary or of parts of it, on scales from 1 : 12,500 downwards. 
These are all being absorbed in the ' Neue Special. Karte,* scale 1 : 75,000, 
on which the geological information is published ; the complete map 

' Resigned oarly in 1885. 



> 1 HI 



224 



RKroRT — 1884. 



ij 



will be in 715 sheets, of which 270 are published witli the geology, dating 
from 1870. 

The meridian is Ferro, 18° 9' W. of Greenwich. The heights are 
given in metres ; there are contour-lines at intervals of 50 metres. The 
sheets are not quite rectangular, the right and left edges being always 
meridian lines, 80' apart.' 

The maps are denoted by a double system of numbering — Vertical 
(Colomie) (I to XXXV) and Horizontal (Zone), 1 to 37. 

The 270 sheets now published are thus grouped : — 

Upi)er and Lower Austria 38 sheets 

. no „ 

• H7 „ 

• -^5 „ 
. 101 „ 
. V2 „ 
■ 7 ., 

-'70 „ 

The prices vary from 1 to 8 fl. (2 to IG sh.). 

A smaller map, scale 1 : 144,000, is also published, of which 158 
sheets are issued. This map is divided into various provinces. The 
sheets now published are as follows, the prices varying from 1 to 6 fl. : 

Austria above and below the Ems . . .2!) sheets 

Salzburg 1>5 „ 

Htyria and Illyria 'AG „ 

I'olicniia ........ 38 „ 

Hungary 42 „ 



Jloravia and Silesia 

Tyrol 

Illyria, Styria, and Salzburg 
(ialicia and liiiliowina . 
Hungary . . . . 
liuheniia . . . . 



The following general maps are issued ; 

Hungary 

Lombardy and Venetia 
Transylvania .... 

Banat 

Slavonia and the Frontier . 
Kosnia Jind Herzegovina 
Halmatia ..... 



158 


>f 


18 sheets 


4 


»» 


4 


»» 


4 


»» 


1 








/ 


)5 


2 





The publications of the survey, other than maps, are : — 

' Abhandlungen der k. k. geol. Reich.', of which ten volumes have 
appeared, dating from 1852, price, 23 to 70 ft. ; some cf these contain 
maps on a large scale; ' Jahrbuch,' from 1850; ' Verhandlungen,' from 
18G7. A ' General-Register ' of the ' Jahrbuch ' is published. 

Numerous memoirs, strati (graphical and palaiontological, from the 
* Abhandlungen ' are separately issued. 

Several semi-ofl&cial memo.rs, with large maps or special maps, are 
published by ofiicers of the survey, the most important being : — 

V. Mojsisovics, ' Dolomitriffe von Siidtirol und Venetien,' 2 vols, 
1879, price, 19 fl. Map, in G sheets (1 : 75,000), separately issued. 

V. Mojsisovics, Tietze, and Bittner, ' Grundlinien der Geologic von 
Bosnien-Hercegovina, 1880, price, 12 fl. Map, 1 : 57G,000. 

V. Hauer, ' Geol. Uebersichtskarte der osterr.-ungar. Monarchic,' 12 
sheets, 1 : 57G,00O ; 45 fl. 

V. Hauer, smaller map of the same, 1 : 2,016,000, 4th ed. 1884 ; 6 fl. 

' This most conrenient arrangement is also adopted in tlie maps of Prussia and 
Saxony. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 



225 



Bohemia. — This is a section of tho Austrian Survey, under the control 
of Anton Fritsch ; the maps are those of the ' Neue Special-Karto,' scale 
1 : 7"),O00, referred to above. The text is included, as ' Geologische 
Abtheilnng,' in' Archiv der Naturvv. Landesdurchforschung von Bohmeu,' 
•with plates and extra maps on various scales. 

HwKjary.- -This Survey was established as a section of the Austrian 
Survey in 18(58, but was soon after made a distinct body under the title 
' Kouiglichc ungarische geologische Anstalt ; ' its head-quarters and the 
place of publication is Budapest. But it is still in connection with the 
central institution at Vienna, and an abstract of its work appears in 
the Verhandlnng. 

The first director was Max von Hantken, who was succeeded in 1882 
by Johann Bockh. The survey is done on the scale of 1 : 28,800. 

Tho publications date from 1871. These are in Hungarian, but a 
German version is given in ' Mittheilungen, aus dem Jahrb. k. n, geol. 
Anstalt,' dating from 1872. About 22 sheets of tho map are published. 



Bavakia. 

Bureau der Geognostischen Untersuohimg des Kiitwjreichs Jiayern (]\runich). 

The survey was commenced in 1851, under C. W. von Giimbel, the 
present director. The pablications date from 18.")^ ; they have been 
issued at Gotha, but in futu-'e will bo published at Cassel. 

The field work is done on various scales, from 1 : 5,000 to 1 : 25,000 ; 
the publication is usually on the scale of 1 : 1<)0,000, but in special 
cases 1 : 50,000. 

Two meridians are used on the maps — Ferro (18° 9' W. of Green- 
wich) and Munich (11° 3G' E. of Greenwich). The maps are not con- 
toured. 

Explanations of separate sheets are not published, but the maps 
are grouped, for purposes of explanation, as follows : — 

1 ' Geoguostische Beschreibung des bayerischen Alpengebirges und 
seines Vorlandes ' (southern frontier), 5 maps. 9G marks. 18G1. 

2. ' Geog. Besch. des ostbayerischon Grenzgebirges ' (Bayreuth, 
Ratisbon, Passan), 5 maps. 108 marks. 18G8. 

3. ' Geog. Besch. des Fichtelgebirges und Frankcnwaldes ' (N. of Bay- 
reuth), 2 maps. 70 marks. 1870. 

There is no official general map ; but tho director has published 
the following, without text : — ' Geog. Uebersichts-Karte des Kcinigreichs 
Bayern,' j^lunich, 1858, 1 : 500,000. Price 17-20 marks. 



Bemium. 

Service de la Carte Geologique de la Jielgi'j^ue (Brussels). 

This survey is conducted as a part of the ' Musee Royal d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Belgiqnc ' (Brussels), The work is executed under tho 
'Commission de Controle de la Carte Gcologique de la Belgique,' com- 
1884. Q 



WM 



II 

II 




1 



J;;^ 



I 



M 



i na 



226 



REPORT — 1884. 



posed of five members of the Royal Academy of Belginm, with M. J. 
Stas as president. Tlie surveying work is done under the direction 
of Ed. Dnpont, with throe ' conservateurs ' and eleven assistants. A 
peculiar feature of this survey is that each main division of the geological 
series is traced out completely by one man, so that an index map of 
progress is also a geological index map. 

The map is on tlie scale of 1 : 20,000, with contours at 5 metres 
interval on the left bank of the ^leuso, and r b 10 metres on tlio right 
bank. The map is in 72 main divisions (' planchcttes ') ; each containing, 
when complete, 8 sheets (' fcuilles') ; in all there will bo 4;{0 sheets. 
The meridian is Pai'is, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. Each sheet is accompanied 
by ' Texte explicatif.' 

The maps give the nature of tlio soil, and note, by dark shades of 
colour, the actual areas at which solid rock is exposed. Si.x sheets are 
published, dated 1882 and 1883. ^ 

The memoirs issued by the Mnsee lloyal (to which the Survey is 
now attached) are in two forms, dating from 1877 : — 

' Annales du !^[us('e 11. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgiquo,' in fol., each volume 
with atlas; and 'Bulletiri,' in 8vo. The former is divided into four series 
— paloDontology, lithology, stratigraphy, existing fauna. 



Before the establishment of the existing Survey another had been in 
existence, conducted by a Committee of which M. Jochams was president. 
It was found id, in 1878, under the control of the ' Ministere de I'in- 
terieur ; ' this is stated on each publication, which may thns be distinguished 
from the publications of the existing Survey, the latter being headed ' par 
ordre du Gouvernement.' 

About 20 maps were published (1879-81), each with text; 18 were 
by O. v. Ertborn and P. Cogels. Both Surveys have used the same 
topographical map. 

A general map — ' Carte Geologique dolaBelgiqne, executee par ordre du 
Gouvernement,' scale 1 : 160,000 — was prepared by Andre Dumont from 
1836 to 1854, and was published in 1854. A new issue of this was made 
in 1877, in two editions — soil and rock, price 40 francs each map. This 
map was accompanied by Memoirs. Those on the 'Terrains ardennais 
et rhenan ' were published by Dumont in the Mem, Acad. Eoij. Behjique, 
1847 and 1848 ; those on the ' Terrains crotaces et tertiaires,' prepared 
by Dumont and edited by M. Mourlon, are published in four vols. 8vo. 
1878-1882. 

A reduction (not official) of Dumont's map, scale 1 : 380,000, show- 
ing the beds below the Hesbayen and Campinien, was published in 1877 
by Lelorrain and E. Henry. 



Finland. 

Finlmids Oeologislca Undersokning (^Suomcnmaan QeologilUnen Tidkhnus) 

(Helsingfors). 

This survey was commenced in 1865, under the Department of the 
Administration of Alines, on the scale of 1 : 200,000 ; the director being 
K. Ad. Moberg. 






ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SUUVEY8 : — EUnOPE. 



227 



. J. 
stion 
A. 
gical 
lyi of 

letres 
viglit- 
Ining, 
ihocts. 

,dcs of 
3ts aro 



The publication comraencod in 1879 ; five shoots, in the neighbour- 
hood of llelsingfors, were issued up to 1H82. There are deHcriptions 



rvcy 



13 



volume 
11' series 



been m 

resident. 

de Vin- 
n<Tuishecl 
ided ' par 

18 -were 
the same 

i,r ordre du 
jiont from 
[was made 

|ap. This 
ardennais 

prepared 
vols. 8vo. 

loOO, show- 
led in 1B77 



('Beskrifning') to the sheets. All the suporticial do]K)sits are shown. 
The explanations on the maps are given in Finnish and Swodi 



cplanations on the maps 
the ' Beskrifning ' is in Swedish, 

The meridian is Holsingfors, 2')'' 12' K. of Greenwich. 



ish; 



France. 
Sendee de hi Carte Gcologlipie detail Ice de la France (Paris). 

The origin of this survey may bo traced to tho Paris Exhibition of 
1855, when, under tho direction of Dufrenoy and PAio do Beaumont, 
twenty maps (scale 1 : 80,000), wore coloured geologically in AIS. and 
exhibited. These maps, with others, amounting in all to about sixty, all 
in the N. and N.W, of France, were again presented at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 18G7. 

The recognition of tho value of such maps, and the fact that similar 
surveys were in progress in neighbouring countries, led^ to tho establish- 
ment of the existing geological survey in 18G8, with Elie de Beaumont 
as director. On his death, in 1875, M. Jacquot became director. 

The map employed is the ' Carte Topographicjue do I'fitat- Major,' scale 
1 : 80,000. The meridian is Paris, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. The map 
of France is in 258 sheets; Corsica in sheets, 25U-267. It ha? hill- 
shading without contours ; heights in metres. 

Each map is accompanied by an ' Explication ' printed on one side 
only, to be attached to the map if desired ; some sheets also by plates 
containing longitudinal and vertical sections and photographs. 

A very elaborate system of signs has been employed on the maps, for 
distinguishing minute varieties of rocks, soils, ores, mineral springs, &c. 
The number of these signs is 1,11.3. In addition to these many sub- 
ordinate signs have been devised, further explaining or modifying the 
others.' 

As the work progresses it will be reduced and published on the scale 
of 1 : 320,000 ; this will be in 32 sheets ; Corsica in sheet 33. Each 
sheet of this map will include IG sheets of the larger scale. 

The publication of the maps commenced in 1873, with sheet 48, Paris ; 
the explanation of this being ' Cahier I.' About 07 sheets are issued 
(to February 1885), chiefly in the north. 

In addition to the explanations of sheets there are ' Memoires ' ; No. 1, 
' Pays de Bray,* by De Lapparent, was published in 1873 ; No. 2, ' Minera- 
logie IMicrographique,' by Fouque and Levy, in 1879. There are also 
special monographs on the coalfields — Brioude and Brassac, Langeac, 
and the Loire. 



''idhivms) 

lent of the 
Sector being 



The foregoing statements refer only to the existing survey, but 
there were official publications of earlier date.'^ In 1822, incited thereto 

' All these signs, &c., are fully explained in pamphlets issued in 1874, ' Generalitcs ' 
A, B, C, and D. See also De Chancourtois, Ann. Mines, ser. 7, t. v. 1878. 

' A notice of the various geological maps of iVance was given, by Professor 
G. A. Lebour, in the GioyrapMcal Magazine, vol. iii.p. 47, 1876. 

Q2 



:^if'' 



I • 






li 



228 



UEPORT — 1884. 



by the publication of Greonough's ' Geological Map of Kiigland and 
Wales' (1811^-20), a Hurvoy was commencod by Dufrt'noy and RHo do 
Beaumont, under the direction of Jlrocliant do Villiors. From 1822 to 
1825 the surveyors were studying field geology iji Kiigland. In 1825 
tlio work was commenced in France, Do Beaumont taking the cast, 
Dufrciioy tho west. There were two assistants, and the survey was 
completed in 1830. 

The map, ' Carte Gi'ologiqno do la Franco,' is in (i shoots, scale 
1 : 500,000. It was published in 1810-42 ; the two volumes of ' Kxplica- 
tion ' in 1841 and 18 18. 

A reduction of this map ('Tableau d' Assemblage '), scale 
1 : 2,000,000, was published in 1841. 

There are a liirgo number of maps and memoirs of Departments, 
of which great use is made by the surveyors. Some ai'O by private geo- 
logists, but most are by ofKci.al mining engineers. These maps are on 
various scales ; some, as that of the Pas do Calais (by Da Souich, 1851) 
on tho full scale of 1 : 80,000. 

A Geological ^lap of Franco in 48 sheets, scale 1 ; 500,000, is in 
preparation by C. Vasseur and L. Caroz. 




Italy. 
Reale Comitafo Geologico d' Italia (Home).' 

This survey was commenced in 18G8, when tho capital was Florence. 
It was directed by a committee of Professors at Universities and 
Engineers of Mines. In 1873, when the chief office and place of publica- 
tion were transferred to Rome, the staflf was reorganised ; tho Comitalo 
(with Professor Meneghini as president) retained mainly a consulting 
power, the real chief of the survey being F. Giordano, tho present director. 
The staff consists of 7 geologists, 3 assistants, and a paleontologist. 

The systematic and detailed investigation of the country dates from 
1877, and was commenced in Sicily ; in 1879 the survey was extended to 
tho Apuan Alps and tho Roman Campagna. The scale adopted for the 
survey is usually 1 : 50,000 ; areas of special interest, such as those men- 
tioned above, are surveyed on the scale of 1 : 25,000. Recently some 
surveys have been made on the scale of 1 : 10,000 — of Elba, Ischia, 
and the environs of Rome. 

A general map (1 : 1,111,111) was published in 1881 : another, on 
the scale of 1 : 500,000, is now in preparation, Sicily being published 
(1883). 

The systematic publication of the survey map will be on the scale of 
1 : 100,000, in 277 sheets, those of Sicily being nearly ready for issue.'^ 

Districts of special importance will be published on the scale of 
1 : 25,000, with contours ; Elba, in two sheets, is now ready. 

In the topographical maps prepared by the Italian Government (of 
which there are 18, on various scales), the meridian is reckoned from 
Rome (Monte Mario), which is 12° 28' B. of Greenwich. There is a 
topogi'aphical map, prepared by the Austrian Government, on the scale 
of 1 : 75,000, in which the meridian is reckoned from Ferro ; but this 
siap is not used by the Geological Survey. , 

• For a fuller account of this Survey, see Nature, Nov. 24, 1881. 

* Four sheets, with a sheet of sections, were published at the end of 1884. 



IS 



pr; 



Kj 



ON NATIONAL GKOLOGICAL SURVEYS :— KUROrE. 



229 



and 

lio do 

>2 to 

1H25 

cast, 

y was 

, scale 
<pUca- 

scalo 



The publications comprise the * BoUettino,' (in 8vo.), dating from 1870, 
of which fourteen volnmes are published ; and ' Alemorio ' (in fol.), dating 
from 1H71, of which two volumes are published. These volumes contain 
numerous maps, on vui'ions scales, and plates of fossils. Many of tho 
authors of papers here published are not connected with the survey; but, 
as a Geologicnl Society was founded for Italy in iHHl, tho survey 
publications will prol)al)ly in future be more purely ollicial. 

Several semi-otliciid maps aro issued. Three are by Prof Capellini, a 
member of the Ctunllato, These are- — tho Holngnoso Apennines ; Leghorn 
(each 1 : 100,000) ; Gulf of Spozia (1 : 50,000). 



omenta, 

to geo- 

aro on 

1, 1851) 

[), ia in 



Florence, 
itics atid 
I publica- 
|) Comitato 
•onsultinK 
director. 

ist. 

atea from 
ctended to 
cd for tbo 
boso men- 
ntly some 
ba, Iscbia, 

,notber, on 
published 

the scale of 
Jor issue.'^ 
le scale of 

Irnment (of 

■koned from 

\ There is a 

U the scale 

i but this 



of 1884. 



Nkthkulan'ds. 
CoDivilssle roor tie Genloijiscln' Kaart i^an Xcdt'iland (Ilaarlcm). 

An official survey of this country was made by ^'^. C. H. Staring, and 
published (' (ieologische Kaart van Nederland ') at Haarlem, in "ll small 
sheets; iH.'xS C)/ with explanation. The .scale is 1:200,000; the 
meridian Amsterdam, A° hW E. of Greenwich. The map shows 13 
varieties of alluvium, 8 of diluvium, 10 of Pliocene — Eocene, with other 
rocks down to Devonian. 

Another map (V not official) has been published by Krnijder, in six 
sheets, 1880. 



NORAVAY. 

Qeologishe JJnclersuijelse (Chrlstiania). 

The geological investigation of this country is in two parts. That of 
Southern Norway, under tho direction of Th. Kjcrulf, dates from 1858 ; 
that of Northern Norway, under the direction of 1\ Dahll, dates from 
1860, and was completed in 1878. For the former there aro two assist- 
ant.s, with extra help during tho summer. 

The surveying work is done on various scales — for the most part 
1 : 100,000, but some 20/, 50/, and 200,000. For ihe last the meridian 
is Ferro ; for the others it is Christiania, 10° 43' E. of Greenwich. 

