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F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., (Eng.) 

Physician to> Lkchrkr at thk Lonlon HosPiTAr.; Phvskun to 

THK Royal Ai.bkrt Orphanagk; formerly Pmysician to thk 

East London Hospital for Children 

Honorary Member oi- the Hungarian Society ok Public Hkalth 







I zf5 ///5 


y I 

Entered accordiiiu to Act of Parliament of Canada in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, 
by Georgh N. Morang. in tht office of the Minister o» 


Dr. Warner was one of the first to study the child 
scientifically. He ranks among the great child students 
of the world in the extent of his investigations, in the 
definiteness of his conclusions, and especially in the 
practicability of the plans he proposes for the system- 
atic, scientific study of children, and the natural pro- 
cesses which he suggests for remedying and removing 
weaknesses and defects, when they are discovered. 

Dr. Warner has published several very instructive 
and suggestive books, notably: "The Children, How 
to Study Them"; "Mental Faculty"; "The Anatomy 
of Movement"; "Physical Expression, its Modes and 
Principles"; and "A Report on the Scientific Study of 
the Mental and Physical Conditions of Childhood.'* 
These books contain the results of his investigations in 
the examination of one hundred thousand children in 

The present volume is written chiefly for teachers, as 
it deals with the training of children during the period 
of school life, but interested and intelligent parents will 
find it helpful in its facts and recommendations. All 
truv students of childhood will welcome the book. 
Nearly all the works on child study have been written 
by educators interested in physiological psychology ; 



Dr. Warner is an eminent physician interested in 
psychological physiology. 

The foundation on which both the philosophy and 
the practical recommendations of the book are based is 
that teachers are responsible for the development of the 
brain and neurological system of the child as well as 
for the culture and training of its mind. 

The external manifestations of brain conditions are 
carefully considered. The size, shape, poise and motion 
of the head, the position, motion and clearness of the 
eyes, the shape of the bridge of the nose, the muscular 
control of the face, the accuracy of articulation, the 
rate and mode of speech, the bodily posture, tne shape 
and attitude of the hand, and especially the movements 
of the body, both spontaneous and controlled, are re- 
garded as indicative of the condition of the brain and 
nervous system. Simple and definite directions are 
given for observing and recording these external revel- 
ations of brain and nerve states. The great import- 
ance of recording systematically the results of observa- 
tions is strongly urged. 

In studying children most attention should be paid 
to those below the normal condition in development and 
power. Dr. Warner classifies the manifestations of a 
child's condition and power under three general heads : 
{a) Body ; development, features, etc. ; (b) Nerve Signs ; 
postures, movements, action, expression ; and (r) Phy- 
sical Health and Nutrition. 



)f a 
^ds : 
fns ; 

The chief remedies recommended for discovered de- 
fects are happy conditions, physical culture, and proper 
nutrition. No educator but Froebel has recognized so 
clearly as Dr. Warner the great value of physical cul- 
ture in the development of the child's body and brain. 
Physical culture as recommended by Dr. Warner be- 
comes an essential element in the work of every school, 
not merely for the improvement of the muscular sys- 
tem, the bodily carriage and action, and the general 
health, but especially to develop the vital organs, and 
to co-ordinate the brain and neurological system. In 
regard to the last function of physical exercise t Dr. 
Warner is clearly a leader, and his philosophy and 
practical suggestions are worthy of careful study. 
The brain is the dominant organ of the body, the ner- 
ves are the means by which the brain in both its 
sensor and motor departments is related to all other 
parts of the body, and the condition of the body as a 
whole depends mainly on the condition and co-ordin- 
ation of the brain and nerves. The evil effects of 
working children in school when they are approaching 
the fatigue point is clearly shown, and the signs by 
which the conditions of fatigue, insufficient nutrition, 
and weakening over-spontaneity of action may be re- 
cognized are fully explained. 

The subject of brain and nerve nutrition is one of 
prime importance in education, and Dr. Warner's book 
will aid in the study of the subject by directing the 



attention of teachers to the evidences of the imperfect 
supply of the food elements required to repair the waste 
of brain and nerves, and qualify the neuroloj>^ical system 
for higher work at a lower rate of expenditure of 
nerve force. 

The specific cases ot type children reported through- 
out the book form one of its most interesting features. 

Dr. Warner's new i)ook will do great service by revealing 
to teachers their responsii)ility for l)rain training and nerve 
co-ordination. The culture of the mind, and the improve- 
ment of the methods by which culture may be communicated 
and acquired, are not the highest functions of the teacher. 
The new education includes methods for the development of 
brain cells, for the perfect co-ordination of the sensor and 
motor brain, and the extension of nerve connections through- 
out the body. By these methods the race ma) be made 
executive and operative, and thus each individual will become 
a positive agent in a progressive civilization. This is the 
true educational ideal. 

James L. Hughes. 

Toronto, April 4th. i8q8. 


This work is addressed chiefly to teachers, parents, 
and others in daily contact with children ; but contains 
information that is likely to interest those engaged in 
directing education, philanthropy, and other forms of 
social work as well as those concerned with mental 

The book has been written in the hope of aiding an 
advance in the care of children, and in the practice of 
educational methods, by promoting a more exact study 
and classification of the children to be cared for and 
trained ; while giving an account of some conditions of 
childhood in its many varieties as seen from the stand- 
point of the observer who records what he sees as in 
other branches of physical science. For the purposes 
of observation, a clear account of the pomts to look at, 
what to look for, and what may be seen, normal or sub- 
normal, forms the alphabet of our subject. 

Child study has of late years been actively carried on 
in America and in other countries. The psychological 
researches of many American, and some English and 
German inquirers, are well known, and give most inter- 



esting records of the sayings and doings of young chil- 
dren, and their modes of thought and expression. In 
the psychological laboratory investigation has shown 
something of the laws of mental fatigue, and the re- 
action of the senses on the brain. The application of 
such knowledge, however, as well as the means of 
devising special methods in training needs, as a scien- 
tific basis, a fuller understanding of the groups of chil- 
dren to be educated, and the means of discriminating 
and describing them. Considerable differences are to 
be found among observers, both in the purpose of their 
studies, the points of view from which their work is 
undertaken, and the methods of procedure and descrip- 
tion adopted. 

Problems in child study may be looked at from dif- 
ferent points of view ; as mainly psychological, or as 
mainly physical questions, with the determination to 
follow the methods of observation, and the modes of 
description used in the conduct of biological study and 
the physical sciences ; in the latter case it is important 
to describe phenomena by the use of terms indicating 
what we see and such as are employed in physical in- 
vestigation. I think the best results will be obtained 
by keeping the two methods distinct, and suggest that 
in the scientific (physical) study of children in their 
modes of brain-action, and bodily conditions, we should 
describe what we see, and employ no terms implying 
results of consciousness and states of feeling. Child 






study conducted by any method is advantageous as 
directing attention to the individual child ; it increases 
knowledge of child life, and tends to cultivate a fellow- 
feeling with the child as an object of interest. 

I shall here use points for observation which I began 
to study twenty years ago, indicating brain-power and 
mental expression, such as render it possible to give 
descriptions of children, as of other living things, by 
describing facts seen. The study of such observations 
shows many new relations among growth, movement, 
and mental power. The principles used in biological 
study and natural history are here applied to child 

In 1888 a committee was formed by the British 
Medical Association to study school children as to their 
mental and physical status, and in conjunction with 
medical men on that committee, and others, I was 
enabled to examine individually 100,000 children upon 
a fixed plan, taking a written description on a schedule 
for each child in any one point subnormal, or reported 
by the teacher as dull or backward. 

Groups of boys and girls can be studied when their 
classification is arranged on a basis of points observed 
in individual children. Observation shows the child's 
strong points w^hich should be cultivated, as well as his 
weak ones which must be combated. The interaction 
of classmates on one another may be ob.served by the 
teacher who observes the individual child under varied 

• •• 



conditions. The importance of what have been called 
eye-mindedne?s and ear-mindedness, as well as action 
of the hand controlled through the eye, becomes 
emphasised to the mind of the observer. 

Some generalisations, in the form of Propositions 
concerning Childhood, are given in the last chapter ; it 
seems possible to attain a working consensus in inter- 
preting much that we see for the practical purposes of 
education and the care of children. When the groups 
of children to be cared for are clearly discriminated, the 
educational methods needed for each can be more 
readily worked out. 

Studies in psychology often emphasise the great 
mental differences among children ; observation of the 
children themselves shows points of resemblance and 
difference, normal and subnormal, by which they may 
be grouped and compared. 

F. W. 

5 Prince of Wales Terrace, 
Kensington, \V. London. 


In case the system of grading pupils by Standards in use in the 
London schools in which Dr. Warner made his examinations is not 
perfectly familiar to all his readers, it should be stated that bright 
children at six years of age should be found in Standard I. ; at seven 
in Standard II. ; at eight in Standard III. ; at nine or ten in Stand- 
ard IV. or V. ; at eleven or twelve in Standard VI. or VII. Possibly 
the majority of children will he from three to six months behind 
this estimate. 





The i)urposcs of education. The children to he ediicatcih 
Chihl study. Classitication in the schoolroom. Observation {^ives 
])o\ver. I'raining to observe. Observing and descriltiiig a flower. 
A kitten as a live object. Tarts of the object ol)serveil; the body, 
movements, i'roublesome children. Training to look, observe, 
and describe. Mind and body. A nervous child, nuutal c(jnfu- 
sion. IMiysical facts observed. Varieties of childhood. Classiti- 
cation of children as to their difTicult points; as to their make. 
Report on a school. Visit to a high school; the boys seen; nerve- 

Illustrative cases. 




The Body of the Chh.d: its Construction and Growth 

The infant, weight and measurements. The head and the nose. 
Head at nine months. Teething; second teetli. Tal)le 1, show- 
ing periods of dentition. The head at school age. The lower jaw. 
The eyes and their orbits. The face, its muscles, and muscles of 
expression and of mastication. Tlushing. Openings for eyes. The 
nose; its importance in l)reathing. Mouth breathing; its harm. 
External ears. The trunk ; sjiine and chest. The arm, forearm, 
wrist, and hand. Measuring the cliest. (Jirl outgrows the boy 
about the thirteenth year. Weighing and mea.i;iring. Crowth 
and development. Signs of good nutrition, tlyes out of focus. 
Hat eyes (hypermetropia). Tong eyes; short-sighted. Squint- 
ing. Testing sight; point of near vision. Testing hearing. 






The Brain: its Develoi'mkni and Kvoi.ution .... 

Description of the brain. Nerve-cells; nerve-fibres, nerve-force, 
and nerve-currents. Movement resviltiiig from brain-action. Anal- 
ogy to a galvanic cell. Xerve-lil)rts passing up tu the brain, and 
others passing from it to the muscles. Diagram of brain, nerves, 
and muscles. Nerve-centres or parts of l)rain act separately. 
Kvery movement is due to action of a nervc-centic. A series of 
movements indicates a series of nerve-centres acting, controlled 
through the senses. Stimulation producing movement. .\11 
expression of the action of mind is by movement. Kxprcssiun of 
emotions. A child in sleep. lkain-acti<jn requires fuod and stim- 
ulation through the senses. Hraiii-action observed in niuvements 
of infant. .Spontaneous movements in neu-lxjrn infant; also in 
young animals and seedling plants. Hrain-centres act separately in 
infant. Movements when a month old: at three months, some 
control through the senses. Associated movements of the hands. 
At five months, movement regulated through eye and ear. At 
three years, signs of mental action and memory. A case. Infan- 
tile brain-action evolves as mental expression, .\ction in brain 
corresponding to regulated movements. The dawn of mental 
faculty. Case, action adapted by circumstances at three years. 
Kind of movement seen in the infant. 



Ohservinc. the Child : what to look at and what to look 


Studying children: observing in place of questioning the child. 
Examples. Case: a well-made boy, exhausted. How to observe. 
Points to look for; development, nerve-signs, nutrition. Schedule 
for recording observations. Fix your iileas of the normal type. 
The head: points for observation; common defects; measure- 
ments. .Study good statuary. The face : types. Separate features. 
Nose. Palate. Kars. Growth. 

Nerve-signs, (ieneral balance. Expression in the face, facial 
zones. Analysing a face. Eye-movements; muscles of the eye, 
the pupil. Head, postures and movements. Hand-balance as an 
index of the brain. The normal straight hand posture. 








Principles of the Mrthous of ohskrvinc. an'd describing Chil- 

Methods of studying cliildrcn. Kxperience gained in examining 
a hundred tliousand children in schnuls. lacts to ol)serve and 
describe. Appearance of the body and exprtssion. Writings of 
Bell and Lavater. Physiognomy ami cxprission do mil always 
correspond. Movements ami altitudes as signs of brain-action. 
A farmer's descriptions. Principles of observation. 

The child an object in nature. Objective study; psychological 
study. Doctor's method of observing. Training to observe : look 
at types of perfection in nature and art. The head and face. Sir 
Charles Hell on expression. Signs of good nutrition of body and 
brain. .Malnutrition in plants. History tf research as to nerve- 
signs. Venus and '>iana. Nervous hand-posture. I'.nergetic 
hand, the two contrasted. Hand-postures express mental state. 
Drooping the thumb. Hand in rest; feeble han(l-p(jsture. H;. " 1 
in fright. Convulsive hand. The Cain antl Niobe at 1-lorence. 
Postures observed in parts that are free, as face and hand. Obser- 
vation of movements; lingers, large parts. Prain-centres in action 
corresponding. A long-continued, similar series of acts fatigues. 
Occupations involving movements of small parts. Symmetry of 
balance and movement. Antithesis of posture. Principles for 
classilication of movements. Spontaneous and stimulated move- 
ment; reflex movement. Series of movements; uniform, sprearl- 
ing area, diminishing area, or as adapted by circumstance. Try 
to improve the child's expression. 




Points for Observation, indkaiinc; r"Ari,r.s in Budyor Brain- 

Description of card for recording defects. Cranium : large, 
small, bossed, forehead defective, frontal ridge. External ear. 
Eyelids. Palate, narrow, V-shaped, arched, cleft. Nose. Growth 
small. Other defects in development : face small; features plain; 
hands blue; mouth small; eye-openings small. Abnormal nerve- 
signs. General balance. Expression. Irontals. Corrugation. 





Fulness under eyes. Kye-movements. llcail-l)alancc. Hand- 
balance weak, nervous. I'inger twitclit's. l,t)rdosis. Other al)nor- 
mal nerve-signs. Dcariuss. (irinning. ()ver-m(>l)ility. Response 
faulty. Speech; stammering. Two cases of stammering. 

cHArriCK vii 



Examination by speaking, reailiiig, talking. ICxpression in 
words. Repetition of the (lucstion : imitation and (K l,\yed mental 
action. Limited vocabulary : aiticulatioii; spacing words. Social 
sense. Memory. Arithmetic. ('om])arison of size and form. 
Imitation of movements : linger cxrrcises for imitation, .\nalogous 
modes of movement aM<l mental action. Slow action. Delayed 
expression: a case. Introspection, it is exhausting. Other tests 
i)f brain-power. Counting UKjney : tests by v jight. Cases. 
Time by clock and watch. Principles involved in mental tests. 
Imitation from teacher. Defective memory. Epitome of some 
mental tests: the principles concerned, laults leading to mental 
defects. Silly children. 


Some General Conditions in Children described . . . 137 

Consciousness expressed in action. Slee]i, its signs: tooth- 
grinding. Rest and subsequent activity. Children are not natu- 
rally motionless. Fidgety children ; peevishness. Inattention. 
Fatigue; it should not proceed to exhaustion. An exhausted boy, 
very dull. Irrital)ility. A girl tired in home life. .All expression 
of mental states is by movement. Sleep contrasted with a storm 
of passion. Descriptions of C. Hell and A. liain. Expression of 
joy and laughter. Scientific description. Mental excitement: a 
case. Headaches in children. A nervous girl with headaches. 


Types of Childhood; and CiRoits of Children below the 

Normal 154 

Source of experience and evidence. l\e|)ort on a hundred 
thousand school children. Normal children. Schedule: a normal 






child. Nervous children; card showing defects, schedule givinj» 
account of the same case. Dull and backward children: coinci- 
dent defects. Schedule of dull hoy. SchcduK- of hoy normal hut 
dull. .V small and backward l)oy, A hoy overworked. .\ small 
girl, exhausted and too high in school. A haekward girl, heail 
small, eye-movements faulty. Hoy bright at arithmetic, dull at 
Kuclid. Children mentally exceptional. " .\ moral imbecile." 
Children "feebly gifted mentally." Cases. Deafness causing 
mental dulness. Cases. Children jircsenting defects in develop- 
ment : ct)incident defects. Children with abnormal nerve-signs; 
their associated defects. Delicate children; delicacy due to in- 
heritance. Hoys and girls. Case. Dull and delicate children 
with defective development and nerve-signs. Schedule describing 
a cpsc. Fpileptics and children with history of fits during school- 
life. Cases. Children crippled, maimrd, paralysed, or deformed. 
Children who appear to require special care and training. 




Comparison of younger and older groui)s of children. With 
advance of development spontaneous movement lessens; less 
childishness. Advance of social sense, more accuracy; demand 
for respect. Professor Key's observations on periods of growth; 
their significance. Normal and sub-normal children. Hard work 
at adolescence. Older boys; their conditions and training. The 
older girls in school. Delicate girls. Ancemia. Hysteria. 




The Care of Children and thkir Tkaimnc .... 

Training should be founded on knowledge of the children. 
Classification of pupils: age-basis; grouping children imitative 
and nervous. Brain-training gives strength. Physical training; 
fatigue to be avoided; s]H)ntaneity to be trained. Kin<iergarten. 
Training the attention. Inattention and fidgetiness. Physical 
exercises : various kinds, their employment. Exercises in brain- 
training. Imitation : uniform repetition. Increasing number of 
parts moving: small parts and larger parts moved. Eingcr-exer- 





cises. Eye-movoiiu-nts. Sense of weight. How to deal with 
frowning ami facial expression. Mental slates: untruthfulness. 
Nervous chiMren. Fixed mental impressions. Al)sent-minde(l- 
ness. Training delicate and nervous children; removal of nerve- 
signs, usefulness of a <lescription of tlie child. I'recocious chil- 
dren. Control and discipline through eye and ear. Teaching 
description of natural objects. Description in terms implying 
what is seen. 


Hygiene and Health Management diking Schooi.-mfe 

Health management guided by ol)servation. Advice to parents 
through children. Health culture and early detection of its fail- 
ure, or of disease. Cleanliness. Air l)reathc(l, at home and in 
school; ventilation. Looking at pupils arriving in school. Com- 
mon illnesses. Kood : milk, water, bread, meat. Feeding infants: 
flour food leads to rickets. Clothing. Ophthalmia. Ulcer on the 
eye. Summer diarrhcea. Chicken-pox. Measles. Scarlet fever. 
Diphtheria. Taking the temperature : clinical thermometer. Con- 
tagion. Disinfectitni. Chorea. Epilepsy. Rickets. 

Lighting the room. Cloak-room and lavatories. Sight and hear- 
ing. Delicate children. Mental hygiene as a science. Laws of 
mental fatigue. 





Propositions concerning Childhood 

Proposition I. The main classes of defect among school 
children include a larger proportion of boys than girls. 

Proposition IL The main classes of defect among school 
children are much associated in the groups of cases Such asso- 
ciations vary with sex, age, and environment. 

Proposition III. Children with developmental defects often 
present also abnormal nerve-signs, and are delicate and dull. 

Proposition IV. Children with indications of brain-disorderli- 
ness — that is, abnormal nerve-signs — are often dull pupils. 







Proposition V. Dull piii)ils arc often delicate- with indicatii)ns 
of lirain-disorderliiu'ss; that is, almormal nerve-si^Mis. 

Proposition VI. C.irls with developmental defect or l.rain- 
disordeiliness are more apt to receive harm an.l less j,'n„d from 
their eii\ iruiimciil than hoys. 

Proposition VII. The effects of goo.I physical training in 
school are to diminish the numher of cases with signs of l.rain- 
disorderliness and the number of dull children. 


rl in 


Tables showing the results of th 

INDKX .... 

e examination of 100,000 


. of 








I. The muscles of expression in the face. After Sir Charles Hell 
The spine, chest, antl bones of the upper extremity. After Sir 
Charles Hell 







1 6 



nerves m 

Hones of the forearm : the radius ami ulna. After Sir Charles 


Diagrammatic representation of the brain and its 

connection with the eye, the ear, and the muscles 
Hand in straight balance .... 
Hand in nervous l)alance .... 
Diana. British Museum .... 
Hand in energetic balance 
Hand in straight balance with tliunib drooped 
Hand in balance of rest .... 

Hand in fright 

Convulsive hand 

Cain. Museum, Florence 

Face : showing complete paralysis on the right si le 

Face : showing partial paralysis of the right side 


Face : showing partial paralysis on the left side 

Hand in feeble balance 

Imbecile, smiling ...... 

The same: quiescent and expressionless . 

from brain 



















3 II 

















Slu.wing of tifiitition 

Showing average l.eiglits an<l weights of children. .After 
Dr. liowditch 

Showing the annual increase in height an. I weight of children 
at ages stated 

Showing measurements of chest girth in chil.iren. After 
Dr. Roberts 

Showing the average weight of the brain of children at age- 
periods. After Dr. Dovd . 








Cases of children with headaches, arranged accor.ling tn age, 1 5 1 

Number of children with each class of dofect, and tlie per- 
centage on the numbers seen. Also slu.wing, for each 
class, the proportion of boys and girls respectively. Uased 
on fifty thousand children seen by author 

Showing for each class of defect the percentage of cases asso- 
dated with another class of defect as named. Arranged 
in age-groups for boys and girls respectively. Dealing 
with some children, as Table VII. 







1. Bright boy, dull at Latin. Eyes moved badly .... 2 

2. Mental confusion; corrected by observing its si}»ns ... 3 

3. Child bright at school, but fractious at honu-, with signs of 

fatigue 4 

4. Hoy with cleft lip and heart defect; mentally dull ... 4 

5. Arithmetical mistake; hand not guided l)y eyes ... 8 

6. A well-made boy, action good, but dull mentally ... 9 

7. Mental confusion, accompanying wandering eyes and restless 

movements lo 

8. A big, dull boy; developmental defects with nerve-signs . . 13 

9. A small, fidgety, playful boy. Rickets 14 

10. A boy exhausted i)ut bright; signs of fatigue . . . . 14 

11. A tired, dull, fidgety boy 14 

12. Deliiyed expression or thought, seen in action of child at three 

vears old .......... 46 

13. Action adapted by circumstances, in a child under three years . 50 

14. A well-made boy, but exhausted and overworked • • • 55 

15. Boy who stammers : muscular spasm commences in the forehead, 117 
|6. Boy who stammers: muscular spasm commences about the 

mouth. An intelligent boy. Rickets 117 

17. Delayed expression of an impression produced, in a child four 

years old 125 

18. A dumb boy, who showed acquired experience as to temperature, 1 29 

19. A very dull boy: short-sighted and deaf. He could compare 

weights . . 1 29 

20. A boy, exhausted and very dull 144 

21. A girl, tired in home life 146 

22. A boy, showing signs of mental excitement . . • ^5* 

23. Headaches in a nervous child ; previous chorea . . .153 

24. Schedule describing a normal child 157 

25. A ner^'ous child described in scheaule; also a card, describing 

the defects in the same case 160 






26. Schedule : a dull and backward boy, defects in make and in 

nerve-sJKns . 

27. Schedule: a imrmal boy, liut dull ..... 
2.S. A small hov, verv backward .... 

29. A boy overworked, not delicient; imrt and sojitarv . 

30. A small j^irl, exhausted and placed too hifih in scluiol 

31. A backward nirl; head small, cy«;-niovemenls faulty 

32. A boy bright at arithmetic, dull at Luclid; did not look at th 

blackboard •••....., 
3}. A clever boy; a thief and incendiarv ... 

34. A clever girl; character bad, crinnnal iui.ciitance 

35. An uncontrollable boy; mother insane (epilepsy?) . 

36. Schedule: describing a child feebly gifted mentally . 

37. A girl mentally feeble, without speech, liut with some social and 

moral sense ..... . . 

38. A deaf boy without speech, but educalde . 

39. A boy with increasing deafness, shor'.-sight, and accompanying 

mental dulness 

40. Schedule, describing a delicate, small-hraded, fidgety girl 

mentally bright, headaches, needs spectacles 

41. Schedule, describing a boy delicate and dull, with defect of 

development and nerve-signs. He needs special care and 

42. Girl: ei)il('ptic fits at home, none in school; very dull 

43. Boy: epileptic fits in school, deficient mental power; a good 


44. Boy: fits at home and in school; a clever boy and good 

45. Boy: fits at home and in school; intelligent 

46. (Jirl : mentally defective and epileptic 

47. Frowning, quieted by interesting work 

48. Headache, leading to confused mental action . 

49. Illusions in a boy, leading to untrue statements 

50. A girl with chorea or St. Vitus's dance 














An educational system has been introduced, and 
made available for all classes, in order that young 
people may grow up with their faculties well devel- 
oped, fitting them to become useful men and women 
in their future social life. But, while looking at the 
scope and the public usefulness of a system of edu- 
cation, we must remember that children differ greatly 
in health and strength and in mental faculty; educa- 
tion should therefore be adapted to the special needs 
of the individuals. Children of school age, i.e. from 
three to fourteen years, form about one-fourth part of 
the population. We shall see that there are many 
classes and varieties of children, whose needs must 
be studied; while the bodily strength and mental 
faculty of an individual will be shown to vary at dif- 
ferent age-periods, and according to the environment. 
Hence, child .study must be a matter of primary interest 

B I 


to the teacher and others engaged in the care of 
children, as affording a basis for the methods of edu- 
cation ; giving a source of perpetual interest to work 
in school, an interest in the individual child, and a 
reasonable means of working out, in practice, the 
best that can be done with the child in various 
phases of life. Without an intimate knowledge of 
children the teacher may have difficulty in the pres- 
ence of a peculiar pupil. 

Case I. A boy, eight years of age, in a prepara- 
tory school, was said to be so dull at learning Latin, 
that it was thought impossible to continue the at- 
tempt to teach him. He was healthy and well made ; 
he showed no signs of mental defect, and was, other- 
wise, quick and bright. He had learned to read well 
and read story-books for pleasure. I noticed that, 
in reading, he followed the words on the printed line 
by moving his head, not moving his eyes in their 
orbits ; this did well enough for story-reading, when 
he skipped much of the page. Moving the head, in 
place of turning the eyes, did not admit of sufficient 
accuracy for studying Latin. Some attention to eye- 
drill soon removed all the difficulty complained of, 
and the boy made good progress. This cause of 
mental dulness will be referred to again ; the case 
serves to illustrate the usefulness to teachers of per- 
sonal observation. 

Children in a school class usually vary ; each has 






his own peculiarities. A rough classification may be 
made of the temperament, disposition, and mental 
characteristics of each, and still there remain individ- 
ual peculiarities, which should be recognised as a 
guide to training. Some children are active in tem- 
perament, kindly in disposition, and quite up to average 
for their age in mental ability ; an individual of that 
class may give trouble by outbursts of passion and 
periods of mental confusion ; such pupils will need 
careful consideration and management. 

Case 2. A girl was doing a sum, simplifying a 
compound fraction quietly and correctly, line by line : 
then the forehead puckered and the eyebrows were 
knit together, while the face flushed and the angles 
of the mouth became depressed ; at the same time, 
the fingers of the right hand, which held the pen, 
twitched, and she wrote 114— 16 = 24. Writing quickly 

on a piece of paper ^ and putting it before her 

was immediately followed by the face clearing, while 
the figure 98 was at once filled in ; the work was 
continued without a word said ; thus a storm was 
prevented by rapid observation of the signs accom- 
panying mental confusion. 

Observation and study of children as to their mental 
status will add power to the position of the teacher, 
to be exercised for the benefit of children. To ob- 
serve and to think does not suffice to complete the 


method of child study ; wc should be able to describe 
in words what we see, both as an aid to accurate 
thinking, and as a means of expressing the grounds 
of an opinion, formed as to the status of the child 
and the effects of training. Accuracy in thus form- 
ing an opinion may do much to save friction between 
the school and the parent, and to establish a good 

Case 3. A boy was sent to Kindergarten ; on return- 
ing home at m.idday, it was always difficult to make him 
take his dinner ; he talked much, turned away from his 
food, was cross, nothing was pleasing to him ; he was 
restless and looked full under the eyes ; at night he 
talked in his sleep, in the morning he was tired and did 
not want to get up. He was a healthy, well-made child. 
In school he was reported as bright and eager, did as 
he was told, liked the games, and did not seem tired. 
The teacher saw him bright and happy, when occupied 
and under the stimulus of school and companions ; the 
parents saw him after such stimulus was removed. 
Each account of the child was true ; they were taken 
under different circumstances. 

Case 4. A boy attending an elementary school was 
brought to me by his mother, because he was trouble- 
some, did not do his work, and was always in disgrace 
and punishment, and she did not know what to do with 
him. I observed at once that he had a cleft upper lip, 
which had been closed by a surgeon, but the scar 






remained. Knowing the frequency of several defects 
in the same child, and that the brain in such cases is 
often, but not always, badly made, I examined him with 
care. The boy had a defect of his heart, and his brain 
was ill-developed. Advice was given that he should 
continue at school, and that the teacher should be 
informed as to his condition, that he might be kindly 
treated, and not expected to pass examinations. This 
boy has a right to the benefits of education ; they afford 
the best chance of his improvement, and of preventing 
him from becoming a failure in life. Such cases are 

As to method of observation and study, I have 
to explain, as shortly and clearly as possible, how you 
can observe children for yourselves, and think about 
your observations with advantage. The observations 
you make for yourselves will always be of use to you ; 
in making observations we can all agree ; the inferences 
drawn therefrom may differ according to the aspects in 
which they are considered, and the special experience 
brought to bear. The points to be defined for observa- 
tion are grounded upon my personal observation of 
100,000 children who were seen individually. Some 
principles which underlie accurate ob.servation and 
description will be explained, to help you in planning 
what you will do and what to look at. 

A certain amount of training is necessary to make 
a good observer; the teacher who has to give object 


lessons or teach natural history needs not only to be 
an accurate observer himself, but also to be capable of 
training children to observe, i.e. to see and to think 
about what they see. Looking at a buttercup flower, 
you may name it and say where it grows ; that it is of 
no particular use to the farmer, but is a very pretty 
flower ; that it is a yellow flower and without scent. 
Then you will show the parts of the flower, the five parts 
that are coloured, showing that they are separate from 
one another, and all alike in size and in form. So you 
proceed to look at all the parts of the flower, their num- 
ber, size, form, the proportions of the parts, and you 
compare them. Occasionally you will find a flower in 
which the coloured parts (petals) are not all of the 
same size, and with some variation of colour ; points a 
little different from the usual and below the normal. 

Now look at a kitten : it may be more difficult to 
demonstrate than the flower, because it is alive and full 
of movement ; but more interesting, because it does 
move, and shows some instinct or intelligence. You 
proceed, as with the flower, to look at its body, each 
limb and its parts, the ears and the tail, the claws, etc. 
We loo.'i. cvt each part of the kitten. Its movements are 
Twov^ J istUig points: movement indicates its play- 
fu':. -sr the instinct, and something like intelligence in 
the c'it : ni' r rnents tell you more of the disposition 
and character of the cat than its colour, the length of 
its hair, and its ears and tail. In studying a living 



thing we observe its parts, and in a living animal we 
observe movements in its parts : we must study the 
child in the same way.^ I shall call your attention to 
the body of the child, its height, weight, and proportions 
as a whole, and to the physiognomy or proportioning of 
the head and separate features and parts. 

Over and above the observation of the body, as a 
still object, you must look at the movements of its parts, 
which are the direct outcome of action in the brain and 
nerve-system ; thus you may study growth of body and 
action of brain, as you look at the child and think about 
his mental action and the interaction of the mind and 
body. In studying a child, to ascertain all you can 
i'.bout his mental disposition, you must look at him for 
the purpose of seeing all possible signs of his brain 
action, and how it is controlled and affected by circum- 
stances : by studying individual pupils continuously you 
will acquire valuable experience and be able to form 
generalisations from your observations, as a basis of 
mental study. When you have learnt to recognise and 
describe the points, seen in the well-developed but ner- 
vous child, examples will remain in your memory, and 
in your note-book, and you will find that they are usu- 
ally quick in mental action ; affectionate, but some- 
times passionate, gregarious in social habit, and give 
difficulty in school on account of their over-mobility, 

1 See " Anatomy of Movement : A Treatise on the Action of Nerve- 
Centres and Modes of Growth," by the author. The Macmillan Company. 



excitability, fidgetiness, and liability to fatigue and head- 
aches. These facts will stimulate your interest in these 
" troublesome children " and show the origin of some of 
their faults. I have seen such children in school sit 
together at the back-desks of the classroom, where their 
quick wits enabled them to complete their sums or exer- 
cise quickly ; while their spontaneous mobility predis- 
posed them to be the playful, talkative, laughing pupils 
of the class. I shall put before you the points, in 
detail, which you may see and describe in the child. 

Besides describing what you sec in the child, I think 
you will gain much by giving a general description in 
your own words, indicating the mental action you may 
observe in the pupil's words and work, and compare 
this with points seen in the body and action of the child. 

Case 5. I have seen a well-built, intelligent child, 
who was interested in and quick at arithmetic, make an 
absurd mistake. The sum was to reduce six million 
inches to miles, yards and feet : it was written thus : 

12 [6^00,000 inches 
1 66 "2 yards 

4?is. 166 yd. 2 ft. 

The purely mental work is correct ; the first line 
was drawn wrongly, the eye did not correctly guide 
the hand. It was, doubtless, extremely careless of the 
child ; but if you scold her, she will wriggle and flush 
and look like crying ; that does but little good. Rather 
look at the child as you work out a sum on the black- 




board, note if the eyes are moved accurately and 
steadily towards the fi^^ures and lines of the sum ; 
again, note if she move her hands and fingers accu- 
rately in imitation of yours when doing physical exer- 
cises. Want of control of the hand through the eyes 
may produce mistakes taken for mental faults. 

Making an observation is, primarily, an act of seeing, 
and appreciating what you see ; after observing you 
need to describe what you have seen. Seeing teaches 
much ; describing what you see will add accuracy to 
your work and enable you to acquire a sound experi- 
ence, which you can compare with that of others and 
correct from time to time. The points most commonly 
observed in the body and brain action of children are 
described in Chapters II., III., VI., while to aid the 
description of points below the normal a list of such 
signs is given rnd a schedule form is added which may 
be conveniently used in recording observations. 

As the studies before us deal largely with the body 
and mind or the mental action of the brain, chapters 
will be devoted to the observation of mental expression 
and movement. This leads me to speak of the differ- 
ences between signs which indicate general brain 
status, its health and power on the one hand, and 
mental expression on the other. 

Case 6. A boy well made, healthy, and well grown in 
body, head, and features : his movements are quick and 
exact, he turns his eyes towards objects steadily and 




imitates movements well, while his speech is good. 
His body and brain appear well made and active. On 
testing his mental ability it appeared that, though he 
could count coins, he was not able to add their value or 
calculate the change : he could read and write, but both 
slowly and badly. The boy's brain was good enough 
for the action and general activities of life and labour, 
but the purely mental processes were performed very 

The general conditions of make and power of brain 
are ascertained by observation of the "nerve-signs," 
which are movements, action,,balance, gestures, or other 
motor acts ; they may be normal or below the normal. 
Mental signs are mainly obtained in speech, expression 
of judgment in making a choice, memory. 

You will often find that modes of mental action, 
whether good or faulty, correspond to the manner of 
movement and action. 

The child who, when spoken to, suddenly goes 
through a number of extra-movements, excited but not 
controlled by the spoken word, is liable, at the same 
time, to mental confusion and may make some absurd 
mental error. 

Case 7. A boy whose eyes are wandering every- 
where, with the head moving and the fingers twitching, 
is asked to say what he knows about King Charles I., 
and replies that he had his head cut off at the battle of 
Waterloo. Such mental confusion often accompanies 






excessive nervous movements, and its removal may be 
helped by good physical training. 

I shall not speak of Mind, Consciousness, Feeling, 
Will, and Judgment as something implanted in the 
body, — that is apart from and outside the scope of this 
work, — but I shall describe for you, as clearly as pos- 
sible, in detail, with examples, all the points we can 
observe as indicating mental action in the brain, and 
analyse many modes of action and some verbal expres- 
sions, showing facts and faults in mental action. 

Childhood presents so many varieties, that to deal 
with the subject concisely and in form convenient for 
study, it will be necessary to present certain classes 
and groups of children as we find them in the child 
population. Children may be classed as mentally 
bright or dull, as weak and delicate or nervous ; that is, 
according to certain difficulties we find in them : again, 
they may be grouped according to points seen in them, 
as quick and exact in all movements or slow in response 
and inexact in imitation ; as ill-proportioned in head and 
features, as over-mobile or motionless, or as deaf and 
of defective sight. 

In an elementary school I saw 447 boys and 445 
girls, of whom the teachers reported 41 boys and 23 
girls as dull or backward pupils. Of these dull chil- 
dren only 6 boys and 1 1 girls were free of all faults 
that could be seen in the body and in action. Twenty- 
nine of these boys and 8 of these girls, found to be dull 



at lessons, showed " abnormal nerve-signs," or indica- 
tions of brain-disorderliness — slouching;, listlessness, 
inaccuracy in action and in looking, — j^oints that 
may generally he removed by good physical training, 
whereupon imjiroved mental action would j)rol)ably 
follow. There were in all, 83 boys and 30 girls 
grouped, as presenting these nerve-signs, showing how 
much that school needed more attention to physical 

The method of observing what may be seen in each 
child, and then groiping the children, according to the 
points seen in them, may give much useful informa- 
tion. The group "nerve-cases" was more than two 
per cent above the average in this school. 

A knowledge of the signs of the condition of the 
brain will also be useful. I have seen a young woman, 
who presented the complete type of nervous exhaus- 
tion, standing before her class, truly an object for 
sympathy, but a bad impression must have been pro- 
duced thereby upon the pupils. 

Let me present to you a report of what was seen at 
a high-class school I was invited to visit. 

Third class. Twenty-nine boys present at a lecture 
on geometry, 2.30 o'clock. The lesson proceeded as 
usual. I observed the boys during the lecture, first 
from the master's desk, afterwards from a side-table, 
so as to get a good profile view. 

This group of boys appeared generally healthy and 








I first 


well. As I looked at each boy at his desk, eight of 
them attracted my attention : — 

A, H. Two used spectacles. 

C, D. Two did not use spectacles, but appeared to 
be short-sighted. 

E, F. Two showed some developmental defects. 

G, H. Two appeared somewhat exhausted in the 
nerve-system, and are likely to be subject 
to headaches ; this is probably not a tempo- 
rary -condition. 

No detailed examination of individual boys was 
made, but the grounds of the opinion given in the 
cases of E, F and G, H may be stated. E, F showed 
no signs of brain-exhaustion or of headaches. The 
following signs of defective development are probably 
of long standing, or from birth : — 

Case 8. E. One of the biggest boys in the class ; he 
must weigh heavy, and speaks with a loud voice. As 
signs of defective dev^elopment I observed that the 
ears were ill-shapen, the head too round in form and 
wanting in characteristic points. As a sign of defect 
(probably permanent) in the nerve-system, there was 
excessive and coarse action of the muscles in the fore- 
head, causing horizontal and vertical furrows. Evi- 
dence that he was not exhausted was seen in the 
symmetry of nerve-muscular action on the two sides 
of the body. It was observed that the over-muscular 



action of the face lessened as the lecture proceeded. 
He lost places in class. 

Case 9. F. A small boy with a badly shapen head, 
though it was not small ; this may have been due to 
rickets in early life. As to the nerve-system, he was 
too mobile, and there was a little over-action of the 
frontal muscles. He was distinctly fidgety or playful, 
and lost places in class. 

Case ID. G. A boy of fair complexion, with light 
hair, rather under the average size, but placed second 
in class. The following signs of nerve-exhaustion were 
seen : too little general mobility in the limbs and in 
the mobile features of the face, producing a dull ex- 
pression ; in the forehead, however, there were fine 
horizontal lines or furrows, due to recurrent over-action 
of the frontal muscles. A further sign of exhaustion 
and probable liability to headaches was observed in 
marked fulness under the eyes. No signs of devel- 
opmental defects were apparent. 

Case II. H. A boy of fair complexion, with light 
hair, placed twenty-fourth in the class; he lost places. 
The signs of nerve-exhaustion were : over-mobility ; the 
arms were several times thrown about, often with 
the left hand clenched ; he was decidedly fidgety. 
There was fulness under each eye, indicating ihat 
probably he is a sufferer from headaches. In addi- 
tion, a slight sign of developmental defect was seen ; 
the left ear was ill-formed. 





Examples might easily be multiplied. 

Of all the points to be indicated for your use in 
the observation and description of children, the 
"nerve-signs" will, I am sure, prove to be the most 
important and interesting, because it is the move- 
ments and balance, the gestures, action, and response, 
observed in the child that indicate or express his 
brain state. Here we have some new work, and 
these signs will, I hope, be of interest to you, be- 
cause each depends upon the mode of action of 
some piece of the brain at the time you make your 
observation. Such signs of brain-disorderliness are 
much associated with the causes of mental dulness; 
as soon as the teacher recognises this, he will try, 
by further physical training, to improve the child in 
each aspect, and remove the signs of motor and 
mental disorder one by one. 



The Body of the Child, its Construction and 


A BRIEF sketch of the infant will be useful to a 
full understanding of the development of the brain, 
as it quickly acquires some of those characters which 
give the child capacity for mental life. 

The infant at birth weighs from seven to ten 

Average height or length in inches . . , . 

Average weight in pounds 

Average girth of chest in inches 

Average circumference of head in inches . . 

The head of the infant differs in many particulars 
from that of the child of school age, and these are 
important to the proper understanding of its growth 
and some of the later defects. The bones of the 
skull are very thin, the size of the head very nearly 
corresponds with that of the brain which it contains; 
the bones are not united at their edges to form a 
rigid bony case as in the adult, but are separate at 
their margins so as to be movable on one another; 
this allows for a rapid increase in the size of the 























head as the brain grows. The size of the head is 
of interest, for small-headed infants are less likely 
to live ; the brain is the principal seat of vitality. 
The corners of four of the bones are incomplete 
towards the top of the head, thus leaving an open 
space, called the soft spot or fontanelle, covered by 
a membrane and the scalp, where there is no bone ; 
here the brain may be felt pulsating and swelling 
up when the infant cries. 

The nose of the young infant is but little developed, 
and is flat and sunken in comparison with that of an 
older child. 

