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meice, consequent on tlie adoption of Free Trade, which swept 
Scotland into the currents of the wider hfe of tlie world, coin- 
cided with the ecclesiastical upheaval ; and both influences not 
only made for healtiiy freedom on the part of the laity, but cre- 
ated a demand for preaching dealing with the realities of life. 
The principal personal cause has besn the influence of Dr. A. B. 
Davidson, Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in the New 
College, Edinburgh. His real work is not seen in what he 
writes. He has published comparatively little, for as a Liberal- 
Conservative in Theology he always sees both sides of the ques- 
tion, and the difliculties of both. He shrinks from dogn^atizing 
until he is quite pertain of his conclusions, and in the region of 
criticism certainty is seldom attainable. But he has gradually 
formed a school of the sanest and most reverent critics of the 
Old Testament to be found in any Church, and the influence of 
these on the general tone of the pulpit is marked and in my 
opinion steadily increasing. Few men in Scotland now doubi 
the value of the results which have flowed from the application 
of the methods of modern criticism to the study of Holy Scrip- 

G. M. Grant. 


IT was in 1613 that Champlain first explored a portion of the 
Ottawa, above Montreal. In 1614 the first priests came to 
Canada, being sent out at the expense of the commercial com- 
pany which controlled it. These were four Recollet fathers 
whose duty it was to minister to the religious needs ot the colon- 
ists, and establish missions for the conversion of the Indians. In 
1615 Father Joseph Caron accompanied a band of Hurons to 
their homes in the West. A little later in the same summer he 
was followed by Champlain, who went with the Huron Indians 
on an expedition against the Iroquois into what is now northern 
New York State. On returning to Canada, both Champlain and 
the priest remained with the Indians the following winter. 
Champlain had reached the Huron country by means of the Ot- 

^. >f 



tawa route, and in going to trie Iroquois territory he followed 
the Trent river system down to the bay of Quinte, and from that 
across to the south side of the lake past Amherst, Wolfe, and the 
smaller islands. He returned by the same route, making no at- 
tempt to try the upper St. Lawrence, reaching Lower Canada 
by the Ottawa as before. 

Immediately after this the Iroquois, taking the aggressive, 
successfully encroached upon the territory of the Hurons and 
threatened the extermination of the French, their allies. What 
with the difficulties of the rapids, and the dangers from the Iro- 
quois who sat by thenj, the French long found that route closed 
to them. Thus the St. Lawrence from Lake St. Louis to Lake 
Ontario remained unknown to the French, except from Indian 
herasay, for nearly half a century after they had penetrated to 
the Georgian bay and Lake Huron. By 1642 the French had 
reached Lake Superior, and had explored Lake Michigan. In 
1646 the first Jesuit missionary, Pere Isaac Jogues, went to the 
Iroquois settlements to the south of the lakes. He went, how- 
ever, by way of the Lake Champlain route. The following year, 
on his return to the Iroquois, he was put to death on the charge, 
it is said, of having raised the devil among them. 

This incident, followed by other acts of aggression on the 
part of the Iroquois, suspended friendly intercourse between the 
French and these tribes for some time. But in 1654, on petition 
of one of the chiefs to have the French make a settlement among 
them. Father Simon Lemoine went to Onondaga. Being as- 
sured safe conduct, he went by way of the St. Lawrence route ; 
the first P'renchman, not a captive, to make that trip. 

In explanation of the friendly overtures of the western Iro- 
quois, we find that at this time they were threatened by other 
Indian nations to the west and south of them. To the south they 
were in conflict with the Andastogues, who had already driven 
some of the Cayugas out of their country, and compelled them 
to take refuge on Lake Ontario, in the neighbourhood of the bay 
of Quinte. From the west the Cat and Neutral Indians were on 
the eve of attacking them. The Iroquois, therefore, not only 
desired to make peace with the F"rench, but to obtain their as- 
sistance against their nearer enemies. Under these circum- 
stances Lemoine made his journey. From his journal, given in 



the Jesuit Relation for that year, we obtain a short account of 
his trip up the river." 

