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Full text of "Report on the Cypress Hills, Wood Mountain and adjacent country [microform] : embracing that portion of the district of Assiniboia, lying between the international boundary and the 51st parallel and extending from lon. 106@ to lon. 110@50'"

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WEBSTER, N.Y 14580 

(716) 872-4503 






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1 2 3 

4 5 6 









TO I.O\. IKT" .j(l'. 


H. Ci. McCONNKl.L, B.A 






Sib,— I ha 
liy il.iislrjiti 
soai'cea •>( il 
embi'iioiny: p 
lying immi'( 
viou:<ly repoi 
series design 

J;iiiUiirv. 1! 

r.Ai.FRKi) R. C. fe'ELWYN, EsQ., LL.D., F.IJ.S., F.G.S., 

D'u-ictor of thi Gioloijical and Xnttmil HiMonj Surviij of Canada. 

Sir,— 1 liiivo tho honoiir to present herewith ii report, accdmpaniod 
k il.iisli'ativo maps ami sections, on tliu n-eoloj;')- ami gononil re- 
soai'tctt of the Cypres-* Jlills, Wood Mountain, .md ailjacent territory, 
embi'iiting part of the District of Assiniboia. It treats ot the couniiy 
lying imniciiiately east: of tho Bow and Holly Rivers District ])re- 
Tinu>ly Imported on liy Dr. G. M. Daw>oii, and Ibrnis the second of u 
n lies designed eventually to cover the whole North-west Territory. 

I have the li(,)nour to be. 
Your obedient servant, 


J;iimarv. 1886. 


Ml till' olcvations, witli the exception of fliosc alonir tlio ( 'unailinii 
Pacitic IJailwu}-, wliieh were olilaiiied l>y instrumental levclliiii:, aic 
the I'etiult of aneroid l>arometer readinys, correeteil \'y eiiiii]mriMiii 
with thf reunlar baiometric observations kept at Medicine Hut anil 

Tlie I earini,'s are always with reference to the true meridian. 

The invertelii'ate tossils mentioned in the fnilowing i-ejinrl iiavf :i; 
all cases Iieen <lctermined liv Mr. J. l\ Whiteaves. 


iiN THE 



Tlu' ti 

.■iiiir ronort livat^ of that Dorlioii nf tlu' dUtfict of A>-<ini- 1!<'k 

I'liii lyiiiic liftweoii tlio intrrnatidiial hoiiii<lary ami tin- r)l.>i paralk'i, m.ii 
ml fxicii'liny from the tliinl priiicipal iiH'i'iilian to raniic \'\. wost ot 
liif t'lHii'tli. or fnitn longitudo 10(3^ W. of ( i rt'i'invicli to Ho' 50'. 
it iiiiliracfs an area of aiiotit .'JljOOO si|iiaiT iiiikss. ainl is ac'coiii|)aMii>il 
i'y a gcoldgical and toipograpliifal ina]) of the hanu- district. 'J'iii; 
'iDi'tlnTM ])ai't of the map lias hoon rodui-ed from the township plans of 

ill' surveys made by tlie Dominion Lands i)epartmcnt, the only rhansfos 
!u:iilc lirliig in the >hai)e and ;'ont()iir of the ridges an<l other elevations. 
i'lii'so are so inlimately connected with the geohigj' in a country 
'liori' ilic heds are almost horizontal, that they demanded spi'cial 
;itteiitioii. The topograpiiy of the southern pari of tlif di-irict. as laid 
I'Wiioii iliemap. ha> lieoii olitainud ehii'tly hy odmni'ter Iraversr-. made 
'y iiivM'h ill the -ummer of lSs;i and liy .Mr. J). B. l)owling in the 

imimiof issi. flu. survoy.s of II..M. North American boundary Com- 
Mii^.siun. alongthc I'.Uh ]iaralle!, have aisn heen incorporalcd in lliis 
|i;irt ot'tlie map. 

Till' ('Mimii-y in the immeaiate viciniiy of tlic i;»ili parallel wa- 
liiiid anil i'e])ortod oniiy Dr. H. M. Daw.son, in 1S7I, while connecl- 

1 with ilie 15oundar\- Coranii-sion, Imt in i-cirai'd lo all the re>t ol 
1:0 liistrici. verv littli; triisl worthv I'coloLi'ii'al intoi'inal ion wa- avail 

ll.V Trliny 

t :lllil 

D.'itii of (lie 



lio bi'fore the jiresent e.s'iiloration was undertaken. In fact, the only 
diiio is included in a h.isty trip made by Dr. Ileettjr lo the west 

I'liviiiin ox|il(i- 


!!'l "fthe (Vjircss Hill.s, in IS.')!), and a few notes coUecteil by Pr( 
■~?ioi' Hind in regard to the geology of the eounlry neai' the Klhow of 
lie South Saskatchewan ; that point lieiiig the westrrn limit of hi- 
'■'"ik while in charge of the Assiniboine and Saslcat* hewar. exploring 



Tiiiir i>r(Mi|i'irc| 

ClMlllCtl'l of 


oxpcdiiioii in IS.'iS. Hi. Hell also visited tlio Elbow and a iVw (jihci 
placoH nlniifr tli<' eawhTn odgo of tiio diKtritt in IH"4. 

TIio pi'i'sciil cxpliir.'iliiiii Iiaw uccii|ii('d tlio scasonn ol' ISS.'J arnl 1'^s4 
lint as a i^'i'ciit pari of liic timo lias ncccssai-ily liecii hjjcmii in tli,' cn\. 
Icclion of topoj^rapliical details, it may oasiiy ho HOon that tin* remain 
dor was iii-*iitHciont totiiaidc nic to (Kdincatc in more Mian affcnir^l \v;iy 
the main iri'olou.'ical features of so oxionsive an area. 'I'hr |in'>iiii 
ri'iioil, Iheic'focc, eaiinot protend to be juueh moic llian pix'iiniiiiaryii 
its scope. ^ 

PiiYsicAi, Features. 


Tho distriet nf whiih liiis report ti'eals forms part of the thii'd givat 
pi-airio stoppo. it lia> a general elevation in its eastern part, north m 
the main divide, of ahonf "J.'itlO feet. Near the western limit of iIk 
map this increases to alioiit l.'.."»()0 feet, thouj^h parts of the t'v|ireNS 
jilatcau I'ise over two thousand feet hii^hor. It incdndes, besides an cx- 
tonsivo area of prairie country, the Cypress Jlills plateau, tiic wcstcin 
|iart of W 1 Mountain, and a niimhoi' of smallei' plateaus intervening' 


AllSI'llUI! Ill 

inlnisivo rod 

Oatiae of 



KxiciLi mill 
cluinuti'i of 

ween these 

two. The Missouri (eteau crosses its nortli-east 


cornel'. This country lioH so far from the mountains, that it has etieapeil 
beinu; all»'C'ted to :iiiy appreciable extent by the disturbinj^ forces which 
have liecn ,so at'tive there. No inliusive rocks are met with in !in\ 
part ol the district, and the beds are either horizontal, or ai'c siiiijirt 
to dips oi'ihe easiest descri])tion, scarcely ever exceeding ten or til'tecn 
feet to tlie mile. Conse(iiiently, all the main surface irrcifiilarities have 
been caused entirely by the varying degrees of i-esistancp whicli dittVi'- 
ent |(art- nt' the area havi- been able to olfer lo the denuding agi'nt*. 
(»iily two kinds of country are repi'csented in the district (1)1' 


(2) I'latc.'ius. There are three distinct plains separated by well-delini'ii 
boundaric-. The largest one lies to the north, and extends from ilit 
Cypres- Hill.- plateau to the South Saslvat(dic\van and beyond, aniltVoni 

1 is llV \v< 

the westi'rn limils of the map cast to the Coteau. This plaii 

means uniform in character; whil 

in some 


almost nerfei 

level, in other parts it becomes boldly undulatingand even hilly, ami i< 
further diver.-itied by numerous extensive areas of drifting saiid-liilN- 
It slopes north-east wanl to the South Saskatchewan, to the Im.-in ot 
which it iielongs, though that river receives from it but scanty aiMi- 
tion to its volume, .-is most of the streams t1f)W into lari^c lakes where 


leir waters are ovap(U'alei 




n occuDies the coiintiy 

between the Cypress Hills, the White Mud Kiver plateau, and thi 
boundary. Near the eastern end of the Cypress Jlills it is alinos 



two by a sjuir which thai plateau sends southward. The wosteni 





|,ait III ilii.s pluiii is oxtioiiuMy liarr«'ri. TIk' hoU is a .slilV groy c-luy, 
.liii|ilii| with pt'liliJi'N iukI lioiiltli'is, ami inudiuos notliitii; Imt cuftiis, 
with iiciv atul there a bhide of iSV/ya, or other di'oii^htrldvin;^ graMs. 
l';ii?t\vaiil, till' elay is lepiaeeil by a more loamy soil, ami i.'io |ilai(i Ik'- 
.(Miiis lll■tl^'rgnl^se(l. Thetiiird plain extonds muuIi and east from Old 
Wivt'!*' Lal\e,and occupies a l»asin-.>lia]i(!d depreshion between the Coleau, 
WiMiil Mmintuin.l'into Horse Uiitte,and tlio Swift Ciirront V'l'iJ^'l^' phiteait. 
It i!« iiiiK'li smallei' llian the othets, and is drained liy the niimeroiits. 
iiniiiclii'^ o| Old Wive^i' 1 'I't^elv into Old Wives' liakes. In tlio north- 
i;i.«tt'iii iiirner of the nuijt a small part of tin- second prairi(i steppo is 
iiiclinlril williiii the limits of the jiresent report. All the plains mcn- 
limu'il aic undorlaid by rocksof Crelact'oiis ai^e, l)nt these seldom appeal 
111 tlic «iiil'arc. bein^ usually concealed b}" a covering of drift which is 
ifliii ii|iuard> ut''M) feet thick. 

Tlic |ilatcaiis are best dovidojied in the Hoiithern and oastorn part Ako nf 
'ii the ili^irici. With one or two imiiii|)oi'tant exceptions, they are 
all lit Litiaiiiie ^)r Miocono ajie. The c\i-liiii;- Jjiirumie plateaus 
ir|)iOM'iit a I'ormcr much greali'r oin', which must at <ino time have 
-lii'tchf'l at louHt, from the Mud iiiittcs to the pre.sent Laramie 
|ilati'iiu of Wooil Mounl.ain, and coveieil the whole country between 
the CvpiT>> Jlills and the t'oteau. This area has been worn away on 
till' Miiiili iiy tributaries of the Missouri, and on the nuith by streams 
ildwiiii; into the Saskatchewan, or into the prc-glacial representatives 
'it these >t reams, until it has as-siimcd its present limited proportions. 
The wiirk of demolition, though ;;'i'eatly checked, is still being carried 
■ii liy ill! White .Mud liiver, Swifl Current Creek, and a few other 
■iiiallei' streams. The |irincii»al plateaus of the district are the *^^"y|"'t'ss j.^ii^p. ^^^j 
llili>. Swill Current t'reek plateau, the Wiute Mud iiivcr {tlatcau, '''"""'"••'> 
Pinto lb. iv(. liulto. Wood ,\biunlain, and part of the Coteau. A brief 
'K'xc'iipiiiiji lit' each of these will be given later on. but before proceed- 
ing' ii» that part of the subject, a few words in regard to the capabili- 
!ie* of the district in general may not be out of place. 

I mil within the last few years, that portion of llie territories ^v^ri,.,,!,,,,,,) 
I'voreil liy ihe [irescnt report was regarded as .ilniost a desert, and \vas,yi',','[.-',.(J 
'h"Uglit III be eiitirelv untitted for settlement. The ri'siilts of the „ , 

•' 1 r, lU'SllltS lit 

'•■Npenmeiital farms instituted bv the Canadian Pacitic Railway Com-^'ii^nmcntiii 

I ' 1 • 1 ' I arms, 

puny lust summer (l>!8t), which were, almost without exception, 

i.mitii'iiily siiece.-'sful, have been instrumental in dissipating this idea 
'II ie;;ari| to a large [)i()portion of the district. it nevcrllieless, 
ifmaiiis true, that there are extensive tracts of country in this part of 
the Noi'lh-west which arc wholly worthless. The desolate and repul- 
sive region s.)uth of the western! of the Cypress Jlills can never be 
iiiilizeil lop any purpose, while in the great plains lying north of these 



liillH, tho ui'uii covoi'od \>y \mrv (Irit'tin^r Hainl-hilU amotini'- to nu aiiinu 
i-inblu part ()(' till' wliolo. Tlio |iliil)>aus, llioiii^li mt iloiilit valiiahlo lor 
piistmal piii|ii)xiw, ari' loo liii,'li ami cold lor tlic j,no\vlli ol ccn-uir iin,| 
llio Niiii>(> tiling lioliU u;ooi| in ivi^anl lo tin- ( 'otcaii mid tlu>liill\ coiinin 
aisHonalt'd willi it. 

Tlu< IichI ]>url ol llii' disti'icl undoiilitfdly lies to the iiorili alonir 
lli«' Saskatcljinvaii. (/oiniin'iuiii^ near tlio moiilli oi' tin- jfod Ivor 
t'Xtousivo jilaiiis ol level or sliirlitly iindiilaliii^ roimlry iKinli-r thj, 
^t^ealll on tlie soiitli, and fxlciid all tlio way to within a lew tuilcn 
ol' Swil't Current CreeU. TIiom- plains are little, if al all iiiteritM 
from an ai^^rieiiltiiral slaiid|)oint, to the lient. laiuls ea^t ol' tlic Cotouii, 
Anion^ the other more iiiiporlaiit aroa.s of ^'ood land, I may ineiition 
tlio jilains lyinj^ a few niilos wo«t of tlio f^outhoni portion olOM Wiw.' 
LukoM, tho plains around Jtood LaUo.and tho <oiuiti'y near Maple Cmk. 
Tiikiiii;' tin' district generally, harely one half, even under the hkkii 
liberal i-sliniato, eoiild he elassed a> sui'.ahle for a^'riciilluial purpdvs. 
a lari^o projiortion of the remainder is however well litted for stock- 
raisinj.;, tho part> ranking in this ri'sjieet lioing the iiorllicin 
slopes of Wood Mountain ami the eoiiiilry in the vi( inil\ mI ihr 
<Jypros,s Hills. 

ElcvMlinll :ili 
trfllil of 

Cyiiro." Hill' 


(iENKl.'AI, l)i:s('RllTI()N OF TlIK Dl.sriMCT. 

Tin: Cvi'UKss Jlii.i.s. 

The Cypi'ess Hills jilali'aii foi'iiis llic iarii;e>t and niorsi inipoituni niciu- 
lior ofa hvstoni of upl;inds wliieli. tlioiiL^li n-ually al wide inler\als, aiv 
everywheri' irroiiiilarly ili>1 1'iluited over the jilains. L'oniineiieinu' iilmiit 
;>0 miles south of Medieine Hat, whore it attainsan elevation ol 1 .1'OO tiiii 
above tho plains at its liase, or ahoiit 'J,7<MI feet ahove the level of tin 
Sa>Ual(hewan at Medicine Hal, it extends east ward, tlioiiuh willi ;.'iii<lu 
ally dimini>liinj; heii;'ht, for a distance of eiy'lity miles. It eiidMiii 
its northern and western sides in a hold scarp, varying in heiiflitli fn"" 
1,000 feel to alioiit ."lOfl foot. This oscarpmont does not end wiiliilif 
liills, hut continues on in a diiectiona little north of east to Swift Cuf- 
I'ont Creek. On the south, the jilateau, we-t of Battle (reek rises tVom 
three to four hundred foot ahovo the plains. Hast of thai [i^int, tin 
liills, cxco|it lor short distances, have no distinct odgi'. ilie plain rising 
lip lo the level of the plateau with a loni;' easy slope. Tho siirtace ol 
the t ypi'oss Hills jilatcau, west ot tho Four-mile Coulee, is, except whea- 
cut l>y tlu' doop canon of Btittlo Creek, very smooth and cmh, anl 
has a gontle slope eastward of about twelve feet to the mile. I^asl "I 
Four-mile Coulee it becomes more rolliiii;- and irregular. 




All irii|)oi'lant leatiirt' in iho j^cnoral outlini; of tlio iilatoau. aii<l "iH'ir„„ini.rM. 

wliir|ii« til'irivii) assistance ii) the t'liu-iihil i >ii of it-, i^ctdu^jy, {>« 1 ho iiiim- '""'*'"''■ 

Ihi'dlfDiiliU's wliicli crosH it traii.sV('i>oiy. Two ot'tlioso, viz : Modiiiiit' 

l.,Hif;i' t'oiil'O, ami unotlior valley at the oast end of llio liiils, part of 

niiir|ii> iiuw (ic'i'iipioil liy a tiibtitary of Swift ( iirroiil ('iTi-k, niii.xi 

hint! Iii'i'ii I'xcavatcii in carls ]ios)-^|jiciiil times, as the |n'eseiit 1,'i'ass- 

•iiveivij iiiiiilitioii siiows tiiat liu' incuiiBidcraljIe .stivaina \>y wliidi they 

me ii(»w occiipiod uro doiiiir voiy little onwivo work. Kaeli of tlicse 

viilley!< i^* now occupied i)y two ntreanis, one draining' to the north and 

ilicdilicr to the south. Xcar tluM'cntri^ot' the jiillsa deprcssidii of ahoiil ., 

, , .111- ""^ •iiiji. 

•evoii I'liles widt^ and irutn three to tnin" hiimlrtvl feet deep, ci'osses 

t'lDiii ii'irth to south. This hollow is called tiie •' (Jap,"' and is evidently 

"f sulwKpieous origin, as it shows no indications (d'ovor being the lied 

"I'll stream of any size, it lies immediately oast of the iinglaeiated 

|i;irt ct'the hills and was prohaMy prndincd liy a euiM-ent in the glacial origin uf tiio 

•la, Kwet'piiig rouiid that part ol the jilaioau which remained uiisuh- 


The ilr.'iiiiMge of the iiills is nearly all to the soiifli ami east, the I'rin- DrainiiBo. 
iimlstreaias coneoi'iied. lu-ing Ha'tlet 'rooi», and the White .Mud liiver, 
l"tli ti'ilmtiirios of .Milk J{iver, and Switt <'iirreiil Creek, wliich Hows 
I'lrth-east in the Siiskatcliewan. 'I'lic While -Mml liiver and Swift 
I'linviit < I'cek, holh head near the south-east coi'nei' of the hills, where 
■lii'V -jprcad out into a ple.Kiis id' couhes, often inosculating one with 
iii'itlur. :iiid an- cai'rying oji the work of demolition with great rapidity, 
liie stream- lli>wing north from the hills are insignificant in size, iind 
with (lie I'Nceptioii ol' Iioss ( 'oiilt'e. whii h llows into the Saskatchewan 
;itil(.vliciiu' Hilt, empty into lakes which are all mure or less .salin'.', and 
li:ivt.' iii( present outlets. 

Till' lieiLilil of the Cypress Hills plateau, whicji at its western end is 
iic.'iily live lliuiisand feet above tln' sea, gives it so coM a climate as to 
ii'niloi' ii almost valuele-s for aiuMliing exocpt stcxdc-raising. Mut A^i^ptci in 

, . . -Ml 1 • 111 -tiKk-rai-iim 

''"till- piiijiuse it seems e-peci;illy adapleij. as i' possesses all the 

iH'ies-aiy i('(|uisites in a high degree. The snow-tidl is iinht,aiidgra.«.s. 

•vMlii iunl shelter are everyv/liere abundant. 

I 'piole ilu' following in legaul to the flora of the Cyprc-- plati-an 
'i'"iii I'l'iifessor Macoun."'- 

" I 111' lliira of ;he Cypress Iiills is very remai ,valile. and ditfeis in n,,ni. 
"liiiiy ie-|ie(ts from that of the plains. In the couh'es which extend 
ii't'i the hills on the north and east sides, the vegetation is almost exclu- 
Mvely eastern, and contain- numerous forest species, while that (d tin' 
I'latcau above, and the upper sh»i>cs of the hills have the prairie features |f;i7X"ur." 

..'r fl.irii. 

* M;iiiii„bj, mid the (Jrcat Nortli-west, p. 192. 

10 c 


Cold climalo 
indioiitfci by 

I'liiiruc'tor iif 


of'tlic Rocky mountain dora, and borli alpino and boreal spefies lui. 
tind u home. 

"In the upper part of the coulocs amongst tho spruce at the eastern 
end -wd'c Spinvit hcfulifuliii. Geranium Ri>'hanh<inii, Ifdhinarm r"twvh- 
folia, FJdeuia alplnam, Arenuria ci'iuji^ta cl roiui. Dclphiniitm Men:i(M. 
and on the exposed ^n-avel points and ridges that rose almost iierpi'ii'li- 
ciilarly. were Asfncjalus pauciflonis. Scdmn stempetalum, Cetraria nirali$. 
acukataox Islandica, Foh/i/unum imbri<atuin,ii\\d Vesicaria montana. U. 
the deep cuulues, around springs of pure>t water, were largo patiia- 
of Afmidus luteiis, covered with a pi-ofusion of yellow tlowors, nnl 
amongst the common sedges were Carex fextica and papillaris. These, all 
mountain species, and numerous others known to dwell there, told atiile 

that the botanist aloin 



stand. Whether the Cypress Hi! 

were an outlier of the Iioeky Mountains or not, their tlora indiiatil 
that theii-elimate was thatof the foot-hills above Morley, and ueeessarily 
unfit to regularly mature cereals, although in sheltered valleys, barliv 
and potatoes could possibly be raised. 

"The grasses of the plateau were of the real pasturage species anil 
produced aliundance of leaves, and were so tall that formilesat aliinewt 
had great dillieulty in forcing our way through them. The chief won 
species of Ff's^f/crt, J)anth"riia, Poa, Arena pratemis, Broimis and Phhtm 
alpinim. iu\i\ although their >ceds were all I'ipe (August 14th,) thiii 
leaves were quite green. 

" As we proceeded westward over the plateau, it became more elevateil 
and otliei- species began to take prominence, notably Lupiaus anjeiitai 
and Potentilla fruticosa coverevl miles of country, to the exclusion I't 
other species, and as both grew about eighteen inches in height, ainl 
had a bushy habit, the whole country, for a day s travel, was eithir 
blue or yellow or both, as either species prevailed or were iutermixiM. 
In all my wanderings I never saw any spot equal in beauty to tin 
central |)lateau of the Cyjn'ess Hills. 

•'The grasses and other forage plants of the hills were tho>e preuliur 
to coolness and altitude, but were all highly nutritious, andalmost iden- 
tical with those found on the bighei- plateaus at Morley. in all tin' 
valleys, anil on the rich soil of the higher grounds, the grass wa- tall 
enough for hay. No better summer pasture is to be found in all the 
wide Xorth-wcst than exists on these hills, as the grass is ahvay- 
green, Avater of the best quality always abundant, and shelter fnmi th'' 
autumnal and winter storms alwaj^s at hand.' 

"The paslurau'e of this region is identical with that on T.ow Kiwr. 
and the climate seems just as (hy, and I was informed that it telt tin' 
influence <if the winter chinooks to some extent likewise.' ■' 

• Ibul, p. 252. 




TliiTO seems to bo no reason to doubt thai tli'- cliiuooks are felt as tar 
(list ii> the (Vpi'i'ss Hills, as the testimony <it' all tlie settlers to wlioin 
l<poko on the siiLijcet. was iinarunKMis in regard to their uceiirrence at 
least two or three times every winter. 

Till' -iiiiply of tinilier on the iiills is eonsiderablo. more es]ieeially I'lul 
near their westoi'ii end. whi-re there is quite a larye area covered with 
o'liitfroiis trees, and in other parts the eouh'es are all more or le>s 
ffiiodal, There is also an abundant .supply of fuel, of a ditl'eront kind, 
:is tiie lii,'nite seam, which oeeurs near the base of the Laramie, is 
ixjinsoil in nearly all the lari;-e eouli'es. This seam varies in tbiekness 
iruHi a nia.xiiniim of tive feet, and atfords lignite of a very fair i|uality. 


The range ot plateaus which extends in an irregular manner from 
.Sa!.'e Creek to Bull's Head, i- bordereil on the west liy comjiarativcly 
level plain>. reaching to the western edge of tjie ma]> and beyond. 
Tiu'-e plains arc underlaid liy roeks belonging to tlio Belly JJiver 
-erie^. and have an avoi'age height of al)Out i-!,()00 feet. The_y ai'e 
usually very harren. except towards _Milk River. Avhere the soil iie- 
(rtiiK's lietler ami vupporls a tolerable growth of short grass. Im'oiu the 
idi,'e of the plateaus eiist to Willow Creek the surface is bi-okcn hy 
eret'ks and coulees tiowing in a wcstei'ly tlirection. AVillow Creek 
iiceiipics an old valley which connects the drainage systems of the 
Missouri and the Saskatchewan, and separates theBudButtes from the 
I'vpross Hills. Xearthe "Head of the mountain '' thisvalle\' is well up 
"11 the vlope of the hills, and going west troin it, the country, in a few 
laiK'N descends below the level of its bottom. East of Willow Creek. 
;iionif the liasc ol'the hills, tlu' surface becomes very irri'i;;ular. and is 
tiirnwod in ail directions by a multitude of liranching coulees flowing 
ti'om the hilN. .^[ost ot' these coulees becomi' united with Willow 
I'reek liofire reaching the boundary lino. Xoar the boundaiy ii level or 
liu'litly umliilating plain extends from Milk L'ivei- to Boumlary plateau, 
riio soil luidcrlying this ])lain i^ usually a still' clay <u' hard loam IMiin we.-tt oi 
ilcrivod l'i-(in) the underlying iMUilder-clay, ami is, as a riile^ hopelessly piaioiut. 
I'lirreii. li-. sun-burnt surface, studdt-d with small boulilers, and split 
iiiall (lircctions hy shrinkage cracks, is scantily clad with a scattered 
L'rowth ijf Artiiiiisia and Cnrftis. separated by a i'ew scattered blades of 
^ttpaipartrii. ( )n some ot'lhe higher groiuuls the vegetation becomes VoKataHou. 
~|'mp\'ii;ii improved, and the Stipti is associated with bnlfalo grass 

is drained bv two branches ofDrainuge. 

Millv K 



Ivor, whiidi. with their tidbntaries. wind through widt' shallow 
valleys, euclusing des(date sago-covered bottoms, which are forbidding 

12 c 






Arcii lit |ilai 

in tlic extreme. Hotli of tlieso .streams arc intermittent, and (liirin' 
the dry season hold watci- in pools only. Xortli ol'tliis jilain ..inl simtl, ]jake a sandy ai'oa ol' (•()nsideral)le extent oceiirs whiih i> 
mueli bettor ^i-assed. 

These plains are bounded on the east by a wide ri<|f,fc. which, wiil, 
one or two short breaks, extends from tlie Cyjiress Hiils to tlie boim- 
(hiry. The UDrthern jiart of tin's ridge is conneelcd witli the ('vpiej> 
Hills, and is eovei'eil with high rolling liills, Imilt ])rincip:illv of drili, 
Avhicli have a very coteaii-like ap])earance. They extend .south, Imi 
with somewhat diminished allitwdcs, to the edge of 01d-inan-on-lii«- 
hack plateau. 

Old-nian-on-his-back plateau and boundary plateau, like ninst of tb,. 
uplands in tliis region, are both well grassed, and in this respect, |iri 
sent a ]ilea^ing eontrast to the sterile plains whieh sticteh west from 
tiieir base. The^' are of ineonsidcrablo area, and towards the eaM. 
soon dcseend to the level of the ]ilain whieh lies between the Whi!' 
Mud Eiver and the iiounchuT line. 

This plain contains an area of about 1,300 square miles, and Ii;h -.a, 
average lieiglit of about .'LOGO feet. Jt is usually more or less uiiduliit- 
ing. and oeeasionally swells into eomiiaratively liigli I'idges. Its -';' 
is a hard bouldery clay-loam, or pure elay. and is usually rather liiinoii. 
though in some places it supports a fair vegetation. 

Pl.At.NS lv\ST of TIIK Cvi'IUvSS IIlLLS. 

V:illrv I'iisl 

Cdiinofls nor 
iTii jiMil ,-:iml 
iTii ilniiiiiiL'i' 

liills and riili 

,f The Cypress Hills are borilered along their eastern margin lyawidi' 

■ gi'ass-grown valley, whieh is now l()llowed in ditl'erent parts by thnv 

separate >treanis, none of which, however, seem to liavr been ii- 

,],. original occupant. Like the valley of Willow Creek, it forms a ooii- 

''■ nectiiig liidv between the nortlu-i'ii and southern di'ainage sysiom^.,!!' 

eastern baidv is mucdi hwcr tiian its western one, and opens mi iivivk 

shallow ilejiression. which extends to the westei'ii edge of Swift CunvKi 

Creek jdateau. This (lat is mostly based on Fo.vllill .sandsione, and i> 

very thinly covered with de|)osits of glacial agi It sujiports a tai:' 

vegetation. The )dain north of it on both sides oi Swift Current Creek. 

!c-. is dotted at intervals will) >niall >tecp-idcd conical hilU ijiiilt :i|'l«! 

eiitly of drift, either standing alone or unit(;d in short ranges, whiii; 

are usually more or less cui'vcl in shape, and sometimes form conipletv 

circles. These hills look like miniature mountains and niotiiilain 

ranges, and are entirely ditl'erent from any that I have seen elsewheiv 

on the ]dains. They vary in height from thirty up to seventy-tivot'oi'i, 

(Joing in an easterly direction, the two low spreading platcjiih "1 

Swift Current Creek and AVhite Mud Hiver are next met with. Boih 




13 c 

of these possess wcll-i^i-assetl, and more or less midulatini,^ surfaces. 5^|ji|j:j''^,'i'r<^fj 

Thovai'C scparatt'tl by Uie Middle I?raneh of'Old Wives' CroeU, towards '>j||k »ml^ 

•Ahich llii'V iireseiit a somcwliat aln-upt I'acL', Init in other directions 'iivir piatouus. 

lhi'ii'sli)]ti's are generally very easy. The latter plateau is connecteil 

with Weud Mountain by a ridge which skirts the northern bank of 

White Xud Elver. The eastern part ot'Swit'l Current Ci-eek ]ilaleau is 

diviiloii lip into a number of spin-s, separated by branches of Old Wives' 

Civuk, nil some of which there are small grove.s of poplar. Xortb of 

the eastern en<l of this plateau is a region of very high rolling hills, 

which extends nearly to Eced and Irtish Lakes, where it is repiaeeil by 

;i inure level country. Aroiiml these two lakes there is a considerable 

tract ot'veiy fair land. 

Guiiit;- east from Swift Current Creek plateau, the country falls Wi.ic plain, 
miiidlv and spreads out into a wide i)lain, which extends east to the 
\ve.-tevu eilj^e of the Coteau. This j)lain is drained liy the ditl'erenl 
kanciics of Old Wives' Crock, and contains an area ot' ovei' 1,2(IU 
Mjuaro miles, most of Avhich is suitable for agricultural puposes. The 
soil i< a sandy or clay loam of superior ([uality. The middle branch of 
Old Wives' Creek, which flows through the centre of the ])lain, con- 
taiii> a u't " "1 deal of wood in places; chietly ash-leaved majile. (Ne- 
findu aciTotdes.) 

Wood Mountain Pi-ateat. 

Wnoil Mountain plateau — the second largest in the district — is con-p.-^'*ii'';f^Vooa 
iioeioil with the Laramie area of the Coteau and Souims River, of 
which it forms the westernmost part. It extends from the third 
principal meridian westward to the White Mud liiver, a distance of 
ahdut t'oity miles, then bending more to the north il continues on 
to the middle branch of Old Wives' Creek, a further distance of 
ahuut forty miles. The southern part of this noi'th-western extension 
is ("Oinetiiiies called Pinto Horse Butte. Between Wood .Mountain 
Post and (lie third jjrincipal meridian the plateau is about thirty 
miles wide, and has a heighth of about .'5,200 feet. Its surface is.surfacc. 
very irregular, and is channelled in all directions by deep and 
wide coulees, the banks of which are usually grass-covered, and 
>how enlv occasional exposures. These large couk'es, many i,fF"rm(ii.erioil 
nhich are now almost waterless, in common witJi similar ones in tJie "■•''"'■''i- 
Cv|iro-s llilK, imply a time when the rainfall must have been very 
much uivatcr than at present. There is little or no denudation going 
on now, in tlii-> part of the plateau, and the present surface contigura- 
lion niu>i have been assumeil long ago. West of Wood ^fountain Post 
theiilateau mirrows in, and both its northern and southern slopes be- 

14 c 




come inoro abrupt. From tliis point on to its western cii'l it >oliii)iu 
exceeds iivo or tsix miles in widtii, :inii is often much les>. Its aitline 
is sinuous and iiTei,nilar, and consists of >piii-s tlirust oul Ijotwcon tiic 
various streams, alternating with tlcej) bay>. In some jilacr^ it 1,;,, 
been cut across by ituisculatini^' coult-i's. 'Ilic surface of the |il;itf;iu. 
wliere not broken up by coulees, is usually smooth or only slighilv nw- 
(lulating-, hut near its westei'n end it becomes very rolliui;- an<l hjllv, 
so miu'h .so as in some places to bear a strony,- rcHemblance li) tlif 
Coteau country. 

Wood ^b)untuin plateau and the country in its vicinity, lil;e iln' 
Cypress Hills, is everywhere well grassed and well watered, and will, 
at no distant day, be extensively used as a grazing country. Tlu'wuo.! 
supply is small, and is contined to the large coulees and to the edi,'e ui' 
thejilateau; but on the other hand, good lignite in large <(iiautiti(- 
can be obtained within easy reach of any ])art of the jjlaleau. 

Eii.*tf'i'ii im1(.'< 
woU iiiarkvil 


T'.iK ( oTE.Vr, 

The Coteau enters the district covered by this report, north-oast oi 
Old Wives Lake, and crosses it in a north-westerly direction. 