At nine months old the fontanelle can still be felt, 
the head is still open and growing fast, it measures 
about lyh inches in circumference; at twelve months, 
19 inches; and at seven years, 20 to 21 inches. You 
must not, however, expect always to find the head as 
large as here given, even in healthy children ; but 
after three years old a circumference of 19 inches is 
too small. 

Teething usually begins at the seventh or eighth 
month, the lower front teeth being the first to appear, 
then the corresponding ones in the upper jaw; the 
sharp-pointed canines come through at about the 
eighteenth month, and the others follow till the full 
number of twenty milk teeth appear, which is accom- 
plished during the second year. At the age of six 
or seven years children begin to lose their first teeth, 



and the permanent ones appear. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that children's teeth should be kept care- 
fully clean at all ages. 


Temporary Set or Milk Teeth 

First Group — Two lower central incisors appear . 6th to 8th month 

.Second Group — Four upper incisors appear . . 8th to loth " 

Third Group — Lower lateral incisors, upper and 

lower front molars, appear i2th to 14th " 

Fourth Group — Canines, upper usually first, appear i8th to 20th " 

Fifth Group — Posterior molars appear .... 2 years to 2\ years 

( Upper 
Full Set^ ^^ 
y. Lower 







-2 ) 



Permanent Teeth 

Molars, first appear at 

Incisors, central " 

" lateral " 

Bicuspids, anterior .... " 

'• posterior .... " 

Canines " 

Molars, second " 

" third «♦ 

Full Set 


Molars Bicuspids 
Upper 3-3 2-2 

Lower 3-3 2-2 

6 years 



. . . . 10 

. . II to 12 

. . 12 to 13 

• • 17 to 25 

Canines Incisors 
I-I 2-2 

I-I 2-2 

I 32 
-2 J 

We are now mainly concerned with the child of 
school age ; the head has grown rapidly since infancy 
and should present neither ridges nor lumps, and the 
brain has attained within a little of its full weight. 














See Table V. The head has acquired a distinctive 
shape, expanding from the base at the level of the 
ears, its widest diameter being behind the situation of 
the ears, but with good expanse of forehead. The 
head contains the bony skull, the upper part of which 
forms the brain-case. The lower jaw is the only part 
of the skull that can move separately from the rest. 
This bone is jointed on to the skull ; it is depressed 
when the teeth are separated, and brought up again 
by the muscles when the mouth is closed ; the lower 
jaw can be moved up and down as well as laterally 
in mastication. The eyeballs are set in their sockets 
or cavities in the skull, called the orbits, resting among 
the fatty tissue which supports them. The movements 
of the eyes are produced by small muscles attached 
to the eyeball and arising from the walls of the orbit. 
These muscles are supplied by three different pairs 
of nerves from the brain. If the fat in the orbit be 
diminished in quantity, the eyeball s'.nks further into 
the orbit ; if it receives more blood, it swells up and 
pushes the eyeball more forward. The coloured 
portion of the eye is called the iris ; it is a muscular 
curtain with a hole in the centre which appears black : 
this aperture is called the pupil, and may contract or 
become very large. In description we must not con- 
fuse the eyeballs with the eyelids, which frame the 
openings for the eyes. 

The face consists of the soft parts which lie in 



front of the skull ; under the skin there is a layer of 
fat, and muscles passing in various directions which, 
being attached to the skin, move it and produce the 
expression of the face. A circular muscle surrounds 
each of the op'^n'^ . of the face: the circular muscle 
around each eye-opening is called the orbicularis 
oculi ; when it contracts, the eyelids are closed : the 
mouth is closed in th-^ same way. These muscles, 
when stimulated b itic nerves from the brain, move 
the face, as will be xpluUied in the next chapter. 

Two pairs o' rnuL- ^.os in ttiv ' "'^:head are of special 
interest to us: the fronlai ri^^i.-c : are placed verti- 
cally and by their contraction raise the eyebrows 
and produce horizontal creases in the skin of the 
forehead ; the corrugators are two small muscles, 
placed in a horizontal position in the middle part of 
the forehead which, when they contract, draw the 
eyebrows together, producing vertical creases in the 
mid-frontal region. 

Two pairs of muscles seen in the face are concerned 
in mastication, rather than with expression : these are 
called the masseters — they are situated about the 
angle of the jaw on either side ; and the temporals, 
which are placed at the side of the head, in those 
parts called the temples. If you strongly clench your 
teeth, you will feel these muscles become hard as they 
contract and swell out. All these structures which 
make up what is called the face are supplied with 





Fig. I. — Muscles of Facim, Extrkssion. — From Sir Charles Bell's .-/wa^ 
omy and Fhilosophy of Expression, Third Edition (Bohn Library), 

AA The frontal muscle. 

BB The corrugator muscle. It is inserted into the integument under the eye- 
brow. It lies nearly transversely, and its office is to knit and draw 
the eyebrows together. 

CC The circular muscle of the eyelids (orbicularis palpebrarum). 

DEL Muscles moving the nostrils. 

A'A' The circular muscle of the mouth and lips. Its office is to close the 
lips; ill excessive action it produces pouting. 

HH The zygomatic muscle. It is inserted at the angle of the mouth ; by its 
action its widens the mouth, as in grinning. 

NN Depressor labiorum. It depresses the angles of the mouth; other mus- 
cles of expression are also represented. 



U i 

blood-vessels, and the quantity of blood in them is 
also under brain control, through ;i nerve called the 
sympathetic. When much blood lushes to the face, 
the child is said to blush ; when the sympathetic 
nerve allows but little blood to par.s into it, the face 
is pale. 

The openings for the eyes (palpebral fissures) are 
placed between the upper and the lower eyelids ; the 
line joining the angles of the openings is horizontal. 

The nose has been referred to as a feature in the 
face. It is necessary to understand its importance as 
the proper entrance for the air breathed ; a free en- 
trance of air by the nose is important to the child, and 
a knowledge of some points in the structure of the 
nose, throat, and organ of hearing is necessary to our 
purpose. Air entering by the nose passes above the 
hard and soft palate to the back of the throat, where a 
tube (eustachian) leads air into the portion of the ear 
which is concerned in hearing. If there is any obstruc- 
tion to this free entrance of air, the child becomes deaf 
or dull of hearing. The nose is the proper way of 
entrance and exit for the air breathed, and the child 
should be able to breathe easily with the mouth closed 
and the lips together. If the child cannot breathe 
thus, but habitually keeps the lips parted, there is 
probably something wrong with the throat or nose. 
Such habitual mouth-breathing is very important; 
mouth-breathers need medical examination. 



The external ears should be alike in form, and stand 
out but slightly from the head. The external ear con- 
sists of parts each 

of which should be 

present: the rim or 

margin curls over 

slightly ; in front of 

this is the pleat of 

the ear (antehelix) 

jutting out in front, 

and you will find it 

is thrust forward 

from the back; the 

lobe or drooping 
•portion of the ear 

should come below 

the point of attach- 
ment to the head. 
The trunk or body 

has a bony frame- 
work, of which the 
spine is the main 
prop or support. 
The spine consists 
of a number of 
small bones, united 

by pads of cartilage or soft material, which allow of 
a certain amount of movement in the column formed 

Fig. 2. — Bones of the Spine, Chest, 
Shoulder, Arm, and Hand. — From 
Sir Charles Bell's work on The Hand. 




by the bones, so that the spine can be bent to some 
degree forwards and backwards or laterally. The skull 
is jointed to the top of this column. 

The ribs are attached to the spine behind and to the 
breast bone in front, forming the walls of the chest. 

The chest and the important organs, the heart and 
the lungs, which it contains, grow as the child grows. 
The average chest girth for children at various ages 
is given in Table IV. It is very important that the 
chest should be free to move in breathing : it should 
never be compressed by the dress. 

Fig. 3. — The Radius and Ulna. — In this sketch, the upper bone of the 
forearm is the radius, and in revolving on the lower bone, the ulna, it 
carries the hand with it. — C. Bell. 

The arm or upper extremity consists of the blade 
bone placed over the back of the trunk ; the collar 
bone stretches horizontally from the blade bone to the 
breast bone, and helps to keep it in its proper place ; 
the arm is hung from this blade bone. The upper arm 
contains the bone called the humerus jointed at the 
shoulder to the blade bone. The forearm has two 
bones — the radius on the outer or thumb side, and 
the ulna on the inner side : these two bones are jointed 



to the humerus at the elbow, and allow of two kinds 
of movement. The elbow can be bent or, as we say, 
flexed, and it can be straightened or extended : a rota- 
tory movement or half a circle can also be performed 
at the elbow. When the palm of the hand is brought 
forward or laid upward, the forearm is said to be 
supine, and this movement is called supination ; when 
the back of the hand is brought forward, the movement 
is called pronation. This rotatory action at the elbow 
is due to movements of the radius on the humerus. 

The wrist is composed of eight small bones, and 
this joint allows of movements in all directions. 

The hand has four fingers and a thumb, spoken 
of collectively as the digits ; these are united to five 
bones, which form the palm of the hand and are 
jointed at the wrist. The palm of the hand can be 
moved at the wrist in flexion or extension as well 
as laterally ; it can also be contracted or screwed up 
by bringing the bones together, so as to form the 
hand like a cone. The digits can be flexed or ex- 
tended, and they can be moved laterally. 

These parts have been particularly mentioned be- 
cause we are concerned with their separate movements. 
When we look at a child we see these parts clothed 
with their muscles and soft tissues, and covered with 
skin ; we observe the members, their form and pro- 
portions, and in some degree we judge of the develop- 
ment and state of nutrition of the child by such facts. 



When examining a child, you should, if possible, 
weigh him and measure his height and chest girth, 
and also test sight and hearing. In taking a chest 
measurement let the child stand with his arms hanging 
by his sides, and make him count aloud the while to 
assure he is not holding in his breath. The measur- 
ing tape is then passed horizontally round the child on 
a level with the breast, and the number of inches in 
girth is recorded. 

With growth from infancy the child becomes taller 
and increases in weight; this is shown in Table II., 
copied from Dr. Bowditch's article on the growth of 
children whom he measured in Boston.^ It is here 
necessary to consider the boys and the girls separately 
and to compare them in age groups. It is interesting 
to note that, though at earlier ages the boys are on 
the average taller and heavier than the girls, yet at 
13 to 14 years the girl outgrows the boy in each par- 
ticular : after this age the boy again grows quicker to 
the stage of full development. 

Children are best weighed in the morning in their 
ordinary indoor clothes, and measured in their stock- 
ings, without boots. 

The average increase in height and weight is given 
in Table III., to which reference will again be made in 
Chapter X. 

Growth, however, is not simply indicated by the 

1 See the Annua/ Report of the State Board of Health, Massachusetts, tSjj. 





height, chest measurement, and weight of the child ; 
he may grow well developed or badly developed. A 
boy may be tall and heavy, yet not well developed in 
body and in features. It will be shown upon ample 
evidence from my observations, that defective physi- 
ognomy in make and proportioning of the features is 
apt to be accompanied by low brain-power with de- 
fective nutrition in after life. To study the general 
character of the development of the child's body the 
separate features of the face must be observed. 

You want to know, as to the child's body, not only 
whether it is well grown and well developed for his age, 
but also whether he shows the indications of a well- 
nourished and healthy body in hi^ physical life, as apart 
from his brain condition and mental power. Do not be 
guided in making your observations by indications of 
poverty, but satisfy yourself by what you see, that the 
child is not pale, thin, or delicate. The following 
points may help you : look at the face as to colour ; 
do not mistake a fair complexion with light hair and 
blue eyes for paleness, or a dark complexion for its 
absence. Look also at the colour of the lips, and the 
colour seen through the finger-nails, which disappears 
upon pressure. A pale child may flush in the face, 
but such flushing is temporary. When you note the 
colour of the lips and skin, as signs of the general 
nutrition, observe also the hair and the eyes ; when 
these are dark, it is owing to the amount of pigment 




in these structures, and then the skin is usually darker 
in its tint. Observe whether the colour comes and 
goes ; such changes are due to the action of the nerve- 
system on the blood-vessels. If there be permanent 
paleness, it may be due to a poor state of the blood, 
called anaemia ; then the child is out of health. A 
pale child may flush much. Defectiv^e colon: may be 
due to ill feeding, to living in rooms badly ventilated, 
hot and close, or too dark. 

The fulness, fatness, or plumpness of the child may 
not be alike all over the body. The face may be fairly 
full, while the limbs are thin. This is particularly the 
case In the nervous children, in whom the body weight 
may at times fall rapidly, dropping one or two pounds 
a week without any disease or even any failure of ap- 
petite ; this is a condition in which a child commonly 
develops chorea (St. Vitus's dance); as the body weight 
drops, the face may continue to be the best nourished 
part, but the child is apt to become more infantile and 
over-mobile ; is is specially apt to occur in girls. Weigh- 
ing the child will add accuracy to your observations. 

The eye may have a wrong focus. The eyeball is an 
optical instrument, which if properly arranged produces 
a clear picture of objects upon the retina, which is the 
sensitive layer at the back of the eye ; it is something 
like the camera of the photographer, but its focus must 
be properly adjusted to produce clear sight : if the 
eye is out of focus, sight will be defective. There are 





two principal forms of badly built, badly proportioned 
eyes : — 

1, The small flat eye. (Hypermetropia.) 

2. The long eye, which causes short sight. (Myopia.) 
The small flat eye is irregularly developed or propor- 
tioned at birth, the condition is congenital ; it is under- 
sized and the condition is often inherited. It does not 
produce clear pictures on the retina, and the focussing 
apparatus (muscle of accommodation) is strained, to pro- 
duce clear vision of the letters in a book. This may 
lead to headaches or to squinting. Squinting is usually 
due to the eye being small and flat ; such children, 
when old enough, should be provided with proper spec- 
tacles, and they should always use them when reading 
or writing. 

The eye too long from front to back leads to such 
bad focussing that vision is indistinct and the child 
near-sighted. This condition is not found at birth, 
though the tendency to short sight may be inherited ; 
it usually develops during school life, and is in part 
preventable by the use of glasses and attention to the 
position of the child when at work. Do not let chil- 
dren bend over their desks ; still, remember that the 
short-sighted child cannot sit up and see his book on 
a flat desk. To save children from becoming short- 
sighted, prevent them from using their eyes too long 
and too closely on near objects. The boy should sit up 
well, with his head upright and his eyes at least twelve 




It ' 


inches from his book ; the desk should have a sloping 
top, and the seat must be properly adjusted to his 
height : books of bad type should always be avoided, 
and the light should be sufficient, especially at night. 

Each child should be tested as to sight when he 
enters the school and at least once a year afterwards. 
A set of printed type should be provided for the pur- 
pose: such are published, and arranged as to the size 
of the letters so that with clear vision each line can b«j 
seen at the distance named on the sheet ; this should 
be hung on the wall in a good light. A child, standing j 
at the proper distance, should be able to read the letter;; 
readily : test each eye separately, covering the othe.r 
with a card in front of it ; if the child cannot thu.* 
see the letters with each eye, there is some defect of 

Again : let the child stand and look at a small coin 
held before his face two feet from his nose ; if you see 
that his eyes then turn inwards with the appearance of 
a slight temporary cast or squint, he probably has flat 
eyes (hypermetropia) and requires convex glasses. 

You may test hearing by your watch or by your 
voice. In using your watch ascertain previously how 
far from the head it can be heard by persons with good 
hearing ; use a measuring tape, holding one end against 
the ear and the other at the watch. Direct the child 
to close his eyes, and hold a sheet of paper or a fan to 
prevent him from seeing the watch, while you make 





him close the openinf:^ of the other ear, which you are 
not testing. Carry your watch to different distances 
from the side of his head, square with it, not in front 
of him. When he says he hears the watch, note the 
distance, move it to a further distance, and then back 
again to the former place, and see if he adheres to what 
he said before : test him thus several times and examine 
each ear separately, noting the greatest distance of 
hearing with each ear. 


Showing Avkkagk Heic;hts and Weights of Boston School 
Chh.dren of American Parentage 

After Dr. Bowditch. See Annual Report of the State Hoard of Health, Massachusetts, 
1877. Height taken without shoes ; weight in ordinary dress. 





Inches Pounds 

5 years 




6 " 





7 " 





8 " 





9 " 





10 " 





11 " 





12 " 





,3 u 





14 » 





«5 •' 





16 " 





17 " 





18 " 







Testing with your voice has the advantage that if the 
child repeats what you say you know that he heard you. 
You should stand a distance of several yards from the 
child, while he keeps his eyes shut ; he must not see 
your face, as he might read the sound from your lips ; 
test first both ears together, then one at a time. An 
audible whisper may be heard much farther than the 
ticking of the watch ; according to Mr. T. Mark Hovell, 
whispered speech should be heard at about twenty-five 
yards. To pronounce single words is better than to ask 
a question, which may be guessed at. 

Showing the Annual Increase in Height and Weight 

After Dr. Bowditch. Vi'tie ante. 



Age Last Birthday 





5 years 

































































i8 " 










Showing Measure.\ients of Chest Girth in Children at Ages 


After Dr. C. Roberts' observations on the English artisan class. 

Age Last 

Average Chest 

Age Last 

Average Chest 


Girth in Inches 


Girth in Inches 

5 years 


13 years 


6 " 


14 " 


7 " 


15 " 

27-5 » 

8 " 


16 " 


9 " 


17 " 


lO " 


18 " 


II " 


19 " 


12 " 


20 " 



vShowing the Average Weight of the Brain of Children in 

Ounces Avoirdupois 

After Dr. Boyd, as observed by him in 2030 cases, London. See Dr. Thurman's article 
on Weight of the Brain, Journal of Mental Science, 1866. 



New born 





Under 3 months 

From 3 to 6 months 

From 6 to 12 months 

From I to 2 years 

From 2 to 4 years 

PVom 4 to 7 years 

From 7 to 14 years 

From 14 to 20 years 








The Brain : Its Development and Evolution 

We now pass on to consider the brain itself, its func- 
tions, and the signs of its action. The brain is a part 
of the body hidden from our view, and enclosed in its 
bony case in the head. The brain of the child is care- 
fully protected from injury, being surrounded by deli- 
cate membranes and a slight layer of fluid ; it is well 
supplied with blood, which circulates and supplies it 
with needful nourishment. 

The brain is a soft and delicate structure, seated in 
the brain-case, and carefully protected ; it consists es- 
sentially of two kinds of material, the nerve-cells and 
the nerve-fibres. The nerve-cells are the makers of 
nerve-force when duly nourished ; for their proper 
nutrition they need a good supply of blood in their 
vessels. A nerve-fibre passes off from each cell and 
conveys the force generated in it, which is then called 
a nerve-current; there are millions of such cells in 
the structure of the brain. When the nerve-force 
generated by a nerve-cell is carried by a fibre to a 
muscle, say in the face, or in the limbs, this nerve- 
current causes the muscle to contract or shorten, and 



visible movement results ; the movement being pro- 
duced by the force sent from the nerve-cell. The 
movement seen indicates to us the time and quantity 
of the discharge of force from the nerve-cell : such 
a movement is conveniently called a nerve-muscular 

The substance of the brain is thus mainly made up 
of groups of nerve-cells, many of which are connected 
with one another by nerve-fibres, while many of them 
are connected with the muscles of the body, and send 
nerve-currents to them, thus causing the movements 
of the face and limbs. The nerve-cell generates force 
iis the outcome of its nutrition, and may be compared 
to a galvanic cell which generates electrical force as 
the outcome of chemical action taking place in it. 
The electrical force formed in the galvanic cell may 
be conducted to a distance by a wire, and if this end 
be connected with a galvanometer, it may produce 
movement of its needle at a distance from the bat- 
tery. If several electrical cells be connected together 
in series by means of wires, the force generated by one 
cell is communicated to the next, and increases the 
strength of the current circulating in the wire that 
passes off from the battery ; this force may be dis- 
tributed to parts at a distance fror its origin. 

As time goes on, the strength of the battery will 
run down, the chemical action in it lessens, the mate- 
rial in the battery is used up, and no more force is sent 






out till the materials in the cell are renewed. Simi- 
larly : while the brain is giving out force, it must be 
replenished by nutrition, or it will run down and be 
less capable of producing energy after a short time ; 
it will then need food and rest, and the stimulus which 
aids brain-nutrition. 

I have spoken of the nerve-cells of the brain as being 
connected with one another, and with the muscles of 
the body, which produce movements of its parts. It 
must now be explained that there are other nerve- 
fibres which connect the organs of special sense — 
the eye and the ear, etc., and the skin all over the 
body — with the cells of the brain, and convey cur- 
rents of force from these parts, respectively, to the 
cells of the brain ; such nerve-fibres are called afferent, 
because they convey currents upwards to the nerve- 
system ; in distinction from these, the fibres which 
convey currents from the nerve-cells to the muscles 
are called efferent. The fibres, which pass in both 
directions, are collected into bundles or strings, and 
are commonly called the nerves of the body ; the in- 
going or afferent nerves convey stimuli to the brain, 
the outcoming or efferent nerves carry motor currents 
from the nerve-cell ;> to the muscles. 

Figure 4 may explain further what has just been 
said : the brain is represented by the shading as 
divided into areas A, B, C, D, E, which can act 
more or less independently ; each area or section of 





brain is represented as connected by nerve-fibres 
with a muscle corresponding. Plach section of brain 
may receive a stimulus from the eye or the ear. 
The representation is purely diagrammatic, for the 

B _C O^ 

Fig. 4.— Diagrammatic Rki'reskntation of the Brain and its 
Nerves in connection with the Eye, the Ear, and the 

sake of clearness of description. The brain-areas 
A, B, C, D, £ each receive nerve-fibres carrying im- 
pressions from the eye and the ear, so that they 
can separately be stimulated by sight and sound. 



'; ' ■ 

Fibres pass from each brain-area to the muscles a, 
if, c, (/, f, respectively; when A is stimulated, the 
muscle a contracts; if the centre E be stimulated, 
the corresponding muscle c contracts, and so for 
each centre and muscle respectively ; the muscle is 
the visible index of nerve-currents proceeding from 
its own centre. If we see the muscles a, b, contract 
at the same moment, that indicates that the centres 
Ay B acted together. 

If you sec my arm move, you know this means 
that the muscles of my arm are contracting, and 
that this is due to currents of nerve-force passing 
out to them from certain nerve-cells by means of 
the efferent or motor nerves. Place an orange in 
front of a child ; then you will see his head and 
eyes turn towards it, next his hand is moved over 
the orange, his fingers are closed over it, and it is 
seized. This series of movements is due to a series 
of nerve-currents passing from the nerve-cells to the 
muscles of the parts moving ; this series of nerve- 
currents from the nerve-cells to the muscles follows 
the impression produced upon the brain, by the sight 
of the orange, or, by the afferent currents passing 
from the eye to the brain, and these are stimulated 
by the light reflected from the orange. 

Many parts of the brain can act separately : every 
movement corresponds to the action of a certain 
portion of the nerve-system, or, as we call it, nerve- 



centre. It is probable that every movement indi- 
cates the discharge of force from a certain area of 
nerve-substance, and that such discharge of force 
necessitates not only a supply of good blood to that 
piece of nerve-tissue, but also that the nerve-tissue 
shall be stimulated by some force. Stimulation is 
necessary to movement as well as a supply of blood 
to the nerve-centre ; sights and sounds are the more 
common stimuli to movements. 

Important as the functions of the brain are, and 
much as we desire to study its action, there is only 
one way in which we can watch the effects of its 
working, and that is, by the movements which it 
produces in the parts of the body by its action on 
the muscles. All movements in the body are pro- 
duced by the action of the nerve-system upon the 
muscles ; this is very important to remember. Hence, 
we shall have much to say about movements, the 
outcome of movements, and mobile expression as 
signs of brain-action and the brain-condition. ^ 

It may occur to you that, as much has been said 
by physiologists about the connection between the 
mind and the brain, we might study mental action 
as signs of brain-action. Let me make an assertion, 
and then support it by illustrations. All expression 
of the action of mind is by nwvevicnt, and the results 
')f movement. A child is at lessons, he repeats what 

^ See author's work on " Anatomy of Movement." 



he has been taught, accompanied by gestures or 
movements ; his speech is produced by the movements 
of his chest, larynx, and the parts used in articula- 
tion. The written exercise is the outcome of the 
movements of his hand acting upon the pen. His 
intelligence may be shown in a game, in the house 
he builds with his bricks, or in the paper-folding 
which he does so neatly with his fingers ; in all such 
cases the signs of the action of mind are the move- 
ments produced by the brain. 

The general condition of the nerve-system is ex- 
pressed by motor signs — freshness, fatigue, irritabil- 
ity, may all be indicated to us by the movements of 
the child, the absence of movements, or by the atti- 
tudes or postures of the body, which depend upon 
motor action. Examples will be given in Chapter V. 

The expression of the emotions is by the action of 
the brain upon the muscles of the body, and their 
contractions produce the signs which indicate to us 
what are called the emotions of the mind. We shall 
here ?*-udy movements produced by the brain, not 
mind itself, in the child. 

Look at a child before he wakes in the morn 
The body is quiet; if you raise his hand gently, it 
falls lifeless — no muscular energy is being expended. 
The body is motionless in full sleep, except for the 
movements of breathing, which are quiet, regular, 
uniform. If sleep is full and complete, on raising 



the eyelids the pupils iire seen to be very small or 
eontracted. The body and brain are in complete rest ; 
in a healthy, well-fed child the whole system is in the 
state of quiet nutrition of organic life ; no currents 
are beinj? generated by the brain in j)erfect, dreamless 
sleep. As time goes on, you hear sounds in the house 
which send currents from the child's ear to his brain ; 
we then see some movements of the limbs — the 
elbows, wrists, and fingers move. Soon all is seen to 
be quiet again in the limbs — sleep continues, and 
the brain rests and grows without expending force. 
As sounds grow stronger in the house, and the light 
pours in between the opened curtains, you may again 
see movements in the limbs, and the eyelids open ; the 
pupils now dilate ; the brain becomes active, indicated 
by movements in the limbs and face, as the child sits 
up. Nerve-currents are now passing from the brain 
to the muscles. Before school he is full of movement ; 
limbs, fingers, head, eyes, are all moving, owing to spon- 
taneous brain-activity. As he stands in his place, and 
the teacher calls for attention, we see him .still and 
quiet (or at least that is desired), and the teacher tries 
to control his brain-action under instruction. Spon- 
taneous brain-action will be shown to be the basis 
I'non which you work in producing mental aptitude; 
i must be coordinated or regulated, but so as not to 
ostroy spontaneity. 
Two circumstances are necessary in order that a 





nerve-centre may produce action of the muscles and 
movement, — it must be nourished by good blood, and 
it must receive some stimulus. This gives us the clue 
as to how we must act upon the brain of the child : 
there are two ways, — by feeding it and by stimulating 
it through the organs of sense. Brains do not grow 
by feeding only ; they must be impressed or stimu- 
lated from without; hence the importance of good 
education as an aid to brain-development. Feeding 
the child often lessens spontaneous movements, when 
they are in excess ; fresh air may have a similar effect ; 
various modes of stimulating a child through the eye 
and ear may control spontaneous movements, but these 
must be used with due caution. Do not stop a child's 
movements unless you know why you do so. You should 
no more wantonly arrest a child's movements with- 
out due cause than throw a stone at an animal without 
cause, or destroy a flower because you do not see any 
use in it. This should be known by those who con- 
fine the hands and feet of little infants under bulky and 
cumbersome clothes. Children should have their hands 
free, and not carry bags and books, and should not 
be compelled to stand in class with their hands behind 

Common observation of a healthy young infant 
shows abundant spontaneous movement in all parts 
of the body while he is awake. Look at a well-nour- 
ished baby, say seven days old, as he lies on his nurse's 

Tllfc: BRAIN 


lap, unfettered by clothes. Movements are seen in 
the limbs, especially in the fingers and toes ; the move- 
ments are slower than most of those seen in adults, 
and are apparently spontaneous and irretrular, occur- 
ring in no special order, uncontrolled by external stimu- 
lation, and are not directly useful to the ctiild. A short 
period of wakefulness is, at this early age, usually 
followed by sleep, indicated by subsidence of all move- 
ments except those of breathing, and the eyelids are 

The movements of the chest in breathing are estab- 
lished at birth, and continue without interrui)tion. The 
child cries when cold, and when food has been with- 
held more than two hours. Contact of an object with 
the lips stimulates the movements of sucking ; a strong 
light causes closure of the eyelids ; and if the eyelid 
be raised, the pupils are contracted by the light. In an 
infant a few hours old, the rxctempt to straighten the 
elbow, when flexed, may be strongly resisted. 

Spontaneous movements may likewise be seen in 
young animals. Charles Darwin has shown that in 
young seedling plants the root, the seedling leaves, and 
the head of the plant move much, as growth takes 
place, though the movement is slow. This is due to 
unequal growth of the cells of which the young plant 
is built up. 

Spontaneous movements, thus universal at birth, 
must have some important signification ; they do not 




appear to produce any direct effect upon the body of 
the infant and do not supply him with food or minister 
to his wants. 

Each movement seen corresponds to action in a 
nerve-centre of the brain ; the mass of movements cor- 
responds to a mass of nerve-centres in action. Further, 
these movements, as far as we can see, are not at birth 
controlled through the senses. We conclude that in 
the very young infant the brain-centres act separately 
and independent of special stimulation, if he is healthy, 
well made, and well nourished. It may be said that at 
birth the infant does not show the faculties of mind, 
because we do not see that he is controlled through the 
senses by sight and by sound : his hands do not move 
towards objects placed within his field of vision. 

When a month old, movements appear in the face, 
first about the mouth, later in the forehead. The 
limbs move with more force, they are moved in a 
greater degree, and begin to effect some mechanical 
results : an object placed in the hand is grasped by the 
fingers, and movements of the elbow carry the object to 
the mouth, but soon spontaneous movements return, 
the fingers open, and the object falls from the hand. 

When the infant is three months old, we may observe 
some control of movements through the senses, and the 
head may turn towards a bright light ; still we do not 
see the hand move straight towards an object Vv^ithin 
the field of vision, and when a part of the body is 


I I 



irritated the hand docs not move towards it. I have 
known a child in whom one leg was irritated, and the 
hand was not moved to scratch it, but the other leg 
moved up, and did so with the foot. Spontaneous 
movement remains as a marked character at this age, 
but sight of a bright object may temporarily arrest it ; 
this is the earliest indication of a brain-faculty that 
may develop into the power of attention. 

Later we see associated movements in such an act, 
as transferring an object from one hand to the other : 
as the muscles grow stronger the head is held up, when 
the body is supported, and the eyes are moved. At 
four or five months we find commencing signs of im- 
pressionability to stimulation through the senses ; sound 
and the sight of objects begin to control and regulate 
the spontaneous movement. 

At five months, further indications of the control of 
brain-action may be seen; the sight of a red box may 
momentarily stop all movements, and this may be fol- 
lowed in a few seconds by turning the head, eyes, and 
hands towards the object seen ; that is called a coordi- 
nated movement ; movement controlled through the 
eyes occurs after momentary arrest of spontaneous 
action in the brain. 

At three years of age much change has taken place 
in the brain as the body has grown: the child runs and 
talks or chatters. Spontaneous movement continues to 
a great extent, but action controlled through the senses 




I' :i 

is established, complex actions are performed, an im- 
pression received at one time may be retained and lead 
to special action at a later period. 

Case 12. A boy of three years went to sit on the bed 
of his mother, who was tired and ill. He played with 
some reins fastened to the end of the bedstead, which 
pleased him : next day he said to his mother, " You go 
and be nice ill ; I play horses." A brain-impression had 
been retained (memory), leading to his action. 

I dwell on the simple signs of brain-action in the 
infant, because they seem to afford a foundation for 
observation of the more complex functions of the brain 
of the child, as the processes of development or evolu- 
tion proceed. The infant at the earliest ages does not 
walk or talk, or turn his head and eyes towards objects ; 
movements are not modified in any marked degree by 
the action of light or of sound. The infant's brain is, 
in some respects, less impressionable than that of the 
adult, and the impressions are less retained. During 
the early months of infant life movements are the only 
signs of mental development. Compare the action 
seen at five months with that seen at birth ; spontane- 
ous movement continues, but is capabu of some control 
through the senses. It may be temporarily arrested by 
sight or sound, and this, after many repetitions, may be 
followed by new series of movements, occurring upon 
less and less stimulation, and with increasing quickness 
and accuracy, as time goes on. We infer a correspond- 


i ;■ 



ing change in the nerve-centres or parts of the brain : 
it appears that, at birth, they act slowly and inde- 
pendently of one another, as far as we know without 
any order in their acting — and, at this time, this action 
is not determined through the senses. At the age of 
five months movement may be temporarily suspended, 
and during the time when no (efferent or motor) cur- 
rents are passing from the nerve-centres, they undergo 
some change, indicated subsequently by special combi- 
nations and series of movements, such as are commonly 
spoken of as commencing voluntary action. 

This appears to be a great advance in the infant's 
brain-evolution.^ When a year old, action well adapted 
by impressions received becomes very marked, and the 
child makes certain characteristic sounds on sight of 
certain objects; its spontaneous brain-action becomes 
more and more capable of coordination. 

It appears that, whereas at birth the most marked 
character of the nerve-centres is the spontaneous action 
of individual loci of nerve-tissue, this spontaneity is 
not lost, but remains in advancing evolution as the foun- 
dation of so-called voluntary and intellectual action, 
becoming more controlled by circumstances. Apti- 
tude for mental action appears to depend upon the 
capacity of nerve-cells (or control through the senses, 
such impressions temporarily inhibiting their spontane- 

1 The Study of Cerebral Inhibition, " I'.rain," XMII., published by The 
Macmillar\ Company. 






ity and arranging them functionally for coordinated 
action. In the imbecile infant action does not show 
this spontaneous movement (microkinesis) in the nor- 
mal degree ; its nerve-centres are wanting in sponta- 
neity, and later in capacity for coordination. 

It is not my intention here to branch off into the 
study of physiological psychology, but it is quite pos- 
sible to follow the apparent grouping of action in 
nerve-cells corresponding to many well-known modes 
of mental action. It may be shown that well-co- 
ordinated visible movements usually accompany well- 
controlled mental action, and that a spreading area 
of movement, not controlled, often accompanies men- 
tal confusion. 

This spontaneous movement, slightly under control, 
is the character of healthy brain-action of children in 
the infant school, so that postures are less available 
as signs among these very young children, and spon- 
taneous movement of their fingers is the normal action. 
The parts of the infant are then full of spontaneous 
movements ; an exception is in the eye movements, 
which are not frequent in many cases. One of the 
endeavours of infant training should be to encourage 
eye movements, then to control them. 

The most interesting signs of brain-condition are 
those which indicate to us the action of mind. One 
method of determining the signs of mind is to com- 
pare subjects, possessed of mind, with others, devoid 



of mind or nearly so. It will be granted that an 
infant at birth does not show well-marked signs of 
mind. The principal signs of mind are absent. An 
infant at birth may be said to possess none of the 
actual faculties of mind, although he is healthy; he 
may possess potentialities, but he shows no actual 
present signs of mind. An idiot, in growing up from 
infancy, does not show those signs, appropriate to his 
age, which indicate the functions of mind. The infant 
is said not to show actual signs of mind, though he 
may show potentialities. The infant at birth does not 
walk, talk, or turn his eyes and head towards a bright 
object within his field of vision ; movements are not 
modified, in any marked degree, by the action of light 
or sound, except that the eyelids contract spasmodi- 
cally in the light. The infant is, in some respects, less 
impressionable, and the impressions are less perma- 
nent than in the adult. 

We say that the new-born infant does not give ex- 
pression to the faculties of mind, because he does not 
present signs showing that he is impressed, even 
temporarily, by the sight of surrounding objects ; he 
does not move his hands towards objects within his 
field of vision, and no movements indicate that he is 
impressed thereby. Reflexes of sight and sound are 
almost entirely absent. The muscles of the face are 
seen to act earliest in the lower zone, those about the 
mouth causing expression before those on the fore- 






head (corrugators), which seem to be specially con- 
nected with expression of mind. 

Now as to the child when four months old, we say 
that the attention is easily attracted, because the sight 
of objects and sounds causes the head to be moved 
(by reflex action) towards the light or source of sound. 
More than this, after the stimulus of the sight of an 
object has caused the head and eyes to be turned 
towards the object, the further stimulation of the brain 
may arrest all movement : this often happens when 
the attention is attracted. On the other hand, the 
sight of an object, after it has caused the head and 
eyes to be turned towards it, may increase the amount 
of movement in the child. 

Playfulness is probably the result of spontaneous 
movement, together with an increased susceptibility 
to reflex action. The ** playful child " has a happy 
face, owing to the healthy tone of the facial muscles 
and their nerve-centres. 

The following observation of a child eighteen mouths 
old, illustrates how the dawning intellectuality is indi- 
cated by the complication and fitness of certain sets 
of movements : — 

Case 13. The child, having both hands full of toys, 
desired to grasp a third ; he then put the toy from one 
hand quickly between his knees, and thus set one hand 
free to take hold of the desired object. 

The following kinds of movements as signs of a 




healthy infant brain deserve separate attention : move- 
ments following certain external agencies, light, sound ; 
movements, the outcome of the essential (untrained) 
properties of the nerve-mechanism ; movements result- 
ing from (training) the acquired association of nerve-cen- 
tres ; movements, similar to those previously occurring 
from a like cause, showing retentiveness ; movements 
in different areas, such as the small joints in contrast 
with large joints, or a different condition of movement 
of adjacent parts, such as the fingers. There may also 
be a symmetry of movements. 



Observing the Child : What to look at and 
what to look for 

The training of children and the improvement in 
methods of education have become so important that 
there has arisen a general demand for exact knowledge 
as to the conditions of children at home and in the 
school. It is necessary that we should learn to study 
children in a scientific manner, that we may know how 
best to train their development in mind and body, and 
take our part in aiding them to grow up with a sound 
constitution and full mental power. 

The care of all classes of children is a very respon- 
sible work, demanding intelligent study and earnest 
care. It is not enough to study methods of education 
and school practice, the subjects to be taught and the 
methods of teaching them. Some knowledge of physi- 
ology is very useful ; but it is also necessary to observe 
and study the children themselves individually, and 
collectively in groups, that we may know their indi- 
vidual tendencies, good and bad, and that their ever- 
varying condition may be at once perceived. We 
should see the signs of fatigue before exhaustion and 






irritability are obvious in imperfect lessons and bad 
behaviour ; hence the necessity for an intelligent and 
precise knowledge of children enabling us to detect 
early signs of failure of strength and to classify them 
for the purpose of study. 

It seems to me very desirable, if not essential to the 
proper study of children, that we should form a judg- 
ment by the signs which we observe, not by the answers 
to questions put to the child as to his thoughts and re- 
specting health. I seldom ask a child if he has a head- 
ache, but often look for the signs of healthy brain strength 
and activity ; or of exhaustion, and direct indications of 
headache. Such observations may be made by any one 
who is in personal contact with children, by the mother 
among her children, or the teacher in the schoolroom. 

Let me give a few examples. At an elementary school 
I visited the girls in its highest standard, or grade, in 
company with some friends, and asked the teacher to 
point out, unknown to the children, those who gave 
most trouble. Among them were two small, but well- 
made children — the nerve-system in each was exhausted. 
Had this been known by those in authority, might not 
these children have been exempted from examination, 
and the teacher from the necessity to press them on, 
though still requiring their attendance at school .<* 

Case 14. In a high-class school, a boy presented a 
general good development, but his nerve-system was 
exhausted ; he had far too much movement, showing 



brain irritability. The master said he work. J well, but 
his father often expressed his desire that the lad might 
do more work, and rise in the school quickly ; the head- 
master wished the same. Here is a case where know- 
ledge of a precise kind, possessed by the master, would 
necessarily put power in his hands to act for the boy's 
real good. On the other hand, where development is 
slightly defective, but nutrition good, it is for the 
child's benefit that he should not be excused from due 
work, except when knowledge shows that the work is 
harmful. Regular and appropriate work is essential to 
due brain development and healthy growth. 

There are many points of view from which we may 
study children ; many lines of thought which may be 
followed. The method I would urge upon you is that 
of systematic ob.scrvation, — that which I want you to 
study is that which you actually see, apart from any in- 
ferences drawn from facts : it is essential, in scientific 
work, not to confuse what you see and what you believe 
to exist. Let us study the child as we see him, with the 
best powers of our mind, and careful earnest thought. 

To see the child well you need a good light ; do not 
touch him, but look without stating your purpose. It is 
desirable to prevent the child from looking straight at 
you, i.e. at your eyes ; for this purpose fix the child's 
eyes by telling him to look at some small object held in 
your hand, such as a shilling. Then you proceed to 
observe the head and the physiognomy of the individual 



features and their parts, the facial condition and expres- 
sion, the eye-mov'ements and other points in action. 

Let him hold out his hands in front, with the palms 
downwards, showin*^ him the position for a moment ; 
thus you can see how he responds to command and 
imitates your action, while you can observe the points 
described as " nerve-signs," indicating his brain status. 
Judging from the various points thus seen, and witiiout 
asking questions or speaking to the children, it is easy 
to group their conditions in various classes thus : — 

A. As to Development of the body and features. 

B. As to the Brain condition indicated by nerve-signs. 

C. As to Nutrition and health of body. 

Such observations may give new knowledge for your 
use. Those who acquire the most practical knowledge 
of childhood will, in the end, acquire power and success 
in the work of education and training. 

Here is a schedule form for use in describing sys- 
tematically what you see in a child : three headings. A, 
B, C, group the classes of points to be looked for. 

Under A, describe signs of development in the sepa- 
rate parts, and any special characteristics. 

Under B, note nerve-signs in parts of the body. 

Under C, the state of physical health and nutrition. 

Under School Report the mental and general char- 
acter is described ; and in the Report on the Child his 
mental and physical condition is briefly summarised. 






Age last birthday. 


Place in school 

A. Body : Develorment, features, etc. 







B. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. 


General balance of body. 

O. Oculi. 

C. Physical health and Nutrition. 

School Report. 

Report on Child. 



As you look at the child, bear in mind the normal or 
healthy type of development ; fix in your mind an ideal 
of good form, so that your attention may be arrested 
by the sight of any point in form or action that is below 
the normal. 

Now, as to what to look at : there is each part of 
the body named in the schedule and described in 
Chapter II. 