The published map of Southern Norway, in rectangular sheets, ia 
on the scale 1 : 100,000, with contours at 100 feet (1 Norwegian foot=: 
12.35 English inches). Seventeen sheets aro published, dating from 
187G. These are grouped as follows : Trondhjem and distinct, 8 sheets ; 
Bergen, 2 ; Hamar, 2 ; Christiania and Fredrickstadt, 5. Each sheet is 
priced kr. 1-60 (1 kr. = Is. 1^:-/.). 

A general map of part of Southern Norway (Diocese of Christiania, 
Hamar, and Christiansand) was published in 185G-65, by Th. Kjerulf and 
T. Dahll ; scale 1 '. 400,000 ; 10 sheets ; with explanatory pamphlet in 
French ; in this the meridian is Ferro. 

A general description of Southern Norway with atlas and map 
('Geologiske Oversigtskarte,' 1:1,000,000), was published by Th. 
Kjerulf in 1879. (German translation, by Dr. A. Gurlt, in 1880). A 



f'lW 



230 



RErORT — 1H84. 



map of Northern Norway (' Gcologisk Kart over dot Nordlij,'e Norgc ') 
on the Hiimo Hcalo, was publiHhod in 1879 by T. Dahll. 

There is no reguUir publication of menioirs and pnpors of tho snrvoy ; 
but they appear in ' Nyt niagazin for naturvidi'nskab,' and in other 
journalH, transaetions, and Univereity treatises. The collection niiido by 
the survey is at present deposited in the !Mineralogi(;al Cabinet of tho 
University of Ciiristiania. 




PoicTUdAi..' 

Seci;d(i ilns Trahallms Geohnjiros de Porhujal (Lisbon). 

This survey was commenced in iH^'u (as Conunissao Geol. do Portugal). 
It was reorganised with the existing title in IHGU, under the direction of 
Carlos Ribeiro ; he was succeeded, in 1883, by J. F. N. Delgado. 

The work is now done on the scale of 1 : lUO,(»()U; with occasional 
enlargements to double this scale. There are contours at intervals of 
25 metres. Tho map will be in 37 sheets, longitude reckoned from 
Lisbon, i>° 9' W, of Greenwich. The topogrn])hical map is not yet 
complete, and none of the sheets are published with the geology. 

Several memoirs have been published, dating from 180;) ; and also 
a general maj) — ' Carta Geologica de Portugal,' by C. Ribeiro and 
J. F. N. Delgado, scale 1 : nou.UUU ; 187G (now out of print). 



Pkussia. 

Kon'ujllclie Gcologische LaudeS'Anstalt wid Bcnjalcademie zii Berlin 

(Berlin). 

The publications of this survey date from 1870 ; tho dii-ector is W. 
Hauchecorne. 

The map — ' Geologischo Special-Karte von Preussen und den Thiirin- 
gischen Staaten ' is on the scale of 1 .' 25,000 ; with hill-shading, and con- 
tours at intervals of 5 metres. 

It is divided into 88 ' Grad-Abtlieilungen ; ' each subdivided into CO 
' Bliittern,' excepting on the frontier and sea-board, where some sheets arc 
absent. Each complete ' Grad-Abtheilung ' contains exactly 1° of long, 
and 1° of lat. ; each ' Blatt ' contains 10' of long, and G' of hit. ; the sheets 
ai'e thei'cfore not quite rectangular. The longitude is reckoned from 
Ferro, 18° !»' W. of Greenwich. 

The publication takes place in ' Lieferungen,' each containing from 
three io nine maps of the same district, though not always in the same 
• Grad-Abtheilung.' The ' Lieferungen ' vary in price according to the 
number of maps included, averaging 2 marks per map with its ' Ei-liiu- 
terung.' The maps near Berlin are especially agricultural, minute 
variations of soil being indicated by signs ; these form a special set of 
maps, in 27 sheets. In tho coal districts two editions are issued, one 
showing the edges of the coal-seams beneath the newer rocks. 

' The first part of the serial publication of this Hurve}' has just been issued — 
' Commtinica^iicK da Si'c<;ao dos Trahalhos Geoloijicos de Portugal,' torn. 1, fasc. 1, 1885; 
8vo. Lisbon. Some of the papers therein contained had been previously printed. 



>N NATIONAL aEOLOGICAL SiUUVEYS : — EUROPE. '231 

About 2(! ' Lioforuiigou ' aro iHSiu-d, containing 112 Hhcots ; whicb, for 
convuuience of reforonco, may bo grouped us followH : — 

Iterlin, rotsdiiiii, &c 27 

Wt'ttiii.Jonii, .Vc. . H4 

WicsbiKlcn, Kiaiikfort, kc 1!< 

Hiuirbriick, I'ic 18 

llli 
Altbongb all maps lit into tbo complete system of 'Grad-Abtb.' and 
* Blatt.' tbo carlioi' sbuets publislietl bavu a diHerent sot of numbers. Tbo 
position of eaeb map liowevei", and its relation to tbo now system of 
jiiuiibering, can bo seen from tbo index-map on eacb * Lieferungun.' 
A deseriptive text (' Erliinterung ') is issued witb eacb map. 
Tliero aro also ' Abbandlungen,' dealing witb special districts, pala>on- 
tology, &c. Tbeso dato from 1H72. Tliey contain numerous plates and 
maps, tbo latter being somotiracs separately issued. 

Tlio ' Jabrbucb,' dating from IbHU, contuins sbortor papers, reports &c, 
A reduction of tbc above-montioned imip — ' (ieologiscbo Karto dor 
Provinz Preussen,' scale 1 : lUU,(>U(>, is in course of publication. 

Numerous general maps of Germany or of parts of it are publisbed, 
tbe most important of wbicb is tbat of II. von Decben — ' Oeologiscbe Karto 
der lilu'inprovinz und dcr Provinz VVe.stfalen,' in 155 sbeets, scale 1 : 80,000. 
A continuation of tbis map, on tbo same scale, being a reduction of tbo 
new Prussian survey, is now being ])repared. Tbo Wiesbaden sbeet 
(numbered 35) was issued iu 1882. 



Geological surveys of sorao German States bave been made on tbo 
scale of 1 : .50,000, not all directly by tbo Government ; but tbe great survey 
above descinbed will probably absorb tbese, and will re-map tbe districts 
on the larger scale. 

Amongst tbeso local surveys aro tbo following : — 

Badex, made by Zittel and Sandberger. 

Hesse. ' Geologiscbe Specialkarto des Grossberzogthums Ilessen und 
dcr angrenzenden Landesgebiete.* Tbis survey, under tbo direction of 
R. Ludwig, is in eighteen sheets, with text. It was made by tbe 
' Mittelrheiniscber Geologischer Vereiu ' (Darmstadt), and was published 
from 185G to 1872. 

Upper Sii.esia. — A ' Special karte der Oberschlesischen Bergrevier.' 
scale 1 : 10,000, is publisbed by the ' k Oberbergamt in Breslau ' ; in 
' Lieferungen,' of ten or more sheets. The price of each sheet is 1^ mai :. 



ROUMANIA. 

Biurouln'! Geologicil Rumdnii. (Buchurcst). 



Established in 1882, under 



Gregoriu 




Stcfaneseu, 
Geological 



Biuroului 

""■"o--", " -— ^- ■", ^— M ff --, — /• contained 

within the kingdom, which are briefly described in this Report, are : — 
Crystalline Schists (Archaean), Jurassic, Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene and 
Quaternary. This Report contains descriptions, with analyses, of mineral 
springs. 



232 



REl'OIlT 1884. 




Russia. 

Ttis survey ' was cornmciiccd in 1882 ; the director is B. CbereshefF. 

The publications comprise Reports in 8vo., and Memoirs in 4to ; the 
latter are ilhistratod by maps and phites ; some of the Memoirs are descrip. 
tive of sheets of the maps, others of certain formations in various disti'icts. 

The Reports are in Russian only ; the Memoirs have title in French 
(' Memoires du Comite geologique *), and a translation or precis in 
G rman. 

The map is on the scale of 1 : 420,000 ; to be completed in 154 sheets; 
3 sheets are published. The meridian is Pulkowa, 30° 19' E. of Greenwich. 

The map has explanations and title in French : — ' Carte geologique 
generale de la Russie d'Europe.' 



A map of the Urals, prepared by the mining engineers, has been 
published by A. Karpinsky — ' Geologische Karte des Ostabhangcs des 
Urals,' 8 sheets, 1884. Scale 1 : 420,000 ; with enlarged parts of 
1 : 210,000. 

Saxony. 

lumigliche Geologische Landesuntersuchung von Sachsen (Leipzig). 

This survey dates from 1872 ; the publications from 1877.^ The direc- 
tor has from the commencement been Hermann Credner. There are 
eight assistant geologists. 

The scale for mapping and publication is 1 : 25,000 ; the meridian is 
Ferro, 18° 9' W. of Greenwich. The maps — ' Geologische Special- Karte 
des Konigreiches Sachsen,' are contoured at intervals of 5 metres on 
the lowlands and 10 metres on the hills. 

The division of the maps, as regards lines of latitude and longitude, 
is the same as in the Prussian maps. The maps of Saxony have a special 
Dumbering of their own, but most of those noAV published would be con- 
tained within Grad-Abth. 58 and 72 of the large Pnj^sian map. 

The maps show all the drift-deposits, the soils being sometimes noted 
and described in detail. In some cases a separate edition, showing only 
the solid rock, is issued. There are also special issues for certain mining 
districts. 

Much attention is paid to the petrological variations in the crystalline 
rocks, these being noted by letters and signs. 

Thirty-five sheetfi are published, all in the western part of Saxony, 
but those in the extreme sur.th-west are not yet issued. The price of each 
sheet is 2 marks ; of the accompanying ' Erliiuterung ' 1 mark. 

A general map has been published by the director, ' Uebersichtskarte 
des Sachsischen Granulitgebirges und seiner Umgebung,' scale 
1 : 100,000, 1884 ; price, with Erliiuterung, 5 marks. 

' For descriptions of this Survey, and of its publications, sec Katnrc, vol. xxix. 
p. 9.3; XXX. p. 608; Gcol. Mar/., dec. iii. vol. i., ]). 84, 1884. 

^ Detailed descriptions of tlie work and publications of the Survey of Saxony have 
been published by the director (H. Credner) in Mitthcil, des Vereinsfiir Erdhnule zk 
Lcij)zig, 1877 and 1880. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SUKTEYS : — ECROPK. 



233 



shcff. 
3 ; the 
Bscrip- 
stvicts. 
French 
jcis in 

sheets ; 
enwich. 
logiquc 



as been 
igcs des 
parts of 



zig). 

Che direc- 
:here are 

jridian is 

al-Karte 

aetres on 

ongitude, 

a special 

i be con- 

nes noted 
wing only 
in mining 

i-ystalline 

Saxony, 
Ice of each 

ichtskarte 
^g,' scale 



Spain. 
Comision del Mapa Geol6gico de Esjjava (Madrid). 

The Coramission was formed in 1840, with F. Luxan as director. At 
one time under the Statistical Department, it was, in 1870, placed with 
that of the Mining Engineers. The existing organisation and systematic 
publication date from 18/3, when the present director, Manuel Fernandez 
de Castro, was appointed. ' 

The Government topographical map of Spain is on the scale of 
1 : 50,000, with contoui'S at 20 metres apart. This was coi.imenced only 
in 1875, and few sheets are published ; it will be completed in about 1,080 
sheets ; this map is not used by thr Geological Survey. Maps published 
by F. Coello on the st?le of 1 : '100,000, are those usually employed in 
the field work of the survey. The longitude in all is reckoned from 
Madrid, ;]° 4<V W. of Greenwich. 

The staff of the survey since 1873 has usually contained six mining 
engineers and seven or eight assistants. 

The maps are issued on the scalt '^f 1 : 400,000, with the reports on 
each province (see below). 

The publications of the survey consist of the ' Boletin,' dating from 
1874, and the ' Memorias,' dating from 1873. 

Each volume of the ' j\lemorias ' is devoted to the ' Descri^icion fisica 
y geoldgica ' of a single province ; mining is added in the title of some, 
and agriculture in others ; these latter being those written by Daniel de 
Cortazar. The volumes, of from 200 to 400 pages, contain plates of 
fossils, sections, &c., and also the maps (1 : 400,000) already referred to. 

The ' IJoletin ' contains shorter descriptions of special districts, trans- 
lations of foreign memoirs on Spanish geology, &c. The maps here are 
on various scales. Altogether, since 1873, twenty-seven provinces have 
been described ; eleven of them with maps of 1 : 400,000. 

Descriptions of some provinces, with maps, were published before the 
reorganisation of the survey in 1873 ; some had maps of 1 : 400,000. 

The palfcontological work of the survey is scattered throughout the 
various volumes, but this is now being collected and separately issued. 

The largest (and in some respects the best) general map of Spain and 
Portugal is that of De Verneuil and Collomb (1 : 1,500,000), published 
in Paris in 18(34; and a 2nd edition, with text, in 1868 (now out of 
print). Another map (1 : 2,000,000) was published by F. de Botella, of 
the Spanish Survey, in 1881. The price of this is 15 francs ; there is 
no text. 

At the conclusion of the work of the survey, now approaching, a 
complete map of Spain, on thii scale of 1 : 400,000, will be published, in. 
sixteen sheets ; the first sheet will probably be published in 1885. 



[v vol. xxix. n| ' A full account of this survey was pulilished for the Mining Exhibition in 

Madrid, ISSIi — C'*'//*. Jfaj' • Cfcol. Expan., su orii/cii, ririnitiu/rK i/ nrciiiintaitcias actueles, 
ftaxony have ^B with two index maps (/.(.,V^(«, t. x.). An earlier puhlieation — '■ Mcmoria .... del 
KrdkundeW 19 ^Japn Gcol. Estpalla.' 1870, Madrid, pp. ISH, ;i:ives a full account of the geological 
literature of ISpain (in provinces) and its foreign possessions. 





M 






■234 



REPORT — 1884. 



Sweden. 



Sveriges Qeologislca Undersukning (Stockholm).' 

This surve;' was commenced in 1858 with Alex. Erdmann as director. 
In 18G9-70 the director was A. E. Tornebohm ; he was succeeded in 
1871 by the present director, Otto Torell. 

The staff consists of twelve geologists, with some additional assistants 
during the summer months. 

The survey is made on two scales ; in the more populous districts, 
1 : 50,000 ; in the mountainous districts, 1 : 100,000. In the former 
case the maps are published on that scale, in the latter the publication is 
on the scale of 1 : 200,000. 

The meridian is Stockholm, 18° 3' E. of Greenwich. The maps arc 
not contoured, but numerous heights are given in Swedish and Nor- 
wegian feet (=12"35 English inches). 

The publications date from 1862. 

Of the sheets on the 1 : 50,000 scale (Ser. A, a) about 83 are published; 
these are numbered in the order of publication, irrespective of their 
relative positions. Each sheet is accompanied by a descriptive ' Beskrif- 
ningar.' The prices, for map and description, are 2 kronor) for the full 
sheets, 1 or 1^ kroner for the coast sheets (1 kroner =ls. IjtZ). 

Of the sheets on the scale of 1 : 200,000 (Sor. A, b) ten are published ; 
each with ' Beskrifningar,' price 1^ kroner. 

All tlie maps give the distribution of the superficial deposits, but a few 
are published with special reference to these and to agriculture. That 
of the environs of Skottorp, sonle 1 : 4,000, shows by signs th^ nature 
and composition of the soil in great detail. There are also seme special 
maps referring to mining, &c. ; these extra maps are in Ser. E. 

A general map of Southern Sweden (south of lat. 59° 45'), on the 
scale of 1 : 1,000,000, will probably be published with a description 
during this year (1884). 

In addition to the explanations of the maps there are memoirs in 
Ser. C (' Afhandlingar och uppsatsen ') in 8vo. or 4to., with or without 
plates or atlas. Eighty of these are published, dating from 18G3, at 
various prices up to 8 kroner. They refer to paljeontology, stratigraphy, 
petrology, economic and theoretical geology ; most are in Swedish, but 
a few are in French, German, or English. 

A map of the iron district of Central Sweden, though not an official 
publication of the survey, should be mentioned here. This was prepared, 
by A. E. Tornebohm, for the Board of Swedish Ironmasters (Jernkontoret), 
It is in nine sheets (1879-82) ; each, with description, price 4 kroner. 
Its title is ' Geologisk Ofversigtskarta ofver Mellersta Sveriges Bergslag; ' 
the scale is 1 : 250,000. 

Another similar publication, also by Tornebohm, is ' Geologisk atlas 
ofver Dannomora Grufvor,' in 17 sheets, with description, 1878. 

All the publications referred to are issued at Stockholm. 



' This survey is described in La Carte ghlogiquc de la Sii't'le ct ses envois « 
I'Exjjositwn, Univcrscllc de I'ariit en 1878, arcf une dcKfription mccinctc dcs formatioM 
ijioleginucs dv la tiuidc. 8vo. Stockholm, pp. 57, 1878. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 



235 



Switzerland. 

Beiiriige zur Geologi'schen Karte der Schweiz (Mat)'riaux pour la Carte 
Geologique de la Suisse) (Berne). 

The present organisation dates from 1859, when the Federal Council 
ofifered lo the Swiss Natural History Society a grant in aid of colouring 
geologically the topographical map (' Carte Dufour '). A geological com- 
mission of five members was then formed, with Bernhard Studer as 
president. 

The map is in 25 sheets ; three of the corner sheets are for title, 
index, &c. Eighteen sheets are published, those not yet issued being XIII., 
XIV., and XVIII., al! in Central Switzerland. 

The scale is 1 : 100,000 ; the meridian is Paris, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. 

The text, chiefly in German, but partly in French and Italian 
according to the locality described, is contained in ' Lieferungen ' 1-28, 
dating from 1862. Some of these describe one or more sheets of the 
map ; others describe special districts, with maps on the scale of 1 : 50,000 
or 1 : 25,000. 

A general map, ' Carte Gool. de la Suisse,' was published by B. Studer 
and A. Esclier von der Linth in 1853, scale 1 : 350,000 ; with text — 
■* Geologie der Schweiz,' by B. Studer, 2 vols., 1851-53. 



United Kingdom. 
Geological Stirveij of the United Kingdom (London). 

