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Enferet! aciconling to Act of Parliament, in ilie y«ar onei thousand oight 
Imndred and eighty four, by the Publishor, 4osKi'H IJussaclt. in tliPOlHoo 
of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics of the Dominion of (Janada. 




« ♦ TO * ' 



The zeal atid care which you haAij/e sho\\fn. tor many years, to 
the region (lescriV)ed in this small book, ' make me believe that 
you would condescend to accept of its dedication. By ycnir sj.iee- 
ches in Parliament, where you represented the county of Bona- 
venture for more than twenty years, and by the personal infor- 
mation M'hich you have given me, I do not hesitate to style you 
the fondamenial element of this work. Kjiowing the deep inte- 
i-est which you take in the place and its people, in spite of the 
high position that you fill, I dedicate to you this pamphlet in 
my name and in that of our kind friends of Gaspesia. 

J. C. Langelikh. 



iBr ' )j ! iik!iiyiiiiJii i iiiaiWi'«^^^^ 




a--^SI=>E! SI..^ 



The great peninsula which forms the south-east of the pro- 
vince of Quebec, is called Gaspesia. 

This territory is situated between 49ol5' at Fointe du Uros- 
Male, on the St-Lawrence, and 47o49' latitude, at the confluence 
of the rivers Eistigouche and Matapedia, also between 64o22', at 
Cape Eosier, and 68(>6' longitude, at the mouth of the gi'eat ri- 
ver Mdtii. 

The guU r:f St-Lawrence fonns the north-eastern limit of Gas- 
pesia. It is bound, on the south, by the Baie des Chaleurs and 
the river Ristigouche, which seperates it from New-Brunswick, 
as far as the meeting of the rivers Ristigouche and Patapedia. 

The western limit is formed by a line following the course oi 
the river Matapedia to its source aud co3>tinuing from there, to 
the head of the river Metis, whose course it follows till it rea- 
ches the St-Lawrence. 1{ is measured from east to west on a line 
drawn between Point St-Pierre and the mouth of the river Me- 
tis ; the greatest length of this territory is about one hundred 
and eighty miles. Its greatest breadth, when mesured from north 
to south, between the Point of Gros-Maie and that of Bona venture, 
is about ninety miles. The supei-ficial extent between li- 
mits amounts to 10,783.73 miles, or 6,900,941 square acres. 
This extent is divided into three counties w^hich form Gas- 
r»esia : 


County of Rimouski 3,0;uW-2 

Bonavenlure 3,^91.69 

G(isp6 4,4CI.'2'2 

Total 10,783.73 

acres . 
1. 939.720 


These figures do not include the extent of the Madeleine Is- 
lands, whi :h, in a geographical point of view, do not forai an 
iiitegrsd part of tht^ county of Gaajxi, they also exclude that part 
of the county of Rimouski situated outside of the line, which 
fonns .tlie western limit of Gaspesia. 

The extent of this territory fonns a comparatively small area, 
not even a twentieth of the total superficies of the province ; but, 
when compared with certain provinces of the Confederation or 
with some of the most populated and the most civilized States 
of Europe, we find that it forms a considerable region. 

Countries Superficies 

Holland 12,791 

Belgium 11,500 

Denmark 14,616 

Switzerland 15,990 

Scotland 30,685 

Ireland 31,874 

New-Brunswick 27,174 

Nova Scotia 20,907 

Prince Edward Island.... '2,133 

Gaspesia 10,783 



5 • 00,000 

1,/ 84, 000 








In supposing that Gaspesia had a population equal to that 
of Scotland and Switzerland, it would be able to support a 
million of souls. The realization of this supposition is not an im- 
possibility, because the soil of Gaspesia is not as mountanious 
and is more fertile than that of Switzerland and Scotland, with- 
out taking into consideration its fisheries which constitute an 
everlasting source of Riches, which cajmot be found in Scotland 
and much less in Switzerland. Moreover, these two countries are 
not able to furnish timber, as Gaspesia. to the different indus- 
tries of the country. 

As to the climate, the fertility of the soil and its adaptibilily 
to agricultural purposes, Gaspesia is not surpassed by New- 
Brunswick, and as this province is inhabited by 321,233 per- 
sons, or 18.7 inhabitants per square mile, Gaspesia could easely 
support, were it cultivated, a population of 201,655 inhabitants, 
because its superficies amount to 10,783.73 square miles. Final- 



ly, the territory of Gaspesia is as rich, em ausceptiblo of develo- 
' l)enient as Prince Edward Island, its climate is more favumble 
to agiiculture, and it is accessible by sea and more so by rail : 
the extent of P. E, Island is not more than the fiftieth part of 
that of Oaspesia, and it is inhabited by a population of 108,891, 
from which we can easily conclude that the territory of Gaspe- 
sia would support a population proportioned to its extent, or five 
times the population, which makes a population wf 544,455 in- 
habitants. In this case, the extent occupied by each person would 
be fourteen acres or about one huridred acres for each family, 
that is thirty per cent more than the extent occupied by each 
family in the province of Quebec, according to the census of 

We can affirm that the region of Gasj)esia would easily sup- 
})ort a population of 500,000 ; at pros«^nt, its population is 56,860 
this clearly shows that this region is a country where a large 
number of innnigi'ants could make a goo<i living without over- 
llowing this large territory. 

Unfortunately this country has been ignored by immigiants 
who would have found many advantages which are itot to be 
found in other parts of the province of Quebec. Besides the 
agi'icultural ressources, the colonist of Gaspesia has, by means 
of the fisheries, a sure way of supporting his family. The fact 
is, that actually, the greater n"mber of inliabitants live by fi- 
shing and that abundantly Their vtchess would be greater if 
they would labor their farms more assidiously, during the sum- 
mer months. In spite of their dislike to agricultural labor, the 
inhabitants of Gaspesia have all the necessary produces which they 
require, as the following table v»ill show : 

Extract of the census of 1871. 
Produces Hi-wuski Bonavmlurt Gaspi'. Total 

Wlu^at 62,006 10,U14 17,485 80,695 

Barley 71,015 '27,fil6 iO.O'i'J 138,660 

Oats 51,5'J!) [(yi,Hri 55,677 '270,398 

Uve 21,871 4.448 12,08^ 38,i03 

Peas 22,385 2,583 10,438 35,4U6 

Buck Wheat 7,062 40,737 1,717 49,516 

Beans 92 353 81 536 

Indian Corn 30 330 7 373 

Thiol 2;G,O0r. ^'iJ.UKl 137,308 622,687 

Hayseed 67» 354 733 794 


— 8 — 

l-'aKsr'od 1,V65 304 80 1,709 

Total 1,332 7I« 453 2,503 

Potatoes 233,248 r,|0,137 241,747 1,085,132 

Turnips 8,301 81,781 64,358 134,140 

Otlier root plants 926 1.785 t,%8 4,779 

Tolal 242,475 673.703 :J08,07:< l,'i24.25l 

Iluy, tons 6,215 10,842 8,430 24,49(5 

Butter, lbs 168,985 106.103 127,779 462.807 

Flax *' 58.289 7,314 1,131 05.734 

Wool " 33,088 35,879 21,890 90,863 

Linon, yds 24,201 16,907 2,900 44,234 

Knero " 59,213 89,338 .30.894 179,355 

rotal of Spun art 83,384 106,345 33,860 223,589 

Maple sugar lbs 80,634 50,179 36.721 173,434 

Tob.ioco " 1.939 42 269 2,250 

Hopi. " 20 712 365 1,097 

ApploH bush 2 415 30 447 

Otlinr fruits " 28 286 15 329 

Horsos' 1,917 1,906 1,246 5,069 

F(^nls ' 372 4i0 203 985 

Ocen 201 1,041 905 2,147 

Milch cows 3,03C 3,783 2,432 9.245 

Other horn cattle 2,241 2,761 2,028 7,030 

Shoop • 14,6.38 12,616 8,447 36,701 

Pigs 5,012 7,166 6,090 18,328 

mal 27.471 29,683 22,351 79.505 

According to the census of 1871, the produce of wheat ha.s 
been 8.3 bush, per acre in Eiaionski, 11.9 bush, in Bonaven- 
ture and 15 bush.i n Gasp(5, making an average of 11.9 per acre 
for tlie three counties. This produce equals, and even exceed.s 
that of the most fertile agricultural regions? of other parts of the 
province. Tlie following counties, according to the census of 1871, 
produce wheat on the average of this table : 

Maskinong^ 7.11 Bush per acre 

Napiervtll.3 00 ♦' 

Bagot 7.69 

Chambly • 6,73 " " " 

•^fHHmfi^mm* " ' "I'll 

- t^i'ite ' "fete* 


— 9 — 

ViurlnVrtis fi. I!l " " 

Hiohftlleu 7.4(1 

Broin»' i; 

Coinplon ,... 12 89 

It is evident tluit Gaspti sui-jmihsoh by fai- all tlic other locali- 
ties for its production of wheat, then IJouavonturc producen 
W "]o more than the richest valleys of the Kichrtieii. 

These facta lead us naturally to ask why the colonization of 
(Jluspesia is not more advanced ? 

The answer is the want of knowledge of tliis country and its 
l)ackward situation. In all the publications, which are spread 
abroad to encourage iuiuiigi-ation, Gaspesia is scarcely mentioned. 
Moreover, as this region is completely out of the way which 
tiie immigrants follow to enter the ports of Qiiebjic and other 
great cities of Canada, they cannot even think of settling down 
in this country. The sole ports of Gaspesia whicli ure frequented 
by english ships are Gaspi^ and Paspebiac, but the vessels which 
do come arts destinated to load with fish, and with the exception 
of those belonging to the R(jbin firm, they oonie with ballast, 
not being able to a^jcomodate passengers. Out of a population of 
56,860 inhabitants, Gaspesia has not more than 3,067 persons 
who are not natives of the country, and out of these 3,067 per- 
sons, 1,025 came from Prince-Edward Islatid, Nova Scotia and 
New-Brunswick ; this leaves but 2,042 inhabitants who are not 
natives of the place, or less than a twenty seventh of the total 
population. Consequently, tb ; population of Gaspesia has been 
formed by the surjdus of the births over the deaths. Neverthe- 
less, this did not prevent it from increasing in a very rapid and 
constant uumner, which the following table will show. 


Dales P'>inilalion 

IS52 3,«GG 

isei 8,50',) 

1871 12.958 

1881 n;un 




4,8W 130.85 

4,449 52. 'W 

4,309 32.25 




13,092 2,248 

15,293 2,201 

18,9l^< 3,615 





— 10 — 



11.426 2,724 

I5,a67 4,131 

20,685 5,128 


1852 23,412 

1861 33.027 9,795 

1871 43,808 10.781 

I88l 56,860 13.052 



As we see by the forgoiug table from 1871 to 1881 Rimous- 
ki has increased the most, it exceeds Gasp^ by 0.29 and Bona- 
venture by 9.62 per 100. That is due to uhe Intercolonial Rail 
Road which facilitated the access of lands which before were 
inaccessible or too distant, and powerfully stimulated the popu- 
lation of that district. 

With the exception of that part of the county of Rimouski 
which is designated in the census of 1871 by the name of 
Rimouski East, there is but one concession to be established in 
(lasT)e8ia, that which borders the sea. The habitations form a 
band which completely surrounds the interior plain, and in 
Shoolbred, along the New River, in Maria and a few other loca- 
lities, there are very few farms in the interior plain. Coloniza- 
tion Las a vast field to explore there and if all the resources, the 
natural richness of the soil, the facilities of settling down of this 
bej-utiful region of Gaspesia were well known in our province 
and justly appreciated by our citizens who are in a position to 
help colonists, and were these richness and resources and facili- 
ties known to the immigrants of Europe, undoubtedly the 
population of Gaspesia would be 100,000 in 1891. Let us 
make Paspebia a sea port town, and in running there a branch 
of the Intercolonial Rail Road, the region of Gasp^ would be 
entirely transformed before ten years and would be the richest 
and the most prosperous part ol the province or of all Canada. 



Gaspesia is an immense plain, the principal inclination being 
towards Bay des Chaleura. This plaiji is divided into two parts by 

■ r^r^n.'^ittmt, -r«!f 1.^ .«srvi^J»S*?i«<ifjtTO!5sV 


the mountains c»f Notre Dame, which form the oriental extremity 
of the Alleghany chain. From Gasped, these mountains extend 
along the Grulf of St. Lawrence, not being more than twelve 
miles from the sea shore. The highest part cf these mountains 
do not exceed six miles in thickness. These mountains tend 
towards the interior, in a northwestern direction, then in the 
neighbourhood of St. Anne des Monts and of Cap Chatte they 
take to the southwest. The highest parts are in the region 
where Cape Chatte and Matane rivers take their source. On 
leaving Gasp6 and going towards the west, the principal moun- 
tains which you will meet are represented in height and site by 
means of the following table : 

The Eastern Terrace, on the banks of the 

MailoliMiiu I'iver 1,937 feel above the sea 

The Western Torrao- '2,157 '• 

Mount of Albert, in the heiglit of the valley 

of the St Anno river .3,778 " " " 

Mount Logan r In the groat- - 3,768 •' " 

Matonasi Jest valley "f ( 3,368 " 

' Bonhoiniae....i the (Jiipu Chat r 2.261) " 

IJaylield V rivur. J 3,973 «" 

Round Mountain to tlie i.orlh of little lake 

Matane 3,676 " 

Mi'Unt St. Donat, between the Neigette riv>'r 

and the Metis 2,035 " 

Whatever may be the height of these summits this range of 
mountains does not form the limit of the northern descent of 
the plain of Gaspesia. The principal rivers which empty their 
waters into the Gulf of St. Lawrence take their source on the 
other side of the line described by this series of isolated mounts 
and nearly everywhere this descent occupies about the third of 
the total breadth of the peniuFvla. The main heiglit, in the 
ravine cut out by the rivers, is about level in the waters of the 
lakes Huron and Michigan, which are something more than 
500 feet above the level of the sea. The principal water courses 
which take their sources behind this mountainous tract are the 
rivers Madeleine, St. Anne, Cape Chat and Matane. 

As regards its continuity and its altitude this mountainous 
range is of a various form. The axis of this chain is at a dis- 
tance which varies from twelve to twenty miles from the St. 
'Lawrence. Behind Metis, the suminit of these mountains very 
rarely exceeds 1600 feet and this region forms rather a moun- 
tainous plain than a continuous range of mountains. Although 
the soil is not of a superioi quality, nevertheless it is fit for 

*s<« A»f rwSWMWw^^pn ■• 

— 12 — 

cultivation and it is better towards the St. Lawrence, where chiy 
land is t<3 be found especially in tlie valley of the river Metis. 
'Co the north of this range of mountains, there is an other moun- 
tainous stripe, but lower, on the other side of which there is a 
large band of fertile land. This band as all other bands which 
lie along the river edge, is very fertile and thicky iidiabited. 
At the river St. Anne, the chain is divided int»j two branches ; 
one of them tends towards the south and tlie other towards the 
sea. At Mont St. Louis, the chain tends towards the east and 
.its height diniinishcis as it advances towards Cape Gasp(5, w'here 
it terniinat(is, leaving a large land of fertile soil between Cape 
Rosier and the Gulf. 

To Uie south of this chain, there is a large interior valley 
somewhat unddlatell and bordered on the south and the north 
by mountainous stripes of land. Its breadth varies from ten to 
thirty miles and it presents all the characters of an elevated 
plain. The soil of this great valley is poor, light in certain dis- 
tricts, and strong in other places, but in general strong and fer- 
tile. There are lafge extents of beautifiil land, especially in 
the region where the river Matane takes its source and along 
the Kempt road. 

On the other side of Bay des Chaleur, there is an other line of 
heights which forms'the southern limit of the valley which has 
been described, heights are covered with hillock some of 
which are of a considerable height. Towards the north angle 
of the county of Bona venture and not far from the Piona venture 
river, there- are three mountains whicn measure in height 1,394, 
1,324 and 1,757 feet. Mount Conique towards the soitrce of 
the river Cascapedia is 1,918 feet in altitude. 

The meridicjual declivity of this range of heights gradually 
decreases as it tends towards Bay des Chaieurs. It forms a band 
oi' good clay soil about twenty u\ thirty miles in breadth, 
.showing all the characters of a plain slightly elevated towards 
its northern limit, transversely cut by deep and narrow valleys 
which are watered by large rivers which take their source in the 
interior plain situated to the north of the mountiiinous range 
has been describea. The land whicli borders Bay des Chaleur 
is of excellent clay. From Points au Ma(iuei'eau to the river 
Cascapedia, the coast describes the area of a circle which consi- 
derably augments the breadth of this baud of fertile soil. The 
land is level for more than thirty miles from the coast and is 
very good for produce. To the west of the river Cascapedia 





i.l is 

the ]and is more midnhited and nearly all the projections which 
border the sen are crowned from the interior by isolated monn- 
tains which measure 1800 feet in elevation, such as mount 
Tracadigeche, behind Carleton. 

The mountains which border tlie river Ristigouche are not so 
high. The, picturesque scenery which can be seen from the top 
of these mountains is delightful, and the monr;tains themselves 
forma scenery which is charming to the eye of the spectator 
who- contemplates them from a distance. Their sides, some- 
times upright, but generally slightly sloped, are surrounded by 
rich and extensive valleys. The land, not excepting the. top of 
the mountains is rich and fertile, and generally clear of stones 
and thickly wooded with birch, maple, &c. * The valley of the 
river NouvelJe is the richest part of this" region, its soil is as 
fertile as that of the regions of the valley of tlie Bt. Lawrence 
and the Richelieu. The scene of the coast of Ga.sp^ from the 
ocean is most delightful. On* the gulf side, the coast forms a 
regular bend somewhat ondulated by small sinuosities scarcely 
perceptible at a certain distance. There are considerable depths 
at the mouths of the j^riiicipal rivers ; they are called by the 
inhabitants of the country barachois means lakes. 

The mouths of the rivers are deep enough for the navigation 
of schooners and small vessels. At Matane, at St. Ann, at 
White River, at Mount Louis, at Griffon's Bar and at Fox River 
fhe water is deep enough to form small ports for bateaux which 
are employed for fishing purposes. 

At St Ann, the village is built on a sandy peninsulaj formed 
by a barachois it the discharge of the river. The habitfitions 
extend along the river, on each side of this central point, The 
beach of the sand bar is white and level. As you advance from 
the river to the interior, the land rises and the hills are staged 
one over the other until you reach the Chickchaks the summits 
of which, in the neighbourhood are more than 3500 feet in 
height. There is a very pleasing place at St. Anne des Monts, 
which, during the summer months, is very healthy for persons 
who are strong enough to l)readth a pure and cool air, while 
hunting and fishing around. At this point of the year, the 
coast is covered with a flock of black game ; in spring and fall 
the huntsman is agreeably suii)rised at the sight of the quantity 
of ducks which abound along the rivers and of partridge in the 

Further down from St. Ann's we see the chimneys, their 


name comes from their form, and several b: autiful cascades 
being more than sixty feet in lieicrht, tlie wiiiteneas of their 
wattirs form an agreeable contrast with the dark hue of the 
neighbouring trees. All this coast from St. Anus up,' is Jiigh 
steep and cut by deep ravines. In the interior the^land is good 
and could support a great number of families. 

Mount Louis is situated t,hirty six miles lower down than St. 
Ann, it is remarkable for the fertility of its soil and for the 
abundance of fish which arc caught each year and for the 
facility of communication. Wheat rises there as well as in the 
environs of Quebec. The habitations are built on the river side 
and are protected from the cold blasts by the side of a moun- 

The bay formed by the mouth of the Madeleine river is bound 
on the east by a gravel liank about a mile in length and a little 
above the level of high tide. On the western side the bay 
extends itself to the foot of a cragged rock, al)out ninety feet in 
height, aud which continues to extend itself until it reaches a 
quarter of a mile on the other side of the mouth of the river 
aud forma cape Madeleine. The straits of glaised soil of which 
this cape is composed advance themselves from two to three 
miles U) the interior and form a slight declivity wldch is very 
agreeable to the eye. The land is fertile and produces good 
crops of grain. The port is navigable for vessels that do not 
take a deep draw of water. This locality is situated at a dis- 
tance of about sixty miles from cape Rosier and about seventy 
from cape Chatte. 

Fox river bay forms a semi circle the diameter of which is 
about one mile. The entry is between two capes which are 
increasingly beaten by the waves ; around the basin the lands 
present the appearance of an amphitheatre covered with ver- 
dure and browned with a hard wood l)U3h. Towards the end of 
the bay and a little above th e mouth of the river a barachoi'i, 
bordered with beautiful fields, displays itself. The vessels 
which harbor in this bay are protected against the winds, with 
the exception of the north blast. Around Fox river the land is 
exceedingly fertile in wheat, barley, oats and potatoes, the latter 
are considered the best in Canada. Moreover, beside the rich- 
ness of the soil, is not tlie sea at proximity with i^s inexhaustible 
treasure ? 

Fifteen miles higher up than Fox river, a low land extends 
along the foot of the mountains and terminates at the sea in a 


a lo\ 

is al 

15 — 

Ind of 
Lnd is 

la in a 

point wbich is not more than forty feet high. Tliis is cape 
Rosier, Seven miles beyond this cape, is terminated, by 
the Fourillon promontory, * the chain of mountains which 
border the north shore of the St. Lawrence. Fourillon is a 
narrow peninsula which extends about three miles into the 
sea, between the cove of cape Rosier and the bay of Gas- 
p^. On the north side it is a naked rock perpeiidicular and 
reaching the height of 700 feet ; it is the remain of a mountain 
the half of which has been pitched into the sea after being eaten 
away by the ice and water ; the other half is still standing as 
straight as a wall. 

At the south of Fourillon is the entry of the bay of Gasp(5, a 
beautiful sheet of water about eight miles in breath and extend- 
ing about eighteen miles between two heights. One of these 
heights is mountainous ; the other is diversified by hills, valleys, 
woods and groups of houses. The northern land is generally 
hilly. Nevertheless, in soine places, the mountains extend from 
the sea and leave at their base a stripe of land where the settle- 
ments of Grande-Greve, Cape aux Os and of Penouille are 
built. The best part along the coast is at the end of the Bay of 
Gaspe ; it is separated from the bay in two points which leaves 
a navigable canal for large ships. Before entering the port, on 
the south side we meet with the moutli of the Little river St. 
John, not far from which is the village of Duglasstown, situated 
on a little hill. On the opposite coast is point Penouille from 
where we can see all the port and a great part of the basin, as 
well as the village. The rivers Darmouth and York empty their 
waters into port Gasp<5. The mouth of the latter forms the 
basin, which is about one mile long and its depth varies from 
five to nine cubits of water. This interior port can receive a con- 
siderable number of ships. 

On the south and east, the coast of Gasp^ fonns a more irre- 
gular line than on the northern side. Between point St. Peter, 
and Cape Canon, which forms the extremity of the promontory 
of Perc^, are the bay and the barachois of Malbaie. Malbaie 
village is built at the end of the bay and at the entry of the 
barachois, which is separated from the sea by a sand bar five 
miles in length and two hundred feet in breadth. A fine view 
of the sea can be seen from the church. Towards the west, 
a lowland devided by the barachois and having a few inhabi- 
tiiuts scattered here and there forms the end of the bay which 
is about three miles long and nine wide. At the other side of 



— 16 — 

this beautiful sheet of water, there are broken uinuntains over 
which mount St. Anne reigns the basis of which forms the rocks 
of I'erce and Bona venture. 

Percy village, which is the principal judiciary district of 
GarffK^, is built on the point of the })romontary, which borders 
the western part of the Ijay of Maibaie. It is one of tlie most 
picturesque sites in all CJaspesia. A gi'eat number of fishing 
boats are to be se<in on the shore ; along the beach may also be 
seen the fishermen's huts, where they save tlie fish, up higher is 
the CO lilt house, the settlements ; further back on the top of a 
hill are built the church and presbytery. The land gradually 
ascends as we move from the sea and -shows at the same time 
all the parts of the above tableau, framed by a semi circle of 
mountains over which reigns Mount St. Anne, which is 1230 
feet high. We can see it at a distance of forty miles. On a 
tine day the view from the top of this mountain is magnificent. 
We can see Perce witli its fishermen's huts, its two coves lined 
with barges, mount Joly, cape Perce, Bona venture island, all 
lying liumbly at the feet of their king. To the right, a bluish 
lino strikes the sea and marks tiie direction which the coast 
follows, from Grand-River to point au Maquereau ; to the left, 
the sight strikes on Malhaie, and the Bay of Gaspe and rests it- 
self on the heights of Fourillon. The summit of the table of Hol- 
land forms a plain which is bare of trees, but covered of wild 
grass, Perce rook seems to have belonged to mount Joly, in 
the times of yore, a small canal which is dry at low water, se- 
parates them. The length of this rockey island is four or five 
acres and its breadth is not more than seventy feet. 

Towards the middle of this rock, the wares and the ice cut au 
arcb, through which, barges can easely pass with their sails. The 
mount Lakes its name uom the hole which it cuts through it. 
On mount Joly side, the cape is cut perpendicularly. In this di- 
rection, the elevated plain terminates in a point as it advances 
towards tlie sea. 

From IV.rce to Ca3ca[)edia bay, tlie aspect of this coast is uni- 
form. The sea shore is undulated at the mouths of the rivers and 
in the elevated parts, such as at Cape Desespoir, whose the shag- 
gy roi.'ks overlook the sea. But these elevations are compai'ative- 
ly few in number, and in general descend towards the bay in 
a nice slope, which can be seen in Paspebiac and New Carlisle. 
The latter locality is situated on a slight eminence and the 
village, which is the principal judiciary district of the county of 


— 17 


Bonaventure, presents a vtiry agreeable aspect. About mid-dis- 
tance between this village and port Paspebiac, we see the prin- 
cely dwelling of Dr. Kobitaille, the Lieutenant Governor of the 
province of Quebec. This beautiful residence is built on the 
declivty of a hill from where we can see the sea and poit Pas- 
pebiac, where Robin & Co have their principal establishment. 

Cascapedia bay, which is formed by the ilver of this name, 
extends from New Richmond to Maria. It advances into the 
interior and is suiTounded by heights which are covered with 
beautiful verdure. Ncav Richmond is not only one of the 
richest parishes but also the most fertile of this region. 

More to the west is the bay of Tracadigetche, which is over- 
looked by a mountain of the sfme name. Both sides of the bay 
are formed by point Tracadigetche, at the east, that of Migoucha 
at the west. This bay is about ten miles long and four deep. 
I may say that it is surrounded, on the land side by the moun- 
tain, the highest part of which is 1,814 feet above tlie level of 
the sea. Between the (jhurch of Carleton and New river which 
envpties its waters into the northwestern extremity of the l>a.y, 
the flank of the mountjiin forms, nearly on all sides, an abrupt 
bank, leaving between it and the shore a Iwind of clay about a 
mile in breadth and half a mile in leughth. At the eastern 
extremity of the bay, is a barachois formed by the waters of the 
little river Carleton, which is surrounded by agi'avely beach. 
That of the west extends a few miles, into the sea, and is about 
three hundred feet in width from the foot of thp mountain. 
Tliis bank commands one of the finest points of view which can 
be had in all Bay des Chale^rs, and forms one of the most beau- 
tiful Wiiterii^g places in the Dominion. Protected from the 
northern blast by the mountain it is only exposed, to the 
refieshing breezes which come from the sea and which maintain 
a moderate temperature during the summer .season. On the bay 
side, the beach is slightly inclined ami is covered with fine gra- 
\'el, free from stones as well as from aU other obstacles and is one 
of tlie most beautiful bathing places along the coast, besides, the 
rivers abound with fish of all kinds, in particular New river, 
where trout weighing from four to five jwunds are caught. Tlie 
land along the bay and in Carleton is cultivated with care, and 
the settlements have a look of prosperity and comfort which is 
not to be seen in all part of Gaspesia, with the exception of 
Great Rivers. 