The Head. — Look at the head full-face, carrying 
your eyes from ear to ear over the top of the head, 
following its curve and estimating its size ; again carry 
your eyes from one ear to the other in a horizontal line, 
looking first at the right ear and its parts, then at the 
right eye-opening, the bridge of the nose, the left eye- 
opening, and the ear. Looking at the profile, follow 
the bridge of the nose up the forehead, noting if it be 
nearly vertical, or slope backwards, then over the curve 
of the top of the head and down to the nape of the 
neck. You may thus inspect the head in its configura- 
tion and estimate its volume by inspection. Place your 
hand flat upon the child's head, with your fingers 
spread, and thus estimate its volume by feeling it, 
noticing its form and any lumps or ridges of bone. 
Then, if you think necessary, you can measure the head 
round with a tape. Measure carefully the greatest hori- 
zontal circumference round the forehead : taki jl trans- 
verse measurement from one ear-«'penin^ to the other 
over the top of the head , and a_;ain from thi- bridge of 



thp: study of children 

the nose over the top of the head to a projection you 
will feel at the back of the head just above the nape of 
the neck ; such measurements taken at intervals of a 
few months will enable you to appreciate growth and 
increase of volume of the head. 

As you look at children, observing their form, you 
will see some with a shapely, well-moulded head of good 
size, while others are ill-shapen or small ; the features 
may be well-cut or defective in form. 

Physiognomy is defined by Lavater as " the art or 
science of discerning the character of the mind from 
the features of the face." Such modes of study in- 
clude notice of such proportions of the head as the 
following: the height and width of the forehead, or its 
narrowness from temple to temple, and the shallow- 
ness from the hair margin to the eyebrows ; the great- 
est circumference of the head, which is something 
like 21 inches at eight years old, the measurement 
from ear to ear over the vertex being about 12 inches. 
The greatest transverse diameter of the head in a 
child is behind the ears , and the outline of face and 
head as seen full-tace should give the greatest trans- 
verse diameter high up, well above the cheek-bones 
in the part forming the brain-case. The facial angle 
is seen best in profile. 

In estimating the volume of the head, first look at 
it ; note its form, and not solely the circumference or 
other measurements. A further idea of its volume 




nuiy be gained by placing your hand on the head 
with your fingers open. Heads may be too large or 
too small; the forehead may present a lump on each 
side, or a ridge down its centre ; it may be shallow 
from above downwards, or narrow laterally. These 
defects of the head are of great importance, often 
being accompanied with a tendency in the child to 
be thin, deliccVte, and dull : much depends upon how 


treated at home and in school. 

At every possible opportunity observe the outline, 
form, and size of people's heads, paying special at- 
tention to the points mentioned ; study the physiog- 
nomy of children and persons known to you, and 
draw your own conclusion as to the value of your 

Study also well-selected art representations of the 
human figure, in rest and in action, and learn from 
them the rule of perfection. In some school-rooms, 
photographs, engravings, and casts of the best an- 
tique statues are to be seen. I wish it were so in all 
cases, that we might learn from those who have long 
observed the body what is excellent in form and 
outline, as well as graceful in movement and attitude. 

The Face. — Looking at different types of faces, 
we are at once struck with the fact that the passive 
appearance of some expresses intellectuality, while 
others are marked by inborn vulgarity, apart from 
any spe* ill mobile expression. Elements contributing 



to the low vulgar type are a narrow and receding 
forehead, a large, prominent under-jaw, thick lips, and 
a thick immobile make of skin. Such signs are, 
however, not to be trusted too far. 

The features, separately, may be well made with- 
out being proportioned to one another or rising well 
from the surface of the face. If the openings for 
the eyes and mouth are small in proportion to the 
face, it imparts a blank look. The size of the jaw- 
bones gives an appearance of firmness to the physi- 
ognomy, while either the upper or lower jaw-bones 
may be too small. If the upper-jaw is too small, the 
cheeks at this part are too close together, the palate 
is often narrow, and the teeth overcrowded. 

The Nose and the Palate are very noteworthy ; they 
are described in Chapter II. As a sign of develop- 
ment or make of body the form of the bony palate 
is only second to the head in importance. The 
mouth should be noted, when at rest, as to its size. A 
small mouth is a defect, and often accompanies throat 
obstruction leading to mouth-breathing. 

The Ears should be observed separately, noting their 
size and symmetry ; see if they lie fairly against the 
head and that ail parts are present in the ear as 
the) are described in Chapter II. 

The Growth of Body is estimated by the height and 
weight of the child as compared with the normal (see 
Table II.). 



Passing from the observation of points indicating 
development in the body, we have to consider the 
nerve-signs, which indicate the make, status, and action 
of the brain and nerve-system : these are mainly post- 
ures or attitudes of the body or action and movement of 
its parts. Following the sub-headings of the Schedule, 
look at the general balance of the body, the face, eyes, 
head, and hands. 

The General Balance of the body of the child, when 
standing quietly, should be symmetrical, equal on the 
two sides, so that the shoulders are at the same level 
and the spine balanced straight ; while the feet are 
equally planted on the ground with the knees straight. 
When the arms are held out in front, symmetry should 
be maintained in the equal height at which they are 
placed with the elbows straight : no slouching or listless 

The Face and Expression. — The human face in its 
expression and movements is a most accurate index of 
the brain and of the nerve-changes in it, which corre- 
spond to the emotions, feelings, and thoughts. 

When we look at a face, we may observe its form, 
colour, and conditions of mobility. The general form 
and outline of the face are largely determined by the 
shape of the skull beneath. Either side of the face can 
move separately ; hence the necessity of observing 
whether a facial expression is symmetrical. 

The muscles that move the face are sufficiently ex- 



plained in Chapter II. ; their action in producing move- 
ment is caused by nerve-currents coming to them from 
the brain. 

The healthy normal face of a child is calm, without 
wrinkling or puckering in the forehead, and is alike in 
its action and expression on the two sides. 

It is convenient, for the purpose of description, to 
divide the face into three zones ; the frontal above the 
line of the eyebrows, with a middle zone separated from 
the lower by a line at the level of the lower margin of 
the orbits. 

To observe each in turn, hold a sheet of paper with 
one margin horizontal, leaving the forehead above th»5 
eyebrows uncovered — this shows the upper zone; next 
view only that part of the face which is below the lower 
margin of the orbits, or sockets for the eyes, showing 
the mouth, the -"reater part of the cheeks, and the 
openings of ilie n^ se— this is the lower zone. Lastly 
the m.iddlc zone may be demonstrated alone by holding 
the horizontal m.argin of one sheet of paper so as to 
cover all above the eyebrows, and another sheet so as 
to cover all below the orbits, thus leaving to view the 
eyebrows, the eyelids, and eyeballs, with the bridge of 
the nose. By these methods you may readily examine 
the symmetry of a face, both as regards form and 
action, and you may also define the particular zone in 
which any mode of expression is seen. 

The greatest degree of expression is, I think, seen in 






; I 

the frontal region, mainly produced by action of the 
frontal and corrugator muscles. 

In looking at the mid-zone of the head and face, the 
observer's eye traverses it from ear to ear, noting these 
features, the palpebral fissures, and the tone of the large 
orbicularis oculi muscles, the bridge of the nose both in 
its bone and soft tissues, as well as the eyeballs and 
their movements. 

Signs are given for each of the three zones. 

There are some special movements in each of the 
facial zones worthy of notice. In the upper or frontal 
zone the movements are almost always symmetrical or 
equal on both sides ; they may produce horizontal fur- 
rows, or vertical furrows with a drawing of the eye- 
brows together — the former is a movement not of an 
intellectual kind ; the latter is often highly expressive 
of mental action. 

In the middle zone the opening of the eyelids is 
usually equal on either side ; we shall find that in this 
region we may have marked indications of exhaustion 
of brain-action. 

The parts in the lower zone about the mouth 
move in eating and in speaking. The mouth can be 
widened, its angles may be drawn upwards or down- 
wards, and the upper lip may be raised at a point 
a little within the angle, s" as to uncover the canine 
tooth, as in sneering. Widening of the mouth is 
seen in laughter, when the angles are drawn some- 



what Upwards, so also, to a less degree, in smiling. 
The circular muscle of the ..louth contracts in clos- 
ing the lips, and its action is excessive in pouting. 

The Eye-movements are of great interest. In ex- 
amining a child, notice whether the eyes follow ac- 
curately a small object you hold two or three feet 
in front of his face, as you move it from side to 
side, and up and down. 

The two eyes move together, so that, when one 
turns to the right, so does the other ; or, when one 
eye turns upwards, they both turn up equally. In 
looking at near objects, say at lo inches from the 
face, the eyes turn slightly but equally towards one 

Movements of the eyes are not equally common 
in all directions — more movements are horizontal 
than vertical; in turning the eyes to the right or 
left, there is no necessary movement of the eyelids ; 
the eyes turn towards objects, their muscle.'^ being 
stimulated by brain-currents which are generated by 
the sight of objects around. In observing movements 
of the eyes, notice whether they are obviously guided 
by the sight or sound of objects around, or whether 
it be not so. Movements of the eyes, not controlled 
as to their number and direction by obvious circum- 
stances, must be looked upon as signs of nervous- 
ness. Irregular movements of the eyes are common 
in children, and are very indicative of their brain- 






condition : they may be looked upon aB analogous to 
spontaneous twitchings of the fingers. In these 
wandering, irregular movements of the eyes we find 
an illustration of a common law, that excessive 
movement is often an indication of weakness, not of 
strength ; the same thing is seen in the twitching 
movements of nervous children. 

Movements of the eyes in the vertical direction 
are accompanie(' by movements of the u])per eyelids, 
and very often the eyes and head move upwards 

The movements of the eyeballs are effected by 
small muscles attached to the eye and arising from 
the wall of the orbit ; these small muscles are sup- 
plied b) three different pairs of brain-nerves. The 
iris, or coloured portion of the eye, is a muscular 
curtain, with an aperture in its centre called the 
pupil, which m\y enlarge or contract. Light causes 
the pupil to contract; the pupil also contracts, when 
the eye is looking at near objects, dilating when 
looking into the distance. A widely dilated pupil 
may indicate a state of mental excitement; it is con- 
tracted in sleep. 

The Head, its Postures and Movements. — It is con- 
venient, for the purposes of description, to speak of 
three modes of movement of the head : flrxion and 
extension, i.e. bending forwards and backwards, as in 
nodding; rotation in a horizontal plane, the head re- 




maining erect, but the face turning to the right or 
the left side ; inclination, i.e. lowering one or other 
side of the head, so that the two ears are not on 
the same level and the eyes not in the same hori- 
zontal plane — inclination is said to be towards that 
side on which the ear is lowest. The only sym- 
metrical movements of the head are those of nod- 
ding and bending back the head. In a strong and 
healthy child the head is held erect unless some- 
thing changes its posture. A slight sound may cause 
rotation of the head ; a slight condition of weakness 
of the nerve-centres is indicated by drooping of the 
head. The posture or balance of the head may in- 
dicate the brain-condition. 

The simplest postures of the head are those called 
flexion and extension ; they involve equal action of 
both sides of the brain. The weight of the head 
makes it fall forward, if the muscles do not hold it 
up ; hence, as fatigue comes, and passes on to sleep, 
the head may fall more and more forward, till it is 
bowed on the breast. This bowed position of the 
head indicates something about the condition of the 
brain, but the posture is not solely caused by the 
brain-action. Do not let children, when writing, 
bend much over their desks — the face should be as 
nearly vertical as may be, and as far as possible 
removed from the horizontal. You may notice the 
drooped head and the stooping and spiritless gait of 



a tired man, as comjjarccl with that of the same in- 
dividual when rested and refreshed. The head is 
seen firmly upri[;"ht in defiance, drooping in shame, 
and held on one side in nervous girls. 

The Hand. — The hand in its balance and movement 
is second only to the face in importance as an index 
of brain-action. In observing it for this purpose, the 
liand should be held out free in front of the body, 
not engaged in holding anything, but simj)ly balanced, 
as the brain controls the muscles. I have described 
eight typical hand-postures : two of these will be given 
among abnormal nerve-signs. When the hands are 
held out to command, the average balance is with 
both upper extremities horizontal on a level with the 
shoulders, the hands turned palm downwards, the width 
of the chest apart, the elbows being quite straight. 
The arm and the hand and its parts being all balanced 
in the same plane, the palm of the hand spread flat, 
and the fingers and thumb straight with the palm. 

In observing a child, I say to him, " Put out your 
hands with the palms downwards and spread the 
fingers." The movements and balance of action in 
the parts of the arm can thus be seen under favour- 
able circumstances. A strong and healthy child, say 
of five years old and upwards, will hold out his hands 
fairly straight with the arm and shoulder ; the limbs 
may not be held quite at the same level — the left is 
often a little weaker and is held a little lower than the 




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right. The typical sign of strength is that the hand 
be straight extended, as in Fig. 5, the fingers straight 
with the metacarpal bones and the forearm and 
shoulder ; the palm of the hand, or metacarpus, straight, 
not contracted laterally, as in the feeble hand (see Fig. 
17); all parts are in the same horizontal plane; the 

Fig. 5. — Straight Hand. 

arms should be parallel to one another, straight at the 
elbow and both on a level with the shoulder. A slight 
deviation from this rather stiff and exactly balanced 
position is not to be considered necessarily a departure 
from health. However, the posture above described is 
the standard of the normal, and indicates a robust, well- 
balanced nerve-system. 









Principles of Methods of Observing and Describ- 
ing Children 

Children may be studied in many ways. We may 
read about them and think about them ; we may study 
the results of their work at school or the methods by 
which others teach and train them. We may study 
books on physiology which show how the circulation, 
digestion, and respiration are carried on. We may 
study the structure and uses of the organs of special 
sense, their connexion with the brain, and how they 
influence its action. All such studies are of value to 
you ; still, there remains the question, " How may we, 
as individuals interested in children, best study them 
for ourselves ? " 

In speaking of my own methods of examining and 
studying children, it is with the full acknowledgment 
that other means may be used ; but it is my purpose to 
speak of what I have seen and of the methods em- 
ployed in reporting on 100,000 children I have had 
opportunities of examining in 168 schools. 

These methods I was gradually led to systemize in 
my own studies, and I have used them now for some 







i 1? 

years. They arc founded up»)n scientific and physio- 
logical principles, and necessitate observing individual 
children and thinking about the facts observed. Such 
a mode of study requires that facts shall be observed by 
you, recorded and thought over ; .still be not discour- 
aged ; a little steady practice will make all, and 
the effort will, I think, teach you much, give pleasant 
study, and place a real power in your hands. 

It will at once be obvious that the facts we are to 
observe must be physical facts. We cannot directly 
observe the action of the child's mind with our eyes 
and ears ; but we can observe the child's body, its 
make, its movements, and the signs of its nutrition — 
these can be seen and recorded in words ; they can be 
thought over and studied. 

To observe children with success, we learn 
what to look at in an individual child, and how to de- 
scribe what we see. To know how to describe what 
is seen is almost as important, to our purposes, as to 
know what to look for. Such descriptions aid our 
memory ; they enable us to compare observations, to 
think about them, and to see their meaning. 

The outward appearance of the body or the passive 
expression has been studied from ancient times, and 
much has been written on the subject. The laws of 
form and the proportions of the body have been laid 
down by many authorities who differ much among 
themselves. Such studies have mostly been under- 



taken from the philosophical and artistic points of 
view, rather than as a part of the study of mental 

Much has been written on the subject of physiog- 
nomy that may interest you. Compare the writings of 
Lavater, and those who followed in his steps, with the 
later work of Sir Charles Bell on the " Philosophy and 
Anatomy of Expression." The knowledge and the 
methods of the two authors differ. Lavater described 
the size and form of the head of the man — he did not 
know the signs of brain-action ; he observed the im- 
mobile signs — we shall see their significance presently. 
Sir Charles Bell described not only the anatomy of the 
brain and the nerve-system, and the muscles which pro- 
duce movement ; he showed that the brain by its action, 
as it sits hidden from view in the head, sends out cur- 
rents of force to the muscles all over the body, produ- 
cing those movements which we call mobile expression. 
Bell showed, further, that currents are constantly pass- 
ing from the surface of the body and from the senses 
up to the brain, guiding and controlling its action. 

We want to study the signs of brain-action. You will 
ask, What is the connexion between physiognomy and 
brain-action ^ As to the size of the head in connexion 
with the brain, it is certain that the brain can be no 
larger than the bony case which contains it; further, 
the brain is often badly made when the head is 
badly shapen ; we shall see more about this further 





I' * 

on. Experience shows that, when the head and features 
are badly shapen, the brain is often, but not necessarily, 
poorly developed. Defect in physiognomy and, in 
proportion, of the parts of the body, is often associated 
with mental dulness, but the occurrence of brain-dis- 
orderliness, indicated by abnormal nerve-signs (inco- 
ordination), is a more general and direct cause. It 
should then be an object, in training children, to remove 
their faulty nerve-signs or irregular or bad modes of ac- 
tion in movements, which are the direct indications of the 
brain-state. The most important signs of brain-action 
that we can observe are the movements which it pro- 
duces in the body. It is by observing the action and 
attitudes of the child, that we find means of describing 
his brain-condition. The signs of brain-action, and the 
most valuable signs of its condition, are the movements 
and results of the movements which it produces in the 
parts of the body. It is of great importance clearly to 
understand the difference between the two modes of 
expression — passive immobile expression indicated by 
the size and proportions of the head and other parts, 
and the mobile expression or movement, which are the 
direct outcome of brain-action upon the muscles. The 
most important signs of brain-action are the movem.ents, 
and results of the movements, which it produces, such 
as the postures and attitudes of the body, and speech : 
they are the direct outcome of brain-action, and can be 
observed and studied by all. 




When I visit my country friend, he takes nie to his 
stable and shows his horses, pointing out in each cer- 
tain points of viilue for my admiration : in his hunter 
the height, sloping shoulder, small head, well-cut, 
straight legs, his clear eye ; then he goes on to show 
the fine balance of his head, and when the horse is 
exercised, my friend points out the action seen in the 
movements of his limbs: we admire all these points and 
the well-groomed, fine, glossy coat. In the cart horse 
we look for more massive development and strength of 
limb and muscular growth. Again, in the farm he 
shows his bullocks, their small horns, straight backs, 
short legs, while pointing with pride to their fatness. 
In the corn-field he .shows the number of large grains 
in each ear, the length of the straw and its cleanness : 
all points worth money. 

In the nursery my friend shows me his " fine young- 
sters," but does not indicate the points of their hopeful- 
ness as well as he did the points in his animals. 

In some reports on schools we are told the number 
of boys and girls in attendance, arranged in age-groups 
with the positions they hold in school — sometimes 
the boys are not divided from the girls. More strictly 
educational reports may indicate the number of dull, 
backward, and neglected children. All such accounts of 
childhood leave much to be desired : we need a census 
of the child-population ; we want to know the children 
as accurately as the farmer knows his horses, cattle, and 





i J 

■i -7.- 

:■■■ i 




corn. What principles, then, underlie the better methods 
of description? Individuals must be described; further, 
certain points in the individual should be described 
which may be compared in other individuals. Again : 
in describing his horse the farmer drew attention to the 
development and growth of the body in various points, 
then to his action in different movements, as in walk- 
ing, trotting, galloping ; he thus unconsciously explained 
something of the action of the animal's brain and nerve- 
system. These illustrations serve to show two principles 
that should be attended to in observing children. Look 
at their bodies, separate features and the limbs, as 
explained in Chapter II., and describe what is well made, 
and any badly made or faulty part. 

The chapter on abnormal signs will help you to 
describe the defects in development and in action and 

Look also at the movements, the parts moving and 
the balance or attitudes, which indicate motor power 
and strength, and express brain-action. 

The child is part of Nature's work ; look at him as 
such, and study him as you study other living things. 
In short, I urge the scientific method, the methods of 
physical science, in place of relying on the meta- 
physical study of mind, when new knowledge and 
experience have to be acquired. I would urge you 
to the study of brain-action in producing the display 
of mind, and its causes, in place of confining your 



attention to metaphysical psychology : in saying this, 
I do not assume that this is new to you. The two 
methods differ, I think, principally in this : the psy- 
chologist proceeding to deal with most complex ques- 
tions records complex results (mental states) of com- 
plex causes ; the student of physical facts observes 
only what can be seen, reducing physical phenomena, 
that are complex, to their simplest elements, and notes 
their antecedents and sequents. The two methods may 
go side by side, they need not be considered as antag- 
onistic ; use such processes of study as give you the 
best results. 

When a child is brought to a doctor for advice, he 
examines and observes him, he examines the body of 
the child and its various organs, taking notes of what 
he sees and hears. He forms an opinion of the pathol- 
ogy or real condition of the parts of the body by 
physical signs, then makes his diagnosis, and, after 
further considering the physical antecedents, which 
have probably brought about the conditions observed, 
he finally advises as to treatment. The friends of 
the child will also demand a prognosis, or opinion as 
to what is likely to happen in the future : this is often 
what is most urgently desired. 

We shall have much to say hereafter about the 
signs of moHjlc expression, but before we pass away 
from the study of the body in its immobile or passive 
condition, a few words may be said as to the means 




of training tiie eye to recognise the perfect outline 
and form, and to observe any sliglit departures there- 
from. For the purpose of training your eyes to appre- 
ciate perfections of form and accuracy of movement 
and balance, so that any deviations therefrom may 
be readily observed, use your powers of observation 
at every opportunity, observe your friends and ac- 
quaintances and all round you ; specially observe chil- 
dren according to the rules laid down ; try to form a 
general opinion in each case whether they be intelli- 
gent and well-bred children, then describe their form 
for yourselves as best you can, and fix those examples 
in your memory that are of high-class type ; go into 
schools in poor districts, and study the less-well-born 
children. The types of perfection of form should be 
seen in art — they are seen in much of the antique 
and in some modern statuary ; works of art may thus 
be useful to you. To study perfection and beauty of 
form you should contrast the most perfect with the 
least perfect. Examples of low development in con- 
trast with more perfect productions will throw much 
light upon your studies ; the contrast of marked per- 
fection with imperfection throws each into greater 
relief and prominence. Leonardo da Vinci, we are 
told, searched for ugliness. 

The head and face are parts of the body peculiarly 
characteristic of man, and here we see the greatest 
number of those signs which indicate to us the make 



of the individual and his condition. The head and face 
arc also easily observed, and very interesting to study. 

When studying cxj^ression in the head, as in other 
parts of the body, we must look to the conditions of 
its development, or size and form, and also to its move- 
ments and the postures which result from those move- 
ments. The title of Sir Charles Hell's first essay • is: 
" Of the Permanent Form of the Head and Face in 
contradistinction to Kxpression." He goes on to say : 
" A face may be beautiful in sleep, and a statue with- 
out expression may be highly beautiful ; on the other 
hand, expression may give charm to a face the most 
ordinary. Hence it appears that our inquiry divides 
itself into the permanent form of the head and face, 
and the motion of the features, or the expression." 
Bell uses the term " expression " as confined to mobile 
modes of expression, and carefully distinguishes be- 
tween them and conditions of development indicated 
by form. It seems probable, that the finer actions of 
the brain, in producing thoughts, may be trained by 
using good works of art. Form is probably more 
effectual for this purpose than shading and colour. 

The Signs of Nutrition of the body and the brain 
are of the highest importance and interest. The first 
point I wish to insist on, is that nutrition may be ex- 
pressed by ( I ) form or growth, and (2) by motion which 
is due to nutrition. 

^ Op. cit., p. 21. 




K'Jfl ' 


As evidence that motor signs, or movements and the 
results of movements, may express nutrition of brain, 
let us examine a few examples. 

( 1 ) In an ill-nourished infant spontaneous movement 
is much lessened, or the child may lie almost motion- 
less instead of being constantly full of movement, while 
awike. The return of spontaneous movement is a sign 
of the improved nutrition. 

(2) In a man after a severe illness, such as a fever, 
the tone of the voice is usually altered so that we can 
no longer recognise the individual by his voice ; this 
motor sign, as well as the worn countenance, indicates 
the man's lowered nutrition. Returning health is shown 
by the patient " looking like himself," and " recovering 
his old voice." 

(3) In a child seven years old emaciation and ill- 
nutrition, indicated by loss of weight, may be accom- 
panied by St. Vitus's dance or finger twitching, which 
disappears when weight increases and nutrition is im- 

(4) A strong, well-nourished man is less fidgety than 
a weak one. 

Now as to the expression of nutrition by form and 
growth. Proportions of growth often indicate condi- 
tions of nutrition. 

A seedling pea-plant, if kept in a room with deficient 
light, is not well nourished, and the malnutrition is in- 
dicated by the small yellow leaves and the long white 

■H- i 



stem. That good nutrition has not occurred during 
the life ol the plant is dctnonstrated by the fact that 
the plant, when dry, weighs less than the seed from 
which it grew. Mere malnutrition is expressed by 
the relative growth of leaves and stem ; the leaves 
being very small, the stem very long. In children we 
often see growth for a time occur in height without 
lateral development ; then the proportions of growth 
change, and the child fattens. 

It may possibly add some interest to our work, if I 
explain how my attention became directed to the study 
of postures as signs of brain-conditions. Having, 
during some years, given special study to the condi- 
tions of the nerve-system in children, I began to note 
the various jjostures presented by children, brought 
for examination, at the East London Children's Hos- 
pital, and from 1878 I kept notes of the spontaneous 
postures observed. The children were requested to 
hold out their hands, and the passive condition or 
posture of the hand was noted. At first it was diffi- 
cult to describe the po.sture seen in precise language, 
though sone were seen to be characteristic of certain 
nerve-conditions. In 1879, while visiting Florence, 
it struck me that the posture of the hands of the 
Venus de' Medici was exactly similar to the posture 
I had so often seen in nervous children. Later, at the 
British Museum, I saw the English Venus side by side 
with the Diana (Fig. 7), feminine coyness and nervous- 



ncss represented side by side with the expression of 
energy and strength, and the contrast of the hand- 
posture showed them to be in direct antithesis. While 
looking at the marble hands, it became easy to describe 
their postures in precise language. In the hands of 
the nervous woman the wrist is slightly flexed or bent, 
the knuckles are moderately extended back beyond the 
straight line, the finger-joints being slightly bent. The 
thumb is extended backwards, and somewhat drawn 
away from the fingers. This posture I have called the 

Fig. 6. — Nervous Hand. 

"nervous hand " ; it is that so commonly seen in weak, 
excitable, nervous children, such as are hot-tempered 
but affectionate, tooth-grinders, and very liable to re- 
current headaches. I have before me the cast of a 
hand carved by Canova, an art model of beautiful 
workmanship. This hand represents exactly the ner- 
vous posture. Art often presents us with the expres- 
sion of weakness in place of strength, beauty in place 
of perfectness. 

In the Diana of the British Museum we seethe figure 





of a strong, energetic woman. Our common experience 
tells us that it is such. Her right hand is lifted, and is 
engaged in holding a spear or 
dart, which she is about to 
hurl ; this hand is, therefore, 
not available as a sign indi- 
cating the mental condition. 
The left hand, however, hangs 
down, and is free or unoccu- 
pied, and by its posture affords 
us evidence of the active or 
mentally energetic condition 
of the brain. The balance of 
the parts of the body indicates 
to us the balance of the action 
of the nerve-centres. This is 
the posture termed " the ener- 
getic hand" (Fig. 8). 

The wrist is extended back- 
wards, the fingers and thumb 
are flexed. 

If we compare this ener- 
getic hand with the hand in 
the nervous posture, we see ^^g- 7--^'atuk ok diana. 

British Museum. 

the former to be the direct 

antithesis of the latter. In the weak woman the hand 
is flexed at the wrist, the fingers and thumb bent back at 
the knuckles ; in the strong woman the wrist is extended 




backwards, and the digits are flexed. This is an exam- 
ple of one posture being the antithesis or direct opposite 
of the other ; Mr. C. Darwin made much use of the 
principle of antithesis in his work on Expression. 

I have described the straight extended hand as the 
normal type, and two postures as deviations therefrom : 
one, the energetic hand, a perfectly normal and health- 
ful condition, the other the nervous hand, which indicates 
weakness and excitability. An example of the energetic 
hand in real life may often be seen in the attitude of 

Fig. 8. — Enkrc.etic Hand. 

little children, say between three and four years old : 
you call them to come to you, and show them something 
they like ; they run with arms stretched out and hands 
in the energetic posture, and wrist extended, and the 
fingers slightly flexed. 

An incident which happened the other day may 
serve to illustrate the value of studying postures as 
signs of the nerve-condition. I was asked to observe 
some young people, and noticed three in whom the 
hands, when held out free, showed the wrists flexed 





with the knuckle-joints extended backwards. I immedi- 
ately pointed out to the teacher that they showed some 
signs of nerve-muscular excitability ; the correctness of 
this opinion I was afterwards able to confirm. 

One of the first departures from the si<;ns of per- 
fect strength is the posture we are about to describe 
under the name of the " straight hand with the thumb 
drooped." This may commonly be observed in condi- 
tions of health, when fatigue or slight weakness occurs. 
It is similar to the straight hand, but the thumb, with 

Fig. 9. — SrRAi(;HT Hand with Drooped. 

its metacarpal bone, falls slightly, thus approximating 
the latter towards the palm. I was once able to point 
out this sign to the head-master of a large school. I 
had looked over the lower classes of the school without 
noticing any unusual signs among the boys. When, 
however, we came to the first class, and these boys 
held out their hands, I observed that every boy, with 
two exceptions, held the hands straight, with the thumbs 
drooped. This class had recently been engaged in their 
annual examinations. 

If you notice people's hands, you will often see 






that early in the morning the hand is held quite 
straight while in the latter part of the day the 
thumb tends to droop. In such cases, food, and a 
little rest, will usually restore the normal posture, 
and this, the first sign of fatigue, will pass away. 
This posture is, in fact, the first stage towards the 
feeble hand, which I shall soon describe. 

Figure lo shows the natural position of the free 
hand when at rest, as it may be seen hanging over 
the side of a chair, or lying in the lap. The hand in 

Fig. 10. — Hand in Rest. 

rest is a natural position, with slight flexion of the 
wrist and fingers, and slight arching of the metacarpus 
or palm of the hand ; it is also common in slight fatigue 
without exhaustion, and may be seen in healthy sleep, 
when no energizing nerve-currents are passing from 
the brain to the muscles. If you are in doubt as to 
whether a child is asleep, raise the arm by the wrist- 
band and let the hand hang free ; if the child be 
asleep, the hand will assume the posture of rest. 
The " feeble hand " is an exaggerated form ot the 





"hand in rest." The degree of flexion of all parts 
is greater, and the metacarpus is much arched or 
contracted. This is seen in 
conditions of exhaustion. 

Two typical postures of 
the hand still remain to be 
described. The " hand in 
fright " is a posture not of- 
ten seen ; it is a modification 
of the energetic hand, the 
wrist and fingers being all 
extended. It is well repre- 
sented in the statue of Cain 
(Fig. 13), and in several mem- 
bers of the Niobe Group at 

When a child is convulsed ^'^- "-"^^^ ^^ ^^'^»^- 
by epilepsy or brain disease, we usually see the hand 

S i 

Fig. 12. — Convulsive Hand. 

clenched as a closed fist. The thumb is strongly flexed 
on the palm of the hand, while the fingers are closed 







over it, thus forming a closed fist, while the palm is 
arched or contracted by bringing its sides together. 
This position is never normal, but in a few cases 

_ -^^2^^ P^^ matter of habit. 

The convulsive hand 
may be seen in a child 
in passion, and it some- 
times occurs during a 
strong effort of self- 
control ; I have often 
seen it in people when 
about to have a tooth 

The eight types of 
hand postures will 
help you to describe 
what you see, but va- 
rious deviations from 
these types will often 

I ask your attention 
to signs which are prob- 
ably new to you, indi- 
cating the brain-con- 
dition of children; that is, the study of postures or 
attitudes of the body and limbs. Such signs will, I 
think, be most useful to you, as they have been to me, 

Fig- 13. 




and, with a little practice, they are easily observed and 

When the hand is held out, the posture or attitude 
seen is brought about by the last movements that 
occurred in the parts of the hand. Postures are, so to 
speak, stationary results of movement; the posture is 
the outcome of the balance of the muscles which pro- 
duce it ; and this is the outcome of the balance or ratio 
of action in the nerve-centres which stimulate the 
muscles to contract. Without going into theoretical 
matters, let me say that postures of the parts of 
the body are important signs of the brain-state at 
the time. The postures you see are commonly 
due to, and are signs of, the condition of the nerve- 

When I began to make the expression of conditions 
of the brain a definite study, I frequently looked at my 
patients, especially the children, after I had found out 
what their condition was, and I noted down any visible 
expression of their nerve-condition. My attention was 
soon attracted to the frequent occurrence of certain 
postures of the body indicative of conditions of the 
nerve-system. It is often more easy to describe post- 
ures than to describe movements ; postures are condi- 
tions of quiescence ; they can be watched during a space 
of time; they can be drawn, photographed, or repre- 
sented by casts in plaster ; movements are evanescent, 
like thoughts. 





To study postures as signs of the mental brain-state 
of the child, look at his parts and members when free 
or disengaged. To observe the hand for this purpose, 
it should not be engaged in holding a pen, but be free, 
that all the fingers may move as the brain will move 
them ; that the brain-state, not the pen, may govern the 
posture of the hand. The hand of a labourer ^ is seen 
engaged in digging with his spade ; his nerve muscular 
energy is expended in holding and driving his spade. 
It would, under such circumstances, require a very 
strong nerve-current sent to those muscles to alter this 
forcible brain-stimulus. Hence, the hand while en- 
gaged in digging, is not very impressionable and 
expressive of the finer motor actions of the nerve- 
mechanism. When the man puts aside his spade and 
talks, especially if at rest, his hand gesticulates and 
expresses his emotions. The hand may be said to be 
free when it is held out at the word of command, when 
hanging over the arm of a chair, or when it is moving 
towards an object. 

The face may usually be considered free to be acted 
on only by the brain, except when eating. When a 
strong cold wind blows on the face, it is too strongly 
stimulated thereby, to be very impressionable to force 
originating in the brain. The eyes are free when not 
strongly stimulated by the sight of some object, or 
bright light or colour. 

' See •' Physical Expression," p. 144. 



In examining; movement and balance, it is desirable 
that you should use the same word of command, the 
same stimulus to action, on all occasions. This action 
of the child is convenient, leaving the arms and hands 
free, and ready for your observation and description. 
It is desirable that the upper extremities, when thus 
under observation, should be free and unoccupied; they 
must not be engaged in doing anything. If I hold a 
lump of chalk in my hand, it is not free to express the 
condition of the brain. Clasping the hand on the chalk 
is partly a reflex act, following the pressure of the 
chalk ; only in part is it due to the direct action of the 
brain upon the muscles of the limb. 

If you see the hand of the child thus occupied, and 
you wish to observe it as a sign of brain-condition ; 
either cause the hand to drop what it holds, or wait and 
watch for the favourable opportunity for your observa- 
tions when the spontaneous action of the child shall set 
the hand free. The hand may be free when passing to 
reach an object, not so when it has seized it ; it may be 
free when hanging over the arm of a chair, less so 
when resting on the table. 

Looking at a body of children, say in the third or 
fourth standard, or grade, of a primary school, you will 
see, perhaps, five or ten per cent of them who do not 
present this perfect balance and typical posture. The 
appearance of certain deviations from this standard of 
the normal marks the child to me at once a.s probably 





nervous, excitable, or exhausted. The observation of 
certain groups or signs tells us something of the char- 
acter or kind of child and his tendencies. It may be a 
matter of interest and importance to those responsible 
for children to look at them, study them, and observe 
the presence of signs which indicate their present con- 
dition and probable tendencies in future development. 

In observing movements as signs of brain-action, and 
in describing them, it is most important to note the 
parts moving. Movements may be seen principally in 
the digits, more in these small parts than in larger 
parts, such as the elbow and shoulder; they may be 
seen principally in the muscles about the mouth, or in 
certain other parts about the face. In any case, the 
movement of a part corresponds to action in a certain 
group of nerve-cells corresponding. Remember this 
physiological fact, — it is the basis of much that is 
important in the management of children. One series 
of movements long continued means long continued 
action of one portion of brain ; change the action of the 
child, and you thereby change the portion of brain 
acting; thus you may help to avoid fatigue and 

I spoke just now of movements of small parts of 
the body in contrast to movements of large parts. The 
fine movements of small parts more directly indicate 
brain-action ; these should not only be carefully de- 
scribed by the observer, but also cultivated by the 





teacher as in j^aper cuttinfj, folding and similar occu- 
pations. I think the same kind of brain culture may 
be ^iven by calisthenic exercises, which should be 
arran<;ed not only to stren^^^then lar^e muscles, but 
also to develoj) sli<;ht and independent movements of 
small parts of the body and the ready action of small 
portions of brain produced by imitation of your move- 

Lookinj^ at the arms of the child, observe the hands, 
wrists, elbows, shoulders on either side ; look not only 
to the postures, but also to the movements. Postures 
and movements may be alike on either side, or they 
may be asymmetrical ; you will find it not uncommon 
to have several signs of weakness on the same side of 
the body. When the two sides of the body do not 
move alike, it is commonly due to the diminished force 
or energy of brain, as seen in a tired child who leans 
on a table or chair. 

Asymmetry of the postures of the body is usually 
accompanied by a slight tendency to lateral curvature 
of the spine. Postures of the spine are well worthy of 
study. As I have shown you, the spine is a column 
composed of many small bones, and is capable of being 
bent in various directions. Lateral curvature of the 
spine may be suspected if a child when at work con- 
stantly bends to one side, making one shoulder higher 
than the other. This may be due to weakness, and 
may be accompanied by finger twitching and weak 







hand postures unequal on the two sides. Stooping, or 
lateral bending of the spine, may be due to short sight 
or other eye defects, which should be looked for in 
such cases. When you notice a child bending over his 
work, get the test-type and examine him for short sight. 

We have spoken of certain j)ostures of the hand as 
being the opposite or antithesis of one another, and 
as representing opposite states of the nerve-system. 
We saw that the "nervous hand" was a posture the 
very opposite of that called the "energetic hand," and 
that these postures represent very different brain- 
states ; so with regard to the head, flexion or drooping 
indicates conditions the opposite of those expressed by 
extension or throwing backwards of the head. 

The principles employed for the classification of 
movements are interesting not only as affording means 
of grouping many of the nerve-signs which you observe, 
but also in understanding the brain-action correspond- 
ing to what you see, and the brain-changes accompa- 
nying the emotions and other mental states, while they 
may help you in economising the child's nerve-force 
and preventing brain-fatigue. 

We may class the movements we see as to their 
cause or according to what we think produced the 
action. Some movements are directly produced by and 
follow some stimulation from without. When the child 
is shown an object, his head, eyes, and hands move in 
that direction as he takes it ; sight regulates his move- 



mcnts, so when you call him he runs to you, stimulated 
by the sound of your voice which controls him. Ty|M- 
cal examples of movements stimulated by impressions 
from outside the body, are seen in what the physiolo- 
j;ist calls reflex actions. When the eyeball is touched, 
a stimulus is sent to the nerve-centre with the result 
that a nerve-current is quickly sent back from the 
nerve-cells to the muscles closing the eyes. 

On the other hand, movements are often observed 
without any known circumstances stimulating them ; 
such are seen in the spontaneous movements of the 
infant and in the uncontrolled movements of the eyes 
and the finger twitches of fidgety children. Sjionta- 
neous movements are the chief characteristic of the 
condition called chorea. 

We may, however, observe the characters of a move- 
ment itself apart from other circumstances. Looking 
at the face of a child, you may see the muscles in the 
forehead (f rentals) working up and down making hori- 
zontal puckerings — a uniformly repeated, uncontrolled, 
senseless action ; or again they may act momentarily, 
this may indicate a passing thought or feeling. Some 
children acquire " habits," such as holding the back of 
one hand to the forehead, or twisting one hand in a 
peculiar way again and again, or shrugging one 
shoulder, or turning the head, etc. Many foolish- 
looking habits in children consist in such uniformly 
repeated acts. 





( ! 

When action in several parts is observed, we have a 
combination and scries of combinations of acts, making 
up a complex phenomenon ; such series may be classi- 
fied as follows, and the nerve-action corresponding may 
be indicated : 

1. Uniformly repeated series of acts. 

As when all the fingers are opened and closed to- 
gether again and again. Here the same nerve-centres 
habitually act together. 

2. Augmenting series of acts. 

A spreading series of movements, corresponding to 
a spreading area of nerve-action may be seen in a 
spreading smile or facial expression, or a burst of 
laughter, and in the march of movement as from face 
to head and hand — in protrusion of the tongue on any 
stimulation ; in the head held on one side when any 
question is asked, and in the fidgety fingers of the 
examinee. Such spreading action is antithetical to 
good intellectual function. 

This is much seen in the expression of emotion and 
in mental excitment and confusion : it corresponds 
to a wide area of brain in useless over-action and is 

3. A diminishing series of acts. 

A diminishing series of acts with lessening of the 
area of motor cells in activity is seen in the child who 
is getting quieter after some excitement. 

4. A series of acts adapted by circumstances. 




In action adapted by circumstance, we have a high- 
class function commonly called coordinate action, and 
if the cot)rdinating conditions were some time ante- 
cedent, the action is considered more strictly mental in 

Hrain-action thus fully controlled or coordinated is 
an economy of power, the force expended is adapted 
in its action by the environment and therefore probably 
in harmony with it. 

A sjireading area of brain in over-action is seen in 
stammering; here the spasm, p.ccomjianying and caus- 
ing the defect of speech, may be seen to commence in 
the muscles of the face about the angles of the mouth, 
in depression of the lower jaw, or in knitting of the 
eyebrows. Then the tongue is thrown into sj)asm, and, 
it may be, the muscles of respiration as well. The 
march of the spasm should be noticed ; it usually recurs 
in the same order. On the tirst indication of visible 
spasm, which usually precedes the sound of the stam- 
mer, the child should be stoj)j)ed in his effort to speak. 
Most of the children who stammer are bovs. 

A spreading area of movement may be healthy, as 
the resumption of spontaneity of action .all over the 
body when children are let out to play ; but such 
usually removes, for the time, the j)revious order or 
method of mental action. Laughter is another example 
of a spreading area of motor brain-action ; it is apt to 
remove a line of thought. Could you induce the ex- 




m i 

■;• i 
li ■ ■ i 

pression of joy and laughter in the boy in the first stage 
of anger, — say by imitation of you or of the other chil- 
dren, — much might be done to improve his mental 

I think it must be evident from what has been said, 
that in many instances it is quite possible to observe 
the motor signs expressing mental states, and to deduce 
therefrom the modes of brain-action corresponding to 
such mental attitudes. I have not space to follow out 
this subject here. 

