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[Serial Number 45. J 




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:N^o. 84. 


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E. D.^ COPE. 







The present ].iiblicatiou (Bulletin >\.. M) is tl.e tortylitth ut a «ones 
of papers intended to illustrate the eolleetions belon-ing to the Initnl 
States, and eonstitutinj,' the National Museum, of which the Smithsonian 
Institution was placed in charge by the act of ("on-ress of August 10, 


The publications of the National Museum consists ot two series— tli.' 
Bulletins, of which this is No. 34 in continuous series, and the I'roeecd. 
ings, of which the eleventh volume is now in press. 

The volumes of Proceedings are printed, signature by signature, earli 
issue having its own date, and a small edition of each signature is dis- 
tributed to libraries promptly after its publication. 

Full lists of the publications of the Museum may be found in the cur- 
rent catalogues of the jmblications of the SmithsoJiian Institution. 

Tapers intended tor publication in the Proceedings and r>ulletins of 
the National Museum are referred to the Committee on Publication, 
consisting of the following members: T. II. IJean, A. Howard Clark 
(editor), Otis T. Mason, John Murdoch, Leonhard Stejneger, Frederick" 
W. True, ami Lester F. Ward. 

S. P. Langlev, 
Secretary of the Smithsindan Institution. 

Washington, April l>, 188'J. 

/ 1 









tf i 
















rHiLADELi'HiA, 'February 18, 1887. 

Dear Sir : I have the honor to present to you for publication among 
the Bulletins of the United States National Museum the manuscript of 
a general work on the Batrachia of North America. It embraces the 
results of a thorough study of the characters of the species, with their 
variations, which has been rendered effective by the very full collection 
contained in the National Museum, and which this work thus illustrates. 
Besides this descriptive part, I have i»resented the results of a thorough 
study of the osteology of the class, based on the material contained in 
various museums of the United States and Euri)pe. I have expressed 
these results largely in systematic form, in the belief that descriptive 
zoiilogy will never be complete until the structure is exhausted in fur- 
nishing definitions. Wherever practicable, reference is made to the 
relations between the extinct and living forms. 

I have been greatly indebted to you for the use of the manuscript 
l)re])ared by yourself and Dr. Girard many years ago with such a pub- 
lication as the present one in view. Of the descriptions of the fifty- three 
Urodela, nineteen are from your pen, and of the forty-seven Salientia, 
twenty-t)ne are the work of yourself and Dr. Girard. This has materally 
lightened my labor, the only additional work necessary to these descrip- 
tions being such as increase of material has recpiired. In the same way 
the figures of the external characters of the Urodela of which your de- 
scriptions appear in the text, were prei)ared under your direction, and 
the drawings of the crania of the same Urodela were partially prepared 
at the same time, and have been completed by myself, now appearing 
for the first time. The other drawings were made by myself, excepting 
some which are credited to others at the proper places. 

Besides the collection of specimens in alcohol, the collection of skele- 
tons prepared by yourself, and now part of the National Museum, has 
been of the greatest service in the preparation of this work and of the 
various papers by myself which have preceded it. 
I am, with much respect, yours, truly, 

Prof. S. F. Baird, 

Secretary of the Sniithsonian Institution. 

E. D. Cope. 



Lettor.if trausmittal 

JSatracbia 1 

General chaiaetcrs '_ 

(Jeiieral auatmny ' 

Larval eliaracters ' 

Class! ticatiou . , ' 


Pbylogeiiy ■ ^\ 

Exiilaiiation of teims "' 

Noiiieuulatiire ami history 1'' 


Urodela '■* 


Salieiitia '^'■^~ 

Recaiiitnlatioii '^'"^ 

Addenda ^''■' 

Bildiojiraphy 't'l 

Addendum to liiljlioj|;rapliy ^'■' 

List of cuts ^-' 

Exjilanation of letterin-,' on [iJate^ 4'j;! 

Exiilauatiou of platen "I'J' 

Index 51* 





Bonguiart, IdOO. Amphibia Latreille, 1825 (not of Linnsens 176G). 

Vertebrata witb a ilistinct coracoid eleuu'iit of the scapular arch and 
with an os quadratutn. The limbs consist of a single proximal element, 
two propodials (sometimes united), a carpus and tarsus, metapodials, 
and phalanges. The cartilage of the basis-crauii unossified (except some- 
times a basioccipital ossilication), but supported by the single mem- 
brane bone, the parasphenoid ; vertebral column consisting entirely or 
in part of intercentra. Stapes present. 

Brain with the cerebelhun small, and the mesencephalon smaller than 
the prosencephalon ("hemispheres"); the latter with the ventricles on 
the inner si<le of their principal mass. 

Heart with three chambers, two auricles, and a ventricle. Three or 
four aorta bows on each side. Lungs always present. 

Gall-bladder and urinary bladder present; oviducts entirely distinct, 
and opening by Ibntanelles into the abdominal cavity at a distance from 
the ovaries. Reproductive, renal, and digestive products discharged 
into a cloaca. Male without distinct intromittent organ. 

In development the embryonic life is prolonged during a period of 
freedom subsequent to leaving the egg, constituting a larval stage. 
J)uring this period the young is branchiferous and generally aciuatic in 
its habits. No amnion nor allantois. Segmentation of the yolk complete 
or holoblastic. 


The auditory organs resemble those of other terrestrial vertebrata, 
and (litter from those of fishes, in the presence of a fenestra ovalis of 
the internal ear, which is closed by a stapes. The other ear bones or 
their equivalents are fused at an early stage of growth with the sus- 
ponsorial cartilage of the lower Jaw (Parker). There are three semi- 
circular canals, but the helix is represented only by a diverticulum of 
the sacculus. 

The hyoid apparatus is less complicated than that of the I'isces, and 
more so than that of the vertebrate classes above them in the series. 


urLLF.TiN :m, uniteu states xational Ml-.-ElM. 

There are always a .listiuet so-oalle.l ceratohyal ; one ov moroaxia ele- 
ments or basibranchials, aiul lateral pieces, or oeniiol.rancliials. liere 
is no glossohyal. Further than this nothing can be said of the class, 
as the orders' dilVer anion^' themselves in the details. 

In the carpus and tarsus there is always an os ccntrale, except in the, 
tarsus of the Salientia. In the extinct Carboniferous yenera Evyops' 
an.l Archcgosaurus.- there are two centralia in each foot (/>c.v ot Eryops 
unknown). The intermedium is either present or fused with one of the 
adjacent bones of the tirst row. There is a series of carpalia and of 
tarsalia, pviny attachment to tlie met.'podials. whose nund)erand con- 
dition ditfer in the dilVerent families, im' number of di-its is -onerally 
not more than four in front and live behind. There is very often a rndi- 
mental thumb on the anterior foot in the Salientia, and in the extinct 
rhaehitomous jienus Eryoi)s there are live \vell-devcl(.i)ed dijiits on the 
mauus. (Plate 1'). tiy'. 1.) In the .Salientia there is often a rudimental 
sixth toe internal to the liallux. ( Plate 07-Si.) 

The shoulder-f,nrdle is not connected with the skull in the P.atrachia, 
excepting in the genus Ilemisns. There is a large suprascapula. The 
osseous coracoid is of various proportions, and it has various cartilagi- 
nous extensions, as epicoracoid and procoraconl. These are ossilied in 
some of the extinct forms. There is much variety in the pieces which 
occupy the middle line of the scapular arcii. The (uders may be ar- 
ranged as follows on this basis : 

An t'liisti'niuin amino sternum: UnnonphnUt. HhiuJutnuii 
An oniosternnni and stenmni ; no ciiistfrniiin. SaVuntm. N- 
Triichjintohuita, I'vote'ula, rrodtla (fxcejit TniiKitiiditui). 

The pelvis is always fiu'iiished with an ilium, but the pubis is want- 
ing or represented by rudiments, except in the extinct forms, where it 
is present. The ischium is i)riniitively an undivided cartilaginous plate. 
Xo obturator foramen. There are some characters which are common 
to all or nearly all Ijatrachia. but which may be found on further knowl- 
edge of the extinct forms not ro have been always present. One of 
these is the continuity or fixed articulation of tlie quadrate cartilage 
or bone with the skull. The proximal part of this bone is intercalated 
between the squamosal aii:l exoccipital. and the i»terygoid when present, 
so as to i)resent only its distal extremity free. In the Salientia it is an 
insignifleant element, being generally cartilaginous. 

The vomeroi)alatine bones are always double, except where wanting, 
which is only the case in the Trachystomata. They are nearly always 

The orbitosphenoid bone is always well developed. 

In the existing orders the atlas is undivided. I have put forth the 
hypothesis^ that the vertebral bodies in the existing and most of the 

' Cope, American N'arurali>t, l-'T, ]). -136. ~" 

-Baiir, Carims u. Tarsus ,\nv Vcrrel)iatcn. 1--T. I5atnicliia. ]<\k <;-13. 
'On the Intercfntnini >{ th.' Terrestrial Vertebrata. Transac. Anier 
Soc, I^Sf), p. 34:!. 

'iiiilitihiiiu ri. StiijiHipiiali. 
an sternal elements : 









extinct onlcrsot' Uatnicliia are not th« centra of the higher vertebrata, 
but are intercentra, w hidi are occasionally seen in the higher vertebrates 
in a rudiniental condition. This is especially the case in the remark- 
able saurian of New Zealand, the Si)henodon, and in the extinct order 
of the Theroniora. Owen has shown that the mtcrcentra exist also in 
the mole. I have given the following reasons for this view: 

1. The intercentra are very large in the Ganocephala and KhacUi- 

, They support the neural arch in the Enibolomeri. 

J. They are not rndimental in existing Batrachia. 

4. The chevron bones, which originate from the intercentra of Kep- 
tilia, are continua with the caudal vertebral bodies in Iiatrachia, 

.J. Tlie ribs, which originate from the intercentral cartilages in Kep 
tilia, originate from the vertebral bodies of Batrachia. 

Tiie paleontology of the Batrachia and Beptilia shows that the order 
Enibolomeri is tlie only one with complete vertebral bodies, and so 
probably gave origin to the reptiles; while the intercentra in some 
Batrachians become so connected with the neural arches as to lead to the 
belief that they become the vertebral bodies of later forms of the class 
whii'h JMve <lescended from them. 

In a'- the orders, genera with well-developed antericu' limbs display 
well-developed distal condyles of the liumeru: . They are better de- 
veloped than ill any order of reptiles, with the exception of the Thero- 

With regard to the cranial nerves, it is to be remarked that the latera- 
lis brancii of the vagus is present, as in fisiies; also that the glossopha- 
ryngeal is united with tlie vagus. In the Urodehi the nervus facialis is 
distinct from the trigeminus (Fig. 1), but in the Salientia they are 
united. (Plate 4.S.) 

r. iiufj. 



\ rkit.fnup. r.inWst 


FUi. 1. Dia-iraii ui olKHulrooraiiiuiii ami cranial nerri's of Salainaii.lra, side ^iew (from 'Wiedersheim). 

In the museular system the Batrachia diifer from the fishes in the 
niodifu'atious which partially take the place of the myocommata, and 
the development of the muscles of the limbs and their extension on 
the dorsal and vei tral surfaces of the body. Myocommata persist in 


,s of all tlH- tailed orders, and are transient in the 

the caudal regioi 

tails of the larva- of the Salieiitia 

Ki-niainsof tliesaiiieare seen in the 
segmented dorsal uniscles of the Uro- 
dela. and the segmented median ven- 
tral, or pnbosternal muscles of the 
tailed and tailless orders. Between 
these median series of muscles extend 
two layers, which suitport the sides 
of the body cavity, the external and 
internal oblique. Jn the Urodela the 
oxteiiial oblique is divided up at the 
superior border into separate heads, 
each of which arises from the extrem- 
ity of a rib. Between the ribs is a 
band of narrow longitu linal inus- 
oU'.s—theintercostal.s— which are par- 
allel to the doisal muscles. Owing 
to the modilieation of the skeleton 
the dor.sU niu.><cles in the Salientia 
are much nioditied, and form chev- 
rons with the apex posterior. The 
limb mu.scles are much like those of 
higher vertebrata. _ 
The heart of the IJatrachia pos- 
sesses three chambers, two auricles and one ventricle, and there is a 
sinus venosus at tlie entrance of ::he vena ca\ a. The bull)us arteriosus 
is not uuiscular, and has a longitudinal valve or partial septum, or is 
completely divided into two in the Proteida. In the Urodela there are 
four aortic branches on each side, whieh are in the larval state branchial 
arteries. As many veins return from the branchia' and unite above the 
heart to form the aorta. In develo])inent to matr.rity the arteries be- 
come connected with the veins by longitudinal vessels, the tluctxs hotaUi, 
which complete the ''aorta bows" where the oranchial system disap- 
pears. The first and last of these arches become subordinate, and 
the intermediate on each .side function as "aorta roots," union 
forms the aorta. The carotitl artery is a coritinuation of the (hii'tui^ 
hotaltl «onnecting the first and .second bows, and the last bow is modi- 
fied into the imlmonary vein. In the Proteida and Trachystoniata 
three aorta bows remain on each side, and the branchial arteries and 
veins jiersist. In the Salientia three aorta bows remain, but the second 
on each side only form the aoita, the first and last forming the carotitl 
artery and pulmomiry vein. 

The venous system consists primitively, as in other vertebrata. of 
two anterior and two posterittr cardinal Aeins, which unite on eacii side 
into a single transverse vessel, the Diicfus '.'uvieri. which empties into 
the sinus venosus. Subsequently two otlier pairs of longitudinal veins 

Fir,. 2. Diacrani »*' clinnrtrncranium and oranial 
nervca of Salamaiidia, from litlow (from Wii 





arise parallel to the cardinal veins, and empty into the anterior cardi- 
nals on each side, in front of the JJtictus cuvicri. These are the verte- 
bral veins. The portion of the posterior cardinals between the Ductus 
cuvieri and the kidnej' disapi)ears, so that what remains of the pos- 
terior cardinals are only renalen advehentes. The anterior cardinals 
become the jugulars. The i)rincipal posterior vein is the vena cava pos- 
terior^ which is median, and consists originally of the renales rerehentes 
from the kidney. It receives the hepatic vein before emptying into the 
sin us veuosus. The iliac veins pass directly into the kidney after re- 
ceiving the V. catidalis. 

Till' lymph cavities of the body in the Batrachia are extensive. This 
is especially tlie case witli the Salientia, where the skin is loosely at- 
tached, and incloses large spaces immediately below it. The lymphatic 
vessels from the digestive system open into these cavities. The ves- 
sels also empty into the veins, and present at such points enlargements 
which contract rhythmically, and are known as " lymph- hearts." They 
are situated in the sacral region, one on each side, in the tailed forms, 
while an additional jiair is present in the sciapular region in the Sali- 

The reproductive and urinary systems are closely connected in the 
Batrachia, and must be treated of together. Both discharge their con- 
tents into the alimentary canal, forming a cloaca. Their structure is 
best understood by reference to that of the sharks. In these fishes a 
primitive longitudinal vessel on each side of the dorsum of the abdom 
inal cavity sends branches to the outer side, which there form convo- 
luted lobules, the primitive kidney. In the Batrachia this longitudinal 
or archinephric duct divides longitudinally, and the inner portion re- 
mains as the Miillerian duct. This becomes the oviduct of the female. 
The external half with its series of branches becomes the urogenital 
duct. The testes and ovaries are developed independently external to 
the kidneys, and the former send their efferent ducts directly into the 
latter. The ovaries discharge the eggs into the abdominal cavity, 
whence they pass into the oviducts by the free open extremities of the 
latter, and are thence ejected by the anus, after receiving a covering 
of albumen. The male organ homologous with the Miillerian duct is 
of reduced size in all tiie Salientia except the Kana' and allies, where it 
is aborted. It has been shown, however, to persist in our Bana rirens. 
In the Urodela the vasa deferentia pass through the kidney and enter 
the genitoiirinary duct, and so into the cloaca ; but in the Salientia the 
efferent ducts of the kidney collect themselves into a separate tube or 
ureter, \vhi"jh, however, joins the single vas deferens before entering 
the cloaca. But the Discoglossid* agree with the Urodela in this, as 
in several other resjiects. A urinary bladder is always present in the 
r>atrachia. The testes are single on each side in the Salientia; there 
are several in the Urodela, esi)ecially in the Ca.'ciliidre. The penis is 
wanting. Impregnation is accomplished by copulation in the Urodela, 



but iu the Salientia the are dischar-e.l o.i the ova after 
leaving the bodv pf the female. (Plate.s IS, ll>, ;W. 4J.) 

The aliinentarv canal iu the Batraehia is .simple, since it is not highly 
specialized into distinct parts. The liver is larse and is <livided into a 
varying number of lobes, which are esi)ecially numerous, and arranged 
like a roll of coins in the Ca'.-iliida>. The gall-bladder and pancreas 
are present. The teeth are not implanted in alveola-, and are iu the 
recent forms more or less pleiirodoiit. 


In the course of the growth of a batracjhian there is always a period 
which follows the freedom of the embryo, in which there are structures 
tor securing respiration in the water. These gills difler from those of 
fishes, in that the fringes in which the blood is aerated .stand on lieshy 
processes of the branchial arches, and not directly on the arches them- 
selves. Similar structures are found in the preliminary stages of 
some tishes. During this stage the tail is more or less modified as a 
swimming organ, and the condition of the skull differs materially in 
character from that of the adult. In the tailless or anurous Batraehia 
the limbs do not appear until this period has nearly closed, while in 
the tailed or urodele order the liml)s api)ear almost immediately after 
the gills. Besides these transitional characters, the Urodela possess in 
their early larval condition a long process in front of the first gill on 
each side, which is termed a balancer. This remains in a few abnormal 
cases in salamanders, but is permanent in the suborder of the ea'cil- 
iaiis or worm-like >>atrachia. A similar process exists in the larva of 
the frogs of the genus Xennpu.s: whi'-h resembles superficially a siluroid 
fish ; but in the Salientia generally tnc balancers are wanting. 

Tlie gills in the Salifiitia (frogs, toads, etc.) are soon concealed by a 
growth of the skin, which leaves a small orifice for the di.sciiarge of 
water from the i)haryngeal cavity. In one group of these animals this 
opening is on the middle line l)elow, but in the great majority it is 
single and is situated on the left side. 

The changes undergone by the skull in the metamorphosis are much 
more important in the Salientia than in any other order, and are treated 
of under the head of that order. 

The eggs of Batraehia are always deposited in the water or in damp 
places. In a few instances the young do not seek the water, and iu 
one species (Salamandra atra) they are born free from the egg. 

Under the head of the Salientia will be found a table of the various 
modes in which the eggs and larv.-e of those animals are deposited and 
cared for prior to maturity. 

Under the respective orders the descriptions of their characteristic 
peculiarities of development will be found. (IMates 30, 11, 78.) 




There are several orders of Jiatrachia, and they disi)lay remarkable 
diversities of skeletal structure. For the better understaudiug of these 
I give the following table of their principal definitions:' 

I. Basioccipital, supraoccipital, iutercalaiy,- and supratemporal lioues present. Pro- 

poilial boues rlistiuct. 
a. One cotyloid condyle, 

Vertebral centra reidaced by one basal and two lateral elements 

witli one nenral arcli GimoceiihaUi. 

aa. Two occipital condyles. 

Vertebral Viodies, including atlas, segmented, one set of segments 

togt*lier suppcrting one arch L'hachitomi. 

Vcrtebr.T segni< nted, the superior and inferior segments each 

complete, forniini; two centra to each arch Emholumeri. 

Vertebral bodies, including atlas, not segmented: one to each 
arch Sttgocephdli. 

II. Basioccipital, suiiraocciiiital, and supratempi>"al bones wanting. Frontal and 

propodial bones distinct. 
a. Au OS intercalare. 

A palatine arch and separate caudal vertebra? Prottida. 

aa. No OS intercalare. 

A maxillary arch and vomers; palatine arch present, imperfect; 

nasals, iiremaxillaries and caudal vertebne distinct Vrodtla, 

No niBxillary or palatine arches; no vomers: .lasals and pre- 

maxillary. also caudal vertebra*, distinct. Trachi/'stumata. 

III. Basioccipital, su])raocci))ital, intercalare. and supratemjioral boues wanting- 

Frontals and ]>arietals connate: proi)odial bones and lumbosacral vertebra^ 
each continent. 
Palatines distinct from vomers; a palatine arch : a.stragalus and 
calcaneum eloiiy,ate, forminu a distinct segment of the limb Salientia. 

The animals of the liivision I are all extinct. Division II includes the 
Salamanders and their allies, witii the worm-like C<ecilians (Aj>oda), 
while the third division embraces the frogs, toads, etc. 


The Batrachia are, tlien, intermediate in characters, and therefore iu 
position, between the tish-like forms and the reptiles. Among the 
former the Dipnoi ai)pi'oacii tliem most nearly, while the extinct reptiles 
of the oldest order, the Theromora,^ are the nearest allies on the rep- 
tilian side. It belongs to the series of vertebrates which have a dis- 
tinct coracoid bone in tiie shoulder-girdle, ami a distinct quadrate bone 
in the skull. The greater part of the basicranial axis is cartilaginous, 
but it is protected below by the membrane bone, the parasplienoid. In 
all these respects, and in the absence of an amnion of the embryo, the 
Batrachia agree with the fishes. They differ from tiiischissin the jtres- 
ence of legs and absence of fins, and in the absence of various bones 
whi(!h belong to the l)rauchial and opercular .systems, and to tin- sus- 
])en,sor of the lower Jaw. 

'This is partly derived from the talde which I have given iu Vol, if. Paheontology 
of the Geological Survey of Ohio, l-iTI, p. ;!,";). See also Americau Naturalist, 1-84. 
'Of Cnvier : Kpiotic of Iluxloy, according to Vrolik. 
^ Thcromor2)ha Cope olim; name preoccupied. 


Thii ('liariicters display-'d l).v tin? three divisions in question indicate 
their rehitionship to l)i'. iis Ibllows: The orders of JJivision I ])resent in 
their cranial structure a greater resembhiuce to the limblinned or 
cro8soi)ter.> siiHi iishes tlian do either of the others. The third division 
is the most divergent from tiie»y, and is in various respects tlie most 
speciaHzed. This si>ecialization consists not only in a departure from 
the i)rimitive Batrachia, but also from all other forms of vertebrata. 
Its specialization is seen in the loss and cocissification of various parts 
of the skeleton. The ITnulehi display chara(;ters interme<liate between 
the extremes of the class. Near them the Trachystomata (SirenidaO are 
still more inferior by loss oi' parts of the skull ami of the pelvic arch. 
The Prnteida have lost the maxillary arch of the Stegocei)haIi, but re- 
tain their OS iiitercalare. 


The class IJatrachia holds an imi)()rtant position in the history of the 
vertebrata, as tlie first meudter of that kin;;dom which occupied the 
land on the advent of the conditions suitable for air-i)reatbiny types. 
It thus stands in ance.stral relation to the lines of the Sauropsida and 
^lammalia, and as the immediate descendants of the fishes. As rej^ards 
the extinct orders, the primitive type is evidently the (ranocephala. 
whose vertebral column displays an arrest of (diaracters which are 
transitional in the hij^aer vertebrata. From this group the orders 
ithachitomi, Fauboloi'ieri,and Ste.nocephali have been evidently derived. 
We may then present the followinj,' fjenealogical table of the class 
liatrachia : 














As regards the connection of the class, as a whole, with other classes 
of vertebrata, it 's very probable that the extinct orders, as the Gano- 
ceiihala, were denveri ♦roiu some extinct form of Dipnoau fishes, more 
or less related to the group of which the genus Ceratodus is a represent- 
ative. In this type we have a persistent chorda dorsalis, fins which 
present the type from which ambulatory limbs were derived, a pelvis, 
and a cranium nearer that of the batrachians than most other fishes 
pre.-^ent. The Crossopterygia are a little on one side of the parental 
stem, since they have no pelvi.^*, and their limbs begin to show a begin- 
ning of that reduction and specialization which is carried to such an 
extent in the Actinopterygia, or typical H.shes. 

From the Ganocepiiala we derive the remaining orders, all of which 
possess two occipital condyles. The intercentra, which are small in tlie 
prepel vie vertebral axis of the Ganocephala, assume a large development 
in the Embolomeri, wbich thus have two bodies to each neural arch 
throughout the series. It is probable that the reptiles took their origin 
from this grouj) by the gradual reduction of the intercentra, and the 
continued dominance of the centra. It is possible also that the Em- 
bdloi eri possess but one occipital condyle, which, uniting with an in- 
tercentrum, formed the single occipital condyle of the Reptilia. 

In the direction of the lihachitomi there is reason to believe that the 
intercentra became predominant in the vertebral axis, and that th^ 
centra soon disappeared. This order gave origin to the Stegocephala, 
in which the centra are wanting; and this order was the .source of the 
Proteida on one hand, and the Salientia on the other. The formei', of 
all the existing orders is the only one which retains the os intercalare 
of the Pahvozoic types. From the Proteida we get the Urodela, and 
from the latter the Trachystomata, as will be more especially shown 
under that order. 

The Ganocephala (Trimerorhachis) and the Rhachitomi (Zatrachys) 
had a well developed columella auris, which extended from the lieuestra 
ovale and turned upwards and backwards to the notch of the posterior 
outline of the skull between the os intercalare and the base of the quad- 
rate. It is highly probable that this notch was occupied by a tympanic 
drum.' In the Proteida, Urodela, and Trachystomata, there is no col- 
umella. In the Salientia there is a chain cousistiug of one bone and 
two cartilages extending between the stapes and the memhranum tym- 
imni. Thus the LTrodela in this resi)ect have undergone degeneration, 
while the Salientia have undergone specialization. With regard to 
other parts of the skeleton all the later and recent orders must be re- 
garded as having undergone degeneration, in view of the extensive loss 
of parts. (See Origin of the Fittest, by E. D. Cope, On the Evolution 
of the Vertebrata, progressive and retrogressive.) 

'See Cope On tbe ossicula iiuditns of the Batracbia, Aiuer. Naturalist, 1888, p. 464; 
Journal of Morphology, November, 1?88. 



The Canthns rostralis i.s the ridge more or les.s defliied which marks 
the Hue of separation anterior to tiie eyes, between the toi) and side of 
the head. The outer uarcs or crtenml )iost)-ils are situated in or a little 
below this angular line, and between the eye and tip of suout. The 
Cauthtis orhitalis is the corner of the eye, either anterior or posterior. 
By ramus of jaw is meant either of the two branches, one on each side. 
The rictus is the point of junction between the upper and lower Jaws. 
The eomniissure is the line along which the two jaws meet when closed. 
The internal nans or ehoana' are in the roof of the month a little ante- 
rior to the eyes. The Eustachian apertures, or ostia pharyngea, are sit- 
uated very far back in the roof of the ntoutli near the end of the jaw, one 
on each side. The angle of the jaw is just behind the point of articula- 
tion of the two jaws. The concealed surfaces of the body are those which 
are internal and j)ressed against each other when the limbs are tiexed. 
The teeth in the roof of the month are vomerine or vomeropalatine when 
they are within or near the inner nares, and on the bone of same name; 
and they are parasphenoid, or \oo%e\y, palatine, "hen considerably be- 
hind the level of the inner nares and placed on the i)arasphenoid bone. 
The enumeration of the fingers and toescommences with the inner ones, 
the fourth finger and the fifth toe being the external. The term finger 
always belongs to the anterior extremities, and toe to the posterior. 
The phalanges are numbered from the metapodial bone. By articula- 
tion is understood the hinge between two adjacent bones, which them- 
selves are called segments. The tympanum or membranum tynii)ani 
is the circular disk seen on each side the head, posteriorly and just 
back of the eye, in the Salientia. 




By Linnaus, in the tenth edition of the Systema Natunv (1760), in the 
twelfth (17GG), and in the thirteenth (1788) reptiles and batrachians are 
included in a class "Amphibia." The two classes were not recognized 
even as subordinate divisions of the Amphibia. These divisions were 
the Reptiles, Serpentes, and Nantes. The last named included only 
fishes. Four genera were included in the reptiles, one of which was 
Rana, which embraced all the Batrachia Salientia. The Urodela were 
enumerated as species of the genus Lacerta. The genus Cecilia was 
placed among the berpeutes. 

Laurenti, in the Tentamen Systema Reptilium, 17G8, first used the 
class name Reptilia for a combination of the two classes, Rei)tilia and 
Batrachia, as at present recognized. Ue proposed three orders of 
Reptilia, the Salientia ( = Batrachia Anura), the Gradientia (= lizards 
and Batrachia Urodela), and the Serpentes, in which he included the 

ifla^«/t',178S-'-J0,didnot distinguish Reptiles from Batrachia, and 


Till': JJATIiACIlIA (»!• N<>in'll AMKIilCA. 



(lid iit»t fiivi' ilistiiictive naiiiL'S I'or tliu groups which he luoposed, which 
wt'ic very iirliliciiil. 

!>ion(/iii(tr( published lii.s system iu I80()-'()3, in the Meiuoire.s de.s 
SiiViUis lOtraiijfc'i'sde I'liistitiit. lie did not distiuyuisli the Ijiitrachiii 
as a chiss IVoiu the JJeptilia, but h(^ distinj;uished it lirst as a natural 
jjfroiip and named it. Ih; divided the lieptilia into the (bur irders, Che- 
Ionia, Sauria, Ophidia, and IJatraehia. lie placed the salanmnt'ers in 
tlni IJatiachia Ibrthetirst tinu'. 

LntrciUe published a system of Keptilia in tho Nouveau Dictionaire 
d' llistoire Naturelle in ISOi, Vol. xxiv, paj^'e (Jl. lie adoi)ts the sys- 
tem of Ilrongniart. The Batrachia are divided into two sections: I 
/>. (vurcurs, aiul 1 1 li. pisciforuics. The secoiul section included the gei;- 
era Proteus and Siren; section I, all other Batrachia known to the 
anihoi'. In l.S2r> Latreille published another classification iu the bro- 
chure "Les Families Natunlles du Hegne Animal." lie divides the 
vertebiata into warm-blooded (llaemathermes) and cold-blooded (llae- 
maerymes). The latter include Pulmonees antl Solibranches. Tiie lat- 
ter includes the lishes. The Ibrmer division has two subdivisions, Wep- 
tiles and Am|)hibia or Batrachia. We here find the system of Do 
IJlainville adoi)ted in the reco;;nition of the Batrachia as distinct from 
the Keptilia, and the na!;ie Amphii)ia is used for it for the first time. 

Daudin in l.SO'.'-Hl.'i ])ublished his Trait6 (ienerale. He adopted the 
classifu'ation of Brongniart. 

Dnnieril, in ISOt, in the Traite elementaire d'histoire naturelle, also 
adopted the system of Bron<;'niart. He placed the Cu'ciliidie among 
(he Ophidia. In his ZoiUogie Analyti(pu', published in 1807, he followed 
I he same arrangeuuMit, and divided the Batrachia into Auura and Uro- 
dela. The latter included four genera: Triton, Salamaiulra, Proteus, 
and Siren. 

lAtnitirck, in 1S()!>, published a Distribution (ien«''rale des Auimaux, as 
I he (chapter viil of the Philosophie Zoiilogique. He did not distinguish 
the Batrachia from the Keptilia as a class, bat recognized the four 
orders of Kejjtilia already proposed by P>rougniart. The Batrachia are 
divided into two divisions: Urodelii and Anura. (Jcecilia is placed in 
the serpents. 

CkvIck, in the Le(M)ns d'Anatomie Comparee, in 1801), and in the 
Kegiie Animal, in 1817, adopteil the system of Jirongniart. In the 
si'cond edition of tlie lattei', pul»lished in 182!) he divides the Batrachia 
into live genera, vi/ : C(ecilia, Kana, Salamaiulra, Proteus, and Siren. 

Opjxl published his "Ordnungen Familien u. Gattungen der Kep- 
liiien" in 1811 (Munich). lie adopts the class name llei)tilia, and 
divides it into three orders : Testudinata, S(piainata (snakes and lizaids), 
and Xiida or Batrachia. The Batrachia are divided into three families ; 
the Apoda (('(cciliida), ICcaudata or Aniira, and the I'rodela. 

!>(■ lUdinriUe published in ISKI in the Xoiiveau liulletin des Sciences 
<Ie la Soctiete Pliilomathicpit^ of Paris a Prodrome d'une uouv. distribu- 
1U521— Bull. .'51 '1 


i 1 


ti.Mi svslciniiti'i.ic (111 IN-^iu' AniniMl. Ho Ihst proposed to H-j,Mnl tlio 
IJitra'cliia :.s lulistinct class of viTlcl.n.ta, (lii' IV of Ins scnrs, uimUt 
the name '^Xiulipollilc'ios, Ics Ainpliybiens." On a subscpicnt pa-o 
hcdividos tlic dass K('i)tilia into two .sni.classcs, "Ics IJeplilcs" ami 
Ics It'ldli.voidc's. The latter are snl.div ided into four divisions, viz: 
lJiitracioiis((Jren()uilies); l',sendosanriens(Salaniandres) ; Anipliibiens 
(les Trotirs et les Sirenes) ; J'.sendopliidiens (Co-eilies). Wo liero lind 
the 15atracl)ia tor the (Irst time set oil" from tlie h'eplilia as a division 
of oipial rank with it. 

Mcrrciii, Tontamen Sjistenne Amphibiarnni, ISL'O, reverts to tlio 
F.inna'an name Ampliil)ia for tlie c()nd)ined reptiles and batraeliians, 
l)iit recoyni/es the two as subordinate divisions. Ho oalls these IMio- 
lidota and IJatraehia. The J'.utraehia he divided into the Apoda (Cce- 
cilia), Salientia, and (Iradientia. The (Inidientia or Salamandres aro 
divided into Mntal)ilia (Sahunandra, etc.) and Ainphi!)nonsta, or the 
forms with permanent branehia-. 

(hai/ pid)lished in ISl'o, in the Annals of IMiilosopli.v of riiiladelpliia, 
a synopsis of the genera of Kei»tilia and IJatrachia of North America. 
He separates the two classes distinctly as such under the names Ui'\h 
tilia and Amphibia. The former iire divided into the orders Kniydo. 
sanria (crocodiles and extinct marine reptiles), Sauria, Sauroplijdia,, 
Ophidia, andChelonia. The Amphibia were divided into Mutabilia and 
Amphipnei'3ta. The latter division iiKiluded the brancliiate fornis, with 
the Cryptobranchida' and the ('(cciliida'. The Mutabilia embraced 
all otber IJatrachia. 

7/rtW(r»also, in 1825, published (ienera and Synopsis of iSpecies of Kep- 
tiles of America in the donrnal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
I'hiladelphia. He adopts the system of Brongniart, and divides the lia- 
trachia into tliree divisions, dei)endent on the characters of llieexterinil 
respiratory organs. Jn the lirst there is an external ilssuroonly; in 
the second, external branehia' and lissuies; and in the third, neither tliu 
one nor the other. 

F(7c//(r/e>-,XeueClassilication der Reptilien (lSL'G),adopttj the nainesof 
Leuckart for the prinniry divisions of the IJeptilia, the Monojmoa cor- 
responding to the Keptilia ami the Dipnoa to the IJatrachia. He places 
Ccecilia among the ."\Ionopnoa. The Dipnoa are divided into .Mutabilia 
and Imnuitabilia. The latter includes the lamilies Cryjjtobranchoida 
and IMianerobraiichoida. The Mutabilia inelmle all other r.atraciiia. 

Duineril and Bibrou, iw the " Erpetologie denerale," published be- 
tween 18;U and 1841, adopt the system of IJrongniart. The fourth order 
of reptiles, the I5atrachia, is divided into three suborders, viz : the 
IVromela (Co'ciliidie), Anura, and Urodela. The Urodeia are divided 
into Atretodera (Salamandres) ami Trematodera, which end)ra(;es tlio 
rryptobranchida- and forms with pernmnent branchiae 

Johannes Miilkr, in Ktininius' JIandbuch der Zoiitomie (18.50), uses 
the Lniniean name Amphibia for the combined lieptilia and IJatrii- 




ii's, ihmUt 

U'llt I'll J- 11 

liU's'' iiiul 
ions, viz: 
; liero lind 
ii (liviision 

ts to the 
ht'sc, riio- 
podii (C(i>- 
mdirs iivo 
sta, or tlio 


ainos \W\tr 
IS Emydo. 
tabilia and 
Ibnns, witli 

Sciences of 
les the Ba- 
le t'xternal 
V only ; in 
neither the 

le names of 
lopnoa col- 
lie places 
) Mntaliilia 
blished be- 
ourth onler 
x'vA : till' 
are divided 
ibraces the 

(ISotJ), uses 
and IJatni- 

cilia. The hitler two divisions be rej^ards as subclasses, under the 
names Monopnoa and i)ipiio:i. The Dipiioa (liatrachia) are divided 
into IJrodelaand JJatracliia (=:Anura). Tlie Urodelaiii tiirnaredivided 
into l'ereniiil»ranclii;ita, Derotremata (Trematodera pt. of Dumeril and 
llibron), and Mycitoder.i (sala:iiandeis in .nenenil). 

Haiclid i)iiblislied in lS(J(j iiis (}eiii'rel!e ]\Iorpiiolo;:;ie. lie then dis- 
tin;;iiished the IJatrachia not only as a class from the Ilei>tilia, but 
placed it in a separate };roiip of the vertebrafa, which he called the 
Aiiamnia, from the absence of the amnion, alonj;' with tln^ lishes. He 
uses iiidis(!iiiiiiiiiitely the names Uatrachia and Amphibia for the (tlass. 
lie divides it into two primary divisions, the IMiractamphibia and Lis- 
samphibia. The former are the extiiuit forms, tojicther with the Ca'ci- 
liida'. The Lissainpliibia are divided into three divisions: Sozobran- 
cliia ' '.'ereiinibraiiclisV Soznra (IJrodela), and Aniira. 

( '(il>L', iu ii "Synopsis of the Kxtinct Ijatrachia «)f North America," 
lS(».S(l*r(>ceedin^'s of the Ac idemy IMiiladelpliia), re('o.i;iiiziMl the Uatra- 
«-hia as a class distinct from the Ivcptili.i, and divided it into six orders, 
as follows: Tiacliystiniiata (Hiiens), i'mt. ida, Urodela, (Jyniiioi)liidia 
(the ('o^(!iliida'), 8tL'<,M)cepliali (extinct forms), and Annra. In a paper on 
the IJatraidiia of the Permian I'eriod of Noitli America, bSSt( American 
N itiiralist), two orders were added, tiie Kliachitomi and Kmbolomeii, 
linth extinct. In the "Origin of tiie Fitti'st" (Philadelphia, ISSO) still 
another order is added to the IJatraiiliia, the (Janoiu'phala of Owen, and 
t 111 (iymnopliiona((J(et;iliida')are united with the IJrodela, makiiij'- eight 
oi'ders in all. Tliis systiMii is adopted in tiie iiicsent work. In 18(15, in 
•I paper on the Primary J)ivisioiis of the liatrachia Salientia (Natural 
History Ileview) the .Vniira were divided into Ajjlossa, |{iifonitbriiiia, 
AKtifera, and Itaniformia. These divisions arc here adopte«l, except- 
i:i,u the Ibifoniformia. 

Ilii.tlcj/, AnatDiny of Veitebratcd .\niinals, 1871, «livides the vertL!- 
Iir.ilainto hditliyopsida, Sauropsida, and Mammalia. The Ichthyopsida 
correspond to the Anamniaof Ilaeckel, plus the Leptocardii and Mar- 
sip(»hiancliii. This division is divided into two classes, the Pisces ami 
AaiphiUia (Hatrachia). The Keptilia and Aves form the Sauropsida. 
The An;pliibia emlnace, according; to Iliixley, four orders, viz : Uro- 
dcl.i, lialiyrinthodonta, Gymiiopliiona, and liatrachia or Aniira. The 
trodela are divided into J'roteida and 8alaniandrida, which corro- 
spmid to the Trematodera and Vitretodera of Dumeril and iJibron. 
Professor Ilnxley j,'ave the (irst (dear osteoIoj;ical delinition of the class. 

<ie(jcnh((in\ in the Elementsof t!omparative Anatomy, 1872, follows the 
system of Ilaeckel so far as rcf^ards the higher groups of vertebrata. 
The Uatrachia are called Amphibia, and have the three divisions pro- 
liosed by Merrem, but under the names Urodela, Annra, and Gynino- 

Ill tho preceding review no attempt has been made to |)rcsent tho 
views of all naturalists who have written on the vcitebrata, but I have 

20 mii.i,i;tin 111, rMn:i» statls na.ional mi'skum. 

.....I.avuml toiMrlmh-all tin' works in the liatrad.ia a:nl their 
j,„,,,,,,, „Ml .•Mrn.i.l .Tlali.His l,:.v,. lu-n. rxpirssly ronsuhTcl iin.l new 
virus iiiln.Iiir.Ml. Tlu' s.vst.'in Nvhicli app.Mrs to tlic wriUT Lirxprnss 

., |,,iiv(l,.. ni.tiiiMl r.-h.tioiis..r the. •oiilfiitsc.r the class IS pri'soulnl 

i„ ,,„, ,„n„„.i„.- pat,M.s. I!..t I d.v-W " IV-w words to n(...uM.dMt.nv. 

TlH- earliest name lor a -iven eoii(ri)tion derived from individnais is 
,,I„pi,(l Species must bo deliiicd or li<;'m<'d; Hi'>'<'''ii i>"<l "" '"M'km- 
nnuips iimst be deline.l, since (i.univs cannot express the neuerali/a 
Tlmis snch names are inteinled t.. represent. As tlie conception oCtlie 
rxtcnt of a -enns varies witli discovery, it is impossible to reciiiire that 
,1„, .iHlniti.m accoMipanvin-' its earliest name shall be necessarily exact, 

s„ (iiiita 1 a tide delinition is all that is oblijjalory, according' to the 

inlcs. Ill the case c!" the lii.uher ;;r(.nps the case is dillereiit. It has 
been ciisloinaiv to rcipiire that the delinition acconipanyiiifr the name 
adopted shall coiTesi.ond with the thing adopted. 11" the deliiiition 
does not so correspond, tiie name has generally reinained nniisctl. Such 
names are the Mntabilia and Immiitabilia, ("adneibranchiata and IVreii 
iiibranchiata, which have been applied to systi'nnitic ideas not in corre 
spondence with the true rehitionships of the members of the riatraehii. 
They have fallen accordingly into disuse. Sach are also the so called 
orders Kmydosanria and Sanrophidia. The division then receives the 
name which was first aiM'lied to it, and not to something more or less 
corresponding to it on ommissioii or addition of contents, The rank as- 
s'gned to such division is immaterial; the idea of the division itself is 

Applying these principles to the vertebrates which form the subject 
of this book, I lind the following to be the names to be adopted. I find 
that Ihongiiiart first perceived the correct limitation of the iJatratdiia, 
and that in 1S(M) he gave it that name. In this he was followed by La 
treillein ISOt: by I)audin,in ISOL*-.'); by Dnineril, in ISIU ; by Lamarck, 
in 18l»l>; by ('avier, in 1801) and in 1817; by .Merrein,in bSliO; by ilarlaii, 
in 1825; hy Dumeril and Hibron, in 1811; and by various modern writers 
since that date. The name Amphibia I find first used by Dc r.lainvllle 
in 181(5 as intcn^hangeable with the name Xiidipellifcri, and also as a 
siibili vision of itself eipial to the I'eiennibranchiates of somk; later au- 
thors. The name is first definitely adopted by liatreillein ISL'o, a^jnar- 
ter of a century after the introduction of the name IhUrachia. lie is 
followed after a long interval by Ilacckel in 18(!(!, who, howexcr. uses 
the name Amphibia as interchangeable witli IJafracliia. It is ex(du 
sively used by Ilnxley and by (legenbaur, and by a number of modern 
naturalists, chiefly anatomists. From the ab:)ve record it is (inite evi- 
dent that the proper name for this class is Matrachia. 

The true classification of the (contents of the (dasa wa.s of much later 
discovery. The tailless division was recognized, it is true, by the earlier 
authors: and, first of all, in 17(!8 by Laureuti. who called it the Salient ia 
audgaveitadeUuition. This naniL' must be therefore retained. The di vis- 




i!i(l their 
iiml iH'W 
» express 
iiliiiils is 
II lii^'lier 
oil (»(■ llie 
|uir(> tlial 
ily exact, 
i<i to the 
\. It has 
tlie name 
('(I. Such 
h1 Pereii 
ill eoire 
iatrachi 1. 
so ealh'il 
•civcs the 
(le or less 
e rank as- 
II itself is 

10 siihjeet 

1 Iiml 


-d by La 


V ilailaii, 

II writers 


also as a 

later an- 

jr>, acinar- 

ia. lie is 

l'\ t'T, IISI'S 

is fx(rln 

r inodeni 

(jiiite cvi- 

uieh later 

he earlier 

Salient ia 

The divis- 

ion of true Siilaniaiiders was not properly (list in.uuisheil before the pub- 
lication of the system of De IJlaiiiville, in 1S1(5, who eillcd fiieiii the 
Pseiidosaiiriii. lie, however, omitted from them the Ca'i;iliida'. In this 
:)iiiissioM ho was followed by rll siibse(|iieiit authors, except Cope, who 
called the entire order, iiicliidin.!;' tlie(%ec.iliida', the IJrodela, a(loi»tiiij{ ii 
name already proi>osed by Dumeril, in IHOt, for a division of wider 
scope. On this a(!(!ount the name irrodola is ailopted in the present 
work. The iiaiiu' (irradientia was (irst used to iiniliide only Uatiachia, 
without lizards, by Merrem, in ISUO. The two branchiate or.lers, I'ro- 
4ei<laandTiMehyst()mata, wereinduded in the IJrodela or (liailieiitia by 
all authors except the followinjf: J)e IJlaiiiville combined them in one 
(uder, the Amphibia; Gr.iv, Iliirlan, and Fitziiiger followed, but com 
billed them with uiirelat'd foriiH; Dumeril and IJibron kept them to 
{^ether with t!ie Crypt )branchida' in a division, Trematoderos, follow- 
ill};' Fitziii}"er (ISLMi); Haeckel follows De IJIainville, but renames the 
I'seudosaiiria of that author Sozobranchia, and includes in his Am- 
phibia the noil related Axolotls, In ISIJIJ* Cope lirst distinjjjuisIuMl tiic^ 
'rrachystomata and I'roteida as orders, and pureed them of the Axolotls, 
which he i»laced in the Crodola. 


()s ii'ilenialare present ; no supra or basioiunpitals; (>. mixillare and 
inrfi'onlalia wautiii}'-; vomero-i)alatiuiim and pteryfjoideiim luesent, 
(Mniliiiiioiis; oibitosi>heuoid eloiifjate, not forming part of palate; eera- 
tohyals connate. 

This order aji'rees j^fenerally with the Urodela, but i)roscuts one most 
important feature of dilVereiKU', in the presence of theOs intercalare. It 
is this point that yives the Troreida its position between the Stejjo- 
cephali and the Urodela, and which indicates the line of conneetion 
betw( ". the extiiKtl forms of the Carbon iferou.< period and the mod- 
ern t^> pes. 

The hyoid apiiaratus dillers from that of adult Urodela, and resembles 
their larva; in liaviii;;' three e[iibranehials, instead of one only. The 
second basibraiicliial is also eonneeted with the first, which is not the 
(rase with the Uroilela. Thi' centrale is present iii both carpus and 

No extinct <;euei'a are certainly known to belong to this order, but 
there is one that n'sembles it nearly, and may belong here. This is tiie 
('ocytinust (Cope), which has been found in the coal measures of eastern 
Ohio. If it be not a larval Stegocephal, it belongs to this order. It 
would not enter the same family as the recent forms, as it has a small 
maxillary bone. Another extinct type from the Wealdoii of IJelgium 
has been suspected to belong to the Troteida, but the cranium is not 

•Oil tlic Arcirt'ioiis Aiiiir.i, Joiirniil Acadoiiiy I'liilaili'lpliia, l-iliti, p. 102. 
t (ieo!o;;iciU Survey of Oliio, ii, r.iii'dntolojiy. 


sullid.i.tlv NvHl P.VM..V.. I to:.ll..w,.IM positive .I.trnninalion. This is 
,1... ll,,I.Mn,rl,»s n-oiiii of Dullo.* It .Hilars IVo... any ..t the known 

Tiic'iv is bill on., rxistin- family of I'lotei.l;., whirl, is dohnnl as lol- 
lows : 


No iiMMliMM stcniiil ('l.'MUMits. Vcit chrii' aini.hico'loiis. Carpus aii.l 
tarsus (•artilaj:iiioMs. Iiiii.t wall <»f vcstil.iih- osseous. Nasalia waut- 
iiij;. 'IVrlh oil all tlu" usual lioiics cNcept the uiaxillarit's, which aro 
wanting'. Tlic s.roii.l c.'ratobrancliial is present, as in IJrodehi gen- 
erally, ''stapes (lireclly eoi eted with the siispensoriuin. ^ 

Of this family hut two ;^euera are known. They are the followin;; : 

IMi'iiiMl l.niiichiM'; (limits 4-1; i-yrs exposed \r<liin,^. 

Kxt.TiKil l.iaiicliiM' ; (limits, ;!--^ ; cvi's hid.l.n. I'rohns. 

Of tliesi' Xecturus is Xi)rth Amerie.ia ami Proteus is ICuropMii. The 
hitter is represented by three or foar spuiies, which live in subterr.inean 
waters in the southern parts of Austria. 

These genera dilVer soaiewhat in the hyoid apparatus. The hypo- 
hyal is present in NVeturns, but is, aecordin.i;- to Wiedersheiui, wantin;-' 
in Proteus, in the fornuT the second cer.itobrani^hial is much smaller 
than in the latter, and is not onnected with the b.isibranchials. 

The connections between the inferior arjlie-s and the skull iU'o inter- 
esting. In Necturus the columella is osseous and is bent abruptly for- 
wards, and articulates with a short p )sterior process of tiie sifiiauiosal 
bone. The ceratohyal is free fr.)m the skull, luit is cDuni'ded with it 
by tlie two ligaments, the hyosusi)enso/ial to the middle of the (]uudral»», 
and the niandibuhdiyoid, to the angle of the I'.andible. (IMale IS, fig. 
1.) la Proteus (Pig. 2) the arr,iii.,'einiMit is similar, cixcepr that the 
processes of the stapes and s(iiiamasil do not meet, bat are connected 
by a strong ligament. 

The intermedium of the carpus and of the tarsus is eonlluent with 
the adjacent external element, tlu^ uluare and the libulare. Tliere are 
three carpalia and three tirsalia, the internal on the inner side !" the 
carpus and tarsus. Tlie carpus and tarsus are thus very nuieh alike. 
(Plate45, fig. 2.) 

The procoracoid cartilages are distinguished fro'u the coracoids, but 
are continuous at the point of junction with them. Tiiey ar.', uuwM 
jiroduced forwards in Necturus. The coracoids nu'et on the middle line. 
No sternum. Tiie ilium is the only ossified i»art of the pelvis. It is(!on- 
uectod with the single sacral vertebra l)y a true rib, which is rather laiger 
than the others. The inferior eleaients of the pelvis are continuous car- 
tilage. Til Necturus the ischiadic portion is siibiiuadr.ite, wliile tlu! 
public portion forms a triangle, well produced forwards to an acute- 
angled apex. Femur with a trochanter in Necturus, 

* HulU'tin dii Miisce Jk'oyiil du lU'if^iiine, l.-'<), p. K'>, 




This is 
' known 

I iis lol- 

pus illlll 

ill wiint- 
hicli iiit) 
I'lii },M'n- 

1 wins': 

. S'lilinii^. 
. . I'rolnis. 

II. Tlir 

lie hypo- 
1 sinalltT 

iuo intiT- 

iptly lor- 


witli it 


IH, Wii. 

tliat (lie 


•nl witli 
ii'ie arc 
!" llic 
;h alike. 

loids, but 
ildle line. 
It is (bon- 
ier lar;;er 
nous c;ir- 
r'.iilo the 
an acute- 


NKCTUKUS l{alines(|ue 


Do Uliiiuville'M.Ioiiriiiil I'liyMUjiii', i.xxxvm, Hl'.t, )i. 117 ; \Vii;;l. Nat. Syni. Aiii- 
pliili., IHliK, p. 'ill); (!iay, Ciital. Mi it. Miis., cd, I, |). (1;1 ; Honlonjjcr, Catal. 
Hal, (irail. Hiil. MMH.,tMl. ii, lHHt>, p. rt;i. 
rhaiirrohiaiiiliiiM, imrt., I.riickait, Isis, 18il, p. 'J(»0. I'it/iii^f., Xciic. (Massif. Kept., 

p. (is, IS.'C. 
MiiiohniiiiliiiH, Ilailan, Ami Lyi'. \. V., i, H]r>, p. 'J.'l ; Tsi^hiuli, Katr., p. '.(7 ; Dimi. 
iV IJilir., IX, p. ls;t. 

External {(Ills persistent. I''in^ers and toes, I'oiir; voineropalatine 
teeth in a single series. I'^yes exposed. 

This yenus is distriliuteil throii;;li()ut the eastern district of North 
Ainerieii only, whore it is represented Uy two speeies. These are distin- 
;,niished ainonj; other characters by the ibllowiii}* : 

.Miiz/lf loiijfiT, more tlcprrssiMl ; liiimilii;i' Mlunlrr; Irclli, prcinaxillarii'M ll-ir>; vnm- 
criiii's IvJ-lll; Itiowii, tiaikcr spotted ; lar;;i'i' X mariiliitiis, 

Mii//.le slioi'tcr, loss (li'iirossed ; liran(dii;r li)ii;;i'r; Icclli, prciiiax illarics ll-H ; viun 
criiics ■•'-It: pale, iinspotti'd ; smaller .V. piiiictalii^. 


Plates i-iii. 

S'lrliiniH mnciildliin, h'lijin., I. cr.; llolitr., N. A. Herp., V, p. 1Il,pl. ;!7; iSoiileiif^or, CatT 

|!;itr. <irad. lillt. Mils., ed. II. 1SH.», p. nl. 
Tritdii lidirdlis, .Say, in Ldiij^'s Kspi-d. ItoeUy Mis., i, \t, ,"i. 
I'liiiiiirohrnnrhim It Iraildrli/his, Leiud^ai't, I.e. 
Miiiohritiicliiis lalintlis, Ilailaii, 1. c; Tseliiidi, natr.,p. 'J7 : llollir.,!. <'.,ii. ll'i, pi. ;!.-^; 

Dekay, N. V. rami., K'ept., \>. S7, pi. is, f. I,", ; Dum. A: |5il,r., p. ls:t ; Wied, Nova 

Aeta I.eop. -Carol xxxii. )). IIW, pi, 7, 1'. 1. 
Mciiiihiiiiichns liliadachiliiK, Harlan, .lomii, Ac, Plila., i\', ji. li'JI; (iray.Ami, I'liilos., 

X, 1 >-,':., p. 'JIC. 
Miitohniinhiis siiyi, (ii'ay, 1, e. 

yivtitrus mavitlimiiK, Gray, Cat. Hatr, Orad, Hiit. Miis.,ed, i, p. C>i\. 
/')()/c((i iiittciihtliiK. Hariies, Aincr. .loiirn., xi, ji. y.")S. 
,]h'iioliraiii Jilts laripcilii, Ciray, in (Jrill'. ,\, i<.,ix, ji, l(l~. 
I'littnn'ohrniirhiiH hirijuilii, l''it/.., 1. c. 
.\trliinin latiriilin. \Vai;l,, 1, c. 
iSinthiii liiiimalin Kiicelaiid I'rocecds, Hoslon Soc. Nat, Hist., vol, vi, p, L'rJ, l;*.")(i; p, 

'JlH (ls^»7). 
Muiiolniincluis hiiiiiKilis KiKM'iaiid, I, c., p, 'J,~lt, ls,")7. 

In this si»ecies the body is only moderately elongate, measuring, with 
the head, four and a li;iU' to live times the f-reatest width of the latter. 
The body is deiiressed, though not so much .so as that of thi> known 
sju'cies of Cryptobranchus. The section of the tail at the is a ver- 
lical oval ; beyond this point it is more compressed, so that the distal 
half is Hat and oai'-like, with a wide dermal border above Jiud below. 
The length of the tail varies somewhat. It usually enters twi(!e into the 
lenjith from its base to a point posterior to the eye, but .sometimes this 
point is anterior to the eye, and even rarely as far as the end of the 

The head is a Hat oval, and the nuiz/.le is Hat, rather short, and some- 
what truncate in outline. The eye is situated anterior to the middle of 
the head and is quite small, itslont!,er diameter enteringr the interorbital 




si>;ur live times 

TlH. Mostiils :uv sm:ill, ; are situato.l "wir U.c 

mills from thrco- lift lis 

bonl.r ol ll.c lip. 1 in <• -■ ' j ^j^^,. ,.„„ .„„j 

t'o ..a, it at the e.nthns. sineo ,t .s attacliod w.l n, 

. „ ; .vl.ieh iMMUuls it below. The lower lip .s decnrved, ami the 

l^r . ,rt is .leeper, or ...ore eoi.vex, thai, the Dostenor 

i;';;;';;;;,;:: s.;.r,..e.l IV..,.. n.e ......respo,..lin, part of the opposite SHle 

by a' e, interspaee, which is without groove. 


I'm. ;.. 1-7, Xfctiirujtmneiilatiix lliif., Xo FS1.1, Sfi)nnt Caniicl, III.; 8, Slriihm iiurifnninii Wiii;!., l;irv:t. 
lii'ivil ; ft, ClinmU-nliix liiiihrdxiDiW. S: (I., liirvii, licild. All ii;itiii';il Wv/.i\ 

The hranehial;u()(!esst'.s lire undivided, and form vertical plates, whicih 
thin out dowiiward.s. Tiie exteriiiil iiiid ii.tei-nal faces, Ihi^ inferior 
iiiiii',i;ii., iiiid the free exticniit.v are frinjied with lather short linibria'. 
The Miiterior jiroeesses ai'e shorter Hum Ihi' two olliei's, whi<'li are sub- 
e»ju;il. The longest about ecpiids the length oi" the iimzzle from the eye; 




ficjlr the they are frequently shorter. In two specimens from Kinj^ston, lTp[»er 

ireoliftlis Caniula, tlu'y exceed the length of the mnzzle, but this is very seldom 

V fall and the ease. 

posteiior The tunj;ue does not reach the symphysis of the lower jaw, and is 

3d wilinn obtusely rounded in front. It is considerably free anteriorly. The in- 

1, and the ternal nostrils are an oblique slit on each side, which lies oblicjuely and 

posterior ojjposite to the interval between thevomeiine and pteryj^'oid teeth, 

oslte side Tiie i)remaxili.iiy teeth are in two straight divergent series, which unite 

at a rounded angle in front, which would be, if completed, a little less 

than a right angle. Each side usually contains eleven teeth, but there 

h are sometimes thiiteen and in one huge specimen (No. S'AH)) lllteen 

M teeth. The vomerine series is parallel within the premaxillaiy, forming, 

f like them, an obtuse angle anteriorly. There are twelve or thirteen 

teeth on each side, but sixteen in the large specimen (No. H.ICJO). Imme- 
diately posterior to the>e and at a short interval, the pterygoid series 
!7) commences. It is slightly convex outwards, and embraces usually six 

if tei'h, rarely live, and in llie large^Xo. .Si.(I())ten teeth. Thedentary boiK>, 

' supi)orts twelve or thirteen tec tli, which are dire(!ted obliquely inwards 

at a slight angle. The si)lonian)oae siipi)orts tour and sometiaies live 

" teeth, which form a short series posterior to those of the dentary l»<>ne, 

' whose base ascends gently backwards. In two specimens from (Jr.tss 

Iiiver, N. Y.(Xo. 7()o8) the teeth are rather fewer in number, viz: I'rc- 

maxillaries, eleven; vomeropalatines, eleven; jjterygoids, four. 

The limbs are well developed, but short and weak, as in salamanders 
generally. The two external lingers are subicpial in length, and siiorter 
than the two middle ones, which are also subeipu'' There are no dis- 
tinct palmar or su bdigital warts. The phalanges are, beginning on 
the inner side, l-.'S-IJ-L'. The toes are all unequal. The innei' is the 
shortest; then follow in order the fourth, the second, and the third. 
There are no solar or subdigital tubercles. The phalanges number 
l-L'-'J-L*. The limbs are of about enual length, and are ecpial to the 
width of the head just in front of the brancliia'. Tressed to the side, 
they are separated bv a distaiu!e equal to one length and a half of 
either of tlKin. 

The skill is entirely s.nooth, and has no longitudinal later.d fold. 
There are fourteen transverse folds — very rarely lifteen— which are not 
visible on the belly nor on the median dorsal region. A fold crosses 
the throat, connecting the branchial fissures; it is not very profound, 
and be(;omes obscure in specimens which have not been well preserved. 
I Wii-i.,iiirv:t. There are two branchial lissures only, there being none behind the pos 

terior branchial arch. The vent presents two short obtuse i)rocesses 

, „.,■ , inwards and backwards at the i)osterior i)art of its lateral borders. An- 

tes, \\ liicli ' ' 

■ ,. „; „ terior tc these there are three short processes, one on each side and oiu^ 

le inU'rioi ' ' 

,j (i,,,!,,.;,,. 'd the anterior angle, which are principally composed of fine papi»ilhe. 

h are sub- Uesidcs these, the entire walls are i)api)illose. These are especially 

., prominent at the breeding season, 

111 I'lli'tAvj 

'^i ■ 


MiKaunminlfi of Xo. 'J897. 

Total l..n«tl. "-if 

Li'iiyth li> c'liil <)1' vent -"'^ 

Loii^jtli to opiKisilc j^roiii. '-'~^ 

L('ii;;tli to ojipo^ilc axilla ""•' 

Length to oiipositc aiitciioi' lirancliia "•'•> 

Length to opposite eye '"•' 

Wiillhofheadat eyes "^i"' 

Width ofliead lietweeii eyes "-'•! 

Greatest widlli ofliead •"<> 

Length ot'anteii.)!- I i nil is "Ill 

Length of )iosteiior linilis ''I-' 

iK'ptli of tail at middle ":>•'' 

The ground coloi' is ii lio]it cliocoliito brown, wliidi is .soinctiint's 
(iiio'od witii piiiic, and which i.s nsiially rcndorcd liyiitcr in tint It.v ;iii 
iiilinitiido ol' wliitis'i s[K'('ks and small spots, which ivduce llu' j^iitiii.d 
to a iiiinute reticulate jiattern. On this j>round are distributed several 
rows of spots ofMark l)rowii, which are (piineuncially arranged, not very 
close together, in from four to eight or nine iricgiilar longitudinal rows. 
These are w:tiiting on the belly, but are continued on the tail. The in- 
ferior surfaces are dirty white, clouded with the color of the hack, but 
they are sometimes colored like the l)ack, iiielnding the dark spots. 
The soles and judms are yellowish. A dark brown band passes along 
the canthus roslrtdis through ih(> eye, ;ind extends some distance pos- 
terior to it, Jii young s|)('cimeiis this band extends to the end of llie 
tail, involving the greater part of the sides. It is bordered above by an 
ochreous yellow band, which also extends from tlie end of (ho muzzle to 
the end of the tail. The median line of (lie head and back is dark 
brown, this color ceasing above (he vent. 

An entirely :Jack variety litis been sent me by J)r. ,T. (1. Carnier of 
Luckiiow, Ontario, which he hits obtained from the Maitlandiind laick- 
now Jlivers. The only variation in the color consists of two obscure 
baud-like aggregates of yellowish brown specks tilong the inferior and 
suiierior borders of the muscular part of the tail. 

Hahih.—Uv. Samuel Kneeland, of IJoston, gives an aceoniit of the 
habits of (wo iiidividtiiils of this species which he kept several moiidis 
in coiiliiiemeut. They were very hardy, having been frozen tind thawed 
several tim,.s during the winter. They were (piite rapacious, eating 
worms and (Islies. They Mere niost active at night, t.ud <l,Ming (he .lav 
'•votd.'d tl.c light. They cleaned their branchiu. by stroking (h,.m witii 
JiH'.r aiKetior feet. The librilhe Mere ttlternately expanded tmd con- 
tractcd by pmssuie of blood and its absence. 

As may l»e seen from the following list, this species ranges through- 

o.. H. tr iHitanes of (he (Ireat l.kes and the Aiississippi, as M-elfas 

' ." s that How tnto tiie (Jiilf of Mexico and (he Atlantic Ocean, a.s 

., Xorti.^ '"— ' ^<'< ' "'--l 

in either the Ihiridaa or! he Texan .list rids, 
















CatiiloKiio No.of 

Ulliubul'. H])L'C. 











] 08110 












7(1 ir> 







K'ii.ston. N. C 

(iiaiiil KcdisK, Midi 


Oct'— ; 1875 

JUIH!— , 187.''> 

From wlioiii recoivtd. 

^lasoii & Welsher 

J. W. MiliuT 

<;iarkHt()!;, Jlicli 


M. Hanks 

Moiiiit Caiincl, HI 

(irt'jiT: Lakes 

Saimiel Turner 

(Jrand Ecoisc, Mich 


(ieiu'va Lake, Wis 



CM. Clark 

(J. Clark 

If. W. Wcl-.' er 


ltiii'lin<'toii, \'t 

I'rof. 8. Kliaird 

Dr. K. Owen 

1). (iiinn 

Tyicc S|irini;s,Tiiiti 

I.akc Sii|u'rior 

(.'ook Coiiiily. Ill 

Ill' ■ '—] VwiV 

1{. Iveiinieott 

Dr. Ticnildev 

I'oita;;!' Lake 

AViii. Dirkiiisoii 

(Iiaws Kiv( r, ^1 ad rid, N. Y 

('levcland. Oliici 

Dr ,J V Kiillaiiil 

T)(tii)it, Mich 

'riis<'iiinl>ia, Ala 

(Japlain (iiiiiiii.sori, r. S. A.. 

'L'ailidid, N. (; 

— , I^.-^l 


.1. t. liriduer 

MdiiMt ('ainicl. 111 

Arkansas Ivivcr, mai' Foi I 

Miilchoiisc Palish, La . .. 
M(iiitf;iiiiiciv, Ala 

I,. .M 'I'liriier 

C. Sliiiiiiard 

I!. II. liroadnnx 

T. S. Doian 

Nature ol' 




70(l(i . 

7(I5'I ': 

7(1 III 



Mount Caniiel. Ill 

Saint l.oins, Mo 

Conk CoiMily, 111 

Hoot KiM'i.'ltacino, \Vi 
'I'vri'e S|irui:;s. Tenn... 
Detroit. Mich 
I.ako Michigan, ', 

Isle Koyiil 

('oliiiiilills, ()liii> 
Arkansas liivei-, 

Meadville, I'a 


Cleveland, Ohio .. 
(^iliiriiliiis. Ohio. ... 


Detroit, Mich 




L. M. 'i'linu'r 

Dr. ( ieor;;e Kn;;leinann 

It. Ki'iinicotl 

I'rof. .S. K Haiid 

I'rot. J{. Ow.n 

Caplain (iiinnison, 1'. S. .\ . 

I!ev. .•\. C. liarrv 

Ma,ior Whittle.sJ'V 

Dr. Worniley. .- 

Dr. li. !■'. Shinnnrd 

Dr..). I'. Kutland... 
I'rof. L. I.esi|iiereiix. 



Alcehel , 


Jotinijil of tlic licmton Sdiioty of Naliiiiil Histoiy, IH'.:!, vi, ]k '.WJ 

Fin. 4. Xirftinin ptDictnti's. Xo II,':];!, Cliinlc'-ti 11, S. C, tiatnial .'~ize. 

The j,n'iu'r;il iippciiiiiiicc ol ilii,'^ species is (|iiit(' (linerciil (roiii tliaf of 
the K. macuhilus, aiidtlius is snpiiorted h.v Hcveriil strueturiil characters. 




The animal is not coinnK 
National ."Museum. 

)ii ill <"olloctions, and tlit'io are but four in tlio 


Tiic j-cncial form is mncli like that of the X muculatus, but the muz- 
is (IHlerent. I nsteail (tf bein^' depressed or even coucavc above, iunl 
ratiier wide, it is itinclicd at the si(b's,soas to be ratherelevated at the 
-nd,an(l tohave atnincate jirolile. 'J he head is wide in proportion to its 
enytii, tlic two measurements hein;;- about e(iual. The length of the 
taiNs the same as in S. nKicnlaliis, twice its length marking a point pos- 
terior to tluM'.ve. The limbs an' not quite so hing as in the N. maciilatiis, 
the spaee between them, when they are ai)pressed to the sides, oquabug 
twice the extent of the antciior leg, wliich is little longer than the pos- 
terior, in the specimens in the IMnseum the body is decidedly com- 
pressed, and (here is a distinct median doisal groove. These char- 
a(!ters aie less marked in the .V. muniUiliis. 

The upper li^) is more iieiidulous than in X maciiJatuN, or perhaps 
sueh an appearancto may bo ascribed to an elevation of thepremaxillary 
liorder, in accord with the more elevated muz/.le T!:e nostrils are 
a little closer together than in the larger species, the distah ,'e between 
them e(pialing half the interorbital spa(;e, nistead of two thirds. How- 
ever, in one of the four specimens this space measures two-thirds that 
l)etweeu the orbits. The brancthial processses are relatively considei ■ 
ably longer than in X inncuhitKs in all the specinuMis, and they aic 
more a(!umiuate in form. Tiieir length (tonsitlerably exceeds that of 
the muzzle in fr(»nt of the eye. In .V. maoulntuH they are usually 
shorter than this length ; in two or three specimens, however, they arc 
as long as in the X7>HHr/r(/H.s'. There are but two branirhial lissur.'s. 
The width of the head enters .").() times the length of the head and body 

The numbers of the teeth furnish distinctive characters foi' this 
sjiecies. They are: Premaxillaiies, 0-S; vomeropalatiues, 8-!> ; i)tery- 
goids, (J. Thus while the pterygoids are as numerous as in X maciddhis, 
the numbers of the other teeth are reduced. There are eleven <Ienta 
ries and three spleuials in the lower Jaw. The j)o>!terior uares aie a 
longitudinal slit opposite the space between the vomeropalatine teeth 
and the pterygoids. The tongue is short ami roumled,and extensively 
fr.ein front. The phalanges of the anterior foot are, L'-L'-I-'J. The 
metacarpals are connected by a slight web to their distal ends. The 
middle toes are equal, and the external and internal ones are e(pial. 
The posterior phalanges number 2-2-3 -L', and the digits are all unequal, 
and are very slightly webbed at the base. 

The skin is entirely smooth. The lateral tblds number fourteen, as i n .V. 
inneulalus. The muscidar part of the tail has a wide, free, dermal border 
above and lielow, The fonner is more slender than in most specimens 
of the .V. Dutciihitiis; but this charac^ter does not always hidd good. 
There are five cloacal papilla-, with the three anteri.u' iinelv fringed, 
as in N. Maciilatus. 

THE HATIiA(;ill.V OK NOllTII AMlMilCA. 29 

Mi'ttiiirviiuiiln oJWu. l\fi\'.t (tvpe). 


Total leiiytli -• 171 

!., -Viitli to end of vent I'JO 

l,ciiK.'-'i to <iiiiioHil<!gi'<)iii Olt'J 

I.t'iifitli to oiipoMitc, axilla .0:55 

Lciifftli to ojiposito anterior brancliia 021$ 

l.('n;;tli to opposito cyo 00(J 

Width of head atojes 015 

W id til of head between eyes 010 

(Ireatest width of li<!ad 017 

I.enfith of anterior limb 019 

l,enj;tli of poHterior linil) OIH 

|)eptli of tail at middle 014 

III life the colors are very indistinct aiid admirably adapted for coii- 
cialiiieut ill water. In alcohol tliey fade tolij^lit brown or slate color; 
till' lower snrfaces i)al('r. Tlieie are no spots or darker iiiiirkinfjs of any 
kind, but in life there are iimnerons ininiite white pnneta' scattered on 
tlie siiles and upper surfaces. 

As may be seen from the atjcompanyinji list of specimens, the range 
of this species is (jnite limited. It has not been found ontof the rivers 
{){' North and South ('aroliiia. 






I S. Siiiiti'c Ilivcr, S. C 
'J Wiliiiinntoii, N. (;.. 
1 (;iiail(, s. i; 


Kriiin w liiiin rcciivcil. 

— — , iHr>i) i)f. r,. K. (liiitii's .. 

Mar. — , IcK.' Ddiialil 

-- i C) 


Nature of 

A]f. typo. 




Dnm^^ril jit. 1>0I ; Cope, 1.<'7 : J'.niulosaiirhi pt. De IJlainville, l^lfi. 

No intercalary, snpraoccipital, nor basiocciiiital bones. (). maxillaro 
present ; prefrontale present (with one exception); vomero palatina pres- 
ent, not ai)proximated to usually present pteryyoidea ; orbitosphenoid 
lar;i;e, not reacliinj; palatal surface; mandible with teeth on the deiitale. 

IJody of proatlascoiissilied, with the atlas forminj;' theodontoid proi;- 
ess of the latter. Cervi(;al vertebra' without verteb'-arterial canal. 
No rutlimental (centra or intercentra. Kibs with two, fre(iuently closely 
approximated, heads. 

No median sternal elemer.ts. Ooracoid bone rudimeiital. Sacral 
ril» well developed. Tubes represented by a sinjjic cartilaginous plate, 
which sometimes contains a median osseous (;enter. Iscliia in mutual 
«'ontact throughout their length. No obturator foramen. Femur with 
distinct great trochanter. 

The stapes has no coiinectiiui with the susjiensorinm in the adult ex- 
cept in the Cryptobranchida' and Ampliiiimida'. It is connected with 
the suspensory (iartilagi', w!ii"'!i is (•;)'itiniiiHis with the (piadrate carti- 
lage, in the latter families, and in the young of other Urodela. The 


(xTiitoli.val iscitlier lice ;il its posterior I'-xticiiiilv, iis in IIh^ Proteidii, 
or in tlic more tvpiciil lonns it Joins tlic (iniulralc ('artiIaf,'o Ity «lirect 
ai-tii'iilation or by li-ainiiit. 

TIicIi.vomI a]>|i,tiaiiis lias a very uniform cliaractiT in tlic various 
fiiNiilics. ('.\ci'ptiM,u- in tlic CrvptolnMiu'liiida', Aniphiurnida', and Co'cil- 
iidif, wlifrt' it is (piite ditlVrtMit. In tiie typical forms it is constructed 
as follows: lis si:si)(iisor is, as usual, tiie eeratoliyal, wliicli is undi- 
vided. This is eoiiiiected witii a median hasal piecte, the i'lvat Uasi- 
branchial, i»y a sej-ineiit, i^enerally slendei', the hypobyal. Soinelinies 
tins piece docs not touch the cciatoliyal. Imoui the posterior lateral 
border of the basibraiu-hial there orii^'inatcs on each side a rod, the lirst, 
cerafobranclnal, which is continued after a Joint, as the first eidhran- 
chial. From a i)roccss which orij^inates between the bases of these, on 
flic siijicrior side of the Iiasibranchial, there oii,!4inates on each si<le of 
its postciior extremity another rod, shorter than (he first, the second 
ceiatoiiranchial. In some {(cncra (Ilyuobiida-) tlieie is attaciu'd to the 
(b'stal cxticmity of this lod a second one, continuous witli it, the secoiu! 
eiiibraiicliial. The second basibranchial is separated from tl: > iirst, 
and is situated far posterior to it, not far in advance of the corac(tid 
bones. It is better ossilied than iiutst of the rest of the liyoidx, and was 
called the thyroid bone by Ciivicr. Thatitis the distal extremity (d' 
the second basibranchial is shown by the fact that it is continuous with 
the first by a median rod in the larva-. (Plates l.l, l',">, I'O, ;}(», ,'{7.) 

The important differences disi)layed by the different forms of the 
liyoid ill the Urodcla may be tabulated as follows. 

I. Mi'<liiiii 1111(1 l;itfi;il clciiicnls ilistiiic't. 

((. Two ('('liltdlllMllcllinl puii's. 

CVi'iitDliyals mi(li\ idcil ; ciiilirjiiicliiiils, mid laroly sfcond iircsciit. I'siudu 

Kuitriu lilv. 
CVr;it<>liy:ils(livi(l(<l; t'liiliriimliials, •,>,:!, and l [ncHi'iit. TrcmiitotUni Umii. 

aa. Oiii' i)iiir oftcratoluaiicliials. 
Coratoliyalsiiiidividrd; ciiibiaiRdiials, ',>, ;), and 4 prctsi'iit. tmiihiiinwidm 
II. Lateral f' 'MciiIs conliniKnis across middle line. 

Xom-UiaiMlnmnls (/w?a OppH.' 

The Trematodcr.i, Ampliiiimonlra, ami Ai)odii contain one family 
each, viz: the Cryiilobriiiichida', .VinpliijiMiibe, and ('(elciiidic. The 
value of the differences scpnratiii- them is diininislied by the fact that 
in the larva' of the I'.scndosauria the 1, 1', .!, and J epi'biMiichials arc 
present, and the eeratoliyal is lrc(pieiitly divided (c. 7, VJunubotits tauhro- 
sits, Plate LT), fi- 1). 

The subordinate diiniviices presented by {\w families and genera 
are indicated under their rcs]icctive heads. 

The Trodela. excepting the have limbs. The toos number 
from two in both IW1 to five in flic posterior foot, and four in the 
foot.^ No r,ro.h-lc a-rces with theextiiKtt .oe„„s Tlryops (Cope), from the 
*0(.p''l, 1,^11, n„i ./y,,W,.,of L.mia'as(i„ lidiesj; r.vahpkitiiaD^liL, Irtlti. 




by direct 

(' various 
1(1 Cd'cil- 

JH iiiidi- 
inst l»asi- 
II' latciiil 
I, the lit St 


tlK'SC, »)I1 

;li sido ol" 
i(* second 
led to tlie 
he second 
11: ' ilrst, 
, and was 
loiis with 
, .'57.) 
IIS of the 

lit. I'kcikIo- 
mU va Diiiii, 

0(hi Ointfl." 

le family 
da'. Tlie 
fact that 
I'liials arc 
(n tcii'hro- 

id genera 

s iiuiiiber 
e anterior 
, from the 

Perinian beds of North America, where there are (iv(i toes in the anterior 
foot. In the cari)ns there is at least one iiiterniediiim, e.\cei)t in soau' 
Salamandrida' and JMeurodelidie,* where it is united with the uli ar. . 
(Jenlr.ile always present. The carpaliii are live in Cryi)tobranchns and 
Aiiddystoma. and tlirei^ in Pletliodon and Dieniyctylus. In the tarsus 
then; are three bones in the lirst row, a lar^e tibnlare and intermedium, 
and ii sniiill tibiale. There is one centrale, as in the (!aii)us. The tarsa- 
liii nund)er live, except that there are four in tlie Salamandrida' and 
rieiirodelic'a', where the carjialia are on]/ three. Tiie internal or lirst 
tibiale is not distal, but lateral in Amblystonia and IMethodoii. It is 
<listal in Ciyptobranchus. (I'lati s -l."), 40). 

Jkrchpmciit. — The ejj-^s of rrodehi are laid in tli(! water nr on land. 
In the former (rase tlieyaie attached singly or in small numbers to the 
leaves of aijuatic plants. In the latter they are laid in little con- 
cavities beneath stones or hark. In Desmojiiiathus the albumen con- 
necting them dries into threads, which hold the eggs together. One of 
the parents lies by and watches them. In the Atnphiumoideat and tlie 
Apodal the female coils herself in a cinde over the eggs. 

In the growth of the larva- the branchia' and balancers are lirst devel- 
oiied, and afterwards the anterior limbs. The posterior limbs follow. 
Those s[)iracles or iManchial lissuies between the epibranchial bones 
which support the gills give passage for water from the ]»haryn.\. Then> 
are no internal gills such as are found in Anura. The branchial pro- 
♦• vary in lonii, but all terminate in IViiiges, in each of which is a 
va.scular loop. The varieties displayed by larva; of IJrodela as coni- 
pared with of genera with permanent branchiie are as follows: 

1. .'^t'|it;i witii l)i|iiiiiiiitc liiiiii. 

liaiiii willi iiiuiiy tlirciid like liiiiliri;!- Siren. 

II. .Si'iita witli iiiiiiiimiatc rami. 

A riKliiiiciital inner row of rami ; liiiiliria' tliicad-liko I'lottua. 

III. Scpla with .siinpli' rami. 

.(. Ifami Ion;;, comim'.'^scd ; liiiiliriai (Iciii'iKlcnt from lower cil^ro. 

Fimliria- tliicad-Iike, cxtt'iHliii;; on liotb ()iit( r and inner I'aee of proeecN. 

riuiliria' Hal, loii^, dnelly conliiied lo tlie lower niaiMriu of iiroee.s«. Lar- 
va- of Sprlrrinn nilur; S. hilinivliis, and (lyriiiojihihis porpliijrilinis. 

Fimbria- few, isiilielavate ruilmlou viiinriis. 

AA. liaiiii loii^:, narrow ; lu-arin;,' liiiiliria' only on the side next tlie liody. 

Fimbria- .simple, Hat, snl)e(|iial AmhIjMoma. 

AAA. h'iinii very .short; liiiibria- extendin^r ,iii ihe vertical nepta. 

Fimbria- in uniiierous rowson tlieed^c ollhe .septa ; .slender, iinlmuK-hed. 

,.,.,, .,, , . /.<irv<i of CIiotidioiKH IcinhroHiiti. 

IV . bepta wit lion t rami. 

'St-pta bearing; flat, thread-like fimbria-, wliieli ariso posteriorly, and arc 
often divided. T,arv;i frem Simiahmoo, Wa.s)iin;;toii Territory, prob- 
ably of a Choiidriilifi. 

* /'.'. (/. Mohjv. nili/nris (Dii^es), IHvuuirliihix viridcscius. 
to. 1'. !|;iy, Ainericjiii, 1^^-K 
t Sju-a.sin, EnibryidoKy of tin- Co-eiliidie. 

;> m 



r.ri.M.iiN :;i, 



,.l..vdo,.:n...l oltl.r vnlrl.n.allaiv li.^t bic.....^lv<^^.■lisl,.|iU^ 
„.,.,.,„,„,,„,,, ,,,,,ih„. ossilifs later, m.hI attacLrs Uscll to tl.o 


ill tii«- 

'!;;,,,,,, ,,,s,..nor -oil, funning' an o,.isll>onrlous art.cilat.mi. J lu-ro 

'",,.. ,,,, „, liist siinpl.. a. tlH- ..Miriiiily (IMatc L'O, h;.. 0), Imt s , 

,,,,„,„, ,„•„,,„.. (l.'i,. .-,), nr .itii two dibits. Tins was iirst ol.smxMl 
bv IMMM.iii ill ISL'l ill 111.' Knn.i.rai. UcmisnUminuhit cnshita. I ro- 
Ic'.ssm' IMiid* lii'st ..hscivnl tills in tlic .l;H/>///,s7«"Hf iH<«c/.///n« iii larvir 

„,• , , i„ i,,iinti, Tlio saiiu- lias since lurn obscrvi'il by myself in 

ISIi'l't ui.l later l.v (iiittef in liis essiiy on tlic .leveloinnent and re- 
..eii'eration of tl.e" Inotskeleton in Hx" tiitoii; also l.y Strasser and 
hv Ilov ill \>iihliJxto)ii(( jHinctittiim tlie nninhers ot dif^its succeed 
.;,,I, oilier as follows: First sta-e, li before, hind limb none; second, 
;. i„.,„,,. i.iiHl Imibnoiie; lliird, ;J before, liind limb 2; Ibiutli, ;5 l.o- 
f,„,' hind limb :>. Sometimes the anterior dif-its are complete in nnni 
l„,,.'l„.|„re the jK-sterior foot appears, and we have cunibinations of 
,„„„l„.rs from 1-0 to l_;i, and t— Ito the fall nnmber, l_r,, which is 
found in alt specimens of I'.o and npwards. 

As already observed, the Uatrachia are supposed to have been de- 
rived from t'lie Dipnoi. Spicimens ;;f L,-pi<l()siren annertais have been 
,1, scribed s which have the extremity of tl;e limbs abnormably bifur- 
cate, but the iibiioriiiaiity is perhaiis in the direction of the evolution of 
diiiits. Dr. (i. I'.nnr believes that the third, fourth, and fifth di;;its have 
<;rown or sprouted successively in time from theexternal <listal allele of 
Mie ulna and fibula, while' the first and second are represented by the 
two orii;iiial branches. :| 

in the cranium a j;()od iiiaiiy important clian;;es occur before the bcnes 
iippcar.'l Anion};- the first of these is the division of the live simple 
tr.insverse branchial cartilaj^es ■'•, > t wo se<;iiieiits each, epibranehials 
and ceratobranchials, or, in the c.ise of the anterior arch, into cerato- 
liya' and hypohyal. Ho the maiidibiilar cartilaj^e immediately uiitciior 
to the ceratoliyal, divides into the superior (iiiadiatc, and the inferior 
iiiccUelian or mandibnlar. A snbseipient cliaii;j(! is the fusion of the 
(piiidrate cartiiafic at its superior end with the trnbeculiiin of its side-, 
and with the pterygopalatine arch with the inferior end. (.See IMate l>^, 
fijis. 7-',* ) At this time the cluudadorsalis bus retreated till it is only 
present lietwceii theexoccii»ital cai'tila.uel>elow. Whenossiticatioii com- 
mences, the vomers, palatines, and ptervudidsare nil distinct. Towards 
the end of the metaiiioridiosis the former two. unite, and tlu^ piery.uoid 
separates from the palatine. Iloth these elemeiits contract away from 
each othenintil they are widely seiiarated, and the pteryj;-oids are niiieh 

" Icoiidnrniiliit; lOiicyclopii'di'i, \H,)\. 
t I'nicccdiiiiis I'liilii. Acail., ]>. !••'). 

I l^T'.l. 

v\ liy StciiuliicliMcl'. 

II [4eilriii;c /iir M()i|ih();;cnic d. Cnrims ii. 'I'ai.siis ilcr Vci tflMalcii, l-^T, p. I'lT. 
liTlic fads as to I lie llrst sta';(s of tin- ?,liull of t lie of Aiiiblystoiim arc duiivud 

from JJr. W. K. I'aikcr, l'liilnso|ili. rraii>ar l-^;7, p. .Vi',1. 

'd. I'ro- 
ill liirvic 



''■"^I'l'''"'' rc«Iiici'(l ill si/c. In some fiuiiilii's the ptcryfj^oids iiover ossil'v, iiiitl (lis- 

••" !•• t''^' apitoiir. All illiistiation of the late persistence of the osseous ptei'yjjo 

• There palatine arch is seen in the larva of Cliondrotus IcnfbronUN. (See Plate 

l>ut soon 'j'lie tiyntcmatic urmixjemcnt of the Urodela may be represented us 

Dl.served follows: 

1. Iviili'ial jiiid iiicdiaii li.yoid ck-iiiciis (li.stiiiet. 

A. 'I'wo imirsdl' ciMJitoljriincl'.al Ixmcs; Htiipiis coimcctod with <|iiudi'titc arcli ; 

tiysell in no (lnnldc liyp()iio|di.vs('n. 'rrcmaloiUra. 

; and re- No lirst cpiliraiicliial ; no dimldt! lij i)oii()i)li\is('.s of vfrtidiiM' ; vrrtclna' aiii- 

SSer and jiliicirloiis; (■(.■riitdliyal comieutcd witli (|iiadrutt! by li^ainciil oiily; 

^ ^ ^ 1 voiiici()]>alat iiu! l)oiH'H witli teeth on tlie anterior margin; vcslilnihs 

witli nicnihranotis inner wall ; no iiaraHplienoid teetli. 

1 «l'<:'>"«') Cruiilohniiichiiln: 

'th, 3 be- ]{. One iiiiirolceratohrancliial bones; .stapeHconnccted \vitli<inadrate iircli; liypo 

ill iiiun liophysc's (h)uble. Aiiijiliinmoidai. 

'itions of No tiral epibranehial, several otiicr.s jircsent ; vertebra' aniidii(.(Ldoii.s ; an elli- 

• . ^1 ■ moid; scapular an<l pelvie arelies present; (•I'i'atoiiyai eoniieeled witli 

^ (inadrato by lifi;anient only ; liver little Hiib divided Iniphiiimidw. 

'^ C. Two pairs of eeratobraneliials; wtapes not conneeted with (luadrato arch in 

been de- ailult; only tlio lirsl and rarely second ei)ibraneliials iirrsent; verlc- 

iive been '"'"' without double hypoi)opliyses. I'ttriidosaiiria. 

»l\' biftir- ^" ^ L'lebra' aniphieielous. 

," ,. ,. VoMieropalatine bones with teeth on the iiosttirior niarjiin; eeratolival 

)lltttOIIOl ri J ,' 

connected with (inadrate by cartila^;e; no ])arasplienoid teetli ; vesii- 
l^lts nave Ij,,!^ with osseous walls; carpus and tarsus ossiliiid; an otoyiossal 

allele of eartila^io ; no second epibranchial ideiiient Imbli/nlomidti: 

(1 i)V the Vouieropala-tine bones with teeth on tlie posterior iiiarj;in ; no itaiasjdie- 

noid tetJtli; no otoj^Iossal cartilage; a second c]iibranehial. 

(1,1,, Uijnohiidiv 

^ Vonieropalatinc bones with teeth on the posterior inarj;ins ; pariisplienoid 

I' siiiiple teeth; vestibule with osseous walls; ceratohyal eonueeted wilh 

raiichiais (piadrate by eartilaj^e ; no ototjlossal cartiiaj^e ; no second epibranch- 

|(, ccrato '"'; carpusand tarsuscartihif^iuous; no pteryjjoid I'hthodontiUv- 

■ ^,,^\^>^\^^■ 2. Vertebr.e opisthoc(elous. 

. Voinero|iaIatinc bones not sendinf^ processes over paraspheiioid bone; 

\ ceratohyal eonnccteri with (piadrate by cartilajre; paraspheiioid 

^'" "' 'he teeth; no ])()stfrontos(|uani()sal arch; carpus and tarsus cartila;;i- 

f lis si(l(-, nous iJcsmoyiiulhidtr. 

l>l;l(,. js, Voineropalatino bones not produced posteriorly ; paraspheiioid teeth; no 

j( j . ,,,,i> liostfroiitosi|uaiuosal arch ; carjiiis and tarsus osseous Thoriidw. 

\ tiueropalatine bones extended over parasplieiioids in two dontii;erous 

processes; no paraspheiioid teeth; no osseous postfrontosqiiatiiosMl 

Towards arch; ccrat(diyal only connected with quadrate by linanieut , carpus 

[)tcr,V.i;(»id and tarsus osseous Salumuiidrida: 

Wav from N'oincropalatinc bones extended over parasi)lieii(»id in two dentij;erous 

are much processes; no itaras|dicii{)id teeth; an osseous postfroiitos(|uainosai 

1 '. arch; ceratohyal only coiiiiccte<t willKiuadrate by lii^'anient ; carpus 

and tarsus osseous riviirodclido'. 

II. Tlyoid cleincnts continuous across middle line. No distinct median (dements, 
.Stapes connected with (|uadral(^ hone. Aptidd. 
» Vertehne with ihmblc hypojiophyses ; an ethmoid bone ^ scapular and pelvic 

II. ti7. •'"' arches wantiii",' ; liver greatly subdivided Caciliida: 

are derived 1U51— iJuU 3i 3 





'|'lK^('iiriliiiln-:nv t:('iifiiillv i.-iiitlcd :is U'|>it'.sciitiii;; ;Mli>t iiicl <»i(l«T, 
wliidi twar.s tlif i>;iiiirs AimmIii or (;.viiiii<.i.lii(.ii;i. Tlit' .U'liiiilii)ii «ivcii 
(.•lliisonlciln Mr. I'.oiilcii-t'r* is: "Noliiiibs; t;iil ni.liiii.'iilitr.v. MaU's 
witiiiiii iiiliomilH'iil cnpiiliilorv «>r;;aii. Adiiplnl lor hm rowing;.'' Of 
tlifS(.<I('liiiitiuiis none is of (.nliiial value. The tail in some 8|M'ci*\s is 
•listiiict. The iiitniiiiitti'til eopiilatory (Uj^aii in Ihriiiopliis me.ncanHs, 
(li/miioiiis i)r(>.riniiisy,\ui\ llcrpdc iwhrturjihuJa is not an espeeial oryaii, 
but isiiicn'I.v the evoti-d eloaca. The hard pai»ilhe observed by (liiii- 
therf ill i\\o Ichthijophin (jUttinniiVs are \vaIltill^' in tln^ above speeies. 
The protnisioii of tiie cloaca is eirceted by two espe(!ial inns(des, wliieli 
are waiitiiii;- in Ainphiiiniida'. Asia limbs, their extremely rndimeut- 
ary character in Aiiiphinma is well known. To rej^ard tlieir condi- 
tion as indi('atiii,n' ordinal separation from tlieCariliida' is not in aecord- 
aiice with our practice in similar cases in tlie l{ei>tilia, as in the oriler 

1 have endeavored tosnstain the order Gymnophiona by the cliui'acter 
of the fusion of the nasal and premaxillary bones found in the majorit;* 
of tlie gonora.J lint Stannius§ shows that these bones are, distinct in 
Ichthyojilns. Huxley states (Anatomy of Vertcdtrato Animals, p. l").")) 
that in Jrlifhiiopliis nliidnosKs a distinct bone neaily eneindes the orbit. 
This he compares to the supra and postorbital i)ones found in the Stej^'o- 
cepliali. Uur in ("hthon;rpeton, Ca-iiilia, Dermophis, and other genera, 
this bone forms part of the maxillary, so that it is not (diaraeteristicof the 
family, and may not be homol(\iions with the bones wliieli occnjty the 
same position in Stcfioceidmli. Wieder.slieim calls it maxillary. 

With these fact in view I liave united || the Ca'ciT'da' with the L'rodela, 
a i»roposition which I fully believe to be sustained by the evidence. The 
Ca'cili'uhv is nfamiUj of I'rnihUt, cniiiiertnl with the typical forms throiiyli 
the Ampkiiimida'. 

ihwjrophical (listiHiution.''nni distribution of the families of the 
Urodela and their contents is as follows : None exist in the Australian 
realm and, exeeptiiij;- some Ca'ciliida', in the Kthioi»ian realm. In tlie 
Neotropical they are restricted to the Central American ami Mexican 
districts, with a few species in the northern Andes, and one reputed to 
be from the West Indian island, Santo Domingo. 

The Ca'ciliida' are more widely distributed, belonging especially to 
tropical regions. 

•(■al:il(>j,'ii(; of tin- Jh'itisli Miiscuiii, \ri-^, \t. dS. 
I Kcplilcsof Biiiish India (Kay Society), p. 4!1. 
! American Natiiralisr, 18>l, ji. 'JC. 
v^ Zooloniie (lev Amijliiliicn, lii:A), p. 41. 

il American Naturalist, l^d5, p, ;il4, note, an.l l',ocee,l«. Auut. l-hllu8. Soc, Feb. 
leoo p. 44'.i, 



liiict »>r«l»'r, 
itiun ;;iv('ii 
11 V. MiiU's 
w'ini;." or 
I', HjU'cios is 

Hiial orj^^aii, 
ul by (liiii- 
ivo species. 
i(!k's, wliieli 
: nulinuMit- 

lii'ir cuiiiii- 
it in iU'.eonl- 
n the onltT 

le cliai.u'tcr 
he majorit;* 
^ (listiiiet ill 
iials, !•. 1").')) 
L's tlie orltit. 
1) theHle^,M»- 
ther genera, 
oeeiipy the 

lie L'nulehi, 

deuce. Thr 

)rms ihroiujU 

ilies t)f the 
ilin. In the 

1(1 Mexican 
li reputed to 

especially to 


liw. tjoc., I'eb. 




l'"'"- In.lian. '•:"'!" 



I 'i \ |itiiliiarii'lilil 

II.M illil' .. 

'I'lioi iiil^r 

S.lllllllMlllll'illn' . 

l'lrin;ilrli.l;r .. 
Ainithitiiiiida' . - 

1 ' 

H . 
I . 

Nfllic Neil ,| 








'J I 


. :i 




I J 





The temperate rej-ions of the New World is, then, the home of the 
jiieatest niimher of species of Urodela, after which the temperate re- 
jiions of the Old World follow. 

The distribution of the families and their spe(!ies in Xorth Ameriiia 
is as follows: 








i'vy pitiliraiu'liidii' 
















The details of distribution are given under the family and generic 

riij/loycuy — This order is probably of considerable antiquity, but no 
siteeies positively referable to it is known from any pretertiary forma- 
tion. In tertiary beds we have re])resentativesof ditferent types. The 
.utniis Chelotriton I'omel from the Miocene of Allier, France, has opis- 
llioiMcclous vertcbrie like most of the e.\istin{>' sjiecies of Euro])e, and 
has in addition an expansion of the neural spine of each vertebra, to 
which tlie epideiniis was closely adherent, yiviiiya row of roujih plates 
down the middle line of the back. Jleliarchon and I'olysemia of Von 
.Meyer are known fronj specimens from the Miocene beds of (Jermany. 
They have apparently the cartilaginous carpus and tarsus of the Amer- 
ican genera. The .Miocene of Switzerland has liirnished the renuiins of 
a species, i»robably of Cryptobranchida', which has been referred to the 
genus Aiidrias by Tschiidi. It is very nnu^h like Cryptobranchus. 

In older foimations we have in the North Aniericau Laramie the 
genus Scauherpeton Cope, which may well belong to the Urodela, but 
the skull is unknown. In the Wealden of Belgium the genus Ilyheoba- 
tnichus Dollo may belong to this order, but the skull is not yet well 



The most priiiiitivf roiiii of tlic cxisliiij,' CnMh'lii is !i|ti»;ir('iitl.v Ciyp- 

\Vit'(l( tsIk ill) ' (/. <:, p. !>.■») Ims iitti'iniiU'd to tnici; tin* aiuH'stry of llio 
("n'ciliidii- to the St(';,n)i!i'itliiili of the (-'.iil»:)iiilV'r()iis pi'iiod, from \vlii(;li 
Iio supposes tln'iii to liiivf arisen by a process of (IcjfciiciMtioii. lie re- 
marks that ill order to (h'liioiistiafe this piopDsitioa if is only necessary 
to discover a type witli rudimeiital iimlH wliichsiiali coiii!ecf the two. the Ca-ci iida' is a type which lias resulted from a (Iciiciieratioii, 
I have also proposed,! Imt I have derived liiem from the t'rodela rather 
than from tiie Stef;oeepl;ali direct. They have, lii<e Amphiiiiiia, essen 
tiallylliesaaiecraiiial structure as tlie L'roilela, wh'w.h is widely dilVereiit 
from tiiat of the Stc;,'()cepliali, in tlie absence of the intercalare, supra 
temporal, basioccipit il and pnstorbital b mics. And these cliiiracter.s 
are fully Miaiiitained in various <;enera ol' Ste;;dcepliali wiiich have I'udi 
mciita' liadis. Amjdnnma then is the annectant type with iiidinicntal 
limbs \liich Dr. Wiedersheim s(»n<;lit for. The cir(!iiiiistaiice that his 
eyes weie turned toward the Hteyocephali iiidisp(»sed liim to recognize 
this fact. 

Tlicalliiiitiesof the re(;cnt families, which may be re.narded as phylo 
genetic, may be reiircsented as follows: 



' I'lcllllMUIillM'. 


I'iftliulmiti.hc. Salam.oidiida'. 


'J'lioriiili ' 





Vertebra' aiiipliico'lous, without anterior double Iivpopophysis Tail 
deveh.ped. Parietal and prefrontal bones embracing froi.tals, ami 
n.eefing above orbits. Vestibule with internal wall membranous. No 
ethmoid bone. Carpus and tarsus cartilaginous. Voineropalatine teeth 
on anterior border of bone of that name. Pterygoi<l bone present. 
•Auutoiuie der Gymuoi-Uioucu, Jcua, 167'J. tAm.ricau Naturalist, iSSo, p. '^4.1. 




itl.v Cryp- 

itry ot'llu' 
oiii wliicli 
1. lie re- 

the two. 
U'la ratln'i' 
ma, t'ssi'ii- 
y (lillVri'iil 
ire, supra 


liave nidi 
,'e that liis 
) reeognize 

(l us pliylc 

•liysis. Tail 
iDiitals, aii<l 
)iain)U.s. No 
»alatiiK' toetli 

Of' this family but two existiii;? fieiicra are known, altli()ii;;li it is 
i,ajte probable that a third has lett remains in the MioiHMie lacMistriiu^ 
beds at Oeninjjen, in (iernniny, which is known under the name of An- 
drias. The existinj,' genera ^liller as Ibllow s : 

liriincliial lissiirr pri'sciit CriiplnhranrliKs- 

Nil liiiincliial lissiiit' McyaltihiilrarliiiH. 

The Mcijidolxttrachtis lua.rimus is foiMul in Japan and eastern Asia as 
I'ar southwest as eastern Thibet. It exceeds in <liniension.s Ihe species 
of Cryptobranchus, which are exclusively North American, but has a 
j^rtat gtMieral rescmbliin(!e lo them. 

The nearest iipproach lo this I'amily anion}? other llrodehi is nmde by 
Ihe family of Amblyst(»mida'. The 8tru(!tural dillerences are, however, 

CliYrTOl'.lJANCllllS Leuekarl. 

Isis, lSv>I, J), -jet). It()iilcn;r,.r, Caliil. Hair. (irad. liiitr. Mii.s., 1H,+J, p. HI. 
.thtiiii(liii». Marian, Annals, l-yci iini Nat. Hist. New York, IHJ.'), I, p. 'J'jl. 
MiiiDiiiinia. llarlan, /. c, [t. •JTC; 'rsclinili, Kalr., !Mi ; Dinii. Miltr., Kop. (ic^n., ix, p. 'JOr>. 
S,il,im,niilroiix. Wa^i., N'al. Syst. Anipliili., l-^;ill, p. !>(l'.». 
luii-iinn. Ivaliiii'siiiH' (ti'sti- Hainl), Allantii- .Fournal, HIW, p. I'il. 
rvKiiHiiip^is. " Marlon ", CJiay, Catal. Uatr. Orad. liril. Mns., I'd. i, \\.Wi. 

Ill tliis ;;('iiiis the voinc riiie leelh form a re<;iilarly arched series, eon- 
«'eiilric with the maxillary seiies. Tliir lon};ue is but little free, and 
that only round the edges. The coliiMiella of Ihe stapes is eartilaf-inous, 
and is connected by a close articular contact with the quadrate carti- 
l.i.neand with the under sideof the siiiiamosal bone. The ceratohyal 
is connected by a ligament with the posterior sideof the quadrate, with 
the intervention of an oval cartilage, which has the position of the sty- 
lohyal bone of fishes. The posterior extremity of the ceratohyal is not 
in(Mirved, and is free from the skull. (Plate IS, lig. 3.) 

Tiie hyoid apparatus is«piit(^ characteristic. They have been already 
desciibedso far as they <lellno the suborder Trematodera. They re 
senible the Pseudosauria in having twoceratobrauchials, but differ from 
them and resemble the Amphiumoidea in having no first epibranchial. 
This element may, howevei', be continent with the first ceratobranchial, 
but no suture appears in very young specimens. The ceratohyals ar«^ 
divided transversely and the hypohyals are large. They are not m 
contact with each other or with the first basibranchial, as in other or- 
ders and suborders, but are separated by u pair of transverse elements, 
which are i)robably true basihyals. The first basibranchial appears to 
lie interrupted at its middle, the anterior part remaining attached to 
the basihyals. No second basibranchial. 

A broad cartilaginous plate rises from the basibranchial and supports 
the tongue. It resembles a good deal the otoglossal cartilage of the 
Amblystomida>, with which it is prolyably homologous.* Tlie second, 

"Tlii.s suffffCKtion I nui' to Dr. (iait. 



third aiul rum-Ill oi-iLranchials arc present, between the bases ..f thr 
socoii'l and third is a radiiiieutal third coratobrauchial. (IMat^^ U, 

''ilie cirims in Crviitol-raiichus is vsomewhat variable in the typieal 
siu'cies. The cent rale carpi always separates the intermedium from 
(li.Mdnarc, thnsreaehinji- tiio ulna, while the eontrale tarsi is always 
shut oll'Croiii the libala l)y the intermedium. (Plate 15, iig. 3.) TIktc 
iiMy 1)0 tuocentralia tirsi (i'late-tO, li-. :{), as hasl)een shown by Wic- 
,1,'rsheini. Ther.' are h>ar carpalia and live tarsalia, but the tonrth and 
liirh tarsalia may be Cnsi'd. (IMat." K>, li,i;'- '•>■) 

The hoii.s ol the oxtninities arc simple, the I'cnuir beinj? without the 
l.(K'|i;i:it T Ibuiid in tlic Psendosauria, a'.id the humerus bciuj;- withont 
tlie condyles. The scapular arch is entirely eartila;iiin(»ns, oxcopliuo- 
the scapula, which is small. There is a larj,^'. cartiIaj;iuons coracoid 
])late whirh overlaps that of the opposite side, and is deeply lissured 
transveis;' oMiiiaely in iVont l;om the interior b<»rder, euttiuf-- oil' u 
iinrrow i.i ) 'onicoid. There is a cartilaj;inous sternum posterior to tin- 
eoiacoids. The pelvic arch has an osseous ilium, which is in contart 
with an osseiMis ischuim on eaea side, which does not meet its fellow on 
the middle line below. The i»ubic region is represented by a lai'j>e sim 
l»le eartilajje, which is pr.xluced into a style on the middle line anti'ri- 
orly, as in the Pseudosauria. 

In its visceral anatomy this genus resembles the Pseu(bisauria. The 
stomach is distiuct, and there i.s a [tyloric llexurc. (IMates and ."iD, 

lip;, i-) 

Ther,' is one widely-ilistriittited species of this geuus, and i)robably 
a se(;ond, U!U)wn only as yet from the upper waters ol' the Tennessee 
liiver, but the latter rMpiires further investigation, as I have seen but 
a single specimen of it^. Tiie distinguishing features are the following;: 

I'lislciior (linils IVcc; Ionium- fni' in IVoiit, its siipt'iior .surface thrown into jilica'; 

iiiti'iiial Mines oiii'U (,'. iillnihriiiniKlK. 

Post t'lior (lij; its wi'hlicd, tlic i'\ti'ni;il to llioll|i; ton^nu' not free, covt-rcd willi lur^'c 

cliisi l\-pl,i(('(l |i,i|i|iillii> ; intcriiKl iiiircs valviiliir ('. I'iihiiih. 

CUVrTOliHANCms ALI.i:(iIIi:NIi:NSISDiimliii. 


('.niplnhntHchtiH 'tUciilKiiiciinin, Vaudcr Homcn, 'I'ijilsclicr, v. Nat. He 

IV, i>. :W), I'l. V A, f. :!-!, i\: V. !!; lio'ikiiKcr, (';if. Hatr. Grad. 

II. l-^^-i |>. SI. 
Siihiiiutiiilfit alliiihiiiiiiiisis, Daiid., Ii('|)t., viii, j). •>'M, 
SiihimnHih-ti ijUiaulcd, liarlmi, On Sinn Imntiua. 
Moh/r iiiijdiilv.i, Mi'ir. Tent., )i. IS7. 
I'riiiiiohrdiirltiin Huhimniiihiihlis. Leuckart, /. r. 
.Hiiiiiirhii.f iillr;ihiiiiUii^i>i, llarlaii. I. c. 
Mnioimniii ((//, //((niir/iviv, Harlan. /. ., : |[,,lhr., X. A. Ilt'ip , v, ]i. !».'>, 

N. V.,]-ann. i;,.|,t., p. si, p|. |v, c. ||. i,,,^, ^^ I'.il,,'.,-,',. -JOT, pi'. 

Nov.i Ada i.iMip.-C'aiol, \\\ii, p. i;;;!, |'|..;, 

sell. (' 

II I'liy.siol. 
Mils'., .<!. 

IM, f. 

•I: iti'ljav, 
1 ; Willi., 

Ml . 


SOS of the 

I'iat^ ir>, 

ic typical 

limn i'roiii 

is always 


11 by Wi(^- 
onitli and 

itiiont tlio 
j;- witliont 
s ("oracoid 
y lissurcd 
tinj;- otV a 
run- to the 
in contact 
^ follow on 
lar^c si in 
inc anti'ii- 

nria. Tlio 

s and r):J, 

1 jtvohably 

,«' seen hnt 

n 'iito jilici'; 
■d will) l:ir;;i' 

(.'. fllHIIIK. 

li. (Ml riiysidl. 
irit. Mils., <il. 

1. :V2; i)('li!>.v, 
I, C. 1 ; Wicil., 




Snhimuiidrojinf/i'iuiilia, Wuyl., /, c. 

Enrijcvo muvvoiiulu, h'aliii., /. c. 

M( iioimiiKi t/ii/<(ii(i'(l, 'I'scliiidi, I.e. 

Vrolonoiinin horr'ula, Giuy, Cat. liatr. Grud. Brit. Miih., cd. i, p, 53. 



l''lii. r>. Criijilnl, r(i)if!iii>i nlli'ijlii'iili-iixiii DiXuA.; \o. 9752. IVntisylvaiiia; ii.itiiral sizo. 

Body moderately elonjj;atc and depressed ; tlio liiidts qnite short. Tlic 
tail nuicli CDiiiitressed, ahinit onelialf the lenj^th of tiiehoad and body. 
Tlie neck wide; liie head a little wider, plane above, llat and much <le- 
pressed, with very sh(n't, wide, ami ronnded mnzzje. 

The nostrils are near tlie labial b »r.ler, and look forwards. The space 
separatinsjr them is n bout lialf tlie iiiteroibit il w idtii. Tlie eyes areqnito 
«mall, and are covered with a ratlii'r thin cornea, bnt are without dis- 





40 I!i:llktin hi, i:mted statkr natkixal mtskum. 

tiiict i-yoliils. TIr'.v art' (»v;il in niilliiic, the l()ii,i,' (liiiiiictcr antt'i'opos. 
ti'iior." Tlu'.v are widely sepiir.itc.i IV(»iii eai;ii otiier and are not far Iroin 
t!ie labial bonier. Tlie Jaws are eiiiial in front, and the niuzzle is \wv- 
fectly tiat. The n!)i)er lip is not I'endnlus except a", its i)0.sterior end, 
where it is also tinck. The free lower lip is deciirved, and extends only 
about one third tlie distance round the lower Jaw. 

The mouth is wide, and the rietus falls below the posterior eanthns 
of the eye. The luaxillopreuiaxillary arc of teeth extends to a ixtint a 
little posterior to a line dropped from the posterior edge of the eye. 
The voMiei()j>alatin(' seri;s is (juite close to the niaxillopreuiaxillary, and 
extend al)out one half way as far posteriorly as the external row. At 
the middle of the arc it sometimes presents a (ionvexity l)aekwards for a 
short distance. At each ol ilsextri niitiesissitnat.'d the posterioi'nnslril, 
which is an oval nu)re or less open, and never a slit, as in the C./iiscus. 
Its position dilfcrs from that seen in .1 mphhnna menus and XcctKnis in its 
beiuj;iit the end of the row, and not external to it. The roof of the mouth 
is everywhere Hat. The ton;;ue is wide and is considerably free in Ironl, 
the free border iiarrowinj,' laterally and jjosteriorly. It nearly fills the 
floor of the mouth, leaving;' but a narrow space between it and the man- 
dibular arc. Its surface is thrown into numerous elevated folds, which 
are thin, and generally anteroposterior in direction. They inter(!oni- 
municate by lesser (»bli(iue folds, which with other delicate ridges form 
anet \vo>k between the principal ones. In old specimens or badlypre- 
serv'.i ones the plica' may be tlattcned or lowered. 

The legs are (piite short ; when pressed to the side they are separated 
Ity a space equal to l.'J.j the length of the anterior limb. The lingers 
are short and rather free, and the external one is considerably shortej' 
than the internal one. The others are subsequal. An extensive fold 
of the skin extends from the axilla to near the extremity of the external 
finger, forming the posterior expanded border of the limb. It is mo>t 
prominent at the h)wer part of the ui)i>cr arm. The posterior t(»es aie 
rather short, ami are free from web as to the phalanges. The first is 
the shortest, and the second a little exceeds the fifth. The third ami 
fourth are subetjual, and, with the fifth, are somewhat depressed. Ibis 
appearance is produced by adeimal wing on the external border, which 
increases in width from the third to the fifth, becoming veiy wide on 
the latter. It continues from the fifih toe on the hinder border of the 
leg to the base of the thigh, (iorrespouding with the similar fold on the 
fore leg. The ei>idermis is not hardened into ungues in this species. 

The skin is perfectly smooth, but is thrown into a longitudinal iindir 
lating fold on the sides betwten the fore and hind legs. Th s fold i^ 
obsolete in some specimens, apparently on account of the distension of 
the luHly with food or eggs. There are a shallow median dorsal groov.' 
and lourteen costal grooves. The latter are not distinct on the back or 
belly, and are best seen on tlu- sides (.f the latter. The tail has a fre.' 
dermal border oi: its superior edge, but none on the inferior edge, thus 

If .] 
I- „ I 



v/Aii is pei- 
torior I'lid, 
toiids only 

)!■ ciintlms 
I ii point :i 
:)f tlu^ 
1 row. At 
wards for a 
rior nostril, 
e C.fiiscu.s. 
!tiinis ill its 
ftlK' month 
•CO in Ironl, 
rly tills tlio 
\d theinan- 
ohls, wliicli 
f intercom - 
I'idgos form 

• badlypro- 

e si'parati'd 
The linf-crs 
ihly shorter 
tensive fold 
It is mo>t 
'lor toes arc 
The lirst is 
K> third ami 
3ssed. litis 
)rder, which 
ciy wide on 
)nler of the 

• fold on tin- 
is species, 
ndinal nnvlir 

Th s fold i«! 
distension of 
(H'sal <;roove 
I the back or 
lil has ii free 
)r edge, thns 


dilleriri},' from the siiecies of Necturus. A groove along the side of the 
tail divides it into ii snperior and infeiior portion, and a lateral wedge- 
shaped mass, covered with longitndinallyfoldetl skin, intervenes between 
the two for abont one third the length of the member. J)ermal mncons 
pores arc especially abnndant on the head of this species. They generally 
appear in the middle of a low, elongate, dermal papilla, dividing it into 
two pai>illa'. These are closely placed in a triangnlar patch, of which the 
maxillary border forms the hypotennse, a line extending backwards from 
the nostril i»arallel to the middle line, another side ; and the other bf)rder 
transverse, pussing abont its own diameter poir^terior to the eye. Ibit 
there are nnmerons other similar papilhe posterior to this patch, and 
on the siih's of the anterior half of the neck. A series of donble i)a- 
pilhe extends ronnd near the border of the lower Jaw, becoming obso- 
lete on the symphyseal region. A <!onsi)icnous an^hcd row of the sanu' 
extends ronnd opposite the inferior edge of the lower jaw ; and between 
it and the snperior row are niinu'rons other pores and papilhe. A row of 
1 ori's passes ronnd within ea<;h arm on the sides of the thorax ; and there 
are t wo r(» ws on the sides, one above and the other l)elow, the lat( ral Ibid. 
The ni)per row is continued on the wedge like portion of integnnuMit, 
forming tlie middle of the basal third of the side of the tail. 

The branchial (issnre is half-way between the angle of the lower Jaw 
and theshonlder. The vent is small. 

Midfiiirdiiculx of A'o. It'iVi. if- 

Total \o\\'^t\\ 't-ll 

r.(Mi<j;<li from end of iiiii//.lc to I'lid of vent :51'.) 

I^ciifil'ii from ('Mil of nuiz/.ld to line of };roin vi7."> 

I.i'n^tli from end of iiui/zlt' to line of axilla 100 

Width between nostrils Oi;{ 

Width hetween eves O-J'.t 

(ireatest width of head O'lO 

Width hetween axilhe 015 

Width at base of tail OHO 

neplh of tail at middle !.'')."> 

Len;;tli of for(^ linih from axilla OM 

I-enjfth of fore foot !)il 

Length of hind limb U\'l 

I,en.;;th of hind foot O'iO 

Len;:;lh of lower lej; O'ili 

Width between internal nostrils i>'2\'* 

Tin- largest spe(!innMi (No. 10(113) measures i>l') '""". 

The usual color is rather light lead-colored above iind a still paler 
shade of the same below. Tliert' are indistiintt darker spots on the sur- 
face above, only visible when the animal is in fluid. Sometimes these 
shiides are represented by very distinct ilark-brown spots (Xos. I'i'.U, 
7(101). Soiin^ specimens have the ground color brown of a lighter hue 
(No. TOO,")), the dark spots being present or absent. Tiiroe s|)ecimens 
(No. 0L'0.">) are abnost entiri'ly black. 

This speckles is distrilmfed from western New York and IVitnsyl- 
vaiiia and the (Ireat Lakes to Iowa, and soiitli t!> (leorgia, N«nth Caro- 


42 i-.cLM-nx r.i, uxitkd states national miiskum. 

linn, :un\ Louisia:.;.. It is not vet known from Florulaor Texas. A sin- 
o-lc .siu'cinu'ii in tlio Nalional Mnscnni was taken in tlieSnsqnelianna 
JJiver, IVnns.Nlvania. 

The "Iieilben.h r" is entirely aquatic in its liabits, and is frequently 
taken by lisliernien on tlieir liooks. It is very tenacious of life, and is 
pcricctly Iiaiinlcss. Its larval pcriotl ninst be of brief duration, since 
it has not been yet observed. Tlie e<i{>s are rather large, and are at- 
tac'hed l)y two strong suspensors at opposite j)oles. 


llllllilli'l'. -^IMl'. 





1 Sii-(|iirliMiin;i Kivcf 

!iin i; 


1 All.!.M"vCcllllll\. X. V 

I Kv;iii-;viili'. Iiiil 

:i ( I. likes, 








1 rflllls\1\Mlli:l 

:; Aiihcxillr.s. c 

1 r.iliinil.Olii" 

1 Tvii'i' Spiiiii;'*. 'rnin 

1 HilUlmniii'.'li. N. C 

1 MiMdvillr. I'a 


■J I'laini' Mcr It'iilL'!', l/l 

■J Niiiirliurk.v, K. 'rniii 

1 Di's Miiirii's, l()Wii 

I ('.> 


•J mil' l,lK7ft 


Fkmm wliuiii n ccivcil. 

Xiituip (if 


Aariiiilliiial Di'piiiliiicnt. .. On. 

1)1-. Slrvrlis I'l'. 




I MI- 

II. I!. Wiiulit 

Dr. .1. 1;. lianiill .. 
I'li't. S. K. n.iiiil .. 

I'liil 1;. Ortiii 

i;iv. M. A. Ciiili.s. 

.1. !■'. 'riiirKslcii 

Dr. W. I,. .Ii'tiis .. 
.laiiii s Faiiir 

U. ElUwiiilli Call 


7000 I 'I'mi'i' S|iiiim«, Ti'im 

711OI 1 Niilii'liiirkv liiviT, Trim. 
;i:ilii 11 (?) ' 

I'li.f. It. Owt 



There is .some variation in specimens in the relative distance of one 
nostril from the other and from the eye. In some specimens these dis- 
tances are identic^il ; in others the former is somewliat less than the 
latter, and the same measurement, usually one half the w idth between 
the eyes, may enter it L'.'_'."i times. 

A local variety is .seen in three .specimens (No, 7()(>r») from Abbeville. 
S. C. These aie a li.yht brown, much resembling the G. /'iisviis, but are 
spotted with a darker brown. The double papilhe are not vi.sililc on 
the superior surface of the head, and are faintly marked on the inferior 
aspect. The rows of pores are, however, as in C. (iIletilicniciiKis, as are 
the tongue and internal nares. The digits are all iikhc .slender, and the 
dirmal ala 011 the extei iial toe and that of the elbow are niiieli reduced. 

IJesides the generic character, the following dirfereiices may be ob- 
served on comitarison of this .siiecies with the Mcnidiihiitfaclnis ina.rimus- 
of Asia. In the latti r the tongue is not free, luit is sessile, and with- 
out plica'; head with rows tubercles; sidcy and limbs williont 
dermal folds. 



s. A sin- 

ife, and is 
ion, since 
lul are at- 

Minopoina fuDCiim llolbiook, N. Am. Ilorpetoloj^y, 184^, \', p. tit). 

Niitinp (i{ 







mce of one 
; these dis- 
;s than the 
th between 

•Its, hnt ai»^ 

vi.sil)le on 
the inferior 
H.s'(',v, as are 
ler, and tlie 
'li redneed. 
may be ob- 
l^s■ iiKi.iimus 
. and witli- 
d>s withont 

Vi:.C,.—Cr;ii.l:i'iniiii'liii:i/iiiriin, Ivnowlili', 'I'lMinnssn' : iiiiliir:il si:c 

Besides the character-^ aheady assi^nx'd t) tills spceies, the single 
s|K'iriinen on whieh it r(^sts (blf.-r.-i fr,):a nio-it of those »»f tlie C.'alhykc- 






SU if:- 

nicnuis in tlic absence of the loii^Mtiuliiiiil .lernial fold on the si.h", aa.l of 
the papilla' on tlie, ni»per surlac' of the hea 1. lii botii tiiesi- icspcets 
ita;^ive.s with some siH'i:iiii>Mis fi'^ai Abbeville, S, C. (No. 7()0.">), already 
refiM ivd to. I do not attacii niaeh importance to the abstMiee of tiie lat- 
eral folds, as distension of the alidomen from any oMiise would be apt to 
canse it to disappear. These two characters, however, with the brown 
color, supplement the three important ones f-iven in the dia,unosis, and 
c(»iifiim the propriety of recoj^iiizinj,' the species. Nevertheles-^. tiu' ob- 
servaion of other specimens prescntin;;' the same features will be neces- 
sary befoie the siiecies can be rejiarded as fully estalilislied. 

Tiieheiid, (1 ir form of t lie other species, with the very slim- 
and broadly rounded mu/zle, but these characters are e\ ij>j;erated. 
Thus the Icnjith from the end of the muzzle to the lines c.oiinecMii.j; the 
anj^lcs orcauthusof the mouth entt'rs the greatest width of the head 
loar times and a fraction ; while in the ('. ((Ilriihciiini.sis it is one-half tlir 
liwuo. measurement of the width of the lu>ad, or even a little Ioii;^rr. 
The sliortness of the <;ape as compared with its width is also indicated 
by the fact that the canthus oris is below a j)oint anterior to the anterinr 
canthusof the eye in the C./iihciih, while in the (\ (tllnilicnifiisis i\w nu<^\v 
is below the posterior canthusof the latt /r. The eye is smaller than is 
usual iu the C aUc(jhcntci}.sis, its lonj^ diameter entei'inj; the iidcroeulai' 
Bpace a little over seven tiniL's; while in the more abundant species it en 
ters five times to nearly six tiiru's. The extremity of the maxillary series 
of teeth corresponds with the canthus of the month. TIm^ vonu-rincs 
have only half us much length. The int.rnal nostril is a slit, nearly 
closed, in line with the series of vomerine teeth at tiieir extremity. I 
have not found it closed in tiiis way in any specimens of tlu^ ('. nlhulir- 
nicii.sis. The characteristics of the toii,i;ue form one of tlu^ slroiij^cst 
character* of this species, Its superior surface is covered with lai',n-e 
truncate papilhe, so closely placed us to be everywliero in cont;icl. 
Tliey are only distinguished, as in the human tongue, by Ixuiding the 
surface. Xotliing like this is known in the other si)ecies. Here tlu^ 
surface of the t')ngue is murked with longitudinal plica', separated by 
considerable intervals, .wliich are tluunselves subdivided by smaller ami 
lower plica', the general result being an appearance somethiMglike tripe. 
The width between the external nares is half of that between the orbits 
or the posterior nares. 

Thecrtptsof the skin of the superior surfaces are coarser than in 
the r. aUcghcnicnsis, especially on the posterior half of the head. The 
anteri(U- half of the latter is smooth. X.. trace of the double papilla' 
is to be found on t'u', sii'iir.or surfaces, but they exi^t iu tlie arched 
series rouiul the lower jaw below the lip, as in the other specie's, bnt 
with thisdiflVrence: the papilhe one above the other ai'c net round, 
but short longitmlinal keels, so as to be parallel to each other. 

The fingers are entirely free, ami the phalanges are, begM„ning^ on the 
ninerside,'J, 2, ;5, -. The ala on the posten.u- edge of the n|.pcrann is 

* I 1 


idi', ii;nl of 

'»), alrciul.v 

I bi' iipt to 
the hiowii 
gnosis, and 
■s-!, tin' o'»- 

II he iicccs- 

' very si Kir 

iicctii.^' till' 
>t' the lifinl 
tie loiij^fv, 
;(> iiidicatcil 
Llio antcrini- 
/.•.■thii aii,ult' 
lUrr than is 
pccii's itcii- 
illary srri<'s 

> VOIIlClilK'S 

slit, luariy 
•itrcmity. I 
c, r. oilculir- 
ho. sti'()iij;('st 
I witli lar;;(^ 
) in coiitiict. 
l»(Ui(liii,n' tlic 
;. Here tli»>- 
H'i)aratiMl by 

smaller and 
unlike tripi'. 
CM the orbits 

I'scr than in 
' head. The 
'iblc, iiapilla' 
1 tiii^ archrd 

species, but 
■(> not round, 
inninjjf on the 

upper arm is 


Till': llATliAClllA OF NOliTll AMKKlCA. 45 

well developed, iiiul terminates Just below the elbow. The toes eonie 
in the order of length as follows, beginnin";- witli the short inner, 1, 5, 
!',;>, 4; and the phalanjies, in the same order, are 2, 2, 3,3, 2. The 
three external are ribbed from the tips ; the notch between the third 
and fourth reachinj,' the end of the lirst phalange, but between the 
fourth and filth extending from tip to tip, with a very slight notch 
(easily enlarged by tearing) ; the legs are about as long as in C. allajhc- 
nicn>iis. \\'hen they are pressed to the side they are separated by ii 
distance equal to one and a (luarter times the length of the hinder leg. 
This measurenuMit must betaken with some allowance, as the S[)ecimen 
has been coiled in strong alcohol, and its true form is not easily restored. 
It is impossible to distinguish the true lateral folds. An estimate 
nuikes them equal those of the other si)eeies, tburteen. The tail has 
the usual form. Its superior outline rises from the base, and is convex, 
and consists partly of a thin dermal border. Tlu^ extremity is thin, as 
is also the distal fourth of the inferior edge. 



Ti>t;il Icii^rtli (I. Ill) 

Lcnj^tli (ot'iiilol' vent 'Jltf) 

Lciiiilli to gri)in •iUt 

l.cii;,'lliti) axilla 11)0 

Li'iij;tli to line of oaiitlnis (iri.s 015 

l.i'iij^th of anterior Ic^i; OIW 

Lciij^tli of anterior foot 015 

L'.'iij^tli of jioHterior h'j; 05:i 

Lcii^rtli of jtosterior foot {))>\'i 

Witltli l)et\vi'i'ii external nares Ol'i 

Width lie t ween orbits Oi,') 

Wi.Uli of liead or)l 

Kciitliof tail at middle 042 

'I'lie color of this si»ecimen is a rich chocolate brown; the inferior sur 
faces rather paler tlian the superior. No spots. 

(j'aliilii^Mi' iiiiTiiliiT. Nil. spcciiri. Li)cality. 

Knoxville, Tcnii . . 



I'lofcNsiir Milclull. 


This family is of particular interest among the Urodela, us furnishing 
«'onnecting forms between the ordinary types of the order and those 
larger species which we suppose t(> be more characteristic of former 
periods of the earth's history. It also furnishes us with transitional 
coiutitions of characters which have been regarded as indicating very 
diverse origin and nature. The species are mostly of large size, and 
are probably confined to Xorth America; perhaps a species exists iu 
Farther India. 


iirij.KTiN :;i, r.Niri:!' si.\ri;s national mi;skum. 


TIh- i'li;inictrr.s wliicli icstiiH Hit' li""''l.v '"■«' "'^ i<»Il"«'<: 

Nnclhmoi.l I'.ilatiiicl.oiM'siH.l piolon-oil over piinispliciioids, In-ar- 
,„;,. ,,,.,1, „i. the'ir postiTior iii:ii-iiis. Orhitosplieiioi.! scpiirati-d IVoiii 
p,oMiirl.vii).'i,ihi;n,uiis\v:ills. liiU-niiil wall of vt'sliluih' osseous, (lar- 
,,„s iii.l" t usiis i.ssili,'(l. Vcrlchra", aiiii.Inco'Ious. I'refroiitals and 
,,t, pivsciit. I'lciiiaxiUani's I'liUy (h-vclopo.l. I'arasplicnoi.l 
witluMit dciiti-i'n.iis plates. An otojilossal caitila-v; only oiio, tlic lirst 
(•piliiMMcliial ; srcoiiit hasiltiaiicliial i:<i)lati'd. 

We may lu'ic obsoive the si-nilieaiice ol" the fVatuies doliniiif;- this 
laiiiily. Twoof tliec,liara('tersassi;,nied an> what I have termed nioi'idiie; 
that is, one lias not Ix'cii assnined after iiossession of the other, nor is 
it identical with the ininiatnre of the same. Such are the short- 
ened form of the i»alatine bones, as coniitared with the posteriorly i)ro- 
(hiecd lamina' of tin' Salamaudrida-. and the absence of deiitij?eious 
plates on the paras]ilieiini(l in the IMetlKMlontida' is a character of the 
same kind. Under sneh eirciunstanees we infer tliat the fanulies ex- 
liiliit an ontojieny moditied by eienoj-eny. 

The biconcave vertebra- constitute a ix-rsistence of a larval feature. 

The preseuce of ptery.i;oids has the same siynilicancc with refereuce 
toother families. 

Theossilieatiou of the carpus and tarsus are characters in which this 
•iKiiip develo])s beyond the larval condition which is permanent in the 
family riethodontiihe. 

Thus of eight characters fAo are iiKuphic and six developmental; 
of the six, two are of advanced develoi»inent and four of reitrcssed 
development, as compared with other fanulies. 

The writer characterized this family nearly as above in the .lourual of 
the lMiiladelj)hia Academy, lS(i(!, 105. J)r. Ilallowell proposed it in the 
same worii, 1858, 337, but on iiisulllcient characters. iMany of the char- 
acters of the i)riiicii)al {^enus Amblystoma had been already pointed 
out by Professor ilaird. The .yenera imduded by Ilallowell were Am- 
blystoma, Xijiltonura Tsch , and Onychodactylus Tschudi. Clray had 
previously end)raced the same genera with llctvrotriton dray, in liis 
first section of the IMethodontida', which corresponds with this family. 
The writer in lS5',)embraeid Onychodactylus, Amblystoma, Camarata.iis 
Cope, and 3Ie,ualol)atrachus Tschudi. in the above citetl essay of 1S(»<» 
the {ieiiera are limited to the two first nuMitioned with Ihimtinn (Iray. 

The wivestijiation of the subject which I j^'ave in my nujuograph of this 
family, i.ul)lislied in IS!);), n'sulted in the followinj,' disposition of these 
supposed jiencra, 15;iiid having- already shown the identity of Xiphn 
num with Amblystoma. ^^ llcfcrotriton is identical with Amblystoma. 
Megalobatrachus, the great salamaiuler of Japan, I have determined 
to pertain to the Cryptobranchida'. The genus Camamtaxh, as will 
appear further on, was established on a larval character, permanent 
in some individuals it is true, but not permanent in any si)ecies. On 
the other hand, there is some probability that onci or both of the species 
of riynobius Tschudi from Japan enter the landly, but this I am not 



[luM\ nor is 
' the sliort- 

Tllli liATKACIIIA «>l' NOKTir AMKKICA. 47 

ii'.ilc (t) t'sliiblisli.'' Till! latti'i- genus, to^ictlicr with lianitlcns, On^M'lio- 

oids, bear- (lai't.vliis and 8alaiiiaii(irc'lUi (Voiii A.sia, have been sineo reft'ircd to I lie 

ated iVoMi Aiiihl.vsluiiiida' by l!()idan<«er, but 1 now liiid the hyoid apparatus to bo 

ous. Cuv- «|iiiti' (lillli rent in the two groups. 

Mitals aud Tlirt'c genera of this lanilly are known to nie. Another has bi-i n 

•aspiienoid (iisiiiignished on dental characters (Dieaniptodon), but whether iden- 

le, the tirst with or distinct from those I have seen 1 do not yet know. 

I. N'oiiicrdiinlatiiic tci'tli in a traiisvcrso lino, which is straight or angiiiatL'd ami not 
'lining this nmch intcrniiitcd at tho iniddlo. 

dniorphic; Otoglossal cartilage foriniiig a ring, attached posteriorly to the first liasiliraii- 

chial cartilage ImbhjHtomn. 

Ologldssal carlilage t'orniing a snhtriangnlar plate attached posteriorly to the 

lirst hasilivanchial Clioiidruliif). 

^riorly pro- H. Vomcropdlatine ti'cth in two scries, scjiaratcd by a wide interspace. 

lentigerous Otoglossal cartilage not annular, free IVoni the hasibrancliial, on which it moves; 

Cter of the '"'' '""'"^ lAityualaimnit. 

... ^, Tail cominessed; dental series converging l)ackward niidwploiloii. 

The species of these genera are all North American cxcei)ting the 
I (■j.jitm.i.. AmbljjstomapcrsimiUs Gray of Siam. 

\^ vGi'er^vcii AMIJLYSTOMA, Tschiuli. 

I which this Tsclmdi, liatr., ).. '.i'2 ; liaird, Jonrn. Ac. I'liila.(-J), i, l>^',[), p. ',>81 ; Oray, Cat., p. IM ; 

inent in the '"""• "^ ''''"'• '^' !'■ ^"^ ' ^'"l""' l''"*"'- ^^''- I'l'ilii-. l"'<i''> 1>- I'iti; «( ranch, Salam, p. 

(1(1; lioulcnger, Cat. liatr. Grad. JJrit. Mus., !.M ed., ltir^2, p. :!-:. 
.Mlil.ointm, Tschndi, /. c, p. '.).'>; Gray, /. c. ; Duni. <Sl Ijibr., p. Itil. 
.'lopmental ; s,ii(tm<iiitln>i(hf<, I'it/ing., Syst. Kept., p. :?:$. 

f rei>ressed iiri,vi>irium, Gray, /. c, p. :i:!., Cope, Troe. Ac. Tlula., lfi'>[), p. I-JiJ. 
e Journal of l'ir!„iilosm, Mivart, I'roc. ZoOl. Soe., 18()7, p. G08. 

. . Lai val I'oiins : 

sed It in the SUrdv,,, Wagl., Syst. Ami.h., IrtliO, p. :.'()•) ; Duni. & Bibr., p. 17(1. 

of the char- .\.t„h,tv>^, (),ven, Ann. and Mag., X. II., xiv. p. 'ZW. 

ady l>ointed IkKmiimlomu, Sagcr, renins. Joiir. Medic, LSoH, p. 4-Jt*. 

II were Am- \'oiin'rine scries of teeth in the same line, though often interrui)ted. 
• <^'''''y '"\'* (cMiadrateJugal bone wanting. Premaxillary bones distant from each 
(Jray, in his othei', not embracting a fontanelle. 

this family. T.uigiie attiehod l)y its whole base, but with a narrow free margin ou 

Camarattuis all hut the postei ior portion, capable of but a moderate protrusion, 

•ssay of ISdO The ot tglossal cartilage forms a ring, which pa.sses entirely round the 

satiuaiUwy. nivAuniviviu'e of iho interior base of the tongue. It sends a i)r(>eesy 

graph of this on each side near its base, which terminates above theccratohyals with- 

tion of these out articulating with then). 

ty of Xiphih liypohyal cartilages slender, of moderate length. (Plate 2U.) 