In this ])art of its course, while it pi'cserves most of the distinclivo fea- 
tures which (duiracteri/.e it elsewhere, it becomes very broad ami diti'iisi', 
especially towards the Saskatchewan, and its western Ixiundary is veiy 
ditticult to define. Its eastern edge is well marked by an esear]iim'iit, 
which is 50(1 feet high whei-e crossed by the trail between MuDsejiiw 
and Wood .A[ountain, hut, going northward, this heighth decieasos tn 
about 30<l feet at Secretan, and near the river to about :i(Ht feet. N'urtli 
of the river it increases again to over IJOO feet. The line of this e-ciiip- 
ment is indented by a nundjer of ileep liays, and its slope, thouuh 
usually easy, becomes in some places very abrupt. 
Westciii edge. The western edge of the hilly country crosses Old Wives' LaUe, a tow 
s from its southern end, and then runs westward, south of I!usliiin4 
"^ood lakes to Switt Current ( 'reek, which it crosses near Lonniay. Fnmi 
Lonmay it continues on to the Saskatchewitn, which it reaches aliuiil 
Extern lit hilly ton miles east of Antelope Creek. The country inchuled hotwcon the 

coiiiitr." 1.11 I . I 1 11 1 1 

line thus drawn, the f5askatchewan and the eastern edge ot die 
(.'oteau, is, with the exception of the |)lains around Kush ami Rwi 
Lakes, generally very hilly, is boulder-strewn and dotted with small 
hikes. Tlie hills are best developed in the south-eastern part of the area. 
Flat pi.nin North towurds the Saskatchewan, and west toward Switl Current Creek, 
.Siiski'it'cliewan. they become much Hatter. North of the Saskatchewan, a wide. Hat 
plain intervenes between the Coteau and the valley of the river, at the 
edge of which the hills commence very abruptly, and couliiuu' on 



Kcvoii'l ilif lin:its ol' the map. In tliis part uf tlie ridgo. tho hills are S'l-'cp bills. 

very »teep-9iilc'l, and the confused modly of interlacing mounds and 

liilircs wiiich everywhere distinguishes the Coteau country, In particu- 

hiilv well shown. The height of the Cotoau east of the south end of 

(lid Wives' Lake, is 2,370 feet, at Secretan it is 2,250, and at the Vcr-ni;igiit. 

ndlioh Hills, south of the Saskatchewan, it has decreased to 2,230 feet. 

N'ljrtliof tlie river it becomes a little highei'. 

Plains Nohtii ok the Cyi'ress Hills. 

At tho ha>o of the sloe]) escarpment which ends the Cypress Hills X'lriiiemsinpo. 
ill tho north, is u hroken plain, which falls r.npidly towards tho north 
I'll' tho tirst lew miles, after which it hccomos more level, and stretches 
;iwfty to the Saskatchewan. This great ]iiain. wiiich embraces an area,iiv!LT.«iiicd 
I iieiirly S.dOO square inilos, presents an unusually diversitiod surface. '""'''''^^^'" 
iliil:;os of high I'olling hills, covered with erratics, and extensive areas 
r iiaio sand-hills, alternate with broad plains of remarkable fertility, 
.n-i'lii'iiii;' the aridity of the climate, and with wide sage-covered 
- iav-lhiH (1 every part of it is more or less thickly dotted with lakes, 
> III' ich, as Many Island Jiake. Crane Lake, and Big Stick Lake. Liikoj. 

vx .1 large size. The lakes vary through eveiy degree of salinity, 
ii'iiii thii.-e covered with a (hick crust of crystallized salts down to 
iihors in which the water is ])erfectly fresh, and tho two extremes are 
;;'it infroi[ueiitiy met with side by side. At one jioint, near the M'cst 
•U'l ol bitter Lake, one of the most saline lakes in the district, aspiring 
'I tVt-h water was found bubbling up on tho beach, and tho same thing 
was noticed at several other places. As a rule, however, saline lakes i 
ii-Tiu' more frequently in the low-lying areas, and fresh water lakes on 
till' higher grounds. 

Aiioilior noteworthy feature of this plain i> the utter absence of any Aiisonce of 
■,'enoral drainage system. A multitude of small streams, someof wdiicb 
larry ooMsideralile volumes of water during the spring tloods, descend 
into it from the northern slojies of tlic Cypress Hills, but they ai'o all 
iiiterce])teil at no great distance fi'om their source by lakes where their 
waters are evaporated, and with the exception of J?oss Creek and its 
tiibutarios, none succeed in reaching the Saskatchewan. In the centi-al 
uml northern ])arts, the eva])oration is everywhere ecj^ual to the precipi- 
tation, and no sti'oams of any kind are produced. 

>aiid-iiilis. I'ovoring moi'c or less extensive areas, are found in every Evaporation. 
rart of this plain. Tho largest area is known as the Great Sand-hills, 
■.iial extends with a widih of from ten to tifteen miles, fi-om Ci'ane Lake sand-hiUs. 
ii'irth about forty miles. At its southern end it sends narrow spurs 
west to Many Island Lake, and east, with one or two breaks, almost to 

'iisitinn of 
iliiiL' lakes. 

16 c 



')!' .Sinul-hill 


Valuiililo pi; 


Swift C'uri'cnt f'roek sttition. Tlie wlido extent of this samlv wasto 
amouiiis to over 50(1 squaro miles, ."^iiuillei- siiiuly |)iitclio,s wuiu 
ob.sorvcd near the mouth of Miry Creek, ami ton niiloB ciiMt t'lum 
Red Deer Forks, ami about six miles south of .'^'amly Point on thf 
."Saskatchewan, and ti few setittered hills were touiid si.K miles iKirtli 
of Medieine Hat. The other more important sandy tracts nccuiTiiii; 
witliin the limits of the district, are the Middle Sand-hills, Ivinj.- 
Iietween the Red Deer and Saskatchewan, near their eontluence. ami 
the sand-hills found east of the Mlhow, on the Qu'Apjielle valJej-. 

The areas of drifting sand ;ire due to the action of the pievaiour 
north-westerly winds, on an originally sandy and liilly region. When- 
ever liy any means the protecting covering of matted roots is brokoii 
or removed, the drj' light sands helow, coming under (ho iiifliicucc 
of the eddying cnrreats of air, nrc ciirrieil away and piled up in Ion" 
oval or rounded banks, across which, clouds of sand are constantly 
driving, and the process is continued until the main substance of the hill 
is gone, and nothing but its mere skeleton remains. Occasionally, part- 
of the hill which have been hardened by intiltra'Jng matter, oi- remlereii 
more compact by penetrating roots, and are therefore better jiropare'l 
to resist the erosive force of the wind, remain standing after the softer 
portions have disappeared. Such fragments frequently assume rectanu- 
ular shapes, and arc usuidly covcrcnl Avith a shrubby vegetation. The 
floor fr<tm whitdi a hill has been renmvcd, is usually covered with 
pebbles and rolled bits of bone and lignite which have been silted out. 

All the ditlorent areas of stinddiills appear to be i)rogi'e,ssing slowly 
towards the cast or south-east ; the direction of the ])revalenl wind.-Mii 
the phiiu-i. The movement is plainly shown on the eastern side, by the 
hills being now underlaid by a loamy or clay tloor, and on the western 
side by the solitar}- saml hills, whicli are occasionally met with t'ariii 
the rear of the advancing nuiss. 

The sand hills are not entirely destitute of all vegetation, but are 
occasionally partly covered with grass and shrubs of various kinds. The 
shrubs 7nost fre([uently observed, were the chokc-cherrj' (/ViWKS Vir- 
f/hiiamiH) and the wild rose (Ito-^a Sayl). At one point a few miles ea>t 
of Big Stick Lake, a number of large colton-wood trees were .-con. 

Between the Clreat Sand-hills, and the Sa.skatehewan, is situate'l 
'"•a level or slightly undulating ]dain, which will become very valuable 
when reached by the settlements. Its soil near the hills is sandy, but 
towards the river becomes loamy, and in many places is overlaid by 
several inches of black mould. It is also dotted with a considerable 
numbci- of small fresh-water lakes. This plain extends west to the 
mouth of the Ucd Deer, and includes at least a thousand square milesoi' 
excellent agricultural lands. At present it does not contain a single 

V -.svfii.] 


17 r 

■eitlcr. Ii iw torminatcd on tlieoast Ity ;iii esc'ai'|)rnoiit, tacini^ tlic river 
;imlniiiniii\^ |i!irallt'l witli il.wliich lias tlio aiipoaraneo of liavirig liecn 
:ii DUL' time tlic sliorc of alakc, or u forinor dilatation of tho river. Tiie 
.nil on till' |iiain stretching east from the hase of the escarpment, eon- 
-Uts (if llic (iisintegi'ateil upper ])art of the liouldcr-clay. It is not 
vol}' fortiU', and supports a scattered growtii of long thin grass. The pi,,!,, „.,,„ 
Mirtiicoef the plain lying west of the (rreat Sand-hills, is, as a rule, "'' '^""''•''''"^• 
■•(■I'V iiiidiihiting and irregr.lar, and is intorsecteil in a number ol' ])laces 
ivokl walcr-courses and high houldery ridges. It is everywhere faii'ly 
Will irrasMcd, and the parts which are too high and rough lor cultiva- 
i^ii will I'c vaUiablo for pastoral purposes. South of the sand-hills, J;;^'!.'^^,!^^^^, 
(Mill ;t'ri'icultiiral lands are found around the west eiid of Crane Lake. '■''"'• 
,it Maple Creek. Medicine Kat. ana a number of other jilaccs along the"-""""""*-, 
aiic of the Canadian Pacitic railway. That much of this land, notwith- 
-tamiini;- ii> dry appearance, retains sulficient moisture throughout llie 
H'liMin til enable it to produce excellent cro2)s, has been amply proven 
I'V the operations of the last coujtle of years. 

South (if the railway lino, tlie plain lying along the base of the 
imithciii -l'i|)cs of the Cypress Hills, and extending west to the Bull's 
Uiail. is un>urpasscd for gra/.ing purposes by any part of the Xorth- 
w\st. It is everywhere thickly covered with a lieavy growth of 
nutritious gra.sses, which, according to Professor Macoun, are almost 
ideiitioiil with those occurring in the 13ow JJiver ccmntry. CTOod 
water is jiuuid either in lakes oi" streams in every ]>art of the plain, 
ami iiniple shelter i> atVoi'ded by the banks of the net-work of couh'es 
niiicli traverse it in all directions. Small wooded patches occur I'm-i. 
at intervals along the edge of the hills and in the valleys of the 
liriiKipal -Iream^, and a seam of lignite, atVording fair I'uel, is aI>o 
oiiiiil in ;i nunilier of places. This region, which seems fully e([ual 

lithe How and Belly Rivers district as a stock countrj', has been 
i^'iioreil ill ilie rush to the latter place, but is now beginning to attract 


The only largx' I'iver in the district is the south branch of the Sas- 
katihewaii. which nnis across its northern part. The part of this MoiliLinfiiat. 
-treaiii above Medicine llat has been described in the report foi- 1882- 
"4. ilediiiue llat is situated on a large clay-flat west of the confluence 
"I' the united waters of Seven Persons Coulee, Big Plume Creek, and 
llusv Creek, with the Saskatchewan. At this point, the river changes 
!f- jiieviou- direction somewhat abruptly, and runs about X. 30° K. 
ii-tiira^ the inmith of the Red Deer. In this distance of about one 

18 r 



^■onrs(( 111 

Full i>( "t roam, hundred miles, (lie river lias :i tiill of about twofeol jht luilc.anil ih.. 
current in low water runs at the average rato of about two aiii iln'c,.. 
fjuarter miles an bour. 

For twelve or tiflcen miles below Meilicino Hat the v'wvy iIiHdws a 
j'utbei' tortuous course, and makes a niimbci- of bends, :dl cC wliidi 
enclose lar^e clay-Hats, usually containing' ujroves of coltou-wipiMJ. In 
the next section, extending as tin- as drowning Man's ford, il i> nnuli 
straitei- and tbe bordei'ing tlats become very narrow. East of Drown- 
ing Man's ford tlic river enters luglier ground, and makes a mi'IiJih 
bend of Heveral miles to tlu' east and soutli, around wbicb it runs witli 
greatly increased speed, and at tbe same time, its valley, wliicli liltlier- 
to lias been soniewbat lame, assumes a much more striking a>])c(t. Tlif 

Oiinyiin iiiaiai'-f^loning grassy banks wbi(di cbaractorize it fartber uii. ai'c r(iilar(,lli\ 

tor iif valley. inn. i i . 

bigb ])reci])itous ciills of bare grey rock, while it nari'ows in imtil in 
many places its breadtb of bottom scarcely exceeds the width of the 
sti-eam, Tbe lieight of the plateau, above tbe river, in this pan of its 
course is abovitoOO feet. Tbe cariondiko character of tin valley i-iiiiiin 
tained for over thirty miles, after wbicli tbe Cretaceous rocks, hy which 
it lias been confined, gradinilly siidc beneath the softer J'osi-tertiiin 
Deiiiliui valley, deposits, and allow the river greater liberty of action. Between lln 
eastern end of the canon and tbe mouth of the Eed Deei- the valley i- 
aboiit a mile and a-half wide, and about 400 feet deep. Its banks, cxcepi 
near tbe bends of the river, are usually tolerably wellgi'assed, and it inn- 
tains at intervals a number of wide bottoms, some of which -upjwri 
largo groves, principally ol' cotton-wood. A few miles above tlic niuutli 
of the Rod Deer the (dianiiel of the river becomes (djstnictcil with -;uiil 
bars, and sandy islands are of frequent occurrence. 

Tbe groat drift-tilled depression in the oldorrocks, in consci|iioiiceii! 
which they pass below the surface of the rivei-, a few miles west of tk' 
mouth of the lied Deer, extends eastward for over seventy mile'-, anil 
exerts an important influence on both jdver and valley. Tin' wjiilli o! 
both is at once greatly increased, and tbe channel of the tbinier \v- 
comes filled with shifting sand-bars, a feature M'hich characterizes it i" 
a greater or less extent nearly all the way down to the I']lbow. 

Tbe valley of the Saskatchewan east of the mouth of the Red Deor. 
is for many miles (if a very uniform cbaractei', and will nceil only al'ow 
words of description. It is usually rather wide, and holds a mimberoi 
large and valuable bottoms, which, especially in the upper ))art of this 
section, are often well woodeil. The banks slope easily up to the 
prairie level, and are grass-covered nearly all tlie way, scarped banks 
being of very rare occurrence. At the mouth of the lied Deor the 
valley is about 400 feet deep, but going eastward this decrease^' to about 
200 feet. 

Sand burs. 

of older rocks. 

Character id' 


19 r 

Al«iul tliii'ty mil08 aliovc tlio moiitli of Swit'l (.'uiieiit ('rock llio 
viilli'V iiiiiiows in uiitl lieroiiu'^i very slinllow, llio liiinks scarroly oxcood- 
;:,'tiltv H'cl in height, altii()iiu;l» IVoni tiicir (op tlicrois a further ijontle 
.iMiiooralioiit 15(1 )e<'t up tn llio "fononii ])rairio k'vol. and at tlic .sanio 
[„,iiit tiitTixk^ of thf Bi'iiy Jvi\ orheric's, wliicii iiave boon so iony; buried /,'|''|7,)||?Y{'v,'r' 
idiiadi tlic drift. liojLcin to appear a;i^ain in the bottom of the vaMey. "eiit- 
T'ii iniK'* lui'tlier on the river enter.s iniicii higher yroiiiid. .'ind tiie 
; illi'V -tuidi'iilv increases in de))th to alioiit HttO feel. From ihi- point 
111 til die t:i>lern edy-e ol tlie (,'uteau. ii distani'e ot about hflymile-, liieil>-i'th. 
;i]ilifariince of the valley is execcdingiy desolate and forbidding,'. Tlio 
luik ridic shales, wliich hero form its banks, are peculiarly liaiik^ to 
;;m'l>!ips. and all through thi> section the sides of tiii' valley are Lnn.i slips. 
' ivered witli piles oi ilL'hn's which have fallen down from above, while 
the Miiime is still further confused by the numerous deep branching 

•ii'iTs wlui h .score it in all directions. All except tlio more recent of 
■'liv l;uiil--li|» liave oeen Worn by the action of the aunos]ilioi'o into 
MiiMiith iDiiiial hills, the dark liare surfaces of which are often covered 
■.villi iiv-l:tls of >elenite. Afewoflhe hills are aNo partially grass- 
tjvw'eii. anil groves of aspen and cherry are of occasional occurrence. 
ii|i]io,'iiti' Swift Current Creek the valley is about (100 teot dec'ii ami 

verllii'oe miles wide, and it remains about this size until it Iciives the 
• "ti'iui. ll> bottom, which is about a mile wide, is divided uji by the 
•wiiiijiiig course of llie river into a series of long narrow Ihils 

TliL' portion of the river between the ( otetiu and the KIbow was not 

■Xiiminoil by me, and I (^uoto tiio tidlowing description of it fi'om Cap- 
'Mu I'alli^cr's report.* 
•Till' vallev of the Saskatchewan is about Iv miles in l)readlh ^^''.'th of 

, , . valley. 

'■''■ >'<uw ili>iance above the acute angle which it makes to the 
•■'.'<n\i. lalleil the Elbow, but at that place the banks are steejjer, 
■iii'l tho valley nuich more narrow . . . The river, averaging (JUO 
viinls ill width, is dej)resseil at the Klbow, 228 feet below the surface 
"itliti plain ; but at the base of the Cotoau the valley is very much 
'eeprr and wider, ami the river channel winds through its bottom. 
Iraviiig givat points of dense wood on the left baidv, but on the I'ighl 
.'ivat dqi()>it'- of blown sand." 

Tlic total distance between the mouth of the lieij Doer and the lllbow 
-measured in three mile btretche.s — is about 180 miles. The elevation 
"i the tonuer point is 1,93-1 feet, and of the latter 1,595, which gives 
tliei'ivof a >lopo of 1-9 feet per mile. The fall seems pretty evenly ,,;;,,„,g ^f ^j^.^.^^ 
distributed, and there are very few rapids, but the large nuinboi- of 
shifting sanddjare, which block the channel nearly all the way down, 

' l^X|iliirii!ii>ii ul'jjritiah North America, page 5t. 

20 (' 


Swifr Ciirreiii 

Iicc|. nm-ne. 


Ni^yiitaiion vvill iniiko I lio iiuvit^atioM of tills purl <>{' llie rivor. fxcoi.t in lii.-l, 
Wiitor. :i inattir of ^^rciif ililliciilty. In sumo plaics, tlic i-iviT is neiiiiv 
H mile wiilo, ami sjilits dp into lialt'adozfii (lilVoroiit st reams. s(!|i;initiii 
by u'ido liai'H or samly islands. throii;ili which it is dillitiilt lor even ;i 
Binall bout to lliid a j)assago. 

Swift ('urrt'iit Ci-ceU is a sinali i'Mpi<l stifiiin abdiit forty feet wide, iiml 
f'roin one to two t'cet deep, and iia- a total Icnu'lh of about one liuinliol 
jnilos. It I'ist's in the eastern part of the Cypress Hills, from which a 
(ditains most of it.s watci-s. and Hows in a Udrth-uasterly (Hrection tor 
tdiout seventy-five miles, then beiulini;' to the north, it empties iritoiln' 
Saskalehewan about sixty miles ab<i\e the I'llbow. In its U| ; ci' part i;< 
valloy is about a mile wide, and from two to three hundred foot doqi, 
but neai'in^ the Saskatchewan it has cut a ru,i;-i;'cd gori,'e, fully tivc 
hundred feet deep into the soft Cretaceons roeUs throuii;h whidiit tln-.v. 
With the exeejition of a few small i,q'oves of pophii', the valley o|' tli>, 
stream is almost treeless until within a few miles of the Saskatchewan. 

Old \\'ives' Creek occupies a neutral position midway between tin.' 
ba>ins of the Saskatcdicwau and the Missouri. It empties into OM 
Wive>' bake, — a lar,i;'e lake without any present nutlet. This stream 
has three main brancdics. The northern and middle ones I'isc in tin 
Swift Current Ci'eok plateau, the southern in the Wood Mi)initiiiii 
plateau. The three branches, afler unitini;', form a stream twenty fir! 
wide, and abuiit a foot det'p, and thi■^ repi-i'sents the ilraiiiai,'!' ot ;i 
region nearly tive thousand si|Uai'e miles in area. The imiiuin;;- 
secondary branches of this stream have cut deep yashes in iliu platoiu! 
where they take their rise, but after they become uniteil farther out <'ii 
the jtlains, their valleys are usually very wide and sliallnw. Tic 
Viillcy wiMjiini. valley of the middle branch is wooded at si'veral ]>oint-on its Idwi'ipu:' 
After unitint:; with the south branch it is covered fi)r several mile- with 
a thick forest, principally C(im])Osed of the ashdeavcd maple (.T(';/«nfc 
accroidcs). Ohl Wives' Creek, or its southern bi'an(di at least, miiy :it 
one time have flowed eastwanl through the lai-ge and at prc-oni alni' -: 
unused valley, connecting it with Twelve-mile Lake, and then tlimuji 
Big Muddy ("reek to the Missouri, although todo so would noces>itati';i 
considerable change in the present relative elevation of the countiv. 

The middle brunch exhibits at one point u good example of a strear.i 
diverted for some distance from its pre-glacial channel. .V-is usiialiii 
siudi cases, while the abandoned valley is wide and shallow, and tvi- 
dently partially tilletl with drift deposits, the more recent one is narrow 
and gorge-like, and atlcirds good sections of the rocks ol' the coiintrv. 
The change in the coiu'se of the stream has bei'ii etfected either ly 
obstructions in its channel, during the glacial age, or by a gradual 
elevation of the counti'y to tlie soutli. 

111 .'troiiiii. 

Slroiini lonvc.-i 

WiHTK. Mil) ntVEIl. 



TlioWliiti! Mini Iiivoi- (Iriiiiis !ill tlio woiitlicni pfti't of tlio Cypress fV'ii'o M"' 
HilUi!i>t iit'llio (iii|i. It i> till' (tiilK'.l of Cypn-Hs I,aUi', fivnii wliicli ii 
:! w- Oii^twiifl. "'iitliiii; otr ill its cuiii'so ii poiMioii of tlic < 'ypi'os> Hills 
iVmIii the iiiiiin pliilouii, ami tlicn in'iKliii!;- more to liic soiiiji, it con- 
■iiUi'-oii liu'o'.if^h tlio Wliitt! Miiil Kivci- i)latoaii, to the custom oml ol 
Wool Mniiiitaiii. from which point il turns still nion' Kouth, ami 
(iMS-L's llir i)oiiii(lai'y about Iwolvo inilos oast of iho lltTth iiusriiliaii, 
uiier uniiii'sc on ('aiuulian turritory of aiiout one hinulrod and thirty 
iiiilf'. Wlit'i'G it <'i'o.SHi'8 thi! boundary it is aitoul (ifly foot wide. A 
l)'(iili;ir I'oaturo of this stioani is lh(^ way it has disrcLfarded tho low 
\mhh> llic south and Tiorfii in soloctin^ a channel, and has ciio-,on '•nt''^t'],Vmim?''"' 
ilii'iiiigli the higiior plateau country, throui^ii which it lias carvod a 
valley, often iijiwards of tive liiindi'od foot deep, and from tliroo to four 
miles wide. The valloy is comparalilo in si/.o with tliat of the .SasUat- 
cliowaii where it hroaUs through the (utoau, and is even more desolate 
Ji appearance, owing to tiie absence of all arborial vogotation. ]ts^^'"j'"_»"''»-''' "• 
jcarpt'il baiiUs are rugged and bi'okon, and seamed with iinuimerable 
fiulies, which atlbrd a coinploto and almost ccjntinuous .section of tho 
varimis sti'ata into which they cut. 

.\miiiii:- the loss impoi'tant streams and valleys of tlie disti'ict may 
!'• iiiiiie'cil iJattle Creek, Four-mile, and Medicine Lodge Couli'es, all of 
which flow from the Cypress Hills southward to Milk River, and Big 
Piiniie Creek, and Ross Creek, which drain northward to the Saskat(die- 
'Vaii. Ill \\'()0(l Mountain llie Missouri system is re])resentod by Little 
K'liky Creek and Poplar lliver. 


The lakes ure not eontined to any particular locality or formation in 
'iii'i|i>ii'iei^ but arc sealtei'cd more or less thickly over every part ot 
'■'■■ They may be roughly divided into throe classos — 

H) Lake* occupying portions of the abandoned eliamieU of ancient 


'-(Lakes occupying <lepre.ssions in tho drift which inivo become 
llii- i'eee|ilaele foi' the drainage of the adjoining higher land. 

(•1) bake- ])artaking of the character of spiings. 

The lakis of the tirst clas.s are few in number, but are usually rather 
">X'e, Twelve-mile Lake will servo as a good example. Tliis lake i> 
ahimt loiirteen nnles long, but its width seldom exceeds a mile, and it 
^<!ii-L'ly liemnuMl in nearly all round by high scar])cd bank-. Itoccu- 
I'li'j )paii of a largo valley which is continuous from Old Wives' Lake 
1" tho .^liv.,,|||•i_ \ jjtream which enters this valley about a mile east 
• the lake, instead of (lowing into the lake tui'Ds eastward, and 

(if hikes. 


t(i tlio 




oVi'Dtiially midor tlio riimn' of liii; Miidily CieoU, Hows 
Miisnuri. Till' waUn'-sliod liolwcon llic laUo ami this si 

into tl 

'•••am, in th. 

valley, in 2sr» feot alxtvo Old Wivon' hike, and 211 Ifct iiln 

ivc 1 1,, 

Kli'VHlion lit' 

iiioutli (it'tlio Bif,' -Muddy, thus iftluH valioy over tarried water Imiw,, i 
Old Wiven' I.iil^e,-. and the .NfisNoui'i, its present watershed iiiii>t Inc.. 
>inee heon elevated abniit ."{'iK teot. The outlet and iirineipid inlet .| 
Twolve-milo Lake are holh Milnutcd near its w«'sterii end, ami >ci\, 
Id i<ee|) that, part nl'thc iakt* coinparativtdy fresh. Imt ;ii>iii(r fa>t i:- 
waler ^'radiially lieeonies more saline, and near the ea-lern einl il,. 
shore in -oine plaee-. is eovereil ^vith .salt> whii li havi' ( ry.slalliy.cil mr 
lyprc" l.iiku. Another oxani|>le of lakes of this elass is )itl'(ir(h'(| hy ('v|M(ss hak. 
whicdi occupies a yicat valley eonneetin^ the Kusi l-'ork ot Milk lliv. 
with the White Mud 1,'iver. Cypress Lake is altout ten niili.^ jdii. 
ami has a inaxinnini width of ahout three inilos. It is fed hy stivaur 
issuiiif^ from the Cypress Hills, and its water is always clear uiul tii>!i 
Near the eastern end of the expanded part of tho lake tle're i- a Miiail 
i-land with hi^h rocky hank,*, whiidi has the reputation anioii!,' iho 
Indians of lieini;' liuMnled. 


ai<es oi 

he t\V( 


vf clas,se^ 


m nian\' castas, so si 


ippearancc thai il oflen liec(,iiics impossihle to separate tlicm, ami vr 
i'c(|nently .-i lake owes it> exi-lence to the coinhination ol' imtli faiiM- 

e inaioi'itv of tl 

iki's in 

ihe (Viteau ami in olhei' similar aioa> 

unlrv, seem to lieloiin- lo the tliii'd (dass. A low lak 



hiyh rolliny co 

in till- second (la>s are fed hy streams, amongst which is Old Wiv.- 

Lake, the laru,e-t lake in the diNtriel. This laki' is divided into nv.. 


rts, each of which i-^ ahoul iwenlv mil 

cs lollif. 

The two (liviMH 

are united \>y a sluii-gish stream, ahoul ten miles in leii^illi, into whi 
Olil Wives' Croek empties. The Ljreater part of the lake lies in 

Coleau hell, in which it occui)ies a dcitression ahoul one huiidroc 

'i[ tW't 

dee]t. The water of Old Wive-' Fvake is .somewhat saline, hut 


nuudi so as to he uiilit t'oi- u> 

Amon<rst tl 

e oilier laivvis o 



ma\' nu'ntion 




I I, 



lii' Stie 



IC .-I'l'l'l/'l 

lid Cniiii 

Lake,* ot' flic 
third c•lll?^■. 

Liike, three shallow suline lakes, eaidi covering ahuut thiily square 
miles, :ind fed by intermittent streams from the Cypress Hills lli>' 

alces ol 

he lliii-il cliiss arc usually very small ; tlu'y occur in <;i'oatp 


fii.sion in tho Coteiui tind other similar hi^h ndliny ridi^'i 
seldom loniT ahsent from any part ot Ihe district. 

anij ail 


Old Wives' Lake 2,105 foft 

Many Island Lake 2.-JS0 ' 

BigStickLake -',2.-.l '' 

,c«»«u] "M' WIVES' LAKE. 23 r 

(Van.Lakt. 2 420 loot. 

Cvpif^rt liUko .'{.210 " 

Tvv.lvc-ruilo Lake 2,15.') " 

l»i.vir> Lttkt» l,S«7 " 

Wild Hoi'HO Fiiiko 2,828 " 

KIk Wat.r Lake ».<>'2(t " 

Aiitrlnpo Lake -'.."iOI " 

ll,.>h 2.2»;!> " 

llii.v l-akf ((.Vpri-hH llilln; iJJ^O '^ 

TiiK ('vrHK>H llii.i-s AMI Vkmnity. 

Tlic't'v|.ro-> Hills iilatciiii is simply an outlier <>l' llio Wood ^^•'''i- ^}','J[,'',",J ''''''' 
lain, (Vitfiiii, anil .Soinis Uivcr Lai'iiniic'- arcii. \vlii( li lias o-.cii|u'i[ 
'le>^tniiMiiiii nil accMiiiiit of'tho thick doixisits ii\' Midcciic (•()iii,H()iiic'i'att;s 
rtiiicli cvoiywlH'rc cnviT it. TIu' rock-s obscrvc(l in it aio rt-li'i'altlo to 

;lir rulliiwiiii' scrios : — 

VnS Hill, 

The Pierre slialcs, tho Fox Kill sandstoiios, and tlie Liiraiiiie, licroas 
flM'\vlieiv, ai'o strictly eonCoi'iiiiiMe. and liavo a ^enoi'al iiorlli-eastei-ly 
'lip ut';iiiniii (en t'ect to tlic mile. Tlie .Mioceno is laid iineontorniaitly 
"ii I 111' liinitmie, on wliich it usually rests, liut in some places it ijttn^'- 
liipsaiid conies in contact with the Fox Hill. 

The Ae-I end of the ( "yi)ress Hills, forms a ;reoloi;'icul centre around 
niiiili the liirmations mentioned ahove dweep in i'oUi;-lily concentric 
/■•'lies. I will dotine tiie hoiindarics ot" those formations in a i;vneral 
iiiaiiiier (Jiily. as they arc all extrenicly iri'ei';iilar, and can he host 
'' ' I tVipMi tlie nia[) which accomiianies this re])ort. The outer lioiin- 
'iiiiy ol' the Pierre shales, wlii(di forms the hasal nieniher of the 
U'ln'cNs Hills system, extends in a somewhat sinuous line from the 
uiili - 1I(;((1 jilateau to the head-waters of Sage Creek, and then con- 
liiiiios nil Id. aiKJ crosses the 49th parallel a few miles west of the 

.strata foii- 


V""'""''""" ''''^ report tlie iiaiiii' liiiramii' is useil to desiffniite tlu' important series of 
;lf|'"sitf H|ii,.|||ull,,w tlicFi.x Ilillor "Crotaonius No. "•," in iisfcndini; onlor. The lnils in 

W'tnJ M, 

iini.iiii, iiis.i liori' nfrrrcil to by tliis naiiu-, arc an extension ol lliose uf the Siiiiri." Itiver 

f''BiuD wliicli ;ir,. the rerresentalives of tlie lypi. at Kort I'nion .series of the Mi-sonri. Tliere is, 
""Tfver, every reu>on to helieve that these and the furtlier western hedsl to >liicli the name 
Uraiuie wn- lir-t nrriied are diiivalent in at-'e. 

24 V 


t'icrrr .^lialcf- 

.^crllnt)^ nil 
Will.iw Cri'fk. 

tiiiirtli ])i'iiici[)al meridian. Fnim llie ])iili's Jleail (lie same boundaiv 
also I'liiis ill a north-easterly direction to Irvine station, and tluMi ontu 
1 lie .South Saskatcdiewan, which it oi'OMses about thirty mile- wot m 
Swifl Current Creek. Between Ii-vine ami the SasUateJu'waii. the 
rocks are entirely concealed i)y the drift, and the houndarv i< thiMv. 
fore soinewliat uncertain. Tiie boundary line just indicated, liesiilc- 
.se|iarating the Pierre from the Belly Iliver series, divides the iliv 
trict into two di.stinct jiarts, which dittei" from one another veiv 
materially in many respects, but more especially in regard to the ili>- 
tribution of the plateaus, all of which occur in the eastern ])ait. Tin- 
inner boundary of the Pierre shales is three or four miles distant 
from the base of the plateau netn- its western end, but in i;;oinff cii:^t- 
ward it gradually apjiroaches and at lenyth becomes coternnnoiis with 
it. Still further eastward, owing to the decreased height of the coun- 
try and in spite of the light easterly- dip of the bods, the Pierre sliali> 
I'ise in the escar])inents (ill they at lengtli form nearly tiie entire siili- 
stanee of the plateau. 