If you succeed by your personal skill in improving 
the expression of the child in his movement and action, 
you have succeeded to some extent, at least, in improv- 
ing his brain, removing its disorderliness, increasing 
thereby mental and moral aptitude. Training, adapted 
to such purpose, differs from many of the modes of 
physical training commonly employed in schools. To 
improve the action of the child's brain by physical 
exercises, he should be trained rather by his sight in 
imitation of the teacher's movements, than by drill 
conducted by the word of command or by music. 
Marching and exercises with dumb-bells, poles, or 
clubs, as well as with the closed fists, are very useful 
means of increasing muscular power and improving 
the chest. To coordinate or regulate the brain by 
physical training, "free exercises" are needed. There 
should be nothing in the hands as they move. 



Points for Observation, indicating Faults in 
Body or Brain-Action, or a Status below the 

In Chapter IV., I referred to the parts of the child 
you should look at, and described what to look for 
among normal signs ; giving a schedule to assist your 
description. While looking at each part and the action 
and movement, faulty signs may be seen ; these should 
be described verbally on that schedule, or they may be 
recorded conveniently on the subjoined form of card. 

In the card, the main classes of defect are printed, viz. : 
A. Development Defects. B. Nerve-signs. C. Nutri- 
tion (defective). D. Dull. 

As points among development defects we have 
(i) Cranium or head, and the sub-classes of type of 
defect of head, (ii) l<:xternal ear. (12) Epicanthis. 
(13) Palate, and its sub-classes of type of defect. 

As points among nerve-signs we have (43) General 
balance; action in the face (44-48); also, movements 
of the eyes ; balance of the head and the hands, etc. 

The more common faults in body or in brain action 
are those briefly indicated on the card with a reference 
H 97 



I i 




number, referring to detailed description of the sign, 
given below. 

The card is intended for use in describing a child 
presenting any bodily or brain faults seen ; it is con- 
venient for reference — the points seen to be faulty 
being indicated quickly by passing the pen through 
the names of the defects present. At the right-hand 
lower corner of the card is a formulated epitome 
ABCD EFG on which the main classes of defect 
present in the child may be recorded by passing the 
pen through the symbols corresponding. 

Description of these faults or defects will now be 
given (p. 99). 

Points for Observation describing Faults or Defect in 
Body or Brain Status. 

The principal signs of defect are here described, with 
remarks as to their significance. The numbers refer to 
the card. 

A. Defects in Development. — The term includes any 
point of defect in the form, proportion, or size of the 
body and its parts, or the absence of any part. 

(a i) Cranium Defective includes any defect in size, 
form, proportion of the head. At seven years the head 
should measure 20 inches in circumference. Of all 
defects in development those of the cranium or head 
appear to be the most important, having the closest 
relation with other kinds of defect. The size and the 
probable volume of the brain is a point of first-class 




School . 

Can/ .Yo. 

St' /v^;c. ^'o. 


.. Sp/./^tf- 



Dkvklopment 1)i;i k( ts 


<). oculi lax 

a 1 











Hand weak 




Hand nervous 




Finder twitches 


Frontal ridge 






' b 11 

ExTKHNAi. Ear 

c 12 





d 18 




1 r.L 













Glasses plus 




Glasses niiiuis 


Otiier types 


Myopia, nn glasses 

p 1!» 

Nasai. Honks 


Cornea disease 

f 20 

(liiow III Smai.i. 


Eye, lost accident 

il -'1 

( )tiii:i! 1)i ts. 


Eye, lost ilisease 







(Jemral balance 



.\( i;ri ION \i. Cmi-DKKx 








I-'rontals overact 




D E F G 





importance, and the size of the head is, in children, a 
fair indication of the size of the brain. 

It also appears that defects in the form of the head 
are often accompanied with weakness or lessened brain- 
power. Defects of the cranium are divided into sub- 

{a 2) Cranium Large. — A head of 22 inches circumfer- 
ence or over is large in a school child ; allowance must 
be made for age. Large heads are sometimes accom- 
panied by the signs of rickets. 

(« 3) Cranium Small. — The point of size of head is 
recorded as apart from the size of the child for its age. 
The volume is estimated in relation to the normal for 
age. This is determined by inspection, by the open 
hand placed upon the head, and by the measuring 
tape. A head with a circumference over 20 inches 
at any school age is not registered as small ; usually the 
small heads are 18 to 19.] inches circumference. Small 
head is noted independent of stature. 

In this group, contrary to the usual rule, the defect is 
more common among girls. If there be no other defect, 
mental faculty may be average, but the child usually 
remains th> and delicate ; such children may, in after 
life u'l ' 1 li . gc'^d work and do it, but are more liable 
than ; : ^ f- to .'xhaustion, headaches, and breakdown of 
the nerv;>syjie;n. At school these children are often 
delicate and irregular in attendance for ailments. 

{a 4) Cranium Bossed. — There may be bosses, pro- 




tubcrances, or outgrowths of bone on the two halves of 
the forehead or elsewhere. These are usually alike on 
the two sides, but not always. These bosses are proba- 
bly largely due to rickets ; were all possible means 
adopted for the prevention of rickets, we should proba- 
bly have fewer children with cranial abnormalities and 
dull brains. 

{a 5 ) Forehead Defective. — The forehead may be nar- 
row, shallow in vertical measurement, or small in all 
dimensions ; it may bulge forward and overhang. All 
defects of the forehead, except " bosses " and " frontal 
ridge " {a 4, a 6) are here included. 

{a 6) Frontal Ridge. — There may be a bony ridge 
projecting vertically under the skin down the middle of 
the forehead. This sign is not very important, unless 
accompanied by a narrow and shallow forehead. 

All these forms of defect of cranium are much more 
common among boys than girls, except the small head, 
which occurs mostly among girls in towns. Other less 
frequent types of defect of cranium are omitted as being 
of only medical importance. 

(^11) External Ear may be defective in its parts, size, 
and form. The ear may be outstanding and large, 
with great convexity behind, and the pleat of the ear 
(antehelix) may be absent as well as the whole or part 
of the curled rim of the ear ; the skin over the ear may 
be coarse, red, and liable to chilblains in the winter. 
The ears may not be both alike ; the lobe of the ear 



may be adherent to the face in place of drooping. 
Such defects have no necessary connection with dull 
hearing. Defective ears are much more frequently 
seen in boys than in girls. 

{c 12) Eyelids with Epicanthis. — The epicanthis is 
a fold of skin continuous with the lower fold of the 
upper eyelid (not a fold of mucous membrane) placed 
across the inner angle of the opening of the eyelids ; 
it may be asymmetrical. 

(^13) Defective Condition of Palate. — Defect of the 
palate, though less frequent than that of the cranium, 
stands next to it, as being of the greatest importance. 

The principal defects of palate are in its propor- 
tions as seen in the horizontal or vertical plane. 
Without being otherwise altered the palate may be 
contracted laterally or narrow. The V-shaped palate 
is pointed more or less sharply at its anterior ex- 
tremity, the lines of the upper jaw being nearly 
straight, meeting anteriorly at an acute angle. The 
high-arched or vaulted palate deviates from the normal 
in the vertical plane. 

{d 14) Palate Narrow. — Without being otherwise 
altered, the palate may be contracted laterally in the 
space between the teeth. 

{d 15) V-shaped Palate. — Pointed more or less 
sharply at its anterior extremity, the lines of the 
upper jaw being nearly straight lines, meeting at 
their extremities at an acute angle. 



{d 16) Palate Arched or Vaulted, thus deviating from 
the normal in the vertical plane with a high roof. 

{d 17) Palate Cleft. — A deformity which may affect 
the hard and the soft palate. 

{e 19) Nasal Bones wide, sunken, or indented. The 
bony bridge of the nose may be thus ill-shapen and 
depressed. It must be remembered that in the in- 
fant the bony part of the nose projects but little and 
does not grow out prominently, till three or four years 
old. When the deformity exists, it may be accom- 
panied by obstruction in the throat or nose, and deaf- 

(2) Growth Small. — Children short and small in 
build for their age or dwarfed. The stature of the 
child should be observed as apart from the size of 
the head : the head may be small, and the child tall, 
or vice versa. See Table II. as to normal height. 

The relations of this condition appear to indicate 
that small grown children are at a disadvantage. 
Many of the children with small heads are small in 
growth also, but the number of children with small 
heads is much larger than the number with small 
growth. This is an example where normal propor- 
tion in the body is not to the child's advantage ; the 
small child is probably better fitted for after life, 
when his head is full sized. 

Some of these small grown children are badly grown 
as the result of rickets. 




(21) Other Development Defects includes points not 
printed on the card ; the more important of them arc 
described below. 

(26) Face Small. — The face as a whole may be 
small, including the upper and lower jaws, and that 
independent of the size of the upper part of the 
head, which contains the brain. 

(27) Features Coarse, Heavy, Flat. — The features may 
be large and ill-proportioned. The separate features 
may not be individually malformed, but dispropor- 
tionate one to another or to the size of the face : 
thus the nose may be small ; the face large, round, 
flat, the features rising from the plane of the face ; 
the lips may be thick and protuberant. 

(28) Forehead Hairy. — The forehead may be covered 
with fine downy hair ; the hairy scalp may join the 
outer extremities of the eyebrows. 

(30) Hands Blue and Cold. — This may be seen in 
some children, even in the summer ; it is commonly 
associated with defectiveness. 

(34) Mouth Small. — The mouth as seen when at 
rest, may be too small ; this is sometimes accompanied 
by obstruction of nose or throat with deafness. 

(39) Eye Openings Defective in size or form. The 
eyelids may be small, as well as the openings between 
them, both in their vertical and transverse measure- 
ments. In some cases the opening is not symmetri- 
cal, being wider on the inner than on its outer half. 



ly be 


: the 

The transverse axis may slope outwards and up- 
wards, or outwards and downwards, instead of being 

B. Abnormal Nerve-signs as seen in balance and 
action in face, eye-movements, jiosturcs of the head 
and hands, and in rcsjionse, etc. 

(43) General Balance Irregular. — Not erect and 
straight, but slouching and listless. The shoulders 
not held at equal height, back bent or twisted over 
to one side, the feet not each planted similarly on the 
floor. When the hands are held out, they may be 
at a different level ; more often the left is held lower 
than the right, and the left hand more nearly ap- 
proaches the weak posture. 

The balance of the body is thus not equal on the 
two sides. 

(44) Expression of Face Defective. — Want of change- 
fulness, vacancy, fixed expressicm. 

We may describe the visible muscular action seen 
in a face, and still there may be an expression in it 
which entirely baffles descri})tion. Further, a face 
may be balanced or moved abnormally by the action 
of certain muscles, and yet it may carry upon it a 
good expression. We may describe action in the 
frontal muscles, the corrugators, the orbicularis oculi 
etc., and, over and above this, we have the general 
expression of the face superadded. Certain terms 
are useful in describing expression ; there may be a 


nil: sruDV ok ciiii.drkn 




fixed expression, want of variation, i.r. one fixed uni- 
form action or bahnuc of muscular tone ; or we may 
liave to use more general terms such as "defective," 
"bad." There may l)e no e;:pression, /.<•. none other than 
that indicated by form or modelling of the features. 

(45) Frontal Muscles over-acting. — There is a i)air 
of muscles in the forehend, j)laced vertically under the 
skin and attached at the eyebrows ; by their action 
they raise the eyebrows, and produce horizontal creases 
in the forehead, which may be shallow or deep, mak- 
ing transverse puckers; in o'her cases the action is 
fine, producing minute creases, and what may be called 
a dull forehead. If this frequently occurs, it is a bad 
sign in children and is most common in those of un- 
occupied mind and untrained mental action. 

This muscular over-action does not necessarily erase 
expression. Such over-action may be seen in children 
from earliest infancy upwards ; the condition may be 
temporary, and, having lasted a sufficient number of 
years to produce permanent creases in the forehead, 
it may pass away. These muscles are often more quiet 
when the child is at work or being talked to, than when 
let out to play ; the mental attitude, termed quiet atten- 
tion, is that under which the frontal area is the most 

This sign is far more frequent in boys than in girls. 

(46) Corrugation. — Knitting the eyebrows ; drawing 
the eyebrows together. There is a pair of muscles 

I'OINTS lOK (•' 


ill the forehead, phiceil horizontally between the eye- 
brows which draws them toj;ether, thus producing 
vertical creases which may be deej) 01 shallow, pro- 
ducin<;' vertical piickerin[;s on the forehead above the 
nose, or only a tine wrinkling;" ot the skin, which 
contributes to a dull ai)iK'arance oi the forehead. 
C'orru{j;ation (knitting eyebrows) may coexist with over- 
action of the frontal muscles (frowning), i)roducin^" 

a i)uzz 


expression, or, if deep, a *' sco 



as HI 


This si^n seems more cloiely associated than any 
other sinirle si<!n with some forms of mentid stress, 

md may be seen 

in c 


ren suffering' from the effects 


f frit^ht, illusions, etc. ; it may form parts of a fixed 
immobile expression. 

This sign is more common in boys than girls. 
(47) Orbicularis Oculi relaxed. — Fulness under the 
eyes. There is a thin muscle (the orbicularis oculi) which 
encircles the eyelids, and being attached to the skin gives 
tone to the lower lid, so that its convexity is seen. In 
a strong and well-toned face the lower lid appears clean- 
cut and well moulded, the rotundity of the eyeball and 
convexity of the lower lid are shown in sharp defini- 
tion of outline, due to good tone in this muscle ; in 
smiling and laughter this muscle causes puckering of 
the lower lid. When this muscle is relaxed and tone- 
less, the skin of the under lid bulges forward and is 
baggy, causing fulness under the eyes. This condition 





is removed temporarily on making the child smile or 
laugh. The fulness under the eyes is indicative of 
fatigue, exhaustion, or low brain power in children : 
it frequently accompanies recurring headaches. 

(48) Eye-movements Defective. — When an object is 
moved at a distance two feet in front of the face, the 

eyes should move in 
following it. In some 
children the head al- 
ways turns towards 
the object while the 
eyes are kept still in 
their orbits. In other 
cases fixation of the 
eyes is biid, or there 
are restless uncon- 
trolled movements of 
the eyes. 

Movements of the 
eyes not controlled 
as to their number 
and direction by ob- 
vious circumstances, 
must be looked upon 
as signs of nervousness. Irregular movements of the 
eyes are common in children, and are very indicative 
of the brain condition : they may be looked upon as 
analogous to spontaneous twitchings of the fingers. 

Fig. 14. — CoMPi.KTK Paralysis oi the 
kiiiiir SiDK OFTHL Face. — The mus- 
cles of the face act only on the left side. 
In the forehead the frontal muscles pro- 
duce horizontal furrows; the muscles 
about the mouth draw tlie left anqle up- 
wards ; t!ie eyelids are more widely sep- 
arated on the right side. 







In these wandering, irregular movements of the eyes 
we find an illustration of a common law that exces- 
sive movement is often an indication of weakness not 
of strength : the same thing is seen in the twitching 
movements of nervous 

(49) Head-balance. — 
The head should be 
held erect; it may be 
inclined to one side or 
drooped forward. Ir- 
regular balance of the 
head is more common 
in girls than in boys. 

(50) Hand-balance 
Weak. — In this type of 
balance the hand when 
held out is slightly 
drooped or flexed at the 
wrist, the palm slightly 
contracted or arched 
laterally, and the fin- 
gers moderately flexed. 

The type may be varied : with less degrees of weak- 
ness the hand is as in the normal with the thumb 
drooped only ; in exhaustion or great feebleness the 
palm is more contracted or adducted, and the degree 
of flexion is greater. 

Fig. 15. — Fauai.vsis ok Side of 
Fack from Bkain DISEAS^:. — The 
face is not symmetrical, and the mus- 
cles on the right side about the mouth 
act weakly. 'I'lie line from the nose to 
the mouth on tliis side is almost lost : 
this is well seen on comparing the tsvo 
sides. Muscular action in the upi)er 
and middle parts of the face is unequal 
on each side. 



1^ i 

A bad type is seen when children holding out their 
hands droop both thumbs and bring them together in 
the median plane. 

(51) Hand-balance Nervous. — In this postun he 
wrist is slightly drooped or flexed, the palm of the 

hand slightly contracted 
laterally, the thumb ex- 
tended backwards, and 
the fingers at the knuc- 
kles are bent backwards 
(see Fig. 6). 

The various elements 
in this posture may vary 
in degree ; the most es- 
sential element appears 
to be the extension back- 
wards of the fingers at 
the knuckle joint, and 
this may affect the vari- 
ous fingers differently. 

It is common with chil- 
dren with slight chorea, 
those the subjects of 
night-terrors and tooth-grinding, also accompanying 
recurrent headaches. It has been represented by 
artists in antique bronzes and drawings on vases, as 
well as in modern works, especially in female figures. 

(52) Finger Twitches. — When the hands are held 

Fig. 16. — Paralysis oi' Left Side 
OP" Face from Brain Disease.— 
Similar differences are seen about 
the mouth. The eyelids are a little 
wider open on the left side. 



out for inspection, there may be twitching movements 
in the fingers. These may be up and down (flexion 

Fig. 17. — Feeble Hand. 

and extension) or lateral; the latter are produced by 
the small muscles placed in the hand which pull the 
fingers sideways. 

(53) Lordosis. —When the hands are held forward, 
an alteration in the balance of the spine may appear, 
with an arching forward in the lower part of the 
back, while the upper part of the spine between the 
shoulders is thrown back. This arching forward of 
the lumbar spine is due to weakness of action among 
the .spinal mu.scles. When a child holds out his hands, 
the centre of gravity of the body is moved forward ; in 
a strong child this is not followed by marked change 
of posture in the spine, but in a weak child lordosis 
may follow often with temporary lateral curvature and 
unequal balance of the shoulders while the head and 
neck are thrown back. 



(54) Other Abnormal Nerve-signs include signs not 
printed on the card as being less frequent in occurrence 
than those given earlier, but not of less importance. 

(55) Deaf. — Children deaf or partially so. For tests 
of hearing see Chapter II. 

(56) Grinning or Over-smiling. — In the lower part 
of the face you may see grinning or over-smiHng about 

the angles of the mouth, 
temporarily widening the 
opening ; the lines on the 
face may be slight or deep. 
Over-smiling or grinning 
is usually symmetrical, but 
may be unequal on the two 
sides of the face. 

With low-class brain-con- 
ditions it is sometimes seen 
as almost the only facial 
movement occurring upon 
any stimulus as a uniform 
movement, almost as fre- 
quent as over-action of the 
frontal muscles. 
If habitual, grinning and in particular the finer forms 
of over-smiling, often leave permanent naso-labial 
creases marked upon the skin, these may remain after 
the habit has been lost. If the skin be thin, a dupli- 
cate or triplicate naso-labial crease may be formed: 

Fig. 18. — Imbecile. — Head well 
shapcn and of hur size ; he often 
smiled, thus moving parts around 
the eyes and mouth. 



this is more common in neurotic than in imbecile 

(58) Over-mobile. — Constant spontaneous movements. 
Among children in the infant school and in some over 
seven years of age, spontaneous movement is the nor- 
mal and a natural sign of healthy brain-activity ; it is 
most common in the eyes 
and the fingers. See spon- 
taneous movements in in- 
fants, Chapter III. When 
spontaneous movements 
cannot be controlled, even 
temporarily, but are in- 
creased (extra-movements) 
when the child is spoken 
to, the condition passes on 
to that of chorea, which 
is more common in girls 

than boys. See chorea, Fig. 19. — Imhkcm.e. -The same case 
XTTT quiescent; face wrnting expression. 

Chapter XII. 

(59) Response in Action Defective. — Dealing with 
groups of children by a uniform method of examina- 
tion as described, it becomes easy to note the response 
to the word of command as .':;een in the action fol- 
lowing. Response in action may be accurate or uncer- 
tain, there may be delay between hearing the com- 
mand and the response ; some children look at the 
others before responding in their movements ; they 



S3em more easily controlled through the eye than 
the ear. 

The response should be quick and accurate ; the 
standard to be expected is soon learnt by a little experi- 
ence. The action may b ng continued, the hands of 
the child being held out long after the others have 
dropped them. There may be want of impressionabil- 
ity to the stimulus of the command, which may have to 
be repeated before the act ^n to'iows; response in imi- 
tation by sight may be, and Jmu i.;, much better than 
that following the woiu of 'jTmnand '^-^ere are some 
children in whom the sound of a con.t.,ai 1 may be fol- 
lowed by a number of irregular movements, whereas an 
indication through the eye, by a gesture of command 
on the part of the inspector, is quickly followed by 
accurate and good response. 

(60) Speech Defective. — Defective conditions of pal- 
ate are consistent with good speech ; an impediment is 
not usually the mechanical effect of the form of palate. 
It does, however, often happen that with defect of 
speech we find an arched or a narrow palate with co- 
existent brain-feebleness. 

Utterance may be thick and indistinct owing to con- 
ditions of the throat and nose : observe if the child be 
a mouth-breather, usually keeping the lips parted for 
breathing and unable to keep them closed with comfort. 
These mouth-breathing children with thick speech 
often have large tonsils and conditions of the throat 

:«i. '^aa« 



leading to deafness, which require medical treatment. 
The speech of children is very important ; it may be 
almost absent, or accompanied by stammering or im- 
pediment. On putting a question it may be long 
before the reply comes, the question may be repeated 
without further reply ; speaking to the child may be 
followed by a large number of irregular movements and 
asymmetrical postures, — awkward action, — but not by 
a verbal reply. 

The voice may vary greatly in tone, falling to an 
almost inaudible whisper, in place of being well sus- 
tained ; or too monotonous as a result of want of train- 
ing, while the words are badly spaced as he speaks. 

Speech is ihe most important mode of mental expres- 
sion ; it is a faculty that needs cultivation in all chil- 
dren. Indistinctness of speech is very common, and 
defects of speech are frequently met with, both in chil- 
dren generally healthy and well made, and in others of 
defective constitution. 

Stammering is a defect in articulating certain sounds, 
and is due to a defect in the nerve-system, often associ- 
ated with other faulty conditions of brain ; it is much 
more commonly met with in boys than girls, and to 
some extent may be acquired through imitation among 
children, predisposed by their inheritance. Stammer- 
ing presents visible muscular spasm in the face and 
other parts, usually commencing and spreading in a 
uniform order in the same boy, but varying in different 




cases. The attack consists, essentially, in a temporary 
spasm or rigidity of certain muscles which prevents 
them from being properly controlled by the brain. 
When the boy stammers on commencing to speak, he 
almost immediately stops on uttering certain sounds, 
because the muscles used in articulation become rigid ; 
the range of the spasm and the groups of muscles 
affected may vary in different cases. In the attack the 
mouth may quiver, often more on one side ; the jaw is 
then depressed, and as the mouth is opened, the tongue 
may be seen in tremor with the tip near the front 
teeth, while the trembling of the tongue-muscles may 
be felt by the finger placed under the chin. Other 
muscles in the face may be affected : the eyebrows 
are often knit (corrugation), and an expression of dis- 
tress may be seen. These recurrent spasms in the 
face may leave lines in the skin, marking the boy as 
a stammerer. 

The attempt to remove stammering by training must 
be long and patiently continued ; the employment of 
general physical exercises quietly conducted, and train- 
ing in full breathing may be useful. Every prolonged 
attack of stammering tends to its recurrence. A most 
important point is to lessen the duration and severity 
of each attack, and to arrest the spasm, when it com- 
mences ; that is to say, let the boy stop speaking at the 
moment, and try again presently. The teacher should 
then learn to observe the usual sign of commencing 



spasm and stop speaking at once. These children 
may sing without diflficulty. 

Case 15. A boy who stammers : muscular spasm 
commences in the forehead. 

A school-boy eleven years of age was brought to 
me, because he had been liable to stammer for the 
last four years, this trouble having been increased the 
last three weeks, coincident with disturbed digestion. 
On asking him a simple question he stammered in his 
reply. Looking at his face, the following conditions 
were seen. When about to stammer, the muscles in 
the forehead produced both horizontal and vertical 
furrows ; in the lower part of the face the mouth was 
widened on either side, together with elevation of the 
upper lip opposite the canine tooth ; this was more 
marked on the right than the left side. 

Case 16. Stammerer ; muscular spasm commences 
about the mouth, an intelligent boy — rickets. 

A boy twelve years of age, intelligent, but stammers 
badly. This does not interfere with singing, and he 
has joined a choir. He is tall, rather thin, weight 5J 
stones {TJ lbs.). The head and chest show signs of 
rickets in infancy, probably resulting from the fact that 
he was fed on biscuits as a baby. His general bal- 
ance of body is faulty, and his hands are not held out 
straight ; physical training may improve his action. 

On beginning to speak, spasm in the face commences 
at the right angle of the mouth, and saliva dribbles 



from it; the spasm then spreads and the forehead 
becomes puckered; the mouth opens and the tongue 
is seen quivering against the teeth, while his colour 
heightens during the attack. He was placed at a small 
school near the sea and improved in health with some 
improvement of speech. 




Examination of Mental Abimty and the Faults 
that may be observed 

When examining a child's mental ability in school, 
you will naturally speak to him and let him talk to 
you as well as read and write, if he is old enough. 

The proper use of speech is a most important in- 
dication of the mental processes; but we shall see 
that other tests not involving speech, reading or the 
use of figures, are also of great interest. 

Let the child stand, and holding his book in a 
good light read a passage to you. Notice how the 
book is held and whether it is kept i8 inches or so 
from his face : if he shows difficulty or is timid, it 
may be well that you should read the passage to 
him first or read it with him ; or better take a pas- 
sage you know, and recite it, watching his face and 
his eyes. 

Talk to the child and let him talk to you of his 
home, his amusements, games, pet animals, pocket- 
money, and the stories he reads ; you can observe 
the while the child's expression and speech, his con- 
trol by hearing and accuracy in seeing. In his talk 


■I })■ 



you may notice how far he can express himself in 
words and speak connectedly : in his answers to 
questions you observe whether his processes of think- 
ing are orderly and natural. A young child tends 
to repetition of the words of the question, espe- 
cially if he sees the face of the speaker ; this is by 
no means a point of defect at an early age, and 
proves that the child heard the question ; but in 
some children, old enough to do better, the question 
is simply repeated or imitated without any attempt 
at reply. Repetition of the question shows imitation 
and delayed mental action in place of a prompt 
mental process ; if the sub.sequent answer is correct, 
the delay does not very much matter, but sometimes 
the delay is so long, that the impress of the ques- 
tion (auditory) on the brain fades and no true think- 
ing results. If this delay in response is accompanied 
by extra-movements and fidgetiness, a mental fault 
(probably mental confusion) is indicated. 

The child's vocabulary may be very limited, com- 
paratively few words having been acquired, — per- 
haps 200 ; this is sometimes owing to the child hav- 
ing been allowed to point to things wanted instead 
of asking for them, just as he may grow up lazy 
and backward by having all his wants anticipated 
for him by others. To increase the number of 
words habitually used and available for language, 
correctly employed, is an important part of mental 



training and improves brain-power and the capacity 
for thinking : perhaps voealiulary is best extended by 
t-^''ing to and with the child -- we must not wait for 
1...11 to get his words from books. Speech and artic- 
ulation need training in all children ; speech may be 
too monotonous, not modulated in tone and indistinct; 
the spacing of words in speaking and reading may 
be badly arranged. Good sj^eaking is very indicative 
of good mental aptitude well trained ; to impart good 
faculty in speech gives an important form of mental 

\ talk with the child may be planned to show 
) 7 mental characteristics. Social and moral sense 
should be looked for in the child, and knowledge 
how to act correctly in social life, as well as how 
to avail himself of common social methods under 
varying circumstances. Can the child write a letter.'' 
Ask him what he must get before he can write the 
letter, how he buys the stamps, how the letter gets 
to the person to whom it is addressed ; ask him how 
he would get there himself and what money would 
be wanted. The child's ideas as to how he would 
protect himself from danger, how he would try to 
help another child, and what he would do with h 
dog, may show much. 

Memory may be tested by asking the home ad- 
dress, the day of the week and the month, and past 
common events probably within the child's experience 




— ask him where he puts his books and keeps other 
things, when done with, and how he finds them 
again, whether he looks for them or asks some one 
else to do so. The child that uses his eyes badly 
is apt to have a bad memory : this form of mental 
association of ideas (brain-centres in co-action) that 
gives memory is largely produced by accurate seeing 
(impress of brain through the eye). 

Test the pupil in his knowledge of the use of 
numbers and in arithmetic, both on paper and by 
simple calculations worked in his head. Is he more 
'^curate when he looks at figures on the slate and 
tises his eyes or when he does mental arithmetic 
without the help of his eyes .-* again in the latter at- 
tempt does he count on his fingers.^ Some children 
of low mental ability have a great faculty for re- 
membering figures, and sometimes in making certain 

Some power of reasoning may be tested by de- 
scribing common objects, pointing out in what par- 
ticulars they can be compared. Show a pin and a 
pencil. Are they alike .-* If the pupil tells you that 
the pin is small and the pencil larger, and that each 
is much longer than it is wide, that indicates a 
mental comparison and a judgment. 

Imitation is faculty involving brain-action which is 
principally effected through sight : the objects imitated 
by the child in school are the teacher's actions, expres- 




y de- 

md a 

li that 

:es a 

:h is 

sions, gestures, movements, and those of the other 
pupils. Test the child's brain-power in imitation of 
your action. Let the child stand and look at you, tell- 
ing him to do as you do. When you hold out your 
right hand, the child holds out his left, which is oppo- 
site to your right; the side of movement is thus reversed 
throughout the exercise, unless he has otherwise been 
trained; this is the instinctive mode of response. Make 
your movements with care and accuracy, noting what 
you do ; see that the child looks at your hand, not at 
your face or eyes, and observe if his movements in imita- 
tion are exactly the same as yours, in the parts he 
moves, in the time and quickness of movement, and in 
the degree or quantity of movement. 

Let me suggest a few finger exercises for your use 
in thus testing the children, and for convenience I will 
name the fingers thus : A, the thumb ; B, the index 
finger ; C, the middle finger ; D, the ring finger ; 
E, the little finger. 

Make the following order of movements slowly and 
separately one after the other : 

A, bend thumb ; A and B ; A, B, and C ; B, C, D, E ; 
E only. 

B, index finger, moved from side to side without 
bending it up or down. 

C, middle finger moved in the same manner. 

Thus vary your movements while the pupil follows 
you, as a well-trained child will do. In this and in many 




other ways you may test with accuracy the power of 
imitation and control of movements by sight of your 

After talking to the child and observing his move- 
ments in imitation, you will probably find, as is usually 
the case, some analogy between the two modes of brain- 
action, movement and thinking. The child who is slow 
in all his actions and in speech is apt to be slow in his 
mental processes. He may be slow in movement, 
holding out his hands long after the command, while he 
looks to see what others do before he does the same, 
and will keep his hands out after the others have 
dropped theirs : class-practice is useful to quicken such 
children. He also takes a long time to make a simple 
calculation in his head or to work with figures on paper; 
he is slow in thinking out the answer to a simple ques- 
tion and in expressing in words what he really knows, 
the words do not form quickly in his brain, as in other 
children ; at the same time a brightening expression in 
the face may suggest that a mental process is going on 
there : though long in answering he may at length do 
so correctly. 

A child's mental process may be too slow and limited, 
though fairly accurate. The interval between speak- 
ing to him and the reply may be too long. Then try 
not only to quicken his mental processes, but also to 
quicken the interaction of the eye, the ear, and the 
hand, as by games, and especially competitive games 




with a ball where the action must be quick or failure 

A child may not be really slow in the processes of 
thinking, but an impression having been made on the 
brain, its expression in action or in words may occur at 
a later time. The child may see or hear something and 
act upon it or talk about it another time ; there may be 
delayed expression of a mental impression. 

Case 17. A child, four years old, looked quietly at his 
nT^ther putting a letter into a pillar-box ; she could not 
at the time see the impression made upon the child's 
brain, but thought some impression had been produced, 
because his head and eyes turned towards the pillar- 
box: she knew next day that an impression had been 
received, when the child seeing a letter on the table 
took it and posted it behind the door — an action he 
had not been known to do previously. 

In older children expression of thought may be long 
delayed ; the pupil begins to answer some former ques- 
tion, as to which some half-unconscious mental process 
has been going on. A question may be asked in class 
and not answered ; later on some reply to that question 
is given unconsciously, when another question is put. 
" How does a plant get the water for its leaves .'' " No 
answer. "What is the shape of this leaf .'^ " Ans. 
" Oval, with a midrib, and the water comes to the pulp 
of the leaf along that, and the root draws the water 
from the ground." The pupil knew about it all the 



I .■« 


time ; the association of ideas suL(^ested by the second 
question completed the correct processes of thinking. 

The term Introspection is used to imply the habit in 
a child of thinking about his own thoughts — his own 
thoughts being the subject of his contemplation, rather 
than the thoughts imj)lanted at school, or his games and 
the common objects of interest to children. Such chil- 
dren will ask you how a stone was made, or put to you 
a problem of ethics, which may puzzle you, and is a 
useless point for the child to think about. This habit 
in a child is, sometimes, very exhausting to the brain- 
power, particularly when practised in a half-dormant 
state. Serious thinking about the mental state, good- 
ness and what ought to be, should, I think, be undertaken 
only when the mental faculties are at their brightest 
and under the guidance of a trained mind, so that, under 
friendly advice, some immediate good action may follow. 
Introspection is found as a habit among children of the 
nervous class, and is largely due to want of proper 
guidance and mental control. If it recurs often, it may 
be well to give the child some concrete thought which 
he may be taught to recall, when his thoughts thus 
wander, as often they do on trying to fall asleep. Let 
him call up in imagination some pleasant landscape 
scene, a game, or the sight of his mother, or other 
subject not bad to dream on. Muscular activity during 
the day and a school-life among other children may 
remove such habits of thinking, and useless waste of 






strength. This spontaneous thinking in a child, not 
in accordance with his environment, seems to me 
to be very analogous to the spontaneous movements 
of infancy ; it effects nothing, but is a sign of 
mental action, which needs to be coordinated and 

Children of the kind here referred to are sometimes 
said to be precocious and clever ; I suspect that these 
self-contained thoughts do not do much good. 

Mental ability in knowledge, calculation, memory, 
and in reasoning power may be tested by questions 
asked of the pupil ; failure to pass such tests may show 
ignorance or the absence of previous training, or it may 
be want of mental faculty. Again, mental tests by 
question and answer are not well adapted to prove 
mental ability or its ab.sence in very young children. 
We then have to look for other points by which to 
estimate brain-power for mental processes, especially 
applicable to children dull or backward, and neglected, 
cr difficult in receiving instruction. 

In testing the brain-faculty we need not rely solely 
on questions and answers, whether oral or written. A 
child, untrained in school work, may appreciate number, 
weight, size, colour, form, though he has not the ready 
use of words for describing what he understands : we 
may find that he has brain-faculty in imitation, in power 
of exercising choice, making comparison and in judg- 



Let the child count some money as it lies on the table, 
first as to the number of pieces, then sort the coins as 
to their metal, and as to value ; he may show mental 
capacity in the process. To be more accurate in such 
examination, let the pupil count the coins with his own 
hands, one by one, on to the pile, i.e. count his hand- 
movements ; let him count them again, as you place 
them one by one in a pile, i.e. count your hand-move- 
ments by moving his eyes. Again let him count the 
coins as they lie on the table, without touching them, by 
his eye-movements alone. Note by which method he 
proceeds best. Can he name or distinguish coins 
without seeing them when placed in his open hands, 
on the palm or on his fingers ; feeling their weight 
and comparing them (muscular sense), or must he 
close his fingers on them and appreciate them by 
his finger-movements (sense of movements of small 
parts) .** 

Test his knowledge of various weights ; use ^, |, 
I oz. weights. It is convenient to use iron weights 
where the size is proportional to the weight, and also 
pill-boxes all of the same size and appearance, the 
weights being made up by plaster inside. Let the 
child weigh each in his hands, with the fingers open, 
and again closing his fingers over the object and feel- 
ing its size ; he may thus form a judgment and com- 
parison of weight. He may not only form a judgment 
as to the proportion of weights, but also name a single 





weight given to him : this is an act of memory and 
proper use of names. 

You may also test the sense of temperature by warm- 
ing a coin in hot water and see if he appreciates its 

Case 18. A dumb boy acquired experience and rea- 
soning as to temperature. 

I detected acquired experience and some reasoning 
power in a small boy almost without speech thus : I 
touched his hand with a piece of metal, and he looked 
at me, then letting him see me heat the metal in some 
steaming hot water, he very properly declined to let me 
touch him again with that piece of metal ; but he took 
a ball from me readily and played with it. This boy 
was capable of gaining experience and acting on it in 

Case 19. A very dull boy, short-sighted, and deaf, 
can compare weights. 

A boy, eight years of age, has always been delicate 
and backward ; he attends a Kindergarten and has 
begun reading words of two or three letters, paper- 
folding, colouring ; he knows copper coins from one 
another and is fond of singing. He is timid, but 
social and not troublesome. His sj^eech is thick and 
nasal so as to be hardly intelligible, but he tries to 
speak; the mouth is small, while the lips are thick 
and never quite closed. He is small and short for his 
age; weight 3 st. 4 lb. (46 lb.); height 3 ft. 8 in. His 




111 5' 



head is small, only 18J inches circumference, and the 
palate is narrow. Facial expression is wanting, with 
fulness under his eyes and horizontal frowning ; the 
hands balance in the " nervous posture " ; he can put 
pins in a cushion one by one, but is slow and clumsy. 
Looking at my watch, he places his face horizontal, 
holding the watch six inches from his eyes. The boy 
is small-brained, delicate, short-sighted, and has obstruc- 
tion in his throat interfering with breathing and hear- 
ing. He has faculty in judgment, for he compared 
weights accurately ; and told me himself that the iron 
weight was cold. 

As a further test of accuracy in movement let the 
child try to touch his nose with his eyes shut, then 
other parts of his face, eye, and ear, as you name them ; 
again with his left hand held out and the fingers spread, 
let him shut his eyes and with the index finger of his 
right hand touch the fingers on his left hand, one 
after another, naming them if he can. 

Accuracy in telling the time by a clock or by your 
watch is a useful test ; you may detect short sight in 
the child, who can see the clock at two feet, but can- 
not read the watch at ten inches. 

In examining any child, his handwriting is worth 
preserving ; let him write his name and address with 
the date. 

Teachers who deal with mental state mainly, gener- 
ally know more of the mental than of the physical and 







general brain-state of their pui)ils ; in school inspection 
we find it more easy to detect physical and j^eneral 
brain-states. A child may have grave mental defects 
and may yet present no obvious defects that the eye 
of the observer can detect. Questioning and some- 
what prolonged examination is needed to detect mental 
defects, when no obvious signs are observable. The 
physical observer may be sure of the signs he observes, 
but to see no defects does not prove that the child is 

Looking back at the mental examination of the pupil, 
let us see what principles are involved in the tests 
applied. This we may do by tracing motor action, 
point by point, corresponding to the expression of 
mental acts or status, and infer the kind of brain- 
action that takes place corresponding to each. Thus : 
The child is inaccurate in reading and slips a line, as 
he fails to carry his eye correctly from the end of one 
line to the beginning of the next ; this may be due to 
untrained eye-movements, not to mental dulness ; for 
this reason eye-drill for five minutes preceding a les- 
son in reading is advisable. 

The child repeats the question asked : that is an act 
of imitation through the ear ; try if he has good faculty 
in imitation of your movements through his eyes, which 
may afford a useful mode of training. 

Translation of mental states from teacher to pupil, is 
largely effected by imitation of the visible expression 

















seen in the teacher l)y the pupil. The appearance of 
strength, fatigue, or quiet mental attention in the teacher 
is imitated by the children, thus placing their brains in 
a similar attitude. Truly, the study of physiology does 
not lessen our moral responsibilities. 

There is one item in imitation I wish to draw atten- 
tion to. After telling the child to do as you do, raise 
your right hand : probably the child will raise his left, 
which is opposite to your right, in place of doing as 
you do; I believe such mode of copying should be 
checked in older children as being inaccurate. The 
principle of imitation extends to the smallest details ; 
in teaching speech the pupil should look fixedly at the 
movements of the teacher's mouth, and imitate them as 
well as the sounds produced. To bring about such 
accurate imitation it is necessary to cultivate in the 
child the habit of fixing the eyes on the object he is 
told to look at. 

Defect of memory in common matters, such as where 
to find books and things, very commonly depends not 
upon a brain-fault or defect so much, as not turning 
the eyes to look at the object, when putting it away. 
Losing things, especially dropping them unconsciously, 
is common in children with much spontaneous finger- 
movement ; if the fingers open, the object falls ; it is 
not seen and is forgotten. 

Memory, whether as to where an object was last 
placed or as to past events, or memory of a lesson 



< ! ' 




learnt, depends upon two conditions in the brain : ( i ) a 
sufficiently deep impression at the time the object or 
the lesson page were seen, and (2) the re-activity of the 
brain-centres. Defective action in the more purely 
mental processes may depend upon not looking well 
at the lesson to be learnt ; trying to repeat it after 
once reading, instead of reading it two or three times : 
it is well to tell each child, how many times to 
read the passage rather than simply to tell him to 
learn it. 

It will be interesting to trace the physiological prin- 
ciples involved in some of the tests of mental ability, 
that have already been suggested and illustrated. 

Among other principles involved are : — 

Spontaneity of action. 

Control of action through eye. 

Control of action through ear. 

Action coordinated by present impressions. 

Action coordinated by past impressions in past — 
results of training. 

Repetitive uniform action in movement, and in ex- 
pression of thoughts. 

A spreading area of action — more objects of thought 

Diminishing area of action — some objects of thought 
dropping out of memory as the examination proceeds. 

Loss of coordinated action — as your examination 
proceeds — Fatigue. 





Association of pre-arranged acts — in movement and 
j;ames or combined in expressing thoughts — Thinking, 

Good or indifferent mental action in such points may 
be found ; and corresponding to each may be seen simi- 
lar good or indifferent motor action, as explained in 
speaking of the nerve-signs of brain-action. 

These points are briefly given as a means of possibly 
starting on a well-arranged plan of training the indi- 
vidual child. It will also be found that, if the kind of 
motor action seen in the child does correspond with 
what you find on mental examination, you are enabled 
to form a judgment much more rapidly ; agreement of 
r^isults of the two methods of examination forms a basis 
for a well-grounded opinion. 

It may be convenient to tabulate methods of mental 
examination in school, indicating the principles involved. 

The pupil reads aloud. He is impressed through his 
eyes and by the sound of his own voice. Testing his 
accuracy of sight impression ; he may correct his mis- 
takes as he hears his own words. 

The pupil reads to himself quietly. He is impressed 
through his eyes only. Testing accuracy in movements 
of his eye"^ and impressions received by sight. 

The teacher reads to the pupil. His impression is 
received by sound and by sight of expression in the 
teacher whom he tends subsequently to copy, as in lip 
reading. Testing imitative faculty of expression. 