"On the 17th day of July, 1654, St. Alexis day, we set out 
from home with that great saint of many travels, toward a land 
unknown to us." Thus while the ancestors of most of us were 
caj,'erly following the first movements of Cromwell's Protectorate, 
while that great man was preparing to meet his first Parliament, 
in the wilds of America a French Jesuit missionary was making 
the first ascent of the Upper St. Lawrence. 

"On the i8th, following constantly the course of the river 
St. Lawrence, we encountered nothing but breakers and impetu- 
ous falls, thickly strewn with rocks and shoals." This refers to 
the region of the Cascades, Cedars, and Coteau rapids, between 
Lake St. Louis and Lake St. Francis. " The 19th. The river 
continues to increase in width and forms a lake, pleasant to the 
sight and eight or twelve leagues in length." " Tlie 20th. We 
see nothing but islands of the most beautiful appearance in the 
world, intercepting here and there the course of this most peace- 
ful river. The land toward the north appears to us excellent. 
Toward the rising sun is a chain of high mountains, which we 
named after Saint Margaret." Those who know the western end 
of lake St. Francis will recogni;ie this as a charmingly simple and 
accurate description of that portion of the river. As yet, none 
of the lakes or rapids on the course is given a name. Only the 
chastely blue mountains, which form so fitting a background for 
the peaceful beauties of water and island, are named after St. 
Margaret. But the name is given at too long a range. Even 
that of ' St. Mary,' bestowed later, will not endure. Those nearer 
to them, doubtless finding them less etherial and saintly, will 
name them later the Adirondacs. On the 22nd they encountered 
the Long Sault rapids, though yet unnamed, and these he says 
"compel us to shoulder our little baggage, and the canoe that 
bore us." "On the other side uf the rapids, I caught sight of a 
herd of wild cows, pasturing in a very calm and leisurely manner. 
Sometimes there are seen four or five hundred of them together 
in these regions." These were evidently not buffaloes, but caribou 
deer, because, as described later, they would not answer to the 

'The <iuotations from the Jesuit Relations are from the newly published 
edition, edited by K. G. Thwaites, and published by Burrows Bros., of Cleveland 
Ohio. ' 



buffalo, and almost all the other early voyagers speak of the 
caribou and other deer as being very plentiful in this region. 
They came to be regularly counted upon as a supply of food, 
being easily killed as they swam from the islands to the mainland.' 
Another species of wild animal, whose aggressive enterprise 
has secured for it a prominent place in the early annals of America, 
also abounded in this region. Wherever they halted they be- 
came a prey to the mos(iuitos, who are represented by the i)ious 
father as resting not day and night, and as more terrible to face 
than death itself. They continued to have difficulty with the 
rapids betv^een the Long Sault and the Thousand Islands. On 
the evening of the 25th, "we arrived at the mouth of lake Saint 
Ignace, where eels abound in prodigious numbers." This is that 
region of the lake of the Thousand Islands, between the Brock- 
ville Narrows, or Chippewa Point, and Wellesley Island. In 
the large stretches of shallow, muddy-bottomed water, on the 
north and south sides of the river and off the lower end of Well- 
esley Island, there was a perfect paradise for eels, of which they 
took full advantage, leading, in turn, to the Indians taking much 
advantage of them. Thus this eel fishery was famous among the 
Indians for hundreds of miles around, and during the season the 
neighboring islands and shores were seldom without their Indian 

Lemoine and his band evidently took the southern or Ameri- 
can channel through the islands. He notes the rocky cliffs along 
the route, bu«: rather exaggerates their height and grandeur, as 
he speaks of being "everywhere confronted with towering rocks, 
now appalling and now pleasing to the eye." Noting the scanti- 
ness of the soil in many places, he says, " It is wonderful how 
large trees can find root among so many rocks." 