^18 — 

Between the rivers Patapedia and Nouvelle, the mountains 
extend towards tlie sea and to the shore of the river Ristigouche. 
The land is very hilly, but the soil is good and thicky wooded, 
even on the top of the hills. This region is a series of beautiful 
landsciijx^-s which are not suri)as8ed in beauty by Swtland and 
Switzerland. It is the rendez-vous of a great number of ama- 
teurs who come from England and the United States to admire 
the pleasing asjxjct of these landscapes and to enjoy the fishing 
and hunting, which al)ound. Messieurs Vanderbilt and a few 
more millionaires of New York, forming the liistigouche club, 
built a beautiful summer house at Matapedia where they pass 
the summer months in fishing, hunting, &c. 

Better watering places, than that of Baie des Chale urs cannot 
be found. The mildness of the climate, the purity of the air 
and the beautiful sceneries make thts place a t^erestial paradise 
for those who want rest and who are obliged to resume their 
health. The weakest constitutions, the most delicate tem- 
peraments need not fear the cold nor the sudden changes of the 
temperature. The inttjrior plain of Gaspesia hinders the cold and 
damp wind which comes from the sea from coming this far, and 
a beautiful breeze, which is able to give strength and vigor to 
the most changeable constitutions, is constantly to be felt. 

Two of the most beautiful watering places are Carleton and 
New Carlisle. The beach is one of the finest and best situated 
for sea bathing the surrounding landscapes are delightful, in one 
word nature herself seems to have lent her hand in making 
these places two of the most attracting and balneal stations of 
the province. Carleton, in particular, is far the more attracting 
and leaves in the shade Malbaie. Cacouna, and all the other 
localities which attract each year thousands of tourists from the 
most distant parts of tlie United Stjites. If this locality was 
better known, it would become one of the most fashionable 
bathing places, the 01(1 Orchard Beach of the province of Que- 
bec. Until these last few years, access was somewhat inaccom- 
modous, on account of their being no other route but by sea, 
but now the tourists can very easily go there because the Inter- 
colonial Eail Koad goes fi-om Carleton to Quebec in the space of 
twelve hours, Garietou is about 35 miles from the watering 
place, ftnd h a vnry agreeable trip of two hour.-j in a boat. All 
that Carleton wants to become a fashionable resort, are a few 
capitalists to build a good hotel. When that will be done, Carle- 
ton will become one of the most fashionable bathing resorts in 
the province. 

— 19 — 


lu a geological point of view, GasjKisia forms the eastern extre- 
mity (jf the mountainous country which professor Hunt calls 
the apalachien region and is nothing more than the continuation 
of the eastern townships. The land of Gaspesia is the same as 
that of the Eastern Townships, that is in its comix>sition. 

These beds of earth belong to the geological formations which 
are called " Quebec Group" by Sir William Logan, founder of 
the geological commission of Canada. They form three series 
of layers more or less altered, in-egular and belonging to the 
inferior silurian. These three series are : lo. A series of paleo- 
logic straits more or less " changed, in the greater number of 
loc«.litie3, where they have been found ; 2o. A series of eruptive 
rocks ; comixjsed of granite and trachite ; 3o. A series of super- 
ficial deposites. 

The alterations which, several of these paleological formations 
have undergone, which is easily seen by their perturbations, 
make it very hard to determine to which age they belong ; but 
it is evident that th y should be classed in the groupes of the 
inferior and superior silurien and on the devonien age. 

A stripe of beds belonging to the foundation of the river 
Hudson, extends from Marsouin river to the cove of Tierce, a 
distance of sixty miles, on the borders of the Gulf St. Lawrence. 
These layers are composed of stripes of sand stone, dolomite and 
oily clay. Nevertheless, these formations are not so extended 
and not so important as those of the Quebec Groupe which lies 
on the lime and sand stones of Gas|x^, as well as the under car- 
bonic formation of Bona venture, on the banks of Baie des Cha- 
leurs. The Quebec groui)e occupies a mid position, between tlie 
calcarous and Chazy formations, where both are found. They 
are devided into three formations which classed in an ascendant 
manner : Levis, Lauzon and Sillery. 

The formation of Levis is comi)osed of slate stone and black 
argil containing a groat number of fossils. Lauzon is com- 
posed of red and green argils, sand stones and dolomit(!i, but in 
particular strata in which are found migneeien rocks ; chlorotie 
and serpentine. The formation of Sillery is composed of red 
and green argils, sandstone and dolomites, but in certain places 
changed rocks, cristaline deposits, gneissoide knd epidotic strata. 

— 20 

Such are the rocks which form tlie bottom of the hinds of 
Gasposia. As we have abeady seen, they are nearly all 
covered with tlie calcaire and sandstone of (iasp^, also by the 
undercarbonic fer of Gnsp'. The calcareous formation of Gasp^ 
uorresi)onnd3, hy its position, to the inferior series of the Helder- 
sberg formation. Although th(; gi-eatest pait of it is composed 
of gray calcarcnis l)eds, it also posseases beds of argil and black 
gi'avel which belong to the mid silurien. The inferior part of 
this formation is met with in the Eiistern Townships ; and the 
superior part, which contains the most calcarious substance, 
reaches its greatest develoj)ement in Gaspesia. At the eastern 
extremity of the peninsula, at cape Barry, at Perec'' as well as 
in several other localities, this calcarious substance presents itself 
in abrupt cuts which have been made by the water of the sea. 

The formation of the sanstone of Gasfx^ corresiwnds as may be 
seen from the fossils which are found there, with the american 
geologist formation of Orishang, Hamilton and Chemung. It is 
composed of sandstone, argyle and inters trati Red conglomera- 
tions and possessing in certain places the remains of plants and 
a fossil state. At Little Gasp^ cove, there is an impure and 
thin bed of coal in the strata, at Douglasstown and several other 
places there are sources of petroleum which transpires through 
this formation. 

The formation of Bonaventure belongs to the lower carbou'fcr 
age, but does not possess coal. Its stro ji are comjxjsed of con- 
glomerations, mixed with sandstcjne, red and greeu argils, 
sometimes posses.sing the remains of carbonized plants. In 
several places they aie, cut by dikes. They cover in a very irre- 
gular manner tho sandstone beds of GasjK^. This formation is 
met with on the efistern coast f)f Gasped, in particular along Baie 
des Chalaurs, where Sir William Logan estimates the tiiicknoss 
to be not less than 3000 feet. 

On the formation of Sillery and Quebec which form the 
northern coast of GasjK?, lie in descendants stratifications, 700 
feet of limestone and slatestone, in which there are ma,ny fossils, 
which represent the superior silurien bed. On the south sid.^ 
of Gasp<5, the high devonieu beds are covered with 1000 feet of 
horizontal bedo of sandstone which form the base of the coal 
basin of New-Brunswick, but do not contain combustible mine- 
rals. The fossil -limestone of Gaspe can be traced up from the 
south-east to lake Memphramagog. The devonien bed which is 
silicious in the county of Gaspe, passes toward the southern 

21 — 


VkmIs of limestone which are found in the same valley with «ilu- 
lien limestones which we have already mentioned. 

The extent of tlie Bona venture formation is small. It forms the 
band which lies between Bay des Chaleurs and a line drawn from 
the confluence of the river MaUipedia with the Ristigouch^ to the 
head of the Cascapedia bay, tlien an other line extending from 
the mouth of the little river Cascapedia to the enlargement of the 
river of Port Daniel, finally a third line leaning Douglasstown, 
tending a little to the west, at its mid-lenght, and terminating 
in the neighbourhood of the mouth of the Grand River. 

The Quebec Grouj)e forms a band whose width varies from 
fifteen to thirty miles along the shore of the Gulf, between Me- 
tis and cape Gaspe. Its breadth augments as it tends t^owards 
the west, and is interrupted by a small band of land belonging 
to the formation of the river Hudson, between Marsouin river 
and the Tiercy cove, and at its south extremity by a small ex- 
tent of land, belonging to the formation of Chazy, between the 
river St- Ann and the head of the river Madeleine. 

The space between these two bauds, hording the shore of the 
Gulf St-LawTence and that of the Bay des Chaleurs, is occupied 
or rather covered with the calcium and the sandstone of Gaspe. 
The sandstone forms an oblong scpiare exttmding in a straight 
line to the west of that part of the Bona venture formation, which 
lies between Duglasstown and Cape Rouge and continues until 
it reaches Bonaventure river, and stops in the interior. A little fur- 
ther west, at mid distance between the gulf and Bay des Chaleurs, 
there is an other area of sandstone which extends from the north- 
east to the north west between the rivers Cascapedia and Mata- 
pedia, finally these sandstone beds surround the mouth of the 
two rivers Cascapedia and form a bar which unites the two parts 
of the Bonaventure formation, which borders Bay des Chaleurs 
on each side of the New Richmond. 

The following table will show the extent of these formations : 




Gaspe Calcium 4,000 2,560,000 

Sandstonu 3,000 I,9'20,000 

Quebec Groupe 3,000 I,9'i0,0u0 

r3onaventuro l"'ormatiori (100 384,000 

Hudson " -... 184 1I7.7G0 

! 0,784 6,901,760 

This table clearly shows that the greater part of the soil of 


Gaspesia is good, easily cultivated and produces hay and wheat 
iu al)ui)dauce. 

The calcium fonuations occupy an extent of 2,560,000 acres, 
which is sulHcient to form 12,800 farms of 100 acres eacli, that 
is after deducating the half on account of the secondary laud. 
This deducation is rather much, because it is well known that 
the calcium formations very often offer good land. By the action 
of the water and the atmosphere, these rocks fall into dust and 
form a fertile and easily cultivated soil. 

Tlieae calcareous soils belong to the selurien formations, which 
is met with in all parts of Northern NewBrunsv^ick. These for- 
mations possess the richest soil in the province. The fertile and 
well cultivated farms in the valley of the liistigouche river which 
cover both sides of the St-John, tie on these rooks and are par- 
tly formed by them. 

The land of this formation is generally heavier and stronger 
than that of tlie carbonifer region. The rocks of which they are 
formed are generally hard and in mouldering to dust create good 
tought land. 

Beds of good limestone, ve^y rich in fossils, abound. These 
fornuitions constitute the best and soils in the west of 
New York. 

The hard sandstone which covers a great extent of the Gaa- 
^lesia forms good and fertile soils. The richest and best cultiva- 
ted farms of Scotland lie on red rocks of this species. The beau- 
tifiul soil of the valleys of Sussex, Sackville and river Shepody 
are close to rocks of same nature. 

Professor Johnston, who made a special study of the different 
formations of New- Brunswick, says that the beds of these sand- 
•stone formations are composed as follows : 

lo Red conglomerations which, in breaking up, form poor gra- 
nely fjoils, which, when well measured, give splendid crops of 
oats &c. 

2o. Fine red-sandstone which, being reduced to powder, forms 
a red sandy soil, light and easily ploughed and which produce in 
abundance, when well cared. These farms are very much sought 
for iu New-Brunswick. 

3o. Red beds of argil, commonly called " red clay, " interstra- 

tified with beds of red sandstone and which, reduced to dust, 

form good soil which has a reddish cast. Tliis soil is the mast 


Nevertheless, the fertility of the soil has been proved by abun- 

— 23 — 

(lunt liarvest which it protlnced from 1871 to 1881, which may 
be se«ii at page 8. The coinpaiisou is still more a(lvant(ii<^eou8 
when compared with the other provinces of the confedemtion. 


Gaspesia Bushels of wUeal per acre 

Oaspo 15 00 bush 

Boiiiiveiiluio 11.70 

Uimousk 1 8.30 

Province of Now Brunswick ' 10 85 

N(iva-8colio ; 11.78 

" y»«bec 8.04 

Ontario 10 42 

tush \ 

" 1 

That is to say Gasposia ])roduces 1.24 bush, per acre, more 
than the province of Ontiirio. And we can utterly say that if Gas- 
pe.sia was as well cultivattnl as Ontario the former would give 
25 |)er cent more. 

It is evident that the soil of Gaspesia is rich and fertile anrt ca- 
^wible of supporting the colonist who would cultivate it with ca- 




The mineral riches'* of Gaspesia is unfortunately unknown. 
The explorations of the geological commission have been few and 
limited by the band of land which is in the neighbourhood of the 
sea or by some of the principal rivers which cross this region, and, 
We must say, too quickly made to produce the result which a close 
examination would give. 

The most competent men have -not the least doubt of the mi- 
neral riches of Gas])esia and they are persuaded that when that 
tine country can bi^. more easily visited and explored there will 
be found rich mineral deposits. Here is what the Minister of 
the Interior says in his report of 1882 : 

" This region is probably very important, but the difficulties of 
its explorations are very great. The dense forestii which 
cover all the extent between those rivers, with the exce}v 
tion of the simimits of the mountains; the want of roads; m 
tine, all these obstacles have prevented our geologists from making 
an exact examination of the place. 

"Nevertheless we can affirm that this vast country has no 


— 24 — 

connection with the inferior sehirien fi.)rmations of the Quebec 
gruiij.e, but constitutes an isolated area of fonnutions which 
make the priuc-pal zone niiniere of the eastern townsliips. This 
zone extends from tlie frontier of the United States to the north 
east of Quebec. Until now we have not found anything more 
than sei-pentinti rocks and chromic iron in the region of Sliich- 
shock; but as these minerals are generally found with cotton- 
stone, brass, lead, antimony and iron, also with gold and silver, 
it is not likely that we may (ind these minerals in the unexplor- 
ed region of Gasjx^." 

Professor Hunt expresses the saii:o opinion in his work pub- 
lished in 18G5, He says: " The Eastern Townships are included 
n the rising zone, situated to the soutli of the St. Lawrence, as 
M'ell as the more southeastern regioii extending along the frontier 
and ^n'uiing a sruicession of valleys which continues from the 
sources of the river Connecticut to the north east of Bale des 
Chaleui's. The Eastern Tovvnsiup», as tliey are generally des- 
cribed, <lo uot include this prolongation towards the north e^ist, 
l)ut as it geologically and geogKiphically belongs to them, we 
may ini^lude it under the same name. Moreover the Eastern 
ToMaiships abound in metallic minerals, inarlde, slate stone, &c." 

The a')o\e citations clearly show the mining ricliess of Oaspesia. 
Afttir descriltingthe geoloi^ical formations of ''"spesia, we must ad- 
ndt that the peninsula of Gasp'5, possesses the same nr'ueral riches 
as Eastern Townships, unless that nature had endowed the south- 
west more than the south east, with her riches. It is so con- 
traiy to the laws of nature, ecological teachings, and common 
sense that it re(piire8 no refutation. But there is a very good 
])roof of the mineral richess of Oaspesia, which we will show. 

CottonstonA. — This useful njineral, which is the object of con- 
siderable exploration in some part of the Eastern Townships, has 
been found by Sir William Logan in the environs of mount 
Albert, at tli(3 extremity of Shichshock moimtains, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Seiientine. This layer is, of itself, of no 
importance; but it indicates the existence of thicker beds, which 
undoubtedly we would discover in making a careful examina- 

Limadouf. — The inferior silurien limestone rocks of ohe for- 
mation of Chazy, and of the Trenton groupe, wliich furnish us with 
the best limestone, are met with on several places l)elonging Jo 
f'ulcarious beds of Oaspesia, The most considerable deposit is 
f und at Poi'i. Daniel. It makes splendid lime. Large quartities 





— 25 — 

are exported to Prince Edwards Island where there is no lime- 
stone. The stone is drawn in train ways to the ships which are 
loaded with it. The exportation of this mineral is yearly in- 
creasing. It is a!i important industry for this locality, which 
can furnish good lime, for building and farming purposes, to all 
the parishes of Bay des C^haleurs. 

Hydraulic Lime. — Cert^iin impure limestone gives by calci- 
notion a substance which, instead of dissolving in water as ordi- 
nary lime, forms a paste which hardens when it is exposed to wa- 
ter. This property of hardening in the water, is due to the pre- 
sence of argile, which is a silicate of aluminium. Therefore a 
good hydraulic cement can be made l)y mixing pure lime with a 
certain quantity of argile and calcinating this mixture. It is in 
that manner that the Portland cement, and several othei' similar 
compfjsitions, in France and England, ai'e made. Nevertheless, 
when it can be procured in its natural mixed state, it is far 
better than the artificial mixture. Sir William Logan says, that 
the magnesium lime, mixed with calciuattd argile, makes a good 
hydraulic cement. 

There are clay limestone and dolomita which make good hy- 
draulic lime, in a great number of places in Canada. Thtre are 
thin beds of dolomite at Portage mountain, in the Quebec group, 
about five nules from the mouth of the river Madeleine, in the 
county of Gaspe, When analysed, it gives twenty-five per cent 
of argile. When calcinated, it becomes cream coloied, and makes 
a cement that hardens in the water, in the space of five minutes. 
Six miles below Grand Pond river, there^is a rock which resem- 
bles it very much at Grande-Coupe, and it is very likely that 
other beds c/yuld be found in the same region. (1) 

Mr Jam(3s Richardson of the geological commission of Ca- 
nada, has also studied these rocks and declares that the}^ can 
make excellent hydraulic cement. The black dolomite, says he, 
becomes yellow by the action of the weather and the air. They 
are found at Mountain Portage, and are the same as those of 
Grande Coupe, six miles lower down the Great Pond river and 
form a matter which makps a hydraulic cement, hardening into a 
tenacious and yellow mass, after being under the influence of the 
water for a few minutes. The extent of the formation which pos- 
sess these bands of hydraulic cement, shows that a great (quanti- 
ty of this stone can be found in the localities which border the 
south of the St-Lawrence. 

( 1 1 Geology of Canada, page 8o4 

■ s 





— 26 


The transformation of these cement stones could he the ohject 
of a considerable exportation. In 1882, we imported in Canada 
$83,330 dollars worth of hydraulic cement. The province of Que- 
bec alone imported $49,339 dollars worth and New-Brunswick 

Great Britain U. S. Geiiiuiny BeUjiurn 

Mnito sMbstanco on pulvoriz^-d ston'^ 

Pf-Ttlatui or Homau C'lnt'iil Si9i)10 

i;{.9o3 $2.r)19 $4.00 

§49,!J80 ?'i7,f)i7 $2,6i)9 §4.00 

We imported from the United States 11,985 baiTels of pulve- 
verizerl stone, thirty nine tons of large stones and 386 bushels of 
prej)ared stone. 

Why could we not replace those impoitations in intelizing the 
,'>tone of the Madeleine river ? It makes as good cement as that 
imported and it is very easily prepared. This mineral is on an 
inclined plain, situated about six miles from the sea which ren- 
ders the transport very easy. The calcination would cost very lit- 
tle, on account of the abumlance of wood. Were it necessary, the 
river could supply a strong water-power to grind it. The bay, 
which is at the mouth of the river, otters a good port to small 
^•essel3, which are the best for transporting this stone or cement. 
Nothing is wanting to render the exploration easy, without spea- 
king of labor, which does not cost much in this region. On this 
point, we wish to draw the attention of our capitalists who could 
easily fui'uish us with all the cement that we require in this coun- 
try, a^id also export a great quantity. 

Slatestone and Millstone. — Sir William Logan, who perso- 
nally explored these h)calities, says: " We can easily obtain ma- 
gnificent flagstones and slates in a few calcareous beds which 
are a little to the west of Vieille cove, are easily plit to the re- 
quired thinness which is due to the presence of mica. The sili- 
cious conglomeration, at the basis of the calcareous series, as 
well as others of a similar character and better (|uality, on west 
river, would make fine millstones. (1 ) 

S(n/thstones. — At the falls of Dartmouth, in the winding which 
the river makes to the north of mount Serpentine and along this 
river, the lower calcareous beds are soft and sometimes thin 
enough to make scythe stones. (2) 

Surveyor Sullivan found in the valley of Bonaventure river 

rock? which would make fine scythe-stones and even good shar- 

(I) Gnoldgj- of Cfinadii, pag" 470. 
('2) A/m, p.935. 

27 — 


pening stones for other cutting instruments. These rocks lie in 
and can be easily cut out, as the samples which Mr. SuUivan 
brought with him clearly shows. 

Serpentine. — At the eastern extremity of Shickshock moun- 
tains, there • is a large quantity of seipentine which seems 
to rise above the calcareous conglomerations, with a band of thin 
black-gi-avel, which seperates it fiom the conglomerations, and 
turns around the south-east of the chain, forming mount Albert, 
one of the principal summits. It continues towards the south- 
west for a considerable distance, along the tributary of the great 
river Cascapedia, forming the soutli flank of the chain, and fur- 
ther on dissapearing under the mid-selurian bed. The thickness 
of the mass of Serpentine is about 1000 feet. The entire extent 
shows the appearance of a stratification which is more or less 
distinct in some places. A great part of the 600 inferior feet 
is of a dark gi'eeu colour, on the same line as the beds, towards 
.the head, the colour is of a reddish brown green, which is'due to 
the appearance of small cristals which abound all through. 

Tlie 400 upper feet show the position of these beds by the 
different colors of the parts which are exposed to air. 

The surface which is exposed to the air is surrounded by red 
and da;k-white bands. The white streaks are larger than the 
red, they vary in breadth from a line to half an inch and often 
l>ecome interstratified with beds of a cream color, which vary 
in the same way. When the serpentine is hewn and polished it 
shows brown streakes, parallel with dark red lines resembling 
veins, which intersect those which are red on the surface expo- 
sed to the air. These red lines are sometimes disposed in false 
beds. At mount Albert, in Gaspe, the serpentine which is 
mixed with chloratic and epidotic gravel which have been des 
orlbed in page 281 (Geology of Canada.) covers an extent of 
not less than lU square miles. A great part of the serpej^tine is 
distinctly stratitiee and often streaked with red and brown colors. 
Without doubt, we can find there and in many other localities 
of that region great quantities of variegated ser])entine8, which 
could be used as marble. The serpentines of Eoxbury and Ca- 
vendish, in Vennont, which is found in the continuation of 
the same formation in eastern Canada, have been explored un- 
der the name of ancient roman marble. It reseiiibles the ancient 
green marble which was found in the ruins of lionie. 

The Serpentine similar to that of the eastern Townships and 
Mount Alb rt is explored on a high scale in France, Italy and 



— 28 — 






England ; it is used for making tables, and decorating churches. 
The price of these variegated blocks of french serpentines was, 
in 1854, $3.00 to $3.50 per cubic foot, and of polished flagstone 
$0.(30 to 80.70 per square foot. 

There are considerable quantities of .seiqieniine in the environs 
of mount Serpentine, which could be profitably employed. Tl\e 
transport of tiiis marble can be easily made, particidarly that of 
mount Albert. This locality is situated between the sources of 
the rivers St. Anne and ('ascapedia. It is very probable that 
this course of water could be utilized to bring down the stones 
on Hat boats. This would do to begin with, but when tht busi- 
ness would increase, io would be easy to built a nai-row railroad 
which would not only accommodate tlie exploring company, but 
also increase the settlements by the advantage, which it would 
be to them. Tliis railroad could also be utilized for the transport 
of wood which abounds in the valley of the Ca.scapedia river. The 
chronic iron and the cotton stone which are found in mount 
Albert, with the serpentine, would furnish their amtingent to the 
traffic of this railroad. 

Mama. — This substance has various uses. When it is pure, 
it is used for whitening ships and cleaning metals, &c. When 
calcinated, dust forms a very white lime which makes first cluss 
mortar. But it is principally used for agriculture pui-poses, for 
the amelioration of sandy or clay land. It supplies the want 
of lime to the clay soils, and to sandy clay it gives it a consis- 
tance which makes it produce abundant crop. In Europe, but 
in i)articular in France, this substance is highly valued for reno- 
vating the land. 

This mineral abounds in Gaspesia, especially on the shores of 
lake Metis, at its highest extremity, on tlie St. Lawrence coast, 
five or six miles lower down than the Matane river, and in the 
environs of New Carlisle and Baie des Chaleurs. A few miles 
from f!fte village in a valley of a mile and a half square, there are 
five or six small lakes, along whose shore and bottom there is a 
bed of mama which is white and pm-e, being about five inches 
thick. At Matane, the deposit, wliich is about fifteen inches 
tliick, forms the bottom of several swamps which cover the sur- 
face of about fift^ien square acres. This substance could be 
advantageously explored by the neighbouring inhabitants. 

Chrome. — Tliis mineral is found, in large quantities in the ser- 
pentine rivers of juount Albert, on the banks of the vSt. Anne. 
We meet with it under the form of chromic iron, in detached 


masses weighing more then twenty lbs. each, and according to 
tlie report of Sir William Logan, these beds were followed up 
the distance of half a mile and contain large deposits. 

It is out of this chromic oxyde that we obtain the bi-chromate 
of potassium, with which we prepare the chromatt^. of red and 
yellow lead — or yellow chrome — also the oxyde of green chrome, 
which is used as green paint and indelible gi'een ink. Large 
<juantitio8 of bi-chromate potassium are used in dyeing and in 
the making of cotton-print. Tliis bi-chroiaate of potassium oon- 
t>ains forty seven parts of potassium and one hundred of chrome. 
The value of this salt is estimated according to the quantity of 
chromic acid contained in it, some years ago, it was sold at the 
rat€ of $1.00 for each unity of chrortiic acide. A sample taken 
from Ham mine was sold in London for S58.33, because it con- 
tained 57-4 per 100. 

This is the manner in which bi-chromate of potassium is pre- 
pared : — The mineral is poundered very fine, and is mixed in the 
powder of crude potassium, then the mixture is calcinated in a 
furnace through which passes a current of air which oxydizes 
the chromic oxide and combines it with the potassium. Tlie salt 
thus obtained, is dissolved in M^ater and this solution covered 
with a certain quantity of suljihiric acide, then it is oristalized 
by evaporation, this mixture constitutes the bi-chroniat€ of po- 
tassium which is sold in commerce. 

If the transport, between Matarie and mount Albert, be pos- 
.sible and not too expensive, it is evident that this mine of chro- 
mic iron would be the object of a paying industry. The small 
ex].)ense that it would require to buy the mineral and the wood 
to calcinate it and make the potassium, M'ould pay a manufactu- 
rer more than 40 or 50 per 100. Or it could be sent to F-ngland 
in a crude state to be mixed with sulphuric acid and reduced to 
pure bi-chromate of potassium. 

Nevertheless it is evident that there is there a rich mine to be 
explored, and it is well to let enterprising men know it. 

