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Full text of "Report on the social economy section of the Universal International Exposition of 1889 at Paris [microform]"

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REPORT 



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ox THE 




SOCIAL ECONOMY SECTION 



OF TlIK 



i!J lit Paris 



I'ltEI'AHKI) I'.Y 

JULES HELBRONNER 
Memli'i- of tht Royal Labor Commii4oii 



Reqtxested by the Honorable Secretary of State 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT 




OTTAWA: 
PRINTED IJV BROWN CHAMBERLIN, PRINTER TO THE QUEEN'S mOSAT 

EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 

1890. 



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To tho Hon. J. A. Chapleau, 

Secretary of State. 

Sir,— I have the honor to submit to you the report which T was entrusted to 
make on the Social Economy Section of tho Universal International i xhibition of 
1889 of Paris. 

The promoters of that secti .v had taken for their motto : " To point out to masters 
and workmen who, so far, had done nothing, the example of those who know how to act, 
and had acted with success." 

I have endeavored to attain that end. 

Believe me, Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 



JULES IIELBEONNEE. 



Montreal, 31si March, 1890. 



20-Ai 



Jul 01 

Gove 
Mr. 

Purif 
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Tiiel 



J)EI'AKT.MKNT OF THE SECRETAKY <»K StATE, 

Office of the Minister, Ottawa, 20th May, 1889. 

My DEAR Commissioner Genekal, — T Jiiive the Iionor to introduoo to you Mr. 
Julos llolbronner, ono of tho Commissioners of the Labor Commission croatod bv the 
Government of Canada in 188(5, to study the rehitions between capital and hiltor. 
Mr. Heliironner lias a])pliod iiimseif to tiie study ol" these questions, and lie uoes to 
Paris with tho intention of t'ollowini^ the labors of tiie Social Economy Section of the 
Univei*sal International E.vhibition, now hold there. 

Tho Government, not lieinii; authorized tliereto, has not thought e.x'pedient to 
give to Mr. Ilelbronner an olUcial mission, but we have taken advantage of his 
visit to Paris to entrust liim ■w iih a preparation of a report on the labors of the 
Social Keononiv Exhiliilion which he is to present to the Di'partment of the Secretary 
of State, and which we will submit later on as an appendix to the Ueport of the 
Labor Commission. 

Please give to Mr. Ilelbronner a cordial welcome, and inlroiluce him to the 
commissioners and officers of the Exhibition, so that ho may obtain access to tho 
documents he may need, and which will be of use to him in his undoi-taking. 

I doubt not but that your relations with Mr. Ilelbronner will bo agreeable, and 
that you will make his visit to Paris both pleasant and useful. 

Believe me, dear Commissioner General, 

Your devoted, 



J. A. CHAPLEAU. 



The Hon. II. Fahre, C.M.G., 

Commissioner General of Canada, 
10, rue de Eome, Paris. 



AhuM* 



UNIVERSAL INTERNATIONAL EXIIIIIITION OF ISSO. 



SOCIAL ECONOMY SECTION 



REPORT. 



The Social Economy Section did not at first form part of tlio proj^rammo for the 
Exliibitioii of 1881). It was only created in 18H7, and though the last, it was not tho 
lesH noticed nor tho loss remarkable. 

It did not, however, poHSoss ii brilliant exterior, nor anytliin>^ to divert the 
attention from tho marvellous spectacles presented by tho other sections. 

A few workmen's houses forming a modest little street; a few pavilions erected 
singly or in groups; an economic restaurant, a dispensary; a rotunda serving as a 
committee-room, and a little corridor of a few hundred foot dimensions, enclosed all 
tho treasures of this section. 

And what treasures! Bo ks, documents, graphic pictures, tho monotony of 
which was only varied by some I'lans in relievo, orthoAVorks of a training or profes- 
sional school. 

There was nothing there, in this corner of tho Explanado of tho Invalidos, or 
very little, to attract.tb<> attention of tho great crowd of visitors; however, this little 
space was one of those frequently visited, much admired and much stuilied. 

It was here, Ja this corner, that were deposited documents illuminating tho 
social question Avith a new departure, demonstrating that accord of capital and 
labor was no Utopian scherno, nor an impossibility, and that the workman was more 
than he is generally regarded to be, capable of creating permanent assurance com. 
panics, provident, co-operative and educational institutions. 

In adding tho Social Economy section (the eleventh group), to sections ci'oated 
in tho first place, tho object was to group and reward — 

" All tho institutions created either by the employers of labor, in favour of 
the workmen themselves, or by tho State, or by cities, to ameliorate tho moral and 
physical condition of tho citizens, to accustom them to habits ot economy, to 
ac([Uaint them with the advantages of cooporation, to stimulate enterprise, and in 
procuring for them healthy dwellings, to facilitate their opportunities for becoming 
proprietors. Useful examples will be given to tho public, and by the efficacious 
results of acquired experience and well-proved facts, harmony will be developed 
among those working at similar occupations." Ministerial resolution of \)th June, 1887. 

From the month of Juno 1887, committees were formed in France, as well as 
elsewhere, to organize the new section ; those committees proceeded to make a 



vm 



tlii)i'<>ii;^|i i'ii(|iiir\ III! ('cuniiinic (|ii('>l inii.s, a iiu'llniiliciil ciKiuiry Ijiisivl oii ii woll- 
Bolt'Ctnl list (it' over L'OO (jiichI ioii.><. Tlic (liiciimi'iit> ((illccitil Kv llic coiuinitteos 
viTe c!liiHs«'(l as I'niliiw.s : — 

Niniilx'r rif 
I'xhiliitorK. 

Si'clioii I. l{omiiiU'nitinii (or labor 2-1 

— II. I'l'iilil-sliaiiiiif — ('inipfrativi' priKluctioii Hocit'tios.... 88 

— ill. I'lofi'SHioiial syndicates Gl 

•^ IV. Aiiiirc'iiticc'ship 78 

— V. .Mnliial lu'iu'voli'iil .sociolios 15-1 

— VJ. I'ciisKtii fiiiuls and life |)fiisii)iis (i7 

— ^'11. Acc'iilrtii and life insiiiaiicf fiiiiipaiiii'.-i 36 

— VIII. Savings 45 

— IX. CoiiHumerH' coopi'ialivi' association 37 

— X. (Joupcrativc credit associations 13 

— XI. WorUnien's (Iwtdlin^fH 51 

— Xll. \V<irkniou's eliilis. — iJanies ami recrealionn 8fi 

— Xlll. Social liyyieni' 44 

— XIV. I'atronal Institutions 72 

— XV. (rr-ande ol IV'tile Iniliislrio. — Agriculture 49 

— XVI. Kcoiioniic intervention in j)ublic gnverniiuni 2!t 

Section of Ficncli cities 10 

— of Belgium 'M 

— ()l'(irent Britain 45 

— of Italy 28 

Total 1,11(5 

These documents describe the cllbrls made by employers who believed that 
there were between themselves and their employees othci' sj'mpathies and relations 
than those of merely master and servant, and give a history of the institutions 
established by the workmen, either by their own etforts, oi- a.ssisted b}' their em- 
ployees or by the State, to ameliorate their moral and physical condition. 

Some of these documents are remarkable productions, veritable essays, review- 
ing all the social questions in connection with tiie diiVereut sections of the Social 
Economy Exhibition. 

The reports of the Belgian section (a largo volume of 1,100 pages, accompanied 
with maps, plans and pictures), those of the departmental committees of the Ehoue, 
the Gironilo and the Sarthe, and the volumes edited by the lai'ge com2)anies, indus- 
trial or financial, merit special attention from all who are interested in questions of 
social economy. 

The oiiipb)yees have been at great pains to pi'csent suitably, and in a style clear, 
precise and scientific, the functions of the institutions they had founded, and the results 
obtained. Wo find in those latter documents a description of most remarkable insti- 
lUtions, as well from the report of the idea whicli originated them, as for that which 
placed them in operation. 



^»1A 



IX 



I Wllll- 
lliltL'OH 



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7 
•^ 
1 

iii 

to 

29 
10 
E)9 

f' 

vod that 
relations 
<tiluti(>ns 
tlu'ir cm- 



rev icw- 

"lic Social 



Mupaiiicd 
le Rhone, 
jes, indus- 
lestions of 



lyle clear, 

Ihe rcsulta 

lible insti- 

lat which 



Wiiali'vor lie the vahie ol' tlio di»ciiments oxhibitt-d, it was quite inipossilile to 
review tliem all and do juBtiee to thorn in n Bingle report. Further, u reporter in 
not ttjuri/, and has nol the duly to judge > r the meritu, jjcreat or little, of the lilcas 
advanceil, but simply to desciibi' thost> the application ^>\' whicdi niii,dit otler special 
interest in (/aiiada. This is what we have cMili'iivunrfd to do. 

To attain this end wo have omitted from our description e^ery doeiunent, what- 
ovor it.s value, which treats of institutions already establisheil on thin cr)ntincnt. 
The docuinentH rotaineil have been classed not altogether on account of their im- 
portance, but from the JMlercst they possess from a Canadian point nt' view. Thus, 
a considerable sjiace has been given to the participation in prollls, to pension tunds and 
cooperative asssoeiations, tVc, whilst <letailH concerning othei- sections have been made 
us brief as possible. Wo have besides made a point of giving complete documents, 
that is, (»f publishing on each jiroject, on each class of institution, a ;('.<//Hif' containing 
all the essential elements !"or cmployci-s, foi' workmen, or for statesnim, who wish to 
establisii in (,'anada any of these institutions. And to arrive more easily at this 
end, we have united jdl these documents in one group, contenting ourselves with 
preceding them liy a few general I'emai'ks on the Hxbibition of Social I'lconomy and 
adding some of the reports presented at three i>t' the jirincipal Soeial (.'ongresses 
which mot at the Hxbibition. 

OUOANI/ATION OF LABOR. 

Section I. — Payment of labour. 
Section II. — Profit-sharing. 
Section III. — Apprvntlreship. 
Section IV. — Patronal inatitutiona. 

Al'I'BENTICESIIlf. 

Appi'cnticesbip in the strict sense of the wonl, that is, apjirenticeship s.rved at 
the workshop, is gradually disajipearing. The perfection of machinery, the division 
of labour, the necessity for rapid and largo ])roduction, the disappearance of a great 
many small workshops and emjdoyei's incapable of competing witii the laige cstalilisli- 
ments and powerful joint-stoek comjianies, are so many causes which have brought 
about the suppression of apprenticesbij). 

Chihlren are no longer rei[uired to give a lew ycai's ot their time in exchange for 
initiation into the mysteries of the trade which they wish to learn ; there is no longer 
time to instruct them. Production is necessaiy, the machine must bo tended, a work 
M'hich is learnt in a few days, or a few weeks at most; and the apprentice has 
disappeared before the cbild-W(jrkinan. 

So long as the old apprentices of fifty ^-ears ago continued at work, manufacturers 
and industry suffered but little from the moi'e or less complete suppression of 
apprenticeship. But one day the fact became apparent, now in one country, now in 
another, that certain industiy could not compete with foreign innxirtations, that the 
hitter were bettor made, better linished, more salable in a woi'd, than national pro- 
ducts, and the prospect was alarming. The question was considered and it was 
recognized that manufacturers the best equipped for comjietition wei-e those who 
knew how to preserve the traditions of apiirenticeship. 



•■'" "lllll 




The question has become in Europe ii national one, and in all labour districts, 
attempts are nor being made to re-establ'sh apprenticeship in another form, under 
the title of professional instruction. 

It is thus that a largo number of employers have formed in their establishments, 
cithor collectively, or under control of their managing boards, professional schools, 
in which the apprentice is instructed in the theory of the trade which is practically 
learnt at the workshop. Good results have so far been obtained; the child is really 
an apprentice, living the life of the workshop, under the direction, almost the pro- 
tection, of skilled workmen who learn thorn tiieir trade. Here is again found, with 
but little difference, that old system of apprenticeship, when the apprentice, rather 
strictly trained perhaps, learnt thoroughly his trade at the side of, and in the samo' 
establishment with, the workman to whose care he was confided. 

These individual oflForte of employers have been limited enough and were insuf- 
ficient in many cases to revive or maintain the supremacy which some countries had 
acquired in some branches of industry. It is thus that the public authorities in 
orilcr to lessen the consequences attending the disappearance of apprenticeship have 
created a complete system of professional instruction. 

This system, quite recently applied, takes, so to speak, the chihl at his first 
entry into school. As soon as his little hands can hold a tool, he is instructed how to- 
use it; not for the purpose of making a workman of him on his leaving school, but 
mainly to suppress the disagreeable jjeriod of apprenticeship which lasts as long 
as the apprentice is unable to make use of his tools, and also to discover the apti- 
tude and taste of the child, and make him select, when satisfied on this point, the 
trade offering him the best chances of success. 

These schools, wi h very rare exceptions, have been much appreciated by work- 
men from various countries, w^ho send their children to them in preference to the 
onlinary primary schools. 

On leaving one of these schools, the pupil who knows the first practical elements 
of the trade he intends to learn, is not. altogether useless to the workman under 
whose orders he is placed ; and the latter, finding beside him, instead of a useless 
encumbrance, who can onl}' make him lose a portion of his time, a little workman 
who will prove useful to him under his guidance and counsel, does not withhold 
from hira instruction from which he will be the first to profit. 

it was to interest workmen as much as apprentices in thedevelopment and per- 
fection of apprenticeship, that the competition of apprentices was instituteil, and that 
rewards were given not only to the latter, but also to the workmen who had taken 
the trouble to instruct them. 

Besides the manual schools we find the apprentice schools, schools professional, 
municipal or syndic.il, into which pupils enter on leaving the primary school to learn 
theoretically and practically any particular trade. 

These are veritable schools provided with workshops, givingdiplomas of capacity ; 
the instruction is generally gratuitous, and thus, in many cases, the pupils receive a 
salary equal to that they might obtain in an ordinary workshop. 



tec III! 
they 
teach 
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The exhibition of work executed by the pupils of these schools has surprised 
many visitors; it is irresistible proof of the necessity for similar establishments. 

It is proper to remark that the establishment at Paris of these municipal appren- 
tice schools has been opposed by the Workmen's Associations; but those who, at 
first, were adversaries, having been able, like competent men. to appreciate the worth 
i)f workmen who left these schools, have become their most ardeat advocates, and 
have recognized their usefulness by gi-anting prizes to their most deserving scholars. 

The establishment of these schools has always answered a necessity, and they 
have frequently saved from ruin the industry of a locality; the Municipal Weaving 
School of Se<lan (p. ISO) is a most convincing proof of the part which these schools 
are called upon to perform. 

The most serious criticism made upon these institutions was, ^hat being expen- 
sive and consequently restricted in number they are of no value to the great mass 
of workmen. This criticism is worth considering. 

But there must be a commencement to all things; and these schools only estab- 
lished a few years ago are multiplying every day ; the primary object of those 
schools is the formation of ,in industrial staif ; the instruction of apprentices, 
who, after a more or less prolonged course at the workshop, are called to become 
foremen or superintendents of labor. 

Those preparatory' scliools while favoring a certain number of young people, sons 
of workmen, in nowise prevent apprentices to labor from having opportunities for 
attaining tirst-class positions. 

In all countries where apprentice schools exist there are evening schools for 
technical instruction, whei'e workmen of any age may acquire the knowledge which 
they cannot receive at the workshop. The lessons arc given by the most competent 
teuchers of the country, and it is rare to find in Europe a young foreman who does 
not owe his position to the evenings passed in the night school. 

To v;ell understand the i-evolution brought about by technical instruction, refer- 
ence must bo made to the results obtained in Germany from the country-people's 
museums (page 2(19). The creation of rural industries is a most interesting subject 
for Canadians. The city workmen sutler from the immigration of country artisans, 
and emigration to the United States is due, in great measure, to the scarcity of 
employment and the poor remuneration which workmen receive outside the cities. 

Why not, under these circumstances, create rural industries? Not those 
wliich would attract the farmer to the workshop and ri'movo him from the fields, 
liut some of these industries, which the machine has not invaded, and the workman 
or working-woman could practise at home when at leisure from other occupations, 
and thus profit b}* it during periods of enforced idleness. 

About twenty years ago, for example, there were made, in many Canadian 
villages, straw hats, of which one kind, named " chapeaux ilc foin," was very fine 
and handsome. This industry has disapi)eared, because it was not known how to 
modify it. It could have sufficed to have transformed it, and to manufacture tresses 
or plaits, to establish an important article of commerce. The English manuf'acturies 
of Luton and of St. Albans, those of the canton of Argovie in Switzerland, whoso 



;M4^i=«^i^akai£i^ ' 



xu 



productions liave taken the place of Italian fabrics, are of recent creation, and their 
manufacture is in no ^\'lly supei-ior to that of the stiiiw liats ot' the Province of 
Quebec, a manufacture which can Ijc i'evive<l in a better and more perfected form. 

Tlie industry of wood-carving, a veiitable source of wealth in some agricultural 
and wooded districts in German}', Switzerland and Italy, woulil admiral)ly buit the 
capacity of Canadian country-people, and could be established at a trifling cost in 
several countries. Many other rural industries could be successfully introduced in 
Canada; there only needs, to introduce thom. a little energy and some techninal 
experts. This a simple (question of apprenticeship. 

The modern apprentice is not abandoned, as he was at tlie beginning of the 
century, to the mercy of his employer or the workmen. Numerous societies, 
protecting, supervising, and encouraging, have been founded, and at present the 
material conditions of appreuticoshi}) have been much ameliorated. 

This amelioration could alone induce young people to tind their way to the work- 
shop; and industrial recruitment is tlnis a little less difficult than I'or several years 
past. The shortening of the time for apprenticeship, the fiicilities granled tor 
theoi-etical study, the encouragements of various kinds granted to appientices, have 
induced workmen to make apjirentices of their sons, instead of sending them to 
work as assistants in some other workshop. The etforts made to re-establish 
apprenticeship and to instruct the workman are necessary; because, in spite of the 
mut'hine, the industrial force of a nation I'ests more than ever on the skill of the 
workman, a skill dependent almost entirely on the apprenticeship, and without 
which no country can defend itself against forei^;n products. 

Salaries. 

In order to Judge of the real value of salaries paid in foreign countries, it will be 
necessary to consider the cost of living ; hlatistics are very difficult to obtain to 
any reliable extent. In giving the average of salaries in France and Ikdgium, we 
have ouij' in view a basis for establishing the custom's tariffs. 

In France the day-work isonfheaverageof tenhoui's.' InBelglum it is much longer; 
being more than lli hours for the majority of workmen. To this length of the 
working-ilays there is a corresponding diminution of the average salary; this aver- 
rage, for men, is G2i cents in Belgium, and 80^ cents in France. These tigures 
amply justify the assertion of workmen that the longer the day the lower is the 
salary. 

The increase of the rate of salaries shown by the statistics is partly due to the 
diminution in the value of money ; but it must be admitted, on the other hand, that 
the artisan lives better than formerly, and the amount of their savings proves that the 
vehement recriminations heard in certain quarters are not always well founded. 

All trades have not however, benefited by the movement for increase of salaries. 
Thus in the case of potters (page 11) : ''The salaries are such asmiijhtsidt an artisan 
with a familij of tico children ; above that number he would be inconveniently straitened." 

Examples of this kind are rare, and in general, the documents, as a perusal will 
couvince, indicate that the salaries have increased in a proportion greater than the 
cost of livinir. 



XIU 



As a rofei-enoo, we give tlic advance of rate of salaries in France, as published 
in the official statistics. 

Increase in rate of salaries in France. 

The following rates represent the average of the increase in salaries for the 
whole of the sixty-two classes of trades for which the respective salaries are indi- 
cated on pages 3 and 4 : — 

Averagt' salary of worktncn in Tr.tal 
PaRIM. 1853. lS,sr>. incTKise. 

•■^ L-Xti. 8 CtS. % 

Average salary for men 0,702 1,172 0,41 54 

do women 0,424 0,598 0,17 41 

(h'HKH CiTlK.S. 

Average salary for men 0,412 0,092 0,28 G7 

do women 0,214 0,304 0,15 70 

In skilled labour the comparisons arc given on the 32 industries indicated on 
pages 5 and 9, and only comprise the years from 1881 to 1885. 

AvEiiA(iK dailv salaries of the "graiidc industric." 



he 

hat 

Iho 

ries. 
isan 

led." 

will 
the 



Departiiicnt of the Seine. 



Otlier Departments. 



1881. 



1883. 1885. 



1881. 



1883. 



1885. 



I 8 CtS. 

Forciii.n I 1,3!)0 

'I'lnie keejiers l,10(i 

Workni.-u ' T' 21 y^'^^r^ "f "S'' • ^''^^ 

tfroni li) to 21 years of age. : 0, ((H( 

Women 1 0,,534 

/-.i 1 1 ( l?ovs I 0,3.')<) 

Ch.hlren..,,,;^,^ | ^^^aw 

Engineers, ]>res.smen, &c 1,122 

Laborers, iKirters, carters, &c 0,838 



8 CtS. 

1,4!H) 
1,132 
l.WiO 
(»,70(i 
0,53(J 
0,3i)(i 
0,324 
l,14(i 
0,!»24 



8 CtS. 

l,42(i 
l.KMi 
1,070 
0,(i!l(! 
0,,532 
0,370 
0,304 
1,144 
0,!)36 



8 CtS. 


8 CtS. 


1,080 


1,088 


0,828 


0,8,50 


0,708 


0,710 


0,470 


0,480 


0,3of') 


0,300 


0,2(W 


0,270 


0,210 


0,220 


0,812 


0,812 


0,588 


0,590 



8 CtS. 

1,(180 
(1,858 
(»,710 
0,4! 10 

o,:«(! 

0,2G() 
0,214 
0,812 
0,6110 



In addition to his regular sahiry, there acciues to the workman, in a great 
number of establishments, a source of protit omitted in the statistics, consisting of 
prizes or pi'cmiums on salaries. Some of these accumulated premiums procure for 
the workman, upon his retirement — a pension which places him beyond the 
reach of want, the highest premium onregistered is that of the perfumery Pinaud 
(page 21), ensuring to the workman who hivs entered the establishment at the ago 
of 21 a capital of §4,372 at the age of 65. 

These piemiums were established long ago, and have nothing in common with 
the ordinaiy premiums arising from savings in general cases. Some branches of in- 
dustry have, however, replacxnl these last premiums by a sj'stem aggravating still 
further the disadvantages under which woi-kmcn suffer when working by the piece. 
In these establishments, the salary' by the piece leaves the workman responsible for the 
material which he uses; this organization of labour should certainly I'ealize notable 
economies, but it can neither improve the quality of the work, nor ameliorate 
the relations between employers and workmen. 



xSiRliiiiliriV, 



XIV 



The objection of workmen aj^ainst piece-work is as marltod in Europe as in 
America. Woik by the piece is there generally adopted ; however, the establish- 
ments whose work requires skill and precision reject absolutely work by the piece, 
and pay their employees by the day. In general, these employers are those who 
grant premiums to their workmen, which proves that the best paid work- 
men are not always the most expensive. 

Messrs. Piquet & Co., (page 20) constructors of machinery, have adopted a 
system as ingenious as it is equitable, although ))aying their employees by the 
hour, yet they obtain the same if not more good work that a workman paid by the 
piece is capable of turning out. 

Among the number of complaints made by the workmen before the Labor Com- 
mission, one were more frequent than those concerning that intervening party, 
who was designated by a term as oflPcnsive and brutal as his functions — the runner 
of team. This functionar\' exists also in Europe, but instead of being a charge on 
workmen whom he employs, diminishing their salary to his profit, he can, on the 
contrary, when ho is capable, mcrease the men's wages to a large extent. (Pages 13 
and Hi.) 

In some large establishments, the reduction of salaries, when it is necessary, 
oecomes the object of special arrangements, made in view of avoiding some difficulty. 
At the glass works of Baccarat, for instance, the management gives a notice three 
months in advance of a reduction in wages ; the Company of the Champagne Foundries 
explains to its workmen the causes necessitating the reduction, and furnishes to a 
delegation of workmen all the necessary explanations on the industrial situation. 

How many troubles arise, not from the temporary reduction of salaries, but 
from the suddenness, the roughness and haughtiness accompanying them, and the 
absence of all explanation. 

This reduction of salary is severely felt if it takes place at the com- 
mencement or in the course of a cold season ; it is the more irritating to a workman 
when it is not justified by a superabundance of demand for employment, due to the 
regular stoppage of industries entirely foreign to that in which ho is engaged, and 
not caused by the diminution in value of manufactured products. 

This is the application of the theory of supply and demand, in its most unjust 
and cruel asj^oct, and the evidence received by the Labor Commission, proves that 
this application is unfortunately too frequent in Canada. 

At Bordeaux, in France, discussion on this point has been for a long time sup- 
pressed. 

The2'>rice paid for a day's work is the same in summer asit is in winter, whatever be 
the number of hours of the day (pages 6 and 21). 

"The Joint-Stock Compan3' of Lumbermen and Workshops of the Girondc" em- 
ploys 800 workmen, working 11 hours daily in .summer, and receiving a uniform 
salary from one year's end to the other; its manager says on this subject, in his re- 
port to the exhibition : — 

" This s3'stom, which we consider proper, and which wo would like to see estab- 
lished everywhere, has boon in force for a long time at Bordeaux, and I have con- 



XV 



unjust 
,'es that 



i 



n lu^i re- 



fiidored it right to preserve it, principally from a humanitarian point of view, for 
winter is the time when wants are most pressing ; it is not then, at the time when 
the workman stands most in need of his resources that ho should be given a lower 
salary; it suits better to give him a uniform daj-'s pay, for experience proves that 
it is only a few who economize when earning large wages, to provide something for 
hard times." 

With a working population more or less nomadic, and more or less day-laborers, 
this system would be inapplicable; but it can be applied without danger in all cir- 
cumstances when the employer has known how to create a staff of workmen certain 
of finding with him steady employment and equitable remuneration. 

Jtules of the Workshops. 

The rules of the workshops on the continent are very strict, and the fines very 
numerous. But, contrary to what has been found in certain factories in Canada, 
faults, subject to fines, are in Europe fully specified (page 23), and if the foreman 
can be proved to exercise excessive severity, he can but rarely commit an abuse of 
authority. 

One point struck us in Paris, however, which was that, however severe, how- 
ever arbitrary, were the rules in force in some workshops, not one of them contained 
clauses so strict and tyraimical as those in force in the workshops of workmen's co- 
oi^erative societies. 

That associated members should submit to a Di'aeonian set of rules, drawn up 
with a view of maintaining each co-operator within the limits of his dut\', and to 
serve in the absence of <lirecting authority, is quite fair ; but that these rules should 
apply to auxiliary workmen, having no interest in the establishment, and only 
working for a salary, is to impose on others that which one would not wish to see 
done to himself. 

Fines. 

" The system of fines has been the subject of bitter complaints before the Labor 
Commission ; it is impossible not to recognize a certain foundation for these com- 
plaints, existing, also, up to the pi'escnt; it is unpleasant to be obliged to make 
deductions from the salary of a workman, to punish him with hunger in a degree, 
for infraction of regulations, and we are convinced that no employer of labor would 
long aj)ply this system if he could replace it with some other.''* 

This refers to the Belgian Lalior Commission, which proves that overywlu're 
Workmen complain of the injustice of fines. A regulation may be quite fair, prepared 
by conscientious men, and be applied by foremen or other functionaries in a manner 
quite contrary to its purport and object. 

After a serious strike, in 1875-76, due principally to the rigor of some regulations, 
the system of fines was discontinued in several coal mini's of Belgium, and replaced 
by a contingent right to a profit, and since 1877, the period at which the change 
was made in the operations of the Societie.-i of Mariemont and Baseoup, never 
have the regulations been better observed.! These regulations, it is true, were not 
the work of a single man, more or less well acquainted with the workmen whom he 

* Xotc (in Boards of E.\i>liinatiiins, Ijy A. Demetirc, cntrineer. 

t Bi'lgiiin soctiiin. I'litroiial institutioiiH. Kt'ixiit by M. E. VandervekU', p. 111. 






XV! 



umploj-eil, Imt thoy were prepared by those romarlviiblo Boards of Explaaations 
(pa^e 29). whifh liave done Hiich good nervico in Belgium, and linally revised h^/ :•. 
Council of Arbitration and Conciliation. That which renders a system of fines, as 
it is admiiiistorod in i'lurope, le.ss odious and intolerable than in America, is that the 
amounts thus received are invarialdy deposited in a mutual benevolent society's 
for the iienefit of the workmen. 

In two manufactories, the managers, to thoroughly prove to their employees 
that in their opinion tines were necessary; that they were only imposed for the 
good of the service, pay from their private funds, in the bank of the Mutual 
Benevolent Society of their workmen, an amount equal to that of the tines paid by the 
latter. (Sieber, Seydoux k, Co., pages 24 anil 423., Solvay & Co., pages 42(i and G13.) 

In spite of those amendments, of this return to the fund of sums nearly double 
the fines imposed, the system of fines shoukl be condemned and its suppression 
ordered b}' law. It is adangerous weapon which is placed in the hands of super- 
intendents and foremen, and which many make use of in such a way as that while 
injuring the workman, it recoils at the same time on the employer. 

This unhappy interference of the foreman in the relations of master and work- 
men is much dreaded by the employers of labour, and the uneasiness which they 
experience is expresse I in the documents exhibited. 

Thus Messrs. J^iquet & Co., of Lyons, in describing the system of remuneration 
they have adoptetl, say : — 

"Thanks to this ingenious combination, there is no need of a foreman, or at all 
events his authority is diminished, and what was irritating in his functions has 
entirely disappeared. The foreman has no longer to reform the lazy ones, for the 
excellent reason that there are none, and occa.sions of difficully no longer arise." 

"To avoid the strikes and misunderstandings which frequently occur, the 
surest method is to suppress the intermediaries between emplo^'er and workman, 
to multiply the points of contact, to convince the workman that at the workshop 
all interests are identical. Holding these opinions, Jlossrs. Piquet have long since 
taken away from the foremen the right of engaging and dismissing the employees. 
The staff is placed under their jiersonal direction, and possessing the qualities 
necessary for exercising their authority with delicate tact, they avoid the frictions 
which frequently gives rise to great embarrassment," 

Eesults of this system : no strikes and an absolute stability of the staff. 

Other manufacturers, Messrs. Pleyel Wolf & Co., of Paris, have also foreseen 
the causes of contention attributable to the foremen, and have taken to avoid them 
the following plan : 

" We re<piire on the part of foremen, and it goes without saying, on the part 
of the management, a correct ti-eatment of the workmen ; we do not tolerate 
any improper language, we see that there is nothing arbitrary in the establishment ; 
and finally we demanil that any instructions given must be made in language correct, 
concise, and withal friendly, showing to the Avorkman, that whilst we consider him 
an intelligent being, something above a machine, — a fellow-laborer, we can require 
from him, good-will, h(jnesty and devotion," 

But of all the regulations, the most practical, the most equitable, is, beyond 
doubt, that introduced by Leclaire, and still in force with his successors, (Pages 
G7-70), 



the la 



A^ 

1877, t 

I'xaniple, 



xvu 



at all 



III icailiiiy; lliis roy'ulatioii, we perceive that it isllic WfirU of a workman wlio 
lias liccaino cinployoi-, ami who oil hoi- in thi.' one poisitioii or tho otlu'i', has undiT- 
Htood his cliitii's and ohligatlons. Tliis rhef-d'wuvre ot'y;ood sense, equity aiul charity 
is worthy uf the nuin who has originated the participation of employees in the pruUlsL 
of tlie employei'. 

Arbitration. — Conciliation. 

The study of the documents in thoSocial Economy gection of the Rxhibition has 
not by an\- means moditied the opinions which we advance, on these grave questions, 
in the report of the Labor Commission. 

More than over we Indieve that obligatory ai'hil rat ion on the question of salai'v is 
an Utopia which even those who demand it cannot defend with any valid arguments. 

The idea of fixing the salaiies by obligatory arbiti'ation, that is to say, to com- 
pel the master to oiler work, and the workman to execute it, at a price whicli neitlior 
of them could or would accept, is so impracticable and so unrealizable, that wo won- 
der tiiat it has ever been discussed. 

On every other subject obligatory arbitration would be possible, just as possible 
as it would be for the employer to close his establishment, and for the workman not 
to go to it. 

To legally impose obligatory arbitration would destroy entirely the right of the 
workingman as to the price of his labar, for which w orkmen have contended during 
many years. 

The question of salary will always be a cause of strikes, a cause whicii will only 
disappear with the modification of the mode of remuneration for labor, and which 
the law is powerless to suppress. 

But besides the difHcuUies of salary, strikes ai'iso from a great variety of 
troubles, which are only dissensions in workshops caused by vexatious regulations 
or modifications demanded in the conditions of laboi-. 

AH strikes of the latter class could be avoided, and are in fact avoided in great 
measure by the intervention, in England, of committees for arbitration, created by 
Mr. Mundella; in France by the '^'^/ise/Ys de Prud'hommes, and in Belgium by the 
Consethde Prud'hommes, the Boards of Explanations and the Boards of Arbitration and 
Conciliation.* 

TIk" ^[iindclla Committees of Arbitration and the "■ Conseils de Prud'hommes" 
are too well known in Canada to require a descrii^tion of their composition and 
functions. 

As for the Boards of explanations (page 29), established after a serious strike in 
1877, they have had the etfect: — 

* An idea may lie foninil of the iiiHueiicp of tlicsi' institutions of conciliation liy comparing, for 
example, the stiiti.sties of strikt s in France and in t\u: L'liited States : — 

1S,S2. 1883. 1884. ISS."). 

Numl»cr of strikes in France 182 144 !KI 108 

do i:nite(l States. . . 454 478 443 (145 

Tlieavera^'e per strike, of the nuuiljer uf strikers, was 323 in Franco and 3()7 in the irnited States. 

20— B 



:^miiM,ilK;tL;^LML. 



XVlll 



1st. Of sottlinj^ special ilisputos at the workulioj) itholf. 

2nil. Of informing the employer of tlio wliolo dctaiirt relative to Iiis omplo3'oe8, 
nnil the workmen of the real intentions of their masteis, thus makini,^ all inisunder- 
8taiidin<<s impossible. 

[ivi\. To ensure, wliilv I'econciling, good feeling lietwocii employers and 
employees. 

4th. To establish control over intorniediaries between master and workmen, in 
order to ju'event their severance in an arbitrary and unjust manner, and the perver- 
sion of the intentions of the emidoyers, or the complaints of the workmen. 

It is easy to recognize in all the combinations for arbitration the snmc^ oljject: 
to itlaco the employer in sympathy with iiis workmen, to reform injustice committed 
by intermediai'i<.'Sj and to create a council in which capital and lalmr are I'ejiresented 
by their delegates, and whore debates may bo calmly held and due consideration 
o-iven to the c.iuse of their respective grievances and claims. 

It is intended to su])plement and complete this institution by the creation of an 
Appeal Board whose members will be elected by the several Boards of Hxplana- 
tions of the same industry. 

Besides the Conseils de Prud'hommcs there was created in Btdgium in 1S87, a 
Board of Arbitration and Conciliation. This Board was intended to delibei'ale on 
the "-eneral interests of emplo3'ers and workmen, to prevent, atid when necessary, to 
reconcile any ditferonces which might arise between them. 

These Boards are eslabhslied \>y a royal edict, either officially, oroudc nandofa 
commercial council, or of interested employers of labor. 

Th(! decree tixes the extent and limits of their jurisdiction, and determines the 
number and nature ot their sections. 

Each section is composed ol an equal number of employers and workmen. The 
minimum is six and the maximum twelve. 

The workmen and employers choose their delegates in the manner of tlie rule 
at the Prud'kommes. The duration of the mandate is for three years; the section 
meets, at least, once every year. 

AVhen circumstances require, the Governor of the Province, or the burgomhstcr 
convokes on demand, either the employers or the workmen of the section in whicli 
the dispute arises. The section endeavors to lind means of conciliating and allay- 
inii' the difficulty. If no agreement can bo etfected, the deliberation is resumed 
under i\ proces-vei'bal which is made public. 

The King can summon the Council of the District t(» a general assemblj', to 
<'ive advice on questions or projects of general interest in relation to industrial or 
labor questions which he may think pioper to submit. 



Til 

Tl 

1. 

•► 
IIr'sc ii 

4. 

liiriiisi 

<"). 

to Weal 
man's a( 

Tl 

mast err 

the soli; 

jal 

v'.n tl, 

Sal 

days in I 

Tic 

he niadt 

It i^ 

fi'om (lis 

Sala 



XIX 



ana 



Tlie royal uilirt convoking a general assembly, a^ also the ediots of tlio (Jovernor 
or the permanent deputation convf)king a section, indicate the order of the day, and 
fix the dui-ation of the session. No question foreign to tin' ordii- of the day can 

lie sulimilte<l for dclihei-alion. 

Till' (Jovernmont can name a commissioner to attend the general mooting, to 
niak'e there any communications ho thinks necessary, and to take part in tho 
debates, if rcqiiiri'il, on the (questions submitted or the measures projected. 

These are tin- great objects of this institution up to the present time; its ajipli- 
cation has only been once made, in the commencement of 1881), upon a strike of 
(juarry men, at the initiative of (Jovernment. These institutions have not suppressed 
strikes altogether, but they have considerabl}- diminished and lessoned their etVecta; 
they have had the ellecl, in the case of a conflict of restricting the intluence of those 
daiigei'ous beings who through greed or ambition, are an obstacle to a goo<l under 
standing between capital and labor. 

The jHujnient of salaries. 



U!S the 



Tho 



[.omiistor 
II whicli 
nd allay- 
rosunied 



:nibly, to 
istrial or 



III France and England, salaries can only be paid in specie or bank notes; truck- 
])aynu'nt is pndiibifed In' law. Salaries are paid I'Veiy \wvk or fortnight in 
the greater number of industrial concerns. 

In lUdgium the workingman was long the victim of mimcrous abuses — abuses 
not unknown on the continent. To ])Ut an end to which the Belgium Ciuverunient 
promulgated a law in ISST, which assured to the wage-worker : — 

Till' payment of salaries in species or notes of legal tender. 

The master has the right, however, to turnisli as equivalent to salary as follows: 

1. Lodging. 

2. The use of a ])iece of land. 

.'!. The tools or instruments necessary to the Avork, as well as the keeping of 
these in order. 

4. The nuiterials or stock necessary for their work which the workman has to 
furnish, according either as ailmitted by custom or by the terms of tluir agreement. 

."). Tlu' uniform or particular dress which the workingman would be obligeil 
to wear. The articles mimed under Nos. 3, 4 andS, cannot be i)l!>ced to the working- 
man's accoui\t, except at cost price. 

The permanent committee* appointed by the fiovernment ean authorize the 
masters to sup])ly their workmen as e(piivalent to salary, food, clolhing or fuel, on 
the sok condition of their beiwj furnisheil at cost jirice. 

jalaries cannot be paid in tavi'rns, saloons, stores or any jilace in connection 
v-.n them. 

Salaries not above 81 per day must be paid at least twice a month, at sixteen 
days interval at longest. 

Piece work, made-up work, or contract work, a partial or full settlement must 
be made at least once a month. 

It is strictly forbidden to make agreements which would prevent the workman 
IVom disposing of his salary as be saw til. 

Salaries can only be slopped for the following causes : 



i 
I 

I 

r 



t 



Appointed by the State. 

20— B^ 



XX 



1. For finpH iiieiirrofl ; 

2. Kor goods t'iiriii(ihiHl oii coiidilionH hIhIoiI aliovo ; 

3. Kor iisHosMniciilM due lo the benefit and inovidciit fiiiids. 

4. For adviiiiocs inadf in iiioiiey, Imt oidy lo tlio extent ofono-tiftli. 

Ill 1KH7 the Boi^'iiiii (roverniiieiit, to exempt from Hoi/.iiro the amount of Hillary 
iiecesMiiry to niiiiiitiiin iIm: fiiinily, created the lidlowiiii^ law: 



Law concerning the itntransferabiliti/ and immu nit i/ from seizure of the salary of ivorkimj- 

men and employees. 

Art. I. — Not more than two-tifthH of the Hiiin to be paid to the artisans or per- 
sons in tht^ employ of the princijjal can bo transferred or onc-tifth seized. All 
other stipulations are null and void. 

Art. II. — The >aine shall Ixdd good as regards salaries of clerks or employees 
receiving not more tiian .S2-K> per annum. 

Many dirt'orent schemes have been tried in all countries in order to prevent the 
workinginan from spending his wages on pay day in drink, but so far every device 
to prevent this has failed. This is of course unnecessary as regards the sober and 
industrious artisan. No matter what day of the week salaries are paid, the one will 
regularly carry his earnings to the saloon and the other lo the savings bank. 



I 



Female and Child Labor. 

Looking at the protestations against abuses concerning female and child labor, 
protestations made by the masters, one can safely say that the time of radical refoiin 
ami protection by law has arrivetl. 

The managers of the " Socidtd de la Vieillo Montague," say : 

"Woman's place is not in the factory but at home, and the " Vicillc Montagne" 
does not encourage the employing of women and girls in its works." 

^larrieil women are not allowed to work in the "Compagnie des Mines de 
Blanzy." They keep the house, and attend to their household duties and their 
children. 

Much has been dono for the married woman, but apart from the obligations set 
forth by law, little or nothing has been done as regards children. The tirst question 
is one of pulilic interest: the employment ofmai'iied women in mills tends to lower the 
moral standard and industrial strength of a nation. 

The man wiio has no household, whose wife works in the mill, whoscchiidren are 
left to run wild and take care of tiiemselves make bad workmen and useless citizens. 

The results of the work of the married woman soon manifested itself, especially 
in the agglomerations of working people near large manufactures, and it has been 
suppressed, as much through necessity as through humanity. 

In most factories where married women are employed, the rules and regulations 
are modified in their favor, so as to allow of their working without completely giving 
up their duties as mothers of families. At the works of Messrs. Maine & Sons, Tours, 
the married woman is not bound down to the regular working hours ; it is only 



Y iiidu.-l 
obliirej 

tJ 

' 'V\ 

- .-k-ill aj 
into, al 
much 
emignl 
omploj 

Tl 
l«']Hilal 
omploJ 



zxi 



)f Hillary 



u-orkiiKj- 



iH or i)t'f- 
'.od. All 



oveiit tho 
ry device 

st)l)cr ami 
e one will 
ik. 



Iiilil lubor, 
cal rt't'oiiu 



onta^no 

^Miiies de 
and their 

i)-ations sot 
St (|Uehtion 
o lowortlio 

■hildreniire 
;ss citizens. 

', t'speciallj'' 
it has been 

regulations 
etoly giving 
N)ns, Tours, 
ri i it is only 



nccesMiiry to make n request, fixing,' the nuniher <>f hniirs posslMo to work, and an 
exception is ininiodialoly made in lier favor. Thus nianicd women witiiout children, 
or those Iiaving a grown-iip family, are permitted to begin work one hour later, ami 
leave off one hour sooner than the regular hands, thus allowing them time to look 
lifter their housoholds. Those with young chililren art- allowed to eoine and go as 
necessary. 

In other factories the masters allow a cci'tain amount in cases of sickness, and 
give help to the women during continement, making it obligatory that they should 
take care of themselves and not return to work till after a certain number of weeks. 

Some factories have opened day nurseries where the mothers can leave their 
children on their way to work in the morning ami call for them on their way homo 
at night. 

These humanitary measures are most prai^ewortby, but unfortunately they oidy 
tend to prolong the work of married woman, by alleviating in some degree, the dis- 
tress and troubles which surround them. ■ 

The employing of women in factories has been denounced in all ages. The 
book by Jules Simon called " I'Ouvric^rc " has called forth as much indigna- 
tion as " Uncle Tom's Cabin ;" the pictures he draws of the coiisimjuoucos and results 
owing to the absence of the ^vife antl mother, are and always will be true, no matter 
what balm is poured over it. 

It has been said that it was necessary for the maintenance of the family that the 
woman should work; that is true, but for how long has this been necessary? Only 
since t lie women and chiMren have been put in competition with 'be men, thus lower- 
ing the wages earned by the father to such a point that he was no longer able to main- 
tain his Himily. , 

It is not the intention to entirely suppress female labor. In all times, long 
before the liscoveiy of steam, women worked; but what should be suppressed is the 
em]>loying of women in mills, which kills, destroys all family life, without even 
helping its members to live; the wages are not equal in a pecuniary sense to tho 
benetits derived by tho presence of the wife at home. 

Mr. Gladstone has said on this subject : — 

" The greatest benefactor to his country will be be who discovers out some 
industry which will enable the married women to earn something without being 
obliged to leave their firesides."' 

These industries exist, it is sufficient to look for them and to teach them. 

The use of machinery has not invailed everything, there are many trades where 
skill and knowledge are more necessary than strength ; these trades should be hjoked 
into, and the same should be done for the women in cities, in order to keep them as 
much as possible out of factories as that which we pi-oposed in order to suppiess 
emigration from tho agricultural districts: trades should bo developed for the 
employment of women in which the work is pui'oly manual. 

The laboi- orators has often been accused of trying to gain an unhealthy 
l)opularit}' by describing, in too sombre hues, the moral consequences following the 
employing of women and girls in factories. The contrary- is true: the workingman 



I 



xxu 



in general, llii'nii^'li !i fcoliiii^ of prid<>, I'linily uiiilortttootl, rofiwos alwiiyn to oxposo to 
view tlio immorulity which uxistn in certain tactorieH. 

It waH not the artisnn but the mornllHt who ticcuHctl the mills of depraving the 
women. 

f-o Play has written : — 

■• 1 liavf ot'ti'M noticed (liiriiii; my travels, the mora! tortures sufTered liy poor 
mothers through their dauniilors having to seek work f)Utsi(k) tlieir homes; they 
hiive often conOded in me tiie hatreil engendered to the wealthy who une their ri(dies 
to seduce tliese gii-Fs. and ever Hineo I have ceaHeloHsly endeavored to stump out (his 
disgraceful state of things." 

One of Lo Play's disciples writing on -^ Les ouvriera et les riformen niceasaircs" 
has shown us the condition of the artisan as follows: — 

" Wlicn the woman works outside, I'omcs home at night tii-od, to an ill-kept 
house, home life is no longer possible; there is no longer a wife, a mother, or a 
wonnin, there is no faniilv; the working woman hm killed it. 

"The employing of women in factories is a lilii,'ii!, which demoralizes the child, 
takes away all charm from the tii'oside, a'lgood and happiness trum the hnme circle, 

" Not only do women, reduced to work in mills, deprive the home circle of the 
good her presence would do; is not able to attend to her household duties, but oidy 
too often, she loses in thefactoi'y that which is essential in a woman, her moilesty, 
.She becomes corrupted through contact with other artisans, or those of her own sex 
alreatly debauched," 

The Count de Mun, in one of his speeches (^1885) on nocial questions nuule the 
following statement: — 

'• In the mills of the Ardiiche (Fiance), unfortunate children work from four in 
the morning till half-past seven at lugbt, in the woollen mills of Fourmies, Anor and 
Trelon, Irom fourteen to eighteen hours pt'r da}'." 

"Acconling to an account of .M. Janjoul, inspector in the Department of Trades 
ami Manufactures. Eussia, on the condition of the wordcing classes in the disti-icts of 
Moscow and Vlailimir, some terrible things are bioiigbl to ligiit; in the ISO mills ho 
visited he found 8,112 children of from nine to fourteen years old working; children 
ten years old, working as many as thirteen and eighteen hours [)er diem, ' 

In Austria, the '• I'evuo Autricbicnne" gives an account of 111 textile mills, 
especially those in lower Austria and Moravia; women are mentioned as working 
from six in the morning till ten at night, and even later in drying rooms, in a 
temperature of 122° Ft. At Piesting pregnant women work till their continement. 

The same review has pnblished the recent works of the Rev. Abbd Kichborn, (m 
the miserable condition of the working classes in the snburbs of Vienna ; the details 
fairly make one shudder; hundreds of children growing u|i without parents to look 
after them, the fatlier and mother away working in the mills all day, these children 
are left to roam about, dressed in rags, ill-fed, debauched at an early age, the sexes 
living promiscuously together, in a state of immorality impossible to describe. ' 

The fTOvernments, vmder the pressure of public opinion, were obliged to come 
forward and do something to put a stop to this state of things. In nearly ail countries 
of Europe laws were passed regulating the employment of children in factories, the 
age of admission, the number of working hours and prohibiting night work nearly 
everywhei'e. In England it was made illegal for women to work at night. 



betw( 

wei'i 

thai 
lim- 
ing 
or Co 

1 
E. J. 

of hi> 
iaboi-. 



spite 
ill 18 
['.\cit( 
of ma 
tionei 
impre 

lOnvth 



XXtll 



I'lii^laml is ot all citiiiitries the one wlioic tlio law is tlio most i»>s|ie(t<Ml, ami id 
almost tlio only oiio wlioro tlio inspoction of nulls is tliDroni^lily and riu;or()iisly carried 
out. In oilior coiintrioH tlu'se law nro entbroed only in tho principal centres. 

There is no subject causing more ill-loclinj,' between employerH and woiknuMi 
than till' cmiiloyincnt of women and idiildrcn. And if is useless to look foi- a belter 
underntandin;; till this question is solved in a satistiiclory way. 

Proftt-sharinij. 

In his work entitled ' De la sitiuttion des ouvrlers en Angkterre," '^ tho Comto 
lie Paris states dnit : 

"Salaries under the aetiial system and i^uideil by the law ot supply and demand 
follow almost constantly tho price of living, so that the workim^nian never rarns 
more than is absolutely necessary for subsisteni'e, coiniM'tition always fdrcitiLC the 
]UMee of labor back to the minimum, below whi(di it i-. not ol'lainable." 

Tho law of demand and supply unjust though it be in its application to human 
beings, might have been accepted, had it been limited to work done by the nuilo, 
and if in oi'der to lower the wages earned by the father, work had not been (dl'ereil 
to the woman and children. 

It is in order to re-aci against this reduction of pay, causeil by the bringing of 
women and children into the labor market, that thogreatei- luimber of the working- 
men's associations, have adopted the principle of equal rates of payment, which they 
are striving lo secure and maintain. 

The t|nestion of equal rates of pavment has always been a source of trouble 
bflwecM the art!/,. 1 an<l employers; the latter urging tiial they were {•ompelled to 
pay a ]iooi' workman tho same as a good one ; the artizan retorting that the wages 
were basetl on the lowest possible rate at which subsistence could bo maintained, 
tii.nt consequently it w;is not the master who sutfercd, but the capable ai'tizan who 
thus bore the burden of tho incapable workmen. 

To i'(\\\',x\ rates, piece work was opposed, which overworks the arti.san, after oblig- 
ing him to give a ma.ximum amount of work for a minimum amount of wages, 
or contract win-k, which creates competition between the workmen. 

Whilst all these combinations and systems wore being tried, a simple workman, 
R. .1. Leclaire, becoming an enqilover of labor, ])Ut into operation, in spite of the law 
of bis country, a system whicli will d(j much to establish ])eaee between cai)ital and 
labor. This system is that of "Tho participation of employees in the ])rotits. " 

Tn 1842 Leclaire inaugurated in bis firm the eyst(>m <if]i;trticipation ofprotits, in 
s])ite of the law, the government and his men. When he made known to his hands 
in 1S4I that he would give them an interest in the year's profits, the workmen, 
exeitetl by the articles appearing in the paper '• I' Atelier," wldch accused Lecdairo 
of mananivering ti; lower wages, not believing tho promises of prolit-shai'ing, ([ues- 
tioned his sincerity. In 1842 Leclaire by a coup de tMCitrc dispersed all there false 
impressions. The stock-taking for 1841 being finished, he assembled all his hands 
together, threw a bag rilled with gold on a table before them and then gave each 

* Kditiuii (if 1SS4. 






'■ 



XXIV 



Olio his sliaro. Tlio jiiiumiit .lividi'd \v;i.s §2,.">77.* Tlic \V(>rkiiu>n \V(<rt« coiw iin'od Init 
not till' (iKViTiinuMit, 

In ISIL' tlio c'itizons of Frniu'o coiiltl not liolii !iiiy mivlinu; witlioiil llic aiitliori- 
nitioii of iho I'ri'Coct of I'olico. Tliis authori/.ation was lofiisod lo l,oclaiio, and llio 
otlii'ial iiapors sollinif t'orlli (liis incident aro woi-tliy of Ivinn ro produced inordiTto 
bIiow tlial i\arro\v mindt'dnoss and adniinis||-ali\>> iij;noranio aro ot'ion llio nlo^t 
ft>rniidaliio i>airii'i's tliat )iroi;i'i>ss lias to ovonomo. f 

'• I'aius, SoptonilHT IS, lS-i:i. 
'•To riiK ritKKKcT or Tolick, 

" Monsioiir lo I'fiMot, — Tliodillioultios to lioovoicoino to siicfosst'iilly oariy on llio 
l>iisino-s wliioli 1 am in, have tloiidod nio to or'^ani/.o my liiiii in sin li a maniior. as 
(o siinpiify my work and niaUo it pay wi>ll not mily I'ortlio |iii>st>nt, Imi to prost>rvo 
that wliiidi has oost mo many yoars of hard and stoady work lo luiild up. Tho iiu>ans 
1 uso to roaoli this oiid aro sot t'orth in tho small voliinu> 1 sond you with this, in 
which you will tiiul a summary of all my linn's transaolions for tho yoar ISIi.'. 

"Tlu" rosiills haviiii;' fully roachod my aiitioipalions it will ho nooossary for mo lo 
call a mooliiii:; in my works, /ix//- or //ct' ^//ii.n' (J //(iir, of thoso omplnyi-os and handsio 
whom I ti.hi\\\ i\\s\v'\h\\\i^ t/it'ir jtniportioiuiteahare of thi' jirojitK of the liiisiiii\^ti. Thoso 
iiu>i>lini;s will havo Itut ono aim, namoly, to oxplain (o thoso prosoni what oai-h ono 
sliouM do, liow Ihoy should ludd thoms(d\i>s towards tlioso who honor mo \'ith ihoir 
trust, with ono anotluM', and uivi' llu>m instruclions how lo oxoouto tho onloi's ijivon 
mo for t>xooution. in ono word, it nu>ansto hold a i-oiirso of looliiros on i>lhios, prac- 
tical painting, and nianai;onuMil. 

" Tho ri>s|>ooi in wliiidi I hold Iho laws of tlu- count ry prc\ t'lit nu' from doinnany 
tliinu' in an iimU'rhand way, i>\on lo convoniii';' my omployoos in my own works 
wilhout hoiiiLi' properly aulliori/.od hy Iho authoi'itios. 

" May 1 ask you, .Slonsioiir lo I'rofol, lo ho i,'ood onouuh liiiianl mo a hoarint^? 1 
will then explain loyou my reasons for this lavor which 1 hope you will i;rant mo. 



il 



olu'Nc imv 



\'ours very rospooll'ull}', 
(Si<;-iu>d) 



M:('I,.V!KK 



lnst(>ad of iioiuii' liTanlod a ho.irii 



,oclau\> rocoixod a nolict> 



ol 



> Iho rJlh of 



Octolior forhiildini;; him lo hold the said modinu; unlcs>.duly am liori/od. This refusal 
was founded on the followinn' report : 

l'Kf:K>-;("n itK i>k. I'oi.iok — St'crt'titrii innrriil'/i (W.v — Ollieo Nt>. L'. — Analysis It is 
a ilani^er and ahiiso lo Iho workiiiy; class to auliioriso tho meelini:;s of omployoos 
of Ml', l.eelairo, contraelor and painlor, in order to ayree upon iho sh;ire oi' pro- 
tits lo lie divided, resultini;' from llio opi'ratioiis of his hiisinoss, (>n (lie iiiiirijiii 



iiiis thefoUoifituj ilrciaioii 
Write to Loclair and rol'uso the ai 
i'aris, L'lst Seplomhor, 1S|;{. 



II iionsaiuin asuoii lor, 



Siuiiod : A. \\ 



JvKI'OHT, 



JiOelairo's jiainlors arc tormcd inio a niulual henesoleiil soeiely. 
A niiuisliM'ial dee roe ol the L'Slli Soptomher ISilS, autliurisos theii' associclion and 
«p|trovos their rides. 

The said licolaire, contraelor, is the honorary president and treasurer. 

The rules of this soi'ioty have no ohiuso aiilliorisiii!;' lln' employoi's lo share in 



the )>rotits ol w 



ork uiidi'i'lakeii li\' Mr. i.eolairi 



*■ !lin({in|iliiiMrmi lIunitiH' I 1 ilr, |>ivr ("liaili's Ui'lnil. 
t |)iHllinrlit.>« ('\iiiliili'(l li\ tlic I'lt'inli ( JnM riiliii'iil. 



'^* 



XXV 



l>lll 



MU' 



Ih'Umo lliis, iiiul ill Manli, ISJi', llu> sjiitl liOi'liiir, ^olicitoii I'ldm tin- I'lct'iu'l, |>or- 
niissioM lo IidKI ii iiuu'liiii;' in liis \V(iri;s ot' iVom (iO In S(l nl' liis liiiiuls in ordi'i' to sliaro 
will) lluMu ll\o prolitH ;iri>ini;' tVoni his Im.sinoss. 

Acliiii;' on llu' ri'ijMlation !is to tlu< \viii;»>s ofurtisun^', jiiul llio rales >;o\('rniMs; 
jiioi'c worlv lii'twoon iMujiloycr ami ('niployoo, tlu> l'i'i't\>i't rol'nsoil or rall-.cr torlinilo 
llio nu>i'tin!;' ; tlio said liOriairt' aliiilfil 1>_\' llio iliH'isjon, ami llu' niOiMini^ diil not 
tak(> phu'o, witii tlio parposo not lorth in his potition iiri'sonltvl tills your. 

.\o\t'rlln<ii>ss tilt' said htu'lairo dividod in tiu' year 1M2, a sum of ll.Stlti liani's 
I'Olwt'cii II ol" his hands, llio piodiu't of pii>lils arisii\<x from lln> opoi'alions ot' his 
hiisini'-s. It is this jiind ol a niiitMai sooioty. whiidt ho \vislu>s to roiu'w tliis yt>ar; to 
uain this end, ho |>olitions to ho allowoil to hold ntootini^s in hi>< works, ol' his iiands 
namhorinj; inoio than twiMiIy, 

\V(> I'onsidor that umlor tho oiictimstanoos tho intoidions of f his oontraotiH" nro 
lo I'ntioo ai'lisans to oi\i;ai:;o with him, hy holding' out to thorn tho tdianoo ot' shaiino; 
in tho pi'otils lu" dofi\t>s, and thus a^suro tlu' t>\tt>nsion of his hu^inoss. 'I'his is a 
([Uostion hoarinj:; on tiio fulos I'onooininy,' th(> wa^os of artisans, whioh wodo not con- 
>idi>f, should 1)0 ono()ura,ii;od, and whitdi IS foihidilon hy law; tho artisan must ho 
tMilifoly t'roo to ii\ his sal;ii'y, and mu-'l not oo\-onant with llio niasiiT whiidi i-- iho 
s;iid 1,1'olairo's aim today. 

TiuUm' this lioad, tlu> ponnissioii ho asU^ for should wo thinU hi> riMusod, if ono 
oiinsidi>rs that in ordi<r- to sliafi> in tlii> pi'olits, tli«> ai'tisaiis oonlr.'iot lo wofU tor a 
poriod :;;roator than oiu^ yoar, whioh is loi'hiddon hy arliolo l.'I, law of li'Jml (iof- 
minal, yoar XI (^rJtli April !S(l.|.> 

Imm' |Iu>m" reasons. wt> oon--idor and propnso to rot'iiso lhi> .authoiisalion sniioilod 
hy Iho said Loolairo. 'riioChiof. (^Si;;naluio illii^Mhlo.') 

Il was onl\ in IS |S, afior tho lovolulion whith ovi'i-throw I ho i;'i>voriim<'nl of 
Louisd'hilippi', Ihal l-oolairt* was ;il'!'.' to di\idi' tho prolil-- <'\' hi-^ firm with his 
iMiployoos, 

I, oolair always doniod hoiiiu' i;o\oriu>d ''.\ Jmy |ihilaiilliropio id<<as ; his tlu-orv 
wasih;ii piolit-sharinif apart iVom othor advantajjos, was a muuco of prolil to iho 
innnufaol uror who adopted il 

llo oonlirnioil his ihoiuy with slrikin^' o\aniplo->. In ISd'.l In- ooiiNcnod his 
hands and oxplaiiiod to iIh'IU how ho oanio to m>o that hy apidyiiiL;' tho pi inoijial ot" 
|iiolii shariiii;' holwoon masti>r and man, ho oould sorvo his own onds and honolit \\'\'* 
woiknion and omployoos wdio oonnoolod lhom>(d\os with him. 

His roasonin-;', as oli>ar as il is practioal, dosorvos lo ho liroiiL^hl iindor tho nolioo 
iA' holh maslors and moii : 

" 1 ivason Ihusaml havoslalod il oIUmi al our nioolinus; :dl tiados wliitdi do|u'nd 
on work ilono hy tho day, may \ary ;;roally, wlion ono oporat«>s on a lar^o soalo, 
llio rosulls aro ooiisidorahh'. 

"Can an arlis.an in our Irado ( paint iiiyX hy his aolivily, i;ood will and a moro 
inlolliijfont uso of his tiiiio, produoo in tho sanu> spaoi> ol' linn' ^oIloday) an inori'aso 
ol work oijiial III ono hour, that is lo say S'f 1'-, ^vhi^h is tho aotiial rato por hour'.' 

"("an ho hosidos, >a\(< 8". I'.") |)or d.iy hy avdidiii!;- wasio in the malorials ;;ivon 
him. and hy taking oaro ot' tho implomonts of his I lado ',' 

" Tiu-y all answor in tho atlirniativo. 

" If ono artisan oiiM roali/.o for tho oonlraolor {J0.17 por day, for .'!(»(> workinu,- 
days, this will t'lpial .S.M. and supposiiiic tho lirm omploys an avora^o of ;!(I0 hands, 
an annual sa\ini;- of ?^ ].").. 'iUO is thus ohiainod. 

" It is hy this savim;' that on ono hand our mutu.al luMiovtdont sooioty inoroasi>s 
ovi'iy yi'ar its oaiMlal and <'aii pay poiisions to tho aivod workinu;man, and on tho 
oliior hami, van distrihuU protits |o those who help lo produoo Humu," 



I 



XXVI 



Mr. Ai'a Ciisliman, president oi" Ilio '• Ara Ciishmun ( 'Ompany " of Auburn, Mo. 
the larsfost boot and ishoo tactorj' in the State of Maine, ijjavo out to his eniployoos 
in 188(1 that he would inauii;urato in his factory the system of Profit-Sharing between 
employer and employees : 

'' If a man in cutting grain leather uses one foot inori^ for a ease of slippers than 
is absojulely necessary, the loss on his woric is IVom 50 to (id cents a day. Such a 
resiill might easily happen, and be biirdly ])ereeptible to a looker-on, or even to the 
cutler himself. If a cutter of calfskins fails to put every part of the skin where it 
will count for the most, or in liie place to wliicli it is best ada])tod, and therely 
maiies his shoe vani|)s eost a half cent a pair moi'e than they otherwise would, tin* 
loss on his day's works amount to at least a dollar." Specifying other openings 
for economy in material and in the care of machines, Mr. Ciisbman answers atlirma- 
tively his own question : "Could not the savings in all the ways I have indicated be 
made (o amount to a sum whicdi, if divided to all the employees would be eiinal to 
2^ or .") ])er cent increase in your pay ? " 

The system of Profit-Sharing was introduced in the Spi'inglield Foumliy in 1887, 
and in 1888 the directors said to the workmen : — 

" Some men have been careless and made imperfect castings, fit only for scrap 

iron. Such castings coiistiliile the worst '• leak " in all foundries It may sur- 

i)rise you to know it, but it is nevertheless true, (hat our average loss jier jjound on 
liad castings (dav work,) is over seven times tlie average profit on good castings! 
iOven on piece work, we lose five times as miicii on an imperfect casting as we gain 
on a good one. In other words, when you lose a casting wbi<di re(piires one hour to 
mould, it takes you all the. rest of the daij (o make good castings enough to coi-er (he 
loss.' '■'■'• 

As a last example we will cite the case of the Parisian lithogiapher who proved 
that from the day on which he gave 3;{ per cent, of the profits to his bands no more 
lithograjjb.ic stones wore broken in his establishment. These stones were worth 24 
francs. One day he overheard one of bis iiands say to another ; "Break no more stones, 
its cost us 8 francs." 

Reduced to these ])roporlions the ])rofil-shariug would only ho a sharing of sav- 
ings, jind would in no ways constitute a rise in salary deducted from the owner's 
pr(jfits; this is really what it is in many firms, but is useful to the tunployee even in 
these proportions, it gives him a larger amount of revenue without augmenting his 
work. 

Again in a great number of factories, the share allotted to the hands is in reality 
con\posed of a ]»art of the profits coming from savings realized in the work. 

The dillereiit systems a(lo[iteil In' firms worked on the prolit-shariiig priiudplo 
can be divitleil into .'{ classes : 

1. Prolit-sliaring with eo-proprietorshi|i in the undei'takim;-, 

2. Profit-sharing without co-proprietorship in the undertaking. 
.'). Pi'eiiuum<, graluitie-, and patronal in<lilutions. 

As regaril the distribution of the profits it is made on many different bases ; each 
firm adopts the form best suited to its business and wants of its employees. 

The resolutions passed by the ( 'ongress on profit-sharing Niini up the benelits to 
bo divided from this partnership of the workers with the results obtained by thelirm 

* I'rolit-Mlianiig between i.!iililnyiT mid i'lMplnyeeH. - X. I'. (in..M.\N. 



xxvu 



more 
th 21 

■itolU'S, 



reality 
uu'ipla 



■i ; oaclj 

'lil« to 
In- liim 



who ciii|)loys them. Tlic ivports presented at fliis ('oiii^ioss and (hH'iimonts ^hown 
by maiiiitactiircr.s permit to Juilifc both IVom a tht'oirtical and practical stand- 
point. Wo have, however, only to imiuire which ot" all these systems is most suitable 



forC 



anada 



This system sliould admit of no forfoilnro, and should leave the artisan the free 
disposal of his share in the prolits. 

.;■ Forfeitnre, that is to say, confiscation of prolits acqnirod l)y the artisan, I'ven 

; when made for I lie advantaij;e of the whole, is always an injustice, and would prove 

I on this continent an insurmountable olistaclo to the profit-sharing system. 

I To exact from a hand that he uiu>t remain, 5, 10, 15 or liu years in a firm before 

,; tcivin_i?him the ri^-htto hold the sums carried annually to his account, and eontiscato 

I this on his leaving; his employci" for sonu' oiu^ or othci' reasons, is in every ease to 



exact Irom lheein|)loyee ;; sacrifice out of all proportion to the advantages i^iven hi 



m. 



Hither profit-sharing is or is not advantageous to the employe:'. If it is not 



irodiictive of some hcnetil to him. it the sums he veai 



■ly div 



ides amonii'st his 



employees represent a |)hilanthr()pical act and not a commercial eomlanalion, let 
him strike out the word profit-sharing from his rules and replace it ii\' the word 
don.ation. 

When the employer niaUes a donation, founds an institulion with his own 
moneys for the benefit of his hands, he has an absolute' right to dispose (d'and share 
it will) whom^oevcr he lik-es ; this is a palronal inslitution. Hut when lii^ insiiiiilcs 
])rofit-sliaring with his hands, when these last to increase these profits give more 
care to their work, intelligence and use every means within their reach to this end, 
they have the riglit to exact the whole amount promised. 



Here is what an hln^iish member, Mr. l)aviil ScUl 



aid at the i'rofit-shar 



( 'ongress : 



'' In iMiglanil, where as yet, we luive not had youi' experience in !lie profit-shar- 
ing system, it has been r'eeognized lliatiuu^ should win over I lu' artisans by lu'iie- 
volenl nu'aiis, but never by ri'laining the money they havt' earned. 

■■ In iOngland where the Trades Unions have solved many dilliculties, the 
artisans will lu'ver allow their rights to the profit-sharing to be taken away, and if 
you voted for the foi'leiture ot'lhe rights of those who left the linn for which tlu'y 



d 1 



lail lieen w 



I i 



orking, you woidd have everv Trade's I'nion against y 

111." 



oU. 



lave always done my utmost to recommend the profit-sharing system lo m} 



friends in the I'lnglish workmen's unions, but this shaiing of profits -liould bo 
estabiished according to rubis of e(|uit\'. 

"I have not authority enough here to discuss this iioinl, but can s.ay as far as 
I'lngland is t-oneerned, if y(Ui vote for torfcilurt;, if you do not leave the workingman 
free to cdaim his share, profit-sharing will nevei- be established in iMigland."' 

It will be t'-e s.ame with Canada, the employers who introduce piolit-sharing in 



their factories, shoidil str 



<e out all clatises n-ferring to forfeiture, if they wish to 



better the unilorstanding between the on)ployor and employee by this nu'ans. 

BiU .some have said, that to suppress foi'feiture is to recognize the absolute 
right of the workingman to juotit-sharing ; to give bint in conscquonco the 
right to control the operations of the linn, verify the books, which he has no claim 



xxvm 



to do as he only sliai-es in the profits, not in the lo.ssos ; tliis is to transform a liber 
ality into an obligation. 

Profit-sbaring is not a liboralitj', but an obligation which the employer is free to 
assume, and under the same laws as other contracts. The principle of profit-sharing 
if reeenti}' admittcMl in trade, has long existed between employer and clerk. The 
right of veritication and control has never been stipulated between employer and 
clerks interested in the business, inasmuch as the former knows it is i-ecognized 
by the courts. Why should it be otherwise between masters and workingmun? 

The right of control and verification, has moreover been sanctioned by the Profit- 
sharing Congress, which recognized that an employer keeping his accounts straight 
would have no objection to having them auditctl. 

Without the power of control, profit-sharing could be carried on to the detriment 
of the employees, and might cause the intentions of the employer to be suspected, 
even when he was justly sharing the profits. 

This auditing loses much of its importance when one realizes that the 
accountants are themselves interested in the profits, constituting thus the best check 
possible on all transactions. The right of auditing should l)o exercised in the most 
discreet manner possible, by a delegate chosen by the hands, and should neither give 
them the right to know the operations of the firm nor its private business, nor of 
interfering with its management. 

Profit-sharing does not in the least diminish the rights or authority of the 
master, except when the employee is co-proprietor, and it is because the employer 
is absolute master and alone responsible, that the employee cannot be called upon 
to share in the losses. The employee should not share in the losses for a very good 
reason; be cannot occasion any. Capital and labor can cause no loss, they sustain 
it. It is the management, which discbarges the task of placing on the market and 
turning to account the goods created bj' capital and labor which is the only cause 
of loss; and which also, securing the greater part of its profits, should guard 
against such loss. For this reason reserve funds wci'o created, deducted before 
the profits were divided, and on which neither capital nor labor have any claim, 
although both contributed to their formation. The Reserve Fund constitutes the 
due share of capital and labor in the losses resulting from the operations of the firm. 

Objection is nnule to profit-sharing in certain circles on these grounds: 

Profit-sharing, it is urged, will lower wages, will create a certain class of work- 
ing men, separate from the great mass, and who by their steady work, will, by 
making strikes impossible, prevent their fellow workmen from improving their con- 
dititm. Hitherto facts have contradicted this assertion. Firms worked on ])i-ofit- 
sharing princi])les arc tho-^e that pay the highest wages. There is no wish on 
the employers' part to confound wages with profits; this is what the founder of the 
Guise Familisti^re said to the members of the Workingmen's Association, at Paris : 

" For tl:e implements of work one must have coal to make the engine work, oil to 
lubricate the machinery, and you cannot ask the machine to return what you have 
given it, tlie same applies to the working man ; the oil and coal represents the wages, 
profits are outside of that." 



XXIX 



work- 
'ill, by 

ir con- 
|)rofit- 

tsh on 
of the 

iParis : 

oil to 
\\ have 
jwa.u'es, 



Another objection i.s, that profit-sharing^ will not invvont striUos; to-day strikes 
arc organized tor an increase of salary, to-morrow we shall hear of them for an 
increase of the quantum of profit-sharing. 

Mr. Charles Eobert, an authority on the question, has said: — 

" This ol>ji'Ct ion doi's not appear to nio to bo well founded. I do not pretend 
that there is anything niagical in proHt-shaiing, ami 1 cannot say (hat anyone ean 
boast of having fultilled the wants and desires of the workingniiin Ity putting (his 
system in practice. It might possildy hap|ien, if prnfit-siiaring was very small, 
taking into consideration the zeal shown and the benefits obtained, that a strike 
shoui(l take place against the quantum of protit-sharing, as happens to-day as regards 
wages. Hut one must take a broader view of things. Come back to the e.xpurinu'nlal 
method, which rests on established facts. 1 think I may say that no striUo hastaken 
place in those firms that have .udopted tiie profit-sharing system, in oi'der to obtain a 
larger share. On the contrary, in France, this system has prevented stiikes for 
higher wages in many firms. Profit-sharing is condusive to a better understanding 
between employer and employee. The two opposing interests become reconciled, 
and conseciuentiy chances of strikes are much less. This is so much gain for public 
security and general order in the country." 

There is in profit-sharing an element over which stiikes and the ■workingmen 
have no power: enterprise and commercial intelligence. The 'ywT/if)/wi of profit- 
sharing has no other value than that which it produces; it matters little if it be high 
if the undertaking protluces small profits. The hands will not aek, before engaging 
with the factory, what is the quanfum of profit-sharing, but how much is the share, 
and that this should be his first thought will not be one of the least results of the 
system; it will accustom the workingman to take into account this element of pro- 
fits, which a certain school does not recognize to-day, pretending that labor has a 
I'ight to the whole surplus drawn fi-om the sale of the article produced. 

To make profit-sharing efficacious, and give the maximum amount of advantages 
moral and material, the employer who adopts it must apply it in general to all his 
hands. He can ajjportion the shares in proportion to the time the artisan has been 
in bis employ, but he must entitle all his employees to participate, unless he wishes 
to lose a^reat part of the profits he hoped to make by adopting this plan. 

In instituting profit-sharing in his firm. lioclaire had limited it to the nucleus 
ot his hands, later he admitted the au.Kiliary hands, and according to one of the 
heads of his firm this is how he decided to change his plans: — 

" After the events of 1870 a workingman, a stranger to the firm, said one day to 
to Mr. Leclaire, " youi' house is nothing but a collection of small employers, because 
a part <if them only share in the profits." This criticism struck Leclaire, who from 
that time deciiled" that all should share. At that time there were ;5,")0 hands, of 
whom l.")(l shai'cd in the profits. 

'•When one of those who formed tlie nucleus spoke to one not sharing in the pro- 
fits, he was answered by, " Do you think 1 am going to kill myself in order to make 
profits for you." Now that all share in the profits, all aie united ; there is no more 
jealousy and all do the utmost amount of work." 

One of the most serious questions emjjloyers have to consider is that of the use 
to bo made of the sums accruing from the profit-sharing system. 

This may seem strange, ami to well understand how it came about, one must 
remember that at the beginning the aim of the employers was to interest their 



XXX 



employees in their \vorl< ami better their position. From this arose all those com- 
binations of paying part in money, part in pension checlt-books ; the founding of 
mutual benevolent societies, savings banks, (*cc. All these ccmibinations in which the 
emj>loyers have no pecuniary interest and which bring them in nothing are with 
a view to keep the employees from want in their old age. 

No objection can be urged U) such exercise of foresight, nevortii'dess, we cannot 
defend the pi'inciplo of i)utting the employee under guardianship. On being ques- 
tioneil on this point Mi'. Laroche Joubert, director of the Angoulcme Paper Works, 
said : 

"There are so many benevolent societies around us that we did not think it 
nccessarj- to have one especially for our firm." 

'' This is contrary to our principles, as attacking the workingnian's liberty, who 
see withheld without liis permission a part of his i)rotits, and paid into the benevolent 
fund, it goes to make him doubt the principles of mutual aid. 

" This questicm will come u]i again some day, if the conditions of life continue 
to become worse, as they have done for some time past." 

And on the same theme this manufacturer stated before the Profit .sharing 
Congress : — 

" When wo starte<i tl>e profit-sharing system we said to the vorkingman : You 
shall have your sliare of the profits. But we did not add : You shall not have the 
right to dispose of them." 

" But tlie firm does not consider its duties tinished with the payment of the 
share ; it advises the workingman, .nnd encourages economy by giving certain 
privileges to the tlu-ifty." 

This question of using the funtls has always been an objection advanced by 
the opponents of the system. Already in 1872, Leclaire, to defend liis work, tluis 
replied (,n this subject to a correspondent: 

'• As regards the bad use the workingman would make of his share, has an 
inquiry ever been held in the matter ? The workingmen of Lyons are 
most likel}- much Ihe same as those of Paris. The maj(jrity hardly earn 
enough to bu\' bread for their families. All these poor houseliolds are in a 
most destitute condition, iiut if by receiving some extra help outside their 
salary, they are enabled to take their miserable rags out of pawn, where is the 
harm? Can it be said that there are no unfortunates driven to driidi through want, 
despair and domestic troubles ? Far from it, for in our own house some have fallen 
into it. Jiut to take the present generation, just as it is, and from that to argue 
that demoralization must be perjietuated is an excuse with many for continuing to 
do nothing." 

Leclaire was right. The most ardent adversaries of profit-sharing are those who, 
without looking into it, refuse to practise it. 

Of all the different systems of profit-sharing, we think the one adopted by the 
Angouliime Co-operative Paper Company (page 55) most suitable for Canada. 

This system, established on a just basis, takes into account the aptitude of the 
employee, the length of time he has worked in the firm, and pays him yearly in 
money his share of the profits. It also allows the employees, who have confidence 
in the future of the firm, to invest their money in it, anel become shareholders. 



XXXI 



as ill! 
|8 are 

earn 
in a 

tlieir 
is the 
want, 
fallen 
argue 



Ic who, 

|by the 

it' the 

|irly in 

ilence 



Tlie foumlation ol the Guise Familistire, one of tiic most romarkahio works 
cvoi' ])roduce(l, coultl not Ite repeated on lliis coiuinent, the colleclive prinei])le 
on which it was founded and worked has no root in America.* 

I'ii)(itsliarin<{ lias been tlu' siihjcct of inuoli discussion, I'Mthusiastic apin'ohation, 
ami liittcr ciiticism. In such a matter tin- opinion of cxj)crts should cany nioi'e 
weight than that of theorists. And to siiow the good results obtained by the appli- 
cation of profit-sharing it is only sutlicient to know the opinion of tiiose wlio have 
Tried it. 

Ujiinions of a few inanufacturcrs on profit-xJuirin</ icith their emploijccti, and the 
] results obtained.y 

lUuHAs, T.vssAUT AM) Bai.as (scc page ;}l>.) 

Extract from Mens. Barhas' deposition before the Commission of J-jicpury. 
>• " We consider thnl, as in the liaison f "I'laire, a largo ])ortion of the success of 

I our liouse is due to tjic institution of jin sharing, as well as to our Mutual Aid 
.| Society and to the prolessional school which we established at a suitabK> time. 

'' Protit-sharing possesses a merit that we place in the first rank : that of ensuring 
st.diility in the start'; it is not the rolling stones that become j)rotit-shaiers, and 
when these same workmen own a bank book showing a saving of .StJIMI increasing 
from year to year by an annual sbair in the ])rotits added to the interest at ") jter 
cent.; when apart from these advantages the}' arc pretty sure of work all the year 
round ; when in the same house they timl a mutual aid society ready organized, a pro- 
fessional school for their (diildrcn. either woi'kmen or employees ; finally an insurance 
against accidents the premium of whii'li is entiiely paid by the house, these workmen 
are perforce respectable and steady. 

Extracts from the documents exhibited by the firm. 

" Our personal cxjierience therefore ])roves that jirofit-sharing is not oidy an 
economy in production, but an estsential element of prosper it ij for all and for the firm. 

'' Moreover to whatever ])oint our glance is directed this assei'tion is confirmed 
by facts ; in fact Ave see nothing but jirospority in all the establishments practising 
])rotit-sharing, and it has been proved that all those that have adopted it in Erance, 
save one, preserve it carefully. 

" Profit-sharing ott'ers many advantages, it encoui'ages apprenticeship, it develops 
industrial (pialities the most essential to workingmen ; knowledge, stability and 
devotcdness; it is an Cfcy/iy?(i^o/pWMO/?OH,a source of profit for workmen and master, 
a means of prosperity and a method of transferring a liusiness to other bands. 

" So much for the purely industrial view of the question. From another point of 
view profit-sharing develops the dignitj' and the moralit\- of workmen, it is an 
education in economy to them, it cori'i'cts many ci'i'ors in ri'gard to labor, it destroys 
all pretexts for strikes, and may be used as an initiation into cooperation. It draws 
workmen more closely together, 'and it diaws tiie master neater to the work- 
men, it i)inils them with a bond of interest which sooner or later is transformed into 
a bond of sympathy which destroys all antagonisms. It sati^^fies a legitimate am- 
bition, brightens the future, and for the bitter thoughts born of prosjtecfive misery 
sulistitutes gentleness and sympathy. 

'' III liis treatise (in .Social Itytjiene — 1SSS - I Kn'toi' Kiicliaid said in s|)eakint; of the (hiise Fninilinlirr 

"Tills life in (.'oiinnon, uiifornniately forces the head of the family, always to remain tenant of a small 
fireside, which he can never ac(|nire and hand down to his children. 'l"he savings, the |irotits are con- 
centrated into a coiiinion fund, and take all the risks r\ni liy an imlividnal enterprise. An unlooked-for 
ivent, a war would give an irreiiaraiile lilow to the works, the workingman, iHissessing nothing' outside, 
would lose his all. 

"The ni.-inner of educating the children results in taking ftway all family individuality. 

"All are I'ducateil in common. They pass from the nursery to the infants scIhkiI, thence to the school 
Ill-longing to the factory. They remain there all the yeai round, and have not a fortnight's holiday. 

"The right of cJKHising otiier schools is denied the parents. ln|Kiintof law, the family is jierfectly 
free, it nevertheless undergoes a iiressure at the Fmin'/i.itt ir, which, though slight in appearance, does not 
leave it master of its moral and religious life.' 

• ' ''I Extracts from the evidence taken liefore the extra-parliamentary coinnii.ssion of the French Working- 
men's Ass(X'iation. Documents exhihiteil by the l-'rencli (Joveniment. 



xxxn 



ic lirst I'iiiilv lis a 
stale tlial all llio 
and nicthoilical 



*' Fiiiallv, it is well to note lluit inca-x' otaicidi'iil or oftloath wliicli tivquontly 
tl('|ii'ivi's a iioiisc of its lit-ail. |in)lit->liarii)u; may In- t lie salvation of tlio family by 
juvsoi'viiii;- tlio litf of till' rsialilisliini'iil ami proven! in<,' a rnimms liiiuidation. 

" In a lettoi" totiie Chairman of llic ( 'omnji^NJon of tlie Lahor AsHoeiations, Mr. 
fiofflnon, wlio is the founder of jirotit-shariiii; in the estaMishment of liarhas, TassarL 
and Halas, says :— 

" Ah a principle, we rank profit-sharing' as an institution (i\' twonomii' production, 
and not iiH it has heeii too fre([iiently styled an act of philanthropy the etloet of 
which would havo lioon to lower the worUmon, instead of raising him to a hi.u;iier 
level as has heen our intention. 

" We hav(* Nlated I hat [irotit-sharinu; imi-<t not lie eonsidored a universal panacea ; 
but wo may he permitted hrielly to point out somi' of the advantages ri-alizeil hy a 
^reat niimhor of houses in \vlii(di it ha> been adopted : — 

•' 1st. In my opinion, there should no hesitation in giviiiy; t 
means of economic production; in support of this opinion I may 
establishments that have adopted this system in a determined 
manner have suecoeded and that not one has abandoned it ; 

"2nd. Profit-sharing binds together capital, diu'clion and labor which form a 
great power and raises the levtd of professional knowledge b}' moans of ii more 
thorough a|)prcnticcship now loo much overlo()i<cd ; 

" 3rii. This organization admits of mutual aid societies being formed in each es- 
tablishment which awakens strong and sincere brotherly ieeling among the 
members ; 

" -Irth. It is |)ossible to obtain on very advantageous terms collective life and acci- 
dent insurance, retiring' funds for old age, etc., etc. ; 

'• oth. Is not ])rotit-sharing dostiiKHi sooner or later to become the kernalof ])ro- 
ductive cooperative societies, as has been the case in several houses, notably in that 
of .Mr. Ijcclaire ? The success of the latter eslablisbim'iit leads us to hope that it 
will havo many imitators. The luture behuigs to all ; none may be .^ure of it, but 
all are allowed to hope ; protit-sharing will be the preliminary stage of cooperation. 

A[oN'S. BESSELlilVRE (sOO ptlgO H').) 

" We are, above all, convinreil that if the law cannot oblige a master to share his 
profits with his workmen, his interest should lead him them to do so. 

" What I wish to prove is that in the larger industries whero suporintondenco is 
less active than in the lesser industries, it is to the master's interest to associate his 
workmen with him : 

" 1st. Such a measure will cost him nothing. The workman knows that he is 
working foi' himself, and that his earnings will increase in pi'oportion as his work is 
well and (piickh' done, ami will therefore exi'i't all his jtowers, and so increase the 
profits of the establishnnMit. 

•' 2nd. The great ditliculty of the fixed salary is that it creates an antagonism 
betwei'ii workmen and master, the former having a ti-ndency to demand the highest 
possible amount for tlu' least work, and the latter to e.\act the largest possible 
amount of work tor the smallest pay. 

" This situation must ot necessity lead to contliet. Now, without wishing to deny 
a right to strikes it should be thoroughly understood and recognized, that the part 
they I'lay in industry is the same as that of war between nations, leaving behind 
them bitter feeling and empty purses. E.xporienco has proved that where profit- 
sharing is practised, there are no strilces and that in these establishments the rela- 
tions between masters and workmen arc constantly improving. 

" 3rd. Finally, the cai)ital workmen will amass, will permit of their giving their 
children a better education, ami it is certain that an uneducated workman does less 
good service than one whose intelligence has been developed by study. As a State 
is benefited by the education of all, so the industrial family must profit by the edu- 
cation of all its members. 



xxxm 



" Tlu' ]iiiri'iils liiiviiii;-, mnii'ovcr, oftectod 8<)iiu> snviiii;?* Iiuve loss need of t ho 
fMriiiiiLC'' (it'tlifir rliildivii and aic tlu'rclnn. nnt oliliMfd lo Inicc tlicin lo any work 
lircjudirial lo I he natural dovi'lopnu-nl ot'tludi' [lowiTt-. 

Tlio Hon M.vuciifi (woo \m'^o ;{"). -Mr. Fim,ot. 

"Thin organization is irroatiy in tlu' onipioyeos' intoroHt, toi- tiic slmro ot'pi-otilrt 
irlvcii ovor liy tlu> liousc to its co-opi-ralors cioatt's an oxci'iilional position tor llu'in. 
Many of our lieads of (Icpartnicnls lu'inj; intrrivstcd in tlu> protits ot' the lioasf aro 
anxious to make iidvantairt'ous ]iurcdiasoH, and to siip«>rintt'nd tlio condiK-t of tho stall' 
under llu'ni, and strivoto ccononuso as mmdi as possilijo for tlio bonctit of tlic lioiiso, 
and in this rt-spoct, I it'pcat, wo havo ovoiy roason to ho salisliod with our organiza- 
tion. Wo havo roa.-'on to oon<4ratiilato oiirstdvos on our I'rovidoni l-'und ; it providos 
for tho loast t'ortunalo ainoni;' our ])oopli', a oortain soourily tor tho I'uluro, and it 
himls thoni to tho hou^o. All our jiooplo tiro intoroslod in tho smooth working- of tho 
bwsinoss. which is iho roa^(ni such ^ood rosulls aro iditaino(I. 

" Strikos aro an inipossihility in our honso, hocau.-c^ tho hoadsof t iioiloparlinont 
and of oountors ai'O all intort'>tod in tho protits roalix.od. Moroovor, tho oinployoos 
who holon^ to tho i'rovidoni Kiind havo too larf:;oa oapilal invostod in Iho fund, to 
allow of their doinu' anylhini^ wluitsoovor that iniirht ho tho oau^o of thi-ir iosini;' it, 
and liosides tho amount thoy nicoivo in salary IiIikIs thorn still morototho ostalilisii- 
inont. 

MV. llUTTNER-TinEHRY (soi- ]):igo ."!!•). 

"As rou;ai'ds thi' worlcmoii, lludr savinu's invostod in tho nisuraix'O oonij)any 
onalilos tlu'in to taoo tho futuro witii t ran(|uilliiy. As t h oso savin^-s inoroaso iho'y 
oxorciso thoir intluonoo on them ovon oiilsido tho workshoj), as I havo fri-cjiiontly 
had occasion to remark. A.s for my.solf, prolit-sharini:: has siirroundod mo with u 
corlain nnndior of oni]iloyoos and workmon mofo desirous llian hoicloforc of pi'o- 
duoinii' ^•ooll work. 'JMio relations hetwoon u- aro those of all'eclion and mutual linist. 
Wo iiavo trained in security and our evory-day life is more oii.sy. 1 am oncouray;od 
hy their cordial attitude, wdiieh is a support to mo in tho trials inseparahlo from any 
industry, and am thus led to hope that hy a loyal and continued iindorstandiny; 
hetwoon them, f may ho spared, it not the inovitahio business cares, al least labor 
troubles since they will iio in the enjoyment ol'as large an amount of well-being as 
tho .state of my i)usinoss will j)eiiuit.'' 

Mr. Chaix (seo page 39.) 

'• I boliov(> protit-sharing to he a mixed system hofween pati'on:il institution a'^ it 
now st.ands and the coo[»eralivi' association ; it deserves to bo encouraged, 'flu- wofk- 
man specially will prolit b}- it ; he will learn independence, and to form labor associ- 
ations for which ho is not yet sulUciently ])ropared, because he docs not possess tho 
iiu.nliiies ho aequiros in meetings, such as are hold in our establishment, and whero 
he sees what wo are doing for the children, for himself, and for tho old ])oople. If 
profu-sharing woio encouraged, if this programini' of union wori> inscribed on tho 
htinnor of tho Ropublie, I boliovo that within ton yetirs, tho workman, from tin 
economic ])oint of view, would have mi'de immense progress." 

" In 1848 my father wished loostablish |)rotit-sharingand failed. ITo had ilecided 
to give 10 por eont. of tho prolils to be divido<l among the workmen, but tlio latter 
wore not prepared for such a nioasuro, their ndnds wore not dovelopotl as are llioso 
of our workmen of tiio i)rescnt day. and they ilemandod that the protits bo divided 
every month; sevor.al mootings wore lu'Id, my father insisto<l that the division 
^]|ould only bo yearly, but tho workmen who had no idea of economy, who did not 
understand tho requirements of an industry, persisted in their demand, and the pro- 
ject fell through. 

'• Our workmen of tho present day may still retain some false ideas, hut thoy will 
he »'ducated througii protil-sharing. As far as jny proceeding is concernod, if it had 
still to be done, 1 would not change. Our position is open to improvement, and by 
20— c 



XXXIV 



common consi'iil it is modiHod ovory ^otir. Wlion a woiUiuaii comos into our 
estaliliNJimcnt we j^ivo liim u boolt in wliieii llio rosiiits obtiiinod from ])rotit-nhaiiniC 
are cnUnvil, and llic amount ot'tln> ten assomlilies tiiat liavr so far lieon licld. 

" Wo arc about thirty niastiTs in Franco wbo practisi' ]irotit-.siiiirini;; ; if our ox- 
amplo woro tojlowod a uToat step —ould bo taken on tho way towards uniting mastorH 
and worivmon, oapilai ami iaboi-. 

" As for tho amount to bo divided, that I cannot state; |ioriians some day one- 
tliird will bo awai-ded to intolloct ; oiK'-tlur<l to capital; ono-thinl to labor. I am 
convinced such will be the case, but for tho pi'oscni, I boliovo, that oatdi one must 
bo iolt at lib(uMy to ostalilisji pi'otit-sbarinfj; according to his jutliimont, and the ro- 
((iiircmonts of t lie industry in widch bo is engaged." 

Co.Ml'AQNIK (i£.\fill.\I,K TltANS.VTI-ANTIQUE (SOO pagO 4i), Mr. EuoilNE I'KREIHE. 

" One of those groat advantages is to consolidate tho personal interest of the 
cmployeo and the general inloresi of the so'ioty: tiiat is capital, aiiovc all fur enter- 
prise, wbi(di,liko the Transatlantic Company wiio have a ])ortion of theii' stall' work- 
ing in a foi'oign country, an<l who camiot, therefore, exercise over them a ilirecl 
and imnuMJiate su]uuMnleniIenec. 

"Thus it is. tiiat the system of giving premiums as practised by the company, 
is much su|)erior to the s^'stiHii of tho giving of regular oi- accidental gratuitii-s of 
which it took tho ])lace. in this way the employoos can undei-stand i)erlectly tho 
Hhare coming to them, tho exact aniount, and it is a powerful stimulua of which tho 
whole society profits. The specialisation of ]ii'emiiiiiis was suggested to us ])arti- 
cuiarly by this observation, tlial the more insigniticani the employee, ami the more 
limited his intolligenco and education, the less he understands the general results of 
an oiit('r])i'ise ; but wliat he can understand clearly are the economical n-sults which 
are produced in a way under his very eyes, and to whi(di he personally contributes. 

" The system of ]ircmiums has been in operation in tho (ioncral Transatlantic 
Company for tho last live yoais, and each year J am in a position to show notaljle 
impi'ovoments that have resulted thoi-efrom. A very apparent decrease in the ex- 
penses, and a large increase in the receipts ai-o produced without effort, and without 
troul)le, and a sort of rivalry exists among those who iiave ]>roiluced this state of 
things, ami as a general result, in tho interest of the employees; 1 am able to 
estimate the sums distributed among the statf in premiums at about 15 per cent, of 
tho salaries and payments." 

La Compagnie Universelle du Canal de Suez (see page 45) — Mr. Ferdinand de 
Lessei's. 
"We must congratulate ourselves on the system of profit-sharing that we 
have adopted Our emido^'ces form one family. Thus, every day the telegraph 
indicates tho receipts of the day previous, and all the employees applaud when the 
recei|)ts are large. In all respects the profit-sharing has been useful to us, and I 
have never found the least resistance to it on the part of my staff." 

Maison a. Deherny (see page 4G) — Mr. Tuleu, partner. 

"Profit-sharing has attracted ami retained in our establishment the best workmen 
of the place. 

" The Avorkmon, .seeing that their interest is directly associated with that of the 
house, are more careful with their work. 

'• In an industry where the models are very minute, bad modelling is almost 
unknown. 

'• These advantages — it is very difficult to estimate them — have, in our e^'es, a 
gi'oator value than the so-much-por-cent. on the jirofits by which we secure them. 

" We would add that if the profits are not allotted directly to each worker as the}' 
were before, in 1ST2, it is because, after an experience of twenty-four years of the 
system of direct distribution, it was seen that it did not respond to tho end Mr. 
Deberny had in view. He was desirous that tlie workmen should assui-e themselves 
by saving against sickness or old age ; but too small a number had such forethought, 
and Mr. L)eberny considered himself moi-aliy bound to be so for all. 



4 



to 



XXXV 



''Tlio |)riitil->li;iriiii,' ustiililihliOH lirtwccn tlio wufkineii iiml miistfr Midi a iiiiioii 
lliat llio iUH'stioii fifHulaiioH witli uh in wi-ttlod in Iho iiiont ^iiiipli- wiiy. Thi' worit- 
iiicii, cci-taiii nf thciii at least, iinilcrHtaiid lu'rloctly whut tlioir r'iu'hts arc and know 
well Imw to I'lilnrro tJM'ni ; tiicy arc naturally very Htrict. Mimctinic^ even smiu'wliat 
riiioroiiH. All (|ni'stionH arc ilisciiNscd aniicalily and witli'mi irrilatinn. 'i'lifir luuU 
jilac*' lasi year ino^t disastrous .sti'iUcs uf worknuMi, Ijut nolhini^ dI' I Ik- kind dccurrod 
wiili as. WIk'Ii ilic >tiiUi> first ooc-uiri'd our worknion liUMtcnod In assuii' us tlial 
tiny \V(Hild lint juiii any siudi innvcnicnl. ll is a nfcat advaiitauc In i'c aMi> In slfcp 
calnily, knitwiiiii' that we have wnrknieii on wlinni wc can icly. Tin' wnik cannot lie 
hadly (lone in oui- estaiillHlimcnt ; it is culled Ky worknitMi wlm know t lieir business 
ami are aMe to examine it." 



Cooi'KHATiVK r.\i'i;u WoHKS oF ANaoui,fi.ME — Mr. Larochk-.Ioi iiKUT, niaiiai;cr (see 
l)ugo 55). 

Th' remits of proJit-sharin</. — •' Prollts liave lai-^idy incn-ased durinu limes of 
prosperity, or liavi' lici'n stationary diiriiiti; llic serious crisis I'elt in oui' industry, 
while some of'oiii' conlVei'i's are lortini;- money, and some too nmny alas ! are torced 
til slop woi'k- (ir Id o'd into li(juidali<iii. 

"This I'esiill is due to the slimiiliis of cdnperal idii, which prevents jiny 
attempt di' thdiiM-hi of striki- anidiijr our stall', which maintains a unitv dt interest 
aiudiiii,' lis ; so that, thanks to pl•olit-sharinf,^ the produclioM in our f'actories has 
increased; our [irodiicts arc very |)erfect ; our cost of proiluctioii much redueeil; 
our wasti' is less, and finally our stafl' is more steady and stat ioiiary, in so imudi 
that it includes an evi'r-iiicrcasing mcmlier of iiimilies whose members belong to 
the house, ciiildfi'ii, |)arents and grandchildren. 

•• Finally, without protil-sharing the zeal of our staff was not snfticieiit to allow 
lis Id attempt the undci'lakiiig whiidi has sd well siiccei'deil since. Id give diir 
jirimitive industry, the simple manufactliiri' df jiaper. the devehipmeiit derivi'd 
trom the addition of the supplementary industries. 

" By the establishment of cf)operatioii. the greatest service is reiidei\'d to all; 
to tliose who give it anil to those who receive it. 

■• Would J have been able to coiisi'iit to become a member of parliament had I not 
estalilished cooperation in our liill of workmen? And had not my son, thanks 
to coo[)eration, as many assistants as there are woi'kmcn emido^-ed, would he be 
able to boar the heavy burden I have left to him? 

"With cooperation there is no possibility of waste without the workmen 
theiiiKclves suffering for it ; workmen near In' who s((> the wasti' and are alsd to 
siitier for it, cry: Stop that I 

'"Iff am at ]ieaoe in parliann-nt, if I have no distracting subject of thought, 
it is thanks to cooperation, it is because I know that our business is most carefully 
attended to. 

" Jf J knew ihat my workmen rob me and destroy my goods without being them- 
selves the first to suffer tor it 1 could not possibly retain this position. But the unity 
created by profit-sharing induces my workmen to watch over each other, and is the 
reason wiiy this superintendence is more thorough than that of any paid su|)erin- 
tendent could possibly be who was not personally interested in the results of the 
work. 

" There is an instance which clearly shows the advantages of profit-sharing. 

" Two factories are established in the same ])lace, cooperation is organi/.ed in one 
but not in the other. They both manufacture the same goods; they have tlie same 
hydraulic power or the same steam power. Employees and workmen are paid the 
same wages in botli; in the factory practising profit-sharing 25 per cent, of the 
profits over and above the wages are reserved to be divided at so much in the dollar 
among employees and workmen ; in the other theyare paid the amount of wages 

20— rJf 



XXXVl 



ngivod upon. To wliicli of tlio«o two I'lictorieM «lo yon think workmen would go by 
jiroferciicf ? Kvidontly to tho t'actury piiiflisiiii^ protit-Hhiiriiii;. 

'■ It luiH Iti'i'ii iiSHtM'd'd tliat woiknien an' nol at nil intou'sted in ijic (|m'Ntioii ot" 
profii-sliarini,', and that tht-y huj': " It is all ihi'oiy, tiici'o is no roHult." 

■' Nuno but t'ooU woiiM ^ay siudi a tliinj^. The host proof in that our worknicn 
I'arely loiivo us, whilMt evorv day wo uro a.si.ed I'or situations from workmen from 
olhi-r fiu'tories, drawn to iis ny the hope of a >hurt« in tho profits. 

" I return to my exainpU' of ihc two factories. I said thai workmen would eiiijago 
hy iireforem e in the eooporative faetoiy. It is most ecfrlain, for it would he moro to 
their interest ; and then what wouhl the inaiiufaeturer do? He would ehooso from 
amoii!4sl the 2,()'M) workmen, whom I suppose have applit^l, l,(l((0 ot the best work- 
men, and the other 1,0(10 would i,'o to work in the other faetoiy. 

" J)o yon suppoM! the quality ot the tjoods j.rodueed would ho the same in both ? 
In one the workmen will say: wo work W(dl eii(Mii,di for the pay wo got, ami tiiey 
will talk of the sweat of their brow shed for their iiiasler's profit; always the same 
old story I have iieard so often. In the other laefory the inon will woik hanl and 
much; Ihev will ho {•arefiil ihat Ihere is no waste in order that at the end of tho 
year tho prolits may bo tho larger, and eoniiiolitioii then becomes an impossibility 
for one of those factories; one will produce three or four times moro than tin' other, 
whi(di can now he proved by more than one of our cooperative factories. |i must 
nol he believed that the master, in e>t;iblishing I'ooporat ion. gives away a part "'''ds 
jirotits, not at all; he does a very good stroke of business, and that is what tho- \ lio 
do not practise it must bo made to understand. 

"Mr. Leelairo, a contractor in house painting, declared tliat he had iia.i no 
pliilaiithri>pie molivo in estahlishing co-operation. 

•• I admit that, for my part, il I am a pliilanlhrojiist. I am one without knowing 
it. When I act as a man 1 follow tho impulse of my heart, but when I act as a 
manager, I am guided by the interest of my society. 

'■ \Vhen I wished to establish protit--.hariiig in our liouso I met many obstacles 
agaiii>t wl'i(di I hail to >truggh' ; amongst others my eldest broiiu'r l(>ft nie. llo 
opened a factory ami took his two chihlren with him. llo did not adopt protit- 
sharing. Well, In- did not succeed, and 1 helped him out of his ditticulty by admit- 
ting him again to our cooperative association. I also took his factory into tho 
system of cooperation, which, without it, had mot with nothing but lo-ises, ami which 
now is making money like tho others, among which it has boon long in existence. 



•• If, therefore, wo wish thei-e to be an end of stiikos iind violent revolutions, if, 
in a word, wo wish to destroy tho wi'apoiis most used by ]>rofossional agitators, wo 
must do away with any legitimate cause of discontent among workers, 

'' Coujieration, i/uit is to sai/^profit-sfutriiuj h>/ the workmen is alone capable of proilii- 
ciny the dcMred result. In fact not only does cooperation improve the material condi- 
tion of the workman, it raises him in his own esteem; nothing indeed can so well 
satisfy the legitimate sidf-estoem of tlu' workman as to fe(d himself a little more on an 
equality with his ma-^tor, as is tho case wlu'ii he shares in the lattei''s profits. Aijitd- 
tors lose their time when tJteij appbj to irorkmen of this kind, ichen tlieij try to excite them. 

" Cooperation is the most poirerfiil lever that can be imagined to increase the amount 
of production (for a stated work) in aijricidtural as icell as in industrial matters. 

Mr. Pi.vt (see page G6). 

■' As an index of tho results that profit-sharing can give, I would state that last 
year my foundry was subjected to a labor crisis, and my workmen founders went on 
two months strike with their comrades. This iindoubiedly, wa> very annoying; but 
it must ho said in extenuation that though jn-otit-sharing existed it may be said it 
was only in theory, for they had notyot received anj-of the money, and besides they 
were afraid of their comrades who were very violent and who intimated them. Tho 
proof that they wore not of the detorminod and bad-intent ioned strikers, that are 
fountl iu all labor strikes, was that they were spoken against in all the meetings and 



xxxvn 



III last 
t'ut on 
;• ; hut 
said it 
s tliey 
Tho 
lat are 
''^ anil 



cniisifhTftl iH fiilso lirotliifii, fhoy t<>f> wi-r*' tlio first ti) ii'tui ii iiiicnnilitiDiially In iho 
wniksliop ami ilu'ir f.\ani|il(' wan lollowttl liy all of tlie worknu-ri-. .luritlorM. Tlio 
HtriUi' virtually cca-cil tin'ilay tln'V ifciiiniiii'iifcil to work. 

'• Lanl year at ii liku period hoiiu- of tiicm sooiiu'd to faro or to tliiiik ot protlt- 
rtliarini;. To-diiy tlioy l)otli caro and tliink a ^roat dcid of it. Tlio workman who in 
ahout to li'avf tlio workshop lor an\ caufc wlialfvor, thinks twico hft'oie doin^f so; 
two years more ot'this sy>icni and tlicsc i<K'as will cortaiidy im-iea.-r in intensity; 
the workman will hiToint' more and more alta(die<l to his faclory. and trmn that 
time from doinii' niont careful work, losing loss time and hein.ix moresavin^r of iroods 
and mateiials there is hnt one step and I am sure ho will take it, and ])rotil-sliarin;,' 
will have tlii^desiralilc and loirical I'esult : that wherever il is applied the workmen's 
weil-|pi'ii)Lr and future seeiirily will he ineieaseil without imi»ovurishini; tho master. 

FoH.MKIl .MaISON JiK(I..\IllE (sOe pMge ()"). 

.Mr. MAiHit:oT. — " The results ohtained are of two kinds : mal<'rial and moial. the 
workmen, hoiiii; more eomfortal'le at home, remain more within doors and thus 
eeoiiomiso and some hoi'oiiic— mall jtropriotors. On the other hand the workmjin 
fouduets himself hei ter and itercr lo.^cs his Jlondoy ; he feels that he has a mission 
and that iio siiould hy his bearing anl his juditeiiess towards the eiistomors, repre- 
sent a house, in the prosperity of whi<'h he has ov(>ry interest. 

"We have frequentl\' men working; in the country, on whom we have no kind 
of control or supervision and nevertheless we receive nothing hut the least reports 
of their if ood conduct and of the carefid way they perform their work, from tiioso 
witii whom they are workin;;; tlu'se results aiedue to protil--liarinir. foi'tho work-- 
nian knows that il is enliroly lo his iuterest to yive satislaclion to the customers 
whi(di insure him work. Our workmen employ their tiiue usefully, heeaiiso they 
know that at tho end of tho year, the hetter they have conduclod themselves and 
llie lietter residts they have attained, tho more they will iiavi' lariiod. 

'• if sometimes duriiiij a i)ress of work a hlaek sheep should mingle with our 
lloc'k, he never remains more than forty-ciijht hours, he is at once dismissed. 

'• Accordinii' to statistics which we ha\'e made ri'i;'ardin,u' our house oiiiy. li(d'oi'e 
the sharing of prolits was delinitoly ostahlished hy ^oUarial Act, the numln'i' ot' 
workiui;' painters who did not work on Monday and kept drinkini;, was 40 per cent. 
Since lS(i^ the inimher has deci'oased ami for tho hist ton yi>ars we have not hail 
more than one per cent; and during- the last live years we have not heon ealled upon 
to ])unish any. The moral results that we hiiv,' ohtained arc of the hiu'hest import- 
ance. The workmen who work with us seek to remain. There is one imporiant 
point that I would suhmit to ihc commission, whidi is that workmen under forty 
years are much hctler.'dile to iindo;stand the advaiUaiics und the henelits of protit- 
sliariiii;- than the workmen who are over forty years of auc These latter are almost 
indillcrenl. 

■"This inditferonco without douht, is caused hy the ilitticulty of obtainiiiif a retii'- 
inj^ pension : and hecaiise men over i'oriy years have not hetoii- them the hope> of 
youth, ;ind they work without ihounht of the future, whilst we tind that thehea<lsof 
the workshop, the men of trust are the yotini;: people who ilisplay an alality and 
divotedness without hounds. 

''As to the su])i'riiitendence of vvor.., we are ]ierlcelly (|iiiet. J)urin^' the ]noss of 
work we take all the W(jrkmen '.viio eome. without choosing. There aio some who 
M'ork biidly; well, the workman who works badi}- does not remain more than two 
days in the house, because he is at onco pointed out \>y the other worlcmen. If' a 
forenum iloes not perforT.1 his duty, wo are immediately informed of it by 
letter. If anythini; irivn'iilar takes ])lace in tho workshop we are informed of it, 
and after notification we act as required. In case of an infiingoment of the rules, 
we pass judgment. There is ii committee who admit to the noi/ati, and a committee 
that judges mattei's and that judges of them rigorously." 



I 



XXXVIU 



4 



Society of the Familistjire de Guise. (See page 75.) — Mr. Godin, Manager. 

'•It iH my opinion that the Society of the Familist^re will eventually realize 
great pnitits : and suppose' tjiiit in my old age 1 decide upon retiring from active 
life, my capital is .secure. Tins sounds rather egotistical, Init is not that the tone of 
our period? My l)usinesa capital brings me 84(),0()0 interest per annum, and I receive 
aliout §1(1,000 as managei. Iieing a total of about 800,000 per annum. I fiiid this 
11 large sum, enormous; and yet the Society is doing good business. At the pro]»er 
time I shall reeeive my ca])ital in full, the workmen will have taken my place; 
but the statutary dispositions arc such that the payment of capital will continue 
indetinitely and be applied to the more ancient claims, consequently the establish- 
ment will bo in the hands of workmen in active business. From an economic point 
of view 1 consider this to bo an impoi'tant result." 

Finally, as an answer to the objection raised, that young America could not 
adopt the. idea of the old world, avc will cite the opinion of M. Carroll Wright on 
the ipu'stion ; this opinion demonstrates in u few words tno advantages derived from 
the application of profit-sharing : — 

" From the data gathered from all sources we derive these cardinal principles 
of industrial partnership : 

"Participation by woricmen in profits in addition to wages is a true harmo- 
nizer of tlie interests of capita! and labor. It does in fad identity the interest of 
the employe with the interest oi the emiiioyei. It eonvei'ts the industrial associa- 
tion of emjdoyer and employes into a nu)ral organism, in wliich all the various 
talents, services, and desires of the component individuals are fused into a commu- 
nit}^ of pur])ose and endeavor. 

" The dividend to labor is not usually an increase of pay, services remaining the 
same, but a form of exti-a pay for extra services and an inducement calling them out. 

" The extra serviees called out, and the maimer in which they are called out, 
constitute an invalual)le educational discipline. They develop the whole grou]) of 
industrial virtues: <liligeiiee. tidelity. caretaking, economy, continuity of effort, will- 
ingness to learn, and tlie spirit (jf cooperation." (ProHt-sharing, ISSt).) 

Patronal Institutions. 

These institutions may be divideil into two classes: those created with a really 
philanthropic object, being a concession on the part of the employer, and those 
which the employer is required to create, and which form only a necessary addition 
to t|io general wages, given in a collected form to compensate for the insufficiency 
of the individual wages. 

In the *iret category must be put the bonus allowed in the shape of interest on 
the woi kinon's savings by the employers savings bank ; the sums given workmen to 
insure them a pension ; the gratuitous assurances against accidents ; the establishment 
of schools at the works; loans, t\:c., when these institutions are founded in populous 
centres, and it the employer pays the regular rates of wages. But when those 
institutions are creau ' in districts removed from cities or villages, in t!ie midst of 
a working population, bound to the sofl, to the works, and receiving wages barely 
sntlicient for existence, and consequently not permitting of the creation of tlie ma'n- 
teni.nce of societies of mutual aid, of stdiools, of pension funds, i^c, it may be said 
that the necessity of establishing si.ch provident institutions is imposed on the 
employers. This statement in no sense diminishes the merits of these institutions, 
of which a large number, and not the least expensive, aic beyond the actual obliga- 
tions that are imposed upon employers. 



XXZIX 



These institutions, apart from those to whom the administi-ation was wholl}-, or 
inp.irt,ontriistO(l to workmen, h;ivo almost always been looked upon with disfavor liy the 
workmen, however well thry may have succeeded. They are, nevertheless, useful and 
necessary in certain districts, and in certain industries, whore ignorance, alcohol and 
indifference render the population entirely unfit to conduct them. 

If incapables were abandoned to their fate, they would bo born, would live 
and would die in povei't\-, however high the rate of their wages. They r(Mjuiro 
a guide; if the employer abstains, others, more or less well intentioned, will take 
his place, will get control of those simple but honest laboi'ors, and will transform 
them into such as committed the excesses in Belgium in ISSO'.: — the Jacquerie. 

tint when the workman is in a largo centre, where schools, mutual aid societies, 
coojiorative societies, and other free institutions, are otlVred to him, the employer's 
institution may become a source of danger if it be imposed upon the workman, and 
if it interferes with his personal liberty. It is thus that employers acting in the 
belief that it was in the best interests of their workmen, have been astonished to 
tind some day that they had succeeded onlj- in raising the animosity of their em- 
ployees to such a degree that they went out on a strike in order to do away with 
these institutions, • 

These institutions have been severely condemned by moro than one author. 

The Belgian reporter, Mr. M. E. Vandervelde. for example, describes these em- 
ployer's institutions in Belgium in the following manner: — 

''When we consider how ot'tcn Caisses de Fabn'qur ai'e found under the direction 
of workmen that use them as instrunu^nts of domination, one is led to consider the 
bitter words of Ifeny George : 'The protection that certain employers give their 
workmen is the same as that afforded by man to his bruli's, which the}' protect in 
order that they may make use of and devour them.' " 

But of all the opinions on the subject, that which can and ought to have the 
most weight on the mind of employers, and convince them of the antiquity and the 
inoiRcienc}' of these institutions, is. without doubt, that of the directors of the Mining 
CiMupany of Blanzy, a company spending an.uuilly moro than §200,000 for the carrying 
on of these institutions, (p. HHa.) 

Here we have the opinion extracted from the remark-able report presented by 
the company to the Jury of the Exhibition of Social Economy : — 

" The employer's institution^," says the report, " while rendering great services, 
have not, perhaps, given results commensurate with the sacrifices made by the com- 

•One is generally ai)t to lightly appreciate what has cost us but little 
trouble; and accustom ourselves to consider favors as our due. We readily believe 
iliiil those who do us a kindness are acting from self-interi s!. Worse yet; w'.icn 
a "^ort of providence provide>^ for all his neeiis. witiiout exacting any efi'ort. thu 
workman ceases to rely upon himself — he loses the gift of forethought, ec<)iiomy; 
because he feels these are no longer a necessity; his efforts relax, his dignity 
din\inishes, he is ripe for socialism. 

•' These effects, that are the consequences --f too great a patronage, began to 
be felt at Monceau some years ago. O'. the other haml. by a kind of reaction 
natural enough in its way, the spirit of association began to revive. Bakers' 
inoperative societies, mutual aid societies, and syndicates were forme<l in the 



xl 



^ 



country. In trutli the new movement was directed into a rev(.lution;irv socialistic 
channel ratherthaii a philantiiropic one ; hut Hiially tliere existL'(|. and was displayed, 
a certain kind of .spirit with which it was necessary' to reclcon. 

"The Blanzy Companj- unilerstood the situation. While preserving these 
employer's institutions, all of which were deserving): of it. at least until they 
were replaced liy soniethinir else, the}' resolved to utilise this movement of asso- 
ciation; to encourage it, and to direct it within reasonalilo bounds. For some 
years it lias entered into an entirely new path, and certainly a good one. They 
are besides not alone in followinn' it. 

'• To excite the initiative in the workman: to make his economical education; 
to haltituate him to depend moi'e upon himself and less upon his employer; to 
teach him to direct his own affairs; this is prefcralilo to that s]iecies of tiitelau'c 
to wliicii we are otherwise led by jiure lienevolence, in treating the workman as 
if he were incapable of comprehending his own interests. 

"The employei should not hesitate to have recourse to association when it is 
possilile. With this system, he is no longer solely responsible for the happiness 
of his woi'kman. These being associated with him in his ett'orts. partake of res- 
ponsibility with him, and, indeed, assume the greatest portion of it." 

"This, moreover, does not prevent the employer interesting himself as much 
as he desires, in the material and n\oi'al well-being of his workman and in 
making ail the sacrifices he ma}- judge proper. But it does more; what he gives 
is better apj)reeiated. because, to his own efforts, to his own sacrifices, are joined 
the efforts and sacrifices of those interested, who brmg into px'actice the old 
precept: — ••Help yourself and God will help you." 

" Many em))lovers are hostile to workmen's as.sociations, because they have no 
confidence iu them; in them they sc the focus of disorder, and an evil spirit. 
Strictly s|ieakiiig. we could understai d their manner of receiving theni, if the 
movenieiil towards assoeiation could oe ari'ested ; luit the current is irresistible. 
Something is wanted to distract the workman; a change from his haliitual work ; 
lie has a certain amount of intellectual activity to dispose of; he must dis]iose of 
it well or ill. and the associations founded with an economical object, social or 
moral, or simply established to ])r(jcure lor their members honest relaxation, are 
really the ijest aliment that can i)e ottered to such a craving; they are besides a 
resource, the best valve of safety against jiopular jiassions. 

" Well-directed associatitms, conlrilmte, moreover, powerfully to consolidate 
social ])eace, because tlioy teach brave men to reckon with themselves, to know 
themselves, to a]ij)reciate themselves. They afford the means of more readily 
unmasking the intriguers, and useless noisy fellows. 

'• Finally, there is the solid fact that governs the whole matter; the current 
exists, associations are estaitlished. and if the}- are not Avith us. the}* are against 
lis. One need not therefore hesitate. 

'•At Montcoau. we have reason to conLiratnlate ourselves on the new path 



which we have entered. The initiative of workmei 



as surpassed our hopes 



Associations have increased, and it is believed that, some day, they will replace, 
everywhere, the employer's iii'^tifntions, or at least, that these will be so molli- 
fied that the workmen's efforts will, everywhere, be associated with those of 
the emploj-er ; but such a cJiange can only occur in course of time: time does not 
consecrate what is attempted Avifhout its aid." 

This is the condemnation of the jiatriarchal regime ])rononnced ly those who 
have ])raclise<l it. and tlie justification of workmen's associations. 

Mr. de Molinari. an economist, Avell known in Canada, wrote in the " Journal iles 
Economistes " in Xovember 1882, regarding the einplo^-er's institutions of Montceau- 
les-^fines ; 



xli 



path 

jiopcs. 

j)laro, 

moili- 

^se of 

not 



who 

ial (lea 
Itceau- 



" Tlio (Icf'oets of institutions, more or less piiiiaiithropic, that companies ov 
simple individual contractors ostaMisli in favor of tlioir workmen, are tocomplicato 
their relations with thoni. and, consequently, to increase the occasion ofdisaj^ree- 
ment. They also, in fact, diminish the liherty of the workmen, who tind them- 
selves hound to the workshops or the mine, notwithstandinjj; that a hiiiher rate of 
•wages is ottered them olsewhere ; \)y their pa^ynients towards the purchase of a 
house; the ohliijatory jiarticipation in the pension i^ank; and the dehts that they 
have contracted at the provision stores. The result is a state of suhjectiijn that does 
not fail to hecome insupportahk- when the employer attempts, according to the ex- 
ample of the niiinager of the Company of Montceau-les-Mines, to prevent all mani- 
festations against his personal opinions. 

"This conditions of affairs, betAveen tlie Company and its workman perfectly ex- 
plains the success of the " mouvoment collectiviste anarchiste " of Montceau." 

The principal defect of employei-'s institutions, necessai-y during a certain time, 
and in certain districts, is, in not transforming themselves into free institutions, as 
soon as the workmen, having become more independent, more confident in them- 
.selves and hetter informed, are capable of nnde^ taking their administration. 

The largest strikes, these ofCreusot, and of Montcean-l"-Mines and the Jkdgian 
Coal Miners, wei'C due, almost entirely, to ditficulties with the patroiud institutions. 

Some large concerns not wisliing. or not being able, to alter their employer's 
institutions, profiting by the experience acquired in studying the causes of tiiese 
great sti'ikes, have modified their rules of administration, and ado])ted tliosc which 
have, for many years, been in force in the workshops which have escaped 
strikes of this character. Among the number of the establishments which 
never have had difficulties with their workmen, in connection with employer's 
institutions, may be cited the "Soci<5t^ de la Tieille Montagne." This society 
ex]ilain in their pamphlet " SnrAifi de la VieiUe Montaij)ie a VE.ijiosition de 
1880." the reasons that render the employer's institutions useful and necessary to 
the workmen, and the conditions indispensable for their proper working. It saj-s : 

'• 1. The best mode of remuneration for workmen, is thai whi(di interests them, 
not in the general advantages of the onteiprise, but in industrial results on which 
they can exercise a direct personal influence. 

'•2. The wages, to be sufficieni, must permit of the workman not only to live, 
hut also to save, that is to say, it jnust secure not only ])resent hut future wants. 

"H. Even on receiving such wages, the woidcman will not save noi' acquire' pro- 
perty save under exceptioii;d circumstances, if the employer affords liim no oppoi'- 
tnnity, either by the establishment of savings banks, or by advances made with a 
liberal prudence. 

" 4. Even with these advantages, only a minority of skilled workmen are able to 
profit by such institutions. The majority require to be ])rotecled a>,ainst the re- 
suits of sickness, intirmities, and old age, by employer's institutions, banks of relief, 
provident societies, i^c. 

" 5. Two conditions, tooofteu neglected, are absolutely necessary f)i' the ])r()pcr 
working of these banks and to avoid their ruin. 

" (a) The first consists in rendering an exact statement of their present liability 
and especially- of their future calls and to well establish their resources and the 
necessary reserves. 