Here they encountered for some days thunder storms ac- 
companied with heavy winds. "On the 29th and 30th of July, 
the wind storm continues, and checks our progress at the mouth 
of a great lake called Ontario: we call it the lake of the Iroquois, 
because they have their villages on its southern side. The Hurons 
are at the other side farther inland." But at this very period the 
Iroquois were passing over to the northern shore, making war 
upon the Hurons, driving them back, killing many and nmking 
captives of others, especially the women and children. Hence, 



before long, both sides of the lake were in the possession of the 
Iroquois, and the first mission established on the nortiiern shore, 
the Kenti' mission, was among a branch of the Iroquois, the 

Having reached Lake Ontario, we need not follow the worthy 
father in his subsequent adventures among the Onondaga Indians. 
His stay was short ; for by the middle of August he was on his 
way back, and once he and his companions reach the river they 
have an easy voyage, broken only by the irresistible pursuit of 
game, everywhere abundant and easy of capture. Almost no 
particulars are given of this return trip. On the 6th of Septem- 
ber, he is put ashore on Lake St. Louis, about twelve miles above 
Montreal, his Indians being afraid to run the Sault St. Louis, 
now the Lachine rapids. 

This trip of Lemoine's to the Onondagas having roused the 
jealousy of the Mohawks, he had to promise to visit them also. 
This he accomplished in the following year 1655. He left Mon- 
treal on the 17th of August, with twelve Iroquois and two French- 
men, and a month later he had reached the Mohawk village of 
Agnie. Few details are given of this voyage. In the Relation 
for the year the summary runs thus. "The route is one of prec- 
ipices, lakes and rivers, of hunting and fishing, of weariness and 
recreation, varying in different parts. Soon after their departure 
our travellers killed eighteen wild cows, within less than an hour, 
on prairies prepared by nature alone for those ownerless herds. 
They were wrecked a little farther on, in an impetuous torrent 
which carried them into a bay where they found the gentlest 
calm in the world." As usual when they got beyond the river 
they found game much scarcer, and they were almost starved 
before they reached their destination. Owing to troubles between 
the Iroquois and the Algonquins, they could not return by way 
of the St, Lawrence, but were compelled to make a very fatiguing 
overland journey to the south. 

This same year another journey up the St. Lawrence was 
made by Fathers Joseph Chaumont and Claude Dablon, on their 
way to the Onondaga settlement. They left Montreal on the 
8tli of October, 1655, and the details of the trip are recorded in 
Father Dablon's journal. After making the portage of the St. 
Louis, or Lachine rapids, they crossed Lake St. Louis on the 

vovAGr:s on Tnic n-ricR st. i.wvricnch 




Qtli. The lotli beinf; Sunday, they rested. "On the 12th we 
ascended many rapids by dint of hard paddhnj:^." Mavinj; 
canf,dit sight of some Mohawks, they had to spend the nij^dit on 
guard for fear of their attacking the Huron portion of the band. 
On the r.^th and I4tli, their provisions failing, and having no 
hick either in fishing or hunting, they were reduced to the ex- 
tremity of eating a wild cow which had been drowned. The 
wild cow he describes as a " species of hind — these animals hav- 
ing liorns like the stag's, and not like those of our European 