Lead. — Galena is found in large enough quantities to be ex- 
plored in the veins which cross the lime sto rocks of Gas\)^, at 
cape Grasp*5, and at Anse des Sauvages. At little Gasji^ Bay the 
vein is found in a calcarioiis stratified mass which prolongs about 
24 '^ S. W. and forms towards the north a mountain 700 feet 
high, that is to say the promontory of Gasj-X?. Tliis vein is about 
eighteen inches wide ; it is composed of hard substances possess- 
ing masses of galena and small pieces of blenda and copper. In 




— 30 


sinking a well twenty feet deep in the' principal vein and in a 
few others in parallel line we olttained twenty tons of mineral 
which gave twelve tons of pure lead. We have also found gale- 
na in several other localities, in particular m the calcarious beds 
which lie along the promontory of Gaspe, also on the north coast, 
in a vein which appears to he the continuation of that of the 
cove ol Little Graspe. We have also found small quantities of 
galena in the limestone rocks of Percy as well as at Cousin 
cove (1) and it is evident that we would have f(jund more in 
those places, had we made a better search. Nevertheless, from 
what we know it is certain that it would pay to explore it. 

Copper. — This mineral should abundantly exist in Gaspesia, 
on account of the Shickshocks mountains which are composed of 
chloritic rocks which in the Eastern Townships, form the Acton, 
Wickham and Harvey Hills. If we have not found any of these 
copper mines in Gaspesia, it is due to the forests, which cover 
nearly all the soil and prevented us from making the searches 
which we made in other places with so mucli success, in the same 
geological formations. 

The only places in which we noticed copper deposits, in Gas- 
pesia, were at the mouth of the Grand Capucin, four miles lower 
down than cape Ghastes and in the neighborhood of mount Ser- 
pentine, near Gasp^ Bay, and at Port Daniel. We found copper 
pyrites in a mine of quartz at Grand Capucin. Six miles fron) 
the head of Gaspe Bay we found near mount. Serpentine samples 
of this pyrite. Finally, we are certain that the inferior parts of 
the limestone rocks of Port Daniel possess small quantities of 
copfKiT, and Sir William Logan says there are the same probabili- 
ties of the presence of copper d(^posits in all the eastern region 
(Gaspesia) as in the townships situated more to the north east. 

Fossil Resine. — This substance is found in some of the devo- 
nian beds of sandstone of Gaspe. It has the form of irregular 
leaves and is found on the exterior edges of those beds of sand- 
stones, in beds about \ of an inch thick. It resembles amber, 
but it comes nearer to the middlesU:)uite resin. The analisis of 
this substance is as follows : 

(>) ' (") 
Volatile matters 32.4 22,8 

CarJ)on 8 9 8.1 

Residue 58.7 69 1 

100.0 100.0 

I) Sir Wiliittra Lngan, Geologij of (Junada. 

(in) (lv^ 

4'J.8 30.4 

7,4 8 

49.8 60.7 







In distilling this matter as coal and hitinniueous giavels are 
distilled, large quantities of oil could be obtained Avhich could 
serve as coal-oil. In order to find out if gas, could be made of 
it, experiments were made on one pound of the mineral, the re- 
sult was 2} feet of gas, which gave a beautiful light when igni- 
ted. The rubstance lost 26 per cent of its weight by distilla- 
tion. As this volatile matter contains 33 per cent of resin, it is 
evident that if this resin could be })rocured in a purer state, it 
would advantageously substitute the coal which is used in ma- 
king gas. (1) 

The samples used in the above experiment came from a bed 
of fifreen inches in thickness, which is near Shaws' mill on the 
north side of the Gaspe basin. This bed has been followed up for 
the distance of 200 feet at the end of which it sank into the .sand- 
stone. The same substance has been foimd along the York river for 
more than thirty miles. Tlie beds are from five to six inches thick 
and one hundred feet long Same of them are generally composed of 
small bright matters of a brownish color, which present the same 
translucididy as' the above mentioned vein, although it sometimes 
c(»ntains less ashes and is mixed with carbonacious matters. A 
sample coming from York river gave, by analysis, 52.4 of vola- 
tile matters and 26.3 of Carbon and a residue of 21.3. The 
graatest quantity of volatile hydrocarbon which is obtained from 
this substance, renders it more valuable, for distillation, than the 
resin which came from the deposits of Shaw's mill. These various 
deposits, says Sir William Logan, merit to be studied as an im- 
portant point of economy. 

PetroUum. — Tliirty years ago, the members of th(^ Geological 
Commission of Canada, discovered petroleum in the rocks of 
Gaspe. Other explorations have k a'u that this mineral exist in 
severel places of this region, on the bjjyiiks of the rivers Dartmouth 
York, St-John and Malbaie. In several places of this region, the 
limestone rocks are covered with sandstone the inferior part of 
which is of the same age as the Oikenv formation. This sand- 
stone is discovered at the mouth of the river York, and is im- 
pregnated with petroleum. On the banks of the same river, about 
two miles from the Gaspe basin, small morcels of bitume are 
found in the cavities of a dike cutting the sandstone. The sourca 
from which the petroleum of Silver Brook springs, is situated 
towards the south-east at an angle of 13o and about a mile from 
the anticlimax. The oil which is gathered in the ponds along the 

(I) Sr "Williom Lcgun. (itolcyy of Ccnada. 

« 1 1 I 

32 — 

stream, lias a green color aud a far le.s.s aromatic odor tliau that 
of the Ontario i-etroleiim. A little further west, about ten miles 
from the moutli of the river, the oil floats on the surface of the 
water. There is also petroleum at Adam fountain, behind the lot 
B of York village, a few miles from S. S. E, of the Gaspe basin. 
Tlie petroleum sweats through the mud in a parallel line with San- 
dy Beach and Haldimand, both of these localities are on a bed of 
sandstone which passes « little ui the north of the source of the 
Silver Brook. A little to the east, two miles west of Pointe-au- 
Gourdon, which Uikes its name from the petroleum which is 
found there is an other source which is three quarters of a mile 
from Marsouin cove. On the north side of the banks of Douglass- 
town, about a mile west of the village, petroleQm, sweats through 
the mud and gravel of the beach. Further west at the St-John, 
there is also petroleum and on the sides of a stream which dis- 
charges its waters into St-Georges cove, on the north eastern side 
of Bay Gaspe. 

Two wells have been dug in these regions, but the result was 
not encouraging, one 200 feet deep, on the banks of York river 
and the other 125 feet, about Douglasstown. Professor Hunt 
(who is considered as an authority in tliese matters) says : the 
uusuccess of these wells should not he looked on as a discour- 
agement, because it was tested, that of two wells, one may fall on 
a fissure, or a vein which is not deep aud that the other may 
not fall on one, or the oil at a gi-ea^r depth, which must Ije 
attributed to the iiTegularity of the fissure. As to the natural 
oil springs, it must not be forgotten that petroleum can run on a 
certain distance, in a horizontal position, under the impermeable 
strata and finally burst forth at some distance from one of the 
sides of the reservoir. Indeed, in some places the beds of sand- 
stone are very thick (sometimes 4000 and even 7000 feet) even 
on the top of the anticlimax, and it might be necessary to dig 
wells along these lines, before being able to prove the existence 
or absence of sufficient quantities of oil in these regions. Never- 
theless it must be remarked that the thickness of the beds of 
sandstone covering the calcarious oil veins of Gaspe has the same. ' 
appeaninces as those of west of Pensylvania, when the oil wells 
are dug in a similar formation of sandstone, of great thick- 
ness which covers the sandstone and which, as we have tried 
to show, has favoured the accumulation aud conservation of the 
petroleum coming from the inferior formation. The devonien 
sandstone of Gaspesia occupies an immense area extending 

— 33 — 

towarda the west of Metapedia river, and it ia probable that 
petroleum cau be found in other localities of this region. 

That is very probable, and undoubtedly if the government 
would order the geological commission t<j make more extensive 
investigations than they have ever done before and to dig deeper 
wells than those on the banks of the York and in the environs 
of Douglasstowu, they would find more petroleum springs than 
those of Ontario. 



The fisheries of Gaspesia are the richest in North America and 
perhaps in all the world. They have been explored during two 
hundred years and their produce has given millions of dollars to 
speculators. The firm of Chas. Robin & Oo„ Jersey, made 
there a fortime of several millions, and was at the head of the 
fish business in America and Europe. The establishments of Le 
Bouthiller & Bros., J. & E. CoUas, J. Le Bouthiller & Co. and 
Valpy & Le Bas did large business. 

The principal fish that make the object of this exploitation 
were the cod-fish, the shaiper, the herring, the mackerel, the sal- 
mon, the lobster and a great number of other fishes of less imj^r- 
tanca, but which would add a great deal to commercial explora- 
tions, were they sold where they are in demand. 

The cod-fish is the best and the most abundant, in number 
and size. It constitutes and assures a ressource in Gaspesia as 
the land harvest ; the jHxtrest man in the place can make a good 
living for his family by fishing. • 

The fish are generally caught in Gasj)e8ia, along the shore, in 
the coves and bays, and sometimes out thirty miles from the 
shore. The fishermen who have means, build their own boats, buy 
the necessary fishing tackle and fish during the sumnier months, 
and sell their fish to the merchants or cure them themselves and 
wait to sell them to speculators, who go down there in the fall 
to buy all the fish they can find. They who have not the means 
to buy their own fishing tackle and boat, hire them from the fish 
merchants. The rent of one of these vessels, the fishing tackle 
included, varies from S25. to 835. for the season and the bargain 
generally stipulates what tlie fish caught by one who has a hired 


I ■•■' 

- !■ 



If I 

— 34 — 

vessel must be sold to the Company that lets tlie boat. These 
vessels are about thirty feet long and six wide. They are made 
of cedar and botli stenn and bow are |X)inted. They are rigged 
with two sails and stiind the waves very well. 

They who leave on shore fishing generally, start at two o'clock 
in the morning and come back at four in the evening that they may 
have time to prepare their lish before dark. Each vessel is 
worked by two men, who fish with two lines in deep water and 
three in low water. When the fish take well, the men hiive not 
one moment to rest while tliey are taking one fish off the hook, 
the other line is pidling. Esich line has two hooks, and when tlie 
fish takes well, each line heads up two fish. Thus, it very often 
liappeus that towards evening, you would see two men coming in 
with 2000 lbs of fish. 

The fish on the banks are taken with net lines which are 
about 600 or J 200 fatiioms long, held at each end by anchors. 
They leave the line for six 9r eight hours in the water, and, at 
certain season, particularly in the month of September, two men 
very often take in a few hours, with a net-hue of 50'^^ fathoms, 
more than 6000 lbs of cod-fish. From the 15th of June to the 15th 
of September, two men can take 600 qts. of cod-fish ; the avera- 
ge is about 400 qts. and as the fish is sold on the shore for $1 
or $1.25 per qts, the profits are about S500 for each fishing bar- 
ge or $250 for each man. Fishing generally commences in april and 
finishes in november. This periotl is divided into two seasons : sum- 
mer and autumn. The summer fishing finishes the 1 5th of August. 
The cod fish which is caught until the end of dried and 
prepared for exportation ; what is taken after this date is salted, 
put in barrels and sold on. the local markets. 

As we see, cod-fishing is a good paying business and an in- 
dustrious man can earn ii-om $300 to $400 during the fishing 
season. The herring season begins in April and ends in Decem- 
ber. They are generally caught in nets or drag-lines. 

These nets are generally thirty fathoms in lenght and six in 
breadth. They are vertically set in the water where the hen'ings 
pass and they ai'e lifted every morning. In the springtime, when 
the fishing is good, each night a fisherman takes from five to ten 
baixels of herrings in one net. 

Dragline fishing is more exptsditious.These draglines are from 100 
150 fatiioms in length and eleven in breadth. They are cast in 
deep and veiy often take in one drag enough of fish to fill 500, 
1,000, 2,000 and even 3,000 barrels of 200 lbs* ep-h. For the 


— 35 — 

mode of fishing, a boat worked by eight men is used. Twenty 
men go out in small bouts and suil about in all dii-octions \mtil 
they find tlie herrings bod.s. Then the signal is given and the net 
is cast and drawn to tlie shoi-o. When the net is too heavily loa- 
den, they do not drag it to the shore, but unload it by the means 
of smaller nets. This manner of fishing is n(»t generally made use 
of in Gaspesia on account of the enomious price of these large 

It is nearly impossible to form an idea of the abundance of 
lierrings. In the spring time they fonu banks so thickly pressed 
together that thousands are killed by the waves and by rubbing 
themselves one against the other. Dr. Fortin, who was guardian 
of the fialieries of (lasj)esia, says that he often saw the beach cx)- 
vered with a bed of herring spawn, more than two feet thick. 
This may a[)pear surprising to some people ; but when they 
know that a herring lays more than a million of eggs, they will 
not hesitate to believe the aliove stjitement. The above figures 
show the iraportfince of the herrintj'^fisheries. 

Mackerel is ciiught in lines and in nets in the same manner as 
the herring: The lines which are used for mackerel fishing are 
made of hair or cotton and are about 48 feet long. The only bate 
use<l is a piece of a mackerel neck. Each fisherman takes two 
lines which ai-e tied to the boat, and when the fish take, fifteen 
men can catch, in six hours, fmm 20 to 30 barrels of mackerel, 
from eight to twenty dollars per barrel, according to the quality. 

Lobster fishing is also a good paying business. They are 
taken on the banks of Bay des Chaleurs. The mode of fishing 
is very simple. They are caught in small wooden traps whose 
ends are covered with a net in the centre of which is a 
small hole. A piece of fish is put in the center of the trap. 
The lobster goes in to the box easily, but cannot get out. The 
trap is anchored to the bottom of the river by means of a large 
stone and the line of boxes are tied to a thick rope which floats 
on the water. These lines arc many acres long and sometimes 
longer, according to the extent of the lobster bed. The fisher- 
men visit their traps two or three times a day. By means of 
the thick cord into which the small y)oxes are tied, he lifts the 
boxes to the surface of the water and if there be a lobster or 
lobsters in, because two or three are often caught at once in the 
same trap, he takes the cover oft" the trap and catches the lobsters 
by the horns and throws them into his boat. He puts another 


■ t 

— 36 — 

bate and lets the trap sink to the hottoin and continues in the 
same manner iintill all the boxes are examined. 

The lobsters which are caught, are sold to men who have large 
establishments for the purj)ose of curing thorn. The live-lobsUT 
is generally Bold ot $0.40 \)nr cwt, and it often hapiKjns that a 
fisherman takes 500 lbs, per day. The al)ove details tell enongh 
about lobster fishing, which is a paying biisiness to the farmer 
living near the shore. 

Salmons are caught in nets which are cast on the sea coast, in 
the coves and at the mouth of the rivers. At high tide, the f jh 
pass over the nets to go up the rivers ; but as soon as the tide 
goes down they turn down t^jwards the sea, where their passage 
isintercej)ted by tl.e r.otf. They stick in the nets until the fisher- 
man takes them into his boat. Some fislierman have caught from 
fifteen to twenty barrels of salmon after one tide. A Iwirrel of 
salmon weighing 200 lbs sells from $15, to $20. 

The fisheries which have been described furnish the cities of 
Canada and other foreign places. The following figures which are 
taken from the official statistics of the minister of the marine ard 
fisheries will show the importance of this industry which consti 
tutes one of the principal sources of the riches of Gaspesia. 

T/ce folhmnng table aliou-a the quantity and value of tfie Jish 

caught in Qat^^ttsia during 1882. 

Codfish : 
Suramur lake 58,. 101 qlz ot $ 4.00 $232,404 O'' 

Auliiimi " 36,116 " at 

Tonj^ue 170 bur at 

Broken Codlish 1,106" nt 

^odlish Oil 67,283 gal at 

4.00 144,464.0u 

9.00 1,530jOO 

1.00 I.IOGOO 

0.60 40,369.90 

Herrings : 
Saitt-'il llcrrinfi's 

20.571 bar at $ 4.00 ... 

."^,078 bar at 0.25 ... 

23,488 bar at 1.00... 

994 bar at 6 00.... 

27 bar at $15.00 ... 
147,403 lb8 at 0,07 ... 

147,430 lbs at $0.15 .. 

366 qts at $ 4.00 ... 
203 " at 4.00 ... 
122 bar at 6 00... 
203 " at 8.00 ... 
36 " at 7.00 ... 

.. $82,284 00 


... 23,488.00 


Smokcil '• 

Manuro •' 

106,541 bO 
3.976 00 

Madrrel : 
Salted Miickfrel 

Salmon : 
Salted Salmon 

... $ 405.00 

Fresh " 


Lobster : 
Canned lobster 

... $1,464.00 


732 00 



. Various kinds offish : 


Small Cod 




— 37 — 


lat a 

dflt, in 
10 1' ^h 
e tide 
it from 
rrel of 

lities of 
lich are 
riue aP'l 
I coiisti 


Sardine 7'29 " ut 

Small llsh 99 " at 

Vnrioiisi llsh u»u<l in the 

locality y,63'i " at 

Elurj;eon 70 " at 

3 00 


4.00 38,r.'28 00 

5.00 3r)000 

Fish uted for manure and bate : 
Caplnn...*. 9,642 bar at fl.OO | 9,64'2,00 








'< at 

860 « at 

1.845 " at 

702 " at 

3,4'24 « at 

1.00 , 
1 .00 

Seal oil.... 

Porpoixe : 
Porpoise skin, 

Whale : 
Wlialo oil. 

40 at $100 
1*20 gal at 0.09 

? at $4.00 
28 gal at 00 




(6)... 5,580 gal at $ 0.60 

•••••• ••••••••• 


2'29 00 



/ «j 





' ^' 00 


These $647,919.16 represent the price of 25,719,479 lbs of fish 
and 72,891 gallons of oil. And it must. be added that 1882 was 
a bad year for tishing. The following table will confirm the 
above statement: 


106,541 t)0 


Codfish: (1879) (1882) 

Summer lake............ 101,776 qts — $407,104 52,101 qls $231404 

Autumn " 31,103" — 124,442 86,116 " — 144,464 

- > • 132,879qt8— $531,516 94,217 qts -- $376,868 

Salmon : 

Sailed Salmon 14.500 lbs--$ 870,00 5,405 lbs —$ 405.00 

Fresh " 392,372 «•— 21,379.10 147,408" .10,318.56 

406,872 lbs — $2'.',249.I0 152,808 lbs— 10,723.56 

Lobster : 
Preserved LoJt)8ler...« 398,648 ibs — $59,797,20 147,430 lbs— $36,964 c9 

These atove items show that 1882 was $189,006.24 lo- 
wer than 1879. In general, the annual produce of the fisher- 
ies amount to $800,000 and it would easily amount to a million 
if more activity was shown in the business. 
' Moreover, there are many species of fish which the fishermen 
of Gaspesia do not take, because they do not know how to pre- 
pare them for mark^. The tunny is a very good fish. 

According to Dr Fortin, the tunny lives in the waters of Bay 




— 38 — 






■ • 

des Chaleurs and in Gaspe bay. It veiy often atteins tlie lenght 
of nine feet and weiglis abont 500 lbs. Its general lenght is from 
five to six feet and weighing from 100 to 150 lbs. The meat of 
the tunny is excellent and resembles veal in taste and color 
and the Lreast is considered the best part of it. It is eaten while 
fresh ; it is also salted for exportation and is seasoned wi^h oil or 
salt. In this state, large quantities are exported from France and 

This fish abounds along the shoi'. of Bay des Chalenrs, and 
would be an important paying object of exploration. Actually 
this paying business is going to waste. . v ^ . 

The same can be said of Llic blue Msh vrhich i° gnnfV for eating 
and easily caught. It takes any bate and its meat is ferm enough 
to be salted. It is so common that millions of barrels could bo 
taken without any trouble. We will complete the above notesplo 
giving a few statistics on the number of men and boats employed 
in the fisheries of Gaspesia. - . -.>■,:,■;. 




Ships 78 6.7li9 

Fieihiiig boats 1,61 2 .... 





4 050 




Value • 

. i?':9[),5G0 
. 81,053 
. 14,837 




Drag-lines and ^.eis Number Yards Value 

Salmon nors 8S3 57,902 ?i8,4Il 

3,501 114.032 37,504 












8,114 3,169 

150 100 

8,304 ?,993 

700 829 



The value of the vessels and tackle mentioned in the above 
table amounts to the sum of $451,456. That shows the small 
sum it wovdd require to buy a fishing Uickle, which the poorest 
man could have, llie fisheries of Gaspesia could also furnish the 
necessary stock for an important industry, such as the prepara- 
tion of artificial manure, which pays well and would be very ad- 
vantageous to agriculture. 

Tlie use of fish in tlie preparation of certain artificial manures 
is well known, and practiced for many years on the coasts o; 
S :otland, Ireland, Wales, England and in the United-States. I 
is iu trance, tliat the method of preparing artificial manures with 

39 — 

the refuses of fish, succeeds the best. In the space of thhty yeara 
Mr Deraolon made an immense fortune in that business. ( )ne of 
his principal factories is at Coucarneau, a small sea town in Bri- 
tany, where, the refuse of sardines which are caught in ab mdan- 
ce along the coast, is transformed into artihcial mauuro. 

Mr Demolon's method is simple. After having boiled the refuses 
in copper boilers heated by steam, they are pressed in order to 
take out the oil and water, then it is scatered out ami diied by a 
current of warm air, when dry ; it is ground, put up into barrels 
and sold. One hundre'd lbs of refuses give 22 lbs of powdert^d 
manure and 2 lbs of oil. This factory employs — or did employ a 
fev/ years ago — six men and lea boys who manufactured every 
day from eighteen to twenty tons of refuses, which made from 
four or five tons of manure. This manure contains 80 per cent 
of organic matters and 14.1 per cent of phosphate of lime and 
magnesia, also common salt' carbonate of lime, sulphate and car- 
bonate of ammoniac and one per cent of water. Azote exclusively 
exists in the state of organic matter and corresponds to 14.5 per 
cent of amnionic. In general the refuses of fish jiroduce ten per 
cent of excellent manure, which is nearly as good and us precious 
as that of Peru. Half of the weight of the fish caught at CJaspe- 
sia is refuse. The following figures, taken from the census of 1881 
show the weight of fish caught during that year and the quan- 
tity of refuse which oould be manufactured into manure worth 
from $18 to $20 })er ton. 

- ,, Fish .-, Bonnventnrfi Gn.spe Rimou^iki Total in Ions 

civl civl cwl 

Codtish 38,ll'i .. '207,63:1 .. 5,898 .. 15,083.0 

Shanwr G!) .. 1,009.. m .. G'2..t 

Herrings barrels 3'2,07f) .. 76,G15 .. 1.943 .. ll,063.'2 

Hiuldcck " 31 .. 3 .. 6 .. 4.0 

Mackerel " I,'i."ii) .. 8,437.. 047.. 1,034.3 

Siinlinos " 2H .. 180 .. 380 .. 53.7 

Flitans " G .. 336.. 16.. 30.7 

■ Salmona " G52 .. 47*j .. 32.. 111.2 

8had r «* ..; .") .. 6 .. 2 .. 13 * 

" Eel ':-,«" 53.. 112.. 7.. 17.2 

Troui . .= .-^' -• *». 158.. 122.. 32., S1.2 

_- Otherkindofllsh barrels 12,934.. 15,116.. 1,765.. 2,981.5 

•; C»janec! '^obsier, lbs 97,200 ,. 420,534 2.58.7 

'^■"' ■•'■■'■ "'■' ■ '■' - '. ' ' ' ■■'■■^ - ''k:;:i/. 30,732.5 '■ 

These figures s1ioa\ the net weight of lish ready for market 
Then we may count 30,000 tons of refuse which would produce 

> 4 . > i 

•i .1 

'■ 11 

— 40 

about 6,000 tons of manure worth $20 per ton, and in total 
$120,000. per year. A great quantity of other fish could he ma- 
de use of in this line, because they are not considered good for 
eating. Consequently, we may say that 10,000 tons of manure 
could be made out of the fish refuse which would produce an an 
nual sum of one hundred thousand dollars. 

This business is worth while looking after, and it is to be ho- 
ped that before many years, these riches which are going to loss 
now, will be utilized. The manufacturing of manure pays well 
as the above calculation has shown ; but as^ it is very hard to 
find men, in our country, willing to put their money into any 
new industry, the government should encourage it in giving a 
few thousands of dollars for the establishment of factories in Gas- 
pesia. The dominion government could not help the fisheries in a 
better way that in giving, out of the fisheries indemnity, a few 
thousands of dollars for this purpose. The local government could 
also lend their hand to this important industry in voting a few 
thousand dollars, for a few years. The low price at which this 
manure could be sold to th3 farmers ^ x the place would encou- 
rage them to make use of it and prove to them that artificial ma- 
nure is realy advantageous. Were it once started, it would not 
fail to succeed. 



The forests of Gaspesia are very little known, and this is pro- 
bably the reason why they are not explored. These forests are ve- 
ry rich in all kinds of woods demanded for exportation ; such as 
pine, spruce, birch, elm, ash, cedar &c. Considerable ravages were 
made by fire, in certain parts of the Matapedia valley, but else- 
where, tlie forests are still in their natural st.ite and the few 
trees cut here and there were cut by exploratore. 

The shipbuilding line, wliich is intimately connected with the 
forest industiy, could be advantageously carried near the banks 
of Bay des Chaleurs, where the best of ship-timber can be had, 
at a very moderate price. "Perley (1) says, the bay shore is natural- 
ly endov/ed with all shipbuilding advantages. The wood is of the 
best quality and renowned for its durability, esj^ecially the red- 

(l) Report on the Fisheries of the Gulf of Sainl-Lawrencr, by H. M. Perley, 
Esq., Her Mtyesly's EnvKigration Officer cU Sai?UJohn, N-B. 


— 41 — 

spruce, which is considered the best in the world. Mr McGregor, 
deputy of Glascow and secretary of the board of trade, says in 
one of his official reports : " The ship built of the red spruce of 
" Bay desChaleurs, are remarq liable for their durability. In 1839, 
" I ^\^ent on board of a ship, in Messina port, which I saw built 
" in Paspebiac in 1824, belonging to liobin & Co., and which 
" was unloading a cargo of cod fish, destined to provision the Si- 
" cilians. This ship, which was more than thirty ^ears built, was 
" perfectly sound. " 

The forests of this region were never explored with the same 
r^re as those of the other part of the province, but what the sur- 
veyors say of it who have examined the zone neighbouring the 
shores clearly shows that the Gaspesia is as remarkable for 
its forests as it is for its fisheries. We will cite a few extracts 
which will prove the above statement. ;:. 

The township of Milnikek has been surveyed and explored by 
Messieurs H- LeBer and P. Murisson, who give the following 
report : 

" The wood which grows on the summits of the mountains and 
in the ])Iains consists of balsam, white spruce, pine, white and 
black birch. On the summits of those mountains, there is yet a 
good deal of building timber, but it is second quality." (H. 

" The land is good and slightly sloped near tlie sources of the 
Melt and Conners streams ; there is a good growth of red and 
white bifch and a few maple. All the Wjod fit for commerce 
was cut, which was the best quality of pine ; but there is still a 
great quantity of whit« lurch will be employed later on for 
exportation and other ends." (P. Murisson) ;. 

In speaking of Humqui township, M. LeBer says that "there is 
no pine but plenty of spruce fit for commerce. Cedar abounds all 
through as well as balsam white and red birch." 