" (i) The second consists in doing away with the two systems of administra- 
tion, either of the employer solely or the workman alone, and by adopting a mixed 
system. 

" Tlius oidy can we interest the worknu-n in the pi'oper management while 
retaining the necessary control hy the employer." 



xlii 



^ 



Whether these institutions are necessary or not to the workmen ; whether or 
not they be administered by them in whole or in part, the worlimen will have none 
of thorn wlienovor they contain the slightest cause of forfeiture, or whenever they 
encroach on their liberty. 

Workmen will no longer consent to bo connected with any estalilishmcnt by 
pecuniary questions other than that of wages ; they desire liberty, and the multi- 
plicity of provident societies enables them to secure their wants. They often con- 
sent to a c ipulsory saving, but they wish the funds they deposit or that are 
deposited fni them, to be placed out of roach of all intervention by the employer, in 
a state bank or a free society, and fully secured against loss or confiscation. One 
cannot blame them for assuring at once their liberty of action and the security of 
their savings. 

I'ROFESSIO.VAL SYXDICATES. 

The legal recognition of workmen's unions in France is quite recent ; it dates 
from 1884. Before that period the French workman was in a very strange posi- 
tion ; as a laborer ho was absolutely free, but he had not liberty to meet with his 
companions lor discussing his interests or ameliorating his condition. 

This suprcssion of the right of association — "a natural gift that sliouM remain 
free in a free country" — was all the more remarkable in France, from having been 
the consequence of the application of laws passed for protecting laboi'ors and assur- 
ing the absolute liberty of labor. It is important, at the time that Canadian work- 
men's associations demand amendments to the '' Combines Act," to show in a few 
lines, how a law, made with a view of protection, should become a law of oppres- 
sion. 

The wardens and free corporations, abolished the first time under Louis XVI, 
in 1776, was ro-Gstablished the same year, and done away with at last, by the law 
of l-tth-27th June, 1791, which, made free to workman, delivered them, duiing a 
century, without defence to all the demands of capital. 

This law, repealeil in 188-1, enacted : — 

" Art. 1. The extinction of all kinds of corporations of citizens of the same con- 
dition and profession, being one of the fundamental supports of the French Consti- 
tution, it is forbidden to re-establish them under any pretext or form whatsoever. 

"Art. 2. Citizens of the same condition or profession, contractors, those having 
0]ien shops, the companions of any art whatever, cannot, when they meet, name a 
president, nor secretary, nor syndic, hold registers, take records or deliberate, or 
make rules for their protended common interest." 

This law acknowledges the right of the workmen to become employer, capitalist, 
but deprived him of the means of ameliorating his condition, as long as he 
remained a labtn-or. 

Some years afterwards, in 1803, still to assure liberty to the laborer, they passed 
that famous law of 22 Germinal, in the year XI that forbade any understanding, 
oven temporarily, between employer and workman — an agreement that they quali- 
fied as a coalition. 

It was in virtue of this law that an attempt was made lo prevent Leclairo 
dividing his profits with his workmen. 



the W( 
lUiinio 



T 

indivi( 

T 



Tl. 
eniployt 



xliii 



31- or 
none 
they 

lit by 
nulti- 
1 con- 
it are 
rev, in 
Oae 
I'ity of 



t dates 
posi- 
nt\\ his 



remain 
ig been 
J assiir- 
n work- 
in a few 
oppres- 

18 XVI, 

the hiw 
uiin.u; a 



ime ton- 
Co nsti- 
u'ver. 
luiving 
name a 

)crate, or 

apitalist, 






,g as 



he 



cy passed 
'Standing, 
ley q^iiali' 

; Leclaire 



Finally, article 41G of the penal code, also repealed in 1884, by the law of Syndi- 
cates ul' workmen, punished by fine and imprisonment : — 

" All workmen, omployors and contractors of work, wiio liy moans ot' tines, 
expenses, proscriptions, interdictions, pnmounced in conscrpience of a concerted 
])lan, have interfered with (ho free exercise of industry and labor." 

This denied to workiucn the right to consult each other with a view of arriving 
aL any common understanding — it w.is suppressing the right to strike. 

The consequence of these laws was disastrous to the workman ; they isolated 
iiim at the very time v;hen the progress and development of in<lustry caused the 
coalition of capital, and left him alone ami weak in face of the great enterprises and 
the joint stock companies. 

Those laws were not the lees disastrous to the employers, whoso position was 
constantly menaced by the demands of the workmen. 

"^N'othing I'emains, wrote ilr. Leroy-Boaulieu, in this society, but a mass of 
people, living side by side in most une(|ual wmditions, sti'angers to one anothci', and 
nourishing in regard to their neighbor only feelings of indillerenco, contempt, or 
onvy." 

These laws, far from preventing strikes, increased and envenomed tliem, and 
made of every workman, ill-treated by his employer, an enemy of social order. 

Xor did they prevent the creation of workmen's societies ; they only succeeded 
in giving them the stamp of secret societies, and in transforming them into more or 
less political associations. 

The liberty of association, the recognition of the right to concert, to unite for 
tjio purpose of protection, would have had in France, the same result as in England : 
the workman, becoming strong by union, would have brought less bitterness, less 
animosity into their contest with capital. 

Association, in giving the workman the means of protecting himsell and 
ameliorating his condition, makes him an adversary of State socialism. 

The trades unions, for example, demand but one guarantee from the law, that of 
individual liberty, and energetically opposes every measux-e that seeks to infringe it. 

The declaration of this principle was made very clear during the course of 
an enquiry hehl in England in 1887. A witness, being consulted on what he thought 
of the rights and duties of workmen and employers, relating to accidents, sickness, 
pensions, and how the working class regarded the laws that obliged employers to 
participate in a certain measure, and pecuniarily, in the results of accidents, 
sickness, etc., replied : — 

" AVe do not admit that the law can ask nothing of employers on these different 
points; we desire to owe them nothing on this score, ami it would be unjust that 
anj'lhing should be imposed upon thorn. Wo know how to unite to obtain from them 
the nuiximum of wages according to the condition of the commercial market, and 
once this maximum is obtained, we consider the employer owes us nothing more." 

They added, that the pecuniary sacritices that could be exacted from tho 
employer by the law, would, in tho end, be paid by the workman, and represented 



xliv 



by an evident, or concealed diminution of wages; that they would prefer receiving 
their wages intact and afterwards themselves relieve, as thoy might determine, the 
results of accidents, of sickness or of o'd age. * 

The legal existence of workmen's unions, not under tlie form of a Provident 
Society, but as a professional union, is recognised in all countries. Belgium, which 
has suffered so much from strikes during late years, ac'vnowledged it, and its Labor 
Commission after its enquiry has, in its report, elaborated a project of law that may 
servo as an example for similar legislation, and whose Article 2 ought to be intro- 
duced in all charters of workmen's societies. 

The principal articles of this scheme are the following : — 

Art. I. The acknowledged professional unions are composed of Belgian citizens 
actually exercising the same prolession. 

They comprise either workmen, employers or workmen and emjiloycrs comliined, 
and have for their object the study, development, and defence of their pi-ofessional 
interests. 

Art. 2. The unions declare, in case of dispute relative to tiie conditions of labor, 
to accept, at least in principle, an effort at conciliation l)y councils of arbitration 
before adopting the exercise of the right to strike, which they retain. 

Art. ;J. It is understood by professioni'.l interests: — 

Courts of conciliation. 

Labor exchanges. 

Expenses of information, of j'cmoval, of emigration. 

Assistance incase of a justifiable strike and in case of necessity. 

Technical education, courses of appreiiticeshij), libraries, exhibitions. 

<>fuestions regai'ding the conditions of labor, the inspection and control of works, 
workshop.-?, manufactories, workmen's lodgings. 

Organisation of relief, in case of sickness, accident, death, incapacity' to work. 

Art. 8. Every partner lias, notwithstanding any clause to the contrary, the right 
to retire at any time from the union, which can reclaim from him his assessment 
then due. 

If he has made any payments into the relief bank, be has the power either to 
remain a member or to receive for the payments made, an indemnity to be deter- 
mined on. 

The by-laws ought to bo tiled with the Minister of Commerce. They can be 
annulled by the tribunals in case of violation of the law. 

Employers liave profited as much, if not more by the libertj' of association, 
eitbei- by forming syndicates of employers, or by forming mixed s^'nclicates of 
employers and Avorkmen. Among tlie number of the last named, we must cite, as 
the most useful, the labor exchanges. 

These exchanges have for their object the facilitating the exchange of hibor hy 
biinging into communication the demand and supply: their creation is demanded 
by Canadian workmen's societies, and the notice concerning "Labor Exchange of 
Li(5ge " (page IGO) is sufficient to show that they can be installed and administered 
at but little cost. 



CoiigrAs interna tint ml df» aocidfiitH tin travail. Rai)iKn't de M. Rt'm' Jourdain. 



xlv 



T to 
(lotOV- 

;in be 



lor l>y 
landeil 
nge of 
istered 



Finiilly, it may Ko affirinod tliat tlio loirni I'xistcnco of workmon's unions lias 
fiicilitatod arbitration aiultlu' .srttlemontofdiiru iiltit's botwoon employers and work- 
men ; has ameliorated the conditions of apprenticeship, stimulated professional in- 
struction and permitted the creation of numerous employers' and workmen's socie- 
ties favorable to the development of industry. 

PROVIDENT INSTITUTIONS. 

Section ") — Mutual Benevolent Societies. 

Section — Retiring funds and annuities. 

Section 7 — Life and Accident Assurance. 

Section S — Savings. 

The absence of Canadian statistics renders it difficult to state positively as to 
tiie si less and mortality of Canadian woi'kraen. 

In France it is estimated that among the muss of workmen of 12,000,000 per- 
sonf--, 2,(j0(),0')0 are annually- afflicted with sickness, and that 80,000 fathers and 34,000 
mother.-, die prematurely. 

In studying the lignres of the census of 1881, it can he established that the mor- 
tality of worknu'n's families in Canada, is nearly in the same proportion as it is in 
France, with this ditlerence, that death overtakes the fathers and mothers nearly 
equally, there being a slighter deviation between the ages of the married couple. 

Sickness, death, either natural or liy accident, and old age, are the causes of 
misery which the workman can now considerably diminish the ell'eets. 

Against sickness he has the Mutual Aid Societies. 

Against old ago he has the Life Aniuiities Funds. 

Two institutions that completely shelter him trom distress and exacts but few 
sacrifices. 

Against death resulting from accidents arising from his work, he has insurance 
which is not costly. There remains but the consequences of natural death against 
which he is yet unable, without great sacrifices, to eflicaciously protect his family. 

Provident societies are yet little developed in Canada, and against unforeseen 
distress the Canadian workman has no other piotection than the Mutual Benevolent 

Societies. 

It is true that these societies are established on broader foundations than those 
adopted by European societies, and some of them are veritable assurance in case of 
death, paying considerable indemnities to the families of their deceased members. 

Against State socialism, which, trom Germany, has spread to Austria and 
Switzerland and menaces an extension to other countries, the economists oppose the 
pro])agation of free proviilent institutions and see their efforts seconded not only by 
the employers, but also by numerous workmen's associations, at the head of which 




xlvi 



muHt lio placed tlio powerful Trades Unions. The 8tudy of the thrco hiindrtvl docu- 
ments ligiiriiii; in tlio sections of the " Pr^Jvoyuncc," at the '• Exiiiliition of Social 
Economy," furnisiios a subjectof groat intere«t, not from thoir immber, but from the 
conception and ajjplication of ideas whence have issued various institutions being 
able to sorve, and having in fact already sei'vel, as types to a great number of 
others. 

The study of the documents referring to these model societies was ail tjiat was 
needed, so that these documents are the only ones that were repi'oduced. 

Mutual Benevolent Societies. 

Mutual aid societies in France ;ind Belgium aie under the wing of the (lovt-rn- 
mont; in return for the protection and aid that they receive, tluy are compelled to 
submit their by-laws for approval and to furnish a report of thoir operations. 

Nevertheless, there exist mutual aiil societies outside of the protection of the 
Government — those in France which are simply authorized, and those in Beigiun\ 
which are n(»t recognized. 

In France the licensed mutual aid societies arc administered under the decree 
of 26th MaiTli, 1852, and are benefited by an endowment created in their favor by tiie 
State in 1850 (page 217). 

In Belgium the Government has established a jiermanent con\mission of mutual 
aid societies, charged with discovoiing the moans of extending and multii)l3'ing 
mutual institutions, and to distribute to societies the rewards, decreed at th-^ triennial 
competition established by the Government, to those which in a special manner, 
signalised themselves by tiioir progress, management, and the results olitained. 

The average accounts of the mutual aid societies in France shew the following 
results: (Tibles pages 218-220). 

SOCIKTIES. 

Per active memueu. Approved. Authorised. 
Total payment for sickness: — 

Physician, modicines,pecuniary 

indemnity $2 31 82 GO^! 

Cost of manaunient ISl 2(!V 

do funerals ISl 10| 

Statutory expenses §2 67* S3 064 

Assessments 2 8!t| 3 294 

Surplus 22 23| 

Aid to widows and orphans $0 09i 80 22-i 

Aid to intirm old men and incur- 
ables 19| 334 

Various expenses 341 434 

Managing expenses G3 63 99f 99f 

Annual deficit 80 41 80 76* 

Assessments of honorary mem- 
bers 1 654 2 114 

Actual surplus 81 24, §1 344 






xlvii 






-1 

IS 



Tho entire economy of the French Mutual Aid Societies is recapitulated in this 
tai)lt'; the assoHsinents of aotiviMni'mbiTs sutttco to cover tlio expenses of hick noss, 
liut liie extraon Unary aids and pensions can only be talcen Irom the assessment of 
honorary niemlters. 

Nearly all the Frencli societies accord aid to tlioir sick memhers (hiring only 
three to six numtlis ; the ostahlishnient, " Caisse Generale ile Edassurance, " how- 
ever, continues by the means of a small assessment to lunii>li aid to the siek 
during tivo years. (I'ages 222 and 228.) 

These iianks of reassurance of mutual aid societies must assist in their pro- 
per working and development. Sicknesses that are [irolonged beyond six months 
are rare, but unfortunately they do occur, and there is m)thing so fatal to a mutual 
society as tho example of sick persons whom they have been compelled to abamlon. 

Tho discussion of their interests; the settlement of accounts; the ajiplicatioii 
of ;ho bylaws, and too ofti'U the animositj" that some members feel towards others, 
are obstacles to the prospei'ity of societies, if not tho causes of their ruin. It is to 
do away with these dangers that mutual societies of certain districts have united, 
and have formed a sort of court of appeal before which are brought all causes of 
diifei-oneo that may ;irise between tho members of a society, either between each 
other, or between them ami their society. Tho " Grand Conseil desSocietesde Secours 
^lutuols des Bouches-du-Rhono '' (page 221), and tho " Comite G<5neral des Socidt^s 
do Secours 3Iutuels et do RtUraite do Lvon " are the most j)erfcct tyjies of these 
institutions. 

The creation of similar councils would be advantageous in Canada. A]iart 
from their conciliatoiy influence these councils study the march of these societies, 
and by their wise advice, save them from deficits arising from financial methods 
established, too often, on erroneous principles. 

In Belgium, the Mutual Aid Societies have formed a central association, under 
tho name of "National Federation,'' whose working expenses are covtsrod by an 
annual assessment of 80.01 paid by all the members of tho afHliated societies. The 
National Federation has for its object the tightening of the bonds of confraternity 
between the mutualists, in order the discover the means of assisting tho Mutual Aid 
Soeieties. In 18S7 thej' founded a "Fund of Reassurance," similar to those existing 
in France. 

We must also observe, in Belgium, the notable progress that has been realised 
in the direction of mutuality : 

1. The " Fidiration libre <1es Societies dc secours jnutuels de Bruxellcs et de scs 
faubourgs" furnishes tho members of the affiliated societies, by the means of an 
annual assessment of S0.3G, a gratuitous medical service. This mutuality of societies 
has permitted of tho obtaining a complete service, embracing 13 doctors forordinaiy 
service and special services for diseases of the eyes, of tho throat, the nose, the ears; 
baths, &c. 

The wives of the members, and their children under 18 years, enjoy tho same 
privileges. 



xlviii 



2. The " Popular Drug^orioH," eetiililiHhod l»y the cooporiition of tho MiitunI 
Societies, allows the Mntiiul Aid SociotiuH of Unissols to furnish ;,'ratnitoue medicines 
to their nick members while roalisini; a considerahle annual profit. 

These two institutions arc administered by Boards formed of delegates named 
by the afllliated societies. Tho advantages that thfy furnish ti) tlu'ir mcmliers are 
considerable. The tirst and most positive is, to fix, in an absolute manner, the 
expenses or the caro of the sick; tho second, to diminish those e.xpensi's. Thus, at 
Brussels, thanks to the "Free Federation, " the mutualists covered their medical fees 
by the means of a fixed expense of S().."50 a year per participating member, while at 
Paris the average of these fees is 80. 4fJ per active niomber, and it is 80.50 for the 
whole of France. 

With I'egard to pharmaceutical fees, which average jier participating member 
§0.88 at Paris and SO.fiT for all France, they are conqdetely suppressed at Brussels, 
Liege and Verviers, thanks to the establishment of the "Popular Druggei-ies."* 

The study of these institutions is the duty of" Canadian Mutual Aid Societies. " 

111 Italy, the "Mutual Aid Societies'" are numerous and prosperous; they have 
given birth to various institutions, and from some among them have arisen j^opular 
banks, mutual assurance companies, building societies, kc. 

A largo number of European 3Iiitiiiil Aid Societies accord their members other 
advantages than assistance in ease of sickness. Some have established libraries and 
professional lectures; others registry offices; a few assist embarrassed tenants, and 
never abandon either their unfortunate members or the young orphans they may 
leave after them. (Page 22G). 

The European societies have a strong tendency of attracting towards themselves 
the mothers and ehildren. The moral and financial results obtained by this special 
recruitment are very satisfactory. 

Some societies, that of " Instituteurs des Basses Pyr^nt5cs " (page 223), for 
example, assure the member's whole family, and the subdivision of relief is made 
annually and by family. This system, as we can easily understand, may cause 
some disapiioiiilments at the subdivision, cspeciall}' as it docs not pei-mit of the 
creation of any capital, any reserve fund, and of that a memlier having paid his assess- 
ment during many years, may, in a year of epidemic, for example, not obtain the 
assistance that his previous payments have permitted him to hope for. 

The Ward societies (page 22(5) are eminently suited for large cities. This 
system is .nlso in vigorous operation in some Canadian cities, possessing societies 
having a central office and ward branches. 

*Tlie "Poi)\il;iiI)nitrgcii»'s'" are oiKjix-rati ve societies, of vliicii tlu' "Mutual Aid S(Kiftip.s"ivro .lewliare- 
lidldcrs. TIr'hc last pay a tixid fee of ^i.OO per society, and a sul)scii|)tioii of sO.Iill per active iiieinlHT ; 
the paid-n|i capital receives interest at 4 p' r cent. At tlie end of cacli six luontlis tlie participating; socie- 
ties receive an invoice of tlie ini'dicines fnrnislied to tlieir niemliers, and slioidd pay the amount. The 
'•f'opular f Iruf^Reries" also sell to tlie jmhlie, and realize from tliis source c-onsideraMe jiroHts. In ISSS the 
affiliated societies, tlianks to tile profits realized, received gratuitously, tlie medicines furnislied to tlieir 
nieniliers, and received liesides a lionusof '2U per cent, of tlie amount of their purchases of these nu'di- 
ciiies. At ISnissels, for examiile, tlie net profits realized by the " fojiular Dniffgeries" amounted to.^lO.SIi.S ; 
till' medicines furnished to the members amounted to .SS,S!t8, which gave a profit on the year of si 'J70.00 
independent of the gratuity of the nudicincs. At Verviers the results are still more remarkable. 



xlix 



Tlio wocu'tii's liavf iiol jill udopiiMl tlic saino priiieiplo in tlio miiltor of assossnKMil ; 
wi' havo rcpiDiliicud, in tlio cloruiniMitary |)urti(iii of iliiw ii'pDrt (pa^os 217 to -2.S), 
till) types of tlie ilill'oient syHtoniH in aclivo 0])orati()n. On tlio other haiui, all tho 
Mocietios, siive one, reduce and suppresH tho u-swiHtance thoy accord to their Hick at 
ihe Olid of a more or less lon<j; period. 

Tlio " Association amicale des Postca et TiUijraphcs " (pai,'e 224) are notsatislied 
with having a very original system o( assessment ; it augments the (jiiola of i>eeiiniary 
aid which it accords to its sick in proportion as tlio malady is prolonged. 

This gradation in importance of the aid, is e(piitablo and cliaritablo. 

The otloets of sickness of a short duration may easily he supported hy tho suf- 
foiei' without great sacrifice .of money. The family is in possession of all its moral 
and physical foices, and tho economies, even credit, supplomented Ity a small pecu- 
niary indemnity, are sulHcient to onahle them to meet expenses, (^uite otherwise 
is tho situation of tli(^ family whoso bread-winner is bedridden for six months, tho 
extreme term accorded foi' assistance in cash. The Mippression of this aiil occuirsjust 
at tho most ciitical moment, when tho supplies are eaten, credit gone, the tamily 
prostrated by vigils and anxiety, and loss capable to proi'uco tiie necessary effort to 
make up by their labor, if possible, the wages lost by tho head of the family. 

The unfortunate position of workingmen's families overtaken by sickness, and 
the anomaly of the distribution of aid in cash, diminished or suppressed when thev 
become the most necessary, has not failed to attract the attention of certain em- 
ployers and a good number of Kuropean mutualists. 

These last, to remedy the evil, have created Banks of Reassurance; some of the 
lirst named have created Provident Banks. 

in this manner, the Provident Bank of the liaison Piat (-ill') pays the sick 
members of the Mutual Aid Society, indemnities augmenting in pr')portion to the 
diminution of the indemnities paid by this last. 

In the liaison Ddberny, (page 40) the ai<l alfortled to the sick augments from tho 
fnrty-tirst day of sickness. 

The workmen forming the nucleus of the Mai, son '' Iledouly et C'ie " (page 
08), notwithstanding their two Mutual Aid Societies, belong to a third society, 
which maintains their daily pecuniary indemnity at §1.00, whenever it is reduced by 
the prolongation of the sickness be\-ond tho three months. 

An employer's Mutual Aid Society, established i>y Messrs. Waddington tV Co. 
(page 428), (.dassify their maladies by categories and allow ditt'erent indemnilies 
according to the category — that is to say, according to the gravity of the malady. 

In accordance with an article of its by-laws, this society, on the advice of tho 
il'ictor, allows a nurse to its bedridden members. This most humanitarian course, 
Avliieh is also found in the by-laws of other societies, should bo adopted in the con- 
stitutions of all Mutual Societies. Far from being a charge, this outlay, in augment- 
ing the chances of recovery and by producing them, is transformed into an economy. 
Kvcn if this expense augmented the charges of these societies, nothing coul<i more 
^trollgly justify the necessity of these institutions, the family being often less ruined 
by the sickness than by the forced destitution of all remunerative work, to which is 
condemned that one of the married couple who is obliged to nurse the other. 
20— u 



Tho " SocidtiJ (los SauvotciirH (III Miili," of .NriirNoill(!s jilso allowrt tho Horvico of 
iiurHUH ami in ndditiori aiillioriHus, in scimdum ciihoh, flit- (•(•nsuitation of hovviWiI doctors. 

Tliou.nli liio i'linploycrM' Mutual Aid Sociolios depend on Suction XIV and not 
Section V, wo cannot, before terminating tlio examination of llio latter, omit tiie 
following piinigrajdi of tho Aid Society of tho Weatcrn Ituilroad Company of I'uriH. 
(page :J74). 

"Art. 17 — " Kvory workman leaving tho Company, owing to nuspenMion of om- 

Iiloynicnt, censation of llio woikn, or for any other caiwo independent ofiiiwown will, 
)ut willioiil im|)iying any demerit on his part, shall receive, on leaving, an indemnity 
of ^(5.(10 after two years service; f)l' 8(^.00 after three years; and of ijJlO.OO after four 
years ; and iIiuh accordingly, increasing at tho ratio of.82.00 for each year of service.'" 

This payment rests upon an diuitablo principle. Desertion must not ho encour- 
aged, nor abandonment of the society; but it ia unjust that a member, having regu- 
larly paid his assessment, without, porhaps, having received any benefit therefrom, 
completely loses the advantages of the sacrih'ces ho had made for assuring him- 
self against sickness and old age, if ho bo tbrced, for a cause independent of his own 
will, to abandon the Society to which ho belongs. 

Jn all well-administercd Mutual Ai<l Societies the members have their imlividual 
account. It iH therefore easy to establish the profit or tho loss resulting from the 
presence of each member, and to grant to tho member forced to quit the society a 
certain indemnity, if entitled to it 

In according this indemnity the Mutual Aid Societies would considerably augment 
their salutary influence ; a large number of workmen abstain from Joining them, 
fearing that the change of residence to which thoy are so often subjected should 
cause them to lose, at the age when they are in most need, tho benefits of mutuality. 

Life Annuities. 

To furnish workmen the means of creating for themselves, by the aid of small 
savings, a pension placing them beyond the reacdi of want in their old age, is to do 
an eminently piiilanthropic work. The French Government has been the first to 
establish a National Life Aimuities Fund for old age, a bank rendering important 
services to workmen and playing a considerable part in employers' institutions. The 
object, tho nature, the working of this institution, which to-day numbers nearly 
800,000 depositors, are explained in the documentary portion of this report (pages 
231 to 239). 

Belgium has also a National Annuities Fund, based on the same principles as 
the French one. 

In England the Government accord annuities nearly on the same conditions as 
the French and Belgian Govornmonts, in virtue of an " An Act to grant facilities for 
the purchase of small Government annuities, and for assuring payment of money 
at death." (14th July, 1864, 27 and 28 Victoria, 43.) 

Numerous pension societies have been formed ia Franco ; they naturally offer 
greater advantages than the government institution — that is to say, that they 
grant a larger annuity for the same annual assessment. 



a 


yi'iirn . 


to 


«lo . 


:.'() 


'lo .. 


;<o 


'lo . 


•til 


ii» 


■)() 


ilo . 


lid 


<l<> .. 


70 


'lo .. 


-so 


fio .. 




*Up to 


a 11 


i>niilit\ 


iiKir 


talit^v at 


"I'PI 


icatioii 




riu' tiir 






li 



It would 1)0 (litYicult to inako u cDinplotc ami alisoliite ciiiDpai ison ot'tiio advaii- 
ta^t'M oII'itimI by the ditft-nMit, Hocidirs of tlio types t'it('(l in lids roport, tin' assoHs- 
iiicntrt and tin- tiiiios ot c-iijoymoiit o|" llui poiision bi-iiig ilill'i-roiit. It is, liowovcr, pos- 
sililu to oslaMisli a coin|>aris<>ii bulwoeii the twu inslitutioiiM granting ihu HinalloHt 



and tho largest pension 



Amount of Retirhuj Pensions granti'd for an Annual Deposit of $12, made from 2r» i/mrs 

of aye, at alieneted Capitol. 



Aki' when 
|)i'n!<ii>iii'(l. 

SOyeni's $ .'Wl.liS 

55 do 58.51 

60 do M7.40 



KclKiiiii N'atiiiiml Ki'fUfli Niitioiml 230tli SiK'it-ty 
I'i'liNiciii l''iiiirlH, I'ciiNiDii KiimiIm. di^K'' 2'>!))- 

8 4(i.2!> 

74.44 

12:{.24 



« 12!t.fiO 
21(;.40 
:{72.7(» 



05 do 172.30 



21(J.24 



CSS.KI 



These considoniblo ditloroncos, for tho same deposit, are the result of tho basiH 
adopteil by diflbrent institutions — that is, the mortality tables which each makes uae 
of, and the rate of capitalized interest which they grant. The tables and rates are 
4VS follows : — 

Half of 

Mortulity Tiilili> liitiTCHt 

UHfd. jfrantfcl. 

Belgian National Pension Bank Qnetelet 3 p. c. 

*French do do Special table 4 p. c. 

2H0tb Society for assist.mco to old ago Duvillard 5 p. c. 

To fully api)reciato the intiuonco of the tables of mortality, it is sufficient to cite 
some of thoir tigures. 

Comparison of the Rate of Mortality. 



Ages. 


Qui'tflft 
^Pal.!.'. 


Di'parficnx 
Tal.l.' 

300 
0-7!t 
Oils 
1-Oil 
1(K) 

1 72 

2 SO 
012 

14 40 


Fmidi Tab!.. 
C.K. 


l)iivillai'd 
Tal.i.'. 




4 02 
O.-iO 

ir>o 

lOil 
2 20 
3-32 
5-30 
!»13 


070 
0-20 
75 
071 
080 

in 

2-00 

5 71 

13 54 


4 In 


10 do 

:>o do 


070 
1 17 


;«i do 


1-54 


40 do 


r8!> 


r>o do 


2r>!t 


lio do 


4 :^) 


70 do 


S 13 


so do 


1070 









•up to 1888 the French AdniiniHtration made use of Deparcieux's tal)le. In 1888 tiiey replaced it witii 
a mortality talile rcHultinjf from the ex|HTiencc also (if the National I'eiiHion Fund. 'I hi« table pive.-* a 
iiicirtality at a slower rate than that of Deiiaroieux. and i.s nearly similar to tiie Enjflisli table Hmk. Itn 
:i|ipli(ation has thus the effect of reducinjf the amounts of iieiisioiis. 

Tile tariffs pulilished on pages 'l',V) to 238 are calculated from this new table, called Table C. R, 



20— Di 




Hi 



Probable or Average Life-time accordimj to Tables of- 





Ciucti'li 


•t (i«r>(i.) 


1). 


piircit 


ux 


(1710.) 


Ages. 




— 






— 






Yearn. 


MolltllM. 


Y 


earn. 


M 


ontliH. 


8 vt'iir.s 


40 


7 




iV) 




4 


10 ck. 


44 


3 




.M 




10 


20 do 


37 
.31 


W 




44 
3t> 




•) 


;w do 


10 


40 d<i 


25 
10 


(1 
I 




2!) 
21 







M do 


— 


liO do 


l.S 
7 


o 
11 




14 

7 




_, 


70 do 


11 


S(l do 


;> 


3 




4 







DuviU. 


ird (180U.) 


Years. 


MontliH. 


4:. 




42 


<l 


;v> 





2!) 


t) 


23 


1 


l(i 


10 


11 


2 


(i 


1 


3 


5 



AiiKTioaii (IHCS.) 
Years. Moiitlis. 



48 


•1 


42 


2 


;c> 


4 


L'S 


•> 


20 


11 


14 


1 


s 


(i 


4 


4 



The tables generally used by the European assurance companies (except in 
England) are those of Deparcieux and Duvillard. 

That of Duviilard, of which the mortality is the most rapid, is used in case of 
insurance payable at death, as it calls for a liighci- proniiiiin : and Ihatof Doparcicux, 
of which the mortality is slowest, is applied to life pensions, in order to reduce tlie 
amounts of aniiuitios payable. 

In using Duvillard's table, the 2:50th Society did not forgot tjiat it based its 
operations on a too rapid scale ot mortality.* 

To this increase in the rate of mi)rtality. the 230lh Society adds, to raise the 
amount of ju'nsion, a capitalized interest of .") ])ercent., whilst the J3elgian and French 
pension baidvs grant but 15 and 4 per cent, respectively. 

With a capital producing scarcely 4 per cent, it is dilticult to understand this 
capitalization at 5 per ci-iit. The Report of the Commission of Enquiry on Pensions 
of the 2!>(Hh Society Justitii's it whilst naming tiie si:< economic clauses permitting 
this interest. Five of these reasons are as just as equitable ; the tirst only is ques- 
tionable, as c-an be easily seen : 

1st. A pi.'ition of the sums left by those whose names are struck out, and those 
who have resigned (the other portion is employed in disposing of charges made 
from the use of the Diivilliird table). 

The names struck out and resignations arc numerous, as may be judged from the 
e.xtract on the fluctuation of the roll, published in the IJepoi t of tjie Boai"d of 
^lanagement, dated Januaiy 1, IHSl): 

Statement, 3lsi December, 1888. 

Participating members 21,441 

Supplcinentaiy inscrijitions t>,857 

Honorary members 241 

Total 28,539 

Pensioned members 1,800 

30,339 

* Circular \o. 2(i.--I{t'iK>rt of tlu; Commission of Enquiry ijito Pensions. (I'age 4.) 



Th 

2r)0), M- 

contrar 



The c) 
must be m, 
ceivod ill \ 
«i<lerable m 

In the 

"If— more t 
^^'"■^ alone s 



liii 



No. iif Mi'iiilii'i-s 'I'litiil of Slims (li - 

Stiiuk Out, iMiHitcd liy tlicsc 

H('Hi({iic(l (ir !-)«■ ^l^■llllK•l■s, luid rt'- 

cciiwd. vi'itiii)? to till' Society. 

From 1st April, 1875, to Iwt Jiinuniy, 1888... 8,2(18 §5:{,1!)7 

From 1st January to aiatDocomber, 1888... H.W 7,583 

«(il,780 

The (ieatlis aro included in the above (io;ureH, hut a.s they do not represent, after 
the Soeiety'.s own calculation.s, more than 1 death in 55 i)arlicipating members, and 1 
death in 30 pensioners, we can thus conclude that 80 per cent, at least of this sum 
of $61,700 accrues from resignations or names struck out. 

Hut iho assets of the 230th Society being §52!),851 on the 31st December, 1888, 
the profits arising iVoni names struck out and resignation.- represented inoi'o than 
10 per cent, of the capital. This society can thus, thanks to thif^ sui'plus of receipts, 
pay to its members an interest of 5 per cent, on deposits; but it must be admitted 
that if the parties who had resigned or had their names struck otf had not been 
tiiscinated by the higher amount of pensions promised by the tariff of the 2.'iOth 
.Society, they would have Ijeen satisfied with the pensions granted by the Slate 
pension fund, and would not have lost their savings. Tiiey have lost the substance 
for the shadow. 

This system of cancellation is an absolute necessity for every pension society 
basing its operations on abnormal probabilities. 

Thus, the Fraternal Association uf Etnjiloijees in French Railroad Companies (page 
250). whilst considering it advisable to use Deparcieux's mortality table, has, on the 
contrary, capitalized the interest on deposits at (i jjcr cent. 

W« see from its i-eport for 1887 it pays this rate of intereit of (J per cent, only 
by means of sums arising from cancellations, as the following statement will show : — 

The creditsof participating members to 
Slst December. 1887, amounted to 
$834,705. having produced S2;>,27<i, or per cent. 3,2C7 

Cancellations and resignations have fur- 
nished a sum of. 22,320 do 2,074: 

The assessment of honorary members 

had furnished a sum of. 018 do O.l.tO 

Total percent 0,1(71 

The cancellations being absolutely necessary- for the prosperity of the society 
must be made with excessive rigor — rigor which we cannot avoid thinking precon- 
ceived in view of a dividend promisel, which coub' not be realized without the con- 
siderable means furnished by a rigonnis application of the statutes. 

in the eight j-ears, from 18S0 to 1S88. lit, 410 members had their names struck 
oil' — more than one-fourth of the number adinittcHl 1 This proportion of cancellation^ 
wus alone sufficient to condemn the system. 



liv 



Tho Comniprcial Providont Society (243) has adoptod a most i-ational financial 
syetom ; but tlioi-o again wo find a higii rato of cancellations, which have produced 
$21,970, or 8 per cent, of the net capital. 

The injustice of these excessive cancellations is denounced even by those who 
profit by tlieni. Oi>o of the members of the Commercial Provident Society thus 
expressed himself in the General Assembly of 1888, in regard to these cancellations : — 

" I cannot sincerely ratify this decision, and am conscientiously opposed to it. 
There may be found among names erased those of persons unable tojiay their assess- 
ments from want of employment or infirmities, and this is why I cannot approve a 
measure which seems to mo inhuman, anil contrary to the object of the Cominercial 
Provident Society." 

The Mutual Procident Retiring Society of Reims (page 2G1), was instituted by a 
workman, Mr. Lesage, who alono, without assistance, created in his city a com- 
plete system — mutual, cooptu'ative and provident. 

The financial principles of this association are simple, give good results, and 
assure a reasonable pension ; but that which is most remarkable in this society is 
the exoneration fund (page 2(^2) not existing in any other society, and ])ermitting tho 
father of a family to insure, from its birth, a retiring pension for his child. 

The Fraternal Association of Emjyloyees in French Railroad Companies, and the 
Pension Fund of Workmen, under the jiatronage of the Municipal Council of the City of 
Sedan, have adojited principles less egotistical than those followed by other asso- 
ciations. 

These two societies have extended to the whole family the benefits arising from 
economy, while in other societies tho ])ension ceases on the death of the incumbent. 
This last system is bad. for the widow or the children of a pensioner, whoso per.sion 
was not revertible, will fin(i themselves in a situation more precarious than they 
would be if the head of the family had not been a member of a provident society, as 
tho ileposits paid in are lost. 

We cannot help objecting to the egotism which prompts men to insure onl}' their 
ease and requirements, whilst the family which is called upon to support part of the 
sacrifices necessary to create this insurance are ju'evonted from ]>artici|)ating in its 
profits. 

The Grain de BU, a vcvy prosperous society, and whose organization merits the 
consideration of Canadian mutual society members, grants also certain a(' ...itages 
to the widows of deceased members (page 258). 

Considerable mention has been niaile, for some time past, of a pension fund ol 
recent creation, which, in the opinion of its founders, should aid in exiinguishini:- 
pauperism, and assure to the laboring man a pension at the period when his sti'oiigtii 
is exhausted. This society bears the name of " The Providents for the futuie " (page 
241). 

It is conceived in a liber.'d spirit, and could be fruitful in good results, but it^ 
financial system cannot be approved. 

The disillusions which many pensioners will experience when entering upoi. 
enjoyment of pension should then, we fear, have tho effect of turning away many 
young workmen from provident societies. 



Th 

1882, hi 
capital 
the sur^ 
teres I of 
by Mr. 

At 

eslabjisl 

Thv 
^'■ovicloii 
'•anceiljii 
tliepeiisi. 

—1.") yea I 

This 
>inco its 



Iv 



the 



Here is the opinion of a iiiathoinatician, Mr. Josojili Bertra'.ul, («ef'i'etarv of tho 
Acadoni}' of Scienfos, on (lie tinaiiciiil system of this society: — 

" The consequences of this combination is the enormous amount of advantages to 
till- first subscribers. Take, tor example, the society at its orii,'in, and suppose 
it to be coinposod of 1.000 nuMnbors of 15 years of ai^e: Each one of them (h'posits 
(lurinu: 20 years a sum of S2.40 annually, or $48.00 for those wiio attain the age of 
3<i 3'ears, in all 848.000, wiiieh inusl be deci'eased by the deposits from those deceased, 
and vvliich accrue from annual interest. But this is not the limit of income to tiio 
society. A new intlux of members takes place every year; the 82.40 required from 
each, one every _vear increases the capital stock. The membei-s of the tirst j-ear 
share the total revenue duiing the 20 yeai's existence of the society. l)uring tho 
twenty-first year the number of claimants will be doubled, inasmucdi as the two tii-st 
series of ])roniotion will be called to divide, and soon in the future succeeding. The 
result is that, with the most plausible provisions, the founders, in return for their 
de])osits. e(iual in all to 848, and will have a I'igbt, at the end ot the twentieth year, 
to a dividend ot'at least 8200. This dividend on t he following year is reducc(| to 8120; 
and afferwai'ds successively to $40. 40, to $l!>,(jO, and at last, the progi'css of tho 
society being supposed t^j be regular, to 82.80 for the fortieth j-ear. Such are tho 
evil effects of the constitution.'" 

The deductions of this learned academician are certainly under the I'cality. It 
is sufficient proof hereof to read the official figures published i)y tlie Society: — 

Mi'inlx'vs. Capitiil. 

On January 1, 1882 7o7 8 1,;543 

188:i 1,432 4,T;{8 

1884 3,70!) 13,092 

1885 8.080 c5.143 

1880 15,008 72.212 

1887 25,078 134,053 

18S8 47,400 253,372 

1889 74,301 437,G0!t 

On August 1, 1889 94,448 598,085 

Thus in Augu.st, 1889, each one of these 757* founders, or members enrolled in 
1882, had, in 1887, deposited $20.40. while the interest at 4 per cent, on the bank 
capital, assured ali'eady, to every one of tiiem, a dividend equal to 831.00. In 1902, 
the survivors of these 757 members of 1882 would btive to divide among them the in- 
terest of a considerable capital, and the dividends would be much above 8200, as fixed 
by ^[r. J. Bertrand. 

At all events it was so understood bj' the founders of a concurrent society 
established in France: La France pr^vojjatite (Ytage 2H)). 

The founders of this society have adopted the sj'stem of division used in, "The 
Providcnts for the future " ; but in oi'ilerto invite subscriptions, thov have sujipressed 
cancellations, fixed the fluration of prvmiums at 15 years, instead of 20, and limited 
tlii'pensions to 8400. So that, for the surviving founders after the period for deposits 
— 15 years — the first dividend may amount to $400, for a total payment of $30.00. 

This society has had quite as much success at its ju'cdeces^oi'. We give its record 
since its foundation : — 

Veil'-. Mi'iiilirls. Sliirt's. ("ii|iit;il. 

1886 500 1.250 $1,073 

1887 ."5.109 8.700 12,997 

1888 0,430 14,313 32,848 







Ivi 



Rcpre*inl »^ already in 1888, tor each founder's Hhare, a diviilend of $10.50, for 
a total ])ay riij , of S7.20. 

It was H'ycessary to dwell at some length on these several combinations; to 
show the advantages and utility of some, and the dangers of the others. The work- 
ing classes, who are not very fDmiliar with tinancial (|ueslions, are easily dazzled 
by promises based on theories the value of which they cannot very well appreciate, 
more especially when those theories are backed by the capital of the promoters who 
are in a jiositioii to profit by their own schema. 

Life and Accident Insurance. 

Life. — Of all classes of society, worknen and minor employees, who should, 
above all others, derive benefit from the advantages of life insurance, profit the least 
from them. 

Why? It is certainly not because they do not appreciate their iisefulnese; 
for a long time past, the truth of the scientific principle on ^vhich lite insurance is 
based has lieen recognized and admitted, even by those Avho do not understand 
it ; and it is not mistrust which keeps employees from insuring. 

The employee seldom or never insures, because he cannot pay the high pre- 
miums demanded b^' the companies, and besides, ho cannot engage to pay them at 
the dates rigourously fixed for their falling due. 

Life insurance companies have established their tariffs to suit a rich class of 
customers, or enjoying at least a certain competence. These tarifis allow an extra 
premium, which is returned to the insurer in the shape of benefits; an extra charge 
easily borne by the usual class of customers, but which, added to the general cxpenses> 
bring up the price of premiums to a rate inaccessible to workmen. 

The obligation to pay premiums at fixed periods is again one of the reasons 
which keej) workmen from insuring ; the sums placed aside with difficulty to meet 
the premiums, being often, between the maturity of each, absorbed by untbreseen 
expenses, or employed in providing for the family duiinga stoppage of employment. 

Life insurance also on the workman constitutes what is called a " bad risk," on 
account of the hygienic conditions under which he lives, and the accidents to v,'hich 
he is exposed at his work. 

Life insurance on the workman can thus only be ettccted by a company specially 
founded in view of it, having tariffs established according to the risks to be taken, and 
collecting the premiums in weekly payments. 

The Prudential, an English company, is, perhaps, the most perfect type of this 
class of insurance. It insures workmen by premiums varying from 2 cents to 25 
cents weekly, and counts to-day more than 5,000,000 persons insured, representing 
risks amounting to $230,000, or an average of §4() per each jjolicy, which is, it must 
be admitted, insufficient to place the family above want. The danger to these com- 
panies ot' petty insurance is, that to atti-act customers and receive weekly premiums, 
they must undergo considerables expense, which must be provided fc when e^tab- 
lishing tarirt's, and results in that, for a fixed premium, the employee receives a 
policy which is of much less value than that granted, for the same premium, when 
insuring in companies whose customers are recruited from other classes of society. 



■'1 

iiicnibei 
•>'■') ceiii- 
which ,s 



Ivii 



This question of potty insurance, as it is called, has received the iit^^ontion of 
moro.than one government; and, as far as 18G-i, ^Ir. Gladstone presented, a'lil had 
voted on by the British Parliament, a law creating a State life insurance, gra:iting 
policies the ; laximums of which was $500. 

• The operations of this State insurance have always been limited enough, but it 
has fultillod its intended role, remedying the frauds or imprudences of^frioulli/ societies 
of the time, of which 2(59 out of 283, founded from 1H50 to 1800, have I'ailed. 

The Government of New Zealand has exceeded the limit.s fixed by the English 
Government, and has establisli . under the control, and with the guarantee of the 
State, an actual Life Insurance Company, in good operation, accepting all risks with- 
out ii maximum, and granting profits, whilst charging a i-ate of premium much 
lower than that demanded by ordinary companies (page 271.) 

In France, the Gcvernraent established, in 1808, an " Insurance in case of death " 
(pages 205 to 208), the maximum of sums insured on one person being 8')00. This 
law (Article 7) grants considerable advantages to approved mutual benevolent 
societies; it permits them to grant insurances called collective, contracted for one 
year only by a special tarilf. 

The mutual benevolent society of the establishment of Kedouly <fc Co. has 
operated since 1880, in tlie name and for the benefit of its members, a collective insur- 
aiu-e, with the State, Avhich allows of the payment to the widow or children of a 
deceased member of the sum of §200. (The residts of this institution are indicated 
on page 72). Upon paying an aniuud premium from each member varying from 
«20.S5, in 1880. to $22.00, in 1888, this mutual society has cashed 34 policies of $200 
each, or a total amount of $G,SOO tor a total payment in premiums of §6,100, or a 
io.s.'s to the State and a benefit to the socielv of $040. 



iceially 
en, and 

e of this 
ts to 25 
Bsenting 
it must 
se com- 
emiums. 
_'n estab- 
eives a 
m, when 
■ society. 



This sy.stcm of collective insurance, establisded by the French Government in 
l>'iiS. is an actual encouragement, a prize in reality, granted to the mutual benevo- 
lent societies. The following extract from the official report on the operations of 
muinal benevolent societies furnishes sufficient proof of 't : — 

" The law of July 11, 1808, which permits, by Article 11, approve<l mutual bene- 
volent .societies to contract collective insurance in ea.se of death, u]) to an amount of 
.■5200 for each mendjer, is not put in j)ractice as it should and might be. Eighty only 
of these societies have up to the i»resent time nuide u.se of the ])owers granted them 
by I ids law. There is occasion for sur])rise at this, for the insurance offers to societies 
real advantages, and forms one of the churacteii^tics of provident societies. 

" The societies insured have as a rule taken a policy ot' $20 on each one of their 
members. It is calculated that the avei'age of preuuunis for insurances of $20 is 
,!.■) cents for eatdi memljer. Let us take fi)rexaniple the I'aris Typographical Society, 
wiiicli stopped"paying its premium in 1SS7, and which was comjioscd ol 1,400 mem- 
I'crs. Its collective insurance was $20.00, for which it paid on an average 37 cents 
yearly for each memhei'. 

1,400 X 0.37 = $51S.OO. 
The societv paid in all $518.00. It showed an average of GO tleatbs yearly. 

60X26-^$1,500. 




The ditroreiuo between $518 and $1,500 i.>i $1,012, the pi-dfit of whicli il deprives 
itself. 

However, the Typoifraphical Society gi-anta from its funds SIC on each death. 

(10 ■ l(5=8!t<)0. 

The surplus of .?!I6(I over S')1.S is $ 142, which it can niaiie available in paying 
premiums of insurance. Thus, .§ 1,042 of profits of which it is assured on the one 
part, and §442 wiiich it pays in addition to the premiums of insurance on the othfr, 
consiitute a loss of 81,042 ; 442=81,484 per annum.* 

Accidents. — All comment is su[ierthiou.s (jn the (piestion of accidents during work 
after the report containing the remarkable communications which Messrs N. Di-oz, 
O. Keller and E. Cheysson have presented to the Congress on accidents inherent to 
lal)()r. AVo will content ourselves with reniiirking (ho consideraidc ilimiuution in the 
nunilier of accidents in workshops forming part of the '' Association for prevention of 
Accidents," an<l which adopt the measures of precaution prescribed by the regulations 
of these associations. The accidents are ec^ually less numeroMs under employers 
■who form part of a S3'ndicate, and have established foi their workmen an 
employers' insurance against accidents during work. Among the nundtcr of mea- 
sures adopted in souie factories for the diminution of accidents, we may specially 
notice as very original and productive of good results the two following I'egulations: 

1st The coal-raining company of Bess^ges pay a thirteenth month's salary to all 
superintendent miners in their employment, if a fatal accident has not occurred 
during the space of one 3'ear — that is, during twelve consecutive months. Tliis pre- 
mium has been paid four times in lifteen years. 

2nd. At the workshop of Messrs Piquet & Co., mechanical constructors at Lyon, 
accidents are vevy rare, and this comes from the employment of a method which 
cannot be sufficiently commended. The premium of insurance paid to the company 
comprises two elements : one which is definitely its own, and another to which is 
credited the sums paid to workmen as a provision for suspension of work caused 
by accidents. By the terms of this contract, the surplus of the second division is 
divided among the contracting parties. Instead of retaining these profits, Messrs 
ri(pi(;t present them to their foremen. As the (piota incre;ises in proportion as acci- 
ilents are rare, these are interested in employing all their vigilance to prevent every 
danger. The foremen pei'sonally take every pi-ecaution to protect tije lite of the 
workmen. 

Savings. 

The most interesting portion of the exhibition in Section VIII was that of the 
Schools Savings' banks, ot which the Schoid Savings' Bank of Le Mans might justly 
be considereil the most perfect type. 

In the report published by this bank (pages 278 to 284) the managers have 
described in the most lucid manner all the operations of this institution, and the 
methods emploj-ed to stimulate habits of economy among children and to assist the 
managei s in developing the practice of it among their pupils. 

To be regular, and attain its best proportions, economy should be rendered easy 
to the depositor; the bank should be a convenience at the time that saving is easy 

*'rii(' I'aiisian Ty[«igi'ai)liical .Socii'ty lias CDiitracted a new iiisuram.'L' in 188S. 



tor hi 
of the 

work^ 
wishe 
he no 
teiiaei 
con.sii 

I 

em pi 
saviiiL 
or st: 



for liiin — f Iiat is, whon lie finds himself in the possession of money. This is the secret 
of the ilcvcloj)inent of ciiiployors' Huvinifs banlo; the workman tinds the hank in iiit* 
workshop, ami deposits, without effort, without displacing, the portion of his pay ho 
wishes to economize. If ho has a long d'stance to go in order to deposit his money, 
he nearly always negloets doing .so, ami this is so much lost to him. Without the 
tenacity and sclf-sacritiee of laborers' wives, the(loposits in savings banks would be 
cou-siderably lessened. 

It is not always pru<lent tor the workman to ])lace his money in the bank of his 
employer ; and so, in view of encouraging economy among workmen and minors, 
savings cards have been issued, to which are atlixcil either ordina ly postage stamjis 
or stamps ad hue which can afterwards be de]iosited in the savings bank to wiiicli 
they belong, in the same way as when cash is deposited, (i'age 281.) 

The operations of European savings banks otter nothing particularly worthy of 
>pecial remark, except the tendency which they exhibit to emjtloy the savings of 
workmen for the ])rotit of the workmen. The Italian savings l)anks are also 
remarkable from this point of view. In France, some savings banks employ with 
success a portion of their reserve fund in the constiMiclion of woi-kmen's dwellings. 
(Page 27<J.) 

The savings banks, whether independent or under State control, are content 
with receiving tleposits, and make no effort to encourage in the laborer, by any 
inducement, a taste for economy. 

It is in Section XI\". of the employers' institutions, that seai'ch should be made 
for combinations used for initiating and encouraging habits of economy ; liberal com- 
binations, expensive to the emploj'er, not requiring any sacrifici' of s(>lt'-respect or 
liberty' on the part of the workman, and notwithstanding this, often repulsed or des- 
pised by the latter. 

Cooperation. 
Section II. — Cooperative productive societies. 
Section IX. — Cooperative consumers' associations. 
Section X. — Cooperative credit associations. 

An«'Conomist-'= has defined cooperation as: — " An association of persons with a 
view of evading the deductions causetl by intermediaries." 



" The aim of cooperation, adds the author, is to reduce the number of middlemen 
to the minimum ; to m;dce the workers tiieir own purveyors, and thus retain the 
major part of the product of their labor. To this end it says of them: "Asso- 
ciate youi'selves, produce, buy, borrow conjointly, and divide among yourselves these 
purchases and loans. You will no longer liave to pay for the servici's of the con- 
tractor, the merchant and the banker. Hence arise the three great divisions of co- 
opei'ation — the coo|)eration of production, the cooperation of consumption, and the 
(■ooj)eration of credit." 

What is remarkable in putting this tht'ory in ])ractice is, that the first three 
euuntries doing so have chosen one of three kinds, developing it almost to the detri- 
ment of the other two. 

* Wnrkiiii'ii's civitit (irKiinii'.iitinn, liv ^[. L. Hinnnux. 



England has o-itablishod conHumora' cooperative Hocieties ; Gormany societies 
of mutual credit, and France coQ])erative productive societies. This division of the 
♦lifferent hrantdies of coopr ration in jjot due to chance, or to the preference wliicii 
one or the otlicr country gives to one of thcHe systems, Imt to industrial condition 
of the country. In Knjjjlaml, the impetus given to industiy, the ci-eation of largo 
companies, the abundance of money, render useless all contention with capital, and 
the laboring classes, renouncing the idea of bettering their condition by participat- 
ing in the profits of production, leagued themselves together to suppress the profits 
which tlu; middlemen collected I'rom consumers, by abolishing Hie miildK-men them- 
selves. They established the consumers' coopei'ative societies. 

In (iormany, money being less plentiful, and consequently less powerful than in 
England, the large manufactories were less develojjed, the workmen were independ- 
ent — working for the most jiart at homo with theii' families — and thei'e were more 
petty employers and contractors than salaried employees. That which was lacking 
was not the capital, but the credit permitting them to buy material at favorable rates 
to finish their work, and wait for the proceeds, without having recourse to the usurer. 
From these I'cquiremenfs there arose the establishment of mutual credit associations 
and people's banks. 

In France the working classes tried to establish cooperative productive societies, 
Avith a view of thus finding a means to free tbe workman from the master and sup- 
press the wages' system. 

Consumers' Cooperative Societies. 

The history of these associations, their success in England, the facility with 
which the}' can bo established, developed and maintained in operation, are facts too 
well known to requiie description. 

With the e.Kample of these flourishing societies existing in Europe, in all the 
gi-eat centres, we may well be surprised at the want of success of the majority of 
consumers' societies founded in Canada, and their almost entire disappeai-ance. 

Cooperative consumers' societies are as flourishing in France, in Italy, in tror- 
niany as in England, although less numerous, less rich and less powerful. They arc 
just beginning Two points are necessaiy to their success: a fair working Capital, 
easily formed, and a good administration, confided to a manager expei'ienced and 
honest. With these two elements of success, Canadian workmen would succeed like 
their European comrades in reducing their expenses, this reduction being equivalent 
to an increase of salary. 

Cooperative Credit Associations. 

Germany is the cradle of mutual credit societies. The first of these was estab- 
li.shed at Dolitsh in 185(1, by Mr. Schuize, whom his fellow-countrymen justly esteem 
as one of their greatest men. 

The popular banks of German}' only make advances to their shareholders, and 
owe their success to the adoption of the principle of the absolute responsibility of 
shareholders, a principle borrowed from the banks of Scotland, and the facilities 
granted to all respectable people to become shareholders. 



Ixi 



ler- 
are 

pittil, 
and 
like 

alont 



jst all- 
deem 

and 
ty of 
lities 



To Loeoinu a .sliiiroholiU'r it is only nocossaiy to sijLi;n iIk' statutes, and bo accepted 
tiv a committee of rtdmisMJoii. Once admitted, tlie now moniher becomes entitled to 
all the riglilH, on payiniC an t-nt ranee fee of 1 tliaU-r (74 cents) in one or several 
terms, and a subscription of 40 tliaU-rw, which may Ik; made in monthly paymentsof 
."» >illier/^ros (lli cents).-'- 

This is an accession not only to the capital, but to all the advantatfes wh."'- e^.. 
lie iiiitainod from it, placed in the possession of those with the most limited means. 

The capital of these popular banks is formed by the accumulation of assets 
gradually collected by th*' members themselves, and by borrowed capital assumed 
(111 conunon er<'(lit and common guarantee. 

It is the capital thus Ibrmcil, partly by the savings of tlie shareholders, and 
partly by the guarantees offered to the c(dlective responsibility, which permits 
workmen ami small i)roducers to obtain the credit which thev need without haviny; 
to pay ton high a I'ate for it. 

The advantages of such a system are easily recognized. 

To complete it, Mr. Schulze established at Weimar a Central Aijency charged wit h 
the grnii])ingof infoi-matioii. the assistance of new sucietie>, and of creating a nucleus 
of establi.-hment. 

In 18(J1 he founded 14 Provincial Unions, to serve as intermediaries between 
the central agency and the banks, and transformed, in 18G4, the agency into tho 
Federation of German Cooperatives. Finally ho founded, in 18G4, a Central Bank. 

Subsftintially assisted by the German ttovernment, which passed a law, in 18(17, 
regulating the indefinite variation of capital, the mimber of members, the responsi- 
liility tor the contraction of debts (but with calls |)roportionate to tho bonuses of 
members), and the diminution of fiscal charges, these banks multiplied rapidly. 

On January 1, 1888, theie were in Germany 2,200 popular baidvs, numbering 
more than a million of shareholders ; 886 of these banks furnished a rej)ort of their 
condition to the Iv'furl Congi'oss (1888), and one can form an idea of the importance, 
the extent of these condiinations of petty savings, by the tigures given by these 886 
banks : 

Statement of Position of 886 German Popular Jicnks in 

IS.-.! I. 1SS7. 

Xumber of shareholders 18.t;T(; 4.')t;,27<5 

Advances to shareholders $!;!,(li;i,41U 83'jr),Ur)S,T27 

lieserves 22.8:)(J r).!)88,523 

Deposits 751.47!' 10r),49!»,'J40 

And this refers to only 886 banks among 2,2(10. Schulze-Delitsch's work had 
been imitated in Italy-'' and in Belgium with these moditieations ; that tho uidimited 
liability had been rejilaced by a more or less limited liability, and that the shaie- 
liolders could subscribe for more than one share. 

Statutfs of tile Ci-fdit Sdciity of I)i'lil.-li. 
' Tlic inoiiiotcis of iliiliiiii |Mi|iiil:ir liiiuks ;iKv;iv>- |iiiiftHMcl tln'iiisclvi's to lie disoiplis lunl iniitutois of 
Siliiil/.f : till' liy-liiw> of the imi|pu1:ii' Imiik of Milan. |>a^ri' ;<1H, :iri' tlif saiiif lis tli<w of tlii' (ii riiiaii l)aiik.i, 
with tliis iiii|ioitiiiit (lilVcrciicc, tliiit till- lial>ility of tlic sharcholilii' i-^ liiiiitiTl to iIm' aiiioiiiit of lii.s sliari'S. 



Ixii 



ThoHO modifications dill not interforo witii lln- dovelopnicnt of tlif fJorman <n' 
Italian popular l>ai)k» — quite tlio revorso; hut tliey will, Mooncr'or Intor, dispiive 
them oflhoir popiihir charactor, and will injure their credit, il'in the event of any 
crisis tlu! limited liahility pi-ovc iiisulHcient to sceure from loss (he creditors of the 
first hank that may sus|)end paynuMit. 

In a reniarkahle i-eport, made ut a congress itf French popular hanks, held at 
Marseilles in iSSlt^ yi. II. G. Kostraud deserihed, as follows, the principles on which 
aro^based the orjranization of hanks of the Schulzo type, and the results produced hy 
Huch institutions. 

Fundamental principles. 



" 1. The \vaiu;os of the manual laborer furnishes, whalcver may he saiil to the con- 
trary, and if he courai^eously wills it, once that his lei^itimate expenses arc satistied, 
n surplus, whi(di, hy savini:;s and fructiticaiion of savings, enaldes him to accumulate 
a capital, resulting in the improvement of Ins material condition hy hetler living, 
and his moral condition hy gi-eater dignit}', intlcpemlencc and mental culture. 

" 2. Molality, lahor, skill, form a spiritual ca])ital, hut a sure and safe one — the 
aim is to hring it out : 

'' ;{. The tool required is association, mutual lud|), coopei'ation, iiorrovving, the 
security tor which is the wage, the ))artuers retaiiung for themselves the profits 
arising from the transactions they engage in. 

' . To raise themselves in this iminner. the manual laborers should lely U])on 
themselves alone, and hind together equal associations that the coo])eration nuiy 
recruit. 

'• Economic Results — In 18S7, 1 find in 88G Schuize lianks (and therif are numy 
more, as we shall see) $120,000,000 of current accounts — more than is shown by the 
balance sheet of the Baidi of Fiance on 25th April last. It is therefore an immense 
extension of credit placed at the disposal of the humblest class, the economical edu- 
cation of pool- people hy personal experience, that nothing can replace — afecundalion 
by a thousand rivulets of productive forces. 

'' Moral Results — In tne iSchulze banks, the noble acceptance of union has raised 
the average morality of artisans, of cultivators, of small employers, has rendered 
them prompt in the fulfilment of their engagements. A constant appeal has multi- 
plied savings; the demand on individual energy has accustomed each one to rely 
upon himself alone, to act, not to wait on .State providence, or to indulge in idle 
dreams. J?y the EaitVeisen Hanks, ties of attachmcni and esteem have brought 
together the rich agriculturists and the paysans in the commune. A Hungarian 
deputy in a trip through the valley of the llhine, speaking of these institutions, has 
declared that they had " revealed to him a new world of Christian fraternit}' and 
peace." 

" Social Results. — If I consult the most recent statistics of the Scliuize banks I 
discover the following classification of members: — 20 per cent, of cultivators, for- 
esters, tishermen, gardeners, 3 per cent, of their workmen: 29 per cent, of small 
employers, 48 per cent, laborers of small inilustries, 05 per cent, merchants, 5 per 
cent, cariiagemakers, sailors, hotel-keepers, coffee-house keepers, 2 per cent, employees 
in post-ofHces, telegraphs and railroads. The shareholders consist, therefore, nearly 
all of the lowest class of wage-earners, to whom is afforded a constant opportunity 
of becoming emjiloyers. It is not a question of transforming the social organization, 
but of reducing its inecpialities. Besides, it is quite evident the union, bred of these 
associations, is an active agent in consolidating the union of class>. . Finally, and 
above all, they are opposed to " collcctiviste" tendencies, which would cause the 
world to return to its primary condition — a very active element in individual 
development." 



(Ici'eil 
iiiiilti- 
) I'elv 



inks I 
s, ior- 

Miiall 
.") per 
loyees 
nearly 
tunity 
^.ation, 

tlie!<e 
y, and 

e the 
vidual 



Am I'Oijfanls tlic Raitt'ciHcn ImiiKs, tlicy aro |iliilaiitliinpic' inntitiitioiis, ra(lu>r 
ilijiii tiiiaiicial -^oficties, to wliidi tlu' "t"r(5dit iniitiU'l ol )Mi|iiilaii-f " of l*ariK (pauo 
I 3(1') ) very nearly ai)pi'()aelu's. 'I'liese baiiUs aro also eslalilislied in Italy. 

There is a type ofinutiial assistanee, of'aid atlorded liy those posH'.xsinjf an over- 
;iliundan('e to tlio.se who laelc means, whicii i« niosl i-oinarl<ahle, and thai the author 
tiial we have JiiHt quoted dosciibew us t'ollow.s in his report: — 

" Seliulze did not wish to depend on any other than the por.sonai energy of the 
workmen and on the mutual love of lahoreis amonif lheniselve>. IJailloisen was 
iiosseHsed of anotiier idea — mutual assislinico, tiie love doserihed hy the evan^elirtt, 
patr iniiffe. In his view the popular banks aro not ordinary assoeiations; they aro 
-ocial works, Tlie dividend, the jjrotit, is oliminateii. The ditferenee is jtrofouiid. 
There is somethinjf wlueh, in certain aspeets, i-ecalls the onter]ii'i>e in France ot'lhe 
noble I'. Luilovic do Hresse. 

" Patronage in rural life is its oi'iifin. Tlie Kaitl'eiseii banks lend to cultivators to 
enaiile them to purcdiase their seeil i^'rain at wholesah', cattle, aifrieullural insti-ii- 
inonts, the constnu'tion of buildinifs. It is undei'stood that in country life sueli 
institutions aro more easily develojied. They are, above all, aiciicultural banks of 
mutual credit, and they wore establiHlied in the valley of the Uhine. This is why 
tliey are sometimes styled the Schuize country banks. 

•'As regar<ls Darlelinkassen-Uaitl'cisen, the object is not logitimato gain; it is 
social «iuty, patronage. They consist ot groups of persons, some of tlieni rich or in 
easy circumstances, others j)O.SHessing little or notliinu;, within the bounds of the 
ciunmune. The first of these help the second, assuming the risk, of which they limit 
the importance. Tl."re is no actual capital. The subscriber has only a claim for 
bis investment and interest, limited, by philanthropy, to 4 per cent. The jirotits 
constitute an alienable reserve, that is never divideil ; in case of litiuidalion the sub- 
scri]itions are leturned, an<l the surplus goes to the State, to servo as foun<lation of 
another similar' bank. They receive savings deposits. The loans, being principally 
agricultural, are at long dates, as long as five years and mor-e; whence; a dangei-, 
which thoy seek to avoid by stipulating that the reimbursement be made at some 
weeks after previous notice. The now subscribers aro elected. an<l thero are no assess- 
ments. The treasurer ahmc is remunerated." 

In 1888 there were 310 Raitfeisen banks in Germany, of which 245 having 
reported, declared that there were 24.466 subscribers, and that theyilid a business of 
84,446,000; in 1880 it was estimated that there were 500 to 600 of such banks. 
They aro encouraged by a slight Government subvention. 

In Italy, where the paysan and the small proprietor pay as high as 100 j)ercciit. 
interest to usurers, Avho grant them loans, there already e.\ist 40 rural banks, and 
where they exist the usurer is rapidly disappearing.* 

Of the iiumbor of institutions permitting salaried persons, employ ds and work- 
men to quickly arrive at independence, to the position of employer, by the creation 
of a social capital, wo know of none that has attainoil a more practical realisation 
than the " cr($dit mutuel," such as is described in the report of Mr, Luneau to the 
tenth section "d'Economie Sociale" page 309, which stj.tes and solves this problem 
that presents itself to every workman who wishes to escajie from the salaried condition: 
Form your Si. 'J your initial capital, and when that is established credit will come to you. 



' Rejwrt of Mr. Leone Wolleinlx)rg, .it the Kxtiibitioii of Social Kconomy. 



Ixiv 



Cooi'EiUTiVE Associations ok Production. 

AHor luivin^ proved tho iibsohito and comploto HiiccenH of cooponitive ftHsociutioiiH 
of ci'oilit unit consumption, it is siid to statu tho almost total cheek tiwit cooporativu 
associations of production Imvo received. 

Tho reason is that the prohlom to solve, concorninuj those, is more ditficult, more 
coinpliciilcil, tliiin for the first, and (hose who have uiidertakon the solution have too 
often gone astiay in pursuinjj; the ohject they wish to attain, 

Tho first aspirations of workmen as to coojieratioii in production manifeste<l 
tlieinselves in Kranee on the day atU-r the Kevolulion ot IS-lS; tiiey were encouraged 
by tho (jovernnient, wlio granted them, under tho'namo of a loan, 8tiOU,UO(t, to he 
diviiled among the cooperative associations, created by workmen or by workmen 
and employers Jointly. •'■ What was the result of the governmental assistance? It 
is not very easy to define, for the Imperial (lovernment suj)prosseil the workmen's 
asMOciatioMS ever since 1852, leaving oidy aijout twenty subsisting. In 1851 there 
existed in Paris only 250 cooperative associations of production working under excel, 
lent conditions. 

It was not until tSST, and particularly in lS'!-t, that the coo])orative movement 
was taken up again b}' the workmen. In the meantime the great industry had made 
its aitpearanco in Franco; tho relations between workmen antl employers was embit- 
tered, and tho now movement resembled rather a declaration of war against capital 
and employers than an attempt at economic reform. 

This tendency has become still more accentuated since that eiwch, and in 
France, as in America, the woi'd cooperation signifies abolition of wages.j" 

In principle this is true, but in practice it is not applicable. In principle tlio 
true cooperator should furnish his share of coopoi'ation without remuneration up 
to tho division of profits; this in what occurs in cooperations of credit and con- 
sumption. In jjractice, tho worKman, whose shai-o in tho cooperation consists of 
labor — capital being a tool — cannot wait without a withdrawal for the day of the 
partition of profits, and should receive a portion — the portion often being greater 
than the whole — in the form of wages. 

It matters little, it may be said, that tho workman receives his share in profit 
under the form of wages. It matters a great deal,for'this payment, this advance, is 
the actual negation of tho cooperative principle. The workman adds no more to 
the mass by his labor, since ho receives pa^-meiit in proportion as he furiUHhes it, 
and when such payment necessitates an advance of capital greater tlian the por- 
tion ho has contributed, ho ought, to procure that wage, to have recourse to a capi- 
talist to advance it to him, and who, to guarantee himself against any loss, directs the 
com])any, procures tho labor and sells with profit the products of the manufacture — 
that is, the employer. It is only when the ^ajiital paid liy the associated workmen 

•PriiiHisitidii of M. Miclicl Ak-Mi, (li>|Mity, ;iOtfi May, 1K4S. 

I )ii rcc iif till' Xatimial Asscnilify of .")tli •Inly, 1S4S, in fiivor of ii.ssociiitions Ix'twi'iii \vor]<iiicii or 
botwi'i'ii ciiiployiTs and \vorl<iiH'ii. Iiisti\utioiiti ooni'i'iniiig tfiis (li-crcc. 
Uocuiiiints cxliihitrd by tfic Krciicli ( Jovcinincnt. 
tlJy-liiw s of I icni'ial .Vs.suciutioii of Caliinetwaiv of Paris, i>a(jt' lOit. 



is Hllfl 
they 
tioii I 



iiavo 

siipcri 

selvc' 



Ixv 



iMHiiflli'iiiit to cover tlio <'<iht ol" tlio iimloriiils iiscil. ainl lln' umouiit of waiios Unit 
llicy will rcccivo, lu'loro n-aliziiig in casli tlio product of tlioir liilior, that tho UMSOflu- 
lioM is really cooporiitlve. 

Capital nii'l lalior l)oiiii^ foiiiid, it roinainH to make thotii avuilaliK-, ami to ^ivo" 
I lie Miaiiai,'or, wlio prolilai)ly dovolopos thorn, tlio romunoration to wiiii-h lio is oiititlucl 
ami tlic authority iiocesHary for fotidiic'tln;^ tho hiiHinoHn. 

Those arc tho two rocks on which most cooporativo nHHoclntioiiM of production 
havo stranded, which woidd not rcco<rniso either tho claims of the mana!,'or to 
siiperior wattes, M.)r accoi'd him an aiilhoi'il}' that the coo|)erat()rM claim for ihem- 
solves. 

It is only in resi^nin^ thomsolvos to a very severe discipline, all llio details of 
wliicli arc miniitoly doHneil in the hy-hiws, in appointing; managers invested with 
real and serious authority, and remunerated in proportion to the rosponsihility laid 
upon them, that somo of tho coojterativo s(»cielics of proiluction have succeeded, 
WorUiiien are well ac(iuainted with those elonu^nts of success, and this is how one of 
the ailministrators of tlu^ ''Cooperative Association of WorUiiifj Carpenters of La 
\'illette,"' one of the most prosperous I^arisian societies, cxpicsscss himself on tho 
suliject, before the Commission of l'ln([uiry of associated worU'incn : — 

"The luanajfcr is named l>y tho (icncial AssemMy. We have i'Usei'tcil in our 
hydaws a clause that makes a chani;o of managci' very dillicult ; for the chan^^e of 
nianaiioinent is the dan^'or in all societies. The manay;er can bo displacoil only by a 
mectinjj; com]K)scd of nt least two-thirds of the members of the society, by a majoi-ity 
of two-thirds of the vote. Wo were subjected als(> lo somo roui,di liandlini.;. but this 
soon calmed ilown, thaidcs to the above clause and tho council of administraiion ; ton 
pcrsidis a^'i'cc bettor than three hundi'cd who commence Bhouting and end by 
UKikintj fools of themselves. 

'•The council of adnnnisl rat ion is oloctt^l tor three yeai'S. It is renewable by 
thirds; there remain^., accordinii'ly, always some of tlu^ild stock. The manaiicr is 
elected for life, so to speak, considering' the conditions rc([uircd to displace him. 

'• The Presideiit : — Therefore the manager roiyns and governs ? — Ves, it is simply 
an autocratic Jio|iublic. 

"The ['resident: — Do you tind it satisfactory? — Yes, since, in short, it is the only 
possible course. This is why wo exist. iV-ojilo who havo money to spt^nd are not 
au.\ious to seek for anarchists.'' 

This was to abandon the principles adopted by certain schools, and consequently, 
to raise tho animosity of their adepts. 

The cooperative societies of production, in adopting different modes of assess- 
ment, ditt'erent systems of cooperation, and often rules for their workshop of a 
severity exceeding that of other workshops rendered themselves obnoxious to 
criticism and very often justified the attacks to which they exposed themselves. 

Tho cooperative societies of production lack that unity of principle, of plan and 
idea, which presided at the foundation of cooperative societies of credit and con- 
sumption. In studying the bydaws of tlieso societies, we search in vain for the 
jiarciit idea whence they issued. Some, forgetting that they are cooperations of 
workmen, divide their profits on a pui-ely financial basis; othoi's overlook, with tho 
20— E 



Ixvi 



objf'ci of prott ction, (lio frooilom of l:il)or riul forbid duriiiii; ii ctTtimi iiuimIkm' of 
3'oars, niulcr sovoro poimlties, to their resigned or excliidoil mombors, to work sit 
tboir trado ;is oiuployor or piirtue •. Soino, scoridii!'; capital, accord uniform divi- 
donds to shareholders who work, as well as to those who do not, and that without 
re^ijnrd to the capital paid uj). Others, on the other hand, accord to capital a 
greater shnro than to labor, or sujjprossing the dividends pay to the partners oidy 
their simple wages, and apj)!y their jtrotits to (ho increase of the collective property. 
Finally, we tlnd among them those who, scorning the principicvs they profess, refuse 
to admit their auxiliary workmen to a share of theii- profits. 

Some of these societies have raised, by their workshop I'ules, more animosity 
tlian the hardesl employers. We can easUy understand this hos(ilit\-on I'cadingsome 
of the ruies published in this repo'-t rules, the application of whi( h will cause daily 
strikes in Canada. 

The few cooperative societies, established in the United States, those of 
Massacliusetts, for examole, have nothing cooperative but the name. They are stock 
companies, of which tiie shares are partly or wholly held by (he workmen, but divide 
theii profits, in the shape of a dividenil on the capital, excluding the labor from 
such repartition, exactly the same as done by societies of capitalists. 

This tendency of cooperators not to treat i xiliai-ies according to the principles 
they profess, seems to be general. 

Thus, when, in England, the workmen in the cooperative manufactories of 
" Wholesale Stoi'es," of the cooperative societies of consumption demanded, in virtue 
of the fundamental principles of these societies, that they divide the ordinary ])rotits, 
realised on ihe manufacture, the " Wholesale Stores " opposed it, albging (bat (he 
nianufactoricL worked on the common capital, and that, besides, the workmen had nr 
right to the profile, these ])ro(its being made, not by workmen, but by the consumers. 
It is the old (heory of (he middlemen, adopted by (he very nun who declared (hem- 
selves their adversaries. 

^Notwithstanding their economical errors, we must not condemn (he cooperadve 
societies of j)iodnc(ion, especially those who treat their auxiliaiy worknuui as (hey 
treat their own members. Some of them have succoetlcd in imjtroving (lu^ condKion of 
their momboi's, and in giving the workmen examples t)(' indepeni!eni'(>, of courage 
and perseverance, wiiilc teaeiiing tlieui how tliey can create a capital witliou( odier 
I'csoui'ccs than <heir wa.i,^. 

Cooperation in ]iroduc(ion is (lu! qiu^slion of (1h> fii(uio; i( alone may ln'ingcom- 
]>lete soc'ul peace, l-or this reason it must not l.e compromised. J''very unsuccessful 
effort diverts the '.*rorkman from the object he seeks to obtain; they must not there- 
fore bo incited or urged (o (ly (heir s(rength in this direction before (hey are ready 
for the contest, and (hey will no( be ready until (he day when (hey have found (he 
fixeil and stable basis for cooperation in production as they had been jstahlishcd for 
cooperation 'M consumption and credit. Until then workmen will do better todirect 
their efforts (o arrive, when is possible, at the jiarficipation of profits, much broader 
and much moi'c couitabic (ban most of the systems I'ollowed bj* coojtei'ative sociedes. 



;mil wiiii'li will k'lul (lieiu with inoi'e or lc;<.s ilolay t > tiio voritablo cooporation of 
worUiiioii. 

jloro, iiovoftlioloss, is tlio opinion on the question by the manajjjor of ono of 
ilii' most im|)()rtant cooporalivo societies, that of ''The Spoctaclo Makers:" 

"The moment yon l)oc'orne of nuMnl>or of (his association of vai'ialile capital 
and momhership, you really are, by the interest derived from it, and tiie pi>-<sililo 
iiccess to its divers intricacies and hierarchies, somewhat of a patron, and in 
that sense yon bocomo l)ettcr. If the system of association peirnils of ativan- 
lai;es which unfortunately caimot t)e attained by all, the ditferences ol" natiiit', of 
cliaracff.r, are so many obstacles that cannot bo overcome, this cannot be said of the 
iiri)fi(-s..arin!j; system which d./cs not impose the same ohiiijationsas associations and 
which can more easily be applieil. This remedy is the one that must be applied ; 
it is a step necessary before cnlerini;- into cooj)crations. Some hwi^o e^tablishnienls 
have put it in pi'actice and ai'e satistied with the results. This ex|)edient does not 
require further proof. It remains with tlioso wilhholders of well-beini,^ to lourn, 
bv a liTiUToiis rtdin(iuis]iment, that in intcrestini,' their individual memlicrs in their 
pVospci'ity they work at the same time towards social peace." 

Workmen's Dwellinos. 

A French savant, Dr. DuMesnil, terminated a report on small lod<:,in^s thus: — 
'• It is not simply virtue ; it is absolute heroism that is re(iuired by all these peojile, 
111)1 to contract, in those hovels, a hatred of society." Lord Beaconstield had, in 
another form, expressed the same idea in statim^ that "The best guarantee of civili- 
zation is the dwelliiig." 

Xot much attention was paid to small lodn'in<;;s in the early jtart of this century, 
until the lime when it was perceived that they form daiiiccrmis agiilomerat ions to 
health, morality and public security. Then ben'an. in nearly all the largo cities and 
in many industrnil centres, a campaign, having in view an improvement in the 
hvgienic conditions of workmen's dwellings ami to render it easy for worlcnuMi tit 
acquire projicrty. The hygienic conditions of workmen's lodgings, in certain cities, 
wcie such that the mortaliiy reached disquieting Hgures. 

Thus, in L*aris, ii\ 188;t, it was stated that the mortality was but II in l.OOO 
iiihabitai.ts in a rich (piarter, embracing but it ])cr cent, of lodgings paying under S(i() 
I'cntal, and that it was '{!• jter 1,(100 in a workmen's (|ii;ii'tei's, containing ')l jier cent. 
of lodgings under SfiO rental. Tlu> tenants of small lodgings are no better Imlgcd in 
the large (Canadian cities. At Montreal oidy l-l'DT persons die per 1.000 in the 
rich ward of Si. Antoine, while in the workmen's quarters of Sle. Marie and St. 
(ialuii'l the mortality is IJC-.'iS .md lOnC jter I,0OO='=='=='-. Tn Kngland the average 
leiigtii of life among the rich class is ;"):> yejirs ; it is 11 yours for the general ]topu- 
1; (inn :iiid 20^ years only for the laboi'ing class.* 

It is estimated in I'^ranee and in I'lnglaml, the loss in wages, e\pen>es in treal- 
mcnl and fmiiM'.'d and iiiaintenance of widows and oriihans, that I'esults from 
|iieiiialiiri' deaths of workmen caused by unhealthy lodgings, amoiinl to over 
$100,000,000 annually in each ot these counlrios.** 

*•• l{..|».tl (,f Dr. Lal«'lK'' ISS',1. »Tlic MctropnlilMii, No. TM. 

** HiMii' il IIvKiciic, iia^rt' 7l>r>. 

20-K^ 



Ixviu 



Tliis fiLTuro is certainly not exaggerated, in view of the facts established by recent 
ofliciai enquiries. 

At London, for oxuinpie, tlie cMKiuiry revealed that among tliopooi", the family, 
in tlio majority of cases, live in one room. Tliey found liouscs of six rooms occupied 
1)3' six families, and as many as eight persons lived in tho same room. In Ilambury 
street, Spitalfields 63 persons lived in a house of nine rooms. 

At (Jlasifow, ISO, ()()() porsons lived in 40,00(1 lodgings of one room. At Dundee, 
22,877 jjcrsons in 8,221 rooms ; at Dublin, they found 1,071: families occupying 175 
houses containing 1,48'{ rooms. ^ 

In France, in 18S1, 219,270 houses occupied, acconling to deputy Martin 
Xudaud, by 1,;')00,000 persons, had no windows. At Paris, 39,ti00 poor families, 
forming a populati(m of 100,000 souls, had but one room for each families. At 
Brussels, one-third of workmen's households live in one I'oom. At >St. Petersburgh, 
75,055 persons live in 10,505 rooms. They found as many as 50 tenants in the same 
ro(jm. 

In 1880, at Berlin, in 3,230 lodgings they could not have a tire ; they sheltered 
10,000 persons ; in 127,500 lodgings of one room, hariioring 478,000 jieisons, they could 
not light a tire ; 07,000 lodgings, whei'e 302,U0t> persons lived, containing each two 
rooms capalile of being heated and 100,000 persons lodged in 23,000 cellars.^ 

At New York, the crowding is still greater than in the old world. For example, 
while in London there are about 45 persons to the acre, in Xew York there are in 
certain (}uarters 300 to 750. In 1885 there was, in the last named city, 20.859 tene- 
ment houses, harboring 1,300,000 persons. 

In one of these houses was founil 32 rooms, having no communication with the 
outer air. 

How has it happened that cities have allowed such focuses of epidemics to become 
established? How have they permitted generations of chiLlren to grow up, in such 
ii promiscuous manner that nothing can be looked for to issue from such centres but 
corrupted souls and dangerous citizens. 

^len of courage, philanthropists, patriots, have for long years denounced the 
hygienic conditions and morals of lodgings in which the workman was too often, 
alas, forced to live. 

For a long time these pi-otcstations have been met by the argument of a free 
contract, to live where one chooses. Nobody, it was said, compels the workman to 
live in such lodgings; if he does not like them, let him go elsewheie. 

But when these unhealthy lodgings became dangerous to the healthy ((uarters, 
anii in the time of an opideniic death dealt with the tenants of these as well as the 
former, it was admitted that the protestators hail good reasons to object, and that 
something must bo done to improve the workmen's lodgings. 

Inspection laws were made. They serve more in admitting the extent and nature 
of the evil than in suppressing it. They were even incapable of checking it; the 
crowding increased with the development of industry in the largo cities. 

* Lc Id^i'iut'iit do Torn ricr ut du i)iuivr(', par A. Kiitfiilovicli. 



Ixix 



but 

tlio 
ten, 

Irec 

to 



lors, 
tlu- 
tliat 



Ul'O 

lie 



It was tlion that the GoveiMimoiU and municipalities creatotl la\v^^ and reifula- 
liuhs ]K'riiuttiMii-, to a cciMain degree, the sanitation of ])opalous quarters. Tiu'se 
laws are all reeent, tho oldo>t datiny; loss than twenty yoars baek, and their applica- 
tion '.'.as n'iven sati.->i'ac'toi'y results. 

Hui ihe evil has, during- the last fewj-ears, taken sueh proportions that ihevean 
sueei'ed in maUini;' it oi>ly slowly disap])ear. 

The real and serious iinpi'oveinenis made in workmen's hxlyings have heen 
realized hy private initiative. 

'lenerous heiiefaelors, of whom Peahoily is the liest known, have e()n^tr^eted 
healtiiy lo(luini;s and leased them to workmen at ver^- low lates. Others have 
founded societies foi- the construetion of huildini^s destineil ior workmen, eontentinir 
ihem>elves witli reeeiviuii; a ridieidoiis small interest on the ea|)ital employed, or 
have, like Miss Oetavia Hill, transformed hovels into hahitalile loduinus. 

The workmen in lari;e muiulaetories o.-4aldished oul.^ide of eities have been, in 
rey;ard to their hahitation, more favored tlvan their eonfre/es in larn'e centres. Tiie 
employers, oi' the companies for whom they work, 'Mialile them either by louii-. or 
by sellini;' on lonu,' terms, to become ]proprietors without incuriinij^ heavier charges 
than an ordinaiy lotlging would inipo-<e u|)on them.-^^ 

Jhit the gri-atest progress realized in the habitation (d' the workman is tho work 
of ' linilding Societies." In Hnglanl. in the I'nited States, in Italy, in Belgium, ami 
ill many other countries, the}' have obtained the greatest success, and give line divi- 
dends to their shareholders, while enabling the employi'Os and woi'kmen to i a-.ily 
acquire, at a low ))iice, the ownership of his Iioum'. 

This transiormationof the laborei', the ]i:()letaii(', into p.'o|»riotoi', ot the crowiled 
tenant of an nnliealthy lodging into a pi'oprietor. living comfortably in a healthy 
ilwelling. is jierliaps tlie most impoi'tant fact that can be made to intei'vcne in the 
solution of tho social problem. 

In his opeiung address, the I'resident of the '•Congress of Cheap I'welHng 
lloiisos," summarized Ihe results of this transtbrmation : — 

'■ Tlie proprietor workman, said M. Siegfried, is the laborei- frugal, cautions, 
cured of his Utopian ideas of revolution and socialism; it is the workman snatched 
ti'om the tavern. " 

In the pamphlet " Jvrt Sucicte de la Vieille. MDntaijnc. a rExjio^itioii de IHS!»," 
this company, wliich embraces in its organization 1,0IMI workmen jH'oprietors, being 
liil i)or cent of it> statl", gives tlie followingdescriplion of the workman |)ropi'ietor : — 

■'There is not in any State a more meritorious and more useful citizen, there is 
not ill an industrial society an element more eitieacious ami more reliable than the 
workman ari'ived at the ownershij) of properly by labor and by saving, it niay be 
■-aid that the power and the progress of a people or of a com]iaiiy may Ik^ measured, 
not by the importance of its territory or its capital, but the pioporlioii of tiie labor- 
ing proprietors that constitute tluir numbois. 

Nothing is more favoiable than tho possession of the domestic hearth, to the 
growth of morality and the dignity of the workman, and at the same time of his 



Sfi' .Scctiiiii XIV, Institutions I'iitronivlt's, ipanff SH3. 



l.cx 



independence. This tiunsfoimation of the piDldtaire into the pi'Dpriet'jr, constantly 
introduces into society elements of order and of peace." 

To this influence of proprietorship on the citizen must be added that of the 
lodging on the father of the family. Tiiis influence is very considerable in counter- 
balancing that of the tavei'n. The city of Mulliouso furnishes a convincing proof of 
it. Since the magnificent creation of M. Jean DoUfus, '■• La Sociiti Malhoasienne 
des Citis Ouvriires," in which the shareholders deny themselves any profit what- 
ever, this city has always been cited as one of the manufacturing cities exempt 
from troubles of every nature, and its working population give good reason for the 
following words that one of the pi'omoters of that work pronounced before anassem- 
bly of citizens whose concurrence he was seolcing : — 

"The convenience, the neatness of a lodging has a greater influence than might 
perhaps be at first supposed, on the morality and well-being of a family. The man 
who, on entering his home, rinds but a miserable hovel, dirty, in disorder, whei'e he 
respires nauseous and uidiealthy air, cannot content himself in it, and flies to the 
tavei'n to pass a great portion of the time he has at his disposal. Thus he becomes 
a stranger to his home, and soon contracts there disastrous habits of expenditure, 
which his family feel too soon, and that almost always ends in poverty. If, on the 
contrary, we couitl olfer these same men clean and bright homes; if a small garden 
is given each, where he would find an agreeable and usel 1 occupation, where, in bin 
modest attempt at culture, he would learn to a|)pre<'iate at its just value that instinct 
of cleanliness wiiich I'rovidcnce has given us, would we not have solved in asatis- 
fa'^tory manner one of the most important problems of social economy? Would wo 
not have contributed tosti'cngthening the sacred ties of the family, and to render a 
veritable service to the class so interesting as our workmen, and of society itself." 
{LesCiUs Ouvriires de Miilhouse). 

In presence of the considerable advantages that building societies afford to 
the working classes, we have reason for surprise at the small number of associations 
of this character existing in Canada. 

This almost total absence of an institution prosperous in every countiy is due 
to a well-known cause. 

Some building societies established in Canada nearly all failed ; some hon- 
estly, because they bad been managed by incapaMes; others, because they had been 
administered by people that were more capable than honest. 

The first building societies inserted in their b\--laws the principle of cancellationfor 
non-payment. This principle drives away and will always drive away a largo num- 
ber of workmen, who will not I'un the risk. It Im true that a society cannot exist 
without funds, ami that it contiacts engagements which it jnust fulfil, but it is 
equally true that the workman being able to ])lace his capital in a way so as not to 
lose any portion of it, prefers to renounce the advantages ottered, by no matter what 
financial combination, rather than see himselftloprived of his savings, just at the time 
when he may most need of them ; at a time of lock-out, of sickness, or to remedy the 
consequences of any other unforeseen event. 

No confiscations, then; they are neither just nor necessary. ''La Solidaritt?," 
(page 328) for example, is a building society that does not admit them ; this does not 
prevent its working. It is erased from the by-laws of the majority of joint stock 
companies, founded for the construction of workmen's dwellings; and the regula- 



tiotiB of employers' Imilding societies, as well as the documents ot Section XI (pa/,'o 
;-i2;5) inilicntetho measures taken by tlie founders of European building societies for 
assuring to workmen the re-imf)ursement of sums paid in, in case that death or sick- 
ness, or lock-out, should prevent the laboring shareholder from fulliUing his engage- 
ments.* 

Every one cannot become proprietor, and tenants form not the least interesting 
portion ot the working population. For them, societies of a character essentially 
philanthropic have lieen created; they build tenement houses, or cottages, under 
the most hygienic conditions, and which they lease at a figure giving a very 
small interest for the capital engaged. 

The rents of the small lodgings are relatively very high ; they bear, unfor- 
tunately, an additional charge put by the proprietor to cover risks of losses. To 
lower the rent of small lodgings, while guaranteeing their payment by the aid of any 
combination whatever, is a pi'oblem that merited the attention of economists, ami 
that M. Costo solved by his remarkable conception, the " Epanjne Locative" that 
he explains as follows, in his book. " Les Questions Sociales Contemporaines " : — 

'• Ij'Epanj7ie Locative" is the progi'essive acquisition of shares conferring the 
right of lease ami ])romise of sale of the immoveable occupied by the tenant with 
progressive reduction of the rent. 

Let us suppose twenty small workmen's dwellings of $1,200, or ten clerks' 
houses of $2,400, or one single largo dwelling of §24,000, containing from 80 to lUO 
rooms, leaseil at attics as simple rooms, in the higher stories as lodgings of throe 
or four rooms, in the lower stories as apartments of six or seven rooms ; and 
let us take as the average unity the family house or the lodgings of four 
t)r five rooms, representing a capital invested of §1,200.00. Lodgings of this char- 
acter, rented to unknown pei'sons, more often to workmen or to employees without 
resources, will 3-ield a gross rental of SOO.OO to §120.00, say at a rate of 8 or 10 [)or 
cent, necessary to cover the expense of maintaining the immovable, as well as the 
risks of deficiency, of non-payment, of expulsion of tenants, and repairs, which 
are considerable for the kind of tenant we are considering. But the proprietor 
would lie well contented with a revenue of 5 to 6 per cent, if he were sure of buing 
I'egularly paid. 

The whole problem consists in constituting a guarantee for the rent, Ity deter- 
mining the tenant to devote his savings to it. 

Let us consider with this view the value of the house or block .-is repre- 
sented for t)ne half, by HOO hypothecai'y obligations of $20 eacli, and for the other 
half by tJOO ordinary shares also of §20 ; each household or each lodging of 4 or 5 
rooms would have a value of 30 obligations and of HO sh.ares. In acquiring 
successively at first the 30 obligations, then the 30 shares, he would become succes- 
sively owner of a coriesponding value of the capital invested in the house or lodging 

*NVi' sluill find ill the (l(iciiiiiiiit>( of .Siitimi XI iiiiiiiinnis coiiiliinatidiis agjiinst tlir di-liiys nsultiriR 
frimi sickness or Idck-imt. A^'ainst, dcatli wv tiiid (Hily the rcsiliatiim (if contract with coiiiph'tc or partial 
re iniliiirscmciit to tiic widow. To assiiie the tiansmissioii of the iiroperty. free from ail char^^es, 
to the widow and cliildren of the workman, dyin^f 1h fore tile comiilete execution of liis eoiitraet, in assiirinj? 
lii^ life, is an idea tiiat commences to press itself on tlie attention of economists. Tlie note sent on tiii« 
>uliject to tile 'Wr.iK/n.v ih.i Ifiihitiitiniis duvriiri x" liy M. Ciieyson (4(»e) contained a project in every 
point identical to tiiat projKjsed liy the " Uoyai r,al"ir Coinniission." (UeiMjrt, page ;i(».) 



-«V'*', XT' 



BH 



Ixxii 



tliat he occupioH. Once in the possession of the (!0 lortificatos, he would have, to 
l)ecome propiiotor ofthe housi' or loilging, but to remit the corlilioates into thi; iiands 
of tiie vendor society to he annulled at its pleasure. Up to tliis, tlie oliligations 
purehased hy the tenant could be deposited in a public bank, to be held subject to 
pa^'ment and guaranteed l)y his rent. And thus, the savings of the tenant would bo 
found to be doubly secured : On one side, the interests due on his obligations would 
lie e()ni])ensated by one portion of his rent; on the other the rate of his rent Avcndd 
pi'ogressively decrease, because the projirietor wouUl find himself more and more 
guaranteed by an increasing security. 

Now, in this double reduction of rent we see developed a sufficient advantage 
for inciting the tenant to the acquisition of hypothecary obligations on the immov- 
able, even if he has no intention of acquiring it ; and this renders the combination 
apjilicable to tenants of all categories, even to those who occupy but a very small 
fraction of a considerable immovable, of which ho could never dream of becoming 
the proprietor. 

Such is the principle of " L'Ejmrgne Locative " in all its simplicity ; this, then, 
is how we are able to calculate the results. 





Giving right 

to !l 
IcilSC of 


Rate "/„ 


ST. 


Interest 4 '7,, 
on Oliligations 

going in 

reduction of 

rent. 


IJalance 
to jiay. 






Security 

of 

Olilipitidiis. 


Amount. 


I'ri )gressi ve 
reduction. 


8 ct«. 






8 els. 


8 cts. 


8 cts. 


8 cts. 1 j. 






8.00 
7. (Hi 


lli; (Ml 
!l2 00 




i)() 0(1 
SS (K) 




.. -*->' 


100 00 


1 years 


4 00 


8 (X) 


^f 


200 00 


2 " 


7.3;i 


88 (JO 


8 00 


80 00 


If) 00 




300 00 


3 " 


7.00 


84 00 


12 on 


72 (M» 


24 00 


■^I 


400 00 


4 " 


(i.()i> 


SO 00 


1(> 00 


(i4 00 


32 00 


^'^ 


500 00 


.') " 


(1.33 


711 00 


2o 00 


5(i 00 


40 00 


s- - 


COO 00 


" 


COO 


72 00 


24 00 


48 (HI 


4S 0<J 


" 5 



" Thus in this system, which in all its lines, is modifiable, the mass of tenants, 
that is to say evei-ybody, will Hnd in their savings a well determined anil 
very concrete oliject — stability of lodging, guarantee against the caprices of the 
propi'ietoi', long lease and the right of purchase. The investment will be more 
remunerative than in no matter what eventual enterprise; the security will 
be comjiiete since the investment will be hypothecarj- ; tinally, the immobility 
of the savings will never be tinal, the permanent tenant always having the 
right to withdraw his certiticates from the bank of guarantee, to treat with third 
parties, thus involving for them the application of the common right, that is to say, 
the raising of the rent, the cancellation of the lease and forfeiture of the right of 
purchase. 

•'This combination of "tenant savings" would have all the atlvantages of the 
ordinary' savings banks, with many others besides, and would constitute a very effi- 



,^A v,W>^^-^f 



cacious .stimulant to tlie accuiuuliilion of savings. It' it liecanu' univerHal it would 
rondor cortain tlie payment of lonts ot' small houses, and would lower tiio rent of 
tnodost (ciiemonts. Finally, roal-ostato societies would (ind, in the application of 
I he foregoing, new facilities for the sale of their properly or at least the stahility of 
their invested capital." 

Wliat is the best system to .''dopt in the construction of workmen's dwellings ? 
The solution of this question varies with the climatic condition of each country, and 
the habits of the working |)opulation. in Canadian cities, tenements, constructed 
under hygienic conditions, heated l)y steam, lighted by gas, would offer great econ- 
omic advantages, but these advantages would be far from compensating those Avhich 
the family draws, in a inor.-il point of view, fi'om the isolation that can alone be pro- 
cured by the separated house or the cottage. The tenement is almost unknown in 
Canada; one meets with but few specimens of them in some of the large cities, and 
the development of this system of construction is not desirable. 

The collective house, which is called "tenement," " barrack," "phalansttire," 
is a hindrance to the transformation of the tenant into a proprietor. 

Scotland offers the spectacle, almost unique, of houses sold in detail ami occupied 
by several tenant co-])i'oprietors whoso rights and duties are ])erfectly limited by 
the law. It was tried to import the s^'stem into England; Parliament with this view 
enacted a law in 1881, " The Chambers and Office Act," but up to the ])resent, work- 
men have preferred the isolated house to that of the lodging, forming a portion of a 
great building. 

Attempts at dealing with collective property, represented Ijy shares acquire<l by 
the workman, at his convenience, up to the amount of the estimated value of his 
lodging, were made, without success, in France, in England and in Germany. 

This collective property combination, is highly praised by the socialists, who 
affii'in liiat the system of small houses attaches the workman to the land, prevents 
him from moving, and interferes with his liberty, nevertheless this comliination 
while being very practical, has never enj(»}-ed any favor among workmen. It does 
not stimulate the <lesire to save, engenders no idea of sacrifice to attain an object, 
just because this object is deprived of that fascinating reflection made by joys, of 
liberty and comfort that the workman foresees in laboring,sutfering and economising, 
to possess his house. 

The comfortable house, the "home" esjiecially when the tenant t()resees the 
possibility of becoming proprietor, is the most redoubtable adversary of the tavern. 
To increase the number ot workmen's cottages, to construct them umler the best 
hygienic conditions, outside of the cities, in quarters connected to the city by railways, 
and to rent them at rates that, while assuring the invented capital a remunerative 
interest, will permit of the tenants acquiring the property, by degrees and without 
api)arent sacrifices, is a work that merits the attention of all citizens that believes 
with the president of the '• Congress of cheap duclUnij houses." 

" That here there is a great work to accomplish, a worlc of moral renovation 
and social preservation, that is worthy of inspiring those who think that the enjoy- 
ment of life consists in the good that we can do, and who are convinced that in 
creating man and endowing him with moral and intellectual faculties, whose limits 



Ixxiv 



are infinite, frod hn^ wished to ussociato him in His woric and pormita tiinHO wiio 
compreiicnd the wisdom of His conc'eption.s to work with Ilim in the amolioralion 
of the conditions ofiiunian life." 

Social IIyoiexk. 

Bicellings — Workshops. 

NotwithstandinLi tiio arrangements made by the various authorities of iargo 
European cities, the sanitation of worlvmen's lodgings has made but very slow prog- 
ress. On the other hand, the sanitary conditions of woi'kshops, during late years, 
have been considerably improved. Tiiis rapid amelioration is due, in a great mea- 
sure, to the efficacious inspection of manufactories. 

In view of the results obtained by the inspection of woikshops, wo have reason 
to ask why the inspection of houses which exist in Fnincc and in Mngland, for 
Cxamijlc, does not in a short lime cause the disajjpearanco of unhealthy lodgings? 
It is because wo have here a complex problem, that the causes of insalubrity are 
manifold, and that it proceeds as nuich from the condition of the property as from 
the conditions of existence of those who occupy the property. 

The measures to take against ovcrcrovviling are most delicate and ver^- ditftcult 
of apjilication. The family cannot be sulijected to them, whatever may be the 
promiscuous nature of the life in the midst of which its members niay be living, 
except bj' assimilating its residence to that of an hotel where they take 
boarders. From this it follows, that to avoid over-crowding it is absolutely 
necessaiy to establish means of rapid communication at cheap rates, thus enabling 
the Morking population to live out of the city, to spread themselves in the country, 
insteail of crowding themselves into tenement houses. Even if living in the 
country or in a well-aired suburb, the small tenant, by necessity or eagerness of 
gain, takes boarders in a dangerous proportion for the health of his family, we 
have reason to hope that the evil wcnild not extend beyond the infected house. 

With air, verdure and sunlight, regions where sickness continually decimated 
the iwpulation have been transformed into habitable quarters. 

To regulate the height of houses, to oj^en large avenues, to create squares and 
parks, have been the principal measures adopted in the large cities for doing away 
with the etfects of overcrowded lodgings. 

It is in England that the most energetic measures have been taken for the 
sanitation of cities. As soon as the mortality of a quarter surpasses a certain 
proportion the quarter is expropriated, it is cleared, and on the ground they rai^e 
healthy houses. The results obtained by this system are considei'able. For example, 
at Birmingham the mortality in a district thus rebuilt decreased from 62'5 per 
thousand to 219 per thousand, and in another from UT per thousand to 25'6 per 
thousand. 

The means taken in regard to sewage, the demolition of insalubrious quarters, 
the improvement in the sN'stem of drains, and the distribution of water, have been 
completed by the establishment of baths and public laundries. The public baths 
have rendered great services to the European working population ; in England they 
are established under special laws which fix also the price of the bath. (Pago 
-143). 



1S72-7.3. 




The 




"It 


be 


consii 


of 


want. 



Ixxv 



^ '' 



Tlic piil)lit' liiiindrios are unknown in Cimadii. Thoy luo oHtabliniimonts 
whoro tlio hoiisokeopei' or wuHherwoman goes to wash hor linon. The linon is at 
first automatii-ally washed in lyo, then delivered to the washerwoman, who has 
nothiiii,' moro to do than to soap and rir.so it. Those huindrit's are dividoil 
into stalls ])rovided with hot and cold water taps, soaji, kv. The oporation 
is a rapid one and the linen is afterwards dried by steam dryers. There are in 
Paris about 500 public laundries ; the linen is washed in lye for 2, 3 or 4 centimes 
tlic packaj^e, according to its volume, and the stalls are rented at 15 centimes per 
hour. These establishments ai'o very useful to the working population ; they 
diminish the expenses of the family and economise the strength of the mother, for 
whom, too often, the washing is a cause of exhaustion and sickness. 

Manufacturers have also erected baths in their mills, for the useof their workmen 
or open to tlus public. These hygienic measures cost so little to take, where there is 
no lack of hot water, that wo have cause for surpi'ise that thoy are not more generally 
taken by the proprietors of large manufactories. 

To the ovorcro ling and insalubr'ity of lodgings wo must, in order to o.vplain 
the mortality that reigns m the agglomeration of large cities, add alcoholism. 

Alcoholism. 

Alcoholism is a scourge that flourishes, more or less, in all classes of society, but 
wiiicli, in Europe, attains its maximum of intensity in the workmen's class. 

Do they drink because they are in poverty, to stupify themselves, to forgot 
tiieii- troubles, as some affirm ? Or are they in povci'ty because th-^'y drink ? — arc the 
(questions that are discussed with cijual success by econcMiiists who have studied the 
question. 

M. A. Coste, in " ies Questions Soclales Contemporaines," shows by irrefutable 
stutistics-i', that, alcoholism increases with the activity of trade and the case which 
follows it, vvliile it decreases in times of crises and of strikes." In consulting these 
statistics wo tind that alcoholism augments in times of good harvests, and diminishes 
in bad years. We see it also rise and fall according as workmen are more or less 
occupied, and follows in its oscillations the height or the fall of the deposits iii 
Savings Banks, as are proved by the following figures : 



for till' 

certain 

oy i'ai>e 

xamplc. 

IJ2-5 per 

5'G per 





Dt'liosits, 

Savings Hanks 

of Paris. 

•S 


1'rolioi'tioTi of a 


U'oholic patii-nts jic 
at TasiUi .Stc Aniif 


■ loo admissions 


Ykah. 


M.n. 

11. 1(K». 


Women. 
I). 100. 


Total 
I>. KJO. 


1s(;k-(;o 


10, 4! IS, 41 1(1 

7,(I!I0.H(M) 

ll,45!l,(i(W 


21 to 24 

13, ,50 
2(l,il7 


4 to(i 
3,33 
3,H1 


25 to 30 


1S7-2-73 

is7s-7!i 


IC.,83 
24. 7S 







The author adds : 

"It seems plain cnougli that alcoholism, in a usually prosperous country, should 
ho considered as a manifestation of public well-being ratlier than as a manifostatioa 
of want. 



' Hygiene sociale contre le pamierisme. 
tL'Asilc il'aliwK's ii Paris. 



Ixxvi 



"All tliis Ih vcMy insti'iiclivt'. As iilculiuliHiii is tin- oiitciunc of pliMily us well 
nH want, and also (as iiKfrital patliolof^y shows) dl' iiiU'llcotnal wt'aUiioss and nudaii- 
colia, it has ovidoiitly riiiinhorit'ss causos^ butli of (he moral and ol liio niali'iial 
ordor. 



Th 



" Wants, ovoi'-woi'lc, wo will oidy uot the hcttor of tlicni with proi^rcss in jiro- 
<lucMou and diviHion of woallh; Im: of what iiso will lliry liu if, on tho other hand, 
it allows ennui to exist and moiliid dis|)ositions to incioasc? All incivasc of wjalth 
not a('coni|)aniod hy co-rcdativc increase in artistic tjistes ;ind moral and intellectual 
aptitudes will naturally lend to an increase of drmd<enness ; so that, for a people 
hehind tho age, for a nation of parvc-'is, alcohol will he the thcrmomoter of the 
Ibrliine of the poo])lo. 

"Franco teols dull, said Lamar'* '''oe to the nations icho feel ilnll — they will 

become drunkards. 

"What are the cures for this, ivlucation, inlelleclual culture, the tasto for 
readiuij; and serious occuijations; bu'v before ovoiythinir, more imnmdiato means, a 
more active inlluenco on tho masses. As rci^ards permanent resources, an interest 
in their occupation, a .mall property, two thing's whicdi impiv the family lite, urffcnl 
motives to a constant occupation, which ])rcv<'iits intoileclMal idlcncsN; as ai'cossory 
resources, hut not less useful, artistic pleasures, concerts, jjlays, exhibitions, lectures; 
physical exercise: walks, open air games, etc. 

" It is better to cultivate flowers, play ball. Join gymnastic societies, dance, make 
love, sing, without prejuilice to more serious occupations, than to become degraded 
at the tavern." 



coiisurn| 
gallons I 
wliich 

Inllowin; 
against : 



Tho 

increased 



Economists, scholars, doctors, manufacturera, all agree on this subject. In all 
classes of society tho opinion is, that in order to stamp out alcoholism, one 
must give tho workingmon intellectual ])leasures, shorten tho hours of work, 
pay sullicient wages, encoui'age economy and the tasto to bocorae pro})erty-owners, 
and, above all, reduce tho number of taverns. 

In a work on ])auperism M. A. l?aron has demonstrated with great lucidity thai 
crime and poverty are in direct I'atio to the multiplication of taverns. 

He has taken two districts in Franco, quite separate, each having the same 
number of inhabitants (3,000,000), and has obtained from official statistics the follow 
ing table : — 

T 







NUMBER OF 


TXHABITANTS. 


DiSTIlICTS. 


Taverns. 


Sentence 

to 
Prinon. 


Destitute 
lii'll>eil. 


By Miu\ial 
Benefit .Sueicty. 


Sontli-west 


134 

105 

m 


620 
336 
269 


47i 

30 

12 


2!) 


Whole of France 


37 


Nortli 


46 



There were in the whole of France (1878) 350,G97 taverns; tho south-west dis- 
tricts, 28,474 ; northern districts, G3,iHi3. 



I 

The c 

'•lily spenc 

Xovoi 
i'ocn show 
mini her re 
compare t 

The C 

i|iU'stion ll 



Yet 

NlW 

'^71 

i^ri 

i\7 , . 

i>S() 

I\S2 

* This is a 



Ixxvii 



Till' mornl ivinoily rs I'Xi'ollont, but whilst wiiitiiig lor ii to work tlioro is oiiy 
ur<'uiitly HiHkuil I'ni- : the roduciiii; of the niimbor of Uivorns. 

Tlioro irt in I'lii^liuid 1 (avorn for II.") iiiliuliilants, 
i-'ranc.' 1 <l.) KlU do 

Ilullaiid 1 <lu .S8 do 

Ikdiiiiiiii 1 do li do 



ndLriiiin of all KuroiPinin coiiiilrii's is tlio iiiomI ravaycil by alcohol. Tlic avonif^e 
(•oiisiiiii|ilioii of alcohol is 2.T n'alloiis per annum por inhabitant, or niori; than VI 
^falloiis |)cr annum por family. Ono i.s tlion not surprinod at the cousen nonces 
which follow siicli a coHHUinptioii of !dcolioj, as sot forth and dcnonncod in tho 
fullowini,' dociimont, Ly tho Llijite patriotlquc contrc ialroutisinc (Patriotic Liyuo 
aii'ainsl alcohol). ■*' 

AlcohiiUi^ni in liclijium. 

Tho country consumes 15,220.000 ^alhjns of alcohid por annum. 
Our hospitals aic full of victims to alcohol. 
Our piiMins arc full of v'ctims to alcolnd. 
Our mad ! oiiscs an- full ot victims lo alcojiol. 
Our poor houses are full of victims to alcohol. 
The consumption is on tiiu increase. In fifteen year^J the ])0](ulation has only 
increased Id pei' cent.; the c(msumplion of alcohol has increased .'57 l»er H)((, and 
The Cawes of lunacy increases, 45 jier cent. 
Tho C'l'imes increases, 74 jjor cent. 
The Suicides increases, SO per cent. 
Taupers and vagabonds, 150 per cent. 
The country spends in strong driid<s $25,000,000 por annum. The .State 
iiidy spends 8;{,200,000 on public instruction. 

TlIERK ARE 5,500 Sf Hoor.S AND 136,000 TAVERNS. 

Never lias the evil intluence of liquoi' and the inciease in tho number of taverns 
been shown in such a conclusive manner. One cannot too urgently insist on having the 
luiniber reduced, and to demonstrate the influence they exert it is only nece.ssary to 
compare their increase with that of crime and poverty and other evils they entail. 

Tho Oftieial Jiepoiis of the CoduivduiI Council of Brussels 18G8-18S;} give on this 
(jiicstion the following statistics: — 

Coiiiparafire Statistics — Brussels. 



Ycais, 


Poimlatioii. 


Tiivt riiM. 


CrinieH 
and 

OffcllLCS. 


I'lcdjfcs ill 
I'uwii. 


I'rostitutiim 

(•liiiidcs- 

tiiu-ly 

carried on. 


Crutdty 

to 
.\niiualH. 


isiis 


10.5,098 
107,313 
171,249 
173,070 
102,498 
1G0,.351 


2,458 
2,5.88 
2,741 
2,823 
3,2()8 
3,412 


4,108 
5,.528 
0,091 
8,207 
9,3.38 
10,179 


779;200 
875, (KM) 
999,200 
945,500 
943,900 
1,072,00!) 


731 
1,257 
1,000 
1,387 
2,757 
2,973 




!S7I 




1S74 

is" 


133 
111 


^XX'^... 


252 


1SS2 


314 



* This is a Belgium league, and the document was publislied in Belgium. 



Ixxviii 



Tho popiiliiUon ol" HriiHHols was aboiil tlio Humo in 1882 uh in 186rt, nnd one 
ciiii ouHily (lificiTii liy the iiltovt' HtaliMticH tlit* moral hihI malciial coiiHtMjiu'MruM of 
an au|^monlHtionol'ono tlioiiHiind tavciiiH bftwcon 1 he one period and tlio other. If wo 
conHider tiio ^'onoral Hituution in iitlgium wo bocomo awaro of a state 
of things Htill more Homl)ro than that oven proHontod by tho capital. 

B('l(/uaii. — Ali'iliul anil f'rime.'* 





l'n|iiiliiti()n. 


'I'llVlTllS. 


Suiciflf s. 


IiiHntU'. 


8»'ntpnce». 


Yi-ars. 


AHHizOH, 


I'olic'f. 


\HM 


4,42(!,202 

4,(i07,(Mif> 

i,7:n,!ir)7 

»,'.(84,3r)l 
r.,OH7,H2(i 

r),33(i,(m 
r),r)i!),835 


r>3,(«»7 

74,!)4(» 

ill, 527 

l(J(),7(i3 


240 
245 
220 
207 
3(17 
33(^ 
533 




183 


21, M5 


1835 


4,278 
5,170 
5,(112 
(1,481 
7,230 
8,250 




18(i(» 


18(i 
133 
105 
134 
137 


lS,7ii4 


18(ir) 


i(i,;c>(i 


1870 


l!l,4'.l« 
23,50!) 
3(1,121 


187") 


IHKO 


125,000 







But one would say, a man can only drink a certain amount; onco drunk or 
satiated ho is forced to stop, and tho inciea>e in the iiuniber of taverns diminishes 
tho tavern-keopors' profits without increasing the number of drunkards or the amount 
of drink. The statistics answer equjdly to the partizans of absolute liberty for the 
taverns, and the following table ])rovcs that in Belgium consumption per head 
increases with the number of taverns. 

Table of tho Annual Consumption of Beer, "Wines and Liquors per Inhabitant 

ca(di vear. 



^^•at•s. 



NuiuIht of [ 
Tiivi-rn«. 



15.»T, 
gulUjIlH. 



Spii'itiioiis 

rii(|lll)IS (IMT 
12-|ll(M)f, 

gallauH. 



Win.', 

gilllullM, 



liihilain. 



1H51 1S51. 
1S04 1S(!(1. 
1S70 1872. 
lS7:i 1S75, 
18711 ISSl, 
18S4 



l''rimc'i' 

(ilTIIlllIlV . . . 

Eiigliuul . . . . 

AiiHtria 

Hussiii 

Italy 

Switzerland 



IfiSi. 



53. (m7 

'.(1.527 

100,7(13 



125,000 
14(1,000 



40(J,000 



24,293 



.10.05 
32.11 
.'14,5(1 
;«,47 
34,05 
3(1, S2 



4,.5n 

14,13 
31,28 
(i,l!» 
1,00 
0,01 
8,15 



1,27 
1,()8 
1,66 
1,91 
2,12 
2,12 



0,84 
1,87 
1,16 
1,25 
1,75 



2,02 



0,05 
0,00 
0,07 
0,08 
0,08 
0,08 



25,91 
1,30 
0,04 
4,86 

18,09 
7,00 



'Doci^.MKNTM. — AivMuiires Offciih of the Kingrloin. 1840 to 1882, .and statistics of the Minister of 
Justice, 1875-1880, (ieiieral state of the Kingdom, 1851 to 1875. 



mainly 



In issd tlio Kiiifli>li Amliassinlor lit' BnisHi'ls, afU'c tl)r MUi;,niiii!iiy slrikivs which 
ha<l taken place in Beliiiinn, aililrossod tohisGovornmont a roport, in which ho Hays: 

"Till- tianic ill liquor, which is imnienso in Hol<fiiiin, has oxorciMod a most por- 
nii'iniis iMtlnoMcc in the social ami moral pioyi'css of the nation, and iirodiicos liahitrt 
of inlcnipcnuK'u and itnprovidcnco which picpaiv the people for striUoH and riot." 

In a pamphlet issued by the Patriotic League against drunitonnoss: "Drunken- 
ness in Belgium," the following occurs: — 

"During the years IST^^-li^Tfi the salaries paid in Rclgiuin exceeded usum whi( h 
lias heen valued at oviT 8100, ()(K), (»t)0, t he regular amount paid dui'ing tiio same period 
of lime hcforo tliis datt*; tiie olliciai tiguros of the excise estahlish that, during 
this time of cxtraordinar}' prosperity, the consumption of liquors had increased hy 
about 8S,-),OOI),000." 

And in ])re8encoof this unheard — of fact, the discouraged author asks if it is neces- 
sary to increase the salaries, and if it is not in vain that the country is prodigal in 
efforts and expenditure to instruct generations of drunkards and idiots on whose 
depraved instincts instruction can have no influence whatever. 

The other countries of Europi', without hcing so seriously affected hy that 
which Doctor Lofcbvre of Louvain styles "the alcoholif Ijiirlnirifi/," ex]»crieiice_ 
however, an increase in the average consumption of liquors, and a great jiortion of 
the salaries of workmen goes to the tavern. 

In England, the budget for liquors is $(i."),000,000, and S(JO,00(l,0(K) in France. It 
is estinuitcd that in Kngland an adult spends 87-1 annually on liquor, and that a 
workman who drinks moderately spends between the sixth and the tourtii ])art()f 
liis wages at the tavern ; * also, it need not astonish us to learn that in Kngland 
among 910.000 poor peo])le, wo may count 800.000 drunkards. It has been proved 
that in Belgium a person earning fi'om §100 to S240 jier year s])ciids really $43 
in li([uor, and in France, among 100 demented jieople, there weie 1-1'3(J per cent, 
drunkards, and 1U"14 per cent, suicides. 

No government, except that of Switzerland, does anything to diminish the evil. 
In Switzerland, there is a law which reserves and distributes 10 per cent, of the 
excise, about 817(5, 00(t per annum, to associations the object of which is to contend 
against the tratUc and usi- of intoxicating liquors. Besides Swi.zerland, opposition 
to the tralHc is made, as in Canada, by the temperance societies. 

The.se societies, while fully advocating the principle of total abstinence, attack 
mainly alcohol, their motto being — not tcetotalism, but waron alcohol. In Europe, 
everywhere on the continent, the natural wine, product of fermentation, not of distil- 
lalion, has never been regarded as a scourge. It intoxicates, but it does not poison. 
It degrades the drunkard morally and physically, but it does not kill; it does not 
destroy the race like alcohol. Thus the temperance societies tA' Europe having 
proved that the consum]ition of alcohol increased in direct ratio with the diminution 
in the consumption of wine, do not at all endeavor to condemn the use of wine. It 
is the stand taken by one European society, "The Blue Cross, of Geneva " (page 
oO;!), and the successes which attend it every day prove that (or Europe at least 
wine is the n'l'eat enemv of alcohol. 



^'' Kipiirt of the Comiiiittfe to t'liquire into tlii' coiiflition of the 15ristol i«ior— ISSIi. 



Ixxx 



Philanthropic Societies. 
Tlieso societies, especially those wliich prevent nifcii from succumbing to misfor- 
tune, sustainini; him, assistintf liiin to contend with hardshij), are powerful 
jiuxiliiiries in tlie contest a,i!;aiM9t alcohol. Among the typical societies wiioso 
statutes and iiioors are mentioned in this leport (page ;i53 itc), some are peculiarly 
remarkalile, whose good deeds are pei'formed in a considerate manner, thus 
increasiiiL;- their value, assni ingagnod elle('t,and demonstrating the extreme honesty 
existing among these who stru|-gle earnestly with niiseiy. (Condition and situationof 
gratuitous loans, page 358.) 

workmen's clubs — (JAMES AND RECUEATI0N8. 

The numl)er of workmen's cluhs, gymnastic companies, archery and shooting 
galleries, clioral societies, dancing-'^erths, and especially ])uMic lihraries, existing in 
all Kuropean countries, are ma't ^" for astonishment to visitors. 

These associations are often maintained, in whole or in part, by (he employers or 
the municipalities; but ihe greater numbei", except libraries, are supported by active 
members, nearly all workmen, or employees, assisted by honorary meml)ers. 

Public libraries have multiplied in a renuirkable degree; the most frecpiented 
are the municipal or comm inal libri'ries, whose regulations, extremely liberal, 
render the taking outof books f ■ pcvusal quite convenient, and tho.se who contain 
books on tiie industries established in the neighborhood. 

At Paris, the number of books lent from the municipal libraries has been as 
foil i\vs: — 



Ti 



bistnictioii . 
HiHtiiry . . . . 
(rCDgrapliy, 



Hciiiiccs, Arts. 



Lit< riitufc. 



Poetry, Voyages . . 

Fiction 

Fdifi^fu L.aiijuiagci 
.' lusic 



Tcitftl luiinlicr (if lioiik.s lent . 



Xuiuber of I'molis Lent in 



Irtss. 