"The 15th. God made us pass from scarcity to abundance 
by giving our Ijunters eiglit bears." Next day it rained, and 
they feasted and rested. On the 17th they killed thirty bears 
and had another great feast, after which they drank bear's grease 
and rubbed their bodies over with it. Strange to say, only one 
of the band suffered from nightmare in consequence. But he 
had such a realistic attack of that malady that he could not get 
over it wlien wakened ; and the whole company spent a day and 
a half in reducing him to a normal condition. The places are 
yet unnamed, but it appears that this incident occurred in the 
neighborhood of Lake St. Francis, for, on the 20th, they "passed 
the falls of the lake after dragging our canoes through four or 
five rapids in the space of half a league." This evidently refers 
to the Long Sault. " Early on the 24th we reached Lake On- 
tario, at the entrance to which five stags were killed toward 
evening." What he calls Lake On<-ario is what Lemoine called 
Lake St. Ignace, being the lower part of the Lake of the Thou- 
sand Islands. For Dablon tiie lake evidently extends below 
Brockville, for, he says, " furious rapids must be passed, which 
serve as the outlet of the lake : then one enters a beautiful sheet 
of water, sown with various islands, distant hardly a quarter of a 
league from one another. It is pleasant to see the herds of cows 
or deer swimming from isle to isle. Our hunters cut them off 
on their return to the mainland, and lined tiie entire shore with 
them, leading them to death whithersoever they chose. On the 
25th we advanced eight leagues up the lake's mouth, which is 
barely three-quarters of a league wide. We entered the lake it- 
self on the 26th, proceeding seven or eight leagues. Such a 
scene of awe-inspiring beauty I have never beheld ; nothing but 



islands and hiif,'e masses of rock, as large as cities, all covered 
with cedars and firs. The lake itself is lined with craf:s fearful 
to behold, for the most part overgrown with cedars. Toward 
evening we crossed from the north to the south side." This wts 
evidently across to Alexandria Bay, by the foot of Wellesley 
Island, for he continues ; " On the 27th we proceeded twelve 
good leagues through a multitude of islands, large and small, 
after which we saw nothing but water on all sides." P'rom this 
and other accounts we learn that the route to the Iroquois 
country followed the Canadian shore up to the neighborhood of 
Grenadier Island, then crossed over to the American shore in 
the neighborhood of Alexandria Bay, thence following the Ameri- 
can channel through the Thousand Islands, and up between 
Wolfe Island and the southern shore, into Lake Ontario. More 
than ten years were yet to pass before any Frenchman should 
take the northern route and look upon the site of Kingston. 

The Onondagas remained steadfast in their purpose of hav- 
ing the French establish a regular settlement among them. They 
continued, with some impatience, to press tiie matter upon the 
two Fathers during the winter which they spent with them. 
Hence it was deemed expedient that one of them should return 
to Quebec to explain the situation to the Governor. The jour- 
ney was undertaken by Fatlier Dablon, who left Onondaga on 
the 2nd of March, 1656. The season was exceedingly unpro- 
pitious for such a journey, hence the sufferings of the F"ather and 
his band of about twenty Indians, were very great. The con- 
tinued rains, in addition to the extreme discomfort which they 
afforded, weakened without removing the ice on the lake, while 
they opened up many of the streams. Thus they could proceed 
by neither winter nor summer modes of travel. 

By the 17th of the month they seem to have reached the 
Lake of the Thousand Islands, though, as in his previous ac- 
count, he regards Lake Ontario as reaching below Brockville. In 
going down the American channel from the head of Wolfe Island, 
partly on the river and partly on shore, he describes their pro- 
gress as follows : " We passed all the seventeenth with feet in 
the water, weather rough and road frightful. At times we had to 
climb with feet and hands over mountains of snow ; again, to 
walk over great ice-blocks ; and again, to pass over marshes ; 

\'()VA(ii:s ON Tiiic ci'i'i:!): st. l.\\vki:n( re. 



