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Of the .Wii-d Sciitiil CdiU'i'irnre. 

Vol. II. 


s. K. huf:stis. 


V. 2. 

6 8 u 


Entered according to the Act of the rarliament of Canada, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety, liy W'll.i.iAM Hkicc.s, 
Toronto, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa, 


1" K H 1^^ A C K. 

The present voluiiio is not oixvu to the piil.lic witliout 
feelings of gr.ititiule. Again and again, during tiie prepar- 
ation of tlie manuscript, the p,M, has hern laid aside througli 
the protests of a w.-arj hrain, and more once with 
comparatively litth' prospect tliat it could he ;,gain t;d<en 
up, excrpt at seri.uis risk. This sta<<'nicnt on the part of 
the author is deemed necessary as an explanati.m to rea(h^rs 
of the Hrst volume, which was issued nearly tlii-teen years 
ago. Not a few of the purcliasers of that volume, whose 
assurances of interest in its p.Tusal, and of expectation of 
pleasure in the contents of its successor, have proved an 
inspiration to the author i., p,M-iods of dei-ression, have, 
meanwhile, passed on to the fellowship of tlie Clnirch 

A not unkindly critic has spoken of tlie (irst volume as 
somewluit " fragmentary." Of the present volum,. the same 
remark might he made without gnvit injustice. Any 
volume of Methodist liistory, whicli en.l,rar(>s a territory 
smaller than tliat of a contin(>nt, must inevital)ly consist of 
portions more or less detached. From the movements of a 
numher of men, here to-day and gone to-morrow, their labor 




spread over widely-separated sections of the country, and 
directed from variously situated centres, consecutive history 
can only be written at the cost. vi^f th\^ dAx.I\:.~ion of much 
important detail and interesting incident. 

It was the original intention of the author to proceed no 
further with his history than to the period of the organiza- 
tion of the Eastern British American Conference, in 1855. 
To that purpose he has virtually adhered, as the closing 
chapter is a supplementary sketch rather than a detailed 
account of a period rich in the development of influences set 
at work during three preceding generations. History can- 
not be written with thorough safety when fire may yet 
smoulder beneath the ashes of some movement marked by a 
bright brief blaze ; the canonization of living men is never 
prudent. The lapse of time only can throw light upon the 
motives of many actions, and the hidden causes of many 
apparently transparent actions. Forty years ago, George 
Bancroft, when asked how far he proposed to continue his 
History of the United States, replied : "If 1 were an 
artist, painting a picture of this ocean, my work would stop 
at the horizon, I can see no farther. My history will end 
with the adoption of the constitution. All beyond that is 
experiment." With no less wisdom and more clearness a 
leading writer of present-day fiction !ias made one of her 
characters say : "In the blaze and mist of this ' to-day,' 
things are seen false and distorted. People are in too great 
a hurry to tell of to-day ; they ought to wait, in some 
things, till it has become yesterday." 

It has not been possible in all cases to mention the names 


of persons from whose pen quotations have been made. The 
already numerous foot-notes of the volunie would have been 
made wearisome to the reader. Of the denominational 
papers and periodicals, British and Canadian, a free use has 
been made, and, among many denominational and general 
religious and historical works, the following have been con- 
sulted with profit : 

Richey'a '• Memoir of WilHam Black." 

Stevens' " History of Methodism." 

Churchill's " Memorials of Missionary Life." 

Wilson's " Newfoundland and its Missionaries." 

Crookshank's " Methodism in Ireland." 

" Autobiography of a Wesleyan Missionary." 

Gregg's " History of the Presbyterian Church in Canada." 

Arthur's " Life of Gideon Ouscley." 

Campbell's " History of Nova Scotia." 

" " History of Prince Edward Island." 

Huestis' " Memorials of Methodist Preachers." 

Hatton and Harvey's " Newfoundland." 

Pedley's "History of Newfoundland," 

Tocque's '• Newfoundland as it Was," etc. 

Lathern's "Hon. Judge Wilmot." 

Nicolson's "James B. Morrow." 

More's " History of Cjueen's County." 

Bill's "History of the Baptists." 

•' Acadia College and Horton Academy." 

Tucker's " Life and Episcopate of Edward Feild." 

"Duncan Dunbar, the Earnest Minister." 

Octavius Wiuslow's " Memorial of Mary Winslow." 



The coiifidcuc'i! with which scvonil possessors of jirivate 
journals .-iikI corrcsixdiiN-ncc liavc phuod th<'in at his dis- 
posal, hav(; (Micou raged tlic author in the |)rosecution of a 
work wliich must l»e largely its own reward, I't-w recpiests 
have heen j)referred \>y him in \ain. Some return for such 
contich'nce has, in s<'veral cases, In-en given in the permanent 
record of the faithful lai">r of parents or friends " passed 
into the skies;" beyond this, thanks are here tendered. 
Among th()S(! whose assistance in various wavs merits 
special recognition, ai'e William V>. Tope, l).I)., of England ; 
Thomas li. Akin, !.L.I)., William 15. McXutt, Ksq,, and 
Mrs. N. A. Calkin, of Halifax : Thomas A. Temple, I':s(i , 
of St. John ; and the late Aaron Tilley, of liandom Sound. 
Newfoundland. The aid given in a minor degree l)y many 
otliens, too numerous for pre.sent personal mention, is also 
gratefully remembered. 