The Pierre 8liale.s are well exposed all around the Cypress Hill-, 
which they underlie throughout, and the dark clay banks ,vliicli demilo 
their jiresence can be seen in nearly every coult?e leading from the 
plateau. In the valley of Willow Creek, a few miles south of the " Heail 
of the mountain," they are particularly well shown. At this point tliv 
valley is a couple of miles wide, and its long gently-slojiing hanks, 
which are tbrined entirely of Pierre^ are scarped from top to bottum. 
and are worn into a succession of rounded hills, which are >lii\vly 
wasting away. The surliices of those hills iwo covered in some phur- 
wi(h fragments of ealcarious nodules, which liave crumbled to piece- 
and which often contain Aininoniies and Bacnlites, and occasiDiially a 
few vertebrate remains. The valleys of Battle Creek, l'"our-niik' 
Coulee, ami the White ^lud IJivi'r, ari- cut down through the J.anmiic 
and Fox Hill into the Pierre, and atlord good exposuresof the slialos a; 
many ])oints. Along (he northern slope, the liest sections :\]\' fouii'i 

iinriiiurn .■<lope. south of Sitlcwood sta(ion, where .several hundred feel of llie shak- 
is exposed in ibe banks of (he numerous small s(reains which ciii 
bark in(o (he pla(eau. (iood >ections arc also (bund in the uppci' par' 
of the valleys of Fish, MacKay. Big I'liime. and Boss Creek>. lu tl 
valley of the latter ci'eek the shales contain numerous nodule 
yield unusually good specimens of (he ordinary Piei'ie fos>iN. 
miles wes( of the "Head of the mountain," at ihills Head plateau. iIm' 
lower part of (he Pierre is well exposed, and is seen restingon llic iigln 
colored beds of (he Belly River series. Thesamo thing wasalsn oli-enii. 
(Ill Big Plume Creek. Ross Creek, and furdier soudi.on the up]"'r p-' 

l.;ir?e iiii.Uil,-. ofSageCreok. The surface oftjie Ihill's Head i)laleaii secti 't' tin' 

•SLV'tiims iiliiiiK 

A iow 


•hales i> cncumborod with gigantic calcareous nodules, some of which 
iuv fi'oni liMi 1() tit'ti'on i'eut in diainoter. These nodules are usually 
miiglily spherical in shape, and become yellowish on weathering. 
Some of tlieni are fossilit'erous, and the following species were obtained 
[\\vvc:—<'<t!.lista Deweijanum, Protocardium suhquadratiim, Liopistha 
uH'liifa, Ptvria lini/ucfonnis, Gc?-rilia rei'tn. 

XiMluio> somewhat similar to those at Bull's Head plateau were also 
iiiinil in an e.\])Osure of Piei're a couple of miles north-east of Irvine. 

In the Cvpress Hills region the Pierre shales are about 800 feet Tliicknpss of 
iiiick. and fin' the greater part consist as elsewhere of (hirk clay 
•hales. The chocolate-colored sandy shales which form the upper part 
»l the lliriiiation on the lied Deer and Belly Rivers, arc replaceil in 
tiiis district by thick beds of greyish and yellowish sandstones. These 
•amlstones, which are seldom persistent for any distance, are well 
•liowu on Battle Creek, and in the '"Gap." The coal-bearing zonecotii-ixuriim' 
'.diich 01 riirs near the base of the shales farther west, is also found on '" 
Sage Creek, Ross Creek, and in all jilaces where the base of the forma- 
tion is exposed, though with greatly diminished importance. In the 
lastcin ])art of the district the presence of (his zone cannot be ascer- 
laincil vvilliDut b(U'ing, as the uppei' part of tiu' formation only is 

TlioPierreis succeeded in aseijuding order by the Fox Hill sandstones, k.ix iini 

■PI ... . . , • 1 . 11 ' • 1 . 1 ,1 1 1 siinilsliiiH'-. 

ilus toiniMtion IS composed niauny ot yellowish indui'ated sands and 

smd-tniies. and has a maximum thickness in Ihe hills of about 150 

laM. Ill sonic, places the whole section is composed entirely of i'erru. Cniiii.u-iiinii. 

:iiiiiu> suiilstones, and the transition I'roni the underlying argillaceous 

li'ds is veiT abrupt, but in most cases the lower part of the formation 

'oibisis of altei'iiating bands of sandstone and shale, and no distinct 

iiiie liui lie di'awn .separating it from the Pierre, the upper pari of 

whiili iv always more or arenaceous. The Pox Hill though never 

w'liolly ab-eut. becomes in some places veiw thin, and as it is very 

■'losely cniineeted with iho Pierre, of which it simply forms an upper 

I'ai't, and is of no economic importance, no ;illeni[it has been made to 

I't'iovH'iit ii separately on the map. 

'flic Fox Hill is well exj)Osed in many places both norlh and south Pofnai'.'"''' 

'I the liills. \'ery characteristic exposures occur on a trilmtary of 
^\illo\v ('reek, a few miles south of the "Head of the niountain.'' where 

io' folli)wiiig >ection was ()l)served : — 


1 < sand> 2(1 

- I lark chix^ 40 

•' ' rn-vi>li ;ui(l vellowisli .sandstone. ;>0 

4 i'ark chiys . ." 80 

"' Park nistv and lijrlit vellowisli coarse soft sand.stone loO 

'i 1 'ark, si, all's a'ien-e) .' — 

4 2.-)0 



Lii ramie. 

.funeticiii of 





Ijcst exposure: 


The upper part of this section is probably Laramie. Tlu' thick band 
of yellowish sandstone near the base of the section is very soft, ami 
near the ed<,'f of the coulee, whoi-o it is un])rotected, it has been div 
intei,'rated and blown into sand-hills. Good sections also occur mi Battle 
Creek, in the "(Jap," and at many points along the White Mini 
River. A few miles east of East End ( .'oulee the Fox IIill appears iroiu 
beneath the Laramie, and ihon forms the surface of the hills ik any all 
the way to Swift Current Creek. It is also found south of the hills in 
Ohl-man-on-his-back plateau, which is capped with about 15il feet oi 
ferruginous sandstones. In the ])lains north of the Cypress Jliils ami 
west of the Coteau, the Fox Hill has entirely disappeared, and the 
greater part of the material of the sand-hills now existing there has im 
doubt been derived from it. 

The Vox Hill is overlaid conformably by the Laramie, a formation 
whose precise position in the geological scrde has been a matter ni 
much dispute, but whicli is now pretty generally regarded as a transi- 
tional one between the Cretaceous, properly so called, and the Tertiary. 
The junction between the Laramie and the Fox Hill is markeil ly rn) 
sudden lithological break, and it is often dilticult to determine the exact 
|)oint at whicli one is replaced by the other. I have usually drawn tlu 
line of separation near the base of a thick band of greyish sandstone. 
which seems to mark nearly everywhere in this district, the base nl 
tlie Laramie. This sandstone ditfers from the Fox Hill sandstone ii. 
colour, and also in the absence of clay-ironstone nodules containiii:; 
AimnonUes and Baculites,''yf\\'u!\\ is so persistent and typical a feature 'i 
the latter. 

The portion of the Laramie represented near the west end of ili' 
Cj'press Hills has a thickness of about 800 feet, but this gradually 
decreases eastwaitl, and also becomes very irregular, owing to tin 
unecpial eflccts of denudation at ditferent ])laces both belbre and sinic 
•■he deposition of the Miocene. In some places, as in the "'(iaii,' an! 
al.'O at the East-end Coulee, it lias been entirely swept away, and the 
lower formations uncovered. 

The best exposures of the Laramie occur along the valley of the 
White Mud River, between Cypress Lake and I"]ast-enil Coulee. Thi- 
valley is in some places fully (100 foot dee]), and its banks, which an 
always more or less scarped, atlbrd very complete sections of all th'' 
formations found in the hills. The following somewhat detailed section 
was obtained a short distance abo'- the trail-crossing of the Whiif 
Mud River near East-end Coulee. It is in descending order, and com 
mences about titty feet from the top of the bank, the upper part e! 
wluch is grass-c(jvei'ed. — 



I. Greyish and yellowish sands and clays, sands very fine 

grained, coloi- predominantly yellow 50 

•2. Greyish and yoUowish clays 15 

". Carbonaceous shales 5 

4. Soft yellowish indurated sands showing; I'alse bedding. . 30 

5. Dark carbonaceous shales 4 

(i. Yellowish and f^reyish, soft, and sonaowhat .arenaceous 

clays 6 

7. Yellowish clays, sands, and sandy clays 30 

8. Carbonaceous shales, containing a small seam of in- 

ferior lignite 6 

it. Yellowish arenaceous clays U'O 

10. ( 'arbonaceous shale 2 

II. Yellowish and greyish sandy clays or silt 10 

1'2. Light brownish and greyish clays 15 

13 Yellowisli and greyish sandy clays containing some 

ironstone 10 

14. Carl)onaceous shales and impure lignites 4 

l.'i. Yellowish and greyisli sands, clays, and sandy clays. . 30 
Ki. Cailionaceous shales containing a small seam of 

inferior lignite 6 

1 7. Dark clays 30 

18. clays 4 

III. Very light grey, slightly undulated sands 20 

20. Carbonaceous shales 1 

21. Very light grey, slightly indurated sands 15 

Total Laramie 313 

22. Yellowish sands containing some beds of bard sand- 

stone and a number of ironstone nodules 

FoxHill 120 

23. <Jr"yisb and dark clays 

Pierre 78 

Total thickness of section oOS 

The ujiper jiart of this section has ii general colour, viowed Appoarnnce ot 
troiii a distance, but on closer inspection it is found to contain a number''^ 
of small grey and dark beds, and is composed almost entirely of sands 
iind pure and arenaceous clays. Small beds of carbonaceous shale occur 
iliroii^'hnul tiio section, and often contain thin lignite seams. There is Aiisinepoihard: 
:i iiiiuked absence of hard sandstones in the exposures at this point, ■•"'"''stones. 
I'Ut oil the other side of the valley a little farther np the stream, a 
thick l)ed of hard sulphur-ycUovv and mostly tiilsely bedded sandstone 
tonus the upper part of the Laramie, and in other 2)laces similar 
"oihihir iioii-pei'sistent beds occur occasionally in different parts of the 
sectioii. Below this series of sands, clays and silts, and forming the White band, 
lower part of the Laramie, there is nearly alwa\'s found a band of 

28 c 


•white band. 

clays iind .sands, wliifh in many places has been bloachod almost pure 
Avliite by Ihe action of tiio vet^etable debris now represented by car- 
bonaceous matter. This band, though only from twenty to tif'ty feet 
thicl;, forms, owing to its color, a very conspicuous feature of the sec 
tioii, and can bo seen for miles up and down the valley. Hxposuns ni 
it, in the distance, look like grout snow-banks. The clays and sands ii, 
it, like those above, gi-aduate almost imperceptibly one into the other. 
Distribution of and seldom remain pure for any distance. They arc ustially associated 
with small beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite. This grey band h;is 
a very wide distribution, as it is found in the White Mud Kiver pl;i- 
teau, in the Laramie area south of the east end of the Cypress Hills, in 
Wood Mountain, and also in the Coteau north of the South Saskiu 
chewan. Very fine exposures of Laramie also occur a few mile- 
farther up the valley of the White Mud Eiver near the mouth of I'aii- 
well Creek, whore the following general section was measured :— 


1. YoUowish very fh:c-<rraine.d arenaceous clays, passing 
into pure days and sands IK) 

2. Grcyisii clays, carhonacoous shales, and thin beds of 
lignite, yollowish'sands, clays, and sandy clays 120 

3. Greyish shales < > 

4. Carbonaceous shales 4 

.). L'ljnit 1 

6. Greyish shales 1^0 

7. ]3rown carbonaceous shales '> 

8. ( irey and almost pure white sands and clays M ' 

9. Coarse rustyjvellow sands (Fox Hill) 12."i 

10. Lead-grey and^dark shales (Pierre) ■"'" 

•51 14 

The two^uppcr divisions of this section, though very similar lilh"- 

logically, appear quite distinct when seen from a distance owing t" llif 

diti'erencc in colour, the lower one having a general greyish colciui. 

, while in the uniier vellowish tints lu'ctlominate. The y'encral coiu- 

lioncrju com- j i < l ■ 

positions of nusition of the Laramie, as dcvelopetl in the south-eastern ])ait of the 

Luninne. i ' • i i 

hills, may be briefly described as consisting of ;i lower light-grey baud 

of sandstones and clays, underlying a carbonaceous zone, which usually 
includes a lignite lied from two to three feet thitdc. and is overlaid lya 
scries of sands and i)urc and tuvnacoous clays. The coarser varieties 
of the sandstone in this series ;ire usutiUy affected by false bedding. 

The Laramie appetirs at intervals along tho southern part of thi 
eastern escarpment of the hills, and atone ])luce w:is observed to in- 
clude ;i thick bed of grey sandstone which weathers into monuiaenta! 
forms; but going farther thins out rajiidly. and near thi 


,(5,sELi.] CYPRESS HIM,S. 20 C 

nortli-oast (.■ovner disappoai-s, and the Miocene and Fox Hill come into 
liiwt contact. The following section will explain the arrangement of 
:hc beds in this part of the hills: — 

1 . Pebble conglomerate [iO 

2. ( oarso soft yellowish sandstone (iO 

;!. Clays, lookin<; dark iii bank, but yc^llowish and greyish 

on fresh exposure 8(1 

4. Yellowish sandstone containing iroilstone nodules 50 


The iKirthern escarpment of the Cypress Hills between East-end 

Omk'C and the " Gap" is grass-covered, and atlbrds no oxjjosnrcs of 

any imjiortance. West of the "Gap," the Laramie is seen at several 

|ioiiits in the northern slope of the hills, and also in the banks of the 

valleys of Kour-milo Coulee and Battii' Creek, bnt all the expo.suros are 

vcrv iiiC()ri>ider;!ble. The best one occui-s a conplo of miles west of?,';'"''""'"™'', 

, hlk-wiiterLuKc 

Klk-water Lake, at which point an extensive land-slide, or a series of 
'lilies, lias uncovered the face of the escarpment. The section here, in 
■leseeniliiig order, consists of a bed of jiebble conglomerate, about, titty 
!'i.t't tliiek. beneath which is a rather hard bed of sandstone, from three 
four feet thick, which weathers to a dull reddish color, and shows 
lalse bedding. It is underlaid by softer greyish and yellowish sands, 
;iml the^c by bluish clays. The strata brought down i)y the slide 
meluile clay beds of dit^'eront shades of rod, yellow, and bluish-green. 
The rucks exhibited in this section are higher in the Lai-amie than any 
~cen elsewhere in the hills. 

In the upper part of the valley of Battle Creek the following section 
ua.s olitaiiied. It occurs near the base of the Laramie, and is given in 
leseeniiing order ; — 


1. Bluish clays 20 

2. Yellow sands .'lO 

:i. Carbonaceous shales 2 

4. ("rconish and bluish clays 40 

0. Yellowish and greyish sands 'V) 


This section, which is on nearly the same horizon as the white beds 
"11 the White Mud Itiver, together with a few other smaller ones, found 
at iliirerent places west of Battle Creek, seem to show that the divisions 
"tThe Laramie, as exhibited in the south-eastern part of the hills, are 
ii'ita]iiilicable here, and also that the beds of tine sandy clays or silts, 
'A'hich occupy such a large proportion of the section there, are replaced 
in this part by beds of pure clay anil indurated sand. 






The carbonacoous hoi'i/on, which cxistH nearly everywhere near the 
base of the Lai-aniio, in found all round the western eml of the h;||> 
and contains in several places a workable >oain of lignite. This seam 
has been burnt in many places around the north-wost corner of tlie 
hills, and can be traced from point lo point by llie zone of reddcneil 
rock's tlius produced. It is found near the northern end oi' Klk-waUr 
Lake, whei-e it occupies a jjosition about half way down tlie liauk, ami 
lias a thielcness of about three feet, and it is also exposed in noai'ly all 
the larger couldes leaving the western end of the liills. The foliowinff 
section aivjund it was olitained on a tributary of Willow Creek, a t'tw 
miles south-east from the " Head ol" the mountain." 

I'V.Kr. 1N( l[|;.s. 

1. Dark clays — — 

2. Yellowisli sandstone 40 — 

Vi. Carbonaeei >ii.s shale <i — 

4. Lignite 2 i; 

5. Carl)onaceous shale 5 — 

(i. Lignite 4 — 

7. Carbona(!eous shale ?> — 

8. I/ignilc 1 f i 

y. Carbonaceous shale 2 — 

10. Grey soft sandstone 4 

11. Carbonaceous shale 2 3 

12. Grey sandstoni; , 2 ;l 

13. Carbonaceous shale 4 — 

14. Soft, yrey , massive sandstone 15 — 


The same seam, or one occupying approximately tlie same liorizon, 
was also observed in several places along the White Mud IJiver, in the 
south-eastern part of the hills, but in none of these exposures it is over 
three feet thick, and its (|uality here is usually inferior. 

With the exception of iVagnients of silicitied wood, which are very 
plentiful in a numbei- of places, no fossils of any kind werefmiid in tht' 
Laramie dejiosits of the Cypress Hills. 

TheLaranue seems to have been elevated, and to have sutl'ered exten 
sively from denudation befoi'c the deposition of the Miocene, wliich, a> 
already stated, overlies it unconformably, and which forms the surface iu 
all the higher partsof theCypress Hills, anil covers an areaof ujjwanl- 
of 8U0 square nulos. The Miocene has been removed from the lower part 
of the plateau included between Battle Creek and Four-mile Coulee, from 
the " Gap," and from the depression running across the hills north ot 
the east end of Cypress Lake, and has also been cut through I}' all thi 
larger couldes. Westof the " Gap," this formation consists of a uiiil'onu 
sheet of bard conglomerate, about 50 feet thick, which is well ex^wseiJ 


;u C 

'ii many places in the valleys of Battle Creek, Foui--inile CouU'-e, and 
•ilon"' the odo-es of the jjlateau. In the eastoi-n part of the hills the 
(■on''lom(;i'ate is usually associated with beds of sandstone, sands, clays 
■ind iii:irl>. and the thickness of the whole deposit increases to about 

50(1 foct. 

TJH' loic-lomerato which forms such a mai-ked feature of the Miocene ConKiomcrato. 
deposits of the Cypress Hills, is usually composed of quartzito pebbles 
.imentdl tmrcther by carbonate of lime, but also appears under a number 
nfoilior tiirins. In some places the pebbles lie loosclj' in a matrix of coarse 
vollo\vi>li sand, and in others they are consolidated by a ferrugin- 
ous cement. Beds several feet thick also occasionally occur, which 
voiitain 11 )thing but loose pebbles. The conglomerate sometimes C(m- 
tains intci'strutitied beds of coarse sands, into which the pebiilos seem 
to irrade and also beds of white, or cream-coloured clays and sands, 
\vlii(b occasionally hold calcoreous nodules, some of whicli when 
broken across were found to be spotted by small black concretionary 
■'rains of dxide of manganese. The pebbles of the conglomerate are '''•'•'I'e-^ "f 
iieai'lv always composed of hard quartzito, and vary in size from 
coarse sund to eight and nine inches in diamctei', though the usual 
Mze i> from two to four inches. They are usually white on a fr'-sh 
fracture, l)ut grey and liesh-colourcd tints are also common. They 
are sometimes found forming the lower surface of hard sandstone beds, 
urscattoi'cd more or less sparingly through them. Beds of pebble con- 
glomerate, tliouirh more tVequent and larger near the base of tlie .Mio- 
(.one, are found at iri'eguiar intervals all tlyough it, and are of all thick- 
iiosses, from a single layer of pebbles up to beds fully fifty feet thick. 
In many cases the formation consists of a single thick bed of this rock. 
Besides the pebble conglomerate, beds composeil of angular pieces of 
vlays enclosed in a matrix of hard sandstone, and forming a species of 
breccia, are occasionally found. 

Ths sands of the Miocene sometimes form bard beds, from one to twoSami". 
feet thick, but are usually only slightly induratcl, and ai'e nearly 
always atl'octed by false bedding. In one place, near the eastern 
escarpment, a bed was observed which consists of hard, clean, angular, 
^ilicious i;rains, nearl\- all of unitbrm size, and apparently (juite loose 
and unstratitied. This bed contained a few pebbles anil rolled fragments 
-if Ibssili/.ed wood and bones. 

Small beds of impure carbonate of lime, or marl, are also occasionally Marl. 
found amongst the deposits of this formation, and are worth mentioning, 
as they may become of some economic importance, on account of the 
-cai'ci'.y of limestone on the plains. They are usually white or light- 
vidlowisli in colour, are seldom very hard, and are filled with small 
'■odulcr>. composed of varying proportions of sand and calcite. They 




Sect ions of 

Best "xiiosiirc?. 



-eem to undcflio the .siirfaro over.-i gretit pai-t dI' tlic hills, a jiici showi 
liytlio mtitcrial bniiigiit up liy luirrowin:,' :iniiii!ils, wIumi otiii'i' exiiosiu; . 
aro Wiiiiling. 

(iood portions of Miocene rocks oeciir in the eastern [laii nt'ijiu hill. 
in the btinks of liu- valloysof Fairwell Cieek. the White Mud Kivorainj 
;ilon<j; the eastern escai'pment. In the viillov ot the White .Mii(|. Iicdsni 
pelilile conglomerate, oeciisioniilly iissocitited with some whitisli iniir!~ 
or vollowiHh sands, the whole measuring fifty or sixtv foet, croh (np 
near the surface at intervals all the w;iy hetwcen Cypress Lake and ili^ 
month of Fairwell Coulee. Ivist of Fairwell Coulee, the deposit hecdint- 
mueh thicker, :ind the conglomerate is ovorhtid hy ;il)out a liimilrcil t,. ■ 
of diirk groyibh clays ;uid sands. .\ very good exposmx", tdioiit JJit n,' 
thick, is found in the eastern escarpment, a short distance south of Khm 
end I'ost. At this ])oint, the lowest hed consists of hard, grevisli sui'l 
stones holding some pebbles, ami also some anguliu- fragments otlimii 
greyish clay. This bed is overltiid by coarse, browidsh-rcd saiwU. aii'l 
the siinds by reddish, greyish, and dark clays, interstrtititied with somr 
beils of loose pebbles. In the noi th-castern end of the hills, tlic iippir 
part of the formation htis been swept tuva}-, and scarcely tiny thing exueii: 
u single thick bed of conglomerate remains. 

The best exiiosures of Miocene are foiuid in the banksof ahiri'ecnukV 
whicli crosses the hills a few mileswestof the eastern escarptncnt. Tlii- 
coulee contiiins Fairwell Creek, which flows south into the Wliitc Mui 
K'iver, and tilso ti stream flowing north into Swift Current Creek. TIk- 
two streams, near the eentral part of the ])lateati, split up into a giciii 
number of branches, which riimityin till directions, and cut (lee]»lyini' 
the soft Miocene deposits, which here attain their greatest developinoii!. 
Numerous exposures occur oi\ both the main coulee ;ind its lirancln.-, 
hut they are netirly always small iiiul fragmentary, ;ind nowhere coiiM 
anything approaching ii complete section be obtained. The lock- 
exhibited in these sections consist of pebble and clay conglonierati 
with occasional beds of loose pebbles, hard and soft sandstone'^, the lattt! 
usually veiy coarse-gridned and titfected with false bediling, clays I'l 
viirious colors, but usually dark grey, iind small beds of impure liiiit- 
stones and whitish marls. The tottd thickness of the whole deposit ii' 
this place is about 500 feet, but going west, it thins out rapidly, miiI 
in a few miles everything but the pelible conglomerate di>;ip[ie;irs. 

A number of interesting mammalian remains were tbuud in tlu'.«r 
beds while examining them in 18S;i, and since then, Mr. T, •'. We-ton 
has mtide a much larger collection, tmd the whole has been placed in 
the bamls of Professor Cope tor exiunintition. The only invertcliratc 
ibssils found were some casts i)f Unio shells. 

I liuM showu 
3r ex])osiiri.'> 

f "t'liiehilU 
111 l.'iv(M'aiii| 

^lU'l, llOtlsnf 

liitisli wvmU 
ft, d'op oni 
lako iimJ tlu' 
38it beeome> 

loiit ]."»0 tW'! 
)iitliuf Kiisi- 
:'c'yisli Miiiil- 
il saiwlH, mill 
-\ with soiDi' 

S, tllr U]l]ir| 



aiiioiit. Tlii- 

' White Mii,i 

reelv. TIil'm' 

into a great 

deeply into 



tvheiv coiiM 

The rork^ 


., the latter 

i;, elays lit 

puiv lime- 

ilepDsif ;i' 

ipidly. uiiii 


id ill tho.<f 

( '. Westoii 

1 placed ill 





'■^ '(": 





» :ovstn. I 

uM> Cy|i 

areas oi' c 
as llio ilir 
U'WMh 1 1 
■ <( I'ro-iv 

Swifi C 
I'lm llial 

■:A iwi'iil 

illO |ll!lill> 

• 'cliitr.'H'l 

■II lllO IK) 
Iwill |i)r ^() 
\\"v■^^^ ( '\v 
i'riiicli iif 
Tlio e:,: 

IIIU-l (if il: 
|||JM11VS, IX 

; lire a uid 
mill ejisilyi 
vi/.: the u] 
|iositioii to 
iimi. whii'li 
I lie Fox li: 
more sevor 

nil,. Mil) 

The I'icr 

''Ih'WIiltl', ; 

"1 the color 

'live beeoiii 
The loliatic 
t'xhiUt siiir 


SWIt'T cf imENT nllKEK, 


la !i (niipk' of plin'os south of llio "(iap," alonii' tlio viilloy wliicli com- N/wit .Mm- 
' ' , 1 ' -^ ./ Klomcratcg. 

iieitsCy|irt'SM I.aUe with the Kant Koik of l\Iill< Rivor, Honio Hinall 

iiicas (if ('on.i;Ioiiii'rato wim'o fowml, which arc inohaidv of the same a,irc 

,,s tlio iiiciiliortiiil y;i'UvulH and coii^loiricratos liiiiiid in so many places, 

iviK'Mili liic liril'l. ill the valleys of the larj,'cr slioams (compan- Report 

nf l'nii:ir>>. 1HS2-S 1. p. 110, v.). 

SwtP'T ri'RUENT f'llK.EK PnATKAd. 

Swil'( Ciii'i'Oiit Ci'OcU plateau i> a l>\v ditl'uso I'idge, situated nortli-east fv\fk pi',",?"ii. 
iiiiiii llial of thu ('y|)rcss Jlills and separated from it hy a shallow 
iic'pi'L'>>iiiii idioiil (wclvc miles wide. It is aboiil foity-tivc miles loni;; 
;iiid Iwciily wide, and has an clexatioii of four to live inindrcd feet ahovo 
thi' |)liiiii> around it, or 2,130 foot above the sea. Its surface is usually 
iiiiiliihitinij'. hut in some ])lacos becomes very hilly, aiul its edi^n's show 
"iiijiaralively easy slopes, and nowliero [ireseiit tho abrupt escarpments 
-"(■iiaiactci'istie ot Wootl .Mountiiiii and the (Jypress Hills. It is drained 
■11 dio north by Swift Current Cioelc, which runs throiiu'li the pla- 
iwui li)r some miles, and on the south by the diti'erent branches of Old 
Wi'i's Creek'. A ileep valh'y has been cut conijilclely ccross it, by a 
linUK'ii lit' tlio lormer stream inosculatin,^' with one from the latter. 

Tlio easy slopes of this plateau, the ^ condition of 
mu>l uf its vidleys, and the consequent absence of any extensive ex- 
|iusure.<, renders the collection of details in regard to its gcobjgical slruc- 
;iiiea ta>k of some dilHculty. Its main features, howevei', are s' iple 
ami eas^iiy under.stood. Two tbrmiilions only enter into its com|)osilion, Composition. 
viz; tlio upper part of tho Pierre shales and a deposit similar in com- 
position to the ^Mioceiu^ rocks of the Cyjiress Hills. The latter iorma- 
liiiii, whicli is referred to the Miocene, rests unconforraably on the Pierre; 
the i'o.x ilill and Laramie being usually absent. Tiiis jilatcau sutfered 
more sevcrel}' from the etl'ects of denudation |)ievious to the deposition 
•t' till' Miocene than the Cypress Jiills, as not only have the J'"ox ilill 
aniilaiaiiiieiieenalmost entirely swept away, but part of the Pierre also 

The I'icrre shales, in the north-eastern part of this plateau, jjresent I'icrre shales. 
iiMiinewliat strange ai^pearanco to one accustomed to their dark tints 
elsewheie, as here at a distance they look almost white. The lightness 
"f tho color, is, however, partly due to bleaching, as in a fresh exposure, 
lifrlit-fiicv and bluish tints prevail. The ditferenco in color, is Chiinge in color 

' ' 11 nu ooiniiosi- 

ii*.com|iaiiied by a corresponding change in composition, as they tion. 
have bcconio more arenaceous, and in places pass into a soft sandstone, 
flic toliation is also unu.siially coarse, and the different beds often 
^'xhil.iit slight ditfei'cnces in color due to their more or less arenaceoiLs 


NttllTll-W KST TEUI'.IT(»ET. 

tJImloM diiikor. 

Exiio^uros 111 

rliiinichM'. Tlio facos of soiiio of tlic Mcciions iirc nIiuMciI with larir.. 
uroiiacooiis iioduloM, wliirli art) troiiueiilly incrusttMl with iiidiutin" 
ciyHtuls 1)1" holciiiti'. ShaloM an.swoi'inijf to tlio abovo ilcMcriiiiion aiv 
cxposoil iu a mimlmr of Ht'ctioiis ah»ii^ Jiiish LaUc Creok, aiul Honic 
ol' its liraiiehfs, and arc I hern usually overlaid hv a ln'aw hod .ii 

A f'ow iniloM fartlioi' wost, on Swift Ciirroiit (Jroeli, whcio tin- slmle-. 
aro next mot with, tlioyaiodurkoriii color, but arcHtill very arenacooib, 
and it i> possildi' that >oint'of the U])|)Oi' itods may roprosi'iil pan (il'tjn 

Thf I'iorrc hIiuIos, with tlio fxcoptioii of a sbort iiiterniiiiiou attt;r 
Ihu stream unlorH tlio platoaii ciiuiitry, aro oxposod alon^f iho wini 
h'ii;!;>l> <)l' Swift ('un-onl (!roeI<, from the Cypress IHIIhIo the Siokulclic. 
wan, (he fall of (he stream lieini;' almost identical with the di]) of iln 
formation. Thoy ai'c aliso ex])Oseil in a number ot ))lace> iilun:,' iln 
Mnitliern and castei'n cdfi;es of the plateau, in the valleywol' the ilittoren' 
iii'anchoH of Old Wives ('reoU. (Jne of tho exposures near the >oiitli 
eastern ed^'c of Iho [)lali'au in Township 10, Ifann'o xi,, west nf ili. 
the -ith J'rincipal Meridian, yielded a number ot fossil-, miudu:;-' 
wbicdi aro; — Yuldia Eixinsi, Jjitcina oicidentalis, Xcura Mureunenii.- 
Act It on (itftnuatuii, Anlsumyon rentntle, Anrhura Americaiia. Scaplnti' 
Nicolkti, Sc/iaphitcs SiilxjloOosus. 
I'ioiro ovoriuiil ''"^ Pierre slialos arc iismilly overlaid uneonformaiily by iIm' Mimiiir 
At one point noai- the norlb-eastern edii;e of the j)laleau au oxikimui' 
of ytdlowish and greyish sands and silts, and n'reyisli and dark ela\s\va> 
observed, wbicb may possibly belong to tlio Jiaruniie, and coarse yellow- 
isb sandstones, resoinbling tho Fox Hill, wore seen in a couple ll^pl;KT^: 
liut in most cases, these foi'iiiations aro abst'nt, and the Miocene rost> 
directly on the dark argillaceous clays of the rierre. 

The Pliocene dejwsits of Swift (Jurrent Creek plateau, while lesem 
bling in a general way, the corresponding rocks in tho ('y]>ress IIill~ 
ditVei' from them in containing a smaller pro])ortion of pehlile con- 
glomerate, and in the superior hai'dness of s(nne of the saiidstuno 
Ijeds. Tlu^ best ex])08uros aro found in the valley, noted jii'evioudy 
as crossing the plateau transversely, tho banks of which all'ord almiki'ii 
section of about HOO feet. This section was too fragmentary tn admit ol 
any detailed measurements, but tiie i'ocks exhibited in it may bcgein't- 
all}- described as consisting of coarse lalso-bcdded sandstone, with occa- 
sional beds of a harder finer-grained vai'iety, usually greyish or liglii- 
yollowisb in color, hard silicious sands, clays, shaly clays, mails ainI 
])ebblo conglomerates. The conglomerate usually forms a compact rouk. 
the pebble being held together by a liard, calcareous cement, but in some 
places its constituents are very feebly consolidated, and oeeasioually 

liv MiocfiK'. 


ISest exposures. 