113,120 
I(i2,a4r) 



187,104 

( ;•_'.■., is; I 

oil,?")" 



1S,H7 



1,277,43() 



117, •■.;■)( I 

111,112 
ll'.t.StiO 



173,23.> 

.■>S|.,.S".I4 

(1,403 

.Vi,.S22 

l,li)3,aS8 



The loan of engravings, plans, industrial designs, can be made for a period of 15 
days. 

In Belgium,* out of 2,505 districts, 142 contained in 1887, 446 libraries 
established under the patronage ot the communal administration. Their catidogues 
contain allngcther 1,243,48!) works; they were visited by 97,110 readers, and count 
122,601 subscribers. 

* From tiie aicliivcH of t\u' Aitiiuiiintritlion nj (i( ncnil .StiitiMic^ (Minister of tiie Interior iind I'liblic 
LiHtruction.) 



Ixxxi 



)tl5 

mios 

l)Ullt 

ihlio 



Tho loans of books during the your wore as follows : — 

Commorce und industry 19,833 

History and geography 95,li"^8 

Fiction and litoralurc r)(;i,S45 

Moral si'ienc'o, political, &.c 42,508 

Nidural science, matlioinatics, &c 142,239 

Miscellaneous lOO.lOfJ 



Total nunihe.' l)o 



OKS 



lent. 



9;)2.:!I4 



Tho pc>i| ' seek instruction, and the public authorities rival jjrivato ent;rprisc 
in catering to those aspirations. Besides luitional, provincial, niunici[»ai or com 
morcial librmios, the workmen's socielics, the syndicates of emjiloye-s or 
workmen, .ind the industrial societies have tlninded libraries open fiee to all, 
or at i- very moderate entrance fee. Wherever thei'O is a library, oiu! may be 
sure of finding a liberal supply' of progi'ammes of the courses or conferences, thanks 
to the attention of the managing committee, and all jiei'sons connected with it 
generally. In England, France, Switzerland, IJelgium, (lerniany, you can hardly 
iind a town, even a villagr, without its I'cgular evening lectures, or at least u society 
of lectuieis whose services are given gratuitously. Wo can aflirm, without fear 
of contradiction, that in countries where the hours of labor are reasonable, 
the employees can, with very lit ie etlort, acquire instruction whi(di many young 
pco])le do Hut receive at school. 

After I'oading, music suits the tasle of woikmcn. While the choral societies in 
France only numbered 100 in 1840, tliere are now 7.000, counting their members 
by lumdrcds of thousands, and their cx])enses by millions. We must adniil generally 
that (dioristers and musicians are bad customers for the wine-shops. 

What are the residts of these insi ilutions ? We Iind them indicated in a stfik- 
ing manner in the report ol the Belgian Commission of the Xllth Section. ■■■ 

The social que>tion, we ai'e convinced, reduces itself to a system of education. 
Let us place men of good charartor in (he dillcieiil jvisitions of superintendence, find 
soon all will lend assistance, and associate fraternally to raise those who .'u-e in lo\ver 
stale, anil thusensure the welfaic iiud Iiappeness of all. Hut t' ose wlioaie doablliil of 
these educational institutions, which we have n.-'.^sed rapidly in review, may refer 
to the opinion of Mr. Kmile do Laveloye,* an eminent social economist. 

''Twenty yours ago, in the indiistiial centres of W'rviers, Jladimont, Dison and 
Knsival, numerous groups of workmen weie to be met with, openly (h'claring war 
on i)i(»perty, eonstituling themselves Judges of ali actions ot their employers, pio- 
noiiiieing against them, without listening to them, terrible si'ntences, which they 
postponed until the first day of revolution. Thoy passe<l under the nanu^ of J''raiirs- 
Oiivricrs, an<l their numbei' increased from yeai- to year, Fvory Si.nday tiny held 
their meetings in the public halls of the \icinil\, every district was covered by their 



;lub: 



)s, and every one o 



.f t! 



lese vied wit li 



ach lur in violent denuneiati 



ons. 



Th: 

ava- 



women also, as in the Reign of Teri'or, abandoned themselves to even more exti 
gnnt declarations than the men. Strikes also broke out in establish, .lenls wIkm-c tho 
employees could not Iind tiny serious cause of grievance. The em[»loyers and judges 

* lii'lgiiui W<-jti(m.- -Kstriut fiiini I'lMirt of ,Mr. Knicst (iilcni ; Wurkmrn'K Clitliii, 
' Afiiuitmr iiiVf/t-Omciiil, 18,SM. 



20— P 



Ixxxii 



wcro oponly in.^iiltcil in broiid day-Iit^iil. Tli<» conflif.fs lu-lwccn (Iio police! anil llic 
Franca-Ouvrien^ wen; ol ric()H(!iil occnrrcticc. In c.onsctjiKuicn of llioir (!iiniily, all 
atloinplH ina<lo liy tlu! city iiutliorilioK to |)n!MOfvc tlio jMsaco wero onlirely Ciitiio. 

" Tlio HitiiJitioii muHt l)0(M)rn(i wors(^, we, nmst Kuffor ntill more," thoy said " hd 
dial lli<! airitalion will liocorni! ti;r(;at(;r, mofc; ^'onoral. uml Curro llio niuro m'xhjnito 
iimonifn.s to revolt with us aijuin.-il llio ii|)|)('.i' classij.s." An interdict was passed upon 
1.Ih; l'r6roynn(i:, a( '(;op(;rativti (Jon.suniiM'H' S xuoty, foundod in tin; inUircMtoftlu' woiU- 
inif-ciasHuH, to fiinuHli provisionis at a modoralt; rate. TIuh society had boon flourish- 
ing till tlujn, hut afteiwaids no workman daio make his purchascM there. A nt^ws- 
pajier, Ir, Mlrabeau, whicli demanded tin; viohwU destnietion of exist inji; social order, 
was hold at Yorvairt at 5, 1)00 coijies, and forccid L'Arni dii Foyer, founded and edited 
hy tjie I'astor Host, to disapp<;ar tliroui;;h want of readei's. Tho ai^itation incrisiscMJ 
daily, and extcndtid thetuie to Lie^o, :ind thron^fhout all tho valley of the Mou.sts. 
Th(! principal headquartors of the " International " was at Vci'vicrs. 

To-day ail lliis is chan^eil. The tnrhulent workin/^ classes are tlio most jioace- 
ful in the country. Thoy are also tho host instructed, if wo arc to believo tho iihywi- 
cians e.-tahlished at Vorviors, after liavinif resided elsewhere, and the supo;int«uid- 
onlH of worksh(»ps, who can establish compai'isons between the intellect ual condition 
of the local workmen and those of other industi'ial centres. I'hey have successfully 
o|)posed the excitement caused by afi,itaLors, who have come to them in vain, 
endeavoring to load thorn away, two yoaru ago, Hincc tho terrible scenen which 
ironhled Liige, f!liarleroi and Borinago. 

The Annual l'epr)it of the (Jhandicr of (Jommerco of Vorviors speaks of the ncnv 
situation in the (ollowing term>: — 

"The :j;ood sense (j1 our workmen, their lovo of order, IIh; idi^as which hy meaii-^ 
of many conferences, certain institutions really popular, have sown in aliumlance, 
IIh! (iducation they have ^iven, all have coiil rilnited to prevcitit conta^non. and while 
other conti'cs of workmen were aii;itaied we are ahh^ to slate I hat no spark li'om the 
disturbance had aliglited in our city. At no time was the lalmiiess ai. ' moderation 
of the j)opulation of our worlcshops at all destroyed." 

This is an indication of ihe impoiiant (diaiiije for the hcdltsr ei'U:cleil in senti- 
ments ^ince I'^TO, and i! isonly fair anti jiroper lo conu;ralulate those who, by unre 
niitted efl'orts, lia\ e ell'ected this imjirox enient, and iho.ie who also know how to 
])rotit by their excellent advice. 

Ah tho reporter says : these fads are convinninfj. 



HEOTION XV, 

Tho XVth Hocfion, (jrnnde ct petite Industrie, — fl^n>M;/?<rc— containe<l manuRcript 
documents on very intensslinif (juestions, hut of a purely local in((!rest, hardly n^oin^- 
beyond (lie limitsof the (list rids occupied by tins writers, and for that reason, we hav(! 
T\ot thought expedient to cite or make a review of them. 

KNOLISll SKCTIO.V. 

Kxcept Franco, Bnl/^iiim is the only count ly whoso Social I'lconomy Kxhibilion 
was comploto. The olhei- counfrioH Hont only a few papei-s, altogether itisufTicient 
to give a just idea of the [losition occupied by social f|ucstions at, home. 

Tho exhibiting nations had no intention wliatev»!r of k(!eping aloof ; but the 
novelty of this exhibition, of a purely moral ord(!r, had somewhat put out the class 
of ox])ositors it was intended tf) attra<-i, and it was only on visiting the exiiihilion, 
and sooing tho documents cxpo8ed, that tin;} underslood what was wanted of them. 

Great Britain had mei'cly sent forty-fiv(; documents to the Social I'j(!onom\ 
Kxhibitioii. About twenty of these documonts were descrlplions, plans, ])holograi)hs 
of hcIiooIh, workingmon's hou.so8, &c. Tho remainder, bowidoH tho annual wtalemonts 



Ixxxiii 



1,1' ilii' Orlcr of ForoHtors uiid Oildfoliows, \vjis[)rinci])iilly ciimposcd ol'tlit! reports oi' 
K(tmc proCcsHioiiul hoIiooIs, iuid ofliciul htatislics, oC no inturusl to (Jiiiiiula. 

All the <lo('urru>iitH exposed in Hint scrlinn irlaliiiii; to a project or to an iilca 
little known in Caiiiula liavt; Ikm-ji rcpi'oiluccd in tlic report. 

Moreover, lic^ini:; awaro of tiie inlluence of l-'jif^lisli ideas and leirinlalion on tliin 
coidinont, wo have; extracte i from foreii;n reports, all tiie statistics reHpc('tin;f (Ireat 
jJritain, an<l applieahlc to its economic legislation. 

Wo have thus heen al)l(! to puMisli a v(!iy eotnpleto rf.niimi of I'lMtisii laws on 
capital and lahor, and of writings on prolit-Hliaririg, cooperative Hocieties, teidmieal edu- 
cation, enijiloycws, r(!>ponsil)ility in the ease ofaceidcwds, sanitar}' laws, in-peetiori »[' 
fuetoiies, (S:c., the whole ^nvini; an exact idea of llie state of those (jiies- 
tions throughout England. 

CONCLUSION. 
Th(! Sofdal Kconomy Mxliiltition of ISSII will Ix; fraught with good results. 
It had liu! (dl'eel of grouping and showing to interested jiarties wiial <'ould and 
should he don(!, to htsscni the ill-fe(!ling oxi^ting lielween eniployirs and workmen. 

It has proved heyond j)0Ksihle 'lisputo, that pnditshuring, the first step towards 
(•o|)erative production, was as henclieial to the eniployei' as to the workman, and 
that it was the oidy means to put an end to the di-iS(!nsions wliicdi ilislurh 
the mamd'aeluiing imiusli-ics 

It has rshown that women's and ehildrc^n's laboui' shouhl he regulated, and even 
iliseountenaneed ; that the industrial strength of a nation dejiended on ihtidegreeof 
llieoi-(tie;d and practi<'.'il instrueiion ot its apprentici's and workmen, and that the 
iireater the numher of property holding workmen, liie greater was its wealth. 

It ha^ causcfl 1(1 jio recogniz( d tin; pr'inei|(le of the |)rofessional risk, whicdi 
charges on the jiroducts, that is, on the general ex])<!iis(.'s, tin; (!ons(.M|uences of acci- 
dents due to the nature of the woi-k, and it has (^stahlislied that victims of accidents 
were legally entitled t,o reei'ive an indemnity for injuries sustained. 

It lias d(unonstra1ed that the ae'|uiring of capital and property was JK)t im]ios- 
sihle. even in the present state of things, for the ])rovi<l<'nl workmen, and that tins 
advantages of insurance*, in all its phase^s, coidd he extended to tiie working classes. 

It has also shown that the g'"<'atcst enemies to social i)eace were crowrhsd and 
uidiealthy tenements, and alcoholism. 

It has demonstrated, cstahlish<'d and proved those things, among the most impor- 
tant, hy mt^ans of ex|tei'imenls, essays and facds, ilating liaekhalfa century and 
over. 

The reeonl of the struggle cairiedfin for many years against the selfishness of 
einployorsand t he ilisti lists of workmen, hy em|iloyers and workmen really anxious 
to secure social peace, is contained in the |iapers sent to the Social Iv-onomy Ivxhi- 
hition. 

Imhucd wit h th(;ir importance, we have eompiled these documents with fair- 
iic IS and hav(? made tliom as comjdeto us posnihle, so that I he legirilalois, employers 
and workmen of C'imada could apprcc-iate them at tlnjr real worth, and so that the 
teachings they contain could he of some hcnefit to Uie country. 




20—1 



--^ 



\ .-^ > 




SEOTION^ I. 



REMUNERATION FOR LABOR. 



20—1 



rwi-a'amiu 



'■% 



IX] 



TjiuiiKlri'ssia. . 

llUtclllT.S .... 

Bilkers 

Uicwi'i-.s 

Hiick- 11)1(1 tiki 
Kmliriiidi'i'tM'.s 
'^•iiarrvincii. . . 
('i)afli iiiiikHr.s 
('li;irc'(ial liiini 

I'nl-li l)lltcllci-s 

lliittci-; 

f.'iir|)t'iitiTN. . . 
Wliochvi-iglits 

Bni/iicrs 

StiicUiufj imike 
l!ii|"' iiiakfr.s. . 
■Sli(ii'!iial;iTs. . . 
('ni'>ct iiiakors. 

C'litlcis 

] )M'ssiii.-ik(,'rs . . 

Ro.lfM'S 

Tiiiiisi'r maker! 
I.iace luakers. . 
f'aliiiiet maker.' 
TiiisiiiitliN ami 
Artificial Howei 

do 
KIacks)iiitlis . . , 
^ e.st makers. . . 
Clock makers. . 

J'rinter.-i 

• iardeiiers 

Linen draper.s. . 

Ma.-ions 

Horse slioer.s . . . 

•loirier.s 

Milliners 

I'astry cooks. . . 

I'ainters 

^Vijr makers 

Pioot liinders 

]'lnmlie,s 

i^'ove makers & 

Putters 

Jiookhiiulers. 

Sauvers '. ''. 

iScnlptors 
Saddlers '.■.■.■,■.■; 
LiK'k.sniitlis . . . 



* General Sti 
and In 
TThe nnload 
t Are hoarde. 
S Cliief Town 
|i Are boardei 

20—11- 



FRAXC^E. 



The ordinary Bail}- Wa<;cw of Jlinor Imlustries (*). 



INDUSTRIES. 



Jiwi'llcr fjdldsmithH. 

I,:uni<lrfss('i* 

r.utcluT.s 

I'ak.Ts 



I'ahi.s. 



Ol'lIEK ToWNM.*; 



I,, 



Usual 



Tlie \i.Hnal 
(lunitioii 

of 
a|>|ircii- 
ticeship. 



8 cts. Months. 



15lV\V.TS 

Brick and tile makci-s 

Kmbroidcivrs 

(Jiiairynifii 

Coai'li makers 

(Miarciial liin'nors 

Pi Ilk Imtflifi-M 

llattMN 

faviMiiti'i's 

WliDchviigiits 



1 20 

80 

1 20 
] 40 
1 00 
<)() 

(iO 

1 (M) 
1 20 

+ 1 00 



liiii 

StiickinfT niakerH. 

IJiipi' niaktis. . . . 

Sliiii-iiiakcrs 

CiiiM-t niakci'H. . . 

r'litlfis 

Divssniakcrs.... 



1 .'«) 
1 70 
1 20 
1 20 



ItunfiTS 

'I'linisi'V niakci'M 

liiici' niaki'i's 

Caliinft niakt'i's 

'I'lnsiaitlis and lamp nuikors 

Artificial Howcr makers, men . . . 
do wonu'ii. 

Blac'ksniitlis 

^'l■st makers 

Clock makers. 

I'rinters 

(iardeners 

T.ineii drapers 

Masons 

Hor.se shoers 

.loiiiers 

^lilliners 

I'iistry i-ooks 

I'aiiiters 

\\'\'^ makers 

Tioiit liinders 

I'limilii'is 

S'ove makers & chimupy repairers. 

I'otters 

lioukliinders 

Sawyers 

Siiilptors 

Saddler.s 

Locksmiths 



.so 
70 

40 

1 20 
1 40 
1 ,V> 
HO 

(iO 

1 5.-) 
1 00 
1 (M> 

fiO 

1 20 

(!0 

1 20 
I 30 



48 
30 
24 



48 

is' 



Cnstoniiiry 

prices |iaid to 

masters for 

ajiprentiee- 

ship. 



T'^sual 
Watjes. 



The \isual I Onstomary 
dination jiricespaiil to 
of i masters for 
apprentice- 



.S cts. 



24 



20 (H) 



3(! 

48 



3(! 
24 
3(1 
.30 
3(; 
24 
48 
48 
31J 

30 



24 
48 
3G 



40 

1 00 
1 20 
1 00 

i'oo' 
1 m 

()0 
00 



20 
40 
00 
10 
.^iO 
40 
!)0 
30 



24 
24 



24 
24 
3(i 
30 



12 



40tol 20 



31) 
8 
48 
48 
30 



appren- 
ticeship. 



.? cts. Months 



H4 
3(i 
04 
72! 
I'llll, 
(ilt 
34 i 
0.")' 
74 
.Mi 
fil 
731 

.so 
70V 
71' 
543 
.-.7' 

(il 
3.") 
(i3f 
37 
SOv 
35^ 
42+ 
73^1 
08;i 

42 

78 
•MVl 
84 
781. 
00^ 
32* 
73;) 
(i5H 
72' 
33* 
(!0.; 

77 
50^ 
301, 
73-i 
70^ 
02' 
02' 

73* 

1 04 i 
(>8'i 
71 



37 
18 
18 
17 
22 
21 
20 
18 
30 



30 
2."> 
20 
2i> 
25 
18 
2!) 
32 
20 
30 
10 
.30 
20 
30 



ship. 



S cts. 

75 00 
17 20 
35 00 
31 20 
00 (K) 



10 00 
40 (iO 



22 


3li (Ml 


21 


45 00 


25 


38 00 


27 


,30 (M) 


31 


41 40 


17 


21 tM» 


23 


27 40 


20 


2ti (X) 


*)•> 


20 40 


31 


43 80 


25 


20 40 


23 




20 


10 >so 


20 


lit 20 


34 


45 20 


20 


as 00 


22 


27 (10 


30 


30 80 


')•> 


10 00 


.30 


(13 40 


30 


41 00 


18 


25 80 


21 


18 (K) 


21 
25 




.35 (H) 



.35 00 


37 00 


24 40 


45 40 


31 «) 


38 40 


13 00 


37 00 


35 <K) 


45 80 


30 20 


5.5 '2(')"" 


43 00 


43 00 



* General Statistics of France, Vol. XV., Year 1885, published in 1880, by the Minister of Commerce 

and Industry and of the Colonics. 
+ The unloadeis of vessels work by the job and earn from $1.20 to SI. 00 a day. 
X .Vre lioarded and jiaiil by the month ; the average monthly wages, ?9.(K> 
§ Chief Towns of the Department. 

i .\ri' lioardetl and paid by the uiontii ; average monthly wages, 812. (JO, 
20— U 




Tlic onlinary Daily Wa^os of Minor TiidiiHtrios — Concluded. 





I'AHlrt. 


OniKit TowNs.§ 


INDUSTRIES. 


Umml 
Wagfs. 


Tim UHiml 
(lurntioii 

of 
ii|)|)rcii- 
ticfshii). 


CiiMtdinary 

priccHpaidto 

iiiaHtcrrt for 

iilipn^iitice- 

Hliip. 


ir.sual 
Wages. 


Tlif iiHual 
(liiratidii 

of 
lyppren- 
ticeHliip. 


Customary 
pric!cspai(lto 

masters for 

apprcntice- 

sliip. 


Tailors 


S cts. 

I 00 
I 70 
1 (HI 
1 00 

!HI 

1 (HI 

77 

1 00 
1 00 
1 40 

<.HI 

1 (HI 
1 10 


MuntliH. 
48 


8 CtB. 


% CtH. 

(171 

HOI 
(>(> 
HI 
(1 ().S* 
oO* 


Months 

27 
21 
22 
31 
2(i 


8 CtH. 

30 00 














UpIiolsterovH. 

Dyers 


42 
42 




3!) 40 







47 00 


TtTntcG-iiuikt'i'M 




Weavers 


24 
24 

3(! 
3(J 


i 


52* 
(i7 
70 

7H'.; 

74 

(1 H.-)^ 

7(i* 


11 
25 
27 
31 
23 


22 00 


CoopcrH 


37 00 




35 20 


Ttii'iicrs ill iiii'tal 


! 


3(i Mil 




j 


33 40 










1 






i 











C 
C 



7; 



§ Cliii'f Towns of tlic Dcpavtmcnt. 



u 
U 



Si' 






< 
fi 






o 






■ll 



» 

e 
c 
c 
« 

CO 

4) 



i', 






a 



p5 



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'5 'S j- « 



■ o t£ ./: y: -^ i 3 g ■ 



— -3 



^ =5 ll 



Tn tlio80 liu'go induftti'ieH tho wages oi" foromon vary according to the following 

tabic : 

Dcpiirtnicnt of tho .Sfini'. OiIht |)f|partiMi'iitH. 

Higliost wages ^l.K) 10 82.50 

Avorago do 81 . 10 to ijJli.KO O.ilHJto l.(!2» 

Lowi'st d 

"Wages ot'ovcrsoors : 

Uigliost wagos 81.00 



0.50 to 1.20 



Avorago do 60.W to 81 .30 

Lowest do 

Wages of workmen charged with earo 
of macldnery : 



0.70 
0.40 



to 82.40 
to 1 . (55 
to 1.30 



Jli^Iiest wages. 



??1.()0 to 61.40 



80.80 
0.73 
0.40 



to 81.50 

to 1 . 00 
to 1.00 



Average do 

Lowest do 

Wages of assistants, carters: 

Highest wagos 80. (jO to $1.00 

Average do 80..S0to81.l2 0.541 to 0.(!5 

Lowest do 0.30 to 0.50 

Df/Hiiiinents e.xciusu'i' of the Seine. 
Lowest daily wages paid to men over 21 years of age, are : 

Men worUiM'i-- in felt hats 80.39 

Marlile, tloiir mill>, lime liilu . siiiiuiers of all Uinds 0.40 

Lowest diiily wages piiid to men of troru 15 to 21 years of age, are : 
Marble works, bi'iek works, poreelain, and Avax candle 

works 80.20 

In the other industries, the lowest rates ot wages vary between 80.30 and 80.40. 
The lowest foi- looking-glasses is from S(I.4S. 

The lowest daily wages paid to women, are : 

Marbles, limekilns, flour mill, spinning, shawl manufactories, 

from 80.10 to 80.19 

In the other nuhniries the lowest wage-* vary from 80.20 to 80.30 
The lowest daily wages paid to lioys, are : 

]\Iarbles, limekilns, briek works, sawmills, tanneries, spinn- 
ing factories 80 . 10 

In the other industries the lowe.-t wii^es vary from 80.12 to 80.20 
The lowest daily wages jiaid to girls, are : 

(rimp and iionnet trimmings 80.0() 

Shawl making 0.08 

^Marbles, limekilns, brickworks, j)oreelains, looking-glasses, 
sawmills, tanneries, paper and ])asteboard factories, 
gas laetories, wax eandle factories, spinning factories, 

weaving, dyes and preparations 0.10 

In the other indnstries tho other wages vary b(!tween 80. 15 and 81.00 

BOUDEAUX.'-i^' 

At Bordeaux, acccording to a report of the Departmental Committee of tho 
Gironde, the wages in the building industry, for a day often hours, are as follows: 

18S',). 

Terrace-makers $0.76 to 0.80 

^Masons 1.00 to 1.00 

Stonecutters 1.00 to 1.20 

Plasterers 1.20 to 0.40 

ITodmen 0.70 to 0.76 

Carriers 1.00 



1S.17. 


IiicTfase. 


50.50 to 0.55 


50 p.c. 


0.75 to 0.85 


37 p.c. 


0.70 to 0.80 


37 p.c. 


0.90 to 1.00 


47 p.c. 





'Of all the towns of France is that which in its poinilation and .situation most resfinble.s Montreal. 



Paviers, 

The prico of tlioir dny'w work in, on an ftvorayo, 81.00 Tlu'diirution of their day's 
work varies accnnliii/^ l'» tlio Hoason ; 10 liours in siiinin<'r, and trorn s and (>ven 7 
hdurs in the doptli of winter. The itrice of their day's work is tiieHaniein winter uh 
in Slimmer, no matter how many iionrs in tlie ihiy's work. To eneoiira^^e the work- 
men thev are often i,nvon work ny the job with a settled ]>iiee for so many sqnaro 
vards ol pavin^f, and any workman working; over lioiirs lias tiio rii,dit to elaim wa<,'o.s 
for the siirphiH of time which varies from ^O.'JO to ${\.(]{) accordiiif^ to his ability and 
([Uickness. 

LYONS: AVKRAOE WA(1E8. 

isrir. 1H«7. 

Masons ^0.75 81.10 

Turners O.SO 1.10 

Mlaeksmilhs 11.0') 1.00 

Cabinet makers O.ti') 1,00 

Printers 0.00 I.IO 



VAIiM W.\(iES. 

Department of tiarthe. 

Tliey vary aoenrdini,^ to the seasons and they are as hiifh ai^ain in summer as in 
wintoi', Tiiero is a little dill'erenci^ in the dillcrent cantons. As fur example. 

Men hired Inj the ditij, 

Ciiiitnii. WiiitiT. SiiiniMir. 

Vitray per diem 25 10^00. 80 to g 1. 00 

St, Calais per diem "iOc. <»0e. 

North and West :!0 to H5c. (JO to 7<te. 

When the workman is given his board the rates are lowered from 20 to 30c. 

Servants hired by the year are paid : 

Wau'ii-oners. Sao'to $60; valets, .§.')() to $5:!, cow-herds, $25 to S.'jO, maid ser- 
vant, .?:!0 to Si5">. These servants i^et their lioard, 

Diirinu; the last twenty ^'ears the condition of the farm servant lias been greall}' 
ameliorated. His dwelling is more comfortable, his food more wholesome and his 
clothing better. This improvement in his general well being has, as a consequence, 
given rise to an increase in wages, and, among u certain number ol' tliem, has encou- 
raged habits of economy. 

STIilKES m FRANCE FROM 1S74 TO 1S85. 
Number of strikes officially reported Iron 187-i to 1885, (the year 1881 excepted). 

Yi'iir. .Strikes. 

1874 21 

1875 27 

187(1 50 

1877 ^JO 

1878 34 

1870 53 

1880 (!5 

1882 182 

1883 144 

1884 00 

1885 108 

Total hul 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




1.0 



I.I 



IIM IM 

ilM |||||Z2 
2.0 

1.8 



1^ 

■ 50 



• IIM 





1.25 


1.4 


1.6 




^ 6" 




► 



v: 



V] 



>^ 



o 



c^. 



f^ 



'^ '^^ 



■^^ "^^V V 



^ 




O 



7 





/A 



f 



r 




Photographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, NY, 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




&P 



w ^ 



w. 



1 




8 



Causos of the Strikes. — The workmen's grievances. 

1874-1885. 



Number, 
i ncroase of wages 364 



Causes. 
Demand for 

lieduction of wages 182 

Ditt'erent grievances concerning conditions of labor 93 

Deniand for reduction of number of work hours 46 

JJemand for dismissal of foreman or other employee 25 

Dismissal of workmen, foremen 16 

Eeduclion of work hours 13 

Delay in ])ayment 7 

Demand for new rules 7 

Inferior quality of the raw matei'ial 6 

Manner of payment 5 

lietontion foi- accident insurance fund 5 

Introduction of improved machinery 4 

IJefusing new rules 4 

Demand for dismissal of foreign workmen 4 

Establishing a tax on bread (master-bakers) 3 

Demand for posting up of taritt' 3 

Severity of masters or foremen 3 

Ecgulation for tines 3 

Demand tor the withdrawal of payment for tools 2 

Eelieved from obligation of belonging to board of syndicate ... . 2 

Cha nge of local ity 

llefusing to work on Sundays 

AVorkinen's projected jjlan of forming a syndicate (masters 

refusal) 

Com))etition between two rival houses 

Introduction of work women 

Demand for work to be done by the job 

Refusal to work by the job 

Demanil for work '.o be done by the day 

Demand for wages to betixed by the syndicate 

Kefusal to work at night in winter 

Establishing a co-operative society 

Eefusing to subscribe to superannuation fund 

Unreliabil i ty of a master 

Defective tools 

About the matter of meal hours 



1874, . 
187,-).. 
lS7t).. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
187!t.. 
1880.. 
1882. . 
1883.. 
1884. . 
1885. . 



1874.. 




187.\ . 


1S7ti. . . 


1877. . 


1878 

18711 

ISSI) 


ISS". 


l^Ki. . . 


188.1 

is,s.5... 


Tc 



Total. 



813 



RECAPITULATION. 

Demand for increase of wages 44 p. c. 

Eeduction of wages 22 p. c. 

Divers grievanct's not specified concerning the labor 

societies 11 p. c. 

Demand of I'oduction of hours of labor 5'6 p. c. 

Demand for the dismissal of a superior 3 p. c. 

Other causes 14*4 p. c. 



100 p. c. 



9 



Nuviber of men on strike. 



Year. 


Number of 

Strikis in wliicti 

the XuiiilxT of 

Workmen 

was known. 


Total Number 

of 
Men on Strike . 


Averaffe 
Nu:nlH'r of 

Men 
on Strike. 


Number 

of Female 

.Strikes. 


1874 




11 

22 

30 

18 

23 

3(> 

.59 

136 

140 

90 

108 


2,730 

8,544 

7,173 

4,662 

6,207 

•43,283 

28, .-.2(5 

42,15(5 

32,90.S 

23,702 

1(5,671 


2.57 
,387 
239 
259 
269 
1,200 
485 
311 
2.35 
2(i3 
1.54 


2 


]S75 


1 


lS7li 


1 


],S77 


o 


1S7.S 


2 


1,S79 




IJSHO 


4 


],h!S2 


1 


],s,S3 


8 


]SS4 


2 


ISS.") 


. 4 




Total and average 






673 on 804 


21(5,(562 


323 


27 



.Strike of 20,000 joiners in Paris 



Duration of strikes. 



Yeah. 


N>unl)er of 

Strikes 

the Dm'iition of 

which 

is known. 


Total Number 

of 
Days of Strike. 


Average 

Duration f)f 

Strike.s. 


1874.. 




18 

26 

36 

19 

16 

42 

54 

157 

141 

90 

100 


218 

371 

537 

5(56 

183 

(559 

848 

,3,696 

1,442 

1,455 

l,05(i 


D.iys. 

12 


1S75. . 


14 


1876... . 


15 


1S77 '. 


30 


1S78 


11 


1879 


16 


1880 


1(5 


1882 


23 


18,S3 


10 


1884 


Wi 


1885 


10 




Total and average 






700 on 804 


11,31 


16 









10 



Number of days lost by strihers. 



Ykah. 



NumlxT of 
Strikes of wliicli 

it iiiis lifcu 
jjoMHiiili' to Iciini 

tlic Duriitioii 
and tlic XniiibiT 
! of Workinen. 



A\ 



' NttmlHT 
of 
i k Days 

host. 



Average N^iiiiImt 

of 

Days' Work Lost. 



BySt-ike. ^£::,^_ 



1S74. 
1H75. 
187(1. 
1877. 
1878. 
187!). 
1880. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1SH5. 



Total and average. 



11 
21 
25 
13 

15 

28 

4!l 

138 

i:w 

111 
100 



(i2!» on 804 



27,120 

*2(i3,875 

'.HI..3.55 

20,072 

tl!l(;,3(IO 

+1,!(5(;,!)02 

302,1(21 

8(;8,5.53 

.5!IS,212 

ii!l30,2S0 

18! 1, 027 



5,.50"J,3()7 



2,4.55 

12,550 
3,.580 
2,(KK) 

13, 1(H) 

(•>il,H50 
7,:i82 
(v300 
4,340 

10,220 
l,8il!l 



8,(i(>4 



10 
32 

1.5 
8 
48 
58 
15 
20 
10 
.30 
12 



27 



The iiinnhi'.r (if drikr.s (tnil Mrikerr; dirUhil (icriiriHini In the nature, nf tin- linhiMrij (I '>73-lSs5). 



Cla-ssificatioii of Strikes. 



Number 
of .Strikers. 



Textile iiulustrie.s 

Miiierid and nietiilliircricid industries 

Clot hint; ." 

Le.-itliiT iiiid hides 

1?iiil<liiig luid furniture making. . . . . 

Terrace makers (lawn makers) 

Other indu.stries 

T.>tal 



310 alMiut .30 |i.c. 



140 
38 
50 

123 
14 

12!) 



17 
5 
(> 

15 
2 

10 



'. 7,!»22 
42,045 
12,(i83 

7,547 
3!),013 

1,2.53 
3(i,19!J 



804 about KJO i).c. 



21(i,(;2 



Result of the strikes during the period from 1874 to 18S.5. 



Ykau. 


Ftiroralitc tn the 

)y'fir/ciiti II, 

Satisfaction given to 

the Strikers. 


Tndixdrtiiiii. 

Satisfaction given, 

in part, 

to till' Strikers, 

after having,' come to 

an undiistaiiding 

with the Masters. 


Unfdvortittli'. 

■Workmen being 

Keplaced oi' having 

Kesmiied Work 

on JMirmer Condi- 

tion.s. 


Total 
Number of 

.Strikes 

of whicli tiic 

Results are 

Known. 


1874 

1875 


4 alinut 18 ji.c. 
4 " 14 " 
14 " 31 " 
4 " 10 " 

1*0 " 2!) " 
17 " 27 " 
.50 " 2!) " 
.50 " 35 " 
27 " 30 " 
21 " 1!) " 


(i about 27 l>.c. 
!) " 33 " 
11 " 25 " 

4 " 10 " 

5 " 22 " 
(i " 18 " 

13 " 21 " 
2!) " 17 " 
1(J " 11 " 
3 " 3 " 
18 " 17 " 


12 alx)Ut 55 i).e. 
15 '• ,53 " 
20 " 44 " 

17 " 08 " 

13 " .5(> " 

18 " .53 " 
33 " 52 " 
!)3 " 54 " 
7(i " 54 " 
(il " ()7 " 
0!) " 54 " 


22 

28 


lS7(i 

1877 

1878 

1,S70 


45 
25 
23 
34 


ISSd 


(>3 


1SS2 

1883 

18S4 

1885 


172 
142 

!)1 
108 






Total 


20(> about 27 i>.c. 


120 about 10 |).c. 


427 about 57 i>.o. 









* Among which is included the strike of (.^niltui.akers .at Coiirs (Rhone). 3,000 strikers ; dun 

t " " Tvpograiihers of I'aris 2,000 

+ " " Viennese Weavers 4,000 " 

" " .Joiners of I'aris 20,<MH) 

" " Rakers of I'aris 3,5(M) 

" " Miners of Aiizin 10,150 " 



iition, (>3 dav^ 
00 " 
14S " 
40 " 
71 " 
50 " 



11 



1(1 

15 

s 

4H 

ns 
ir. 
•_'() 

HI 
X) 
V2 





r,.t;il 

111"'!' (if 


t.'ik.'s 
iii .1. ill,. 


\ilt.- :U'.' 


iiiiwn. 


<■>•> 


L'S 



(;:: 
17-' 
1 IJ 

111 
KIS 



(1). 



(>3 clays. 
DO " 

4S " 
4(i " 

n " 



Attacks on the liberty of labor and trade. 

Accused. 

1S75 115 

ISTC lis 

1ST7 114 

1ST8 271) 

is7it km; 

]S8(I V.'.2 

ISSl S!» 

1SS2 1112 

ISS'J 147 

1SS4 117 

1SS5 17 

Totiil 1,:57(5 



MESSRS. BlOSSKLIEVIiE, SONS. 

Calicoes. 

Maromme, (Seine Inf.) 

Men earn 80. GO per day, and the women SO.IJfi per ten houi-s' woi-lc. Tlio emolii- 
moiitH attached to certain special positions inci'ease the daily wayes of (he greater 
niinil'ci- ot 11 > workmen by 80.20 to $0.40, and those of workwomen I'roni 80.10 to 
80.20. 



irOUSE OF FONTAINE BESSON. 

JLVNUPACTORY OI'" ^EdSTCAL INSTRUMENTS. 

[Paris, — Londcm.] 

Organisation of tcork. 
Tlic oi'dinarv d.-iy's work is of 10 hours. It hcifins at o'clock in the morniniz', in 
summer, at 7 o'cloclv in winter. No worl<man works liy tiie picKe ami ovcrhasto 
dues not therefore exist in our ostal)lisiiments, such a tiiin!^ would, iiesideSj lie incom- 
patible witii our system of work whicli is, above all things, to attain perfection. I'ay 
(lay is every Satur<lay. Lack of work is uidcnown in our establisliments. 

Increase of paij and jH'emivMs. 

The increase of pay is always jn'ogrcssive and con.sistent. Firstly, with the abi- 
lity of the workman, secondly, with his length of service. 

At the expiration of 10 years' service in our establishments, the workmen receive 
at tlie end of each quarter a premium which wo call a chevron. This premium of 
woi'k is fiom SIO per each (quarter and it incivases progressively for the best work- 
men and the foremen. 

One fourth of the number of our workmen receives tjiis chevron, the other work- 
men receive an annual gratuity in accordance with tlieir handiwork. 



ME. ClIAllDON. 

Common Pottery. 
Mallcorne {Sarthe). 

Our staff of workmen consists of turners and assistants. 

The turners work alone in separate workshops, the women are allowed to help 
their husbands prepare tiie material, having in winter the heat from the stove for 
tlieniselvob and children. =1^ 

*Turners of earthenware are tliiis isolated in the twenty potteries in the department of Sarthe. 



'^mj 



12 



TIio wa^os ropi'osont 38 por cent, on amount of income from pottery, aiul from 
21 to ;{0 per cent, from delf. 

Tliero iin( iVw ffoixl tiirnerH, a good turner in a kind of workman hard to lind. 

A turner and liiH wife earn from 70 cents to 80 cents a day, tliat is, from S200 
to 8220 a year. An ansistant gets 45 cents u day all the year roui d, that is, from 
$140 to 8150 a year. 

The turner's work is not regulated, if he work at night ho supplies his own light. 

Tiie day lahorei's work from 5 o'clock a.m. to 7 p.m. in summer and in the win- 
ter iluring the houi-s of daylight, yet the pa}' is the same. The wages of a turner are 
Buch that he can support suitably two children, hut tdiould his family bo larger his 
circumstances would certainly be straightened. 

Rents average from $V1 to 815 a year and include house and garden. In fine 
the position is not u bad one for industrious and careful persons. 



THE COMPANY OF THE ITIOX MILLS OF CHAMPArrNE AND OF THE 
CANAL OF ST. DlZlEll, AT WASSY\ 

Or(janizatio7i of Labor. 

This company employs in its different branches of industry, 1,7'JO workmen 
divided as follows : 

Men, ],57;{; women, 49; boys, 129 ; girls, 9. 

Women ami j/ouikj girls. — Women and young girls are employed in the brick- 
3'ard to place bricks on the dryers. In the mines, women help their husbands work- 
ing by the job. they watch the shifting of the earth and equalize the size of the heaps 
of minerals. In work on the canal, they attend to the bridges and flood gates. Li 
boat work they help their husbands to guide and fake care of the boats. As regards 
age, young girls may be divided as follows : 3, of 17 years of ago; 5, of Ifi years; 1 
of 15. Total!). 

Children. — Young boys who work in factories or mines are classed in the follow 
ing manner: 13 years of ago, 22; 14 years, 43; 15 years, 4S ; IG years, lU. They 
are mixor-s and sfraighteners of small irons, 6 are pounders, 8 work in the mines 
with theii' parents, 4 are employed in loading and sending off the minerals, 1 is 
engaged at the stables. 

Different modes of fixing wages are followed in these establishments ; by the 
montli, by the job, l)y the quantity produced; certain classes of workmen receive a 
premium cm extra wages. 

The notes on wages and the rules of the workshops published by the companj^ 
are too long to reproduce, we will only give the following passage: — 

"When it has become necessary to reduce wages, the management has taken 
the precaution to explain the measur'o bj' means of affixed notices, and to furnish all 
information on the industrial situation to members of benefit societies elected by the 
workmen. This mode of action has been the means of preventing disorder, strikes 
and insubordiiuition." 



COMPANY FOR LIGHTING BY GAS TIIK CITIES OF MANS, VENDOME 

AND VANNES. 

Number of workmen, 92. 

The monthly wages of the workmen vary from 817 to 83(3. The average is 822 
a month; it was 818 in 1878 and has therofoi-e incre:ise<i 22-2 per cent. About 10% 
per cent, of the workmen have, through their saving, been able to build or buy small 
dwellings with gaixlens. 

The yearly savings of a steady man after having brought up his family may be 
estimated at from 840 to 848, as iluring the last ten years wages have risen from 
$21G to 82G4, and duiing the same space of time the cost of living has scarcely 
altered. 



13 



GLASS FACTORY OF BACOARKT. 

(Established in 1705.) 

Baccabat — (Meuhthe and Moseli.e.) 
The staff is thus divided : — 

1878. 188!). 

Moil l.y the month 001 9!i2 

Boys or nppifiiticos 35!) 270 

Women (iiiiiirentifcs iiifliKled) 500 487 

As.sistiints iind workmen l)y the (lay) 201 19'J 

Kmployeos, foremen, watchmen 77 77 

2, ISO 2^25 

In this industry that has incioascd more than a tenth in mon9y, and whoso 
operations have extended in much larger proportion, the statl" wliich reguhites the 
amount of production has remaineii tlie same, while the occasional help is less. 

This is a circumstance on which there is all the more reason t'ov congratulation^ 
as there is a consequent increase of the average wages. 

Average daily wacjes. 

1H7S. ISSll. TiKTciiSf. 

Workmen of age $0.04 80.80 2:^ p.c. 

do 15 to 21 years of age... 0.45 0.50 11 p. c. 

do 12 to 15 do ... 0.202- o.23 12 p.c. 

Women 0.:Jli 0.45 42 p.c. 

Girl apprentices 0.20i 0.20 

Assistants 0.44' 0.44 

Employees 1.00 1.40 40 p.c. 

These figures jmovo that the workmen, as well as those master, have profited by 
this progress in trade. 

While the average wages increased in this way, the cost of provisions has dimin- 
ished in proportion: Bread, 12 p.c.; meat, 2'J p.c; fresh pork, 12 p.c; butter, 8 p.c.; 
and firewood, 4 p.c. 

The cost of clothing, boots and shoes, and other manufactured articles has, 
during the same period, tliminished in excessive proportion. 

There is no night w^ork; a .statV of vv^orkmen comprising only the number abso- 
lutely required are employed as night watchmen, and to attend the fires. 

The day's work is ten hours, the glassmen alone, who form one-fourth of our 
staff, work ten hours and a-half per day. 

Organisation of the Work. 

Woi'kmen paid by the month, and women, arc generally formed into bands, each 
composed by a head-workman, a certain number of blowers, and boys attending on 
the glassmen, of Journeymen and apprentices for the other workmen. Among the 
women there is also a mistress journeywomen and apprentices. 

The earnings of each band is calculated by the piece at the end of each month, 
accoriling to the rates of work in use for all branches of the business that allow of 
this manner of computation. 

The members of the band deduct from this total the fixed wages of each work- 
man, according to his grade, and the balance is divided among them as a gratuity 
in graduated proportion. 

The fixed rates of wages is the minimum guaranteed to each workman, no 
matter what may be the monthly amount of work done by each band. 



14 



I 



For ^lasHmon tlio tixed into for tiio liead ot'tlio 

band is from .?28.'20 por month * 

Oftht'lHt l)lo\vor l!f_'0 do 

Of (ho 2ii.l hi. .WIT 14.80 do 

Amf.ntj the cut tors of rifh lucoeH of work, our 
most immorouM class of worknion, the 

wagoH of tho head of the band is 18.00 do 

1st jouriioyman lilOO do 

2iid do ll.OU do 

It is an oxccpti(jnai case, and one of veiy rare occuivnco, when there is no 
Hur])lus to divide, and tiie men receive only their guaranteed minimums. 

This was tlie reason wliy tho lioad ghissinon's aotnal earnings, in ISSS, woi'O 
from $47.20, somk! oven earning more than S'iO, wiiilst its liead outti'rs earned 8ii4.lJ0, 
and some more tiian §40. 

It frequently occurs tliat the gratuity is hirgor than the tixed wages. 

Among cutters the sur])lus iH diviikxl in tlie following projmrtion, 4 ])ar(s for 
tho head, !5 parts for tlio tirsi journeyman and 2 ])arts foi' tliesecoM<l. The formation 
of hands is, from the nature dt' their work^ moio uncertain ainnngghissmen, and tlio 
basis upon which they are formed is more eom])licated. 

Among women working in bands, the guai'antoed wages of tho head woman, are 
generally about §1!, but she actually receives from -SIO to 818 per month. 

Promotion, increase. 

Tiie liitforenco above noted among the journeymen of diffei'ent classe.'*, and be- 
tween tlie head man and the tirst journeyman show tho im])i)rtancc tliat tlio.se intei'- 
estod necessarily attach to their advancenienl. The head man, on his part, cannot 
watch with too great care that each man's worlc shall reach the highest jtoiiit possible 
to his ability', not alone in his own interest but in that of tiie band in general. 

Nominations to a higher grade when occasions occur, arc made by a council 
comiiosetl of tlie head men of the factory and (tf the employees; thosc^ interested 
being heard. The a])|)licant's length of service is taken into consideration, but much 
more his ability in his business. 

Once every year, the joui'neymcn of each class compete for rank on the list. 
They arc ranked according to the excellence of the piece of work done by each for 
the occasion. 

This classification is given on a table or list for promotion, much importance 
being attached to it by the council when occasion arises. 

Premiums in money arc granted to those standing first on the list, posted in all 
the workshops, having been awarded with all possible guarantees of impai-tiality. 

The increase of tlie tixed wages, as far as the established mtiximum, are made 
half-yearly In' tho council above mentioned, on suggestion made by tho manager. 

The settled tariffs. 

The settled tariff that determines the actual wages of the workmen is known to 
all. It cannot be diminished without a previous notice of three months to those in- 
terested, whilst an increase in the rates is calculated from the date of its publication. 
Tho notice of reduction is not usual until after a previous understanding. In any 
case, the workmen who refuses to work at the new rates has three montiis in Avhich 
to seek another place. 

There is no instance where a workman has taken advantage of this notice, to 
leave the factory. lie fully understands that such changes have not been made with- 
out careful consideration and tliat his ultimate gain rarely suffers fnmi them, the 
increase in tb.e production being now given an impetus which had been previously 
wanting. In any case this matter has never given rise to any serious trouble. 

' * Alen worlcing by tlie month are lodged, rent free, in cottages liaving gardens attacliod. 



15 



Kacli Imiid of workmen has itw own lioolv, in wliicli is ciitoixvi llio daily amount 
ot'woriv tiuno by oacii i)anil. Kacii individual roncerncd may couHult tlio liooi; at 
will verify tlio amount entered, and, if need bo. discusH the entries witb his superior, 
a permission of wliicdi no iloos not fail to avail iiinisolf. 

Kaidi one liaviiiif tbus a full Unowlodye of lliis daily ac<'onnt, ami in caso of error 
or omission rectifying it at tlie moment, is not subjeet to disai)]niintinont at the final 
monthly stittlement at tiie central account otlico. As a conseijuenco there ai'o no 
disputes about the monthU' earnings, no trouble concerning the application of the 
tariff, which is known and accepted by all 



lor 



CROCJIARD & SONS. 

sIloE FACTORY AT MANS 



Tlio annual output of this house is SO,00(l paii's of boots and shoes, representing 
a value of §lfi(t,0()0. The wages jtaid represent about 2") per cent, of the amount of 



production. 

The woi'king staff is composed as follows: 
I .1 ...i'i:.,i.. i . --. ^ — , M\ ,,,^., ,■: 



In the establishment : 7") men, 10 women, 5 children. 
Outside the establishment (iO men, 30 women. 
ISO worU]Jeoplo in all. 
30 to 35 persons W(>rk by the day, earning, in a day of 12 hours, from TO to 00 
cents, and 10 women work 11 hours a day for 40 cents. The others work by the 
job and earn, on an average, as follows: — 

The men front SO cents to SI l)or day. 
The women from 40 to 45 cents per ilay. 
Childi'cn (13 to 1(] years old) 15 to 30 cents ]icr day. 
Huring the p:ist 20 years the rate of wages has increased from 20 fo 25 percent 
A workman earning, on an average SO cents a day, if he be mai'ried, has no mort 
tliun is needed to bring u]) his family. If his wife works also he may be able to put 

ill tlio Li'H'i'nii-i; 1i!inL- S.'t ni- .<iJ. I'Mcli moiitli 



■ .— 1 J ./ 

in the savings bank S.'J or S4 each month. 

During the last twenty-five yeai's, wages have increased at a greater ratio, than 
the cost of living, notwithstanding which fact the workmen save no more than 
formerly. 



FAMILISTEEE DE GUI8H. 

HEATING Al'l'AllATUS, STOVE,'^, AC. 

Wages of the ten best workmen. 



auo ^m 


















• iciifral .avonigo 


1 




Mouldfr.s. 


Fitters. 


of 

eacli individual 

workiu.iii. 


n to H 










H 


Is7'.i-l,s80 


!?1.2:{ 


81. 01 J 


80.8(1;-; 


I 


1,Ss:j-18S4 


1.52i 
1.G4 


1.111 


0.!)4i 


any ■ 


1887-1888 


1-423 


l.OOii 


I 


1888 


Women 
80.07 


Cliildren 
80.43 




■ 
■ 


llighist (liiy"s work 




■ 

Lisiy ■ 


Avcnige do 


0.55i 


0.3(! 








^H 


Lo\Vt'>t ({o , . 


Q.2»l 


032. 




■ 







Ifi 



Pay of workmen. — Tlio puy-lint is niado in iilpliaboticiil orilor without rogunl 
either to the buHinoHH or tiio nhopn in wlucii the men woi k. 

The list is then divided into four e(iu!il Hoctions, two of which arc paid on the 
TucHchiy and Friday of each week, and the two otlierH on the Tuesday and Friday 
the followini^ wook, eacli aection and oacli workman being thus paid every fitteen 
days. 

' The sections are divided as follows: 
From A to (> aie paid on Tuesdays. 
From J) to (r are paid on Fridays. 
From JI to L are paid on Tuosdays. 
From M to Z are paid on Fridays. 



HOUSE OP LECO^UE. 

.roiNEKs — (Paris.) 
Or<ianlzation of the ivork. 

The Leca>ur establishment was already in existence in the middle of the last 
century. In ordinary times it employs about 400 workmen at IIJJ benches. For a 
long time ]»ast the establishment has had in opei'ation a system of remuneration for 
work by the piece, which seems to us oxcclleMt and which the " JJulletin do la parti- 
cipation" thus describes : — 

" The men are formed into bands of seven or eight under the direction of one 
foreman or chief who directs the work and lends his tools. They work by the day, 
and on doors, window frames and otluM- articles a unii'ormity of price is established. 
The account of each band is settled fortnightly. A minimum salary of $1.20 a day 
is guaranteed to each workman of the band, but the work done is very much over 
the minimum ami has never given to each, as a total, less than $l,5fi per head. 
The foreman's wages are twenty cents extra. J)uring a recent visit to the worksh()])s 
of Miss Lecii'ur, we established the fact that, a band of seven men earned iu their 
fortnight $1,140.11, of which $'J0.23 was day's wages and $55.78 was in excess of the 
days' wages. The excess is equally divided among the band," 



LETHUILLIER AND PINET. 

ENOINEEUS — MECHANICS. 

[Eouen.]* 
Extracts from the Jiules of the Workshop, 

Art. 5. — Work is done by the piece or by the hour according to the orders given, 
the workmen having nothing to say in the matter. * * 

The number of working hours is tixed by us and posted up on the Ist of each 
month. 

The hours in excess of 132 hours of actual work per fortnight, will be paid for 
as follows : 

One hour and a quarter per hour during the week. 

One hour and a half per hour on Sundays and holy-dtlys, also for work at night. 

Work at night is calculated from eight o'clock in the evening. 

No fines are imposed. * * =*= 

Art. 10. — Every workman who has worked in our shop for three consecutive 
years shall receive a premium of $14,00 on the Slst of December of the third year. 

This premium increases every year until the thirty-fifth inclusive, as is shown 
by the following table : 

* A maritime and inanufacturiug town, witti a iK)i«ilation of 107,000. 

* * Nearly all tlio work is done by the hour, work by the pieces being only given to very yoang persuns 
aa encouragt'nient to work. 

* ** "The system of fines is frightful."— (Master's note.) 



17 



Taiii,k of Promiuma. 



NiimWTdf 


NuilllxT 


Annual 


Total NunilxT 

of 


NinnlxTof 

YcHfH 

of Hcrvirf. 


Niinil>i>r 

of 
I'ri'niiiiniH 


Aiiiiiiiil 


Total NunilKa 

of 


\ I'iirM 


nf 


I'rcini'.nn. 


rrfUiiiilnH, 


I'ri-iniiiiii, 


I'lrlliililnN, 


uf .St'i'vifc. 


I'ri'iiiiuHiM 




with liiti'icnt. 




with Intcn'Ht. 






* CtH. 


^ 0t8. 






9 CtH. 


!* CtH. 


1 









( 10 

i 20 
1 21 


17 
18 
10 


30 00 

31 (Ml 

32 (Nl 


403 38 


<> 








508 28 


:) 


1 


14 00 


11 (Ml ! 


555 ")3 


4 


2 


15 (K) 


2!l 42 


22 


20 


33 (Ml 


l'>05 10 


5 


3 


It) (H) 


Ifi :<(l 


23 


21 


34 (HI 


057 35 


t'l 


4 


17 <Kt 


(il (W 


24 


22 


35 (Ml 


714 07 




5 


IS (10 


HI 02 1 


25 


23 


3(i (Nl 


7C.!t 43 


s 


(I 


1!) (HI 


KMi 17 


20 


24 


37 (Ml 


820 31 


'.) 


7 


12(1 (Ml 


12!l ;<5 1 


27 


25 


38 (Ml 


8!)2 40 


Id 


8 


L'l (M) 


ir.4 23 


28 


2() 


30 (Ml 


050 17 


11 


•) 


•J\i (Ml 


isd hi; 


2!l 


27 


40 (Nl 


1,020 il5 


12 


10 


•S.i (Ml 


2011 20 


30 


28 


41 (HI 


1,104 85 


V.i 


11 


21 (K) 


230 5(1 1 


31 


20 


42 (HI 


I.IH3 00 


It 


12 


25 00 


271 75 ; 


32 


30 


43 (HI 


1,207 52 


IT) 


13 


2(i CM) 


3(15 <I0 


33 


31 


44 (HI 


l,:t.V. 54 


Hi 


14 


27 (lO 


342 (111 


34 


32 


45 (HI 


I.IIM 21 


17 


15 


28 00 


3.s(i ;r> 


35 


IW 


|(> (1(1 


1,515 )i5 


IM 


16 


2!l 00 


420 SO 











TlieHO promiums will bear iiitorcst at Iho late of',') por coiit. per annum. 

Tliey will bo represented by u non-negotiable title, called a premium bulletin. 

Every workman of sixty years, or has been employed in our worksbojis during 
lldrty-tive conseeutive years, has the right to be reimbursed in cash, the total number 
of his premiums with the interest. 

lie may continue, witli our consent, to form part of our establishment, in which 
case ho will have no right to any further premium. 

If a worUman voluntarily leaves our employ, or is dismissed, lu! cannot demand 
the number of premiums to which ho is entitled, until the exjiiiation ol live years 
to bo computed from the ;51st December of the year of his departure. 

Any workman who leaves our employ and afterwards returns, will have no right 
to any ]iremium until he shall have worked anew for two full and consecutive }cara' 
and tills ])remium siudl bo eqiuil to that of the last bulletin. "Jj, 

Jn case of death, the premiums acquireil are jiaid to the widow or to the direct 
heirs ; i at once and i on the Slst December following. 

Art. 11. — All the workmen are insured by us agtdnst accidents. 



MONSIEUE MAIIQUET. 

COTTON SPINNING AT CROUSILLES, NEAR cnARTRE-ON-TllE-I,(i[KE. 

This factory employs 9,200 spindles ; tlio working staff is composed, as follows: 
40 men, 40 women and 40 children over 13 years of age. The wages paid represent 
} of the value of the production. 

The working day is of twelve hours, and the wages are as follows : 

Spinners, (men) from $0.70 to $0.S0 per day 

Spinners (women) frcmi 0.3(j to 0.48 do. 

Children from 0.15 to 0,40 do. 

Women by the day 0.28 to 0.24 do. 

The wages have increased 40 p. c. since 1840. 

A spinnei- earns from ^200 to $240 per year, and some families of four members 
earn S500 per j'ear. 

Old workmen of steady habits possess a capital of from $800 to $1,200, being 
partly in real estate and partly in money. 
20—2 



18 



The monthH' wa^CH uro paid on the I'ith day oftlio tollowiiif? mnntli. 

A workman leaving;,' withnut nolicp torf'oitH tho amount tiiatinay bu duo Hinco 
hiw IiimI |)iiy ; otlinrwiHo lin must ^^ivc duo notico. 

Work liuH doulilcd in quantity Hinco 1850, tho co»t of living not incfoasing in 
proporlion, liut a lovo of luxury lias sprung up an.i urt-dH liavo ^i>tw with if, 

TJIi-: MOUTIKR KSTAIiLlSirMKNT. 

WOIIKH Kdll lli;iM)tN(* iil'KIlATIONS. 

(Saint Gennain-on-Layo.*) 

Locksmiths Work and etallic Contrivances a Specialty. 

Witli till' oxccptioii of t'rn|iliiyci's, forcnioi', ciiicf mcciiiiiiii's waifcw and of iiellows- 
bloworri wlio may l)i' |)aid liy llio nionlli. work is M;„niu-ally paid liy llie hour and 
always according to tiio ability of tho workman, taking tho following table as a 
basis ; — 

Cts. 
Foremen — 

For heavy work 13 

For light work lli 

Adjust CIS, carpontors, rivottors — 

Very skilful, being capable of executing a work fioni plans... 12 

Very skilful 11 

Skilful 10 

Old i nary capability !• 

Beaters — 

Ca])ahle when r('(|uired of forging irons for plastering 

Of orilinary capability 8 

Blacksmiths — 

Knowing how to design on sheet iron 14 

Vcrvskillul IH 

Skilful 12 

Of ordinar}' ability' 10 

Men working in the town — 

Veiy good iron workers having a knowledge of bell banging 

and banister making 12 

Very good ironworkers 11 

Ir;)n workers 10 

Of ordinary ability 9 

Boi'crs — 

Borers knowing how to set and sharpen gimlets 9 

Ordinai-y borers 8 

Pay-Dai/s. 

The first and sixteenth day of each month are pajMlays. 

Workmen encumbered with large families or those who are the support of their 
parents may receive money on account in the intiu'val lietween pay-days. 

No allowance of time or money is made for tliose who have to go or come from 
shanties within a two mile limit. 

Allowance of half an hour morning and evening, being an hour for the day, is 
made for those working in shanties at from two to four miles distance ; the work- 
man being expected to leave and arrive at tho supplementary hours. 

Beyond four miles, the Journey to and fro, made outside tho regular hours is 
allowed to the workman in full. 

*S»iiit Gemiain-en-Laye is a city of 16,000 inlmbitants, situated 8 miles from Paris. 



19 



Tho ostabliMliinciit payn tho cxponHo of th«> journey for all work done ii) fho Pro- 
viiict'H, aiiil a 'laily allowance of Sd cents beitiduti, to pay for oxponno of board and 
loil;,'iiii,'. 

All work tliat obligoH tho workmen t<» nk-op away IVoni homo is oonMidored as 
done ill tlu* IVovincos. 

Premiums, or Orer-Wat/es. 

Clcnend Idea. — Wlioii a valuation has lu'tsn t-stahlisluMl by tho hoanl of account 
tor handiwork, tho attempt may ho made to lower tho amount liy jiremiunis i^iantod 
to the slatV by whom the work may have boon dotu). 

Dirisiiiii. — Previous to tlio division of I ho premiums 10 per cent, will he allowed 
to the House in order to |)resont a j)roporlioiiatt! division holweon the head fore- 
man ami all tho stalJ', and 10 uov cent, will bo withdrawn for the foreman; the 
remainiler will he divided as follows: — 

Chief of the stall' 4 parts 

Director .5 

Woi'kmen 2 

Auxiliarios 1 

The premiutii will he j)aid on tho completion of the work. 

Control — /icceii)ts. — Xo pi'omium will he grunted if the lime has not heon kept 
by tho chief of tho staff and tho ucconntunt. 

Tho value of any work imiierfectly done requiring to bo completed or repaired 
will ho deducted Ironi tho ain(junt of pi'onuuin. 

Rules of the Workshop. 

As nearly as possililo tho workshop will be opened at : 

In summer from (5 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

In wint(U" from the beginning of daylight to its close. 

No work is done on Sundays or holy-days, nor on the Monda}' or Tuesday of the 
feast (if lodges (a local feast.) 

Whenever a woi'kman, from lack of Avork, has to bo dismissed, notice is given 
him of it a few days ])reviously. Any workman leaving the establishment of his own 
free will is ex])(>eted to give tho same notice. 

Misconduct, im[)ropriot3' and the non-ohservanco of any of tho rules are causes 
of instant dismissal. The account of the person thus dismissed is settled the same 
day. 

All tools aro supplied by tho establishment, hut those using them are respon- 
sible tor thoin. 

On Saturday when ihe day's work is tinished, the workmen are hound to place 
tlie honches in order and to clean tho vices. 

Tho workshops aro to be kept in a daily state of cleanliness by the heaters and 
borers. 

When the engine has stopped work, tho ap|)renticos aro obliged to clean tho 
machines, and aro under the supervision of the engineer. 



TUE SONS OF PJ<:UGKOT BROTHERS. 



rs JH 



HARDWARE AND VELOCIPEDES. 

Valentigny (Doubs.) 

The works of this establishment are represented by those factoi'ies in which are 
employed 1,900 workmen. Nine-tenths of tho workmen work by tho piece, and 
one-tenth by tho day. 

AVurk is paid for by tho y)iece whenever it admits of a tariff, and the rate is so 
fixed that the workmen are charged with the furnishings and heating required in 
20— 2i 



20 



tlieir work, and, when poswiblo, with the waste consequent on their work ; a con- 
siderable saving has thus been realized, both in means of heating and in raw 
niateriaL 

The working day is ten houi's. 

The rates for piece work, and for day work often hours : 





Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


In IHCa 

tlie iivenige 

rate was 


In 185H 

the average 

rate was 


Men , 


8 cts. 
1 (iO 

80 

40 

1 20 
50 
25 


8 cts. 
GO 

40 

20 

50 
30 
!•> 


8 cts. 
1 00 

(iO 

30 

(iO 
40 
20 


8 CtH. 

00 
40 
20 

40 
20 
12 


8 cts. 
40 


WOi.lt'Il 

Chiklrt'n 


20 
12 


By the (III!/. 


30 




15 


Children 


08 







The annual earnings of an ordinary workman are $260. Those of a family of 
four people worlcing in the shops, say, two men one woman, and one child, are 
from $7«0. 

Wages are paid monthly in cash, and are paid to ever}' workman in the shops. 



THE FACTOEY OF PIQUET & CO. 



iJRIVINa ENQINEEUS. 



(L}ons.) 

* The harmony that 2)revails in this factory, the permanent nature of the work- 
men's engagements, and the absence of strikes is a proof of its superior organisation. 

By whai means have these results been obtained? 

In the tin.t ])lace, Messrs. Piquet have gran*^od their workmen the highest ato 
of wages possible, c insistent with the proceeds of the business assuring them u 
eufticient commercial profit. The men are paid by the hour, at an average rate of 
15 cents per hour. This is a mode of payment little approved of b}' political econo- 
mists who ai-e under the imp' •■ sion that, for a workman to be assui-ed of a certain 
ai.iount, no matter what Ids application is, is to insure idleness and loss of time. It 
has. however, been adopted in this factory on account of its superior results in the 
quality of work proiluced. 

When <ii. order is received it is opened at the oflice wiiere tlie prices are settled, 
a particular account, the real backbone ot the concern, is opened, composed of throe 
separate accounts, relating one to raw material, the other to the handiwork, and tlio 
third to gcnei-al cost. In the account for material the foreman enters all the goods 
manufactuied or in the rough that leave it; the account for handiwoik remains 
open during the whole l(>ngth of time required for each piece of work, and eveiy 
day tlie number of hours spent on the work are entered in it. Finally, the tliinl 
account includes the many elements which cannot be valued with the exactness of 
the two others; the hourly waste on the use of tools which is a proportionate part 
of the general ex])enses of the factory. 

When an order has been executed it is ar easy matter by means of simple addi- 
tion of these accounts in a strictly mathematical manner to ascertain the amount it 
hati cost and to atld to it the amount of profit allowed by the state of the market. 

* Exhibition of 18811. Keport of the Departmental Connnittee of the Rlione. 



21 



This means of compilation which Mcssiv. Piquet have had in use for many years 
has lieen of ii;ro!it a(lvantai:;e to tiicm. By referrini^ to tlio reoonl of former orders 
which are carofiiUy tiled, they have a sure hasis on which to I'c^ulate their prices. 
It also affords them an excellent substitute for pay by the day. If at an}' time, a 
workman ij;rinvs careless or idle, his want of enertry is the immediate cause of a rise 
ill the price of returns. Thus automatically warned of the increase in such price, 
the master searches for the cause of it, without requiring to examine any one he can 
discover the real culprit. By means of this ingenious contrivance he can dispense 
with the services of a foreman altojfether, or if there be one, the disau;reable and 
irritatini;; duties ])eculi!ir to his office, are entireh' removed. It is no longer neees- 
isary Hu' him to reprimand idlers there being none, and collision between him and the 
workmen, is thus avoided. The workman knowing himself to bo thus watcdied by a 
i^ilent automatic overseer works more assiduously, and moreover liis ambition and 
his pride are aroused to maintain his standing up to his past record. 

PINAUD'S PHRI'^UME FACTORY. 

[Paris.] 

Extract from the Rules of the Factory. 

Artirit: 5. — Any woi-kman or woman having been employed in the factoi-y during 
5 consecutive years, receives over and above his or her wages a yearly gratuity ot 
§10 in a saving's bank book or in the lorni of French bond-. 

After 10 years of service, this yearly gratuity is raised to ... 820 
After 15 do do lio ... ;!0 

After 20 do do do ... 40 

The workmen are bound to preserve these amounts intact, whether in baidvorin 
bonds, undei- peniilt}- of losing all right to any future gratuity. 

To this rule is attached a table demonstrating how an ai)|)rentice beginning work 
at the factory at 15 years of age, the usual age, will become possessed of the follow- 
ing amounts at the ages menti(med. Interest is calculateil at 5 per cent. 

At 15 years of age, the first year he will receive a premium of 6 10 

At 2() years do do of 820 78 

At 31 yea s do do of 30 220 

At 3t) years do do of 40 45t> 

At 41 yc'U's the amount of premium does not change after 3() j'cars S04 

At46y(ars do do' 1. 247 

At51 years do do ],S]2 

At 5(i years do do 2.554 

At (51 years do do 3.445 

At (i5 years when the man retires from work 4,372 

A workman leaving tiie establishment is at liberty to dispose of his capital. 



JOOT STOCK COMPANIES OF LI^AEBKUrXG AND WOIJKSIIOPS 

THE CrlRONDE. 



OF 



snii'-nri[,n[x<j. 
[Bordeaux.] 

The number of worlimen employed is 800, of which 35 are children, of fn)m 14 
to 15 years of age. 

AV'tges are calculated by the day, and the price varies according to the nature 
of the wirk; thus assistants are paiil 80. ()5 :ind even 81.00 pt'r day for carpentering 
and caulking. Children receive 60.30 per day. 

The work day is 11 hours in summer and 8 hours in winter. The wages ])er 
(lay remain the same in Avintor as in nunimer, altliough the working hours are one- 
tliird less. 



22 



JOINT STOCK COMPANY OF THE COAL PITS OF MONTEAMBBET AND 

OF BEEAUDIEEE. 

Basin of the Loire. 




Overseers 

'riiue-keei 

Woodworkers 

Miners 

Ciirriiiges 

Levellers 

])ivers 

Average for the interior 

Miicliinists 

Receivers 

Assistant levellers 

Forgers 

Measurers 

Sorting, 

Divers 

Average for outside 

CJeneral averagi 



Mines of Boche-la-MoHirc and Firminy. 



Average daily wages for the interior 
do outside, 



SEYDOUX SIEBEE & CO. 

CARDINO, SPINNING AND WEIGHING. 

[Le Coteau, BnusicH, Maurois.] * 
Number of Workers. 

Le Cateau. Bousies. 

Men 752 475 

Women 480 2;)0 

Girls from Ki to 21 yeais 153 150 

Girls under 16 years 155 

Boys under 1(3 years 150 

Boys from 10 to 21 years KiO 

Totals 1,(;90 1,075 

Total number of workpeople, exclusive of hand weavers, 2,765. 
Amount of yearly wages, $600,000. 

Daily Wages. 

\mX 1888. 

Pay laborers $0.50 $0.60 

Day laborers, average men in the shops . 9.55 0.75 

Wool sorters 0.33 0.40 

Engine drivers 0.70 0.90 

Wool cleaners 0.45 $0.60 to 0.70 

Wool dressers (carding and spinning). 0.30 0.45 

Spinners $0.73 to 0.86 $0.90 to 1.00 

Weavers 0.55 to 0.75 0.70 to 0.90 

Mechanics 0.70 to 1.20 0.90 to 1.60 

The work day is llf hours. 

— % 
•Villages in the northern department. 




28 



Premiums for assiduity. — If a workwoman does nol Kavo hor work except for loi^i- 
timate purposes, forof^eon by tlie rules, she has a riiflit, at the expiration of three 
monliis. to a premium for assiduity, amountinijf to 82. -id. The total amount of pre- 
miums thus allowed amount to a yearly sum of about 82,400. 

Fremiiuns for production. — The miinmum amount of the production is fixed by 
the rules, and a pi'cmium is granted to the workman for anything over that amount 
pi'oduccd by him. This premium may amount to $2.20 each quarter for each loom. 
The total amount of these premiums i-epresent an annual sum of $2,400. 

Share in the profits. — iOmployees and foremen are alone permitted to shai'e. 28 
per cent, of the net profits being allowed them. 

Savings. — From the above mentioned wages the workmen have put in tho 
savings bank the sum of 8'i00,000, divided as follows : — 
200 deposits of under $200. 
325 deposits of over $200. 

Fines. — Fines are imposed for infraction of tho ruies of the factory. They amount 
to a yearly sum of about $410, and are applied to the funds of the Mutual Benetit 
Society of the workshops. 

Messrs. Seijdoxu:, Sieber & Co. themselves give the Mutual Benefit Fund an annual 
sum equal to the amount of fines levied. 

Strikes. 
There have never been any. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DECAUVILLE, SE., AT PETIT-BOUEG. 

RULES OF THE WORKSHOP. 

Article 1. — Journei/men's Assistants. 

Every workman hired by the management is considered to have taken cognisance 
of the present rules and to have bound himself to conform to them. 

Article 2. — Entrance. 

The workmen must enter the workshops in the morning and at half-past twelve 
noon 

The factory Avhistle will give warning fifteen and five minutes previously and at 
the time of entry. 

The door will open at the second whistle and will close three minutes after the 
third. 

Any workman arriving late will enter by the director's office where note will bo 
taken of the reason of his want of punctuality, and of the time to be deducted. 

Article 3. — Exit. 

The workmen will leave at half-past eleven, and at night at the signal given by 
the whistle. 

They must not stop their machines nor prepare to leave before the sound of tho 
whistle. 

Any workman remaining in the workshop five minutes after the sound of the 
whistle will pay a fine of 20 cents. 

Article 4. — The Doors. 

Door No. 1 is tho only one by which the workmen must enter or leave. 

Every time they enter or leave by any other door they will pay a fine of $0.40. 

Article 5. — Absence. 

A.ny workman requiring to absent himself must ask his foremen for a ticket on 
which will be marked the hour he is to leave, and which he will give to the door- 
keeper. 



24 



Any woikman who, without previous permission, loses a half day on Monday 
or any other day of the week will lose §0.04, and be refuned any sum on aceount 
duriu'i; the month. 

Jfhe 1)0 absent a second time dnrin-^ the month he will be reduced by a total 
sum of $0.01. 

Article 6.— The Refectory. 

Tliei'o is a refector}' for the foremen and a refectory for the workmen. 

Any workman enterinj^ the foremen's refectory will be lined 80.40. 

The wiirkmon'rt refectory will be open in the moi'ning- at the first whistle, that 
is fifteen minutes before tlie entrance hour, and will close at the third sound of the 
whistle. 

All the workmen should place their baskets in the refectory, and the dishes they 
desire to keep hot on or in the owens. 

Any workman bringinij; his basket into the workshop will pay a fine of $0.40. 

The baskets must be taken away at the latest ten minutes after leaving work at 
night for oi'dinary days, and twenty minutes after leaving work on days of dis- 
tributing. 

Art. 7. — Bestowal of Counters. 

Workmen may take amounts on account in provisions (bread, wine, coal &c.) 
by means of counters. 

Counters ai'C distributed several times per week, at the office of the workshops, 
when the workmen leave at night. Any workmen leaving tlio workshop, before 
the whistle sounds, in order to get to the office, will pay a tine of $0.20. 

Art. 8. — Amount on Account. 

Sums in money or account which must not exceed $8.00 each individual, will be 
given fifteen days before pay-day to workmen who have not missed one daj' during 
the month. 

These amounts on account cannot, ' " any case, exceed in countei's the amount 
already earned. 

Art. 9. — Pay-Bays. 

The pay for work done in the montii is given at the office of the workshop the 
first Saturday following the 5th of the next month. 

All claims must be made at the office of the worksho|)S during the five days 
following paj'-day. After which period no claims will be allowed. 

Art. 10. — Machines. 

An}' workman Avho wipes his machine, even if it be unhanded, whilst the wheel 
is in motion, will j)ay a line of $1.00, and if under these circumstances any accident 
occurs to him he will be considered to have brought :t upon himself voluntarily, and 
will have no claim to any indemnity. 

Art. 11. — Smokers. 

It is onl}' allowe<l to smoke a pipe. 

Any workmen found smoking a cigar or cigarette will be fined $0.20. 

Art. 12. — Closets. 

Closets and urinaries being provided for the use of workmen, any one committing 
a nuisance other where will he fined $0.20. 

If he commit the nuisance against a pile of rails or metallic object, he will bo 
fined $0.40. 



25 



Art. 13. — Electric Wires. 

Tho cuiTont which passes over the wires is strong enough to kill a man. 

Any workman touching the wires will be considered as wishing to commit suicide. 

Art. 14. — Writing on the Walls. 

Any woi'kman writing on the wall, doors, &c., will be fined $0.20, and will pay the 
expense of painting over such writing. 

Art 15. — Distribution of the Fines. 

The total amount of fines imposed will bo made over to the Mutual Help Society 
of Petit- Bourg. 

Art. 16. — Wounds, Accidents. 

In case of a workman being wounded or meeting with an accident sufficiently 
serious to incapacitate him for work, ho shall immediately give notice of it to tho 
phy^ieian of tho establishment, and befoi'e resuming work shall present at tho office 
u certificate from the same physician stating that he is tit for work. 

This certificate is indispensable, in order to claim tho indemnity of 60.30 per 
week day given by tho insurance company. 

Art. 17 — Illness. 

The Mutual Help Society of Petit Bourq was fountled in 18(17 to provide modi 
cal aid and jnedicines for sick members, and to pay a daily indemnity during their 
illness. 

The workmen ai'o strongly urged to become members of this society, the regula- 
tions and rules of wliich will be communicated to them by tho secretary. 

Those not belonging to tins socioty can, in case of illness, receive gratuitously 
tho care of the physician of the establishment, but must pay for their own medicines, 
and will receive no indemnity. Tho physician will visit tho workshops every Tuesday 
and Fi-iday, and any workman wishing to consult him must give his name at the office. 

Art. 18. — Military Service. 

Any woi-kman called to the 28 days or to the 13 days' service will bo granted 
tho following inmdemnity by the establishment : — 

1st, §0.40 a day (Sundays included) if ho has been more than two years in tho 
workshops. 

2nd. SO. 20 a day, if he has been a year in the workshops. 

No indemnity will bo allowed any one Avho has been less than a year in the 
workshops. 

Art. 19. — Savings Bank. 

Workmen desiring to trust their savings to the care of the establishment, can 
place their money in the Savings Bank at tho rate of six per cent, interest per annum. 

Art. 20. — Reduction of Rents. 

The rents of the houses let by Mons. Dccauville, senior, have been reduced 80.10 
per month per child under 13 years of age attending school. 

The rents are also reduced SO. 20 per month for each year of service with Mons. 
Decauvdle, senior, counting from tho third year of service. 

The years are calculated dating from tho 1st of tho next January following the 
workman's engagement. 

Art. 21. — Superannuation. 

When a workman has reached the period when ho has no more rent to pay, he 
is considered to bo the proprietor of his house until his death, on the solo condition 
that he works for no other master. 



26 



BELGIUM. 

Average daily wages of Laborers in 1887. * 



Al 



Industkikm. 



Working of iiiiiu's of pit coal 

do ulati' iukI stone ipiarriiw 

do inctallio and mineral mines 

Metallurgical industry 

Siderite industry (preparation and treatment of the smelt- 
ing of iron and steel 

Manufactvire of castings of all kinds 

Illuminating gas 

^Manufacture of coke 

do bricks of coal 

do lime 

do cement and articles in cement 

Ceramic industry, [Kjttery, iM)i'celain, dilf, bricks, pipes, &c. 

Manufacture of chemical products 

Salt rctinery 

( ilass factories 

IJoilers and brazier's wares 

Bridges and iron timlnu's 

Maiuifttcture of needles and pins 

Minta^ge 

Flax industry 

Hemp do 

Cotton do 

(irist mills . . . 

(irindiiig mills 

Rice mills 

Brewery 

Alcohol distillery 

Sugar factory 

Sugar retiiu'ry 

Manufacture of glucose 

Vinegar 

I51eachery of thread and cloth 

Starch factory 

I'rcpMiation of tobiwoo 

do vegetable oils 

Manufacture of rubber g(MKls 

do pastel)oard 

do ]>aiier 

do wall paper 

Woollen industry 

Shuighter of cattle for food. 

Tanneries and currier shops 

White leather trade 

Hosiery ii\ umhiI and cottons 

Steam machinery, looms, ..tc 

Agricultural implements 

Musical instruments 

Weights and measures, itc 

Manufacture of fire-arms 

I'owder factory 

Railroad materials 

15oat-buiIding 

Carriage factories 

I'rinting 

Building contractors 

Manufactiu'e of cloths 

oil cloth 

wax candlery 

matches 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



soap 

artificial manures. 



Average wages of 
workmen. 



Duration of daily 
work of Workmen. 



Under 

14 years 

of age. 



$ cts. 
2Slt 
21^^ 
17s 
24j! 

2t»i 
2lj 
15' 
21^ 
18J[ 
281, 
2(ii 
27 i{ 
ID 



27* 
l!)if 
24i 
18if 



Mi. 

14'^ 

18t 

2;{i> 

1.5 



From 14 

toKJyrs. 

of age. 

8 cts. 
371! 
28i! 
33* 
3.5i 

42* 
%')\ 
.S.'it 
32i 
27* 
-^i 
42 
38 
3(>t 

am 

45* 
37i 
37^ 
35 



17* 
17 
27s 



15 



Kii! 
15' 
14* 
24S 
(» 15 
1.5* 
21 X 
l(>i 
25* 
15 
15* 
VXi 
14ii 
(I 23i.; 
2(tJ 
(t 15* 
17s 
25ii 



25' 

k;^ 

l(i 
22 
30 
17J 
(» 15 
223 
K! 
13J 
21i| 



281 

21)* 

32\ 

37^ 

.35' 

51 

34* 

3!l 

.3(1* 

4Gi 



a5 

31 ;i 

32* 

27* 

38 ' 

2i)S 

2i»' 

35i{ 

24* 

37* 

32ii 

34* 

.30 

21(1 

38 

30 

4i)v| 

38+ 

35S 



41* 

.3i)i 
31 
32^ 
42?; 
30* 
45 
422 
2(5* 
323 
38!! 



Over 

1() years 

of age 



!? cts. 

m\ 

(17* 
541 
(WJ 

7(1^ 
74 

7o;< 

.5!) 
(•.2 
03* 

(ir^ 

()2* 
(J3i| 
48 
!)4* 
0!) 
71 5 
05* 
8i5 
43'^ 
44 
51* 
53ii 
48* 
(17 
.58* 
,55* 
,58* 
Oi5* 
02* 
.54* 
48i.; 
45* 
(( 00* 
52' 
mi 
.52* 
.55* 

(;o* 

00* 
(iO* 

r)8'i 

(>"' 
50 
74 
53! 
'.14 
74! 
(ii»3 
(i5J 
75ii 
82 
71 
75ij 
0(i83 
4!>! 
07 
.58* 
.52! 
58* 
5!»i| 



Day. 



2 to 
4 to 

to 
2 to 
(■> to 

10 to 

4 to 

4 to 

10 to 

10 to 

10 to 

4 to 

8 to 

(> to 

2 to 

2 to 

10 to 

Oto 

8 to 

10 to 

() to 

1 to 

2 to 
8 to 
() to 
() to 

3 to 
7 to 

7 to 
!t to 

10 to 
10 to 

8 to 
(i to 

2 to 
7 to 
Oto 

10 to 
10 to 

7 to 

3 to 

8 to 



Hours. 

7 to 
Oto 

8 to 
5 to 

10 to 

(i to 

2 to 

8 to 
7.i to 

5 to 
10 to 

4 to 
10 to 

4 to 

4 to 

8 to 
10 to 



Night. 



The night. 

7 to 12 
i) to 12 

8 to 1(1 
5 to 12 

10 to 12 



7 to 14 
lOi to 12 

11 to 12 
1(( 
U 

8 to 12 
8 to 12 

' ' '4 to 12' 



8 to 



7 to 12 

8 to 12 
10 to 12 



U 



9 to 12 



10 to 12 
10 to 12 



8 to 12 



8 to 10 



8 to 12 

'wto'ii' 

10 



W 
12 

'io' 

9 to 12 



I'roductio: 
NiinilH^r 11 
Average d 

llll V 

T'dst of mi 

Averagi- c< 

do 

do 



* Report of the Belgian section, group XI, sec. 1, by Mr. A. Soupart. 



27 



All tlieso induHtrles to^othor employ : 
15,508 (ii rectors nnil employeoN. 
24,70!) \vf)ikmen under H years of a^o, earning an average of SO. 24V per day. 
3S,;{;')(! do from 14 to 1(> years do 0.36 do 

321,020 do over 1(1, earning an average of 



0.62i do 



Coal Industry, Bassin de Hainault. 



I'riiductkin, iiiiiiilicr of toiin 

NimilHr of WDikiiu'ii 

Avi ra({t' (liiily wurch 

do wiiK'i-s, ]icr ton 

Cost (if miiiini,', jxT ton 

AvflMp' cost of flour, |i<T KM) ll).s 

do liutti-r, i>iT 111. . . . 

do meat, (nn' Hi 



18,50. 



4,420,7(11 
4tl,8!»o 
$t :{(i'{ 

7r.i 

2,-)! 



(» 1!)* 
0!)' 



1870. 


10,l!M5,r).'«) 


!H),!),"i8 


•S 58;^ 


1 18i.! 


17 


4 03^ 


2iVi, 


i;t^ 



1887 



13,470,0(10 

!)8,0H7 

.«! ,*)7 

88 

mi 

2 41 

2r.-j 

15 



Duration of the day's work in Belgium. 

Accoi'ding to the last census taken for the information of workmen, it was shown, 
that thei-e were : 

p. c. 

2,700 workmen, working less than 8 hours, about 0.73 

5,817 do do 8 do 1.51 

12,071 do do do 3.14 

l(il,U>3 do do 10 do 41.!>7 

54,717 do do 11 do 14.25 

133,431 do do 12 do 34.74 

14,()4G do more than 12 do 3.(j(i 



Industries having the greater number of ivorkmen working 10 hours. 



Working of coal mines 

do slatf! and stone quarries. 

do mines 

Mi'tallinvic industry 

Illuniiiiatiii|,f gas 

Miuinf.ii'lurc (if coke 

• lla>s iudustiy 

Manufacture of sugar 

do paiier 

ilo engines, &c 

do railway supplies 

I'l'inting 

Biiilding contractors 



Average 
duration of a 
day's w<jrk. 



r)3,843 - 
12,014 
2,743 
3,424 
1,11(1 
1,028 
(vV.IS 

ll,irio 

2,010 
4,2iT) 
3,3!H) 
3,,3!)(1 
3,355 



!»4,7ri7 

17,458 
3,;i4(i 
.5,1!IH 
1,8:14 
2,0(i!l 
1(),.5(« 
22,(«4 
5,884 
7,8.57 
7,722 
5,318 
5,<J43 



Hours. 
10 .S7 

1(101 
10 •02 

!)-80 
10 (i!l 
10 00 
10 50 
10 07 
10 78 

10 Id 
10 i;5 
10-34 



Industries having the greater number of Workmen working II hours. 



Builders of bridges and metal tiniliers. 
Starch factory 



(104 on 1,R")5 
471 " (130 



28 



Industries having the greater number of Workmen worlumj 12 hours. 



SifU^ritc iiiduMtry 

Miimifiic'turt' of brickH 

Cf'iiiniic iiidiiNtry 

Linen industry 

Cotton industry 

Uri'wint; 

Woollen industry 

Miunifiietuie of mixed fiihries. 

Chandlery 

Mivinifactufe of f(M)dH 



8,8!ll on 18,'J 



4ia 

7,82)t 
21,;«!7 

!),2.S8 

4,2;<1 
13,323 

8,4(>3 
iV.Ki 

r,i3 



(17 

" 1!),477 

" ;«,()48 

" i(),(ir)4 

" !i,8r)7 

" 23..T)!! 

" ll,il40 

" '115 

" !I12 



11 
II 
II 
II 
II 
11 



3<» 
41 
53 
45 
(•.3 
70 



12 21 



Industries having the greater number of Workmen working over 12 hoiirs. 



Makers of iirinN imd Hrt-anns. 



1,358 on 3,53() 



12()3 



Rates of xvaijes for agricultural lnhorers. 





Ykaus. 


Withoii 


t IViiii'd. 


Witli 


Hoard. 




Men. 


Women, 


Men. 


Women. 


1850 




$ cts. 

2'M 

27!' 

wi 

48 


8 cts. 
15!, 
17', 
24^ 
25 


9 cts. 

13V 
15-J 
231! 
24J 


$ cts. 
08 


1850 


(• (;;( 


1874 




13t 


1880 




14! 







The report gives for 1887, the average wages without claasification, for the whole 
kingdo'ii, as follows : — 

Men 80.401 u day 

Women 0.24 i do 



COAL COMPANIES MAEIKMONT AND BASCOUP. 

[Belgium.] 

These companies employ over 6,000 persons of the woiking class. They have 
established in favor of their staff numbers of institutions for their benefit, and none 
of these institutions present any distinctive characteristic from others of the same 
natui-e, with the exception of their remarliable chambers of explanation. 

Organisation of work. 

In the work of mining the sj^slcm of sale and that of premiums have been in use 
for the last fourteen years and have proved eminently satisfactory to the interest of 
both master and workman. 

Sales. — Certain kinds of work with mines, the condition of which rarelj' change, 
may be put up to auction. Herein the workman finds mnuy advantages, a settled 
price for his work during a certain period of time agreed upcm, the security it gives 
him, the power of choosing as partners in his work, workmen of the same ability as 
himself, and the chance of his wages increasing in proportion to the work done, 
provided work is regular anil favorable, &c. 

Bargains. — The care of the underground ways, the different repairs to be made 
and especially the cutting of coal are all subjects of bargaining ; that is the price 
discussed between the engineers or their assistants and the workmen. 

Premiums. — .Since the system of premiums lias been introduced for all workmen 
loading, driving or drawing the coal from the pits, their wages now consist of one 
fixed part, and of one proportionate part in accordance with the number of cars that 



29 



liavc puHsod tlirouj^h tlioii' hands, or vvitli tho quantity of coal taken troin tho pits. 
This s3'slcm is a real stinnihis for tho workmon, and a certainly for tho owner, of 
coal lioin^f mined with rci^iilarity. 

Contracts. — In dcaiiii"; out the material from the rcjiair KJiops, stores, &c., tho 
ori^'auisation of work by t hejoi) has been extendeil to all workmeti withoul dislinction, 
allli(ini;h in c'ortain classes of work, su(di as drawin^^ up coal, and repairs dinicullies 
are incontestahly met with. Its ivsiUts ai'c an increase of waf^es ot 20 |)er cent, 
with a proportionate decrease in the pi'ice of returns. Thegn-ator part of the yearly 
woik, such as thedriving ot machine-*, tho repair and the care of tho material are all 
conti'actcd for, the conti'acts not extendini^ over a year. They are sit^ned hy Iho 
ciial companies and the hands of workmen who accept them. The amount foi-whi(di 
they are accept t^l is fre([uently based on the ([inintity of coal extracted. All tho 
risks of the work, which very often varies in quantity, are accepted by the workmen. 
Past experience shows that, though the coal company may at times advance money, 
and at others, the workmen may advance work, in the end the compensation is about 
eipialized. liesides, the |)i'otits nuulo by the contractors show that the conlidence in 
the results was not mis))laced. They have, in fact, si,i(ned new contracts under con- 
ditions entailing reductions of 20, 30 ami even 40 per cent, in favor of the companies. 
If, therefore, their wages have not diminished it must be because they have worked 
harder, or they have improved their manner of working, making it more intelligent 
and have thus seconded the etforts made by their superiors in providing improved 
implements. 

NOTES ON THE WORKMEN'S CIIAMHER OF EXPLANATIONS FOR THE DIVISION OF 

MATERIAL.* 

The Chamber of Explanations, instituted for the workmen employed at the coal 
mines of ^lariemont and Eascoup (45 in number), is divided into two sections ; ono 
for the workshops, and one for the extraction of coal and for the machines. 

Each section is divided into as many committees as there are ditferent kinds of 
M'ork. 

The committees are delegates chosen by the woikmen, and a chief elected by 
the delegates themselves. 

They meet once every quarter tho ;, gents under whose orders they work. Tho 
mooting is presided ovei- by the chief engineer of the divisions for tho material. Tho 
meetings are held during work hours. 

The committees enquire into all matters, ditfei'encos, disputes, kc, that ma^' 
have arisen between the workmen and the master (here represented by the com- 
pany) ; thej'- interpose also in settling the rate of wages, and in all ditficulties con- 
cerning the regulation of the work. 

Tlie tbilovving is given as an instance of the importance of those chambers of 
explanations and of their working ; the case was brought before the chambers for tho 
blacksmiths of the shops : — 

A working blacksmith had to do from plans given him, and at a rate settled by 
the (diief of the shop, certain difficult pieces of work, which had never heretofore been 
attempted in the shops. When the work was received, it was noticed that thej)ieees 
were not made in accordance with the plans, and the workman who had made them, 
having fallen ill, the correction of the woi'k was entru:ited <■ another blacksmith 
who undertook the work under reserve, the hammei', acco"'.ng to his opinion, not 
being strong enough ; the result pi'oved him to have been right. An adjuster was 
then charged with the correction and succeeded in ari'anging it. AYhen it was pro- 
posed to deduct the price of the work done by the adjuster from the amount agreed 
upon by the first blacksmith, the latter protested against such a course, pleading : 

1st. That the iron used for the work was not large enough. 

2nd. That the hammer was not strong enough. 

.'Jrd. That tl e correcti(m of the work was given to another person and of a 
ilifterent trade. 



(iroup IX. — See The Trades Associations of Belgiutn, Appt'iulix VI. 



80 



Til reply it \vm arp;no(l that : — 

iHt. Tliiit lie was ill tio way obiif^od to mako use of the iron in quostion, and tho 
propter iron was to Itc liad in tlio store. 

2nd. That lio iiad made no protest as to tlio iiisutficioiicy of the liaininor. 

livd. 'I'luit tlio correction of the work could not be contideil to Iiini, bo bein/^siclc 
at the time. 

All tlio membors present and tho complainant himself accepted the correctness 
of these o.xpbiiiations, on condition that lor the ihture, in similar cases, it should lie 
clearly understood that, resorvutiuns boiiii;' niado in time, the worlanan should not be 
hold responsible. 



LA VIEILLK MONTAQNI': COMPANY'. 

Establishedin IS'M. 

ZiNO Ml.NES AND FoUNDKRIES. 

[Angleur, Belgium.] 
Or(janizafion of Wof/es.'-^ 

All those omployod in the Vieillo Montagno factories, from (he directors down 
to tho smallest assistants workiiii,' at tho ovens, ai'o, according to their ih-greo, inter- 
ested in proiliii'ing good work. This end has been attained by the l)estowal of over- 
wages or premiums, the regulation of which we will explain. The one is the real 
wages and is fi.Kod; the other, what is called the premium, is variable and incidental. 
Tho tirst is designed as a payment for the lime devoted to tho company's service, 
the other as a reward for the workman's individual exertion, the success attaineil 
by exceptional assiduity and intelligence. 

The basis for the workmen's premium is determined by the kind of work at 
which they are employed; it varies according to the relative importance of the 
woi'k, but the workman is always acquainted with the rates, and can himself every 
day, liy the results obtaiiietl, calculate the amount. 

The premiums are granted p'-oportionately lor the amount of mineral manufac- 
tured, for economizing the raw material, and in particular, the materials for tire, for 
good work and the quantity produced in a given time. 

In a word, they are regulated according to the personal caro and ability of the 
workman. 

The premium account is settled at tho same time as those of the tixed wages, 
every fortnight or everj'^ month, as the case may be. 

JIalf tho amount of the bonus is paid and constitutes an addition to his sahuy, 
and o' which ho is given possession. Tho other half is carried to tho credit of an 
account which is opened for each workman; it is ])aid to him in full at the end of 
each year, if during that time he has fiiltilled all tho moral and material obligations 
of his engagement. In case of death tho bonuses that have been retained are paid 
over in full to the workman's heirs. 

The average rate of wages paid by the A'.oillc Montagne Company has since its 
foundation followed a scheme of pi-ogression as follows: — 



1S37 to 1847 
1847 to 1S57 
1857 to 18ti7 
18(57 to 1877 
1877 to 1888 



8 0.27 to $ 0.2:t 

0.29 to 0.44i 

0.443- to 0.50i 

0.50| to 0.fi2| 

0.G2i to O.G3i 



8 0.02 
(l.loi 
O.Oli" 
0.12 V 
O.OOi 



Total $ 0.36;i 

In tine the average wages of a workman in the Vieillo Montagne Company since 

1837 have gradually increased by about 140 per cent. 

In the average wages of 18S8 of $0,653, the amount of the bonus varies from 25 

per cent, to 10 per cent., according to the workman's rank. 



*Tlie Vioillc Montagne Comjiany at the Exhibition of 1889.— Labor Societies. 



ST^:CT ro:N^ TT. 



PROFIT SHARING. 



CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION'S. 



88 



IMIOFIT-SIIAKING. 



BAKliAS, TASSAHT I:T HALAS. 

1804-1888. 

noOKINO, VI,UM1UN(J AND HKATFNn. 

I'artioi|)iili<>ii in protits was introduccMl into (Iuh ostabliHiuneiil hy Mr. Kd. 
(ioflliinii, tilt; nredocoKsor oftho jtrosoiit imrtntTH. 

ill 1S(!2 Nir. iioffinon i,'raiito<l to Ins statl' a HhariMii tiit^ iii-otits. Tiiis nimro 
was ijiveii in money, in tlio toiin ofa lioniis, and was disli'il(Ul('(l after oacli stocic- 
lulcin^'. 

In 1872 .Mr. (fofflnon inaui^iiratod a new system of protlt-siiarini^, a. system wliieli 
witli certain improvements, dictated by experience, is at present loliowed l)y liiH 
huccessors and may he doscrilie(l as follows: — 

All the wurknaen of this chlttblishmenl are not allowed to participate in the 
])rotits. 

To be admitted as a pai'ticipant, the workman must bo Fren< h, must iiavo 
worked three consecntive years in the establishment, and have ^.^iven proof of his 
industiy and cajtacity. 

Every candidate for ailmission as a participant innst make application in writ- 
inf^ to the heads of the house, and inclose a copy of his rahicr Judiciaire and a health 
certificate from the doctor of the Mutual Aid Society. He must also pass an oxam- 
ination by the Consultative Committee, -'= who, accordiiii,^ to rule, may postpone tho 
admission of tho candidate if he does not possess sulHcient cajiacity for Iiis work. 

IJosides tho participants, there are " aspii-ing participants " who m.iy enjoy a part 
of the priviloi^es of protit-sharin<f. 

The Consultative Committee each month detorminos tho oxtdnt and importance 
of the advanta,i;-os to be accorded them. 

After tt year of probation these awpinints, on tho ndvico of tho Committeo, may 
become rea! participants. 

Apprentices of the house are admitted as participants from tho first January 
that precedes the end of their apprenticeship. 

The amount to be distributed umoni^ the stall' of this house is tixcd at five per 
cent, of tho net profits of tho business. 

The distribution of this dividend is made nmoni;; the pai'ticipants;)ro ratdon the 
sinus they receive in the year as lixed sums allowed, or as wanes, without e(ninting 
gratuities or other variable allowances. From the sum apportioned to each parti- 
cipant, two equal parts are taken ; 

The one which is paid him in cash each year after the settlement of accounts, 
at stated jioriods. 

The other which is placed to tho employees' creditin tho Provident and Eetiring 
Fund. 

Participants cannot withdraw their deposits until after twenty years con- 
secutive service in the establishment, or after haviui; attained tho ago of fifty years. 
In either case the participant may demand the amount entore(l to his credit in his 
little book if ho continues to work in the establishment; his new account of partici- 
pation cannot be closed by reason of long service, or of age, but ho must await his final 
leaving before he can demand a settlement of his account. Kvery participant who 
leaves tlio house of his own free will, without having concluded the length of service 
:il)Ovc mentioned, is considered to have been dismissed tmd is deprived of all rights, 

*I« odiniwsed of the nmnagers, the chief ovenjeers, the two oldest employes and the five oldest woikimn. 
20—3 



34 



even thobc in the Provident Fund. The amount to his individual credit is, on the 31st 
December after hi8 leaving, dividetl among all the accounts of the participants, in 
proportion to the amounts already to their credit. 

All persons dismissed for serious reasons are in a similar position. 

Every participant, on leave of absence, is bound to return to his work if he is 
recalled, within the month, ff ho does not return to his work within eight days after 
notice to do so, lie is considered as having been dismissed and he is deprived of his 
rights ; if th(^ house allows him to remain away over a month, he then has the right 
to demand tlie settlement of his account. 

When a participant dies, while in the employ, the sums to his credit are given; 
1st to his wife if she be not divoiced, nor separated fi*om bod and board, nor as to 
property. 2nd to his legiMmato children ur ciiildron legitimized by subsequent 
marriage, to his abopted chiUlren and his grandchildren. ;3rd to ascendants. 

In default of the above mentioned, the sums resulting from the settlement of the 
deceased pai'ticipant's account are divided among the otlier participants j>ro rata to 
the sums entered to their credit. 

If it is shown that a participant has become so intirm as to be unable to work, 
the total amount to liis credit may be paid to him should the committee consent. 

As long as the sums mentioned in the account books of the participants are 
deposited with the house, 5 per cent, interest will be granted. 

A general meting of the staff and particij)ating workmen takes place every 
year after the closi'ig of the stock-taking, to receive an account of the operntions of 
the year, to ascerta n the sum to be divided and to approve, if necessary, the changes 
in the regulations, iVc. 

This meeting every year names an arbitrator, an expert duly authorized to 
examine into the accounts with the ])artnei" or partners. The object of the report 
prepared by the arbitrator is to ascertain and state: 

1st. If the inventory or stock-taking was made in conformity witl) the stipula- 
tions of the general agreement. 

2nd. If tlie participation of 5 ^)er cent, on the net profits of such stock list was 
duly applic'l to tiie slatf'of workmen -a conformity with the regulations. 

This meeting nlso decides on the advice of the Consulting Committee whether 
it would be advisable to leave their capital with the house, or whether the amount 
should be invested with an Insurance Company, a Trust Society, or a Public Treasury. 

The participants should belong to tlie Society of Mutual Aid of the house. 

Results of the organization. 

From 1872 to 1884, total amount of wages amounted to $1G2,30(5.'73 

The 5 per cent, on the proiits produced 17,140.00 

Which gives in regard to wages a ])roportion of 1055 jx^r cent. 
The wages paid arts the same as those paid in other houses. 
A workman with $1.50 a day (the taritf of the City of Paris) and who works 
300 days in the year, Beceives as a bonus at the end of the yeai- . 

In cash $23.75 

To be entered in their books 23.75 

From 1872 to 1888, 117 workmen were admitted as participants, of which 
number: 

14 became masters. 
5 retired. 

2 entered military service. 

(i i-eturned to the house after voluntarily leaving it. 
10 died. 

4 were dismissed. 
2»j loft voluntarily. 

67 

50 were participants in 1888. 



85 



Mr. BJiSSELTEVRR, Junior.* 



AT maromee' (Seine Infui-ieure). 

The q lestion of the participation of the worknien in the profits of the employer 
is not ii now one ; but it has never been put into practice in our locality, and it was 
considered that it -would not he uninteresting to describe the trial wo have i^iven the 
fij'stem in our calico establiHhment at Maromme (Seine Infcrieuro). About 250 
workmen and employees are employed in our e.stablishment. The day's work of 
Ion hours varies from ',i francs for the aHsistant workmen to T and 8 francs for 
the workmen and foremen. The women earn from 1 franc 80 to 2 francs per day. 

Since 1877, with the desire to increase the well-beinjf of our fellow laborers and 
to strcni^tlion the bonds between them and us, we have inaui^uraled the system of 
profit- siiarinui:. However, in fear of making a step backward after making a step 
torward, we did not wish, at present at least, to assure the participants a fixed 
percentage in advance on the annual profits. We granted this as a gratuity over 
and above the regular wages, and we reserved the right to determine each year, 
alU'r the closing of the stock list, the sum to be allowed the participants. 

The work-])cople (men and women) admitted to participation are not chosen 
arbitrarily by the master; certain conditions of age (25 years), and of length of 
service (5 years), give them the rigbt to be participant>. We may add that the 
young nu;n calle<l away at twenty-one years for military service do not lose the 
rights they hiivo already acquired. An account is kept of the time they worked in 
our e8tai)lishment before the twonty-fllrst j'^ear, the time of their sojourn in the army 
boing alone deducted. 

The bonus allowed to each in proportion to his annual wages is divided into two 
parts. The first part is paid to the participant in cash, lie has the immediate 
onjoyment, or at least the immediate disposal, of part of bis acquired savings. This 
immediate payment seemed indispensable in order that the system might be 
appreciated. Human n.-iture is so constituted that it jirefers some enjoyment in the 
present to giving all to the future. Moreover, the workmen can put this amount to 
profitable u;se, and he is also encouraged to increase his wages by economy. 

The second part, the other half of the bonus coming to the worknian, forms the 
provident fund. Jt is entered in the pi'ovident book t ,* account and yields a tixed 
annual interest of 4 per cent. The completion of the system is the payment of this 
sum, which '^f'ictly should not be in the bands of the employer, but in a special 
jirovident fund which will certainly be establishc<l when the .system of participation 
will have progressed and be ado])ted by a certain number of factories. The time 
will come when the workman will receive the sum due him. A clause of the regula- 
tions determines the cases when payment shall be made of the sums entered in the 
small account book, viz.. at the death of the participant; in case of incurable illness; 
at the age of sixty years, and after twenty years of service in the bouse and forty- 
five years of ago. There is no danger of the money being spent in the tavern. 

The owners of these books never lose their rights, not even when they leave the 
cstablisliTncnt. The sums entered in their books belong to them and will be p'ud 
them with interest in the cases of settlement provided by the regulations. A consult- 
ing committee, composed of six co-laborers already interested in the business of the 
house and of six delegates named by the workmen, is appointed to manage the 
distributiim of the bonuses allotted to the participants. This committee acts as an 
intermediary between the employer an<l workman in any difficulty that ma^- arise. 
The participants cannot bo dismissed except on the advice of this committee. 

*Notici' given to the jury. 
20— 3i 



36 



Thi.s participation, organized under these conditions, gives the results shown in 
the following table : — 



YV.AUH. 


Amounts 

to be 

Shaml. 

2.000 
3.(KM) 
3.(MM) 
3.000 
3.(NK) 
2.tM)0 
4.0(K» 
2.(HMt 
2.(MMI 
2.0(MI 
2.0(10 


NmnlHsr 

of 

Piirticipants. 


Shiirf 
Pri>|K)rti()ti(Ml 

atronlint; 

to miKimit <if 

wagt'M. 


1878 


!M! 

<X> 

M 

128 

118 

lie. 

IKi 
120 
12C. 
132 
131 


n,r,7X 

17,3(i 

lli,7l 


l«7(t ■ 

1H80 


1881 

1882 


n,2!i 

11,77 


1883 


8,17 


1884 


1(1,.S."> 


188i") 


8,07 


188t> 


7,t>3 


1887 


7.2(> 


1888 


7,2(> 







The workmen thoroughly understand the advantages of this sj'stera. 

They quite appi'eciato the material help this increase is to them, an increase 
whi<'h, in good years, has reached as high as 10 to 17 per cent. One old woman 
working in the factory declared that with her share and that of her husband who 
works in the same establishment, she was able to pay her rent and taxes. 

The subscription of a part of their ]irofits to the provident fund has taught the 
sharers habits of economy, and as a consequence the greiiter number of sharers, of 
their own free will, deposit every year the amount of their shares over and above 
their wages, in the Savings bank of the establishment. 

Looked at from a higher point of view the workmen who are already attached 
to the establishment by strong ties feel that participation will draw master and men 
closer together by uniting them in a comini.i' work. They have by their watchful- 
ness and care, been able to save both material and time for the benefit of the house, 
and the bonds between them and their chief are such that they speak of ow factory , 
our calico, and no event can occur either happy or otherwise in which the workuien 
do not entei', sharing in the joy and mourning of the head of the establishment as 
tiiough they were but one family with their master. 

This is a real advantage to all, and the experience of eleven years allows us to 
add that the employer himself has an interest in associating his workmen in his 
profits, above all in great industries, where superintendence is less direct and leakage 
more easy. Under organized participation the woi'kmon themselves exercise this 
superintendence, and we may cite the example of that partici])uting workman in one 
factory cliai-ged with oiling the machinery, who economized in one year an amount 
of oil of greater value than the bonus he was to receive. 

It is our hope that the system of participation will ever be better understood 
and that heads of establishments will ever give more and more attention to its appli- 
cation. But let there bo no mistake: there is no readj'-made form for applying tho 
system. Each one must apply it in his own particular way, according to the work 
he is engaged in, taking into consideration tho workmen lie employs, tho country 
they live, and their sui'roundings. There is but one thing aljout the system that is 
common to all, and that is good will, the wish to lend a helping hand to the work- 
men, I'ating them at their worth, and as they de.sei"ve. " Our workmen are not our 
slaves, our machines are our slaves, our workmen are our fellow-laborers! " These 
woi'ds spoken by Mons. Steinhel of Rothans, at the ban(|uet given by the Industrial 
Society of ^lulhouse in 18T<), are fresh in (tur memory, nor have we forgotten tho 
system of participation established in Alsace by Messrs. ychaett'er it Lalanco, suc- 
cessors to Mons. HaeHely. We have borrowed more thiin one idea for our organiz- 
ation from this system. 



87 



To the future l»elongs associated work. An extra-parliamentary commission 
assnciated with the Minister of the Intei-ior has been occupied in gatherins^ all the 
documents relatiniic to this subject of those who have inteiested themselves in this 
matter, and who have practised the system. 

The results wo expect from the system of participation cannot l)0 more aptly 
(jiven than in the words of Richard Cobden (ISGl) :" I view with ]>lea8ure every 
measure that tends to fill up the abyss that separates the iwo classes of capitali>its 
and laborers. I wish these two classes to understand the difheulties of their mutual 
position. I would wish the workmen to understand that capital is nothing more 
tlian accumulated labor, . nd that labor itself is only the seed grain of capital; that 
these two, the capitalist and the laborer, concerneil in a common work, should see 
that what is to the profit of one is to the benefit of the other, and that both are 
e([ually interested in tiie success of the enterprise." 

To masters belong the realization of these wishes, to masters belong the right 
to support and help their fellow-laborers, so that there may be establislied lietween 
them real parental relations, that to them may be applied the words: "We are but 
one i'amily, and with us, as with the workingman's family, some members are older 
than the others, and bear the younger ones in their arms." 



THE BON MARCIIE. 

HOUSE OF AEISTIDE BOUCICAULT. 

Co-operation. 

In the year 1880 Mde Boucicault, widow, passed a notarial deed with 90 of 
her heads of depai'tments, by which the Bon Marchi became a co-oporative associ- 
ation. ^Ide ]5oucicault took as co-partnei's, in two-fifth parts of her business, a num- 
ber of her employees, who were already the owners of a saving or capital sum with 
which they bought shares and became sleeping partners. The toti.l capital was 
fixed at 2,000,000 francs, of which Mde. Boucicault held 12,.")00,000 francs and the 
associates 7..'>00,000 francs. The society is a collective name as regards Mde. Bouci- 
cault, the other parties interested being merely sleeping partners.* 

The business has been divided into 400 parts of 310,(}00, in order that the lesser 
employees may be permitted to purchase a share or to join together to raise the 
neeessaiy capital. Cash boys, drivers, saleswomen have joined together to purchase 
shares, but all heads of departments or of counters have at least one share in the 
business,* * 

ft had been provided in the case of Mde Boucicault's death that the society 
should continue under a c(dlective name as regardeil the agents named by her, or 
failing such, by agents named by the associated partners, and remain a sleeping 
partnership for the representatives of Mde Boucicault and the other partners. But, 
by the mere fact of her death, the company, from being one of sleeping partnership, 
became a joint stock company with shares of SlO.OO francs as capital. 

Mdo Boucicault died in 1887, ami, according to the act of the society, new agents 
were named. Thanks to the co-opei'ative system introduced in the establishment, 
though the maiuigement was changed, in spite of the imjjorfance of the business 
none of its interests suffered. The Bon MarcM is now doing business under the 
name of Plassard, Morin, Fillot ik Co., as appears by the following extract from a 
notice at the Exhibition : 

" IW till' cMiiistitutiiir of tlii' Sdcifty nf Vciivc I5(uuic:i\ih i^ Cd., foumlrd in 1HS((, tin' ciitiri' coumici'ci.'il 
raiiital, iliviiU'd into -KMI slums nf tijflits piuts t-acii, tliiit is W.'IW) parts, lias lii'i'i. ilividcd buccessivi'ly uiiioiig 
a larjfc iiiimlier iif tlic iMiiployt'cs of tlii' iiousi-, who aic thus |iartni'rs in tlif profits." 

Frdfit-Sharing. 
A certain number of the superior employees in the Bon Marchihaxe an interest 
either in the profits or in the business of the establishment, or in the general sales 
in their department. 

* Frofit-Hharing, &c.— Dr. Bolnnest. 

* * Kxiviiiinatiou of tlie lat)or societies — ^[r. Fillot'8 deiJOHition. 



38 



In ISTC) Mons. Arirttido Boucieanlt, fonndei' of tho Bon Marchi, ostublished a 
Provident Fund, in order to interest, besides* liis superior employees, nil his atatf iu 
the profits of the liusiness. Tho shares according to tho rcfi'ulations of this Provident 
Fund were : 

All eni])loyees who liad been in the house for five years or more (with tho 
exception of those already interested in it). 

A ])ors()nal account was opened foi' each participant, 

Tiio division is made proportionately to tlie amount received b}^ each employoo 
calculatint^ on a basis ol StJOO tor tho lowest amount received, even tlioui:;h 
the employees may earn less than that sum, and on a basis of 81)00 for tlio 
largest amount, although the employees may earn more. Tho amounts earned to 
the names of each individual are bonuseil by an annual interest of 4 per cent. 

Tho right to share in the JJoucicnult Provident Fund is given: 

1st. For one-third part to tho employees, men, having served ten years in 
tho house. 

2nd. For two-thirds, employees, men or women who have soi'ved fifteen years 
in tho house. 

3rd. For tho total amount, employees, women having served fifteen years in the 
house. 

4th. For the total amount to employees, men, having served twenty years in 
the house. 

5th. For the total amount, equally among the employees, women, who have 
attained the age of forty-live years, or of employees, men, who have attained the age 
of tifty years and over. 

An employee having attained the limit of the age may remain in the house, and 
draw the interest accruing to him as shown by liis book, but he can draw the 
capital sum only on his leaving the establishment. 

In case of tho death of a participant his share is paid over to the heirs. 

In case of iniirmity or any sickness incapacitating tlie particii)ant from work, 
tho agents may make over all or part of his share to himself or his family. When 
the particijiant is given an intei'ost in tho house, he no longer belongs to the Eoiici- 
cault Provident Fund, his account is stopped an<l put aside to be liquidated under 
the same conditions as for the other participants. 

When a participant leaves the house of his own free Avill or is dismissed, he 
loses his rights, and his share is divi(U'd among the other accounts. 

The agents, however, having en(iMirctl into his reasofis for leaving, or for his 
dismissal, may remit to him tho whole or part of tho amounts carrieil to his account. 

Any lady participant contracting marriage, no matter what may have been the 
length of her service in the house, and even if she leave the house, has a right to 
the payment of the amounts due to her account, and tho whole sum is given to her 
on her wedding day. 



Progression of the Boiicicault Provident Fvnd. 
This fund is maintained by an annual sum taken from the profits of the house. 



Years. 


Capital. 


Xiinilifr iif 
.Sharci'H. 


Yi'arH. 


Caiiital. 


Xuiulit'i' (if 
Hluiiois. 


1,^7(1 


8 

12,404 
24,()1() 
40,148 
57,7a5 
75,444 
!t3,114 
113,r)(i7 


128 
l!t!l 
275 
351 
443 
515 
592 


1883 


132,2()7 
l.')2,7(>li 
177.18!t 
201,SL'(i 
23O.077 
248,735 


(ill!) 


1877 


1884 


7;w 


1878 


1 1885 

18.S(i 

1887 


■s:.l 


1879 


!l!l."i 


1880 


l,2."i(l 


1881 


1888. 


1,3NJ 


1882 











39^ 



On the 31st of Jul}', 1888, there wore therefore 1,383 sharers in the Eoucicault 
Provident Fund, possessing aeapitul ot §248,735; besides the sums distributed since 
tlie founding in 187C, amounting to $70,305. 



M. E. BUTTNEE-TIHERRY. 



LITHOGRAPHER. 



[Paris.] 

After deducting from the gross sales, losses, failures in production and breakage 
of material, Mons. Buttner-Tliierry grants 1 p. c. to his employees. To this grant 
established by statute, he adds a bonus proportionate to the amount of profit made. 
One-third part of the annual dividend is paid in cash to the participant, the other 
two-thirds are deposited to the workmen's account in the (Tnion Insurance Company 
at compound interest, payable after his death to his wife or children, or to the parti- 
ci])iirit al'ler 20 years' sei'vico in the house, or when ho is 60 years of age. The 
employee may add to this deposit the third ho has at his disposal, and in that case 
Mons. J3uttner-Thierry increases it by 5 p. c, as an encouragement to thrift. Four 
of the twenty-six participants have so far profited by this advantage ort'ercd them. 



CIIAIX PRINTING ESTABLTSILMFNT. 

Participation was established in Chaix in 1872. 

Since that date 15 p. c. of the net profits has been divided among the workmen 
particijiating, pro rata on each man's regular earnings. 

.', of the part of each participant is paid in cash. 

!\ is credited to his account on the books of the retiring ami jtiovident fund, 
which the participant can receive only on quitting the estal)iishment, or, in case of 
his death, while still emploj-ed iiy the house, it is paid over to his heirs. 

.\ is paid into the same i-etiring and provident fund, but which he cannot touch 
until he is sixty years old, or has worked twenty consecutive 3'oars for the firm. 

Any employee, workman or workwoman can after three years service in the 
house, become a participant on condition that his com])etence ami zeal in work has 
been manifest, and he must make apj)licalion in writing to Minis. Chaix. 

The amount of profits allotted in 1S72 represented lOp. c. of the wages; in 1873, 
7 p. c; 101 p. c. in 1874; 7 p. c. in 1885. The average proportion from 1872 to 1888 
was G p. c. of the wages. 

liesults of the Onjanization. 

The results are given in the following table exhibited by the Chaix printing 
establishment : 

Share allotted to the staff every year : — 15 p. c. of the profits. 

Amount distributed from 1872 to 1888:— §18O,G(5!t.20 divided by means of tho 
individual books. 

.Member of participancy admitted: — 871 workmen, workwomen and employees. 

Average rate of the division : — (J p. c. of the wages. 

Amoimts in 871 individual books. 



1 


of $5,480 






1 


of 


4.500 






1 


of 


3,500 






5 of 


2,000 to 83,000 


37 


of 


1,000 


to 


2,000 


20 


of 


800 


to 


1,000 


7 


of 


700 


to 


800 



9 of 


$cm to $700 


14 of 


500 to t;oo 


20 of 


400 to 5(10 


30 of 


300 to 4(10 


42 of 


200 to 300 


80 of 


100 to 200 


595 of 


100 ami und 



* No application has so far, Im'oii rffusetl. 



40 



Profit-Sharing by Apprentices. 

A special fiiiul has been opened by the Chaix house in favor of compositor 
apprentices, to divide annually among thoni a part of the profits procured by their 
work- • 

The amounts proceeding from this fund ai-e divided as follows : 

\- is immediately entcreti on the book of the fund belonging to the party interested. 

I is retained in the house to be remitted to the parents at the expiration of the 
term of appronticeshij). 

^ is reserved for distribution every five years among the apprentices then present 
in the establishment. 

The apprentices aie thus, at the expiration of their apprenticeship, in the pos- 
session of a small ciipital, varying from $100 to $120. 

On the first of January previous to the termination of their apprenticeships, the 
apprentices share in a division of 15 per cent, of the profits among the statf. 

From 186!t to 1888 the number of apprentices sharing in the profits for appren- 
tices was 618, and the amounts paid over to the fund by the house, were altogether 



GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

This Assurance Company founded in 1850 a Pension Fund which later on was 
changed into a Provident Fund. In 1850 the Board of Administration contributed 
to this fund $30,000, and every year it adds five per cent, of its profits. 

All the employees of the company, excepting outside agents, experts and door- 
lieepers, are allowed to participate on the Ist of January following their admission 
into the comjjany's service. 

The sums paid into the Provident Fund are divided among the sharers, pro rata 
the amounts received by each employee during the year. An individual account is 
opened for each participating emj)loyee; the accounts are capitalized and accumulate 
at 4 per cent, per annum. 

The employee cannot touch this amount until after twenty-five years in the 
service of the house, when he has attained the age of C5 yeai-s. Ho can then 
purchase with the amount set to his iiccount an annuity in the office, transfer- 
able to his heii's, or he can invest the money in railway or government securities, 
the conxpany then keeps possession of the stock certificates and pays him his divi- 
dends, the certificates being paid over to the persons named in his will. 

The employee whose account has been settled can remain in the company's 
service, and continue to share in the profits ; but he cannot enter the service of any 
other insurance company without the written authorization of the company under 
penalty, if the council so orders, of forfeiting all the sums or annuities to his account, 
which will then be returned to the Provident Fund. 

Em])loyees who have resigned, or been removed or dismissed, have lost all right 
to the Provident Fund, unless the council decide otherwise. 

The amounts forfeited are divided among the individual account, in proportion 
to the amounts already inscribed in them. 

In case of death the amounts in the sharer's books are paid over to his family. 

If an employee be alHicted with any infirmity by which ho is incapacitated for 
work, the council may dispose of all, or part of, the amount to his account for his 
benefit. 

If an employee be named a director his account is settled on the day of his 
nomination, and he can receive in cash and in full the amount inscribed in his book. 

If a participating employee should, with the consent of the council, undertake 
some employment excluding him from participation, he may by permission of the 
council leceive all or part of the amount credited in his book. 



41 



Results of the organisation. 

S 

Since 1850 tho company has puid over to the 

rrovi.lont Fund 1,:3LM,329 

Interest at 4 p.c -ISl.SdH 

l,80(i,222 
Amounts ]iaid to retiring employees or to their families 

amount to 97n,(JG8 

Amount in full in tho Fund on the 31st December 1887.. 826,554 

Shares in this company are very high, there are superior employees whose books 
at the age for retiring carried amounts of 820,000, anil otUce boys who, after 25 years 
service, lind themseh'es in possession of a capital of from $4,000 to $7,000. 



THE NATIONAL. 

FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

[Paris.] 

The National Insurance Company divides evejy year a cash dividend of 2^ p.c. 
among its employees, the division being based on their salaries. Directors and ins- 
pectors do not share in this division. The division has ])een made annuallv since 
1S37. 