The pupil recites from memory. Rctcntivcness. 
Testing memory follo\vin<; impressions tiirough eyes 
and ears, and the faculty of expression in ^aod speech. 
Recitation may be better if lie has seen and heard 
teacher readin*;. 

The pupil talks of the passage read. Your leading 
questions draw out the expression of the pupil's 
thoughts. Testing the mental imj)ression he received 
through his senses, and his faculty in connecting 
thoughts and expressing them in words and gesture. 

Class recitation of the passage read. Produces on each 
pupil a rapid impression of the environment. Testing 
capability for class teaching without excitement and 
mental confusion. 

Repeated recitation of passage pupil knows best. If 
improved at second trial, he shows power of adhesion 
of ideas and memory. 

Answers to general questions on the passage. Testing 
trained habits in thinking and expression. 

Your mental examination thus conducted will bring 
under observation children in whom what you see and 
. corresponds with their mental status, and may 
cate what to do for them. Repeating the question 
ib pure imitation by sound : try and use this imitative 
faculty. Mental confusion is often accompanied by 
extra-mov( nents and a spreading area in visible action : 
try and p h'ce well-regulated movements in physical 
exercise Forgetfulness and bad memory may result 





from inaccurate seeing and hearing. Inaccuracy in 
dictation and in transcription may depend upon defec- 
tive hearing and seeing respectively, or upon faulty 
eye-movements. Children are often called silly, who 
speak in disjointed sentences not adapted lo the circum- 
stances, especially if this is accompanied by extra and 
fidgety movements or giggling ; while others show 
simple mental confusion, and when addressed in the 
afternoon, saying, " good morning" or "good evening," 
or even " good-bye." Other children get red in the 
face and turn away or look awkward or confused when 
spoken to ; they should be taught some form of social 
salute on meeting a friend and even how to shake 
hands. A purely imitative child puts out his left hand 
to meet your right hand unless taught otherwise. 


Some General Conditions in Children Described 

We have considered how to observe and describe a 
child in his body and as to his brain-action ; as well as 
the points to be noted, indicating a sub-normal condi- 
tion. I shall now describe various conditions seen in 
children, some of which are signs of a healthy body 
and brain, while others must be looked upon as faults 
or conditions of disturbance, to be removed, if possible, 
by care and training. The presence of some fault in a 
child does not necessarily show him to be either a weak 
child, or wanting in mental power. Certain types of 
childhood will be described to help us in speaking of 
the training adapted to different classes of children. 

The most interesting conditions of the child's brain 
are the faculties of mental consciousness, seeing, hear- 
ing, feeling, thinking, which make up the inner mind- 
life of the child. You will find that the movements, 
accompanying and expressing consciousness, are mainly 
such as are stimulated by circumstances acting on the 
brain (through the senses). If speaking to the child, 
or showing him objects, is followed by his handling 
them and speaking of them, he is said to be con- 





scions ; or, if he subsequently speaks of those things, 
he is said to have been conscious, when he saw them, 
because we see that his brain was impressed by the 
sight ; again, if the child does anything you tell him 
to do (ear-mindedness), he is conscious. The only 
normal and healthy condition of absence of conscious- 
ness is in sleep. 

Sleep is so important to healthy child life, that, 
though it may not be seen in the schoolroom, some 
of the facts concerning sleep are well worthy of your 
attention, and I would recommend you to look at and 
study children in sleep, when you have the opportunity. 
In sound, healthy sleep the child is unconscious ; there 
is a general absence of movements, except those of 
breathing ; if you speak in a low voice, no response 
follows, and on gently raising the eyelids you will see 
that the pupils are very small, unless you wake him, 
when they expand ; but you have made no permanent 
impression on his sleeping brain, and next day he will 
know nothing about your observations. The absence 
of movement in sleep indicates brain-rest, nerve-currents 
are not being generated in the nerve-centres, at any 
rate not in great strength, passing to the muscles to 
produce movement. The blood is circulating in the 
brain and nourishing it throughout, its force being 
stored up for the activity of the next day. Tooth- 
grinding sometimes occurs during imperfect sleep and 
is an indication of brain-irritability. 




Complete rest during an hour in the day is necessary 
for some children ; the child may rest by lying down 
or reclining in an arm-chair with a story book ; this is 
best effected after feeding, when the blood is rich in 
nutritive material for building up brain-tissue. Rest 
resembles sleep in the little expenditure of nerve-force, 
but differs from it in the retention of impressionability 
to the surroundings. 

Strength and activity of brain-power are indicated by 
good balance of the body, a lively expression of the 
face, and good tone in its muscles and around the eyes, 
without over-action in the forehead, together with much 
spontaneous movement, chattering, and talkativeness. 
These signs indicate spontaneous healthy brain-action, 
ready to be brought under control, without being 
stopped, under your care, by impressions received 
through the senses and in imitation of your actions. 
Accompanying such indications of activity in move- 
ment, there are probably many spontaneous, disjointed 
acts of thinking ; if you can guide these, you may effect 
good mental culture. You want to train spontaneous 
brain-action to mental work, and when beginning les- 
sons, you naturally require the children to be quiet, 
that they may think and not to disturb the class. 

You call the children to lessons, the class assembles, 
each child stands in his place ; the body is upright, 
hands hanging by the sides, and all parts, including the 
eyes and fingers, are motionless. It is assumed that 




I I! 


the children are healthy, showing signs of good nutri- 
tion, their faces having a lively appearance and chang- 
ing expression ; thus we know that the motionless 
state is due to your having stopped their movements, 
and not to exhaustion. There may be one boy who is 
not motionless; his hands and fingers move, the left 
hand goes into his pocket, his eyes move away from 
you, when you look at him, his head is not kept 
erect. Following the indications and signs seen in 
the boy, you empty his left pocket and confiscate 
the top and crackers, which prevented the signs of 

Do not expect the motionless condition of the body 
to be quite complete, but observe what parts move. 
It is one thing to stop these movements, and another 
to hide them ; and again, it is a different mode of 
management to give the hands something to do. I 
have seen a nervous man stand upon a stool in the 
middle of a large room and make a capital speech. 
As soon as he began to speak, he put his hands 
behind him, and they were no more seen by those 
in front. I walked behind the orator to see what 
his hands were doing; the fingers were working away 
at a great rate, as long as he continuevi to speak. 
In like manner, when looking at an attentive class 
in school, " full face," as they stand, with hands 
behind, apparently motionless, I have taken a " pro- 
file view," so as to see what the hands might be 





doing. Do not say, then, that "fidgetiness causes in- 
attention," but try and describe what you actually 
see in the children ; thus you may study the condi- 
tion and its causes by the scientific method. 

You see a fidgety child ; observe the movements 
which indicate the fidgetiness, note the parts moving, 
limbs, hands, feet, either on one or on both sides ; 
look at the head, face, eyes, etc. Then, when think- 
ing about the child, you recall other examples of ex- 
cess of movement. The fidgetiness you observe is 
a physical fact, a number of movements not con- 
trolled like those of other children ; look to the ante- 
cedents, and notice under what circumstances the 
movements are increased or diminished. The move- 
ments indicating fidgetiness may occur in healthy 
children when exhausted, when long confined in close 
rooms, or when wanting food. 

Say, you are thinking about the methods to be 
pursued with a boy who is often fidgety and pee- 
vish. You observe the movements of the child which 
indicate the fidgetiness, the parts that move, whether 
hands, fingers, or feet, on one or both sides, looking 
also at the head, eyes, face, etc. You may find him 
apt to mutter and complain, silly and childish. Ob- 
serve him carefully ; all reflex actions are wrong. 
Call him, and his head turns away; when you speak 
to him, no reply comes ; when you say nothing, out 
come his complaints. His phrases are simple, dis- 


'f r 



connected, and like those used by a younger child. 
The boy is for the time reduced, or turned back, to the 
brain-condition of a baby. There are also some spon- 
taneous movements, which are but little controlled by 
his surroundings. Look out for the signs of fatigue 
and exhaustion in such a child, noting whether exhaus- 
tion precedes or follows the condition described. Irrita- 
bility of temper often results from previous exhaustion, 
and it produces exhaustion. This is an important point, 
to be decided in each case by direct observation ; it 
will be obvious that your practice must be determined 
by observation as to which condition precedes. 

As opposed to attention and a quiet condition of 
aptitude for mental work, we speak of inattention and 
fidgetiness. Some of the best-brained, quick children 
are almost always fidgety : though they work well, they 
have more spontaneous movement than others, almost 
up to the point of adolescence : such are specially seen 
among the quick children of the nervous type. 

Inattention may be due to conditions in the brain 
itself or its blood-supply. Prolonged abstinence from 
food renders the blood poor ; a heavy meal draws 
blood from the brain to the stomach ; a close atmos- 
phere renders the blood impure. On the other hand, 
the brain may be fatigued from prolonged work : I 
suspect, however, that inattention is much more often 
due to other things impressing the child, not leaving 
his brain clear and apt for mental work. 

- v: 






Fatigue is indicated by the small amount of energy 
expended in movement, such action as occurs being 
more or less useless and performed only under a 
strong stimulus, while it may be accompanied by 
extra-movements, but useless acts. Thus the child 
lounges in an arm-chair and does not get up when 
told to, but fidgets and grumbles. 

Among the signs which indicate fatigue, I may 
mention the slight amount of force expended in move- 
ment ; there appears to be a lessened total of force 
passing from the nerve-system to the muscles. There 
is often asymmetry of posture and movements, seen in 
the balance of the head, the spine, and the hands. 
There may be accompanying irritability, much move- 
ment upon the slightest touch, or movements apparently 
spontaneous. As you look at the child, you see too 
little movement on the average, or occasional jerky 
movements not controlled by circumstances. The eyes 
may wander and not be distinctly fixed by the sight of 
objects around, the face is toneless, less lively-looking, 
less mobile ; possibly there may be fulness under either 
eye. There is asymmetry of action ; the fatigued 
nerve-centres being unequally exhausted. Spontaneous 
finger-twitches, like those of younger children, may be 
seen, and slight movements may be excited by noises. 
The head is often held on one side, the arms, when 
extended, are not held horizontal ; usually the left is 
lower ; the hand balances in the weak type of posture, 





often again more markedly on the left side. The direct 
effects of gravity determine the position of the body 
to a greater extent than in the condition of strength ; 
hence, the spine is bent. If this condition tends to 
pass on into sleep, the eyelids are closed. 

Fatigue is not itself unhealthy ; both adults and 
school-children must learn to work, and fatigue naturally 
follows ; what is needed after healthy fatigue, is rest 
and '"ecreation, renewing the power of the brain. If, on 
the other hand, fatigue lasts day after day, a more per- 
manent condition of exhaustion of great importance may 

Case 20. A boy exhausted and very dull. 

A boy, twelve years old, showed weak balance of the 
hands, with lordosis ; his face was wanting in brightness, 
with fulness under the eyes, indicating exhaustion. 
His speech was good, and he presented no defect in 
head, palate, or body. The teacher called him an idiot, 
who could learn nothing. I saw no signs of organic 
brain-defect, but marked indications of exhaustion. On 
inquiring it appeared that the boy was kept at work 
at home after school till midnight. 

Exhaustion is an extreme condition of fatigue, in 
which movement is lessened. The face becomes tone- 
less and devoid of fine mobile expression, the circular 
muscle of the eye is relaxed, the face may be lengthened 
from relaxation of its muscles and slight falling of the 
jaw; the ordinary movements of expression are not ex- 




cited by the ordinary stimuli, and such movements as 
do occur are slow and laboured. A strong stimulus is 
required to induce the child to hold out his hands, and 
then the posture is the feeble hand. Sighing and 
yawning are common. Speech is slow, and the tone of 
the voice is altered. In some cases, finger-twitching, 
especially of separate fingers, indicates extreme exhaus- 
tion and irritability. 

Irritability is expressed in a child, when a slight 
noise makes him start ; this is a reflex movement in 
excess, a reflex action, that does not occur in perfect 
health on so slight a stimulus. In irritability other 
stimuli, besides sour 1, may produce excessive reflex 
action ; a touch upon the shoulder causes a sudden 
movement. Not only is the amount of reflex movement 
excessive and out of proportion to the stimulus, but the 
kind of movement may differ from that usually following 
such a stimulus in health. A child three years of age, 
when irritable, may turn away his head from a familiar 
object, or from the sight of his food, and say " No, no " ; 
here the sight of the object, instead of causing a reflex 
movement of the head, eyes, and hands towards the 
object, moves all from it. The irritability of the nerve- 
centres is indicated by movements in the opposite direc- 
tion from that which the same stimulus would produce 
in health. Besides these reflex signs, we find the voice 
altered ; when spoken to, he may answer sharply ; the 
motor force, generally, is lessened and irregular in 





kind, twitching irregular movements are not uncommon. 
Nervous children often show marked signs of irrita- 
bility ; the spontaneous postures assumed are those of 
fatigue, with the addition of slight irregular twitching 
movements. If this condition lasts long, nutrition is 
lowered and wasting occurs. Abnormal conditions in 
the body, particularly in the stomach, may render the 
child irritable. 

Teachers have said that exhaustion in children is 
often due more to mismanagement at home, rather 
than to work in school. That may be so in some in- 
stances. Let me sketch a case for you. 

Case 21. Girl tired in home life. 

A girl, twelve years old, comes to school in the morn- 
ing with too little spontaneous movement ; the head is 
not held erect ; the face is pale ; the muscles around 
the eyes are relaxed ; the eyes are wandering and not 
fixed or controlled in their movements by sights and 
sounds ; the free hand is in the feeble posture. The 
attention is not readily fixed ; she is fidgety and rest- 
less ; such signs indicate exhaustion and irritability. We 
assume that the school is well arranged, and the work 
suitable. Later in the morning the child brightens up 
and works better, so that, at the close of morning les- 
sons, she appears in better condition than when she 
came under school influences. Now, if the teacher 
knows, from questions put, or other sources of informa- 
tion, that it is not the school work, that produces ex- 



haustion and dei^ression, should the matter end there? 
If the teacher's opinion is founded on facts observed, 
would not any reasonable lovin^^ j)arent allow a friendly 
remonstrance or suggestion ? If such conditions con- 
tinue in the child, may she not exert a harmful moral 
influence in the school, such as may justify a stronger 
remark on the part of the school manager ? Still, it 
cannot be expected that parents will readily listen to 
vague reports of their children, or to such as are not 
founded on precise and definite grounds. 

The scientific observation of children has other 
advantages than the development of methods of public 
education ; from the careful study of recorded observa- 
tions we may improve the basis for research in physio- 
logical psychology. 

All outward expression of mental states and mental 
action is by visible movements and results of move- 
ment ; it is possible then, by analysis of such modes 
of expression, to determine something of the modes of 
brain-action, corresponding to mental states. 

In sleep, or i state of healthy unconsciousness, we 
see that no movement is occurring in the limbs ; the 
pupils are small ; the movements of breathing are quiet 
and uniform ; low sounds do not produce action or any 
subsequent expression. After such full deep sleep we 
see many spontaneous movements. We conclude, then, 
that sleep is a condition of healthy rest, in which the 
brain does not receive stimulation from the outside; 





that its tissue is simj)!)' living and growing in a healthy 
manner, and storing iij) healthy foree, which we see 
displayed in spontaneous movements after sleep. 

Contrast this hrain-state with that seen in a storm of 
passion. Bain says : ^ "The physical manifestations of 
anger, over and above the embodiment of the antece- 
dent pain, are (i) general e.xcitement ; (2) an outburst 
of activity ; (3) deranged organic functions; (4) a char- 
acteristic expression and attitude of body; and (5), in 
the completed act of revenge, a burst of exultation." 
Sir Charles BelP gives the following description : " In 
rage the features are unsteady. The eyeballs are seen 
largely ; they roll and are inflamed. The front is alter- 
nately knit and raised in furrows by the motion of the 
eyebrows; the nostrils are inflated to the utmost; the 
lips are swelled, and, being drawn by the muscles, open 
the corners of the mouth. The whole visage is some- 
times pale, sometimes turgid, dark, and almost livid; 
the words are delivered strongly through the fixed 
teeth; the hair is fixed on end like one distracted, and 
every joint should seem to curse and ban." 

At the commencement of an attack of rage, there 
may be momentary paleness : this is the best time for 
a chance of quieting the child. Then the breathing is 
seen to be quickened and the face flushes ; the breath- 
ing is embarrassed, and the veins in the forehead, face, 

^ " Mental and Moral Science," 1872, p. 261. By Alexamler Hain. Pub- 
lished by Longmans, Green ».S: Co., London; D. Applcton (S; Co., New York. 
2 op. Cit., p. 21. 




and neck swell out in consequence, while the lii)s are 
swollen and prominent. The eyes may move much, 
not being under control ; while the hands are opened 
and closed, and gesticulate, and the lips may be seen 
to twitch at the angles of the mouth. The storm of 
movement may spread to muscles moving the larger 
joints of the limbs, the elbows, shoulders, and knees, as 
seen in biting and stamping. The order of occurrence 
of the signs is, first pallor, then flushing, and the con- 
gestion of face from impeded breathing ; this is the 
order of events most common in an epileptic fit. The 
movements are first in small parts, afterwards in larger 
parts of the body. All this indicates a spreading area of 
brain in stiong action, sending out force to the muscles ; 
such brain-action not being under any kind of control 
from without. The exhaustion that follows corresponds 
with the large area of brain, that has been discharging 
motor energy, and wasting it. Here, as in other cases, a 
brain, not well under control, wastes energy that good 
guidance might have saved ; good training is an econ- 
omy of force to all, and specially in the weak children. 

What good, what advantage, is there in these special 
modes of describing what we see ? Modes of descrip- 
tion here used are such as allow of comparisons being 
made. We translate abstract qualities, such as "joy," 
into concrete terms, such as movements, or conditions 
of form or development. We translate the terms, used 
to describe the abstract property, into other terms., the 


I h 



expression of the abstract. The term " happiness " is 
intended to indicate a certain condition of feeling, which 
we all, more or less, understand. The thing happiness 
is an abstraction ; but if we can define an expression of 
happiness in man, we can deal with the material expres- 
sion of happiness, analyse, and study it. 

Having these descriptions be fore us, we can make 
some comparisons or analogies. In laughter, which 
is an expression of joy, or happiness, the angles of 
the mouth are drawn upwards; this is the very oppo- 
site to the expression of ].>hysical suffering. By defin- 
ing the expression of the abstract thing, " happiness," 
in terms of motor signs, we find problems to deal with, 
capable of physical investigation. 

All expression of mind and mental states is by move- 
ments and results of movement. You speak of intelli- 
gence, happiness, joy ; for the purposes of scientinc 
study, I would rather that you described the series 
of movements, which indicate these conditions, observ- 
ing their antecedents and effects. Speaking of abstract 
qualities of the mind, you use, for the sake of simpli- 
city, terms which indicate the aggregate condition ; try 
to describe the signs you see, and to describe them in 
terms indicating facts whose causes you may deal with. 
It may be said that '* fidgetiness is caused by inatten- 
tion, and leads to forgetf illness." Each of these condi- 
tions is complex, and may result from complex causes ; 
it is necessary, in scientific procedure, to try and ana- 

f^ I 





lyse each, and describe it in terms expressin^^ physical 
signs. Sometimes children get into a state of great 
mental excitement \vith()ut passion ; I have seen this 
during a recitation in school and will describe a case. 

Case 22. Boy showing mental excitement. 

The boy's speech became rapid, almost incessant, 
without intervals, the words were sometimes repeated ; 
there was much movement in his face, and the pupils 
were dilated. The right foot was planted forward, the 
right arm raised free from the body, and the fingers 
were much moved, while the left hand rested firmly on 
the table at his side ; his eyes moved much, as he was 
speaking, and the eyebrows were knit together ; the 
head was extended backward, so that his face was 
turned upwards, and his eyes were raised above those 
to whom he was speaking. 

Headaches are of common occurrence in children of 
school age ; they are more frequently met with in girls 
than boys, as shown in the following table of 58 
cases in my practice at the East London Hospital for 

DisTRiBi'TioN or Casks ni I accokdinc to A(iE 


















7-8 8-9 

2 > I 

3 5 

4 1 6 









Boys, 25 . . 
GirU, ii . . 


Total, 58 . . 








As a group these children present the general 
characteristics, described as common among nervous 
children. See Chapter IX. In five of the cases re- 
ferred to above, the child described *' sparks, colours, 
or other perversion of sight " during the attacks of 
head pain; sometimes distinct objects are seen, such 
as heads of animals or men ; at night he may see 
"a lot of people coming to kill him," a policeman, 
or other source of terror. There is often a history 
of inheritance of headaches ; among the 58 cases 
above, the mother suffered similarly in 24, and the 
father in eight cases ; when the father and mother 
have both suffered from sick headaches, there is 
great probability that their children will also, and 
they should be trained and helped to bear pain. 
Headaches are often followed by sickness ; the avoid- 
ance of fatigue and exhaustion is the best means of 

Children with flat eyes (hypermotropia) may suffer 
from headaches, in part due to straining their sight 
in reading, from want of proper glasses. 

Headaches in children are very common; they are 
of much importance, when accompanying the physi- 
cal signs of exhaustion. I do not often ask children, 
if they have headaches, and place but little value on 
descriptions of their own feelings ; but I constantly 
look for the signs of fatigue or exhaustion. When 
the child appears well nourished and there is no fa- 



tigue, headaches are of less importance. When I 
see a child presenting the signs of exhaustion, a 
toneless face, wandering eyes, fulness under the 
eyes, many points of asymmetry of posture, finger- 
twitching, and ground teeth, I put down such a child 
as requiring special care and careful education. 
Judge of the children by what can be seen in them, 
not by their description of feelings. 

Case 23. Headaches in a nervous child. 

A girl, thirteen years of age, suffered from frequent 
headaches, during which she saw coloured stars, which 
sometimes preceded the head pain. She was a well- 
made but nervous child ; her hands, when held out, 
balanced in the " nervous po.sture," and the fingers 
twitched, there was fulness under the eyes from re- 
laxation of the muscles surrounding them. Three 
yearn before, she was disabled for three months by 
chorea. It is probable that the recurrent headaches 
will continue for some years ; she learn to bear 
them. It is not to be expected, that she can attend 
to her work in school or home lessons, when attacks 
of headache are troubling her. If training can re- 
move the nerve-signs described, the child will be 
the better. 


Types of Childhood ; and Groups of Children 


The descriptions of Groups of children here given, 
and the evidence on the Propositions concerning child- 
hood in Chapter XIII., are based upon the experience 
gained from 100,000 children whom I examined indi- 
vidually in schools. The results of that inquiry are 
published in a report - which affords a large amount 
of information concerning conditions of children. 

Groups of children are classified and described, so 
as to enable me to present, in due course, the im- 
portant Class of " Children who appear to require 
special care and training," to whom I would direct 
particular attention. It has always been difficult to 
define such children by what we can see in them ; 
but it now seems possible to give i sufficiently clear 
description of the Groups of children included in 

^ Report on the scientilic study of tlie mental and physical conditions of 
childhood, with particular reference to children of defective constitution ; 
and ith recommendations as to education and training. Based on the 
Examination of 100,000 children seen in and near London, 1888-94. 

Published at Parke's Museum, Margaret Street, London, W. Oftice of 
the Childhood Society. The Macmillan Company, New York. 


••>« «( 



that class, and to show the means of describing an 
individual child, indicating the points in which he 
may need special training. 

The groups, here arranged, are of course arbitrary ; 
in studying such groups the care of the individual 
child should never be lost sight of. It must be re- 
membered that a dull child at one time classed as 
" delicate with abnormal nerve-signs " may another 
year be classed as "dull without defects," if the care 
taken has been accompanied by successful results ; 
then we may hope that further mental training may 
make him a bright child, or average in mental power. 
The plan of describing children on schedules, or 
their defects on the cards, will keep before you the 
individual and the points in his case, to which atten- 
tion should be directed ; while the successive sched- 
ules of the same child taken at different dates will 
show the progress made. 

Normal Children. — From the school point of view, 
children may be classed as normal, if not found to 
be dull and backward for their age in lessons and 
in mental ability ; while to observation they present 
the signs of healthy development in body, in nerve- 
signs, and in nutrition. Of course such children 
differ in individual characteristics, and in some of 
the general conditions described in Chapter VIII. 
Again, some are above the average in their tyjje of 
perfection in development of physical and mental 


1>A ' 



power. Thus " Normal children " includes, as a 
group, all children not presenting any visible defect 
in development, nutrition, or physical condition, with 
no abnormal nerve-signs, and not found by the teach- 
ers to be dull or backward mentally. 

I suppose there is no such being as " a perfect 
child," but it may assist to form a useful mental 
ideal, if we the characteristics necessary to a 
perfect type of childhood. His body must be well 
proportioned, the head of good size and well shapen, 
with each feature well made ; while the stature and 
nutrition of the body reach a normal standard. (See 
weight and height.) Sight and hearing should be 
perfect. The signs of brain-action must be good in 
the movements seen, with sufficient spontaneity of 
action according to age; expression lively, speech 
clear and distinct, while, on mental examination, he 
must show intelligent ipreciation, judgment, and a 
proper use of words in mguage, expressing thought 
and the faculty of thinking and remembering The 
physiologi-st will require to know more than this 
before classing him as of a perfect type, and will 
inquire as to his ancestry and inheritance through 
each parent, as to what stock he comes from and the 
life-history of his collateral relations, brothers, sisters, 
and cousins. Habits in social life, and the develop- 
ment of some taste and enjoyment of healthy pursuits 
add further indications of a probable success in life. 







Ntiinbey 24. Namr. Jolin Smith, 

As^e last hirtluhiy. 9 years. Place in Silii>(>l. Stiiidard V. 

A. Body: Development, features, etc. 

Head. CircumferiMKH' 2\.-^ iin hcs; transverse 13 5, an- 
tero-posterior 13 inches. Well shaj)en. No ridges 
or bosses. 

Face. t^ye-openings wide ; mouth of good ;:ize, lips 
well cut. 

Ears. Well shapen, complete in all parts ; not out- 

Nose. IJony bridge of nose well developed. 

Palate. Sutificiently broad ; well shaped. Teeth not 

Gnnvtli. Ciood ; height 51 inches. Light hair, fair 

/)'. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 

General balance of boJy. Stands well, feet tt)gether, 
legs straight and knees not bent, body erect. 

Expression. Bright and changeful. .\n intelligent-look- 
ing face. 

O. Ociili. (lood tone al)Out eyelids ; no bagginess of 

Eye-niovenients. P^ixes eyes well ; they follow a mov- 
ing object accurately. 

Head-balance. Head held wt 11 up. 

Hands. Balance straight on level with shoulders; fin- 
gers steady. 

Response active and accurate. Sig'nt and hearing good. 




Till-: sruDV oi' children 

C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Healthy and well 
nourished. Weight 60 lb. Good colour in face 
and lips. 

School Report. A good child : is bright and intelligent. 
Recites well, ([uick at arithmetic, is rather high in 
school for age. Attendance regular. 

Report on Child. A healthy, well-made boy : he seems 
well trained in action of body and in mental power. 
He is likely to profit by higher education when old 


There is a clas.s of children, commonly met with in 
every school, termed "nervous children"; I mean such 
as are apt to complain of headaches, are difficult to get 
off to sleep, bad sleepers, talking at night and grinding 
their teeth, while in the morning they are tired and not 
ready for breakfast. They are often bright enough 
mentally and affectionate in disposition, but apt to be 
irritable and passionate and too emotional. There are 
children who arc delicate without having any disease ; 
who are never laid up with any definite illness, but they 
are not strong, cannot walk far without getting tired ; 
some days they are too tired to do anything and must 
rest ; capricious in appetite, yet sometimes ravenous, but 
losing weight. A typical nervous child is generally 
well made in body, with a good head and well-cut feat- 
ures, a fine skin and light complexion ; she may be tall 
and rather thin, with subnormal body weight. In the 




nerve-signs we see indications of weakness and over- 

The general balance of the body, as the child stands, 
is usually asymmetrical, with the head slightly drooped 
and inclined to one side ; while the spine is perhaps bent 
a little to one side, with unequal shoulders, and the feet 
unequally planted. The eyes wander much, in place of 
being directed to objects and fully controlled through 
sight and a spoken word, i ii the face, expression may 
be somewhat diminished, with fulness under the eyes 
indicating fatigue. When the hands are held out in 
front, asymmetry in balance of the arms is frequent, 
the left hand usually being held lower, while the " ner- 
vous hand-posture" is marked more on the left than on 
the right (see Fig. 6). As the hands are held out, the 
shoulders ^.nd upper part of the spine move backwards 
with an increased curve of the forward bend in the 
loins (lordosis), as a compensation in balance owing to 
weakness of the back muscles. 

The fingers probably show twitching movements, if 
they are held separate from one another, so as to be 
free to move. 

These signs show weakness, with over-mobility ; and, 
if the condition is accompanied by a body-weight fall- 
ing month by month or week by week, the child may, 
if overworked or if placed under mental stress by cir- 
cumstances, or if frightened, ])ass on to the state called 
chorea. In mental hubit such children are usually 


1 60 


(|uick in Icarnin.L;', t,dk;ili\'c, phiylul, and often laiit^h- 
inj^ ; in social lift:, they arc gregarious, seeking one 
another's company, and, as they are usually imitative, 
may prove a source of mental excitement to one another. 
On looking further at such a child, you will i)r(ibably 
find that the face is the best nourished part of the body, 
the limbs being thin ; the teeth are very likely flattened 
at their tips from the constant habit of tooth-grinding. 
Appetite is very variable ; these nervous children are 
very difficult to feed ; at times appetite fails much, and 
again at another time they are veracious though they 
may still lose in weight. The care of such children 
will be referred to in Chapter XII. 

Card showing the defects observed in a nervous 
girl as described above, and given in Schedule 25. 


Number 25. Name. Sarah Jones. 

Age last birthday. 12 years. Pla:- in school. Standard VII. 

A. Body : Development, features, etc. 

Head. Circumference 21.5 inches; forehead wide and 

well shapen. 
Face. Eye-openings large ; features well proportioned. 
Ears. N'^)rnial. 

Nose. Normal ; iips usually closed. 
• Palate. Normal. 
Growth. Rather tall for age ; rather slightly built. 

Height 57.5 inches. 

TVPKs OK iim.Dnooi) 


/)'. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 

General balance of Inuly. Attitude asymmetrical : left 
shoulder lower than rii^ht, feet not cMiually planted. 

Expression. A little dull, and wanting in changefiilness. 

O. Oculi. Fulness under eyes ; this disai)i)ears momen- 
tarily in smiling. 

Eye-movements. Eyes wander, but fix on an object if 
she is told to. 

Head-balance. Slightly drooped and inclined to left. 

Hands. Left balances lower than right, each is in the 
"nervous posture," especially marked in left. Sep- 
arate fingers twitch. 

When hands are held out, the shoulders fall backward 
and the spine is bent forward at the loins (lordosis). 

C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Rather thin and pale. 
Weight 75 lb. 

School Report. Quick at lessons ; recites well. Talka- 
tive in school, playful and often laughing. Is fond of 
the society of other children like herself. 

Report on Child. This may be said to be a ner\'ous 
child : well made in bodily development, but rather 
under weight for her height ; though quick anil bright 
mentally, she shows so many abnormal nerve-signs 
that, unless she is brought under better control, she is 
likely to become an hysterical girl after leaving school 
at fourteen years. She needs careful training in physi- 
cal exercises to remove each flmlt in detail. 







io IIIII2.0 


1.25 1.4 


^ 6" - 










WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 







Card: Showing the Dkfkcts Observkd in a Nervous Girl, as 
Dkhcribeu in Schedule 25 

Sc/too/ Can/ No. 







ij 21 




Keg. No. ... 25 


SpL Reff 

Devkhh'Ment Deeects 


Frontal ridge 

External Ear 







( )thpr types 
Nasal Hones 
(iuowTii Small 
Other Develmt. Dfts. 




O. uouli IftK 

- IIoad ' baiRncG 
Hand weak 

Other Nerve-sions 



( k'noral balance 
KKpro Bs ioif 
Frontals overact 



I 82 


Glasses plus uiimis 
Myopia, no glasses 
Cornea disease 
Eye, lost accident 
Eye, disease 


Exceptional Children 



A ^ 4 D E F G 




Dull and Backward Children. — In the Report on 
School Children ^ all pupils were included in this group 
whom the teachers reported as dull or below the aver- 
age in ability for school work ; by far the largest num- 
ber of them were first noted on account of points 
observed below the normal in development, nutrition, or 
in nerve-signs ; a much smaller number were presented 
by the teachers as dull who, to my observation, did not 
present any outward signs of defect. 

Dul! and backward pupils are to be found in every 
school or collection of children. A child slow or back- 
ward for his age in knowledge and in trained mental 
ability is not necessarily wanting in brain-power or a 
defective child. 

A boy may present a good type in each class of points 
observed, except his mental ability : while he can read 
and write fairly well and do simple sums, he may be 
unable to make any calculation in his head or to answer 
any questions, requiring memory and connected thought. 
Still he may be strong, healthy, quick to see and act 
and know what to do at the right time, and display good 
traits of character. 

It may prove interesting to the reader and valuable 
for statistical purposes to quote the percentage of dull 
boys and girls amongst 100 children, according to the 
average obtained.^ 

Taking icx) dull boys and 100 dull f;:Irls, we find: — 

^ Op. cit., p. 154. '^ See Tablo VIH., section i)n dull children. 

1 1 


1 64 




Among children seven years and under : 45 boys, 
55 girls have developmental defects ; 49 boys, 44 girls 
have nerve-signs ; 23 boys and 30 girls are delicate. 
Note the large proportion of young dull girls that are 
also delicate. 

Among children eight or ten years old : 43 boys, 
42 girls have developmental defects ; 63 boys, 56 
girls show nerve-signs ; 14 boys and 16 girls are 

Among children eleven years and over : 38 boys, 
35 girls have developmental defects ; 59 boys, 56 girls 
present nerve-signs ; and 7 boys and 10 girls are delicate. 

These facts concerning the common association of 
defects afford explanation why children are seen so 
differently from different points of view, by the earnest 
teacher and the equally well-meaning parent. The 
teacher finds the child dull and backward ; the mother 
sees the nerve-signs and indications of delicacy. A 
scientific description of the facts seen indicates both 
points of view. 




Number 26. 

Age last birthday. 1 1 years. 

Name. Edward Baker. 
Place in school. Standard IL 




A. Body : Development, features, etc. 

Head. I-arge, circumfertMice 22.0 inches, frontal bosses. 
Face. J'>atiires coarse, none deformed. 



Ears. Both outstanding ; large, no pleat to ear. They 

are red. 
Palate. Narrow, the upper lines of teeth meet at a 

straight angle in front. 
Growth. Well grown. Height 54 inches. 

B. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 


General balance of body. Slouches, no exact symmetry 
of balance. 

Expression. Bright, not very intelligent looking. 

O. Oculi. Good tone. 

Eye-movements. Can fix eyes well ; looks about by 
moving head, not eyes. 


Hands. Left held lower than right ; balance in fee- 
ble posture. Response in action rather slow and 

C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Ciood colour in face 

and lips. Robust. A strong boy. Weight 76 lb. 

School Report. Does work in school, but is slow and 
inaccurate, ami could not pass examination. Dull, 
but not defective. 

Report on Child. Appears capable of work. Needs 
drill to quicken him and improve gait. A few 
minutes employed daily in class-exercises in imita- 
tion of movements and eye-movements would im- 
prove his brain-power. Possibly would do better 
with boys more of his own age. 




1 i^ 

1 .1. 

! ' 

Name. Tom Brown. 
Place in school. Standard IV. 

Number 27. 

Age last birthday. 1 2 years. 

A. Body : Development, features, etc. 

Head. Well shapen, circumference 21.5 inches. 
Face. Features good and well proportioned. 
Ears. Normal. 
Nose. Normal. 
Palate. Normal. 

Groivth. Well grown, rather tall and well proportioned 
in limbs. Height 56 inches. 

B. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 


General balance of body. Stands erect ; moves well. 
Expression. Bright looks, active and playful. 
O. Oculi. Good tone in all muscles of face. 
Eye-movements. Looks steadily ; eyes follow a moving 

object well. 
Head-balance. Erect. 
Hands. Balance straight without movement of back, 

when they are held out ; action prompt ; speaks well, 

with clear voice. 

C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Good colour, strong 

and robust. Says he cannot see blackboard unless 
he is close to it. Weight, 84 lb. 

School Report. A general favourite, social, a good crick- 
eter, but backward in school for his age, slow at 
learning, and poor at mental arithmetic. Has a bad 
memory, and is wanting in attention and persever- 
ance. Not a bad boy. 





Report on Child. A strong, healthy, well-made boy. No 
signs of defect ; he probably could do better at les- 
sons if he tried, but he seems more fond of play than 
work ; if urged, he might do more. If we trust 
what he says himself, he requires concave glasses (for 
myopia) ; he should be examined carefully as to sight. 

Case 28. A boy small in growth, good at games, dull 
in lessons. 

A very short boy, age fifteen years. Weight 5 st. 
13 lb. (83 lb.); fairly muscular. Educated at a large 
boarding school during the last year, where he is in 
the choir ; he plays the violin and piano. He is 
liked by the masters and his school-fellows ; he plays 
better at foot-ball than at cricket, and likes the gymna- 
sium. His character is good, with a kindly disposition, 
both at home and in school. In the schoolroom he 
is very backward and cannot rise above the lowest form, 
though his education has not been neglected. He 
stands well, moves his eyes well, his action and imita- 
tion in movements are very good. The facial expres- 
sion is a little blank, the muscles in the forehead 
over-act, and he is rather full under the eyes. His 
writing was fair, but slow. He could not distinguish 
weights accurately. Speech was monotonous and his 
replies to questions long in coming out. 

He appeared to be gaining but little intellectual 
culture, though growing in character. It was arranged 
in school that he should have more food, go to bed 

i ' 



I I. 

earlier, give up Latin, and take more time in the work- 

He was a good lad, capable of an active life, but not 
fitted for intellectual pursuits. 

Case 29. A boy overworked, not deficient. 

Boy aged fifteen years. Home in a British colony. 
He was solitary in habits, not caring to join in games 
or inclined to vigorous exercises of any kind. He had 
been taught Latin, French, history, arithmetic up to 
proportion, and some algebra, but he could give no 
clear account of what he had done in any one subject. 
He knew colours and could calculate a simple money 
sum. He was rather heavy, flabby, slow and inert in 
all modes of response ; slow in dressing and in every- 
thing he did. 

His head and features were well made, and speech 
good but slow ; he presented a good expression and 
facial action, his hands when held out balanced straight. 

He suffered at times from headache. 

In his school-life he travelled by train 20 miles a 
day ; he disliked his school and was not happy there. 
Returning home in the evening, he had tea, then pre- 
pared lessons, often working till 1 1 p.m. 

There appeared to be no real defect of brain in the 
boy, but he had been over-worked and mismanaged. 

Under observation it appeared that five hours a day 
was as much work as he could do at lessons without signs 
of fatigue. He required lighter work, he was not fit for 



more than five hours' work under careful guidance, and 
needed encouragement to active exercise. 

With such a boy of inert disposition, it is better to 
looii out for the signs of fatigue, and if they appear, 
stop work or change it ; but not to ask him if he feels 
tired or has headache. 

Case 30. A small girl, exhausted and placed too high 
in school. 

Girl aged ten years, said by the teacher to be one 
of the dull ones. She did not present any signs of 
defect, but appeared exhausted and nervous. She had 
entered among the infants, and been moved up through 
successive classes without due consideration of what 
was best for her development. 

Case 31. A backward girl, head small, eye-movements 

A girl thirteen years old was said to be a bad speller, 
inexact in transcription, not bad in arithmetic, and not 
generally mentally dull. Her head was small, but not 
ill shapen ; there was a slight defect of the retina of 
the eyes ; she did not move her eyes in reading, but 
moved her head towards the words. Daily exercise 
in moving eyes accurately was followed by improved 
accuracy and better spelling. 

Case 32. A boy bright at arithmetic, dull at Euclid, 
did not lOok at the blackboard. 

The boy was said to be industrious and not dull at 
arithmetic ; but he could not follow a demonstration in 

V I 


: t 



Euclid on the blackboard. Observing the boy, during 
the demonstration, I noticed his eyes were fixed on the 
teacher, in place of the figure drawn on the board ; 
he was frowning hard (corrugation with frontals over- 
acting) and evidently trying to remember what was 
said, but his eyes did not follow the demonstration of 
lines and angles. 

Children Mentally Exceptional. — These children, 
while not necessarily dull and without brain-power, 
appear deficient in certain mental characteristics and 
in moral sense, such as habitual liars, thieves, and in- 
cendiaries ; others liable to attacks of total mental con- 
fusion, a period of mental inaptitude or violent passion. 
Such cases are often described as moral imbeciles. 

Some of these children are the offspring of insane par- 
ents or criminals. It is quite possible that some of these 
children were really epileptic or subject to petit vial{^ 
temporary loss or disturbance of consciousness j. 

There is a distinction to be drawn between children 
intellectually defective and those " mentally excep- 
tional." There are children who from moral rather 
than intellectual defects are unfitted for general train- 
ing. Children dull from organic conditions are often 
solitary and unsocial, with defective expression, and it 
may be some mal-development ; they may have some 
power of application and apparent attention, but gain 
little in education and are apt to be left out of all friend- 
ship by the rest of the normal children. 



id it 

The children "mentally exceptional" form a more 
serious j;roup unfitted for general education. These 
children show a distinct want of moral |)ower ; they are 
not solitary and are often bright and restless. I do not 
know of any special signs or expression by which one 
can detect these cases. 

Moral imbeciles who still are clever not uncommonly 
appear in the police ccnirts. 

Case 33. A clever boy ; a thief and an incendiary. 

A boy thirteen years of age, mother died leaving five 
children, the father was insane ; a brother twelve years 
old had tried to set fire to the house. It was given in 
evidence at the police court that the boy would often stop 
out at night and had stolen watches, rings, and a brooch. 
This sort of thing had been going on fcr the past six 
years ; if taken to a friend's, he would be sure to 
steal something. There was not a lock, door, box, or 
window, he could not open. He was taken to stay at a 
farmhouse ; one day, when every one was out, he took in 
a lot of •' ragamuffins " and had an illumination in ian up- 
stairs room, and part of the room, it was found, had actu- 
ally been alight. Since his arrest he had made an attempt 
to set fire to his own bedroom. His school-mistress said 
he was a very intelligent boy and in the fifth standard. 

Case 34. A clever girl, but character bad, criminal 

A girl of twelve years, in Standard VI. ; well made, 
healthy, quick, active, and clever in .school ; no signs of 





)A ' 


defect observed, l)ut a bad expression. Her father killed 
her mother, who was a chunkard. She was reported as 
clever at work, but an habitual liar and thiet who had 
tried to set fire to the house. 