T. A.Bradley w^ surveyci the township of Cabot, in his report 
says that " there are fertile plains, level and uninterrupted by 
hills. Hard wotxi abounds such as white birch, ma])le and spruce. 
The latter in particular ia in abundance and is mui-h used by the 
wood merchant sof the place. A great quantity of wood fit for 
saw mills, covers both side of the rivei-s Blanche and Tartigou. 
The principal kinds of wood are, spruce, pine cedar, maple, and 
black and white birch." 

Surveyor Garon states that in MacNider township which is 


crossed by the Tartigou, '• the wood is of a good quality particu- 
larly the iraple and birch whicli constitute the principal' species. 
Pine is very rare, but there is still a large quantity of thipping 
spruce. The cedar is abundant and of the best quality. 

According to Grondin's report Tessier township is " level and 
covered with the very best of wood such as birch^ maple, elm, 
ash, spruce. " This town3l)ip is watered by the Matane and is 
behind the seignory of the same name. 

" Tlie species of wood whichabound in Tourelle township, says 
the surveyor are balsam, aspin birch, spruce aud cedar. There 
are small quantities of maple. The cedar is not in abundance 
but is of the best quality. We have met with seveml fine pine 
Stumps ; I do not remember of having seen any standing. 

In the township of Fox lUver, Cape Rozier, and North Gasj)(^, 
especially in the valleys, the land is level, wooded with maple 
birch, and ash, but the latter ,< pecies is somewhat rare, on ac- 
count of the number of fish barrels made of it. ; ..j/^^^- 
The forest of Fortin township are cx)mposed of spruce, balsam 
and birch. In Eameau township, which is watered by the Grande 
Eiver, there is a little quantity of, pine, a great quantity of cedar 
and maple. Th^birch, whicli is generally sound and of a re- 
markable thickness, is scattered here and there with white birch, 
balsam and spruce. The cedar, in particular, could furnish a good 
deal tfi exportation. There are abundances of wood fit for cora- 
meice in the Pabos forest. There has been some pine cut in 
the forest near the shore ; but there is yet in the interior, plenty 
to supply ships for many year. 

We stiU find, in the first ranges, abundances of wood for ship- 
ping, Buch as cedar, spiuce, balsam, birch and ash. Tlie birch is 
large, very sound and constitutes a first class artitle for exporta- 
tion. Surveyor Legendre explored a considerable part of the re- 
gion drained by the Pabos and Port Daniel and we extract the 
following notes from his report. c 

" From New River to Fourches, there is a great quantity of 
shipping timber : cedar, poplar and elm. These tree are gene- 
rally tall, thick and of a good quality. The summits of the hills 
are generally wooded with birch and soft-wood, I saw birch trees 
that would make s«fuare logs of 30 feet long and 20 inches square. 
These wooias have already been culled, but there stiU remain 
(juough of l)irch, pine and spruce to prove the value of tlie 


43 — 

** The Saraaragne is the V)est water power. Balsam aud spruce 
abound and the access is easy. " 

The same surveyor explored the Bonaventure and Gaspesia 
and gives the following accoimt of the forests : 

" The wood, which is generally (in the valley of little Casca- 
pedia river,) cedar, birch, aspen, spruce and balsam, is remar- 
quably thick and in abundance. I saw several cedars whose cir- 
cumference were from eighteen to twenty feet and sound. From 
Fourche to the thirty second mile on the east side, there are ma- 
ny spruce, cedars and jx>plar. 

" I have also remarked tliat the swamps in this region are 
thickly covered with soft wood... 

*• As for the remainder of the branch south west of Fourches, 
there is no w^ood of any importance, but behind New-port town- 
ships, we find abundance of cedar aud poplar on the river sides, 
and pine and spruce on the heights and along the rivers. " 

River Hall (one of the affluents of the Bonaventure) is well 
bordered with birch, pine and spruce, as well as the Pasbos. " 

A great part of the Bonaventure was explored by Mr H. 0'- 
Sullivan, who is a competent surveyor. The following notes were 
taken from his report : 

"... The first western branch, where pine, balsam, spruce and 
cedar abound 

" On the 2nd and 3rd mile, square timber has been made. 
Along the river, as far as the 2nd mile post for a long distance 
on the western branch, there are splendid farms whose extent is 
about ten thousand acres. The valleys are well wooded with 
spruce, pine, balsam and poplar and on the heiglits, tliere are 
white spruce and a few pine and birch. 

" The Bonaventure cedar deserves a special mention : I have 
not seen its equal in size and quality throughout the Dominion. 
There are also a good deal of pine, spruce, balsam and poplar and 
according to the accounts of explorators and chanty men who vi- 
sited the sources of the rivera Hall, Duval aud Creuse, maple 
and birch abound in these lociilities. ' "' 

Before going further let us state that the finest forests of Gas- 
[jesia are in the valleys of Bonaventure. There are large pines, 
spruces and cedars, which cedar Mr O'Sullivan, considered the btist 
of the R'ovince, There are pine trees in large quantities enough 
to make miiiions and millions of feet of S(|uare timber. Some of 
these trees have measured four feet around the but. The spruce, 
birch and cedar would also nxake thousands of square feet. And 


— 44 




these V)cautiful woods are not only in the pvineipal valleys l)ut al- 
so in the secondary valleys of the rivers attiuents, which clear- 
ly shows that these rich forests cover au immense extent and 
can furnish one of the richest and greatest forest explorations in 
the province. This exploratioti could be made on the most ad- 
vantageous footing that could be thought of. In ordinary explo- 
rations, the transport of provisions for the wood-cutters aad hor- 
ses used for hauhng out the wood, several hundred miles from 
any central place, through regions where the roads are mountai- 
nous and rocky, is very expensive. But those inconveuients auu 
expenses have nothing to do with the exploration of the forests 
of Bona venture valley, because the roads are easily made on 
the rivers which are frozen during the winter season. Tlien the 
distance from the sea is not more than thirty miles to the cen- 
ter of the woods. 

That is nothing to the distance of same shanties in the pro- 
vince. Thus, in upper chanties of the Ottawa, were the greatest 
part of the pine wliich is imported, is made, the provisions are 
earned from 200 to 300 Tniles. Nevertheless, the cotupanies that 
eN])lored these forests, made large fortunes. What would their 
fortunes have been, if there work could havel)een done as easily 
as on the Bonaventure valley, a few miles distant from where 
provisions can be had at a very low rate and transport them to 
the chanties for a mere trifle ! 

Finally, the In-inging down of the timber, on slides &c., which 
costs so dear on the Sagnenay, the St-Maurice and the Ottawa, 
would be comparatively nothing on the Bonaventure. Here, such 
things as slides and boat-men are not required ; because tlie ri- 
ver is not obstruated by an obstacle. " Allow me to remark, says 
Mr O'Sullivan, who explored the river from its source to its dis- 
charge, that along the river, from the sea-shore to the furthest 
lake, (a distance of 52 1 miles from the sea) there is not a fall; 
bnt, to the contrary, a sti'ong cuiTent which is far from all obsta- 

Tt is impossible to imagine a more propicious river for lumbe- 
ring. No falls, but a natural and rapid current. It suffices to 
throw the logs into the river and they float down themselves. In 
such favorable circumstances, ten men can do as much ^vork as 
a hundred and more on rivers less advantaoeous. Finallv tlie in- 
let of the river forms a dock where ships can be loaded with 
wood and sheltered from the winds and all other obstructions 
which are met with in other pans not so well situated. The 

45 — 

above clearlj shows that, in every point of view, the forests of 
liona venture valley are exoe])tionally advantageous. All tliese 
reasons plead in favor of the Bonaventure valley and its neigh- 
bourhood. Undoubtedly, it is one of the finest forest regions of 
Gaspesia and perhaps in all the province. 

There aie also beautiful forests in the valley of the Nouvelle 
river. Surveyor Murison gives the following description of it : 

" The soil of this locality (20 miles from the mouth of the ri- 
ver) is good and closely wood with the best of timber, especial- 
ly spruce, whioli would serve well for shipping. In the environs 
and between the 9th and 10th mile up, there are pine trees of 
the best quality wliich grow on the declivity of the mountains 
and on the hind of the hills along the river, The streams which 
empty their waters into the main river are small. There are al- 
so birch and poplar trees. Excellent buihling timber abonds along 
the declivity of the mountains, " 

In Mann township, the soil is perfectly level, good and covered 
witli birch and maple of an innnense size. The great valley of 
Busteed stream is wooded with pine and birch ; the size of the 
latter is enormous. The principal species are elm, ash and Ijirch. 
Til ere are some ash trees that are as tall and as thick as pine. 
As yon advance towai'ds the interior the wood and soil seems 
better, '■J^''-' .-k: k<-: 

According tt) the rejtort of surveyor* Legendre, it is easy to 
jndg) the qualities of the soil and forests of Ristigouche town- 
ship in particular of tlie second range : 

" The different species of wood wliich I met on the survey are 
of the best (piality, the soil is also very good, and according to the 
account of travellers, the entire extent, as far as the exterior north 
line, is covered with very good timber. I never saw any place 
that could rival with this ]>art of the second range. The birch 
trees which abound are very big and perfectly sound. There are 
spruce trees which measure sixteen inches in circumference at 
a distan?.e of sixty feet from tlie stump. The soil is of yellow 
earth and the best I ever saw. Amongst the other trees which I 
mentioned, grows the cedar which is a sure sign of good land. 

This township, as Avell as that of Metapedia was carefully ex- 
plored by Mr, W. A. Sims. Here are a few notes from his report ; 

" The township of Ristigouche is situated at the head of the 
tidal current of the Ristigouche, which borders it on the south. 
The land is a good quality of yellow soil which is free from stone 
and lies on beds of trapp, which,, by decomposition, makes good 



II ■:.', 


— 46 


and fertile earth. It ia well wooded with black and yellow birch, 
maple, white birch, balsam, .spruce, beech and ash. The latter 
wood grows, on the* declivity of the hills, amid pine and cedar. 
The extend of the Iwttom of the valley is very small. The tim- 
ber that g.ows in these plains is generally soft and sometimes 
mixed with ash and elm. The description of Metabodia is the 
same as that of Eistigouche." « 

The above details, which are taken from the most authentic 
sources, clearly show that the forests of Gaspesia, particularly 
those of the region bordering the Baie des Chaleurs, between the 
St. John and the" Metapedia, are as rich in shi})ping timl)er as 
those of the St. Maurice, the Saguenay and the Ottawa. Tliere 
is timber enough in the forests of Baie des Chaleurs, to furnish 
the shipping business for many years. It is the only place in 
the province where good and large cedar is to be found. Tlie 
ash and elm trees grows to an enormous height. 
i , ,The exploration of the forests are very easy and less expen- 
sive than in any other part of the prf)vince. 

Moreover, they must make the timber at five six and some- 
times seven hundred miles from which it is put on board of the 
ships which bring it to Europe. In Gaspesia the furthest forests 
are not more than a hundred miles from the sea shore. This is 
a great advantage. There is an other still greater. The water 
courses, through which th^ timber pass, in other parts of the 
province, are intercepted in many places by rocks, cascades, 
which render it impossible for the timber to come down alone, 
and to avoid these obstacles, slides and other expensive amelio- 
rations have to be built. There is nothing of all that in Gaspe- 
sia ; the forests are crossed by rivers whose cuiTents are strong, 
but do not empeach the floating of the timber. It sufficies to put 
the logs in the water and it floats down. Then the titms{)Oit to 
England is less expensive than at any other port in Canada. Be- 
sides they have five hundred miles less to travel, that is about 
a thousand miles less in going and coming, and the ships that 
enter tlie lower ports of Gaspesia have nothing to pay for wharf- 
age, pilotage and aU these expenses that amount to a considera- 
ble sum in other places. The navigation is often for a month lon- 
ger than in tlie St-Lawrence. 

All the considerations clearly show that the forest industiy of 
Gasjjesia is advantageous ; if it has not been explored on a high 
scale, it is" because the richess of these woods are unknown. But 
that ignorance will soon disappear and the lumbeiing business, 

— 47 — 

which will give millions, will commence iu Gaaposia. Before 
1840, nobody knew that there was any timber in Saguenay dis- 
ti'ict. And now it furnishes a large quantity to the shipping bu- 
siness. The Price firm transformed Saguenay, and it is to be 
hoped that some enterprising man, like the Honorable J. Price, 
will explore and transform Gaspesia. 



For the richri^ss of its soil and the mildness of it^ climate, 
GasjMJsia is one of the nicest parts of the province. Tlie seaweed 
and the refuse of fish which cover the sea-shore, is the very best 
manure, and it is catiy to catch immense quantities of fish that 
are not eatalile, but that can be used as land renewators. 

The sea-shore clay and sea-weed are universally known as the 
best manure. The sea- weed is generally used as trap dressing for 
the meadows and gazing fields, its makes the strong and succu- 
lent grass which the aittle greedily devour. It is also advanta- 
geously used on corn and flax fields, it makes the grain larger 
and flax easier spun. The sea shore mud formed by fish shell? 
and organic and vegetable decompositions, wliich all intelligent 
farmers along the coast, put on their meadows, is the best ma- 
nure for corn and potatoes. ' 5 , ^ .li- 'Mi^' 

The rotten fish, their scales, entrails &c is the very best ma- 
nure for the localities which are near the sea shore. These subs- 
tances alwund in (^»aspesia, especially on the shore of Bay des 
Chaleurs. After every tide, the strand is covered with loads of 
sea-weed and dead fish. This is not only during the spring and 
autumn, but also during the entire year. The farmer who gathers 
hese refuses and puts them on his fields has abundant crops. The 
cattle like the ^altisii taste that this sort of manure gives to the 
grass and wherever the sea- weed has been sown the grass is clo- 
sely eaten down. 

Shell fish gives very good manure when mixed with the sea- 

But the richest manure is made off fish and their refuse. live- 
ry codfish establishment can furnish enormous quantities of this 
manure which can be ploughed into the land in a crude state. If 
the farmers of Gaspesia know the value of these refuses, 
they would topdress their meadows with them, and in a few 


— 48 — 



years would hi', indepeiulant. Were tlu3y to boil their rofuHes and 
take of the oil m hich is iiijurioufi to vegetation, the manure 
would be better. The fish, as they are caught or found on Uie 
sea-shore, make excellent manure. All fish that is not eatable, 
flueh as small heirings which are to thin loi' eating are used by 
the farmers fur their meadows. Millions of barrels are used eve- 
ry year in this way, but millions more could be used were all 
the fish that is not tit for market hi caught. Finally the sea fur- 
nishes the inhabitants of these locsilities with the richest and Ijest 
vegetal.ile and animal numure that can be had. 

We have already said something about manufacturing manure 
with the scales of fish. If ever thii^ precious industry will be es- 
tablished in Gaspesia. the farmers will have an other source of 
acquiring weullli, because this manure is as good as that which 
the farmers of iMigland and Frani:e lind protitjible, while they 
pay more than 120.00 per Um, to merchants who import it from 
South America. 

Chalk is an other source of manure which the inhabitants of 
Gaspesia can easily procure. There are immense quarries of it in 
the Madeleine islands, whicli arc, comparatively in the neigh- 
bourhood of Gaspe, when considered to the other parts of the pro- 
vince. The transport can be made cheaper, what gives a gi'eat 
advantage to the people of the coai3t. 

There are deposits of mai'l clay in many places of Gaspesia. 
It is also an agricultural source of richess. Marl is M'ell known 
of iw.ssessing the qualities of manuring and making the soil bet- 
ter. It physically acts on the soil in making it ferm, and at the 
same time the c<arbon which it emits, contributors Ui the nourrish - 
ment of plants. In France (where it is very much used) it is con- 
sidered as the most precious and valuable renovating substance 
for soils. It has been prouved by men of experience that a mix- 
ture of marl and manure makes the land yield a double crop. 
The farmers of Gaspesia who liave manure in abundance, are 
evidently the best situated to profit of these marl deposits to ma 
ke their soil better, whilst it is naturally fertile. 

llien we can fearlessly declare that, as for first class manure, 
the transport of which costs nearly nothing, the farmers of Gas- 
\)Qsui have advantage that cannot be had m any other part of 

It is well known that the climate is favorable to agriculture 
purposes. Nevertheless, the south part of the peninsula of Gas- 
pe enjoys an advantage which is not generally known, that is 

— 49 — 

its southern situation. From the chain of mountains which bor- 
der the St-Lawrcnctj, the himl in alij^'htly inclined to the south 
and is tJjua exj)OHed to the niys of the sun whicli are ho impor- 
tant U) vegetation, to which they imjnirt an extraordinary acti- 
vity. The rays of the sun loose j)art of their lieat by i-efractralion, 
and this id the reason why the agricultural temperature of New- 
Brunswick and the other side of Bay des Ohaleurs is not as high 
as in Gaspesia, where the rays of the sun fall perpendicularly 
on the soil and give it more vegetative strenght. 

In consequence of the south zone of Gaspesia being exposed 
to the sun, it is considered the most advantageous for orchards 
and vineyards. With the care of an intelligent farmer, the ap- 
ples would grow as large as they vio in Monti(ml where the sum- 
mer is not longer, and there are places which appear to be natu- 
rally destined for fruit trees. Among many other places, allow 
me to mention the declivity which is between the sea and mount 
Tracadigetche, hi Carleton. Tlie soil is naturally suitable for or- 
chards, the Hank of the mountain which breaks the north wind, 
reflects the rays of the sun and rises the temperature, then the 
sea breeze regulates the thermometer and thus prevents sudden 
changes and early frost. This locality is ef^ual, if not sv.perior, to 
many places of the Island of Montreal, where apples and grapes 
are cultivated since many yeai-s with success. When we wiU cul- 
tivate orchards in Gaspesia, particularly in Carleton, it will be 
seen that the result will be good. 

The soil is so rich that it will produce excellent crops, with- 
out any manure. The land is made up of the remains of rocks, 
which makes the best and the richest soil. These black and 
brown clay soils are easily cultivated and produce abundant 
Imrvests of wheat, corn &c. The following figures* show the truth 
of the above statement. 

The extent of cultivated land in Gaspesia is 174,306 acres. 
The area of the different branches of culture is as follows : r 

, ,,, lionavetUure (iaspe Rimouski Totals 

In Corn 30,159... 21,93'2 ... :v>,9T,i ... 85,014 

' "Hay l'-i,609 ... 10,616... 10,472... 33,(397 

"Grazing U,'i97 ... 14.415... '28,G78 ... 54.390 ■-' 

. , " V.igetables 594 ... 443 ... 108 ... I,'20o 

'"■"■yi; Total 54,639 47,406 72,241 173,306 




50 — 

Tlie extent sown in com gives i\w following Hgures : 

Uonavmture (iawe. Himouski Totals 

Bii»hulRorWhenU 35,H3y ... '28.7V^ ...'ifj ... loA.'iOG 

Barle,- 3l.!m ... 40,J)5-i ... 6:>.9'2I ... IV2.80.i 

Rye 5..V29 ... 6,(i09 ... 8.%4 ... 'l\,ml 

Buckwlifdl.. r,4,446 ... 1.55'i ... 7,713 ...• 73,711 

ludiuij corn 3'27 ... 101 ... "^O ... 478 

Oats 194.570 ... 87,.^:)! ... 7I,70.> ... 353,K'2(i 

332,043 I' - 24l,%8 74ti,ll« 


Bus. of Potatoes 70i,43'i ... 4'23,59l ... '203,3'27 ... 1.391. 3f.3 

<« 'Hirnipft 101, 490 ... 114,501 ... ri,'243 ... TM:l\)\ 

Carrots Ac 3I,7.'S3 ... 13,493 ... 1,623 ... 4G,809 

Bmns '2,r)27 ... 6,17'i ... 29,046 ... 37,745 

Total 840,202 557.817 300,239 1,704,258 

Tons of Hay 16,891... 17,109... 7,702... 41,702 

The average of wheat produced per acre : 

Bonaoenlure liaspn Hhnomki Gaxpexia 

Bushels troslin.! 35.839 ... 28.742 ... 69,625 ... l.)4,206 

Acres sown 3,181 ... 2.010 ... 9,482 ... 15,073 

Prnduee per acre, 11.26... I'^^l... 9.10... 10,23 

" 1871 11.9 ... ' \,. 8.3 ... 11.7 

Dillerence ,:.....'— 0.64 - /;;' 0.80 —1.47 

I'hat is to say that from 1871 to 1882, the produce of wheat 
per acre, increased 0.80 i ■ Rimouski county, diminished 0.64 in 
Bonaventure county, 3.19 in Gaspe and 1.47 in all Gaspesia. 

The produce of liay per acre was as follows, according to the 
census of 1881 : in Bonaventure county 1.33 tons; in Gaspe 
county, 1.61 tons; in Rimouski county, 0.73 tons; in all Gas- 
pesia, 1.23 tons. This produce is not very great; but this is due 
to the cultivation and not to the soil. In several places they 
follow the custom of making meadows without sowing hay seed 
and then let them run out. It is well understood that in follo- 
wing such z system, it is impossible to harvest much hay, even 
when the land is good. 

The i)otatoe harvest is most abundant. The produce, per acre, 
is 152.21 bushels in Rimouski; 156.07 in Gaspe; 183.11 in Bo- 
naventure. This is ea.=iily explained. The soil is good and the fish 
manure, which the farmers use, makes the land produce twice 
the quantity. They use herring and otJier fish of inferior quality 

— 51 — 

which aro. put In the drills. This tnunure makes p<->tatoe.s grew in 
land that in bnrren by nature und undoubtedly, when it Ik used 
in fertile soil, the produce must Ihj betU^r. Tliurefore it i , easily 
explained how 8,291 acres of land produce 1,704,208 l ishels «f 
potat<>e8. In supi )8ing potato(!S to Ihj worth no niore than 15 eta 
per bushel, fliin harvest would amount tt) $255,637.70 or $30.83 
per acre. 

The following list will show the different ci-ops which are cul- 
tivated on the above number of acres. 

CvUwalion lionavenlure Gaspe Himouski Ga^pexia 

Hay I '2,(509 .... 10,010.... 10,472.... .13.897 

Wh.-at 3,IH1 .... '2.410,... 9,84'2 .... 1.).433 

. Potatoes 3.M47 .... '2,714 .... 1,730 .... 8,'29l 

Otlier veg.nubl(<s '23.131 .... HJ.SOS .... 21,3".! .„. 6I,'290 

■• '' Total 42,708 32,548 . 43,395 118,711 

The following proportions show the different cultures of Gas- 
ftesia: hay, 28.48 |)er hundred ; wheat, 13; potatoe.s, 0.99; other 
grains and vegetables, 51, G3. It is evident that Llic hay culture 
is not high enough and tliat it .should be augmented, ai, least, 12 
or 16 jter 100. Raisins cattle pays the best in our amntiy, and 
to do so with jjrofit, at least 40 jKif cent of the cultivated land 
should be left in meadow. Otherwise, the farmer has not enough 
of ha_> to fodder a herd of cattle. In taking the above advise, the 
raisiu}. f cattle would pay in Gaspesia. ,,,,,; 

Mort 'er, ther • is not a county in the province as well adap- 
ted for gru/ing. The pastures are rich. The .soil produces the ve- 
ry best grass, and the meadows are meandered by streams and 
rivers whose waters are limpid. The hills and heights are covered 
with good grass for sheep and thi tem|>eratm'e of the climate 
gives strenght and health to the cattle. Finally, the ease with 
which large quantities of potatoes can be cultivat/Cd, allows the 
luiaer almndant fodder for his cattle. And the exix>itation of 
cattle has been made easy l)y the Intercolonial Hail Road, which 
has put Bay des Chaleurs in communication with the principal 
sea-port towns of Canada. When the western fanners find it ad- 
vantageous to raJBC cattle and send them sometimes more than 
800 miles to the Chicago market, would not the fanners of I3ay 
des Chaleurs have the same advantages in raising cattle and ex- 
porting them to Halifax, St-John and Quebec, that are not more 
than 400 miles distant ? It must be admitted that the farmers 

— 52 

I' !■ 

of Gaspesia do not raise enough of cattle. This will be clearly 
seen by the following table which is taken from the census of 

Collie Bonavenlure (Jaxpe Rimouski Gaspesia 

Horses '2,'27'2 .... 2,320.... 1,412.... 6,004 

Fo''ls 518 .... 430 .... 305 .... 1,253 

Working o.xen 436 .... 1,818 .... 353 .... 3,607 

Milk cows 5,053.... 4,996.... 3,906.... 13,955 

Uilior bovine cattle 4,611.... 4,299.... 3,635..., 12,545 

Sheep 15.030 .... 19.468 11,827 .... 46.325 

Pigs 7,428.... 9,448.... 4,061.... 20,937 

Total 36.348 42,779 25,499 104,626 

In Gaspesia, there are 173,101 acres of land under culture 
and pasture, whicli gives 1.64 acres for each head of cattle and 
1.84 head of cattle for each person, because the population is 
58,850. In Compton, one of the richest counties of the province, 
and which ows its riches solely to agiiculture and particularly 
to raising cattle, there are 147,874 acres under cultivation and 
pasture, and 46,721 head of cattle, which makes 3.16 acres per 
head and 2.38 head of cattle for each person, knowing the p:)pu- 
lation to be 19.581. 

As we can judge by comparison, there are 100 per 100 more cat- 
tle in Compton than in Gaspesia, which easily explains the ri- 
ches of the one and the poverty of the other. 

An other compaiison will make the thing clearer. 

According to the census of 1881, the value of the milk pro- 
duce amounted to $147,851.80 in Compton ; in the county of 
Bonaventure $52,679.90. Consequently, there exists a difference 
of $80,245.77 between the milk produce of the two counties. On 
the same average, the difference in favor of all Gaspesia, where 
the land is as good and even better than that of Compton, 
would be$268,379.20. 

All these facts clearly prove that the farmer of Gaspesia 
would double his profits in raising cattle. This demonstration 
would not have an immediate effect on the inhabitants of this 
region; but it shows to immigrants who would like to settle 
down there, that in cultivating the land as it should, it would 
produce as inuch as that of the eastern townships which are so 
weU known for their agricultural riches. 

■,-<.:rrii! ;»ii»!.'',r«<ffia!w.aMisaj«»*!Si I 

— 53 — 


We have already seen that Gaspesia is situated between 47 ° 
49' and 49 ° 15' north latitude. The north of France, the valley 
of the Loire, the north of Switzerland and Austria, the south of 
Germany and tlie nortli of Russia as far as the Caspian and 
Dead seas, are on the same latitude. That is to say that this la- 
titude comprises all the central iind the richest as well as the 
most inhabited part of Europe. Tlie British Islands, a part of 
France, Belgium and Holland, the greatest part of Germany and 
Russia, Danraark, Sweeden and Norway are north of this latitu- 
de and have a lower temperature than that of Gaspasia. 