THE SUN AND EAGLE. 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

These Companies founded in 1881 a Provident Fund, based on the principles of 
the Provident Fund of the General Insurance Company. The oidy dirteronce of any 
importance between the two systems is in the manner of division which in these two 
companies is based not only on tiie amounts received, but on Iciigtii of services. 

Every year these two companies give to the Provident Fund 3 per cent, out of 
the sums set aside as dividends tor the shareholders. 

75 per cent of this annual allowance is divided as follows : 
lY. 50 per cent^jro )-ata of the wages. • 

'■ 25 ])er cent.^jro rata the number of years service. 

The other 25 per cent, of the sum remaining at the disposal of the managing 
council to reward exceptional services, to aid certain employees and to add to the 
account of the participant's interest at 4 per cent. 

COMPANIES FOE ILLUMINATING BY GAS TIIE TOWNS OF MANS, 

A^ENDOME AND VANNES. 



CENTRAL COMPANY OP ELECTRICITY OP TIIE TOWN OF MANS. 

The workmen and employees receive every year a gratuity proportionate to the 
services rendered. ]!]very two years a sum is taken from the company's profits and 
dividetl between the workmen and employees in proportion to salaries. This sum, 
which represents an increase of abtnit 10 ])ei' cent, of the allowances and wages, is 
placed in the Savings Bank, and books are given on which the credit is entered. 

An annual sum of $10.00 is levied on the profits for the benefit of the work- 
men meriting it, and who have worked over five years in the house ; and this sum 
is placed to the credit of the workmen in a special account. At the end of ten years 
this allowance is raised to 815.00 a year. 



42 



Tho total l)cai'H iiiterest at 5 por cent. 

In 1S88, at th() iiiauifnration ol'tlio new factory of Mann, tlie of)mpany gave to 
oacli of tlio diildron of ilioir workmen a book for the Ketiring Fiiml for old ago, with 
a entry of crodit of $4.00. 

From that timo tho wt)rkmon are obliged to pay annually to the crodit of their 
children at least S2.0() until such time as tho children are able to earn theii' 
livelihood; the company j)laco a similar amount to the credit of each child. Tho 
capital is reserved for tho parents. 

With tho object of assisting workmen with large families, tho com]iany thorn- 
selves pay tho subscription for tho children, counting from the fourth. 



RAILWAY FllOM PAIUS TO ORLI^ANS. 



REGULATION ON TUE PAETICIl'ATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ANNUAL PROFITS OF THE 

RUNNING OF THE ROAD. 

Extract from the Statutes of the Orleans Company. 
The Administrative Council, see article 54 of tho new statutes : 

Art. 54. After the different assessments mentioned in Articles 50, 51, 52 and 53 
above referred to, and those to which may be apjilied tho guarantee of interest 
granted by the State, and to tho future division with the State of a part of the j)rotitM, 
the net proceeds of the enter])rise will each year be divided among tho shares at the 
rate of the six hundred thousandth, j)er share, with the exception made in Article It) 
above mentioned concerning new shares. 

However, when there is added to the total shares as interest and dividend a sum 
of $4,000,000 there is made on the surplus of the proceed.-i a deduction of 15 per cent,, 
which amount shall be distributed by the Board of Directors among the employees of 
the Comjiany, in proportion to their wages, or by reason of their .services, on 
principles to be dotermincd by regulations which shall bo submitted for the approval 
of the next general mooting. 

When, by application of the preceding dispositions, the total of shares has 
amounted to a sum total of $5,800,000, the assessment to be levied on the net proceeds 
shall bo reduced to 10 per cent. 

When, by ap])lication of the preceding dispositions, the total of shares ha.s 
amounted to §(),400,000, tho assessment to be levied on the proceeds shall be reducdl 
to 5 per cent. 

In accordance with the resolution of the general meeting of tho 31st March, 
18()3, which gives power to the Board of Directors to modify the by-law of the 30th 
March, 1854, in accordance with the by-law of the 30th March, 1854, it is decided : — 

Art. 1. When, in carrying out Aritcle 54 of the Statutes, there is made, on 
the annual proceeds, deductions of the sum to bo divided among the employees of the 
Company in proportion to tho wages, and to their services, this sum shall be divided 
according to the following dispositions by the decision of the administrative council, 
rendered on tho propositions of the Directors : — 

Art. 2. Each year, before any division be male, there shall bo deducted, for the 
aid and encouragement fund, a sum which, in any case, shall not exceed 15 per cent, 
of the amount to be divided, and which shall not be more than the sum needed, with 
the full disposable amount of the previous year, to make up the maximum of $50,0(it'. 
Special decisions of the administrative council, rendered at tho request of the 
directors, have decided what sums shall bo taken from the aid or encouragement 
fund, either during tho year, or at the end of it, to be given : — 

1st. To the employees who, in the performance of their duty, have been wounded, 
have contracted illness, or suffer from infirmities that render it impossible for them 
to continue their employment. 

2nd. To the families of those who have died under similar circumstances, or hy 
reason of some extraordinary ailment. 



i 



48 



3r(l. To omployooH in want. 

4tli. Finallj^, to oinployoos who diHtiiif^uiHluHl tIu'in?<olves in the soi'vico. 

Art. 3. Tho asHCHsmont. proscriliod l)y Ai-ticle 2, above iiiuntionoil, having boon 
made, the surplus of tho sum to bo dotorniinod in dividod anion^ all tho oniployoort, 
in proportion to tho waives wiiicli each lias rocoived diirin<; tiio coiirso of tho year. 

Art. 4. Those omployeos alone are included in tin? division, whoso waives are 
tixed liy the year, saviniz; the exceptions established, or to bo estublishod, by sjjecial 
decisions of tlie administrative council, 

Every employee entering the service of the company is admitted to tho division, 
dating from liis nomination. 

ilvi'ry cnij)loyoe who leaves the service of tho company during tho year, for any 
Ciiuse whatever, ranks at the division only on the portion of the annual wages which 
ho has drawn. 

All employees attached exclusively to the first establishment, that is the con- 



struction or working of sections, of which the jiroceods and expenses were cai-ried to 
liu' iiccount of the tirst establishment, were not allowed to share in the division in 
any case. 

Those employees are admitted who, though ))laced under the conditions of tho 
proceeding paragraph, are at the same time preforming duties in regard to tho general 
working of tho road. 

Art. 5. The bonus alUfwed to each employee, to the extent of 10 per cent, on his 
wages, is ])lact'tl to his credit in the retiring fund for old age, institutetl by tho State 
nmler conditiims of Article 7 following. 

The surplus of the bonus is, to the extent of 7 per cent, of his wages, paid to 
the ein])l(iyee in cash. 

Finally, after these two deductions (amounting to 17 i)er cent, of his salary), the 
balance, if any exist, is placed to the account of tho employee in tho savings bank of 
Paris on the conditions in Arti(do 8 following. 

Art. (I. Tiie sums carried to the account ()f each employee either in the retiring 
fund or in the savings bank are given by tho company as a voluntary gift, not trans- 
ferable and not seizalilo. 

Art. 7. The sub.sciiptions to the retiring fund for old age, given before tho 
employee has leacheil the age of fifty years, are made on c(mditioii of its being made 
!i lite rent to him at that ago, either as a sinking fund or as reservetl capital, as ho 
may wish, the whole in conformity to the plan and regulations of the fund. 

When an employee has reached the age of fifty years, if he remains in the service 
of the Coiu])any, the subscription to the retiring fund of the amount conveyed to him 
for the year in which ho will have reached his tiftieth year is given to him with 
the life rent ilue at 5] years. If he remains in the service of the company when ho 
is 51 yeais the new subscription is given him with the enjoyment of the life rent 
when he is 52, and so on, from year to year. As to the rent acquired at 5U years, 
at 01 years, i*tc., by reason of the subscrii>tioiis made anterior to these ages, tho 
onjoyinent is sent back a year as the employee commences a new year of work after 
50 years, after 51 years, cS:c. 

The subscriptions to the retiring fund cease at the moment when tho life rent 
attains the maximum fixed by law. In such case the extra subscriptions as well as 
tho arrears nf the liquidated rent is placed in the name of the employee in the Sav- 
ings Bank 01 Paris until such time as he will sever his connection with tho company. 

Art. 8. The subscriptions to the Savings Bank are made on condition that they 
can only be withdrawn by the employee, in virtue of a special decision of the admin- 
istrative council rendered at the request of the director. 

The subscriptions are suspended when the credit of the employee to this fund has 
reached tho maximum determined bylaw; if, moreover, his subscription in the retir- 
in^^ fund for old age has not reached the maximum fixed by the law which regulates 
tlie latter fund. In that case that part of his contribution which should have been 
i,nveri to the Savings Bank is made over to the retiring fund to supplement tho maxi- 
imim fixed by Sec. 1 of Art. 5 above given. Tho contributions to the Savings Bank 
recommence when the maximum of the life-rent acquired by the retiring fund has 



44 



n^aclioil Wio maxiniiiin. Thou tlio hiiius wliioli rmirlit to bo contnl)uto<l to tho I'otiriiiijj 
i'liMil as wull n» the at'reiiis on tho li(}iii(hitO(l runt, of Hiich tiiiul arc paid to tho 
»Savirii^H BaiiU, on coiulition lliat it shall invont such sumH in Stato rents not to 
excood tho iiiaxiniiuii dc^tormined hy law, until sucli time as tht^ employee severs his 
connection with tho ( "()ni|)any. 

Art.!!. Kv«u'y oinplnyoo has the lii^ht to increase from his own rosoiircos tho 
contributions made on his account accoiding to the foie^oini^ dispositions, cither tQ 
the Savings Hank or the rotirin;^ fund. 

Art. Ul, Tho hook of accounts ot each oinployoe in tho retiring; fund or Savings 
Bank fund is taken care of liy the Company. Those books arc givon up, with the 
right of disposing of them, oil her to tho owner in cnseof his dismissal, or to his hoii-s 
or assigns in case of his death. 

Art. 11. Hvory year aftei- tho work of division is accomplished a bulletin is given 
to employees on which is stated : 

1. The amount of tho sums to his credit in the retiring fund, with tho indica- 
tion of tho lii'e-rent to which these sums give tho right. 

2. Tho amount to his crodii at tho Savings llank. 

Art. 12. At tho end of tho grant, us well as in tho case providcil foi- by Art. 37, 
on the bill of charges, tho part ot the aid or encouragement fund, formed as stated 
in Art. 2 above given, which has not been (lis])osod of by tho administrative council 
shall bo distributed among the employees in service, according to tho rules prescriboil 
by Articles 4, 5, 7, 8 of the present by-law. 

Art. 13. Any anterior clause contiary to tho present by-law is repealed. 



THE FIVES-LILLE COMPANY. 

MACHINISTS AND BUILDERS. 

[Fives-Lillo (Nord).] 

This company supports a Provident Fund foi- its workmen of Fives & Gisors 
(between 2,500 and 3,000) upon the following basis: 

Tho subscription to tho fund are : 

1st. A sum equal to 8 ])er cent, on tho net proceeds of the workshop. 

2nd. The disposable balance on a sum ecjual to 2 per cent, of tho same net pro- 
ceeds, after deduction of amounts for medical attendance in tho factory, miscellaneous 
aid, and Judicial indemnity amounts which may have boon j)aid in bonus during the 
year. 

Tho participant must be 22 years old, and have served for three consoculivo 
years in the establishment. 

The amounts paid in to the Provident Fund are divided among.the participant.^ 
pro rata the wages they have received during tho year. 

The individual accounts bear interest at the rate of 4 per cent. 

After twelve years' service, dating from tho day he was admitted to participa- 
tion (about fifteen years' service in the factory), the participant's account is settled, 
and tho amount duo him is ]ilaced in bis name in the retiring fund for old age as a 
reserve capital, or as an alienated capital if he asks for it. 

Tho participant whose account has boon settled may continue to work for tho 
company, and tho ])art coming to him is then paid over to his account in the retiring 
fund. 

Settlement in case of death or sickness, etc., forfeitures are defined and providtnl 
for as in other provident institutions of like nature. 



COMPAGNIE GENERALE TEAXSATLANTIQUE. 

PROFIT-SIIARINO, 

It is the principle of the Compagnie Gdn^rale Transatlantique (Ocean steamers) 
that every employee of the company, from the General Manager down to the lowest 



46 



worlvtiiiin Hhoiild recoivo, hoHidos IjIm inontlily diioH, u hIuu'o oi boniit) on the whole 
or itart of the aini»uiils accniin^ from tin- lui^iiioHH. 

Till! hlmros ol'ilio !i(liiuiiistriilivi' .sliilV arc inovidi'd for by Mtiitiito, and iiro voted 
every yoiii" Ity tlio BharoholdorH lit a general mucliiig. The shareliolderH also voto 
an amount of mo iniudi per cent, on tlie jirolilH to bo divided among the head 
iillirials and other Ktationary employees. The HJiaro for llio lioad otlicialH in deter- 
mined hv a certain nnmlier of nhares, varying in nuinlxT according to the ntatus of 
cacii. These hhares are invariable mo long as the dividend remainM (he name. An 
amciunt of so nimdi per cent, of the prolits voted by thesharohoiderM is thendeducted 
from the total amount of tlie head otlicial.s and divided as a general bonus among the 
^lalionarv employees in sums projiortioned to the amount of wages. This general 
honu-^ represents about 10 per' cent, of the salaries. 

Tiie watchful care of the adniinistration is bfought to bear also on the Hailing 
jiortion of the Htatl^ — on the oHicors as well as on the crow. The bonuses are con- 
sidered as commercial drafts. On the otiier hand, captains an<l other- oflicei's of 
packets are responsible for losses, averages and harhoi' dii(\-i. A regulaled system of 
hnruises and ])enaltiivs has, ther-etore, been eslaidishiMl, so calculated that by good 
management the bonus exceeds the ])enalty by a great deal, and iiicr-i^ases the 
amount in full by about 14 per cent. 

The margin idlowed for* bonus and penalties isbr'oad enough to allow a dedirction 
of 1(1 i)er c(Mit. on the dillerence for the sailing stall', and o per cent, for the 
stationary statf working in the por'ts. 

These <leductions form a capital, whicii is divided every year among tlio 
statiomiry employees under the name oi' specird bonus. 

The division is made in all branches of the service under the advice of the head 
olUeials among the niost worthy omployoes, who thus receive a supplenuintary sum 
of about 5 per cent, on their wages in addition to the general bonus of 10 per cent. 



THE SUP^Z CANAL COMPANY. 

Tiie Suez Canid Company established a system of ])articipation when it began 
its operations in 1855. The following articles ar'e from its statutes : — 
Artifir in. -Tlif net |ir(iic('ds or imifits of tlic I'litci'iiriso arc ilividi'd .is fcjllows : — 



aiil- 



■I. 2 pur cent, fortius formation of ii retiring iind aid fund, for indemnitieH or Ixinns granted to the 
•'iniiloyi'fs as the coinicil may deem advisalJf. 

Mons. Charles-Aime de Lesseps explained the company's system in the following 
way before the Commission of I'lniiuiry on Laboi" Societies: 

In istalilishintr an ai'inial division of apart of tlic protits, our (fcncral idea lias Iwcn to associat<' our 
staff in a real niaimtr to tlii^ cnterpriHf, to its profits, its |)ros]H'rity in [)ro|H)rtion to tlie services reii(h're<l 
liV ivicii clMjiloyee. 

fii nil the time an eniiiloyee lias reached the retirinjjf a),'e he receives a pension proportionate to the 
nuiiilier of his years of sersice, and to the amount of Ids sahiry. Thi're are two pro|iortioiis whicli cnnilmie 
t(i fiinu the retirintr fund. When an employee is retireil at tlii^ end of one year's service only, with a salary 
(if sliiid, he can receive hut a very small amount of pension ; hut if he has served thirty years, with a salary 
(if Sa.oiHl, when he retires he will receive s'U.HM). He is, moreover, associated with the profits of the 
liusiiiess, even when he no longer belongs to the acting staff. The period for retiring is thetefore not 
restricted. 

'I'lie following is our manner of proceeding : 

We find ourselves this year with a protit sharing of .'*120,n(l(». We will first allow the retiring fmid a 
siiiii ill proportion to half the amount of the salaries of those retired. Tlieii we will also give half in jiro- 
["irtieii to their salaries to acting agents ; the remainder will he divided among the rest of our staff pro nila 
till' wages and years of service of each. 

These explanations will enable us to understand the rules for retiring and the 
eventual division of 2 jier cent, gr'anted in 18T6 by the administration. 

Ailicit 1. — The right to retire is given all employees classified liy the company, after thirty years of 
active service, calculating from the date of their classification.* 

"Minis, (h' Lesse]>s in his deiM)sition liefoie the Commission gave the following explanations in regard 
til the classifications : — " Our agents are all taken on trial for a cert.ain length of time, and they are classi- 
tiiil, that is put in a position to admit of retiring, after they have served two years in Kgypt and a certain 
time in France. 

Article 2. — The right of retirement for years jiroportioned to the years of active service, counts from the 
date of classification and is granted— 



46 



Int. To ctniJlnycfH hftvinif wtvpH twenty yenrs in KfO't't- 

'2\\i\ 'I'll fiii|iloyicM ImviiiK MiTvcrl tlii' coiuiiiviiy |iiiit ni tln> tiiiif ill Fniiicf aiid pint in Mnypt, iliiriiiK ii 
M|(iic«' cif time, wliirli, iilliiwiiii; liffy |«'f 100 fur hi rviciH In I'Vypt, will givi' it total iif thirty yt'iirs' Mcrvici'. 

Mnl. Til all licinsi'd iMiiplnyci's fur ntuppatji' of wnrk, rc-ortfani/atioM, <»r any othor wlniiliiHtrativc 
ini'iixiiri' wliicli (Iiicn nut partake >if tlic natio)' nf ilirtniiHHul. 

Itli. Tn all i'mpli)yt'""< alllictfil « itli ci-itilicd lualailicn wliidi iiieaiNUMtatn tlicni fur ivctivo Ht'i'vicu. 

I'ltli. Kiiipliiyrcs liavinj; attuimd hi\ty ycaix uf »(;''■ 

Arlirh',\. Ily H|H'(ial aKiTrniiMit lictwccn tlic lunipany ami tlii' ciiipliiyi'f tlii> ri(fht tii retire tliM'it nut 
prevent inntiniiatiu!! of lU'tice service. 

ArticlcH 4 and T) ^ive I lie n^vorsioii ftt' halt' llio pt^iinii>ii of a ilccoaKod I'titict'd 

employee to Iuh det'oiulantH or liuirs, or to Hiich poiHons whoso support (ho decoasod 

has been. 

Art. (■). Any employee wlio ban iM'en clJHniiHHeil or wiiiwe ap|N)intnieiit hun U-en revoktiil Iohch u HkIiI 
to retire, or tu any anienilM w liatnoever. 

However, in tlie (Mse iif a (liMinis-<ei| employee Ixiiiijf reiiiMtateil in the chiHsitied htaff, his former year^ 
of Herviee « ill lie ailniitteil in the eftleiilatiiiiiM. 

Art. 7. Licensed emplnyi es readmitted to the fonipany'HKervice, and whone licenMeM have lieen frrn"''''l 
them, may cakidate the whole of their Mervit'i- iw chiMHiHeil employeiw for the ri(fht to retir«» and tn 

the llllMI|:<. 

Those emplnyeiH whose licenses have not lieen retnmed on returniiiK' to the company's service, an well 
UH all those who may in the f\iture lie readmitted, will calcniate their services oidy fnmi the date of their 
new classilieatioii. 

.Art. S. The mininmm aiiioimt for retirinj; employees who have jfiven thirty years' activi' service is 
rated on their average sjdary dtirin); their last three years of service. A pro|Kirtioiiate niiuiinmn in granted 
the other emjilipyees retired. 

.Art. '.I. The amiiiiMl reipiiied for the retiring fund is provided by the pnK'ceds of the 2 per coiit. oii 
the jirotits reserMil fur the stulf. 

.\rt. 10. S 1. Whenever the proceeds of the 2 per I'ent. is iiinre than siittieient to cover the miiiimniii 
for retirinjf employees a ded\icl ion of lO per cent. « ill lie made on the total amount of prm eeds to estalilisli 
a reserve fund to provide for delicits, and for aids voted liy the (."oiiiicil in favor of workiniii in adversity 
or for their families. 

S ". The amount dedneted may l)e modified, suppressed or established at any time the Council tnay see 
fit to ilo so. 

S 3. A current account producinjf intirest at 4 |M'r cent, per aiounu will be opened by the company fur 
the empliiyees' rest rve fimd. 

Art. II. When from the nroceeds of the 2 ])er cent, dtnlncted from the minimum fur retiring' employees, 
pruviilcil fur by .\ii. S, and tlie deduction provided for by .Art. 10, there remains a sum in e\ccss, tliis sum 
will be divided auionj; those cmpluyees rcto'cd in prupiii tiuu tu the average amuiiiit uf their wa^;es fur thr 
last three years uf thiii' scr\ ice multiplied by the tutal luunber uf years they have served the <'ompan.v ii> 
classilicd cmplovees, the nudtiplier never to exceed liO. 

Hut this pnvilei^'e will cimsc when the amount to be distributed shall reach half the average ainotmt of 
the l■ctirill^,' i luplovee's last three years' salary, he having served the company for thirty years, and it shall 
be pro|iiirtiuuatily smidler fur those who h.-ive served the company less than thirty years. 

Art. 12. When, after deducting the 10 per cent, provided fur by Art. 10 frum the iimuunt for retiriiifr 
carried to the maximum as provided by .Art. 11, the aiimial proceeds of the 2 per cent, still haves an excess, 
this excess will be divided entirely among all the classitied emphiyecs in service in poriHirtiun tu tlnir 
salary un the Hist Ui'cember uf the previuus year, multi|ilied by tlu' number of the employees' years of aclu;il 
services, the multiplier never to exceed HO. 

.Art. l;!. The iiumlicr of years" service uf the classified working staff having a .share in the divisinii 
provided by .\rt. 12, will coiuit from the 1st of .lanuary. 

\o employee classitied after the 1st uf .lanuary sh.'dl sliar;* in the division of iirofits for the year in 
which he is classitied : but the year of his retirement slidl in any case be counted in compensation as entire, 
for the divisiiiit of profits. 

Alt. 14. When the division provided for by Art. 12 has iiroduced for the working staff a ]mt 
equal to that granted by Art. 11 for the retiring employees, that is, a part ecpial to half the salary i if 
ein|iluyees uf thirty years of services, the surplus of the proceeds of the 2 per cent, will be divided ainont; ;ill 
the staif giiieially acting or retired, according to the provisions of Art. 12. A last settli'inent for tin- 
retired employees will lie based the same as for the settlement at the period of their retirement. 

.Art. l."i. The annual amount to be given retiring employees, shall in no case exceed •'Ji'l,liOO for tlinsc 
employees whose average salaries during their last years uf service shall have been ^<.'>,ooo und \miler. 

And in liki^ pruisution fur those whose salaries have exceeded 83,000, the anaaint of §2,400 ivniainiiii.' 
as a last nia.xiinuni whatever may have been the amount aljove !!!r),000. 



ESTABLISIIMEXT OF A. DeBEENY 

Type Foundry. 

(Paris.) 

RULES FOR PROFIT-SHARINa AND FOR THE FUND OF THE FOUNDRY. 

Introduction.^ 
Mens. DeBerny introduced profit-sharing in 1848 ; this was the fourth trial of 
this system of remuneration. (* ■^) 

* Notice returned to Jury. 

(* *) The first aiiplicatioii of the system was by Leclaire in 1842, the second by Laroche-Joubert in If* 13 
and the third by the Orleans Company in 1844. 



47 



Tlio first Mons. DoBorny l)ii8oil his systoni on tho roliitivo vnliio of Runital and 
liil><>i', iiiiitin^' in M nioro poiin)K<to way timn had over l)oon dono before tiioso two 
factors i<>v priMliictioii. 

Tliy Hysli'in ho han us«m1 kuko 1S4H in a proportionate <livlHi<tn of tho proHtH (and 
tho Iohsoh) botwcoii (uipilal ami lal)oi'. 

Tho Hamo rido is ai)plio(l to tlie division of thoprotltHaccnuHi^ from lalmr among 
tilt' worlvincii. 

^[oiiH. Dt'lJorny was thoroforo inHpiiod, above all, by a sense of distributive 
justice. lie had the honor to bo the tiistln make usi> of this manner of profit-sharing, 
in which capital ami labor are associated on a footing of entire equality. 

'flic form he chose, fioo from all idea of de>-polism, shows tho workmen clearly 
Ihiit llii'ir share in the profits dt'iiends upon and is onliroly measured by their work. 
Till.-', llicrofore. was well adapted to eneouniife them, and to create and dovidoj) mutual 
cniitideuce, without which experience teaches, any system of participation is preca- 
rious. 

Not oidy was Mons. do Horny guided by a souse of Jastice in his system of 
|ir()lil-sli;ii'ing, but be was moved liy a desire to provide a provident fund and one 
for mutual help. This was Iiow he became inspired to establish the fund lor tho 
foundry. Since its establishment this fund has been not only an aid fund, but also a 



-J eslalilished, and it is not. the least ori- 
'uent. 

Ipy little else than subseri))! ions from 
'I satisfied with tho snuill amount of 
that too small a share of their profits 



fund fiir mutual credit. The loan soei' 
ginal nor .he least useful fund in the ( 

Tho fund was, for a long lime, suppoi 
the wages ; but in 1S71 Mons. do Horny 
foresight shown by his workmen, anil decn 

were devoted to tlirift, decided to make n clumge, and devote that portion of thepro- 
ilts horctofbro i)aid to the men t(* a foundry fund. 

This fund has tlourislied, and has since exteniled its opei'ations,and i)ensioii funils 
have booncreatcd for retii'ing workmen, as well as a pension t'und for acting cinpioyees 
subject to certain conditions regarding age an<l length of service, which adds 
niateri;illy to their usual wages. 

J'rotit-sharing and tho foundry 1\mu1 are therefore two dependent institutions 
wiiich support and assist each other. They cannot bo considered separately. 

Charles Tuleu. 

BASIS FOR PARTICIPATION OF LABOR IN THE PROFITS. 

Tiie profits are divided propoi'tionatoly among the amounts in wages and allow- 
ances ;vnd with Capital. 

The tirst of these two parts represents Labor's share ; it is given to tho Foun- 
dry Fund.='- 

Tho Foundry Fund shaves in the losses in tho same proportion.* * 

REGULATIONS OP THE FOUNDRY FUND. 

3fannge7nent. 

Tho Foundry Fund will be managed by a council composed of members lumied 
by tho direction, and of members jiorioilically elected by the workmen. 

The council will give out the work in the shops. It will study and regulate iUl 
mattors relating to the management of the interests of the fund. 

Eules for Admission. 
To become a participating member of the Foundry Fund, it is necessary that 
every workman should : 

1st. Have worked ISO days in tho establishment. 

2nd. For men, be 18 years of age and earn at least 80 cents per day. 

CI This xhare has been tlnvoted to tho funil since IS"!.- From 1S48 to 1S70 the sliare of tlic profita 
iKliiiiifiiig to laljor wa.s divider! among the members of the fund pro rata of tiieir worlv. 
r *) A case occurred in 1852. 



48 



3rd. For women, be 10 j'ears of age and earn at least 40 cents per day. 

All participatini; members shall, on their pay-day, be Hubjoct to a retention of 
2 per cent, on tl\('ir waives in favor of the fund. 

Every member is b(4ind to belong to some recognized mutual aid society. 

^[embers on leave of absence are not subject to the retention when their absenco 
is not for 0*^.0 month. When tiieir leave exceeds one month, a monthly tax of (lO 
cents for men and of 30 cents lor women is de ;ianded. 

Militai-y service is consiilered as leave of a )sence, and is fi'ec of the monthly lax. 

A workman re-admitted to the workshop after having left it may be received 
as a participating member without any further probation, provided ho refunds tlie 
share drawn whan ho left. 





Tl 


such sli 


ll iiiny 
used to 


loan is 
Th. 


night :it 



Monies of the Fund. 

The Foundry Fund is provided for : — 

1st. By an assessment of 2 per cent, on the wages and allowances. 

2nd. Hy interest on money lent and investeil. 

3rd. By the shares of the profits gi-anted to labor. 

The accounts of the fund are kept by a special accountant, as well as by the 
accountant of the establishment. 

They are inspected every year by the Council of A. linisti'ation. 

The fund has a reserve fund, the amount of which is j'Ogulated every year. 

The monies of the fund are deposited in the Banque de France, in Mons. Tuleu's 
name, the directing proprietor • '" the foundry. 

Contingent Shares, 

The monies of the fund are common property during the lifetime of the woik- 
men. Each one's shares are determined at the expiration of each year as follows:— 

Half the actual amount, reduced by the amounts to be paid in pensions the com- 
ing year, is divided proportionately among the number of days' service ; a woman's 
day is considered as ;i of a man's; 

The other half is divided pnportionately among the wages ; 

The days and the wages are calculated from entering the foundry. 

The shares remain in the fund to each one's name. They serve to determine 
the amount of aid fund for sick members and the loans which the fund makes to its 
members. 

In this division the days and the wages of the working pensioners are reduced 
by 4, or ,'5^ or J or by f, according as their amount of pension is ^ or ^ or h or f of the 
entire pension. 

Retired pensionei's have no contingent share in the fund. 

The contingent shares arc liiiuidated <inly incase of death, or of leaving the 
foundry. They ai'c then subject to a reduction of: 

The total amount ])revious to 000 days work. 



The tV 


after 


900 daysw 


(( 8 

Tff 


do 


1,200 do 


" I'ff 


do 


1,500 do 


" Vlr 


do 


1,S00 do 


To 


do 


2,100 do 


" tIt 


do 


2,-tOO do 


" vv 


do 


2,700 do 


" A- 


do 


3,000 do 



The council is the only judge of the disposition of the contingent share in case 
of death. 

The funil is allowed two years for the payment of the shares. The division ot 
the amount in the fund will be made in accordance with the same regulations in c!W 
of the establishment being in liquidation. 



The 

<l;iys ill (I 

one vcar. 

'The 1 

So. 1(1 

liavo ser\ 

romaindei 

Or of 

foi' men \ 

SO.l'd diiri 

(lays. 

Over 
$20 of the 
on 



Chr 



partieiilui 

Nn gi 
work gi ,(' 
Aid ii 
of the yjej 
-N'on-w 
of sickness 
^V'ome 
•ire grn Ml ( 
^^'onuMi nu 
^i'ly^ follow 
The f. 
of a retiree 
Apprt 
0'».vs liave 11 
•'' 'Icduction 
tl.cir wages 

Thc'f.M 

per (|;iy of v 
«!icli child o 



Ti.,3 fmi 
J'h' I'riviioi. 
if they conti 
20- 



49 



Loans. 

Tlio fund loans to its ineinl)oi\s tho amount of their liquidated sliaros aH loni^ m 
Hucli sIkhvh have not roached one-third the amount of thoir entii-o contini^ent siiare. 
It inav lend anotiior third as an encouragement to tiirift; this seeon<l thii'd must ho 
used to buy Krencdi lite-rents, tlio deeds remaining on deposit in the fund until the 
loan is paid up. 

Tlie loans bear interest at (5 per eent. per annum, and are payable every fort- 
night al the rate of 

$0.80 the least up to $ 25 



1.20 


do 


do 


40 


l.CO 


do 


do 


60 


2.00 


do 


do 


140 


2.4(» 


do 


do 


200 


2.S0 


do 


do 


240 


3.00 


do 


do 


300 



Aid. 

The fund allows aiil in ease of sickness to all workmen' who have worked 180 
days in the foundry. The length of time in which aid may be given is restricted to 
one year. 

The tariff is as follows: — 

§0.40 per day for 40 days, and $0.45 for the remainder of the year, for men who 
have served 'tOO ilays; and §0.20 per day during 40 days, and $0.23 during tho 
remainder of I'le year for women who have served at least I'OO days. 

Or of $0.45 pel" day during 40 days, and $0.50 during the renuiindor of tho year 
for men who have served moi'c than 1)00 days; and of $0.2.'! during 40 days, and 
•SO. L'(! during the remainder of ihe year for women who have served more than 000 
days. 

Over and above these aiils, a supplementary allowance is granted of $0.05 per 
$20 of tho contingent shares in the fund, over $80 for men, and $40 t()r women. 

Chronic diseases, and those of more tl.nn one year's duration, are subject to 
particular regulations. 

No greater number of days of sickness w paid for more than the number of days' 
work given. An illness of one day is not paid for. 

Aid in case of sickness is paid for only from tho time notification has been given 
of the sickness. 

Non-v,'orkingdays are paid for in case of sickness; nevertheless, if the first day 
of sickness occurs on a Sunday or non-working day it is not paid for. 

Women in ehildiied. members of tho fund, or wives of memboi's working or not, 
arc gi'anted $10, provided they refrain from work in tlie siiop during one month. 
Women members receive, moreover, the usual hel[) during sickness for the thirty 
days following their c(mlincment. 

The f'un(l shares in the funeral expenses of its members or of their spouses, or 
of a retired pensionei*. Its share of the funeral expen^-es is $10 in any ease. 

Api)rentices may be admitted to the fund for aid in case of illness, provided tho 
boys have not reached 18 years of ago, nor the girls 10 years of ago, on condition of 
n deduction of 2 percent, on their wages. Tho aid is proportioned to theamountof 
their wages. 

The funds allow men belonging to the reserve and the local service an :dlowanco 
per day of 20 cents fbi- themselves, and 20 cents for their wives, and 10 cents for 
each child or parent dependent on him. 

Pensions. 

Tiio fund allows pensions to the workmen in cases of infirmity or old ai^e, with 
the privilege for the pen.ioncrs of allowing their pensions to accumulate with wages 
if they continue to work in the foundry. 
20- 



50 



Pensions !iro regulated on tlio number of days work done, on the amount of 
wages earned l)y the workman since his enlranco in the foundry, on the amount 
disposable in the funds, deducted from the reserve fund. 

The pension is entire or partial. 

The partial pension is of the tifth, the third, or the half or the three-fourths of 
the entire pension. 

A pension of any kind can be granted in case of infirmity, or after a long illness, 
after 1,800 days work in the foundiy. 

After 55 years of age a man who has worked T.SOG days in the establishment, 
and a woman who has worked (i,200 days, have a right to — 

A partial ])ension equal at tirst to one-third the amount of the entire pension, 
and fi)ur years afterwards to one-half, and finally four years later s+ill to three- 
fourths of the entire pension, still continuing to work in the establishment. 

Or else to the entire pension on retiring. 

After (iO years of age the men who have worked 0,000 days, and women having 
worked 5,000 have a right to — 

A partial pension, equal at first to one-third of the entire pension, then four 
years later to the half, and four years later still to the three-fourths of the whole 
pension, still continuing to work for the establishment. 

Or to the entire pension on retiring. 

The pensioner may forego the fifth or the tliird, the half or the three-fourths, or 
the whole of his co-property in the fund, in proportion to the .amount of pension 
granted him. 

The rates for partial pensions are regulated every year. 

The retiring pension does away with the right to aid in case of sickness. 

The widow of a pensi(jner who had a right to an entire pension has a right to a 
pension of : 

The .f'a of the entire pension to which her husband had a right, after 30 yeare of 
married life ; 

The ^ff of such after 25 years ; 
^V do 20 years ; 

■i^ do 15 years ; 

Tj\r do 10 years. 

Entire Pension. 

The entire pension is regulated as follows : — 

5 cents per day for men and 3 cents for women; 

1 per cent, on the wages for men and women ; 

With an increase when the funds in hand, after deducting the amount for the 
reserve fund, are more than $10,000, of 1 per cent, per 8200 put aside. 

Or else with a reduction, when the amount in the fund diminished by the reserve 
fund is bss than $10,000, of 2 per cent, per $200 difference. 

The I'etiring pension once determined is fixed as long as the amount in the fund 
is over $10,000. 

FOUNDRY FUND ACCOUNTS.* 

Forty-first Division — 1888. 

l{i'C('ii)ts for tlif year. FrancR. 

2j>orconf. retained on wages and allowances 5,182 20 

Exterio, taxation 106 50 

Interest on loans (!74 85 

Interest on invested fund 4,9n() 90 

Bonuses (!0 

KeceiptB belonging to the 'und 10,9fifl 55 

*lii uonwfpu'iici' of ttic complicated ftyHtem oiluiittii) fur deteruiining cuutiiigeut shares, wo have thougiit 
pivixT to calcuhitj l)y francs. 



61 



Share of profits granted labor for work on letters in 1S87 and 

made over to the fund 22,024 00 

Total amount of receipts 32,9'J3 55 

Expenses for the year : 

Aid in cases of Hickness : men 3,005 tO ") 4 aio -ia 

do do women 1,346 40 i •*.*^-a" 

Kotiring pensions at a fixed rate 11,571 80 1 91 o-m on 

IVnsioiis for worUd's at a variable rate 0,750 00 j -'^.■•■*'*" °^ 

Fuiicrai expenses, 3 deaths, 4 crowns 240 50 

Temporary aid 130 (»0 

Grants for 8 l)irlhs 400 00 

Imieninities to those on reserve or local service 52 00 

Liiihtin^jj furnaces 42 00 

Li(|uidaling contingent share 1,818 15 

28,455 55 

Excess in receipts over expenses 4,538 00 

Amount in fund the 31st December, 1887 141,175 40 

Amount in fund the 3 Ist December, 1888 145,713 40 

Of which amount 14,000 francs arc granted to the reserve funtl. 

SETTMNG CONTtNGENT SHARES OF MEMBERS OF THE FUND ON THE 31 ST DECEMHER. 1888. 

Amount in hand r.oing Fr. 145,713 00 

anil he amount for pensions for 1889 21,330 00 

The amount to serve as a basis for division is 124,38i 00 

The half of this amount, 62,102 fr., is divided propf> nonately among the days of 
tlio members since their entrance into the establishment, the days of the women 
being calculated as ;i of the men's day, and the other half is divided proportiouiitcly 
among the wages. 

The men's days amount to 240,436 

Tlie women's, ]79,2(i3 reduced to i 107,558 

Total number of days for division 360,004 

The amount for each day is therefore ^f}Ti\^f fr. =0' for the men. 
And of 0, 174 fr. X f =^ 0' 104 for the' w«)men. 

The amount to bo divided on all the wages of all members since their enti'ance 
into the establishment is 62,102 francs. 

The men's wages are 1,871,863 

The women's do 646,707 

Total amount of wages 2,518,660 

The amount of wages is therefore ^HHiy ^^- ^' 0247 for the men and women. 

ACCOUNTS OF THE FUND SINCE 1871. 

Fr.aiiw. 
Amount on Slst December, 1870 24,170 45 

Jieceipts since 1872 : 

Detained on wages 72,42.S 00 

Profits grunted the fund 100.303 55 

Inteiest on loans 7,402 20) rorr, or 

do invested funds 57,853 05 j "^V-^o -> 

20— 4J 



52 



Beceipts since 1872 ; 



Variovis receipts. 



ipis 

Legacy from Mihs Iluet in 1872 

Legacy from Mens. DeBerny in 1881. 



Total amount of receipts since 1871 

Expenses since 1872: 

Aid i 11 cases of sickness 54,778 n5 

Pensions to actual workers 94,5!)8 55 ~) 

do to retired do 50,314 80 [■ 157,843 35 

do to widows of pensioners 3,930 00 j 

Funeral expenses 4,0(10 10 

Various expenses 7,445 25 

Liipiidation of contingent shares of property on account of 

leave or death 29,017 fiO 



Francs. 
7,115 10 
20,000 00 
10,588 00 

398,864 35 



Total amount of expenses since 1871 

Ditference in amount on hand 31st December, 1888 

LOANS SINCE 1871. 

Loaned in the foundry $45,158 40 

Paid back 42,010 80 



Eemai.is due $2,547 00 



Loans due 31st December, 1884 $2,073 20 | j. . 



310 00 



Loans for the year 2,583 40 

Paid during the year :.. $2,709 00 



Ballance due as above. 
Profits shared from 1848 to 1888 



2,547 GO 

$00,019 88 



DOCUMENTS OF STATISTFCS. 



Participation of the staff in the profits is given in different ways : 
Either as a division of profits ijotween work (represented by wages) and capital. 
By grant of so much per cent, on the profits. 
By grant of so much per cent, on the wages. 
These diffei'ent ways have no connection with each other. 

To attain a practical knowledge of a system of participation, it would be well to 
study one of these types of the system by calculating how much per cent, of the 
profits are due to labor. 

The relations the profits granted labor bear to the value of the labor. 
These three jioints, in the DeBerny & Co.'s foundry, and for the last five 
divisions, are : 

So much per cent, on the profits due labor 18 per cent. 

Kelations of labor to capital 23 do 

Eelations of profits grunted labor to the value of labor 8 do 



MAISON DOGNIIS', 

LACE ANn TULLE MANUFACTURER 

[Lyons]. 

All the workmen and emploj'ces of this house have an interest in the r.et profits 
of the concern. The division is not made on the general profits, but on the amount 



of J)i 

meoli 

Ihu ji 

'\ 

Thofl 

niiiiti 

(livi.sii 

salai-y 

sorvic 

profit!^ 

last si: 



253,150 95 ■ 


Th 


■ 


L\'ons i. 


145,713 40 1 


cornini-- 


■ 


c'lUoro.i 


1 


Till 


1 


of many 


1 


Jti 


I 


opened. 



A p.| 
mills. 

The 
of aliouf, 
••It wlioleJ 
The fundi 
among ill 
accord in T 
distrilaitti 

The 
Ever^' ye; 
pension.s 
For .• 
Jiave servJ 
Jias the I'll 
Jie is at hi 
paid liim 
reserved .si 
A i)n\ 
for any nT 
t" wiiich 1 



63 



of profit realized by each department in the factory. The workmen in the 
mechiinital fU'piU'tment of the factory were tir-st admi'Jed to wliaro in tliu profits of 
i\w Jiictory in 18S2, on the following basis: — 

The workmen are divided into seven classes, according to their years of service. 
The annual wages of each (tlie fixed wages, or the total amount of piece-work) is 
midtiplied l>3' the numher of workmen, and the product serves as the basis of the 
division. Thus, the share of a workman who has served thirty years, for an equal 
salary, is seven limes as great as that of the young journeyman in his first year of 
service in the house. The bonus to bo divided is so much per cent, on the special 
profits of the shop; the amount is not made known. This allotment, has for the 
last six years, given the following results: — 

For the 1st class, O'DO to l'2r) per cent, of the wages. 



do 


2nd 


do 


1-30 to 1-tiO 


do 


do 


do 


3rd 


do 


2-7() to 3t»r) 


do 


do 


do 


4th 


do 


3-()() to 5-25 


do 


do 


do 


5th 


do 


4-(!5 to (i-oO 


do 


do 


do 


6 th 


do 


5-45 to 7-80 


do 


do 


do 


7th 


do 


(;-:{5 lo !»-20 


do 


do 



Tlie division of those amounts is not made by ;be ]-.ouse. It is made at the 
Lyons Savings Bank. The parties interested are notiiied by letter of the amount 
coming to them. It is immeiliately paid to them in cash, if they request it, or it is 
ontere 1 to their account in a savings bank book. 

The distribution being ma<le by the savings bank has, as a result, the opening 
of many accounts there, which otherwise would not likely be opened. 

It is a beginning of thrift. The tirst 3'car (1882) 40 per cent, books were 
opened. 



OISSEL SPINNING MILLS. 

[Oissol.] 

A provident fund was established in 1S77 by Mons. Fauquot, the founder of the 
mills. 

The fund was started by a donation of $(5,000 (1877) ; by an annual assessment 
of about 5 per cent, on the net profits; by the ])rotits realized on provisions bought 
at wholesale and sold to the workpeople at a small profit (§300 to §540 pcsi' annum). 
The funds of the grant ($0,000) are divided into (!00 shares of $10 each, and divided 
among the pailicipants in proportions of one or ten shares to each individual, 
according to merit. Each annual assessment is likewLso divided into ()(t0 shares and 
distriliufed in the same wa}'. 

The basis of the division is not the amount of wages but the services rendered. 
Every year the surplus is added to a disposable amount, from which the Innise allows 
pensions to a certain number of aged workmen. 

For admission to participation the applicant must be at least 18 years old and 
have served continuously in ilie house for five consecutive years. The p:irlicipant 
has the I'ight to be paid one-third his annual portion in cash ; after 10 years sei'vico 
no is at liberty to dispose of half the amount in his book ; but the entire amount is 
paid him only aftei- he has served 20 years in the house, oi- is o") years of ago. The 
reserved sums bear 4 per cent, interest. 

A participant leaving the establishment of his own free will, or who is disijiissed 
for any reason other than a reduction of the statf, cannot claim any of the amounts 
to wliich his claim has not already been est;iblibhed. 



54 



LA aiRONDE PRINTING OFFICE. 



G. aOUNOUlLlIOU, DIRECTOR. 

[Bordeaux.] 

Mons. G. Gounouilhou introduced participation in the profits of his establinhment 
in 1885. 

All the emjiloyees, workmen and workwomen, after a five year's service in the 
house, have a rij^ht to a share in the net pi'ofits of the year. 

The statt"s share in the profits is at tlie least 1") per cent., of which two-thirds 
is divided amon^ the employees, woikmen and workwomen who have served five 
years in tjie establishment, iuu\ the other tliird among those who have served twelve 
yeai's. Tiie share t)f the tii-st participants is entered to their names in the retiring- 
fund for old age, with the right to enjoyment of the fund at 55 years of ago. The 
second share is given in cash to the participants. 

In order to avoid the difference in the division being too great, the amount of 
allowances and salaries has been rated at $200 lor the minimum and $1,000 for the 
next maximum. 

The participants have no right to control the management of the shares, but 
the management is given to a committee composed of a (lirector, two of the oldest 
editors, two of the oldest workmen, five of the oldest foremen, and five participants 
elected in secret ballot by the particii)ants at a general meeting. 

RESULTS OF THE ORQANIZATION. 

Years. ProHts divided. NhihIht of 

8 slmriTs. 

1H85 4,S00 141 

1886 4,H00 1(J2 

1887 4,800 174 

1888 3.400 116 



Jii 



KESTNER & CO. 

BELLEVUE, NEAR GIKOMAQNY (UPPER RHINE). 

From the year 1851 to 1872 Messrs. Kestner & Co. granted bonuses to their 
workmen ; in 1872 the bonus was replaced by a participation of 10 per cent, on the 
profits. 

To provide this 10 per cent, of the profits a calculation by the folloAving rules 
had first to be made. The rules were formerly applied for tlio calculation of the 
bonus, and the amouunt is corrected by taking the entire participatory part of the 
l)rotits as given by the inventory, and granted by the statutes. 

DIVISION. 

Art. 2. — The bonus will be gi\en according to sahuy, and will be increased 
according to the number of years' service. It will date on the 1st of April following 
the foreman's or workman's entrance into the establishment ; it will rate at 3 per 
cent, for the first five years, and 4 per cent, for the second five years, and so on, 
increasing by 1 per cent, every five years. 

Art. (i. — Bonuses capitalized will bear interest at 5 per cent, per annum, but 
may not be withdrawn before the expir:;tion of three yeai's, except in cases of death <»f 
the owners, or of their leaving tiie establishment, with exception for cases provided 
for by Art 7. 

Art. 7. — Foremen and woi-kmen desirous of investing their savings in the 
purchase of immovable property, or in building a house, are authorized to dispose 
of their capital produced by premiums. 



55 



RESULTS OF THE OBQANIZATrON. 

The system of bonlisos, or premiums, and of participiition, gives the following 
results : — 

1851 to 18(>1 — 5-41 per cent, of the wages. 
ISCl to 1871 — 4-32 do do 

1871 to 1881 — 7-15 do do 

1881 to 18RS — G-00 do do 

In 1887 participation of workmen in the profits gave the following results: — 
] worlvman rocoived a premium of 858. .'J7, 40 years' service. 
8 workmen do between 820 and $40, 1.5 to 3'6 yeais' service. 
17 do do do SKI and 820, 3 to 38 do 

16 do do do $8 and $10, 3 to 7 do. 

The other workmen received at least $8.00 ; those who hud not worked, two 
years received no shure in the profits. 

Example of the manner of calculating a share in the profits : — 



Name. 


Yfars 

of 
Scrvicp. 


Wages. 


. Rate 

of 

Boims. 


B<mus. 


Majority. 


Total, 






•S CtH. 




S CtH. 


!? etH. 


$ eta. 


X 


30 


1(55 00 


8 i>. c. 


13 44 


17 19 


30 03 


Y 


16 


205 40 


C i>. e. 


13 53 


17 31 


30 84 


Z 


5 


132 60 


3 1). 0. 


3 98 


5 09 


• i» 07 



COOPERATIVE PAPER WORKS OF ANGOULfi.ME. 



LAROCIIE-JOUBERT & CO. 

Participation was established in the firm of Messrs. Laroche-Joubert & Co., 
(Co-operative Paper Works of Angouleme) under several ditferont forms, not includ- 
ing wages by the piece and monthly gratuities on the selling prices of manufactures, 
which constitute one particular form of ])ai'ticipati(m much in use, and which was 
employed in the beginning by this fii'ni. 

The largo statf of these works is divided into groups called "works" oi 
"enterprises," and each group of the house forioing in combination a sort of society, 
each engaged on a special kind of work for the general good of the house, and each 
j)o.'.sessing its own set of books and its own inventoi'ies, so that each workman 
umlcrstands and feels in a tangible way the results alike of his negligence and his 
assiduity, results less likely to strike him were he lost among the large staff of tho 
establishment. 

There is assessed on the profits of each group : 

1st. A share allotted to labor, that is to say, the wages at so much in the franc. 

2nd. A .'^liare allotted to intelliijence, that is, to the head men and foremen, and 
divided <imong them according to mei'it by the chiefs of the establishment. 

3rd. A siuno allotted to cajtital as represented by the firm. 

The pi'oportion k) bo reserved in each group for these three elements, labor, 
intelligence and capital, is settled according to tho isolations existing between 
possible profits, the amount of salaries, the necessary capital, and finally the duties 
and infiuence of tho heads of the business, a proportion which varies sensibly from 
group to group as may be seen by the accompanying table, as it varies from one 
business to another. 



66 



Tahi-e of the Division of Net ProfltH in each Work or Enterprise. 



l)f|i:irtiiwiif (if iiiiikiiij,' |iiii«i' 

dliiziiij,', HiiiMliiiit,' iukI ruling (IciiiirtHicnt, iind k<'I1'Tii1 ware- 

llllUSCS 

Kiiv(lii|ic and ni()\n'ninjf piipw flcpartincnt 

CanllHiaiil department 

Aecniuit IhioU and eigiirettc pajMT department 

Packing; dejiartimmt 

I'aris waieliDUseM 



WagHH. 



Heads of 
lie part- I 
inentH. 



Hiineriiir 
VV ork- 



•10 

20 
2l> 
20 
20 
35 
10 



10 

20 
20 
20 
20 

**2r) ' 

***30 ! 



% 



10 
10 
10 
10 



10 



8harn 

ill 
(Jeiieial 
PriititM. 



% 



50 
50 
TiO 
5(1 
40 
50 



These departments form, as we have said, really separate factories, and the net 
profits of each, after de(liicli<jn beiiiff niadu for <fenoral exjicnses and \vai;'es, j;ives an 
interest of 5 per cent, on tlu> ca])ital employed in tliat department. All tlio costs 
of each department are set forth in the most precise manner in the regulations of 
the house. 

The division of the ijeneral profits is made in the following manner : — 

Before the (dosing of the liooUs a deduction is made of S(>,(iO(), rcjii'esenting the 
salaries of tlie maiuigers, plus 1 ])er cent, on the amount of the bills of sale of the 
Palis warehouse, and 5 jicr cent, interest is allowed to those who share in the capital. 

Of the remaiuing profits is allowed : 

'JO per cent, to the president of the council, and to the five managers about 5 per 
cent, to each. 

8 per cent to the superior employees. 

li! per cent, to tlie customers of the house. 

50 per cent, falls, so jnucdi to the fianc, to capital ; the participating depositors 
and the wage-earners ot the whole active personnel not admitted to a share in the 
special ])rofits of any depart meiit.f 

To he admitted to partici])ation, it is necessary to have a book of wages. Such 
book is given to each worker of 15 j'ears old who was in the cm[)l()y of the firm 
for over a year at the time of the stock-taking, in whitdi he participates, and there 
must be no serious charge against him. 

The oldest workers, men and women, as regards the division of pi-ofits I'eserved 
as wages, receive a share which is larger in proportion to the number of years they 
have been in the house. 

The wages of woi'kei's having been 5 years in the em2)loy, and being at least 25 years 

of age are counted for \\ 

Having been 10 years in the employ and ,'iO years of age. 1^ 

do 15 do :J5 do If 

do 20 do 40 do 2 

The share of profits is paid the worker in cash after each stock-taking. A savings 
fun<l was established for the savings of the staff, and great advantages were extendeil 

* Phis a prize or gratnity to interest the workmen in seeing tliat tliere be the h'ast possible quantity 
of dain.aged work, and that the greatest <niantity is produced with tlie least amount of laljor. 
** (liven to the cliief jiai^kerand piiiuipal workmen. 

*** (liven to tlie iiiaiiagers and enijiloyees. 

+ This division of the balanee of the general ])rofits, which we tike from " Particiiiation in Profits," by 
Dr. Bohmert, .as slightly modified ; the share granted to the superior employees being increased to 10 per 
cent, liy the regulation of IHS;). This part is added to the percentages ou the table of the ilivisions of the de- 
I>artineiits and the sum total is divided as follows : 

10 per cent, to the management. 

3.5 per cent, to the travellers. 

20 per cent, to the heads of divisions. 

25 per cent, to the employees. 

10 iwr cent, to the workmen. 



to the d 


in 


tile I 




V]\y 


foi 


his t 


of 


I sleo 




In I 


ini; 


jiarl 


(Ik 


call] 




T., , 


the 


firm 


(ho 


foil.r 


gave us ( 




The 




Itsh 


and 


in th 


Paper W. 


]ica( 


s oft 


of \v 


liich ( 




'1 



67 



to the depositoi'H, who, bosidoH receiving 5 percent, interest, were entitled to ii shuro 
ill tiie 1 per cent, olgenorul protitH ullottt'd to deposits. 

I'lvory depositor wlio lias worl<od tor the tirm tor two years, and has been noted 
for his ii|)plicuti()M and zeal in tiie departnunit, may convert his deposit into the siiaro 
of a hleejiing partner and into actual participation in the |)rotits oftlui establishment. 

In ISSf) tiie amount ot capital belonging to the workmen and employees, as slcep- 
iiii;- partners, was 82G!>,0U0, and eight old workmen and employees possessed $G2,000 of 
the ca|)ilal stock. 

To prove the complete success of the system of partici|)ation as ailopted by the 
tlio firm of Messrs. Laroche-Jonbert \' Co., wo content ourselves with publishing 
the following document, which was handed to the Jury, and of which they kindly 
gave us communication : — 

A.voour.iiMK, Ifith May, ISSO. 

The results shown in the following table are the most ehxiuent commpiitaries. 

It shows that notwithstanding the crisis in the ]Hiper tratlo of France generally, 
and in that of Charontcin particular, the efforts of the coiiperators in the Cooperative 
Paper Works at Angoulemo were such as to destroy the effects of such crisis. The 
heads of our house will be encouraged by these figures to learn all the improvements 
of which our work is susceptihle and to apply them without hesitation. 

Table of Results obtained since the Year 1870 to 1888, inclusively. 



W7U. 



ISSO. 



]8«1. 



]S,S2. 



l'"niiK's. 
riiititsof iiai'ticiiatioii jfiiiiitcil Ijy tlic 
liv-law of till' cii-(>i)i'nitiii's to till' I'lii- 
liliiyfi's, .siipi'iiois, iicads of (lt'|)art- 
iiuiits, fori'int'ii, chief workers and 
Wdikiiien 

2. l)i\ iili'ud "11 s.'daries 

3. I)ivid(i\d ]iaid over an<l alxive tlie 5% 
interest on tlie ca|>ital possessed liVtiie 
eiii|pliiyees or workmen of the house, 
eit her as de[H)sitorH, co-operators, sk'ep-, 
iiij; partners or participants of not ie«s' 

tiian liO.OOO j 10,;i(i;{ oO 

4. Dividend of co-operators to customers. li),872 !)!( 



t!l,4(i3 02 

1>S,,S57 !»" 



Francs. 



08,078 74 
22,351 70 



Total. 



110,057 48 
.*i22,lll 50 



]2,7i:j 

21,112 



80 



124,287 01 
24,857 40 



Francs. 



71,053 US 
28,021) 03 



14,410 70 

28,840 02 

142,032 32 

28,580 40 



Fri 



100, 
37, 



3(i8 no 

448 40 



1( 
32, 



300 30 
•)22 72 



Total. 



Francs. 



309,!t04 40 
107,285 (H) 



53,884 42 
102,34!» 43 



105, 
3!l. 



700 44 
141 20 



573,483 25 
114,t)00 05 



1. I'rofltsof i>articipati()n granted by the 
hy-law of the co-operators to the eni- 
ployees, superiors, heads of (lei)art- 
leeiits, foremen, chief workers and 
wiirknien 

2. Ilivideud on salaries 

3. Hividend paid over and above the 5% 
interest on the capital possessed by the 
impliiyees or workmen fof the house, 
eitlieras depositors, co-ojK'rators, sleej)- 
iiiff piirtners or participants of not less 
tliim 20,tK)0 

4. I )iviili'nd of co-operators to customers. 

Total 



1883. 



Fra 



80, 
32, 



(i53 53 
172 (i5 



18, 



080 '.Ml 
40!) 10 



140,222 18 
§20,844 43 



1884. 



1885. 



Francs. 



83,121 14 
47,!M)8 28 



10,230 27 
21,477 28 



Francs. 



,58,870 34 
30,070 78 



4,100 78 
0,818 18 



100,745 07 
.•«,340 19 



100,400 08 
20,002 01 



188(i, 



Total. 



Francs. 



48,424 04 
27,050 12 



3,011 25 
t),030 10 



Yvv 



80,021 51 
17,384 30 



284 
138, 



000 05 
487 83 



2' 
.53, 



238 20 
034 0() 



r)03,340 74 
100,000 05 



58 



Table of RohuUh obtained ninco the Year 1870 to 1888, inclusivoly. 





1885. 


lH8(i. 


1887. 


18H«. 


Total. 


I. ProtitH of pnrtic'ipation (frantofl by the 
bv-liiw iif the co-diHTiitnrs to tlio fin. 
lAoyt'i'H, siiipfiiois, liciuls of (Icpiirt- 
nictits, fdicincii, ulii<-f workfru aiitl 


FnvncH. 

58,870 34 
30,(170 78 

4,100 78 
(1,818 18 

100,4(10 08 
.•«!20,002 02 


Francs. 

48,424 04 
27,(J5(1 12 

3,011 25 
(1,030 10 


l-'raiicH. 

(17,078 0(1 
38,23.^ 10 

11,(138 03 
8,323 (12 

125,275 80 
.'il2.5,0.55 1(1 


FrancK. 

(11,415 2(1 
34,720 24 

12,(150 00 
!),318 08 


FrancH. 

235,788 (10 


2. Dividend on Miilarifs 

3. Dividend paid over imd iilM)ve tlie 5% 
interest on the cupital |«psseHsi'rl liy the 
employees or workmen of the hoiine, 
either as depositors, eo-opeiators, slee|)- 
inj,' partneiH or partifipantx of not Iuhh 
than 20,0(K» 

4. Dividend of co-o)ieratorH to eustonierH. 


131,282 33 

32,.1()0 Of! 
31,380 OH 


Total 


8(1,021 51 
*17,;W4 .10 


118,112 58 
.<!23,(122 51 


430,7(10 07 
.*W(J,153 00 



TIIR LECfEUR HOUSE. 

joiners' work. 

[Paris.] 

Participation in profits on 1st Jnly, 18S5. Tiie amount allotted to the stafT' was 
10 per cent, on the net pi'otits. The oldest and mrjst worthy of the workmen or 
employees formed the first class of participants. For later admissions the by-law 
requires from the candidate throe years ]ir()l)ati()n. The division of profits are 
made in proportion to wages. The half at least of the amount allotted to each parti- 
cipant is plai-ed in the retiring fund for old ago (on reserved capital); the surplus 
may, on demand, bo jiaid in cash. 

Miss Lecanir lias adopted a system of accounts similar to that of the house of 
Barbas, Tassart &, Balas. 



BYLAW ON THE PARTICIPATION OF PROMTS OP THE LOMBART 

CHOCOLATE WORKS. 

[Paris.] 

The participation in profits was put in force about thii'ty-throe years ago by 
Mr. Lombai't, who, in order to accomplish his object of making these profits unassign- 
able and inalienable, credited the account of each worknn^i. each year, with a sum 

of and the accumulation (jf interest due to invest later on these savings 

which he thus put aside for him. 

These workmen knew that a certain sum was safely laid aside for them, but tlioy 
did not know the amount, so that in 1884 it was a great surprise to them when tlnir 
master informed them he was about to realize the aim of his commercial life: 
"That of giving to each of his workers, men or women, whom ho considers his 
fellow-workers, a book on the retiring fund for old age." And on the 1st .fanuary, 
1885, at the meeting which takes place ever}' year in the factory, Mons. Lombart liad 
the satisfaction of presenting 159 of his workmen each a book, in which was entennl the 
amounts placed to his personal account, and which he had saved during twenty-seven 
years. A large number of books having an equal right to this gift had to be suspended 
on account of difficulty in procuring certificate of birth and the number now 
sharing is 223 on a total of 279 depositors. 



69 



It wiirt at tliis Hamo mnotini;, on the Ist .Taiumry. 18S8, that Moiih. Tjoinha' t 
iiiiiiniiiii'«'(l to IiIh stiitV, tliiit all, williDiit (liHtinctioii, wen! fur tlio t'litiiro iidmittod to 
>liaio ill tho iri^iilai' participation iiiidcr the i'ollowin;^ conditimiH, imposed \>y liiiuself 
alone, wlion studyiiif^ tlie oiifunization of hin pUin of woric, as in accordance witli each 
wiprkinati'H \vorl<. and mIho to necuro Mtahility in liis wtafi'. 

Mnns. Lninl)art determineH the ainoiiiit of tho honiiHert or prizoH ovory year dur- 
iiiif tiie inontii of Docmiher. i\t eacii period of Hettleiimnt a ceilaiii sum in asseHsed, 
ill accordance with what amount of |)rotit.s is not Hpecitied, imt varies t'rom S12,0II(> 
tn 8-(l.<)00, and in divided anionu; the employees and workmen. Tho division for tho 
wdikineii is math*- tirst, accoidiiiL'' <<> seniority; 2nd, earnings; IJrd, merit. 

Tlie hasis of tlie division is as follows: the individual's worth, as shown by three 
notes, tho 1st from the liead of the house, tlie 2nd from the foreman, the Hrd from 
the head of the de|»artment. 'I'lu; tliree notes are exprosHotl by points or marks, tho 
tiital niimher is divided by ."5, and ;xi^'*'» an average of merit. By multiplyiny; thin 
aveian'c by the nimilier of |ioints correspond in^^ to his notes ami ids years of servieo, 
the result is a number of poii.ts which j^ives the* ])roj)ortion of the yearl}' wa;^eH in 
wliieli tho workman is to siiare in tiie profits. 

Tims, the workman whose note is very ji^ood (.^)), and wiio has served ;{ yeai'H (or 
the eoi'i-espoiidiin; niimlK^r (!()), takes part in tho division as ,"„"„ of his wages, and ho 
who lias 12(1 points shares after a nunibei- ecpial to Ijjjj of his wagoa, etc. 

Jlio following table siiows this basis: — 





XuiiiImt of 
Vcars of Hw\ ice. 






Vahii' of tlic Note, 






Very (i(X)c1. 


4 

(■o(xl. 


3 
Pretty C.'tKMl. 


2 
PaHNable. 


1 
l^itd. 


1 


% 
20 
40 

i;o 

80 
lIK) 
120 
140 
IIH) 
IKO 
21 H) 
220 
240 


0/ 

/o 

ii; 
;t2 

48 

114 

80 

<l(i 

112 

128 

144 

ii;o 
170 
1!)2 




% 
12 
24 
3tt 

48 
()0 
72 

84 

ill) 

1IIH 


% 
8 
KJ 
24 
32 
40 
48 

mj 

)i4 
72 
80 

8H 


% 
4 


•) 


H 


;i 


12 


4 


Hi 




20 


i; 


24 




28 


s 


32 


ii,. 


3(; 


1(1 

11 


: 120 

1.T2 

! lU 


40 
44 


12 


48 











The foremen of the worksliops receive : 

S(l over if they direct more than .'{O workmen. 
41) do do 20 do 



20 



(l( 



less than 20 do 



Workmen not occupied in the manufacture of chocolate, sucli us carpenters, 
machinists, painters, nuisoiis, tinsmiths, \.v„, receive one-half less than tho chocolate 
makers. 

Mons. Lombart has taken as a basis the note very good, and a service of 5 years. 
The workman whose record inchides these two conditions shares to the exact amount 
of his salary. Tho other shares are more or less, according as their numbers are 
hiulier or b)wcr tlian the amount of their salary, and their service is more or less 
than ,") years. The amount of profits to le siiarcd is divided by the total number 
I'f participants calculated as above, and .Jiere is obtained tho individual amounts of 
the division. This multiplied by the number of points of each one gives the sum 
cnmiiig to each. 

The shares are capitalised to form a retiring fund, to which each interested 
party has a right at TjO years of age. An exception is made in favor of young giris, 
who, on their marriage, receive, according to the importance of tho sums to their 
credit, all or part of their account; the other part of it is paid over to the retiring. 



60 



fiiiiil for oM njfo »iH(iil)li«lioil Iiy tin- Rfiito, llowcvdi-, wlioii tlio KluintK anunint 
to iiiiiro lliaii 8-0 llio owner can colled !, in cusli, ami tlic ollici' ! arc paid ovor to 
tliu rulii'in^r I'lind. 

TlicHo anioiinlH aro paiil, as (IchIwiI liy tlio owners, oithcr as resorved capital nr 
ulionalod caiiital. Soino liavo thus ati<>nalcd tliuir capital in ordor to suciiru tlioiii- 
HolvcH a liin'liiT in(M)ni(' ; Iml, as a lacl, il is tlioso alone who, hein-^f married, havo no 
chiltlron, or liioso who liave dccidod ti» remain unmarried, who have done so, No 
Bin^lo NuliHcrinMon huH liuun untorud in tlio books which dooH not. hour mention of its 
boinjx inalie uid unseizahlo. 

On I he I January, ISSl), tho participation whowod tho foilowini^ rosultH : — 

Fl'llMCH, 

Aliiount luiid ti) tlic ictiritijr fund Wl.lilo (Ml ) 

do in fiiKh fidiii lHr>t; to IH-.') 42,IKMMH) I -r .1 . , i . { oi,,i. 

. » I »i 1. 1- .1 1 \ \ Ci. . ^1 . t. IUUI '• r 1/1 iii. lo till' total imiol it of S|lll,. 

Alnonnt to t II' cridil <i till' wiPiUiMi'M wild lnft ur (ir to IHHl. . . ,J>V)W) <uf .:.. . 1 .. \i . i . 1 . 

. . ■ 1 . 1 .11- 11-- .luii -- ls(> ^flvi'U ov .Moms. l,iiniliiiit 

Alnoiint paid to I'm 1 oyii's on stiill .iiit,2X',i ii> . .1 1 . 1 . ... luuci 

1 c uu'i . luuii t : . 1111- 1/1 on t r iMt .la I aiv, IHS'.l. 

do from ISHl til IMS!) (in occa.Mion of iiiarriiigo 4,r.tii -lO | • 

do to .voiiiiK military nun in ndverxity 8,'JH7 (K) J 

Sii/i]i[emenfary Note. 

To make tho matter clearer to tlio .jury, MonH. Lombart thiiikH proper to add 

the followino; an siipplementaiy informtition :— 

That the reason for tho retiriiiif fund not having' lioon appii»>d to, is that when 
he started businesw in 185(i ho boi^tm l»y f^ivins^ hiw cmployeeH a present on tho first 
of .laiiuary of eacli yoiir; hut btivinii; had occasion to r<'maik that in many cases his 
generosity was of no beiKdit to the recij)ii'ni'H family, it heiii^ spi-nl solely t>r Uio 
i'Oci|»ient's gi'atilication, to tho exclusion of his tamily, lio decided to change tlio 
mannor of tho gift, and to establish the nucleus of an account for oa(di one, which 
should bo in' 'isod by his yearly gift and tho accumulated interest. In the begin- 
ning these wore in proporlion to tho prolits of the business, which at that time 
wore \{iVY tho ostablishment having to le-estahlish its former reputalioii, 
Since then thu naros havo increased in ratio with tho profits of tho business. 

Si.\ years ago a certain number of participants luiving expressed a desiro to 
start an eslablishment of their own, Mons. Lomiiart approved of the ideti most 
highly, and gave them every assistance to free themselves from the ii-^sociati'd 
amounts. For this purpose ho ])aid the neces.sary amount to socui'o them tho huiiis 
carried to thoir credit in tho participation. 

Tho hoiids of the Lombart factor}^ aro given the whole amount of their sliures 
in cash, and tbiis they receive from those shares amounts varying from tho i, the §, 
the f and sometimos double and treble the amount of their yearly salaries. 



ALFRED MA.ME & SONS, TOURS. 
(171)6-18811.) 

PaiNTEltS, BINDERS AND PCBLISIIEHS. 

Li 1874 Messrs. Alfred Maine & Sons established a participatory and provident 
iund, of which the following is ;i rcmmi of its organization and working : 

This fund is supplied by amounts which tho Messrs. ]\I.ame have engaged to give 
tho 1st of January of each year, from ;i sum calcidated a.s follows:— 

1st. For employees in the publishing department, §0.G0 per 1,0U0 on total 
amount of sales effected during tho past year. 

2nd. For workmen and employees in the printing and bindery departments, 
$5.00 on every l,Ot)0 of the proceeds of each department. 

The third of tho sum total of this amount is immediately distributed in cash 
among tho employees of each class who are 21 years of ago, and havo bcoii 
at least one year in tho employ of the establishment, and that in proportion to their 
4illowances or salaries ; the two-thirds are destined, and go, to form a provident fiuid 
in their own favor, under conditions to be hereafter mentioned. For this purpose a 
book of participation is given to each individual member of tho .staff who is 21 years 
of jige, and who has been at least one year in tho employ of the house. 



61 



Two-tliinlM of tho iimoiint for participation given by MosHrs. Mamo arc thuH 
(liviiloil among dio proprietors of books in proportion to tho aliowanfon or HaluriuH of 

• •lull. 

I'lacb one is allowed an intoroHt of 5 percent, on tlie ainoiintu in bis book, which is 
cal<iiliilt'<l on llie .'Ust of Decoinlior of every year on the amount already entered, 
ami is a<iil('(l to that amount aH an incntase of capital. 

Tlu! amoiiMlM onterod in each i)ook do not heeorne (he holder's per8(mal property 
iiiilil he has hfen a partici|tant lor 20 eons(!ciitive years. 

When a workman or employee has complcttMl his twenty-flrHt your of serviee bo 
has a ri^i'ht to receive the amount entc'ied in his l)oolv. 

In the case of the death of a workman or- eniployott while still in the lii-nrs 
cuiploy, the amount carried to his account on the ."Ust December procseding his death 
i> paid over to his widow, or his cddldren or grandchildren, or to his ascendants. 

In any case of dismissal, apart froni a reduction of the statf, or from inlirmity or 
yii|pprcssioii of any luancdi ot employment, in any I'asc of ahsentc'eisni or of being 
tui'iied oil', the workman or enn)loyee loses all light to the amount entered iii his 



Ixxih 



Tlu( amount entered to his individual account is divided on the .'{1st T)ecem- 
her following his departure, among the accounts of tho romaini'ig i)articipaMt.s in hi.s 
(le|tartment, in pro])oition to tho sums alrea<ly entered in thoir books. 

Results of the Orgaid/ations. 



Ykv\hs. 



DlVn)EN'l) oi' INK Sl'AlK 
owmm; ISookh. 



Anionnts 
Kiitcrcil in 



1S74 

isrn 

1S7(! 

1H77 

1H78 
1H7!) 
1SKU 

1S,S1 
1SH2 

1.sh;i 
l,ss4 

ISSli 

is,s7 
l«8t! 



28, 
2il, 
2!l, 
2!l, 
**2 
2(\ 
1«, 

IH, 
22, 

2(»; 

1!', 
20, 



(187 

!I!h; 
!i2:{ 

140 
i)07 
i:{7 

844 
('«57 

18(1 
77!t 

ir.i 



33!>,.13() 
S!(i7,82(! 



AllllllllltH 

I'liid 

in Citsli. 



KrM. 

14,lS(i 

14,c.'.m; 
I4,r);«i 
ir.,oii! 
il,4r.(i 
10, 570 

!t,4.">3 

!),r>(i8 

i»,41!l 

!»,828 

ll,0'.t2 

ii),;>8H 

! 1.0-5 

!l,r.30 

10,04!l 



hividcnd 

I'iiid 
t(i Staff. 



Total 

Alnoiiiit 

I'jiid ill l)y 

Messrs. 

Miiiiiii & 

Uiin. 



Annual 
I Value (if tlio 
Cupital, In- 
terest and 
1 dividends (if 
the Veiir 
inelusive. 



FrM. 



1()!>,5,')1 
)j;«,!)10.20 



n,<i7!l 
14,403 
11,403 
12,112 
14,054 
15,!)04 
17.8.5C. 
17, 8! 17 
17,875 
17,'.t35 
18,3(10 



1(50,723 
.«i33,044.60 



Krs. 

43,442 
44,0!»3 
43,(i27 
44,!)!I7 
4(l,05!l 
45,004 
3il,824 
40,818 
42,318 
45,480 
51,13(i 
4! I, (1(15 
40, (103 
4(1,52(1 
48,.")((7 



(i78,4(MJ 
.«135,(181.20 



Annual average, francH, 45,227 = 80,045.20. 



I'Vs. 

30,400 
(12,488 
!tl,3il4 
123,.5.')0 
111,;«1(! 
133,518 
140,0.30 
15(l,!t.58 
1(11,702 
175.007 
188, .341 
lSil,tl(i4 
1! lit, 7(15 
20(1,371 
217,203* 



The division of 1888 was mtide among ;522 participants. 

The amount of participation in Messrs. Mtime t\: Co.'s establishment amounts to. 
to about 10 per cent, of the salaries. The average wages of a workman in this 
ostahlishmeut being $1 per diiy. The amount of bonus in cash coming to a workman 
at tho end of an ordintiry year of 300 days is $10, atid another of $'20, which is 
entered on his book of participation. After twenty years' service the workman will 
tiiid himself possessor of a capital of at least $800, which will bo paid to him incasli. 

*A Sinn of about SIS, 452.(10 carried to the credit of the workers in the book.s of Messrs. Mame & Co., 
on 1st .liuuiary, 1889. 



62 



G. MASSON. 



BOOK,SEI.LEB AND PUBLISHKR. 



[Paris.] 

Mons. G. Musson admitted his employees to a share in the profits of the estab- 
lishiTK-'ntin 1871 on the followiiifj; basis: 

Tlio amoun*^ is oakuilated from the iigureoftho net sales rather than on tlie 
profits; the allowance consists of a bonus of SO.fiO on i^vcry $1,000 up to one million, 
and of §1.00 on every thousand abovis a million. 

Mons. G. .Masson has alone the rii^ht to calculate and determine the amount of 
net sales in his I.onso during; a period of not less than one yeai'. 

The division is made ujuoiig the i)articipants in proportion to the amount 
re*, "ved, as salary, by each. 

One-third the amount is given in cash to the partici]iant. 

The other two-thirds are enteied in ouch participant's book. These sums bear 
interest at 5 per cent., and tlie participant can enter into his capital only after 
twenty years' service in the establishment. 

In case of death the amount entered in his book is paid over to tne participant's 
heirs. 

Any employee absent or dismissed forfeits the amounts entered in his book. 
The.-e are divided arr ')ng the books ot the other participants, in proportion to the 
amounts therein inscribed. 

IlEsiri/rs of the Organization. 



Years. 


Nuinbi^r 

of Partici- 

)>atits. 


Amounts 
given in Cash . 


Sums 

Eutt'fcd 

to Iniliv!(hi:il 

Accounts. 


1871 1872 

1872-1873 


5 
7 
10 
12 
14 
12 
12 
13 
1(1 
12 
14 
14 
2.'! 
2(1 
24 

27 


Francs. 

348 .35 

50fl (15 

(14(1 75 

882 00 

005 00 

1,185 55 

1,117 25 

1,1(11 75 

1,212 50 

1,370 05 

1.(1(10 10 

1,741 (15 

1,0(10 45 

1.850 45 

1,(100 75 

I.OL'O 05 

1,778 00 


Francs. 

007 .30 
1,327 S(! 


1873-1874 


1,422 75 


1874 1875 


1,053 7(1 


1875-187(1 ... 


2,203 0(1 


187(1 1877 

1877 1878 

1878 1870 


2,(104 7<> 
2,(141 7(1 
'1 04-' 5(1 


1870 1880 


3,510 (10 


1880-1881 


3,000 .'id 


1881- 1882 


4,214 0(1 


1882 1883 


4 4-'() X> 


1883 1884 

1884-1885 


4,03(1 2(1 
5 115 ■'(! 


1885 188(1 


.5,028 3(1 


188(11887 


5,311 75 


1887- 1888 


5,2(1(1 25 








22,17(1 90 
$4,4.35 38 


57,(181 ;i8 
SS11,.53(1 .37 



Or a total of .?15,071.(10 given by thi! establishment. 



JNoTA. — During a period of seventeen years twenty-two employees have left the 
establishment, abandoning a sum of $1,870.01, which was divided among the other 
workmen. 

Eight employees have died, or lelt the house on account of sickness, and they or 
their widows have had a right to a total sum of $3,004.53. 



68 



MONDUIT. 



ROOFER ANi> PLUMBER. 



[Paris.] 

Ten per cent, of Iho annual profits is divided among the workmen and employees 
w!in liavo been omploye<l by him over two years. The division is made on the basis 
ol' Iholr wages and aihiwances. 

iralt the annual shai'e is given to the retiring fund, and the participant enters 
into his capital after 20 years' service, or at 55 years of age. 

A: long as thefundsbolonging to the rotii'ing fund arc left with the establishment, 
they receive an annual interest e([ual to that borne liy the master's capital. 

Whenever an emploj'ee leaves the establishment before having fMlfilied the 
reriuirements of service or age stipulated in the regulations, his account is liqui- 
dated and the amount is paid over to the retiring fund of the S'ate. 

Before any division is made, an assessment is made to form a I'eserve fund of 
§20,000, of which nine-tenths belongs to the establishment and one-tenth to the par- 
ticipants. 



MOUTIER ESTABLISHMENT. 

(Founded in 1819.) 

HARDWARE MANUFACTURER, SPECIALTY IN LOOKS AND METALLIC CONTRIVANCES. 

Regulations for Participation in the Profits. 

Ai't. 1. Participation in the profits by the workmen of the Moutier Establish- 
ment dates from the 1st of April, 1881 ; it is conducive to friendly relations between 
(■;i))ital and labor, to a moral and actual union, which tends to an increase in pro- 
duction. 

The workmen and employees share in one-fourth part of the annual profits. 

Rules of Admission. 

Art. 2. The following conditions are imposed on workmen and employees de- 
siring to pai'ticipate in the profits : — 

Three years consecutive employment in the establishment. 

To be of French origin. 

To be no more than 55 years of age. 

To be accepted by the master and the committee of improvement. 

To belong to the Mutual Aid Society of the establishment. 

To reserve as a saving $0.01 for every ten hours actual work. 

Control of Accoiints. 

Art. 3. To guarantee the rights of participating workmen and emjtloyees, an 
expert-accountant may be named, accredited ly the Tribunal ol ( !onimerce. 'This 
accountant, named in secret ballot by the participants, will have charge of the books, 
toiretlier >vith the book-keeper and the master. 

The office of the expert will be to verify the accounts, and to see that the yearly 
amounts are duly entoied, and that one-quarter of the netprofitsof the inventory has 
hecii entered to the cre<lit of the jiarticipating staff. 

The expert's allowance will be assessed on the part for participation, before any 
share has been distributed among the ])articipators. 

Art. 4. Apart from this measure, dictatecl by a perfect sense of equity, the master 
rcc'o^iii/.es no one's right to critici'^e or interfere with his management, any one not 
approving of it being at liberty to leave the employment. 



64 



Division. 

Art. 5. PreviouH to any division, an ussessinont of 10 per cent, will be made, to 
be paid over to the rotirinu; fund. 

Art. 6. Tlio division will be made in proportion to the salaries. 

Art. 7. Any part awarded l)eeomo8 finally tlio property of the one to whom it 
is awarded, without restriction or reserve. 

Destination of the Participation. 

Art. 8. Each participant will be givon a book in the National Retirincj Fund to 
form an account as reserved capital for him, to become an inhoi-itance tor his family. 
The amounts thus paid over in favor of the employee or workman, are destined as a 
life-rent when he shall have attained 55 years of a^e. 

Art. 9. Any individual share of less than $2u is to be paid over in its entirety, 
in the owner's favor, to the National lietiring Fund. 

When the individual share is over $20, and not more than $-40, the owner is at 
liberty to dispose of the sum in excess. 

Any individual share over $40 is divided into two equal parts; one is paid ovei" 
to the participant, and the other is entered in his book. 

Art. 10. All amounts awarded to the participants, and paid over to the National 
Eetiring Fund, are inalienable and unseizable. 

Duration of the Participation— Modification of the Mules. 

Art. 20, and last. The master is not to be bound by any engagement for a 
period of over one year; a right to pcotit-sharing being voluntarily givon by him, lio 
reserves the right to suppi-ess it by giving six month's notice in advance. 

Modifications considered useful will be applied to the rules only after communi- 
cation to the General Assembly. Such nioditication will never bo retroactive in ett'ect. 



Results of the 


Organization 


The Master, 

Paul Moutier. 








LalKir's .Sliarc, 




Ycar.s. 


AiiiDunts 
paid DVHi'iii Cash 

or I'litcrcd (in 
tlu' Uodkn of tho 
National Fund. 


Reserve. 


Total 

Amount uf 

I'ai'ticiliatiiiii in 

jirojiortion to 

Salary.* 


1881 


FrancH. 

r)17 00 
4,((;<7 00 
4,(142 00 
3,014 (K) 
3,1 1(H) 00 
1,011 00 

l,71o 00 


Fran ;s. 

370 o6" 

447 20 
4(M) 88 
44(1 1(1 
128 18 
188 11 


1 72', 


1882 


.f) ill" 


1883 


.5(1" 


1884 


5 X< •' 


188.5 


5 87 " 


]88(i 


1 (14 " 


1887 


2 4'J " 








li»,7()(> ()(! 
.«!.3,!l(13 20 


l,!t8!t .fi3 
&.)7 iM) 


* The niiiiilxT 
of particiii.uits 
repnwentf ; " 
the wtiitf. 


A 


TIk' iiarticipantH liavi^ sliart'd in 
!J4,3.">1.10 in excess of tlieir wages. 



66 



Tlie interest of the iimounts invested, and some few gratuities donated by cus- 
tomers, are paid over to the reserve fund. 

Tiie small results of the ])ast years aredue, notonly to the reduction in the sales' 
prices by competition, hut also to an increase of capital destineil to the buildin<i; of 
new shops and the purchase of more perfect machinery ;ind tools. 

It is right to add that tiie most energetic eti'orts have been made to give con- 
stant employment to the participating statt". 



MOZET <& DELALONDE. 

MASONS. 

[Paris.] 

Protit-sharing was established in this firm in 1885, and was fixed at 10 per cent, 
of lli(^ net profits. 

Workmen and emploj-ees named by the masters were immediately admitted to par- 
ticipation. 

After 188;"), to l)c admitted as a participant, it was necessary that the workman 
oromiiloyee should have been employed at least two years by the firm, thata re([uest 
in writing should be addi'essed to the masters, and appi'oved of by them alter iiaving 
heen disenssed by a consultative committee composed of masters, two head men from 
tiu' yards and three workmen. 

Messrs. Mozet & Delalonde, liowever, reserve to themselves the righl of 
admitting as a participant, without any of these formalities, any woi'kman or 
enij)l(>vee they may Judge worthy of the favor. 

The division of the interest of the participation is made among the participants 
in proportion to the amounts they have received during the year as settled allow- 
ances or wages. 

Half the amount of interest is every year paid over to the participant in cash, 
and the 'other half is paid to his account in the retiring fund for old age. 

if the partiei|)ants wish tliey can have the books of the liouse verified by an 
expert accountant, whose business it is to see that the books are regularly kept, and 
the division of 10 per cent well ajiplied, according to tlie regulations. 

There has been no case of forfeiture, but it is written in Artiele 10: That any 
woiktnan or employee leaving the employment of the house, or who has been dis- 
missed, shall in future lose all right to participation. 

Eesulfs of the Organization. 

1885-18Sfi the division represents 8-2'7 of the saharies. 

1SS(J-1887 do 8-70 do 

1887-1888 do 7-25 do 

1888-188!) do 10-0!» do 



HOUSE OF PERNOD S0X8. 

DISTILLERS. 

[I'ontarlier. Doulw.] 

The firm of Pernod Fils every year deducts a part of its profits, wliich it divides 
among its workmen. 

The amoui\t thus divided remains in the firm, which is responsible for it, and it 
hears interest at 4 per cent. 

Kveiy workman, after one year's cmplojnnent, becomes a participant. 

Tiie amount tlivided is entered in a book given to each ol the workmen. 

If tlie workman leaves the house, the amounts entered in liis book are given to 
him in full. In case of death these amounts a'-e paid over to his heirs. 
20—5 



66 



In roturn for this paymont, the woikmuii on leaving, hinds hiniHclfnot to work 
for any competiiiL' hourto for a period of one year from the (hite of his departure. 

In case of sickness the workman is paid an indcTnnity of $0.30 per (hiy. This 
indemnity is drawn from tiio iiitei'est on tiie retir-iny; fund for a space of three months, 
after which it is drawn from the participant's hook. 

fn 1888 the tirm of Pernod Fils did husiness to the amount of $965,000; they 
emph)yeil 64 workmen, who were paid 811,675 in wages, and 86,700 as their share 
of the protits. 

A Dook presented with the repoi-t to the jury shows that a workman who had 
shared in the pi'ofits since 1872 had in his hook in capital and interest the sum 
of 81,764.34. 

Mxitnal Aid. — The firm pays their workmen's subsci'iptions to a Mutual Aid 
Socict}' of the city, by which they receive medical attendance gi-atis, also drugs, and 
a daily amount of 80.20 (80.30 at most) paid from the retiring fund. 

Accident hiaurance. — The firm insures its workmen, and pays the jjremiums, 
without deduction from the the wages. 



A. PIAT. 

IRON FOUNDRY AND BUILDING. 

[Soissons — Paris.] 

Mons. Piat established participation in the profits in 1882 on the following 
basis : 

Art. 1. Ditting from 1st Ainil, ISSl, a iiortioiKif the net jnofits of tlic year will lie divided, .as a gr.atuity, 
anumg the ciniiloyt't's liaving worked for five consecutive year.s in tlie estahlisliiiient, iiiid who iH'long to the 
Mutual Aid Soei"ty. For trie first year employes or workmen liaving worked ten years in the establish- 
ment, consecut .r or not. 

The obligation to belong to the Mutual Aid Society will not lie exacted from the 
old emploj'oes or workmen of the firm, who, for sound reasons, could not become 
members in the past. 

Art. .3. The rate of i)artici])ation in tiie profits will he fixed by Mons. Piat, every year after the closing 
of the inventory, which takes place annually on the 81st March. 

Art. 4. The amount of tiie share coming to each participant will be fomid by multiplying the amount 
of wages or allowances by the aliove rate. Kor workmen, tlie annual salary will lie the price of an hour 
multiplied by ten hours and by .'i(MI days' work, whether the workman works by the ]iiece or by the day. 

Kxam])le: Granting the fixed rate to be 8.50 i)er cent, of the wages, a work- 
man earning 80.12 per hour will receive : 

80.12 X 10 X 300 :-= 83.60 X 8.50 per cent...:: 830.60. 

Art. ti. The .amount thus awarded will 1m' divided into two ecpial iiarts : 

One to be given him in cash every year, at a certain date. 

The other to be \>iw\ over to the Retiring Fund as reserved capital. 

Eesui/ps of the Organization. 



Years. 


Number of I'articiiiants. 


Amount % in 
pro]X)rtion to Salary. 


Paris. 


Soissons. 


1S82 


145 
146 
141 
150 
168 
180 
182 




8.50 


1883 




7.00 


1884 




6.00 


1885 




3.00 


1886 




3.00 


1887 


10 
16 


3.00 


188S 


4.00 







The total amount divided is $28,154.00. 



67 



EEDOULY & Co., FORMER MAISON LECLATRR. 

PAINTERS, DECORATORS, QILIJERS, TINTERS A>!D GLAZIERS 

AND 

PROVIDENT AND MUTUAL AID SOCIETY FOR THE WORKM'^N OF THE 

MAISON LECLAIRE. 



Founded by Mona. Lecluire in 1826. 
Changes in the Name of the Finn. 

I'Vom 182(5 to 1854 Loclaire. 

do 1854 to 18()!» Lecliiiro & Co. 

do 18(Jt) to 1872 Iwlaire, A. Defournaux & Co. 

do 1872 to 1875 A. Dofotii'iiaux & Co. 

From 1875 Redouly & Co. 

EDME-JEAN LECLAIRE.* 

Loclairo was born at Aisy-sur-Arman^on (Yoiine), the 24th Flordal, year IX 
(15th May, 1801.) He loft the primary school at ten years of ai^e to herd swine, 
sheep and cows, and came to Paris without money or friends at 17 years of ago, and 
entered as apprentice in the shop of a houso-paintor. He was foi-oman at 20 years 
of ago, and married at 22. At 2(5 years of age he set up for himself in a modest 
shop. In 182'J ho ventured to contract for large works, and offered his Nvorkmen 
81 ])cr day, instead of the usual $0.80. His success led him to thiidv of the fate of his 
less forlnnale fellow-workmen. 

Atllicted by the sight of his workmen suti'ering and tlying from lead colic, he 
founded in 1838 a Mutual Aid Society for them, but relief and help did not content; 
ho wanted to eradicate the evil entirely. He studied chemistry in order to find a 
Buhstilute for white of lead, and in 1844 discovered a means of utilizing white of 
zinc, a perfectly innocuous substance. V>j this means he saved and jirolonged many 
ail existence. The Society for the Encouragement of National Industi-y awarded 
him a gold medal tor this discoveiy, and the Monthyon prize. In 184!) he received 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. 

But Leclaire's gi-eat work was the establishment in his house of participation of 
the workmen in the protits. The system was adopted and put into practice in 1842. 
After numberless difficulties, his perseverance and his continued etforts were crowned 
with success. 

Wishing to prove that (his success did not depend upon his influence and 
presence, but that the institution he had founded could walk alone, he witiidrew from 
active business in 18G5, leaving the entire management of the concern to his partner 
AlfVed Defournaux. l\\i, however, came forward again in 18G"J to establish his system 
of piu'ticipation more completely anrl on a tirmer basis. 

After the war he retired to his pi-operty at Herblay (Seino-et-Oise), where he 
died of congestion of the brain in .Inly, 18S2, having won the veneration and grati- 
tude of all the workmen and emjdoyees of his house. 

By Tueans of the institutions established by his house, Leclaire desired to assure 
to his workmen greater well-being, for the present and security for the future, and to 
this end strove to intei'ost his men personally in their work, to stimulate their intel- 
lii,H'iice, their wisdom and their energy. In 18(54 he addressed to them the words 
that are engraved over his bust : 

"' If you wish that I should leave this world witli a contented heart, you must 
have realizeil the dream of my whole life; after a career of orderly conduct and 
assiduous labor the workman and his wife must have the wherewithal to live in 
peace in their old age, without being a burden on any one." 

*\V'c U'licvt' it to be advisable to ii\ibli.sh ttii.s sjiort Ijiography of Leclaire the father of profit-iharing. 
20 — 5i 



68 




It was only after much study, and havinfj ffivon a practical ti-ial to many sys- 
tems, that he succeeded in eslablisiiinu; the simple, vlaiv and pi-actical system ot'j)iir- 
ticipation now existing in tiie house ho founded in 1827. 

iMons. Leeliiiro ilied in 1872, but lie liud taken care that his work should not die 
with him, by means of a notarial act which went into etloct on 5(h January. 18(!!), and 
by which tlie workmau's interests were bound up in those of the enterprise, and by 
which he was assui'ed a share in the pi'otits witli joint ownership in the capital of 
the establishment (Mons. Loclaire bad ])reviously conferred with his fellow-work- 
men on the best means to be adopted, in a list of questions on twelve principal j)oints, 
to which two hundred workmen sent answers). The clauses of the contract were 
ratitied by Mons. Leclairo's death in 1872, and after the death of his successor, Mons. 
Alfred Defour'naux (in 1875) by new notarial deeds bearing tlate of the Clh of Sc])- 
tembex", 1872, and the 24th December, 1875. 

According to these deeds the business capital of the house was S80,00l), with :i 
reserve fund of 820,000 furnished by the two managers, and a sleeping partnershi|) 
ot §40,000 by the Provident and Mutual Aid Society of the workmen and employees 
of the Maison Lecdaire: — 

25 per cent, to the managers. 

25 per cent, to th(^ Mutual Aid Society. 

50 per cent, to the workmen and employees working in the house in proportion 
to their salaries and wages. 

Every workman, a])prentice or employee of the establishment, oven if he has 
worked but one day, has a right to share in the proHts. 

When Mons. Lechiire ('stabiished participation in 1842 he at tirst admitted 
only a certain numbei- of workmen, to whom he gave the name of the Xu(deus(Xoyau) 
and this nucleus is in reality the proprietor of the establishment and of its forma- 
tion. Their number is recruited as follows, according to the rules of the house: — 

The Noyau and its Organization. 

Tlic nnvdu of nil iiiilustiiid cstabliHlimt'iit is conirxisecl of intelligent worknii'U of f,'oo(l nioiiil character; 
it is by tlicir niciuis tiiat satisfaction is (jivcn cii tonicrs, and tliat jrrcat perfection in work is attained. It 
is by the liel|) and co-o|)eration of tiiese devi ,. i fellow-lal Mirers tliat it lieconies possilile to inidertake largo 
works, and to control ii great number of workniep.. 

Rules for admission to the Noyau and the Adcantages derived. 

Art. 12. Seniority does not give a right to admission to the noi/tiu ; mei'it is the tirst recommendatidii ; 
nevertheless, none can be admitted, whatever their talent, whose habits and moral character are not almve 
reproach. 

l<'or admission, the workman nuist lie at least 2.5 years of age and -10 years at the most ; he must liavc a 
knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic. 

T'.iere may be admitted to tlie iidiiuu : 

1st. Workmen iiouse painters having a knowledge of painting, panneling, varnishing and polishing. 

2nd. Classified glaziers. 

;ind. (iilders, being able to paint. 

4th. House pointers liaving a passable knowledge of imitating wood, marble, and of gi'aining. 

.5th. '["hose having a knowledgt' of painting an<l lettering, and wiio are classitied. 

(itli. Workmen k-iowing how to glue and paint and glaze. 

7tli. HiilibiTS who know how to paint, or who liave been appointed foremen. 

cStli. Men having no special trade, but who iiave made themselves useful. 

iltli. ]'"inally, all woikmen who iiave been emploved in the Iiouse for less than twenty terms, and who 
answer to tlii' conditions imposed above, may be admitted to form jiart of the tioiniu. 

Art. Hi. All workmen fulfilling the conditions of .\rt. 12, and forming part of the tiniinii, will be piiid 
wages .Si •.<•;■) per cent, over the wages granted by the Paris schedule. 'I'liis will be decided every year by tin' 
(ieneral Assembly ; the .SO.05 alkjwed a workman will be paid him only at the end of the year. During 
the winter, if they desire it, an advance of .SIO will be made, which is to be repaid during the siiiuimr 
months ; this advance may be more than doubled, but in that case two workmen belonging to the nuiniit or 
two classitied employees must become s<'curity for the amount so advanced. 

Finally, any workman having worked for the Iiouse continuously for a jM-riod of five years, and wim 
belongs to the nuiKiu, may be admitted to the Mutual Aid Society of the workmen and employees of tln' 
Maison Lechiire, provided lie fulfills all tiie condition.i. 

To become a member of the noyau, ajiplication to that effect must be msido to tlio 
two managers, who refer the matter to the conciliative committee, * who make 
enquiries, and refer their report to the Genoial Assembly, '"^ which has the right to 
accept or reject the applicant. 



Tliesc t 

and are 

I'a. 

the com 

having 

lie retiii 

case of c 

portion 

A n 

hut UOIH 

the |»rt'si 

iiaiM(Hl e 

A ni 

custom, t 



Worl 
in the nio 

1st. ' 
to inspect 

2nd. 

:h(j. : 

4fh. I 
concili;iii\ 

The G 
committee 



Art. 7.5. 

Tins com 
are einplovei 

Art. 77. 
iuid cl;issi(ii.il 
"ig to iliiiiini 

'i'lle pi .nil 

Isf. Adv 
2nd. W.u 
•'ird. .Su>| 

Itli. Disi, 

In till. 1;,, 

dcci.sion wil 
The (lisni 



Art. 17. 
Hmiloyeis tViii 

Wlllcll s||;i|| I 

Fin.illv, 
''I.'i'cial i|e|i:ii- 
'lircctoisiiMil f, 

TliefiiiTii 

Iiave i-\aniini., 

Xo wiiikn. 

. The inaste: 

I'ltlier by zeal , 



•The tariff of 1881 gives $l.-50, with an over pny of from iJO.lO to $0.30. 



Que 

Art. .J4. 'r 

!7<T.V year, for 

Ult! second cla.s,. 
Tlii-f,,|.,.|,|,, 

aissili,.,! enijilo 
'I'lley ju'e i.j, 
A foreman 

'iwy 1,0 re-electi 



60 



Tlio biisiiieHS is nianafj;tMl by two iioi-sons nominatod by tbo Goiiorul Assembly. 
Tlu'so two niiiiia^fcrs t'oriii a parliuTsbij) or association under one collective name, 
and are ros))onsil)ie tor all tiie transac^lions oi'tiie liouse. 

Kach of these nKinayers receives a yearly salary ot $1.2()(», and must brinij; into 
tlie concern a capital of $2(),00(). If a mana;i,er be namoil, in place of one leavini^ or 
liaviiii; died, wlio lias not the necessary caiiilal, two-thirds of his aninnd siiarcs will 
lie retained until that amount is made up, and tiie nianai.'er leaving-, or his heir in a 
case of death, can draw the capital comma; to them only little by little, and in pro- 
jiortion as the new manau'er pays his amounts in. 

A nianaifor has the rii;ht to withdraw I'roni the concern whonovor ho chooses, 
hut none can be dismissed except at the rcpiest of the oth'M- manai^er, supjjorted by 
the president of the Mutual Aid .Society, and by the advice ot the two commissioners 
named every year by the workmen to verify tiie accounts, 

A nianai^er Icavin.i,^ the tii'm, or the heirs of one deceased, have no claim on the 
custom, the material or the resisrve fund. 

General Assemblies. 

Workmen who form the noi/aii meet, in a ircneral assendily at least once a year, 
in the month of February; there is then a secret ballot for 

1st. The nomination of two commissioners, chosen from amongst the members, 
to inspect the business accounts of the year. 

2nd. To elect foi-emen for the workshops foi- the year. 

iifd. h'or the admission of woricmen to \honoij(iK. 

4ti). For the nomination, for the s])acc of u year, ( f the members to compose the 
conciliative committee. 

The (ieneral Awsembly also discuss questions referred to them by the conciliative 
cominittce. 

Conciliative Committee. 

Art. "iii. A ccmciliativc ooniinittcc is clccti'd liy the iiicinlx'is of tlio nn/idii iiiid dasslHi'd worlviiicn. 

'I'liis ((iiiiniittic is c'imi)H)siil (if niiii' nicmliiis, of wiiii'ji tive ivrn worliiiicn or foleun'ii of slioiis, tiiree 
ari' I'liiiilDyci's, uiict tlic inastiT, u lio is |in'sii|ciit liy ri^rlit. 

Art. 77. 'I'hi'ii' iniiv 1m' "allrd hi'fdie tlii> I'diimiillcc all workiiicii iiU'iiiliiTs of tlii' luiimu, aiiiiiciiticcs, 
anil fla.-siliccl i-iiiiiloyi'i's « lio have iii'tflcctt'd thrir duty duriii!^ work lioiiis : also as rc^'ards any matter rclat- 
iiii,'t(i iiiiiiKirality, dishonesty, drunkenness, or to tlie interests of the estalilishnient. 

Tlie penalties iini«)sed are at'cordiut' t,i> the seriousness of the fault : 

1st. .\dvi(:e. 

L'nd. WarninfT. 

Urd. Suspension for three months. 

■Ith. I)isniissal from tlie liou,-e. 

In the liittei' case, the expellc^d woi'kmaii may ajipeal to the ( ieneral ,\ssenil>ly, hut the eommittee's 
decision will hecariied into force notwithstandini,'. 

'I'he dismission is decided only by secret liallot, and only by a decisive majority. 

Employees — Classification of Ailvatifar/es i/ranfed to Employees. 

Art. 17. 'I'he house, do.siriiiff to pncoiira^fe and make known all talent, recruits, as far as possible, its 
employees from the iioiKdi and the master from amon;,' the employees, and that according to a competition 
which shall be organised by the general assembly of the kdjihii. 

Finally, in order to jilace workmen accoiding to their talent, classes have been established in each 
speeial clep;utment of work and direction. To the master .alone belongs the right to classify the employees, 
(lirectois iind foiemen. 

'I'lie foremen are classed for a year, the dassilication to take jilace at the end of e.ery year after they 
have e\aniineil the productions of the woi'kshojis. 

\o workman can beadmi'^ted to a class if he has not shown himself fitted for it. 

The master may make an exception in favor of a workman or employee whether classified or not, who 
culler by zeal or a.s.siduity hivs rendered important service to the house. 

Qualifications required of a foreman, his duties and his responsibilities. 

.\rt. 14. Tlieri' are three classes of foremen in the establishment. The foreman of the 1st cla.ss is paid 
(■very year, for ten hours work, the high rate of iJO.lO over and above his day's wages of $1.20,* one of 
the si-iund chuss .*i0.ir), and of the third class !*i().20. 

'the foremen or heads of the workshops are elected by the workmen, and forming the ao/zin; and the 
chssitied enijiloyees. 

They iire elected and classed every year. 

A foreman whose apiHiiiitment has been revoked on account of imiiKjrality, dishonesty or niiscondnct 
may lie re-elected. 



70 



Fortmipn whime afjjiointtncnts have been twic«> revoked cannot be re-elected. 

All workmen and ciniiloyt'fs, when a fcircinaii is to lie noniinatcd, sliDuld n-nn'inlMT that a person can 
havi' nil intliicnce over those he is ealh'd ii|Kin to direct witliont lie is of in(|ii(iaelml>h' inorahty ; that he i:* 
to set the exaiiiple ; tliat lie is to he the first and tile last in tlie lireaeh ; tiiat in ids daily relations with 
others he is res|iected oidy so far as he res|>ei'ts others. Finally, all who oliey or coniniand should he jfov- 
erned liy a feelinj; uf pHid-will tow.irds eaeh nther, and the reniendxTaiiee that the i{(Hid conduct and 
devotedness of each tends to serve the interests of all. 

Art. I". .\ny disa^'riitnent lietween comrades to he brought no further than the d(K)r of the workshop. 
]t is the forenmn's d\ity to act with thi' utmost justice in ret;ard to everyone, to consider neither a man's 
nationality, district nor character, liut only his f,'(K)d conduct and ability ; in giving hi.s ordi'rs he must 
avoid wounding any one's sensiliilities ; he must re(|uest rather than eonnuaiid. 

An injustice on the part of the foreman injures tim interests of all. A jiint man docn unto othrm ii» Ik 
U'oulil lidVi lilt III tilt til him. 

The forr'uian knows hy exjierience that it is not jpleasant to V>e given impcrinus orders publicly ; he is 
moreovei' aware that witli oiu' civilization men are not ruli'd by fe.ii but by reason. 

Finally, when a workman is sent to W(.rk in a sho|) for a few h^urs, the foreman should, l)y preference, 
give him the hast disagreeable tasks. 

Art. 4'.). 'i'he foreman being liound to worthily represent the dignity of the house, nuist behave accord- 
ingly ; even while at work he nuist always respect his jiosition. 

As he is charged with the directions of the workshop, he alone is responsible ; all faults connnitted by 
the men undir him are morally considered as his own. In a word, he shiadd icmember that he has Ucu 
elected by his felldw-labortrs, and that he is bound to worthily represent them. 

The foreman is also resjionsilile for lireakage and loss of tools, and for goods injnred. 

Art. ;")<•. When a furenian happens to be working in a workshop not under his direction, his duty is to 
leave the best work to the foreman in whose shop hi' happens to l)e momentarily placed. 

.Art. ."il. .Any onle?' given, bv thi' master and clearly understood by the foreman should be carried ont 
with exactness, without regard to the results ; otherwise, all residting defects will be remedied at the 
expense of those violating the order. 

-Art. 1 1:2. The furinian must not forget th.at the men all look to him, and that at the elections his 
activity, the trouble he has given himself, and his endeavors for others will all Ih- taken into acct)unt. 



PUOVIDENT AND .MUTUAL AID SOCIKTY OF THE 'VVOBKMEX AND E.MPLOYEES OP 

THE MAISON LECLAIRE. 

1838. — Formation of the Provident and Mutual Aid Society. 

l.So4. — The ^futual Aid Society became a ylcepino; partnership in the ^[aison 
Lechiire, with a ciipilal of $20,01)0. Jt had a right to | of 50 per cent, of the net 
profits of (lie house. 

18()!).— The liability of the Society is $40,000. It has a right to 25 per cent, of 
the profits of tiie house. 

The Society's Means. 

The means of the Society consist of: 

1st, Interest of 5 per cent, on its lial)ility ($40,000). 

2nd. Its sliai'c in the profits of the iiouse (25 per cent.) 

iird. The §4.00 paid by each member as entrance fee to the Society. 

4th. The gratuities kindly given by customers to the Society. 

5th. Fines imposed upon the members for infringement of the rules. 

Funds of the Society on 1st May, 1889, $451,40:5.00. 

Bales for Adviission. 

To be admitted to the society' it is necessary to be a member of the noym, 
having served tive years in the establishment, to bo of go(jd moral conduct iukI 
chai'acter. 

The members have to pay no subscription. 

Benefit of the Society. 

The members when siciv iuive a right to medical attendance, medicine, and ;ui 
indemnity ot 70 cents ]>er day. 

The wives of members, retired members and their wives, have a right to medical 
attendance and mediciiii's. 

The (diiidren of members have a right to consult the jjhysician of the house, 
and to the drugs he oi'ders. 

Any member being 50 years of age, and iiaving served 20 years in the Maison 
Leclaire, has a right to a lub rent of $240.00 ytev annum. 



71 



Tlio widows of members, and their orpluin oliildrcn, until thoy iiro-21 years of 
ju'e, iiMvo a right to om'-haif the above named pension. 

Workmen, not membors, wounded while at work, or ineapacitod from work, 
have a riy-lit to a pension ofS2K».0(). 

The widows of workmen killed while at work, and their orphan ehildr'jn, have a 
ritcht to a lialf ])enaion. 

All the claimants by rii^ht above mentioned are, at tiieir death, inteired at the 
society's expense, in accordance with a live year's concession. 

Assiininces. 

All the members of the society have a life insurance, in virtue of the Act of 11th 
.Tulv, 18G8, in the Life Insurance Fund, established under the State for a sum of 
§200 each. 

This assurance is for the benefit of the widows and orphans of members. 

Results of the Orijanization. 





Number 
of Wiirknien 

und 
Elilljloyees. 


Participatiim in tlie T'rotits. 


Amount 

of Wildes for 
the yi.ar. 


Proiiortion 


Years. 


Anioujits 

mid to 

the United Aid 

Hdciety. 


Amounts 

IHiid in Cixsli 

to 

the .Staff. 


Total. 


between the 

Amount 

in I'rofit 

and 

the Wages. 


1S42 to 1804 

l,S(i5 




FraiiCH. 


Francs. 


Francs. 
400,(X)0 


Francs. 


% 




25,2.33 
48,470 
88,832 
73,975 
45,000 
30,812 
33,750 
44,125 
32,250 
39,5(X) 
60,000 
5<i,250 
57,000 
0.5, 500 
80,000 
!I5,(MH) 
107, 5(M) 
120,375 
112,.-.00 
115,0IK) 
01,250 
01,250 


24,855 
31,530 
20,035 
2(i,025 
•K),(MM) 
01,()25 
(>7,5(M» 
8.8,250 
(14, .500 
7!i,o((0 
100,000 
112,.5o(t 

115,(M»0 
130,(HM) 

K'ld.ooo 

100,0(10 
215,0(10 

240,7.50 
225,000 
230.(MM) 
182.5(K) 
182,5(KI 


50,088 
80,(HK) 
01,807 






lS(i(t 








is(i7 








lS(iS 




io(»,(MH) ; 




isdo 
1.S70 
1.S71 
1S72 
1S73 
1.S74 
1S75 
lS7(i 
1.S77 
1S7S 
1,S7!I 
1S,S0 
1881 
1S.S2 
1SS3 
1K84 
1,SS5 
l.S,S() 


780 

7r,8 

1,0.30 

076 

033 

827 

l,0,-)2 

1,081 

820 

1,0.32 

1,125 

040 

1,125 

008 

838 

824 

710 

710 


135,(M>0 
02,4.37 
101,250 
132.375 
0(1,750 
11S,.5(HJ 
150,(HK) 
l(hS,750 
172,5(K) 
105,(M)0 
240,(MM1 
285,000 
.322,.500 
,30 1.1 25 
.337,.500 
34.5,(H«) 
273,7.50 
273,750 


Iliiililii 


IC.,13 
14,.337 
12.12!t 

I2,:u 

12,(1'.>2 
13.14 
]4,:{5 
10,. 31 
17.S1 

18,21(! 

18,4.35 
l!l,.-.3 
20,11 
22, ."lO 
23,27 
2.3,77 
21, (M) 
21,00 
1 



The total amount of the sums paid in cash to the United Aid Society and to the 
workmen increased, from 1842 to 18H(), to 8!) 1 1,228. 40. 

All the workmen and employees share in the profits in'proportion to their wai!;es. 
TliiH, in 1881 a workman having worked for the house 4^ houis work, at the rate 
of 15 cents per hour, and was paid 68 cents, had, at the end of the year, a right to 14 
cents bonus. And again, a workman having 2,7r)0i hours in a year, at the rate of 
1^ cents an hour, received a bonus of $\M. During the same year the smallest 
bonus received by any employee of the house was S3. 13, and the highest 8201. The 
division is based ou the amount of the I'egular wages; over hours, night hours, gra- 
tuities, work done on Sunday and holidays are not counted in the workman's wages 
for the division of profits. 



72 



The, Mutual Aid Society had, on the Ut TIai/, 1889, available funds to the amount 
of 8tr.l,4o;5. 

Tlio Hocicty liiid paid out, apart from aid f^ivon to i(H mt'inlicrs in cuhIi and in 
goods, (Voni IHiL' to ISS',1, 12(t pcnKions, to wit, : 2!l pcMisioim to widowH, 2 |>onHionH 
to orplians, and H!t ponMions to vvorUinon over 55 yoaiK of ago, an<l liaving Nerved 20 
(ionsociitivn yvnvH in tlu! cHtai)lislinu>Ml, Since 1H81 tlio pension of retiring is §2K( 
u year ; tlmse for widows and oi'iiiianH S120 a year. 

Finally, tlie <'oii(H'tions of tiie life insuranco in favor of its momborH gave from 
187!> to IS.SS I he following n^sullH : — 



tflicliiii{.Slst, 
.Inly. 



18S0 
IHMl 
iHH-2 

IHHt 

1S,S5 
IHHfl 

iss; 

18,S« 



'V'riirly 
riciiiiuiiiM 
■A liy th. 
Hi)cit,'tv. 



Fl'llIlCN. 

L>,sii ir. 
2,.s!)l o; 
.'«,2!I2 HO 

.•<,2('.2 .■!."> 

.'i,7lo :(.") 
■t.oir 7x 

4,():!2 72 
.SO,H(K) ,H(i 

.<!(;, iiio, 172 



ViimtxT of NuiiilxT 

Mi'iiilifrMliif<ur('fl <if Mciiilii'i-H 
for l,(HKt fis. (ii'uscd (luiiliK 
ciicli. tliu ^'l'il^. 



l.V. 

In- 
itio 

l(i7 
171 



183 



3 
10 
5 
3 
3 
1 
4 
2 



raid to 

W'idiiwK nnd 

Cliildrt'ii. 



FrancH. 



1,(KI0 

1,(M)() 
t;,o(io 
;<,ooo 

2,IMH» 

;{,(M)o 



2,0IM» 
2,()(K) 

20,(MH) 
.*!4,0(M) 



Tniii'iitcd 
l)y till' Siici'^ty 

in di'faiilt 
iif Dircfl Ili'ii'H 


Total. 


Kriiiicrt. 

2,(HKI 
2,(KHI 
4,000 
2,000 
1,000 


Kraiius. 

3,000 
3,0110 

10,000 
."),(MIO 
3,000 

3,000 


1,0(M) 
2,(MK) 


1,000 
4,000 
2,0oo 


14,<MM) 

.«;2,8o0 


34,(MMI 

80,H(Hi 



The workmen and employoos in the Mai son Loelaire who belong to the noyau 
and to tiio Mutual Aid Society share in the following privileges : — 

1st. They are paid wagcH at least equal to tliose paid by any other establishment. 

2ii<l, The}' are given a share in the protils, which, fi'oin 1870 to 1S8(!, increased 
their wages from 12 fo 2;} jier cent. * 

3rd. in cases of sickness they are given medical attendance and medicines free 
of charge, and a (hiily aid of 70c. 

Momi)ers' wives and children have a right to medical attendance and drugs. 

Members' wives receive foi' the tirst born child a premium of 810, for the second 
$14, and foi- the third and others §20. 

4th. Workmen who have served 20 consecutive years in the liouso, after .50 years 
of age are paid a pension of $240. 

Widows ot members and their orphan children, until their majority, receive a 
pension of S120. These pensions are granted to the hoi rs of members killed while 
at work. 

5tli. In case of death, the workman's direct heirs receive a sum of $20, and the 
funeral expenses are borne by the society. 

Workmen and tlie employees not belonging to ihcjioyaii, and therefore disquali- 
fied for admittance to the society, are granted the following advantages : — 

Ist, A share in the profits, calculated from the same basis as for members of 
tlie noyau. 

2nil. A yearly pension of $240 if tlicy ai-e wounded at work or incapacitated 
for work. 

iJrd. A j-^early ])ension of $120 granted to the widow and orphans of workmen, 
not members, liilled at work. 



NOTICE OP 



* In 1882 the bonus received by every ordinary workman who had worked regularly .300 days in 1 1 
year was as high as .?80, over and alwve his wages. 



78 



SAUTTIOR, LKMOXNIKR & CO., 

LKlllTIIOUSKS, &C., PAUIH. 

Pnrlic'ipiifinii in tho profits was intnuliifoil in 1K77, ostalilisliod inulor tlio form 
of pi'i/i.'s or siipplcinenljiry iillowanffs ^cranted liy tho masters. 

I'lrnployoi's and worliincn .'U'o oMi:,at;('d at slatod and llxod wa^^os. Aftorwauls, 
accoiiliiij,' io tiioir al)ility and liio services reniiercd by tliein they are awarded u 
share i,'realer or loss in the suppleniontary allocation. 

A part of tiio i)rolils isaUolledas rcniuneration for caiiitiil ; iinotiier, varying in 
ainontit accoiding to Iht^ Imsiness done, is divided aimmM- the stalV. 

The en)])loyees, after llieir liiird year of service, uro given a proportionate sliaro 
of this gratuity. VV'ori<nien are admitted after live years' servie((; forced loss of t inn* 
from want of work or other cause not atlrihutahie to them is deducted from tliiit 
time. Their share varies acenrding to their services and their inttdligence. 

To ))revent the amounts thus awarded to tho workmen, whicli are frequently 
discounted and mortgaged in advance, from heing wasted at oneo, a portion only of 
tlu^ amount granted is paid to eacii workman. The suri)lus, which, according to cir- 
<'iini>-taiices, may amouni Io half the entire sum, is placeij in the National li'etii'ing 
Fund for old age, a hook on the fund heing given the workman. This precaution is 
not required of workmen of tiirifty habits, and belonging to savings societii^s or 
others of like nature. To those tho gratuity is given in full. I'articipation, whicii 
was begun in 1877, in(duded in one year 11 em|doyces. In ISSO, 11 employees 
and I'.'i workmen sluired in this supplementary remuneration. In 1SS4, 21 em- 
ployees and ."iS work?nen shared. The number increased yearly, and at the present 
!HI workmen !ind '.'Ai omployeeH sliai'o in \\u'. gratuity. The amounts ]iaid are always 
increasing, and now vary between H and 10 per cent (jn the wages. For employees 
it even amounts to (!() |)er cent, of iheir sahirie.. 

The amounts paid to participants had, in the year 1889, reached tho uim of 
§C(),(M)0. 



G. STEIXIIIIOL, DII'ITI-MILION & Co. 
(Rothau, Alsace.] 

NOTICE OP FOIlTY-TVvO YEARS' EXPKIUENCE IN PARTICIPATION OV THE WOBICMEN IN 
THE PROFITS OK A COTTON MANUFACTORY.* 

Statutory Dispositions. 

The limited liabilily company of G. Sfeinheil, Dieterlen & Co., at Rolhau was 
established in 1S47. In its deed of partnership it engiiges itself to pay 10 per cent, of 
the net ])rofits to tho credit of a Workman's Account, and that, for years in which 
losses are sustained, 10 ])ei' cent, of tho said losses will bodebitedto thosame account. 
This was a beginning of an attempt at collective participation of tlie workmen in 
the pi'olits of the factory, us had been practised before us by our neighbors, Messrs. 
Lctri'and Br;)s., at Fouday. 

Tho amounts were to be manageil by us and used for endowing institutions for 
the advancement of intellectual, moral and ])hysical development, as well as to atford 
aid to families in distress. 

Ill 18()8 we raised the rate for ])aiticipation to 12 jiercent, for losses as well as 
prfilits; this 12 per cent being divided into 7 jter cent, for the collective participation 
and 5 por cent, for individual participation. But instead of realizing the amount of 
requisite profit to carry out our scheme, the period from 18t)8 to 1872 was one indus- 
trial crisis, followed by a war in whicdi Alsace became part of the German himjiii'o. 
AVo sustained immense losses and were oldiged to reconstruct our establishment on 
a now basis. Wo suspended individual participation for awhile, but maintained in 
tlie deeds of our now partnorshi}), collective participation under the following condi- 
tions : — 

* Ki'iKJvt grfven to the jury. 



74 



10 per cent, wnspnt in tho mnnnpfor'H bands to bo, in part, a maximum of 4 per 
cent, ajipiopriiitod td thciiMiinployi'cH, in «:r()t»forinily vvitli tho jji-ovlMions olAi'ticlo 'S.i of 
their statiilDs, ami in |):irt to thoii- worlcrmin's account, as a suhnidy to the Mutual Aid 
and Jlotirin^ I'^und and to tiio Widows' l-'und, in ordur to moot tho domamln mado tor 
aid in canos of noooHsity, and to provide for tho adult coufho, and tho exponsos of 
tho library. 

If, after tho wtcioty in disHolvod, thero remain any balanco, tho pjoneral aHHomhly 
will decide on tho Use to be niailo of it. If, on the contrary, tbonf be ii doticit, it will 
bo carricil to profit anil Iosh. It is of course umlerstood that tho above rulos jfive 
no rif^ht toom|)loyoes or workmori to intorforo in tho atlairs of the socioty. On tho 
contrary, I hoy have to roly on tho accounts approved by tho u:oiu'ral assembly. 

Hy this means wo have manai,'ed to maintain a i)rotty re^ndar supply for our 
workmen's aceouni, iiy |ilacin|r it boyond the extreme fluctuations resulting from 
the uiteriuite slates of profit and loss peculiar to the cotton business. 

\ Disposal of the Funds of the Workmen's Account. 

Durini; tho forty-foui- years intervening between 1S47 and 1888 tho entries on 
thia account have boon 8Cl,l58.t!0, or an annual aveiago of §l,r)lU. 

3Iutual Aid Society, Fund for Widows, and Retiring Fund. 

These funds have been principally employed since tlio date of tho socioly's 
foundation, in \HV.), in succoring workmen in casi's of sitdcnoss. Since IHdfi the fund 
has also supi)lied a jionsion for widows, heretofore a deticicncy in our organization. 
By means of our subsidies tho workmen's subscriptions have been small, and at tho 
same time, savings of a certain importance have boon effected. 

The following iiguros give the receipts and oxpousos of tho Mutual Aid Socioty. 

RECEIPTS. 

Amount supplied l)y the masters 820,148 lf> 

Workmen's subscriptions 42,80!t 28 

Interest on invested capital and tinea imposed 1(>,871 20 

885,428 (J7 



EXPEN.SES. 