The founder of this survey was H. T. De la Beche, who before 1832 
had coloured geologically the Ordnance one-inch maps of the South-West 
of England. In that year a small grant was made by the Government 
towards the cost of pnbHshing these maps by the Ox-dnance Survey, but 
De la Beche also contributed money for the purpose. Subsequently De la 
Beche was definitely appointed to make a Geological Survey, under the 
direction of General Colby, then the head of the Ordnance Survey. The 
first result of this was the publication of the ' Report on the Geology of 
Devon, Cornwall, and West Somerset,' 1839, with the one-inch maps of 
the district. 

About 1832 other geologists were surveying various districts upon 
the one-inch maps of the Ordnance Survey — William Smith in many 
parts,' and W. Lonsdale near Bath. H. Maclauchlan and J. R. Wright 
(both of the Ordnance Survey) mapped the Forest of Dean and the 
country around Ludlow respectively, W. Logan surveyed part of 
S. Wales ; the information collected by these three observers was incor- 
porated in the official geological maps. 

In 1845 the Geological Survey was detached from the Ordnance Survey 
and was placed under the ' Office of Woods and Works ;' in 1854 it became 
a branch of the ' Department of Science and Art.' 

From about the year 1832 some officers of the Ordnance Survey in the 
N. of Ireland collected geological information, which was completed and 
published by Captain J. E. Portlock in 1843. 

' Smith luadc a Cicoloeical map of Somersetshire upon the one-inch scale in 
17D9. 



236 



REPORT — 1884. 



I 



The geological survey of Ireland was commenced in 1845, with 
Captain H. James as director, the subsequent directors being T. Oldham, 
1845 ; J. B. Jukes, 1850 ; E. Hull, 1809. 

The survey of Scotland was commenced in 1854, and was made a 
distinct branch of the geological survey in 18G7, with Arch. Geikio as 
director, succoeded in 1882 by H. H. Howell. 

England, the original home of the Survey, was presided over by De la 
Beche as director till 1845, when A. C. Ramsay became director ; he was 
succeeded in 1872 by H. W. Bristow, now the senior director. 

The dates of appointment of the Directors-General are : H. T. De la 
Beche, 1845 ; Sir R. I. Mnrchison, 1855 ; A. C. Ramsay, 1872 ; Arch. 
Geikie, 1881. 

Until 1845 the Survey was known as that of Great Britain ; when the 
survey of In'land was commenced, the original name was confined to that 
of Great Britain proper, the entire Survey being called that of the United 
Kingdom. In 1H67 the title of Great Britain was discontinued entirely, 
this Survey being divided into those of Ewjland and Wales and Scotland. 

The total number of the staff of the Geological Survey is now fifty-seven, 
distributed as follows : one Director- General, three Directors, three 
District Surveyors, fourteen Geologists, twenty-five Assistant Geologists, 
four Naturalists and Palaaontologists, four Fossil Collectors, three General 
Assistants. 

The survey of the greater part of England has been done on the 
l-inch Ordnance maps (1 ; 03,8(i0). In the North of England the G-inch 
maps (1 : 10,560) have been u.sed, and much of the ground has been 
published on this scale. In the South of Scotland the 6-inch maps have 
been used ; but in the North of Scotland the survey will be mainly on the 
1-inch scale. In Ireland the G-inch maps have always been employed for 
field work. 

The contours on the 6-inch maps are usually at intervals of 100 feet 
up to 1,000 feet, above that at intervals of 250 feet. In the maps ot 
Yorkshire the contours are more numei'ous. The old 1-inch maps, on 
which alone the geolog}' is yet published, have no contours, but heights 
arc marked in some districts. 

In Ireland the drift has always been shown upon the l-inch maps by 
' stippling.' Originally no glacial drift was shown upon the English maps ; 
but in 1871 the publication of drift maps was commenced, and two editions 
of many of the maps are now issued — solid and drift. In the East of 
England only the drift maps are issued, very little being here known of 
the solid geology. 

At the end of 1883 the field survey of the original l-inch map of 
England and Wales was completed ; the survey of the drifts of the 
areas over which these are not yet mapped has been commenced. 

In Ireland and Scotland there is only one system of numl)ering the 
maps. In England some maps are in sheets, some are divided into quarter- 
sheets. In the new maps of the Ordnance Survey the system of dividing 
into quartei'-sheets will bo discontinued. The maps and their divisions 
in the North of England are the same in the old and the new series, the 
numbering only being different ; but in the South of England there is 
no relation between the boundaries of the old and the new maps. 

In addition to the maps there are ' Horizontal Sections,' on the scale 
(for heights and distances) of six inches to a mile. These are published 
at 5s. each ; many have ' Explanations,' price 2*/. each. 



Ir( 
A. 



■ik 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 



237 



), with 
ildliam, 

nado a 
jikic as 

)y De la 
he was 

r. De la 
•, Arch. 

ivhon the 
d to that 
le United 
entirely, 
Scotland. 
fty-seven, 
)rs, three 
reologists, 
•e General 

le on the 
the G-inch 
I has been 
maps have 
,inly on the 
[iployed for 

100 feet 
maps ot 
maps, on 
)ut heights 



The details of Coal Measures, Cliff Sections, &c., are given on sheets 
of 'Vertical Sections,' 3s. Gd. each. 

An 'Index Map,' scale four miles to the inch (1 : 253,440) has been 
published of Wales and the adjacent districts, in six sheets, price 3s. G(7. 
each. An Index Map of the whole of England and Wales, upon the 
same scale, is now in progress. 

In all maps of the United Kingdom the meridian is Greenwich. 

The publication of the Maps of England dates from about 1839, 
those of Ireland from 1855, of Scotland from 1859. 

The number of maps and sections pablished is shown in the following 
table ' :— 



^ 



1-inch map 

(1 : 6:5,3<i()) 

(sheets or quar 

ter-sheets in 

Enarland and 

Wales) 
(!-inch maps (f: 10,500) 
Horizontal sections 
Vertical sections . 



> 

I 

J 



Solid. 

Drift edition of solid 

map 
Drift only 



ISS'I 
4!t [ 



Total 



EllLlIlllltl 






ilMll 


Ireland 


Scotlanil 


Wales 






244 


180 


:i:j 


210 


10 


128 


12it 


;{() 


;» 


Oit 


1 


7 


0.58 

1 


221 


177 



Total 



457 



:?54 
108 

77 



1,050 



The prices of the 1-inch maps are from Is. Gd. to 8s. Gd. for Eng- 
land (a few detailed drift maps at higher prices) ; If. Gd. to 3s. for 
Ireland ; 4s. to Gs. for Scotland ; of the 6-inch maps, 4s. to Gs. 

The 'Memoirs' of the Geological Survey date from 1845. Four 
volumes were consecutively numbered ; vol. 1 and vol. 2 (in two parts) 
contain several papers. The other two volumes and all later ' Memoirs ' 
are each confined to one subject or district. 

Memoirs or Explanations of sheets of the map have been issued since 
185!^ ; those published are — for England, 40 ; Ireland, 92 ; Scotland, 17. 

British fossils are described in ' Decades ' (thirteen published, from 
1849) and ' Monographs ' (four published, from 1859). 

'Mineral Statistics' were published annually from 1853 to 1882; 
hut in 1883 the Mining Record Office, in which these were prepared, was 
removed to the Home Ofiice, and the statistics are now issued as parts of 
the Reports of the Inspectors of Mines. 

No official general map has been issued by the survey, but the follow- 
ing maps, on scales varying from seven to eleven and a half miles to 
the inch, have been published by the directors of the respective surveys ; 
they are reductions of survey work to date : British Islands, by A. C. 
Ramsay, 1878 ; England and Wales, by A. C. Ramsay, 4th ed. 1879 ; 
Ireland, by J. B. Jukes, 18G7 ; Ireland, by E. Hull, 1878 ; Scotland, by 
A. Geikie, 1876. 

' A Catahgnc of the Pnhlications of the Geological Siirrei/ of th. United Kingdom 
to 1884 has been issued, with index maps, pp. 95, price Is. 






238 



REPORT — 1884. 



Report of the ComTuittee, consisting of Messrs. E. B. Grantham,. 
C. E. De Range, J. B. Kedman, W. Topley, \V. Whitaker, and 
J. W. Woodall, with Major-General Sir A. Clarke, Sir J. N. 
Douglass, Captain Sir F. 0. Evans, Captain J. Parsons, Professor 
J. Prestvvicii, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, and Messrs. E. Easton, 
J. S. Valentine and L. F. Vei{non Harcourt, appointed for the 
puipjose of inqidrinf) into the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts 
of England and Wales, and the lajiaence of the Artificial Abstrac- 
tion of Shinfjle or other Material in that Action. Drawn up bif 
C. E. De Kance and W. Topley, Secretaries. 

The importance of the subject referred to this Committee for investigation 
is universally admitted, and the urgent need for inquiry is apparent to 
all who have any acquaintance with the changes which are in progress 
around our coasts. The subject is a large one, and can only be success- 
fully attacked by many observers, working with a common purpose and 
upon some uniform plan. 

The Committee has been enlarged by the addition of some members 
who, by official position or special studies, are well able to assist in the 
work. 

In order fnlly to appreciate the influence, direct or indirect, of human 
agency in modifying the coast-line, it is nocessaiy to be well acquainted 
with the natural conditions which prevail in the places referred to. The 
main features as regards most of the east and south-east coasts of England 
are well known ; but even here there are probably local peculiarities not 
recorded in published works. Of the west coasts much less is known. 
It has therefore been thought desirable to ask for information upon many 
elementary points Avhich, at tirst sight, do not appear necessary for the 
inquiry with which this Committee is entrusted. 

A shingle- beach is the natural protection of a coast ; the erosion of 
a sea-clifE which has a bank of shingle in front of it is a very slow pro- 
cess. But if the shingle be removed the erosion goes on rapidly. This 
removal may take place in various ways. Changes in the natural distri- 
bution of the shingle may take place, the reasons for which are not 
always at present understood ; upon this point we hope to obtain much 
information. More often, however, the removal is directly due to arti- 
ticial causes. 

As a rule, the shingle travels along the shore in definite directions. 
If by any means the shingle is arrested at any one spot, the coast-line 
beyond that is left more or less bare of shingle. In the majority of cases 
such arresting of shingle is caused by building out ' groynes,' cr by the 
construction of piers and harbour-mouths which act as large groynes. 
Ordinary groynes are built for the purpose of stopping the travelling of 
the shingle at certain places, with the object of preventing the loss of 
land by coast-erosion at those places. They are often built with a reck- 
less disregard of the consequences which must necessarily follow to the 
coast thus robbed of its natural supply of shingle. Sometimes, however, 
the groynes fail in the purpose for which they are intended — by collecting 
an insufficient amount of shingle, by collecting it in the wrong places, or 
from othfT causes. These, again, are points upon which much valuable 
information may be obtained. 



ON TUB RATE OF EROSION OF THE SEA-COASTS. 



239 



[TUAM,. 

t, and 

J. N. 

ofessor 

,ASTON, 

for the 
-coasts 
bstrac- 
, up hy 



itigation 
arcnt to 
progress 
success- 
30se and 

members 
}t in the 

jf haman 
jquainted 
to. The 
■ England 
.ritiea not 
,s known, 
pon many 
■y for the 



Sometimes the decrease of shinglo is dno to a quantity being taken 
away from the beach for ballast, building, road-making, or other purposes. 

Solid rocks, or numerous large boulders, occurring between tide-marks, 
are also important protectors of the coast- line. In some cases these have 
been removed, and the waves have thus obtained a greater power over 
the land. 

To investigate these various points is the main object of the Committee. 

A large amount of information is already in hand, much of which ha& 
been supplied by ^Ir. J. B. Redman, who for many years has devoted 
special attention to this subject. Mr. R. B. Grantham has also made 
important contributions respecting parts of the south-eastern coasts. 

But this information necessarily consists largely of local details, and 
it has been thought better to defer the publication of this for another 
year. Meanwhile the information referring to special districts will be 
made more complete, and general deductions may be more safely made. 

As far as possible the information obtained will be recorded upon the 
six-inch maps of the Ordnance Survey. These give with great accuracy 
the condition of the coast, and the position of every groyne, at the time 
when the survey was made. 



Appended is a copy of the questions circulated. The Committee will 
be glad of assistance, from those whose local knowledge enables them to 
answer the questions, respecting any part of the coast-lino of England and 
Wales. 

Copies of the forms for answering the questions can be had on 
application to the Secretai'ies. 

Ajjpendu' — Copy of Questions, 



1. Wliat part of the Eiiglif^h or Welsh 
Coast do you know well ? 

L'. AVliat is the nature of that coast ? 
(«) If cliffy, of what are the cliffs 

composed ? 
(/y) What are the heights of the 

ciitf above H.W.il. ! 
Greatest ; average ; least. 

ii. What is the direction of the coast- 
line? 

4. What is the prevailing wind ? 

5. What wind is the most important — 

(«) In raising high waves ? 
(J) In piling up shinglo ? 
((■) In the travelling of sliingle / 
G. What is the set of the tidal currents .' 

7. What is the range of tide ? 

Vertical in feet. \Vidth in yards 
between high and low water. 
At Spring tide ; at Neap tide ? 

8. Does the area covered by the tide 

consist of bare rock, shingle, sand, 
or mud ? 



9. If of shingle, state — 

(a) Its mean and greatest breadth. 

(&) Its distribution with respect to 
tide-mark. 

(f) The direction in which it travels. 

{d) The greatest size of the pebbles. 

((') Whether the shingle forms one 
continuous slope, or whether 
there is a * spring full ' and 
'neap full.' If the latter, state 
their heights above the respec- 
tive tide-marks. 



10. Is the shingle accumulating 
diminishing, and at what rate 1 



or 



■■.'2 



11, If diminishing, is this due partly or 
entirely to artificial abstraction 1 
iSee No. 13.) 

If groynes are emploj-ed to arrest the 
travel of the shingle, state- - 
(a) Their direction with respect 
to the shore-line at that point, 
(ft) Their length. 
(r) Their distance apart. 



i 



240 



iiEroiiT — 1884. 



(^/) Their lieiffht— 
(l)Wlien built. 

(2)Toleo\Viir(l;ibi)Vi;tlio shiiifjlc. 
(3) To windward above tlio 
.shinj,'l(>. 
(/') The material of wliich tliey are In- 
built. 
(/) The iiidiicnce which tliey exert. 

13. If sliitijii'le, sand, or mok is being 

iirtiticially removed, state- 
(rt) From what part of the foreshore 
(with rosj)ect to the t idal nin<;:e) 
the material is mainly taken. j^^ 

(ft) For what purpose. 

(c) By whom — Private individuals. 

Local authorities. Public com- 
])anies. 
{(I) Whetlier lialf-tide reefs had, 
before sucli removal, acted as 
natural breakwat ers. 

14. Is the coast being worn back by the 

sea 1 If so, state — 

(rt) Atwhat siiecialpointsordistricts. 

(ft) The nature and height of the 

cliffs at tliose places. 
(t;) At what rate the erosion now 

takes place. 

(d) What data thci-e may be for 

determiningthe rate from early 
maps or other documents. 

(e) Is such loss conlined to areas 

bare of shingle ? ](|_ 

li"). Is the bareness of sliingle !it any of 
these places due to artificial causes ? I 

K.Ji. — Anitn'fra to thcforr(ji'hiii question': will 
■and valuiihlc ft// sJ^ctc/ws illuslratinij t/ia pnintu r 



18. 



(^f) I'y abstraction of sliinglo. 

(ft) By the erection of groynes, and 
the arresting of shingle else- 
where. 

Apart from the increase of land by 
increase of shingle, is any land being 
gained from the sea ? If so. state— 
(a) From what cause, as embanking 

salt-marsh or tidal foreshore. 
(ft) The area so regained, and from 

what date. 

Are there 'dunes ' of blown sand in 
your district ? If so, state— 
(rt) The name by which they are 

locally known, 
(ft) Their mean and greatest height, 
(f) Their relation to river mouths 

and to areas of shingle. 
{(V) If they are now increasing. 
{e') If they blow over the land ; or 

arc prevented from so doing by 

* l)ent grass ' or other vegetation, 

or by water channels. 

Mention any reports, papers, maps, 
or newsi)aper articles that have 
appeared upon this cjuestion bear- 
ing upon your district (copies will 
bo tliankfuUy received by the 
Secretaries). 

Ileniarks bearing on the .subject that 
may not seem covered hj) the fore- 
going questions. 

in mori cascn ho rendered more j)rec!se 
H'ferved to. 



Report of the Committee, co)islstl)ig of Professors A. H. Green and 
L. C. .AIiALL and ]\Iessrs. John BiucHr and James W. Davis 
{Secretary), appointed to assist in the Exp tor at Ion of the Llayijill 
Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire. 

During the past year operations have been entirely suspended, to 
-enable the proprietors of the quarry in which the fissure is situated to 
remove, by quarrying, a large mass of limestone, which greatly interfered 
with the work of excavation by your Committee. The removal of this 
limestone is now nearly completed, and it is hoped that in two or three 
months the examination of the fissure may be resumed. The importance 
of the work was sufficiently demonstrated in the report of last year, and 
your Committee suggest that the grant of 15Z. should be renewed and 
increased to 20/. They wish to express their sense of the kindness of the 
proprietors, Messrs. Spencer, who have, at considerable cost and no small 
inconvenience, greatly facilitated the work of the Committee, besides 
iredncing the cost of its future explorations. 



sei 

si.Y 

of 

eaij 

j)o.sl 

Tof 

disJ 

whit 

diec 

coul 

tarl 

two I 

post! 

lated 

fibot 

casuJ 

varij 

uotej 

li 

Jiad 
tho nk 
oi'igiif 

'■ocor(i 

One 
181 



ON Tin: DAHTIiyUAKi; rHEXOMENA OK JAPAN. 



241 



s, and 
clsc- 



.nA by 
I being 
it ill e— 
unkins;; 
lore. 
(1 from 

janil in 

hey are 

; height, 
mouths 

ing. 

liuid; ov 
doing i>y 
>getation, 



irs, mn\)^, 
hat hiive 
lion brill-- 
;opics wiU 

by 



tlie 



|i Dject tliat 
tlic fove- 



loreprn'he 



iKEN cinil 
^\ Davis 

inded, to 
Ituated to 
linterfevcil 
lal of this 
or three 
Jnportance 
1 year, and 
[ewed and 
tiess of tlie 
no small 
be, besides 



Fo'iiih Report of tL' ('outiiiltft'c, coiis'tsiuxi of .Mr. W. ETiiKitiiMii;, 
.Mr. 'I'JIOMAS (ji{AV, (dul J'rofi'ssor .loiiN Mii^NK (lSe.crelaft/), 
apixtiided for ihe ^ntrpusn <f lnvesli(j<Uln<i the Eartliijnuke 
Phenomena of Japan. Drawn up by the. Secretary. 