Vmblystoma. CuMtohyal articulating by its abruptly rccurVed superior e.xtremity 

) determined with tiie po.storior di.stal part of the quadrate. (Plate 18, (ig.s. <S-10.) " 

taxis, as will Digits i-~), free, not (lonnected by natatory membrane. 

■, permanent A stratum of crypts more or less thickened on the parotoid region 

species. On and along the superior lateral region of the tail. 

)f the species A series of mucous pores round the orbit and for some distance ante- 

his I am not rior to it. 





Tli»' Stroud iMsiliriiiicliiiil olcimMil is tiaiisvcisi-, ^ciu'rall.v aii;;iilii(nl 
loiuiinls, and is wdl ossilit-d. Tlicotlu-r parts of llic li.yoid appaialiis 
lliat are ossiliod are tlie proximal portion of tlie eeiatoliyal, tlie ante- 
rior [Kirtof the first basibrancliial, and the free extremity of the linst 


Till' htrva' are eliaracterized hy the Ion;;, slender processes of the 
three braiieliial lamina', which hrar tlie vasenlar limbria', rather than 
tlie lamina' themselves, as in Cli(»ndn)tns. The internal nostrils are eon- 
lined between the maxillary series ol teeth and the palatine arch, wlii(di 
is concentrie with the former and near to it, and iseontinned backwards 
on each side in line with a similar series on the pterypiid bones. A 
relation of nostrils to palatine teeth similar to the above is permanent 
in Ampliinma, and one intermediate between it and tlu' adult condition 
of Amblystoina' of ;;roiips iii and iv ehaiaeti'i izes Cryptobianclins. 

The tail and back have a tree dermal mai',uin, but there is none on 
the lindts or dii,'its. The tail is short and deep. 

The following' are some of the most readily observed characters which 
are assumed by the And>lystoma' at the pi'riod of their transformation : 
(1) The series of teeth on the splenial bone is shed ; (-) the caii)us and 
tarsusossify; (."5) the tail narrows and leiijrthens; (4) the branchia' dis- 
appear; (5) thetonyue enlarf;es and covers the lloor of the mouth; (0) 
the pteryj^oimlatine series (»f teeth becomes more nearly transverse; 
(7) brightly colored pij;;ment is deposited in the chromat(>i)hora' of tlie 
derm. These changes are stated in the order of their occurrence. IJut 
in some of the protean species this order is not exactly observed in all 
individuals, and in conse(|ueiice of the assumption of one or the other 
character of maturity in advance of another the number of s[>ecies has 
been supposed to be greater than it is. The same irregulari!.\ in the 
successional appearance of structures is well known in the earlier pe- 
riods of embiyonic lite, as stated by Von I'.aer in the sdudia of his lOnt 
wickelungs geschichite. In the chick, different poitions of the vertebra! 
axis and the abdominal plates may or may not appear in the usual 
Older of succession. 

In Amblystoma the aiiproxiiiiation of the period of reproduction to 
that of transformation varies with the species, and it is evident that 
the closer this api)roximatioii, under tlie above i»rmciiile of variation, 
the more protean will the species be. As we know from the exi>eri 
meiits of Hogg, J)umeril, and others that inetamori>hosis i.s greatly has- 
tened or delayed by the conditions of temperature and light, what would 
mit be the elVect on individuals of such a protean si)ecies of a change 
of toiiographical situation, such as the elevation or (lei»ression of the 
land :' And I have no hesitation in saying that if the peculiarities of 
series of individuals of .1. t'Kjr'nuini, in the respects above enumerated, 
were permanent, they would characterize those series as species as 
completely as any that zoiiiogists are accustomed to recognize. For 
the evidences on this head, see the discussion of this species below. 

tl! i 


, tlu' iintf- 
f the lirst 

ses of the 
atlu'r tliiiii 
ircli, \vlii<^h 
boiu's. A 


It coiulitioti 
is UDiic (»U 

icteis which 
sfDriniitioii : 
farpiis lunl 
lauchiii' ilis- 
niouth ; (0) 
transverse ; 
[)horie of the 
rreiice. But 
served in all 
)r the other 
■ si)eeies has 
ilari;.\ in the 
le earlier pe- 
a of his Knt 
the vertebral 
in the nsnal 

rodnetion to 
evident that 
of variation, 
n the expel i 
i greatly has- 
t,\vhat wonld 

of a ehangf 
I'ssion of the 
Hinliarities of 

IS speeies as 
;ogni/>e. For 
lies below. 




Tlie expeiinu'niH of lloi;^, above albided t*., are as ftdlows, as t,Mven 
l»y him in the Annals and Ma;;azineof Natnral History. 

llo placed a nnnd)er of inii>rej;nated ova of fro;,'s in vessels arran;;ed at 
re;;ular distances from th(! li;,Hit in a cave. The lessenin;,' degi'ees of 
lij^ht were of conrsi' acurompanied by a (!orres|»ondin};' bnt much less 
rapid decline in temperatnre. The rcsullin;;' ellcclson the metamorpho- 
sis may he tabnlat»'d as follows: 

j^Ii'^ii. I'iiliri'iilii'il 



:i 11 K!:i; 

■JO l.iiiva In i> ' 

■j."i ■ : li;ii \ ;t licr 

;ii • . - ' 

1 111 I,iivj viTv liii';;i' !,:itv;i 1 n-'- 

'11 Mi'l.iiniiiiiliiisi.i uoiii MrlMiiiiir|p|iii.-(i.i I'oiii 

X 11 


Ill :ii 


51 J 

I0U« K'AK 

I.iiiMi IriM' I.iii va I'lnv va lai'}!i< Larva Miiiall. 

Mrtiiin(ir|ili().si« fiiiii * 


Mrtaiiiiii pliiLsin ciiiM 


Other experiments, whicli will not be (pioted now, aic ('(pially (ton- 
elusive as tot lie effects of iinlit and heat on their process. The dis- 
tinction between iiiatiirity, or adult aj;v, and complete devel()pinent 
must be borne in mind. The former (Mtiiditioii is attaiiu'd when the ova 
an; fitted for imprej^iiation and the spermatozodids are capable of accom- 
plishing; that result. Development may or may not advance much 
beyond this perioil. .Vs one or more periolsin the life of every species 
is characterized by a i^reater rapidity of develoinnent (or metaiiKM'pho- 
sis) than the remainder, so in proportion to the approximation of such 
a period to tlm ei>ocli of maturity or reproduction is the olfspriny liable 
to variation. 

The j^reat dilVerence l)etween the dilfereiit speeies and between indi- 
viduals of the same species in this res|(t'ct, may bi> illustrated by the 
followinn' comparison between the siz,' of the ani inuls at the time of 
losiiin' the biaiicliia-, so far as known, and that to which they nlti- 
matelv attained : 


Aiiililystuiiii |iiiiirtatiiiii .. . 
A iiiM.s stiiina i'iins|iri.Hiiiii . . 

Aiiiltlysli'iiia opandii 

Oliiiiiilriitiis li'\aiiuH 

('Iiiiiiili'iitiis nili'msloiniis . . 
Aiiihh .sloiiia talpiiiilcHiii . .. 
CliiinilKitus paruticiis 

Ainljlysloiiia tiiji iiuiiii 

('Iiiiiiili'iitim li>iii'l>i'iiHiiH 

Si/,r at 

lu.Hs uT 

M aiii-liia'. 


\ 1*1 
II .s 


/;i. I.iii 



1 r.. 7.". 


1 10 



1 10,:. 
• 1 '» 


I . ■> 

II. :> 

■-' i 

1 ;i, ."i 


;i 7. :> 

•J. 5 

y.\ 7t 


1 '> It 


• I'll Imp** liMi lai ;;(■ 

i!>.")i— liuU ;u — 1 

t Nut siiiallrsl. 


Itn.lJlTIN :il, |-NITi:i) STATMS NATlONAI. Ml'SKlIM. 


1,1 (his Meet ion it is dcsiniltU' to asccitiiiii liow liir cliiiriicti'i-s »li« 

tiii-;iii.siiiii^' iiii(l()iil)ti"<l species full into (lie line ol'sum'ssioiisil eliiuiyes 
eomnion to iill the species, :is answer to this (luestion would solve an 
important part ol the inciniiy as t.» tlieoiij,nn olspeeies. We can not no 
into it exhaustively a( this time, i»ut direct attention to these char- 
acters in Mie syuoi»lic tahle. The following,' are developmental char- 
actera wlii(!h distinj,niish known species: (!) The direction of the pala- 
tine series of teeth; (li) the length of the Itody and tail, as coini)ared 
with the width of the head, is ;^Mcater in huj^c and old individuals of 
.1, tiijrhiHin ; ('■',) tlie widening: of the nni/./.le and greater separation nl 
the external nares ; (1) the spotted as distinguished iroin the uniform 

Cliaractei's to which no such relation can he assij,Mied: (1 ) Thenumber 
(»f costal folds, whose iutersi»aces correspond with tlie vertebra- ; (L')the 
number of phalan^^es. 

IJaird, in the first synopsis of this genus published, enumerates eij;ht 
species; (Jray in l.S.'d) eataloj;ues ten, after we exclude some species of 
othei' jicnera erroneously included. Dumeril, likewise^ iiudndin;; species 
of other j;cnera, gives live true And)lystoma'. llallowell, IS.'tS, increased 
tlu! number to sixteen. In my monograph of this genus, ]»ublished in 
1S(J7, the si)ecie8 described numbered eighteen, six new ones being 
added. Dr. IJoulenger, in the Catalogiu- of the IJritish Museum, second 
edition, published in 18815, gave the number as .seventeen, including a 
Siamese species. In the present wmk thirteen species are admitted, one 
of which is the Siamese species A. iicfsiiiiilis, after the subtraction of 
nine species placed in the genera ('huniirntus and LhujiKvltipsUH. For 
the stmly of this genus the collection of the Smithsonian Institution is 
une(pialed. Probably the second best collection existing, that of the 
Academy of Xatural S(Meiices of I'liiladelpnia, has furnished its 
numerous types, and several species mostly described by the late Dr. 
JMnvard Llallowell. 

SipiOjIlliH llf KpivivH. 

I. .Sui'icM of tuL'tlii'XlLMiiliii'; iiliiii;; II 

u' i'\|(iti;il li>s.sii'i' "f the iiitcriiiil iiiii't',- 


of tongiu! ladiatiiij; lioiii its poMti'iior imriion. I'moloid <;l;iiiil 
foriiiiii},' ail ovoid distinct mass. I'oiir idialaiiKcs in fomtli loc' 

s llnl 

A. ( 'ostal grooves, ton. 
i(. Voiiicriiic scries, tint 
Head lii'oad ; width : 

■ 1 to frioiii ; Mni//h' coiitrac 

ted : 


iial ii.'trc; 

closer tlian iiitenial ; iiahiline scrii-s convex haekwards; tail mIioii. 

coniiiressed ; hlackish-hrowii, .ura.v sjiucke I. 
B. Costal 1,'rooves, eleven. 
a Vomerine series three. 
li No, or one iiidistinet plant.-ir liiUcrele, 

J. itdiH 

Middh- s.' 

ru's transverse or concave to lieliind posterior inarj;ins of nan 

width of lieail in specimens of :{ inel 

ics, ureatertliaii one-fonrtli lenijll 

to irroin : in adnlts, 1.7 tin 


k ahove, with urav <;r 





!■ UU CMlllIlllll Mlicl( J .1 II. 


Tin; IIATKACIIIA (»r NoKTII amkuioa. 


tcrs «lis 

solve an 
,11 not no 
•80 t'liai- 
till I'liiu- 
thi' i>nla- 
iilnals «)!' 
trillion ••! 
\ uniroiin 

!.•; (2)tlu- 

iltt'S I'lJillt 

spi'cii's ol' 
n;;- specit's 
, iucveast'tl 
iblislii'd in 
(iR's Uein;,' 
iiin, seconil 
iiicIiuliiiK a 
)trartit»n ot 
ipsus. l"'oJ' 
stilution is 
I hat of till- 
niislH'd its 
hu late l>i. 

liiiivs. t'lici 
mill 1«'»"'" 

ill iiiin> mm li 
(Is: tail hIi'iH, 
.A. tKlpuidiiiiii 

iiriiiiis of iiuro'i 
ic-foiirlli I'Miulli 

JIV (MOSS-tlillllN- 

,1. oiitiniiii- 




'reel ii iiM III (he last; wiiltli of li<-a<l in small N|ii'(!iiiifim, ll.Ti to ^roiii ; in 
ailiillM, I.Ti limes; a sli'oii;r iloisal ;;i'oovi' aail Ioii;;<m' tail ; lilackisli 
iiUovi', Willi a M'l'ir.s of loiiiid vi'llow mjioIh on t'acli side ol' tlii' liack. 

.1. iiiniclultnii. 

Mnliiiii series of teetli convex, advam'in^' lievoml posteiior mar;;in miles ; 

will 111 of head miieli less tliaii one-Ion il li ltMi<;tli lo irroin ; tail slioil, 

no dorsal groove; lead-colon-d, willi an iiiferitn' lateral and usually 

supi rior serii's ofsmull irrej;iilar yellowish ;;ray spots...!, coimiivniniii. 

,i (Two dislinel ]ilantai' Inhereles; 

.Median series of teeth Ntrai<;lil, nearly divided; external iiares iniicli 
eloser tci^clher than inlenial ; width of head more than one-foiirlii 
leii;;th lo j^roin ; miiz/.le very short ; tail iniieli i;iimi»reMsud ; lilack- 
isli ahovt', with laiy;o, irrei;iilar, yellow spots, eonlliieiit on Ni<tes ; lie- 
low yellow A. hkolitr. 

I III N'omerinc si-ries four. 

Teeth in four series, which I'orin an ohiiise an^^le directed forwards; width 

of head, :t.l! limes in length to nniin; length from m(i//.Ie lo axilla 

eijual length from axilla to <;roin ; tail nearly as long as head and 

iioily ; dark Inowii, with a daiU hrowii hand on side ....(. rui>miiiim. 

r. ('o,-.lal niooves, twelve; 

i( l,.arH;erspe<'ies, with iwo distinct plantar, tuborclos and mucous poicson the 

side of the mil//.le. 
( \(p I'aiilhiis nistialis; tail sliortei' than head iiikI body ; chin not pr(ijeclin}f. 

N'omeropalal ine tooth series with the median portion pre.sentin;f a very 
tdilnse allele fiirwards, rarely straij;ht, somctiincs with the lateral 
]ioi'lioiis separated; hrown, with larj;e yellow sjiots of larj;er or 
smaller si/e I, (iijriiiiiiii. 

Mn/./le Iiroad olitnse ; dark brown, with vertical yellow sjiots on sides; 
teeth in four distinct series, in a nearly transverse line. 

./. Irixriijiliiiii. 
;1,< Canthns rostralis distinct ; chin jirojeeting. 

I';xternal nares nearer lojfct her than internal ; mn/.zhM)l) ; headsmall, 
width") times to };roin ; front convex; tail longer than head and 
body; voineiine teeth in one series, si iglitly con v«'X forwards; yel- 
low, Willi irregular brown baiiils above /. j-iphiai. 

atcSmaller species ; the mncons pores not extending beyond the orbits; teeth 
in three series; no, or one indistimtt jilaiitar tubercles. 

External and internal nares eiiiiidistant ; vomerine series nearly trans- 
verse; width of heail, 4..") to (i times in length to groin; length of 
oyo, 1.7r> to 'J.,') limes in width lietween anttirior canthus of same ; 
lead colored to brown or black, with or without jialu or distinct 
lateral spots A. jiffcrnoiiianiim. 

Nares c(|iiidistant ; width of head, •> times to groin ; niiizzlt) contracted ; 
length of eye, entering l.(!(i times in width btstween canthus of same, 
once to nostril; median dental smies angulated forwards; digits 
long; blown mlead colored, usually a broad gray band on vertebral 
line of tail and body expanding on occiput : sides, dark reddish-brown. 

-/. mavvoilactijlum. 

.Muzzle wide; width of head entining h^igtli to groin I times; tail long 
as head and body to groi:> ; digits short ; black, upper surfaces bright 
yellow A.t'inxnnthum. 

These .si>eeies are distributed as iullows: One, the A. persimilc trray, 
is said to be tin inhabitant of the mountain regions of Siain. Tlie others 
are all North American. One sjtecics only, the A. (iyrinum, c-\teuds 


lUJLLETlN ;;i, nNITi:i» STAIKS national MTSKIiM. 

soiitliwiuds oil tlMi Mi'xiciiii pliitvHU as lar as the Cit.v o( Me.\ic(». Tlio 
reiiiiiiuiny species are distiibiited as lollows: 

Eastkun Kkcion.— -i. oixiriim : A. piiiiclahim : .1. vun.-<ii<r'iiiiii : .1. hintUir : A. ruin: 
aiiiim (.').• J. I i<j rill It III ; A. jiphiat ; A.Jvffirxiiiiiiiiiiiiii. 

AisriioKirAKiAN Ki;(ii(i.\.— ./. luliioiilvnm. 

Ckntkai- liiaiioN.— ./. I ill fill II in: A. trixniiiliiiii. 

Tacii-'iu liKiiloN.— .1 I'ljriiiim : A. mnci-mUiilijliiin : A. iiiijuiilliiiin. 

As but one speciineii of the A. co^icanKiii is Uiiowii, lit lie can be said 
of its distribiitioij. 

AMHLVSTOMA TAl.l'OlDKIM llollin.cik. 

Giiiy. Cital. liiitr. (iiiul. IJiil. Mils., isr.d, \>. lit;; Diiiiicnl A I'.iliniii, Kip. 
(Jen., VIII, p. lU'.l; Cope, I'liKct;!!,-.. Acini. l'liil:i.. l-liT, p. 17-J; SI niiicli, 
(S:il; ISimlnigcr, Cutal. liatr.lJrad. I'.rit. Mils., ii eil.,l"<.i:.', p. 10. 
iSalaiiiiimlia laljinidm IhiHuook, N. Aiiicr. lltiip., \, 7;i, I'l. ','1. 

Siiortest, stoutest, and most cluiiisilv furiiu'd of all the tenestiial 
Ambli/fifiiiiialu. Character of skin as to },'laiids pits, etc., much as in 
A. punvtiitiim and (iiHUum. A row of lar^'e |»ores on the head, interior 
to the eye and nostrils, extending;' anterior to the; latter. This i>asses 
behind and beneath the eye, reachinjjf forward nearly to the nostril: a 
patch on the cheeks above the lateral j^roove and another below it, 
probably oxtendinj;' lorwai'd aloiifi; the lower Jaw. 

The head is very broad, and laifj^e, and is wider than the body anterior 
to the constriction at the neck. Its width is about eipial to the distance 
from snout to gular fold (thus wider than Ion;;;, and is contained about 
;3.] times to the j^'roin. The eyes are sujierior and ratln^r small, separated 
anteriorly by nearly tlii'ee len;4ths of the orltit; about oik^ orbit froi!i 
the nostrils, which are separated about 1.] orbits. The mu/zle is rather 
an^'ular. The ui»per Jaw is visible beyond the lower when viewed from 

The body is short, siiurtt, and depre.s.sed. There are 10 costal i^ioov «'s 
on the side. 

The tail is contained about 1.] times in the rest of the animal. It is 
much as in .1. oixtcum, but hi^ij^her, thou;-!! witiiout a crest. 

The dij-its are rather Iou{,' and slender, .scarcely dilVerent from those 
of A. opftcum. 

The i)alatine teeth are in a series of three sections. The 
middle .section is not interriii»(ed alon;;' the median line. In the type 
it is slightly concave anteriorly, .scarcely ivachiiijn to the inner line of 
the inner n arcs, and behind the rani^c of the lateral sections, which 
beyin a little interior to the outer line of the nostrils. The middle and 
lateral sections are separated by the width of the inner nostril. In 
another specimen the middle patch is nearly strai,i,Mit ; in another, com 
po.sed of two ares concave anteriorly. 

The tongue is thick, fleshy, and adherent, though the edges are free 
at the sides; le.sssoat the tip. Its width is not niT-lhun half that of 
the head. The i»ortion is separated itosteriorly by the exten- 


N'li. Ill 




Hion forward oftlie plain basal portion oftlie tongue, altlionji'h tliorcis 
no }ifro(>ve, and exhibiting two prominent cornuii to tlie tongue i)roper. 
The papillose ridges are longitudinal and nearly parallel. 

In alcohol this spe(;ies is a light brown above, paler beneath, irregu- 
larly spriidvled, blotched, and marbled with silvery or jduinbeous gray, 
oC a li(;hon-like character. Specinu'ns when alive show the ground color 
to be a dark brownish or liver black, more livid on the sides, and per- 
haps lighter beiu'ath ; everywhere spriidded with the silvery-gray dots 
of larger size on the back. The ;ii)per part of the tail is of a purer 
brown than elsewhere, and is bordered by a series of obscure blackish 
spots ; seen also near the lower maigin. A few similar dusky s])ots ap- 
pear .scattered on the back. The iris appears to be a dark brown with- 
out nu'tallic luster. 

A. series of speciiiuMis from Prairie Mer Rouge, Louisiana, is quite 
similar. ^Souu^ of them appear to have just completed the change from 
IIh' tadpole state, and the tail is higher, more compressed, and .somewhat 
crested; the toes, shorter, Hatter; the folds of the tongue 
more indistinct. 



Loiigtli from snout to tiMusvoi ■!' lint' of month '.W 

liCn^^tli from snont to ;;;ulin' folil .'i.'i 

Jjt-nj^di from snout to ^jroin l.'.XI 

l,('nH;tli from snout to licliiuil aruis y. .{(( 

I.('Ml;I|i from snout to cntl of tiiil It. HO 

l.i'ny;tli of t.iil l..'.(l 

Widtii of liciid :>•> 

Li'Utttli of forc-.nrm -Ki 

l.cnf^tli of liind Icjj; fr<nn knee .''•(i 

'Ixtcnt of In ml lo^s l.Td 

(iri'iitost loimtli of till 1 .;$! 

(Ircatost witltli iit km mo |ilaci" l.^ 

I found this species abundant in the high valley in southwestern 
Noitli Carolina in whi(^h the I'reiich I'road Ixiver takes its origin from 
mountain streams. Thence it extends through the .southern Atlantic and 
(lulf States to ami including liouisiaiia, west of which it lias not yet been 
foiiiKl. It is not aquatic, but lives in damp i)laces below logs and stones. 

VUi.l.—Aiiil'histiiiiintaliiniiti'iini No :iH7!i I'rario Mi't Knnco. Im. 



IiiiiiiIm'I . 


N.I. Ill 



Ijlii'ily CiiMMlv i 

l'l:lil ic Mi-1 l.'.ill'J 

Ni;m Caiiii. Ill .. 


Kiiiiii wlioiii ri'ccivcd. 

Or. .tonc'M. 

I. Kllilir. 

i: K. Ill .lit. 



i i 

: It. ' 

. 1, 








' i 


I i 


AMIJLVSroMA (d'ACI'M (inivciilioisl. 
(I'liilcs UI-'Jl.) 

A»ihlii>'fnmno]mrn, I?nin1, .lonrn. Ac. Pliila. (v!) i, !-'"><•, p. '>-*.\: Orny, Cut. I?ii1r. (irn.1. 

I?rit. Mils., I'll. I, p. ;!/>, H.'iO; ILillowi'll, Jdihii.. I'iiili. .V'Mil., iv, :!r>l. 
Salaiiiandiitopara, fJi'avoiih., UcluTd. Ziuil., p.liU, .•iml Dclic, ]>. T.'>, I'l. H': l»iiin. 

»t nilir., |>. <>(!. 
Siildiiiniiilrd fiiHciitta, (Jivon, Jniirii. Ac. Pliila. I, 1-!1H, p. li.'.il: llollir. N. A. II. -rp,. \, 

1). 71. I'l. will ; ll.'lviiy, N. Y.,'i , IJ'pi-. !>■ *7. I''- '*. li;:- •"• 
Arnhhisloiiiitl'iitridhim. Ddiii. ife 1511)1.. p. Ml, I'l. 101, ijm-, .">. 
.Imhhisloma oimnim, Copf, I'roc Ac. I'liila. 1H17, l>. \r.\; Sf raiirli, S.ilain )).(;:!; lioii- 

loii-,'cr, Cat. Mitr. (Jrail. Miit. Miis 1. ii. issj. p. Id. 

Body swollen, tliick, c.vliiidritiiil, (U'prcs.scd: skin pcrrcctly sniontli, 
altlioiijjh under a lens ev(M'y wiicrc sliowin^' niiniitc .simple pores or ])i(s 
connected with the ylands, whieii lire seen everyw hei'e on the Wody and 
tail, except, perhaps, on the lower part of sides, belly, and beneath the 
liead ; on the tail, however, they are most developed on the npper hall". 
There are no rejjiilar patches of more conspieiions pores on the liead 
and parotoids, as seen in A. puuctatiim. 

Head rather broad, depressed, its {greatest width about •,' the length 
from snout to jjnlar fold, and about f, the distance to insertion of hind 
lefjs. Axial leiifjth of mouth half that to ji'ular fold, which is iiiter- 
rnpted on the nape; a constriction behind the aiif-lc of the month, with 
a lateral {jroove (or ridj^e) connecting;' the two as in ^1. piiiirtdfiiin. Ins- 
tance from snout to {jnlar fold not (piite 3A times in that to insertion of 
himl lefj. The eyes are moderate; the pupil (arcular. The jicneral r»'- 
lation much as in .1. piinrtdtiim. 

r.ody nearly cylindrical, but decidedly depressed. No indication of 
a dor.sal furrow. Eleven well marked costal furrow.s inciudiii;: flic in- 
guinal. There are about four pelvic; furrow.s; those on the of the 
tail aredistiiHit anteriorly, but "rradually become fainter. 

The tail is oval or subellii»tical in cross .section, thou<;h williont any 
indication of a keel. It is nearly cylindrical at, lhou;;li sb<;|itly 
(ioi.ipressed, becoinitifj more and more so to the pointed tip. It is 
thi<!ker above than below, and measured from beliiixl llie anus is con 
tained U times in rest of the leiif;th. The lateral {rroove on the tail is 
less distinct than in A. punctatiiiH. 

Tjic digits are linear, depre.s.sed, fuit without any indication of web 
or marfrin. The third or longest linger is one-third the distance from 
its tip to the elbow ((contained three times). The lateral ones are ipiite 
short. The fourth toe is longest, and contained L'^ times in the distance 
from its tip to the knee; the .{, ."., L', I are suci-e.ssively shorter, or the 
tilth and .second are about eipial. The distance between the outstretched 
toes is contained about once and two-sevenths in the length from .snout 
to behind anus. 

The tongue is thick and lleshy, as in .1. punclahim. though larger in 
])roportion, and tilling the mouth more. TIm' teeth aivinoiie transverse 



TnK nATRAniiA or noutit amkrica. 


lino, ill tliroc soiics, iimcli as in A. jnoicfatiim. The (H'litral is a tloiililo 
an;. Tlic. lateral seiics an* not so lar tor\var<l, or [lass more obliquely 
backwards, so tliat their extreiiie end is even behind the eonvexity of 
the central series, not anteriiu' to it. The lateral series is abont half the 
lenjith of the central, with a decided interval. 

In alcohol the {general color is a livid black. There is a dorsal series 
of transvi'rso lijjfht slate-i^olored bantls, which widen at ea<*,li end into a 
V <>M the back, but are more liiu^ar on the tail. These vary in number; 
about seven on the body and as many on the tail; sometimes more or 
less; sometimes (continent with those before and behind them; soine- 
tiiiies interrupted in the middle. They do not tlescend one tliird the. 
depth on the sides, beiiij;' eonlined abruptly and well delined ti» the 
dorsal region. There is a similar patch on the snout. 

Mitixiiri mcntn. 

Inrlii's. Ini'lioM. 

Tiifjtl lonirtll li.HI L.'iintli to t:iil -J.:!.'. 

I,«iij;fli «.(■ iiioiitli lid l,('ii>;tli of tail I.r.l) 

I,i'ii;rlli to'iilil '.:! Will til of )i(':i<l 1.". 

L(Ml;;tli to I'ori^ U'<i till Li'li;;lli I'rom dliow 'l.'i 

I..i'ii<;tli to hi ml U'n 1. ;l(i liCiiy-th from kiici" ;"> 


The principal dill'ereiice in I'orm and strnctnre between this species 
and A. pumfatum aresec^i in the abseiuie of any dorsal furrow, and a less 
proiniiien(u> of that on the side of the tail. The limbs are more feeble, 
the head narrower, the tail shorter, et(t. 

Iv specimens from Prairie .Mei Konm', t().'>.'> .' the body is thicker and 
more ('Iniiisy, tlie lej^s weaker, the toes shorter than in Pennsylvania 
spj'cimens. The te«'th, too, api>ear more transverse, and there is little 
or ni> interval l»etweeii tin' midtlle and lateral combs. 

This species is found in drier jiroiiiid than is conociiial to most sal 
amanders. I have taki'ii it in tiu' sandy ri'^ions of New Jersey and 

e:'/ !5 


]•']•;. fi A iiihlii!.t4iiiin nponiiti (inivi'iilmr- 1 ('ildniTstrr, Vfi. 









" = y-u 

Wli.ii col. 


I''iiiiri wliiirn irccivril. 








II wit:; 


















lii.clininiiuli, (l:i Dr W. I.. .Ion.' 


. _ IS 



— , IST.'I 

Hin.»tiMi, N (1 

Moiilliin, Aln 

Siiiill.crii llliiioi.t 

I'rairii- Mi'i- l;iiiii;i', I.a . . 

Wlii'iilliirid. lull 

Mdiiiil Canii.l. Ill 

I.aiiraslci-. Ohio 

Kinslnn. N. (' 

N,.w Vciik 



St..l('i(>inc CivcU. M(l Krii. — . Ii^s-J 

AMirvilli'. S.(! 

Ni>« r.i'iiriMci. ^Ia^^s I 

'I'vi'i'i' Spiiiiu.;. ri.|Mi I 

New (Irlrans, I, a ' 

('arli,.^lc.. Pa 

Ki-rnpi'i- ('iiiiiilv. Mis.s 

liai-ini'. Wis 

.\iix Plains Itivcr, III 

Saliiii. N.<: 

.1. W.Miliir. 

i; Kcmili <itt 

JaiiM's |.'airii« 

KiiliiMt Kiil^wiiv .. 
I,. M TiiiTiii ..'.... 

I'ntf. L. l.rM|U).lrU\ 

.1. \V..Milliii 

T (llciv.r 

l'l..r. Iv I!. »s 

Is. N. WalKi'i 

.1. II. lianatl 

\V Nv.'.ji 

I'lcir.'.Msiic (hvi II 

N.(i .\riil. Nal Sri 
i'li.r. -i. I'' liaiiil . . 


I 'I 

I.' Ki'iiiiiriitl 

.l.'lM, . ... 

Nal MIT of 



c.KNKi.'Ai, sr.i!ii:s 


■ . 

a:tl7 1 Kiiiston. N.C 

It",'.l I Cliiiin sli'i', Va 

•Ills; K> I'laiiir. MiT K'niinr, f.a 

;in.'K 2 .\niliTsoii. S. (• 

liil !l :i Criii;;!.! 

;i!MS I 'raili'io. N.C. 

;!!I'J7 S (;iiiiin'sli'r, Va . .. 

-, l.-T.I .I.W. MiltPM .... 

«' Mann 

.[lis. I''aiii.. 

Daniel ... 


r. I-. liii.ljiei- 

liiii.s i; ('tiliinil)iis, Ca '.'.. Dr (iesnei- !!!. 

141S1 1 (jo ,|„ 

;i!li:i I MeaiUillc. I'a .1. K. Tliielislon 

:«l-l >i lleiii-ia Di..r I,eC.,nle 

:i!lll- 1 Kiplev (lliio ||a\ 




(I'llltPS 1 1-1,-i, •jr.. Iii;.s. I, ;-.; |'!:,|,. |>, Dm, III.) 

y/m/Ji/.v/omrt /i»»r/((/»i/i, ('i)|)('.. I'liic. Ac. I'liila., I-ilT, |i. 17.'); Sir.inrli, Siil.iiii , |i.<>:!; 

Itiiili'lijii r. ('.It. liatr. (iiaii. I!ril. .Miis.,<m1. n, 1 -*J, p. .11. 
Lninid iiinirlaiii. I, inn., S. \., i, ]i. liTO. 
I.niirln mdiuiliito, SIimw, Znol., ni,, 

S,ih,m>ni<h;i rniriiD^a (Hurt.), I >;iU(l. h'rpt., \iir, p. ■.'•J;i ; llnll.l-., N. A. Ilrlp., v. p (i7, 

I '1. •,'■,'. 
I.iirirld sHliVHiliiria. H;irt(iii. Aiiii'i. riiil. 'rriins., \ i., p. lii.-', I'j. J (ij;. C, 
Sain 111(1 iidni ■■^nhriiilitrni. Il;iil,in, .loiini. Ai. I'liihi.. \, p. ;!|T ; Itrkay, N. V, I'aiiii. 

li'i'pl., p. 71.1'l.-.'. Iln. lit;. 
.tmhliiKliima siilii-inliKt iiw, 'I'scliiuli, I!iir.. p. '.I','. 
Amhliislonia n,rnli,„i . (iiM.v. I'Mt. liatr. (iriid. liiit. Mii.s., ni. i. p. ;;,V (U:\\ rinr ZiWil 

Sor. l.s-.;!, p. 11. ■ ' 

.imhhisloiiKi innirtdld. I',,iinl, .Imiiii. Ac riiil.i. (•.'), i. p.-JSl; Ij.ill.nvill / .• iv H> 

|.. X.i. ' ' ' 

Amhhinlnmii aiijiix, \hm\.\ llil.r.,viii, p. lli;!. 

No. .{!»;-.(► ;. l!<)(lys\vnII(Mi. stout. .'.vliiMliiciil. I[o;i<Mcpross(Ml. Skin 
eiitiivli smooth, tli(Mi«.|i piit.-d with i.on's, whi.-l, ;,,c most niimnoiis on 




tlie tail, or tli(!S(! tluTc is a piitcli of laif^er <)lu^s on the i>aiot<)i«l rcjiioii, 
and aiiotiier on the top of the head inside of tlie orbits and extendirij;' 
antei'ioily in a straijiht line towards thc^ nostrils and passing;' bactkwards 
seMiiciniuhirly behind tlie A doable row around the edjje of the 
lower Jaw ; a jiaii' on ea(;h outer (postal space alonu' tlie side of the body, 
and a row on each side of the top of the tail ; the latter indicated {jen- 
erally by a whitish dot. 

Head broad ; depressed ; width nearly (Mpial to distance from snout to 
K'nlar fold, and nearly one Ibuith the distance to insertion of hind le^s. 
licn^th of mouth alonj^' axis of body half distance from snout to liular 
fold, which is nearly continuous a<'ross the nape. There is a constiic'tion 
behind the ar-yle of the Jaws, interrupted above and below, and a fur- 
row eonnectinj;" the two alonji' the jjaiotoid re.i^ion and extended in a 
lateral line to the oibit. Distance troni snout to jiular fold <'outained .'U 
times in distance to insertion of hind legs (four tinu's in another speca- 

Theeyes are moderately laru'e; the longlh of the orbit contained t.l times 
in distan(!e from snout to <iulai' fold; about once in distance from the nos- 
trils, and about on(H' in the distance between the two nostrils : nearly 
twi<!C in distance between the anterior extremities ol'the orbits. 

Uody nearly cyliudri(!al, perhaps slightly depressed, and swollen a 
little in the middle; on each side are t'leveu costal <rro.)ves, iiuiludinc: in-, 
guinal and axillary ones ; all strongly marked an<l nearly continuous 
above and below; the axillary is, however, usually (juite inconspicuous; 
four more of these furrows to behind the anus, wlnu'c the last is (ronlln- 
ent with the tirst caudal furrow; these become less and less distin(;t to 
near the middle of the tail. There is a slight groove down the middle 
of the back. 

The tail is oval in se(!tion, the larger end of the oval below ; becMnn- 
ing more and more comi»resscd to the tip, without indication of any 
ridge. There is a lat«Mal indentation along the whole length. wlii(Oi is 
about e.jual to the distan(!e from the base to the sn()ut. In alcoholic 
specamens the tail is bent or curved, sometimes upwards, sometimes 
down, sometimes lateially. 

The digits are nearly (cylindrical, or slightly depressed, without web 
or nnirgin. Th(> third or longest linger is contaiiu'il al>out 2\ tinu's in 
the distancic to the elbow. The second linger reaches to the last artic- 
ulaticMi ; the fourth to the |)enultimate. 

The fourth toe is longest, (contained L*;\ times in the (listan(!e to the 
knetc; the third, second, lifth, and first succ(vssively shorter. The dis- 
tance between the outstretciu'd hind toes is rather more than L', the 
length to behind anus. 

The tongue is thi(!k, lleshy, and attached, although free at the (^Iges 
except behind; it is about two thirds the width of the upper jaw, tu'arly 
orbicular, though the outline of the papillose i)oiliou is a little emar- 
ginate behind. Italmost seems as if the tongue wei-e capalile of closing 
round an obi(M;t in its c(>ntt>r. as in th(> hollow of the li;ind. 




..-■^* > 




Tlio triinsvorsoliiM^ (.Itoctli is in tlircc piirts ()r(M)inl)s; ii (U'lifnil about 
two-liniis the. widtli of the lieud, uiul scpaiiilcl IVom llic liitcriil by ii 
sli-ilit interval. Tiio central patch is nearly strai-ht in its middle, but, 
tluM-nds enrve a little, torwards, and continuously with the lateral i>i)r- 
fion of the line which forma a curve concave l)ackwards, itonndinfi- the 
orbit. The inner edj^e of the imsterior nares marks the extent of the 
central row of teeth. The lateral comb of teeth is about half the length 
of the central. 

The color of the spe(!imen described is, in alcohol, of a dark liver brown 
above, abruptly light olivaceous beneath. On each side of the back is a 
series of nearly circular rounded spots about the size of the (U-bit, about 
three on each side of the head, eijiiit or nims on the body, and as many 
on the tail, where they are sonu'tinu's conlliuMit. These spots are white, 
in alcohol, but yellow in life. Alon.y the sides and nnuv sparin.i;ly be- 
neath are some scattered, (piite small whitish spots,not very c(Mispicuous. 
The lejisareof the color of the under parts, not of the U|)per; I hey show 
some of the small lij^lit spots seen on the sides. 



■I i 





Total IciiKtli of :VM) 

Li'iijjlli (if itiiiiitli 

Leiiu'lli to ,i;'nl;ii' lolil 

Loinith to uroin 


Iiulios. niclics. 

('(.'id Ii('ny;tli oftiiil licliiiiil ;iiins :!.!(• 

Id \Vi(Uii ol'licad i'.."i 

.-'•J Arm I'roiii i'IIkiw (ill 

.. . vi.Sd Hind It'" IVoiii kni'o "^a 

Loiifjtli to bcliind aims :t.l(l | 

In the preceding paragraph I have described a specimen from Abbe- 
ville, S. C, as a lo(!idity nearest to that whence the original of liinna-iis's 
des(!ri|)tion was obtained. An exaiuinatiou of a large sei'ies of speci- 
mens from different localities shows certain differences, whicii, however, 
arc not of a character to indiiNite specific separation. 

The external appearaiKte of the skin varies consideral)ly with llie 
.strength of the alcohol used far lueservation, and probably with the 
season when capturt'd. The animal, when alive, is perfectly smooth and 
lustrous, and readily exudes a large (piaiitify of a white milky Juice fVoin 
the upper half of head, body, and tail, or from the dark-cohu'ed portion. 
This is due to the presence of glands closely implanted in the skin, the 
])ores of whicli are sometiiiu>s (piite iiieonspi(Mious ; sometimes very dis- 
tinct. On the tail they are much largest and di'cpest, and the lateral 
groove marks their inferior boundary, being there implanted verti(!ally. 
When these pores are very full of their milky juice and the alcohol is 
very sfrtuig the contraction of the skin betwciui the mouths of Wwsv, 
pores gives imue or less the appearance of roundtMl, thick-set granules, 
of rather large size. This also gives rise to an ai)parent deiuession (tf 
the digits, the skin forming quite a margin 

The proportions of the body vary slightly. The tail is generally not 


80 long as the rest of the animal, tli 

le groin IxMiig more iisuallv in^ariu" 



the middle point oftlic axis. Yonnjier specimens appear to liave sliorter 

Tliei'c is considerate diviMsity in tiic cniv*', of the tiansverse series 
of palatine teeth. In ncnirly all more northern specimens the central 
row is formed of two arcs, concave anteriorly, more or less continuous 
with the lateral, which are anterior and convex anteriorly. The two 
central arcs arc continuous at their inner ends, forminj;' an inveited 
an^ie on the axial line. Sometimc^s, however, as in mosr of the 
sptuMmens from Prairie Mer lioujje, tins central anslc is wantiu}?, and 
there is only a sinjjle arc or curve, (loncave anteriorly. In tlui type 
spiMMmi'u described this central row of tiietli is nearly or (piite strai};ht 
(which is quite apt to ho the case in v(M'y large ones), while in one 
specimen of No. U'tSi it is convex anteri(>rly. The transverse extent 
of this middle line of teeth varies. Sometimes there is «;(iite an interval 
hetwi'cn it and the lateral, while in 31).'>(>, from New Yo k, they are con- 
tinuous without ai>pre('ial>le interruption. 

There are no very great variations in the pattern of coloration. (Gen- 
erally the outer surface of the limbs is colored like the back, in which 
cas(^ there are one or mon*, large, rounded light spots. The under parts 
aie generally dark bluish; the sprinkling of small whito specks on the 
sides and beneath varies considerably in prominence. Tlie large dorsal 
spots are always nearly circular, and vary in number, generally only one 
series «)n ea(th sidt*. 

In living specimens from Carlish', Pa., the iris is dark brown, without 
metallic color, scarcely distinguishable from the jiupil. The color of 
the animal above is adeep anthracite black; beneath, dull livid. On 
ea(!h side the <lorsal line is a series of large, nearly circular, gamboge- 
yellow spots, somewhat symmetrically disposed. These vary from !(► to 
L'(» from head to tail, and sometimes are laiger than the eye ; usually 
about its size. On tiie sides and beneath are sparingly scattered small 
bluish-white si)e(^ks. The spots, both yellow and bluish-white, are some- 
times found on the legs. 

In youngei' individuals tiie yellow sfiots are brighter and the black 
ground deeper. — 8. F. I>. 

Professor IJaird (I(M>nographic Etn-ycloiia'dia, 1S,51,) thus describes 
the reproduction of this spcM'ies : 

' ICarly in April, or towards the (Mid of Miirch, large masses of gelati- 
nous matter may be observed in ditches, jiools of water, or mountain 
streamlets, which on closer inspection will be found to consist of a num- 
ber of hollow spheres, about a quarter of an inch in diameter,embedded 
in or combined together l>y a perfectly transparent .jelly. Within each 
sphere is a, dark obje(!t, a sph iindal yolk, which in the course of some 
days becomes (considerably elongated and exhibits signs of animation. 
Omitting, as unsiiited to our pages at present, any ac(^ount of the em- 
bryonic development of tin^ animal, we resume its history at the time 
when its struggles have freed it from the shell of the sphere in which it 

I! t 




i' } 

bi ? ■ _i 






iM'LMrriN :!i, r.N'ri'Kh statks naiionai- mi'skiim. 


\v;is inclosed. At (liis Ii'iik- it is alioiit liaH';ili iiicli in It'lifjtli, iilld con- 
sists siMi|)i,v (»r Ih'ihI, ImxI.v ;ni<l liiil, the liilli'i willi a well (Icvrlopcd lin, 
rxtcndinji Ironi the liciid and anus to tin cxticniit.v of tlicbod.v. R«'s 
|)irati(»n is pcrroiincd l»y means (»f tliicc {>ills projecting: (Voni ca(!li sido 
of (lie neck, of very siniple construction, liowcNcr, and willi Init t'vw 
Inanclies. 'I'lie alis<'iice of limits is compensated It.v tlie existence of ., 
ciiilt shaped appenda^^c on each side of (lie head, proceedin;: froMi tlic 
an.nle of the month, and representing the eini (dtserved in some ixliilf 
salamanders. I!.v means of lliese appendafjes flie voinif,' salamanders 
are enalded to anchor tliemsei\('s securely to (dtjects in the wafer. In 
the coarse of a few days a tnltercle is seen to form on «>acli side, just 
hehind tlit^Iicad and niidei' the i;ills. wliieli eloiinafes, and tinally ftuivs 
at each end. lirsl into two. tiien three, and at last into four brandies, 
tlins exliil»itin<,' tlu' anterior extiemilies. with t lie tour linijers, which 
lattei', in the larva, are V(>ry h)n<::. I'.efore the foi-e Ipj^s I>ec<»me (M)ni- 
plelely foniied tiiose heliind sjtront ont in a similar manner, witli first 
three, then four, and finally live toes. During' this time the yiils iiave 
increased in (he nnmher of brandies, and tinally exhibit a i)oaiitif'iiI 
arboreseeiil aitpearance. in wliidi the circulation (»l the blood can i»e 
distinctly seen by means of a simjile lens. (See plate Hi.) 


^ 7 

Kn; '■! ~.\<unii I, iiiiliit.nn n.iiii|>li>ii V:i, 


it n 








UKsi;i!vi; SKUiKs. 



y, '■ 





















































111) III 


1 I4^r. 


















I.IM ItlitV 



riuin wImmm ivi.iv.a. N.ilHi'c.l Mp.Ti 


WliitliilcIC I\, ti.i \.(ii'|iliinl 

Kit cliiiriMmli, <ia . IM. \V. I,. Jiiiic.t 

li.ll.nilir. Ill S.'lil. -,1H7I 111. .\. l;<iis.s, 

Cliirii^ii. Ill SwciiiN 

Iti'twiTii lijiliaiiiil.i itiid \'.\ ('iil..I.'l).«ii:'.liaiii, I'.S. 

I'li.icp, '\\-\. .\ir-.iv. 

Iliililii\, \iiv:i Scotia Di.dillinl 

Wli.allanil. Iiiil Aiii. --, 1«K1 Itiilnwav 

I'ailisl,. I'a I'lol', .S. I'Mialiil 

.MilMuillr. S. »'. ... Dr. .1. II. lianall 

I ilitiiri'Mlrf. Va. . . . . . 

.\lliL;anv t'liillilv. N. V Dl . Sli'vciis 

CuiiU (NiiMilv. ill I'r. K. Kiiiiiiriill 

tJiaiul ('iitiMii, l.a ). Vanliii 

I'liit Dawson, Knl Kivi'i, ' Dr. I,. A. Kdwanls. I' 

AiU. [ S. .AiPii.v. 

Viii;iiiia '.. 

Hai iiic>, Win I'lor. S. K. i;alril 

failisli., I'a .1.1 

I'lMii ill Mel Uiiii::.', I, a il ami's I'aiiii' 

t'lfM laiiil, tlliii) I 1)1. ,1. I'. Kiiilaiiil 

Mi.iiiil(',iiini.| III Niiv. —,!.•-.■- 1 I,.M.'rmiirf 

.Sum 11 ill. I, N. Y 1 (?) 

(Villi, I,.. I'.i i I'liif. S. K I'lainl 

Miiiial .Iiiv, r.i 

CimI II ('iiiiiil V. I'a. 

Mr.iilvill.., I'a' 

• ■.ulM.', I'a 

Ililil'.ix, Niiva Si. ill 
\Vi.>l|i.iil, N. Y 

I. SlaiitVii' 

S iiiii;;i;. T 

- ■•• (') 

I'r.if. S 1'. r.iiiil .. 

Dr. (iil{iiii 

I.^.'<.-. Mis. !■'. I,. I...' ... . 

('ll■^^■l,lll.l. Olilii 1)1. Kiillaml 

(>)u.1hm' I i;. Niiiii' 

Saiiii l.iiiiis Mil Dr. ll. i;ii:;li'maiiii 

Kii.iw ill.'. T.iiM .. I'l.iri-^.siiiMll.lii-M 

W.vsiiiiiil, N. Y ' (i. W. I'.iii.l 

{■Irvil.iiiil. Ilhi ' I)i. liallaii.l 

I'r.iuii' .M.i IJiiii.;'' I„i i .lam.M I'.iiiic 














.\|i .ill.ilic 







AMI'.LV.sTOMA ('( (NSlMlKSl'M ('..ii. 


. A(;i.l. N.U. Si'i. I'liilii., l-."i'.», I'.';;; i«i7, ITT: .S| rancli, Saluiii., \>. 
Itiiiilciincr, (';il. 1!. (i. I'.ril. Mils., I'll. ii, H-.', p, I.'. 

'I'liis ill Dill- ol' tilt' siiiiillcst spt'cii'sor the .m'liiis. ami tlioiii;!! li'ss stout 
tliaii lilt' two pifci'iliii^, is iiioiv so tliaii tlic .1. jf(l'crsi>iii(inuin, which 
it I'csiMiilth's ill ;;i'iu'ral I'catun's. 

Skill cYcrywhiTi' siiiootii. in soiik' spci-iiiu'iis only a si'rics of poivs 

'Jt' ■ may l»i' (raced alonu the superciliary rej-ioii ami in a line to near the 

nostrils; sevi'ial arc on the parotoid rci^ion. The skin ol" the Uody is 

remarkably free from YisiMe pores. wImIc, as usual, the supeii(*r part ol 

the tail is thickly studded with them. 

'I'hc head is a broad oval, its width making the len.uth to the L;roin 
1..") tiiiu's or a little more, and is a little over three-louiths distance to 
i^iilar fold. Kye tissuii' equal length to nostril, and 1.7."> limes between 
anterior angles, and a little more than ilistaiu-e between nostrils. The 
last distance is a little less than that between inner iiares. Posti'rior 
can til IIS of e\ »' a little anterior to caiithiis oiris ; anterior cant bus oppo- 
site middle of upper lip from iUiterior |>oint. Muzzle loiijier than cliiu. 

Furrows bi'hind llieorl»it iiic.)iispieuoiis,biit presiMii. C(»stal .ijrooves 



cli'vuii. Tiiil slioil, cvt'iywhoiT coiiiidcssi'd, iiicasiiriiii; IVoiii its ori<jiii 
(at cud vent) to axilla or to ^^iilar Ibltl. No niarkod dorsal ;;iitovi'. 

Till'. limbs aie short; till' di-its loii^- and siciidor. Wlu'ii ai»|)ri'ssed 
tli(^ Hiij;i'rs rt'ach to tin' lii'd, or l»i'.voiid bast's of Iocs. Dijiiits siibcy- 
liiidrical; anteriorly, third longest, (hen li, 1, 1 ; posteriorly, I, M, L', r», I. 
Two small tubercles on edyes of sole. Expanse of outer toes e(|ual fiom 
end muzzle to posterior <!antlius of eye. 

Teeth in three patches, the median lonj^est, commen(!in.n opposite 
inner marj^iu of luires, and convex to between nares, or nearly sit, in one 
specimen. Ton^'ne lonf,'er than broad, the laminar portion prolonj;ed 
in two lateral l)antls posteriorly. 

Miii'^iireiiii iit.i. I.iiit'N 

Lonytli iViiiii .siimit td f^iilMi- Cold 1. ilii 

li('iiij;lli IVom siioiit to j,'i()iri U> •j:, 

1j(^iij;(Ii IVoiii siiont to end iiriiis I'.l. '.t 

Loiijjtli from snout to I'lid lail ai. ',i 

lii'niftli ofiiioMlii on liicdiiui line ;i 

I,('nj;tli 1)1' I'on'-iirni and hand IVoiii dliow 'A 

Ii('n;;tli of It'K ami foot from knuc r> 

Width of In'ad if. 7 

(leiieral color above leaden, below pale leaden, the latter usually 
bounded by the line of tho liini)s, but in one s[)ecim(Mi rising' as hij*!! as 
the line of the eye. Lower parts of sides and sides of tail more or loss 
varied with small whitish spots, the former often in a re^oilar line. A 
similar line on the uiipi-r part of the sides is present in saiiu! specimens ; 
in others wantino;. The end of the muzzle is sometimes pale marbled. 

Eiyht specimens of this species before me conlirm its validity in every 
respect. Specimens of the developed yoiiiio of both A. (>i>nvnin and .1, 
l>UHt't<itiim are of considerably sinaUer size, and maintain their i>eculiar 
colorations and a o-ivater width of the head, etc. 

From the api>ended localities from which it has been scut the raiiy-e 
is seen to be extensive. 


I i 


.SZi ff tf 

, _ a e r - 3 

l''lo. h>.—Alllbl!lStullltll•lll^^■|llrl|lllll. N'u. ;)1);;|. Caili.slr, I'.i. 

No. No. spt^c. 



:)ii;ii :i Cailisli', I'n 
li'jih I ; (Ill 


S. K. liiiiiil. 


1 i (;ii;iilt'»liiii, s. c 

'.; ' I.ilxii.v Coiiiitx. (in* 
1 ' Cliislrl- <!imilt V. I'ill 

! l>r. Ilalldwi'll. 

I 'I'lllll l.rCullto. 

E. I). ( !o|H). 

' Spi:ciiiii!ii ilo.tciibcil. 

I Tjpo. 






l'i(i(!t)o«liii|;s U, S, Natioiuil Musoiiiii, lri."*r), \i. 'M*, I'l. xi\'. 

The lu';i(l is lar^'f, somewhat wider than tlie body, and Ualdiiu'd; the 
body short, and tiio tail h)ii^ and coiiipitissed. Tiiesi^in is tor tiic most 
part smooth, bnt rvcrywiit'iv, as seen nnch-r a Kmis, is pitted with the 
openin};s of the entaneous follicles. Of tliese, there area fewenlargeil 
ones in a band snrronndin;;: tiie orbit and extending; forward to tlu; 
iKKstril. Others are fonnd alK)ve the angle of the Jaw, and a few still 
lariier ones on the posterior border of the i arotoid n'gion. The promi- 
nent keel and the whole tip of the tail aie so riehly provided with 
eidarjjed pores as to present a Ki'iiniilated appearan(;e. 

The width of the head is somewhat greater than that of the body. It 
is possible that the breadth and llatness of the head havi^ been exag- 
gcu'ated somewhat l>y the injnries that it has recu-ived; but this can Ix' 
trne only to a very slight (vxtent. The breadth is abont the same at the 
angle of the Jaw and the corner of the month. From the former point 
the head tapers backward, the ontline being coiutave to its posteiior 
border, where it is snddenly constricted into the necik. From the cor- 
ners of the month tlie head tapers forward to nearly opi>osite the nostrils, 
beyond which it is rapidly rounded to form the snont. The width of 
the head is a little less than the distance from the snout to the gnlar 
fold, and is (contained in tlu' distanei^ from the snont to the groin .5.0 
times. Tlie distance to the gnlar fold iscontained in the distance to the 
groin 3.1i tinu's. The depth of the head, on a line Joining the angles 
of the Jaws, is a little less than one half its width. The gnlar fold does 
not overlap, as it tloes in some s[n'cies. It may have done so in lile, 
bnt manipnialion of the skin fails to restore an ()verlai)ping fold. Tlu; 
npperjaw projects beyond the lower. Fyes of moderate size. Externiil 
naies small; their distance apart somewhat less than the width of the 
interorbital space. 

The tongne is not notably dill'erent from that of .1. fitfriiium. The 
teeth are arranged in four series, which together form an inverteil V? 
the angle of which is very obtnse. The limbs of the V? 'i'"* •'^^•^"' ^^''•''' tlie 
nnaided eye, ai>pear nearly straight, and are .seen to extend beyond the 
internal nares along their external lissnre. Examination with a lens 
pnnes that the inner seriesare each slightly /-^/shaped, ami .so disposed 
as to make the angle of the V r«)iinded oil". Th(M>nter series on each side 
is nearly as long as the corresponding inner series ; is plaiidy .separated 
from it, and nearly straight or slightly concave on the pt)sterior side. 
Inner nares more; distant than the exterinil. The body is sonn;what 
dei>re.s,sed, but has not the swollen ai)pearan(!e |)resented by A.opacnm. 
The distance from tlM^snontto the axilla isjnstetinal to that from the 
axilla to th(> groin. There are eleven well-marked costal grooves. Then^ 
is a median fnrr<»w, not deep bnt distinct, beginning on the occipnt 
ami riinnwigalitii ^ (hv^ b.ick, di'i-pening o.i the sacral ri'gion, and emling 
over the middle of the vent, at the comnn'ncement of the caudal crest. 







! I 

r,4 i;ii,i,i;tin :!i, imtki* station national miiskitm. 

The t loacal iv^ioii is r(»iisi(li-riilily swollen, and is liioad and loiiiidfd, 
oisli'^lill.v fniar^iiialr lu'liind. i'lic distaiict' lioui the {,'ioiii IoIIu'ikks. 
U'lior cud of the vent in tliis species is jircater pntportionall.v (liaii in 
any other of the j^cnus so far as I liave I»cen aide to dctcrniiMc. It JM 
contained in tlie distance from tlie snoni to the ;;n»iii Init .'{,', limes. 

Tile tail is e(|nal in !en;^tli to llic distance from tlie snout to tlio be- 
^iuniu;^ of the vent. It is niucli compressed and rather liinli. ItluiHU 
well ileveloped keel or crest, which l)e;jfins luinitMlialeiy over the chmc-ii 
and extends to the tii» of the tail. The keel is sharp above, and is 
bounded below on each side liy a shallow <;ro(»ve. inferiorly the tail 
is broadly rounded for its anterior third or nn)re, and is traversed by a 
median longitudinal {rroove. The remaimler (»f its lower Ixuder is 
compressetl t(» a sharp ed^^'. A tiansveise section of the tail, taken Just 
behind the cloaca, would form approximately an isosceles triangle whose 
base would be about one half ils heij^hf. One-third of the distance back 
toward the tip the heijjfhtof the tail is three times its thickness. 

The limbs aic well developed. The posterior aic a little loiij,'er, some- 
what stouter, and the foot broader than the sanu^ limbs of a specimen 
of A, tiiiriuinii that measures the same distance from the snout to the 
end of the vent. They are also tally as lon^j as the same lindis of ji 
specimen of A. punctdtinn that measures from snout to the end of the 
vent tliieefourths of an inch moic than the specimen 1 am describin<;. 
The t(»esare Hat, much like those of .1. titjtinniii. perhaps not so broad, 
while they are not so slender as those of a specimen of .1. itiunlnliiin 
now betbre nie. They are jjidvidcd with a narrow niar;4inal and basal 
membrane. There are two distinct i>lanlar tubercles. 

Li*'"K"i: IiuIiis. l.iii.H. 

I'lliiii siKiiil t(i iiid (if t.iil .", ,s 

l'"i(iiii .snout 1(1 i;iilar lold H. ,'» 

i'ldiri siiont to line jiiiiiiiiL; :i \ill,c I )_ ;, 

From .si.oiit lo ;;idiii •^» ;{ 

I'ldiii snout tu cnil of vent ;; n 

From end of vcnl to lip of tail -j H 

I'rom axilla to j^roin 1 | ;, 

I'rom j;T(iin to cml of vent h. .''i 

Width of head at anj;ic of j.iw 7 - 

Ui.stanco lie! ween anterior can I hi | (; 

Inttrorliital space d ;;.);, 

<i real est Iieii;ht of tlie tail _r, 

Thicknt-M.-j of tail at hi;;licsl puinl {) .> 

I ''iijrth ol' wliiilo forc-Ici; II 

liowcr arm and hand H ■> - 

ljeij,Hlli of third finecr 1, ., r 

Hinder liinli, total Icn;;th I ,, ,,- 

Ijower Icf^ and foot ,, ,, 

Free portion fonrtli to • •> (ifoutstretche.l md der Inn lis .. - 

Distillici^ lietwecn external iia res I, ., ,; 

IJi.slance hetwecn inner nare.> ,, ■[ ,• 

ill tlu 

the di 
has u 
and h 

less sj 



I'rtipoilioiial dimeiiHions, 

Miizxle to Kiilar foltl: Times. 

In tlistiiiici" IVom snout Id ;{riiin , ;\,\i 

In distuiici' to I'nil ol" vnit (iiciirly) <1,'«J 

Foro-iirm iiml ('m't : 

In (list unci' tit ;;r()iii ;{. i; 

In ili^liinci' to t'Mil ol" vent .1.7 

LowtT li'y; lUid font : 

In (list II HIT to ^jidin H 

In (liNtiMiri- to I'hil of vent 4 


lu tlistaiii'f to groin 3. G 


Fin. II A iiilihintiimn ininitniiin Iliiy. iiiitinnl wi/r ; i'ii)iiiil frinii Hay. 

Tlii^ coloi' is (liiik itrowii, almost liliicU, iiliovc, biowiii.sli vcllow below 
JJet\v«'«'H tilt' lort' and liiii<l ii'^s the ijolit color ol ilu' In ilv iiioiint.s up 
on tin' .><i<l('.s to a level wilii the npiier snrlace.s ol the I nih.s. The inid- 
<lle of the Itellv i.s of a (hi.skiei' line than hs side.s. I'cctoial, iiio'iinal, 
ami |nil)i(! leijion.s .sjjirlitly hiighter yellow tinin the sides of the Itelly. 
Head aliove Hive the hack, l»eio\\ like the other lowei paits. .Inst 
hehiinl the symphysis of the lowei' Jaw ate iiidieations of a l»ri<iht yel- 
low s|)ot. The uitper halfof the tail is not sodark as the back, the lower 
half diiskief than the lielly. The liiid>s below and in front yellowish, us 
other lower parts. I-Vet, especially alxtve, dark. 

This spe(!ies must be compared with .1. birolonuu} A. tinrhiuni. The 
last belon;fs to the j^ronp wiii(;li has twelve costal ;j[rooves. .1. t'KjrUium 
lias the interni nares no more widely separated than are the outer; the 
limbs of the vomerine V are decidedly concave, and the inner series of 
teotli are about twice the lenjitli of tlie outer. It is also a rather loujf. 
bodied species, the distance from the snout to the axilla being' contained 
in the distance from the snout to thej;roin nearly L'.t times, while in vl. 
I'opt'KHKin the latter distamu? is but twice the former. Iiuleed, this form 
dillers from all others, in the shortness of the body, or the equality of 
the distances from snout to axilla and from axilla to j;-roiii. .1. bicolor 
ai)proaches it most nearly, but this s|>e(ties dill'ers further in havinj; no 
traces of the yellow spots so chara(!teristi(! of that form. .■I. copcanum 
has also a broader and more depressed head, ii more compressed tail, 
and lonp'r limbs. 

A. bicolor is described as having the palatine teeth in three entirely 
transverse series; as having a Vi'iy short muzzle, and as beiii},' more or 
less spotted. A t'omparison of some of the dimensions of the two spe- 
lySl— Bull U 5 

N '■! 





cies is iiecessiiry. Tlie type of A.hkohr now in the niii.seiini of the 
AcadoniY of tlic Xatuiil Scioneos of riiiliulelpliia fiiruisiios tlie mens- 

urenients found in the first cohinin. 


A. liicolor. ■^- ';3'"'- 

Lenpfli from snniit to cular fol 1.. 

Liii:;lli limn sunlit to axilla 

Ll'IlL'tll In nil Hllllllt t" LTDill. 

Liiiiilli I'liMii .-iiiMil KmimI (if vent . 

Lc'iiiilli iiiiiii axillii tDt'idiii 

Lrii"tli iiriiiwcr Ic^ 1111(1 1'diit 

AVidtli (ifliciul 




F(irc-arm and foot into (tiKtiincc fioiii snout to uToili 

I.(U\ IT li'u' anil fiKil into distaiico I'lmn snout to yi (liii . 
\Vli(ilcai"tcii(ir liiiili into (lislanci' from Hiioiit to (.'roiu 
Wliolo anterior liiiili into (Il8tan(e fioin snout to vent. 

J. fl 
•i. .) 
H. H 



;i. .••4 







1. 15 




Tlic above table of t'oniparative measuronients sliows that -1. hicnior in comparison witli .4. vopeannm, a h)n{j('r and still broader head; 
ii! spite of tliis. a distance from (lie axilla to the {iroiii ^Teater than that 
Irom the .snon* to the axilla, a nuich shorter pelvic rejjion, and shorter 
fore and hind limbs. 

Found at Ir\ inyton, near Indianapolis, April 7, 1885, by Mr. George 
II. Clarke. 

The siiecimon on which the description is based was found dead an<l 
somewjiiit mutilated. The injury that it has snllcreil does not, how- 
ever, ill any way ob.sciire the eiiaiacters of the speci»'s, ainonntinj;-. as 
it does, only to a loss of the entire left fore liiiil) and sli^jht I'racliires 
of a few of the Itones of the anterior part of the head. 

I have not seen this species, and know it only fro-ii the description 
ami lijiiires of Professor May. ' have copied the ;;reater i>art of the 
former in the jireccdinj,' para;;iaplis. It is evidently a distinct s|»eeies, 
c'haracterized anion}; other tliin;;s by the shortness of its boily. In 
coloration it is abont identical with the Amhlystoma jr(}'er.soiii((nHm 


Proc. Ac. I'liilii., l-,'.7, i>. Ui:.; Cii]w, cod. hn:, IrtiT, p. i7f; Straiirli, Salam., ji. ( :t; 
lidiilnifrcr, Cat. Itatr. (irad. lirit. Miis., td. ii, l«vj. p. f.'. 

In the type specimen of this sjtecies the nsnal snperorlvitivl and lat- 
eral frontal serirs of larjic jiores are not di.scernible. In a second spe(!- 
imeii they are well marked, in the former the skin is »|iiife smooth, 
with eleven lateral ;;rooves, and the folds of the throat and sid«' of (he 
head not stron<;Iy maiketl. The head is broad and, enterinft- 
the len^rth of the <;Toin ;i.T."» times. The front convex in protile, con- 
taiiiinji' the len<,'th of the li.ssure of the eye in its width betwj'cn anterior 
cantlms of .same 2.7") times. The sjirno measure is a tritle h'ss tiniii the 

' y 





distance from same to nostril and one and a (juarter the distance between 
the hitter. These are mueh ehiser together than the inner nares. Dis- 
tance between outer margin of nares equal length from end muzzle to 
midinterorbital space. 

Dorsal line with a faint groove. Tail much compressed, equal f''om 
end vent to eanthus oris. Body stout and heavy. The lin»bs are stout 
and the digits not elongate or depressed. The appressed lind)s over- 
lai) by the length of the toes. Two well-marked palmar tubercles. 
Third and fourth toes nearly equal; fifth a little longer than first. 

Tongue large, disciform, not emarginate behind. Palatine teeth in 
three entirely transverse series, the interruption taking place considera- 
bly inside the line of the nares. The teeth themselves are in numer- 
ous rows on each of their bony crests, presenting a brush-like arrange- 
ment. Median series notched behind. 


Inches. Lines. 

Lfiifitli from cihI iiin/zl«' to (pillar iVld !' 75 

Lt'ii^illi from (Mill iiiuzzlc to jjroin 2 7. '2 

Lriifjlli from end iiui/zlc to cml vnit . ',] 2. 3 

l.niirtli from end iinizzli' to fiitl tail o 10.05 

I.t'ii^tli of iiioulli (strai;;lit) (3.1 

L(n;;tli of fon-arin ami foot G. 75 

l-tMifjtli of lower Icj; and foot H. H 

AViiltli of h.'ad 8.75 

Cohu' above, olive brown; below, yellowish, olive shaded in the mid- 
dle. The inferior yellow risi's on the sides as short l)lotches; above 
them are sevcnil ill-delined yellowish .spots. I'arotoid region yellow, 
with a <listinct black vertical bar. Limbs brown, cross-banded; tail 
yellow, with brown sjiots. 

The above description is taken from the type from Heesley's Point, 
N. .1., in the .Miisi'um Academy Phihulelpiiia. Another specimen 
( Miirj) from the same locality, in the National .Museum, dilVers in two 
important particulars: The palatine teeth iire not brush-like, but are 
conliiH'd to the crest of tii<' lidge, and the tail is a little longer than the 
head and body. The niuz/le is ratlu-r longer and tiie mucous pores 
more numei'ous. It may belong to another species, as the .1. fifirinum, 
which it much resendtles, l)ut its eleven costal folds are a notable pecu- 
liaiily. Tlic A. hitolor, though nearest the .1. /(V/r/MKMj, appears dis- 
tinct, after a <'aieful scrutiny of several individuals. 


'». ■! 







... of 





l!.-.s|,.\« I'.iiit, N.J .. 
M.)i)tu.>ln.'l \ , .Mil- 


l'"rom wlioiu lei'ilvfU. 

I'nif. S V lliiinl 

T. S. lliniiii 

N'liliiw of apoo- 








t I 




I I'lati' -jr.. lij;. 7.) 
Copo, Pioc. Ac. I'liihi., 1-117, p. 1T;>: Straiicli, Sahini., p. C3 ; Bouleiigcr, Cat. 
IJatr. (irad. Jirit. Mils., l-t'v!. .d. ii, j.. i;!. 
Salt! ni nil (ha liyriiiii, (iiiuii, Jduni. Ac I'liila., V., p. lltl. 
iStiliiiiKiixIni iiii/aii (iivru, I. c, \\, ]>. •J.M, 
SiihiiiKiii'lra hiiidii. S.ijiii', Aiinr. .((HUii. XXNVI, p. :W'J, 1~TO. 

Triloii li,/riiiiix, HtiHir , N. A. lliip., v. p. 711, 1 'I. •,'(); Dc Kay, N. Y. Faiiu., p. K!, Tl. ir>, Ii. 32. 
Triton iiKjiim. Hdllir,, /. c, p. Hf), I'l. ',".•. 
JiiihilntuiiMtiijiiiKi, liainl, Joiirn. Ac. riiila. (ii;, I, p. iJt^-l ; Duiii. &, IJibr., p. 108; llal- 

l(i\v , .loiirii. Ac. I'liila., C-M, III, p. :!.'i<i. 
Anibntloma liiridii. liaini. /. r., Iliillow.. /. c. p. Xt'.\. 
Jmhyslomn niiiiDrl'hi, Jiaiid, /. c, pp. •■i>'i, '^M ; Hallow., ). c, p. ;15'J. 
AmhijxIuiiM iiiisciijiiis, ISjiiril, /. c, jip. •>■!, '■iW: Ilalhuv., /. r.. p. :i.")l. 
Amhiisinmii jirnnirjiiiii', liainl. /. c , -J-J, ',';!!' : Hallow., /. c, p. :)")•!; U. S. Mox. Bomid. 

Siirv., II ; Kept., I'l. :i.'>, lij;. 7-11. 
Hettroti-iloh inijciin, Grav. Cai. Il.iir. (Iiatl., Brit. Mus., od. i, p. 33. 
Xijiliiiiiitya ii{)'i r^iniidiKi. id., ihid., p. 31. 
JiiilijI'-tiiiiKi tiijiiitiiiii, id., iliiil., \>. ■\'). 
.lHl^//•^^'(/l(/ iiuiriiftiinii. id., ibid.. \t. 37. 
Amhi/sluhia inlifoyninisr, (U:\\. I'roc. '/.i.iW. Soc. 1^,")3, p. 11, PI. 7: Hallow., /. c, p. 

:i.'..'. : I'.ainl, IJcp. I'. S. I:n)i1. Smv., xiii, I'lnt iv, PI. 30, Hjj. 1-3. 
Amhji-'.tomii /line .niii. \ar.. Dmii. A liilir., ji. Iii7, J'l. lll.">, li;;'. 1. 
Aiiihuxtiimii iiiliiiliiniiiii, Hiiljow.. /. I., ](. ;!.")'^. 

Aiiihiiitoinii iiiiji ».•<. Hallow.. 1. c. \\. W'l'.V. Coopci,!'. S. ]!x]il. Siirw. Xll. Part il. IM. 31, tiy. 'i 
Aiiihi/sliimii mm iihiliiiii, H;illo\\.. /. r., \>. X\'>, and Proc. Ac. Pliila., l-^."i7, p. 'Jlo. 
Ciiiiuini toxin maiiiliila. Cope. Proc. .Ac. I'liila.. l-.">',(. p. I'jo. 

Atiibl;i-liimii mavorliiim, f'oitc. /. c. : ."^Iraiicli. /. c. ; Coiic, in Y.irrow's Report, Zoill., ]>, ()31. 
Aiiilihi--<l(iiiiii idi.scii I'll III (lialril). Colic. /. c., p. llfJ: Straiicli, /. c 
Ambhjittoiiia ncinmaiiiii, Wcidcrsli., Zcit>clir. wiss. Zoiil., XXXII, p. 21ti, i'l. ll,l!». 

Siredoii liihriioidii<, ]]:\\ri\, Proc( i -U. I'lijl;i. Acud., 1-.V,>, p. (W; Sfaii.sliiirv'N Report, 

1KV,>, p.33(;, PI. i: h'cpl.r. S. I'.ic. IM>'.,cxp|. X. PI. Xi.iv. 
Siredoii ijnirili.i, Uaird,!'. S. I'ac. U. Ii. I;, pi., \,\Villiaiii.'.oirs licpL.p. 13, PI. xi.iv, lig.2. 
lUnmiii.'iloiiKt muiiilntiim, Sa^cr, Pciiiii-i. .(oiirii. Medic., l,"i.")f<, p. 4y'H, ti^ 1. 
Sin lion pisrifoniiin, Dmiicril, .Journal dc la Soc, Accliiiifitatioii, l-'(i(>, liiry, 
Sirtdoii liijrinus, Velasco, Natiiralcza, Mexico, i\-, leTf^, liys. 



„ 2 \ 7 

Fl(i. l2.--AwM!i.sf,„„n ll.jii,,,,,,,. (in.n. \V, M NoHliflol.l, HI. \„. 4001. 




(ieiKMul form very thick ami iiiassivc, altliougli tlic lii'ad is propor. 
tioiially small in mature specimens; not as broad as the hody. The 
skin appears cpiite smooth when fresh, esjtecially when covered with 
its epidermis. On removing this, however, the skin is seen every where 
closely covered with shallow pits, interspersed with yranuh like pro- 
jections of (he ylands. There is an indistinct line of i»ores on each side 
of the head interior to the eye, but they can be scarcely traced else- 

The parotoid rejjion is innch swollen, w ider than the skull, and about 
e(|ual to the <listance from snout to j;ular fold. The width of tin- Jaws 
is contained about four and one-half times in the distance to the j;roin, 
ii little more than the to the end of the anus. Tin* jiular fold is very 
ilistinct, and even overlappinji'. The };ro(»ves behind the jaws and from 
the eye, oblicjuely alonfj the side ol the head and neck, are also very 
strongly marked. 

The eyes are moderate; not prominent; the pupils circular. They are 
distant from the nostrils one orbit lengtli and separated anteriorly '2k 
oriiits; the nostrils art' separated one orbit. There is a decided con- 
striction at tin; neck. 

The body is swollen and Iar};e, a little di pressed; its circumferenco 
at the wulest is nine li'Uths the distance from sui ut tn ;4rnin. There 
are twelve well marked costal furrows from fore to hind Wy:, and live 
pelvic: the foiiiih and tiftli unitin<;' just Itehind the anus. 

The tail is about cMpial to the distaiu-e from snout to j^iitiu; it is sub- 
quadrate at base; l.\ as higli as widt', but iiccomcs iMUiinliately oval in 
sectittu, larjicr below, and more and more comprcsMMl to ilic tij'. The 
<'d;;es arc, however, rounded to the terminal third, wheie tlie\ ;^radually 
becomi' sharp. 

The leys are stout, thickened, and lather sliort in proportion. The 
di;fits are much depressed; short, tiiauiiiilar in sliaoc. tapcrini; from 
the broad oase to tln' tips, which are lianbiu'd and soniewhal horny in 
ajipearance. The tree porti( n of {\\v lou;.;cst is about one tliirtl the 
total len;;th of the liml> from elliow »u' kut ( ; soiiu'tiuu's even les-;. In 
the individuals whicli live on land the di;;its appear louder and more, 
eyiiinlrical. The expanse of the ontstretchcil toes is aiioiit four tilths 
the distance from snout to ;^roin. 

The ton;iUe is lU'sliy, iuDad, altoul half the width ol the head, ami 
with the outline of the papillose portion siiglitl\ eniar;;iinite behind. 

Th(^ palatine teeth of this spech s e\ten<l aeioss :he palate very 
neail\ from one side of the upju'r jaw to the othei-. The series is 
tuny inleiiupted alony tlu' nu'dian line: sometimes scarcely so. TIh* 
iini' is obtusely an;:ularly loumled aiiterinil\. the concavity behind 
riMciiing' forward to alxuit (tpposite the middle of the iiifeiiial iiares. 
The slij;hlly convex anterior luam-hes divei'^-e backwards regularly 
nearly to the line of the inner narcs. where the aui^le of diverj^ence lie- 
•!omes still yrealer, and the line l>ecomes lu-arly straiyhl or even eon- 
cave uiiteriorly. 




( > 



; hi 



There is some vaiiatioii in the .specimens, of tlie pieci,-,e outline of 
tbe onrve of palatiiu- teetn. Sometimes this is less an-ular anteriorly 
iiud does not reach lie.voiul the posterior 1 order of the inner nares. 

Ill life this species is of .- dark, livid blackishhrown above, oliva- 
ceous on the sides, and from lijihl olive to dirty white beneath. On the 
upper surface, ^uencrally on the side of tiie tail and limbs, are nearly 
circular yellow spots about the size of the eye, and j^i nerally sharply 
detined. These aie iiiucii liUe those .)f .1. piinvtatiim, though not (piite 
so distinct, and althou-li a fi'.int indication of airan}>vmcnt in ten dorsal 
rows may be traced, yd liiesc are less symmetrically disjiosed, and sin- 
gle ones "are sc;ittercd lift wi en thcotiicrs alonji' the back. Similar scat- 
tered spots are seen alon- the belly, wiiich af-ain is bordered, as on the 
lower part (»f the sides, with larger, more (piadrate si>ots, which are 
more or less conllnent. giving rise to elongated blotches, overpowerinpf 
the "iduntl color. This is also sometimes the <'ase on the l)elly and 
almost always on the chin or lu'iieath the head and neck. 

The rounded spots above souietimes vary considerably in size, and 
occasionally are almost wanting. Sometimes they are iiKue or c(Ui- 
fluent, in which there is u.>ually a predominance of yellow <»n the 
bellv. In a large series of specimens I have not observed any vertical 
yellow bamls on the side of the tail. 

In the young, jrst peifected from the larva, the upper parts are d:irk 
bidwii; the under jtarts of a miifoim browiiishyellow. The yellow- 
spots next make their apiiearance, liecoiiiing more and more prominent 
to a certain age. In very old spcciiueiis the dorsal spots be.ome in- 
distinct, but may generally be discovered when held under water or 

IHiiH'iinioni of H'Ol. 


Fniiii snout aloii^; jixi.'il liiii' fo fiul of nuiiifli 

J''nuii siioiit III >;iilni- Cold 1 1. 0(» 

I'l'iilll riliolir to^loill t. .'it) 

l-"niiii snout to ciicl of .III us 'I. -U) 

Ftoiii snout to c-nd ol' tail .'^. 00 

Widtli of licad w) 

Foro-anii from <'llio\v >-t) 

Hind Icjc froiu i<!icc 1. It I 

The longest specimen before me nu'asures H) inches (KM).'? liacine). In 
this the tail from behind anus is tis long as the rest of the animal. Do 
Kay describes one ot 11 iiu'hes in length. 

MKininoiKiilaofa liijiiiiil xpiciinvii of I lie nir. liyri'iitm (Itil*",'). 

LpiiKtli fi'oin snout to "nd of uioiitii ajcuij; uicdiaii lino 4',^lli from siuiiit to unlai I'old <)(! 

Ii('nf,'lli fi'oin snout to m-oin .{ m 

I, en trill frotn sniuit to ludiind anus H. T'l 

Li'iij^tli from snout to t ip of tail - -,r, 

Liiij^lli of tail '\ r*0 

■ r 

\ :/ 





Inrli H. 

VVidtli of lu'iid 70 

Foi't'-iinii tVoiii elbow 75 

Hi ml It';^ (Voin knoc IK"> 

(tri'iitiint lifij;lit of tail (!;"» 

Stretch of liiiul logs ±80 

III this variety tlio nppreciable diflVTOiice in color consists in tlio teinl- 
ency to transverse or vertical bars of yellowish on the side of the tail 
more or less continent. 

I tind no ditference in form between the two series, the snpposed A. 
I'lmcopum now at iniiid (.{SiM) and 38S7) and young specimen oi A.luri- 
(iitm (as .'{J)?!), Irom Marietta, Ohio. The color above is a light reddisii- 
brown ; tln^ sides a sharply delined dusky l)rowii ; th<> belly of a lighter 
shade of the color of the back. There are some very obsolete indica- 
tions of whitish spots in tiie belly and sides. 

Tiie following eximination of the nature of the variation to which 
the Eastern foi-m of this species is subject and their <!auses may be 
a«lded to the preceding diagnosis from liaird's manuscript. 

The color varieties are as follows: 

rr. Uniform brown above, yellow below, sides darker brown ; 3S87, 
381)!); three specimens. 

fi. Blackish-blown, with sniail scattered yellow spots above and large 
ones on the sides, in the majority of tin* individuals; Nos. 4003, 4()!)7, 
4(591, 3!)74, 38t)5, li'Mi, lim.i, 3!)70, ;{•.).">(), 1»{)71, 401)2, 47()(i, and eight in 
in museum of the i'iiiladelphia Academy. 

;'. Neaily e(pially and not coarsely marbled above, with blotches of 
deep brown ami bright yellow ; 40.")!). 

6. Entirely yellow, with brown linear patches irregularly arranged; 
type of ^l. imjfus, from New Orleans ; one specimen. 

The above <!oloration varieties, it will be observed, coincide in part 
with those of Western individuals: 

The conditions of preservation of immature stages in the dentition 
are as follows : 

a. Palatine series nearly entirely transverse behiinl the internal narcs; 
eight specimens, all from New Jersey except two from Root liiver, Wis- 
consin, (I0!)3(/), and cme from Louisiana, 470G. All are fully developed 
and many ot the l.irgest size; one of 4()!)3 has the postnarial denial 
series separated on om^ side. Of these the largest example of the sjie- 
cies is frcMii Root River. With the other mentioned, the width of the 
head enters the length tit the groin 4.5 times, and the tail is longer than 
head and body. Tiie same relations are seen in two New Jeisey speci- 
mens. Two from the latter State have the long tail, but the width of 
tlu^ head is only one fourth length to groin, while one of the same has 
the long«'r body (4.5 times), but the tail shorter than head and body: two 
specMinens have both the short body and tail. The elongation of the 
tail and body scarcely occurs in connection with any other ty|)e of deu- 





: it I 






titioii, iiiKl it is iiu-MlioiR'(l lioiv to sliow tin- -iriitn ■;ciicial coiiiplete- 

iiess of (ii'vi'l(»i»iiiciil ill I Ih'sc- Eastern iiidiv itliials. 
h. Si'iit'ssli^iiti.v'tl, not passing l.ctwrcii iiaivs. Two siK'ciiiiciis, 

laij;L'. Ill No. .{!»!»;{ l>otli outer .se<4iiients are well .separated iVom llio 

meriiaii: the tail is loiij^er than head and body, and width of J.iws \M 

to line of yroin. Tliis individual is alieiranl. 
V. Series aii.uiiiated, not exteiidinji- anterior to anterior inar«iiH»f inner 

uarcs. Xos. ;5!i.')(;. L'!t71, .'J'.KJ, ;!S<».-), ;iS;i!t, rinhraeinjjf live speeiinens, 
three laijic ones, in I'iiiladelphia Aeadein.v inuseuni, and type of A. 
i)tf/rn.s (ireeii in same. 

This latter s|>e('iinen is peculiar in some respeels, as already noted, in 
coloration. 1 he head is relatively a little wider than in other speciinen.s 
ol' the .same lar^e si/e, the width entering the leiij;tli to the ;4ioiii four 
times, as in individuals of the smaller aveia;;*' size of the species. Tho 
leii.uth of theeyc lissure enters L'..') times the interoiltital width, instead 
of twice. thoii;^li in one ofcMpial si/e from Ifoot Ifiver it enters L.'.!.' times. 
The nares are not more than usually separated; hence the muzzle is 
more eoiitraitteil than usual. It is also depressed in prolile, but not more 
than ill some other specimens. I l>elie\'e it not to he a distinct si)eeies, 
hut a form dependent on causes similar to those prodiiein;: Dthers heie 
enumerated, and not more pennaneiit than those, so loiiu as those causes 
are not iinivcr.-al. In other words, it is a lar.uc specimen, with tcctii. 
head, and tail of adult character, hut body and muzzle inoie larval. The 
fold on the hind U"^ and outer toe, mentioned by (Irceii, is not marked, 
or dilfeifiit I'kuii that seen in the species uciierally. 

No. I(i!t7, sixteen specimens from westt'iii Illinois; two have the seiit s 
divided into tour; KH>'{, two specimens; No. KliM. Cook County, III., 
thirtylbiii speciiiieiis; one has the three iiilcrruptions. and live, with 
one (»f U)\y,i. a nicdian, makiii;^ two series of teeth. 

Of theattove the tongue is of nor.mal size ami the braneliia' ab.soibed, 
exeei)t in twelve spe<;imeiis (No. M't'M) of which live present stumps of 
the braiichia'; and two (Kll»7) where both the loimiic is very small and 
the ,uill stumps remain. The wi.lth ol the head is .'_'."» to j:roin, and the 
tail never lonj;ertlian head and body. 

(I. i\Icdian series arched, extemlinji' anterior to anteiitu' mar;;in of 
inner nares, Oiiespeciiiieii (.ilMKi) is fully developed in all other points. 
c. Palatine series an.unlated, extending; anterior to inner iiare.s' ante- 
ri(U' border. Nos. KMT, .litT I, .'lUTd, tw(» ot lii'.»;{, .'is.ST, .is'.t'.i/*, four of 
4(>!»7, nine of KI'.H. All have the sluut head and tail -iveii in 
the pieliininary dia<;nosis, The small or lar\al t(mj;iii' Oi-ciirs in (Uie of 

10!t;{. ;;()7(l. ;{!I7I, nine of Ki'tl. (woof |(>!I7; branchial iiidiiiieiils remain 
in two ot Kl!»7 and nine of HUM. No. I(».")7 is remarkable in having ii 
very small tonjiue, and short deep tail, no stumps of braiichia-, and 
brilliant coloration, with lar;:e size and adult appearaii<-e. It 
compaivs with certain specimens ( K;'!,".. ;!!IS I j of the form iiiiirortiKin 
in this stroiij;- retention of .some larv.d characters, and, like them, is 
from northern .Minnesota, a reyioii noted for its cold and late .seu.sons. 



V I 

Tin: i',Aii;A('iii.v of noutii America. 


M VII nil If mi Ilia of .Wo. 'lOr)?. 


Li'll};tll iVniil siKMIt Id end III' ;;Ml>r ol' iiioillll 'I'l 

liCliiilll IVoiii siiiHil Id iiiilai' I'l "Id I. (Kt 

I,('Iih;I1i I'ntin siioiil to jintiii ;(.'><• 

Ia;ii<{IIi I'll Mil snout Id licliiiHl :iiiuh 4. ltd 

Lcn^tli I'nim .sin ml lo cini nl iail (alxiiit) H. f>ri 

Lciififli of lail (aid. II I) J.'i') 

Drlilliof tail (al iMl.l veil I) 1. '.>.") 

WiilMi of lua.l 1.00 

I^i'iiy;lli (if roicanii riiiiii clliow 00 

lA'ii^th (iC liiiiil li'if I'niiii kiu'ii 1. 10 

Slfftcli til" hi ml U"^ ;{. 40 

A spt'ciiiM'ii I'litirclv similar, j'xccpt in size and cnloiatioii, was round 
l)v l>r. Horn near I'.ccsU'y's I'oint, N. .1., a well-known locality for the 
,sji('(;i('s. Till' tail is rcinarUaldy tliick and deep at tlu^ hasc, and only 
cqiial from its hasis to tlic cantlins of month; a ;ii'oovo in the <lorsal 
linelM'liind; tail not ^jroovcd. The color is a dark It'adcn brown, sprin- 
kli'd cvc'rywlu'ic willi small yellow spots: spots larj^'ci- on tail; belly 
yellowish. I'otal leii;;tli,i) iiielies and ."» lines. 

From iIh' preeediii;'' investijfation we j;allier that laival eliaraeters in 
this speries are in part only eoiitempoiaiieiMis ; that the branehia' arc 
lost (list; the toiiuiie develops next, and the te(!th last; that the de- 
vel(»piiiei!t extends in older a^e to the leiij^lheiiiiin' ol' the i)ody and tail; 
that the pro^^ress may be arrested at a time when any de^^i'et' of eom- 
binatioii of these and other fealiires exists. That reprodnetioii may 
take place at any of such dilVerent sta;;'es iseviileiit from the condition 
(»f development of the ova ol' many ot' the various specimens, and it 
is known to tak«' phn e in other species at earlier .slaves than any re- 
eonled heie as juiiiit. 

It is also to be noted that specimens from New Jersey are almost 
always more liill\ developed than those from the Western rej;ioiis; the 
former is a wan. lei district than the latter. 0| two specimens from 
New Orleans, howexcr, one only exhibits the deiititiona! charattter.s of 
the New .leisey indiviilnals. The characters coinmon to the Western 
individuals iiave occasioned the opinion that it was another species, 
which was called A. iiKiroiiiiiiii. 

Of this l-rm i r*'maikedin my moiio;;rapli of the j-eims Amblystoina, 
published in lSi7. already referred to, thai it "dilfers absolutely only 
in the broader mii/,/le and wider separation of the: outer nares. The. I. 
tiflfiniiiii i-etains in this case a feature characteristii^ of the larva of .1. 
JHrirf*////^//* and of all other Siredon six'cii's. The ran^ie ol" color vari- 
iitioii is only partly .' 'Vereiit in the two, but the majority of s|)eei- 
mens ea(;li lielon;;' to iliifercnt color lypt s. lOach occupies a ditVerent 
^'eon'iaphical area, both ol which are well marked in the distribution of 
many other reptiles. Nevertheless, ultimately I think it tpiite possible 
thai they will have to ln' viewed as develnpiiiental forms, like so many 
other su[)i)osed species which are not siilliciently isolated from ouo 


} : 



■ ■ '^ . 



■I I 







iiiiotlicial lli(^ pii'seiit time to warnuit tliiMii (listiiicf plaws and iianu\s 
ill llic s.vst»'iii." Dr. (i. IJoiiii'iificr, in tlic last edition ol" tlie catalojjue 
oC llii' sprcit's of .salaniaiidi'is in the Ijiitisli Mnseiini ISSi', has taken 
tills view of tlie ease, and has redneed the name marortiinn to the posi- 
tion of a synonym of iujrinum. In the present work I take the same 
view of the irlalions of the l^istern and Western forms. 
The fol lowing' is a desi;iiptioii of a specimen of tlie Western animal: 
Talaline teeth in a transverse series, more or hvss aii;inlar anteriorly, 
reaching"' to the posterior l)or(h'r of the inner iiares, or (»ne diameter be- 
yond* (' anjjie sometimes tlattened or rounded. The series scarcely 
or III- . . all interi-iipteil on the median line; never (:') on the limhs, 
which are jicnerally a little iindnlalin^'. 

Inner nostrils separated hy the same space as the outer; rarely a lit- 
tle larther apart, 

TonyiM' itioader than loiiji'; more than half the width of the head, 
which Is llcsliy. 

l>ody lu'a\y, wlili twelve costal furrows. Head vt-ry hroad, <!on- 
taliied aitont three and one half tiiius in distance from snout to ^roin. 
Tall about e(|iial to the same distance, iiinch compressed from tiie 
base. .Males In breeding season with a distinct tin from near tin- base 
of the tail above, and from beyond the middle itelow; tail more o\al 
at other seasons. Chtacal re;;lon of male nnicli swollen, emar<;inate; 
angular itcliliid. 

Leo-s iiiuderate; dibits i -h depressed, v«'ry In-oad at base, tri- 

aii;;nlar. and adapted for swiininiiiji. I''ree portion of di«iits about 
one-third the distance Irom their tljis to elbow or knee. 

Flu. Vi.-A,M,.U,ma H:,n,<„m (Ireen, No. 4nr.O. Nntiiral .size. Vmt Riplry. Minn. 

(ieneral col,,, dark brown or blackish, h, aholnd, varied with blotches 
ot 3eMow. ' are dispoM'd alon- the median line of the back and 


won I 
all pa 
teeth I 
and ex 





tail, I'xtciHliiif; down on tlic sides as tiaiisverso ellipsoid bauds of 
lai'j;e size, perhaps equal t(» the spaee between I wo costal {grooves; the 
bIol(^hes of opposite sides scuuetiiues alternate, sonu'tinies are opi)osite, 
and are I'nMpuMitl.v eonllneiil here ami there, which is ^'enerally the 
case on the tail, where they form yellow eneirelinj; riujjs, interrupted 
below. Alonj; the sides ol" belly and lower part of the sides is ii sinii- 
lar series of yellow ellipses, but usually lariLM'r; those of the same side 
usually somewhat eoiilluent, .soiuetiuu's entirely so, leaviufjf a 
central Hue of the belly. The limbs are blot(!he<l black and yellow. 

The yellow sometinu's predominates so as to abuost Ibrm the fj^rouud 
color, encr()achinj>' lai'^'ely, too, on the yt'llow of the belly. In general, 
however, there is little or uo tendency to an anastoim)sis or reticula- 
tion of the dark intersi»aces, as in an allied sjx'cies. Smaller, rounded, 
irregularly scattered spots of yi'llow are seldom, if ever, seeu as iu 
Eastern form. 

The ground C()lor is sonu'tiuu's uniforndy dusky above, although the 
lighter transverse ellipses can be usually made out; perhaps they are 
always apprecial)le in life. 

Dunuh'il and IJibrou have given a good colored ligure of this form 
under the nauu^ Amhi/stoinv <i' bdittUs. The green is, however, too bril- 

In the pre(!e(liug general description I have endeavored to represent 
the distinguishing features of what 1 believe to be a single species vary, 
ing very much in shape of palatine teeth, proportions, color, etc. From 
the synonymy it will be seen that 1 combine undej' the oldest luinie of 
mai'ortium, pninrrpine and nrhiilnsitm also. Although the type speci- 
mens of these supposed sjiecies dilfer sutlitnently among each other, yet 
there are sullicient coniu'cting links in tlu' large series before lue, ami it 
M()uld be no dillicult task to pick out a dozen more specimens each as 
distinct from the other and the above as the latter are among them- 

One great source of the diversity of character in diiVerent specimens 
of this Protean species is to be found in the veiy dilferent sizes of speci- 
mens in thesanu' stage of growth, while iu some the lull metamorphosis 
will have been atu-omplished with a length of three or lour inches, in 
others the braiichi;e are still visible at a miu-h greater size. In one 
female specimen of 8 inches in length ( 1*>7S), the branchiae are still a[>- 
piei'iable, the lissures in the neck not being closed up, although the 
ovaries and oviduct would indicate that it was captured when in full 
breeding (tonditiou. Thisembryonii' tendency isalmostalways indicated 
further by shoiter gape of the mouth, the tongue smaller. Hatter, more 
.idherent, not at all or very little free at the edges, ami little or not at 
all papillose, but exhibiting a cartilaginous surface. The palatine 
teeth in the embryonic stati' are more aiclied anteriorly, more or less 
parallel with the maxillary seri»'s. less |uominent above the soft palate, 
and extending a less distance laterally. T'he digits are more depresed, 



■■■ <■ 1 



V ^ 


J I 


7G iu;lletin 'm, tnited .states natk^nal Mrsr.UM. 

tl.cir outlines more oval tlian triangular, the third and fonrtl. toes and 
second and third lin-ers more nearly .M,nal. The develepn.ent ..( the 
diin-rent embrvonic eonditit.ns mav be carried on ver.v nne(|nall.v in 
dillcrent specimens, so that one cannot see the true specilie charac- 
ters in small individuals, or even in lar-e ones in which tiiere is the 
slij,'hfest indication of the brandiial slits or their tults. 

The same adult individual ditrcrs, too, in dillerent seasons. While 
somesi)ecies appear to reside almost entirely in water, others do so only 
partially. Kven the same species may pass a more aquatic lite in one year 
than in'anodier. A more i)ersisteiit residence in water is shown l»y tlio 
broader and more depressed (li;,'its, Iiij;herand more compressed tail, and 
more or less decided ridjre (sometimes even membranous). I have no 
doubt that an animal while possessinj; these Ceatiires in marked decree 
when in the water wmild lose tlieiii to a measurable extent after ii 
Ienj;lhened residence on land. This aijuatic habit is j,aMierally greatest 
(hiring the breeding season. 

The preceding paragrajdi is taken from Professor liaird's maims«*ript. 
I will further extend and illustrate the same, and add that the names. I. 
calij'ornicnse and A. iiutvuhttum have iteeii applied by (Iray and llallowidl 
to forms of this species. 

Various changes of form during the late metamorphosis of this ani- 
mal have been already enumerated in the prefatory remarks on the 
genus. A feature of diifeitMice mentioned altove -the varying length 
of the fourth <ligit— ai)peais to be ipiite independent of other devel(»p- 
mental conditions. In a specimen in the Mnseuin of the Philadelphia 
Academy from Kansas, thi.s digit has but three ithalanges on both feet ; 
in another locality three on one, four on the other foot, and tiie same 
occurs ill No. .'{!M»4, of the National .Mnseuin. In all the other specimens 
at my disposal they are, as in this section of the genus, \-\. 

The varieties of this species which may l)e distinguished by their 
coloration are as follows : 

a (Californieiise.) IJlackish, with slightly i)aler belly; a series of 
large, oval, yellow spots on lower part of side and tail (in one specimen 
a few on each side of dorsal line). System of nuieous por«'s well (h>vel- 
oped, especially below ramus of the Jaw on each side. From California 
only ; eight specimens; No. lO.Sl. 

fi Brown, yellowish below; larger lateral and smaller dorsal yellow- 
spots, irregularly arranged. Fewer miu-ous pores (»ii eaeii si<le the 
gular region. Fourteen siiecimens ; mostly from Kansas and Nebraska, 
one from Missouri, one from latitude ;>,So, two from New Mexico, and 
two from Chihuahua; Nos. lOfJo, 4()i(», 3!t.o5«, 1(m;-J, |(l.S4, l!)(>S, ;5!)S|«. 
The type of A. uehnhmnn belongs her*'. There is no material diUerencc 
between this and the coloration of A. t'uirinum. 

y Ground brown, crossed I)y transverse yellow bands, which inoscu- 
late more or less ou the dorsal region, so as to obscure, sometimes almost 








onfiri'l.v, tlio Rroiiiid ; miUMiiis ,.ort's, as in tlio lasl ; lu'll.v with a median 
(laiii or ItlacU l>aii(l; sumctinH's tin* yellow is sJiadiMl '.vitli olive: Nos. 
Hii;{, no.'), .{!»!»(», I7(»;5, WM to Kl!»!l, ;;!r»r», lOlS, 407!>, KMKJ, ;J!»82, 53r)9, 
•lOSJ, ;;!>1M. No. HL'O iiii;;iit he assij^iied to either (i or ;'. 

()' (ii'oiiiid olive, with iiiiinei'oiis small hiowii spots; otherwise na 
altoNc; No. UW>, and the»e ol'.l. iiiiwiiUthim. 

I- Urowii al)ove, yellowish helow, otherwise as above; .'{U.St/>, -4702, 
3902, .'{!).■>.■)/;, t'roiii most diverse loi;alities. 

1' Color as in r, the yellow leaving; only inosculatin}; linos of brown; 
no frontal, nasal, oi' mandibular series of mneoiis pores; on*' specimen, 
No. i(H)S. 

So much as to theprineiple of ornamental variation. The followitiff are 
the tbrnis resnltin;;' IVom unetpial development of parts. The rea<ler will 
observe by the numbers how little they eoiiieide with each other and 
with the precediii;;. 

Ti/i)c A. — Palatine teetii in a j^entle arch, convex (brwards, not extentl- 
in;; between nares; the teeth (l»iit not the rid;;e) interrupted inside the 
series behin<l the nares. No>. I'.tos and .").">iji» (J s|»ecimens); in all re- 
spects fully ^rowM. the former nut more than half the size of the usual 
ty|»e. Approacli distantly .1. Irisnijitinii Cope. 

7'V/R' />. — Palatine teeth tormin;; a strai;;ht seiies on each side, meet- 
ing at a more or less (»pen unfile between tln' nares. Most ()f the speci- 
mens; Nos. ITOL'. ;;y!L'. iTtr.. i(;i;{, khm, loio. kids, .'jiMio. no.}, -lom, 

to t(l!M>, lOSl. ;;<):».-). |(>7!>. <)f lliese, the an-ile of the tooth series 
«loes not extend beyond liie anteiior mar;;in of the nares in twenty- 
six si)ecimens. of which one exhiltits a small, undeveloped ton^^ue, and 
none have the stumps j)f the braiichia' reiiiainin;:;. In eleven specimens 
the an;;le extends beyond this point (in ."»'.»!)(), and another approaching; 
anarch in Ioimii, :ind ol these the inn.uue is small and larval in six, 
and inon*> of thcNC stumpsuf the luaiicliiM' remain; this last is of medium 
Hize only, but Nos. UW, and 'M>\)\ arc lar;;e, the lirs very huj-e; they add 
the larval character of a slnnt, det p t:iil. It is to i»e noted that 
Bja'cinu'us art' from Minnesota and the holders of Ibitish America — re- 
jjions subject to ;;reat cold — to which ( ause we may with much proba- 
bility assi^iu their characters. Two individuals lu'esentin;; the same 
IH'culiaiities are desciil»ed under the hea<l of .1. tiifiiniini. 

Of two speeinu'iis from Chihuahua, fully developed, the teeth are of 
the two types; of ei;,'ht fr(»m Calitbrnia, one presents the second type 
oidy; it is otherwise fully developed. 

Tjipc C. — riie postnarial portion of the i)alatiue series has nearly or 
quite assumed its transverse position, while the median series remains 
in its larval arch, extendin;; more or less in advance of the nares. 
K\'^\\\ specitnens, tour of the larji'est size; .".!».V>«, t07S, KML', K>S4; two 
Mu.seum of IMiiladelphia Acaih'my, one type of .1. Hnfc»/f(/Hm Hall. Of 
these, two have the small tonyue and traces of branchiae while four are 
fidly develoiied in these ii'spects. 





nn.LKTiN :ii, i-nmti:i> statks national museum. 

Tiipc />.— Piiliitiiio scrips fonniii;: n pMiiiltnlicjnvli iVoriKdM' cxtrcmiry 
to the olhcr, ('xt(•ll<lill^' in iMlvaiic' ni the iiiiics. Tiim' s|MTimciis, 
two of thciiior riill iHil not laru'i' ^^'Z''; '""' "• ••"' »''>i""'>' Inll.v .U.iil.le 
tlif siz.' of otlifis from tJH' saiiM' lofiilii.v (Hm' IMiitlf Vallf.v), wliidi mv 
ivf.'iT.Ml to tvprs (' and 15. vvitii larval ton^iiic ami luaiu'liial stumps. 
TIk'oiIi.ts (HMiO), with larval toii^iiic l.iit the hraiicliia- iihsoilu-d. 

Ilt'ivma.v ln' iiiciitiniifd a ri'inarkaltic spt'ciiiifii (.5!>Sl'), wliicli is in all 
otlit'i ri'spt'cts fiiilv <lt'VfI(»pt'tl. wlicrc tlic larval aicli of ti'i'tli remains, 
bnt has ht'coiiM" opt-n anil sli;;htly tiansvt'isc, cxti'mliii'; Itnt lilllc be- 
yond the anlcrior mar;;iii of tin- narcs. It is iiiti'iinrdiatf iK'twccii 
tvpt's 1) and A. and is tht-n'snlt of a retardation in development of tlM> 
larval anh, \\liiie type i> is proil'iced Itya retardation h\ the presci Na- 
tion of the oblitpie lateral series of the larva at the expense «)f the arch. 

I add lieie a description of the var. ohseninm {AinhlyHtoiiid ohsritrinn 
Haird, Proceeds. Acad. I'liila.,. IS(i!», p. 1!L'). 

The head is very l»road and the ;;ape nniisnally lar},'e. The internal 
nostrils are veiy huj^i', their width half the diameter of tlioeye; the 
distance between their inner borders is the same as that lu'tween the 
oilier. The ton^Mie is Ia!j;e, broader than lony', its width about two 
thirds that of the iipiicrjaw. 

The palatine teeth are in I iiir series, eolleelively foiinin;'' a broad in- 
verted V; the an;;les anterior, and would beqiiit<' sharp but that there 
is an iiileriiiption aloii;: the median line. The blanches reach as far 
forward as tlieanteriorl»oidcr of (lie inner nostrils. 'J'liey are decidedly 
concave aiitero-e.xicrnally. The ten iiiiiei anterior sections of the pal- 
atine scries are each about twice the lcii;;th of the external ones; they 
fall short of the inner border of the inner nares by nearly a diameter of 
the latter, which space separates them from the outer section, which, 
iiiiiijcdiatcly lichiiid the inner nares, are about as loii^ as the latter are 
wide, and do not pass exterior to their outer border. 

There are twelve costal furrows. The tail is compressed, Init not 

The C!»1(U' ai)pears to have been of a uniform brown above and on tlio 
sides, brownish yellow beneath. On the sides daiker vertical blotelies 
can be detected in the sinjile specimen before me. Similarly indistinct 
markiiij^s are visible on the tail. 

The \ery convey, frontal re;;inii and the concave interrupted .m lies of 
teeth alone distinjiuish this variety from the .1. t'Kjrininn of the West. 

It dillers from -I. //7/»H»«n»f the Kast in much larjier inner nares 
and more widely .separated nostrils, tiie inner borders of the two beinj^ 
at about the .same distance, instead of liavin;; the latter more approxi- 
mated. The toii;jiie is wider, as well as the liea I. The teeth are more 
V-slnipetl and roach farther forward. The outline of the limits of the V 
is concave antero externally and is interrupted by spaces equal to the 
wide nostrils, the outer section not extending' itcyoiid the nostrils. 

The specimen which lepie.sents this variety is Irom l-ort Des.Moiue.s, 
Iowa (No. auOi.) 

^ ,. 





The duiriU'tern of llui xiirii'tv (Mliforniciisii (Amhli/slDinn cnlifoi niennv 
dray) aro as I'ollows: 

The proportions ami j;«'H('ral (;liat'a(;trr of \\w f^lands, pits, etc., ajuxMr 
liilicli lik«'! tlios<' of vl. //</»•/»»/» ; ill soiiKMt'spccits ol' .1. ;j»//{/ff/«;H. I 
do not <h'to<!t any patches ot' lai}j;(' pon-s on the top of thi' head and 
nock in one speciiiien, hnt in another a series of hir},'e whitish dots he- 
neatli the epidermis seems to indicate their presence. Of these one 
patch is phieed on top of the liead, within tlie orbit; another on thc^ 
parotid rej^ioii. Some pores, however, are distimitly visihh". behind tlie 
aiifjle of the mouth, sending forward a seiies ah)!i;; the iiMrj^in of tlie 
lower jaw under the tdiiii. 

The head is broad, but also h)nj,', the width beiiiji" decidedly less than 
the distance from snout t(» {^idar fohl. Tlie yape is very lai'ije, the 
len}i;th nearly two-thirds the width. The width in seven spi'cimens is 
contained \h tinn's in the distance (rom snout to fjroiii ; in one s[)eciineii 
4 times only. The eyes are separated only by 'IK lengths of tlu^ (U'bit. 

The t(Hi;.'ue is very larj,fe, nearly lillintj the whole lower jaw. It is 
three fourths the widtii of the head. 

There is quite a dill'erence in the character of the palatine teeth of 
the ten specimens before nie. In both the central jtart of the series lb. ms 
a decided V> ('>*' nii;;le siiarp, and reaching to tlie anterior margin ot 
the inner nostrils. The limbs extend backwards, sli^'htly in an 3 shapi', 
a slnu't distance behind the inner nostrils and in line with their inner 
border, and then connect with the external sc^nieiils of the jialatine 
series, which extend (iie.irly transversely, but a little obliipiely back 
wards) to a line with the outer iiiarj;iii of the inner nostrils. In both 
specimens the two sides (»f tliepalariiie seiies a;e lui synimetrical and 
of niieqnal It'll j^tli. One specimen shows a distinct interval bet ween 
the central V i"i<l <''<' hiteral sejiiiieiif. as well as at the an;;ie of the V; 
ill the other the four elements are contiiiiioiis. 

Then' appear to be twelve costal furrows. The tail is compressed, but 
not lii;;h; in one specimen it isas loii;i as head and body; in another 
»Ii(»rt»'r. Shows a slmrp rid^i'c above from near the base ;i!id for the 
terminal half below in oii(> spetamcn; not so much in another. 

The limbs are well developed, the di;;its depres.sed ami trianj^ular, 
but so than in many atpiatic Anihlii-stnindfa, 

The (M»lor of the sjiecies is blackish in alctihol ; rather i)aler below. 
On each side i>\' the belly or lower part ol tin' sides of body and tail is 
a series of brij;lit sulphur yellow spots, mostly nearly circular, .some- 
times obloii;;, and varyiii}? in size, tlioiin;|| ^jcnerally lar<;er than the 
orbit. The spots are few in number: live or six from h.ead to tail and 
four or live on the side of tail. 

In one of the specimens aresume smaller rounded spots on each side 
of tlu^ diir.sal line, three or four in each series. These are not syui- 
nuitrically dispo.sed, as in .1. pKiicfdlinn. 

As Dr. Gray remarks, this variety lias a certain resemblance exter- 



F ^ 





80 un.i-KTix ;ii, itmtki) states national museitm. 

nallv to .1. |nn,rl>lfll>n,^^■h\<•\\, liow.-v.T, iicvrr fxliil.its flic scru's of 
spots oil 111.- si.l.- of l.clly iiii'l lower piirl of sides of iiiid t;ul, tlio 
spots liciii-' .'onliiKMl I., til.' vi.'iiiily ..f tli- ii.'.li.m linf iibow. In .1. /. 
ctli/ornieiisc wUi'W .lorsal sp.Us ...•ciir lli.'V :nv l.'ss iv^-uliir.^ii of 
iiMicli the siiiiie si/..'. In Ivpi.-iil .1. rujrin>im tlie vcllow spots inc. iniirli 
smaller. 111. >n' numerous, an. 1 iii.nv seatieicl: very i>i.>iiiiiieiil mi llic 
lielly. Tli.'iv are ma:iy essential .litlerenees in foiiii iVoiii .1. innirtn- 
tum—iis the re m i.l.'ly s.'para'e.l .'xtenial nostrils, t li.^ anterior an- 
gle (»f the palatines, the tlepresse.l short (limits, more eoinpress*-.] and 
sharply ridded tail. et.-. 

A description of a specimen of var. r may al-o he usel'nl for refer- 

The form is very heavy and clumsy : the head very broad : the f-apo 
twice as wi.l.' as loii^-. The iiiii.'r nan-s are al).)ur as fai- ajtarl as the 
outer. The gnlar tol.l is very (list In. t and ovci laiipiii^ ; the neck much 
constricted. There is no dorsal .i;roove disliintlv cvi.leiit. 

The tail is mii.'h .•oiiipr. sscd ai..l elevate.l. In the ly|»e selected 
there is a sharp lidyf above and liel.iw ii.'ar tli.' tip. 

The limbs are rat hei' short ; iIh- .ligils \i'i> broad at the base. lrian;;u- 
lar, and mucii depressed. Then' is litll.- ai)prc<iable di'Vcreiicc in the 
length t>l' the third and tbiii i h toes. 

The toii^iiie is v.'iy br.ia.l, wi.l.r than Ion::. Illliii^ the lami anteriorly 
and consi.leiably more than halt' the wi.llh .if the head. 

The palatine I. '.'Ill rorm a nearly conlinii.tiis series; nearly slraij;lil, 
but slightly obtuse antcri.trly wli.'!.' it reaches to the lin.'or Ihc p.iste- 
rior bonier of the inner nares. Latcra"' <li.' scries c\ lends onedianieti'r 
of till' inner nares iM-yoiid their oilier . ..;;in. The limbs of (lie \ery 
obtuse V ar.' iiol straiuhl. but slightly b.iwsliapcd. There is a wliyiit 
interriii»tioii alon;^ the median liii.'. 

The ^nouii.l color is jmrplish black, with tiansvensely elonj^ated 
blotches of yellow. These appear lobe ai I aii,L;.'il ill oiie .loisal series 
on each side tint median I in.' ol the iia.k (.'omin,:; up l.t il am! the o|)|»>- 
site (uies Komeiimes conllueiit), ; ml aiDthei on the side cf the belly, of 
]iU';4'er size and as.'.Mi.lin;; lii;:li on the si.les. The latter arc soiiielinies 
more or less conlluent on 1 1. ■ sam." si.le. The cential rc;; of the 
belly is ;;-eiieralIy .)f the dark j^roiin.l .'olor. There may be six or ei^T; 
of th'.'sc blotches from liea.l lo base of tail, and as many on the si.le of 
the tail, wher.', in.lce.l, ih.'y ;;('iieially form y.'ll.iw liii^^s, interrupted 
below. Till' limbs are bla.-k ami y.'Uow in e.iiial pro- 

fr'-jiiirliiiriiil iliiidiisiDiis. 

(Fp.^c. — !t',l."iril. Amliijxinma iiiiiiniiii, Foil liiiss, N, .Mi-x.) 
n.'ii.l : 

l,Cll;;lll c'";;.'!!!!' Ill' 111! HI til I'l il.S Willtll Oll.'-llillf. 

Wiillli (il";;a|M' of iiKiinIi to;iiicc IVoni to ;;iil:ir ir:M. . . f«iilill. 

Width .ir>,'a|)n ornmiitli to distaiicc (Voiii mm mI to j^ioin font aim d :!', tiiiicH. 

Width of >{ajie <'fiuoutii to .Uslanci' tVom-uoia to bebiuil aims JJ uiiu'n. 

V 1 







V i 


Ucilil- ('otilililicd. 

I''iiiiii .sMiiiii to ;{iilai' I'dIiI ciiiitiiiiicil in ilislani'i' IVoni siimit (<i ^roiii . 'M tiiiiL'8. 

I''iiiiii siiiiiit It) ;r|iiai' I'liM (Miriluiiii'il in ilislaricc Ironi snout to licliiiid 
anils ■\\ liincH 

iJistaniu- aiitfliinl.v licl ween rvrs in lcii;itli (il'oiliit W (iliifs. 

I >istaiifi' I'loin I'.Vf.s to noHiriis in Iciiiitli ol' orliit l-j- liiiu'. 

Itistaiuf lu!t\v<'cii cxliTiial iio.stiil> in icniftli of orliit nearly 'i liiiu's. 

|)iHlutii:t; Ih'I With internal nostrils in leM;;t li ol' ol liil .. v,'] tiineH. 

Wiiltli of ton^jiie to widtli of lieail ratlicr more tlian .} time. 


Kne porlion ol" longest linger eonlaiiied in tllstanee from elliow to tip.. W times. 

Free porlion ol' lonj;est toe conlained in ilistanee from Uiiee to 
tip nearly ■• timi's. 

Distance lietweeii onlstl'etelied toes in length from siioiit to j;ioin once. 

'Tail: Lcnj;lli rroni iK-liind anus to rest ol animal nearly eijiial. 

Uody : Niinilier ol' costal I'lirrows ( inuliidiiiii axill.sry and iiij;iiiiiiil) 12 

, '■ 

Miii^iin nil nil, ill iiicliifi. 

!,enj;lli, measured alon;; axis ol' liody: lie. id — (''ontiiincd : 

l''roiii snout to u,ape til) Distance liel ween inner iiostiil.-i If) 

I'min snout to ;;nlai told l.iHl Tail: 

I'rom snoni to ;;roiii :!..Mi lleii^lit of tail wliere liij;lie8t 75 

I'roui Niioiil to liehind anils t. .'ill lireadtli of tail where Iii^liest.. . 15 

I'rom siioiit to end of tail l.nii l.imlis: 


Width of head 1.(15 

Width of t<iny;ne 55 

l,eli;;tll of lon;;iie 15 

l,eii;;th of oilii! , V!',! 

Dislanic lietwceii eyes .inli'li- 

oily *i5 

Disl.ince liclwiin outer iiosliils . |(i 

I'n e portion of liii^fer.. . ;{() 
from elliow Id lip of loiif^esl 

tinker 'J5 

l''ice poi t ion of loiijie-t toe ;W 

From knee to tip of lon-icst toe 1.15 
Distance lietween oiilsl retched 

toes. :l.50 




) ' 

I'l HllllllllllKll llillllllnillllH. 

fSpec. lii'.H'i. ('iiiiaridii Kiver. ) 

l<eli;;lli ol ;;ape of "iioiith to its w idt ii a lion I one half. 

Widt h to di>tancc I'loiii snout to ;inlar told e(|iial. 

W id III (o distance from snout lo j^Kiin t times. 

I'rom snout to ;;iilar fold, contained in distance Irom snout to i^ioln .... | times. 

from snout to uiil.ii fold, contained in distance frimi siioiii lo lichind 
anus nearly 5 timt'H. 

Distance anteriorly liet w cell lyes in length id' orliil ;! tiii-'s. 

Distance Irom eyes to Host rils in leii^t h of oiliii I ', tj 

Itistailce hetweeii cNlernal imsllils in len;;lli of orlut neaily \! Ii 

Disl.'inee lint ween nostrils m leiinlli of orliit -J limes. 

Will til ot' toiii;iic to w idth of head little over A time. 

I.iimlis : 

l''ree portion ol' longest linuer conlained in lUslaiicc I'loni dliovv to lip ;t| times. 

I"'rec porlion of loimest toe ntaiiieil in distance t'loiii knee to tin 

p '.i^ times. 

Di>l:ince lietween outstretched Iocs in leii^^th from snout lo <;roiii .'ihoiit e(|ii;il. 


Width com] la red with that o'" head eijiial 

Niimlier of costal furrows ( indudin;^ axillary and in;;iiiiial) 12 

rv:«:~r.iiii .n — c- 




.]tiiisiinm(iil, ill iiiiliix- 

J...n..|l,,.m-M-s.imlal...,-axis..nH«l.v: , : 

,',:,' Dintaiici' lii'twfcii aniipil aiMl 

|'"|(.M1 MIOIII ttlHJ'l"' ' 

Kn.iii MMMil 1(1 fiiiliii- Colli I."" 

I'roiii siiiiiit |ciaiin|iil I--'' 

|"iiiiii siiipiil III yriiiii 



:t. no 

From siKiiit Id liiliiiiil aiiiiM 1. T.'i 

I'riiiii siioiil III t'lul '>*' '"'' ^' "•' 


Wi.llli of lii'Mil '■"" 

Lcii;illi iiC iirliit -" 

Distaiirr lirlwrcli i-Vi'.s aiiti'li- 

(illy •"'•' 

Pi-laiH'i' lii'lvMfii (iiiliT iiii>liils .'.i't 
1 (islaiicc lirlwccii iiiiiiT iKisli'ils . lili 

r>iiil\ : 

CiKUIllti'lrlur of liiii.V :!."."> 

llri;;lil "f lail wlicri- Iu-;licst .. 7(1 
Unadlli of lail wlicn' lii^flifsl .. .In 
Lliiilis : 

Free portion of longest liiiifcr.. . ii? 
From clIiDW to lip of loiii;cst 

liiijirr 'X> 

V'rvv portion of Ioiihi'sI toe ;t;^ 

I'rmii kiici' to lip of loiiy;('sl Ikc 1. •_'.') 

nistalUT ln!t\V«'('ll OIllstlTlcllfll 

I tics ;{. r)ii 

I'lnimylKiiiiil diiiii iisiimn. 
(Spec. 10""J. 'I\v.{.';;.at'. ..'. /tono/ohc, 'I'ainaiilipa^). 

III. Ill: 

l,( ii;;tli of >;aiM' of iiioiilli lo ils wiiltli iiioir lliaii lialf. 

\\ iillli of ;;,ipr of iiiiiiilli to ilislami' lioiii siiiiiil In ;.'iilai fold . . . not i|i, ciiiial. 

Wiiltli of ;;apr of inoiiili lo (listanci' fioiii siioiil to ;;iiiiii iirarlN tliiiii's. 

Wiillli of ^ape of iiiiHitli to (listaiirc from simiil lo lii'liiml anils IJ, liml■^. 

I'loiii siii/iil lo ;;iilai folil roiitaiiiril iii ili>lani r iVoiri snoiit lo i;niin ;>.( tinii's. 

I'rom siioiil to ;,'iiiar foiil ronlai 1 in ilislancr from snout to liiliiml 

anus I timt'N. 

I )i si ami' anicnorly lift ween ryrs in li'in,'lli of oiliil I! I inics. 

histanri' fioiii ryes lo nostrils in Irnntli of tiiliit 1 tiliic. 

I (island' lirlw ii'ii I'xtiTiial nostrils in iriiul li of orliit iirarly 'i t iiiics, 

Itislanii' lictwci'ii iiiti'inal nostiils in lcii;;i li nf mliii nraily ',' t inn-.s. 

Width of lonum' to will 111 nf head nmir I lian half. 


I'l'i'i |i;ii'|iiin of liiii^ii'st lin^i'f I'linlaini'il in liislaiiri' fiom lilimv to tip :itinu\s. 

Fire poriiiin uf Inn^isl toe containi'd in di.stani'i' fmni knii- tu iip :i liiiirN. 

Tail : I, II Iii III In nil hcliind anus In irsl nf animal less. 

l!nd\ : Niimliii of nistal fiiliou s ( inrlndin;f axillary and iii;;iiinal; I'J 

Miiisiin iiiiiih, ill iiicliin. 

Li'n;;lli, mcasiiri'd alonj; axis nf hndy : 'I'ail : 

I'rom SI I lnj,'api' :!l llfinht nf tail w hciv lii;;hrst . . 

Finm snout to oi,l;,r fnid tin liivadlh nf tail w lurr lii;;hiNl. 

Fmm snout In armpit ;i(l |,imhs: 

Flom slinill lni;rnin "J.dO 

From snipiil to hchind anus o. Ill 

From snout In iiid nf lail 1. 10 

Iliad: I 

Width of head W 

Distance liclwi'i'ti cvfs antcri- i 

'•'• '. :ti 

Disi M'twiMMi outi'r nostrils .i2;i 

Distance; liotwccn inni'i nostrils .'il , 

Fill' pni I ion nf inii;;i'sl liii'^cr . . 

I'rom illmw In lip oi' liili;; 


I'lir pnilinn nf inii^fsl Inr 

I'lom km r In I ip nf lnnt;i'st Inc. 

I)istanrc lii'twi'i'ii niilsln'tihcd 

I lies 

. I-,' 


. Ill 







iiii; i;.\ rii'AciiiA or noktii A.MKuifA. 83 

I'lDflDI lillllllt llillll IflllllH. 

(S|(rc, IH'I. Iiiili'i^hmiti h iiihniiti iiilil'i>riili iisi , I'ctatlllllii, miI'I mt.) 

Will til III «lisl;iiiiT tVoiii HI Mill I I" pillar (olil I J liiiics. 

Willi li III ilislaiiii- I'll III! sill Ml I 111 jj;ri>iii U liiin-s. 

I'l'iiiii siiiiiil til ii^iilai I'lilil ciiiilaiiii'il ill ilislaiii'r tVniii siiiuil to i;i'iiin . . .. ',\', tiiiic.'i. 

l-'niiii siiiiiil til I'lilai' I'lilil I'lHiiaiiii'd in ilislaiii-c IVuiii siiiiiit In licliiiiil 
anus U t iiiu's. 

l>istainT aiilfi iiirly lii'l wmi r\fs in 1imii;i1i iiforltit '.'A linirs. 

I >islani'r I'll nil ryes to linsl lils in li'iinlli ut' inliit 1 ', times. 

Dislancf lift vvccn cNli'inal iinstrils in lrii;;lli ut' mliil I i liiiirs. 

1 Mslanci' lii't Willi iiitiTiial nnsiiils in Irnnlli ut' urliit not '2 liiiifs, 

Willi li 111' ti>n;;iir Id will 111 III' lii'ail twn-tliirils. 

Linilis . 

I'l'i'i' iiiirl inn III' iiini;rsi liii^rr I'uiilaini'il in itistancc t'nini i-lliuw 

to t i|i nut i|nitr :i t inirs. 

ri'i><- portion of liiii;j;rsl tm- containi'il in dislaiin' I'riitn kiirr|iiti|i itiiincs. 

Tall ; lii'iii^tli I'll nil ln-liiinl amis to ii'sl i it' animal less. 

Midsiin nil Ills, ill ilichrs. 
I,rn;;t li, inrasiinil aloiifi a\isi)t' liiiily ; ISoily: IHstancr lictwi'fii aini|iit 

I'liiiii siiiinl III najii' In 

Fioni siiuiit III Liiilar I'lilil ■■."i 

From siiiiiit liiariii|.it I.V.'.'i 

I'lom snout III ;;riiiii It.iMi 

I'rum sunlit to luliinil anus .... ;!.7."i 

I'linii siiiiiil III cml of i.iil (i. ','(1 

lliail : 

Willi li of licad TO 

Willi li III' loiij^nr J."i 

l,i'n;{lli of iii'liil !» 

Ilistanri' lirlwi'in ryrs antrll- 

orly Ill 

Dislancf lictwcrn outer nostrils . ;tit 
IHstanee lielwcen inner nostrils . :tn 

anil ;;roin l.TTi 


lleis-lll of tail where lii^iliest .. :!it 
lliiailtli of tail where !ii;;lies|.. 1- 
Liinlis : 

free inirl ion of loii;;est lin;;er.. . ','> 
I'roiii elliow to ti|i of li)n;;esl 

linger -^it 

free port ion of liili;;()sl toe :!(! 

I'l'inii knee to t ip of lon>:e>| toe .'.til 
Distanee lietween oillst retelieil 
toes '.i. -^t 

Habits, etc, — The lai'vic of llii.s .spi'iMiss iiic t'xcuu'iliiioiy iilmmhmt in 
all .still water in the ii'ocli.v Moiiiitaiii Kt'oioii and tlic I'laiiis. Tlii'v au' 
rapaciDii.s, ratiii.o aiiiiiial I'ooil, anil taUinj^Mlic liook icadily. Late in 
tin' sniiiiiici' llifv citiiipk'tt' their and take to tiie lainl, 
wIh'ic tlie.v hide in the In le.s iif niaiinots, l>ad.!ner,s, etc. l-'foin tliese (hey 
eineio(' diiiiiiii' and al'tei' rains. The iarxa- ai'e iniieli less lVe(|iiently 
seen in tlie Mast, wheic the species is less abundant, and tlu' opjun'tu- 
iiities (tf eoneealtiieiit an' oi,.;it,.|'. .Market Fjake is a temporary Imdy 
«)!" water c(»\('iiiio many stpiat'e niih's in eastern Idaho, it is forint'd 
l>v the overllow oj' llieSiiaki' Kivei' in spiino. On its shores 1 have 
loiind this species. On tiiv' shore of an adjacent pond of more perina 
neiit character I have ohserved this species oeeiipyinj; vertical holes, 
which were kept tilled with water by occasional waves, but from which 
llieir heads eiiieri;-ed into the air. In this position their branchia' were 
;iradiially absoibed. An adult I'roiii New .lerscy occupied a biiriow in 
!lic soil III' my Icrncry for several weeks. The Inirrow had two oriliees, 
III one or the ittlu'i nl which its head ciUild be o;(.n»'rally si'eii, observing 
what wa> t;oiim on. 


» I 







I'ltili'ssor iJiiinl lirsl iviK-luMl tlif roiicliisictii lli:i( llic ciiily stiiyo of 
this species is a Siretloii, iiii<l lie siis|»e('te«l on lluK ;i<r«'()iiiil tliiit tlii' 
Siriiloii iiir.ilriinns of llie valley ot' Mexico is the luiva of an niilviiown 
species of Aim1>1\ sioina. I.oiijr al'leiwanls Pro!'. AM;;iiste Diiiiieril 
ri!cei\c(l some laiva' ol'tlie .1. tifiriniim iVoin Mexico and ol»s(!ive<l their 

III,. I: rphoscs in the reptih' honse of tlie .lanliii des IMantcs of I'aris. 

lie siippttsed the species to Ix'the Sirnhm mcrini ii it in, hni I showi-d 
that it was liie Ainhlijslitmii liiiriiiiiiii {'' iiiaforliiiin^'), alter an examina- 
tion of sjiecimeiis sent l»y liim t(» me to riiiladelphia.* Since then 
ridfessor .'\Iaish at New Haven, and .Madame Clianvin in Switzerland, 
have observed the iiiclam Mjtliosis ol the same species. I'rofessor I)u- 
meiil also showed that il can reprodncc while still hianchiferoiis. 

JSiirilon iiic.rindiinii \\'a'^\. {Aiiihli/sfoiiiti iiiixintniim Cope) inhaltits 
Lakes ("halco and .\ocliimilc<», in thexalleyof Mexico. Its metamor- 
phosis has never iieeii oltserscd, l»nt il is asserted by I. iM. N'elasco to 
lake place. It is readily distiiijiiiished from the larva of the Aiiihfi/ 
stoiiiii liiiiinuin by its color. Il is of a piiikisli tiiay, and is covered 
with imiiK'roiis small ronnd, «liisky spots, rather closely placed. While 
neaily related to the larva of the .1. tii/rlitinii, il is clearly a ditVereiit 
form. Should il piove to be the case thai il does not niider.uo a mela 
inoiphosis, the ^cniis Sired(»n, of which it is the type, niiisl be retained. 
A second species, the .S'. iluiin'rili, has been described by l)ii;;<'\s from 
Lake Tatzciiaor in the Stale of (inanajnalo. lis color is uniform. 



.Imliliii^loiiiii hiininiiii (iiiiii. 
i;ksi;i;vi: skuiks 


(':ilalci^in N 

1 III 

niiiiilM'i. s| 




wm 1 










1IH)H2 ' 








4U0M . 


:i9ua 1 


amw ' 



































will II 

I'liini » liiiin II iri\ I il 

N.iliiii 111 H|M ri 

S. II. l.Ullll 

I'lias Al.liiili 

1)1.. I. K llfiiil, Its. \. 

Dclruit, Miili A. Sa;;ii 

Viii;iiiiii .Si|i|. --. |!-7I 

Wi li-li I (My liiw.i M;i\ Jl, |H7h I'lini Alilliili 

Nnillinii lllihi.i- ■ ' i; K.iiiiirnll. 

W,.-l Niiiihlh 1.1, III .. ill, 

('Iiiiiii;ii. Ill Sept 7. 1X77 I Swiiiiv 

KilL'iliilil. S. (■ Apr. — , 1^7l) 

Wilwtii I'ily, Iiiw.i 

I'dii Kipliv. Minn 

Ni» Vi.rk' 

Inilipriiilino'. Mil . . ' 

KiK-iilKilli', Ky 


N'lillllrln IliillilH 

Saint I is. Mo 

I.akr Kiuiiiilo. < 'hi 


Wi-l N.illlillrl.l. Ill 

K.HHlr, W is 

('nlilnilills. llliiii 

Niw Mi\iiii 

I'lPil I'liiiin. \. Mr\ 

Dr. .I.(i ( iiiiiiir 

Ilr riiiiM. II.W.Iil. 
Or. Ii. V. Sliiiiiiai'il .. 
I! Ki'iiiiii'iiit 

.1. I'litl.s 

Ii Killllinilt 

I'll. IS !•. r.aiiil 

I'liil I.. I.I M|Mrli'll\ 

.' Ilr .1 I,. l.iCnlll.- 

I'llrl I 'iinnrll 

Null las, N. Ml v .. Hi i ' (1 Vrw In 1 1 

liiMiilnCaiiiin, .\iiz W K M .\iii\ 

Aii/<piia , |8;i .1 M l;„i|,.r 

l''orl Kcviiiilils A. ('li>iii;li 

I.iiiil W'. r, Caijiriilii I 

S. \ . 

I'inl lili-s, N Mix .. ' Or.S W riav\, r ■ \ ' 

I'liit liinlnn, Mil !(,. K V ||.,m|,.„ . 

laniaiilipaN Mrs |i, i, A K.hvanls. f S A ' 

I'liiii iililio^ |'|lil,ii|rl|.|iiii .\. ;|(liiii\ , i-J.",> 





1 1.1 
I I.I 
1 1.. 











i|n . 

.Ill l\|H'. 







.Imlihislitiiiii liiiriniiiii (irccii— ('mil iiuic<l. 
i;i;si:i;vi', sKiaKs-c.ntiinir.i. 

f'.iiiilii^ni' Nii.oli 
liiltnlirr . HfM'r. 



111" 7 





l'ji>(i:i j 




I. •■.11 






1 1 f.'7 




I I -.IS 







'.II !i; 

11. '.Ill 




I I I.e. 

I I l-'T 

I I I 111 


I alilv 

MiMilli !•! CiiniMKiii 
I'.iit i;ili'v . K.itiM 

l.dHlT I'l.lllf 

I'ml l,;iiiiiiiii' W'vii 


. .In 

S\(liii'v, Nrlir 




rclrl.Mon, I'llll . ... 
1. 11' ijiii |Kiil<', Minn 
Kill I I'l.liiii. ('ill 

I'nit liliili;,.!, \V\,i 

Kcli. Ill, lh7il 

n.i' .\ IHTS 

S:iiitii I'V CriiU 

i U.u' 

I M..\i.o 

ll.ih l.iK.. 

Nr« .Mislru 

: Siiiiili I'.iiK, Ciilii 

SmiiIm I''i-. .\ Mi\ 

I l''iiil Sii'i'li', Wvii 

I Niiilliriii I'lminliiiv 

' I'llll i;,Miii;iii n.iu .. 

Ill's MnllM'M, IllWil 

At i/.iiii;i 

I'lii I riiiirii 

I''iiit Sl.'.'li'. \V\ii 
tll(.i»M,('.lll;lilj. ... 
Ilii) Miiiilui'-i, N Mi'\ 

Silll l''.li'/;ll III, ri'\ 

Saiilii I'l', N. Mi'\ 

Siiiiiliiin llliiiiii.'< . . 

1 ( iiii|i Sii|i|il\ . Iiiil. T 

Al.llil. ri;l 

Vi'lliiw Htiiiii' I.iiKi- 

.\iiliiiiii. .Ml' .— - — , l.»x:i 

l''llll \Vlll;;atl' N. Ml.'^. — , l,SK"l 

tiiMii.l t. ill an l.a 

Ann Ailiiii, Mlili 

I'liiiii « liiini iiiViMil 


III. \V. A. llainiiiKnil, 1' S A 

111 .1 ll.(iii|ii'i' 

(lias. IJiiliv 

. ill..... 

. ill. 

i.ii'iii s. \v. Ci'iw I'liiii, r. 
s. .v. 

("A. K 

K llii.'-l 

S 1!. UIl'i."* 

Hi', s. \v. \Viii.iiiioii.'4i<'iiti'iiaiit IIi'MinliU ami 
II.'. I'- V. llaMi, 11 

1! II. U-aiii :'iil. 1''. T. r.iyan, 1' S A 
.Mill. Nat Mi'xici. 

— , 1.-KJ 

.Iiiiii' -. is7:i 

-—' -!'l.<7l 


- - -,'iV.-<i 

.liiiilaii .\ ( iillii'il . 