Aid in cases of sickness in cash $10,050 93 

Ketiring pensions 28,028 92 

Medical attendance, drugs and funeral l!t,8n 59 

Aid to widows (;,I58 t!0 

$T3,3(]1 99 

Excess of receipts $12,0)i() (i8 



familie: 
rcipiire 
tiiiuily I 
or le.sH ( 
assisljin 



The 
fiu'lory ,'1 
palace ca 

Arti( 
I lie create 

Art. 
(iliject I Ik 

faciiitule ; 
The 5 

dliv's |;il,o 
Will, 
Isl 
venel;il)lc 
2nd. 
;{rd 
It coi 
•Ith. 
tlieir birth 
oth. 
Tl.o I 
from ilie 
'livided am 
Mr, (;, 
1877, but i 
in 188 
entirely co 
1 



Loans for the Purchase or Building of Houses. 

The surplus amount of the receipts of the Mutual Aid Society have boon wisely 
loaned on mortgage at 5 per cent, interest to jnembers desiring to purchase or build 
houses for themselves, and by moans of those loans, and to a capital which is con- 
stantly renewed by tho payment of tho loan, 140 families have boon able to become 
owners of their own dwellings. 

We consider it of the utmost importance that the workmen should be proprie- 
tors of their hou«es, rather than in tho unenviable position of being without homo or 
fireside. 



75 



Supplementary Aid. 

Wliciit'vcf tho ])0]iiiliiti(tn of tlic working' cIiikh is lar^o Ihoro iiro ulwiiyH nonio 
tiiinili«'s innn» oi' Iohh miini'i'oiiH thiit, notwitlistaiidiii^ tho liclp of iiuitiial aid .HucictioH, 

L : .* ..^ II..., I ^ .1 : II-. .. . . *i. .. .1 * I ..!• » I. . i'..* I I -.. 



lilllllll'^ III'M^i *'i ItJntT iiitiiii.it/ii i~i iiiiti iiwiiTiiii,->iiiiivi4iir^ iinj lit i|fi/i 11111111(11 ttiii .-'i»vi\%'H_jn. 

riiiiiiro sii]i|tli'inoiitiii"y asMistanco. Proloiii^vd iHiiohh, tho ticiitli of tho I'athor, a hirj^o 
liimilv ol' cliildion too yoiinu; *o work, and othor caiisos, iioct^sHitato asHiHlancu iiioro 
(ir less coiilitiiiod, TliankH to ourworkmaii'M aceoiiiil, wo aro onablod to oomo to tlio 
assi.stanco ormich faiailio.s. 



FA>[1LI8TEUE DK UIJISK 

A COol'EUATIVE ASSOCIATION OK t'Al'ITAI. AND LAHoll. 

GODIN k COMPANY. 



lIKATINd Al'l'AHATUS. 

Tlio Familistiiro founded in l.S(J(l to worve as a dwollinu; to tho workors in tho 
factoiy and to thoii' faniilios is not a city of working pooplo, but a hirge oditico, a 
palace capable (»f holiliny; noai'ly 1,H()() persons. 

Article 8!) of the regulations of the society gives in a few words the object that 
the creator of tliis inslitutioii had in view. 

Art. 8!). Tho Social Palace (Familistiire) and its dependencies have for their 
(ilijecl the wellhoing and moral development of its inhabitants, and the desire to 
lliciiitate and jiut in practice the aims of the association. 

TIio Social Palace being neai" the workshoi)s, oilers rest to tho workman after his 
day's labor. 

With a desire of afTording every comfort the FamilistiJsro jjohsossos — 

Ist. Stores of general supplies, a bakery, a butcher shop, a ])ork butcher sliop, 
vogclable store, a clothing, grocery and mercer stores, a li(iuor store, &c. 

2nd. Laundries and washrooms. 

3rd. IJaths and open baths. 

It contains al.so, with the view of supplying ihe intellectual and moral demands — 

'1th. Scho(d rooms, which aro for the education and instruction of children, from 
their birth to Ihe time they become ap])renticos. 

5tli. Meeting balls for adults, a theatre, libi'ary, casino, &c. 

The Familistere being an actual member of the society, all the ])ro(its realized 
fnnii the dwellings and provision and other stores, aro all put together, and then 
ilividod among the associates. 

^Fr. (rodin inauguiated the .system of partici])ation inio his establishments in 
1877, but it was only in 1880 that be organized it in a stable manner. 

In 1880 he founded a eomi)any of sleeping partners, the capital of which was 
oiitirely composed ,<f gifts of tlie founder — about $!t20,000. Tho com[)any included — 

1. Associates. 

2. Societaries. 

3. Pai'ticij)ants. 

4. Interested parties. 

The managing direclor is named for life b\- tho council of administration, and 
cannol be removed, except in tho five cases set forth by the I'cgulations — 

1st. Xot being able to secure any interest on capital for two consecutive years. 

-nd. Losses exceeding $10,000 on operations made contrary to the advice of tho 
Ueiieral Assembly, or tho council of administration. 

."ird and 4th. Non-observance of tho regulations. 

■")th. Having taken or preserved any personal interest whatever in any transac- 
tion or sale made on account of the Association, or having perverted or employed to 
Ills iwn use tho funds of the association. 



76 



The niannijjinir diroctor is assisted by an administnitive council, composed of 
directors, heads ot" tlio various departnients of th(> indiislr}-, and t'lroo associates, 
clo(^ted !\y secret liallot at tiio n-cnoral assembly. The duties of this council include 
all the atluir.i uf the association. There is uLso a council Faniilistcio, and a lal)or 
council, and, linally, a council of Buporintendonce, named by the general assembly, 
for the veiitication of books. 

The general assemhl}' is composed of associates. The iissociates must have 
resided in (he Familislt^re for over live years, and must own. at least, SlOO worth of 
stock. They must also have attained the age of 25 years. These associates have 
priority in case of a scarcity of woi'k. They take part in voting at I he genei'al 
meetings, (hose among them who by age, sickness, or intirnii(y, are forced to ceasi^ 
■work, still continue to reside in the Familis(iire, and to sit and vote at the general 
assemblies. 

The societaries must have worked for (he Associ;i(ion for at least tlirc 
years; tliey must also reside in the Social Palace, but it is not necessary that 
they should possess any share of the stock. They should be 21 years of age at least. 

The participan(s mus( have woiked for (he Associa{ion for at least a year, but 
they are not oliliged to reside in the Familistiire, and are not bound to own any 
stock. 

The intei'ested persons are only members of the Association, because they posf ess 
by iidieritance, purchase or otherwise, shares on the stock; they have no right to 
assist at the general meetings. 

The Association also employs employees and workmen as auxiliaries. 



Division of Profits. 

Aftei- having made (ho necessary deduction of 5 per cent, for depreciation on 
immovable property-, 10 per cent, on the value of (he movable ])roperiy, in(ereston 
capital, the costs of education and instruction, the mutual insurances, of which wo 
will speak hereafter, the net protits are divided according to the following 
scheme : — 

2.') per cent, is ailo((ed to (he reserve fund, the object of which is to meet losses. 
"When this fund has reached a sum equal to a tenth of (ho capKal stock the 25 per 
cent, is applied to (be purchase of shares on account of the association. Shares thus 
bought boar no interest. 

50 per cent, is allottpd to capital and labor; the tirst is represented by interest, 
returns and savings; (!>e second liy allowances and wag(*s received during (ho year, 
which are added (ogether. The ])ropor(ion each sum bears (o (he total amount 
determines *he shares of ca|»ital and labor. The 50 jier cent, is divided, so much in 
the franc, between these two ])roductive elements. The (livi<lend to capital is paiil 
in cash ; the bonus to the workmen is capitalized and applied to the purchase o( 
shares in (he business, in (he division of (lie bonus each jiarticijiant can claim one 
part, each societary one par( and a-liaU', and each associa(e two parts, in pi-oportimi 
to thoii' respective wages. The part allotted to the labor of the auxilaries is pl.""'."l 
in (he fund for securing jiensions arid necessaries, the working ot which we will 
oAjilain la(er. 

Finall}', (he 25 per cent, remaining is allotted as follows under (he name o'' 
savings but according to capacity: 4 per (rent, to (he managing direct>r: to (lie 
general council as many (imes 1 per cent., not to exceed KJ, as there are coun- 
cillors doing du(y ; 2 per cen(. to the councillors of supervision. (These amount- 
are, of course, independent of the sums that may be due the parties named iroiii 
the share allotted to labor) ; 2 per cent, to the Council of Management, to bedividcil 
in the c:turse of the year among the employees a. .1 workmen who may have disiin- 
guished themselves by some exce|'.tional service; 1 per cent, foi preparation nt' 
admission to the State schools, and for the 8up])ort at these schools of one or m<>re 
pupils from the schools of the Familistere. 



77 



Wc give below u practical demonsti'ution of the division. * 
We sii]>p()NO, as is actually tlu' case, that llio reserve I'uiul 

is c()ni|ilole ami tiial I ho net protits to ho divided are. 8(!(>,()00 
From \vlii(li must ho deducted 25 per cent, for the share 

to he allotted to ahility 15,000 

There consoiiiiently irmaiiis to he divided among the 

workers at so much in the i'ranc 45,000 

1. The salary of capital represented hy interest at 5 per 

cent, ia tixcd, and amounts to 4(!,000 

2. The siihu'ies ]iaid the associates, sup})osing a sum ' .' 

8lS,0(l(l multiplied hy two DC.OOO 

3. The wages ])aid the memhors should he multiplied 

hy 1.5, sui)posing a sum of 88(1,000 + 1.5 12!),000 00 

4. The salaries paid participants io entered at its 

value say 1:55,000 00 

5. The wages of outside help also at its value 04,000 00 

The union of capital and lahor is represented by a total 

of ■ 500,000 00 

and it is on this basis of salaries thiit the division is made. 
The percentage is given hy the following formula: — 
" Profits + 100 45,000 ^- 100 

percent. 

Salaries 500,0(H). 

In conse(iuence, the dividends and the profits amount to: — 

1. Capital, 40,000 \ i)er cent $4,140 00 

2. Associates. 4S.000 X 2 X 9 8.(140 00 

n. :demhers, S(;,000 1.5 X9 11, (MO 00 

4. Participants liio.OOO X '•> 12,15(» 00 

5. Assistants to bo paid for insurances, I)4,0li0 X 9 8,460 00 

Equal toial §45,000 00 

Tims capital receives per cent, on its interest, either in a ilividend of: — 
— , ^|— --0.45 per '.ent., which, considering interest as the salary of capital, 

makes the division of profits as follows: — 

To capital, 0.45 of its salary (in all 5.45 per cent.) for capital. 

To each associate 18 per cent, of salai'ies and allowances for the year. 

To each menihei ]'Ah pei- cent. do do 

To each participant it ))er cent. do do 

To the insui'anee fund ])ercenl. ol' the wages p.'iid assistants. 

The Familisterc has established the following institutions: — 

Labor Si/ntlirafe. — This syndieule is composed of elected memhors, and attends 

to uiatlers pertaining to lahor and salaries. 

(^)HeUi(itire Committee is noniinjited to settle trouble or differences of opinion 

that may arise between the Association and its members. „l'(,j 

Assurances for ])ensions and the necessaries of life. The fund for fiiis assurance 

is su|)|)lied, — ., 

1. By a subsidy equal to 2 per cent, of the salaries and apj)ointments ])aid by J ho 
association and carried to the account for general expenses. 

2. ^^y a dividend in pro])ortion to the assistant's work. 

A |iension is granted to all persons attached hy long sorvico to the_ ostablish- 
iiioiit and clearly incapable ot work. The pension is fixed, — 

*Le Faiiiilistert) de (iuiso, pagii 81. 




78 



1. I'^or associatcH, mon and women, at I of their allowances, not to be reduced to 
loss than Slf) per month for the men, or to less than $0 per month for women, 

2. For members (soctVfa/res), men and women, at .\ of their allowances, 
an assured minimum of $12 per month for men, and $7 tor women. 

3. For partici[)antB and assistants at : 



with 



Mvn. 



'After 15 years service $0.20 



Per day. 



WDtucn. 
$0.15 
20 



do 20 do 0.30 

do 25 do 0.40 0.25 

I. do 30 do 0.50 0.30 

A workman wounded while at work and inca|)acitated foi- work receives the 
pension given after 20 years service, if be has worked 15 3'^ears for the society; 
and tho 30 years' pension if he has worked more than 15 years for the society. 

This assurance completes for associates and members invalided more than 
three months, the amount necessary to maintain during one year at the primitive 
rate the daily allowances granted by the mutual insurance in cases of sickness. 

This nasurance assures the associates, members, and other inhabitants of tho 
Familistcre and to their families, a minimum of subsistence, when their resources tlo 
not reach tho minimum rate fixed by the statutes.* 

Mutual Assurances in case of Sickness' — The funds of this assurance is maintained 
by an assessment of H on the salaries, the tines, and a subsidy !)y the association. 
The society's functions are those of an ordinary Mutual Aid Society. 

Cooperative Societies for provisions and a bakery are established in tho Familis- 
tcre. 

Institutions for the education and instruction of children in tl.c Familistcre de 
Guise include : — 

The nursery, which helps mothers in the cai-e of children up to two years of 
age. 

The play-room, whore the amusement of childhood is cared for, children of from 
2 to 4 years of age being a<imitted. 

The infant school, (mother's schools include two classes), in which the chilli's 
education is begun ; children of from 4 to years of ago are taught instructive and 
recreative exercises. 

The schools, six classes in which the children of the FamilistCre, up to at least 14 
years, receive a good primary instruction. 

The association moreover supports courses of superior instruction, intended to 
develop tho talents ot those chililren who seem specially gifted. 

Eesults of the Onjanization. 
There were in 1888 : 102 associates, 250 members, 464 ]mrticipants, 256 intcr- 
.ested ]iersonH. 

From 1870 to 1888 there was distributed :— 

To the associates $215 568 

To members 70,361 

To participants 176,4!I5 



Total for actual members $462,424 

To persons interested 32,784 

To assurances 134,92 i 

Various accounts 29,000 

Amounts for education 51,390 



$710,525 



* Tliis riitc is fix(><1 an follcnvs liy .Article 11 of tlic Htiitutt'H : For Inislwiul and wife, 50 fciits \»'X >\.\y ; 
a widower and a widow licail (if a family, 'M cents; a widow witlunit family, 20 cents ; an invalid (rriaii) 
withont family, 20 cents ; a woman, IT) cents ; for yo'inn men over 1(! years of atje, 20 cents ; from It tulli, 
15 cents ; children from 2 to 14 years, 10 cents ; under 2 years, 5 cents. In tiie account for caleulatinff tlit 
resources of a family, in order to settle the amount recjuired to form a inininmm rate of subsistence, tho 
earnings of the memU'rs of the family or the allowances of the different assurances are first counted. 



Th( 

atioii in 
legacy ti 
slKires, ! 
Ace 
fruiso, th 
would be 



Associate, 



M'liibel 



•Tticiiant . 



Assistant.. . 



I'articij 



lot 



1888, 

-^n undo 
'lie wurk/nen 
■I'le division i 

Ibdfdie 
eachiii,iivi,|„; 

'ii'iji.iiit.scan t 

"'^Tli.'iveatti 

Tlio.se fii 

l'l'OIK>rty ,;f t 

'^"loiints 

, . *''''"■ value of 
"'^'■\"ftlMVem,| 

'^ '"■■"■ aee„r,li„j,, 
'""•"■"•'"■kmeMand 



m 



79 



The original capital was $[120,000, lepresenting the real amount of the associ- 
iitioM ill 1879. In 1888 this amounted lo ^1,7:58,475. Thanks to Mons. Godin'rt 
lei,'ucy the association, that is, the workers, owned over 00 per cent, of the cajiital 
shares, and $2,0 shares were in 1888 worth $;5r).71. 

Accordinijf to the published calculations of the Association of the Faniilisttii'o do 
Guise, the niinimnm pecuniary position of four retireci workmen, one of each class, 
would be as follows : — 



Owners. 



Associate, 



Miilllx!!'. 



Partiiinant , 



Assistant . 





Income. 




Years 


PensidiiK and 

InttT.'st 

under the name of 


Value 


of 
Servifn. 


of 
Savings.* 




Havings. 






9. 


S. 


15 


250 72 


1,152 71 


2(t 


2(>H 13 


1,5.3(1 .50 


25 


2S11 55 


1,020 30 


30 


:i(lS il- 


2,.304 10 


36 


XV2 3S 


2,ti87 iM» 


15 


203 71 


l,(m .3(i 


20 


225 12 


1,418 ](i 


25 


24(1 55 


1,801 !)() 


30 


304 30 


2,185 70 


35 


:i27 7S 


2,1(10 3(i 


15 


124 44 


iMl! 88 


20 


182 25 


1,.S05 (>8 


25 


240 27 


1,()80 .52 


30 


208 00 


2,073 28 


35 


31 '.t M 


2,457 08 


15 


73 00 
loo M 
14(i IMI 
182 40 
182 40 




20 




25 




30 




35 









ENGLAND. 



THOMAS BUSIIILL & SONS. 

I'Al'ER MANUFACTUBEHS, COVENTIiy. 

Participation in the profits was established in this factory on the Ist September, 
1888. 

An undetermined amount is divided every year on the Istdayof Septemltor. All 
the workmen who have served at least one year in the estal)lislnn(Mit arc])articipants. 
The division is made in pr>)portion to the salary or waj^es earned. 

llali'tlie amount to l)e divided is given them in cash, and the other is crediicd to 
each individual's |)crsoiial account in a ])r()vident fund established by the tirni. The par- 
ticipants can touch this amount only after 25 years' service in the house, or when 
they have attained the age of 05 years. 

Those funds bear interest at 4 j)er cent., and are secured by a mortgage on the 
property of the ostal)lishment. 

Amounts forfeited are divided among the participants. 

*Tlic Viiliu' of tlio savings (titri's (rcitargnc) is cstalilislicd accnnling to tlic asocndinir soalc of the 
Nivingsiif tiiitv nicnihiTs of the association wliosc wagtw ivniount to $330 jK-r annum, ami who licgin either 
■'■" Hssiiciatcs, 111' nicnilxTs, or participants, ami pass successfully from one class txi the other. The ilivision 
hinaili' iiccording to tlie averatre of tlie ilivision from 1877 to 1888. 

.Mons. ,1. B. A. (Jodin died in 1888 and iH'queatiied to tlie F<iiiiHixti:re tif Oiiiar and iMrh-n, that is, to 
I thiir wurkmcM and employees, tiie half of iiis fortune, all the Fruncii law allowed him to dis|)ose of. 



80 



When a workwoman marrios and leaves the factory hho can claim the amounts 
ontereil in iier hook. 

An employee sick or in any way incapiihio of working can likewise claim his 
amounts. 

In case of death, the participant's heirs receive the amounts in his books. 



CASSELL ct CO. (LIMITED). 

Pn[NTEHS ANH I'UBLISIIERS, LONDON. 

In 1883 the firm of Ciissell, Pctter, Galpin k Co. was changed into a limitcil 
liability compan}-, under the name of '"Cassell & Co.," with a capital of £500,000. 

£70,000 of its stock was reserved for its workmen. The Ik'llc Hauvage Share 
Investment Company is an orgniiization to membership in which all the om])loj'ees ol 
the house are eligible for tlio purpose of acquiring shares. All the members may, 
by a subscription of a shilling a week jier share, for three years and a-half. become 
owners of one share. ■-'• 

One share is worth £0; ami have borne 10 per cent, interest for the last six 
years, and arc valued at £15 10s. The employees had 7,500 shares.** 

A provident fund was established by the Mrm. Its manner of working is explained 
in Section XIV. 



HART & Co. 

INDUSTHIAL PAUTNERSIIir (LIMITED.) 

[London.] 

This establishment was founded by Miss Maiy Hart, with a nominal capital of 
£10,000 in £1 shares. 

5,000 shares have been subscribed and paid for. It must be observed that these 
shares have not been taken by capitalists with a view to speculation, but by iiersons 
desirous of introducing Mons. Lcclairc's ideas to Biitish soil. 

The division is made on the same plan as in the Maison Leclaire, and is regu- 
lated by identical rules. * 
5 per cent, for capital. 
25 do to management. 
25 do to a Mutual Aid Society. 
20 do to a reserve fund. 
25 do to the workmen. 
The workmen's share in the profits is given to them in the shape of stock. Since 
its establishment the house has done -omo £55,000 worth of business, and ]i!iid 
£23,000 in wages, and up to 30th .lune, ls^^6, bad paid the interest on capital. 



TIIOMrSON" & SONS (LIMITED). 

WOOLEN AND WORSTED GOODS. 

[Woodhouse Mills, Iluddersfield, England.] 

Notice given to the Jury. 

" Permanent Union between Capital and Labor." 

The popular vote in agreement with administrative stability changed to a 
co-operative enterprise according to Act of Parliament, for the formation of mhf 
trial companies. 



Tl 
j)ei'.so;i,s 
w]iatso( 

T 
specia 
wise. 

Th 
is carri 

The 

Co-DJ,,.,.. 

^^■'ii'kjne] 
i'l.ii'. and 
The 

«PP')ili(;m 
I'^'lllOVC 
rioii; l\x 

nAttov. al( 

Tlio 
tioii. He, 

"oiiiinatic 

86 wti 



*'l'lie pi-cat KiiKlislilnihliflicrs, 1885. Cas.st'll & O' 
**ReiK)rt of a, meeting of eiiiiiloyi'cM. Cassell & Co. (Liniiti 



(Limited.) 



-'0-(; 



81 



Tills house was estiUtliHlioil furty-tievon yeuvH ago at VVoodhoiise Mills, IIiuMors- 
field, England, for tho inanufacturo of woolens, known throughout the entire world 
for excellence. It is the object of this firm to siipi)ly its customers with reliable 
goods, and to unite the two indispensable factors of enterprise, capital and labor, in 
adiiralile union based on the system of tho late Mons. Leclaire, of i'aris, and of the. 
late Mons. Godin, of Guise. The following are its principles : — 

(1) Having deducted interest on capital, tlie company divides the remaining; 
protits among the workmen in j)roportion to their wages, 

(2) This division is effected by granting the workmen shares in tho stock at £1 
ouch. Thus, the workman sharing in tlie profits, .duires also in the losses ; and, 
;is the business ailvances and enlarges, it raises the workman by the results of 
his own labor. 

(3) The statutes give the workman, hy his right as a shareholder, a voice in 
the managoment of tho business, without, however, any right to change the nuinage- 
inent, except in cases provided for, and for well grounded reasons. Tiie statutes 
will be found am(mg the documents of tho present exhibit. We would call to tiiem 
the attention of all pei'sons desiring peace between tiie two classes now at war with 
each other — the poor and the wealthy — a ]ieace solidly founded on equity. 

Mr. George Thompson, in 1SS<), having always devoted himself to tho study of 
co-operative enterprises, changed his manufactory at lluddersfield, of old and well- 
established reputation, into a co-operative institution. 

A strict valuation of the machinerj', stock in trade, l)ook debts, material, etc., 
on the premises, he amount being valued at £19,173, reproscnteil by stock shares to 
a like value, in shares of £1 eacli. 

The net profits are divided as follows: — 

5 per cent, interest on stock. If the profits of tho year do not admit of this 
amount of interest being paid, the ditferonce is carried against future profits. 

10 per cent, at least as a reserve fund, until such fund amounts to 10 per cent, of 
tho capital. 

These amounts deducted, f; of the balance in profits will be divided among all 
persons having worked for tho firm during a space of six months, in any capacity 
whatsoever. 

Tiio remaining ;t arc to be used, as decided b}^ the committee, either to rewaixl 
sjiecial services or to develop the enterprise by concessions to customers, or other- 
wise. 

Tho share of the profits divided among the staff is not paid to them in cash, but 
is cui'ried to their jjorsonal accounts and paid in shares. 

The business is managed by a committee of three representatives of tlie District 
Co-ojH'i'ative Associaticm, two members of the nuddersfield Trades (Council, and tbroo 
workmen of the mill. Three members of this committee retire at each annual meet- 
ing, and their successors are elected according to ordinary rules. 

The founder of this co-operative Association shall, during the continuance of his 
appointment (for life), control all business carried on by the society and engage, 
remove or discharge all assistant managers, salesmen or employees of evoxy discrip- 
tiiiii; tix their duties, salaries or other i-omuneration. lie is accountable to the com- 
ndtteo alone. 

The statutes provide for a successor in case of Mr. Thompson's death or resigna- 
tion. He has, however, reserved the right to indicate his successor. In default of such 
nomination, tlie new manager shall be elected by the membora of the association. 

86 workmen are now shareholders. 



20—6 



HMnHM 



82 



BELGIUM. 



DE NAEYEE & Co. 

WILLEBROECK, BELGIUM. 

Notice and Information on the means applied to give Fishermen the Oicnership of 

their Boats* 

In the month of August, 1887, we had occasion to study the question of fisher- 
men's interests. 

Wc had just witnessed at Ostend the disputes and brawls which occurred at that 
time between Eii^clish tishermen and those of Ostend, and to which we need refer no 
furthoi'. 

The letters we published in August, 1887, and the contract between the fisher- 
men, of which copies will be found further on, give the details of the agreement. 

We began by buj-ing boats, and building others, many of which latter are already 
in use, and others will soon be rigged. 

Although our experience has not yet been long, and although we began operations 
under disadvantageous circumstances, on account of the small number of boats at 
our disposal (12), everything indicates that tho final result will be favorable. We 
must however add that much remains to be done to improve the moral condition of 
the figherman. It will only be gi-eat progress has been made in the respect, and 
when fishei'men will come to fully understand the advantages this agreement will 
procure for them, that it will begin to produce effect. 

The sloops we furnish our fisherman, with a steam apparatus for raising the 
nets. This apparatus is built in our own shops, and is delivered at a cost of 30 per 
cent, less than demanded by other makers. 

We ourselves manufacture our artificial ice, which is absolutely of equal value 
with natural ice, and delivered to our boats at $2.00 per ton instead of $4.00, the 
price of natural ice. 

In our workshops, at Willebroeck, wo admit young cabin-boys in order to 
instruct them in the management of the boilei's and machines of which we have 
spoken, to teach them liow to put them up and to take them down. As soon as they 
have learned to manage the apparatus they are sent to sea in charge of the enginoa 
on the new sloops we send out. Those among them who have a taste for the lite, 
may remain on board at first as sailors, to become captains later on. Those who 
have no taste for sea life remain on board until they have taught one of the crow 
to manage the engine, when they ma}' return to Willebroeck to complete their 
technical education as working mechanics. 

Agreement between Louis de Naeyer, Trader, residing at Willebroeck, and 

Ist Master, 

2nd Sailor, 

8rd do 

4th do 

5th do 

It is agreed as follows : — 

The party of the first part leases for a term of three years i-enewable tri-annually, 
with a right of purchase, to the party of the second part hereby accepting the sloo]). 
of the value of gear included. The pi'ice of the location is o^ 

per cent, per annum, part payable at each return from the voyage. 

There will also be retained on the returns of each catch, a sura of 3H per cent, 
for insurance expenses, wear of nets, cordage and the depieciation of the boat. It 
is understood that the amounts so retained, which are carried to account of the 



fishenn 
the am( 
boat. 

Th 

account 

Th( 



t 

7 
8 

Ifth 
The 
proportio 



^Notice given to the Jury. 



■fx . 

Tinally, 
tlie ci'ow giv 
aii'l tlio fine . 

This fine 
fo tliem at th( 
occurs. 

This mad 
20-6i 



88 



iishcrmen, are only approximate, and that every year a calculation with be made of 
the araountH really expended as also of the actual value of the depreciation of the 
boat. 

The difference will be accounted for to whom it may concern and carried to the 
account of the winking I'und. 

The x'cmainder will he divided in the following manner:- - 

Ist. 50 p. c. to the sinking fund ifthecatchisof less value than... 
2nd. 45 do do do 

3rd. 40 do do do 

35 do do do 

30 do do do 



4th. 
5th. 
()th. 
7th. 

8th. 



$200 
180 
IGO 
140 
120 
100 
80 
(50 



do do do 

20 do do do 

15 do do do 

If the value of the catch is less than 060 no sum will be retained. 

The remainder is divided among the parties of the second part in the following 
proportion : — 

^Sj- for the master; 

^\ for each of the crew. 

It is understood that if the catch is so poor as to realise less than $00, it will bo 
taken as a proof of bad work, and in that case the party of the tirst part will have a 
right to cancel the agreement. A valuation will bo taken of the sloop, and the ditier- 
enco ill value retained from the sinking fund. 

The remainder, if there be any, will belong to the parties of the second part. 

If one or more men leave the sloop voluntarily, and without good cause, their 
sliaro will revert to those who remain, and these will bo obliged to provide other men 
to be agreed to by the party of the tii'st part. 

If on the contrary the men are thrust out by superior numbers, they may name 
their successors, who must also be agreed to by the owner. 

If none are named by them, the man first named would act to the best of his 
ability in the interests of all, as circumstances admit. Ditferences will be settled by 
iul)itrators. one being named by the ownei' and the otner by the crew of the sloop, 
ami in case of disagreement a third will be named b}' the president of the Tribunal 
of Commei'ce. 

The party of the first part insures the sloop, attends to the i-epairs considered by 
both ])arties to be necessary, and keep the accounts accoi'diug to the conditions 
stipulated above. 

In case of accident or the loss of tlie sloop the proprietor will receive the amount 
of tlie insurance, and the amount of the sinking fund will be used for the purchase of 
another si )op, which will bo put at the fishermen's disposal, unless they have decided 
to abandon the fishery, in which case the whole of the sinking fund will be paid to them 
in cash; and tlie agreement between them terminate. 

When the sinking fund is complete, the slooi) becomes the exclusive property of 
the parties of the second part, to dispose of as they may deem projier. 

The shares in the property will be divided as follows: — 
f'y for the master; 
~\ for each sailor. 
Finally, it is moreover agreed between the parties if one or more of the men of 
the crew give themselves up to drink, either on land or on sea, they may be fined, 
and the fine applied to the sinking fund. 

This fine will be to the amount of $1.00, and one-twentieth of the money coming 
to them at the end of each voyage during three months, and this every lime the case 
occurs. 

This made in as many duplicates as there are jjarties to the deed. 
20-6i 



^m 



84 



Letter to the Newspapers, Atujust, ISST. 

AViM.EHROECIC, 

Mn. Editou, — I wnH proHciit at tho first ntrikc that occiirrod in Ostend. T avuh 
greatly im|»rcssc(l l>y it, and was load to study Ww (|iicstii)ii of tisiu'rios. 

It lias 1)0011 piihlisliod iiy certain nowspa]»ei'K that tiicso fishcrrnon are p.iid hut 
one-tliird of the catcli, and thai tiic roniaindor holon^H to the ownor ol'tiio hoat. 

The stntcment in oiToncous. Tho lisheinion receive two-thirdH of the not pro- 
coeds and one-third only is reserved for the owner, it is ti'ul^- stated, however, that 
the latter i)ossess sonic lurther small advantages which iielp to raise the sum total 
of their share. Under these eireumstances, capital is not so exactin^^ as has been 
said; besides, were the tacts as stated, the position of an owner would he too good, 
and competition would soon step in to modify this state of things. 

However, I am of opinion that in all justice tho worUman ought to, as far as 
possible, tf) Ije given the larg(^r shar'e in the protluction he has socurcil. 

With the projected Building Society for the erection of workingmen's houses, of 
which I spoke lastyear, and of which an example has been given by the paper works 
of Willebroeck, it would ite very easy to provide boats foi- good fishoi'mon in a very 
short time ; I wisli to give tho same jiraotical ('xam])lc in favor of tishermei\ as f 
liavc done for workingmen's houses, ami to this end I have alro;idy purchased l)oals, 
and am on tho ])ointof buying others, besides having opened negotiations concerning 
the building of new boats. 

The following is the translation of a circular in Flemish which T had ])osted in 
Ostend : — 

Did the matter concern provident and educated pei'sons the information in the 
circular would be sullicient, that is tho circulation of 3^ i)or cent, interest or 8140 
for a new boat costing 84,000, and about 84U0 sinking fund; but in tlie bcgiiniing 
I think it would be more prudent to lead and encourage tlicm, like childi'on or 
minors, and, therefore, in their own interest, be it understood, to insert a number of 
8tipuh.ting clauses in the agreement. As for instance : — 

1. The account should be made provisionally by the person representing capital, 
of course with the consent of the interested ]iartics, I say provisionally, because I 
am of o]nnion that after a certain time the whole may be given over to the fishoi- 
men, when the sinking fund is large enough and when they shall have given proofs 
of assiduity and good conduct. 

2. A certain amount retained on each catch, representing: 

(a.) The expense of the boat's insurance. 
(b.) Those for Avear of nets, cordage, sails, etc. 
(c.) The lowest value of the boat. 
This can evidently only be done approximately, and for this reason the amounts 
retained should be only provisionally so. Moreover, they are retained entirely on liio 
fishermen's account, and every year an addition will be made of the amounts really 
expended and the valued depreciation of the boat. The difference will be carrictl to 
the credit of those to whom it may belong and added to the sinking fund. 

The part of this amount so retained may be increased or reduced after a first 
discount when the ti'ue amount has been obtained. 

Prom the remainder will first be taken the share for the sinking fund, as I have 
said, much, if the catch be good, little or nothing if it be bad. For instance: 

50 per cent, if the value of the catch is over $ '00 

45 do do under 200 

40 do do do 180 

35 do do do 1(50 

30 do do do 140 

26 do do do 120 

20 do do do 100 

15 do do do 80 

nothing of it is less than 



U 

what ii 

bouts, 1 

It 

own frt, 

who roi 

li'iwevo 

tliev nu 

'iio cap 

aniount 

another 

tliat cas( 

agrccMK! 

ainouiit ] 

iiiav (lisj 

" 1 ha 

lishorniei 

Mori 

insure IIk 



An ii 

leceipts al 

Pi lota 

ports or Hji 

and (1)0 iV 

]iilots and 

Thei'o 

boards Jiav. 

<Ji'der to ox 

Tlierefl 

tJio recoipth 



86 



Undex' these oonditionH the fishermen'H Bhiiro will ho considoriihly more (hiin 
what it is now; ittid he><idos, witli tho steam appai'atiis which is to l)0 put in all the 
bouts, tho results must bo much bolter than tboy generally are at tho [iroscnt time. 

It should also bo stipulated that if one or more of the men leave the boat of tlioir 
own free will, and witliout jfood reason for so doiny;, their shaie will beloni^ to those 
who renuiin, and these will iiavo to provide other men accepted by 'lie capitalist; if, 
however, these men have, on the contrary, botni put out of the I)oat iiy sujierior foi'co, 
they may indicate other men to rephn-e thom, providcil they also are accepted by 
(he capitalist, in case of accident to, or loss of the bout, capital will receive the 
amount of insurance, and tho amount of the sinking' fund will 1)0 used to provide 
allot lusr boat for the use of the tisliermen. unless they decide to abandon tislu'ry. In 
that case the ontiri' amount oi'the sinlcini^ fund will be ])aii| In tlu'ni in cash ai\d the 
a;ii'ecn>ei\t with them cease to e.\ist. When the siid<ing fund shall have reached the 
amount required tho boat shall become thoo.xclusivo proj)erty of tho tisliermen, who 
may (lisj)ose of it as they choose. 

1 have thoui>ht it riirht to give you m}' views concerning this question of tho 
llshermon, and what is to bo done to amelioi'ate theii' condition. 

Moreover, the question is so impoi-tant us to demand the attention of all to 
insure tho success of the enterprise. 

Believe mo, Sir, yours, &.C., 



PILOTAGE IX TUB ESCAUT. 

An interesting example of partici]iation, not only in the profits but in the 
receipts also, is given by the oi'ganization of ])ilotage. 

rilotage in the Esnaut, and in its mourhs, of sea-going vessels bound for Belgian 
ports or sailing from Belgian ports outward bound, is much jiractiscd in Belgium 
and the Netherlands {Pays Ban). Captains arc free to choose between Belgian 
pilots and Netherland ])ilots. 

There is conseciuently competition between tho two in serving vessels, and both 
hoards have been obliged to remunerate their pilots in proportion to the receipts, in 
order to excite their activity. 

Therefore all the Belgian agents are paid according to tho variable amount of 
tho receipts, and the agents are consequently directly interested in the work. 



HOLLAXI). 



NETHERLANDS YEAST AND SPIRIT MANUFACTURE. 

Delft. 

1st Participation in the Profits, established in ISTO. 

10 per cent, of tho net profits of each year (that is to say, after an assessment of 
^ per cent, dividend for tho shareholders) is put in tho hands of tlieilirectors and tho 
Committee of Management, to be used to tho best of their ability in the interest of 
the employees and workmen of the establishment, having consulted with them, should 
thiy request it, without in any way being bound to give an account to anyone out- 
side tho general assembly of sliai'eholdors, of the use to which tho money is put. 
(Extract from the Statutes of tho Company, Art. 2(5.) 

The total amount from 1870 to 1888 was .SKi.HIO. Up to ISSC a part of tho 
protits was first deducted for a retiring fund, and a sum of $10,558 was applied to 
that purpose. Since 1887 the amounts so applied have been applied to tho general 
expense account. 

The share of the profits in 1887 amounted to 85,642. This amount was divided 
in p;(>portion to the wages, and gave to each employee and workman the right to a 



86 



dividend equal to fl per cent of hia salary for the year. These dividends wore paid 
to liie fathers of families in ready money, to bachelors half in cash, and half carried 
to their poi'sonal account in the Pi'emium Savinjiifs Bank.* 



ITALY. 



FELICE GENEVOIS & SONS. 



SOAP MANUKACTUEKRS. 



Naples, 17th August, 188i). 

!SIoNS. Jules IIelbronner, — Acknowledging the receipt of your favor of the !)th 
instant, I hasten to send j'ou the documents as requested, but these documents are in 
Italian. 1 will, therefore, offer you a translation, should you require it ; and raoro- 
ovor enclose you the principal articles of our statutes. 

Admission to participation is not limited, but exclusively at the willoftlio man- 
agement. Every person presented by the management must be accepted by the 
general assembly of participants. 

The capital of each participant is formed exclusively from his portion of the 
profits as shown by the annual inventory, and can reach to 8(j,000. When it reaches 
$400 he is not oi)liged to leave his profits in an entire sum; he may bank the one- 
half and carry the balance to his capital ar particij)ant. 

The division of pi'otits is made pro-rata of the capital of the participant, as 
increased by his annual salary. 

By profits we under-stand net profits, th'o excess of the assets over the liabili- 
ties after the deduction of the general expenses, the losses and the interest of 5 por 
cent, levied for the capital stock. 

Each participant, after 20 years of active service, may retire, and leaving his 
capital as participant, has a right in the division of the interest as if he, the partici- 
pant, was still an active member of the society. This, then, is the pension assured to 
them for their old age. These dividends are guaranteed to be never less than 5 per 
cent. 

Messrs. Gervais, Bros, k Husaut, the managers, formed alone their capitnl, 
each in a single jiayment, which constitutes tiie foundation of the capital of partiri- 
pation, to which is every yeai- added the shares of tlie ])r()fits divided among the 
participants, the capital stock, or 8!l0,000 furnished by the same managers, ami 
represented by imraoveble property, material, etc., has alone a right to the anntiiil 
interest of 5 per cent. 

The general feeling of the Neopolitan population, and of the workmen in parti- 
cular, has so far prevented us from establishing profit-sharing on a broad basis. Up 
to the present time wo have been forced to be satisfied with a chosen few, who recog- 
nize the benefits of profit-sharing, and are full of zeal in spreading the knowled.i,a'. 
Their example appears to have somewhat interested others in it, as we now begin 
to notice an increased assiduity in some, wliich seems to indicate a desire to be 
admitted to profit-sharing. 

Profit-sharing suggested to us the idea of establishing an aid funtl among i"U' 
workmen, in cases of accident, such as may occur during work, and for cases of sicl<- 
ness among the employees and workmen of our establishment. The funds for tliis 
aid are supplied by a subsidy granted by the managers, by the amoui\t of the fines 
imposed on the staff, by monthly contributions instituted as follows : the empluyoes 
$0.20 per month ; the workmen 80. 10. 

Both employees and workmen have a right. 

1st. To medical attendance and medicines prescribed by the physician. 

* See section XIV. 



admit ( 

{•artiei 

Ou 



87 



2ii(l. Invalids uniiblo to bo prowont at the timo of tho phynic'iiin'H visit will bo 
visited at iiis own homo by tbo pliyHician, iih will ulso his wito and cluldron tbo cost 
ol'wuch visit by tho physician will bo rodiiood to $0.20. 

I remain, Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

JULES IIUSAUT, 
Partner and Manager of the firm of Genevois & Son. 

P.S. — Apart from tho manajjors, wo number 6 participants, and expect to 
admit () more at our no.xt general meeting, which will bring our numljor up to IG 
participants. 

Our firm employu from 180 to 200 persons of both soxos. 



UNITED STxVTES. 



N. 0. NELSON MANUFACTURING Co. 



STEAM AND WATER BlUSS WORKS, ENQINKS, BOILERS, ETC., 

St. Louis Missouri. 

Mr, N. O. Nelson instituted protit-sharing in his business in 1880, on tho princi- 
ples of Leelaire and Godin. Tho first division gave a sum of $-i,S2S, to bo divided 
among all perKons who worlcod for them during at least six months in the cstablish- 
moiit. The number of participants was 150, and the individual shares of tho wage- 
earners varied Irom 827 to §4l>, representing 5 per cent, on the wages earned. 

More than two-thirds of the men loft their dividends in the business. 

The division of not profits is made botweon capital and lahor in accordance with 
tho Godin system, capital having first recoivod interest at T por cent, 

in 1887 Ml'. Nelson modified hisoriginal plan by adiliiig the following clauses; — 

1st. 10 por cent, of the profits for an aid fund for the disabled and side, and their 
families. 

2nd, 10 per cent, for a provident fund, for meeting losses and paying dividends 
ill unfavorable years, 

iird. 2 por cent, for a library, 

4th. That all employees who had taken a certificate for their 188G dividend 
sliuuUl receive a bonus of 25 per cent, 

5th, That the required term of service in the establishment should bo raised 
from six to ten months. 

In 1887 the amount divided was $30,000. 

83,000 w'ere set aside as a relief fund. 

83,000 for a provident fund. 

86U0 for a library funtl (400 volumes). 

Alter all these deductions there remained a dividend of 10 per cent, on the pre- 
ferred class, namely, those who had earned a dividend in 18S(J, and had left it in the 
business, recoivod a dividend of 10 per cent., and the others a dividend of 8 per cent. 
on the amount of tho wages earned during the year. 

Those who held dividend certificates for 188() received 15 per cent, dividend on 
tiait certificate, representing 7 per cent, interest and 8 per cent, dividend for 1887. 

In 1887-80 per cent, of the participants left their dividends in the business. 

In 1888 and 1889 tho preferred class of particii^ants received a dividend of 8 per 
cent. 



88 



PEACE DALK MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 



Peace Dale, Rhode Island. 

In lS7fi tliis company dooidcd to divido luimially n Hliiiro in tho ])rofit8 nmon;; 
tho workmen :tlio nmnui^omcnt roHorvod tlio rij^ht to dotormino tlio ])on'(Mitaf,'o ni 
llio <lividciid wlicncvcr ono in to ho declared. 'I'ho division of a dcclaiTd dividend i> 
mado amoiiir tin* porHons omployod durint; tlio monlli ol'.Ianuaiy that prcciMJos tin- 

Saymont, and who liad heon at loast Hcvon montliH in the comj)any's eniph)y on the 
rut of tho proceeding Fohruary. 

Ail <'mpioycoH dismiHHed, and who luivo not worked at leant seven montlis ilurini; 
tho year endinij: lUst, January or who have of tlioir own IVeo wili let't tlio com|)anv'> 
Borvice jirevioiis to tliat (hite, lose all rii^ht to a sliai'e in tho dividoml. 

Tlie division is made y//v> n/7(( tho waives oarneil hy o;itdi workman during tlic 
twelve months proceeding Ist Fohruary. 

Results of the Organization. 

1879 — JanaurySlst Xo ilividend 

IHSO do Dividend 5 p. c. 8.'),842.40 

1881 do do .f)p.c. r),!i!t;).(;r) 

1882 do do :Jp.c. 3,7(iU.U 

1883 do do :{p. c. :},7»!(».35 

1884 do Nodividend 

1885 do do 

188(j do do 

1887 do No circular * do 

1888 do do 

1889 do do 

• The coiiipftiiy wkwa a circular to its workmen explaining the causes of the increase allowing a divi- 
dend, or tluwti wliich iircvcnt it. 



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CO-OPERATIVE PRODUCTIVE SOCIETIES. 

L. COUME'S ESTABLISHMENT. 

VILLENOV. 

In forming a co-operutivo society the chief ends in view are: 

IhI. Tiio exlHtence of a professional school, whose duration is limited only liy 
that of the industry Avhieh gave it being. 

2nd. To assure the future of the workmen leaving the school, as they are certain 
to secure a salary in the association besides a notable share in the profits. 

3rd. A continuity and completion of apprenticeship, which wore heretofoi'o 
unknown in this branch of business, and consequently a more thorough development 
of the French manufacture of hats by the suppression of the tax for foreign manu- 
factures, especially English. It is to be noted that the results actually oljtained at 
Meaux-Villenoy are due to means emploj'ed which French workmen — Parisians in 
particular — had not sufficiently appreciated. Thus, our better educated workmen 
undei'stand rioro clearly than the (jthers and will profit by their acquired experieiicf. 

As to tlio financial part of the project, improvements and gradual enlargement 
by means of increased capital and the possibility of loaning; the co-operative mode, 
in tine, enables the society to participate in the subsidies of the State, of the city of 
Paris, and in special endowments, such as the I{amj)al legacies, etc. An important 
innovation exists in the division of the profits by halves, between labor and ca])ital, 
and we may remark that the interest on capital cannot be assessed unless the profits 
are sufficient. The basis on which the division is made is in the Avorkmen's favof, 
eo that in the end labor is better remunerated than capital. 

The innovation of the general co-operative account, with its special provisions, 
will be to the advantage of the apprentices as regards subsidies and particular gifts. 
This account also has for its object, thanks to the successive retirement of the 
original partners, the progressive transfer of the capital to the associated workmen; 
these latter, in consequence of their co-operative activity, will within a very short 
delay become the proprietors of the common capital, and thus meet the demands of 
social progress. 

(Signed) L. COUMES. 



December, 1884. 



March, 1889. 



STATUTES. 

First Article. — There is formed, between the undersigned and all those who may 
become parties to these statutes, a co-operative society, which has for its object the 
manufacture and sale of hats, and particularl^Mif silk hats. It shall take the namo 
of the Joint Stock Co-operative Society of Parisian-made Hats. The society has fur 
its object the bringing to perfection the French industry of hat, making and tho 
improvement of professional instruction for apprentices. 

Art. 2. The duration of the society is fixed at thirty years, to date from the time 
of its formation. 

Art. 3. The capital is fixed at 50,000 (fifty thousand francs) and divided into 500 
shares of 100 francs each. It is composeil 1st of goods, material and other articlcij 
mentioned in the annexed statement, of the value of twenty-live thousand francs nt 
stock in trade ; 2nd, of twenty-tivj thousand francs subscribed in cash. The L'oO 
shares are delivered at the time of subscription, for payment of half their cost. Tlif 
two othei' quarters of 2,") francs each shall be paid on calls, from the council ol 
management, who notify the sharehoUlers by letter one month in advance. 

The council or commission of mana<i;eraent luis the rii^ht, after a decision to that 
effect by the majority of the shareholders representing more than iudf of the capital 
to increase the capital by successive additions of (5,000 francs) five thousand or ten 
thousand franco. 



Ar 

who shi 

followit 

isiied la 

and in f 

All 

founder 

J'Jac 

share in 

mcnt at ] 

adoj)(('(l I 

.Art. 

comjiosed 

and accou 

'he nianu 

associates, 

sident of i 

Art. 'i 

shares and 

tlio propel- 

able. 

Art. 8. 
inanagomei 
nu'inhers. 

Art. 9. 
tiie soci(.'t\-. 
The si^ 
nicnts ;iii(I I 
li'^s any (!„, 
signed besid 
Art. 10. 
'heir doh'bc 
|li.smi.ss (ho 
"'^ ill miiK 
'"'he wnvk 
"'01' to the 
'••ilceii from 

•■"■odistj'ibutt 

mass. 

The con 
fransters. 

rounders, the 



Art. 20. 

'*f'i'enient ofa 
3'e"i', on the 3 



s'ock- 



"ssots a 



"! J"'"^t ;.nd ]( 
r'-'fit(lavsat 
'"vontory ;,n. 
Art. 21. ' 
"'e ])rotits. 

T'lo expon 

asse.ssments, Sc( 

20-7* 



99 



Art. 6. The capital is formed by theorij^inal founders and theaHHOciato workmen 
wlio Hlwiro in the profits in ditforcnt pioportions, an in whown \>y Article 21 and the 
following articles. The original founder only shares in the capital which is dimin- 
ished later. The associate workman partici])ates at the same time in the capital 
and in I ho labor and should be owner of at least throe shares. (Art. 25.) 

All the shares are, and remain, in the name of the owners ; mention of " original 
founder" or "associate workman" is placed on each certiricato. 

JOach share gives the right, without distinction (according to law) to an equal 
share in the capital stock, except in case of an oxci.'ss, after H([uidation, and the pay- 
ment at ])ar ot all the shares, this excess will then be divided according to themunnor 
adopted foi' piotits. (See Articles 21 and 22.) 

Art. 6. The Society is managed by a council oi- commission of management 
comjioscd of six members, two of whom belong to it it by right, the chief manager 
ami accountant (le chef tin service commercial et do comptabilit^), and the head of 
the nianufactoiy ; the others are elected annually at a general assembly of the 
associates, who should choose two workmen and two associate founders. The pre- 
sident of the council has the casting vote. 

Art. 7. The members of the council should each be the owners of at least five 
.shares and the chief manager often shares. Those shares remain as a guarantee of 
the proper fullilment of their duties and are deposited with the firm and are inalien- 
able. 

Ai't. 8. The Assembly nominates for a period of thiee years the two chiefs of 
management and manufactory, who may, however, be re-elected the same as other 
memliers. 

Art. 9. The council has the most extensive powers over the goods and affairs of 
tiie Kocifty. 

The signature to drafts, commercial papei- nnd agreements, as .veil as to docu- 
ments iiiul papei-s to be tyled in court, must be that of the chief manager. Neverthe- 
less, any document that binds the society for more than a thousand dollars should be 
signed beside by a second mcmbei-. 

Art. 1(1. — The members of the council arrange among themselves the order of 
theii' deliberations and the duties to be performed liy each; they appoint and 
dismiss the employees ; they fix the wages of the workmen and of all the staff, bear- 
ing in mind that all the workmen should be " associates." The council may grant 
to the workmen and apprentices, pi\)portionate!y to each section of work, a supple- 
ment to the wages under form of "sharing by workshops." This assessment is 
tuken from the price of the hats, but cannot exceed one franc per hat. These gifts 
are disti'ibuted fortnightly either in cash or in shares bought from the co-operative 
mass. 

The council guarantees the entry of all sharo^j to the proper owner and of all 
transfers. 

Art. 11. Each year the general assembly confers upon one of the associate 
founders, the office of auditor (commissaire-censeur) to verify all accounts. 

Inventory — Division of Profits. 

Art. 20. The council of management, every two weeks, prepares a summary 

statement of affairs showing the assets and liabilities. Moi'cover, at the end of each 
year, on the Hist December, an inventory is made in detail of the goods, material, 
stock, assets and liabilities of the society. The inventory, balance sheet and account 
ot'piotit rnd loss are laid before the general assembly, i-jvery associate can, within 
i-'i,i,'ht days at least of the general assembly, take communication of the balance sheet, 
inventory and list of the associates. 

Art. 21. The net proceeds, deduction having been made for expenses, constitute 
the profits. 

The expenses include all the necessary annual outlay, salaries, general expenses, 
assessments, (!cc., with the exception of interest on capital. (See Profits.) 

20-7J 



100 



Tho UHsoHsmontH inoludo : 1st, tlio "toi)l iiml mutoi-iiil " acoount, on which an 
annual asHcssmont ot at h)ast 10 por cent, in mado for woar and toar; 2nd, tlio 
account " tho first oponin;^," when the coHt of forming tho society, the ox|)onHOs of 
instalhition and of aj^encios are onterod ; this account is assossed by tho twentieth, 
to (hito from IKitO. 

After dciluctin^ tlio le^^al rosorvo off) per cent, (law of 188(5) tiie protits aro 
divided into two e([ual parts : the first is entered to capitJil, the other to labor, ;ih 
Jollows : the portion set aside for capital servos, tirst. tofmnpleto the interest account 
limited at 4 per cent, por annum ; the lialance, after an assessment of 15 percent, 
for the reserve fund, is divided, one-half to the capital's dividend (See Art. 24) ami 
one-half to the co-operative body's account (Art. 25 and 2f)). 

Art. 22. The snare infix* ])rofit8 due to labor, that is to say, to tho co-oporafors, 
outside of all relation to cai)ital, is thus divided : ;{ to Co-operative Labor, jj to S(W- 
iTKjs and jif to the entire Co-aperativc body (Seo Art. 25) viz. : 

Each associate workman receives over and above his wages by the piece (rato 
fixed by the Board of Management) a share, independent of tho shai-es he owns in 
tho business. This profit-sharing is given e([ually to the workmen, to the perfection- 
nants and to the apprentices of tho higher division in tiio co-operative work account, 
which is divided tiius: (io ]percent. to tho workmen, of which : 

35 por cent, for the accou?»t of the working staff, dividend to be distributed jjit 
head, that is to say, efjually among the associate participants ; 

30 per cent, for tho account oi' time in the association; tho division is made pm- 
portioiiately to tho number of years of service, computed from tho admission 
of tlio apprentice into the higher division, in such a way, for instance, that 
a workman who has boon a member six years receives three times as much 
as ono who has only been two years on the other hand. 

35 per cent, for tlie account of J/fl7ia(/cmen^ d«y«<Zem/, to be divided among the 
members of the council, giving a double share to heads of departments. 

100 por cent, total amount of equal shares which correspond to ^ of the piotits. 

The name of perfectiotinant is given to an apprentice who has left tho professioniii 
school of hat-making and while being a workman, is bound to follow tho courso, 
and in certain way is considered as an a])prentice. 

Art. 23. The portion of two-sixths intended for the Savings account or the m- 
operators is divided equally among all tha privileged shares, even if they are ownal 
by appientices. 

Each workman at the time of his admission into the society should obtain three 
privileged shares of 100 francs, or bind liimfolf to obtain them within a maximum 
delaj' of two yeai-s ; if bo doos not deposit sufficient saving the co-operative IkkIv 
assist him in the purchase of one share by moans of a loan with interest at 3 por cent. 
Such loan must be leturned within one year. It is the same for every apprentico of 
eighteen years of ago. 

Art. 24. Tho Dividend on Capital i\q count is divided pro mia among all the shares 
without distinction after deduction of rj- (one-fourth), reserved for the chief of the 
factory and one of the founders. This assessment rule may be annulled if tho said en- 
founder ceases his co-operation, and the dividend thus being uncalled for returns t^ 
the Co-operative body, to bo applied to the purchase of shaies (See Art. 2G) in t'avur 
of '^perfectionna7its" and of the most worthy apprentices of tho higher division. 

Art. 25. The account of the Co-operative Body is particularly intended for the 
purchase, at the rato of 100 francs each, of the capital shares of the associate foumleis. 
which shares, from tho time of their transfer to the co-operative body, acquire tho 
name and advantages of priviliged workmen's shares. 

A drawing by lot determines the number of founders' shares thus subjected to 
forced sale, in proportion to tho eums at the disposal of the body. At the start ot 
the society the number of workmen's shares was limited to two hundred; the others 
wore the shares of the associate founders. 

The Co-operative body account is formed not only of the division of profits 
provided by Articles 21, 22 and 24 above mentioned, but also of particular gifts and Iiv 
the special subsidies in favor of apprentices. 



Tl 

intero.s 

A I 

iMiniljci 

acijin're 

Til 

tic(>s (i( 

three-fo 

ilppiCMt 

three sli, 

The 

<li('d or \ 

jdace aft 

workmei 

over, can 

<'iipilal. 

Art. 
C'o-opci'at 
of 100 fra 
J""idingt( 

I''. IliiUCVi 

life, (he 1 

'('i-m part 

Seiitei 

«g<Mneiii ;i 

a>socia(e \\ 

.'^'"i''y of n 

<'n'niinal en 

'«•; (he pel 

I'lit (his iv, 

Af(. 2,'- 

«P<'fial enio 

<if ne( prof] 

I'ho losorvd 



^'"tice givJ 



101 



Tlio r<)-()|»ora<ivo body account in owner of all uiisuld nliuroK, rcccivoH tlie 
intorost aiul dividcnilH on thorn, which iiicroaHOH tlio fund for buying othorw. 

Art. lit). The ("o-opciativo ixidy 8hould catdi year keep in rcHorvc a snfflcitMit 
niiiiilicr otaHMOfiate workmen share.s to onablu now workmen or new apprentices to 
ai'iiuirc thorn, 

Tho HhareH of asHociato workmen can only bo obtained by workmen or appren- 
tices lit tho trade; (he admission of a now co-operator 'Jidy takes place on the vote of 
tlirce-f'oiirths of tho associate workmen (e.\ce|)tion beinij made in favor of tho 
a|i|iiciitices fi'om the schools), ami on the production of iv certiticute of ownership of 
liiri'i' shares, or on the promise indicated in Article 23. 

The Co-operative body should buy back all the shares of workmen who have 
dicil or who have been dismissed from, or loft the society tho purchase only takes 
|)l.n't' alter a month's delay, in which a riii;ht of preference is i^.ven to tho associate 
workmen in tho order of seniority in the association; none of the co-oporators, how- 
ever, can possess more than the third of tho j)riviloned shares, nor a sixtli of the 
('ii|iital. 

Art. 27. Tho shares possessed by a/lismissed or cxchnlcd associate return to tho 
(,'()-()perative body, who jiay for them aooordinff to the associate's choice!, either at par 
(if 1(1(1 francs or over KHt fiancs in accor<lanco with a rate of capitalization corrcs- 
]ioniiin<f to 4 per cent.; calculated from the profits as shown by throe last inventories. 
If, howcvor, the share is one that has boon i;ivon as a prize or rowa'-d to an a])pren- 
\\vv. the latter foriots all ri/fbt to it, and tho amount goes to the technical school, to 
tbi'tn part of the Ajijirentices lieserve Fund. 

Sentence, dismissal or exclusion of a member is pronounced by the IJoard of Man- 
au;('nuMit after both sides of tho question have lieen hoard by them, a<j;ainst any 
iissociale workman who has aiiused his ])rofessional ri'sponsibiiity, f)r who has been 
i;iiiity of any dishonorable action, or who has botin stMitenced in the correctional or 
oi'iiniiial courts, so loni^ as his offence has not been in any way of a political charac- 
ter ; tho person dismissed has a right of recourse to tho orditiary general Assembly ; 
liiit this recourse does not suspend the sentence. 

Art. 28, Tho i^e.se;w F«/uZ proviiled for by \rticle 21 is intended to moot any 
8|H'cial emergency or demaml for extra expense, especially to supply any deficiency 
iif not profits after an inventory, in order to provide 40 jier cent, interest to capital. 
The reserve fund may be increased by decision of the general assembly by as.ses.s- 
iiu'iit cf part of tho dividends of capital, or by the income from unappropriated privi- 
leged shares in the account of the Co-ojierative body. 

Art. 2!*. — Tho payment of " participations, dividemls and interests," will be 
made in tho month of Febriuuy, after close of the inventor}- which determines the 
iinioiint, and algo after the general assembly has examined in(o the ma(tor. How- 
ever, if the jiayment of profit allows it at the close of the first half 3'ear, the council 
may, in .September, distribute, on account, li per cent, for interest on capital. 



JOIXT-STOOK AND CO-OPERATIVE DAIRY COMPAXY OF LKSCIIHLLE.* 

[Aisne.] 

For many years tho production of milk and butter has been one of the principal 
agricultural industries of tho department of Aisne. 

The meadow lands in the northern part, more particularly those of the canton 
ofNouvion, rival the famed meadows of Normandy. 

The milk industry has been, up to the present time, a means of money-making 
to the inlialiitants, but this, like other industries, was aflf'ected by the general crisis; 
suIlvs of butter were less roaily, and owners of grass lands were forced like other agri- 
culturists, to seek means of improving their situation. 

It had boon the gcncial custom to sell the butter once evory week, either on the 
markets of the small towns near at hand, or to wholesale merchants, mostly Belgians, 
who by mutual agreement gave lower and lower prices for butter. 

* Xtitice given to the Jury. 









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Until that time, it must be admitted that the ease with which sales were 
effected pievented the farmers from seeking other markets for their goods, or from 
trying to improve tlieir methods of producing butter. It now became necessaiy, 
to improve this unfavorable state of attairs, to find new markets for their butter, and 
to make use of the newes*^ and most improved methods of treating milk. 

Count Catl'orclli then called together the principal farmers of the district or 
commune of Leschello, which is situated in the most fertile part of the canton of Nou- 
vion, and proposed to them the formation of a co-operative society in the milk 
industry. His proposition was adopted, and in March, of 1887, the Joint Stock Co- 
operative Dairy Company of Leschelle was estalilished. 

We will give in a few words the daily working of this milk-factory, and state 
the results as shown by two yeai's' experience. 

The association started with a capital of $10,000. 

The buildings include, the butler factory proper, the butter cellars and two 
piggeries able to contain four hundred hogs. 

The motive power is furnished by a steam engine of fifteen horse power, heated 
by a generator of fifty horse power ; a generator of this power is required to heat by 
steam, during the winter months, the cellars and certain rooms of the factory, and to 
provide the large quantity of hot water required in the factory. 

The milk is brought to the factory three times a day in summer, and twice a 
day in winter; it is brought by the co-operative milkmen; it is skimmed at once by 
moans of centrifugal creamers. The cream is placed in the butter f'act.c>ry and kopt 
at one certain invariable temperatuii.', and has to undergo a certain amount of 
fermentation before being churned. 

Cluirning itself requires great cure, especially as regards temperature, which is 
kept at the required degree by means of hot water or ice, according to the season. 

Butter is churned everyday; the washing, the beating and the forming into 
rolls or pounds are all done liy machinery. Ice is used in large quantities ; it is 
furnished by a Eaoul-Pictet machine, which is also em])loyed to keej) one .speeial 
cellar cool, the temperature never being allowed to rise above 40° P'ahr. The butter 
is kept in this cellar until it is sent to market, and consignments are sent out every 
day. 

The staff i. composed of six persons, besides an accountant. The milk is ])ai 1 
for every fortnight, and the price vaiies according to its richness and the amount <>i 
butter it renders; the association consequently is not exposed to the rink of losiii;:- 
money on the jDrice of purchase. 

The figures we are about to give will afford an idea of the progress made by the 
Co-operative Dairy Association of Leschelle in its two years of existence. The figures 
are taken from the report to the shareholders on 1st April, 188!>, by the Board of 
Management. 

During the period fi'om the 31st of March, 1888, to the 1st April, 1880, tiie 
Association received from its cooperators 343,200 gallons of milk, for which they paiil 
g33,8i)(;. 

130,310 I'^s. of butter were manufactui-ed and sold for $10,400. During the 
months of .Tune and July li.200 gallons of milk were br.ught each ilay to the factory ; 
this year 3,,')()0 will be brought (hiily during the same months. 

The net profits of the commercial year 1888-1880 were §2,860 after deduetiim 
of 5 per cent, interest on shares of 3100; this amount was given partly to a sinkiiiir 
fund, partly as dividends, 

Accoi'ding to the rules of the association, and in order to confirm the spirit nt 
cooperation among the members the dividends are distributed according to tli< 
quantity and quality of milk furnished by each member, and not according to thi 
number of shares. 

Tlie milk of three hundred and seventy-five cows was brought to the factory. 

The profits for the first year were $1,()00, and we have Just seen the increase in 
the second year of working. This inciease is a sufficient proof that pi'oductive ce- 
operaticm is in every way the best remedy for the depression from which the owners 
of grass lands sutler. 



Tl 

Associi 

W 

predict 

being ]i 



^VORI 



In t 

thcmsciv 
makers I 
1st. 
2nd. 
that will 
certain w 

3/'d. 
sound dry 
4th. 
The , 
Articles 
Art. ( 
The c 
is tlie unrc 
If the 
like propo 
Art. 7 
Tiie a 

ai.ou 

81.U0 
the follow: 
I'iiy'iiont I. 
lu ordt 
aiitliorizcd 
scriber ba- 
it is a I 
Ai't. ,s'. 
t'>.subscril„ 
to subscrib. 
Art. 9. 
means, even 
■on as autho 
Art. 10, 
iiilert..st bv I 
Art. 'll. 
1st. To 
associated w> 
-'nd. To 
;ird: To 
nil. To 

,, * '•."xtiact fi 

'"'"_;iii;'>i'.iimiii 

The [ifij,! 



108 



The Agricultural Society of France in 1888 awarded a gold medal to the Dairy 
Association of Leschelle. 

Wlien the association first staited critics were not wanting, and failure was 
predicted by many ; at the present time new outlets are fouad, enlargements are 
being provided for, and many improvements are made each day. 



WORKIXGMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE PRODUCTIVE ASSOCIATIONS OP 

PARIS. 



GENERAL ASSOCIATION OP PARISIAN CABINETMAKERS. 

Joint Stock Company — Variable Capital. 

In the preface to the stattites of this a-ssociation it is stated that: In banding 
theni.solves together for all work pertaining to cabinetniaking, the end the cabinot- 
malcers have in view is not only to create a capital, but also: 

1st. To guarantee an equality of right to work. 

2nd. Ti) possess in the use of machinery and improved tools a powerful help, 
that will lessen physical labor, and by shortening the length of time required for any 
certain work reduce its cost. 

3rd. To improve the manufacture of furniture by means of good workmanship, 
sound dry wood, and a superior quality of furnishings. 

4th. To atlbi'd a retiring pension to its members and to tho>:a injured at work. 

Tiic capital stock, shares, transfers and obligations are thus established by 
Articles (i, T and following. 

Art. (i. The capital stock is provisionally fixed at $14,000. '•- * 

The capital may not bo reduced, authorized by Chapter III, below $12, GOO, which 
is the uineducablc capital of the Association. 

W the capital stock be increased, this unrodiicable capital is t-^ be increased in a 
like proportion, so that at all times it shall represent nine-tenths ot the cajiital. 

Art. 7. It is divided into 140 shares of $100 each. 

The amount of each share is payable as follows : 

81.00 on subscribing ; 

81.00 every month, dating from the time of subscription, and the balance by 
the following moans: 1st, the interest on the sums paid (interest will dale from the 
payment of every $20) ; 2nd, from share of dividends. 

In order to assist workingmcn having largo families to support, the treasurer is 
authori/od to leceive sums ori account, provided that during the past month the sub- 
scriber has paiil $1. 

It is allowed to make payments in advance. 

Ai't. 8. None but a cabinetmaker belomjiiiij to the Board of Syndicates is allowed 
to subscribe. No one belonging to any society relating to cabinetniaking is allowed 
to subscribe. No one has a right to subscribe for more than one share. 

Art. 9. In case of delayed pa^'ment the manageme- c will adopt every legal 
means, even to taking execution against the subscriber, and under reserve of exclus- 
ion as authorized by chaptoi- 111. 

Art. l(j. Until the opening of the associated workshop the funds are placed at 
intoiest by the management, .$00 only being disposable by them. 

Art. 11. Each share gives the right: 

1st. To interest at 5 per cent., which will begin to bear only from the time the 
associated workshop is opened ; 

2nd. To dividends; 

3rd: To a proportionate share in the reserve fund ; 

4th. To a retiring pension, on conditions provided for in Chapter VIII. 

lAtiact from diKiiiiii'iits cxhiliiu'il by tin- t'l'i'iuli ' iovfniiiicnt— Eiuiuiry iif the E.xtra-Parlianwntary 
Ciiiiiini^siiiu iiiiiiii'd liy tlic Minister i)f thcliitcridr— Xatitmal Printiii(? Office,' 1K8H. 
" Tlie paid ui» eaiiitul in 18S4 wan .*ir,UOO. 



104 



Art. 12. The clirm to shares is only nominal ; no shares belong to the bearei-. 
The shares are indivi- 4e; the Association recognizinif but one member lor all and 
each of tnem. Provis. 'nal receipts are given until ^20 per share has been paid up. 
Other payments are delinitive. 

Art. l.'i. The transfer of shares is accomplished by means of a declaration of 
such transfer, signed by transferer and transferee or their proxies, and entered in 
a register for this purpose. 

The transferer must, under penalty of the transfer being nullified, be accepted 
by the general assembly of members. 

Art. 14. The shareholders are responsible only for the amount of shares held 
by them, or in their name. 

Art. 15. Tlio I'ights and obligations of the share follow the share, whnover 
may be the owner; the possession of a share entails strictly, observance of the 
statutes, and of all tlie decisions of the general assembly. 

Art. 1(J. Neither the heirs nor creditors of a deceased shareholder may, under 
any pretext whatsoever, cause seals to be afiixed to the goods and valuables of the 
Association, nor demand ih<S sale nor division of the said goods and valuables, nor 
interfere in the management; in order to claim their rights they must rely entirely 
on the inventories, and the decisions of the txeneral Assembly. 

The heirs or other claimants of a shareholder not included in the conditions 
specified in Article 8, should, witiiin a month of the death of the deceased shareholder, 
either transfer their share to a third party, agreed to bj' the managemei.'., or bo 
subject to the right of pre-emption. The Association reserves to itself to prevent its 
shares passing into the hands of persons no ; connected with cabinetmaking. The 
right of pre-emptions exercised by the Association obliges it to pay to the heirs or 
other claimants the amount of each share, as rated b}' the last inventor}'. The pay- 
ment should be made six months after notification, as given by the claimant, on tlie 
presentation of the certificate of share and other proofs of right to the property. 

Art. 17. The Eoard of Management may issue bonds as required, and at rates 
most advantageous to the Association, which will by preference be offered to share- 
holders. 

Art. IS. Reimbui'sement will be made by means of drawing by lot. 

The management determines, at the occasion of every issue, the date of reimbur.-e- 
ment. 

The date cannot in any case be (lelayed over three years. 

Matters relating to admission, resignation and exclusions are provided for by 
Chapter III. 

CHAPTER III. 

Admission, Jietirimj, Excbision. 

Art. v.). New members may be admitted on the decision of the Board of Man- 
agement, the admission to be ratified by the (leneral Assembly. 

Art. 2(1. Any member has the right to retire, provided he gives one month's 
notice to the Board of Management. 

Art. 21. The General Assembly- maj' exclude any member of the association for 
reasons that to it seems justifiable. Such exclusion is not final until after two deli- 
berations, but at one month's interval, and at which the member to be excluded has 
a right to a personal hearing. 

Membei's who are three months in arrears in their monthly payments may be 
excluded. 

Art. 22. The amounts coming to a member retiring, or who is excluded from 
the association, will be paid according to the rates of the last inventory; the pay- 
ment will be completed in five years, that is i each yeai", with interest at 5 per cent. 
per annum. 

Chapter IV refers to management and direction. They are determine 1 as 
follows : — 



as tiiey a 
wai'i an ty 

Art. : 
of which i 

Art. i 
and matia 
deelarativi 

It doe 

liiirchases, 
'lolf.-^, disc 
I'ilher by t 
of the asso 

It i-egi 
inonts ibi- 
lioiKJs, or ill 
< re 11 era I As 

J'lvory 
I'tatenieiit ii 

are to bo si, 
*'io anioiini 
An. Su 
full authorit 
i'lirc'jiaso of 
association, 
Art. .^1. 
^^'Iiat coiiditi 
and who nia 
''''•111 among 
*lio (u'liera? 
Art. 32. 
P"^vors dele 
Board. Ifo 
^'"ii ^' ill tjioi) 
Art. •{:j. 
of 'JlKce, for . 
own account 
^Jou. under p, 
Chapter 



ifliiii 



105 



Art. 23. The buslnoss of the Association is managed by a Board oi' nine members, 
whoso nomination may be revoked, and who may be re-elected, chosen from among 
tlu' nK'Mil)Oi'S, four of wliom must be chosen from the members working in the work- 
,>.|i()|i ot tlu' a.ssociation, and the tive others from outside. 

.\rt. 24. They are nominated for eighteen months, renewable by three evor^- six 
iiiDutli:! ; the three members going out of oiHce are drawn by lot for the tirst two 
cliiuiges, and then liy length of service. 

Art. 2o. Tho right of revoking one or more members of the Board of Manage- 
ment belongs to the General Assembly. The Board of Management, or. in default, 
the Committee of Control, ai'e bound to call a special meeting of the General 
As^eMddy, in order to submit to it the proposed revocation, provided it be demanded 
by oue-tcnih of the whole number of members. 

Art. 26. The share possessed by each member of the board is affected as 
warranty of his management. It is inalienable, stamped with a seal noting its 
inulionabilit^', and it is deposited with the association. 

Art. 27. The members of the Board of Management who have left office, as soon 
as they are replaced, may obtain from the General Assembly the remission of their 
warianty, provided that no mismanagement or responsibility is imputed to them. 

Art. 28. The members of the Board are gi.'en counters for attendance, the value 
of which is tixed by the General Assembly. 

Art. 29. The board is vested with the most extensive powers of administrating 
and managing the Association. It has, notably, the folbnving powers, which are 
declarative and restrictive: 

It does all the commercial and banking business of the Association, makes all the 
purchases, concludes all bargains concerning the association, makes promissory- 
notes, discounts and endorses them, opens credit accounts, even on security provided 
oitiier li}' the association itself, or by the members acting individually in the interest 
of the association. 

It regulates and checks the general expenses of the Association, and finds invest- 
ments for disposable funds. Tlie investment maybe made either in Government 
liOMtls, or in sh.ares in some popular central bank, as may be approved of b^' the 
(General Assembly. 

Kvery six months it checks the accounts, and states the position of atfairs, which 
fctateinent is submitted for verification by the commissioners. 

They check the inventory every year, the balance sheet and the accounts which 
are to be submitted to the commissioners and the General Assembly, and it proposes 
the amount of dividends to be divided. 

Art. 30. The Boaril of Management, besides the powers above mentioned, has 
full authority in everything concerning manufactures and sales: it attemls to the 
]iiireliase of all movable and immovable ]iroperty necessary to the interests of the 
association, under advice of the General Assembly. 

Art. 31. The Board of Management may d'degate ptirt or all of its powers, under 
what conditions it may judge ])roper. to a director, whose appointment is revokable, 
and who may be re-elected, whom it nominates for one yeai', and whom it chooses 
from among the entire number of shareholders. The choice must be confirmed by 
the (ieneral Assembly, which settles the amount of salary. 

Art. 32. The director acts in the name of the Board ; he is bound by the 
powers delegated to him, to conform to all the directions given him I)}' the 
Board. lie is bound to attend all the board meetings, but has only a consultative 
voice in their deliberations. 

Art. 33. The director may not, after the expiration or revocation of his powers 
of office, for a term of five years, work in the department of the .Seine, either on his 
own account or for an^' one else, at any of tlie goods manufactured by the Associa- 
tion, under penalty of twenty thousand dollars. 

Chapter V treats of the control : 



306 



CHAPTER V. 

Commission of Control. 

Art. 34. All tho business operations of the Association will bo subjected to the 
examinution of a Commission of Control, composed of seven mombei-s, nominated by 
tho Ciencral Assembly for the space of six months, and part renewable every three 
months. That is, three months after the nomination of this commission, four mem- 
bers will, by drawn lot, resign their positions, and three months later three others 
will also be replaced, and so on according to length of nomination. Members leaving 
office are re-eligiblo only throe months after. 

Art. 35. The Commission of Control is charged with the duty of overseeing the 
operations of the Board. It has the right to verify the books, examine correspon- 
dence and all business documents in general whenever it deems it advisable. 

It can at any time whatsoever verify the conditions of the assets. 

It I'cports to tho General Assembly on the situation of the Association, on the 
statement of atfairs and on the accounts presented by the Board of Administration. 

It gives advice as to management of affairs. 

It may convoke a special meeting of the General Assembly, after notice given 
to the Board of Management. 

The regulations of the workshop are treated in Chapter VI, as follows: — 

CHAPTER VI. 

Of the. Workshop, the Foreman, of the Commission of Experts. 

Art. 30. Admittance to the workshop of the Asn^ciation will bo allowed accoid- 
ing to requirements of work, and us the Association may become developed. Share- 
holders alone have a right to admittance; they will be chosen and nominated by the 
General Assembly to the number of fifty. After this number is chosen the next ten 
will be chosen by their rank on the subscription list ; the following ten will be drawn 
by lot, and so on. Any shaieholder who has been drawn hy lot or by rank on the 
subscription liU, and who does not accept his right to aduiittance to the workshop 
of the Association, may not compete for admission until the list of shareholders not 
drawn at the time of his election has been exhausted. He will then follow in turn. 

Art. 37. Work will be done by the piece, under tho direction and orders of the 
foreman of the workshop, who is named by the Boai'd of Management, and whose 
nominati(m should be ratifieil by the General Assembly. 

The foreman's pay will be settled by the Management. 

Art. 3H. The price of work by the piece will be in accordance with the tarifls 
of the principal establishments in Paris. Before determining the rate, the Boaid nt' 
Management will consult with a commission of experts. The same thing will he 
done for all work, the price of which can only be settled according the ])lans. 

Art, 39. The commission of experts is composed of seven members, two of 
whom will be chosen from among the shareholders working in the Association 
workshop, and the five others from outside. The members of this commission will 
be named for six months by the General Assembly ; they are re-electable. 

Art. 40. All difficulties arising about the price of handwork must be submitteil 
to arbitration by thi'ee experts from the chamber of syndicates, and of two named 
by the Board of Management. The decision of these five experts will be final. 

Chapter VII regulates the length and date of meetings, as well as the powers of 
the General Assembly. 

CHAPTER VII. 

General Assemblies. 

Art. 41. The ordinary General Assembly has full light to meet every three 
mouths, the first Wednesdays of January, April, July and October. 

Art. 42. Tho special General Assemblies are for the purpose of determining 
enactments on the following matters: — 



107 



1. Revocation of nomination of members of the Board of Management. 

2. The purchane of tools, immovables, and the opening of now workshops. 

3. Modification of the statutes, and the anticipated dissolution of the Association 
from any cause whatsoever. 

4. deduction or reducing of the business capital. 

5. Fusion or union with other societies, and, in general, for all mattere of 
interest to the Association, and with which the General Assembly has not power to 
deal. 

Art. 43. In special meetings of the General Assembly two-thirds of the share- 
holders must be present to form a quorum. 

Art. 44. At each meeting tiie ordinary General Assembly will nominate u 
president and assistants; the secretary' will be chosen from the munagers. 

Art. 4r). Any shareholders having ])aid jV, of their share, that is, SIO.OO ; may 
vote at any of these meetings those not having paid tliat amount will luive no consul- 
tative vote. 

Chapter VIII is the crowning point of the Association : 



ird of 
jiU be 

kvo of 
liatioii 
li will 

Lilteil 
lamed 



lev 



s of 



three 
liulnL' 



CHAPTEB VIII. 

Inventory, Benefits and Sharing, Siiperanuation Fund. 

Art 4(). An exact inventory of the assets and liabilities is prepai'ed on the 3lst 
January of each 3'ear by the council of management, and is presented by the Gene- 
ral Assembly 15 days before the meeting of that body. A copy of the statement con- 
taining a summaiy of the inventory is sent to each sliareholder, with the orders of the 
day of the meeting. 

Art. 47. The general expenses and the interest on the amounts paid by the share- 
hoideis, are deducted and the net protits are divided as follows : — 

1st. 50 per cent, to the sharcholdei's, per head as dividend. 

2nd. 25 per cent, as a reserve fund. 

3rd. 25 per cent, to the retiring fund. 

Alt. 48. The shareholders will only have a light to dividends on the second 
iiiventoi'y after their admission, on establishing that they have regularly paid their 
calls. 

Art. 49. Those shareholders who have not paid up their calls within three 
months of the inventory will not receive their dividends for the year when sucli 
ilelay has occurred, without prejudice to Article 9 of these regulations. 

Art. 50. The share cori'esponding to the reserve fund belongs to the share- 
holilers, in proportion to tjie sums paid in l:)y each on their shares; ailistinct account 
will be kept of the amounts paid in on the shares. No interest on the reserve fund 
will lie paid. 

Art. 51. Each shareholder, after being ten years in the association and being of 
the age of sixty years, has the right to a retiring pension, to be regulated according 
to tiie conditions of the fund destined for that p\n-pose. 

Art. 52. The transferee will not have the right to the retiring pension, unless 
lie personally fulfils the same conditions. 

Alt. 53. The retiring fund is considered as a sleeping partner of the society, and 
an arnual interest of C per cent, is allowed it. 

Art. 54. Each shareholder who is injured in the exercise of his trade, or who 
cannot longer work, has the right to an allowance or a pension, to be tixed by the 
Council of Management and ratified by the general assembly. 

If tl.3 accident has caused the death of the member of the society, his widow 
iind children, to the exclusion of all heirs or assigns, have the right to an indemnity, 
to bo paid by the General Assembly. 

But if the accident is caused by the member's own negligence or fault, the 
Geneial Assembly may decide that no damages are due by the association. 

Finally, the Ninth chapter examines cases of instability and decides upon them. 



108 



CHAPTER IX. 

Art. 50. Tlio (Jenoral AHsembly nuiy modify or roviHotlio Htatutos on tho HUg^os- 
tion oftlio iJoiinl of MunugotruMit, or hy a written recjiiost to tiiat otl'oct by tiio said 
Hoard, and wignod by tvventy-tivo HhareholdcrH, one month previous to the Genera! 
Assuinl)!}'. 

In Huc'h a case, the convocation for a general assembly siioujd point out tlio 
modifications proposed. 

The Asscml)ly's power is sovereign ; it is at liberty to revise and modify the 
Htatiites as it may deem advisable, on the sole condition that it shall in no wise 
change the nature of the association. 

Art. 57. In the event of a loss of three-quarters of the business capital, the 
managers are obliged to convoke a meeting of the General Assembly todecree on tin; 
dissolution of the association. 

Art. 58. At the o.Kpiration of the societ}^, or in the case of anticipateil liqui- 
dation, the Assembly will, on proposal of the council of management, regulate tlic 
mode of licjuidation and name a commission of ii(|uidation with most extended 
powers, even that of amalgainating with other societies. 

Art. 51t. During the liquidation the powers of the General Assembly will con- 
tinue during the existence of the .society ; it has especially the right of approving 
of the account of the liciuidation and tiio giving of an acquittance. 

Art. (50. The noinin.-ition of ii([uidators puts an end to tlie powers of adminis- 
trators or their representatives. We have thought pi'oper to enter into all those 
statutory det^iils, because the Society of J^arisian Cabinetmakers is formed as ajoint- 
stock company, with a variable capital, and that these statutes or regulations, with a 
few important (dianges that we will notice, are those of all associations of a similar 
charactei- and form. There will, therefore, be no necessity to refer to these funda- 
mental points in classifying documents of other joint stock companies having ;i 
variable capital. 



PIAXO MANUFACTURING ASSOCrATrON.=i= 

UNLIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY. 

The Association of Piano ^Eanufacturers is formed undei'. We hei-owith givr 
their statutes, in order to point out the difference existing between this and the pre- 
ceding association. 

The law considers the members of a joint-stock company lialde only to tlio 
amount of their subscribed capital, whilst the membei's of an unlimited liability 
company are all severally lialtle to the thir<l paity foi- all the operations 'lone by 
their company, so that their creditors have the right to sue them — each one — until 
the entire sum of their indebtedness is paid. We, the undersigned (here follows the 
names of the members of the company), agree as follows: — 

Art. 1. Formation, Nature and Object of the Company. — There is formed by 
these presents among the above-mentioned an Unlimited Liabilily Com|)any, the 
object of which 'w the manufacture and sale of pianos. Each member agrees upon 
honor, never during the continuance of these presents, to take an interest in any 
association of the branch of industry which foi'ms the object of this pi-esent act, not 
to assist with bis name, nor his advice, nor by an co-operation whatsoever; ami 
finally, neither directly or indirectl^^ in his own or others' account, to engage in tin' 
sale of pianos. 

Art. 2. Duration and Headquarters of the Association. — The duration of the asso- 
ciation has been fixed at ninety years, dating from the 1st of July, 1852, and termin- 
ating :50th June, 1942. 

* This i'(mi|)aiiy is in im exceedingly Homisliiiig eiinditioii. It mniilHis IS meniliers. It was estiili- 
lislied in lH4i(, and created its capital from its dwn ri'sourees. The subscribed caiiital, -^47.442, is entinly 
jxiid Ills and it possess besides a rolling' capital of .ij!40,00(» to •'il>4r),(MJ(), also created by means of retenti"ii- ; 
finally, it owns the property it occupies. It employs from eight to twelve assistants not interested in tlir 
company, but who have the right to U'come members. We have thought proper, in view of its success, tu 
give its statutes in full, and its workshop rules alike remarkable for detail anil stiictness. 



Tli( 
Art 

use of (I 
.•I lone, n 
I lie engi 
Willi lii, 
(••"npan^ 
tlio asso'c 
iiodiicui 
tlio comi 
Art. 
five mom 
The tlirei 
The 
of the ma 
Art. 
fliree moi 
;;*pt'i'ial as 
i'ltciKJenc 
Abse; 
The .• 
Pi"'y's ill! 
It noi 
I'Ofj aired. 

In coi 
are giv<.|i 
^•-'ii'liisioii ( 
thirds of It 
Art. !) 
meats an a 

Viously jicc 

The ar 
each memb 



109 



the 
bilitv 
L, In- 

lintil 

thr 

\\ I'.v 
I he 

any 

not 

un-l 

■u tlie 

lasso- 



liitii'b 

litiou-; 

ill ill'- 

-. t" 



The lu'!iilquiirt(>rH ot'tho iissociation siro situtitod in PiiriH, at No. 64 Poissonniera 
street, but may bo clmiiffod to any locality prot'ciToil by tho majority. 

Art. 3. The Finn ami itx Name. — Thi'tirin is Hanoi, Anwol k Co. 

Tho aijNociation is Uiinwn as tho Plawi Manufaiiurim] A.isoriation of Paris. 

For tho ontiro dui'alion of tho (■om])any or a.sHociation, and for two yoars after 
its dissolution, Mossrs. Hand & Ansol bind themsolvos not to allow tiioir nainos, 
either collcotivoly or separutoly, to bo usod iiB tho buHinoss namo of any company 
doinii; the -ame business. 

Art. 4. The business contribution of each momboi- is variable, an<l to bo paid as 
follows: — 8300 on entrance to the association; 830(» by §2().()(» to be letainod on tho 
piocecds of tho work, plus the interests anil dividends, up to 81.0U0; anil 8-(Ht by 
■S-ii.(M) to be retained also with interest and dividends up to S2,(}0t>. When the last 
sum, $2,(1(1(1, has been paid, there will remain only the dividends, which will bo added 
to tho capital or business fund. 

Those business contributions bear interest at 5 per cent, per annum; expired 
interest will be paid to whomevei' due. 

Art. '}. A(lvu)ti)<tr(ifi<)n, Mcinaiiemeni, — The company is under the direction of a 
inunau'er. 

The manager is nimiinated for one year by tho General Awsombl}', and may bo 
re-elected indetinitely ; his nomination may, however, be revoked on decision of the 
General Assembly. 

The manafi;er is assisted in tho performance of his duties by tho keeper of tho 
seal and the cashier; they meet every mornini; to deliberate on the business of the 
comiiany, to take knowledge of tho correspondence, and to distribute and receive 
work — in fact, tho}^ assume ull manau'emont allowed by tho law. 

The manager may resign his otHee by giving three months' notice. 

Art. (5. Business Signature — Business EiKjaijcmmts. — The mantiger alone may make 
use of the business signature, and that, for the business or att'airs of tho association 
alone, under penalty of nullity in regard to tho society, and of a third party, of all 
the engagements signed with the company's signature which have no connection 
with tlie business of the company, and this without prejudice to the right of tho 
company for damages and interest against tho manager, and of his dismissal from 
the association or company if he contravenes this most rigorous clause. Moreover, 
no ducumont or engagement bearing the business signature of tho company will bind 
the company, if it is not at the same time scaled with the company's seal. 

Art. 7. Board of Superintendence. — Tho board of superititendonce is composed of 
five members; the two partners whose names form the lirm are members by right. 
The three other members are named by the Genei'al Assembly. 

The Board meets every fifteen days ; it verities and controls all tho ti-ansactions 
of the management, and gives account of them to the members of the a.ssociation. 

Art. 8. Meetinr/s — (ieneral Assemblies. — The members have a right to meet every 
three months to enquire into the affairs of the business. They meet, moreover, in 
special assembly every time the members of the management or the Board of Super- 
intendence judge necessary. 

Absent moml)ors will be summoneil by mailed letters. 

The assembly examines into and discusses all matters and proposals in the com- 
pany's interest, submitted to it by the members. 

It nominates the Board of ^Management and tho Board of Superintendence when 
reipiired. 

In conclusion, their decision is final on all afl'airs of tho company. The decisions 
are given by the majorit}' of members present; novertheloss, the admittance or 
exclusion of a member, the revision of the rules of the shops, are decided by two- 
thirds of tho votes. 

Art, 9. Salaries — Profits. — Each member will be allowed for his personal requii-e- 
ments an assessment as a salary', tho amount to bo in accordance with a tariff pre- 
viously acccptetl by all tho members. 

The announts thus assessed will be entered to the account especially opened for 
eucii member to this purpose. 



'"•MtMHaMIl 



no 



Attor (Icdnction of gonornl oxperiHOH, and expenHes of working, the profits aie 
(lividoil into two j»iirtH, at ho much in tho fiunc! of tlio proilnction by momborrt and 
by aHHintants. 

Tho part producod by tlio momborH will bo divided proportionatoly to tho work 
of eacdi ono, and that produced by tho aswistants in tho same way. 

LoKHcs which may chance to occur will bo borno in like proportion. 

Art. 10. Of Aa-sistants. — The AHHociation may, if nt'ccH.sary, accept and cmjiloy 
asBistanlH, whoso rifjhts will bo defined by tho ir^ulationH. 

Art. 11. Accounts, Inventory, Balance-sheet. — The accountsof tho Association will 
bo kept by doublo-ontry. 

Kvory year, on the 30th June, a statement will bo <fiven of tho assotH and 
liabilities of the Com])any. The nenoral balancc-siieot will be proj»ared. 

The inventories and the balance sheet will lie entered in a book for the purpose, 
which, at each entry, will bo signed by all the associates. 

Art. 12. Admittance uf New Meiniers. — The Association may admit as associati-. 
as many new mem hers as it may deem advisable. 

Tho charges for eiitiy and tor striking out of names are due by members enter- 
ing, anil of those i-esigning or deceased. 

Art. 13. JfetiruKj, Expulsion, Deceased. — Any ofthemcmbersmay retire from the 
a.s80ciation whenever they choose. 

Anyone of tho memliers who shall contravene the present agreement, Iho orders 
of the regulations, or otlior conditions imposed by equity, law or usage, may bo 
expelled i'rom tho association, without prejudice to damages and interests, if there 
be any. 

The expulsion shall be pronounced in General Assembly, according to the form 
prescribed by the i-egidations. 

By ihe voluntary resignation, expulsion, or decease of a member, tlio force of 
theeo presents shall cease in his regard and in rcgai'd to his heirs of claimants, but 
they shall not atfect tho dis,solution of the Association, which shall continue in exist- 
ence among the remaining members. 

Art. 14. Repayynent of Business Shares. — In the cases already foreseen, tho Asso- 
ciation shall pay claimants by yearly payments and quarterly payments, at intervals 
of tlu'ee months, the twentieth part of his business capital divided in equal parts 
among the members leaving. 

Ai't . 15. Modification of the Company's Deed of Agreement. — The General Assembly 
may modify the |)resent deed as may be necessary. To that etl'ect all power is honcefoi- 
ward given to the General Assembly by all and each of the parties interested at the 
present time or in the futui'e, as an essential condition of the present agreement. 
Nevertheless, the revision can only bo made on a majority of two thirds of the mem- 
bers present. Absent members will be notified by letter indicating tho object of the 
meeting. 

Art. 16. Regulations and Tariffs — A regulation adopted by all the members, 
and having among tho same force as these presents, will rule all tlie conditions and 
lesser details of the management, and of the interior government. 

Proportonal tariffs adopted by the parties will determine the price of work. 

Art. 17. Dissolnt'on. — In case of the dissolution or the ex])iration of the pre- 
sent society one oi' more liquidatoi's will be nominated by the General Assembly. 

Art. 18. Ceding Interest. — No member may cede all or part of his rights with- 
out the unanimous consent of his fellow-members. 

Art. 11). Disputes. — In case of dispute concerning these presents, the subject will 
be submitted to arbitrators, whoso decision on the matter will be tinal and without 
recourse. 

Art. 20. Publications. — An extract of these presents will bo published aiul 
deposited in accordance with the law ; and for this purpose all power shall be given 
to the bearer of a true copy hereof 

This done in Paris the 

The following are the principal clauses of the regulations referred to in Articlo 
16 of the statutes : — 



Ill 



and 



pro- 
Kvilb- 

ami 

IrivOU 

■tiele 



Art 3. Jiemiuierat ion. — Tlio memboi'H l)rloii^ing to tho inana^t'tnont iiiul to tlio 
Board of Supi'i-iiilondoiico will bo romuneratud tor their Iohh of time according to 
wlmt tlicy earn at work by the piece. 

Tlio siibrtidy for the cuHliier will l)e counted only for (he mornin;^ ineotin^H, and 
the pay on Satiirda3''H ; any other dintmbancc IVom liiM ordiniirv diilioM will be paid 
iiiiii, bewi<lo an indemnity for liis responHibility, which will be determined by the 
AsMociiition. 

Art. •). General Meetings. — The meotin^H will take place ovory three months, 
but the Board of Manai;;ement and the Hoard of Sunerintcndcnce may meet the fol- 
lowini; days or, if need be, immediately. There will be a roll-call at every meeting 
iiiid mention of almont momberrt made in ihe niinuteH. l-lvery member is bound to 
iitteiid ; but in any case the assembly will procco<l without the absent members, who 
will bo subject to a tine of 10 cents for the tirst call, and of lit) cents for the second. 
Cases of illness will alone exempt from a tine. Absent members who have not been 
notified will not bo liable to a Hno. 

Art. T. General Disjiositions. — The president will allow discussion only of such 
matters as are on the orders of the day, and will see to it that the discussion does 
not wander from the ([uestion. !No one has a right to interiupt, except tlie presi- 
dent to call a member to order. Any member called to order by tlio president 
will bo fined 20 cents foi- the first time, 40 cents for the second, and (10 cents for the 
third. If he continues to disturb the meeting' the j)rosidenl will order him to be 
expelled. 

The orders of Iho day for tho meetings will be dopositeil in the otlice at 10 
o'clock in the morning of the previous day, and remain there until the next day at 
the same hour. Any members who have the right may, during that lime, cause 
anything they choose to be in.serted. All personalities, and all signs of approbalion 
or of disapprobation, are forbidden. 

Art. 8. Any member convicted of insubordination will be fined frcmi 20 cents 
to 82, Any misdemeanor inside or outside the shops will '«e jmnished by a fine of 
§().(!() to 8;{.00. The fines will be detei'mined liy the manage n- iit, but will be entcM-ed 
in the delinquent's book only after a meet; \g of the Board of Suporinteniience, who 
will take cognizance of the offence, and after tho delinquent has been called into the 
oflice to explain his conduct. 

Alt. !). Injuries. — Any member having injured ono of his colleagues will bo 
punished by a fine of $0.20. to $2.00. An injury to any office-bearer will be tined 
from O.liO to $3.00. 

Art. 10. Violence. — A fine of from S2.00 to SCOO will be imposed on any niem- 
licr who has boon guilty of violence to one of las colleagues; for the first oll'ence the 
Assembly may impose a fine of from $0.00 to SM.OO. Any member who provokes a 
scutlle by bitter humor will be tined according to Article i). 

Art. 11. j&o.ss of Time. — The djiy is ten hours' work. Tho management and the 
Board of Superintendence are to judge of ill-use and loss of time, and may impose 
fines according to the loss caused b}' the member. The hours of work may bo 
increased. Any member refusing to comply with this; increase of work may be lined 
80.20 and his work completed at his expense. No member may work beyond the 
time prescribed by the management. 

Art. 12. Loss of Time in the Workshop. — It is not sufficient to bo present in the 
^vo^k^ll()p ; the time must bo employed at work, in order to meet the engagements 
entered into. The management is considered competent to judge of the time required 
for the execution of any piece of work ; any one exceeiling that time is liable to the 
lines mentionetl in Article 11. 

Art. 13. Absence. — Any member obliged to be absent must ask leave and explain 
tho reasons requiring his absence ; if his absence exceeds tho time asked for, and his 
request for leave is not renewed, ho is liable to a fine of (JO cents per day of absence. 

Art. 14. Incapacity. — Tho incapacity of a member entails change of employ- 
ment, and obliges him to accept work more in accordance with his ability. 

The management and the Board of Supoi'intendence will tlecido if the change be 
necessary ; nevertheless, it the member refuses to accept of them as judge, he may 
voter to the General Assembly. 



112 



Art. 15. Drunkenness. — Any member iirrivinj? at tho workMhop in a Htato of 
(li'iiiikorincHH, iitid diMlurhini^ otfuu'H al their work, will ho (iiuMi for Iho first oHenct! 
'M coiiIm uikI for tiic hocoihI 10 (u'lits, for the followiii;^ ^1; ho will, moroover, ho 
roHponnihio for iiny <liuua/^t' ho iniiy havo doiio or chiihckI. 

Ton oonvictionH of (Irunkonncss during Iho spat'o of one year will entail a fine of 
120.00. Cases nt expulsion aro |)rovidod for hy Article VA of tiio deed. 

Art. I(i. DeUtmatiiin. — Any mcniher who, hy any means whatHoover, hIwiII 
lessen the reputation of the cHlahiishnieiit hy atlackint; its interests, its honor, or 
that of a inanaf^t^r, or of any inetnher, n)ay he condenmed hy the manat^oment and 
the Jiojird of Superintendonee to u tine of $1 at the least, and of 84 at the most; a 
member convicted of such an otf(uu'o may appeal to the (ieneral Assemhly. 

Art. 17. /mlisrrr.tion. — All memhcis should avoid divultfini; outside what he 
may know of the alfairs of the Association ; any such want of disci'etion prejudicial 
to the interests of the Society will lu* j)unished hy a lino of liOc. to SI ; if tliere he 
any re])etition of the otfenco the |toiuiIty will 1)0 doubled ; five convictions for this 
offence will entail a tine of 810 to 820. 

Art. IS. Interference. — It in die duty of each mombor to ^ive information to all 
norsons dosii-ouH of sp(*aking to the Mana/.;er or otherH in charge of the sales and 
business of th(> Associatio'i, to conduct them to the persons inquiretl for, but ho must 
avoid Joining in the conversation without hoin<^ re([Uosted to do ho, iind will retuiu 
to his work ; infringoinent of this article will be punished hy a tine of lOe. at least, 
and (iOc. at most.* 

Art. 10. Cleanliness, prudence. — The workshops must bo swept every Saturda}-, 
and cleared of chips, the ends of wood carried to the garret and piled according to 
their length, tires carefully extinguished, the i)ails tilled with water, and the windows 
closed ii\ wet weather. Forgetfulnoss of any of these matters will entail a line of 
80.10 on the guilty party. Any member leaving matches lying about on his bench 
or elsewhere will bo punished by a fine of 80.20. Any mombor smoking in the 
workshops or in the wood stores will bo i)unishi'd by a fine of 81.00. 

Art. liO. NUjht Watchmen. — A watch will bo established to make sure that all 
fires havo been carefully extinguished and the windows closed; it will be kept hy 
each member in turn, in accordance with a card given him the night befoi-e. Any 
member neglecting to keep watch in his turn witliout providing a substitute will ho 
fined 80.20 ; if the offence be repeated he will bo fined 81.00. The member on guard 
must warn the members fifteen miniites in advance in order that all tires may ho 
quite out at 8 o'clock. Any member who refuses to leave when warned by Iho 
watchman will be subject to a tine80.20. Any member who, being absent during tho 
evening, leaves his lamp or candle burning for longer than a quarter of an hour, will 
be Hned 80.20. 

Art. 21. Sunday Watch. — Will bo the same as at night, a card of warning haviiiu; 
been given eight days in advance. The member on guard is obliged to be at the 
workshop at in tho morning, in all seasons, until 4 o'clock in tlie evening ; he is at 
liberty to work, but will ho careful to notify the doorkeeper (coneierije) of his arrival 
in tho morning, that he may be warned if any person should hapjjen to come in. The 
agent should moreover make arrangements with him the previous evening, in case he 
should have anything particular to communicate to him. Any member guilty ot' 
an infringement of these regulations will be subject to the same tines as the night 
watchman. 

Art. 22. Fines of the Manarjevient. — Members belonging to tho management 
will he liable to the same tines, excepting that the tines will bo doubled, because they 
will bo doubly guilty in want of respect to the members. 

Art. 2;j. Chiefs of Sections. — Chiefs of sections will superintend the work in 
their sections, and see that nothing is wanting in their sections ; they share in tlio 
management, so far as to examine the work, and see that it is fit to be delivered; 
their judgment is sufflccnt authority ; they may order a piece of work to be repaired 
or alterecl if they deem it necessary. 



Article 18 is exactly similar to article 57 of the regulatioiiH of the Maison Leclaire. 



Tl 

work, 1 

.\r 

hers Jill 
the sect 
invcnto 
I lie inei 
Mian or 
he rephi 
Art 
lion will 
liiilleliii, 
"'clock, 
lie returr 
I lie Work 
and Iho c 
Art. 
'jii.siiiess, 
iTodit or 
from woi-l 
"fa line o 
''illiel' f'roi 
iilorio is e> 
Art. '. 

'iiioof 82 ! 
'•ally, addr 
Art. 2 
ilotei'mine 

"'■«' Mot all( 
'ii,'<'ii(, or (I 
I'fiiaKy of J 

f'llops witJH 

'"-'disti-ihiK 
Art. 2! I 
'('iideiieo ar 
''lo rules \vl 
'""I llio Ti.a 
;;'' tile o/feiK 
'J'lio nicMiboi 

^•'IVCS ;in ;ii, 

"lijecf of ilHi 

.^-''^■1' the foil, 

The s(ic 

iH'iessitate ;i 

The siclc 

" -^^ and to 4 

"■•"•k, and sii 

'lu'days of h 

■"^ixty-tive day 

Jf the sic 
to tia. preside 
forgoing out. 

The socio 
"iii'diiiess or t] 
and ahove all 
'■'^es the soeie 
20—8 



118 



Tlio chiclH of (*oclii)iiH who an' tlio lirHt to hoc, ami to jiidtjo of tin- stiito of tho 
work, aio boiiiul to piovoiit ihosiMlilHciiltios l)y llwir wafcht'ultH'ss. 

Art. lil. Tiiols. — TIu* Micioty pioviilcs all tlio tooln, oxci-pt drawiT tools ; mcin- 
Itfi's tilt' liomi'l to raiiL(o tlioii' tools on llicir liciiclios oiico cviTv mon' the cliii'fot' 
tlio soclioii or I'oroman will llu'ti I'xainiiu' and compiii'o tlu'iii witli ilu' list in tho 
inventory, ami nolo what tools are niissin^ ; all ini^siiii; tools must bo ronhu-oil at 
the nionilH'r'H expense. Any wo(lt;e, or wood used at the heiieh burnt by the work- 
man or his assistant njust be str:ii;,ditened ; if it is ;illoi,'ether [uist re|iiurin^ it must 
he replaeed at the expense of the person who liiirne(| it. 

Art. 2'». Paji-ilai/. — Tho pay-day will bo every liflt'on flays, uaeh chief of a sec- 
tion will, after havinj^ e.\amined the work done in his section, ^ivo his report in a 
liiilletin, whi(di he will jilace in the men's books, and siMid them to theolHfe at nine 
ii'cloek. The mnna^emeiil will settU^ the amounts at their meeting'; tlm books will 
111 rel ui'ned in the evunini;- with the pay oiielosod, whicdi will be in proportion to 
ilie work done. All cortiticales ol work must be si^L^ned by the chief ot" tlio >eeti()n, 
and the chiefs siifued by one of the men in his section. 

Art. 2t!. Interdli'tcd t'DinmiTi'c, iiml WDrh. — All mendiers nro toi'liiddm to do 
liiisiness, or to practice any trade that may be undii;nilied oi liable to diminish tho 
credit or re|)Utatioii of tlio association ; ho is ut the same time strictly |)rohibitod 
bom working on his own jiorsonal account, and from trail iiii^ in pianos under pi'nalty 
of a tine of §20 ; all members are likewi^e forbidden to accept i;ny remit tanc*' or i^ift, 
either from <lealei'sor customers, under a penalty of 820. The dooi'-koeper (rone/V/'j/e) 
alone is exemi)t from the tine imposed by tlie last paragraph. 

Art. 27. Debts, — All bills or soizuros addressed to tho a.ssociation will entail :i 
lino of 82 ai^ainst tho debtor. All claims liir indebtedness, either by letter or vor- 
lially, addressed to the association, will entail a tine of .§1 for llni debtor. 

Art. 2S, Order of Work and the Ftinilsliirii/s. — The chief of each section will 
determino the amount of work to bo done liy each man in his section, and members 
uic not allowed to take wood from the n'arret, unlos,s tlioy aro ucoompanied by tho 
:ii;tiit, or tho chiePof the .-section, under a ])enalty of .§1. It is also forbidden under a 
iKiially of 8'). 40 lo carry aw.ay (diips or any otluM- material or thing trom the work- 
shops without loavo from the agent. .NEembors are warned that tho furnishings will 
III' distributed from !) to 10 in the morning. 

Art. 2!>. A/iplicatioii (if the Jiulcs. — Tlie management and the Board of Superin- 
Iciidrneo aro boiuul to see that tl:'^ rules are enforc(!d. 'J'ho assembly may modify 
ilir ndes when it sees tit. It receives elaims and rights 'hem. Tho management 
and tho Hoard of Superintendence impo^e all tho fines, and may, in case of repetition 
iil'ilie offence, double the amount of tine. Tho tines paid are given to the Aid Fund. 
The membei's ol the I'iano ^[allufaetllrcrs Association have instituted among tbem- 
sflves an aid society, of 'vhich all aro members by right and by compulsion. Tho 
object of the society is to p/ovido medical attendance and aid in case of illness. Wo 
irive tho following clauses from tho regulations of this society : — 

The society gives aid in cases of sickness only when tho sickness is such as to 
iR'ii'ssitato at least four days' rest. 

Tho sick person has a right to GO cents per day for tho fix'st six months of sick- 
1) s^ and to 40 cents foi- the ni'xt six months. In ea'^c of a mcmbei- having ri'sumed 
work, and sulfering a relapse of tho same sickness during his first month of work, 
tlu" days of his sickness will count from his lirst attack up to thi'i'o hun<lrod and 
sixty-five days. 

If tho sick person be able to walk he must report himself at least twice a wook 
to the president or one of tho members of tho office, bearing the doctor's authority 
for going out. 

The society will give no aid for syphillitic sickness nor for any caused by fool- 

hanliness or fighting, unless they aro caused by an unforeseen or natural accident, 

ami above all, if it is proved that the member was not the aggressor; in contrary 

cases the society extends no assistance. 

20—8 

I 



114 



An}' inombor who lias been docluroil lo be -^icU and who shall bo discovered at 
work m a state of dninkonness will deprived of his allowance and fined from 81.0(1 
to 88.00. 

All sick members have a rii^ht to assistance, no matter where their leal domicile 
may lie situateil; he is torbidden to leave it without the authorization of his physi- 
cian, otherwi.se he will lose all ri^lit to asaistance. 

Any sick members found out of doors or in a public ]>lace after nine o'clock at 
ni^ht will be subject to a tine of 81.00, to be doubled in case of repetition. 

The liiiid will be su|)])lieil iiy the amount of lines imposed liy the Productive 
Association and by the Aid Society, and by a tax of SO. 10 on each ])ay until the 
I'unds amount to ??20.00, of which amount the fund should always be posses.sed. 



AS.S0CIAT10X OF WUUK1N(J AUM-CIIAIJI MAKKK'S. 

UNLIMlTKIi r.IAHlMTY SOCIETY, 

This assoclMioii was estiiblislied in IS.p.t. It is one of the few associations i.| 
that]teriod which has surviveil the 'Jnd of Ueceinber 1S51. 

The Associ;ition (»f Arm-chair .Makers is just completini;' its third reconstitulion. 
tne two first aiireeinents having exjiired by lapse of time. It has always been an 
unlimited liability company from tlie first. Its last deed of association, which tlatcs 
from the L'sth .March, ISSl and wlmst' a|ipointcu duration is fifteen years, states tii;i! 
it owned at that date §4,414.00, divided as follows : Sl,!l!l(J.07 from the undividci 
capital, and 82,448.15 belon<x to the members. The capital proceeds from amouni- 
retained from waives. Besides this amount, each memlier is bound to pay 820. on. 
also retained in instalments from his wanes, in a proportion of 20 per cent. 

The izieneral clauses of the ai;i'eeinenl of the workinii,- arm-chair makers resemlilc 
those of the piano manufacturers i;iven above. They dillcron special points relatiiiu 
to the reserve fund and the maiia,y;ement and direction. 

Art. (!. of their statutes says, in reii'ard to the reserve fund : 

The business fund will be sujiplied and increased by means of a portion of tlic 
profits cominij; to each member beiuff retained until each memln-r has furnislied a 
yearly amount of the waues. This yearly sum of the wa;.:;es will be ealcilated from 
the average of the three first years of the society's existence, includini;' that ot 
liberation. 

This augmentation of the business capital will be called the reserve fund. 

At the com])letion of each inventory, all the amounts in ])rotits coming to each 
member, and which are retained to complete the amount of the year's wages each is 
obliged to furnish, will be ontei'cd in a book kept for the])urpose. The share of each 
member in the business capital and in the reserve fund will iiear inieie.^t at a rati' 
starting from 4 j)er cent. ])er annum, dating from the day when each amount will he 
stated to form part of the reserve fund following the inventory of the 30th June of 
each year. The amounts of such interest will help lo complete his part in tho 
reserve. After that amount has been completed ami he is free, the interest will In' 
paid him every six months. 

if the reserve fund be found to be insuflicient, it may be increased by a further 
retention on the profits in accordance with the decisiim of the General Assembly. 

Art. T. The division of profits, and the share in losses, will be calculated for each 
member in proportion to the wages of each. In all that I'clates to the agent and to 
the members of the board of management that may be injurious to the associatimi, 
either by leaving it or beginning a business of the same natui '^ or by giving tiicir 
assistance to another master or by belonging to another association within twoycai"* 
of their (p!itting the present as.s'jciation, the damage,s-interest are thus settled 1'}' 
Article (> of the statutes : — 

The offender will be bound to pay 82,000 to the associa'ion asdamages-inferots. 

Tlie same ])enalty is api)lied to the agent or to any member of th3 Board ot 
Management who has resigned, or who has been dismissed or expelled, who may h<' 



temote 
ciation 

Til 
Til 
Ar 
pavable 
Jle 

the san 
Iff 

increase 
The 

witJi the 

F'UM 

llic luisii 
Wo 

reserve fi 
Art. 

as decide 
'•xi-'ilil,., 
iii;ilcri;ils 
iissociatio 
In ca; 
made up I 
'ho anioun 
Eac'i 
w^'llie asso 
All .-ui 
association 
P'lid before 
Ai-l. 1': 
'".y- lo hi, 
''N'jiir.'ilioii 
"^y'lll bear ii 

'""IllliS, th, 

'vr of each 
The y, 

ecciicring a 

J'liiiiU 

''H' heirs ca 



I'T^TUi 



'i'his ass. 
;iblc c;i|,ita| ,1 
points rofern 
'"'Vc.ioinl-sf, 
, The husi 
lowing-: 



SVM> 



Vri. (1. 1 



repros 



"1^ ••'iid also o 
Tiie bala 

at least each 
missable. 



115 



tcmnted bv wliiitevor moans to draw to himsolf luiy or all of tho custom of the asso- 
ciation, eitiidr i'or liis own |irotit or lor that of a tliird ])arty. 

The ])ron'iiinff ruios arc also ajiplicahU' to a sinipio monibor of tho association. 

Tho allov.anofs and way,-os arc established by Article 17, as follows: — 

Art. IT. The agent's services are reniiineraled at the rate of ^4(MI i)or annum, 
payable monthly in equal parts. 

Jle is besides allowed $120 i'or ropreseutini;- tiie establisiiment, which is paid iiL 
the same way. 

If the board of manai;;cment or the committee of control decide to lower or to 
increase tho price of worU the aiiont's pay is increased or lowered in proportion. 

The foi'cmen and eni|)loye(>s' waives will lie delermineil by tiie aijont, toirether 
with the Hoard of .\ranaiieinent and the Committee of ('ontrol. 

finally, the worUmoii will be paid by the piece accord ini;' to the tariffs in use in 
the business, and will bo paid every tor(nii;-ht. 

Wo must also cite Articles 21 and 22 of tlu; statutes on the use to bo made of the 
rc.erve fund, and tho (daims of families of deceased mcmlun's : — 

.Vrt. 21. Tho reserve fund is intended to cover business losses; it will bo u.sed, 
as decided by the Board of Manay;omoi\t, to pay in advance debts that are not 
cxiiiiblo, for the increase of material for the society, for tho acquisition of raw 
UKitcrials foi' falu'ication. and linally for means lo extend the ojtoi'ations of tho 
associ.'ilion. 

In case of an asses.-ment on tho said fund for business losses, tlio amount must bo 
iiiado u]i by sums retained on the protils until it has attained again, for each member, 
(lie amount of a year's wages. 

Each memlior's shart> in tho reserve fund will be paid hint only at the expiration 
of the association. 

All amounts assessed for tho reserve fund must be considered as tho debts of the 
association, and as such, when tho association is dissolved, are conso(|uonth' to bo 
]iaid liot'oi'e any division is mailo of the ])rolits. 

Art. 22. In case of a mombor's death the value of liis share, and the part belong- 
ing to him in tho reserve fund, will be paid in full to liis heirs, but only at the 
expiration of the association; until that time tho share and part of tho reserve fund 
will bear interest at I per cent. ]n'v annum; the interest will lie paid every tlii'oo 
inontlis, tho bt ot Februaiy, the Isi ot .May, the Isl ot' August and tho 1st ot Xovem- 
licr of each year. 

The value of sucli I'ights will bo dotormiiuHi by tho first Inisiness invontiuy 
occurring after the deatii of the member. 

During the interval luiweon tho death ot the mendior ;uul the said inventory, 
die iieiis can only claim interest calculated at the last inventoiy. 



I'UTURR ASSOCIATION (L'AVENm) OF FUI^NITHKF MAKFRS. 

•loiNT-sTocfc COMPANY, VAUiAiii.E cAi'iT.vi, { i.i.Mrri;r)). 

This association is instituted in the form of a joint-stock comjiany with a vari- 
able caoital and membership. Tho ])oculiaritios of its statutes bear princijially (m 
piiinls referring to trade. The whole statutes are similar to those of other co-opor- 
ativc ioii\t-stock companies. 

Tiie business capital is constituted in accordance with Articles (!, 7 and 8, fol- 
lowing: — 

Art. (I. The bnsiness capital from the founchition of the society was fixed .;t 
81,lii)(t, represented by (iO nominal shai'os of S20 each, of' which 35 are entirely paid 
up, and also ono-fourtii part at least of the remaining 2."». 

The balance shoot will, each year, marlc the fluctuations of the capital. 

-^ rt. 7. The amount of shares are jiayable as follows : $5 on subscribing and $1 
at least each nu)nth, until tiio share is paid up, payments in advance being jter- 
missable. 

20~8i 



116 



Art. 8. Shaves in niatoriul, consisting of tools, raw materials and other valuables, 
may be aece2)ted as part or eiifiro paj'ment of subseribed shuros, after valnaMon by 
the J5()ard of Management. 

Ailmittance and the rankcf members are decided according to the provisions of 
the following articles: — 

Art. i;5. A permanent committee of admission, elected by members of each 
branch of the business, will give the Board of Management their opinion on the 
ability and morality of each candidate. 

Art. 14. The association employs no outside help of any kind, except provision- 
ally. 

Any temporary assistant may become a member by conforming to the present 
statutes. 

Art. Id. Legally constituted societies are allowed to subscribe in the same way 
as other ])ersons. 

..Minors and married women presenting the necessary authorization may al.-) 
subscribe in the same way. 

Art. 17. Inordei' to become a member of the as.sociation it is necessary to engage 
to siiiiscribe and ac(niire successively tivo shares. 

The matter of the reserve tund is resolved as follows: — 

Art. r)(). When the balance sheet shows a surplus, the amount will bo entered 
ill the ledger to the reserve fund to the amount of a third of the subscribed ca|)ital. 

Art. 51. The resei've fund completed as has iieen stiid above, the balance of tlic 
surplus, or what remains, will also be entered in the leilger, to the funds of the fol- 
lowing instituti(ms: — 

2.") per cent, to the .Members' Reserve Fuiul, in ])roportion to their co-operation 
during tiie last tei'iii ; 

75 per cent. : 

1st. To technical instruction and api)reiiticeship ; 

2nd. To federal insurance, which may be contracted with other co-ojjcrative 
associations ; 

ord. To a jn'ovident fund, in case of accident and sickness; 

4th. To a retiring fund. 

The (ieneral Ass.'mbly, on the piopo-sition of the Board of Management, may 
determine the quota of the 75 percent, to be given the preceding institutions as well 
as those they may consider it usotiil to foun(i and to endow later on. 

The provisions of the present article may lie moditicd only by a majority com- 
prising two-thirds of the active members of tjie association. 

Article 5(5 treats of the foundation of a trade library and of the nomination of a 
librarian. The t'ollowing is the text of the article: — 

Article 5(). Jn order to preserve ami clas.sity documents of any nature, such a> 
drawings, plans, manuscripts, account books and other printed books, correspnud- 
ence, invoices, taritt's, statutes, regulations, treaties and bargains, indentures, leases, 
patents, assurances, title-deeds, balance-sheets, reports, process-verbal, inventories 
and other titles, such as photogiaphed, or mouldeil models, and in general all tiiat 
may be or may become useful to the association, or for the instruction of the inoin- 
hers, as also for instruction and professional education, a librarian-keeper ol ilie 
records, together with an assistant, has been named by the General Assembly. 

Memljers of eucli branch of the profession are allowed to nominate a candidate. 



CABINETMAKi<:K'S ASSOCIATION. 

UNLIMITED LIABILITY SOCIETY. 

We now come to an association estaljlished on the most eleim>ntary ])riiici- 
ples possible to bind several persons together in a common work and in some sort 
known and settled. * 



1 
1 

jd'cser 

(ornie( 

Kh'as, 

Is 

SSO, (o 

2n 

com mo 

:u; 

Uie niei 
41 ii 

three ;i 

desliiioc 

5th 

Setlh>d ;| 

<>'th. 
use nf it 

7th. 
aiuiiim f( 
JiiontJis" I 
8tli. 
'^•oiisent () 
!'th. 
to e.xist ai 
one of Hi,, 
assets and 
lOlli. 
y-iirs. and! 
llih. 
Il'th, 
Janiiaiy 

J.'iili. 
t'le funds 



* This iissotiatiiin i.s most simple ii- its niitiire ; it is ri'iilly an imlimiti'ii llaliility company of tcnipunirv 
duration ; nifnilRTH It-avintf are still n's|H)nsil)le. It started with a capital of .*!2<J.OO, and has inchnleil 1- 
menibers. It now numbers four, possessing together a paiil up capital of ^1,000. 



117 



Tho following is the entire text of its statutes : — 

The unilorsii^ned (here follow the nanics of the inenil)crs) h;ive. liy these 
iirosonts. settled in the followiiiif niannei' the basis of the association they have 
formed among themselves for cubinet-making, under the business name of : Giiaid, 
l-"Jias, Schmaltz. 

1st. Kach member will pay, on the day he .signs, u contribution to the funds of 
§80, to tbrm a business capital (ixed at §21(1. 

2nd. The mana<fement of the a.ssociation will be directed l»y all the mi'inbers in 
common. 

',]vi\. All ex])cnsos, rents, taxes, insurances and patents will be borne in thirds by 
tiie members. 

4th. Tiie yearly or half-yearly profits will be divided in equal parts between the 
three associates, with a deduction of a tilth part, retained to ti)rm a reserve fund 
destined to meet emergencies. 

olh. A monthly allowance will be granted each member, according to conditions 
settled among themselves. 

tub. Each member is in possession of the business signature, but he cannot make 
use of it without having previously been authorized to do so by his partners. 

Till. Any membei' having ])aid more than §80 has a right to 5 jior cent. ])er 
aiuiiim for the supplementary amount, and has a I'ight to its repayment after three 
months' notice. 

8th. No member has a right to resign his rights in the association without tiie 
consent of his co-associates. 

Otii. In case of the death of a member the jiresent association will continue 
to exist among the surviving members, and the heirs of the deceased, who will nanu' 
one of themselves as a delegate to assist in tiie inventory a!\d the liquidation of tlie 
assets and liabilities of the association, as well as at its dissolution, if it occurs. 

lOlh. The duration of the association is triennial, to be reneweil every three 
years, and to terminate on the expiration of the lease. 

lllh. It is ruled by the Code of Commerce. 

12th. An Inventory will be taken every six months, counting from the 1st of 
January. ISSS. 

llJih. The accounts will be kept by an accountant chosen by the members, and 
the funds managed in coi: nion. 