:js c 

me 1IIW!IV> WlM 

iIk'V lie i|uile liioHn ill llic 1k'<I. Tin- pflililcs, wliitli 

nmiuli'il, nro joi'moil nl'lidnl, li;;lit-col()urf(l (|uai''H,aiul iiro prohablv 

like tliost" of tlic Cy|)ro>M Hills, (Utrivod IVom iho f'anihriaii i|iiai't/,ltoH 

it'tlio I! "'lev ^^(mntaills. In ailditioii to tin- rocUs mciitionoil aiiovi', Itoiln \,„iniar li 

il'iiiiiiwri' iioiluliii' limo^tonn ai'c nt uccaMuiial occiirri'in'O. iht'M) 


I KM Is 

ivliic'lini'i'Vfrv fliarai'tcriNtic urtlu' Mioccno, ai'ooiilyslij;htly iiidiiratcil, 
;iiiilwli(ii >iilij('ctwl to Mu' iiilliioiu'i' of Iho atniospliero, wooii criiiiiliit" 
,i\viivaiiil ('"vor tiio baiiU with 8)naii nodiilos. raiiffiiiu; in nizo up to 
iihoiit liiiir ail inch in iliainofor. Tho i^tMU'i'ai soction in'cscnts a Honiu- 
,vb;ii ^I'l'v isli appoai'anco at a disUnco, owiiifjf to Iho ohtni>ivo u hitoncHs 
iif^ionu' of thoso caloarooii s hods, nil hoiiijh most of tlioni ai-o ti)uiid to bo 
more 01' loss yollowish on olost'r iiispoc tion. Tho I'oniflomoriilos in this 
•octioii. arc not dovolopod to ncai-ly Iho wanio oxtoni as in tho oon-es- 
|iiiMiliiii; sei'lion- in llio ( 'xpi't's^ Mills, a fad <lii<', im dciubt. I" tlioii' 
:.'ri'al('r ilislanco ffom the nionntains, but toward tlic oiitsUirls of Iho 
'ii']iO'<il llioy liocoiiio rolativoly niiiob mofo inijxirlant, and ocoasionaltN 
iIkmvIioIc formation is i'0(|iiood to a sin.u;lo thick bod of this rock. 
Tlic Miiiccni- sections on Swift t'liiront Crook heniii a fow miles m 

incoilo III! 

iiliovc the ci'ossiim; of tho ( 'aiiadian Pacilic railway with a sinj,do bod Cr»«ok 
•if coiiiflomerato, Farther up, this bod Imcomos associated with irro- 
-ulunioposils of silts, sands and clays, which disaj)poar again as tho 
wcstoiii liiiiiiidary of Ilic formation is approached. The seelioiis on 

,s\vitl Current 

liih stream ar(^ sullii'u>iitlv \\i 

o\'|)(i>od to show that tlioro is a smal 

liiit \voll-(U'tinod dip towards the centro ot' Iho aiva, and that the Mio- 
rriio iicciipios a sli.allow basin-shapod do])rossion in the Pierre. Tin's 
t'iut, taken in coiinoclion with the u;onerai irrei;-ular (diaraclor of the 
llie prevalence of tiilse bod<iiiiii,', and iho docroasint;' pro- 


Iioi'tioii (if ciingjoniorates lowai'ds the centro, show Iho formation Id 
I'C I'f iiiiii-ii'ine oriijjin, and it was probably dopositi'd in a dilalatioi 


line lar'^e rive:- llowin<r eastward from the I! 

V Ml 




Si;(TIiiN slIowiNc ;MiOCBNB BkDS SLCEItl'OSElJ 0\ i'lEHW; SnAl.E.S. 

Tho expiisiires along tho southern and eastern edges of tho plateau Exposures 
i'l'e iiisigiiificimt ill extent, but are sutHciont to detino the boundary of InlaSn'r" 
the formation in a general way. One of these, which shows the "'*'*'''■ 
iunetiim of the Pierre and Miocene very well, is illustrated in the 
uccumpanying cut. It consists of fifteen feet of bluish, yellow- 

:](i (• 


lie. I c,f (.., 




wcatlHiriiii!,-, tino-n'i'tiiiioil iiriiilhiccims smikIs li()l<liii<r culciu-ooiis noil- 
iilos, j'cstiiig oil tlio J'u'ri'O ami iiiKlerlyini;- iibdiit fit'U'on IW't of pobMi. 
I'onylDinorato. In this sci'licni, small beds of sand ai'o i-iiol'isod \,, 
till' coiiglomcrafe. 

On Ifiish Lak(^ Civck, the I'iort'c i.^ ovci'laid by a single tluck k-il ui 
eongionu'rafc, tlic cxlcnl and ndations orwliicii could nut bo vervwcll 
woi'l<i'd out, owing to (be infr('i|ucn('3' of ('\|iosni'Cs, but wliioh pi'oipalii\ 
post-dates tlu> ^rioccne in ago. 

Tlio only fossils whicli I surccodod in iinding in ihe ^rioci-nc of thi- 
plateau von' a low indeterminable iVagnients of the ivinains nf wy. 
tebi-atc animals. Invei'tebrato fossils seem lo be entirely' absent. 

There are a few haurentian boulders s(-atlered over Swifl i lu'mii 
Creek plateau, but otherwise, exeept on its northern lioundaiy, ii i« 
entirely d lift less. This faet is of some importaiK'e in Inu-ing nut tin 
Miocene, as its junetion with the Pieri'e ean be delined apju'oxiiiiiitilv 
by notieing the ditferenee in the materials brought up by biiirmvin- 
animals; the light-eolorod ealcareons dchri'i brtnight up by aniiiiiil- 
burrowing into the Pliocene being dilVerent from that si i:n wlu'ii iIh- 
surface is underlaid b\' I'ierre or bouliler-ela\'. 

(iKOl-OOV OK TlIK ( 'OirSTRy .'~!oi Til ol' TlIK (Yl'KI'.SS llll.I.S. 

Milli Uiv.T 

The rocks underlying the sui'lin'e of the country in the south-wc-u:: 
corner of the map are well exposed in the almost preripildiis ami 
-carped banks of the valley of Milk l!iver, and a little tiulhei 
nuith in the valley ot -Many Berries ( 'reelc, the outlet of l.iikc l';i- 
kowdu. The.-e two streams oeiMipy valk'ys from 2(10 to ."11111 iVci in 
depth, and I'loin a mile lo a mile and a hall' in wiillh, the baulis h1 
which alt'ord magnilicent seelions of ihe rocks belonii-iiii;- to ihc holly 
liiver series, into whiidi lormalion tln-y are cut. 

-Milk Kiver valhy was visited and examined by Di. (I. .M. Dan-'Hh 
in 1874, while eonneeted with 1I..M. Norlh .\merican I'oiindaiy Com- 
mission ■'survey, and the following detailed descri|ytion is (|U"tcil ti'nn: 
him : — '■- 

"The valley of the .\[ilk liiver is one of the most iinportaiii t'ratuii.- 
mot with on the line of the Ibrty-ninth parallel, and oilers continuuii~ 
and magnitieent sections of beds referable to the Lignite Toiliarv 
series. The country on both sides of it. is seamed Avith tiibiitiuy 
ravines and gorges, the banks of which ai'e olten nearly perpeiiiliciil:ii, 
and which lamify in all directions. Wiiei'e the Line crosses the livr:' 

* (icoloK.v ami Ri'sources of tlio Forty-ninth Panillel, 187r), p. 117. 'I'lic c|iiniali"ti i^ ei"" " 
li'Mutli. ns till- vnliimo \K now out of print. The IuhIs (Icsoribed were iit tliettinic >iip|ii'.''f'l'" '"' 
111 " Li(fiiilo Terthiry '' (Liirauiio) «KC. See Kopcirt ol Pro^re-^ti, 1882S}, pp. 45 C-VM V. 

..] lUVKR VAl.r,KV. 

1- r 

x'cno 111' thi- 
ijiins 1)1' Vfi'- 

wil'i I 'iii'i'cn; 
iinlai'V, ii is 
iciiii;' 'Mil tl„ 


y liui'iMwiiiL;' 
liy aniiiKiK 

■I'll wlu'ii tlli- i- ultt^i'ly iinp;i8.siilili' tor \vaii,i;-oiis or carts, ami iieai' tliis place 
ilK'liiviil Di'y Coulee bi'tiiiches olV, which, accnnlino- to Palliser's inup. 


to l.iilvO Pfi-kow-ki. The a[»pcaf!inc(' of the valley ol' the riv 


iImIi' is >traiiii'c ami desolate. 

The liaiiks nearly 300 teet above the level of the sti-eani, and .Vpin'nnincP'if 

are more than a mile apart. They arc almost bare of vegotati' 

on, and 


I liy band- of dilVerent colored clays and .sandstones in a nearly 


jiH)'i/.oiilal iiii-Uion, as tar i 

IS the eve can reach. The descent into lb 

;allov •■niiiiot be made on hoi'seback but by takini;' a'lvantaj^e of the 
v.ll-wiiiii iiiitfalo tracks, which are found leadiiiii' down almost everv 

vnllU'C ail' 

1 ravine. The river itself is comparalivelv insiii'niiicant. an'l 

uiii'is 111 lirn.-Hl curves Iroin si 


le to side of the vallev, and is I 


I bv 

;;;riMve nl' laruc pophu' tfccs, aiid by willows. The bottom of the val- 
Ihrec distinct levels, dill'erinu; muidi in 

fV IS markcil out into 

tlimiiiii oiilv bv a few t'cci in height. Over the lirst of these lb 

.v.r mu-i ciiuslantly pass in 

flood. It show 

s II! iiianv nlares a 


;uit growth of i^rass, and supports most of the timiier. The 


1, IS character- 

of several dilVerent specie 

-'"•iiii'l level, which the rivei' can seldom if ever 

izoil by the aliiiiidant ^■rowtll of Artrinisid 

'. iliinl h'\cl, which forms a kind of low terrace^ at the foot of the 

'lilt's, iiii'l must be twt'iily to thii'ty feet above the stream, consists of 

iianl. iiiUTlK'il 

elav. the washimi's of the ban 

and noui'isbes onh 

:li'' U'rea-r-wood. au'l a fewotlu'r thick-leaved droiin-lil-lovim;- plants. 

• Tiie -c(iion> <iii the banks are undhsturbed and regular. The beds 
:iii' ilivi'lc'l into ;in upper and lower scries, by a zone of sandstones. 
'fliich i- aluHit two-lliii-'ls up the bank near tlu' Line, but about eighl 
'ii!l>'> ii'irth-wes! ward up the s'ailey, is found formini;' the very smiiinil 
■'t' llie elilV; wliidi here. Wnm the belter siipporL alforde 1 b\- such li.ani 


a< eiimiiare ! with 

clays and arenaceous clay.s of the re-^i of 
itiou, assumes a bolder and more rugn'c 1 aspect, and a greater 

lici^i'hl than el--<'where, I'^'Hirleen mile< s.iulb-ea>i war'i ot'tlu.^ crossiu'j: 

iiie tii;in 



ilic same samlstone /.one is again seen, but now only a 


'lU'-thinl ii|i ihe iiauk. indicating a general inclination of the bcils in a 
^''itli-cii>l('iiy direction — which may not be exactly that ol' ilu^ full 
':]!— of aliiiiit ten feet lo a mile. 
"Ihe ■^auihtoiic>, thoiiii'h often well and cvenh' bedileil, are not. 

i<':iilarl\- hard 


but 1 

lave a no 


r ciiar 

acter . and thou;i'b in soim 

"ihlies iii'lnrated tlirougboiit their entire Ihickne--, in oil 

ler places 

l:ir reni'ivc'l, they may 

how on 

Iv certain bar. 

avers of coinpara- 

"^■'■ly >mail thickness, separated by beds of iniconsolidated sand. They 
•i|'P*""'. liMw.'ver, to be \ery constant in extent, and do not dilfer 
ii':iU'ri;illy in thickness at the several localities wIkm'c they were 
'•"^iiiiiiiieil. They arc slightly ferruginous, with prevailing light 
^■'■Hnw tinu, aii'l are often more or lo<s alfecled by faUi' bediling. 

38 c 


Hooks lielow 

niijrin of 


"Below tlio sandstones occur clays, sands, and ai'eiiarc(iu> (.|;,v< 
yenorally well stratified, and individual beds of which may 'itU-n If 
ti-aced a lonj,' way up or down the valley. The colors are .isually liirjit. 


lieiv ai 

e some zones ot'darUer cai'l 

)onaceous elavs, and in ;i tew 

places iinpu' 



(o tl 

■e iiifnites of no ureat thickness wore observed. Tin-., 
^ss persistent than most of the other beds, and ijoia- 

:it and disappear when tbliowed tiir in either direct 
l'"roin their appcai'ancc, and mode of occurrence, these li^'nites 



.veil have oriifinatctl from the drittini^ toirether of 

Wnoil (ir iicjitv 

matter, and ditlei- considerably from the pure and dctinile beds whicl, 
characterize the Lignite Tertiary further east, and which a]i|Kar lo le 
formed of ti'ces which have grown on the spot. 


andstoiie zone is a u'rcal thickness of 


ami arfii;i- 

ceous clays, forming more massive beds, in which the sti'atiticat 


less perfectly markeil 
ii'revish, and light bull'. 

be general tints aie ])alo green 



" No fossils wei'G found in this u])per series or in the sand> 

the beds 1 



i(! sandstoiit 

u-ganic remains are 


I'are. but are not altogether absent. In a pai't of the section imt lii 
below the base of the sandstone zone, is a Layer with great arciiaccoii 
concretions. whi<'h contain in some places abundance of fossils.'' 

Amniigst these arc < 'ajii/icloma prot/ucfitm, one or 

more siiccu's 



VIcipara. twn species oi' Corlmla, n //(7/.c, and Si'hceritnit/onnosinn. 

'■ A few rolled fragments of bones are also included in the bed. nwl 
some traces of fossil plants. Lower down in the section valvo.'s "i 
Osfrea are found, sparingly scattered through the deposit, and not vn v 
far from the base, a hucr rontaining shells of Unio in a iMmr state ot' 

neservation was observed. Near the latter were found frai^iMciits 

the bones of a large voi-tcbi-ate. They were si'iittei'cd. and not ina vr;\ 
good state of ](reservation, and had evidently been strewn about iifirr 
the death of the animal, and before their envelopment by the sciliraeiii 
These, with I he other vertebi'ate remains, were subn\itted to Prof. Copf. 
who pronounced them to be portions (d'the sacrum and long-bones hI;! 




.ft I 

le ininer iicds ,'iiul sainl 

lies, obsorvnl in a ravii, 


the east side of the Great Dry Couli'c, near the Line, shownl ilr 

following succession of beds 

•Till' iiiinu'S dl' I'lis.-il nuilluses lui-c (rivi'ii liiivc lircii rcvi^oil tiy Mr. WliiK-'avcs in '•imf'inui': 
witli .'lis liitor rcsi'ai'u!R's. 

n< i|, c'onf'inui'! 

„co«»Eu.] SAGE CREEK. .'59 C 

iKirr. iN'ciiES. 

I. Li.i.'ht. yellowish arenaceou-s days uiid t-auds, iinliiutoil 

ill sldpes aiul liijzlier <:n)iiiul.s, but v,\' wliicli a finv 

I'l'i't at tho huso only arc well oxposed f > S 

J. < ia-y sand 4 5 

:!. < irey-trreen avoiiacooii.s day '• (( 

4. AiviKU'eoiis d'ly (rr.sty, iriuyular layer) 2 I! 

■). Highly fernifiiuous layer. A few inches. 

li. Groy arenaceous day, rather cunsiiicnously baiRknl 17 10 

7. (Jrey soil sand^tnnc 14 .") 

5. Sandstones, hard and soft, brownish, yellowish and 

!.'rey ; often concretionary, jienerally well stratified, 
but sometimes false-bedded, forming dill's in tho 
gorgo, and weatliering out into overhanging ledges, 
and horizontally tinted walls 35 (i 

About 90 

•'Tlie Ino^t coniplcte section of tlio beds i)elow the saiulstoiio zone Most cmnplctt 
nils olilamcd atjoiit eii^hl miles nortii-westward trom the lutei'seclion ot 
the valley with the Line, and on the north-east side of the valley. It 
miiy overlap I he last by a few feet, or a few feet nia\' be omitted ; but, 
allowing for ihis slight uneertainty, it forms a continuation downward 
'){ tia' Ijase of the I'ormer section. 


1. Suit grev sandstone, forming the top of the bank 

I about) 4 

-. Kcd-browii roncretionary sandstcjiie, with large liat- 

teiied nodules 4 

■'!. Hard grey sand -i o 

4. Reddish nodular sandstone 2 

■). Whitish arenaceous days, with some selenite in the 

low lu- layers 2'2 (i 

''• <ireyisli and yell(3wish arenaceous clays (banded).. l;'> 4 

7. Ydlow-grey arenaceous clay 11 

>!. (ireyish arenacooua clay in which stratification is 

scarcely ap|iarent 71 4 

'■'■ Vellowisii .sandstone, thin bedded 2 

b I. ( Iroy arenaceous clay ... . 4 .5 

II. I'urplisli shale I »! 

1 2. (iiey an^naccous clay o i; 

V,]. Itrown shale, Mitb imi>erfoctly j)i'eserved ]ilant re- 


14. Grey arenaceous clay 14 8 

1">- I'lirplish shale, with some thin layers of impure 

ligiiit<! 8 10 

1''. furplish-brownsiiale 1 (t 

17. < Inyish arenaceous day 7 7 

b'^. Grey arenaceous clay, ujiper part slialy 11 1 

10 r N(lliT[I-\VEST TtnUtlTOKY. 


!'•. ^'^'ll(J^visll ureiiacoDUs clay ( 

I'm-plisli shale l 

^'(■lliiwisli arcniiccoiis day 8 

I'liiiilisli shall* L' 

Groyish arciiaicdii.s clay n 

SaiKlstmiti. a few inclu's, 

( iicyish aronaccdiis clay 4 

Yellowish aivnacedus clay ^ln\V(>st hcil in which 
r(Miiaiiis !•{' molluscs wo.iv found at this jilacc. 

Oxlmi) 1 

Noihilaily hanh-nod sandstone; I 

Yellowish arenaceous clay ,'!] 

Concealed in slope to riviT, ahout ;i(i 

Ahout 2S4 

21 i. 


I Ml Hi 




Currelatioii cf 


• jouliniioil. 

Tlie tliicisuess ol' beds (lis])la\'ed in the alH)\-c si'C'li()M>. wlieii ciiiii_ 
hinoil, is ahout ?>~^) loet. and the Itottoni of llio rivoi'-vallcy is, prohiiMv 



not \ ery far aiiovij the liasc of the LiiXiiite Tertiary ti)rniation. 
ho observed that the yeiuis Osfreit. is liei'o for llie lirsl time ineiitiniicii 
as ocenrrinii' in these heds; further west it becomes one oj' ||io Illo^l 
usual I'onns. The ci^ndil ioi;,^ of de|)osit im|ilied iiy I lie lieds on llii- 
^[ilk K'iver. are llio.-e oi an estuaiy, oi' shallow M-a mari;in. wIicit, 
wiiilo oysters and eorbulas Mere livin<j;, tiic I'emains of Ire-h-wak': 
shells and land vegetation, wore heiiii;- euiried and mingled wiili lliem.' 
■'The siiju'rposilioii of tlu'se heds on the ('I'etaeeous elay^ of ^-rmii 

4, is not 
was observe 

clear in (hl^ 


as no junetion oi' tjie two rorinatinii- 

'i'lieir lilholoiiieal charaeter, mi^h! almost st'em to roii 

.'!• it ju'ohabie. thai they ro])i'e.-ent llio s;ime series as that -u] 



come up from 

below the fret; 

K eons clavs 



,ast ami \\\ 

Forks of Milk liiver 

Tin-' latter supposition has l)oen ooiitirined by the work done >iiiri 

the ai 

ive deseri]ilioii was wrilti'M, as the re 

:'ks si 

lown in the vailev 


Milk liiver have been traced northward to Many I)erries ('reck 
irom ihonee mi to the Iioad waters of Sage Cioeiv, at which point they 
are ]ilainly seen to be overlaid by the l'\)i-t Pierre shales. 

The plains between Milk River ami .Many Worries ('reek, near lln' 

lib (d' about li 'Klfl feel, hiil ^niim' 

international boiiiidarN' 


a lieu 

Kli'viiiioii iif north towards the south-west eoriior of the C'viiross Hills, the elevation 

i>].,;n„ - I 

and neav the base of the hills it exceeds 4,0ii0 loot. 




iiulv increase^ 

liOW pllltOiUl. 

A tow miles north of Many 15errios Creek, [iroceediny in a iiorthorly 
direction, the edu,'e of a low plateau running' northwest and -oiitli-Oii-' 
In readied. This plateau liad been deeply i;'ashed in many place- aloiii; 

its sou 


ern slope by coulees running ba(d< from 

.Maiiv Bon'ii' 

Ci'oek and cutting deeply into the .soft urgillaccou.s and areiiacooib 



ks ol !lit' Holly J^ivoi- s(.'ri''s. wliic 

li const iliile ils ))i'iiH'i|i;il \un^ 

N'oai' ilii' sHiiiinil of llie |>liil('iiii, a( an elevation 

if about ;;,()()() feet 

the Belly Hivei' series is overlaid liy the Picn-e shales. The Hiipei- 
)osition of ilie J'iei'ri; on tlie Helly IJivef sei'ies is eieai'ly seen in many 

(if th 

soetiiiMs jiionn' the edize of llie ])hiteaii, es])euially on those 

in'cuii'iiiij,' "II iIk' lii'ani'hes of San'o Ci'eek. Tliis stream heads in tiieSuceO 
|i|;iti'iiii, ill \vhieli its inniierous lifaiiehes ha\e cai'ved out a deej) hay, 
and tlews >oiitli-casl\vai'd, erossiny- the foi'iy-nintii ])ai'allel a few miles 

Wild lloi-se Lake. Xoac the Line, tlie lianks a 

I'llSt III' 

onelo>o a widi'. i 

fo low and 

iosolate ela\' Hat. on wiiiidiiioth 


^•fows except saije 


;iiid cacliis. Fai'liiei- up. the hanks of the valley heconie hi^'he: 

and H'Ct ions of ro(dv he^-iii to appear. At one point, this stream has rim 
leemiivoftod IVom its old valley, pi-ohahly liy some ohstruction during- 
iIr' i;lMcial ;ii;'e, whii'h has turned it to the east, and it runs for sevcM'al 
miles tliroMU'li a narrow valley, witii steep-cut haid<s, liel()re it reiiains 
it> fornior channel. The newer valley was prohahly partly formed hy 
iiiiwiilatiuLi,' coidees helore it lieeame the hed of the main stream. In 
i>ii]i|n'r part .Sau'e rreek divides iiji into a niimhcr of branches, all of 
wliiili p(i->ess dee]) valleys and exhibit very line sections of the I'ocks 
'ii'loiigiiiy to the upper i)art of the Helly Jiiver series ami the basal 
|i'ii'liiiii (if the Pierre shales. Isorth of Sage Creek, the jiinetioi\ of the'' 

,.ll|--c c,f 


Tc ;iiii 


• Iviver series is marked b\' a series 


iiiiirkcd ipy lew 

ow iilateausi'i'itoiius 

laiiii'' westward, and exlendiiiii' in a .-omewliat uneven line in a direc- 

tion ;i little west of north to I 

liii'V turn to the east. 

iull s 


jilaleau, beyond which point 

n; siiiiei'iiosition of the lierre 


cs, on the more arenaceous and Sii|.i;r|Hi.-itiim 
ii^'liti'i' coloi'cd bed,> of the iUdlyifiver series, is immisiakably shown in li.'ii.v RiviT 

1 , , , ' , I • 1 ■* ..'Series. 

a 'j.ivA\ iiundier of places alon^" the western slopes ot this range oj 
iiialeuu-. and imt^ the (juestion of the relati\(.' ])ositioii of llie two for- 
iiiiiliuiis lieymid doiibt. 

I"i>t (if I he-e jilateaiis. the J^ieri' shale- become the surface fiirmation, 
'■■^n'\i[ where overlaid by the (de>aled Jiaramic ])inteatis. and ('ontinue so 

if about Kb to the mile, agreeing uipuf A\nU>, 

;i ureal di-iance ; their easterly dip 

^■ely c 

Idsclv with the decline of the wh 

Hint vv in the ^aine direction- 

IkIi' jircseiicc is indicated by numerous exposures in the lianks of all 


!• iH'iiicipal val 

levs ami al 

-o liv the iiard cla\ 


ey and sterile nature of 

fcaiiiie which nearlv alwa\s cliaracterizes soils (nvinii' llieir 

'I'l;;-!!! 1.1 this i; 

• rmation. 

KxpilSIIIC.-' (HI 

rile Kasi and West Forks ot -Milk Kiver atlord yood exposures of the 
"ii;ile> ill the upper ])arls of their courses, but near the lioimdary they {jV^'J^^'^' •^''"' 
le'ume c incealed by the heavy drift deposit.s. The dritt is, however, 

ii'ist (.iitirelv (Icrived from the uiiderlvinir shales, and it fnMiuentlv 


is c! 

ly-iroiistone iiodiih's, and also frai^'tnents of the mm e coiu- 

lossils of the t'ormali(jii. 


Belly River 

lloiivy (li|i. 



TIk' rocks of the Belly F^ivcr sories ;iro ln'oiight to tlic Mirfiuc, ain! 
-preud ovoi- a limited area, a tew ir.ilos east of the West Forlviii Tinvn 
'hip 1, Eungo xxvii, W. ;{r(l Principal Meridian. Thoy are l)rou.','lii 
up (|Uite suddenly liy a heavy southerly dip from beneath the .-halo 
whieii they un(K'rlie eontbrmahly. This area was examincil by ])!■. 

(r. M. Dawson in 1871, and the f 

bllowing description is (iuoto( 


A most interesting section occurs in a deej) valley about six 



west of Kast ForU. Exactly on the Boundary-line, the banks sluiw^odd 
ex[ii»siii'es of the L'l'ctaceous shales, more closely resembling in tiu'ii' 
lithological character those seen in the tipper part of the Pembina ^Liun- 
tain sections, than tl 
of Wood ^lounttiin. 

-e of the same 


s as occurrini.': in the viciiiitv 


le rock is almost. 



te hori/;oiit:il. is ijitIIV 

hard, tind well slratitietl, and imdudes white bands like those already iv- 
ferred to. On Hdlowing the valley about a mile northward, these clay 
shales seem to bend suddenly upward and giv; place to a series of rock-. 
which appear to iMderlii' them, and whicdi ditfer from thorn altogethc!' 
i>> ihaiacter, and include massive layers of sandstone and thick .ireiia- 

C' 0. 

A > 

e; lion 


measured ticross the upturned edges of these 1 


which is given iielo , the measurements being reduced, so as to repre- 
sent the actual thickness of the strata. The section — supposing iv 
reverstii to have taken place — is in descending order : — 

FEET. lNCIir.S, 

1. SoiiilireCrotaceous clay-shales, Division 4,^1. andH. 
-. Ciray and yellow arenaceous clays, with suiiie re- 
mains of OKtiva in the lower layers (about) I'li '> 

:;. Greyish-white arenaceous clay, with irre.<,'ularsheets 

of ironstone "^ '' 

t. Carbonaceous slialo 1 '^ 

.■). (irey arenaceous clay - '' 

• !. Black larlxinaceoiis ><hale - " 

7. Dark shales, with carl lonaceous bands 1- '' 

S. Caiboiuiceoiis shale, with jioorly preserved i)lant 

remains ^ '' 

!•. Grey arenacous clay ■'" '^ 

10. Brown shale, with intlistinct iinpressioiis of plants, 

a I'ew inches. 

11. Grey arenaceous clay ■' '' 

12. I-aniinnteilcarlionaceous shale, with sjiots of amber, 

and inijiressions of i)lants - 

i;;. (irey and yellow arenaceous clay -** '* 

14. Yellowish arenaceous clay ^ " 

l.j. Grey arenaceous clay " " 

* (Jeolopy mill Ilcsoiirccs of the 41illi Piirallcl, !>. 114. 


]i;. Soft lieds — inoliably yellowish arenaceous clays, 

liiit not ui^ll exposed 'Sb 9 

17. <iroy sandstone, weathering yelloAv, and witli many 

jointa.<:c-crafks ^'2 in 

I'-, (iicy ifcili arenaceous clay 4') 11 

1". Hard sandstone, liroakini; intfi lar^o rectanfiular 

IVasinients, and weatlieiiiii: iiitn iMjt-hdle.s -I 

L'li. Soft arenaceous ilays 12 lo 

21. l"ine-i.'rained giH'y-yellow sandstuue, with ilendrilic 

mari<in<_'s 2 

22. (Irey and yellowish arenaceous clay, with some thin 

sheetsuf ironstcine :>-! "i 

2;'>, heil-brovvn sandston(^ 2 (I 

21. Sdf'i irrey sandstone <> •"> 

2.'i. Niidiilar limwii sanilstime o (i 

2(i. Suit Ijcds, with some thin sandstone layers -A 

27. Nodular red-b-own sandstone, (aboui) :"> 

2^. (ireyish and yellowish arenaceous clays, well strati- 
lied, and witli small fratiment.s'of S(jine Laineli- 

iirancliiate shell at the base 8S ."> 

'"■'. Greyish and yellowish arenaceous clays, well strati- 
lied I::l In 

■'10. Sandstone '■'< 

•"il. Brownish arenare(_)us clays, iTiuii))lin,u- auil rulttui 

where exposed I;'.4 4 

:i2. Cirey sandstone (1 )ij> 4.') ) 1 i> 

;!". Yellowish sandstone, thin bedded and tlaggy :!4 U 

:>4. Purplish and iirownish clays, with evident strati- 

tication lines 47 7 

:ri Impure ironstone 1 

"'li. J'urjilish shaly clays 127 :'► 

37. Impure ironstone 1 

i'lf^. Crundiling earthy clays 2(i Ct 

8!« 7 

"The licd> below these arc not exposed sutHciently well to enable the 
bicetioii to be laetisurcd. From blocks of sand.stonc strewitiy the banks, 
liiiwcvir. it i-, probable that one or more layers of this rock occur not far 
\v\uw tlie base, as here driven. 

"The >trike of tiiese beds is N. 27° M(may.) and their ilij), soul heaftt- 
wiud, at an-les varyini-- from 45° to about 'M°. The tilting' of >trata 
10 >ii( li aniiles as these — even if the existence of no more violent 
llcxuiv he >uspccte(l — is in itself a circumstance sufliciently remarkable, 
in a cduiiiry where, for huntlreds of miles, the rocks are found with 
'iicliiiaiii)n> no greater than can bo accounted for by original irregu- 
iaritit.s ot' deposit. Tlic nearest disturbed region is that in the 
iiciiclihoui'l,,,, ,d of the Buttes, iind the upturning is there ii\ immediate 
^■'auioitioii with the extrusion of iicneous matter." 

Till in 
stmt a 



•I -I (■ 


Arc of ili-- 

tUlliUll llril". 

Km-i K..rk • 
Milk IJivn 

Kaiii;.' "( 





Til I'll' is litlli' 1 1(111 III that ilioii|)|)Of part, if not all mCiIh- |i,.(U I 

11)1 su iiiH'N|u'cti'(lly 111 tins 



us IS sh<i\v 

M liy tlK'ir strMtif^Tajihical [losii 


)oliiMu,- U) tlic Hi'Uy liivof s(.'rio>. 
ion, anil also In' flicir IkiM 

iiiL!; al oiu' point iiunu'i'ous spocimons of ('orbula pernndata, duo nC tin- 
most cli.'iractci'istic i'ossils of that fonntUion. Sonic of ilu' Ihw.t Ii,;i1, 
ina\ lii'loiiii- to tiio same sorios as tlio lowi-r dark sliali's foimu northot 

Till' Jimi'tion of tlic Holl\- Kivcr mtIc^ aiiii 



Hilt I 







ho soutliern od 

.f tl 

lis (llStMl'li( 

It nrcM iv 

(•learly shown, but as tlio northern contact is concealed, it is iinpii<>ili|i 
to say whether the presence of the iiii(lerlyiii2j beds is due td 

■■i in I) 1 1' 



tliev are faulted alnnii' their northei'n 1 

n iiorili'i'. 

llioiin'li I he l;iller hy|)()lliesis seems the more ])i'ohaMi' nm'. In ciihri 
ease, tlie high aiiule al whiidi tlie-e hods lie is a i|nite anMiiialniis orcnr- 

reiice in this district. 
The Kast l<\.rlc of Mi 

River after leaxinu' the neiii'liliourliood ol il 

( ypn 





interest, as the iiisiiinili 


sections seen along- its valley show scarcely anything but drift. .\ii 
o.\posure of Fox liill sands was fotinil at (Uio point, near the extroiiiity 
of a sharp beml which it makes to the east, about twenty miles north 
of the liiiundarv. 


rocoediii!!' ill an easterly direction from this stream aliiULi' a 


with an elevation of about ."J, 000 feet, the next point of iiil crest wliidi 
is reached is (he range of low westward-faciiii;' plateaus, wliieh extnub 

trom tlie huuiidar\- near 


mi;e x.xui. 


•iiiciiial .Meridiai 

1 III ;i 


rth-westerly direction. Old-man-on-his-back plat 


•riv member of this rau'^e, is about four m 


loiiu" ana aiioi 

le must iiiii'tli- 
ui 150 ti'i'i 

hiu-b. T.. til 

e west It presents a steep scarped face, but in all other diriT 

lions slopes gradual 

\' aw,'i\' 

Its surface is undulatini 

iiid in 



])arl \{}vy sjiaringly covered willi drift. The beds which enter iiitn 
Coiiiiiu.-itiuii. the ei>m])osiliiiii of this ])latcaii, are well exposed on its western -I'lpr. 

are there seen to consist of about 800 feet of I'iorrc shak 


<\- aliniii l,")!) t'e 

el (M vellow 

isli box Hill sand 

thill beds of nodular sandstone nesir th 

A tVw 

I of the Fox Hill have sorvcil 

mis ana 



lo arrest the work of denudation, and to presei've the ])lateaii. .\ rniii.'!' 
of high rolling hills continues on from the plateau in a ii'iiih 

easterly direction for several miles. South-east of Old-niai 


I{nuiMiMl ridiro. lilateau, and sc]iarat 

it b 


rom It Dya wiue valley, is a long rouiuled riui;v 
much lower than the plateaus cither noi'tli or south of it, and compuseii 
entirely of Pierre. The third ]ilateaii, whiidi extends to the boundary. 

is of more iinipnrlaiice than the other two. as it re-introduci 




th \\> 

accompanying carbiuiaceous zone. 


le western face 

G-ood exposures ori'iir 


if IMcrrc shales of the usual kind. Above tl 

this plateau. The lowest beds seen ei 
lese comes the Fox 

,:toN«Eu.] WOOD MOUNTAIN. 45 I' 

|,i.rc ;i1p(iiiI lit'ty loot lliick, Tliis foniiation Idolo ii ;;• 1 deal ^■l■(■v('|• I'^nuaiiiiii!' 

'hiu: i> u-uall>' tilt' cast', ami contains a cunsiilcrahlc (jiiantily i>\' lianl ny i.lntcmi. 