.lillill l>lltl.'4 

Hi. .1 I' KiitliiiH'k 

CliaH. Kiiliv 

III. K Ciiiii -t 

r S A IIii.';|iilal 


I.iiiiti'iiani r.riLilaiiil 

Cipl lin rupi' . 

Cii.iH. Unliv 

Di. Kiil.i'ii Hill 

Hi W. I.I. 

M.ijiir r'.niiiiv 

I ' I 

II Kriiiiiriill 

III. r i: Wiii'DN, I'.s A... 

Pi'.Chai.C, Ni'al . . 

I.ii'iili'iiani Ilavili'ii 

i; I' M.'iiill 

Hi l; \V. Slnilil.ll, T S. A 
Saint Cli ail.'s ( 'ii|li'::i' 
I'l'iif. S. K IJaiiil 

Nat nil' i.r K|M'ri- 




I If. 








.Ml iiliiilii l\ |.it. 
.Ml olmlir. 





(IKNKl; \1. SKUIK.**. 

Kiiisas Mroliolii. 

Hill l''oil Colli. l'i'\ Dr K. I'.il I Do 

r.iiilniiM l'a^.'<, \\\o I.ii'iil. 1'' 'I I'.ivaii 1' S A. Do. 

Chi'M nil.' I'asH Dr. K.Sh ill, r'.S. .\ Do 

I'oii l.aianiii-, W mi I.ii'iit S. Waiiiii, T S A Do 

I'lalli' \alli'V. NiA .. ('. Hii'xlor Ho 

I'liit I'.liss, N. Ml \ Hi. S.W.Ciawloi,!, (I.S A Ho 

(': 1''.. In-i isiill Ho. 

Katisa.'* .. Hi I') ralinrv ' Ho 

I'l .. Ho. 

H.'tiiiit. Mirli A.Sa-i-r Ho. 

Wanlv.'i^aii, 111 i .IWMilnov Ho. 

Noillii'Mi r.iiiiiiilai'V ' — , IsTl Hi. I'l Coiii's Ho. 

SlIIM'V. ' 

(') ....'. i .. I'l Do 

N'i'\vM,\i.o I i'; Ho. 

I'l I S. I'". liaii'il Ho. 

Snili r... N. M.'\ .. , (') ! Ho. 

l;ii. U Islaiiil, 111 .. .1. It. Sai'!;i-'if, i Ho. 

' 'liana , -,l,s.v^ (l.l'.IIa.x Ho 

'onllii'iii Kaiisii.i I .. ilo ... Clias. Kiiliy i Ho 

.. ill. '. j....ilo. ili> .. Ho 

M.iiii'lli, (lliio I I'lol'i'Hsov Aiiili'i'vv Ho 

tl I I'l Ho. 

!'l I CI Ho. 

Ni'« Mi-\ii'i> \. SMrCji llan Mi oliolir lv;ir. 

(?) .; Ci Ali'oliolii'. 






CI I Hi I'\ V, Iliivili- 

1 I 








.iiiililii»liiiii(i tiiiriiiinii Kill I'oniii list (ir,i,\ 

W'liiii ..I 1 Naliiii- iiT sill ri 

riillrrli il. "" "■ 

CiilaliiL'iii' Nil 111 

IHIImIm T. M|"T 


IIWI •-' I'.lMliiinii. ('ill K.Niinui'lM 

II71II I K.iNiiiiCal -.IST'i (,11-it^n li^ni 

Illiri 1 i;i I'iisii Ti<\ -,IKSI NrulMiiSii MM .... 


AMIiLVSTOMA ri.'ISl.Tl'irM i\<\»\ 

I'riH (Is. Aciiil., riiila., Hti7, |.. I'.U. 

Tlu' species is stout and lieav.v in ItniM; llie lieail \eiy liroad nnil 
niiieli (lepresscd. Tlie sliin is },nannlated I).v citntraction of the alcolml. 
but in respd't lit jilaiids, pits, etc., appears niiicli like otiiei species. 
Tliere is, lidwever, a de(!ide(l realiin' in ccitain particles wiiicli eiinvd 
tlie paiotoid re;:ion, and are seen also on tlie top of tin- head alonj^ the 
inner inarjiin of the orbit, and perliaps below the ev«'. I liaxc not 
noticed this character in aiiv otiiei' species east of the itocky Mourdains. 
The head is bioad, ovate, ratiier ]>oiiited anteiiorl.v. The inner and 
outer nostrils are nearly the same distance apart. The tonjiiie is broader 
than loiifj', more than half the width of tlie head, lillin;; the intersi)ace 
of the same anteriorly. 

Tl»' teetli are in Ibnr very distinct patches, with d»'cided intervals. 
Thoy form one tr.insveise series, nearly straij^ht (teiitraily (where they 
are in a line with the posterior Ixtrder of the internal iiares), but ciirvin;; 
slij,ditly backwards lateially. The two central patches aie wider than 
the lateral, which vaiy a little in Icnutli and are separaled by iiii inlei- 
val half the diameter of the inner nates. Their fjistance from the exte- 
rior patches is al>oiit twice as j^reat, the center of the interval falliiii; 
about ()pp(»site to the inner bolder of iiiiiei' iiares. The outer patches ex- 
tend about half a diameter iteyond the outer border of inner iiares. 

The remaining;' external cliaractti'is of the speciincn are not dill'eieiit 
from those of .1. lifiriinnit. 

The colors of the specimen are much obscured by bad preservation. 
It appears to have b(>eii of a iiiiiforii) dark blackisli or bluish brow n, with 
a sin;;!e sei'ics of lar^c transversely elliptical blotclics of yellow from 
head to tip of tail, half on body and half on tail; the foremost one 
rounded and ]>lac(Ml behind the eyes. Those of opposite sides nearly 
meet on the back, and aic c(Uilliient on the iipi>er cdyv of tlu' tail. 

This is the only species I have .seen of the ■;ioiip in which a strictly 
transverse series of palatine behind the eye is divided into Ibnr 
The only known specimen is the Ibllowinji : 
No. KKiS; 1 speciMicii ; ( )cate Click, New Mexico. 9. 
()(!ate("reek ison the eastern side of the .S:ni;;re de ( iisjo .Moinilains, 
the .southern |»ait of the eastern raii-e of the 1,'oeky .Mountains in New 




l'll>lt(ll liilllill (/((»( (/.flO 11. S-. 

(Spec. KKW. (I.Mlc Kivi T, New Mcxii'tt. 9.) 

Ilrilil : 

lii'iinlli of m:i|>i' dt' iiiiiiitli to its will ill I it 111' iiM>rc I tin 11 liiilf. 

Willi li 111 (list iini'r (Villi I Ml 11 111 I III l;ii 1:11 Icilil mil ijiiili' I'lpuil. 

Willi li 111 ilisi;iii('i' rriiiii SI I 111! I III "iiiiu 1 I imi's, 

I'liiiii Miiiiit III n'llur I'lilil riiiil.'iiiii'il ill ilisliiiirr (ViiiM siiiiiil lii';riiiii -Jl linii-s. 

Disl.iiiri' iiiili'iiiirly lirt with i'\ rs in liMi;^tli nf iiiliil it liiiii'N. 

I (istiiiiiT riuiii i'\ I'M III iiiisti ils in li'iiiil li "I iU'liil 11 I iiiii'M. 

nisliinri- lii'l wci'ii oxtcrn.'il iniMlrils in Ini^il li nf nrliil mil niiid' .' t iiiii'M. 

I lislanri' lirt WITH 111 torn ill nostrilM in Icnj^tli nf miiit 'J I iini's. 

Willi li III" li'iiiiMi' til Willi li of lii'iul iiviT iinr-lialf. 

I^inilis : 

{•'rt'i' piiiliiin nf 1iiiij;i'mI lin^iT iinif aiiii'il in ilisiMin r 1111111 rllmw 

til I i|i lit 111' liver ;". I iiiirs. 

I'rri' liiill inn 111' inli'^i'Ml I in' iiilll ai liril ill iliMl'llli'r 1111111 klli'i' In I l!i ... '.\\ I i nil's. 

1 >is|:iiii-i' lii'l wi'i'ii iinlMlirtrlli'il tors in li'ii;;l ll Iriilii si nil I In "inin . . iiliniil i'(|iial. 

Tail : I.i'ii'^lli I'll 1111 lii'liinil anus In ri-st of aiiiinal Itms. 

I'nilv : Nniiilii r nl' I ii^ial rnri-nws (i ml ml in;; a\iilai> ami iiii^uiiial ) 1 - ( .'). 

Miiixiii) nil Ills, ill iiiiliiH. 
i.rnu^lli, ini-asiii'iil alnii;; axi-^ ii("linil\ : | limlv : I H-iiaiii'i' lii'twi'i'H ai'iii|iil ami 

I'lnlll slinlll lii^apr In 

r'niiil sunlit 111 ;^iilai' I'nlil 'M> 

I'll nil Slinlll 111 a I'll 1| lit 1. In 

l''liilil Mlinill In ;;inin ;i. In 

rinm Slinlll tn lii'Iliinl anils... :!. -^11 

I'inm Slinlll In I'liil 111' tail I'l. •'Il 

lliail : 

Wlillll III' ili'ifil HI 

Willi li III' lniiy;m' I.'i 

LrliHl li III' nrliil 1> 

nisiani'i' lii'iwi'iii I'vi's aiilrri 

nlly ,Ml 

IHstaiii'i' lirl WI'I'II iiiiliT iiiisirils . -J-J 
Mislaiiii- lirlwrin iiimr iinsiiils .'M> 



. II ; 

lli'ifilil nf tail wlii'i'i' lii;;lii'st. . 
lirrailtli 111" tail wlu-ri- liii;ln'st.. ','1 
Liiiilis : 

Kli'i' linrlinii lit' lnii;f|'sl liiiy;i'r.. 
I'liim I'lliiiw In tip (it' lim^fi'st 


I'm- pniiiiin III" IniiMost till' 

l''riilii kliri" 111 I ip III" liili;;rst tm 

l>islani'i' lirtwi'i'M niilstli'tilli I 




AMItLVSToMA Ml'lllAS Cnpr. 

I'm Is. .\i'ail. riiiia.. l-ilT, p, I'.l.'; .'<l lamli, Salaiii., p. <ll ; Itniili'ii^jiT, 

Calal. I!ali-. (irail.. I'.iil. Miis., ml. ii, H--.>, p i:.. 

Tlic spcciiiii'M si'li'i'tcd as tlic type of the (Icscu'iptioii has tlii' skin 
soiiicwliat alU'i't'il l»y alcDliol, s.) tliat an c.xai^t dosuriptioii <',iii iiol ho 
iiiatlc (»!' tho <;hiii(ls, jiits, and p ires. Tlicr ' <1 );'.s not, howm't'i', appoiir 
to lie any inatciial (lilViTciicc Iroin ,1. tii/riiiinii in tlu'so respects. 

Th(^ head appeal's small in pidporlioii to the size of tlie animal, and 
the cheeks nniisually swollen ; the width of t he head is contained about 
I'oiii- and one half times in the distance to yioiii. The eyes are lathei' 
small, distant three lenn;tlisof the oiliif : the iiiiier nostrils an* consider- 
ably more distant than the «mter. The torf;'ne is larji'o and llesliy, tilling 


\ I 

] \ 



H« I'.ii.urnx :!i, rN'm;i> staths naiionai. miskim. 

the rami iuit.Ti.»iI.v, ami moiv than lialf fix- widtli of Ww head. The 

iiiiM'i' nostrils an- (|"'''' lii<«'''i>'' 

Tlir palatine K-ctli tonsi a very <>l>fns.' aii;;le aiiU-rioily, iracliin- l(. 
i.lMMit cpposil.' tlir mi.l.llrnf thr iniuT iiaics aii<I oNtcii.liii^' lalcially 
iM-ynml tl.ciii :.v alK.iit ..ih' <liamct."f. TIkmv is a sli-l.t intcmiptim. 

iiloiii;' 111.' median line, imt no a|.i>fecial.l. e elsewhere. Tlie Iiml).s of 

the V are not entirely strai-lit. l»iit l'»nn a double eiiive (seairely apim'- 
eialde) .Ml .'a.di si.h-. Their an- Iw.-lv.' .-..stal Kn.ov.-s. The p(dvio 
grooves aie n.>l appreeialde, and oidy al lh»^ ol the tail. 

^ (5?. 





Vli:. W- A iiil'liil'miii 11 i.lnru: Nil \\ 'S: . 'i.l I ,ii lin-< 'line 


Til. 'tail is MTV lonu. iT>nsi(ler.ii)ly ese.'.'dini: the icst ol t he :iiiimal. 
niiieh eomiti.'sse.l from the has.'. tlion;;li not .-hnaled ; o\al ill (Mosssec 
lion, and only h.-eoininu sharp ii.-ar the tip, without any erest. No 
fjrooves an- visiiile aloii;^ dorsal or ventral .mtline. 

There »h> not ajipear l.» he any peeiiliarili.'s in Hie feet .lisliii<iiii,shiiij; 
it from other a.piatie .\inl»lystoma.s. 

The color ol' this species is a yellowisli olive ; Ini^-hler yellow l»o- 
noath. with more or less ana s|.)iiiosin;i' or retieiilalin^ bands of wellde- 
liiied brown on the back and si.les, aiid a f.'w rounded sjjoIs of tlie 
same on the belly. TIk'sc ban. Is in width averaj^e, p.'ihaps, the diaiii(>- 
ter of the .*ye, th.)ii;;h \aiiable in this respect. ( 'ompared with yl. ^/ 
(jritiiim, tlii.s species iias a i»r.>portionally smaller head, more prominent 
'ower jaw, much l.)n<>-ei tail, and .lilVei.'iit c(»lor; yellow predominatiii.t; 
in *lie (»ne and biown in the other. The r('lali.)nsliip. however, appears 
to be very close. The .lij;ifs, p.'ihaps. are narrower, th.m<;li also triaii- 
pillar and depressed. 

The only specimen oi'Uw A-xiphias yet kiiowi< is from ('oluinl)ns, Ohio 

(No. n ;•..".). 



« ■ ■• 


AMlU.YsroMA ,li:n'i;i{S(>MANrM ( 

(I'liitc •,'.'>, li^'. 11.) 

^Ut\u\ 1*11(1 Is, A'Mil. I'liila., 1^(17. p. Ilt.'>, Slr.iiirli, S.iliim.. p. f.l: lloii 

IcnjitT, (!iit r.:itr., (ini.l. Ilrit. Miih., cd. ii, H"i, p. IC. I'l. n. fp^. •.', 
Siihimnmlni Ji (yirKiiiiiiiiiii, <i\i'f\\,{'im\v. Miicliiri'.'in liVi'i'uiii, p. (; llollii.N A II Mp, 

v.p. r.i, n. II. 

\il>liiuiiini Jiffitsoiiiiniii, 'rsrlmili. I'.iitr., p. !•:!; l>iiin. iV llilti., p. Hil. 

Trilnii iiifiir. Hi' Kav, N. V. I'liini.. III., p. ■<•">, I'l. |.'>, Ii;;. H.'i. 

Siiliiiiiiuiilni iiniuiildhi, Di' K.iy, N. V., /. c, p. 7^<, 1*1. 'l\. liy;. t'.Ci ; llciiltr , N A Ilcip 

V, p. (hi. 
.tiiihiislomii /cll'irxoiiiiiini, I'liiiiil, .Imirii. Ar. I'liil.i. (vJ), i. p. •,'-;( 
.tiiililjistiimii I'lisiiiiil, ll.'iilow., .Iiiii|-Il. .\r. I'llilil. ('.M. Ill, p. I!."i.'>, I-'Cp.'i. 
.tiiihhisloiiiii ji (I'l rsiitiiiiinim, viir. I'lisiimi, (Jopc, Vvm-, Ar. I'liila., l-'w. p. I'.'T ; I'miilcM- 

firr, Cut. li.itr. (Jrad. Iliil. Mum., ciI. ii, l.-i-^J. )>. li'., 

(!nst;il <;!oov('s twi'Ivc; miieoii.s pores on tMcli .side of I lie imi/zlc not 
(^xtriidiii;;' lu'voiid tlic urliil.s. Tcctli Iniiisvcisf, or ikmiIv so. in lliict' 
.si>i'io.s. No or oii<> iiKlistiiK-t plantiir ttiltcrclr. I']\t('i'ii;il iiiul in! ricil 
iiiii'cs i>qiiiilist:iiit ; lead colored to lirowii and Itlack, witli or willioiit 
jiale or distinet lateral spots. 

Tliis deliiiitioii eovers a (•oiisideral»le riinye (»!' variation, is ex, 
pressed in the following: diagnoses of three snlispccMes : 

Width iiflicaii I tci l..''i times in Irii^lli tr> urojii ; li'ii^^lli n\ rye ■.'.."> liiiii's in width of 
hi'ad aliiivr , iiiiil'iiriii lead rnjiir to hrowii I. /. i( (I'lrsnniinnim. 

Wit h of hi'.'id ."• tiiiH's in li'nj;tli to ijroin : iciiiiili ol' I'Vf nnc h.iir widili nC jicacj lu'- 
t wren anti'iior lantlms nf cyi'.s ; hlaik williwhitr spots nn sides and hi'll\. 

I. /. lull Villi . 

Width cd' head .'i t imis to uroin : leimlli id' eve I .7.'i in widi ii of head as ,il>o\ c ; I oolh 





sel h's sli 


slendef ; nniCorni h'ad eojoi' I. ;' iiluli 



Aiiihlifst<ima })(})is(»ii(iiiinn JclJ'rr.soiiifininn (Jreeii. 

The synonymv oiven under tlie head ol this speeies in o».|i('ral is 
applieahl(> to this siihspoeies only. 

Ilody decidedly more slender and elonoated than in .1. puuctdtiim. 
Skin exerywliere shio«»th. and sliouino liironoh the transpirent epi 
ileiiiiis the ends of the ohmds wiiicli thickly stad the entire snrface. 
Under a lens are seen nimierons small, rounded, shallow pits lielween 
the glands, not on them. The contraetioii of the skin in stroiio alcohol 
between these o;lands would readily impart a yrannlated a|)pearanee. 
The glandules are acciimiilaled into a thin stratum altove the parotoid 

'I'he head is elongated, with the miiz/.Ie obtuse, or trinuv.ite, the 
est width contained 1..~» times in thedistaiice to th(^ ^nilar fold, and frotn 
four and a half to live times to the <;roin ; the distaiicc lo the <x\\\\\v fold 
is contained ."(-J {iiiies in that to the ofioju. "I'li,' eyes are rather laroe 
and situated far liehind. They are distant once the Icnotli '>f the orbit 
from the nostrils (which are separated by iicirly twice this h ;th). The 
anterior extremities of the orbit are distant more than twice their len.irtii. 


90 i!i:i,i.i'.Ti\ ::i, rMTi:i» statks national MirsKr.M. 

The ^Milin I'ol.l or \'myn\\ is disliiict, not vcr.v |tioiiiiiM'iit above; tl>at 
Itcliiiid iIh' aii;;lL' oI llu'jiiws is im oiisitifuoiis, as is tlie lateral |»ai(»t«)i«l 


TIk'IV aro twclvo costal fmrows, iiiclmliii;; llic iii^'iiinal aii«l axillary. 

The tail is a little slioitrr than the hoilv ami licati (iiicasiiriii^- IV<»m 
postciior extrcinit.vol' vent). It is oval in cross section, widest, helow, 
tlion^jli without any riil^je or crest. It is little liiylier tliiiii Itroad at the 
anns, hut heconies more and more compressed to the tip, the upper and 
under outlines remiiiniii;^ nearly parallel for a consideraldc^ distance. 
The anal .slit is proloujjed into a }:roove, which extends heiieath the, tail 
(o its very tip. 

The limhs are lari^ely developed and the toes ver.v lonp-, Thedifjils 
arc cylindiical, depressed, without any lateral or itasal weh. The third 
linj^cr is longest, then the second, fourth, and tirst. It is one third the 
Icn^jth of aim from elliow. The fourth toe is louj^est ; then flu^ third 
(l)iit little sliorlci), second, tilth, and first ; it is contained altont two and 
one-half times in (he length of leu from knee. The expanse of the out- 
stretched toes is very nearly etpial to thedistance from snout tothe uroin. 
The lenj;lh of the lindts vaijes a little ; when extended on the sides they 
may scarcely meet or considerably overlap. 

The toufi'ue is thick and Ihvshy. much as in .1. jtuurtutiim. 

The teeth are in four patches; the two central in a nearly stiai^iht 
line, or foiniiiij; in smallei- individuals a very /\ , the aniile ante- 
rior but not pn.ssiii}; the posterior l)orderof the interim I imr«'s. Thesi<les 
of th(^ V are perhaps slijjhtly c(»nca\(' anteriorly. This patch or line 
extends to the innei' nares. and is there continuous with the lateral 
patches, which are slioit, nearly straij^ht, about one t'ouith tlu' cen- 
tral patch, and form the iJOfjterior border of tlu- inner nares. These 
are larye. far back, and widely separated. 

In .il(M)h(»l, aftei' lon^' immersion, the specimen is nearly uniform fi^iht 
liver brown, paler l)eneal4i, without any spots. 


III! Ill's 

l>('ii<;tli from siiniit to niiliir told , 7e 

Ijcii;;! Ii 11(1111 siiciiU Id L;i(iiii -J ,"i."i 

I.ciii;tli riiim snniif to nid cif muis ;!. 'JO 

lii'iii^lli iVoiii siiiiiit til irimi.'iiit (if t;iil •,>. .''id 

Width (d liciid -,(l 

!ji'n};lli of inoutli iiloiit; iiicdian line :t-^ 

t'orc-Mi'iii from (dliow Cvj 

Ijci; Iroiii Uiit'c H."> 

The specimen from which the precedin;^- des.-riplioii has been taken 
i.s, if not the orii^iiial U))on which Dr. (Jre^'ii's species was to. inded, at 
least one collected in tiie same locality atid named i)y him. Iia\itiii 
formed part of his collection auii presiMited m my yeat's a-i-o iiy its 
owtier to the Smithsonian Institution. The "li.iiht-biue spots" .so con- 
spicuotis in fresh si»ecimens have disappeared. 






nil: isArijAciiiA <ii' noimii AMruicA. 


l>r. ll<>ll)r(M)lx-, ill (l»'scril>iii,i;' tliis spcrics, Ii;ih inixtMl willi it iliciu'.- 
«!<niiit (H' till'. t(m;ju«i iitui tcflli nl" I'hllinilini (ihiliiumKs, wliictli i| sumc 
what rcsciiilih's, Itiil wiiicii iiiay n-iulily he (listiii^iiisiicd cxtcriiiill.v l»v 
tliii lijuiih'i' silvcn s|»i»t.s aiitl iiiiifli slmrlci' »li;;ils. 'I'iiis imliici'il Dr. 
Iliillowcll critUKMiiisly to iiiakc I lie .s|K'ri«'s a .s.vikmi.vmi of /'. j/htlinnsns. 
Tin' crntr liail itsori;;iii, luuloiilit, in tlic iicanT roscmlilaiKM' of tlu' var. 
.I.,;, hilrrair to tin' lattrr spccirs. 

I'l.. I'l .\,n>>!inUnir: 

■!■ rsniiiiii'iiiii i< 'fi rKiiiiiiiiiinil. Nii 'l!U5R. 

.■|.t (. 

\V l'iiiliM\lviilii:i 

A <'oiii|»aris(>ii of tlif spcciiiicii (li'xTilx'd witli tlic t.vjtf of He Kav's 
SdhiDKiHiIra iinniiihini cxliiltits no apprcfiahlc (lilVcrnic*' except in llic 
(larker coioi. lailicr nioic (l('pr<'ssf(| toes, ami perhaps inoro niassix e- 
iookinj" jaws of (lie latter, the niii//,le a little more pointed — all iiiieer- 
tain eliaracteis in r.leoholie speeiineiis. The palatine teeth are in hel 
(er preseivation tiiaii in the si'eeimeii here described. The central 
patch is interrupted aloii;; the median !ii>e, and does not extend quite 
so far laterally. The le;;s and dl.:;its are inneli leiij;tliened, the tij;iire 
and description of |[oll>r.)ok (see I)e Kay) (M)nveyiny- a very erroneous 
iinprt'ssioii in this lespect. The ;;rannlatioii referred to is in pait the 
<»l»tieal etVeet of tiic ^laiidsof the skin showing throiij;ii the transparent 
(^Itidi^'inis, partly the result of iMintraction of the skin by ahrohol. 

Ill the type sjx'ciineii then- are no symnietrically ariaii;;('d patches of 
pores on the head. Their ab.sence may be owinj,' to the loii;^' contimied 
preservation of the specaiiiens, or to ,M)nie a(!(!idental deticieii(\v. In the 
typ*' of N. tjnniuldtd these are <piite visiide. They are very distinctly 
shown ill N(). 4i»SS, where there is .seen a strai}j;ht .series interior to the 
eye and nostril (not reachiiif;' to the latter), bendinj;' abruptly behind 
the eye and passin^j; beneath it. On the jtarotoid rejiion above the lat- 
eral {groove is a sli<j;litly curved line of .six or eiyht pores and a shorter 
stiaij;ht one above it. I>cIow the <;roove is a crowded patch, which is 
conliiiiied in a siiiipK- series aloiii; the inner edj^e of the lower jaw. One 
or two are seen at the side of tlu' of the lower jaw, and others aloii;>' 
the sides of 

It has been stated that in the type no indication of lif;iit spots was 
visible. In others, however, of more recent ])re.scrvati()n these ar« 














■50 ^^" 

^ m 

^ ifS. 12.0 



L25 114 II lA 





(716) i>73-4503 


^ * 


JtllLLKTIN :;i, rXITKn statics national MliSKUM. 

(piitc ovidciil. In tlic sinnllcsf spcciiiuMi of ;5!»!»S iiro visible iniimToua 
louiidcd, im-jiiiliiil.v disposed Ii,ylit snots on llic lower i»iiit olllic sides, 
with some scattoml over on the bcli.v, :ivriaf'in}>- Iialf the, size of the e.vo, 
Imtwitli faintly dt'rmcd niarj-ins, Somio scatteml ones are seen on tlie 
side of the (ail. These iiiav he j)hindu'ons or l)]nish in life. In the lar;,'est 
specimen of .">i»7!>, l{ii)le,v, Ohio, these l)lnish sjiots are (inite evi(h'nt, 
on the side of Ixxly and tail. 

(Jencrall.v the f,Monnd coloi of the alcoholic specimen is lead-colored 
to olive brown and blackish; lijjht beneath. The coh»r of the livin}>' 
animal is similar to that seen in alcoholic s]»ec,iinens. Specimens liave 
been h>nn(l at locali(i<'s latlici' distant from each other of a dark brown 
color, with a lateral shad<> of a still (hirker hue. Snch specimens are 
of the stouter type of the species as to pi'ojtortions. Of two sj)e(M- 
mens from ('lark Connty. Va., llie width of the head enters the leiifith 
to the yroin 1.', times in one specimen, and the other but little over four 
times. Other specimens aie from Saint Catheiine's, Ontario, in the 
National Alnseum, and from southern Indiana in the riiiladel])hia 
Academy. They have liecn referi'erl to as <listinet species and described 
as Aiiihli/stouKi fiisciim by Ilallowell, but I cannot tind any characters 
to distinfjnish them from ihv A. jcJJ'irNou in )i)(m ])roi)er. They ri'sem 
ble almost exactly th<' .1. rojictnnDu in coloi', but diller entiicly in pro- 
l)ortions. In that species the body is not Ioniser than the lenjitli ante- 
rior to the axilla, while in this one the Ibi'iner dimension much exceeds 
the latter, 


^ i 



6 ' 7 ^^IZ^ 4 

Flii. 10. A iiil'hixloiiiri jijK rmniininiiii l\ )ic nl' \ in fii;<rinii. Nn. 'NOT Cliirkc Coiintv, V.I. 

!i! ii 

A specimen of A. ji f)) isdiiidiixm about L' inches Ion;: is !iot mate- 
rially dilferetit from the ailnlt, althoii;;h the two inner palatine patches 
are moi'e arched, 

Amhli/stomo jr(r<'rsnui(iuum laleralv Hallow. 

AmhlyHinmn Intirnlr, IImIIhw., /. c., ]>. li.'-j. 

Amlihinloiiia Jitlirxoniniiiim, viir. hiliKili l'it\n' i ,■.. I',(inl(ii^r,.|.; c,.,!, I{,.,|). (Ini,!. i!rit. 
iMiis., nl. ri, l-J-i'j. |,. 17. 

This form is (juite distinct tVom the typical A. jcJ/o-NonininDn, -.uul 
would rank as a spe<!ies were it not that its character and ihosv n\ iIk^ 
latter int(>rblend. In typical si)eeimeiis of ih,. ,l. j, la Irni Ir thi'\w:u\ is 

Jiarrower and the body more slender. When the lind 

IS are lani 

the sides they frcfpiently do not meet by a short interval, while tl 





oit\uiA.J.,i>[l)'('r.s<>ni<(iiumUnivA\ eacli otlicr iind even oveiiai) a little. 
Tlie laediiiii portion of tlic<leiit;il series iisiiiiliy exhibits a slij^lit aiij;u- 
lation anteriorly, while that of the typi(!al sul>si)e(',ies is straij^ht; bnt 
this character is in some cases not retained. The color is j;enevally 
easily recognized: black with light lateral sijots. It resembles in this 
respect the rictluxlon ylut>nosus, and to a less degree the Amhlystoiud 
microstomntn as pointed out by Ilallowell, and the unwary observer 
may easily confound it with one or the other of these species. liut 
lateral spots appear in some s|>ecimens of the typical variety, and tlie 
ground color varies, as has been already described. 

This form is altogether northern in its distril)Ution, l>eiiig especially 
abuiulant in Canada. 


Ambliintomn jcllrrsoniainim pldfincitm Co[»e. 

Cluck-list, \>. •Jii; IJinilcii^cr, Cat. Matr. (Jiail. l>rit. Miis., I'd. II, 18rV, p. 
Amlili/Htoma iilitlhuiim, Cope, I. c.,\\. IIW ; Straiicli, S.ilaiii., ;>. (i.">. 

This is a vi'ry (elongate form of the .1. Jcjlarxonianum. 

The head is oval and the muzzle rounded. The lengtli (»f tlu' fissure 
of the eye e<pials the distance of the nostril from the same ; is but little 
less than the di.staii(!e between iiares, and half or a little ukuv, of the 
distance between tlie anterior caiithus of the same. Inner and outer 
nares the same distane*' apart (Ireatest width of head "».,") to six times 
in K" gth from end muzzle to groin, live sevenths lejigtii from chin to 
giilai i'old. Canthus of mouth behind canthus of eye. A series of 
l»oies along the superciliary, which pass round the orbit Iteliiiul and 
below; a scattered longitudinal .series on the parotoid region, and a aggregation of the same on each side below parotoid groove :, 
a single series of the same for a short distance inside tlie ramus of the 
mandible. The parotoid i-egion i»ossesses a thin stratum of dermal 

Costal folds twelve. The anterior is a little distance behind the axilla. 
T\)es subeylindri(t, similar {o those of the A. j<'ll'<rN<>ni((nitm: in one 
specimen (ty[>e) they arc separated by nearly an intercostal spa(!e when 
lh(^ limbs are pres.sed to the sides; in another they me»'t. Tail rounded 
above at base, liiially much compre.s.sed, but not elevated; iMpial in one 
specimen to body and head to middle of orbit, measured from posterior 
extremity of vent. In the type, however, it is much shorter, extending 
from its basis <tiily t(» the eighth costal fold (from groin), but I suspect 
that this is altnormal. 

Color leaden ; in tyi>e paler below, with numerous indistinct whitish 
blotches. I"]yelids yellowish margined. S[»ecinien 4(>.SS has the abdo 
men darker and without spots. 

The nar >wer head ami more elongate body will tlistinguish this 
species from the typical A. Jr()'ersonitniKni. It is readily distinguishable 





'■: I, 




iunoiiH iiiiin.v individuals. Nevcrtlu'Iess miiii.v «»!' tliosc of tiie siihsiu'- 
cies A.J. hito-dk' approach it in (lie proportions of the jiarts ol" t'le hoad 
to cadi other, indudiMj- the closer aiiproxiniatiou of the eyes and of tlie 
nostrils. The body is, however, always shorter. The si/e of the A. j. 
laUrah is considerably less. Those (tf the typicid varietv of the same 
snbsi)ecies are invariably stouter, not cnly in i)ody, but especially in 
the head. 

Aiiilihi^tiimn i< (firxoiiiiuiiiiii i<'(l'<'rK(t)iiaiiiiiii (iiccii. 
iii:si;i;vK skkims. 

Cnlaliiyiiti No. of 

iiiMiiIii'i'. spi't'. : 

Local ily. 


I'loiii wluPiii iiM livn 






1 ' Wistciii IN'iiiisvlvaiiia ' Dr. .f. Oiitii 

■I liiplcv, Oliiii ..' : Di. e. I{. Uoy 

1 iiaciiif. Wi.M ill) 

1 St. (.'atlitiiiic'.i, Can Dr. U W. IJiaiMo 

aila. I 

Miiiiiit .Joy, I'a J. Staiillii 

liiirlin^to'ii, Vt ! I.. 'riniiup.iiiri 

lairkiiDW, Ontariip July la, IhHl Dr. .J. U. (iai riii r . ... 

1 ■ Ohio i ...'. Di'. J. S. New lirii \- .. 

J Niw York ! '..... 

:; I'll vilaiid. Ohi'i Dr.J e. Kirllaud. ... 

1 I Wist Viryiiiia .loliii W .M. Ap|ililoii 

I I I 

Naliitc (■! sptci 

Ali'oliolic type 
All iiliolic. 




Amhlijuliimii JiffcrsiiniiniiiDi /(t.iciiin ll.-illow. 

C'alaloyuo No. of 
iiiiiiilicr. H\i:r. 


4ir.'u' L' St. (Jatliiliiir'.'<. ("ail 


HH'.IT :; Clariii- (Joaiilv. Va .. 

11171 •_' St. (Jalhi'iiiic'.H, Can- 


))''";", Kroioul,o,„ur,,v..l N'alMfolsp.Ti 

iilli'clc'il. mill. 

... Dr 1) \V llrailli' Alri.holic 


Dr. D. \V. liiaiUr 


AmhUjulimiii 'nffirxiuiuiiiiiiii jilnlim iiiu Vu\n\ 



Xo. of 



Cli'Vi'laiid, Oliio 





.Moosi' i;jvii'. lirilisli 


rioMi wlioiiil.r.Mvr.l. Nat III .■ ol sprri 


I'liilrssiii ,1. 1'. Kirllaud .. 

i'rolr.ssol .\^;issi/. I 

(• Dr.Mir Alioholir. 

Amlihislmnu jiffi isiiii'niiiiim liilrnilc Hallow. 

(Jal iloi:iir No. of 
imriilivr. .spir 

I.oi alilv. 

rollri Icil. 

Kioi wlioiii rrciiviil. 

r)!)41 :i Near I.alir .Miiiil,, 

j lliiiUiins lia\. 

<'. DlcxllT 

Nat mo ol .spici 


All oliolic. 


this r 
two Ic 
one or 
or foui 
form a 
I>osi((' 1 
outer n 
Tiie I 
(ail is I( 
(lian in 
on both 
while (I 
liin-fes a 
The c( 
HtrijK' ol 
(lie liead 
with anil 
to (he en 
of (hiik 
onto the 
.s(ri|H'. 'J 
and pcrh; 
1 wo S) 
a litth? UK 
niori' (;on( 
Imt ji colo 
little in fn 

If.'a.l : 

l'''ii,i,'tli . 
Widili t. 

wi.idi t„ 







(l'la(<"jr., li<;. (i.) 

liiiiid, .loiiin. Ac. riiilii. (•.•) I, i>. 'Mi, and U. S. Kxi)!. KxiH'<Iili(>ii, xii, pail 'i, 
ri. ;!1, li'-. :i; ('"I"', I'l'"'- Ac riiila., isr.r, p. I'.W; Stram-li, Salaiii., 
p. or.; I5oiiliMij;i'r, Cat. 15atr. (ira:l. Hiit. Mas., cd. ii, \^^>, \>. >■<. 

This species is the shMidei'est ol' all our spceies of Ainblifstoina ; in 
this respe'it, as well as leiijith or(lif>its, ex('eeirni,ii' the t,vi)ical A.jcffcr- 
noniitnuin, but I'eseiiihliii};' the A.J. plutinciim. 

The head is rather larye, <lepiesse(l, and eloiinated, with a iiiodeiate 
eoiistrictioii at the neck. Tiie eyes are proniinent, and distant less than 
two leiiju'ths of the orbit. The outer anil inner nostrils are each about 
oint orbit distant. The width of the head is about three-cpuirters the 
distance to j^nlar fold. 

The lonj;ne is oval and longitudinal. The palatine teeth are in three 
or four patches, the central largest, occasionally sei)arated by an in- 
terval less than half the diameter of the inner nostrils. Together they 
form a line slightly angular anteriorly where they reach to about op- 
l)osite the (!enter of the inner nostrils; laterally they pass a little the 
outer margin of thc^ inner nostrils. 

The body is cylindrical, depressed, with twelve costal furrows. The 
tail is long and is com[U'essi'd for its distal half. The digits are longer 
than in any other spec", s of tlie genus, the interior being well developed 
on both ext rem ties. On the forefoot it eipmls the extern id toe in length, 
while (II the hind limb it is a little shorter than the lifth. The pha- 
langes are : In front, 2, li, .{, 2; behind, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2. 

The cnh)r in alcohol is leaden brown, with a well-defined broad dorsal 
stripe of grayish-brown, which, involving the whole upper surface of 
the head and neck, contracts on the nape, swelling again on the back, 
with an average, breadth of the outer orbital space. This stripe extends 
to the end of the tail. On each side of this dorsal strip(^ is a sulfusion 
of dark brown, which gradually i>ales through the color of the sides 
onto the belly. There are also a few s[»ots of the satne in the dorsal 
stripe. There are a few grayish-white dots scattered along the sides, 
and perhajis on the limbs. 

Two specimens (Kt54) from I'ugi^t Sound agree in Ibrm with the 
preceding speitiiiu'ii, the two central patches of i)aliitine teeth perhaps 
a little more, angularly arranged. Instead of the grayish dorsal stripe, 
however, there is a brownishicd one, and the sidi^s areof a darker and 
inon' (!ontinnoiis brown. No. 1711 has a similar eharaitter of palatines, 
but a coloration mort^dvc the type. The palatines, in fact, extend a 
little in front of the anteriiu' border of the inner nostrils. 

l'ri)jii>rlii)iinl iliiiitiitiiniN, 

Spec. No. till',', (tvpf). 
Itoa.l : 

l.rii!;tli (if i.api' I if 1111)11 111 lt> ils width t wo-tliinlH. 

Width tu ('islaiiio IViMii siiDiil to sjjiilar Cithl ahmii t hi'('f-(|iiartfrM, 

W'idlh Id dislaiKM' iVoih mimhi Io •^^niin ', (imcM. 



\ !■ 




iti;hLi:ri.\ .ii, i'mi'ku .^tatk.s national mtskum. 


: t'! 

I 'cud" ('iiiiliiiiicil. 

I'iniii siKiul i(i.;iil;ii- l.)l.l (oijliiiii.'il ill (listiiiico from mmuM (o ;;n)iii lij (iiiiois 

DisiMiiiraMiciioily l»M wren I'.v.'s ill lcii,i,'t li of orl)i t less than '^ (iiiics. 

|)isi;iii((l>ftu(ciic\lciiiiil iiosdils ill lcii;;tli..lorl(it . omi oibil. 

I> 1h'|>vci'ii iiitciiKil nostrils in Ici ^;lli of orliif oiio orliil 


Kdlioii of Idiots! Iiii;;i'r coiitiiiiii'il ill ilistiilicc IVoili clliow to 

■ ri'f |)orl 


niton I 'J.l tiiiK'M. 

I'n'v iiorlion of ionuisl loc coiitiiiicil in (list;inio from kiioi; to tip ■-'.' tiini'M. 

Ulstiincc lii'twfcii .iiitslivlcliiil Iocs ill lcii;r||i (loiii siiDllt to j,'roiil.. alionl ('i|iial. : Niimlii'r of costal furrows (inclnilin.;,' axillary anil iii^niinal) l\> 

Midsiin wtlll'', ill inilii.^. 

liCiiulli, iiu^asnivil aloiin a\is(if lioily : lioily: Distance Ijctwccii arinpit 

I'l sMoiil to cape '-'I' and •,'roiii , llii 

Fiipiii ■~iionl to unlar folil M I'ail: Hcicjit of tail wlicic lii^iicst . !■< 

l''ioiii siHiiii to uiiu|iil lio Liiiilis: 

I'loni s il to cKiiii 1,;.() Free iiorlion of loii;,'csl liiij,'cr.. . lo 

Fidinsnoiil lo li(diind aims l..-^,; , I'roin clliow to tip of l(Mic;cst 

I'roiii snout to end of tail., broken. ; liiicei- :(;) 

Head: ' Free portion of loiij;c,st toi> "JO 

Widlii of licad ''W I'roin knei! to I ip of loiiii;i'st toe .5(1 

Widlli of loiij;ue 17 IMslanee lielweeii oiitstretcdied 

l,clii;tll of orliil I-' toes l.oll 

Uislaiicc belwecii eyes aiilcii- Tolal leii;;t li cd' a larger s|M'ei- 

oily ','0 men I in. 1 liii. 

Distance bctweeii oiiti'r nostrils . Iv' , 
Distance bclwccii inner nostrils. . FJ 

TIii.s .spccii'.s is round in .stiilabU' localities tliroiiojioni Ore.yoii :iii(l 
Wa.sliiiioioii, raii,i;iiij;' a.s far ca.sL a.s I''oi'( Walla Walla, and cvi'ii as Car 
as Koit Custer, near (lie l»io Horn IIiv(M', Wyoniiiio', from wliiidi a 
KlK'ciiiion was l»roiio!il by ('ai»t. C'lias. Iicndirc. 

Niinu'ruiis si»etiim'ns IVoin Fort Walla Walla iiiid si.\ from Fort 


2 " -- 3 ' 

Klii. 17, .\iiihhixt<'iiiii iiiai-rinl(irhilii}ii. Nii, ((i)'.'. Asliiriii () retroii - 

I'ilaniatli dilVoi rroiii tlntsi' from more wi'stcrn regions in {\n\ al>scn(!0 
of till' (lor.sal color stripe. In some of I lie former the width of the, 
head enters the lenoth to the .i^roin '>\ times, showing a narrower 
form than in the tyiiical form. In others of them the head lias the 
usual width. Tli«> single specimen from Fort Custer has the dorsal 
band. A salamander from the Flathead River, Montana, was deserilied 
by I'rofe.ssiir Peters tinder the name of Ainhljfstoiuii hraiissii* There 
is iiothin.ii- in the description to show that this si»eciiiieii does not beloiiR 

'Sit/iiii-vlieiichic dcrtlcs, llschafi Xaluil'orsilM'ndc I'lviiiiile, I'.cijin, I-!-.', p. II.'.. 


11 ' 



V i 

to tho. A. mairiHlactiflnin. The width of tlie head, sa.ys IVters, enters 
the length to the ^M'oiii 4;r; times. The <h)rsal l)aii(l is ocliraceou.s, whilo 
in>ical .4. mavrodavlylmn it is j^laiicoiis or mauve color. 

Amhlj/ntoma m(UriHUtclii!iim IJiiird. 

Caliilii^iu' (^1). Ill' 
iiiiiiilii'r. s|H'('. 








1 4V.H 


L()i;llil V. 

I'lijiot: Soiiiid, On'unii 

Asloriu, On';;(iii 

OliilowN urk l.aUc, 

Wliuii »'<il- 

Fkiiii uliiiiii re ciiviMl. 

Ur. Geo. Siiclilc'V, V. S. A. 

A.N. S., I'liila.'. 

Dr. C. M. U. Kfiiudly 

Fort Ivlainnlli. Oki'.mmi UcI. 'J, 1S7U 

(iarii.sdiiCircli, W'iisli 

Km I Wall I Walla, 



Koit Walla Walla, i 

Wash. I 



Kurt Klaiiiatli Drcuoii i 

Koit Ciislcr. Moiii . . I 

Willi-s Witlirli 

('apt. ("lias. liiMidiro 

.Imii' — , )(<H1 do 

, IH<1 

, II-81 

, 1.><HI 

, |S,sl 

I.ii'litriiaiit Miilli'ii . 
("apt. Cha.H. liLiidiro 



II. M.KIdoiTv, M. I) .... 
Capt. Clias. Itciidiri' 

Si'iiiialii ). Wash .\. (;ainplprll 

2 Wa.slilii;;toii I'c i ijloi \ 

Naliiic of sjHjci- 






1)1-. J. (i. Cooper Ak'uhuliu liirva. 

rnu'cc'il. Acjul. I'hiliul., ISK!, \i. U). 

Nearly related to Ainhli/stoma mac roil net i/him IJaird, and to l»e placed 
next to that species in any synopsis of the ju'enus. Costal folds twelve. 
Nocanthiis rostralis. ir|)[n'r Jaw overlapping;- lower. Tail strongly 
compressed, as loiij;' as head and body to <;roin. Head wide-oval ; its 
{greatest width fourth in total lenj;th to theyroin. l)i<;its all rather 
shiu't; four phalan.i;('s in fourth posterior dij;it. Internal nares as 
widely si'.paratt'd as the external. Eye-tissure one half width between 
the anti'rior canthus. Median dental series present in, i-' an an;j;le for- 
wards. Tonj;ne lar«;e, deeply plicate, licnjjth, in. .(KS3; lenj'th to ax- 
illa, .017; to j:;roin, .OH); lenjifth of anterior limb, .012; of anterior 
foot, .001; of hind limb, .((14; of posterior foot, .0005. 

Sides of body and tail and superior surfaces of limbs, sliiiiiiif>- black. 
Dorsal region to end of tail and muzzle, j;amb()j;'e yellow. The yellow 
expands on the head and forms two cross bands on the up[>er surfaces 
of each of the limbs. The black of the sides is occasionally inter- 
rupted by the yellow spots irrcfiularly jMaced. lU'low, dilute black, 
dusted with minute white spetddes. 

Th(^ strui!tural dilfcrcnces between this and the .1. noicrodadiilKm iuv, 
not many, but are well marked. They are : (1) The j;i'eater width of 
the head, whicii enters the length (without the tail) live times in the 
latter, and finir times in tho. A. < pi. rant hum ; and is also setMi in the 
greater iiiterorbital width; (2) in the short toes, which are very much 
longer in the .1. mueroihictijlum. In color this species is the more bril- 


. !( 




1951 liull. :u- 

Tliitcii.-., Ii«. ». 

:i.; ( 




' i 



1!ILLi;tin-:u, unitkd .stativs national musioum. 

lianf tl.c cast spock'S l.dnj;- (loscrilu'd as biowu witl. a «ia.v dorsal 
stii...' iiistca.l of black with a yellow dorsal stripe. In it the limbs 
a,v Ja banded, and the bellyis nnitbnnly i.ale, contrary to what holds 
i„ the present species, which is the han.lson.est of the j;vnus. I ob- 
tain.Ml fotir si.ecin.ens of this salamander, nnder lo-s, in a, swamp near 
(I,c liea.l of (he S(.nth IJoise lliver, on the south side of the Sawtooth 
Mountain ranjje, Idaho. 

ff ^ 


Flo. 18. Aiiihli/Kloma fpijcaulhinn. Atlanta, Miilio; |. 

This species is in all respects more robust than the A.macrothu-ttfhm, 
and is more brilliantly colored. Its tints are (hose of the Kun.pean 
SaUmandnt ni<iculi»s(i,iuu\ are bri};hter than (Iiose of any other species 
of the j-enus. Its hyoid apparatus is represented on IMate L';{, tij,'. 8. 


Aineiic'uii, iet<7, ]>. riS (Jamiiiry). 

Otog'.ossal cartilajj:e trianj^fular, attached by a base to each side of the 
Jiyi)obranehial cartila{;e. 

in otlier respects this genus agrees with Anddystoma. The larva of 
the type species {C. tcnchrosus), the only one I have ideiititicd, dillers 
from tliose of AmbUiftoma in the absence of basal branchial processes, 
and (tf spleiiial teeth. (Plates L'O-LM.) 

1 have examined the hyoid apparatus of the sjiecies of this genus, 
and 1 refer two others to it. One of these, (\ vhujuhttns, very probably 
belongs here; the position of the otlier, C. tc.vanus, is altogether uncer- 
tain as yet. 

Considered with lespect to the forms of their otoglossal cartilages 
tiiese species fall into three sections, as follows (see IMates LTj and L'(J): 

(I) Tlie cartilage uninterrupted in front. C. (cntbrosus, C. aterriniKs. 
and V. ilrvortiaitits. (Figs. 1, '1-5, 8-".».) 

(•J) Tiie cartilage divided in front, and without median processe.s. (J. 
2)<n-oticu>i. (Figs. 0-7.) 

(.'{) The cartilage divided, each half with an internal and external proc- 
ess in front. (Figs. 1-2, I'l, 2().) C. microstomits, 

111 addition to tliese characters, it may be observed that in the C. 
tenchrosus and C. dterrimus there is a sheet of strong librous tissue 
extending antericrly from the otoglossal cartilage, and forming the 
base of the tongue. A few similar fibers are found in the correspoiul- 
ing position in the A. pary>tk'iim. 

IJesides the characters of the otoglossal cartilage I have already 
given, I may add thac in the species with entire anterior border, the crest 
of the superior surface of the basibranchial appears to pass through a 

IM. 1 





1. Vi 


( k 





Ibriiiiidi ill the l»a.s(M)t tln' (tt()j;l<>.ssiil caitilajit'. Wlu'ro tlic latter is 
lissuu'd tlm (!ivst appears to be deeurved tlir()ii.i>li it, as in C. inwoticus, 
IM. i>5, Fiy;. (i. 

Tlie speeics of tiiis jfciius are distributed as follows: 

Al'sruoiMl'AKiAN lki',(ii()N. — ('. inivrn.sti)ni KK and (J. ritujulatus. 

Pacikk! liiiiaoN. — a. iKirotiouH, C.deoorticatiis, C. ittvrriinus, and C 

The (J. microstoinits is not coimnon in tlie eastern part of the Aus- 
tioriparian re<:;i()ii, but is cliielly found in the Mississippi Valley and 
Tt'xas. The Pacilic species are all northern, none beiiij; yet known 
from the middle and southern [Kirts of California. 

The speeies of Vltondrotus are eliai'aeterized as follows: 

1. V()iiicr(>|iiiliitiiit', lootli scries cxtciulinj; fxtci-ior to (lit^ liiii! dC Ilm iiitcriiiil iiarcs; 
liiiif|i;il plicir riidiatiii;; iVoiii iK^iiiul ; piirotoiils nut ilistiiict. 
CI. Canlliim rostralisdistiiicl ; fail .sliorti'i- tliaii head and body. 

Miiz/.1(! i'lini;:ati', Hat, iii't«liiccd lii-voiid nostrils; voint'ioiialat iiir toctli in 
two latlicr short scrii's, wliicli prcsi'iit an open an;;l(' backwards; brown, 

marl (led with darlicr brown spots f '. tviuhrosua, 

IF. Series of (ccth f\ti'ndMn;to external tissnre of innernares; liiif;iial plica' radiat- 

inj? from Ixdiind ; parotoid j^lands forming a distinct ovoid mass. 

ex. Teeth in thr(!(^ series (no canthiis roslralis o'- plantar tnbcrch.'s) ; fourth too 

with three phalanjj;es. 

Mnz/le not i)rodncc<l ; median series of teeth forniin}? an open anglo forwards; 

wi<ltli of head l") to j;roin ; legs stout; toes long ; tail longer than body ; 

nniforn: brown C. jHtrotieim, 

III. Series of teeth not extendin;. beyond inner lino of nares; lingual plica' radiat- 
ing from behind ; no distinct parotoid mass (species large). 
«. TwolviM'ostal folds ; no plantar tubercles; fourth toe with three j>lialanges. 
Vomerine teeth in one transverse series behind i)osterii)r lino of choana' ; tail 
nearly as long as head and liody ; inn/.zh! very obtuse ; nostrils terminal ; 

light brown, with ret iculations of dark brown C. dvanlictilK.'i. 

\'onierino teeth in t wo sigmoids, which converge and Join antorlorto elioana' ; 
tail only as long as Imdy ; mu/.zle llat , produced beyond nostrils; unifortii 

black ('. (itcrrhnitii. 

(ill. Konrleen costal lolds; fourth toe with foui' phalanges. 

Teetl* arched between inner narcs; head one-fourth to groin (in small sptici- 
mens") ; ey(M)nr-half width bet ween canthus; mn/zh" br()at; outer nearer 
together than inner nares; brown, with a series of lighter sjnits on upper 
part of sides, below yellowish; ninzzli' and tail marbled with the same. 

('. texaiiiiH, 
\\. Series '>f teeth not ext<Miding Ik^voimI inner margin of nares; lingual i)lica' radi- 
ating from a niiMlian longitudinal furrow of tin; tongue ; no distinct paro- 
toid nniss (sjiecies small). 
a. Two sci-ies of teeth; no canthus rostralis (fourth toe with four phalangoH). 
,<. Tail comiires.sed, eijual to tlm body. 

Ma-,idibh< shorter than muzzle; head elongate, width betwtu'u ^^yes behind 
eiimil from sanui to narcs; width of head (i.o times in b iiglh to groin ; 
limbs longer, .separated when a)ipress<'d, by t wo intercostal spaces ; black, 


111 numerous narrow gray aniiuli on bodv and tail. 

.(.'. ciiiuiilutiin. 

Mandible longer than miiz/le; head short, broad ; width between eyes behind 
e(iiia\ from same to end muzzle; body stouter; width of head tJ.r) to 7 
limes in length to groin ; limbsshort, separated by six costal spaces; lead- 
colored, witli a few grav shades below (\ niicrostomm. 





,i> ' 



CIIONIH.'OTI'S ('l.\(;ri, ATI'S CoiM'." 

AmhUjHUwm vbxjnhihm Cnpr, Vvov. Ar. I'liila., 1-(17, |.. •.'(»:,: St,„,i,|,. Si.liiin., ).. (I.".; 
lidiilni.iiiT, Cit. ItMtr. (ir.iil. liril. Miis., cd. ii, l>.--.', \k W. 

This spt'cios ;ii»pr(tiidiL's the €. microstoiints in general, but iiiii.v be 
mulily kiiowii b.\ its inori' cloiifiiito-ovoid head, with loiiff iniiz/.U', more 
sleiidei' form of body, iiiid peculiar coloiiitioii. 

iMiieous (!i'.vpl.s and pores aii' not miicii devcdoped iti this animal; a 
fi'w only of the latter extend alonj-' the superciliary rei;ioii. The costal 
folds are fourteen, and are visible across the abdomen. 

The liead is clonijate, eonvex both transversely and loui^itudinally ; 
the upper face of the muzzle is narrowed, and projects beyond (he 
mandible. The width at the Jaws enters the lenjith to thi! «;roin (i\ 
times, and 1=1 to the edjje of the }>ular fold. The external nares are 
(juite close top-ther, nearer than the lonj;' diameter of the eye, iiml 
nearly l.o (his diameter in advance of (he eye. The au(erior anj-ies of 
the latter are -'.3.') diameters ai»art. The folds on the side of tin; head 
and neck sM'e as in other species. The distancie between tlie inner nares 
is l.GO times the distance between the external. 

The tongue is oval, (juite elon,nate, I)u( not tilling' the space between 
the rami of the mandible; its median j;roove stronj-ly marked. 'J'he 
palatine teeth are in a sinj;le row, sliifhtly eonvex forwards, cndrely 
between the inner nares, their posterior margins of the cuds of (he 
series and nares corresponding. The gape of the mouth isshorl, bu( 
longer than in V. mirroNfomus; its external candius falls aiderior (o 
the posterior canthus of the eye, while the anterior eanthusof (he same 
measures the i)osterior third of the ga|)e, commencing at tins middh' of 
the premaxillary region. 

Costal grooves fourteen; a median dorsal groove strongly marked. 
An unusually strong fold across Ix'twien angles of mandible, wliicli 
sends a branch to tiie orbit; gular fold continued (»n neck, sending 
ii parotoid groove forwards. Ijength to gular (old .l.T.") in length to 

Length of tail nearly e«|ual from l»asis of same (o (he mental cross- 
fold. It is of rather uniform depth, much compressed, keeled abov»5 
and (or its distallialf below, (ieneral form of the body slender and 
compressed, elevated at the scapular and pelvic regions. 

Limbs stout; the lingers slender, bu( not veiy elongate. Ajipressed 
to the sides they fail of meeting by the leiiglh of the sole and longest 
toe; length from tip to tip when outstretched, .(»() length (o groin. 
Length of lower leg and foot, scarcely .S from muzzle to gular fold. No 
visible plantar tubercles. Fourth toe distinctly longer than third : then 
2, 4, 1. Fingers 3, 2, 4, 1. 

Color in alcohol black, (he under suilaces (hiekly speckled with gray. 
A vertical narrow gray line passes between every |»air of costal folds 
and meets its feUow on the dorsal line or bifurcates to meet a similar 
bifurcation in like manner, end)r,icing ar. a-. These narrow annul! ex- 

*'IV\t, iijr. 117. 









Til is 

and has 

is veiy ; 

than in 

with sill 

shows tl 


pores <»r 

dent ill .v. 

The h 


limes ill , 

head is n 

'I'lie lowe 

the lattei 

length ol 

rated I»y 

'I'iie aiitei 

instead ol 

gnlar fold 

The 1)()( 


dorsal grc 

Tiie (ail 

dricalat b 

to the (i|), 

iire siiarp. 

tlietiil. I 




tcinl nearly as far forwards as the orbils, and .siirrouiid the tail to its 
y t'xtreinity. Muzzh; bhick. 

MiKxiiydiicnln. '"• •''!"■ 

» I Totiil l('Mj;tli :! <>. 

Li'iiitlli to <'iintliiis oris (strtiif;lil ) 2. ti'i 

. LiMi^lli III ,i; I'dld (I. 

Lciijitli I" liniiii If*. 7 

Wi.ltlM.rii.a.l :!.'^ 

"•■• Wiiltli iilmvc i'ciiiorii 'i.'2'i 

'l'h(^ sliach's of cohuatioii in this creatiiri^ are those of the Amhbixtnmn 
oiKiriiin, liiit arc dilVcrciitly arraii<;ed. 

X(». .'>7S(;; 1 spec; (irahaiiiville, S. C. ; I»aih\v. 

: ( 

Amciicaii N':i turn list, l"^"<7, |i. f^S. 

.Imhiiisliimit piirjiliiiriliciim, Hallow., Vruv. \r. I'liila., I"*.'!!!, p. S (ore Sidhima iidrn por- 

phijniivu, (iii'i'ii ). 
.Imliliislniiiii niirnislDiiiinii ('(i|to I'roc. .\c. Pliila., I~ti7, |). 'JlHl; Str;iiU'li, Siilaiii., p. ti."i; 

ISoiiicii^^ci', (.'at. I'.atr. (irail. liiit. Miis., cd. ii, Hsj, p. ,f)ii, I'l. ii. lii;-. I. 

Tiiis species is amoii;^ the most shMKh'r <»f Aiiicricaii Ainblystoinida', 

.•'r ■ , and lias other pecidiaritics l»y which it is readily rcco<>'nizal»le. The .skin 

J is very smooth and slippery, with thi^ f>laiHls less evident in the skin 

' than in A. ()i»i<'iim,j<[(}rrs(>ni<tiii(iu, vti;. The skin is eveiy where covered 

with small shallow pits, oidy visible when the nincns is removed, whi(!h 

shows the tail t(» be .sometimes cons|»i(!nonsly f;i"aniilated, the <>rannU's 

probably corresponding to the ends of the {glands. Thei'c are no evi- 

pores or pits of hir.i;i'r size than the others on the head and parotid, iis 

dent in some Ambly.stoinata. 

'i'lie In-ad is very small, narrower than tiie body, with little or no 
const ri(!t ion at tin; iu>(;k. It is (^oidained about six and one-half to seven 
tiim-sin the distance to the i:i(»in. Tlic muzzle i< short and wide. The. 
head is much arched in every direi;tioii, the eyes far forward and latiM'al. 
'i'lie lower Jaw jtrojectsa little beyond the border of thenpper, e;)neealin^' 
the latter when viewed from above. The i-yes are distant h'ss than the 
leiij^th of tln' orbit fiom the nostrils, their anterior extremities sepa- 
rated by I J, times this nnil. The nostrils are one orbit lenjjth apart. 
The anterior edye of the orbit falls opposite the middle of the j^apo 
instead i»f in its posterior third, as in A)iihljfsltt)H(( JcJ}'<;r,s(mi<inHm. The 
j;iilar fold is <listaiit from tin; snout one-lifth the distance to the yroin. 

Tli(^ body is slender for the jfcniis. There are fonrteen costal fnrrow.s, 
inclinlinj,' the iii;;iiinal and axilhtry. Tluu'e is a sli;«Iit indication of a 
dorsal oroove jjosterioily. 

The tail is about two thirds the head and body. It is nearly cylin- 
drical at, and then becomes slightly (jompressed, jiiore and more so 
to the tij), where it is quite flat, but without crest, allhoa.L^li the edjjjes 
are sharp. Viewed IVoin the siih^s, there' is a constriction at th(\ base of 
tli(^ t ill. it is one fourth higher in the mi(hlh^ than at the b.ise. 


I 'la If ',>.-., lii-H. 1, 



Tlio limbs arc wi-ak. Tlic tU</\is arc however vei-.v loii^', cyliiidrical, 
«loi»it\«, williaiit iiieiiil)raiie. Tlie |»ro])oi'tit)ii.s of llic dibits areas in 
A. p'.invtiitiiiH. The loiij^vsl Mii;jeii.s but (»iie third the fore-anii; tlieh)n^'- 
<'St toe isalitth' more tliaii one third the lej; iVoin knee. Tho out- 
stret(!iied hind le^s are al)oiit two thirds the Iiead and body to j,'roin. 
When (lie lore and hind leju's are extended and ai)i>resse(l to the sides 
they an' separated by six of I lie inteicoslal spaces. This indi(!ates 
thai the le<,'s arc shorter tlian in any otiiei' species of tlu^ ^eiiiis. The. 
ton^nie is thick, lleshy, and attached, although sli;ihtly free at sides and 
tip. There is a lonniliidinal uimovc in the toii;,nie, separatin,!,' tho two 
papillose portions, ol' an oval sliajie, placted side by side, with the e(U;e 
of the ton^^Mie projecting;' beyond tlieiii. The |/apilhe Ibini pai'allel st'ries 
ill each oval obli(pie to the (H'litral f;roove. Tin's is not round in Amhli/- 
stoma Jcjrrrsou itni II III . 

There are only two patches or lines of palatine teeth. Tlu'se o(!eii|)y 
the middle of the palate, forinin;i;aii Ai the aiif^leantiu'ior and reaehin;;' 
as far forward as the aiderior border of the inner iiares. The postt'io- 
external ends do not pass th(^ inner marj^inof those nares (in the soft 
palate, the in'oportions beiii^' a little dilfereiit in the skull). 

Sometimes these two patches form nearly a stiai;;lit line, or at least 
the central portion is straight, the lateral beiidin.u sli<;htly backwards. 

Fin. in. riiiDiilmtii.': i,ilfi;i>.liiiini/i. No. 39!t!». S.niiit I.oiiis, Mo. ; ', 

The color in alcohol is a dark brownish-black, a very little paler be- 
neath, and thickly anil irre;,'nlarly si>rinkled on the sides with plma- 
beons spots about the size of the eye, of no delinite ontline. These are 
less iinmerous above and below, sometimes nearly waiitin;,^; sometimes 
they are larger than as described, and look not unlike patches of a <,'ray- 
ish lichen growing on the sides. 

Mmsiircmcnis. ^ , 


LL'n{,'fli .'ilonir axis of Imily rioin Hiioiit to aii>,'l(( of inontli oo 

Lcn<;tli from snout to ^iilai' fold " ^r, 

Lciif^tii from snout to M-roiii '>'>() 

Leni^tlifromsnont lolicliind anus _ ij j^O 

Lcnstli from snout to tip of tail \[[_ ^"I,^) 

Lcnirth of tail .' rn 

Widtli of head ..""" 'm 

Lcnjrfli of foro-iirm from (dliow ",,) 

Lenjjtliof !(■;,' from kni!(; .".'.".!.'.".'.!!".! .KJ 

Expanse of hind leys ,' .r 




;iss 1 




:iMl<) I 






iiiiii; I 

llMII I 



Tli»! total Icii^^tli of liir^icst s|«'('iiin'ii svvu (.">!).;!>, Saint Louis) is 
iiiclit's, of wliicli tlio tail tbriiis 2M(). The smallest adult is li incliea 

In the Just jxM'iVctcd younf;- is simmi a series of illy-dediied liylit spots, 

lai't-er tiiau elsewlieie !ilon,u' eaeli side of the back. The belly is (|uito, 
lij-ht (rolored. 

'J'his speeies bears a close reseinblaiiee to I'hthotlon (ilutinosHS, from 
\vlii(th the jjenene pcculiiirili' the lon^'er digits, etc., readily distinguish 
it. The bluish spots, too, a. inneh less sharply delined and duller, less 
silvery, and do not o(!eur on the l)aek to anythin<;- like the same extent 
as in /'. {ilKfiiiosiis. From A. jfircnionidntiin it will be known by the 
projectiii}; lower Jaw, much smaller and more arched head, j-reater 
nund)er of costal furrows, more evident spots on the sides, etc., besides 
the important peculiarities of t()n<;'ue and teeth. 

This is one of the species whose metamorpiiosis is completed some- 
tiuH' before il attains full si/,i^ A specimen in which minute stumps of 
the branchiu' remain measures 2 in(;hes in len<,'th ; another without 
traces of them, 2.1."* inches. The width of the head enters the len<;(h (o 
the f>roin l.'J times, and tiie tail fall* short of the axilla from its base. 
These measuremiMits may l»e compa/ed with those (jf the adult in illus 
tration of the j;eneral jiriuciple that the relative lenji'ths ot body and 
tail increases with iiutreased size. 

Th(! well developed lateral procM'sses of the otoj;lossal cartilaj;e ai»- 
proach the character of Amblystoma more than is seen in any other 
sp«'cies of (Jhondrotus, its very lonji median processes are not found 
in anv other species of this ueiius. AIthou<;]i they lie closely apju'essed 
in tl ■ lonj;' axis of the tongue, (hey are homologous, each with a half 
of the (iircle of And)lvstoma. 


1 1 

1 1 




■; 5 


ClionilvotiiK mkronlomim Copt'. 


N'o. Ill 






1 1 


























'■! J 



11. '.(U 

1 , 


1 i 


1 ] 




•J ; 




Maiiili'vill,, r.ii 

^ M Il (\n nii'l, III . . . 

Siiiiil l.iitiis, Mo 


I'liilrio Mcr i;iiu"c, 

Nrw Madiiil, M.i .... 

Kurt Sinitli, Aik 

NToiiiii <'aniii'l, III ... 

Wlicallaiiil, Iiiil 

('(iliiinliiiM. I Hijci 

Niw Mailiid, Mo 

Mount CariiiL'l, III . . . 

OaKlrv, S.<; 

Moiin't Caniiil, 111 ... 

n.'Uinill.', Ill 

IIiKl.ion'.s liay 

C) '. 


Saint I.otils, Mci 

Sollllll'Ill IllilloiM 

I.aiiiaslcr, Olijn 

(iiainl Coteaii, La 


KicMii whom iri'riM'il. 

•I line 

-, If 7". 

Nov. -, 1HS1 
.\lir. — , IhSI 

\.(). .Viadniiy 

SaiiiiU'l rimii 1 

Dr. (ico. I'lii^iU'niaiin. . 

.la.s. Kiiiiic 

N'alnio of siirci- 


N'ov. — , l.-'SI 
Apr. T), 1H87 

It. Kciiiiicott ! Do. 

Dr. H. !•". Sliniiiaiil Do. 

I,. .M.'riiiiii r I Do. 

ItoliiTt I!iil;;wa.v Do. 

j I'riil. I.. I.i'siincicnx Two larvii'. 

I U. Kriinicotl i'llUi. 

! I/. M. 'rimicr ; Alroliolic. 

— , 1«K1 

I''. W. liaywaiil 

I<. M. 'J'lmii'r 

Dr. A. Kciis.s 

V. W. llavdcn 

{'■) -. 

W'.r.T.'l. Ks 

Dr (ii'o. KnCflinaiiti.. 

]{. Kciiiiiciitl 

I.. I.rsiilliTclIX 

Sl.(,'liailcs('i:l!f.;c ... 



I I 


, ': ' 



' i J: 

i ! 

104 lii'MJ-rriN :!i, unitkd srATKs national muskum. 


(I'latcr)!, lij,'. I!l,) 

.%il„mtui(lin Ir.nnin. Mattings, All,!;i'iii. .hiilscii.- natnili. /.•iliiiiR, I, IH.Vi, p. 'ififi. 
.tnihlHsloiiHi hj-ainin, liair.l. I". S. Mcx. ISdiiiMl. 8iirv., ii, I.Vi)f., -"■'. I'l. :<•"., fly;. If.; 
Cope, Pn>c. Ac. I'liila.. ' \i).'.'(M: Sliaiicli, Salaiii., j). <m ; IJonlciigrr, Cat. Hat-r. 
(irad. liril. Miis.,((l.ii. .'. ji. r>0. 
The (U'seriptioii <»t' this spcc-ios is taken from si)eciiiuMis uliich iiro 
not fully j^rowii. Tiic proportions iirc, liowcver, inucli llioso of llic (!. 
viicnKstowus at tlic saiin' a^ijc. This, with the Iarj;c nunilu'r of costal 
^Moovcs, ivndors it alMi(»st (joitain that the fiill-srown individuals are 
imich like those of the latter species, and very probably of near the 
same si/e. 

Skin ever;s .. Iiere <piite smooth ; no traces of pores on the head or paro- 
toid lejiion in many sjx'ciinens. Costal folds fonrteen, distinct ; head 
folds slightly marked, the {,ndar sli<>]it. A mediali dorsal <rroove. 

Mead oxal, rather tiattened ami broad; canthns rostralis somewhat 
marked. Month lar<;e ; (ianthns behind eye, anterior canthns of latter 
markiii;^' middU' of mar^^in. Nostril a little neai'cr eye fissnre than 
length of latter, jtrobably eipial in older specimens. Width between 
anterior canthns of eyi^ double len.yth of tissure; external separated 
by one leng;th of same, which is less than the distance between inner 

Ton.^ne small, as in other yoiui}.', l)ut not fissured or grooved, as in 
tliose of the two jircceding species. Talatire teeth tbrming an arched 
seiies between nares. extendinji' to their anterior border, and not bej'ond 
the'r inner bordu' in the lateral direction. From their i-esemlance to 
thrse of .1. mirrostomion of the same ajic 1 susj)ect they are similar 
ir. old individuals. 

Ijody rather slender ; width of head at Jaws four times in total length 
to yroin. and .7."» len^tb to ynlar fold. Tail short, longer when older, 
('(jual from its basis to axilla. Limbs moderately stout ; digits elongate; 
third and fourth toes nearly e(pial then lifth, second, first, l-'ingera 
3,2, 1,1. 

Above, light brown, with a series of light spots along upp<'r part of 
sides; these are small, ami one is between each pair of costal folds. 
Sides and belly yellow. 




Mcasitri mcnls. 

In. Lin. 

Li'iijjtli fiom (Mid imi/zlt; to caiitliiis oris 2.0 

liCiifftli from cud imi/zlc to axillii fi. .'> 

Lt'ii^fdi from t'lid iiiii/./lii to fjroiii (• 11 

Lciifjtli from end muz/lo fo I'lid tiiil 'i I?. 7."> 

Ijfiijjth from (^lltow lo end finucr ;>. I 

Lciif^tli from knco to <Mid toe ;i. 7 

No. ton, el vol I .spociiiuMis; locality, San Antonio, Te.\.; collector, J. 
I). Ciraliani. 

Tiie piano front and cantlms nostralis of this species form a resem- 
blance to the (J. tenebt'osus, between which anil C. microstomus it is 
natnrally placed. 


Cope, .Vini^riciiii, IHS7, \t. >*». 

Amhljintoma paroticnm Haird, Coih'. I'mc. Ac. I'liihi., IH(;7, p. 200 ; Strancli, Salam., 
p. (•).-.; noiil.'njj;t'r, Cat. Hatr. Grad. Hrit. Miis., cd. ii, IS-i, p. 1^ IM. ii, lij^. 3. 

This salamander is of very i)ecnliar (iharacter. It is one of the stout- 
bodied spe(!ies, in this respect about e(]nal to A. piincttitum, but with a 
broa(b>r head. 

In the type specimen (47(t8) the skin is remarkably free from pits, 
pores, and milk olands. Tiiese are found on the parotoid region, both 
above and below the horizontal furrow from eye to side of neck, which 
is swollen in conseiiuence. There is also a small patcii on top of head 
borderiii};- the orbit, a pat<-h on the s|)a<'es between the intercostal fur- 
rows, on the ujyper pint of the sides, extending-, though faintly, nearly 
to the belly. Along the ridge of the tail, bordered below by an in- 
dented line, the glands are tliickly crowded. A few scattered glands 
are seen along tlie back ; elsewhere the skin is perfectly smooth and 
glandh'.ss, with the miisch^ directly beneath it, although probably when 
fresh the usual shallow pits of tlu' group stud the skin thickly every- 
where, as usuid. These are distinctly visible in a second si)ecimen 
(I7(t!>). In this also the ghuuls an; more numerous on the back and 
extend fart her <lowu the side of the tail. 

The head is Itroad and depressed, considerably constricted at the 
neck. The eyes are unusually large and prominent for the genus, sepa- 
rated ant»Miorly by about twice the length of their orbits, distant from 
the nostrils less than this lengtii. The outer ami inner nostrils are 
respi'ctively about equidistant by little more than one length of the orbit. 

The tongue is moderate, m-arly circular, tilling the rami only ante- 
rioily and hanlly more than half the wi<lth of the head. 

The teeth are in four patches, forming a series, slightly an- 
gular anteriorly, where they extend to about opposite the centers of the 
inner nostrils, 'i'ju' two central piit<!hes are rather the larger, with a 
slight interval. Tlicy extend jxtsterolaterally nearly to the inner 
margin of inner nostrils; then ai-e se|)arate() from the outer patches by 
an interval nearly the widih of the inner nostrils. The lateral patches 
extend a short (listance bevond the outer margin of the inner nostrils. 





I'latfJl. liijs. n.7. 




The para spl.enoidal imrlion of tlio roof of the moiitli is imicli re- 
stricted laterally and behiiul. 

The body is full, rounded, anddei)ressed. Tiiere are eleven costal fur- 
rows, including iu'juinal aiul axillary. 

The tail is compressed, but oval in cross-section, with the lower edjio 
rather sharp towards the end. Tiie upper outline is much rounded, it 
is iu)t hi-ii, and not as long' as the rest of head and body; longer than 
from sntmt to groin. In one specimen there is a distinct furrow along 

the under side. 

The limbs are large; the digits lengthened; more depressed than in 
A. piinrtatum, but linear, not triangular in shape. Tlie lateral ones are 
more lengthened than usual, and those of each limb ure more nearly of 
a length? The free portion of longest linger is more than one-third 
from tip to elbow; that of longest toe in the same proportion. 

The gape of the head is wide; the length more than half the width. 
The width of the head is contained four times in distance from snout to 

I I H- II G 

Fio. 21. Chondi-dtiiK iiarnliciin. No. 7021. Vi|i;t't'.s Soiiiiil. Orriidii. Xatiiriil si/.i\ 

The color in one specimen is everywhere a <lull reddish-olive ()»• 
brown, paler beneath, and without the trace of any spots. Xo. I7(>7 is 
inu<!li darker, nearly islack. 

The AmhJustomn tri-sruptiim ('ope, from Ocate Creek, is similar to the 
present species in the intervals between the four palatine patches and 
the glands on the parotid region. The rest of the skin, however, as far 
ascanbeas(!ertained,isglan(lulai', a^'i" A. pmirtdtuiii, /'////■//(»/«, etc. The 
digits, too, are shorter, Hatter, more triangular, the lateral and central 
more unequal. The eyes are much smaller ami farther apart. 'I'liei-e 
are twelve costal furrows, not eleven, etc. 

Chondrotim ppi'iiliciis Itairit. 

CiitiiliVUliolN'o. ofl 
niiriiliiT. •iprr. 



4'OH 1 Cliildwy nek I.aUc. 


711'Jl I I'liiict Sdiiiid, Oiv^dii 

lllir> 1 N.ah r.iiy, (>ii'l:iiii .... 

4711!) , - Xcai'SrijihiliniiMi, Oil'. 


1 Cnal iiiiii('.< (if VaiH'ciii. 

\VV l.'4lall4l. 

FlKiii wliDMi irci'ivi'il 

N'aliui' of ,t|ic(i 

A. Ciiiiplicll Aliiili.ilic l\ |H 

Dr. (". r.. 1!. K.iiihtIv Al. (iliolir. 

.1. (i. Swan |i(i. 

A. Cainplhll I),.. 

AUli'ii W. Iti^\v.s(in 






rroiiorlioiiitJ (limfiisioiifi. 


47Ud. L'hilowyiick. 

fifinj^th of jjtapo of iiiontli to its widtli inoro than half. 

Width to disfiinct' from snout to giilar fold contained IJ tinies, 

\Vid(h to distance from snout to j^roin 'l.J tinics. 

\\ idtli to distance from snont to Ijehind aims -f fi tiniuH. 

From snout to ^nlar fold contained in distance from snont to irroin '.ii times. 

From HUO'.it to guhir foUl containud in distance from snout to hchind 
aims +4 times. 

Distance anteriorly Itctween eyes in huijjth of orbit 2 times. 

Distance from eyes to nostrils in leiij;tli v f orbit little over 1 time. 

Distance between external nostrils in huij^tli of orbit little ovtsr 1 time. 

Distance between internal nostrils in lenj;th of orbit about 1 timo. 

Width of toiif^nc to wiilth of head little over i time. 


Free ))ortion of hnifiest finj^er contained in distance from elbow to tip 2ij ti'nes. 

])istance between oiitstrctchi'd toes in len;i;lh from snont to jiroin e(|nal. 


McdHircmctiln, in iiichcH. 

» w » 

Leiifjth (measured aloiifi axis of body): 

From snout to^japc^ r>0 

Fnnii snout to jjnlar fold '.•."> 

From snont to armpit l.Tid 

From snont to irroiii li. Id 

From snout to l)(diind aims . 

:$. sn 

From snont to vui\ 

of ta 


7. t]0 


Width of he.-id... 

. . . . 

. - - 


Width of ton"ne 


Lenj^th of orbit ... 

. 2.". 

Distance between 






. »r> 

Distance between 




. 25 

Head— Continued. 

Distance b(!tween inner nostrils .24 

Tail : 

Height of tail where hij^hest.. . . 4.^> 
I'.readlh of tail where hi-;hest.. .20 


J'ree portion of l()iii;(>st (inj»or.. . !?0 
I''roiu ell»o\v to tip of lon>; 

r"-f,'<'i- «5 

Free portion of loni^est toe 'MIt 

From knee to tip of lon^fest toe 1.00 
Distance between ontstretehed 
toes :? 05 


American Naturalist, 18.-'7, p. i^-< (February). 
Anihlnnlomn dccottiialiim Vo\w, I'roeeeds. Aiucr. I'hilosoph. Soc, l."^8f), p. r>S2. 

Tlii.s species has a {jood deal of allinily in its character to the C. 
paroticiis I>air<l, but it dilVeis in important points of structure, as well 
as in its external appearajice. 

Its oeii(>ial proportions are not slender; and the limb.s, especially the 
posterior ones, are very stout. The tail is Ions', i>»<l •» coinpres.sedfroin 
the base. It does not bear a fin at any i)art. lis length, in the sinj^le 
spetuiuen before me, is eijual to that of the head and body (in(!ludingtho 
vent), less the distance from the eye to the end of the muzzle. The 
head is short and the muzzle is contracted, ami is steeply rounded in 
profile. The distance from the muzzle to the axilla enters the length 
from thea.Killa to the groin 1\ times. The width of the head enters 

•riate24, li«H. 8,it. 

■ * '' V'.A : 

I I 

i ll 

iff 1 15: 


the total loii<;tIi to tlic^ioin I tiiiios. Thi' limbs when i>it'.s.s<'«l to the 
side ovt'iiap l>v tlio loii^^tli of tlii' liiis^'i's. 

There is no eantliiis lustralis, ami the lower jaw does not extend be- 
yond the upiKT. The external iiares are almost terminal, and are as 
far apart as the distance b.'twcLMi the inner bordiM'S of the choana'. 
The latter are rather lar^e, and are transverse. The vonieropalatino 
series of teeth form a short transverse line, which is entirely within the 
internal borders of the inner nares and a considerable distance poste- 
rior to them. The ton,-;ae is wider than Ion;;-, bnt docs not till the wide 
floor of the mouth laterally. A dermal yroove extends posteriorly 
from the eye to the side of the neck above the anterior border of the 
liiunenis. A branch groove descends a short distance posterior to the 
eye and turns forwards to the eanthns of the mouth. These grooves 
divide masses of crypts, those on the inferior side of the {groove hi'.\u<r 
most prominent. The tract above the groove resembles the parotoid 
ftland of the Vliondrotm parotiviin, bnt is much less distinctly <lelined, 
fading out upwards. 

There are eleven well-defined lateral dermal folds, and sjtaee for a 
twelfth, which will probably be found well defined in other specimens. 
The back from the interscapular region posteriorly and the superior 

e e 7 

4. \ 3 

Fin. 22. ChftDdnilKK (h-riiiilfntiin. No. Itl9:i. I'nrt Simpson, 1!. (!. Natiiiiil size. 

part of the tail are thickly studded with cryi)ts. There is a slightly 
defined gidar fold. 

The fore limb is as long as from its anterior base to the anterior mar- 
gin of the eye. The toes are quite short, and tiieir lengths, beginning 
with the shortest, are .5-li-.")-t. Tiie posterior foot is (vspecsially robust, 
and tliesole is wider than the length of the longest linger. There ar<' 
im distinct tubercles on the sole. The lengths of the toes are, In^ginning 
with the shortest, 1-5-2-1-3. 







Mfasinrmiiiln of Xo. lAWX 


Totiil l('ii;;(li. 

lii'iintli Id 1)!isc 1)1' tail dill) 

Ei'nj;lli to ffroin " 071 

liPiijitli to iixilla OH I 

liOiij;!!! fi> line (if eyes (!(),") 

liiMif^tli (if i'lirc-lcjx O-ji; 

liCiintli oC lurc-fodl 111(1 

I.ciinlli Dfciilpitiis (II IH 

IjtMij^lli of hi ml I<'<r ().2(j 






Loiij^tli of hind I'ciot OlOi) 

Witllli iK'twcfii nostrils 00r> 

Widtli bi'lwfcii (■.yes (I0(! 

Width of liiiid OKi 

Widtli ofKolo OtW 

D.'pth of tail at miihllo W8 

Till' iii;uiiu'r of (U'S('i-il)iiijf tlio color i)iitti'rn of this .species «li'(>eii(l,s 
on wliiit we ii-oaitl as tlie j^rouiul. We can assume tliat the ground 
color is represented by a dark chocolate-brown, and say that this is 
closely studded with brownish-white spots of irrej;nlar forms and 
sizes. On the back, limbs, and top and sides of the head the pale 
spots are so close tojjether as to reduce the brown to a network. On 
the l\nM-leos the p.ile spots arc lar<»er than anywhere else. The spots 
are few on the tail, and those chielly near the base. The inferior sur- 
tiUH's are dirty lif,ditbrown. 

Tiie characters which separate this species from C. j;<no//VM.s' are: 
The inu(;li shorter series of vomeropalaiine teeth, the shorter lin,ners 
and toes, the less distinct psirot id jflands, the shorter and more ob- 
tuse head, and the coloration. 

No. IIUKJ; one specimen; Port Sinipsor Alaska, l.SSr>; Dr. T. II. 
Streets, U. 8. Navy. 


Ainericiin Niituriilist, 1887, \t. 88. 

.tmhhistiiiiKi iilirriminii, Co]»(', I'rot,'. Ac. IMiihi., 1^(17, ]>. 'JOl ; .Stiaiitli, Sahiiii., p. (i.'>; 
Honliii^. r, (at. Itatr. (Jiad. Hiit. Miis., cd. ii, ls,--,>, p. 4i». 

This is a stout spe(^ies, haviiifj; a form of head intermediate between 
that of tlu^ C. fenebrosus and .1. tiyrintim. The deidition is (piite pe- 
(Miliar, and with the ensemble of its characters refers this species to the 
immediate neiyldiorhood of the C. ienthiosus. 

Head a broad oval, its ••reatest width a little over three-quarters the 
leiijith from end of muzzle to {?ular fohl, and 4.2 in same to "roin. The 
pupil marks three-sevenths the distance from canthus of mouth to ex- 
ternal nostril. Fissure of orbit equal lenj;th from same to nostril and 
enters l.OU times widtli between the latter; it is contained 2.L'5 times in 
widtli between anterior canthi of eyes. Canthus rostralis marked at 
orbit, terminatinjjf very obtu.sely at nostril. The i)rolile descends steejyly 
from line of latter, imt being prolonjjed, as in C. tenebrosns. Thus from 
the line connectin}»- middle of inner nares to lip is .To external interna- 
rial distance and .0 between anterior canthus of eyes; in C. teiwhrosus, 
same eipials ititernarial width and .75 the distance between eyes. The 
distances between inner and outer nares are the same; the former are 
round. The series of palatine teeth commence oidy ojjpositc the middle 
of the posterior marfjin of the internal nares, and describe a slight curve 

• Phitciit, li,KH. 4,5. 




, ij 


Z. 'i 




4 . 





' 1 



round their inner margins to a point in advance of their anterior, 
then turn abruptly inwards and slightly l)a(;k\, making a right 
an-lo with their previous course. They converge, but do i-ot unite. 

lo ue large ; as broad as long. CJular fold well n.arked ; parotoid 

.rroovcMiot visible, perhaps accMdentally. It is dilllcult, as in the C. tent: 
hrosus, to distinguish the costal folds. There are not more than twelve. 

The tail is short and stout; its upper edge is much coini.ressed, as is 
the i)osterior half; its glandular structures are much less developed 
than in other species of Amblystoma, the erypts of the erest being 
minute and globular. Length of tail e(pial from its origin (posterior 
margin vent) to pcsterior outline of sternum. 

Tlie extremities are very st()nt,.iust meeting when laid along the side. 
The palms and soles are very wide, and the toes short and llattened. 
They stand, as regards length, behind, 3, 4, 1>, 5, 1 ; before, 3, 2, 4, 1. 

1 4 Q 6 

Kii;. 2;t. Vhiiiiiliiildi- alcrriiiiiii.: No. W^i'2 ; raliiral size; Kinky MuiiiituiuH. 

The color is black above, lead colored below. 



Length from HiKiiit to "fapo (lint projection) 

Lciigtli I'roiii snout to };iil:ir loltl 

Len};tli iVoni .snout to axilla (• 

LiMijith from snout to j;roin 

Lcni^tli from siniut to end of vent 

Lcnjjth from snout to muI of tail (i 

Width of head 

Width of tonyue (( 

Width between eyes anteriorly t) 

Width between nostrils 

Width between inner nostrils (t 

Width from eye to nor.tril 

Circuniferenee of belly 

Greatest lieijjht of tail 

Greatest width of tail 

Free portion of longest linger 

From elbow to tip of linger 

Free part of longest toe 

Knoe to tip of longest too ... (I 

E.xtcnt of outstretched toes 

No. 5242; one specimen ; North Rocky Mountains; Lieutenant iNIallen. 


I'.l. 1 


1>. 75 
f). 2 


2. ar> 
y;j. (I 



y. r. 

i>. 7r» 


<;. (i 








f IIONDliOirs IKNHI'.UU^r.S li«l. (linl. 

Colli', Aiiicricuii Niitiirjilin(, l."^.'*/, p. 8H. 

Amhhjxiiimii li inlinisiiiii, li:iinl and (iiranl, I'l-oc. Ac. riiilj'.., H.Vi, i>. 171, tiiiil U. S. 

Kx|il. Siirv., xii.,|inrt ii., I'l. M, lij?. 1; (Jopt', rroo. Ac. I'liila , 18(17, p. i/CCJ; 

Sliamli, .S;ilaiii., p. ti:>; Uimlmmcr, Oat. Hair. (Srail. Hrit. Miis., I'd. ii, IrtS'i, p. U). 
.\ililiiiiiin-(( liiKlinixii, (iir., l'. S, Kxpl. Kxpcd., llcrp., )>. M, IM. i, lins. <J-17. 

This .species is csiu'ciully cliaructcri/ed by its iniussive fVaiiie and huge 
si/e among tn <> salamanders, as well as by other peculiarities, liereafter 
to Itc mentioned. 

The skin is less glandular than in A. pnnctatiim or ^(^r/«jn)i, although 
scattered glands may be detected (closely and evenly distributed on the 
wlioh' back ami sides and on tiie chin. The remaining under parts and 
snout befiu'e the eyes are smooth. 

The head is v«My massively built, large, broadest behind the eyes and 
triangular, the sides being nearly straight to the narrow and roundt'd 
tip. The eyes an; very large and prominent, se|>arated by less than 
two lengtlis of the orbit, ami distant less than one length from the outer 
nostrils, which arc separated by \\ orbits distance, and placed on the 
side below the distinct eanthus rostralis. Tlie outer nostrils are much 
more distant tiian the inner, which are very large, much excavated, 
and iiave the external canal occupied by a soft, plaited membrane. 

Tlie tongue is thick and tleshy, nearly orbicular, but angular anteri- 
orly. It tills up the lower jaw pretty well, and is more than halt' the 
width of the head. 

Tlie palatine teeth are in two patches only; each very slightly convex 
antericu'Iy, coming together at a slight angle, with the apex backward, 
l)nt separated along the nu'dian line. Lateially the patches of teeth 
form the p(»sterior margin of the inner nares, and do not extend beyond 
their outer margin. The eidire .series is thus posterior to the nostril, 
in younger specimens the series are more transverse, the inner extrem- 
ities slightly incurved. 

The width of the head is contained 1;^ times in distance to gidar fold 
and 4 times to groin. 

The l»ody is roumled and depressed. As nearly as can be ascertained 
there are about twelve costal furrows. 

Th(^ tail in the two specimens before me is considerably less than half 
the total length. It is much compressed from near the base, and the 
edges near the end are (jnite sharp. It is far short of being as deep at 
the base as the body. 

The lind)s are stout. The digits, the fingers especially, are short, con. 
sii'erably depre.s.sed, but linear ami blunt at the tips. The under sur- 
faces of these are souiewhat swollen into a kind of bulb, which in alcohol 
contracts into something the appearance of a disk. The third finger is 

I I 






loii'-est l»iit is very littlo iiiarc! tliaii tlic scooiiil, iiu.l this than the first 
■iiul'lou'itli Tlic tl.inl liii-cr is .iontiiiiuMl nearly four tiii.cs in tlio (lis- 
iancc lion, elbow to tip. Ti.c lomtl. loc, is louf-vr than third in three 
specimens; in one the second exceeds the fourth a little, ami the same 
are nearly eipial in case of the lin-ers. 

The color of this si.ecies in alcohol is a kind ot (hirk reddish-brown; 
paler beneath, mottled and marbled above, and on the sides with darker 
brownish; iuost distinct on the head, especially on the snout, where the 
skin is i)erfectly sino'>f h. The head shows a tinye of f^rayish in the 

«;ronnd color. . , ,t ■ i 

(For fresh color see the ligure in (lir.ird's Ileri>etology ot the United 

States Exploring Kxpedition.) 

There are two varieties of this species: <f. Where the hnval rejjjion is 
Hat and the muzzle narrower before the orbits, and the marblinj<;s con- 
lined to the head; the body i»eiii«-of a nearly uniform brown. Repre- 
sented bysi»eciinens 1710 and 4(l.*>3. fi. The loreal rc-iioii swollen in 
front of orbits, ami hence the muzzle broader; tlu^ f,M(»und color {gray- 
ish, with coarse brown marbiinji-, like larye hollow spots, distributed 
over the whole upper surfaces of the body and tail. Hei)resented by 
No. r»!»Sl and a larj>e specimen (leiijith S inches (J lines) in .Mus. Phil- 
adelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, from I'.ody I'.ay, latitude .'i8^ 18' 
north, on the coast of California, procured by (leor^e Davidson, of the 
U. S. Coast Survey. 

Clioiidrotiin Idnhromin lid. (iinl. 


Cataliisiio No. u(. 
luiiiibi'i-. spec. 



KlDin M liiilii irnivt'cl. 







1 I OlPiIoii K\| lorini; c\|M-(li(iciM 

] ■ Astoria, Oit'soii I I.iciit. W. 1'. Tii>\\ In itljic 

I r. .S. Aiiiiy. 

1 Cliilow .viirli I.aUc, Dr. ('. 11. K. KciiiKilv 


1 l'ii;;ct Sdiiiiil. Oic;;iiii "Ill 

1 ! roillunil, Oii'Uo" l***^''' •!. I'i'visiiii 

1 ! Slia.sia Cuuiit.v, Cal... I'^KH I.. W. ( liviii 

7 do 18h.') (y'lia.s. Ti)W iiHiiiil .. 

N'aliiii' »rHiicii- 


Ali'iilicilic t.vpr. 


Ad. and larvii'. 

rroportional dimcnuions. 


Lenjitli "I" 'X'i\»' of iiioiitli to it.s width two-tliirils. 

Width contained in distunce from siiont to fftihir I'ohl l\ times. 

Width coiitiiincd in di.stancc fVoni snout to >;roin -I times. 

Troni .snout to j;ular fold oontaiiu'd in di.staiu'c fioni unout to 

jrroin lilt If over li tinii's. 

Di.stancc anteriorly lii'twecn eyes in lent^th of orl)it not <|nite twice- 

Ui.stancc from i^ycs to nostrils in lenj^th of orbit four-tiftli.s. 

Distance between external nostrils in length of orbit H timt^s. 

Distance between inte'iial nostrils in length of (ubit ionr-lifths. 

Width of tnncnus to width of head one-half. 







1 I. 



The lai 

any other 




< . 


i r; 


Eroo portion of lonj^ost linger t'oiitiiiiicd in distaiico fron» cl1)o\v 

to tip nearly I tiiaos. 

Freu portion of lon<j(.'Hl too containcil in distanco Irom knoo 

to tip nrarlj lit tiini-s. 

Distance betwei-nontsti-'trlioil toes in lenj^th from snout to groin one-third. 


Een^tli tVoni lieliind anus to rest of animal contained I '. limes. 

Lenj;,lli from lieliind anns to total length twoli'ths. 

Mtanitrtiniiitu in hidti/i. 

I^iuiglii, measiiied along asisof liody : Iiody : 

Erom .snout to gajie .*!()! CirLMimfereneo of holly -Ldt) 

I'rom sMoiil to gular fold I..">(l| Distance lii ween armpit and.. 

Erom snout to armpit 'J. I(» ninin 'J. (i."> 

T ■" 

Ei'om HUoiit to groin 1. .'•."> 

Erom snout to liehind anus r>. (i."> 

Eromsiiont torn 1 of tail lt.:!U 


Widthof head 1.1.'. 

Width of tongue (Id 

Width of orbit :M 

Di.stanee liet ween ryes anteriorly .."18 
Distance between ouler nostrils .10 
Distance bet ween inner nostrils . i!() 
Distance from e^o to nostrils. .. .*2(J 

Tail : 

Height of tail where highest... .(15 
Ibeadtli <if tail where higln'st.. .'M 


Erei' ipoititin of longest linger.. .'JH 
I'ldin elliow to tip of longest lin- 

«cr 1.(1.-. 

Eree portion of longest toe :!() 

Erom KniM' to tip of longest toe. I.!i.-| 
Distaiiee between oiltstntched 
tous u. (ii; 




Tlio larva of tlii.s .spiu-ii's l'ii'»iii('iitly cvcct'tls in (limcii.sioii.s thai ol 
any other species, and (iiiite e<|iial.s theadtilt. It is a iiiiitbna lead coloi', 
1951— Bull 31— S 



114 ju'LLjyriN :u, iimtki) statks natioval muskum. 

or soinctiiiii'.s bliirkisli, and tlic imiz/lc is latliiT iil)riii)tly sIioHcikmI. 
The tiiil lias a liii at its oxtivinity, wliicli extends also wi'll aiiti'iiorly on 
tho snpeiior t'd;;e. The dij^its arc Ihittcned, and their apices are pro- 
tected in many specimens by a liorny cap of a blackish color. This 
larva, however, dillers lioni that of other species of the ;;cnns in otlier 
characters of more iniportance. First. There are no teeth on thesi»Ien- 
nial bone. (I have not examined very small specimens.) Secondly. Tln^ 
branchia- have a peculiar shape.* There are no processes such as exist 
in all other Urodcle larva-, but the linduia' arise from the edj^es of tlie 
vertical lamina-, which separate the pliarynj,'eal lissnres (Fi.i;. 3, p. ,'{, No. 
7). The superior ))art of the lamina is a little more produced than the 
inferior, so as to form in some specimens, on the third lamina, a short 
ju'ccess. This type of external branchia- do(-s not n-semble any of 
those of the perennil)ranchiate types, where theie are always \mH',- 
esses which are fre(piently furnished with more or less numerous rami. 
Thirdly. The teeth of the larva are stronjicr than in the adult. They 
are compressed, doubleedj^ed, and acute, liavinj,'' thus a da.y<;er shape. 
They can iullict a severe bite. 

As they approach maturity the marbled (-olois be^in to appear. 
They can probably reproduce without under^oin^' a metamorphosis, 
since I have found e;ij?s in the ovaries ready lor dc])osit. 

I observed these larv.i.' in some tributaries of the ^IcCloud IJiver, 
near Baird, Cal. They swam with .ureat rapidity, darting' about and 
hiding tlemselves amonj;' the fallen leaves that covered the bottom, i 
took from the stomach of one of them a larva of its own si)e(!ies (»f on«-- 
third its size. They are common in the mountain streams of northern 
California-aud western Ore<;on. The skeleton of a lar^e sjtecimen friun 
iSalenj, Oregon, is li^'ured on Plates L'O-L'l.* The hyoid apparatus of a 
youuger larva is reprcscuted ou PI. 22, lijjs. L*-o. 

1 /Ci 


American Naturalist, I'^'y", p. S8. 

Otoglossal cartilage free from the basibranchial, and capable of an- 
teroposterior movement on it, and not forming a ring. Tail cylindric. 

In other resi)ects this genus is identical with Amblystoma. The dif- 
ference in the otoglossal cartilage is great, and is presented under mod- 
ihcatious by two species. This cartilage is drawn backwards by two 
pubohyal muscles, and forwards by two corres[)onding geniohvals. 
(Plate 22, tigs. 10-13.) 

The species of Lingua-lapsus resemble in the character of their tongui- 
aud vomerine teeth the typo of C. microfitouius and the genus Chondro- 

* Sec pafjo ;jl, aiitea. 

• TIio fourth L-eratobraucbial was present iu thin speciuieii, but was overlooke.l by 
the artist. 

J^' h'pturu 
l»etw(H'n t 
of several 
and .separ; 
The ski I 
«i<les are c 




tii:i. Tlioy iwe the only AiiiblyHtoiiiidiu witli cylimhii! tail. Tliey tliller 

iiH follows: 

I. Foldsol' till' toiij^iii' radiating IVoni a lon^jitiulimil furrow ; voiiifiiim Iccdi not ox- 
tDiiiliii^ I'xiciiial til iiili riial iian-H; tail niuiKlol \n Hci'tion, 
a t'linuia of iitii;;lii.sHal caftila^vi' liifiiril forwanls; 11HI//I0 very sliorl ; jaw8 
i'i|iial; Ir;is .sliiirl, Mi'iiaiali'il finiii I'iU'li otliiT, wlii'ii aiipri'SMi'il, liy four iiitiT- 
spacu's; lilai'Ui.sli, willi li;;lil ci'iiss-liaiiilsdii lu-ail, liotly.aiMl tail, /..aiiinilatng. 
attConiiia, of iitiiu;liis.sal i'arlila;;o tiinn'il liai^kwanls; iiiii/./lo ('liiin;ati',iiro,icct- 
iiijf lii'yiiiiil flii'i ; li';;s liiiij;i'r; si'|iarali'il, wlirii aiiprrsHi'il, by two iiiti'i'costal 
spai'i's ; j^iayiNli-lirowii, with niiiiii'roiis palo lines, which form ii 
If! iciiluti; pattern across the tail L. lii>turiiv. 



American Naturalist, l^•'7, p.8H. 
AmbUjHiomn (umiihditm Cope, I'roc. Aiiicr. I'hilos. Sue, H"^7, p. "('iri. 

TIlis specii's ivsciiibU'S the ('liondrotii.s mii-rastoinns ratliei' than tlio 
C. (iii(jiil((lu.s or this L. Irpdiriis, llowcvoi', it appi'oachcs Iho histtiuiiu'd 
spt'cit's ill the form and leii^'th of its tail, and exceeds that and all the 
other si»ecies of the lUiiiily in the lenyth of that part of the body. 

'llie muzzle is very shorl, and the head is not distinoiiished from the 
neek. The leos are short, and when apinessed to tlu^ sides are sepa- 
rated by a space of three and parts of two other intercostal spaces, 
e(pial to four spaces. The tail is in section cylindricat base, and widely 
oval to near the extriMiiity, where it is more narrowly oval. It is not an- 
{filiate, and has no dermal marj;in on the middle line above or below. Its 
lenylh exceeds that of the head and body by the lenoth of the anterior 
foot, iind it may have been loiicctii", sis the extremity is injured. 

The head Is short, and the width enters the lenoth to the groin six 
and a (luarter times. 1 he front i.> :oiivex to the upper lip or profile, 
and transversely between the orbits. The parietal region is very con- 
vex transversely. The width between the canthi ocnlorum behind ex- 
ceeds the length from the same point to the end of the muzzle. The nos- 
trils present anteriorly, aud they tiro not <iuite so close together as in the 

4 ' 3 ■ " - ■ 5 • '• 2 e 7 

Flir. Zi. LiiKjiiiilajiiiiK iiuiiiihitiix. No. 115C4; imtiinil .ii/o, I'xrcpt I'M^. 5. 

Jj. lepturKN, as the distance between them measures two thirds the width 
between the eyelids. The vomerine teeth form two transverse fasciculi, 
of .several rows of teeth eaeli, between the t^hoana', (ionvex forwards, 
and .sei)arat«'d on the middle line by a very .short interval. 

The skin is perfectly smooth. There is ii postgnlar fold, and the 
sides are cros.sed by thirteen folds, with space enough at the axilla for 

[, ■ 








116 miLLKTiN :ti, i'Niri:it statks nationai. miisKUM. 

ii Ibiirti'oiitli. The liiil is also very (listiiicll.v iiiimiliilc yioovcd. I 
count lliiit.voiic ;;iim)V«'s heliiinl llii' rciiioi:;, mid llii' iiijiiicd cxlroiiiily 
is not ;;ioovnl. indistinct aivows miv iippiircnt on the tiiils of sevt'ial 
of the specii'sof Anibl.vstoniii. Tlicir iiiv no rows of nmcons poms on 
tlio lioad 'I- l)ody of this species, nor accuninhitions of ciypts on the 
head, body, or tail. 

The palm is wide, and the (in;;ers not h»njj, thcaij-li of unequal U-n^t h. 
The kMij-thsof tlie linj;eis, he;;innin^' witli the shortest, are, L', ."),.'{, I, 
and their phahin<;t'S, 2,li, ."f, li. The toes of the Idnder foot are, in ordei' 
of hni/;tli, 1, r>, li, ;{, I; and the phalan-^es, 2, 2, .{, I, L'. 

This species is lar<,'er than tlie L. IcptKnis or tlio Chomlt'otus micro- 

MianKii miiiln. 


Total k'ii;.'(li '•'•'' 

Li'ii^lli (obiiMOof tji=l "'.»- 

Lcii^jtli ti) ;;r()iii •'** 

Lmjitli (oaxillii I'-'-! 

Lciij;tli tt» caiitliiis oii.s i"i;i 

Lt'ii^^th of fore liiiil> iVoiii iixiliii t'l'-.' 

Loiij;lli (if lore- toot I'i'T 

Lonjjtli of Iiiiul liiiil) from ;;roiii (i',''J 

Li'ii-,'tli ofliiiul foot IIIV 

Widtliof lu'iiil til-,' 

lh>iAh of tail at iiiiddic (Ki'.t 

The tyi)ieal and only specinien is preserved in ah-ohol. The color above 
cverywliere is dark brown; below, very lij;lit brown. Tiie sides are 
pak'r, perhaps pak' yeUow in life, and tlie color ascends at several 
points, so as to form cross-bands of moderate width ami very well de 
lined. One of these crosses at the occii»nt and one at the axilhr; be- 
tween the latter and the ^'loin tliere are live, nearly e<|iiidistant. 
There is an imperfect one at the sacriiiii, and there are seven on the 
tail, one of them imi)ei'fect. Tln^ coloration of this species is «|uito 
uni(pie in the j^enus in its rej;ularity. 

The locality of the only specimen, \o. llatJI, is unknown. 


Aiiierii.'aii Naturalist, 1SK7, p. 88. 

Amhhjulomii Irptiinim Copi', I'roc;. Aiiicr, I'liilsoiili. Soc , ls-i(l, p. :,->.\, 

This species resembles the Chondrotus riiufulatHs, but dilfer.s from it in 
the entirely dillereut form and proportions of the tail. This i)art is very 
slender in the L. kptunis, with round or vertical oval section, without 
keel above, and lacking very little of beiii};' as loiij;' as the head and 
body together. The legs are of the same proitortions as in tlu^ C. cin- 
qulatiiH', that is, when aitpressed they are s(!parated by a space equal 
to the length of the posterior foot, showing their greatly superior length 
to those of the C. microsto mus. The body is cylindrie. The head is 

* Plate '24, fig8."ia, 13. " 














is ei 



to Ih 


•i, I ; 
himi I 
is mar 
linct p 





an oviil, with prmliiccd iiiid ioiiiuUmI iiiii//1c, wliicli ])r()j«>(;ls Itcyoiul tlio 
lovvi'i- Jiiw. 'I'lic iiiiitiial rcsi'iiiblt's ii rictliodoii nillicr than the .s{i(>cii'.s 
ol' Anibl.y.stonia, bnt its vomcrino teeth and t()n};ne liave all the ehsu'- 
a(',t«'rH of the ChovdrotitH mirrostomus, 

TUv vomerine teeth form a (!onvex series, extondin^j forwards to ii 
point between the ehoana-, where they are slifjfhtly interrnpted on the 
middle lin(>. The ton<;iie is lar^'e, tilling' the tloor of the mouth, and is 
extensively free at the sides oidy. The external nostrils aro nearly 
lernunal and ai'o rather near to;^ether, the space between thcni beinjjj 
e(|iial to jtist half that betwetMi the basesof the eyelids ami abontthreo- 
lifths that between the ehoana-. The width between the eyes behind 
is ecpnd to the axial len<,^th from the .sanu^ to the eml of the muz/.le. 
The width of the head enters the len;;th to the jjroin seven times. The 
lenjith from tlie muzzle to the axilla tMiters the distance from the latter 
to the ji'roiu I v time,'. 

The lateral di;;its are distinct and the median ones moderately elon- 
gate. Their lenjjths, bcfjinniuf; with the shortest, are: Fore-foot, 2, .''», 
;5, 1 ; hin<l foot, 1, o, 2, ;j, 4. The phalanj-vs are: Forefoot, 2, 2, ,3, 2; 
hind foot, 2, L', .'{, 4,2. No palmai or plantar tubercles. 

The skin is pcil'ectly smooth, ami between the axilla and thejiroinit 
is marked by foui'teen fjrooves. There uro. no <lermal nmr<j[ins to (ho 
(in<,'eis or the tail. The cloaeal orillce is a simple slit. There is a dis- 
tinct post^'ular fold. 

Fl'i. 'JO. lAnrfiinlnpniii) Irptiinm. Niit. size, cxrrpt (ii;. Ti. 



Total liMi,!,'fl *. lir. 

I /('Until IVmii I'l, I of iniiz/lc In l)iisi' of tail O'J'2 

l.ciijrtli I'll 111! end i»r iiiii//.li' Id ■^roiii (ir>ir» 

Li'ii;itli 111 111! I'liil of 111 1 1 //I !■ lo axilla flvJO 

l,cn;jlli iVdin end of iiiii/,/li! lo ran 111 us oris dlKt,') 

r,('ii;;lii of I'orc-li'j; {)\;\ 

!,fni;tli of fore-foot Oli.^'t 

Lnijitii of iiiiiii U"^ on; 

li(Mijj;tli of liliid foot OOT.'i 

Willi li of Iicail 007.'". 

Depth of tail at iiiidille OO-^. 

The color of the typical speiMinen in alcohol is ptirplish-brown above 
an<l paler below. There are numerous not well-defined whitish spots 
on the sides and a few on the belly, and there are some very faint and 
deli<;ate j^ray lim>s am-oss the posterior part of the back. The tail is 
densely si)eckle<l with gray on the sides, and delicate gray lines across 


V \ I 

! ;i 

>>':. y, I. 

I » 







' '1 





rn M 






tlicuppor siiilacti of tlio tail in a ivliciilatc iiiamu'r. The limbs arc 
palor than the back, and tiic di^iits art" cross barml with whitish. 

The habitat of this sj.ccics is uiikiiowu. The only spocimon was 
Ibiina in a Jar with a speciinoii o! lHoiiycti/his tomsxs and one of Ii<()m 
toiqwraria; the former ('alifornian, the latter Pala-arctic. 

])IC A M 1 'TODON St ranch. 

Strand), Salmn., p. (i^; r.oiilongfir.C'at. ISatr. (irail. lirit. Afns., 2il cd., l.S8-,>. p. 38. 

Tongne nearly entirely adherent. I'alatine teeth in two lonj,' trans- 
verse arched series, convex forwards, con verj-inj; backwards, sit nated 
behind the line of the (;hoana', si>parated from each other by a wide in- 
terspace. Toes live, Tail compressed. 

This genus I have not seen. Its characters and those of its only 
species are copied from 15onlen;;er's work above (pioted. 

Straiicli, /. c, p. r.'.1; HonU'iij^cr, Cat. liatr. (Jrad. Uiit. Mus./Jil nl., 1>-S2, p. .38. 
Tiiloii oisaliis, Escliselioll/, /.(><'>1. Atlas, ]). ('<, I'l. 'J-J. 

Ilealbroad. Snont rounded. I'.ody stout. Lind)S short. Toes free. 
Tail Sivord-shaped, (curved upwards, as long as liead and body. Skin 
nearly smooth; parotoids and costal grooves appai-ently absent. L'ed- 
dishbrown; back marbled with brown. Total lenstli about four decim- 

I liavc not seen this sjjecies, and know it only from the figures and 
descriptions above cited. It is said to come from California. 


JTijtwh'ihlKC C(t])e, prno. Acatl. I'liila.. 1<)1>, p. l'2r>. 

Otoglossal cartilage, none; a second ei)ilu'auchial. Second basi- 
branchial not continuous with the first. 

Vertebra' ami>hico'lous. 

No parasphenoid teeth; vomerines on the posterior edge of the 
vomeropalatine bone. Pterygoid bones distinct. 

According to Wiedersheim* two genera of this family, llynobius 
and Eanidens, jjossess a lachrymal bone in addition to the prefrontal. 
Whether it is a characteristic of the other genera remains to be ascer- 
tained. The same author shows (/. c.) that the hyi)ohyal caililages are 
very elongate in the two genera named, and are not articidaled with 
the basibranchial, thus permitting of inde[)endent m(>tion. (See IMate 
25, figs. 10-11.) Jle also tigures a cartilaginous coune(!tion luitweeu tli*' 
stapes and the cpradrate, as occurs in the Trematodeia, whicdi is a char- 
acter of ninch importance. 

•f ' 





Das K(.| <liT rro«li>] 

<MI, |.| 

>. m-']. 


r r 1 

V / 


The latest work on tliis subject, tliat of Doulenj^tM', throws iiiuch 
light on it, owiiig to the opportunities on.jcyed by its aiitlior for the 
study of the forms of salainaiulers found in Asia. He gives the follow- 
ing table of the genera of the family, but refers them all to the Anrblys- 
(omida- : 

I. Series oi'p.'ilatiuc tooth coiivorsinn; 1»a(;kv\ > .Is, forming a V-s'i-T*^'! figure. 

Toes live Ifyiiohiiix. 

Toes four .. Stihinutiidrclla. 

11. Series of i)al;itiue teetli uniuferrupted, doubly arohod, forming a fY^"**'''iP<^*^ 

Kingers and toes with eitidorinic claws OinjrhodactyhiH. 

III. Series of i)aIatiuo t(^oth iu two arehcs, convex forwards, separated l»,v a wido 

Talatinc series short, between the choanii:. Toes live, Haiiidciis. 

Falatine series .short, between the choan;e. Toes four Halrdchypvriin. 

Of those genera all are Asiatic. Tiie iiorny claws said to character- 
i/.e Onychodactylus may not be confined to thiit genus or be constant 
in it, as they develop by the hardening of the epidcrniis xv Amblystoma 
and .some other genera on exposure to dry coiulitious. 

Tiiere are twelve species of this family known, distributed as fol- 
lows: ll^'iiobius 5; Salamendrella 2; Onychodaiitylus 1; Kanidetis .'}; 
l>atrachyi»erus 1. The hyoids of three of genera have not been 


Gr.ay, Cat. I5i»tr. fJrad. Hrit. Mus., ISrut, ;n, exclusive of Anildystoma and Dos- 

riflhoiloiitidii i',o\)0, ,l()\\rt\. Ac. Nat. Sci., Pliila., tstiii, 10,">. 

SpclcrpiiKr Cope, I'roc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Piiila., K,[), l',':i. 

ricthodoutidd' l><iHloiitoKni(hin,\u\ Jfriiiidiutiiliidd' \l•,^\\^^^\\, .Tourn. Ac. Nat. Sc'., Pliila., 

I'll Ihodtniti nil 15()ulenger, Catal Uatr. (iriid. lirit. Mus. ed. II, 1.-^.-i:>. 

Vertebra' amithico'loiis, simple below. Ethmoid wanting; no ptery- 

Carpus and tarsus (^irtilaginous. 

Vomeropfilatino bones not produced posteriorly over i)arasphenoid ; 
dentigerous plates on the parasplienoid. 

('eratohyal undivided, arti(Milating directly with the (piadrate bone 
or cartilage; no otohyal. One only, the first epibraiichial in adults; 
second basibranchial not connected witli the lirst. 

Stai)es not connected with the (juadrate by cartilage, iu adults. 

\'estibnle, inner wall o.sseous. 

The abovi^ characters define a very distinct and natural group of 
genera, which arc all but one ((leotriton) coiilliied to America. Many 
of the species are of small size, some of them indeed of very small 
size. The largest species, Sprlcrpcs hcllii, rea(!hes the dimensions of 
the Amhifisfoma tijin'num or Axolotl. Some of the species are hand- 



; I i ■ 





sonielv coloiTcl. All arc (li><tingui.shea for tiieir poworof projoctingtlio 
toiKMio. Some of H.e spocios of Spclerpes, ul.erc organ is free all 
ronml, can i-r.^jcct it ontirely from the i.iontli, xvhilc the acotntonfuscm 
has almost the power of the chameleon in this respect, projecting the 
tongue for a .listance equal to one-half the entire length of the am- 

mil * 

Appropriately to this habit, the basibranchial bone and its pair of 
short are free from the ceratohyals, thus admitting 
of free' movement, and the epibraiiehials are very long. In all of the 
genera the extremity o*" the eeratoliyal is attached to the quadrate, as 
bi the Aml»lystomi(l'ie. sliowing that it is not tliis element which is pro- 
ji'cted. Ibit in Geotnfon and Speler|)es sp. the epibranehial is greatly 
elongate, extending to the side of the nape and interscapular region, a 
structure necessaiy to projectility. 

Jn tlie characters of the sca])ular and i)elvic arches this family does 
not (IKfcr from the Amblystoniid;e and Salamandrida'. The foramen 
which sei)arates the i)rocoracoid from the coracoiil is well marked and 
interinarginal; in the Amblystomidie it is smaller, and .n the Sala- 
maiulrida- marginal. The femur always i)resents a strong trochanter. 
It is weak in Strrcochiln m<irfiinaiiiiii. In Trituriisand Diemyctylus it is 
(piite weak, but in Salumandra stiong. 

In most of the genera of tills family the enamel does not cover the 
entire crown of the tooth. In Siwlcrprs ruhcr, lo)){i>cau(his, and hcJHij and 
Pkthodon (fliidnosiis and cincrciis the external part of the crown termi- 
nates in a transverse cutting edge, while the inner extremity is more 
prolonged, leaving a transverse depression between the two. In Sp. 
hcllii the inner apex is transverse and prolonged a little beyond the ex- 
ternal, while in the other Spelei])es and the I'lcfhodon ghdinnNiis the 
inner crown is more prolonged and is incurved conic. In 1*. chwrciis 
it is a little more obtuse. In Desmognathiis and the Amblystoinida". 
the twoai)i('esare of equal height and are both transverse cutting edges, 
the outer narrowed in the former. In the larva- of IMethodontida' that 
I have examined the crowns are sim])le. The teeth of Autodax are 
more like those of Ccecilia, or of Ilylonoinusof the Coal Measures, and 
distiiiguisli the genus from other IMethodontida'. t They are large, 
com]>i'ess('d, and simple. 

Tliis fiimily is more remote in its skeletal (iharacters from the Sala- 
mandrida' and I'leurodelida' than is the Amblystomida'. Thus the 
absence of parasphenoid brushes, the ossification of the tarsus and 
cari)us, and (he persistence of the pterygoid bones aie characters eom- 
nion to Die two latter and wanting in the present fiimily. On the other 
hand, the nonprolongiition jiosteriorly of the vomers, the articulation 
of the ccratohyal with the (piadrate, and the ampliic<e]ous vertebra', 
belong to this family and the Amblystomida" only. The position of the 

' liWiU 

iKcr ill Sitziini'slicr. Akml, Wiss.. Miinicli, I.SrC 

tSec I'roceed. Aca.l. Nat. Sci., I'liila., 18.V,I, '-Jl. 

l>. iOlt. 





latter liimily is, tlieieforo, between tlie Pletliodontidie and the Sala- 
niandrida'. The AinhlyiStoniidie and Plethodondida^ may be tluis eoni- 
pared with reference to tlie devehipmental character of the features 

whidi distin^nish tlieni. 



(.'iirpuH .'iiul tiirHua o.sspoiis. 
rroiiinxilliiry foiitancllo closod. 


O. i>tfr!if/oidi'um ppraistcnt. 



Ciirpns and tarsus carfil!i<;innns. 
rnMiiaxillary fonfanolle open. 


O. plrri/yoiilcuiii olilitisratod. 

Tlie inferiority of some Piethodontidie is seen in tlie non distinction 
of the di;;its ((Edii)ns), the tliinness of the ossiticatioii of the purietal 
nioaihranc bones (Hatrachoseps), and in (Elii»ina the persistence of tiie 
mcinbranons <;raninm by the limitation of llie i)arietal boiies to two 
small oval lateral scales and the wide divarication of the pi)st(M'ior ex- 
tremities of the frontals. 

The <(enera embraced in this family are as follows: 

Section I. Tlie toiij;iie attaclied from tlio central or |)nsterior pedii'el to IIk^ anterior 
niari^in in narrower or wider liaiid. ( I'lelIioilitnt;i'.) 
A. Two preniaxillary Ixnies. 

Dij^its I,"); maxillary lione rej^nlar, willi niimerons small teetli: parietals 

I'lilly osailiod Plclhodon. 

Uij^its 1, I ; maxillary as al)ove, paritstals fully ossifuMl IlimidKcliilium. 

AA. f)n(\ ]ireinaxillary. 
(Y. Di<;it.s I, 4. 

Maxillary rei^ular, with small teeth ; parietals not ossified .. . nntrachosepn. 
itt* . i)i^its I, 'i. 

Maxillary normal ; teeth Hiiiiill, very niiiner'^"s ; no preniaxillary fonta- 
nel le SlervochihiK. 

Maxillary edentulous jiosteriorly, decnrved, formin}:;aeiittinj^odij:e ; teeth 

few, larpe, Iviiife-shapeil ; a iiremaxillary fontanello iuloilnjr. 

Section II. The ton;;ne free all round; attached hy its central pedicel only. (Sjie- 
A. Two preniaxillary bones (with fontanolle), 

I)i};its 4, 5. closely united hy a broad palmar membrane Cenlriton. 

I)ij.;its 4, r>, entirely fivf Gjiriiwjihilii.'i. 

AA. Olio preniaxillary bone (with fontanelle). 

(>•. ni^its 4. 4. ' 

Dijfits free ; parietal and palatine bones well ossified MiUiruhii^. 

liiY. Dijiits 4, ;'). 

!>i^itsall free; craMal bones well ossified S/iclcrprs. 

Dijiils little distinct: ]>ari<'tal and palatii'e cartila^jes not OHsilie<l. 


I)i;;ils entirely confuundcd as an uinlividcd palm or sole ; cranial bones 

wcl 1 ossi tied (I'dipus. 

T\u\ {generic relationships of the above-named {jroi'ps are exceed- 
inj^ly simi>le, ;uid the case with which the atiimalscan be analyzed ren- 
ders the ciisc free from the donbts which constantly arise in discus- 
sions of {generic relationships as to the probable omission of characters 

:i ,\ 




fi V 

rj I 

IP ' 




from the arj,nimeiit. Hero it can be safely asseitetl that, as far as tlie 
skeletons are concerned, there exist no other generic distinctions than 
those given above. If, now, any -ciples can be derived from consid- 
eration of the osseons system, th. ch of all others ])res(Mits ns with 

by far the greatest number of u\ .0 modifications of structure, the 

same may be with considerable probability inferred for the other sys- 

The primary groups are distinguished by the different degrees of at- 
tachnuMit of the tongue. That form which is most attached rej)reseuts 
and is i(h>,ntical with an imnmture stage of the species of section second, 
where it is more extensively free, as any oneniay satisfy himself by the 
examination of a larva of Spelerpes at a certain period. The tongue 
will be found to be tlmt of Tlethodon. 

The secondary groups are distinguished by the separation or cou- 
Huence of the premaxillary bones. Those presenting the latter type 
exhibit separate premaxillaries at the beginning of larval life, though 
the union often takes place very early. The mimber of digits dis- 
tinguishes groups of genera of less value; in some tiie hind limb has 
five digits, in others four. In an early larval stage all possess l>ul four 
digits, and in some of those with live the inner consists of one i)hal;nige 
only even at maturity {Spdcrpes chiropfcrK.s ct. aff.) Not lli'.^ iug as c(mii- 
plete a series of larvae of Spelerpes and IMethodon as uf Anihli/stDiiKi 
imndatum, I describe the develoi)ment of the digits in the latter as iudi- 
eating the meaning of variations in the same at maturity. At a leugth 
of l.L"""' the fore limb only is projected, ami bears two digits only, as in 
the genus Proteus. At 1.5""" sometinH\s the posterior limbs are devel- 
oped, sometimes imt, and from this size to U.-'i"'"' the nund)er of digits 
bears little relation to the size of the animal, an additional digit sonu'- 
times appearing earlier, sometimes later. Their numl)ers aie then at 
first 2-0; then always 3-0. With the hind foot divided, they ar(^ .'{-L». 
and then ,'5-1. Sometimes the anterior digits are couiplete iu number 
before the hind limb api)ears, and we liave coml)iuations of numbers 
from 1-0 to 1-3, 4-t, and the full nund)er, 1-5, which is found in all 
specimens of 2.5"'"' and upwards, denera which exhibit reduced digits 
are in all other respects Spelerpes (/. e. ^Manculus) or Plethodon (lleiui- 
dactylum), or riemidactylinm with uuossified parietal bones and eonsdli- 
dated premaxillaries (Hatrachoseps). Api)lying the case of Anibly- 
stoina to tiiese, we could not assert that Ilemidactylium, for instance, 
is identical with the undeveloped stage of Plethodon, since when Ambly- 
stonui exhibits digits l-t it is branch iferous. IJi.t making the more 
legitimate eomi)arison with Plethodon itself, I find that the complete 
number of i)osterior digits appears much later in life than in Ambly 
stoma, while thebranchia' are absorbed much earlier; that development 
in the first regard is retarded, while in respect to the gills it is a(!cel- 
erated. Thus in riefhodon ciin'rcus the exterior digit is longer than 
the interior; iu si)ecimensof 2.1""" the outer di.":it is the shorter; in those 

^ A 






^ k 



V 3> 

of l.S' , \vlii(;h jiiv witlioiil j;ills, it is ;i very minute tubercle on tiie 

outer inetiitarsiis. In ■'■. '■'tie eailier stiige it (t.iii not but be wantinj^, 
tlioiijjli this I liiive not seen, and I have little doubt that it is then a 
llernidaetylium, unless, indeed, the parietal bones be not ossified. 

Another fu'tal condition rendered pernianent is seen in the generic 
character of the <;enus (Hdipus, whi(!h dilfers from Spelerpes solely in 
the f«etal non-separation of the dijifits which continues even after the 
bones of the diffits have been developed. In the larva of Sp. ruber the 
digits are early entirely distinct, so that so far as this species is con- 
cerned (Edipus i)resents an inc.ract parallelism, but they are also 
nu)redistin(!t than in the mature ISpclerpeH beJlii, where, as might besup- 
I)osed, the fo'tal union is delayed to maturity in other respects, as ip a 
speirinu'U from Orizaba, INIexico, of l(!.o lines in length. There the union 
is about as extensive as in (Etlipm iiiorio. In the young of Tliorius 
peniuttttluN, the digits are not distinguished in specimens of .GO of the 
full size, and otherwise entirely mature. In the adult they are distinct 
for half their length. The digits in the young larva of Gyrinnphilus 
porphi/ritiruH are as distinct as in those of Spelerjtcs rubra. In one exam- 
l)le 1 find the simple foot of earlier stages retained, resembling exactly 
that of (Kdipus, excepting that there are emarginations for but three 
toes instead of five, (lenera which have no ])remaxillary fontanelle 
at maturity have it in the larval stage. Finally, closely allied genera, 
whi<!h only dilfer in the degrees of ossi/ication of the parietal and pala 
tine bones, represent simply the relation between undeveloped an<l 
developed conditions of the same form. 

The relations of the genera maybe expressed as follows: Those of 
the first or Plethodontine se(!tion are related to those of the second or 
Spelerpine by an incraet parallelism, excepting Autodax, whose pecul- 
iarities exclude it from the comparison. Those in ea(!h section differing 
in the union or separation of the premaxillary bones are ndated in 
the same way to each otiier. The nearly allied genera in the IMethodon- 
tine groui) are llernidaetylium and Plethodon, and liatrachoseps and 
St<'re()chilus. In the first case we have only inexact parallelism, because 
while Plethodon lias the four digits of llemida(!tylium, its parietal 
bones are unossified, tliough an acceleration of development in these 
respects would render the relations one of c.raef p((rallelis))i. This is 
apparently the relation between l>atrachosei)s and Stereochilus, Ww 
with the fcetal digits of the latter the former preserves also its fcetal 
cranium. It only renniins to ascertain whether Stereochilus loses its 
branchiae before or after aecpiiring the normal number of digits. From 
the very small size of one at least of these the fcn-nu'rcase seems pro!) 
able, but I have not yet been able to prove it by direct observation. 
Should it be so, we would have a <!ase of crnet jmrrt//f/j.v»i. 

In the Spelerpine group the relation between (leotriton and Gyri- 
uophilus is again one of inentet parailelism, since when the digits of 
the latter are only separated at the extremities, as in the former, the 







i '5 



'' it] 


$ $ 

iiniiriiil is still ln'.iiKrliifcioiis ;iiiil possesses tlic lai'Viil toiij;'U(', clc. Tlie 
satiii' ociiis ill S[M'Ii'r|>('s wiicii (icidiiii of its species present l>iit loiii' 
liiini toes, as in .Miiiic.iiliis ; tlierefoio the n'lation of these two is also of 
inexact parallelism. The relation of Thorins is also one of iiicrart par- 
tillcli.siii, for thoMiiii its eliaractters are fonnd in some .voiui^" Sjx'lerpesat 
an immatjire a^ne snbseqnont to the absorption of the brancliiiu, it lias 
opisthocu'Ins vertebra'. With (Edipns, if the condition be not that of 
cvdcl iiiiniUfli.sui with some species of Spelerpes, the approach to it is 
close, as above observed. It is chiefly pi'cvented by the fact that the 
ossifK^ation of the parietal bones in most species of the latter takes 
place after the extremities are fnlly developed. It is to be ol>served in 
tliis connection that, as has been above pointe<l out, the separation of 
the (li<,'i(s takes j)lace at very dilferent periods in the history of the dill'er- 
<'iif species of the same ;;(Miiis. Thus in the Sjirlirjics nihcr {hoy are en- 
tirely distinct at a very early period of larval life, while in S. (ritlialirus 
iuid S. hrllii, which much more nearly resembh^ the speciies of (l<Mipu,s 
ill the ilispositioii of tiie vomerine teotli iind eylindrie form of the tail, 
this separation is miudi retarded. 
Tlicse ,t;eiiera may i»e parallelized also in the followiii<,' manner in 

illiistriition of the I;iw of heterolo^'y: 






A. One iirciniixilijiry. 
No fiiiit.'inellc. 

A folltiUH'IIo. 

Toes l-f). 
Tcctli liirj^o. 

Ti'.oth small. 


AA. Two prciiiaxillarics. 
T(i(\s (V-'o. 

Toes iiiiitod. 




The minor relations may be nioie reailily expn'ssed thus 

I'l.KI llODONr.K, 



a. I>i;;it.s (listiiict. 

'I'wo prt'inaxillarics. 

OiH' I'ri'iiiaxijjary. 
^v. Diifitmiiiitcd. 

Two priMiiaxiiiaricH. 

One itrcMiiaxillary. 


Scr.l.KIJI'K '. 





'See Oriij;in oC (Jcttcra, p. .>;{. 





Or tliiis: 

Two rU10.MA.\Il.LAKII':S. 


Dif^itH 4-5, 
a. Distinct. 
Toiifjiiu IVnc. 

Toni^iio iutiiclicd. 

iX(X. United. 

Dibits 4-4. 






Some other chanicters found in tlii.s tiu lily are those of low develop- 
ment nnd iiijproxiiniitions to the larvul condition. Thu.s three of the .spe- 
eie.s exhibit at tinie.s a subnareal cirrhn.s, which occurs in some of the 
Co'cilid! ', and Xenopus among Salientia. It is the persistence of that 
long sulDcular tentacle characteristic of the early larval stage of Uro- 
dehi generally (see Plate 10), and of a later larval stage of Xenopus 
(cid. Wyman and (Jray), where they resemble the appendages of the 
Siluridie. They have been called crochets by Itusconi, and homologized 
with the cylimlric cephalic processes of the larval liana, with what cor- 
rectness remains to be proven by ob.servations on other types. 

I'ischscholtz correctly rei>resents 7><(/ra(7/f>.st7).s' attcnuatiis i\>i without 
pretbntals. An elongate process of the frontal occupies only part of its 
place, forming no suture w ith the maxillary. This is (juite ditUirent from 
J)enK)gnathus, where the orbit is comi»leted by the union of frontal and 
maxillary. In ^fan(^nlus ijiiadi'idi(iit(itun the prefrontal occuipics this 
depression as an elongate vertical .scale. 

In fSpclerpcs ruber the (luadratum presents a small internal anterior 
ala, whi(;h has a superlicial resemblance to a pterygoid. In this species 
there is ai)parently an a/.ygus bone behind the luemaxillaries. This is, 
however, only the expo.sed extremity of their united spines, w hich are 
nearly or (piite i.solated by the approximation of thi^ anterior parts of 
the nasale. It does not occur in the Gyriuophilti.s porphyritkuti. 


Faiuia Italica; Oniy, Cat. Hrit. Mun., \H20, 4vJ ; Coiic, Piococil. Ac I'liila., 
1809, p. 1)8 ; Straucli, Salani., i>. 84; Houlen^cr, pt. Cat. Brit. Mns., 
Oil. n, lS8i, J). .V.>. 

Tongue adherent anteriorly. Digits I, 4 ; a large parietal fontanelle. 
i'remaxillary single, pierced by a fontanelle. 

This genus embraces the tbrms which may be considered the lowest 
in the family. It dill'ers from Ilemidactyliuni as Thorius does from 
Si>elerpes, /. r., in the nonossitlcation of the parietal bones. This low 
grade of development is liero «een in the extremities also, whi(;h are 

f > 

ft. i^m 



imich reduml, and the snake like form of one of the species. The speeies 
are four, as follows : 

I. Costal i)litu', ei),'Iitefii; (ho toes well dovclopixl, palmutt!. 

Outer posterior toe woll (lov.'Ioi.ed ; liinil liriili extending' over 7.5 eostal Inter- 
spaces, fore liiiil) tail e(|iial boily and liead to orliit, more slender than 

tlu- body; belly yellowish II. i„u-iJic,iH. 

II. Costal pliea'. nineteen to twenty-one : toes very nidiniental, little distinct. 
a. Parasplienoid teeth in one patch. 

Mind linibexlendinj; over six costal interspaces; fore limb nearly to orl>it ; tail 
as Ion-,' as body ami head to orbit ; width of head seven times from nin/zlo to 

jrn,in;"belly black J'- iiiynniilnn. 

Hind limb extcndinj? over fonr costal interspaces; foro limb not to iiiiHiIe of 
month; tail thick as body, .is loiij; as body and head plus the len>;tli from 
mn/./.le to axilla; width of head vl'^ht times (mm nin/.zlc to ;;roin; belly 

f,,.„^y,, Ji. atlvnuatun, 

aa. rarasplu'noid te<'tli in two [patches. 
Hind limb extendiii'; over lour costal spaces; tail uu)ri! than twici^ as lonj; as 
head and body; sides dark /'. aiiiilalii'i. 

l$ATlx'AClI().'<i:i'S CAUDATCS Cope. 

(I'late i.xxxi, li^'. -.'.) 

riead short, wide, iiiu/zle as lonj;- as eye, the nostril not (jiiite ter- 
minal, li 'iij^th from end of muzzle t(t humerus euterinj;- 3..'53 limes in 
lenjith froiu humerus to axilla. pioportions are those of the- 
li. attcnuatus. Tail excessively elonoate, l'.-' the len;.;th of the head 
and body. In the 7>. (tttenitdtus the tail is !.(> the len^^th of the head 
and body and less (measurements made from femur). Limbs about {»s 
in B. attenuatKH, the anterior reachiiij;' the lirst dermal j^roove behind 
tlie mouth, and the posterior eoverinj.;- four intercostal spaces when ex- 
tended forwards. The inner dij,qts are rudimental, that of the anterior 
foi)t possessing a metacarpus only. The costal fj;ro()ves number f went' 
one; they extend across the abdomen, liut are not visible on the bacL. 
The tongue is a longitudinal oval. The vomerine teeth form two con- 
vergent brands directed inwards and posteriorly from within the choan;e. 
They are better developed than in li. aftenuKtiis. The i>arasphenoid 
teeth are in two distinct patches, thus ditfering from those of the Ji. 
attenuattiHj where they form a single patch. 