SYXDICAL ASSOCIATrOX OF TlIK CARPEXTF.RS OF TIIF SFLN"H.'^= 



JOINT-STOCIC CO.MPANY, WITH VAIUAI.E C.Vl'lTAI,. 

The association of the ^vorking carpenters of the Seine was established after the 
strike which occurred in tliis business in ]SS(). It styles itself a syndical associa- 
tinii. because it recruits its members exclusively from the syndical chamber of work- 
nioH in the trade. Therefore, a member who ceases to belong to the syndical 
iliaiiibcr ceases thereby to belong to the association. As may be seen, then- exists 
very close bonds betwt'en the two associations. 'JMie following articles from the 
^^lalutes mention the ])oints to whicli Ave have reterrel. and also points relating to 
the Imsiness capital : — 

The undersigned working carpenters, members of the si/miical chamber of work 
ing carpenters, unite for the formation of a co-ojierative productive association, tor 
which they have resolved the following regulations: — 

Art. 4. The head(iuarters of the business will be in Paris. 

Art. 5. Tho business ca])ital will, for the present, he 82,000. wlii< li may be 
hereafter increased as the business of the association may develop. 

* Snl)siTil>ed caiiital, $3.(X)0; i?2.4r)!) jKiiil. .\ very iirDsix-rous nsmx-iatiiui. 'I'ln' iirllin^; c,i|iitiil forimd 
iiv till- snyiiiifs (if tlif mcinl)i'is aiuciimts to .■sln.fMH), XiKlistriliutinn of lu-dtits has hfcii iiiadi', Imt the 
MWcs nf .s2e (paid) wi'if wertli •'*S(( after time ycuis' existence (if tlie ass(K'iati(iii. 



IH 



118 



It is (lividoil into 10(1 shares of §20.00 wich, tlio fourth of which amount- must 
be paid at the time of subscription anil the remainder by instalments of Sl.OU per 
month for ea<di share, until tliey are paitl up in full. 

In case of non-payment on cull, and threo months after a fruitless demand of 
payment is made, the association is authorized to take legal |)roceedin'.!;s against the 
indebted member, or, if it prefer.it may resume possession of the shares and transfer 
them to a new member; the amount paid is made over to the dispossessed member; 
if there Ije any surj)ius it belongs to him, and, on the other hantl, if there be a deficit 
he is obliged to make it good. 

.In// member ceasiny to belong to the syndical chamber is thereby excluded from the 
association. 

Art. (j. No one may subscribe for more than si.\ shares; but, as the association 
is for the good of ail workers, and as it should be open to all such, if it occurred that 
the assembly deemed it advisibie, the cai)ilal being judged sufficient for the needs ot 
the association to suspend tiie issue of new shares and that none were disposable, 
the General Assembly would have the power to reduce the number for the future to 
five shares only. 

Art, 9. An oxjielled member may, after thivo montlis' delay, sell his shares, 
and his successor be accepted. After the expiration of three months the association 
will itself transfer the shares at the risk and peidl of the expelled member. 

Art. 10. iOvery member who retires from the society or is excluded therefrom 
is tbrbidtlen for the space of live years to act as master or associate in any lumber 
cutting enterprise within the department of the Seine. 

This last clause is more vigorous than those relating to the same object in the 
regulation:; of other societies. 

Art. It). The profits are divided in the following manner: — 
One-third to the capital, in proportion to tlie sutns paid on the shares. 
One-third to labor, in proportion to the wages paid during the course of service. 

Mie-sixth to form the reserve fund. 
One-sixth to form a retiring fuml, according to a by-law to bo made by the 
General Assembly. 

Art. IT. In the case when the capital will i-each the sum ot S40,000, the shares, 
according to law, shall be rated at 6100, of which one-fourth shall be considered paid. 

Those members who will not submit to this increase will be reimbursed by the 
societ}', who will dispose of their certificates at their own risk and peril. 

The details of work in the shanties are regulated by the following articles regu- 
lating the interior management of the .association : — 

Art. (). As soon as there is work to do the society will meet in general council 
to declare the number of |)ers()ns who shall take part in the work. 

Art. 7. In order to form a shanty, a list of all the members of the society who 
requested work from the association is prepared by the Boai'd of Management. This 
list shall bo sent to all the membei's, to enable them to vote for the formation of a 
shanty and for the number of memiiers who shall compose it. 

At this same meeting lots will be drawn to decide the rank at the work of each 
member. 

The assistants, who come after, take rank as theii- names aie entered. 

Art. 8. No member can refuse to work when his turn comes. Ke may, however, 
exchange with another member. 

h' the turn of the member who has exchanged has arrived, and he cannot tind 
anyone to replace him, he must seek the one with whom he has exchanged. 



Tl 

One m 

it is ne 

Itt 

eaeli, \ 

incnt o 

II nf II, 

An 

able as 

tlie cc;-( 

may pa; 

Art 

sjiarehoi 

shc'ire in 

The 

Ills co-op 

In ri 
before th 
director.t 



Art. 
-Manan-eni 

Art. 
""iiiiiialii 
"11 ;i ma jo 
of two-tiii 
tliirds of I 
iiig being 
Art; 
I'arties. in 
Art. If- 
ho directs 
IM'lltidii, ,ii^ 

'■•lies, in ooi 



, *Tl„. c,, 

ilt S,S.(U)0, 



119 



CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION OP WORKIN(} CARPENTRRS OP 

VILLKTTK* 

JDINT STOCK COMPANY (LIMITKD), WITH VARIAHLK CAPITAL. 

TIk' Association of "\Vorl<iiii,' Cnrponters oi" Villottc is based on Joiirncyniansliip. 
One iiuist lie a joiirMcyniaM to (orni part of itf Tiiouijli this I'lause is not statutory, 
it is nevei-theioss rifforoiisly ap})lie(i. 

Its capital, wiiicii was previously tixcd at SG,()()0, dividcil into ."JOtl >liares of §20 
each, was raised to SIG, ()(»(•, without I'eckoMing a reserve fund of §4,000. The pay- 
ment of the shares is subject to the following; conditicjns contained in Articles T and 
11 of the Statutes: 

Art. 7. The shares are issued on payment. The amount of each sh:iro is pav- 
alile as follows: Half at the time of subscription and the other half on the receipt of 
tiic certificate, which will be given one month after subscrijitioii. The subscribers 
may pay in advance. 

Art. 11. Ea(di new subscriber, besides the .iinounts already paid by the iirst 
shareholders, in subscribing effects an amount equal to a iiroportionnte part of each 
f.hiin' in the reserve business fund. 

The member retiring or e.xpolled is subject to only one year's interdict regarding 
ills co-o]ieration in other tirms engaged in carpentiy. 

in tiie course of the de|K>siti()n of the representative of this association given 
before the Commission of Enquiry, mention was made of the extensive powers of the 
'lirector.J These jiowers are establisheil by the following articles: 

Art. 22. The Board may delegate its powers to a c(mimittee of diieclion, coiii- 
]iosed of three members, or to one sole director, elected from among iisown members. 
It may also delegate them for specified pur])oses f'oi- a limited time to uie oi' more 
members of the IJoard. 



re^ 

lui' 



lliC 



regii- 



im'il 

wlio 
This 
of a 

each 



jvei'. 



Art. 24. Tlie director or directors chosen from its members by the Board of 
Management is or are bound to obey the decisions of the Board. 

Art. 25. They ai'e under the authority of the Board of Management, and their 
nomination may be revoked at the suggestion of the Hoard by tiie (ieneral Assembly, 
on a majority of two-thirds of the members present, and the Assembly should consist 
of twi^thirds of the shareholders. W, however, the Assembly does not consist of two- 
thirds of the shareholders a second meeting will be convoked, the oliject of the meet- 
ing being specified, ami the vote will be taken in the same way. 

Ai't. 21!. The director represents the Board of .Management in regai'd to third 
parties, in all business of the association. 

Art, 27. Besides the rights and powers conferred on theilirector by the Board, 
lie directs all manufacturing operations, all the the sales and purchases of the Asso- 
ciation, disli'ibutes work in the worU'shops of the association, arranges and formu- 
lates, in concert with the Board of ^lanagement, the regulations for thi; workshops, 

*Tli«i"ipitiil, .sKl.lMM), is fiitiri'ly ii:iiil iii>. 'i'ln' mllinfr <'apitMl \aiics JK-tufiii s4,(km(;im(I S'.t,(hKl. 'I'Ik. 
shiiifs were paid liy a call iif 8.") per iiiimth. 'I'lir association realized laiKc pniHts while paying' to its ineiii- 
l«rs a salary (if 'J(l per cent, alidve the general t.iriff. The wuod in stuck is valued at 8Hi,(KH), and the tools 
;lt SS.(I(KI. 

iTci lie a jiiurneynian one mnst have lieen (/viKov/) a fox. \ fox is a young man who has already 
wmked as a {hi/, in) raliliit in a shanty. Wlii^n a Iniy at tln' .age of fonrteen or fifteen liegins to work in a 
^iiiiiity he is a i-aliliit : the ralihit g.itliers uii the chips, sharjiens up the tools, holds the string for niea-iiring. 
At tlie end of four or five years he lieconies a fox, and liegins to earn •'^1 or si. 20 a ilay. When one has 
wniki'd five or six years in this |iositioii he in received as a jonrnej-nian. 

I .See " .Snpphinentarv Notes." 

Cl In ISSII the sidiscrilied caiiital was S4,(MX), of which .^^.(t'll are paiil. The protits of the year 
.iiii(i\nited to .'*1,!I2<). Xet asHets. capital deducted, aninunted to S,'t,41l». This Association inidertook a 
"iiitrart for IJuenos-Avre.s. This is, we lielieve, the first engagement of the kind entered iutoUy a working 
"ii'lierative society. Tii the statement <if accounts for IHSit, presiMited t'- the .Association liy the director, 
-Mr. II. I5uisson, in referring to the Association's prosperity, he says : - 

We akine know the ditticidties we had to (iverc<ime in order to attain this Knccess. Ilow often hav(f 
«!■ lint >ent awav our assistants, some of whom were li\it too disiH)sed to criticise our enfleavoins. on 



iii^'lil with full purses, whilst we have gone t<i our homes with empty packets, having givi 
'ip the smn of their wage 



n up 



J"iy 
all t I mako 



120 



introduces all modificatioim judged necoHMury. subject to notification l>y tlio General 

Afiscnihly, liircH all workmiui required to inlHl ordern received iiy the Association, 
l»ut only when it lias Keen proved tliat the nienilioi'H are insutliciont to execute ilu' 
work. 

Woi'Unien thus hired have no I'ii^ht to ho consitlei'cd as heloiiginy to the associ- 
ation. 



LE THAA^AIL. 

ASSOCIATION OP IIOUSE-PAIXTEIJS. 

J(jlnt Stock Company, toith Variable Capital. 

This ass'.ciat ion dates from Decenihor, 1S82. It was established in an unpre- 
tentious way, with a capital of §1.28(1. of which one-tenth only was paid on subscrib- 
ing, about ^b'-!0. scarcely suflicient to pay expenses of constitution. Nevi'riheless, it 
undertook coni])aratively large Jobs, and its steady ]>rogress up lo the present give- 
reason to ho|)e that its intelligent direction will enable it to surmount all the dilK- 
culties inevitablj- to be met with by any newly started enterprise of this nearly 
unknown kind. 

The a(imis>ion of these new members is subject to the statutory provisions of 
Article -1, of which the following is the text : — 

Ai't. 4. ^'o one is allowed to subscribe unless he is a working painter, or exer- 
cises one of the branches similar to this industry. In order to be admitted as mem- 
bers, the candidates must conform to the ♦ollowing conditions: — 

1st. To subseribe for at least four sha'vs, ami to ])ay, when sub.scribing, at least 
one-half 

2nd. To ])ay the aihnission fee of SM. 

^J'he amount of each snare must be ])ai(: at the rate of $0.40 a month each share, 
without any interruption. 

The admi.ssion is declared in General Assembly by the majority of two-thir^ls 
of those present. 

Article 11 fixes the rights of shareholders at General Assemblies. Each mem- 
ber has as man}^ votes as he has a tiuadruple ot shares, without exceeding lour vole-. 

The retiring fund is established in the following manner; — 

Art. 1(). J^ach member has a I'igbt to the retiring fund after twenty yeais ol' 
service in the Association. Temporary relief may bo given to sick members, or to 
wounded members unable to work at painting, 10 ])er cent, of the fund ci.'nstituliii;: 
the retiring fund specially set aside for this purpose. 

Finally, the question of division of profits is settled by Article 14, and is tliii> 
stated : — 

Art. 14. Kach year the net ])rofits resulting from the company's operations arc 
divided accoiding to the following proportions: — 

1st. ') per cent, to constitute the legal I'cserve fund. 

2nd. 5 per cent, on the interest of capital paid in. 

The surplus of benefits shall be divided as follows: — 

25 ))er cent, among all the workers employed by the ila}' or the hour pro raio 
for the time givi-n by them for the good of the Association. 

25 per cent, for the creation of an extraordinaiy I'eserve fund. 

35 per cent, to all the shares. 

15 per cent, for the retiring fund. 

Nevertheless, the members that have not paid uj) their shai'os in full will n"' 
touch the interest of the capital ]iaid in by them, nor the 35 per cent, awarded to 
each share. 

These sums are taken in deduction of the calls to bo made, by each on tliL'ii 
shares. 



tl 
Unti 
At 1), 

(lie tJejiei'ji 
''it'll 111) ini 

per cent. 
In iJie 

''idil to ,,, 



121 



THE LAJiOUK. 

OENERAT, ASSOCIATION (iF CEMENT MAKERS. 

Joint Stock Company {Limited) with Variable Capital. 

Tlie oxistoiico of this Association only datos hack to llic L'2n(i Aiiu;ust, ISSl. 

Tlieir rcj^iilations arc soniowliat siniilnr to societies of'tlio same nature. Anionic 
tlie (litleronfu's Ijcai'in;; on s])ocial points wo reniariv the tbllowing: — 

Art. '.*. Xo one can ])ossoss more tiian nine shaves. 

Ai't. 10. No one wiio is not a cenient-tnakoi' can snhsoiilio. 

Evoiy mcml)or \vl>o sjiall undei'taice woriv at'ior the formation of tho society shall 
be struck from the roil of the society, and what he has ]iaid in shall <;;o to the forma- 
tion of the society. 

Arti(do !• and the tir>t ])ar:>i;-:-a])h of Article Id evidenlly refers to the fear that 
workmen in ffcneral, who join in a prodiictivo association, e.\|ierience ol'socini;- their 
Imsinoss absorhed hy capitalists. Tlioreforo they forhid themselves from acce])ting 
iimney i^l>ewlHM'c than from the memhers of the trade! lo which lliey helorii;'. 

This precaution would he of use it the Cii|iitalists jxit much failh in these wmk- 
men's associations, but until now il has been nnniH'cssary, because cajiitalists have 
not shown any desire to rule these societies by placiui;' their <';ipital in atl'airs of this 
sort. Xevertheless, they deserve to bo aided and encoui'a;;ed. 

Thus, there is mistrust on both sides, ami it will probably re([uire many ^-ears 
more before it can be elVaced. 

The second parau'raph of Article It) is, in ouropinion, somewhat out of place, and 
we ilo not think that the law would ])e;mit the confiscation, by the society, oftlie 
capital invested by a member, because such mentber should disobey the rules on the 
])oint indicated. Besides Ibis |»aragraph is conliadicled by Article 17, which reads as 
follows: — 

On the retirement, dismissal or death of the shaieholdei's, the society should 
reimburse him or his heirs: 

1st. Jlis invested capital. 2nd. His >liareofthe reserve fund. .'ird. Jtis share 
of the profits, as slnnvn by the last inventory. 

If there are losses, the leimbursement only takes ])lace after reduction of his share 
(if the loss. 

The sum to he reimbursed may (in virtue of the law) remain in the Society, I'oi- 
five yeais from the last inventor}', to insure the Society against any claim that may 
ai'ise from such inventory 

In consequence a special account ol the liquidation is ke])t anil a regulation made 
ik'tiiiing the I'ights the memlier will enjoy at the expiration of these five years. 

L'ntil the reimbur'sement. the membei' has the right to 5 ]iei' corrt. irrterest. 

At the same time, should the society, for some good reason, ackrrowledged by 
the General A.ssembly, decide upon reimbur.-ements during the year' it is demanded, 
thcrr no interest is allowed for that ])eriod. After- the tii'st year it is calculated at 5 
pel- cent. 

In the cliai)tci' on the (iener-al As-enibly a clause leatls that " each mcrrrlicr has a 
ri<;lrt to one vote only, no matter how many share- he may own." 

The net pi'ofits ar-e divided in the following mannei-, in eorrfor'rrrily with 
Arlicle 50 : 

1st. 5 |)er cent, for the establishment of a legal reserve furrd. 

l-'nd. 25 ])er cent, for the creation of an extraordinary reserve fund. 

•ird. "O per cent to all the shares. 

Xevertheless, the members who have never paid their- sfalutor-y calU or' pay- 
nH'nt>. will oidy share in the division of TO per ccni. awarded to shares. 

The reserve fund is the subject of the four following articles : — 

Art. 57. On the net profits an annual assessment is made of a twentieth at 
least, to be applied to the formation of a reserve fund, in conformity' to Article 5(1 of 
tile prx'sunt statutes. 



122 



This iissoHsment coasos (o lio oliligntoiy when tho rosorvo renchos a tenth of tlio 
oa|iital. 

Art. 52. 'Plio oximonlinaty reserve fiiml is formed : — 

1st. I''r()in till! fees of adniissinii. 

lind. Kiom till' lT) jK'i' cent, whicli is awardetl iiere accordiiii; to Article 50. 

'I'lie as.sc'ssment, levii'd foi- I lie formation ceases when the fund shall have 
reaehi'd douhle the eapitul. 

Art. ").■!. At the e.xpiralioii of ihe society an<l :\i'{(?v the lifHii(Uition of its atfairs, 
the two i'cscrv(> funds shall lie ilivided ainoiii;- all (he shares. 

I""inally, the resjionsihility of the niana,i;einonl is provided tor hy Article 02 
followinff : — 

Alt. (i2. Tiie memhei's representing the twentieth at least of tlie capital may, for 
the common interest, at theii' own cost, aiithoi-ise one or more a!::i'nts to taki' action 
a^;ainst the administrators for tludi' mismanai^ciuent, without j)rejiidiee to the action 
which each member could conslitute individually in his own name. 



CO-OPHHATIVH ASSOCIATION. 

SCiriiPTORS' UNH)N. 

Anonymotis })artncrship, variable capital. 

The object of the Sculptors' Union of I'aris is the ijenoral advancement of deeo- 
rutivo scul|)lure, both ii\ stone and in wood, in marble and plaster, as wi^ll as iu the 
ditfercnt s|)ccialties belonii'ini;' to them. 

The business capital is li.\i^d at 8-l-,!lOO, in 4!*0 shares of §10 each. 

In order to beeom(> a member it is necessary to subscribe foi' at least ten shares, 
of which liie tenth ])arl is payabh; at the time of subscribiii.i,^, in uniformity with tiic 
law, and the other nine-tenths at the rate of $().4t) i)er month. 

The division of profits is made in the foUowiiii'; order : — 

") per cent, as interosl on the subscribed capital ; 

5 per cent, to form a reserve fund ; 

2(1 per cent, to outside assistants employed in the works of the Association, to liu 
paid ])roportit)nately to the work done by each. 

75 per cent, to the shareholders in pi'oportion to the number of shares possessed 
by eacii. 



GEXEEAL ASSOCIATION OF TIIR TAVIORS OF THE SEINE. 

JOINT STOCIC C0.MP.4.;SY, VAHIAHLE CAl'ITAr,. 

The end the I'avior's Association has in view is. as indicate(J liy its name, the 
general work of paving and all that pertains to the construction and care of puiilir 
rortds. It al.so undertakes ])rivate contracts. Its constitution bears date the 12ili 
of February, 18S3. 

The tirst payment to capital is heavy. Member.ship is subject to tho conditions 
contained in the following articles: — 

Art. a. The business capital is provisionally fixed at the sum of $;{,H(IO. It may 
not be reduced l)y restitution or refunding of shares below 83,;j(I0, which is tlio 
nnredu('ii)Ie ca])ital of the Association. 

Art. 7. It is divided into S4 shares of $40 each. 

Tho amount of each share is payable in the following manner: — 812 on sub- 
scribing and 82 every month from the date of the subscription, and the balance by 
amounts retained : 1st, by the interest on amounts paid, tlie said interest to begin 
after each payment of 812; 2n(l, a share of dividends. 

To enable workmen with large families ilependent on them to become n ambers, 
tho treasurer is authorized to receive sums on account, provided that the month 
previous the member has paid $2, It is permittetl to pay amounts in advance. 



Ar( 
not, bell 
paving i 
>liares. 
sliaies, ji 
Art. 
to increji 
iiiiniber 
The 
'lie niont 
will lie p 
Art. 
proceed i I 
Art. 
Ist. ' 
•\s>oeiali( 
2nd. 
;!rd. ' 
Art.: 
The sliar( 
slijii'e. 

I'l-ovii 
'■t'('eij)t the 

Art. I 
i^ l.'iken, n 
"I 'lie rule.' 

An. 
An. 21 

I" "lie dec, 
f'liiplefed 
I'l'f aii'ium 
The foi 



An. n:. 

•■" 'iie foot 
limy lie onii) 
Art. ;{s' 
ly the direc 
The poM 
^\vt. :>,u. 
The (|ue 
■Art. 4S. 
'"-'i'lU-deduci 
Isl. 
2n(i 
I'lic stall 

Its iiu'miiers 
'ii case o 
Hie fine." 

Art. (;. A 

P''escribed is / 

^i lie be li 



123 



Art. 8. Xo oMo is allowoil to suli-^fiilii' if lio lio iiDt a working pavior ami doos 
not bolonfj to tho Kyndical eliamlior; no ono bel<)ii<;ini; to any other society in tho 
puvinj? interest is allowed to siiliserihe. Xo one may Miliserilie t'oi- tnoi't^ than three 
>liiires. Kver}' suhscrilier cni^au'es liiiiisfit' to liccoine the owner of three Miccessive 
>liaies, and pays a niiniiniirn snni ot Sl'J on eiitei'lii!,' the Association. 

Art. !). However, a eonvoeation exlraordinaiy of the (teneral Assi-niMy, in order 
to increase tho funds of the association, may issue a second series of shares, equal in 
miniher to the shareholdeis then existiui;'. 

Tiie new shares will also lie .Std each ; the tenth pari at least to ho paici during 
the month in wiiiih the assemldy deciiled upon this increase of capital. The halance 
will lie paid as may ho deeidod hy the Assemhly. 

Art. 10. In case of delay in jiayment, the management may take all legal 
|iniceedings — even to c.xecution — against the suiiscriiier. 

Art. 11. Hach share icivcs a right, 

1st. To interest at ."» per cent., whicdi it hears only from the opening of the 
As>ociation workshop ; 

2nd. To dividends ; 

llrd. To a iiropoitionati^ sh.are in the reserve t'und. 

Art. 12. Tiie shares are in the name of the owner; no shares helong to hearer. 
Tlio shares uro inu, visible; tho association rocogni/.es hut one member for each 
share. 

I'rovisional I'eceipts are given until §40 lias been ])aid on eaidi share. Tho 
receipt then becomes Hnal. 

Art. 15. The i-iglits and oidigations of a share follow the name in which it 
is taken, no matter who may hold it; tho ownership of a share entails adherence 
to tiie rules and to all decisions of the fJeneral Assemblv. 



Art. 21, S 2. Suliscribers three monthly ])aymenls in arrears may be expelled. 

Alt. 22. Amounts coming tf) a member who has rcsigne(l, or been cx])elled, or 
til line deceased, are paid in accordance with the la.xt inventory; the payment is 
(iiiiipleted in three years, or one-thii'd every year, with interest at ."» pci' cent, 
per an um 

Tiie following are the rules relating to work : — 

ti|.' TIIK WORKSHOP, OF THE FORKM.VN. 

Art. ii7. The members are employed in turn ; in case of refusal they .are |)laceil 
at the foot of the list; in case of need, workmen not belonging to the .\ssociation 
may he employed. 

Art. !)S. Work is done liy the hour, umlci' the oi'ders of the Ibi-eman nominated 
ly the director. 

The powei'8 of the foreman are settled by the rules of the interior. 

Art. Hit. The price for work is settled according to the city of Paris list. 

The i|uesti<in of piotits is thus arranged : — 

.\i't. 4S. The general expenses and interest on amounts ])aid iiy shareholders 
lieing deducted, the net prohts -le divided as follows : 
1st. 80 per cent, to f lareholders as dividend; 
2nd. 20 per cent. ' .< the reserve fund. 

The statutes ai'e followed by i-ules of the interior. Tho principal clauses are : — ■ 

Art. 3. At ever}' meeting of the board of management, a ticket will be given 
its members entitling them to an indemnity of 80.20. 

fu case of non-attendance, they are fined 80.(50. 

The fines are to paid at the general meetings. 

Art. (). A shareholder arriving at work fifteen mimites later than the hour 
prescribed is fined §0.10. 

If ho bo half an hour late one houi- is deducted from his day's work. 



■m 



124 



Til Ciiho Iff Mio olTeni'o hoint; rt'|)<'iifi'(l foiii' finios in ono inonfli. (Iio doliiy 'joliiif 
iU'tui'ii iiiimito I'acli time, tlio lino is niiMdl In §(».2it tor i-acli (Icliiy, and an lioiir tli-- 
duoted lor tlio ivpotition. 

Art. 7. — In ca«o of a Hliuiolioldcr iiiaUin^ idniHolf dinu^^reoablo to oniployvoH of 
the city or others, to t ho oxtont of projiidiciiiu,' tlioni a/^aiti»l tiio Awsociation, tho 
dirootor iniiHt tako mcusiires to clianj^c liini lo anothor locality or to roplaco him liy 
anntliuf. 

Art. 8. — The director has a rii,'ht to roplaco any Hharoholdor who rofnsos to 
obey iiiw onioi'K ^ivcn in tlio interests of tlio Society, sulijoct tothe ajiiirnval of the 
board of niana^finent. 

Art. !i. — .Sharelioldors iiiiist ho notilicd wlicn thoii' niinihors aio to ho drawn. 

The president, who i.s named by the ticueral Assonibly, draws for absent 
iTieinl)ers. 

Art. ](». — XuMibcrs 1 and 2 are reserved for tho two shareholders who are 
named for adjudications. 

'IMie other numhorsifo on tiio I'oad (marchont) in turn. 

Jf one or more members refuse to accept their numbers lliey are ])laccd at tlu' 
foot of the list ; they are tjie last to walk (marcher). 

Art. II. — JJoifinning, tho lirst numbers are placed for tlireo months, the iirst of 
April, May and .June. 

The first of.luly begins tho icplacing of tiie two numbers wiiich continues every 
month; two <foint,' out and two coinin/j; in. 

The numbers lo go on the road must make their demand eight days in advance. 
All demands to be made of the dir('ctor. 

If no demands are made, the numbers whose turn it is to go out continue tlicir 
duties. 

Art. 12. — If orders come in during the month and the director is obliged to hire 

iinviors from outside the Association, he is bound to notify the first shareholdei- 
laving a right to go on the I'oad ami should in no case hire other paviors bofoi'e hav- 
ing received tho acce])tance or refusal of shareholders. 

Anytime that shareholders offer themselves for work, oiitsidei-s are discharged, 
replaced by shareholders. 



GENERAL ASSOCIATION (^I- WORKING OPTICIANS. 

ANONYMOUS PAHTNE118I11I' — VAlltAllLK CAPITAL. 

In the ])reface to the rules of the Assoeiation it is stated that : 
The end the Association alirdys has in view (the vVssociation has been changed) 
is the eneouragement and develo]inient of the industry among all and each of it> 
members, aiul cs])ecially manufacture and sale, :ind in general all transactions ccii- 
cerning optii-al instiiiments and all other articles I'olating to the said business, or 
wdiich the M)cialion may undoi'take in the future. 

The capital is formetl in accordance with the following articles: 

OP THE CAPITAL ANO ITS FOU.MATIO.V. 

Art. (5 — The business cajiital fixed at S;i,800 on 25th December, 1SG4, raised tn 
$5,600 on the 1st October lS(i5. and to 822,000 in .luly, ISliS, is now at the mini- 
mum 824,000: it may in the future be brought S;{2,000, 

This business caj)ital may be increased by the admittance of new members nii'i 
by tj^e decision id' the general assembly. 

Art. 7, — Business contributions are fixed at 83,000 fixed shares and 84,000 ])">- 
sible, which will be represented by named shares of 8100; for this purpo.se emli 
member will lie subject to retention of a certain amount on his work and on tho pid- 
fits in the following i)ro])ortions : 

Until the sum of 81,000 has been reached. SO.tJO at the least, and 81.00 at the 
most, every week, and the entire profits; from $1,000 to $2,000, the entire priitit.>, 



'lie mc 

half th 

until hi 

lie give 

'liey hi 

Ar 

value ;i- 

Ar 

Jiavnieii 

' Th. 



Art 

till' .Vsso 
trusted t 
and UM(I( 
iides est; 
ri'i:'idalin 
Art. 
\*'"rkslii|i 

cniployii, 
will ho Jis 

it-^poiid t 
•■'iiiumonei 
I lie time i 
\vill be pr 
.'disonce w 
iHithoriztM 
'he leave , 
Art, 1 
••idarly by 
aj)proved" 
Pi'oli I 
Art, 
the husine 
"■ork done 
When 
Ijccn attaii 
•'' -Jiecial a( 
Art, ;} 
I'ccn ;i in,.ii 
workei', , 



125 



1)1)0 
lair 

CS (I 

ill 



t(. »<:{,()()(), 

liis pi'iilils 

t'><l(M) will 

i> I'lipital 

iiirl i>l' its 

iilcroU liis 



ilio mombor limy loiivo a inaximiiin i)t'8n.f!() |k'|' wi'ok, ami Irniii $'2 
liiilt' llio jimtilH. Kiom S.'t.OOO, tilt' MU'iiiiici niiy, if lie <'liii()-.(», Icavf 1 
iiiiiil \\v liiiH allaiiicd llii- |M>s-.ilili' ciiiilal, ?54.<)l)t). As many actual sliai 
lie f,'ivon tlio HliaroholdtTH us may lio nccossaiy to lopreseiit tlio sluiro 
tlicy luivt) loali/.i'd. 

Art. 8. Till' liiisinoHw capital may lu'vor lio reduced bolow tho teiitii i 
value as ii-alizt'il at the prccciliiiix iiivciitDry. 

Art. !•. Aji account liook will lie y;ivcii I'atli iiieiiibcr in wliicli will liec 
payments and his weekly ta.\'. 

The riijjlits ami duties of momlters are settled as tjivon lielow: • 

HIUIITS .Wli iJiniKS ilK MK.MIIKHS. 

Art. 1'.?. Every nienilier is hound to <lev(>te his woi'k, his diiii^ence and ahiiiiy to 
tlic .\ssociation ; he hinds himselt' to irivt> all the care and assiduity to the work en- 
trusted to him ; to^ive his rei:;ular and continuous assistance in all the transactions 
and undcrtakiiifi's oi" the Association ; he is bound to conform and .-luhmit to all the 
lilies estahli>licd, either iiy the present deed of the Association, or hy the workshop 
regulations accepted hy the'ieneral As>emhl\'. 

Art. 1,'{. Members to ho successively or alternately employeil in the co <ipcrativo 
woiksiiip will bo named hy tho board of management. Any member leaving iiis 
i'iii|)loyment in the Association to work elsewhere, not being duly authori/ed so to ilo, 
will III- a>k(>d by the Hoard to resume his woric, and if within eight <lays he dot-s not 
respond to this first rc(|iiest whi(di must be made by letter handed to him, he will bo 
•siiiunioned by a bailitl'lo resume his work within eight <lays, tailing to do so williin 
the time mentionod, ho will be considered as having resigned liis membersiiip, and 
will be |)roceeded against in conseiiuence. The costs arising from his iinwarraiileil 
absence will be laid to his ■ harge. Tlu' same will be done in regard to a member 
aulliorized to work elsewhere for u time, and who fails to return at the expiration of 
the louvo granted Ijy tho Association. 

Art. 14. Alembors employed in the co-oporativo workshop will work more parti- 
.'iihirly iy- the piece, according to a tarirt' projiosed by the Board of Managemeiil and 
approved liy the Assembly. 

Profits and tho division of profits are settled as follows : — 

Art. ',iii. Tho amount of assets in excess of the liabiiitios represent the profits of 
the business, which will be divided among tho members in proportion to amount of 
woi'k done by each, in addition to tim amount (d' capital jiaid. 

When the |)rotits are divided the members are bound, until the sum of 6:i()l) has 
been attained, to lea\'o two-tenths per cent, of thoir dividends tofoim a reserve fund ; 
a sjieeial account will be kept foi- each member. 

Art. ;M. Any member having paid tiie exigible capital of 8iJ,000 and who has 
been a member of tho Association tor more than twenty years, may retiivas an actual 
workei', and continue, by leaving his capital, to receive liis di'.idends during his life. 



ASSOCIATION 0FSPECTACLI:-MAK1;KS, (MOXF'IRAL AND LIMITED 

PARTNERSHIP.* 

At the head of the statutes of tho spectacle-makers, wo read the following : 
In the lieginning of the year 1848, tho manufacture of spectacles in Paris was 
still in its infancy; the largest establishment employed no more than twelve or 
fifteen workmen and did business to the extent of 68,000 or $10,000 at most. 

In the third flat of a house in St. Martin Street a small business in spectacle- 
making was done by Messrs. Duez & Durit?. This small shop was tho cradle of what 

* This aHS()ciiiti(iii hfing (inc of tlio olde.st, wealthiest aiul most iiniMU'tant, wo coiLsidor it proiKT to give 
tliL' most I'oiniilt'tc dftiiils coiRcniiug it. 

In 1S84, tlu> M(Kioty ixjssossed besidoa its paid up capital {.S2'J(1,312) a stix'k valued at .?40,fX)() and tiwls 
vahu'd at 81L'0,000. 



126 



wuH iiftorwanls llic iiHKneiatcd Kpcc'taclo-mukorK. In a rncotiiii,' nf tlic nmjority iif (In- 
trade, llio (jUOHlion of a«H<)ciali<»ii, Id wliich ilio political t«vonl> nl' tlic tinuis iiad^^ivon 
riso, was fiiNt dcliatod. 

.Mmicaiix and Dflahit', lioth workmen, consulted Messrs. l)iU'Zi^ Diirie, whom 
(hey kni'W were not iiniilvcly toslnin- llinii' views, and after a lew nifclini^^ and --omc 
discussion the Association wa> decided upon. ApjM'ai was made to worivin^ spectacle 
maUers hut without result, (nr tn the j^reater numher the AsHOciation was still a 
utopiiin idea. 

Xcvciiiieli'ss, neither Muneaux nor Dclalpi-e wore idle, they inanajred to convince 
four or live other workmen who dccidcfl to join them. Thoy went ai;iiin to Messrs. 
Due/. \ Durie who cordially ij;ave them the u>e of theii' small estahlishmont, and 
their materials were then valued at $l',U). 

Neither of them lieinn' possessed of ninney, this was therefore §l.'!(l ofdehts, and 
with their hands as thcii" only resource ami hope for the future the ANSociation heuan 
Mandi the I'.Mli, isp.t, '['he lirsf statutes were arran/^ed as well as could ho nuin- 
iiLfed ; th(icnntriliulion of each memher was tixed at ^(10; the prolits were eiiually 
divided amoni^ the memhers, <;'iviii<r eatdi at least 81-0 tor their yijar'H lahor, after 
an asscN-nienI of S p.c. to Ioimu a rctii-iii!;; fund foi' old aii:e. 

.Memlier>hi|) was still small, for on the Kith of Aun'ust of the same year hut 
twelve memhers si^c'it^'*' t'lo statuteH at Mr. J)umns' residence. The statutos wore 
])uhlished and the association le^'ally started under the name oi' B rot he rli/ AanociatiDit 
of irarliiiKj Siifrtdcli-iiKikcrs. Tlie laisincss name for the first year was Duez. [)urit< 
& ()o, .Muneaux namcil as third a,i,^ent, wailed wdule still workiiu^ till tlx^ all'airs of 
the Association should reqiiiie his help in the management. That first year, in sjiito 
of lack of money and of credit, the nK^nihcrs worked zoalousiy and the Association 
found a market for over 8l,S<)<> ot its n'oods, with a yearly increase, until in IHlIT tlie 
pr< cec(ls amounted to $1,')!!. 100, an immense result the founders ot the Association 
had never foreseen. 

In 1852 the events of the; time ami the exii^encics of trade oldij^ed the Associati'ui 
to modify and revise its statutes; it ch;ingoil its name from Bi'otherly Association tn 
that of Industrial and rommercial Society of workini; spectaide-workcrs. 

The stall then nundieied twenty mend)ers, (piito insufficient to meet the ordeiN 
which were then more than they could till, and tor the same Hoason the pecuniary 
resoui'ces were insufficient foi- the demands. The cont rihulion of each memhor w.M'^ 
then raised to S-00, with a certainty that still the realized capital would ho insulli- 
ciont ; hut it was pretty <r(.|i,.c;i||y .•lu.rced that it should he inci'oased as often as Iho 
requirements of the husiness demanded it. This possihle increase of each membci's 
conti'ihution suji:<fe»ted a serious consideration to the Society, that of providing fm' 
the old ;iiie of its members. This was the reason why it was decided thai capital 
and lalior shoidd have an e(pial shai'c in the ]ii'otils, that is to say the memhers shared 
in projiortion to the amount owneil by them in the husiness capital, adiUitl to tla.' 
amount t)f work done by them durint;- the year. In fact, capital successively aug- 
mented, anil using its rights, could alone in a longoi- or shorter period of time, come Id 
the assistanc(^ and make up tho deficiency caused by the extinction of the workman's 
proiluctive jxiwer. 

This new combination destroyed all need for a retiring fuml, which was thero- 
fore suppi'essed as well as the equal division of profits, and all else likely to be ]ire- 
judicial to the progress of the A.ssociation. Then still pursuing the end in view, llio 
Association on the '.tth of .lamiarv, IS'ifj, in general assembly', raised the contri- 
bution to 8400, antl on ilio 28th January, 1857, to §1,000. At this meeting it was 
decided that assistant workmen would be engaged with the right to subscribe a con- 
tribution of from $200 to $400 each; that the amounts so contributed, added to the 
profits, would warrant their share in the profits in equal rate to those of actual 
mem 1)0 rs. 

In 1800, in spite of the satisfactory results obtained, tho business still conlinueil 
to extend, and tho management not wishing to dispossess itself of its capital I'J 
paying dividends to members whose contribution was complete, convoked a general 
assembly for Itth .Tuly. At this meeting the contribution of each member was 



127 



raiHoiI to $2S)0i), oblii^ntory with powor to infroaso it to g.'l.OdO. It was also ro-tolvml 
jiiul iiiln|itiMl tliiii iiu'miIht's wiildw-i sliDiilil It^avo ilu'ir liii-<li;iMclr*' sliart>s in tin- As.so- 
I'iatioii, at inlfit'Ht ot at iiiu^t Id |)t'r ci'iit., ami (I por conl. at least, p(>i' aiiiiiim. 

On till' -J nil March, 1S7S, i||(> Assofialion coiivokod in ;j,ont'ial as!Ht>iul)l_v, laisod 
tlic conf riliutc'il shaio of oaoli nu'nilMT to #r),tM)((, and that ot" assistant inonilnTS lo 
$l,(ltl(), and hiloplfd iinanitnnM-<ly lhi< n-viM'd >taluli's shown htM'fat'ti'r, 

l»iii'in^ thai pciind, I \vcnly-livt' years, we had I ;fret the death of live of our 

colleaj^iiOH ; the resii^nation of twenty-otie monihers, and of twenty ossistaMts (or 
iidhorents), the loss of whom rediieed the hMsiness capital hy 81S,(i(HI. 

This Society isa, general purlnerxliip as lei^ards it" au;ents, and a limited paitner- 
.-liip as re^ai'ds the other tMomhei's. it has no sliaros, Imt pnriions in the intoivst 
which are not, tran>ferralile. 

Admittance of new iiiemhoi's is estahlisho 1 hy articloi 8, !• an 1 Ki, in iho follow- 
inu: mannor : 

Art. H. A mombor i> a<'i'epled nnly I'nr the special hrancli in whicii he is versed ; 
ill ca-o there ho no work to he done in liial particiihir hraiKdi, the Association is not 
liound to ])rocurt> him employment. In siicli event, it he has hccn less than ten 
years a meml)er. he hart a I'lirht to rank with otiier memiters, beiiiLC placed iindor 
article K), as regards his maximmii or miniiniiiii r.ile. Uiil heyon 1 that period he 
lias a v\'^\\\ to the dividtMids jiertainiiiL!; to his capital. in either case he may no 
liiimer join in the hiisiness of the meeting's, i nit |)ie-*erve his riy;lit to assist at the 
rendition of the accounts of the inventory at tho end of the year, havim; a consti- 
tutive voice and the biimc powers as adheronts. If the ces.satioii of that hranidi <ii' 
the llll^iness, special to him. is caused hy his fault, lie may he e.vpclled from the 
As.sociatioii liy decision of the Assemlily. 

Art. !). Ill extraordinary cases, or toadd to it.self a new hranch of industry, tho 
Association may roccivo u member witli his c.-ipital complete, cither in specie, 
mat (M'ial or /roods, and without, noviciate. Hut inemhers received with the advan- 
tages of tho present article can. in no way, sliare in tho maiiai;-emeiit without tiieir 
adtiiittanco has been considered in the liifht of that of a worker. 

Art. 10. Mcinliors have no dolil)orativo voice \indor one year's mcmbcrf«hip. and 
a contrihiition to capital of .$201). 

The liu'hts of mciiihi'rs' willows are pi vidod for hy article 1.'! here i;iven : — 

Art. i;5. The association recognizes as lormini;- part of its stalV, iiu'inhors' 
widows without distinction. 

They will have the power, by certifying to it within one month of the member's 
iloceas*'. to remain memliers for their husband's entire poi'iion, if tliey have the right 
ti) it, or to the part oidy that remains to them after division with the other heirs. 
They must jirove their right within a year. 

A niemlier's widow marrying again will bo considered as having resigned, and 
liercajntal will lie paid back to her. 

The formation of the capital is [irovided for by Articles IS, 1!) and liO, as 
follows: — 

Art. 18. The capital is exclusively formed, except in the caeje ))rovided for by 
Ariicde 1>, of amounts retained on work done, and on profits and dividcnils in the 
iiiaiiner horewitli iiulicated. 

ivuh member will contribute a capital of 80,000, to be divided into six parts of 
Sl,iMiU eacii. 

For this purpose tho entire amount of ])rofit9 coming to him will be retained 
until they amount to §1,000. and be is given the right to leave 10 })or cent, on his 
work, if he choose. 

From .<?1,()00 to §2,000, the amount retained on profits is three-quarters; the 
meinber may, if he choose, leave tho remaining quarter as representing part of tho 
10 per cent, on his work. 

From S2.000 to §5,000, he will leave one-half his profits. 

From §5,000 to §0,000. he will leave but oiie-fV)urtli part of his profits. 

Besides this amount of fixed capital, every mombor still actively engaged in the 
Association has the right to raise his capital to §8,000 by means of a retention of 



128 



one-fnutl. of bis profitu, ho hiiviiif^, howovor, previously doclaroil In-, intentions 
within tho fortniyiit i'oUowini^ thu inventory. 

Tiii.s allowed oapilal will hear interest at 10 per cent, tor the nKiximiini ami (! 
per cent, tor the niiniiniun, as is stateil in article '1 in rej^^'ird to nuMiiiiers' wido\v.><. 

This cajtital, (juite distinct from tho ti.ved capital, is ynaranted in same \va\' as 
widows' capital in accordance with tho meaning ot article 41, and wdl only bo [laid 
back after tixeci capital. 

This (•ai)ital, which may he styled allowable, will not he mort,a'd inlo (ixed capi- 
tal, and will lie |)ayable only at the death, resi^-nation c;" ex]}ulsion of tho member, 
and that in the manner and as is stated in the cha|)tei' on re-])aynients. 

Mividends proceeding from this allowable capital will bo paid each year at the 
pei'iod (ixed by the (renoral Assembly, and may not go to add, to nor to increase the 
said capital. 

A member who retires either from old ago or by placing himself within range 
of the advantages oflered by article 40, is not allowed to increase his capital; he 
receives the protits accruing from it under articles ;5!t and 40. 

Art. l!l, — Kach adherent must furnish to the Association a capital of 81,000, 
formed as follows: he will submit to a ii'tention of 10 per cent, on his work ainl ot 
tho entire amount of his protits up to 8200 ; from 8200 to 81,000, half his protits will 
be retained, with the jiowor given him to leave the whole and 10 per cent, on his 
work. 

Any adherent having become possessed of 81,000 in the Association and leaving, 
will submit for the period of one year to tho interdictions given in article 44. The 
Association has, however, a right to make any special agreement it may choose with 
any adherent. 

Art. 20. — -The capital originally fixed at 8'50 jjor member of tho thirteen found- 
ers, by act of the (ith August, 1840, has been increased several successive times, by 
retentions on work and on the protits of the business. 

It is susceptible of increase and diminution, but may not be reduced below the 
sum of 880,000. 

The division ef profits is regulated as follows : 

Art. 3G. — Capital and labor have each a proportionate share in the profits; yet- 
no memlior can, as legards work, count at so muci> in the franc for this divisiuu 
higher than tho sum of 8'>20. If the work done tluring the year is valued beyuiul 
this amount, tho surplus is considered as allowed wages. 

Art. 37. — Adherents filling no administrative otlicc in tho Association do not 
share in the protits for more th.tn a i»roportionate amount of their business capital. 

Art. 38, — Dividends are paid by twelfth parts month by month. The first i)ay- 
ment is fixed, on proposal of the Boards, at tho statutory meeting for settling accounts. 

Art, 3'J. — A member or adherent, in a case of infirmity which incapacitates liini 
for work, may only I'eceive his dividend at tho rates of realized profits and an account 
of his capital whatever tiie amount may be, in so far as ho has been periods of ten 
years a membei-. If the infirmity incapacitating for work occurs previous to tho 
la))se of the ten years mentionotl he can raidv only with members included under tin' 
provisions of article 40, unless the injury oi- infirmity incapacitating for work is the 
result of an accident which has been met with during work done for tho Associali'Mi. 
In case of the said nu'inber resuming his I'egular work, without intoriuption for one 
year, he may again become a memlier with enual rights. 

Any member or adherent lu'ving been twenty years in the employ of the Associ- 
ation, may retire, no matter what his ago or his share in tho capital ; in that case ho 
receives all his dividends. 

Any member fifty years of ago who has been fifteen years in the employ of tho 
Association has a right to the advantages. 

Any membei- or adherent having paid all his business capital and been fifteen 
years in the employ of the Association may retire and receive all his dividends. 

in regard u> any member, employee or foreman fifty-five years of age, the As- 
sociation reserves to itself the right to dismiss said member, by giving him six 



montl; 

(ienini 

Ti 

settled 

retire ^ 

trial, h 

A I 

c"i/)ital, 

'hat is, 

receive 

"f profit 

the sam 

Art 

office, w 

por cent, 

tions .stii 

The 

81,000 Tl 

The 

the most 



129 



montlis' notice in advance of the cessation of his engagomont, ami tliat without in- 
domnity. 

The Association fixes sixty as the extreme limit of the ago of activity, and has 
settled Ihat any member or adherent who has arrived at that age, must by right 
ri'tire whatever may bo the position, whether administrative, commercial or indus- 
trial, he may hold in the Association, and that without indemnity. 

Art. 40. — Any member or adherent, whatever may bo the amount of his paid 
cii])ital, who has spent at least ten years in the Association may, if he choose, retire, 
that is, cease to take an active part in the business of the Association; but can 
receive but 10 per cent, as the maximum interest of his capital. In case the amount 
of profits should be insutticient, or not reach this figure, he will receive dividends iu 
the same rate as other members, never, however, receiving less than (I per cent. 

Art. 4i. — Widows of members having no delilierative voice, nor holding any 
oftice, will be paid, as long as they remain widows as provided for by article 13, 10 
per cent, dividends. These dividends may be reduced to 6 per "cnt. under the condi- 
tions stipulated in the preceding article. 

The Association of spectaclo-makeis number 5.3 members, contribuiing each 
81,0(111 These latter have no vote in the General Assembly. 

The association has prepareil a set of rules for the interior, of w'uich wo give 
the most impoi'tant points : 

Preface. 

The working spectacle-makers, associated commercially and indu.strially, con- 
eider that harmony and agreement are the first conditions necessary for the exist- 
c:.ce of a society, having laid the foundation of their statutes, have adopted this 
present regulation to prevent any discussion that may disturb the harmony so 
ossenlial to the pi'OS])erity of an establishment. The members having adopted these 
regulations of their own free will and without mental reservation, bind themselves 
to observe and to enforce them. They urge the tlilferent councils named by them to 
avoid ill-will in their application, as the penalties named are imposed to preserve 
order and not as means of revenge. 

Three agents are named, one agent for the interior, one for outside and one for 
settling contracts. The following are th-^ir respective powers : 

Agent for the Iiif'rior. — This agent is chai-ged with the superintendence of the 
foremen, their accounts, and the verification of their several expenses ihiring the 
week. He must settle all differences and disputes that may arise between the fore- 
men and the woricmen undei- them. 

Agent for the Exterior. — This agent is charged with placdng the goods of the 
Association and with all that relates to giving publicity to the productions of the 
Association. Ho must make himself ac(piainted with all appliances and all novelties 
velatiiig to the business of the Association. 

lie is, moreover, charged with settling all disagieements that may arise between 
ciist'iniers and the Association, and bound to discover the cause of such ill-feeling. 

Agent for Contracts. — This agent is charged with the drawing uj) of all contracts 
:iiiil ((iiumercial treaties entered into by decision of the councils; be is responsible 
tor all commercial documents, and should see that extracts are made of all accounts, 
and that payment is made in concert with the agent of the exterior, charged with 
tlieir receipt. He is, moreover, charged with the banking, with all dealings with 
t'urni^hers, and with the correspondence. 

All matters relating to travellers are under his direction. 

Tile opening and closing of the workshops take place as follows: 

From the 1st ot April to the 30th of September, from six in the morning to eight 
at night. 

I'roin the 1st of October to the 15th of November, from seven o'clock to nine 
o'clock at night. 

From the 10th of November to the 15th of Fobruaiy from eight in the morning 
to nine at night. 

20—9 



MmMk 



130 



From llio Kith of February to the Slst of March, from seven in the morning to 
eight !it niglit. 

On Mondays at all seasons the workshops close at seven at night. 

The siiojw are opened for sale as follows: 

From the 1st oCAj)ril to ihe iiUtii of September, from seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing to cii^iit o'clock at night. 

From the 1st of Oclobor to the 31st of March, i'roni eight o'clock in the morning;- 
to nine o'clock at night. 

Any infraction to the above article is subject to the following penalties: 
Fifteen minutes late, 8(1.0.': fine; 
Thirty minutes late, S**.10 tine; 
Sixty minutes late, SO. 20 tine; 

All members must give ten hours work. 

The price of work is settled by tiie Assembly and entered in a tariff book for the 
purpose, which can always be consulted by the members; these prices can be detini- 
tively modified by the Assembly alone. 

Jn any case in whicdi the agents may bo obliged to change any of these prices, 
they must be authorized l)y the board of management; such change, although niail(^ 
immediately, will lie tinal aftei- it has been sanctioned by the Assemlily. 

Members, on entering, l>iiid thcm.selves to undertake any kind of work witinmt 
distinction or regard to ability, if the need should arise; any infraction of this article 
is punishable as follows : for a first refusal, 80.40 tine; for second refusal the .iiie 
will be raised to 81.00, and if need be, the councils may suggest the expulsion of the 
offender to the (rcnoral Assembly ; this article is applicable in its entirety to beginners 
and to adherents. 

The Association may give members leave to work at home; they remain subject 
to the same duties as those who woi'k in the shops, and tliey may be recall(>il to tliu 
■workshop when there is need; a deduction of 10 per cent, will bo made on their 
woi-k, they not being liable to be distui'bed as are those who work in the workshoji. 

Members working at iiome have no right to emjiloy assistants or apprentices 
■with lUt authorization from the Association, and tluy may not, in any case, work for 
others under ])enalty of being expelled. 

A Commission consisting of three members will be named for each bmnch of (ho 
business, and it is their duty to meet once a week under the agent for interior's 
presidency. 

The duties of this Commission will be to report on the moral condition of the 
workshops, and to assure themselves that the work is developing. This committee 
will be called upon to give advice on the tariff for work, and on tlie management of 
their shojts. They will draw up a i-eport of their proceedings and observations to he 
submitted to the Eoard of Management. 

A slate will be hung in each workshop, on which the men will e.ich day write 
the time of their arrival and the time they leave, as well as the time they havo hist; 
the foreman superintends this and copies it, every day, into a sjiecial book ; infringe- 
ment of this rule entails a fine of 80.05. 

Any emi)l<yee accepting goods not suitable as regards manufacture, will besiili- 
ject to a tine of 80.05. 

Any member coming to the shop in a state of intoxication and refusing to leave 
when told to do so, will be subject to a tine of 80.05 to be retained in one sum on 
the i'ollowing Saturday. 

(James and songs liable to disturb order are forbidden in the workshops; those 
refusing to (djcy when once bidden to cease by the foreman or a member, will he 
subject to a tine of fiom 80.05 to 80.20. 

Finally tlie Association of spectacle-makers states that it will open a proviiient 
fund to which all the employees and" workmen employed at the shops for one year 
wil have a right to belong. They will claim an indemnity of three fi'ancs per d:iy 
during illness, I'or a sjiace of six months. 



131 



ASSOCIATION OF WORKING TINSMITHS, MANUFACTURERS OF LAN- 
TERNS AND GAS METErW. 

OKNERAL AND LIMITED PAHTNERSHIP, 

Tlio biisin'388 capital of the Association of working tiiiHmiths i.s fixed at $10,000, 
which iiiiiy be i:ic"eas6il. It is pcrinanoiit and niovahlo, and jirocceils from contri- 
buti(;ns of the mcNiburs, whose share in the capital is each S-iOO, payable §0.20 per 
week. 

The profits are thus divided : 

2") per cent, to the reserve fund and to the indivisible amount retained; 

25 per cent, to the retiring fund; 

50 per cent, dividend to be divided among the members. 

Mcml)ers who iiave been unable to secure ^voik share e(|ually with those who 
have worked for the collective fund, unless they have refused work from the Associa- 
tion. 

The Association has a retiring fund to which none have a right but such as have 
been ten years a memlier. 

The last article of the statutes is devoted to an object we have never before seen 
in the statutes of any other jjrcxhictive association. It reads thus : 

Art. 58. As immorality proceeds from lack of instruction every member who is 
the father of a family is bound to give them an education in accordance with his 
means, undci- penalty of being e.KpcIled, after two successive warnings to be given 
within three months. 



GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF WORKING TAILORS. 

ANONY.MOUS PARTNERSHIP, VARIABLE AND L'NREDUCinLE CAPITAL. 

The statutes of the working talkers' Association are prefaced by a exposd of their 
principles and a note of their history. 

The following is the expos^ of their principles : 

Why should even l\w Ix'st paid WDrkmaii tvnd 
the niic nicist valui'd by liis eniployer, still pre- 
i> " tilt' Assiic'iatiiin ? 

Wo hope to be able to explain in a few words why the productive Association is 
destined to ameliorate the workman's lot, and why, above all, the principle it con- 
l-.iins should draw to it all the most moral, most intelligent and most industrious 
men of every trade. 

And, in fact, the object of every productive association is the ii!i])rovement of 
the lot of the greater number of workmen in each trade; they demand the active 
and devoted co-ojicration of all its members. In order to secure the success of an 
association self-almegatiou, ])erseverence and honi'sty are indispensable (qualities 
lequired in its members. 

Their mission is, above all, to sup])ress the abuses practiced in the greater 
number of houses, to the workman's disadvantage, whether they are caused b}' the 
routine or by the pi'ide of the master whi(d> prevents his making any (diange in his 
ways. Another cei'tain result is to rej)ress tiie feeling of aniagoni-im which exists 
ill a latent state between workmen and masters, because practice better than])recept 
demonstrates the wiongs that exist on one side and the other. They tend to make 
the workman moi'e pliable and conciliatory in regard to details, and not to maintain 
aiiv grievance unless it has a real foundation, and he can support it by sufiiciont 
proof to censure his enforcing his rights. 



*Tliis society is very prospemus. IWsides its paid up capital it owns a lolljiif,' fund of ?40,(100 foinicd 
fioin tlif icservc and retiring' funds, materials worth .<S,(HHl aiid a di|Misit in thc> ntirinK fund of •*>(!. (i<M(. 

This prosperity is due, in a threat nieasuri', to the case with which new mcnilici's arc admitted anil to 
the advantajfes jfiveii them. Tlie new nieml)ers are not re(|nired to contribute any capital, anil by a reten- 
tion of .s(|.2e tliey share, at the enil of tlie year, equally in the profits, eipially with the others who have 
paid their .'*4lHI. Thus, in 1.SH4, the iirolits aniotmted to .'?"1,5(» each, and those who had paid lint one year, 
al«)Mt .SUl. Id, nevertheless received the entire amount of their dividend, oidy it was paid to their Hli'epintf- 
partnership. 

20— ni 



132 



They encourage a Hcnso of dignity in the workman who, hencef'orwurd, feels him- 
self to bo a man, and not a machine, because with the rights promised for him by 
the Association are also the duties imposed by it; for he is now as responsible for 
losses as he has the right to share in the profits, ami if bad business is done, he has 
only himself to blame. 

In Older to ensure a beneficial result we would point out a few of the principal 
rules which must bo obeyed from the beginning : — 

1st. The formation of a capital in accordance with the first requirements of tho 
business, it is intended to follow, and which should always be increased as needs 
require. 

2nd. The creation of current accounts at the business headquarters, that is, its 
own Savings' Bank. 

iJrd. Establishing a library for the use of its members, in order that their intelli- 
gence be more and more developed by study. 

4th. To establish, as soon as possible, a retiring fund to which by more than one 
regular tax, which cannot be too high, must be developed the greater part of tho 
acquired profits, esjiccially after the business ca])ital has been all paid, and being 
careful to mention that the amounts in the retiring fund will be placed at the current 
accounts of the Association, which will increase its rolling fund. The object of tliis 
fund is to assure a sufficient provision for tho old ago of each member, in ordei" that 
they being exempt from cai-e for tho future may during their youth devote all their 
intelligence to assure the success of their Association. 

The following is the historical account of the Association : — 

Pilled with the ideas we have just expressed, sixteen young tailors on the 15th 
of October, 18(53, agreed that now was the time to put into practice the principles 
they had long studied in theory. They were so fortunate as to succeed, and not with- 
out personal merit, for at that time nothing was heard in the trade but " the tailors 
will never succeed." Beceiving but little encouragement from those in their own 
business, they were still worse treated by others, and, a thing which to-day may seem 
incredible, they were obliged to choose between I'omovingfrom tlieir quarters in the 
street called tirenelle-Saint-Honor^, six months after their installation, or to take 
down their sign bearing the name "General Association of Working Tailors. "-i^ 

They determined to move rather than lower their flag, but they spoke to seven- 
teen propi'ietors before finding one willing to consent to give them a lease, although 
it was known who they were, and they olfered to pay in advance. They took uj) their 
quarters at No. 27 Fontaine-Moliire Street, and they discovered that they had been 
well inspired to resist the persecution, for their resistance earned for them the 
sympathy of a large number of customers, who toHtified their feeling by giving them 
more work. Wo will not dwell on tho diflSculties of all kinds mot with during the 
first year; suffice to say, that all the capital contributed by each was $10 and that 
even those §10 were completed by some by the sums earned by their first piece of 
work. 

However, tho membership was increased to 53, and the amount of capital was 
raised to S3, 400. It was only later, after renewed success, and after the strike nt' 
18(J7, that tho number of members amounted to 220 and the capital $10,000, I'epro 
sented by 500 shares of $20 each. Since that period all possible development has 
been given tho work, especially by doubling the capital, which raises it to $20,000 
at the present time; and our strength lies in the fact that we have doclaiod it to be 
unreducible. At the present day our Association has a variable capital, but it is ia 
amount tilone ; once a share has been subscribed it may be transferred to another, but 
never reduced in value. 

This is the best security that can be offered our contractors and the only means 
of establishing credit. 

The principal clauses of tho statutes declare : — 



*Tlii' otliiT tcniintH (if tlif house forced the jiin[)rietor to frive them notice to quit, tinlesHthe As!«)ciatinii 
would consent to »\ibstitute for its title of working Ass(x;iatiou, that of any business firm whatsoever sucli ivs 
"8o-and-So&Co." 



133 



Art. 1. The Association of Working Tailors established 15th October, 1863, 
under the form of a simple partnership, transformed later into a comjmny of limited 
liability, and now existing under the form of a joint-stock company witli a variable 
and iinreduciablo capital, whose object is the opening of one or more establishments 
for the Paris trade, for oxi)ortation and for im])ortation and all that relates to the 
business. 

Art. (5. TIio business capital is tixed at a minimum figure of 820.000, represented 
liy 1.000 shares of §20 each; it may be increase i according as the Association may 
require, and after decision by the General Assembly. 

It will also be increased by a sum of 5 per cent., retained on work done by the 
members for tlic Association of whatever kind the woi'k may be; the proceeds of the 
amounts thus retained ai'e cai'i'ied to the account of the eontributors, to be converted 
into shares when the amounts will have reached a sutUcient figure. 

Art. 7. Sliares are payable as follows: One-tenth on subscribing, and the 
balance by monthly sums of, at least SI, whatever may \w the number of shai'es sub- 
scribed. 

It is sufficient to subscribe, or to acquire, one single share in onler to become a 
member; yet members being bound to contribute a business share of §100, the 
interest and dividends coming to each of those who have not fulfilled tliis oi»ligation, 
will be retained and carried to their amount, until the wh(de is paid uji. l"]very 
share is and remains in the name of the subscriber. 

Art. 12. Women are alhnved to become members under the same conditions as 
men. A wife must, however, be authorized by her husband. 

Art. 38. A jury is instituted, consisting of nine members, named by the 
Asseml)h'. 

They are elected for two years, and half their number renewed eveiy year ; 
they are re-eligible. 

Art. 3!). The jury is specially charged with the duty of judging all disputes 
I'elating to the ])rice of work, either by the piece or l>y the day. with receiving wcjrk, 
and with all infractions of the statutes and regulations. 

Art. 40. It will also decide, as a last resort, and as a friendly arbitrator, all 
differences that may arise between the workmen and the Association, or between 
workmen themselves, in all matters concerning the A-^sociation. 

Art. 59. There will be an annual assessment, after deduction, for all costs, on all 
kinds of productions of: — 

1st. Two-tenths, of which the first goes to form a reserve fund, and the second 
to be given in the form of certificates of attendance, which amount cjinnot surpass 
the sum of $0.40. 

2n(i. The amount required to pay capital a dividend, which must not exceed 5 
per cent. 

The balance, if there be an}', will be divided between labor, capital and 
economy. 

Art. (50. The Association may, in case of need, employ outside help, the price 
to be agreed upon by mutual consent. 

The Association of working tailors possesses, moreover, a provident fund, the 
object of which is to provide its members with a retiring pension. Its fundamental 
capital is $12,(J00. 



ASSOCIATION OF ARTIST DECORATIVE PAINTI^RS. 



GENER.\L PARTNERSHIP. 

The Association of Decorative Painters consists of sixteen members ; they have 
signed among themselves a temporary agreement in regard to the execution of a 
certain quantity of decorative work to bo done in the City Hall (Hotel de Ville). 
It is a type of those temj)orary contracts entered into for certain specified works. 

Note.— The members over sixty years of age are not .Miil>jfct to this retention. 



184 



Tlio object of the AfiHociution is very explicitly given in their Htatiites, uh will be soon 
by aitidew 2 and 4, liorewith given : 

Art. 2. The object of the Aswociution is the execution of the doconitivo paint- 
ing to be (lone in the City llall of Paris. (Hotel dc Ville de Paris). 

Art. 4. The duration of the Association will be limited to the entire completion 
of the work undertaken or to be undertaken by the members of the Association in 
the City Hall of Paris. {Hotel de Ville de Paris), whicii is the object of the Associa- 
tion. 

The business capital is a secondary matter. The artist decorative painters liavo, 
it may lie stated, neither materials nor primary matter to provide. A few brushes, 
a ladder, and a little color are the onl^' advances necessitated by the business. And, 
therefore, the Association has limited its subscribed capital to $32, or $2 per member. 

In the event of the work contracted foi' requiring more time for their execution 
than was foreseen by the contracting ])arties, tluy may, according to their agree- 
ment, surmount the ditliculty by employing outside hired help who are not to be 
considered members, as is stated in the following article: — 

Art. 9. Jf the number of membei's prove too small to execute the work, the 
Association may engage assistants who are not to interfere in any way with its 
accounts. 

Article 10 regulates the work in the following terms: — 

The work done by the associated members is calculated by the hour. A com- 
mittee of three, chosen from among the members, will regulate the wages of members, 
each working at his special bi'ancli, the hitter being consulted. 

Liquidation is provided for in the following manner: 

Art. 11. At the expiration of the Association, when the work submitted has 
been delivered and paid ; account will be taken of each one's contribution; all debts 
contracted by the Association will ite first paid. This pay?nent made, the share con- 
ti'ibuted by each member will be paid him, and the profits realized by the Association 
will be divided among the members in proportion to the time each has spent at worlv 
without any loss of time whatsoever. 

The membei-s are then disbanded, being free from all obligations one towards the 
other, and are at liberty to engage in any other occu]iation without liability to 
damages and interest prescribed by other jointrstock companies of long duration. 



OFFICIAL JOUKXAL ASSOCIATION. 



TYPOGRAPHICAL LIMITED PARTNERSHIP.* 



Anonymous partnership — rariable capital. 

This typographieal limited partnershi]) has for its object the composition, print- 
ing, dispatch and distribution of the Official Journal of the French Eepublic. 

The business capital is fixed at SI, (100. which is simply a guarantee for the 
execution of the A'ork, besiiles a certain sum retained on the salaries.* * The $1,000 
are divided into one hundred share of §10 each. 

The first paragraph of article 1 of the statutes says: 

No one is allowed to subscribe for shares in this Association but the members of 
the l^arisian syndical typographical chamber. 

The object of this |)recaution is to prevent all but syndicate printers from belong- 
ing to the commaiulite, and also those belonging to the syndicate seceded from that 
wlach treated for the undertaking. 

Article 13 declares that no one can own more than five shares. 



* This association is established witlioiit either capital, materials or tools ; it furnishes the work only, 
the niiittrial l«'in)j )irovi(le(l In- the Stati'. Tlie wmk re))resents alMHit .^IL'O.tMM* |)er year, on wliich tlii» 
Association realizes alnnit 10 pt'i' cent. proKt. < )ii the otiiei side, the (io\ eninicnt has declared) that by this 
arran^renient it saved, in ISSl, %!12(),0CM), as against ■S240,(X)0 jiaid in 1882, on private contracts [ireviously 
entevi'd into. The members of the Association have Ijound themselves in regard to the Htate, to avoid all 
strikes, \nider definite penalties. 

* • Tliis amount is represented by the salaries for the first two weeks in the year, and reaches the sum 
of 112,800. 



Al 
of ?nan 
p'lsilioi 
I'lirrcsp 
and det 
Tl, 
Th^ 
Tin 
Int. 
2n(| 
hy them 
The 
follows • 
1st. 
2ii(l. 
ciation, 
3rd, 
coopcrutc 
assembly. 

NEW 



This J 
years j)rev 
A^soeiatioi 
difiirnlties 
To be 
Art. (;. 
A\^hen 
<iid not ])er 
Mvoly raisr 
Art. 7, 
cents per a\ 
Art. S\ 
ivvisor-com 
to ilie corpc 
No one 
The Co 
f.\"'"iical cliji 
it is but a 
)*''»rkmen hr 
ill consequei 
'^'^^iifcrn, tuu 
,, 'Vr(.4S. 
-><» one is ul 
Art. 4!t. 



Ill 



'lis case 



Art. 51. 
"Pl'cal, for,, 
Art. 52 

'^otiledbytih 
•■''"ice as to t 



lalu, 



,;)""iiiiate( 

' ' II'- aniciiin 

'•It ■SlL'(),(Hi. 



185 



Art. 2S. Tlio director ='= is cliarged with execution of all the decisions ot' the board 
olnuma^oinent of wiiich ho may lie a nu-mhcr; he sii|)criritendH and directs the com- 
position, printing', expeditinfjj and distrilnitini^ t»f the (){fi('ial Journal; he 8i:,MiH ail 
currespondcnco within hisaiitjiority ; heajipoints and dismisses all oiitsidoassistants 
and determines their allowances and waives. 

The protlis are thus divided : 

The net proceeds, deiuction made of all oxpensos, constitute the profits. 

Then the profit is assessed : 

1st. ') per cent, to form the leifal reserve; 

L'nd. The amount necessary to pay shareholders 5 per cent, on the ainounts paid 
iy them. 

The remainder of the net profits after the above assessments will bo divided us 
follows: 

1st. 10 pel- cent, deducted for ostablishint!; a jirovident fund ; 

2iid. 5 percent, paid to the retirini,' fund ot the Parisian Tyjioi^raphical Asso- 
ciation. 

;jrd. The balance will be divided among the shareiiolders .'uiil typ()ij;raphical 
coopcralors under the conditions and in the proportions fixed by annual general 
assembly. 



XEW PRINTING ESTABLISIIMl^NT— L'liMPRIMERIE NOUVELLE. 



CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION OP WORICINtl PRINTERS. 

Anonijiiious partnerships, rariable cajiital. 

This Association was definitively established on the lOth of May, 1870, after five 
years jirevious j)aymenls. with 816,000 subscribed, and more th;in 8(i,0()0 paid. The 
Association has been altered several times, and in the beginning met with great 
ditUcultios.f 

To bo noted in its statutes are the following articles: — 

Art. (). The business capital is fixed at 820,000. It may be increased. 

When the Association was constituted in 186S, the number of subscribed shares 
dill not permit the business capital to bo fixeil at more than §10,000. It was succes- 
sively raised to $l(i,000 in 1870, and to §20,000 in 1873. 

Art. 7. It is divided into shares of S20 each, which are to be paid in sums of 20 
cents per week, with the right to pay in advance. 

Art. 8. No one is allowed to subscribe except he be u working compositor, a 
ivvisor-compositor, manager of a printing machine or printer, and he does not belong 
to the corporate society for the specialties above mentioned. 

No one is allowed to subscribe for more than six shares. 

The commentary says : The excluding of any workman not belonging to tho 
syndical chamber of his branch may, it is true, appear to be a severe measure; yet 
it is but a very legitimate warranty against any trouble that might arise front 
workmen holding themselves apart from their fellow-laborers, and whose conduct, 
inconsequence, might lead to the supposition that the Association is but a trading 
concern, and not a means of arriving at the solution of a social (juestion. 

Art. 48. The workshop is under the immediate management of the director. 
Xo one is allowed to disobey his orders. 

Art. 4!'. The director names the foreman and the head men. He is not bound, 
ill this case only, to observe the rules for entering, spoken ot in article 53. 

Art. 51. Tlie foreman and the head men answer to the director, and without 
fipjieal, for all tiiat concerns their duties. 

Art. 52. Tho work will be ilone by bands or groups, tho luunlicr of which will be 
'^ettled by the director. Each group will name its page-setter, and will be given free 
choice as to the following: 



*_\iiiuiimt('d for three jcais. 
+Tlic iiuiniiiit of subscnlKd a 
valiud at .^120,000. 



and pivid ui) capital in LSSt was S40,(HK), and tliu Company owned material 



136 



Whether the group will bo paid equal wages; 

Whether the group will ho pai<l yro rata. 

In liny case the group^< will themsolvos settle, and liy ballot, tiio division of their 
fund. 

Art. 57. All difficulties concerning the price of woi'k will be sulirnittod to the 
arbitration of the Parisian Typographical Mutual Aid Society. Their decision will 
be final. 

Art. 5fi. 30 per cent, of the protits will bo consecrated to forming a reserve fund 
which must never exceed the capital. 

Art. 5!>. The balance of the protits, interest being paid, will bo used to enlarge 
the woi'kshop of the Association, or to the purchase of other ]irinting machines. 

Art. (iO. Nevertheless, when the reserve fund is com])lete, and all the members 
employed bj' the Association, thedeneral Assenilily may decree payment of dividends. 
The division will bo made according to the number of memi)ers and not according 
to shares. 

Art. (>1. Notwithstanding if the com])ositor-ataff docs not necessitate the 
employment of all the other shareholders, proot-readei's, or printei's the Assembly 
may. in such case, order the payment of dividends. 

Art. (>2. Sharelioldei's having refused woi'k from the Association will have no 
right to dividends. They will, however, still preserve their right to interest, and 
may claim iheii' right to loturn to the workshop when they choose. When a mem- 
ber is dismissed from the workshop of the Association, he thei'oby, from the date of 
his dismissal, loses all right to dividends. 

Any shareholder, di'awn by lot, who refuses to work in the workshop when first 
called to do so by the director, is debarred from drawing again, until the entire list 
of members has been drawn. 



COLLECTIVE ASSOCIATION OP FILE-MAKERS. 

In tiieir principal points the statutes of this Association differ in no way from 
those of othei- associations in nom collectif. The association was established in 1S4S, 
under government patronage, with $2,0U0 subsidy. 

Articles 0, 10 and 11 determine the amount of business capital and contrilm- 
tions, in the following manner: 

Art. !». The capital of the Association is formed from obligatory contiibutions 
from the members. 

Art. 10. The business contriltutions for each member, are limited to $1,^00, obli- 
gatory and $2,000 optional The conti'ilMition of §2,000 gives a preferential right 
to payment of dividi-nds, before the $1,600 contribution. 

Art. 11. Every memlier is bound to leave his profits and interest until they 
roach the sum of $400; beyond that amount he may receive interest on his capital; 
but his protits are left to increase his business capital. Cash ])ayments may also be 
made, and payments in tooly, after valuation, and if the Association requires them. 

The division of profits is thus regulated : 

Art. 38. Members whose contribution has reached the. sum of $400 have a right 
to be paid their interest wdion the General Assembly has voted its payment; their 
profits go to increase their business capital. The profits are shared and the losses 
divided among the members in proportion to the total amount of wages received by 
each during the your. 



CO-Ol'EllATIVE ASSOCIATION OF AVOPJvING JEWELLERS IN ROLT-EP 

GOLD. 

ANONYMOUS PARTNERSHIP WITH VARIABLE CAPITAL AND MEJIRERSIIIP. 

The Association of Working Jewellers in Rolled Gold was established on 25th, 
August 1881, and its future seems already secure. Its membership is now 1(30, who 
have paid $3,800. It has done sufficient business to realize profits. 



ciatic 

on th 

'I 

I 

2 

3; 

ad van 

•4t 

oasoN I 

5i 

6t 

7t; 

point h 

Ar 

Was pu; 

Ad 

Ar 

men; t 

nifty noi 

Art 

Ap, 

An 

such as i 

establish 

iipprentii 

•■'ge (hev 

'J'h'c 

tile fblJo\ 

Art. 

tlioir spo( 

Art. 

tile work-^ 

fhlo I lie 

t'icm, wj] 

Art, 1 

1^0 given i 

siiop, as J, 

Associati( 

iiiomber e 

oiation. 

Art. 2 

ftii'ii of 1 1, 

Tiie d 

Art. ;j 

<l<->iice will, 

iillhii'sof til 

The n. 

The 

The sc 

The 

tiiO Ass(ici;i 

The lb, 

Tlie tif 

. Art. 33 

tias iuiy rigi 



137 



In the profaco to its statutes it is stated that: 

III order that it iio clearly understood hy workers that the oliject of this Asso- 
ciation is not to promote any personal and particular interest, and that it is hasod 
on tho principle of the broadest frocdoin from mastership. 

The fundamental rule of the present statutes is: 

l>t. liofusal of all mastershi)); 

2rid. The form of a joint stock company with variable capital and membership; 

3rd. Respect due to tho i-i^ht of every one to belong to the Association with like 
advantages ; 

4th. JJofusal to admit or employ as assistants men from outside, except in certain 
cases provided for by the statutes; 

5th. Equal vote l)y membci', and not by number of shares; 

<ith. The riufht of each member to vote for or a_ij;ainst otflce-holders; 

Vlh. The ri^fjit to ()])poso a demand for dissolution unless the statutes on such 
point have been ol)served. 

Article 5 provides that the balance of each SIO share, of which tho tenth part 
was paid at snbscri])ti()n, be ])aid at the rate ot $0.25 ])cr week. 

Admittance Ibriiis the suitjcct of the two following articles: 

Art, 7. Workmen are admitted into the Association on tlici same footinu; as tho 
men; they may have a consultative and deliberative voice in the a.ssemblies, but 
nuiy not form \n\rt of the mana,u;ement. 

Art. 8. blaster Jewellers are not admitted into the Association. 

Apprentices are subject to the provisions of article 12 as follows: — 

Art. 12. Although the intention of the Association be t' oiupioy as workers only 
such as are members, an exccjition is made in favor of apprentices of the business 
estal)lishment of the Association, who, in the interval between the completion ot' their 
iipprenticeship and their twenty-lirst birthday, may remain as workmen; after that 
age they niay only remain as subscribers. 

The organization of labor in the workshop of the association is the subject of 
the followin;:: articles: — 

Art. 20. ^[embers are admitted to work in the business workshop according as 
their special branch of work is required, and according to their numerical order. 

Art, 21, In the event of working members not respcmding to the call made from 
the workshop, the management is aulhoi'i/ed to hire temporarily, workmen from out- 
Kiile tho association who must be dismissed, or the association must ceast^ to hire 
tiiem, when members in the same branch of work, otler themselves for emplo^-ment. 

Art, 22, Work which may be as well done outside tho business workshop may bo 
60 given to members at their request, and at the same rate as if done at the work- 
shop, as long as such a manner of proceeding causes neither loss nor trouble to tho 
Association, and that the management have siifticient reason to be assured that tho 
iiiomber omploj's neither apprentices nor assistants outside the members of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Art. 23. For designs and models not the ))roperty of the Association, a commis- 
sion of 1 per cent, on the sales of the copies, will be allowed tho authors if members. 

The division of profits is made as follows: — 

vVrt. 32. The Board of Management supervised by tho Board of Su])orinten- 
deiice will, every six months, take an inventory and draw up a balance-sheet of the 
ailiiirs of the Association. 

The net profits resulting will be divided into five ])arts. 

The first to be distributed as dividends among the .shareholders. 

The second to be paid to tho reserve fund. 

The third to tho formation of an Aid and Provident Fund for the shareholders of 
the Association. 

The fourth to increase the material and foi- improved metms of working. 

The fifth to pay for certificates of attendance for the administrative committees. 

Art, 33, Of these five parts, the resei've fund is the only one to which a member 
has any right in case of death or retiring. 



I 



188 



Art. 34. Memltors miiy HubHoribo for any number of shnreH, but th« flrHt i» 
oxi/^iblo ontiioly in Hpocio, according to article 5. The waiil Hbarc iH productive only 
after complete payment. 

Art. .')'). Tilt) reserve fund may be put out at interoHt by the management, or it 
may bo employed in the rolling funds of the establishment. 




CO-OPHUATIVE ASSOCIATKJN OF WOlUvINtJ LlTlIOCaiArilKIlS. 

OKNEHAI, I'ARTNERSHII' — LI.MITKD PARTi.ER.SMIl'. 

The Association of Working LitlK)gra|)hors has boon 17 yeiirs in (existence, dur- 
ing which j)((riod its actual Imsinoss capital has been considerably increased, not 
only as regaids material ami tools, iiut also as rcganls the rolling fund, which must 
alwavs be larger in accoi'danco with the larger amount of work done. 

I'he business capital is tixed at $4(>,()0t>, and the contribution of each member 
is §200, which gives u membership ol'liOO. The rules for payment are as follows: — 

1st. S2 for the tirst payment, plus ?J(».4t) per week. 

2nd. I'rotits i-etained. 

The founders, who wore thirty in number, each paid $5U imnietliuteiy. By thin 
means tiieir weekly payments to make up the sum of S200, was reduced to 80.20. 

The following are among the si)ecial articles of the statutes: — 

Art. 11. The Association shoukl, as tar as practicable, give each of its members 
a share in the work to be done in its shops, according to each one's specialty. 

Art. 12. The Association does not engage outside help except accidentally, and 
in tlie event of not being in a ])Osition to admit new members on accou.tof un- 
certainty as to tlie duration of orders received for work. 

Art. 15. Work is paid by the ])iece, the day ox* the month ; its remuneration 
represents an actual salary, and is given to each in periodical payments; this remu- 
neration is settled for each one, acconling to the custom of businesn, by the three 
united commissions who will ai)ply the taritt" without appeal, and settle the rate for 
work not included in the tariff. 

Art. IG. Working members are not responsible for debts or for losses beyond 
the amount contributed. 

Art. 39. The division of profits is made as follows : — 

One-twentieth to each agent as a first share in the profits. 

Two-tenths to the reserve fund until it has attained half the amount of the busi- 
neps capital. 

One-tenth will be paid to the retiring fund, the rules of which will hereafter 
settle its disposal. 

Profits will bo shared in proportion to tho amounts paid. 

The statutes also establish an industrial committee whoso powers are thus 
defined : 

Art. 50. An industrial committee will be established in order to examine all 
models of inventions or improvement applicable to tho productions and tools or 
machinery of tho Association which may bo offered by the members or by any other 
persons, and to ilecide upon their acceptance or rejection. 

This committee is charged as follows : — 

To verity the execution of the work undertaken by the Association and to report 
on it at all tho ordinary assemblies. 

If there be occasion, to take out all patents in the name of inventor and of tho 
Association. 

In each case the Association will pay all expenses of the said patent, and tlio 
inventor will be paid a minumum of 10 per cent on the not profits proceeding from his 
invention ; the amount of such profits will be calculated for each inventory, by tho 
industrial committee; tho inventor's share in the profits will be paid him as long as 
the patent lasts; in case of death it will be paid to his heirs or claimants. 



To.i 
troni it, I 
till' prodi 

'I'o d 
industrial 

TIliH 

I'orsj iho' 
Art.* 
clotcriiiinc 
ixpiratio; 
Art. j" 
'I'c worksl 
fJH't would 
lute lieconi 



I lie cnj 
Art. 4. 
aiiniittuiico 
sion of so in, 

f'l" siirii oi'i 

Art. 7. 
shares 8ubs< 
amiiiint in li 
Admit t; 
An. 20 
^^20 Ml least, 
'ii case I 
Inllowiiig fh( 
Art. 30. 
montiis; a si 
'file pro 
ill veil tory; J, 
the successor 
'"■t'^'||'"iico th 
conditions of 
f 'Iccease. 

^0 menil 
fai'ital |,elou- 
'-i'iie f„ll„v| 
. Art. 35. u 
•" ^ [ler cent. 
Tiio balai 
To :u 
To la 
To 
To th 



^\ I'on tho 

^'^n'., makin- 
'"atoi'iaj 



189 



To (lotonniiu', in acconliiiici* with tlio lulvnnta^os tho AHuopiiition mny tiorivo 
tVnm it, the aiiioiiiit of itioniiiim to l)o awarded tiie inventor of any improvement in 
the produclioiis or tools ot' the assoeiation. 

To determine which of tlie ]»i'od actions of the AwHocitttion may hoHent toditleront 
iii'hi-lrial exliil)ilionH. 

Thin committee consiHts of tivo actual momi)Oi'M and of two supplementary mem- 
lei^; they are named for one year, and are re-elitfihle. 

Art. 'in. Tiie idection is maiie iiy hailot ol tho entire mondtership at a peiiod 
dotcrndned hy eoiineil of superintendence, and tittoen days, at least, previous to tho 
ixpiration of the powers of tlie preeedim; conimitlee. 

Art. 53. No one may become a memher ot'any commission who is employed in 
tlic workshop of the Association; if one of them were voted to a commission, that 
llict would alone jjhice him in the position of having resigned, and the lirst suhsti- 
tuto liucomo an active member. 



HACKMKN'S ASSOCIATION. 

ANONYMOUS I'AUTNERSIIIP WITH VARIABLK CAl'ITAF.. 

Tho capital of this association is formed as follows: — 

Art. 4. Tiie business .'apital is fixed at §2 1, (!()(); it may he increased 1 13' tho 
ailmittiinco of now members. It may also be reduccMJ by the ri'sii^nation or oxclu- 
.-iou of some of the members, but in neither case is the capital to be reduced below 
thosamof810,»l()0. 

Art. 7. To become a member a miiumum sum of $400 must he paid, and six 
-hares subscribed, and the would-iie mend>er also binds himself to complete tho 
annuint in the manner prescriiieil by tho (Jeneral Asseinidy. 

Admittance and dismissal are determined as follows: — 

Art. 29. Candidates must, in order to have their names inscribed, pay a sum of 
820 at least. 

In case of non-acceptanco this sum is returned to thom Avithin tho three months 
t'uliowing their rejection. 

Art. 30. An expelled mcmlier's current account Avill bo settled within three 
months; a sum of $50 will be repaid him within tive da^'s of his expulsion. 

The profits that may revert to him will be jiaid after tho close of the next 
inventory; ho has tlio right to present a successor to whom ho transfers his shares, 
the successor to be accepted at tho next General Assembly; in the event of non- 
iU'co|itiince the Associaticm will pay his shares at par, within a year's delay. These 
conditions of payment are applicable to members resigning and also to heirs in case 
ot decease. 

No memher may send in his resignation if his resignatifm reduces tho business 
caiiital below §10,000. 

The following aidicles relate to tho profits: 

Art. 35. A sufficient amount of tho profits will be assessed to serve as interest 
at 5 per cent, on the paid up capital. 

The balance will be thus divided : 

To actual shareholders 2 tenths. 

To liihor, pro rata the number of days G do 

To the reserve fund 1 do 

To the aid fund and gratuities 1 do 

Total 10 do 



AVlion the two-tenths awarded capital have produced a now dividend of 5 per 
wnt,, making 10 in all, the balance may be used for increase or improvement in 

material. 



140 



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BELGIUM. 

Tho absence in Belgium of a sufficiently extensive legislation, gi-anting a civil 
status to professional syndicates is an obstacle, that may lie termed insurmountable, 
to the establishment of working productive co-operative associations. As a conse- 
quence, associations of that nature are very scarce in Bolg'um. 

The Natie of Antwerp, associations of carriers between the city and the port. 

The Porters and Beer-carriers found in several towns. 

The Agricidtnral Society of Saint-Trond, <stal)lished in 1874 for the use and 
preservation as commcjn property, in consideration of a tax, of improved farm imple- 
ments. 

The Newspaper "The Co-op' itor (Le-Cooperatctir) of Namur. The Popular 
Priming Establishment (^IJ Imjinmerie Fopulaire) at Brussels. The Typographical 
Alliance (Jj' Alliance Tijixxjraphique) at Brussels. The Tailors Co-operative Society 
at Ghent. The newspaper Le Feuple. 



TITE C0-0PJ>:RATIVE MOVEMENT IN ITALY.* 

The co-operativo movement in Italy, both for consumption and for production, is 
most remarkable. It is well sustained by the popular banks established by Profes- 
sor Luzzatti, which now number 400. 

The associations claim four newspapeis in their interest, and the movement i-< 
sup]>i>rted by all classes. The Italian Parliament recently took up the matter and 
legislated on contracts to be granti'd working co-operativo associations, and the ex- 
emption from taxation to bo granted them. 

In 1887 there were 42 productive co-operative societies in, Italy with a member- 
ship of !),8()r); their subscribed capital amounted to 8192,000, the paid up capital 
being $13i*,000, a net profit of $44,500 having been realized during the year. 




THE ARTELES AND THE CO-OPERATIYE MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA.f 

In Eussia tlie name of Artcles is given to working co-operative associations 
These societies are of ancient date, and are divided into three very distinct types. 

Fur hunters and fishermen nearly all work in co-operation ; they generallj' 
form themselves into bands of about 20 each, each member furnishing an ecpial 
share of work and capital and sharing profits equally. 

In certain fishing associations, the boat, engines and provisions are supplied by 
one member, who lakes one-half the ])i'ofit for his share. 

Some of these Articles have charters dating from 1040 ; from the end of the 
XVII century we find Artcles provided with a system of assurances against accidents 
and a mutual aid society. 

We also find charters for co-o])erative productive a.ssociations granted to masons, 
blacksmiths aiul carpenters, dating from the year 1500. 

There have been and there still are artcles of forest-clearers. They baml 
themselves together in cutting down trees, burning the trunks and roots, pb ngliini; 
and sowing, the harvest Iteing shared equally. This end attained, they draw lots 
as to which of them shall have the land they have cleared, and theart^le disbands to 
reform again in some other locality. 

These art(^les are a very simple organization; no statutes ai-e written, there is 
no administration, no capital. An equal contribution, and an agent, named by tlu' 
members, who is in possession of very extensive powers, oven that of punishing tlio 
members. 

A quite dilTeront kind of association was started, at the time St. Petersburg was 
founded. 



OS tab 

vesse 

insj)e< 

broug 

.•U'ttMei 

A 

in St. , 

assoeij 

total Ci 

reoogn 

nearly 

In 

five Jial 

It] 

ti'a vol lo 

restaur;! 

^"i' esta 
tliem. 

In 1 

co-opo,..|, 

Atte 
f'leso est; 
also Wert 



Ti 

Accoi 
Hiere f\'er 
divided as 



* Profi'ssor Tffi) Rabljfiis. 
t M. Longuiinne. 



20— 



lOJ 



147 



The snorinoiiH quiintities of goods passing through the customs of the newly 
established cities, demanded many hands in their transfer to the holds of foreign 
vessels. Other workmen being required to open and close the packages when 
inspecteil, and St. Petersburg then possessing no working ])0])iilation, men were 
brought from the depths of Ilussia, who brought with them tho organization of 
articles. They formed tiiemselves into associations of packers and porters. 

According to the last accounts published there are twenty-seven of these articles 
in St. Petersburg, with membership of ;{,0(J0 persons, or about 110 memliers to each 
association. Their net profits amount to about $'JOO,000 or $l{0() per member. The 
total capital of these associations is §G(),000. There are articles of packers and porters 
recognized by the State, who have the monopol}'^ of the handling of all goods in 
nearly eveiy customs port in Russia. 

In the more important towns, there are also porters' associations with collec- 
tive liability. 

It may be asserted that the co-operative spirit invades all Russian life. The 
traveller will there be astonished to Icai'n that news-dealers, bath-lioys, waitei's in 
restaurants, all belong to a co-operative association, and that the book-store, the bath- 
ing establishment and the i-estaurant are the common property of those who woi-k in 
tliem. 

In 1S()(> an attempt was made t-/ establish cheese factories, but this manner of 
co-operating being beyond the experience of tradition, did not succeed. 

Attempts were also made in co-operative nail-making and in shoe-making, but 
those establishments although often assisted by subsidies were unable to exist; they 
also were beyond ti-adition. 



thp: co-operative movement in the united states. 

According to the last i-eport of the Society of Sociology of the United States, 
there tvere in 1888, 107 co-operative productive associations in the United States, 
divided as follows : — 

Maine 1 

New Hampshi re 1 

Vermont 1 

Massachusetts 37 

Ehode-lsland 

Connecticut ."! 

New York 7 

New Jersey 8 

Pennsylvania 6 

Virgi nia 8 

Illinois !• 

Ohio 12 

Michigan 2 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Minnesota 10 

Wisconsin !• 

Texas 

Utah 1 

Total 107 



20— lOJ 





Pi 



STCOTION^ III. 



PROFESSIONAL SYNDICATES. 



PROFESSIONAL SYNDICATES. 



LAWS RELATIVE TO THK CllEATION OF PROFESSIONAL SYNDICATES 

IN FRANCE. 

Art. 1. Are repcalod, the law of 14-27 June, 1701, aiid article 416 of the Penal 
Code. 

Articles 2!)1, 21t2, 203, 294 of the Penal Code, and the law of Kltli April, 18:J4, 
are not a))pli('ablo to protossioniil HyndicatoH, 

Art. 2. Syndicates <>r pi'ofossional ansociations of oven over twenty porsonH, 
practising the same profession, similar traden, or winiilar professions working con- 
currently for the establishing of certain detined productions, may bo freely established 
without government authoi'ization. 

Art. '.i The objecl of professional syndicates is exclusively the study and 
defence of interests of economy, industry, commerce and agiieulture. 

Art. 4. The founders uf any professional syndicate sliould deposit the statutes, 
and the names of those who have any share whatsoever, and they will be charged 
with the administration or direction. 

The deposit must lie ma<le at the ^Mayoi^'s office (M(urie) of the locality in 
which the syndicate is established, and at Paris at the office of the prefect (pre- 
fertiirc) of the Seine. Such dejjosit must lie renewed at every change m the direc- 
tion, or of the statutes. 

Communication of the contents of the statutes must be made by Mayor or by 
the Piefect of the Seine to the Attorney of the Republic. 

The members of any professional syndicate charged with the management or 
direction of a syndicate, should be French and in the enjoyment of their civil rights. 

Art, 5. Professional syndicates reguhirly t-onstituted in accordance with the 
prescriptions of the present law. may freely agree together for the study and defence 
uf their interests, either economical, commercial, industrial or agi'icultiiral. 

These unions should publish, in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 
4, the luunes of the syndicates of whicli tliey are composed. 

They neither possess immovables nor appear personally in a court of justice. 

Art. (J. Professional syndicates of masters or ot workmen, have the right to 
appear personally in a court of justice. They may make use of the amount arising 
from taxation. However, they may nut become possessed of other immovables 
than those necessary for their meetings, for their librai'ies and the courses of 
professional instruction. 

They may, without authorization, but in conformity with other ilispositions of 
the law, institute among their members special funds for mutual aid and retirement. 
They are free to establish and to manage intelligence office for work or of workers 
wanted. 

They may be consulted on all variances and questions I'elating to their specialty. 

The opinion of the syndicate on disputed questions will be free to all wishing to 
consult it and to take a copy. 

Art, 7. Any member of a professional syndicate may retire from the association 
at any moment, in spite of anj' clause to the contrary, but without prejudice to the 
right of the syndicate to claim the taxes for the current year. 

Any member retiring from the syndicate preserves his right to remain a 
member of the societies for mutual aid and the retiring fund for old age, to which he 
has contributed by means of taxes or contributions to the capital. 

Art. 8. When property has been acquired contrary to the dispositions of 
article 6, the nullity of the acquisition or of the gift may be demanded by the 
Attorney of the Republic, or by the parties interested. If the property is given in 



152 



trUBt, tho immovjvbloH will bo Bolti and tho price dopoHitod in the fund of the 
association. 

In ciiHc of a ^ift, acknowlod^mont of tho value will bo given to tho donors or to 
thoir heirn or chumiiiitH. 

Art. 9. — Any iiifringcmont of Articles 2, 3, i, 5 and (! of (lie proncnt luv will bo 
roHocutod by the diicctors or manai^ors of tlio syndicatoH and puninhoil by a tino of 
.'{.20 to $l6. The c()urtH may, bosidc, on proKccntion by llio Attorney of the 
licpuiiiic, liocroc the (liKsoJiilion of the syndicate and the i ullity of the acquisition of 
inunoyoables made in violation of the proviHions of article (5. In the event of a 
false declaration in reganl to the statute and to the names and powers of managei's 
or directors, the tine will be raised to ^100. 

Art. 1((. The present law is in force in Algeria. It is c(iually applicable in the 
colonies, foreign workmen engaged under the name of immigrants cannot form 
part of the syndicate. 

March 21, 1884. 



AGHrCULTUEAL SY'NDICATE OF THE JJEJ'ARTMEXT OF Till] JURA. 



EXTRACTS KUO.M THE STATUTES. 

Constitution and objects of the Sijndicate. 

Art. 2. This Association has assumed the name of The Agricultural Association of 
the Bepartment of the Jura. 

Its heailquarters are at the chief town of the de])artment. 

The number of its membei's is uidimited. 

Art. ;]. Tlie general object of the syndicate is tlu; study and defence of agricul- 
tural economical interest; which comprehends as well the interests relating to the 
culture of arable lands or meadows, those of grape culture, wood cultuie and horti- 
culture, the choose interest, and allother cultures or agricultural industries. 

Its special objects are : — 

1. To maintain, before the public powers, and at need to insist on the reforms 
or measures the legitimate agricultural interest recjuiros or may ultimately reciuii'o, 
especiall}' in the matter of contributions und of similar taxes, of customs duties, and 
of transport by railways, and of commercial treaties ; 

2. To become intermediary for the purchase of seeds, manures, cattle, imple- 
ments oi- machines, niatei'ials or ditlerent objects useful in agriculture, in order that 
tho momliers may profit \)y any advantages it may obtain; 

3. To supei'intend thoir deliveries to mcmbei's of the Association in order to 
ensure the due and faithful observance of bargains and agreements ; 

And to take any legal proceedings necessary concerning such delivery, if 
requirotl, with the consent and in the name of tho purchaser, but at the costand 
expense of the syndicate ; 

4. To facilitate the sale of tho agricultural products of tho members; 

5. To extend tho knowledge and practice of good methods of cultivation ; 

6. To establish and manage intelligence oflices for demand and supply of seeds, 
manures, cattle, instruments or ma(diines, materials and ditferent objects useful in 
agriculture, and for supply and demand of agricultural pi'oducts and for farm work ; 

And generally to atford information, advice and consultation on all (juestious of 
interest to farmers ; 

7. To provide arbitrators and experts when required for disputable questions 
concerning agriculture ; 

8. To encourage useful attempts and experiments; 

9. To prepare and encourage, not alone anu)ng tho supporters of the syndicate 
but among all other persons, the establishment of societies of agricultural credit, of 
production, of sale and consumption, of aid and sick funds, accident societies, and 
insurances against death of cattle, and against hail, and of all other societies useful 
to farmers. 



158 



ArrRTCULTURAL SOCIETY OF TITR "nTSTRTOT (ARROXDTSSE^EENT) 

OF SKNLIS (OlSIO). 

Anonviiolm I'aktnkiihmii' .1(11 NT-stock Cumi-any with N'auiahi.k Caimtal. 
KXTUAOT KKOM THE 8TATUTK8. 

Aft. 1. TluM'o is foiiiuMl by tho jiartios to tliiH dooil and by all otliors who may 
nUiniatoly lio ailinittotl, an anonymous partnorBliii) joint-slock with variable capital, 
its object bein^ : 

1. Tho purchase, on its own account or i'or its members, ol' manures, seeds, agri- 
cultural imj)loment8, coul, cattle, and, in genonil, all articles and materials relating 
to agi'iculture. 

2. To analyse manures and to have them analysed, to discover frauds existing 
ill tho trade, to give all required int'ormalioii on tho use ot' manures according to the 
nature of the land, and to recommend manufacturers and dealers; to analyse land 
also, and to have it analysed, to become acqiniinted with their chemical composition, 
and all commodities such as food for cattle, considered for its nutritive (jualities. 

.">, To become security foi' its members in liieii' piiicdiasi^s, in order to procure 
larger credit foi' them. This credit should be e(iual to the rights of tho members; 
it cannot in any case exceed the amount (»f the nominal value of the shares owned 
by tlie member; thus the member owning live shares has a right to §J00 security, 
the member owning ten shares has a right to i^l, ()()(» seeurit3^ 

All pr chases are made by the intermediary of the society. 

All orders must reach the sum of S-0 at least and i)urcliasers sliouli , as far 
!is possible, give their orders in advance in order that being groujjed in as large a 
number as possible, they may sec\ire the lowest terms both for purchase and transport. 

In virtue of the security givi>n to members by the society in regard to dealers, 
it claims tho commission generally given by (Lalers, and allows tho buyers the bene- 
fit of it to save a small sum retained, tho i>mount of which is tixed by the Board of 
^[anagomcnt and is intended to moot tho general expenses of management. 

Tho ]Joard of Management also settles tho rale of discount and the commission 
to be taken off the notes ])resonted by the members for its endorsement. 

This retention or discount is immediately ])ayable. 

Tho Society takes care to do business only with well established and responsible 
firms, of honorable repute, in order to secure goods of tho best possible iiualit^'; it 
iiiiwever refuses to be held responsibK' for any matter concerning the purchases 
it has made at the request of its members, who will bo substituted in all it'j rights : 
it assumes no responsibility in tho dispatch and delivery of its goods. 

Art. 2. The Society assumes the name of Agricultural Societij of the District 
(arro7idissement) of Senlis (Oise) Joint Stocic Covijianij in shares, variable ccpital. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FRENCH MILLS. 

SYNDICATE OF THE MILLERS OF FRANCE. 

The National Association of French Mills, Syndicate of tho Millers of France, 
was founded ITth November, ISSt!. 

It is represented throughout all France, and in the colonies; foveigners are 
iidinittod as corresponding members. 

It was established in conformity with tho law of 21st March, 1884, on profes- 
simuil syndicates, and all millers, grist and tlour owners, or working tenants, the 
liiroctors or agents of mills, representatives of mills, such as engineers, builders, 
brol'. 8, commission merchants, dealers ingrain or Hour, and tho members of all 
othei' idnils of business in any way connected with mills, may belong to the Associa- 
tion. 

Its statutes, which have been deposited according to law, thus detino its 

object :— 



154 




"T<t regulate tlu) rolationH, and to draw the cloHor bundti ui' brotliorhoud between 
the miwiibiMK of mill iiidiihtry ; 

"To advaiKO itn moral and material progrosH; 

"To oncoiira^o tlio imniovumont of itM economical HyHtom, and to the advunce- 
ment of itn iiiutliods of procliiction ; 

"To inciitt* and proiiioto all roformH and meaHuros of f^onoral interoHt. 

"To Htudy all moanH of improvement in tranHpurtation, and the (piention of 
inHurancoH ; 

"To obtain freedom and alleviation from all public and private chargoH ; 

"To Hpr»!ad inHtriiclion on moann of mannfacliirc, and to facilitate the enlarge- 
ment ol itH Hiair, l»y securing thcni means of instruct ion ; 

" To render the propagation and study of reforms aecesHiblo to all." 

The Association consists of activi^ members, corresponding members, and 
honorary incmlters. 

To become an active nutmlier, it is necessary to lie I''reM(di. to be a miller, flour or 
grist, to own or lease a inill and work it, to be a director or agent of a mill wituatud 
in Franco, or in a Kiench colony. 

Active members share in the work of the Association witii deliberate voice. 

Corresponding members are divided into four classes: — 

1. Engineers, builders, mo(dianics, dealers in mill supplies: 

2. Dealers, commission merchants, flour and grain brokers, and corn chandlers; 
.'5. Ownois of mills not working, former millers, manufacturers of grain fooil, 

foreign millers, correspondents and ri>presentatives (A mills, bakers, and all those 
whoso inferosts are connected with mills; 

4. Kmployces, foremen, mill watchmen, working millei's, and the entire staff of 
mills. 

Corresponding mombeis may attend meetings and assemblies having a consulta- 
tive voice. 

Jfonorary members are chosen from among persons who are most distinguished 
for services to the mill industry or who, by whatever means, have a claim on the 
gratitude of the Association. 

Women under any of the above mentioned conditions are admitted to the syn- 
dicate. 

I'iach member, with the exception of honorary mcmbei's, pays an annual sub- 
scription of $2.40, whether ho bo an active or corresponding nieniber. 

The Association has organized an annual congress styled the "Flour and Grain 
Industiial ami Commercial Congress," which is held after the harvest. Itlast three 
days and deals with : 

1. Theoretic and practical discussions of all questions and matters pertaining to 
the industry and the commerce of grain and flour; 

2. Of conferences ; 

3. An exhibition of mill and bakers' materials; 

4. Of commercial meetings where ideas on the general progress of the business 
will be exchanged, and relations established. 

The labors of the Congress were in 1887 and in 1888, divided into six sections 
comprising: Ist. The propaganda ; 2nil. Commercial and industrial questions; 3rd. 
Custom-house duties; 4th. Transportation; 5th. Professional instruction ; tJth. In- 
surances. 

Each section has a president and a reporter chosen from among the meniberh of 
its Board of Management. 

The suggestions made at the meeting of the Congress serve as a basis of work 
to be done by the Association in the intervals between the meetings. 

The work is done at the secretary's office (secretariat) of the Association, in a 
special locality where all the branches of the syndicate's work are centralized. 

At the present time thet-e branches of the service consist of: 

A mutual insurance society against fire, special to the mill industry; ' 



Fi'oncli 
"lejisiiic 

To 

Th 
?><''"»,0(M), 



166 



till 



ram 



An InNUmnco offlto for tho preparation ami rovJHion of ftci-idcnt policioH, for 
ft(TiflontH that may occur to tlio worUincii wliilu tlicy arc ut work, tiixf agaiiiist nil 
other rinkH, in any company tho nidnhcr may chi)owo; 

An ollic(! lor isitiiation.s vacant in millM; 

An intelligence and har^ain olllco, 

Tho AHsociation owns one nowHpapor in itn intoroHt, "Xu Meunerii: Frani;aise, " 
a ;,'cnorul review, LsmumI n\oMthly, in which are piililished all comnuinicatioiiH from 
niomlioi'H, and the reportw of th«» AHHociation ot'alliliated socieliew. 

TluH piililication Ih sent to all niemburN; all nuitterH of intercHt to the mill in- 
dustry are treated in it ; all industrial improvementH and novelticH are j^iven with 
ilhiHtratioiis, phuiH, drawinj^s, and diagrams, in order that its readerH may have ii 
constant l<nowle<l;^e of ail matters of refoi in and pro^^ress. 

Kvcry numlier of the review is upecially devoted to a doluiled report of tho 
COngrcMH; discussions and conforencos are ^iven inextenso, 

Hosides this special order all the members receive every year IWnnnaire ilc la 
Aleunerie FrdiiraiKe, ])ul)lislied hy the Association, In this work is found all tho 
intormation iequire<l in daily use in the ^rain and Hour ti'ade, and indiistiy. 

.\loieover tliei'c has been published by the JJoard ol Alanageiiiciit of the Associa- 
tion, und distributed to the memliers, sepirrato works (d'a special character, su(d» as 
the patent laws for patents, relatiiii^ to tlie industry and trade of^rain and Hour-, llie 
discussion in the chamber ot deputies of the levisiou of the dulitis on the enrCj^is- 
tration of assurances, the reform of which is ur^^eil, tho detailed atcount ot tho 
meetinf^s of syndical chambers, the establishing of which is encouraifcd by tho 
Association, and of iid'orniation on the slate of provisions and haivests. 

I>y means of its national ori:;anization, the Association has notably been enabled 
lo supjjiy the state with information, and to intervene in many cpie tions of general 
interest, such as the duties on wheat and tlour, and provision supplies in tho ovont 
of war. 

A permanent office of information on harvests is, by tho assistance of the 
members, in full o|)eiation ; in tlu; interval until a larger number of syndical 
chambers is formed, in whicli such information will be classed by departments. 

Five departmental chambers have already been established by the Association's 
means, and two previouslj' formed have asked to be atfiliate(l. Other chambers are 
already in process of i'ormation. 

The object ot the departmental syndical chamber is : 

"Tho study of all questions relating to the object of the National Association of 
French Mills, has in view to assist in all necessiiry proceedings, to take all useful 
nieasuies to support, if need lie, the corporation's interests before a court of justice ; 

To judge as arbitrators all ditfoi'cnces submitted to them by members; 

To assist at the courts as experts." 

Tho 1,827 active members of this Association represent a capital amounting to 
§GJ,U00,00O. 



sinoss 



BUILDING} UNION OP THE CITY 01'^ PARIS AND OP THE DEPARTMENT 

OF TlIK SEINE. 



|)ers of 

work 

1, io ;i 



PROFESSIONAL SYNDICATE. 

{Extract from the Statutes.) 

Ai't. 1. A syndicate is formed among those subscribing to the present statutes, 
with the object of supporting the interests of builders in general. 

Alt. 3. All architects, engineers, contractors, manufacturers ami dealers in 
supplies may belong to it. 

Art. 4. The contribution is §2.40 per year, and the entrance fee $0.(50. 

*T\w " Annuaire do la Meunerie Franjaise " for the year 1889 is a volume of G16 pages. 



156 




Bules. 

Art. 33. The membei'ship of the syndicate is divided into six Hcctions as follows: 

Section 1. Technical knowledge and practice, sub-divided into ten committees 
concerninjr the ditferent Iminches of the hiiilding industi-y. 

Art. 35. The ten comm'*^tee.s must attain a knowledge of the questions relating to: 

(«.) The revision of taritt's and price lists and the study of bookdceeping ; 

(6.) The organization of a j)ermanent exhibition ; 

(c.) Boards of examinei's of productions presented by the syndicate; 

(d.) The organization of the distriliution of prizes, and of rewards, to inventors 
and to the oxhibiiors of the most remarkable productions, or of inventions calculated 
to advance the braiding interest. 

Art. 3ti — Secnon 2. With the oi'ganization and gronpini' of the building statf, in 
regard to the execution of the work of keeping in repair, ai'd of sanitation, as ]ire- 
ecribod by superior authority by districts and divisions, with tlie protection of the 
intei'ests of proprietors whose property is situated on streets not yet classitied. 

Art. 37 — Section 3. Of the adjudication of public or private works in their rela- 
tions with financial societies and capitalists to procure the indis]jensable security 
requii-ed by the recipient. Pi'otcction of the interests of members of the syndicate 
in case of disagreement. 

Art. 38 — Section 4. Commercial information given to members of the Union. 

Art. 31) — Section 5. Of the credit and establishing of a mutual bank, proceedings 
to facilitate the I'elations and transactions between members of the syndicate and 
creilit societies. 

Art. 41. The Council names, every year, a judicial council to which all legal 
questions will be i-efcrreil that aie of interest to the syndicate in gcnoial. A bargain 
agency will give members of the s^-ndicate all necessary information on their private 
business. 

Art. 42. A professional library will be established. 

Art. 43. The Council ma^- organize courses of teclinical and ]>ractical or profes- 
sional instruction to pupils or apprentices. 



SOCIi'^Tr OF FEENCH GLASS-WOKKERS OF THE SEINE. 
Extract from the Statutes of the Sijndical Union of l^Yench Glass JIakers. 

PREFACE. 

Considering that up to the present time the corporation )f glass-makers have 
been isolated (me from another, and tiiat each worker's relations with contractors are 
extremely difticult on this account, al ■', tirst meeting, held llth October, 188(), about 
40 members of this coi'poration resolved to form a syndicate chamber in order to 
band themselves together, without distinction of class, and to make common cause. 

That any French glass-worker may lielong to this syndical chambei-. 

The object of the syndical chamber is to work against foreign comnetition, and 
to establish constant relations between the workmen of the corpoi'ation, to permit of 
their coming to an iiderstanding on the relations they are compelled to have with 
contractors, and i'' some sort to give each other mutual support to ward off the ditli- 
culies arising from lack of work. Finally the syndical chamber will study the laws 
of which the knowledge is necessary to prepare its supportei's to fulfill the serious 
and delicate functions of advisei'. 

Art. 1. There is formed by the parties to this deed, and by those Avho may 
belong to it, a corporate association under the name of Syndical Union of French 
Glass-Makers, of the Department of the Seine, having its headquarters at No. 13 
Oavd Street. 

Art. 2. In order to become a member ' *' the Syndical Union, it is necessary to 
be a glass-worker and to reside in the Depaitment of the Seine. 

Its duration is unlimited, as is also the number of its members. 



157 



Art. 3. The Symlical Union has, as its object, the protection of all moral and 
material intevoBts o.' the wi>rUin<; corporation ; it will devote its attention to the 
matter of salaries, (hat they maj' always be remunerativo and in accordance with 
the progress of civilization, and that its rate may correspond as exactly as possible 
with the actual value of the woi'k. It opposes itself as far as it is able, and in 
accordance with the law to all attacks on the business. 

Art. 4. In the event of any ditlicuUy between a master and a member on any 
question of work or of wages, the Syndical Union will assume the cause of its mem- 
ber, if it is proved well-grounded; and will make use of every means to come to an 
amicable settlement. 

If the trouble is of a kind to require to be definitely settled by the courts, the 
syndical fund will assume the cost of the litigation; it may even advance the work- 
man, as a loan, the whole or part of the amounts in litigation. In that case the 
member who has received the necessary sums in advance, must give all power into 
the hands of the arbitrative committee of syndicates, who alone will have the right 
to receive in his stead the amounts due him, and whicii will be returne<l to him as 
restituted, after deduction of the amount advanced to him with the consent of the 
Syndical Union. 

Art. 5. The Syndical Union of French (rlass-Makers will use all its influence 
to prevent entire or partial strikes, by ])roposing to masters the establishment of a 
committee of arbitrators, eonsisting half of masters and half of workmen, who will 
rule on all questions likely to lead to c(jntlicts of that nature and avert them. 

Art. 7. In order to meet business expenses, each member binds himself to pay: 

1st. An entrance fee fixed at $0.20. 

2nd. A monthly subscription of §0.10. 

The entrance fee may bo paid in two instalments. 

The amount of the monthly subscriptio i may be increased or reduced according 
to the requirements of the Society. 

Art. 8. The business capital will be formeil by the excess of receipts of any 
kind, over expenses. 

Art. 9. The sliare in the business eajiital claimed by .-.ny member who has 
resigned, or been dismissed, for any cause whatsoever, will remain the property of the 
Union, his heirs or claimants having no right to reclaim the same from the Society. 

Art. 10. The business headquarters may not be changed, unless by deliberation 
and decision of the (reneral Assembly. 

A member of the Syndicate should be present at the business headquarters every 
night between the hours of 8 and 10, Sundays and holy-days excepted. 

Any member of the Sym'.icate wiio fails to attend to bis office in the permanent 
service, unless he provides a substitute, will be subject to a tine of 80.20, unless ho 
can prove that some smhlcn cause prevented his doing so. His absence being liable 
to seriously injure the Society. 

Nominaticm to a committee does not exempt from the permanent service. 

Art. 11. A register is kept at the headquarters, in which is entered all demands 
and otl'ers for work. 

Members may consult it at will. 

Art. 12. Any member who may attack the reputation, or even the interests of 
the society, may be expelled. 

Any member four months in arrears in his subscription will be considered as 
having resigned, and his name be ei'ased (except in case of sickness). 

Art. IG. The As.se mb'y will rule on all quotations of the orders of the day, and 
whose urgency is acknowledged. 

Art. 17. The syndical board will meet every fortnight at the business headquar- 
ters, the day and hour named (if need be). 



158 



MIXKD SYNDICATE OF TUE SHOEMAKERS OF THE GIROXDE. 




nOEDEACX. 

The ohiect of the Syndical Chamber is to unite in intimate and brotherly bonds 
miisters, employees, workmen and iipprenticew, and in a woi-d ail tlio members of the 
shoe-making trade, and of the trades connected with it, in order to study in perfect 
harmony, the means of defence of tiicii' common interests, to raise the professional, 
moral and intcdlectual tone of each of its members and supporters, and to endeavor 
to increase the weli-bcnnir of each. 

To attain this result there are two theories; that of anta^f^onism which, to the 
detriment of the general interests, separates into two armies masters and workmen, 
and keeps both in a state of constant conflict and suspicion. 

This system which tends infalibly to weaken tlie industry is one we thrust aside, 
and turn ui that theory an eminent economist so well detines (1) : 

" It is the theory of the natural hai-mony of legitimate interests, and of the 
identity of justice and prosperity, of material and moral progress. It is the theory 
that teaches men, and not men alone, but societies and nations that there is more 
protit in hel])iiig one anotlicM- than in mutual annoyance, in loving each ofiier than 
in mutual hatred, it is the theorj'that asserts that prosperity s])reads and that adver- 
sity is shared; to give it its proper name, it is the theory of harmony," 

It is for the purpose of putting this theory into pi-actice that the Syndicate, 
appeals to all generous feeling ami to the good-will of each, that according to his 
knowledge, his heart and his expei'icnce, ho may assist the limit of his means, in 
ensui'ing the jirosperity, and fruitfalness of the humanitarian and social work we 
wish to establish. 



SYXDICAL CIIAilBEE OF ACCOUNTANTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE 

SEINE. 

PROFESSIONAL SYNDICATE. 

Art. 1. There is formed among the accountants of both sexes of the Department 
of the Seine who subscribe to the present deed, i\ prof essional syndicate in conformity 
with the law of 21st March, 1884. It assumes the name of: 

Syndical chamber of accountants of the Department of the Seine. 

Art. 2. The object of the professional syndicate thus formed is to give the 
corporation all the moral and material development of which it is susceptible, and 
notably to : 

1st, Establish and codify the general principles which are to serve as a practical 
basis for the managing ot accounts ; 

2nd. To form a programme of the branches of knowledge necessary to the prac- 
tice of the ])rofcBsion of accountant ; and to spread the knowledge ; 

3rd. To define the position, the duties and rights of accountants, notably in 
regard to the discretion and responsibility of the profession. 

4th. To study all ((uestions of interest to the corporation, to seek their solutinn, 
to encourage the study of such matters by the publicity and popularity of its work 
from different ])oint8 of view, such as ; 

First. The jiractice of the profession ; 

Secondly. The customs of the j)laco ; 

Thirdly. Jurisprudence and commercial geography ; 

5th. To interview, legally if need be, for the protection of its corporate interests; 

6th. By constant endeavor to secure the improvement of accountant's position, 
and to amicably settle all differences likely to be of interest to members of the 
corporation ; 

(1) Mr. Frederic Paagy. 



lo9 



7th. To provide, in the charaptei- of experts and aibitrators, an enlii^htenod 
aHsistanoe to couits of justice, to Hnance, to commerce, to manufactures, agricul- 
ture as well as to individuaKs ; 

8th. To establish within its own limits, a superior professional i^roup, a sort of 
independent aroophaifus cDiitroUin^' with authority; the opinions deferred to it. and 
to oifer all required warranty in professional matters. 

!)th. To establish or assist in establishing institutions of all kinds lilcel}' to be 
useful to the corporation. 

Art. 3. The headquarters of the Syndical Chamber is in Pans. Its membership 
is unlimited. 

The subscription is 82.40 per year and the entrance fee is $0.60. 



SOCIETY OF LABOR. 

BUSINESS SEAT — MAYOR'S OFFICE OF THE XI UISTllICT (ARRONDISSEMENt) PARIS. 

The object of the Society of Labor is to procure work for those who require it. 

Its assistance, which is absolutely gratuitous and disinteresteil, is otlored to idl 
without distinction; one sole condition is imposed on those asking su])port — proof of 
their respectability. 

The committee is composed of notable persons belonging to the most diverse 
M)cial ranks ; the labor element is i'0])resented. The Society of Labor was established 
lioth June. 1S71, and at the date of ;{Oth April, 188!), it counted a total number 
lit'teeu thousand and eighty pers(jns who had hccured employment by its assistance (1); 
nt'this number employees rate at 35 per cent. 

The total amount of salaries and wages calculated at an average of 83.40 per 
liead, gives a I'evenuo of nearly 85,200,000. But the Society does not limit its ambi- 
tion to such material results, it aims higher, it would contribute its share loditliision 
of principles of fraternity and solidarity, superior and essential elements of social 
jirogress. 

At each of its general assemblies a lecture is read by a master of the science 
on some subject of s(jcial economy such as ''The History of Labor, Association, Profit- 
sharing, Leclairo's Work, Social lieform, the Biographies of Bastiat and de Laboulaye. 



CENTRAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL LABOR. 



PARIS. 

The object of the Central Society of Professional Labor, founded in 1887, by a 
number of engineers, manufacturers and dealers, is: 

To study and solve all questions relating to jtrofessional labor; 

To secure to all workers the means of completing their professional education, 
!U" " ;.) keep themselves at the level of the progress made in their art. 

The members of the Society are divided into two classes : 

1st. Engineers, heads of industries, merchants, lecturers and all others interested 
in the study and discussion of questions relating to the organization of professional 
woi'k. 

2nd. Workers of any class who need to make themselves acquainted with the 
]irogress made in their art or industry'', not only in France but in foreign parts ; to 
he warned of thicatened competition, and to eomjjlete their technical instruction. 

The lirst, who include masters, members and the active meinliers, the number 
of whom is limited, join together to study the questions submitted to them, hold 
technical conferences, guide visitors through factories, agricultural establishments, 
industrial exhibitions, commercial museums &c. ; when required they organize a 

(1) Till' imincrouM ciiCTtffiiii'nts st-curt'd tiy thfc HiKjit'ty, and of whitli tin; ititi^rcstcd parties have giveu 
nil iioticf arc not iiu'ludfU in thin total. 



160 



o.ongreH8 or oxhibitioii, and publish their ideas in articles 8ont to the bulletin of the 
Society wlucli appears monthly under the title of " Lo travail professional" (Profes- 
sional Labor). 

Those who form the second class are culled adherents, their number is not 
limited; they are invited to assist at conferences, at congresses, at technical inspec- 
tions organized by the Society. 

The nuistor members ]y,\y an annual subscription of $20 and may become liTo 
patrons on payment of 6-00. 

The active members and the adherent members pay a susbcrij)tion of $2 per 
annum, and may become life members on jjuyment of 820. 

Measures in favor of Workers. 

The Central Society of Professional Labor distributes medals to those who luivo 
contributed to the organization of ])rofessional labor, and to workn\en who have 
speciallyvdistinguished themselves by knowledge ac(iuire in the professional courses, 
conferences &c., oi* who have etl'ccted improvenionts in their art. 