In a climatological point of view, the latter region occupies a 
portion worthy of remark. The sea that surrounds it on three 
sides regulates the climate and attenuates the variations of cold 
and heat. Even the nature of the different parts divides the pe- 
ninsula of Gaspe into two distinct climatological townships ; that 
of the north and south. The northern region, more or less exjK)- 
sed to the cold blast and to the neighbouring cold waters of the 
Labrador and the ice that enters into the north east of the gulf 
by the strait of Belle-He is a little colder than that of the south. 
This does not hinder it from enjoying as wann a temperature as 
that of the most populated places of Scotland and from being 
warm enough to ripen corn, and particularly wheat, which grows 
in abundance in the region neighbouring the gulf of St-Lawr. ace. 
The southeastern region is somewhat warmer and, as regatds 
agricultural operations, for suijcnor to that of Great Britain and 
Ireland. Indian coin, which caimot be cultivated in England, 
on account of the temperature, grows very well in Bouaventure 
county, where hundred of bushels have been harvested in 1881. 
Protected on one side by the mountains of Notre-Dame and 
Shicksliock against the north wind, exposeil on the other side to 
the warm breeze of the south, which takes part of its heat from 
the gulf stream upon which the mys of the sun fall perpendicu- 
larly ; in fact, nature seems to lend her hand in making this 
place the most healthy and most agreable in the province. In- 
deed, to appreciate Bay des Chaleurs, one should breath the pure 
and healthy breezes of this interior sea, wliich is called the Me- 

! 4 




f : 

— 54 — 

diteiTanean of Canada. The climate is so pure and so healthy 
that sickness is unknown. There are four d()Ctt)rs dispersed 
among 39,593 souls who inhabit the counties of Bonaventure 
and Gasp(5 and they can scarcely make their living by their pro- 

The northeast wind, which is so cold, damp and disagreable 
in the St-Lawrence valley, is not at all felt on the banks of Bay 
des Chaleurs ; it is broken by the mountains and completely 
neutralized by the warm ah" coming from the south. But, what 
is most worthy of remark in this region is that the rain and snow 
are not of long duration and when they last a day it is conside- 
red extraordinary, especially in summer. The southeast wind re- 
sembles the sirocco of the Mediterranean which is damp, M'arm 
thin and rapid. When it appears in winter, it causes thaws, par- 
ticularly in the equinoxial season. Tlie due south wind, which 
one would believe to be warmer than the southeast, is more mo- 
derate. During the season that it is most frequently felt, it is 
ct)nsidered as an agreable and refreshiaii' breezj, on account of 
its humidity. The south western wind is most frequently felt 
during the summer. It is ordy towards mid-summer that it 
reigns in a constant manner. It becomes the principal agent of 
storms which break forth in the mo.iihs of July and August. 
Often the south breeze which is accustomed to rise about ten or 
eleven o'clock in tlie moniing, is disf>laced ])y the southeast 
which, on the afternoon, covers the sky with clouds, the thun- 
der rools and the lightening flashes during the afternoon 
and towards sunset rain falls in torrents. The autunmal 
equinoxe brings a change in the currents of air and it 
is then that the easterly wind reigns during forty day ; after 
this period the south west rises and during the remaintler of the 
season alternately reings with the north west which is the most 
serein and most agreable of this region. It is the south west that 
melts the snow, towards the twentieth of April ;it is also it that 
brings the rain at certain ejxiches in spring and autumn. It is 
well known t.hat this wind comes from the tropic, nevertheless 
it is deviated and modified, but naturally warm, which explains 
why it raises the temperature. 

The north western wind is essentially cold, dry, impetious and 
more frequently felt in winter than in summer. Whenever 
the nc *h west is spoken of in Bay des Chaleurs as well as in 
all the other part of Europe that borders the Atlantic, it is 
known as a cold, damp but healthy breeze. It is so perfidious in' 

— 55 — 

winter, that wlien the shining sun and pure sky invito us to 
breath the fresh air, if we leave our rooms we are seized with a 
glacial blast which makes tears c<3me to the eyes ; not so cold iu 
summer, it is wished to calm the violence of the heat and it hap- 
pens very ofter, to show itself after a rain storm. 

The two reigning winds in Bay.des Chaleurs come from the 
west and east. 

Tlie succession of the seasons is regular. The influence of the 
sun begins to be felt towards the end of February. It gradually rises 
in March and from then the mercury generally rises every day abo- 
ve freezing point. During this nionth,the mean temperature of whic 
varies from 17" to 20o, the weather is generally very fine, the sky 
is clear and the sun shines ardently. The thaw regularly commen- 
ces on 20th and the snow rapidly disappears. In April,the solar heat 
is strong enough to exercise its influence on all nature. The 
snow disappears in many places before the 25tl" and a few days 
after the land is fit for cultivation. The mean temperature of 
this month varies from 30 ° to 36 "^ . There are a few days of snow 
and rain. The snow is completely gone about the seventh of 
May and high and well drained ground can be sown. Tlie mean 
temj)erature of this month is from 40 ° to 50 ° and the number of 
raining days are not numerous ; they did not exceed more than 
eight in 1881. Vegetation developes itself with an extraordi- 
nary force, and towards the end of the month, the green leaves, 
the spring flowers i.nd the grain which begins to cover the fields 
with verdure seem to announce th'e beautiful season. 

In 1880, the mean temperature of the three months of spring 
was 48 ° 1 at Carleton and 48 ® 2 at New Carlisle. The fol- 
lowing table is formed by a comparison of these figures and 
those of the mean temperatme in some of well known places in 



Localilies. Spring Temperature. 

London. England 47'= 6" 

Liverpool " 46°'-i' 

Glasgow, Scotland 45 "=9' 

Edimbourg •" '{h^O' 

St. Petorsbourg, Russia 35 oy 

Berlin, Prussia 47o4' , 

Paris, France 50 oG" 

New-CarliPl9 Bay des Chaleurs 48o'2' 

(krleton " " 48® I" 

This table Wjujse figures are taken from Blotgett, for the towns 
of Europe, and from the report of the Meteorological Boaid of 


. 1 

! i 

. I 

■'a ' t% 

: 5 1 

(1 ■;}•! 

J !' 'i 

u ' 


— 56 — 

Canada in 1880 for Bay des Chaleurs, proves that the mean 
teniperature of spring is higher and warmer than that of Lou- 
don, Liverpool, Glasgow, St. Petersburg, Berlin and is but 
2 "^ 4 lower than that of Paris. Tlie variations were as follows 
during these three months : 

Highest Yemperalure. lowest Temperature. 
March, .\pril, May March, April, May 

New Carlisle :38<=5' 59=5' 7305' —\'i,°0' 5oO' n°0' 

Carleton 39 = 0' 5S ^O' 77 = 5' — 20=>0' l°5' I9°5' 

Pointe-au-Per« 35 = 0" 57<=8' 67=2' —17=5' 4=9' 12=0' 

The number of rainy and snowy days as well as the quantity 
fallen are as follows : 

SNOW rXin 

March April May March April May 

dx in lis in d.i in dx in ds in ds in 

New Carlisle 4 «0 2 traces 10.48 8 2.10 

Carleton.. G 90 4 1.5 6 1.64 10 3,19 

Pt-au-Pore 11 6.0 6 15.5 3 2.2 9 2 42 16 2,G4 

The last frost was on the 14th of May " in Carleton ; it was 
very slight, as the thermometer only v/ent down to 24 ® . At 
New Carlisle on the 8 of the same month, the thermometer was 
down to 24 =^ 8'. 

The summer heat commences with the month of June. 
During the first days of this month the thermometer is lowered 
by the easterly winds, which bring with them the cold air of 
the polar current or of the icebei"gs v»liich float during the season 
on the banks of Newfoundland. This has no other effect than 
that of rendering the weather ^ little cold and damp and lower- 
ing the temperature to 35 '^ 8', (on the fourth of June 1880). 
After the 4th, the heat gmdually increases until it reaches 70, 
about the 15th and 80 "^ or 82 ° towards the end of the month, and 
in the highest temperatures, about 58 ® or 60 ° as mean tempera- 
ture. The months of July and August, the finest of the year, 
are very warm, the highest temperature being between 80 ^ and 
90 '^ and lowest about 40 ^ which does not happen very often. 
The highest temperatures vary from 50 ° to 55 *^ . The mean 
temperature of these three months is as follows (1880). 

June July Auiiusl Summer 

New-Carlisle G0.8' 69.8' 65'5' G4.7' 

Carleton ; 58.6' 65.1' CO.r.' 64.7* 

Poinlc-au-Pere 54.7' 57.5' 56.6» 54.7' 

Cap-Rosier ( I ) 51.4* 58.5' 56.8' 55.6' 

AllGaspesia 56.4' 62 7' .59.9' 59.4' 

(1) The ligures for Cap Rosier apply to the year 1871-7'?. 


■ : ! Bq p» hhi W i >ifr^'.jS*^W)---Mwt.-.> itii > j W ' <ll i i .JL[ it^- 'l«(«K»:WMwt^tMf.V M'' 


In comparing the temperature of the above place with that of 

other well peopled places in Europe, we form the following 

table : 

Localities Spring Temperature. 

London, England 47c 6" 

Liverpool " 46o'2' 

Glasgow. Scotland ...., 45 o9' 

Edimburg " ^'^°^, 

Hi Petersburg, Russia 35 o9' 

Berlin, Prussia 47 o4' 

Paris France 56 ©O' 

New-Garlisle,jBay des Chaleurs 48 o2' 

Carluton " •' 48 o l' 

! i 

i i I 

That is to say that the summer temperature of Bay des Cha- 
leur is the same as that of Berlui and Paris, but is from 30 ^ to 
70 ° higher than that of the principal towns of England, Scotland 
and Russia. 

The extreme temperatures were as follows : 


New Carlisle 83<=5' 

Carleton SO® 5' 

Fajher Point 83° I' 


Julv August .Tufie 

84 05' 9005' ... 350 8' 

870 5' 9005' ... 350 5' 

7407' 82 07' ... 37 OO' 

July August 
4004' 38 08' 

440 0' 390 0' 

46 ©1' 420 1' 

The daily variation of the temperature is from 20o to 40o and 
very seldom passes these figures. In Bay des Chaleurs, particu- 
larly, the regularity and uniformity of the barometrical oscilla- 
tions, during the summer, show the delicious temperature of the 
season. The northeasterly, or northern winds are never felt ; 
that of the north west, which rises after storms, is dry but not 
cold, and does not act on the barometer. The other winds 
that come from the sea are mild and do not effect the thermo- 
meter ; they agitate the air, and make it somewhat cooler and in 
fact delightful. It is precisely that which makes the weather so 
agreeable in summer. 

It does not rain much during the summer, as the following 
ta ble will show : 




New Carlisle 4 

Carleton 6 

Father Point 1 

Cape Rosier, , I' 
















3 04 














2 20 













Gaspesia 73 22.5 12i 2.81 7J 2,01 28 7.07 






— 58 ~ 

The number of raining days during the summer months is not 
more than 30 per ot. And this number includes not only all the 
raining days but also the days on which it rained no more than 
live minutes. During the same season, it rained on 53 days in 
Montreal and 51 in Quebec, and there fell 9.62 inches of rain 
in the former city and 11.46 in the lalter. Consequently, tlie 
summer is not as wet in Gaspesia, principally in the region of 
Bay des Chaleurs, as it is in the parts of the province which are 
towards the west. 

The firet days of autum are delicious. The temperature lo- 
wers as the month of September advances, but never goes down 
to freezing point. The highest temperatures vary from 70o to 
8 Go at the beginning of the month and from 35o to 40'> towards 
the end. The weather is generally calm, cool and agreeable and 
best for field labor. It is during this month that the harvest is 
finished. After the equinox, the south eastern and north eastern 
winds bring storms of rain which soften the soil for ploughing. 
The coolness of the rain prepares the frost which begins about 
the middle of October. 

During this month the thermometer never goes down lower 
than 24 ° o, and that very seldom happens during the latter days 
of the month. The potatoes are dug during the fine days of the 
beginning of October. In the regions of Father Point and Gape 
Rosier on the gulf St-Lawrence, thei-e are a few snow storms 
between the" 20th find the 25th of October, biit it is soon melt 
and makes the land tit for ploughing. Then a period of fine wea- 
ther follows, with an exceptional fall of snow, until the 21st of 
November, when the winter sets in. This period of fine weather 
is called by the inhabitants the Indian Summer. All Europeans 
especially the English, who have spent the season at Bay des 
Chaleurs, declare that it is the finest that can be imagined. Cap- 
tain Murison says that the autumn caimot be equaled by any 
place in Europe. The temperature of September and October is 
the same as that in England ; but in November the season which 
is on the decline, is like a dying lamp which now and then throws 
out a bright light. This is what we call the Indian Summer. So- 
metimes it lasts but a few days, but in general about three weeks. 
During these days or weeks, the atmosphere has a smoky color, as 
if there were fires in the woods. The sun throws but deadly Ught 
and its rays somewhat refracted, scarcely make a shadow. The 
air is generally calm and as warm as the first days of tlie month 
of May. 




59 — 

The mean temperature of the three autumnal months is : 


Now-Carllsle 58 ="8' 

Carleton..; 54® 7' 

b'alhor I'oinl 49° 8' 

Capo Rosier 50° 3' 





11 °T 


42 o 4' 


39 « 3' 

41° 2' 

20° U' 


39 <= 9' 


39 = 3' 

Gaspesia 53^4' 


250 8' 

40 = 5' 

Let US compare this autumnal temj)erature8 with those of the 
principal towns. 

Localiiies Adtumiial lemperalure 

London, England 50° 7' 

Liverpool " 49"=>1' 

Glus<!ow, Scotland 49oO' 

Edimburg " ;... 47^9* 

SuPelersburg, liussia 40° 3' 

Berlin, Prussia 49® 2' 

Paris, Franco 52 '='2' 

New-Carlisle, Bay des Ghaleurs 43 = 2' 

Carleton " " 390 3' 

In taking New Carlisle as a point of comparison, the autum- 
nal temperature of Bay des Chaleurs is 7 ° 5' higher than that 
of London, 6 ^ Lnver than tliat of Liverpool, Glasgow and Ber- 
lin, 4 ^ 7'^lower than tltat of Edimburg and 2^9' higher than 
that of St. Petersburg, the capital of Kussia. 

The extreme temperatures are shown in the following table : 

Highest , Lowest 

Soptembor October November September October November 
New-Carlisle... 8405' 6305' G3<=5' SS^r 23<=3' — 705' 

Carleton 81^.5' 6|o0' 6l<=0' 37o0' 24c0' — l^O' 

Father Point... 70 => 2' 62° 3' 56'=7' 3l<=3" 26C0 — 30 2' 
CapeRosier 64 = 0' 5lo0' 4i^0' 40^0' 30'=0"— 10<=0' 

The number of rainy and snowy days as well as the quantity 
of rain and snow fallen during the season is shown in the follow- 
iug table : 


September October November September October November 
ds inc ds inc ds ine ds inc ds inc ds inc. 
3.80 5 2.89 3 0.77 0.00 00.0 4 9.0 
5.80 13 4.78 2 0.C9 0.00 0.00 7 U.5 
4.52 16 4.77 2 0.07 0.00 3 I 80 8 20.2 
1.40 12 2.68 7 1.61 0.00 0.00 7 4.2 

New Carlisle II 

Carteton 12 

Father Pt.... 20 
Cape Rosier. 7 

Montreal 17 2.83 17 4.44 8 36.30 0.00 5 3.1015 12.7 

Quebec 19 4.72 19 6.35 6 1.49 0.00 4 1.2015 28.1 

^ \ 


I ! I 


4. : ri*Kmq»,-xih^^'xim 

60 — 

This table clearly shows that less rain and snow falls in Gas- 
pesia during the fall than in Montreal and Quebec. In taking 
New Carlisle as a point of coraparisou for all Gaspesia we find 
the following difference : 

liainy clays Quanliiy of rain Snowy days Quanlily of mow' 

Montreal 42 days 43.57 inches 'iO days 20.80 inches 

New Carlisle 19 '• ' 7.46 " 4 " 9.00 '< 

DiUerenco '23 " 36 11 '« 16 " 11.80 " 

Quebec 20 '• 15.80 " 19 " 29.21 «• 

New Carlisle. 19 " 7.46 •• 4 <• 9.00 " 

I '• 8.34 •• 15 •' 20.21 " 

That is tf) say that during the three months of autumn, there 
were 23 rainy days, and 36.11 inches of rain, 16 snowy days 
and 11.80 inches of snow more in Montreal tlian in New Car- 
lisle. And we state this in a particular manner for those who 
do not believe that Bay des Chaleui's is warmer than Montreal 
which is evidently the finest part of the province of Quebec. 

The theimometer fell lowier than freezing point for the first 
time, on tlie following dates, at Carleton, 23rd September, 29 '^ 5* ; 
at New Carlisle, 2 October, 31 ■=■ 1 ; at Father Point, the 25th 
of October, 31 ® 3' ; at Quebec, the 14th of October,, 31 ® , at 
Montreal, the 20th of October. The first frost is felt but a few 
days sooner at Bay des Chaleurs than at Quebec and Montreal. 
These few days are well compensated by the quantity of rain 
which falls in the above mentioned places. 

Winter begins about the twentieth of November. This 
mouth, in particular the last days, is snowy and cold. Never- 
theless there are fine days in the beginning, as we have already 
mentioned in speaking of the Quebec summer. The tempera- 
ture of this month is generally finer in Bay des Chalem's than in 
Scotland and in England and less disagreeable than that in Paris 
and Berlin, where the indian summer is unknown. The first 
week of December is generally snowy, the remainder of the 
month is cold and fine, especially about Xmas. The weather is 
clear, pure and the air dry ; and all that amply compensates the 
cold which is not too extreme. It is wished for by those who 
work in the forest. There are a few exceptionnally cold day 
about the beginning of January, which are generally followed by 
a snow-storm ; but the temperature during the remainder of the 
month is not incommodious and does not surpass the usual 

— 61 — 

variations of the thermometer at this season. The sky is always 
clear, the sun brililant and tlie weather most agreable. The 
coldest days are felt about tlie first of February, which ia the 
most snowy. Towards the latter end of the month, the tem- 
perature gradually rises to 41 ® and sometimes to 45 ® . 
The mean temperature of the three months of winter is : 

December, January, Fabruary, Winter. 











Father Point 




14° 2' 

Capo Rozier 


1*2 2' 


13 04- 

Gaspesh l6o2' 

13 = 9' 

13° 9* 

15 ®0' 

Compased with the principal cities of Europe. 

London 39° 2' 

Liverpool 40° 5' 

Glasgow 3906' 

Edimburg 38® 4' 

Burlin 3l<=4' 

Paris 370 8' 

St-Potersburg 18© I' 

New-Carlisle 16° 9' 

Carlelon 15'= 6' 

Fathor-Poitit 1 4 « 2' 

Cape-Rosier 13° 4' 

These figures show the temperature of Gaspesia is lower than 
that of England or Scotland, but the cold is not so keely felt on 
accoimt of its dryness. In the above mentioned countries the 
themiometer does not fall as low as in the province of Quebec j 
but the humidity renders tlie weather raw and cold and very 
disagreeable, wheras here the weather is clear dry and agreable. 
Whatever may be the thinness of your clothes, as long as they 
do not let the wind pass through, you can bear the cold, were 
the thennometer lOo or 15« below zero. This fact is admitted 
by a great number of english writers who after having lived in 
England, for many years, came over to Canada to pass the 
remainder of their days. We will name a few. 

Mr. Anderson says : the cold in winter is intense ; but as the 
frost continues without interruption and as during this season 
the whether is l:>right, the air pure and dry and more healthy and 
agreable than in damp climates. There arc not more than three 
or four days, during the season that ship carpenters and other 
trademen are pi-evented from working by the cold. This is 
one of the most convencing and iiTcfutable proofs that Canada is 
not as cold comperatively to Great Britain, although the ther- 
mometer rises higher in the latter than in the former. During 
this season the weather is far brighter in Canada than in En- 



■1 ! 

,: ! 

^f V'^ 

— 62 — 

gland. When every thing is taken into consideration, the cli- 
mate of Canada is equally as agreeable as favorable to agricul- 
tural purj)Oses and far healthier than P^ughuid. 

" Grsiy, in writing about Canada says :. although the tempera- 
ture is lower, we sullbr less of cold than in Engknd. The wea- 
th;r is so dry and " 

According to Lambert, " fromXmas to the feast of Our Lady, 
the winter is nearly always remarked by the purity of the at- 
mosphere, which is bright and rarely dark'jied by fogs or clouds. 
The dry ard cold weather is very seldom interrupted by snow 
storms, hail and rain. All this makes the weather so agreeable 
and so ple5sant in Canada that we are never obliged to change 
our clothes. 

I'erhaps I. would astonish those who have heard so many tales 
about the cold in Canada, in saying that the i)eople of Great 
Britain suffer more from cold than we do." 
. The above quotations clearly shoW that we would be very 
much mistaken in judging the cold of our winters by tlie indica- 
tions of the barrometer and they prove that we suffer "less of 
cold here than the people of England and that the weather is 
finer. This can be said in particular of Bay des Clialeurs which 
*>8 regard its climate and temperature, is without doubt the finest 
part of this Province. The neighbourhood of the sea has a 
great influence on temperature, which it moderates and gives it 
a regularity which is not found in any other place. Then the 
Schickshock mountains, which break the north and northeas- 
tern wind, contribute a large part to the ameliomtion of the 
winter climates of this beautiful country. 

In 1880, the extreme temperatures were : 

Lowest Hif/heH 
December January February December January February 

Now-Carlisle...... 10=>5' '20"= 5' 18<=H' 36° 5' 43o5'"44'=5' 

Carletoii 6^0' 1 1 <= 8' IS'^O' 36 = 0' 39 = 0" 41 <= 0' 

Father-Foint 7° 2" 15<= 3' 20° 5' 35° 0' 37° 5' 43° 1' 

Montreal 806' 9°5'17°5' 40° 6' 43° 8' 51° 2' 

Quebec lOoQ' 9°0' 22°0' 33° 5' 40°0' 44°0' 

In 1.870, the thermometer fell in January to 28 ® at Mon- 
treal and to 26 '^ 7 at Quebec. The following year, it fell to 
28 '^ at Montreal, in February, and to 28 ^ 5 at Quebec, in the 
same month, which did not happen in Bay des Chaleurs, whose 
the winter temperature is higher than at Quebec and about 
equal with that of Montreal. The mean temperature, during the 

^63 — 

winter nontha was :at Montreal, in December, 15 ® 7 ; January 
22 o 4 ; February, 19 <= 9 ; winter, 21 © 5 ; at Quebec December 
14 ° I ; Jan. 17=4; Feb. U^S; winter, 16 ® 3. These ligures, 
compdr8e(' with tlie second last table, prove wliat we are after 
showing. The number of raining and snowing days as well as 
the quantity of rain and snow fallen are : 

Snniu Rain 

Docembor Jannuary February Docomber January February 

di/ inc dy inc dij inc dy inc dy inc dy inc 

Now-Carlisle 6 3 00 3 9.00 9 17.00 fl 00 Z light l" 0.32 

CnrlPtoii 7 9.50 12 .Ti.OO 6 18.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.20 

Fathor-Foint 14 13.90 17 2.^.50 12 17.00 0.00 I light 3 0.26 

Capij-rtosiHr. 3 14.30 6 21.40 7 0.1.00 1 light 4 0.89 2 0.27 

Monlrml ISl/.fiO II 16.30 16 36.00 2 0".2y 12 1.27 6 1.14 

Qut'hec 10 27.30 'iO 30.00 17 34.40 0.00 4 0.51 5 0.60 

For the wliole winter j 

Snow Bain 

dy inc dy inc 

Now-Cariisln 18 32.00 3 0.32 

Carleton 25 59.50 2 0.50 

Father-Point , 43 50.20 4 0.26 

Cape Rozier 16 98.40 6 1.16 

Quebec 53 92.30 9 1.10 

Montreal 45 59.90 20 2.70 

These figures clearly show that the winter is finer, less snow- 
ing and raining at Bay des Chaleiirs than at Moutrcial and espe- 
cially at Quebec, where there falls about the same quantity of 
snow as at Cape Kozier where the winter is felt the in 
Gaspeaia, The depth of snow at Carleton and New Carlisle is 
not more than three or four feet on the level. 

It has already been proved that there falls less snow in the 
south of Gaspeaia than in Montreal or Quebec. 

Tiie harvest season, (that is to say the interval of weather 
exempt from frost) is long enough to ripen the corn and to all ow 
it to be properly saved. This fact i.s shown in the following 
table, which is taken from the report of the Meteorological Board 
of Canada for the year 1880. - 

Last hYost v; - First Pi^ost Interval 

in Spring in Autumn wilhoul frost 

New-Carlisle 19mav28oi 2 October, 31 « 1' 135 days 

Carleton 14 "'24oO' 21 sept. 2905' 138 " 

Father-Point , 11 " 30° 0' 25 October, 32® 3' 152 <• 

Quebec..... 15 " 32^0' 14 " 31 oO' 152 " 

Montreal ler " 22© 9' 20 " 31° 3' 172 








.-64 — 

Although, at New-Carlisle, the s^iaaon exempt of frost i« the 
shortest, rieveitheless, it exceeds four months and a half. And 
this frost — the table shows it — is very light and harmless to 
gi-ain and otlier delicate plants. Tlie mercury scarcely falls to 
freezing point. The white frost does not make its apjKjaranco un- 
til later on. And, us a general rule, the harvest commences on 
the 26th of August, sometimes before, in certain places, so that 
the farmers have uore than a month and a half to save their 
grain before the hard frost and cold rains of autumn, whose first 
part is very fine. What more can farmers desire ? They have 
over five months tt) labor their land, and 1 may say six, because 
the frost, which falls during the month of May, does not harm 
the grain. 

Lot us complete the above in showing a table of the mean 
temperature of each month of tho year. 











Ueceiuber . 

Carlisle Caiielon Father- Point Cape-Rosier 

I60'i' I3«4' \d°d' ViOT 

lh<=>T 11 = 3' ri«6' 15° 8' 

1706' 1408' 13®0' 1506" 

3GO0' 30O5' 3003' 3i°.i' 

47° 8' 41 o 7' 43-= r 40O I' 

6908' 58«6' 5407' 5104' 

69° 8' G5<=r 570 5' 580 5' 

65© 5' 6O06' 5606' 50=>8' 

5808' 54<=7' 49=>«' 50©3' 

4601' 4'io4' 4I=>2' 3909' 

2707' 2O07' 26 09' 2707' 

190 3' 17-= 2' leo'r 12° 2' 

Year 40<=7' 35c»3' 34<»72' U^V 

The followfng figures show the temperature of each season 

Spring Summer 

Now Carlisle 48 ©2' 

Carlelon 48'= l' 

Fathw Point 42 "=7' 

Cape Hosier 29° 7' 

Quebec 49° !' 

Montreal 54 *= 

London 4f •= 

Liverpool 46® 

Glascow 45® b 

p]dimburg 45 oQ' 

Paris 50O6' 

Berlin 47® 4' 

St-Petorsburg 35® 9' 

64® 7' 
62 ® 7' 
55 o 6' 

j7- . 
5+0 r 
CO® 6 

43 ® 2' 
39® 3' 
38® 3' 

49 OK 
47® 9' 
52® 2' 
49® 2 
40® 3' 

1 \ o '2' 

•s r 

40® 5' 
39® 6' 
38® 4' 
31® 4' 
18® r 


40® 70' 
35® 93' 
34 ® 72' 
34 050' 
38® 78' 
43® 02' 
49® 60' 
48® 30' 
48® 60' 
470 10' 
51® 30' 
'18® 10' 
8 ©70' 

66 — 

The teinpemturofl ujiowii in tills tal>lo aro about the Siime, 
with the «;xception of that of winter wliich is the coldest, as 
tliose of ilie most inhnhitod pailaof Europe. Summer seaaon, 
at Buy (i 08 Chalcurs i.s reputed hy it.s mildnea, its regularity 
and suliibrity and attracts grout numbers of sick or dilapiilated 

It is well known that tlie summer temperature is higher in 
the interior on account of it Ijeing free from the sea- br(;oze 
which refreshed the temperature in the localities when the above 
observations wen; made. 