In taking leave of the public, the author give 
expression to a ho})e that his work may pi-ove a stimulus to 
.some organiz(!d effort for the preservation of docujuents and 
collection of facts having refer<Mice to Methodist history. 
Much of th(! mateiial which has found a place in his two 
volumes would, by to-day, have been irrecoverably lost ; in 
a few years many other valuable papers will be Ijeyond the 
historian's reach. The colunnis of our denominational 
journal allbrd an excellent medium for the conveyance to 
the pul)lic of such information as exists only in the keeping 
of weak human memories : a Methodist Historical Society, 
organized on a solid and generous basis, can alone sutiice for 
the preservation of tlie many more or important docu- 



inents now floatirii,' al>out in various Provincial circuits. 
ITpon t\w, Israelite of olden time tin? conununication to liia 
ohildren of the ,i,'reat tliinj^s which (Jod had done in his own 
(lavs and in the days of his fathers was enjoined hy solemn 
command. The form of that command reaches us, and in 
the " keeping; of it," as of all divine commands, "there is 
great reward." God can be read in the history of Ifis 
Church as in no other way, e.'^cept in His revelation of 
Himself through His inspired Word, 






Mctliipdist Mis.-i. II W'di'k in Mlviinoc cif an oi-^'aiii/.cti society. Kfforts 
(if ( Ilk ■ to sustain tin pussinns. His di'iiai'tuif fcjr the Kust. For- 
ni-ition of histricr Mi.-sionary Societies, and union of tliest; in tlio 
(.Jeneial MissioMiiry Socit'ty. heath i>f Coke, - . Tu^'e 17 



Fni^'lisli interest in evanj^'eli/ution of Newfoundland. Arrival oi 
Sain|tson liusliy. Fstal)lislMaent of Cliurcli at I'.oiiavista. N'isits 
of Kllis to other harhors. Arrival of liculsand I'ickavant. Fstalt- 
li.shinent of chnrcli at St. .lohn's. Tin- l)rot' '.ts Hicks( ii. First 
Colonial Mis.->ionary fiist. Loss of church pro|)erty at St. .fohn'.s 
and Cartioneai'. Ixeinfori'enient of staff. I)istress in Colony. 
tJt'urge Culiitt. Otiier missionaries. .... Pago 20 


DISTRICT MEETIN(; OF 1824. {('nm-hulnl.) 

Native Indians. ^lissioii to Lalirador. Hindrances to (Josj»e] work. 
Note.s on circuit.s,«'rs and laity. Iniluence of mission.s in 
Nevvfuundland on otlier countries, .... I'aye W 




The War of ISl^ Annual Al..,,in^. IVinc. F.luanl Island. Low.r 
Utnjula \Vo.-k,nmnvkK.aliti..s. Arrival -f Mi„ist..,s. F-nnation 
o Mr.s.onary ,S,..u.ty. Candidates for Ministry. (J.n.ral Af-.-tinus 

1 age uo 





ofMaHsters ^Vork „, .s.-veral Circuit.s. (George Jack.son. Con. 

A^<i'xTT; V'r ''■^'••'^''^•- ^^''^ ^''-"--land Circuit. 
Arthur McNutt . ohn P.akcr, Janu. (J. H^nni-.u- and H Pruu-e Edward Island. Priestly ,t St. M-ndH.: 
snip, - - , . 

I'iige DH 



.TaUH. Dunhar .nd oth.-r nd .sionaries. St. iU:r,.'s and Hailev's Pav 
D-stunony tow..,.kof n.issi.nari,.s. Willian. Sutclitfe. Con-'rega- 
nonahstsatSt (;....rK..-s. Missionaries. K >g ^r 

1 dheulfes through slavery. Progress und.r danu. Horne. John 
Cro ts. A worthy lead..-. Snn-th. St. David's. The 
Dockyard. Kn.aTinpation. dohn P.arry and others. - Page 133 







Arriviil (.f iniiiist.Ts. Williiuii (;r.)sc(,iiil.c and St. .Fulnrs. Visits to 
nrglfctcd (listrirts. Kcvivuls. I'tTils in tnivdling.;in Cutlu)- 
lic violence. ( 'liiuigcs in the ministry. Death (.f William Kllis. 
2Sc\v missionary ctfort. I'atff 103 





Division of the District. Chang.'s in list of ministi^rs. A i)]. ointments 
to till- West Indies. Cuyshoro". Cape Jireton. Halifax. Young 
ministers. Shuljei\acadie and Truro. - - . l>ag(. 18(J 




CELKRRATIOX IX is:«i. ((',n,r/u>fr,L) 

(ilance at ..Ider circuits. IVincr Fdward Island. ]iil,le Christian 
Church. Ministerial chan-es. Xot ices of Matthew Ridley, William 

Black, and other ministers. 