It sends professors and speakers to the syndical chanibers. 

During the years 1SS7 and 1888, the Society tlistributed seven medals. 

It devotes its attenticm to establishing for the ])r()tit of the working class, a 
series of technical conferences for members of ditlerent symlical associations; to 
establish at the seat of these associations, librai'ies containing works of ])articular 
interest to their members; Anally to establish after the exhibition a commercial 
museum, exhibiting productions and sann)les offered them by the exhibitors. 



FREE ASSOCIATION OF TYPE-SETT1>]RS AND PBINTERS OF BRUSSELS. 

The object of the Association is to assist its members to procure employment, 
and to maintain the rate of wages by legal means. The subscription is 50 cents per 
month. 

Members involuntarily deprived of work are allowed $4.20 per fortnight after 
two years' participation, after three years, S-i.SO ; after four years, $^)A() ; after five 
years, 8(1.00. 

For Brussels and the environs, the Association has a detailed taritf for hand- 
work, which has been agreed to by all the principal master printers of Brussels. 

It regulates the conditions for apprenticeship, and oidy accepts its members after 
they have passed a severe theoretic ami practical examination. 



ASSOCIATION OF LlTIIOtJRAPIIIC PRINTERS OF BRUSSELS. 

There belong to this Association a professional syndicate and a mutual aid 
society. 

It has one peculiarity, which is, that in order to maintain itself, as a body, at a 
certain level of ability, it admits only workmen earning, at least, $1 per 10 hours, 
work. 

It grants an aid of 62.40 per week, for Avant of work, to each of its members, who 
are obliged to sign eveiy da}- a book, for entering the number of days without work 
(livret de chOmage) ; this book may bo consulted by masters requiring workingmcn. 



THE LABOR EXCHANGE OF LIEGE.=i= 
Its Origin and Organization. 

HISTORICAL. 

The idea of organizing Labor Exchanges is born of the need proved to exist, of 
equalizing, as far as possible, the Hialance of the demand and supply of labor ; thus to 

•131,(XH» inliahitants. 



161 



increase social improvement, and afford heads of industries the means of supplying a 
vacancy in their statf whilst carefully guarding the interests of both parties. 

The first attempt at an institution of this nature dates from 18-46, it was first 
started by Mons. de Molinari. 

The first system of organization differed materially from later attempts. It was 
rather a sort of messenger of work, to which all the different corporate bodies of the 
city of Paris co-operated, and a report of which was weekly given to the public by 
means of the press. Mons. de Molinari began the movement by putting the columns 
of the Courrier Fram^ais, then edited by him, at the service of the iuifferent cor- 
porations. The coi'porations misunderstood tne proposal made them, and refused to 
profit by it. This refusal was based on the fact tjiat "Parisian workmen feared that 
by making known the rate of their wages to workmen from the provinces and foreign 
ports, they would draw to Paris a more lively competition." (Eeport of Mr. Iloct. 
bonis, professor in the Polytcchnical School at Bri els). 

This check did not discourage Mr. do Molinari ; with his brother Eugene's assist- 
ance he started in Brussels the t\&\i%-^ix}^Qv ih^ Labor Exchange — LaBoursedu Travail, 
and resumed his self-appointed task with renewed ardor. But Mr. de Molinai-i's work 
was no more understood in Brussels than in Paris. The workmen ofi'ered the same 
olijections, and refused to co-operate, thus compelling the first promoters of the labor 
market to abandon their project after five months' persevering and unheard of efforts 
to bring their intended measure to a happy conclusion. 

Mr. Max Wirth in 1856 resumed in Germany Mr. de Molinari's idea and strove 
to give it substance. The German economist met with no better success than his 
predecessor, having been unable, as he acknowledges in his treaties on political econ- 
omy, to succeed in efficiently extending the bounds of his enterprise to enable him to 
attain the end in view. The two learned economists sought a solution of the ques- 
tion by almost identical means ; both hoped for Government intei-vention and publi- 
city. The sole difference we discover in their manner of viewing the subject was, as 
Mr. Denis says in the report above mentioned, that Mr. de Molinari was satisfied to 
establish the Labor Exchange by localities, while Mr. Wirth's object seemed particu- 
larly to be giving publicity to the statistics by means of the state journals. " Only, 
" adds the same reporter " Mr. de Molinari who held himself much aloof and was too 
antagonistic in regard to Government intervention, gave more of his attention, and 
with reason, to the establishment of intermediary organs between the Government 
and the press on the one part, and the workmen individually on the other. 

The idea of a Labor E.xchango is so utilitarian in its nature that it has been 
brought forward at different times even in Paris, and in spite of the deception and 
(lisappclntment to which its author, the first who attempted to put it in practice, was 
subje.,icd. 

By decree of the Provisional Government of the Fi-encb Itepublic, in 1848 an 
institution of this nature was established. This decree, dated the 8th and 10th of 
March, commanded that an intelligence office for labor should be opened in every 
mairie of Paris. It was put into etlect unfortunately, but for a verj' short period. 

In 1851 Mr. Ducoux, of Paris, grafted on Mr. de Molinari's first project another, 
wiiDse organization was more in conformity with tliat adopted at the present time, 
especially in the city of Li(^ge. It consisted in the establishment of a central hiring 
iie])ut, where masters and workmen might meet at any time. This pi-oject was sub- 
inilleil to the National Assembly, and rejected 15th February, 1851. This rejection 
was in no wise on account of the inutility of the establishment, but was founded on 
tliu essentially communistic nature supposed to be discovered in it. 

Apart from some few organizations in the interest of special trades, and which 
were of no advantage to any but to those trades or associations wMiieh gave rise to 
ihein. we find no trace, whatsoever, of Labor Exchanges proper until 1875, when the 
municipality of Paris itself took up the idea. But it was long before the principle 
\vis tiilly understood. It was not until 11th February, 1S8:^, that a commission 
iiuined by the prefect of the Seine was charged with the study of the question. 
20—11 



162 



The extent of the work taken at one time, and the amount of capital required 
for the projected organization, were perhaps the two primary causes why so small 
a result was obtained. Yet some attribute the want of success to other causes. 

Up to 1888 attempts wore still made in Bulj^ium, one at St. Giles, whore the 
registers were deposited at the Communal Hall, in which demands for and ofters of 
employment were entered ; another at the Democratic Union, which has on its 
programme the establishment of a Labor Exchange. 

As Mons. Ducoux in 1851 took up Mons. Molinari's idea, so did Mens. Burgo- 
master Bulb in 1888 in Belgium. 

In order to ari-ive at a happy solution of the question, Mr. Buls convoked differ- 
ent meetings of delegates of laoor societies, who wei'e requested to give their views on 
the matter. Mons. G. de Molinari also went to Brussels to ventilate his project. 
But in spile of all the efforts made by the honorable burgomaster, in spite of his 
excellent work on the question which has been pul>Iished, Brussels has not even to 
the present time been able to establish a labor market on any secure foundation. To 
what are we to attribute such a state of things ? The answer would be difficult hail 
not experience taught us that for all created things a period of incubation is 
necessary, if we had not seen for ourselves that the necessity of establishing, at first 
on very modest foundations, any institution that has not been yet adopted by custom. 
Although much within the exaggerated limits of the organization of the Paris 
Exchange (Bourse de Paris), Mons. Buls' institution seems to us still too complete 
a project to be established at one effort. It is only progressively, and little by little, 
that masters and woi-kmen will come to understand all the advantages to be derived 
from the lauded system, or that we ma}' hope to see accepted by them all the piin- 
ciples which should co-operate to found a well-organized Labor Exchange. 

As will be seen further on, the o/igin of the Lii^ge Labor Exchange was of the 
most unpretentious kind. In reality, it was in the beginning a simple intelligence 
office, in which, we may easily believe, masters had not too much confidence. Small 
attempts, but giving the best I'esults, put an end to the fears and want of confidence, 
and encouraged a more frequent application by masters and beads of industries. An 
existence of a few months have sufficed to give our Labor Exchange the assurance 
of a secure future. Our work has now entered upon a new phase, and that without 
in any way having openly sought it. Certain houses which, for some time jjast, have 
made use of t)ur agency, now not only address themselves to us for all their wants, 
but often apply to us themselves, or send their foremen to our Exchange to hire the 
hands they require; others send us a list of the wages they intend to give. These 
two classes of demand insensibly lead our work to the true end it aims at, to respond 
to its name of Labor Exchange or Market. 

There is another element which may also be considered as an assurance of the 
vitality for institutions such as ours, is the entire exclusion of any political charac- 
teristic. These institutions which are essentially humanitarian need the assistance 
of all ; it is only by joining all forces that it can hope for an assured future. It is 
for this reason that our Exchange has decided to establish its organization on all sides. 

The following exposition of its methods will show whether or not they are well 
founded. 

II. — CONSTITUTION OP THE LABOK EXCHANUE OF LlitlE. 

I. Creative Institutions, Means. 

The Labor Exchange of Liege was first started by the (Euvre des Chauffoirs publics 
of the same city. The latter institution having, by means of circulars, assured itself 
the welcome it was likelj' to meet from masters in establishing an institution to form 
a centre for demand and supply of labor, submitted to the Board of Tradeof Litsgea 
project calculated to supply the want. 

The plan met with the entire approval of the Board of Trade, who voted a sii'i- 
sidy to forward its execution. Encouraged by this support, the authors of the \no- 
ject next appealed to the Stock Exchange, to the Provincial Council, to the Commer- 
cial Council and to the Governracut for assistance. 



We 

•"id i-elatei 
lias view a 
iiiipoi'tant 
ii third poi 
The en 
seven mem 
<Kiivre dos 
"i(J worl<i,i 
"" tlie othe 
''«'initclv H< 
20-111 



168 



Tho Stock Exchange, tho Provincial Council and the Commercial Council gave 
favoi'uhle answers ; but, ho far, the (Tovernmont has not soon tit to grant any assistance. 
The annual subsidios granted tho Kxchango are divided as follows : — 

Subsidy from tho Stock Exchange 8 20 00 

do L'(Euvrc dosChauffoirs Publics (!0 00 

do Board of Trade of Lii^ge 20 00 

do the City 200 dO 

do the Province 10(100 

Total g400 00 

Apart from these subsidies tho CEuvrc is allowed by the Commercial Museum 
its place of business, the site of which is valued at 8100. It is evident that with such 
small moans at its {lis])osal tho Kxchange is not ai)lo to satisfy all its requiromonts, 
but its present stej) towards prosperity ensures the contidenco that it will eventually 
moot with an increase of generosity trom the authorities under whose protection it 
has placed itself. 

//. Its 2)rogress. 

Tho usel'ulness of the Labor Exchange is now indisputable. A glance thrown 
over the rate of progress it has made since the date of its establishment will prove 
tho fact. Tho demands for work, which, in February, 1888, amountod to 384, 
increased in tho following months as follows: 015, 882, 8o:}, 73"), 434, 33(), 388, 041, 
779, 328, 2!»7, 100, 214. 

Otter of work is as much in need of the lOxchange as demand for the same. 

In February, 1888, 11 masters only applied to the Kxchango; in tho months 
from March to December, 1888, tho figures rose successively from this to 30, 71, 111, 
:J3, 08, 82, 178, 94, 111,85. 

In 1889 the months of January, February and March gave tho following result: 
12G, 130, 162. 

These otters of work were met by situations given to 27, 70, 144. 250, 315, 122, 
97, 350, 107, 237, 175, 310, 280 and 407 workers, which gives a total of 2,897 situa- 
tions tilled. 

At first, certain individuals raised doubts coiicerning the moral or industrial 
worth of persons applying to the Exchange. A few months' experience sufticed to 
show how littlo foundation there was for such tioars. Xumbors of firms, some among 
tiiein of the first stan<iing in the city, are so well satisfied with tho results of tho 
Exchange that they have made it their special agency, as we have already stated, 
for supplying the work-])eople required for their business. 

Under those circumstances, the Labor lOxchango may be said to be more than 
an attempt; it is an established institution, carrying the assurance of a certain 
future. 

III. Organization and Mechanism. 

We have in the preceding chapters given the history of our Labor Exchange, 
ami related the means by which it came to be established in Litige; also tho end it 
liiis view and the moans at its disposal ; its progress shows its usefulness and the 
important part it is called upon to play in the futui-e. We Avill now examine it from 
a tliinl point of view — that of its organization and mechanism. 

The committee of organization of the Labor Exchange was at first composed of 
>'cven members, of whom five are named by tho Board of Trade and two by the 
(Kiivro dos Ch.auftbirs publics. The committee has now admitted four members from 
the working-class, chosen from tho more important trades; the Commercial Board, 
on the other side, delegates one representative. The Board of Management is thus 
iletinitoly settled at twelve members. 

20-11 J 



164 



Tho Board of Managemont has charge of the general management of the 
Exchange ; the mechanical work and the accounts are entrusted to two employees, 
one of whom bears the title of " director." Tho committee nominates from among its 
own members a president, a vice-president, secretary and treasurer. 

The material is composed principally of two special registers for entering offers 
of and demands for work. Tho registers are divided into columns, containing, first: 
the number of the order, its date, tho name and surname of the worker, his trade, 
residence, date and place of birth, civil status, length of service, the duties he is able 
to fulfil, besides those certified to in his papers, the places to which he has been sent, 
note of tho places and any necessary observation. 

To these two legisters is added another book to be used as an index to the pro- 
fessions classified alphabetically. 

To facilitate business the office issues three cards. The first (Card A*) is 
double; it is entrusted to the workman, who hands it to the master. It gives in- 
formation on the first side concerning the bearer's number on the books, his name 
and surname, the year and place of his birth, the mention of whether or not he has 
recommendations, and the kind of employment he declares himself fitted for. On 
the other half, which the master must return to the office, is the number of the 
bearer's order, notice of the acceptance or non-acceptance of tho applicant, as also 
whether the situation is still open or not. The means by which the office is enlight- 
ened on these points, consists simply of cancelling or erasing and leaving the re- 
mainder to give tho required information, two of the four lines on the half card to be 
returned : 

I have hired. 

I have not hired. 

The situation is still vacant. 

The situation is no longer vacant. 

The second card (B*) is used at need, to inform those interested of the establish- 
ments where they may find employment. The third card (C*) is used to inform 
the office of the employment the workmen may have found outside the city. This 
last card which serves a double purpose with the 2nd half of card A, should be mailed 
by the workman himself; it is franked. 

Having mado known these details, we will now proceed to explain the system 
in use for procuring situations. When a workman presents himself at the ofiice, his 
name is immediately entered, and his number given him, Avhich corresponds to that 
in the book, and which ho must at least remember. If u suitable situation is vacant 
he is given a cai-d A which he hands to tho master, and half of which, as we have 
said, must be I'eturned by the latter to tho office, after having been marked as before 
mentioned. If the situation is outside the city limits, the workman receives beside 
a card B which if he is engaged, ho sends to the office by mail. 

Apart from this private distribution, a general disti'ibution of work takes place 
at about half past twelve, that is to say, after the three principal newspapers of the 
city have been issued. In presence of the assembled workmen tho number of whom 
on certain days — particularly Thursday and Saturday — is is many as one huiulreil 
and fifty, the notices of situations vacant, in the papers and those sent to the f)flice, 
are road out, and each one chooses the situation likely to suit him and proceeds as 
has been stated. 

If among the workmen present none are found to correspond to the demands 
made, reference can bo made to the index to discover tho residence of those who are 
supposed to be out of employment, a card B model is then sent them. 

In the beginning, the iaiorJJ'x'c/ifln^/e made use of the moans generally empIo\-ed 
to give publicity to any matter, it inserted notices in tho newspapers and in public 
places. This system has, however, its defects, it lacks permanence ; it has since been 
motlified. This means is now replaced by tables of otter and demand of employment, 
posted in the different quarters of the city and altered daily according to the books 
of the Exchange, besides daily publication in the three large newspapers of the city. 



.2 


T// 


M 




S 




o 




M 


1 


•H 




"S 


\ 


T> 




a 




^~ 






£' 






Noi 
presentee 
leaves t 



(1) To b,. 
'iicamng inte 

^ Them 
-t^i'esident 



* See page 170. 



165 



It was at first feared that this means of publication might arouse the malevolence 
of employment atfoncios, but up to the present time nothing reprehensible has been 
(lone by them. The system employed, even at the present time, is wtill open to im- 
provement. Yet, it must be admitted, that for an institution so recently begun, the 
organization of the Labor Exchange is comparatively peifect, and ol a nature to 
meet the general want. This is an important measui-e of success, and the success 
is the more assured that its usefulness is more marked every day. 

It is to be hoped, in the interests of society, that other cities in Belgium and 
elsewhere, actuated by the principles that led to the institution of the Labor 
Exchange of Liego, will follow the example given by its founders. 

One day, perhaps, will be seen reigning over the continent a real power ready 
to exercise a beneficial influence on the economical situation. 



CARD A.— 1st Side. 






Xi 
t 

a 

99. 



LABOR EXCHANGE. 

Li^ge. 



No. 

Wanted 



Telephone. 
LABOR SUPPLY AND DEMAND. 



Bulletin handed Mr. 



,0 



born in 



at 



bearing certificates. 



LiiGE, the 



188 



Note. — A ledger, in which are entered certificates, books and recommendations, 
presented by the applicant, may be consulted by masters. The exchange committee 
leaves the examination and verification of certificates to those interested. 



CARD A. — Postal half. 



the date of mailing. 



Number 



came to me. 



I have hired him. (1) 

I have not hired him. (1) 

The situation is still vacant. (1) 

The situation is no longer vacant. (1) 



Signature or seal : 



i 



IiJn«j 



H :,i> I. 






(1) To be cancelled, as the case may require, any two of the lines, leaving the other twc to give the 
meaning intended. 

The master is requested to tear off this bulletin, to frank it aud address it to the 
President of the Labor Exchange. 



166 



CARD B, LiioB thi. 



188 



Labok ExoriANQE, Saint-Barth^lomi place, 100. 

Sir, — We have the honor to int'onn you that a situation as 

is vacant 



You are hereby roquestod to oHer yourself for it and to give us information if 
you are engaged. 

We remain Sir, etc., 



Secretary, G. Durand. 



President, Edm. Van den Boorn. 



CARD C. — Half op the Postal Card. 



Number has been engaged. 



N.B. — The bearer of this curd binds himself to mail this as soon as he has found 
employment. 



ivl 



sectio:n^ IV. 



APPRENTICESHIP. 




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incTeased 



ArrUENTICESHIP. 



HOUSE OF BAHHAS, TASSART & UALAS. 

ROOFERS, PLUMIIERS, AC. 

This house has ostablirthod in its worlcnhops technical schoolH, in which schohirn 
lire taught the tnido. Tho approntico or the wchohir on his entry, submitH to an 
examination for claaHitication. If his instruction is not considoreil sufficient for tho 
trado, or the calling, which ho wishes to follow, he is bound to follow tho course 
pointed out to him. 

A part of the profits of tho house are annually distributed among the appren- 
tices by way of encouiagomont. When an apprentice does not show any aptitude 
for tho trade, or when ho is guilty of some grave ot!bnco, his cjiso is referred to the 
consultative board for decision. 

Apprentices are admitted as participants in tho profits from the 1st of January 
preceding tho ond of their apprenticeship. 

The journeymen apprentices, only receive thi« title after having served as assis- 
tants to journeymen during a year. 

Tho duration of their apprenticeship is two years. 

They must bo introduced by two sponsors, workmen participants, who take 
them under their care during tho terra of their apprenticeship. Every three months 
these sponsors make a report of the conduct of their proti(j6s. 

At the expiration of nis apprenticeship, tho apprentice must make some work 
done by hand ; a certificate of ability is not granted him unless the work is perfect. 

The apprentices of tho workshops may enter at thirteen years of age. They 
bhould have a certificate of primary instruction. Their appronticosnip last^ four 
years, during which thoy receive from $0.20 to $0.(50 a day, according to their capacity 
and the time they have served. 

Tho house grants them, moreover, a supplement to their pay of $0.05 aday, placed 
in tho savings bank to their account. 

The apprentices are obliged to follow the course in the technical school founded 
by tho syndical board of contractors and plumbers. 



THE CHAIX PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT. 



TECHNICAL SCHOOL. 

The technieal school of young pi-inters was founded in 1863 by M. Napolt5on 
Chaix. Its object is to make good workmen, foremen and employees tor tho different 
works in the establishment. The house pursues this end, by giving to the appren- 
tices a methodical instruction in manual work. It also endeavors to develop their 
monil education by well regulated discipline, useful lectures, by encouraging their 
labor and good conduct, in a word by giving them a practical knowledge of provi- 
dent institutions. 

Tho apprentices, to the number of about ninety, are divided into two groups, 
that comprise : the first, the pupil compositors, engravers and lithographers ; the 
second, the children and young people for the machines and for divers other works. 
The length of apprenticeship is four years. After six months' trial the pupils of the 
fir.st group receive a gratuity of $0.10 a day, which is raised successively during tho 
course of the apprenticeship to $0.20, $0.30, $0.40 and $0.50 The gratuity to the 
cliildren of the second group after fifteen days of trial is from $0.15 aday; it is 
increased $0.05 every four months. 



170 



TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. 

Practical Teaching. 

The room used by the apprentice compositors is altogether separated from the 
other workshops. A foreman, assisted by a sub-fc^ »'^i;.n and a cori-ector, superintends 
and directs tiie work. 

The teaching is thus divided: 

Ist year. — Exercises in composition from former prints. 

2na year. — Composition from manuscripts. — Elementary job work. 

3rd year. — Job work. — Composition in ali^ebra and geometry. — Typographical 
difficulties. — First exorcises in composition in Latin. Greek, English and (ierman. 

4th yeai'. — Varied work: framing, vignettes, &c. — Putting into pages. — Com- 
position in Latin, Greek, English and German. 

The work to be done is chosen from the work of customers, according to the 
aptitude of the pupils. Besides, exercises are given every month by the pupilson 
progressive models specially made for them. 

The practical instruction in engraving and lithography is taught on the same 
principles and by the foreman of lithograpiiy. 

The appi'entices working at the machines, work in the same workshops as the 
workmen ; they are attnched to the stall' of a coniluctor, under the superintendence 
of the chief of the drawing. During the tirst and second yeai's the child is occupied 
in receiving the sheets of paper and feeding the machines; he leavns to margin in 
white. During the third and fourth years he is taught the working <^f the press, 
regulating the mai'gin ; he assists the conductor in working the pres,s. 

The children for divers wf)rks (paper making, pamphlets, ruling, plates, and the 
offices) are under the control of the foremen. They receive tech: deal instruction 
according to an analogous method applied to the wants of their trr d. 

School Teaching. 

The school teaching comprises the primary course destined to complete the 
instruction that the apprentices received befoj'c their >'ntry into the house, and the 
technical course on the theory of their trade. These coui'ses are given by employees 
and the foremen of the establishment. The school instruction continues two years. 
The school instruction has two degrees. The apprentice compositors, engravers 
and lithographers follow the sujici'or course; the children for the machines and 
for divei's other works follow the second course. 

The progi'amme of the superior course comprises: 

1st and 2nd years. — Special Primarn Tcacliing. — Instruction with examples, 
writing, grammar and French, arithmetic and geometry as applied to typogi'aphy, 
histor}- of France, commercial and industrial ge.oraphy, instruction in the usual 
sciences. 

Technical Instruction. — Theoretical course of typographic composition, instruc- 
tion in manuscripts, lessons in grammar applied to typography. 

2nd. and 3rd. years. — Supplejnenfary Instruction. — Sketches of Fi-ench authoi's, 
histoiy of printing, elements of physics and mechanics applied to printing, notions 
on health, principles of social economy an;! lessons on provident institutions. 

Technical Instruction. — Theoretical course on composition printing, lessons in 
grammar applied to printing, reading and writing of manuscripts in Latin, Greek, 
English and German. 

Two hours a day taken from th i hours of work are given to tliis object. 

The Second Course Comprises Elementary Instruction. — Writing, reading, gramniiU', 
arithmetic and sketches of history and geogiaphy. The examples and application 
are taken by preference fi'om typography. During the third and fourth j-eiirs tiie 
pupils on margins have a technical course on the tocds .'ind press, supplemented by 
some ideas c mechanics, as apnlied to printing machines. 

The class of the second bourse meets live times a week for one hour aflfr 
woj-k. 



, 'Ills fiinH 
''^■'<" to ,.„alj 
"li" liav.. Ii,.,., 
I"'^i' tlicir |Hi 
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"' ' •"•h lAiik 
Ji'iniints to 
,V!'"I- All tl 

""'""flit JH ,1 

"yNtein. 



171 



Provident Institutions. 

The provident institutions in favor of apprentices, founded by this establish- 
ment, is intended as a retii-in^fund for old ai^e, under form of life-rent on the State 
Treasury, and is placed to their profit as assurance in case of accident or death. In 
the organization of this system the house proposes to improve the material condition 
of their children, and to make of these institutions a means of moral education. 
Solicited by advice, gifts and rewards bcini^ added to his savings, the apprentice 
c(mtracts habits of order and economy, which will make of him later, a diligent and 
laborious workman. Moreover, in order to teach pupils the theory of provident 
institutions and their utility and mode of working, theio is included in the 
programme of instruction a course on provident, saving and working institutions, 
and another on social economy. 

The following tables give the names of the provident institutions foi' apprentices 
specially, that are in force i.; this house, and indicate the results which they produce : — 

I'.KTUUNO FIND OF AFl'KKNTK'KS. 



The retiring fiind li.a.s for itH oh- 
ji'Ct the ii-ssuriiiicc totliosc iipprcii- 
tict'H will) remain with the house 
tiftv-tive vearsof arintc ridfieram 
the State" of alHUit .?80. Itn work- 
iiiji,' is accomplished by means of 
an annual gift of .*«3 made by tlie 
house to ejich apprentice or old 
apprentice. 

'Pile sums |)aid to this f\n)d since 
ISl)'.! amount to .*i(), .')()(». Tiie luim- 
l)tr of IxKiks on the lUst Decem- 
ber. ISSS, was TM. of which 133 
were for the old apiirentices. 



SCHOL.\HS' SAVINfJS FUNM). 

The s"holars' savings fund, com- 
mon to apprentices and old a])- 
lirentices, was established in 1.H75. 
It was intended to reserve tlie sav- 
iiifis which the children and the 
yoiuif,' workmen m.ade from their 
rewards and salaries. Tlie house 
thus app-'als to their free will so 
as to accustom them to practice 
saving. 

The establishment enconrapes 
this institution : 1st, by granting 
a gratuity of •'?().4() to ea( h new 
iiieiiiber ; 2iid, in awarding each 
year, at the distribution of jirizes, 
savings bank Inxiks to tho^ewlio 
li;ivi' the largest savings ; 3ril, in 
ii'utriliuting to this fund a jKirtion 
iif the profits given O apprentice 
ovipositors on the work of the 
srIiiK.l, as well as a sjH'cial ^ift at 
thi end of the aiiprenticeshii). 



VOLUNTARY KETIBING FUND. 

''"his fimd waH establishi d in 
Issd to enable old ai)|ireiiticeH, 
who liavi' become workmen, to de- 
|''i^;t their |«'rsonal savings. The 
sn iugs are rotained by the liouse 
ill caeli lAnk which pays over the 
iUiiiiunts to the .State Retiring 
Fund. .\11 the staff of the estab- 
lisliiiient is allowed to [irofit by 
tlii- system. 'I'he capital thus 
M^'d amounted on the 31st I)e- 
oiiil»i-, 1888, to !S1!»,70(>. 



INSUKANt'E IN CASK OF AtX'IDKNT. 

The object of the insnranco 
against accidents whilst in the ser- 
vice of the house is to guarantee to 
the childi-en and to the young i)eo- 
l)le engaged at ni.achines a rcntf via- 
(li'rr of from S"")!) to .^0 in case of a, 
seriotis accident occurring during 
the ajuirentieeship which will pre- 
vent him from exercising his tr.vde. 
The annual premium is .'Jl.llO. 

The instirance in case of accident 
was established in IStiS, and was 
contracted with tlie .State fund. 
From 1872 it Wivs m.'vde collective 
with clause of substitution. In IftthS 
the number of a.ssessed was 8(), and 
the amount of preiiiiums !*.')!!. In 
18811 it included 74 apprentices 
and (!4 old ap|irentiees ; the pre- 
miums amounted to .?218. 

INSURANCE IN CASK OF DK.\TH. 

Tli'> insurance in case of death, 
coiitiiutei! .at the ex]M'nse of the 
house with the .State Kiind, gti.ar- 
anteed to the parents oftlie children 
deceased a capital of -SUMl. It is 
continued in favor of old ap|iren- 
tices becoming workmen, ri'maining 
in the house. The avt'iiige annual 
premium is about .'*1.34. In 1871, 
at the time of its formation, this 
institution numbered 'Sf jiersoim 
insiii'ed, and the amount of pi-e- 
miunis was .'*34. in 188!) the num- 
ber of assessed was 107, the pre- 
miums aiiiounting to .*1.'03.40. 

I'KOFIT SHAHINIJ. 

A Kliecial fund was treated in 
favor of apprentice (■(>niiH)sitors to 
divi<le annually among tliem a i>or- 
ti<m of the profits re.dized on the 
work they had done. 

The sums arising from this fund 
are divided as follows : A third i» 
innnediately imt to the credit of 
the party in tlie siiiaH bank tMH)k ; 
a third is kept by the house to be 
given to the parents at the expira- 
tion of the apprenticeship; a third 
is kept to 1h' divided cvi-ry five 
years, among the ap|irenti<es who 
then belong to the establishment. 



172 




SCHOOL niSCIPHNK. 

A ntle for the interior managoment 
preserves strict discipline and teafihes 
the pvipils that they must proi)erly 
employ the time they pass in the es- 
tablishment. The i)arents receive 
each month a reix)rt of the conduct, 
work and i)rogresM of their children. 
After breakfast recreation is taken in 
the most qviiet streets of the neigh- 
borhiKxl, it is watched by one of the 
employees of the house. Apprentices 
always carry a note book containing 
instructions for the regulation of dis- 
cipline within the house and without 
it. 

MKAN8 OF KMCLATION. 

To stimulate emulation among the 
apprentices the hoiise uses different 
modes for encouraging them ; the 
gift made to each p\ipfl who shows 
himself attentive to his course, of a 
jeton de pHumce (certificate of prti- 
8ence)of tne value of $0.02 ; by placing 
his name on the roll of honor ; by the 
institution of the [Kwt of sergeant 
with certain privileges attached to it, 
which is awarded to the i)upil worthy 
to help the foremen in their superin- 
tendence ; by distribution of prizes ; 
by |Mrticipation in the school profits ; 
by increasing the gratuities, &c. 




HYGIENE. 

As regards health the apjirentices 
are the object of special care, in- 
tended to develop their physical 
ixjwers. The workshoijs and classes 
are large and well aired ; in a neigh- 
boring room is a lavatory and an 
arrangement with gas to enablt- 
them to warm their breakfast. The 
children take their meals either at 
home or at the establishment. Every 
day one of the teachers insiKJcts tlic 
meals to see that they are hot and 
of good quality. Once a month the 
doctor of the house gives them a 
lesson on health, and every month 
also he pnxieods to an insjjecticjn of 
all the ap|)rentices and prescrilies to 
all who require it, at the cost 
of the house, medicines, tonics and 
stimulants. The pupils form part 
of the mutual society of help of tin- 
establishment. 

PROVISION AGAINST ACCIDENTS. 

All the dangerous parts of ma- 
chines are covered with safety ap- 
paratus to the number of four 
nun(Ire<l and is intended to jiroteet 
the staff and particularly the chil- 
dren from accidents that might arise 
therefrom. 



M. FANIBN PILS AINE. 

BOOT AND SHOE FACTORY AT LILLERS (PAS-DE-CALAIS), AND PARIS. 

Technical school for apprenticeship. 

The young boys enter the factory at the age of thirteen, and are employed :it 
easy work in all the sections of this establishment, so that there are apprentices in 
all the workshops. They thus become familiar with all the work which constitutes 
the making of boots and shoes, the cutting, packing, sorting and classifying of goods 
and the working of a number of small machines. They earn at these light works 
from $0.10 to $0.20 a day, according to their strength and capacity. 

When they pass a certain time, doing different duties in the factory, they are 
placed in the workshop of stitching uppers or under the supervision of a good foreman, 
where they gradually learn to do all the work that constitutes stitching the uppers 
of ladies boots, shoes, and boots generally, passing through the shops for preparing 
and mounting uppers and finishing with the sewing machine; they earn at this work 
from $0.20 to S0.50 a day. 

In leaving this workshop about the age of 14 years, these young men generally 
know how to stitch, join, sew by hand or by the machine, and manage a number of 
tools ; they are familiar with the divis'ons of the work and the nature of the goo(i>, 
and are sufficiently instructed to enter t.e technical school properly so-called. 

Here the foromen-instruetors teach them to complete the making of shoes by 
divided labor. The pupil remains about a month in each of the six divisions required 
by the work, so that at the expiration of the six months he has passed through ;iil 
the sections and is able to make an entire shoe. During this apprenticeship the youiii; 
man earns from $0.30 to $0.50 aday, so that all the work he does is paid according to 
the tariff, per pair, of the house, which furnishes the tools and renumerates the fore- 
men-instructors from whose work the pupils profit. 



The so: 
™iJ)loyees 
"tilers. 

^To con 
"i''iippreni 
'•■^'ei- he wib 



173 



When the pupils have terminated their apprenticeship at the technical school, 
woi'k is given them by the piece, as to the other workmen, to work at, either in the 
establishment or elsewhere. 

These pupils generally become, in a short time, first-class workmen. There are 
many who at !(> and 17 years of age make sewed boots of first quality at ^0.90 the 
pair, and make a pair a .'ay. 

Having acquired in these several woi-kshops of the factory more extended 
knowledge than they could acquire by serving their apprenticeship with a workman, 
working at hcjme, no part of the work is strange to them ; they know their trade from 
the beginning, and know how to make booth by every system ; to sew, peg, design 
and sew by machine, which enables thom to find work in no matter what country, 
much more easily than the workman who only knows how to make boots by one 
system, and itgives them the necessary knowledge to become foremen or experienced 
mastei's. 

There are a hundred young men that enter each year into the factory. 

As to the young girls, about 50 annually enter the workshops at the ago of 13, 
and arc employed at the beginning at very light and easy work. They advance 
gradually accoi-ding to their strength and age to more difficult work, passing through 
each division of work under the direction of a forewoman, and they soon acquire a 
complete knowledge of their trade of pegging boots and shoes. They earn on their 
entry into the workshop a minimum of $0.10 a day, and increase gradually to 80.60, 
the day being 10^ hours for the workwomen as for the workmen. 

For twenty years past Mr. Fanien has supplied his workmen with a school for 
boys which is constantly attended by about a hundred pupils of from 7 to 13 years 
of age. After the passing of the law on obligatory instruction he gave over the 
school to the town of Lillers. 

Moreover, a building independent from the factory was constructed into a 
school for girls and was also given over to the town of Lillers. 

These two establishments for schools, are lai-ge well aired, and lighted, and can 
accommodate 150 pupils each in separate class rooms, 




MOUTIEE HOUSP]. 



MANUFACTURES OF HARDWARE. 

Contract of apprenticeship. — Willingly acceptcl by the parents without giving 
rise to the slightest contestation. 

No apprentice has left the workshop before the expiration ot' his apprenticeship. 

Xo grave offence was charged to necessitate the dismissal of u child. 

One of the clauses of the contract recjuires a certificate of primary education; 
this has been very useful in getting new ai)prentices. 

Manual teachiuij. — This instruction decideil by progressive exercises, is confided 
to three foremen. 

Theoretic teaching. — Given by the master and the director of work ; they are 
iltlivered so as to develop the intellectual faculties of the children. 



FORMER HOUSE LECLATRE. 

REDOULY & CO. 

Apprenticeship. 

The sons, nephews of the foremen of the workshops, of the workmen and 
omployees members of the noyau ai'o recei^^ed as apprentices in preference to all 
iitiiors. 

No contract of apprenticeship is made, the house reserving the right to dismiss 
till' apprentice if he does not do his work, as the latter has the right to leave when- 
ivtr he wishes. 



174 



Tho apprentices are paid as soon as they enter as apprentices and each year, in 
the month of April, their ])ay is increased accoixiing to the progress made. 

The house insists that the apprentioos should l)o treated with kindness; it is 
proiiibitod to employ thom as message boys , the apprentices are required to bo polite 
to all tho workmen and those latter should ccmsider tliom as their own children. 

The heads of the workshops should exercise ail their care in teaching the trade 
to tho apprentices contidod to them ; they should encourage tlieni in changing their 
work and by teaching thom what thoy are ignorant of. 

At the end of each year a competition is held among the apprentices and ihe}' 
are classed according to their years of appi-enticeship. 

A jury, composotl of a director and three employeesof throe heads of workshops 
and four workmen, draws out the programme that each class of apprentices should 
follow. 

Prizes varying from 85.00 to $40.00 are awarded by thejury to the apprentices 
that have best fulfilled the programme imposed. 

Those prizes cimsist of books on the retiring fund forold age, with enjoyment of the 
interest accrued at the ago of fifty years. 

According to these competitions and the advice of the chiefs of the workshops, 
the managers judge the progress of each apprentice and they base then annual in- 
crease on the results of the.se competitions. 

Tho apprentices are only declared workmen after having fulfilled, in a satis- 
factory mannei- all the parts of the programme of competition. 



NETHERLANDS YEAST AND SPIRIT MANUFACTOKY. 

DELFT. — HOLLAND. 

Apprenticeship for the sons of workmen. Private school and course of design 

for the apprentices. 

(Institution founded in 1882.) 

Each apprentice leaving the primary school with an honorable certificate, is \)n[ 
under the special caro of a workman of the factory, carpenter, mason, blacksmith, 
cooper, malster &c. Tho private school (2 hours a day) is placed under tho direction 
of a teacher, the course of design under that of the architect of the house. The 
parents receive a subsidy from $0.20 to $2.00 a week according to the age of tlio 
apprentice, of this subsidy the apprentice receives 10 per cent, in pocket money. 
After an examination at 18 years, the apprentioos receive a diploma ; a place is 
sought for them where they can perfect themselves while waiting for a vacancy in 
the factory. 

This institution, whicli has changed hands several times, suffer, from the want ni 
dovotednoss and teaching talent of tho master workmen. — The superintendence of tiic 
apprentices is insufticiont. The young people consider the subsidy given to their 
parent> as a salary, which — being indispensable for the family and being gonorallv 
greatei- than the salaries of young workmen of the same ago — keeps thom at tliV 
factory instead of encouraging them to seek elsewhere the impi'ovement of tlioii' 
education, notwithstanding all this, many excellent workmen are developed from 
our system of apprenticeship. 



TECHNICAL SCHOOL GUTENBERG. PARIS. 

EXTRACT FRO.M A NOTICE ON THE GUTENBURO " SCHOOL," PUBLLSHED BY THE BOAIU) 

OF PRINTERS OF PARIS. 

For some years past a current of irresistible force has driven the boards of 
masters and workmen to the creation of schools called technical, destined, as tlieir 
name indicates, to give to tho young men who wish to devote themselves to trjid-js, 
an education commensurate with tho increasing exigencies of the demand. 



Tl 

our ni! 

Iiave C( 

years t 

encfe hi 

It 

we sutf; 

ating ii 

Is 

that we 

formerl 

Isi 

instinct 

to the V 

continu! 

It V 

one vign 

as an ad 

[t \\ 

of Print 

one or ni 

Tho 

foundere 

for the 11 

The, 

1st. 

whoso j)a 

2nd. 

printers \ 

Iliere are 

Chil,; 

The ( 

Jirimary i 

■lie trade 

,ii:rapiiic o 

The u 

for two Co 

certain pi 

I iicsday fl 

•'oseph, w 

t'stablislim 

"•■•ty. Til, 

prizes in ]< 



T1-:CIINIC 



"The w| 

'lie directio 
institutions 
1st, E„ 
l^'i'ik, to be 
2nd. (; 
Primar 
ence and ac( 
Technic 
elements of 



175 



This awakening of tho national power, born of the crisis which weighs on all 
our markets, is certainly a good omen, but we cannot help regretting that it should 
have come so late, for it is useless to disguise tho fact that, it will require yet many 
years to recover back the grounds which sti-ikes, routine and our original inditler- 
enco have lost to us. 

It would bo unjust, doubtless, to attribute to these causes all the ills from which 
wo sutler, but it is not to be contested that they have to this date had a pieponder- 
ating influence in our commeix'ial and industrial decadoiuo. 

Is it not to these strikes, decided uj)on with so little reflection and consideration, 
that we muft attribute the departure to foreign lands of a large number of those who 
formerly worked in our factories? 

Is it not the routine, to empiricism, that we owe our inferiority in technical 
instiuction, manual as well as mechanical ? And is it not also to inditl'crcncc, carried 
to tho verge of the abandonment of our most cherished interests, that is due tho 
continuation of a state of things declared, by all that are interested, to be disastrous? 

It was, therefore, necessary that we should take action, that we should make 
(ine vigorous effort, and it was with this view that technical schools were established, 
as an advantage to the different syndicates least open to dispute. 

It was with this object that, in the commencement of the year 1883, the Chamber 
of Printers settled the constitution of a joint stock society, authorized to establish 
one or more technical schools destined to raise tho level of typographical knowledge. 

The school was established and carried on by a capital from the subscriptions of 
founders ami tho annual subscriptions of honorary and working members. It is not 
tor the public use. 

There are atlmitted gratuitously after examination : 

1st. Children of the age of thirteen years belonging to the printing houses 
whose jiatrons are members of the association of the (hitenberg schools. 

2nd. Children of thirteen years past, who are presented by societaries not 
printers who are ailherents to the society. These are admitted, on payment (when 
there are places to lie disposed of). 

Children aged thirteen years past when the parents ask for their admission. 

The course of instruction is three j'cars. It is divided in two parts : one for 
])rimary instruction, the other for technical instruction, tho theory and practice of 
the trade of compositor and printei', and generally for all that concerns the typo- 
trraphic or graphic arts, and of all matters and things employed for these ai'ts. 

Tho apprentices sent to the school by their patrons only follow the school course 
for two consecutive days a week. Tiio days are fixed without any change; thus, a 
certain printer who sends several apprentices to the school, reserves Monday and 
Tuesday for Peter, Wednestlay and Thurs<lay for Paul, and Friday and Saturaay for 
.Joseph, which does not prevent a number of ajiprenticos from the same printing 
establishment from taking the same days, if the master who sends them prefers this 
way. The school is provided with a complete printing workshop. Kvcry year 
prizes in books, tools and money are awardeil to the most deserving pupils. 



TECHNICAL SCHOOL OF TI^ SYNDICAL CHAMBEIl OF THE MANU- 
FACTURE OF PAPER, PARIS. 

The work founded by the syndical chamber of pajier in favor of apprentices, 
the direction of which is confined to a commission luimod by them, comprises three 
institutions: — 

1st. Encouragement destined as a reward, by means of books on tho saving 
bunk, to bo given to the most deserving puper apprentices. 

2nd. (Jratuitous course of technical instruction, divided into: 

Primary instruction, comprising the French language, arithmetic, cori-ospond- 
I'uco and acoouiits. 

Technical instruction, comprising technical history, industrial geography, 
elements of Bcienco and design. 



176 



Special instruction to apprentices, comprising the theoretical and practical 
course of the manufacture ot lodgers, the shaping of paper, ruling and manufacture 
of different kinds of cardboard. 

The course takes ])lace from eight to ten o'clock at night. 

Over and above these three institutions, the S^'ndical Chamber of paper, insti- 
tutesanniial competitions for apprentices, and at the end of each scholastic year they 
distribute rewards, consisting of bank books on the savings bank and on the retiring 
fund, medals, tools and books. 



TECHNICAL SCHOOL FOE TAILOE APPRENTICES AT PARIS. 

Founded by the Syndical Chamber of Master Tailors of Paris. 

The school is specially lor the tailor trade. 

It has ior its object to make good workmen and to elevate the level of handiwork, 
which has much lowered since the invention of the sewing machine, and enable them 
to become foremen (called cutters.) 

The school was founded on the Ist May, 1881. 

It commenced with eight apprentices and two professors. To-day it has. forty 
apprentices and eight professors. 

The annual expenses are $6,000 to 86,400, made up as follows : — 

' P'jfessors' salaries 83,500 

Breakfasts for apprentices 800 

Bons for apprentices pav 600 

Rent and contributions 500 

Heating and lighting 200 

Director and employee 600 

Material, care and expenses of the office 200 

86,400 

The resources are composed : 

1st. Of the assessments of acting and honorary members. 
2nd. Of the subsidy of the Minister of Commerce. 
3rd. Of the subsidies of the City of Paris. 

4th. Of the subsidy of the Philanthropic Society of the Master Tailors of 
Paris. 

5th. Of the proceeds of the cutting done in the workshops. 

The average expense is $140 to 8160 per pujiil for a year. 180 children have 
passed through the school since its foundation. The school is only for day scholars; 
it is free, and it takes, in prcfei-enco, poor children. Nevertheless, some children of 
families in easy circumstances are admitted by jjaying a fee. 

Each ])upil receives for his breakfast a plate of meat and a plate of vegetables, 
for which no charge is made. 

Every child entering the school is placed under the direction of the professor-in- 
chief, who teaches him, on pieces of stuff, the first ideas of cutting. When he knows 
enough to be of service, he is placed with a group, where he helps to make all sorts 
of clothing. Only hand work is done in the shop ; the use of the sewing machine is 
only taught at the end of the third year of apprenticeship. The choice of professors 
is made from the old workmen, and from the young men who have served their 
appi'enticeship at the school. 

Ten hours a day is given to practical work, and one hour to the elementary 
course. 

The work is oi-ganized in groups, composed of one professor and four or five 
apprentices of different ability. J'lach group makes, without distinction, coat, 
waistcoat, overcoat, &c. The children change groujis every six months, so as not t*> 
bo always under the same professor. 



:^*,^f^.^t 



177 



The school is provided with Wi>i'k hy tho inastor tailors, active inomlicrs, who 
pay to the sdiool toi- tlio inaUini^ of each article accoi'iliiig to the taritl" of thoir 
cstalilishinont. From tiiis source the school receives aiiout 8.'{,00(l ti)r inakiiii;, a 
a year. 

All the aril' les of clolhiiig are t(^ order, and delivered by the master tailors to 
I heir customers. 

Tlie children receive each week, accordinii; to their ^ood conduct, and work, as 
an acknowlcdiiincnt of flatisfaction, 80.2(1 the tust >c'ir. $0.40 for (he second year, 
and 8n.(;o for the third; each receives, moreover, each Satwrdtiy a i;ratnity of from 
ijO.Oa to 80.15 as encouragement, i^ach year, bank books on the saviiii^s baidvs are 
awarded to the pupils who have succeeded best at the annual examination. Kvery 
youth on tinishinn' bis apprenticeship receives n diploma of ability. 

'Phe [)Upils work toi;('tiH'r at all works without <listinrtion. 

The length ot their apprenticeship is three years. 

The working time is eleven hours a day except Siimlays and holidays. 

The proportion ol" pupils that leave th'ir a])prenticeship upon the expiration of 
tlio throe years is aboiil L'O per cent. 

To secure the execution of the throe years a|>pr('ntiiH'ship the school kee})s the 
fions of satisfaction awarded each week and only gives ihem to the owner at the 
expiration of the appronticeshi]t. 

Tlu* school tries to I'cluin as paid monitors, tho children who have llnishod their 
apprenticeship. 



Those who will not remain i^o to work. 



Ti'lCHNICAL SCHOOL OF IIATTIORS. 



Nature of the school. — It was establislied in ISS'J as a |)rivate school, by .Afr. P. 
Coumes, solo founder, who continues it with the help of the ])ublic assi>tance of Paris. 
It has always been a})proved of iiy the Syndical (Miamber ot the llatliM's of Paris. 

The ulilily of the scliool was acknowledged by subsidies gr.antcd for the last three 
years by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, and tor the last two years by tho 
Miinster of Public Instruction and tho Pine Arts. 

This establiNhment was founded to I'cceive orphans or abandoned children ; a 
lew ]iaying pupils are also admillcd. 

The object of this technical school of hatters is to make at tho same time good 
workmen and good loremen. Its host pupils compete for the (bourses de voyage) 
allowance tor travel instituted l)y the Minister of (Jommerce. 

Jlistorccal. — Founded in ISSl b^'Mr. L. Couiues, ofTrumilly, (Oise), and alla(died 
to an orjiban asylum the pu])ils of which were his scholars, this sidiool of battels was, 
in May, ISSo, transferred to Villenoy, near Mcaux. 

I'^rom its foundation, this establishment has been, and is now, tlu^ only one in 
Franco which, with a thorough apprenticeship, pre[)ares worUmen as hat makers 
ami specially for the making of silk hats. 

Fiiutncud i-ondition and iudijet. — The budget of the Villenoy eslablishmont 
'livided its accounts into two parts : the budget of the .school properly so called, and 
thai of tho factory. But this last is also a liudget for instruction. Tho pupils, 
particularly in the Ipcginning, caimot be instructed without spoiling a (piantily of 
m.ilerial, the lactory of hats, theri'fore, on whi<'h they are taught must necessarily 
suller an aniuial loss so long as its staff is composed of appientices. 

All the aj)pi'enticeH aro boai'ileil and lodged in tho school. Tho daily expense 
t'lr food, cost of lodging, instruction ami superinlendiuice is cliargivl to the pupil at 
a liclitious rale varying tV(jm .^O.IJO to !S0.."!4 a da}', accoi-ding to the time expired 
and the division in which he is classed, but ihis expense in reality is about 51) cents 
per day. 

Since its opening (May, 188H) the number of pupils who have passed through 
this school is 50. The average number is 10 or 17 a year. 

20—12 



178 




Conditions of Admmion and Funds. — Tlioy vary according to where the pupils 
come IVom. TLomo who como from the Board of Public AsHintunce arc admitted 
according to the terms of the contract passed with that Board, which represontH an 
average sub-idy of 80.G8 a day I'or each pupil; those who are placed in the school by 
families or oy societies of patrons bring with them a trousseau (bedding), a dowry of 
apprenticeship of 840 divided between them the two first years, and they share in 
the cost of instruction and medical care at ihe cost of 813 a year during all the time 
of their apprenticship. 

Notwithstanding those very easy conditions, the school of hat-making has never 
ibeen able to obtain the creations of pensions, either ilopartmental or syndical, but 
they are working for them. 

Kvery candidate should be thirteen or fourteen years of age at least, possess an 
aptitude for the trade and produce a certificate of pi-inuiry capacity or equivalent 
instruction. 

All the pupils are boarders and equally subject to the rules. 

Detailed Course of Study. — The detailed programme of th^ school comprises: 

Ist. One part, superior ])rimary instruction., civil and moral education, military 
exercises, gymnastic exercises and swimming ; moreover, for the pupils of the 
higher divisions, who jutv of the age of sixteen years at least, courses of design, of 
English and of commercial accounts. 

2nd. Another part, technical instruction, theoi-etical and practical; the theoretic 
course in existence since 18SG, under the su])erintendenco of the Minister of Com- 
merce, is taught provisionally by the head of the workshop. 

Table of the Employment of Time. — The division of time given to practical work 
and to instruction in general, is made in proportion to the age of the pupils and the 
exigencies of the trade. 

Practical Work, — The apprentice, counting from his second year, is initiated 
successively into the divers w )rks of the workshop; to facilitate at the same time 
the technical instruction and the work of the workshops, the greater number of 
apprentices are engaged, during eighteen months or two years, in one of the sections 
of the trade, either at the frame, or mounting, oi- at turning. 

The beginning of the trade of hatter being somewhat diificult, each now appren- 
tice is placed under the direction of a skilieil workman or of a moidtor during six 
months or a year. It is rare that an intelligent pupil cannot work usefully before 
the end of the lirst year, but it is always after the waste of cei-tain material. 

The organization of the workshops with its divisions of labor, is such, that the 
apprentice could easily devote himself to a special work and perfect himself in one 
of the four sections cited above; moreover, he must know them all in order to obtain 
his certificate of completion of appi'enticeship. Whilst fulfilling orders for customers 
the apprentices ai-e engaged in special kinds of work, with a view to their profes- 
sional advantage, both as regards the business itself and their general instruction. 

liemuneration. — The work of the pupils is converted by themselves into mer- 
chandise destineil for wholesale customers; the whole manufacture is sold either at 
Paris or in the provinces in the best retail houses; it amounts on an average to 
$8,000 a year. The rules of the school provide for a share being allowed to the 
pupils on the profits of the work of the woi'kshops ; the develoiiment of this establisii- 
ment has notj-et been sufficient to enable it to make this division. Nevertheless, thanks 
to the remunerative wages, calculated on the tarift'of the price per piece, and thanks 
also to days of extra pay, all the apprentices attaining their fourth year of stuily, 
are possessors of a considerable sum. 

Duration of apprenticeship. — The regulation school term is four years for 
apprenticeship, with one or tw<> years for perfecting themselves. 

We here give the proportion of time of residence of the pupils from the 
abandoned class (except two), who have passed through the school during the last 
six j^ears: 3G per cent, from one to six months; 12 per cent, from six months to a 
year; 1(5 per cent, from a year to a year and a-half, and so on decreasing, except 5 
per cent, of six years and six years and a-half. 



iipprecin 
will bo c 
the Hon 
luonthlv 
The 
eqiiivalc 
]»art of 
Jiocket I 
At 
i(!^ moni 
the wor 
On 
l^i'iguage 
♦■onipotit- 
Minister 
of §3C0 



With 
1 1 ley nve 
Courses to 

The 
oxaminatii 
,"".Be\va 
iind Work 
- , The t 
"leir dipli 
trade. 

20- 



179 



It is with rof?rot that we hiivo to Htuto that more than two-thirds of the pupils, 
for cuuHCs indopondent of tlio soiiool diroction, were unublo lo roinain from two to 
oightoon inontlis. 

To rotaiii tho ])upils the tiino rcMiuiri'd, the school rules provide ibr oxtni pay 
proportionate to the duration of tho servico, and tho professional knowle<life of each 
puj)il. 

Thoy provide, also, teehnicid exaniinations to j)erniil the ])upils to ]iiiss into 
iiigher divisions, and eoniplot.:, oxaininations to ohtain the eortiticale of good appren- 
ticeship at the end of the established tour years of study. 

ExirCL pay. — Tho system of rewards comprise: — 

1st. Good points of 80.05, piuil at the end of each week; 

2iid. Of extra pay, varying from SO.Ol to SO.Otl a day for tho apprentices, and 
from 80.2.') to ^O..'}') a day for workmen. 

yrd. Wages by the piece, calculated at the end of each month, tho net result of 
which, after deduction of a ])art of tho expenses, is divided into three accounts 
(savings, mass, and ]iocket money). 

Results and (h'paiiurc. — The ap]nenticeship, such as is given in the technical 
school of Villenoy, thanks to the combination of tecimical and practical elements on 
the one hand, and thanks to the development and variety of tho j)rogrammo of 
instruction (sec above) on the othoi-, has the effect of exercising on the apprentice 
i'te most salutory influences, both nn al and physical, and all the pupils who have 
persevered to their foui'th year are proofs of these good results. 

Once clothed with a certificate of good apprenticeship, \\w, old ])upil becomes a 
workman, may exercise his own choice and go to J*aris, to the provinces, or remain 
in the establishment as a first-class workman. 

Those of the old jjupils who have been employed in Paris have obtained, froni 
the age of 19 or twenty j'cars, most remunerative wages; masters commence to 
appreciate their worth, and there i'^ little doubt but that in a vcr\' short time they 
will be eagerly sought for: one may quote the case of an old ])upil,at j)resent in the 
the House Jkn-teil, who at the end of one year of work, only in that house, receives a 
monthly salary of from §50 to 8G0. 

The pupils who choose to remain as monitors in the school realize almost 
equivalent wages, for two of them, aged 20 and 21 yeai-s, can, after payment of their 
])art of the common expenses, save from 8140 to 8l(J0 a year, this including their 
pocket money. 

At present (1st February, 188!)), the technical school of Villenoy counts among 
its monitors and pujul-workmcn, four of its old pupils, one of whom is sub-chief of 
the workshop. 

On the other hand, the development of the special studies of the English 
language, design, and technical instruction, is most satisfactory, as shown at the 
competition of December, 1H8S. for the (bourse do voyage) tiavelling purse of the 
Minister of Commerce: From four pupils who were candidates, two obtained a purse 
of 8360 each. 



NORTH RAILWAY, PARIS. 

TECHNICAL COURSE FOE THE APPREMTICKS. 

With the view of forming instructed and skilful workmen for all the works 
they are engaged in, the Committee of Directors, in 1882, decided that technical 
courses for apprentices should be organized at Paris-la-Chapelle, 

The instruction is free; pupils trom 12 to l'{ years are admitted after 
cxatniiuition. 

'"Rewards are given each year to the apprentices most noted for good conduct 
and work. 

_., The term of apprenticeship, is three years. Apprentices who have received 
their diploma of apprenticeship can remain in the service of the cora])any or enter 
trade. 

20— 12i 



180 



Any ajiproiilirt' k-avini.' tlio sdionl liotoiv tin' t'XpinUioii dl' tijree yejir.s will not 
recoivo IiIm (liplonm or ccrtilicuto ot'iippiontidoshij). 



CITY OF JIAVIIK. 

MUNICII'AIi SCHOOL OP APl'KENTK'ESlirv FOR U0Y8. 

Art. 1. Tlic iniinicipiil si'hool of ii])pft'Mti('(!Hhip for boys hiis for its ohjoct tho 
forinatioM of sUill'iil appifiitico who will aflciwards bc'i'>)iiio i;oo(l forciiicn. 

Art. 2. The length of ntudy is tlin-c years. 
^ Art. ii. Tlui 1st uml 2n(l years Iho pupils havo tlirco hours of intcUoiiliial work 
and Hvo hours of nianiiii' work. In tho third 3'car thuy havo orio hour of luiinual 
labor at most. 

Art. 4. Tho ti'chiiical instruction c()in])risos the following subjects: 1st, Lock- 
smiths; 2n(l, Ailjusting; iJnl, Korging; -Ith, Turninii; mc ' 5tii, Pounding and 
Moulding; (Itli, Mrazicrs' work; 7th, Turning; Sih, Cabiin ' •> . .:ig; !Hh, Turningin 
wood; 10th. (Jarving; 11th, ^rodclling. 

♦ Art. i;i To enter the Hchool (ul competitions) ii. ,mIs must be more Mian 
12 and less than 15 years. 

Art. IK. Tho rewards at the end of the year consist in prizes, medals, tools 
and diplon\as. 

The prizes ])ayable oidy at the end of the third year aro money prizes and vary 
from $2 to !?1(^ for the first year ; from $(J to 812 for tlie second year ; and from 812 
to 824 for the third year. 

Diplomas aro given to tbe pupils of the third year who have shown sufiieiont 
theoretic knowledge before a special commission of e.Kamination, and who are 
acknowleilged to be able to execute ])roperly the manual woik which their calling 
demands. 

NAVAL SCnoOI, FOR ENOtNEERINO APPRENTICES. 

Art. 1. A school for engineering a|)prentic(^s is annexed to the school for 
apprenticeship at ]Iavre,^vith the viewotgiving a certain number of 3-oung peo|)le, 
a theoretical and practical knowledge, of a nature to enable them to fulfil the duties 
of engineer on commercial steamshi]»s for the coasting trade, or for long voyages, 
or to be admitted to the position of engineering pupils in the State Navy. 

Art. 2. The school which is entirely free, only receives day .scholar's. 

Art. ii. A certain number of scliolarslii|)S of .Slot) are created in favor of ihose 
]iupils whose jiosition necessitates this help. These scholarships are divided by half, 
and by ((uarter. Requisitions should be made to the Mayor of Havre. L'arents 
whose children receive a scholarship or a part of a scholarship should bind them- 
selves in writing, to leave their children to the end of their studies, or to reimburse 
the town the amount granted as help. 

Art. (i. Tbe costs of organization and support are jtaid by the city of lEavre, 
the department, the State anil the Chamber of Commerce. 

Pupils between 15 and 17 years of age are admitted after having undergone 
an examination. 

SUPERIOR PRIMARY SCHOOL AND APPRENTICESHIP FOR YOUNG (ilRLS. 

Art. 1. The superior school of a[)pi\'nticeship has for its object the prejiaration 
of young girls for tho practice of a calling or a trade, and to prepare them for the 
position of mothers of families. 

Art. 2. The instruction comprises general intellectual instruction, aii(i technical 
instruction. The general intellectual instruction comprises: — 

1st. A preparatory course. 2nd. A superior course of primary study. 

The technical instruction includes the following specialties: — 

1st. Commercial course. 2nd. industrial design. ;Jrd. Drapery and embroidery. 
4th. I-'ashions. 5th. Cutting and making. Gth. Ironing. 7th. Practical domestic 
economy. 



The 
I'aris and 
Jiiid bodio. 

The 
<i'«des: jn 
fuming, c; 



181 



I'ltK'li jiupil choosos licr Hoction on lior entry into the Mchool. 'I'lic dnnitiiMi of 
Htiuly iiml approiiticfsliip irt tlirot> yiMirs. Tlii' pupils of tlio worUsliopH Imvo throo 
liourw of Hliidy a day and tivo li(»\irs of niannal lahoi-. 

Till' lii'st year is dm-otod to tlic study ot' scwiiiix, proporl}' Ho-i-nllod. Tlii' ]iupils 
clioosc tlii'ir specialty tlic m'CoikI yciu-. 

Tlio pupils ai'o admitted without pay. Jiowanls are given to llio most deserving 
jjupils. 



f'lTV OF XI.MKS. 

Art. 1. Tliis in>titution of coiMpclition for apiircnlices, founded hy the council of 
.skilled men of .\imi>s, tlu' Hth -May, ISSl, has, for its ohjeet, the lievolopment of 
technical instruction. 

Art. li. The child or individual, girl or boy, who receives instruction from a 
master, worknum or jiatron, man or woman in any traile whatever, may he an 
apprentice, on certain conditions; either hy paying a fee or at least hy not demaml- 
ing wages. 

Art. 5. The President of the council of skilled men appoints tor ejudi appi'cn- 
tice an ailviser specially ciiaiged to wattdi ovi^r him during- the cour>t' ot'his iippren- 
ticeship and to answer for his skill, his conduct and his progress. 

Art. (!. An examination takes ])laee ever} year to ascertain the progress of the 
!ip|irentices and to know what to expect from their work, their intelligence anil their 

skill. 

.\rt. It. The examination should not end with the mere classilic-ation of the 
ii])]irentices in tlu^ same industry, hut notes should lie taken to aNcertaiu the know- 
ledge of each apprentice in comparison with the length of his ap])renticeshijt. 

Art. 14. Within the eight days after the giving in of the reports (of the exam- 
iners) the council ot' skilled men united in general assenddy, shall detcM-mine the 
(piantity, the i|nalily and tlH> vaitu- of the rewards to be given to ap])rentices as well 
as to the workmen who, charged with their technical education, had useil all their 
enci'gy to form good apj)rentices and had succeeded. 

Their decisi(m is submitted for the approval of the munici])tilit3'. 



CFTY OF PAKIS. 

MiJNK'ii'.M- .sniiooi, niDEllOT.* 

The Diderot School situated in the Villette (juarter, was founded by the city of 
Paris and opened in 1S73, at an C])o<di when the attempt was opposed l)y experts 
and bodies of tradesmen ; in a word, in the miilst of considerable ditticultios. 

The school has for its objects the formation of workmen for the eight following 
Irailes: forging, turrung metals, adjusting, locksmith, mechanics, modelling, wood 
turning, cabinet making. 

It only receives day scholars; who must be present at the school tVoiu seven in 
|]i(! moi'ning until si'ven at inght. The appi'onticesbip la-t three ycai's. 

Having in view an ap]irenticeshiji similai- to that whicdi exists iindei- masters, the 
organization exerted itself to create for each trade worlvsho|is resembling as mu(di as 
possible, as regards material and the kind of work, those of a private industry. 

With this object the etforts of the ap])rentices are applied to the ])roducti'ni ot 
such goods as can be easily sold. The school of \'illet.te manufactures ai\nually to 
the extent of about $2,400" 

During the tii'st year all the pupils pas-sed alternately and without distinction 
liiun one workshop to the other. 

It is of advantage to the i)upil, no matter what particular trade he may eventu- 
ally chose, that he shonld have a general knowledge of the trades connected with 

'Kxtract froin a report ])rtsciiti'(l to tlic Scifntilic Hocifty of IWdi-iiux, liy Mr. E. Biiluin, on tlif 
" Foriuiitiini of i'.u aiiint'iitiuu scliool at Bordeaux." 



182 



luH own — trailes with whioh, in the exorci«e of bin own, he will fniqiiontly como in 
contuct. Finally it Ih during thitt Hi'Nt your tliut hiw diHpoHition an<I tuHton dtHpliiy 
thoin.Hnlvos, uiid Hliniild dorido thci choict* ot ii Inido in whicli his tondcncioH, now 
aHCurfiiincMl, may nmko him a holler wopUmaii. 

Tho creator part of the time (livo hours a day. according to the year) in ^ivoii 
to maiiiial worU, under tho dirnction of a Lead of worU.shops, a head hoing named for 
eaoli"sv()Mlv pupils. 

Thou^'ii the first place is ^riven to manual work, an important place is novor- 
tholesH, reserved tbi- general instruction, which is necessary, so that the apprentice 
may he sutliciontly instructed to rouMon on his trade, and to a]»ply methodH with 
iliscernment. 

The duration of tiio chiBsoH vary between three and five hours a day according 
to the years. 

In principle tho claHscs succood each other in tho morniiiLC in such a way that 
after rest and tho lecroation that folIowM, tho appronticoH can give all tho rest "f the 
day without interruption to manual work. Wo consider, with reason, that Iho 
exorcises of the work-hops should lu^ continuous to accustom the apprentice to 
assiduity and teiuicity foi' work, essential qualities for a good work'man. 

The two following tables will give a Miiniaary idea of tho suhjects taught and 
tho timo given to each : 

I)1J)KR0T MUNICIPAL SCHOOL. 



Vr, 



CIIRIUCITI.U.M or I'Kol'KSSroNAri INSTItUCTION. 




ProfeKHions. 



Forginjf 

Turning on metal . 

LcMsiT Meclianics 

Decorative Locksmith 
i"(f 

Precision 

Modelling 

Joining 



Turning in Wood. 



iBt Year. 



.11 






•s fe.a 

— * 3 
.5 is 

'J 7i 



2ii(l Year. 



PreliininaryexerciHes, tools, Forging of pieces of m:i 



Sr<1 Year. 



varioim solderH. 



chinery. 



Manufacture of sliarpened Axles, wire drawing nf 
todlM, turning of nimiile screws and of tools, wire 



l)ieces, iiolisiiing. 



draw ing. 



T(K)ls, adjusting and tuni- Small machine tools, models 
ing of small articles. for demonstration. 



Tools, keys, locks, house 
locks. 



Omanieiits, leaves, flowers, 
artistic locksmiths' work, 
joining together. 



Preliminarj- exercises, tools, Aitparatus for i)hysics ami 
ti'acing, wire drawing. telegraphy. 



Models of the simjilo parts Machine tools, disinisition 
of engines. ! of wheels, grooved Uiarils, 

newel boxes. 



Sharpening tools, joining Doors, windows, furniture, 
together various fr.ames. mountings. 



Mounting and shar|iening 
of tools, handles and 
small articles, wire draw- 
ing. 



Turning of models fur 
fcumdry, twisted pieots 
and frame nu/uldings. 



bsltli'U 



183 



DIDEROT MUNICIPAL SCHOOL. 

('lMllll('I-I,r.M OK iNSTIU'CInN. 



StibjcctH. 



Krciich liiii|{uaK<' . . 
l')iHrli-'l> litiiKiiivKi' . . 
.MatiieniivticH 



ChenuHtry 

Natural pliilcinidiy . . . 



Technology. 

^[|'(;llaIlics. 
History . . . 



(.Jeography 



Din wing 



Law 



lut Yc«r, Section A and H. 2n<l Year, .Sfctiim .1 umi B. 



(Srnniinar, ortliography. 



Hi'ailiiig, writing, ('IcnicntN 
<if gnininiar, t^xfrciwH on 
))lac'klKiar(l. 

Arithnif'tii', jilain gfonictry 

(ctintcnts cif first thrcf 
books, ai)|)liLation). 



Klt-nicntH of general chem- 
istry. 

Kh'nients of natm'al )>liilo- 
Hophy, gfiicrul pruiicrtit's 
of iKxlifs. 

Materials, from wlience de- 
rived, tlifir(|iialitieH, their 
use, hand tools. 



Klenients of general history 
up to the modern times. 



Geograjihy of Ania, Africa, 
America and Oecanica 
(connuerce ami industry) 



Supplement I if grammar, ex- 
ercises in editing. 



(irammar (syntax) transla- 
tions and exercises, con- 
versation. 

Supplement of arithmetic, 
geometry (mensuration 
and surveying). 



Chemicals in maiuifactur-^ 
ing, metallurgy. 

Natural phih)sophy in 
mamifacturing applica- 
tion. 



3rd Year. 



Re|Mirts of the visits to the 
worksiiopH or manufac- 
tories. 



Klenients "f algebra and of 
trigonomi'try, elements of 
giKinii'try in space (mi'a- 
sure of volumes) usual 
curves. 



•Supplement of natural phil- 
I osophy, and of chemistry. 



Klenientary (larts of ma-'DeHcripticni of machines, 
chines, process of fabri-i ttsils, steam engines, small 
cation. { engines. 



Elementary mechanics (ajv 

plieation). 

Modern history (scientific 
and manufacturing dis- 
coveries). 

Cicograpliy of Kurojie {com- 
uieree an<l industry). 



Suiiplement to nieehanics, 
resistances of materials. 



Free h.and <lrawiiig, ele- ( ieometrieiil and iniiustriarKrec drawings of t<K)ls and 



meiits of graiihical draw- 
ing. 



draw iiigs, free iuuid draw 
ings from models, archi 
tectural drawings. 



macliinery, fre(^ hand 
drawing from metal and 
wooden mndels, architec- 
tural drawings. 

Elements of law.< of custom. 



lutUl'' 



'».pll 



184 






C: C r-"M 

i7T7 

rH 1-1 


c:' C -^ »1 

i777 

cc c; c r- 






1 

r 


1 
1 



T~i ^ ^ !"• ^ r— ' 

X s: i t-< X c; c r-< 



» 



185 



M 



I should have terminiilcil witli iho expiration of time l>y sayinaj that a grout part 
of the rocreatioM time is employed iii i,'ymiiasti<'s an<l (he workiiin'ot'a fire engine. 

The ability of Iho masters is not to he Judged by the lists of suiijects taught, 
The mode of eoUocting pujiils has also an infiuoneo on the ultimate results, lor the 
age or the degree of instruetion requireil. the gratuity, whether it is, or is not, allowed, 
modify very pereeptihiy the :-talV taught. It is interestingalso to note the couditions 
reipiired, lo l)e admitted as ])upils in the sidiool of Villette. 

No pupil is admitted before the age ot thirteen years, nor after that of sixteen, 
so that tlieir new instruction shall follow their first teaching. 

The candidates are ailmitted on the production of a certificate of study, or in 
default, afti-r au examination at the school, an examination comjtrising written and 
oral ])rool. 

The written examination comprises: 1st. The usual dictation in orthograjjliy. 
_'i.d. Sunis on the four fii'st ru' -s of arithmetic, and the system of weiglits and 
measures. 

The oral examination comprises, reading witii tlic meaning of words, questions 
in grammar and arithmetic. 

The instruction is entirely free, but the contributions In-ing made in the City of 
Paris, Parisians are admil.v^d by preference, into the school; in any case, the candi- 
tlalesarc re([uiri'd, in imitatiiju ot the schools ofartsaml trades, to be l"'i'cnidi. 

Not only does the .school of \'illette give free instruction but in an indirect way 
it gives a small remuneration to its best pupils. 

Daring the twelve hours that they pass at school, the pupils Ivive a meal to take; 
ihey can t.alce it with t.liem '• lake it- at a canteen controlled by the school board, in 
cousideiation of the sum ol ^0.10, a sum somewhat less than the real value ; tickets 
for breaktast are awarded to the l)est apprentices of the second and third year. 

At the end of their tiiird year, a certificate of a,/prenticeship is granted to Iho 
pupils. No certificate even ol attendance, is given to tlu)se wlio ])rcmatuicly leave 
I lie school. 

We cire able, however, to prove that this prematui'e de]Ktrtui-e of jmpils from the 
:il)prenticeship schools, that we have heard designated as stumbling blocks to Iheii- 
mtui'e, is not of such proportion as to be alarming. The following figures will give 
home idea : 

l''or the promotion of tlie third year there were actu;illy !^.'! pupils, there were 
Ibt ])upil! who began in the school, making a ditVerence of 27 j)upils, which is surely 
not exorbitant, when we refiect that this deficit does not compi'ise, only those leaving 
V'lluiitarih-. butalso tho.sothat have left through necessity,death,sickness,dismissal,\"c. 

According to the books of the scliool, the annual expenses amount to about 
814,000, but the.se figures are not altogether correct; we must deduct the work of tho 
iipjirentices, which i»y I'oasoa of the mode of bookdvccping adopted in this case by tho 
city of Paris, is not entered as receipts, 'fhe s(dioo| of Villette has 'mU only a good 
i'ig;Mii/,ation, an eidightcncd direction, it has success whicdi does not always accom- 
\K{\\y tlie best conducled work.s. It is above all that which we must endeavor to 
I'i'iain. 



ur "Civiuij: 



We count ;5(10 :ipprenlic"s and it is w.ant ot'sp:ice alone, that picvents o 
iiivu action to a greater number. 

Tho results given by our teaching can now be appreciated and appear altogelhcr 

I'avoi'able. 

The apprentices, from tlu' (inu? ol' tlieir leaving the school, find work in the best 
^itirk-diops on conditions oxcepticmally advantageous. They earn. tVom that time, 
Wiiu'es, thai may be estimated at ten eents for every liour of work, 'some receive as 
liiuli as SOIS. 

Thanks to an as.sociation of old pu])ils of the school, it is po.ssible to betlei" 
appreciate Mie beneficdal inllnenee of the instruc lion given. We can give an exact 
Maiciui'ni of the j)ositioii wliieli the old j)ujiils hold in ttie trades they have chosen. 
Tho school of Villette have produced skill'ul workmen and good foremen. 



MiUM 



186 



The roHults obtained must liavo licen very reinarkalile to cnuble ii8 to rcjjort tho 
followinpf Itict, which, in its Himplicity, has an im])ortuncc which wo do not fail to 
recoifnizo. 

ThoKO who, ft"om tlio bc^innin^, Hhowetl tbemHclvuH the m^st decided adversaricH 
of (lie HchoolH of appniiticoship, and who were most to ho dreaded, are now their 
protectors. Tliey iSyndical Ciiamber, composed of men who, foi- some years past, were 
.lest able to appreciate the worl<mon produced by the scdiool of Villettc, now give to 
this institution their strongest support by giving prizes to tho most deserving 
pupils. 



I 



MUNICIPAL SCHOOL ESTH-^NNE. 



TECIINICAf. SCIIOOI, OF BOOK-MAKl.Vd. 

The Municipal School of Kstionne has foi- its object the formation of skilled and 
able workmen for the book-making imlustiy. 

The instruction is free. Hn'akfa>t tickets are given in the school. 

The pupils ai-e day scholars. Tiieygo to school at eight o'clock in tho morning 
and l(!av(! at six in the evening. The studies last for three years. 

During the first year th(^ pupils go through all the workshops of the school; at 
tho end of tho first year they are divided according to their ability, known to tho 
Committee of the School, into the workshops where they servo their apprenticeship. 



X. 









o 



187 



t^ 









"C j^ 


"L^ 


# = 






* >. 


r S 


-5-^ 


^ t 


2 1 


■S '•' 








It 




> i. 


.ix 


'£1*5 




X <*- 


5 '^ 






Z.'T- 


•^ i- 








^ *-» 


7. -' 




i 


*x G 










h * 




rt-r 


b a 




vSU •- 


. 'f 


e -,:■ 


«,v 


■f^ 




2 i3 


r,.s 


S'' 


--.i^ 


■^l 




M 



188 



Modellinif. 4th. llistorvof 
Stii. Frenoli. 0th. llistorv 



TECIINICAL MUNICIPAL SCHOOL OF FURNITURE, PARIS. 

Thc! ()l>)oct of the school is to form skilled anil I'lliicatod workmen capahle of 
maintaining, for taste and superiority, French industry. 

The list of studies includes tocimical and primary instruction. 

The technical instruction comprises tlie prin('i])ai trades of furniture making. 

1st. Cabinet making. 2nd. Upholstei'ing, .'Jrd. Carving in wood. 4th. Cliair 
making. 5th. Turning in wooil, plaster and metal, &e. 

The list of j)rimary sulijects comprise: — 

1st. Dr'awing ])lan.s. 2nd. Drawing at sight. ;)i(l 
art. 5th. Technology, fith. (reometry. 7th. Arithmetic, 
{■nd Creograi)hy. 

The pupils are day scholars; the school gives breakfast and luncheon free, the 
instruction is given without cliarge. 

The time of apprenticeshij) is four years, 

Tlie first year the appi'euticea pass their time equally among eacli of tlio work- 
shops. 

The second 3'ear they are distributed according to their examiiuitions and 
aptitude, among the dill'erent worlcslio]is, wiiere they will finish their apprentice>hip. 

A certilicate of technical study shall lie given to ea(di apprentice who complel> > 
his fourth year of ai)]irenticeship and who gives satisfactory proof of his knowledge 
at the linal examination. 

Pi'izes, on leaving, are awarded to the most skilful. 

Pupils aie chosen by means of comj)etition. 

The I'ompetition com|)rise> two proofs: — 

1st. A design for an ornament from a I'elief. 2nd. A composition in French 011 
some simple subject. 

Only candidates between I'i and 17 years of age are allowed to compete. 



CITY OF ROUEN. 

TECHNICAL MUNICIPAL SCHOOL AND HOUSE-KEEI>rN(l FOR YOUNO GlELS. 

The technical and liouse-keeping school for young girls whicli was instituted by 
the City of Rouen, in the building be([ueathed for that purjiose by Madame de Saint 
Ililaire, has for its object the instruction of young girls in every branch of sewing, 
cutting and making clothing, and linen garments, ironing and house-keeping. 

The a])])renti('eship extends over three yeai's. 

Six hours a da}' are given to \vo:'kman's »vork. 

The organisation of tl;e school allows the pupil apprentices to comjilete iheii: 
primary education on necessary subjects and to get some ideas of the laws of health 
and domestic economy. 

They also receive lessons in drawing to assist them in the art of cutting out 
Clotliing and linen goods, and some knowledge of hice making and embroider}-. 

In order to teach the ])ui)ils house-kee])ing ami cooking ten pupil apprentices 
are chosen in time to prepare and cook the mid-<lay meal at the expense of the school. 

The technical school ;ind home for young girls is free. 

The workshops of the .sidiool can work either for customers, or for tlieCit}'. 

The mistresses receive no profit from the work. 

The wages paid for the work shall belong one pail to the City, and the t)tlicr 
to the juipil apjirentices. 

The j)orti<in leverting to the City shall be employed for the improvement and 
doveloj)nient of the institution. The amount eor.iing to the children shall be used, 
on con.sultation with the families, towards the personal wants of the children. The 
division of th(> wages .-diould be I'cgulat d by the mayor on the adaice of the Council 
of Superintendence. 



T 

(he CO 
T 

4lh. I- 

Scul))t 
Tl 
In 

pupil. 
TH 



Th 

teach tl 

later, ei 

ence. "" 

1st. 

]U'imar\ 

2n(i 

1st. 

modern 

2nd. 

ti'ibuted 

ery. Th 

Mon 

"■eek. (1,1 

''i'essmak 
The 
Only 

'^'clinical ( 



Orhjin. 

"•;ide, of w 

f'"' many ■ 

TJie Ci 

'■ii-^iness be( 

"ic nuinero 

""^■'•0 idle, a 

'1 was I 

die City Ha 

'"I'tunes wit 

AH ans 

P''"diiced iKi 

'^'dure Of (Ju 

"■''I' for vvhii 

figui'ed surfa 

I^W of a fe' 

iii-truoted by 

't becai'n 

''"n, and for 1 

t'le builtiiivr ,. 



189 



CITY OF ST. ETIEXNE* 

The technical school of St. HticMi\e was estalilisluMl hy the City, who paiil ail 
the cost, and sup]iorts it. It is in reality a school of ai)])reMticuship. 

The ti-ades tauy'ht are: Ist. Adjusting. 2nd. Giinsniithinn-. Hrd. Forging, 
nil. Founder's. 5th. .loinei-'s. (Ith. Weaving. 7th. Dyeing. Sih. Modelling and 
Sculpture. 

The school and its outlit cost .Sllo.OOO. It can hold 200 ])upils. 

In 18SS they had 200 pupils, and the expenses caino to $14,000, being 850 per 
jiupil. 

The instruction is free and several pupils rcceivo scholurshii s. 

TECHNICAL SCHOOL I'OH <HHLS. 

The tcclinical school has for its object tiu^ instruction of young girls, and to 
teach them work suited to their condition — worlc wliich they will have to jiractice 
later, either in their capacity of housekeeper in the fa?nily, or as a jneans of exist- 
ence. The euriiciduni comprises two distinct ])arts, though slightly connected. 

1st. A classical instruction intended to complete the knowledge acquired in the 
primary schools. 

2nil. A special instruction to prepare tlie pupils for the following trades: — 

1st. For commei'ce by special courses in Fi'ench, accounts, commercial law, the 
modern languages, and writing. 

2nd. For manual trades for approntic(?ship, from which the pupils are dis- 
tributed among the workshops foi- dress-making, plain sewing, ironing and embroid- 
ery. These workshops are directed by sj)ccial mistresses. 

Moreover, the young girls who are not destined for work girls, are taught each 
week. d.iring several hours, the usual work necessary to their education, such as 
dressmaking, mending, ironing, and dfunestic economy. 

The length of study is two years. 

Oidy those children who have a certiticute of primary study are admitted to the 
technical school. 



'"^■i. 



CITY OF SFDAX. 



tlicli: 



MtJNICirAL SCHOOL OF WF^AVIXG. 

Orlfjin. — Tn 18S1 a crisis fell upon all the manufacturing ccittres of the woollen 
!i;ide, of which the consequences were the more disastrous, as they were prolonged 
I'll" many years. 

The City of Sedan was no exception, but sut^'ered with tlie I'cst. All at once 
I'li-iiiess became i)araly/.ed. The sjiinning mills weie unoccu])ied, and with them 
'lie numerous workmen attatdied to them. Three-fourths of the weavers by hand 
were idle, and whole villages were without work. 

It was under these sad circumstances that the municipality called together, at 
ilie ('ity Hall, the manidacturers to devise some means to struggle against the mis- 
tortunos with which our industry was atilicted. 

All answered to the call, the examimition into the general causes would have 
produced no result, and they were compelled to contine their cn([uirics as to the 
tiulure ot the local tradi'. At tii-st Sedan jiroduceil large ([Uantities ot' goods in plain 
well for which there was no demand, the demand was tor (le tissus fayonne) weii cd' 
ti;;iired surface. At this period the making of web of tigured surface was the privi- 
li'U'e of a fe^v workmen only, who had made special studies, and (o a lew forenu'n 
instructed by them. 

it became necessary to devise some means of extendiuL;' this ]u'an(di of instruc- 
linn. and for this purpose a school was opened free to all, the municipality providing 
Uie building and paying all expenses. 

"Chief town of the Department of the Loire, 121, (MMJ inhiiliitiint.s. 



190 



This motion was unaniniously ajiprovod of, and during tho meeting six mem- 
bers ot'tlie commission ofdirection woi'i; elected. 

Opcnin(j. — The school opened on the 1st October, 1881, and numbers of pupils 
entered their names. They imagined that the instruction on weaving required as 
little application as work, and consequently there were desertions. Twenty-live alone 
persevered. 

Number of Pupils.— In 1882, 20 ; 1883, 22 ; 1884, 2i> ; 1885, 31 ; 188(5, 38 ; 1887, 
43; 1888, 52; 1880, 50. 

Organization. — The course compr se three years, the theoretic portion is studied 
in the evening of each day. 

For practice every day the pupi's had the choice of twenty looms under the 
guidance of a special foreman tor wea^'ing. 

Competition. — Competitions took ^ilace every three months; the work of the 
pupils was corrected by the professor and examined b}' t.ie commission of directinn. 
A certain number of points was given to each pu])il, and the addition of these at the 
end of the j'ear, assisted in the preparation of tho table of prizes. 

Distribution oi Prizes. — The prizes consisted of medals accompanied by diplomas. 

Staff. — A professor, a foreman weaver, a laborer as guardian. 

E.rpen.ses. — The amount of expenses varies from 81,700 to S 1,800 covered by the 
municipal budget, which for the last three yeai's receives from the Minister of Com- 
merce an annual subsidy of 8-tOO. 

Results. — The services rendered by the school is shown by the always increasing 
number ot pupils, and by the number of foremen employed by the factoiy. 

General Considerations. — If we examine the quality of the pupils that follow 
these courses, we see only the masters and the sons of masters, the very young jieo 
ple aie rare. On the other hand the weaving workmen form the largest number 
and display diligence, truly remarkable. Many of them after their day's work leave 
their villages in the evening, to be present at the courses of instruction. Being of 
the ages from 22 to 25, they generally possess a good primary eilucation. 

On their departure from the school, if a place offers, they are sure to get the 
preference. Jf there is not, they return to their trade, liut they have not long to 
wait. 

In conclusion nearly all the plain weavers earning irregularly 815 a month, find 
employment jyaying regularly according to merit, §25 30 and even $00. Thus it is, 
that while our work benefits the trade, it also contributes to improve the lot of the 
workman who endeavors to instruct and elevate himself. 

Particular results. — From the industrial point of view, the school, by its method 
of teaching the making and unmaking of the tissues, prepares good sa?nplei's, 
capable of inventing new stuffs that make the name of a city. The great variety of 
stuffs displayed, at our exposition, superabundantly show the object we are following. 
C'ui- work Old}' applies to weaving, but, it is ])erhaps the most productive. One 
subject well understood seems preferable to a multitude of sciences, particularly when 
we have to deal with the working class. If a workman is to become a foreman- 
weaver, teach him weaving, if he wishes to be a dyer, teach him dyeing and nothing 
else. Apprenticeship has clisappeared before technical instruction. Apprenticesliip 
tends to learning a special branch of a trade. At the beginning we stated that our 
work was patriotic, to-tlay we can add that it is essentially democratic. 



SOCIETY OF THE ORPHANAGE OF JEWELLERS. WATCHMAKERS, GOLD- 
SMITHS, AND INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH THEM. 

Paris. 

The object of the Society is to come to the aid of the children of its titular 
members, when deprived of their natural protectors. 

They come to their help, they put them to nurse, they support them during 
their tirst years, they bind them as ap])rentices, they exercise over them a care- 
ful watch, and an assured pi'otection until the end of their engagement. 



T( 

Is 

2n 

of Adn- 

3i-( 

minimi 

Ev 

On 



The 

The 

cln'idren, 



SOCIET^ 



Artie 
«nd child 
liiide and 
laws on aj 
Art. 
1st. I 
the Condi t 

2nd. 
assisted, a( 
"■ies, as w( 
publication 
di'iiation. 



The St 
tones, in s( 
apprentices, 
faro and att 
"iiose condi 

It awar 

1st, 

2nd 

3r(| 

The diff, 



FOUNDED FOR 



Ratrona" 
t'lis without^ 



191 



To bo titular niembors it is necosHary : 
1st. To follow one of tlio foUowinjL? trades: 

2nd. To bo presented by two members of the Society and accoptedby the Council 
of Administration. 

Srd. To pay a fee of admission of §0.20 and a monthly a.ssossmont of which t!»e 
minimum is §0.10, 

Every member changing his trade may continue to form part of the Society. 
On the 1st June, 188!), the society numln'red : 

Lady patronesses 114 

Honorary members 304 

Titular members 587 



1,005 



The receipts in 1888 were $4,100 and the expenses 82,'.)00. 

The institution raised, instructed and watched over 55 orphans, workingmen's 
children. 



jthoil 
filers, 
Ity of 
Iviim". 
One 
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SOCIETY FOR TIIH PROTECTION OP ArPRENTICES AND CHILDREN IN 

THE MANUFACTORIES, PARIS. 

Statutes of the Society. 

Article 1. — The object of the society is to impiove the condition of ajiprenticcs 
and children employed in the manufactories, and whilst respecting the liiierty of 
trade and the authority of parents, to use every means to carry out tlie spirit of the 
laws on apprenticeship and the labor of children in the maiuifactories. 

Art. Vii. The revenues are apj)lied : 

1st. In the publication of a paper destined to make known all facts relative to 
the condition of the labor of children employed in trades in Frarce or elsewhere, 

2nd. To help, encourage, and point out, b}' rewartls, all those who have directly 
assisted, advised or insti'uctod those children employed in the large and small indus- 
tries, as well as all those who have co-operated tor the same, and by an invention or 
publication, or by giving a prize to bo competed for by apprentices or by special 
donation. 

10th feast of the working cuildken. 

List of prizes to be awarded in 1890 — Term 1888-1890, 

The Society for the Protection of Apprentices and Children Employed in Manufac- 
tories, in solemn council, reward those persons who, by their solicitude for the 
apprentices, have aided this work, or foremen or forewomen who have given their 
care and attention to the children under their charge, and tinally, the apprentices 
whose conduct and morality are irreproachable. 
It awards : 

1st. Special mention of thanks. 
2nd. Medals of silver-gilt, silver and bronze. 
3rd. Prizes in money and books on the saving's bank. 
The different prize winners are grouped In the following manner: 

I. Charitable Institutions. 



liring 
eare- 



V'OUNDED FOR THE OBJECT OP INSTRUCTING AND ASSISTING THE APPRENTICES GIRLS AND 
BOYS, AND OP TEACHING TrSM MORALITY, 

Patronage, Orphan Asylums, Technical Schools, Board of Apprentices, &c,, and 
this without distinction of religion, , 




102 



II. Manufacturing Institutions. 

MANUFACTUIIKHH WHO ARK DISTINdllSIIKD Foil TIIEIU CAUK (tl'TIIK IMIYSICAI, AND MORAL 
WKLl,-l{KIN(i (tr TIIKIR AIM'UKNTICKS AND VOUNCi WdRK.MKN. 

Is^ (^'las>i — Inclu(le>i iiuimit'iictiiroi'H and buHinoss men who have founiloil in thcii- 
estahlishmonlH, inntitutions to farilitato apprenticini^, toonsuro Ihoir health and oihi- 
cation, 1,'onorul, npecial and profosaional, and alno Iho morality and fnliirc of 3'oun.!^ 
vvorknitMi. 

2nd Class — Inchidin<? tlio businos.s men who, witliout liavinu; croatod institutions 
or ori,'anis('(l in tiioir worivshops poi'maii'"it imuiiis of instruction, nonoral or special, 
are rcmaikaiiK) for personal Holieitude and attention with regard to apprentices or 
younij; workinei . 

3rd ('lass. — Inchuling business men and masters by whom the contract of 
appronticsliip is honestly and UHefully carried out for the benefit of tlie young appren- 
tices and who carefully watch over the well-being of the young workmen. 

-llh Class. — Including the persons and associations not connected with i)usiness, 
who by devotion to children and young workmen, have, as assistants, helped business 
men with works for the benefit of apprentices. 

///. Foremen or Forewomen. 

WHO HAVE DISPLAYED A lIKill DEOREE OF INTELMOENCE AND DEVOTION, TOWARDS TUE 
CHILDREN IN THEIR CIIAROE, AND TO AVIIoM TUEV ARE HOUND TO TE.VCII THEIR TRADE. 

E.vhibits to be Produced bij the Candidates. — Ist A certificate of good life ami 
conduct, issued by theadminisirative body. 2nd. A statement setting forth the merits 
of the candidate and the number of years' service, addressed by the master who em- 
ploys him, or by a member of the Society directly. 

IV. Apprentices and Children Emploijed in Manufactories. 

BANK-BOOKS OF DIFFERENT VALUE AND MEDALS AND MENTION WILL BE AWARDED. 

Ist. To apprentices under the protection of Patronages, Aid Societies, Profes- 
sional schools and business men, who have distinguished themselves by theii' ability 
at their business, and by their constant good conduct. 

2nd. To former apprentices now become workmen in the establishment in which 
they were apprentices. 

Certificates to be produced. — A certificate of the cantlidate's merits, his name ami 
surname, age, years of work, &c., addressed to the society by the master to whom he 
is engaged, or directly by a mendier of the society. 

S})ecial prizes atcarded by Joint Committees. 

1. PRIZE FOR LEGAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH. 

A medal of honor, in recognition of legal services, given in the interests of children 
and apprentices employed in factories. 

Protection, in the courts, of the interests of children injured by accidents, i^c 

2. PRIZE FOR THE SOCIETIES OF PATERNAL ASSISTANCE. 

A medal of iionor to the Society of Paternal Assistance which has given the most 
effective help to develop the technical education of apprentices of both sexes. 

3. PRIZE FOR THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMMITTEE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT. 

Prize No. 1. — A silver-ijilt meilal and a special mention for a complete study dh 
engines or motive power, in view of the accidents they may occasion and the niei^n» 
of remedying them. 

Prize No. 2. — ^l silver medal to any manufacturer who, by means of apj)aratus, 
or isolation, or coverings, has lessened the chances of accidents occurring througli 
the motive power. 



193 



ililv 



PiuzK No. 3. — A silrer maJdl io any mnniifiK'turor wlio, diirini,' tho ooiiisc of the 
year, has jducod i^uaids over tho li'iitlicsi' liuiidsot' the inarhiiics in liis factory. 

I'uizE N«». 4 — A silver-(/i.lt mvdal ami a speeial me.nfiun for any invention, and its 
a]>pli('ation, l>y which accidonts from circnlar saws may lie picvcntod. 

I'liizK N(">. 5. — A silver mcddl tor a stinly on circidar naws, and on tho cstablish- 



nicnls in Paris in which tlu^y are used. 

Tiie essay to ho divided into two parts: 1st., tho technical: 



Jnd., tho statlstica!.. 



Prize No. 6. — A silver medal to any ostahlishmcnt who, huvint^ u.sod circular 
saws, has, durinu; tho year, substituted others less dan^'erous. 

Piuzi; Nn. 7. — .1 silver-fjilt nu'i/al and ntcntion for any invention or iniprovomont 
intended to ])revenl acciilontK in any factory whatsoever, in which children are em- 
ployed. 

J'uiZK No. S. — .1 silver-gilt medal with or without a proniium in money, to any 
director of an t^stid)lisliment, foreman, workman or oilier per'^m hy whose means 
any special improvement i'>v the |)revention of accidents, is maile. 

PurzK. No. !). — A .silver incAlal (o all masters who have protected and received 
into their workshops mutilated children recommended hy tho accident committee of 
the establishment. 

PiiizK No. 10. — A silver medal and special mention for any important improve- 
ment in agricultural im])lemenls liy whi<'h tiiey hocome less daniferous. 

Prize No. 11. — A silver medal witli special mi'ntion t'ov any essay on tho nature 
and frequency of acciilents caused by agi'icultural implements. 

4. PRIZE FOR FE.MAI.E TEACHERS, IIY ClIAUITY. 

A medal of honor ■will be awarded any tciicher (female) — laywoman or belonjjjing 
to a congregation — who is recognized as havnig especially devoted liersolf ti) tho 
jirimaiy teaching of apprentices in a icorkshop course. 

5. Prizi of the Library Com.mittee. 
Silver or bronze medals, with or without gifts in money, will be awarded : 

1st. To works of education or ])rimary and professional instruction for appren- 
tices and children employed in factories ; 

2nd. To authors of literary fv.'>J scientific woi-lcs written with a view to instruct 
and elevate the morality of children in workshops. 

Besi los the influence the society exei'cises in virtue of its grants, of tho prizes 
it awards, of its spread throughout all the industries of France, improving tho 
physical and moral condition of apjirentices and children employetl in factories, it 
has established a number of committees, tho list of which wo believe it would bo 
useful to place before our readers, giving at the same time a short slcetch of thoir 
s[)ecial functions and nature, 

1. LEOAii committee. 

French and foreign legislation, legal assistance, apprenticeshi]'' contracts, civil status, 

guardians, su'^.rogated guardians. 

Tho Legal Committee offers its services gratuitously to interested pai-tios with 
a view to conciliation and mediatory intervention between a|)prontices and masters. 
Deeds of a])prenticeship, and accidents in the factory fro(iuently beget difficulties of 
this kind. 

It gives a special care to protecting the interests of abandoned children, procur- 
ing theii' civil status and choosing guardians, and superintends the forming of 
family councils for orphan apprentices. 

2. committee for societies of paternal assistance or industrial PATRONAaE.S. 

Tho protection society has already given rise to paternal assistance societies, for 
children in many Parisian industries ; it is desirous that no industry, in which 
20—13 



104 



fhilflron arc omployod, should boa strntiijor to tho movomont ho happily bo^iin and 
whiili lias iilii'inly lioriin siicli exci'lU'iit I'riiil. Colorcil piipiT I'actorii's, fcjitlicrs and 
llowoiH, oiiMnft-niakini,', piibliMJiini;- and |iriiitinj,^ Jcnvcllory, atul jMi'luni; liavo 
all ffivcn an oxainplo sure to bo followod. ('arntiil protection of apprnntices, supor- 
inlcndeiico of tlieii- education, the founding of scliools and special courses of stmly, 
cstablisliiii<,^ of coin|)clitiv(! cxaminiitions willi important pi'i/cs are among the 
n)eans made us(! of liy liu^sc societies, capable of eompiising the most diverse organ- 
izations; they unite masttu-s in the same industry, in one same (diarilable and moral 
Work wliicdi, if everywhere practised, would suilice to oll'cct an important improvo- 
mont in tho condition of children of tho working class. 

'{. COMMITTKE OK LIHRAKIES, PUHMCATIONS, AND TEACniNQ. 

Eatahlishment <>J libraries for apprentices ; exchanKje of reports between the libraries 

of the ivork. 

Whilst devoting its attention and caro to the physical condition of ohildron, tho 
protection society sho\ild, at the same time, watch with tho greatest care, oyer their 
moral deveiojitnciit. It Ikih been proved that very (recpiently a praisewo rlhy desire 
for serious reading exists ;imong apprentices who have no means of gratifying the 
tasto from total want or insulliciency of books. The committee of libraries au'l pub- 
lications notes tho want, and draws j)ublic attention to books written in tho interest 
of tho working classes, rewards the author, and by tho helj) of suliscri])tionH, gifts, 
&c., collects or ]iureliases inslructivi' works, which it distributes everywhere there 
ai'O !i])iirentices. It has also established many libraries an<l disti'ibuted thousanil>of 
good works. Thoi'e arc in l"'rance numbers of charitable institutions that jicriod- 
icall}' publish i-cports, iVc. Tbcso publications often contain excellent ideas of a remark- 
ably i)ractical nature and which it is very impoitant, should be generally known in 
ordei" to ensure their ajjplication. The committee of exchange of pam])hlets, I'cjtorts, 
&c., strives to centralize tiiese ])ublication8, to disli'ibut(( them afterwards among the 
institutions. By this, each one ])rolits by the work of all, and useful ideas are spread 
and applied everywdiere. This work has done much to advance institutions estab- 
lished everywhere in France in favor of children of tho working class. 

4. COMMITTEE OF ACCIDENTS IN THE FACTORY. 

The committee examines all means and newly invented apparatus noted, in 
France ana in foreign ]iarts, as likely to prevent or lessen acci<lcnts from machinery 
and to spread tho knowledge of tho ])roceH8 of rendering certain manufactures less 
dangerous. In the re]iort of its labors given in tlu^ bulletin, it states the precise 
sources ot information to be consulted and the information to be sought (m any special 
]ioint. It establishes C'tm))etitive examinations and rewards for the invention and 
improvement of means to prevent serious accidents; besides its special examinations, 
prizes are also awarded to Ibremen, workmen and others who have discovered any 
means of preventing the cause oi accidents. 

The committee assumes the protection of apprentices who arc the •ictinis of 
accidents in tho factory or workshop, and who claim its assistance, and constantly 
maintains a paternal watchfulness over them. In tho event of an apprentice roquii'ing 
any artificial help, from the results of an accident, the society procures one for him. 
Having ni!|.de en(|uiries as to tl\e ability and education of the ajijirenticc, the com 
mittee gives its advice, to the parents or guardians, as to the choice of a trade to he 
made for him, and it, moreover, assures him its help to complete his elementary 
studies or to procure him a good place. 

5. CO.MMITTEE FOR I'LACINO AlU'EENTICES. 

(Offer and dem 071 (Is; help; beds for apprentices, kc.) 

Families may enter at the agency of tho society their demands for work, 
or apprenticing their children. (Tho children should bo provided with the 



doc 

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fact II 

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105 



(lociimoiitH nroMCiiltoil by iirlicloH !• iiiid 10 oftlio law of 10th May, lS7i; cortlticato 
of pi'iiiiary iiisl ruction, vciilicil liy tin- mayor anil l»y liis hook.) Otlcrs Croni tiianu- 
I'iK'tiiriM'H to take ap|)rt'nticos aro received with cai^oi-norss. ( Kxpcriciico iian jirovod 
lliat oni^ of (ho di (lieu! tics mot with, in placiiiij; aiiprcnticcs^Mrix's from the matter of 
tiio apprcnticfs hod and lutddin;;; iho mamifactiiror does not want lo assume tho 
chai'tjo, anil the family is ofton too poor to ])roeiii'e it tiiemsolvos. Jn (HM-tain cases 
tlie Hociety may provide the entire lieddinj,', and thus assist in appi'onticini!; the child, 
also in improving; his ])hysical condition, and fieipiently — hy this means — preventH 
a poor child from heinif de]irivod of ap|irenticesiiii) in the trade ho has cdioson. At 
tho same time th(^ sii|torintendenco oftlio idiiiil's IumI pornuts a ,i,n'oator watchfulno.ss 
ovor his api)renticoship, which generally producos the best results.) 

H. COMMITTKE OK TIIK PATRONAQK OV rillMtRKN oK PoKEKiN HIKTir. 

French influstry is Justly famous in foreign parts, and children are often sent to 
France to serve thoir apprenticeship and then to carry hack tho technical knowledge 
they have acijuirod. The palroiiagc superinteds and wutehos over Ihono foreign 
children, and ensures their learning thoir trade. 



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ASSOCIATION FOR APPJlKNTlClXti A\D I'ATRONAGI-: OF ORPHAN'S 

OF BOTH SKXKS, PAKI8. 

Object of the Association. 

The object of this association is to procure, for panjier orphans of both sexes: 
1st, ap])renticcship to a tr;ide, according 'o their choice and ability ; ;ind, instruc- 
tion suital)le to th(Mr intelligence and in confoi'inity with the law of May lOth, 1874, 
oi\ tho employment of children and girls, minors, in maimfactories ; .'ird, a moral 
iind religious education, in accordance with tho religion of their pai'onts. 

It patronizes and takes undei' its direction tVom the age; of twelve, and without 
distinction of religion or nationality : 

1st, |)aiiper children ol both sexes who have lost both fiithcr and mother, or 
tlicir father alone; 2n(l, (diildren who have lost their mother, and whose father has 
lung since abandoned then) or who might corrupt tlu'in by his (example, or who is 
unable to bring them up; iii'd, children whose father has been convicleil onaserious 
charge ami who.-e detention will he, at least', as long as the suppost'd li-ngth of the 
annlicant's a|ii)i'enticoship; Hh, childron whoso father is acknowledi;ed to bo incur- 



ind wh(t, as such, is in an iiospitai or m a lunatic asylum, II 



mother bein<r 



ai.; 

(Iua<l or in indigence ; r)th, chihlren whose I'alher has for some lime disappeared, iind 

III whom nothing has been heard, the mother of his family lioini;' in indigence, or 

when the mother herself has (lisa])peaied and tho father is unable to bring up tho 

ihildreii ; (!th, children who, from peculiar circumstances, may bo considored as 

ni'lihans. 

Any child admitted to the ])ati'onage is immediately ap[».enlicod under tho 
direction and superintendence of a member of tho association. 

Tho care of patrons and ]mtronossos is devoted to seeing that : — 

lat. That their protdgos are provided with all necossarios of bo Idiiig, clothing, 
iuiil('r<dotliing and shoes: 

2nd. That they attend school regularly; 

'dnl. That they acquii'o habits of order, cleanliness and politeness; 

4th. That during tho a])prcnticoship both masters and children tullil their duties 
iiml obligations. 

Besides, commissioners are named by tho a-sociation, who, twice a week, make a 
visit ot inspection of all the children uiuler its patronage placed by it in appreutice- 
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196 



WOKKSirOPS FOR APPIiRJ^TICES, DIlil-XJTED BY MOXS. L'ABBE 

BOISAllD, LYONS.* 

Tho tli()iii,dit that sutrgestod th« fonndinu; of the worksliops for apprentices, 
(lirceted by Mous. L'Abbd Boi.sard, was in.s|)iro(l Ity the twofold misery oi' children 
of the popidace, moral misery and industrial misery. Their moral misery is known 
to all. A ])auper child of thirteen is unable to ,i;-uide himself, nor to resi.st tho 
temptations and influence of his wicked companions, nor the example of perverted 
workmen whom he must inevitably meet. Ho thus loses all idea of religion or 
morality. 

Industrial misery. There is no more apprenticing. The smaller industries 
employ message boys, under the name of ajiprcntices message l)oys, who enter for 
two years, and see the men work, whilst they put the workshop to I'ights. The}- 
themselves rarely work. 

In the larger industries with their machines, there is scarcely any chance for 
apprentices, and in any case they can only become specialists when they are any- 
thing more than simple assistants. 

Mons. L'Abbe !5oisard tries, l)y every means at his command, to guard against 
this twofold misery in forming apprentices capable at their business and brought up 
in a Christian manner. 

Means to attain the object first mentioned. Mons. L'Abbi5 Boisaid, following 
religious tradition, has given the children a moral life as st:ong as it ie free. It is 
precisely this libert3' that gives the work the success it has attained. 

For tho second oliject, that is, to impart a complete and thorough technical edu- 
cation ; there are two worksho])s where able workmen work with the apprentices. 
The~e latti'r are emi)lo3'ed at useful Avork and are constantly striving by the necessity 
of doing t heir best ; this necessity imposed by customers and by competition is also an 
important factor in the education of young apprentices. The best kind of work 
in each iiranch taught, is done before and with them. 

It must be noted that about thirty appronlices are given, by the kindness of 
others, a large I'emunoration in accordance with their inilustry and their good-will ; 
the remunerati(jn is sucli that after five years apprenticeship they can leave with 
S200 or sB.'JOO savings, their tools and their trade. 



SOCIKTY FOR THE PATRONACIE OF APPRENTICES AND WORKMEN" OF 
ISRAELITE EXTRACTION OF PARIS. 

Sclioolfor Labor. 

Tho school for labor was foundeil by the Patronage Society in lS(i7. It has an 
indoor school wdiose object is to elevate the morality of orphans, foi'saken children, 
and those whose parents have no means of existence, in oider to teach them a trade, 
by means of which, they may car-n an honorable livelihood, and complete their 
education by means of a night school which is held throughout the year from eight 
to ten o'clock. 

Admittance is free, subject to tho following conditions : The child must be 1.'! 
years of age, healthy in body and mind, be possesse<l of a certain primary education 
and belong to tlu' class of children named in the jiroceding paragraph. A generous 
benefactor donated in 1S75 ten pensions intended specially for children of Alsace- 
Lorraine parentage who ttiltil the conditions of admission, 

The number of 'iidoor pupils is si.xty, who are lodged, fed, and kept at I ho 
expense of the society. To assist in appreiiticing other children who do not fullil 
the required conditions for admittance as indoor apprentices, or on account of want 
of space, camiot be admitted; it accepts a number of outdoor pupils, forty-four in 
numl)er. These latter arc given a montiily assistance varying in amount from $1 to 

* Report of the Committee for the Department of the Rlioiie. 



10118 HS 
HCIlOol 



197 



?3, receive a full suit of clothes, and are apprenticed under the same eonditi 
the indoor apprentices. They are bound to follow the complete; courses of the 
of labor. 

The gi'eatest circumsjiection is observed, the child's physical and moral a])titude 
taken into consideration, and all j)Ossiblo information collected as to the ability and 
respectability of the master. The child is taken on trial for a fortnight in order to 
discover what trade suits him, and what are his abilities for the one chosen. The 
indentures are signed only after this period. 

The children are not lost sight ot, even when apprenticed; the director and dele- 
gates fi'om the committee frequently visit the ditl'eront workshojjs. 

Each pupil is provided with a printeil account-book, in which, the mastci enters 
«very week, notes and observations on the apprentice. This book is presented to, and 
examined by the director. 

The usual duration of an apprenticeship is three and a-half or four years. 

The young men are not left to their own devices wlien the apprenticeship is 
done. The Pati-oiuige Society makes it a duty to keep sight of them, assist them 
with advice, and sometimes with its means. 

On the 1st of January, 1889, the Committee had apprenticed 104 men, of whom 
60 are indoor pupils, and 44 outdoor. 



PROTESTANT SOCIETY OF LABOR, FOUNDED IN 18(58. 

TO PKOPAGATE THE PRINCIPLE op SUPPLYINU ORATCITOUSLY, SITUATIONS TO 
EMPLOYEES, WORKMEN AND APPRENTICES. 

[Paris.] 

The Protestant Society of Labor vvas founded in 1868 by manufacturers, mer- 
chants, &c. Its object is to intervene in a friendly way between manufacturers and 
merchants in need of accountants, employees, correspondents, cashiers, agents, gov- 
ernesses, saleswomen and clerks, workmen, &c., and persons in search of employ- 
ment or work. 

The society's intervention is friendly and gratuitous ; it is given irrespective of 
religion to all requiring it. 

Its aim is speciallj' to secure to masters, respectable and industrious workmen. 

In order to attain this result the Committee exacts from all a])plicant8 a certifi- 
cate, and proofs of good conduct, from the time of their beginning their career of 
labor. The information sought from masters concerning the applicants before their 
names are inscribed on the books, includes their ability, their honesty and their 
conduct. 



POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION. 



TO DEVELOP POPULAR EDUCATION IN PARIS. 

"59th Year of Existence." 

The Polytechnic Association is one of the oldest, due to private enterprise, 
in France, and devoted to popular gratuitous instruction. In 1816 a small number 
of former members of the Polytechnic School, opened a course of public instruction 
in favor of workmen. In 1824, Baron Charles Dupin inaugurated at the Arts and 
Trades Conservatory (Conservatoire des Arts et Mitiers) " a course of instruction in 
applied science, in favor of the industrial class, at an hour when they have finished 
their labor in the workshops." Auguste Comte, in 1825, attempted to establish 
analogous institutions in the Provinces. In 1826, at Metz again, Messrs. Bergery, 
Poncelet, Bardin and Woisard, former pupils of the Polytechnic School, organized a 
night class, in which was taught geometry, mechanics, physics, chemistry, grammar 
and political economy. 




198 



After flio devolution in 1830 former piipilw of the Polytechnic School gave in- 
instruciioii at (ho itinerant hospital of Si. Cloud, to the wounded and convalesi 'it 
patients of the days of July. Finally', at the orangeiy of the Louvre, on the occa- 
ion ot a banquet given by the otiior mem bciH of tlio Polytechnic School to their 
youiig comrades, all their isolated etforts were regulai'ly organized as a whole. 

The Polytechnic Association was founded foi' tlie purpose of spi'eading among 
the laboring population the primary elements of positive sciences, especially in their 
application. 

Impressed with the insutHcicjicj' of pul)lic instruction for the working class, and 
convinced of tiie beneficent intiuence of education from a moral, political and iiulus- 
trial ])oint of view, brave and generous men united their resources, their devofedness, 
their knowledge, and founded the work around which have t^ince gathered so many 
eminent men. 

Ever ;^ince 1830 the Palytechnic Association has pursued its crusade against 
ignorance, amidst political changes and social crisis, it has ever been faithful to its 
task and to its noble traditions. 

In the beginning it taugiit but about tweniy courses in one centre, the Cloth 
Market, and later at the St. Johns Hall in the City Hall (Hotel de Ville) ; it i-adiaces 
now over many industrial and commercial centies. It counts 21 sections in Paris 
and several groups ih^suburban commercial districts. It has organized, and ))ati'onizes 
several similar societies in Paris and in the departments. The public and gratuitous 
night courses are 450 in number, and their object is the spreading of u.seful, profes- 
sional, and technical knowledge, and they constitute a complete course of general 
instruction. The}' are intended for workingmen, and commei'cial and industrial 
employees, for merchants and all who have neither time nor oppoi'tunity of studying 
elsewhere. 

Conferences and popular libraries are the completion of this institution, which 
has rightly been called the workingman's Sorbonne -•= 

Tlie professors in the Polytechnic Association are i-ecruited from all professions; 
they include engineers, former pupils from the Polytechnic School, or the Central 
School, advocates, physicians, men of letters, artists, meichants, accountants, lecturers, 
men in ])tiblic places of trust, who united in a common devotion to progress bring to 
this work of social reformation, their contingent of knowledge and devolednoss. 



POLYTECHNIC ASSOCIATION. 




I'AIIIS. 

According to the first article of its Statutes the object of the Polytechnic Associ- 
ation founded 20th March, 1848, is to give gratuitovs instruction (tppropridte to their 
profrssion'i, to ddidts of bath seirs, 

in this sense, tlie Association directs its essentially jiraclical teaching and givis 
ceititicales of study that are a contirmation of it. The certiricates of study relate to 
1, Commerce ; 2, Indust'ial Arts ; 3, Mathematical Sciences ; 4, the Building art ; "), 
to teaching a(bilt women (1st and 2nd degree) 7, Technical instruction. 

The Polytechnic Association is composed of jirofessorsand directors of courses; 
of honorary members; of patrons, subscribers of S20 per year, or of one single pay- 
ment of S200; of adherent members, subscribers of at least $1.00 per year. It is 
honored by subscriptions from the Minister of Public instruction and Fine Arts, from 
the Minister of (Jommerce and Industry, and from the City of Paris. It includes among 
its patron members, Mr. Carnot, President of the Kepublic, the Baiique de France, 
the Parisian CVmipany for heating and lighting bj' gas, the Credit Foncier of Franco, 
tlie Parisian Board of Trade, kc, iV'c. Certain syndical chambers of masters an<l 
workmen give their assistance in the technical courses. 

The Polytechnic Association in 1848 possessed thirteen courses; in 1857, thirty 
courses; 1870 the number reached 220; and now (1888-1880) it has 3(50 courses, to 

* Hdi'lMmr.d — All ('stal)li.sliiiiciit in I'iiris f<ir imhlic amrHCH of instniotioii in scii'iicoand letters. 



199 



which may bo mldod 34 Hupplemen^ary oouree^. These 403 courses ai-e divided 
amuiif^ 35 sectionn all situated in I'arin. 

The following is the average number of attendances for the course of 1887-1888, 
of pupils following the courses of the Association ; among this number are not 
included those who assist at conferences or conversaziones it organizes. 

NUMBER OP THE ATTENDANCE OP SCHOLARS FOR A WEEK. 



I Dining tlw 
I first nicintli 

8 Sections for adults (male) 

7 Softions mixed 

9 Sections for adults (female) 

24 Sections. 

Comp le mentary courses 

Total attendance for a week 



(tciicral 
ivvi'ragc. 



NunilxT 
iif ciiin'iies. 



5245 3342 
2471 1!I10 
2144 18()0 


15S 

88 

108 


OSdO 7112 ;i55 
777 (IIO ;',1 


10(J37 7722 


385 



The association gives cci'tificates of study, to its scholai's and school, rewards 
awarded every year after the examinations at the end of the yeiw. 



ssoci- 
thelr 

rrivt.'S 
pe to 
It ; ■>, 

Irses ; 

lPii.y- 

11 IS 

Ifrom 

Long 
Imci', 
lanct;, 
ami 

liirty 

'S. to 



PHILOMATJIIC SOCIKTY OF BORDEAUX. 

GRATUITOUS COURSES OP Al'PRENTrCES AND OP ADULTS. 

Its origin. — The Philomathic Society of Bordeaux was founded on the 5th 
August, 18U8. It succeeded a So('iety of the .Museum of Public Instruction founded 
in ISdl, and which had been in like nuinner preceiled by the Museum (treatud in 
1773, by Monsieur Dujjrd tie Saint-Maur, intendant of (iuiniie, witii the assistance of 
the majority of the people of La (iironde. Without subvenlion of any kind the 
Philomathic Society had at that time, for solo resource, the assessments of its members 
fixed at six francs a year. 

Its aim. — It was, from the outset, divided into sections, devoted to literature, to 
the sciences, to music and to archa'ology. It was a real academy, leniaining strange 
to none of the great events of its time. It used to organize, to the advantage of the 
]ioor, iialls and musica' entertainments ; it institutei.1 at Hordeaux long before the 
creation of the present faculties, higher courses in literature and in science; it 
founded prizes to reward the authors of scientitic discoveries, and of meritorious 
musical compositions; it busied itself with all the groat (]uestions of agriculture, of 
commei'ce, and of industry, which interested the Department, and on tbc ^uiiiecl of 
of which it was consulted by the Administration, iV'c., etc. It was this institution, 
moreover, whicdi established in the Department tlie first silk-worm nur.series, 
a])pointed gratuitous courses for the ])ublic in the winding of cocoons of silk, 
founded classes of adults and of apprentices, which have had in our day so great a 
development, and, in short, organized general exhibitions, of which the last, in 1882, 
was destined to be the occasion of so brilliant a success. 

Since the foundation, subsequent to its own, of various special societies, viz : 
The riiilharmonic Society, the Society of Agriculture, the Society of the Friends of 
the Arts, the I'hilomathic Society has concentrated its efforts on the development 
of instriu'tion for the people, either by means of its lectures and discussions, or by 
means of the exhibitions. 

The society counts at the present time over 700 members, paying annually an 
assessment of ^8.00. It is recognised as an establishment of public utility by Imperial 
decree of 27th July, 1850. 

ItsBudijet. — The Philomathic Society has a budget of about $10,000. 



200 



Independently of the assessmont ot'itw meml)er.s, it has, to moot its oxpenHOs, tlie 
allowiincefi wliich it receives annually from the Mini.stor of Cornnierco, from the 
Department of the Girondo, i'rom the Town of Bordeaux and from the Chamber of 
Commcrco of Bordeaux. These allowances roach toj^fothor the ligure of S.'{,60(). The 
Philomatliic Society has also the disposal of the revenues from several legacies 
which have been made to it at different pericnls of time, either by some of its mem- 
bers, or by generous benefactors who were strangers to the society. 

Its Classes. — Founded in 18;}9, the public and gi-atituous lectures of the Philo- 
mathic Society, at lirst instituted in favor of adult men, were extended successively 
to aj)prentices (186;5), and to adult women (1860). Confined in the beginning to 
to lessons in reading, writing, graUi nar and reckoning, then to some idea of history, 
geogra])iiy and accounts, they soon attained a greater development. 

To-day, the subjects taught are the following : 

1. Primary Instruction. — Eeading, writing, grammar and arithmetic. 

2. Commei'cial Instruction. — Accounts, commercial law, geography, and three 
languages, English, German and Spanish. 

;{. Piofessional Instruction. — Algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, drawing of 
machinery, architectural drawing, decorative drawinjr, designs of coach-building, 
stone carving, wood cutting, joinery and carpentiy, tlrawing and studies applied 
to the decorative arts. 

Finally, the Philomathic Society has quite recently instituted (1884) a course of 
breaming with special application to marine engines, and (1885) a course in the 
management and running of steam engines. 

The public and gratuitous lectures of the Philomathic Society, the development 
of which,hasbeen especially directed, for several yeai's, towards technical and profes- 
sional training, are at present (1888-9) attended by more than 2,700 pupils, namely : 
13-4 apprentices, 1,774 adult men and 830 adult women. These scholars have like- 
wise the advantage of a special library, the books of which are freely placed at their 
disposal. 

The professors who, at the outset, gave their co-operation gratuitously to the 
Society, have, since 1842, received a slight indemnity. They are at present 34 in 
number, of whom 4 are for the schools of apprentices, 23 for the courses of adult 
men, and 7 for the cla-ises of adult women. 

The Director of tlie classes is a member of the Philomathic Society, whoso part 
in the work is entirely gratuitous. The present Director has been fulfilling the duties 
altogether voluntarily', since 1870. 

With the exception of the women's classes, which take place on Sunday and 
Thursday, in the afternoon, the courses are hold in the evening at the professional 
school, which the City of Bordeaux has also placed at the disposal of the Philomathic 
Society for the courses of the higher school of commerce and industry. 

Although tha last institution, which was founded in 1874, by the City of Bor- 
deaux, the Chamber of Commerce, the General Council and the Philomathic Society 
has a special budget and a Council of Superintendence and of Improvement, composed 
of delegates from the four above-mentioned bodies, it is nevertheless, under the direc- 
tion of the Philomathic Society and managed by its Council. 

Independently of its courses the Philomathic Society publishes an official report 
of its labors, and for several years has organized every winter, public and free lec- 
tures for which it engages the men most esteemed in arts, litei-ature, science and in- 
dustry, and to which it invites all the public of Bordeaux. These meetings, which are 
frequently illustrated by means of the electric light,have met with the greatest success. 



THE EHONE SOCIETY OP PEOFESSIONAL TEAINING. 

This Society was founded in 1864, at Lyons, with the object of establishing 
courses for adults and especially technical courses for workingmen, apprentices and 
clerks. 