plunge into thickets, fell trees for bridging rivers, cross streams, 
and avoid precipices ; while at the day's end v/e liad made barely 
four short leagues. On the eighteenth we proceeded six leagues. 
On the nineteenth, St. Joseph's day, as we were pursuing our 
course over the ice of the great lake, it opened under one of my 
feet. I came off better than a poor Onnontaguchronnon lumtei-, 
who, after a long struggle with the ice, which had given way 
under him, was swallowed up and lost in the water beyond the 
possibility of rescue. Having escaped these dangers, we entered 
a road of extreme difiiculty, beset with rocks as high as 
towers, and so steep that one makes his way over them with 
hands as well as feet. After this we were again forced to run 
three leagues over the ire, never stopping for fear of breaking 
through, and then to pass the night on a rock opposite Otondiata, 
which is on the route commonly taken by beaver hunters." This 
is the earliest mention of Otondiata, a famous Indian stopping 
place on thp highway of war and the chase, between the Iroquois 
settlements to the south of the lake and the Huron territory and 
beaver grounds, reached by the Gananoque river and the Rideau 
lakes. The St. Lawrence river was commonly attained by way 
of the Oswegatche. Otondiata, which means, it is said, the 
" stone stairs," was the chief camping place in the neighbour- 
hood of the eel fishery. In various references to the place, from 
this time on, the name is applied to different localities, both 
among the islands and on the mainland, frgm Brockville to 
Grenadier Island. In the present account it is probably Grena- 
dier Island, or one in its vicinity, which is intended, that being 
the locality where the crossing was made from one shore to the 
other, in going and coming from the western Iroquois country. 
Thus the narrative continues : " We made a canoe for crossing 
the lake ; and, as we were a company of twenty, a part went 
first. On nearing the other shore they struck their prow against 
an ice-fioe ; and there they were all in the water, some catching 
at the battered canoe, and others at the ice that had wrecked it. 
They all succeeded in saving themselves, and after repairing 
their boat of bark sent it back to us that we might follow 
them. We did so on the night of the twenty-first of March 
We had eaten for dinner only a very few roots boiled in clean 
water, yet we were forced to lie down supperless on a bed of 



pebbles, at the sif^n of the Stars and under shelter of an icy 
north wind. On the followin}^ ni^ht we lay more softly, but not 
more comfortably, our bed being of snow, and the day after rain 
attended us on a lrij,ditful road over rocks fearful to behold, both 
for their heif,'lit and for their si/e, and as -':i.)j,'erous to descend 
as they were difficult to climb. In order to scale them we lent 
one another a hand. They border the lake ; and, as it was not 
yet wholly free from ice, we were forced to underf,'o this labor." 

"On the morning of the twenty-fifth a deer delayed ns until 
noon. We made three leagues, in pleasant weather, and over a 
tolerable road, finding very seasonably, at our halting place, a 
canoe or rather whole tree-trunk hollowed out, which God seems 
to have put into our hands for completing the passage of the 
lake without fear of the ice." 

"On the morrow seven of us embarked in this dugout, .uid 
in the evening reached the mouth of the lake, which ends in a 
waterfall and turbulent rapids. Here God shovved us still another 
favour, for, on leaving our dugout, we found a fairly good bark 
canoe, with which we accomplished forty leagues in a day and a 
half, not having made more than that on foot during the three 
preceding weeks, owing both to the severe weather and the bad 

"Finally on the thirtieth of March we arrived at Montreal, 
having left Onnontague on the second. Our hearts found here 
the joy felt by pijgrims on reaching tiieir own country." 

On learning of the attitude of the Onondagas, and of their 
menacing anxiety to have the French accept their invitation to 
make a considerable establishment in their midst, the pnebec 
authorities found themselves in a very perplexing situation. If 
they declined the proffered hu . 'tality and friendship, they were 
threatened with an Iroquois invasion. To accept the invitation, 
however, was to put their heads into the lion's mouth, and no 
lion's moods were ever more difficult to forecast, than those of 
the Iroquois. The faith of the Jesuits, not in the Indians, but in 
God, carried the day, and it was decided to accept the invitation. 

This Jesuit faith was of the most unquenchable kind. Fail- 
ure in missionary enterprise was taken to be no less an indication 
of Divine guidance, than the greatest success. With all their 
faith, experience had taught them to expect but slow progress. 

vovAciios UK Tin: ri'i'iCK ST. i.AW ki;n( i;. 