Now what proves the climate of Gaspesia to be good and fa- 
vorabh; to agricultural operations is that wheat grows well artd 
in all the parts of this country and ripens to perfection. At the 
first imiversal exhibition of Paris, an honorable mention was 
awarded to wheat grown in Gaspe county, wliicli, as regards the 
climate, is inferior to Bonaventure. Finally indian corn, which 
caimot be cultivated in (ireat Britain on account of the tempe- 
mtnre, is harvested in abundancx) in Gaspesia, which can be seen 
by the census of 1881. Another proof of the mildness of the 
climate is, that the melon and tcjmatoo grow in the fields ; both 
of these plants are very delicate and are very often grown in hot 
beds, but at Bay des Chaleurs, they do not require such care, 
on account of the mild temperature. Heat and min are the two 
principal agents which make the soil and climate favorable to 
agricultural productions. As regard the heat of the climate, we 
have already seen that tlie agricultural season of Gaspesia is 
wanner and preferable to that of the principal countries of Eu- 
rope. The following table will show that Gaspesia is m^t behind 
in rain. 

Number of rainy days and quantity of rain fallen in Qas- 
pesia, during 1372, for Cape Rosier, and 1880 for ike other 
localiti^^ : • , , ..^i 

Father Point. Cape Rosier. Now Carlisle. Carlelon. 


ds inc da inc ds inc ds ino 

January 00 4 0.89 1 0.06 1 0.05 

February 3 0.26 2 0.27 0.00 1 0.05 

March 0.00 5 3.66 4 1.92 5 2.41 

April ; 9 2.42 2 0.99 2 1.15 3 0.88 

May 16 2 64 6 3.01 « 2.22 3 0.85 

June 7 1.21 14 5.71 13 5.84" 15 6.44 


II m*JiiiM*«n!nFv«m 



Julv 12 'i.'iO 13 3.17 8 IM S '2.8'.' 

August 8 1.15 7 '2.fi6 7 3.23 9 1.08 

8H|,irnibi'r 20 4.3i 7 l.-iO 5 1.04 10 1.34 

October 16 4.77 I'i 'ZM 1 1,17 21 2 71 

November. 2 0,07 7 1.61 4 2.07 5 1.'20 

DeceiTiher 0.00 1 traces 1 0.20 0.00 

Yeor 94 19.04 80 20.05 60 20.94 71 19.80 

For each of the four seasons we find what follows, in Gaspesia 
and certain other locaJitieH : 

Spring Summer Auiuinn Winltr Year 

(Is inc ds inc lis inc ds inc (Is iiic 

NewCarasIe 9 2.58 24 4.77 19 7.4fi 3 0.32 55 15 13 

Corletoii 16 4.83 27 7.A1 '^0 11.27 2 0.20 74 23.79 

FallierPuinl 25 5.06 27 4.56 38 9.14 4 O.'iO 94 19.02 

Capo Hosier 13 7 66 34 11.54 26 5.69 6 110 79 26.05 

Quiihfc 5t 10.58 41 11,46 25 7.84 9 1.11 126 30.99 

Montreal 47 9,41 53 9,62 27 8.36 20 2.41 147 29.80 

Londun 4.00 6.00 6.'25 20.69 

Liverjjool 6,19 9.78 10.81 ,. '^ 34.10 

Glasgow 3.80 6,39 5.82 • ■••'' 21.33 

Ediiuburg 5.40 T.IO 8.90 * 28.03 

Pans 5.53 5.92 6.51 , 22.64 

Berlin 5-66 * 7.21 5.45 13.56 

St. Petersburg 2.89 6.73 5,11 ^ 14.73 

As may be seen by the foregoing tables, theie ia a similitude 
between the climate of Gaspe.sia and that of the most pepled and 
central places in Europe. 

The number of rainy days in Gaspesia is no more than lialf 
the number of those in Quebec or in Montreal, particularly in 
spring and autumn, which m.akes these seasons jn't'fprable for 
fanuingiu Gaspesia than in the di.stricts of Quebec and Montreal. 
It is impossible not to admit that the climate of Gaspesia is su- 
perior to that of any western part of the Provinc(i, when the 
number of rainy days are taken into consideration. During 1881 
there were 56 rainy days at. New Carlisle, 74 at Carleton, 12() 
at Quebec and 147 at Montreal. 

The following table will show the number of snowy days and 
the quantity of .snow fallen during spring, autumn and winter : 

— . Spring Autumn Winter Year 

days inc days inc days luc doys inc '■ 

New Carlisle 6 6.00 4 9.00 18*32.00 'J8 47.00 

Carlton 10 10.50 7 11.50 25 59.50 42 81.50 

Father Point 17 21.50 1121.82 43 56.50 71 99.«2 

Cape Rosier 14 51.60 7 4.'20 16 98.40 37 154.20 

Qut'bec 24 54 40 19 29.30 53 92.30 96 176 00 

Montreal 26 33.70 20 15,80 45 59.90 91 109.40 

^67 — 


The number of snowy days, during the year, was 28 at Few 
Carlisle, and 42 at Carleton, and at Montreal, 91 and at (Jiuebec 
96, or twice the number at Bay des Chaleurs. The quatitity of 
snow fallen was 47 inches at New-Carlisle, and 81.50 at Carle- 
ton, and 109.40 at Slontreal and 176 at Quebec, which clearly 
shows that during the snowy season the weather is finer in Gas- 
pesia than in either of the districts of Montreal or Quebec. 

The table altjo shows that there is a great difference between 
the teni])eraturt and the state of the atmosphere jf the northern 
and southern jxarts of Gaspesia. Towards the north, the inlluen- 
le of the ice, which comes in by the strait of Belle-Ile, accom- 
panied by north and noi't^astern winds, lowers the winter tem- 
perature and augments the quantity of snow, it also augments 
the cpid and dampness of the spring and autumn, by cold and 
damps cuiTcnts which are chaiucteristic to the northeastern wind. 
The northeasterri m ind is unknown in the south ; they are bro- 
ken by the Shickshock mountains which absorb their humidity 
and expell their cold. This is the reason why the eastern and 
western winds are only known in that region; the only rhumb 
which comes from the north is the northwestern and as this wind 
is necrly always partly south, it is very agreeable and moderates 
the temperature especially in summer. The following extract, 
w'nch is taken from Mr 8im's report, gives a good idea of the 
climate of Bay des Chaleurs and of the Metapedia valley : 

'• The country (which surrounds Bay des Chaleurs) produces 
all oorts of grains which grow in Lower Canada. Fogs are very 
rare hero. The snow falls about the end of October and the 
winter biegins towards the middle of November ; but the wea- 
ther is generally mild until the end of the montJi. The average 
depth of the snow is from five to six feet, it dissapears under the 
ardent rays of the x\pril sun and about the first of May the 
land is fit for ploughing, and eight days after the seed is sown. 
In the districts of Bay des Chaleurs and the Eistigouche river 
the wind is generally eastern or western ; squalls are very rare. 

The climate of this part of Canada, (the ]\Ietapedia valley, 
which is twenty miles from tlie St-l.awrence) does not differ 
much from that of Quebec, although it is cooler in summer. The 
piercing cold days are not so frequent here and nevertheless 
there is no soft or rainy weather during the winter. The snow 
falls about the 22nd of October ; but it does not remain more 
than two days. Tlieu comes a period of fine weather inten'up- 

'-:'. -T''^^ 

.■v.. ^:•■•:i 

- -rflr^.- 




, — 68 — 


ted by one or tyo snow storms, until the 21st of November, 
when the winter definitively begins. 

During ordinary winters, there falls from four to six feet 
of snow. The fields are bare on the 20th of April and the 
ploughing erimmences on the first of May. They sow rye and 
peas from this date until the 28th, oats at thd end of the month, 
and towards the end of June, l>arley and potatoes. The har- 
vest begins about the 25th of August and ends with the month 
of September, wlien the potatoe digging commences. 

The above more than proves that the (ilimate of Guapesia is 
all that may be wished for, and well adapted to agricultural 
operations and rich enough to procure the co. afoi-t of the inlia- 
bitants of this beautiful country. 



Gaspesia is surroun<led by a high road which, in general, is 
far superior to any other in the province. This road is some- 
what hillj in places, but it is hard and as fit for waggons as a 
macadamized one, We do not know anything finer than the 
part of this public road which crosses the Metapedia valley and 
winds along the shores of Bay des Ghaleurs and St. Lawrence 
gulf til] it reaches Gaspe village. We have travelled it for six 
weeks and have not been the least fatigued. The other part is 
not so good, especially the maritime road, but for all that it is 
very good for waggonning. In the most inhabited places, the 
government pays for the keeping of the road in order, it must 
be said that it is well kept. 

, Besides this great route, there are many others which are 
branched of into the interior where unfortunately a great number 
of settlers have made their homes in tlie heart of the forest. 
Their roads are also kejjt in good order, and we can safely say 
that as regards roads, Gaspesia is superior to nearly all the other 
parts of the province. The soil is so well drained, that the roads 
which are opened without much difficulty became dry and hard. 

In fact, there is but one railroad in Gaspesia, the Intercolonial, 
which crosses the Metaj edia and goes from north to south from 
the St. Lawrence to the Ristigouche, a distance of about one 
hundred miles. They are speaking of building a railroad brtiuch 

— 69 — 

which will start from the Intercolonial station, at Metapedia, or 
ia tlie neighbourhood of Campbellton, and run in direct linn 
through the south pait of this region, till it reaches Gaspe Basin, 
which makes a distance of about 180 miles. The company 
which has had itself incorporated to build this road has among its 
managers sojue prominent, and able and financial men who are 
well acquainted with railroad building. Tliey hav(i obtained 
from the Quebec government a subvention of 1,800,000 acres of 
land, and from the Federal government a subsidy of $3,200 per 
miles or $320,000 for the line between Metapedia and Paspebiac 
which is one hundred mOe long. These two subventions make 
a total value of $2,000,000 and should assure the execution of 
the enteiprit-e, which aj pears to have a very fine prospect. 

At the last legislative session at Quebec, there wa,s an other 
rail road Company incorporated to build a road in the northern 
part uf Gaspesia, (from some station on the iTitercolonial, bet- 
ween Rimouski and the Petit Metis, to Gaspe Bassin, in passing 
by Mataue, Cape-Chatte and Ste-Anne des Monts. This road 
will be about one hundred and eiglity miles long and will com- 
plete a web which will surround all Gaspesia and form abotit 
5C)v miles of rail n:>ads. 

But the inliabitauts of Gaspesia have other means of transport 
and communication which are as advantageous as rail roads : 
that is by water. They can easily transport small loads from 
one locality to the other with their barges and, in tlie ui>pcr part 
of Bay des Chalours from their residences tf) the Intercolonial 
stations, which are all along tlie south shore of the bay t<j Ba- 
thurst. This method of transport is not very expensive near- 
ly as speedy iis carting on a high way with horses. On the 
north and east coast they use sciiw-'.ners for large transjiortationa, 
which make a considerable tratlic and constitute tlie common 
method of transport and exchange of natural pnxluoes for mer- 
chandise between these localities and Quebec or other comuier- 
cial ceuteis where the produce of (Jaspesia is buught. 

The nine-tenths of the fish prodi*(^ are sold to ships coming 
from Europe. These ships take their cargoes at Gaspe, Pera^ 
and Paspedi.'K!, which are safe ami commodious ports, especially 
those of Paspediac and Gaspe. The latter is at the end of the 
bay Irom which it takes its name and can easily harbour a fleet 
of 1000 ships. There are wliarves where ships of a deep draw 
can be moored witliout any fear of touching the bott(.)m. Thei-e 
are also good wharves at PaspecUac, but the water is not so deep. 



— 70 — 

Tliere is no wharf at Perce, but the ships can easily be loaded 
aud unloaded by means of flat boots. The same thing can be 
done iil Anse du Cap and Port Daniel &c. There is a fine 
wharf at Carleton for vessels of a small draw and Ti-acodigetche 
bay oflers an excellent }>ort to largo vessels which cannoc bt^ moo- 
red at Carleton. As regards navigation of Bay des Chaleurs, it 
is the sui'est and best, because sliips pass in the middle and are 
not obstructed by islands, rocks &c. 

There are two lines of steamers which traffic between Gaspe- 
sia and Quebec : the Quebec and Campbellton lines. The for- 
mer puts the ports of Gaspesia. as far as Pera^,, in direct com- 
munication with Quebec, Montreal and the towns of Nova Sco- 
tia. The latter travels between the localities of Bay des Chaleurs, as 
far as Gaspe, and the Intercolonial at (Campbellton. The govern- 
ment pays for the tra:isport of the mail. The steamer of this 
line generally makes two trips in the week and that of Quebec 
two per month. The little steamer (beaver) which belongs to 
Mr Fj-aser, at Quebec merchant, traffics between Quebec and the 
lower ports of Gaspesia. 

As we have seen, the inhabitants of Gaspesia are noti- want 
of means of communication, and the transport is not very expen- 
sive. It is true that this accomodation lasts but six months in 
the year, but this inconvenience will dissapear when the Bay 
des Chaleurs Eail road will be built. Nevertheless, the Inter- 
colonial which is not far distant from tlie greatest number of 
the inhabitants of Gaspesia, keeps up a regular commurication 
with all the principal cities of Canada. 

.:■■'•-'■ ':\£^''W'P^f- ■- CHAPTEE X '., •, 






''lie exterior commerce is reserved to the ports of Gaspe, Per- 
ce id New-Carlisle, or Paspebiac. It is at these ports (and at 
their inteijor depending ports) that importations and exporta- 
tations of Gaspesia are inscribed. These of the north are regis- 
tered at Quebec or Pinnouski and it is nearly impossible to dis- 
tinguish them and give the exact and complete statistics of the 
exterior north commerce. The following figures belong to the 

71 — 

Tahli of iinpor^atiovs and cxportations^ Inj sea 7iavigatio7i, 
to and froai tJui 'ports ofGaape and NiyiV'Carliale, from 1851 to 











e 53.351 

% 80,101 

« 53.679 $221,836 $107,030 














































































' U26 






























This tabic shows the followmg increases, during that period of 
16 years. Gaspe Vovt importatioiLs 304 pi>r cent, or 19 i)er 
cent, per year ; exportations, 208 per cent, or 13 per cent per 

New Carhslc Port — importations, 170 per cent, or 10.1 per 
cent, per year ; exportations, 223 per cent, or 14 per cent, per 
year ; 

Both Ports — impoitations 237 per cent, or 15 per cent, per 
year ; exportations, 223 per cent or 14 per cent per year. 

These figures show as constjint and a more consiilerable in- 
crease tlian in the other parts of the province. 

For 1861, tiiese totals give for each person of the counties of 
Gaspe and Bonaventuro 828.19 of exportations |17.22 of im- 
poi^ations. For 186,1 which -nevertheless shows a certain dimi- 
nution, the figure of exjxwtiitions is $25.24 and that of impor- 
tations of $12.4g per head. For all the Province, during 1867, th 
figure of exportations was |20.68 per head and that of impor- 
tations §29.85, whicli gives in favor of Gaspesia excess of exitor- 
tations amounting to 4.56 per head, and a decease of !$16. 
37 of importations per head. i' ■ - ■ :• ,, 


■ -■- . T/Mi,Jx>'iavm'f^Jtr,'txJii!i*'r,f'4iittaiii4si'i\^ 

72 — 

The articles of exportations and iiiiportjitions and also their will be seen is the following lists which give detailed state 
of the commercial movement is Gaspe Port during l»bl. 

ExportatiovH QuantU}/ 

Dry and smoked fish ^t^'IS ''T,*'' 

Salt finh S^"""* 

Fresh " ••";■•; „ 

Fish oil 44.47-1 gall. 








Total ^6t)3,70O 

Fish sold in the country : 

Cod fish $55,362 

Herring ^^7,508 

Salmon and Tront 19,623 

Mackerel 2,61J) 

Oysters 1,932 

Oil """" 



Total value of sold fish- $843,183 

Bark Canoes 7 3 

Barley 1 ,1 04 bushels 669 

Butter 140 lbs "^ 

jDggs 184 doz 


Flower 15 brls 

Green fruits 

Furs and SkiuB 8,676 

Grinding stones 128 




Horses 1 ^ 

Skins 2,113 

Lard 200 lbs 40 

Meat 98 

Oxen 2 40 

Minerals 1^2 

Chalik -to 

Divers objects 5iJ 

Totel $.55,652 

The exported fish was sent to the following foreign places : 

Exported articles j^f.fiain 

Dried and smo. Ush..f 103,368 
Sailed 12,854 

" Fresh 

Fish oil.... 11, M8 

" F. skins 

EngUsli Colonies 
N. America W . Indi, 









$ 664 






Total Z^l.mO 133.640" 170 114,835 287,295 

— 73 




The general table of exportaticiis $855,652, includes those of 

N. Carlisle and the value of the articles sent from this ports 

to the other parts of the province, which explains the diiference 

- between thise figures and those which are given for 1861 in the 

large tahle of exportatious via the sea to foreign countries. 

The principal objects of importations are : 

Flour 29,068 barils $145,240 

Meats 2,469 " 39,262 

Biscuits... 4,426 ",^ 16,916 

Merchandise — articles of novelty .. ' . ■ ' 16.561 

Hardware ■ f '";^ • 15,876 

Woolen goods .- — \,. ■ --v 10,466 

Tea : • • - ^ ^^ - : v':; 10,683 

Butter 65,480 lbs 7,936 

Salt ll,tUOba-s : 5,776 

Tobacco.... 34,974 lbs 5,792 

Leather, wine &c 105,694 

|l't:;:p 1-. In all.. ..!... ..I.'..... :...... 8380,201 

From 1867, the commercial table of Gaspesia seems to show 
a constant diminution, lliis diminution is only apparent and 
is well explained by known a circumstances. Before the (Jon- : 
federation, all the commerce that was made between Gaspesia. 
Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, was very naturally com- 
mitted with exterior c( mmerce because these two :M-o'\'inces did 
not then belong to Canada. Since the Corifedera. io:" the duties 
and cojumercial restrici ions which existed betwei. these pro- 
vinces and us were aboji.shed, and all the commerce that is ; 
transacted between them and Gaspesia is considered interior C; 
commerce, which diminislies the figures of commercial exporta- 
tion and importations in the ports of Gaspe and Bay des ('I.aleurs, 
At present, a gi'eat quantity of fish whicb used to be directly 
exported, is sent to Halifax where il is sliipped to foreign coun- . 
tries rso that tlie figure of these importations are found in the 
registers of Halifax port instead of in those of Gaspesia. 

-Another cause which appearingly diniini.shes the figure of 
importations, is tbe line of steamers and the Intercolonial rail 
road, At first there was the line of the Quebec and Gulf ports 
steamers, which had for many years three steamers running 
between Quebec and the ports of Bay des Chaleurs. Shortly 


. t 

— 74 — 

after the Beaver, wbich belongs to M. A. Fraaer, entered the 
same line. Finally, the Intercolonial rail road a few yeara ago 
opened commerce between Quebec and Bay des Chaleura port.?. 
These new jueans of transport have made a revolution in the 
.commerce of the greater part of Gaspesia, and at jn'esent, all the 
articles of consummation, which were directly imported, from 
foreign places to the ports of New Carlisle aud (ia3i)o are bought 
at Toronto and Montreal and are .sent down by rail or boat, 
which diminishefi the figures of importations and exterior com- 
merce. Tliere is a great deal of commercial transaction.s done with 
other great cities, but their names are not on the list of importa- 
tions to Gaspe and New Carlisle ports. 

Thus is the apparent commercial diminution explained. 

■ , V Gaspe New Carlisle Perce Total 

Ex-port. Impor. Export. Pnporl. Kcport. Import. Export. Import. 






























■■ '■ • 




4 13, .397 



























325, .529 




73 4,, 500 

























6 1 .200 





313 821 



99. 1 1 7 


























420 189 






It is evident that the importations will diminish or remain sta- 
tionary at these three ports, unless they be put in conmiunica- 
tion with the principal cities of the interior, by a rail road bran- 
ching off the Intercolonial, which would only be the continuation 
of the Intercolonial along the shore of Bay des Chaleur-i, as we 
will see further on. 

Tlie two following lists which are taken from the Report of 
tlie Marine & FisheHes Department for 1871, will give a good 
idea of the commercial movement at the Caspe and New-Carlis- 
le ports. 


t''-V!t."'.t.:M\'StiK'-/r'-:' ■' 

— 75 

Table of expoiiations and the number of ships registered at 
ifieir ayniial and dejxtrture frora tlie pmi of Gaape dunnrj 

Species of [ixk Ikxlinulion Quuniity 

Dry co-J llsli owls- England fi,91J 

do do Soulh AmtTJca '8,21-^ 

Uo do Brazil 'i,!M3 

do do Bahia 1.463 

do , do Naples 8,981 

do do Oporto 1,748 

do do West liiiiies 16,158 

do <lo Uiiitod iSlaUs 347 

(00,735 ^wts.) 

Oreoii lish do Baihaiios 

do do Naples 

do do Soulh Aaiericu 

do do Oporto 

do do Ei.gliind 

(595 twlsj 

Salmon bis United Stites 2 

do do BarJjados 2 

dp do Eiiglaiiil 3 

(7 brls) 

llfiTiiig do Knglund 1,734 

do do Napto? 3oO 

,40' do Soulli America 181 

4# do" West luil 4G9 

do do" United States 2,643 

(5377 bris) 

Smoke! Herring bis... United Stales 18 






Fish oil 
Seal skins 


.Englum' 35,828 



f 28,430.00 



64,500 00 




1 ,388.00 








( .050 00 




5 00 


Tititil value 







The foregoing statement is as coiTect as possible according t-» 
the information which the merchants and others gave us. The 
mentioned value shows the mean valtie at Oa.spe. This state- 
ment does not show there al exportation, because besides finh &c., 
exported to foreign countries, our merchants buy a great quantity 
of dry cod fish and ship it during the winter from Halifax to the 
West India Islands and Brazil ; besides a great quantity of 
whale oil and green fish, is sold in Quebec and in Montreal. \ 
Besides this, we estimate that by the of several shi])s, there 
will remain more than 20,000 cwts of dry hsh this winter, iu 
Gaspe port. 

" It is hard to procure the details of the importjitions, but their 
value can be estimated with safety to $132,000 for the current 


year, and this amount would be still greater, were it not for the 
lo83 of a ship, which sailed for this j^ort with a general cargo. A 
great number of articles (such as boots, .shoes &c.) which are 
consumed in this port and which were formerly imported from 
England, are now imported from ditfereiit parts of the Domi- 
nion. We (janriot form a true estimation of the articles whicli 
are bought in other parts of the Dominion, nor of the coasting 
trudo becau30 it is not kept count of in the custom house ; but 
two or three years ago, the value of coasting traJe that entered 
this port was $286,000. At that time New-Brunswick and No- 
va Scotia did not belong to the Dominion ; but the importa- 
tions of these provinces were not of much value nu the above 
amount represents nearly in entire the value and produces and 
manufactured articles coming from Quebec and Ontario, or of 
merchandises imported by Canadian merchants. 

TJie following table shows the qunntity awl valtie of fish ex- 
ported from Oaape port in 187 ly and the countries to which 
fish was sent : ■.;■.- •. ,. .■:; •: 

from where Ihey caine 
and where Ihey tvenl 

Arrival Deparlure 

Ex; portal ions 

■ !- With 


United Kingdom... '21 

N. B. Amer.oa Co- 
lynies „ 4 




a Nature of oar^o 




West Indies. 



Dry li^^li v\vi< 


Griion " liris 


Fish oil galls 


Staves IViot 


Sawt'd lumber 

■ •• •••*•• 

Diverse Mdse 

Dry cod tish cwls 


Sawed timber 

Divease Mdse 

Drv Cod lish 


Green " bi-ls 


Sawed wood 

Diverse Mdse 



Spain .3 3 Dry uod lii^h cwts 

Portugal 8 3 do do.. 

Italy 16 ...... do do.. 

Brazil 2 1 6 do do.. 











36, 22^ 




1 lV,;{i"2 



46 10 48 

Total $673,959 

The tonnage of the ocean ships, at New Carlisle and Gaspe port 
is shown in the following J^le : 




Yeart Entered 

Suited out 



Sailed out 

1861 85 (1.939 







1852 44 5,106 







1853 51 4,924 







1854 41 4,663 







1855 55 5,133 







1856 62 7,294 







1857 61 6,739 







1858 65 5,817 







1859 50 5,228 







1860 69 6,304 







1861 357 26,841 







1862 305 24,255 








1864 95 9,481 







1865 35 4.926 


1866 279 23.313 







1867 133 11,471 



115 10,265 



Tho following details will show the number of vessels that 
iutered the ports of New Carlisle and Gaspe in 1861 and from 
where they came, to where they sailed and the number of th.ii- 
crew : 


Gaspe port. 

From what country. No, of ships. Tonnatje. No. of men. 

United Kingdom 39 5,419 342 

Nova Scotia. 147 7,761 1,000 

New Brunswick 64 5,237 483 

Newfoundland 12 1,089 75 

Prince Edward 28 1,287 153 

United States 47 3,734 299 

Brazil 1 268 12 

Spain 15 1,484 106 

Breme 1 ■ 150 8 

Norway «.... 2 512 24 

.._ Totals 356 26,941 2,502 


-t*- -* f J - 




New-lirunHwick . 
Prince Edward.. 





Grand total. 


























The departures tire given in the folluwiug tjiblc : 


To Number of vesseh 

Unitt;d Kingdom 6 ' 

United States 50 

Portugal 1 

Si)ain 19 ^V 

Nova Hcotia 112 

New Brunswick 32 . 

Newfoundland 15 ■ 

Prince Edward 32 ' 

Italy 13 

Brazil 6 




Number oj mm 






!■• ' 








i 86 ,, 






68 . 




United Kingdom 14 

New Brunswick 1 





Grand total 411 







In analyzing this table, we see that the maritime commerce 
which frequented the ports of Gaspesia, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and P. E. Island, form the following proportion : 


Cominfj in — 245 vessels, or 65 i)er cent of the total uuinl>er, 
and 14,808 ton, or 43 per cent of the total tonnage. 

Going out — 177 veasela, or 43 per cent of the roUU number, 
'inU 9.4 If) tons, or 34 per cent of the toUl tonnage. 

From 180)8, these figures w(!re not connected m the registers of 
Gaspe port, because the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova 
Swjtia and Prince Rhvurd Island, belonu to the Confederation, 
sinc-e 1874. Neverthele«s this maritime monvemont has always 
continued, and has been increased, although it is not registered 
in the Custom House. 