Ui i;ix<i the last year, tlint is, IVom Juno 18S:J to the end of ^lay 1884, 
nnlv tliirty-niiio riirtlitjnakc.s liavo boon recorded in Tokio. In llio throe 
])iovions years diiriiijj coiTeHpitiuling periods the number of records were 
".J, -u, and 28. Js'ot only have tlie shocks been few in number, but they 
liavo also been unusually feeble. At tlie time when the greatest shocks 
oconrrod, which was at the end of Decemher and in Januiiry, I was 
absent from Tokio on a visit to the Takasliinia Colliery, near Nagasaki, 
with tlie object of establishing an nndergi'ound observatory. 

AUliougli, as these remarks indieiite, my opportunities for the obser- 
vation of earihtjnakes have been small, I am {)leased to state that J have 
Ikou sir.gularly ibrtniiatcin obtiu'ning a series of most interesting records, 
anil at the same time have liiid leisure to work up a portion of the nu- 
merous observations which during the last few years have been steadily 
accumulating. A few of the results which have been obtained liavo 
alreaily been eomrnunicati^d to the Seiamological Society. These, together 
with others which yet remain for publication, ai'c briefly as follows: 

Bkrmiiiafion of areas from icldrli the shakhujs so often felt in Norfh .lajnin 

emanate. 

In my report to the IJi'itish Association in 1882, I stated that 1 had 
sent bundles of postcards to all the important towns within a radius of 
sixty to one hundred miles of Yedo, with a request that every week one 
of these cards should be returned to mn together with a statement of the 
earthquakes which had been felt. Subsequently the boundary of the 
postcard area was extended until it covered the whole of Japan north of 
Tokio. I did not extend the area far towards the south, because 1 quickly 
discovered that it was seldom that earthquakes originated in that direction 
whilst disturbances travelling from the north towards the south quickly 
died out as they reached heavy mountain ranges which in that part of the 
country had a strike at right angles to the direction in which the die- 
tarbances were travelling. At the end of September 188;5, after exactly 
two yoiirs of observation, I ceased to supply my correspondents witli 
postcards and commenced the arrangement and aimly.sis of the .accumu- 
lated n;aterial. From rccrular observers I found that I had received 
iibout 1,500 letters, whilst there were also a lai-ge number of others froni 
casual correspondents. 1 also had the records of instruments placed in 
various parts of the countiy, and a very extensive series of diagrams and 
uotes made by myself and others in Tokio iind Yokohama. 

In the two years I refer to, in North Japim and Yezo 387 earthquakes 
Imd been noted. Of each of these I was ensibled to draw a map showing 
the area over which it had been felt, and to indicato approximately its 
origin. In the determination of origins 1 Wiis gieatly assisted by the 
records of instruments and the time obsorvaticnis which had been checked 
by daily time signals sent by the Telegra]di Department from Tokio. 
One hundred and twcntv-five of these maps drawn on a small scale 

1884. " n 




242 



hepout — 1884. 



I fim glad to liavc it in my power to say are now being published by tlie 
Seisnioloffical Sociiefy. 

The results -wbicli these obsorvat ions have ^iven, al(honi,'h in certnin 
cases only eonfiiinatory of previons observaiions, may be epitomised as 
follows : — 

1. Out of the ;iH7 shocks, 2o4 have been local, the area shaken in 
some cases not exceedinfj .^n s(iuiu'(! miles. 'I'lie remftinini^ 13.'J disturb- 
ances each shook an area with an jiverage diameter of 45 miles. A few 
of the larger shocks shook an area the radius of which Avas at least 150 
miles, As the latter originated far out at sea their efTeets on the land 
Avere small. At least fifteen cases have occurred when an earthquake 
lias been practically felt at the same time over two distant areas — obser- 
vera in the intermediate areas not having felt any disturbance. The 
distance between such areas has been as much as 150 miles. 

2. The area where the most earthquakes have been felt is along the 
line of the Toncgawa, especially near its month, which is ono of the 
flattest parts of Japan. Is^o less than eighty-four jier cent, of all the 
earthquakes observed have originated beneath the Pacific Ocean, or on 
the land close to the sea-board. 

The volcanic regions of Japan and the mountainous districts arc sin- 
gularly free from earthquakes. 

Unless an earthquake is very severe it invariably grows feebler as it 
approaches the mountains and then dies out without crossiug them. The 
mountains referred to are broad ranges, having i)caks from 6,000 to 
10,000 feet in height. 

In many respects the distribution of seismic activity in Japan holds a 
close relationship to the distiibtition in South America. In the centre of 
Japan we have high mountain ranges consisting of granite, metamorphic 
slates and limestones, and old volcanic rocks, perforated by the vents 
.from which materials have bren ejected to foi-m modern volcanoes. 

The mountains to the eastward slope steeply beneath a deep ocean, 
whilst to the west there is a very gentle slope. The earthquakes chiefly 
originate on the steep slope beneath the deep ocean. In South America 
many of the destructive earthquakes appear to have had a similar origin. 

o. Of the o87 earthquakes, 278 occurred during the winter months 
and 109 during the summer months. If, for convenience, we consider the 
intensity of an earthquake as being proportional to the area shaken, thou 
the seismic energy of the winter month.s to that of the; summer months 
is in the ratio of about 3:1. 

In the whole of Japan on the average there is at least one shock per 
day, possibly two or three. This is a number which European seisuio- 
legists, basing their calculations on catalogues (which for Japan are ex- 
ceedingly imperfect), have given for the whole world. 

4. Taking either the 387 earthquakes here referred to, or the records 
of earthquakes made during the last ten years in Tokio, by means of 
instruments working automatically, wc find that their occurrence closely 
follows curves of temperature. A peculiarity is that the sinuses of tlin 
curves of mean monthly temperatures are generally a little in advance of 
the crests of the waves indicating the frequency of earthquakes. In con- 
nection with this observation attention may be drawn to the fact that tlio 
curves of temperature are those for the air, whilst many of the earth- 
quakes originated beneath the ocean, which gains temperature slowly and 
loses it slowly. 



flf a I 
TJio 
Verv 
fi'oni I 
move 

'vaciil 

V('r< 

one 

in-eo-d 

iiiofiol 
|>''iidsl| 

I five Kc 
J vi brat I 

j<''i'ectil 
|l>i'opaf 



ON Tin; K.vnriK^UAKK 1'iiknomi;na or .lAr.vN. 



243 



tlie 



•rtiuu 
c(l as 

;on in 
stuv\)- 
A few ' 
,8t 150 
land 
iqnako 
-oV)sev- 
,. Tho 

)ng tlio 

5 of the 

all the 

ia, ov on 

arc sin- 

)lcr as it 
em. The 
G,000 to 

m holds a 
. centre of 
tainorphic 
tlic vents 

bes. 

ocp ocean, 

les chietly 
1 Atnerica 

|Llar origin. 

[er months 
)nsider the 
[aken, then 
icr luoutlis 

shock per 
Ian seiswo- 
lan are ex- 

Lhe records 
if means of 
Lee closely 
uses of tho 
I advance ot 
L In con- 
|act that tlio 
• the earth- 
alov/ly and 



n. There has honn no inavki'd connection between the occuvrcnco of 
oarthiiniikes and the position of tlio moon. 

(i. Kiirtliqnakca liavo been II'- ])er cent, moro nnmcrons nt low 
water than at higli water. Jt is lVe(|nently assiinieil tliiit earthquakes aro 
more frequent at one time rather than at anotliei-. I havo spent much 
time in the tabulation of tliu oaith(|iiakes of Japan and other countries, 
comparing tofrctlu'i- the IV('(iui'ncv of eartb(|tiiikt's nt certain jdiases of tho 
moon, at particnlar seasons, during tlie day as compared with tlio night, 
relatively to the state (if the Iiaronioter ami other meteorological changes, 
&c,., with tile g(!neral result, fliat there are no strongly marked ])eriods 
wlieu eartlKpiakes niiiy bt; expected, tho c.\-ception.s to rules which may 
he formulated being .'dmost as numerous as the cnses whieh were tho 
foundation for the rules. Tlie most marked rule about earthquakes i.** 
tliat tliey chietly occur during the eold months. 

7. With regard to tlie natuiv of (>arthquako motion ris deduced from 
the numerous diagriims which have been obtaini-d, 1 cannot say that; 
they do more than ciuitirm the riisults which 1 have already comninni- 
•cated to the llritish Association. The greater nundier of shocks had a 
duration of from twenty to sixty seconds, but some lasted mon; than four 
minutes. Tho duration recorded depended on tho situation of tho 
•oh.scrver, and on t' <j nature of tho instruments. Two observers, with 
similar instruments, two or three hundred yards apart, might con- 
f^iderably diil'er as to the length of time assigned for tho duration of a 
disturbance. If one observer was situated on a marsh whilst the other 
was on iiai'd ground, the formei* woidd record the longer time I'or tho 
duration of sensible moticm. 

An instrument with a large niultijdying index, and sensitive to small 
^)ut ([uiek movements, will ol'teu eommence to write a record before an 
■justiniment which has only a small multiplying ])ower. Again, an instru- 
ment with very little friction, and susceptible to very slow movements, 
will contin\ie to write a record, after an instrument with considei-ablo 
friction has ceased to move. Strictly speaking it would appear that 
the whole of an earthquake has never yet been recorded ; many of tho 
preliminary tremors at the coniniencoment of a disturbance and the slow 
pulsations whieh bring a distui-banco to a close being lost. 

The preliminary tremors have an amplitude which is a small fraction 

of a millimeter, and a period of twenty-five secouds to sixteen seconds. 

Tlie tremors may be followed by a shock which consists of three or fonr 

very rapidly performed back and forth motions, having an amplitude of 

from one to ten millimeters. The maximum acceleration during such a 

movement, calculated on tho assumption of harmonic motion, sometimes 

reaches live hundred millhueters [vr second. Such a shock is on tho 

verge of being dangerous, hi ordiniiry disturbances it is from ten to 

j one hundred millimeters per second. After tho shock wo get a series of 

I irregular motions, perhaps accompanied by other shocks. These irregular 

motions are tho chief features in ordinary disturbances, and the tremor.s 

and shock may he absent. The maximum amplitude recorded is from a 

jtraction of a millimeter to one or two nulllmeters. The period is from 

five seconds to three seconds. TIk^ direction of motion of these irrej^ular 

jvihrations constantly chauires. They do not appear to havo any direct; 

Icomiection with that, in which the earthquake is being propagated. Tho 

jdirection of a shock, however, seems to coincide with the direction of 

]propagat'on. 

k2 



■p' 



244 



REPORT- -1H81. 



.; I 



As tlio (liHturbanro dies nut tho period of ilicsc irregular movcmoiits 
increascH, iiiul waves with ii [icriod of two (»:• tlireo Hoconds havo Itccii 
recorded. 

For information respoetinfif the veloeity of propat^ation, I will vfer 
to my report ol" IHHl, wliere .some general results wen; iriven. i sliortiv 
expect to be able to give more delinito information on this subject. 



E.qycrhnc)itii oa /he Direction of Motion of a Tutnt. 

Hitherto the only means that we havo had at our disposal for de- 
termiiiing tho direction of motion of a point, has l)eon cither to eombiiie 
tho records of two rectangular components, or to trace a few of the nioro 
conspicuous curves in a record given by a seismograph writing on a 
stationary plate. JJoth of these methods can only be applied to jn'oniinciit 
vibrations in a record, and each of them, unless under ppeeiul circiiin- 
stances, is liable to error. Tho records giv(>n by seismographs with 
single indices writing on moving plates, aro ibr several reasons also open 
to error, especially perhaps on account of the friction of tho moving plivto 
exerting a drag on the recording index. To partially overcome these 
difficulties, I have constructed a record receiver which works as follows: 
— Shortly after tho commeuceraent of the disturbance, tho smoked plate 
on which the index of a .seismograph is writing, is suddenly dropped 
vertically out of range of tho index. It is next pushed along horizontally, 
and then raised vertically back to its original level, so that it is again in 
contact with tho recording point. 

This operation is quickly repeated twelve limes, at intervals of every 
two seconds, so that twelve ditlei'cnt diagi'amii are obtaitied on a strip of 
smoked glass, each one being written on a different part of the plate. In 
this way all etfects of drag produced by ho moving plate upon the pointer 
are eliminated. As T have thus fur only obtained one set of diagram.^, I 
must reserve a description of the results until a future occasion. 



The simullancoua ohservatlon of Earth iiual;c!i at three stations in 
Teleijraphic connection. 

Tho advantages to bo gained by tho observation of earthquakes at three 
or more stations ir telegraphic connection were first definitely pointed 
out by Professor J. A. Ewiug, in a communication to the Seismologieal 
Society. A very similar method had, however, been previously followed 
by ]\Ir. T. Gray and myself, in our observations on artiOcially produced 
disturbances. 

Tho method which I am now following is briefly as follows : — Near i 
to my house I havo established, at tho corners of a triangle, the sides oti 
which are each approximately 800 feet, similar instruments. These are 
fixed on the heads of stakes level with the surface of tho ground. The | 
I'ocords are written on smoked glass plates which at the time of an earth- 
quake are drawn by means of a falling weight beneath the writing indices. 
By means of electrical connections, these plates are simultaneously set in I 
motion by the withdrawal of a catch. As they move along, time intervals 
are marked by levers deflected by electro-magnets every time a small 
pendulum passes a cup of mercury. The pendulum, which is usually beWl 



diff 
.Sta 
.'I 111 
^^•as 



Stat: 



ON TIIK KAUTinillAKK PHENOMKXA OF JAPAN. 



24* 



cmoiits 

ill r-ftr 
sliovlly 

I. 



,1 I'or (U'- 
) (•()ml>iiH! 

tlio inon' 
Lu><? on u 
proniim'"' 
il circuui- 
iiphs witli 

also open 

ivint? ?^''i^^' 
;nino these 
as follows : 
loke.d pliiti' 
ly droppcil 
lorixontally, 
; 13 again in 

fxls ol" ovovy 

m a strip of 

\)late. I'l 

tlie pointov 

iliagvanis, * 

n. 



lakes at three 
jitely pointed 
k'ismological 
jsly followed 
[\ly produced 

-Near 
„„ sides oi 
These are 
ound. The 
■ an eartii- 1 
icr indices. 
i°ly setiul 
, intcrval> I 
,uue a smal]l 
i usually lieli 



deflected, is set swinj^ing by nn automatic aTranpferaent in my honsc. Its 
lirst swiiij.^ relioveH the catches and sots the phites in motion. Hy means 
(,f the time ticks it is easy to eomparo tho oeciirroneo ot" any special 
vibration taken at the varions .stations witliin ono hnndrcdth part of a 
second. At the corner of my triangle, at Station Nutuhcr I , the ground 
is moderately liard. Station II. is situated on a small promontory leading 
out into a marKh and near a shallow pond. Station 111., where tho 
i:iiiiiii(l is moderately hard, is behind a heavy brick building which stands 
very near to the almost perpendicular face of a deep inoal. Tlie results 
which have hithci'to been obtained, are briefly as fol!i)w.s ; — 

1. The diagram extending over the longest period of time and showing 
tlic largest waves i.s always obtained from Station II. in tho vicitdty of 
the mar.shy ground,- -the diagrams at tho other two Btations being much 
smaller. The smallest record is invariably that at Station 111. near tho 
decj) moat. 

2. At Stations 1. and 11. waves which may bo the s;imo can oc- 
<'asionaIly bo identified, Itefc the identification of a wave at III., which is 
cdmnion to 1. and II., is not oidy rare, but it is accompanied by great un- 
certainty. 

;>. In a given earth(piak(< wo find that tho frequency of waves at tho 
♦lifl'erent stations in given intcrvaLs of time is diflbrent. For e.vample, tho 
number of complete east and west vibrations during tho first twenty 
seconds of time at the diirerent stations during five earthquakes Wcas as 
follows : — 



Freiiucncij of Waves. 
Kiniihir (if Woven in twenty 8Cco)ids. 



\y.x 


ti' 


IHHl. 
if I''.iirtli(|ii 


\U 


Mairli 
Alarch 
.Vpril (i 
Mav r. 
.May 1 1 


!1 







SlatiiPii I. 


Station 


11. 




,S| 


iti.mlll. 


],S 


li 






Nut 


uliscrvc'd 


•s,\ 


L'O 








21 


'>:> 


2 i 




!• 




20 


(11 


M 




! 




01 


58 


50 








Gl 



From tho above table it is evident that the average period must be 
(lifTercnt at diifercnt stations. The small number of waves observed at 
Station III. iu March 31 and April (J is probably due to the smallncss in 
amplitude of many waves vvhich, because the period of the earthquakes 
was long, have coalesced iu the diagram to form a straight line. Speaking 
generally we may say that tho aver.ige period is longest at Station II. 
near the marsh. 

At any given station, however, the period varies considerably during 
tlio same disturbance. Thus, in ;&Iarch .j1, tho period of tho north and 
south motion near the commencement of the disturbance Mas "20 second. 
A few seconds later it was ••i second. 

A similar result is obtained by the analysis of the diagram taken at 
Station 11. Selecting the largest waves from the diaurrams of the different 



-.iH 'I ' 



246 



!n:roiiT — 1884. 



earthquakes which are seen to bo in the north and south comiionents of 
motion, their perious in seconds are as follows : — 

IViioiIs ill Seconds 





r 

kc 


Stiilioii 1. 

• 






lH8t. 
Date of Eiirthi|ii! 


Station 11. 


Station HI. 


March 2(1 . 




•fifi 


•OR 




March HI . 




•l'(i 


•28 


•:!:! 


April 6 




•45 


•05 


•40 


May G 




•48 


•(50 


•.))» 


May 11 . 




•2« 


•45 


•I'S 



The maximum amplitudes or half semi-oscillation in millimeters 
measured in the north and south components, are as follows : — 

Aniiilitiules in Millinietcr.s 









' 


1S8I. 
Date of Eartli(ju;ike 


Station I. 

1 


Station II. 


Station III. 


March 2G . 
:March ill . 
April G . . . 
Jlay G . . . 
May 11 . 


•1(50 
•002 
•10 

•a 

•2!) 