Case 35. A boy eight years of age, bright and intelli- 
gent in appearance, had lost both his parents (the 
mother died insane). He lived with his grandparents. 
He was liable to such strong and sudden outbursts of 
passion as to be uncontrollable both at home and in 
day-school, and at length was withdrawn from school as 
unmanageable. When removed to the country, his 
health improved, and he became good ond quiet, but 
when brought back to London, his bursts of passion 
returned. He had occasionally suffered from slight 
epileptic fits, and his younger sister also ; that was, in 
all probability, the outcome of his inheritance. When 
last heard of, the boy was neither being educated nor 
under proper control, and although at present harmless, 
and capable of being taught self-restraint, he is likely 
on arriving at manhood to be a social failure, if not 
absolutely dangerous to society. 

Children Feebly Gifted Mentally. — These children 
are distinctly deficient in mental power, but should 
not be certified as imbeciles or "mentally defective." 

No child is included in this group, unless it is be- 
lieved upon both evidence observed and the teacher's 
report to be incapable of school work in the ordinary 
classes. It is not possible to define with exactness 

1!!. i 


TYPES OF cnii.niiooD 



what physical conditions seen, as apart from mental 
tests, indicate the child as unfitted in mental capacity 
for the usual methods of education. There appears, 
however, to be a large number of "children feebly 
gifted mentally " with defect of mental power short 
of imbecility, but still with some deficiency. 

These children may be described and reported on 
as to : — 

(i) Mental tests; ability to answer questions, to 
make simple calculations, to read : as to speech and 
extent of vocabulary, knowledge of colours, coins, etc. 

(2) Signs of brain-action : response in movement 
and in imitation, fixation of eyes, want of changeful 
expression, frowning, weakness, and asymmetry in 
balance and other abnormal nerve-signs. 

(3) As to development of the head and body or 
any developmental defects. 

(4) As to physical health and nutrition. 
Sight and hearing should be carefully tested. 

No sharp line of demarcation can be drawn be- 
tween the children feebly gifted and imbeciles, on 
the one hand, and as differentiating them from chil- 
dren simply dull and backward, on the other hand. 
For practical purposes I think there should be two 
reports on such a child : one as to mental .status, char- 
acter, and habits, prepared by a teacher, with evidence 
from the parents ; the other by an expert, giving a 
physical description of the child, as he sees him. 




Number 36. 

Age last birthday. 1 3 years. 

Name. Adelaide Bennett. 
P/ace in school. Class of 
special instruction. 

A. Body: Development, features, etc. 

Head. Small, circumference 19 inches, transverse from 
ear to ear \\\ inches, antero-posterior 12 inches. 
Good shape, no iiosses or ridges. 

Face. Features, except nose, fairly made. 

Ears. Normal. 

Nose. Bridge of nose wide and rather flat, or spread 

Palate. Narrow. 

Growth. Fairly tall. Height 58.5 inches. 


If?. ; 

B. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 

General balance of body. Slouching. Movements slow ; 

she tends to retain any attitude assumed. Imitation 

of movements fairly accurate. 
Expression. Fairly intelligent. 

O. Oculi. Good tone under eyes and in face generally. 
Eye-movements. Follows well an object moved, and she 

fixes eyes on an object. 
Head-balance. Not quite erect. 
Hands. Balance in nervous posture. 
She squints. The mouth is always open. Speaks fairly 

well, but utterance is thick ; there appears to be 

obstruction in the nose. 



ss of 




3W ; 



C. Physical Health and Nutrition. A little pale, but not 
thin. Weight 90 lb. Tonsils are not large. 

School Report. Attends regularly a class of special in- 
struction for backward children. A good child, truth- 
ful, honest ; will buy and get change correctly. Counts 
well, knows value of money, reads simple words. Can 
do needlework and domestic work if urged to. 

Report on Child. Is small headed and feebly gifted 
mentally, but appears educable ; she is not trouble- 
some, but wanting in spontaneous self-helpfulness 
and probably in self-protection. She has benefited, 
and will probably continue to benefit, by daily train- 
ing ; she will need some friendly supervision and 
industrial training after leaving school. Medical at- 
tendance as to the throat is necessary ; she probably 
requires spectacles. 

Case 37. A girl mentally feeble, without speech, 
but with some social and moral sense. 

Girl aged seven years. Small in stature and thin; 
weight 30 pounds; head rather small, circumference 
19 inches, transverse 12 inches, antero-posterior 12 
inches, fair form. Features and palate well made. 

She does not run alone, but walks with very little 
assistance. There is a slight squint. There is very 
little speech, the child turns towards a sound; it is 
uncertain how much she hears, but she fixes her 
eyes on the face of a speaker, as deaf children do. 
I learned that she was not without the faculties of 

■ I 

«P ■■. 

! iju 



"moral sense and social sense." One morning she 
had pushed over a table with a flower on it, appar- 
ently on purpose ; in the afternoon, when I saw her, 
she came to me, and without words pointed to the 
table, as if to tell that she had done wrong. She 
liked to be clean and tidy, and would help a little 
in toilet, and was social and kind with other children, 
patronizing them. She played much with a toy rab- 
bit, and having seen nurse show it to a cat, did the 
same thing herself two days later. When custard 
and rice pudding were within sight, she made choice 
of the custard and ate it. 

Mistakes are sometimes made ; and children are 
thought to be deficient in mental power, in whom 
mental dulness is due to defective sight and deafness. 

Case 38. A boy deaf, without speech, but educable. 

A boy, nearly seven years old, was said to be un- 
educable ; he had but little speech, otherwise there 
were no abnormal nerve-signs ; he did not respond to 
a verbal direction, but was evidently deaf to a high 
degree. His imitation of movements by sight was 
good, and he made all his wants known ; he fixed 
his eyes well in looking at any one or at an object, 
and when he handled objects, showed a varying ex- 
pression at sight of them and made choice of what 
he liked best. The head and body were well made. 
His mouth was kept open ; there was a large growth 
at the back of his throat, requiring surgical treatment; 









this was attended to, and he improved much. The 
boy required to be taught to speak. 

Case 39. A boy with increasing deafness, short 
sight and accompanying mental dulness. 

A boy thirteen years of age, had been two years at 
a private school preparing for higher education. He 
had learnt some Latin and French, but was said to 
be so dull and backward that he had to leave the 
school. His action in movement was good: he could 
work out a money sum on paper, and the money 
values corresponding with coins ; he wrote a good 
letter and expressed himself well in words. His body 
and head were well developed, as also his features. 
He was very deaf and could only hear my watch 
at six inches ; there was obstruction in the throat 
which had been neglected, and his deafness had in- 
creased in consequence. He was also short-sighted. 
The boy did not appear deficient in mental power, 
but required surgical treatment and a pair of 

Children presenting Defects in Development. — This 
group includes all children with one or more of the 
defects in development of the body that have been 

Such cases are more frequent among boys than 
girls ; the conditions of body observed rnay have no 
further significance ; but, in many cases, other defec- 
tive conditions are associated. Taking 100 boys and 








I '. 



lOO girls with such defects as are described, we find 
according to the average obtained : — 

Among children seven years and under: 23 boys, 
35 girls also pale, thin, delicate; 36 boys and 40 
girls being dull pupils. 

Among children eight to ten years old: 16 boys, 
22 girls are delicate; while 41 boys and 46 girls 
were reported as dull in school. 

Among children eleven years old and over: 7 boys 
and 15 girls were delicate, whilst 37 boys and 51 
girls were reported as dull. 

Conditions of health may improve, as these chil- 
dren grow older; but an increasing proportion of 
them are found by the teacher to be dull pupils. 
To prevent such mental dulncss occurring, these chil- 
dren should be recognised early in life, that they 
may be trained appropriately from the first. 

Children presenting Abnormal Nerve-signs. — This 
group includes all children with one or more of 
the abnormal nerve-signs described. 

Taking 100 boys and 100 girls with such signs as 
described, we find : — 

Among children seven years and under : 19 boys, 
27 girls also delicate ; 43 boys, 47 girls being re- 
ported as dull. 

In children eight to ten years old : 1 1 boys, 1 5 
girls also delicate; 42 boys, 41 girls being dull 




In children eleven years and over: 3 boys, 5 girls 
also delicate; 25 boys, 26 girls being dull pupils. 

If, in methods of training children, more care were 
taken to prevent and remove "abnormal nerve-signs," 
the brain-condition of the children would probably be 
more receptive to mental training. The attention of 
school-teachers and educationalists might be directed 
to this object with advantage. 

Delicate Children with Low Nutrition ; Pale or Thin. — 
Such cases are more frequent among girls than boys, 
when we take the whole number of children in a school ; 
when, however, we take only well-made boys and girls, 
excluding those with developmental defects, the pro- 
portion of delicate boys and girls is about equal. This 
fact may be important in considering questions of school 
method and arrangements. 

Taking 100 boys and 100 girls, all delicate children, 
in school, we find : — 

Among children seven years and under: 52 boys, 
66 girls also presented some signs of defect in develop- 
ment of the body; 41 boys, 36 girls showed "nerve- 
signs," whilst 43 boys and 43 girls were dull. 

In children eight to ten years old: 51 boys and 50 
girls presented defects of development; 51 boys and 51 
girls showed nerve-signs ; 49 boys and 40 girls were 

In children eleven years and over: 39 boys and 35 
girls had development defects; 56 boys and 50 girls 





'n n 



1 80 


showed "nerve-signs"; while 37 of the boys and 35 
girls were dull. 

Delicate children are often dull and need training and 
teaching, as well as physical care in other directions. 

No inquiries were made as to the feeding of the chil- 
dren, but probably those in resident schools, and the 
10,000 in upper class schools, were provided with suffi- 
cient food. In all groups of schools it appears to be 
the "development cases " that suffer the most from low 
nutrition. Could we remove the frequency of these 
defects, we should probably have a smaller proportion 
of weak, thin, and delicate children. 

The fact that delicacy and low nutrition are much 
associated with, and apparently caused by, mal-develop- 
ment, seems to indicate a constitutional or congenital 
flaw in the individual, often also associated with a ten- 
dency to brain-disorderliness and inertness. Such cases 
of low nutrition should not be neglected either in physi- 
cal health or in education ; we may wait too long for 
the child to grow strong ; it is otherwise with conditions 
of ill-health due to temporary conditions or to disease. 

It has been said that girls are more delicate than 
boys ; inquiry and accurate description show that prob- 
ably there is not more delicacy among perfectly well 
made girls than boys ; when, however, girls are con- 
stitutionally weak, they tend more to further conditions 
of disturbance and disorder in greater proportion than 
the boys. 






^'''"^^^''40. Name. Lucy Jankinson. 

Age last birthday. 12 years. Place in school. Standard VI. 

A. Body: Development, features, etc. 

Head. Small, but well shapen, without ridges or bosses. 

Circumference 19.5 inches. 
Face. Features well formed and in proportion to the 

head, which is small. 
Eats. Good. 
Nose. Good. 
Palate. Well shapen. 
Growth. Looks slight in build, but tall for her make. 

Height 5 7 inches. 

B. Nerve-signs: Postures, movements, action. Ex- 


General balance of body. Rather over-mobile, a little 

Expression. Bright, looks intelligent. 
O. Ocnli. Rather wanting in good tone, but not exactly 
full under eyes. 

Eye-movements. Fixation good; moves eyes well in 


Hands. Held out well and promptly; right straight, 

left with three fingers bent back at knuckles, as in 

"nervous posture." On holding out hands, lordosis, 

or throwing back the shoulders. 
When looking at a coin, held 18 inches from face, eyes 

slightly converge. 








C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Pale and rather thin. 
Weight 70 11). 
Looks a healthy child, though rather thin and delicate. 

School Report. A bright child, works well in school ; 
attendance regular, except when sick headaches pre- 
vent. Complains that her eyes ache when sewing, 
but can see blackboard and reads test-type. Is very 
fond of reading. 

Report on Child. A small-headed girl, bright mentally, 
but delicate, and is likely to remain so. Eyes should 
be examined carefully ; she probably needs convex 
glasses (for Hypermetropia), the use of which may 
help to keep off headaches. Requires long hours of 
rest at night. 

Dull and Delicate Children with Some Defect in Develop- 
ment and Abnormal Nerve-signs. — There is a group of 
dull and delicate children with abnormal nerve-signs, 
whose condition appears to demand that they should 
receive special attention ; the physical report and indi- 
cations of mental dulness agree in indicating them as 
unable to profit by the ordinary modes of training suited 
to the average and stronger children ; they at the same 
time require more than ordinary care to prevent their 
failure in adult life. 








Number \\, Na„ie, Henry Harris. 

Age last birthday. 9 years. Place in school. Standard I. 

A. Body: Development, features, etc. 

Head. Circumference 21 inches. Forehead narrow 

and shallow. 
Face. Features of face fairly proportioned. 
Ears. Normal. 
Nose. Normal. 
Palate. Rather narrow. 
Growth. Sufficient for age. Height 50 inches. 

B. Nerve-signs : Postures, movements, action. Ex- 


General balance of body. Rather listless, and asymmet- 
rical in balance. 

Expression. Fair. 

O. Oculi. Good tone under eyes. 

Eye-movements. Wander much, but can fix. Looks at 
words by moving head. 

Head-balance. Straight. 

Hands. Balance in " nervous posture," fingers twitch. 

When hands are held out, shoulders are thrown back 
and spine arched (lordosis). Slow and inexact in 
imitating movements. 

1 84 




C. Physical Health and Nutrition. Pale in face and lips ; 
limbs thin. Does not look unhealthy. Weight 50 lb. 

School Report. Has been two years in Standard I., reads 
as a child of seven years. Does addition sums; can- 
not learn multiplication. Transcription fairly written, 
but inaccurate. Can learn poetry. Very dull, can- 
not get on. 

Report on Child. Dull mentally, poorly developed in 
body, and delicate with listless irregular brain-action 
in movement. Would do much better in small class 
of special instruction, and needs careful physical train- 
ing with some individual instruction. It seems likely 
that he will improve. 

i' I 

Epileptics, and Children with History of Fits during 
School-life. — In my inquiry these cases were asked for 
in every school. Any case with a history or indications 
of fits during school-life was entered in this group for 
what it may be worth. Epileptic children are not nec- 
essarily dull pupils, and the fits may be very transient, 
amounting only to a temporary loss or disturbance of 
consciousness (/<?/// imt/). 

Many of these children are capable of school training 
and need occupation. 

Epileptic children who retain intelligence are fre- 
quently left untaught, though their culture is of more 
than ordinary importance to prevent mental and moral 







Case 42. Girl, ay;c 13, Standard VII. Head and feat- 
ures normal, expression wanting ; eyes wander and do 
not fix well ; hand-balance feeble. Movements uncer- 
tain ; she looks at others, before moving as told. Nerve- 
system is probably not sound ; very dull in school, but 
improving. Has fits at home, none in school. 

Case 43. Boy, age 1 1, Standard IV. General appear- 
ance is healthy. Epicanthis present. Expression want- 
ing, smiles much, looks deficient in intellect. Speech 
indistinct and defective ; did not talk till five years of 
age. Reported by his teacher as " very good and well 
conducted ; very nervous ; ability average in all sub- 
jects except reading, which is owing to defect in speech. 
Has fits in school." 

Case 44. Boy, age 13, Standard VI. Head and feat- 
ures normal. Expression good ; hand-balance weak ; 
lordosis. A clever boy, conduct very good. Has epi- 
leptic fits both at home and in school. 

Case 45. Boy, age 10, Standard IV. No faulty points 
observed in looking at the boy. He is intelligent, but 
has fits at home and in school, lasting some seconds, in 
which he falls down and kicks, has had as many as 
160 fits in a day. 

Case 46. Girl, age 8, Infant School. Head very small, 
18.5 inches circumference, not badly shapen. Ears 
badly made in rim. Expression wanting ; no response 
in action, will not speak. Thin and delicate. '* Does 
not speak, cannot read or write, but appears to under- 


1 86 


I; ){ 


I' I 

i 'i 

IV! I 


1 ' 

Stand some things said." Is mentally defective and 
Children Crippled) Maimed, Paralysed, or Deformed. — 

Those children vary greatly in brain-power, some are 
mentally bright, others dull. The conditions causing 
crippling are numerous ; some are from disease of bones, 
others from paralysis. Kach case needs to be con- 
sidered individually in the school. 

Children who appear to require Special Care and Train- 
ing. — There is a small percentage of children, who in 
the aggregate form a considerable number unfitted, on 
physical or mental grounds, for the general education 
given in public schools. 

A teacher of some years' experience may readily 
detect such children, but hitherto no fixed points (stig- 
mata) have been recognised, by which it may at once 
be decided that such and such a child is unfit for gen- 
eral education. 

Some difficulty has been found in forming any defi- 
nition of this class of children. As arranged, it in- 
cludes : — 

" Children feebly gifted mentally." 

" Children mentally exceptional." 


" Children crippled, paralysed, maimed, or deformed, 
and the group of dull and delicate children who also 
present defect in development with abnormal nerve- 


•n'pKs OF ruiLDirooD 


I think that each of these children should be known 
to the managers, and that each case should be con- 
sidered separately. It is not intended to imply that 
these children cannot be provided for in day schools, 
but they need to be provided for. 







We speak of children growing up and as passing 
on to adolescence, the period between childhood and 
manhood or v/omanhood. I shall here refer to some 
of the points you may observe in the older children, 
comparing their physical and mental characteristics 
with those of earlier childhood. 

Spontaneous movement has been described as the 
great characteristic of infancy and early childhood; this 
markedly diminishes as years advance and is replaced 
by movements adapted both in speech and action by 
circumstances, expressing intellectuality and reasoning ; 
the child becomes less childish ; action should now be 
more fully under control of the senses, and of the im- 
pressions received, and should show the results of 
previous training. The nerve-system is so far built 
up (coordinated) by training and social experience that 
we expect lines of action and methods of thought 
and of speech, under given circumstances, to be much 
like that in other children of the same age and social 

Social sense should now develop more strongly, show- 





ing character, avoidance of childish faults, more truth 
and accuracy in conduct and in word, with some 
thoughtfulness for others and appreciation of what has 
been done for the child in the past years and an awaken 
ing sense of responsibilities. At this age boys and girls 
differ more in some respects than in early years ; they 
tend less to play together and begin to approach one 
another in social meeting differently, so that to allow 
sufficient freedom they separate more, which is not 
undesirable, if accompanied by mutual respect. 

In boys and girls at this age the brain and nerve- 
system come more under the control of the feelings : 
consequently wise control and guidance are wanted, 
while wider aspects of life and social habits may be 
appreciated which could not be understood earlier with- 
out experience. The children are now less childish and 
begin to demand respect as well as affection ; at the 
same time they should learn to show respect and esteem 
for others. For some of the older children questions 
must arise as to their fitness and preparation for higher 
education after school, or for a business or profession 
and the duties of the coming years of social life. 

Professor Key made observation upon 15,0x50 boys 
and 3000 girls at schools in Sweden, and found among 
the boys that there was a rapid increase in height and 
weight from the fourteenth to the sixteenth years — 
among the girls the period of rapid growth of body 
appeared somewhat earlier. Dr. Bowditch's observa- 




^ i! 


tions on children of American parentage, seen in Bos- 
ton, show similar conditions of growth. See Table III. 

There is some difference of opinion as to the out- 
come of this growth period on general strength and 
form. Professor Key has shown that, contrary to the 
opinion of many, it is a period of increased power to 
resist disease. 

I think it will be found that the effects of such rapid 
growth in children differ for boys and girls, and vary 
with the different types of childhood as described (see 
Chapter IX.), and that among children with develop- 
mental defects or abnormal nerve-signs of the more 
enduring type delicacy and nerve-disturbance are apt 
to occur without due care to avoid them. In this 
direction the avoidance of exhaustion and anaemia are 
most important ; practical wisdom consists in observ- 
ing the individual child and being guided thereby in 

I do not think that the boy or girl at the older ages 
of school-life, who is free from developmental defects 
of any kind and shows no abnormal nerve-signs or 
indications of delicacy, i.e. the normal child, is very 
likely to fall into ill-health or a nervous condition, if a, 
wisely conducted training at school is continued. 

Of the 100,000 children I have examined in school, 
80 per cent of the boys and 84. i per cent of the girls 
were normal and not reported as dull mentally. 

It is, however, far otherwise with the children 



who have some defect : ancemia, nervous disturbance, 
and hysteria may become manifest as adolescence 
approaches, especially in girls ; when such become es- 
tablished, particularly if anaemia and nerve-disturbance 
occur together, a long period of ill-health may result. 

When consulted about a child as to the advisability 
of continuing school-life, I look for a good develop- 
ment and growth with the signs of healthy brain- 
action and absence of defects; if nothing amiss is 
seen, I should advise continuance of regular study. 
If a course of hard work or severe study is to be 
undertaken, it is well to review the child or young 
person periodically, to see that no signs of fatigue 
or ill-health are manifest. 

The desideratum at adolescence is to preserve and 
further cultivate health of body and of brain without 
in any way neglecting healthy mental power, which 
should continue to increase long after the period of 
adolescence. As adolescence approaches, observe the 
weight more frequently: look for any signs of fa- 
tigue after work and before commencing the day's 
duties, but do not question the child as to health. 
Continue physical training and require greater accu- 
racy in movements as well as in speech, than at 
earlier ages. If paleness or the signs of fatigue or 
listlessness are seen, the cause should be inquired 
into, especially as to regularity in hours of sleep and 
as to feeding. 





To understand some of the changes occurring in 
school children towards the period of adolescence, 
we may take those subnormal in some particular, and 
contrast (i) the boys at eleven years and over, with 
the youngest group ; (2) then, the girls similarly ; and 
lastly, (3) we will compare the girls with the boys 
in their advance during school age. For the facts 
here stated I refer the reader to Table VIII. 

Boys at eleven years and over in contrast with those 
seven years and younger, are arranged in classes as 
before referred to ; we shall see something of their 
progress in life. 

As to the older boys with some developmental 
defect in body, more have abnormal nerve-signs or 
are slow, inexact, or disorderly in movement than 
when young; about the same proportion remain 
mentally dull or backward, but far fewer are deli- 
cate. These boys with badly made heads, or defect 
in physiognomy or growth, become less delicate in 
health with the progress of school-life, but the 
proportion of those with disorderly brains and men- 
tal dulness increases. It is shown in Proposition 
VII. (p. 248) that training directed to improve brain- 
action in movement lessens mental dulness ; it is 
therefore clear that more attention to this matter is 

Among the older boys with signs of *' brain-disorder- 
liness," i.e. abnormal nerve-signs^ we find a smaller 





proportion of dull pupils than in earlier years; school 
training seems to sharpen them up. 

Among older boys who are pale, thin, or delicate 
the proportion of those who are dull diminishes with 
school work, but still includes 40 per cent, and at all 
ages a larger proportion of the delicate boys are 
found to be dull mentally than among the girls. 

Of the Dull boys in the older group a much larger 
proportion present abnormal nerve-signs than among 
the young; this combined with the fact that such 
signs of brain-disorderliness are always the most fre- 
quent accompaniments of mental dulness, again in- 
dicates how many dull boys might probably be 
brightened by further attention to physical training. 

Now as to the girls at eleven years and over, in con- 
trast with those seven years and younger. Of those 
with some developmental defect of body the propor- 
tion with abnormal nerve-signs has risen greatly ; 
though the proportion of those who are delicate has 
fallen, the number still remains large, twice as great 
a proportion as with the boys — while the proportion 
of those who show mental dulness has risen 10 per 
cent. This class of girls needs much care towards 
and during the period of adolescence. 

Among the older girls Low nutrition is associated 
with developmental defect in a much smaller propor- 
tion of cases, than in young girls ; their delicacy is 
presumably more due to conditions of environment ; 


' li 



still more than a third of these delicate girls ap- 
proaching adolescence have conditions of constitution 
tending to low health. 

Among the older girls who are dull mentally a 
smaller proportion of cases is due to developmental 
defect, and a much smaller proportion to delicacy ; 
while a larger proportion are associated with abnormal 

We have now to compare the girls with the boys in 
their advance during school age. 

Among cases with a defect in development in girls of 
the older age, this condition is more associated with 
nerve-signs, delicacy, and dulness than in boys, and such 
associated tendency appears to have risen from the 
earlier period more with the girls. These appear to 
represent many of the girls who have grave health 
disturbance as adolescence approaches. 

Among cases with abnormal nerve-signs in girls of 
the older group, this condition is accompanied in a 
smaller proportion by developmental defect than with 
boys; but the difference is much less marked as age 
progresses. The proportion for children with abnormal 
nervcsigns who are mentally dull, is about equal for 
b .3 .i ; ^-[wls at all ages. 

A Pon;. the Delicate children the association with 
develop^!- .il defect is lower in the older group; 
whereas in infancy this association is more marked with 
girls, in the older group it is more marked with the boys. 




Both boys and girls with developmental defect bear 
the effects of their environment badly, but the power of 
resistance seems to improve with years, advancing more 
with girls than boys. The proportion of delicate boys 
and girls who are dull remains much the same at all 
ages, improving slightly under school training. 

Among the Dull children the proportion with abnor- 
mal nerve-signs is higher at the older age both for boys 
and girls, while the proportion of those who are delicate 

Having spoken of anaemia and hysteria as conditions 
of ill-health, not unfrequently developing at the period 
of adolescence, a short description indicating the signs 
of their commencement must be given. 

Anaemia is a defect in the blood, in which it loses its 
colouring-matter. The red part of the blood is very 
necessary to health ; it carries oxygen from the lungs 
to the brain and to all parts of the body, where blood 
circulates. A person who is anoemic loses colour, the 
face and lips become pale, the colour under the nails is 
lessened and changes less when the nail is pressed, the 
patient becomes breathless and pants in going upstairs. 
The brain is much affected by the want of good blood ; 
there is headache, giddiness, and drowsiness, a lethargic 
manner and inability for much active work. Hot close 
rooms, want of light, and ill-ventilation of the bedroom, 
as well as tight dressing, are among the causes of 

^ \ 

I 1: 





Hysteria is often combined with anaemia. The follow- 
ing points may lead you to anticipate a tendency to this 
condition. It occurs mostly in girls who are over- 
mobile, fidgety with their fingers, often moving about 
restlessly with their dress ; the eyes may be restless and 
not under command, with the other signs described as 
common in nervous children. See Chapter IX. The 
balance of the head, the spine, and hand are usually 
asymmetrical, and the head may at times be extended ; 
there is laughing in undue degree, on inappropriate oc- 
casions, and other expressions of emotion, the tendency 
to which may spread in the school among such girls. 
Expression of feelings and personal admiration, both in 
words and gestures, may be too highly wrought, while 
too much attention is excited by their personal appear- 
ance and that of others ; there is a want of control over 
words and actions, with too few indications of intellectual 
thought and interest. 

The tendency to hysteria may be inherited ; there is 
often a predisposition in weak and nervous girls which 
can only be met by continuous careful training through 
many years; and it should be remembered that these 
children are often imitative, readily catching habits from 
one another. The brain-condition corresponding to 
hysteria appears to consist, essentially, in too great a 
governance of the mental state by impressions of the 
body rather than by the many things seen and heard. 
The mental state is too subjective, and the child's 

m li 




! folloW- 

j to this 
'e over- 
% about 
less and 
ibed as 
:. The 
ended ; 
iate oc- 
1 girls. 
30th in 
, while 
dI over 

thoughts are concentrated on herself. Early detection 
of this tendency is important, that you may check its 
growth : avoid exhaustion as from late hours ; physical 
exercise and early rising are to be recommended ; try 
and improve any irregularities in movements or faulty 
postures of the body. As children advance in years, 
more work must be done leading to a moderate sense of 
fatigue, but signs of fatigue in the morning mean some- 
thing wrong. As the child is growing up, educational 
training should be continued and should include wider 
interests, teaching thoughtfulness for others and at the 
same time the principle of self-control and some obedi- 
ence to the laws of health, which in part replace the 
arbitrary submission to control looked for in early 
childhood. If at adolescence there be any depression, 
lassitude, and weakness, this should not be met by the 
use of alcohol, tea, or other stimulants. 

lere is 
5 from 
^g to 
reat a 
>f the 


The Care of Children and Their Training 




All knowledge obtained as to the physical and men- 
tal life of children, and the constitution of the individual 
child, should have a useful influence on the care and 
training of childhood. Observation and thought will 
enable teachers to gain a wide experience, and arrange 
their method in education so as to be the best available 
for building up mental faculty and good habits, while 
imparting the instruction necessary for the pupils. 

A good deal has already been said about types and 
groups of children, and conditions in the child as you 
see him ; these considerations show that the classifica- 
tion and arrangement of children in the schoolroom is 
worthy of attention. The pupils should be seated con- 
veniently for the teacher's observation in an appropriate 
light ; you cannot properly see a child's face and ex- 
pression if he stands with a window behind him, and he 
cannot properly see your facial expression and action in 
teaching articulation unless your face is well lighted for 
his view. 

An age-basis of classification in the schoolroom has 
largely been used, but it is far from satisfactory, and 




should be modified by a reasonable consideration of 
the intelligence, attainments, physical development, and 
brain-power of the children ; if rigidly adhered to, the 
age-basis of classification may lead to very unsuitable 

Children exert much influence upon one another 
through imitation ; usually good results therefrom, but 
it is not so always ; the advantage of this interaction 
among the pupils is one reason why they should be 
encouraged to play in games, and seek each other's 
society out of school hours. This concerns classification 
in the schoolroom ; examples may be given where such 
influence is not for good. Excitable children, and those 
described as of the nervous type, are gregarious, seeking 
one another's society, and they are mostly imitative, in- 
creasing one another's fidgetiness with a tendency to 
inattention and too much laughter, unless they are 
separated in their school places. Children of the same 
family often show similar tendency to the same modes 
of action and the same faults, owing to similar inheri- 
tance. Thus, for instance, a child of the nervous type, 
one who stammers, or is inclined to be hysterical, should 
not be in contact with his brothers and sisters only, or 
with others of similar constitution, but is benefited by 
mixing with other classes of children, who in turn may 
be quickened by his action. Do not, if possible, place 
imitative pupils together who are ill-mannered or pro- 
fane ; it may be by contact with others they will acquire 




better manners and more useful words, displacing the 
bad words they hear elsewhere : these children may 
perhaps be better placed among children rather dull, but 
good and less imitative. 

I believe that the physical and mental health of the 
brain is promoted in all children by training wisely con- 
ducted ; this in earlier years should largely consist in 
training movements such as bring about the faculty of 
coordination ; a brain whose faculty for coordinated 
movement is built up under the stimulus of a good 
environment, mental and physical, works better in after 
years under the stress produced by adverse conditions. 

In recommending early training for children as a 
physical means of brain-culture, I would insist on the 
avoidance of fatigue. The face may begin to lose ex- 
pression, the lips and face become a little pale ; there 
may be some loss of tone or fulness under the eyes. 
The tired child does not balance the head erect or the 
hand straight, and irregular movements may be seen. 
Spontaneity of movement, especially of the fingers, eyes, 
and small parts, is the character of healthy brain-action 
up to, say, seven years of age, and often much longer. 

Spontaneity of action among the brain-centres is the 
fundamental faculty upon which good action and good 
mental power are grafted ; this principle should always 
be remembered in brain-culture. 

When the child enters the Kindergarten, a primary 
object should be not to make him sit still, but to train 



eye-movements ; ^et the child to look at an object and 
follow it by the movements of his eyes ; never mind if 
he fidgets the while, as long as he looks at what you 
tell him to ; get him to look before you try to make 
him think. 

Training the power of attention and removing inat- 
tention and fidgetiness are fundamental to all educa- 
tional training. When studying the dawn of mental 
faculty in the infant, it was shown that the first indica- 
tions of what may be called signs of attention, are seen 
when a sight or sound rromentarily stops his ?:ponta- 
neous movements ; a further stage is observed when 
such momentary arrest of movement is followed by a 
new set of movements, and gestures are controlled 
and regulated through the senses (brain-coordination). 
When at the sight of a toy the infant's movements are 
momentarily stopped, and the head and eyes turn to the 
toy while his fingers grasp it and convey it to the other 
hand or to his mouth, we say the child's attention has 
been attracted ; we look upon this as showing faculty 
for intelligence later on. Spontaneous movements are 
constant in infants and very young children, the move- 
ments becoming less spontaneous and more under con- 
trol by sights and sounds as growth and development 
advance. Analogous spontaneous movements are seen 
in young animals and also in all parts of seedling 
plants ; much movement in well-nourished young things 
is the common law of organic life. This spontaneous 




action is what we want to cultivate, and when it is 
abundant there is the material to train. You must 
have action as the outcome of nutrition, before you can 
train and educate. Training is the process of bringing 
under control, bringing the spontaneity of the young 
into harmony with their environment. Doubtless it is 
true that this spontaneous action must be checked when 
you need the child's attention — that is a reason why 
you should not require "the attention" for too long a 
period together. If you have produced a good result, 
and no fatigue, spontaneous action will quickly follow 
the cessation of lessons. In play-time encourage spon- 
taneous movements and cultivate them in games. 

In early training we want to make the child, in 
accordance with his age, impressionable to the control 
of his surroundings and to place him in harmony with 
them ; hence the usefulness of organised play and well- 
arranged physical training of the brain. We want to 
cultivate the spontaneity of the child's brain-action, to 
regulate but not to stop it. Before trying altogether, 
to stop the fidgetiness which you observe, note if 
mental action accompanies the movement and see if 
the child be exhausted. Some children are always 
fidgety and inattentive, others only at times ; this may 
be due to physical causes acting temporarily, such as 
want of food or fresh air. Commencing chorea may be 
mistaken for mere fidgetiness, but is usually seen on 
one side of the body more than the other. There may 


en it is 
3U must 
you can 
e young 
ess it is 
ed when 
5on why 
> long a 
I result, 
{ follow 
;e spon- 

hild, in 
ny with 
id well- 
^^ant to 
tion, to 
note if 
see if 
is may 
;uch as 
may be 
een on 
re may 

be an appearance of inattention without any real mental 
fault ; as when short sight prevents a child from seeing 
the blackboard or diagram or when dull hearing gives 
him but a faint idea of the question he is asked. 

We wish to exercise all the powers of all parts of the 
brain. This may in part be effected by cultivation of 
precision of movements to the word of command, espe- 
cially precision in movement of small parts, such as 
eyes, fingers, etc. Cultivate the faculty of imitation in 
the pupil by making him do as you do, calling into 
action the same movements of parts as you do yourself. 
Drilling lessons have often been looked upon only as 
means of "getting up the muscles," and they have been 
used accordingly by the drill-sergeant with the result 
that, as in the case of athletics, the maximum of good 
has not always been attained, and harm has sometimes 
resulted. Children may imitate the sergeant not only 
as to his exercises, but also in manner and expression. 
A few words as to the physiology of physical training 
may help an understanding of the object. When a 
muscle, duly supplied with good blood, is stimulated to 
action, it grows. The nerve-centres of the brain which 
stimulate the muscle are affected at the same time, and 
tend to act on future occasions with more exactness 
and more quickly when stimulated by the same word of 
command. If the object of the physical exercise of the 
class be to drill the nerve-centres or separate portions 
of the brain, increasing thereby the quickness and pre- 




i,\ i 


.MS. I 

cision of their action, then the brain should, as far as 
possible, be free to receive the word of command ; you 
must get the attention of the class and trv i-o perfect 
the time of their movements rather than to ae strong 
muscular action. Leave the muscles free, have nothing 
in the hands when you wish mainly to deal with the 
brain-centres, use no clubs or weights, and let the 
hands be open. Arrange your exercises so as to pro- 
duce movements in some definite order ; at the same 
time, let them effect but little mechanical work. Let 
the movements following your word of command be 
such as to exercise many groups of muscles. In the 
limbs, exercise movements of the large parts and small 
parts, and movements of the separate fingers in flexion 
and extension, as well as in the lateral direction. 

Each group of movements is due to the energy of 
a brain-centre, and these may be controlled to har- 
monious order of action by your exercises. Some 
very beautiful exercises with balls have been used, 
which tend, not only to regulate and quicken the 
effect of sight upon movement, but also to exer- 
cise the power of accommodating vision as the eye 
follows the ball. I think that this subject of drilling 
the various parts of the brain is well worthy of more 
serious attention than it has received. Well-managed 
exercises are most useful for nervous and slow chil- 
dren, exhaustion always being avoided. The child's 
mental processes may be too slow and limited in 



number ; then try not only to quicken them, but, also, 
to quicken the capacity of the brain, for producing 
all movements and the interaction of the ear, the eye, 
and the hand, as in games. 

There are two kinds of results of good training, — 
absence of abnormal nerve-signs, and absence of mental 
dulness ; both results depend, in part, upon the child- 
material collected in the school. The normally made 
children should not present abnormal nerve-signs, and 
in those of defective development much may be done to 
remove them — this is the ideal perfection of training. 

Exercises in physical training may be adapted to the 
peculiarities, or the faults, in the child, as shown in his 
movements. Exercises with the hands in imitation of 
your movements and balance may be used systemati- 
cally on a fixed plan. I referred to this in speaking of 
the examination of imitative power in Chapter VII., and 
will now go into more detail as to method of procedure. 
As before, let A, represent the thumb; B, the index 
finger ; C, the middle finger ; D, the ring finger ; B, the 
little finger. 

Exact uniform repetition may be performed slowly 
or quickly ; better be slow and accurate than too quick. 
Thus : — 

^ — ^^ — AC. Repeated three times — 

with one hand, then with the other, then with both. 
After the exercise — return to tiie straight balance for 

, "i • 

V - 





a moment, and then drop the hands to rest. As the 
object to be attained is imitation through the eye 
only, after explaining what you want of the pupils, 
be silent while performing the exercise ; sec that the 
pupils fix their eyes on your hands, and do not simply 
work from memory. Be careful that no extra-move- 
ments, but only those shown, occur ; no wandering 
eyes, frowning, side-movements of the head, shifting- 
feet ; get the action called for, only. During such ex- 
ercises I have found the signs of fatigue occur, that 
may depend upon the details in your procedure. If 
the class consists of children seven to eight years 
old, as you stand before them on the floor or on a 
platform, your arms held horizontal are as high or 
higher than the children's heads, and they, naturally, 
tend to slope their arms up above the horizontal ; thus 
raising their hands too high, and spending more en- 
ergy than you intend, while the shoulders are prob- 
ably thrown back in this unnecessary effort, with 
bending of the lower part of the spine (lordosis). If 
you sit on a low chair, on a level with the children, 
all this may be prevented. 

When you tell them to imitate you in holding out 
hands in front, and you do it slowly, do not allow a 
quicker movement than you make ; some children 
will shoot out their hands with too much energy, and 
this is often done with closed fists, or anything but 
a straight balance of the hands. Such action is 





analogous to the habit of some children of shoutino- 
when answering in class ; both are bad manners, and 
a waste of strength. It is the exact control by imi- 
tation that best trains the brain. 

A gradually increasing series of movements will be 
more difficult for imitation. Thus: — 

A — B—CD E — AB~AC~AD — AE. 


This may be performed first with the right hand, 
then with the left, finally with both together. 

Many other similar exercises might be arranged, 
the series of movements becoming more complex. 

Eye-movements need training in all children till 
they have acquired the faculty of accurately and 
steadily looking at objects and their parts. Exer- 
cises in eye-movements may be conducted in various 
ways : tell the children to look at a small object you 
hold in your hand, and to follow it v/ith their eyes 
without moving the head ; they may then look at a 
ball as it passes through the air. Eyes are niore 
readily fixed by a bright object, as a bright coin, than 
a dull one ; gold has generally greater attraction than 
silver. It is useful in difficult cases to use a small 
lamp; or employ a small hand mirror and a well- 
screened lamp, so as to reflect its light on the ceiling 
and wall, which young children like to follow. Again, 
you may name known objects in the room, or pictures. 




it } 


telling the pupils to look at each, thus quickening 
their movements ; this may be followed by counting 
the objects with their eyes. 

Training should a^ ue given in estimating the weight 
and size of objects after the methods explained in test- 
ing mental ability. See Chapter VII. 

I have thus far been speaking of exercises planned to 
train exact movemeriit o7 stnall parts: such exercises 
train the power of brai" m i.- finer faculties of coordi- 
nation through '.;*e ey- ^, fitting f<.r ^.he purely mental 
functions of thinking, Th^oc ::;*^ < 'scs maybe fatigu- 
ing, in the sense that though the children may not look 
fatigued as the face is seen, after a short time of prac- 
tise the movements become less accurate, then stop the 
exercise : this is analogous to inaccuracy from mental 
fatigue. Exercises of fingers and eyes may be dropped 
and the lesson concluded by movements of larger parts, 
the shoulders, elbows, hand exercises with closed fists, 
or allowing the fingers to be free or to move spontane- 
ously and uncontrolled in the arm exercises. I believe 
it will be found useful if the class teacher himself will 
devote five or ten minutes a day to physical training of 
the brain as described, as apart from the general calis- 
thenic exercises that may be given in the school. 

I do not say much about drill, marching, military ex- 
ercises, and the use of the gymnasium ; each mode of 
training is useful as well as some form of free exercises 
on the lines of the Swedish system ; these have been 

Li '4: 



described by those who practise and teach them. All 
such exercises improve the muscles and growth ; they 
promote physical health, a good gait and carriage, and 
general activity. 

It must be recognised that though spontaneous move- 
ments of the digits are seen at birth, the larger muscles 
are more easily brought under control than the small 
ones, at an early age. With children seven years old 
and under do not expect very exact imitation of finger 
movements, but rather equal planting of the feet, good 
time in marching; use exercises for the limbs with the 
hands open, allowing spontaneous movements of the 
fingers to occur while the larger muscles arc controlled 
in action. 

The purpose of your physical training is to regulate 
and control the brain of each child, and the class as a 
whole ; such exercises improve action, response and 
balance of the body, head, and limbs. A further object 
is to remove any abnormal nerve-signs present, and 
render the nerve-system strongly knit together that it 
may bear strains well in the future. 

Probably, by careful physical training and exercises 
in imitation, you will succeed in effecting a good carriage 
of the body, and balance and action in the limbs ; but 
you will find more difficr.lty in implanting a good ex- 
pression of face, in improving the tone of ihe muscles of 
expression and, in particular, that around the eyes (O. 
oculi), as well as in relaxing overaction of the muscles, 




(f i. 

crumpling of the forehead. This leads me to speak of 
dealing with the following abnormal nerve-signs : Ex- 
pression defective. Frontals overacting. Corrugation. 
O. oculi lax ; these are nerve-faults, m fact bad habits, 
if you will call them so, but it is generally useless to tell 
the child to look happy and not to frown or knit his 

These signs in the forehead are overaction in place 
of quietness. It may seem to you curious that the same 
sign, the same muscular action in the face, should under 
different circumstances indicate almost opposite con- 
ditions. These signs maybe due to (i) too little mental 
action or stimulus; (2) they may indicate a rather exces- 
sive amount of mental action or its results. 