Total length Kid 

Leuf^th to axilla Oll.'i 

Lenj;tli to <froiu O.'il 

Len,nth to base of tail (I.')7 

Width of head OOtJ 

Lonjfth of forelindi (KlOo 

Leuf^th of bind limb 007 

The general color is brown. It is deeper on the sides to a line on 
each side of the back and on the anterior half of the abdomen and on 
the superior surface of the distal part of the tail. (Jultir region ami 
chin yellowish, 



> 4'' 






Tliis is the most vormit'orm North Americiiin sahunaiitlor, reseinbliii}>; 
the (KiUinna laiijonitis KoR'i'st. of Contral America in its proportions. 
Its rehitioiis t;) the Jiatrocliosc/ni ultenuatus are close, but its dillerences 
may be siimniarized as Ibllows: (1) The two patches of paras[>ljenoi«l 
teeth; (li) tlie absence of dorsal grooves; (.{) tlie very elongate tail; 
(I) the longer pat<!hes of voiueiinc teeth. The habitat of the H. vnntl- 
(tins is much north of any from which tlie V>. aftcniuUuii has been ob- 


ti tl 

6 7 

I 3 

Fi;;. 'J7. lliilnii-ldisejis rdinJiitvii, No. l;).'(il. H.i.sslri'.s Uaibor, AliisUa; ; except Via. '>=\. 

(;iital(iL:iii- N'o. ol'j 
miiiilier. , siiec.i 



I UasHler llailiiir, Alaska 

From re.'eive.l. ^'''t'"" '''' «1»'^'- 
i men. 

Uelliy K. Xielmls i Aleoliolie. 



liniiiiii., rjiuii. H:il.; Ilullow., Joiini. Ac, I'liila., iv, 1,'<)8, p. IMS; Copo, 
I'roc.'td. Ac. I'hilii., l,i(>'.t, p. "Jrt; Striiucli, Salaiii., p. !*:>; Gray, Cat. 
I5iit;-. (Jrad. I'.rit. Mils., cil. i, p. ■«•>; IJoiilcnyicr, Cat. 15atr. GraJ. Brit 
Mil • , I'.l. v., 1~.-^-,', p. til). 

iS<(liini(iitiliii(ii iilliiiiKittt, Ksclisfli., Zool. Atlas, p. 1, 1*1. til, tii^. 1-14. 

Tliis species is well cliaracteri/.ed by its slender form and its very 
weak extremities. The costal folds are nineteen, more rarely twenty or 
eighteen, and are well marked on the back and belly, and turned for- 
wards toward tlie median line on the former, which is marked by a 
delicate groove. There are tour latera\ folds in front of the fbie limb, 
three of wliicli are crossed by a longitiullnal fold from tiie orbit. The 
tail is longer than in any other North American salamander, except the 
/.'. candatit.s, and is entirely cylindrical, and undistinguishable at the 
origin from the Iiody ; it is marked by forty-seven distinct annuli to the 
end of the vent. The toes are very small and obtuse, and free for the 
length of only one plialange: below this a web connects them. The 
inner toe on both feet is a mere knttb. The extended fore limb reaches 
the Ibid behind the canthus oris; and the extended hind 
limb covers four intercostal spaces. 

The head is short, broad, and flat, and the muzzle is as long as the 
diameter of the orbit. The lip is more or less luominent below and be- 
Ibre the orbits. Tlie palatimj teeth do not extend to behind the nares; 
they form two very oblique short series, which nearly meet posteriorly 


I hi 

« ) 


r , 




on the iiiiMliiui liiu',iiii(l are well .sepiiriited froiii ihesplieiioulal initchos. 
The latter are not separate, ami fonii one wide oval brush. 

Mcaitiiriinnitu i>f Xo. IIHOI. 


T.ital loiit!!!! ^^* 

Total ImiKth oflii'iKl ami boily ^'" 

Total Icii^'tli IVom inuzzle to ;,'roiii •'•'■' 

Total Ifii^lli iVoiu iiiu/./lc to axilla. "H 

Total luiijjili iVoiri inii//lc to cantlm.s oris OOl 

Leiijith of loiv liiiil) 00»> 

Lon^'tli oI'IiIikI liiiili <"*7 

LiMijjth ot'liiiid loot ^•*'- 

Width of hoa.l **05 



I''l(J. 'J8. JIdlnichiiKijiK (illi iiiiiitnx. 11)!*!).'), ]; li;;. — ■}. 

The color of the lower surface is brown, with a few whitish points on 
the },Milar reyion and tail, and fre(|uently over the whole abdomen. The 
sides are darker, sometimes almost black. The upper surface is <,'ener. 
ally a paler brown, with a lij^ht shade extending on each side from the 
nape to the base of the tail. These bauds arc composed of numerous 
short longitudinal streaks, which become separated on the base of the 
tail, and cover its surface to the end, or to the middle, as the ease nii»y 
be. This light color has generally a reddish hue, and in many speci- 
mens exteml entirely across the dorsal region, forming'a band, not un- 
like that of riethodon cincreus <ri/llir<mi>ti(s. 

Habitat. — Tliis is an abundant species of the Pacilic coast region of 
the continent, but it has not becui found to the eastward of the Coast 
Kange of mountains. I have ^^\aulined eight specimens from near iSan 
Francisco, in the ^Museum of the Philadelphia Academy, from William 
M. Gabb, and one in tlie iMnseum of the Essex Institute from the sauio 
locality, obtained by Mr. Samuels, and the following: 

JtatraeliowpH atlinitatun Ksch. 
























l''ii'mio, Ciil , 



Kroin wlioin Nature of 

ILTl'iVt'd. i HlK'fillU'Il. 


\)v. Win Stiiiip.siiii 
(jurttavo ELsoii — 

MoMliTe.v, (':il j CanlicUl ... 

I'ctaluiiia.Cal I';. Saiimc'ls. 


('.('. liovlr 

Siena Nevada Moiinlaili.s, Oil! . .. Jul.v, 1«84 : J{. IC. ('. StiariLS . .. 

liallciia.s liav, (.^al 

K. Ilciiipliill 





^ * 


•■-.^,u..„;;;,!■''';:;::'•""■^■^■''-•'>■'■:N•'■«,« .,,,,, 

» '111,1 if'i) t II 'N. i> , 


'J^"'s .s„.an species roso, , , «•'-'•". l«8o 

'''"'■■il l.'n"(li f.v,"i",.' • 

"" '''oCIi,.,,,! 

;^''"^«!i „(•,;.,, ,(,;,-,; ;;; 

-. 22 
■■ 13.5 
• 3.5 

<^oIor above ,Ieei, In". ■-"'''-■■: ^-^ 

i«o .s])eciiueii.s of ih\ * ^^« 

J''"rncho.,l>. >n,nra.M. Vo^,. 






''"'■""1 wliiiiii re 

N'Uiiro of 

_ I ^'■^^•^•'^''^'"■"«- 1 Alcoholic. 

'»"si""«"ai -im,,^,:; ;:'::'«■'*«; ''■'''■''""<io,.ron: h,!'''" "■ ""■ 

^" -:;;. '^.^1"" >:;::; lit:: -;-■ ^.4;:^,,^;^:;/: '- 




130 nrLLirriN :;i, unitkd wiatkh national muskum. 

iiics. Fore limb to orbit, liiml limb .scinccly longi-r, roiUiliiii}? tlic oijjlitli 
fold from bcbiiiil. Tlie iimcr di^it on both oxticmitics is .so short as to 
render tlio members almost 3-3. Tail elongate, slender, sia)cylindrical. 
Gnlar fold represented by a line. 

Miasunmoiln, in iiirlun. 

Length of head to angle of niontli 

JJreailtli of licad licliind cyi'H ^ 

Kroni uinz/.lo to liiinKMiiH f» 

Trom nnizzli) to groin IC. f) 

Leiiglli of tail f 

Length of posterior limb •{& 

HalrachoscpH pnciJlvHS Cope. 


» r. 

Catalnf;ii(' No of 
niniibcr. Bpcc. 




Santnlinrbnrn, Cnl 

'i San Frnmisco, Ciil 

collected. 1 




Kroiii wliiim vcocivctl. 

Nature of 

ni. llavH. ., 

K. I). OlltlH . 

Ale. tyiti'. 


Classif. tier Batrachicr, Trans. Noudiatol, 183S, p. .'il-DI; IJonap., Fauna 
Ital., n, llil,Nio. 10; Filzingor, Syst. l{cpt.,:i:{; Hainl, .Jonrn. Ac. Nat. 
Si'i. rhihi., I, lidl, 1810; Hallowfll, /. c, IS.'.S, HCm; Gray, Cat. Hrit. 
Mas., 1850, 41; Copi-, rroei-cd. Ata<l. I'liila., IHO'.t, p. 'Jl>. 

Desmodactjilits, Dnni. &, Hibr., Krp. (Jen., ix, p. 117. 

Tongue adherent anteriorly; digits t-4; parietal bones fully ossified, 
without fontanelle; two i)renia.\illaries, with fontanelle; prefrontal 
boue present. 

This genus is oidy distinguished from Plethodon by the deticieney of 
its bind foot in digits. that remain are quite rudimental. It 
differs from Batrachoseps in the i)resence of the prefrontal bono. There 
is but one species known, and its habits are entirely terrestrial. 


Batr.,p.94; ILillo\v.,.Ionrn. Ac. Pliila. {■>), in, p. :'.(!() ; Stranch, Salain., p. 
7(J; Gray, Cat. Batr. Gratl. Brit. Mus., ed. i, p. 41. 

Salamandm scutata, Schlcg., Faun. Japon., Amph., p. 119, •■iiitl Abbild., PI. 40, tigs. 4-6. 

Salamaiidm melanostida, Gibbos, Best. .Jonrn. Nat. lILst., v, p. 89, I'l. 10. 

Umnoddctyliis sciitatim, Dnin. Sc Bibr., p. 118. 

DmnodactijlHs melaiiosticttis, Dnni. A liibr., p. 119. 

llatmcho8cps sciiMus, Bonlongcr, Cat. Batr. Grad. Brit. Miis., ed. ii, 188',>, p. WX 

Whole skin finely and beautifully granulated; viewed vertically, the 
sides of head arc parallel, the eyes forming the anterior corners, and 
not projecting beyond the line of head ; nuizzle not tapering, but .sides 
nearly parallel, entirely truncate, and overhanging lower Jaw; 
eyes nearer muzszlo than Plethodon enjthronotus (viewed from above) ; 
outline contracted beh^ud tUo occiput, then expanding, taniiddJe of body 


Total Jenj 
I'ungtli to 
Length to 


^"■"gth to 
J-'f'iigth of 

J-L'n(r(Il ofl 

I-'L'ngdi of ] 
Width of h 


I'ect very weak- f<w>J . "'"'•»".> «l»oeimens. "*^ ^•'"' 

I'eatli. Cent -.1 h... ''"''•'•'*''' ''''^"y «i<lc^s uultu 7 "' '''"'«'' 

^<^»ti.»l tmtt unspotted. '*' ^''^ "'"te of tail be- 

P"i. 29. /A, 



'f"<al Jeiigdi 

1-on^th to j,,.oi„ 
, ''i'"«:tIi(oa.xill;, 

;^'>"«n. off„,eii,„,... "■ 

^^™«:(I. ofliiiwlliml, ■"■ 

"Kltli of head 


""'''"'■'."''■inn ,, ■„,„„„„ 

"'"'lllCKld, 111.. J 

•1(1 L' 


ir.. (i 

.•{. .{ 


•{. a 


' tWWP 



132 BULLiyriN ;u, unitkd states national museuxM. 

IJesides spt'ciiiioihs from Cliestor County, Ta., from Iluntiiiftdoii 
County, Pa., and from Chicago, 111., in the Museum of the rbiladelpliiji 
Academy of Natural Science."*, the followinjr are in the National IMuseum. 
Professor Verrill ,says it is abundant near New liaven, ami the Essex 
Institute po-ssesses it from Gloucester and Beverly, Mass. Dr. J. E. 
(Jray, ('atalos'ue oflJritish Museum, gives Niagara. Dr. II. AV. Gibbes 
described it from Abbeville, S. C. 

Idii !l 

IlcmidavljiUnm nciilatiim Tscli. 

Catiil(i"iii' No. of 












From whom received. 

Ci.rli.s1e, Pa I'rof.S. F.Biurd. 

.ill) 1 <1(> 

St. Ciilliiiine'!), Ciinada ' Dr. D. W. IJeaclle 

Itiplev, Oliid 1'. I!. Iloy 

Nortlilicld, 111 U. Keiiiiicott 

Moadville, I'a William.s 

Hicelionni};)!, Gn (') 

Anderson, S. C Mrs. Daniel 

(') (') 

W'a.sliinj'ton, D. U (?) 

lioor;;ia Dr. .F. .Tones 

Nature of 



^;.- -,1; 

I i 

I' V 



Systoiii (1. Batrachier, Trans. Neiicliiid'l, ISHH, .VJ-'J2; Uon.ip., r.iuii.-v 
Ital., II, V.n. Uaird, Joiirii. Ac. Niit. Sui., Pliila., i, ii'J2: llailowell, ib., 
18.">8, :{4-,'; Cope, I'roc. Ac. N:it. Sci., Pliila., lf«(Jl», l',M ; l{oiileii<,'er, 
("iit. 15;iti-. (irad. Hrit. Mils., 11 vd., 18,-^-,', p. M. 

Jhredia Girait], Trocced. Acad., Pliila,, l*,i, ]>. t:!.". 

To!igue attached by the median line below, from the glosshyal bouo 
to near the anterior margin ; vomerine and parasphenold teeth present ; 
a large fontanelle between the spines of the separate premaxillary bones. 
Toes 1-5, normal. Anterior teeth not enlarged. Cranium well cssitlcd. 
Prefrontal bone present. 

This genus is highly characteristic of the lienio nearctica, where five 
species represent it on the Pacilic slope and three in the eastern dis- 
trict. A species from Japan, named P. pcrsimUis by Gray, is shown by 
Mivart not to belong to this genus. The species are all terrestrial iij 
their habit.s, and three which I have observed (/'. omjoncnuis, P. ffhiti- 
nosns, P. eincreus) undergo their metamorphosis while quite small. 
The last uanu'd, and probably P. (ilntinoNus, never enter the water, but 
are hatched in damp places on land. The branchiie have therefore 
no functional service. The species are as follows- 


> ' 


' 1 * 



a. The i)araHi>lifiu>iil iiatches in coutiict throughout ; voineiiiio aeries well separated 
(i. The tail cjliiulric. 

Costal plit:i' 10 toll); form slender; tail c.vlintlric ; limbs weak; inner toes rii- 
(limental ; vomerine scries not cxtcndinj;' hejond nares externally; belly 
brown marbled ; above plumbeous, or with a red longitudinal band. 

1'. viiiorns. 

Costal pliea! II; I'orm stout; tail rounded; limbs short, stout; inner digits 
distinct ; vouieriiu! series extending outside of inner uares; black, usually 
with gray lateral blotches and smaller dorsal spots /'. (jIiiHiiosuh. 

Costal jdicie i;i; form as in /'. ;/?i(/(»(>.si;.s; tail longer than liead and body; 
<ligits truncate, the internal ones very ru-liiiieutal ; vomoriuc series very 
obliiiue, not extending behind ehoana-; black, with yellow spots, which 
are largest on the head, large on the back, and minute on the sides. 

/'. (nteiiD. 

"Cf/stal plicie i:?; form moderate, tail t^ylindric, shorter than head and body; 
vomerint^ series very oblinue, not extending externally to ehoana* ; toes 
more acute; black, with large yellowish spots; smaller on back, want- 
ing on head'' /'. Jldvipiiticlatus. 

fill The tail ccuupressed. 

Costal idic:e ]."); form slender; tail well compressed; limbs weak; inner toes 
rudinu-ntal ; vonu'rine series not extending outside of narcs; belly brown- 
marbled ; above, with a red dorsal band /'. intermedhis. 

Costal'pliea' 11; form stout ; head large ; limbs robust ; inner toes distinct ; 
tail compressed from the base, shorter than length of head and body ; 

tiniform dark brown above, ami lighter brown below I'. crdSsidiiH. 

<va. I'arasjihenoid ])atchcs well separated, 
/i. Tail rounded. 

Costal plie.e i;!: form stout; head large, wide; lower Jaw wider than upper; 
niu/zle broadly truncate; vomerine^ teeth approximated medially; tail 
slender, snbcylitidrie : black, limb,", belly, and spots of back, orange. 
/'. cvoccater. 

Costal plie:e Ul-ll ; form stout ; head wide; maxillaries wider than mandible; 
mu/./.le narrowly truncate ; vonu-riue teeth approximated mcilially ; tail 
ttlcndcr, subeyliudrical ; ligh' brown jibovo; limbs an<l below yellow. 
/'. orvjioni'iiHis. 

\ ' 


Salamaiitlru c'lHcrca, Green, .lourn. Aciid., I'hila., i,)>. I].">G. 

I'IcIIkkIoii linoriix, Tsehudi, liatr., p. 'J2; Cope, Check List N. Amer. Hatr. Rept., 

Saluiimiulni irijlhroniiUi, (ireen, .lourn. Ac. I'hila., 1, jt. IJ;")!!; Ilolbr., N. A. Herp., v, p. 
«:!, IM. 11; l)e Kay, N. Y. Faun., Repl., ].. 7.-), I'l. 1(1, lig. :!H ; Wied., Nova Acta 
Eeop.— ('and., WNii, \\. l','(i. 
l"(tlioiliiii <i-!illinnioliis, liaird, .lourn. Ac. I'hila. (•.'), i, j). 'JS;'); IJnm. iV Hibr., IX, p. 
sti; Cope, Troc. Ac. I'liil;!., ISf.'.l, p. 100; Strauch, Salam., p. T'J ; Houlengc , 
Cat. Uatr. tirad. Ibit. Mus., ed. ii,;i8S'i, p. .'.7. 
Amhhisloma vii/lhioiioliini, dray. Cat. !!atr. (irail. Hrit. Mus., ed. i, p. ;?7. 
SuliiiiiaiKlni (KjHix, Sagi'r, reninsular Jo'irnal of Medicine, 1."^,')^, p. 4'J'.>. 

This species is iiiiu)ii<; the eloiiR'atetl .aiitl slcndor of American 
saliiiiKUnltTs. It is almost lUM'Coctly cvliiidriital tliroitglioiit ; a very 
sW^ld amount of oompressioii only beiiif;- visible towanls tlie end of 
the conical tail, which is loufjer th;in tiie head and Ixxly. It is much 

• Plate 111. iigM. l-t;. 

il I 




f :\H 


sloiKlorer aud more veniiitbrm, with much weaker le.i-.s than Rf/Iulinosus. 
Tims in .specimens of the two, measuring l.HO from snout to groin, the 
head and body of r.gUHinosu.s have the widtli onetliird greater. 

There are eighteen well-marked costal furrows between tiie limbs, 
excluding any in the axilla. The posterior are situated in +he groin, 
bifurcating above. In a single specimen of var. Cinereus (No. 3805) 
we reach a count of nineteen. This increase in the number of costal 
furrows is coincident with the wide separation of the limbs, the distance 
from head to axilla being contained about ^ times in that to the groin, 
instead of 2i, as in 1'. ghitinosus. The tail is longer than head and body ; 
sometimes considerably more so. 

This species, including all varieties, has an extensive range, being 
found throughout the United States east of the Mississippi JMver. It 
appears to be more abundant in the Middle States; its northern range 
is to the middle of Maine, Ontario, and Michigan. 

Its habits are entirely terrestrial, as it is never, even in the larval 
stage, found in the water. It is abundant under stones and logs in the 
forests everywhere, and does not occur in open llelds. The eggs are 
laid in a little package beneath a stone in a damp place. When the 
young emerge they are provided with branchia', but these soon vanish, 
and they are often found in this young stage apparently quite devel 

ridhuhn vincrcus ciiurcu,, Green. 

The color of the upper half of body and tail is a dark liver-brown : 
beneath dirty whitish, linely vermiculated or mottled with brown in 
about e(|ual i)roportions, giving rise to a ''pepper and salt" appear- 
ance. There is sometimes a yellowish tinge towanls the head, and ii 
phunbeous under the tail. On the sides the appearance is more that 
of whitish specks in a dark ground. Sometimes the upper |>arts are 
clear brown, at others more or less varied with very minute spots of 
dull grayish-white. Sometimes the under parts are so much clouded with 
'..fown iis to ajtpear principally of this color, only faintly mottled with 
lighter (3805.) 

This species is easily distinguished from /'. f/liitinoHUfi by much slen. 
derer form, smaller limbs, more webbed digits, eighteen costal groov«'s 
stead of fourteen, vermiculated under parts, which have not the black in- 
ground, the absence of the appearance of i)ieces of lead foil on th(^ 
sides, etc. The limbs are very small and weak. The digits arc distinct, 
though sliort. The basal web extends rather farther forward tlian in 
i'. (/luiinosuif, the two terminal joints of the longest toes only being free, 
instead of two and a half. 

I can detect nothing in the characters of bead and tongue difl'ereut 
from /'. glutinosus. 


Miaauirmciiln, in iiivlivs. 


LenRtb,nioasiirc(lal()ngiixi8of body: 

From snout to tia\tii . ir> 

From snout to gular fold :!'> 

From snout to armpit 55 

Fronis nout to ^roin 1. M( 

From 8iu)ut to behind anus 2.00 

From snout to ind of tail 4. 10 

Tail 2.10 

Head : 

Width of head 23 

Width of orbit Olt 

Distance belwei-n t-ycs anteri- 
orly 12 

Distance between outer nostrils .08 

IJody : 

Circumfirence of belly 75 

Distance between armpit and 

f^roin 1.24 


Hoij^htof tail where Ligbeat 12 


Free portion of longest linger .. .05 
From elbow to tip of longest 

linger 21 

l're(! portion of longest toe 07 

From knee to tip of longest toe. .25 
Distance between outstretched 
toes 8-3 

rkthodon ciucicus cincvcus Green, 


> ' 

Cat uloanc No. of 
iiuiiiltor. himh;. 




Fioni whom roceivcil. 

Nature of speci- 


4720 j 

:noo ; 






■1788 I 


;t787 j 

3818 I 

11708 I 

31*07 I 










Mipiiiit Joy, I'a J. StaiillVT 

I!iookvilU>, IikI ' 

lliulson's l!ay Triri- 1 C. Drexlcr 

lory. I 

.St. C a I h .! r i II uV, Dr. 1>. W. lioadlo . 

('aiiaila. ' 

Cailisl... I'a ,. I'rol'. S. R liaiid... 

I'otmiiac liiviT, I). C..1 Apr. — , I8s.' i Kdwiii I'liiidlc 

Carlisle, I'a S F. I'.aird 

liaiiihiid^i'. Pa Doe. 8, ISTS J. K. (iarivtto 



Clark (y'lmiity, Va 

Coliliiilms. Ohio, N. Y. 

IJaciiir, Wis 


Itoslon, Mass 

KIplt'y, Ohio 

(Nixsarkic. N. V 

Drtroit, Mich 

I'aiiTax Comity. Va . 
Claik Coiiiilv, Va. .. ' 

(!l .' 1 

Adiroiid.irk M o ii n- 


llainpsliiri'Ccmiily, Va 
'ryiroSpiiiijis, Ti'iiii.. 

(iroi'j;iii .... 

Uctroit, Mich 

Soiitlicni Illinois 


.1.11. Uichaid 

C. It. It. ICciiiicrlv , 

^'■> ' 

K. Clarko 


In-. William .loiics 

T. Kooscvcldt 

1'. K. IIov 

I'lof. S. !•'. Baird 


(ic(ir;;o Sliocmiikor 

C. IS. 1!. Kciiiicrlv 

C> ' 

K. Clarke 

J. II. Uichaid 

M. McDonald .... 
Major It. (hvcii... 
Dr.' W.C.Jcmes .. 

Dr. A.Sa;!(^r 

H. Kenuicolt 







riethodon cinnrns cri/thronotus Green. 

(;i7(>ti, Clark County, Virginia.) 

I have been uiiiiUle to detect any tlilt'croneo in striictnre, proportions, 
and general character between tliis snppo.sed species and P. eincreus. 
The only diil'erencc, if any there be, is to be found in the color of the 
back, thatof tlie side and belly being very much the stmie. A broad, 
light-reddish stripe coininences at the nape of the width of the inter- 
orbital space, and continues to the tip of the t.iil, on which it dimin- 
ishes gradtiidly in width. The central region of this stripe generally 






!^ I 


'i ■ ., i - 



exhibits ii very line inoltliiiy ol" luowiiisli, scaicely ub.sciiriii<;' tlie t'lU-ct 
of the ml jiTOund. The mottling i.s suiiR'tiiiios tMiiially ilistribiitcd— 
sometimes concentniteil in some phices more than otliers. The sides of 
tlie body are abruptly and continnously dark brown, but soon fades oil' 
below into the pepper and salt of the lower sides and belly. There is 
sometin)es the etfect of a broad dark stripe on each side the red, but 
this is usually very illy delined below. 

The color of the red stripe varies considerably. Sometimes it has a 
shade of pink— sometimes of orange or yellowish. The close resem- 

4 3 

Fk;. 30. riethoihiii eliiciriis cr/ilhronolKg, 4(<2c 


St. CaUiariius. Canada; ;. 

blance in size and character with the l're(iuent association in the same 
localities between the two species have given rise to the belief that tlu'y 
were ditJereut sexes of the same species. That this supposition is in- 
correct is i)roved by the fact that both males and females are found of 
each kiiul, as was long ago noticed by llaldeman. As varieties they 
are very permanent ones, as I have Ibund all the young of the same 
brootl or set of eggs, whether in the eggs or Just escaped from them, 
uniforndy with either dark backs or red ones. 1 have found adult red- 
backed specimens watching eggs with red-backed endiryos, and biowii 
backed in charge of brown-backed embryos. Tliere is also some dillci- 
euce in geographical distribution. Thus, on the west side of Laki; 
Champlain,in Essex County, New York', I'rol'essor Jiaird states that lu^ 
lias found the red-backed salamaiuler very common, and never saw there 
the r. cinercus. Among a very great numlterof specimens which I hav(^ 
examined iu the collections of tlie Smithsonian Institution, the A(!ad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, and Mssex Institute I have observed but four 
specimens of the red-banded variety and four of the gray which could 
be regarded as intermediate in cliaraiiter. This apjiears in a rufous 
cast in the dorsal color of the latter and a slight obliteration of the 
borders of the dorsal band in the former. Such coloration is, however, 
very uuconimou in the living animal, which is everywhere exceedingly 
abundant. The statement made by J. A. Allen that such are aliundant 
in Massachusetts is not conlirmed by the siiecimens iu the museum of 
the Essex Institute, ]\Iassaciiusetts. 
An examination of 


indra (ifiilis (.'5770) 

shows them to belong to this subspecies. His variety with livid back 
is the ricthodoH cincreus cbiereus. 







Miaaiiri'inoilfi, in hiclicx. 

Length, nieastucd alonj; axis of body : 

From snout to {Jjapc II 

From snout to {jular fold :?l{ 

From snout to aiiuitit 'IH 

From snout to j^roin 1. (iO 

From snout to bcliind anus I.H2 

From snout to ond of tail It. W 

Tail 1.70 

Iload : 

Width of head 20 

Length of orl>i t (!!• 

Distaneo between eyes anteri- 
orly Vi 

Head— Continued 

Distuuco between outer nos- 
trils ?(.07) 

Hody : 

Circumference of belly (55 

Distance between armpit and 

groin L 10 


From elbow to tip of longest 

linger 20 

From kne(^ to tip of longest toe. .tJo 
Distance; between outstretched 
toes 7(! 

ridhoilon rhinriia crjilhroiioittx Green. 


Xo. of 









































From wlioni received. 

Wasliiiifjton, D. C Dr. William Sliiiip.son . 

New Vork 

Koit William, Lake ' K. Keniiicott . 


Iiukc Superior do 

South of lli;;lilaiidM ' ('. Drexli'r 

Koek Cn.k, 1). (; I II. W. Klliott 

WaHhiii;:toii, 1). C Dr. IC. Cooes, I'. S. A . .. 

Norfolk, (Joim ; Seiit. IMi, 1S77 I A !■". Wooster 

Wood's lloll. Mass 1S7I I U. S. V'lsli Commission 

("l.irk Conntv, Va ... ! Dr. ('. I!. It. Kennerlj'. . 

Westpcnl.N. Y | I'rof. S. K liaird 

Sl.Calhariiie's.Canada | Dr. 1). W. lieadle 

r.iciok villi', 1 11(1 ! Dr. 1!. llavmond 

St.c^atliiiiines.Cumida Di'. D. W.'ltendli^ 

Uaeiio'. Wis — 

West Norlhlield. Ill . , It. Kennieott 

Alle;ianv<'ounlv. N. V 1). Stevens 

I'otionae Itiver,' l>. ('. . Apr. —,1882 10. 1'rindlu 


Nature of speci- 
















1.11 1» 













Washinuton, i 

(iliiileestil', \'a 

Miilillelowii, (Jonn ... 

liiisliiM, Mass 

Itiple.v, Ohio 

I.oiikoiit Mountain 

XorldlU, (.'onn 

:i Washington, D. (J. . . ... 

L- Itawliv, Va I .. 

'J!» I Meadville, I'a ... 

1 I Lancaster, Ohio ; I,. I,e! 

J. W. Da^iins . . 
Itev. (;. Mann. . 
W. !I. Harnes.. 
T. Itoosevelilt . 

I'rol. II. IV 

W. I'.l'o'e 


(ieor;ji' Shoemaker . 

nrnjaniin Miller 



1 I .Mississippi ' Dr. Shnmard 

1 I (') 

in Oian^e, N. Y 


Dr. .I.Cr.Cc 

1 Ouenia Countv, N. Y 11. Da'js 










:.'. Carlisle, I'a 

I'pper Darliy, I'a 
I'hiladelphia, I'a 



Detroit, Mieh I I Dr. Sa 

S. Kliaird 

Mr Smelt 

J. II. Ituhard... 
Dr. W. L..Ione». 




■ >\ 


riefliotloii cincrcHS (lorsalis ISaird. 

Cope, Tror. Ac. I'liila.. l.-(!!), p. 100 (niiine only). 

This snbspecios lias tlie sizciuul jjioportions of body ami limbs as in 
P. cryllironotitft, but may be readily dif^Miij-iiislied by the smaller number 
of costal furrows, shorter body, and (lillereiit character of the dorsal 

There are only sixteen costal furrows between tlie fore and hiiul legs, 
instead of eighteen, as in /*. rn/tlinniotus. This indicates a shorter body, 
and accordingly we lind that the distance from snout to armpit is con- 
tained only three times in that from snout to groin, instead of 3^ or ;M, 
as in tlie other. 

I am unable to detect any difference in the mouth, tongue, teeth, or 

In alcohol there is a broad yellowish red dorsal stripe, which begins 
Jit the uape and extends to the end of the tail. On the back it is otj an 
average as broad as the interorbital space of the head. The outlines, 
instead of being parallel or nearly so, are very irregular on the back, 
exhibiting tour or live coarse dentations between shoulders and rump, 
which in some specimens are nearly opposite each other (causing the 
dorsal stripe to be twice as wide at some places than in others), or more 
or less alternating. On the tail the outlines are straight, converging 
slightly to the tip. The sides and beneath are dull brownish-yellow or 
whitish, finely mottled, or vermiclated with dark reddish-brown, which 
becomes more crowded to the dorsal stripe, and is sharply relieved 
against it. 

There is a distinct light line from the upper eyelid, passing internally 
to the nostrils and meeting its fellow iu an angle in the middle of the 
muzzle, then sending down a single line to the edge of the lip. 


Mcasunmciiln, in inches. 

LengtU, nioasiueil along axis of bodj 


From .snoiit to gapo 


From 8nont to gnlar fold 


From snout to armpit 


From snout lo groin 

1. :!G 

From snout to Ijoliind anus 


From snout to end of tail 

2. 'M 



Head : 

Width of Lead 


Width of tongue 

Length of tongue 

Length of orliit 


Distance between eyes anteri-. 



Head— Continue<l. 

Distance; between outer nostrils .06 

liody : 

Circumference of belly GO 

Distance between armitit and 
groin IS(! 

Tail : Height of tail where highest. . 10 

Limbs : 

Free portion of longest finger.. .O.'i 
From elbow to tip of longest lin- 
ger 23 

Freo portion of longest toe Oti 

From knee to tiji of Iongt?st toe .23 
Distance Itetwoen outstretched 
toes 7.'» 


V I 





TluH subspecios i.s iciidily distinguished IVoin P. erj/throHotus by tlui 
din'oient relative position of the linibs> .iJid uiimber of costal furrows 
already referred to. Tlic very jagged or irregular outlines of the dor- 
sal stripe, the light line on the nose, and the lighter and more reddish 
shade of the lateral and inferior mottling will at once distinguish it as 
far as color is concerned. Tlio duskj* shade of the sides is not continuous 
above, but shows distinctly minute mottling of lighter. 

It is somewhat dillicult to assign to this form a definite status. I 
should be disposed to regard it as a good species, but for the fact that 
out of a great number of specimens of the i'. crythrnnotus var. cinercm 
1 lind a single individual (Sm. No. 382.")) from Ohio which presents the 
proportions of the present species, and the same number (sixteen) of 
costal plicas For the present therefore I refer itas a subspecies. I have 
seen live specimens, which agree in every particular ; one in the Museum 
of the Kssex Institute in a bottle with the common varieties of the P. 
crythronotm, the Spclerjics hilincatns, and Desmognathus, all from Es- 
sex County, Mass., and four specimens in the Museum of the Smithson- 
ian as follows: 

I'hthodoii crulhronoliis dorwlii IJiunl. 

(!iiliilo>;uc Xo. of 
iiuiiilit'i'. spec, 





From wlioin received. 

Loiii.sville, Ky . 

Nature of speci- 

Habits. — The Pkthodon cinorns is the most abundant salamander in 
the northern and central eastern United States. It is of terrestrial 
habits, and is easily found under logs and their bark, stones, etc. It 
feetls, like other species, on insects and their larva', cai)turing them by 
applying to their surface its Hat and projectile tongne and jerking 
them (juickly into its mouth. It frequently climbs to the summit of 
low vegetation, from which it springs by a sudden straightening or 
curvature of the body, as the case may be, in the manner of a cater- 


T.schiidi, IVitr., ]>. [)> ; (.'ope, I'roc. Ac. lMiil;i., ISlW, p. 100 ; Stiaiieli, .Salam., 
It. 70; nonlcnjjei', Cut. Hatf. Gratl. Hiit. Miis., ed. ii, 1882, p. ">(;. 

SiilamaiKlid nhiliiiosa, (Jiccii, Joiini. Ac. Tliila., i, p. :i.'i7 ; ll((lltr,, N. A. Herp., v, p. 

:W, I'l. 10; De Kay, X. V. I'aiin, Rcpt., p. Hi, l'|. 17, p. l-,>. 
Stilamtitidra miiohiln, (iilliains, .rourn. Ai". I'liila., i, ji. 4ti(t. 
Saliimttndrn riiUndnicai, llarlaii, .loiirn. Ac. I'liila., \', p. l.">(i. 
I'Ictliodiiii <iliiliii(isiiin, (Ji'ay, Cat. Hatr. (irad. Urit. Miis.. cd. i, p. :?'.(. 
Tiitoii iiorplijifiliciin, Dc Kay, N. V. I'aiiii., Rcpt., p. »',\, I'l. Iti, tij;. :{7. 
Ci/lhiilro.toma filiitiiiomim, Dmn. «.V- Hibr., ix, ]». SO. 

This spe(!ies is of a stout form, the body»l, the head, body, 
and tail continuous, with very slight constriction at the neck; the tail 

* IMatcs-ij;; :tl. lit'. •': •''•''• *'VA- '-': ••', '"},'• •: »•"'. "K- •">; ■!**. •'«• IJ- 


i 'I 


\v: 1 












(•.vliiiilriciil, vciy sli}?litl.v co^ .imsssed towiiids tlif pointed <-oiiicaI tip, 

iiiid loiigcf than the body. 
Theskin is evorywiicre closely lined with short perpendicular slnnds for 

secreting a milky jiiico. Tliese are largest on the upper surface of the 
tail and more scattered on Wh'. belly. The skin is also closely covered 
with shallow pits. visii)le only when the mucus is removed and through 
a lens. I have not observed any large pores in patches on the head. 

The head is broad, the sides i)arallel to the eyes, then converging and 
distinctly truncated at the cn<l. The eyes are largo and i)ronnnent, 
separated anteriorly by one and one-half diameters of orbit ; the »lis- 
tance to the nostrils and between them rather less than this amount. 
The nostrils are lateral near the end of the muzzle. The upper jaw 
overlaps the underconsiderably, especially anteriorly; where there is a 
slight protuberance downwards of the lip on each side, the n.uzzle giving 
a concave out'line when viewed both from before and laterally. There 
is a slight groove down the side of the muzzle from the outer edge of 
the nostrils to the swollen part of the lip. 

The gular fold is entirely adnate, without any overlapping. 

There are fourteen well-marked costal furrows, including tiie inguinal 
and one close to the forelegs. They are distinct <mi thesides, but inter, 
rupted on the back and belly; none are distinctly visible along the 
pelvic region and the tail. There is a shallow fuirow along the back, 
but not the least sign of ridge or compression on the cylindro-quadrate 
tail, although this is rather higher than wide towards the end. 

The limbs are moderately developed. The digits are short, broad, 
linear, cylindrical, depressed, and slightly swollen into knobs at the ends, 
where they expand very little, but without any appearance of a disk. 
There is a short, thickened membrane connecting the basal joints of the 
digits, leaving three phalanges free of the longer toes and two and one- 
half of the lingers. This inend)rane has the etfe(!t to cause tlio bases of 
the digits to stand out very free and separate from each other. 

The second aiid third lingers are nearly e(pial, the latter rather longer; 
the third toe longest; the fourth sometimes not shorter. The first 
linger and toe are quite rudinuMitary, being a mere knob. The distance 
from snout to axilla is contained less than three times in that to groin. 

The tongue is very large, in alcoholic speiumens frequently l)rotnid- 
ing beyond the Jaws all round. It is oval, longer than broad, lleshy, 
and highly papillose, thin towards the margins. It is very slightly 
emarginate behind, the notch bordered by a ridge on each side. It is 
l)edicellate, free behind and on the sides, but ailixed to it anteriorly; 
the point of adhesion visibl" externally, as a circular or lozenge-shaped 
whitish spot just behind the jaw-bone, and about as large as the orbit 
of the eye. The attachment is comi)lete anterior to tlie pedicel, which 
again is free from its sheath only behind. Tlie tongue is thus evertile 
and capabh of being thrown outwards. There is no free sjrace anterior 
to the pedicel. 














The piilatiiie t«>i'tli iorin ii sciies on each side in the shape of a short 
an!, tlio convexity anterointer'ov Tiiesc do not meet internally, but 
are Heparatedby a short interval, as they are Ironi the two plates of 
l)arasphenoidal teeth, beginninj-' a short distance behind them and ex- 
tendin};- backwards, meeting along the median line. The inner nostrils 
are rather small, i>laced anterior and interior to the commencement of 
the palatine teeth. IJesidesthe broad, shallow, shortehannel proceeding 
from the outer end of these nostrils past the exterinil extremity of the 
palatine teeth, there is a deeper and very narrow one i>assing along the 
upper edge of the broad channel and along the nuirgin of the ui)per 
jaw to its posterior extremity. 

6 7 

Fir,. 'M. I'll tliinlon ;tUit!iii>imii. No. 378'.'. Alilmvillc, S. C; ',. 

This species in alcohol is of a livid bluish black. The upper parts 
and sides are nuukcd with well-detiued specks of a grayish-silvery 
color, looking like torn i)ie(!es of foil. These vary with the specimen, 
but are generally more numerous and larger along the sides. The 
under parts are sometimes tinely dotted with whitish, but this isusually 
the effect of the whitish glands seen through the integument. The 
under i»art of the tail is of a pale bluish-gray. The light spot on the 
chin, showing the attachment of the tongue, has already been referred 
to. The soles of the feet are also whitish. 

The back is sometimes destitute of spots, or they are very minute 
and these when present are often duller than those on the sides. There 
is occ^asioiialiy a yellowish tinge in the lateral spots- A few sjiots of 
the same kind are sometimes found under the chin. 

Young si»ecimens are marked like the adult, except in being whitish 
beneath, and in freciuently having the white spots more i)uuctifornx 
and s(!attered. 

A number of young of eighteen lines in length from caves in Mont- 
gomery County, Va., have ii series of small bright red spots on 
each side; some others from the same locality do not exhibit them. 
The variation is thus remotely similar to that in IhsmoifHathus/KNca. 

I have not been able to discover any permanent dilference between 
the southern specimens of this species and the northern. I have 
thought tliere was a greater tendency to expansion of the light spots ou 
the side, so as even to form a continuous band, and to a reduction in 
size or disapi)earance of those on the back. I have, however, Ibuud 

:1: iH 



.LirriN ;!i, unitki) statks national muhkiim. 




si)eciiiieii.s of precisely similar chanictor iVom iiortheni localities. Some 
soutlu'iii speciiiieiia appeared to liiive tlie ai;;its less webbed than usual. 
Ill certain 8i)ecimena from Sontli Carolina described by llallowell the 
white sitots fail to exhibit themselves on the sides, the color being 
everywhere a deep black, the gular region, lips, palms, and soles being 
of a clear yellowish-brown. This (^institutes a well marked color vari- 
ety, but no ditierences of a higher value can bo found. There are four 
specimens of it in the iMusenm of the J'hiladelphia Academy. 

The range of this species is from Texas to Maine. It is recorded by 
Packard as from Okok, Labrador (.Mem. I'.oston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1808), 
but I suspect that this animal will be found to be the Amhly-stomu 
jefcrsonianum var. lateralc, which has, with the .1. ,;. platincum, the 
highest northern lange. It appears to bo common in Massachusetts 

and Maine. 

This salamander is entirely terrestrial in its habits. It is found much 
more abundantly in the mountainous districts, and haunts rocky locali- 
ties as well as mold and fallen logs. 1 have found it mote 
abundant in Tennsylvania and New York than in southwest Virginia. 
1 believe that it prefers a cool climate; in the Hat and warmer tertiary 
and cretaceous eastern coast region it is rare. In southern Pennsyl- 
vania I have only Ibund it on the northern exposure of the south Ches- 
ter Valley hill, never on the southern exposure or other part of the, 
north hill. In southwest Virginia it is more common in caves than on 
the surface. 

MeaHurcmciitH, in inches. 

liPiifjtli, iiicasiircd alonj^ axis of 
body : 

From Hiioiit to jjapo 

From suoiit to y;ular fold 

From snout to armpit 

From snout to j;roin 

From snout to beliindanus 

From snout to end of tail 


Head : 

Width of bead 

Widtb of toiigno 

Lenyth'of orbit 

Distance bet ween'eyesanteriorly 

Distance between outer nostrils 

Distance betwcou iuuer nostrils 



. IKI 

2. 5(1 

3. (10 
f). 1)0 



IJody : 

Circumferoiico of Itelly l.Ciii 

Dist.inco between armiiit ami 
ffroiu 1.00 


Heij;Iit of tail wberc liij^bcst. .. .112 
Hreadtli of tail where lii}j[liest .. .'.]'i 


Free i)ortion of lonffcst lin<;er.. . KJ 
From elbow to tip of longest 

iingor I"»J 

Free portion of longest tot! 10 

From kneo to tip of longest toe. . 'm 
Distance between outstretched 
toes 1.85 




J'lilhodoii (ilnliiiOHiiii tiri'iiii. 














4 Sill 




No. of 














l.iiralil V. 

MiiiHlcvillr, I.i. 



i T.vMM' S|iviii;.'!', 'I'l'iili. 

Il'iivtnii, All 

OclawiiiK (Nimilv, I'll 

Cailisl... I'ii 

Nalcliiz, Mi.i.H 

Sllllllll'lll Illilllli.H — 

MdiiltiMi, Ala 

Siiiilli ('anilliia 


...iNiiv.— , 1K7!». 

Tvicc S|M iiiy, 'ri'iiii 
MCa.lvillc, I'a 

('Ii nliMtnii, S. (' 

Alilii'villr, S. C 

Ilii rliiiliiMi;li, (ia 

Caih^l.', I'a 

New Uraiiiiri'l.t, Ti'x ... 

From wlmiii rt'cuiviil. 

N. (). Ariidt'iiiy .. 
iii'.'w.Y, .r.iiitii!! 
A. !■;. K(l;;i'\V()rlli 

I'lof. S. l-\ liaiiil ... 
Ci.l. «.(;. I.. Wail.H 

U. KcMlliCKtt 

Niitiii«()f Rpcri- 

I' K. Owen. 

.1 I'li.f.S. !•'. Ilairil 

. I Capt. S. VaiiVliet, L'. S. 

I ! Army. 

Clnilii- Ciiiiiit.v, \'ii 1 Dr. C. ii. It.Kciimily .. 

NfwVoiU i.I.SIaiiHer 

liaiiiii'. Wi.s i ( 

('Il.lllrsldll (.') 

Wisl Niiiilili.Iil, III .. 

Milton, Kla 

\Vasliiiit;t(p|i, D.C 

(•lanjje, N..I 

K. Kcnniciitt 

S.T. Walker 

(icoruc' Sliiii'iiiakcr. 
Dr. Coiipir 























Nnifolk. Va 
(!raliani\ llli', .' 

Uii rlii)i(iiii;li, ( ia 

Mcadvill., I'a ' Williams N'.,illilirlil, HI Ii. KcimicDtt 

Ncii 111 Caicil ilia I (;aiil. Wllliaiii lloldi'li .. 

I'liioTi riiiinty. Mo i ! I*. I{. Hoy 

UriiDkvilli', Iml Dr. Ilayiiionil , 

r.iiMiUvilli'. lull Dr. I!, ilayiiioml 

Mi.'*sissi|i|ii ! Dr. Slmmaril 

tliMisr Cn lOi, S. (" i {') 

W'l stern Mi.ssimii I»r. Sluiniaril 

i;> : c; 

(iioryia Dr. W. I,. Jones 

Kemiii'r ('ninit.v, Miss D. (". I.loyil 

Soiilli Oariiliiia. (.') ." 

fniDiitiiwii, Ala ; K. K. Sliowaller 

I I 


AiiiiTicaii, ISSI, p. ST?*. 

Proi)ortions as in P. f/htlinofiKN. Head oval, Haf, its width entering 
lenj-tli of head and body to tliij^h si.x tiine.s. Tail <iuite slender, cylin- 
dii(5 from base, and lonjior tlian leiifjtli of head and body by the widtii 
of the head. Tlie limbs are well developed, and when appressed to the 
si<les tliey overlap by the leii.uth of the distal phalaiifjes. 

Tiie tonj;ue does not fill tlie floor of the mouth, especially anteriorly 
The vomeroi)alatiiie teeth are in two straiglit series, which are directed 
posteriorly from the internal borders of the choanu' at an angle of 45 


■ 1 





• 1 

'l .! ■ 

144 niLi.KriN :ii, I'MTKi) siaths national miiskiim. 

tlc'},Met's. Thc.v arc .si'i'iiiatod IVoin each otluT on the iiicMliaii lino by a 
slMJit iiit('rsi>a(Taii(irn)iiilli(>|)arasi.liL-ii<)i('l()iiKt'iM)iH'. This 

fonii is (juilc dilVcivnt from tliat ciianictoiistic of tlio P. (/liitino.sHs. 

There tlio series pass beliiiul tlie choatiie, soinet lines even beyoiul their 

external border, and from (wo arched scries, not directed backwards in 

any such dej;iee as seen in tiic i'. <niriis. The parasphenoid ])atehe8 

are close toj-ether, bnt a iiotcii anteriorly and posteriorly indicates the 

extremities of the line of separation. 

The internal di-^its on both feet are indiniental and terminate in si 
single small i»hahinj;'e, whicli does not extend beyond the extremity of 
the second metapodial bone, and is connected with the latter directly 
by the intej;ument. The terminal i)hahin;,'es of ihe other toes are trun- 
cate and slightly ex|>anded at the tii)s, as in the /*. (jIutiiiosHs. 

There are thirteen lateial dernnd folds and a gular fold. The skin is 
smooth cNcry where. 



Totiil U'li^'th ll"^ 

LL'iij;tli oriieml and body ('•">-•"> 

Li'iif^lli to iffoin ••17 

LeiiKtli to axilla 018r. 

Leiiijlli to richisoiis 0(17 

Lciifitli of forc-loi; from axilla ol.')"* 

Leiijjtli of ('111 lit us (lO.")!} 

Li'ii^tli ofl'oro-loot OOt; 

Lenj^tli of hi lid 1('<; 017.') 

Lcii}i;tli oflibia OO.W 

Leii-illi of hind foot 0(l.<) 

Width of head .. . 00.>^:{ 

Width bctwi'cn eves 003(! 


if ff 


3 5 ' ' " 

l''I(i. 3'J. J'titltddijii II iicim Cti\ti', R. Ti'iiiiossoo; }. 

The coloration is peculiar. Instead of the black color, with or with- 
out ])ale bluish dots, of tiie /'. fjUifutomiN, the sides and back arc thickly 
spotted with large yellowisli-grecn blotches of irregular form, produc- 
ing an etfect something like tlie coloration of the ."Mexican Spclcrjxs lep- 
roNUS. The dorsal spots are much larger than the lateral, and are often 
continent. On the head they almost exclude the ground color. The 
s[)ots on the sides are (juite small, as are on the feet. The lower 
sides of the tail ami belly are dusted with yellow, and the throat is also 
dusted, and a little more coansely than the belly. 

The characters which distinguish species from the 1\ glutinosus 
are theditlerent torm of the vonuM'oi»alatine series of teeth, the ab.sence 
of a costal dermal fold, and the coloration. There is some reseiublanco 




to tlu' I'.jliiripiinrtatn.s ol' Stiiiiii!li, Iroiii C'uliloi ;iiii, to Judaic by tlio dc- 
s(;ri|)tiuii ^ivcii l>.v lliat iiiitlior. Ih* stales llial llu* tail is sliortiT than 
tlio liua<l and body, tliat tlic di<;ils iirc iiioru iiciih', and tliii spots arc 
waiiliiijL? on llii^ lirad and sniallci' on tin- liack tlian on the sidos. In all 
tlu'si' points it (lill'crs iVoni the /'. a twiis. 

I ha\'(t s(M-n lint one s[)i'(;iiii(>n ol this species. I look it al llie nninlli 
ol' the. Ni(;ka.jack (7ave, wliicli is in the nionnlains al the jnnetion ol 
the bonndarie.s of the States of (leorjuia, Alabama, and Temu'ssee. 



l'l,i;Tli(»l)()N FLAVIITNCTATIS Stiamli. 
Siilaiii., |i. /I; Ifiiiilciinci-, ('ill. Ii:ilr. (liail. Mill. Miin., cii. ii. H-i-.*, p. ,'p."i. 

Pahitiin- tcctii in two very oblitpic si'iics, (tonvci.uin.; ba«tk wards, scpa- 
rated iVoni each other by a sli;;lit iiitersi»ace, not c.\tcndinj;(»nl wards 
lu'yoinl (dioaiia", jtarasphcnoid Icclh in t wo elonjiate patcthes in ironlaitt 
thron^lionl, widely separated IVoni the palatine teeth. Toii;;ne vciy 
lar},'e; posterior border tree. Head ralhei loii^. with a median lonyi- 
tndiiial juroove. IJody cylindrical, liiiiibs as in /'. (ihitiiinsiis, bnl the 
lin^^ers nniro slender and more pointed, 'i'ail cylindric^al, a little shorter 
than head and body. Skin smooth; thiit»'(Mi costal .nro(»ves. I'dack, 
with larji'e, iire,i;nlar yellowish spots, more iiiimeidiis on the sides ami 
(HI the npper part of thc! tail, smaller on the throat and bidly, absent 
on thci npper snrlace ot the head and the lower sin face of the t;ul. To- 
tal leiijith, I 17 

I lia\e not seen this species, which is said by Dr. Stranch to have 
been obtained at New Albion, (lal. Il iiiiist be rare or of local distri- 
bution. 1 have c.«»pied tlu^ above dcscriptit*,! trom IJonlen^'cr's Cata- 
loj;ne of the i»ritish .Mnseiim, pa.uc ,"».'>. 

I'l.i;i'il()i)()\ IM'Kli'MKIUrs liaii.i. 

rroiTi'il, .\c. Nat. Sci. i'liila.. l-.')7, -J'''.': Sliainli. Salrini., |i. *•.': lioiiliiii;('r, 
Cat. lialr. (iiad. I'.iil. Mils., |--.>. p. ."w. 

This species, in m' appearance, proportions of body, etc., is very 
similar to /'. t-iii'iuns cfjitlirounlits, althon.^h aimndant dilVereiices arc 
easily discoverable. The body, as in that species, is slender and de- 
pressed, but tin' tail is sli;4htly compressed at the middle, and more 
Klroii.niy at the extremity, 

There are no a|»pareiit peculiarities aboii! the liciid. The tonj;ne i.s 
eloiij;a ted, elliptical, withonl postei-im-emariii nation. There are l'onrl«'('n 
costal fiinows, or pi'ihajis lirtccn, if we include one al)ove the axilla. 
The distance I'roin siiont t(» axilla is cmitained latlier less than three 
times in that to .uroin. 

The dibits are well developed; more as in !'. (/liifihosns. There is 
little, if any, indication of web at their bases, the three terminal plia- 
lan.ues of the third and fourth toes beiim free. The third and loiirlh 
toes are about e(pial. Tlu^ outer toe is not more than half the second; 

i!ir»i— iJnii ;;i U) 

< [ 1 






\ ' ' 


the liiist tiM,Ler ami too are almost riuliinciitaiy. The third linger is tie- 
cidedly longer than the .second. 

The dorsal .surface of this si)ecie.s is traversed by a broad brownisli. 
red .stripe, extending from tiie nape to the end of the tail, the sides 
regular and nearly parallel, though more .separated towanls the middle 
oflhe back, where it is as wide as the inferorbital .s|»ace. The stripe is 
sparsely dotte.l with dusky spots throughout its extent. Tiu) sides aro 
abruptly brown on each side the dor.sal siriite; at Jirst con- 
tinuou.s, but l»ecoming more and more interrupled by mottling. The 
belly is light, Ihickly mottletl >\Hii dark brown in 
aboiite(iual proi)ortions; lightest under the chin. There is a lino 
from the eye to the point of the mu/zle. 

1 4 3 8 6 7 

V\i:.:V,t. I'litliiiil'iK iiilrniir.liiis. Nil. 17:1-'. Kml Ti-.joii Cal.; j. 

The general i»roportions and structure of (his sju'cies are luore 
of I'. t/!utinosi(s than of /'. rinercini, althimgli slenderer of body. In 
lM»th tlieie are about fourteen costal grot»v«'s. Tiie outer digit in /*. in- 
(munVim is neaily rudifneiilary, in.slead of luominent, as in the other 

A distinguishing feature, when «;ompared with /'.(•//(<■/•< «,v, i.s found 
in the fourteen instead of «'i;;liteeii cost.d j;rooves, (lie f<»re ami hind 
limits iM'ing thus widely separated piopoitionally. The legs are 
stouter and the digits much less weldu'd (scarcely at all in WxcX). The 
third ami fourth toes esi»ecially aie much longer. 

liMlejiendently of the structural pccnliai ilics I liml ik, thing in {\w 
color to distinguis'ii this species from /*. rlnrrriis < fijlhronotnx, 

Mtioiiti I iimiln. ill imliix. 

lit'ii;;tli, itH'a.siircil aliiii;.' axi.s nl' 
liiidv : 

I'roiii .siiiiiit to j;ii|it! 

riniii MKiiil III pillar Itiiil 

I'roiii .siiiiiit toaniipil 

I'llllll SIKHIt to jivo'wi 

I'iciiii Miiilll to lii'liiijil anus -J. i:. 

I'toiii Niioiit to fiid (it' tail ... 


If. ail: 

Willi li of licail .j;, 

Width <if toii;;iii; i.-, 

lii'lijrtli of toti;;iU3 ■.>| 


. I.'. 

. iiri 
. -II 

:!. ti.'i 

Lt'iiH;(li oforltii,, 

. (i;i 

llicc liftwecii eves aiitti i- 



( 'irciiliifi'lrlici' of lulls fO 

I >i.'^tall^l■ lirfvstrii aiiii|iil and 
;;ioiii 1. :..'■» 


llri;;ll( of tail W line lii;;ln'.sl . . 17 

lii'i'.'iddi ol'lail wIktc lii^lii'st . . Ili 


i'ri'c |Hii tion of l(Mi;;fst linp'r. . . l»/ 
|-"roin flliow to tip of loii;;i'Nt 

lin-.T :il 

I'liM' |ioition of lonj; toe 11 

{''loni klirc to tijiof jont^i'hl (or . I!7 

Distance lict ween oiitst rrtclicd 
•Iocs 1. JU 


I'll llioiluit iiiltriiiii.liiiti, liainl. 



Nil III 





I'lnt 'rr.jou, ('ill 

I'll il ininrH, Viiiniiiivri 

Willi f. . . 1 1 Natl I' o n)M!Ci- 

1, . , 1' 111 I \v II II II rvi I . ' 

CO U'cicil. iit'ii. 

.r. Xiiiitiis 

Aldrii W. Hcvv.sDU , 

1 'r.viii'ot'dim'riii- 

I Iiiive also this spccit's IVoin iit-ai' SaliMii, in tin; Willamette Valley, 
(>re;;(Hi, HO that it prohalily (ktui's tlii'(Hi,i;h(ml theeiitiie I'acilie rej;ioii. 

rLi;rii(»!»()N ck-assi^uis Cik-. 

l'l;ili' lAWI, li;;. 1. 
riiirird. Aniil-, l'llil(isi)|ill. Siu-., l"''^<), |i. .VJl. 

'I'his speci.s lias a siipci-rnial leseiiihlaiu'e to the /*. orctjoiuitsis, but 
its iiiaiiiloltl (lilVeieiH-es are easily |)ei'i;eive(l. 

Tiie Wnm is (|iiite lolmsl, ami the head is larye, its width Koii.g into 
th»; len!;tli to the thijuhs only live times. The tail is very much com- 
pressed tVum the base, and is also shallow ; its length ecpnds the dis- 
tanci' iVom ils iiaseto the ;4nlar Ibid. The le;4s are robust, but not very 
Idiiu ; when a|»pressed to the side they Tail to meet by the lenj-th of the 
posterior loot. 

The t(>n,i;ne is lar,i;e, tilliu";' the Moor ot the month. The vomeropala- 
tine teeth aie in two short series, which eonver};e backwards, without 
coinin:; into eontael, IVom behind the internal eye of theduKune. The 
pirasphenoid teeth are in a single undivided patch, which commeuucs 
well behind the vomeropalatiiu-s. The maxillary and uiandibular teeth 
iii'e minute. 



1 ,: V 


> ' 

3 5 

I'lii. ■.W.—l'llli;,!,.,, .•i-,/sM((ii,v. Nil. '.HIT. CiiliCi.riiia; 


e 7 

'I'he hcMtl \ lewed from above is oval; in profile the mu//Ie is thick 
and Iriineale, ami prtijeels beyond the mouth. Theedneof the lip is 
.>li,uh(ly an^iilal*' below the iiar»s. The eye is lather larj;e, its length 
etpialin.-; that of lli»' niuzzle. The distance bet\vn'n the nostrils isecpia 
lo that between the bases of the e\elidsat their middles. The toes 
are sIkui and fiee, (Uie iihaiaii^t- of the first difiit tm eacdi foot |>roJect- 
\\\%. The ends uf the tiu's aie obtus«' and bulbiform. A yular foUl. 
liMteral folds foiirleeii. 


lilfl 1 1 


Metxnitremi'iits of So. "J 147. 



Total leiif^lli y.^^ 

Lt-iigtli ol' lu'iid iiiid body ' 

Length to groin ^'^^^^^ 

Longth toiixilhi - • ; 

Length to lino of rictus oris 

Length to line of oy^i ' 

Length ot »ore-U<g ^^^.^^^ 

Length of Corefoot ' ' 

Length of hind leg "' 

Length of hind loot ^^ 

Width of hciid ""'^' 

Width hetweon eyes "•'"'-'•' 

Colorabovc, iiiiifonn diuk redtlislibrowii ; below, imifonii li{>lit brown. 
I liiive seoii but one siteciiiR'ii of this si)ecies, as follows: No. 9147; 
California; Ih: J. G. Cooper, collector. 


Cope, Proe. Ac. I'hila., 1809, p. 100; lioulenger, ("at. Hatr. Orad. Hrit. 
Mns., eil. II, iSrJ, p. .>!. 

i:nx(iliiiti v>irhxrhoIt:ii, Gray. Cat. I5atr. (irad. Urit. Miis., ed. i, p. 4S (iter Triton lunnliix. 

Uircdia onuoiieiish, (lirtuil, I'roc. Ac. I'hiia., If'M, p. '-iXt, and II. S. Expl. Exped.. 

Her]... I'l. I. lig. IH-','."); Ktraiich, Salani., p. "ti; Hallow., I'roc. Ac. I'liiia , IH.'.t;, 

p. 'J:!;'). 
rivthodon ciisaliiK, Cope, I'roc. Ac. I'liila., HOT, \k l(i7. 

This species may be readily known by its relatively short and slender 
tail, its lono;, weU-develo[)ed liinl)s, and wide head, as well as by il.> 
delicate coloration. 

The form of the body is rather depresse<l, with distinct head and tail. 
The width of the head enters the lenj^th to the j;roin in the larj^est in 
dividuals ~>.'SS times; in th().se of medium size, 4.a times; in the youii},' 
of 17.") lines in length it enteis ;i.."» times. Costal folds II, the an 
terior indistinct or wanting, the po.sterior nunx! than usually obliiiue, the 
inguinal extending forwaids and upwards one si)ace in advance «»f the 
originof the femur. The limbs appre.s.setl overlap, sothat the lingers reach 
the bases of the tot^s. There is no vertebral groove. The tail is slightly 
compressed, more distinctly so towards the extremity, and, what is excep- 
tional and (!liar;i(;teristic of this spe(!ies and the /'. rroaatcr, most so in- 
ferioily, leaving the nppi'r outline Hat for the pr(»ximal two-thirds the 
length. The postorlntal fold is well marked and (Mtntinnes into the fold of the tliroat. The head is oval, and without <!anthns 
rostialis; the mn/./.U\ rather thick, and with a suinnfeiior truncation, 
which is not so imirked as in J\ cnx-ntter. The. nostril is terminal and 
nearer the orbit than the diameter of the ey»' li.ssnre. The latter enters 
the width between the anteiior (ianthi of the smne !..'?.'{ times. 

The inner nares are very small. The voineriu(^ arcs curve backwards 











medially, and iioarly or (luite in contact. Tho i)t<,Mygoi(l patcbes com- 
mence at some distance behind these. They are of usual breadth, but 
diver^ife more posteriorly than in the species of the lirst section of the 
jrenus, resembling thus many species of Spelerpes. Tlie teeth are very 
minute, and are arranged in series directed backwards and inwards. 
The tongne is a little more free than in P. ffbitinnsus, as the lamina 
connecting the anterior and nie<lian points of support is «piite thin. 

The inner toe in both i)air of limbs is (juite snuill, but free and better 
developed than in P. f/lutlnofim. In the anterior i)air the third is the 
longest; the second is a little shorter than the latter, aiul the fourth a 
little longer than the lirst or inner one. The longest toe in the poste- 
rior limbs is the third likewise, the fourth being nearly equal to it, 
whilst the second is a little longer than the fourth, which itself is a 
little more develoju'd than the lirst or innermost. Phalanges 1-2-3-2; 

The skin is perfectly smooth externally, but on being examined under 
the microscope it exhibits a nuvsh-work of little stellated mucous pores, 
similar to those of Auto(1a,v liignbi-is, but proi)ortion!illy larger. 

According to a sketcth from life made by Mr. Drayton, of the United 
States l"^\pl()ring I"]xpedition, the ground color is milky white, with 
crowded dots of reddish brown. On the si)ecimens preserved in alcohol, 
however, the b()dy, head, and limbs are of a unifornj dark brown, lighter 
beneath. Under a low magnifying power minute dots may be observed 
vsciittered all over the surface. The <rolor would appear to vary sonte- 
what. A drawing in the Smithsonian re<!ords, <'()Iored fnun life by 
Samnels, represents the sides of head and body with lower snrface of 
t.iil and anterior faces of limbs of a bright orange. This is the color of 
living specimens which I have tak» i myself. 

Fki. its. - I'lithdiloii <iir;i('iin>iiiii. No. irSOlfi. Biikcloy, Cnl. ; \. 
Miiimnrmctila, in inclivn. 

In. I.iii. 







from snout to ^^iipc 5 

IVoiii siuMil lo fjiihir fold y. !< 

from snout lo axilla 12 

fr<im Hiioul to o;roin '2 4 

from snout lo mil of vent "J St. 2 

from snout to end of tail I 10.2 

of for." limit 10 

of fon-foof .I.f) 

of liinil iiinh 10. r> 

of III nil foot 4.5 




: 1 



I- M 



4' t 

" if I 

i Ijj; ! 


111. l.lii. 

Will til ol'sdlc oChiml loot ~-^ 

Wiilthoftiiil :••' 

Wi.lllioflMHly ^-'j 

Willi h oC Iioad (j,nviitc,st) •'■'' 

Width lifiwocii fxti'iiiiil iiiiiVH 

Widlli lict wccii iiitcniul iniri's '•'' 

Tlii.s liiiiKl.soiiic spccit's woiiltl iippiMi'to lu' nor micoinidnii in ()r«'<;on, 
I Ibiiml it ;il)iimliiiitl,v in ihc it'dwood (oicst at Russian liivcr, (!ali- 
fornia. It.s »\v('s arc pioiiiiiii'iit and hcantiliil in lili'. 

(lirai'd refem'd tliis .spc(;ic.s to a .ycnn.s wliicli lie called IhMcdia, and 
as it appears to ine without reason, as I can liiid no cliaracteis liy wliicli 
to distin.i,niisli it IVoin I'lelhodon. \)v. Mivait inl'oinicd me that tliis 
species was labeled as identical willi tiie Triton cnstdKs Kscli. in tlie 
llrilisli Mii.seiiin, and i»resiiininj;' on lln^ accnrac.v of tlie det<'iinination 
I called it /*. eusatxs. On examination of his (i<>iircs I find liiat ilsciis- 
cholt/Zs animal is very dillerent, perhaps .ucnerically so, and i>rol»al>Iy 
worthy of reference to a {jentis I'^nsatina, in accordance with Dr. (iray's 
cataloiiue of tlie IJritish Mn.senm, a coarse followed I»y Dr. Uonleno'cr. 

{{(•sides specimens in Mnsenmoflhe IMiiladelphia .Academy and l-'ssev 
Insfitiite, and my own «!al>inet, the following have come nnder my ol»- 
siM'vaMon : 

I'lillitxUiu tirfijiiiii iisis (;ii<l. 
lUCsr.uvK si:i;ii:>. 

' r » 


Ciitiilntno N'o. Ill 














•J , 


2 ; 


l.iiialil V. 



Kliplii wliiiiii iiTrivril. 

Mdiitoirv. Cal CnilicM 

I'llfli'l Sidinil. Oli';;iill .. . III. I ' 1;. Ki'llMi'liv 

ilii (• I! l; K. I'M.ih 

I'l-tiilimiii, (.'ill I M. SiiiiiiirU 

(J;ilil'miii:i I''.»4 .1. S. .VihIk iin 

I'iif;('t Soiiiiil.. 


I'LF/nioDON ('I{0('i:ati:i.' copr 

U. Iv C. StraiMs 

W. llia.vtiiii 

Natiiii' (il'siH'cl- 




rror(>(>d. Ac. Xiit. Sci. I'liila.. iSiT, p. -Jlo, /. ,■.. HC'.i, p. |iH: Stniiicli, 
Siiliim. ji./il ; lloiilnij;iT, Cat. l!atr. ( Hril. Mils., nl. ii. Irts.', ji. .'>,',. 

The largest sjteeies of the jicnus, and one of the ".lost oiiiamented of 
the Aiiieri(^an salamanders. 

In primary features this species is near the /'. ortfioyinisis (lirard 
havinj;' the altachmeI^t of the toncne aloiin' the median line (piite nar- 
row, and a very narrow free margin in front. 'Ihe jialatine teelli form 
two lonjj transverse .separated ar(;s, which aic directed more poste- 
riorly at their median than extcri(»r extremity, the latter e.xtendinj;' far- 
ther ontside the outer mar},nn of Ihe inner nar(>s than the Iran.sverse 
diameter of the same, Th(> tail is snltcvlindrical and slender: conr 




' r » 

pressed and narrowed in seiitiou below. No prominent glandular ag- 
glomerations or pores. Only three jdialanges in the fourth toe. 

Form of head peculiar. It is very broad, with straight converging 
maxillary outlines and truncate muzzle; upper surface nuich narrowed 
on nuizzle; loreal regions plane, very oblique; canthus rostralis not 
miirked. Maxillary outline oblicpiely spread at and behind orbits, 
where it is exceeded by the projecting margin of the mandible. Ante- 
riorly, and at the end of the nui/.zle, it [>roje(!ts considerably beyon<l man- 
dible. Muzzle truncate in i>rohU^; a slight euiarginaticni at middle of 
premaxillary Ixu'der, and a groove on vm'.U side of it on inferior pro- 
jecting ftice of lip. Nares terminal, some distance above the angulatioii 
of the lii>, continued below in a groove, which bifurcates near lip mar- 
gin ; the posterior line exti'iiding a short distance, the anterior to the 
median ennirgination separating the anterior from the inferi.n* plane of 
the muzzle. Kyo. large, not very prominent; its anterior canthus well 
in front of ndddle of Jaw, and 8e|)arated one diameter from nostril and 
1.5 from the other eye. 

No f'^ld acaoss front angle to angle of mandible, but the gular, pnro- 
toid, and postoibital grooves well marked. Costal grooves indistinct; 
!.'{. Skin everywhere very smootii. 

Tail longer than head and body by the length of the mouth. Width 
at (Mirves of niiiiidible 4.0 times in length to groin. Extremities slen- 
der and long; when pressed to the si<les the lingers extend to the heel. 
Length of wliole fore lind» 2.7-j times in length to groin. Inner tinger 
very sunill, half the length of the fourth; third longer than second. 
Sole narrow ; longer than longest toes. Inner toe less than half the 
tifth; third a tritl(> longer thiin fourth; s(>cond much longer than tiftii. 
Lower leg .7"» thigh to groin. 

Patches of parasphenoiibd teeth, two in conta<^t anteriorly, well 
separated front palatines. All the teeth minute, mnnerous, acute 
cylindro c(uii«'. Tongue with ratlu'r straight lateral and posterior out- 

(\)1(M' tlu'oughout pitchy itbick, fading into bright red orange below ; 
limbs orange, a blackish cross baiul below tlie knee. A large red- 
orange si»ot on «>acli paroroid region, and tbursniiiller, irregular, similar 
spots on the body to base of tail on each side of and near the vertebral 
line. A pair of orange spots at base of tail and a distant seiies on the 
upper face of the tail. 

Ilesides the type, a specimen of this species was obtained at Cape St. 
Lucas, in Lower CaIiforui;», and I have seen om^ from near San Diego, at 
the northern end of that peninsula. As the typical specimen was 
ifouiid at Fort Tejon, Cal., the range (»f the species is extensive. 



I !■ 

t . 


IfyJ ni]u.i:TiN .M, uNiTi:i> s'I'ati.s national mi skum. 

Miaxiniiiii iil-^, ill iihliin. 

III. Liu. In. Lin 

Lci)i;tli: lli'iiil — (Jontiniitd. 

M«!a.siire(liiIoii};iixisnflioil.v- .' 11 |j Dist.'uicf lift ween itiiicr ims- 

Froiii Hiirtiit lo j;:i|if (on ' trils 'J 

front.) •'■' '•'■•''I-' 

From snout to j,nil;ii- l'<il<l "^ | lli'it;iit of tiiii wliiTc lii, 

From snout to !irnii>il 1 . "•'> lircinllli 

From ."iuont to}j;roin - -^ IJinlis: 

Free |iortiiHi of loners! (iii- 

'J. 5 

From .snout to center ot ;ni;il 





Leiifftli of orliit 

Distance Itefvvcen eyes .'in- 

Di.stnnri^ lietweeii outer nos- 

1. ') 

II. /.; 
;!. 7." 

From elliow to tip of loiij;est 

'■'llifer 7. •.'." 

I''iei' portion of loii;jest toe.. 'J. 7ri 

From liiiee to tip of lon|!;est 

1 1 le H. ,"i 

nist.ince liet wi'cil ontslrtMeli- 

I'll toes M '1.1 

No. 4701 ; oii('.siu'(!iiiHMi : Kort Tcjoii, CmI.; .loliii Xaiitus, 
;->TI';i;i:()CillLlIS Vn\n\ 

Churacicr. — Toiis'iic attaclicd alono- tin' mt'diaii line to \\\v aiilnior 
iiiiir^tii; toes l-"*; prciiiaxillaiy l)()iit'.s (•iiiilliiciit, witli a .siiii|)|»> .spiiu', 
witlioiit fontaiK'llt'. 

Tliis oeims isreincsciitcd l).v Itiit one species ol llie aiistioripariaii «lis- 
ti'ict of the iioarctic; i'(';iii)ii. It is cvidciilly oi'atpiatii! Iialtits, iiml is oi 
larvaliko proportions and appcaiMiicc, but lias tiie craiiiiiiii (iill.v <!«' 
veloped and in some respects more .solidly than its allies. In tin' only 
skeleton I liave examined the prelrontal is jncsent on one side and 
wantiii}? on the other. The premaxillary l)oneislike that ol nesmo<,Mia- 
thn.s, while the toniiiie is slightly (Veer than in IMethodon. The species 
exhibits weak extremities. It is Inmi southeast (Jeorj;ia, and is (piite 

Costal ])lie:i', 17; i'liinL;;;te. Iieail narrow, wiiltli more tli;ii. .■-even times to 
;;roin, iiioie tlian twiee to a\ill,i; no eantlins rosiiali--; l.iil conipre.sseil 
from (lase, liiMie '. ; -.iiall; pale yellow, browti lineil S. iiianjiiiiiliis. 


rseiidolrilnii iuuriiiiintiix Hallow., Pr(>eeccl. Ae. N,it. Sei. I'liila.. Ifrifi, p. i:!(t. 
.S/ic/iryx'.f mar<iiiintiis Slrancli, Salam., i), 8:{; I!oiileiij;er, Cat. Matr. (ir.iil. iSiil. Miis. 
eil. II, I--,', p. (11. 

This is a well-marked and peculiar species, tuid not iieariy allied to 
any other. The head is more tlian usually clonfj^atc, Wsth piojectin^', Hat, 
trniieate muzzle. The K^'t'eral dimensions o! the reail are small : the 
interorbital space is narrow tind nearly plane, its wiiltli betwciMi tiie an- 
terior cauthi of the orbits not <piite 1.5 the lony;itudiiinl diameter of tlio 












a na 




Tin; batkaL'Iiia of noktii a.mhuica. 


eye. Both iii)per and lower pali»ebiie are transparent, a feature pecu. 
liar to til is species. 

Tlie pores of tiie skin are large and on all the upper surfaces closely 
placod ; on the sides more distantly. The mucous p(U'es on the head are 
distinct and larjie. They form a douhle seri«is along the canthus ros- 
tralis, ami a snigle one ahove the orhir, which turns round the latter be- 
hind, and is conf'inued b'dow it and along the side of the muzzle to the 
nostril. A series of similar large i)ores extends along the middle of each 
side, one a little in front of the median point of the intercostal spaces. 
Tiie tail is compressed fnun the base, and not elevated ; it carries a strong 
free dermal border along the median line aboveon the distal two thirds; 
a narrower dermal margin exists on the inferior distal half. The limbs 
are short and weak, but the digits are well developed. The posterior 
extended forwards measures If) intercostal intervals; the anterior 
measures backwards 4i of the same, counting the axillar. The jdia- 
langes nuMd)er on the posterior feet \-2-',i-',i-2; on the anterior, 1-2-3-2; 
the terminals are (piite acuminate, especially behind, where in one indi- 
vidual they have a slightly corneous sheath. Tiiere are 17 costal folds 
and an axillar space. The tail is not annulate. 

The rictus of the mouth measures nearly the diameter of the eye 
behind it. The tongue issmall and free all round, cxceptat the anterior 
margin and along the median line to the glossohyal pedicel. The 
vomeiine teeth exteiul behind the nares in two series, which are con- 
vex posteriorly; they approach each other as though at an angle 
directed anteriorly, and then suddenly curve backwards and form the 
pterygoid series. These are more slender and more nearly approxi- 
mated than in any other species, and consist ea(!h of but one row of 
teeih to th(^ point where they begin to diverge; /. c, near the posterior 
|)art of th(^ globe of the eye. They do not diverge widely and exhibit 
but a few scries of teeth. 

' H 

1 i!-'. 


V. !! 



Pin. 36. Stfrrochilu* marginnhu. No. 3907. Goorgiiii J. 

The color is a deli(Mte yellowish-brown, with numerous brown lines 
interspersed, which form several dark bands along the side. A nar- 
row dark line extends from the orbit to near the axilla. A narrow 
yellow line, brown-bonlered above and below, extends from axilla to 
groin. The tail, belly, and gnlar region are closely brown-8i)ecked; 
similar specks occur on the sides of the hea<l behind. The ground color 
of the belly is yellow. 







.liidl mruHuremenU. 


From iii;i//;li- to iiiilciior (•Miilliiis t-yti ■ "<'-' 

From mii/./lc to rii'liis oris ' 

Fr Ill II //Ic to II xi Mil 

From iiiii//li' to ;,'ioiii '•''*; 

From mn//lr to |io.s|rrior nijirfj;iii vent "j'lti 

From imiz/lc to cml of (nil "''-I'' 

Lciij;lli foiv limli '"""_ 

I-iMi«tli foiv-toot "<'■-'"» 

LtMijjIh himl liml. "'"^ 

[.ninth liiiiil foot "04 

Width lift ween fxtcniiil niircs WOl 

Wiiltli liffwccii iiiti'nial riarcs , "'•! 

Will til lii'twccii caul li us oris <"••• 

Willi li lii'twciMi I i-ri at axilla •''•■-'7 

Width licrwi'cii ffiiiora at ;^i(iiii ""•'•'» 

TIlis i)('(!iilijii' siil;miiiii(l('r is |>iol»iii>l.v aqimtiti in its liiil>its. Tliis is 
iiidiciitcd In- tlu^ (!(>iiiinv>s('(l liii like tiiil and the transparent |»al|U'- 
hviVi. It is (|nite ole},'iiiit in its coloration. Nothing is known of its 
iiabits, as it is as yet very rare in colhH'tions. IJcsidos thi' type siuicn- 
nicn of llallowcll in tlic .Miisenin of the Academy Natural Sciences, I 
have only seen the I'ollowinji-: 

No, 3!tt»r; two specimens ; (reurjjia; Dr. Joseph J<nie8. 

Proicid. Arail. I'iiila., Hii'.l, i». I118. 

Toiipfiie snpporttMl oidy hy the s'l*>ssoliyal |)edi(!el, holetoid ; craiiinni 
tally ossified, the jiremaxillaiy hoiu's remaining; «listinc,t and enihracino; 
a fontanelle. J)ij;ils entirely distinct, 4-."). 

This geinis is distin},niislied from Spelerpesjin act;onnt oftlie marked 
pe(!iiliarity of the premaxillary hone, in wliich it resembles IMetliodoii 
rather than the first named. Uiit inie species is as yet known. It has 
u siiperfi(!ial resemhlaiice to tin' Spclvrpcs ruber, hut dillers in .several 
osteoloftical peeiiliarilies. Its misal bones iire well separated, and the 
pi()(>ti(;s(piamosal crests are peculiar. Tho anterior or proiitii! crest is 
short, distinct, and carved inwards und backwards; that on the proxi- 
mal extremity of tlu^ squamosal curves towards it, but leavi's si consid 
eraitle intersjiace. This is occnpi(>d by two os.seous processes, like two 
teeth of a comb. In S. riihcr the anterior crest only is pn'sent, and 
forms a rectaii«!,le, tln^ anterior liiidi beinjjf transverse and the anj-le in- 
wards. Tiie nasal bones also are in conta<;t across the prennixillary 

The type of the fienus remains for a more than usmilly long period in 
the larval condition, and Just before its metamorphosis is jjenerally 
identi(!al in its osteoloojical (iharacfi'rs with the jjonus Neeturns, except 
in the absence of the intercilary bone, and tho number of posterior 




Sjii I, 



CoNtiil i)li(ii' Ki. Head wido, widlli li's!#tliiui seven tiiiu-H to uroiii, not over twico to 
aNillii; » hIi'diij; etintliiis roMti'ali.s; tail roiiiideil at tlio liaso, not linncil; liir^o; 
unifonn |inr|>Ie-j;r,i.v aliovo 0. porphjiyilicii'f. 


(^ope, Troceetl., Ae. I'liila., \^t\0, p. lo,-j. 

Siiliniiamlra pnrphnritica, Green, Contr. Macliii., i, l>*'27, ji. '.\, PI. 1, Cig. 2. 
SdliiiiiiiiKlnt HHlmoiini (Storer), Ilollir., N. A. Ilerp., v, p. :i;{, I'l.H; De Kay, N. Y. 

Faun., Kept., p. TC. I'l. HI, li;,'. :«•. 
Tiiloii itiiriilijirilhiiH, llolln-,, /. c, \t. H:t, I'l. "Jf^. 
I'l^tiiilonilDii HalnioiiniH, .Journ. Ae. I'liila. ("il, I, p 


Hallow., I. 

IV, p 


.liiihlijiliiiiKi snliiiDiiiiiin, Miiiii. i,V' l!ilir., |>. IK). 
Sjii liviK's siilmniinis, SIraneli, Salam., p. h;!. 




(!ia\, Cat. Mafr. (irad. Miit. Mns., e.l. I, p. K! 

.s'/i(7( )-y»( s .' iiDyiilijiiiliiii, ill., ihid. 

.s'/)(7«i'/i(.'* tiitrphjiiiHrii'i, l>iiiilen;;er. Cat. liatr. (iiad. Mrit. Mils., ed. ii, IKSv', i>. (14. 

Tlii.s \\\H\ sjM'cit's of .siiliiiiiaiKli'r li;is an cloitfiatt'd and .sU'iidcr body, 
iiiiK'li depressed III roil jiiioiif-, witli very little eoiistiietioii at the neek, 
and (he tail lapeiinj;' very inqH'r('e|>til)ly Croin the body. TIh' skin is 
siii<M)th and vory slippery, tnery where under tlu^ lenssho\vin}«' appproxi 
mated shallow pits, hut no indication of glands. As nearly ns can be 
asju'itained the ixires of the head are as in Spfh'rjus nihrr. 

The head is Hat, depressed, and rather wed}>«' shaped, the whole u|)per 
part to the mn/./le bein<;^ nearly in one plane. The niM//.le is promi- 
nently and bi'oadly lriiiu;ate, thon;;h a little roiindetl. The sides of tln^ 
head are aliniptly oltliipic and also ipiite piano, the <'aiithns rostralis 
lieiny; very slron;^ly marked as an an<;ular rid^jfc e.vl i liiiij forward 
outside the nostrils to the edj;*^ of the jaw, where it lorins a sli^^ht 
and obtuse proJe<'tioii. This rid;;e is further indicated by a lioht line 
(always present) I'rom the anteriiu- anj^ies of the eye aloii;; its summit 
to the niar.uin of the jaw; the two nearly parallel. The nostrils .send a 
narrow I'm row from their outer extremity down this rid^e. 

The lower edoe of the upper jaw viewed from before is (loiicave, being 
bounded on ea<di side by the rid^e Just mentioned. Tlu're is no well- 
delined cirrus however. The side view of the lower ed.i!;e of the upper 
jaw is also con<'ave. The upper Jaw pr»»jects larj;ely over the lower, 
most so anteriorly. 

The eyes are lar};'eand prominent, distant anteriorly about «)ne and a 
half len^-lhs of the orl>it ; the external nostrils one orbit len.iilh apart; 
the inner less than this. The latter are very minute. Tiie touffuo is 
circular, entirely (ree, pedicellate, and j^n'atly protractile. 

Theteelh are much as in Sprlcrpr.s riihrr; tho. parasphenoidal bauds 
perhaps rather narrow. 

The body is rather vermiform, beinj;' of equal si/,(^ throu*;ho(it, uuich 
depres.scd, with a furrow fiom nap«' to above anus, where the tail risi ; 
into a sharp rid^f, which continues to I he tip. There are sixteen distinct 

l'late:tn, (ij^. t;; :f.t; :tl, li^rs. I-I; X., «};. (1; .«(», Ii;,'. :{; \>*, Ii 








I 1 



III ' 


costal fiiiTows, oxd^l(lin^' an axillary oiic, and livo pelvic. Similar fur- 
rows ran In- traced to the tip of the tail. Tlie tail is (juadrate at the 
base, with ronnded anj-les, broailer than hi-;'!!, but becomes more and 
more compressed to the tip. The limbs are feeble and widely separated. 
The di^'its all distinct, but small ; the lirst rather riidinicntary. 

In alcohol mature individuals of smaller size are of a lij;hl brownish- 
red on the baitU, the sides and itenealh pile reddish salmon t'olor. The 
sides of body and tail, however, and to a less extent the back, are closely 
covered by a coarse, indistinct reti(!uIation or network ol" rather dark 
brown, showinj? the li;.jliter -iionnd color in tlu^ areola', and <!onvcyin<,' 
the impression of rathei- oblon.i- lij;hl spots. Tlie under parts are 
jjenerally immaculate, tliou.;;h larjic spiMtimens are sometimes fiindy 
sprinkled with dusky. There is always a li<;ht line from the eye alonj^- 
the can thus to thecdj-e of t!ie upper Jaw; those of opposite sides parallel. 
With iiicreasin;;' aji'e liie icticulation of the. sides be(!onu's obscured 
by theextension of the ^rouml color of tlu^ i)a('k over the sides and Jie 
•fading (tut of tlu! dark markinjjs. Tlier<' is, however, j,M>nerally a dull 
(iloudiuH' (»f darker and a. faint indiiiation (»f the light spots, especially 
on the lower part of the sides. 

This species dilfers from tSiKlrrpiH nihcr in many details of external 
fiU'iii — the more vermifoiin and depresse<l body; inoi'e widely separateil 
fore and hind legs; oiu> more costal furrctw ; the more depressed, nu)r(^ 
truncate, and broader head; larger eyes; prominent ridge iVoin eye eon- 
tinned to margin of upper Jaw. etc., not to nuMition the diU'creniie in 
coloration. To S. r. Jhirissiiii lis it is related l»y the |Motuberan(U's on 
the upper jaw on each side the muzzle, iuit these are less pi-onnnent. The 
tifteen costal groovesandsiiai'ply detined idaek sp(»ts without reticulation 
on the sides distinguish the former. 

A specimen from (Icoigia (I7l(i) dilfers in a more slender shape, and 
in having dark, horny tips to the digits, as in tli<' afpiatic Audilystonue, 
as if having lived in a drier region than usual. 'I'herc are only lifteen 
costal grooves to be distinguished. 

Flc;. :i7. thiriiKiiihlliix j,(irjili:irltifiiK No. :i:i74. 

Miiixiifi nil }iin iif All. :!*ri(/, ill iiiiii(n. 

LfiiiKtli, incMsiin'tl iiloii^r axis of l-iii;;ili, cic.— CoiiliniK-i). 

'""'y ' I'nilii Mioiil lo;;i'iiiii 

From HiioiK to ^rap,. lo . I''ioiii .snout (o ln'liin,! aiiiiH. 

FroiiiHiioiil to,..,iil;ir Col.! h() i From .snout (d rii.l of tail . . 

F"oni Hiiout to iirmpK L lo | 'I'iijl 

.'< JO 

y. '10 

> » 






4 » 

Ikutl : . 

Wiiltliofli.-atl .") 

Widdi (iftitiitriit) ','."> 

litllKlll ol'olliit 'ii) 

niNtiUict! butwcfii eyes aiitt'ri- 

oily :io I 

Pistanci) Iwtwt'cii outer nostrils. .'-'1 
J)istaiicf iM'twfoii inner nostrils. . l'> 

Body : 

('ircninli'i't'iicc of liclly 1,8") 

Dislanco between arinpil ami 
Uroin ii. 'Jii 

Tail : 

lloi^lit of tail wliere hinhesl 40 

Breadth of tail where hi)j;h(>st.. . :ir> 

Linihs : 

Fret) portion of ion;;est linger.. . 14 
I'roni elhow *.<) tip of lon<rest 

(in;;er 45 

l'"ree portion of lonf^esl toe U> 

l''roni kneo to tip of longest. to(<. , (iU 
Distance hetween outstretelied 

toes !.!»(» 

lleijjht of body '>! 

Wi.llh t,'» 

TIkt' (^iiu he VitiW tloiiWt tliiit, its ISiiinl has sn;;'^est('(l, this is [Uv. 
Stilinmnnlni lutrphnrith-n of (lii'eii. Tho aii^iihitioii and paUM;(>h>r of 
(he. ••aiithiis rostralis is dcsca-iht'd acuaifati'ly as well as tlie cohn" (tC the 
hody. Tlic hirj^o hirvii, \ iiicluis h>iij>', is only rt-fiTahle to this spcrics. 
')^\\{}. Chonihotus iitkrontomuH, \\\\W\\ llolhrook inid IlaMowtdl have iiii- 
ajjiiiiMl to he. (Irccii's species, is not iiiditrated hyGfeen's des(riiptioii. 
It is not so hiij-c, lias not the eanthns r(»stral;.', thi^ hiiva is very small, 
and the eoloiatioii is (piite dillerent. (lieeii's limine represents it well, 
tlioii<rh \hi' AitihljisloiiKi j('())}:soniiini(mi>u I lie same plate is represented as 
larirer — a relation of size tlui reverse of what nsnally holds in ntitiire. 

Tliis is tlieoidy one of oiir I"]astern salamanders wliitrh ttttempts ^elf- 
defense. It snaps liereely, hiil hai inlessly, and throws its body into (Con- 
tortions //' tcrrontii. It prefers tlie (M)olest ioealities thron<4;lnmt the 
Alle>;liaiiy mountain n',i;ion,from New Vork to Alahama. It isaipnitic, 
bn' jirefers the still waters of swamjis or sprin,i;s to riinnin<^ streams. 
Il is (tomnion in tlie region wlieinH' (Irecii procured it, while C. micro- 
atomus is rare, if e.visliii;; at all. 

ft •• I 



Uiiriiiiipliiliin j>(ivi)hijni\('U8 (ircen. 
liKsr.Kvio s!;i;ii:s. 

> ; » 

(,'.ll;llip-llc .Nil. el' 
Iilllllbil. .-llcf. 



■MH 1 














1 U7:i 




(^iirlisle, I'a 


('iniiiiiiiMhiM uh, I'a 
ruNliiM^li, I'a ... 
M.M.Ivilli', I'a .... 

Ciiliimlms, Olili) 

Cailiilr, I'll 


iMOM, whom .ocivoii. , ^""'i',;; ",'■"•"-'"'• 

1S71 I'liii". S. t". r.aiiil MiiiliDJii-. 

I'lixlilUUJI, I'; 


.1 1)1. .1. (iiirii 

, I'rivf. S V. liairil 

. 1 I'liilcHsiir Williaiiis 

. I'liil'. Il, 1,1'Wiiik'H'Iix 

. i I'liil. S. 1'". liainl 





i;icflii)riiii'.;li, ( i 

LiiiiUiiiit Moiiiilaiii.'l'LMiiii Mar. — , ISSl; : W. II. Vi 

.Allium. iarli, .\. V 

(Jiilaiiibia, S. 

S. I'. liainl , 
K. Samiicl.-i. 


. S. C 

1 !( 

('arli-.!.', I'a. 

1)1-. (iriirijH II. Miiraii, 
r. S. A. 

\M\ ItaiT.'tt 

I'lof. S. !■'. liaird 


j Mi'rtilvillc, I'a I I'rofi'ssor Williaiiia 



|J|)|iiT (iuor};i;i ...I Dr. W. L. JunvH. 

Ill I. 



J- = ' 


>'';jS S 


i'n.riT.I. .\-. S,i. I'liilii., isil'.i, i>..-l(il; Itoiilciij;.-!', fat. IJalr. (iia.l. 
Ill it. Mil .,.m1. II. I-^-.'. p. '■: 

Ton-lie liri- iill iouimI, huli'K.i.l. To.-s l-l. Piiriclal bones o.s.siHc.I, 
iind witlioul roi:tiiii«'ll<'. Piviiiii\ill:iiii'sc(Mi.s,sili(Ml. 

This "iciiiis omIv (lilUTs ridiii S|H'U'riM.'.s in the nlrsi'iicc ol'ii ili;;it IVom 
the ImimI loot, .sliiiulin- Ihiis in the .siiiiie ivlatioii (o it thiit lleiiiMliiet.v- 
Ijiini does to rietho.h.ii. Its t.vpieal speeies was i'oniieil.v jelene.l to lla- 
tiaelio.scps, l>iit, liesides tlie yreat dilVeieiiee in the tongue, the latter 
lias a parietal I'.iitaiielle and laeks the prefrontal hone. The latter 
piiiiit is iiidieated b.v lOseliselioltz in his atlas. In the pre.seiit jicnus that 

bone is pre.sont. 

The, two speeies as vet known have a limited distrilnition. Tliev are 
the smallest Nnitli Ameiiran salamanders. 

They are distiii;;iiislied as follows: 

Tail Hliiiit, comiticsMMl; l.ody .slioilcr I'.V lin^'lli i>l' tcnmi ; lila.k, Niilrw ii;;ii( 

M. n iiiil'tr. 


Tail .sii'inlcr, c.vliiKlrif; ImhIv Ioiujit ; iim/./lf lnnadfr; ullnwi'-Ii. ,i (Inisolalcial 
luown l.aii.1 '^ <iii,i,lri<li;iil,tliix. 













ill' l! 

1 : 


MAN'L' i;i:Miri:i{ vo\n: 

Ki'pt. I'falMiilN Ac.Sali'iii, l"^ i'.t, p. ~l ; li.)iil.iij;(M, Cat. I'.ali. (iiad. Brit. 
MiiH., <(l. II. !"■'•,', p. 7il. 

Ill this small salamaiKler the leii;>tli to tln' foie limlis Mitels that bi'- 
tweeii the limbs but little over twice, iiidieatiiij;' a less slender lonii than 
in the »S'. tiiKdlriilii/ittdiis of eipial size. The head is an eloii,i:ate oval, 
its width enti'i'inj"' tin lenj;tli to tlu^ ;;ioiii nearly seven times. There 
are si.xteeiM'ostal folds, ineliidiii;^ the axillar, and these are eontiniu'd 
upwards to near a median <Ioisa1 ;>:roove. The tiill is deep anti Hat and 
marketl with the liiteial intermitseiilar ;;i'ooves, besides a stionj; median 
f;roov(! above. The latter j;ives way to a low fin on the distal half of 
the tail. 

The limbs aie slunt and weak. The posterior extends lorward o\ t'l' 
si.x jii'ooves iind half an interspace, the anterior ov»'r live and one-half, 
inclndin*;' the axillar. The tinkers an^ slender; tlu^ interior on both 
limbs (;uite short, though (listiiicl. 

The vomerine teeth are in the two usual series, which are more pos- 
teriorly directed thiiii is iisiiai. The paraspheiioid patches cease far be- 
hind the lirst iinntioned, and a' ■ in narrow, very convex biiishes, 
\vlii(th are distinct from each othi'r thioiij;liont their leiij;tli. The ton;,Mie 
is eloiif^ato oval. 

The color is black above and dark brown below; the black extends 
downwards iind nearly meets round tin; uw.k belov . The lower part 

'^^km '^ . 





of tliii si«U>.s of tlic lit'utl, body, aiitl bii.sal tliinl of tail are <l(i8ted fliiu 
wliitu (lots. 

MiiiHiin mi nl». 


Li-ii^th, uxiiil, I'rniii cikI of iini/zlc lo rictus mis nn ;7ri 

I. I'll >r III, axiiil, tVtiiii I'liil tit' iiiii//,lo III ii\illii iiii-<ii 

I.i'iij;lli, iiNiiil, rniiii ('Mil III' III II /./.lo 111 j^ioiii (ivi7 

l.i'ii|;lli, ii\iiii, I'l'iiiii criil til' iiiii/./.li< III I'liil lit' vi'iil II.! 

l,i'li;jlli, lixiiil, r •' t'llil <it'iilil/./.li) In rml nl' lail (l.'iS 

I.i'iifil li 111' riiid 1 1 mil (HiriT'i 

Lili;;lli of I'liii' riinl {»)■' 

l,rii},'lli 111' hi ml limli IK (7 

I,ci|i,Mli iil'liiriil fiiol (M)'^H 

Willi li iit'lii'iiil (MKii 

Wiillli i.riiiiily (lOlJJ 

Willi li i.l'lail UU.> 

Only one. spt'ciiiicii of this Npocit's li:is (Miinr iiimI*t my olisiTvatioii. 
It was I'oiiml liy C .1. Mayiianl, of Sali'iii, .Mass., at .lacksdiivillc, 
Kla., in l"\'l»iiiaiy, l>ii;!>. || Is pit'scrvcil in tliii iiiiist'uni of liic Pea- 
body Aradi'iiiy of Scii'iMM's, wliicii insiitiilion It-nl it to iiic lor dftcrini- 

l''roiii till* t'onn of tlit> lail it is piobalily a more aijiiatic animal than 
its roiijLiriu'r M.^iKiiilriilifiiliilKs, .\\\tl W {\tv s|n'fniH'ii in- an avci'a;:^ ony 
it is not ((iiitc s(» diminiit ivc. 

MANCI'l-l'S (,it AI>i:il)|(;ii'At'fS III. ,1.1.* 

('ii|M-, I'n.iiTil. \i\ I'liihi., I'll',!, |.. im , li..iilrii>;i r, CjI. It.ilr (Jiiiil 
Itiit. Mils., 111. II, I--,', p. "■'.. 

.N'i(/(()ii(i»i//(i l//lll(//'i(^■.(/(^(/||, lli.llii., N. A. Ilrr|.., \, \i, li.".. I'l. '.M. 

JlalriKlioniiis iiiiailriilii/iliilns, Hainl, .li.iini. .\c. I'liila. (•-'), I, |.. '.'-T , .si i:ii((li, Salaiii. 
].. ».".; (irav, Cat. iSalr. ( I'.iil. .Mils., nl. i, \>. \>. 

This inli'i't'stin;;- s|u'(',i('s is amoii.i;' the least, if not tin* very smallest, of 
Ameiieaii salamanders. It is mileh like .S'y>r/rcy>r,v /;/////( (f^(.s- in iieiienil 
aiip<'iiranee, lint is still sleiideier, and with lunger di.s;its. 

I can see nolhiiij;' distiuelive in the head. «'.Keept that the pedieel- 
late tongue is veiy lar;;(', oval, elongated elliptieal, nearly twice as 
loii.i;' as wide, and lilliiiuf the interspace of the lower J iw. The teeth 
appear as in S. hilliittdiis. Tlie head is narrower than in tliis species. 

The body is cylindrical, depre.s.scd, with liftccn costal furrows; a six 
tcLMith would lie in the axilla, lint can mil be traced. The separation of 
the liinlis varies consideralily ; in the lar^^cst specimen the distance from 
snout to a.\illa is contained nearly three and one-half tiiiu's in that to 
j;roiii ; in others hardly .'5 times. 

The tail is slender, subqnadran;;iilar, and lon<,'er tiiaii the rest of tho 

'J'he di,i;its are iein;tlieiied and slender; tho loiifjest to« <!Oiitained 
about two and one half times in the distance from knee to tip. The inner 

• riali"J7, liiis. .-.-7: :!."., li-. I'.>. 

'i i\ 

1 • 


Ill ' 



toe is eiitiivly wamiiiy, without a trace of it beiug lelt. Tliere are thus 
but four (lif^its to each limb. 

W^ ^ ' lA M //) 2 G y 

< 4 3 6 

Fio. 38. JliiiifiilKii iji(ii<tri(li:iil(itiiii. Ni>. 31HI4. AMiivillf, S. C. ; i, [. 

TIk! coloration n'seml)U'.s that (tf S. hiliiicatti. Then^ is a broad red- 
dish or brownisii yellow dorsal stripe from hea«l toeiid «)f tail, bounded 
oil each side I».v a narrow (hirii line extending- from the eve, fadiii''' 
jjiadiially olf below. The sides are closely dotted oi' mottled with 
brownish dots, the dark line leferred to beiii;;- merely a closer ananye- 
iiient of the <lots. The uii ler parts an- whitish in iilcohol, linely mot- 
tled or dottccl like the sides, but less closely :iiid more indistin^Miishably. 
Tlu^ median line of the belly is generally immaculate. Theie is almost 
always a narrow lij^ht line on the sid*- from the fore to hind le,i;s. 

The lifi'ht dorsal stripe is <;»'i:eially nioi«' or less dotted with brownish, 
sometimes with a teinlency to a median strip '. 

In one specimen the sides iirc distinctly ilottecl linely with white. 

This siu'cies was referred to liatrachoseps of lioiiapaile l)y I'lofessor 
r>aird, without probably having seen the ty|>e of the lattt-r, no do'il»t 
on the faith of I5(»naj»aite"s erroneous description of the toiij^ne of the 
same. It is evideid that tht^ two si»ecies oiijiht not to be re;;arded as 
coiif>eneric, since the /»'. tUtniuiiins turns out to be more neai ly alliccl 
to Ilemidactylium than to Spelerpcs. 

The known raiij^c of this, one of the smallesl of land Vi-rtebratt's, is 
from middle North Carolina to the border of Texas, includinj; I-'lorida. 

Mni.fiiniiii Ills, ill iiihiK. 

L('ii;^tli, iiii'ii.iiiiril ,'iliiij;; axis iil' ilrail (.'mil iiiiii'd : 

'•<'<l\ : IHstiilicf lii'lwi'i'iii'Vt'.saiili'i'iiii l\ (i;( 
t'lOlll hlKHlt IOKi<l"' " Mmlv : ('irilllllfrlTIK (Iicily (.1 

from sunlit to ^riilail'itltl v'.'! I'ajl: 

I'loiii ,si t to al'iiipit Ill llii;;lit of tail \\ licic .. .1.". 

I'roiii Mioilt lo Mioiii 1. IT liiiadlh "!' tail w lii:iln >| . . | | 

!''.'i>iii MMiiil to licliiiii) anus . . . . 1. |ii l,iiiili>: 

i'rulll sliolll lo (11(1 of till It. ISO I'nc |Hir| ioli o|' |oil^( SI llll;;cr.. .Il.'i 

'liiil I.i>l> from clliow to tip (>r |oii;;( >| 

"•'■■I'l: liii^'ci l,s 

Widlh oDicad ]>; \,,i- |ioilioii of l,irii;cs| toe 0- 

Widlli (if loii;,Mic Ill I 'mm km c to ti|i ol' loii;;( >l toe. .'S.\ 

l.cii^'th oftoii^ilc 1.1 , Iti.staiicc liclwccii oiit.stich lied 

l.t'ii^'tli ofoiliit .(»;: ' ti>«H ;•,< 



CataliidiH^' No. of 

lllllllllUI'. H\)Vf. 


AlanciihiH qiKnlridiijitiitnH llolhr. 




l.-r<.>n who,,, r.HWve.l. Nat,.ro of spec 

03;i7 I :i MninU'vilK', La Nov. 2,1870 (i. Kuhii 

;isiit 7 Iticfhordiiyh, (ill (') 

XSii7 U (!) 

.■I!tu4 1 Al.hcvilh", .S.C, I'loC. S. K. Bairil , 

KiiiMtoi,, X. (J .f. W. Mihic,' 




SrKLEIJPES Katinosque. 

Atlantic Journal, i, p. 2i, 18^'i. 

SinlciiicK (iiiiy, Cat. Hut. Mils. KM, l.l; Co\w, rritcui'tl. Ac. Thila., IdliO, p. 101; 

Itoiilcmr, Cal. IJatr. (irail. Urit. Mns., cd. u, I-8-i, p. (lO. 
Cjllindrosoma TMcliiKli, \at. IJatracliitT Ncncliatcl, lH:iH. 
('nHiKlroiiiiiiKi il llolitonlonsa pars Diiint^ril, Krp. (J(^n., ix. 
Sptliriws il I'll iidolrilon IS.iinl, .lourn. Ac. Nat. .Sci., i ; Ilallowell, 1. c, iv. 

The toiijiuc iVi'c, oxcopt at tho yios.soliyal .siii)[)ort. Pivlatino and 
jiaiictal hones fully ossilicd; pronia.xillarics coiisolidatotl, and their 
s|>ine.s enibracinf; a lonlanclli'. Toi'th small. Toes 4-5. 

Tliis i.s a natural ^cnu.s, and i.s abundantly represented by individ- 
nal.s in the eastern di.stiiet of the nearetie realm, and the Mexican of 
the Its di;;ital characters oidy distinsnish it from !\raii- 
eidns, and some of the .Mexican species approach that genus in the 
great reduction of the inner digit, which ri'snlts from a diminution in 
the nundter of phalanges. The cdiisolidation of the premaxillarie.s — a 
marked t'liaracter — appears very early in the developmental history of 
such of the species as I hav*' i)een able to study {S. niba; S. bilincatus). 
The .Mexican siiecies pass their me(amori> soonest; then such us 
S. hilin(atii.s, and the S. ruber remains longest a larva. 

The characte.s of lune species of Spelerpes are given in the follow- 
ing table. 1 know of none otliers, tliinUing that the genera (Ediims, 
(I'Mipina, and (leotriton should l»e maintained as distinct. Of these 
species four only inhabit the ju'arc^tic realm, and five are found in the 
Tieira Teinplada of Mexico, on the eastern .side of the plateau. The 
nearcti(! specii s are all conlined to the ei'.steru region, the genus differ- 
ing in its range from IMethodon in not extending to the Pacific region. 

The largest species of the Spelerpes is the S. bcUii of Mexico, which 
among salaman 'ers is only exceeded in dimensions by the Ckonilrotiis 
ttiirbro.sits. The largest species of North America is the -S'. ruber. The 
species of this genus display more brilliant colors than any other of the 
family, yellow and red l>eing the usual ones. 

I. \'()iii( line tcctli nut conl iiiiicd liatk to itarasplicniiid jiatchct, cxtouded outwardly 
l>i'yoi,d nail's, 
ri. Costal t'olils I l-l'i; tail cylimliic ; inner toes rndiincntal. 

riii'a> I','; cxlrcinilii's of inner toes free ; ot hers short, thick, suhociiial ; a 
eanilins lostralis; iiiii/./.le triiiKMie; vomerine series in (umtact ; lead-col- 
or<t(l, iiHu.illy with I wo dorsal series of red spots; larj^est S. hiUii. 

iu:)i— I'.iiii. 34 — 11 

I I 


riicii* I'i ; imiov tao and Joint distinct, otlior toes well developed, cylindric; 
width head 5 to(> times, and h-nj^th liead to axilhi, "2.5 to 3 limes, to gri>in ; 
tail yeneially more eloufjato ; bhiek ; sides, tail, and often back, gray 

varied; larger *'• lepioaiix. 

PlicH) 11 ; inner too not distinct; otiier toes very sliort, margined ; width of 
liead li, to axilla, 1.3 to groin ; tail short; black, unspotted ; medium. 

S. repliulicHg. 
II. Vomerine teeth not continued posteriorly to the psirasphenoid patches, uor exte- 
riorly to beyond the nares. 
rt. Tail round; costal grooves 11-1-'; inner toes rudimental. 

Plieie 11 (without ingiiiual) ; width of head 1..'>; length to axilla 'if' times in 
length to groin ; tail rather short ; toes very short ; upper lip more or lees 

truncate ,um1 angulate S. chiropltrnfi. 

an. Tail siibronud; costa' grooves -il ; inner toes minute. 

Width of head near one-seventh, length to axilla .M of length to groin ; limbs 
short ; tail thick at base; brown, with a dark lateral baml on each side; 

small *'■ inHlt'q>licntiig. 

txim. Tail compressed ; costal grooves 13-lJ ; inner toes distinct. 

Plica- usually 14; width of head less than one-sixth to groin ; head to axilla 
well over .33 (d'tlie same; body longer, tail not keeled above jiroxinially, 
comparatively short ; \omerine series turned iddi<inely biickwards; yel- 
low, with two latero-dorsal black bands; tail dark laterally ; belly yel- 
low, immaculate ; small .v. liUiiicaliii*, 

Plica', 13; width of hcail eipial one-sixth length to groin; muzzle to axilla 
more than one-third the same; t.'iil long-keeled above; yellow, nides 
many black-spotted, a median dorsal aeries of spots; tail yellow, black- 

barred; belly innnacniate; larger a. l<ni;ii<(iii(liis. 

Plica- 13; width of head gn-ater than (uie-sixth length to groin; from 
muzzle to axilla considerably ni(U(- than .33 h-nglh to groin : tail buig- 
keeled abr>v<-; yellow, with three black b.iuds; tail black, yellow-barred ; 

belly motth'tl ; larger .s', (iiilli>liiiialii». 

III. Vomtu'ine series of teeth <'ontiiinoMs posteriorly with the parasphenoid brnshi-s, 
and original ing behind n.ires. 

Costal i)licie 1.'>-1(I; head widi-, not more than seven times to groin, not 
more than twice to axilla : no canthns rostralis; t.iii :■■—:;, h-d at l»ase, 
not tinned; laige ; v(-rmili<ui red, black or brown spotted *', ruber. 


Proc. Ac. Phila., IHOD, p. KK!; Houlenger, Cat. 13atr. (Jrad. Hrit. .Mus., ed. 
II, l-'H-i, p. r.r. 

Tins siiiiill .spo(;i»'.s resembles in general i>io|»ortion.s Unnitlarti/lium 
scntdfnm. It is well eliafatteiized in tlii.s ifvum by its imineroii.s co.stal 
plica- and tliittkeiuMl, .siMiecly coiiipre.ssed tail. 

The width of the head enters the lenj^th to the jjroin (I.Tfj times; the 
length to axilla enters thiice. The hind limb, extended, six iu- 
terval.s from the gioin ; the foot is wide and tlio toes short, especially 
the inner and outer; the inner has .i one minute Joint free. The 
.same iiiiiy be said of the anterior di',.,s. 'I'he tail is tiompro.s.sed a little 
and eonsiderably tliiekened; in the smidlest specimen the terminal .75 
above and ..'W below are keeled; in others the superior keel is more 

^ i 



^ . 




Upper lip inodtTiitrly tniiiciiti', with iiilVauiiroal iuiglos, and in one, 
rmliniental (5ini. The innz/le is rather thiek and slioit, the head Hat; 
in one snniUer spt'cinien the former is a litth^ loiifrer than in the others 
ami the width of the iiead rehitivcly less. Tiio vomerine teeth form 
sliort series, each rather suchlenly bent haekwards; the pterygoid two 
narrow patches not approaching the vomerines, the rehitions in this 
respect being as in »V. hiliiwdtus. 

Tiie eoh)r in ftmr specimens is an nnspotted brown, the inferior sur- 
faces paler, especially the gnlar region. In the smaller specimen above 
mentioned, which seems to constitute a variety, the brown color forms 
a broa«l dorsal band with dark j)oints; the sides are of u i)inkish gray, 
aiul the uuder surfaces light yellow. 

6 7 

4 3 5 

VUi. :;0. Sjirlrriirs iiiiiUifliidtiiK. Xo. JOIIS. V\vt\ llivcr. Alk. ; f, t- 

Miii-iiiniiiriils of tin htvijvxl xjnr'iiniH on the rM'iv of llu: body. 


Lfiiy;tli fioiii mii/./lc to (iiliil O.'i 

l/cMijj;lli from mii//.li' to riitiis }•> 

l..'iij;tli iVtiiii iimz/li- t(i axilla l','."! 

l^fii;{th I'll (111 iiiil//l(' III j;roill I. ;">:{ 

I.i'iij^lli riiim 111 II //li' to CI 1(1 (if tail ;\.'-i\ 

ij'iijilli 111" Ion; iiiiili M.V.i 

l.fiij;tli of I'oK -loot OS 

I. distil of liiiul liiiili *,';» 

l,iii}r)ii of iiiiid loot i:{:j 

Width of licail at aiiti'iior aii;;I(' orliits. 1 

Willi h of Ilea. I at rictus -22 

Width of liody at- .sacriiiii i.^ 

The form of this species woidd iiidi<;ate it to be terrestrial in its hab- 
its. Of its geograi»Iiical range we have as yet little information, except 
that it belongs to tiie southern central region of the <!ontineiit. Profes- 
sor Cragin sent me a specimen which was taken in southern Kansas, 
and tlie types wei«' fcuind as below stated. 

No, |(K5S; ."» specimens; Ked Hiver, Arkansas; Dr. L. A. Edwards. 

SI'KM'.Kl'KS i'.ii.INKArrs (iiccii.* 

Hiiiiil, .foiiiM. Ac. riiila.CJ), i, p. 'J-T : ('ope. I'roc. Ac. I'liila., l^ii'.», p. 107; 
Siiaiic!\, Saiam., p. ^J ; Cope. .Viiicr. Nat. i\, p. I(tl ; (i ray, Cat. ISalr. 
»iiad. Urit. Mils., cd. I. p. II : il.iilow.di. .lomn. Ac. IMiila. ('.'), IV, 
p. :!lii: Koiili ii'^i r, It.ilr. (iraij. ISrii. Mils., cd. II, l-SJ, \>. Ci!!. 

SuliiiiiiiiKlra hiliiicditi (Jrccii, .foiirii. Ac. IMiila.. I. p. '.'Wi; Molhr., \. A. Itcip., v, p. r>5, 
I'i. 1(1 •, lie Ka.v, N. V. I'aiiii. l.'-pl . p. 7'.t, I'l. -J;!, li-, C.T. 

• riaic 'i'*, !!;;«. I-C.. 



' , 





Salamandid Jitirhslmu Ilarlaii, Aiiii'V. .lourii., lf''i<l, p. 'JS(;. 

Sitlanuindm \irri<jmi (Jivoii, J.miii. Ac. I'liilii., iv, p. 'iM; Holbr., /. c, p. 5:J, PI, 15. 

Spvkrpes ciniijous Bainl, /. c. ; Stiiiucli, /. r. ; Ciiay, fat. Jlatr. Gnul. Brit. Miis., cd. 

I, p. 41. 
IloUtoijIomi bilhuata Diiiii. &. IJibr., p. 1)1. 

In desciibinj,' this species I have selected specimens IVoni New Jersey 
as inostliivc the type of Dr. (Jreeii from the same State. These are 
before nie, but are in rather indilVerent preservation. 

The general characters of the gronp as described under ^'. huyicauda 
apply equally here. The chief differences of form appear (o consist in 
SI rather narrower head, a more elongate body, and perhaps i»ropor- 
tionally more slender digits. There are usually fourteen costal furrows 
between the limbs; a lifteentli falling over the in.sertion of the forelegs, 
and in some specimens possibly in the axilla. The distance from snout 
to axilla is contained about 2n times in that to the groin. 

There is only a slight obtuseness of the lip on each side of the muzzle 
to represent the cirrous ai)pendage of the larva, which is sometimes 
persistent, thus presenting the characters of the suppo.sed species tS. 

This s])ecies is of a clear yellow; the back with a tinge of brown on 
it, and this bordered on each side by ;i dark-brown line; sometimes 
very continuous, sometimes slightly broken here and there, beginning 
at the eye ; sometimes at the muzzle and running through the eye. 

The space between the lines is finely spriidiled with brown or black, 
sometimes only appreciable under a lens, sometimes more distinct. In 
most specimens the larger spots are aggregated into a narrow nie«lian 
or dorsal scries extending to the tail; the spots on the line sometimes 
partially or entirely continent. The under parts are always entirely 
immaculate citron yellow. The sides aie very minutely dotted with 
blackish below the lateral stripe; in nearly all the si>ecimens from 
Orange only distinguishable under the lens, and impaiting a slight 
dusky shade. The amount of dotting here on the side is scarcely 
greater than that on the back. 

'ii perhaps the greater nund>erof specimens the mottling of the sides 
is „reater than as described, making a broad lateial band, .sometimes 
fading giadnally out of the dorsal surface, ami fading out along the 
belly, sometimes leaving the lower edge of the dorsal stripe well 
marked; occasiomdiy the whole sides are almost as dark as the lateral 
stripe. There is a row of pores on the upper part of the sides, one to 
each intersitace between the costal furrows. show in the «lusky 
sides as a line of whitish spots, as tliey «lo in *S'. (jutlolincnta. This may 
be owing in both either to the transparency of the epider«nis or to the 
actual presence of spots of white around these pores. 

This species bears a resemblancse to ncsm<>(fn<Ulius orlnophaa in 
some of its conditions of coloration. Tiie latter may be always «lis- 
tinguished independently of the generic characters, by the broad light, 

















fjoiierally thirk bonU'rcd lino wliich p.i.sses iVoin the eye posteriorly 
obliquely tobeliiiul the iuigle of the jaws; iiiul by the absence of yellow 
on the belly. 

In the large series of specimens before mo are some specimens (4735) 
from the vicinity of Lake Oqnassa, which ajipear distinct from any 
others in the collection. They have more the general appearance of 
Desmognathns, though truly Spelerpes. The muzzle is rather longer 
and considerably higher at the end; the protuberance of the lip on the 
side of muzzle larger. The side of the head anterior to the eyes is 
much pitted with pores, scarcely appreciable in the others. The colors 
are darker; the dorsal stripe browner; and the mottling of the sides en- 
croaches on the belly. The chin is quite consi)icuously mottled. Tiiese 
<liirerent;es mark a variety which Baird reconls in his MS. under the 
name of /S'. h. borealis. 

A few specimens have but thirteen costal folds, and one from Georgia 
(4737) has that number on one side and fourteen on the other. Those with 
the fewer plic;e have usually shorter bodies. This is particularly the 
case with three specimens (374S) from (leorgia, where the width of the 
head enters the length to the groin but little over five times. The sides 
are in this variety dusky, with a series of white puncta below the lat- 
eral band. The dorsiil region and top of the head are abundantly punc- 
tate; sides of tail uniform black; belly immaculate. This variety con- 
nects with the S. bilinvnt<i,\\ni Sahxmnndracirrifiet'a of Green. The fol- 
lowing description is taken from Green's type in the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution (No. 4743). 

The head is depressed and anterior to the eyes. The sides, instead 
of tapering to a truncated muzzle, are nearly parallel to the truncate but 
rounded muzzle. This squareness is produced by the development of 
the protuberances of the upper lips on each side the muzzle, which, al- 
though partially indicated in other species, here attain their maximum 
of growth, becoming cirri, which are cylindrical and a little knobbed 
at the ends, extending downwards past the lower jaw. They are about 
as long as the outer linger, or .05 of an inch in length. The appearance 
presentiMl is not uidike that of tlie muzzle of a walrus or morse. The 
narrow groove extending from the outer edge of the external nares 
passes all the way down the antero «'xternal surface of the cirri. 

There are but thirteen costal grooves, including an indistinct one in the 
groin. A fourteenth, if present, would fall above the insertion of the 
fore leg. The «listan(!e from muzzle to axilla is contained oidy about 
two and a half tinu>s in that to the groin. 

The tail, as in other species, is slender and compressed, longer than 
the rest of the animal. 

The digits an; unusually long and very slender, considerably longer 
than in var. S. h. hilini'dtiis. Tlu' limbs are also well developed. 

Tliecohu' is \\\\u:\i the same as in s. h. hiliticatns — yellowish, with a well, 
detlned line of bla(;k on each side the back, tlu; intermediate si)ace 


! I 

I p 


(lotted with nitlu'r hw^v iiiid distinct spots of bliicUisli witlioiit dolinito 
arniii^'i'iiK'iit. Tlio sidi-s iiic ohsciiici.v iniirblcd with dusky. The uii. 
der parts iii)pL'ar to be iiiimacidalo, oxcepl some indistinct nuubling on 

the cliin. 

Althon^di tlie form wiiidi presents this sin^^idar eliaraeter is not typ- 
ical of the species, 1 do not consider it to lie referable to any other. 

IJesides the original two specimens of (Ireeii, I have seen threeothers 
bearinff cirri, which 1 took with two noncirrigerous ones on the slope of 
tlie IMack Mountiiins of Nortli Carolina. These specimens are otherwise 
of typicid ciiaracter. 

Tlie cirrus is a larval character retained, which, were it peinianenr, 
wouhl be of ;>eneric value; but it is not so, and in this case an individ- 
ual feature only. The same peculiarity I have observe<l in two speci- 
men; of S. chirnplcrKs sent by Sumichrast from Mexico, and in speei- 
nuMis of S. lotiijicnwUis and S. (jiiltolinv(itiis I'roni the I'nited States. 
The other charai^ters of this variety, thonjih marked, are nn)ddied in 
various intermediate dejjrees in individuals from various, especially 
southern, localities. The form of the tail is Just as in the typii-al variety, 
though Ilolbrook has stat«-d them to diller. 

This species is very al)undant in Tennsylvania, and exteinls its range^ 
with decreasing nund)ers, to iMaine. It differs in its habits from the 
.V. Umgicnndus in being to a great extent a water animal, and less fre- 
quently found under bark and stones. It is oidy in shallow, stony 
brooks that it occurs, however, and ciin not be called a<piatic in the 
serse in which the Tritons are. It is very active, and wriggles and 
runs from the jiursuer in thesanienninner as, and generally in company 
with, the Ih'smognathm fiisca. It is one of those species whose meta- 
morphoses arc prolonged and which remains in the larval state until 
nearly grown. 

This species appears to be the one to which must be referred the 





^•v t\ 

Fii;.40. Spdi-rjicghiUinatiiiiCiTc^'n. No. tl.W. (ilinicistiT, Mit. Twiin natural kIzo. 

Specimens named by IIoll)rook, S(ihiman<hali((l(l(m(iiii,\\\nrh came from 
Pennsylvania. The yellow-belly and distributed dorsal spots resemble 
varieties of this species rather than an v other. 

*% 4 




T T 

*% s 


McatiitrvHU'HiH of Xo. HD'JI, in invhrg. 


Litn^tli, iiiciiHiireil aloii^jaxlHof body : 

Fritiii .snout to^api* I'i 

From Hiioiit to ^iiliir t'uld !ill 

From Hiioiit to ai'iii]>it 47 

From snout to unun l.W 

From snout to IxOiiiMl anus l.r)U 

From snout to t-nil of tail :<. ID 

Tail I.(i0 

I lead- 

Width olli.'ad 

Lfn<;tli oCorliil 

Distance bi'twot''s ant fiiculy 
Distance lu'twecii outer nostrils 

Hody : 

Cireuniferencu of belly 


IJody — Continued. 

Distance between armitit and 



Heij;ht of tail where highest... 
Breadth of tail wln-re highest.. 
Limbs : 

Free portion of longest tiiigor.. 
From elbow to tip of longest 


Free jiortion of longest too 

From knee to tip of longest too. 

Distance between outstretched 





7fi 1 

MiiiHinvmeiits of Xo. 47;M, hi iiwhen. 

Length, measured alongaxisof liody : 

From snout to gape Iv! 

From snout to giilar fold 'i'J 

From snout to armpit '!'> 

From snout to groin 1. ttH 

From snout to behind anus .... 1 


Fr(un snout to end of tail 'i 


Tail 1 


Head : 

Width <.f bead 


Length of orbit 


Distance bet ween eves anterior! V 


Hoily : Circumference! of belly 

Tail : Height of tail where highest. 
Limbs : 

Free portion of longest linger.. 

Fioni elbow to tip of longest 

Free portion of longest toe 

From knee to tip of longest toe. 

Distance between outstr«'tched 





. 25 


SpeUrjtfs bilhieatiiii (Jreen, 


Nil. ol 






















t'liiiii wlioin lecoivoil. 

Nature of Hpcci- 



WcsliTII 1'fMIlS> IViUliil. . 

( 'iiii'iiiiiati. Oliio 


Dr. .1. <irfi'ii 

.1. X. 11. Sc.iiliiiniiiKli . .. 

AIi'oli(ili,i type, 

.'17 IS 

M.M.lvilli', I'a 


Dr.r. II. Ilraii 

.1. ll.Damll 

I'icil. S. 1'. Uainl 





\V(st|niil, N. V 

iCssc^ Cninily, \. V 

('uliLiiiliiis. I'a 

Ki('rlHMoii;:li. (la 








Mcadvlll,,, I'a 

Mi<aiiii|(V. I''la 

Milli'il;;rvilln, (ia 

Cuili^lr, I'a 

(Nixiarlvic, N. V 

(,'iiHiiuiali. Ohio 

(iaii isoii'«, N. V 

Aulilll 11, Me 


.i"iui«'', "info 




Williiiiiis. ............. 






Kuiiilii'ii \ ISraii 

I' .S. K. liaiiil 




.1, X. 15. Si'aili,ii'iiii;;li . .. 



ti.l'. Mfirill 

.. . ,1,1 












.M.lM'vill.. S. (• 

Waxjiiii^tiin. I). (; 

Ma.lii.l. \. V 

( itlMK'r.^tt'r, Mil 






.r. It. Hairatt 

( tfiii );,< Sli,ifiiiakcr 




1)1. Ua^lll^ 



Allllrvillc. .s. »: 

\Viliiiiii"l(.ii, l>tl 





I : 

1: » 'I 

! '] 





KIS m'MJiTiN :!i, i:niti:i) statks national mcsimm. 

SjuhriKx bUiiiinliiH (irccii— t'oiiliiim<I. 



X.I. of 




l''rciiii wlmiii ifci'ivi'il. 
























Ni.liolH. X. V 

Mrmlilli l!ricl;;<', N'- H.. 

Gloncivsirr. Va — 

Clarkr (,'oiiiitv, Va 

('lllllIllllllS. dlli" 

Salriii, N.C 

t'|i)Mi JaiiH'S Kivi 
Aiiilcisdii. S. (' — 
Alilirvillr. S. C ... 


Kaciiic, ^Vi^^ 

I!. TIi.wMl 

S. V. r.airil 

l!rv. r. Mann 

{'. I!. IJ. Krniw'ily. 

I,. I.ciijnricnx 

.1. '!'. I.ini'liaik 

S. 1'. iiaitd 

Mm. l>ani<l 

Itr. ,1. P.. llanall.. 
Dr. \V. I, Jcinc.s .. 

I)r. Kiillanil 

K. Ki nnicolt 

Natiiir <it'.s|it«'i- 


Var.BoREALls.— No. tT.Tj; nincsiK'. • .'ii.s Kviii-ha^ro Lak(',Uqii:i.ssa, 
Mo., 185L'; Dr. C. (Jirard; alcoliolic. 

Form CiRUlflEKA.— No. 47.34; twosiH'cinuMi.s; Soiitlioni States (La.f); 
Br. F. Baclio; alcoliolic. 

.Sl'KLKUrivS LONGlCAUnrS Grooii. 

(I'lati ■lr;\\'^^. l-;t; \\\ lij;. 11.) 

Baird, .lourn. Ar. I'liila. (J) i, p. '2-^7: ('^^\,w, I'mc. Ac I'liila,, IHii'.t, p. 107; 
StriUicli, .Siilaiii., p. ri-,>; dray, Cat. Ualr. (Irail. Hiil. .Mum., t-d. i, p. i:?; 
JIallowi'll, .Journ. Ac. I'liila., IV, p. :tir.; I{i>iik'iio,.r, Cat. ISatr. (iiad. 
Ihit. MllH.,t>tl. II, l■^^\.^ II. liJ. 

Salamamha loiigiraiKht (irccii. Jmirii. Ac. I'liila.. i. p. ;!.'il : li.illir., N. A. Ilcrp., v, p. 

Cil, ri. lit: iv Kay, N. V. Kami.. Kept.. 1>. T-. I'l. 17, li;;. 11. 
Spcln-jwn liinfmjn Kaliii., Atlaiit. .I.iiini. i. 1-:W, p. ti (liile Hainl). 
Ci/Undrosiimd loiiijiciiii(lii 'I'scliiidi, Mali'., |i. 'Xi. 
CyliiKh-osoma hniijiiitiuhxtiim Dmii. iV liilir., p. 7>. 

This .species i.s .sU'iKlt'r and i'loii};ato(l; (lie head llalteiied and iiiiudi 
depressed; the body depies.sed; the tail compressed troni the hase, and 
considerably loii{;er than the rest of the animal. 

The surface of the skin, thoii^di smooth, shows everywhere shallow 
pits under the niicro.scope, and closely a;;<;lomeratcd granules, the ends 
of glands, which probably secrete a milky Juice. 1 have not made out 
any satisfactory indications of itatclies of pores on (op of the head, 
althoiijjh (hen^ are .some on the chin. 

The head is liattened, tlioii;;li not wedj;e-sliaped, qiiile jdaiie above, and 
twice as wide as dee]). It is longer (liaii wide, the n|»i>er Jaw overlapping 
the lower, especially anteriorly; the ninz/le is triangular, broadly trim, 
cated anteriorly. There is a slij^ht swellin;,^ in the upper lip on each .sitlo 
of the muzzle, impar(iii}j^ an eniar^finated or (loncavc appear.ince (o the 
front view of the month, and a concavity to (he lateral outline, wliicdi 
liosteriorly i»as.scs into a conve.K curv«'. There is a sli}.;ht narrowing; of 
the lower jaw (o (it into the eiiiar<;ination Just referred (o. 

The ton;;iie is elliptical, rather lonj;-er (ban wide, inserted on tho up- 
perpartof thee.\(remity of a jirotractile pedecil; it has no other attacli- 
meut whatever. The palatine teeth form a short arc which bejfins bo- 


\ I 





1 (JJ) 



« t 

hind iiiid on a line with the innor boitU'r of inner naivs, and cnrxcs in- 
WiU'ds and bactkwards for a short tlistanci'. The parasplionoid ti'cth 
begin ashort distance bohind their termination (witii a decided interval, 
ho\V(r\er), and lorni in patdies, in contact aloii<j the median line. 

The body is eh)n;,'ated, the distance from snout to axillacontaincd L'ij 
times in that to the groin. There arc twelve lateral costal grooves; the 
posterior biliir(!ated above and anterior to the groin. I C the fin row here 
be counted there would be thirteen grooves. The anterior is one inter- 
s])aee distant from the axilla. 

The tail is very long, generally \\ times longer than the rest of the 
animal. It is much compressed from the base to the much-attenuated 
tip, but IS nowhere as high as the body. 

Tiie liud)s are nui(;h developed; the digits lengthened, narrow, linear, 
cylindrical, tlepressed, and swollen slightly into bulbs at the ends. 
There is no basal connecrting membraiu'. The third and fourth toes are 
longest, the latter perha|>s longer of the two; the second and lifth are 
nearly ecpial. Tin? first linger and toe arc very short, though not rudi- 


4 5 

Tir.. 41 f!j„irriii:i liniiiirn'idin. Xii, luS.'i 

Lanoaslrr, Oliio; J. 

The ground color of this species is of a clear bright yellow, paler bc- 
iH'atii, the ba<!k an«l sides irregidarly spiiidded with black specrks look- 
ing like grains of rather coarse gun|)()wder. These are generally (but 
not always) more lliickly crowded along the sides, sonu'times almost 
forming a distinct spotted band on the sides of the tail; these black 
si)ots are generally aggregated into a series of vertical baiuls. In 
younger sjK'cimens, an<l many older ones, the sjwts above are arranged 
in three rather irregular lim's, one me<lian and two lateral larger ones. 
TIh' muzzle and entire under parts are immactulate. 

In old individuals there is sonu'times a suHuslon of reddish-brown 
among tlu', spots on the sides, obsc-nring their outlines. The shade of 
yellow varies sometimes to a reddish tinge. Sometimes the black s^iots 
on the siib's are arranged in a Komewhat reticulated manner. 

This beautil!!! animal is not very active in its habits, and is almost 
always found h\ rocky ground ami in lissures and caves in clitl's. I 
have lu'ver seen it in the water. It was di'scribed by Katlnesipie from 
a specimen from a cavern in Kentucky. Its distribution is thnuighout 
the middle latitudes, rather rei>resenting the IS. ynttoUneatus of the far 
Scmthern States. 

1 have recorded a specinu'ii of this speciies from Tennessee (Anierican 
Naturalist, IS71, p. KM), in which the b;dancers were persistent, as in 
the cirrigera form of ISi>dcrpvs hilin(ahi.s. 

. ;' 

170 lU'M.KTlN :M, UNITKI) SI'ATKS national Ml/SKIIM. 

'< 4 

Lenj{tli,iiii'!iNiiii'tl aloii}; axis of Ixidy : 

Fitmi snout t<i ni\\»' 

Kniiii Niioitt to pillar fold 

l-'roMi Niioiit to ariiijiit 

From snout to ^loin 

From NMout to lirhiinl anus 

From bnout to end ol' tail 



Widthofheud '•^■^ 

Width of tongnc 

Lcn^lli of ton^Mc 

Ii<'n;;th of orbit 

Distance ln-f wei-n onter nostrils 
Distauco liotvvucn inner nostrils 

MftiHiiirinoiil'i of \o. :I7H'', (" iiirhix, 
Modv : 

(inunifcri'ncr of lirlly I. 10 

l)istatir(^ lii'twt'cii arnijiit and 
;;i(>in !.;(.'> 


j|ii;;lil (if tail wlirrr Iii;;lifst .. . . 'J.'i 
Itiradtli of tail wliiTi' lii;;lit'st .. . I!» 


Fret' jiortion of lon<;f'st linp'r .. .11 
From elliiiw to li|» of lon^jrst 

linger W 

I'rrr port ion of loily;i'st tof l,"t 

I'rom kni'c to tip of loiiy;cHl toe .U\ 
Instance lii'twi'cn oiitstrt'trjn'd 

toes 1. (iri 

















SjuUriua loHtjlvtiiiiliin (irccn. 


No. (if 









882 1 









3 1 















Colll'ltKl. Ni't'";'' «'/ .-I'fci 

(Miuiimnli, Oliio i .1. N. H S. nilMiii.iiyli. . 

CiiliiMiliiis. Oliiii -- 

Mfii.lvillf. I'a : Williams 

»'iiiiliiiiali,()liiii ! ■!. N H Siatli(pn>iif;li. . 

I'niciii ('iiiiiitj', Tciiii . . 

Aii^iisla. (tit 

l''iaiil<liii ('iiiintv, 'i'l'lili 

I'ltlHltiiruli. I'a ' 

I.uni'astcr. Uliici 

Cailisl.'. I'a 

W.vllifvilli-, Va 

(-'arliili', I'a 

Ili^lilaiid roiiiil.v, Oliiii 

.. llo 

William l'liill'|iH 

.1. N. I'l. Si ailMiH)ii;;li 

I'liiC'tscir l.iMiinciciix . 

I>h.'i Cnl M. Mil) till. 

1H1!» 1 S. I". I'.aliil 

' Malllii'ws 

Wi'.Mt Noillillilil, III ...I K. Krmilciill 

Sciiitlii'iii lllimiis ! ilii 

Wanliiiintoii, 1>. <; I Dr. K. K. (iiUt 



Biiird, .Tonrn. Ar. Pliila. (2), I, p. l-W ; Coiie, I'ror. Ac I'liila., ISC,;), p. 
107; Straiicli, Salani., j). S-,»; (iray, Cat. M.ilr. ( Itril. Mas., rd. i, 
p. 45; Hallow., .Fonrn. Ac IMiila., iv, Itlli; ll'inli iigi r. Cat. Katr. 
Orad. Urit. Mas., t-d. ir, 1S8-J, p. 115. 