Let us complete those figures by the navigation table from 
1808 to 1882. ,;■ 


Arrived Ikpartfd Airivnl iJeparliui * Arrived Deimrled 
• No Ton. No Ton. No Ton. No Ton. No Toa No Ton, 

1868 39 5,105 31 3,315 48 6,508 53 6,491 

1869 43 6,339 40 5,36124 7,452 61 8,083 

1870 58 6,894 54 6,626 66 8,712 64 7,468 ' •'" ' 
187154 7,847 46 6,890 59 7,983 66 8,432 '" • . '' 

1872 58 8,322 50 7,831 55 8,628 70 6,372 

1873 46 8,86146 7,313 58 7,89177 9,818 18 2,089 111174 

1874 41 8,883 47 9,179 42 7,900 52 9,255 18 1,578 10 1,070 

1875 40 9,109 42 ir471 39 6,470 55 9,143 8 862 8 862 

1876 38 8,044 34 7,769 45 6,320 54 7,257 13 2,511 9 1,599 

1877 42 10,802 43 9,717 45 6,180 57 8,310 17 2.641 13 2,690 

1878 34 5,759 34 0,079 55 9,150 72 12,098 14 1,876 8 891 

1879 35 4,926 36 5,008 55 10,153 66 11,408 9 751 8 765 

1880 38 7,858 40 7,586 38 5,892 47 6,644 15 1,931 7 719 

1881 32 7,363 42 7,953 31 6,395 55 9,660 14 1,624 7 664 

1882 32 6,466 38 8.208 37 5,937 64 11,286 11 1,700 4 701 

Pera^ Port was established in 1873. The above figures de- 
note the number of vessels doing exterior maritime commerce. 
The coast trading with the ports which now occupy our atten- 
tion, is more considerable as will be seen by the following table, 

for 1882. ^ r'^ ■■/'■■■' ■ . -^■.i,^^: . :..^. '■■■/.: 

The list of ships employed m coast trading with the ports of 
•Gaspe, Perce and New Carlisle. 


Transacting Nvmber Tonnage Coast trading Registered Tonnage 

Arrived : 88 37,104 124 44,217 

Departed 73 20,093 132 47,770 

Totd 161 66,197 256 91,987 





SAILING 8HIPS . / ^ '' 

Arived...^ 120 6,487 204 ; H,3^^ 

Departed 119 5,0l58 i ;tfft : ,: ^ 9,557 

Total........ 239 11.555 400 ! 20,916 . ;. 

St,am 161 68,197 ^ l84« . : ' ^]f^ K 

Grand Total 400 67,752 656 ; 112,903 | 

In adding the coast trading commerce to that of the exterior 
we find the following maritime commorcial movement of th 
three ports of Gaspe, Perc^ and New Carlisle : :. 


.; '■^•' ,' - . " 1^0. of vessels. Tonnage. 

' ' ' Arrived 616 113,330 . 

■ V Departed 626 • lH.t^SS 

These different table.s show that the commerce of Gaspesia is of 
great importance. Nevertheless the importations in fish 
ftione. Sometime there are a few car;4oes of mixed goods— fish, 
shingles, grain and other articles, which are imported to the East 
Indias; but fisli is the principal article exported. These mixed 
cargoes are always sold at high piices in the markets to which 
they are destined. The small vessels that take such cargoes 
generally trade with the merchants of the East Indias and bring 
hack quantities of molasses, yugar and otiier produces which sell 
well in Canada, 

It is ivident that these cargoes would be unloaded at Gasi^e 
and K.w vOarlisle, if diese ports were in communication by mean 
(^f a rail road with the great centers of commerce u: the int r'or 
This'^road which would branch on to the Intercolonial in the en- 
Mrous of Matapedia or Cainj ^belion, would also result in crea- 
ting an immene commercse of exj.ortation by the ports of Gaspe 
and in particular by that of New-Carlisk-, which we will see 
further on. hy tiiisToad, navigation on the St- Lawrence, Avhich 
is more or les8 dangerous between Quebec and Anticosti can be 
avoided, without talking into consideration, that navigation 
open.} a month later at New-Carlisle than at Quebec. In taking all 
these *hings into consideration, it is evident that if this vail road 
was built, which would be noUiiug more than a prolongation of 
the I. C. R. Pi., New-Carlisle wonld become one of the most 
impoitant 3ea-po)(s of the Province. 

— 81 



To place the Province of Quebec on the Stoine rank as the 
United -States, it would re(iuire u permanerit sea port town that 
would be accessil>le durinsj; summer arid winter. During the 
fornier season, our beautiful St-Lawrenoe is without a rival and 
uffem the greatest advantages for the exportation of the western 
agricultural produces ; but aa soon as the winter begins, the 
Quebec and Montreal ports arc bl<)cked with ice, immense quan- 
tities of produce coming from the west rii'e sent by rail to the 
sea ports of the United-States, That is to say our rail roads 
loose a great deal of the western traffic, because we have not a 
winter sea port town. '' 

Well, we have tliis winter port at Paspebiac in Biy des Cha- 
leurs, and alx)ut one hundred miles of a railroad, would assure Uf. 
of iill the advantages of this port. Contrary to the erroneous 
idea, which unfortunately is widely spread, the navigation of 
Bay des Chaleurs, — which may be called the Canadian Mediter- 
ranean — does not otter the least serious obstacle tx) navigation 
during tlie winter, at least on the side of the Province of Que- 
bec. As far as l'asj)«')iac, and even further towards tne w est, 
the surface of the water is always clear of ice and does not show 
any obstruction to a staling vessel and much less to a steamer. 
There is no ice In the Gulf between Bay di3S Chaleurs and New- 
foundland, that could hinder navigation. A steamer can sail 
between Liverpool and Paspebiae during the four seasons, with- 
out any diiIiculLy« They who have any doubt about this 'port 
can read the i-eport made in 1874, by a special commitee named 
to incp.i'-e into the shortest and l^est route. " for the conveyance 
of the ^i.Al and passengers bet^veen Canada and P^urope, and to 
find an the Canadian shores a [-oiC that would be accessible in 
summer and winter. This committee was presidini by the Hon. 
Mr lloliitaille, actually lieutenant governor of Quebec and at 
that time deputy of B>)na venture. After havij^g obtained the 
opinion of a gi'eat number of the most competef.t men, the com- 
mittee made the following rcj«urt aljoui Paspediac 

** Port Paspebiac, which is situated oxf the north coast of Bay 

'■i 11 '■:.i ■ ' ..- .:%:' : 


— 82 



ties Chaleui's, possesses all the advantages of a first class port, be- 
cause it is acc(^ssible in winter. 

" In examining the advantages and inconveniences of this port 
your committee thought it advisaltle to study the navigation of 
the St-Lavvrence Gulf. 

" According to testimony of colonel Farijana, based on care- 
ful hydrogiaphic studies, the south and west ports are navigable 
during winter.* 

" It lins been shown to your committee that the polar ice 
In'ought into the Gulf by the strait of Belle-lie floats to the north 
east of Anticosti with a swiftness of half a mile an hour ; that 
the ice of the St-Lawrence runs down the south side of the same 
island with a rapi<lity of two miles an hour; that the current of 
the river is so strong that it forces tlie ice to take the direction 
of the south side of Newfoundland and leaves the southern and 
eastern parts of the Gulf clear of ice. 

The testimony of Colonel Farijana is favorable to Paspebiac 

'■ The Gulf of St. Lawrence, being na\ igable in all seasons, says 
he, it is evident that Paspebiac is the i.iost advantageous. Its 
geographical position puts it under the controle of the Canadians 
It is nearer the great centers of Canada than Halifax or 
Louisburg. It is preferable, in a commercial point of view, be- 
cause the trip ])y rail would be shorter and less expensive. 
It is well to remark that this testim ony of Colonel Farijana is 
not only based on theoretical studies, but also on ]iractical expe- 
rience. Indued, this gentleman navigated the Gulf and Bay des 
Clialeurs during the winter. During the Trent affair, in 1861, 
he passed the winter as a hydrographic engineer, on board of the 
man of war vessel Mdiich the americau government had cruising 
in the Gulf during the winter, to hinder the southern ve.ssels 
from taking refuge thereto run the commercial ships of the 
no th. The ship? on wliich Colonel Farijana w{i.s comma 'er 
cruised in the Gulf with the same ease as if it were in summer, 
which proves that the imaginary ditticulty of which we have of- 
ten spoken is nothing more than a dream whose inanition is easily 
shown. I'he winter navigation will be as easy as the summer one. 
Some time ago it xsas said that the Gulf was not navigable in 
summer ; but experience has proved the contrary and the twenty 
two lines of st'';-mer8 which sail from Quebec to liveri)ool 
testify that the gulf is one of ths I v^st iinf s .of oceanic naviga- 
tion that can be imasined. 




But the. navigation of Bay des Clialeurs is still easier. There 
are no islands, no rooks or no saubars upon which a ship might 
run and nearly everywhere a ship can move within a tew 
acres of the shores and in fine, the navigation is the same as on 
high sea, with the exception that tlie waves and wind are not so 
Strong. Let us remark that in passing by Bay des Chaleurs they 
avoid the dangerous current of the Bay of Fundy, Cape Sable, 
Sable island, and othvsr dangerous jilaces which cause so many 
shipwrecks to tlie vessel coming to and g(jing from our ports. 
This consideration alone ought to be enough to prove the supe- 
■ riority of the Bay des Chaleurs route. iv ,,^ :• ; 

Buttheieis another v/ nore importance ;the shortening of the 
route between Canada ana Great Britain. In taking Montreal as a 
point of comparison we find the fiillowiug results : 

From Liverpool to Pa^pcblac by sea 2,500 miles 

From Paspebiac to Matapedia via B. Ciialeurs 

R. lioad, now building 101 miies •• 

From Matapedia te the Chaudiere Junction, 

via Lit^itfoluiiial 294 " 

Frouj the Chaudiere Junction to Montreal, via 

G. Trunk 163 " 568 " 

From Liverpool to Montreal, via Paspebiac 3,068 " 

From Liverpool to Halifax, via navigation 2,480 miles 

From Halifax to the Chaudiere Junction \ ia 

Intercolonial 680 miles 

From the Chaudiere Junction to Montreal, via 

G. Trunk 163 " 843 

From Liverpool to Montreal, via Halifax 3,328 

From Liveropol to Portland, via navigation — (1) k\790 miles 

From Portland, to M ontreal, via G. T Sf9i ^* 

From Liverpool to Montreal, via Portland 3,093 " 

(1) Sanford Fleming's figures. 

That is to say that the Paspebiac route is 25 miles shorter 
than that of Portland and 255 shorter than that of Halifax. 

In taking the mean time of the steamers and jiassengera train 
we find the following iigi us : 




— 84 

Sea ■ Lund Total 

By Panpebiac 156.25 22.75 179.00 ;; 

" Portland 174.75 12.00 186.75 - ; 

" Halifax 155.00 33.75 188.75 

Tho Paspebiac route is 7.15 liours shorter than tliat of Port- 
land and 9,15 hours ,shovt«3r than that of Halifax, ^hich is of 
great iriijorlance to passengers and the mail. '.■ '■ ■ 

Port Paspebif.c occnpies an exceptionally advantageous posi- 
tion ill every point of view and it is of tlie greate.'it importance 
in svint'.'r as wdl as in summer, to put it in a constant communi- 
cation with the great cities of Canada, in order to keep up the 
traffic on our Canadian railroads, which at ]iresent is sent to tlie 
U. S. ports by auierican roads. To have this traffic in our coun- 
tries a railroad between Paspebiac; and Matapedia (a distance of 
a hundred miles) must be built. 

In a transconunercial and interprovincial point of view, this 
B. des (Jhaleui's railroad is absolutely necessary and its construc- 
tion will allay a great want. 

It will open a new .sea port town to the western provinces, 
and in particular it will open Uj the various produces of Bay des 
Chaleurs, the markets of Quebec, Montreal, Toronto and Wini- 
peg. At present, a gi'cat ijart of the sea lish, which is cousu 
med in the provinces of Quebec, Citario and IVIaiutoba, comes 
from the U. States. In 1882, these importations amounted tv 
7,500,253 lbs or 3,753,56 .ous, and $288,559 for the three pro- 

The following list will give the quantity and value imported 
to each of the jirovinces. 

Codfish, sharpi'r 




nw\ pik>'...I.Gi)!,7IG lbs $7i, 3')fi 3,;S7,4?.0 lbs 5;|-2J,-2'.)'J lO'i.GG;) lbs S'2,59S 

Hin-ririfjs GJH.iyO •• 

Mackerel 13.3,8>^5 " 

Diverse Fish. 0,577 " 



5 if) 


88,72 7 '• 
1!),0G:3 •■ 

'2,GV- 4(1, Gi) ■• 
y(i<) 4'J,<)Gi) " 
I,'28G •• 

4,;i<;i s..s;is •• 

14,o(K; :1(),'275 " 
$61,405 '244.897 •' 


Lobsi'r. ....... 5.S0fi •' 

Saimuii '225,.309 '• 

97,;i4G '• 

80 i 
3,11 '2 

Total a,7'2.3,i02 " 




A great quantity of the abo\'e was taken in our fisheries, and 
sent to the amevican markets atid then s^ld to us. Why should 
we buy our own goods from strangers ? All valuable fish, in 
particular salmon, abound in Bay des C!haicurs and the waters 
v/hicl. surround Gaspe.sia, what is needed, is a convenient and 


1 ,70G 

80 i 

Speedy method of ti-ausport. Well, as we have already $aid, the 
Bay des Chaleurs rail road and the Intercolonial will supply 
this want and then wt can do th^ biisino.s.s ourselves ; we also 
can hav^e cheaper and larger quantities of tish. In particular we 
require this road to send imiijense quantities of dry and salted 
fish to the ever growing population of Manitoba and the North 
West. Before niaiiy years, our fishermen of Gaspesia will have 
a large market \vhich will pay well in their own country. That 
will comjensate the lack in trade which exists between them 
and Europe, where the norwegian fishermen, who a few years 
ago learned how to save the cod fish, are making a strong 
opposition to our canadiarj fishermen. And as soon as this road 
would be opened to our {isheries, it would be easy to keep us in 
fish, because our fisheries "an produce more fish than they do 
now. ... 

The Bay des CWialeurs rail "'"•nd would be a national enter- 
prise. In the first place it ^ iriake our fisheries be highly 
considered by the exterior .;ndly it should give considerable 
traffic to the Intercohmial a.^d the Great Canadian l*acific l\aii 
Eoad, both of which were built by the government as a national 

The future of the finest part of Gaspeiiia depends on this R. 
Road. In America, colonisation does not advance without the 
help of railroads, and the region that neighbours Bay des Cha- 
leurs and the Gul"' of 3t. Lawrence, alth(*ugh richly undo wed 
by nature, in its climate and soil and will not escape this unvari- 
able law of prt.gres^. Let us build Bay des Chaleurs R. Road, and 
before many years the population of Gaspesia will be more than 
100,000 souls it.^ agricultuiul and forest riches v ill be explo- 
red and help' a gi'eat deal to importation; commercial centers 
will rise and progress will be iclt allthrough Gaspesia which will 
take the rank that it has a just c^xim to amongst the highest and 
most flourishing regions, not only in the Province of Quebec 
but also in all Canada. Till the present day, the agricultural 
population (.>f Bay des Chaleurs has grown by the surplus of 
births over deaths, and it is so true tliat yon connot find more 
than one hundred of the farmers who were not born in the 
the country. It will be otherwise when a railroad will run 
alorig the shore. The vine laud over which it will cross, will be 
better known, the agricultural produces will be sent to nuir- 
ket in the winter as well as in summer, and then agri- 
culture will ofier so many advantages, that it will attract a 







— 86—., 

great number of coluiusts. The immigrant of Europe will be 
able to settle doMu there with the gi'eatest of ease and will un- 
doubtedly be followed by their friends and relations. The suc- 
ces that they will obtain will encourages others to follow them. 
What is presently going on along the Intercolonial, in the Meta- 
pedia valley, gives us a good idea of what would be done in the 
richest and most advantageous region crossed by the Bay des 
Chaleurs 11. Road. 

New Carlisle would become, before many years, one of our 
principal sea port towns, and it is tlien that the Bay des Cha- 
leurs 11. Road would be one of the moat important Unes in the 
Provinces. It is only a question of time. Let this national 
railroad be endowed by the government with a large subsidy and 
then let its promoters show it ahead. Let the fedeial and local 
government not forget that : this road will give an extraordinary 
impulse to the colonization of Gaspesia, it will procure the ad- 
vantage of a winter sea port, able to rival with Portland in every 
respect, without considering that it is nearer to Liverpool Iwhere 
large quantities of western agricultural produces are exported. 



Gaspesia is divided into judiciary districts, county and local 
municipalities. The counties of Bonaventure and Gaspe form 
each a judiciary district distinct from that of the region which 
lies within the limits of Rimouski. The seat of justice belon- 
ging to the district of Gasjxj is at Perc^, where th(3re is a court 
house and all the officers of the court, with the exception of the 
judge who, in violation of the law does not reside there, and on- 
ly goes there during the assizes. The seat of ju..>tice belon- 
ging to the district of Bonaventure is at New Carlisle. We 
must praise the Gaspesians for their conduct, and. in the mean- 
time say that the court officers are not much troubled by them. 
The counties of Gaspe and Bonaventure have good lawyers who 
can scarcely live by their profession. 

The county municipality is administrated by the county 
council, which is composed of the mayors of the local municipa- 
lities. Tlie president of the council is the county prefect. This 
council sits only when there is important business to be tran- 
sacted that concerues the general interest of the county. There 




— 87 

is a Council for each of the countios of Boufiventuvo and Go'^pe, 
and the remainder of Gaspesia is ruled by the adiuiniatrative 
council of Eimouski coimty.'T.'' '" ,. . -, ^ ,: ; tJI. " 

The local municipality, that is to say the pariah ip adminis- 
tered by seven councellors, whose president is called the mayor, 
they are elected by* /Jie pariali tax-payers. This comicil sees 
after^^the roads at the local administrations. In 1880 there were 
twelve local municipalities in Boiiaventure county and sixteen 
in Gaspe. The^n'^-eipts^aud expenses of these municipalities are 
as follows : 


Bonavenhire Gdspe 

S.%720.19 810,418.04 

3,011.33 1,834.64 

Surphis of Receipts, 



8 508.82 $8,583.40 

813,320,46 87,546.81 

1,095.65 394.71 

Surplus of Active. 



The figures of the expenses for the local administrations are 
insignificant when compared with the value of the taxed pro- 
perty, which was $1,245,158 in Bonaveniure and |1, 384,157 in 
Gaspe. The administration of the schools is under the control 
of comriiissioners and school syndics, who levy the school taxes 
and see after all that concerns the schools. Those commissio- 
ners and syndics are ejected by the (lontributors, who also have 
an indirect control over the sums which are paid for public edu- 
cation. In Gas^)esia, as in aU the other parts of the Province, 
"primary education is obligatory, in the sense that all citizens 
are to contribute to the support of the schrwls, in paying a small 
taxe imposed on their property and amoimting to as much as 
the government'grant given to each municipality. Each father 
of a family is obliged to pay a monthly contribution of, from 20 
to 30 cents for each child capable of going to school (from seven 
to fourteen) whether tliey go to school or not. The public fund 
destined to education is divided proportionally to the population 
and numberof sch-^lars that frequent the primary schools or other 
educational institutions. A sum of $8,000 is annually granted 
to support poor schools, so that they who have school houses do 
not reqvire to be troubled al)out the sciiool taxes. In the loca- 
lities of different religions, the majority rules. If the minority is 

'■ i '.■'■*v 



t *;;,.; 


' ' V ' 

I'.t" '■ 

■■■>;, ■■ 


* ■ V . 

t. ■ 





not satisfied with the admiuistration of the schools, in what it 
specially concerna tlieni, they choose three syndics to direct 
their own schools, and inform the president of their discoiitent- 
nienl;. From that out the Nchoola of tlie ^minority arc called dis- 
sident schools, and the syndics are invested with the same po- 
wer over schools as the ommissioneri over the school of 
the majority. In the meantime the C(jinmisgionors continue to 
levy the taxes on all the municipality, but are obliged to remit 
the sum collected from the minf)nty to the syndics, and also to 
divide the government grarit pro}>ortionally to their |)opul(ition-. 

The above clearly shows that whether the minority or majori- 
ty be catholic or protestant, there is never any op[tression to be 
feared and in general perfect harmony exists between the diffe- 
rent religions." (1) 

The school fund comes from three sources : the taxes, the 
monthly fees, and the government grant. 

The taxes are levied on proprietors. 

The monthly fee is a taxe paid by each child going t ) school. 
These taxe.^ arc insiguiticunt, as may be .':een by the following 
figures, which show the amount of school receipts coming from 
each source : 

Bonnvcntnre Gdspe 

'\ ''/''^■' Vfvies 810,695.80 $10,420.67 

'•■ Monthly fees 2,488.39 547.55 ; 

aoverntnent grant 3,823.29 ■ 1,918.29 v 

Total 110.887.48 $12,880.51 .' 

Those two totals make a sum of ?29,77'5.99 ; but there was 
only $24,032.41 paid by the contributors ; 813,064.19 by those 
of Bona venture and 810,968.22 by those of Gaspe. Those dif- 
ferent sums were spent in supporting 139 schools of which 
105 were catholic and the remainder protestant, and were at- 
tended by 600 scholars. The above figures aro taken from the 
report of the superhitendant of public instruction for 1881-82. 
It is impossible to give the details for that part of Gaspesia 
which is included in Rimouski county, because the report is of 
all the county, Nevertheless the above details .show that ele- 
mentary education is not neglected in Gaspesia, because there is 
a school for every 43 scholars, and this edication costs nearly 
nothing to the inhabitants, who pay no more than 5 cents a head 

(The Province of Quoboc and th(! European emigration. 

— 89 ~ 

• '-, '[ ■' ■ ■'■.■/ 

in Gaspe and 69 in Bonaventure, for school taxes; wo must add 
that the parents, in general, are very zealous in sending their 
children to sdmol. 

The catholic priescs of the diocese of Rimouski (of which Gas- 
I'esia forms a i)Hrt) receive tithe, which consists of the twenty- 
sixth part of all grain a d potatoes in some places. Bishop J, 
Langevin is Bishop of the diocese and resides at the cathedral in 
Rimouski. The catholic priests of Gaspesia are about 100 in 
number. The protestant ministers are supported by collections 
made among their congregation or by the help which they obtain 
from certain associations forra(d in rich cities for the support of 
ministers living among poor congregations. It is easily seen 
that the catholics or prottistants are not overbtirdeued \fy reli- 
gious contributions. '' • , 

The following list shows the number belcmgnig to the diverse 
religions in Gaspesia. . ' . . 

'!■:''"■'■ Bonaventure Gaspe Rimouski Gasped i, 

Catholics 13,877 17,755 16,725 41,358 

Anglicans 2,173 2,536 15 4,724 

Mcthodi«t3 132 319 147. 598 

Presbyterians 2,670 43 365 3,078 

Diverse sects 56 32 15"* 108 

,'yC'l^V^'/^ 18,908 20,685 17,267 56,860 

That is to say the catholic population amounts tj 85 per eeni 
of the entire population. 

The above figures show that, for what belongs to religious and 
civil administration is on no low footing in Gaspesia. The eu- 
ropean who emigiates to this rej^ion so much favored by nature, 
is sure to find just and good laws to protect himself and hia 
goods, and g(X)d schools for the education of his children, taul, fi- 
nally churches in which he can worship his God. 

. CHAPTER xm ' ^ - 

. „ , ... .... ,^,^ ^ 


To complete those notes on Gaspesia, it will be necessary to 
indicate the princi^ al centers of commerce and ]>opulation. The 


1 \ 

— 90 — 


'k '.■ 

excellent rc|.(>it of Dr Lavoie for 18t)9 will admirably suit the 
j-inipose. Thi8 gentU'.man, m his olfice a« oomniauflor of La Ca- 
nadunne aud cliiof of the charged wiUi the iiis]ieGtion of 
the fisheries of the (Julf aud of Bay da^ Chaleurs, has had all the 
opportunities of knowing these localities, aud all that he has 
writU'n about them, is reiuuniuable f')r their (exactitude and rea- 
dily shows that they have been observed by a keen eye. We will 
cite them : '.;■, .i;', :/,,,. ■''■. .v^,' , .-" ,' ' >„^'',/-, 

" Gaspe is situated at the extremity of the Bay from which it 
takes its name. This hHiality can not fail to augment in im[»or- 
tance on account of the advantages of its port, which although 
not vety big, is accessil)le and oilers good shelter to large shijts. 
The vessels that are not able to fight the Calf storms, take shel- 
ter in that port, and here the fisherman's smacks are very often 
m(.)ored while they take in provisions or cargoes for r»therj)laces. 
The houses that are scattered here and there <.»n the top of a hill 
which overlook the port form a beautiful scenery. It is the most 
attracting and most wholesome place in Canada during the sum- 
mer mouths. It is the most channing and in the same tiuie the 
most picturesque watering place below. The waters of the bay 
are always of a moderate temjKjrature, so agreeable and 
healthy trt sea bathing, which envigoratea those whose health has 
been ruined by sedentary habits or town life. There are other 
pleasures besides seabathing in this loctdity. The beautiful walks 
overshadowed by tall and handsome troe^, extend along the bay- 
shore, large trees gi'owing along the shore, cast their sliadows on 
the bay which afford a nice sail in the shade, and inline the pic- 
turesque scenery which meets the eye on every side, delights the 
spectator. A b€^,autiful breeze, which rise>= about noon during 
the months of July and August, refreshes the tourists aud gives 
health and strenght to the invalid who visits this cliarming place. 
Gaspe is the only port of the gulf in which you will meet whale 
fishing; they who give themselves up to this line, are generally 
descendants of hardy marius who, after the Uuited-iStates inde- 
pendance, settled down in Gasj)e aud began whale fishing which 
paid very well at tha. time. 

Properly speaking, there is no cod fish caught at Gaspe, but 
the greater part of the fish \vhich is taken on the north and south 
coasts is brought there ready for exportation. This commerce 
brings a great numljer of ships into tlie port which gives work to 

91 — 


the poor of t,li(3 place and the environs. Tli« poor of the town 
have jihMity of work in the port and the fanners cultivate tht;iv 
land hotter than in other ]ilace8. 

The moHt im|»ortant and ohlest tislii'rios are: Porre, Anse (irr 
(Jap and (frand I'iver. Tie hanks situaU'-d around Bonaventuro 
island and in the mdghVjourliooil of Perce are excellent. When 
the fishing is had on the coast, the fishermen go to the Orphelin 
or iMo.scou hanks and they are sura of making a good hall of 
large cod Hsh which ahound in those places. Perce employs the 
moat fishermen. The port is very safe for small hoats and the 
rocky shore of this locality serves w<dl to save the lish. If Per- 
ce cannot hoast of having a safe port, at least it can of its natu- 
ral heantics, which cannot ho A)und elsewhort^ ; the soil is fertih', 
w(ill cultivated and the inhabitants ar*; reniavkahle for tiieir po- 
liteness and cordiality. Perce is the central place of the dis- 
trict. " . , 

Gratul liiver is the most p>pulated, (2,150 souls) and richest 
parish in Gaspesia. The inluihitants \V(.rk on their land and 
there are farms that cannot he surpassed in many western jila- 
ces. New parishes are opening on the interior where the soil is 
very fertile and easily cnltivated. At the mouth of the i'i\er 
the village forms an amjthithe^itre which is delightful to the eye. 
This locality has a rich and clean ajiju-arance, 

Anse. du Cap is where the Honhle Mr Thomas Savage resides. 
Tin's gentleman exitorts each year several cargoes of dry lish 
which are generally loaded in this port. There are several other 
mercihants here who are very active in commerce. This place is 
fiHiquented hy schooners that carry o:\ the commerce of coast tra- 

" Paspeoiac is one of the nicoHt parishes in Buy des Chal(;i;rs. 
The land is fertile and well cultiviited. The f ar nun's houses are 
neat and well built, llie port, which is not as sahi as that of 
Gaspe, is good and accessihle. " 

" H(>re is whei-e the Eobin firm, whose fori vine is coiinted hy 
the milJion, has its principal business place ; the residence of the 
manager plaiidy shoMS that his masters are millionaries of the 
Isle of Jersey. A few miles from Paspediac pori, is the resi- 
dence of the Honble T. Kobitaille, now lieutenant governor o 
the Province of Quebec, and a little further, the coquettish viP 








^'". ^. 