Case 47. In some institutions for boys where they 
lead a monotonous life, and in an asylum of imbeciles, 
horizontal frowning is frequent. In a Kindergarten I 
was looking at a small boy with a dull face and frontals 
overacting : when I spoke to him and asked him what 
he was going to do, he seemed interested, and his face 
became quiet but more expressive ; so also when he 
began work, making a mat of coloured papers, he looked 
bright. Sometimes just quietly looking at the child as 
he looks at you is sufficient stimulus, and frowning sub- 
sides. In these cases mental stimulus does good : on 
the other hand, hard mental work may cause these signs, 
or at least these signs may accompany mental effort. 
When a class is working sums on paper, or answering 


questions in mental arithmetic, in some boys the eye- 
brows are raised and knit together strongly, a useless 
set of extra-movements accompanying mental action. 

Thus, in trying to remove these signs in a child, ob- 
serve whether they occur mostly when he is occupied or 
unoccupied, what you see will guide your action : the 
abnormal signs should be got rid of if possible. Too 
strong a light may cause a child to screw up his eyes 
and frown : coarse repeated frowning may be seen in a 
child otherwise normal when he presents signs of fatigue 
after work. 

If the child has a dull expression, try and make him 
laugh, and laugh with him, not at him ; make a joke 
or tell a short story and set all the class laughing for 
a moment, to see if he will join in. Exercises involv- 
ing an increasing number of movements may cause 
interest, and a little excitement, if there be no fatigue. 
Fulness and want of tone under the eyes often accom- 
pany a want of expression and occur frequently with 
headaches. It is removed in laughter, and if due 
to a temporary cause, the fuller tone produced by 
laughing may remain ; note the time of day when it 
is seen, and if it correspond with general languid 

In the classroom of the fifth standard boys in a 
school at afternoon lessons I found nearly half the 
number of pupils looking full under the eyes. The 
school was not -working at high pressure, but the room 











I. i' 

s !' 


was overcrowded, hot, and close ; more air and venti- 
lation were needed. 

Not speaking the truth, and petty untruthfulness 
of word and action, must of course be reproved and 
checked in childhood : I do not wish to put down all 
child faults as mere physical weaknesses, but it may be 
useful to see how in some cases untruthfulness is asso- 
ciated with conditions that may be removed by training. 

A boy slams the door and then says he didn't ; or 
you see his foot kick his neighbour, and he denies it. 
The door may have slammed because his fingers 
twitched and let it go or pushed it, and his foot may 
have struck his neighbour from uncontrollable move- 
ments. Before you are quite sure the action was in- 
tentional, look and see that there are no great number 
of spontaneous movements occurring. I have known 
children punished on account of the inconvenience 
resulting from the irregular antics of commencing 
chorea. A bo}/ says he has learnt his lesson, but can- 
not repeat a word of it, having learnt the wrong one, 
but being afraid to say so — he may be a child with 
untrained eye-movements, and did not look accurately 
to see the number of the page he should have learnt. 
Such faults may not be intentional lies on the child's 

Case 48. A child at school had a sick headache 
while writing notes of the lessons to be prepared at 
home. Looking at the note-book next day, several 



i venti- 

'cd and 
own all 
may be 
is asso- 
In't ; or 
inies it. 
>ot may 
was in- 
Lit can- 
g one, 
d with 

red at 

words were repeated, and others omitted, wliile the 
whole was most inaccurate, though usually carefully 
entered ; the hand-writing was also altered, showing 
a brain disturbance as the cause of forgetfulness. 

Some nervous children are very timid and liable to 
mental confusion when suddenly addressed, turning 
pale or flushing, not ready with any appropriate reply, 
and full of extra-movements when excited. If their 
mental confusion is mistaken for deceitfulness or un- 
truth, confidence may be lost between the teacher 
and pupil : such children are often keenly sensitive to 
an injustice, or what appears so to them. 

Case 49. A boy living with his friends, away from 
his parents, attended a day-school and was generally 
docile and good. One day he said at school that he 
had been told to go back early : this proved to be 
totally untrue, and he was punished. On another 
occasion, he told the master at school that he had 
a little baby brother and had received a letter saying 
the baby was dead and he was to go and see him ; he 
showed the letter, which said nothing of the kind. 
This without further inquiry was apparently a gross 
untruth. That boy was the son of a mother not of 
very sound mind ; he had had a few slight epileptic 
fits, and sometimes saw — apparently really thought 
he saw and heard — persons who spoke to him. 

Illusions are not uncommon among children and 
adults who have no unsound mind. A child may 





ho i 

fit ti 


over and over again see an ugly man, a dog, or a 
wolf ; such illusions may cause secret fear or they 
may not annoy him. Get the child if you can to tell 
you of what he sees, explain to him that they are only 
dreams ; do not speak often of them, hut do not avoid 

Fixed mental impressions are important elements in 
mental life ; some you may wish to build up, others 
you may wish to remove ; the first thing is to discern 
their existence. A fixed and oft-repeated facial ex- 
pression of mental anxiety not produced by the cir- 
cumstances may accompany illusions ; blushing not 
due to any visible cause may result from a fixed 
thought producing fear or emotion. Find out if you 
can the source of the fixed thought that produced 
it; it may be some object seen that caused fright; 
epilepsy may follow fright or the oft-repeated imagi- 
nation or calling back to view that dreaded sight or 
the mental impression it produced. 

You may sometimes see a child immovable, appar- 
ently unimpressed by all around him, the eyes fixed 
with a stare. You conclude he is not thinking, as 
you can get no expression of thoughts from him. 
Such habits ought to be checked. 

As to the management and training of delicate 
children : I wish in the first place to insist on their 
need of training and education, suited to their con- 
dition and their capacity ; it is a mistake, only too 

J is 

r, or a 
ir they 
to tell 
re only 
t avoid 

»ents in 
cial ex- 
the cir- 
insf not 
a fixed 
; if you 
rod need 
fright ; 
light or 

s fixed 
ing, as 


)n their 
ir con- 
nly too 


common, to leave weak children to do nothing all 
day, hoping that they will grow stronger. 

The care of such children concerns management 
both at home and in school. 

A detailed study of nerve-signs in the child will 
give assistance of scientific and practical value to those 
in charge of delicate and nervous children. A card 
indicating the abnormal nerve-signs in the case (see 
Card, Nervous Child, Chapter IX.) will show the teacher 
some of the points to be aimed at in physical training ; 
further, a knowledge of the brain-disorder' iness indi- 
cated by the signs will give a hint as to the modes of 
mental disorderliness likely to be met with in the 
pupil. Wandering eye-movements 1( id to inaccuracy 
in transcription and sometimes in arithmetic ; children 
with twitching finger movements not easily controlled 
often have spontaneous thoughts arising, which lead to 
mental confusion and inaccurate answers to questions, 
also interfering with memory. The child slow in all 
movements and slouching is apt to be dull in mental 
action till his attitude and response are improved. 

The description of the child points out as signs of 
brain-disorderliness : " want of facial expression," " grin- 
ning," "frowning," "knitting of the eyebrows," the 
"want of control of movements," "protrusion of the 
tongue when spoken to," "lordosis," and "ill-balanced 
hand-postures." It is the teacher's part to try patiently 
to remove each such abnormal nerve-sign and the brain- 








V I 





disorderliness corresponding, by prescntinj^ a good copy 
for imitation in balance and in action. Observing the 
circumstances under which each of the given signs 
most frequently subsides will help you to carry on 
brain-training concurrently with purely mental training. 

Untrained children often grow up to adult age with- 
out their eye-movements having been brought under 
control, leading to habits of inaccuracy in book work : 
such children make very bad observers. 

The mental training of delicate children needs to be 
carefully regulated. It is a mistake to leave delicate 
children untrained and uneducated ; such neglect often 
leads to hysteria in adolescence, weakness, inability to 
bear headaches without nerve-prostration and other 
inconveniences, and disabilities in adult life. Further, 
good training improves brain-power, lessens brain-wear, 
and lessens the tendency to mental confusion and 

Spontaneous action in the higher brain-centres, both 
for motor action and for mental action, is very com- 
monly found in excess in nervous and delicate chil- 
dren ; it is then sometimes said that they are preco- 
cious and should not do lessons ; these young brains 
are often well made, and will work, and may lead the 
child if left at home with nothing to do to fall into the 
habit of an amount of lonesome thinking which pro- 
duces bad sleep and exhaustion. Such children benefit 
by a quiet regular school-life and association with 




ood copy 
rving the 
'en signs 
carry on 
age vvith- 
;ht under 
ok work : 

eds to be 
; delicate 
!ect often 
ability to 
nd other 
sioii and 

:res, both 
ery com- 
:ate chil- 
re preco- 
ig brains 
lead the 
into the 
lich pro- 
n benefit 
ion with 

other pupils, in whose work and games they must take 
their part. 

As to the schoolroom management of a nervous 
child, it is necessary to observe whether he is more 
easily and quietly controlled through his eye or ear ; 
speaking to him may be followed by some extra-move- 
ments and fidgeting, whereas signalling or indicating 
by your gesture that he must go on with his work, 
or not talk, may be followed by quiet obedience. 

I wish to encourage among teachers the study of 
Nature's works, conditions of life as seen in plants and 
animals — the child is a part of Nature's work. All 
the properties of the brain which give it the faculty 
of expressing the action of mind are seen, in some 
degree, in lower living things. The study of natural 
objects, and their processes of growth, may suggest 
methods for use in mental training. Suppose an 
object lesson on botany. You want to use some piece 
of Nature's work placed before the class, or better 
still, in the hands of each nupil, as a means of educa- 
tion in observing and thinking, as a means of teaching 
processes of thought and extending the mental capa- 
city of the pupils, together with the cultivation of 
accuracy of method — this is the desire of every scien- 
tific teacher. Observing is not necessarily thinking ; 
observing is receiving new impressions, thinking is a 
series of brain-acts that may follow such impressions. 
Observation may, or may not, lead to thinking ; it 



i' (.; 

depends much upon the teacher whether the object 
lesson shall teach thinking or only observing. Im- 
pressions produced by sight of the specimen may be 
followed, after it is removed, by thoughts ; descrip- 
tions given by the pupil are expressions of thought, 
and help to enlarge his vocabulary. Suppose you 
take some simple leaves not notched upon the margin, 
and speak of them with regard to their shape. You 
may describe them as oval, elliptical, ovate, obovate, 
lanceolate, etc., using a new term for every shape, that 
is, using a number of terms, one for every shape or 
ratio in the length of the transverse and median axis ; 
in place of this you may indicate the ratio ; say, let 
us consider the form as determined by the ratios of 
the axes, and do without a long nomenclature. 

(oval) median axis . . length 

** transverse axis . 
(elliptical) median axis . 

" transverse axis 

(ovate) median axis . . 

" transverse axis . 

(obovate) median axis . 

transverse axis 


3 ) the axes crossing at their 
1 ) centres at right angles. 

4 ^ the axes crossing at their 
I i centres at right angles. 
3 > the axes crossing at right 
I ) angles ^ from the base. 
3 I the axes crossing at right 
I ) angles f from the base. 

It is unnecessary to go further into details. As to 
these two modes of describing form of leaves, the 
second indicates what you observe on looking at the 
leaf. There is a great difference between teaching 
science and scientific teaching. Let me give another 



i object 
g. Im- 
mav be 
•se you 
t. You 
pe, that 
tiape or 
n axis ; 
say, let 
itios of 

at their 
at their 
at right 
le base, 
at right 
le base. 

As to 

is, the 

at the 



illustration of description of growth,^ which may stimu- 
late more thought than the simi)le one given above. 
Look at horse-chestnut buds in different stages of 
growth. During the winter months the inner parts of 
the bud are enclosed by scales, or modified leaves ; as 
these scales grow, the cells on the outer surface in- 
crease more rapidly than those on the inner surface, 
and, as a mechanical result, these scales become more 
concave towards the centre of the bud and envelop 
it, thus affording protection from the weather and 
attacks by insects. The young imperfect leaves are 
closely packed within, and these also grow quickly on 
their outer side, causing them to press towards the 
centre of the bud. When spring-time comes with 
increased temperature and consequent increased nutri- 
tion, changes occur in the ratios of growth — the inner 
surfaces of both bud-scales and young leaves grow at 
a greater rate than the outer surfaces, and thus the 
curvatures are altered, the inner surfaces become con- 
vex, and the bud opens. How much simpler it would 
be to say — the bud opens to the spring! But the 
detailed description teaches us to think ; it shows that 
we must consider the individual parts of any living 
thing when we want to know how it acts ; the ratios of 
action in each part must be observed. We see the bud 

1 For further examples, see Author's work, "Anatomy of Movement : 
Treatise on the Action of Ncrve-Centrcs and Modes of Growth." The 
Macmillan Company, New York. 




does not open itself, neither is it a mere mr chine, 
as the phrase is commonly understood. Warmth is a 
necessary antecedent to the processes described ; the 
ratios of growth appear due to properties inherent in 
the cells composing the parts. 

Having referred to different modes of giving descrip- 
tions of facts in Nature, we may use the principles put 
forward as a means of analysing literature. Let me give 
two examples from " Nathan the Wise " (Lessing). 


'• The searching eye will oft discover more 
Than it desires, ' tis as he read my soul. 
That, too, may chance to nie. 'Tis not alone 
Leonard's walk, stature, but his very voice. 
Leonard so wore liis head, was even wont 
Just so to brush his eyebrows with his hand. 
As if to mask the lire that fills his look." 

Here is a description of what Nathan saw in Leonard ; 
the terms used are his stature and the various move- 
ments seen — a purely physical description. 


" This head, this face, this forehead, these eyes, this nose, this 
mouth, this chin, this throat, this bosom, this figure, this whole 
form, are from this time forth my sole study of feminine beauty" 
('' Emilia Galotti" — Lessing). 

Here is an unspiritual and corporeal description, 
without reference to any movement or sign of brain- 

nr chine, 
nth is a 
ed ; the 
erent in 

i\cs put 

me give 


eonard ; 
3 move- 

lose, this 

lis whole 

beauty " 


We will now take for analysis the following descrip- 
tion of the condition of Achilles : ^ 

"Achilles heard, with grief and rage oppress'd ; 
His heart swell'd high, and laboured in his breast. 
Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruPd, 
Now fir'd by .wrath, and now by reason cool'd." 

This description we shoidd find hard to analyse and 
translate into terms denoting what can be actually 
observed; this illustrates the convenience of non- 
physical terms. 

I have Touched briefly upon many points, speaking of 
things as I see them. The great labour, responsibility, 
and honour of educating children is yours. The words 
of the poet remind us that : 

"Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers." 

It is not enough to give children knowledge ; you 
should be wise for their sakes, and to become so may 
find it well to study Nature in her works and the child 
as a part of Nature. 

1 Pope's translation of the " Iliad," line 251. 

■ brain- 




I * - 'i 


' ■^i 

Hygiene and Health Management during School- 

I SHALL speak of children now from the health point 
of view, and deal with methods of cultivating healthy 
conditions in the school and in individual pupils, as 
well as preventing illness and the spread of disease. I 
shall bear in mind that the main object of this work 
is to indicate points for your observation in the chil- 
dren, and subject lor thoughtful consideration. Advice 
may sometimes be conveyed to parents through their 
children, so that while you give attention to general 
points of health in the school, you may help individuals 
and at the same time spread knowledge among the 
elder pupils on practical matters of health-culture, 
which no formal teaching would impart, and thus in- 
spire them with the desire for a healthy body with a 
sound mind, I shall speak of general points in health- 
culture, and of methods for early detecting and the 
means of preventing the spread of illness and disease. 

A point of first-rate importance to health is cleanli- 
ness in person, in dress, in the air breathed, and in 
food. The air of any living-room should be constantly 






th point 


Lipils, as 

ease. I 

lis work 

the chil- 


jjh their 



g the 


hus in- 

with a 


and the 



and in 


changed : the emanations in the breath are poisonous ; 
foul air causes headaches, drowsiness, mental dulncss, 
and diseases. In the schoolroom the temperature in 
winter should not fall below 50° F., nor rise above 
60° F. ; it is desirable that there should be a short 
interval in the middle of the morning lessons, that the 
windows may be thrown open widely and the air 
thoroughly changed. In any living or sleeping room 
the windows should be opened a little at the top, while 
a small fire helps ventilation by causing a draft up the 

As a matter of school hygiene teachers should take 
notice of the early indications of illness or disease. 
Perhaps the most practical means of looking to these 
points in the children day by day, is for the class 
teacher to receive the pupils as they arrive and cast 
a glance at each child for a moment. If any child is 
thought to be feverish, the temperature should be taken 
by the thermometer, and the appearance of any rash 
should be looked for in the face and on the skin of 
the chest. Among common chronic conditions, that 
may be seen, I may mention discharges from the eyes, 
nose, and ears, diseases of the skin and the scalp ; among 
dangerous diseases you may occasionally see the signs 
of tlie infectious fevers and diphtheria ; while chorea 
or St. Vitus's dance may develop gradually during school 
attendance, growing worse day by day. Sometimes 
when speaking to a girl of her home life and asking 





after the younger brothers and sisters, you may be 
able to give useful advice. 

I shall speak now of food and the feeding of chil- 
dren, their clothing, and the care of those that are 
delicate. Some mistakes are made among the poorer 
classes, more through ignorance and want of helpful 
guidance than through poverty; cheap food is not 
always economical, and the use of suitable food and 
proper feeding does not always mean more expenditure. 

Milk should be obtained as fresh as possible and not 
kept longer than necessary ; it should be received in a 
freshly scalded jug and placed out of the way of dust, 
covered with muslin or a sheet of clean paper, to keep 
out the dust : dust makes milk go sour, and the germs 
of disease grow rapidly, increase, and multiply when 
they fall into milk. In hot weather the milk should 
be scalded, if it has to be kept through the night ; 
neglect of this in the summer may cause much dis- 
turbance in children. 

Water does no harm to children, but large quantities 
should not be drunk when the child is overheated ; 
many children suffer much from not being able to 
drink when they want to. If there is doubt as to 
the purity of the water, it should be boiled and allowed 
to cool before drinking. All children are better with- 
out beer or any alcoholic drink. 

Bread should not be used till the second day ; new 
bread is both indigestible and wasteful : broken bread 



may be 

of chil- 

:hat are 

I poorer 


is not 

ood and 


and not 

/ed in a 

of dust, 

to keep 

le germs 

ly when 


; night ; 

uch dis- 

rheated ; 

able to 
►t as to 

er with- 

\y ; new 
:n bread 

and bread crumbs may be used for bread and milk or 
in puddings. 

Fat food is very desirable for children. With bread 
they should take butter or dripping or the fresh marrow 
of bones ; bacon, eggs, as well as fresh meat with fat, 
form very nutritious food. Suet pudding, made with 
equal weights of suet, flour, and bread crumbs, well 
mixed and long boiled, is nutritious and digestible. 

Green vegetables and fruit in season are useful ; the 
latter should not be used when at all decayed, as it 
often causes illness. The value of potatoes as nour- 
ishing food is apt to be overestimated. 

Fresh fish and meat are of course highly important, 
but I have no space to speak of these articles of diet. 

The habit of taking meals regularly at fixed times, 
never being late or hurried at breakfast, is equally im- 
portant to good living with the kind of food provided; 
the meals taken at home with due order will give a 
better digestion of the food and better nutrition of 
the body and brain, than snacks of bread and butter 
or odds and ends of food taken irregularly. 

The teacher — thinking of the future pupil — may 
upon occasion have the opportunity of advising par- 
ents as to the feeding of an infant : this matter is too 
important to pass over even if the senior girls are not 
well instructed on such matters as points of physiology. 

Many of the troubles of early childhood in a town 
population result from the development of rickets ; this 










is a condition of bad growth with bent legs and other 
defects which is largely due to giving babies farinaceous 
or starchy food under seven months ; on the other hand, 
rickets may often be prevented and the child's health 
much improved by strict attention to healthy surround- 
ings and proper and regular feeding. At six months old 
a hand-fed baby should take two pints of milk in the 
twenty-four hours diluted with one-third water or with 
a little lime-water or barley-water. No artificial food, 
containing starchy matter, or biscuits or bread should 
be given, at any rate till after the first teeth are cut. 
Great care should be taken to keep the feeding-bottle 
perfectly clean and sweet ; and to preserve the milk 
from becoming sour. You will remember that the 
young infant is an embryo school-child ; good advice 
to the mother or elder sister may result in sending 
better material to your school in the future. 

Clothing the Child. — The object to be sought by 
clothing is to keep a uniform layer of air in contact with 
the body and the limbs. Dress may be well arranged 
without necessarily costing more than garments ill 
adapted to health. It is preferable to have woollen gar- 
ments next to the body ; but whatever their material, 
the make is also important ; garments should not be 
tight anywhere at the collar or at the waist ; in the 
winter especially the undergarment should come up to 
the neck with a low collar band, and the sleeves should 
be continued below the elbow. It is hardly necessary 



id Other 
er hand, 
s health 
nths old 
k in the 

or with 
ial food, 
1 should 
are cut. 
:he milk 
hat the 


ight by 
act with 
ents ill 
len gar- 
not be 
in the 
e up to 

to dwell on thu fact that constriction of tlic waist with 
a view to imi)rove the figure is a fool'sh imprudence. In 
wet weather children should if possible change their 
boots on entering the school. 

Though it is not possible to describe here the means 
of early recognition of all diseases of children of school 
age, it may be useful to say a few words about some of 
those more commonly seen in the school which should 
be early detected by teachers with a view to prevent the 
spread of infection, and others which may arise or be 
observed during school attendance. 

Ophthalmia. — Is sometimes called "blight in the 
eyes." The membrane lining the eyelids and covering 
the white portion of the eye ball may become red and 
inflamed, producing an unhealthy thick yellowish dis- 
charge, which is highly infectious. This form of inflam- 
mation of the eyes is called ophthalmia, and is one of the 
greatest causes of blindness. Any child with secretion 
coming from its eyes, should not use a pocket handker- 
chief, but the eyes may be cleansed with portions of 
cotton wool, which should then be burnt at once to 
destroy the infectious matter. In cleansing the eyes, 
wet bits of soft rag in warm water then drip the water 
on to the eyes, with the lids separated by your thumb 
and finger, so as to wash away all discharges. The dis- 
charge is very catching; be most careful that no particle 
finds its way to your own eyes ; burn every bit of rag 
after it has been used, and wash your hands in some dis- 






infcctin<;- fluid. If the child is kept in school, constant 
care must be taken to keep the eyes clean ; but the 
child should be isolated if possible and placed under 
medical care. 

Ulcer on the Front of the Eye (Cornea). — Children 
with such ulcers cannot face the light, and keep their 
eyes screwed up : often they get the bad eye tied up 
with a handkerchief to exclude the light. This disease 
mostly occurs in children of poor health and low nu- 
trition. An ulcer or depressed white spot may be seen 
in the front of the eye, often at the centre or sight of 
the eye ; if this does not quickly heal, it will leave a 
permanent white patch, which will ever after interfere 
with the sight. 

Summer Diarrhoea is very frequent and very fatal 
among young children in the hot weather. Such an epi- 
demic occurs in towns almost every year, when the mean 
temperature of the air rises above 63'^ F. The general 
sanitation of the home is the best preventive measure ; 
the rooms should be kept very clean and well ventilated, 
urge great cleanliness and daily bathing of children or 
sponging with cold water. Children ought not to be 
allowed to eat either unripe or decomposing fruit ; and 
at this time of the year, in particular, great care should 
be taken as to keeping milk sweet ; it should be all 
scalded before being used. 

Chicken-pox begins with slight rise of temperature, and 
on the second day a small number of reddish pimples 


- i^ 




but the 

ed under 

2ep their 
; tied up 
3 disease 
1 low nu- 

be seen 
sight of 

leave a 

:ry fatal 
h an epi- 
le mean 
leasure ; 
dren or 
t to be 
it ; and 
1 be all 

ire, and 

appear, some of which soon become watery heads : it 
spreads rapidly among children. 

Measles begin with all the symptoms of a common 
cold, running of the eyes and nose, hoarseness of voice, 
and a rise of temperature. The eruption on the skin 
appears about the third day on the face, neck, and arms. 
It is extremely infectious and leads to many deaths 
among children. 

Scarlet Fever begins with sore throat and a rise of 
temperature. The red rash comes out on the body, the 
arms, and the face on the second day of illness. It is very 
infectious and dangerous ; when the fever is gone, the 
skin is left rough, and fine powder peels off from it, 
which is the source of infection. The child who has 
recovered from scarlet fever should not be received at 
school till all peeling of the skin of the hands has 
ceased ; baths should be used with disinfectants durine 
convalescence. If a case of scarlet fever is found in 
school, the books and papers the child has touched in 
the schoolroom should be burnt. The infection is very 
.ily carried from the home where a child is ill to 

school by a child not yet ill. 
Diphtheria. — The child may complain of sore throat, 
and the voice be partially lost ; while in bad cases among 
young ch '-Iren an unpleasant discharge may come down 
the nose d accumulate on the upper lip ; this discharge 
is very , ectious. The temperature is not high in diph- 
theria, b L the glands under the jaw may enlarge rapidly. 






Taking the Temperature. — If a child is flushed or ill, 
complaining of pains or headaches, and looks like sick- 
ening for an illness, it is useful that you should take his 
temperature with a thermometer. The natural tem- 
perature of the body is uniform, and in health stands at 
98|° I'". Every school should be provided with a clinical 
thermometer. Place the bulb, which contains the mer- 
cury, in the mouth, under the tongue, with the lips gently 
closed around the stem, and keep it there three minutes ; 
when you remove it, notice how high the mercury stands 
in the stem; if it is above 100° F., the child is ill and 
unfit for the schoolroom. 

Some diseases are contagious : the inflammation of 
ophthalmia and diphtheria produces secretions which 
if they reach a healthy child may reproduce the same 
disease in him. The contagious material may be said 
to convey the germs of the disease. So with other 
catching diseases, as ringworm of the head. In scarlet 
fever the dust from the skin of the convalescent patient 
conveys the disease, so the clothes must be disinfected. 
In measles, scarlet fever, whooping-cough, the poison 
may pass through the air from the patient to the healthy 
children ; hence isolation is necessary. Always disin- 
fect your hands after touching any patient with a catch- 
ing disease. 

Simple disinfection may be required in the school- 
room, as for your hands after you have touched the face 
of a child with ophthalmia or one believed to have a 



ihcd or ill, 

like sick- 
d take his 
ural tem- 

stands at 
1 a clinical 
! the mer- 
ips gently 

minutes ; 
iry stands 

is ill and 

nation of 
ns which 
the same 
y be said 
ith other 
n scarlet 
t patient 
e poison 
3 healthy 
ys disin- 
a catch- 

i school- 
the face 
' have a 

fever. For this purpose a few drops of Condy's fluid 
(permanganate of potash) just to colour the water in a 
hand-basin, or a solution of carbolic acid i in 40 parts, 
may be used ; a weak solution of corrosive sublimate 
(1-3000) may be used to wash over the floor after 

Chorea, or St. Vitus's dance, is frequent during school 
age, and is more common among girls than boys. This 
occurs in some of the bright, well-made children ; it is 
characterised by weakness and a number of awkward 
twitches and movements, while the girl becomes some- 
what childish in manner. The onset is usually gradual, 
the girl becomes clumsy, things drop from her hands, 
as the fingers open spontaneously, the hand when held 
out assumes the nervous posture, while the fingers 
twitch, there may be facial grimaces, usually about the 
mouth, and the eyes are much moved ; the shoulders 
may often be drawn up and down, and other abnormal 
nerve-signs are observable. Though many spontaneous 
movements thus occur, they are at first partially under 
control, and momentary quietness may be produced by 
arresting the child's attention. These children have 
often suffered from rheumatism or pains in joints and 
limbs, with some swelling of one knee after fatigue or 
what are vaguely called "growing pains " ; another 
important point is that these children are almost always 
below their normal weight, often losing a pound in 
weight or more in a week. 







Case 50. A girl thirteen years of age ; in Standard VI.; 
after a slight attack of sore throat, became very irritable ; 
she was unable to write properly or hold her book straight 
and began to drop things from her hands. She left 
school, but was not laid up. When seen at the hospital, 
her weight was much below the normal ; when she held 
out her hands, there was much movement seen at the 
elbows and wrists, while the fingers twitched ; imitation 
of movements was fairly performed, but with many 
extra-movements, not controlled through her eyes. At 
the end of a month's treatment she had gained four 
pounds in weight, and the movements subsided ; she 
made a good recovery. There was disease of the heart, 
as so often is present in these cases, and that remained. 

Epilepsy is a grave disease ; you may occasionally 
see an epileptic attack, but more often you will be told 
that a child, who otherwise should be at school, has had 
a fit. An epileptic fit is a sudden seizure ; a momen- 
tary pallor of the face is succeeded by loss of conscious- 
ness, the patient falls, the hands are clenched ; the face 
is distorted and becomes blue or black with congestion, 
while the convulsion spreads to the limbs. After such 
an attack the child is drowsy and needs rest. In some 
cases the attacks are much less severe, only momentary 
unconsciousness occurring without convulsion {/fettt 
ma/). It is difficult to say what should be done for 
such children ; they need training with education, and 
do best when fully occupied in the country ; to leave 

irritable ; 
k straight 
She left 
she held 
;n at the 
th many 
yes. At 
ned four 
led ; she 
lie heart, 
1 be told 
has had 
the face 
er such 
[n some 
1 {petit 
one for 
on, and 
o leave 


them untrained doing nothing through childhood is 
very unwise. 

Rickets is so frequently seen among children who 
live in towns that the indications of this condition 
ought to be known to you ; the signs you will see 
are mostly in the bones, the head, and in growth. 
These cases are common in the infant school, and 
more boys than girls are affected. They are short for 
their age and remain stunted, the head is often large 
and ill shapen, the forehead bulging or projecting on 
either side ; the legs may be bowed and knock-kneed, 
making the child a bad walker. In a young child, say 
three or four years, the ends of the bones of the arms 
just above the wrists are usually large. The chest is 
" pigeon-breasted," thrust forward in the middle line, and 
pressed in at the sides. Rickets is largely due to feed- 
ing babies with bread and other farinaceous food in place 
of milk ; these children are delicate, they grow up stunted, 
and about one-third of them prove to be dull pupils : 
rickets could probably be prevented in any child hv 
attention to the rules of health. 

A well-arranged schoolhouse and classrooms will 
do much towards the culture of physical and mental 
health. Good lighting gives cheerfulness and is 
better for sight and for teaching; when possible it 
is better that the desks be arranged so that with a 
unilateral light, the windows are on the left hand of 
the children ; the windows should be kept bright and 

1 ' *^ 





the blinds drawn well up ; if windows are on two sides 
of the room, curtains may be wanted to regulate the 

The children should in wet weather change their 
boots on entering school : the cloak-room should be 
arranged with a space for each child to prevent the 
mixing of the clothes. Lavatories are often badly 
constructed ; for a large school it is safer to have no 
wash-basins, a stream of water from a tap to wash in 
tends to prevent contagion, and the use of the lavatory 
should be supervised. It is much to be desired that 
school children should be encouraged to use the public 
swimming baths, now so frequently provided in towns. 

In considering the health of the children I would 
refer you to what has been said in former chapters as 
to sight ; and as to defective hearing in the mouth- 
breathers. Remember that children, small in growtli, 
small-headed, or with any defect in development of the 
body, are apt to become delicate and dull mentally, so 
that the views of the parents of the dull pupil who 
object to long home lessons for the child may be reason- 
able ; this will lead you to study the child as to both 
his mental and physical status. Otht points concern- 
ing mental and physical health are put forward in 
the Propositions on Childhood (Chapter XIII.). 

The care of health in delicate children does not 
necessarily imply giving up their training ; there are 
many young children, delicate for a time without 

wo sides 
Lilate the 

ige their 
lould be 
^ent the 
n badly 
have no 
wash in 
ed that 
i public 
ters as 
of the 
illy, so 
1 who 
) both 
rd in 

s not 
e are 


disease, besides those described as "nervous children." 
I think it would be of service to the teacher, if some 
account of the child's condition and physical and 
braui defects were prepared by a medical man, showin- 
in what points that child may require special care. In 
the case of all delicate children the teacher's own 
examination should be some guide, as is explained in 
Chapter XI., and the points given for the observation of 
children will aid in health culture. 

When visiting a school in East London with one 
of the managers, and glancing over the children as 
they stood or worked in their classes, several cases 
of illness and disease were soon apparent. Two or 
three had obvious defects of vision, capable of easy 
correction by glasses, and one had disease of his eyes 
which threatened to destroy his sight completely be- 
fore manhood. This was pointed out to the head- 
master and a ticket for the neighbouring hospital 
was offered. 

School hygiene in its mental aspects and the cul- 
ture of brain-healthiness among children generally, as 
well as in certain groups subnormal, is a subject 
dealt with throughout this work, and includes the 
cultivation of good brain-power and the avoidance of 
an amount of fatigue leading to exhaustion. 

It can hardly be said that at present there exists 
any established science of mental hygiene ; yet some 
good materials are at hand for further developments 





of exact mental science and the study of child-mind. 
It seems to me essential to a scientific mental hygiene 
of childhood, that we should be better acquainted with 
its types and varieties. Some of these have been de- 
scribed, but it must be remembered that the classes 
I have described are mostly children subnormal m 
some point, amounting to 20 per cent of the school chil- 
dren seen by me. We want a mental hygiene for 
childhood at large, and subsections dealing with 
certain groups. There may be mental and motor 
fatigue ; the general signs of fatigue which you may 
observe have here been described. Much stress has 
been laid on the avoidance of fatigue, or at any rate 
such continued fatigue as amounts to exhaustion. 
The laws of mental fatigue are not the same as 
those of muscular fatigue. The nerve-system is in 
part an apparatus for the storage and distribution of 
energy ; it is further an apparatus consisting of a 
great number of parts or brain-centres, which are 
separately under control of the senses ; their coordi- 
nation and coacting represent the physical basis of 
mental processes. 

The subject of mental fatigue has been investi- 
gated by Dr. Leo Burgerstein of Vienna, Dr. Rivers 
of Cambridge University, and others. Dr. Burger- 
stein observed with care and accuracy the effects of 
one hour's mental occupation, as indicated by the 
mental mistakes made. The principal tests used were 



ited with 
been de- 
2 classes 
)rmal in 
lool chil- 
:iene for 
ig with 
1 motor 
^ou may 
^ess has 
iny rate 
ame as 
n is in 
ition of 
2: of a 
ich are 
»asis of 


in addition and multiplication of figures. He came 
to the conclusion that the working power rises and 
falls during the time of an ordinary lesson, and that 
it is not well to let lessons last longer than three- 
quarters of an hour; advising to interrupt the con- 
tinuation of lessons by pauses of about a quarter of 
an hour, so as to have the children's brain rested, 
the body moved, and the school-room air changed. 

icts of 
)y the 
I were 




Propositions Concekning Childhood 

Proposition I. — The main classes of defect among 
school children include a larger proportion of boys tJian 

Evidence as to the truth of this statement is suffi- 
ciently afforded in Table VII., which shows that a 
larger proportion of boys than girls present defect in 
development, abnormal nerve-signs, and mental dul- 
ness ; but the girls present the largest proportion of 
delicate cases ; this is in accordance with common 
experience during school-life. Still it has been shown 
that it is only the girls with development defect that 
are so prone to be delicate, not all girls. 

Again : although it is here stated that the propor- 
tion of girls in any way below the normal as indicated 
by any main class of defect, except delicacy, is smaller 
than among boys ; still, when a girl has some defect, 
it is often of more real importance than a similar 
condition in a boy. See Proposition VI. 

The general rule, that defectiveness falls mostly 
on the male sex, holds good also in adult life, as seen 
among the classes with physical infirmities, the blind, 




'' among 
oys than 

is suffi- 
that a 
efect in 
tal dul- 
rtion of 
:ct that 



s seen 


deaf, and mentally deranged from childhood ; so also 

for criminals and paupers according to the English 

Census and other official returns. 

I have shown elsewhere (see "Statistical Journal," 

March, 1896, London), that a larger proportion of 
girls than boys present two or more classes of defect 
associated in the same case; and their condition is 
worse than that of children with one class of defect only. 
A child with an ill-shapen head or palate may have no 
other defect ; but if, in addition, he become delicate, he is 
at a disadvantage. So a boy only dull, while strong and 
active, may get his living ; but if he is also slow in action 
and of poor heaUn, he is likely to become dependent. 

Proposition II. - The main classes of defect among 
school children arc much associated in the groups 
of cases; such associations vary with sex, age, and 

Evidence as to this proposition is given in Table 
VIII. Developmental defects are much associated 
in children with abnormal nerve-signs, low nutrition, 
and mental dulness. A child presenting a develop- 
mental defect only, e.g a narrow palate, defect of ex- 
ternal ears or other features, may be at no personal 
disadvantage ; it is in conditions commonly associated 
therewith that harm arises. 

So each class of defect if unaccompanied by any 
other deficiency may not give rise to any serious 




trouble ; but when defects are associated in the 
same case, they produce harm in life. 

Taking all classes of defect together, the associa- 
tion of two or more classes of defect in the same 
case is less commonly found in school children at 
eleven years and over, than at seven years and under : 
this fact seems to indicate a favourable evolution of 
childhood during school life. 

It is the children with developmental defects that 
acquire the most association with other classes of 
defect as time goes on, developing abnormal nerve- 
signs, mental dulness, and low nutrition ; they have 
a low power of resistance to an adverse environment. 
Probably their heredity is a part of the causation of 
this condition ; but much may be done during school- 
life to prevent evils arising. 

In this class of children there appears to be dis- 
proportioning in bodily development, and associated 
therewith delicacy of body, and proneness to disor- 
derly brain-action. As a group, in an institution, 
such children acquire more abnormal signs than in 
the day school, but grow fatter. 

It is shown in Proposition VII. that good physical 
training has some effect in lessening the proportion 
of children acquiring associated defects. 

Co-relation. — It is hi the co-relations of defects 
that new information is mostly to be looked for, sup- 
plying evidence as to the real significance of the 

i is: I 
■■'If i 


in the 

le same 
dren at 
[ under : 
ution of 

:ts that 
isscs of 
I nervc- 
ey have 
ition of 
be dis- 
;han in 


[r, sup- 
)f the 



defects respectively, and as to their causation. Inas- 
much as it has been shown by the comparison of 
groups of schools that the co-relation of the main 
classes of defects varies as to degree with the char- 
acter of the environment, it is advisable to determine 
the percentage of co-relations of defects upon similar 
groups of cases under different environment.^ To 
some extent this has been done by giving the co- 
relations of the main classes of defects and individual 
defects, as seen in children in day schools and in 
residential schools. The difference in the Lumerical 
values of these co-relations, under different environ- 
ments are, in some degree, a measure of their effect. 

Proposition III. — Children witJi developmental defeets 
often present also abnormal nerve-signs, and are delieate 
and dnlL 

Not only are these developmental cases frequently 
pale, thin, and delieate in school-life ; as infants they 
are very delicate, while from being more conimcn 
among boys than girls they add largely to the male 
infant mortality in the first year ; the cases that sur- 
vive form a large proportion of the delicate, dull, and 
nervous children in schools, especially among girls. 

Of the children with developmental defects : 

The proportion of these with abnormal nerve-signs 
associated rises in the age-groups up to ten years, be- 
ing higher among boys ; the proportion continues to 

1 See published Report on Childhood. 





rise slightly for girls, but fulls with the boys at eleven 
years and over. 

The proportion of those who are pale, thin, delicate, 
is highest at seven years and under, being twelve per 
cent higher among girls than boys; this proportion falls 
greatly to eleven years, but at all ages remains higher 
with girls. 

If-' '■ 


Proposition IV. — Children ivith indications of hrain- 
disordcrlincsSy i.e. abnormal ncrvc-signs^ arc often dull 

The proportion of children with abnormal nerve-signs 
who are dull varies but little with age and sex. Among 
all children abnormal ncrve-slgns are intimately asso- 
ciated with mental dulness. 

These children are seen from various points of view. 
Teachers see the pupil's awkward habits, listlcssness, 
slouching gait, slow action and response, irregularities 
in movements of the hands, wandering eyes, or other 
** abnormal nerve-signs." 

Take 100 boys and 100 girls with such nerve-signs : 
on the basis of the average obtained — 18 of the boys 
are probably pale, thin, delicate ; and 40 dull at lessons : 
among the girls 29 are delicate and 42 dull. The status 
of these girls is worse than that of the boys, and they 
show more general delicacy. It is well to adopt a 
method of physical training, adapted to remove abnor- 
mal nerve-sisrns and their attendant troubles. 





The doctor in chari^c of the child may well bear in 
mind that thoiii;h a jK'riol of treatment is necessary for 
the removal of a brain weakness or disorder, at the 
same time care slunild be taken if possible that the 
child is so managed and emj)loye(l or trained, as to 
prevent any unnecessary amount of mental deteriora- 
tion. Cases of chorea, paralysis, epilepsy, if left with- 
out any appropriate training, tend to grow up dull and 
mentally feeble. 

In the fact of the frecpient association of abnormal 
nerve-signs and mental dulness evidence is afforded 
that such points of ill-balance and defective action are 
really indications of brain-disorderliness and want of 
proper action. When good training removes such 
signs, the bram is brighter for mental action. Here 
we see a method of combating mental dulness. 

In dealing with a child exceptionally dull, one of the 
first practical points is to indicate to the teacher the 
nerve-signs present and the means of removing them by 
appropriate management and training. This is a reason 
why teachers should learn to observe and describe chil- 
dren, that they may know what to do for them. 


Proposition V. — Dull pupils arc often delicate with 
indications of brain-disordcrlitiess, i.e. ahnonnal noi'e- 


Dull and backward pupils arc often pale, thin, deli- 
cate. This condition of low nutrition appears to be, 




in part, a cause of mental dulness, and acts more 
powerfully with girls than with boys at all ages ; such 
low nutrition among dull pupils is seen mostly in 
those seven years and under, being three times as fre- 
quent among dull children at that age, as at eleven 
years and over. 

Although it is thus shown that a state of low 
nutrition is probably a cause of mental dulness, it 
appears that the brain-disorderliness indicated by ab- 
normal nerve-si,^ns is much more commonly a cause 
of dulness. Abnormal nerve-signs are more frequently 
seen among dull boys than dull girls at all ages ; they 
are less frequent among the children seven years and 
under than above that age. 