SalamnndraijidloIiiiKita llollir,, N. A. ]l<rp., v, i>. '2!t, 1*1. 7. 
CiiliiKhonoma iiiitloHiicaliim Dum. iV liilir., p. 7'.i. 

This si)ecio.s in its gouoral proportions, sliiipc, vlv., is vriy similar to 
S. lonf/icitiiihis. It appears to be latiu'r stout*'!', and tin; licad ii little 
l>roatk'r. The eyes tire hirfjcr, tiie tocsshortei', 4'tc. Tiic protnbcranreH 
of the upper lip are ratlier hirf,'er, whi(;h }j;i\es a more einarfiinated out- 
line to t lie Jaw when viewed from before. 

There tire thirteen well-marked costal ;,Mooves, a fomteeiith falliiifj 
just iibove the insertion of the arm. The most posterior falls in tho 

This species is of a brownish-yellow above, bejiinniii',' id the muzzle, 
includiiif; the upper eyelids and e.xtendin;,' to the tip of the tail. On 
the back it occupies nearly one-third the circumference of the body. It 




« k 


T "^ ' 





is (lividtMl (H'liti'iill.v l).v a loii^Mtuiliiial ilark lirowii line, b('<;iiiniti<; as a 
few (luts, oil the t(ii> of tlu> licai], tlit-ii uniting; into a (Mtntiiiiioiis stripe, 
which vxtciids to the riitni>, and is a littk; iiairower than, or about e(|iial 
to, the two li}>ht stiipos into wliich it diviihs tliu color of the back. 
Tim lij^ht dorsal stripe is bordered on each side by a continuous dark 
stripe well delined on the upper ed}je. The under parts are .vellowisli 
in alcohol, distinctly mottled or veriiiiculated with brown in about 
e(|ual proportions. In tlu^ present specimen there is no distinct li^ht 
line below the brown of the sides, which breaks up gradually below, 
passiii}^ into the reticulation described. There is a sinjjle light spot in 
the darkest part of the sides, one to each intercostal section. The sides 
of the tail are dark brown, with vertical light bars analogous with the 
white spots just described. 

In other spe«'iniens the dark brown which bonlers the yellowish of 
tli(^ back is sharply defituMi on its lower margin, also forming a con- 
tinuous line of variable diameter, with a series of white spots, one to 
eacth space, between tli(> costal furrows. ISelow this iigaiii is another 
contimious, quite well-delined light stripe, after which succeeds the 
inottling descriiietl. In this casii then' are three black stripes, om> 
median dorsal, and two lateral; and four light stri|u>s, two mtMlJan,of a 
brownish-yellow color, and two lateral, whitish in alcohol. 

The comparison of form has already been made with «S'. loiifiictiuthis. 
The color dilfers essentially in tlic vi'riiiiciilation, with l»rown beneath, 
instead of being p«'rfec(ly immaculate. If the varieties ofN. Iinii/icainhtu 
having Ihrei^ series <»f (basal dots hail these united iut«» eonliniiouH 
stripes there would W some resemblamu' to the present species. Such 
is, however, never the case. The tail, instead of being yellow, with 
narrow vertical dark lines, is dark, witli narrow verti«!al light ones. 

1 have found a cirrigerous form of this species in North Carolina. 

^r— - 


<( if 


Fni. I'J. RinUiiim iiiilli.liiiiiilni). Ni). :i7'j:i. Kiilinv, Ala. ; } 
Mnf'ini nil iil.-i lit \o. 'M'2'.i, in iiirluH. 
lA'Uf^th, nifiisiiri'il iiliiii;; a\iM nf Hody : 

l)()(l.v : 

I'rom snout to f;:!]"' 

I'loin . snout to ;;nlar I'lilil 

I'roin snout to :irni|iil 

I'nnii snout to •;niin 

l''i'oiu snout to lit'liinil iinus 

Ki'oiu suoMi lo rnil of tiiil 



Wnltlioriicail ;'..'<jtli ofoiliil 1.') 

Itislanrclict wcruryi'saulrrioi l_v . !.' 

('iicuuifiTcncc of liclly 

.-1 IHstancf lii'lvvofii armpit and 

.■"■•' nfoiu 

.7.') Tail : H(j;;lil of tail where lii<;lieNt. 
I.Di) Liuilis: 

','. ','."1 free iiortioii of lon;;est liny;er.. 

Troui eiliow (() tip of lon«{est 


I'l'ee portion (if loii<;est toe 

From knee to tip of lon^^esl toe.. 

Distance lietween oiilstreteln'il 

t oes 


1. |H 


t (Ml 

. :«» 
. to 





172 III LMTiN ;ii, rMir.i' ^<rvTi:« notional mi skum. 

>'^((7«ry/( I ijiiiUtintintii^ Ijtillir. 














Kiilaw. Alii 

Siil.iii.N. <•...... 

Alilii'vill.'.S. ('.... 


AlllllT^lllM, S. (' 

New Mailiiil. M" 

■Wlirii oo]- 


Kroiii wliiiiincci'lvrtl. 

I'rofrMKiir Wliiclii'll- 

I. T. I,iiic'liai'!i 

|)r. ilmiiH 

Dr. Maiialt 

CciliiiM'l Waili'H 

Mrs. Daiiii'U 

It. Krllllil'litt 

Nat II IK of 

TIlis specii's was lonnd abiindaiid.v by tlic writer in llie upper valley 
oClIu' Krench Hioad Hivcr, in North Carolina, at an elevation orL',r)(M> 
r.'t't al.ovc the sea. Dr. A. K. Tislier, of the IJ. S. A;-iicnltnial hniean, 
also lonnd this species in Virginia, only eight miles soulli of Washing, 
ton, 1). <'., a most lemarkalde extension of its range. 

The specimen reconle-,1 in Dr. Yarrow's checklist as from Lan- 
caster, Ohio, belongs to the S. linKjimudns. 

(1'1mi.h-.".i,:!0, iijis. 1-:.: :ii. li.i,-^. i-:.; :!-', lijix. i-:': ■>■'< ^'H'*- 7-">; '»". "««• '.'-'; ■'•'•■ '•«• 

ti; 4-', li;j. II''. > 

Cope, rnicrnl. Ac, riiil.i , l-dH, 1>. H'T : Slr.iiicli, 8al,iiii., p. Kt ; Hou- 
l.'iiiicr, Cat. IJalr. (iiail. Hiit. Mils., «iI. ii, ]-'*•>, p.tW. 

Siilamaiidm nihni Daiiil , i:.).!., viii, ii. 'J'.'T, I'l. Hv', li^'. 'J ; llollir., N. A. llc-rii., v, 

1.. :tr., I'l.K; ]h' Kay, N. V. I'ami. l{i'|it., |'. -'I, I'l, i:, Ih^. lit. 
Sdhimaiiilni minntntn (irceii, .Imirii. Ac. I'liila., I, j). It.'iO. 
Sdliimaiiilni ^iih/iixca (Irci'ii, /. c, ]•. I!''l. 
SalmiKiiKlnt nihriroilris (Jifcii, /. c, \>. :!,'>;! {iirc. Daml.). 
l'si:i<liiliili>ii x/i^/'dscdn Tsclimli, IJati., ]>. 'X>. 

I'miidiilritiiii riilnr ISainl, .loiini. Ac. I'lii i. (v!), i, ]!. 'Xi ; Hallowdl, /. c, IV., p. :!47. 
.s'y)(7( i/x ••< riilini (iiJiv, Cat. I'atf. (ii.i(i. IWil. Mils., cil. I, \t. |.'>. 
Udliliiijltiss.i iiihi-a Diiiii. iV Itilir., ]>. -^It, I'l. l':t, Ii;;. 'J. 
I'MCiiilolriloii Jltivhximiis Hallow., I'nic. Ac, I'liila., iS'ti, ]>. i:i(l. 

Sinn op(i(iil(i(<i I'al. ilc licaiiv., Aiiier. I'liil. Trans., iv, [>. ','<;•, I'l. — , li^. ;i. 
I'liitiim i/(iii((.-((/C(<()nr'- (iiL'iii, /. c, \t. It.'>8. 

The form of this species vaiies with its age, the v<'ry old ones being 
neaily as stont as Amhiistomn itinicttiliim ; more so than A.opacKm. The 
more immature, however, are rather slender. 

The skin is perfe<!tly smooth and lustrous. There are noindicatiouH of 
glands .secreting a milky Juice, as in Amblystoma, but the skin is every- 
wliere beset with shallow ])its, clo.sely set. The eyt^ is »'ncir(ded by a 
.series of pores. These extend anterior to those on the side of the head 
to the nostrils, and are nuire crowded. The lower edge of tlio lower 
jaw is encircled by a single seiie , <»f j)ores, and there are two other 
series, nearly straight, which start, from the point of the chin and diverge 

« i 



is pr 


• i 




Tlio lioatl JH (U'pn'ssnl, triiuiRulur, iiliiiost \v«'(Ij,m' slinpcd viewed hit- 
orally, ami rather pointed; more triiiieate in llieyoiin;;'. The iippi'ijaw 
is |>r(»jeetin}( and overhips th«^ h)\ver. Tliejjape isal»nnt .strai;,dit. Th*- 
end ol' the iipiterjaw is llatlened oliliqnel.v a little, visilde oiilv IVoni lie- 
low. The nostrils aie very saiall, placed more laterally than snperioily, 
andalittlu below the anterior end ol the ronnded eanthiis lostralis. 
Theey«'sarc directed antero laterally, so that the lines of the upper eye- 
lids would intersect before leachinj; the lip of the nose. 

There is oidy a sli<>ht constriction at the neck, the entire animal from 
head to rump hviu^ nearly of the same diameter, and the body passes 
insensibly into the tail. This is ipiadrate or nearly stpiai'e at the base 
(with riMinded corners), but becomes more and more compressed to the 
pointed tip. The dorsal surface of llu^ tail rises into an acute rid;;(> for 
the posterior twothiids, the ventral for one-third. There are liftcen 
costal ;;roovcs, including one in th(>. ;4:i'(>ii>. If cdiitiuned to the axilla 
there would be sixteen, but theic is no distinct axillary one. The verti- 
cal ;^roove.Hof the tail are distinct at the base of the tail, but so«»n bectome 

A.S stated, old specimens havu a prop(U'tioiially larger body than 

The lindts are all very weak ; the dibits feeble. The third linj-er is 
lou^M'st, then the .second, fourth, and first. The third and fourth toes 
are nearly equal, then the second. The first dibits an* (piite rudiment- 
ary, especially the first toe. The youiijicr spei'imeiis appear to hav(* 
proportionally lonj^er diyits and more slender liiiib>. 

The toii;;iu^ is a nearly circular disk, entirely free, supportc'd on a 
slemler pedicel like a mushroom, and capable of beiiijn <'xtended beyond 
the mouth. The palatine teeth are transverse. Just beliiml the nostrils 
(by one diameter), and form an abrupt rectan;;le with each of the .series 
oil the parasphenoid bone, which widen behind and leave a free chan- 
nel down the median line. This free space ant«'iiorly is as wide as the 
diameter of the inner nares, but like the patches ol' teeth widens a lit- 
tle behind. The space is encroached upon by the plates of parasphe- 
noid teeth with aj;e. 

The inner nostrils are minute, about transversely elleptical and con- 
tinuous, with a well-delined narrow -groove runninjiout to the maryiii 
of the jaw. They are situated about opposite the center of the trans- 
verse portion of the teeth, the lenjj;t!i of which may be about three times 
as ;;reat as the major axis of the nostrils. 

The colors of the younjjfer specimens of this species in alcohol are a 
pale salmou-yellow, lighter beneath; the back and upjter part of the 
sides sprinkled irn'fjularly and thickly with sharply-deliued blackish 
spots, lookinjj like };rains of c()arse <junpowder. These s[>ots vary in 
si/e with the specimen, and are jiciierally lar<;cr towards the dorsal line. 
With aj;e, and sometimes in yoiiiincr specimens, the borders of these 
spots are less distinctly delined, and the };round «'olor between them 

" -*" 



J 1 • 

i ^(1 


i; i 

. ^ 

I r 


174 humj:tin :(i, umtku .srATi::s nati(»nal mlsku.m. 

bo(!Oines sufliisetl with ii Uiri«l of jmiplisli-biown. The lu-lly is goner- 
ally immacuhitc until tho animal iscniito ohl, whfii it is lluely sprinkled 
with (lots iilie grains of line powder. 

Tlie color of a fresh specimen is as follows. It is fully grown, and was 
taken April 7, 184S 

I''l(i. i;!. Sjiilirinf ri'l'i,: No. TOu:!. ('iuli.slf, I'a. ; ]. 

Pupil small, illiptical, major axis horizontal, hrassy, with horizontal 
dark line. General color dark salmon r<'d. Whole upper |»arts marked 
with rounded si)ots, largest along back, about size of the eye and less, 
of black or dark. Iletwcen these spots is a clouding of dark red 
dish-brown, as if the black of ui)per parts had run after being tirst 
put on. ]''re(piently, however, there is an obscure areola of the ground 

color around the sjtofs; on sides of body iwid t.iil, external poili. f 

limbs, less of the interstitial dark reddish-brown. Wliole under surface 
sprinkled with minute black dots, larger towards the chin. Ivxtreme 
edge of snout blackish, as also of lower Jaw to a Ii'ss degree. 

Individuals vary somewhat in coloration; sometimes the dots on the 
belly are more aggregated towards the center, sonu'times the interstitial 
color on back purer, so as to dcliiie spots better, while agein, on theot 
hand, the whole upper parts aic so much shaded with the reddish-brow u 
as to nearly obscure the black spots. 

The eye can be retracted or protiuded as in the ligures, and also con- 
cealed by the approximation of the lids. The transparent lower li*i 
can be brought up and over lower half of the eyeball. 

in yoiing individuals the colors aie much purer; the whole body 
being of orange, of ditVerent shades in <!ilVerent individuals: darker 
above, with spots of black on upper half of body, larger ahuig back, 
irregularly distributed, beneath geneially unspotted. Tlu^ lower jaw 
with a row of spots around its margin. 

Oh.scrnitioiis. — This is an abundant species throughout t!ie Unite .1 
States east of the Mississippi IJiver as far noith as Maine, and (!orre- 
si)on(ling latitudes in Canada, and .south into Texas and Khu-ida. 't 
chietly abounds ii! the hilly and mountainous .sections. It is especially 
atpiatic in its habits, and i.- found on the ground only alt( trains. It is 
not unfre<iiu'ntly found under b.irk of fallen trees in damp situafioiis, 
but its ciii.'f haunts are cold springs. Here, beneath st(MR'S, it may 
be always found, occupying, if possible, the tissure from which the lim- 
pid water rises, aiul disi»laying its beautiful hues through the trau.s- 

« » 



to bi 



4 * 



imrcnt nuMliiiin witli tlie brilliiiiicy of.i straiifjo i'xolic, ratlier tbivu tlio 
piillor ot iv ilweller iu the cliill.v (k'|)tlKs iiiid dark recesses of ii cavo. 
Tlioy walk delilu'riitcly, ami swim with snmo activity, moving, as do 
other sahunaiiders, with the limits pr«'ssed to the sides and the body 
and tail undulating laterally. Their movements are not so active as 
tiioso of some other species. They arc vei-y harndess and, though I 
have handled a great niiiidter of them, have never seen them attempt 
to bite. Their food consists of insects. 

r«r/f7/<'.v.— Occasionally a spei^imen is found which is of a uniform 
grayish-brown. Dr. IC. K. Gait sent me snch a one front Staten Island, 
Xew York. Two forms have been distin,i;nished by Trofessor llaird 
which may rank as sid)species : tlie S. riihcr slirticcpH and the »S'. ruhir 
mtnitaniis. They are described below. 

The manner in which the characters which »listinguish these sub- 
species are found singly in variojis individuals illustrates wt^ll the con- 
dition of a protean species. Thus of the si>ecimens with sixteen costal 
l>lica'. refciable to S. r. monfunus, where t!ie width of the head may 
be one-sixth the length to the j;roiu, two specimens measure thesame, 
Oft and (t'i{ iu the same, ami another (i|, and another (.'{S4S) 7 times. In 
one the posterior part of the par^sphenoidal patch is widened, as in the 
Msual form. Ii; two specimens (.WTO-TO.'M) tlie sixteenth pli(!a falls over 
the femur and does not descend before it; the vomerine series of both 
are angulated. In Td.'ihf, from the same locality as TOM, all the char- 
acters are those typical of S. r. ininitainis. 

In two specimens having the head and coloration of var. IJuber, from 
Miitaw, Ala., one has lifteen plicie and angnlat«' teeth, the other sixteen 
plica' and curved series of tet'th. In a number of >S'. r. nihcr from Ab- 
Iteville, S. (!., one has sixteen plica-. In this variety the width of the 
head enters the, length to gn»in usually tivv times, but varies to i}.\, r)!|, 
and in 7(L'.{, ii\ times. 

In the typ»' of I'.JhtrissimiiN, this relation is 1 to (iA, with but lifteen 
plica-; the truncation of the muzzle is less than described, and there 
are no cirri. In var. Sti(!ticeps a trace <d" the same is visible. The 
peculiar (U)arsc and sparst; spotting in this var. ami in »S'. r. moiiUinus 
is seen in Ruber No. 7b7."5 (half giown). 

The uniform <rolor of S. r. stirtircps is nearly equaled by Xo, 7()L*;J. and 
the white i)uni iulation of the iiits by 7b7.'> (large), though nonti are siuu- 
lar in the puiu',tulatiou of the front ; in IStO, from Eutaw, Ala., the ab- 
domen and gular region are sindlarly punctulate. 

As regards the size of the eyes in r.j!<ti'ist<iini(s, their longitudinal 
diameter measures l.o the width between their anterior caiithi. These 
sjiecimens are both small. In several small var. Ruber the measurement 
is thesai.u', and in the smaller of the »V. r. }ftlcficcp,s ; in the larger of the 
latter and of Ruber this measurement is as 1 : Li. NevTtheless, iu a nuni' 
ber of var. Ruber which have just completed their metau'orpliosis the 
proportion of front to eye is also li : 1 (Xo, oSt!)). 


17(j uri/r.riN ui, umtkd siaiks nationai,;ijm. 

Tliese variclios iin', however, not dilliciilt to ireo^jiiize, csiu'ciiilly as I 
have observed, the S. r. viontaiius. 

I'iDlioiliiiiKil (liiin unions of yo.:^f''.i7. 


Lcn^-tli of },Miic oliiHiiitli In ilH widlli alioiit lialf. 

WiilMi l.Miisliiii.- Iiniii sii.mMi.^'iiliirroia idiiliiiii.Ml II (iiiioH. 

Wiillli toilisliiiicc liimi siioiit to M;ioiii alMiiit C tiiiu-H. 

yi. m snmit to ^'iiliir foM coiiliiiiH'd in ilmtaiico IVom smiiit to ;;ioiii 1} ti ,s. 

Distaiicf aiili'iiorl.v lnl wmi ryts in I«'ii},'lli of oiliit 'i orliits. 

Di.staiicf from cyrs to nostrils in icii;,'lli of orl)it 1 orliil. 

Distunci' liclwc.'ii fxtrrniil noslriis in ]cii;,'th of orUit abont 1 orl>it. 

Distantf IntwiTii internal nostrils in !i-nj;lli of orliit ii'ss tlian 1 orliit. 


Fri'c portion of Ioi»<;ost liii;;i'r contairnMl in ilistanci! from cIIhiw to tip. I times. 

Fri'e portion of loiif;ewt toe toiitained in distaiiee from knee to tip l! times. 

Distance lielwei n oiitslrel<lieil toes in hni;tli from snoni to ;;roin oih'-lialf. 


Length iVotn lieliind anns to rest of animal I ■; tnnes. 

I,enf;lli from lieliind .inns to total leii^'tli I wo-liftlis. 

IJod.v : 

Width compared with that of head rather liroader. 

Nnmlier of costal furrows (including' inj^ninal) 1'.. 

M<(inii)'( iiii'iit.i of .\<>. I!"^!!", ill iiiilim, 

L('n;,'lli, measured alon;;: axisof liody : Itody : 

I'roni siioiii to >;ape "JH j (' td' lielly 'J. ir» 

From snont to <;nlar fold 70 > |)ist:ince lietwivn armpit and 

From snoiiMo ainiiiil 1.0(1 i;roin •,'. Ill 

From snout lo j;roin If.OK Tail: 

From smiiil to Ixdiind anns. ... It. .'id llei;;lit of tail where lii;; .. . .15 

From .snout to end of tail -t.W l!re;nltli of tail where |ii;;Iiesl . . .10 

Head: Limits: 

Width of rt.'i i I'ni! portion of lon;;est linj;er.. .10 

Width of lonjiiu' ti'2 \ From 4'lliiiw to tip of louf^est 

Lenj;lh of nrliil .11 lin;;er 10 

Dislaiice lietween eyes ante- Free port ion of lon;;eHl lot- 1.^ 

riciily 'Jt'i From kiu-o to tip of lon<{est toe. ..'if 

DistaiM'c lielweeii outer nostrils. . l.'i 1 Distain'e lietween onlstreteh<'d 

IMstanee lietween in rnostril.H. . I'i I toes l.I'iO 

Spilcrpcs ruber Jia vinxiin us 1 1 allow. 

I'unidotritini lliiriKfiimiis Hallow., Proceed. Ac, Nat. Sci, I'hila., l-'.'iO, i:(0. 

Tlie I'urm and pro[)ortioiis, e.xeeptinfjr about the head, are so .simi- 
lar to those of IS. ruber, that it i.s uimeeessary to repeat these eharae- 
ters. The tli},'it8 are rather lowg, as usual in yoiinj; .S'. ruber. The outer 
ones, hv)wever, appear proiMtrtionall.v l()n<;cr tha!i in the lattei'. The 
head, viewed from above, is narrower and more triineaie. It is arched 
imt not wedo:e-shaped, depre.ssed, the mnz/.ie bein^ much hiolier than 

in S. ruber. lOaeh side of the tri' »ted snout is bordered by a vertical 

ridof, which is a little exterior tt ; outer nostrils, and descends a 

I ' . 











iittli! lu'low tlio lovol of tlio J;i\v, lookin^j; liken fiinj'' wIkmi vicwetl latt'r 


Viewed from in front, tlio lower outline, of the muzzle is stron«:lv 

» oneave, boniered on eaeli side by the downward extension of this 
lidfic Tlieni is a slijfht indentation of the side of the jaw behind this 
\'u\iir, and there is a line linear channel leadin;;- down the back of this 
rid"i^ IV(»m the outer maryiii of the external nostrils. A similar chan- 

nel, but no ridi^e, issei'u in J*. / 


Tiie outline of the upper jaw, as viewed from below, is decidedly an- 
fiular anteriorly instead of rounded. 

The eyes arc unusually larye and prominent for this section of sala- 
mainlers, and are sei)arated anteriorly by little more than one oibit's 
l("ii;:fh. The two parasphenoidal ranj;«'s of teeth are in contattt ante- 
riculy, as in S. r. montaniis, without the interval of S. r, nilnr. 

There are llftei'ii costal furrows, excluding' an axiliary one. The tai| 
is a little more than half the rest of the body. 

in alcohol the color is li};ht brownish red, paler beneath; tlu' upper 
parts and sides thinly but (piite uniformly spriidiled with small, 
roiindcti, well delined, Itlackish dots; very few of them on the head. 

As stali'd, this variety is distini,Miished from >'. rubir, as well as 
N /'. niinttdiiiis and sticticrps, by the shape ot the head, the anji'ulation 
ul tl'" uppei' lip, the much larger and more approximated eyes. The 
scaiilinessof the black specks is more as in S. r. moiituints, from which 
aiiain it is distinL'uished bv lifteen instead of sixteen costal ijtrooves. 





11. ail: 

rropovlionnl iliiiu nsinux. 

Willi li to ilistaiKT fpun snout to ^'loin al'oiif (I tiiiios, 

I'loiii Mioiil to ;;iila>' lolil roiitaiiii'il ill ilistaiiri' rroiii snout to 

fjiiiiii alioni I J tiiiU'M, 

hiMtaiiif aiitrriorlv lirtwci'ii eyes in ii'n;;lli of orltit... srarirly more than onrf, 

l)i>,tanc.' Iroin cyi'N to nostrils in li'n;;lli oforl)!! a limit once, 

liislaiK'o lit'twmi cxtfrnal nostiils in ii-n^lli ol'orliil aoout one linir 

Pistanci' 111"! WITH ontslri-tilu'il tin 

II llMl^tll tVoiu 

snoiil to ^loin ralliiT nioro than halt. 

IJiiilv : Nniiilirr of coital t'linou s (incluiiin;; inuninal ) 1,') 

Miii'^iin nil Ills, ill iiirli(s. 

hrn^tii, niraHiiicil alon;^ as is of lioily 

lli'ail- Continiiril . 

I'rom hiiont to jiapo 

I'l'OIII SllOl.t to irlilar I'oM . 

i' roll: snout to aniipil . . . 

I list a 

nil' hi'twi'iMi inner iiosiiilH .<•.-( 


Uistanrr iVoin eve to noMtriis.. . lU 


Mini .>n>iui to •'nun . - 

l''roin Miiiiit to lichinil aii's 

I'loin . snout to mil of tail It. :to Liiiili: 

, ti,') Koily: nislaiH'i' lift wren ai'iii|iil 
'J. Ill T: 

iiiil uroin I. n 

llri;rlil of tail wlii'ii- liiy-Jii'st 



Wiilthof head 

Li>ii^;lli III' iiiliil 

Pi-itanri' liftwcrii I'M's aiiti'ii- 

l.'Jd , l''i('i' iioition of lon;r,.s| (inyirr.. .(W 

1 . ,-. f^ 

j I' Idlll I'lllOW to ti|i of liiiip'.st 

liiiniT :U) 

I'li'r iiiirl ion of loii";i-st lOf It 



l>islaiiri« lii'lwriMi until' noNlrils . II 

i'.»r.i— p.uii M — iL* 

I'luin klirr to tip of lniii^i'.sl tor . I!.") 
Ilista""!' Iii'iwi'rii oulstn-lchi'il 

toi'.s 1.0.') 


17.S lUILLKTIN :;i, rMIKl. states national MlISKl'M. 

ISpclcriHS ruber .sticticeps IJaii'tl. 
Proceed. Ai'. Fliilii., l-^f'''.», ]). 1(H. (Name only.) 

This varit'fy in all it.s details of sliaitc, proiMMtioiis an<l ;;i'iK'raI 
otriu!tino resembles /'. ridxr. Tlie limhs, iiowever, are coiisiderahly 
smaller and weaker, and (lie external nostrils seem tolte I'lrtlier apart. 
There are lifteen costal furrow.s, e.\cludin«;' the axillary. 

The color in alcohol is a daik reddi.shbrown or Itrownishred above; 
lif-hter red beneath. The color of the niiper parts is very uniform and 
continuous, thou;;h a careful examination shows .some very obs'olete 
rounded spots ot darker on the sides. The sides and beneath an', 
evervwhere sprinkled with minute blackish dots. The head is uni- 
formly colored like the back, without dark spots, but its sides and an- 
terior portion are closely spriidiled with whitish specks, which are very 
distinct and characteristic. 

This variety ditfors .somewhat in form from S. ruber, as slated. It 
can be separated from tln^ latter by the small whitish specks on the 
mu/zlo in the uniform j^round color, typical S. ruber always havinj^' 
lar{,'er black sjiots, without any white. The color above is deeper and 
more continuous than in »S'. rubir without the distinct doisal spots 
always distinj,'uishable in it. I'he ground color appears to be of a 
much deeper red than in .S'. ruber. 

riiiiiorHiiitul ilimi iixiuiin. 


I.oiif^tli of K"P'' "f """"li to it.s will 111 llireci-foiirtliM. 

Width to distil nee IVoni snout lo jfioin tieiiily li limes. 

From snout to j;u!ar I'old eoiitained in distance from siiont to ;;roiii . . . . H limes. 

Distance anterioilv liet ween eyes in lc!i;;tli ot'oiliit t« ice. 

Distanct! l)etwceii external nostrils in lenjilliof orMt I < times. 

Limits : 

l''rec port ion of lonj{est lin;fer eoniained in distance from clliow to tip.. ."■> times. 

Free portion of Imi^jest toe contained in dist;incc from knet> to 

lip nearly I ti'iies. 

Distance between oulstretclicd toes in len;;tli from snout to^jroin iieailv t wice. 

Distance between ontstictdii'il toes in Icni^lli from snout to 

belli lid anus iiiipie tliai, twice. 

Body : Number of costal furrows (inclndiii}; :iii;ninal) 15 

Mviixiin iiK r'n, ill iiiiliis. 
LeiiHtli. measured aloiif^ axis of body : Umly : 


From snout to ^ape 

From snout to ;jular fold . . 

From snout to ai nipit . . 

From snout to jjroiii 

l-'roni snout to behind anus . 
I''roiii snout to end of tail . . . 



Width of head f.t 

licnj^th of orbit II 

Distance bet ween eyes anteriorly .'-'-' 
Distance between ou'.er nostrils . Ill 
Distance between inner nostrils , Itt 

'■>. f'> 

■J. ().") 

CiliiimlerelKHl of belly 1 .''(O 

Dist.'iiiee between armpit and 

;iroin l.ri.'i 

'fail: llei;;lit of tail where lii;;hest 

est M) 

I.imbs : 

I'ree poi'liiiu cil' loiij;e,st lillj^er .07 
From elbow lo tip ol' lolij^est 

lin;;er Xi 

Free port ion of loii;;est toe \\i 

l'"rom knee to lip of lonj;est toe .I"! 
Distance between onlslretrlied 
Iocs I . ;ii) 




-. i 


SpcleriKs ntlnr ninntttinis llainl. 


r.-iiinhlriloii moiiliiiiiis Itainl, .loiini. I'liilaililpliia Ai;a<U'iii.\ , (.•.'■^7-v.",»:i; (iia.v. I.v.,\). \C,. 

TUo cxtiTiial cliiUMrtcis of this subspcfit's air miicli as in /'. riilxr as 
ti) pits, siiiootliiicss, etc. 

Till' ronii of this aiiiinal is more like that of (Jipiiiojiliihis inniiliifriticus 
ill Ikmii;; ('l(>ii<;at('i|, cyliinlrit'al, aial with the tail nearly I'qiial tothedis- 
Miice IVotii the liea<l to the ;;r(>iii, 

TIm' head is rather small an*l iiarri>\v. The proportion of eyes, eU\, 
iiiiKih as in S. ruUvr. The snout is, howevei', more ainiiptly truneatetl, 
sliowin^" the nostrils on eaeh side at the eorner formed with the side «»f 
the head, and with an indistinet rid<{(> riiiinin;;' down to the Jaw as in 
a. in>ri>liifriti<us, hut less marketl. Tin' top of the head is more convex, 
and not llattened between the eyes. The toii;;ue is a eiicular pediin 
eulatetl disk. Tiie teeth curve j;ently behind the inner nares to 
the paraspheiioid bone, not at an an;L;le, and the two lou;4itudind series 
are so close colli iniUMisly as to c.\liil>it no furrow (»f sepaiatiun. and very 
little of on(M)e!iiiid. Tlie palatine portion does not extend outwards 
licyond the outer border of the inner nostrils. 

[•idfessor l»aird described this species in ISI!> from a siiijile adult 
>p(-ciiueii can^iht in the South Mountain, near Carlisle, I'a. Siiicti 
tlii'ii several others iVoin tlillerent localities have been oiitaiiied, and 
after the renewed examinali(ui of many speciineiis of S. nilnr I am 
silislied of its distinction as a subspecies. The cohMMti'Ui is always 
appr«'ciably dillerent in the very . sk iris without loiiLjitudinal bar of 
.Moiitaims, compared with the brassy yellow iris with longitudinal dark 
bind' Jtulter. The ;iioiiiid color above is iiuiforinly and continuously 
Uiiiwnishsalmon, much as in (i. jxirjiliifrilicHs, with a few well defined 
circular spots. In IJuin'r where the ground cohu" has become dark I'cmI- 
dish brown, it is alw.iys mottled with Milliter, ami the larger and more 
iiiim -rors dark spots are iikuc obsolete in their outline. 

Tiie Iliad of Moiitaiius isnarrower and much more arched tr.iiisv'Msely. 
The snout is more truncate. The two series of teeth on each side the 
jtai.isphenoid bone come closer, .so as to be almost in contact, without 
I lie interval of S. ndnr. 

Till' body and tail are more slender and elon<;ated; the latter propor- 
,icn.i!ly consiih'rably lon-'er. Thereare 1»» costal tiirrows, exdudiii:.; an 
axillir one, instead of lo, as in iS'. riilnr. 

Tliere are Iti distinct costal j;roo\('s, excludin;;' any in the axilla. 
The tail shows similar furrows at lirst, but they soiui become indistinct. 
It is (piadrate at the base, then jjiadiially becomes more and more com- 
press, -d, with a sharp ridj-e towards the end, as in S. ndirr. lis len.i;th 
is n.'aily equal to the distance from the s • it to the ;;roiii. 

Tlie limbs are not appreciably ditVi'ient from what has been destaibed 

ni S. 


\ \ 

^ !■ 


The color of the type specimens, as presorvod iu alcohol, i. a iiiiifoi'i 


1«() ItlLMMI.N :!l, UN;TKU STATKS national Ml'SKUM. 

roiitiimoiislnowiiisli salmon !il»()Vt',iiH!lii(liiijj:(lu' limbs; tlu' iiiHU'iparts, 
iVom the middli' ttf tlii' .sides, latlu'r altniptly pale salmon. The dark 
|M»itions are marked with eirenlar, thinly scattered, w( lldeliiied ilaik 
brown or black spots. The belly is immaculate. 

In life this .same .specimen had the ^'roiind c »lor reddish-brown; bei- 
neath, deep .salmon. The iris dark reddish brown, almost black, with 
faint mottli!ifj;s of bron/.e on the inner bonier, and without any hori- 
zontal dark bar. 

The difference of form and color are appreciable in younj,' as well as 
old specimens. 

The distribution of this toiin is in the Alle^h.ny .Mountains fnini 
Tennsvlvania to South Carolina. 



rriiiiiirlidiiiil (liiiii iiniinin. 


I,cli;;lll (ir;;;i|H' of iiioiilli to ilH will III illiiillt t liri'i'-I'mil I lis. 

Width to (IinIjiiut iVo.ii .snout to f;iilai lolil iiUoiii \\ limes. 

Width to distance lidiii .snout to ^loin Jiliont 'i.^ I iiiii's. 

I'l'oni .snout tii;:iil;ir I'olil eiuitained iiidisiaine iVoni snout lo^ioin. a I ion t 1 1 t lines. 

|)ist;ill<e .•intelioll\ liet Ween eyes in li'lli;' h ol' orliit I.i limes. 

Di.stance IVoiii i\ves to nostrils ill jell j; til of oilii I I t inie. 

I Mstaiiee lietweeii exleinal nostrils in length of oiliil I time. 

I >i stance lict wi'e'i internal nostrils in leii^rth of orliit less than I time. 


i'ree poitioii of loii^re>| li!i<;c|- cotitatni;il in ilislaiiee from elliow 
to tip nearly I times. 

Free port 1(111 of loii;reiit toe contained in ilistance from knee to tip. . alimit :t| times. 

Itistance Iielweeii oatstretelied toes In leii;;tli from snout to ;,'roin . .•iltiiut i;i t imes. 
Tail : 

l.('ii;;tli from lieliind aniiH to rest of animal I ^ I imes. 

I.eii;;tli iVom lieliiiid anus to total !eiii;tli three .sevenths. 

I5ody : 

Widi h I'ompaied with III at of head rather hss. 

.Nuuiher (d'costal liiirows, iiielndiiii; axillary and ini;ni!ril Id. 


Miiixiin imiiln. ill iiirluH. 

Lcii;;'tli, ineasnrcd alonj; axisol liudy : liody : 

rroin .snout to<^.ipe I'.ii CireMinl'erem'e of lielly '..'.((I 

from snout to ;;ul,'ir fold )'i."> histance lielwcen armpit and 

I'rom Hiioiit to armpit '.(I ;;idiii !.'/."» 

I'rom snimt to ;{roin ','. K"i Tail: 

!''roni .snout to heliind anus ;!.■,','> ilei'^hl of tail w here highest . . . ,:; 

I'roin snout to end of tail .">. 7.'i Hreadlh of t.iil w here liii;liesi . . . :!J 

Of tail 2..'i(» Limits: 

Head : I Free pmtion of loni;est tiiiuer . 1(1 

Width of liejiM \Ci !• rom elhow to tip <d' lon;;esl 

Lcii;,'th (d'luliit 1.-, Iin;r|.| \\■,^, 

Distanee l.etween eyes ailteri- I 'lee poi t Ion of hni^esl toe . j.'i 

"I'l.V "Jo l''rcmi knee to tip of |oli;;est toe ..">(• 

Mistanci'lictweeii outer nostrils .1' l>isiiiice lietweeii ontst retched 

JJi.stance lift ween inner iio.strilM. . ■".) toe; l.T.'i 

* j' 




Spelii-pcH fiihrr fiibrr Daiidin. 


No. or 

tiiiiiilH r. 


















!l 1 ill 












































l"irim wliimi ii'ceiM'ii. 

rilli'iiiliiili, Oliii) 

ruililsvillf, N. .1 

r.iilislr, I'a 

llrlllWlllo CllillllV. I'.l ■■ 

\V:i<liiliuliiii. h.'C 

t'lilimiliiii. S. (' 

Ilainilliiii CiMiiily, Ohio 
l!i>lilHliiiriiiii2li. S. V, . ... 

TuMilnii. N. .1 

>\ii\ ri.iiiiH Uivvr, III ... 
Carlisle, I'.i 

•1. \. It SiuiliiiiitiiKli. ■ 

N. II ItiMllop 

I'iKl. S. I'. Ilaiid 

Dr. v.. (N.ius. r S. .\ 
Dr. (irnmi' ,N'. .Moiaii. 
.1. .v. I!. .Siailiiiriiii;;!! . 

II. W. W.UIi.r 

Dr. ('. (• Alilioll 

K. Ki'iiiiii'iilt 

I'riil. S. r. Ilaiiil 

(',iili.ili, I'.i I'liit. S. K r.iii.l 

Aitcii'iMciii. s. (; 

('iiliiiiiliim. (ill 
i'liit llrnliiii, Mci . 
WaHliiiiiltMli. I>. (< . 

( illlllrCMllT, Vi» .... 

Millon, Kla 

Ilcauli.rt. N. ('. 

liiillaii l\i>v. I' la . . 
Iiirl Tiivis.iii, .\rU 
rr.iMic Mrr Ki>iii:i', I,: 

DiT.-JO, \HM 

Mr«. M. i;. iMiii.l . 

|)r.(;,..iirr , 

Di.r.V. llaMl.ii... 

(iro, Slloi-lliaUrr . .. 

Ki'V. (;. M.mii 

S. 'l'. \Vall,,r 

Dr. Will. Siinipsciii 


Dr. Kilw.iiil.s 

.Ian. Kail ir 

Tyn 1' S|iriiiK«, Tiiiii I'ml. K. Owcii 


1ci\1miii;1i, I'a rrcf, S. K. I'>.iliil 

Mcaihill.', I'a ' Williaiin 

.Milicvillr, S. C j Dr..l. li Itarialt i 

Miii;.'iiit<i\vii, N. (; Dr. (Ii'cii;;!' N. Mman 

Nature of ,s|i('i' 


































t.i'.NKK.M. si;i;ii;s. 



































M.'ailvill.-. P.i W'illlaiiis 

riiiiloi!, N. ,1 Dr. C.C. .U. lull I 

Viiuiiiia I I'Vli.'Jlt, 1N77 I'". F. Tall.ol 

I I 

( 'arli.iU-. I'a I'lol.S. K ISainl. . 

. . .ilo Dr. .Sirvi'im 

Iliwloy. Va S.'pt., iS:>:\ 11,11 Millrr 

I'lixliiiiyli, I'a .S. I' .ri.iiiil 

.lo ,1 

I'l.irki' Oiiiiiil V, Va ('. It. I;. Kiiiiii'ily . 

l''.iiii|tiiir Ciiiiit V, Va (". \V .Slum nianii . 

Wvlliivill... V.i! IH-,-i Col. M. Ml Diiiialil 

.MilMvill.. S. C Cl 

C.uli.slr. I'.l I'lol. S I'. It.lilll . 

('i ('I 

(') (;» 




SiMiinii'i'villi , .S (J 

r.iili^lr. I'a 

Cinirr ( 'oiiiiU. r,i 
l'illsliiiri;li. I'a ... 

I'olllMlllll-.. Olli'l . . 

.Vllcli'isiiii. S. (' . . 
.Sal.iii N.C 




I. W Nair 

S. K Itaii.l 

S. I!. Itiiiu'-.r ... 
Mr. l''aliiii-»loik . , 
I.. I,rs(|iii|rau\ .. 
Mr-. M K Daiii.-I 
.1. r. .... 


SnrlrviH's nihff flarinsimiis IIjillnw. 


^ll'l.llll■l K II 

\. C. 

.r C.Ma.N.iir 


1H2 I!i:lm:ti\ iu, rxiT::!) statks national Mrsi;ir>f. 

Sjitlrriiri nihir uliilirijin. Itail'il. 

(■jliilipiiiic Nil 'if 
niintlM-i'. H|H-f. ' 



i:i;sKiivj': skuik.s. 

Willi I' ■ I Nil III')' lit MIH'I'' 

,1.1 lliilll ulliilli II irlMll. ' 

ni iilril. lllirll 

lUT.'i :.' (ii'iiiijiii... 

Dr. W. I.. iloiii'H .Mroliiilir. 

iV/xVccyx'i nilnr iiiinilniiiix llaii'il. 

riiil'.S. Kll.tinl Alioliiilii (t\|i)') 








Siiiilli Miiiiiilaiii. Cat- IH4H .... 
li'^li'. l-a. I 

S.iliiii. N. »' I .r. T. I.iii. liai'k 

.Mii.i'villi. .>>. (• i l»i..r, II. Ilaiialt 

I'Mri' .S|ii iii;;H. Trim .. I'liil. I!. (iHi'ii 

Iliaiiroit. .\ '! Will ,Siiiii|iiiiii 

IlilUliiiiiiiiiili, N. <: I M. A CiiilH 

I'liiiin (.'iiiiiitv, 'J'i'iiii I •!. N. It. Siai liiiii>ii;ili . 





AUTODAX r.oiilciificr. 

Ami. iiiid Ma;;. Na(. H>7, p. O*. 

.Itniitht liainl, Icmid^i. Mnc.vcl., ii, Hl'.l, p. '2''t'>; (iiiaril, 1'. S. Kxpl. F.xpiil., l>'ri>., 
p. H; Cdpf, I'ldcud. Ac. I'liila., IM'.I, p. IC.I; Sliaiu'li, S.ilaiii.. p. M ; 
Itiiiilciigi'i', Cal. lialr. (iiatl. ISiit. Miih., ( d. li, Itif'M, p. fi'.'; iiom. pi'a'occiip.'i- 

Toiijjue iittaclu'd IVoiii ^ilo.s.soliyal to aiitoiior marjiin on the nu'diaii 
lino; coiLsidt'ialily free. One picinaxillai'.v bone. V»)MU'rin(» tcclli on a 
rid^c, wlii(;li is conf iimoii.s lii'twt'cii the interior iiaics. Maxillary teetli* 
confined to (lie anterior part of the areli, eonipre.ssed, knil'e shaped, with 
entire enamel; inandibniar teeth of similar Ibrm and Iar;;edevelo|>nieiit, 
few in nnml>er, and confined to the anterior half of the ranins. Toes l-.'t. 

This (Mirions ^enns is fninished with l)v far the most powerful den- 
tition of any of e.\istin;jr salamamh'rs, and lesmiivles in this respect 
the dfciieniof theCoal .Measures, Ibaeh.vdeetes, llylerpeton, and II.\Iono- 
mus. In other points there is little difference between it and IMethodnn. 
Oin; marked feature brin<;s it in-arer Desmo.unathus than any other 
fjenus of IMethodontiche. The e.xoccipitoinoiHics are each furnished 
with a hij;h lonj;iludinal crest, ov«'r which fhe temporal muscle i)as.scs 
from its oiij^in on tlie atlas. It has, however, the usual ori;;in from fhe 
nH"lian line of the jiarietrds, which scarcely exists in Desmo^xniithus. 
This line is marked in A. lujiuhris by an elevated crest. The j-nd of the 
nnizzle in that spccMcs bears evidences |r> ;i habit similar to that which 
accompanies the sin^Milar structures of l)esnn>;;natliiis, viz, that of bui' 
rowing; or rootinj;' ainoufj stones or of her resist in;; objects. The derm is 
similarly adherent to the bone , and the latter is exosfosed and ru;,M)Us. 
The prefrontal bones are well d(^veloped. 

* (iiiiinl, /. <\, (icscrilii's llio ti-i'lli a.s not lixixl to Hie Jiiw. and capalilr " of .'i depres- 
sion liai'U wards." Tlii.s is only trnt' of .sncci'.ssion.'il tcrfli or foetli aliniil to lie slicd ; 
till' I'linrtidnal li'clli ,irc. lirniiv anrliv'o.scd. 




No species liii.s yet beeii roimd east, of llie I'.u'il'K! coast region. 

or. Distal liaH'ot tuil ioiiikIciI or oval. 

haij;<', (itoiit ; tliiiinlttlt'Vfloiii'd; liiiy;(is slioit ; i>aiasiiluiioi(l snics tianow, vom. 
^I <TiiH!8 8t;oiiBly ciirvfil l)iukwar(ln; widlli of lit-ad l-.'i |«> j,Mi)in; li;;lit liiowii 

iil>(>vi>, with yellow si»i)t.s I. liitjnliris. 

SiiiulliT, HlutitliM", tliinil) not (liHtiiu't, liii;;ci-s loiii;, Nltnili r; iiaiasplicnoiil sciics 
J wiilur; voiiii'liiio KiTicsNcaicfly rccnivcil ; wiiltli o|' Inad li.;i;i iIiikh in lcii!;lli 

to i^roiii ; aliovf lilacU, sidi.s ;;ia.v t. I'lrims. 

■^^ not. DiMtal liair ol tail stroii;;lv lonipriNsi'd. 

Woliiisl ; mii/zlc Willi'; |)aras|diciioid tooth patch wid" ; difjitsMhoit, th'- liim r 
not I'H'v; width of head 'i-.'i tiiiicM in lni;;lh lo i^iom: Idack, spiinkh'il 
with small liliiish spots aliovc I. Uraiiun. 




% "^ 1 


(I'latoa?. Ii>;s. I-I; :i.".. li;.. :i; |H, liu. 1.-,.) 

.Inaiilix Uiqubr'tH HaJid, Icoiio;;!'. I'.ncycl., II, Hl'.t, p. 'A'iti ; Ihiird Ar fiirard, I'loc. 
Ac. I'hila., H.'.:i, p. :iic,>: Maird, V. S. Kxpl. K.\pcd., Ilcip., I'l. i, li«s. •>(i-:i;i, and 
Rcpt. U. S. Kxpl. Suiv., .Mil, ]). IV, 1*1. :ii». li;,'. I: (Jopc, I'loc. Ac IMiila., isllt, 
|i. I<i<): SIrancli, S.ilani., ]>. 7.'> : Itonlcn^rcr, Cat. Hatr. (iiad. Itrit. Mils., cd. ii, 
ICHJ, p. Wi. 

Siihimiiiiiird liiiiiiliriH llaliow., .lonni. Ac. IMiila., I'^H, p. I'JIi. 

Tmiiliii .' hiiiiihrin (ir.iy, (-'at. Matr, (irad. Mrit. Mas., cd. I, p. v'(i. 

.tmliljiMliiiiKt iiinicldliim tiray, ihiil.. p. 117. 

The head is eh)ii;;ate(l, vcf.v iniieh depressed, liatteiied, and when 
viewed IVoin above is miieli swoUeii posterioil.v. Tlie stioiit is very 
proiiiiiieiit, protnidin;,' beyond tlic lower Jaw. Tlie nostrils are ele 
vated, lateral, siibtcrininal, and far apart. The eyes very prominent ; 
their diameter enters only once in the distance between their anterior 
j'im and the extremity of the snout. The cleft of the month is larj:e 
and imdiilafinj,'. The maxillary teeth are proi)ortionally lar<;e, espe- 
cially on the lower jaw. They are lanceolate in shape, very acute ami 
thill. The palatine teeth are iiicoiispieiioiis, rather blunt, dispo.sed in 
an open V«haped lij;ure, the sninmit of which is directed ba(!kward, 
whilst its branches extend to the internal and posterior margin of the in 
tier nostrils. There are two elongated patches (»f miiinte teeth on the 
parasphenoid, clo.seiy appro.ximateil anteriorly and diverging slightly 
posteriorly, where they are rounder and broadesi. The cordiform or pel- 
tall tongue tills the whole space of the inferior lloor of the mouth. It 
is alt ii'lied along its meitial line, whilst its sides are perfectly free, as is 
also slightly its tapi-ring tif) and its posterior bilobed expansion. 

The neck is elongated and slightly (!ontracted; a distinct ami well- 
iiiarked gnlar fold may be observed. It no doubt exists during life, 
tliongh its|)resence has been contested by some writers. 

Tlie body is siibfiisifoim, diminishing towards both extremities. The 
siih's of the abdomen are transversely folded thirteen times between 
axilla and groin. Tlie tail is almost as long as the head and body to- 


, 1 1 

I I 


i I 

; 1 


i il 


ijcllicr. It is siilM'.vIiiKlrical, soiiu'wliiit coiniu-essed, and tiuu'iiii;,' at 
Iho 011(1. Il;i iippci- and Imuci eddies art' roiiiidcd. 

Tlic limbs aiv sleiidor, tiif posti-rior oiu's a liltk- loiiijor aiitl stoiiu-r 
tliaii the ante rior. Wla'U tlii' loriiicrare liroiijilit Ibrvvanl and tlicl.itli r 
backward al(.ii;,'sid.' tlu' body tlio toes of citber sliKbtl.v ovi'ilap (lie 
(ttluT. The toes tlicmsrlvcsarc sIcikUt, oiiliicly froo, niid t«Mininalcd 
by a callous, disk-like cxpansi.m, resembling' in that respect some Annr.i. 
Tile anterior inner toe is (jiiite small; the third is the loiifresl ; tlie sec- 
ond nearly e(pial in si/e to the lonrlh ; the second and lourth are nearly 


The skin appears quite smooth; when examined under the micro, 
scope, however, il is found to contain a net work of minute irregular 
stelliform i)ores, each stella havin;; a Indlow or clear center or mouth. 

The enlor, as preserved on specimens in alcohol, is of n uniform li;;lil 
brown aiiove anil li^ht ycHow beneath. The sides, and frei|Ueiitly the 
upjier surfaces, are markeil with small irre{,ndar yellow spots. 

• ' * lA r^ KS 1 '3 

Kill. 1 1. Aiil'^liir hfiiihrls-. No. |ii|7. I'rlaliliiiil, Cll. ; |. 

Miiltlircilli lllx, ill ilirliis. 


I,fii;;tli, axi.'i!, rioiii snout tn oiliit 'J 

IjrMj,'tli, ii\ial, I'll nil Hill 111 ( In 1 ictus oris ."> 

I.fiij;l!i, axial, Cioiii hikmi; to axilla 1. IS 

I.rli;,'tll, axial. IVhiii mioiiI In ;;r(iiii •,' Ci'.\ 

iiiM^lli, axial, iVoiii siimit to riid of vent '. )i. la 

L(Mi;;tli, axiiil, from snout to niil of tail 'J. (11! 

Li'li;;tll of foil'- li Mill -Ti 

I. I'll;; til of III ml liiiili i 

I.i'll;;tli of foic-fool 'JM 

I.i'ii;;fli of liiiiil foot I 

Will ill o( iiiiiii-foot soli" :i:i 

Willi li of licail at liiliis oris 1 

Wiiltli of liody at iniddlt' .V.I 

Width of lioily at s.icnini . II 

The raii^'e of this species is limited. embra(Mii;;(>nly middle California, 
It is, however, not rare in that rej^ion. 




.iiiliiilii.r liiijiihris Kiilliiw. 

i:i:si;i!Vi-: skimks. 


('iilalii;^!!!' No. Ill' 
iiiiiiiIm'I'. n|M'V. 



K.uM, «l„.m ivniv.'.l. N'»""«' '"■ "l-'l 











• I 



















rcliiliima, Tftl K. SrtimifN Al.nli.ili.-. 

raiiilloiiis, Cal l.ii'iil \V. 1'. 'liiiw 1»M. 

I I liliiljir, I'.S. A. 

Ciilil'iiniiii (?) lUi. 

Sail l''nuiri.'<i'<), C'lil , , Mnil. \V. I*. Triiw- llii. 

I liriiluK, I'.S. A. 

<1ii I ill) III). 

Mniili'ii'y.Ciil. I A.S. 'I'a.Uiir I»ii. 

Shi l'"iaiifl<rii, Cal '. Do. 

ri'iiiltiiiiii, ('ill K. Siimiiii'Ik I><>. 

r.i;l r.juii.Cal Auk.— , iHT.'i H. \Vlliii»lia« |ti>. 

San I'raiiiUc II. < 'al I,ii'iit<'ii:iiil Waiicii . .. Itii. 

r.cikcli'V.C.'al ... I'-MI |{. i:. ('.SiiaiiiH Ito. 

ilo' IK^I ilii .. . I»ll. 

Mniii.ii-v.t'al Hi. r.iiii|illi'lil I Mi. 

f'aliliiiiiia (') 1)11. 

^ '■ 



This is one of tin' inost iiiaiUcd siu'cics ul Norili Aiiit'iiciiii salainati 
lU'i's. Tlio lai';;:t' tciiiporiil iiiiisclcs <x\\t' tin* litMtl a sudlli-ii oiitliii«> be- 
liiiid, ami s(>|tarat(> tin* ilt'iiiia IVoiii tli*' craiiiiiiii. Tiii' latt<-r adlicrcs to 
tiu' top of tli<> proiiiinctit iiiii/./.lc. 'IMic tissint' ol° llit' iiioiitli is siiiiialt', 
iiiosi stroii;;ly so in adult spt'ciincns. On the wlntlt'. the |>li,vsio;,'noin.v 
is not nnlik(4 that of the siiappini: toitoisf. 1 have little tlonhl that it 
is Mioi'<> capaldi- ot' inllictin;; a liitc than anv other of the Aineriean 
I'lodela. Its t'ood does not appt ar to dilVer nnieli IVoni that of other 
salainainlers; in the stomaeli of one I I'onnd ants, in anithet* three tn 
fonr species of lieetles, annni;.; them an entire Coeeinella. 

.MIuD.W l'KI{ICi;f.S <.'(.|.c. 

. I »i(ii/ci /(•)•; r/M ('ii|ii'. I'niri'cil. /,(•. Pliil.i.. l-.;.t. p. lii'.it IJoiilrii;;!'!', Cat. Italr. (iiatl. 
liiit. Mii-^., «•.!. II, 1<-.', |.. .■,:;. 

This is a smaller and more slender spei'ies than the last, not hein^' 
very iiill'eieiit in proit trlions froMi I'Ullnnliui Inlrniir Hits, \n\\ with a 
inoatler and more llatteiied head. 

The head is an elon;;ate oval, sli;;litly trniieat'' in front. The nostiils 
an' antero lateral, and with a delicate ;;roove coiiiiectinn' with the com- 
misstire of the month. ( 'anthiis lostralis not marked. The mn//.le is 
as lon.ii as the iissnre of the eye, while the len;;tii t»f the c:)minissiire of 
liie month (diagonal line) is ei|nal to the width of the head at the 
rictus. The tonjj;iie is largely free, the posterioi' pcntitm rather 
narrowly. The inner nari's are nearer lo;;('ther than the outer. The 
vomerine teeth commence heliind the nares, and form a siiifi'le series of 
einht on a rid^e, which is ;;;ently arilied hackwa ds on the median line. 
Tlie parasphenoid patch does not extend »|iiile foiward to tlie mid- 
tile of the orbits; it is minh Hatter and wider anteriorly than in 
.1. httiithris, and con tains opposite the posterior margin of the orbits ten 
ion^itudinal series of teeth, those oj' adjaceiil rows aiternatin;^'. 

• ? 

» } 





f S 




I£4|2j8 12.5 

w 1^ mm 



11.25 nil 1.4 















t ) 

Giilar fold well niarkcd; costal folds foiirfecii, not contiiinod on back 
or abdomen. The limbs, and especially the digits, are .slender; appressed 
to the side, they fail to meet by the length of the lin«ers. The form of 
the body is .slender and cylindric, and the width of the head enters the 
total length to the groin seven times. The tail is, as in .1. liifjuhns, 
eqnal to the head and body in length, cylindrical, slender, and .slightly 
compres.scd at tip. 

The thnmb po.ssesses a short phalange, but no part of it is free, as in 
A. iKfjiihris; on the other liand, all the phalanges of the other toes of 
both feet are more slender than the .1. luguhris, and the distal ones 
distinctly truncate and .slightly emarginate, with dermal thickening 
below tip. All are qnite free. Number o'' phalanges, 1-2-3-2, l-2-;}-3-2. 

Coloration.— Hides and nape greenish-gray; toj) of hea<I and dors;i| 
region behind in the form of a serrate band, with the tail, black; below 
yellowi.shbrown; limbs black above, brown below; inferior regions un- 

1 4 3 5 

Fid. 45. Aiitoilaxferrciin. Xo. (JTOJ. Kort riupi|ii,i, 1, j. 

Miaxitivmctils, in inches. 

Iiiolu ... 

Loiifjtli, .axial, from .snout to rictus oris ;-J 

Leiigtli. iixial, IVoiii sii;)iit to axilla TO^rtli, axial, from snout to <rroin l.T.'> 

L(Mi};tli, axial, I'rom snout to end of vent ',*. 

Lenf^tli, axiiil, from .snout to end of tail :i. (i.") 

Lt'iifrtli of forc-limh i") 

Length of fore-foot 'J 

Li'iigth of liiud liml) 'i.'i 

Lt'i);;tli of 111 ml foot *J<i 

Widtli of hind-foot sole 11 

Width of head at rictus oris 'JH 

Width ofhodyat middle )>\ 

Width of body at sacrum 2 

The maxillary bone displays the same sudden deeurvatnre anterior to 
and below the orbit which the A. hif/uhris does, but it is less marked; 
in consecpience, the commissure of the mouth is less sinuate. The long 
mandibidar and maxillary teeth, while of similar structure, are de- 
veloj^ed. IVf]iai».s larger specimens of this spi cies may be fuiiinl where 
they may be larger, as in small specimens of .1. Iiif/iihri.s they are nearly 
sinn'lar in proportions. 

Thoiigli nearly allied to the A. Iminhrh, the presefit species will never 
be confounded with it. It is a much weaker i does not disp|:i.\ 
the characters of llic g(Miiis in .so .striking a degre'. The form of the 

>\ \ 





t , 

»* ; 





tail is that of A. luffuhris, ami not tliat of ^l. iivdnus. lUit one speci- 
nu'ii has come under my oUservalion, as follows: 
No. 071>4i 1 si»ecimen ; Fort IJmpiiUii, Orcfjon ; Dr. Vollen. 

AUTODAX liiCANL'.S C.ipc. 

I'h'hodini ii'caiiHs Copo, Proccod. Ac. Pliila. 188!}, p. 21. 

.Iiniidct ii'ii'iiis Cit\K', I'rocciMl. Aiiicr. I'liilosoph. Sdc, 188!), p. ^viC). 

A I'liily f^rown imlividtial of tins speeics i)resents the followiuf;' char- 
acters: The form is ratlier robust, and the head is distiii<;nished from 
the neck by tiie swollen temporal mnscles. The muzzle is short and 
wiile, with roiiuded border, and is not so contracted as in the.l. liiiia- 
/>//v. The len<;th from the end of the muzzle to the axilla enters that 
IVom the latter to the t-ioin one and a half times. The tail isof moderate 
Icnjith, equiilin,n' tlmt of the body (includinf? vent) nearly to the thora(!ic 
fbhl. TIh! width of the head enters the lenj>th from end of muzzh? to 
j;ioin live and one half times— a proportion intermediate between 
exhibited by the two other species of the fi'enus. The limbs are rather 
robust, and when ai)pressed to t!,.; .sides leave an interval of three 
iMler<;ostal spa(;es. 

The top of the head is flat, and the least interorbital width is ecpial 
to the lenj^tii from the eye to th(^ end of the muzzle and to the space'd between the external borders of the external nares. The 
commissure of the mouth rises behiml the line of the orbit as in the.l. 
Iii(/iihri^. The muzzle does not project lieyond the mouth, as it does in 
.1. luiftthris. The internal nares are very small. The tongue is lar<>e 
and antero posteriorly oval, and is t'xtensively free at the sides. The 
vomero palatine teeth are in two short rows of three or four teeth each, 
which (M)mnK'nce behind the internal nares, ou a liiu' with their inter- 
nal borders, and converge, with slij;hi posterior inclination, without 
meetinfj. The patch of parasphenoid teeth is wide and subtruneate in 
front, and is undivided except towards the i)osterior ])ortion. The 
larjxe teeth of the Jaws are not so well developed as in the .1. int/Kbris^ 
ar(^ nH)re sleinler in form, and not so numerous. They <!onstitut«', the 
entire arnniture of the dentary bone, occupying; only the anteri(U' half. 
1 <!ount only four of then), and they are movable; that is, iiunniture. 
1 find no fixed oiu>s of the larji'cr size in the uppi'i- jaw. Three or four 
of the posterior imixillary teeth are like those (»f the dentary bone, but 
Ihey ;4iadiiate anteriorly into teeth of the usual type. An examina- 
tion of otherspeciuuinswill be necessai'y toascertain whether these teeth 
i»econu5 permanent or not, or whether they are developments of the 
lireedin<>' season. The larj;e temi)oral muscles, curved coi: nissure of 
the Mn)Uth, etc., so re.send)l(^ the correspondiiiii' parts in the .1. liiijiihriii, 
that I suppose their i)ermanentdtMital characters to be alike. Thennix- 
ill-ry bone projects abruptly downwards behind th(^ last nmxillary 
lOoth, formiuff a snn)(>th eil;i'e. as in A. hifiKhris. 


\v > 



The skill ol" the A. iiranm is smootli. Tliere are tliirteeii hiteral 
IbUls between axilla aiid yroiii, and a stroiij; pectoro jiiilartbld. The hit- 
ter rises on each side in front of the shoulder, and then turns upwards 
and forwards. It is soon changed into a narrow dermal ridge or rib, 
whieh is (Irst eonvex iii)wards and then eonvex downwards, and then 
terminates in line with the a diameter of the latter behind it. 

The feet are short, i.nd the diyits are tlattened and are obtuse at the 
tips. The pollex is only free by a slight notch, and the hallux by a 
rather deei>er one. The phalanges are: Anterior, l-2-.'5-2; jmsleiior, 
l-L'-:5-3-2. The third and (iflli anterior digits ar<' equal, while the 
l)osteriors run l-2-i"i-;i-l, beginning with the shortest. The third and 
fourth are nearly equal. 

The tail is somewhat depress(>d at the base, and beeonics round in see- 
tion to the end of the jtroxima] two -fifths. It then becomes giadually 
more compressed, until ic is quite Hat for the distal third. 

2 V / ^^afi/ III m \\\ ^ 7 

1 3 4 6 

T\r..W). AiitmJax iVcaniin. No. U'lOC. Slmst.i County, ('alifuniiii ; \. 

The color is black, relieved by a yellowish-brown shade of the ehin. 
and of the i)alms and soles, and half the inferior side of tiie fore aim- 
A line of the same (!olor passes from the nostril to the upper lip, and lln' 
lower eyelid has the same color. The sui)erior surfaces and sides ot 
the hea I, body, and tail are dusted rather thickly with small suiH'(pial 
bluish-white spots, much as are seen in Plethodon (jlKtinosus. 

M(<isiii('ni( Ills III' Xo. 1 l,r)l)(i. 


r,('ii{i;lli from end of iiin/zlc to ciul of tail I'.'vJ 

Li'iif^tli from (Mid of inii/./.lc to end of vont (IT I 

l,('iij;lli from (Mid of muzzle to jfroin (l.V.t 

li(Mi;;tli from end of innzzle to axilla (I'.M 

licnj^tli from end of inuzzli^ to cantlins oris dlt) 

I-iMiji;|]i of for(! 11 ml) diri 

l>enj;tli of hind limb (117 

lieiiniii of Iiind foot (t(W 

Width between orbitH (least) niKti; 

Width of head (;j;reat(>Ht) Oil 

The typical adidt specimen displays the anomaly of the suppression 
of the fourth posterior digit of the left side. 

This salamander resembles tiie rkthmhn glntinosus in various re- 
spects, especially in coloration. It lias, however, a compresscMl tail, like 
tiie /'. intarmeiliiin, and short series of vomerine teeth. The reeurviMl 
commissure of the mouth gives it the smiling expression ehjiraeteristie 






of the other species of Autoilox, which is quite (litlereiit from that seen 
ill ricthodoii. 

TUii Aiitodnx ii'canns was originally established on a half grown speci- 
men found by myself in Shasta County, Cal. A second specimen of 
the same size was sent to the National i\[useu.n by Mr. Charles Town- 
send from the same locality. The young specimens do not display the 
physiognomy of the genus, but have the usual want of character as 
coMipared with the adult. The vomerine series of teeth are, however, 
rather better developed. The typical specimen has the following char- 
acters : 

The vomerine series are straight, and do not quite meet on ihe mid- 
dle line. They are entirely behind the nares, and do not extend exteri,)r 
to them. Tiie paras[>henoid patches are united into one, and are well 
separated from the vomerines. 

Form rather stout, and the tail short, etpiiding (from vent) the length 
of the body (with vent) to the gular fold. Costal folds, 1'}. IIea<l a 
longitudinal oval, with rather narro\.ed and not truncate niuzzK' ; its 
length (to occii)nt) contained o'-J times in length from muzzle to groin. 

Limbs short; wlu-n pressed along the side they aresei)arate(l hy three 
intercostal spaces. The digits are short and the internal ones are rudi- 

The color is black everywhere, and the superior surfaces are dusted 
over with minute light specks. 

Mc.tmirciiii Ills. 


Tt)tal U'li^th OK? 

Li'i)i;(h IVoiii iiHi/.y.lo (o axilla (iIOo 

Lciii^tli fnnii n\\i/./.U', to {;r()ii> O'JTf) 

Willi li of Lead at e-aiitlms oris 0(Hi 

l.i'iinlli of anterior limb , ()();l 

Lciifitli of anterior f.)ot (102 

Len<;tli of ))(i.s(erior limb OOV.") 

l.fn;;th of jKLsterior foot OUlVi 

This species is to be compared with the Vkthcdon inteniwilinn of 
western Oregon. It is shorter ami more robust in form, having only 
thirteen costal plica* instead of fifteen. The color is very diBerent. 

I'al. Nil. Xo. spcr. 

I I.V.Ki 

I.ociilily. (;()llrcliir. 

Mil i III, Sli;isl:i Cuuiil.v, Ciil <!. U. Towiiscml. 

lid r.ivin^filim Slmii'. 

' 't! 


• 4 






V ■ I 




I I' 2 


Tliis species is named from the aboriginal name li'ka, of the grand 
peak of northern ('alif(>i'nia, .Mn:int Sliasta. From the same name the 
town of Yrekii d<'riv«'s its name. So I am inlbi'med by Judge liose- 
bor(Uigh, of that place, to wlioin I am under great ol>!igations I'or many 
facilities and much inl'ormation. 



Copt', Joiiiii. Ac. Nat. Sim. IMiihi., ISCUi, 107. 

Ptor.vgoids wantiiij;-. Oibitospliciioid sc'i)iiiiite<l by inemluane Croiii 
I-iootic!. Vestibiik', iiitt'inal wall o.sscumis. Jh'iitij-i'roii.s plates on tlio 
paraspbt'iioid. Ceratoliyal articulatiiij;- with (niailratc. ('ar])iis and 
iar.siis cartilaginous. Vortebiin opistliocd'loii.s. Jlyoid apparatus an 
ill the IMethodoiitida". 

The peculiarity of the vertebne distiiij>uishes this laiiiily eliielly from 
the last. Ill the only genus wliicli represents it, there are iiiiiiientus 
peculiarities, which are not found elsewhere. Should other j,'eiiera b(^ 
found which do not possess tliciii, the above diaj-nosis would probably 
be the proi)er test of their family allinities. 

The distribution is continod to the eastern district of the nearctic 
realm so far as yet known. 

The Thoriida' only dill'er lioiii the DesnioKiiathida' in the o.sseons 
carpus and tarsus. The single genus Thorius Cope is included by 
iJoulenger in the Desmognathida'. Thorius has a boletoid tongue like 
Spelerpes, and the parietal region mostly membranoiis. Toes, 1-5. One 
species, T.pcitnatulus Cope, of small size, from E. Mexico. 


.JoiiMi. Ac. .Nut. Sci., I. •JSj.-J-jr. : Gray, Cut. I?rit. Mas., isr.ii, iii ; (.'ope, 
I'loccfd. Ac. Pliila., l-^Oll ll'i : Straiicli, Salam., j). 72 : 15(iiilcnj,'cr. 
Cat.Hatr. Sal. IJiit. Miis. -(Lii, \^S>, p. 77. 

Premaxillaries united, embracing a fontanelle ; parii'tal bones o.ssi- 
lied. rretVontsil bones wanting. ()ccii»ital condyles on cylindric i>ed- 
estals. Temporal muscle arising only from the atlas, with ii tendinous 
external margin and insertion, i)assing freely over the parietal and 
I)rootic bones. Tonguti attached, except by its lateral and posterior 
margins. V^oinerine and sphenoidal teeth present. J)igits distinct, l-"*. 

The absence of o. prefrontale does not ai)iiear to be the result of its 
confluence at any late [)eriod with thenasale; its ordinary position is 
traversed by the frontal suture. Tiie frontal bone is decurVed, and 
closes the preorbital aspect of the super[)alatal vacuity, usually opsii. 

This marked genus, so aliundantly represented by individuals in the 
eaMtern district of Xorth America, is not admitted by either Diimeiil 
(u- Ilallowell, probably it dojs not dill'er in external characters 
from riethodon. It is anexcellent illustration of the error of adhering to 
external characters only, iii tlieexitlanatioii of the relations and allinities 
of organized beings, except for a liiniteil range. Tlie examination of 
the .skeleton of six'cies of this genus utterly changes tho imi)ressions 
produced by a consideration of tlie extcrnil cliara(!ters. It may bo 
stated aschar.icteristic of the Ijatr.uihia in general that their iiflinities 
can not be determined without study of the skeleton. 

i: if'^^fi 




There arc no (loriniil appeiulages developed in tbis genus at tbe 
hreedin}^" season. 

1. Mali^s witli posterior liii'f of the mandible coiiciivo and edentnlons. 

Infciior liiteriil scries of poros iniperfoct or wanting, HnjH'riar nono ; no luln'iclc 
ill cantiiiis ocnii ; tail mostly roundi-d ; fourtiu'ii costal plica'; a jiillowisli 

(lorsiil band ; belly immacnlato ; size small If. ocliroiilidK, 

II. Males with mandibnlar alveolar mari^in continnons and completely tootb(!d. 

Iiil'crior lateral series of pores well dc^vcloptid, snpciioi' irregular or wantiii,^; a 
tubercle in caiitluis ocnli ; tail compressed, keeled, and linned; fourtetiii costal 
plica'; above dark spotted, below niarbb^d ; size medium 1). fnncd. 

I'w o well-develo|)ed lateral seric s of pores ; a marked tubercle in the cantliiis of 
the eye; tail llattened, linned above, attcMiuate; twelve costal folds.; black 
above and below ; sizi! larjft; I), nigra. 

I'roceed. Ac. N'at. Sci. I'liila., ISV.t, l','-2. 

This small species bears a strong reseniblaniie to the Spclerjx.s hi- 
line(ttu.s Vtvaaw, and, apart from generic characters, may be known from 
it by the rounded tail, the paler-colored abd()men, and the light bar 
iVom the eye to the angle of tiie mouth. Its proportions are stouter 
tiian in Plethodon cincrciis crijtliyonotnH, to which it also bears some re- 

Tiie costal folds are thirteen, but fourteen if that which is immedi- 
ately above the groin be counted. The hrst falls immediately into the 
axilla. This is the chaia(!teristic an-angement in I>.fnsc<i also, while in 
/>. itiiiru the fold above the groin usually extends to it, and is the twelfth, 
vviiilc; that which corresponds to the first of the species before named 
I aiisjust in ailvaiuie of the axilla. Though this is typical of />. ni(;i<i 
occasionally another i)!ica appears above the groin, and the twelfth is 
.-lightly in front of it. 

The pores in I>. ochroi>h(va are very difUcult to observe. In a few 
specimens I have seen a few of those of the .series ; the upper I bc- 
lii've to be wanting. The gnlar fold is distinct, and another vertical fold 
coiiiinences behind its extremity, and turning longitudinally, extends 
more or less distin(!tly to the orbit. As in other species, the derm a<l- 
lieres closely to the frontal bones and is more or less The 
head is oval, with rounded depressed muzzle; its greatest width en- 
ters the length to the groin .~»'rj times. The commissure of the mouth is 
.--lightly llexuose. 

The appressed limbs fail to nu-et by four intercostal spaces. The 
inner «ligits of both feet are short but free, longer than in IMethodon 
species of similar size; the othei- digits are also longer and more dis- 
tinct ; proi)orfions, l-l-2-.'5, l-r»-L*-l-;i; only three phalanges in longest 
t.:es. The tail is quite slender, and oidy compressed at tip; in sonu^ 
there is a keel above on the distal third, but never any dermal lln. 

The vomerine teeth are very few and small when present ; they are 
often wanting. Their basal line is on a ridge, which is convex back- 






' r 



wards, nearly coiitiimous medially. Tlie panisplieiioid (eetli staml on 

two narrow plates, wbicli arc well separated, especialjy behind, and are 

shortened; anteriorly they only reach to near the niiTldlc oftlic orbits. 

Tiie mandibular teeth present pecularitics in the male, by which it may 

l)e readily distinguished from the female. In a large number of speei- 

mens the oral commissure is but little undulate, and the mandibular 

teeth though longer medially, arc continued to near the basis of the 

coronoid i)rocess. The nuilcs exhibit a strongly flexuous commissure, 

and the alveolar margin of the mandible is dee])Iy concave below the 

front of the (ubit, an<l is edentulous. The distal portion is abruptly 

convex and is armed with long teeth. The margin is slightly concave, 

anterior to this point, ami finally rises again at the symphysis, Miiicli is 

l»roiiiin('iit and protected externally by a pad of crypts as in />. /kscun. 

The structure of the males is in the luaudibular dentition (juite that 

of the genus Autodax ; the A. fcrrcits presenting the characters but 

little more stiongly. No such sexual dil!ereiu;e can be found in the 

I), /'itsrd, though the commissure only may be sometimes more (Icxu- 

ous in uuiles. The Jaws antl dentition in the 7>. iiifjra do not dilfer in 

t!i(! two sexes. I have observed that two of the many males of />. ovhro- 

^>//fm possess the female denition. The tongue in I). ochviq)hnt( is an 

elongate oval, cousideiably free behind. 

The color of females is a bright brownish yellow, fading to dirty white 
below, with a dark brown shade on each side from the eye to liie end 
»)f the tail, which is daikest above ami gives the dorsal space the char- 
acter of a band. There is an irregular scries of brown dots along the 
vertebral line. .Males are rather larger and usually darker in color ; 
thus the dorsal baml is brownish, the lateral band blackish, and tlu^ 
dorsal spots more distinct. In most speciuu'us of both sexes there is a 
light band from the eye to the rictus oris, and the belly is idways im 
maculate ; the gular region nearly always. The testes and v is deferens 
are covere<l with black i»igment ; no i)igment on the peritonu'um ol the 


143 5 

I''|ii. 47. D('Siiiiiijiiathiiii<irliriipI((r(t, No. (i,«Ul. .Miailvillr, Ta. ; .], ;. Ki;;. -, c/ ; 2(1, 9 . 

This species attains scarcely half the size of the D./iisni, as indi(;ated 
by the numerous females with develo))ed eggs in our colli ctions. As 
the eggs are ((puil in size to those of />. fitscn when roady to be dis- 
charged, and as the species is only half the size of the same, the eggs 
in the oviduct of a gravid fenuUe atone tinu', are oidy half as nnnu-rous. 
I have oidy found from (5 to 10 in />. ovhrophmt, in each oviduct, while 
from 18 to 30 may be counli d on one side in D. fifscd. 





MiaiiivniuHls of Xo. (WJl, iii hiihiH. 


Li'iigtli, iixial, from Niioiit to rictus oris j 

Li'ii;;tli, fixiiil, from snout to iixiliii 4(; 

I,('i);;tii, axial, from snout to j^roiii l.«2;) 

Li'ii;;tii, iixijil, from snout to end of vent l.f)! 

I,('ii;;tli, axial, from snout to end of tail ;i. (II 

l,rn.i;tli of fori! liuil) ;{ 

1 -I'll:; til of for(! foot (W 

hi'nj;tli of hind linil> ;{(j 

Li'n;;tli of Iiind foot 17 

W'idtll of liind-foot sole ^ 

Will III of head at lictns oris <j 

Width of liody at miildlc •'•^ 

Habitat, ('t(!. This suliiinaiHlcr is chlt'Hy iibmidiiiit in flic chain of 
llio Alli'shiiiiios and thoir ontlyiiiy spurs. I liave never sci'ii it in th(^ 
liill <u)iiiitry (if Pennsylvania or tiio lower ])hiins of New Jersey ami 
.Maryland, nnr have I observed it in the Alle^lianies of sonthwesterii 
Vir,i;inia. 1 have taken it abundantly in the IJIack Moiitains of North 
Carolina. The riiiladelphia Academy possesses nninerou.s speeimeiis 
IVotn the IJroad-Top iMonntain, in southern Pennsylvania, from Dr. 
I.i'idy, It has others from Warren County, Pa., from Dr. Mainlall. In 
northern Peiin.sylvania and the Adirondacks it is very abundant. 

The habits of this iiniinal tire terrestrial. It occurs under the bark 
of every fallen lo^ of headock [Abiefi canadensis) and in the debris of 
tiie dark divmp forests of the North. I never saw one in the water of 
.streams and river baidvs, the habitat of the other species of the ;,'enus. 

Professor Baird was familiar with this si>ecies befor.', I described it. 
I published his su^'^festion, expressed in ii letter, tlnit. it was tiie S. 
Iialdnnani of Ilolbrook. Ilolbrook's fiojure does not represent tlii.s 
species in any deoree, nor is his description more conclusive as to the 
reference of this species to it rather than some others. JJe says it is 
marked with spots on the upper surfaces, which are "disposed without 
much regularity," but the largest arc on the iiaidvs. There are but few 
sjjots above in this animal, and they are in a regular mediiin series. 
The sides iire banded. He also describes and ligures the belly as yel- 
low, which it is not in JJcHmof/nathns oohropluva. The ISalamandra hat- 
dvman'i ai)pears to me to have been proposed on an unusually s[)otted 
Spclcrpes bilineafus. 

PvsmofjiKtthHn ochrophwu Cope. 


Xo. of 











Alli'Kiiiiv (!i)iuitv, X. Y 
liiaiUiinl Cipinil'v, I'a... 
.Mciiilvillc, l>a 

Wlu'iii'ii anil liipw 

Or. Stevens. 
C.C Martin. 
l'r()re.s,sor Wllliani.s. 

Siis(iiieliaiuia Comity, I'a j I'rofew.sor Coiic. 


I M 

I "h> 


11)51— Bull 31- 






! * 




Varictji. A spi-ciiiK'n with Hii' ik'iitition, colonitioii, aiid pioporiicMis 
of body iiiid tail of this spi'dos wa.s sent to the Sinitlisoiiiiin Institiilioii 
Worn iiortlieni (Iforgia by Dr. .loius. It iipinoaclics tUv. IK fnsca in 
having a snnill tuhvrvuUm cunthuK oaiU, and a woll-devt'loiied infericM' 
series of niucoi s pores. 


(riati's:it,lij;s. ."),(;; :i(l, lif?. 1 ; ir>, li^'.7.) 
(var. fiinva.) 

Baird, Jonni. Ac. riiila. (■.'), i. i>.'^-.'>; Cope, I'loccil. Ac. riiilii,, i. lf^(V.», 
p. 11.'); Sfraiicli, Saliiin., p. T»; (irav. Cat. Hatr. (iiail. IJrit. Miis., 
c(l I, p. 10: nonlci),>;cr, Cat. ISatr. (iiail. Hiit. Mii.s.,c(l. ii, \S-*'2, p. 77. 

Triliirut fiiariiH Raliii,, Annals of Nature, \&i\> (jUh IJainl). 

SaUimandra iiitirmi.rta('<vvot\, Coiit. Macl. Lye. i, p. H-J", 

SaliimaiKlrctpidd Harlan, .Tdiumi. Ac. IMiila., v, p. llix. 

Salttmaiidra qnadrhnaciildla llollir., X. A. Ilerp. v, p. ID, IN. I",'. 

riilhoduiifiiscii))! Duin. & IJibr., p. 85, IM. 101, li^. :«. 

rietliodoit nUjcr Hallow., pi., .lonrii. Ac. Pliila. (li), IS.")^^, p. var. (tiiriciilnid, 

Saidiiiaiidraaiiniiildlii HoUir., N. A. Hcrp., v. p. 17, IM. Vi. 

Dcamognathns aiiricitlatns Mainl, Joiirii. .\c. IMiila. ('2), i, p. 'iH'r, Strancli, .Salam., p. 

71; Gray, Cat. IJatr. fJrail. Brit. Miis., cd. i, p. U. 
CjlHudroHomd (iiii'uiildliiiii D'liii. & ]5il)r., l>. HI. 
J)esinogiiathH8 J'nsvd var. aiiricitlata Cope Proc. Ac. Pliila., lHi;i» ,)). lltl; l{oulen>;er, 

Cat. Hatr. Grad. Hrit. Mns., ed. in, l-^Si, p. 7H. 

This, perhaps the most abundant salamander in North America, is 
(luito variable in coloration, but not in proportions and struettiral jte 
culiarities. of the latter which characterize it are the presence oi' 
fourteen costal plicae; one well, and one little developed lateral se- 
ries of mucous pores; the equal and regular distribution of teeth on 
the mandible of males ; the compressed tail keeled above and tinned 
distally ; the presence of a tubercle in the anterior canthus of the ; 
the marbled color of the belly. In many quarts of specimens I lind 
four specimens from southern localities; two in tlie I'hiladelpliia AiMd 
eniy from Charleston, two in the Smithsonian from IJiloxi, .Miss., whicli 
have fifteen plica', but one of the latter has fourteen on one side. In 
specimens which have been preserved in too strong spirit th(5 pores 
are rendered invisible; the same occurs when the spirit is impure or 
weak. In soft specimens, the canthal tubercle sometimes disappears, 
and in many young si)ecimens and some sidult females it does not ap- 
peal' to exist. 

The head is more depressed and the muzzle prolonged than in species 
of other genera. The eyes arc piominent; llic plica' behind them 
strongly marked. These consist of one on each sitle the head and nape, 
which convei'ge posteriorly and then turn abruptly outwai'd, to be 
continued into the gular plica. A secLMid plica extends from the man- 
dible across the rictus oris to the upper plica. A second longitudinal 

-i A 

A I 

of \\ 
is, 11 



pliiM t'xleiuls from this to tlio guhir, iiiclosiii{( an ovate tMilargcd area, 
Mini a sln)rt one to the orbit incloses a postorbital siibroiind and smaller 

'riiciMnnniissureof the mouth is more undulate in males than in lemales, 
liiit both present a slight elongation of the symphysis, produced exter- 
II illy by a pad of crypts. The M'idth of the head enters the length 
.").(>(! times. The vomerine teeth are often wanting, and when present 
iiie minute and few. Their basis is a ridge, whi(!h extends from behind 
(lie middle of the posterior nares Jicross the palate with a posterior con- 
vexity. The parasplienoid patches are small and not in contact; they 
do not extend to opposite the middle of the orbits. 

The median toes are elongate, and as in I). orliroplKva ; they fail to 
meet by four interspaces when pressed to the side. The tail has a char- 
acteristic form, which is invariable at all periods; near the base the sec- 
tion is trigonal ; the dorsal keel increases in elevation and becomes a 
narrow tin i»osteriorly ; the extremity is attenuated. Its length is just 
ecpial to that of the remainder of the animal. 








■ A 




; 1 




VVi.ix. Demiwfjnathtis /iinyjt fituca. No. 40. (^arli.sle, Pa. -, f. 

i i 

There are two color varieties, which blend together so as to indicate 
that no higher value can be attached to them ; one of these is the Sala- 
iiKtniIra aKricidata of llolbrook. 

AImim- Itiown, Willi ^r.iy an<l iiinksliiuh'S ; widcs iiiid belly iiiiirblcd, the pale predoiii- 
iiiatinjf ; no red .sjiots on sides xur.fnsca. 

Aliove and Hides black; llit^ latter with a .series of .small fed wpoLs; a red spot IVoin 
eye to eantliiis of mouth, present or absent ; belly marbled, the dark itredominat- 
iu'^ var. aiiriciilata. 

The latter variety occurs only in the Southern States; the tubercle 
of the angle of the eye and the upper lateral i)ores are often better 
developed in it than in var. Fiisca, therefore api»roachiiig I), nigra. It 
is, however, easily distinguished from the latter. Sundry si)ecimeus 




: xaaux^assuzra 




M '?, 

lack the red si»(»ts, aixl ollieis liavo palor hi'Ilies, itvsoniUliiig tiius tlio 
darker Fiusciu. Tlii' si/e is the siune. 

Fill. -to. Pcuviiipniithiin/iifCti (firiculdta. Xo. — . ; J. 

Ill tlie youii^' of IK/Ksca tlicie is ii .sciies of piiikisli iiKioiiiplelt I.v 
sejiiinited alternating spots, in two series, eoverin;,' ilie wliole, dorsal 
re>;i()n; tliey are rarely so well distinjjiiislied or so brijjjlit as in tlic 
specimen of the same which furnished the type of IFollirook's S. (juatl- 
rimaviildtd. The pink fades to oraiif^e brown or oclii r, and to pale lirowii, 
with a^'e, and at the fnllest maturity all are lost in a uniform blackisli 

Mvasiinminln of Xo. (W.)2, in incites. 


Lciiji,'(li axial, from siioiit to rictus oris :i 

Leiij,'!!!, axial, tVoiii snout ti> axilla 71 

Lt'iij,'tli, axial, I'loin Niiont to ^roiii l.;t:, 

Lciijjtli, axial, from snout to end of vent '2.'.i 

Lcn!^;li. axial, from snout to end of tail 4.(i 

Len<;t!i of fore limli Iv! 

Length of fore foot I"> 

Lengtli of hind limb (i-J 

l,eiij,'th of hind foot "Jii 

Width of sole foot 1(1 

AVidtli of head at rictus oris. :i7.") 

Width of body at miildle .'if) 

Habitat, etc. — This si)ecies lives chiefly JUiionj; the stones in the many 
shallow rivulets iind springs of the hilly and monntainons regions 
of the country. It is not so partial to deeper iind stiller waters as tlie 
Spclcriirs ruber, hut prefers the rapid and shallow streamlets; here it 
may be found under every stone, or its delicate larva may be ob.served 
darting rapidly from jdacy to place, seeking concealment among mud 
and leaves. The />. fusat is one of the most active and vigorous of our 
species. The i)eciiliiir structure of tlu^ temporal muscle and its ten- 
dons, and of the occipital condyles, with the siriiigth of the bones of 
the front, enable it to bnri'ow among stones and in earth more readily 
than the species of other genera. When pursued, it runs ami wriggles 
out of sight with the gretitest rapidity, and is (piickly concealed by as- 
sistance of its dusky c(dors. 

Professor Baird originally noticed the enritais disi)osition of the eggs 
iu this species, which I have verified on a lew occasions. As in the 









iiiiiii'ou.s genua Alytes, tlni psK'^j '^" I'lnissioii, uro comu'C'ted by an iilbu- 

iiiiiioiis tlirt'iul, which soon coiitr.Kst.s iiiul hanliMis. One of the soxes 

protects this rosary by wr.ippiii;; it sevenil times roiiiul the body iiiiil 

reiiiiiiiiiii}f cuuceiiled in a (ionipiiratively dry spot. How \ou{i this 

;;niird continnes is not known. 

Tiie most lOastern specimen I luiveseen is from Kssex (!onnty, Mass. 

ISesiiU's a {^reat nnmber of spe<!imens in tiie Mnsenm of the PhihuU'l- 

pliia Ac''':Mny, the foHowin;;' form llie Smithsonian basis of the exanii- 

niition : 

DeamoijiuitliiiH fiiura J'liMca Kalincs«iue. 





:i!iii4 , 
;mi:. I 


Ni>. of 


























diirlisli'. I'll 

M:iliilfvilli>, I.:i 

Kinsldii, N. i; 

.Mrailvillr, IM 

(^'iiiliilc, Vii 

Siilcm, \.(; 

N;ishvillc, da 

Alilicvilli', S. C|i(irl, N. V 

'I'l IlllfSSt'i' 

CI kImiiiiii Ciiillit v. I'oilli 



From whom icceivod. 

N..V.-, IS78 

Aiij:. 5, IKSU 

Vin{. S. V. Iliiinl 

N. (). Ai'aclnniv 

W.'lshtM' A MiliiiT 

I'ldl'i'MHcir WillianiK . ., 

I'lof. S. K Itairil 

.1 T. Miwliack , 

\V. .1. Tavliir 

Pn.l. S. [■: ltair.1 

j . . <1(> 

lK7fl .r. N. It. SiarlMMKiiKh... 
. lid 

:-8 :i 

















•1 ' 










r.iliiniliiis, Uliiii ' I'ldl. I,. I.i's(|iii'HMix. 

itiaiii;!'. N. .1 Dr .J. (i()<in|)i r . 

ritl>liiiii;li, I'a 

Ilii;lilaiiil Ciiiiiity, Oliiii 

Km aw, Ml 


I'liil.iili'i|ilii I. I'lV 

U.ick Cii'.k. D.C 

lliiiiiU\ i:li', Iml 

All n.mlai k, N. Y 

N'lii I'll k. (.'oiiii 

(ilouii'slrr, Mil 

(ilip'ircslur, Vii 

Kii rlM>ri>iiL:li, (ia 

H.I„\i, Mis.H 

NiitillK of 
H|irrimi ii. 



(:,<]. IJ I.. ('. Wiiili^s I 

J. Itlcliaril I 

I'. I,. JdUV I I. 

III. K. Ilaviiiiiiiil { 

K.CIaikii' ! 

A. V. Wiioslor j 

(!) ! 

lir w.'i.'.JiVnVH "!!!;.'.'.'! 

(;. Itilliuau ! 

I o. 












I 'JO 


Illj.'lilaii(l CoHiily.Oliio J 

Mivicl villi', I 'a , Williams 

Aujjiisla, (!.i ; Win. I'liil i|n 

(•> I (.') 

Kraiiklio Coiiiitv, Ti nil 1 .1. N. Ii. S iiiltoinoKli 

WiisliiiiL'loi, D. (; ' (.'» 

<'oliipil)ia,.s. C I Dr. (i>o. A. Moraii,!'. S. A 

U'a-ililii;;lOM, D (! I Dr. 10. (!oUrs 

fliuki'Coiihlv, Va ' [ (". It. K. Kciinrrly 

Sal.iii N.(; ; ' .1. T. Liiiiliaik .: 

Amli'iMiiii. S. C 

(^iiiriiinati, Oliio. 
(Iliiiilnrtloii. S C 
Wvlhi'villr, Vii . 

fa'rlisli", I'll 


Miss I'ailK^ 


.1. N. It. Sraibormijjii. 

.. ' (.') 

1HK.'> Col. M. Mi'Domilil ... 
I Prof. .S. K liain; 


MI.H.sis<l|i|ii Dr. .Sliiiiiiiiaril 

Dayton, Ala i Kil^ffwortli 

I'"aii(iiiii'r (Joniity, Va [ (;. \V. Sliciirinanii^, N. (,' I .1. McN'air 

1 > 


Knoxvillo, TiMin 

Columlila (^iiiiiity, I'li 

(ioorjiiu 1 



... ilo 


■ ! (.'1 

.1 I'lolM. It. Mililii-ll 

Dr. Ilinclc'isoii 

I Di . W. L .1 m:n .... 

.; .... ilo 







DcsmoijiialhuH fimca tiiiricnlala IloHtrook. 


No. of 








1 ; 






Oakloy, S. (' 

('iiiciiiiiiiti, Oliio ... 
1 ■ Itiifbinoii^li, (jii . . . 


Knoxvillc, Ti'iiM — 



Apiil ."i, IH77 

Kioiii whom iTi'i'ivi'd, 

K. \V. Hay ward 

.1. N. 1!. Sr:iiI)i>ioii};li. 
Dr. \V. L. .lolifs 


I'rof.J.Jl. Milcli.ll .. 

Nature of 


A!( iiliolic 



Baird, .Iimrii. Acad, riiila. (•,') i, \^.'2di> ; Copo, rroecc.l. Ac, Pliilji., IHd'.t, 
J). 117; .Straiuli, Salam., p. "li ; (iray, Cat. liatr. (irail. Brit. Miis., 
0(1. 1, p. -10; Boiilengcr, Cat. liatr. (iia<l. Brit. iMiis., «m1. ii, I*,--.', j.. 7'.». 

Salamaitilra nigra Grcoii, Jouni. Ac. I'liila, i, p. Ii.")'.'. 

TiiloH nii/ff Ilolbr., N. A. Hcrp., ami )>. HI, I'l.'i?. 

AmhUjHioma n'Kjnim Diiiii.A; Bibr., ]>. 10.'>. 

J'hthodon n'Kjvr IIalli)\v.. Jour. Ac. Pliila. (2), in, p. :M4, partim. 

Tliis i.s the most robust SiilaiiiaiHlor of tlie oastorn ro;;i(>n.s oC our 
zoological roalin; it i.s not so sIimkUm' as the (ii/rinophilusporphi/riticns, 
and isainudi stronger animal. AscompanMl with the P./usca it isiinnli 
larger, tlie tail ismoreconii)rosse(l and extensively finned, and the color 
is uniibrmly different. Mesides the ciiaracters already pointed out in 
the table, it differs from ]>.fuscii as follows: The parasfdienoid i)atcli(s 
of teeth are prolonged more anteriorly, and approach very near the 
vomerines in most instances; tliey are always i)rol(niged beyond tlie 
middle of the orbits ; their prolongation is at the same time nsirrowed, 
and in most the patches are not distinguished at this point. Tlie v(»m- 
erine series are better distinguished (though not always), being obli<ine, 
sepiirate, and not extending beyond nares. Tlie tongue is in ( ight sped 
mens examined nearly round, while it is always a long oval in the two 
other Desmognathi ; tinally, tlie only male does not po:-.sess the black 
pigment coat of the testes always present in the others, though, as in 
them, the vas deferens is black. The body is stouter, and the width of 
the head enters the length to the groin les.s than five times — in the 
others always more; this is also expressed by the existence of only 
twelve costal plica', and the fact that the appressed limbs are only s"p- 
aratt'd by 2}r intercostal s])accs. 

Tlie postorbilal plicae are not strongly marked. The mucous pores 
are well de\eloped, and the two lateral series are often distinct in alco- 
holic specimens by their white color; when they become dry they ar.' 
(liflicnlt to observe. There are two rather distant gularseiies within 
the mandibular rami on each side, and one on eacdi side exlending in 
wards and forwards from the gular jdica. The superior lateral series 
extends from the orbit to near the end of tlie tail ; the inferior round 
the humeri to each side the pectoral region. 

• IMatc ID, lig. 1. 


I .CM 




to I 
it fi 
fan I 

:l ni( 



iiii: iJATRAcir.v or north amurica. 


TIjo idopoitioiis oftlie fingers are as in iKJ'usea; they are entirely free. 
Tiie eyes are prominent, witli tliieli oi>a(iiie paljtebrue. A tubercle oeeu- 
pies tlie iinterior angle, wliicli, after an exiuninatioti of tliat in D./usca, 
is i)roven to be a disMienibernient of the superior eyelid. 

The coloration is uniform in about twenty specimens examined. It 
is simple, viz: Uniform blaclc above and below, except the muzzle from 
between the eyes, the lower Jaw, the end of the tail, and the soles of 
the feet, which are brown. 


4 3 

.Irt. DfHinoijnrithiii' iii'i/rn 

Ni». 39'.':i. Ahbovill.', S. O.; }, f. 

MiiiaiiirmciilH (»/ No. '.V,^>'.\, in inches. 


I,i'n;;tli, ;ixi,il, from ciul of iiiii/zlc to oiliit 2'.) 

I,('ii«;tli, axial, from t'lid of iiiii/./'i^ to cuntliiis oris !'>rt 

l,('ii,;;lli, ;i\i.ii, from cud of iiiiiz/l(> to ax II In l.'J'J 

l.i'M;;lii, iixial, fiom ciui ol iiiii/zU^ to }iroiii ;t. i»;$ 

1/iijilli, axial, fioiM I'lul of muzzle to cml (.f voiit, I?. 7() 

l.c'ii^lli, axial, from t'lid of mtizzlt> to cud of tail (i. i)G 

I, CM Hill ol' fore liiiili (i!> 

l.eili;tll of fore foot i!(5 

l.cii^lli of liiiid liml) l.O'i 

I.eiiu'lli of liiiid fool 47 

Willi li of hind -fool sole 27 

Willi li lici wccii cyc.s ill front :iO 

Width at can 111 us oris Cm 

Will 111 of hoily 7't 

Will 111 of liody ;il sacriiiu ,')4 

ll(ihil>!, cIc.—TUis creature is aquatic; but iifter the fashion of the 7). 
fiisca it occurs only in slmllow stony brooks. It is, so far its known, 
conrincd to the AUeohiiny mountain ranges from Pennsylvania south- 
w;»rds. It is abundant in the streams of the rocky ravines and cold 
springs in the remotest depths of the forest, where its retreat is cool 
and dark. It seeks .' uiuler loose stones and sliibs of slate 
with great activity, and is not easily caught. Its habitat does not seem 
to be shared by any species but the D./tiRcn; the fijirinophilKH porpliji- 
riticiis, the other characteristic Alleghany species, haunting standing 
springs and bogs, where stones are not so numerous. Green described 
it from Pennsylvania, but IJaird, who i.s familiar with the Alleghany 
fauuiiof our State, says he has not observed it near Carlisle; nor have 
:\ met with it north of Virginin, where it is common. Besides Green's 

I .' 

1 1 



! 'i 


'I' ' 



{yim and .specimuiis iVoiii near tlie Kanawha River, in soiitliwcstoni 
Virginia, in the iMiihi(U'l|>hia Academy Museum, the Smithsonhm con- 
tains tlie following: 

Di'smtii/iialliiiH iiiyni Green. 

eiit..l()^iio NiuiiIh'v 

lllllllllUI'. j of M|IUC. 


WluMico aiiil liow 



I (;i.(>i"ia , Dr. W. Ii. "'iiiirs. 

4 AhlM'villi'.S. (• ■ 1>1-.''- r-. liaiiiilt. 

•> (iilcs Cimiitv, Vi\ K. D.Odiii'. 

1 I Wyllio (.'oiiiitv, V;i <"'>1. M..Mil)(Piialcl. 


Oiiiy PioccL'd. Zool. Soc. London, 18.")H, p. 142. Cope, Jouni. Ac. Phil., 

iscr), p. 107. 

Noethinoid bone. Palatine.s with i)o.sterior separate processes e\. 
tending over tlie parasphenoid, bearinjj; teeth on their inner margins. 
Prel'rontals and pterygoids present. Parietal entirely separated from 
jtrefroiitals by broad frontals. Orbitosphenoid continent with prootie. 
No d(Mitigeroiis plates on the paraspheuoid. No postfronto s(piamosal 
ar:'.h. The ceratohyal free, connected with the (piadrate by liganienf. 
Carpus and tarsus osseous. Vertebne opisthoctelous. No otoglossal 

The hyoid apparatus in this family is like that of the IMethodontidie. 
There is a hyi)ohyal on each side, of the anterior extremity of the basi 
branchial which does not irticul.itc! with the ceratohyal. In Triturus, 
Salainandra, and IlemisalamaiidiM, it is short 'Mate 30, (ig. S) : while 
in Chioglossa it is recurved posteriorly, passing under the ceratohyal 
of each side, and almost reaching tlu basibranchial again near the point 
of origin of the ceratol)ranchi;il (Plate 30, fig. 9). It thus forms a nearly 
complete ci'ch', suj)i)orting the circumference of the tongue. This 
circle has the same function as that in Amblystoma, but is of diiVerciil 
homologicjal value. Api)ropriately to this functional resemblance to 
the American forms, the proximate extremity of the ceratohyal is at 
tached to the distal extremity of the suspeihsoriiim, but by ligament. 
In ITemisalamandra, on the other hand, it is attached to the pwri nal 
l)artof the same by ligament, thus furnishing a condition intermediatei 
between the types of (Miioglossa and of Dieinyctylus. 

This family is condned to tlie Old World. It embraces the following 

L Miixillary and pti'rv},'()id Ijones .scpaiiite, the fornier not rearliinj; iiiiadratc. 
<f. No liKUUientoiiH postfronto Hiiuaniosal areli. 

Tonj;U(^ Im^jc, fii'c. except 011 tlic .anterior lialf of Hie nit'dijin line; fcclli in 
two loniritiidinal t iirved Hcrii-H <'htoiihni>«i, 

Ton^iU! lari^e, scarcely free, at edfre.s ; (cetli in two ionj{iti»dinal cnrveiU;e- 
ries Saldiiiaiitlni. 

Ton^^ue .small, not fr(!e; teetli in two stiaij^lit, p trallel Heries.. Iliminalanuiiidva. 







*^ f 


(\(X. A lij;;iiii('ii(()ns iiostfroiito-siiUiUiiosiil arch. 

Toiij^iit' siiiiill ; voiiicnipiiliitinc. Iciali in loiii^iliiiliiiiil Mcrii;s, wliiuli convoi'j^u 

and join anteriorly, fDnniii^^ a /^ TrilitniH. 

II. IMi'ryyoid united broadly with nia::illary bon?. 

I'oHt('lonto-.s(|naniosal arch partly lif^atiiontons ; tongue littlo fri'c ; teeth 
rorniinj; a A Piichyliilon 

The si)(>(;ies of this family let'onled in IJonleiigor'.s CatiUogue of the 
l)iitish >[usouiii an' the following: 

Chio(jhtsf<a hmitaniea IJoeago, Portugal, and northwest Sjtain ; Sala- 
niaiithti uiacnlosd L., central andsouthern Europe, Algiers, Syria; IS.dtt'a, 
Laur., the Alps, 2,r)(>() to 12,000feet; »S'. caucnsica Waga, Caucasus; Hon- 
isdlanntndm cr'tstata Laur., Europe; Trifunis blunii De I'lsle, north- 
west France; T. marmoratun Latr., France, Spain, Portugal; T. alpcs- 
/;/.v Liitir., central Europe; T. ntlfjaris Linn., Europe, except southern 
France, Spain, ami Poitiigal; temperate Asia; T. vrocntm ('oi)e, Syria ; 
7'. 7)innt(inus Savi, CorsicM ; I'lfchytriton hrccipes Sauvage, South Kiansi, 


('ope, .Jonrii. Acad. I'hila., 18-*li. p. lUS. 
J'lnir<i(kU(Iir and SinntoliiJir <lray, I'loeeed. Zool. ,Soe. Lonilon, l.rri"*, p. M".'. 

No ethmoid bone. Vomeropalatine bones, witli posterior separate 
processes, «'xtending over the i»arasphenoid, and having teeth on their 
inner margins. Prefrontals and pterygoids present. Parietals not 
entbraiting the broad frontals. No dentigerous plates on the parasphe- 
noid bone. An osseous pcstfrontosquamosal arch. Ceratohyal iree, 
(M)nne<!ted with quadrate by ligament. Carpus and tarsas osseous. Ver- 
tebra', opisthoccelous. No otoglossal caitilage. (Plate 34, ligs. 2-7). 

This family differs from the Salamandrida) oJily in its post fronto- 
squamosal arch. Kiuliments of it already appear in some members of 
the latter. 

The geneni of this family are all found in the Old World. One of 
them is represented by two species in North America. They are dis- 
tinguished as follows : 

I. Maxillary bone not reachinjj; quadrate. 
(X, Ribs not pertoratinj; the skin. 

Toe.s, ■! SalainniiilriiKi.* 

Toes, .") Itii'mjiiiiihiii. 

iY(X. Rib.s perforating the skin; vonicropalatiiK^ teeth in a /\. 

'i'oe.s r> I'leiiroih'lin. 

II. Maxillary bono reaching quadrate. 

Toes .') (1 lossoIcgaA 

The species of the above genera arc as follows : SalamandriHa pcr- 
)itillata Savi, Ftalv; Dioniirtiilus vittatua Gray, Asia Minor, Syria; 


/>. pxbuafus St'hneid., central an.d western Euroi)e; ]>. ^nontanihniii 
IJoul., aMohlavia; />. hnsrw Latasti', Spain, Portugal; J). 2>!l>'rho(faslcr 


Scirniiold ltarM<-s. 

t Tyhlrilon Anders. 


IJoio, Japan, Cliiiia; P. sinensis Gray, Cliiiiii , !>. lorosus Escli., Cali- 
Ibriiia, Orej,'oii ; />. riridcsccns Hal", Nortli Ainciica, oastcni and aus- 
trofipariau rt'-iitns ; />. r«.sxY>«// (l(''ii(', Saidiiiia ; />. asper Dngvs, I'.vr- 
oiiee:-*, Spain ; PIrnrotlclcs irallli Miclia'.i., Spain and Portugal, Tan- 
{"•iers; aioss()lc!/(t itnircli V,i^vvii\>i, Al.-^icis; GJidf/cnmnellcri hutiista, Al- 


ors; W. .'YVTHtusvr Anderson, Eastern Himalayas, Yunuan. 


Annals of Xiit lire, Marcli, l-'-JO, X... '22, p. ">: jrallowcll Jonrn. A-\ Pliiln. 
(\. s.).iM,|>. :!i'>;i: ('|>1H>, rroiM'cd. Ac. IMiila., Irt.V.t, p. V>il 

Xoloplillmhinis ]:ni\\\r:<iint\ I. (;.[>.:>: M.iinl, Jonrn. Ai'. I'liila., (.v. .s.) i.p.'iHI. 
.V»/.v<; Mcin:::,Tcntaincn, Syst. Ain|iliiliiarnni, l-^Jit. p. K> ; Honlcnjii-r, Cat.Malr. 

(iiad. lirit. Mns., ii, C, H-i-J, jciik. 
/•;»;)w/H.v (MMi<^,.^.vn. l{.'plil..SMnIinia, p.'-'S: Itonap., I'anna Ilalit-M ; Ciipf. /. c, 

).. 1','7. 
('liuojix 'I'sclindi, I'.afr., |s:!>, p. '.H. 
Tiiyirlid (li;iy, Cat. li.itr. (irad. IJrit. Mns,, ISJ,",, p. ',>,"), 

The liyoid api>aratns in this fjenns is inn(^li as in thi- IMcthoilontidai 
and tii(! Salaniandrida'. Tiiere is a small liypoliyal, which does not 
aiticnlate with the ceratoliyal. In Dil'itii/riiilHs forosiis there is a .second 
lirocess on earh side posterior to tiie hyoohyal,* which nniy he honinln 
jions with tlie sinular second lateral cartilajje in Jjin(iii(il(ii>siis ttniiii 
hitns, or even with the oto^^lossal cartdajic. The ceratoliyal is divided. 
lliei)roximal half o.ssoons. Tlie first ceratol)rancliial ami 
are osseons. The second ceratobranchiais ori<"inatc from a hi{j;li nic 
median longitn<linal crest of the hasibranchial. The free extremity o! 
the ceratoliyal i.s elongate, and in 7>. vitiiU'scciis it extends all the way 
to tlie inferior .snrfaee of the exterior jmocc^s of tin; oxocciptal l»one.+ 
with which it is in close contact. In the />. toyoNns it <loe,s not extend 
so far. In both species the extremity carries with it the hyosnspeiisorial 
ligament which (ionnects it with the (piadrate bone, which thus becomes 
much longer than in other genera. (Plate 4(!, figs. .'5, I.) 

What name should be applied to this genus is nnceitain, and may 
jterhaps ever remain so. The circumstances are a.s follows: In 1SI!>, in 
the Journal de Pliysi(pu', | Lxxxvill, p. IIS, KafiiM'scpu' proposed to 
rei>lace the name Triton of Lanrenti by his own name, Triturns. In 
18.-0, in the Annals of Xatiire^ for March, p. i, he says: "My genus 
Triturns is the same as the Triton of Dumeril, there being already 
another genus of animals called Triton. It differs from the Salamandra 

* I' indicated tiy Wicdcrslicini in Dcr KopCslitdct dcr ITniddcn, I'l. vi, i\'^. HI. 

tTliis was (irst shown inc liy Dr. I'".. IL (ialt in one ol'Iicr disscclioM.s. 

t I'rodromo do soixantc-dix nonvcanx jrcnn'.H d'aninianx dcco;! verts dans I'intc^rieiir 
desfilats Unis d'Anu'ri(|tn', dnrant I'aniUMi H18. 

(iiAiinals of Xatnn; or Annual Synopsis of n<'\v Genera of Animals, I'lanls, etc., Dis- 
covered in Xortli America, by C. .S. lialhie.stiuc, Transylvania University, Le.\iiijj;ton,. 
Ky., Id-JO. 

* f 





ill I 






iiiliaviiigacomprt'ssed tiiil." UiMk'rtlu.sgoiiii.slieiiiclu(k'<l fivcsiiocit'.s: 
T. Iiijpoxanthits, T fnnch , 7' rlndcNcciiN, T. ncbnlosici, am] T. minidtiis. 
The T.fnsciiti is the Iksimxjn'itlmn fuscn of IJaiid ; the T. riritlcticcns aiul 
T. miniatUH are iiiehuled under tlie present j^eniis, while the application 
of the other two names is unknown. Under the head of the T. riri- 
ihsi'cnx (p. 5), he reniarks: " it must form a peculiar subgenus Diemyc- 
tjlus, distinguished by the forefeet semipalmate, with four ecpial toes, 
the i)osterior with only tliree toes and two lateral knobs; Jaws nearly 
ecpial, eyes elliptic," etc. Immediiitely following on the same page the 
author proposes tiie subgeneric name Notophthalmus for the T. miniatiis, 
in the following language: "It has almost tli(^ chariu-tors of tlic^ sub- 
genus J)iemyctylus, but differs yet iVom it by having the toes of the 
fore leet free and unecpial, the lateral ones much shorter, whence it may 
form another subgenus Notoi»hthaImus." 

The lirst jtublication of the name Triturns makes it synonymous 
with the Triton of Laurenti, and all subse(iuent uses of the name, even 
l>y tiie same author, nnist yield to this one. Now Ijaurenti does not in- 
cludi^ a single species of J)iemyctylu8 in his Triton, so that the name 
is not applicable to the i)resent genus. It must be applied to a genus 
of Salamandrida; whose sjjecies are i>laced by Uoulenger in the section 
i' ' / of his genus Molge, which is without i»ostfronto scpiamosid arch. 

One year later than IJallnesqne, IMerrem (ISiMi) proposed the name 
Molge for a series of species wnich euibraced, with tliose of Triturus, 
one species of Dii'myctylus, iKpalnidtits {MoJ<ir pdlnxtld Sclnicid.). The 
Trituri being abstracted by (he jtrior name, Molge should remain for 
(lie last-named species. Hut it was in tiie same year that Kaliiiesipie 
proposed Dii-myctylus for the same g<Mins, and it now liecomcs a »]ues- 
tion as to the day of the year on which the works of these two authors 
were respectively issued. As IJaiini'sipie's bears the early date of 
March, I retain it un(il it is shown (hat Merrem's Tentaujcn was pub- 
lished i)reviously. On this point 1 Inae not as yet obtained delinite 

The two North American species of this genus ditferas follows: 

llciid wider, lint, witlioiit keels; middle rm;iers :ind toes sliorler ; ('(dois nnifdi'in, nn- 
s|ti)tted ; liiiyi^r I>, Ioi'h.^k.i. 

I lend narrow, more, eluviiteil, ami with two lon^itiidiiial keels; middle" (iiij;eis and 
toes lon^rer ; spotted more or less tliiikly : smaller If. riridrficciin. 

r.otli of these sjtecies are aquatic iJi their habits, and they are the 
only si)e(;ies found in North America which are truly so; that is, they 
do not live on the bottom or under stones, but swim or suspend tliem- 
selves in comparatively deep water. 




■ ; ■ 


" ' ?i 






i!'! I I 

r I 



201 miLi.KTix :ii, unitkd stati;s natioxai. MUsiarM. 


(I'latis :i<i, liy. '2; :W, lijis. 1-4 ; ■{->, fi{j. d ; 4y, lig. 3.) 

Copp, Cb(> Hatr., Kept. N. Amcr., 15iill. U. S. Nat. Mils., i, p. 
2,-1, 187"). 
Tiiloii loro^iiH Escli., Zool. Atlas, p. 12, PI. 21, (if,'. T) ; Straucli, Salain., p. f!(). 
S(i lama 11(1 ra heechcyi Oray, in fJrill'. A. K., i., p. 107, and Zool. BcccIh'.v'.s Voy., PI. :!l, 

Triton crmani Wioyin.,iii Erman'M Kois(' niii dio E.df, p. 21. 

Salamatidra (Triton) tjranuUmi Skilton, Amcr. .Toiini. (2). vii, p. 2(»2. 

yotoplhalmiii^ torosiiH Uaird. .loiirii. Ac. Pliila. (2), i, p. 2^4. 

Tariilia torosa (Jray. Cat., p.2.">: (i Irani, T. S. Kxpl. Expcd., Hcrp., p.."., PI. 1, (i. l-H. 

Tmivhu hn-ix IJuird & (Jirard, Proc. Ac. Pliila., 18.'):i, p. mi. 

Triton Iivrin Straiu'li, I.e. 

Moli/c lorom Hoiilciijrcr, Cat. 13atr. Grad. Brit. Miis., second cd., 1882, p. 20. 

TIlis fine species i.s of mtlier robust proportions. Tiio hoail is wiiU' 
iiiid distinct from the neck, tlirough tiie protuberance of a postcrini' 
superior angle on eacli side. It is also perfectly tlat and smooth above, 
e.\ce|)ting a f>entle slope from a line connecting the orbits ' ) the end 
of the muzzle. The body is .slightly compressed, atid its length from 
a.xilhi to groin is just equal to the length from the axilla to the end of 
th(^ muzzle. The tail is long, exceeding the length of the head and 
body by the depth of the latter. It is very much compressed, and has 
a wide dermal border both on the inferior and the superior edges. 

Viewed from abo> e, the head is contracted t(twar<ls tlie muzzle with 
curved lateral outlines, and the end of the muzzle is truncate. It 
juojects considerably beyond the lower Jaw. The iu)strils appear to be 
terminal, but directed laterally, and tiie spacte between them equals 
two thirds that between the bases of the eyelids, and exceeds by one- 
qmu ter the space between the internal nares. It also equals the h'ligth 
from tlioeye to the nostril, and exceeds by a very little the length of 
the eye-lissure. 

The upper lip begins to descend posteriorly at a point halfway be- 
tween the nostril and the e.\e, and does not ri".e again, but conceals the 
lower Jaw. Tlui rictus is Just behind the jiosterior angle of the eye. 
Anterior to this point it is Joined on its internal side by a short lamina, 
which represents the lower lip of the perennil)ranchiate species of 
lialrachia. This lip is entire) concealed, and there is iu) fold in front 
of it, on the lower Jaw. 

The tongue is oval, and very small. It is only free at the sides, and 
that but slightly. The vomeropalatine teeth are in two straight series, 
which converge forwards and Join directly between the choana'. 

The limbs are robust, the posteriiu- ones the nu)reso. Applied to the 
side, tiiey overlap by the lengtli of the postericu' foot with tarsus. The 
digits ditfer much Irom each other in length, but not so much so as in 
the 1>. riridcsccus. The second (first) finger is very short, and the fifth 
is a little longer, while the third and fourth are of usual length, the 
third the shorter. 1 iie phalanges are l-L'-;{-'-'. The toes are arranged 
iniicli as the tlnger.s, the hmger ones of m.'dinm length, and the lirst 












very short. Tlie lengths are, bogimiiiiy witli the shortest, l-.i-L*-!-."}. 
The imiiiber of i»hahiiige.s (aken in order is: l-U-JJ-.i-L'. Thi' epider- 
mis oil the extreinitii's of all the digits is horny. Tiiere are no distinet 
palmar or phinlar tnbereles. 1 iiave not diseovered any horny phites 
on the inner sides of tlio posteiior legs, sueh as occur in the 1). rifitJcs- 
cvns (hiring the breeding season. 

The cliaraeter of the surface of the skin varies aceording to the sea- 
son and h)eaiity. In a majority of specimens the upper siiifaces are 
sinootli, but wrinkled more or less closely. In si)eeimeiis which have 
been exposed to drought, the surface becomes rough, with small liaid 
pnijections. The lower surfaces are always studded with minute lioniy 
points so as to behisi)id. These become more numerousand prominent 
in specimens where the dorsal integument is roughened. Lateral folds 
are very obscure in this species, and can only be traced on the superior 
part of the sides. Twelve such grooves may be (tounted, the first and last 
being opposite the humerus and femur respectively. There is a dis- 
tin(;t transverse postgular fold. The digits have thin dermal margins 
towards the base. The genitalia are very prominent during the breed- 
ing season, and the orifice is longitudinal, and its edges are marked 
with transverse wrinkles. Internally there is a large promiiient papilla, 
simulating an intromittent organ, which rests in a fossa, whose jmste- 
lior wall is comjtosed of a series of columnar papilhe, which radiate 
backwards and downwards. The free membrane of the edges of the 
tail is much reduced, or is even wanting, in the specimens with rough- 
ened skin. 


6 ■' ' f 4 

Via. 51 . Dii'mv'''.'/'"" ' irDKim 

No. 11407. S;iii Francisco; J, f. 
McanKremcnts of Xo. llf)"?. 


Tdliil length 170 

Li'iiglli ol' liL'ail iiiid Itmly 078 

Li'iigth to groin OCtl 

Lnigdi to axilla O^C. 

Length to can thus oris Ol'i 

L(!ngth to anterior cantluiH oeuli 005 

Length of Core-leg 027 

Length of eiibitiis Oil 

I.iengtii of niiinuH 0115 

Length of hind leg (KW 

Length of tibia 0085 

Length of pes Oi;!(i 

Interorhital width 075 

Greatest width of head 0175 

Depth of tail at iniddlu, with flu 014 



R 1 




1' i 




20(J KiJLLirnx lii, i;mti;i» statks national muskum. 

The iimcoiis poivs oC tliis species liavi'. tlio tullowiiij;' »listiiliiilioii: 
Tht'.v Ibniiii band on ciu-Ii sido of \\w inn/zlc, nliicii passes witliin the 
c.Vflul to Just behind tlie eve, where it divi(h's. One line extends back- 
wards and turns lowaids tlie nii(hlle line without joininj;- its fellow of 
I he opi)osite side. The other branch iiasses behind aiul below the, 
and Ibrnis a patch on the Io:eal rej;i()M. On the body the system con 
sistf *■ a series of pores alonj? the lower part of each side. 

The coloration of this species is simple. The sides and superior sur- 
faces of the head, body, and limbs are brown, and the inferior surfaces 
are yellow. In rouj;h sjiecimens the brown becomes almost black, and 
the yellow is correspondin;;ly deep, in smooth specimens the brown is 
])ale, and has an olive tinj-'e. The upper membrane of tbo tail is yel- ; the lower yellow. 

This species has the widest I'anjie ol' any Pacific salamander, since it 
extends from San Die^o on the south to southern Alaska on the iiorth. 
It is very abundant in some parts of California, and may be seen swim- 
ming in the streams and [)onds in numbers. 

l)iciinicl!jliiH Idiosiih Kscli. 

(JMtaliiiriic No. of 

llllllllii'l'. nlMT. 




1 1 r)77 







1 I4MI 



Wlicn (ril- 

Fkiim wIkoi) received. 

U. S Kxpl. Kxpcil. 

IMmi't Sound, Otufjoii . 

Call lorn hi 

i'oit Stcilacooni, Wasli Dr. liro, Smklcy. t'. S. A 

Kii^foo (,'it.v, On iicin Di. (,'.(i, Ncwln'iiy 

Foil Vanroiivcr, \\anli.. l)i. J. (i.Coiipir 

Koit Sttilarooii], Wash 

San Kianci.tco, ("al I'. S. lOxpl. K\|i<il 

.do I 1H79 (iiistav ICUiii (;> 

Fresno, Cal | \>il'J liiistav I'.iscn 

Asto:ia, Oregon ' liii lit. W. I'. Tio« bridge, 


(Jalirornia Dr. Win Stiiiii>.-Miii 

Monterey, Cal ' Dr. ( aiilield 

lIuHsler's Ilailior. Ala.sUa 
Lako Coiiiitv, Cal 

lierkelev, Cal , 


Jlinvcdl Mountains, Cal.. I 

San Diejio. ('al .. 

I'cirl, (,'lirslcr, Alaska 

Ni.'<(iiially. ( IrcLioii 

ltevillajii;i(l') liar., .Mas. 

r.aird, i'al 

niiniliijlill Coiiiily, Cal .. 

Ficsno, (;al 

San Kianeiseu. 

U.K. Nieiioks 

18K-) U. W.Turner 

1K«I U.K.C. Stearn.s 

18*1 I do 

1«K4 . do! Clias. It.Oieiilt 

188J 1,1. II. !•;. NielKds, U. S. \ . 
Kxpl. Kxped 

\)<k:> Dr. T. U.Stieets. C.S. N.. 

KS.-5 Clias. ll.TiJWnsend 

ilo i 

(liiHtav Ki.-ien : 

Dr. J. L. Leeontii* 

Nature (d' 




40 LI 





1 : Kl Dorado County, Cal Dr.C.C. I!o\le 

1 San I'lani iseo, C il II. D (iitts .. 

1 do Hr. .1, I,. I.eecHiti' . .. 

•J Sin (,iiieiiliii, Cal April - , lh71 Capt. Win. Hidden .. 

10 l''ri'.sno, Cal .. U;7'.) liii.slav Kisen 

:! liallina^ l'.av. C,il Il.nipliill 

1 Oakland, 1'. L. .)ouy 

1 I'etalinna. Cal K. Sainueis 

1 l'ii;jet, Sound, Orejion . . I (.') 

4 Fori I'lnpipia, Ori'^on.. .1 I.ieutenant MielikM'. 



1 Oregon I (') 

1 ; KeLseyville, Cal. " 

187:! I<. Stone 

1 ' Orei^ou 1 1 K.xpl. lixped. 


Typo ol' T. Ui-vU. 






■nil'; IIA'I KAI'lll A <M' Noii'li AMlinCA. 




1)1i:my(;tvm s viimdksckns 

(I'liilcs ;!(•,, li,ns.:i-l; :i'.i; tit, li'is. .VJ ; n, li-s. :i-J; CJ, li,^'. :i ; •».'., li^;. ;> ; l.», lij;. 1) 

lliillow., Jimrii. Ai'. riiila. (N.s.) ill, ji. :M:{ ; Co\n; I'ldtcfd y\i'. I'liila., 
lrr>i», i>, 1-J(1. 

Iriliini^ (IHemjutiiliiK) ririilcKcciix Waliii., Annals of Naturr, l-'^O, Xo. 'J'J. 

irdiinis {Xoti)jililltiiliiiii><) iiiiiiiithin Kalin., I.e., Xii. 'JI, 

SiiliUiiiiiKlni xtvlliii Say, Anicr, .lonrn., i, j). '.'(ll. 

S((liiiii(tiitlrti (loiHnlix Harlan, Juiirn. Ac. I'liila., v, |>. I'Jl ; Wit'd., Xova Ada Leop., 

(•ami , xxxil, i>. l:!l. 
Siildiniiiidnt niimmrlrlcn Harlan, l.r..\K laT; Hollir., X. A. Hfrp., v, p. fiT, 1'!. x\ii; 

Dc Kay, N. Y. Tann , l.'rptil., p. 7:?, I'l. xv, ti-;. X! : Winl., /. c, p. l",'.'.. 
S<il(iiiii>ii<lr<t mill('ini'i(t(tlii Slorcr Host. .lonrn. X. H., ii, jt. (id. 
Siil(tmini(tm t/nciiii (ii'ay, (JrKV. A. K., ix, Syn., p. 1((7. 
Trillin ((()r.s((/is Holltr., I.e., )>. 77, I i. xx\'; i'mn. iV IJilir., p. 1.").'). 
Trillin niiUcpiiiirliiliis I)c Kay, /.<■,, ji. -'I, I'l, x\', liy;. ISI. 
\iiiojililliiitmii>i miiiidliiH liaird, .lonrn. Ac. I'liila ('J), i, p. 'i"'! ; Gray, Cat, Hatr. Grad. 

IJrit. Mns., cd. i, p. •,»•,'. 
yotoiihtlialiHHH riri(h'8rciiH liaird, /. c. ; Gray, /. c. y. iilJ. 
Trilini piiiictulinHimiit Dnm. iV- Bilir., i». 1,") I, 
Tritini Kunnittlririin Dnm. A- Hihr., p. l.')l ; IM. 107, fig. 2. 
l)ii mjivtijltiH mhualiin Hallow., /. c, 
Tiiloii ririthnrriix Strancli, Salani,, p, .'>(). 
.!/(////(■ riridaiciiH liinilcn.!;(<r, ('at.l5atr. (Jrad, Mrit. Mu.s., od. ii, 188-J, p. til. 

Tlii.s vuriiiblt' .species is the aquatic salainander of the ea.steni legioii 
;)! Xortli America. Its (li.stiiictive characters iiave licen ah'ea«ly re- 
Ii nt(l 1') (pa {;e 20.')), and will hemoie fully detailed under its api)r()[>riato 
siilispe(Mes. These are two, as foUow.s: 

]]\iiriial linjicr half as long as fonrtli or .shorter ; ha-.k with small hlack-cdged red 
spots I), r. riridimriiH. 

K\tcrnal linger more than half as long as I'onrth ; no red spots on hack, hut largo 
black ones, wliicli are present also on the tail D. r. iinri<lioiiali)i, 

DicDil/cii/lKN riridesccnN virUlesccm Kaf. 

There are two forms of this subspecies, which htive received the 
names of viride.scens and niiniatus respectively. These havinj"' been 
shown to be st aj^cs of one <ind the same Jininial, they are not dislin- 
l^nishi'd otlierwise than as .seasonal forms, which may be by reason of 
!iu' i'livironment lendered iternninent for a longer or shorter time. I 
l^ive, however, the ciiaracters that distinj^uish them. carin.i' more iirominent, and longer; tongue freer laterally; skin rough; 

cheek-pits inoro freiiuently wanting; color red form ininiiiliin. 

Cranial carina' le.s.s prominent, especially at the ends; tongue less fiee ; skin smooth; 

check [>it.s rarely wanting ; ground color olivaceous form ririihxiriin- 

Tlie form niiniatus never has a caudal fin-membraiie, while it is }>eu- 
craliy present in the form Viride.scens; but this is a seasonal character. 
Tiie characiters ab()vc mentioned are not always combined as described, 
atid one (ir another may be wanting while the others are present. 

) !i 


Tiny will 1»L! rcforml to latiT in lliis iiiticU'. Mfuiiwliili^ I (U'scillij ;., 
typii'al sin'ciineii of the form Viiidi'.sccii.s. 


2 \ I 4 

3 5 

rill. 5'J. Dininietllliin nriili'KCi'ii:i rlriilcg'rnii. No. I«lfi3. Aiki'll, S. ('.; jj. 

TlK'oiitliru' of till! Iiciul si'oii from above is an oval, wliirli conliiutts 
anteriorly and posteriorly, and is not distinj;iiislied from tlic neck liy 
tlie abrnpt contraction of the latter. The back is r(»ol'sha[»ed, and I lie 
section of the body a vertical oval. The leiijjth from the axilla to llie 
end of tho muzzle is Just a little less than the di.staii(!e between the ax- 
ila and the "roin. The tail is niiich compresseil tliroii<;h(int, and is as 
Ion;; as the head and body (vent iiududed). 

The muzzle, viewed from above, is triii.cateromided, and it projeitts 
a little beyond tho month. The two ridj^es o»' the top of tl.i^ head in- 
close a long lenticular open {jroove which is closed in front on the muz- 
zle, bur open behind on the occiput. (Jii their external sides is a 
shallow jjroove. There is a distinct but obtuse eant'nis lostralis, and 
the lorea' region is slightly concave. Thi^ protlle i-i slightly dt'c rved 
at the muzzle. The eye is rather large; is length exceeds a litlle the 
length from its anterior canthns to tlii' end of the muzzle, and is a. 
little less than the interorbit 1 'vidth. The nostrils are close together, 
and look upwards as well as outwards. The distance between them 
enters the interorbital space two and a half times. The eyes do not. 
project ujiwards, so that the eyelids avi' nearly plane with the front. 
The lower Jaw is only partly overlapped by the posterior paitof the 
upper lip, and there is no distinct lower lip or groove. On the side of 
the head posterior to the eye is a straight row of four jiits, the tiist of 
which is near the eye and the last is in the position of the first branchial 
lissnre. Those pits are shojtly linear and curved, as tlmugh made by 
the pressure of an instrument with a short curved edge. The tlistancis 
between them are equal to each other and to half the diameter of tin's 
eye. At the position of the posterior iiit are traces of three branchial 
lissiires in three vertical short rows of minute pits; but these are not 
always present. The (theek-pits, moreover, are fre(iiiently wanting. I 
give the results of the examination of seventy individuals of the forms 
\'iiidescous and Miniatus: 

riyidvbceiis. I 

fossil' prt'st'iit y8 ' Fosnic pri'HCMit 



l-'oSSill WiUltillLC 


dssM' waiitini; 

The pits are g<'iierally syninietri(!al, but in :; Miniatus there is but one 
pore on one side, and in a Virid(!scens there are no pores on one side 
and three on the other. 






Tlu' t(Hi;;iU' ofdipii's hut little ,s|)ii(;e <»ii tlio lloor (»!' the iiioiilli. It ia 
Mli;;litl,v I'l'cc. at tlic. sides, hut not, at the anterior or posteiioi' cutis, wliicli 
pais.s insensihly into the a(l.ja(;ent tissue, lis t'onu is oval auleroposte- 
I'iorl.v. Tiie voineropahitiue teeth aie in t\v()lou;>'itu(liiuil series, wliieh 
converj-e anteriorly, and J(»in after iiinMiu;^- <*Iose toj;ethei' hetween the 
internal nai'es. The latter are ahout as t'arajtart as the external nares. 

When applied to Wus side the tore lindioverliips the hind lind) by the 
len^'th of the hiiul loot. While of nearly tln^ same leii<;th, the foro 
limbs are not more that hall' as thick as the hin<l lind)s. Their len^'th 
is just e<|ual to tint distance I'roiu the axilla to the end of the mu//,le. 
The scitond (first) lin;ier is very small, with but a rudiment free. The 
third lin};('r is Ion*;', ainl the fouitli still longer, while the iifth is lon;;er 
than the second (lirst), but <;('ncrally less than half as lonj-as the fourth. 
The phalanges ar<' I -!,'-."•-'_'. 

The lirst and tilth Iocs are mere obtuse rudiments and of e(|ual length. 
The other toes ai'c not iclalivcly so Ion;;' as the tiuji'crs, standin,n 2-\-'.i 
in order of lenj;th, bejiinninj;' with the shoitest. The phalaujues are 
1 -'_'-,'>-; i-1. In nudes in the breedin;^-season the hindlejusare thickened, 
especially the inte;;iiment of the inner side. It is then divided by tiaiis- 
verse folds, and the portions between them become corneous oi' chit- 
inous. There are thus Irom ten to twelve transv»^rse jdales on the in- 
side of the thij^lis, and an irregular nuinbi'r on the inside of the tibiii 
and tarsus. The iiidimcntal external and internal toes have a (!ap of 
the same substance. These bodies aid the male in maintaining- his hold 
on the female during copulation. 

The skin in the form Viridcscens is smooth on all the surfa(;es, but 
ralln-r closely wriidilcd. The tail has a free dermal margin or tin (of 
about etpial width and length) on both the superior and the inferior 
edges. The genitalia arc very prominent at the breeding season, and 
in the male t orilicu' is oval. It is very papillose, especially within 
till' anterior liorder. (See Plates '6\i and 11, tig. .'{.) There is i.o trans- 
verse postgular fold, and there arc no transverse lateral grooves. 

Miiisiin mi'iil-i of So. liTiri. 


Tot ill Icilf^tll dlKI 

l.cii;;tli (iriioad aii<l IxHly , (IK) 

I, I'll Hill 1(1 lil'oiii ().{() 

I. fill;! 'i to axilla OKi 

l,('iiif|li 1(1 taiitliiisoiis ()(l(Ki 

LciiHlli iirCiiic-lc;,' (»M5 

L('li;;lli ol'cilliitiis (JOf) 

Lclij;lli (if I'lHi'-ltKit OOd,") 

Lcii.u;lli of 111 11(1 l<'.i!; 017."i 

Lcn^tli of liliia (I0.">:{ 

Lcnirtli of 111 11(1 foot ()0H« 

Widlliof licad 008 

Width lictwocii orliits 004() 

Depth of tail at niiddlo 0075 

I!).")! iJuii ;m — u 

'■'. I 

r I i 


: i 






Tlie ct>l(M' of Mic roriii Niiitli'sct'iis is ii lii^li* iHowiiisliolivo aliovc, 
Nvliicli is or is not iiiiukcd olVtlistiiicH.v IVoiii tlir piiici' troloi- of the lower 
siiiliKH'S iiioiiji: IJK^ sitlc. TIm' iiil'ciior smfiuu's avo stiaw rolor or ilirt.v 
while. On I'iM-h sidoollhc .crlt'liriil lint' is a row of IVoin three to six 
small ronnd reil spols, each with a hiaelv border. The rest of the snr- 
liK^e is marked with small lila<;k points, whiehare smaller Init more dis- 
tinet on the lower sintiuu's. On the Ie;;s they are huf^cr and more <lis- 
tini't, and on the tiiil tiie.v appear to have! run like iidv spots on paper 
placed in water. In specinn-ns wilhonl tins they sometimes form two 
rows on each sid(^ of the tail and a liiu' alon;; the side from the axilla t<» 
the ;j;roin. There is a faint daik line from the »'ye to the last ciMH'kpil. 
Chin and throat j,'enerally nnspott«'d. 

In the form IMiniatus the tail is narrow, Iwiw^ without deitnal borders, 
The color <d" the su|>erior surfaces is vernnliou red and the lowt'r sur- 
faiH'S eitron-yellow. The red spots an- present as in the other foi'iu, but 
the small black sp()ts are rart'ly pr.'sent on the back. They are present 
on the sides, belly, lindts, ami tail, and lU'ver run to^'etlier into liiu's. 
In this form the skin of all the upper surfaces is rou^h, with numei'ous 
minute, semitrausparent horny points of the skin. These are not chn'el- 
oped on the ird'erior surfaces. 