-uinlsiniir in i)lac(\s. 'I'Ir' Fox Jlill is sin'cocMicil foiilornialily iiy tlio 

Liiniini^N llu' lower part of wliicli foiisisls of a ronspicnoiis band of 

wliiic anil lJI'OV clays and sands, fd'ly-tivo foot tiiiok', lioldinii' a scam of 

!i:.'iiitf fnini two to three fool in tliici<n<ss. The liu;iiit(' in this soani l.iKinio. 

i> iif tliirlv ^'ood (piality. and will iicconio valualjlo for local jiurposcsso 

-oiiii as liio country in its vicinity hoconics settled. !t has hccn burnt 

imitti in :i niiniboi- of phicos along the cscarj)inont. It is overlaid i>y a 

I.L'il ol Mark clay, twenty feet thi(d\, which looks e.xacily ilic >anu' as a 

M nci'iipyinii; a simihii' position in tho ('yijross Hills. l"he upper pai't 

(if till' Liu-amie consists of about fifty feet of yellowish and ij;reyiLdi 

Mlt> inlei>ti'afified with some thin bods of clay and sand. Tho Luru- 

iniiik'ii'i^ils at this point ln'ar a stron;;' n'cm^'al i-eseiidilanco to the 

liC'ils occii|)yin^' the same relative ])osition in the east end of tho 

('vprc-s Hills und north of Wood Mountain. Tho .surface of this pla- 

K;m i- undiilatini^ and near tho summit bocomos very roiii^h. Towards 

till' i:i>i and no;ih it slopes gradually down to the jii'airie level and no 

•\]>o-uius occur. .V thick bod of pebble congloinei'atc was timnd in a ''""-'"""''•'"'• 

ile|ircs<iuii a cou[)le of miles east of the west end of this plateau. This 

lu'd resembles oxactU' the Miocene conglomerate ol tho Cypress Hills, 

liiit it probablv agrees more elosolv in <'ii;e with the more recent •\!-''' "' '"»- 

' " ^ ' ' gloiiiei'iitf. 

iK|ifi>ils ol'a -imuar character found ^olllh of the •" < ia|)" of tho Cypress 

Hills, ami in the valley of tho Saskatchewan, which have boon referred 

I'liliv riiocene. Tho beds underlying the conglomerate are not exposefl 

ImU are pmliably Pierre. 

Kast efthis plateau an undulating plain, based on the Tiei're shales, 

lull at'eiiliiig no e.xposures, extends all the way to tho White Mud 


(iKOI.OdV Ol'' Wool) M<MNT.\I\. 

W'ei"! .Mountain is .■>imply a westward ]>rnji'cting spur of the Coteauw,,,„i 
Laramie aiea. Its geology is very sim])le. as the jjlaieau is composed of (Iim|(,j.'.v 
;iiiundi>iui'bed and conformable series ofstiata. referable in descending' "'' ' ' 
"filer te the Laramie, tho Fox 11111 and the riorro shales. The wlude 
\Vstem ha- a dip in an easterly direction, of about ten foot to the mile. Oi,, nf system. 

On approaching Wood Afountain from tho north, along tho Moosojaw 
ami WiMid .\b)untain trail, exposures of rock aie first met with in the 
vii'inity of Twelve-mile Lake. This lake, which occupies tho aliandoned 
ihaniiel of some ancient stream, is hemmed in b}' high baidis, which 
alloni excellent sections of all the formations found in in the district, 
-N'oar ii> western end, the exposures consist of Pierre shales only, but 

46 c 



iiiilNiiilliar ill 


liiiiiiidniy 111'aiiiii'. 

KivHion? (if 



ii'oin^ oast nlong tlio lake, the Fox Hill and Lanunio (IcMoenil Miccessivolv 
1<» its level. 

The upper ])Oi'lioii of llio IMcrro slialc-^, north of Wooij .Mniiiitiiii, 
|ii'('M-MtN a somewhat, mifaiiiiliar ajipcaranco, where seen in tin' •icctinth. 
aroiiinl iht; lakc^ ami in thf numerous eoulres ioadinji; from the hills, ;i. 
it has liccome ureyer in colour and more arenaceous than the Ivpira' 
variety, and its I'oliationis also much coarser. These ,i,'i'cy arcnacooih 
shales are nccasionaly ilirectly overlaid by the Laramit', Inii hihiv 
frequently a varying; thickness of coarso-;jji'ained, ycllnwish -aniUlnn.' 
repi'cscntinn' the Ko.k IFili, intervenes hetween the two. Very fcwt'ossils 
were found in those sandy shales, but one section, after careful cxamin;i 
tion, in addition to some of the more emnnion fossils r)f the furiiiatiiMi, 
yielded specimens oi' Sra/ihifcs suh(il,ohnsu>< ami Anchura Amrrii'nnn. 

in the western pai't of Wood ^lounlain, the boundary of the Laiamii.' 
is coincident with the edge of the plateau, but farther east, owing to ilic 
easterly dip of the Ibrniation, it loaves tjio hills and turns away to tlic 
north, and at Twelve-mile Lake, the plain between it and the Imitnl 
the plateau is based entirely on tlio Laramie. This plain, uhidi has a 
northerly slope of about tifty feet to the mile, is seamed in all dirertioii- 
by coulees issuing from the hills. 

The Laramie strata north of AVooil Mountain include throe Miniowha' 
dissimilar gi'ou])s. Al the l)a8e there is a scries of yellowish sands, >ilt> 
and clays. hoKlin,i;' small interstratitied beds of ironstone. |i;irt uf wluili 
may be referable to the Fox, Hill. This is ovei-laid by a v" ry ioiis|iicu- 
ous band of whitish and greyish argillaceous sands, sands and clay- 
interstratitied with a thick" band of cariionaccous shales, wliicli oitoi: 
includes a small li,gnite seam of inferior quality. This seam lias lic'ii 
burnt in a number of places. The third grou]) consists of j'ellowish -iltv 
sands and sandstones, with an occasional bod of hard nodular samistoiu' 
Altliougb none of the beds in this sec^liun maintain tlu' same rmnpo'ii 
tion for any distance, and false bedding and other ii'regularilii's iiii|ily- 
in.U' deposition in shallow watei', are of frequent occui-renee, yd tli< 
tlistinction between the ditlerent zones is remarkably persistent, aii'i 
holds good as far west as Cypress Lake in the Cv|)ress Hills, 

East of World Mountain Post, the plateau is exti'omely irregular aii'l 
broken, a fact due to the multitude of streams and coulees which in 
tersect it in all directions. The banks of most of these valleys arc un 
fortunately, usually grass covered and the geological infoniiatioa thi'\ 
all'ord is very meagre and unsatisfactory. The few exposuies which il' 
occur are very fragmentary and show yellowish and greyish silts. sand« 
and sandstones, belonging to the upper portion of the Laramie. .\ 
thick bed of hard sandstone was found near the surface in a ninnbei'nt 
places and small beds of lignite are of not infrequent occuiTcnce. The 

' t'uill -Olllll. 

.co,NEU.] \V(.()D MOUNTAIN. 47 .' 

itiiist viiluiil>lo seiiin lluit wjis cxamincil i< siliiatoil nlioul olovon miles 
wbl ol'Wood Moiiiiluiii \'i)>\, in 'riiwiislii|) 4, IkJiii^^o i., West ot llio iinl 
IViiiriliiil Moridinn. TIuh scam, wliicli lui-- l)e'on wcti-kcd lo some* 
cxtoiit, i> ;ilM)ut six foot thick mid is oC viM-y liiir <iuality. It is asso- 
eiiilod ii'iili abovo and bolow with sandy cdays. Tho li/.^iiito tVoin this 
seam was used with satislactoi-y results hy liic Noi'tii-wcst Muuntod 
Police tl)i' iiiueksmithiiig piirjioses, wlieii (hey were stationed at Wood 
Moiniiiiiii. A iari^o stream ol'oold water follcetinsjj on tlie impervious 
■.uil'aro 111' this bed issues from the l)ank and pours over its t'aee near 
the |il:ui' where it has been worked. 

Aiiiitlier seam of a worlcable cliarai'ter was observed a few nule> r,,;ii -cinii. 
t'urihiT west in Township 4, Jian,i>-e ii., West of the iird Principal .Merid- 
ian. Tlii^ scam is well exposed in the siile of a hill south ol' the trail. 
The lollowini; section was measured liere : — 

iKirr. iNcuKs. 

1. Yellowish sauil}' clay 

■J. ( arljunaceous shale :.' 

:'i. L'tijnUe S 

•1. Caihonacoou.s .shales 1 1 

,"). fJiiiiil 4 (i 

Ii. ( 'arl)anace()us shales 1 d 

7. Siiiid\ da vs 

Gdiii:;' Miiilh fr(jm W<iod 3b)unlain l.'u>I, no cx])i.>^urc> of any kind 
iveiv met with until the southern escarpment of the j)lateau was 
reached. At this point, a thick bod of nodular sandstone projects from %,,„]„!, ,. 
tlio slope Ilea 1' its bank, ami abovo it small scetion> of yellowish silts ^■""'"'""•'• 
anilsnids a])]u;ar in the bank. 

The s.iiitliern edge of Wood ^[ounlaiu ])lateaa is low, is usually well 
:;Ta-M'(|, and is consoquontlj' .sutt'ering little from denudation atpre.sent. 
It lias been forced back to its pi-escnt position by the united erosive 
enm'ijio^ of Poj)lai' Hivci- and Jiocky Creek. These two streams arc 
>^till separated by a low di tl'u.-e ridge. whi(b i^, bowcvoi', rapidly un 
'leri,Mini;' degradation. The western slope of this ridge has been worn 
into li:id land> by bi-anches of IJotdcy Ci-eok which ]ienetrato it in all ^.,,1 i;ii,.i,<. 
iliivcliiin-. The sections exhibited in these ]5ad Lands were examined 
I'vllr. (r. M. Dawson in 1874, .and the following ilotailed desci'i])tion is 
4ii')loil from his report=<=: — 

"The must instructive section, however, in the Wood .Mountain .section .?.mili 
vegion. lies twenty miles south of the settlement of that name, on theMuuntiiin. 
lorty-niuth parallel near 11)0 425 mile point from Eed Eiver. Here beds 
undoubtedly behmging to the Lignite Tei-tiary formation — which, east 

' iit'ilugy ana Reaouroos of the 49tli Parallel, pp. 92-10.3. 


.S'hHTII WKSr •I'KHlllTnllV, 


Iiiicl IjiiiiI- 

of this Idciility 1ms covorcd so ^rrut an iirt'ii of c-fniiiJrv -iuc fdim.i 
clt'iirlv ■.ii|i('i'i)iisi'(l (III iiiiliil)iliil)ki Cri'liu'coiis rocUs. Tin' i'\|mis|||,., 
aic iiiiitU'riiiiM,iiii<l iii'c pMidnceil \>y the >ti'cjiiii> tlowiii;; iVoiii iIk -.ontl, 

cril OHCIlI|ilin'lll nf I III' \V!lllU'-.s|l('il platoilll, alinvc IM't'ciTfil 1(1, Wliidi |,;i. 

Iiciv Ik'cmi yaslit'il l>y tlu-ir acliidi iiiln most iim;<(oil Jhiil Loinls. 

<c'ri|>iliiii III' 

This term lias fttlacliml to il in the wosi 

'Kims II 

I A 


ifiiiliar siijiiilicaiioc, and is appiiod Id the n , uand dvsohilc coii 




ifio Ihe siil'l, i'la\'cs Icrliarx' liii'mulioiis aif iiinl 


cliiOlliir nipi,| 

asli'. Sleep irii'y;iilai' hilU (il'day, on whicdi sciii'ceiy atraeo ufvc^^c 
liilioii e\i-ls, are loiiiid, se|iaraled liy deep, iioaiiy porpeiiiliciilar-si(le4 

and nileii well niu;!! iinpa»il 

valleys, or, wiieii ili 


loll ii;i« 

advaiu'cd In a I'm llu'r sUifj^e — and ospoeially when Miiiie lumi' loislin;,' 
-I rain in li>iin-> a naliiral lia'-e to I he elavev luds— anarid tiat, iniVfil 


I he \\a>hed diiwii elay>, alnitist a> hard as stmie when dry, i> iirdd 
and Mippiirl ^ irr(\:j,iilar eonos and imi le> ol'ilay, tho remnants ota tiiriiicr 

luifli leve 



I III I iieso reji'imis, pi 

IMTnl- Willi !■: 

treiue rapidily diiriiii;- the short period of each year, in which iho mi 
i-- saliiialed wilh water. The lerin first ami t_\)iicaily applinl tu iL 
newer \Vhile l!i\i'r Terliaries of .W^lirasea, has iioon exleruled to vdw 

roiinliy of similar naliire in the Li;.;nite Tort 
.Missouri, and oilier Tertiar\- areas of the wes 





innlain, the hi! 

a^-'iiiiie tlio lor 

i "v i'e^'iiiii> of I III' ('|i|ici 
the haddamls. mhuI: 
irokeii plaloaiis; if 

leii a liiinler laser nl ^iilIill■ 


H'eiu'iiiliiii;' ii'radiially into conical ]ieal<s, wj 
--lone, or material indurated hy (he eoinhiistioii of lignite h 
resistant eappinjj;. Where no siieh proteetion is alVorded, lomideil H"'/ 
htiitp^ ari' produced from thi' homoii'eneoiis arenaceous days. Wii te 
proceeds cntiroly hy the power of fallinn' rain, and ihi'. >liiliiiii- ilnwuot 
llio lialf lii|uid cdays in the period of the moltiii,L!,' >now in .^piiii;;'. Tin 
cla\' hills arc eons(M[iicntly furrowed from lop to lia.--e, hy iiiiiiinu'iaflf 

runnels eonver,n'iiiii,' into laryor furrows lielow, 


10 small ^1 reams r;i]i- 

idly ciitliiii;' liach anioiin' these hills, have formed many narrow slecp- 
walled gullies, while the larjjjer brooks have produced Mddetlal holtoiiu'il 
valleys at a lower level, in which tiii^ streams pursue a very -er]i('nfiiii' 
course, denudation is even here, however, lioino- on as i'ruia die fir 

V eiici'iiMcliiii;; 

UMIil; iuim 
hcil>, wliirli 

ipieiit cliaii,i;e in the (diaiiiicl of the stream, it is constantly i 

oil the hanks of the main valley, under-cutting them and e 

slips. The method of the immense denudation of Tertiary 

is proved to have taken place over the area of tho western plains, i^ 

explained liy the degradation still going on ii 

present herders. 

I tins wav 




Woiili .MOUNTAIN. 

Kt .■ 

"The u'ciionil socfiDii iil lliin place, whidi, tlioii;;li iidI exposed iis n ''''in'iiii •••'''""> 
whole :it ;iny olio wpot, is reniai'Ualdy fU'iir. is niitiiiMlly liividod into 
ll)iir iiiirts. 

Skci'ion in I!\ii Lwd.s Soriii oi' Wdod NFurNi \in. 
iTIi' ;i.-lorisk Iniliciites tin' liMri/.mi iit wliicli vcrti'linilc rcmiiiii-i wen' ripiiinl.) 

•'Takiii:;' first tlio liicjliost iicd seen, the order is as ioliowu : — ■ 

"((f) Vellowisli sand and aretiaeeous (day, sometimes indurated in 
•■I'l'tniii layers and f'orininu,' a soft sandstone. It forms llie l!al plaleaii- 
likc ti>|)s of tlie liii^diesl iiiils seen. Ahuut 50 J'ert, 

■'(li'i Clays and arenaceous clays, with a general pur]disli-grey color 
ivlien viewed from a di-lance. About 150 feet. 

"(y) Yellowish and I'li-ty sjinds, in some places approaching ariMiace- 
ous clays. Mficii nodidai". Abuut SO fret. 

•'(fj) (ireyishd)la(dc clays, rather haril and very homogeneous, lireak- 
ing into >Miall atigiilar fragme ■; on weailiering, atid ll)rmini;' earthy 
liaiiks. Ahout '10 feet seen. 

"The whole of the IkmIs appear to he eoid'ormahle, and disiegarding 
minor irregularities, are (piite horizontiil to the e3'e. 

■Till' clays ;ind aivnaceous (days of the upper ))art of Division />' are 
v(>ry ie;;alarly hodded, and include a lignitediearing /one. Throe lig- i/,.riiiic i)c(l!<. 
iiilchc(ls, iif from one to two leet each li\ ihieknoss, were (djsi^.'ved, but 
tlu'v are sejitn'ated from each other by rather wide (day partings, and 
avciiiit jHire or of good (\uality. A hed ri(di in the remains of phints, pj.^i^, icmiin*. 
imiuoilialely overlies the upper lignite. It is composed of a veiy tine, 
aivl nearly white indurated clay, in which the most delicate structures 
are perfectly preserved. From its soft and crumhliiig character, it is impossible to obtain or keep good specimens; but, in the frug- 
mpnt.< which were preserved, a few vciy interesting plants appear. Of 
tliLsc, some are characteristic of the Fort Union gruuji, and identical 
with tho.-e of Porcupine Creclv. The association of remains is that of 
a I'l'csli water pond or lake, and a tine new species of Ijcmna occurs 

'' 111 the lower portion of this division, the beds are more sombre in 
'int. and little differentiated by colour, which elsewhere often renders 
the stratification apparent. They contiun some layers of sand and 

50 c 


Vcrtcl rut 

sandstono, which show much false beddinu; and current ^ll■ll(■tule, an 
sometimes terminate .suddenly with abrupt undulations, jn Hinu' jilnoi- 
>ufRoicnt caleaioou.s cement has been introduced among the i;iiiins ii 
form hard sandstones, but their thickness is never ii;reat. nor do iht-v 
c.vtcnd tar. Much ironstone occurs in thin nodular liiyers, anij .sorno 
solenite. AI)out one third from the liaso of this division a Ir'iI was 
FossiiCniit?. found, in which curious fruits have been preserved, referalile to a new 
species of ^h'sctilvs/'- 

"The most interesting feature of this part nf the section, liowever. i'^ 
the occurrence of the remains of vertebrate animals. Tlicy aro tbiiiri 
exclusively in the lower portion of this division, and most of thera Ic- 
low the fruit-bed J!;st mentioned. They are gencrall}- closely cunneiiol 
with the ironstone layers, and arc often themselves imp:egnatc<l wi;h 
that sulistancc. They are also, unfoi'tnnately, apt to he atlaclioil tot!c 
ironstone nodules, or incorporated with them, and traversed ly onuk- 
lines, in such a way as to render it difticult to obtain good >]ie(imon\ 
A more prolonged search among these hills, than 1 was ablo to mak.-. 
woukl, however, no doubt result in the discovery of localities \vlio:e ■ 
the remains are more abundant and in better preservation. 

•' Professor ('ope has kin<lly examined the vertebrate fossils olitaiiiii 
in connection with the expedition. Those frotn this [ilaco inclmlo iVii;'- 
ments of several. s])ecies of turtles, scales of a gar-pike, and bruk!;!! 
bones of dinosaurian reptiles. Of the turtles, two a;o new species, ii 
which Professor Cope has given the names — Piwitomom^ 'r«''fl/H.<, aii 1 
P. Coalescens — and there are portions of .-pccies of Trii'mjs ami C i- 
jDicmys. The gar-])i!<e belongs to the genus Chist'S, and of the diio- 1 
saurian romaii\s, though mostly too fragmentary tor deternuiiatiiin. j 
caudal vertebra resembles that of Ifadromunis. 

•' Division (/'), the lower series of yellow sands and arenaceous elay-. 
is a much better detined member of the section than Division (n). Ill 
is exposed chiefly in the banks of the smaller ravines, Imt abo iiuLi 
upper parts of those of the main brooks. The nodules whieh itoii| 
tains are large and irregulai', but often ajiproacli more oi' loss elonly 
to a spherical form. They are ai'ranged in horizontal in iL-* 
exposures. So fossils were luund in this part ot the section. 

•' The line of separation between divisions (y) and (rf), is (lultowtlil 
marked by the change in color. The latter shows scarcely a trace of 
stratification lines. I was very anxious to obtain fossils fromit, I'Stj 
].. succeeded only in collecting a few small fragments. They, iiowevir, 
indicate purely ma'-ine conditions ; and one of them is releiable to thi' 
genua Leda ov Yoldia. The identification of the hoi'i/.on of tlii> it'll 

Fnx Hill -lip-. 

^lurine IV 

* .Kacuhis (iiiliiiiiiiD. TliL' fullowin); plants were alsM fnuiiil Ihtc— /.'hih" (>';i''''i''<'"lf"''''''' 
Suirpra, Siiv'nid'ia nil'niif, Ti-iifu ImrtiiliK, Cni'ifdilliC--, 



t stiMK'turc, aii'i 
111 some |)lat\-', 
g tlie u'l'ains Im 
L-at. nor ilo ihn- 
vers, ami some 
>ioii a bfil wa? 
ferable to a new 

ti<in, liowever. i- 
Tlu'V aro tbiiii''; 
lost of thtra lic- 
ilosely conneitol 
np:ognatcil wi'Ji 
c atlaflieil totl.e 
A-er.-cil liy cnick- 
ffood specimen'. 
•as able tu iiiakc. 
" lofalities wlien? 


fossils oiitaind 
lac'O incliiile tVii;'- 
pii<c. ami bi'oiccu 
new siiociei*. ii i 

ionij.r anil C ;i- 
ind of the dii;i> 
cterniiiiati^iii, ,: j 

'onaccDus I'lay-. 

1 vision (a). ll| 
I lilt aUo intl.-: 
8 wliii-'li it cull- 1 
ro or lo>s cIoM-Iy 

tal lii.os ill ii.'-| 

d). is (luitiMVc'ill 
u-coly u trace it I 

si Is tVoiiiit. lHit| 

Tboy, however, 

referable to il.e I 
iz(,n of this iiel 

,„„ ov.iw't '"I ►■"•''"■'• 

ilocsnot. liowcvei', depend on such slight grounds as tiiese, as it was 
al'terwnnls traced westward, and found lo lie continuous witii well- 
iiiaii<eil to>>iliferous Cretaeeous roeks. 

"Divisions (^f) and (/:/) of this section, clearly belong to the Lignile <"orieliitioii of 
Teitiai'V. They probuhly represent, however, merely the lower layers, 
anil 'lillor somewhat in lithologieal character and ari'tuigement, from 
those seen at I'orcupino Creek, thirty miles east of this place, and at 
iiihor localities still further eastward. These beds, no doubt, belong to 
a lower jiart of tiio series than is exposed in .'iny of the sections exam- 
ined between this locality and the Missouri Coteau, and are probably 
also oilier than any of those found in the Souris valley. The bods 
described as oicurring on the trail, south of Wood Mountain, belong to 
about the same horizon, and it is pi-obable that those seen in some 
places on the Traders' Itoad, may not be much higher up in the series. 
It would appear that the conditions most favorable to the formation of 
di'posit> of lignite, did not occur freriiiently or continue lung in the 
earlier stages of the formation in this locality. 

•■i»ivision ('J) being certainly Cretaceous, it onl}' remains to classily 
division (r), which is so markedly ditferent in character from the beds 
above ami below it. This bed, I believe, represents group No. 5 of the 
('ietucei)iis. or the Fox llill group of Meek and Hayden. [t was fre- 
iliiently observed at othei' phu'cs further west, and its relations will bo 
more fully discussed in the sei^uel. 

•The lignite beds occurring in division (//), have been biu'ned away I'linit lignite 
over ureal areas in this region. Xumeroiis red-topped hills are seen, 
the capping being composed of indurated clays and sandstones, often 
with niiuli the colour and appearance of red brick. The tops of those 
hills are all nearly on the same plane, and this, if traced back into some 
of the larger hills and edges of the plateau, exactly coincides with the 
zone tliero still containing the lignite. The beds, as there exposed, 
liiiwever. seem hardly^ of sufficient thickness or importance to cause an 
alteration of the strata so extensive as has taken place. It is possible 
li'om the irreguli./ nature of these deposits, that over the areas des- 
tro}-ed iiyeoinlnistion, the lignite has been thicker and of better quality, 
iind that the tire may have been iinaMe to extend itself into the thinner 
jiiirtionsof the bed, where it is separated by clay partings and covered 
hy such 11 greiit thickness of other deposits. The combustion must have 
taken place ages :igo, as isolated red-topped buttes now only remain lo 
iiiai'k wiiai must have been the level of the plain at that time." „ . 

Westiif the bad-lands, the Cretaceous rocks are soon brought to the "f b.'d iumb. 
Mirtaeeby the general easterly dip, and rise rapidly in the plateau. A 
lew sections occur at intervals along both northern and southern slopes, 
I'Ut as they ditlor in no material respect from those found further east, a 

52 c 


tlescription of them would only be a repetition of what hsis lUreiulvbeen 

A ridge of higli land connects Wood Mountain with thu White .Mml 
Eivcr jilatcau, the t<ummit of which may .still be crowned with som. 
lingering remnants of its former Laramie covering, but I was utiubletu 
Mnd any sections in which they were exposed. 

East KihI 


Wliite .Mud 
Itivcr iilato!iu 

AVhite Mfn EivEK Section. 

The rocks shown in the valley of the upper part of the stream, wim 
of Kast End Coulee, have been described in that jiart of tlie ro]ii)it 
which treats ol' the Cypress Hills. East Eml Couk'e is a (leei> wiile vallov. 
which runs along the eastern escarjmient of tlie Cypress Hills, aii'l 
connects a branch of Swift Current Creek with liic "White 3Iu(l Eivw, 
West of it the river section is u]nvai'ds of 500 feet decj). while on tlic 
eastern side it sinks to about 'lo^ feet, and is compuseil ]iriiici]dlv 
of Pierre shales, with, in some places, a thin capjiingof Fox Hill m\i 
stones. Further down the Fox Hill sandstones disappear and the bank. 
are composed entirely of Pierre. The valley at this point is about llOO 
feet deep, and about a mile wide. The i^'oxHill sandstones are not Ion:.' 
absent, but re-appear in the course of a couple of miles, ami are snun 
followed by the Laramie, the river having entered the White Mud Eivei 

The White Mud Hiver plateau is a low irregulai' flovatimi, 

situated mid-way between the Cypress Hills and Wood Mountain. It 

is separated Irom the former by a depression about eighl niik's widf, 

but is connected with the latter, by a ridge which Hanks (he White 

Mtid River on the north for some distani'C. This ])lateau has an 

average width of about twenty-tive miles from north to souili. ami i^ 

about i'orty miles long, but is (juite narrow for half the distance, ]tllil^!l 

height of about 300 feet abuve the plains around it, and of '.>,o'id liet 

above the sea. Its surface is very rolling, and is broken u]i by a lai;,'f 

number of coulees, most of which are tributary to the AVhite Muil. 

The edges of the ])lateau. though sometimes abrujit, are UMiallyvurv 

gradual, and are neaidy always grass-covered, and as they atlonlc'l 

exposures at only one or two points, the boundaries of the Laramio. a- 

laid down on the maj), are based mainly on <litVerence8 in elevation, ami 

can only claim to be an approximation. 

CpmpositiMii 01' White 3Lud River ])laleau, like most of the j)lateaus in the district, b 

composed of Laramie overlying FoxUill and Pierre. Exposures of these 

formations are almost entirely confined to the valley of the White JIuJ 

River, wliich cuts across the southern part of the j)lateaii, but the 

Laramie is also seen at one })oint in the northern face, where a small 



bramh of Swift CuiTont Creek has cut l)ack into it. The section in this 
coulde contains a band of coai-so yellowisli sandstone, about twenty 
feet tiiick, above which comes seventy-five feet of alternating sands and 
ilavii, and following this a carbonaceous zone, containing a couple of 
ii.'iiite s-'am-^ around which the following section was measured : — 


1. ( iroyish, slialy days 1 

2. Carbonaceous shale it 

;i. I.iipiili' 1 a 

4. Carlxiuacoous slialo (> 

.■). Ijin,;!,- 1 1 

li. Yellowish, sandy clays 1 (» 

(I 4 

Tlw thick bed of sandstone in the bottom of the section is probabh' Fox inii 
i'nx Hill, on which the plains north of the plateau seem to be baseil, as""'" '''""'^' 
exiKisiues of it were found in a couple of places further down on the 
>aine valley. 

Tho Laramie re-a|)pears in the upper part of the banks of the valley 
Ml tho While .Mnd. about ten miles east of East End Coulee. A. gvey 
liaiid, ciiniiMiscd of light colored sands and clays, aj)]icars lirst near the ;;"""i',ii'|,i. 
^iirlaco and bears a very close resemblance to the rocks occupying the 
sinic horizon in the Cypress Hills and like them is overlaid by some 
lailioiiiieeons beds. Further down, these beds become much darkei- in 
loli)!'. and (iiniaiu a larger proportion of clay and also assume a some- 
what handed ajipeai'ance. At this point, the small alternating beds of 
irrevish. vellowish, ii'i'eenish. and dark colours, y-ive tho section a look 
fomcwhat similar to the rocks near the base of the Laramie on Jiittle 
Bow liiver. This sti'i])od band is overlaid by fine-grained yellowish 
.iixdlhu'cous sands ami sandstones, and rests on the Fox Hill. The scc- 
ii'ius along this part of the river are very good and show about 250 
toet of Laranne beds. The Laramie gradually descends in the banks 
aii'l roaches the bottom of tho valley about twenty miles east of Fast 
Eml (oiilie. At this point, tho bottom of the section is nearly always 
innewilod bv tho taltis, but the few exposures visible seem to show that 
ilie Ijoils are horizontal for a short distance, and then dip westward at nip. 
an ani;lo snllicienf to bring them to the surface about eight miles 
tui'thiT down ; near the angle of a shaip bend which the river makes to 
liicMiirth. Ceyond this point, the river runs in a northerly dii'eetion 
till' .several miles, and follows very closely the edge of the Laramie, 
«liO!>iu'e> of which occur in tho western bank of tho valley. The 
oa:«teni baidv is lower and shows Pierre and Fox Hill only. The north- 
ody reach of the river is about eight miles long, after which it again 
iiuns to the east. Near the bonil it is Joined by a large coulee which 

n-i V 


Coal st'iiins. 

Scctiiiiis in 


Fox Hill 

Deep valley. 



I' far baolc in the plateau and shows some very fine sections of tlie 
formations composing- it. In the banks of this coulee, a couple ()l'mili> 
from its mouth, the Ivaramie was observed to contain two eoul seam- 
eacii about two feet thick. 

Tiio Laramie is .seen in the northern bank of the valley for a shnii 
distance below the liend. but soon disappears and is reiilaccd bv Pienv 
and Fox Hill. The valley below this point enlarges cousideriiiilv. un'i 
bectmics exceedingly rough, and its scarped banks, in many ])lates, 
atlord sections of Cretaceous strata upwards of 300 feet thick. TIicm- 
sections show a tendency in the Pierre to become lighter coinured itml 
more arenaceous ab')ve, a feature which iiecomes much more jnn. 
nounced further north. Fossils imbedded in ironstone and c;ikaivoii> 
nodules occur in many places, and are usually more abuiuianl some 
distance down in the formation ; the upper part being apparently ralhor 

Near the cro.ssing of the trail between Wood Mountain and tin' 
Cypress Hills, the banks become somewhat lower and are less tiv- 
qucntly scarped, and they often enclose wide clay flats, covered with 
a heavy growth of Ariemisia. Below the crossing, the valley coutimii's 
to bear a somewhat siinilai' character until within a few miles ui tm' 
boundary, where it encounters a small Fox Hill plateau, and its banks at 
once become miudi highei'. The following detaileil description of tli' 
rocks exposed in the valley near the boundary line is quoteil from Pr. 
Dawson* : — 

•■■ Where the line crosses AVhite Mud TUver; or, Frenchiiian's Crock, 
numerous and very tine exjiosurcs of the Cretaceous rocks occur. Tlie 
stream Hows in the bottom of a groat trough, cut out of the soft Creta- 
ceous strata, over five hundred feet deep, and in some places fully ihnv 
miles wide, ^[any ravines enter this valley from the sides, and nuiu- 
erous land-slips have brought down the ui)])or beds to various levels ii: 
its banks, and have produced a rugged mass of conical hills and ridgi- 
The tops of the banks on both sides of the valley are formcil of yellow- 
ish ferruginous sands, referable to division (j'), of the Bad Laud seetiuii. 
They are m many places, hardened into layers of sandstone, ami an' 
nowhere very soft. Land-slips have confused the section, but tiny 
can be traced in their original position as far up and down the valKy 
as can be seen. I could find no fossils in these beds, though si.Kty t" 
seventy feet of them must be visible in some places. 

" Below these are sombre Cretaceous clays of division rt\ and they i \ 
tend downward to the water level of tlie river: showing a lliickuess I'l 
273 feet, the base not being seen. The poi'lion (d' these clay shales muM 

Ucology and Re? • irces of the 49tli Parallel, p. lO'.i. 



OU (■ 

marlv roscmbliiii' those last described, and those of the i'omljinaMoun- Coi.iparisun 

"'^''". "- » ' with eliiys iii 

i;iin sorie-. lies immediutoly below the yellow sands; below this, to the otluT plaices. 
Iiottom of valley, tho}' show rathei' the oriimlilin,!^ earthy character and 
MiU'C s iiiibrc-colour of theliad Lands and Wood Mountain astronomical 
jt.ition oxiiosiiros. This would tend t(j prove that rocks like those of 
tk' upper part of the typical Pembina Mountain series, are not confined 
In aiiv jiarticular horizon in the western rcjiresentatives of that gi'oup. 
Alioul (iiic liuiidrctl feet below the iiase of theyellow;>ands, a lied chai'ac- 
ifiized by the great abun<lance of the remains of a tine species of Ostrea, Fu-.^iis. 
n(rur>. 1 1 i> referable to Ostrea patina of Meek and llayden; and frag- 
ments iif a thii'k Iiioctramm occur in the same stratum The Ostreas, for 
ihe most ]iart. are quite perfect, and have been entombed where the}' 
iriew, (lir valves being still attached. They are frequently roughened 
(.xtiMiially, and crusted with selenitc crystals, produced apparently by 
tiioaetjiui of acidulous waters on the shell itself.'' 