!'" 13,2 



1 2.2 


1.4 111.6 










^/i . 









> ^ 



WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 





1 inginq *>mnpn«pin)innipn«iininimi9i^i!*f 


— 92 — 

lage of New-Carlisle, wliich is the central place of Boriaventnre 

New-liichmoiid, between the two Cascapedia rivers, is a very 
nice parish where Mr Montgomery deals in wood or at least did 
for many years. 

Carleton is the most prosperous and the most advanced parisli 
in Bay des Chaleurs. The village is built on tiie side of the 
Tracadigeehe bay, at the foot of a mountain whose height is 
about 300 feet, and is surrounded by the most picturesq ue 
scenery that can be imagined. This locality is very much 
sought after as a bathing place and will bo tnore so, when there 
will be an hotel built t<3 accomodate all those that desire to pass 
the summer season there. It is one of the finest and richest pa- 
rishes, if not the richest and best in Iraspesia. There is consi- 
derable ccmmcice going on there at pre eat, which cannot miss 
to become greater with the impulse'lhat the Intercolonial has gi- 
ven it and that the Bay des Chaleurs R. R. will not fail to give. 
It is only fifteen miles from Dalhousio station, on the Intercdo- 

In the northern part of Gaspesia, the principal parishes on the 
gulf shore, are Matane and Ste-Anne-des-Monts ; in the 
there is considerable commerce and the land is well cultivated. 
Ste-Anne has the gi*eat advantage of having in its midst an en- 
te. prising man, Mr Theodore Lamontjigne, who gives work to a 
great number of persons. 

Such are the jn'inciple places of Gaspesia in a commercial 
point of view. All those centers wdl increase with tlie })opula- 
tion, that will not fail to rise when its riches and advantages will 
be better known to the european immigrants. 



We have already seen that Gaspesia forms a territory of 
10,783.73 miles or 6,900,941 acres in superficies. In 1881, 
there were only 660,115 acres of this extent occupied and 174,- 
306 acres of it cultivated ; then there were 6,234,826 acres mo- 
re to be occupied and 6,626,635 to be cultivated. The above 
unoccupied space could easily afford pioughable famis for 

— 93 — 

100,000 30uls. The price of the government land varies from 
20 to 30 cts an acre. The acre is al)out one eleventh more than 
tlie french arpent and about half less than the hectare, (0,404,671 
of a hectare). The conditions of sale are the same for tlie im- 
migrants as they are for the Canadian colonists, and the formali- 
ties to be fulfilled are very simple. 

Whoever desires to buy a farm, should apply by letter or per- 
sonally, to the land agent of the district in which he wislies to 
settle down, and de]»osit into his hands the one fifth of the price 
of the lot. Oa this deposit, the agent gives him a promise of sa- 
le, ofl'cially sealed. The principal conditions of this sale are as 
follows : 

To pay one fifth of the pfic<i in cash and the reuia ader in four 
equal annual payments, bearing interest at G oio per year ; tti 
take possession of the lot six months after the date of sale and to 
reside there or others who represent him, for two years from the 
date of possession. In the course of four years, he is obliged to 
have t€n acres for every hundred of the land in cultivating order 
and a house no less than sixteen by twenty feet square. 

The sale is not considered legal unless the abov3 conditions 
be fidfilled, whether the land be paid for before the time or not. 

The agents are bound to inform the colonist of the dilferent 
qualities of the land situated in their agtmcies, and to sell the 
lots at the price fixed by the government, to the first buyers. 
More than two hundred acres will not be sold to the same })er- 
son, but a father of a family can buy lots for his sons, although 
they be very young. The government free grants of land are 
situated along the four principal roads, which are : 

lo The road from Matane to Cape Chatte, which runs along 
the south shore of the gulf and crosseS|the townships of St-I)enis, 
Cherbourg, Dalibaire, Romieu, in Rimouski county, and the 
township of Cape Chatte, in Ga.spe county. There are 3,042 
acres of free land along this rciad. The government agent for 
this township is George Sylvain, of Rimouski. 

2o The maHtime ro<ul, which is the ccmtinuation of the above 
extends as far as Riviere au Renard. This road crosses the sei- 
ginory of Ste-Anne des Monts, the townships of Tourelle, Chris- 
tie, Duchesnay, Mount Lmiis seigniory, Taschereau townsliip, 
Madeleine seigniory, Denoue township. Grand Valley des Moni<; 
.seigniory, Chloridoruie township, the Ause de I'Etang seigniory, 

— 94 — 

Sydenham township and a part of that of Riviere au Renard, all 
of Gaspo county. There are 20,338 acres of free land along this 
road. The agents are : W, H. Annett, who lives at Gasj^e Bas- 
sin and Louis Roy who lives at Cape Chatte. 

3o Ttie Kempt Road, which begins at Ristigouche r'ver, cros- 
ses the townships of Ristigouche, Assenictquagan, Ca3ni)S''ul, 
Lepage, Metapedia seigniory, Cabot township and runs out to 
the St-Lawrence at Metis. There are 18,419 acres of free lami 
along this road. The agents are G. Sylvain, who lives at Ri- 
mouski, and G. F. Maguire who lives at New-Carlisle. 

4o Tlie Metapedia road, which begins at Ste-Flavie, on the 
St-La%vrence, crosses Cabot township, lake Metapedia seigniory, 
the tt)wnships of Lepage, Casnpscul, Assamet<:iuagan, Ristigou- 
che and end at the contliience of the rivers Metopedia and Ris- 
tigouche. There are 12,452 acres of free land along this road. 
Tlie agents are G. Sylvain, of Rimouski, and G. F. Maguire, of 

The number of acres to be granted by the goverinnent is 
o4,251 acres and the lieutenant governor in council has the po- 
wer of angniv^nting the number if it he necessary. The land 
agent of each district, as long as there be disposable per lots, is 
obliged to accord a permission to occupy one hundred acres to 
whoever asks it, providing he be eighteen years of age. The re- 
ceiver of this permission must occupy the lot in one month from 
the date of the pei'raission, or if not, his right of possession is 
confiscated. If he has a house built on his lot and twelve acres 
of the land fit for cultivation at the end of his fourth year, the go- 
vernment gives him a deed gratis. 

The land oftered for sale and which has been measured at the 
expense of the governmcmt forms au extent of 1,066,453 acres, 
that is 373,587 acres in Rimouski county; 248,132 in Gaspe 
county and 444,734 in Bonaventure county. Those figures are 
taken from the colonist's guide of 1880, published by the Crown 
Land Department. 

The following table taken from the colonist's guide gives the 
quality, description and price of the land odered for vsale. 


95 — 

Agency Township: 

Geo. Sylvain, Awantjish , 


Counh/ Pria 
ski. . . 30c, 

Attainable in Cabot 

all season of the 

year by the ^n- 

t e r CO 1 n i a I 

from Quebec to Cusupscul 

Rimouski and 







This division is 
crossed by the 

Dalibert.... 19,983 
Humqui 29,881 

Lepage 17,925 



Soil generally good 
for cultivation, di- 
versely wooded and 
well watered, par- 
tly crossed by the 
Soil wood. &c. as abo- 
ve. Crossed by the 
Matapedia and 
Kempt roads. 
Soil in general good 
for agriculture, the 
woods are greatly 
burned ; mounta- 
nious and rocky in 
places, 1st range is 
crossed by the Ma- 
tapedia and Kempt 
roads and also by 
the Intercolonial, 
Soil generally fertile 
and fit for cultiva- 
tion, well wooded 
and watered, part 
of the second and 
first range is 
niountaneous and 
rocky. 1st range is 
crossed by the Ma- 
tane road at Cape 
Soil excellent, diver- 
sely wooded, espe- 
cially with maple, 
well watered and 
crossed by the ri- 
ver Taohe. 
Good soil, the woods 
are partly burnt, 
well watered aud 
crossed by the Ma- 
tapedia road. 
ExceUeut soil, partly 
burnt, crossed by 
the Intercolonial. 

— 96 — 
McNider... 31,470 Rim'ki 30c. 

Mt'talik , 


Neintay(5... 34,817 " 

Rom. (par.) 9,190 

St. Denis. . 12,313 

Tessier .... 21,863 

Totol . . . 73,587 

Louis Roy, Rom. (par.) 5,112 Ganp*?. 
Cape Chat, 
Gaspe County. 

Cape Chat.. 24,873 

Tourellc ... 15,059 

Attainable by 
water or the 

I ntcrcolijiiiul Christie.. .. 12,514 
from Quebec to 
Metis, from 
there the ordi- Duchosnay .. 14,995 
r.ary road to 
Cape Chat; 


Excellent Boil, well 
wooded and wate- 
Good agricultural 
fcoil. Mountaneous 
towards the river. 
The bush nearly 
all burnt near the 
river, CroHwed by 
tlie Int.;rcolouial. 
Soil Homewiiat hilly, 
but f rood. Cedar & 
spruce in abundan- 
ce. Well watered. 
Soil f«:celleut, diver- 
sely wooded and 
well watered. Part 
of the 2nd range 
uiountanoous, situ- 
ated on the Mata- 
ne )oad at Cape- 
Good soil well woo- 
ded and watered. 
Good hard wood 
Good Roil, diver?ely 
wooded, in parti- 
cular with maple 
and birch, well wa- 
Pretty good soil, very 
few rocks, a little 
Arable soil, some- 
what hilly, but in 
general good. 
Dry on the 1st raage 
good enough in the 
others, very good 
for farming, 
Mountaneous and dry 
Good enough at 
Cap aux Reuards. 
Very mountaneous, 
soil good enough 
in certain valleys 

97 — 

afterwards the 
mtuitinio road 
on a.l the agen- 

Gaspd 20c. 

W. H. Annctt, 
GaspiS Basic. 

Steamer from 
Quebec or 
C a mpbellton 
from where we 
can go to the 
different parts 
of the agency 
by the common 

Tascheruau . 7,225 " 

Denoue 5,529 " 

Total 86,409 

Cap Rosier. 5,719 Gaspd 

Cloridorm J . 4,580 " 

Douglas 1,900 " 

Douglast'n.. 73 " 

Fox 8,11*5 '^ 

Ga.sp«5 bay, S 9,072 
Gaspdbay.N 6,017 
Malbaie .... 23,233 

Newport .... 43,515 

Perc^ 18,713 

Sydenham . 19,161 


York 16.239 



(Marsouinand An 
se pleureu8iO in 
great part habi- 
*' Land generally good, 
very mountaneous, 
" Dry and mountiine- 
0U8, the western 
part joining the 
Madeleine seignio- 
ry ie very good, the 
remainder bad. 
20c. MountaneouBjlut ran- 
ge plough able. 
" Mountaneou8;lst ran- 
ge ploughable. 
" Level, good arable 

" Not ploughable. 
" Mountaneous ; but 
good land on both 
sides of the river. 
" Ploughable. 

" Mountaneous ; b u t 
good land on both 
sides of the river. 
" The 1st range is not 
very good, the back 
ranges arc plough- 
able and good squa- 
re timber. 
" Mountaneous, excel- 
lent soil in the 1st 
" Mountaneous in the 
interior, good land 
on 'the Dartmouth 
and the St-Law- 
" Partly mountaneous, 
the-remaiuder plo- 
" Very ^ mountaneous, 


•>*'■.. "Smis^ 

98 — 


York River. 131 Ga^pd. 50c. ) 

St. Joan " 278 " " >- Excellent soil. 

Dartmouth" 377 " " ) 

Total 16282a 



M. BeauchSne, Assemetqui 

Ne^v Carlisle, ijan 30,083 Bona- 20c. Mountaneoua, partly 

Bona venture ' venture " plougliable, advau- 

(Jounty. tageous for squurc 

Oarleton .... 23,230 " ^' Very mountaneous, 

not very good for 
SU^amer from 'cultivations, a d - 

New Carlisle to • vant^igeous for fire 

Quebec in sum wood. 

mer, and Inter- Cox 38,198 " " Generally good for 

colonial a-s far cultivation, square 

Campbellton in timber, limestf^e. 

wint^«r, and Hope 20,440 " " Good for cultivation, 

from these square timber in 

roads to all the back township, 

parts of the Hamilton ... 53,490 ^' - Grod for cultivation, 

agency, and in " square timber. 

summer a Manu 20,980 " '' Generally mountanc- 

steamer from '^us, there are good 

C a mpbellton lands in the valleys 

to all the other and tit for cultiva- 

localitics as far tion, very little 

as Gasp^. square timber. 

Matap^jdia.. 33,625 " " Mountaneous, very 

little square tim- 
ber, the valleys are 
good for cultivation 

Maria 14,370 ". " Good for cultivation, 

very little square 
Milnikek ... 35,902 " " Not very good for 

(cultivation, good 
for s»|uare timber. 
Nouvelle.... 38,645 " " Partly good for cul- 

tivation, very little 
square timber. 


— 99 

New - Riche- 

mond 31,253 Bonav. 

Patap^^dia... 33,300 

Port-Daniel. 44,170 

Ristigouche 2G,920 

New Carlisle 128 <' 

Total ....444734 

20c. U tod for t'ariuiug and 
S(juare timber. 

" Mountaneoiw, not ve- 
ry };(x>d for cultiva- 
tion or Bijuare tim- 

" Good for cultivation 
and square tiuibciv 
limestone in abun- 

'■ Good for culture — 
very little scjuart; 
timber, crossed by 
the Intercolonial. 

" Good for cultivation, 
the soil is some- 
what soapy. 

These lots are sold on tlie following conditions : lo. the buyer 
or one representing him should tftk j possession of the lot before 
the end of six months from the date of sale, and continue to re- 
side on and occupy it for two years, from the date of sale ; 2o. 
should clear ten acres for every hundred and build a house being 
at least 16 by 20, before the end of four years; 3o. should not 
cut any other timber but what he might require for building, 
fencing or clearing the land before obtaining lis deed and all 
wood cut contrary to the above rules is considered illegal ; 4o. 
the buyer will not obtain his deed, if he does not fulfill the abo- 
ve rules ; 5o. he cannot receive his deeds before the expiration 
of two years from the date of sale, nor until the above conditions 
be fulfilled, whether the land be paid or not ; 6o. the buyer 
binds himself to pay for all the improvements that are made on 
a lot which has been formerly occupied by an other ; 7o. the 
sale is subject to a licence of cutting wood which is in force at 
the present time. 

These conditions are very liberal and when the colonist is 
honest and industrious, the government gives them encourage- 
ment to fulfil those conditions and is not exact about the annual 
payments. Consequently it is very easy to settle down in Gas- 


— 100^ 

pesia. Tims a fatliev of a family who has twi) grown up sons, 
cau take a lot of 600 acres, two hundred for hiuisolf and a^t 
mudv i\V)ve for his two sous, for $120. oriBlSO., I)ecau8<} the land 
is in goneral sold for 20 or 30 cts per acre. In jjlaces where 
there aj-e i(over;iment grants, he can have the land for nothing. 
And these farms are fertile and easily cultivated. It is not to he 
douhted ,say3 Commander Lavoie, thai Mie couutias of Gaspe 
and Boiiaveiiturc would he, to day, the richest iti ':he 'jountry, 
hadtht wealthy nierchants and the poor fishermen known the 
ahundant re^sourjes of riches which these forests and lands con- 
tain. Tiie population of this part of the country, wliere teii acres 
of land would produce, enough for a large family, whereas a 
hundred acres would not do ihe same in oth(ir parts of Canada, 
is poor on account of their aversion for laud tilting. P^xperience 
will show to the inhahitants of Gaspesia that agriculture is a 
sure source of riches. There are more than 2S0 miles of laud 
that lie along the coast, hy which, the farmers without neglecting 
their land, could catch enough of fish for their family and be- 
sides sell a good deal to the merchants v/ho pass up and down 
the coast. The e(|ual of the soil is not to he found in the Domi- 
nion, and the colonist can become rich, in a few years, or at 
least comfortable, providing he be intelligent and industrious. 
Indeed if the Gaspesian colonist proceeds methodically in divid- 
ing his time between farming and fishing when liis farm does 
not require his help, he would become rich before many years. 
The greater part of the fishermen neglect their land to that 
extent that they have to buy provisions which fhey could raise 
on their own land, but if they laboured their land it should pro- 
duce enough to support their families and the money which they 
receive for their fish could he saved and after a few yetvra they 
would have a small fortune. An intelligent and industrious 
farmer without neglecting his land, can make from ''^250 to S300 
by fishing. 

Is there any place in the world that offers more advantage to 
european immigi'ants ? 

There is a class of people in Europe that would prosper in 
Gaspesia, they are the inhabitants of the coasts of Ireland and 
Britany. Those people live by fishing and farming. But their 
land is more or less fertile, and their fisheries fire not to be com- 
pared to those of Gaspesia, Those poor peo[>le work hard but 
are nevertheless in poverty. It it not evident that they would 
become rich, were they to come to this country which is laden 

-. 101 ~ 

with all sorts of riclu;,-* with which nature has endowed it. It is 
always hard to leave our native land ; the thought of our anoep- 
tors, frieiuls and relations and in particular of that homestead 
where for jenturies our ancestors have lived and died is very 
hurd to dispel ; hut when [»arent» thin^lc of procurinj^ fine farms 
for their sons in a land of abundance and prosperity, they will 
not hesitate to leave their barren shores and come to the land of 
milk and honey. They will be received with the open arms and 
grateful hearts of the good natm-ed inhabitants of (Jaspesia. 
Those people are kind and fond of stranj^eis, and tliey always 
receive them with open hearts, whatever may be their religion 
or nationality they belong to. 



It is very easy, particularly during tlie navigation season, to 
go from Quebec, New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, to (Jaspesia, 
There are several lines of steamers that run between the above 
ports and Gaspesia. The Quebec line makes two trip, each 
month, between Montreal, Quebec, Metis, Gaspe, Perce and 
other ports of Bay des Clialeurs. The Beaver, which belongs to 
Mr Al. Eraser, of Quebec, runs betwfsen Quebec and all the 
ports of Bay des Chalours as far as Paspebiac. The fare, on 
these two Unes, is very cheap. There are .schooucs that run 
between Quebec and tlie above ports nearly every day iu .sum- 
mer season, and the fare is very cheap , 

The Intercolonial R. R. that runs i'rom Quebec to Halifa.K and 
St-Jolm, the two sea-port towns of Nova-Scotia andNew-Brnns- 
wick, crosses the western part of Gaspesia and thus all'ords the 
inhabitants in its wherealxiut the opportunity of selling their 
produce and exporting it. This is a first class road and the go- 
vernment that built it deserves great credit. This road is in 
communication, at Campbelltown, with a line of steamers paid 
by the govenrment for running to the dilferent lower localities 
situated on the shores of Bay des Ohakiurs. By this line, we 
can go cheaply to all those localities. Tliey who go to the north 
of Gaspe, are obliged to stop at Rimouski and take the high 
road to whereever they wish to go. 

The crossing between Europe and Gaspesia is very easy. 
There are several lines of steamers that run between the ports 


— 102 — 

of Great Brila'n ami those of Quebec and Halifax. The most 
rocoinnuiiidnblo are the Dominion and Allan linea, which have 
agencies in I'aris and in all the principal cities of Irelan^l, Scot- 
land and Great-Britain. The Allan steamers leave Liverpool 
and Glas^gow and generally stop at Londonderry from wlu.'re tlwiy 
steer directly to Quebec in summer, and Halifax in winter. The 
Dominion st»iamera also run between Liverpool and Quebec in 
summer, so that they offer the same advantages as the Allan 
line, to all immigrants desiring to settle down in Gasytesia. The 
voyage from Liverpool to Quebec or Halifax, lasts no more than 
ten days, and the steerage [jassengers are treatc<i with as much 
respect and care as the cabin ].assenger». A.s soon as the stea- 
mers arrive at Quebec or Halifax, thu Company sends, at their 
OMn expense, the passenger's baggage lo tht next luil road sta- 
tion. Ihe passengers can I'cmain on board of the steamer for 
24 hours after her arrival, exccj)ting when she is oblig(Ml to con- 
tinue her journey with the mails. The captain is obliged to let 
the passengeis off with their baggage, on a convenient wharf of 
the city and that between sun rise and sun set, without any ex- 
tra charges. 

The immigrants should come to Gaspesia in the spring time. 
The fishing begins tlien, and if he has no other means of suppoi'- 
ting his family, he can hire a boat and fishing tackle from the 
big fishing-houses. Those houses will give him provisions for 
him and his family, on credit, in awaiting his fish ])i'oduce. In 
tlie meantime, if he be active and laltorious, he can take a lot 
of bush land and clear some of it, which he can till the following 
year. That will help and allow him to build a little house f n* 
him and his family. An acre of land sown in potatoes and ve- 
getables will give enough of provisions for a large family, M'ith- 
out speaking of the quantity of fish that can be caught for fami- 
ly use. Vegetables, ]totatoes and excellent fish is not t be des- 
prised and the immigrants can have all those with very little 
work. He can make a barge, nets 6cc., during the winter, and 
after a few years he wiU be nearly as well settled as the natives. 
Without that, he is certain of making a good living for his fami- 
ly by fishing. 


The notes given in this sketch have been carefully put toge- 
ther and show things as they are. They clearly prove that Gas- 

— 103 — 

pesia not only offers the immigrant advantages and prospects of 
niai<in<^ a good living from his arrival, but also of m.ikiag a for- 
tnne for himself and his children. How could it be otherwise ? 
The country abonuds in all kinds of ressources and riches. The 
soil is fertile and easily cultivated, as Commander Lavoie mar- 
ked in his report. Th(; forewts are thickly wooded with the liest 
of wood of all kind.s, and arc awaiting the colonist's and lum- 
ber-man's axes. Tiie fisheries abound with all kinds of the best 
of fish, witn which merchants have made millions, and the 
greatest part of the population their living ; indeed, it may well 
l)e said tliat the sea produces as much riches as the land. 

Ir; every resf)ect, there is not a richer country than Gaspesia, 
principally the i)art neighbouring B.ty des Chaleurs. The roads 
are good, the means of transport easy and cheap, the climate 
iiealthy — there are ten doctors in all (Ta3ix3sia — middle favora- 
ble tt) agriculteral purposes ; the sceneries are magnificent ; 
there are churches and schools, religious and civil administra 
tion which cannot be surpassed, the ])eo[ile are moral, honest, 
quiet and sympathetic ; finally, all lliat can be desired to make 
a people happy anil comfortable is there ; what more could bo 
wished for ? Where is the country* that could offer more to an 
immigrant ? We have (^ften reaii works upon the labors and 
sufferings of the peo}ile that inhabit tlij coasts of England, Scot- 
land and Ireland. We admire the courage and labor of those 
tine people. How happy would those poor people be, were they 
to live on the Gaspesian coast where they could foiiow their fa- 
vorite occupation ! rerhaf)s these notes may meet their eyes 
and encourage them to come to this beautiful country, which 
we have wished to make known to ^ham in this ojuiscula. Let 
them come and they will be received as brothers by our Itrave 
people of Gaspesia. Happiness, prosperity and comfort avail them, 
and when they will be settled down in abundance and riches, 
the thoughts of those beycmd the ocean will cause them to sigh 
.after their coming to enjoy part of God's blessing to them. 

All the advantages which this region offers, principally the 
neighbouring of Bay des Chaleurs, have been stated by Mr A. 
J. Itussell, a competent and well educated man : " Bonaventuro 
county, S3V8 he, and the region of Eistigouche river, on account 
of the su{)eriority of their soil and climate, but in part' mlar on 
account of their excellent position of comra\mication with Euro- 
pe, offer as many advantages to immigrants as the Eastern 
townships and best parts of the Ottawa valley. 

, "i!v;pj'f3!i-;r';'<^»;t'H>ffl» 

.'i^** r,tiiw""-^y/;^-' '■< A m^^^wif.i':;, \^[^-y^-:- *.--:i^rt. i :< .-i,- r-^ 


— 104 — 

" The soil of Bouaveiitiue county i.s fertile and free of stones, 
even on the hils which -re never too deep to be ploughed. It 
produces la'ge quantitie-^ of spring wheat, oats (whicli weighs 43 
lbs to the busli.) and barley. The (luaUty of the grain is far su- 
perior to that of the St-Lawrence banks. 

" The soil of Gaspe county is the same. The fisheries of this 
county are veiy ])reciou8. 

I remarked that the interior region, as far as the St- Lawrence 
on the route adopted hiter on by Major Robinson, for the Inter- 
colonial, is an arable and fertile soil, and the aOove opinioji is 
Itased on the experience which I acquired, while direccing th 
construction of more than one hundred miles of this road. 

" This region is the most pictures(iue and the most holesome 
in all Canada. The winter tempemture is more than 10 ° war- 
mer than in Quebec, whereas during the summer mouths the val- 
leys and hils are refreshed by the mild breeze coming from the 

" The rivers are navigable. Large boats worked by horses 
can go from the mouths of the rivers to their sources, the piice 
of freight is a dollar less per ton, from these ports, than from 
Quebec, and all the sea and Jaud explorations are at the will of 
the colonist. " 



Chapter I Pages. 

Situation — Limits — Extent — Geaai-al asjiect. . .' 5 

Chapter II 

Topography — Mountains — Rivers — Seaside— Bathing places 10 

Chapter III 

Superficial Gjology— Soils— Extent 19 

Chapter IV 

Mineralogy— Mineral species— Beds susceptible of exploration 23 

Chapter V 

Fisheries — Statistics — Artificial manures 33 

Chapter VI 

Forests and forest industry 49 

Chapter VII 

Agricultural industry 47 

Chapter VIII 
Climatology — Astronomical situation— The winds— The seasons — 
Mean temperature — Lengl-t of the agricultural season — 
Rain — Snow 53 

Chapter IX 

High roads — Sea ports and navigation 68 

Chapter X 
Commerce — Importations and exportations — Tonnage oi' the diflFe- 

rent ports — Countries with which commerce is made 70 

Chapter XI 
Port Paspebiac~Bay des Chaleurs R. Road. — Its importiuce... . 81 

Chapter XII 

Civil and religious administration — Churches and seh()ol^< 8H 

Chapter XIII 

The principal centzrs of commerce and population 89 

Chapter XIV 

Land for colonization — Method of buying — Free grants 92 

Chapter XV 

How and when to go to Gaspesia 101 

Conclusion , 1 02