These characters would be likely to follow the exposure of an aquat it; 

1. I>ii iiiili'lillii" iiiiiiliiliiK iiiiiiiiitiin Kill'. :iKOL'. Tttirc iLitiiial Hi/i«. Itmit Kivrr, Wis. 

animal with soft skin to the coin|>arativ<^ drou^^lit of the atmosphere. 
The f^reatei' a<!Uteiiess and prominence of the (rrauial <aests displayed 
by tlu^ Miiiiatus fcn-m is proliably caused by the closer atlhenuiceof the 
thinner inte;^unuMits under these ciriuimstauces. Direct observations 
as to these points, however, exist. Dr. llalhnvell was the first to express 
his belief that the so called distimtt species were the same. I afterwards 
remarked, " the nominal />. miniatus is a state of />. r/r/V/cvcf/fv,'' and that 
1 have had itchan^'e to the latter in confinement. Dr. Howard A. Kelly, 
in an article in the American Naturalist, states, he " broii^'ht home a 
number of />. iniiiidtu.s (Kaf.), or little red li/ard, or red eft, and after 
keeping them in a daik box filled with saturatiMl moss, they (diaufjed 
their color from a brijfht vermilion to the olive state characteristic of the 
/>. I'iridrstxn.s,'''' and he keiit them all winter. (3oi. Nicholas I'ike says in 
tliesamejourual (.January, 188(5): "I have j^radually come to the conclu- 
sion that the two are identical. Some years aj^o I captured (piite a nam- 
berof red ones in theCatskill Moiintair.s, brou^^htthemhonu'!, and kept 
them in a box with other salaiiuuiders, where they could resort to water 






if tlu'.v ••liosi'. Koi- sitiiMi jlays tlii-y rciiiiiiiit'd liidiiij,' iiiHlcr llu-. wt-t 
moss iiiid stones, hut liiially crept out at iii;'lit and wi^nt into the water. 
I iinxi', lliein some inseets and worms, widcli tlit'.v I'eadil.v devonied. In 
.ilxMit three moid lis rliey lost their lii'i;>ht red, and in less than a year 
tlie.v weieof the usual oliv«: of the N'irideseens. Another laet, still more 
decidedly iteariii;,' on the, case, is, tiiat some two-y<'ar-old N'iridescens 
taken Irom the ponds and (uit in earth and dead wet leaves in a tub in 
my {garden, wiilniut water, in a month or so beyan to lose their ;;reen 
tint and assume a din<;y, hrownish hue.*' 

I'rolessor IJaird thus descrrihcs the breeding; habits of this sahi- 
iiiander :* 

"In the spriii;; of the year a broad tin be(;«)mes developed alon^i' the 
tail and back of tiie male, and the feet (^iilar;;'e, with the addition ol' a 
Idaek «Mrtila<;iiious mass on the toes and inside of the thighs, for the 
|iurpose of enabling' it to hold on to the female. This it does by elasp- 
\u<i her around the throat with the hind W'^s and retaining' the hohl for 
some hours or loiij^'cr, jerkin.!;' her around in the water most unmerci- 
fully diiriii;;' the whole time. A i|uantity of seminal matter is linally 
(liscliarj;ed, whicii becomes ditViised in the water, and lecuudates the ovji 
whiUi still in the lower part of the oviduct. Tln^ ej;us ;i\v laid siiifjly, 
of an ellipsoidal shape, and invested by a very glutinous coat, by whicli 
it is attached to the middle of an immersed leaf, wliiith is then donbUul 
over it Ity the exertions of the female. The ejiji's, after remainiiij;' for 
soii>e time in this way, linally j;ive birth to small larva', the };«'neral 
cluuaeter of wlmse metaiiiorphosis is inneli the same as that of the 
species already desi lihed." 1 have found the habits of specimens of 
this si)e(riea in conlinemciit <piit«^ as tlescribed by Hair.l. 1 found the 
axils of the leaves of I'Iriciihnia to be used as plaeeH for the de|>osit 
of e.i!:f;s i)y the lemalc. (See .loiiriial Philadelphia Ac^ademy, lS(i(>, p. (JS.) 

/>/('m//(7///((.v rin'ilesccns )nei'i(lioit(ili>i Cope. 

Itiillctin f. S. N;it .Miis., No. •Jii, lH-(i, i>, :!(i. Mohji: iiivridioiKiliH Vi>[>i'; 
I'xiuliimcr, Ann. Mm^m/. Nut. Hist., iSriH, Junnary. 

This subspecies has tiie lon,i;er di{>itsof the form Miiiiatus, and low 
«aanial crests of the Viride.scens, with which it also ayrees in color, 
{'rom both Ibrms it ililVers in the absence of red spots from the dorsal 
rej^ioii, which is instead covered with rather large bhudi spots, which 
(joiitinue on the tail. The j;roiiud above is olive; below it is yellow, 
which is marlvcd with numerous small l»lack spots. A characttr wliicli 
appears to be of importance is seen in the tore foot. The outer toe is 
more than half as lonj^ as the penultimate, while in the varieties Viri- 
des(;ens and Miniatus it is less than half as loiij;. 

The lirst specimen of this form whi(;h 1 met with was sent to the 
Smithsonian Institution froai .Mataiuoros, Mexico. G. W. Marnock 

"Jcoiidj;!'. l^inyil., vol. ii, j). 5>ri4, ISfil. 

*— •; ';^r 

\ 1 ' 'l\ 

: , 











I : i 




! 'i 


- f. 



finds it in tiic tributaries of the Medina River and southward, and Will- 
iam Taylor has obtained a good many specimens from San Diego, in 
soutliwestern Texas, it lias not been found east of that region. I did 
not see it in the plateau country. 

Dr. lioulenger thinks that this form should be regarded as a distinct 
species. Uesides the (-haracteis I have cited he says the head is more 
depressed and the lores less vertical and the gular fold more distinct, 
than in the J). I'iridenccus. 

3 ' 2 

Fii;. 51. Oieiiiiiclijliiii riridixcciiii iin'riilioiiiilif:. Sun I>ii'i;o, Tux.; 
Diimyctyhis rirulcsann miiiiiiliis li'ul'. 












































Wlicii <'i)l- 

I'liiiii wlioiii icciivid. 

Nimiic ol' 


]!(ii)l Uivpr. Wis I I'ldt. S. I', liaiii' 

(Iiiolc ('iiniitv, 111 U Kcniiicdlt 

Mi;i(lvillr. I'ii rKilr-siii- Williams .. 

Kinstoii, N. C I. W. Miliin 

( 'i lie ill Tint i, I lliii) I. N. r.. Seal I'liinnyli.. 

Wasliiiiytoii, |). C 1)1'. 10. ('iMii> r. S. A 

Xdi tiilk, Coiiii Si)it. 'Jli, l.'^77 A. 1'. Wddslci 

Wc.^t rtiiiit. N. V i .-■■. S. K. liainl 

I'lipi'f Mi.Hs. Vallrv 


Urazds Uivor, Te.\ Mr. H. I'. Shiiniaid. 

(;) (0 

(0 ''> 

t!) (') . 

Aiix I'laiii.-i KiviT, III ('. I'.. K. Ki'iiiiicott 

\Vnsliiii;rti'li. I> «' (let., IH8i 10 II. Haw ley .... 

Hinlscm Hay (^ linxlrr 

Itawli'V. Va lien. Mi Hit 



















iJii'inyfljihtu ririihwrns rirhUsa iis Kat'. 





niiinli 'I'. 






























Wlii'ii col- 

KloMi wlioiii irci'ivr'l. 

N.iIiih' of 


Aiix I'laiim UiviT, Ml \l Ktiiiiicott Alroliolir. 

TioL'a Count v, N. Y 10. 10. Uow.ll 

Carlisle, I'a '. I'lof.S. [■'. i'.ainl. 

... ilo ilo 

(ii'iHKia i Dr. W. I,. . I ones., 

Illinois (.') 11. Kcnniiolt 

Aliliovillc, S. (• Ui..l. II. Itaiiatt 

New Voik I'rot. S. F. liainl 

I,rNiiij;toii, Va : .. I'iril. .Matlirr 

Moiilloii, Ala 

Mount Oaiincl, 111 Nov. — , 1.<8I I.. M. Tiiinpr .... 

.Iirs.v City, N..T . 

I If. I>. W. lloa.llo ... 
SI. Cliiuk's CoUefjo. 

St. Calliariiif's, ('anada. 
tiiaud Coloau, La 










Diviiiycljiliia riridenccim riridvHceiin Raf. 


('iit:»lo;;ii(* No. of 
iimiiiIh'I-. spec. 




i;m-j4 I 


i44n.'i I 

1440.1 I 

I Froiii wlioni ifccivcil. 

(Jiiilislr, I I'lcl. S. r. llainl. 

.Ill ' ili> 

Siiiilli Cipiintv, Viv I A.I,. Kiiiiilicii .. 

Viisiiiiiii --.'- I Miiv •-•«. li'Tf! 

■liiiiifs IJivci, Vii^iiiiia. .' Krli. 1!0, IH" 

Wi.m oiisiii 

Ni.iri)lli, Ciimi fiil.v, \Hr.i 

<iarii»iin s, N. V Nov. IS)<4 

<;o(ik <:()iiiilv. Ill lH7(i 


.\ikcn, S.V. 

Kiid. 1'. Tallxil 

S. K. ISainl 

. ilo 

Or. Will. II. .Iipiu's 

'I'. I!iiiisi'v(ililt 

U Kciiiilrott 



Nature of 



Calalo^iii' No. of 
iiiinilirr. .sprc. 

I)ii iiiiiiljiliis ririthxiiiis inrri<litniiilis 

Wlirll ('111- 



riiiiii whom It idiviil. 

Xatiiii' of 

2 Miitaiiioia.H, 'raiiiaulipsis I.iciilcnaiit Coin li Alcoimlic. 

;i San Dii';;o, Tin \V. lavlor Do. 


i-itliinoid bono proscnt ; vi'stibiilc'ons intoriiiilly. No iiialiir or 
(|ii;i(liatoJiif:;iii bones. Vertebra' ampliicteloii.s, witii two aiitoriorl.v di- 
reeted li.vpapopli.vses at the anterior extremity. Se.apidar and i)elvi(! 
aielies and limbs jtresent. N'tnnerine teeth on anterior mv external 
l»oi'der of vomer, which does not bound tlie clioame p(>sterlt)rly. No 
paiasphenoid teeth. Liver not linely divided. Cloaca withont pro- 
jet;! ile nuisdes. Tail tleveloped. No external frills. There is but one 
eciatobiainthial bone, antl but one basibranchial. There are three 
epibranchials. I'.esiiles liypohyals there are basihyals. No ott)j>lossal. 
The stapes is tliiectly connccteil with the tpiadrate by c.artilajje. 

r.y all antliors the j;-enns Amphinma liatl been incliuletl in the same 
family ilivision with I'rottintipsis aiitl iMefialobatrachns until 18(5(5. At 
that time the writer pi'opt).setl to separate it fnun the latter genera as 
the type of a family .Vmpliiniiiiihe, wiiilc the ttther .uenera were platsed 
in ant)ther family with the iiamt^ I'rotoiiopsithe. This course has not 
been followed by later writers; in the catalogue of the Uritish Museum 
by Dr. i'>oulenjii'r (ISSL*), for instance, the three j-enera are intihitled in 
one family, the Ampliiumida'. 

The reasons for keepin,n the Amphiumiila' tlistinet from the Protonop- 
sida' were statetl to be the Ibllowing:* 

AMiMliiMin.i; : "An axial t^ranial bone (? vtymer) in front of orbito 
sphenoitls, anil one lormiiifi' palatal surface in front of ]>arasphenoitl. 
* * * rarietals jM'tylonjietl laterally, not reaching P>'t'f»'ontals. Vesti- 

'.I.iiini. Ac, I'liila., HCC. p. IDI. 






< 9 

\ I 





bale, wall osseous internally. Preniaxillaries consolidated. Occipital 
condyles on cylindrical pedestals." 

ruoTONOPSiD.i;: ">"o anterior axial cranial bone. * * * Parietals 
and pref'ontals prolonjjed, meeting aiid enibraciniLj IVontals. Wall of 
vestibule membranous internally, rremaxillaries separated. Occipital 
condyles sessile." 

The following observations were made on tlu^ Ampliiumid:e: "Tlie 
(>ccipital condyles and temporocervical tendon are quite i>s in Desmojjfua 
thus; they have not been previously described.* In Amphlnnut iiiians 
there is a minute non-articulated bone on the suture between the o. o. 
froutalia and piefontalia in the situation of tlie lachrymal. There are 
some a])proximations to Ca-cilia in Amphiumida-. It does not appear 
to have been noti(!ed that the * * * free nuuf'in of the frontal seems 
to foreshadow the overroolinj^ of the oibit and temporal fossa seen in 
Ca'cilia. Theic is also a v»'ry iar,i;e foramen or canal i)assinjf throii.uh 
the o. maxillare from lu'ai' its middle to the orbit, foreshadowiii};- the 
(■(DKilis trntdciili/crus of C.vv.lVux : a narrow one occurs in (he same situa- 
tion in Protonopsis. rurther, the jjrominent horizontal anterior inle 
lior pro(^esses of the vertebral centra are the same in Ami»hiuma and 

The characters assigned as above to the two families Amidiiumida- 
and Cryptobraiu'liida- are abundantly suHifient for retaininj;' them as dis- 
tinct, t The form of the occi[>ital <H)ndyles mij;ht I»e ('xcepted from this 
estimate, and the axial bone in front of tiu' parasphenoid proves to be 
abnormally cut otf in the sj)ecimen then examined. The Protonopsida- 
a^ree with other I'rodela in all of the characters p:iven, ex(!ept in the 
exclusion of the fnudals from the supraorbital border, and in the mem- 
branous characteristic of the internal wall of the vestibule. The Am 
phiumida' ditfer from other I'rodela in the presence of a huj^'e ethmoid 
bone (the one referred to .is ? vomer in the diajjuosis above (jiioted), in 
the presence of temjtoral ridjj^es, and of two anteriorly directeil liypapo- 
j)liyses of the precaudal vertebra-. 

It is interestinj;' to notice that three of the four eharaeters Just cited 
are shared by the Ca'ciliidie. The jiresence of the ethmoid is ofi'special 
importaiu;e, as it is an element constantly wanting in the I'rodela. I 
have not found it in Desmoifuathus, Anaides, Spelerpes, Aiiiblystonia, 
H;damandra, nor Cryptobranchus, nor is it present in Xecturus or in 
Siren. It is, on tlMi contraiy, always present in rjeciliida't (see Plate 
IX, .'5). The double anterior hyi)apophyses ar«' otherwise conlined to the 
same family. 

The characrters of the hyoid an^hes also distinj^uish this family from 
the Cryptobranchida', and they ditler from thos(M)f the Pseiidosauria 

" 'I'licy wcni (Icscrilicd liy l>r. .1, (i. I'isclii'r, Aiiiiloiiiiscli. Ahliiintll. iil>. I'ciciiiii- 
lir.incli. II. Dcrotrt'iii., lirslcs Ilcfr, p. fit, ixil. 
t I'rocct'd. AliiiT. I'liilosopli. Sdc, IS.-ii;, p. | |-J. 
IWu'dcrslicini, Aiiiilniiiii' ilcr (iyiiiiMipliidiirn. .Fcnii. I"'7'.l. 





as well. Tlioy arc unique in the i)resen<;e of only one ceratobranchial, 
Necturus only a[)i)roa(niin};' it in this respect. In the absence of the 
second basibranchial it aj;rees with Cryptobrauchus, aiul approaches 
the rsemlosiiuria, wliere a part of it <MiIy remains. It also agrees with 
( 'ryptobranchus in the absence or confluence of the first epibranchial 
and in the i)resence of the three succeeding epibranchials. 

This family is only known from Is'oith AnuMica. 

There is but one genus of this family, which is defined :..? follows: 

A itli!ir,vii;;t'iil slit on the sidcof tlio iii'dv ; voiiu'viiio tcclli in aiitcro-iiostrrior series ; 
IK) scalt's; limits iinicli reduced; di<;its, f wo or tliree on eaidi tool ; prefrontal and 
nasal liones present; a t<-niporal erest ; palatine hone not inelosin^ choana- pos- 
teriorly; preniaxillary hones eoi'Msilied 'mpliiitma. 

AMPIIIUMA (larden. 

Smith's Corres)>nndenee ol" Unna-ns, i. )>. fill'.* ; Waf^ler, Systenia Am- 
phih., IKin, p. •j:i;t; Tschndi, Itutr.. )-^>'.K p. tlT ; (Jray, Cat. Hatr. 
Grail. I?rit. Mns., .V.; Diim., Mihr., ix, p )>0\ ; Honlenjjer, Cat. 
IJatr. (Jrad. IJril. Mus., ed. II, p. "^J ; h'yder, I'roeeeds. Aead. 
I'hila., 187'.), p. II; (.'ope, I'roeeeds. Anier. I'hilo.soph. >Soc. 
ISSC), p. Wi. 

Chnjtiodnnia Milchill, Medical Keeorder, l^JH-J, p. :>2d. 
Siriiioiih^ Kit/. , Syst. K'eittil. 18','(!, ]). M. 
^fll|■|lH0|lxi1 l'"ilz., /. c. ; Gray, /. r. 

The only portion of the shoidder girdle of this genus which is o.ssified 
is the scapula. The <'ora<'oid (iartilages of oi)i)osite sides are distinct 
fnun each othei-, and there is a produ(!tion of the precoracoid region 
The hunuMiis i.s truncate at both extremities, making its articulations 
with cartilage only. The carpus is cartilaginous. The osscus ilium 
is quite short and slendei'; it has a long supcricu" cartilaginous portion, 
which is attached to an cipially long cartilaginous sacral rib. The 
iid'erior element is an undivided plale, which is wider than long, and 
pn'sents an obtuse angle anteriorly. The posterior portion of eacih 
is occupied by a rouml <liscoid ctssificalion. which forms the posteri(»r 
border, but docs not reach either the acetabulum or its fellow. The 
femur is rather long and has a distinc;! trochanti-r, but no head or con- 
<lyles. The arti(Mdations are (tarlilaginous, as is the tarsus, whi(th is 
also undivided. The tiliia and fibula are about one-sixth the length of 
the femur, and the fibula is a little shorter and more slender than the 
tibia. The i>lialanges in both feet are well ossified. 

The general character of these parts are desi^rilu'd in Stannius' [Tand- 
bu(rh (h'r Zoiilogie, but only as included in ihed<>linitions of the (uder 
to which Amphiuma is ref'erre<l. 

I'rofessor li'yder demonslrat<'d the identity of this genus and Munrn- 

The range of this genus is the Austnuiparian region. It has not been 
found west of Louisiana, nor in the Mississippi valley north of Ar- 
kansas. It oc(!urs in the Floridau district. 

I ' 


! ■: 

! -■ 







■•lat'isO, tig. 7; 10; 11, li«.s. 1-!'; Ui; lii, li;;-. •'..) 

llolb., N. A. Ilcip., V. i>. ^'.K ri., :!() ; Dmn. A Uiln., )>. -M'r, (iray, Cat. IJatr. 
Grad. Hiit. Miis., cil. i, ii. .">.'.: I!(.iil(;i,ii<T, Cut. Matr. (irad. Miit.Miis., 
0(1. II, IS'-i-i, i>. ■"<:!; ('"1"'. Ulic'ck List liatr. lii'itt. N. Am.. 1^7;"), \t. 2:>; 
rrocccd.H. Aiiicr. I'liilns. Soc, l.SSti, p. ;V,'il. 

ChrijKOthnln ]<iinr/ormis Mitcli,, /. <: 

Amvhtuma mcaihi h. (VuUutiila Cm ., Mom. .Mils., xi v, p. t, I'l. 1, li;,'. 1-;t. 

Amphtiima (liiliirliila W.i^l., Sysl. Aiiipli., p. viOK. 

Sirciiiiidtn diihr liiliiiii Fit/., /. <■■ 

AmphhniKi tiUhuliOii Ciiv., Mt'iii. Miis., \n , ji. 7, PI. 1, li;;. I-C; Ilollir., N. A. llcrp., V, p. 
•»:!, ri.:!l; Tsclmdl, liatr., p. ;I7 : Dmn. iV liiln.. p. 'JIKi; K'yiliT Pnic. Ac. I'liila., 
Irt71»,ii. II; lioiilciniiT. fat. liatr. (iiad. lirit. Miis..»'<l.ii.lS->>,p.H-i. 

Miirwiwpxin Inihiclijld Fit/.. IJrptil. p. :{l ; (iiay, Cat. liat. ( lirit. Mns., cd. 
I, p.r..") : C(ip(",Cln'(k-Eist Hair. K'cplil. Ncarclic Hc.alm, l,-^7.'>, p. 'J.', 


1 ! 



Kic. ri"). Ami'liiiifihi iiuiitis. Nil. Iiififl."). ('iihiintiiis, Mi^<H ; ]. 

Ill this spocit'.s (he liciiciiil form i.s j'loiijfiUo, and iiiucli like (liat of 
an 0(.-l. or this h'ii<;th tlic tail occiiitics a piopoftion which varies I'lom 
u little loss than oni't'onith to a little less than one-lifth. This proijor- 
tioii (lepeiMls on aye, the lai:L;(> adtilts havinfjf shorter tails than the, 
Hiiiall and yotiiijjf ones. 'I'lie Ixxly is depicsscd e\ lindrie. in t'orm. Tiie 
I'oriii ol' the tail ditlers in dilTerent individuals Croin a verticral ovalin 
section, to a triaiiijle in section, with theanjile upwards. Its extremity 
is always strongly compressed, and is slender, and th(^ superior snrfacie 
maybe rounded or anj^nlate. There is no distiiuit contraction repre- 
senting a nock. The head is an oval, and is narrowed verv j^rad- 






imlly to the extremity of the roninled muzzle. It is much depressed 
iilso, so liiat ■ha ranfje of vision is verticsil. The end of the muzzle pro- 
jects beyond the mouth, but the sides do not project. The number of 
lateral dermal {jrooves is about sixty. 

The eyes are quite small, and are separated by an interspace of five 
times their transverse diameter. They have no lids, so that the cornea 
is continuous with the cephalic epidermis. The external nostrils are 
minute, and are separated by an interval a little less than half the in- 
terorbital space. The lips are larjje and full, th(Kse of the upper jaw 
()verhan<jinjj, and concealing those of the lower except at the end of the 
muzzle. The lower lips commence on each side of the symphysis, and 
are decurved over the integument of the ramus, from which they are 
separated by a deep longitudinal groove. 

In the premaxillo -maxillary series there are thirty-one teeth. The 
series terminates below a point posterior to the eye, and a little in front 
of the rictus oris. The vomerine series form a /\ with the apex forwards. 
Tiieir posterior end is nearly but not Jiuite so far jmsterior as the ex- 
tremity of the maxillary row. All the teeth are comi)ressed, and their 
anterior edge is abruptly recurved towards the apex, so that the apex 
looks partly posterioily. The posterior nares have a valvular ojjening, 
which looks ba<!k wards and outwards a little in advance of the ex- 
tremity of the vomerine series, and nearer to them than to the maxil- 
laries. The tongue is represented by a muscular mass, which occupies 
the floor of the mouth. It is only free laterally, being separated by a 
deep groove from the mandil)ular ramus. This groove is vertically 
divided by a membranous lamina for its entire length. 

The skin is everywhere smooth. The segmental grooves are onlj' dis- 
tinct on the sides; on the belly they are indistinct, and on the dorsal 
region they are entirely wanting. There are numerous nuicous pores 
on the head. There are three rows on the maxillary region, the superior 
of which ceases below the eye, in front of a line falling perpendicularly 
(Vom it. Tiie median row terminates in one or two large pores a little 
behind below the eye. The inferior row extends farther and then be- 
i'omes transverse, and joins (he superior branch of the sui>ercili; -y row 
three diameters of the eye behind an<l within it. There is a row on each 
side of (he muzzle, which terminates in front of a line co;inecting the 
fronts of the eyes. Its place is taken by a superciliary row, which forks 
behind (he eye. The inferior half ceases behind the eye two diameters, 
while thei superior one joins the transverse continuation from theinf(!rior 
maxillary, and is continued a short distance over each temporal muscle. 
There are no distinct rows of pores on the body. The head pores may 
dilfer somewhat from those described above from a large specimen 
(No, 0.'J(>0). Thus there may be only two maxillary series, and the 
su])erciliary row may not be distinctly divided. There are two rows 
along the superior part and two rows along the inferior part of the 
lower jaw. 

) I 






I atuw-w w 



' VI 


Tlie bnuicliial fissiuv. is sitiiatiMl iieiiily as far posteiior to the caii- 
tliius oris as the latter is posterior to tlie end of the lower jaw. It is in 
the anterior part of a fossa, and is bordered anteriorly and posteriorly 
hy a narrow free nienibranons lamina. A short distanec beiiind and be- 
low this is situated the anterior limb. The len«ilh of the linib is eqnal 
to the intero(!nlar space; in some spetinensa little less. The hnnierns 
nuikes an anj^ie with tiio rest of the Imib, but the foot is eontinnons 
witli the cubitns; it is divided into either two or three toes. The jjos- 
terior limb is huj^er than the anterior, nieasnrinj;- nearly half as lonjj 
aijitin. Its jjosterior bonier orijfinates a very short distancj'; in front of 
the anterioi'extremity of the vent. It is compressed, and }?ently enrved 
inwards at the knee Joint. It is <lirecte«l posteriorly, not quite reach- 
in}; the i)()steri()r extremity of the vent. It is divided into two or tliret^ 
di}>its. The vent is a lon.uitudinal slit, with a jirominent margin. Its 
internal face is densely i)appilloso within the marj-inal border. 

Measiirrmnils nf So. (>;!()(>. 


'l"(.(iil Iciifith f^Hi 

L(Mi<;tli(il'tiiil l-'-.i 

J^i'iij^tli to ciintliiis oris 017 

Lei)<;tli to ln'ainlii;il lissiire 077 

Lcnjjth to I'oriOiiiiU OHi) 

Li'iifitli of torn limit 0175 

Leii<;tli ot'liind liiiil) (»'-»l 

Wiillh l.ct\V(!(Mi nostrils ()(H 

Width hc.twccii cy.'s OlS 

Width ofh(';id at can thus oris til.') 

In specimens in alcohol the color is a dark slaty brown above ami 
slate colored below. Its (tolors in life are said by Dr. Ilolbrook to be 
the same. 

I have united int(> a sin<>le sj»ecies the Amphhtmu mcnnn and A. iriilac- 
ti/la ill the above account. The dest^iption was made from a specimen 
(No. (I.'KIO) in which there, are two toes on the anterior and three toes 
on the pD-teiior limb. In two specimens of the National collvction on 
the toes are .'5-1 ami 2-1 in front. In the niimeron.i spe<!iiin'iis (No. 
70i;>) from Mississippi the toes are variable also. Mr. ifyder* has 
l>ointed out that one specimen displays the di<;its H ij ; a second H il ; ii 
third I in front ; others have the characters of the .Means type, H r;, and 
others the Tridactyle <;haracler, ij ji. All areyonii;;' and from the same 
locality. ]\Ir. Ilyder concludes from these facts that the two sii|»itos<'d 
jjenera must be united. In this 1 aj;roe with him ; and after a study of 
the specimens in tln^ National Miiseiiin and in my own collection, I be- 
lieve that the two species on which these supposed j^enera rest are not 
distiiijjiiisiiabl(\ I find no characters ])e(;uliar to any set of individuals. 

Development. — I'rof. O. P. Hay has observed the habit of this spe- 

* I'lmced. I'liiia. Ac!. 187!», i,. 14. 




cies at the porioil of «leveloi)mtMit of the yoiinjj; iiiul describes them in 
the following hinjjnaye :* 

" At the close of Angust, 18(S7, 1 spent a few days in Little Kock, 
Ark., in theeinploy of Dr. IJranner, of the Arkansas {jeologicial snrvey. 
On September 1 1 visited a cypress swunip in the vicinity of the city 
Cor the purpose of colectiiig some reptiles. During the severe summer 
drought this swamp had been almost completely dried up, and there 
was little chance to get anything except by turn'.ig over pieces of fallen 
tiiiil)er. IJeneath a log of i;onsiderabIe size I found to my surprise a 
I, irge animal (ioiled up, which b^- its smooth glistening skin I immedi- 
ately saw could not be a snake: but, having never before seen a living 
Aiiiphiuma, it took me some tinu^ to realize that I had before me one of 
these animals. After making due preparation to prevent its escai»e T 
gave the animal a i)ush with a stout stick, aiul then, no attempt at re- 
treat being made, I lifted it out of the slight depression in which it was 
lying and let it straighten itself out. Meanwhile I ha«l observed, lying- 
in the midst of the coils, a mass of moist-looking matter, nearly as large 
as one's fist. Picking this up, 1 disirovered it to be a nniss of eggs. 
This was put into a Jar of alcohol, and innnediately the young within 
(lie egg «',onld be seen writhing about, thus showing that they were in 
ail advanced stage of di^velopment. The mother offered no resistance 
on l)cing handled, and was put into a small school satchel and car- 
ried to the State geologist's oflice, a mile away, with two em|»ty fruit- 
jars lying on her. That night she was kept in an empty boat box. 
This wass(Miie eighteen inches in height, and from it she made efforts to 
es<!a[»e. Slie would er<'(!t herself in oru' corner until her head was on a. 
level with the edge of the box, but she could get no farther. Once in 
falling down she uttered a shrill sound somewhat like a whistle or the 
peeping of a .\onng chicken. A cry like that of a young duck has been 
attributed l.y some observer to the Siren, but IJarton in some of his 
writings denies the stat<'ment that such a sound is made. 

"The limbs of theses animals are very small. For instance, of this 
one, havinga length of ;>1 inches, tlu^ hinder limbs are oidy tlireefbuidis 
of an iiKih long, tln^ anterior only one half an inch. Yet, when it was 
moving over the ground or the floor, it was amusing to observe that its 
feet were put forward and drawn back, as if they really could l)e of some 

"On initating this Ampiiiuuje by pushing herwitha stick she would 
snap at it viciously, and on further irritation would seize it in her Jaws 
and, springing from tin? Www in the form of a spiral, would turn rapidly 
round and round, thus twisting the stick in one's hand. Any enemy 
thus attacked would certainly find his interest in the affair fully 

"There an^ two points in the structure of tlie adult to which I wish 
fo call attention ; although no doubt they have already been observed 

*Amfric;iii N:it, April, 1888. 


» .■•'1 






\ I 









by anatoiiiisrs. The first is tliiit tlii'ie is ii little lobe of skin forming 
tlic anterior bonn(bir.v of the gill opening and ajiother forming the pos- 
terior bonier. Tliese can be very eh)sel.v a|>plie(l to eaeli otlier, and seem 
to form a very etlicient valvnlarappariitiis, b.v means of whicli tiiisnse- 
less relic of its larval life may be (•lose<l np. The other striKitnre is con- 
ne<!ted with the month. The lower lip is foiined of a fold of skin that 
is separated from the skin of the throat by a deep groove that rnns 
from the corner of the month to near the symidiysis. This fold has a 
thin sharp edge, ami is directed downward anil ontward. The upper 
lip also has a sharp edge, which, when the month is (closed, widely and 
closely overlaps the lower lip. Tliis arrangement of the lips and that 
of the gill opening seems to me to have relation to the burrowing habits 
of these animals, and are designated to pre\ent the mouth andidiarynx 
from being filled with mud. 

The eggs of the Amphinme an^ the most remarkable that I know of 
as occurring anu)ng the Amphibians. 'I'ln^ young, which now constitute 
the whole contents of the eggs, are sui rounded by a transparent <'ai)sule 
about as thic^k as writing paper, and these capsules are coniu'cfed by a 
slender cord of similar substance. It is as if the gelatinous mass sur- 
rounding the «!ggs of tlie toad simuld become ('ondensed into a solid 
covering and a connecting cord. Mow many strings there are of these 
eggs 1 <!an not determine with certainty, on account of their being in- 
extricably intertwined ; l>nt, since there are four ends visible, there are 
probably two strings, one for each oviduct. For the same reason \ have 
not been able to count the <'ggs. A careful estimate makes at fewest 
]')() of them. 

"The eggs in their present state an^ near' globular, and average 
about 0""" in diameter. Their distance ai)art .wi the string varies from 
.'itol-'"'"; fourteen of them vere counted on a i»ie<H> of the string 1> 
inches long. At this rate the whole mass would lorm a string altout S 
feet long. The connecting (uird varies from 1..")""" to one-half that di- 
ameter. The eggs greatly resemble a string of large beads. 

"The young are coiled within the ca]»sMlcs in a spiral form. On re- 
moving tiiem and straightening them they measure about 45""" in length. 
The (iolor is dusky above, with indicationsof a darker dorj^al stripe, and 
on each side a similar darker band. I'.clow the color is ))ale. The body 
is proj)ortionaIly stouter than in the adult and tiie head broader. The 
fore and the hind feet have <'acli three toes. 

"The young possess conspicuous gills ; and, since they are evidently 
near the period <»f hatching, it is l)ut fair to suppose that they would 
continue to retain these gills for some time after exclusion. The gills 
are three in nundx'r on ea(!li side, and are simply pinnate in form. The 
median gill is longest, measuring some (("'"' in length. I'rom its maiii 
axis theie arise about ten delicate twigs. Tiie other gills aic somewhat 
shorter, and give origin to about eiglit lateral twigs each. In all these 
filaments may be seen thebloodvesscis lilled with the large blood-cor- 








l>iis(!l('.s for wliicli AMii>liiiimii is iioted. Tlireo {;illslitH are open, of 
wliicli tim two posterior UocoriH^ closed in thu adult. The eyes appear 
to belter advantage tliaii later in lii'e. 

"The liiidiiifi'of these, yuiiii;; nearly ready for active life in siieli nn 
iinex|»ected situation suj-f^ests some interestinjj; proltlenis. At what 
l»eriod of their development are thee ejjj^s deposited!? If at an early 
period, the mother must inenltate tnem for a considerable time. If at 
a late period, why sIkmiIcI they be placed in such a situation '! In either 
case it appears to be quite i)robable that they are fertilized before they 
are deposited. Aji'ain, how aie the ejijjs in su(!li a dry situation saved 
from beinji' thoroujjhiy desiccated '! They are, I think, kept moist by 
the body of the mother as she lies (M)iled around tliem. My remem- 
brance of her as she lay when first exposed is that she was much 
plumper than she now appears in alcohol; and when she was laid down 
on the olliire tlocu- (>very spot she toiu^lied was made wet. The source of 
(his water I <b» not know; but it appears probable that it came from the 
numerous ;>-|ands that till the skin, and that the mother makes nucturnal 
visits to the water to lay in supplies." 

I'li;. .Mi. A III nil ill mil iihiiiit^. 
NaliniilisI, IHSS. 


l;s, Willi ciiiliiio.s ill tlid'on'iit po.titioii.t. Froiii Iliiy, Ainoiicau 

i_ , t ^ 

'l. I 

1; I 





The Amphiiima presents towards the salamanders the nearest atlinity 
to the Desmo^natliida'. The i)edunculate ()ccii)ital condyle and atlan- 
tal insertion of the temporal muscle are the same in both, and are re- 
lated to a similar form and probably similar use of the muzzle. IJy 
this arranycmeut the temporal muscle lifts the entire head bj- its inser- 
tion in the lower jaw, thus takiu}^ the place of cervical muscles. It can 
thus use the muz/leas alever to burrow in mud and stones. Amphiuma 
incaiiN i'.lso resend)les the species of Desmojjnathus in the possession of 
a chirrui) or whistle. I do not know of another American sahunander 
whicl. possesses a voice. The ej-jus in both genera arc laid in a rosary. 
I suspect that Amphiuma is a type which has de,<,'enerated from a sala- 
mander like J)csnu)gnathus, but which possessed an ethmoid bone. 


I ; 

5 i; 

IS:!' i 
Sil t 

r I 


.tllipliiilniit iiiiiiiiH <iiiril. 

























11. 'lit,' 













I-'niiii wlioiii i'i-(',uivu(l. 

Natiin< ol 


AriiiiKtiiB. •'"'"• 

IhTH (i. liiowii Onotlii Ale 

■ o'lili loves'. C I I II. I'. llaiU<i- 

ImhI .Irssiiii, AiK 
'l\ii-lmrMiii;li, N. (^ 
Hil(i\i, MisH ...... 

i:i('i'liiirciii;:li. I>a. 
Cliailcsloii, S (I .. 

XiLshvillr, (ill 

I'raiiic Mcr Uoii^ir, La 

l'()liiiiiliii.-<, MinA 

Now OrluaiLH, Im 


Cliarluattiii, iS. ■ 

Jill.V — IKWI 

,1. \. l!ii.lK<'r 

(;. Ilclliiiaii 

111. \V. L. .loiic.H 

Dr. S. r>. ISaikin 

(". 11. \t\MU>i 

1)1. Wilili 

\V. .1. 'ra.vlni 

.laiiirs I'jiiiii' 


Dr. U. \V. SInilVIill 

S. A 

l)v. .Sliuiiiai'il 









Jpoda 0]i\n'} ; I'uriiilnpliid'Ki DriJI, 

N'c'itt'bra'i iimpliicji^loii.s, with iinterior doiiblc Vo.sti- 
biilo with iiitcnial wall o koou.s. lOtliinoid well (Icvcloitcd. !S(|iiain()- 
salami parietal more or les.s c.xteiKlcd over 8<!apiilar 
and polvii! arclit'.s waiitiii}^. ()rl)it smrouiuU'd by tlu> ina.\ Ilar.y bone. 
Liver iiiii(!ii .subdivided. Teste.s, several 01 eaeli side. Two protractile 
niiisides of llic male rectum, wliieli project a port on of it as an iiitroiiiil- 
teiit or^aii. 

This family lias been usually rejjarded as rei>reseutiiiy a distinct order 
of l>atra(;liia. I have di.scus.sed this ques'. ion under the head of tli*^ or 
der Urodehi, within which I have placed it as a suborder, which should 
bear JJe iJlainville's name Pseudophidia. Hesides the structural pecu- 
liarities already pointed out, I'eters and Sarasin have shown the 
brauciiial apparatus of (he larva to be peculiar. Inst ad of form in jj 
loops ill fibrilhe of jir. cesses of the branchial arches, the branchial vein 
and artery ramify on t lie surface of membianous bladder-like expan- 
sions of the arches. 

The numerous species of this family are distributed throu<;h(Uit all 
tropical rej;ious except those of the Australian realm. They are most 
abundant in tropical America. Their liabits ai-e subterranean, their 
lives beinji" mostly spent in the nests (»f ants, wliicii they eat. Al tiie 
proper .season tliey repair to thc^ water and dejtosit their ejJTfjs. The 
larva; pass thronj;h their metamorphosis early in life. All of the spe- 
cies are nearly blind. 

This family appears to me to have been derived from the ley-bearinj^- 
Urodela throuji'li the Amphiimida', by a jiroeess of de<feneration. Addi- 
tional evidence in favor of this view is found in the discovery by Stras- 
ser, of small cartilages in the position of the inferior elements by the 
scapular arch. This degeneration may be regarded as the result of the 



inactive lite (MHisoqiicnt on imriiNili(! liabitH. Tim waine result lias l)o- 
rallcn till; Ijace'itiliaii lainily Aiiipliisbiciiiila': and the, Opiiidian t'atiiily 
ol T.vpliIopiUa!. Iloth of tlK'.so art', like the Ca'ciliida', paiaisltlc in ants' 
nests, and holli have become nearly blind and have lost their or}j;ans of 
l>ro;>ression, whether limbs or abdominal scales. To aid them in \\\i\'n 
darlv habitat ;i pecidiar tentacle has been developed in tiiis tamily, 
which issues from ii canal of the maxillary bone. This canal passes 
from the orbit, and the tt>ntacle which oe(ri)pi<>s it is fnrnishe<l with a 
iniisclu and nerve (Weidersheiin). It is ])robably homologous with the 
" l)aiancer" of the urodelous larva, which sometinu'S j)ersists as a non- 
retractile tentacle in s»'veral «»f the species of the salamandiine yenns 

The t'a'ciliida^ have been divided into a nnnd)er of jjenera by IVters. 
The presence or absence of minute scales defines some of these, and 
tlie form and position of the tenta(!ular openinj,' others, 8onu! of the 
latter do not appt'ar to the writ<?r to be well founded. 

No species of the Ca'ciliida* enters the ycof^iaphical boundaries of the 
nearctic realm. 

(Mate* 11 represents the skull and sonu> vertebne of the Clitlnnurpcton 
iiiidstinctnm, 11. »>V^ L., si representative of the family from IJrazil. 


Vomeropalatiiu^ bones wantin;;. Supraoccipitals, intercalaria, ami 
liasioc(tipitals wantinjf. Maxillary ijones wantin,i,^ I'ropodial bones not 
foiissilied; cau<lal vertebra' distinct. 

This order, which was projiosed by Miiller, has but few liviny; repre- 
sentatives, nor has paleontolo^'y disclosed with certainty any extinct 
ones. The liinf^e of its variation beinjif thus unknown, I conline my- 
self chieliy to a discussion of the characters of the only family which 
it contains, the Sirenida'. The order is distinjiuislied, as above indi- 
(Mted, by the absence of many bones of tins skull usual in veitebrata 
ami IJatrachia — a result which is apparently dui! to a. lon{,' process of 






Vertebrae amphiccelous; pteryj;<)idea wanting:; premaxillary and den- 
tary boiu's toothless: patches on the parasphenoid : two pairs of cera- 
tobrauchials; a secoiul basibranchial continuous with the first ; several 
epibrauchials; no otoj^lossal ; the stapes not directly (!onnecti'«l with 
the (puulrate; mandibular articulation by a baIlandso(^ket joint, the 
ball on the inaudible, the cotylus in the quadrate. 

In the known j^enera of tlie family the nasal bones are embraced by 
the spines of the premaxillary bone; the vomeropalato-i)terygoid sirch 

I i 


is pii'st'iit as ii ciirtiliij,'! HOIKS baiul ; the prefrontal boiios arc waiitiiifr; 
tlu'orbitosplu'iioids are lar^'e ami e.\i»aii(li'<l laterally in front, iso as to 
form iiart of tiie palatal surface. The earpns is eartila;;inons, anil tlieie 
are no hind le^s or pelvic arch. There are external branchia', which 
consist of branchinjr processes of the inte^ninient of the epibranchial 
elements. The latter are separated by branchial lissnres of the walls 
of the j)harynx. 

In the jjenns Siren the cranial extremity of thoceratohyal is free from 
the cranium, but is connected with the stapes by a stronj^ lijiament. In 
this resi)ect this };enus resembles the adults of the true salamanders, oi' 
rsendosauria, rather th an the other perennibranchiate forms, <»i- the Tre 
motodera and Amphiumoidea. In its four epibranchial ('intilaj^es, how- 
ever, if resembles the larva* of the Psendosauria, as also in the presence 
of a second basibranchial, connected with i\n', first anteriorly, and ex- 
pandiiif; posteriorly Tins mixture of charatiters of the adults and (»f 
the larva' of pseiulo'aurian urodela has asi^nilicance which I will fur- 
ther illustrate. 

1 have already pointed out (American Naturalist, 188,1, p. 215) that 
l»ala'oiitolo}jfy shows that the order of Trachystomata is a de;;i'iicrate 
type, if the structure of its skull, limb-arches, and limbs be I'onsidcrcd. 
1 have also reason to believe that there are indications of a retrojiiade 
metainorphosis to be found in the history of its branchial apparatus. I 
was for a long time at a loss to account for the i'lirioiis condition which 
1 had observed in the branchia' of the sirens. The fringes are freipiently 
in a state of apparent partial atrophy and inclosed in a common dermal 
investment of the branchial ramus, or all the rami are covered l»y a 
common investment, so as to be absolutely functionless and immovabU^ 
This character observed in the Pucudohnnnltus striutiis, iiiiva orifjin to 
its separation from the {jeniis Siren. The character is, however, comnioii 
to the Siren lacertina at a certain age, and the real diH'erence betwt'cn 
the genera depeinls on thedilferent number of the digits and pharyn- 
geal tissnres in the two. 

1 have also observed that the liinctionless condition of the branchia' 
is universal in young individuals of the tSiren lacertina of live ami six 
inches in length, and that in a specimen of a little over three inches 
they are entirely rudimentary and subepidermal. 1 have, in fact, no- 
ticed that it is only in large adult specimens that the branchia' are fiiby 
developed in structure and function. The inference from the specimens 
certainly is that the branchia' are in the sirens not a larval character, 
as in other perennibranchiate Batrachia, but a character of maturity. 
Of ct)urse only direct observation can show whether sirens have 
branchia' on exclusion from the egg; but it is not probable that they 
dili'er so much from other members of their (ilass as to be without them. 
Nevertheless, it is evident that the branchia' soon become functionless, 
so that the animal is almost if not exclusively an air breather, and that 
functional activity is not resumed till a more advance<l age. That Sirens 




may lu' «'X('lii.siv('I.v air ln'ciitluTs I have sIkiwii l»y tibsei'vations on a 
spcciiiKMi in an aqnatinni wliicli, I'oi' two nioiilis, prohalily from tlui at- 
taclvH of n«hes, had no lirancliia' at all. (Sco .lourn. Ac, I'liila., 180(}, 
p. OS). 

In explanation of tliis tact, it may ho romarkoil that this atrophy can 
not bu a<;roiinto*l lor on th(> .snp|)osition that it is S(>as(nial anil due to 
the drying; np ol the a(|nati('. habitat of the sir(>ns. The tionntiies thoy 
inliabit arehnmid, rec«'ivin<;,Mhe heaviest rain-fall of oni' ICastern States, 
and there is no dron<;ht. The only explanation appears to me to be that 
the present Sirens iuv t\w descendants of a terrestrial type of Hatraehia, 
which passed thron^h a metamorphosis lik(>. other nu>mbers of their 
class, lint that more recently tlu-y have ailopted i permanently aqnatic 
life, and have resnmed their branchia- by reveision. 

This hypothesis is (^onlirmed by the relations of the stapes to the 
suspensor of the lower jaw. It is not coniu'cted with the quadrate 
cartilafje, as is the case with the I'rotiida', Cryptobranchida', Amiddn- 
mida', and the larva- (»f salamanders, bat is distinct and is connected 
posteriorly v/ith a stapedius muscle as in adult salamandeis.* (See 
I'l. 1(5, ti-. .-..) 

There are but two known {jenera of this family, whicdi dilVer as fol- 
lows : 

i>ij;ils run I ; Itriiiii'liiiil I'lMsiircs nininally lliii'c Siren. 

Dijiils (liicr ; liiuiiilii:il lissiiit'soiii' I'stnilohraiichiin. 

SlIvl'iN liinna'us. 

Anin'iiiliiti'M A<'!i(U'iiiic;c, \ii, ITCi.'i, p. lUl (tcsli' lldlliiook) : Systoma 
NatiiiM' !•,', cd. I, p. :i71, I7(;(i: (»iM'it. l:!, cd. i, Addenda, 17<i7; iliid., 
'riuton's I'd., l-^ti-.*, I, p. (iTl ; 'i'scliiidi. Italiai liia, p. its ; (iray Cat. 
Itril. Mns., p. (i-*; Dnni. A I'liUr. I",rp. (icii.. ix, p. lit! ; HoiiltMij^or, 
Cat. (irad. Ilrit. Miis., cd. ii. p. Mi, l-i+J. 

I'liaiKnihraiicliiis, pt. l,i'ii(d<ail Isis von Okcn, If^Jl, p. 'Jiid. 

Difiits four; Jaws with horny sheath; tnnyiu^ larj;e, free in front; 
eyes distinct; external branchia' three. A patch of teeth on eac^h side 
of the palate standinj; on tlii'cc^ plati's, wliicii an^ attached to the para- 
sphenoid bone. Three branchial lissures on each side in the adult. 

In this ficnns tiiere are narrow (!artila,t;es on the ai>proximated ex- 
tremities of the tiist basibranchial and the ceratohyals, in the i)osition 
of a basihyal and hypohyals respectively. 

The transverse of the vertebral are very much expanded 
horizontally at the, but they terminate in a i)ointed ajiex. 

I ,! 

^ ;-l' 




1951— Bull :\i- 

' AnuM-ican Xatnralist, l88-<, p. Jtll. 


,;< I; 


Sll.'KN l,A('i:i>riNA I. inn.' 

AiiKi'niliiU's Ac'inU'iiiic'ii', vii,p.;!ll, ltd..: Svslciiiii Natiiiii', cd. 1:5,1 Ail- 
(Iciidji; C:iiv. ill llmnl). ()l>s. Z<mi., i, p. -J-^, I'l. !l-ll; DaiKl., Kt'iitil., 
VIII, ])/i:L>, ri.l'.t, li.ii.-i: lli'll)., N.A.Hcrp., v. p. HH, I'1.:M: TsdiMtli, 
/.(■.: Diiin.iV liilir., p. UKHlnii t) : linnlciincr, Cat. lialr. (irad. Hrit. 
Mils., vt\. ii, ISS-J, p. -7. 
riiancrohraiKJiiifi (?/^)»,v Li'iickarl, I.e. 

Siren intermedia Lcconti", Aim. Lvc N. Y.. isjs, p. l:!:!, I'l. 1; llollir. /. c, )). 107, PI. 
:i."); id, ibid, 


Flfl. .IT. fiimi lacirlinn. No. \"y\\. WiliniiiLitnn, X. (\ [. Xn. 7, .yi'iiin; with nlmvtivc litniirliiiv. 

" J'lad'M l>, liyK. l-:{ ; l:i, 11«. (i; 4:J; 41; 4(i, 11^'. r. ; 111, ll.r. u. 





In ijonenil form llils iiniiniil is quite, I'loiif^uti', ;iii(l tlic t.iii is coiisid- 
enibly shorter tliiin tlic body, inoasiiriii};- one half of the h.-ngth of the 
head and body together. The head is a h)nger or shorter oval in out- 
line, and the end of the ninzzle is rounded, truncate, and projects be- 
yond the lower Jaw to a moderate degree. In prolile it is depressed, and 
the line of the front gradually descends from behind. The fore limb is 
short, measuring Just half the distance between its anterior base and 
the end of the muzzle. 

The eyes are very small, ami are covered by a thin epidermis or 
cornea. They are situated just one-third the distance between the end 
of the muzzle and the base of the anterior external branchin. The 
ui>per lip is pcndidous at the sides of thi; mouth, overlap])ing the lower 
lip. The latter is free and pendulous at the sides, and is bounded be- 
low at the base by a deep groove, which mayor may not be continuous 
round the entire chin. Thus it is comi)lete in seven specimens and in- 
complete in eighteen. liotii conditions are seen in specimens from the 
same locality, as, for instance, those from Kiceborongh, (ra., and ^lata- 
moros, in Tamanlipas, The external nares are well separated from 
each other, and are short transverse slits. 

The superior horny sheath is quite short, covering only the prcmax- 
illarybone. It has a sharp edge, and is black in <!olor. The lower 
sheath is much longer, covering the entire edge of the dentary bone. 
It is also sliari) edged and black. The tooth patches vary in propor- 
tions in dilferent individuals. Tiiey are distinct from each other, but 
are in contact anterioi ly ami diverge i)osteriorly. The teeth are small 
and acute, ami are arranged in numerous transverse rows in each patch. 
In adult individuals the patehes have an oval outline, but their width 
varies, and in some others and in immature examples they are more or 
It ss linear. Thus in one specimen from Matamoros the vomerine teeth 
arc reduced t(. a line on each side, the two forming a A. In one from 
(Icorgia the same arrangement occurs, but in a second from the same 
locality, and in every other respect similar to it, the teeth are in a wide 
patch. In two others the patch is intermediate in characters. The 
surface of the tongue is smooth, not displaying plica' or large pappilhe. 
It occui)ies nearly the entire tloor of the mouth. The interrial nostrils 
are eaitha hole at the exterior side of the parasphenoid patches of teeth, 
at tiie point marking the posterior third of their length. 

The fingers are moderately elongate, and are perfectly free from 
dermal web or border. Tiieir lengths are in order, commencing with 
the sliortest, 5-l*-4-.'{. The third and fourth are sometimes of equal 

The brancliia', when fully developed, form a bipinnate frame-work, 
to which tlie ultimate librilla' are attached : timt is, the primary stem 
sends a row of secondary branches downwards on each side, and these 
again ternary braiuihes on each side. To the under side of these the 
fibrillar are attached. Tiiey are (juite short. Tiie entire brantdiia is 
short and not produced at the extremity, as is the case with Nccfiwiis 







228 mii.LiyriN :!i, unitki) stater national mtseum. 

punctaiiis iiiul larva' ol' Aiiibl.vst(Hiia, In I'lotuiis the sccoiidiiry 
branches are also present. The librilla" in Siren present dillerent con- 
ditions, perhaps dependent on the character of their environment as to 
the abundance of water, etc., and indicating dillerent dejjrees of func- 
tional elBciency. I have discussed this question under the head of the 
family Sirenida*. 

The body is rounded, snbquadrate in section, and disi)lays an indis- 
tinct median <lorsal groove. The transverse j>'rooves are distinct on the 
sides and nearly meet on the belly, but are not distinct on the back. 
They vary from thirty-one to thirty-seven in number. The larfjer speci- 
mens generally have thirty-six and thirty-seven grooves, while smaller 
ones fre(iuently have only thirty-one and thirty-two. The specimens 
with thirty-three, thirty-four, and thirty-live arc of medium size ; but a 
full sized one IVom (Je()rfiia(No.4r);{5) has t]iirty-tw(),and a small one from 
South Carolina (No. lO.")!!) has thirtv-four. It was on specimens jjresent- 
iufj- the eharactersof the sujaller indivichmls above mentioned that the.V. 
iiifeniicdid of Leconte was proposed. I can not distin<:;uish it from the 
ordinary form. The skin is everywhere i)erfeetly smooth. The tail is 
comi)ressed from the base to the extremity, and for its distal half is 
(juite thin. It has a stron,n' dermal liii above and below. It commences 
above opposite to the anterior extremity of the vent, and below about 
0!ie-fourth the length of the tail posterior to the vent. 

The branchial fissures, .as remarked in the discussion of the supposed 
retrograde metamori)liosis of Siren, may be one, two, or three, on one or 
both sides. In a series of small specimens from South Carolina (No. 
Mill) the fissures are as follows: L»-l, .'5-2, L»-2, 2-2. In a similar 
series from CJeorgia (No. b"*,'},")) they are 2-2, 3-3, 2-2 larger than last; 
2-3 same size as last, and .'5-3 fully grown. 

Measiircmcnls of No. KVll). 


Total l.ii-tli 7U 

l,('ii}itli (if licad and lidily 170 

Lcii^'lli to axilla 082 

Liiiiiffli to first l)iaiicliia 0'C> 

\ivun\h to liiu> of caiitlius of nioiilli ()li> 

IiClij;lli to liiu; of cyi' 01 1 

L(!iij»lli of fore-lcfj; from axilla O'Ari'i 

L('iii;tli of ImiiKM'iis from axilla _ 01'.) 

li •iifitli of ciiliitiis (IK) 

Will til hctwcoii nostrils OKi't 

Width lictwt'cii eyes , i}-2:\ 

Width of head ()4ri 

ICxpanso of fore limh.s cxtondnd Ill 

Dt'ptli of tail at middhi (Km 

The general (tolor is a dark lead-color, usually darker above than be- 
low. There is in sonu' sj)ecimens a yellow band, with irregular or badly 
delined outline, extending around tln^ miizzh^aiid upper lip lo Ihe base 
of the antei i(M' braiushia. In some specimens t his band includes tlii' chin ; 




ill others it is present on the cheeks only. In ii fully grown specimen 
from iMatanioros, Taniiiulipiis, this band is continued along the side for 
one-half the length, beyond which point it is represented by scattered 
yellow dots. A second similar badly delined band originates at the 
lower edge of the axilla, and extends along the inferior part of the side 
for two-thirds the length of the superior band. These bands have the 
position of those seen in the PsciidobraHchus Hfriatiis. In a, second 
ocpially large si)eeimen from Matainoros these bands are wanting. 

The geographical range of the Siren laccrtiiia is the best measure of 
the extent of the austroriparian region of North America. It appears 
in the middle of eastern North Carolina, and extends thence throughout 
the southern Atlantic and CJulf States tiirough Texas to the west side 
of the Kio CJrande, where it ceases. Northwards it ascends the ^Missis- 
sii>pi N'alley proper as high as Alton, 11!., and eastward in the AVabash 
basin, in Indiana, to Lafayette (Coulter), and the White lliver (Jordan). 

Sinn lidirliiiK Liiiii. 

('il;ilci;;in' Xo. Ill 
imiiibri'. s]i('C. 



Fioiii wliDiii received. 

Xiit live ol' 










1 Xeiise Kiver, X.C ' !I. W. Wclsliet Alcoliolii 

1 Cciluiiiliiii.S. (' Mill'. — , IKTii !•;. i;. .racksMii 

1 Miiiiiil Caiiiicl, ni i J uli '.':', 1877 I Unlicrt liiili^wav 

1 ! ;....■ ' 

1 Oalde.v.S.c; Ma.v 1,1,-77 K. W. Ilayward 

1 Ciiliiiiiliiii. S. (; I 1S7."< !•;. l';..Jack8(iii 

1 I'lLSoM, ■l"c\as ISSU Allicit Tuipe 

1 do ! 18^0 ilo 

1 Cliaili'stoii, S. (J Cliaili'stoii Aeadeinv 

•J (icoi;;ia Keli. 1, IHiil Dr. W. L. .limes . ..' 

( Uicclii>i(>ii;;li. (ia do i 

1 Craiid Ciitcaii, l.a Keli. 4, I.Mil SI. Cliailes (jolle;.'!! 

I .Malaiiioios, .Mexico I.ieiit. 1!. Couch, t'. S. A. .. 

1 OaKley.S.C MayIl,l,S7i) K. W.llaywaid 

1 Matamnids, Mexico I Lieuteiiiiiit Couch 

1 Wihiiiiiy:toii, N. (' Donald .MiiKaii 

! (iiiir Stale ' C. li. .\daiiis 

- Sail Dii'Ko, Te.i. Juno — , lSt>.-< W. Taylor 







45;t5 ! 


70 1. s 

7iHi!t I 


1087.'V I 

10855 i 

10858 I 



i0!<57 I 







I0H71 ] 




mwn I 

10428 j 

1 (?) 

2 } Kice\ioriiiii:h, (ill | Dr. W. I., .loiie.s. 

2 i MataiiioroM, .Mex 


< leor^etown, S. (' 

I'raii ie .Mei- Itou^o, I.a , 
(l.iUlev.S. (' 

1 {')■■■'■ 

1 (') 

I (.') 

1 O.iklev, S. t; 

I (.'» 

1 {!) 

Lieut. 15. Couch, I' S. A .. 

' Mai'. 11!, l,-7s K W.llaywaid.. 




1 Oakley, S.C 



.do ' 


■ In M.'ii'. I'.l. 'HTH K W. llavwaid. 

.do Mav ,18,1) do.! 

.ilo '. 

■ do .Mav -.1.-811 1''. W. llavwaid. 

.do Mai. -.1878 do 

.do .Mai. l;i, 1878 do 



i'Si:ui)onnAN'ciirs (imy. 

All" I'liilos., l-i'J."), l>. •■iW; Cut. Hatr. Uiad. liiit. Miis.,()l»; Boulcnj,'er, 
( at. Miitr. ISrit. Mus., cil. ii, H--,', p. W/. 

Digits rliive. Jaws wi Ii Iioni.v slu'iitli. Tongue froo in fnuit; eyes 
distinct. Hxternal Inanciiiii' tlncc Parasi>!RMioi(l teeth in two rows, 
united in fiont, forming a iongitndinid A- <^)"e brancliial llssuro on 
each side. 

The reduced number of digits and of l>raiu;liial fissures are tlie char- 
acters which sei»arate this genus from Siren. The jK'culiarities found 
in the branchia' arc shared by tlie hitter genus, liiit one species of 
Pseudobrauchus is luiowu. 

, .: 


eiray, Aiii'- I'liilos., I-,'.'), i>.-Jli; ; (1 ray, Cat. 15a tr, (irail. IJril.Miis., ud. i, p. 
(i'.t; Ji()iilonj;cr, Cat. I!:itr. (irail. Hiit. Mus., cd. ii, l^-^l, y. S7. 

Siirii Kliiiitd licconto Ann. l.yi., N. V., l&i\, \>. ;')•.', I'l. I; Tscliiidi, IWitr., i>. IW. 
llolbi'., X. A. lliii>., V. 1), Mil, ri. iiii; 1)11111. iV r.iln-., IM. W, W'^. 1. 

Tliis s[)ccies is iiuicli smaller than the >Sircn hurrl'uw, and dilfers from 
it in a good many characters. The body iscylindric, and the tail meas- 
ures two-thirds the lengtli of the head and body and a little more. The 
liead viewed from above has a rather narrow oval outline, and its ex- 
tremity is rounded without truncation, or sometimes acuminate. In 
profile the front descends regularly to the end of the muzzle, which 
overhangs the mouth ly a little. The ey«'s are <|uite (listin(!t, though 
small, and are on the border of the head when \ ieweil from above, but 
have moreui)ward than lateral <lir»'ction. Tlie mouth is veiy small and 
does not extend so far posteriorly as the anterior border of the eye. 
The upi»er lip is pendulous, <»verlappiiig the lower, so as to reduce the 
mouth when closed to a small aperture on the middle line in front. 
The !ip of the lower Jaw is not recurved, and there is no groovt^ pass- 
ing around the chin. The external iio.^trils aie in the upper lip, not 
very near its edge, but they are not visible from above. The distance 
between them is three <|iiarters the length of that between the eyes. 

The parasphenoid series of teeth ai'c but little in contact in front, and 
each one consists of two or thre(^ row.s. They extend anteriorly near 
to the i)remaxillary and jiostericuly to oi)posite the rictus oris. The 
choanal are round, and are at the external side of the parasphenoid 
series, one-fifth the distance anterior to their posterior extremity. The 
tongue is narrowed and acuminate in front, and its free portion is rela- 
tively longer than in the Siren Idccrtind. 

The branchia' have not the .same character as those of the Hhrn laccr- 
tina, being trii>innate on the external side only. The first is much 
shorter than the seconil, which is shorter than the third. The single 
lissure is below the of the second. I have not found a second 
fissure in this species, nor have I found this one closed in individuals with 



Tin; liATKAClllA OF .\ OK I'll AMEltlCA. 


aborted brancliiii;, as (xjciirs in the case oF the other two in Siren laver- 
thia. The limbs are short and weak, and their length enters that from 
their base to the end of the nuiz/!e two and a half times. The hiteral 
toes are st'iierally of e(iiial lenj;th, and the median one is a little longer. 
All areacnte at the extremity. 

The skin is entirely smooth, and there are thirty -fonr transverse grooves 
betwe^'n the axilhe and the vent. The crosi^-grooves are continued on 
the tail, so as to be distinct for two-thirds of its length. The tail is but 
little compressed for the proximal three fonrths of its length, the ver- 
tical section being vertically oval or lenticular posteriorly. A narrow 
dermal free border commenc^es at the end of the proximal tilth of its 
length and increases in width to the til), but is never as wide as in the 
Siren laccrtiiui and in the Xei;tniiis and Ciyptobianchns. The inferior 
deinial bonier is less extensive, existing only on the terminal fifth of 
tiie tail. The tail is relatively longer th.'n in the ISi-ren laccrtiiui. The 
Ibllittles of the skin are large, and so close together as to give the sur- 
face a reticulated a[)pearanee. There are no distinct mucou« pores of 
a dee[)er character. 

a ^-^ / 6 

I'l'.. .'iS I',, iiiliiliiinirhiiy .■'lriiif<'!< : No 7010: twii'c iiatiirnl Ni/.o ; (ij:. 5, xix. 

Miusiirrwviift ol' ."id.")!. 


Total icnjilii 152 

l.r :|;,'lli lo .•:i(t ul' vclll 087 

I. .11^ 111 lo axilhi oi:{ 

l.cii^itli to liiM liiiiiicliia 010 

I.iiijrii, to eye 00'^') 

Lcllfrlll to lilt us Oli-i 002 

I.niKlli of rou-l.';; ... 004 

I, flint !i of lor,' loot 0015 

Width of head ij; ) 006 

Willi h bclwccii i\cs OO:? 

Will 111 ol' ('xtfiiiicil fore liiiilis 01;') 

The general cofor is (thocolate brown, more or tinged with lead- 
(!olor. especially when the epidermis is fn sli. A rather wide yellow 
band commeiuies at the last branehia and extends along the side to 
lU'ar the end ()f the tail. It is continued, but less distinctly, from the 
branehia' forwards to the end of the muz/.le. A narrower band com- 


1 1 



f "I 




I-. I 



iiieiices jiist below tlie braiicliitc and extends aloii^j the side of the ab- 
domen parallel with the superior band, to nearly opposite the vent. In 
some specimens a similar band extends from the viuit alonj; the me- 
dian line below to the end of the tail, but this is frequently wanting- 
More frecpiently the dermal keel and border on the superior edge of the 
tall is .yellow, and this color is sometimes prolonged on the median lino 
of the back for the posterior half or more of its length. The belly lias 
rather large, more or less longitudinal yellow spots; and the ground 
color between the lateral bands is similarly but less coarsely spotted, 
except oil the tail, where the spots are dense. The fore limbs are yel- 
low, wilh a brown tinge. 

The braiieliia' of this species display partial or entire abortion in a 
larger i)r()port ion of individuals than in the ISlrcn laccrtina. An ei»i- 
dermal sheath may inclose the tibrilla' on the external side only, or on 
the external and internal sides. In ten specimens live have the epi- 
dermal covering on both sides, three have the tibrilhe free at the lower 
edge of thebranchia, and iii two the fimbria' are free on the entire pos 
tcrior face. Sometimes the first brancliia is ihclo.sed in a distinct sheath 
from the other two, and sometimes all are distinct. The insheatliing 
mend)rane may l»e (continuous at the inferior edge of the branchia with 
the epidermis of the throat. In this a small fissure remains, cor- 
responding with the one on the pharyngeal wall. 

This sitecies is .so far only known from Georgia ami Florida. From 
the latter State 1 have received it from Volusia. 

rsciidohrintchus fhialiis Lccoiitt'. 


Ililllllii'l. ^<]>t■l•. 




t li('iii)4hi . 


Kidiii hImhii n ii'ivtil. 

Natiirr 111' 


ISV. Mcoliiili.' 

Iili. 1, li-r.1 Dr. W. L. .IdiK.s l)(i. 

I Do. 


.tiunit Dmn(!^ril, IfcOI. 


I.iiiirciili, 17(1"'. 

. osTKoi.oav. 

Supraoccipital, basioccipital, intercalary, supratemporal, and post- 
frontal bones wanting. Fiontals and parietals connate; prefrontals 
present; nasals wanting or rudiniental. \'omers and palatines pres- 
ent, distinct from each other, the latter inclosing the internal nares and 
joining the pterygoids. IMaxillaries, ])r(Mnaxillaries, and ethmoid pres- 





Vertebral bodies mulividod, separate proatlas wantiii};. Vertubne 
very lew, on account of the anterior attaclnnent of the pelvis and the 
disappearance of some and fusion into a sin^^le styloid bone (the uro- 
style) of others of the vertebne posterior to the point of iittachment. 
Ribs very short or ^vantiIl{,^ 

Coracoid, clavicle, and scupula osseous, well developed ; procoracoid, 
epicoracoid, and suprascapula cartilaginous. Sternum present, entirely 
posterior to the coracoids. No iMiesternuni nor interclavicle, but fro- 
(luently a median element anterior to the clavicles called the omoster 

I'elvis consisting' of the usual three elements, the inferior pairs closely 
united, forminjjf a compressed body witliout obturator foramina. Ilium 
subcylindric, very elonj^ate. 

Humerus without distinct head proxinuilly, but with an epipbysis. 
Distally a globular condyle. Other long bones with epiphyses at both 
extremities. Astragalus and calcanenm elongate, forming a limb seg- 
ment. Carpal bones well developed, some of them, es[>ecially of the 
distal series, contiuent. Tarsals of tlie distal series much reduced in 
size and numl)ers. (I'hites 47, aK, etc.) 

Tlie auditory appendnges dill'er from those of the Urodela, Proteida, 
and Trachystomata in tiieir greater (-omplexity. There is a cavum 
tymi)ani or external ear and a series of ossicles and cartihiges extend- 
ing througli it, structures all wanting to tlie orders nu^ntioned. The 
stapes is, lilie tliat of thos(^ orders, an oval disk, which has no continu 
ous process, but gives origin at its middle to the stapedius muscle. 
Immediately in front of it tliere arises an osseous rod, the interstapedial 
bone. Its base is cartilaginous, and is expanded with concave surface 
lilting the convex surface of the skull. This rod terminates at tiie su- 
perior interrujition of a Hat annular carlilage {Annidus tijmptoiicus), 
which lies on the (piadrate cai'lilage and over the comjavity formed by 
its forwards tiexure. The mesostapedial cartilage is attached by a point 
on its interior face to the apex of the interstapedial, somewhat as an 
anther of a llower is attached to its tilament. Its superior portion is 
shorter, and is c(Minected with the «iiiadrate above by the mesostapedial 
liganu'iit. Its inferior portion is more or less ex[)anded distally. Its 
external face is Hat, and is applied to the inner side of the disciform 
e[tistai>edial. The latter is api»lied like a lid to the annular cartilage 
already mentioned. The mesostapedial then occupies a i)lace between 
the annular and (he epistapedial cartilages. The niembranum tympani 
tits closely over the latter. ( Plates 49-50.) 

The hyoid apparatus dilfers materially from that of the orders men- 
tioned. It can only be understood by reference to its developnu'iit 
from the larval stages. There are jiresent in the larva a ceratohyal 
on each side and a first basibranchi il, as in Urodela. The hypohyal is 
connate with the former. Posterior to the basibrancbial, two lateral 
eartilagiuous plates, the " hyobranchials," meet on the middle line. 

: i 

'! ij 





Kioiii the cxtcniiil (m1,!;o oI' eacli of tlicso lour (,'iirtiIii};os tlui (rnito- 
biaiK'liiiils nuliiito. The foiirtli or postrriur is fmiuently coiilliiciit 
with its h.vobranchial. (I'liite r.l, li->'. 1.) Witii tiie coiiiplolioii of the 
iiietanioiphosis tlie basi- and hyobraiu-hials fuse into a siii<;Io i>it'C(', 
and tho ('('latobraucliials iiniti' with tho same phite, ex(;ei)tiii.i;- the 
fourth, wliieli, be(!oiniu,s,' ossilied, forms the only true bone of tiie le- 
li'iou. In some tyix'S the ossilicalion becomes more extensive, as in 
Cychtrliamphus; (Plate 7(1, li,ir. l'>.) Sometimes the third eeratobran- 
chial is ossilied, as in Alytes {I. c, lij;'. 2) and Ileniisns (/. c, liy. IS;. 

Tiie dij;its of the Salientia are apparently four anteriorly and live pos- 
teriorly ; there is <;enerally a rudimental diji'it, in adilition, on the inner 
side of each foot. Tlu^ thundt is especially well developed in tlie llylid 
frenus, Ilyi)siboas ^Va^l.; (Plate 72, 11 f>'. I'd.) The inner di^it of the pos- 
terior foot, or the internal hallux, as it is called, lias three elements in 
.some of the lianas (see Plate (»">, li((ii(( ntlchcmuKt), while in other forms 
the diyit is principally represented by a lar<>e Hat i)halan,;;e. This is 
called the spur or metatarsal tubercle in works on the subject, and it is 
sometimes incorrectly referred to the tarsus. 

The carpus of the Salientii has but two i)roximal elements, the inter- 
medium not bcinji' distii^-t. There is alar}.-!! centrale, which forms part 
of the inner border (»f the i)alm. Tin; order is further characteri/ed (ex- 
cept in the I)iscoi;lossida' ami the Aj^iossa, 7, v.) by the fusici of tiie 
iburth and (ifth (tarpalia into a single element, the unciforme. The 
other three earpalia are distinct, and the tiist is frecpiently displaced 
to form the base for the metacarpus of the thumb. The larj^c si/eof the 
astraj^alus and calcaneum have been already referred to. The tarsus is 
further peculiar in the absence of iiiterniedium and centrale and the 
absence of tarsalia, except a rudiment or two near the inner part of 
their usual position. (Plate 7.'5.)* 


Th(^ slij^ht attaiihment of the intej^umeiit to the nius(des is a well- 
known feature of the IJatradiia Salientia. The manner of their attach- 
ment presenis many varieties in the ditferent {(roups. It is as follows : 
A transverse partition of connective tissue holds the inte^iument alonji' 
the a(;romials and another aloiij;' the coracoids; a lon<;itudinal band on 
each side of the back (IVecjucntly marked externally by a glandular fold) 
and one below it on each side of the abdomen; a band or line aloiiiLrthe 
hinder inferior face of the thij^hs, extending;' nearly to the popliteal re- 
{•ion, i'ud a delicate one aloiij;' the upiier hinder face of the same, from 
the groove between the superior and posterior muscles. 

'Tlm«o result. swore sent in totlioSocretiiry of tlioSiiiitliHoui.'ni Institution Feln-iiiiiy, 
IHf^T. Tliroiij^h till' (Itday ill publication tlnn- have been auliciiiati'il by an a<lniiral)li; 
l)iil)i>i' on tlic carpus and tur.sus of Salieutia l)y Mr. (i. B. Howes, Proceeds. Zool. Soc. 
London, IS-'-', p. HI (Muicb). 




The Jittachineuts aiv similar to the last in the Dciulrobatida', in I'iU- 
peiiipliix, and in IJracliyccplialns. In h'liffi/sOnnti nnilo tlio laterovrntral 
lino is broad, orconiposod of several series of fibers and lamina^, and in 
IJ. mroUncnse it is eoinposed of two sept.i. In P.seiulo]»lirvn(! (lie dor- 
solateral septum, as well as tlie last mentioned, is wideiu'd ; IMirynis- 
ens is similar, exeei>t that the dorsolateral is narr.)wer posteriorly, but, 
rapidly wiilening, meets its mate on the nape, foiinin,i>a broad transverse 
attachment. In Atdoptin hvris the inti',i;nment between tin; dorso- and 
ventndateral septa is ivttaehed, forminj;' a broad lateral aillierent band. 
In lihinoiihrjiniis dorsali.s this lateral attaidiment is carried so far as to 
leave only narrow free dorsal and ventral regions, while it is further 
peculiar in wantin<jr the eoracoid sei)tum, as in l)is(!o,i;iossus and Xeiio- 
pus. lOpidalea, I>ufo, and LVlta[>hryue, in their numerous species, add 
to the raniform structure the attachment of the whole dorsal integu- 
ment. The following table exhibits the other attachments. 

IJi'lly liroailly tVi'L", very iiariDw liitL'nivi'iiti'iil attiieliiiiciit: Hafo liamdlilidi^, Utihc- 

IJclIy liroiiilly fri-c, broad latiTovciilral atljii-liiiiciit : />. (vnir'mnins, It iiliijiuoniin. i'0(j- 

iKiliis, cliilciisis^ ri)l II nihil iiKtx. riih/iirix, iiiirinix, nilliiiji.i, 
Hi'lly liKiadly fret", post urioi' I'oiirtli or lifili altdoiiicii aKat'liud: <iriivili'i,ciimjiintili'< 

paiillii riiiiix. 
Latcidvciitial attacliiiicnt very liroail, Icavinj; liiit narrow iVi'i' iiljdoiiiiiial spar'e: I!. 

iituifiriiK, iiiun'uHK, iiilrnnidiii-i, iiiDirtiiliix, iiiviiriiiK, dijitiirliiin, 
Voiitral inti'^mnuiit atttatdu'd : J!, viircifir, iimiiliin-, viridix, l.tliiarlii (posU'i'ior Iialf 

A considerable variety is exhibited by the families of the Arcifera. 
In the genera of Discoglossida' examined (Discoglossus and IJombiiui- 
tor) the attachments are as in Itanida', except the absence of the eora- 
coid septum, as in Xenopus. On the contrary, in the Seaphioi)odida', 
the integument is more or less entirely adherent above ami below. 
The greater luimber, including the typical tbrms of llylida', add to 
the ranid arrangement a close areolar attachment of the abdominal 
skill, while it is characteristic of many species of Cystignathidic to 
possess one. or two transverse simple posterior abdominal septa. For 
tile many variations and exceptions, see under the respective families. 

Of the Aglossa, Xenopus lacks the coratioid and inferior femoral 
atlacliments; there is a «loublo or treble, but not wide, lateral adhesion 
low down, which nniy be a combined dorsolateral and dorsoveutral, or 
broad dorsoveutral only. In IMi)a all the attachments are wanting, ex- 
cejit two closely api>roxnnated lateral lines and a sui)erior posterior 
aud anterior inferior femoral. 


With regard to the dilferenccs in the arrangement and structure of 
the internal organs a great ileal remains to l»e oliserved. Ilenle (Ana- 
tomic des Kehlkopfes) i>oiiits out some in(u)nsiderable dilferences in 

! 'I 









the form of tlio cnrlilagos of tlio larjiix. Tlie size iiiid niiiiilHT of (lie 
pulmonary cells vuiy coiisidoraltly. Amoiif; Ilylida', o.siK-cially tiioso 
speck's with a loiiil voicf, tlicy are fewer and larger than in 
die and Scaphiopida'. The forms of the sinus, auricles, venlricile, and 
bulbus arteriosus, the throe aorta bows, of which the median foruj the 
aorta roots, etc., appear (piite identical externally in the Discoglossus, 
Scapliioi)us, and rhyllomediisa. Internally the two former present the 
known characters of the Annra, /. e., the union of the distinct ducts of 
the first (i)nlmonary) and second (aortic) aorta bows thro'ighont much 
of their length, the separate union of the two former and (tontinuance 
on the left side of a high free septum of tlu» bulbus, till they are finally 
turned over the riglit division toward the right, and have a common 
issue from the ventricle. A conic pocket valve is at the origin of the 
bifurcation of the ductus communis of tlie second and third aorta bows, 
but none in any part of the course of the pulmonary. 

The general characters of the venous system have iteen (b'scribed on 
page 10. The researches of Ifochstetter * and HowesI Inive shown that 
the cardinal veins do not disapi)ear in all of the Salientia. Ilochstet- 
ter in fact believes "that the vena cava inferior, instead of being 
throughout its whole extent a i>rimarily independent vessel, is a com- 
pound structure, the product of a fusion between a late-formed hepatic 
vessel and one or both of the posterior cardinal veins" (Howes). In 
IJatrachia the postrenal portions only of the (iardinals go to form the 
vena cava i)osterior, and the prerenal p(»rtions disappear or remain I's 
azygos or hemiazygos veins. Their persistence is shown to hi' fre 
quent in theDiscoglossida', in l>ombinator (llochstetter Howes), Alytes 
(Howes), and Discog'ossus (Howes). It is wanting in other Salientia, 
incbuUng the Aglossa, L'ehtdytida', and IVlobatidai (Howes). 

The general character of the brain in the Salientia may be gathered 
from Plate o(!. As I omitted, by an oversight, to refer to the charac- 
ters of this region in my anatomical introduction (pp. 1-12), I introduce 
here some rennirksoii its peculiarities in the I'roteida, IJrodela, etcr., as 
well. In the Proteida (Necturus, (Ig. 1) the tlialamencephalon is ex- 
posed by the nonprodiuition posteriorly of the prosencephalon. In 
Urodela generally (Plate U)) and in Salientia it is moderately exposed : 
in Ca'ciliida- (Plate 5(», tig. ;j) it is generally concealed. In all the tailed 
forms there is a large vascular "supraplexus" protiuding from between 
the hemispheres. Posterior to this the ei)iphysis appears; it is small 
in all the orders. The hypoi»hysis is on the other hand large. The cere- 
bellum (epencephalon) is a mere commissure in the entire class. The 
diaccelia, niesoco'lia, and metaccelia are only .sei)arated by slight con- 
.strictions of their walls. The metac(elia is covered in the Salientia by 
a triangular choroid plexus (Plate '>{> p. c). In Protei<la, Urodela, and 
Trachystomata the olfactory lobes (rliiniMicephala) are distinct; but 

*Mori)li:)liiv;isoIiCH Jahrbiicli, IH^r, p, 1l'.>; AiiiitDiiiiselicr Aiizoiger, IHd*, 517. 
tProceel. Zoiil. .Soe. London, ISS-*, p. l>>. 




* * ' 



ill tlie Siiliciitiii tlu'y an^ coiilliu'iil witli oarli otiicr. In Xoiioims (IMiUo 
r»l, (ij;. IS) tli(.> tliiiljiiiii'ii(!C'i>liiili)n is more entonsively exposed tliaii in 
other Saiieiitia.* 

Tlio f'oiin of tlie livoi- docs not (lillcr from tlic usnal typo in any 
of the various spoeies examined, exeept in th« Finnisteniia. Whihi 
most Salieiitiii have this or^an divided into three lobes, tlierc are but 
two ill tiio J>i'evicii)itidie, l']ii;;ystomida', and some of the Pliryniscid;e, 
III tlie aliinentaiy canal there appears to be little variety in important 
points. Tlie stomach has <feneraily a more loii;;;itiidiiial position than 
amoiijL;' Uiifoiiiforinia, excei)t ainoii;^ Scapliiopidie and in Ceratophrys, 
where it is e.pially transverse, Xo intestinal valves were observed in 
I'elobates, llyla, riiyllomediisa. Ceialophrys, but a stronj;' pyloric mns- 
cnlar coiistri(!tion in IMeiirodeina, and oik^ at the extremity of the small 
intestine in Cifsti(in(itliit>; parlii/inis. (IMates n,")-.")/;.) 

The testes are sin;;le in e\'iiin|)les of all tli > types evamincd, and not 
stri(!tly symmetrical ; they are variously situated with rel'ereiic*' to the 
kidneys. Thus in h'tiiioiilni aiircii, and Tntclii/crplKilii.s licliciiiitii.s they 
are eloii;;ate and at tin' middle of the leiijuth of the kidneys, while in 
Ili/jiishixts hofdis and tSci/lojtis romlosiis they are oval, and one or both at 
the aiitcri(n' extremity of the latter. In rin/llitmcdiisa srlrnnlcrma they 
are more than half the length of the broad kidneys, the rij^lit ori;;iiiatinj; 
at the anterior extremity of the latter, tlu^ left but little behind it. JJotU 
have their jnysterior a[)ices in close contacit at lie posteri(U' fourth of 
the leiifilh of the kidneys, which are in close connection for their poste- 
ri(n' third. In lMsco_!;lossns the testes i\n> oviform, well separated, and 
anterior, and diiriiiij; the breodiii.i,' season attain a remarkaltly lar{>e 
size. Dnriiij-' the same in Vi/stiffntitlitts lutchi/pitsthoy are not materially 
eiilarjjed, are elon;;ate, and only in contact with the kidneys for a 
small postcrioi' part of their lenjith. 

The ovaries and oviducts do not essentially vary among the Salientia 
When the latter are fnlly occn[)ied l)y eggs in an advanced stag(^ they 
arc folded, but ditVerentlv in the same species. The ovidnctts are I'e- 
inarkably slender in Ili/hi iiKsuta (Litoria (liinther), and in Scj/ 1 njti.s tha 
foiitanclle is on ca(;!i side behind the partial diaphragm, at the superior 
anterior outer angles of the liver. In several young female si>ccimens 
of linnoulva aurcn of the size of Hana Nilrd^'iat, in which the frontop- 
arietal Ibntanelle is not closed, the oviducts do not extend farther an- 
terior than the ovaries; in adults, with the cranium complete, they 
have the usual extent. In ('iistifinntlius ocellatus the ''uterine" sacs at 
the exit of th(M)viducts are of greiit size, and at oertain seasons dis 
tended with an albuniiiious gelatine, when they present several coiivo 
liUions. In spirits they occasion the ])resence of a large convoluted 
mass of coagnlnm. 

• For (It'scriiit ions iiml li^inri's oC ln-.iiiis oC IJrodcIa, I'roteiilii, ami Tracrliysloiiiaiii, 
sii' (Islioni ; (Aiii|iliiiiuia), rrocci'ds. i'liila. Acad., 1S8:?, p. 177; (Cryptobraiicliiis and 
l>:iiia), '. ''., IH.-^I, |). 'Jil-J; ('orjiii^ ciilloxiiiii, Mi)r|ili()I(iL!;is(;lu'n .lahrltiicli, IS-^li, pp. 'JJll, 
• I'.'iO; ais ) W'indrr.slii'iiii. .\ii:ilii!nic dcr ( I vm:ii)|iliiii;ii'ii. .Icii.'t. 1>'7'.I. 



f- i 



! i 


2;'.s iin.i.r.riN :;i. imikk siaiks nai'ionai, muskim. 

lan'KoiuM "HON. 

Till' Siilii'utiiiliiive', ill tomiKTiiti' rliiiialos at k',iiii animal pcruxl of 
ropiddiu'liitii, wliifli occurs ill (lie spiiiij;'. Tlic iiialo is without iiitro- 
mitti'iit or^faii, and rcrtili/ifioii is accoiiiplisJH'd I»y the discliarj,'!^ ol'tlu' 
sponiiii.ic lliiiil of tilt' male on liic c^'^'s as tlicy ioavc the hod.v of tlic 
foinalo. Ill oi'dor to accoiiiplisli lliis I'llccliially tlic iiialo attaclit's Iiiiii- 
self to tilt' fi'iiialc by sci/iii;; Iicr with his aiitiM'ior limbs. In (li(> 
•iiralcriiuiiibcr of the .Salicntia llio ciiibracc is round the axilla', but in 
tlu' J)is('o;ilossi(lii', whifli ai)pi'oac'h nearest the salamanders in their 
anatomy, the embrace is, as in those animals, round the loins. In the 
salaiiianders it is, however, the hinder feet that sei/t* the female, and 
not the arms. Amoiiu' other families the {,'enera Ciiltripes, I'eloliates, 
and Pelodytes also sei/.e the female around the waist. It is jirobable 
that this will be found to be the ease in some other jjencra not yet 

The sjxM'ies of Arcifera exhibit i>eeuliar structures durin.^' the breed- 
ing- season; either an exiension of the natatory membrane, or tiie 
developnii'iit of cornioiis plates or spujs, as aids 1(» prehension. Tlu'ie 
is much variety and ellieiency displayed in this jjoiiit (except in IJiifo- 
nida'), in es[)eeia] contrast to the a])i)arent absence of all but the weakest 
modifications amoii^' the iJanida'. This is in eompeiisatioii lor the 
structure of the sternum, whose lateral halves, beiii^' movable on each 
other, olVer a sli;.!;liter basis of resistance for the llcxor and extensor 
muscles of the fore limbs. 

Ill the I)isco,<i!ossi(lii-, r>ombiiiator extends the natatory membrane 
in the male, but does not develoj) horny plates. In Diseoglossiis two 
lilelike oval plates cover the superior surface of the short second diyit 
and tile tiiberelelike lirst or thumb, which is here developed as in no 
other anurous ])atiacliiaii. Dermal ruf-osities on the upper and under 
surfaces, iiiclii'linj;- the j;ular ref,Mon, are armed with corneous tips, as in 
Teiiuatoliiits. Xo peculiarity has been noticed in Alyt'.'S. The Aste- 
I'ophrydida' are unknown as to this point. 

In I'elodytes file-like jilates are developed one on the se(!ond and one 
on the third dij;it, one much lar<;eron the fort^arm, one sli<;htly smaller 
oil tlie inside of t lie humerus, and a small one on each side of the breast. 

Aiiioiif'' S('aphioi)ida' the Anierieaii speiaes dexelop eloii.i;at(! lamina' 
on I lie superior inner face of the inner (second), third, and even fourth 
dibits. No peculiarities are recorded as appearinii' in the IOnroi>eaii 
species. Many Ilylida- — Aj:alyehnis, Traehyeephalus — develop a cor- 
neous shield on the inner sui)erior aspect of the inner metacarpal, which 
is proloii^cd on the dij^it. 

While no appendaj^es of the season have been observed in some 
Oysli^natliida', in several {genera two acute spurs appear on the suiierior 

MM. 'riidiiiiis and Dcli.sic' pioiiosi'd to dividt' 
till' Aiiiiia into Iwo .uroii|is. iiiiiiiiiii; llii'iii llic AlamidfXi'.s and Iiijj;iiiiiiiiii|ik'.\OH. Sen 

On aci-iiiiiit of Iliis dillcii 




.Toiiinal dc Zocilduio, \i. Is77, ]>. 4T',*. 


II : 


rilK MArifACIlIA ol' NOIM'II AMI'.ltK'A. 

iisiKTl »>r the tliuiiilt :iiitl iiion' r.iicl.N .s|)iii' lilu* till>t'r«'l<'i on llic hit-asl ; 
tlui IkmI.v is .sHiiu'tiiiii'ssliicldcl with Iiartlciicd points nii liic i'ii,nosili('s, or 
till) lip smi'oiiii(k'(l liy iiii iii.-licd scrii's ol' coiiicoiis nij;;i'. in tin' l.cp- 
foddcli/hts pniUolttcfiilKs L;iur. ii lui^f acute processor tlie in. t icarpiil 
of llie timnil), Plate 7.') (lij;'. .'{L!), jtrojecls inwards, its apex is cov- 
ered l>y a lioiM.v cap? '""^ '^ is a lorniidahle j;rapplins'liaok to aid llio 
male ill retainiii;? liis hold. There is added to this in the smiie specties 
a honi.v plate on each side of the thorax of the male, from wliiiih project 
three acute p(»iiits. With these lixed in her back and thethnml) spiUe.s 
ill her breast the leiiiali's cm not escape. Structures like this do not 
appear in the l^irmisternia. Here the inferior cleineiits of the scapular 
arch abut a;;ainst each other, so that the thoracic cavity does not (^oii- 
tract on pressure, and the possibility of the male retainiii}:: a (inn jiiip 
on the female is thereby j^reatly increased. In tiie Cj/slitpiallnis ixtrln/ 
/<».stiie males exhibit a permaiient eiilar^cineiit of the brachiiim, depend- 
ent on lar/i'ely developed antciioi' and iiosterlor ahe of the humerus. 
( l'/f/c(Jiinther, Ann. Ma^'. X. II., lS.-)!».) 

The various ways in which the ef;'j;s arc deposited by the female are 
expressed in the followiii;^ table from IJouleiificr. I add the iieciilliar 
habit of the ;;ciins Dciidrobates, as observed l»y II. II. Smith in Ibazil. 

I. 'I'lii' ovum in Miiiili ami tlic I.irva leaves it in a cdiniiarati vdy curly I'mliiymiic cini- 

(iil ion. 
.\. 'flic DVii arc laid in the water. 

I'mliaMy ilic majnriiy ( f jialracliiaiis ; all Kiiroiiean forms cxci'])! .(/(//c;. 
U. 'I'iie ova are ili'posileil mil of the water. 

((. In lioles on the liaiiks of pools, which ltc<'omc filled with water after 
heavy rain, thus liheratin;i the l.irva'. 
I.rplodKftyliin occllaliis K. ; A. musliniiim ISiirm.; Pdliidicola 
(jrncUi^ I>lfir •' 
/'. On leaves aliovc the water, the larva' droppinif down when leaving the 

Chivdiitnnlix ri(J\>cciis (ithr, ;t I'htilhtmviliii^a ilirriiign Itljjr. 

II. The yolk-sac i.s very lar^e, and the yonn;;- iindcrjjoc.s the whole or part of the 

metamorphosis within the. c<;e; ; al any rate the larva does 
not assume an independent existence until after tlii^ loss (d' 
the external '^UU. 
A. The ov.T are deposited in damp situations nv on leaves, and the embryo leaves 
thi> {■>i<x in the jxMl'cct airhrcathinj; form. 
h'liiiii i)iiixlli(i(tiiii l$ljj;r. ; t UiihiJct iiKirliiiicciisin Dnm. iV liihi'.isS 
H. The ova .are carried liy the parent. 
((. l$y the male. 

((. K'onnd the lce;s ; the youiij; leaves thecnu.- in tlu- tadpole slate. 
■ I '.'/''>■!! 

' llcnstd, .Vrch. f. Xatiirj,'. l-i'T, pp. V2i, V-i'J. i:!s. 

t nucUlnd/,, Mon. Ilerl. Ac 1,'7.'>, ii.'.2ei, and IHTtl, p. Til, I'l.ii. 

I ISonleiifier, Trans, /no!. Soc., xii, HSii. p. ,'j1. 

iji liclloy Ksjiinosa, Zooi. (iart., l-'TI, (i. :!.'il : I5avay, Ann. .Sc. Nat. (.">), xvii, 187:?, .irt. 
1(1 : retcrs \- (i'.iiullach, Mon. I'lcrl. Ac. l,--7(i, p. 7(lit. 

IIDcnionrs, .Mem. Ac. Sc. Paris, 1711, p. Ki : I)c I'lslc dii Drenenf, Ann. .Sc. Nat. ((J), 
III, IH7t!. art.7. 

I • 


I. i 



(I ' 
> f 

■f t 



il In ii yuliir (till' votal) .sac ; tlio youiix if exiielletl in the jiori'ect 
b. Uy tlio ioiiialf, 
u. Attai'lifil to Iho lu-lly. 

llhticophonts irtiniliitits (illir.t 
ji. Attached to tho back; tho youny coinpletos its inetamorphosiH within 
y. In a dorsal ponch. 

an. Theyounj^ loavos tlip jionch in (he tadpole sfato. 

Xotolfdiiti iiKirKiipiitliiiii Diini. A: r>il)r.\\ 
lib. Tiio yoniij; leave the poneli in the iierl'ect state. XnlDlrcmn 
l(ntii<U)Hiim Ksp. :|| OjuxthiiihlphjiK iirifi'ia 

The specios oC Deiidrohatos liiivc tlio pi'ciiliiir liabit of carry i iif>: tlu' 
young from place to plaee in search of water. The tadiioles reseiiihle 
those of liana or IJiU'o, and attacli tlieniselves by the month lo tlie back 
of the parent. Whether the ejJti's are car.ieil in this position is not 

The huvie of Salientiaiiave been (livided into two {ironps by liataste, 
(he .Mediogyrini and tlie Laevogyrini.** In (he former (he external 
branchial orifice is on the median line of tlie inferior surface; in the 
otlier it is on (he left side. To the former division belong the Disco- 
giossida'; (o (he latter all remaining Salienda, except Aglossa, wheie 
there are two spiracida, one on each sid«' (Amphigyrini Heronlfoyer). 

In the stage which immediately follows (he separa(ion from the o\;{!; 
the tadpoles of Salientia possess one or two pecidiar siu,.»lng disks on 
the under side of the head behind the i)osition of (he moudi. Their 
form differs (Plate 78) widely in dilferent g«'nera of Annra, and will 
alford a valuable means of identifying the larvic. I n />/.vcf*///r».v.\».v pirtiis, 
the adhesive organ behind (he moulh, is hemispherical, wi(h a V-shaped 
groove on its surfatie, the V opening forward. In Prlohufca J'uscus the 
adhesive organ is V-shaped, with a V-shajx'd giomt' on i(s surface, and 
the limbs of the whole organ extending furwaid (o eiiilirace (he angles 
of the mouth. In lUifo vnUjark the organ is V-shapt-d, wi(h a V shaped 
groove, and the limbs of the V come into «'on(act wi(li (he angles of tlu^ 
mouth. In Bufo riridis (he organ iNcrescentshaped, nut in contact wi(h 
the mouth, but a li(tle behind i(, as in Dis'-cglossus, and wi(h a widely 
open V-shaped groove. In I>ombina(or, l{ana,and Ilyla (here are (wo dis- 

'.Jimenez do l.i Kspada, Anii.Soe. lisp. Ilisl.Xat., i, l-^r-J, p. I'VJ: Spen;,'el, /.eilseiir. 
wiss. Zool. X X 1 X , H77, p. lit.") ; Howes l'ii)(<'e(ls. Zuol. Sue. London, l-iS-', p. •>:!!. 

t Glintlier, Ann. iVr Ma>;. Nat. xvii, 1H7(!, p. ;tT'.>; IVrjinsnn, «»/». cil., xviii, 
187(!, p. :r.7. 

t I'enniii, l)('velo[)peinent ii.iifait <ln niyslire de la <;<<n('r,ilion <1n faineux Craiiand 
deSnvinani ; Maestriclil, I't'.,". 

j: Honlen^rer, Cat. llatr. Keand., \t-&>, p. 117. 

II Weiiiland, Areh. f. Anat. Physiol., IS.Vl, p. U'.». 

•i Kajipler, Das Ansland, I"'-'.'), p. ,<."><; .Sniilli, Ani. ric.iu Nalnralist, IHS-', p. l-^-i. 

" The faniily li'rniinations ''i(he'" j;iven lo tlii-<e divisions l>y jiiitasle an- innv,- 
propriate, (,s they do not lepre.sent t'aniilies. 






tinct oval iuUiL'sivi' oij^aiis on citluT .side of tlic iiKuli.iii line, with traces 
of a Vsliaped >;roove eounectinji' lliciii, and both are behind the month. 
In Ix'diKi <ujilis tlu'ii! are two separate adhesive orj;iins, one on eaeh side, 
behind the month, and eaeh has a slij^ht depression on its posterioi' bor- 
der. In Jlyld arluntii th«'re an' two eircudar adhesive organs close to 
the angles of the month at either side. In liomhiaator if/ncus there are 
two oval adhesive organs behind the month, whicn are in close (iontact, 
and latei'on fuse into a single organ, both having an oval dei)ression in 
the center. The follow ing oliscrvations have been made on them by 
Professor H.vder (American Natnralist, ISSS, p. 2(»;j). (See Plate 7(».) 

These organs are clearly for the purpose of enabling the yonng larvae 
to attach themselves to varions hxed bodi(>s in the water, snch as 
weeds, the gelatinous egg strings and masses from which they have 
been hatcluMl, etc. They are thns allbrded snpport and [»revented from 
sinking into the ooze to smother, and their enemies thus also donbtless 
find them a less icady prey. Th(>se disks are also shown ItyThiele not 
to l)e of the natnre of . factorial organs, bat are glandnlar, being formed 
wholly of thickened cpideiiiiis, which is elevated, its cells be<'oming 
lengtlicned or colnmnar. Tiu'ic is no mascidar sectorial apparatus de- 
veloped in c((nnecti«»n with them, and they are secretory, secreting a 
sticky mniMis or slime, wiiidi serves to fasten the young tadpole to its 
restingjilace. That an aclaal sccietion is formed is proved by the fact 
that a slimy thread of secreted matter is drawn out from the disk if the 
ytaing tadpole lie forcilily withdrawn fr»»m its support. They aie spe- 
cihcally larval organs, and persist only foi'onc! to two weeks after hatch- 
ing. They may be compari'd to the " balancers" found behiml the 
month in the larva of Andif^ stoma. In Tritons stalked suckers are said 
to be present, which l'>aIfonr comiuircs to the sessile'' suckers" of larval 
toads and frogs. Itydcr observes that he cannot see how it is ]iossible 
to liomologize the sucking «lisk of larval gar-pikes with the adhesive 
organs in larval Uatrachians, because in the fornu'r the disk is in front 
of the mouth and in the latter it is usually <|uite beidiid the mouth; 
only in one ease (llyla) are the suckers found near the angle of the 
mouth. The larva of Xcnopus has two hmg barbels at the side of the 
head from tlu' sides of the uppi'r lip. J»ut in this last case even it is 
doubtful if thcr*', is .my homology with the " suckers" of other larval 
Anura. There certaiidy «Mn not be any homology between the organ 
of the gar pike's larva and that of young toads and frogs, though it is 
proltabie that these organs in thelatttr ar.' truly homohtgons with the 
'• iialancers" ol' the larva' of salamanders of the type of Andtlystoma 
and Triturus. 

Thit'h' Inrtlier shows that, inasmuch as these structures are glatulu- 
lar, with no muscidar apparatus, tlu' terms "sucker" or "sucking- 
disk" are misnomers as applied to these organs. A belter term nnght 
he proposed for these sliuelurcs in young tadpoles, and llyder suggests 
that lluy be called ciiiilcnnal (I'lltisiiT orfjaHs. 
11»*)1 Hull ;m 10 





» If 

li I 


I m 

I ■! 

242 iMiLLirriN ;u, umtki) stati:s national muskim. 

In later st!i;,fo.s tlu' stnictiiir of tlu' jmrts about tlie iiioutli of tlie tatl- 
poles of tlui iSalieiitia furiiislR's otlu'i- cliaiactoiistic lu'ciiliaritics. I'liil 
little has been done towanls llie (lesciiption of parts, tlie Norfli 
American* anil European t species bein,n thus far tlie only ones studied. 
These stinlies have shown that the ll.vlidic, liufonida', and Uaiiida' have 
certain characters in tin' re.uions mentioned. Uelow the horny jaws 
there is a detlexed lower lip, which displays a wide surface anteriorly. 
This surface is traversed l>y transverse seiies of short more or less hctoU 
like bristles. Similar series may or may not extend across above tiie 
upper Jaw, or on the dro()|>in>;- upper lip at each side of lln- Jaw. Tlie 
lower lii)and part of tlie uppei' lip is surrounded by short obtuse papiihe 
in one or more series. 

Now in the Ilylida', in the rej^ions mentioueil, no seri«'s ol' bristles 
extend across above the uiper Jaw except a very sliort one whi<th 
hangs over the Jaw itself; and the upper lip Ibid on tacli sidi^ of it 
bears a row of pai)illai. The papiihe form a complete boi(U'r ritund 
the lips, except the interruption at the ninldle above. In tiie Mufonida' 
there is a row of bristles entirely across the up[)er Jaw, and another 
below the lirst, interrupted at the middle re;;ion i»y the horny jaw. 
The papiihe do not extend on the upper lip-border, and art^ uninter- 
rupted at the middle of the inar;;in of the lower lip. The papillary 
border presents an anj'le iuwaids at the line of jun(;tion of the iippci' 
and lower lips. The K'anida' resemble the liufonidii-, with one excep 
tion in the airangement oi the papillary border. The latter is continu 
ous all aroiiinl below. 'J'he upiier Jaw is imrrower than in tiic liufonida'. 

JJoulenf>er describes the larva of the h'tnio alficola of northeast India 
as possessing three |)ar:)toid glands, two on the .scapular and one on the 
coccygeal region, which are not ret.iined in the ailult. Also a larva ol 
u tree frog from -lava, probably a Jtliac(H»h(»rus, which pos.sesses a ven- 
tral suct'W'ial <lisk in the position of that of a tish of the Cobii'soeida'. 

The external gills are suppressed on the right side before they are on 
the left. In th * liana rIaiiKita this suppression takes place on tlu; third 
day after leaving the egg, while tln^ left gill renniins until the eighth 
day. When the internal gills arc in functional use the water of respi- 
ration issjies, in most of tlie families, from a single lountled orilice on 
the left side, the siibcMitaiu'inis branchial chamber (tf the right .side 
communicating with that of the left side by way ol the gular region, be- 
neath the sublingual and geiii(»hvoid muscles and the integument. (S 


Plate r)I,(igs. L'-J-T-S.) The fore legs deveh»p within these siiIk ufane- 

ous spaces behind the internal gills, and iciiiain conce;iled up toa consid- 
erable relative si;«e, and alter the hind legs ha\i' ae(|iiiied si/e enough 
for some funcitional elliciency. Tln^ left fore-leg then issues through the 
branchial orifice, and the right leg forces a pas.sage thi-ough the integ- 
ument at a corresponding position on the light side. For a time alter 




'.StMiMiss.M. Iliiiikirv. I'r 

il. liiisliMi Sdi'. Xiil, |li>t., {•'•'•2, \>. :I07 

t IIiToii lio.vtTct Villi I5,iiiil)i'kc, Hull. .Siir, Zoi'il. Vr 

inci', A|iiil, issl. 


ai ti( 





two < 







the lorc'-K'j;.s arc thus external the hraiiehial chainbers reniiiiii iii free 
eoiniiiuiiii'atioii witli the external niediinn by tlie .slit around the base 
ol" eacli loK'-U'j;-. Tlicse soon, however, and (lu^ skin of the fore- 
h><i, is cut oir from that of the body adjacent by a distinct .scam, whicli 
disai)|)ears hiter. This part of tlie (k'velopment of tiie iSalienlia is one 
of the most remarliabk'i histories in the zooh)<iy of the vertebrata. 

The skin wliicli covers the fore limb of the advanced tadpole is not 
a part of the true skin wliitih invests the body, sincte the branchial cav- 
ity is inclosed lonj; bcfon^ the le;;' apjtears; but it beneath the 
mucous nuMnbrane which lint's the branchial chainbers. This anomaly 
is perliai)s a case of rcvi-rsion. The. fore-lcj;s of primitive llatraehia 
wen' no doubt external, as in salamanders, and they became iniilo.sed 
by the growth of the opcrculuni like intej-unient in the larval Salientia. 
A prolonjiation of tin; tadpole staj^e would result in a retardation of the 
•jfrowth of the foreleg an<l an acceleration of that of the opereulum. 
The urowtli of the trueskin of the inclosed rej>ion would bethus retarded 
in the Ie;4' and atrophied in the wall of the chamber. (IMate 51, tij^s. 4-(»,) 

The shoulder yii'dle appears .separated from other parts of the skele- 
ton, bctwei-n tlu' muscU's. The coraeoid and procoraeoid form a loop, 
directe«l downwards and inwards, farremoved from that of the opposite 
side, and present at this time an arciferous type in all forms of the order 
.Salientia, (See (i;;. ."i!>.) 

The characu'is of the eartilajiinous skull of the larva' of the Salien- 
tia are peculiar and veiy dillV-rent from those of the adult. The sus- 
liensurium of the lower jaw is excee<linj;ly elongated forwards, so that 
lor the purpose »»f securinj;' a lixed point for the lower jaw (represented 
now by Meckt-rs carlilaf-e) it scuds upwards a proci'.ss near its anterior 
extremity t(» tl. external an>;lesol the cartilaj^inous ethmoid, formingaii 
;u licnlation. It lli« ;i descends aj,'ain, and Meckel's cartilaj^e anicidates 
freely with its extremity. Ti>ere is a curved (larlila^ic attache<l to the 
extremity of each .Meckel's cartila.u:e (the t wti formin;;a half circle, oi>en- 
inji foi wards), which t'orni the support of the lunctional lower lip in the 
lar\a. These are the lower labial »ii sympli_\seid cai tilaj;es, ai>d are rep- 
resented in the adult l»y a paii' of short bones of the same nanu' (men- 
loiMcckcii.ins of Parker). Tlu' premaxillaiy bones are in like manner 
rei»reM'nted by two carlila;:«'s, which are loosely uttached above to the 
two ciurcspondin.ii' processes or i'oiinni of the trabecular cartilajjje, which 
form the roof of the mu/zle in front (»f the etlnnoid. (Plate "»(►, fij>-. 2.) 
The eeratoliyai is a robust bone, which articulates with the quailrate 
cartila^ic Itclow tiu' orbit, contractinji' in diameter as it extends down- 
wards and forwards. In the of ji'rowth its articulation with the 
• luadratc be«!omes more and more posterior, until it leaves that element 
entirely, and comes in contaci. and in sonu' cases fuses, with the carti- 
lai;e <»f the b;ise of the skull in front of the stapes and near the inter- 
stapedial. (Plate .~»(l, fiLf. .i.) 

Jiesidcs the structuics (tf the larval hyoid apparatus already do- 






1 1 


sciilu'd (<(iilcti) tlicni aro four (!iiililaf;in(»iis iirclics hclow the cerato- 
bniiicliials, wliicli beloii-; to the tleniial system, and wiiich are ealU-d ex 
trahram-hials, IMoxiinally tlic lirst of these is artieiihded witli the an- 
terior exterior aiiyle of till' livohraneliial pli'.te. Dislally the four are 
nnited to<,H'lher. Tliese arclies snpjMtrt a system of branchial frinj^es, 
wlneh are internal in position, and are eontradistinjiiiished from the ex- 
ternal braneliia' which the Salient ia exhibit when lirst hateiieil, and 
which are the<»nly branchi;e of the I'rodele and oth«'i' tailed types. They 
are thought by llnxley and Tarker to lu^ hom(>h»^'<»ns with the branchial 
strnctnres of the Marsipobranchii or lampreys. ([Mat(^ r»l, ti^-. 1.) 

The di've!(»pment of the anditory ossicles and c;ii tila.i;es exhibits the 
followinj;' facts. Tiie epistapedial disk appears in its noiinal posititm, 
eoverinj-- the tiexure of the (pmdiate cartiiajne, 'I'lie inlcrstapedial ap- 
l»ears as a bad in lioid of and distinct trctin the stapes, and the nii so- 
Hta]>edial appears as a small menduane on its apex. At a period «d' its 
growth the intcrstapcdial caitilage c(»iiiiccts the stapes with the (piad- 
rate cartilajut', as in Tiematodcra and larval i'scinlosanrian I'rodela. At 
the same time th(^ ceratt)hyal aiticnlates with the quadrate more dis- 
tally, so that at this stage a liana presents the characters of a transi- 
tional stage seen in (he salamandrine gt-nera Hiieleipcs and I'lethotlon. 
The inteistapedial then elongates nntil it reaches theannnlns tympani- 
cus. These liuts go (o show that the intcrslapt'dial and iiu sustajiedial 
are not segmerited t'rom the ceiatohyal (>i' meckelian ar<;hes, and are 
therefore not homologons with the <>ssi<'iil(i 'f»'//7*rs of mammalia, unless, 
imUrd, Mie end)ryonic lei^trd has iiccn greatly falsilied i»y ca'iiogeny. 
(Plates 1J», .".().) 

oiiKJiN AM) i:v(>i.i'i'i<).\ OF 'I'lii; sm,ii;ntia. 

The oldest Salientia of which we ha\e any knowb'dge were obtained 
from the .hirassic iieds ot' the iiottky .Mountains by i*M)fcss(»r Marsh.* 
Tliey occur in lower iM>cene beds in North America ((Ireen lJi\er 
shales)! and in Middle .Miocene (»f Switzerland ( l'lppel.'«hc;m)| and (ler- 
maiiy (Ibaiinkohle of the Kliinc).^ They are not rare in the (pper Mio- 
cene of North America (liOup l'oik,of Kansas). || Fitrms which by their 
8tru(!ture would c( unect this onb'i' directly with the extinct onb-rs 
are uidaiown. It is, Ihtwevei', entirely probable that, as already |»ointed 
out (p. II), the Salientia were derived from the K'lnK^hilomi, but whether 
the Stegocephali enter the hue or not is uncertain. The compacted in 
lerior j)'. Ivicelenu'nts without(d)turator foramen otthe Salientia is much 
like the sanu' condition in the IMiachitomi, and to produ(!(^ an almost 

* I'rofcf,!. liiiti^li Ac. Sci., 1"-T, MhiiIi'ch ; dm llic cn iiliiici' riinii.-ilMMl liy l>|-. Olio 

t('oi>t', l\'i'i»l. i;. S. (ii'ol. Siirv. 'rcns., Ml, l--:., \). 100. 
tTNuliiiili, (Miissil. <l. iSiiiiiiilii.T, 1^;;h. 
^ \im MryiT, l';il;i'iiiiliiirniiilii(ii, IHiid, )>. I\>;{. 
l|{'oi»f, .Viiici'iiiiii .Naliiralist, issd, p, i|l. 





full I 


to 11 


", I- 


,~ t 





identity between tlie two types it would only bo necessary to elongate 
the ilia of the latter. The developed sternal apparatus and sliouhba' 
fiirdle of th»', Salieutia is only found anionj; IJatrachian orders in the 
JJhachitoMii anil Ste,uo(rei)ha!i. Thus in I'.ryops of the former there aic 
clavicles, coraeoids, and episternuni (the last icdueed as in Trodela), 
and iu Ai-tinodou there is also an epicdavicle ((iaudry). The ]>osterior 
direction of the suspensoriuni of the lower Jaw of the Salieutia is also 
oidy found in tiu' extinct orders named, pointinji- aj;ain to this origin. 
In other recent orders these bones are directed forwards. 

Tlu^ in(»ditications ellected iu the Ilhaciiitonioiis skeleton to produce 
the Saiientian, have been jiartly llu' same as those which have produced 
the other existing orders, Tlius the triuMcrtebral centra have been re- 
l)Iaced by complete iutercentra, and several ])osterior cranial bones have 
been lost. The ilia have been greatly elongated, and in so doing have 
embraced vertebra' siu-cessively niori^ and mor«' anteriorly, so that tlM^ 
luinibcr bet w(-eu tiu ilia and the cranium has been greatly redutted, and 
tlif vertebra' posterior to the i)oiid of attachment become atrophied iu 
part and coiicrcsccnt iu i»ait. This jtro{!ess has been carried to the 
greatest degree iu the extinct family of the raheobatraehida-. Here 
thi^ ilia extend to two verrebra- in advance of the ninth or usual sacral, 
tiiiis inclosing three vertebra' in the sacrum, and leaving only .s/.i' for 
the remainder of the column. The coracoid is probably that of the 
Stegoceplialons order, as it is better developed than iu the Uhachitomi. 
The second row of the tarsus has also become icd need from these primi- 
tiv«' types i»y atrophy, while the lirst low has been I'educcd to two boues. 
as iu the M ammalia, w lii<'h have been greatly elongated. A jtarallel 
caseoccuis in the Mammalia in somn lemurs, particularly in tiie Tar- 

I have discovered that th«^ (lanocephala (Trimerorhachis), ami the 
IMiachitoiiii (Tatrachys) possessed an <'Ioiigate coluau'lla auris, wiii(;h 
is directed outwaids. backwards, and upwards to a- possible iiieiii- 
Imniitin tjimpaiii, which may have occ.u|tied the notch external to the 
OS inh rniliin .* ( Plate ,")(», tigs. 1-7.) 

The subdivision of this rod may have given origin to three of the 
f.iur distiiu't cl«'iiiciitsexliil»ited by tin' Salieutia. (I'lates P.KoO.) The 
homologies of these with the thr«'e j>rincipal osxicKht ^nitliliis \t^ \)nH>,\- 
ble. Tile history of these parts shows tliat tlie biek of auditory <»ssieles 
displayeil l»y some Salieutia and by all Urodela (IMates 4.S, 1!>) is the 
residt of deg<'Ueracy. 

The cause of some of the modifications of the skeleton can Ite traced 
tcMise. 'J'hus the coustaiil muscular stress on liie ilia iu humping the 
back previous to leaping must have had a tenden(ry to draw it for- 
wards not only on itself, but on its verteiiral atfaciinu'Uts, whi(!h are 
(iartilaginons and yielding. 'I'he elongation of the lirst row of taisal 

•AiMcric.'iti Niitiinilist, l-'>s, !>. lCi."> : AiiictIchi .limriiiif of Moriiliolojry. Vnl. ii, I't. 
11, l—s. 





] I 







246 miLLKTiN :ri, united states national museim. 

bonos may be tracod to a similar causo, t'spccially the stixvssupoii tlioni 
at tlie moiiuMit of starting a leap and alij;iitiiiy from it. The .survival 
of tlie elonf^ate eoracoid bone may be trat'ed to use b,\ pressure alonj; 
its lonftitudiual axis in the a<'t of seizinj;' tlie female, and possibly by 
stress in tlie opposite direction wlien en{ia{;ed in pusliin,v: objj'cts out- 
wards with the fore-feet, iirodncinfi' the etVeet of elon<iati(»n. It is not 
easy to assij^u a cause for the loss of the ])ra'sternuni and of vai ions 
cranial bones. It has been, i)eihaps, in these comparatively uniistd 
parts that one etfect of the jicnoral leduction in size and vioor which 
has occurred during; -geological time since the Carboniferous and Trias- 
sic periods, is to be seen. The loss of auditory organs is probably du(^ 
to disuse, the i<'sult <»f subterranean life.* 

The larval life of tlie Salientia has probably undergone iniportanf 
modifications during the couise of geologic lime. The characters as- 
sum«'(l by tad|)oles at dilfereiit stages of their growth are not parallels 
with known or piobably to be discovered lower forms of life, luit indi 
<'ate that tlu' larva, likt^ that (»f the Insecta, and like the mammalian 
fo'tus, has had a developmental history of its own. In support of this 
view I cite the anterior jtrodu tioii of the quadrate cartilage, which 
carries with it the eeratohyal arcth from its piimitive attachment, and 
the idfimate shortening of the same, and the return of (he cerat(»Iiyal 
to nearly its piimitive connection with the skull. I-'uiiher, ilie grad 
md iiurlosure ol the (ore leg in the external branchial ehainber is to be 
cited, the original position of the limb having been external. To these 
maybe added the development of the epidermal stickers, of the labi;d 
dermal comb, ami of ])eculiar dermal glands in some tadpoh's. None 
of these peculiarities of larval life are found in the Trodelii, and (hey 
have been gradually assumed by the lirva- of the Salientia in the comse 
of their existence, as though (lie\ were adult animals, and ]>i(»i>ably 
in obedience to the same kinil of laws. These aie (he interaction of 
the animal and its environment. 

The natural divisions of the ISalieiitia are the following: 

I. N(i toii^iK' : ont' |)liar,\ ii;;<';il opi'iihi;; ol' tin' lliisl.'ii'liiaii tulic 

|>ti.| VMoiii lioiit's inc'io.sjriv; IjinIiicIiIiiIi t iiIm's Itdciw ; rmaiuiils and iii'Dcdracoids 
(livcifiriif, ('"iilirclrd liy a ( ai I ila;;c wlii<li does md ovi'ilap I lial uC llii' t>|i- 

piLsili' side \iihinxii. 

IF. 'I'diijjiic |i?f.sciil ; (WMdstia ]di,ir\ iiL:i'a. 

('Ia\ i(df and t'liraciiid <>!' cacli ^idi' ruiiiirrlrd l>y a loii^il anlicd carti- 
lage, wliicli (iMTlaps lliat oC tlic i>p|ii>-itf sidf : sciimla (Vic iVom llit^ ^l^llll. 
//■(■(/( /((. 

(Ilaviidi'S and coracoids id' ln>tli sidi's ciiiniiTtril I'V a .sin;;li' nairow rnidiaii lai- 
1 ilagt' ; si'a|)nli) artinilatrd with a siicci.ii londvli' id' - ilnsirrilniiin. 

{'Ia\ iidi's and inraroids id" Iml li sidi's rimnrctid liy ;i MMLfio ini'diaii r;irlil.ii;(' ; 
sraiml.i ilistinrt from nUwW I'iniiisi, nihi. 

•Seo Farts and OpiniidiM ndatin^ (i> tlir Ural, Uv .\!- \. (J. I!. II, (.nndiiii. I — . p. >',•. 











The presence or absciutc of maxillary teeth was formerly regarded by 
the author, after Diimeril and l>il»roii, as of primary value in the defini- 
tion of the suborders. On aeeount of tiie absence of teeth, a division 
Ibilbniformia was distin<;nishe<l from tiie Ai'eifera; and the tooth-bear- 
injij Fermisternia weri^ called Uaniformia. I, however, now follow Bou- 
lenger in droppinjj thes(^ divisions, since the absen<;e of teeth is some 
times of little systematica sijiiiilicance. 

In the ar(!ilerous type (»f scapidai' arch the opjiosite halves are capable 
of movements wliiiili contract or expand the capacity of tin' thorax; in 
the Firmisternia the opposite halves abut afj;ainst ea<;h other soas to be 
incapable: ot movement, thus preservinj; the siz(^ of the thora(!ic cavity. 
This arran<j;enu-nt has an important bearin<:°on the comtbrt, and perha|is 
health, of the female wiiile in connection witli the male. The embrj'.i;eof 
the foreleji'sof the lattt'r behind t be axilla* of tiM^fbrtner is very energetic, 
and is maintained by various structural aids. Thus in man.v spc-.;ies the 
inaU's develop rough and even spinous horny plates on the inm?r sujte- 
ricu' side of the tiiumb, which presses against the thorax of the female. 

Th(t iirmisternial stru<-ture is a mo<iilication of the arciferous, which 
comes later in the iiistoiy of growth, and probably in geological time. 
During the eaily stages the Firinistcinia have the movabl(> shoidder 
girdhi which cliaracteri/es those of tiie arcilerous di\ isicui, the consoli- 
dation constituting a niodiliciition superadded in attaining maturity. 
Furthermore, young Salientia are toothless, :ind (uie section of the spe- 
cies (»f Arcifera never ac(|iiire t«'elli. In these (the Ibitonida-) we have 
a group which is imperfect in two points instead of one. 


i •,' 



iicili-iniis I.\1M' {Si-iiiihidiiiiK li"lhi'ii''ki\. V\)l. h. Uniiit li'Oi, 
. ilii , iiili.ll. Iiiiiiist<ini:il l.vpi . I'"ii;s. h iiiiil c 1111111 I'liiUi r. 

SliMiililir ,i;irilli-i nl' Aiiiir.i, I'i:;, a iilllii 
liiiiiiriii, lailpuli' "illi liiiililini; liiiilih. I'ij;. 

As primitive I'latiachia aic toothed, it is evident that the toothless 
condition of the Ibilonida' aiitl s(»m«' other fandlies is due to retar- 
dation or degeneracy. The aiciterous st«'rnum is, on the other hand, a 
primitive coiulilion, siiu'c it prevails in the Trodcla, and also in the 
S|»'gocephali and Kachitond uf tln^ ('ai Iwuiifcroiis Age, in the latter 
associated with mt'diau sternal t'lcnu'uts. The roofing in of the 
Fustachian Inites seen in the Aglossa is also a character sup»'radded to 


le primitive coi 

idilion, as the loss of tongnt; is a case of subtraction. 

I i 


i ? 

I i 


L'-' >-\ 

248 Hri.LirriN :!i, iimtmi) statks national mi'skiim. 

The Discoylossiilii' must be ivfiiudcd as tlio most inimitivc fiimil.v of the, 
Amira, as it shows none of Ihcso peculiar modilicatioiis, and presents 
tlio greatest resemhhinee to the sahiinaiiders in its riUs and opistlioe(el 
vertebiii', and to other itriniitive tyix's in its split steninni. In the 
aceompan.vinj,' diajirism these allinities are expressed, and a possilde 
ph.vlogeny is indieati'd. That tlie hitter will prove lar;;el.v correct is 
shown by the presence of I)isc(.-;h)ssidie in tiie Miocene beds of I'rnssia, 
]>articnhirly lu'ar P.onn. The paU'ontoh»},'y of the Salientia is, however, 
very imperlectly known. 

i;;iiiiil:i'. CysliytiMlliiil.i'. S( :ii>liio|ii(l;i'. 

KiiK,v«t<>niiil:i', ('ciiiliiUMiiMcliiil.i'. Il.vlid.i'. ' IWifoiiitlii-, 

\ • ! 

riir.viiiNciil,!'. I 

I / / 


Disco" l()ssi(l:i', 

XtMioiiidii'. Pipidiiv 

The Arciferaand I>'irniisternia each exhil)it parallel inodili<',ations of 
structure, wiiich may Ite represented as follows in tabular foi in : 

AiHii r.ii\. I'liiAiisn i!\i.\. 

I. \\ ith.iiit ticili. 

(1. Willi >:i(r;il <liiipii|ili,\ sis dilatt'd. 

t lirf\ ii'ipitidM-. 

lillfDIlid.'i' •? I'-llK.V-'<t'>lllid:i'. 

' l'Iir.viiiscid:i'. 
fill. Siiii:il ili;ipn|dl,\ MS ex liiidlic. 
iJfiidniplir.v nisrid.r Itciidndtiitidii'. 

II. Willi piriii:i\ill:ir.v and lii:iNiil:il',v tci'tll only. 
(i. W'itii s:i( lal diapiipliysi's dilaUd. 
IVdodytidj' » 

P.dnl,atid.f M'>'"'«M'l'i'l="- 

llylida.... S M'ophylida.. 

(1(1. Willi sacral diapopli.ssrs cn liiidiir. 


( Kanula . 
III. Tt'clli ill Imtli jaws. 

(V. Sacral diapii|diyscs iiiit> dilated. 

Aiiip1ii''riatli(id(iiiti(1a' } ti . t \ i t ■ ^ 

,, ' " , Cerafol)atraeIiula\ 

IltMiiipuractidir' ) 

'^ ,1 ' 




The fjunilies of Arcifera with opi.sthoc^i'louK vt'itebitB are omitted 
from tiie table as having no eounterpart amonj; tlie Firmisternin. 

Tiiese two series are what I liave (^iiMed " homoloj^ous };'i'onp8," and 
the eoirespondiiiy genera " heteroh){j;ons terms. 1 have also supposed 
that one sucii series may have been derived from the other, in evohi- 
tion, by a ehange in the one eharaeter which <listinguish<'s the two 
series. In the ease <tf some homoh)gous series it is not iinliJiely tliat 
this may have taken phuie, but it is neeessary, in order to be snre tliat 
sueh has been tlie i)rocess of evohition, to distinguish between two dif- 
ferent kinds of homohigoiis gronjjs. In one kind the parallel eharac- 
teraof theone group may have been derived from those of the other by 
descent, according to the priiH'iple called by Laidcester " homogeny." 
In the other case, like modifications of structure have arisen in differ- 
ent series of animals as a result of the operation of similar energies, as 
that <>f the animal an«l itsenvironnaMit. This is the principle of "homo- 
l)lassy." To the latter kind belong the imitations fonn«l to exist be- 
twtuMi tlu^ placental and didelphian mammalia. The relation between 
the aiciferous and lirmisternial Amira may be one of homogeny. We 
may then parallelize tht^ families which may exhibit true cases of de- 
scent as follows : 













It is, however, |)robal)le that the I'elodytida' is the generalized form 
from wlii<'h most of the arciferons families have been deiive<l ; and it was 
itself probably a descendant of the families with opisthoco'lous verte- 
bra', as already indi<'ated. 

The Kaiiida' embracu's many genera which imitate in details many 
genera of Arcifera. The metropolis of the former, as of the LacvrtUia 
acrodontHy is the rifi'n* VnUcotropiva, while tin' latter liav*' but tew 
representatives out of tin' A*. /»'. Svolrophut and Aiistralis, where but one 
or two spi'cies of the foi'mer o(;enr. In both \\v can trace a series in 
which the outer metatarsal is gradually liberated from thi^ penultimate, 
to afl'onl greater extension for the web in the most a<piatic tyjx's, and 
among those where these boiu's are bound, from wi'bless to webbed 
types. In both we have burrowing and arboreal genera. 


! , 


' I 








1 1 


2.0O 15ULli:ti.n :!i, united «tati:s national musiujm. 

In .strict ivlLMviice to the extension of the webs the following parallels 
may be drawn : 










External motatarsal free: 


Extdiiial iiii'talarsal attuclicil : 
I'Vct \vt'l>lit'(l — 


Arliorral (voin. tfctli). 

Arl»)it'al (ill) voiii. Ii'ctli) 

I'''"('f not \v('ltl)('(l — 


TciTL'Htiial, spmrcd. 

It i.s, however, remarkable that the ranirorni treefio^s nearly always 
have the external metatarsal bone free; the ai'ciferoiis always bound. 
The terminal i)halanfies ot the latter are eonslrn<'ted on a ball and daw 
type. In the former they are X shaped or biliii(!ate, except in (he single 
West AlViean {{enns Leptopelis. where the Sonth Ameiiean tyi»e is re- 

I have also diseovered another series of parallels wliieh the {ji-nera 
of most of the families of the Salientia present, in (he de;,'ree of ossi(i-~ 
(nation of the sn|>eiior (iranial walls,* In the least-ossilicd crania wc 
llnd the snperior pari of the ethmoid still cartilaginous, (he snperior 
wall of the meml)ranons, and the prefrontals represented by 
narrow lateral splints of bone. In jj^encra of slijihtly advanced type 
the roof of the eihmoid is ossified, and the prefronta's aie witter. In 
better developed ^eneia the frontoparit-tal bones ossify and close tln^ 
Ibutanelle. Tlu> lii;;lier ossilication shows itself in an exostosis of the 
snperior cranial walls, which, in further sfajics, involves the sUin, so 
that it is no lonf;er free fiom the craninm. The next stafje roofs over 
the temporal mn.scht with bone, and the hi<;hest stajje, known only in 
a ^icnusof Unfonida' (Otaspis ('<»pe), the membrannm (ympani 
l)eliind. TIh^ following;" table expresses tln'se facts. 

These series };ive an excellent illnstiation of the developmeiM of a 
single chara(;ter independently of othei- characters, and show how the 
generic eharactt'rs ori;;inat»^ (piile inilependently of all others. 

'.S'eNal. Ilisf. h'fv., l-li:.; I'niiictl, Ac riiiia., l-ilW (on llio <>iiM;in of Cciiciii); 
Orij^in of tin; I'itlest, IS-^r, p. •Jl^', I'lati^j iv ami v. 





Tin; !!AriiA(;iiiA or north amkrica. 


A . Mlliiuiiitl mil nsHilii-il . . . 

A A. Klllllliiiil (issilli'il illliivi': 
I. A riiiiitii{i:ii ii'tal Inn 
liiniiUr — 
(1. I'rcfioiiliils iiiimnv. 

nit. I'l'i'li'iiiilals Willi' . . . . 
II. No rniiliiiii'lli' : sKiii 

riTI': lUM'MIMlllsis— 
(1. I't'l'I'lDlltlllM lllll'IOW. . 

na. I'iI'IViiIiImIs Willi' . .. 

111. Nil riiiiliinrlli' ; sKiii 
I'li'r; c.Mi.NlimiH - 
a. I'lcI'miilMlH li.mnvv. . 

liiil'iiiiiiUi'. Sra|)liiii|)iilii'. 



I'llll'll so 

\\t\fn s|i. . . . 

1 1'l'llaiilirviii 
< !■ ... .. .. ..I. 

nri. I'll I'liililal.'* \\ iiii' . . 
nil. Nil liiiitaiii III-: iiil<'i:ii 

ini'iit ImviiIm'iI In '.t' ra ii it |i li 

I'Mistiisis. S ryiii'. 

mil. .SKiill I xiimIiimi'iI. ill 

vnUini.' iiili'i;!! 

Mil III : |rni|iiiial 

liiMsa iciiiri'il 

mill. .\s lail. lint nii'iiiliia 

iiiiiM t\iii|>aiii III- 

( li.M'il lii'liiiiil . . (tla.ipis . .. 



(".VHtl^natl.l. j,^,i,,„, ,.„„i,,,, 

Kii.siiiilni.s I Tliiiriipii .... Uaniilii. 

liiii liiiriicii'. I|\ |Hiliiiati . 


(f '\rliiiliaii|.| 

\ pliiiH. II.\la (sp.) . 

fllx iMMilia .1 

Kliwiii, I'tr . I Uaiia (oxy- 


Ilylmlcs, I'tf. Si'vtiipi.s Itanii (Inxa- 


Srapliiiipiis 1 
I'll.ilial.y ' 



riiiarliips . . Trai liMCpli- Pnlypi'ilati's. 

. aliis. 




l"'i;;iii('.s «»r (Iicsc jiiid iiilfniH'tllntc ty]»i'.s of ci'ijiii;! will 1m> roiiiid in 
l'liit»'S (is tn 7.""). 

The adiiptivc ic-^iilt iitlniiUMl In these eliaii;;('.s in the ciaiiiiii Dssilieii- 
tioii iii'e two. Kolli ill hiirrowiii^ in the eaith iinii in incsetitin;:' n <h-- 
I'ensi' a;.;ain.>it eiit'iiiie.<, llie litp of the head i.s presented to tiie I'e.sistin;;' 
oltjeet. On Iti'in.u atacked, a S.ilientian Matrachian always depi'esse.*^ 
tlu^ nin/./.le and presents the top oC the iit-ad to the em-niy. Tiie typ«'s 
with well o.s.silird ciaiiia have a ;,M('at advantage over in whi(di 
the front is nietnlManoii.s or eartila^inons, t'speeially in tiie ol' at- 
tack I'roin venomous snakes, stin^iny' in.s«M'ls, etc;. There is, liowevei', 
no deliiiite distiihntion for the I'espeetive types, t'ither in tinu' or space, 
e.Kce|>t that the jjtMiera wifli nnossiCied elhinoid all belonj; to the. South- 
ern lleniisj»here. Also, types with nnossili(>d froiito|)arletal hones pre- 
dominate in the .\nstr,ilian and Neotropical realms, an^ nnkiiown in 
tht^ I'ithiopiaii, and raie in the I'ah'otiopical. Tyjx's with exosio.scd 
frontopariclals chicily altonnd in the. Neotropical realm, and (xunir 
in the Ncarctic and ralaarctic. I'alcontolo^^icaily, lioth e.xostosed 
(Latonia) and memhraiions frontoparietals (.Mytes) a|)pear to<;'etiier in 
the Miocene lirown I'oal of Uonn, in h'hine-l'russia. 

As re;;anls tin' distriltntion of Salienlia in North America, the follow- 
inji" general remarks may l»e nnide. The eastern district, with its com- 
paratively linmid climate and almndant water <!ouises, is the Innne of 
the jjenns Ifana. For similar climatic reasons the middle and northern 
parts of the Pacitic rejiion have several species of Raiia. Tiio eastern 
re;;ion,th(^ land of forests, nearly all the species of Ilyla. The 
Tacific coast lias hiit one, a fact due, jierliaps, to its long dry .season 

1' * 





LI » 




Tliemid n'j;ioii.s of (lie Soiitliwrst I'liniisli llie nivali-r \iirii'l.v of spocJeH 
of IJiilo, Imt one spi-cics iiiliabitiiii; tlii' i-iisti'iii H';;i(m. Tin', Aii.strori- 
psniaii royioii is the lioiiic of scvcriil small Ibriiis of ll^lida- aiul Ilii 
foiiida'. The (iistiibiitioii of tlic Srapliiopida- is cliiclly in tlio drvt'r 
rcyioiiH of llio West; \\\\vo species are fomiil in the Soiioraii, while Iml 
one occurs in th<^ I'acitie, and one in the eastern and Anstroriparian 
regions. Tiie distiiltution may Ite lalnilaled as (bliows: 



I'iliiiliitii l{. 

K.isli'in Criiliiil. S(iii(p|;iii. i'acillc. 


Sra|iliiii|>iiH . 

('llMIOIlllilllS . 


All is 


Svirliii|iliiiH . 












The few members «d" this snboich'V have the vertebra' opisthocodous 
and deprive<l of ribs; tiie diapophyses of the third antltburtli verteltra' 
are extremely elongate, and those of the sacral are stron.uly dilated and 
continent with the nrost\le. The third ct'iatolnanchials are ;ireatly 

lii I'ipti there are only seven presacral veitebrn'. 

The frontopaiietals are entirely ossilied, and there art* tr(M' ossa 

The sternal apparatus to the arciterons type, thonj>h tiio 
epicorai^oid cartila,ues do n(»t oveilap. 

The larva' are provided witii two spiracnla, one on each side of the 
body. (IJotilenjier). 

There are two recent ami one extinct families of this snlxtrder, which 
are <lelined as tbilows: 


No ribs; vertebra' opisthoco'lons; iirostyle simple, attached to a 
siiifjle condyle. Coracoid and epicoiaroid divei;;ent, their connecting 
ar<!'.u's not overlappin*;. No mannlninm. Teeth none; sacral dia- 
pophyses <lilated. 