:i I 


Hence, every success was regarded as a mote or less iniraciiloiis 
intervention of the Divine Spirit, while failure merely meant the 
preparation of the soil for a glorious harvest hy and hy. ICven 
extremities of torture and licath represented but the crowiiintj 
favour of Heaven in selecting the victim for the supreme houour 
of martyrdom. The inspiring words, "Sanguis martyrum semen 
est Christianorum" were ever on their lips. Where every defeat 
was a victory, and every victory a triumphant miracle, we have 
the conditions which go a very long way towards making pos- 
sible the impossible. 

The company which left Ouebec on this enterprise consisted 
of aL ut forty Frenchmen, a party of Onondagas who had come 
down for them, some Senecas who had also come seeking an 
alliance, and a party of Huron.-. The whole company left Que- 
bec, on the seventh of May, 1650, in two large shallops and sev- 
eral canoes. On the 8th of fune they left Montreal in twenty 

From the journal of one of the missionaries we learn some 
piirticuiars of the journey fror i Montreal. "We had not pro- 
ceeded two leagues when a band of Agnieronon Iroquois (Mo- 
hawks) saw us from afar. Mistaking us for Algonquins and 
Hurons, they were seized vith fear and fled into the woods, but 
when they recognized us, on seeing our flag — which bore the 
name of Jesus in large letters, painted on fine white taffeta — 
flying in the air, they approached us. Our Onnontaeronnon 
Americans received them with a thousand insults, reproaching 
them with their treachery and brigandage ; they then fell upon 
their canoes, stole their arms and took the best of all theirequip- 
ment. They said that they did this by way of reprisal, for they 
themselves had been pillaged a few days before by the same tribe. 
That was all the consolation gained by those poor wretches in 
coming to greet us." 

"Entering Lake St. Louis, one of our canoes was broken, 
an accident which happened several times during our voyage. 
We landed and our shin carpenters found everywhere material 
enough wherewith to build a vessel in less than a day — that is, 
our savages had no difficulty in procuring what was needed to 
make the gondola:- which carried our baggage and ourselves." 

"We killed a number of elk, and of the deer which our French 



call ' wild cows.' On the 13th of June, and the three following 
days, we found ourselves in currents of water so rapid and so 
strong that we were at times compelled to get into the water in 
order to drag behind us, or carry on our shoulders, our boats and 
all our baggage. We were wet through and through ; for, while 
one half of our bodies was in the water, the sky saturated the 
other with a heavy rain. We exerted all our strength against the 
wind and the torrents with even more joy of heart than fatigue 
of body." 

"On the 17th of the same month we found ourselves at 
one end of a lake which some confound with Lake St. Louis. 
We gave it the name of St. Francis to distinquish it from the 
one which precedes it. It is fully ten leagues long and three or 
four leagues wide, in some places, and contains many beautiful 
islands at its mouths. The great river Saint Lawrence, widening 
and spreading its waters at various points, forms those beautiful 
lakes, and then narrowing its course it once more assumes the 
name of river." 

"On the 20th of June we passed the grand sault. Five 
fawns killed by our hunters, and a hundred cattish taken by our 
fishermen, made our troubles easier to bear. Our larder was as 
well stocked with meat and fish at that time, as it was deficient 
in everything at the end of our journey." 

"Toward evening some hunters perceived us, and on seeing 
so many canoes in our company they tied, leaving behind them 
some booty for our people, who seized their weapons, their beaver 
skins and all their baggage. But, capturing one of those hunters, 
we found that he belonged to a tribe of the Andastaeronnons, 
with whom we were not at war. Our French, therefore, gave 
back to them what they had plundered ; this, however, did not 
induce our savages to display the same civility." 

"On the 27th of June, we passed the last rapid which is half 
way between Montreal and Onnontagc — that is a distance of forty 
or fifty leagues from both places." 