"A sliiiii (li^tan(•e Indow the Ostriii bed, is a zone containing many large ('iiieniiuimr.v 
«e]il;u'iaii ironstone nodules. In some places, a horizontal suriace oi this 
k'd 1ki> been exposed, i'orming an arid wind-blown expanse of crumpled 
iVagmoiits nf the shale, which here and there su]iports an Artemisia, 
ml fiMin which the nodular luasse-^ stan 1 up at intervals, as they have 
liceii exposed by weathering. Tiie concretions are often as much 
a> tut'ivo or tifteon fe^^t in diameter, and lenticular in form, but are 
uviioi'iilly broken into fragments by the action of the frost. They hold 
iL'imiins oi' Am iiionites and /hh-Hlitcs, the former at times two feet in 
iliuiiH'io.', and i-eferable to .1 placenta, a form, like Ostrea jiatina, 
rliaraetoristic of the 4th group of the Missouri River .section. TheiVi-iis. 
fossils ai'c unfortunately intersected by the cracks which traverse the 
ma>M)l'tlie no hiles, in such a way as to render their preservation vciy 
lilticiilt. Some of them retain their nacreous lustre in all its original 
licrl'eetiuii. ]jleached bands like those aii'cady described, occur in many 
I'lii'lsof these clays. 

''The beds here a|)pear to be perfectly hoi'i/.ontal, ami the ino'cased nc.i.-, 
eli'vatioii uf the general suriace of the country w'U more than suffice to 
;io unit tor the I'e-appcaraiice of the yellow .sandy dej)osits last seen in 
ilicBail Lands — without su])j)o-ing the existence of any gentle anticlinal 
''•'tufcii the two localities. Our camp, situated a short way doivn the 
lasteri: shipe of tlie White Mud valley, anil consequently somewhat 
I'olow iho general level of the prairie, was -ii'i feet above the Wood 
-Miiiiiitain astronomical station, nineteen miles east, by compai-ison of 
■^e'VL'ii liaronietric readings at each ]dace. The base of the yellow sands 
I'tniin' iibout 30 feet below the camp, is 401* feet above the astronomical 
"'i'tiitu; and as the base of the same stratum (lUvision ;',) in the Bad 
-.;ui(ls section, was found to be about ITU feet above tlie astronomical 


5G (• 


Knslcrly <li|. 

stsUioii, a (liflbrcncc of 230 foot between the same liori/.on in iIk 
IJad LuikIb and at AVliitc Mud River, woidd I'einain in lavni' dt' the 
laltei', The distance bidng alioiit thirty miles, gives an eastward slopi 
(if alioiit eiii;ht feet in ihe mile." 

I'it'ric iiiid 
lielly Hiv.'i 


Plains Noutii ok tiik Cypress II[i,ls. 
These phiins are partly based on the Belly River series, and partly 


\\\v Pierre, but ai'e usually covered so deeply witb bi.ulder-( lay iiiul 

otbei' dei)Osils of iflacial atcc, tbal exposures of the older 



seldom seen. Tlie Junction of these two formal ions can be traceil 
with sonio precision Jj'om Piull's Head plateau to near Forbes on 
ilic line of the Canadian Pacific railway, but north nf that ]ioini. ii \- 

not a.iiam seen un 

til the Saskatchewan River is reach 

1 At Bull's Head plateau, Jioss' Crook near Irvine station, <'. I', ii. 

and a number of interveniny; points, the sU])erposition of the Pierre on 


Kiver sci'ies is 

cleai'lv shown. Xorth of Irvine, charaileri>tii 

)f 1 

exposures ot i lerre lioldm^^ large calcareous nodules occur, and a ilim 

•xtoml north to the Saskatcdiewa 

II. Mini 

covering ot these rocks may 

connect with the band of dark slialcs which was observed capping the 

inks there in one place. 
A feature of this [ilain is the niimlier oi' old waler-c 


remarkalilc n 


are found in ditferent parts of it. One of the mos 
commence> at Medicine Hat and runs east for over thirty mile-, iiieii 
bends to the north, ami continues on into Many Island Lake. .\l tLi 
bend, it is se\eral miles wit 

and encloses lour smal 

nliueaiis. wliu'li 

were probably islands at one time. In its lower ])arl,this valley is now 
followed by Ross Creek-, and in its iipjier part, by Stony Creek, Maikav 
Ci'eek, and other streams tiowing into Many Island Lake. From 
Many Island Lake, an old channel, which may be an extension of tlir 
same system, leads into l^ilter Lake and then on to Biy- Slick Lulvf. 
South of Medicine Hat, Big Plume Creek is conneclcd with a in'amh oi 
Seven Persons River liy .'i wide valley, which seems to be newer ilian 
the one now ibllowcd by the stream, as its banks are scarped and show 
extensive exposures of rocks belonging to the Belly River series, whili 
in the present valley the older rocks are entirely concealcil by drill. 
j5.i,„l-iiiii- The sandduUs, which cover such a large ])nrt of these plains, belong it 

the upper part (d' the glacial deposits. They are usuall}* Avell stratitiod 
where undisturbetl by the wind. Their material was probalily dorivoi: 
frmn the Fox Hill, and the kindred sandy beds intercalated in tlu 



57 c 


Medicine IIat. 

AtJIfdicine Hat, thevalloj'oftlie Saskatchewan enters, and traverses Oiift-iiiicii 
fiirsomo ilistancc one of those ilril't-fiUed doin-cssions, which so cnn- 
stanllv interru]) the sections on all the principal streams. The 
intranet' ol' a stieam into one of these oM basins, is indicated at<ince 
Iv the increased width of its valley, as well as by the absence of all 
exposures I if the older rocks. The Saskatchewan west of Medicine 
Hat is somewhat closely contined by steep rocky banks which force it 
lofnlldw a comparatively direct course, but east of that point it becomes 
much moi'o tortuous and continues .so until it crosses the pre-glacial 
hollow. This hollow, which may represent eithei- a portion of the 
liiriod cliiinnel of some ancient river, or more probably, a lake basin, is 
1 -mall c:ctent. as going in a northeasterly direction from Medicine 
Hat, the underlying rocks appear near the bottom of the valley in 
about oiijlit miles, though the}' do not rise to any heighth in the banks 
: -r (.'iijlil or ten miles i'arlhoi'. 'n a houthcidy direction up Big Plume 
I'rcfk the fi\i:c of the basin is reached in seven miles, and in an easterly 
■liroctioii up Koss Creek in alioiit fifteen. Its extent in other directions 
■■"uld not lie ascertained. 

The deiiosits in this basin arc iiartly glacial and iiartlv pre-ixlacial. '•'•i""'ii^ in 
Die pre-i,'l;i(ial deposits consist of ]iebble conglomei-ate, coarse feri'ii- 
L'inous sands tilleil with small ])ebbles, silts, and sands, and are very 
-imilar ill litliological composition and in ajipearance to the Pliocene 
!0-ks ol' the Cypress Hills, from which they were without doubt 
iiTived. Tliey are probably of Pliocene age. 

The i,dM(i;d deposits, which consist of light yellowish boiilder-clav, 'ii-i'i\ii 

' .-71 .' ., , |l^,|,|,.il(f!. 

"vorlaidiu -omc jjlaces by thick sand}- beds, have been extensive enough 
1" eomplotc the obliteration of the depression. The boulder-(day is 
'.vill e.\[i()sed near the bend of the river, and up the valleys of Ross 
I'reelv and llig Plume Creek for several miles from their mouths. In 
>L;ne jihices it shows obscure lines ol' stratitication. 

The nirks of the Belly Eivor series which disapjiear below tiie Pliocene i!i.|iy lUver 
at .Medirine Hat. I'c-appear about seven miles further down. The"'""' 
ixposure ( onsists of dark arenaceous shales overlying greyish sands 
;iiid >und>t(ine, and underlying unconformablv the sands and gravels 
"i'the Plidcone. A few miles farther down, the same beds enclose a Coai seams 
-mall coal seam. This seam occurs at the same horizon and is probably 
a eontiniiation of the seam mined above Medicine lh.t. (Sec Rc))ort 
"' I'loj^u'ss 18S2-84, p. 77 c.) It is seen at several places between 
Modiciiic Hill and Drowning Man's Ford. The most promising expo- 
tare oecms aliout a mile north of the southern boundary of Township 

58 r 


^^^\<h■ \,iiic\. 

I'liiliiK"' ill 



lirllv UiNci 


Kaili -liali',- 

Vo'lowoi- licil.<. 

IG, IJiUiuo \'. woHt of the 3rd Principal Meridian; ut tliis point it is about 
live li'i't tliiciv, but the quality is very interior. Between this cxposiiri 
and J)rowning Man's Ford, the Hcction exiiibits notiiiiii,^ worthy dt 
nuicli attention. Tlic'Belly Hivcr rockn undulate near the smfuce, 
sometimes I'iisini,^ fifty or a liundi-cd feet above (lie water-level iiinltlien 
gradually declining until they di.sai)])car altogether and for some di?. 
tiinee bouldor-eluy alone with its aecompanying beds of &ilt and sand, 
appeal's in the banks. 

At l)rowning 'Maii'.-< Ford, the valley becomes much lower, and 
receives from the west a wide shallow and at ])resent little u.-ed viiliov, 
1 was unable tu^ trace this valley up, owing to lack of time. Its exiM. 
ence may be connected with tho fact that immediately noilh nf it tin 
river-valley bends away to the cast and assumes a much more roiiui 
apjiearaiice, and it is possible that it ma}' represent a former chaiiinl 
of the river. The chaiacter of the valley, after bending cast from 
J)rowning Man's Ford, undergoes a mai'ked change: it narrows in tn 
about half its former width, and is confined by liold mural baidts olldi 
over .500 feet high, which almost seem to overhang the slrcuiu. Tlio 
next thirty miles aft'onls a number of very picturesiiue views. The 
cafmn is caused by a wide ridge of rocks belonging to the Ikdly JJivi'i' 
series wliich the river encounters and through which it has cut apass!ii;o. 
This ridge, which must have Ibrmed a conspicuous feature in the to]io- 
graphy of the country in jire-glacial times, has been concealed by llif 
general levelling uj) to whicli tlie country was subjected during tin' 
glacial jieriod. Jt runs noitli to tho ]{e<l Dcoi; which it cro.ssos abmit 
twenty miles from its mouth. 

The rocks shown in the cafmn belong to the upper juirt of ibe lieliy 
Kivc" .jcries, and consist of pure clays and sands, together with all 
gradations between tlie two. They arc extremely irregular and no 
section measured at one place would be ajiplicable anywhere else, hi 
addition to tho soft sands and clays, haid bcdsof greyish and yello\vi>li 
sandstones ai'e of common occurrence, and more infrequently bands el 
brown carbonaceous sliales, and thin ironstone beds. The .sUHL^toni's 
are often nodular, and the coarser varieties frequently exhibit iabc 
betiding. The color of the whole section is predominantly gioy, but 
yellowish and brownish tints occa.-ionally ])rcvail, especially it^vanls 
the to]). About four miles below the l{aj)id Narrows the section is 
capjied by tifty feet of dark shales which may behmg to the lower ]iart 
of the Pierre. Tliese shales continue for three or four mile> and thin 
disappear as the banks become lower. For the next twenty miles 
sections of the Belly Eivcr series are almost continuous on both sides 
of the river, and are exactly similar to those further u]>, except in 
evincing a tendency to become somewhat more yellowish in tol'iiir. 

,^5„f^t.] SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN. ')'.) r 

They iuv usually covorocl by a con.sklomblo tliicknosM of boulilor-cluy 

amUtnUlHeil sands. At ono point, opposite tlic ^lidfllo Suiid Hills, 

the wo>ii i'i> I'iitik is c'ovorc'il for sonu! (lislanco by a tbick bed of IiIdvvii 

Kind. Xear Sandy Point, the beds of tho IJclly Jiiver series become 

matly decreased in hciglil in the banks, and are overlaid by 200 feet 

of voliowisb sandy clays and stratified sands rcprosenting I be glacial 

dqiosits. A few miles oast of .Sandy Point, tbe western edge ot a second {'^-k'i'p'"' 

pie-i,'i;irial basin i.s reached. Tbe following section, wbiidi wa-- measured 

ulioiit ciixht miles west of tho mouth of the Red Deer, shows tbe cbur- 

actcr of the beds occurring in it : — 


1. line tirained sands and silts (>b 

2. Boukler-elay 10 

li. Stratilk'd sands and silts 150 

4. rnidiisolidated <:ravel 2 

5. lU'lly River series ITo 


Tbe i;ravel bed is more attenuated than is usually the case, but isomvel bed. 
very persiNtent and was found wherever the base of tbe deposit was 
sci'ii. The sands and silts overlying it are very similar in appoai'ance 
.inii cimi|iosit ion to tbe tine grained strata forming tho ui)pei' pai't of 
tho Lurainic intlic ( 'ypress Hills. They are yellowish in colorandare 
iisimlly well stratified. Xo fo.ssils of any kind woro founil in them, No fo-!.--!!.^. 
aUlimigh tiiey were carefully seai'ched especially on that account, and 
the ])ii.<iti(>n in tbe later Pliocene to which Ibey have been provisionally 
a.'isigMrd, has been given them simply on the strength of their strati- 
gniphioal lelations. The boulder-clay at this jioint is of tho u>ual 
chaiai'ter, Init is capped with a somewhat peculiar bed of thirdy lamin- J-ii'"iinaie.l 
atod shale, which is brownish in color and separates easily int(j tliin 
li'af-likc and very clastic lamina^ having a dull greasy lustre. 

A tow miles above the mouth of the Red Deoi', tbe FUdlv IJiver series, Pisiippenriinoa 

111 1 1 , . • 1 1 . "i ,. of lieUy River 

wliKii have been almost continuously exjiosed lor the preceding sorio.-. 
sevonty-live miles, gradually desceiul to and then disa))pear l>elow 
the surface i)i the river. The following fo.ssils were obtained from ono 
of tho hi>t exposures : — P/ii/sa Copei, Unio consiictus, Anodonia /iropii- 
toris. Mi/tihis subar''U(tius. At the I'^orks, tho upper beds of the Pliocene i'i>"';''"e. 
appour Hoar the water level at a number of places, but the greater part 
of the >eotinn is occupied by tbe bi)ulder-cla\'. and for the ne.Kt sixty 
iiiilos UD cxtjosures of any older rocks occur. Tho break in tbe section Break in 
may ho due, either to the stream having now I'egaincd a former 
channel, or to its entrance into a pre-glacial basin which has since been 
tilled with Pliocene and glacial ileposits. The width of the hollow 
could iKit be ascertained, owing to the absence of tributary valleys of 



liflly llivc r 




St ran (re 
HI liaiik-. 


Pierre iiMre 
arciiaceuuv , 

any Hizo. Tlic valley of tho iSa.Hlvatciicwaii oast of (ho moiitli nf the 
Uo<i Door, is selilorn loss than two inilos wido, ami is cliaractorizcil [ly 
wide bottoms ain I oasy ^'ra.sM-^riiwii slopes. It atloriis no j^oohiifii'al 
inlbnnation of any importance until within a low miles of AiiIcIoim' 
Creek, at which ])oint a few small exposure!* of Holly Rivor ^amls iuil 
clays, woi'o found, scattered at intervals alon<j^ the hunlc. 'I'hcso sections 
especially towards tlu^ top, eonlain a larger i)roportion of -oi't >mi]iN 
and sandstones than is usually tho case with this series, and the luiiflii 
yellowish color of many of the uppoi' beds, gives them a very ilitlcrent 
appo!>"anco, from llio almost colorless strata (X'cupyinir a similar posi 
tion in the How and Holly Hiver> country. A numlior of liissils wore 
obtained from a hard sandstone bod contained in one of ihi' scetions. 
Tho Pliocene deposits which covered the formation when it sank below 
the surface west of the mouth of tlio Hod Door, have disiippo.nred ;uii| it 
is now directly overlaid by tho bouldor-clay. 

A few miles fai-tiicr down, the river is (•i'os>od by what is in'ai'liciilU 
a continuation of th<' noi'thorn escarpment of the CyprosH Hills phitwiu. 
and its valley becomes at once, threat lyonlar^'cd. The escai'pincut is hiiili 
of Piei're shale, o.\j)osui'os of which. commeni'in,i:;at thisjxtint, areofcdii- 
slant oceiiri'ence all the way down to the Elbow ;nid licyond. The vallcv 
eontinuos to bo very deep and wide until it reaches the ea--terii H'l^i 
of the (V)teau after which it becomes much shallower. Its banks. weM 
of tho Coteau, present a somewhat strari^o appearance, duo to tlicWiiv 
in which the slope is interiuptod b}- a i|uiok succession of [[Teuiilaiiy 
distributed coi\ical bills, tho tops of which are usuall}- black and I'aic 
Those hills, which completel}* cover the surface in many jjlaces, are in 
most cases the results of old land-slips, whicdi have been smoothed ami 
rounded by tho action of tho atmospliore. Their outline is oi'ca>iiin;illy 
lii'oken by small terraces, caused by the superior baidncKs of sonio ul 
the bods and by linos of ironstone nodules. 

The shales and associated sandy bods have been so confused, and their 
relative position so often reversed by the fro(juont ivpetition of tln.'>e 
slides, that it is almost impossible, notwithstandini!; the great extent ol 
the exposures, to olitain an neeiirato section of any thickness A suffi- 
cient number of partial seel ions wascdjtainod, however, to show tliiU tin.' 
formation, in this district, is much more arenaceous than usual, and ilini 
the shales alternate throughout with thick bedsof j'cllowish sandsloiu' 
The following secdions which occur near tho middle of tho t'orniation. 
will servo to illustrate this fact. It was measui-ed opposite Swift CiuTcni 
Crook, and is in descending order : — 

vcco'.Mtu] SOUTH SASKATrllKWAN. 61 C 

!. I>tirk l>rn\viiiMli slmlt'S 20 

'.'. V(*ll<i\visli Mild v,'rnyi.sli 8anil.s,b(«'nrnii\g argillacociuutioar 

holtoiii 5(1 

li. Hiii\viii.slislial(irt,Hiirfiii'(M'(jvt'rt'il witli crystiils of.s(^loiiit(\ •")() 
4. Vclliiwisli l'c'rnij,'iri()iiH sands nml sundHtotiy, liUod with 

liirj{o iriin.stnne iiodiilos .")0 


Tlic -Miidslonc hands in tliis section ai'i' tillod with fo-SHils, and i',,..ii,< 
yii'KI'Ml ilio Ibllowiny anion^Ht niunorou.s otiiors ; — Ptaccnticcntti 
j'hii'cntii. BiiciiUtt>» (/roiiilis, llnminea occidcntalis, Linpi.'itha unddfit, 
Protocardia suli'i'tndrata ot horcnlii. ( 'ijprina ocata, Yoldin /■juinai, Iw- 
cmtmu.f Saijensis vnr. Xebrascensis, GerviUa recta, Ptcria liiKjuiformia id 
Xi'ljrascdna. A niiinbei' of tlioso fossils Imvo boon doscribcd as Fo.\ Hill, Ki >•<.■< ii- 

11,. /. 1 • 1 • n II 111 .1 iTisiillicicMit to 

'■v Mcck, and llie laid or IniMi'lioinn' found hero towai^ls Ino liasoof llio iliHTmino 
Pii'iTC, lii!4'i!tlH'i' Willi the ociMU'i'onoe oi so-oallod Ijaranuo lossiis m -ui.-ilivi.^iims. 
Ijnls wliirh aro indi.>|iiilaMy siib-Piorro, show, that owini;' to tlio wide 
niiiij'i'of many of tlio spocios, littlo depondanee can bo placed on the 
ihti'i'minafion of the .sub-divisions of the Cretaceous on purely puheonto- 
iMi^ical ;;i<)un(ls, at least, in the absence of a full suite of fossils. 

East of the the Cotcau the banks of liie valh^y ilecreasc in hoi,i,'lil, biil 
cnntinuo lo show occasional exposures ui' I'ici'ie, as far as the Klbow, 
where niv examination ended. 


TheCotcau constitutes one of the most important topoii'raphical fea- 
(lU'esiit (he central plains. It corresponds with the eastern ed^e (d' 
ihc tliiid jirairie steppe, and is marked liy a well detined and permanent 
rise (if several hundred leet in the general increase in elevation of the 
cniuitry to the west. It ci-osses the boundary in lonii;itudo lO.'J'^ Ti-cmkIoI" 
')i"l' W. of Greenwich, and ihen runs in an irregular but unbroken 
liiK' nurili-easterly to the South Saskatchewan, which it reaches about 
thirty miles above the Elbow. The gap, where it is broken througli bv 
the river, is about twelve miles wide. Ectween the north and south 
lii'aiiehes ot' the Saskatchewan it is divided up by transverse coulees 
into several plateaus. At the boundary, the ascent is lony; and irra<lual liiii.iimi .^lopo 

1 1 I .,^/^ n . ^ 1 I 1 .,. 1 . ' al linunJary. 

:uiil scarcely exceeds liOO teet, but tiiore the unit deposits seem to 
have lieen piled on the eastern slope, and not on the summit of the 
Laramie plateau, as is the case furtlier north. At the Dirt Hills, 
which are situated about half-way between the boundary and the 
•Saskulchewan, the escarjiment becomes more abrupt, and has a height h, H ''igiii 
aecurding to Dr. Bell, of over GOO foot. North, towards the Saskatche- 




wan, llic Ii(m;,'1iIIi (locr(>a.S('s aijiiiii, ami at Socrotuii, nn llic liiu'uf il„. 

Hiitflitln.r ('anailian Pacitic railway. i>t <>iily .'{00 loot. Tlio plains, nlniii^ ili,. im^, 

i-laiiiMii im!-.' ,,,. ,,!,, (Y.tojiii, iiiaiiilaiii a i^i'iicral lioiylilli of alioiit l/.t.'iO r,.,.t, f,.,,,,, ,|,« 
lioiiiidary iiin'th, in c'niiM'([iK'm'c i»t' llic imi'tlici'ii <lo( linatinti (if the 
countiy lioiiijn almost evenly l)alanco(J liy llif iiiereasofl <'lovation due 
to th? western ti-oiid of tlio escarpment. ion Tlic Cotcaii is not (!('pc'ti<l(M\t foi'its oxiMtonoe on any particiiliii- funna- 

tion; astlu! l'i(!i'i'i.' Kox llill.'iiid liaramio, as well as the o-larial i|o|Mwits, 
1.11 enter into ils composition. At the Iponrniai'y it consists ciitirolvor 
i.aramio, overlaid by drift, hut u'oin^ north, the Crotaceoiis u|ipcai'> ;ii 
its base noai- the Dirt Hills, and then i^radualiy rises in the c>cai'|iiiu'ni, 
and near tlus .Saskatchewan, llii'ins almost, if not the wlmji' of it. 
Mubstance. Noi'th nf the I)irt Hill-, the njdor rocks arc usaally rcivcri"! 
with di'ift, and in the pai't laid down on the ma]) whidi acconi|iaiiioslhis 
I'oport, oidy three small exposiii-es f)t' Fiaramio wei'O found, Tlio limitH 
of this formation, had. therefore, tor the most part, to ho traced nut liy 
dlrt'eronces in elevation and iU'e only .'ippriiximaie, as it is possible 
that depressions cnttinLT throiinh it, may have existed, which have .since 
been levelled up by the drift. A cou|de of small exposui'cs wei-o fuunil 
in the eastern od^o of the Vermilion Hills, and north of the rivora 
small detached plateau atforded a section, showin^j; the ( 'retaceonsi'lavs 
.and sands, overlaid by a hundred feet of white ai'tjillaccous iiidunitel 
sands, or soft sandstone, exactly similar to the lower pari <i|' ilu; 
Lai-amie in Wood Mountain. A small exposure was found south uf the 
Moosejaw and Wood Mountain trail and outside the linut> oiilic iii;i)i, 
which is important, as it >hews that some, at least, of the kanic-likoliili.s 
and ridg'e.s which crown the (.'oteau, owe their sluipo, not to aecumu'a- 
tions of drift, but to irregularities in tlie surface of the older rockri. 
The exposure consisted of li^ht-eoloured clays and sands, and was t'liuini 
in the side of a small hill whi(d) had the usual aspect of those nf the 
Coteaii, and was situated near the highest part of the ridge. 

Drill ili'iici-ii^. The drift deposits are pooily exposed in that part of the t'oteau 
examinoil by me, and seem to consist simjdy of lioii|.i"r.elay overlaid 


by irri'gularly stratified sands and gr: 

distributed uniformly, hut thin nm - ' 

that between the South ciul of 
Tlie (V.tcau nil That tho Cotcau formed the -in oi 

uldseamiiwh. i\^\,\y probably by its extent an nuform 

and the generally even hoigiith of the pla is along its base, althuugliall 

direct evidences of the fact, such as terraces and raised beaclic- liave 

long since necessarily disapiieared, and have lieen either dostr^' I'J 

denudation or buried under the di'ift. 

•posits ai'o not 
tho plateau like 
• ui lie Dirt Hills. 
inci .1, sea, is rciulerwl 
y, its independent cduih', 

I'.U ] 


(.;{ r 

iiMiliii- tciriiiu- 

Drift ■k'p'ii'i'i. 

TIk' Kvi'Iir "W llillt, whii-li aro >i(iiii''' I iioar llio lu'iul walers of llio IvvLr-w \U\U. 
iJiiApiiolli', limy lu' rcifank'.l a-» an outlier ol' llio Colcau. Tlioy pi'ojuct 
about 100 fi-'Ot uLm)vc llie iiiiiliilai iiii,^ iihiins arniiinl tlioin, ami aio ('(jiii- 
po<oil of llio ai'inaci'Oiis u|)|)i'r pari ulilic I'iuiroiir Kox Hill. Thoy arcNi'idinii". 
wvi'i'cd ill line [)laei) liy small saiiil-liills, ilu! inatoi'ial ol'wliifh has Ihsoii 
il.tiiiiiivl iliiHcfly f. oiu a (li>iMt(';^iMi'iig Letl of M»t't Hamlwtont', wliifh is 
jilainly osposoil (o view. Tlio drift iloponitH ontliene liills arc very thin, 
aii'l lire ropros(Milcil in soini' places l>y a few scattoioil ImhiIiIoi's <>iily, a 
.umewhul roiiiarUalilc (.•irciiiiislaiicc, in view of tho fact, tliat (lie hills 
liiivo lit'oii soloctod by a proininont i:;la('ialist, as one of tho resting jtlacos 
iif lii> ciniiinontul ;i;lac'ior. Tho ilrifl lU'posits also lioeonio vor^ thin 
.HOI' parts of the plain lyiiic' lietwocn (he j-yehrow Hills and the foot 
ol'tii CAloau ; and at one place along' Thunder Creole, the siirtiico was 
')ll^cl■vcHl to he underlaid tir some little ilistanco hy tho Cretaceous clays. 
It iri ]iii»iiile, however, that in this ami in similar cases, tlio drift 
niiiyliiivo heen ivmoved hy deiiiidati'iM. Mast i>f the Fyehrnw Hills, an 
i>(.arpiiieiit about liJl) foot high, faces eastward and runs for s(jmo dis* 
liiiico parallel with tho (^u' Ap])ello valley. 


The following talle includes all ihe I'mmations observed in tho 

liiNtnct : — 

Ternary - 

' Vetaeciiii> 

C Stratitiod sands and giavels. 

- Silts. 

( IJouldcr clay. 

( riincone (?) South Saskatchewan gravels. 
\ Miocene. 

( F/araniie. 

I Fox Hill. 

j Pierre. 

I Holly Wiver series. 

Belly Hivkh Seiues. 

riie lleily Kiver series is represented by its light-eolovcd upper divi- Di-triLmion. 
M'lii which is distributed over a largo ai'oa in the north-western and 
soulh-wostern parts of the ilistrict. It is well shown in tho cafion-liko 
p:iit (if the Saskatchewan between Medicine Hat and the mouth of the 
Red Deer, "hero almost complete sections can be obtained, and also in 
ilie valleys of Milk River and Many Eeri'ies Creek, and at Bull's 
Head plateau, Hoss Creek, and numerous other places along its eastern 

<)-i c 




The gonoral chai-aotei- of tlio fonnution is romarkably constant 
altlu)Ui,di individual bods are .siibjoct to ra])id rliaiiires in (.•i)iiiji,,,i|j,„| 
and tcxfiiro, and tlio following descri])li()n ot the formation, as ohsorvcil 
in tlio How and Holly Rivers district liy Dr. (I. M. Dawsdii, is oniiallv 
applicablo bore. (Eeport of Progress, 18S2-S4, page lit; c.) 

"It is conipo.sod for tlio most part of sandy olays. with slialos ari4 
sandstone, tlie latter often of considerable tliiclcness, and asiiallviailicr 
soft or irregularly liardouod. Layers of ir(jnstoiic nodules, which niv 
at times very large, are of frefjuent oocurrenco, and the beds n'eiioraiiv 
have a characteristic bluish- or green ish-grc}' tint, and arc, un the 
whole, rather massive ami weather easily into bad lands. In ih,.,,. 
features, with the occurrence of rolled clay ])ollets and iho niumlu.i 
character of many of the included bones, tJiere is evidence (jf a ooii>i(l.r. 
able amount of current or wave action." 

In addition to the varieties nienlioncd above, beds ot' \c||i)\visli iiu in 
lar sandstone attain consiilerable im|)ortanc(' in some of the soctiun-, 
and are fref[uently found capping the formation. The distinctive nuii' 
color which is so characteristic of the series as a whole from Modii.-iin' 
Hat west, is ro]»]accd towards the north-east, to some extent at loa^t, 
by more yellowish tints. The change was tirst noticed in ilio soriimi. 
around the Rapid Narrows on I ho Saskatchewan, but becdnios iiiMin 
evident fartlier down the river. 
"'1 The doubt whicli existed at one time in roganl to the -tialigraphiin! 
position of the Holly IJi\'or series, on account of the Lai'aiiiio ftJc'/V.? nf 
its invertebrate fauna, has been removed by a more complete examin;i 
tion of its eastern margin. Its line of contact with the Pierre li:i> 
now been traced, through a distance of over 150 miles, by mimenm^ 
exposures, all of which alforded the clearest jiossible proot' nf its ?uii- 
ordinate ])osition. The Junction is marked in many ]tliiccs hy low 
plateaus (see p. -11), whiidi offer exceptional facilities for notiiiii' the 
relations of the two tormations, as they owe their origin directly to tliv 
su])orposition of a protecting covering of the less easily orudcd dark 
shales on the light-colored beds below. The western slope- of tlu'v' 
p'ateaus are usually bare, and the line of contact between the twn'li- 
similarly colored series distinctly drawn. A reference to the goiici'ai 
section which acconi})anies the map will also show that at the we-t i.ti4 
of the (!yj)ress Hills, the Laramie and Holly River series >o|iarateil by 
the Pierre shales, occur in what is ])ractically flic same section, ami a-' 
the beds have been so little disturbed, that their maximum dip sekltiin 
exceeds len feet to the mile, and cousequontly no question oi'ovorlui'n 
or dislocation is involved, no better stratigraphicalevi<lcnco can jMj>>ilji}' 
be otl'ered. 

:al.)ly constan:, 
ill c'linpd.-iii,,!, 
>m. :is olj.soi'veil 
'Mill, is equiillv 
III r.) 

'■iili "liiilo^ ami 
I usuallyratli,. 
uli-'s, wliirli ill' 
1)01 Is general I \ 
I' I .•ire, on ihr 

iil^. Ill IIUM,' 

d lliu ronmloil 
c of ii i.'(jii,-.iil,o'. 

.•('llowisli Ilii-ii;. 
I" tlic SCftioli-, 

li-liiK'tivc ]iair 

I'l'Dlll .Mi"liiilir 

xtoiit al Iww, 
in the .si'ftiuii. 
bec(»iiiL'i5 iiiMiv 

ramie /(/o/c? "!' 
plote examiii;i 
he I'ioiTO lias 
, liy uiimoi'oii< 
not" of its sub- 

)llK'CS l)_V h\\ 

)i' notiiii; ilir 
liroetly to tliv 
Y e nil led ilai'k 

l()]IO> i.lf tlu'Si' 

II the two (lb- 
u I lie general 
I he west cnil 
>ei)arated h}' 
ectioii, and as 
in <li|i seldniii 
in iir.ivei'lurn 
(! eaii possibly 



:v,i c 

In ;i <oii|ilo of places south of the "(lap,'' alony; llie vallcv which con-Ni^^wor oon- 
' X / . . gloineriiteS' 

iiects Cyjircss Lake will) the East Fork of Milk River, some small 
iiiras of coiiiflomcrate were found. Avhicli are prohablv of the same ago 
;i.s 'he iiicdhereni i^ravelH and coii;.5li)iiierates Ibuud in ^o numy places, 
hi'ni'aili liio drift, in the valleys of the hirgei' st'^eanis (comi)ar(' Kepnrl 
of I'lo-ivs-^. 18S2-S4. p. 140, c.). 

3j jg^. 

SwiPT Current Creek Pl.\tea[j. 

Swift Current 

Swifl Current Creek plateau is a IdW ditl'use ridge, situated north-east 0^00^ p""ei''ii, 
ti'om that of tlio Cypress JIiil> and sc])arated from it hy a shallow 
ilepi'e.-sion ahout twelve miles wide. It is about foj'ty-tive miles long 
;iiid twenty wide, and has an elevation of four to five hundred feet ahove 
the |iliiiii- aniund it. or 2,i'30 feet above the sea. its surface is usually 
imilulatiiiii', hut in .some places becomes very hilly, and its edges bhow 
iiimparuiively easy sloi)es, and nowhere present the abrupt escarpments 
M) charactoristic ot Wuotl Mountain and the Cypress Hills. It is drained 
on llic imrlii by Swilt Current Creek, which runs througli the pla- 
tc;iii lor .-.((iiie miles, and on the south by the ditVerent branches of Old 
Wives ''reek. A deep valley has been cut completely across it, by a 
braiU'li 111' the former stream inosculating with one from liie hitter. 