■104 

■s 

•I 

•8 


■041 

•OS 
•OS 
•08 



On the assum])tion of harmonic motion the mnximum velocities in 
millimeters jjor second calculated from the ;il)ovc periods and amplitudes 
are as follows : — 

Ma.xiiniim Vclofitics in Milliiiiotors jipv second 



- 





- ■ 








ISSI. 

Date of Eartliqnjkc 


Station I. 


Station 


II. 


Station 111. 


aMarch 26 . 
Jlarcli ;il . 
April G , 
INIay G 
May 11 . 




15 
14 
2 '2 
."{•7 
7 


5-0 
2-2 

74 
10 
10 




1 

1 



The maximum acc'^^'^'ation in millimeters per second calculated from 
the maximum velocities and amplitudes, is as follows :- - 

Maxinmin Am^Icration in MillimottTs per .-iecoiid 



18.S!. 
Date of Eaithrjuakc 



March 2G 
Maroh 31 
April G 
]May 6 
May 11 



Station 1. 



1-4 

;{12 

:50-2 
20-3 



I Station II. 




Station III. 



i:{^7 
18 
10' I 



ON THE KARTIIQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



247 



lents o£ 



ulll. 



2S j 

illiracti'vs 



ti.mlU. 



•041 
•OS 
•08 
•OS 

clocitics in 
I amplitwdos 

iiul 



lilt 



ionlll. 



;nlatfd from 



■r >ei'oiHl 



^iMtlllll 



KV7 

18 

101 

:if.-i 



From this last tablo wo see that, although the period of motion at 
Station II. is slow ia consequence of the very large amplitude usually- 
experienced at that staiion, the niaxiraum velocity, and more markedly 
the maximum acceleration, which may bo taken as a measure of the 
intensity or destructive power of a disturbance, have been much greater 
than at Stations I. and III. 

One of the most remarkable earthquakes in the series was that of March 
26. Although the amplitude of this was sufficiently great to constitute 
a destructive shock, the period was so long that the disturbance almost 
escaped attention. Several persons observed lamps and pendulums 
swinging, and thought there might be an earthquake occurring, but 1 only 
founti one or two persons who detected any motion of the ground or 
building. 

Speaking generally about these observations, it may be said that had 
three independent obsovvei-s been placd at the three stations which are 
only 8U0 feet apart, and each had been provided with similar instruments, 
they could not have failed in giving very different accounts of the same 
earthquake, both as to its period, its duration, and, I may add, its direc- 
tion. A result of practical interest that is dependent in the records whicli 
I have obtained, is the benefit to be derived by engineers and architects 
by making a systematic seismic survey of tlie ground, on which they 
intend to erect important structures in earthquake-shaken districts. 



Observations ivitli the Graij-'Mlliie Seisinorjrapli. 

As this instrument has been described and illustrated in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society of London '(vol. xxxix. p. 218), and in other 
publications, I will not describe the details of its construction. It consists of 
a pair of conical pendulum seismographs, v.-hich record upon the smoked 
surface of a drum, two mutually rectangular components of the horizontal 
motion of the earth. The I'.rum is kept continuously in motion by clock- 
work. The vertical motion is described by a spring lever seismograph. 
At a certain part of the earthquake, a mark is made on the drum, simul- 
taneously with which time is recorded from a specially arranged time- 
piece. 13y this means the time can be calculated at which any particular 
vibration of an earthquake occurred. 

As the instrument is designed more for the systematic observatior. of 
earthquakes, rather than for experimental purposes, I entered into corre- 
siiondencc with the Meteorological Dejiartment of this country to admit it 
into their department as an instrument for regular observation. This 
Mr. Arai Ikunosuke, the director of the Meteorological Department, has 
kindly done. Aftc-r repairing slight damage, which it suffered in its 
transit, it was exhibited to His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of thi,s 
country. Since then a heavy brick column on a massive poncrcto foun- 
dation has been built for its instalment, and '.t has been put in charge of a 
regular observer. During the early part of this year, although several 
earthquakes were experienced, no results were obtained. This was due to 
the pointers of the conical or horizontal pendulums, which are extremely 
sensitive to slight changes in level, slowly wandering to the right and left 
of their normal position on the revolving drum. The conscquouco of 
this was, that instead of simply tracing in the smoked surface a single 
line, they made a path sometimes an inch in breadth, and when the earth- 



It- 

I 



248 



llErOKT- 



884. 



quake came the smoked surface on wliicli the recoi'd ought to have been 
written had been removed. 

Although I varied the adjustments of the iustvumeut in a variety of 
manners, I was unable to destroy this tendency to wander. The only 
cxplaniition which I can offer of the phenomena, is that it is either due to 
a settlement taking place in the column, which from the nature of the 
motion is unlikely, or that it was due to actual chauges in the level of the 
soil. 

Ah final resort the point of suspension of the conicnl pendulums was 
brought sufficiently forwards to give them a definitely stable position, 
since which all earthquakes which have occurred have been successfully 
recorded. Although I have in this manner destroyed the sensibility of 
the instrument, I mny remark that it is sufficiently sensitive to give a 
daily u:cord of the tiring of a time gun, situated mf)re than 100 ^-ards 
distant. Tiie intervening ground is hard and full of excavations. 

Hitherto, I have not had time to analyse the various records which 
have been obtained, and am therefore compelled for the present to reserve 
any report npon them. Mr. Gray is, I am pleased to say. constructing 
two new seismographs. These are so ai'ranged that they will record, 
either slow tips in tliu soil or earthquakes, the diagiwus being nuide with 
ink on a strip of paper. 

Fapcrimcnis on a Bnildiinj io rr.<!!<l I'JartlKpiake iiiolion. 

I have previously drawn attention to the great difference in the 
effects which moderately strong earthquakes have producetl upon 
European and on Japanese types of buildings, the former being more or 
less shattered whilst the latter escape without any apparent damage, lu 
the one case we have a building of brick and mortar firndy attached by 
its foundations to the shaking earth, whilst in the other we have a light 
wooden structure resting loosely on boulders. If the former is of a type 
fur which patents have been granted, where iron hoops and tie rods 
together with all the devices which give strength and solidity have been 
employed, it certainly resists the eff'ects of disturbances which have , 
shattered buildings of ordinary construction. An important objection 
to dwellings of this order is their great expense. 

With the above considerations before one, and with a knowledge that, 
the chief motion in the majority of earthquakes in this country is the 
horizontal component, I have erected for experimental jjurposes a small 
building resting on four cast-iron balls. 

The building, which measures 20 feet by II' feci, is constructed of 
timber with a suingle roof, plaster walls and ceiling of laths and paper. 
The balls rest on cast-ii-on plates with sancer-liko edges tixed on tho 
heads of piles. Above the balls and attached to the building are cast- 
iron plates, slightly concave but otherwise similar to those below. From 
the records of instruments placed in the building, it would appear that at 
the time of the earthquake there is a dow back and forth motion, bnt 
that all the sndih'ii motion or fhorli has been destroyed. Thus far the 
building or rather its foundations have proved successful in eliminating 
the destriujtive element of motion. 

I am now exporimenting on the foundations by using flat phttes, and 
by giving such frictional resistances to movement that the buildiii'^' may 
become astatic. If this is successful, as I trust it will be, although devices 



ox THE IvAKTIIQr.VKE I'lIKNOMEXA <)1' JAPAN'. 



249 



ai'e yet required to destroy flic vertical motion of earthquakes, noraetbing 
of practical value will have been done to mitig;»te the serious results which 
accompany destructive earthquakes by the elimination of their horizontal 
nuivements. 



,\ras was 



0)1 the Edahlishmciit of an UnJen/rdUiid Olisireatory, 

la December last year I visited the Takashima Colliery, near Nagasaki, 
with the object of making investigations preparatory to the establishment 
of an underground observatory. The phenomena which I had the inten- 
tion of observing were : — 

1. Earth-tremors. — It has been observed thai these microscopic raove- 
ineuts of the soil accompany baiotnetric falls, and it is therefore probable 
that they may hold some relationship to the escape ot gas which in 
certain parts of the Takashima mine is a source of considerable danger. 
At tliis mine the gas escapes several hours before any marked changes 
take place in the baronietrictil column. Should it be found that the 
occurrence of tremors precedes barometric fluctuations the utility of the 
observations is obvious. 

The instruments to be used for observation ai-c tromometers, like those 
employed by Bertelli and Rossi in Italy, and microphones in a telephonic 
circuit. During my short stay at the mine, I found that a microphone 
placed in an unworked part of the mine was at times very .active. 

2. The observation of delicate levels for the purpose of recording any 
variations which may take place in the inclination (f the ground. Since 
[ left the mine, Mr. John Stcddart, the chief engineer, who has under- 
taken these various investigations, writes me that he commenced 
observations with the levels on the surface of tlie ground. Owing to a 
gradual subsidence, due to the underground excavations, Avhich is 
evidenced by nunierons cracks on the surface, the changes in the levels 
are so great that it will be necessary to establish them unelerground. 

3. The measurement of the sinking of the underground excavations. 
As the mine, which is very large, extends a long di.stance beneath the 
ocean, it is not unlikely that some connection may be found between the 
raovemcnt of the roof and the tides. ^Er. Stoddart tells me that the 
contrivance for indicating these effects yields such marked results that a 
number of similar apparatus are being made for distribution in ditlerent 
parts of the workings. 

4. The observation of earth-currents. Whilst I was at the mine, 
feeble currents were visible on a line only sixty yards in length. 

In consequence of a fire which broke out in the mine sliortly after T 
left, it, is o)dy quite recently that Mr. Stoddart has had opportunity to 
turn his attention to these investigations. At a future period I trust 
that I may be able to report upon them. For facilities enabling these 
observations to be made, my thanks are due to the ]\ritsu Bishi Company, 
who are the owners of tlie mine. 



TJ art I, -tremors and Eartli-jnil'iations. 

For the present, the observations on earth-tremora in Tokio have 
heen discontinued. The observations on changes in inclination of the 
ground, as shown by the movements in the bubbles of levels and in the 
position of the stile of a penduluu'. relatively to a point beneath it, are 



a.^o 



REroRT — 1884. 



still going on. At the Imperial Obsei'vatory a special colanin has been 
constructed for these latter observations, and a large series of records are 
l)eing collected. To work up the observations already nmdo on earth- 
tremors and earth-pulsations will require consideriiblc time, and I 
therefore am compelled for the present to reserve any report on them. 

Xutrii ill. raiiiwrtioii vitJi Ohscn'ttlions made iii tin; UuJrrjnjimd 
Ohserrafori/ at the Talcashima Colliery near yuijasa/.i. 

01 iser rations with fixed Spirit Levels, ^'c 

These levels have been tried both on the surface and below grnnud, but 
1 find that, owing to the extensive underground workings, the move- 
ment in the Avliole mnss of the island is so great as to entirely vitiate any 
record of the more minute earth-movemonts. 

The excess ;ind irregularity of the movement in the sti'ata of the 
island is owing to the fact that wo are working simultaneously three 
seams of coal ol; the aggregate thickness of IM) to 3G feet. Tlie lowest 
seam (which is the only one in which we can hope to get a stable founda- 
tion) mciisui'os IH feet in thickness, with a soft shale lioor of great depth, 
on account of which it takes both ' creep ' and ' crush ' ; giving a con- 
stantly varying set of movements from which it is impossible to obtain 
any reliable statistics. 

The same reasons render the observations by the microphone and 
microseismoraeter totally unreliable. 

The lever microphone — with which we have been experimenting — 
when delicately balanced, registers an almost continuous i-attle of sounds 
caused by the passage of coal-trucks, the ' falling ' of coal, and the 
' working' or crushing of the strata. 

Even when the delicacy of the balance is reduced, so that it docs not 
render a single vestige of sound away from the colliery, it still continues 
to register intermittent sounds, which can only be attributed to those 
above-named causes when brought into the mine or on the island. 

The microseismometcr alst) shows constant tremors going on, accom- 
panied by very considerable deflections, but without any periodicity or 
constancy of direction. 

In Older to be sure that this irregularity was caused by the under- 
ground workings, I made a short series ol" experiments on tho mainland 
at Nagasaki, nine miles distant, with such results as perfectly convinced 
me of the unreliableuess of the observations at Takasima. 

T am, however, strongly of opinion that observations of considerable 
value in their application to the prediction of the out-flow of carburetted 
hydrogen in coal mines can be obtained from the microseismometcr under 
the following conditions. 

l.st. That it would need to be erected at a sufTicient distance from tbe 
mines to insure its being unaflccted by tremors caused by the under- 
ground Avorkings. 

'Jnd. That it must be close enough to the mines to iiisurc its being 
affected by the same earth-tremors as are likely to affect the coal strata. 

I am led to form the above opinion from the fact that in the brief 
experiments which I was able to make on tho mainland, any increase in 
the intensity of vibration and amplitude of deflection seemed as a rule to 
precede a diniinution of the barometrical preasurc. and it also seems 



fatei. 



ON THT K.VIITIIQUAKI' rilENOMK.NA OF JAPAN. 



251 



iis been 
)rds are 
1 efirth- 
and I 
lem. 

•o'tncZ 



mixA, but 
10 move- 
tiate any 

ui of tlie 
isly tbreo 
he lowest 
Id founda- 
eat deptli, 
niT a eon- 
to obtain 

phone and 

imonting— 
> of sounds 
and the 

t docs not 

continues 

d to tliose 

md. 

on, accom- 
/iodicity or 

tlic under- 
mainland 
^- convinced 

onsidcrablc 
carburetted 
oter nndcr 

Ice from tlu' 
the undev- 

i-o its being 
toal strata. 
Ill the brief 

increase in 
las a rule to 

also seems 



liighly probable that au increase of vibratory motion in tlio coal strata 
wonld tend to faciJitate the outflow of gases contained therein in even a 
greater ratio than v,onld the diminution of atmospheric pressnre. My 
personal experience in mining tends entirely to snpport this deduction, 
as I have invariably found that in places where the outflow of gas was 
fairly constant as a general rule, it always increased to a greater or less 
extent when what is technically called any ' working ' of tlie strata took 
place. 

For the purpose of obtaining more reliable statistics on this head, I 
have arranged with Mr. F. liinger of Nagasaki to erect the microseis- 
monicter at his observatory on the mainland, eight miles from this island, 
and Ave shall be able, by making simultaneous observations, to connect liis 
notes with those made at the observatory at the mine. Of course it 
would be preferable to have the maiTiland observatory situated at a point 
much closer to the mines than this one is, but there! is no place nearer 
where we can be sure of having a reliable observer. 

(Hiservallois un J'Jur/Ji-rurn'iLts, (]'■'•. 

Owing to my inexperience in magnetic observation and the difhcnlty 
in getting suitable apparatus consti-uctcd or erected down here, I havo 
only begun to make regular observations durintr the current month. 
Previous to this, however, 1 have been making isolated experiments with 
such rough-and-ready apparatus as could be constructed on the spot. 

Tiie results are brieliy as follows: — 

With one wire connected with an iron bar fixed in the line of a 
fault below-ground, and the other end fixed to a similar bar inserted in the 
strata at a distance of about 100 yards, there vvas a considerable deflection 
in a home-made <r dvanometer. 

With both ends connected with the coal strata below ground, but 
away from the vicinity of any fault, the deflection was hardly perceptible. 

With one end flxed to the rod inserted in the fault below ground, and 
the other connected with the surface strata, the deflection was again con- 
siderable. I then erected the apparatus in my own house, connecting one 
end with a rod inserted in the line oi' a fault, at a short depth from the 
surface, and the othei' with tlie surface strata with the home-made sjal- 
vannneter I got slight though perceptible deflections, and with the 
galvanometer which was received fi-om Tokio I have since obtniued 
deflections quite capable of regi; ation. 

Owing to my own inexperience and the meagreness of the statistics 
which I have beeir able to collect, it wonld be altogcthei' absurd to givo 
any opinion, as yet. us to the connection (if any) between the movements 
of the galvanometer and the outflow of gas in the mine, and I think that 
it is preferable to cnllect at least one year's statistics before saying any- 
iliing further on the subject, than to state tho.t, so far as the experiment.s 
, have progressed, they tend to render me sangnine that such a connection 
might be established, and .also that I would bo most happy to receive any 
advice or suggestions on the subject from people more experienced in the 
.sidoject than myself. 

Tid'^.l Ohserrations, 

With regard to the (observations to be made with a view to establish 
the connection (if any) between the crushing together of the roof and 
floor of the mine and the rise and fall of the tide, Mr. Stoddart writes: — • 






2.>2 



itErOKT — 1884. 



"I liiivo liitherto made but little prorjres? with these cxpcriracnts, 
owing to the diflicultios I have had in constructing a tide-gauge to give 
a daily and hourly register of the rise and fall of the tide, and also in 
constructing an a))pHrdtns for registering the crush of the niino in a 
similar manner. 

" With the little machine which you designed when j'ou were down 
here I have been able to demonstrate perfectly the most minute move- 
ments of the roof aiid floor in approaching oi another, but it is impos- 
sible to bo sure as to whether the approach is accelerated or retarded as 
the tide rises and falls until I have completed the construction of a clock 
register. 

" I think that it will be better, therefore, to refrain from remarking on 
this subject, further than to say that it is being worked at. 

" Joiix Stoddart, 

" To .ToiiN" Mii.Ni;, Ksf)., Takashiniii: '2C,f/i Jmir, 1881. 

Kolni Dai (Jakku, Tokio."' 



Report of the Committee, consistlnr/ of Professor Kav Lankkstkh, 
jAIr. 1'. L. 8cLATi;u, Trofessor M. Fostku, INIr. A. SKixiWiCK, Pro- 
fessor A. jNI. Mausiiall, Professor A. C. Haddon, and, Mr. Percy 
Sladkx {Secretary), appoltitedfor the purpose of arrai}(/hif/ for 
the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Stalloti at Xaples. 

EvKr.v year since their first appointment, your Committee have had the 
agreeable duty of recording the annually increasing success of the 
Zoological Station at Naples. On the ))resont occasion they arc able to 
report that at no previous jieriod of its existence has the Institution been 
in a more flourishing condition than now. Forty-one naturalists have 
worked at the station during the past twelve; months, which brings the 
number to nearly three hundred who have occupied its tables since the 
commencement in ] S73. Large though the establishment already is, it 
has for some time been desirable to make additions to tho buildine: in 
order to furnish the means for still further extending the general scope 
■of the institution. From the very outset it has been the aim of the 
founder, Professor Dohrn, to devcilop the physiological as well as the 
morphological investigation of marine organisms, although the latter has 
necessarily hitherto been the chief concern of the station. It is now 
intended to erect anew building for a physiological laboratory, adjacent to 
the ])resent station. For this purpose the municipality of Xaples has 
voted oOU square metres of land ; and well-founded hopes are entertained 
that very considerable contributions towards this enlargement of the 
station may be expected from the Italian Cjlovernment. 