" On the 2(jth, after travelling night and day because our 
stock of provisions was getting very low, we met three canoes of 
Annieronnons returning from man-hunting, who brought back 
with them the scalps of four savages of the Neds-perce;j nation, 
and a woman and two children as captives." 



" On the first of July we perceived and gave chase to a 
canoe ; when we overtook it we found that it belonged to the 
village of Onnontaghe. We were told that we were expected 
there, and that Father Joseph Chaumont, who had remained 
there alone, was in good health." 

Arriving at Onondaga in due course the French established 
themselves there, but being threatened with a general massacre 
two years later, they had to abandon the place in 1658, In 16G0, 
desiring to restore friendly relations with the French, the Onon- 
dagas and the Cayugas sent back four French prisoners and de- 
sired a Jesuit missionary to return to them. Father Simon 
Lemoine went in 1661. 

Relations with the Iroquois in general, and the Mohawks in 
particular, continued to be very unpleasant and uncertain, until 
after M. de Tracy's celebrated v/inter expedition against the 
Mohawks in 1666, by way of the Champlain route. This thor- 
oughly alarmed all the nations of the Iroquois league, causing 
them to make and maintain for a number of years a peace with 
the French. 

These years of peace gave opportunity for an immense de- 
velopment of French enterprise, alike in the line of establishing 
missions, and making those celebrated exploring expeditions, 
which extended from Hudson's Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. As 
giving direction and encouragement to this golden age of French 
colonial expansion in America, we find in Canada the greatest of 
the Intendants, Talon, and the most celebrated of the Governors, 
F'rontenac ; while in France itself there was the greatest of 
French ministers, Colbert, representing the most powerful of 
French monarchs, Louis XIV. 

By fostering the Seminary of St. Sulpicc at Montreal, secur- 
ing them the privilege of establishiii.,' missions among the west- 
ern Indians, and stimulating a friendly rivalry in such enterprises 
between the Jesuits and the Sulpicians, Talon sought to en- 
courage the expansion of French power and control over the 
various Indian nations. As part of this movement we have the 
establishment, by the Seminary of St. Sulpicc, of the Kentt' mis- 
sion among a branch of the Cayugas in 1668, M. Trouvt' and M. 
Fenelon, a near relative of the celebrated Bishop of Cambray, 
being the pioneer missionaries in that region. 



An account of the establishing of the mission is given in an 
appendix to the History of Montreal, attributed to DoUier de 
Casson. The account consists mainly of a letter from M. Trouvr', 
one of the missionaries. He says they set out from Lachine on 
October 2nd, 1668, accompanied by two Indians from the village 
of Kentc. They surmounted safely the obstacles between Lakes 
St. Louis and St. Francis, partly by portaging and partly by 
dragging their canoes up the river. On Lake St. Francis they 
discovered two famished Indian women and a child, fleeing from 
captivity among the Iroquois. Instead of allowing them to go 
on to Montreal, the two Indians who were with the missionaries 
insisted on takmg the women and child with them. After Lake 
St. Francis they spent four days in overcoming the most difficult 
rapids on the whole river, referring to the Long Sault. They 
rested from their exertions on one of the larger islands in the 
river. While there one of the savages, seeking comfort from a 
small keg of brandy which he had brought with him, became 
intoxicated and at once irresponsible and uncontrollable. He 
sought to kill one of the captives, but she took to the woods, 
escaping the fury of the Indian, but facing starvation on an 
island from which there was no means of egress. The other 
woman and her child were finally permitted to seek safety in the 
direction of Montreal, which they eventually reached. Even the 
lost woman, after being five or six days a prisoner on the island, 
was discovered and taken to Montreal by a band of Hurons. No 
further details are given of the journey except that they reached 
Rente on the day of the festival of St. Simon and St. Jude, and 
were well received. 

This was the beginning of the settlements on the Canadian 
side of the lake. Soon after this Cataraqui was visited, and an 
establishment begun there. But that marks the opening of a 
new era of exploration. 

Adam Shoktt. 


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