The neotr(;^)ical genns Pipa has the atlas continent with the .second 
vertebra, so tiiat there are bnt seven anterior to the saciiim. There are 
distinct nasal bones, and tln^ median septnin of the ethmoid is partially 
ossilied. The prefrontals ariM-ompIetely in contact with each other and 
with the frontopari«'tal. Fror.toi)arietal completely ossilied. Terminal 
])lialan}jes ac,nt»s sitnide. I-Ixternal m.'tatarsals separated by a web. 
(Plate 01), tigs. 1-L'.) 





No rilis; viTtelMii' o|>istlio('<i'lt)its ; oh ilium atlaclKMl to tlu^ ninth 
vci'tcluii only. Conicoids and i'|>i(UM'a<'oi(ls uell scpaiati'd I'roni tlittsc of 
the opposite side. Trt'tli present ; siicial <liapopli,vse.s dilated. 

Oiu' j;enns, Xeiiopns, with three spe«'ie.s in the re;,no .ICthiopica. In 
this the interorltital ellunoiil plate, tliou;;li Ion;;', is not inodnced ante- 
riorly, and is entirely eoneealed hy the tVontopaiietal. l<'rontoparietal 
stron^^ly ossilied, oveihan}'iny the i-onlliient prelVontals. The prefrontal 
does not always extend to it. The first two vertelua' are separate, but 
tint sa(*ral and eoeeyx eonllnent. There are ossa nasalia above the 
nares. Terminal plialan;;(>s acnte, simple. l'iXt«>rn,d metatarsals 8ep- 
arated by a web. (Plates 41>, lij;. lo ami (Jl>, fi},'. li.) 


No ribs; os ilinm attaehed to iliediapophyses of tiKM'oiitliient ninth, 
eighth, and seventh vertebra', whith form a disk; nioslyle attached by 
a doable ;>lenoid eavity. l-'rttntopariefal strongly ossilied, m»t proiliiced 
farther than the separate inefrontals. l-)\ternal metatarsals |>robably 
separated by a web. 

The j;enns J'tthrohafntrlms, Tsch., represeided by several species in 
the ."Miocene ( f (ieiinany. The sn|»eritn' plate of the ethmoid was (ron- 
cealed, and the atlas eonllnent with the first vertebra, leaving but six 
between the oceipnl and sacrum.* 

\'on .Meyer descril>es the vertebra' of /*. ijiiiantvidnxs pvoc(e1otts, while 
some of them are li^nred as o|iisthoco'loiis. Woltersdorllt states that 
they artt pro<'(eloiis. .\ specimen in the IJritisli .Miisenm which 1 
examined has opistlioc<eloiis vertebra'. It remains, therefoie,a question 
of interest whether this family beloii;;s in the .V^lossa. Wcdtersdoilf, 
who has stinlied it very carefully, refers it to the Arcifera,and to the 
nei,i;liboi'liood of the T'elodytida*, although admitting various points of 
resemblance {o Xeiiopiis. lie describes nine si»eeies from various parts 
of central Kiirope. 


In this tiibe the extremes of the .series are more than in the 
others, and depend on the following features: 

(1) In that nearest the A.ylossa the vertebra' are, like those of the 
latter and of the ►Salamanders, concave posteriorly and convex ante- 
riorly ; in the other extreme the reverse. These features are not as ir- 
reconcilable as ini;;ht at tirstsi^Lt ai)|)ear, as the intervertebral spheres 
do not be<;ome lirmly attac^hed to either (teiitrum at maturity in .some 
individuals of lUn-horocutcs pcronil, I'dolxtics fiisciis (Stannius), and 
CultrqH's prorincialis (Dujjes). (Ij) with opisthoc<elous vertebne 

' I'alii'initojiiiiitliii'it. Ill, ]>. MT. 

t L'cluT rossiio Fiii^the instn's. das ;;. I'lilii'olcitiiieLiis, MagtlobiU}!, 18d<3. 




luii.LiynN :m, imtki) statks national MnsKUM. 


i' li: 

iifiive witli the bulk ol" the tribi' in posst'ssiiij; tlilnU'd sacMiil dijipopliy- 
sfs, whilst those ;it tlic other cxtieiiie e.\!iil>il tlieiii c.n liiidi ie;il. (■>) A 
few of the rormer possess siiiaU iil»s, ami (J) the iiiostvh' approaeh«'s 
the iioi'inal eonditioii of vertehnc in possessinji' one pair of trans 
verse proeesses ; (5) most of these, with tiie adjoininj;' less extienie 
forms, hav(^ a vertical or eat-like pnpil. ()>) Many of the same j;ronp 
exhibit a dej^raded or obliterated aiiditoiy apparatus; lint this li-atnit- 
is n(tt unil'oiiidy ("oineident with the preecdinu ones. (7) Tlie \ipiii- 
sternum is tbrnu'd of divergent lindis; in the bulk of tlie liilu' it is an 
emarjjinate eartila^^inous plate, and in the opposite i-xticMU' an osseous 
style, as in the Itanida'. 

t)f these features" the lirst, thiid, tbnrlli. and sixth are ajireements 
with or approximations to tin* structures (if the same elements of liir 
Salamanders; the resenddanees are Itorne out in the physiology of the 
same types. 

In the ol»ser\cd examples of the aimvc l.\ pes that is, (»t' th*' l>isco- 
{ilossiihe, Pi'h.ilytithe, and Scaphiopttdida, the e.uus are deposited in 
small clusters (i'ehnlytes). a sli(»it thick loop (l'eloi>ales), or in a st-iics 
with a slender, touj^h, thri'id like atlachnu-ni (AI.vlcsi. in the family 
fbM(»w inn' that of the Teloliates. that is the New Wdrld tree toads, the 
ejuj^s are, in the Old World species ( /////(/ <o7/o>7'(() deposited in ,i;lolui- 
lar masses, as amon^' the lianida-, luit much smaller, while in out 
/////(( i>icLrriiifiii the m.isses include hut fnun foui' to ten e^iiis. In the 
first nientioned forms the male sci/es the female in trout ot tlu' thi^^lis, 
while in the iemainin;i; ami major numlicr of species, as well as in the 
ol)served rirmisternia, she is seized around the axilhe. 

Additional i»ei;uliarities in the dexclopment of Alytes, IV-Iodxtes, 
Cultripes, and I'elobates are, that they spawn at two seasons iiisiead 
of oiu>, and that their larva' attain a lar;^* si/e than those of other 
Anura before eompletin;^ their metamorphosis. 'I'hi> latter l«-ature is, 
however, repeated near the other end of the s«'ries — amoiii; those with 
cylindrical pelvic supports, in the jicuiis I'seudis. 

Theoccuireneeof a xiphisternal style >imdarto iii;!l <'f the K'anida' niay 
be regarded as an indication oi" supcriorits not «uily in consideration 
of this allinily, bui as a ;;reater dt';;ree ot speciali/ation and ossilica- 
tion of the part. It appears, however, noi merely anions the most 
raiiiform Arcil"eia, and anion;; some with proco'Ious vertebia-, which 
have the salamander-like mode ot' re|U'oductioii, but also ainoii^ some 
of the opistli()C(elous spe(;ies. 

The only family features as above ;iiven which seem to have a func- 
tional sijiiiilieaiice, are the struetuie of the terminal plialan>;-es as an 
adaptation to arb-.ireal life in the llylida- and the increase of raptorial 
power by the addition of another set of teeth in th»' llemiphractida'. 
Vet for the Mist-mentioiied function other arranj-ements are employed 
in other families. 






Tin- riiiiiilit'S oj' tliis sii1)oi(U'r .lillrr as follows: 

1. In'ilis iiicst'iil ( |)isi'iii:l(>s.siiitli-:i (iill). 

\'ci U'lii.'i' ii|iistli(>('n'l : HMi-ral <liii|i(i|)li,vst'.s dilatcil ; stt'i'iiiiiii lill'iiiritd'. 

- Dimiiiiliinnitld . 

II. iiil's iilisciit (.siri'iiiiiii mil il<'4'|ilv liit'iii'iMti' ). ( liiil'iiniiiilcii (iill). 
\. No li'clli ( Vfilflu;!' |irinir! >. 

I (iM|i(i|ilivsfS (if .siiciiiiii (lil:ili'<l Iliit'iiilHlii . 

I >i;i|ic>lili\ xcH (>(' .s:icniiii not ilil.'ilfil Ih inlniiiliriiiiincidfi , 

AA. .M:i\ill:ir.v liTllioiily. 

Ni'l'ti'lii;!' opisllioi III : sarnil iliai)l>|ill\ scs ilihitril ; im'i>n|\ Ir iliNliiii't. 

txli iiiiilir/idiilii . 

NcrlcliiM' |iiociil: r-Miial iliaiPoiilivscN (lilalcil ; iiioslvli' disijiici : niinnal 

lill.llaiiurs cniiic I'l liiliiliitii . 

\'i' I trIiiM' iMiMii'l ;'ial iliaini|ilivs<'-* ililalcil ; iiioslxic coiilliii'iii with 

>acnim ; iiiiiiiial |)li;ilaiinrs cinilc Sitijihinjiidii . 

\'rl Icliia' pidio'l: .sacral (li;i|ii>|ilivsts ililalnl ; in iisly Ic tlisi iiirl ; iiliuiial 

|iliahii|i;i's a ciiivril rlaw wil li yloliiilar liaNc Iljiliiln . 

N'crli'lira' pi'iM ii'l : s.-inal ilia|io|i|'.s iiol illlatcil : iiiost\lt' iVcc ; initial 

jilialaiiys runic, .sometimes tiaiis\cisc at apc\ ('iislnjiuilli'iitii . 

A.\A. .Ma\illar.v and mandilinlar tcctli picsciil. 

Sacral diapnplis scs dilated liiiiiliiiiiiiilliiiiliiiiHilii . 

Sacra I diapopli\ scs not dilated //( mililind lidn . 

Of tlic ahovt' families, four arc foiiml williiii tiir l)oiiii«lari«'.s of tli*^ 
Ncaii'titt ivcaliii. Tlu'.sc art^ llu' iliifoiiitla', Scapliiopida', llvlidtc, and 
ill a vciv I'i'W it'picst'iitativi's. the ( ".vstijiiiatliida-. 'riii»'«'of the famiiii's 
ait' coiiliiM'd to tlu' Neotropical Ikcaltii — the i>i'iidroplirviii.s<-ida-, tlie 
Aiiipiii^iiatliodontida-, and the llcinipliraclida-. Tlic ll,vli*la- Itclono- 
to tins fauna iiiitl the Aii.stralian, w itii a lai i^c icprcscntalioii in tlic 
Xcartie and a very small (»ii«' in tlif Palaarctii' Utaltiis. It is totally 
wantino- from tin* lOtliiopian, Tlu^ I)i.sco.i;l(»ssida' is lOnropcan, with on«i 
jit'iins in New Zfaland. it is the only lamily well icprcscntcd by {vr- 
liary forms. The small family of the Astcroplirydida' art' I'ala'otiopical 
and Australian, ami the f«'w I'dodytitla-, l'ahcotro|>ical and PahcaKr- 
tic. The lar;;*' family of the ('ystii^natliidn' arc Ncoiiopical and Aus- 
tralian only. The r>t)fonida' art; cosmopolitan, and the Scaphiopida' 
Nt'arclic and i'ala'arctic. Hut the nrcat«'r nnmln'r of the .\rcif«'ra arc 

\Vc arc at present ac(|iniintcd with oOl species of this siii»(»rdcr, 
which represent S| ocneiic types. They re|)re.sent the families in tiie 
followino' proportions and re;;ions: 

<!rllil';l. Spriii'tt. 

Iljsl I iliiilliiii. 

! *iHci)j;lti'.t'*itl;e 
A.sli rii|ilir\iliil;e 


Si ii|iliiii|iiit.i' 






.I K i;. I':il,i an lii;i ( .\ iirtlf. Ilsl. 

I r> i; I'alj >iliii|iir.i. .\ iisii.ilis. 

:i I i; I'al Iii<|>ii'.i. I'al.e iirti( a 

4 7 I; I'.il.iaii'lKM. N'l .III In .1 

III I IMi ii:. I'al.i "iiiipiiai II I'.ila.intii .1, N'l' iii'lJiM, .N'i'ii. 
I llii|iir 1. .\ii.-.ll,il>?<. 

t I l;. N.'iitri>|>|ia. 

:i ^ It. N'l'iiiiiipii !i. 

.Ti 174 It. Niiiliopiia, .\ ii.-l rails. 

14 lO-J : Ciisiiiiipiillli'. 



: 'S: 


The generic form.s lue all poeiiliar to their zoolojjical regions, except 
Hyla, lound wherever its family occurs, jind IJorboroco'tes, coinnion to 
Anstraliii and the southern jiortion of South America. 

The number of species so far known to inhabit these regions is as 
follows : 

Roftio AiistniliH 
K. Ncotriipica .. 



Total «H1 

In two ifiiioiiH .. 1 

H. ruliiiirlirii... 
H. .Kthiopica... 
Ik. l*.il:i'()tr<i|ii('a 




Total .... 
Ill two rcjiioiiN 


The small proportion «)f species occurring in the Old World, exclu- 
sive of Australia, is evident, though the.v represent six families, while 
those of the Mew Worhl represent but six also. 

The tribe Arcifera was lirst delinetl audits extent and distribution 
indicated by the author in the Natural History Keview, 18(!r», thouj;h 
explaiiu'd a year previ<uisly at a meeting of the Zoological Hoeiety of 
liiiiidon. The sternal feature i-haracteri/ing it was noti«red by Stei-t- 
/.(•u, Cuvier, and others in isolated cases, but its geiu-ral signiticance 
not perceived. Dug' (Hecherches, 01) attiiluites it to the tree toads, 
the toads, and the llombinator, Alytes, and I'eloltales. In iStannius's 
Zootoude <ler Amphibien (7.'{) it is assigned to the Aglossa and I'.id'o, 
as distinguished from liana and ("ystignatlius. The chaiacters »»f llu^ 
last genus must have been talu'ii from the Old World Cassina (formerly 
called ('ystignatlius). as the structure in C'ystignathus and its allies is 
that of the true Arcifera. 


Cope, Nat. Hist. Rev., If'd.^C.Ian.) : Joiirii. I'liila. Ac. ISiil. p. 71 : I.ata.sto, 
,\(ti'Milt' la Soc. Mini, ill' IJortli'aii.x, l."'7'.t, p.ii77; Hoiiltiififi, Cifl. Hair. 
Sal. IJrit. Mils., l-^-.'.tll. 

Vertebra' opistliocu'l.+ Diapophyses of sacrum dilated. I'rostyle 
with ii basal diapoi>liysis. Ribs pri'seiit.| IJones of distal carpal series 
all distinct. Sternum of two slender iu)stero-e\teiiorly ilivcrgiiig libro- 
cartilaginous or cartilaginous styles. 

In the known genera tiuigiie is round, entire, and little or not at all 
free beliiml. Males without vocal vesicle. 

A marked peculiarity characterizes tin' larva- of (his family. The 
spiracle or branchial opening is situated on the median line below, 
while in all of- • tongiied Aniira it is situated on the left side. 

If we commenei^ the series of the Arcifera wi'li the great family of 
the Cystiginithidie, we will end it with the families Asteiophiytlida' 
and Discoglossida*, which are perhaps ei|ii:illy connected with that 
which precedes them — the Scaphiopoditbe, The former leads to \«'n- 
opiis through Paheobatrachiis; the latter, as far as our present kiiowl- 


t olisprvril liy Diijit'M ami (icrvais in Alytes. 

{<JI»sfrvi'(l liy l>ii;>csin Al\ tcs and Moinli iialor, ,iinl liy Daim'iil in l>isc(i;;lo.ssii.s. 



2.-) 7 




lidj;*^ iiidicati's, liiuls its comjilotost (levelopiiieiit in the oxtinct j»omi.s 
Latonia, i-stablislRMl by Von i\Ieyor on the L. scif/rietli IVoni the Miocene 
olOeninj^en. A species also occnra in tlie fresh-water deposits of San- 
van (//. riifiosK], whose sahnnandei-like vertebra' have been noticed 
l»y (lervais.* Tliese animals. were nearly related to Discofjlossns, and 
iiad, like it, short posteriorly directed processes on the ribs, as in the 
ncnns Salaniandra. They were, however, inncli larger, had the I'ronto- 
piirietal Itoiics completely ossified, and the whole of tlu^ craninm 
roijilicncd externally by a dermo-ossilication. On this acconnt the 
jit'Mus has been compared with Ceratophrys, which belonj;s to the 
family of Cysti.unathida". 

In the reniainiiij^' and recent jnenera the strncture of the sternum is 
worthy of noli'. In old individuals of Disco^lossus it is sometimes tibro- 
cartilaulMoiis, as in IMpii. The sternum, hoinolo;;(»ns with the sternum of 
the i^act'rlilia. rcscndih's the united ha'mapopliysial cartila.i;es of ihe an- 
tciior ribs. In tin' ucnera in (piestion + this part is divided nearly up 
tt» the i»oint of attachment to that precedinj;", each moiety beiiij;' directed 
outwards ami backwards, and tapering into a lateral linea semiluuiiris. 
iJelwecM tlu'Nc and the pnlu's there arc in Discojilossns the usual thice 
pairs of linca- semilunares, connected on the median line by a stronj; 
I'uca alba 

In Disco^lossus the prefrontalia are strongly developetl, bcinj; in 
contact tor most of thcii' length, soiuctimes touching; the fronto- 
parictaiia. In Alylcs tlicy are also in contact throuj;hout, but ai»' 
transvcise and do not reach the frontoparietals; the fontanelle is 
lar;;cr. and llic ril»s withtmt processes; the whole animal is weaker. 
In this !^i ntis, as well as the preceding'', tin' i)upii is a vi'rtical slit; 
cIscwIk rr found in Ilylorhiiui, I'latyplcctrum, Limnomediisa, i'elody- 
tida' and Ilic Scaphi<»pida'. A species (.1. friisclicni)^ has left its re- 
mains ill tiie Miocene Ibauidcohle along with I'ala'obatrachus. Mom- 
liinaloi is similar to Alytcs in its osseous structure, except that the 
prclVoiiialia are in contact anteriorly only, and that the sacrum i>i'<s 
scnts liiil one condyle for the articulation of the coccyx, as is typical 
of the Astcropliiydida' ami Aglossa. Along with Alyt«'s and Xen- 
opus it has true ossa nasalia, which bound the external nares exte- 
riorly, iliiis explaining their anonndous jiosition in llreviceps. where 
they aie iiifeiioi. In ISombinator there is no caviim tympani ov auricu- 
lar ossicles, and the tuba' Kustachii are rudiim'utary or wanting. This 
character is said l»y Tschudi and llruch not to be exceptionless in 
adiilis, and that the tiil)ic and tympanum are always present in Ihe 
\ouiig ol bdtli iliis genus ami I'elobates. All European, except Lio- 

' r:iiii'iiiili)iit;:i<' I'laiivaisi', p. I'.H. 

t ihinr^ li:is i;i\ •11 it liu;Mri' "f it ill />'iii/i//iH((/ii)'. I'l. li, lij;. '.'I. 

I (!<i|>i', .loiini. Ai'.iil. I'liihi., I'i'iii, )•. T.'i. Ii'iiiiii ini^i-liilii ^ Von Meyer, r;iIii'i)iito,i;i'iiii!i- 
I .ii, Ml. i>. l:i' ', 




t 5 


itt.-)!— I'.iill. ;;i 


-r i 

258 i!;tin -i, initkm statics national muskum. 

IH'liiiii, wiiicli is froiii New Zcaliiiid. Tlie toes are webbed in all the 
},'t'!U'ra, and tlio cxtonial iiictataisals are separated. 

L'l'iiliiilif iiilf;iiiiii(iil involved in oHsiliciition, wliicb (•oniplotostlii'o. o. fronto- 
liaritlalia : two (((ccyj^cal eotyli ami iliapoidijsos ; film witli ponterior ]iro(!- 
(■ss Liiliniin Noll Meyer. 

Ceplialic iiitei;uiiieiit free; a miiall tVoiitoiiaiietal foiitaiiellt! (.sometimes ait}Mfinlhi 
closed liv tlie I'llimoijl): ini'lronlialia larj^ely in coiitaet ; two coeey^ieal eo- 
lyli ; lilts with posterior proeess; piiitil roiiml ; caviim tyiiipani pnisent. No 
parol oid j^laiiils ■■ Dixaxilossim Oltli. 

Ceplialic iiitefiiiiiiint tVei': a iVontoparietal foiitaiiollc; vomerine teeth present; two 
eoceyneal eotyli; [mpil trianj;nhir; no tyini>anum or Eustachian tnlics (lioii- 
Icn^er) Lioiidmii Steiiidachiii-r. 

C'eplialie inte;;nnienl tree; a IVontoparietal tontanelle. I'relbntalia in eontaet 
thron;ihont ; two eoeey^^eal eotyli; no mdimeiital di^^it ; typaniim and eaviim 
tynijiani distinel : pupil eri'et : parotoitl inlands present J/l/^■'< Wagl. 

Cephalie inti'^nment lire I'rom eianinm ; a frontoparietal fontaiielle; ]irt;l'ontalia in 
eontaet .iiiteiiiirly : one eoeey;ieal eofyliis; no inner di^it developed; no tj'ni- 
panuni or ea\ iim t.Ninpaiii; Knstiichian tnbe rndiniental or wantin<;; paro- 
loid glands none Iliniihiiialur Merrem. 

Ail tlie cliaiaeters oi tliis laiiiily j;(» to show that it is the nearest of 
the iSalieiitiii to the oriojnal and now extinct tyju' which formerly con- 
nected that order with the Siilainanders. These arc, the presence of 
ribs, the (tpislhncdl vcitehne, the distinctness of the carpal bones (d 
the <listal low ; the injiiiinal ;;rasp of the male in copula, and the fre- 
(jnent presence of the cardinjil veins. 


This is the only cosnioi»olitan family of Annra. It is chielly repre- 
sented by tile nciins Unto, which exists in :dl the /oolooical realms ex- 
eepliiio the Anstiiiliaii. The variations in strntifiire are not so o|,.j(t 
as in some otlu'r families. They are thus summarily reviewed i»y 

"The omosterntim is o,>ii(.iijiiy absent; if present, it is reduced to a 
mirrow cartilage. Tlie sternum is usindly a cartilaginous |date, whiirji 
in a lew eases is ossilied alono Its center; in Hnoystomops there is a 
wcll-delined itony style siij)portin};' a cartilaginous tlisk. 

"The vertebra' are i»roe<i'lous :ind without ribs. The diai»opli\ ses of 
the .sacial vertebra- are more or less tlilated, but never to such a de;;ree 
as in the I'elobatida'. The urostyle is attached to two condyles. 

"A frontoparietal Ibntanalleis pieseni in .Myoltatraclius Kuj-yslomops 
P.seiulophrviie and lOpidalea; t and in a few species of liufo the derm is 
completely involved in the cranial ossilication. 

" In two ;,'enera tin; pupil is i .ect. 

"The distal |)lialan;i('s art' .•^•.;mi)ly obtuse or T-shaped. 

"The IJufonida' include tenestrial, burrowing,', thorou^^lily ai|uatic 
(Ne(!tes) and apparently arboit'al (Necttophryiu') types. lihinophrynus 
is a tiiie ant eater, as are several Ibrms of IOn;;ystonnda'."J 

• Plate T-^. ~ 

) This U< nils is not admltli'd Itv Itoiilcii'^ri-i'. 

, t'.ttalojiiie llalr. Sal. lint. Mu.^,., n. .d. I-- '. p. •.■< 1. 





III ll 

■- I 






Otlioi' cliariUitors arc: siiiuTior plato of the t'tliinoid (UJiiipli'ti-'ly ossi- 
(ii'il ; very rarely pioloiijicd anteriorly; usually eovereil by the eoiu- 
pletely ossified frontoparietals, or by these and the prefontals toyeHier, 
No |»tery^oi(k'uni. Tonj;ue IVee, not retractile i»osteriorly. 

In Otiloplins and l*hryiM)idis* there are but eij,Mit vertebra", the atlas 
and second bein<?<;onlhu'iit. InNectes there are reseinbhuK-esto the As- 
teroplirydida'. The prefontals are narrow, divergent, in contact only 
anteriorly; the superior i)late of the ethmoid is small, tranverse, not 
entirely covered by the fronloparii'tals, which are but weakly ossilled 
medially, althouji'h embracinj- no fontanelle. In the otiier <;enera the 
jnefontals are in contact with each other and with the frontoparietals 

In none ol the genera Avj^jrw tobelonji;' to the family is there a manu- 
brium sterni. The xiphisternuin is a slender weak cartilage in Pseudo- 
phryne and I'hryniscus and lUiJ'o hvUtuftli. In the other species the style 
snpportiiiu the terminal disk is stronijer, sometimes libro cartilaiiinoiis: 
in livj'o ndi/iiris and />'. mchoiosdctUN it is broader and nearly bony, and 
in Xirtcs siilxisiwr stnmin.'i^t and broadest. 

In Hii/'ii Lcliiitrtii the terminal phalanges have a slight terminal trans- 
vei'sf I'xtriisjon. 

MyoUatrai'lius. Xotaden, and rseudophryne the weakest and least 
developed forms, are Australian; I'^upenipliix, IMiiynoidis, (bifo, I'elta- 
lihiync, Otaspis. Ollotis, ('repidophryne,Cranophryiie and Uhinoi)hryne 
are Neotropical; liiito and Ncctopiirynt', I'lhiopiaii ; IWifo, ITearctic; 
IJufo and llpidalea, Paheaiclic; and Scutiger, llufo, Nectes, and Necto- 
phryiie, Tala-otropical. 

The characters are the 

I. i'l'i iiiiiial |>lial.'in,!;;i's*siiri|ili>. 

A. 'I'wci 1 (iii(l.\ li's for llic iiiKstylo. 
I!, 'rntiiiilr liDlllid ill front, tVi'i- lirliiml. 
A rioiiloiiiirielal fdiitioulli'. 

Mthiiioid lioiic iii<'iiiii)ili'tt> aliDVf ; strniniu ossII'ilmI on (lie iiiiddlt- 
liri<' ; rar ini rntly dcvidoiu'd ; piiiiil cri'i't. 

Mnulxiliidliiis Sclil. 
F.tliiiioid liiiiir i'i)iii|di'tr ; (iii^ciH jiiiil tin's (Vfc ; slrriniin a Wfak 

cart ilajir /'m inhiphriiiif I'itz, 

Etliinoiil lioiii' (.•oiiiidcti' ; toes wcldu'd . .stt'riiiiiii distiiicl. 

i'li'iilith It (Jopc. 
""No rroiito|iai'i<'lal (oiitaiiolli'. 
(V. No voiiiiiiiif lirili. 
/<. 'I'yiniiaiiic (liaiiilii'r iufsciit. 

Toes Crci' : tviiiiiMiiic th'iim not inclosed; stcinnni j.n osscons 
st.vic /^iijii iiijilii.r Stciml. 

'The raised orliitai lid^cs id' liiis ^cnns do not constitute its essent iai ciiaracter, as 
foi'inerl.v suppohed, lint lather llie division ol" the mural spines and the widi' separa- 
(loiiof tlie lateral portions ( iliev stand aliovetlie /yuapoidiyses) lliron,i;hont the vcr- 
t el II a I eidnnin. Perhaps t he I'nsion <d' t he atlas with the si'cond vertelii'a is important 
in the same connection. There is hnl one species at present known, /'. ((■•-yx c. 




2(J0 m Li,i:riN :;:;, i'MTHD statks naiionai, muski'm. 


Toes wclilifd ; lyiii|i,'inir (Iniiii iiol incluM'd 1)\ Itimr ; Htt'rtiiiiii ii 

pliid' /'"./'» Liiiir. 

Toes wclilx'il ; ( yiniiiillic <||-Iliii ilicloscil willi i)s.-<iliL';ll iitu. 

Olllx/lii ('«I|IC. 

Tiii'.s wrblii'il ; noslril.s dirccti'il ii|i\v:ii'iIn \ii Its IlK-rki r. 

li.i. ■ryiii|iiiiiii- cliaMilui' \viiiiliii.i;. 

Cranial ilcnii IVcc ; dinils wcldinl Ollnlis ('o|pi'. 

('raniiil dciin iVci' ; diL;its nut dlsiiml, iMilu-id in a coinniiin in- 

tt'iTUMKMir ' 'n ;'hI(ij lirillir '('(i|M'. 

Criuiial dfi'ni dssilifd ; toes wcldicd < inuKjilniini tCii|ir. 

(ta. Vtinifiinr Ifi'lli iircstMil. 

Slcrnuni niiliniiMilary : tucs wrlilicd Xal-df u M iiinili. 

IUj. 'I'linj^iii' Ii lUid iir i.'tractili' postfrioily ; slightly frt'c anti'iim ly. 

SicrniiiM iiidiinrntai'v ; |>ii|iil ciccl . . li'li'mi ihriiiiii-^ iKim. \ liilir. 
A A. One condyle lor tlic nrostylc. 

l'n|iil vertical; lui \oniirint: licth ; tot ^ rue; a sicinal ^lylc, 

Siiiliiii r 'I'lu'cdi. 
II, Ti'riiiiiia! plialan^t's J-^iiaiu'd. 

l'il';;ils alid trcN ii'dlc <ii 1( .-> \\( lilii d : I lie I i|i-dilalt'il iiilndiNks ; 
stfrniini carl ilaninmiH \t i luiiliniiit' I'iMcIi. A I'clcrM. 

Tlie distjiltiitioii of these {"I'lK'ni is ;is lullnws : 














Kliiiiiiiiln \ mis. 





Total . 






IlUro l.ainTiiti. 

Syii. I{t"itl.,l>- -•">: \Vay:l.,Syst. Ainpli., p. •iiM): Tsclindi, Italr., p. >h ; |) 

\ itilir.. viil.p. ilii'.' ; fliiiitli., Cat., p. .Vi ; Nat. Hist, h'cv., i-r.."i, p. lii.>. 

Onirhiiiiihii'- Spis, Spec. N'ii\ . Test. IJan.. p. I'.l : I'.sp.ida, Niaj. I'ai if., \'(Mt., p. 17(1. 
0/,////)/(;is Ciiv.. R. A. : 'rsilindi, Matr., p. f*'.t : (Hiiilli., C.ii., p. tl.i; «'ope, /. < 

llilliilihsiii sp. Itoie, Isis, 1-"J7, p. Vj'.ll. 
( hitiDiiis sp. Waj;!.,, l-X'"'. p. 711. 
/7i(7/»(r (Oki'ii) I'itz. Sysl. Keptil., I. p. :i-.'. 

rliilnliliiillii I'it/. I.I-. : Cope, I'liie. Ac. I'llila., l-l'i'.'. p. Il."i7. 

riiriiiiiiiilix I'it/.. /. c. : Cope, /. <., ami Nat. Hist. K'ev., |-ii."i. p. |ii-.', pars. 

./)i((.»7/C((f 'rscliiidi, I'aim. I'd'.. Ileip., p. 7-^. 

Sihisiiiiiilnniii Smiili, III. .s;. Mr., |{ept., .\pp., p. 'i-'; (iiiiilli., / .., p. 1:!-: Cope, /. 

'<'ri jiiiliiin ( 'ope preoccupied. 

I ( '/•('» •1/1 M~ ( 'ope lireoci'llpled. 

This ucniis may lia\ e a ic.iiiial loniaih l|r, Ihe sK nil li i> lieen i' \a nniied 


^3ia^ "^ 





l(/(//.i/i/(( . ('ii|if, I'liic. Ac. I'liilii., If^i'iH, |i. :'u I. 

/,'/l.(/i« «'<i|ii', iii<>r., |-(ij, p. ;!.')/, illlil Hist. KlV., I-Ti."), p. l(i-j. 
.l»Ni/»i(( .Sliilic/.k!!, ridc. Ah. Sdc, l-i/d, p. l.VJ. 
IhitmitjilirlniH Ciiiiu'raiio, Atti. Ai'f. Tor., \i\ , HT'.I, p. ■'■'•J. 

Viipil Iiorizoiitiil. T(Hi<;iio elliptic or pyiilonii, ciitiro aixl lVo<' hcliind. 
Vomcriiu! teeth none. Tyiiiimmim di.stinct or liidden. Finjit-is iVee; 
toe.s more or le.s.s wchhed, the tip.s simple or «li!;ite(l into small disk.s. 
Outer metatiirsais united. Omo.sternum j^enerally mi.s.sin};; if present, 
earlila<;inous; sternum, a eartila<;inons plate, sometimes more or less 
ossilied alon;^ the meilian line. Diapophyses of .sacral vertebra more 
or less dilated. Teiininal phalan;,M's obtuse or tri.injiular. 

In the l'roeeedin;;s(»r the Philadelphia Ac^ademy Ibi' l.S.")l Dr. ('harles 
(iirard };ave a .synopsis of the North Am«'riean species of this ;i('nus, 
which t'mbraces thirteen specilic names. ICiyht of these are recojiiiizetl 
in the jjresent work, and two others as subspecies. In ISSIJ the writer 
L;ave a synopsis of tiie species in the Proceedings of the American 
l'hih).sophical Society, the result of the study of which has been iucor- 
|)orated into the present volume. 

I. Ili'iiil willidiil liotiy cicsls jilMivr. 

a. Iiitcnirliilal space w idrr lli;iii cvclitl. 

ranitoiii ;; I anils small, as wide as Imi;;, not wiiicr than licail : li'<rs lon^tT, 
(>n<1 of tarsus it-acliini.; to i'l'oni I'lont oroiliit tii rml of inn/./.l<> ; iiicta- 

tarsal tiilirnlfs insi^^iiilicant /)'. iniiirtahiH. 

raiotoiil ;; I a lids la !';;<', loii<r, sprrailin;; posti'iioil v. iiiiicli wider than liead : 
lees -.holt, end oC tarsus to tviiipaniiin : Inliereles insij;- 

niliealit //. ticbilis, 

(Xi\. Inleroi'liital space nanower than eyelid. 

I'arotoiil ;;land oval : metatarsal tnliercles insi<r|iilicitnt ; a lai';;e e^hmd 

on tihia ; si/e lafejcT /;. i iiliii,iliit nsin. 

Tarotold j;land oval : liotli metatarsal (iiliereies with <;ntf iii^ edijes, the 
internal very lar;;< , mn/./le very short; no lai'Lje jil.-ind oniiliia; 

si/e smaller />'. loiiijinrlilin. 

It. lii'.'ld w ith liony ( Ti'sts i-liove. 

I. spaci' wi'hr than eyelid. 

.\ stroll;; post frontal crest ; siiperciliaries diver^i'iit liackwaids; parotoiil 
eland narrow and e|on;;ate, descendin;; towaids axilla : lai L;e inlands 
on ilii;;h and on tihi.'i : lie:id loiir times in the leni;th : metatarsal liili- 

ercles small />'. iilrui inn. 

•J. Iiiterorhital space narrower tlian ey<did. 
It. No postorliiial "id;;es. 

Superciliary eii'sts parallel ; tyni|iamim distinit ; two enttine; metatarsal 
tiiliercles : femur larirclv free /.'. Iiniiimil iiii<. 

til . 

Ill ' 







(H' llu' spfcics above (Icliiu'd, I lie /.'. ci>himhinisls ami ilic //. Iinliiji 
uomtti an' IIk' imiI.v (Hics wliicli displa.v aiiv ^ical \ analulil.N , tl:r hitler 
liiiviiiK" lour well (leliiied siihspecies. Tiiev are also naturally tlic 
species wliicli present allinitles to otiier species. Tims tlie /.'. hiifit/i- 
vnsiis sometin)es approximates, witliont hecominii' eonl'iised with, the /.'. 
coffnatiis, and tiie latter in tarn varies towards the /;. coiiipdctiliN. 

IM'i'o I'l'NCTATls li. A (J. 

Proceed. Ac. I'l' i., IsV.', ]i, IT;!: Uaini, f. S. Mrs. Ilniiiiil. Smv.. vul, n, 
Ih'pi. i>. late \xxix : li;;.s. Ti-T (imiI ;;iiih1>, Is'i'.t. 

Ilii/o IkIiHiiiiH Varn.w, I'mceed. f. S. Nat. Mils.. I'--,'. |i. 111. 

The head is wide and Hat, and t'nters the total len;;th three and a third 
times. The width at the |>()sterior borders of the tympana exeteds the 
lenjith by the diameter of the eyelid. The latter is aitoiit I'onrlilths 
tln^ very Hat interorbital rej^ion. Tin* only eianial rid;;*' is the vertical 
one which extends I'rom between the eyelid and the paidioid j^land 
along the front of the tymi>anic nuMnbrane. The lattei' is very distinct 
and is nearly round, and is Jnst half the long diametci' o*' the eye. Tlu' 
prefrontal bones are rather prominent at thecanthiis rostralis. and are 
roughened with raised points. Theendof tlu' mn/zle is strongly convex 
in protile, its extremity oveilapping the premaxiilary border. The 
nostril is nearer the extremity than it is to the orbit. The gianidar 
i-onghciiing is present on the extremity of the nose, on the posterior 
part of the vertex, on the eyelid, the prelym panic ridge, and on the par- 
otoid gland. The tongue is narrow and subcylindrical, and tlie <;hoana> 
are large and anterior. 

The parotoid glands are sul)triangular to round in outline, and are as 
wide as or wider than long. Tiie warts of the dorsal integunnMil are 
quit*' snnill, and stand nearer together on the sides than on the median 
region. The derm of the inferior surfaces is not roughened nor granu- 
lar, oxeei)t for a shoit space on the gulai' regi(Ui. but is more or lessdis- 
tiiu'tly areolate. The external surface of the arm and of the tarsus and 
hind foot and of the entire sole; on the superioi' surface 
of the tibia the spinulose tul)ercles are mingled with larger tubercles. 
When the jjosterior liiid>is extended the end of tin' tarsus r«'aches the 
anterior border of the oibil, and from that point in a few instances to 
the end of the niuz/lc. The first llngeiis longei' than the second. The 
jiosterior foot is lallier small, and the web is deeply emaiginate to 
opposite the middle of the lirst (fotiith) plalange of the fourth toe. All 
the toes have a narrow «lerinal margin to their (extremities. Suhdigital 
tubercles not large, single. The two metatarsal tubcicles are distinct, 
the internal (piite narrow, and with piominent obtuse extiemity ; the 
external rounded, and not presenting a free vd<xv. 

In large speciiiKMis from Lowei' ('.ilifornia the tnlteiclcs ar. coarser, 
and the granular rugositi(;s of the heati smootlie(| otV. There is a trace 



■^*sW -^ 




of I'liiscil lionh'i' to as Ciir as alutvi^ atid licliiiid tlic lyiiipaiii*- iiit'inluaiu-, 
tim.s imitatiiij;' faintly llu5 li. lciili(jiiiosi(.s ((inciicantts. 




Flii.fiO Itiil'ii /luiii'tnliiii. \i>. Klliri. (':i|n> Saint'iiH ; |. 
Ml ilxlilinii lih (</ .V((. "JUl"*. 


Lcii;-!!! of lii-iiil mill liody (l.VJ 

I,i'li;;lll of liriiil In |Mislcli(ir «'ily;i' of lyili|>:itKl dliri 

Willi ll 111' iii'ilil itt liiislrfiiir rilj^c of I viii|i;ilia 01 '.I 

l.i'iij^lh III' I'orr liii'li {\->7 

Lrli^tll of iMistcnul' lilllli (IliO 

I-iii;:tli ofliliiii (ll'.t 

l-inj^tli iiriarsiiH Oil 

lifii^tli of ri-iiiaiiiili'i' III" I'm i| OH 

This sjn'cics is ofratlicr variahlt' cdltnatioii. 'i'lic tyjic (No. LMUS) Is 
a nniloiiii li;;Iit brown above and yt'llowisli-wliih" iiclow. In two otlici' 
siu'fiiiiciis li'oni the same locality the dorsal tiihercles are p ile, with a 
daik liiifjat the base. The latter is the prevalent eoloralion. I'oi' whili^ 
tlu'ie iiie six specimens which show if, there is only one other ol t'lie 
nnit'oiin brown tint. Specimens from Cape St. Lucas have red wans, 
with a black rin^' at the base, and have the };ronnd cohn- of the sides 
black besides. TheHiinder extremities hav(^ larjic blackish blotches, in- 
closin;;' Inberclcs which are pink. There is also a idack spot on the 
eyidid, one below the canthns rostralis running longitudinally, and one 
which extends below and sometimes behind the tympaimm. 

This is oiH' of our best marked species. Its distrilmtion exti'iidsfiom 
western Tt^xas from as far north as Kort(3oncho, and nhn\'^ both sides of 
the boundary line between the United States ami I\Iexi«'o, to the Pacific 
ocean. It is found as far south as San Antonio, in Texas (Marnoek), 
and in Lower California to the extremity of the ju'iiinsiila ^ Xaiitus). and 
in Mexico to (Juanajiiato (Dnjjes). 

The paired },dantllike rid}j,ef< '>'< the back, represented in tiie li.:;iire of 
this species in the Heport of the Cnited States and Mexican Iloiindary 
Siirvc_,-, are merely the projections caused by the dorsal and sacral dia- 
pophyses, somewhat exa.ujjferated 

. I 




■ 1 

J : 



Hiijii jiinitliihi'i li.iiid. 

( "iitaliicm' Nn. of 
liiiinlii'i'. N|iiM, I 


I ollrrlcil. 






I'roin » lioiii ri'i'i'ivi'il. 

a Sail I'cilro, Ti'\ 

1 r.islaniicla^, Mi'xiro I l.iiiil. IS. roncli, f. S. A. 

2 laiiyjidlil IJaii.M Uh, 'I'ux A.Siliiitt 

I Siinipiii do 

1 liiciSanrfilrii, N. Mrx Dr. S. \V. Woodlioiis.- .. 

1 Aii/ciiia IWl I'MllM.liolt 

7 New .Mi'xiio A..'<rlMill 

L' r|i|ii'i' ('.iiir>>iiii.i iii'^iun 

II I,a I'll/., L.ral I 

:i do I 

,'. do ' 

1 Wlilli' IJivi'i ('armli, Alb 

:i'a/, !,.<'al 

II. I!. Molll MM 

IhHJ { I, Jirldili;; . 

IKH.i do 

1H8.' . .. do 

IH7!l Kf. 1! T. r.iiir. 
IR»:' I„ I'm Mill',' ... 

('a)io Saint, I,.<'al : John .X.miiis . 

Naliiii' of 
xpi'i iiiii'ii. 

I to. 

UITO Iti:iMI-IS Ciiai-.l. 

Proi'fiMl, Ac. 1'liila., l"")l, ~7; IimIkI. l'. S. Mcx. IShimhI. .^ihv.. ii. I{('|iiil., p. 
•iT: l!c)iilciioi.|. Cat. Half. Sal. ISrit. Mils , •.»! .1., I'H-.', p.-J-'.t. 

lliifii iiis'iiliui (iiraiil, I'idci'il. Ai'. riiila., IrJI,"-; IJaiid. I'.S. Mrs. Itmiiiil. Siirv., ii, 
Uciil il,,l>. •.'!•., IM.M.I, W'^x. l;!-l-. 


Tin. 111. I!i,i„,l,hitls. No. •J(Wi. Cliiliiialiiia. M».\.. ]. 

Tlii.s .species ol' timd is nearly reliitetl to the />'. piiiirhiliis and agrees 
Avilli it in most respects. The fonn of the liead ami the ehaiacleis of 
tlie skill are (jiiite the same; ho is the Ibrm of the posterior fo(»t. Tiie 
(lillereiKH's are well marked, and are as follows : The leii;,'tii of the head 
is (;oiitained in the total more than I'oiir times. Tiie lirst liii^^cr is shorter 
tliaii tilt second. The liiml le;;' is shorter, the end oC the tarsus onl.v 
reachin;;' the jiosterior border ot'the tympanum when the U'<s, isexleiided. 
The Ibrin and dimensions oC the parotoid <;laiid are very dilVereiit. The 
ylaiid is very lar<;'e, extending;' posteriorly to an aeiiiiiinate exfremiiy 
which is a little beyond above tlie axilla. The superior iMirdeis oftlie 
jilaiids are divoiv^enl. so that the total width at their apices is one and 
oiie-liall" times the width of the head at the tympana. The iiircri»»i out- 
line presents the apex of a very obtuse angle downwards at a point 
posterior to the tympanic, drum and on a level with its interior border. 
The inferior surfaces are more distinctly granubw than in the Ii. pinic- 
t((lns. .Metatarsal tubercles insi;;nilicaiit ; the internal, siilxonic. 


\ :m 


Ml iisiin nil iil>' III All. '.'(i'j;!. 


l.<MI)rtll 1)1' linlll ilMll lltllly 1*111 

l,i'n<;lli i>r lifiiil III |)(islri'i(ii' ciljjfs of tyiii|iaiia tMiS 

Witllli <>r Im'.kI III poftli riiir cil^^csor lym|iiina dill 

l,iii;;lli "I" lorn liinli from iixijlii ()•.»(» 

I.cnulli of poMlcrior from uroin (i|() 

LcriHili of I i Ilia dl'J 

l,i'ii;;lli of tarsus (l(ii» 

I. r II l; III of riMliaillilri' of foot 01 t 

'riic ;iv('i'a},'«i size is less tliaii that ol'tlm It. pnnrtatits. 

Tilt' color of the, liii/o ihbilis is a lif^iit asli, Tlic small tuluM'cU's i'.n^ 
jit'iu'iaiiy black, and arc witlioiil tlio red or yellow ct'iitcrs wen in tlir 
/.*. ininrliitiis. The limbs have narrow black cross-bands, or rather 
wide incomiilefc black bands, with the pale center so larjje as to leave 
only the bla<-k bor.lers. The eyelids and parotoids are (crossed by simi- 
lar black lines. I»eh)W and ('omtealed surfaces iinspottetl. 

The range of this sp»'cies is much like that of the />. jutncttitHs, but. 
it extends further <'ast. Mr. Isaai; found if on the upper Wichita in 
Texas, and Mr. \N'. Taylor at San Diego in southwest Texas. lto(H!urs 
westward through noithern ;\l«'xico and the southwest territories to 
(liiayinas, on the (iidf of California. It has not yet been found in 
Lower ("alifoniia. It was originally brought from the valh-y of Mexico, 
and the Smithsonian Institution siibs(M|iieiitly re(;eived it from ^Mazat- 
iiiii. Itaiiil reports it from the lower Kio Grande. It is probably diag- 
nostic (»l'the Sonoian region. 

lliij'ii (tihilii liiranl. 

< '.il;ilni;llr No. i»l 

nilllllll'l'. MJHC. 




I'miiii wIkiim n iiin'cl 

N;iliiri' el' 



I IMnw.ii.' I'triK I Aliiiliolir. 

■J I 'liiliii;iliii;i, Mrvlrii .. Dr 'riiiiniiis Wi'lili Ilii. 

• 1 M.ila 11H, Mi'Mto .. ; I.iriil. I!. Ciiiirli, r. S. A . i)ii. 

I, Mcxjt'ii .. I.ii 111. I! ( '.nil li. r. S. A i)o. 

1 I'l If<iil i: KiTiiinid i)ii 

7 r.i;i/i>-< l;iM 1. 'l'i'\;n ....I It. 1!. !■'. Sliiiiii;iiil | itii. 

mi'O AlAAKirsliiiard. 
r.,iiiil'.s K'ljitilia \'. S. Mrs. Hi iiiiil. Siirv., ii, |i. -Jtl, PI. xvi, li;;.s. 1-f!. 

This very distinct species is as yet known from a single specimen, 
whirii is picsei ved in the National .Museum. It has a general relation- 
ship to the /.'. iiiinrlitliis, and also to tin* Cid)an Pcltitiiln-nnv^ultavvphnlti 
of ("iil»a. In its larg*^ size it eipials the II. marhiKs. 

Head slicnt and wide; nui/.zle obtuse and vertical in prolile, not pro. 
.jecling beyond upper lip; naics terminal lateral, the c.-jnthus rostralis 
Ibrming a convex line from nares to Ihi' orbit, l-'ront wide, superciliary 
ridges ob.solete at anterior third t»f orbit, moderately elevated behind 


: ■*. 









i W 

2(10 lur-MvriN ;i;«, uxited htati:s national mi'skum. 

(Iiis |)oiiit, iiiHl rormiiij; a iryular curve witli tin- poslm hiial ri. !;;••. N.. 
biaiitli cnsts. A vcr.v slioit robust sii|»iat.vm|taiii('«'H'st, a sIkuI iiairow 
picdhital crest. Tviiipaiii<! disk laiK*', rouml, its (liaiiicter tlirc«'loiirllis 
tlu'lcnfitlioltluM'yctlssiiiT. ToiifjmM'loiijiateoltovalc: tniiicalr posic 
linily. r.onhT of I'.vt'lids tliidvciiiMl, prosontiii},' an aiiwlt' iit I'lu-li ex 
treiiiity, aiitei'i«»r and postciit»r. 

Fij;. (V_'. Hii/it alrariiit. No. 2.")72. Fort Yilina, Cnl. ; j. 



[>cn;;tli of head itiid liixly Hl't 

Lcii^^tli (if licail iiK'liKlin;^ t,\ iii|iaiiii <i:'.<i 

Widlli i>f licad, including; lyiiipaiia imKi 

Length of fore liiiili from axilla fCH 

Jj('ii;;tli of fore-foot 0;t.| 

licnjjtli of hind Icj; (i.'il 

l-i'ii^'tli of tii.ia o:.:! 

I.rn<;th of tarsiiH (titl! 

LfiifjtliofrcHtof fool (»."■:! 

Parotoid jjland a loiij? oval, with parallel sides, deseeiidiiij; IVoiii tlie 
usual eomuieiiceiiient abov*' tlie tynipauuni to a position above the pos- 
terior edjje of the hurnenis, and nearly on a level with the posteiior 
l)order of the mniihnnnim ti/minnn. Dorsal inteo;uineiit with rather 
sjiarse small tuln'r(;les. A huye oval jiland on the superior lace of the 






llii;;li, iiihl iiiiollifi' liU'^M'i' oiH' «>\ tend ill;; aliiittsi tlit- riitiic l('ti;;'tli of IIm^ 
.sii|M'riur cil^;!! ol' |Ik>, til'iii. A pnimiiii'iit< lomitl \v:ii'l diriMttly iMtstctioi' 
lo the rictus oris, prt'rcdcil l»_v two or tlii'co sniallcr ones. Inroiiot'sin- 
l'at!rs iircnlati', iintst closely posteriorly. 

I'lii^^crs short, liist iiiid third e<|uul, ioiirlli shortest. Second (first) 
liii<; r with :i very l:irp' tubercle at (he liaseol'tlK^ proximal endot'thi^ 
second plialaiip* ; a smaller one in the saim^ position on the second. 
The nsnal two larixe palmar tnliercles; distal to which the entin^ palm 
is covered with closely placed tnl>ei'<'les. Toes wehhed to tho extremi- 
ties, hnt the weh scall(»pe*l, so that the (>d;;e lietween the third iind 
Ibiirth toes is opposite the extremity of the lirst phalan;>;e (from meta- 
tarsal). Solo with a pavement of rather small warts, a sin;;le rather 
lar,t;er one Itelow the proximal extremity of each phalan;;c excepting; 
the distal ones. iCxIernal metatarsal tuWercle lar;;e, little delined ; the 
internal small, oval, and with free <'i)ni(^d extremity, its inner ed<;e is 
close to a lice dermal margin, which extends from the edj^e of the lirst 
toe and turns tor w aids on the tarsus and is lost distad to its middle. 
When the hind lej; is extended the heel rtwhes the middle of the tym- 
paunui ami the end «>f the tarsus rea(;hes tiu> extreanty of tliu mn//le. 

The lcu;;th «»f tli<' lieail is considerably less than its width, atid enters 
the total len;:lli nearly four tinu's; oi'. measnrin;;' fron> the snpraoccip- 
ilal line, lunr and a half times. 

The color of the speeimcM is probably somewhar |>aler than normal 
from theetVect of the alcohol, (liiai'd states thet'resh color to have 
been '• uniforndy dark jirecu." .\t present it is li^iht brown, and below 
wliiiish, with a few pale spots on the thoratac and j^idar re;;ions. 
Thi;;:hs nnitorm li;>ht brown behind. 

Thci linuic of this speci«'s ;;i\cn by r>aird, as abov«' (Mted, is {^orwl, 
except thai lue jiarotoid inland is repiesented as too wide. This ;;lan«l 
in this species is tpiite peculiai' in its t'orm and ])osition. 

No. !.'."» 71' ; one spec; l-'ort Vuma, Cal.: A. Schott. 

I'.iro COl.t MJIIKNSIS i;.!. A (iinl. 

ftiil'ii rohiiiihii iisis K.'ilril iV (Jir;ii'<l, I'nic. Ac. I'liilM., I"^.'!;!, p. :>7S ; <iii','ii'il, I. <■. p. 7T, 

I'l. .">. W'A. t-'.t; ('"iH'. (lurk List Hull. i;.pt. N. Aiiicr., IST.",, p. '».). 
Iliil,, |'.:iii<l A i;ii:nil. I'mc. Ac. I'liihi., |s.V.', p. 171; (iiianl, I". S. I',\pl. I'.xpcd., 

II. Mp.. p. 71. I'l. •;, li;;. l-'.t; ItiMiliMiii. T, Ci't. lijtir. Siil. Itiil. .Mils., ji. •JIM'., li};. 
Hiil'ii hiiliiiihilii liiiirtl »V <iir;iiil. I'l'ic. .\c. I'liil.i.. is.'ilf. p. :till ; (iiranl. Pioc. Ac. 

I'liilii.. |s.'>l.p.-7. jiimI I'. S. M,\. lioiiiiiI.Siiiv., II, p. -J'!, ri. II. (i;;. 7-fJ; IJoiilm- 

^;<T, Cat. P.ili. Sal. I'.rit. .Mils., l-i-,'. \>. '2'X\ li-;. 
Itiij'o iliiliiixiH, pail, (iiiiilli , Cat. Ilatr. Sal. !5iit. Mils.. lsr,,-i. p. .'i7. 
/.'«/'.» (/(i(i iiM(i/)/iii s- Ciipc, I'lDcrfil. .\c. I'liiia., IS'ili, p. ;!lll ; Keport U. S. ( i. (i. lOxpl. W. 

of imilli Ml T.. (J. M. Wlii'.'Ici. V. )i. .'>•.'•.>. 
/.'»/'.i/ii/ /((< Ciipc. Ik'i'port r. S.IJ.O. i;\p|. W.dfliHMli .Mcr.. v.. p. .Vi-J, I'l. XXV tij;. !-.'>. 

This is a variables species, so much so as to present the appearanceof 
iucliidin;;' a number of subspcries. I?nt these inter^^rade in so many 
specimens that I can not maintain them as distinct, and I shall iist^ 
the l«'rm vari«'ty as uhuv applit^ible to their case. 







liriJ-KTIN :U, rXITKI) states national MlTSKl'M. 

'I'lif licad is slioit aiitl wide, iiiid its It'll",'!!! varies so as to ciih'r from 

four to foiir and a liuir tiiiio.s in tlic toliil leii;^lli. 'i'lie cxtciidrd hind 

h"^ lniii;;s the lied ♦^o tlic posterior lower or middle of (lie orbit. The 

iiin/zic viewed from above is rounded, and in prolile is trmieate, and 

not |>r()je(;tiiiji beyond the premaxiliarv border. It is shorter than the 

Ienj;tli of tlie orbit, and the nostrils are terminal. The tonjjne is flat 

and thill, and is a loiifj oval in outline. The mrmhiiinnm tympanl is 

(jiiite distinct, and is siibroiind. Its diameter is a iitt!«> less than half 

lilt' l('ii;!tli of the eye slit. The parotoid yland vaiies in form from 

nearly round to a moderately i 'on,nate oval ; in either <!ase it has an 

anterior |troloni,'atioii to the border of the orbit. The <;laiids of the in- 

tciiMiiiciit of the upper siiifaces vary from moderate to laifje si/e. 

Tlicy arc smaller on the sides and on the limbs, exceptinjj a larj^e 

oval one on the superior face of the tibia. The interior snrfaees are 

(!oarscly arcolaled, with a few more distinct tiibeicles posteriorly. 

There is an intbldcd ridn'e on the inner ed^e of the tarsus. The |>os- 

tcrior foot varies in i-clative width in diU'erent individuals and hxrali- 

ties. Ill iioiilicrn specimens tlM> sole is wider, and the jialmatioii 

extends to the ends of the toes. It is emar-iinated, so that the edge in 

Vf^.ra-7iii/,iri,i„„ihiri,K!trt,tiiiiihi,„yi.',. \,, ii.Md. KiWiiKin Viiiiiv w r. : !■ 

Ml ii/iiiri .III III'' III' All. it'JS. 


I, I'll ^ 111 111' lirii'l Mini lioily 1','| 

l.ili;;lll III' 111 Ml! Id lioslciidf rd;;!' of Ilirliilir.llllllil I \ lil|iMlli H'.'l 

WidilMil'lii'Mil ill )M).slriiiir ciljj,!' urini'iiiliraiiiini Iviiip iiii '>'.>\ 

L('ii;;lli of liMi' liiiiU ,iii| 

l-<'ii,;,'lli of |)ii>l(iii)r II lull I ii'i 

l.r '^'lli III' liiii.i . .(!::;( 

I.flli^tll 111' 1 MINUS (hjl 

I.rii;;lli lit' iciiiMiiHliT III' i'liiil (Ij.'i 



■> T^ r 

-:*J»* — 




I ■ I 



opposite tlic iniddlcof tiu; tliiiil |)liiil;iii;:«'! of tli*- t'oiirlli toe, coinitiii;; 
tiom the cud. In tlic cxtrt'iiie soiUlieni Innu tin- wi-h dcu's not extend 
to tlic cxtreniitics of the diyits, Itiit Kiives tliire i)lnihinj;os of the foiutli 
toe iibsohitel.v free. It is notched to a point a little pi(»xinial to tlie 
distal end of the fourtii (lirst) plialan};e. Iletween t' esi^ eNtreniesof 
pidination (represented by spi'ciniens .'Jl'Sand UriSl) all the inteiniediatt' 
conditions may be found. Th(> internal metatarsal tulu'reie is sniidl 
and narrow, with snbeonieal extremity; the external is a low lint rather 
wide tuberosity. The liist linjicr is lon}j;er than the se«'ond. 

The northern forms are sometimes of a uniform (»li\e-l)rown above, 
with a pale vertebral line, and with the abdomen indistinctly spotted. 
Sometimes the uniform brown extends for a short distance on each side 
(»f the |>ale vertebral line, exterior to which the surface has larjje brown 
spots on a li^ht olive ground. In the southern forms the ground color 
is lij-ht brown or olive, or evi'U clay color, with an irre.y:nlar brown band 
on each side of the liiiht vertebral line. On each side ar«' larifiMlark 
lirown spots with a reddish wait for a center. Spots on the posterior 
leys like those on the back. IJelow unspotted. 





4 7 

Kii;. ^)^. -Hlll^l C'l/in/ifci. /IMS hiil'iihihm (Iroiii llairil, ". S. anil Mrxicaii I'lOiiinl Siiimvi ]. 

The northern and southern varieties nniy be thus delined in extrcMe 
forms : 

lliail l."> tiiius ill Iciinlli; wcli cxlcndiiij; to tips ol' Icics, liii* dci'iily ciiiar^^iiiiilc ; 

imroliiid ulaiiil iiiidc I'loiinalc ; roldrs dark ; si/" lai;;c' II. r iiiliniiliii iisis. 

Head I limes in i(iii;tli; \v(d)s iikiic dft'idy iiolclncl, ami Iraxiiii; tliicf plialaiifics cil' 

liMiitli toe I'll I' : jiaiDtiiid sliortcr ; < 'iius lij^lit : si /r smaller 11. c Imloiihiliia. 

Theiearo, however, as niai'^speta in ens which are iidernu'diate between 
these extremes as there are spiciniens uf (he hitter. Tliese represent 
llie Unfit iiiiinisi ((jiliHs ("ope. Tiie Npeeiiiiens of the middle and south 
• n L'ocUn M .aiitain region are rel'eialile to il, as uell as inaiiv from 





i j 



i ♦ 

i ! 

I ■ 

\J '. f 


270 liriJ.KTiN :ii, r:siTi:i» statks national mikskum. 

(>i('j:(»ii tiii<) < ';ilir«)iiiiii. I tliiiik Jl. i>i(iiis is (In/ .yoiiiij'- of (his Conn. To 
tiK' (.vpical /;. <i>liinihi<)ts!s bi'loii};' Nos. .{liS, li.J77, 'jr>7M, I!)?."), 1>!)5(), 1(»!»l'0, 
aiKl llaK;. To (lie iiitcriiu'diiKe (.vpo Ik-Ioiij,' %.{(», .Sl»!).5, 11500, llOl'l', 
and IIJL'.'.. To (lie li;iloi)liilns typr Miii.v lu' relonctl Nos. liOS!, OKm, 
i I.l.!."*, llOlM, Mild llOl'L'. No. Ilw05 is in(i'inu'dia(u in (he (biin oC (he. 
paio{oids,iind (he \\t'l> is dci'ply cxnivaU'd, bnt tho (iw |ior(ion of (he 
tot's arc widely margini-d. A (•oiiipl('(c st'iii's of (lu' lornis oj' (he paro- 
toid may Ik* traced, iiejiinniii.y \\i(li (Ini shoit (ype of lialophiliis, No. 
LTjSI, (lii(Hi;,di I.'idOS, lloO."), Il."»:i.~», to IIDU J of the elon,ya(e f'oini. 

In Nos. I!»7"» and WM tliereaic distinet (races of superciliaiy cranial 
rid^ics. 'I'liey aic pcileedy strai^yht, and (here is no indicadon of post- 
(>rbi(al ri l^n-s. There are lour >iH'ciniens inuh-r 11>7.">, and (hey are Crtnn 
Chilowynck, Wash. Tcr. The locality of the «)ther .-ipeciinien is nnfordi- 
iia(cly unknown, The same character is seen in the type of />'. micro- 
K<-iii)liiis, according,' to my description, which is{,'iven below. The speci- 
men is nnfortnnately inaccessible to me at present. 

" Ipper smiace ul' head nearly plane upon its middle rc,uion; orbits 
bordered by a low and ronnded o(V ridjie; its skin beinji' (hin and ad- 
heriuii (o theskall. l'aro(oid.s well devidoped and snbreiiiform. lOyes 
and (ympanum radier larjje.^ Ton«,Mie elon^^ated, broadest posterioily. 
I'pper Jaw emar^iiiiated. Tw;; larjjje carpal callosides. A miMnbra- 
lions fold at (he inner lower edj;e of (he tarsus. Toes palinaied; (wo 
nietataisal tubercles, i'alms and S(»les (toarsely granular. I'pper sur- 
face of body exhibit iii<>' numerous glandular tuberchs; lar;;'e pus(ular 
swelliii;;- upon (he thi^^hs. Color unilorndy dark green." 

I alsiiaild a copy of my description of the yoiinj;, under tlii' nanu' of 
Jl. pictiis, as it embraces some peculiar cluiiacters, probably <lue. (o im- 
maturity : 

'• I'almar and solar tuoeicles well developed, the hnj^er or inner one 
of the latter not bearing a cutlini; edj;e. Cranium plane al)ove : the 
mn/./le prodiiceil, rather narrowed, and vertically (riincate. Mt iiihnininn 
t;/iiiji<iiii very small, externally invisible; osda pharyiijica exceedingly 
miniile. Ton;;iie lar^^e, o'val, extensively free. I'arotoids superior, 
broadly oval in foiin, I'pper surfaces coveii'd with lar;^(' (ubercles; 
inferior siirlaces areolate. Limbs stout, especially (he tarsus, which 
liears a lonj^itudiiial fold. The heel reaches to the middle of the par- 
otoid ;ilaiid, and (he toes aie only webbed at the Itase." The palmar 
and solar tiiltercles are yellow, and the war(s of the body (ipped widi 
red ; si/e small. 

There is a dire('( relation be( ween (lieclima(ic coiididoiisof the rej^ions 
and the tonus of (Ins spe(;ies which inhabit them. It is well known that 
(iuMU'jii'ce oi humidity of the I'acilic rej;ion increases rapidly as we pass 
fi'om south to north. Tiie soiidiern pari of (h(> region inliabi(ed by 

(his (oati is (| ' id, and the oppoit4iniiy Ibi' ai|iialic life must be 

limited. Accoro.. ..\ the natatory web of the himler foot is reduced. 
In the specimens trom the rainy north (he ..ebis much larger and the 
colors are, darker. This of pigmeiit is coiiliruatory of .1. A. 


I hi: itATKAcm.v of nouth amkuica. 


Allen's li,v|K)tlK>.sis, Itiised on oliservation.s inadooii nianiiiialia aii<l Inrils, 
that tiai'k pi<;iii(>iit incivastvs with iiicrcaiso of hiiinitlity. 

in its t'iistt'in (listi'ilintion this speiMos is not known to pass the limits 
ill' tlic KofUy Mountains. (Japt. Charles lU'ndirc, IT. S. Army, has sent 
it I'roin Kort Walla Walla, Wash. Tcr., and I took it at Atlanta, Idaho, 
the most eastern locality known, it is abundant throu};;hoiit thu entire 
lake region of Orejjon. 

It is especially numerous at Klamath Lake, where it covers the ha 
sallic blocks whic'h lie partially in the water, concealed by theTypha^, 
which ^row from the bottom. They accumulate there in larj^e piles, 
sometimes as]ar<;e asabushel measure,and atl'ord abundant food for the 
lOuta'iiia-, which are scarcely less abundant. I saw one spej^men of this 
toad as lai'jie as the avera^je Iliif'o iii(trinit.s of Ilrazil, and a specimen 
seen at Warnei's Lake, Orejjon, was but little smaller. 




(•;ltalci;:iic' No. nf 
liiiinliri. M|n<'. 

/.'((/(( iiihniihiriisix Haii'il. 




'"1(1111 uliiiiii rtM'rivid. 

Nut lire lit' 










1 1 .-.I.-. 
1 1 It.' J 
II III-.' 






II rum 





ti. ; H 








Mriliriiir l!(iw ( 'ifi'k 

I iiliiiiiliiii UJM'i, I )ii'^ .. 
( liiliivvv ink l.;il>i'. Oii'tf 
l''iii t riii|ii|iij. Oni; 
Siinjilitmto Hay. \V'a.'*i.-.. 
Sli(ial«.ilii Hav. < lii'i; • ■ 
(■■'aiM' ll.illiiv," Wa>li .. 

M.iiil' i.y. Cai 

.S.iii llii'mi. Cai 


I'.i'iiiiia. ("al 

.San l»i.'-i«. Cai 

I'nsiili", < 'al 

1)1. W. .\. llaninii'iKl .. 
II. I!. Miillliaiixi 11 ... 
III'. ('. r>. i;. Ki'iiiK'ilv . 
l»l. v.. VnlhiMi. r.S. .\. 
1)1. ('. It. l:. Kniiii'ily . 
Ki.'J. (i. t'iiii|M r 

Km I Trjiiii. < '.\l 

Saiila 11.11 liaia. 


I.ak.' TalMii'. < '.il ... 

Vii .;iiiia I'il . , N.'V 

l..iK,' TaliM.' 

His ( 'liuli's Uiv.r, Oii'i. 

.'^all Hi.';;'., 

Sliiisliiiiii' l,aki« 

.Iiilv-, IS7.-1 

.liih — , IKT.'i 



Any.—, IKTll 

A. S. 'I'iinIhi- 

Ilr.r. 1/1,1' ('..111,. 

I»i. rii..|iias Willi. 

I)l..l. I.. I.I' ('..III.' 

I»r. I'll. .mas Wi nl. 

I.i.'iil. W. I'. Tidw liri(li;t', 
r.S. .\. 

,1 Xaiitii.s 

II. W. Il.iisliaw 

.... i!.i 


.\|iiiil.i-.'y. I'll 

Ninlli.'i 11 1. iiiiiilaiy 

( li.'jii.ii ... 
Siiiialiiiiiiii li IV. Wa.Mli 

I'.. 1 1 1. ii.ii. 1,1 

I'm I U'.ill.i Walla, Wash. 

Siiiiili I'.iiK. I '.•1.. 

Nun linn l..iiin.lar.\ . .. 


K.'wakili Valli'V. 

I' Wall.i Walla, Wanli 


('.mill I'.i.lw.ll. ("al 

rplirl' Vall.-y 

Ci lll.n. It'll, .\ri/ 

Siiiialwati'i' liav, Wanli . 





I M'.7 

' \'.:! 

Claik'M l''iiik«. Kiiiitciiav 

I Itiv.T. 

r.ii I ( 'i....k. c.ii 

I I'.i.lHi'll Cal 

I l'|.|.. T I'il l;i\i 1-, Cal ... 

I ml I'l |.. II, Cal 

I' ItiiiUi r, I'tali 

I'>.iii.l. Sli.i.sta Ciiiiiitv, 



William Si' 

II. W. Il.nsliaw 


('. li.diinll 




Dr. K. < 'iiiii'.s 

II. W. Iliiisli.iw .. 

('. li. K. K.ninily 

.I.iliii Xaiilns 

Caiil. Cliail.". K.inliiii ... 

.I.T. Ki.lliii.. K 

lir. K. Ciiiii'.s 

U. K.'iiiiii'.itl 

II. W. ll.iisliaH ... 

(',i|it. Cliai II". I!.nilln' . . . 

III. lie. Vaii.iw 

II. W. Il.iisliaw 

Iliil.iit l\''«av 

.1. M. Knll.r 

Hr. ,1. (1. ( 'ii.i|»'r 


t". I!. U. K.nniilv 



II. I''. I'ai kiiix.iii 
II W. Ilii.sliaw 
.1 S Nl « li.ii \ . . 
,1. II.''... 

(' |I|.'\I.'I 

( ' II r.iw iiM.nil 



1 1... 



1 1.1. 
I I.I. 


1 1.1. 


\ ■" 
\ i 





I ( 

Itl'I'O (OMI'AC TIMS \Vi.;,Mii. 

Isis, !>:•:!. p. (iC.I ; r.-li'is, Moil. ISii-l. Af., iSilt, p. -:», mill 1^7:!, p. (;•.'!; 
Itoiilfiii;.'!-, (,';if. M.itr. S;il. Krit Mum., p. ltd'.'. 

/•'»/■» fijiiiiiiHiis (iinml, I'liiccrd. Ac. I'liila., \<i\. jt. -li. mikI l'. .•<. .Mrs. liuiiinl. Siii v. ti, 

p. v'li, I'l. Id, li^'. .')-!(». 
liiij'ii ininiiiiihix (iiiuxh., C.-il. I>:ilr. Sill. Itril. Mils., I»i;-, p. ,"i7. 
Iliifii lififiiiif* liiMMiiirl, r.ull. Sue. I'liilciiii (7), r, p. 1-7. 
lliiiiiKij)!! ilni" ini(iiiiiilii-< V;\]\\r\n\\i>, Alii. Xrr. Tor.. \l\'. p. '^"'v'. 

Iloiitl iiioderati'; its upper .smraci' smootli iiiid even, t-lsc sliowin;; 
sli;ili( (races or.supcrciliaiv ritl.ncs. Snout iiiiicli slioitcr tliaii Icii^itli oi' 
orltit, sulitroncaifil aiitl nMiiidi'il ; no.stiil.s .siilttiTiiiinal. Moulli lari^c; 
uppi'r Jaw .sli^litl.v ('i!iar;;iiiat«'<l. Toufiut' iiioi'i' widely oval tliaii ii.siial 
ill tiie jieiiii.s: Hat ; lii't' po.sti'iiorly for llie foiii'tli of its Iciif'tli, A siih- 
^iilai' vocal l)ladder in tlie male sex. Tyiiipaniiin distinct, of niedidni 
size. I'arotoids oiieliaif lenfitli of e,v«!li.ssni(', rather siiiall, oval, not 
reacliiiiiu (>rl>it. liiinlts of moderate development, end of tarsus reach 
in;;' t.viiipaiiiim. I'irst lin;;'er niiich lon^^er than the .second, which is 
eipial to the fourth. A lar;;e snhcinMilar carpal disk. Toes semipal- 
mated, leavin;.; t wo and a half phalan^res of the fourth toe free. Two 
metatarsal spade shaped, the innermost Weinn miicli the 
lar;j;est, both furnished with a l)laclv ciittin;^ (Mljic. Inner lower edy*' of 
the tansiis acute, not incurved. SUiii aliovecovered with numerous and 
(•losely placed papilhe of moderate development, and iiiili.>tinctly ;iic 
olated beneath; no lar^c ^laiid on tiltia. i'olor above greenish brown, 
with or without a few l»rown spots; no dorsal li^^liter villa or slreali. 
iteneath ;;i'i'enish or yellowish white, nnicolor. 


^ 7 

Kij;. li.'i. Ullfii i-'iini^iirtili^. Nil '.'(lllh l!ill;;'.iiilil li.ll l:u Km, 'l'r\. , |. 

,)/( ((M(/'( »/( »/i 11/ .\i(, ■Jti-7. 


I.,cii;;tli of liciiil and Imily "7".' 

!.iOli;;lli of licaii to piolrrinl iil'^cs iif :i;riiiliraMiliii l.\ iiipaiii dh; 

Willi li 111' lioail a I iiiisiiTior ril;;is of iiiriiiliraiiiiiii I viiiiiaiii "-.M 

I.,!' II ;; III ul' aiitcriiir liiiili riiiiii axilla d:;- 

l<(ii;;lli of piislci iiii liiiili I'll nil ;r|-,,iii dtn; 

].,cii!j;lli III' ti Ilia d-.'.'> 

[.ii'iiijtli (if tarsus . dl.'i 

I.i'ii"tli III' list 111' 1111)1 <'■■-'•■'> 




I'Im^ above nu'asiu'oinontsof tlio postorior lo;? show tliat tlio grCtitor 
part «)r tlio fomiir is eiuln'aocd in tin; iiit(';niiiin'iit of the body. 

Thi.s toad iias vory much the appearamu* of one of the Scaphiopida', 
and it i.s not unlikely that its habits are, like tlieirs, subterranean. 

TIk^ specimen fif^ured as Bii/o .spcciosns by IJaird in the Uejjortof the 
Alexiean boundary Survey (No. 1'<)11), frouj JVs(|iiiera, in Ntu^vo Leon 
is not tyi»i(*al of the />. vDmpuctili.s. it has feeble traces of the crania 
crests of the Hiifo nuinatus, and some lar;;o brown dorsal spots not found 
in other specimens. Three spectimens from Kansas (.V.iDi) possess similar 
iiidimeMtal crests, and a fifth specimen of the sanu^ character was sent 
me from the Wichita River, in central northern Texas, by Jacob IJoll. 
These specimens Ibreshadow the characrters of the liii/o viKjnatns; while 
not aitproachin;,' it in the devcloinneiit of the cianial crests. In the 
Dallas specimen the dorsal spots are of medium size, while in those 
iVom Kansas they are vi'ry small or waMtin.n'. I suspect that the cranial 
cliaracteis bi-loiii;- to a race whiiih ranines farther north than the true 
liiifii coin ii((cl ills, which may at some time be ic^arded as a subspecies, 
under the name of Jl, voiiiitdctili.s njuriosus. The true />'. comiKictilis 
occurs ill southwestern Texas, and ranjjes as far south in 3iexico as 
the Isilimiis (»f Teliuantei»cc. 

Hiifii iiiiiiiinilitix AVic^^iii. 
i;i:si;i;\K skiiiks. 

<\ x.i.iii'! 

Illlllllil'l H|l('l'. I 

nil.'. Ir<l. 


•-'»•,:, 1 

•.'HI J 





•J Iiiiliaiicil.i.ri'X 

:'■ KlHIIlrlll 

1 llllui'.ll Sal, I. In JiiMT 

I anil ' 'aiiian.'ii. 

:i I'l.iiil l>alii I 

I l'..ii nil--, N. M.x 

I I'l-ciiiii 1 i.i (ii.imli', N 
I l.r.m. 

I Hi.i« M-viiii'. 'I'l X 

I Uiniiunl'l 11,11 IMrli.-i, Tix 

1 I'.xas 

I Malaiiiniiis, Mcxini 

•-' Ivans, IS 

I I'l 1 us llivir, Tfxus ... 

l''iciiii \\ liiiiM II 1 ilvnl. 

(;a|it. .Iiiliii I'n|ii', I'. S A . 

Or, •riii.Mia-i Wilili 


ti. W'lirili'iiiaiin 

Or. S. W.Ciawloiil, V. S 

Liilil. I!, Cciiuli, r S. A. 

Capt.Sliwait Van Vli.l, 

I' S. A. 

lirlil^i' 11. Srnililt 

I.lrlll. It.Ciillill, r. S. A 

U. KlIMlil oil 

t ajil. •!. I'lijiii 

NaliMi- uf 





I . 





i ( 


lUl'O IIF.MlOl'IIIOS CoiM.. 
I'rocccil. Aiii.'i. l'liilii.--.i|ili. .S.ii'. I-^-T, \>. .'il.'i. 

Superciliary crests not disliiict on the mii//le, parallel, iie;iriy straight, 
tcniiiiialiii,u' abruptly posteriorly in a traiisveiseelevatioii. The latter 
iiiict on a middle lb; , form in,:; a transverse ridi^e, with an abrupt destu'ut 
to the nape. lOxternally they extend but a short distance, leaviiijjf no 
r 'presentations of the postorltital ridges c.vccot a few ''licrclcs in one 
or two of the specimens, .\ small • 'ii>ra1y!iipaiiic tnlierosity. Xo pre- 
orbital I idnc Mn//.le \ eilical at end; nostrils t(i'miiial. .Membraniim 
tympani a vertical o\al. two thirds the diameter of the eye. Farotoid 

it»;;i_r,uii ui — bs 



274 iJi'Mj-riN ;ii, hnitim) statkh nationai. mcskum. 

•jliiiid II iiiinow oval. Dermal tiiltcrcU's distiii.miislnMl l»y tlioir sni.ill 
size aii<l iniMiiiiu'iicc. Tlicy loriii several rows on the l>aek and exter- 
nal I'aee of the til>ia. At all other points the skin is closely ari'olated, 
the areola- lre<ineiitly acuitely proininent, especially on tiie snperictr 
face of the til>ia and on the sides. The heel ol the extended hind le^ 
reaches to tlie postciior bolder of the orltit. Thepostei ior loot is wider 
than ill the //. Icntiijlini.stis, tlioiij;li not relatively shorter. Tlu^ web is 
e\<!avated to the line of the middle oftlie t'onrth (llrst) plialanj,'e. The 
metatarsal tubercles are especially larj;e. The internal is Vi'iy wideand 
pntiiiiiH'iit, and has an exti'iisive acnti^ <'<line; the external is miirh 
smalh'i', bat il also has a free ciittin;; ed;;«' transverse to the leii;;th of 
till! tarsus. The len.uth oftlie head to the position of the postorbifal 
crests ciit» IS the total (to the vent) four and a half times. 

The color is brown, marked on the back with a median yelh»wisli 
line, and twoor threi; rows of brown spots of median size on each side 
of it. These spots have one or two tnbeicles for their center iiicces, 
which are more reddish than the rest of the spot. There are two brown 
spots t)ii the upper lip and one l>elow the tym|»aniim. .\ lar;;'e spot ex- 
tends lioiM Itelow the parotoid j;Iaiid to iieartlu! front of the hnmeriis. 
Posterior to this, with a li:,dit interval, there extends a loii;,Mtiidiiial 
deep brown baml, wliii-h extends, with iiiterrni)lioiis, to tliej;roiii. I5e 
low tills on the sides areothei'dark brown bands, whit'Ii forma nnne or 
less rclicniate pattern. The limbs and postei'ior feet have dark brown 
crossliaiids, and tlieu' is a very coarst! «lark brown icticiilatioii ot' 
brown or brownish yellow on the posterior I'uva' of the feninr. The belly 
i.s mor(! or less black siiolttd; tlii'(»at iiiiiiia(;nlate. 

Fli. <iti. f.iihiliiiiiiiiiiUfiiii. Nil. ll'.rjV Niirlliriii Miiiilaiia : [, 

Ml il^ilii nil iil'< oj .\ii. li'.l,'". 


I.<'li;;lli ((!' linid Mini ImhIv (I.V.I 

l,fii;;lli 111' In ad III iiosli'iior ('il;^(i III" iiii'inliiaiiiiiii I.Miipaiii dl.'i 

Willi II dl' li'Mil at |"p.sliiiiir rilL;i'.i ul' iiiiiMUiaiiiiiii l_\ iii|i:iiii (I'j:t 

l.i'ii;;! li III aiili'i ior limli (Ktl 

l.iii;^lli III' aiitiiiiir I'liiil 01 1 

i.iimth III' iiii^li'iiiii' liiiil) ml,"', 

l-(iij;ili III' liiiia •••.'i» 

l.cii'^lli III" laisiis iijii 

I,"' ml; ill III' lr>| 111' I'.iui , , U'.Ti 







lM'si<U\s llu* pcniliiiiilics ul' tlic lu ad crests and iiictatai'sal shovels, 
this species dilil'eis tVoiii most ol' tliu iither North Aiiiericau species in 
having' th(^ belly spotted. 

No. ir.'LJT; 7 speciiiu'iis; northern bonndary United States, .Mon- 
tana; 1.S71 ; Dr. 10. Cones. 

Of the above specimens Ibni' are adult or nearly so, and three are 
hair ,i;ro\vn. 

lU'l'O COC.VATIS S;iy. 

liOii^'s l'',\)ii-iliti<iii III till' li'orkv Moiiiiiaiii.s, II. !>''.':!, p. I'.iii; llullir, 
N. A. Ilii|... \ . I'l-.', -i. ..'I. I'l. \. : l!ii., iV <;iiil., Miirr.v's l;i|M.ii, 
I-."i;:, |i. -M-.'. I'l. II; l.'.'iiuil f.S. i'ar. I.'. KV Sm \ ., .\, Wliiitpji'.', 

ll'lpDI I, |l. 1 1. I'l. \\\ I. 

//H/if (///)/(7'/i(i.N Ciipr, .\iiH'i iiMii Natiiiali-*!, Mil, p. HIT: l!iiiili'iij;rr, ( at. liiil. 
Mm-*., l-^','. p. :'.(i-. 

Head short, one liHli the total, measured over the dorsal convexity ; 
wide, and with mii/,/le descendin;:; sli'cply. 'I'lie descent commences 
between the anlerioi' part of the orbits, sloping;' to op|iosit«' ihe narcs, 
behiw which it rcticats a little within the pcipciidiciilar to (he iippei' 
lip. Tiie entire prclroiital i(';;ion toa point whicii iiieaMU'cs t he aiite- 
lior thiitl oT Ihe orbit |>roJecis as a Mat Itoss or protnberaMce. The 
siipci'ciliary rid;;'es of the frontoparietal bones ori;iiiiate iVom tlicposte. 
riorsideof this, and divcr/^c iai)idly, passing b.\ a lejriilar curve or a 
\('iy (tpeii aii>;le into tiie postl'iontal rid;;e. At the jioiiit (d junction 
there is on the inner side an angular tnlici(tsity, which lepreseiits the 
coiitimiation of the superciliary rid^c. There is no disj>ositi<m t(» the 
connection of these an;"les across the niiiitllc line or tin' lillin^iiip of the 
incliidcil groove, as is seen in /»'. Iiiiii'mjilnjis. /.'. Icnliiiinnsiis, 
eir. The pretuiilal i)uss loiiiis aiiciex atioii aloii^ I lie fioiit of the orbit, 
but not a <iistincl ciol. Siipiatvinpaiiic crest rcpicseiitctliiy an an>ilc 
only. Meinbiannin lyiiipaiii a \i-rliral o\al, <piilc distinct, its lonv 
<lia meter one half that of I he oibil, suinctiiiies one I hi id. (>w in.u to tli< 
clr\'ated fiiriii of Ihe iiiii/./.le, the nosliil iiiaiksa point iialf way lietwi'cn 
its sniiimit and the ed^^c of the upper lip. and the eye-lissnre runs ob- 
lii|in'l\ downwards and lorwards. 

The jiarotoid glands are short and wide, ^icneially a short oval in 
form, at other times siilitria nj;'iilar. The dorsal inlt^iimciit is cincicd 
w ilh very numeioiis <'li>sely placed small tniicii'les. w liich contiiiiu', with 
diminished dimensions, on the sides and lower suil'ae«'S everywh»'re. 
No laijj;*' glands intermixed. I'iisi linjici' a little loii.mi than second. 
Toes wt'bbcd, the web reachilii;' Ihe middle of the foiiith (first) pha- 
lan;;e. .Sole wide, width at secoml toe inclusive, one half of lcii;;lh 
from betuteii melataisal tubercles. The latter are lar^ic, tin' infernal 
cxleiisiv I'ly fice and preseiil in;^ a wide ciil I iiii;- eil^e. The evlernal is 
larger Ihan nsiial and w ide, w ilh a free <"iiltiii.u cd^e. Tiie siii»,iiticiilar 
tubercles are small. On llie foiirlh toe thcv are stmietimes doiiide. 



■ ^^ 




Maixiilt nil III-' (1/ .\o. lir>7H, 


Lci.Klli of lnii«l ami liiidy (t-l 

l.i'iijilli <>l hc.-iil (<» |Histrii(ii- cd-ii's til' Iviiiiniiia i>l-i 

Widlh (il mail to iiipslciitir r(l;;is iif l\Mi|iiiiia (i:W 

I,. li;;lli 1.1' Ion- 1.;; HI I 

Ltli;;lli (if (oir-l'iiiil 0\»1 

I. I'll;;! h of III ml t'lMil I'niiii ;{iiiiii (I'.tl 

l.i'ii-ilh 111" (iliia OltO 

l.iMulli 111 laisiis ic,>(l 

l-i li;;lll 111 ivsl III' rniil (CM 

The alinvc iiKMsiiU'iiK'iits of llic liiii*! loot hsivc niily 1»>""". Utv tlui 
rctiiiir, iiK'iisiircd I'loiii tlic ;;r()iii. This is due to tlic I'iu^t thai that s«>;;- 
iiu'iit is almost ciitirclv iiichidcd in the ititfi^miM'iil of tlic body, anil 
iiiiK'li iiioic ('xtcnsiscly than in any nlhcr North Aiiii'i icaii spn-irs. Thr 
tai'soiiu'tatarsal .joint rrachcs to the oi iiit when Hit' hind Ic^ is i'.\lc'lid«:d. 

<■■•;' — <''Wr "' '."-O 

n- ,\ 1 \0 ' v/r.- •,•;''- o. 

'1', 1 I ^^~"— — -—l" ''::'(■*' 

I I 


Tin. 07. tlii/ii ff;iiiiiliiii. I'liiiii ll.iinl, r S. Mi\. MmiiihIm v Siiivr\ , 

The liody is dusky lirowii aitoNc. and is coxcrcd with stiiall hlack 
warts, uhicli arc must miiiicrons and inominciit ncai' liu' sides. A 
y('lh)wisli lirowii \('rtcl»ial line i-xtciids iVoni llic head to the iiiiiip, tVoni 
wliicli proceed ol)li(iuc lateral lines of | lie same color. The tirst oblitpn) 
lateral line l)e<;iiisat the head and runs to tin; sid4> licliiiid the shoiildet-; 
Hie second lie;;iiis near the middh' oC the hack ity two lnanches, wliicli 
soon iiniieaiid run tolhe;;roiu; a lliird line licyins still lai tlier back, 
and e.\leiids to the lii|)s. 

Till! ab(U)ineii is diiiiiN Ncllowisii while. TI.e aiitt-rior e.xt remit ies aro 







diisk.N Imowii iiliovc and tlin^'.s wliiU' Itrlow. Tlir po.slt'iitir rxlicmirM's 
iin- coloiril, like llic back altovr, willi bars of .vrllow isli brow ii, anil arc 
tliiifj.v white below. 

Alter a study of tlie numerous specinuMis in tlie <'olIc(;tiou of tlic Na- 
tional Musenui, I am convinced that this spe('ies is entitled to lull lecoi;' 
nil ion. The dilVciences from the /.'. hiitlijiiinsus, its nearest ally, are 
innncroiis. These inclinle the form of the cranial crests, the shape of the 
paidloid <,'lands, and the develoi>ment of the metatarsal spurs. It is also 
easily recojunizabh^ by the coloiation. 

What I l>ehev»' to be a lar;;e younjjf sjieciinen of this species served 
as th(> type of my />'///<« diptrrnus. AlthoUKh i\n inch ami a half lon<r, 
this individual had not developed a trace of the cranial crests. The 
dorsal spots also are smaller than in any specimen I have seen. I ob- 
taiiieil two other specimens of about th(^ size of the type and three 
smaller ones near the .Indith K'iver. Montana. 

This is chielly a species of the i)laius; but it extends into the li0(d<y 
Mountains also. 

I'lifi) iiifimiliis Say. 
i:i:si;i;vi'. si;i!ii:s. 


llllllllll 1. 








•11 so 

\ I 


I.IXMlil V. 


I'liim « liiiin li'crivi'il. 

Nat me (>r 

CoIhi.iiIo U 

Mollliaiisin Alriilidlic 

Or W.M. V y 


I'dir ('tvrk, AiK Fuly 11, ls:.7 W.S. W.whI 

IJc.l l:iv. I, Aik .■ Cain, l; r... Many 

l''iii( I'iiiii'. Nclir Or. Ilvaiis . 

Sail IMaiMt I.II.I'laik 

Knil Itili'V. Kalis Ul. W. .\ Ilaiiiiiiciiiil, r 

S. A . 

Kansas . ... 

U llrlllliriilt 

i.ii 111. r.. Ciiiiiii, r S. A . . 

Dt. I'. \' MmmI. II . 

1 'iKiliiiil 1. Mcxirii 

s.111,1 Hills 


I'm 1 llailaiiil. 1 'nlo 


I'oit liailaiiil.Cnl.i 

Jiilv 'j:!, 

II. W. Il.nsliaw 

( 'a|i(. .r. 11. si.ii|isiiii, r. s. 

Mull' llliK' Klvi'i, Kails 

I>l..l.(i ('lli>|ll'l' 

II.llsliill. .\l 1/ 

NiMi I 'hImi ailn j.'ivcr 

i)r.(' (;. Nrwlicn-v 

iin : 

W.S. W 1 




I I.I 



II. > 


r.llO LKM KilNO.^rs Sliaw. 

Znnlo-y, l-i'l!. 111. 1. \>. IT:'., tiili. I. Ill: (iiiiitli. Cat. li.itr. I'liil. MiiH., 
l-^fi-, p. »i'.!: ('ii|if Clicck List ll.iii'. |,'r|)i. N. Am. l-7.'i, |t. '.".», iiar((> 
inaj.: riiiiilriio,.|-. •,>,! i,].. Ciiial. It.itr. Sal. liiiK Miis.,1— 'J, ii. ;!(!-*. 

<'raninm with distinct os.seous crests, ',vhi(;h form straij-ht lines, (»ne 
over each orltit, which is continued jtoslerior to it for a short distance. 
A postorbilal extends at rij;ht aiijjies to the supiaorbila!. and pre- 
sents an allele or a short iid;;'e posteriorly at the siiix'ii .(order 
of the tympanic disk. No considi>ral»le crest directed inwards bom tlie 




I r 









J 27X m'LLKTiN ;)i. r\iTi;i> statks nationai, miiskkm 

rxlrcniiiy <»rilH' sii|»iintil»il;il. T.\ nipaiiic <lisli disliiict ; \ filirall.v oval 
in ronii; its liiiiji; (liaiiu-lrr Iwotliiitls tli;it ul tlic oiliil. i'.iioloiil ^^laiul 
i'loii;;iit(', Willi (»\;il rxticiiiilics; not aii.unliilt' nor (IcscciKliii;^ on lln* 
sitlcs of lilt' ImmI.v. Dorsal dciiii stiidilcd willi lallicr small round warts. 
Smlan's of limbs and lower pails cvci \ \\ lu'ic siioii;;l_v ;;iaiinlar. l''irsl, 
liiiKt'i' :i little lon;;er than s(u;ond. Toes weldted, tlie meinltrane eiiiai'ni- 

me e(»l(lhlo()(le(l vertehrates ( 
several slroii>ily marked <;eo^fra|diieal siihspeeies wliieli have lieeii le- 
.uarded as species. That the latter view can not he niaiiitaineil is <'vi- 
dent IVoni the exist<Miee of a small minority of individuals in wliieh the 
featiii'es of the resjieetive types are tniiinl to Ite wanting; or miiiLileil, 
The peisisteiiee of these forms is. however, so evident, that tlies should 
take distinct rank in our system. Their detiiiitions aic as follows: 

Frontopjirii'lal iTi'sts :iii|ii<i\iiii,iiril, |i:ir,illii, iidI ini'diiriMl : |iii>i(iiliii;il cn-i- Idmi,' ; 

nil Mi|iiat.viMiijiMic (ivnI : IkmiI | in I.:, liim.s Jn |rii;,'lli .'■'. /. l.-uUri. 

l-'niiit(>|i:iiiclal irois jciiall.'l. m.i well ili>l iiiL;iii,>lM il |>iisli lioily on aridiini iCllic 

aliriipt clcvalioii III' tlic iMii|iiil ; |)i.>l()iliilal> Inn;; ; no sii)tial vni|»aiiir ; luaij I..'. 

t" •"> I i nil's /;. /. irnodlinllsli. 

l'r(Hit(>|iariclal nrsts ilivi'r;;.'iil. iml nimli inoilm ril, ami wril ili>l inuniNlii d In liinil : 
|>i)sti)rliiials sliDit: .sii|iial\ ni|iaiiii- wauling m -liml : luatl I li> I.'. Iiimin m 

'''"K' n /.'./. (I nil ril illiin:. 

Fn.nliiliaiiiial ni'sls (livir;,riii|, ptiKlnrril intn aKimli 'ii'liinii tlic .sIkhI iupsIdi iiilals ; 
Hii)iial.\ 111 panic w ril ili'\ ilopnl : hrail :!..'» to I liiiii's in liiii;!!! . . . /.'. '. /. ///i'/Moisi/s. 

The /;, /. (ihicriciiiiii.sis the cent lal form from which the olhers radiate. 
The />'. /. Iciitiiiiiiosiis, as Ihe characteristic type of the Aiist roriparian 
rej^ioii, has ehaiaeters ni(»st divei';;ent IVmiii (lie others. The peculiar 
form /,'. I. Jhirlrri of Ihe Norlheasl is coiiliecled with the olliei types hy 
tho n. I. iroixllHHisii (>[ \\\i' L'ocky .Moiiiitains. Thr l.iller is ihf most 
dillicnlt to separate IVoni Hi,, eastern ,'.'. /. niiirrindiiis, thoii-h its lyp- 
ieal represent ;iiives are (piiie iljstiiicl. 





riiF, iiATRAf'iiiA or Noirnr amkimca. 270 

ISii/'o Inilij/inosiis Jnirlcri l*iitii:iiii. 
MSS., ('(ipc, Cliuck l.inl N. Aiiici. Iliilr. iiml U'i'|ilil. Ih;,'., |.. •,>:». (iiiimc only). 

This iiiiiiiiiil, like tlu' /»'. /. irnntlhoiisri, is (listiii^iiiislicd h.v the liiadiial 
iitxl st('(>|> ch'Viil ion of its rniiiial tresis iiinl hiek dI' sii|iiMt,\ iiipanie 
ri(1;;o. It (lilVers IVoni it in thea|tpi'o\iiiiatit>ii anil posleiior einilltienec 
ol'llu'so ri(l;;(>s, the ;;reat«'i' breadth (if the parotoids, and in (■(iloration. 
Snpianrltital iid;,M's elt'vated, fisiiif; posteiinrly close tofietlier. paridiel 
or (■onvei';.;i'nl behind, inelosin;; a IVontoparietal ;;iilter; postorltllal 
rid;;es <'tiive<l hacknard; no |Kii'ietal tubercle, but a cross lidyeornie 
dian elevation; no supiatynipanic, rjd;;e. Caiithus rostialis Vi-ry ob- 
tuse, aiHMitral ;,M'ooveon topol'inu/,/-le ; preniaxillary niai';iin reliealinH;. 
A pi'eoibital rid;;(^; supnioibitals lii;;h, thin, siunetinies diver^^cnt a 
liltlc! ill the middle; then eonvei-o'eiit a;;ain, prolon^'cd a little l)e,vond 
postoibital, and 'connected by a lower traiisveisc ri(lj;e. Postoibital 
curved backwards to meet the parotoid ; latter eh)n;;ate()val, as Ion;; 
as vertical ;;roove to nares. Nostrils etiuidistant tVoin eye slit and la- 
bial margin ; hitter iiowher(> produced. Tympanum distinct, half orliit. 
Muzzle to middle of e.\t«'iided lore-arm; heel beyond muzzle; meta- 
tarsal .shovel strong', narrow; outer tubercle minute. Toes hull' webbed, 
width ol' soloat Kccond tooonethird leii;;th IVom outertubercle. Clioana' 
andostiaphaiyn^eae(iual. Color grayish (»live, somelimes(|uile l»ri;;ht, 
with a yellowish vertebral lim^ from the end of the muzzle. Six spots of 
six pairson each side of this; two pairs superciliary, oneiiiK lial and three 
dorsal, all elon^'ate, deep brown, yellow mai<;iiied. Three fidiii orliit ; 
one below, two bidiiud, tlu' superior abovi^ tympanum, deep brown, yel- 
low ed^ed. Melow, dirty wliitt?; throat of male in sprin;^' Idack ; sides 
iiehind and femora marbled with yellow on blackish i^rrouiid. licn^th 
of head to postorbital cresi 4j| in total leii^jth ; latter e(|ual L' iiuthes (I 
lines. I'Jevatioii of cranium (».7 lilies. Fore limb 1 inch S lines; hind 
limb :\ inches ') lines, femur half included. 

This subspecit's is so far known only as a native of a lew ixuids in 
northeastern Massachusetts near the town of Danvers. Such a limited 
distribution for a land vertebrate is remarkable, as is als(» the fact of 
its having so loti^' remained without introduction to science. It has 
been known and noticed by .scientilic men of the neinhborlnxtd, it sei'ins, 
for twenty years. 1 aitpend a letter of its only historian, S. P. Fowler, 
to my friend F. \V. Putnam, name the latter has«'onferred on it. 

Ainonjjf eighteen si)ecimeiis of this subspecies forwarded to me by 
the lOssex Institute of Salem, one female exhibits witlely .separated sii- 
l>erciliary rid^res; in a iiiiieteeiith, from New Harmony, Iiid., the rid;;('s 
are a little more dii"<'ro;cMit and less aseendin^i, with scarce a trace of 
the median supra|>arietal elevati<ui. A specimen of the var. America- 
nils from Nebraska approximates sulliciently closely to the last sjjeci 
men to indicates that the l-'owleri can not be regarded as under all .cir- 
cumstances .separate or be accorded full specilli; rank. 





' . I 



If 1^ 1^ 

£ US 1^ 1122 


^ U£ 12.0 



IM-^ III 1-6 













^716) •72-4503 











linj'o Unliijlnosnx fowhri riitiiaiii. 



No. of 



1 I Daiivcis. Muss , 

1 •• (Ill , 

1 do 


From wliom rcrcivcil. 

Xiiluro nl 

I'rof. K. \V. I'littmiii ' Al.oliolic. 

do l»o. 

do Do. 

Fli;. (1^. Ihifi, litiliiilnniius /(nihil, VnU\. lOSSS. Daiivrrs, Mass.: ]. 

IMr. »S, P. Fowior, of Danvors, Mass., after wlioin tliisintcrcsdiiii- toad 
was iianu'd, iiiakos tlie Collowiuj;" .statcaient in rejianl to tlic lialtits oC 
/». UiitiginofiusfoH'lcri, iiialctter to I'rof. F. W. Putnam, who has kindly 
alh)\vod nic to inst c the following extra(!t from it: 

"In rofi'ard to its hahits I wouhl say 1 have never been abh' as yet to 
discover it excei»t in warm summer evenings when the thermometer is 
not below (K)'^, In cool evenings they arc not to be seen at all and are. 
Iterfeetly silent. When lirst observed in the cKrli/ part of the evening 
they may be seen making their way through the grass and over the 
grounds adjacent to the pond, and when it is reacluHJ, which is usually 
about dark, they commence their singular note, which the laU^ Dr. 
Kichols thought was amatory, and which he described as a shrill mon- 
otone, continued a secoiul or more in a high falsetto voice, thrice as 
long and more trilling thi;!i the voice of Pickering's Hyla, I agree 
with I)i. Nichols in regard to the croak of this toad, excepting the trill, 
there being no trill to this reptile's note, such as we notice in the common 
toad, frciiuently long contiinuMl, and which seems to mark this species. 
J would here say I have heard the note of one loaf' in the grass some 
distance from the pond. To my ear this cioak is a sharp, disagreeable, 
uneav'thly Hcrecich. dillicult to describe, as it is uidike any sound I hav(^ 
ever heard uttered. I have heard people who live near this pond (.Fudge 
Putinim's) say that Ihey thought it resembled in a warm siMumer's night 
(when they are most active and numerous) the whoop of a i)arty of 
Indians, and that they have heard their screeching <luring the whoh^ 
night. That their note is amatory I have at present some <loubt, as il 
is continued through the warm season of the year. 1 first noticted these 
toads the pi-esent season at Judg(! Putnam's pond, in tlu' evening of 
LJUth of May, when I took several of them. 1 have not as yet been able 





(»» liiid wliat I (!OIl^sitlcl• (Ikmi- spiiwii, nor liavu I seoii any copulation 
ainoiii; these toads, so often noticed anion^" tiie common species. 1 have 
seen them in tliis pond as late in the season as the last of August. 
Tliere are several ponds in the vicinity of the .jud<;e's pond, but they 
are not visited by these toads, but I have seen them in small numbers 
inclayi)its. I have a pond in my grounds that swarms in May with 
the common, but is never visited by the one under consideration. 
1 have not noticed the common toad around this pond, but I now intend 
to make a search for it. In answer to your <iuestion, ' What length of 
time have thesis toads been observed in this i)ond?' I would say I have 
noticed them in this pond thirty-five years. In regard to their food, 1 
think it is dill'erent from that of the common toad, as they will not eat 
earth-worms, but feed readily upon Hies. This habit I have noticed, as 
well as my Itrother Augustus, ho having ke|»t them for some months for 
<he purpr)se, of painting them, and who has furnished me with several 
figures of this reptile in diilerent attitudes. I have noti(!ed when these 
toads are held in the hand they make a chirping noise, and when a 
dozen or moi'c are (ronfined together they make considerable noise. 
Terhaps the same may be noticed in thc(!ommon toad during the breed- 
ing season. It is very singular that those I sent you were all iiudes ; 
they were all croakers, that is certain, for by their note 1 was led to 
know wlicre to take them in the dark. I have always been pu/zled to 
know why these toads visit this ]tond during the whole warm season. 
So far as I have l)een able to judge it is for the sole purpose of croak- 
ing, for they do nothing else, or to wet their skins. The common 
toad is found everywhere, and breeds in all the still and (luiet waters 
in the countiy, whereas this supposed new specties is discovered in a 
very lew ponds, and is comparatively scarce. I have thought that 
tiiis toad was of a more spare hattit, if 1 may so speak — not so heavy or 
corpulent as the common toad, more active, as nnich so as tlu; frog, and 
full as dillicult to eatcOi. 1 think then^ is more nuifoiinily of si/e and 
color than we see in the (!omnion toads. I do not recollect in thi^ great 
numlxMs I ha\e examined to have seen a small one or i)ne dilVcring in 
color from another. Tiie dillereiice in size and (iolor is very great 
amongst oui- common toads. I have said in the vicinity i»f this ixtnd I 
have iVetpieiitly liear<l their note sonie distan(!e from the water at the 
same timi' others were croaking in the ])ond. 1 have never observed 
this anywheii^ else in my walks in the evening." 


I I 

h . 


IliiJ'o lentifiinosHS woodhoiist'i 15. & (1. 

/;»/<( iiiiiiill,i)iisiH;\v:H,\. I'rococd. Ac. I'liiln., ls"il, Sil; Jiainl, I'. S. Piir. IMi. l?('pts. 

|.. 11, I'l. \xv, lij;. 1. 
Iliifo/rniilii lis ('iipc, I'mcoeil. Ac, I'liila., ISCiii, )>. I'.ill ; IJcpt. I'.xpl. 1'. S. Smv. W. of 
Kill MiT., (jl. M. Wlicclcr, 1877, v, p. iVJO, r>>7. 
This suhspecies may be readily distinguished by its short head with 
thickened crests elevated j»osteriorly. It readies a. larger size timii 
eithei' u\' the other sul»species of tlie linfi) Icuiiiiiiinmis. 

I ft 

''. if 


2.S2 nrLLirriN :u, iinitkd states national miskiim. 

Tlio (siiitliiis losliiili.s not iiiiirkcd, the mnzzh' (lesct'iidiii^- very steeply 
from the anterior iin^lcs of the orbits, sliorler than tln^ elevnted perpen- 
(licuhir extremity. Frontal ridges thickened, frecpiei.tly jmrtially iillin<'- 
the median groove, higher than eyelids, and rising steeply backwards, 
where they terminate in two short convergent tuberosities, with inte 
rior crenations. Occiput generally raised above the nape; postocular 
ridge e<pially developed, sending a small angle to the anterior aeumi 
nate extremity of the ])arotoids. Elevation of cranium at parietal tuber- 
cle equal to length of same from the same point. Eyes large; tympa- 
num distinct; half eye; parotoid narrow, long,acuminate at both ends. 
Elbow to anterior margin of orbit ; heel to end of muzzle. Skin every- 
where with numerous small tubercles ; soles rough; toes half webbed, 
as in the other subspecies. The internal metatarsal tubeicle is dis- 
tincitly larger, /. c, wider, than in the other subsjx'cies, almost ecpialing 
that of the II. vognatim. The external tuber<!le is also larger than in 
the other forms, but it never posset^^ses a free cutting edge as it does in 
the />'. coipKitus. T!ie relative shortness of the head is expressed by the 
measurenuMit, one-tilth the length (f the head an«l body. This (-harac- 
ter is, however, not constant. Thus in the typical si)e('imens of the spe- 
cies (No. 2032, Canadian River) the head enters t.GfJ times into the length. 
The same is true of Nos. 14.'">2G a.jd 10195. In Nos. 4185 and 2(!t(> the 
head enters the length 4.5 times. In young si)ecimens, as is usual, the 
s;:ecific characters are not well marked, and the head is one-foiiith the 
length. This peculiarity is retained in a specimen, (No. 14,5.{S) from 
Saint Thomas, Nev., which is 3 inches in length. An excei)tional state 
of affairs is seen in two large specimens (No. 2(;.JI) from tlui head of the 
Loup F"'ork liiver, Nebraska. The head is one lifth thc^ total length, 
and the supraorbital crests are parallel, as in typi<;al specinu^ns; but 
the crests are well separated by a deep gutter behind, whose bottom is 
not raised above the nape in the usual manner. 

Brown above, with pale vertebral line and three pairs of deep-brown 
medium-sized si)ots, with paler centers. Sides and lii)s witii small 
brown spots. Femur and tibia with one iiulistin(!t brown crossbar 
each. r>elow uuilbrm yellow. The thoracic region is sometimes black 

This is tlie lloclcy Mountain species, as />. cixjnafus is the si)ecies of 
the plains. Its range does not appear to extend beyond the boundaries 
of the United States. Its transition to the It. I. amcricanns is easily 
perceived in seven specimens collected at Pike's Peak by John Yarrow. 
One of these is a true li. L woodhousei, while the other six vau not be 
separated from the B. I. amcriatnus. Dr. Ilallowell described a toad 
under the name of Ji. (hr.saUs in S'tgreaves' report on the expedition to 
Ziini and the Colorado liiver, p. 142, IM. !!>. There is nothing in the de- 
S(;ription nor in the tlgure to enable ns to ascertain what species or sub- 
si>ecies is represented. The evidence is as much in favor of the speci- 
men having been a H. I. amrrii'<i)ins as a />. /. woodhoiiHci,, and no lo- 





liiilif.v is j^ivcii to assist in voacliinj'- a ('onclnsion. Tlie (ypc spocimtMi 
can not ho round. The name />.>V«H/<).s'«.s'Copt^ applies tolliissi)eeie.s; a 
(Inplication which resulted from the fact that the original specimen is 
iiair grown and not typical of the species, and that the original descrip- 
tion does not allude to its true characters. 


Flii. (iO. liiii'n liiili'jiiinmin vmiiihiiiixi-i. From Uaiid. T. S. ^Irx. Bonml. Survey; }. 

MaimtrciiH'uts of Xo. ovJKi. 


Emo-tli nriicud luid li.Hly O'.W 

Wiiltli (if iicad at iiosicrior fdi^cH of mciiiliraismii tyiii|)aiii (•:?'> 

l,('iiij;Hi of head to |iostrri()r I'dfjjcs of iiii'iiiltiaiiiMii tyiii|iaiii O'iO 

Li'ii^tli of fore liiiili ()r)4 

Lcii^rlli of fore-foot O'J:! 

Li'nj;tli of liind liiiili to jfroiii l(i;> 

Lci.,i;lli of tilii.i (W7 

L('n;;tli of larsiis 0!2:$ 

L(!ii<i;tb of icuiiiiiulcr of foot •i..«.»<>><..*«i..ti>tf«t '040 



Hull) Iniliiiiiiiisiin iVKinlhoitsii I'xl. iV (Jiiil. 


No. of 



















07 111 








52 C) 




25;! 1 





















(!iil(>rn to S|iiin};s, ("olo . 

lOaslt'iTi I'lali 

Kaiiliild, Ulali 

Ciiiiii> Apaclits Ariz .... 


Utah .... 



l-'iom wliniii loccivi'il. 

I NalunM.I' 

Jiilv — , 1874 ! 

1H72 ' 

1S71 ] 

Aug. -, lf7;i 

All),'.-, l>74l 


.Tolin Van ()»• 

Dr. JI.C. Yarrow 

.. do ... 

II. W. lU'ii.sliaw 

J.M. Ktitti'r 

Kxpeil. W. of lOOth Mcr... 

Yclldwsloni' Uivor 

?s'i\v Mcxiro 

Wliitr Itivcr Ca fioii , 



I'c.itDcllaiicc, X. Mi'X.. 
L'aiitoiirniiit r)iir';\vvii, 

N. Mi'X. 

I'latl.' Valley 

Calil. McmiilaiiisMi'xico 

Ni'ar Aiili'lopo 1 1 ills 

Canailiaii Kivcr 

Ni'w iloxico 

FortCiistcr, Mont 

Saint Tlinnia,'*, X(!V 

S«aiii]i.>< ou Loup Fork, 

Atlialiasca Kivcr 

Tlplicr (lolorailii rrnion . 
Fort Laraiiiii', Ni'iir 

Sept. 10, 18V3 


H. "\V. Ill ii.sliaw 
Dr. Burr 

Dr. Ilavilon 

II. ». .^lolllla^l,sl'Il 

('aptaiii .Viuli'i.-toii 


Dr C. Dioxlcr 

Dr. S. W. Wooillioiisi" 

II. I!. MolUiaiisiii 


Dr.O. I.ocw .. 

Capt. Charles Hfiiiliri', V. 

Dr. K. I'alimr 


K. KiMiniiiitt 

II. li. .MoUliaiisiii .... 
F. W. lla.viUMi 




Air. typo. 




liufo JcntiginosHs aniericaniis Lee* 

Copo, Check-List N. Aiiirr. l?;ilr, and Kcptil., IH/.'i, p. \i[); ]$(iiili'iir;(>r, 
Ciital. Batr. Sal. Hrit. Miih., 188>>, p. :«)<», i\'^. 

Hiifd (iiiicriciiini.-^ (Lecoiitc) Ilollir., N. A. llorp. v, v. IM. 4: Diiin. A- ISihr., i>. (ill."); 

Hallow., rroccod. Ac. Pliila., 1H.">(!, j). 'J.")l ; Giraid, IJ. S. Mc.\. Honnil. Siirv., ii, p. 

'J."> ; Wicil., Xova Acta, xxxii, ji. l"-'l, 
/;/(/■(* copei Yarrow & IIoiLshaw, Kcj). Utptll. Hair., Kxpl. W. lOOIli Mcr., isTH, p, |. 

L<'ii;>tli of lioad to posterior end of criiiiiiil cre.sts oiiteriiifj l('ii.i;tli to 
vent four ami a half tiiu'js; eraiiial ridj^os narrow, well marked, iiotiinit- 
iiifj in a prefrontal callosity, nnitinj'- with the iiostorbitals at si rij^lit 
aii<>lc and projeeting Imt little behind them. 

Snprat.Yini)anic ridge wanting;' or rarely very short. Pieorbital not 
strong-. Parotoids (inite elongate, varying a little in breadlli. I'rolile 
a gradual descent fioin behind, depressed behind prefrontal bones; 
muzzle slightly deenrved, not projecting; nostril a little nearer orbit 
than labial margin. Skin everywhere pustular; a few larger warts on 
each side the vertebral line. Tympanum distinct, half orbit. Middle of 
foi'(>-arm to muzzle; heel to front of orbit. Metalnrsal tubercle promi- 
nent, usually narrow; its horny sheath largely blackened ; outer tubercle 
small. No tarsal fold. 

Yellowish or darker brown above, with three or four pairs of deeper, 
small, yellow-edged spots on the dorsal region, separated by a light ver- 
teliral line which extends from the end of the muzzle; one or two yel- streaks e.\t(md from the ]>arotoid jiosteriorly on the sides. The 
latter and femora behind are hiuily yellowish marbled on bhu^kish 
ground. Uelow dirty yellow; breast fre<piently black spotted. Length 

"i'latcs .-.^.V.t. 





•J S3 

of nil avi'i'iij^e spc'ciiiiL'ii iioiii 8o»tli CJaroliiia, 13 iiidios 10 liiu's; ciul of 
iiiii/zie to postorbital ridge, 9. 'J lines ; of paroloid, 7 lines; fore, limb, I 
inch 9.5 lines; hind limb, 3 inches 5 lines ; femnr one half included. 

l''l(i. 70. Iliifii Initi'jiiiiiKUii ainencanus I' ion; Hil. Gild., IT. S. Pac. 11. It. Suiv., vol. x; ]. 

In this, as in other IJiifones, the females are larger than the males; 
and the latter are usually less variegated in colors. 

The li. /. <('Heric(iiiush,\'i been regarded by some authors as a species 
distinct from the li.UciititfinosHs; but the examiiiationof a largenuinber 
of specimens of both shows that all of the distinctive characters arc 
evanescent in some individuals. Thus the supeixiiliary crests rise pos- 
teriorly in No. 2197 from Minnesota, so as to ai)proximate the typical 
lientiginosiis. In some of the spe(!iinens of No. 1*521, from Charleston, 
8. C, the extremities of tlie crests are not more developed than in No. 
2534, from the IMatte liiver, Nebraska. The sui>ratyinpanic crest is 
represented by an angle of the i)ostorbital in the great majority of spec- 
iiiKMis, but in seventeen specimens tiie fanner is quite as distiiuit as in 
nnmenuis specimens of the />. L lenfifjimtnifi. These belong to Nos. 2181, 
2193, 2172, 2174, 2197, 2557, 5372, and 19900. Nevertheless, it is true 
that the subspecies B! I. amcricdniis maintains its characters entirely 
within the range of the />. /. lentiniiiosiis, as is evidenced by specimens 
from Prairie Mer Rouge, La. (2557), Milledgevilie, C.a. (9139), Monti- 
cello, Miss., and elsewhere. 

As already deserilu'd, the par.>toid ghiiids of this species are long and 
rather narrow. A vaiietal form has them wider and renifonn in out- 
line. The live individuals which display this character are from north- 

I If 




t'l'ii localities, vi/ : No. 2'){)r> from Uiicine, Wis., and U.">(>7 IVom Essex 
County, N. Y. They arc also (iliaracterizcd by the presence of a supra- 
tympanic crest and by the coarseness of their tuberculation. They 
have no distinct dorsal spots, a dark line round the bases of .sonic of 
the tubercles representing" them in sonu^ individuals. 

There are also several color varieties of this subspecies. They are not 
unfrequently met witli entirely black (var. A), as, for example, from Penn- 
sylvania and ]\richi<;an. In two or three from the latter rejj^ion the foot 
is as short as in short -footed var. woodhousei ; in one the superciliary 
iid,nvs are continent in acurveil transverse rid^e. A singular abnor- 
mality (Xo. 2r»l-t)(var. P.), fi'om Moose River, IJritish America, isdistin- 
j;uished by its yellow, orange, or i)iidcish j^round color, with thedorsji! 
and lateral spots conlluent into lonjjitudinal bands more or less broken ; 
warts pink tipped; average size below tyi)ical ; skin smoother. On 
this variety was i)roiiosed the liii/o vopci of Varrow and Ilenshaw. 

Var. C — A yellow ground with broad brown bands, having only yel- 
low lines running outwardly and ]»osteriorly ; on top of these the usual 
brown sjtots are well distinguished. The cranial ridges are highei', 
thicker, and more nearly i)arallel than usual. Specimens are of large 
siy.e; they are from South Fork of the Yellowstone, Nebraska. Total 
length, t inches 1 hue; length from end of muzzle to postorbital ridge, 
1 1..") lines. 

Habitat. — Southeastern Labrador, htckard, Proceed. Post. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 1800; Moose Itiver, IJritish America, Ihcvlrr; South Fork Yel- 
lowstone, i/«//(/t'H ; Kansas, JIaUonrU, Proceed. Ac. Nat. Sci., l^hila.,>0, L'51, and the Eastern and Austroriparian rej,Mons of North Amer- 
ica generally. 

Dwellers in the country are familiar with the voice of this species 
in the early spring", which is the season of the deposit of eggs. These 
are laid imtlosed in a long, thick-walled tube of tianspai'cnl albumen, 
secreted by the walls of the oviducts. These, tubes lie in long spiral 
strings on the bottoms of the ponds where they are dei)osited. The 
young hatch out early, aiul are of a darker color than those of others of 
our Salientia. They retain the dark color till near the time of the com- 
pletion of the metamorphosis. This takes t)lace at an earlier date than 
that of the Jvana', and the completed young are scarcely as large as of the Hyhe or of the Scaphiopus. The voice of this si)ecies 
may be heard well into the summer. It is a sonorous ur r-r-r-r r, which 
may be readily imitated by whistling whih^ one utters a deep-toned 
vocal sound expressed in the: above letters. Iinlividuals dilfer in tin; 
pitch of their notes, but a chorus of them has a weird sound well belit- 
ting the generally remote spots where they congregate, and the dark- 
ness of the hour. When not thus engaged, they often take uj) their 
abode beneath the doorstep of the farmer's house, and issue in the even- 
ing to secure t..eii' insect food. Tlu'y progress by hops, ami only walk 
on very rare occasions. 
















25 IS 











5;i7J ; 


25T) I 
25 III I 
25;U ! 








HiiJ'o IcntiyiiiOHiiH aiiivriraiiiiH Lo C. 


Itont RiviT, AVi.s 

liarliic, Wis 

I'liii liaimnii', \V\i). 
Siilcni, X.C .....'... 
Kiiwtdii, N. (! 

Wlicn col- 

From whom rocelvcil. 

Dr. v. I!, llov ... 
Dr. .1. (!. ('i)iiin'i' 
.J. T l^iiifliatk .. 

.ImcUhipu t'lMintv, N C Fit/.iii'iiilil ' 

\Vii.-<|iiiij.r|oii, D'.c; Dr. !•;. Couch, U. .S. A 


do A|iiil:i, 1875. .1. Pidiniv 


Alil.cvilli'.S.C : Dr..l. li. liairatl 1 

AiidiT.soii. S. r Mis. M. E. Daiiit'ls 1 

Cliaili'sliiii, S. C I •.' I 


Ja.^. Faiiio , 

N.O. Acailoiiiv.. 
I'rof. .S. E.Iiainl . 
Dr. r.U. Hoy ... 

I'lairiii Mrr ltou};i», Liv..:. 

.\c'W Orlcaii.s, I,a 1. 

Kniiniii^liani, Mans I. 

I'liion Coiiiily, .Mo '. 


Saint I.iMiis, Mo . 

Mai icita, Ohio 

('oliiiiiliiis, Ohio 

Ili^hliiiid County, Ohio.'. 

.Mllnlil■(^llo, MisH SUhm llidcn Tuiii.suu 


.Mount llcdly, N.J I»rof..S. K.Balid 

Ma i\ hi ml .' Sta;;^ 

Foil Siiiith. .XrU Dr. 15. F. Shiimaid.. . 

Tyiri' Spriu'.'.s, Ti un I'rof. K. Owen 

Foxhiirv, I'a 

Dr. (icorKi' Enj;leniaiiii. 
I'rot'. E. li. Audri'W.s — 
I'lol'. E. I.cs{|uiirciix 

J. ir. Ki.hard 

I'hilad.'lphia, I'a .. 

do I '', Fa j 1 Frof. S. F. Haird .... 

.Mi'advlllc, Fa | j J. F. 'riiickstoii 

rarlislc, I'a 





liradl'oid Count v, Fa \ C. (;. Martin 

South Flattc ..' I ' 

l)sHnx Count v,N. V I Frof. S. F. I'.aird. 

Oiuiila County, N. V ! II. Davis 

Klizaliithtown, N. V ' , 

A UN Plains, III | , K. Ivi'liuicolt 

Southern Illinois [ I do 

Wistcin Mississippi. . . . 


SiMitli ol' Hi::hlani|s 

riiizadid Alralil,., N. M 
!,iltli- IJluc Kivcr, Kans . 

llulaw, Al.i 

Soiiili I'lattc Kivcr, Xi'lir 

Millrd^fvilli', (ia 

Carlisle. Fa 

Fort Eiiiaiuie, N'ohr 

Eastpcut. Me 

KilssclU illr, Ky 

Fcarl Uivcr, Miss 



July 14, 18.-.C 
Juni) 4, 1871) 

A. E. Ui^'Ks 

(;. Dri'xlrr 

Dr. II.('. Yairow . 

W.S. Wood 

Frof. A. WiiuhiU 

W. S. Wood 

Kunilic'U .V Iicaii.. 
Fr(d'. S. F. r.aird... 


Woods Moll, Mass .... 
Ilavir di' (iiiu'i', Md . . . 

.Vol I'olk, Couu 


. F.S.F.C 

.1 (IiMUfic Uilih 

i Miss II. Tunnisiui 

. j Dr.lii.(U);<>Su(kli'y,F.S.A. 

Juno 14, 1870 



Dr. 'I". II. IliMii ... 
A. E. Kiinilicn ... 
A. F. Wooster ... 
Dr. II.C. VaiTow. 








South I'latto 



Washinetdii Co., Miss. . . 

Col. It.E.C. Wailes 




Fort Mohave, Ariz 


Aprill,5, 18t>2 

i)r. .1. 0.(!ooper ' 








Ct'iitral Fark 




I'lalte River 

July 1,1857. 

\y S \Vood 


South Flatto Kivcr 

Df.W.A.lIaumioud, U.S.A. 

Nature of 

























































'I'y (le. 





nuLLivriN :fi, iimti:!) statks national museum. 

\ ^;r 

liiijh IfiiliiihiosiiK aimritiiiiHn T,c ('.— Condr.iM'd. 
(IKNKIiAL SKI!Ii;S-(,(iiiliiiii(il. 

C'ativlii({iii' Nil. Ill" 
iiiiinlc.r. 8|i(('. 

4,1 i;i 






1 litis 











11. -.01. 





Mi.tsiMsi|i|ii liivrr 

'.jiiiivi T.s, .Ma«s 

(I/iittr roiinty, I'a 


l''(ii t liiU'.v, K.iiis 

New Orli'iniM, I, a 

Iviu.Hliiii, N. (! 

(idliUliciniii;;)!, N.(J 

I'liilti! Vallry 

Kin.ilciii, N. C 

I'lHsrx (/'oiinly, N. V 

Iliiilsim s liav 

W'a.sliiiinliin, 1) <! 

WhiallaiHl, liiil 

Saint .laiiiis I'aiisli, La. 

(iaiMi-S\ illc, '['uK 

.. ilo 

Mdiisi' l;iv( r, III it. Am.. 

Sdlltlll I'll lllilllliH 

,Siiiitliaiii|it()ii(-'()Miity, Va 
('iiliiradii Spriiii;.'*, Col. . . 

Oln.y, 111 '. 

DJHtrii't of (.'(iliiMiliia ... 

(JInila, Va 

\Va.sliiiii;ti)ii, !).(.' 

When col. 

Fioiii whom rcci'iviil. 

(•.il..r. n. Vaii;;liail... 

I'liif. S. 1'". llailil 

lil iiL'L'i'r 

.\. .Scllcitt 







(i i'.). 



(Iraiiil ('(itcaii, La . 


Saint LouiH, Mn .. 


IMiilailolpliia, I'a .. 

Hrookvillr, (ia 

I'ousacola, Kla 

■r. W'.Miliirr 

11. W. \V, 


,). \V. Milnn- 

rnif. S. \V. I'.aiiil 

K. Walloii llaviloii 

Dr. T. II. Ilcaii 

linlHit l;icl;;\vay 

(). (liila I'ciiliardirin 

C. II. l{a;;.x(lalc 

.. .1.. 

('. Dicxltr 

K. Kciiiiit Kit 

L. Kiiiiilii'ii 

Jiiliii Vaniiw 

.loliii ami Cliailcs WalUiT 

(irol;;() Slim iiiaUcr 

K. II. Ciisliiiin 

S. F. liaiiil . 

('■) .-• 

L. Kiiiiilii'ii 

Cii'iii;;!' I'limrliiiaiiii 

!).(". I.lovil 

.1. Kicliaiil 

K. Maymiiiiil 


Nat 11 I'll of 






A well-niiukod varitity ot'tliis subspecies, or perlmps a distiiiet sub- 
species, i.s reiueseuled by two specimens IVoiii ^licanopy, l''la., wiiicli 
were obtained by ])r. JJean. Tlio distinguisliiiif;' i>eculiaiity consists 
ill the conversion of tlie- superciliary ridyes into llattened thickeninj;.s 
of tlio craniuin, wliieli meet or nearly meet on tlie, middle line ol' the 
fronto-parietiil re,i;ioii. They unite, leaving"' a faint line to mark the 
juuction in the larger female, while in the smaller inah^ they form two 
beveled surfaces, wlilcli unite on the middle liiit^ at an obtuse angle, 
Pcstcriorly they, with the postorbital ridj;es, have a straij^ht trans- 
verse boundary. The metatarsal internal <liyital spur is as well de- 
veloped as in many of the typical specimens, but the [tlantar tu- 
bercle is small. The web of the foot is well developed, lea chin {j^ the 
end of the fust (i>roximal) phalange. It only reaches to tht^ mitUUo of 
the proximal plialaiij;e in the ]>. /. ((iiicricanu.s. The color is somewhat 
peculiar, having a general clouded a])pearaiice above, without the well- 
defined si)ots of the tyi)ical subspet^ies Americanus. There is a pahs 
band from one i»ali)ebial binder to the otlier across the front. The me- 
dian dorsal line is indistinct. iSi/e that of fully grown H. 1. nmericamis. 
This form may bo called liufo IcntUjimmiH imclnjceithalm. 






Bufo loitiyiiiDsiis l('ntitiino,su.s Shiiw. 

Copt', ClicrU-hisI N. Aiiicr. Miitr. IJcplil., 187'), p. 'M. 

JliiJ'o UiiHijinosiis «liaw, Zoill., in, p. I7;{, l^ti:>; Giranl, rmccMHl. Ac. Pliila., 18ri4, p. 80. 

Cliihililiryiic liiiti;iiiioHit Cope, rriuccd. Ac. I'liila., lf^(i:t, i>. I).')?. 

/;»/() iiuixiiiii Liitr, Kept-. ", !'• 1-7; Djiiid., Kniii., p. '.>, IM. :?'.{, tig.;}, and Ucptil., Viil, 
p. I'.tfl; Mcir. Tent,, p. Id'); Oravcnh., J)elic., p. ")'.», llolhiook, N. Amur, llt'i'i)*''!, 
V, ri. 1; J)niii. IWbr. Krp. Oimi. VIII, p.(i-"J; Lccoiito, Trocecds. Acad., I'liilada., 

ih:;:?, p. :i.')7. 

rieatl large; snout obtiiso ; .superciliary riilge.s greatly elevated and 
terminating posteriorly in a knob; upper jaw eniarginate, lower fur- 
ni.slied with a hook in front; parotoid large, renitbrni, and reaching from 
below the tymp;inum to near the shoulder; tyujpanum large; vocal 
vesicle internal; body above warty, ben«'ath granulated. 

The head is large, and without warts, except a few small ones on Ihe 
eyelids, and the mouth is large. The snout is, and from its tip 
runs an elevated bony crest, subdividing at the nostrils, and forming (he 
superciliary ridges. These diverge and increase in elevation ,as they 
reach the posteiior part of the orbit, where they terminate in a rounded 
knob or tubercle. Their greatest height gives to the upper surface of 
the head a »;analiculated appearance; a second or postorbital ridge de- 
scends from eiich of these and completes the posterior border of the 
orbit. In consecpiemie of the divergence of the superciliary ridges the 
postorbitals are short. There is always present a short but distinct 
ridg<^ above the tympanum at right angles to the postorbital — the supra- 
tympanic. The upper Jaw is deeply emarginate in front; the lower is 
furnished at its anterior part with a distinct hook, which is received in 
the notch of the upper jaw. 

Tlie nostrils an^ small and round, placed near the point of the snout. 
Tiie eyes are large, prominent, and very beautiful; the ])upil is black, 
the iris reticulated with gold and black, and has an inner margin of 
yellow. The tympanum is large and, with a minute spot of 
a lighter shade in the center. The parotoid glands are large and 

The back ami sides are dusky, and covered with warts of different 
sizes; a pale vertebral lino extends from the head to the vent, on each 
side of which are found the largest warts; an irregular row of spots of 
yellowish-white exists on the think, having somewhat the appearance 
of an indistinct band, extending from the inferior and posterior i)art of 
Ihe parotoid gland to within a short distance of the thighs. The whole 
inferior surface of the animal is dirty white, with a strong tinge of 

Th(! anterior extremities have tiie upper surface dusky, with blotches 
and bars of dark brown; the lower surface dirty white, tinged with yel- 
low. Tilt! posterior extremities are dusky brown above, marked with 
blotches and ( bars of darker brown, and dingy white beneath. 

Tills species attains to the same size as the typical form of 7>. /. (imcr- 
icatiKs. A specimen (fiOl) from Florida exhibits remarkably elevated 

iy.ji Bull ;m it> 




I [ 






crests iiiid broad parotoul yliinds; tlio coloration is iiuiform ciimauiou- 
brown; apparently a slight variety. 

,i i. 

1"'IG. l\.—Iiii/o li'uli'jiiKititin hiili<jno8tts ; \. (Kioiii Hiiinl & Oiriird.) 

Besides the presenci! of tuberosities of the frontoiiurietal crests and 
of a siipratympanic crest, this subspecies is well marked by the rela- 
tively elongated head. It enters the length to the vent three and a half 
times in typical examples. In some s[)e(!imens it enters the length .'J. 7." 
times, and in others four times, quite as in 7i. /. atnericanus. 

The B. h lentiginosu.s is confined to the austroriparian region east of 
Tiixas, and all statements to the contrary are based on error. It does 
not ascend the 31ississippi Valley, so far as is known. 

lliifo hnliyinumit ItnliijiiwuuH Shaw. 

Ciital();riio Xo. of 
iiiiinber. HI)C(^ 






9»;i8 I 

ass;) 1 




10 ' Kii'i'l>ori>ii);li, (In ... 
1 Slit'lli.v Coiiiily, (ill 
H rensiicola, l''la 

Imliaii Kivor, Fluiiila. . . 

(iHOlfll'tOWll, S. (" 

l,iiko Moiiroo, Kloi iiln . . 

Clmrlcston, S. (' 



Liberty Coiiiitv, (ia. 

Hcauldit, S. C 

liiltlu Sarasota I'.ay, l'"la 

Arlington, Kla ..... 

Aiiilcr.soii, S. (' 



Mlcaimpy, I'la 

j\]>v. — , 1K77 

1 lom whom rccciviil. 

rnil. S. V. Haiiil 

Maj. .1. liO Coil I II 

Dr." W, A. Jlaminoiiil, 
U. S. A. 

t!. Wiirdemanii 


I'rof. S. F. Jlairil 

N'atiiio (if NjicL- 


Dr. C. iriranl 

I'n.f. A. WiiiclicU 
Dr. W. I,. .lounH .. 





I'rol'. V. J{. Mcik 
(i. Lirowii Oo()il(i. 
Misn (". I'aiun ... 

U.V. I-I(pva 

I'. I,. .l.iiiV 

Dr. .r. Jl.'J'.eaii .. 


NaHbvillo. Cia 
.Mill.m. Fla..., 
NaHhvillr, (ia. 

18SU William J. Tavlor 
1881 S. T. Wallicr ..... 
18-iU William J. 




lUJKO (il'KRL'ICUS ll(.ll)iook. 


North AiinT. llfi'it., V, HI, If'W, TiiW. in, Copt', riocecds. Aiiier. IMiiloNoph. Soc. 
1880, 1). f)!'"). 

CUUoiihnjnvi^Ktloiiha Cope, rrocfcd. Ac. Nat. .Sci. I'liila., IH(W, :ill (crroneoiiH locality). 
Jliijo di(iloiilni.i l{'Hilcn>,MT, Cat. Matr. Sal. IJrit. Miis., cd. ii, IH-^-.', p. :ill>. 

Head biojid; imixsiK! jnoiniin'iit, conic. Cranium stronj;l,v lidfjed. 
rieoinilar and postocnlar, suju'atynjpaiiic, and suptMciliarj rid^ics well 
developed, the ' 1 nialiiny a very open anyle with that of the eanthuss 
ro.stralis, and s .idiii},'' oil" pcsteriorly a parietal, whicli first converges 
toward that oi», and then runs tran.sver.sely on the occiput to 
meet it, failiii}^' in thi.s by a very 8li}>ht interval. A small nuchal i)it. 
Tymiianum in contact with jjostorbital ridj>e, only one fourth tlu; size 
of the oibit. Tongue small, narrow, half free; a strong symphyseal 
tubercle lilting a premaxillary pit. I'arotoids large, short, descending 
on sides to opi)osite lower edge of tymi»anum. Skin everywhere rigidly 
rugose, subspinous on the tarsus. The Joints of the extremities are 
pale and appear swollen. Fingers slendev; lirst shorter than* second, 
which equals the third. One metacarpal tubercle only. Toes short, 
one third webbed ; two acute metatarsal tubercles, the internal large, 
incurved, like a (lattered spur, jellow, brown tii)ped. Length of. head 
iiiid body, 10 lines; of hinder extremity, 12 lines. 

The head above is dusky, with a yellowish central longitudinal line; 
(lie superciliary ridges are gray, with a white mark in the center. On 
ea(;h si<le of this longitudinal line is an oblong black spot, extending 
from it to include most of the posterior part of the orbit of the eye; a 
.small part only of the orbit in front of this is light colored ; the upper 
jaw is light brown. 

Krc. 72. Uti/o rjurrcieiin IIoUn'.. 1K!94, size; Milton, Fin. 

The back of the animal is dusky brown, with a vertebral line of palo 
yellow, marked with a few scattered small warts of reddish-brown co'or. 
On each side of this line are irregular black blotches, with here and 
there a slight tinge of reddish brown. The back is covered with in- 
numerable warts and granulations of variable size and color, generally 
bhick, but the smaller ones of dusky red. On each tiank, and extend- 
ing Irom the axilla downwards toward the posterior extremity^ is an 
oblong black blotch bounded with white both above and below. 