The easy slopes of this plateau, the grass-covered condition of 
most of its valleys, and the couhcquent absence of any extensive ex- 
liusiuo. iciidei's the collection of details in I'cgard to its geological struc- 
uire a task of some difficulty. Its main features, however, are simple 
iiinl easily unilerstood. Two formations only enter into its composition, Composition. 
viz: the upi)er part of the Pierre shales and a deposit similar in com- 
jiositioii to the Miocene rocks of the Cy])ress Hills. The latter ibrma- 
timi. which is referred to the Miocene, rests unconformably on the Pierre; 
the F07. Hill and Laran)ie being usually absent. This plateau suHered 
more sovi^iely from the otl'ects of denudation previous to the tlepositioii 
if the Mineene than the ('ypress Hills, as not only have the Fox Hill 
:inil Laramie lieen almost entirely swept away, but part of the Pierre alsck 
lias (lir-a])|ieared. 

The Pierre shales, in the north-eadern part of this plateau, jiresent I'iern'. 'hales. 
asiiniewhat strange appearance to one accustomed to their dark tints 
elsewhere, as here at a ili-tanee tiiey look almost white. The lightness 
"f the color, is, liowever, partly due to blciiching, as in a fresh exposure, 
H;,'ht-grev and bluish tints prevail. The difference in color, is Cluuigf in color 

. ' ' iiiut comiioi'i- 

acconi|iaiiied by a corresponding change in composition, as they t'on. 
have lieconie more arenaceous, and in places pass into a soft sandstone. 
Hr' loliation is also unusually coarse, and the different beds often 
i^^xliiiiit .-light differences in color due to their more or less arenaceous 

34 c 


fetialcs Jiirker. 

Exposures (if 

oliaraclcr. Tho faces of some ol' the sections ai'e studdtd witli hra,. 
arenaceous nodules, which are frequently incrusiud with radiatin' 
crystals of sehiiiite. Shales answering to the above d'.scri|iJiori uvc 
exposed in a iiiunhei' of sections along Eush Lalce Creek, and >oini 
of its branches, and are there usually overlaid by a licavv bed oi 

A few miles farther west, on Swift Current (Jreek, whore the shults 
are next nn;! with, they are darker in color, but are still very arenacomi-, 
and it is possibU* that some of (he upper beds may represenl pariottlie 
Fox Hill. 

The Pierre shales, with llie exceplion of a short interruptimi ultfi 
the stream enters tho plateau eounlry, are exjjosed alout;- the wlmi, 
length of Swift Current Creek, from the Cypi'ess Hills to tlic ,Sa?-k;'tolk'. 
wan, the fall of the stream being almost identical with the dipol'tln' 
formation. They ai'e also ex])Osed in a number of places alonu; the 
southern and eastern edges of tiie plateau, in the valleys of the diileren! 
branches of Old Wives Creek. One of the ex])osures near the ^oiitli- 
eastern edge of the [)latcaii in Township 1(1, iJange xi., we>l oj ihi' 
the 4:th Principal Meridian, yielded a number ot fossils, amoiii^M 
which are: — Yoldia Evansl, Lucina occidentalls, Xenrii Moreamim. 
Actifon ntft'iiuatus, Am'svinyon centrale, Anchura Anicrirana. .'^'"^j/ii/c.v 
JVicolleli, Scliaphilen Subylobosus. 
I'iorre ovitIiihI '^'"^ Pierre shales are usually overlaid uncontbrmably by iheMinceiK', 
At one point near the north-eastern edge of the plateau an exposuiv 
of yellowish and greyish sands and silts, and greyish and dark clays \va> 
observed, which may possibly belong to the Laramie, and coar>e »ullo\v- 
ish .sandstones, resembling the Fox JJill, were seen in acouple of plaff-: 
but in most cases, these formations are absent, antl the Mioteno rost- 
directly on tho dark argillaceous clays of tiie Piei're. 

The Miocene d('|)osits of Swift Current Creek ])lateau, whiiu resfin- 
bling in a general way, the c(jrresponding rocks in the Cypress Hills. 
ditfcr from them in containing a smaller proportion of pebble con- 
glomerate, and in the su[)erior hardness of some of the sandstone 
beds. The best exjjosures are I'ound in the valley, notetl prcvinusly 
as crossing the plateau transversely, the banks of which atlord a broken 
SO' *ion of about iiOO feet. This section was too fragmentaiy to admit ot' 
anj ietailed measurements, but the rocks exhibited in it may b^genoi- 
ally deseribeil as ctmsisting of coar,se falsed)cdded sandstone, with oocii- 
siontd bed- of a harder tiner-grained variety, usually greyish or liglit- 
yeUowish in color, hard silicious sands, clays, shaly clays, marls anil 
])ebble conglomerates. The conglomerate usually Ibrms a compact rock, 
tlu' pebble being held together by a hard, calcareous cement, but in some 
places its constituents are very feebly consolidated, and occasionally 

!)>■ Miocciii;. 


Best c.\i)0.«urcs. 



35 (■ 

liifv lie ([iiito in tlic bed. Tho pebMcs, wliirli arc ;ilv'iiy.> woll- 

roiiiMli''o Ibi'mcd of li;ii'd, lighl-colouroil quartzites, and ai'o ])rnl.ably 

like tliose n|' tlie Cypress Tfills, dei-ivotl from the Camliriiin (|nai'l/.itos 

il'tlic li'ii'lcy Mountains. Jii addition to tbe rocks mentioned aiiove, beds Xo,ii,iiif limc- 

(ilimjiiu'e noduiiir limestone are of occasional occiin-encc. These beds, "'"'"' 

which are vei'v ehai-actei-islic of the Miocene, are only sli^^htly indurated, 

iind when subjected to tbe infhienee of the atninspjierc, soon erunible 

;i\rav and cnver tbe bank with small nodules, ranging in size up to 

iiliDin hail' ail inch in diameter. The general section presents a some- 

iviiiii i^i'oyisli appearance at a distance, owing to the oliti'u>ivc whiteness 

iif-oiue of lliese calcareous beds, although most of tbeni ai'C ii)und to be 

mni'O or less yellowish on (doscr inspection. The conglninerales in this 

•tviiiin, are not developed to ru»arly the same extent as in lln' coi-res- 

pDiiiliiig sections in the Cypress Hills, a fact dunbt. to their 

.'ivator distance from tht" mountains, but toward the <iulskirts of the 

■Irposii they becDUie relativi^ly inu( h more important, and occasionally 

ilio wlinlc formarion is reiluced to a single thick lied of thi- r(i<-k. 

Tlic Miocene sections on Swift Current ('rook begin a few miles ,Mi.,f(.m. on 
;iIk)vo the crossing of the Canadian Pacific railway with a single bed 'citoU. '""^^"' 
iilCongloinei'ato. Farther u]), this bed iiecomes associated with irre- 
uiilar deposits of silts, sands and clays, which di-appear again as the 
^vostcin l''Mindary of the formation is approachoil. The sections on 
ilii^ siroam are sutliciently well ex])osed to show that there is a small 
1ml well-dclined dip towards the centre of the area, and th. the Mio- 
I'cuc occupies a shallow basin-shajied de])ression in the Pierre. This 
tiut. taken in connection with the gerierai irregular (diai'actci' of tlie 
'iopo>iis, the prevalence of false bedding, and the decreasing ]iro- 
jioi'tion of conglomerates towanls the centre, show the t<)i'ination to 
lie ol' hicu--trine oi'igin, and it was probably deposited in a dilatation "'""'" 
it-iuiie lari!:c river tlowim;- eastward from the l!o(d<v ^lountains. 

^^l:c^Icl^■ mkiwixh ^[iochnh Beds sickkcosei) on I'liciau; Si i alios. 

The ex'posiiri's along tln^ southern and eastern edges of the plateau E.\|M,^urcs 
iiro insignificant in extent, but are sulHcient to detine the boundary of ilmUiis'tcnr" 
'ho tbrmation in a general way. One of these, which shows the ''^'■''■'*' 
junction of the i'iorre and Pliocene very well, is illustrated in the 
accompanying cut. It consists of fifteen feet of bluish, yellow- 

36 (' 


l!(!il of coii- 



wcathei'ini;', tinc-^raiiiod iii'.ijilliiceoiis miihIs lioliliiiif calcareniiN nod 
ules, restirii;' nn tlic I'ii-rro aiid iindri'lyin^^ about tilU'cii Icct uf neljlilt- 
coiiglomcrato. In this soction, small beds of sand aie enclosed in 
Iho conglonicrato. 

On liusli Lake Civck, liic Pierre is overlaid by a single iliick lifd oi 
congioinerale. the extent ami irlations ot' which could not lie very well 
woi'kv'd out, owing to the infi-ei|ueney of exposures, hut wliich [irohiilih 
post-dates the Miocene in age. 

The only fo.ssils which I .succeeded in linding in the ^rioeone of tlii; 
plateau waw a few indetei minahle fragments of the remains of vit- 
tel)rate animals, invei'lelirate fossils seem to be entirely .'di:?ent. 

There are a few Laurentian boulders scattered over Swift ( 'urroii! 
Creek plateau, but otiu'rwise, except on its northern boundary, it is 
entirely drift less, 1^his fact is of some importance in traidng out tin 
Miocene, as its junction with the I'ieri'e can lie detined apiiroximutiiy 
by noticing the dilferenee in the malei'ials bi'ought u|) by burrowini; 
animals; the light-colored ealeareous drbn's brought up by aniiiml.'^ 
burrowing into the Miocene being dilferont from that seen when tin- 
surface is underlaid b\- I'iei'i'e oi' liouMer-cla\'. 

(Jf:OI-f)(iV OK TMK I'OINTRY .SoiTM ol' THE CypUKSS llll.LS. 

Milk River 

Tlu; ro(d':s underlying the surtiiee of tin- country in the s()Utli-\ve>le';i. 
corner of the map are well exposed in the almost precipitoll.^ ami 
scarped banks of the valley of Millc River, and also a little farther 
north in the valley ot Many llerrii^s Creek, the outlet of Lake Pfi- 
kow-ki. These two sti'eam> occupy valley> from liOO to ."Jdil feet in 
depth, and from a mile to a iiiil(> and a Inilf in width, the hanks cl 
which alford magnilicent seclion^ of the I'ocks belonging tn the llollv 
River sei'ies. into which loi'ination they are cut. 

.Milk River valley was vi>iled and I'xamined by l)r C. M. Daw.-ni! 
in 1874, while connected with U.M. North American Jioumlary Coin- 
mission Survey, and the following detailed desci'iplion is (piotcd frcin 
him : — -'• 

"The vallc}- of the ^[ilk River is one of the most important fcatii-t- 
met with on the line of the forty-ninth ])arallel. and olfers eoi\iinuoib 
and magnitieent sections of beds referable to the Lignite Toitiarv 
series. The country on botli sides of it. is seamed with tributary 
ravines and gorges, the banks ol' which are otten nearly perpendiculiU'. 
and which lamify in all directions. Where llie Line crosses the rivir 

• (reology and Resources of tlie Forty-ninth PariiUel, 1875, p. 117. The iiiiotiiticjii is t'iven at 
leiitrth.a? the volume ia now out of print. Tlie lieds described were ;it tlieltiine siiiiposcil to In' 
of " Lignite Tertiary '' (Luramiu) at'e. See Ke|iort of Progress, 1882 81, pp. 15 (.'-1-- C. 


.Mir.K lUVKR VAl.LKV. 

.. ( r 

uiik'y,il i- utlorly impassiiblc \\)V \vii;;'ii;()ns or curty, ami iieuf this place 

■ Givul 

l)rv Coulee braiiclie-^ ofV, whieli, accoi'iliiii: to I'allise 

V S 111 



to Lake PiT-ko\v-ld. Tiie ajipoaraiiec of liie valley of tlw rivoi 

If is 

•anu'e and desolate. 

•The banks rise iioarl.y 300 feel above the level of the stream, and AiiMOiu-iin.c .,f 
.Hvmon' than a mile ajiai't:. The}' arc almost bare of vegetntioii, and 
miirki'il by band- ol' dilVei'cnt colored clays and sandstones in a nearly 
li'jri/.Diilal ptiMlioii, as far us t.he eye can reach. The descent int.) the 
vullcyeainiol l)e made on horseback imt by lakinij; advanta,u-e of iIr' 
well-worn Imlfalo tracks, which arc found leading down almost avovy 


ee anil I'aviiie. 


ic river i 


is conijiaratively insiii'iiiticant, an< 

wiiiils in bi'oad curves from side to side of the valley, ami is I 

The bottom < 


a (fi'ove ol 
k'vis mariv 


l)V willows 

u'n'e ])0piar trees 
eil out into three distinct levels, dill 


ering much in appoar- 

tlnumdi only by a few feet in height. Over the first of tlie-c tin 
laiivt constantly ])ass in 

Hood. Ii ^howr 

111 mam- 

iu.xuiiaiit ^Tdwth of and supports most of the timber. The 
■oi'oiid level, which the river can seldom if ever touch, is eharacter- 


li\' I lie abundant urowtb of Artemisia of st'veral ditfcrent 


.' iliinl IcvcL which forms a Icimi of low terrace al the lliol <il' the 
• litis, ami must be twenty to lliirty feel above the stream, consists of 
ii:i!'i|. ]iiu'chei| clay, the washings of the bank'-, and nourishes only 
lii"' li'iTa-c-wood. and a few other thickdcave 1 di'()iiij;lii-loviii^' ])lants. 

;iri' (J 

Tlic sections on the banks are uiidisturl»e(l ami re^■ular. The iu'dssuction-i, 
iviiled into an upper and lower series, iy a zone of .sandstones. 

■'Vliicli 1- about two 

thirds U|) the liank near the fjine, but aliout eight 
the valley, is found foi-ining the verysuinmii 
'il' till' clilf; wliieb here, from tlu' bellor Mipport ixltbrde 1 liysiich hard 

le clays and arenaceous clays of the re-i of 

mik's north-westward up 


a-; coin pare 1 with tl 

tliofo.'iiKitioii, assumes a bolder an 1 more rugge 1 aspect, airi a greater 

iifi-iil th 


Kill oUewliere. 

•V)iirleen mile- south-east w.-ii 

if ll 

le Ci'ossing 


the same sandstone /, me is again seen, 


now only a 


■'(.'■•iliiril up the l)aiik. indicating a general inclination of the beds in a 
-"i'.ili-oa><terlv direclion — which m;i\' rot be exaellv that of the full 

illi— ( 

"I .■tlioiil len feel lo a mile. 

" riie sandstones, though often well and evenly boddoil. ari' not 
^■iihirly h.'irdoned, but have a nolular charaeter , and though income 
alitie- iirlurate I throughout their entire thickness, in other ])laees 
ley may show only certain hard layers of eompara- 1- 

'I"' liir I'eniMved. \ 

livvlv small tl 

uckiiess, separaie 

id by be I 

Is of iinconsolidatei 




•''I'lHHi', however, to be very constant in extent, and ilo not ilitt'er 
iiiii'eriajlv in thickness at the several localities where thev wei'c 





lie-hllv fer 


with |irevailiiig light 

"W liiils. and are often more or loss all'eeted by false beldi 




l!iM'k.» liclow 

Oriciii of 


Below tlif siiiulstom's occur cliiys, siincls. and iU'i'iiuiM 





guiiornlly well stnitificd, and individual bcdn of wliicli iniiy ol 
traced a lonii; way up or down the valley. Tlu^ colors arc usually 
but there are some zones (if darUer eariionaceous clays, and in ii ti'w 
|»luces impure li^iutcs ol' no ,i!,'rcat IhicUncss wore ohserveil. Tiu«i 
apjiearcd to be li'>s pcr'sistent than most of the other beds, ami ^aTc- 
rally to thin out and disappear when Ibllowcil tar in either dirort 




iheir ajipearancc, and mode of occurrence, llicso lignite 

well have oi'iginated from the drifting togelhi-i- ot 
matter, and diilVr considerably from llu' jiure and dclinil 

wood or 


charactcri/e the Lignite Tei'liary further cast, and whidi api 
formed of trees Mhich have grown on the spot. 

■■ Above the sandstone zone is a u-reat thickness of >.and> ai 

S IllilV 


M'Ui' til '.1 


ceous clays, loi'nung more massive beds, u 

1 which llic >-lratilic;Uinii js 

less pertci'tly marked. The tints are pale grccni>ii-grov, 
gi'cyish, and light butf. 

•' No fossils were found in tiii 

s upper scries or in llie sandNimir 


the bi'ds below the sandstones, org.anie remains are also viiii;iiliirl\ 
rare, bill arc not altogether ab>ent. In a ]jait of llie siniion nd tiir 
below the base of the sandstone zone, is a layer with great arciiarcoiw 
concretit)ns, whicu cctntain in some [ilaccs abundanct' of fossils." 

Amongst rhese arc ('amjielonia producfiuii, one or more s|j(' 

cu's 111 

Vi'n'parn. two sjiccies lyf Corhuln,a Hvli. 


Siihoeriniii /ormosmiK 


A lew rolled fraii'ments oi' bones arc also included in the 



ime traces of fossil plants. I 

ower down in 


e section vaivi's 


Ogtrea arc found, sparingly scattered through the dc]iosit, ami net v 
far from the base, a layer containing shells of rTtiio in a poor -tali- nf 
preservation was observed. Near the latter were found fragmciUs m 
the hones of a large vertebrate. They were scattered, and not in a vuiy 
goo<l state of preservation, and had evidently been strewn about aftci' 

thodcatii of the animal, and before their cnvelo^^ment by thcscdiiucn!. 
These, with tlu' other vertebrate remains, were submitted to Prof. Cope. 
who pronounced them to be portions of the sacrum and l(^ng-lw 

"A secti(.)n of the ujipcr beds and sandstones, observed in a lavii,' 



the east side of the Great Dry Coulc( 


the i. 



il till 

tollowmi!' succession ot Ijcds 

•The iinmos of fo.<.<il molluscs tierc given liiivc been rcvi.'ied by Mr. Whiteiivc.= in ('(Hifiiruiiti 
with his liilcr icsuiux-Ir's. 

,<co««u.l SAOE CREEK. ."50 «• 

I'-nirr- iNciiiii-. 

I. Lij-'lit yellow isl I iiriMinciHiiis days mid siiiuls, indirated 

ill .slii|ii;s iiiid lii;zlior },'r((iin(ls, but of wliirli a few 

I'trl at tli(>. 1kisi> (ni 1 y arc udll ((Xposiid fi H 

:'. ( iroy saiul 4 5 

;!. (ircy-i.Tomi arcuiiicooii.s rlay !• 

4. Arciiai'eous clay (rusty, inojiular layer) 2 :i 

•"). Hijilily forni},'iii()us layer. A few incli(<s. 

(i. (.ir«y aronnccHiiis clay, rather cmisiacnou.sly baiulod 17 10 

7. (iiey suit ^allds^llu' 14 ■">■ 

s. Sandstones, hard and soft, liio.. nish, yi'llowisli and 
L'rey ; often concri'tloiiary, tioueially \v(>.ll stratified, 
hut soiiictiiiU'S falsc-1 Kidded, foniiiuj.' clill's in the 
t-'orjre, and weatiierintr out into ovorhanijring ledjres, 
;ind horizontally tinted walls 35 (J 

About l)(l 

"Tiio most complote section of the beds iielow tlie sandstone zone Most onmiilct" 

1 . 1 I . , 1 , , . . section. 

wiis obtained about oii;'iiL miles norlii-westward Ifom the intersection or 
the valley with the Line, and on tlie north-cast side of the valley. It 
iiiay MVfihi]) the last by a lew feel, or a lew feet may lie tnnitted ; but, 
iilliiwiiii;' for this slio'lit uncertainty, il Ibrins a cuntimiation downward 
iif the base of the formei- section. 


1. .'^ul't p:rey sandstone, foriiiiiijx the. tup <if the liank 

(about) , 4 (J 

-. Red-lirown concretionary sandstone, with larj:e I Kit- 
tened nodules 4 i> 

.'.. Hard grey sand 4 .'> 

4. Reddish nodular saiulstone 2 

"i. Wbitish arenaceous clays, with sonic selenite in the 

lower layers 22 (i 

'<■ (ireyish and yellowish arenaceous clays (banded).. l.T 4 

7. Vellowf^rey arenaceous clay 11 

'^. (ireyish arenaceous clay in wliicb stratilication is 

scarcely apiiarcnt 71 4 

". N'ellowish sandstone, thin bedded 2 (J 

b'. • irey arenaceous clay 4 ') 

II. I'uriilisli shale 1 H 

12. (in^y arenaceous clay 5 (1 

b). Iirown shale, with iiuiierfectly preserved plant re- 
mains I) li 

14. Grey arenaceous clay 14 8 

].'). Purplish shale, with some thin layers of impure 

lignite S 10 

Hi. I'uriilish-brown shale 1 II 

17. tircyish arenaceous clay 7 7 

If^. (jrey arenaceous clay, upper part shaly «• — 11 1 

I ■'! 



1'i.irr. iNciii*. 

I'K ^■^•lll)\\ isli anMiiU'cniis clay ) ."i 

•_'(>. Piirpiisli slinlo 1 II 

-1. \'olli>\visli iir(<nu(;(i(iiis clay s ] | 

2'2. l'uri)lisli siuilo 'j j 

23. Ciipyisli ivrcnaroona f\n\ i, <\ 

1'}. Saii'lstoiRs a fdw iMclu'>. 

2r), (ircyisli arcnarodiis ciuy | r, 

2(i. Ydllowi.sli nronacunus clay (lowest hctl in wliii'li 

reiiiaiiis 'if iiioUiiscs woro fimnd ai tiiis |ilaiv. 

Oslrm ) I :, 

27. Nixhilarly iianlciKHl saiul.stoiu! l (i 

28. Yuliowisli aronacciiiis I'hiy ;!] n 

Ctnii'fttiiHl ill .sl(i|i(' to rivor, abdtit iKi ii 

Aliiiiit 2S4 111 

Thickiipss, "'riK- tliiokiu'ss of beils (li>pliiywi ill ihr iiljovc >('L'tii)ii>, wliciicdiii- 

liiuod, is alioiit ;^75 toct. and the Itottnm oftlio I'lvor-vallcy is, proliablv 

not, very liir jilmvi' (hi' base nf tlio Lii^riito Tcrtiiiiy liinnalinn. il will 

ho ()i)soi'Vi'(l IJKil ihe gXMUis O.i.frcd, is huio loi' tho lii\sl timo inuiilioiu'il 

as occiii'ring ill thoso hcils; I'urther west it hccoiiics nrie ol' llie moni 

('(.iKiitiiins i>i "^'•''' liiniis. The eoiuJitioiis of do|Mn>it iiiipliod hy llie heds mi die 

<lfi><isit. Milk Ii'ivei, aio llio-e <A' ;\\\ esluary, or >hall(i\v oa iiiiirgin, wlinv. 

wjiiie oy>tors and eoi'linias wei'o liviiii;-, tlio remains ol' IVosli-water 

.shells iuul land vegolalinri. were bidiig carried and nungied wilh them.'' 

'' Tlie superposition of liiese hetis mi the Cretaoeous clays nl' iiTdiip 

4. is not cle.'ir in ihis luealitw as no iunclion n|' ilie two ti'iiiiuliono 

was obser\ed. Tlieir litliologieal (diaracloi', niiylit ainio.>l seem lo len- 
Correlation nl . 11,11 ' 1 ' . 1 

bfds. dor il ]ir(>l»al)lo, that tlioy represent the same >eru!s as Ihat siippnseil in 

eomc up Irom below the Cretaceous clays between the.luist ami \Vo>i 

Forks of Milk IJiver.- 

.Suppii.-itiuii I'his latter ^uppositi(ln has been coiiMrmed iy the work done since 

coiitiriiii'd. dm jd^iive descrijilion wa- written, as the rocks shown in the valley nl' 

Milk River have been traced northward to Many Beri'ies (!rei'k, mikI 

tVom thence on lo the head water.s of Sage Creek, at which pnini they 

.are plainly seen to be overlaid by the Fort Pi(M'i'0 shales. 

'j'he plains iietwecn .Milk River :ind Many Beriies (Veek, near the 

international boundary, have a iieighlh (jf about 2,900 feet, hut i^nin!: 

Kl.ivaiinii (if north towards the south-west corner of the Cvpress Hills, the elevation 
I'lain?. " 

rapidl}' increases, ami ueav the base of the hills it exceeds bOlW feet. 
A few miles north of Many Berries Creek, pi'oceeding in a northerly 
direction, the edge of a low ]ilateau rucning north-west and ^olUh-easl 
Ijowpiatomi. i> reached. This plateau had been deeply gashed in many places akiru' 
its south-western slope by coulees rui.iiing back from Many Borrie.'- 
('reek and cutting deoidy into the soft argillaceou.s and arenaceous 





incks or tilt) iJolly ivivi'i" ^ltIo, \vlii<li tinisliliitc' il> ]iriiuM|)!il mlls^^. 
.Will' llio Miiuinil of tlie |iliit('iiii, 111 ;mi flcviilioii of iilioiil ,'!,()()<) led 
the ik'lly l.'ivcr sorios is nvcrliiid li_v I In- I'lcrrc -liak-s. 'IMu^ >ii|i("i- 


llio I'ieii'o on (lio I5oll\ Hivoi' scric- 


V SCH!|1 III ni!lll\' 

III' tlic .-ocliuiis jiloiii;' llio ediio <>i' llio |il!itoi 


iimirriiiu: <iii iln' 

ii'iiiiclics of Saii-o Crock 






<ll't'!nil licilds ill tlloSiiuu (^nok. 

I'iiii. in wliii'li lis iiiiiiu'ioiis liiiiii 

•lu's i 

ia\c cai'M'u <iiii ji lU'ci) lia\', 


1 lluws Miiitli-iNislward, crossini;- llic loi'ly-niiilli jiariilkd a iVw iiiiK'.' 

ciht III' Wild Uoi'so Lake. Xoar tin- liiiio, tlio liaiiks uro low and 
enc'loM! ii widi'. dosolato (.day tlal, on \vlii(di iioiliinif i^'i-ows oxt'opt huijio- 
lihli iiinl ractus. I'ai'llic'i' ii|), llii' hanks of tin.' valley liccoiiic liii^iior 
ami sci'tiiMis of r()(d< lio^'iii to apjirar. At ono |ioiiit. this stream lias ci,; 
Iwii tlivortod from its old valloy, jirohalily liy sonic oli>lriiilion durinii'l,",'! 
ilii' i,diicial a^'c, wliiidi lias turned it to llio cast, and il riiib for soxtMai 
riil('> llii''ni;;li a narrow vallo}', with stucp-eiit hanks, hclitro it. rc^'ains 
.1- I'liiMior ilianiu'l. 'riic iicwtii- valley was proliahly |iailly loriiu'il liy 

m;u1;iIiiil;' I'oiili'us hclon' i 

■ upper jia 

t. iii'canio the hod of tl 

10 iiiaiii 

I roam. 

rl Saji'f' Crook divides up into a iiunilier ol' hranclio; 

ill of 


[Mi>,-es-- dooj) valleys and exhihil very lino sootioiis of Iho rooks 

"I'linll III 

!"• lo 

I lie upper pari of the iiclly Kivor series and tlio hasul 

the I 




111 of Sau'o ('reek, the iiinotion ol'tho-' 

iiiirl(ri| Ipv |ii\t 


and lieilv IJiver series is marked hv a sorioH of low iilatouusi'i'"'''!"-' 

liii.'iny; west wan 

and oxleiiuint!.' in a soniew 


lion ;i 

little west of north to liiill's Head plateau, heyond wliiidi ]i 

iiiioviii line 111 a iliroo- 


i!;i'y turn lo the east. 
Tlio siiiieriiosil ion of the Fie 

i-yr s 



on t ln' more arenaeeoiis anc 


I I'KMTf 111! 

Ii:,'lit('i ((ilnied beds of the Belly liiver series, is iinniistakahly .sliown in UriiyKiver 

iioal laiiiilier of plaoos alonu' the wi 



is ranu'o ot 

pliiteaiis. and ]nits the (luostion of the relative jiosilion of the two for- 
iilillioiis liryoild diiilhl. 

KitNl of llio--e plateaus, the Pierre. shales hocomo the surfaeo formation, 
t..\n'pt wliero overlaid hy the elevated Laramie ]»latoaus, and oontinuo so 
fiii'iiHToat distance ; their easterly di|) <»!' ahoiil l(f to Iho mile, agreeing uipni simic 
very (.■l(i~e|\- with the doidiiic nl the whole count r\' in the same direct ion- 



eir iir; 

<eiicc Is nil 

licatod by mimeroiis exposures in the bi 


of al 

If ]iiinii]ial valleys and also by the hard clayey and sterile nature of 
lialiire which noaidy always charactcri/,os soil.s owing their 

If Mill 

"I'lKiii In iliis formation. 

rile Easi and West Forks of Milk Ilivoi' allord good exposures of the 
^liali's in the upper parts of their courses, but near the boundary tlioy 
iwMiie cniiccalod hy the heavy drift deposits. Tlio drift is, however, 
almii.'jt entirely dci'ivcd from the underlying shales, and it freci^ueutly 
'"iitains flay-ironstone nodules, and tVagnieiits of the moi'c coni- 
"lun fwbils ol' the formation. li 

JC.vpii.iiire.'i iiri 
Kiirk.sol' Milk 

12 (• 


llclly River 

I ten vy ill I 



TIk' rorks III llio Mfllv Kivoi" M'i'io> arc* lirini^lil to iIicmui 

ii'i', :iii.l 


H|)i'oiwl ovoi' IV liinilod iuoh, a f'ow iniloM oa«t ol'lho WoHt FoHciii Ti 
iliip 1, Kiiiin'o XNvii, W. .'{|(l I'lMiu'ipiil Mcriiliiin. TIht hit 1i|'(mi!,'IiI 
iiji i|iiilo Mnldt'iily liy 11 lifuvv soiiiliorly ili|) iVoiii Iteiiciitli llic >lmli« 
wliicli tlii-y midcrlii' Cdiil'ui'iiuilily. This ureii was cxainiiii'd \>y \k, 
(i. M. I)ii\vs(>ii, ill lS7t, !iiii| tlu' foilawiim' (losiTiptimi is i|niiii'ii tidm 

" A most iiiliM'iisiiii;;' siTtioii occui's in a ilucp valloy aiiuiu six luilo 
wosi ot' I'last Fork. Fxuctly on tlio .Homi(lary-lin(>, tlio imnks slmwifdiMl 
uxposin'os of llii' (VotacooiiH shalo-s, iiioro closely rosciiililiiiu' in Ihii:' 
lltli(ili)niral cliarartcr Ihoso scon in the ii|i|>i'r part of Iho I'tMiihina Mniiii- 

tain sections, (iia 

M tl 

osc of the sanu' 


s as occiirrin,;;' m tiic viciiiitv 

of Wood Moiinlain. The rock is almost, or (piito horizontal, isjiretty 
hard, and well siraiifiod, and includes white bamis like those alivailyp- 
ferrod to. ( )ii folliiwini;' the valley about a mile noi'iliward, the-cchiy 
sliales seem (n bend suddenly u[)Ward and ;;ive place toa scie- of 
wliioh a|ipoai' to undorlio them, antl whicii dilfer from tlioiu 
in ehuructcr, and inidiide massive layers of sanilstime and lliii 
ceous clays. 




A seel ion was measured across the uj)lurned ed^os of tlic-e iu'd 
lielow, the measuroments being reduced, so as to icpv 

Wlucll IS u'lVell 

sent the actual liiickness of the str 


The section — siipposi 

II'' II' 

reversal Ik have taken place — is in descending' ori 

ler :— 






iiarr. inciid 
Soiuhre ('I'ctiicenus (lay-shales, I )i vision 4, M. and II. 
('I'uy aiKJ yellow aremicoons clays, with som(» re- 

iiiaiiis of 04r' a in the lower layers (iibout) -i> " 

Greyish-white areuaceou.i clay, witli irre'.,'ular sheets 

uf ircjiistoiie ''' '' 

Carbon.acoous shale ' " 

( trey areiiacei lus clay '-' '' 

Black earhonacooiis shale - " 

Dark shales, with carliouaceous bands 1- '' 

Carbonaceous shale, with poorly preserved [ilaut 

remains 1 '' 

Grey arenaoous clay ■'" '^ 

brown shale, with indistinct impressions of plants, 

a few inches. 

< ircy areiiaccims clay ' 

Laminated carbonaceous shale, with spots of amber, 

and impressions of ])lants - 

(irey and yellow aronaieous clay -'' " 

Yellowish arenaceous clay ^ ' 

Urey arenaceous clay ■' 

♦ (ieoliicy ii'i.i Itesduroi's ol' tlic 4!i!li I'ariillfl, p. 111. 

lERT. isniix. 
Ill, .Soft litnlw — in'oliftbly VdlldwiNli iiroimcuous fliiVB, 

Imt iidl woll ox[M)Hi>il ;!,') '.) 

17. firi'V .sniiil.stoiu', woutlicriiig yellow, iiiul with iiiaiiy 

jniiitivn-cnii'ks IJ lif 

l>. (Jri'V iiili iinMiiircdiiH clay 4"> 11 

l!i. Hard sundstoiui, lircakiiij.' iiiln larnti rcctanmilnr 

IVaj-'iiieiils, ami wi'utlii'riii^' iiitn put-liolcs t u 

•Jii. Sdlt iiii'iuicuoiis clayh I'J Id 

■JI. l'iiit'->;raiiu'il vni^y-yi^llow HiUuLslcnic, with ilciKlrilic 

iiuirkini.'s :.' i) 

Hi;, tiicy and yellow ish anuiaceouH day, witli >^(\u\o thin 

slu'ctsdl'iriiiisidin! :;i 5 

'.':',, Ii'di-lii'dwn Hand.stdiit' 2 (i 

■JI, Sdll V'lt'y saild.sldlK^ li •"> 

'S<. Nddular liniw ii .'^alld.^tdll() <i <> 

L'ti. Siil't lidds, with .•some tliin sandstfnie lavi'is l'4 

■-'7. Ndilular red-bi'dwii saud.sldiic, (al)diU) .". u ' 

2K Givyi>li and yolldwisli arciniriidus clays, wdll .strati- 

liod, and witli small rrairnicnt.sjof Sdnic LaMicii- 

lirancliiatii sludl at tlid Imso 88 'y 

L'!i. (jioyisli and ycdlowi.sli ariMiaci'dUH clay.s. woll strati- 
tied l:i 1(1 

.".ti. siuidsidiie ;; 

ill. iii'dwni.sli urena''e(iiis clays, cnnnliliii^;' and nilten 

wlu^ie I'X posed 1:14 4 

11:'. I Irey sandsldiio (Dip I.") ) 1 '» 

M.l. Yelldwish sandstono, thin bodde<l and lla^'gy :!4 () 

114. l'ui]ilisl] and hrownisli days, with evident .strati- 

licatidU lines 47 7 

'•'<■' hiiiiui'o irunstdiie I 

■ 111. I'iir|ilish slialy elays lL'7 '.'> 

M7. I lupine ironstone I tl 

U.S. Crunihliiii;' earthy days -'1 fi 

.SHI! 7 

"The lu'ds helow these are not exjM).s(Ml Milhoicnlly well to enalile the 
:<C(liiJii 1.1 he measured. From blocks t)f'siiiidstdne sstrewinn' the haiiUs, 
liiiwx'vcr. it is probable that one ui- moie layers of this rock occur not far 
I'olew liie base, as here o'iven. 