201 



iult 

irti't 
lies 



In 1888 tho Society organized at Lyons, 291 courHes, to wit : 181 courses tor men 
and 110 coiirnos for ladies, and mixed courses. 

These eourses were frequented by 5,847 ini])ils, tliey took place from 8 to 10 
o'clock in the eveninuf, and 49 ditt'erent subjects were taught there. 

The Society's classes are not entirely free, every pupil is obliged to pny an 
entrance fee of (iU cents. Once admitted the scholar has no more to pay during tho 
year. 

At tho end of (lie year prizes are awarded to the most deserving pupils. 

The expenses for the school year 1887-88 amounted to §17,873. 



"EMULATION DIEPPOISE." 
Course in Industrial, Artistic and Professional Drawing. 

STATUTES. 

Composition of the Society. 

Art. 1. A society has been estahlished at Dieppe with the object of popularizing 
the study of professional and artistic drawing, and of causing its principles to bo ap- 
plied to the handiwork of apprentices, in various occupations. This Society takes 
the title of "Societd Industrielle dite Emulation Dieppoise." 

^~ Art. 2. It is composed of honorary members, who by their services, gifts or sub- 
scriptions contribute to the prosperity of the Association without participating in its 
advantages. 

2. Of associate members participating in the advantages of the society and pay- 
ing assessment. 

COURSES. 

Art. 7. The classes meet over}- evening from the first Monday in October to the 
1 ast Saturday in Juno, from 8 to 10 o'clock. 

Tho scholars are admitted at eleven years of age, to the course in drawing, and at 
thirteen years of age, to the course of manual work, where they can remain to eighteen 
years of age as apprentices. 

ASSESSMENTS. 

Art. 8. Tho assessment of honorary members is fixed at $2.40. 

Tho participant members (i.e., pupils) pay an assessment of 20 cents a month dur- 
ing tho course. 

These associate members are, moreover, obliged to dep'^sit an assessment of 20 
cents as admission fee. The Society at present possesses a complete organization, and 
is thoroughly organized, and oquipjied, for teaching both theory and practice to 
apprentices in wood and metal working and thus renders etlective service. 

The courses work for nine months, from the 1st October to 30th Juno. 

Tho courses in drawing take place every day, from 8 to 10 o'clock in the 
evening, Sunday excepted. 

The technical courses comprising joinery, carpentry, and cabinet work as to 
wood; the trades of the blacksmith and millwright as to metals, are open every 
Tuesday, Thui'sday and Saturday, from 8 to 10 o'clock in the evening. 

Tho room for drawing contains 48 pupils; the shop for wood working, 19 
benches; the shop for the working of metals, an engine of 2 horse-power, 2 furnaces 
with ventilator, 3 lathes, a boring-machine, a millstone moved by steam, and 20 
stalls of weighers. 

The teaching staff is composed: — 

1st. Of a director entrusted with the organization of the courses, the admission 
and classification of the pupils, the communications with parents or third parties, 
the account8,with the elementary instruction in framework drawing, for apprentices 
in metal-working, and with tho general supervision. 



202 



2n(l. Of 11 ]»i'ofess()i- of druwiiig ontni-ited witli llio conisos in jirofcHsional draw- 
ing, intoiulo<l (of (Ih^ iijiprciitic'os in viiriou.i liandifi-at'ts, and vvith tlio coiirno ot 
architoctural drawing, Indian inic drawing, etc., adapted to tlio needs of tho pupils 
not apprenticed to manual trades, or too young to enter upon ajiprenticoHhip. 

.'ird. Of a profcHHor for wood-working, comprising carpentry, joinery, or cabinet- 
making. 

4th. Of a professor for tlio working of metals, comprising the foi-ging of dif- 
ferent pieces, their shaping, turning and fitting. 

JjEiindation numbers 80 pu|iils pursuing the courses from 8 o'clock to 10 in the 
evening, who arc divided into ')i) apprentice smiths, weighers, turnoi's, carpenters, 
joiners, cabinet-makers; 30 pupils still attending school and not having manuals 
trjjdi'H. 

The course of the technical work is attended by thirty apprentices in iron- 
working, twenty apprentices in wood-working. 

The ])Upils have to study the pieces which they are to make, draw up the plan 
of each of them separately and to show on their design the sketches quoted or the 
proofs intended to guide them in the execution of their works. 

The budget of the Society amounts for the year lS8rt, to the sum of 81,0()8.50. 
Upon this budget the assessment oi' the ))upils enters only for S144; the balance is 
covered by the assessment of the honorary members. The expenses of equipment 
and repair have been uniformly covered by private subscriptions and by state-grants 
from the city and from the Ohambor of Commerce. 



INDUSTRIAL SOCIliTY OF SAINT QUENTfN AND OF L'AISNE. 
Extract frovx the ^'■notice for the jury. '' 

The Industrial Society of St, Quontin and of L'Aisne was founded in 18()S, at 
the suggestion of some gcnei'ous citizens and thaidcs to the cooperation ofall the 
meichants and manufacturers of St. Quentin. 

The aim of the founders of the Society has been to develop in the manufacturing 
and commercial district where its action extends, the physical and intellectual advant- 
ages of the various agents of industry, workmen and overseers ; to make technical 
and professional educatitm entirely free, and in short to form a centre whei'c tin' 
chiefs of industry might be able to unite, to come to an understanding u|)on I ho 
general interests of the district, to stud}' the new processes of manufacture etc. 

At the same time that it opened gratuitously the doors of its halls to technical 
and professiimal leaching,the IndustrialSociety busied itself first with tlie material, and 
moral situation of the population which asks its help, and favored the erection of 
institutions which make the workingmen belter and liappier. It is thus that from 
its bosom was detached a group of m"n who have tounded at St. (Juentin the Society 
of workingmon's dwellings, at the present time, in full ])rosperity. 

Independently of these gratuitous courses, the Industrial Society founded, in 
1884, a commercial museum and a professional school for the district, giving 
gratuitously, foi' three years, to children from 13 to IG years old, technical inslim- 
tion in the princ^])al industries of the Department, while completing their instruction 
in the various courses of the Society. 

1,9ST pupils, of both sexes, attended the gratuitous courses in 1888. 



INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY OF AMIENS. 

The Industrial Society of Amiens was founded in 1861. It proposed : 

1. To establish ties of sincere symi»athy and haimony among its members. 

2. To collect for their advantage and for the good of local industry, the greatest 
amount of useful infoinialion. 



208 



3. To f'urnihli soliil prol'oshioiuil iiiMtnu-tiun to clurks and workiiu^n, as well an to 
the soiiH ot'tlic inaiiutacturorH. 

4. To di'volop ill the working class the tante for (ravoi, for knowledge, and for 
morality. 

To attain tiiesc ditl'oront ends, tin- rndiistrial Society of Amiens has founded. 

1. I'ublic and gratuitous courses in weaving (tiioorotical and |)ractical couise), 
in chemistry as applied to dyeing, in velvet-making, in getting up of pasteboard, 
in applied moclianies, in mechanical drawing, in the (Jorman language, in the 
English language, in the Italian language, in commercial law, in booU-ki'eping, in 
commercial geography. 

Kxaminations are passedatthe end of the year, and rewards granted totheprizc- 
winntus. 

Indepemlently of those courses, lectures are given to the pulilic at large. 

lind. A school of apprenticeship estalilished in 1SS8, immediately after Iheencpiiry 
on the situation of the art industries in France, had ])ointed out that a large number 
of its industries lacked competent workmen, or weie on thcjioint of falling short in 
that respect. 

3rd. greetings between workmen of a like industry, having in view the maint>i^- 
ance of emulation among the workingmen, who attach a very tc''eat value to the 
rewards, medals, diplomas. &.v., which are awarded to them. 

4th. Libraries tor the people, a lecture hall, woikingmen's exhibitions, kv. 

fxli. Finally, the creation by an anon\'mous -society of workmen's dwellings, of a 
ward, of which I lie residences are irreproachable as regards lusdth, and with the 
streets broad, clean and well ventilated. 

All the contiibutions have been employed to the profit of the inhabitants. 

One ])ortion has served to build a church, and to ameliorate the condition of tho 
city, the other in constructing a school to teach young girls housekeeping. 

The Society enables the workmen to purchase, by annual })aymcnls, the houses 
which tliev inhabit. 



mic; 



BHLGIITM. 

Industrial Schools and their Technical Courses. — There are in Belgiimi 37 indus- 
trial stdiools, fre()uentcd by 11,S22 scholars, bavin':- a budget of §113,251!. C'f this 
I'udget the state contributes §43, Ut)0 ; the ])rovinces, vU8,00tl, and the communes, who 
iiavo the direction of the schools, supply the remainder. 

The courses include a general department, common to all the schools, compris- 
ing arithmetic, algebra, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, tho tirst principles of 
physics, of chemistry, of hygiene, industrial economy, drawing; then a special 
department, which ditl'ers according to localities. Of the latter may be given some 
examples: At Antwerp they teach imitative ]iainting on marble and on woo<l. At 
ISrussels. drawing tho patterns of engines, and drawing for builders. At Charleroi, 
tile management of steam-engines, the working of mines, ty|)ography, metallurgy. 
At (ihont, weaving and spinning. A* Li^ge, the construction of steam-engines, 
gunsmithing, itc. 

The duration of the studies is generally for three years. The courses are 
gratuitous. The age of admission is from twelve to fourteen years of age. 

Worksho])S for apjirenticcs in Flandrcs. — ]']stablishe(| in 1842 after the enquiry by 
the government had ])ointed out that tho crisis, which bad for ten years overwhelmed 
the industry of Flanders, was due, in a great measure, to the routine character of tho 
work, and to insufliciency of piactical and theoretical knowledge on the i)art of the 
wcjrkmen. 

En 1884, there existeil 44 apprentice shops, containing 8(15 appprentices, 
costing each about 830 a year. The production of the shops is handed over to com- 
merce; the apiDrentices receive a daily salary of 80.194. 



204 



<IBt 




■ 




Professional Schools. 

School of Tournaij. — Foundod in IS41, to turn out jrood workmen and capaldo 
foroinon. 

Worksliop; copporsmith'H trade, workini,' in wood, inindiunical work 

Tlio ago ot admission is twelve years; the work of" the siiop is of .SJt hours, and 
theorotical cdasses are held morning and evening. 

The workshops are carried on hy contractors; the contract specifies the number 
of apprentices which tiie contractor shall receive, and the salary which shall bo 
allowed to them. 

The sdiool cost annually S4, 400 to the town. 

School of Ghent. — Founded in 1887. Its aim is not to form workmen, but to 
prejiare apprentices, and to give them the olemontH of manual labor and the neccs- 
.sary instruction, in order that they may become perfected workmen in a very 
limited time. 

The teaching comprises a literary and scientific course, and a technical rnd 
manual course for work in iron and in wood. 

The equipment has cost §7,000, and the annual budget is S;j,500. 

National School of Clockina/iiiuj at liniasels. — Created in 1887. It embraces: 
1. Complete clockwork. 2. Minute mechanics. 3. Instruments of precision. 4. 
Electricity. Its object is to train up skilful workmen and overseers instructed in 
theory and in practice. It counts 38 scholars. Its budget is $;j,(JOO a year. 

School uf the 'Tailors uf Liege. — Opened in 1888. It is under the direction of 
the tailors of the town formed into a syndicate, who direct and supervise the teach- 
ing. Apprenticesbip is the only teaching of the school. The results from the 
school are excellciit. In six months the pupils have produced works which an ordi- 
nary a])prenticoship of two or three years would not have been able to teach them. 

School of Brewing of Ghent. — Founded in 1887 by the association of brewers. 

The school comprises two sections : A first, gratuitous, intended for the theoret- 
ical and practical teaching of overseers and working brewers. A second, paying, 
which comprises a complete theoretical and practical teaching for brewers and 
■directors of brewery. 

Professional School of Typography of Brussels. — Founded by the working typo- 
graphers and the master-printers of Brussels. 

This is an alliance of workmen and employers united in one and the same useful 
aim, the turning out of good workmen is the characteristic of this school. 

An equal number of employers and of working delegates direct it. 

The masters can only send to the school apprentices in proportion to the num- 
ber of workmen which they employ. 

The masters who belong to it are bound to organize the work of the pupils in 
such a manner that they may be able to follow from year to year the courses of the 
school. 

The duration of apprenticeship is for five years. 

The classes take place in the evening from 7 to 10 o'clock, every day, excepting 
.Saturday. 

Each week for each scholar thei-e is at least a technical and school course. 

St. Luc Professional Schools. — They seek particulai-ly to bring up apprentices 
in one of the local industries. Drawing, stone-cutting, joinery, sculpture, decoration, 
'Ornamentation and building are taught in them. 

The teaching is given by the Brothers of the Christian schools, under the direc- 
tion and with the aid of a protective committee. 

There are four of these schools ; one at Ghent, one at Schaerbeck, one at Tournay 
•and one at Li^ge. 

They receive more than 1,000 scholars. 

Training Schools for Young Girls. — They are six in number: two at Brussels, 
one at Antwerp, one at Mons, one at Li6ge, and one at Verviers. 

They aim at remedying the long, dangerous and difficult apprenticeship which 
young girls have to undergo, to enable them to contribute to the needs of life by 



205 



•nd 



Hiiffloionlly roirnincinifil work, nnd direct thorn towards tho most onsy omploymont 
wliicli iiiJiy lit" pursued iil lii>mc. 

'I'lic t«>a<-liiiii^ f^ivoii in all llicsc schools is very rit'.'irly the siimc, ;md as to tlioir 
h'( liiiica! cliamcU'r, coiiipiiscs the t'ollowiiiif : Tlio luakiii;^ up ami cuitiiij; out of ji^ar- 
iiu'iits, washing ami hleachiii^, artilicial (lowers, commerce and accounts, design in 
lace, ]»aiiitiiii^ on porcelain or Can and on <f|asH. 

These schools receive i;ranls ainoiintiny; to S.'JO.HOO and niimher l.."50l pupils. 

II<»(.<('/<t'('fiiiiij Srlioiils. — These are niiincrons in Heli^'iuni. They reckon at first 
17 primary schools havini^ a section for housekeeping, then liU schools of house- 
keeping properly Ho-callcd. 

The |)Upils are received there at 12 yi>ars of age. *Thev have to learn to reail, 
to wr-ite, .iiid to calculate. They are taught .-dl iho informal ion \vhi(di a gooil house- 
keeper ought to possess : 1. iM.anagement of kitchen, li. Washing and ironing. ;i. 
Sewing by hand, and by machine. \. Knitting. 5. Medical allendance, dressingn 
and hygiene. 

Patraixiijcs. — The patrcjtiage societies created s]iceially and solely with the view 
of placing children in apprcnliceshij) do not e.xist in Melgium. On the other hand, 
ihero exists in ]{elgium a considerable ([uantity of Catholic patronages who assem- 
ble the young apprentices on Sunday and Thurs<lay. Literary and scientific lectures 
and moral and religious instruction are given them. JJesides, the directing commit- 
tees place tho young persons in apprenticeship. 



JAPAN. 



Trrhniral Trainiiuj. — The introduction into.Tapan of technical training dalesfrom 
tho creation of the schools of arts and trades of Tokyo by the -Mini-ter of Public 
Instruction in tho fourteonth year of Meiji (1881). Subsecjuently sprang up tho 
institution for the apprentices in commerce and industry, established under the depond- 
ance of the higher school of commerce in the nineteenth year ol Meiji (ISSd). In 
those latter times there were instituted with the aim of developing and encouraging 
arts and trades, several private training schools intended to give teaching in indus- 
tries and manual trades. 

The objects aimed at, by the school of arts and handioi-afts, of Tokyo, by the insti- 
tution for ap])rentices in commerce and imlustry, dependent on the higher school of 
commerce and tinally l\y the private training schools for girls, enable us to appreciate 
the general state of this branch of teaching in Japan. 

The school of arts and handicrafts of Tokyo, has for its aim to teach tho various 
ai'ts ;»nd trades necessary, for those who intend to teach themselves, or who desire to 
iiecome technical agents, overseers or heads of workshops. The teaching is there 
divided into section of chemical technology, and into section of mechaiucal technology. 
The duration of the studies is, in these two cases, of three years. In tho interest of 
the manufacturers, or of tbeirajjprenlices having worked at least a yoai-, in pi'actice of 
a certain ])rofession, who would desire to study in particular, one or several subjects 
necessary to their specialties, there has been organised a course of chosen subjects. 

Further, for the scholars who having ccmipleted the regular studies, desire to make 
research in the ])rofession which tliey have embraceil, thei'c has been established a 
course of investigations. In these two cases the duration of the studies is fixed at 
two years at the least. 

The section of chemical technology possesses, outside the classes which aro 
assigned to it, a dyer's shop, amanufacfoiy of china, a glass factory and a factory for 
chemical products, whilst the section of mechanical technology has, aside the classes, 
a sketch room, a shop for working of timber, a foundry, u i'urnace, a finishing work- 
shop and a building for coppersmith's, in order to allow the pupils being exercised in 
the practice of the arts which (hey have in view. The objects exhibited arc what is 
owed to manufacture or to forging pi-actieally executed by the pupils under ihb 
direction of their profe8Soi'8,or to the manufacture or preparations of these last them- 
selves, to give models. 




200 



flToro folIowH tlio list ot'olijocts exliihitod.") 

iiLftitiiti'ins ftir the a/ij>iriiti<fs of (•(ntnnrrre and of indmtrij dependent «/,•• the higher 
school of commerce. — l*'oriiiorly llicnt' a|t|ir('iiti<'eH()(' '/omiiurco ami oC imlnslry iihoiI to 
loarn, so to speak, by tlio way ol" traiisiuiMHioii, from tlioso wlio liad takon tliein to 
thoiri'mploymciit, toexorcisoin practico tlio profession which they <li'siro(l to embrace. 
There was ;i( that time no school established for that, object, that offercil them i'e;^iilar 
teaching. TIk? need of such an estaldishmeiit having; made itself keenly felt lon/^ ago, 
the Minister of I'liiilic Instiiiction has attached to the hiiifhor school of commorco, the 
institution in ([iiestion, intondod to f^ive to apprentices, or to sons of merchants and 
nianulacliirers, the scicntitic tcaidiinff whi(di is necessary for them or a lesson in 
manual industries. • 

The objects which are exhibited allow one to prove the general result which lias 
been obtained from this institution. 

In the others, V\i ( 1) and Ken (2), several projects have l)cen brought forward at 
the present moment with the view of establishing sidiools of apprenticeship, but not 
one has yet been jtut in execution. 

(The list of the objects exhibited follows.) 

Technical schools for girls. — The technical teaching lias ended, during these last 
years, by attracting the attention of the public, and several private schools have been 
establisbcil with this object. It is important to note, among others, the private pro- 
fessional school for girls, fo\inded at Tokyo in the i!inetee:;th yeai' of the Meiji 
(IHK(J). The leaching there is divided into two branches, in one of which are taught 
sowing, knitting, embroidery, ornamenting of hats, artiticial flowers antl drawing, 
and in the other they leach the same sid)jects, saving drawing. 

In(le]iendently of these studies, they have introduced into these two branches 
reading, writing, arithmetic, housekeo])ing, and Hnally the ideas of physical science, 
reserved exclusively to the tirst branch. English lessons can likewise bo given 
there at the rccjuost of the pujiils. 

(The list of objects exhibited follows.) 




TECHNICAL TRACIIIXU IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

ORQ.VNIZ.VnO.V OH" TIIK EVENI>f() LKCTIKES FOR TKCIIMCAL rEACIIINU l.\ ENOLAND. 

In England the child leaves school when he is ver}' jtning, whilst in <i('rmany 
he frequents it up lo the age of 14 years. The courses in the evening then become 
necessary to complete t!iat which the child has not been able to learn at school. 

Besides that, the Knglisii artisans work only nine houi's and a-half instead of 
eleven to twelve hours a day, which procures for them, alter their day's woik, the 
opportunity of assisting at the I'egular evening lectures. 

The schools, or evening courses, do not receive aii}" sulisid}' from the municipality, 
and the iunds which the state does not give are provided by voluntary contributions, 
and donations, from rich manufacturers and from the friends of ediieation. 

The>e schools are under the general dii'cclion of a local committee, which is 
bound to render an account of the expenses. The gi'ants of the state are disiriLiuted 
by a system peculiar to England, and which is known under the name of system of 
payment on result. 

The evening courses in science, art and technology are under the direction of 
two ile])artments. the one is a lu'anch (){' the education olHce, and is known under the 
denomination of l)ej)artment of Science and Art ; the other, which encourages the 
teaching of the technology of ditl'erent handicrafts, depends by no means on the 
Government. This Association is known under the name of " City and CTuil<ls of the 
London Institute," for the advancement of technical education. 

Under the direction of the Department of Science ioul Arts, there are two normal 
schools of science, the one ut South Kensington, the other at Dublin; the School of 
Mines, the School of Decorative Art at South Kensington, as well as the Museum of 
Industry of South Kensington, and of Bothnal Green. 



207 



In 1885-K(> tliis clo|mrtmont litis roci'ived from I'arliamoiit a huiu of 81,!I5H,U00. 

Tho bnuiflicH of Icacliini,' calli'd on to nlinro in stati' LfrantH aro at thu pivHont 
time twenty-four in niiinliiu', from six, wliirli tl)(>v wore in IH.'dt, 

Tho miijorily of tccliiiical institutions \ liicli now oxist in all tlio larjjo townH of 
Mnfjhinil, wore horetoforc " Mt'ilianicH Institutes," in which wore lioltl, at intorvnls, 
jiopuiar loctiircs on lilcraturi' ami scionco. 

Littio by littlo, howi-vcr, niiilir tho influence of South Konsini,'ton, systematic 
( nurses of tcachinLC of (litfcrcnt lifanclics of sciciifV comniencod, and as it was iicr- 



was Tier- 
ed. Tho 



coived that those courses became indespensable, their number was increasei 
aildition of courses of technology to tlnwo of tho toachinfj of tho sciences, and 
the f^reat <iomand for tochiueal le .eliin^ durini^ the l:isl six years, hastened the con- 
version of these " Mechanics' Institut s" into U'cliiiical schools. Little by little llioro 
wore erected with these s(diools of science and teclinnlo^'y. schools of art which ])ro- 
duced a much greater etl'ect in tho perfecting of manufacture in Kiii^land than tho 
schools of Hcionce. 

There exists at jiresent l.OSf scliools under the ]>rotection of the stale, and in 
Avhich sciences or art arc tauj.;ht, and the number of scholars tor the schools of science 
IS f»4,8:t8, and that for tho schools of art, (ilt.SMT. 2t)8 laboratories for the study of 
chemistry are attached to the schools of science. They can hold 14,r»S7 pupils. 

Apart from these schools of science and art, under the control of the slato, tho 
City and (iuilds ofL'indon Instilule, has oslabli^be(l othei-s of them intended specially 
liir worUingnien desirous of studying <*'dy the (pu^stions which aro<lirectly connected 
wilb the brunch of industry in which they are engaged. 

This institute has established a technical school for thesystematic instruction of 
Hie heads of workshops ;md for the education of boys who leave s(diool towards tho 
age of 1.') years. In this school Unown under tln> name of I'insbury Technical 
( 'ollcge, there are evening lectures attended by very near TOO scholai's. The Institute 
lias likewise founded a school of docorutivo arts, in which aro taught ))ainting <m 
china, engraving on wood, sculpture, drawing iind moilelling as ajjplied to other 
industries. 

Besides the eslablishing of these schools in Luidon, however, tlu' Institute 
encourages in all the country tho formation of evening courses of technology of 
various trades. These lectures have reference to 35 dirteront handicrafts. 

The evening lectures in l"'nghind are ii'it i'lvt'. 

The contributions payed liy llie scholars, aitbougli very small, help to defray tho 
expenses of the school. The opinion prevails in Kngland that the man appreciates 
what he Jiays for. My own experience, adds Sir Philip, leads me to believe that the 
schools whei'e the evening lectures aro tho most frequented, aro tho.so where tlio 
instruction is altogether gratuitous, ami be ends his report in s;iying: '• Tiiat tho 
indiis./ial jirogress ol a nation depends on the excellence and on the perfection (if the 
organisation of tho evening lectures to its aitisans." 



TECHNICAL TEACIIINQ IN NEW SOUXn WALKS. 

Technical education in New South Wales, dates only from 1S7(!. when the School 
of Arts and Mechanics of Sydney lounded a workingm.in's college, and organised 
!-everal classes for the teaching of mechanics, of applied idiemislry, and ofmcchanical 
and free-hand drawing. In IStJiJ tho Ciovornment created a sub-department of 
technical education and oiilnisted its administration to a council. Pailiament voted 
a sum of 8]t)0,0(MI for this important object, and in 188<), the number of scholars was 
already 3,000. Tho lectures aro delivered by professoi's who leach science and by 
skilful workmen entrusted with teaching the ])roper apiilication. 

Besides the professors at fixed employment, the Council employs also itinerant 
professors who go from towr\ to town as they put forth lessons on scientific subjects, 
adapted to the needs of the different districts, Chusses for tho stud}'' of arts and 
sciences have been organised in all the principal towns of tho Colony. 



208 



.K > 




TECHNtPAL TEACniNO IN ROUMANIA. 

Elcmetitan/ tcrhnical schools. — Those scliools iiih> iiitomiod to form appronticos 
iiiid wockiiu'ii. 'I'luiy liavo beon (^I'eatoil ami aio dii'oi'toil liy tlu> coinmiiiics ami liy 
tlio provinces. Tim state subsidies tlieni tor a sum wliirh does not go beyond the 
thinl ])iiit oftiie budget of eacOi Hidiool. 

Ivicli srhool is provided with one or sevora! workshops tor Mp|irontieesliip. 

Tht! leaehiii!:; is crratuitous and eosts aliout '^'M) i. year a pupil. 

The tlrsl seliolars who iiave ii;one I'orlli from these schools are sent with exhiiii- 
tions provided by the coin'nunes and the provineoH, to the schools ol'art and handi- 
craft ot the cnunlry. 

Sr/iool of Arts (iiid Trades. — There exists two of these schools in Jloiimunia, 
receiving '.he exhibitioners froin 2i> elementary technical schools. They are intended 
to brin^ u|) workmen wull taiif;'ht and skilful ; day scholars, however, are receiveil 
there. The duration of studios is for 4 years; the teaehini^ is theoretical and 
practical. 

The ](ractical insliMiclinn is i^iven in o ditforent workshops, to wit : — the forii'e 
tile lathes and tlie adjustiiiii;, tiie foundry. Ilie modelling, the carpentiy^ with tiie 
joinery and the engraving on wood. 

Tiie sciiooi executes work for the piibiie. Tiie revenues realised by tlie.se works 
vary from >?l,li(>(» to 81, KK) a year. The budget of tiiese sciuxds, amounts to about 
$200 a jiupil. Ivicli school receives 150 lioarders and 100 day scholars. 

Eiglit oxhibitions of $240 a year have been created for tlie sending abroad, each 
year, of four scdiolars in order to ])erfect tliemselves in their s]iecial line. 



TECHNICAL A.NO PROFESSIONAL TEACIIINO IN RUSSIA. 

The tedinieai teaching in IJussia comprises 4 special iiigiier technical scliools; 
middle technical schools relatiiiii' to trades; "lO lower tccimical or ap|)rt'ntic( - 
sliip scliools; nearlj' 1,200 workshops of apprenticeships in handicrafl anne.xeil to 
schools for general elementary and primary leaching of towns and villages, and 
Bome courses or (Masses in the evening, and (tii Sunday for workmen and apjirenliccs. 

Indciiciulc^ntlv of these institutions more or less siUisidized bv the slate, there 
exists numerous schools ot ajipronticeship created by tlie community or |)rivale 
institutions. 

Furtiier, Russia wanting in meclianics, ti"'>men and overseer excavators for its 
railways, there were created .'50 sjiccial teelr.iicni schools with tiie view of trainim,^ 
tiiese (dasses of woi'kiuen. whicli tlu'y were oliligcd to go and look for abroad. The 
companies are compelleil to grant to these schools a grant of S12, 1,100 rods ofecmi- 
monage. Tiiei-e exists ."{O of the-e scliools. 

The. commercial mariiw. ackiiuj in mates, in pilots, in steersmen and eompete»t 
7uechintics, thci/ creatnl a ciiiif>idfnil>/c niimher of schools of i)nri(jation. — It is tiic com- 
munes cr private individuals who take tlio initiative in tlie.se cstablislunenls. Tlio 
State grants them a subsidy. 

'The association for the improremcnt (f national industri/ in Russia : — I'^ounded in 
1881 byiu'ivato enterprise, under tiie patronage of tiie ^tate, witii the aim: 

1st. To iuidertai<e the worlcing out, and to propagate among the laboring 
classes, ideas corresponding to llieir needs, and local conditions upon correct and law- 
ful means for the improvement of tlieir industrial and commercial occupations, in 
order to be able to come fortii from the painful condition to which they are 
at ])resent reduced ; and, 

2n<l. To grant cooperation to tlio pulilic institutions, and local corporations, 
as well as to private individuals, iiaving taken part in the vSociety, to make easy for 
them the putting into execution of meaHiiros, and the foundation of estabiishmeuls 
whicii ,11111 on tiie one i;and to furnisli to artizans the possibility of acquiring idcis 
necessary to u fitting industry, productive and perfected, in such .)r such other 
branch within their reach; and on the other hand, to render easy for them the eco- 
nomical conditions of these occupations. 



209 



In 4 years^ uiul to koop thilli willi this piogrnuuue, tlio Assooiiition has t'oundod 
15 lowiT Bchools ofiigi'ifulturo; 3 schools of rural economy and of trades; , 2 model' 
farms for tlio count ly-folU ; an appronlicesliip wovUshop annexed to a tnodol farm ; 
has introduced tlie teacliinjf of gardening' in the primary sidiools, and has ..vgani/.od 
popuhir courses upon questions agricultural, technical, and trades, for the adults and 
scholars. 

It has further foinided 35 primary local schools of handicrafts ; a technical 
school; 20 worivshops for apprenticeship; acquired models and nomii\ated sUilful 
workmen to teach to the countrymen various branches of domestic rural industry. It 
has created exhibitions and evening courses and popular lectures lor the working- 
class. 

Schools and Evening Courses tor (imcritl. and Technical 'Veaching of Workmen 
and their Children, instituted at St. Pttersburg and its mitshirts, hi/ the Imperial 
I'ulijtechnieal Sucictij of Kussia. — Those courses wore created in 1S(!'.» by the initia- 
tive of private persons, with the aim of bringing up workmen and competent over- 
seers, and especially of establishing general elementary schools for atlult work- 
ingnien and their children. 

In ISHti, this Assoeiation, which had commenced to work with a capital of SU)0, 
had I'oceivod into its classes 1 t,3t(U pupils, whose instruction had cost ?52Sl,ti()0, or 
about §1!). 0(1 a scholar. It had at this ])ei-iotl of time: morning classes for chil- 
dren, S classes or evening courses for adult workmen, 2 classes for young 
Mjiprentices, 3 ct)urses in technical linear drawing, 1 technicMl school for the over- 
seers in building, 1 school of apprenticeship for mechanics, and 1 school of typo- 
graphy. 



|or its 
imini:; 

The 

conv 

eoui- 

riu- 

m\ in 

)ring 

hiw- 

|is, in 

arc 

Itions, 
ly for 

Inenls 

liile.'is 

lot her 

eco- 



TUK MUSEUMS OF i'KASANTS IN (}ERMANY. 

Report of Jlfonsieur Vachon, presented to the J^\itional Coni/ress, harimj for its 
object J'echnieal Teaehing, held at Bordeaux In 188(5. — In the last commission jour- 
ney, whii'h I have had the honor to make, b}'^ order of the ^linistei' ot' Public Instruc- 
tion and of Fine Arts, in (iermany and •■! Switzerland, 1 have been enabled to study 
economical phenomena, which are very little known in France. 

These phenomena a'"(> : The evolution of urban industry in lui'al industry, and 
aflorwards, p rticulai'ly in Germany, t .u' evolution of common production, cheajtly, 
in artistic production. 

These two ])henomena have boon in fJermany t!ie object of creating very 
important iiistitutions. It is upon one of these institutions that I dosii'o to make 
you a communication, which, 1 hitpe. will interest you. 

In (Jerman)', as in France, the econoniical situation is, at the present time, rather 
critical. The workmen are undei'going a dei)reciation of salaries, and at the s.;me 
lime an increase in the cost of living. The masters have onerous burdens much 
more consi;lerable than in the ])ast. 

The intensive production which, since 1870, has taken in (iermany <'onsiderablo 
extension is attacking the world at large, it has created a trt-mendous stock of pro- 
iliicts. Thereby, some stoppage or a reduction of the hours of labour in the works 
and manufactures. 

In the presence of this situation, the patrons have been asked if something could 
iiiil be done to allay its dis.-istrous conse(iuences. They have aiTived at this solution, 
huUistry uiust become rural. It slruld become rural for the masters iit tirst, inasiuuch 
iis the expenses of installation of works are much less considerable in the country, 
and afterwards to avoid the duties upon importation of the concessions, which, in the 
tdwiis, burden the raw materials, tiring, iVc 

It ought t.) become rural for the workingmen, because tl;o_y v/ill have their 
livelihood from it in a bettor market. At present the workingman, particularly in 
(iermany, is obliged to undergo considerable leductions in work, whicli come some- 
times to a standstill tor half of the week. Well; being in the country, ho will be 
ulile to employ in tarniing, this useless lime in the town, and to thus support his table 
20—14 



210 



frugally, it in true, but economically for certain. Tlioy then thought that there was 
in that a part of the solution of the crisis. Consequently this evolution lakes at the 
present time an official character. Last year there was org-mized at Crefold a very 
interesting exhibition, an exhibition of motors intended for small workshops. The 
Government has ondowod it with a grant of 825,800. 

Further, tiie town, which is very rich, has organized a universal exhibition of 
power looms in order to reunite nearly all tj'pes which operate in the whole world. 

A Ilussian loom has been noticed there, of very good action, simple in its con- 
struction and costing little. It has been otiicially approved of, I believe, and it is 
very probable that from this time to some years this loom will be employed in all 
the workshops of the German countries. 

You see that the (tovcrnmentand the authorities are occupied much with this 
question. 

The masters continue to produce cheaply and intensely, but now that they have 
inundateii the world with their products, and that they tind ever3'whore competitors, 
they are obliged to look for another means ot keeping the head of the market, they 
aspire to artistic superiority. They will not succeed, prolmbly to equal us on this 
ground, but they will follow us, in it very near. I derive profit by this eircumstanco 
to say to the representatives of all the large towns, who are here, that it is not 
nece-isary to make dangerous self-delusions at this proposal. 

We live too much on this prejudice, without doubt very agreeable to our 
natiimal self love, but very prejudicial to our interests, that we are absolutely invin- 
cible with regard to taste, that the stranger, notably Germany is proof against artistic 
ideas. 

We shall lie greatly deceived from this fact, in a short time. The Government 
of Germany and the municipalities themselves have foreseen that industry was going 
to be in quite a new situation in consequence of the emigration of workingmen into 
the country. In Westphalia and in the Province of the Kliine, in some large contr('>, 
in the whole of the country, are found already workmen's shops. One can say that 
ruial evolution goes forth from to-day in this country as in Switzerland in a nc;irly 
general manner; consequently all are occupying themselves actively in the applica- 
tion of the means which shall render it fruitful. 

To this end, the manufiicturers of the district called Eh^nane, the most 
important district in Germany, from an industrial point of view, decided in 1881 to 
constitute a vast association for the develojnncnt of artistic and professional instruc- 
tion. An industrial exhibition organized the preceding year at Dusseldorf, having' 
given a clear grant of $r)2,()30, it was resolved to lay the first foundation of the 
Association, the seat of which was fixed at Dusseldorf. 

They put themselves immediately to work to realize this project, long studied 
in congress, in which representatives assisted from all the great centres of industry 
and commerce of the province Rhenane, from Westphalia, from the municipality ol' 
IlohenzoUern, from the district of Wiesbaden, from the municipalities of Schaiiiii- 
bourg-Li])pe-Lippe-J)ctmoldt, Birkenfeld and Waldcck. 

Look at the results at which they have arrived at the present time. The central 
society of art and iiulustry of Dusseldorf comprises 720 members and 30 associaticiis 
united together, representing a total ol (1,955 members distributed in the towns of 
Aix-la-Cliapelle, Oberstein, Witten, Barmen, Besford, Emmerick, Guteidiof, Mulheim, 
Elberfeld. Dormundt, Saint-Johann, Bielfeld, Duisbourg, Siegen, Coblence, Liidor>- 
child, Euhrarst, Wiendenbruck, Lennop, Creuznack, Adar, Stolberg, Lunen, Bonn, 
Newvied, Ilamni, Tr»ives-Wimlaken, Essen sur la Ruhr, Cologne, Lemgo, Altena, 
Crefeld r.nd in the country. 

AVhat power of action and of expansion can give to a society a sum total of su|>- 
porters iis considerable and a solidity as close of manufacturing interests and nf 
artistic propaganda? I have fjund bills of the Association right away in the umsI 
remote mountains of Westphalia. By the side of im])ortant societies, as that of ]»iii'- 
mundt,which counts 1,200 members, there figure on the registers of the Association 
those of small villages, in a simple group of ten or twenty persons. 

The Society possesses at this hour as an annual fund, in regular turn, a sum 
of $14,835. 



ricl)^ 

a syi 
of til 

the I 
thi 



■,--jJ--^ — --■■— 



211' 



Uudioil 
(dustry 
lUty of 

pentnil 

Iwns ot 
]lheim, 
|.ador>- 
Boun, 
|\.ltenu, 

■of sui>- 

mv\ "f 

l)f 1 >or- 
iiation 



This vast ubsocialion has in object to adorn, in consequence of evolution, what I 
was describinf^ just now. 

But tlie woricinjr people being in the country will not be able to fro to the 
museum to school. Will you reproach me? In Germany, it was said, wo will brint? 
the museum and the school to the workman. The association has, therefore, 
founded a museum. 

In Germany this word museum has not the same signification as with us. When 
we create a museum, the progi'ammo consists in this : to raise up a beautiful building, 
to adorn it magnificently, to set up beautiful windows, to put there some very artistic 
objects under key, and especially to regulate the hours for entrance, in a manner that 
people can visit the museum easily and for a long time. 

In (jermany it seems that they proceed in quite another waj-. Museums at first 
are erected for the public and not for the conservators ; afterwards tlicy thiidc tiiat 
a museum intended for the teaching of the public does not full}' answer its object, 
if it is exclusively a place for exhibition ; they much rather make a general empoi-ium 
for a multitude of small local museums and of district exhibitions for a time, a 
little ever\-where. 

Thus the director of the museum of the Association of Dusseldorf has adopted 
such a system of working the institution, that we can say that his museum is in a 
hundred different ])laces at a time, and that he has always abroad nine-tenths of his 
riches. Besides his particij)ation in special exhibitions in the difi'eivnt centres under 
a syndicate, the museum goes to the houseof the associate himself. All the members 
of the Association have the right to have sent home the objects of the museum aijd 
the books of the library, models, drawings, engravings or photographs. You make 
this reflection without doubt. For the passage of these objects, to have them carried 
from Dusseldorf 40 or 50 miles, in the mountains of Westphalia, the supporters 
must pay a vei-y consideral)le assessment. 

Not at all : the assessment which allows a museum being arranged personally, 
at home, which has half a million objects of art, a library valued at §20,000, is five 
shillings, or SI. 20 a year. See what arc the bonetitsof the As.M)ciation ; in 1885 the 
museum has .sent to its members 4,204 objects of art, the library 19,878 works or 
drawings. What magnificent results ! 

This is not all that 1 have to tell you of this Society at Dusseldorf, of its oganiza- 
tion and of its means of operation. The saying is, it is great to ])ut at the disposal 
of workpeople the p :inci])les of stu(l\-ing, but it is still better to teach tliem how to 
make use of them. And conse(iucntly from this beautiful idea, the foundei's of the 
museum have organized meetings, for the use of tiie members of the Society. 

The system of working for these meetings is the same as for the mu.seum. They 
do not ask, as in Fiance, that the audience should come before the chairman; it is 
tlie chairman who goes away to find the persons who want to hear him. Tlius these 
meetings take place specially on fair days and local festivities,' because tlicy are thus 
assured of a greater number of hiarcrs. 

The chairmen ate chosen from among the most esteemed directors. 
They are going to evangelize in the wa3's of the arts the peasants and the work- 
ing people of the countiy districts. 

In 1885, 57 meetings have been held in the whole circumference of the society's 
operation. They are not contented with these results, which are, nevertlieless, 
very satisfactory'. They have still conceived a work of artistic propagamla which I 
would wish to see imitated in France: it would be easy : all the associations after 
the manner of the Society Philomathic of Bordeaux would be able to realize the 
same idea. There is a question of oi-ganizing an office for inquiries and professional 
!i!id artistic consultations, at the seat of the Society at Dusseldorf All the members 
of the society have the rigiit of sending from their workshops, or from their manu- 
factories, to this office every sketch, model, plan of drawing, whatever it may be, 
which is afterwards sent back corrected, comjileted, improved. I have myself proved 
how these drawings were corrected. This work, however fruitless, was done with 
extraordinary conscientiousness, 
20— 14J 



212 




The Director told me tliat nome workmen send back two or throe times, the «ame 
drawing, l)ei;gini:;j for fresh corrections and that tiie enquiry otfioe executed them 
always, witii the best grace in the world. 

Last year, after the annual account rendered of the labors of the society, there 
has not been exchanged less than GOO corrected plans between the office and its 
supporters. 

But this statistic is not exact, because the majority of consultations were 
verbally and on the spot. 

This organization with us would render very great service. 

We have all seen, in the country, small manufacturers. Joiners, wheelwrights, 
who, having received only a very elementary education, tind themselves very 
embariassed when thoy are asked to execute an object a little outside what they 
have been aceuttomed to, and who are obliged, whatever the prejudice they may 
have, to refuse the order. 

This disagreeable condition of thii\gs does not present itself longer at the present 
time in the country of the Ehine, thanks to this original institution. 

In face ' the results obtained, this Association has thought that if it was 
adapted to give extension to existing industries, it would be able to arrive at creating 
some in the districts whitdi are deprived of them. 

" He who is able the least, is able the more " with will and energy. 

When I visited this museuni I remarked in it a quantity of irregular objects. 
There were there, rakes, ploughs, waggons, wicker-chairs, usual objects of the last 
class. 

I said to the director : " But you do all these handicrafts here? " He said to me 
in reply: "These are the new industries of the Eifel ; " and he gave the following 
explanations : — 

In the district which is comprised between Cologne, Crefeld, and the Belgian 
frontier, there is a province which boars the name of Eitel ; it has been picturesquely 
called the Gennan Sahara ; there is a little town there well know) mi France by the 
(Jrand Duchess, the town of Geiolstein. The country which surrounds it was 
inhabited almost exclusively by peddlars ; these pcddlars had so bad a I'cputation that 
they could not get married. It was maintained "that they had travelled too much," 
as they say in a celebrated opera. 

Struck with this condition of affairs, the government busied itself in modifying 
it. It wished to civilize these poor people. 

They have spent much mono}', but without result. The Society of Dusseldorf, 
one tine day, is angry at the jest, and decides to bring about, with its moderate 
resources, that which the Government has not been able to etlect. 

It sent to Gerolstein two remarkable professors of arts, who put themselves in 
correspondence with the inhabitants of the countr\'. 

The mission commenced by Neroth ; there were there only some makers of 
mouse-traps, to the number of 80. 

The professors improved their rough tools ; the anvil and the nippers were 
unknown there ! A workshop for tinning was organised, as well as a workshoji tor 
the manufactuie of various works in iron wire. 

The experiment was crowned with success; at the present day the inhabitants 
of Neroth export their products to Cologne, to Dusseldorf, in the towns of tiie Ehine, 
and even in Belgium. 

Some wheelwrights of Wallenborn, struck with the progress of the manufactur- 
ers of mouse-traps of Neroth, asked the society to send to them professors and tools, 
which was done immediately. 

At Heimbach, the peasants had a specialty of chairs for children, for which they 
only used green beech stolen in the night in the forests, and which they worked 
with the knife for want of tools. The society obtained from the municipal council 



Jldorf, 
lerato 

39 in 

Irs of 

Iwero 
|p toi- 

tants 
Ihine, 



213 



of Aix-la-Chupello a sum of $516 and 838 from tho porfoo.t, and opened at Ileimbaoh 
some workshops for joinery. The products of this rural industry have to-day an 
important sale. 

At (lerolstein, to _c;ive woi-k to women, they have imported the manufacture of 
filiffree-work, of embroideiy with threads of gold, silver and copper. Two young 
girls, the most intelligent in tho town, were brought to Du.sseldorf and a])preiiticed 
in a workshop for embroideries ; to-day they arc directing at (rerolstein woikshops 
where forty women are employed and are making very interesting embroideries, 
specimens of which I haveadmii'cd at the museum of Du8.scldorf. L'Eifel has thus 
become a manufacturing country and people ai"e convinced that in a few years its 
population will not be inferior, as far as intelligence and welfare, to tho other popu- 
lations of Germany. 



5,1; 



Ictur- 
|lool(», 




Mlj 



sectio:n^ v. 



MUTUAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 





pa' 



ten 
the 

hon 

of t 
of CI 
app 

than 
inga 

wher 



appri 
to all 






in case o 
tTl 

J If. 
anmini. 
'ivail the 
•>gal liin 



MUTUAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 



FRANCE. 



REPOHT ON MUTUAL UENEVOLENT SOCIETIES, MARCH 26, 1852. 

Ar'.. 2. These societies are composed of active and honorary members, who 
pay tixed dues, or make contributions to the funds of the As80ciation,without partici- 
pating in the profits. 

Art. 6. These mutual benevolent societies have for their object the giving of 
temporary assistance to members who are sick, wounded or intirm, and of meeting 
their funeral expenses. 

They can promise retiring pensions if there should be a sufficient number of 
honorary members. 

Art. 7. The by-laws of these societies will be submitted for the apjn-obation 
of the Minister of the Interior. These by-laws will also regulate the assossnients 
of each society, in accoi-dance with the tables of sickness or mortality compiled or 
approved by the Government.* 

Art. 13. When the told funds in the treasury of a society which numbers more 
than 100 members, exceed the sum of $600, the amount will be deposited in a sav- 
ings Bank. 

If the society has less than a hundred members, this transfer should be made 
when the total funds in the treasury exceed $200. 

By a decree dated 28th November, 1853, a bonus of $2,000,' tO has been given to 
approved mutual li^nevolent societies, the interest of which is annually distributed 
to all societies which have created a 



REST FUND 

in accordance with the decree of 2nd April, 1856. 

Art. 1 A sum of $40,000 f deducted from the indisposable interest of the endow- 
ment to the mutual benevolent societies, is devoted to this formation ofaiies^ Fund 
for the benefit of approved Mutual Benevolent Societies, which will engage to devote 
to this Mest Fund a portion of their reserve capital. 

Art. 4. The Rest Fund furnished by the societies may be banked to the credit of 
pension fund, either as current capital or as reserve fund. 

The portion of the same capital given by the state remains inalienable. 

The capital from pension fund, rendered available by the decease of pensioners, 
will be returned to the rest fund of the society. 

Art. 8. No pension will be less than $6 and must not exceed, in any case, ten 
per cent, of the annual assessment fixed by the by-laws of the society to which the 
incumbent belonged. J 

* These tables were never made. The Government only required that the rate of quarterly indemnity 
in case of sickness dnes not exceed the amount of the monthly subscription. 

t This sum was raised to Slte.OOO in 18S7. 

+ If, for instance, this subscription is 25 cents yter month, the pension allowed cannot exceed 1830.00 jwr 
annum. This limit only applies to the reserve funds, the sixjieties having the right, of which they freely 
avail theniselves, to apply the prtweeds of the jiension itself to their reserve funds. In societies where the 
legal limit is $30.00, pensions sometimes reach double this amount. 



218 



W) 



a> 



M 



<o 



3 CO 






1 



^ 



« 






i^. s 



11 

« 



•* 1- fe 

X O' -f! »H 



«ia 



«■ 






1 



3 



=.2' 






> P3 



u 



"■^ C 3 






2 I 



8 









;^ 



be 



3 Mi 2. 
.=■.5-3 



E t- ^ 5i 5 7~ 

.i; i « ^ oi Sf 



2 IB a S > 



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'^'Si^ 


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e<j 




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SI 



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I -5^-3 1 

^ ^ * * ^**- 

« a a; t *» C 

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33" » 



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32 

ffio' 






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r~ C 
- e S tc 



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210 



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a 
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•220 



I'KXSION FUND. 



NuiiiIhi- i>f u|>|irciv(>(l Mocictii'H 

(Ill (III |MiMiM-HHiiig u IViiMiiiii Fund 

Porci'iitiiffc (Id do 

Niiinlii'i' (if iiii'iiiU'rH lo'liiiii^iii); tn HiK-ii-tii'H |MiHHi'MNin)f n I'i'IihIiiii Kurirl 

l'rii|Hirliiiii i<f iiii'iiilN'rH iM'iiiiixin)^ to Nucii'tii-N |HiNNi'HMiiiK <^ I'i'Iinioii KuikI to th« total 

iiiiiiiIm'I' ipf iiii'iiiImth of n|i|irovi>(l Hooii-ticH 

TotuI iif l'i'n«iiiii KuikIm 



r(,!M(!) 

3,3;w 

fMl p.r. 
Wl4,iV*l 



$12,H1»H,321».HI 



PeiiHioii Kuiiil, uvi'i'atfi' ciu'li Hocicty 9l,M7.20 

(|i> (Id iiicnilwr 

NuiuImt of pi'iiHiimiTH 

TotrtI iiinount ri'ciiivi'd liy iX'iiHioiiiTH 

Av( rum' "f ix'iiHii'iiH (Iruvvii friiiii thi> I'l-iiHioii Fund 

do lo Ifi'MiTvi' Fund 

AvwftK" niiiiilmr of nnniiiti' n drawn liv KM) nii'inUTH 

(ii'MKi'iil aviTiiKi' iif iinimitii'M jfranti'd liy iviiprovod dociotiHH 




iMMIi 
$3,WiS.I'>ll 
»22.H43 
21,tl;-il 

|iaiii,n2i 

fll4.tl2 

92ii.firi 

3.a3 l>.r. 

#41.27 



GENERAL RECAPITULATION 

Of tho amount of Property und Finances of Miituivl Honovolent Societies nppi-ovcd 

anil autiiorizod in lS8(i. 



Hituatioii at 31gt Decomlier, 1880. 


8o<'lETIKS. 


Approved, 


Authorized. 


NuuiIht of Hocii'tU'H <;■ 


5,!(0i) 
1(11, 04(n 

or>i,:mi [it(i'.i,222 

135,274 808,1 7ti J 
21,5t)!tJ 

B .3,58(1,031* 

3,244,1(18 

33."),8(>3 

9,4.3.'),!»00 

12,Si)8,32!l 

21,051 


2,2(14 


N\iniber of homiriiry nicnilHTH 


23,0021 
2.')7,2«3-j y 323,133 
38,(12(1 f2!Jit,231 J 
3,342j 

$ 1,541,5,')« 


fMi-n 

Nunibcr of ini'nilHTH iiarticipating. a Wonu-n 

litKIl'iptH of Hocii'ticH 


KxiK'tmi'M of Hocii'ties . . 


1,340,3.52 


KxccMs of r('C't'i|itM oviT diHlmrs(>mentH 


1!»5,2()4 


Aniovint of Kt'HiTvn Fund 


5,1)22,220 


Antount of PcnHion FiuuIh 




Ninnbt'i* of iH'nsioiu'rs 




AnvarM of lifn interest income 

Grand total of all Hureties 


^31(1,521 
8222,:W4,230 







t'tlK 
l.C 

lioh 
and 



In these receipts are included the amount of 9183,013 coming from suhHidies, bequeotn and legacies. 



' 



221 



(JRAND COUNCrLOK MUTIJAL HKNKVOLKXT SOf'IKTIKS oF BOUCHKS- 

l)U-lill()NK AT MAliSKll.LKS. 



ITS (IIUUIN, ITS OIUKCTH. 

Tlio (rnind Council of I ho miitiml lu-iiovolont HociotioH of lioiichos-du-IMiono, is 
ill) iissfrnldy coinpoMi'd i<t' Hio prcnidt'iils and HViidirs of socii>(i(«H, who vohitUiiiily 
pL'iroriii thoir tliitics, and wlio, hays Iho Mii|)(U'ior coinniissioii in IHoK, " havo nt'Vi-r 
i-ciiHi'd, sinco Ihoir organization, to hilxir for tho dovolopniont of thti triio principlfK 
<>{' innliial aMsociation, for tho rci'orrn of aluist'H, for Iht' ahatfincnt of contontionH 
Imtweon Hocit'ties and nu'inliors, and havo Hiiccft'dfd in niaintaiiun^ ordor, iiarniony 
and poai'O in thi' niidst of all the nociolios whirh ai-o I'staMisht'd under the law." 

It I'l'soinhh's tlui noidcfy of oxports, and liUo it, i» invcsttxl with powi'r to con- 
c'iliato and ailjuHt, in all rontonlionH arininf^ unioni; its incnihor-. It holds at Mar- 
stdllos n position anido;;ons to that whitdi was frivi>n to Fianco in j^cncral, l)y tho 
di'crooof li(!lh March, isr>2, \>y a llif.di ('onwnission for tho cstahlishnicnl and in^^pcction 
of niiitual honovolont societies. The grand council iw occupied with tho details and 
daily oecnrrencos in tho intiM'ioi- life of societies, and exercises its legitimate influ- 
ence overywheie as it may produce good results. Its administrative powers aro 
those of a voriiablo dopartmontal commission, extending its inllueneo through all tho 
department. 

Hosides itis adminiHtrntivo action, it forms uspocial juris<liction, deciding without 
(diarge, without loss of time, and with tho most simple method of ))rocedure, on (lues- 
lions raised hy tho ap|tIication of the statutes, and having the tripKi advantage of 
aiding in the development, of mutual ItonovolcMil societies, of asHisting their proper 
administration, and of maintaining on their stall', order, discipline, and the stiict 
ohservanco of buHiness methods. TheiroHico is always open on the day ap|)ointod, and 
there they oxamino and givi^ judgment on cases entered, receive c.omj)laints, conci- 
liating the parties, give counsel and advice, and genorally occupy tliemsidvos with 
the amelioration of the societies. They aro approached with contidenee, for it is tho 
petitioners tluunselves who have chosen the judges. 

Tho (Jrand ('ouncil had its origin from tho need felt of an association among 
provident workmen, who had already f )rmeil a mutual society, desirous of preserv- 
ing their corporative autonomy, hut willing to profit hy the oxperion<'e, foresight 
and ]»rogros8 of similar societies. It is to tho benevolent society of Marseilles to 
whom is due the formation of this Grand Council. Since lSt)8 it jiidiliHhed its fun- 
(lanuMitaf rules, the model statutes of pi'ovident societies. " It is," says at this period 
its president, Mr. Casimer Kostan, '" by the establishment of these societies wo can 
replace suppi'essod institutions, in favor of tho man who has no pr()[)orty but his 
labor, and for those who po-isess but a moderate income, sufflciont at tho period of 
health and strength, but insufficient at the time of old ago and infirmity. 

The bulletin of mutiuil benevolent societies of tho ye-ir lsr)4, i)age l.'5'.t, renders 
ihe following im|)ortant testimony: — 

" At Maiseilles, in 1H21, the benevolent society erected in its quarter, a kind of 
office, whore the mutual benevolent sociotiew could obtain the information they 
ro(iuired. This institution still continues its operations under the name of the (irand 
Council of mutual benevolent societies; but since 1841, provident societies having 
made rapid progress at Marseilles, if has coaseil to bo connected with benevolent 
societies and forms a special institution invested with the most extended authority. 
Thus it not only administei's tho atfaii's of societies placed under its chai'ge, but it is 
cognizant of all the diflicidties which may arise among them, and of which the deci- 
sion has not been refei'red to their managers, by their regulations. When a society 
complains of the violation of a rule, committed to its piejudice, it brings its com- 
plaint before tho (Jrand Council, which decides the matter authoritatively. A spon- 
taneous institution, inherent to the wants and interests of tho numerous associations 
which it has createil, the work of the Grand Council will always add lustre to tho 
minds which conceived it, and tho men devoted to its patronage. 



222 



It would bo KiijiorfUioiH hoi o to rolato all that tho(tiaiid Couia'il huz d^^no in tho 
interest of the workhif^idasscs, as to their progress, order and economy. The highest 
good-will and the best intentions, do not always suffice to administer in good order 
u society of workingmen. The Council are frequently composed of hotorogenoiis 
olomentB who decide i)y a majority r.'jainst one or several inemherH who may h.nvo 
previously entertained dilferent opinions. Tho Grand Council, free from all personal 
inllucnce, decides upon the facts oi" the case, ai'gued betbro it on both sides, without 
being swayed by the antipathies of the suitors. 

Tho (rrand Council of mutual benevolent societies of Bouchcs-du-Rhono reckons 
to-day about 140 societies adhering toit, of tho 250 which c^Mstituto the total strength 
of this department. 

Its board, renewed every year, in tlio month of February, but always lo-cligililc, 
is comi)osed of a j)rosident, two vice-presider.ts, a general secretary and two assistant 
secrotarios. A committee of eighteen members, half of whom are re-eligible each 
year, and composed of ten presidents and eight trustees, is formed from the general 
list of members classed in alphabeticai order. Thi" .-ommission is associated with tiio 
board, in conjunction with which it composes the administrative council, which is 
occupied in discussing and investigating neovled improvenients and reforms in the 
organization and operation of adherent societies. It is divided into three sub- 
commissions, and charged in turn, during four months of the year, with judging, with 
members of tho board, all affairs brought be ore the bar of the grand council. 



GENERAL INSURANCE FUND 

OP MEMBERS OF PROVIDENT SOCIETIES, FOR PENSIONS AND MUTUAL ASSISTANCE, OP THE 

DEPARTMENT OK THE SEINE. 



Extract from the By-lairs. 

Art. 1. There is hereby formed, among all the members of mutual benevolent 
societies of the Department of tho Seine, approved, authorized or intlepcndent, which 
are adhering or will adhere to the present bj'-laws. a iiind destined to extend succour, 
<luring the term fixed by saiii by-laws, to sick persons having no longer the right, in 
whole or in part, to those of their respective societies (^after six months). The 
society does not extend relief in case of st;>p|)age. 

Art. 2. Kach adherent will pay to the insurance fund two cents monthly (men 
and women). 

The ])aynu'nfs can be made to the care of the society to which the adherent or 
adherents belong, at the insurance ofKce. 

Art. 4. Members of societies connected with tho insurance fund, will name two 
delegates to represent them. 

Art. 5. All adherent members will only have the right to assistance from flic 
ance fund after six monthly jiaj'ments. 

Vrt. 0. No sick pei'son will have a right to assistance from the in.sui'ance fund 
uui. ss his illness is subsequent to his enrolment in the society, and unless his assess- 
ments are paid to date of the lommencement ot'his illness. 

Art 7. Kvery member adhering to the insui'ance soeiofy will pa^- his first assess- 
ment at the time of his enrolment, which will take effect on the first of tho following 
month. 

Art. 8. Each delegate, on payment of his monthly assessment, will band a list 
signed by the jiresident, with this mcmoi'andum: "certitiad correct," staling the 
numbers and names of members adhering to the insurance company. It will give 
notice, quarterly, of any subsequent changes. 

Art. 0. All evasion or intVaclion of this rule will entail tbeei'asureof names of its 
adhering memboi's, and tho funds paid in, will remain the property of the insurance' 
company. 



228 



Art. 10 Kiicli sick momlior having u right to iissistnnpo fmm tho insiiranco 
fund, will rec'oivo an imUMunity oj' 20 cents a day (ov 81.40 i'lich wooU) dining tlio 
whole ])eri()d of his illncws, or incapacity the rosult of it, which toriu is limited to 
live years. 

Art. 11. This indemnity vill Iw ]i!iid monthly, to tho.so entitled to receive it, by 
one of the delogalos of the society. Those indemnities are regulated by each 
receipt. 

Art. 12. Any member belonging to several societies can only receive fi'om the 
insurance fund, one bulk sum, pnoiscly as if he were only member of one society. 



tlu' 



Inn 



Ivm 



tho 
Igivo 



It'll' 

lllUi 



MUTUAL ]}ENEVOLKNT SOCIKTi' ESTABLISHED BY THE SCHOOL 
TEACHEIIS OF THE DIvPAIiT.MENT OF THE LOWER 

PYHENi-:ES. 

]£xtrocts from the By-Laws. 

Art. 1. This sociot}' has for its object: 

1st. To contribute ti> the expenses which the birtli of infant.s, sickness, or death 
m.iy bring u])()ii the member, in re-imbiirsing to him the greatest ^^ossible portion of 
expenses for doctors' fees, medicine, accmtclieincnt and funeral exjienscs. 

The particulars system adopted by this society, in order to assist its members, 
is dotincd in the following b\--lu\vs: 

Art. ;n. The fjiinily participating, represented b}' its head, has the right each 
year to a iieciiiiiary indemnity ])riiportioMcd to the expense it has umlergone during 
the preceding year, tliroiigli sickness ov death. 

Those arc only considered members of the family who are actually under the 
charge of the head. 

Art. ."{2. For calculating tho indemnity mi the one ])art, the gross ainoimt is 
tjiken of all assessments ])aid by those participating to .'Ust December (less SO. 10 from 
each assessment reserved for general expenses, \c.). It is this sum which will bo 
divided y»/'o rata for necessary expcii.se-*. 

On the other part, the gross amount is taken of expenses for medical attendance, 
medicine, acooiic/nincnt, or funeral exiienses incurred during the year liy ciich head 
of a family. (These expenses should be certified by receipts or vouchers.) 

Art. ;{'). On the 1st of February the board examines the report sent in by each 
secrotar^'^; it can reject or reduce all ex])eiiscs not suilicieiitly Jiistilicd ; it can also 
0(iually a])ply to certain items the maximum fixed by the by-laws. 

The gross amount awarded each secretary is dinunished by ten jier cent., in oriler 
that he ma}' not ever be fully reimbursed the total of his expenses, of which a portion 
remains charged to iho member. 

This redmtion made, ifthecapit.il available is suflicientto defray all tiio expenses, 
each societ}- is reimbursed fully, if they are not, lie is paid proportionately with the 
sum of his account. 

vVrt. ;}'.). An allowance of $12 is given to the widow or orjihaiis of a deceased 
member. 

Art. 40. Extra assistance may bo given to members in urgent or exceptionul 
cases. 

A retiring pension is given to an aged member, and assistance is otVered, in lieu, 
of pension in cases of iiremjitiire iiitiniiity. 

Article 4.'5 rei]iiirv-s that members under ."if) years of age, and of l.'» years connec- 
tion with the society, will receive a jiension varying from §11.00 to §;J2.00 per annum, 
according to the resources of tho society. 

The society a<lmits : 

1st. Active members, prospective members, sem'-honorary and honorary. 



iJ 



224 



Active members hiivc to pay : — 



Up to 25 years of aijo 81.00 



From 



25 


to 2(i 
to 27 
to 28 
to 29 
to 30 
to 40 
to 50 


years 
(io . 


27 


do . 
do . 


20 


do . 
do . 


40 


do . 



Entrance Annual 


Fee. 


Siil)Kcri|ition 


81.00 


82.40 


2.00'^ 




2.4(» 




2.80 


3.20 


3.40 




4.00 




4.00 


5.20 


4.00 


5.20 



Further, to all members joining when over 40 years all arrears will be, as if they had 
joined when 40 years of age. 

Prospective or intending members do not pay any assessment. Semi-honorary 
members pay an annual sum of $1,20, or a sum of 830 in one payment, to entitle 
them to the benefits of the pension fund. 

Honorary members pay 8 1 ])er annum, or can make one complete payment of 820. 

Only schoolmasters and schoolmistresses can become members of the society. 
Either the widow or one of the minor children of a decea.sed member has an equal 
right of admission, also scholars of the Normal School, or the children of members 
who intend to Join. 

The Association has Ibunded an orphans' bank, for the purpose of assuring a 
provision annually, to complete the education of children, in case of premature decease 
of their parents. The assessment is tiO cents per annum for each member and child 
insured. 



FEIENDLY SOCIETY OF POST OFFICE, AND TELEGEAPE, EMPLOYEES. 

This Association was founded by the employees of the Post Office and Telegraph 
Com2)anies. 

It has for its object : — 

1. To grant a pecuniary indemnity to members when sick. 

2. To contribute to their funeral expenses. 

3. To render assistance to their widows, orphans or heii's. 

4. To fimnd a pension fund for the benefit of its members. 
Members participating are requested to pay: — 

1. An entrance fee of 81 up to 30 years of age. 

do 82 from 30 to 40 years of age. 

do 84 do 40 to 50 do 

2. A monthly assessment proportioned to the age of the member at the date of 
his admission, as indicated on the following table : — 



225 



n 



Table showing Annual Assessments. 



of 



Afe't'H. 


First Year. 




Total. 
.S cts. 


Succeeding Yearn. 


ToUl. 


(irand 
Total. 


Xuniber 

of YefTS. 
















.? cts. 






20 1 


8 4.80 during 


40 


yrs. 


l'J2 00 








192 00 1 


1 


40 


21 ! 


2 


14 40 


^ 


37 


Vrs. 


177 tiO I 


39 


22 I 




4 




28 SO 




34 




Ka 20 1 




38 


23 ! 




6 




43 20 




31 




148 80 




37 


24 




8 




.-)7 (10 




28 




134 40 




36 


25 




10 




72 (JO 




25 




120 00 




35 


20 




12 




86 40 




22 




105 (iO 




34 


27 


^S 7.20 during 


14 




100 80 


S 4.80 during 


lit 




91 20 




33 


28 




Hi 




115 20 




16 




7(i 80 




32 


2'.> 




18 




12<l (iO 




13 




62 40 




31 


30 




20 




144 OO 




10 




48 00 




30 


31 




22 




158 40 




7 




33 60 




2{> 


32 




24 




172 80 




4 




19 20 




28 


33 




26 




187 20 




1 




4 80 


■.<!192 00 


27 


34 


^ 


2 




1!> 20 


"1 


24 




172 80 


2(» 


ST} 




o 




48 (MJ 




20 




144 00 




25 


3(5 
37 


■8 9.60 durinjf 


8 
11 




76 80 
105 60 


6 7.20 during 


16 
12 




115 20 

8(i 40 




24 
23 


38 




14 




i:« 40 




8 




57 60 




•)•) 


3!) 




17 




163 L'O 


, 


4 




2H 80 




Ol 


40 




20 
4 




1!)2 00 
4S 00 






vrs. 


192 (W 
144 (JO 




20 


41 


i,«! 9 60 during 


15 


19 


42 
43 


-.S12. 00 during 


S 
12 




!I6 00 
144 m 


10 
5 




9(i 00 
48 (H) 




IS 

17 


44 


- 


10 




192 00 








192 (JO 




It! 


■l") and 










over. 


.S14.40 during 


i) 


tt 


72 CH) 


.•?12.00 during 


10 




120 00 




15 



At 21 years and one day, the assessment of 21 years will be applied, etc. 

The landing will bo stopped whenever the sum of $192, entrance fee, not 
included, has been depo.sited. 

Art. 33. — The Society allows to its members — after six months' membership, 
and proportioned to their- assessment — an indemnity for sickness duly proved as 
having occasioned incapacity for work, during a period of over 20 days. 

This indemnity, beginning from the first day of sickness, is paid at the follow- 
ing rate: — 

From the 1st to the 30th day. inclusive 20c. each day. 

From the 31st to 90th do' do 30c. do 

If, after 90 consecutive days' illness, the member is placed on half-pay by the 
Administration, this indemnity will be from the 91st to the 180th day, inclusive, at 
50 cents per day. 

After 180 consecutive days, if the member is deprived of his salary, the indem- 
nity will be from the ISlst day to the 270th day, inclusive, at 80 cents per day. 

Every member placed on the pension list by the Administi'ation, without being 
admitted to the same benefit by the Society, or any member having loft the Adminis- 
tration and proving illness which has incapacitated him from work for over 20 days, 
will have the right to the following indemnities : — 

20 cents per day during the first 30 days; 30 cents per day beginning from the 
30th day until the 180th. 

The Society contributes $40 to the funeral expenses of a member, and gives $60 
to the widow, to the orphans and the parents of the deceased. 

Eveiy member of 60 years of age, and having belonged to the Society for at 
least 15 years, has the right to a pension from the rezt fund, to be fixed by the 
Council in proportion to the resources of the Association. 

Members in arrears for three months in the payment of their assessments, are 
subject to the erasure of their names from the lists. 

20—15 



ii 



226 



Special lieserve Fund. 

Founded in order to pay an indemnity for sickness of 20 cents per day, when 
the duration of Htatutory indemnity is cei-minated. 

Tiio aissesement at this bank is 5 cents per month, and the duration of this new 
alk)wance is — one year until the special funds amount to $2,000; two years when it 
amo\ints to between S2,000 and 84,000, and thus, in following proportions, as it 
increases yearly the dui-ation of the intlemnity at each augmentation of $2,000, 
imles.s the duration exceeds a maximum of five years. 

The wives and chililren of members, are admitted as participants in this special 
fund. 



MUNICIPAL MUTUAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF THE 9tii, 
AREONDISSEMENT OF PAKIS. 

Art. 2. The Society comprises all the territory of the 9th arrondissement, and 
has its tribunal at the townhall. 

Ai't. 3. It has for object : 1st, to succour participating members in event of sick- 
ness, accident or infirmity : 2nd, to pensi(m them for life in their old age; 3rd, to 
give them respectable tunerals at their decease : and 4th, the patronage of the Society 
to their children when admitted into their cii'cle. 

Active members are admitted from sixteen to fifty years. Healthy children 
fi'om two to sixteen years of ago can be admitted, if their parents are members of 
the Society, or, if they are orphans, on condition that their guardians become mem- 
bers also. 

Art. 18. The member who wishes to remove his domicile should state his inten- 
tion of so doing before removing, indicating his now residence, and his intention of 
remaining in the Society, or of changing to another (municipal society). 

The assessments vary from 10 to 60 cents per month, and the entrance fee is 
from GO cents to S3. 00, according to age of the new member. 

The nature or kind of assistance afforded, otters nothing particularly necessary 
of mention. 

Art. 45. Pupils and apprentices, of both sexos, who are members of the Society, 
are visited in their schools and workshops by members of the Committee named for 
that purpose. 

Art. 4G. Every year, in December, prizes are awarded by the Administrating 
Council to the best pupils. 

Art. 4'7. Apprentices distinguished for good conduct, zeal, and application, 
i-eceive from the Society, at the General Assembly, on the report of the Visiting 
Committee, testimonials of their approval. 

Art. 50. The Society takes care of children admitted to its circle who, being 
under eighteen yeai-s of age, lose father and mother, or those among them who are 
living at the date of their admission, and contribute in whole, or partly, to expenses 
of their education, suitably to the position of their families. 



CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS OF ROUEN. 

MUTUAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETY, POUNDED IN 1849. 

This Society has for its object : — 

1. To give to all its members who are sick or indisposed, fi-ee medical attend- 
ance and medicine, unthout limitation of time. 

2. To give, for a period of a year or more, a pecuniary indemnity to sick per- 
sons, and assistance for tlieir young children. 

3. To grant sick-bed relief to incurables, or those incapable of work, until they 
fulfil the conditions required to give them a claim to the pension. 

4. To give old men, over 65 yeai-s of ago, and 20 years membership in said 
Society, participation in the advantages of the pension. 



stud_y 



1 
1 
the re 
1 
age; , 
tliirty 
T 
ness f( 
of ago 
throe i 
each c, 
week (I 
per we( 
annum. 
Af( 
inedicji 
ThJ 
"lembe 



PIIILA] 



The 

1st. 
2nd. 
3i'd. 
oxceed in 
4th. . 
5th. . 
6th. J 
Activ 
Ist. J 
nf S4.80 f'r 
This c 
e'lances of 
2nd. J 
hov : — 

15 to 20 
21 
22 
23 
24, 
25. 
2({. 



227 



5. To give women the same privilege. 

6. To assist unemploj-ed members to find work. 

7. To receive for deposit in Savings Bank the savings of individual members. 

8. To instruct and encourage those members by lectures, "ind, it' possible, by the 
study of selected reading, and by concerts of vocal music. 

9. To reward the most meritorious efforts or works of these members. 

10. To ensure to all, suitable burial, to the expense of which provision is made. 

11. To ])rovide, if possible, by special means, an additional fund, exclusively for 
the relief of sick persons. 

12. The entrance fee is fixed at 20 cents, fi-om twelve to twenty-one years of 
age; at 40 cents, from twenty-one to thirty-five years of age; and at (50 cents over 
thirty-five years of age. 

The assessments are for men: — $2.50 per annum, giving u right in case of sick- 
ness to 80 cents per week, and 10 c(^nts per week for each child under fourteen years 
of age ; or S3 per annum, giving the right in case of sickness to ^1 per week during 
three months, and SO cents per week during nine months, and 10 cents per week for 
each child; or $3.72 per annum, giving the I'ight in case of sickness to §1.40 per 
week during three months, and 80 cents per week during nine months, and 20 cents 
per week foi- each child. For wo?non the assessments are from S2.04 to $2.40 per 
annum. 

After one j-ear the sick person receives an assistance of 10 cents per week, 
medical care and attendance — the Society paying his assessment. 

The statutes regulate the position of widows and orphans, and the pensions of 
members. 



PIIILAXTIIROPIC SOCIETY OF TKE CLERKS AT^D EMPLOYEES OF THK 
CITY OF MAESEILLKS. ( Founded in 1848.) 

The Society grants to active members in case of sickness: — 

1st. Medical care and attendance. 

2nd. Remedies and medicine delivered by the druggists of the Society. 

Si'd. An indemnity specially fixed at 40 cents per day, if the sickness does not 
exceed in duration six "or eight months, accox'ding to the case. 

4th. A monthly invalid fund. 

5th. A retiring pension, at the age of 60. 

6th. Funeral expenses. 

Active members have to pay : 

1st. An entrance fee of $2.40, from the age of 25 to 30; of $3.60 from 31 to 35 ; 
of $4.80 from 36 to 39 years of age. 

This entrance fee is transferred to the i-elief fund, for it represents the value of 
chances of sickness, apportioned to the most advanced ages. 

2nd. An annual assessment, varying as follows, with the age of the new mem- 
Ijor : — 



15 to 20 years $4.80 

.02 
.16 
.28 
.40 



21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 

2(). 



28. 
29. 



52 
76 
88 
12 
36 



30 years $6.00 

6.84 

7.20 

7.44 

7.80 

8.16 

8.64 

0.12 

9.60 

39 10.08 



31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 



In 1888 the retiring pension gi'anted by the Society was $52.45 per annum, the 
pensioners numbering 180. 
20—15* 



228 



MUTUAL BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF THE COOPERS AND BOTTLERS 

OF RELMS. 

This Society, originated and founded by the coopers and bottlers of Reim**, has a 
just chiim to servo as an excellent example of the advantages ottered by a mutually 
co-operative society. 

'• This plan implies more than the ordinary relations of mutual societies — in fact, 
complete mutual responsibility on the part of the employers and workmen of the same 
trade, this responsibility being acknowledged by a formal agreement." 

The constitution of this Society otters nothing particularly worthy of remark, 
except the following clause : "Each member particii^ating (men and women) pays 
to the insurance fund of the Mutual BenevolontSocioty of Iteims a supplementary use 
of 2 cents per month. The fund thus formed is paid over to sick members who have 
already drawn, during six months, the daily indemnity of their society, 20 cents per 
day, until recovery. 



THE ANTWERP FRIENDLY SOCIETY.* 

Founded in 1868, this Society has for its object: 

1. To extend the benefits of mutual societies, in case of sickness or infirmity, to 
laborers, agents, brokers, commissioners, commercial travellei-s, bank and corporation 
clerks. 

2. To establish thoroughly a special fund for the assistance of tenants, their 
widows, or orphans, in indigent circumstances. 

The annual assessment is §•!; entrance fee, $2 from 18 to 25 years of age, and 
84 from 35 to 40. 

There is granted to every sick member the sum of §20 per month during six 
months, and $10 per month afterwards. 

There is granted an allowance of $20 per month to the member out of employ- 
ment in consequence of the unexpected failure of his employer, or as the result 
of fire. 



' Keport presented to tho 5th Section, Social Economy Exhibition, 188'J. 






SECTION VI. 



RETIRING FUND AND ANNUITIES. 







beai 



KETIRINO FUND A^>^D A:N'NrUITIES. 



PEANCE. 



DEPOSIT AND INVESTMENT FUND. 



NATIONAL EETIRING FUND FOR OLD AGE. 



FIRST I'AET. 



The object of the Institution and its nature. 

The National Retiring Fund for old age, which was established in 1850 and 
re-organized by the law of 20th July, 1886, and by the decree of 28th December, 1886, 
acts under warranty of the State, and under the direction of a higher Cotnmiwriion 
formed under the Minister of Commerce. The object of the fund is to establish a 
retiring fund, at fifty years of age or more, as the depositor may choose, the maxi- 
mum amounts of the annuity not to exceed 8240. 

The intention of the legislator is to proviilo for the old age of the workingmen 
in rural districts and in cities, by means of an assessment on his daily wages. 

With this object in view, the smallest savings are received in the Fund, where they 
bear interest and so increase, and the death rate being taken into account. 

All the amounts received from depositors, with the exception of the sums 
required to meet the daily payments, which are entered in the current account of 
the Public Treasury, ai'O successively invested in French rents, or other investments 
guaranteed by the State ; consequently, the Fund has always in its possession deeds 
representing the number and amount of its transactions. 

The compound interest allowed depositors is exactly the same as that drawn by 
the Fund itself from the deposits made. No amount whatever is retained or 
deducted for expenses of administration. These expenses are borne by the Deposit 
Fund, which has charge of the National Retiring Fund. 

By means of this institution, any man living on his wages is afforded the possi- 
bility of providing, with absolute security and with every possible advantage, an 
independence for his old age. lie is, by this means, assured against the danger 
of becoming a burden to his children ; and, moreover, if it be his wish, he may, by 
reserving the capital for them, add to this provident forethought for his own 
interests, the gratification of knowing that at his death they will inherit a certain 
amount in money. 

Besides, if the depositor should, previous to the period settled upon for payment 
of the pension, by some serious accident or premature infirmity, duly certified, 
l^ecome totally incapacitated for work, he is immediately, and before he is 50 years 
of, age allowed a pension proportioned to his age and the amount he has deposited. 
This pension may be increased by a subsidy fi-om the State, to the extent allowed by 
the credit entered for such purpose iu each year's budget. 

The higher Commission consists of sixteen members, among whom must neces- 
sarily be two senators, two deputies, two State councillors, two presidents of mutual 
aid societies and one engaged in industrial pursuits. It decides all matters of improve- 
ment and, in general, gives its opinion on all questions concerning the Fund. 

Since its foundation to 31st December, 1885, the Retiring Fund has received 
from 694,911 depositors: 

6,498,251 payments for alienated capital, amounting to $55,855,174 
3,809,829 payments for reserved capital, amounting to 62,642,127 

Altogether : 10,308,079 payments, amounting to $118,497,380 




232 




It Imp ostablishod, for the bonofit of 278,782 iinmiitants, umuiitios to tho amount 
of $7,384,380. 

It has ]»ai(l for arroars due on these annuities the Hum of 048,024,210.* 

It has paid to tho hoirs and aswi/^nH of depositors who have made thoir deposits 
n8 reserved capital, tho sum of ?13, 382,327. 

In 1888 tho assets of tho Fund corresponding to its obligations, in Stale annuities 
and in specie, amounted to 8143,857,345. 

MANNER OK MAKING DEPOSITS. 

All that is required at tho first is a certificate of tb'i depositor's birth on 
unstamped paper. Tho depositor receives a receipt, to bo afterwards changed for a 
bank book, given by tho Deposit and Investment Fund. This book contains all 
necessary information concerning future payments wliich are rocoivod by all account- 
ants given later (p. 2!)4), on production of the book. 

Tho deposits may come from the recipient of tho annuity, or from a third party. 

The first may bo made oithor directly by the owner himself, or by an interme- 
diary. Any person may become tho intormodiary, may rocoivo tho assessments and 
deposit them to tho depositor's account, on pi'oducing a memorandum containing the 
mvmes of the depositors and the amounts paid in to the account of each. Tho Mayor 
may make deposits for tho mombors of his district (co7nmune),ii teacher for the pupils 
of liis school, tiio head of an industry in tho name of his workmen, mutual aid soci- 
eties for their members, etc. 

Special provident societies, established exprossh' for the purpose of becoming 
intermediary between their members and the Retiring Fund, are, by their nature, 
able to do good service, and gi'eatly assist in developing the system by securing the 
co-operation of woll-<lisposed persons, l>y ensuring tho regular payment of amounts 
assessed, and by stimulating the ardor of those in arrears. 

Finally, the private Savings Fund and tho National Postal Savings Fund are 
officially designeil to occupy such a position in regard to their depositors. 

As regards payments made as a donation, either by the donator himself, or by 
verbal mandate, they may be made, by a father for his children, or by districts (com- 
munes) by departments, by agricultural committees, by individuals, as prizes or 
rewards, to scholars or others, by a manufacturer for his workmen, etc. 

This method of benefaction is to be particularly commended ; a moans is thus 
provided a donator which ho cannot destroy, and there is also assured tho recipient, 
espcciallj' if he bo a child or an apprentice, an annuity equal, and sometimes greater 
than the amount disbursed. It is also a means of spreading a knowledge of the insti- 
tution, and to suggest ideas of saving and economy tor the future to families. 

BULLETINS-RETRAITES — CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT. 

In order to oncourage even the smallest savings, the National Eetiring Fuml 
has, since 1st April, 1887, established certificates of deposit (Bulletins-rctraUes), similar 
to those given by tho Postal Savings Bank, and jjormitting, by means of ordinary 
postage stamps, the minimum deposit ot $0.20 (or of $0.40 if there be two depositors) 
presci-ibed by law. 

It is sufficient to stick the stamps to a certificate, which is accepted as money by 
the Eetiring Fund, provided the stamps have not been altered, nor soiled, nor torn. 

These certificates are very useful to teachers whose puj)ils wish to share in the 
advantages offered by tho National Retiring Fund, which are peculiarly largo when 
payments are made lor young children. 



CONDITIONS OF PAYMENT. 



Payments may bo made at will. The depositor enters into no engagement, ami 
may discontinue his payments, and beg.r them again it pleasure; he may increase 
or reduce the amount of his annual depouit without in any way interfering with the 



233 



Ihus 



> liter 
liiisti- 



iFiiiiil 

lilar 

I nary 

Itorw) 



j'ohuUh nlroiuly obtiiinod. Any piiyna'nt in, in fact, Huhjoot to snocial liquidation 
effected aceoi-ding to tiio taiitl" in iwo at llio tirno tlio dopoHit is niauo. 

The ponMioi' dorivoil in ri't;aiil to tlio payment, is entered in the depositor's book, 
and is llieneeforvard irrevocable. It can no binder lie diininisbeil, except by antici- 
pated liquidation, nor can it bo increased, except by an adjournment of enjoyment or 
by abandoninf^ tlie capital. At the time settled for its enjoyment, it will be entered 
in the lodger of tho National lletiring Fund. 

J'ayments may bo made in the name of anyone 3 years of age. 

It is not re(|Mire(l that payments made as a lionation should be accepted by the 
iidieritor, nor authorized by the father, it the inhciitoi- be a minor. 

Payments made by moans of the savings of minors, under 1(J years of age must 
be authorized by the father or tutor. 

Married women, whatever may bo the conditions of their marriage contract, are 
allowed to make payments without their husbands' authoiization. But jwiyments 
made in the name of married depositors, not separated as to property, are obliged to 
bo shared by halt, unless they are macle by donation. In the event of one of the 
married j)arties being abs(>nt more than a year, the justice of j)eace may authorize 
the payments to be n)ade for the exclusive |)rolit of the depositor. 

Payments are received of any amount from ^0.20 (or if by a married couple, 
80,40). Tlu' maximum amo)int is 82(10 per annum (8400 for married couple). 

Capital may be eitlier alienated or reserved; in the latter case they are i)aid 
without intei-est to the heirs and assigns of the (lc])osit(ir at the time of his deccjiHe. 

Jiesorved capital may be abandoned later, with a view to securing a now pension 
at the ago determined by tho depositor when signing the abandonment. 

ANNUITIES. 

Those annuities are guai-anteed by the State, and are entoretl in tho ledger of the 
National JJetiring Fund, the duplicate being dei)osited with the ^Minister of Finance. 

The annuity becomes j)ayal)le at any age from 50 to (i.') years — that is. 50, 51, 52 
yoarB, etc., as tho depositor may choose. Atter t)5 it is jiayable immoclialely — that is, 
it begins from tho tirst day of the quarter term (three months) following tho pay- 
ment. 

The annuities are inalionable and unseizable to the sum of S72. They may bo 
declared inalienable and unseizable in their entirety, by tho donutor of the caj)ilal. 

At the period settled by depositor for receiving the annuity a deed is given him, 
comprising tho whole amount of deposits entered into tho book for this annuity. 
Tho arrears are payable quarterly to the tinancial receiver, or to the tax gatherors, 

TARIFFS. 

Tho tarift's are determined every year b}- decroeof the President of tho llepublic, 
on proposition of the Minister of Finance, suggested by tho higher Commission of the 
Fund. 

Account being taken for each payment, they are calculated as regards : 1st. 
Compound interest on capital; 2nd. Tho chances of death by reason of tho de]iosi- 
tor's age at the time of payment, and the age at which tiio annuity is to begin ; 8rd. 
Surrender of capital, if tho capital is alienated, oi- of payment at death, if the deposi- 
tor has 80 desired when making ])ayment. 

Tho otHcial tariffs are established from (juartor term to quarter term, from 3 
years of age to(J5 years, for payments, and from year to yeai', from 50 to (55 years of 
age, for the enjoyment. Those tariffs can bo jirocurod by the public on payment of 
80.02, tho approximate cost of printing. 

A special mandate gives information as to tho revenue produced either by one 
sole paymontof 820 at the difieront ages of payment, and of receiving the annuity, or by 
annual payments of 82.00, begun at a certain age and continued to time of onjoy- 
nient of annuity. This man(hite, in like manner to tho present, is both posted and 
distributed gratuitously, under the form of a notice, in the different Mayors' offices, 
the offices of the Treasury accountants, the post offices and public schools. 



284 



PopoHitH iiro rof!oive<l in tho DtipoMitaiid Iiivowtmont Fund, and by tho troiiHiii-orH 
pnyoi-rt tfonornl, hIho by the receiver of ttnaticos, and by tho tax-^athurortt and the 
poHtinastorH. 



SECOND PART. 



A Hpocial notico, posted in tho Mayors' offlcon, in the officoH nf tho direct Treasury 
accountaiitK, in tho post offlct^s and public schools, shows tbo ndvantu^o and manner 
of proceeding of this providi-nt instituiion. Tho tablos, Nos. 1 and 2, horoaftor 



(M |iriiruu<iiii^ III iiiin iii iiv Kiciii iiirM ii ill luii, xiiu uti^ii'n, i^im, i iiiiii n, iinuiiiiAJi 

uivon, taken fiotn tariffs in actual use (the interest scrriiKj ai busis to this tariff is 4 
per cent.), indicate tho amount of revenue produced from solo payments of $100, at 
dirt'eront ages, from U to (if) years, with enjoyment at 50, 55, (!0 and (55 years. 

Tables Nos. ,{ and 4 give tho annuities produced b" annual payments of 810, 
begun at a cerlain ago, and continued to tbo ago for receiving tho annuity. Tlio 
tariffs are ostablishc^d by taking into account tho compound interest on capital, with 
tho chances of death, anil tho result shown is that tho payments are more productive 
tho earlier they are begun. Thus, ono solo payment, with alienated capital, for a 
chihl '.i years of age, with enjoymont of tbo annuity at GO years ot age, gives $158, 
44 per cent, of the capital pai(i. 



l)or cent, ot tlie capital paid. 
At 20 years of ago it gives 874.75 [»or cent. 
Annual deposits of $(5.00, made from the ajj 



that age i)ro<luco 

t. Wi- 



ago of 18 to 60 years (or $258 paid), at 



1/ nfLv 111 in.iiii'.u . 

Ist. With alienated capital, an annuity of $91.55 — that is, 35*48 per cent, on 
capital paid, 

2n(l. With reserved capital, an annuity of $G2.73, or 24'31 per cent, on the 
dcposiiod capital. 



fli' 



285 



TAHLK No. I.—TAIIIFF 4 p. c. 
Aiuiitity prncurccl l)y iloposit of 8100. 

.M.IENATKO (\\l'rr.M,. 



AflK AT WHICH 

i'.vvmknt im 
Madk. 



3 years. 

4 " . 
6 " . 



years. 

7 " . 

8 " . 
» " . 

10 " . 

11 years. 

12 " . 

13 " . 

14 " . 

15 " . 



10 years. 

17 " . 

18 " . 
1!) " . 

20 " . 

21 years. 

23 " '. 

24 " . 

25 " . 



Knjovmknt ok Anniity at 



50 years. 



(W 11 
(M IHI 
02 01) 



511 38 
5(( 85 
54 40 
52 111 
60 03 

47 05 
45 04 
44 00 
42 11 
40 20 

38 62 

3(i 80 

35 14 

:« 54 

32 (M) 



30 .52 
20 10 
27 75 
20 40 
25 23 



55yearB. 


» 


c. 


101 


10 


IHl 51 


U2 21 


88 


20 


84 


43 


80 N8 1 


( 1 


51 


74 


;«) 


71 21 


(W 


23 


(m 


34 


(i2 


55 


50 83 1 









' AliK .VT WIIK'fC 

.' I'aymknt is '^ — 

I i Madk. 



KSJOVMKST OK A.NNIITY AT 



00 years 05 years. 



158 44 
151 17 
144 43 

138 14 
132 25 

120 08 

121 41 
IKi 37 

111 54 

KKi H7 

102 :r. 
07 07 
113 72 



9 0. 







207 


70 


2r)5 41 


244 02 


233 40 


223 43 


214 


04 


205 


12 


100 


02 


188 45 


180 


M 


172 


02 


105 


52 


IM 


34 



30 years. 
37 " . 

;w " . 

30 " . 
40 " . 



50 years. 



* 0. 

15 on 
14 34 
13 07 
13 03 
12 42 



41 yjwrs U 83 

42 " I 11 27 

43 " I 10 73 

44 " ' 10 21 

45 " 71 



56 years. 


00 years. 


8 c. 


1 c. 


22 33 


34 07 


21 20 


xi ar> 


20 30 


31 8(1 


10 ;v> 


:)(i 31 


18 44 


28 88 



40 years. 

47 " . 

48 " . 
40 " . 
50 " . 



24 
8 79 
8 36 
7 02 
7 61 



17 57 

10 73 
15 03 
15 k; 
It i3 

i:< 72 

' ' '15 

1. HI 

11 77 
11 10 



27 62 
2(i 21 
24 05 
23 75 
22 00 



06 yean. 


« 


0. 


.511 08 


50 


34 


.53 


72 


51 


21 


48 80 


40 


40 


44 28 


42 
40 


10 

i:i 



21 60 
20 44 
10 42 
18 43 

17 48 



:« 18 

30 32 
34 M 
32 80 

31 14 
20 .53 



57 20 


80 (Vt 


M 06 


86 01 


62 1!) 


81 75 


40 81 


78 03 


47 62 


74 44 


45 33 


70 00 


43 22 


07 00 


41 21 


04 54 



30 20 
37 47 

.35 74 
.34 10 
32 54 

31 m 
20 02 




(il .54 
68 00 

m <I8 
63 41 
50 ill) 
48 03 
4() 40 



151 38 
144 (i4 

i;w 12 
131 8;j 

126 77 

ll!l 05 
114 37 
lOil 05 
103 08 
00 10 

04 5!l 

!H) 24 

8(> 11 

82 10 

78 40 



61 years 




10 57 


10 .50 


27 08 


52 " 


10 01 


15 07 


21! 48 


5.3 " 




40 


14 82 


25 03 


54 " 




8 03 


13 !l!l 


23 04 


^-) " 




8 43 


13 20 


22 30 


5(! years 






12 44 


21 02 


57 " 






11 71 


10 78 


.58 " 






11 01 


18 51) 


.50 " 






10 ;« 


17 40 


00 " 






00 


10 3(5 


(il years 








16 32 


02 " 

03 " 








.4 31 

13 34 


04 " 








12 41 


05 " 








11 51 



44 27 
42 24 
40 20 
38 44 
30 GO 



74 80 
71 .30 
(i8 08 
04 04 
01 05 



Over (i5 years of n^e the annuity is the 
MiiiiU! a.'< at 06. 



SECOND TABLE No 1.— TARIFF 4 p. c. 
Annuity acquired immediately on the payment of SIOO. 

ALIENATED CAPITAL, 











58 years 

511 " 

(iO " .... 
01 " . .. 


8 c. 

13 

40 

00 

10 00 


02 years 

(W " 

(i4 " 

05 '• 




50 years 

.51 " 

.52 " ... . 
,53 " 


8 c. 

7 51 

7 (W 

7 85 

8 03 


54 years 

.55 " 

m " 

57 " 


.S c. 

8 22 
8 43 
8 (!4 

8 88 


!? C. 

10 ;« 

10 70 

11 (HI 
11 .51 



Note. — The enjoyment of an ainmity dates from the 1st day of the quarter following the ([uarter corres- 
lH)nding to that of birtii. 
After 05 years of age the enjoyment dates from the Ist day of the quarter following the deiKwit. 






236 

TABLE No. 2.— TARIFF 4 p. c. 
Annuity procured by payment of 8100. 

RESERVED CAPIT.VL. 




Enjoyment ok Avnuity at 



00 years 


S c. 

23 .50 
22 14 
20 85 
1!) 01 
18 43 



17 31 
K! 24 
15 22 
14 25 
13 32 



12 44 
11 01 
1(1 82 
10 0() 

it a") 



do years 



.? c. 

3',» 71 

37 41 

35 22 

.SS 13 

31 14 

2!) 24 
27 43 
25 71 
24 07 
22 51 

21 03 
111 (il 

18 27 
17 00 
15 7!> 



8 (i7 1 


8 02 i 


7 42 


() 84 


30 



14 (i4 


13 .50 


12 53 


11 50 


10 (54 



II 


08 


73 04 


0!» 


78 


00 


10 


02 


.58 


.5i» 


23 


50 04 


.52 


it!) 


50 07 


47 


.SO 


44 


05 


42 


12 





5 7i) 
5 31 




4 85 




4 43 




4 03 







78 
8 'J7 
8 20 
7 48 
81 



17 
6 58 
5 03 
4 .52 
4 04 



' 05 ve.ars of .ipff the atimiity w tlie same as nt 05. 



SECOND TABLE No. 2.— TARIFF 4 p. c. 
Annuities acquired immediately on payment of $100. 

RESEKVEO CAPITAL. 





8 c. 




$ c. 




»c. 




8 c. 


50 years 


4 02 


54 years 


4 02 


1)8 j-ears 


4 03 


(>2 years 


4 03 


.51 " 


4 02 


,55 " 


4 02 


5!t " 


4 03 


(i3 " 


4 03 


.52 " 


4 02 


60 " 


4 02 


00 " 


4 03 


(i4 " 


4 04 


53 " 


4 02 


67 " 


4 02 


01 " . ... 


4 03 


06 " 


4 04 



21 


^•( 


22 


' 


23 


( 


24 


( 


25 


* 


2(i 
27 


4 


28 


f 


2it 


( 


30 


(1 


31 
32 


Ve 


■Xi 


(( 


34 


K 


35 


(t 



237 



TABLE No. 3.— TARIFF 4 p. c. 
Annuity procured by an Annual Deposit of 810. 

ALIENATED CAPITAL. 



AoK 

AT THK FlHSl'- 
I'.VY.MKN T. 



Enjoyment ok tiii: Anni ity at 



50 yearn. 



^ years 
4 " . 



t> years 

•■ .4 
4 

s '• . 

;• " . 

10 " . 

11 years 
12'-' . 

13 " 

14 " . 

15 " . 



It! years 

17 " . 

18 " . 
lit '■ . 
20 " . 



21 years 

22 ' " 

23 " '. 

24 " . 

25 " . 



2Ct years 
27 " . 
2« " . 
20 ' ' 

30 " '. 

31 years 
.32 " 

:« " '. 

34 " . 

35 " , 



13(! 40 
12!) 50 
123 00 



IKi MO 

no 05 

105 20 

00 82 

04 00 



80 50 
84 8 
80 21 
75 81 
71 50 

07 57 
03 71 
(iO 03 
50 52 
53 17 



40 07 
•Mi 01 
!4 »M! 

41 23 
38 .58 

.30 (Ki 
.33 05 
31 30 
20 17 
27 07 



;)o years. 



105 i)8 
00 30 
03 00 
.S8 08 
Ki 70 



78 05 
74 41 
70 00 
(i5 07 
02 04 



25 OS 
23 18 
21 30 
10 (kS 
17 08 



207 32 
107 20 
187 .55 

178 .33 
100 51 
1(11 07 
152 08 
145 23 

137 80 
1.30 (i8 
123 80 
117 32 
111 07 



(M) years. 


05 years. 


.? c. 


S 0. 


3.30 25 


.504 00 


314 40 


.537 80 


200 20 


512 35 


284 84 


487 05 


271 03 


4(!4 01 


25/ 81 


442 20 


245 14 


420 80 


2;« <M) 


4(M) 35 








221 30 

210 21 
100 52 
180 28 
170 40 



170 11 
Itil 15 
152 50 
144 42 



.58 


30 


.54 


72 


51 


31 


48 (K) 


44 


05 


41 


00 


30 


10 


3(5 


47 


33 80 


31 


44 



38«) 60 
31)1 84 
343 70 
320 40 
.300 04 



130 02 


120 17 


122 


07 


115 


30 


108 


85 


102 


70 


!»»! 


83 


01 


23 


85 


80 


80 


70 


75 


03 


71 


20 


00 


80 


02 


04 


58 til 


54 


70 



134 07 



127 13 
110 (i5 
112 52 
105 71 
00 21 



A(!K 

ATTllK FlIlST 

l'AY>rKNT. 



1 31! years. 
I 37 " .. 
I .38 " .. 
I 30 " .. 
40 " .. 



years. 



4:. 
43 
44 
45 



4(i years. 

47 " .. 

48 " ., 
40 " .. 
50 " .. 



204 11 
278 07 
204 51 
250 t!0 
237 51 

224 03 
212 04 

201 50 
I'.MI (iO 
180 20 

170 28 
100 82 
151 80 
143 10 fi 04 



.51 years. 
52 '" .. 
.53 " .. 

54 " .. 

55 " .. 



5f! yt^ars. 

57 " .. 

58 " .. 
50 " .. 
00 " .. 



Enjoyment ok tmk Anni: ity at 



til years. 
02 " .. 
ti3 " .. 



Of! 



50ycars. 



8 c. 

Ki 40 
14 00 
13 4(! 
12 10 
10 70 



55 years. 'tlO yi-ars. 



4 18 
3 25 
2 37 
1 54 
75 



8 c. 

2!) 10 
21! 87 
24 74 
22 71 
20 77 



10 05 
57 
8 27 
7 03 
5 85 



4 74 

3 <i8 
2 08 
1 73 

84 



S e. 

51 10 
47 Oti 
44 27 
41 00 

;w 00 



18 03 


.35 17 


17 17 


32 42 


15 50 


2i> 70 


13 00 


27 .30 


12 30 


24 02 



22 (id 
20 51 
18 47 
Ki r<i 
14 (iO 



12 04 

11 28 

71 

8 23 

ti 83 



5 51 
4 27 
3 10 
2 00 
00 



05 years. 



03 02 
87 11 
81 48 
70 11 
70 !t8 



til! 10 
til 41! 
.57 03 
.52 81 
48 80 



44 08 
41 35 
37 00 
34 ti2 
31 50 



28 55 
25 75 
23 10 
20 (iO 
18 24 



K! 01 
13 00 
11 03 
10 07 
8 32 

(! 08 
5 15 
3 72 
2 30 
1 15 




■'"■■:'■ 

! 1 



4^ 
T: 

t 
■I 

f 



238 

TABLE No. 4.— TARIFF 4 p. c. 
Annuity procured by an Annual Deposit of §10. 

RESERVED CAPITAL. 



AciE 
AT THE FlH.ST 

Payment. 


Kn.ioymknt ok the Annuity at 


A(;e 

AT THE FlK.ST 

Payment. 


EN.IOYMENT OP THE ANNUITY AT 


50 years. 


.55 years. 


00 years. 


05 years. 

8 c. 

422 95 
4.M) 01 
379 31 


50 years. 


55 years. 


CO years. 


OSyeavs. 


3 years 

4 " 

r, " 


$ c. 

104 31 
!IH (13 
i)3 21 


8 c. 

157 31 
148 87 
140 82 


S c. 

248 83 
235 01 
223 01 


i 8 c. 

30 years 1 10 10 

37 " 1 9 09 

38 " 1 8 14 

39 " 7 25 

40 " 40 


.? c. 

17 39 
15 89 
14 47 
13 14 
11 89 


8 c, 

29 08 
27 33 
25 11 
23 03 
21 07 


8 c. 

52 07 
48 70 
44 90 
41 44 
38 13 


(5 years 

7 " 

8 " 

9 " 

10 " 


88 05 
83 12 
78 43 

73 («; 
(W 70 

05 (55 
(il 7!t 
.58 11 
54 (12 
51 30 

48 14 
45 14 
42 2!) 
3!) .58 
37 01 


133 15 
125 84 
118 87 
112 23 
105 !I0 


210 99 
199 54 
188 02 
178 23 
108 32 


.350 01 
3.39 00 
.321 22 
303 05 
280 92 


41 years 

42 " 

'43 " 

44 " 

45 " 


5 01 
4 87 
4 17 
3 51 
2 90 


10 71 
9 01 
8 57 
7 00 
09 


19 22 
17 49 
15 87 
14 .V) 
12 92 


a5 01 
32 09 
29 35 
20 77 
24 37 


11 years 

12 " 

13 " 

14 " 

15 " 


99 88 
94 15 
88 70 
83 51 
78 57 


1.58 89 
149 91 
141 30 
laS 24 
125 51 


270 98 
255 81 
241 37 ' 
227 04 1 

214 ,58 1 

1 


40 years 

47 " 

48 " 

49 " 

50 " 


2 33 
1 79 
1 30 
83 
40 


5 84 
5 04 
4 30 
3 01 
2 97 


11 59 

10 a5 

9 18 
8 10 
7 10 


22 12 
20 01 
18 05 
10 23 
14 53 


Kivears 

17' " 

IS " 

l!l " 

2(1 " 


73 88 
09 42 
05 19 
01 17 
57 35 


118 10 

111 18 

104 .55 

98 25 

92 20 


202 17 ' ,51 years 

190 .37 i .52 " 

179 17 53 " 

108 52 '54 " 

158 42 55 " 




2 37 
1 82 
1 31 
83 
40 


C 10 
6 29 
4 49 
3 75 
3 07 


12 95 
11 48 
10 13 

8 87 
7 72 


21 years 

22 " 

23 " 

24 " 

25 " 


34 57 1 .53 72 ; 80 .59 
32 25 50 28 81 20 
30 05 47 02 ! 70 09 
27 97 43 92 i 71 24 
25 99 i 40 99 , 00 04 


148 82 
139 72 
131 08 
122 89 
115 12 , 


,50 years 

57 '• 

W " 

59 " 

00 " 






2 44 
1 86 
1 33 

84 
40 


C 05 
5 08 
4 78 
3 96 
3 21 


2(1 years 

27 " 

28 " 

2<t " 

3(1 " 


24 12 
22 34 

20 (id 
19 07 
17 .50 


,38 20 : 02 28 
35 .57 ; 58 15 
33 07 54 24 
.30 70 ; .50 .53 
28 47 i 47 03 


107 70 

100 78 

94 17 

87 91 

81 99 

70 39 

71 09 

00 08 

01 35 
50 89 


01 years i 

02 " 

03 " 

04 " 

05 " 






2 ,53 
1 91 
1 35 
85 
40 


31 years 

32" " 

•M " 

34 " 

a-) " 


10 14 
14 79 
13 .51 
12 31 

11 18 


20 3C ! 43 71 
24 .35 40 58 
22 4(1 37 01 
20 07 34 81 
18 98 32 17 












5(>.83 X 20 



60 
65 



do 
do 



100 
158.44x20 

100 
26r.ro X 20 

100 



81o'.62 

31.08 

53.54 



100 
132.21x20 

100 
223.37x20 



= 811.3C 
26,44 
44.67 



SOyearsofageanannuifvof r,n ., . '^'-"«t-l Capital ,. ,^ 

40..)5 X 5 




gi 



perpetual p,,,,^ 
Examples drawn from Tnhio. a- 

vo at : ^ ^^ ^^-^^ per day or $7.30 pe,- ye,, h. 

^ yeai, begun at the ae-e nf ia' 

«ge of 16 jears, will 



50 .years Of age an annuity Of r- n^ ^"«n»'^d Capital. „ 

'"i"tyof 6,.57xr.30 ^„, ^*'«''-v«i Caj.ital. 

1^-11 xr.30 

^^5 do "^~" '''•^' 

294.11 xr.30 

^~= 207.10 



118.16 X 7.30 

202.17x7.30 

10 - 147.58 



mi ^" ■= J 47 58 

«ott ^d n lir,f '^'^ ''"^''^'or, Orel i'd L:;??^'"' ««'«^^- ^hafYs 8^5 "f ;,^-^^'oivean 




240 



LA FRANCE PRE VOYANTE— (PROVIDENT FRANCE). 

A civil, philanthropic and national retiring pension society, founded in Paris, 
Ist Januai-y, 188<j. 

Art. 1. There is established in Paris a civil, philantrophic and national retiring 
pension society, entitled : '' La France Pr«5voyaute." 

Art. 3. Its object, which is essentially philanthropic and humanitarian, is to 
assure each of its members, haviiiir paid a monthly subscription during tifteen con- 
secutive years, of an amount ranging from 80.20 to 81.00, a pension which will place 
its recipient beyond the reach of want for the remainder of his life. 

Art. 7. The right to subscribe is given on payment of 80.40; the book costs 
80.20 ; in case of it being lost, it is replaced and entered in the matriculation book of 
the archives, on renewed payments ot 80.20. 

Art. 9. The monthly tax is from 80.20 each share. One, two, three, four or 
five shares may be subscribed for at will. 

By allowing members to subscribe for several shares, the Society wishes to 
ensure them a laiger pension by means of which they may live at ease. 

Aincmiit to be Tot.il iiiiiouiit jiaid 

imid for Per month Per year. at thu expiration of 

15 Vfari*. 

One share 80.20 8 2.40 8 30.00 

Two shares 0.40 4.S0 72.00 

Three " 0.00 7.20 108.00 

Four " 0.80 O.(i0 144.00 

Five " 1.00 12.00 180.00 

Art. 10. All persons who have subscribed to the present statutes therebj' bind 
themselves to pay d minimum monthly subscription of 80.20 each, by which they 
acquire the right to a retiring pension after fifteen years subscription. 

Art. 11. Payments nKiy be anticipated. 

Art. 12. In the event of a member delaying his payments, the amouut of arrears 
is increased by 25 per cent, lie is obliged to pay the arrears before payment of his 
subscription for the current month. 

Art. IS. For purely philanthropic reasons, no case of delay in monthly pay- 
ments entails cancelling; it delays the pension b}' as many years as the member is 
in arreai's, when the member has subscribed for one share. 

Art. 14. Any member who has subscribed for several shares and who has ceased 
to subscribe for the time being, shall not be delayed in the receipt of his pension, 
provided that the average amount of his shares already paid, correspond to the 
annual payment of one share. 

Art. 15. Any member who has paid up one share or who has not yet reached 
the maximum of five shares, may, at will, make up the year of his subscription by 
partial payments over and above the annual amount to be paid for the number of 
shares lie intendeil to own of the amounts mentioned above, plus the fine of 25 per 
cent, specified in article 12. 

From the first to the fifth year inclusive the annual maximum can only be 
reached by payment of 812 (fines inclusive). 

From the sixth to the tenth year inclusive the annual maximum can only be 
reached on payment of 810, 

From the eleventh to the fifteenth year inclusive, the annual maximum can only 
be reached on payment of 88. 

Art. 18. In the event of the resignation of a member, any amounts paid by him 
becomes wholly the property of the Society. No member who has once resigned can 
again enter the Society except as a new subscriber. 

Art. 24. The funds are divided into two classes: 

Undisposablo funils. 

Disposable funds. 

Art. 25. The undisposable funds compi'ise: 



241 



w'^; 



fy ^^ 

\\y be 

only 

him 
|l can 



The monthly 8ubsc!ription». 

The tines imposed for delay in payment of monthly subscriptions. 

Alt. 2(J. These funds, which are centralized at the head-cjuarters by the treasurer- 
general and his assistant, are placed every month in the savings bank in the name 
ot the Societ}', by the treasurer-general and ]iresident-general. 

These funds are invested by the savings bunk in French rentp, the nominative 
titles in the name of the Society. 

THE TITLES DEPOSITED PERMANENTLY IN THE SAVINGS HANK. 

In no case can the members of the General Council of Administration decide 
upon the withdrawal of the undisposablo funds, without being authorized by vote of 
a general assembly, of all the members of the Society specially convoked for this 
purpose. 

Art. 27. It is from the sum total of the interest on the capital of the undispos- 
ablo funds that the amount to be allotted per share to each pension, is settled at the 
end of ever}- year. 

The disposable funds comprise — 

Tlie entrance fees or right to subscribe ; 

The proceeds from sale of books ; 

Proceeds of meetings, conferences, concerts, theatrical representations and balls 
given by the Society. 

These are used to meet the office expenses, and those incurred by extending the 
Society, brought about by its good management, and the constant increase of its 
membership. 

CHAPTER V — THE PENSIONERS. 

Art. 29. Any member who, during fifteen years, has paid the subscription 
determined by Article 0, has a right to siiare in the whole amount of interest 
accruing from the undisposable funds of the past year, which are to be calculated 
and divitled according to the total number of pensioners and the number of shares 
to which each has a right. 

Art. 30. To prevent the amount for pensions being too largo during the fii-st 
years of the Society's operation, as compared to the average of the following years 
when the membership having increased, will be too large for the capital, the capital 
will consequently atlbrd a less amount of pensions, — it is determined that the amount 
of pension per share shall not exceed the sum of $400; any excess of disposable 
interest will be added to the undisposable capital of the Society. 

Art. '61. Should the amount total of disposable interest, be large enougli for 
each member to be insured per share to the full amount determined as above, the 
entire interest of undisposable capital will be annually divided among all the pen- 
sioners of the current year. 

Art. 32. Pensioned members continue to pay their montly subscriptions accord- 
ing to the number of shares the}' have a right to, as a retiring fund. 

The yearly interest accruing to each pensioner is inalienable and unseizable. 

Art. 34. Should a pensioner die, his pension for that year is immediately paid 
to the heirs of the deceased member, on presentation of the certificate of his death, 
and his book. 

On the 18th of August, 1888, this Association numbered (!,436 members, owning 
14,313 shares. At that date the amount of undisposablo funds was $32,849. 

LES PEEVOYANTS DE L'AVENIR (THOSE PROVIDENT FOR THE 

FUTURE). 

CIVIL SOCIETY FOR RETIRING. 

Ftrfctce. 

A practical method has long been sought, by which to remedy the hard fate of 
those workmen who, having attained the age when physical strength no longer 
answers to the demands that have been made upon it, are unable to provide for their 
own needs. 

20— IG 



242 




A lar^o mimbei' of persons have tried by tlifferent means to prevent pauperism, 
with the result that there are home for invalided woritmen, homes for the ai^od, etc. 
But though the theory of all those systems is veiy fine, the results obtained ai'e next 
to nothing. 

It is, in our opinion, for the workingman himself to seek and discover the 
means and resources needed to prevent the misery caused by a premature old age, 
which itself is the result of too long duration of work. 

We alone know the full extent of our needs, our resources and the means to be 
adopted to attain the long sought for end, which so far has not been found. 

In the foundation of a retiring fund established on the broadest basis, and invit- 
ing all workmen without exception to found, if not for themselves at least I'or com- 
ing generations, an inexhaustible resource, the members of the Hetiring Society, 
Les Fricoyants de VAvenir, have looked for the concurrence of all, and have hoped 
that the idea they uphold will be understood by all workingmen to whatever class 
they may belong. 

Let each one thoroughly understand the power, and the efficacy of the benefits 
conferred by a society whose innumerable members pay a small subscription 
destined to bear interest in perpetuit}-, and they may foi-m an idea of the results 
we may hope to attain. Finally we may assert that the future would loom less 
darkly" before many of us, if the society which has just been founded had been 
established half a century ago. 

STATUTES. 

Object of the Society. 

The object for which this Society is founded is essentially humanitarian. 

It proposes to ensure all members who have belonged to the Society for twenty 
years, a provision for the first necessaries of life. 

The consequences of labor, together with age, being to destroy the faculties, and 
consequently the means of gain, the Society intends by means of association, to sup- 
plement and, if need be, to supply the salary suppressed by sickness or accidents. 

Art. 10. The entrance fee is $0.40. 

The subscription is 80.20 monthly. 

It is to be payable in atlvance. 

Art. 11. ^Members in arrears for amount of subscription will be fined 80.05 per 
month in arrears. 

A book, contairiing the present statutes, will be given each member and will 
serve as a certificate of admittance. 

The cost of the book is Su.lO. 

Art. 12. The monthly receipts are deposited in the savings bank by the treasurer 
and the president. In no event can the funds be withdrawn except by decision of a 
general asoombly, extraordinary. 

Art. 13 The funds are entirely invested in French rents at 3 or 5 per cent., 
which investment is made by the Savings Bank. 

Art. 14. Manual gifts may be accepted by the Society. 

Art. 15. Under direction of the office, theatrical representations and concerts 
may be given for the benefit of the Society'. 

IV. — ADMITTANCE. 

Art. IG. Any person of proved respectability can become a member of the Society. 

In order to become a member, the person must be fifteen years of age. 

Women are admitted. 

Being given the same duties they have the same rights. 

Art. It. Candidates are admitted at the office on receipt of a written request 
signed by themselves. 

Their final admission will be decided in general assembly. Their request for 
admission should be addressed to the headquarters of the Society. 

V. — EXPULSION. 

Art. 18. Any member who is six months in arrears in the jiayment of his suli- 
scription should be warned by letter from the treasurer, to pay his indebted ne.-s 
immediately. 



243 



fcasurer 
)n of a 

cent., 
-incerts 

locicty. 

I'cquest 
lest for 



his suli- 
ledne>s 



At the end of a year, his expulsion will be proposed by the office at the general 
assembly. 

He may be readmitted, but the time preceding his being expelled will not be 
calculated for his pent^ion. 

VI. — RKiHTS. 

Art. 10. All members having belonged to the Society for twenty years, have the 
right to share in the whole amount of interest belonging to the Society, during the 
preceding year. 

This division is made every thiee nonths, according to the inventory for the 
31st of December, of the following j-ear. 

Art. 20. Pensions begin on the tirst of .January. 

Pensioners are not exempt from i)aj-ment ot their monthly subscription. 

Art. 21. Should a pensioner die, his pension for that year will be paid to his 
heirs or persons named l>y the deceased member. 

Art. 22. The Society recognizes no alienation of the pension, it being paid to the 
heir on receipt of a discharge. 

Pensioners who reside in the provinces should every January send a certificate 
of life. 

Art. 23. The parents of a deceased member, have no recourse against the 
Societj'. 

The amounts paid by him belong to the Society. 

Art. 24. If after five years membership, a memlter is atHicted by a chronic sick- 
ness, which prevents him tVom working and from paying his subscription, he may 
demand his support from the Society's funds. 

After twenty years' membership he is pensioned. 

Art. 25. A member sutfering from sickness may demand a suspension of his 
subscription. The time thus lost does not count for the pension, unless the member 
pays all ari'ears. It is understood that a fine may be imposed. 

The same rule follows for a member called to serve his country. 

The officers decides all K'quests for suspension. 

• General Rules. 

Art. 26. The Society can only be dissolved on a unanimous vote of the whole 
number of members belonging to the society. In the event of dissolution the funds 
will be paid by order of the general assembh' convoked for that purpose, the funds 
of Society whose object approaches most that of our own Society. 

Art. 27. No change can be made in the object, and in the fundamental articles of 
these present statutes, nor to articles 10 and li>. 

Art. 28. All political and religious discussions are interdicted. 

Art. 29. The undersigned subscribers to the articles above set forth, declare 
their submisfiion to the decisions ari'ived at by the general assembly, either in the 
interpretation of the said statutes or in cases not provided for. 

On the 1st of August, 1889, this Association founded in 1880, had established in 
France 517 sections, comprising 94,448 members, and was possessed of a capital of 
$598,(385. 



COMMERCIAL PEOYIDENT SOCIETY. 

RETIIUNa FUND. 

For Employees of both Sexes employed in Commercial Business under the yeneral 
name of Dry Goods and industries belonging to it. 

[Founded in Paris in 1880.] 

Object. — The object of the Society is to assure its participating members, a 
retiring pension proportioned to their subscription, and the amount of the business 
funds of the Society, in accordance with the method of liquidation established by 
means of retrulating tables whose use is ruled by articles 42,43 and 44 of the statutes, 
{See pages 256, 258, 259, 260.) 

20— 16 J 




244 



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i. 



Composition. — The Society Ih composed of lionorary membcrH, participiiting 
momberH, and pensioned members. 

Admittance. — All employees of both sexes may beloii^f to the Society as partici- 
pating members, in whatever branch of commerce they may bo employed, included 
under the general name of <lry goods, and the industries belonging to it. 

These employees must be at least thirt}' 3'earH of age, and of French rationality. 

Female members have a ileliberative voice and the i-ight to vote i'« the general 
assemblies, but can in no case belong to the council of administration. 

Suhscription. — On entering the Society each member l)inds himself to pay regu- 
larly and in advance, at the headquarters or business office, a subscription in pro- 
portion to his age — according to the share, and for the length of time tixed by the 
following table: 

He would, moreover, have the right to subscribe as man}- as five times, each one 
of which Avould give him a right to a new share of pension. 

The entrance fee is §2. 

Administration. — The atfairs of the Society are administered by a council, con- 
sisting of the president, and of twenty-four other members, elected in general 
assembly. 

Their services are entirely gratuitous. 



TABLE REdULATINQ THE JIO.\TIILY SUBSCRIPTIONS. 






Age of Admittance. 



Years ^Number of Value of 

of Payment. Subscriptions Subscriptions 



Total Amount of 
Payments. 






20 yrs. 


25 


yrs. 


300 


§((.(.'0 


21 - 


24 




288 


0.(i3 


22 - 


23 


— 


27b- 


0.07 


23 — 


22 


— 


2(J4 


0.72 


24 — 


21 


— 


252 


0.77 


25 


20 


— 


240 


0.S3 


2(J — 


19 


— 


228 


0.1)0 


27 — 


18 


— 


21(J 


0.08 


28 — 


17 


— 


204 


1.07 


21) — 


10 


— 


l!t2 


1.17 


30 — 


15 


— 


ISO 


1.28 


31 — 


14 


— 


168 


1.41 


32 — 


13 


— 


150 


1.58 


33 — 


12 


— 


144 


1.74 


34 — 


11 


— 


132 


l.!)4 


35 and over. 


10 


— 


120 


2.20 



SI 80.00 
181.44 
1S4.!I2 
llto.08 
1! 14.04 
109.20 
205.20 
211.68 
218.28 
224,64 
230.40 
230.88 
243.36 
250.56 
256.08 
264.00 



Yearli/ Statement. — On the 31st December of eveiy year there is established the 
ordinary capital or guarantee funds of the tixed rent, viz. : — 

1st. Esinblishing, by means of Tables A, B, C, the capital of actual participating 
members. 

2nd. By decreasing, by means of Table C, the capital oi retired members. 

In order to simplify the operations, the actual participating members admitted pre- 
vious to '[st July are considered as having entered on the 1st January of the current year ; 
and to balance, the members admitted after 1st July date from the 1st January of the 
folloicing year. 

The ordinary capital thus obtained forms the working capital. The working- 
capital taken from the business capital forms the net or capital extraordinary. 



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BA8IH OF THE RETIRING FUND. 



EXTRACT FROM THE STATUTES. 



Art. 42. 
parts. 



Tho rotirint? pension of each participiitinj;^ moinltor confiists of two 



Fixed Jtent and Variable Rents. 



Tho fixi'il Kent represents tho intoi(>st nnd tho fiindini; of tlie cjijjitul, formed by 
the monthly suhscrintioiiH of the mcmliorM, by tlie inloroKt and by the dentli risk, in 
accor(hince with tallies A, \\, C, annoxeii to (ho nrosont stulntos. 

The capital necessary lo tho formation of tho tixod rent, coming to ea(di active 
or retired moniher, is calculateil from tabios A, B, C, to the 3l8t December of each 
year, and forms tiio ordinary capital; tho excess, constitutes the capital oxtra- 
oi'dinary. 

Tiie variable Kent is to tiio amount of fixed rent on table A what tho capital 
extraordinary is to ordinary cajjital. 

The fixed Rent is proportioned to the number of siiaros of each member. 

The variable Kent is equally divided among all tho members, whatever may bo 
the number of their shares. 

Art. 43. A member having a right to i-etiro may, if he choose, postpone from 
year to year the liquidation of tho pension part, in order to increase the amount 
according to table B. 

Tho variable part of tl o ])