The throat is dusky; the abdomen silvery-gray, yellowish at the. 
groin, and with a pale tinge of yellow around the vent. The anterior 
extremities, as well as the posterior, are dusky brown above, marked 
with black transverse bars or spots. Their inferior surface is colored 
like the abdomen, except the tiugers and toes, which are reddish-browu. 

tr jl 


f 1 


" - 71 


■ i 



i ' i 

! if 

■ Ik 

21)2 HULLETiN ;)i, uMri:i) siatios naiional museum. 

ri):s is tlio siiiJillost known spccios-of the jjenus Bulb. The measure- 
ments of iin lulult are as follows; 


LiMij?tli of lii'iul iiiid body 027 

Lciif^tli of liead to posterior edges of tympana 007 

Widlli of head at posterior edjjes of tyiiii»aiia OOHtl 

Leiiytli of anterior ic 01 KJ 

Length of anterior t. OOG 

Length of posterior Kg from groin 0:i;i7 

Length of tibia 00c(i 

Length of tarsus 005 

Length of rest of foot 00,s:> 

In some .specimens the transverse posterior partw)f the frontoparietal 
crest is broken up. It then resembles the youny of the lUi/o lenllijino- 
sus, with which it has been supposed to be identical by various authors. 
It, however, ditfers from tliis species in (he ditferently shapttl parotoid 
glands, the thickened posterior parts of tlni mandibles, and from all 
the subspecies, excei)t the />'. /. iroodliousri, in the shorter head. Tiiere 
is no doubt but that Dr. Ilolbrook was correct in rejfardiiij; this as a 
distinct species of very snutU size. The redescription of the specii-s by 
myself was due to the omission of its characteristic peculiarities from 
extant writings. Tlie erroneous locality (Sandwich Islands) is one of 
several such errors, based on the incorrect«labeling of the collections of 
J. II. Townsend, to which tlKsspecimen belonged. 

The geograidiical distribution of this s|)ecies is icstricted io tiie 
region extending from Kiiiston, N. C, to Middle Georgia and Florida, 

Jhifo qiurckun Holbrook. 




N'o. .,1 



___., . 
















Local itv. 

Ooorgia , 

KiiiHton, N. (' , 

Atliii;;lim, I'lii 

Litlli'Siirii.siita lia.v, Kla 

(ii'orjiia '. 

(Miaiipston, S. C 

Milton, I'lii 



Krotii wliom i(>( rived. 


1. l.'iTH 


Mai. .1. I.i> (.'oiitc 
.1. W. Miliiir. ... 

(i. Itl'OU II (idlMJi' 

I'lof. K. 1!. M.rk 
Mai. •'. ■-<' ('oiiti' 
Or. S. !!. liaiK.T. 
S. T. Walker 

Nature or.s|iee 


liUIX) VALLICLr.S Wiegni. 

Iliifo r((//(((7w Wiegin., Isis, LS?:!, ]). (;,")7 ; I'cters, Moii. liei',. Ac., IHli;!, p. SI; limi- 

lengcr. Cat. lialr. S;il. Hrit. Mils., 'M ed., ]t. :U;». 
Jiitjo iirantiloxii.^ Haird tV (iiiard, I'roeec'd. Ac. I'liila., l."'.VJ, p. 17:!. 
Iliifo iKbiilifir (i\i;ni\, Proceed. Ac. IMiila., ISM, ji. .-i7 ; Hallow., Ihid., l-,"i(;, p. :!(is; 

Girard, U.S. Mex. Umind. Snrv., ii, p. '2'>, IM. 10, tig. 1-1; (iiliKli., Cat. Hrit.Miis., 

p. (ill. 
ChUophrtjnv iiehulifo-o Cope, rroeced, Ac. Pliihj., l»^0'i. p. :i.')7. 

Postorl tal ridge forming an open angle with the supraorbital ; pre- 
orbital distinct; supraorbital strong, nearly plane, 1',' the strong supra- 




lyiiipaiiK.'. JiUlgcs of Ccinthus coiiciivc, piirullcl on t-iitl of muzzle; latter 
truiieate in [)rorile. Strong- niaxilliiry ridge tVoni inferior niargin of 
orbit to posterior extremity of the bone. Loreal region coneave, nos- 
trils subvertical; tympanum balf orbit. Two strong convergent parie- 
tal ridges from supraorbital, eacli longer than supratympanic of its 
side. Length of head from end muzzle to posterior border tympanum 
e(|uals breadth l)elo\v at eanthus oris in specimens 1.5 inches long; rel- 
itiively less in larger specimens, till in one .'5.7.1 inches long it is scarcely 
oser two thirds the breadth. Eyelids nearly horizontal ; tongue ordi- 
uary obpyriform; choana'- larger than ostia pharyngca. Length of 
head, as above, three to three and a <piarter times from end of muzzle to 
end of urostyle. Parotoid glands n)easured longitudinally equal supra- 
orbital ridge, longer obliquely ; acuminate posteriorly and continuous 
with a lateral series of acute tubercles (sometimes on a jdica), which ex- 
lend downwards to groin. Skin above with scattered rounded, on sides 
with close acuminate, tubercles; below with c!.'»se small rounded tu- 

Second .linger short— iless than fourth; a keeled palmar and elongate 
pollicary tubercle; palms aiul soles rough with tubercles. A small 
acuminate and insignilic^nit extcrn-il metatarsal tubercle. No inner tar- 
sal fold. Toes half webbed and margined. The carpus of the extended 
arm reaches beyond the muzzle; the heel attains fiom the hinder to 
the front margin of the orbit. 

Dimensions of an adult (San Antonio) : From end muzzle to end 
urostyle, .) inches 9 lines; from same to jiosterior nuiigin tymi)anuin 
(obli<pu'), 2 inches LM lines; anteiior extremity, 1 inch 1.5 lines to carpus 
+ .S lines to end longest linger, femur, 1 inch lines; tibia, 1 inch 3 
lines; foot from heel, 2 inches; tarsus, 10 lines. 

Coloration: Above a chestnut brown, with a dark cross-band be- 
tween orbits. A dark lateral band from behind orbit along the side to 
groin, Ibilowing below the lateral fold, which is light-bordered above; 
a more or less distinct liglit vertebral line; ui)per lip yellow-bordered, 
r.reast and gular regions more or less slate shaded. Limbs brown, 

Varieties: Of these I am acquainted with three, which are quite < is- 
tiiigulshable. First. The tyi>ical has a strong parietal ridge, is scarcely 
varied with darker below, and is light brown above ; sides very tuber- 
culous; specimens from Texas, Tanuiulii»as, and Vera Cruz — Emory 
andSartoriiis. Second. Sides with smaller granulations; colors black- 
ish, spotting and varying the whole inferior regions. Three specimens 
from Y^icatan (Nos. 721), 778, 771))— Schott. Third. Ridges weaker, 
especially the parietal; cinnamon-brown, below brown varied and 
spotted ; sides giauular. Two specimens from Belize — Dr. Parsous. 

f 'i( 



294 BULLivriN :!i, rMTi:i) statks xationa!. museum. 
Speciuieiis in National Museiiin Iroiii tlie Uuiteil States: 


Fic. 73. l}u/ii valll<'rp:< Wiog. (From Bainl, V. S. ^•c■x. nniinil. Siirv.) 

Iliifo vnlliifpa Wiogni.inn. 



No. of 





























Calcasidn Pass, La 

Fi'O!., wlioiii n cpivi'd. 

(i. Wiirili'iiiaiin. . 

Texas 1. ll.Claik 

I!rowii.svill(>. Tux ' I'lol'. H.V. Haiiil . 

Fdit IiifTc, Ti'X 

New liraiiiit'i'l.s, Tex 

Santa Ciituniia, Xih'vo 

Sun I'cilro. Tex , 

Matanioro-t. Mi'X 

Uctwewi Laredo anil f !a- 

Sau Antonio. Tex 


New Ui loans, La 

Dr. V. H. H. Keniieily.. 
I'lol'. S. 1'. Kail (1 . .". . . 
Lieut. ll.(;oiieli, T.S. .\ . 

nr. C. 15. n. KeiMieilv. 
Lieut. It.Coueli, l'. S. A 

C.R. K. Kennel I V 

(t) '■ 

Ur. I{. W. Seliulchlt .. 

Xatnrenf Hpee- 




This species is also common in Louisiana, numerous specimens hav- 
ing been sent from New Orleans by Dr. Shufeldt, and by Prof. IVn. 
King from Baton Kougc. Its sontliern range extends as far as Nica- 
ragua, inclusive. 







This f.iinily is said by Boulenger to (litter from the Cystipfnathidrt"!, 
only in the absence of the preinaxillary and niaxillary teeth. 
Tliere are bnt two genera, as follows: 

No vomerine teotli. Tonj^iic ciitin^ly iiillieront; no tyiiipiimiiii nor Kiist.icliiiin tnlios; 

toes webbed, external met lit iirsals united ; omosternumandMternum cartilaginous; 

terminal pliaiaiifft's siinjdi' /ItilrachophrijiiiiH Peters. 

No vomerine teetb ; toMj;u(! IVei; posteriorly; ling<!rs and toes sliglilly \vel)bcd ; the 

tips dilated; no omosternuin ; .slernnin with osseous style. 

IkndroiihryninvKH Espatla. 

There are but two species of IJatrachophrynus, whi(!h are from Pern. 
The single species of Deudrophryni.scus was fonnd near Kiode Janeiro. 

/ .. 


Vertebra' opisthoccrlous. Oiapophysis of sacrum dilated, of urostyle 
wanting; the latter attached by but one cotyloid cavity (except in one 
genus), liibs none. Sternum undivided. 

In the known genera the external nietatarsi not separated for a web; 
terminal i)halanges continuous, simple. O. frontoparietalia no> strongly 
ossified medially, but without fontanelle. Superior plate of the ethmoid 
well developed anteriorly. Ear perfectly developed. 

Genera: Cryptotis, Gthr. ; Asterophrys, Tsch. ; Megalophrys, Knhl. 

Tlio Pala'obatrachidii,' ditt'er from tliis fanuly in the conversion oi 
tlieir seventh, eighth, and nintli vertebral centra and diapophyses into 
a-sacrum, instead of the ninth oidy. The supposed osseous covering ot 
the cavuni tympain and tuba Eustachii, is not contlrmed l)y the re- 
searches of Walterstorrt". 

Cryptotis, the oidy Australian genus of the family, possesses two 
sacral condyles for the ai ticidatioii of the coc^cyx ; it has a long tooth, 
like process on the os dentale, similnr to that seen in Rano. macroiloii 
f iid /»*. laihUi. 

The other genera belong to the Malayan Islands. There are no arbo- 
real or aquidic forms embraced in this fauiily. The whole number of 
species known is five. 

a. Toes free. 

Two itostsacral (■(in<lyles; o, dentale with a dentiform process; vomerine teeth; 

no parotoids ; sliM'niim a eartila;;inous plate t ('rjiploiiH. 

Ono [lostsaeral eondyle. No dentiform process, llrad lar;;e, an;;ular; upper 
palpebral border with culancousappi'ndages. Vomeiiiie teeth. Ton^juo en- 
tirely adherent. 'I'ymiianum hidden, perl'e(;t Islvrophrnf. 

an. Toes partially wcblicd. 

One i)ostsacr;(l eonilyle; vomerine teeth little (levcl<)]ied ; sternum with u bony 
style; tonjriK! luo.'id, free behind (tyni|)anniM concealed) Mctjalophriin, 



t Teste Honlenger. 

I ! 










i -■ ! 
\ ^ 









Vertebra' proooilous ; no libs or diiipoitliysos of coccyx. Sacrum 
united witli tlie coccyx by condyle, its diajujpiiyses dilated. 

The species of tliis family are of weak organization; the fronto 
l)ariet€al bones are undeveloped in one of the four genera embra(!ed iiy 
it, and they are very weak in the others. Their atlinities are altogetli' r 
between the Asterophiydida-, and Scai)liioi)odida'. Their vertebra' only 
distinguish them from the former and their distinct bicondyloid coccyx 
from the latter. In the known genera tiie auditory apparatus is dev«'l 
oped, and the cephalic integument is tree; in noiu! is there a metatar- 
sal shovel. 

a. Sfcrimiii with an osseous stylo. 

\() (liMitary aiiopliysis : no vomciiiic torlli; tonji;n(i broad, liiil littlo frt'c ; tyin- 

paiiiiiii distinct ; one postsacral condyle W-iiophrns. 

Frontoparietal bones complete; no vomerine teetli : one (.aeral condyle for nro- 

style; tonj^ue partially free /.rplohrdildinii, 

Frontoparietal bones enibraein;; a lar;;(' Ibntanelle ; vomerine teetli: twosnerai 
condyles f'ortlic coccyx ; a weak parotoid inland ; pnidl elliptic, erect : tongue 

partially IVee ; atlas and ••sis coiilliient I'cloiljilis. 

na. Sternnin without osseous style. 

Frontoparietal bones complete ; vomerine tt'ctli ; two postsacral . ondyles. 


In the species of Leptobrachium and Pelodytes tlie external meta 
tarsi are bound together ; in the only known spei:ies of P.atrachopsis 
they are, according to IJoulenger, slightly separated. 

This family lias a pectdiar distribution. Pelodytes i.s European, 
Xenophrys and Leptobrachium are i'aheotropical, Jind Ijalrachopsis, 
Australian (New Guinea). 

■^ * 


Cope, Journ. Ac. Phila., 18ti(i, ]>. CO; Nat. Hist. K'ev., l-Ti,', p. 11, pars. 

Pchhal\(hv Lalaste, Actes Soc. Linn., liordeanx, XNX, :iHll, pars; I5onlen^er Catal. 
Batr. Sal. IJrit. Mus. Fd. ii, ISS-J, p. X.Vi, pars. 

Vertebra' proco'lian ; no costal elements or coccygeal diai)opliyses; 
diapophyses of ninth vertebra much dilated, thin, and triangular; nro 
style without condyloid articidation, its axial portion rcstiicting that 
of the sacrum and connate with it: external metatarsi bound; distal 
phalanges continuous, simple. Manubrium cartilaginous. Tongue 
rounded, nearly entire. 

The small number of species embraced in this family are of stout 
toad-like habit, and furnished with a sli jvel-like develojinient of the 
cuneiform bone and a coriaceous posterior digital palmation, \o aid 
them in removing earth while making their subteiranean abodes. 
Many of them very seldom come to the surface of the earth, and then 
only in darkness; for this lialtit the vertical (iatlike pupil is an adapta 
tioii, a peculiarity not exhibited by the toads, which are crepuscular. 

»riateU^. ^ 






' ,! 



I. Caviiiu tympaiii and tympaiiiiin waiitinj;. Xiiiliistciiiiiiii with an ossiiiiMl inoxi- 

nial Nlylc. Ciincilonii Ixino and .slu-atli well (Icvi'luiii'd. I'upil iri'cl. Toes 


Derm involvt'd in cranial ossilication. Temporal fossa with a stn.ii}? roof. 
V(nn(!rinc teuth : no parotoid glands Cnllriiw^. 

Derm involved in cranial ossilication. No roof over the temporal fossa, or par- 
otoid glands. Vomcrint' Iccth I'vhthnlvH, 

Derm distinct from cranium, which is nndcvclopcd ahovc, two lateral iVonto- 
paiietal l)ars inclosing a median fontanelle. Vomerine^ teeth. No jiaro- 

loids I)i<li)ciis. 

Cnneilbrm hono and sheath well developed. Toes more or less wehlied. 

II. Cavui!' tympani and tymiiannni present. Xipliisternum entirely cartiln^inoiis. 

IMipil ellii>tic erect. 
Derm involved in the cephaMc ossilication, which is coinplelc. I'.irotoid j;lands 

and vomerine teeth s'tdf/u'oyiH.v. 

Derm distinct from cranium, which is usually only ossilied superiorly in two 

sujierciliary bars. I'jirotoid glands and vomerine teeth Siwu. 

Tlio oxtroiuo of diverj^ciice of the sorie.s of tlii.s family is, tluMi, that 
represent i II j;' its type in a pre einiiient dejiree. This is seen in the j^cmi.s 
C(»ltrii>es wliere liie ossilieation of tlie siii>erior eranial walls is esjje- 
eially lhi<;kene(l, obliterates the sagittal suture, anil is e.vtentled in an 
arch over the tempoial fossa. The anterior ossifieation of theeo(!c.yx is 
applie<l by its axial portion beneath the axis or eentrnin of .the sacral 
vertebra, and beeoines consolidated with it sh(utly after its eoininence- 
Mient, fnrnishing a structure not rare among bnrrowing Aniira. Tliis 
character is maiiitiiined in the descendiii!, scale by Peh)bates, Diihxnis, 
S<;aphiopus, and Si)ea, Ihotigh "none of these have the temporal fos.sai 
overarched. Cnltripes, with Pelobates and Didocns, exhibit an ossified 
basal xiphisternal piece, while in all below it is cartilaginous, as in most 
Ar.;ifera; the extreme position of the former is also maintained by the 
obliteration of many portions of the auditory apparatus. The siuiceed- 
ing form.s — Scaphiopns and Si)ea — resend)lethe first group in the toad- 
like form and in the strong cuneiform shovel and webbed feet. 

The distiibution of the .species of the family is as follows: 


















("Mltri|>(>,s .. 
I'l'lolialtis . 



The inferior dermal attachments of seven species of this family arc as 
I0II0W.S : 

liiiloviiH calcdrulii'i, Uelly more than tialf attached. 

I'cIoIhiIch/uhchh. P'roni half to two-thirdsattached ; same in larva, with long tail ; fe- 
mur one line lielow. 

Srniihiopiis holhroohii. Free only opjiosite sternum: thi;;h attachi'd only uelow on 
Itasal half. 

>Sc((j»/iio^)i(.s roiirhii. Triangular free area to middle ahdomen. 

, I- < 



f^jiia lianmoiidii. Vury wiili; liiteriil i:il' .l- .itliU'Iiiiieiits, whidi do imt moot till 


Sjwa homhifroun. liolly with it free iiiodiaii baiiil ; foiiioijil liiioH liolow niidatiovo bo- 

Si>va muUipUcata. A (Voo dornal lino, very narrow in front, lint wido as ilia liohind; 

abdominal aroa witli a broador froo Hpace. 


N. Amcr. Horp., ii, p. 8."); Tsdindi, Itatr., p. KJ ; Dum, A: Hibr, viii, p. 
471; GiinlIi.,Cat., p. :!H ; Copo., Nat. Hist. Rev., 18(15, p. lOH, and 
Jonrn. Ac. Pliila. ('i), vi, p. HI ; IJonlenyor, Cat. Batr. fJal. Brit. 
MnM., aded., 188->, p. 43:5. 

Cavum tympani and tympanic inonibrane present; sternuiii a carti- 
laginous plate; pupil erect; toes webbed ; internal cuneiform bone of 
tarsus well developed. 

This genus embraces si)ecies of robust form and of burrowing liabit.-^, 
The greater part of their lives is spent beneath the surface of tln' 
ground, but in sjuing lliey emerge and proceed to deposit their eggs in 
the nearest body of watei'. This is usually of a temporary character, 
and in adaptation to this circumstance the metamorphosis is corre 
spondingly rapid. They are very irregular as to the period of its com- 
pletion, in dry regions losing their larval ap|)endages while very small, 
while iu other and well-watered regions they retain them until fully 
grown. During the season of reproduction llicy are very, but 
after that time disappear, and arc neither seen nor heard. They are r f' 
jdain colors. Their general fort. is are like those of their allies of the 
Old World, the species of Pelobates, or somewhat like that of toads. 

There are two well-marked species of this genns^ which differ as fol- 
lows : 

a. Collections of glandular crypts on the pnst-tympa;iic and pectoral roi^ions. 

Front wide; interorbital width onterinj; length of tibia •2..') times; vomer- 
ine teeth a little behind choanie; color dark, with or without two pale 

longitndinal stripes S. holhrookii. 

na. No glandnlar enlargements on post-tympanic or pectoral regions 

Front wide ; interorbital width entering length of tibia three times; vcnner- 
ine teeth a little behind nares; color lignt, with a net-work of brown 
bands S. coiivhii. 


(Plates 57, fig. 2; G8, fig. 3; 7:5, tig. 30.) 
Baird, Report U. S. Pac. R. R. Surv., iv, Rcptil., 1859, PI. xxvii, fig. I. 
1 ; Cope, Proceed. Ac. Pliila., 18(J3, p. 54. 

linHd holbroohii Harlan, Med. Pliys. Researches, 1835, p. 105. 

SraphiopiiH nolilariim UoUmutU, N. Am. Herp., 1^3(1, Vol. I, \\. e5, PI. Xit, iliiii. (edit, .lit.), 

Irt4'2, IV, iu:t, PI. xxvii; 'IVlmdi, M6in. Nciichatel, i, ISis, p. fA; Dnm.A. Bibr., 

Frp. (Jen., l-^ll, VIII, 473; \,n Conte, Proceed. Ac. Nat. .Sii.Phila., 1K'>5, 4-Jit; 

(iilnth., Cat. Batr. Sul. Brit. Mns., IH.'.S, p. 3M; Boiilenger. Cat. I$atr. Sal. Brit. 

Mns., 2ded., 1HS2, p. 434. 





Head iargc; maxillary outline romuled. Profile of front a rather steep 
descent from the swollen occiimt, where the skin is thin, closely adhe- 
rent, and penetrated by osseous granules. Eyes jn'ominent. Tympa- 
num distinct, half its extent larger thanosfia pharyngea. Vomerine 
teeth in two fasiculi between and behind the posterior borders of the 
latter. Parotoids sn>all, rounded, prominent. No gland on the tibia ; 
oiin on each side of the thorax near the axilla. Skin of back minutely 
tuberculous, of sides more coarsely; below nearly smooth. Cuneiform 
process longer than in any other species of the genus, but not more 
prominent. Ileel of extended hind leg reaching posterior edge of tym- 

The inner nostrils are large, open, rather elongated transversely, and 
wider apart than are the external nares. The vonierine teeth are in 
two patches, situated within the inner nares, and on aline with their 
posterior borders. The teeth in the margin of the jaw are continuous, 
tliough not much developed. The tongue is longitudinally oval, not 
emarginate behiiul in the specimen examined, where it is free for nearly 
half its length. 

The skin above and on the sides is covered pretty uniformly with 
tubercles or pustules, with smaller hard black ones interspersed. The 
lirst mentioned are wanting on the head and outer surfaces of the lii:ibs, 
wiiere the others, however, may be observed. A few pustules about 
the anus on the buttocks which show little signs of granulation. There 
is a short parotid gland Just above and behind the tympanum. 

The arm is well developed ; the hand much shorter than theforearni. 
The outer finger is very short; then the second; the iburtii is a little 
shorter than the third, or longest. All are subtruucate, or thickened 
at the tips. A thickened web may be traced between the bases of the 
lingers, although such palmation is not very evident. On the inner 
and upper faces of the two inner fingers is a black, callous thickening 
of the epidermis. The tibia is uuu;h shorter than the femur, and not 
one third the total length of body; the foot and femur about equal. 
The metatarsal bones are firmly united nearly to the end by inter- 
mediate muscle, and a web exteiuls between the tii)S of the sluut toes. 
The outer toe is very short, but little exceeding the third, and the wel) 
between it and the fourth toe is proportioiuilly reduced. 

All the toes .are much depressed, and invested by the thickened skin. 
At the base of the inner toe is an elongated, compressed, and well-de- 
veloped spade like process, with a sharp horny edge, of a black color; 
a trace of the same is seen on the inner edge of the tip of the inner 
toe. The sole is perfectly smooth, and there is no tubercle of any kind 
except the spade-like process. 

Color above, in spirits, either earth-brown, fulvous-brown, or ashy- 
brown, with a pale ashy band from each orbit; these converge again 
on the coccyx. These bands are rarely unbioken, and are sonu^times 
exceedingly indistinct; they sojuetinies inclose a pale area. Sides 




Bometinies inarblod with ]iiiU' asli, soinctiincs uniform. Sonu'timcs a 
pale iiterorbital cross-band, s')mL'tiiiics two longitudinal bands on muz- 
zle. A vertical lirtht line on end of muzzle. 

"~T~ ^-^2 4 6 

Flo. 74. flrniihiojnis hoUtronkii. Xo. 10004. Florida Ki'.vs ; }. 

Miiimiremiiiln of So. llHltJ. 


Lcnfjtli of bead and body (MW 

L('ii<;tli of head, iiiL']iidin<; tyiiijiaua ()•.':> 

Width of head, iiicliidiiij; tyiii liana O'JT.'i 

Lcnytli of fore-ley from axilla OIC) 

Lenjjtli of hind leg from groin O'i] 

Length of liitia OvilT 

Length of tarsus . OIJ 

Length of rest of foot OJT 

The wide front and peculiar glands of t'.iis sjjecies readily distingiii.sli 
thent from all others mendjers of the genus. Its range, liUe tliat of sd 
many other North American Batrachia and rei)tiles, is confnicd 1<» llif 
eastern region. It is found in every part of this, including tiic I'lon- 
dan and Texan districts. 



i\ ■«■ 

Cilt.ilo;'!!!' No ,pf 
unrulier, s'luo. 




ScaphiopiiH holhroolii Harlan. 


Whon ! w™„. ,..i.„.., ..„„„i..„.i Xaliirt' olHiirr 
oolloctod. I I'romwliomroc-ohe.l. j.^,.,,^ ' 

I.ilicTly (Niuiity, (la ' 

M.i.j. J. I.o ("onto 
Ih7fl Kiiiiilioii it Hciiii 

MillcllKlHlllc. (Jil 

Caiiiliridnc, ilas.t 

do ; 1 ,1. H. Uicliiiid. 

I'cnil Kivor, Mis.H i • Misa Ili'lcii Tiini.soii 

I Iiidinn Jiivor, Kliv | <i. Wiirdciiiann 

do ] .| I'idl'. I.. AjiiiMsiz 

Saint Simun'M ImIi', (Ja ..; J. li. I'ustoTl 


Specimens from Cambridge, Mass., are nearly nnicolor, while Floii 
dan forms are lightest and most variegated ; the head seems to be a 
little broader and more obtuse. These forms graduate into the inter 
mediate and most common type. ]\rr. C. W. Uargitt (see America ii 
Naturalist, June, 1.S88) has found it on the Island of Martha' Vine 
yard, a fact which indi(!a,t«'S the compaiatively late separation of tliat 
island from the main land of Massachusetts. 

" Ub ■ 



II((hUs. — This species, tliou<;li no widely distiibiited, is seldom .seen. 
After rains in sprinjj: and suinnier its cries may bo heard at ni}^ht, pro- 
ceeding' always, so I'ur as my experience yoes, IVom temporary pools. 
I have observed it twice in Pennsylvania, twice in New Jersey, and 
once in Massachusetts on the main land oi>i)ositc Martha's Vii>eyard. 
Specimens IVom the latter lo(!ality which I kept in a vivarium burietl 
themselves in the earth by day, but issued at nightl'all and indus- 
triously explored tlieir surroundinj^s. Tiieir burrows were concealed 
l»y th(5 loose earth whi(!h fell into and (illed them, but below this the 
bony top of the head could be always found. Frecpiently one eye i)ro 
je<'ted from the debris, presentiu};' with its brassy-colored iris a most 
siiijiuhir appt'aiaiu;e. On beins irritated with a hard object they utter 
a clattering" note entirely unlike that of the breeding' season. 


(Plate (W, lig. a.) 

I'iocccmI. Ac. I'liilii., vii, K."), (i. (!•.', iiiid U. S. Mox. Ittiiiiid. Siiiv., ii, |.-<5i), 
l.'i'lit., |). ^.H, I'l. :!.'). Ii;;s. l-C; Coi"', I'rocccd. Ac. IMiilii., iSl.i, p. W; 
ISiocclii, Miss. Sc. Mfx.Jiiitr., p. '.»(; ; 15(mlL'n-;t'r, (Jal. liatr. Sal. Hrit. 
SI IIS., -J.l ..(1., IsS'i, p. 454. 

Scapliiiipii.'i viniiis Cope, /. c, ji. r>'i ; IJrocclil, /. c, p. 'J7. 

Smiiliitiiiux fcclifrcnin Cojif, I'l'dcft'd. Ac. Pliila., Irti:?, p. ;'):{; iirocclii, Miss. .Sc. Mcx., 
I?atr., p. ','7: lioiilcii;fcr, Cat. Hrit. Mii.s.,','d cd.. IKS-J, 4:i."). 

Form stout; head more elongate, acuminate oval; width of frontal 
iegi(Mi greater than from lip to iiares, on(!-thiid the length of the tibia. 
Prolile gradually descending; front plane, nuizzle projecting, rounded. 
Anterior border of tympanum scarcely distinguishable, Eyes very 
prominent. V'onu'rine teeth opposite middle of choana', which ecpial 
ostia pharyngea. Tongue round, slightly emarginate. Parotoid gland 
llat, descending on the side. Skin tuberculous, es[»ecially on tln^ sides; 
sonu'times a slightcryptiferous thickening of integument of tibia ; none 
Oil the sides of the pectoral region. A i>osttympanic antl an ante- 
pi'(!toral fold. Abdomen slightly rugose; gular region smooth. Cunei- 
form i)rocess elongate. Toes fully palmate. 

~1 ^ ^^^2^4 6 

Fio. T-l. f^fa/ihinpiis iTiiicliil nxriii.t. <'it]ti\ 5S!)I! ; nut. .'"izc. Capo St. Lucas, Cal. 

Color above yellowish, with irn-gnlar brown bands, which converge 
between and behind t lie orbits; otliei's diverge on the Hanks, beginning 
at th(> or'.)its; one IVom same point lo hip and one; on cantlius rostralis. 
There is a (•(uilliicnce of dor.^al bands near the sai'rum, A light band 
on outer face of tarsiis and toe; hand yellowish, 

i \ 

I t 



L(Mi;{(li of lifiul ami body 

L(iif{tli of lujiid, iiiL'liiiliiij; tyiiiimiiii ... 
Width of lu'iid at lionlcis of tyinpaiia. 

Lt'iijftli of fore limb 

I.i'iilftli of bind limb. 

Mntniirciiii Ills of So. liMi'iK. 







r.cnjith of tll)iii •••■il 

l..t'ii{;tli of tiirHiiM Oil 

Lciij^tli of rest of postorior foot 0'J4 

This spc(!ies is iiiteriiicdiiite in its cliiiriU!tois bctwccii tlui *S'. holhroohii 
Jiiid th(i otlier species of the {,U'ims. Tlie IVoiitoparietal inteiorWitiii 
space is wider than in tiie liitter, but not so wide as in tlie former. Tlic 
tibia is very sliort, Jiivinjn' the animal ii more squat appearance than llie 
iS\ liaiinunnilii. 

In tlie typical specimen the labial border projected beyond the line 
of the mn/zle, so that the prolile sl()])ed to it downwards and forwar<ls, 
I have seen no second specimen like it, but specimens which ayree with 
it in every other respect occur in the siime zooloffic.d district. I am in- 
clined to think that this peculiarity of the tyi»e spetMmeii (which is not 
represented in JJaird's ]>Iate, /. c) is only an individual one. The other 
tbims pass directly into each other. 

The range of this species is the southern part of the Sonoran district 
and the corresi)onding part of the Lower Californian. Within the 
limits of the United States it has b;en found oidy in southwest Texas. 


Scaphioiius couchii lid. 





No. of 


Matnmoios, Mi x 

("iiiiK Saint Liica.s, (-'al . 

r,al'az, Cal 

UclotcM, Hcxar Coll lit V, 



Kroiii «lioiii iT.oiv.Ml. ^'"'"iV,;,!"'" "" 


I,it!iitcnaiitConcli (ISor- 

laiidii'i- collcctioii). 

Illllll .\lllltllH 

Ih82 I., litliliiiu 

(i. \V. Maiiiock 




SPEA Cope. 

.ronrnal Academy I'hiiadclpliia (2), vi, ISSti, ji. SI. 

Cranial derm free from cranium ; the latter generally with a fronto- 
l>arietal fontauellc; vomerine teeth present; toes webbed ; cuneitbrni 
process large. 

In this genus we have perntanently preserved characters which de- 
flno an immature stage of Scaphiopus. In one of the subsjjecies of 
the 8. hanunondii the ossilieation of the cranium litis progres.sed so far 
as to close the frontopiirietal fMulanelle, but not so as to penetrate the 




cranial iiitc;;iiaieiit. Tho speck's Ik'Ioiij;' to the wi'stcni anil sontli- 
westciii parts of the iicarctic realm. Tliey arc distingnislied as follows: 

a. Tympiiiiic (UnU diHtinct; no ^IiukI on tibia. 

Intororbitiil width inirrow, ont(uin;; li'n<;lli of tiltia foui' tinum; vonicrinii 
tcolh between choanii- ; color j;<'nei'iilly daik, witb or witliout [lalo Htripcs. 

•S. hammoiidii. 
(XiX. Tynipiinic disk concoalfd ; a larj;"' j^landoii tho ii|>im'I' nidi^ of (be tibia. 

Intei'orbital widlli narrow, entcrin;; tiliia tbicc tinicH; vonirriiK^ tet^tli a lilllc 
])osterior to narcs; colorM piilo .S'. miilliplhald. 

(.'oiM', Journ. Ac. I'liila. Ci), vi, ISCC, p. hi. 

Svupliioinin hainminidii Haird, Ut-pt. Kxpl. Surv., iv, Ivt'iitil., IM.V.), IM. '^f*, lij;. •_'; Copf, 

I'rocood. Ac. I'liiia., l"<(r.t, p. .Ml; IJonlenjjcr, Cat. Hatr. Sal. ISrit. Mm., lHH-2, p. t:{.'i. 
ScdjiliiitpuH liomhi/roita Copi', I'nicccd, Ac. I'bila., iHtiH, p. .^;i; Koiilcn^cr, Cat. Hatr. 

Sal. IJrit. .Mas., ls«-,>, p. >;!.-,. 
Simibomhi/rotin Cojie, .lourn. Ar. i'liila. C-i) vi, iHtilJ, p. 81. 
Sped Hlaiinalix Coiic, l'. S. (1. (1. Siirv. \V. of ItKttli Mcrid., v, Zool., p. .V,',"), IM. •^."•, 

li-,'.s. (i-H. 
S(\nilii>jiHn aliKjnaliH ltoul(Mi;r<!r, Cat. Hatr., Sal. lirit. Mas., IS&2, p. VM't. 
^^laiihioiiun tliiijiHii KriK'clii, Hull. Soc. I'liiloni. (7), ill, lH7i», p. '2U, and Miss. Sci. 

.Mcx., ISatr., p. HI, I'l. ".>, li.;. t ; Hoiilcii>,'cr, Cat. Hatr. Sal. Hrit. Mns., 18-X', p. J;'.!). 

This is a widely distributed and variable s[)ecies, presenting sncli 
diversity in some res|)ects as to be interesting as an example of the 
appearance of important (tharacters in the conrse of descent. It is in- 
teresting also from its habits, adapted as they are to the exigencies ol 
a dry climate, in which the o[)pi)rtnnity for aquatic life is i)recarions, 
and the metamorphosis corresi)ondingly liable to inodilication. 

I include three subspecies under thecommo:i head, which are delined 
as follows : , 

(»i'M"rally no frontopar' '-il fontanclli' ; head piano above; a liuij^itudinal pale ban.l 
on eaeli side of IkI' .; larj^er; skin tnbercnlar S. Ii. iiitennuittaiin. 

.\ frontoparietal fontanelle; head plane or convex above ; no lonj^itudinal li;.v'it 
bainls ; .skin smoother ; snia]|<>r *'. /i. hdmmoiiilil. 

A frontoparietal fontanelle; head very convex at tlie, interurbital rej^ion ; skin nearl,' 
smooth ; color.s palo ; si/.c least S. It. hoiitbij'roiis. 

I had first placed the S. h. hitcnnontana in the genus Scaphiopus, 
while the two other subspecies were placed with the S. utHltipUcafa 
in a distinct genus, Spea, which was characterized by the presence of 
a frontoparietal fontanelle. This character is generally constant, al- 
though its inconstancy as a s;>eci(lc character is t> be expected some 
where. The genus Spea is the seat of the failure of this generic char 
acter to coincide with the other detinitions of a species. In one of the 
four specimens of the subspecies Intermontanus 1 find the fontanelle 
present, while in three it is absent. In a fifth specimen it is rei)re- 
sented by a fissure between the frontoparietal bones. 

The S. h. bombifronn appears to be, at first examination, a well de- 
lined species, The interorbital protuberance is a striking character. 


!P I 



Tin- lil»ia is iilso .slioiirr in l.vpiciil cxainiili's, mcasiiiiii;;- oiil,v lliivo 
times tli(> iiitcrorbital widlli. Tiiis iiM'asiin'iiu'iit is ])artl,v due to tlic 
iiilcrorbital «'iiIar;;('iiK'iit. Tlu' siuii is less tulu'rciilar and tlic coitus air 
|»ahr. Tlio f«»rm lias aiu'siu'cial j^coyiiaidiical raiip'. 15iit I liiid sprci- 
iiK'iis from (lilleriMit parts of tlio West which (;<)iiiR'(!t this form with tlu- 
tnit! S. iKiinmoiulii. Such are specimens collected l>y Dr. Ifaydeii in the. 
valley of the (Jreat Colorado, in eastern I'tah, and others (d)tained l»y 
myself at Santc Fe, N. Mex. In some of the former the interorbilal 
wi«ltli enters the ieii^-th of the tibia three and a half times. 

The Sjua nt<njiutJh is known as yet fi'om yonnj;- spccimens-oniy, which 
hav(^ but recently passed their metamorphosis. The principal peculi- 
arity which characterizes them is tie minute si/e of the ostia phar.\n- 
^i'ca of the Eustachian tubes. I suspect this to be a character of imum- 
turity, as I find a similar state of affairs in some of the younj,' speci- 
mens of Scapldopiis coiicltii in the collection. 

Spia hammondil inlennontann C(tpe. 

rn.cccil. Ac. I'liilii., l-sii, i>. 11, 

I took a specimen of this si)ecies within the limits of Salt liake City, 
and subseipiently obtaiiu'd tiiree or f(Uir sju'cimeus from Pyramid Lake, 
Nevada. The sides and much of thiMbusal re<;ionarecovered with rather 
larnc lidu'rcles closely jdaccd. The frontoparietal bones, though ossi- 
fied, ate not ronjiliencd, as in the species of Scaphiopus. It is nearest 
the S. coH('/(// (from near San Antonio, Tex), in that si)ecies the vo 
luerine teeth are entiiely posterior to the internal nares; in this (uie 
they are between the fiosterior bordi'rs of the same. The lips arc^ not 
cross barred, as in the A', couch ii ; and the superior rejiion has two 
pale lines on each side. In *S'. coiicliil these lines are replaced by a 
coarse, uuirblinf;'. As compared with the Sj)(<( IkdiuiioikIH, this froj; 
differs in its lar';er size, lighter colors, and the presence of the superior 
pair of light lines. 

1 2 

Fill. 70. Sjiid liiiiiiiiiiiiulii iiilcriii'iiitiiiiti. No. l(i:ijii. I'l. Walla Wnllii; [. 

It represents the .S. Iinmiiiontli in more uortherii regions, and the com- 
plete cranial ossification and larger size mark it as a more fully devel 
o2)ed form. 

I found it associated with Biifo coUonbicitsis in a pond near tlu^ shore 
of Pyramid Lake. Like other allied s[»ecies, it was very noisy, almost 
obscuring' the voice of the less vociferous liido. 





Li'ii^tl' iiriii'.Hl iiml lioily m'i'i 

L('ii;;lli iil'lifail, incluiliii;; tymi)iiiiii OKJ 

Witltli of lu'ud, iiiiliidiiif; f.vininiiiii O.'H 

l,cii;;tli tif Ikic Urn It I'loiii iixillii IKK) 

Krii;;tli III' hi ml 1 1 in It fiom groin IITII 

l.iiiKlli i»r tiliiii ().':i 

Lciij^lli oflarMiiM (11 -J 

Lciijflli of ri'inaiiHlur of foot UJd 

Sjifa liummoiidii iiilcrmoiilanu Cope. 

C.ilaliiiiiit'i No. of 

IIMIIllll'l'. H|ll'l'. 


,l!:;i;!.i. >^' > -•-"• ''""^;;:;[.^""" 



1 , Trovn, I'liili 1 Dr. Il.r. Varniw 

1 I l'\.H\Viillii\Vallu,\VaHli IS.inliro . 

Spat liumiiioiKlii hnmmontJ'ii IJainl. 

(I'lato, fij;. -I; xi.ix, li;;. I-'; i.xvi, li;^. 1.) 

Cope, .loiirn. Ac. I'liila. (•.»), VI, 1H()I), p. Hi ; Proc'CPd. Ac I'liihi., l-'l!, p. II. 

Scnithioinin l.iimiiiomlii IJaiid, h'cpt. Expl. .Siiiv.,lV., Ucptil, 1S,',',», I'j. v!-, li;;. "J; (^opc, 
I'roc. Ai'. riiila.. ]-l!:i, p. .':! ; lionlfiigi r, Cat. liatr. .Sal. IJrit. Mas., '..M fd., l-s^i, 

p. v.\->. 

Sjim nliiijiHiliH Copo, YaiTow'.s IJi-pt., v, Zool., p. rrj.'i, I'l, 'J.">, lig. (J-"^. 
S((ijiliii>pii>i .iliijiKilin l!oiilt'ii{i;('r, /. c, p. lltli, 

^C(i It hi op lis 'liiijixi litdi'clii, Hull. ,Soc. I'liilom. (7), in, IrtiD, p. •,';!, and Miss. Sc. Mcx., 
Uatr., i.'l>4, i'l. t), lij;. l ; Boiik'ii>,'t'r, /. c, p. 4;Jti. 

Fli:. 77. S/ii-d hnmiiioiiilli!. No. U^jH. K. I'tali; |. 

Maxillary outline aciiiiiiiiatc oval; niiizzlo .somewhat tniiKiate, po. 
peniliciilar in prolile. Keyioii of (;aiitliu.s rostralis concave ; front itlaiie 
or a little concave, \vitli a weak ridj^e on eacili side, wliiidi is dis- 
tinct i)(»steriorly ; tlie width one-fourth length of tihia, and less from 
nostril to lii>. I'lyis prominent; tyinpanmn distinct, one fourth thee.K- 
tent of the former. A fold behind angle of mouth. Tarotoids ihil, 
small; no gland on tibia or pectus. Tongue very large, entire. Cho- 
ana' large; vomerine teeth in tiansverse series between them. Skin 
roughly tuberctdons, especially on the sides; thick on the occiput; be- 
low nearly smooth. Cuneiform process i)rodnei'd. 

Color above stone-brown in alcohol, with traces of two paler dorsal 
bands. Tubercles I'ulvous tipped; extremities shaded with the same. 
13elo\v whitish, immaculate. 
1951— Bull 31 20 







•1 i 

I ? I 

i ! 

■ oji 


Mvasurcmiiilti of So. WiJ'Jo. 


LfUf;! Ii (if Iic'iitl iiiiil body Of)! 

Luii<;tli ol'lifiul, iiK'lii(liM<j;' tyiiipaiia <>t.'>4 

Widtli of Luad, iiicludiii;^ tyiiiitana 0",':{ 

Lciigtb of ibie-lt'j,' from axilla O'Jd.'t 

Leiijjfth of hind ley from yroiii O'lri 

Leiij^tli of tibia 0H> 

Length of tarsus UOi* 

Length of rest of foot 022 

The range of this species is extensive. It was originally obtained 
near lledding in noithern California. .My friend, James S. Lipi)iiic()tt, 
has sent it to nie from the extreme sonth of California, San Diego. The 
Smithsonian Institntion has a slightly ditterentiated variety from Chi- 
huahna, and specimens from my frieinl, Dr. Dng(5s, from (Inanajiiato, 
IMexico, are the same. I snsjject that the SraphiopuH (hu/cNi Uroechi 
from that locality is the same species. 

Abnndant in Jnly and August, when it deposits its eggs in the pools 
of rain-water. It is very noisy at such times, and the open lots in thi^ 
city of Santa Fe resound with its cries. These are much like those of 
the Scaphio})^ holbrookii 

Sjua hammoiKtii hdinmoiidii Haird. 




^'"•"'' Loialilv. jy'",'", Fio>n«lio,Mror,.iv.Ml. ^■■'""- '•'1»''=- 

H|»5C. ' Colll'ltfll. lllllll. 


1 I Cnlifoiniii ; Pr. .T. Cr. CoDpor Alc<,' ulic. 

I) I Altn(l()8 Utiis, N.Mex.., Sept.— , 1H74 I'lur. E. IJ. (;<i|m' Ale. tvjir. 

1 ! t'tali I IST'J Or. !:. (\ Vimow Alcoiriilii . 

1 ('alilbriiia Aii^. — , 187.') 'li) Do. 

1 i'ort Rcililiui.'. Cal ' Dr. .1. !•'. Ilaiiiinonil, Do. 

V. S. A, 

S2)ca hammontUi hombifn>n.s Cope. 

(Plates .')!, lig. 17; (Js, fig. la.) 
Cope, Joiiin. Ac. Phihi. (--i), vi, lAStl, p. 81. 

Svaphiopiis homhifroim Cope, Prnc. Ac. Pliila., IHO!!, p. r>'.\; Hoiilcnger, Cat. liatr. Sal. 
Brit. Mu8., 'Jd ed., lHrf2, p. VX). 

Outline of inaxilhe acuminate oval ; muzzle truncate, elevated, thit^k- 
ened transversely ; profile or vertex arched, of front concave ; canthus 
rostral is replaced b^' a concavity. Tympanum concealed or .scart:ely 
visible; parotoid Hat, small. No gland on tibia or pectus. Tongue en- 
tire. Vomerine teeth in oblique fasicidi or short series between choana' ; 
these e(inal ostia pharyngea. Skin nearly si looth, roughest on the sides. 
Cuneiform process jiroduced. ralmation of toes deeply repand. 

Color in spirits p:ile ashen or brown, with luinieroiis plumbeous ver- 
miculations, which are aggregated into a blotch on the scapular region, 
which has a pale space below it. Limbs vermiculated ; outer border 
tf tarsus and foot light. A dark spot on canthus rostralis. 

" ■'1 



This s[»ecic8 has the most iioitherii raujfc of those foiuul west of the 
Mississippi, ami is especially cliaraeteristic of the elevated plains. It 
nuijies from northern Texas to Montana. It resembles very closely 
halfji'rown specimens of liuj'o coytiatmo^ the same region, sous tocon- 
stituie it II mimetic analogue. 

Fui. 7S. ,s'y/i'(( haiiimiiiidii liouih!/iiii)s Oopp. OOW, iiat. size. Camp Tliorno, Yellowstone K. 

Meaaitremeiits of \o, :!5*i0. 


Li'iij;lli (if head ami body 0415 

Li'iiiftli of head, iiich.i'iiif; tympana 0V2 

\Vidtli of Ill-ad, iiicliidiiijj tyiiqiaiia OK! 

Li'ii;;tli of foit'-lt'ii from axill.i 0*^0 

L<'ii;;tli of Iiiiid Icj; from <;r(iiii 0445 

l.cii;;tli of tarsus 007 

[.(■njithof tibia 014 

l.fiiglli of rrstdf foot 017 

The specimen 9943, from the Yellowstone Kiver, is an excellent illus- 
tration of the mode of origin of corneous ei)idermis. The end of the 
muzzle and the frontal convexi*^y are covered with a layer of black 
horn, each forming an oval shield, wliicli meets the other on the top of 
the snout. This is probably a result of the constant jiressure anl fric- 
tion of the earth when the animal is burrowing in it. Althoii„(i the 
aninial burrows with the hinder limbs, the muzzle is naturally used in 
keeping the passageway open to the surface. Tlie character is not con- 

This species is characteristic of the northern parts of the plains and 
Great Basin. I found it especially common in tiie region north of the 
Missouri Kiver and eastward of Fort Benton. Before my arrival there 
rain had fallen, and the ruts of the wagon-trails were tilled with water. 
These ditches contained numerous examples of this species, together 
with Cliorophiliis Irisrriatus, Ilufo coiinatHs, and AmbUjHtoma tigrlmtm. 
Their metainor|)hosis was completed by that time (August 20), although 
some of the specimens were small. 

In Idaho, near latitude 4.5^ 30', is situated a body of water known as 
Market Lake. Its extent is variable, for it is said to be dependent for 
its water supi)ly on the overflows of the Snake Kiver, which is a few 
miles distant to the eastward. An old channel leads from the river to 
the lake, giving probability to the statement. , At the time of my pas- 
sage through the region the water was unusually high, for a portion of 
the stage road, with parts of numerous telegraph poles, was submerged. 
The lake appeared to be about ten miles long by six in width. The 
country surrounding it is arid, and the sand, which represents soil, rests 




ou a basis of lava. The stage halted for a short time to enable me to 
examine the shore of the lake. I found it to be lined with a windrow 
of sri^sahoitiK'vs (Culoptcnus mmtus) wliieh had fallen into the water 
and been washed up, some living, others dead. Among them 1 found 
numerous large fat larvie of S2)ea bombiJ'ronn oecupjing small spaces 
whieh they had cleared, quite out of the reach of the water. Their 
limbs were nearly fully grown, while their tails hadsuflered no absorp- 
tion, and their jaws were toothless and cartilaginous ; some quite larval 
in form, others with wider gape. They were engaged in eating the 
grasshopper., and I detected several specimens with the entire insects 
in their mo.Uhs. In some instances the grasshoppers' bodies were too 
large and projected from their mouths. These precocious larva- were 
evidently nir-breathers, and hopi)ed about, presenting a curious ap- 
l)eaiance as they dragged their large tails after them. 1 found some 
adult si>ecimens of AmbUjstonui mavortinm also along the water's edge. 
These observations were made on the llth of August, 1870. 

Spia haiumoinllihomhifroiis C'o|k . 

Ciitilln«lli' Xo.of T.inlitv 
uuinber. spt'c. l^ocalit.\. 


I'"riiiii wliDiii nicivcil. 

Nature iiIsik'C- 


1 HIiickfiiot KorU, Moiit.. 

K. V IIjivili'ii 

1 Km t I'liidii, D.ik 


1 I'liitlf Itivcr. 'JiKl riiiliH 
west 111' Fort Ki'ann'.v. 

1 I.1;1I1I» K<4t:ll'lll)ll . _'_ 

W.S. WiMiil 


Cmit. J. I'liiic 

0013 i 1 l!:iliili 'riiiil'iiH Vi'iliin'. 

( ') 

1 I'ult ISi'Htnll Mont 

I'j. I), C(ll><5 


,'<ji<a iiiultiplicala Vo\>r, .loiini. Ac I'liilii. (•,'), vi, l>(il'i, \<. Si. 

.Sidjiliiopiia miillipliiiiliis Coiic, I'mcccd. Ac. I'liila., IHIi!!, p. ."rj ; I'lioci!!;, Mis. Sci. 
Mex. IJiitr., |). -J.'.; IJoiileiigor, Cat. IJatr. Sal. liiit. Mils., -Jdid., ISI.', ).. VMi. 

Fi;;. 71). !<iiiii iiiiillliilifata. No. .'1091. Valloy of Mexico; 1. 

Foiiu broad, s()uat. Head very short ; profile rapidly descending; 
niaxillaiy outlines acuminate, oval ; muzzle thiiik, rounded. An open 
frontoparietal fontauelle. Vomerine fascicles just posterior to the line 




coiiuecting the posterior narcs. Eyes very i>roiniiiont. From these a 
strong foUl passes the posterior to the angle of the mouth and across 
tlie guhir re:,;ioi. , tympanum covered by a portion of the parotoid 
ghmd anteri'/r to this. Parotoid pro])er very hirge, extending beyond 
Ncapuli), ben. upon the side; bounded interiorly by a strong fold, wliicli 
extends from the one .above mentioned to the groin. IJelow this, on 
the sides, are two or more other folds. Skin of upper surfaces coarsely 
tuberculous; that of the crown thick, of the extremities nearly suiootii. 
A large gland occupies most of length of tibia. Abdomen n.inutely, 
pubic region (toarsel^', rugose. Cuneiform process rather short, very 
prominent. Choanal smaller than ostia pharyngea. Tongue entire, 
with a narrow free anterior border, one-third tree posteriorly. Ex- 
tended heel reaching fiont of humerus; tibia three times as long as in- 
terorbital width. Three phalanges of fourth toe tree from web. Color 
ill spirits; above ashy l»rown, below yellowish ash. 

MramircmeiilK of Xo. I{ii94. 

Li'M^itli of lit'iid and Ixxly Or>r> 

Lciintli (if liciid to parotoid fold ()l,"i 

U'idlli of head at ciintliiiH oris , OJIJ 

L iiUlli of fore 11 nil) fmui axilla 0'2',\ 

1,1'n.nlli of 111 lid 11 nil I from >;r )iii (I.Vi 

l,iii;;lli of tiliia (1175 

Lcnutli of taiMiis 0()i>:,' 

l.«'ni,'tli of rest of hi ml foot O'JOJ 

The cliaractei's which distinguish this sjx'cies are numerous. In its 
general appearance it has a great rcsembliinee to the Tiii/o conipacfilis 
of tli(^ s;;me country. Hut one specimen is known. 

No. .'UJJK; one spe(!imen ; V^alley of Mexico ; J. l*otts : alcoholic;. 




Hiiiiidir, part., ('jisliiiiHilliiihi , jiarl., lilnco'ilun'iiitii', jiart., Ahilhhv, part., ('pcniliiilir, 
ni>iiihiiniloriilii , iiarl., /////(»(/((/((■, ]»arl., Giintlicr. Cat. i>atr. Sal. 

('Hxliiiiiiilhidir lUt\>f, Nal. Hist. Ifcv., l-^Ci."), \t\ns Sittjiliinjiodido'. part. 

f 7/.s/((/H((//n(/(r Copr ; .loiini. .Vc. I'liiia. (','), ^ '■ iH.iti; |{>nili'ny;cr. Cat. Hatr, Sai., l$iit. 
Mils., ii cd. |S,<-J. 

llomhiiKiloriilii , jiarl., PhclvnmnHlidir, AhilUliv,\\\\v\., I'ohijHdiitldir, jtart., /iVniiV/d, jiail., 
DixiojIoKnithi , part., Mivart, I'rocrcd. Zool. .Soc, \riC>\). 

Vertebra^ proccelons; no ribs ; sacral <iiapophyses (tyliinlrical, obtii 
hedral or slightly depressed distally, inclined upwards. IJrostyle sei)a- 
rate, iittached to twoeoinlyles, without diapophyses. Teiminal phalan- 
ges conti tn)us, either uniforndy conic, or with divergent teiminal procs 
esses or their rudiments. Sternum distinct. \o teeth on the mandible. 

Tliis, after the Ilylidai the most extensive family of the Arcifera, em 
braces one liundre<l and lifty-six species, whicrh represent t hit 
generic types. 

Th ; most c nnpletely develojx'd geniiH exhil»iti a cranitiMi without 

• l'lal«'s7(l,T1. 

a I 


] ' I, 

1 i 




\m \ 


fontanelle and with complete ethmoid arcli, and a styloid osseous xiplii- 
sternum, with termina' "irtilagiuous disk ; tlie auditory organs perfectly 
developed; the lowes 'eveloped ethmoid arch and frontoparietal 

roof, and disciform c. ginous xii)histerimm without style, with 
Eustachian tubes ami memhrauum tympani wanting. Accompanying 
this succession, we have four modiOcations of the family structure to 
adapt to as many modes of life: the aquatic, the terrestrial, the arbo- 
real, ami the subterranean. As the earth's surface is the common 
ntediiim between the above extiemes, so the s])ecies of terrestrial habits 
furnish us with none of the adaptive extremes of structure, but reujiiin 
an intermediate grouj), from which the succession of structures, inter 
rupted, it is true, passes towards the divergent types. Develojuneiiral 
structures accompany and confirm the adaptive, but by no means al- 
ways coincide. 

The aquatic habit is attained when the digits behind iirc not only 
webbed, but when the external metiitarsi are separated by Mu'inbiane 
also; the arboreal, when the terminal phalanges are furnished witli a 
terminal transverse limb, which supi)orts an adhesive disk. Tlse sub 
terranean is shortened, and furnished with a great development of tin' 
lirst digit or prepollex of the tarsus, which is covered by a corneous 
sheath, and serves as a si)ade. The lirst type may be combined with 
the third, as in Mixophyes and Chiroleptes, or either may be furnished 
with a bony overioohng of the temporal muscles, and pciietration of its 
integuments by the hyperossilication of the cranium. 

The fossorial spur is weak in lleliopoius and Paludicola, weaker in 
Mitrolysis, and just represented in Ceratophiys. The palmate foot is 
<liminished in Calyi)tocei>iialus, reduced in Mixophyes and Chirolei»tes, 
and represented by a trace in ll^loriiiiia and Limnoinedusa. The un- 
developed ear is seen in Telmatobius and in Alsodcs. 

Tiie variations in tiie develtti»inent of the tliumb are not so striking 
as in the llylida'. In (inatiiophysa, Cystignathus, and Ceratophrys 
the trapezium sui»ports an osseous metacarpal and obtuse phalange, 
whi(di are concealed ill a large tiiln'icle. In Mixophyes, on the otiier 
hand, the inetacai|)al is slender, cut irely caitiiagiiious, and does not 
support a phalange. Tiiere is no where a spur, as in Ilypsiboas. 

With regard to the deiinal attaciiments, the following inii)ortant 
varieties o(!cur; in the family generally, but especially among Ilylodes 
and ('ystignathi, the dorsolateral septum is placed esi»ecially high up: 

I'seudea. — Se[)ta in Pseiidis as in Ifaiia; in Lysajuis tlu^ laterovenlral 
line is a little widened. In Mi.ropln/cs ftisriohifus the lateroventrals 
are very wide, and leave the ventral free space very narrow behind the 

(Jemtophryiks. — In Ceratophrys the lateral septa nvo narrow, and 
there are two posterior abdominal transverse septa, similar <o tliost* 
altiiched to the sternum. In Crrdtophri/s urntUa these are wanting, luit 
the dorsolateral line is veiv broad. 



Crinkv. — Among these animals I have examined species of IIeliopo« 
rus, Phityph'ctrum, Crinia, IJorboroca'tes, Eiisophus, and IJyperolia, 
and in none cau I lind ni )i'e than lateral traces of the epicoracoid and 
coiacoid septa, excei)t in the Uyperoliti marmorata, where they are coin- 
l)Iete. Tlie posterior abdominal is well developed in JJmso/jZ/us nchu- 

i'/eio-orfcmfC.— Ventrolateral low down, and posterior abdominal well 
developed in Vkurodema hihronii. 

i/^iorfcs.— Dorsolateral and ventrolateral far apart; the transverse 
posterior abdominal septum in the species of Lithodytes, in Ephirejcis 
longipes, in Enhydrohms vomerinns (Elosia Girard) and HypotUetj/on ri- 
dens. I hiive not found it in Lithodytes ams2>ivillatus Gthr., Enhydvohim 
parvus., and Limnocharis/uscus Bell {Elosia Mrt.sM.s' Girard). 

Vystignnthi. — In all the species the structure is similar to that of 
JJana, except in the approximation of the dorsolateral lines, aiul the 
l)resence of the postabdominal septum, which is continuous with the 
latoroventrals, and is indicated externally in several of the species by 
a fold in its line of attachment. 

The accompanying table exhibits the allinities of the genera and the 
groups into which they naturally fall. 

This family was first characterized by the autlior in Proceedings Acad- 
emy Natural Sciences, 1803, 1(J; excluding, however, the genera Cera- 
tophrys and Tomopterna; and subsequently more exactly in the Nat- 
ural History lleview, 1805, Several changes, approximations to nature, 
were proposed by me in 1800. lioulenger adopted this family as I dc- 
dedned it (Cat. IJrit. Mas., 1882), but modiiied the extent and definitions 
of the genera materially. 

firoiip I. I'sKTOKS. — rrontoparictiil bones fully (iL'vt'ltii)e(l ; toes webbed, extenial 
iiictiitarsi iVce; teriiiiiial i)halaiij;e.s acute; .sternum a cartilaginous plate; ear 
perfectly develoijcd ; ton;;ne broail, euiire, adhrrenl. 

Cephalic derm distinct: vomerine teetli ; no cuneiform shovel or 
lumbar j;land ; prefrontals closely united; pupilliori/ontal ; no 
di;;ital dilatations J'xcikUh Wa^fler. 

Cephalic derm distinct; vomerine teetli; no cuneiform shovel or 
lumbar {flaiul ; prefrontals widely separated from each other and 
frontoparietals ; ends of digits dilated /.ymipxiin v'ope. 

Cephalic derm distinct ; vomeriue teeth; lingers iincl toes webbed; 
terminal jthalanges bifurcate; supporting disks.. Oii^roJcdc Ksp. 

Cephalic derm distinct; vcuneriue teeth; a cuneiform shovel; no 
lumbar glaud ; prefrontals not closely united; pupil vertical 
MUophjiiH (!ihr. 

Cephalic derm distinct; vomerine teeth; no cuneiform sliovel ; a 
lumbar gland; i)refrontals well united, transverse. 
('jiclorhamphiis Tsch, 

Cephalic derm involved in a rugose cranial ossilication, temporal 
fossa overarched, completing |)ostorbital arch ; vomerine teeth ; 
no cuneif(M'ni slutvel or lumbar gland; prefrontals extensively 
unitedaml prolonged posteriorly CdliiptoccphaluH U. A- B. 


i ; 



i .1 




312 nuLLETiN :m, umtki) statks national museum. 

(jiniili II. CliiUKJiMiiiYKKs.— Frdiitdpaiiftiil Iioiics fully tlcveloiu'd ; toes ficd or 
sli^'litly wcljbe<l; (ho i-xlcnial iiicliUarsi Itoiind ; terminal i>lialaii<;<'» Hiinplo ; 
stciiimn a cartilnyinoii.s i)lal(' (so Car known, finarj»iiiato) ; ear perfectly Uevol- 
(ijii'd ; fonf^ue entire, liltle free. 
a. Ceplialie derm distinct; no iio.stortdtal aicli. 

]'ni)il vertical; iirefrontals well separated; vonicrino teeth; toes 

weblicd ; inner finger opposable MilvoljiKin' Cope 

Pupil horizontal; prefrontals more or Jess united; vonu^rine teeth : 
toes webbed; inner linger not oi)pos:>')le; abdominal derm areo- 

late ; a strong cunciforni shovel Odontopln-ynuH IJ. & L. 

Prefrontals widely separated; eyelids with dermal prolongation; 
vomerine teeth; toes nearly free ; cranium elevated ; form toad- 
like; inner finger not opposable IStomhua^ Hoio. 

Prefrontals in close contact; eyelids not prolonged; vomerine teeth 
on palatine arch; toes free; cranium broad; pupil luuizontal; 

form squat ; abdomen smooth Zachwnua Cope. 

aa. Cranial derm involved in ossilication; uo postorbital arch. 

Pupil vertical; thumb opposed ; toes webbed ; vonioriuo teeth ; pre- 

fontals separated ; nodorsal shield VMfoh'i)tiH\ tUlir. 

aaa. Cephalic derm involved in cranial ossilication; a postorbital bony arch. 

Similar to Ceratophrys as below, but without dorsal dermal osseous 
shield I'hri/noccnis Tsch. 

Prefrontals wholly or in part separated ; eyelids with a dermal pro- 
longatu)u ; vomerine tecith; toes more or less palmate ; cranium 
elevated; form toad-liko; inner linger not opposable; jtupil 

transverse; a dorsal dermal osseous shield CtratitphrjiH Hole. 

Group III. Crisi.E.— Frontoparietal bones einbracing a large fontanelle; cei)halie 
derm free; external metatarsi bound; terminal phalanges simi)le; prefrontals 
never clos(dy united, rarely in contact; ntfrniun not distingiiinhablc into style and 
(Jhk, broad, eniarginate, cartilaginous. 
a. Ethmoid bono with superior arch complete; toes webbed, 

Pupil erect; vomerine teeth Ilelioponin Gray. 

Auditory apparatus minute ; vonu'rine teeth ; pu])il horizontal; ster- 
num with a proximal semiossitied portion <'oph<niH^ Cope. 

aa. Ethmoid arch complete, or nearly SI) ; digits fret' ; no cuneiform shovel. 
Largo parotoid glands; no vomerine teeth; pui)il horizontal. 

Ifjjpcrolia ( I ray. 

No parotoid glands; vonu'rinc teeth in transverse series; xipliister- 

num broad; pupil horizontal nnrhnroriilvs \\ Hell. 

No parotoid glands; pujiil erect; hternum a jdate I'lrialiti (<ray. 

No parotoid glands; pupil horizontal; vomerine teeth wanting or in 
minute fasciculi ; sternum slender, without bony deposit • bdo- 

ininal integument usually areolato Cihi'ni 'i'scli. 

aaa. Ethmoid arch cartilaginous al)ove ; digits free ; no shovel. 

No i)arotoi<ls ; vonu'iine teeth; pupil round; auditory organs ruili^ 

mental EnsopliiiH ('oiie. 

aaan. Ethmoid arch? No metatarsal shovel; "auditory organs wanting;" toes 
slightly webbed. 

Vomerine teeth : no parotoids thiuhn Hell. 

* Typo Chiroleptrn aUwguttatuH Gthr. 

t TyiH! Ciralophri/n Imici Wied. 

t I'hracfopn Peters. 

? Trlmatoliiiix Honlenger, not of Wiegmann. 

II Includes Liiini(i<hiiinHltn Vi\7... Glintber. 

I . 







Group IV. rLia'KODKM.i;.— Froiitoparictiil Imhh'h fiiilniiciiiH :i foi't'i'iL'llf ; iuulilory 

appiii-iitus (levi'lopml ; ilif^its free, or slij;lilly wdibed ; oxttniiiil iiictatarsiils 

bound; tt'nniiiiil pliiiliiiiyi's Niiiiple; wtfiiiuni an ossuons styli', with one (ii inoro 

distinct terminal cartilage di^ks; tonj^uc entirt;; cephalic derm free. 

a. Injjninal ghmds; pupil horizontal; sternal cartilage emargiuate or bifurcate. 

Vomerine teeth; prefrontals well separated; metatarsal tiiberehis 

minute; terminal phalanges short I'kiiroihmii 'I'seli. 

un. No inguinal glands; pup 1 horizontal. 

No vomerine teeth; prefrontals entirely separated; terminal pha- 
langes short LiiipcrtiH 1). & 1'. 

aim. No inguinal glands; sternal cartilage entire; pupil erect. 

Vomerine teeth ; prefrontals widely separated by the osseous ethmoid ; 

terminal phalanges elongate; limbs elongate ITiilorhinti I?ell. 

Group V. Hylodks. — Digits IVee, or nearly so; external metatarsi bonnil ; tirnihiiil 
phiilanijcH with a traiinn'iHc Ihnb, which supports dermal disks; sternum wit'.iout 
style, scutiform, emargiuate or bilobed, osseous or cartilaginous. 

1. A frontoparietal fontamdle. 

No vomerine teeth or tarsal spurs; prefrontal bones wide, uniting on 
th(! nsidille line Udhichi/loilrs Cope. 

2. No frontoparietal fontandle. 

a. I'refrontals well separated, rarely the convexities of the inner Itorders in 
b. Manubrium earti1a;;.'ui)us. 

Muzzle andcantlius rostralis angulated, projecting; vomerine teeUi; 

digital dilatation ssmall Juiln/drohiiis Wagl. 

Muzzle and canthus rostralis contracted, little marked; vomerine 

teeth; digital dilatations large Epirh<xin Cope. 

hh. Manubrium osseous, styloid. 

Muzzle and canthus rostralis angulated ; no vomerine teeth 

I.imnocharis IJell. 

aa. Prefrontals united throughout by close suture, and usually in contact with 

No vomerine teeth Siirrliophits Copo. 

Vomerine teeth; abdomen smooth I.ithodytcs Cope. 

No vomerine teeth ; belly areolato lljumdivfjitiii Cope. 

Vomerine teeth ; abdomen areolate llijlodt'8 Fitz. 

Group VI, CvsTKiNATiii.— Frontoparietals and auditory apparatus fully developed; 
cephalic derm free; external metatarsi boiiiul, digits free, terminal phalanges 
simple; sternum a distinctly delined slender osseous style, with distal cartilagi- 
nous disk ; toes free, 

a. .Xiphisternal style emargiuate, and with two distal cartilaginous disks. 
Vomerine teeth wanting; no tarsal spurs ; inguinal glands 

niihoiiias Cope. 

Vomerine teeth prestMit; no tarsal si)urs ; inguinal glands 

EdaloiliiiKi Fsp. 

No parotoid or vomerine teeth ; isolated ingu'inal glands ; two acute 

metatarsal spurs; i)upil horizontal Pahidicohi Wagl. 

an. Xii>histerual style and distal disk undivideil. 

No inguinal glands; pui)il horizontal Lvi)todacl!ihi>< Fitz. 

Glandular aggregations on the loins ; i)upil horizontal 

Cjintijinthiin Wagl. 

No glands; pu])il erect l.imiKimidiisa Cope. 

No glands; pupil horizontal; ainlitory ap|)aratns atroi)liit'd. 
Tclmuloh'nix Wiegm. 

! *f 


• ( 



(Ivslimiallii . . . 
Ilvloilcs . . . .. 
• iiiiliiplii.vdi's 


rit'iiioiliMii;!' .. 




lU>glo Kfotroplca. 

Cliili iiiiil S. 
of I.ii I'hitu. 










'.'« ■ 








There are then known twenty one Australian species, of whith all 
but two possess an incomplete eranium and none a bony xiphisternal 
style. In the ratagonian snbieyion twenty- four species, of wbieli ten 
exhibit an incomplete cranium, and live a complete bony xiphisternal 
style; in the l>razilian subre-iion sixty-seven species, of which only six 
have an incomplete brain case, and twenty-four the osseous xiphister- 
nal style; .Mexico, thirty-two species with complete cranium, and one of 
these with stylo; the West Indies with twelve, none having' the fonta- 
nelle, and three the style. 





s. n. rata- 


s. u. 



j Mexic. 




. i: 






iipcil . 

I'ic'IVoiiImIh I'iiIIv iI 












' 7 


i " 



K;ir iinin'rlf ct • - . 



Ko.-ssoi'ial slmvi'l _ 

* Approxiinatf. 

In regard to tlie cranial development, the West Indi. region is |)rc- 
eminent in this family, as in the Il.vlid;c; the lirazilian inferior, and the 
.Australian vastly below all; the degradation appearing in a certain 
degree regular. In the lack of vomerine teeth (a feature of immatur- 
ity) South Hrazilian and Argentine forms predominate. In possession 
of the raniform xiphisternum the West Indian and Mexican subregions 
show fewer rej)resentatives ihan the Brazilian. There are none in the 

One si)ecie.s — hilhtnhitcs ricortUi — wanders from the 11, Neotroi»ica 
into the southern projection — Florida— of North America, and two 
others, lAthodytcH lufrans and Sijrrlinjilius maruocliii, have a distribu- 
tion in Southwest Texas; no others are known to o(!cur beyond tlit* 
borders already state«l. No species is connnon to the R. K. Australis 
and Xeotropica, and but one genus — IJorboroca-tes. Two Hrazilian 
spe(!ies occur in the Southern West Indies and two in Southern Mex- 
ico ; probably three of the same country must be included in the iWu'iios 
Ayrean list. 

As yet we are accjuainted with the fo.ssil remains of but one specnes 
of Cystignathidic— a Ceratophrys, from a Ijrazilian cave. It has Iteen 


r ax 





regai'doil :i.h id iitical with tho C.dursata by Giiiither ^Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 185!), IM. \v). 


';i!» .s|>. 


l'"rinito|).iiii'tal liKiir.t (li'VL'liiiKul. 

Am iisHiHiiiK xi|ihi.4lDi'iial Htylo. 


/ (y'ysti^imllius niilinniitx 

■j 'LfpiiiiliiciNliis Kilali)rliiiiii 

( I'aliuliciilii 

Xi|ihislciiiiini a o.\ililn)jiuou8(lisU 

! IIvli>i1<'», I 
i r,liH|.. 




17 Hp. 


U Hp. 


'_'.') up. 

Fioiitopaiictal linnos umli'vildpiMl, rinbraci ug 
a rniitaiii'll)'. 

Xipliistuiimiii Willi ail osscnim atvlo. 
<i I'liMiridlrnia Hylorlii "a 

I l.iiipirii.s 

Uiliiutui>lii'ynU8 ' 


Xipliisti'ruiima(ailila;;in()iisplatc. \ 







KroiitdpariL'tals ami (■tbnioid anii iindevcldped. 

L1TII01)YTI-:S Cope. 

Proceed. Ac. Pliil;i., l-Ci'i, p. l.")!?; Joiirii. Ac. Pliil;!. (2), VI, p., l>7. 
HylodeK pars, aiirtonmi. 

Terminal phalanges T-shapt'd; fingers and toes Iiee; no enh'rged 
metatarsal tnbercle. Omosterniiin (tiirlilaginou.s. Sternmn a cartiliigi- 
nous plate. TrelVontal bones uniting on the median line of the muzzle. 
iJelly smooth. 

This genus dillVvs f'ro?n Hylodes only in the smooth, as di.stinguished 
from the granular, «)r arcolated, belly of the latter, its species are nu- 
merous and inhal)it prineipally the e(piatorial and northern parts of 
the ><'eotroi»i(!al realm. IJnt two are Ibund in the Tnited States: tho 
L. latnius at the southwestern border, and the L. ricortliiiXt the extreme 
southeast. Tiie latter is a West Indian species; the former probably 
occurs in Mexico, but its existence there has not yet l>een ascertained 


(\t. VoiricriiKi in two sliort patches Itctwecii tlic iiiircs. 

I'linii roliiist; muzzle .short, wide; iipjier siirt'iices witli iirown spots.. ..L. Inlraim. 
(\<t. Vomerine leetli in two h)n^ triinsverse enrved series posterior to tll(^ internal 
Form elongate ; muzzle acnto ; spotted above. L. rkordii. 






(I'latcsr.l, liy. 1.'.; Tl, <i^'. a-J.) 
AiiuT. Niit., Irt78, p. ISli; Itiill. T. S. Nat. Mils, No. 17, l^sO, p 'J.-.. 

Size riitlier lar^'c : frontoinirietal region lint, it.s width (M|iial to the 
V(!rticiil (liaiiK'tcr ol'tliemeiiibniimin tyini)aiii. SUin smooth, tiial ol" tlic 
abdomen thrown into a disk by a circular fold. Digital dilitations small 
on all the foot. The toes have no dermal free margins; those oC Hie 
liand are long, while those of the foot are rather short. Tin; fourth 
linger is as large as the foroarin and e.vceeds tin' thumb, wliieh in turn 
is considerably lou-ger than the second linger. There are t .vo ,st ion '^ 
palmar tubercles, of which the external is divided into two by a longi 
tudinal groove. There are two solar tubercles, and the entociineiform 
is prominent and obtuse. The muzzle marks a point beyond the mid- 
dle of the tarsna of the e.vteiuled hind limb. The tarsus to thi^ e ito 
cuneiform is just half as long as the remaimler of the foot. There are 
prominent tubercles on the inferior side of the digits of both «'.\trem- 
ities. Tiie head is wide and Hat and tlie loreal region oblicpie. The 
nasal region is Hat and gently <lecnrved and the \\[) projects a little beyiuid 
the nnizzle. The long <liameter of the eye e(pnils the lengtli from its 
border to the external nostril, whiidi is very near the einl of the muzzle, 
and exceeds the long or vertical diameter of tlie membrannm tympani by 
one-half of the latter. The v.idth of the tynipanic membrane is live- 
sixths of its height. The tongue is subronnd. The ostia pharyngea are 
large, but smaller than the choanie. Tlie vomerine teeth are in two 
sliort, nearly transverse patches, on elevated bases, their apicu's nearly 
in line with the posterior biirder of the choanal In younger individ- 
uals the choanal are oblicjnely longitudinal. 

Length of head and body, .()7(J"'; length of head to line of posterior 
borders of tympanum, axially .OL'l'" ; width at latter point, .(»3L"' ; length 
of posterior leg, .107'". 

Color of superior surfaces brownish-gray, marked with a few large 
brown spots with pale centers. The largest of these is on each scapular 
region; a smaller pair is one over the extremity of oav.h sacral trans- 
verse process. There are several on the pelvic region and above the 
groin, one on each eyelid, and one or two on the middle of the nasid 
region. Another covers the tympanum, ami a brown band conne<!ts 
the orbits around the eiul of the muzzle. There are two large brown 
spots on the lip, one below the eye and one in IVont of it. The seg- 
ments of the limbs have l)ro;id cross-baiuls, excepting the humerus. 
IJelow* pale, iiumacnlate. 

This species is one of the larger forms of the genus. The nasal bones 
are in contact for most of their length, but diverge a little i)osteriorIy, 
displaying a small portion of the etiunoid. This is not typical in 
Lithodyte.s, but ai)i)roache.s the state of things in Epirhexis. 

This frog inhabits the clilfsof the cretacu'ous liiuestone which are 








found III every ilht'ctiou aloii;; tin' bonlerH ami river viillevH of tlic 
plateau ro^^ioii of Texas. Mr. (>. W. Mariioiik, who discoverotl it, in- 
forms me that after rains it is very noisy, niakin;^ the roeUs resound 
with its cry, whieh is somewhat like a doj^'s bark. It hi(h's in fissures, 
and is so dilUcult to lind as to be generally ujdvuown to the (rountry 
j.'ople, who suppose that the voice proceeds from a lizard. Ac»;ording 
to Mr. Marnock the ejj;gs are hatched in winter, and the tatlpoles pass 
their existemie in temporary pools of rain-water which collects in holes 
in the rocks and at a distance from the creeks. 

A -^ 6 

Fio. 80. LithiHljtrHlntrans. No. 1059. Hdotcs, Texas; }. 

Additional specimens of this species received from Mr. Marnock show 
that it reaches a laryer size than the above specimens indicate. I give 
the following 



lifiiKlli of lioiid anil lioily 0D4 

l^ciif^tli of lioiid, iiicliidiiin tyiiipiiiiii 03r> 

Width of lu'iid at jtostt'iior cdj^n of tympana OUU 

I.tMJijth of foro liiiili 0.')5 

[.icnj^th of hind limh 115 

Lcn<;th of tibia 0:5lt 

Ltii;;th of tarsns 0'.*0 

LdMjitli of ri\st of foot C:i5 

In the hujie aiul old specimens a mineral deposit takes place in the 
skill, as in the I'ln/llomcdiisa sclcrodcnua Cope and tSfen'ncjjclo2}s incrafiH 
siilns (!ope. It is ('specially abundant in the cranial derm, but whieh is 
not, as in cases where the ossilication appears on the surface of the 
cranial bones, adheient to the latter. 

The Ilyhxlcs aiiffiisti (Duges IMS.), Drocchi Mision Scientili()ue de 
Mexi(|ue, ISSl, irt)iii (liianajuato, Mexico, is related to the present ani- 
mal. I do not know what the spejific difl'erence is, unless it be in the 
form of the vomerine patches, which 1 can not clearly make out from 
I»rocchi's descrii>tion. 


No. of 
















Buxar County, Tux . 







Frcnii whom locoived. 

Nature of spoc- 

10, ISKO D. W. Marnock ! Alcobolic. 

..tlo I do ; do 


: I 









:- ) 


I-ITIIODVTK.S inCOK'DM Diini. iV lliltr. 

Cpr, t'licik-LiMt N. Aiii.r. Wtitv. Kci'lil., 1^7.'., p. :tl. 

Hyludix liivrdii Diiiii. \ Hiln'., Krp. (li'H., \ Ml, ii,(!j:t; Uiiiili'ii^'or, Cut. Hiitr. Sal. Uiil. 
Mim., If-S'j, 1,. -Jl;!. 

Head ii.s wide as or wider fiiiii (ho body, lon^'or than broad; tlio 
hifi'ial oulliiics euived ; the end of the imi/.zlo abruptly truncated. 
Ostia i»harynj;ea oval. Vomerine ti-etli in two \ou<f curved series, 
w Inch coinnicnce behind and opposite to the external border of inner 
nares; thoy are sep uated by a considerable space nu'dially. Tonjfuo 
elonyate oval, slightly nicked. A snboular vocal sack. Tympanum 
half the size of the eye. Skin smooth above and below; sides ruyose. 
Heel reathinj; the orbit. I)i}j;ital palettes snnill. Two metacarpal, two 
nu'tatarsal tubercles. Iiracbiiim lonjrcr thanore<pial toantcbrachium. 

General color reddish-brown. The loreal re};ion, a band between the 
eyes, one above the tympanum, ai.d some dorsal si)ots, darker. Ileneath 
liji'ht brownish. 

A siufjle specimen from Key West, Florida, is in the National Mu- 
seum. Its proj)or habitat is Cuba. 


Amcr. Nat., lf-78, p. '2'i',\; Procct'd. Aiiur. Philosopli. Soc, I87ti, p. 'JGd. 

Sternum a cartilaginous plate, notched; digits free; vomerine teeth 
in)ne; ear well developed; nasal bones in contact, forming a solid root' 
over the ethmoid cartilage. I'upil horizontal. 

This genus is simply Lithodytes without vomerine teeth. In the 
former genus the nasals an<lethmoi<l have the structure seen in Klosia. 
Four si)ecies are known, three of which are Mexican in distribut.'on. 
They difl'er as follows from each other: 

I'oiitcnor limb.s short, lioul to tyiiipaiiiiin ; licad wide; tympiiiiuin half orbit; rufous, 
brown spotted S. miiriiinliii. 

Posterior limbs lonj^cr, heel to front of orbit; liead wide, a canthns rohtralis; tyni- 
l)anuni ono-tiiird orbit ; brown, pale si)otted .V. lq)nig. 

Posterior limbs lon/^er, lieel to tVfnit of orbit; head narrow, no canthns rostralis; 
tympanum one-third orbit; brown, dark si)otted <S'. cjintiijiKtlhuhhu. 

Heel to front of orbit; lieail rather wicb-, Hat; tympanum two-thirds eye-slit; sub- 
digital tubercles largo; gray, with black .spots .V. veirucijics. 


(Plato 71, tig. :i4.) 

Amor. Nat., 187i^, p. 2.J3; Hull. IJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, p. 2G. 

The typical specimen is as large as ITyhi rcrsicolor, ami has a long 
Hat head and remarkably short hind legs. The muzzle is flat and 
slightly depressed above, and projects a little beyond the edge of the 







lip. Tilt' iio.sti'il is ii littlo boliiiul the. apox, ami as Tar in IVoiit of tlio 
orltit as the loii<;' diauu'lci' of tlu; latter. Tyinpanit; iiieinhraiic iDiiiith 
its (liaiiietcr about lialf that ol'cyc. Cliuaiia- latora!, (■(|iial in si/.c to llic 
ostia pliar.viifica. Ton;,'iU', lonjjcr than \vi(U', lull, cntirt'. Inte^uMicnts 
evny where smooth; on the a1)(h)inen a faint iliscoidal t'oM. I)i<;'its 
short, nxMlerately expanded and tnin(!ate at the extrenii'v. IM'oni- 
inent tubercles at tiie proxinnil ends of the phahinj^es below. First and 
second anterior toes eipnil and shorter than fourth. The heel of tho 
appressed hind limb reaches the middle of tho tynii)anuni, and the ex- 
tremity of the tarsus a little anterior to the orbit. The tore limb is rela- 
tively lonjifer, the wiist extendin<j[ beyond the extremity of the muzzle. 
The tarsus is two fifths the entire leiif-th of the i)0(*^erior foot. The in- 
terorbital spacte is Hat and wide, and is but a trille narrower than tho 
expanse of the sacral diajiophyscs. 

The color of the upper surliutes is a lijiht |):irplish brown, elosc'y 
spotted with rather small (;losely placed and broadly delined dark 
brown spots. The spots are less distinct on the head. Inferior sur- 
faces liyht yellowish, immaculate, this tint commencing as small spots 
on the pale ground of the sides. Lind)s above brown, broadly cross- 
banded with yellowish' femora behind, light brown with a few light 


S.:;'"j i'-""t.v. 

coYulctiMl. ^■■'■""' "'""" '■'^^^•'■ivcil. 

Nature of «|»f- 




■J ITcliilcH, lioxur ("ouiitv, 

1 do 

fi. W. Mainnck 



■ .\ 



1 ' 4 6 7 

I'lii. hi. .Syirhophun marnockii. No. 13035. HpIuIcs, Texaa; 1. 



l.(ii;;lli ()(■ liciid iiiul body 0;5S 

I.riijitli (if Iiciid, ini'liidin^ tyinpaii.'i 0l'2',i 

W id ill i)f liciid, iiicliidin^' tymiiaiia .01;} 

l-(ii};tli (if fore limb from axillii C'*ii 

J.i'ii^rtli of liiiid liiiili from j;roiii 0-15 

l.fiiMitliof tiliia 015 

LeiiKlIi of tarsn.s 00<)3 

Li'nj;tli of rest of foot 015 

Nothing is yet known of the life history of this siiccies. It is prob- 
abh' that, like other species of tho genus, it inhabits rocky places. I 
found the S. tcrruviptu in the bottom of a rocky ravine in the State of 
]lidalgo, Mexico, mider a stone ou thQ borders of a small stream. 





1 - 


Vt'itebni' procaOoiis. Sacral diapopliyses dilated, the simple iirostyle 
articulated to two condyles. External nietacariu bound tof^etlier. Ter- 
minal phalanges articulated inleriovly onto the extremity of the penulti- 
mate, globular or swollen proximally, and giving rise, usually from a cen- 
tral emargination, to the curved, acute distal portion, which is of a more 
compact tissue. Superior plate of ethmoid never covere«l by ironto- 
l»arietals, usually produced anteriorly between frcMitonasals. Ear per- 
fectly developed. Abdominal integument generally areolate. 

Tills family embraces the tree toads of Australia and America. It 
presents comparatively little structural variety, not containing as un- 
developed types as the Cystiguathida', nor as high ones; it poss.esses 
neither earless nor fossorial, nor really acjuatic genera. 

The adaptive modifications are: First, those which accompany a ter- 
restrial habitat, i.e., the diminution of the digital dilatations and palma- 
tiou. These occur in regularly increasing degree in a small nnnd)er of 
the species of the typical genus llyla, and are general in atul distinctive 
of two other genera. Second, those whiiili adapt the extremities to 
grasping a limb by opposition of digits, instead of adhering to a sur- 
face by expansion of them in one plane. This lirst appears possible in 
Agalychnis, and is structural in IMiyllomcdusa. Third, those which re- 
strict the light admitted to the retina, first, by the lateral contractility of 
the pupil; second, by the ren<lering opaqueof the inferior palpelira. The 
lirst characterizes the two genera just mentioned, the last occurs in the 
first two, but is inconstant in the second, and characterizes two other 
genera. Fourth, that which adaj»ts the female dm iug the breeding sea- 
son to localities without water, or where peihap.-i the water (;ontains 
enemies, by the inversion of the dorsal integument so as to lorm a sacli, 
in which the eggs are carried. This occurs in and is accepted as char- 
acteristic of two genera. 

Another feature, which has a functional value, is the union of the 
abdominal integnmenls with the snperlicial fascia of the muscles by 
an areolar or (ibrous network, continuous with that of the usual latero- 
ventral band. The skin of the inferior surfaces of these creatures, as in 
the raiiiform tree frogs, has a thickening in numerous close areola', the 
nature and fun(;tion «)f which is like that of the digital dilatations, and 
Ihevlerm of the tuber on the thumb of the male K'ana, /. <■., to secrete an 
adhesive fiui:l as aid in maintaining the peculiar positions assumed. 
In proportion to the development of these is the extent ol' the abdomi- 
nal attachment, and hence may be supposed to bi' adapted lor reliexing 
the other arcolarconnections from the strain of the animars weight when 
in an ai)pressed or vertical j)osition. Its nnifoiiiiity in the bnriowing 
genera of the liufonida' an<l Scaphiopodida-, and especially on their dor- 
sal surface, rather confirms this view. 

This connection is, however, evidently not necessary to the use of the 

*riatus 7-^ 73. 


abilominal iiitejcumeiit as an adhesive siipitort, as this faculty L uo- 
wiieie better seen than in the Aeri.s, where «leini is free. This creat- 
ure will adhere for days to a vertical j;lass [tlatc, not only by the alido- 
nion and digits, but by (he interdigital membranes, and will light se- 
curely frqni a long leap on such a surface. Daudin and Dumeril have 
relaled the siime adhesive faculty in J'clodyte.s puiutatiis, \\\\Wi\i in not 
knovvn in regard to the dermal attachments, but has not the abdominal 
areoia; present in Acris. Tiie extent of the attachment is least where 
the dilatations arc snndlest, as follows: 

Abdoini-ii ciitii'cl.v attadird ; 1h h\). 

riiyllDiiicdiisa four sp. A^,'.ilyclinis three si>. Trachyoopliahis two Hp. Noto- 
t reitia (Mie sp, Scytiipis t wo sp. Siiiilisi'a liaiidiiiii. 

Hypsilioas all)oiiiai-;j;iiiala, lioans. IFyla a;;rt!slis, kre'll'lii, iiliyllouliroa. 
Posterior lialf or tliird of abiloMieii attached; laterovciitral liaiid wide. 

Triprioii pelasatns. 

f[yhi fiise.i, areiiieolor, <;ratiofiii, ver.sieolor, feinoralis, f-(inirena, aiidersoiiii, C(u- 

Kaiioiih'a aiirea. 

Clioroi>hihis lii.seiiatiis. 
Less than posteiioi' thinl ahdoineii aKaelied; tlio hiteroveiitrals wide. 

Ilyhi ailicirea, rcniUa, lateralis, miotyiiipaiiiiin, piekeriiigii. 

Chorophiiiis nij^ritiis. 
AlHloiiieii entirely free. 

Hyha leseiirei, eiirla, j;raeilipes. Aeri.s j;ryllus. 

Of distinguishing features, whicli aie seen in tli<^ degree of develop- 
njeut of the elements of the skull, there are, lirst, the devei()i)ment of 
the o. o. frontoparietalia ; secontl, of the prefrontalia ; third, of the sii- 
perlicial cranial rugositi«'s; fourth, of vomerine teeth; tilth, of a post- 
frontal arch; sixth, of the ethmoid iirch. 

Wludc iiuiiilier ol' species li*3 

l'''roiitoparietals fully de velojied \>-i 

l-'roiitoparietals with rii<.osities peiietratini; ileriii '.» 

I'rofroutals developed 17 

No vomerine tecih G 

A postfroiital proees-i I 

Ethmoid incomplete ali<ive 1 

Of the al»ove lOiaracti'rs the lack of vomerine teeth is incimstant in 
rhyllomiiilusa, being present in soiiir anil wanting in otlier si)i'cies. 

There is a ♦I'lidency to tiie I'sciidis and Ifaiia lilteration of the outer 
metatarsus in /////(( nmvrivmm. hjipostivtn, and (limolop.s, ami //. r UanoUka) 

I'iirotoiil glands otu'ur in some species of ll.\ lida; as an extensive stra 
tuiu of crypts, but lU'ver exhibit tiie delinition seen in liulbiiil'orm tuid 
.some C'ystigiia; 'lid genera. It even occurs in tSci/hipifi rcnidoNHis irreg- 
ularly, being s(Uiietimes present and sometimes wanting in the female, 
at least. 

The xiphistornum exhil)its the Ibrm whicii I'xists in the greater num- 
ber of ('ystignathi(he, excepting ill eight species, where it only lacks 
the posterior emargination. 
l!»Ol_l]ull '61 L'l 



I n 


I » 



The natural genera are as follows : 

I. No teeth on tlio i»iiiiisiibcuoiil boue. 

1. Pupil horizontiil. 

a A fiontopark'tal (biitaiallc ; Hliinr)icl not ossilied aViove. 

Xi„.Kfire Tlwroiia Cope. 

aa. A liontoparii'tal ionlanelle; ctlinioid coiiipUtiil. 

Toes five, or ueaily (so ; <li{;ital dilatations very small; safiuin little 

dil'lted (hoiiiiiliilii" I5aird. 

Toes fully webbed; digital dilatations minute : saeiuin little dilated. 

I, lis \). \ 15. 

Toes webbed; digital disks and sacral diapojdiyses nnu-e dilated ; jm.IIcx 
consisting of one or more sliort conceab'tl i)balauges; pal|Mbra trans 

parent "nl" ''••i"- 

Like llyla, but the <lorsal derm introverted forwards, forming a sae. 

XolDln nut 1). A 1). 

Like llyla, but pidlex consisting of phalanges (used into a enived >olid 

exsertildo spine: iialpebra transparent /////im7»"/-( \Vmi;1. 

Like llyi)siboas, but paliiebrareticidale with libers CnnlnxiopK^ ('o|m\ 

Like llyla, but vonieriuo teeth wanting IlijliUu If. iV L. 

aa. No frontoparietal fontauelle. 

Derm of the head frei^ ; no post frontal (nocess Si!il(ii>ix Cope. 

Derm of the head free: a postfnmtal juocess Siiiilisin Cope. 

Derm of front free: bones exostosed (Inh(initlialii,t Til/,. 

Derm »d' the head inv.dved in the ossilication ; no dermal .sae. 

Irtirhiiitiihiilus 'I'-eb. 

Derm (d' bead involved in the ossilication; a doisal sac of the int roverlid 
.skin Djiintlwililjilnix ( ii lir. 

2. Pupil vertical. 

fi. No frontoparietal fontaiudle. 

Tongue scarcely free behind; no digits opposalde; cranial ossilication 

involving lie rm XjirHiiuiiilis I Ion I. 

/3;i. Frontoiiarietal fontunelle present. 

Tongue extensively tree liehind ; sternum <leeply cniarginate; digits not 

oplio.sed when at rest : cranial skin IVee hjiiliii liiiis Cope. 

Tongut? extensively IVee; internal digits opposable, more or Ie>s fni' ; 

sternum entire; cranial skin free riii/lhiiinriiiKi U'agl 

IL Teeth on the ]iaras[ihenoid bom-. 

Pupil horizontal; vomeriiu^ teelh; (;ranial <lertn involved in ossilicit ion 

of skull ; labial biu'ders produced liimjli ii<t Cope. 

VcMueriue teelli; toes webbed; derm ><{' head involved in ossifiiat ion ; 
labial border produced ; pupil vert ical 'I'liiniiiii ( ope. 

Ill the series 1-2 to rh.vlloiiiediisa a litial «liiiiiiititi<>ii of paliiiatioii 
aceoiiipaiiies contiiitied .si/.e of the Wi^ital |):ih'tte.s an<l iiicreasi> in th*' 
length and lueadth of tiic ethmoid and diiiiiiititioii of the fnnitopaiir 
talis, whieh featiirt'.s, liowever, aiv its iiiaiked in lli/la iialinala ;i.s in 
these sueeeediiig types; th«'.v eari'.v to its fiiHest (h'v«'iopiii(Mit the cra- 
nial peculiiirities of the family, and adtl otiicr f«'atiii«'s iK'foic incti 
tioned; they iiiiiabit the eontineiital siiluegion of the Ncotiopicid. 
The other nmin series (1-1) leads, liist, to a ftiMcr development (if the 
frontoparietals, then to an extension of tlie prefiontals, tind litially to 
covering of the cranium with " dermo-o.ssili(!atioii,"on the one iiiind with 
the sni)eraddition of a dorstil dermal sa(^, on the other witiiotit it. 'J'his 
extreme linds itsgretitest expiuision in tlie West Indian siibregiou. .\ 



f^iiigular iiic()iii[»U'teii('ss of the cranial box set'iiis to mark Thoropa, 
which lias the stroiij;' iia.sal ro()liii}4' of this second scries. 

Chorophihis c.\hil)it.s an atlinity to the (',vstij;iiatiii(ia!, as docs also 
Thoi'oi>a, wiiich represents in inferioiity I'^iisophns in I lie same family. 

The lollow inn istiie j;('oyrai)hicaldistril>nti(»M oithejicneraandspecics: 

'rripi Idii 


0|ii.slli>iili-l|>li\ s . 

< lst('()l-|-)tlKllllS . . . 

Nnliiiii ma 

Sr\ htpiH 


I'livlluiiiiiliisa . .. 




M V psilKMH 

Ilvia ... 


All is 

('Ii<iiii|iliiliis . . . . 

u. i;. K. It. 

Aii.sliall.s. Ni;iitii)|iii'a. .NituiLtiia. I'ala aii-tii a. 

i;. K. 

.Dlliiiipira. I>ala'iitii>|ik'a. 





10 :i (p :t 






The only fi'eiius in the above series wliich is not contined to a zooloj-ical 
realm is llyla, and the species ul' this jnenns arc all restricted to their 
icspcctivc renions. Sniilisctt Ixditlinii extends from the Ncotroj)ical into 
the Itordeis of the Ncar(li(! icj^ion, and it is i»ossiblc that llyla v<vn(ha 
extends from the Australian Islands into those of the Paheotropical 
antliipi'laiio, thoii;^h the ideiitilication of the si)ecies may not be strictly 
correct. Acitordinj;- to llleekcr it is fonnd in Java and as far west as 
Tadanj;', on the west coast of Sumatra.* 

The follo\vinj> is a distribution of these j-eiieric forms among tlie dis- 
tricts ((!' the Ncotrojiittal region: 


Mi'xiiaii. ('iil(iiiil)ian. (Jliiliaii. IvihIcmi. 






'1 riprinii 




























; I 









Our present kiiowle<lge, as above, indi<!ates considerable localization 
in tin; distribution of geiuMa, and a marked prtMloaiinance of the eastern 

*Ovt'r tic lv('iilili|!ii I'aima van Sumatra, 1'. Mlcckur, IJataviii, W>0, p. 8. 


( 3V 


district. Bat three of tlie gonerii Ibuiul in tlio latter are known to 
exist in any other. Tlie poverty of tlie Cliiiian districjt is marked, 
Willie West Indian species are neiuiy all of <Mie j^enns, tlie Scytopis 
noted beiny the *S'. niher of Siirinain, wliicli occurs in Trinidad. None 
of the species ever i)ass these bounds, with the lastnientioned exct'iition, 
and tbose oi Scytopis renulosits, II:;^mln>m Klhoman/inatHs and xerophijl- 
liiiH, which occur in the eastern and adjoining- portion of tlie Mexi«ran 
region. Our knowledge of this subject is, howcner, very incoinplctc. 

In the species of llylidae (joloration may be tlistributed into two 
regions; the (ir-M including that which is exposed to tlie light when the 
animal is crouched, with the limbs all Hexed and close pressed to the 
sides, the hands and feet coniiealed more or less finder the body; and 
the second embraces what is thus hidden from the light, especially the 
jiortions in actual contact in llexure. Any marked dilfereiute in color 
of the different surfaces will usually be found to have reference to this 
division into regions, generally very dissimilar in appearance. This 
is well seen in Jfyhi ((lulerNonii,, and in I'hyllomedusa and 
Agalychnis. For convenience of reference, J here, as in otln-r genera 
of IJatrachia iSalieiitia, term the iiortions of the bixly and limbs which 
are exposed to tlie light external: those (!oiicealed in the llexure, in- 

AOIMS Dumeril and IJibron. 

Eq). (icii., \1II, r>(i(i; (iiinllicr, (":i(. Hatr. Sal. Hiit. Miis., I cd., ISM;, p. 
71; Copt', Nat. Ilisl. Kcv.. l-(i.'>, p. 110; Cope, .lidirii. Ai'. I'liila. (•-♦), 
VI, I.SIH), •^(i; ItoiiloiigtT, Cat. liatr. Sal. liiit. Mas., l.<--,», ii cd.. p. ;!:{(;. 

But one species of this genus is known, and it is found tlirougli(nit 
the greater part of the North Ameiican realm. It is <piite ))()ssibh! that 
it may become necessary at siuno future time to unite this genus with 

ACKIS Uh'YLMS L.. Conic. * 

Dmii. iV l!il>r. Erp. (it'ii., viii, .'>(i7: LcConh', I'rorccd. Ac. I'liila., l-.V.. 
•^•^: l!<.iilfii.;c:. Cat. liatr. Sal. l!iil. Miis.. I.-<-<->, :!:;(;. 
liana <ir;iUii^ l.c Cinili', .Vim. livcoiiiii New Vnik, i HJ,"), p. 'i&i; llailuii, Mid. I'livs. 

lies., p. i(ll. 
liuna (Uirsiilix llailaii,/. c, p. in."). 
IhlhiiU^ tinjllii'^ llollir., N. ,\iiirr. Ilcrp., I'j. :i;i. 

Uead niuderate, length to cam bus oiis e(|ual breadlh ;ii .same point. 
I\Iuz/,le natrowed. produced ; prolile projecting or m aily perpiMidieular. 
Ciinthiis rostralis we.ik, aiiproxiiiiale ; e\t«'inal nostril little nearer edge 
of lip than to orl)it. V'erti'x plaiu'; diameter of orbit greater than iii- 
terorbital breadth, three times in length from end of muzzle to posterior 
border of tymiianic membrane. Latter indistinct; piirtially obscured 
by a fold onetiflh the size d' the orldt. Skin of head :iiid body altove 
with rather distant tul>ei(des, of which some on the scapular regions are 
more or less plicifonn. No areolation on tliiiiMcie, and gular region. 
A seriesof simill tiibeniles on the outer Ixnilei iithe tarsus; twosmiill 
metatarsal tubercles. Articidar tubercles of the i>halaiiges very siuall. 

•riatc?;!, lij;. ','11. 



Toiiftiie broad, obovate, soiiu'timcs nearly ovate, distinctly to not eiuar- 
ginatc posteriorly. V^oincriiie teetii in t\v«» ovate patches between the 
interior nares, as near them as to each other. 

The end of the (bre-arni extended icaches the external nares. The 
heel of the extended hind leg reaches to or beyond the end of the muz- 
zle. Two larji'e metacai-pal tubercles. I.enjith of head to tympaiuim, 
one-third that of head and body. 

Averafic size: Lenj^th of body, 12 lines; from vent to outer end of 
femur, «J lines; tibia, 7 lines; tarsus and foot, 1) lines. 

Typical coloration : Above, brown or j;ray, with a blackish triangu- 
lar patch boiween the eyes, the ai)ex directed backwards; the bor- 
ders of this aie of a li{;ht color, which is lijjht green in life, and is con- 
tinued as a band to the end of the body. Three dark bars on the lip, 
one from the eye to the anterior UNncr aim across the angle of tlu^ 
mouth, pale bordered above. A dark bar from the orbit across tln^ 
tympanum, and one from scapular region to beyond middle of side. A 
dark bar from behind the scapular region restricts tli«' doisal line near 
the sacrum, and is usually continued with an interruption to the groin, 
('(dor of upper surfaces continiu>d on a less purt of sarface of femur, 
which is cross-barred; behind this pale, with a longitudinal band or 
series of spots itosteriorly. Throat in spring yellow. 

This species possesses the power of metachrosis oi- color-change in a 
high degree. The dorsal stri|)e and border of the iuterocular spot may 
be bright green, dirty white, or briglit rusty; and the dorsal tidierdes 
vary in color in the same way. The general tint varies from bright 
green to dull slate color. 

In its liabits the Arris f/rjillns is a lover of the muddy borders of the 
water, into which it leaj)s when alarmed. As it does not conceal itself 
among vegetation, like the Ifi/lti pkheriiifiii. it is much nu);''> easily 
caught than that speciies, and is more common in museums, though uot 
less abundant. As the structure (d" the feet indicate, it is a good swim- 
nier, and its i)owers of leai)ing are remaikabh'. 

Tliis species is distributed fr<»m I-Morida to Texas, through Kansas 
and the Northwest to the Atlantic, and as far northeastwardly as New 

The Uv.rthern and southern secstionsof this area i)rodiU!e forms whicU 
olVer considerables dilVereiu'cs, but which must be termed subspecies, on 
account of the existence in some localities of intermediate individuals. 
1 have seen such from Illinois, I'ennsylvania, .Misstuiri, and elsewhere. 

These subspecies are as t'ollows: 

llimlcr foot los.s liusiis less tliun half the lciiy;ili of flio lioail and Itody : dpriiial tii1>or- 
clcs larjjcr; i>ostt'rior fi'iiioral stiipc less <lis(iii<'i I </• <'iii>itaiiH. 

Iliiiih-r foot li'ss tarsus loiiLjer tliaii half heal ami hoily; itrrmal tiiliciTlos .smailt^r; 
femoral stiipc very ilistiiict l- !l- uriillnx. 

These sul)species are resi>ertively of northern and southern distribu- 
tion; tile .1. ;/. f/i'i/llKs ranging from North Carolina to Florida and 






li . 








Aeris f/r!jUit,s crepitans Baird. 

Aa'U grjillns Diini. A- Hilir., Erp. (J<mi,, vmi, IHIl. \>. '.(Ml, jxiflim : Cliiiitlifi- Cut. Hatr. 

Sal. Brit. Mus., l^i-^, p. 7, imrlim. 
Illlhihs grtjlhiH Do Kay, N. Y. Zool., KVptil., ni, 1S|-.'. p. 70, IM. \xii, li-. t;i. 
AcrtHcrepHans Bainl, rrocwd. Ac. I'liila.. H.'r., )». .Mt; !.!■ < 'cmti-. /. ,■.. p, .J-j(i; Hiiiril, 

U. S. Mo.\. Bound. Siirv., Ropt., p. 'J-', 1*1. xxwii, li-. 11-17. 

Flfi.82. Acris firylliis ctrpilnim. "So. in02l. Dps Moinr-t, Inw.i. ] : .niiil 7. f. 

Brownish abovo. The iiuMliaii r'j'moii of head and body almvo brijilit 
green; a dark triansh' between llie eyes. Three obli(|ne blotches on 
the side.s, nearly e^inidistant : the lirst belihid the eye, the hist on the 
Hanks and running up on the back ; all usnally margined with liglitrr, 
a narrow wliite linc^ from tlie eye to arm. IJencatli yellowishwiiite. 
Inferior face of thigh i)hiin. Tibia a little more than half the length (»t 
the body. Foot rather smallei'. Head rather obtuse, scarcely longer 
than broad. Web of hind foot extending to the penultimate articula- 
tion of the (ourth toe. 

This subspecies is (tharai^terized by a rather long, narrow head, with 
the eyes farther back than usual. There is no constriction for the neck, 
the outline tapering towards the snout from altout the middle of the 
body. The limbs are very muscular, and c(Misiderably developed. 

The eyes arc large and prominent ; their anterior edges deciidediy be- 
hind the middle of the commi.ssnre, and their posteiior barely anterior 
to the angle of the mouth; hence the siu)nt is consideraldy pr<Mhiced. 
The nostrils are minute, situated on thecanthus rostralis, rather nearer 
t/ie tip of the snout than the eye, and .separated by a distaiu'e less than 
one-third the width of the rami. Tlie tympanum is small, not veiy dis- 
tin(;t, about half the diameter of the «'ye, and placed just above the ric- 
tus. The head is abnost as long as wide, espetiially in laigc specimens. 

The tongue is broad, oval, subtruucate, and but slightly emarginate 
behind; the anterior extremity rounded; it is frcc^ behind and on the 
sides. The inner nares are large, open, i>la(!ed a little in front of a 
point opposite tlu^ anterior canthus orbitalis. 

The vonu'rine teeth are situated in two oval patches about the size 
of the nares, the slightly longer axes inclined a little to each other, 
backward. They an^ phu-ed between the nares, their anterior edges 
nearly in the same transverse line with those of the nares, and extend- 
ing a little beyoiul the nares i)osteri»U'ly, and thus more anterior than in 
any other of the .small llyloids of North Anu'rica. They are about as 




fiir apart posteriorly as tlieir anterior extioinities are from the nares. 
Tlie Eustachian apertures very nunute, less than the inner nares. 

The lower parts are covered by a depressed. pavement or granulation, 
extending half way up the side and on the inferior face of the thighs 
In many specimens this appears to be wanting between and anterior to 
the arms. The upper parts generally are provided with rather scat- 
teied pustulations or warty elevations, with numerous pores opeidng 
between and on them; these pustules are most numerous on the sides 
and anteriorly. Some are considerably larger and longitudinal, and 
aj)pear most distinct near the edges of the vertebral vitta. 

The hands are large and well develojjed; ratl'er longer than the fore- 
aru). The tips of the lingers and toes are i)rovided with very slightly 
enlarged, depressed pallets or disks, convex beneath and with a nail- 
like groovi'. 

The outer finger is rather longer than the second, and all appear to 
be connected by a very slight thickened membrane. The inner tinger 
is set at a right-angle with the third and posterior to the I'est. There 
is a soft large tul)ercle at its base, and a still larger opposite to it on 
the other side of the palm, the two with oidy a narrow interval. All the 
arti(!ulations of the fingers and toes have well-developed tubercles be- 
tween them. 

The femur is shorter than the tibia, rather longer than the foot; the 
tibia is more than half the h'ugth of the bo«ly. The two outer meta- 
tarsi are (irmly uuit<'d, the others cleft to the base; the intervals of the 
latter, however, fille«l uft by a well-developed inend)raiu», which exteiuls 
as far as the bases of the disks, and tilling up most of the space between 
the toes, ex<!ept on each side of the longest, where the membrane forms 
a narrow margin on the penultimate joint. The third toe is a little 
longer than the tifth or outer. The (tuneilorm process makes a consid- 
(■raltle promiiuMice, while on the opposite or (»ufer sidi^ of the tarsus 
and foot are three or four small tubercles, at about e<|ual distances, 
the distal one oi)|»osite the cuneiform process and largest. The tul)er- 
cles beneath the articulations are very distinct. There is a rudimentary 
membrane along the e\teri<u' edge of the loot. 

In alcohol the general color al)i)ve is of a dull brown. During life, 
however, an area itoumled by lines extending from the jiostrils and 
div«'rging to the middle of the edge of the upper eyelid, then converg- 
ing to the sacral vertebra, then again widening to the buttocks, is of a 
blight grass green. This is inlerru|»ted l)etween tlu^ eyes by a well- 
delined trianghsof bi'own, lu'arly ecjuilateral, with rather c()ncave sides, 
and its base connecting tiie edges of the upi)er eyelids. A ilusky line 
extends along the canfhus rostralis. The sides of the. face and edges 
of the upper jaw exhibit three or four indistinct scpiare blotches, sepa- 
rated by narrower intervals ; oneor more sometimes better defined than 
tiie rest. A dark broad line extends from the sides of the lower jaw to 
the lower part of the insertion of the arm, an«l another from the posterior 







r^]< '] 





a2<S uuLhiyriN :!i, lnitkd statks national mi'skcm. 

portion of the ovhit to the uj))h'1' edj^e of tlio same insertion ; the two 
are oblique and paralh'l. They are sei)arate(l by a narrow light (even 
white) line, exteiulinf? from the orbit a little behind the lowest part and 
riinninff to tho middle of the insertion of tiie arm. IJehind the arm and 
on the side of the body is a still larj-er blotch, similar and parallel to 
the last mentioned, i'.nd behind this and hi.uher upon the baek still 
another, anteriorly eoverinf>' the loins on each side, and innniiif;' ob- 
liquely baelvwards so as to be parallel to the others. The blotehes of 
this posterior pair are separated by the narrowest |>art of the j;reen 
stripe, which is bounded to a considerable distance by these blot<!hes. 
All the blotches Just descrilted, as well as that >n the lop of tlu^ head, 
are «lark brown, margined by a lijihter aicola, which on t-lu^ sides and 
back is sometimes yellowish in life. The under ])arts aic yellowish- 
white or pun^ white; the throat sometimes bri.uht yellow; souu'times 
closely or si)arsely crowded with dark spots. There aic no w«'ll-de- 
lined darker blotches on the arm ; but the thj^li, lej;', tarsus, and loot 
each exhibit two oi- three transverse ones. The buttocks are yellow- 
ish, with the arms brown, and the posterior and anterior faces, with 
small blotches, some of which are oceasionally continent into an irre<'- 
ular dark line alonji the anterior and ixtsferiiw faces of the thijih. The 
granulation about the buttocks is usually wliit«'. 

A specimen from Hussellville. Ky., has the blotches much snmller 
than usual. 

In a specimen from (Carlisle the last vertebra has the transveise 
apophyses very little dilated, though somewhat enlarged at the ends. 




. 'J.'. 

. :,\ 



'I'lttal ol' li';; .strt'lcilifd , 

Wi.ltli iifli.'.-ul 

Clinrd ol' u])p«'r Jaw .. . 

. t;t 


. :!(•. 

. -J.'. 
. 15 

. :ir. 

Total Ipiifitli l.os 

Ann anil haiwl ID 

Hand alone ','7 

Thigh r.:i 

L*'},' ".,■< 

The iris of this subspecies is golden and capable of exctessiviM'ontrac- 
tion. A broad blackish spot o(;cupies it at each end <»f the pupil, and 
a narrow hhw.k line above and below the latter. When the iris is con- 
tracted the])npil is shortly transverse, not linear as in many llyke, and 
the brown sjtots are triangles, their apices inwards. 

Specimens from the lower Mississippi ar«' lre«pH'ntly of <»bscnre colois, 
of rather larger size, and with large tubercles. I have not been able to 
distinguish theuj as foiining a constant subspecies. Mr. IJonlcnger, 
(Catal. JJatr. Sal., Ibit. Mas., ISSli, p. .J.'JT) refers such a specinu'n to a 
"var. bufonia." 

In connection with metachrosis in this species 1 obsei'ved in a speci- 
men lately deau that on the end of the muzzle, ])alpel»ra', canthus r«ts- 
tralis, outer line of humerus, ends of sacral diapophyscs, where tlu> 
derm was in ji state of teusi(»n, that it assumed a bright green hue. 

The note of this species may be exactly imitated by striking two 
marbles together first slowly, then fasti-r and faster, for a succession of 

^ * 


\ ; 

Tin; MATHAflllA <)i' NOIiTll AMKIilCA. 


about twenty or tliiity beats. Tlie xnma can uot be heard at a very 
great distance. Like Jlyla picl-eringil, this species in confinement can 
readily be made to producic its note by imitating it, either with tlio 
voice or tlie ehittering- of two pebbles. It keeps on the high grass in 
and around marshy pla<!es, seldom if ever ascending trees or bushes. 
When pursued it leaps with prodigious agility and hides uiuler water. 

Acris (jnjlluH (jryUus Le C. 

lUtna (jrtilhiH Le Coiito, Ann. N. V. Lye. i (IHyf)), Sis'i ; Ifnrlaii, Joiirn. Ac. Nat. Sci. 

V, (1H27), ;!17, ami Med. ami I'liys. Kt-s. (IKC), 101 (copieil). 
Uaiia ilorstilis Ilarl., .loiirn. Ar. Nat. Sci., I'liila. \ (IfiT), :U7, and Med. and Pliys. 

lies, (l":!.')), Id.''. (FifT. ,11, ],.'2), (Floiida.) 
Ilijhulin (jrnlhix llolbrook, N. Anit-r. IIcip., 1st od., II (1811.-), /fi, xiii, and 'id cmI., iv 

(l.-'l'J), i:n, xwm, iKirlim. 
Arris iiriilhiH Dnin. A Hilir., Kip. (i^n., viii (1811), 'iDli; Auj^. Dnni., Ann. Do.s. Sc. 

Nat.,:! scrii', xix (LS"):l), l."):i; OiiiitluT, Cat. IJril. Mns., lf^.'>H, ji. 71, pttiiim; 

l{(>ul('n>,'('r, (Jat. Hiit. Mu.s., ii od.. IH.S'J, p. XW,. 
Acrin avheld Haird, I'roctu'd. Ac. I'liila., 1KV>, p. '>'.). 

IJody slender ; head jtointed. Limbs much elongated. Head longer 
tlian wide. Web of hind foot extending only to the third arliculation 
(irom tip) of longest toe. Tibia two-thirds length of body. Foot more 
tliaii half length of body. Colors much as in A. crepifaits, but brighter. 
Inferior surface of thigh plain, or very slightly freckled with darker. 
A narrow white line irom eye to arm and a light line above the urostyle. 

Having presented a minute descri])tion of ^4. crepitans, \t will oidj' be 
necessary here to give the prineii)al points of difference as compared 
witn that si)ecies. The entire form is much more slender, and the limbs 
longer in i)roi)ortion. The head is much more acute, and the outline of 
the lower jaw elliptical, instead of being nearly semicircular. The chord 
of the rami is longer than their greatest Avidth, not e<(ual to it, and the 
(!left extends further back. The tymi)anum in both is scarcely distin- 
guishable. The tongue is large, triangular, and Hesliy. The teeth are 
in two small circidar pat( lies, between the inner nares, and separated by 
quite an inteival. The pallets at the tips of the more elongated fingers 
and toes are very moderate, less prominent than in A. crepitans. The 
fourth or longest toe projects beyond the rest much more than in A. 
crepitans iwnl the web scarcely extends on either side beyond its ante- 
penultimate articulation, while in A. crepitans this web reaches to the 
lienuUimate one and even as Ji very narrow margin to the very tip; nor 
between any of the i)halanges does the membrane extend to the disks as 
in (he other. 

The general distribution of color is the same, although the pattern is 
brighter and clearer. All the blotches have a narrow border of white. 
The posterior large one seems to extend higher up on the back. The up- 
l»er jaw has four narrow white lines i)erpendicular to its edge on each 
side, as in the other species, inclosing nearly equal spaces. There is a 
light streak down the posterior part of the back above the urostyle which 
we have not noticed in the other. The dark longitudinal line on the 




1 i 


posterior Caci^ oftlio tliif-h is more (list iiict. The limbs inv. more lliicly 
biirreil abovt', tliri'o or four lascia' on Joint; tiie npp'.'r and ontcr 
Hurf'aco ot tlitiliands and ft'ct also (int'ly barred. 

The akin above seems rather smootlu'r than in tiie other, wiiih^ tlie 
throat is more j;ranuhited. 

As ro^'ards tiie transition between this snbspeeies and tiie nrpi 
tans, a number of specuniens display intermediate proportions. Tims 
in some the posterior loot, minus tiie tarsus, is exactly hall' the h-nyth 
of the head and body. In some lots from a singh; hxtality some speci- 
mens have th«^ hiud foot one-half the lenj;th, while others fall a litth^ 
below, and still otiiers fall a iitth^ above, this pi'oporlion. Such a lot is 
that from ('ooper County, .Mo., No. .'{rt,"*!. 

The distinctness of the jtosteiior femoral brown stripe is sidvJiM't to 
variation. In typical A. tj. t/rifllitu \t is sharp, and is bordered above 
and below by pale bands, of which the latter is aj;ain bordertMl below 
by a darker shade. In other si)ecimens the lower pale band is shaded, 
and its inferior brown edsie, is indistinct. The infeiior edjic of the 
brown band becomes irrejj[idar, and in the A. tf. rtrjtittnis it is a j^ood 
deal interrupted i»y paler. 

.Icrin t/rjilliis I rt jiititiis liuinl. 

(!iitiiloj;no} Xn.nt' 
niiiiiln'r. ! spii'. 







i.lM'lllll V. 

calU'i'ti-tl. n.r..iv...l. ^'^iti.-r cf «,„.,■• 


OciiniiiiKiwiir Kivi'i. Win I'liil". S. K. liaiiil 

, (1(1 A.C. Mjiiv 

Kort lii^f, 'nx l;. Kiimnlv 

il« . ilo '. 

New r.raiMifcIs, Tex I'". I.inilhiiim'r 

Iiidiinicilii. Tex r.U.Ciaik 

Kiisscllvillc, ICy Hilil. 

I'liiil i<' Mil l;iiii;;r, I,ii Jiiincs Kail in 

I'oit Sriiilli, Aik l>i. U. 1'. Sliiiiiiaiil ... 

A/talaii, Wis I'mf. S K liainl 

Wahliiiit;lc)ii, U.V 

(lailislc, I'a 

Vcl<lii;ii.i Uivcr 

Xmlli I'lallr, Nibr 

Soiilli I'lirU 

lil.i iiiili-i west III' Kiiit 

Kil'V, K;iiis. 
Ui>|iiilili(',iii liivtT, Mil 


























liniK Mair.v 

Saiiil l.iiiiis. Mo I 

Masiiii Ciiiiiily. Ill ; 

SiiiilliCiiaiiil Uivrr, Mis.s 


Ticklaw, l,a lire. 'JO, IS7li 

<;iililsiii)n,ii;;li, N.C ; I .I.W. Milii 

riiiiiii CcMintN , 111 1 1 I!. Ki'iiiiiciilt 

Swaiiipsiiii l.imp I'liik ..i ] Dr. 1''. V. Ilavili'ii 

Cailisii-, I'a I'lor. S. V. lljinl 

1>|. Will. SliiiipHiin 

I'liiC. S. 1'. liainl 


W.S. WihmI 

111. I'.V. Ilavili'li 

W.S. Wimil' 

III. W. A. llaiiiiiiiiiiil, I' 
S. .A . 

11. M. Mullhaiisi'ii 

IM. (i. Kli;;rllliaMli 

i;. Kiiiiiiciiii 

IM.I'.I!. llnv . 

iii..r.(;.('iMipi'i- .. 

Dr. T. 11. li.aii 

N.w Mailriil, Mn ... 

Waiiki-aii. Ill 

Wahliiii;;li)ii, II. (' .. 


reiiHiU'olii, Kla 

It. Kriiniriitl . 
.1. W. .Milii.T ... 

Di. I').( 'ours 


Ill . .1 . llainiiiiiiiil 










(iKXKUAl. smilKS. 




l.oiip Fork 

,'saiiil l.niiis. Ml) . . 
t'oit Kilov, Kaii.s . 

F. iiMit. <i. Will It'll. f.S. A. Alcolinll 

Hi-. <i. I'liijiiliiiaiin Dn. 

I.i»»'.T.r.ivaii.r.S..\ Dn. 


SiuciiiK'tiK iiiliriiialiiilv hthricii .(. </. ijrijIliiH ttud A. (j. iTcpilaiiH. 



No. or 




(ir;iiiil Tlilonr, l.;i 

Cciiipii' ("cMinl.v. Mo . .. 
WiiMliiiitfliiii. D.i; 


l''rom uliom iccidvnl. 
1'. !,. lldv 

Naluif ol'upor. 





1 ''7(i7 

(iroim' .SlioeiiiaUcr 

1,. M. I'lirrur 


Niislivillr. (in 

I,(iiiK(iiil Mciiiiilaiii,'r<'iili 
Willciii^liliN I'oiiil, Vii 
Moliili' Al'ii 


w'.v. K,,;. 



Kaillaiiil McDoiialil .. 
I*ilirtin(lv . . 





Old Koll (/'olili Oiil 

111. K. I'lihncl' 


A<ri^ 'jitllliis iiriilliis \a' CoiiIc. 


































I'ciisacdia, Kla . . 


l'"ioin wlioin icrciv('«l. 

NatiiTO of spoiv 

..; Dr. J. IV llaiiiMioiicl, r. Al 

! i I S. A. 

! New Mail I ill Mil ■ ' 11. Kcniiiroll ' 

I Cliaili-iliiii. S. (' I Dr. C. (iiraril | 

i (iior-ia ' ! Dr.iI.L. I-i' i:ontr 

■ till I 4lll ' 

SaliMii. N'.C ^ .r.T. MiiiliacU .. 

. .Simlliiin llliiiiii.s i U Kriinicnlt 

Atliiiiitiin. I'la ' (!. Uriiwii ( iooili" 

D.iNlnn. .Ma , Kilniwnilli 

I'rairir .\li r Ilinmc l.a .laims Kairir 

Millno. I'l.i S. T. WalUrr 

\VasliiiiL;liiii D. < ' William Stiiiipson, M. D ' 

M I Cai I, III I I.. M. riirioi' 

Na.slivillr. Ca : W. .1. Tax liir 




I'ritci'cd. Ac I'liila., Is.'.l, |.. .V.i ; ('(.|m', Acml. I'liilii., IM.-^C. \k h;. 

11, In a lis |5iiinl, rroctcil. .\c,i<1. I'liil;i., l-.".l. p. .")'.» 

I'sniiliiiris i"it/., Systciiia licplilimii. I~'i:!. M ( no cliiirjictci) ; (JlintluT, Ciit. Hatr. 
SmI. r.iil. Mils., K.-^, '.17: ro|ir. Nat. Ilisl. llcv., l-(i."., lUI. 

(Iniiiiiitn tlnttt'iicd; ii lar<i»> ri'DiitDiiarictal fotitaiu'lle. Pivfroiitals 
elongate, (li\«'r.m'i)f, not in ('ontact anteriorly, extending;' ho.vond the 
«'xti«'init.v ol' the well-devehiped i»roh)njie<l siiiierior ethmoid jthite. 
'I'oiij-ne rounded or ehniyate, sli^ilitly eiiiai<jiiiate behind, where it is 
tree tor about lialf its ieii.uth. rnterior «'yelid transparent. iShdes with 
sub^nlar vocal ve.'^ich'. Xiphistenirim libroeartihigiiums ; soinetinies 
cartihiji'inoiis, flattened, eloiiinate. 1 'iyits tree except in some ii sli<>iit 
web eoiineetinf; free portion of metaiaisals; dilatations small or want- 
iiiji, tli^^ iihalaiifie with the claw strong, and the ball not emarginate. 
I)ilatali(»ns of sacral diapophyse.s nearly <'(piilateral. 

In the known sjiecies the vomerine teeth are present: in two small 
approximated pat<'hes behind the point exactly between tlu^ iiares, 
and the tympanum is distinct. 

Tills genus is nearly ndated to that groui> of the si)eeies of Ilyhi 
naiii(;d Litoria in the lOrpetologie (lenerale. From typical forms of 

f : 


V^' ■{ 


the lormcr, (lio otiinioid plate witlioiit siipriiorbital aiij,'I('s, the elongate 
terminal plialaiij^e.s with siiiall basal ^-lolu', supporting; ininnte dila- 
tations, and IIh^ nearly wehless di;;its distinj;uish it. Species of Il.vhi 
less i'ei)i'eseMtalive ai«' similar in (cranial stiiictnre, and have a dimin- 
ished amount of palmation, but the series appears with onr present 
knowledfi*'! distinct in the strnelnre of the leet. Like the Ijitoiias, its 
lite is passed on the ground, and ehiclly in tiie neighborhood of small 
pools in open and barren situations, whi're the voiei^s of the species 
may be heard with the Acris in the summer, lon^' alter the Ilylas have 
souj^ht their leafy retreats in the W(M»d or fence low. Tliev dill'cr fictm 
the first -mentioned ficnns in belli;;- pooi' swimmers; thonyh they hap 
into the water when alarmed, they do not swim far from the shore, 
and soon return to it. They do not scei;i to be possessed of the power 
of making such i'liormous leaps as the liitorias of Australia, or even 
as our Acris. In typical Kitoria the Inaiii cast* is more elongate ami 
cylindrical and the frontoparietal foutanelh> much narrower, but in 
/y. (niieriniiifi the form and prop')rtiuiis are the same. 

The general form and habits of the Australian ;;eniis (!rinia are not 
very ditlerent from the present; the. terminal, not inferior, attachment 
of the ultimate phalanx will separate it from all llylida'. 

Chorophilns is distiibiited from the I'io (Iraiide, Sail liake N'alley, 
and llocky Mountains on the west, to the Aflanti*!, and IV(hii the (Inlf 
to the northern limits of the Unit<'d States west of tlu^ Alleijhaiiics; 
east of this ran^e I am not awai(^ of its occnnin^- lun'th of middle 
Pennsylvania. Of its six species four are coiiiincd to the (Julf States 
and South Carolina, while the fifth is found under several forms 
throughout the whole of the ii«»rth and southwest, the northern and 
middle parts of the central, and the middh^ of the eastern region to 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

The species differ as follows: 

I. Miizzli' roiiiidrd in prolilc, itrojictiii;^;. 
a. Sliin <»f iipiMT siirfiiccs smontli. 

Stont, wiillli (if lifiHl at t.vnipiin.'i ciilcriiifj toliil l<'n;;lli !!..'> to 'J. (ill times; 
nostril Jiall-Wiiy between nm/./le ami orliit ; poNteriort'oot slioitiT, slji^litjy 
\vel)l)e(l, and willi Hiiliarlienlai' Inlierelrs ; Iwel reacliin;; tynipaninii 

''. onialHH. 

More slender ; widtii of head eiittriii;; length :> to ;!.."> times: nostril nearer 
end of mn/,/le than orliil ; poslerior Cool longer, not vvehlied, :imiI without. 

.snbarlienlar tnlxircles; heel reacliin;; niiildle of orhit r, mciiUiiialh. 

aa. Skin warty above. 

Head acuminate, th(f width (Miterin;; the total three times; lu>el reaehin<r 

anterior to oil)it ; si/.i' iar;;er (\ iiiiridin 

Head short, wider; the. width (^nterin;; the len;;lh ;!.•.'."> limes: the heel 

reaches to the front of the orbit ; small r. lerinviim. 

Head acuminate; the widtii entering; the total '.!.ri to ii.dli times; hind hx^s 
short; heel I'eaehin;; p.-sterior boi'der of memlirannin tympani 

r. Iriscriii tiis. 

II. Muzzle truncate in profile. 

Vertex and front plane ; can I h us rostral is shurp ; iiiiid le;;s Ion;;, .r. ociiluriii. 


as, its 
l< ii|» 
le ami 
Hit ill 



('ijHlitjHttlhuH oriKilnH lldlhr., N. AniiT. lliTii., iv, \\. 10."), |'l. ',''>. 

Clioivpliiliix oniiihiM |i()iil('ii;;t'r, (Jat. Iliilr. Sal. IJiil. Miis,, 'ii\ cd., l.-^S'.', p. ;{;i;). 

rlnnotiltiliis ()((//((»(■« Daudiii, t'lppc, Itnll. U. S. Nat. Mils., No. 17, ls>(i, |». y7. 

Mtizzlt^ and caiitliiis lostnilis roiiuded ; (he foriiiei' projeetiiiy', but 
short, not longer than tliametei of eye; external iiares nearer the orbit 
than the tMul of the iiiiizxle; skin not areolated or roiigluMied above; 
toes without teriiiinal kiiol s, (listiiuMly wehlted at the base, and with 
well developed siiliartieular iiiliercles; himl legs short, heel only reiich- 
iiig posterior edge of tympaiiiim wlieii exteiidt'd. 

The liead is rather short, and the anterior outline is a narrow oval. 
The e.xtreniity of the miiz/le inojects beyond the month, and tln^ lore.s 
are slightly oliliipie ami a little concave. The nostril is but little nearer 
the extremity of the muzzle than the orbit. The vertical diameter of 
the tympanum a little ex«!eeds the, which is one-half the long 
diameter of the eyeslit. The pupil, as in the other species of this 
genus, is horizontal. The tongue is wide, di.scoid, and entire behind. 
Theo.'^tia pliaryngea are smaller than the small choaiiie. The vomerine 
patches are. short and; they ai«M'ntirely within the lines of 
the inner borders of the choana' and behind the line of the posterior 
boiders of the same. 

The tiiliercles of the superior surfaces are small and lather dcsely 
placed ; they are largest on the sides of th(» back. There is a faint areo- 
latioii of the gular region. The limlis are short and stout. The humerus 
is half or more inclosed in the skin. The |>alm reaches nearly to the end 
of the muzzle. The lingers are short and stout, and have neither dilatii- 
tions nor borders. The lirst is shorter than the second, whicli eijuals 
the fourth. The palmar tubentles are not distinct. The heel of the ap- 
pressed hind foot in thin specimens marks the middle of the tympanic 
disk or posterior border of orbit, and the end of the muzzle the extremity 
of the tarsus. The hind foot beytuid the tarsus is only as long as the 
tibia. The toes have no dilatations, but possess dermal margins, and a 
short but distinct basal web. There is luit (tiie solar tuliercle, a small 
cuneiform piomiiieiKic. Total length, .(KM'"; of head, to liiu^ of posterior 
borders of membraiium tympani, .011'"; width of head at the latter, 
.tut'"; length of hind leg, .(Mo'"; of femur, .01. "i"'; of hind foot, .022"' ; of 
tarsus, .0()!»"'. 

The (tolor above is olive-gray, and below uniform straw-color. A 
black band passes from the end of the muzzle on each side, through the 
eye, and, exiiandiiig over the ear drum, terminates in front of the liu- 
mei us. One or two dark spots above and behind the axilla may unite 
to fiiiiii part of a lateral band. There may or may not be blackish spots 
above the groin and on the pelvit; region and anterior part of the back. 

' I'lalc 7-J, li;;'. 'J. 


1 I 

r ' 


f i 

) I 




334 IJULLETIN :;i, UMTIID STATKS national Ml'.SHUM. 

The limbs Lave a lew diukbrowu ciossbauds; the reiuiii' is yellowish 
aud unspotted behiud. 

( 1. 

ISM ; 

Fi ; 

! I ) 

Fk;. Kt. CliDriipliilKH luiKiliiK. 

.(•H, Tcxiis 

Dr. Ilolbiook describes the (;(>h)is of this species in lil'e as I'oUows: 

Dove color above, witli oblonj;- spots of darkbiowii, inari;ined with 

The head has a broad, indistinct, triangular spot between the orbits, 
the apex of which is directed backwards. A black liiu> extends Ironi 
the snout to the orbit of the eye, including the nostrils; below this 
black line is a yellowish blotch, covi'riug most of the upper Jaw, The 
lower Jaw is (tinereous above and white below. The i)upil is very dark, 
the iris of a golden color. The. tympanum is very dark (colored, and 
placed in a dar!' vitta, (U' blotch, wlii(!h extends from behind the orbit 
to within a, short distance of the shoulder. The body is of a delicate 
dove-color above, v/itli two or moi'e oblong sjiots of dark brown, mar- 
gined with yellow, on each sule of the vcitebral line; below these, and 
on eacli Hank, are three smaller spots, likewise margined with briglit 
yellow, the anterior one being the largest ; these, with a smaller one 
above the v»'ut, form a triangle on each llatdi; ; s<'veral luiglit yellow 
spots, also disposed ni a triangulai' form, with the api<'es diiccled lor 
wards, aie concealed by the thighs. The inferior surface of tliis ani- 
mal is silver-white, ami ex<;ept (Ui the throat, everywhere granulated ; 
about the throat an' a few indistinct points of black; the anteiior and 
middle parts of the abdomen are white with a slight tinge; the poste 
rior third api)roaches to llesh-color. 

The anterior extremities are dove-<!oI<ue(l abo\e, with a few distinct 
dark bands placed transveisely on the fore-arm, ami a black spot at the 
elbow: a black line runs from the inferior ami upi>er jiart of the shoul- 
der towards the lower Jaw ; dove-coloicd above, with transveise bands 
of dark brown; on the anterior part of the thigh are s^.^ral smiill 
yellow spots; on the posterior surface th(^se spots aie numerous and so 
(thtsely approximated as to icsemble at lirst view a yellow waving liuf. 
Tiie whole under snifacc^ of the thighs is tlesh-coloied ; the inleritu- 
surliuu! of the legs is also tlesh-colore<l, with a I'vw yellow dots. 

No. l.'JG.'H; OIK' specimen: llelotes; liexar County, Texas; (1. W, 

Other spe<!imens of this species are in my private tolle(;tion Irom the 
same locality, and from Dallas, Texas. 



'> Q r. 

CnOKOrillMT.S OCCIDKNTALIS 15«l. & Ginl. 

TAIoria occidviilalis IJd. *V (liril., rrocMcd. Ac. I'liila., ls.'>;{, ]i. :!01. 

Ci/sliiiiialliiiHiiniitliix " IIoll)!.", (iiiiitlicr, t'n\. Hiifr. S;il. I'.iit. Mii