Further assistance for Dr. Dohrn's undertaking is forthcoming from 
Germany, where a public subscription is now being organised throughout 
the country, in consequence of a meeting held in Berlin on June 2(3, for 
the purpose of presenting the Station with a larger seagoing steamer, 
which is to be fitted up as a floating laboratory ; and it is also proposed to 
endow the Station with a Pension and lleserve Fund. The meeting in 
question was attended by a number of eminent statesmen and scientists, 
the Minister of Public Instruction, together with the Prefjident and Vice- 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NArLK?'. 



253 



President of the Jleiclistag, taking a prominent part in tlio proceedings. 
A letter was also read from H.R.H. the Crown Prince to Dr. Dohrii, in 
which His lloyal Highness expressed his interest in the station, and an- 
nounced his pleasure in supporting the movement. Worthy testimony 
was borne by the above-named members of the German Government to 
the services rendered to science by Professor Dohrn, and of the appre- 
ciation in which his many personal sacriKces in the establishment and 
mainionance of the station were held. The responsibility of the Govern- 
ment in fostering such an undertaking was also fully acknowledged. 

Since the last Report was presented additional tables have been taken 
by Italy and Prussia, supplementary to those previously engaged. These 
countries as well as Pavaria, Paden, and Cambridge, have also agreed to 
increase their snbsciiption to lUOZ. per annum for each iable; and similar 
negotiations are pending with other lessors. With reference to the ex- 
pected increase above indicated, in the income of the station, the Direc- 
torate wish to point out that it is to bo entirely devoted to the purpose 
of increasing the present means of investigation, and of establishing a 
large physiological laboratory. The fulHlment of such anticipations 
would enable the station to conduct important and exhaustive investiga- 
tions on sea-fisheries, to developo their scientific basis, and to prosecute 
biological researches in the widest aspect on questions touching the 
habits, localities, etc., of mai'inc animals and plants; in short, to embrace 
the whole field of organic research in the sea. 

Tlic General Collections. — The Zoological Station has this year ibr the 
first time received a welcome addition in the form of a valuable series of 
foreign specimens. These consist of two large collections of well-pre- 
served animals and plants from the Atlantic, and the Eastern and Western 
coasts of South America, obtained by Captain Chierehia of the ' Vettor 
Pisani ' (Italian navy), an oflicer who had received instruction at the 
station during the winter of 1881-2 in the methods of preserving marine 
organisms. The various groups have been distributed amongst Italian 
and German naturalists for determination and investigation. Further col- 
lections are also expected shortly from other Italian and German ships. 

The Puhlica lions of the Station. — The following details will indicate 
the activity of this department of the Zoological Station. 

1. Of the ' Fauna nnd Flora des Golfes von Neapcl,' the following 
nnnographs have been published since the last Rci)ort :- — 

VII. 11. Vallanto, Ci/nfoKt.-iiw, 150 pp., 1") pi. 

IX. A. Andres, Actin'uf (parte prima), 45',) pp., i:; col. pi. 
X. B. Uljaiiin, Jhilkilinii, 13!> pp., 12 pi. 

XI. A. Lanjr, Polychid</\ (1. Hilli'te), 210 pp., L'l i)l. 
XII. tr. Bcrtliold, Crtjiiionvtitidci'd; 24 pp., 8 pi. 

Of the following list the first mentioned work is ah-eady in the press,, 
and the others are in course of preparation. 

A. Lars,', Pohjchuhp (2. Iliilftc), about 100 i)p., Hi pi. 
.1. Fraiijont, l'oh/;iordiu)t. 
(J. V. Kcch, Goiujomidif. 
r. Falkenbur^-, lllnxJomvlece. 

2. Of the ' Mittheilnngen aus der Zoologisclien Station zu Xeapel,' 
vol. iv. has been completed, occupying 522 j)p., with 40 plr:,tes ; and vol. v. 
— parts i. and ii. are already published. Several of the papers in this series 
of memoirs are written in English. 

8. The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht ' for 18.>2 is published, and occu- 



I I 



254: 



RKPOirr — 1884. 



pigs 1,259 pp. ; it is divided into four sections, eneli with a separate alpha- 
betical index, in order that single sections may be sold separately. Of 
the ' IJericht ' for 1SH3, sections 2 (Arthropodii), and 3 (Mollnsca), aro 
nearly ready, and will bo published in September. The whole 'Bericht' 
is now edited by the station, under the wire of Drs. Paul Mayer and 
W. Giesbreidit. In future the arranf>;ement of the various records will 
be more unilorm, each f^roup of animals bcinjj^ treated under the following 
heads : — n. Anatomy, Ontojjeny, etc. ; b. Iliology, Domestication, etc. ; 
c. Classification and rjinnal relatioi.s ; </. Palaiontology. Special caro 
-vvill hi' talcen to render the section on the classification of a group intelli- 
gible to, and easy for conPuIt;ition by, every zoologist whether he bo a 
specialist or not — tiie new genera, species, varieties, and synonyms in 
every family being arranged in alphabetical lists. 

E.rtrticfs from the General Jicport of the Zoohnjii-dl Stution. — The usual 
lists of the natui'iilists who have worked at the station, and of the memoirs 
published by them, will be found appended, together with other details 
" iudly furnished by the olhcers of the station. 

The Vivitisli AssiH'iatioii. Tuhle. — Your Committee have the pleasure to 
report that important researches have been successfully conducted on 
the table at their disposal during the past year; and further that the 
table has been occupied during nearly tlie whole of the working season. 
The use of the table was successively granted to ilr. A. G. Bourne and 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, Mr. J^ourne's period of occupation extending over 
;i term of six months by spcciaJ permission ot" tlic Committee. Both of 
these gentlemen have furnished reports concerning the investigations 
undertaken by tliem at the station, together with a summary of the 
results respectively arrived at; and both are to be congratulated on the 
successful character of their I'csearches. The reports in quest .on aro 
appendeil. 

With these gratifying assui'ances of the undeniable utility of the 
British Association tabh* before them, your Committee confidently re- 
commend the renewal of the grant; and they would further specially 
recommend that the amount should bo increased to 100/. (instead of 80/. 
find 90/. as in previous years), in conformity with the arrangements made 
by the Directorate of the station with other countries. 

I. Beport on the Onntpaflon of the Tuhle hij Mr. li. G, Bourne. 

I occupied the table from November 1, 1883, until April 14, 1884. 

I devoted the greater portion of the time to a further investigation of 
the anatomy of the marine leech Povtohdcllo, and, as far as material would 
allow, of Bninchcllion. The results I obtained have been already pub- 
lished together with other matter in a paper entitled, ' Contributions to 
the Anatonxv of the Hirudinea,' in the ' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science,' July 1884. 

The most important of these results consisted in a knowledge of the 
sti'ucture and relations ol' the nephridium in I'ontohilella. This organ 
has been hitherto entirely misunderstood, some of its funnels being, 
indeed, the only portions of it known, these having been described by 
the French naturalist Vailhmt, and stated by him to open directly to the 
exterior. 

I have found that there are a series of ten pairs of these funnels, and 
that they do not open directly to the exterior, but are connected with a 



M. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAT, STATION AT NAPLIW. 



2.M 



krnc. 

|l884. 
ration of 
lal would 
Idy ptili- 
litions to 
bscopical 

|e of tlio 

lis organ 

Is bi3lii<r, 

ribcd by 

ij to tbc 

lels, and 
Id v/itb a 



most eluborato network of tubules lyin<,' for tho most pari witliiu the 
muscular layers ni' tbo body wall. This network is continuous, tlio 
portion lying on the ono side of the body with the portion lying on tho 
other side in the n)edian ventral region, and is also continuous throughout 
the length of the body in the region in which it occurs — i c, from the ninth 
iiost-oral ganglion to tho nineteenth. 

The tubules collect at certain spots, and pass down to open. to tho 
exterior without tho intervention of any vesiele. There are lU pairs of 
such apertures plaecd in somites lU-l!' inclusive, upon the first annulus 
of each somite. The apertures are thus metamcrically related to tho 
funnels, a pair of apertures corresponding with caah pair of funnels. 

The orgfia in reality consists of a paired series of nej)hridia, each with 
a funnel to the interior, and a pore to the exterior, and these nephridiii 
differ from thosein llinulo, Cli'ji.si)n;c\v., in that they remain eonti]Ul()ll^. 
those on the one side with those on the other, and each pair with tlio.Sf 
in front and behind. 

Supposing, as we are probably justified in doing, that the organs 
have arisen by a hollowing of branching mesoblastic cells, we have here 
a structure which has only advanced upon this primitive condition in 
developing metamerically repeated funnels and apertures to the exterior. 

I obtained but very few specimens of Bnatchelliov, 1 was, however, 
able to demonstrate tho existence of a very similar nephridium in that 
genus, but I believe far simpler, in that it has not developed any internal 
funnels and has only a single pair of pores to tho exterior, these corre- 
sponding to the most ])Osterior pair in I'oiitohdelhi. 

The commonest I'oiituhdella at Naples belongs to the species 1'. 
muricata, but I obtained single specimens of perhaps two other species, 
and a specimen which must ])robably form a new genus ; but I should 
wish to become much more fully ae(|uainted with all tho varieties at 
present known before entering upon anj- toxonomic questions in a grouj) 
wliich presents considerable difficulties in this respect, the churactors of 
most value in forming a systematic arrangement — the number of annuli 
ill a somite, etc.- — being at present very inaccurately described. 

Since tho discovery of Ilaphihranrhiis, a new genus of ('apitobran- 
chiate Annelids belonging to a small, but in many Avays very interesting 
group, I have endeavoured to obtain as many members of the group 
as possible, in oi-der to complete a comparative study of the group; this 
I carried out fiirtlun* at Naples. I obtiiued species of Grid, Fahrlcid, nnd 
AinphlgleiKi, and obtained new results w ah regard to the structure of these 
forms. I may state hei'o that I have confirmed the observations of 
Claparede, which have lately been doubted, as to tho arrangement of the 
modified pair of ucphrldia Avhich serve as tubiparous glands, arul the median 
position of their aperture to the exterior, in Ainphirjlentt. 

At the request of Professor Lankester, I undertook the investigation 
of certain problems connected with the blood system of jMollusca and tho 
supposed taking in and shedding out of water by these animals. I studied 
SoUii k'ljuiuen, and entirely corroborated the results previously obtained 
Jit Xiiples by F. Gr. Penrose, to the efl'ccfc that ordinary blood does not exist 
in the pericardium of that animal, and so probably of other Lamelli- 
branchs. This I demonstrated by means of serial sections which show 
tho nucleated blood corpuscles lying in the ventricle, but absent from the 
pericardium. 

^Y ith regard to the supposed taking in of water, I kept various forms, 



p 



If 'f 






■$ - , 
! S V 



-Jill 



256 



itiii'ouT — 1884. 



Soh'tr SolecHiiiin, I'/^itniin'jljtii, Ventm, and otlicrs, iiHvc in soa-\vr,toi', 
coloarcd by various bodies, both in solution aiid tint-Iy particulate, and 
afterwards obtained sections ot' various regions; but in no case was tberu 
any evidence of anytliinir baviiii^ l)een taken in. With iodine careen in 
the sea-water, I found, however, that the colourinj^ matter penetrated, 
but not from any ])arlicular spot, all through to a certain depth; the 
tissues, in fact, bccanu! stained while living, a condition well known to he 
possible with some other anilin dyes — Itismai-ck brown, for instance. 

I mado some observiitions upon the ' 'IVipfchen,' or ' ciliated pots,* which 
occur in the c(elomic tluid of Sipitiir.itlii,'<. i iind that they present two 
kinds of cilia — a bundle of central long cilia, and around these a circlet 
of shorter cilia; and there niiiy bo seen groups of amoeboid corpuscles 
apparently breaking down— degenerating, suiTonndod by these ciliated 
pots which have their long cilia tixed into the mass and twirl themselves 
round, lir.st one way and then the other, dragging upon the mass until 
they drag out that portinn into which they have fixed their loTig cilia, and 
then swim olf with it and, I am inclined to believe, digest it. I was, 
liowevor, unable to arrive at any further conclusion as to their nature. 

1 iilso examined the " brown tubes,' the nterine pouches of /S/j;u?ic«Z«v, 
with regard to the position of their internal orifices. This I fonnd to 
agree with a previons unpublished observation of Professor Lankester. 
It is a transversely elongated slit with ciliated lips lying close to the ex- 
ternal aperture, on or upon that surfiice of the gland. 

I extracted a quantity of the green colouring matter from the annelid 
ClKclopf ems and hvonglit it home in order to make a niicrospectroscopit; 
examination. 

Lastly, I prepared s(>ctions. itc, of the suckers of various cephalopoda, 
in order to obtain facts for a comparison which I am about to make 
between these struct\ires and the tcntael(!S of Nautilus ixnnpiUus. 

IT. llciwrt oil the Orcuj^niUmh of the Tahh hij Prnfensor A. ifilnes 

MarshdJl. 

I reached Naples in the first week of April, and stayed there till tlio 
end of the month. 1 had originally intended to occupy myself witli (/') 
certain points in the development of tho Alcyonaria, and (b) with a further 
study, in continuation of former researches, on the development of the 
musc >s of the head and of the posterior cranial nerves of Elasmobranchs. 
For the former the weather and the season of year proved unfavourable; 
and of Elasmobranch embryos I was only able to obtain a limited 
number. I therefore devoted the greater portion of my time to other 
subjects, and chiefly to an expeiimental investigation of the nervous 
system of Antedon, with the object of deciding, if possible, the points 
of dispute between the Carpenters on tho one hand, and on the other, the 
German morphologists headed by Lndwig. 

It is now nearly twenty years since Dr. Carpenter first suggested that 
the axial cords were really the nerves supplying the muscles of the arms 
of Antedon : since that time ho has steadily maintained this view, and 
has supported it by a considerable mass of evidence, both anatomical and 
physiological. Tho same view is held by Dr. P. H. Carpenter, who has 
brought forward independent and very important evidence in its favour, 
chiefly histological and morphological. 

Ludwig, on the other hand, and the majority of the Continental writers 



ON Tin: zoui.ooic.vL station at Naples. 



•J 07 



, ami 
tbcro 
jcn in 
rated, 
i; tlio 
to bo 

wliicli 
it two 
circlot 
jiisclos 
!iliii(*Hl 
isclvos 
;3 until 
lin, and 

I WilS, 

ure. 
inculn.^, 
onnd to 
ikosttM'. 
the ox- 

auneliil 
roscopic 

lalopodii, 
to miiko 



|o till tho 
Uvith (") 
la fuvtlun- 
it of the 
^branclis. 
■ouvable ; 
limited 
[to othci' 
nervous 
lie points 
Itlier, tlic 

ited tliat 
Ithe arms 
|iew, and 

liical and 
who has 

Is favour, 

Ll writers 



\n1\o Imvo (lis( nssc'd tho (lucstlon, nmiiitain that tho real nervous system 
ol' Antcdon ei>n.sists of tlic ' snl)L'|)itIielial bainls,' wliit'h run aloiu' tlio 
ventral si'"faeo of tho arms and dise, inimediatoly beneath and in very 
close relation with tho cilialcd cpithehiini iiiuiiff the ambniacral <,''roov((s. 
liudwif^ and those a^reeini,' with him rely mainly on tho close resem- 
hlanee, or actual identity, in histolo^'ical strnctnro and in relation to tiio 
overlyin<^ epithelium between these Md.'epithelial band-i and tho ambii- 
lacral or radial 'nerves' of tlie starfish, and hold tliat if the homology 
of these two structures be admitted, it is extremely dillieult to coucoivn 
that Crinoids can have in addition to this normal lOchinoderm norvons 
system an additional one — /.c, the axial cords and tho eetitr.d ciipsnlo 
from which they spriii<i^ — which is altogether unknown and unrepresented 
in other Kchinodeinis. 

Tho Carpenters accept the nervous character of the subepithelial 
hands, but maintain that they form but a small and comparatively subor- 
dinate part of the entire nervous systeni. 

^ly own investigations consisted of an experimental examination of 
the functions, (a) of the central capsule, (b) of the axial cords, and (r) 
of the 8ubo])ithelial bands. I oaiployed both mechanical and chemical 
irritation as sources of stimulation, and limited the aetioii of tlic irritants 
to the desired point by removal of the surrounding parts either mechanically 
or by means of strong nitric acid. 

Concerning the central capsule, T find that so long as this remains 
intact ami in connection with the axial cords, the animal retains the power 
of co-ordinated movements of the arms, as shown by the normal swimming 
movements, and by the tendency to right itself when ])laced in a tank 
wrong way up — I.e., with tho oral surface downwards. This power of co- 
ordinated niovementg is not atfected by removal of the entire visceral 
inasp, an operation which involves tho com[)leto isolation of the subepi- 
thelial bands of tho several arms from one another. On the other hand, 
removal or destruction of the central ca])Sulo, if thoroughly ])erformed, 
causes complete and permanent loss of tho power of co-ordinated move- 
ments. I therefore conclude that the central capsule is the centre 
governing these movements. 

Concerning the axial cords, I find that irritation of them causes active 
flexion of the arm affected, and also of the other arms, provided the com- 
munications of the centi'al cai^sule with the axial cords be intact. 

Division of the axial cord of an arm causes complete phyrsiological 
separation between the parts on opposite sides of the injury, even though 
the subepithelial band be carefully preserved. From my experiments on 
the axiril cords, which were very numerous and varied, I conclude that 
they are the real nerves, both motor and sensory, of the arms. 

Concerning the subepithelial bands, I find that, while certainly nervous 
in structure and presumably in function as well, they are of very sub- 
ordinate importance. The effect" '^f irritation or destruction of them are 
almost confined to the tentacles rdering the ambniacral grooves, with 
which thoy are in very intimate relation. 

Concerning the morphological difficulty involved in the possession by 
Crinoidsof an antambulacral, in addition io the normal ambniacral nervous 
system of Echinoderms, I would submit the following considerations. 
The nervous system of an Asterid is not confined to the radial ambniacral 
bands and their connecting oral commissure, but can be traced over tho 
tube feet, and also over the dorsal or antambulacral surface of the animal. 