These facts should be appreciated both by teachers 
and parents. The tea>:her naturally notes the dull 
pupils. If we take 100 dull boys and lOO ckdl girls 
of all ages according to the estimate made: of the 
boys 15 are probably delicate, and of the girls 19, 
The difficulties and requirements of dull boys and 
dull girls differ. Again : of the boys, 57 probably 
present abnormal nerve-signs, and 52 of the girls. 
Many of the dull children do not move their eyes in 
looking at objects, their response in action is slow 
and inexact, as well as in speech : they are lacking 
in spontaneity, ill-balanced in limbs and body, list- 
less and slouching. 

Physical training, adapted to remove in detail each 




abnormal nerve-sii;n, may do much to remove their 
inert and disorderly brain-action and render them 
brighter mentally. It is clear from the facts given 
that dull pupils if accumulated in a class need more 
than an increased amount of instruction ; they are 
many of them delicate children, needing brain-train- 
ing as well as purely mental culture. 



ProposiMon VI. — Girls zvith developmental defect or 
hraiii-disorderlincss are more apt to receive Jiarm and 
less good from tlieir environment than boys. 

Contrasting boys and girls, it may be pointed out 
that there are certain differences which may be 
classed as : 

(i) Developmental. 

(2) Brain-conditions : including mental dulness and 
incoordinated action. 

(3) Effects of the environment and interaction of 

{a) Physical, {b) Mental and moral, 

(4) Effects of disease. 

Cases with developmental defect are more frequent 
in males, but under the effects of their environment 
the girls tend to acquire nerve-disorder, mental dul 
ness, and low nutrition in larger proportion thai; the 
boys. See Propositions I. and II 

Imbeciles are more ficquent among boys, but the 
mortality is higher \v;th imbecue girls. 



In school the proportion of those who are dull at 
eleven years and older is higher with girls. It should, 
however, be pointed out that the regularity of school 
attendance of girls appears to be always lower than 
with boys. 

These cases though less frequent among girls may 
lead to very serious results, and if not duly cared 
for, they may be permanently injured in mental and 
physical power by inappropriate education and man- 
agement or by neglect. 

Cases with Brain-disorderliness indicated by Abnor- 
mal Nerve-signs. — These cases are more frequent 
among boys, but the proportion of those who are 
mentally dull is slightly higher among girls, and 16 
per cent of these girls are also pale, thin, delicate, 
as against 12 per cent of the boys. The (outcome is 
that these girls are more likely to fall into permanent 
ill-health than the boys ; thus more boys than girls 
in school present finger-twitching, but more girls ac- 
quire chorea and anztmia. 

Analogous facts may be quoted : insanity may be 
sii^tly more frequent among males — the rate of 
discharge from asylums (by death or recovery) is 
higher among males, the proportion of chronic cases 
is higher among females. Criminals of the male sex 
are fai more frequent than females, but " criminals 
convicted 10 times and over" arc twice as frequent 
among females. Among criminal lunatics, murder, as 



: dull at 
: should, 
f school 
er than 

iris may 
y cared 
ital and 
id man- 

' Abnor- 

vho are 
and 16 
come is 
m girls 
:ir]s ac- 

nay be 
ate of 
ery) is 
lie sex 
der, as 

apart from infanticide, is much more common among 
females. Dull boys are more frequent than dull girls 
in school ; but the number of illiterate brides still 
exceeds the number of illiterate bridegrooms, though 
the disproportion is happily decreasing by the advance 
of women. 

It appears that female brains, when "disorderly," 
whether mentally dull, lunatic, or criminal, are more 
apt to remain disorderly than male brains. Tliis shows 
the imporcance of preventing such disorderliness in 
school-life ; and I would again draw attention to the 
probable evils that result from the irregular school 
attendance of girls. 

Males and females do not present with similar fre- 
quency : 

(i) Constitutional or congenital defects. 

(2) Diseases and acquired pathological conditions. 

(3) Their reaction under ill effects of environment 

(4) The effects of environment, suitable to one sex, 
are not always ecjually suitable to the other. 

It appears that constitutional congenital defect, while 
more common in males, reacts less unfavourably under 
the environment in them, than among females ; in the 
latter, the environment often causes additional evils, 
while among the population at large we see more 
early dea'.h among males, and the woman's expectancy 
of life exceeds that of the man. 






Proposition VII. — T/ie effects of good physical train- 
ing in school are to di^ninisJi the number of cases with 
signs of brain-disorderliness and the number of dull 

Evidence is available from comparison of reports on 
children seen in schools, where good physical training 
was provided, in contrast with a large school, where 
no such training was given. In the school without 
physical training the proportion of both boys and 
girls with abnormal nerve-signs was higher, and a 
larger proportion of the boys were reported by the 
teachers as dull pupils. This cannot be attributed to 
the Developmental cases or to Low Nutrition, as their 
proportion was lower than in the other schools ; it 
must, I think, be ascribed to the absence of physical 
training. Again, in this school the children who had 
some developmental defects showed a higher associa- 
tion with both abnormal nerve-signs and mental dul- 
ness, than those under a system of good physical 

It may be inferred that physical training tends to 
improve the br?in-condition of children, preventing 
or removing disorderliness in motor and in mental 
action, and promotes healthy activity in both direc- 
tions ; this applies not only to children perfectly well 
made in body but also to those in some slight degree 
below normal. 

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Based on 50,000 children seen in day schools, mostly in or near London (1892-94); viz. : 
26,287 boys, 23,713 girls. .Showing tlie co-relation or association of the main classes 
of defect observed in children. 

The table is arranged in four columns, giving the percentages for children in the age- 
groups and at all ages. The percentages are taken on the number with the tnain 
class of defect. 

Thus; Of all cases with development defect at all ages, 38.4 per cent of the boys and 
49.9 per cent of the girls were nient.illy dull. 

Of all the dull children at all ages, 57.6 per cent of the boys and 52.6 per cent of the girls 
also presented abnormal nerve-signs. 

7 Years 
and under 




A I.I, Ages 







Boys Girls 



All cases with developmental 


Pioys, 2308: girls, 1618 










F'er cent with abnormal nerve-signs 









26.3 Per cent with low nutrition 









44.9 Per cent with mental dulness 


All cases with ahncrmal nerve- 

P)oys, 2853; girls, 2015 



41.2 30.6 





29.1 Per cent with developmental defect 







10.2 ; 12.3 

16.6 Per cent witli low nutrition 







40.4 ' 41.8 

42.6 Per cent with mental dulness 


All cases ivith loiu nutrition 

Boys, 749; girls, 770 








49-9 55-5 Per cent with developmental defect 


41. 1 






47.1 43.5 Per Lf-nt with ubnormnl nerve-signs 








43.1 40.5 Per cent with iiiciital dulness 


All dull children 
Boys, 2077; girls, 1635 









44.4 Per cent with developmental defect 









52.6 Per cent with abnormal nerve-signs 









19.0 Per cent with low nutrition 

n (1892-94); viz.: 
f the main classes 

ildren in the agc- 
ier with the main 

of the boys and 

r cent of the ,i;irls 

I N r:) E X 


;irls, 1618 

mal nerve-signs 


'I diilness 

oriiiai nerve- 

rK, Z015 
pmental defect 
I dulness 

' nutrition 
Is, 770 

)mental defect 
al nerve-signs 


s, 1635 
mental defect 
il nerve-signs 

Abnormal children, i86. 
development signs, 98, 
nerve-signs, 105. 
signs classed, 55. 
Absent-minded children, 3, 213. 
Abstract and concrete, 150. 
Accuracy in conduct, 189. 
in mental action, 128. 
increases at adolescence, 191. 
of movement, 130. 
Action of nerve-centre, 39. 

slow, 113, 125. 
Activity of brain. 139. 

of brain of child, 39. 
Adolescence, 189. 
care of, igi, 197. 
control needed, 196. 
less spontaneous movement. 188. 
Advantage of school-life. 191, 240. 
Advantages of physical training, 248. 
Advice to parents, 222. 

as to infants, 226. 
Afferent nerve-tibres, 36. 
Age basis of classification, 198. 
Age-groups of children, Table VI 11., 

of children compared, 163, 177, 178, 
Air breathed, 223. 

breathed impure, effects, 142. 
Alcohol, 197, 224. 
American children, 31. 
Anremia, 28, 195. 

avoidance of, 197. 

Analogy between movement and men- 
tal acti(jn, 124. 
Analysis of poetrv, 220, 
Anatomy of expression, 71, yj, 
of face. 20. 
of hand, 24. 
Anger, its signs described, 145. 
Anteheli.x of ear, 23. 
Antithesis, principle of, 81. 

of postures, 92. 
Antique statuary, 76. 
Appearance of body, 55. 
Appetite, 158. 
deficient, 158. 
voracious, 158. 
Arched palate, 103. 
! Arithmetic, 3, 8, 122. 
Arm, bones of. 24. 
movements, 2^. 
Arms, normal balance of, 67. 
Arrest of movement in infant, 47. 
of movement in attention, 139. 
Arriving at school, 223. 
Art, representations of, 59. 
types of perfection, 76. 
Articulation, T21. 
training, 120. 
Artislic objects in schools, 59. 
Assembling of class, 139, 223. 
Associriiion of classes of defect, 240. 
of defects, 177. 

of development and nutrition, 180. 
of movements, 45. 
Asymmetry of balance, 91. 





Atmos|)hore breathed, 223. 
Attention, 45, 50. 

arrest of nioveinent, 140. 

cultivated, 201. 

first signs of, 45, 50. 
Attitudes, see Postures, 57. 
Augmenting series of movements, 

Author's inquiry, 69, 79, 87. 

inquiry statistical, 239. 

iiack bent, 91, 159. 
backward boy, 165, 

children, 163. 

girl, 169. 
Bain, A., on passion, 148. 
Balance, general, of body, 61, 105. 

of hand, 80. 

of head, 66. 
Ball games train eye, 125. 
Beauty of form, 77. 
Bell, Sir Charles, on Expression, 71, 


on Anger, 148. 
Benefit of physical training, 248. 
Bicuspid teeth, 17. 
Biology a guide to child study, 73. 
Blue hands, 104. 
Blushing, 22. 
Bodily development, 98. 
Body, construction of, 23. 

growth of, 26. 

measurement of, 58. 

measurements. Table II., 31. 

parts of, 6, 25. 

weight of, see Table II. 

weight of falling, 28, 231. 
Books of bad type, 30. 
Boots in school, 234. 
Bosses on head, loi. 
Boston schools, 31. 
Bowditch, Dr., Tables, 31, 32. 
Boy, dull and backward, 167. 

overworked, 165. 
Boyd, Dr., Tables, 33. 

Boys and girls compared, 239, 241, 245. 

at adolescence, 189. 
Boys and girls, infant mortality, 241. 

irregular (h'velopment, 26. 
Brain action, 38. 

action to be cultivated, 15. 

activity, 139. 

and muscles, 37. 

centres, 37. 

centres, spontaneous action of, 40, 


condition, 40. 

described, 34. 

diagram of, 37. 

disorderliness, 15, 192. 

in sleep, 40. 

nerves, 37. 

of infant, 48. 

of infant weight, Table \'., 33. 

power tested, 122. 

rest, 40, 138. 

signs of its action, 15, 61. 

weight of, 18; see Table V. 
Bread, 224. 

Breathing by mouth, 22, 
British Medical Association Commit- 
tee, Preface. 
Buds of chestnut described, 219. 
Burgerstein, Professor, on mental fa- 
tigue, 236. 
Business training, 189. 
Buttercup flower, 6. 

Cain, statue of, 86. 
Calculating, 127. 
Calisthenics, 91, 96. 
Canine teeth, 17. 
Captious child, 145. 
Card of a nervous child, 162. 

for recording defects, 99. 
Cases of children, see List of. 
Causes of fatigue, 142. 
Cell of brain, 34. 

galvanic, 35. 
Character at adolescence, 189. 


ed, 239, 241,245. 

iiortality, 241. 
'nt, 26. 

ed, 15. 

5 action of, 40, 




3le V. 

tion Conimit- 

■d, 219. 

n mental fa- 




Chest descril)ecl, 23. 
girth, 24. 

Chest nieasuieiiients, see Table IV. 

measuring, 26. 
Chieken-j3ox, 228. 
Child, tile iiuiividnai. 70. 
a work of nature, 74. 
faults, 137. 
in sleep, 40. 
perfect, 156. 
study, see Preface, 2. 
Childhood, propositions conceri, 
Chapter XIII., 238. 
types of, 158. 
varieties of, i. 
Childishness, 142. 
Children, crippled, 1S6. 
delicate, 179. 
dull and backward, 163. 
dull and delicate, 182. 
dull, not defective, 163. 
epileptic, 184. 

feebly gifted mentaily, 172. 
fidgety, 113. 

mentally exceptional, 170. 

nervous, 158. 

normal or average, 155, 156. 

sub-normal and delicate, 182. 

troublesome, 8, 53. 

who need special training, 1S6. 

with nerve-signs, 178. 
Chorea, or St. X'itus's dance, 231. 
Circular muscle of eyelids, 20. 

law, 107. 
Class assembling, 139, 223. 
reading, 135. 

teacher and physical exercises 

teaching, 124, 135. | 

Classes of children, 3, II. ' 

ofdefects,55, 97. \ 

of signs, 55. 

of special instruction, 187. 
Classification of children in school 3 

of childhood, ir. 


Classification of defects, 55. 

ot movements, 51, 92. 
Clean windows in .school, 233. 
Cleanliness, 222. 
Cleft palate, 103. 
Clenched hand, 85. 
Clever boy, a thief, 171. 
girl, bat! character, 172. 
j Clinical thermometer, 230. 
Cloak-room, arrangements, 234. 
Clock, knowledge of, 130. 
Clothes preventing movement, 42 

Clothing the child. 195, 226. 
Coincident defects, 240. 
Corns, counting of, 8. 
Collar boni , 24. 
Colour of face, 27, 28. 

Common dlnesses of children. 227- 

Comparison, 122. 

of early and late childhood, 190 

ofboysandgirls, 239, 241, 245. 
Complexion, 27. 

Condy's (luid disinfectant, 231. 
j Confusion, mental, 3, 213. » 
I social, 136. 

[ Consciousness signs of n, 137. 
: Constructic: of budv, 17-23. " 

Contagious illnesses, 224. 
I Contagion, 227, 230. 

, <^o""''^' of I'oys and girls, 239, 241 
j 245. 

I of ejiergetic and nervous hand, 92. 

of older and younger children,' i6j 

ot passion and sleej), 148. 
Control at adolescence, 197." 

of hand, 3, 38. 

through ear, 138. 

through eye, 38. 
Convulsive hand, 85. 
Coordinate action, 133. 
Coordination, 47, 201. 
faulty, 48. 









254 INDEX 

Co-relation, 240. 

of defects, 241. 
Corn, (lescri|)tion of, 73. 
Coniigation, 106. 
Corriigator imiscle, 20. 
Counting by hand movements, 125. 

of coins, 10, 128. 

through eye, 128. 
Cranium, or head, 19, 57, 

bossed, loi. 

defects of, 98. 

descriijed, 19, 57. 

large, 100. 

small, 17, 100. 
Cricketer, good, 167. 
Criminal inheritance, 171. 
Criminals, 246. 
Crip|)les, 186. 
Cutting teeth, 17. 

Darwin, C, on expression, 82. 

on movements in plants, 43. 

on principle of antithesis, 82. 
Dawn of mental faculty, 45. 
Deaf boy, 176. 
Deafness, causes of, 22. 

causing dulness, 177. 

in mouth breathers, 22. 
Defect, bodily, 98. 

of ear, loi. 

of eyes, 28. 

of eye-movements, 108. 

of hearing, 30. 

of heart, 5. 

of sight, 28. 

of speech, 114. 
Defective children, 186. 

cranium, 8. 

development, 98. 

expression, 105. 

palate, 102. 
Defects, card recording, 99. 

classified, 55. 

coincident, 72. 
Deformed children, 186. 

Dil.iyed expression, 46. 

mental action, 125. 

response, 1 13, 
Deliiiicy, or low nutrition, 78, 179. 
Delicate children, 179. 

children, training, 214. 

children, also dull, 182. 

girls and boys, 239, 241, 245. 
Dentition periods, 18. 
D<'Scrii)tion of .1 child, 57, 155. 

method of, 74, 150. 

of a horse, 75. 

1)1 natural (jbject, 74, 

scientific, y^. 

terms used, 74. 

use of, 216. 
Desks in school, 30, 66. 
Development and growth, 27. 
Developmental defects, 98. 

miscellaneous, 104. 
Diagnosis, 75. 
Diameters of head, 58. 
Diana, statue of, 79. 
Diarrhoea in summer, 228. 
Dictation, 136. 
Difificult children, 8, 53, 
Digits, fingers and thumb. 25. 
Diminishing movement, 95. 
Diphtheri.i, 229. 

Discrimination of feeble chiMren, 173. 
Diseases common among children of 
scIkjoI age, 227-233. 

preventive measures, 223. 
Disengaged hand, 88. 
Disinfection, 230. 
Disorderliness of brain, 15. 
Doctor's metliod of examination, 75, 

Dress of adolescence, 195. 

of children, 226. 
Drill, 91. 

master, 203. 
Drooping hand, 84. 

of head, 67, 147. 

of thumb, 83. 



78. I79- 


dren, 173. 
:hildren of 

nation, 75, 

Dropping things, 132, 232. 
Drowsiness, 66. 
Dull children, 163. 
Dull and delicate children, 182. 
Dull and delicate with defects and 
nerve-signs, 182. 

expression, 105, 

forehead, 107. 
Dulness, mental, causes of, 3, 164. 

Ear, external, described, 23. 

external, defects of, loi. 

mindedness, 138. 

pleat or antehelix, 23. 
Economy of brain-power, 95, 149. 
Education, 1. 

Effects of physical training, 248. 
Efferent nerve-fibres, 36. 
" Emilia Galotti," Lessing, 220. 
Emotion, expression of, 94. 
Energetic hand balance, 82. 
Enumerating, 10, 12S. 
Epicanthis of eyelids, 102. 
Epilepsy, 232. 
Epileptic fit, 232. 

children, 184. 
Estimating weight, 128. 
Euclid, boy dull at, 170. 
Eustachian tube of ear, 22. 
Evolution of infant, 45. 
Evolution of brain, 240. 
Examination of a child, 119. 

as to mental ability, 121. 

of children by author, 5, 69, 79, 87, 
Excessive movement, 10, 113, 206. 
Exercises, eye-movements, 207. 

finger movements, 123, 205, 207. 

in imitation, 123, 207. 

physical, 91, 123. 

to remove faults, 179. 
Exceptional children, 186. 

mentally, 170. 
Excitable children, 199. 
Excitement, mental, 151. 
Exhaustion, signs of, 145. 

F:xprossion, defective, 105. 

defective, liow to deal with, 200. 

delayed, 46. 

in face, 61. 

mobile, 77, 

of anger, 149. 

of emotion, 94. 

of joy, 149. 

of mental states, 150. 

of mind by movement, 39. 

of the abstract, 150. 

passive, 72. 

I)rincipie of antithesis, 81, 92. 
External ear, 60, loi. 

defects of, loi. 
Extra-movements, 10, 206. 
Eye, control through, 38. 

defects of, 28. 

diseases of, 227, 228. 

flat (hypermetropia), 29. 

focus of, 28. 

long (short sight), 29. 
Eyebrows knit, corrug.ition, 106. 
Eyelids, 102. 
Eye-mindedness, 38. 
Eye-openings, 22, 104. 
Eyesight, testing, 30. 

how lost, 227, 228. 

muscles of, 29, 65. 

short, 29. 
Eyes, exercises for, 96, 207. 

eyes sunken, 19. 

fulness under the, 107. 

infliimed, 227. 

movements of, 64, 108. 

ulcer of, 228. 

wandering, 109, 215. 

Face, colour, 27. 
described, 20. 
expression of, 61. 
expression wanting, 105. 
free for expression, 88. 
muscles of, 20. 




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WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

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Face, normal type, 59. 

(il)S('rvation of, 62, 88. 

oi infant, 49. 

of low type, 59. 

parts of, 62. 

sniull, 104. 

structure of, ao. 

symmetry, 62. 

types of, 59. 

zones of, 62. 
Facts to be described, 70. 
Faculty of coordination, 47, 20I. 

mental without words, 127. 

social, 136, 189. 
Falling body weiglit, 28, 231. 
Family faults, 115, 199. 
Farinaceous food, 226, 233. 
Farmer's descriptions, 73. 
Fat food, 225. 
Fatigue, causes of, 142. 

from ill ventilation, 142, 212. 

mental, experiments on, 236. 

no< necessarily unhealthy, 144. 

signs of, 143. 
Faulty response, 113, 115. 

eye-movements, 138. 
Features, coarse, 59, 104. 

description of, 60. 

individual, 60. 
Feeble hand balance, in. 
Feebly gifted children, 172. 
Feeding infants, 226. 
Feeling weights, 128. 
Feelings, 11. 

Feet unequally planted, 105, 159. 
Fever, 223, 230. 

scarlet, 229. 
Fidijeliness, 140, 141. 
Fidgety children, 113. 
Finger exercises, 123, 205. 

twitches, no. 
Fits, see Epilepsy, 184, 232. 
Fixed mental impressions, 214. 
Flat eyes, 29. 

nuse, 103. 

Flexion of fingers, 25. 

of head, 06. 
Flower, observation of, 6. 
Flower food, 226, 233. 
Flushing of face, 22. 
Focus of eyes, 2'J, 
Fontanelle of head, 17. 
Foo(J, 224. 

for infants, 226. 
Forehead, bossed, loi. 

dull, 107. 

narnnv, 101. 

puckered, 93, 106. 

ridged, 101. 
Forge:fulness, 213. 

case, 21. 
Form and proportion, 70. 
Free hand, 89. 
Fright, hand in, 85. 
Frontal bosses, 131. 

muscles over-acting, 106. 

region, 10 1. 

ridge, loi. 

zone of face, 62. 
F'rowning, see Corrugation, 106, 

how to deal with, 209, 211. 
F'ulncss under eyes, 107. 
Furrows in forehead, 107. 

Gait, 125, 205. 

Galvanic cell, comparison, 35. 

Games, 125. 

General balance defective, 105. 

Girl, adolescent, in school, 197. 

clever but bad, 171. 
Girls and boys, 239, 241, 245. 

delicate, 179. 

growth of, 26. 

school attendance irregular, 246, 
Glasses, see Spectacles, 29. 
Gras|)ing an orange, 38. 
Gregarious children, 7. 
Grinding teeth, 138. 
(irinning, 112, 
Grouping of children, 155. 



Grniipinq of defects, 55. 
Growth and development, 27. 

of body, 60. 

of brain, see Table V. 

of head, 17. 

of infants, 6, 16. 

rapid, 26. 

small, 103, 

Habits, 93, 242. 

change at adolescence, 189. 
Hand, bones of, 25. 

convulsive, 85. 

energetic balance, 82. 

exercises, 123. 

feeble balance, iii. 

free for observation, 89. 

guided by eye, 38. 

in fright, 85. 

in rest, 84. 

nervous balance, 80, no. 

nervous, contrasted with energe 

normal balance, 67. 

occupied, 88. 

postures, 80. 

straight, 68. 

thumb drooped, 83. 

types of balance, 109. 
weak balance, 84, 109. 
writing, 130. 
Hands, blue and cold, 104. 

normal balance, 68. 
Hard work at adolescence. 191, 197. 
H'jad, at school age, 18. 
balance of, 66. 
defects of, 98, 109. 
described, 19, 57. 
infant's. 16, 
large, 100. 

measurements, 17, 58. 
measuring, 57. 
movements, 66. 
postures of, 65. 
small, 17. 


Headaches. 152. 

causes of. 151. 

from Iwd ventilation. 142. 

from want of spectacles, 152. 
Health of body, 27. 

promoted by tr.iining. 95. 149. 
Healthy fatigue, 144. 

spontaneity, 95. 
Hearing, testing. 30. 
Heart, defect of. 5. 
Height, measuring, a6. 

and weight, increase of. Table HI.. 

for ages, see Table H.. 31. 
High sciiool. visit to. 12. 
Home and school. 146. 
Homes, healthy, 223. 228. 
Horse, description of. 73. 
Horse-chestnut bud described, 219. 
Hovell, Dr. I'. Mark, on hearing. 32. 
Humerus, bone of arm. 24. 
Hygiene in school-life, 223. 

mental, a science, 235. 
Hypermctropia. flat eye, 29. 
Hysteria, 196. 

Illiterates at marriage, 247. 
Ul-mannered children, iqg. 
Illnesses, comiiion to children. 226. 
Ill-nourished children. 78. 
Illusions in children, 132. 213. 
Imaginative children. 126. 
Imbeciles, 48. 
moral, 170. 
Imit.ition. exercises in. 122, 
f.ii ulty tested. 123. 
of teacher. 132. 
Immobile expression, 72. 
Impressions made. 49. 

mental fixed. 214. 
Inaccuracy, 136. 
Inaccurate reading. 2. 
Inattention, 140. 142. 
Incendiary tliild, 171, 
Incisor teeth, 17. 





Inclination of head balance, 66. 
Increase of height and weight, see 

Table III., 32. 
Increasing movement, 94, 95. 
Index of brain, the face, 61. 

the hand, 67. 
Individual child, 70. 

parts, 6. 
Infant, the, 16. 

brain, 44, 48. 

dawn of mental faculty, 43. 

evolution, 43. 

feeding, 226. 

head, 16. 

head, small, 17. 

ill-nourished, 78. 

mortality, 241. 

movements of, 44. 

weight of, 16. 
Infant school, 48. 
Infectious illnesses, 226. 
Inflamed eyes, 227. 
Inheritance of crime, 171. 

of delicacy, 180. 

of eye-defects, 29. 

of headaches, 152. 
Insane parents, children of, 170, 171, 

Institution life, 240. 

Intelligence indicated by movement, 6. 
Introspection, a mental habit, 126. 
Iris of eye, 19. 
Irregular balance, 105. 
Irritability of brain, 142. 

of temper, 145. 

Joking, use of, 96. 
Joy, expression of, 149. 
Judgment, faculty of, 122. 

Key, Professor, on laws of growth, 

Kindergarten, 48. 
Kitten, observation of, 6. 
Knitting eyebrows, corrugation, 106. 

Laboratory, psychological, Preface. 
Large ears, loi. 

head or cranium, 100. 
Lateral curvature of spine, 91. 
Latin, bright boy dull at, 2. 
Laughing, uses of, 95. 
Laughter, 63. 
Lavater, 58, 71. 
Lavatories in school, 234. 
Laws of health, T97, 222. 

of mental fatigue, 236. 
Leaf, shape described, 218. 
Leonardo di Vinci on ugliness, 76. 
Lessing, analysis of poem, 220. 
Letter-writing, 121. 
Light, in schoolroom, 233. 

effects of, on plants, 78. 
Lips, thick, 60, 104. 

not closed, mouth breathing, 22. 
Literature, analysis of, 220. 
Lobe of ear, 23, loi. 
Long eye (short sight), 29. 
Looking at children, 91. 
Lordosis, bending of back, ill. 
Low nutrition, 78, 179. 
Lumps on head, loi. 
Lying, 212. 

Maimed children, 186. 
Malnutrition of children, 78. 

of plants, 79. 
Management at adolescence, 197. 

of delicate children, 235. 
Masseter muscle, 20. 
Meals, regularity of, 191, 225. 
Measles, 229. 
Measurement of body, 26. 

of chest, 26. 

of head, 58. 

of height, 26. 
Meat, 225. 
Memory, faults of, 132. 

faults of, causes, 133. 

testing, 121, 135. 
Mental action delayed, 125. 



Mental action cxprossed by move- 
ment, 39. 

action spontaneous, 139. 

arithmetic, 122. 

confusion, 3, 213, 

duiness, 163. 

dulness. causes of, 3, 164. 

dnlness from ear-defect, 177. 

dulness from oye-dcffct, 169. 

dulness and development defect, 72. 

dulness and nerve-signs, 72, 248. 

excitement, 94, 1:51. 

faculty tested uitliout words, 127. 

faculty, testing, 122. ' ! 

fatigue, 236. 

Aiults, 326. 

hygiene, 235. 

physiology, 133. 

preoccupation, 140. 

science, 235. 

states, 94, 124, 126. 

stress, 107, 159. 

tests, 120. 

tests without words, 128. 

training of nervous children, 215. 

training of weak children, 214. 
Mentally defective children, 170. 172. 

exceptional children, 170. 172. 186. 

feeble children, 172. 
Metacarpal bones of hand, 25. 
Metaphysician's questions, 75. 
Method of mental examination, 120, 

Method of observing children, 53. 
of physical training, 206, 209. 

Microkinesis, spontaneity of infancy, 48. 
Milk as food, 224. 

teeth, 17. 
Mind beyond observation, 11. 

expressed by movements, 39, 
Mirror used in eye-training, 207. 
Mobile expression, 'jj. 
Molars, back teeth, 18. 
Money, counting, 8, 128. 
Monotonous speech, 115, 121. 

Moral imbeciles, 170. 
Mortality o* infants, 242, 
Mouth, 22. 

breathing, 22, 114. 

kept open, 22. 

movements of, 63. 

small, (ic, 104. 

Movement, an index of brain-action, 10, 

Movements classified, 51, 94. 
contracted through eye, 38, 
expressing mental states, 10, 40. 
of amis, 25. 
of eyes, 64. 
of face, 63. 
of lianils, 25. 
of head, 66. 
of infant, 43. 
of small parts, 90. 
reflex, 89. 

series of increasing, 94. 
series of diminishing, 95. 
series of uniform, 93. 
spontaneous, 93. 

I symmetrical, 63. 

Motor action of brain, 38. 

I Muscle, jihysiology of, 38, 203. 

, Muscles and lirain, 33, 

corrugation, 20. 
' frontal, 20. 
j orbicularis oculi, 20. 

of eyes, 19, 65. 
I of face, 20. 

of mastication, 20. 

strengthened by drill, 96. 

temporal, 20. 

used in drill, 91, 96. 
Muscular action, 38. 

sense to be trained, 128. 
Myopia (short sight) , 29. 

Narrow palate, 102. 

Nasal bones wide, 103. 

" Nathan the Wise " (Lessing), 220. 




■ h ■ 

N.itural object described, 6, 217. 
N.iture's works, 74. 
Near sij;lit, ag. 
Nerve t i-lls, 34. 

tenlres. 34. 

centres act separately, 47. 

currents, 38. 

fibres 34, 36, 

signs, 10, 15, 61. 

signs abnormal, 105. 

signs and defective development, 
'lal)le VIII.. 250. 

signs, iniscellaiU'ous, 112. 

signs reniovrd l)y training, 248. 

signs and mental dulness, 72. 
Nervous child described, 139. 

child card of defects, 162. 

chiiti schedule, 161. 

cliildren are gregarious, 7. 

children, training ot. 214. 

liand balance, So, iio. 

speaker described. 140. 
Niobe. 'itatue, 85. 
Normal child described, 57, 155. 

child schedule, 157. 

face, "59. 

hand balance, 67. 
Nose, 17. 

and throat, 22. 

defects of, 103. 

flat, 103. 
Niunber. knowledge of, 122. 
Nutrition, low or defective, 78, 179. 

signs of, 28. 

Object lesson, 6, 217. 
Objective study, 74. 
Objects described, 73. 
Observation of child, 54. 

means seeing, 76. 

of facts, 76. 

of weight. 128. 

points to look at. 90. 

principles of, 74. 
Observing individual child, 54, 

Openings for eyes, 22, 104. 
Ophthalnii.i, 227. 
Orange, child looking at. 38. 
Orbicularis oculi muscle, 20. 

lax, 107, 
Orl)its, or sockets of eyes, 17, 19. 
Over-action of frontal muscles, 106. 

mobile children, 113. 

smiling. 112. 

overworked boy, 168. 

Pain, triining to bear, 152. 
I'alate arched, 103. 

and speech, 114. 

cleft, 103. 

defects of, 102. 

narrow, 102, 

V-shaped, 102. 
P.ile children, 27, 28. 
Palm of hand contracted, 84, 86, 109. 
Palpebral fissures, eye-openings, 22. 

defect of, 104. 
Paper-cutting. 91. 
Paralysed cliildren, 186. 
P.uents, advice to, 222, 226. 

aspect o' a child, 147, 164. 

and teachors, 4, 147. 
Parts of an object, 6. 

of body moving, 6, 25, 90. 
Passion described. 148. 149. 
Passive expression, 72. 
Peevishness, 141, 
Percentage of school children, I. 
F'erfect child, 156. 
Perfection in art, 76. 
Period of dentition, 18. 

of growth. 189. 
Permanent teeth. 18. 
Pe//f »/a/ (epileptic fit) 184, 232. 
Physical exercises described, 123, 207, 

and metaphysical, 75. 

exercises, uses of, 96. 

facts observed, 70. 

science, methods of. 73, 74, 150. 

training by class teacher, 208. 




26 r 

Physical training at adolescence, 191 

training, results of, 248. 
Physiognomy, 58, 70. 

and brain state, 71, 100. 
and mental dulness, 72. 
Lavater, 58. 
Sir C. Bell, 71. 
Physiology of brain-action, 37. 
of muscular growth, 38, 203. 
Pigeon-breasted (rickets), 233. 
Pigmentation of skin, 27. 
Plant seedling, 43, 78 
Plants ill-nourished, 78. 
Pleat of car, anfohelix, 23. 
Poetry, analysis of, 220. 
Points to look at in child, Chap, IV. 
for observation faulty, Chap. VI. 
of view of doctor, 243. 
of view of parent, 147, 164. 
of view of teacher, 54. 
to look for in child, Chap. VI. 
Police court cases, 171. 
Postures, asymmetrical, 91. 
observation of, 91. 
of back, 91. 
of head, 65. 
of hand, 80. 
or balance in body, 87. 
Potentiality of the child, 49. 
Pouting, 64. 

Precocious children, 127, 216. 
Preoccupation, mental, 140. 
Principle of antithesis, 8r. 
Principles of classifying movements, 92. 
involved in description, 74. 
involved in mental tests, 131, 133. 
involved in nerve-signs, 81, 92. 
involved in observation, 73. 
Profane children, 199. 
Profile view of child, 140. 

head, 57. 
Prognosis, what will happen, 75. 
Pronation movement of hand, 25. 
Proportion of body, 70. 

of children in population, i. 

Propositions on childhood, see Chap 

Protuberance of forehead, loi. 

of lips, 60, 64. 
Psychological laboratory, Preface. 

research, 236. 
Psychology, 75. 
Puckering of forehead, 106. 
Pupils of eye, 19. 
Pupil of eye large in excitement, 65. 

small in sleep, 138. 
Purposes of education, i. 

I Radius, bone of arm, 24. 
i Rage, described, 148. 
Rashes on skin, 223, 229. 
Ravenous appetite, 158. 
Reading aloud, 119, 134. 
Reasoning faculty, 122. 
faculty tested, 122. 
fLiculty tested without words, 129. 
Reciting, 135. 
Reflex action, 89, 93. 

excess of, in fatigue, 141. 
Regulate movement without stopping 

it, 48. 
Regularity of meals, 191, 225. 
of hours of sleep, 197. 
of school attendance, 246. 
Relaxation of muscle of under-eyelid, 
last in laughter, 107. 
sign of headache, 153. 
sign of fatigue, 143. 
Repeating the question, 115, 120. 
Report on a child, 157. 
on a school, 11, 14, 73, 
on 100,000 school children, 5, 69, 
79, 87. 
Respect demanded by children. 189. 
Response in action defective, 113. 
Responsibility of teachers, 52, 132. 
Rest during daytime, 139. 
hand balance in, 84. 
hours of, 197. 



II? i 




Uetina of the eye, 29. 
Kibs of chest, 34. 
Rickets di'scritx-d, 233. 
ki(lK<" <>'i forelicad, 101. 
Rotation of iiead, 66. 

St. Vitus's dance, or cliorea, 231. 
Scarli't ffver, ^29. 

Schedule for d<'scril)ing a child, 56. 
Schedules filled in, see Cases, 157. 
School afie, i. 

and home, 146. 

children, classification of, 3. 

children entering, 223. 

children, ex.iniination of 100,000, 5, 
69. 79. 87. 

cloak-room, 234. 

desks, 30, 66. 

lavatories, 234. 

life, 191, 240. 

reports, 14, 73. 

training, 240. 

training at adolescence, 191. 
Schoolroom hygiene, 222. 
Schools in Sweilen, 189. 
Scientific methods of description, 74, 

observation, 73. 
Scowling, see Corrugation, 106. 
Seedling plant, growth of, 43. 

ill-nourished. 78. 

movements of, 43. 
Seeing before thinking. 9. 
Self-consciousness, 196. 
Self-control, 196. 
Self-protection, 121. 
Sense, muscular, 128. 

of number, 122. 

of responsil)i!ity, 197. 

social, 121, 136, 189. 

weight, 128. 
Series of movements, 94. 

diminishing, 95. 

spreading, 94. 

uniform, 93. 

Shallow forehead. loi. 
.Sliort children, 103. 
Sight, dfffcts of, 28. 

how lost, 227, 228. 

short (myo|)ia), 29. 

testing. 30. 
Signs of aniL-inia at adolescence, a8, 195. 

classiheil, 55. 

of biam-action, 38. 

of defective development, 98. 

of exhaustion, 145. 

of fatigue. 143. 

of headaches, 151. 

of illness, 223. 

of malnutrition. 78. 179. 

of mental action, 39. 

of nervousness, 159. 

value of, 53. 
Silly children, 136. 
Skull or cranium, 19, 57. 
Slammmg the door, 212. 
Sleep, 40, 138, 147. 

hand balance in, 84. 

head balance in, 66. 

pupil of i-ye durinii. 41, 138. 

regular hours of, I'ji. 

teeth i^round in, 138. 
Sleeping badly, 138. 158. 

infant, 40. 
Slouching gait, 10:5. 
Slow action, 113. 

mental action, 124. 
Small children, 103. 

face, 104. 

head, 17. 

in growth, 103. 

mouth, 60, 104. 

pupils. 41. 
Smiling, 112. 
Social children, 7. 

confusion, 136. 

liabits, 136, 189. 

knowledge, lai. 

salute, 136. 

sense, 121, 136, 189. 

iiiMir — rwnfim 



Spnsm in stammerinj,', 95. 115. 
Spectacles, use of, 29. 
Spci trcs, or illusions, 152. 
Spf'fcli, 120. 

and palat*', 114. 
deft'cts of, 114, 115. 
monotonous, 115, 121. 
Spine, construction of, 23. 

curved, 91. 
Spontant-ily, to be regulated, 41. 139. 
Spontaneous brain-action, 41, 47, 
movenicnt, 93, 95. 
movement and mental action, 200. 
movement at adolescence, 188. 
movement in chorea, 231. 
movement in infant, 43, 48. 
movement not to be stopped, 42,48 
movement to be controlled, 139. 
thougliis, 127, 139. 
Spreading disease, 229. 
Spreading movement, 94, 95. 
movements in passion, 149. 
of laughter in school, 160, 196. 
Squinting, 30. 
Stammering, 95, 115, 

boys, 117. 
Still object, observing, 7. 
Stimulants to be avoided, 197, 224. 
Stimulation, 42. 
Stimulus to brain, 42. 
Stooping, 92. 
Straight hand balance, 68. 

hand, thumb drooped, 83. 
Summer diarrhcea, 228. 
Supination, hand movement, 25. 
Swedish drill, 208. 

schools, 189. 
Swimming bath, use of, 334. 
Symmetrical balance of body, 61. 
movements, 63. 
movements of head, 66. 
Symmetry of face, 62. 
Sympathetic nerve, 23. 

Talk with a child, 119, 121. 

Tape-mrasure useful. 58. 
Tea, ill effects of excess, u,y. 
Teacher and parents, 4, 147. 
exhausted, 12. 
responsibility, 52. 
Teacher's \w\n\ ot view, 54. 
Teeth ground, 138. 
Teething, 17. 
'I'elling the time, 130. 
Temper irritable, 145, 
TemiH-raiiue of body, see Thermome- 
ter, 230. 
of air, 223. 
Temporal muscle, 20. 
'Jesting accuracy of movement, 123. 
comparison, 122. 
faculty without words, 127. 
hearing, 30. 

judgment by weights, 128. 
memory, 121, 132. 
mental ability, 127. 
muscular sense, 128. 
sight, 30. 

sight by watch and clock, 130. 
Tests, mental, summary of, 133. 
Thermometer, use of, 230. 
Thinking a!)out a child, 141. 
Thorax, chest described, 23. 
Thumb drooped, 83. 
Thurman, Dr., Table, 33. 
Time, learning to tell the, 130. 
of meals, 191, 225. 
of sleep, 191. 
Tired teacher, 12. 
Tongue, protrusion of, 94. 
Tooth-grinding in sleep 158. 
Training at adolescen-:: -, 191. 
attention, 201. 
brain-action, 139. 
delicate children, 214. 
eye-movements. 96, 207. 
mental, 135, 155, 201, 220. 
observation, 6, 76. 
physical, 206. 
physical, results of, 248. 


m li 



Tniining, sense of weight, 128. 

speech, 120. 

spontaneity, 48, 139. 

to rt'inove faults, 179, 209, 211. 
'riiinscription, 136. 
Trotihlcsome children, 8, 53, 
'rnithfiilncss. 189. See Lying. 
Ta itching rmK<Ts, no. 
Type of pcrtcctJDn, 156. 

of printed booic, 30. 

tests of sifjht, 30. 
Types of children, 154. 

of faces, 59. 

Ulcer of eye, 228. 
Ulna, bone of arnr, 24. 
Unconscious movement, 212. 
Uniform movement, 93. 
Untruthfulness, 212. 
Usefulness of descriptions of chil- 
dren, 5, 216. 
Using eyes badly, 2, 169, 207. 

Value of money, 8, 128. 
Varieties of children, i, 11. 
Vaulted palate, 103. 
Vegetables, 225. 
Ventilation, 223. 

Visit to liigh school, 12. 

Vocabulary, lao. 

Voice, monotonous, 115, lai. 

test of hearing, 30. 
Volume of head, 58. 
Voracious appetite, 158. 
V-shaped palate, 102. 

Wandering eyes, 109, 215. 
Want of food, 78, 180. 
Watch, test of hearing, 30. 

test of sight, 130, 
Water-drinking, 224. 
Weak hand balance, 84. 
Weighing child, 26. 
Weight, falling, 28. 

increase of, at age, 189, 190. 

of children at ages, 16. 

sense of, 128. 
Weights as tests, 128. 
Will, II. 

Windows of schoolroom, 233. 
Word-spacing, 121. 
Work, hard, at adolescence, 191. 

Young and older children, 188, 192. 

Zones of the face, 62. 




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