"Tiie strike of these lieds is N. 27° F.(mai>-.) and their dii), south-east- TiltiniroC 

waiM, at angles varyini;- from 45° to abt)ut 30°. The tilting- of strata nui^iikji.le. 

10 siidi angles as these — even if tlie existence of no more violent 

iKxuiv he suspected — is in itself a circumstance siilliciently remarkable, 

iu ii loiiiiirv where, foi' liundreds (if miles, the rocks are found with •'"^'f' ■?<='''!"" , 
• ' ^ inuoli ini'linca. 

nicunui ions no greater than can be accounted tor by oi'iginal irregu- 
liiiilies df deposit. The nearest disturbed region is that in the 
neiiililniiulutdd of the Buttes, anil the upturning is there in immediate 
tuimeitidu with the extrusion of igneous matter." 

It ( 



Ak<^ (if (li.-- 
Hirbcd bod.-. 

liii.-i I'drk 111' 
Milk liiviT. 


'ii>li ick 

There is liltle doiilil lliiu i ho ii|)])ci' pni'l, it'i\otall (iI'iIk'. IhmJs I 


cloiUy ill llii- ))l;ic(' boloiiii; to the Hell}- iJivu' series. 
ti'iitigi'apliiciil piisilion. and also \,y fluMp |i(i|,i. 
ing at one point nnnioroiis specimens of Corhula penindata, oni; ol' thr 

up so unexpo 
This is shown liy 

leii' s 


ost eliai-actoHstic fossils of that foiMniition. Some of tJu! I 

inaA' bclonijc to the same series as the h)\vei' <iark shal 

KWcr llOlj: 

wind 111 (I'll 

the Butt 

e-: on 

Milk ]iiver. Tl 

ic jiinelmn ol 

tiie i'le'iix- IJivor 

1 o! 
series aii'l 

the Pierre shales along the southern eilge of this dislnrlied nre;! i~ 
(dearly shown, but as the iioi'thern cantacd is eoncealeil, it is im|ifis>il)lc 
to say whether the presence of tlie ui.derlying beds is din> to a slmplf 

ant u 



iir 1 

f they 





their noiihein Ifoivkf. 

fhongli the latter hypothesis seems the 
case, the higdi angle at whi(di these betl: 
rence in tiiis di>itricl. 

The i'^asl Foi'k of Milk- Eivei' after a- 

e nroiianie oiu 


ni ciiliiT 

is a (iiiite anonialoi 

ini'' the 


IS Ofl'lll'- 

lOud ol llic 





loi^ical interest, as the 


sections seen along its valley sliow seaccly anylhing hut drill. An 
exposure of Fox Hill sands was found at one ])uinl. near the exlreiiiit\ 

a sliai 

p bend \vlii(di it niake-^ lo the e, a 


Iweiilv niihs iinrili 

of the li'iiindai 



roi-eeilni"' in an ca>lerlv direetuui ti'oin tin- ^-treain alniu 


witJi an elevation of about 

.000 feet, the noxl noini oj' iuleie.-t wliii-i 

is readied is iht; raii^e of low westwan 



lU.-;. wiiicii exleiiil 

from the boundarv near Range xxiii.. W. iJrd Princijial Meridian i 

11 a 

norlh-wesfei'ly direction. Old-man-ondii.sdiack plati'aii. the most north- 
erly meiiibi'r of lids range, is about four mih.!- long and ahoii! I.V.I irci 
high. To the west it presents a steep .scarped face, but in ail oiherdinT- 
tions slopes gradually away. I Is surface is undulating, and in ii> higlies' 
])art very sparingly coveiH'd with drifl. The beds which enter into 
('oiii|ni<iiioii. the eoni])osition oI'iIun jilaleaii, ai'e wcdl exposed on its western >lii|ii'. 

and ;ire there seen to consist of about 300 feel of I'ierro shale>. 


liy about 150 feet of yellowish Fox Hill sands and sand-iine. A lew 

thin lied 

s ol iioilidar sandstone no 

ear the to]) of the Fox Hill have served 

f denudation, and to ])reser\'e ihe jilateau. A r; 

lo arrest the worlc o 

of high rolling hills continues on from the plat 

easterlv direetion for several miles. South-east of Oid-niaii-ondiis-liiiek 

eau in a iinrtli- 

Koiimii'd liJfe'f. plitteau. and se])arated iVoni it by a wide valley, is a long rounded 



mueh lower than the ])la1eau-- either north orsouth of it, and r()niiiii8i."i 
eiitirtdy of Pierre. The third pla'eaii, wliicli extends tu the hiuiiniiiiv. 
is of more im|iortance than the other two, as it re-introduces the Jjaramio 

Willi its a'-eompanying carboi 


s zone. (rood ox]M)sure: 


along the western face of this jilaleau. Tin 


t boil 

,^t>n I'oiisi-i 

if I 

leri'e snales ol 

li(> usual 


1. A I 


liese eo 

,ne> the F-.x JUH. 

iieivaliout lif'y I 
hiiii is usually th 

-iiiiJ.-i ; in plac 

Liii'iimie, I he low 
ivliito and gi'cy c 
ii:,'iiili- t'i'iini two 
•jufliiirly good i 
-omi lis ihe count 
Aiita ill ;t nuiiili- 
lied ufilark- ela}-. 
liixl oceupying a 
ol'llie Laramie coj 
llliel|l■lll'■■il•^ at I h 
iiftlsocouMving ll 
I'ypress ][ills and 
loan i- undulating 
'lie east and north 
I'Xposiircs oeeiir. 
'lepressimi a cijujiI 
W I'e.setnliles exa 
Mil it )ii'iiliahly ; 
'lt;ii-ii> III' a >iniil 
Hills, and in the v 
i'lllie Pliocene. T 
'ur uio |ii'iilialily I of ihis [)lal 
I'lit atliiriliiiH' 110 e 

W'liiil .Mouiilain 
I.a;'aiiiie ;;i\a. Its 
itnundisiarbed aiu 
"iiler tu the Larar 
-ystem has a dip 1 

On a|i|irnacliing 
"I'd W,in,| .\b)iinta 
vicinity of Twelve 
•liaiiiiel of some a 
■'ilonl excellent sci 
Near ii^ westoni e 



45 <■ 

li,.iv ulidUt lij'fy f'eot thick. This foi'iuation looks ii n-ood deal i>Toyor ••""'•'niitidn!' 
iiaii is usually the case, ami C(jiitaiiis a t'oiisiderabk' (juantity of hard ary iiiiUcau. 
»;indsiiiii(; in places. I'lie Fox Hill is succeeded eonronnal'l ,' liy the 
Liiramii', the lower part oi' which consists of a conspicuous band of 
white iiiid li'rey clays and sands, (il'ly-tive feet thick, hokling a seam of 
ii.mili' tVoni two to tlireo ti'Ot in. thickness. The lii;'nitc in this scam Lignite, 
ijiiftiiirly n'liod ([Uiility, and will ho<'ome valuable foi- local purposes so 
■omi as I lie country in ils vicinit}' becomes scttle<l. It has been burnt 
nsitii ill a number of places along* the escarpmenl. it is overlaid by a 
liodot'ilark elay, twenty feel thick, which looks exactly (he same as a 
lieil iicciipymi!; a similar ])osil ion in the Cypress flills. The upper part 
iifiln' Liii'amie consists of about lifiy t'eel of yellowish and greyisli 
silts iiiicrvi ratified with some thin beds of clay and sand. Tiic Lara- 
mie (Icpn-iis at this point Ijear a sli'ong general resemblance to the 
iie4>(X'(ii;iying the sami; relative position in the east ond of the 
I'ypros Jlills and north of Wood Mountain. The'surface of this pla- 
I ail i> undulating and near the summit becomes very rough. Towards 
iu'wist and north it slojies gi'adually down to the prairie level and no 
i\]io:<iircs occur. A. thick bed of jiobble conglomerate was found in a ''""-'"""■■'■"^'• 
lij]iiv>Moii ;i coiipli' of miles cast of the west end of this plateau. This 
liod resembles exactly the J\[iocene conglomerate of the Cy])ress llilU, 
!mt it in'obably agrees more closely in ago with the more recent '^k'' "'''"»- 

' ' -^ ' gloiiienitf. 

'Itjii'^its iil';i Mmilai- character found south of the •• (rap" of the Cypress 
llilU, mill ill the valley of the Saskal(diewaii, wbicli have been referred 
i'lllie i'liocene. The beds underlying liiccongloni'M'ate are not ex])osed 
'uf are probably Pierre. 

Kasl nf this ]dateau an undulating plain, based on the Pierre shales, 
I'lit allnr'linn' no eN]io-<iires, extends all the way to the White .Mud 

(iKOT.oov OF Wood ^ 

Wonil Muimtain is simply a westward projecting spui- of the (,'oteau \v...m1'aiiiie lirva. Itsgcology is very simple, asthe plateau is (■om[)Osed ol'(ji;'„i',',iiy"' 
iumndi-iarbed and conformaljle sei'ies of strata. I'cferable in descending' '"" 
"iiler to Uie Laramie, the Fox Hill and the Pierre^ shales. T!ie whole 
\Vstoin ha> a dip in an easterly direction, of about ten feet to tlio mile. Di|,„t system. 

Oil a[i|ii()ii(liiiiii; Wood .Mountain fron\ the north, along the >b)oseJaw 
iiml WiMiil Mountain trail, exposures of rock aie tir.-t met with in the 
■ iiiiiityiif Twelve-mile Lake. This lake. whi( h occupies the abandoned 
'haniiel of some ancient stream, is henun<'d in by high lianks, which 
atloi'd oxcelloid, sections of all the Hn-malions found in in the district. 
-Near it> western end, the exposures consist of Pierre sludes only, but 

•It) (• 


iiiif'.'iiJiili^ir ill 

iHi.-sils .■'I'ln'cc. 

llniiiiilary of 
Lar iiiiio. 

Divi-iioiis (it 



u-oinii' east along till- lake, the Fox Hill and Lai'ainie (le>eoiit.l -^iiirx'^ivolv 
to its level. 

The iippei- portion of (lie Pierre sliale>. nortli of Wood Mdiintitii,. 
]ire.sent.s a somewhat iinfamiliai' appearance, wiierc seen in the soctiun- 
around the lake and in the numorous eoulees leadinii^ from the hills, ;i« 
it has heeonie ii-reyer in colour and more arenaceous than the tvpioa! 
variety, and its foliation is also much coarsei'. These grey arenaceotb 
shales are oecasionaly dii-ectly overlaid by the Laramie, but mori' 
fi-equontly a varying thickness of coarse-grained, yellowish >aiidstoni'. 
rc])resenting the Fox Hill, intervenes between the two. A'er}- few fossils 
were found in those sandy shales, but one section, allei' careful exumina- 
tion, in addition to some of the more common fossils of the fonniition. 
yieldeil specimens oi" Sivtphifes suhqlohnsm and Anchura Amcrii'unn. 

In the western jiart of Wood Mountain, tlie Imundary of the Laramie 
is coincident with the edge of the i)lateau, but farther east, owing to llic 
easterly dip of the Ibi'nuition, it leave.> llie hills and turns away to the 
north, and at Twelve-niile Lake, the jilain between it and the foot of 
the plateau is baseil entirely on the Lai'aniie. This plain, which has a 
northerly slope of ;ibout lifly feet to the mile, is seamed in all iliriMii.m- 
by coulees issuing from the hills. 

The Laramie strata north of Wood .Mountain include three -omewliai 
di>-^imilai' gi'oujis. At the base there is a series of yellowish sands, siit< 
and clays, holding Muall interslraiitied beds of ii'onstone. part uf wliiii. 
may be referable to the Fox Hill. This is overlaid by a veiy lonspicii- 
ous bund of wiiitish and greyish argillaceous sands, sands and i!ay\ 
interKti'atitie»5 with a thiclc band of carbonace<nis shales, which ulten 
includes a small lignite seam of interior quality. This •cam has k'Hi 
bnriii in a iiumbei'of places. The third group einisists of veliov.ish silt-. 
sands and .sandstones, with an occasional bed of hai'd nooular samlslHiK' 
Although none of the beds in this section maintain the saniecompusi- 
tion for any distance, and false bedi' . ■ and other iri-egularitir- imply- 
ing de])osition in shallow water, are of frequent occuri'cnro, yi'i tln' 
distinction between the ditferent zones is remarkably persistent, an! 
hohU good as ta; west as Lake in the Cypress Hills. 

East of Wood Mountain Post, the plateau is extremely irrei:ularana 
broken, a tact duo to the multitude of streams and coulee-- which in 
tersect it in all directions. The banks of of the^e valley- are nn- 
birtunately, usually grass covered and the geological inlbi luatinii th'V 
atford is veiy meagre and unsatisfactory. The few exposures whiili'l' 
occur are veiy fragmentary and show yellowish and greyish silts. sanJ- 
and sand.stones, belonging to the uppci- portion of the Lanuiiie. A 
thick bed of hard sandstone was fouml near the surface in a ninnhcr"! 
places and small beds of lignite are of not infrequent oceurremo. The 


)il MoiinUiiii, 
1 tlic soctidih 
1 the liill>, ;i- 
1 lla> typical 
ly aronareoib 
.ie. Imii mo'.v 

sll -illilKtutll'. 

iry low fossils 
ot'ni examina- 
liu I'oi'iniition. 
1' the Lai'aniio 
, owing to the 
IS away to tlic 

llil UlO 1but nf 

1. whicii has a 
1 ;il! iliivL'tiOD> 

n'ce -Dmewiiai 

\A\ sands, >i!b 

jjurt ut'whn;!: 

|Vorv conspicii- 

iiil- uii'l I'laVv 

s. which "fteii 

-oani lias heiii 

vcll.iwish silt-. 

liai' >an'lsl"iK' 

same roMip"si- 

larili'- imply- 

■riire. yi'I ill'.' 

loi-M-tont. aii'i 


i^e- uhii'li in 
alley- are 111.- 
)rniatinu tli''^ 
<nrcs which ■; 
],aramio. A 
n a lunnbi'rci 
uri'OiK'e. Tlw 

.cosHELL.] ^^■'^•^'D MOUNTAI.V. -47 r 

ran-;t valuaiilo .sciiiii that was examinetl is situated altmil I'loveii miles 
i^totWoDtl Mountain Post, in Townsliip 4, Ean^-e i.. West ot the :ird 
I'riiuiiiiil Moi-idian. Tliis seam, wliicli has been worked to some '.'niii -cam. 
i-xtciil, i> ahout six fool thiek and is of very liiir (juality. It is asso- 
ciateil l"ith above and boh)\v with sandy (days. The lignite fioni tins 
seam was used wilii satisfaidory results by the Xorlh-west Mounted 
Police Ibi- l)lacksmithing purposes, v, hen tbey were stationed at Wooii 
Mountain. A lai'ge stream of coUl water coUeeling on the impervious 
-urtaco iif I his bed issues from tiie bank and jiouivs over its faee near 
ik' placf where it has been worked. 

Aimthor seam of a workable character was observed a lew miles r kiI ^ 
lunher we.-.l in Townshij)4r, ilange ii.,West of the ;^rd Principal .Merid- 
ian. Thi- •;'ani i- well exposed in the side of a hill south of the trail. 
Tiie t'olliiwiini' >ection was measured here : — 

I'KKT. iNcniis. 

1. N ellowish sandy clay 

L'. ( aiiioiuiciMjus NJialc. 2 

'■'). Liijiiifi' • '"> 

1. Curl lonacoous shales ] ] 

\ Uijiritr f (i 

li. t 'arl)onacO(Uis shales 1 

7. Saiuly days 

GoinL: >outli from Wood ir.ountain Post, no exposures of any kind 
were lut with until the southern escarpment of the 2>hiteau was. 
reached. At this point, a thick bed of nixlnlar sandst(.)ne projects from ;v,-,„ii|||,. 
the slope near it- bard<, and above it :-inall sections of yelIowi>li silts ■'■""'■'"'"■• 
and sands appear in the baidc. 

Thcsonthern edge of Wood Mountain jdatean is lo>\", is usually well 
LT;b>e(l, and is consequently still'ering litth; fnnn denudation at present. 
It ha> lieeii forced back to its present position by the united erosivi' 
enei'^ie- of Poplar Eiver and I»ocky Civck. Tlies^- two streams ar.- 
-till sojiai^atod by a low dilfuse ridge, which i.-., however, ra|)idly an- 
'leri,'oiuL,' degi-adation. The wcNtorn slujie of this ridge has been worn 
into l.;id land- by branches of IiO(dvy r'reek which jienetrate it in ail u^ji;,,,,!^, 
liroction-. The sections exh'bited in these Had Lands wei'c examined 
I'vDr. (f M. Daw.son in 1874, and the ibllowing detailed description is 


ted from liis report* :- 

The most instructive section, however, in the Wood Mnuntain s,.eiioii f.imh 
■:,don. lieMwenty miles south of the settlement of that name, on tin- M„^u,uui„. 
I'trty-ninth parallel near the 42") mile point fi-om Red Jiiver. Here bed.s 
'ludoulitedly belonging to the Lignite Tertiary formation — which, east 

♦ Ug-jljirj- and KcsioUrccR of tlic 4i'lh ParuUcl, pp. '.i2-l(KJ. 



bad laii(l>. 


(if this locality liiis covoicd so givat an ai'ca of country — \uv foiinii 
clearly superposed on imliihilablo Citilaccous rocks. The cximimhv, 
are numerous, ami twv iiroihiccil l>y the streams (lowing;- from ihc M.utj,, 
ern oscai')iinent of the wator-shed ])lateau, above I'cfei'i'ed to, \vhic|ili;i. 
here been gasheil by their action into most i-iig\i>'ed Bad Litiuls. 

"This term lias attaclied to it in the western I'ci^ions of AmcricM, u 
peculiai- siLniilieance, and is a]iplied to |lu' rui;'i;-ed anddesfilale coiuitrv 
formed where the soft, (dayey Tertiary Idrmations are undei'i;'()iiigi'api.i 
waste. Steep irrei^ular hills of clay, on whicdi scarcely a trace nf vo^fi- 
tiition exists, arc found, separated by deep, neaidy perjiendicuhu-iilcii 
and oilcn well nigh impassible vallej's, or, when deuudaiinn iia- 
advanced to a further stan'e— and espt-cially when some more resi^lill;f 
'tralum forms a natural iiase to the (dayey beds — an arid flat, jiavcdwith 
the wa>hed down elays, almost as hard as stou(^ when dry, is iiroihiowl, 
and sup|H)rt.- irrei;idar cones and biittes of'clay, theremnanls ofa fDiinri 
hiii'h levid plateau. Denudation \n these regions, jiroceeds with ox- 
ti'cme ra])idity during the short period of each year, in whicli the -uil 
is saturatt^d with water. The term first ami ty]deally apjilini tn tht 
newer White River Tertiaries ofXebrasea, has been extended to cuvei 

coui'^ " -imilar nature in tlu^ Lignite Tertiary regions (»f the Upper 

Missouri, and other Tertiary ar( "s of tjie west, fn the haddauds. souih 
of Wood Mountain, the hills ass,,:'ie the lorm of broken iilaleau--; d- 
genei'aiing gradually into conicai peaks, when a harder layer nf >iiiiil 
.^luie, or material indurated iiy the combustion of lignite iieds, Ibniv-a 
resista'it eapjiing. Where no such protection is atlorded. roiiii(l(>ih/'i// 
/«>«^S are ]H-odueed from the honn)geneoiis ari'iiacoous (■l:iy>, \V;t-!i 
proceeds entirely liy the power of falling rain, and the sliding ddwnni 
t!ie half li(itiid clays in the perio(l of the melting snow in spring. Tlio 
ida\' hills are consei[Ucnlly furrowed from top to base, by innimu'raMc- 
ruiiiK'ls converging into larger furrows below. The small >lre;iiiiM!ip- 
idly cutting back among these IiIIIh, have formed man}' narmw i^tcep- 
walled gullies, while the larger bi'ooks have produced wide Hat boltnmetl 
valleys at a lowei" level, in which the streams jmrsue a very ser|it'iitiiie 
course. I'enudalion is even here, however, going on, as fruia the fir 
(pient change in the channel of the stream, it is constantly eucreachiii^' 
on the banks of the main valley, under-cutting them and causing himl 
slips. The method of the immense denudation of Tertiary beds, wliicli 
is jU'oved to have taken place over the area of the western pliiiii-, is 
explained by the degradati(Mi still going on in this way aiiMi:.Mlu'ii 
present bordei's. 


81 C 

nii>teiMm' '" '<■ T^'"^ iiiiissclevic {'(^^■•'d <l<»os not exteiul downwiirds to 
liu' inferior edge o|' I ho ramus. Tlio hittor is not iiiHt'Ctcdoii tlio inner 
-iilea.-i fill' posterior as l)olo\v Iho middle ol'tlic coronoid pj'ocoss, whoi'e 
it i> linikcii olf. 

L'ngth of the dental soi-ios, M. .212; of true molars .0S5; of pre- 
iniiars .UlH; diamotoi's of last ti-uemolai- ; aiitoroiiostcrior .O'.'A, trans- 
wiso.i'-l; do. of cnniiAcat haso : anli'ropostci'ior .MU(, transverse .(I2'.l. 
|i,|illi of laiiius at M. .'!, .08(1 ; lono'tli of symphysis .l.'jl. 

This spijcies was the hii'o-est flosli-eator of the While River Kpoeh, 
;in'l tlie size of its canine teeth proves it to liave heen a dangerous 
.iiiiiiiai. lis molars are interesting on aocount of their illustrating the 

iosi primitive form of a sectorial tooth. 


Men'odus avoustioenis, sp. nov. 

This lai'ge ^[ammal is represented by numerous specimens. T select 
tlif iireseiit descrijjtion two maxillaiy bones from the same skull, eaeii 
ofwhich contains tlie foui'th ])i'emolai' and the true molars; and two 
lower jaws from second and thinl intlividuals. One of these consists 
iiflittli' more than the symphysis. The other includes part of tlie 
symphysis, and part of the left ramus, which (-oidains ail the molar 
teeth ext'opt the first and last. 

1 lefei' the species to Menodus, because both lower jaws have, like 
the Mniiiiluii ijifiantens, Leidy, two incisor teeth on each side. The speei- 
iiien in wliirh the ramus is present has a small alveolus for the tirst 
pi'cmolaron each side; the side of the other specimen, where this part 
ispi'eserved, has no sucii alveolus. These specimens show the identity 
of the siip]iosed genus Brontotherium with Menodus. In the eon- 
ii'actt'il slitipe ((fits mandibulai' symphysis this species resembles the 
species oi Symborodon rather than the Af modus gii/anteus, and it 
I'tsemliles the smaller lipecies of Symborodon in its inferior dimensions. 
It I'esomliies the species of Menodus in the wide intei'nal cingulum of 
thi' siipeiiof premolars. The species of Symboi'odon which present 
'his cjiaractei', are the S. trujonocrras, and the S. heloceras. Cope. 
It- iiieasiiiements are inferior to those of the S. trii/onocera.s, and the 
-iipenof iiiolai's are of different fiirm. In the species just named ihcif 
"iiilino is olijiiiig, the iinteroposterior diameter exceeding the transverse 
111 ail tliiccui' them. In the M. am/MSf/'^en/s the molars tire nearly square 
in initliiic. 

Hie >iip,'iior molars of the S. trigonoceras are characterized by the 

tlatiiesNultiio middle portion of the exteriud liice of the external Vs. 

82 c 

VnIlTll-\Vi;ST rif.ntlTdKV. 

TIlis siirfaco Is neither oxcavatod, nor is it keeled, cxcoptiiiif a -Ijcflii 
convexily on tiio middle of tlio anterior V of (|i(> first niulnr. '\'\^,. 
mid<ili^ lines ol'llio cxternid Hices of the Vs of the loiii'lh ])reinol;ir ;iiv 
slightly eoiivex. TIktc is a iiroiniueut vertieal aiiii'lc ileseeiidinif IVom 
the apex of each extertiai \', and no lateral ones, so thai ihcic ntv 
no lateral pits at the internal hase of the \'^ on each >ide of liic ,i|ii'.\, 
a- is seen in Si/inhorodon trii/onorrras. 'I'he internal eones of ilic fonrili 
^llperi^r preniolai'. are not well dislinn'uislied. The niily Iriirfs ci 
cingula on the liMie lunlars are jiisi in IVont of the median (-xtrrmil 
vertical rih, 

!MKAsrm;MK\iK oi' SrerjaoK .Mni.Aiis. 

Diameters of R n. iv.. { -^-S"-;;;:;. :: ^ ^ S 

IMametors ,„■ M. i. ^ i:r;S::;'::-^ ^ 

Diameters .,1 .M. n. ^ , ,.,„„ J.,„. ocr, 

T,- , t- ^, ■■■ f aiiteriiiiiisteriiir 1)71 

Diameters uf i\l. ,n. "^ ,,,„„, .',. f,;, 

Ah already ohserved, tJie sijnt/ilii/sis inaiuHhid' is narrowed ilirwiinK, 
and it(lis])lays a i;'i'0()ve on the middle line lielwecn tlu' |i(Kitiiiiis di' 
the alveoli of the eanine leeth. The >ides of iheraniu- ai tlii- |iiiini 
are vertical, and a litlle euneave almve and heliind tin.' <-aninc nivonliiv 
In protile the symphy>is slnjjes in an alnio>l >tiai^'lil line from tlu' 
hifnreation to the incisive hordcr. There are two mental foraminii 
close too'etliei'. Tlie anterior is the larirer, and is sitiiatcl a little below 
the posterior, and is helow the aiiierioi' root of the second premolar. 

The inferior eanine is of moderate size, and the crown is reem'veil 
and is soincwhat acuminate. The molars are narrow as compareJ 
with their len.ulh. Their crown consists of the usual two VV. except 
the anlei'ior pari of the •-•■ennd premolar, where the crest i> mily 
sliii'htly concave outwards. The tirst premolar is represenled Iv ii 
sini,dc small alveolus. Anterior to it is a diastema a little longer lliaii 
its diameter. KxceptiUiy; on the second jiremolar, the external ciiiguhiiii 
is complete and \velldevol(»i»ed on all the molars; (the last not present.) 
There is a very distiii<-t. short cin^ailum at the base of the low .■interior 
one of the three inner ciisiw, except on the second premolars. 


No. I. 

Width between canines at exit from uheoli. 
Length of premolar series 

.;tosmi.J APPENDIX. 8M C 

N<i. II, M, 

,. , ,. • ( ;tiili'rii|jii>l('rii>i' 024 

l„a,.ieteis ot l)a>L« ut mini.... j trausvom'. 02;} 

Lens-'th"!' iirciiiiplar series (I'JH 

I/ngtIi 'if t'MWii (iT I', in. i 020 

T, i\- I aiiterdiiostorior ();J8 

l„a,u(-ters I. m. I \ . -^ tninsvJ'rs,. (13H 

,, ■ \ unU'roiHistorior ().")0 

'"■"""''•'■" ■^'- '■ Uraiis\,.r,s.. o:U 

., .. ( !iiit('iii|H)Bl(',rior (U)4 

lUMni'U'V^M.u. ( 041 

riiiptli of vaiiiiis al t'pjiiliil' M. ii OSil 

Wluii ilu> 1)1)1108 of llie ikcleloM in tlif posso.ssioii of the siii'voy uif 
-mru'il. a i;ou(i idea oT llio [ir(i|)iirti<)M> of iIiIn animal will bo ohtainod. 
In iliiiKii-ioii-' wcro prohaiily aliiuil llinl of llic! liniiaM Rliinofoi'o.s. 

MKNiiliU>. S|i. • 

A >'.'Liiuil aiiil larger species of Lliis genus is indicatt'd liy niimorous 
|.;ut> or several iudividuals. One ot' the most important of these is 
ihr Mipeiior wall >A the skull comploto from the eml of the muzzle to 
iii'iir llie liiiipii, and bearing the lateral horns. This part shows that 
ihe speeies ditlers from llu' Hiiii\horoilontt>s triijunoceras and acer, Co[ie, 
mid the Mt.nodiis inyens, Marsh, in the absence of anguhition above, be- 
tween the free and othei' parts of the nasal bones. I( also clearly dif- 
fei'sfVam the S. triyonoceras in the semi-erect horns with little pro- 
nounci'd iriaiigular section. From the S. bucco the lack of expansion 
of the /.vu'oiniitic bones distinguishes it. As compared with the »Sf, 
altirostrls Cope, it has much longer anil wider nasal bones, and the 
iiDfiis are more widely separated. The compression maUes their apices 
;intei'upii^ierior, while (hoy aie transverse in the S. altirostris. In the 
umuflaiiity as to how this species dilfers from the M. aayustiyenis, ex- 
cepl ill dimensions, 1 postpone the description until I have access to 
all the material. 

AcEiLmiKRii M MITE, Cope. Annual Report V. S. (leol. Survey 
Terrs. 187o, (1875) p. 408. Mandibulai- )-ami of two in<li- 

AiKUATHERiUM iM'MrLUM. Co])e. .\ nirrican naturalist 1885, p. lO.'i. 
(Name only.) 
I''iriiniis of mandilnilar I'ami of two individual represent tiiis, the 
smallest "f the Ehinocerontidie. One of the rami possesses the alveoli 
"f the laige recumbent canine teelb. indicating that the species i^ not 
iHvnii'ddMM. The molai- teeth are unfortunately broken away. The 
"fheriaiuus supports the third premolar, tin' last deciduous molar, with 
'"'■ liiM i\vo permanent true molar>. 


Tlie iiiitcriipi' (? tirst) premolnr haH a siiinlc larye root, with a (lc,.|, 
H'roMve nil llic (■xtcnial siilo. In (he tnio molars tho V sliauoil crests 
arc I'lilly ilcvclopeil. and tlicie is a lowcmss-civst altlu' anterior boi-dw 
of tiic crown. Tlicrc is no complilo cinn'iiliini, but slmit Hcctioii> 
ii|i|insili^ the \alloy on lioth Ihc internal and external bases df tin. 
crown, on the external side ni ar (he I'ronI, and at the posteriur \m-v. 
The measareinents show how much smaller this species is than the J. 
7nite, and that it does uot exceed the Jli/racodon mbrascenm. 


No. I. M. 

W'idt li between bases ol' 1'. ni. i uii:; 

I .on^'tii of base of anterior 3 premolars ivJ:' 

nejifli of ramus at diaatonia OM 

" " " third premolar 042 

No. II. 
Length of molars i and ii o;i9 

n;^.„^t .. AT ;; \ anteronosterior 'i:'(i 

Diameter M.n. | ,,,,,^„>,,.J,,,,,, o),. 

Be] lib of ramus at front ol' JM. ii iW"i 



A superior molar and int'erioi' canine teeth, represent this sniilinc. 

OuEoDo.v, or other genus of the Orcodontidio, is indicale<l by nn inliii'H 
first premolar. 

Lei'Tojiekyx MAMMii'EH. Copo, American Naturalisi, ISS't, ji, I'm, 
(name only) with question as to the genus. 

This species is represented by a fragment of llie mandible wluiii -ii|i- 
])orts (he last two molars. A tar.sal cannon bone in the collecdon m;iy 
belong to the same species. It is not cei'tain that thi^ ruiiiin;ini 
belongs to Leptomeryx, but 1 leave it there until further iulormiiliuii 
enables me to make a final determination. 

The crowns of the molars are not prismatic noi' are they br:icliyiHloiil, 
The crown is well distinguished, and expands but little. Tlio nedioib 
of the internal columns are lenlictdar, while the external arc cresceii- 
tic. There are no basal columns or cini>;ula between the luttcM'. In 
the second ti-uo molar, the horns of the anterior internal crcscei.t join 
the anterioi' external crescent early on wearing, while the jinu'tion 



niiiii's later in tlio ciisc olthc two iKjHterioi'Coliiinns. in ihotlui'd true 
molar till' iiiitorioi" lioi'M of tlic; posterior crescent does not reucli the 
pusteriiM- oxternal column, l>ul only touches the anterior internal 
rdliiiiiii. Ill the same way, the |)()storior liorn does not reach thoexter- 
iiiil I'lihMiHi. Iiul is se])a rated I'roni it hy a distinct mammary tuherclc 
„i' sliei'i lohimn, which lias an antero))osforioriy short oval section. 
The lii'cl of this tooth is broken oil', Imt it was small, jud^inj,' by the 
tViiiinionts of its base. 

The peculiar colunin intercalated between tlu^ heel and the posterior 
internal column distinguishes this species fj'om all the tertiary rumi- 
iiantiii known to me. 

The enamel is slightly wrinkled. The half-worn condition of the 
Clowns sliow that the aiiimul was adult. 


( iint('rii|Histeriiir 

.M. ii, - traii.sverse 



1 'iaiiit'ters of .M. ii. -! traii.sverse i"'70 

i viMtical (ot'eiianiel) 00 1.",