1881. S 



258 



ma'ouT 1884. 



It niiiy, in fact, hv ilcscribiMl iis a lU'ivc-slu'iitli cxtciidinj,' prncticiiUy over 
Ihi! wholo uiiiiiiiLl and ovcrywlicrc dircntly ciontiiiuous with tho extci-iiiil 
epidermis, of whitjli, iiidwd, it forms tlio deupost a* -1 Hpocinlly modilicd 
laycf. Siicli aciiiidilioii of (lie iici'voiis syHtctn tli('i'(> is i.'idepcndoiit reason 
for rcgnrdiiif^ as a very primitive oiu' ; and 1 re^nird it as tin* type fronn 
■which thi! iiioie specialized nervous systems of the other lOcliinoderiiis 
have been deiivcd. This spceiah'zation eotisist wtliiefly in w-piiration, more 
or less ei)iiipiete, of tlic nervous system from tiie e[)i(U!rmis, in exa^'geru- 
tion of the I'.iilial nerve bands with reduction of the intei'veniug parts of 
tho nerve sheatii, and linally in sinking down of the radial nerve bands 
into and through the dermis so tliiit they b(U!onie separated from tiic 
external cplderniis by a layer of connective tissue which may, as in 
Mchinids 'iiid some Ophiurids, be; lirndy caleilied. In Kehinids tho nerve 
(dieath still persists as the external iiervous plexus outside the test lirst 
described and tigured by Loven. 

I consider that in Crinoids the subepithelial bands most certainly ai'e 
homologous with the radial or ambulaeral nerves of a stai'tish; ai.d 1 
consider that they represent a ])art of a continuous nerve ahoath whieli 
lias retained permanently its primitive conlinuity with tho epidermis, 
The axial cords, some of tho branches of wliieh can bo traced into ex- 
tremely close proximity with tho subcpitluilial bands, J regai'd as portions 
of the antand)ulacral nerve sheath which, like the radial cords of Echini. is. 
Ophiurids, and ILolothnrids, have lost their pi-imitivo position and shifted 
into or through tho dermis. 

On this view tlio nervous systems of all recent grou})s of Echinoder. 
mata can be reduce<l tf) ono plan, and furthei'nu)re, an explanation is 
obtained of tho histological similarity or identity between the axial cords 
and subepithelial baiuls, as well as of the very close relation, and pro- 
bably continuity, between the two sets of stTuctnres in Antedon. 

It must be noted, however, that while this enables us to reconcile ilu' 
Crinoid with t!ie other ]']chiiu)derm types of structure, it leaves the gap 
between the two groups an exceedingly wide ono. Antedon, on this view, 
is very far indeed from being a primitive Echinoderm: it is, indeed, as 
regards its nervous system, the most highly dillerentiated of all recent 
Echinoderms. On tho other hand, tho starfish has retained an exti'eniely 
primitive typo of nervous system, which must probably bo regarded as 
ancestral for all Echinoderms. 

A further point of interest concerning Antedon. that I observed durii;^ 
my stay at iN'aples, is that not oidy may tho visceral mass be entirely 
removed from the living animal without causing death, or indeed, any 
apparent inconvenience, but that such sjiecimens very speedily regenei'ate 
the wholo visceral mass. I have obtained a serii'S of specimens illustratini,' 
the various stages of this very remarkable and extensive regeneration, but 
Lave not yet had time to examine or describe them. 

I also devoted some time to an examination of fresh specimens ot 
Amphioxus with tho object of ascertaining whether the spinal nerves liiive 
single or double roots of origin. By following tho methods described by 
Rohon, I have convinced myself of the accuracy of his description of 
the existence of anterior spinal roots in addition to tho well-known anil 
much more obvious posterior roots. Rohon"s attempt, however, to 
Lomologize the anterior nerves of Amphioxus with certain of the cranial 
nerves of the more typical vertebrates seems to me entirely devoid ot 
justification. 



ON TlIK ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLKS. 



200 



III. .1 fjtsf of XiihirnliHfs ii-lio liarc v:i>rl;(il at thr Slafuin I'roni flic vnd of 
June IW.l to the end i>l' June iHS].. 



(•xiij^'ytiva- 









Durntion of 


Oiiaipinicy 


Niiiii- 




Sliili- or riiivi'r.sity 




bcr on 


Niiliiiiilisi'- N'lmic 


wlicisc 'I'altlc 






List 




wn.s inaili' u-^cmiI' 


Arrival ] 

1 


Di-'parftiri' 


21); 


I'idf. (lasro 


Italy 


July 20, iss;i 


().(. 21, ISS.'I 


1M7 


l'r..l'. (;. l',.iMii;i. 


It • • • 


»» ***n »» 


., 28, „ 


248 


Siyr. K. Ccicoli" . 


Italian Navy . 


Aug. Il», ,. 


.\'ov. !», „ 


211) 


Siir. 1''. C)i'>iiii . 


t» • • • 


,, 20, ., 


.Ian. 18, I8h4 


2r,o 


Di-. Civtv . 


Italy 


„ 20, ., 


Nov. 1, IH8:{ 


251 


Dr. ('. Kclk'i- 


Switzerland 


Sept. 4. ., 


l)<t. 1, ., 


252 


Dr. II. iS(liiiniii>liinil . 


I'r\i,ssia 


„ 11, ., 


., 28, „ 


253 


Mrs. Dr. I'-.H . 


Italy 


,. 15, ., 


,. 17, „ 


251 


Dr. v(in Sciilci; . 


Prus.sia . 


.. 2:1, „ 


July 4, Ih^l 


255 


I'rof. N. W;i-ii.r 


Russia 


Oct. 1. .. 


AjjrilK;, ,, 


256 


Dr. .r. WiiltluT . 


Sa.Nony 


„ 18. ,. 


Fd). 28, ,, 


257 


Dr. .M. l!iisL'cii . 


Strasshi'.rn' 


„ 1!», .. 


., 17, ., 


258 


.Mr. \. ( 1. I'xMiiiic 


lirltisli .Vssoc'iation . 


Nov. .-. ,. 


April 14, „ 


25!) 


Mr. .lohii liciinl 


ISavaria . 


„ 5, .. 


„ 17, ., 


260 


Mr. W. 1'.. lliiiiMmi . 


Cainbri(lj,'(; 


,, •'. ,. 


., H, ., 


2(!1 


I'rof. H. Ko.sstiiiiiHi . 


ISadcn 


- 


Nov. 18, „ 


2(;2 


Dr. (i. Jiittii 


Italy 




-- 


'2K\ 


Dr. L. O.rlcv . 


lliuij^ary . 


Dec. ';i! '.! 


• — 


204 


I'rof. C. VuL;t . 


Switzerland 


,. 12. .. 


.May 2:', 1884 


2C,5 


Mr. F. S. IliirmtT 


Oanibrid^'o 






206 


Prof. H. (Hcrckf 


Prussia 


,. -'S, ., 


April 8, ., 


267 


Sijjf. A. Coloinho 


Italian Navv . 


Jan. 1,1 SSI 




268 


Dr. van lieiiiniclcn 


Ilollan.l .' . 


1 

t» M J, 




261) 


^i<,^ K. iStassami 


Ilalv 


,. 1. .. 


.,_ 


270 


Prof. F.. Clarke . 


WiliiamsColI,. U.S.A. 


„ s, „ 


May 1, 1K,«4 


271 


Dr. Allicrt. 


Prussia . 


,, !'. „ 


.lun<'17, „ 


272 


Prof. Fr. Schinitz 


»» • • • 


Feb. 27, .", • 


April 12,- „ 


27:1 


Prof. C. Ebertli . 


*» • • . 


„ 2'.i. ., 


» 14, ,, 


271 


Dr. W. Uliaiiin . 


Pussia 


^larch.-., ., 


Jun(!ll, „ 


275 


Dr. G. I'.erthoia 


Prussia 


7, ,, 


April 20, „ 


276 


Prof. (;. Clnin . 


1) • • • 


„ !<;. .. 


„ ;io, „ 


277 


Dr. F. Piiickerl . 


Hav.'iria . 


)> '"1 .. 




278 


Dr. CJ. Ivlcl.s . 


Wiirteinbersj^ . 


,. 1 < , ., 


April20, l.S8'i 


27!) 


Dr. M. von I'rann 


Prussia 


,. 17, ,, 


— 


280 


Prof, A. M. MarMiall. 


I'riti.sh Association , 


April .", ,. 


April 26, 1864 


2Sl 


Dr. P. Frai.-^.-r . 


l>aden 


,. M. ., 


..- 


282 


P>'of. Swacn 


Pcluium . 


,. I--'. „ 


— 


28:5 


Dr. Korohiclf . 


Russia 




.hniol2,lS84 


281 


Dr. W. Kiikcr.thal . 


Prussia. 


Mav 17, ,. 


— 


285 


:\li-.\V. Wcldon . 


Cambridge 


June 21. .. 


— 


2,s(; 


Dr. M. Men/.liicr 


Piussia 




-— 



IV. A List of Faporf! lulncli Jiavc 1e.cn pullishecl in ihf ycitr lfiS3 hij the 
Nuturali^li who Imcc occupied Tables at the Zoohiijlcul Station. 



Mr. P.. A. W.ldon 
Dr. Th. \\v\\ . 
Dr. R. Bcrgh . 



Noioon the early dovelopmcnl of Laecrla nuu'ali.s. 'Quart. 

Journ. ^licroscop. Science,' ISSi!. 
I'liysiolouisclu^ and clunuisciu' Studi('n an Tonjodo. 'Arch, 

f. .\nat(jniie und Physiologic,' 188;!. 
lieitrag zu einer Monogra)3liif dcr (iattuu!/ M.'ii ioi.ia. 

' -Mitthcil. Zool. Ktalion," Ikl. IV., ISSIJ. 

.S 2 




14 



U I 



fffiH 








2 GO 

Ur. C. Driindt . 

Sitriior K. Stas.-^aiK 



Dr. G. Frit.scli 

Dr. L. Oerlcy . 

Dr. C. dc Merejkow.sky . 

Dr. F. Hloclimann . 

f» 

Dr. O. llamaim 
Prof. A. Wcissmann 
Dr. J. Frcuzc'l 



Dr. A. Delia Vallc . 
Prof. C. Emery 
Dr. A. KoroltueH' . 

Dr. J. isroek . 

Mr. A. G. Bourne . 
Prof. A. C. lladdoii 
Mr. E. Shipley 
Dr. von Sehlen 
Bar. R. Valiant e . 

Mag. M. Traustcdt . 
Dr. G. Berthold . 



IJKl'OKT — 1884. 

TIcher clie nior|)liol(iir. uiid pliysinl. liedculmiL;' dcs Cldoni- 

|>livlls bei Thieren, 'J. Artik'i'l. ' Mittlieil. Zoul. Stadoii,' 

I'.d". IV., 18S:{. 
Nouvelli's Jtet'herclies |iliysi()lii;^i(iius .si r la Torpilk-. 

'Coiiilites Kendll.-^,' No. L'l), ]S.s;!. 
(.'(intril)ii/ione alia fisioloiiia rle'-rli siK'rniatr/.oiili, ' Zim- 

Iol;'. Aii/.eiiicr,' ISISI!. 
I'lii'tirlie sulla Sovr.'icceitabilila XervosaMotriec elio .si 

inauifcsta iiei priiiii nuinienti dell' a/ioiic del Curani. 

I'lstr. dal (iiornale ' l.a I'siciiialiia," Napoli, ISS;!. 
r.crieht iilier die I'^ortsctzinmcu der I'liler.suehiinfiCii an 

eleolriselien Fisc^lieii. ' Nit/, der IJerl. Akadcniic (Ur 

Wisseii.seliaffen,' lieiliii, ISSii. 
.\ Zdiilojiicai Alloiiia.sok e.'^ a/. .Mlattani Kutatasuk Ujabl) 

M('.dsz(!rei, Ihidapi'.st, 1S8.'!. 
Zoonerytliriiu^ et aiitres Piyiiiciits iUumau.K. ' IJidlotia 

So(\ ZoolouMcjue de l'"raiiee,' ISfS;!. 
Developjieiiient de la Mediise Olielia. Ibid. 
lieilriijj:e ziir Keiintni.ss der KnI wiekelung der (iaslro- 

])ode!!. ' Zeilselairt f. wif.-; Zool()<,de,' lid. ;iS, ISS,'}. 
Ueber die Drtiseii de.s JIantelrandes bei Ajilysia uml 

viTwandten Forinen. Ilii<L 
lieitriige zur Kenntni.ss der Mednson. ' Zeilselnill 1'. 

\vis.s. Zooloc,ne,' ltd. ;!H, 188:!. 
Die Kiit.st(!lunii^ der Sexualzellen bei den Ilvdroiiu'duseii, 

Jena, 188:'.. 
Ueber di(^ .sos^'enannten Kalkzellen der Gastroixuleidiber. 

' liiologiselies C'ciitralblatt,' 18S:!. 
Neiier i'.eitra^- ziir nukro.skop. Teelinik. ' Z()olii;^iselici- 

Aiizeiger,' 188:). 
Ueber die Mitteldarindriise (Ficlx'r) der Dckapodcii. 

' Sitziui,i;-.s-l!er. lierliiier Akad. der Wis.senscli,' 15d. 4'-', 

188:!. 

Siii Co])epodi elie viv' no nelU" A.seidii^ coinposti; dd (lulfn 

di Xa])oli. ' Hi ale .\ecadeniia del Lincei," 1882-:>. 
Contribuzioni all' liMoloiria. ' Ueale Aecadeniia di i 

Lincei,' 1S8L'-:!. 
Zar KeiHitni.s.s der Sipli()iK)i)lioren. ' Zooloy. Anzeiger, 

188;^. 
I'liitstchung der G(>\vebi'. I/dd. 
Ifiitersuchungen iiber die intersstitiellcn IJindcsubstanzeii 

der Molluskcn. ' Zeit.sclirift f. wi^^.s. Zooloirie,' P>d. ;!'.•, 

1883. 

' I'noinii 



Transaet. liiiineaii Sc 



Anatomy of the Pol3'i 
L'n.l Ser. Vol. ii. 188:i. 



On l!iiddiTig in Polyzoa. 'Quart, .(ournal of Jliero.scop 



■^eience, 



i. N. S. 188:i. 



Oil the Stnict\ir(! Mid Development of Argiope. ' Jlittheil. 

Zoolog. Station," l!d. IV. 188:i. 
Mikrokokken bei Area Celsi. ' Fortsehritte der Blcdicin,' 

No. 2!, 18S:!. 
Dii' ('y.stoseiri'ti. Jfonngraphie VII. dor 'Fauna nnd 



D 



I'lora dv's (iojfes von Neapel,' lierausgcgeben von der 
Asoidien dcs Golfcs von Neapel. ' Mitth, 



Zoolog. Station, I88:i 
it' einfaehen A 



Zoolog. Station,' Bd. IV. 188:^. 
hie Bangiaceen. iMonographie VIII. der' Fauna und Flora 
des (i.ilfi's von Neapel,' herausgegcben von der Zoolog. 
Station 188:5. 



O.N Tlllu ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT .NAl'MCS. 



2G1 



'lllnro- 

latii'ii,' 
(ii-pilK-. 

' /,( Ki- 
el 10 >i 

Curarti. 

in'fn ;iu 
iiiic (Uf 

k Uiabl) 

lUiUctiii 

• (liistio- 
iss:$. 
_\>i;i uml 

>chntl I'. 

)llll'(l\\Sl'll, 

odcuUbi'i'. 
lolniiisclu'V 

)ckai>'"l''"' 
1,; l!.l. i-.i, 

o (U'\ (lolfo 
(Icmia «ti i 
|. Anx.i'igi'i'. 

[substiui/.on 

;k-,' r.d. :v.>, 

llj'noiiui &i'- 

Is:?. 

Micvuscni'- 

' ■MUtlic'il. 

r 'MctVicin.' 

■Fauna "ti'' 
leu von (If 



•1. 



Jlitth. 



la and l'"l" 
1 (\cr Zoold 



V. .1 Llsl f>j Natnralisln. rli\, to vJion) S/ii'cline7iH hare heen sent from the 

end of Jniir ISSM In the r.n,! (f Jnin; 1884-. 



iss::. .1 



Illy 



4 Dr. I'ictio (^' \'cs('ii-i, lIniMi' . Il(>,iils ol' Fislics 
y I'lof. iiv.'/: Knt/, Klaiisi'nl>iir;^, 

fi)r Zool. Inst. . . . \'aiii)iis . . , . 

I'rof. (iczil, Km/, Ki,in<cnl)\iru', 
for Muscuiu .... ...... 

("ollogc; at Na^y-I'^nycd . . C'ullcolion 

,, „ Jraros-Vasarlu'lz . N'arious . . . . 

I'rol'. (!fza Finiz, Klaiiscnluir^' ,S[)cc;ini{'ns I'lir (lisscction 
I Can<l. .\. A|i]i(Hul', Kristinc- 

licru', SwcdiMi . . . .Mdllusra 

.") J'rof. Xiissliaiun, I'lOiiii , . lOlcclrical Organs of Tor- 

jK^lo . . . . 

Mr. Il.l '.('liadwick, Manclicslcr \'arion.^ 



Fr. (!, 
]:!ir) 

287- 

L'87- 
KiO- 
7l-.">() 

loo- 
:?() (•>') 
(■,■.-,0 



Sent. 



Or 



Nov, 



I'rc.r. A. .M. .Mansliall, ,, 
r.t .Morjiliul. I)('p:nt., CaTnliriilgc 
7 rrol". II. N. .Mo.-iclry, O.xford • Various 

I'roi'. W. .\. Jfcrdnian, Livcrjiool ,, 

;» I'nif. F. E. Scliult/(>, (Iraz. 

Dr. .\. V. Ilcidcr, „ . . ,, 

•2?, i'rof. I'. W. Thomas, Auckland, 

New Zealand ... ., 

L'S I'rof. I'. Stnibcd, I'aruia . 
■-'!• Mr. .1. 'I'omiK'ro, Storrington 
II Dr. Andrea', Na])les. 
LM I'rof. 11. Dertwig, Bonn . 
21 I'rof. Fillers, (eltlingen . 
.'!! I'rof. Uiidinger, .Munieh . 
:i M. (i. Sclineider, liaie . 
(> i'rof. Kollniann, ., 
7 Dr. li. Kger, Vienna 

Dr. (). Ilaniann, (iiittingen 



Specimens f(jr dissecti(jn 8l!7':!."< 

42i;iO 



Spongia" . 
.Mollusea 
Various . 
Kc^hiiiod., C'lclent 
retroinyziui . 
Collection 
rrnstacea 
Various . 



- -- - - , o S.vnai.ta . 

I! i'rof, MeIn(osli,Sl. A' Irew's U. ; .' ,.^ " ,. ,. " 

' ( Annelida, Neiiiertma 



Coclontcrata 

('(rlent., I'lchinodcrinata 

Various . 



Spirograplii.s . 
Small enllcetioM 
Ualanoglossus. 
Various . 
Annelida, L'omatula 



Dr. S. van Oye, Ijillc 
,. Ill Soeiela Tecniea, Florence 

21 i'rof. A. C. Iladdon, Dublin 
„ 2:5 I'rof. (J. I'^niery, Mologna . 
M. E. Marie, Paris ." 
27 II. M. tlie (Jiieen of Uouniania 
21» Prof. IIul)veeld, Utrecht . 
., ;!0 Prof. Kowalewsky, Odessa 

'Dee. <; Prof. W. Lcclie, Stockholm 

„ 7 Prof. Yseu.x, II. labre, Brussels Colleetion 

„ '.) Dr. P. II. Carpenter, Windsor . Coniatula 

„ M Prof. W. J. Stephens, Sydney, 

N.S.W. . . '. . Colleetion 

„ 18 Rev. A. JI. Norman, Durham . „ . . 

20 Prof. II. N. Mo.seley, Oxford" . Various. 
„ 21 (Jiieen's College, Cork . . Larvie of Crustacea 
„ 22 Dr. F. Blockniann, Heidelberg llolotliuria, etc. 
„ 2;! Prof, .\nderson, Queen's Coll., 

(ialway .... Sepia 
„ 28 ^1. E. Marie, Paris . . . Pennatula, Nereis . 

Prof. (Jrenacher, Halle . . Eyes of Pterotrachea 
„ 211 Prof. Uieliiardi, Pi.sa . . Collection 
Dr. Boas, C'oponliageii . . I'teropoda 
1884. ,lan. C, Prof. Crassi, Catania . Collection 

Prof. P. StcpanolV, ChaikufI . „ . . 



2:;2on 

i:U-l() 

14-8.-> 

4.12- 
2:m 2.". 
]2r,0 
7:5.'-. 

18I-20 

2,2£;)-.")0 
17- 
77'2r) 
8'().") 

3f)0-r)0 
!)0-.')r) 

]08-4() 

2r,o-r,r, 
:ir,-r,() 

23- 



1)4 •!).••> 
],(),s()-:ir> 
;$.'.• 

:!no-2() 

24rc4r. 

r)4-r),'-. 

20-70 

ii2-7r. 

45-25 
47-1)0 

irvso 

702-70 

111)- 
11660 




2o2 UKroiiT— 1884. 



m 



1881. Jail. !•_' .Air. A. S. I'enninf-ton, lioUou 
Jlr. T. il. [Muorc, Liverpool 
l)r. Dawson, Toronto, Canada 
„ IS Dr. \'i,L;('linH, Ifaaj^ . 
„ L'l Dr. Auu'. Jliillcr, Frankfort-on 

.Maiiu; . 
„ ■_'.") y]v. Cli. J. (iatty. Livorjiool 
,, L".l Miist'o Zoolou-'aiuc, Si. rctcrs 

l)iirLr .... 
„ ;!0 M. U.'i'reiKlc'l, Odessa 

:U M. J. C. I'liLs, Ghent 
Fell 1 Mr. E. I'. Hamsay, Sydney 
„ S M. Eiiu'. Simon, Tari.s 

M. K. .Marie, Paris . 
„ K! J'rof. Friant, Nancy 

I'rof. ('. Kniiry, Holoijn.'i 
„ Iii Prof, (ieza J'^niz, Jvlauseiibur 

I'rof. ,1. ;MaliLsz, Finnic . 
Dr. Zotlan v. Koboz, Kai)osva 
„ :.'l I'rof. ]{.. Leuckart, Lcijizin 
,. L'L' .M. Jules Manricc, Douai 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 
I'rof. II. Moine:: 
Prof. V. ]]nieiy, P>ologna . 
Dr. ,L Kennel, WiirzhiHL;- 
Tnstitiilo ]''roel)>jl, Naples 
Prof. Anderson, Queen's Col 

le^ic (ialway 
.M. K. -May, Oschatz 
Dr. L. Eycr, Vienna • 
Cav. S. ProLri, Sienna . 
M. E. Polzani, Kasan 
Dr. L. Oerley. I'ndapest . 
M. E. Mariei Palis . 
Soclcta Tecnic'a, Florence 
Dr. H. Nussbaiun, Warsaw 
Dr. Ij. Efjcr, Vienna 
April -1 Exhibition, Turin . 
„ 7 Prof. ]f. N. Moseley, Oxford 

Prof. (i. Claccio, Pologna 
„ 10 .Vi. Marie, Paris 

Dr. lijuvitz, Berlin . 
„ II! Mr. IJnurne, liondon 
„ IS I'rof. R. Leuckart, Leipzig 
„ '2\ IM. Sang do Diego, Jladrii'! 
Mr*.y I Prof. Stepanolf, Charkow 
„ •"» M. zur Miihlcn, Dorpat . 

Mr. II. W. Holder, Stalybridge 
Manchester . 
„ 10 Zool. Kabinet, Kasan 

Bluseuni der Acad, der Wis 
senschaften, St. Petersburg 
■ „ lit I'rof. Riidinger, Munich . 

L'l I'rof. J. S. Blake, Nottingham 
Prof. Cliun, Konigsbcrg . 
„ r:, M. iNIarie, Paris '' . ' . 
Societi\ Tecnica, Floi"cnco 
Prof. Emerj-, Bolou-na . 
28 Prof. 0. Eberth, liallc . 
.Mr. .\. S. Ponnington, Holton 
„ ol Musee d"llistoire Nat., (ienev 
Prof. C. Vogt, (ieiieva . 
June 4 Dr. Marshall, Leipzig . 



■■♦ 






I'G 


M 


28 


larc 


hlO 


»» 


17 


»» 


I'.l 


)> 


20 


»» 


18 


)* 


27 


?) 


28 



Collection 



Cassiopeia 

Collection 
Various . , 

Collection 

Various . 

Echinodeiniata. 

Collection 

Crustacea 

A'arious . 

Collection 



Scrpula . 
Octopus, ICledone 
Chact(i]iterns, etc. 
Cecrops . 
Collection 
Hippocampus . 
]\I()llasca 
Small collection 

Collection 

Ilclotluiria, i;cliin( 

Cecrops . 

Mollusca 

Ce.stns veneris, v\( 

Collection 

Salpie 

Collection 

Emys tniro])ea 

Coll(M'tion 

Amphioxus, Lepas 

Sygnathus, etc. 

Salpie 

Avicula, Lithodoni 

Collection 



Carcliarias glaucus 

Corallimn, Salpa 
Collection 

Collection 
Embryos of sharks 
Collection 

Petroinyzon . 
Ehizostoma, etc. 
Ophiuridea 
Various . 
Collection 



Tctlna Ivncurium 



!■ 1-. c. 

8 1 ■,-„-. 
171 --'I I 
21(;-7() 

.■)()• 
2U8' 

lo- 
ll cm;:, 
."()• 

11I.V7.-. 
5 17- LI 

8.V 

:!7 1 ■'.!.-. 

l()7- 

i;i2s,-, 

ll,rt.5 

(■>• 

2o:i-7o 

iVl'.l 



;;(■,(;•(;." 
4 1 ■.-,:. 
2;i i.i 
i:i-!<,i 
IP 

."ilS-'.iii 
2.-)7- 
'.)U-7.> 
141K!.-, 

2or)(M'.i 
(is-.**.-. 

ti'C'i 

171v<i 

l()-4o 

lOO-CO 

82:'-9.) 

1 Sll'4.'; 

•2o' 

u- 
r,;i4'25 



olil'Oa 


;!.")5'0.') 


1 42205 


.50-10 


nii-L'o 




Od-.'iO 


1 7.'!-rrt 


;!4;!-7.> 


l!S-l(l 


O-IO 



8 1 •.")•") 

171 -211 
21(i-7i) 

no- 

208- 
10- 

no- 

lli,")T.'. 

r.Ti •',!.". 

lHO'Sd 

, KIT- 

. i:i2s:, 

. 1 I.VI5 
'.Ml' 

. 2u;i-7o 



44:i:i 
2:ii5 
i;)'S5 
11- 

niS'W 

2r)7' 

'.iO'7"i 

ll'.K',:. 

i:*,- 

20.")(l-2.i 

cs-s:. 

'. 171v"i> 
iti'i.", 

■ .loevc.d 

S22'i).'> 
'. IsiM.i 
25' 

• 

. .V.t4-J.) 



J SSI. .Iinic 



. 1422;':' 
,-.()■ Ill 



i7;v:'^ 

IIS'IO 
(VlO 



S' AT NAPLIiS. 


1^)3 




Yr. c. 


C'lilloclioii , 


. 1,020-20 

. i.")i)(;a 


Conilliuiii nibrmii 


10- 


Ascidiri iiicntul.'i, 
(.'iiniatulii 
ConiUiiiin nibruiii 
Molhisca 
Ascidia . 
Collection 
Conilliuni 
lOchinodcniiala 


. ."I- 

. 44 7.-. 
. 41 •.■-:, 
lo-ou 
. :):i.v 

. J17() 
. 2:!-2,"> 


Collect idii 


. 1,400- 


Total 


■ 2j,450'oi) 



VI. A List 

Sept. 
Dec. 



1 ss;:. 



jssi. .1 



an. 
Feb. 



.Tuni 



ON THE /,0()LO(JIC.\L STATION AT 



I rrof. A. .At. Marshall, Man- 
i-lii-s(er .... 

Mr. II. C. C.Chadwiek . 
n Ml. .1. (latty, Livc,v]iool . , 
l(i i'l-ol. Til. MarLTo, liiidapo.sl . . 
J 'Kit'. Ihibreeht, lllreclit . 
I >:-. !,. ivi;ri-, \'irnn;i . . 

M. L. Dreyfus, AViesbailen 
■'"■ I'l-ol'. Alb. del I'rato, I'annii . 
Ml-. II. X'allentin, l,eytonstone. 
27 I'fol'. F. ]•;. Sehiilt/e, Uei-lin . 
.M. Marie, Paris 

M. I', del.nriol, Chalet des l?ois 

:!0 J'nil. A. .\-assiz. Harvard ''ol- 

le.i;'e, ( 'ainbridg ', Mass. . 



of Ndtiirtih'fitt' to vliif,ii Micro!<r()plc Preparations have heen sent 
front, tlie end of Jane 188;! to ilie eml of June 188i. 

• ' " Tr.c. 

4 Prof. Iladdon, Dublin .... (i'J preparations liH> 

Prof, llerdman, Livt-rpool ... 12 „ 

I'rof. Thonras, Auckland, Now Zealand . 28 „ 

I'rof. Yseux, Universite Libre, IJrussels JJO „ 
11 Prof. Packard, iJrown Univ., Providence, 

];. I., U.S.A 2.-) 

l.") I'rof. JlcFntosli, St. Andrews University. Cli „ 

Prof. L. Canierano, Turin . . . i)0 „ 

:!] Dr. A. (ira\.'s, lirussels .... iil! „ 

24 Zoological I/aboratory, University, 

( harkow . . . . . .11 ,, 

Physiological Laboratory, l^niversity, 

Clunk' iw ...... 1(! „ 

Zootoraical ijaboratoiy. University, 

Cliarkow ...... 2 „ 

Dr. W. 1. Vigclius, Ilaag . . . ;> „ 

20 Jl. Ih. L Dnpont, L5eauvais . . . H ,, 

Laboratoiro dc^ Zoologie, Nancy . . 7 „ 

Zootoiiiical Cabinet, Univ(,'i-sity, Kasan . (il „ 



20- 
<)()• 
GO- 

50- 

II.-.- 

100- 

44- 

2G- 

20-50 

4-.-50 

1- 
1 (!- ■ 
15- 
100- 

715^ 



Fourth Ueport of iLe Committee, consistin;/ of Mr. j^clatek, Mr. 
ilowAKD Saundi:h.s, and Mr. Tihsklton Dyeii {Secretary), ajj- 
poinied for the purpose of investir/atlng the Katural Iliston/ of 
Timor Laid. 

Since our last report -was presented to the Association, Mv. Forbes's 
botanical collection which, from the result of an unfortunate fire in the 
drying'- house in which the Herbarium had to bo prepared, was very 
small, as he deplores — has been handed over to the Roj'al Herbarium at 
Kow. Of this collection Sir Joseph Hooker, at a meeting of the Royal 
Geographical Society on January' 28, 1884, made the following remarks : 
'From that time [of (he appearance of Professor Decaisne'.s Flora Timo- 
riensis] to this, the limits of the Airstralian flora, so long supposed to have 
been circumscribed with exactitude, have never been laid down, though it 



wn^^T 



2G4 



REroiiT — 1884. 



hiis been enormously enlarged to the north by the inclusion of the great 
island of Papua, which is to a great extent Australian in its biology, and 
by that of sundry other islets to the north-cast and north-west, it is 
■under this point of view that Mr. Forbes's collections ai'o so important. 
It is true that for tl)t! most part they consist of what arc genei'ally 
known as covaUislaml plants, . . . But besides this there are .some 
peculiar forms, and there a7'e two plants o£ extraordinary interest which 
1 would simply instance as being typical, one of the New liebridean and 
one of the Australian flora. It so happened that these two plants 
belonged to nnispecific genera. , . . Tlio existence of these plants 
pointed to .some old communication between these particular islands.' ' 

An orchid bi'onght home in a living state has tlowered at Kew, and 
proves to bo iJi'iidrohium riialcvnopsis, Fiizg., hitherto only known from 
Queensland. 

No det'.iiled account of the ethnographical collection has yet been 
published ; but as the collection has been deposited in the British 
Museum, a description of the Timor Jjaut objects will doubtless appear ia 
th(! catalogue of the Ethnological Department, while the more interest - 
inj; will bo fifjured in Mr. Forbes's forthcominn: volume. At the last 
meeting of the Association at Southport, Dr. J. G. Gar son (Report,]). 
.'iOG) read a .short account of the crania (now in the British ]\Iuseum) 
brought from Larat by !Mr. Forbes, which has been published /». cxtoiso 
in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XI II., and which 
concludes with the following remarks on the relation of the inhabitants 
of Timor Lant to those of adjacent countries : ' That the skulls just de- 
scribed are not those of a pure race is very evident. Two very distinct 
types can be made out — namely, the brachycephalic and the dolicho- 
cf^phalic, the former greatly predominating in number. Both from the 
information ^Ir. Forbes has given us as to their appearance, and from the 
skulls themselves, there is no ditlicnlty in recognising a strong ^lalay 
element in the population. The male skull No. 4, and the female No. t', 
are typically Malayan in their characters, especially in possessing large 
open, rounded orbits, and smooth forehead, the superciliary ridges and 
glabella being almost entirely absent. The other brachycephalic skulls, 
though not presenting such a -striking aflinity, agree more or less with 
this type, but give evidence of mixed characters. The dolichocephalic 
.skull is, on tlus other hand, markedly of the Papuan typo, and corre- 
sponds so closely as to be undistinguishablc from two crania obtained 
twenty miles inland from Port Moresby, New Guinea, in the College of 
Surgeons' ^Iu.seuni, also from, another from the Solomon Islands. Along 
■with this form of skull, Mr. Forbes informs me, is associated frizzly hair 
and dark skin. The examination of the cranial characters of the inhabitants 
of Timor Laut, as illustrated by the skulls before us, .shows that the peopling 
of this island is no exception to what is usually found in the various groups 
of islands in the Polynesian Archipelago. Fron-. its close proximity to 
New Guinea, perhaps more, of the Papuan element might have been 
expected.' 

In addition, the Coleoptera sent home liave been examined and de- 
scribed in a recent paper by Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, published in the 
Zoological Society's ' Proceedings,' The number of species collected was 
twenty-nine ; of these the following deserve special notice on account of 

' A detailed account was read at the Linncan Society, Xov. G, 188t, 



: .4i^.. 



ON Tin: NATiitAL ini;T()UY of timou lalt. 



26j 



le great 
igy, and 
. it is 
portal) t. 
eiifrally 
re some 
;t wliicli 
lean anil 

plants 
c ])lants 
nds.' ' 
Cew, and 
\vu i'roiii 

yet been 
) IJritisli 
nppcav ia 
: interest - 
■j the last 
loport, ]i, 
INIuscum) 
/», cxteiiso 
nd wbich 
iliaV)itauts 
5 just dc- 
y distinct 
e doliclio- 
from the 

1 from the 
iMalay 

lo No. »:, 
g hxrge 
gcs and 
ic skulls, 
less with 
loeephalic 
nd corre- 
obtainod 
College of 
Along 
zzly hair 
labitants 

) peopling 

us groups 

ximity to 

ave been 

and de- 
3d in the 
2cted was 
Lccount of 



n<r 



their geographictal distribution : I) I'dpJio ■[<?.<; rtifjnsns, a new genua and 
species of HtapInjliniJm known from Java; Ciiplio'idslni (tui/nlicollis, only 
prcvi(msly known from Banda ; (!. sjileniloii^, a new species allied to tho 
preceding ; Archotiiputt rur/asitx, belonging to a genus of Longicorns of 
which there was only ono species previously known, which species occurs 
in Waigion, Dorey, and Aru ; Ncmoj^lKts fdrliesii a now Longicorn nearly 
allied to N. (iri!>ji from Amboina. I'nrther, a new species of ground 
thrnsh ((icocichia ma'-hihi) has been described by Mr. Forbes from addi- 
tional specimens brought home bv himself on his return. So that onr 
knowledge of tho avifauna of this region has been increased by tho 
addition of twenty- four now species, entirely collected on the few squai-e 
acres to which the inter-tribal wars i;!' the natives restricted Mr. Forbes'd 
operations. 

At the presentation of our hist report, Mr. Forbes, who had jusfc 
returned to England, gave a short description of the region visited by 
him; bnt at the meeting of the Royal (icographical Society, to which wo 
have referred above, ho gave a more detailed account, which has been 
publi,shed, illustrated by a map, in their ' Proceedings ' for March,