Changes in tlie ministry. Duncan McColl. Arrival of ministers. Sus- 
sex Vale. Arthur McNutt and I'etitcodiac. Arrivals of English 
ministers. T'rovincial candidates. St. Andrew's, Miramichi, 
IJichihucto, Hathurst, Woodstock and Andover. - Page 244 





YEAR, 1830. [Concluded.) 

Changes in the ministry. Humphrey Pickard, Samuel D. Rice, and 
others. Arrival c,f English preachers. Protracted meetings. St 
John and Frederict.jn. Lemuf^l Allan Wihuot. Sheffield. Cir- 
cuits on the American l)order. Westmoreland. Charles F Allison 
and other laymen. Petitcodiac. Annapolis and Bridgetown. Visit' 
ing missionary. Failure to enter open doors. - . Rage 26G 



IN 1839. 

Preiiaratory action in England. Generous enthusiasm there. Provincial 

Celebration. Retrospect. 

Page 303 

Chapter xiir. 




\ new era. Improvements. Pre-miUenial discussion. Millerite delu- 
sion. Wesleyan Reform agitation in England. Secession of colored 
menibers. Political unrest. (Jeneral business depression. Mem- 
bership. Ministerial transfers and accessions. Notes on circuits. 
Attack on character of missionaries. Asiatic cholera in St John 
Destruction of church property at Fredericton. Riot at Woodstock" 
Camp-meetings at Sussex Vale. Secession of part of Society and 
destruction <,f church at Milltown. Bible Christians in Prince 
Edward Island. Work among British soldiers. William Mar- 
jouram. Deceased preachers. Death of Stephen Bamford. Brief 
sketches of several other 8ui)ernumerary ministers. . Page 311 









Political unrest. Friendliness r)f Sir .Tolin Harvey. of that 
I)eriod. Changes in itinerant ranks. Progress on circuits. Revi- 
vals. Auxiliary Missionary Society. New missions on Western 
Shore and Bay of Notre Danie. Interesting incident. Death of 
William Marshall. Sound Island. .... {^age 300 





New church at St. George's. Causes of depression. Arthur H. Steele. 
W. E. Shenstone. Visiting ministers. Yellow fever. Joini 
Baxter Brownell. The " Black Watch." George Douglas. Thos. 
M. Albrighton. Bermuda a part of the Nova Scotia District. 
Isaac Whitehouse. Fever ei»idemic. Decrease in menibership. 

Page 374 



The Methodist movement originates in a University. Educational dis- 
advantages of Provincial Methodists. Educational movements in 
other churches. Unsuccessful attemi)ts by Metliodists. Andrew 
Henderson's Academy. Wesleyan Day-schools. Offer ))y Charles 
F. Allison. Erection and opening of Academy. Appointment of 
Humphrey Pickard as Principal. Progress of school. Ladies' 
Academy. Charles F. Allison and H. Pickard. Resvilts of their 



work. Meth(i( (education in Newfoundland. Ncwfitundland 
Schocjl Society. ^iiinday-schools. Widtcr i'roiidey. Methodist 
literature. Publications by Preachers. Methods of diss«'inination 
of literature. Depositories. Lack of a J'rovineial Methodist paper. 
Friendly editors. Magazine of IS.'VJ. Ihitish North American 
Wesleyan Methodist Magazine. " Weshyan "' of bS4!». Page oS;") 






Methodism in relation to the State. Kpiscopal domination in early 
days in the several Provinces. Struggle fnr the right tn solenniize 
marriage. Opposition at Fredericton. Susi)ensii)n of J'lnoeh Wood's 
connnission. Coin-ti^sy of Sir John Harvey. I''irmness of (Jeorge 
Cubitt in Newfoundland, iioman Catholic .'..ssistance. State Aid. 
InHuence of other churches on Provincial Methodism. Liturgical 
forms and Church milliner}'. The Prayer-book in Newfomidland. 
The (4own. Influence of Methodism on other Provincial churches. 
Influence on Calvinistic teaching. Practical influence on others. 
Methodism and Temperance effort. ... - Page 412 



oroanization of eastern biutish american 
conferI':nc1': in 1855. 

Policy of Wesh'van Missionary Society. Assistance. Missionary 
scheme. Strong opposition to it in Lower Provinces. Various 
proposals for Union. Views of Districts in 1843 on the subject. 
Outline of plan proposed in 1847. Siibsecpient imjpositions. 
Arrival of Dr. Beechani in 1855. Formation of Eastern British 
American Conference. Return of Dr. Beecham to Britain. His 
early death. Page 431 







Kngli.sli I'msidciits. Fiiiiuicia] iiiTiu,<r.'nici.ts. 71 c :srissi.,ii Society. 

Juhilcc cv]<.l>r;iti..ii. 'I'mitoiiul Kmwtli. r.; St. I'uvrv. 
Death ..f s..i,i,,r iniiM\ Ku-li.^li ininist.Tial nrniits. Joseph 
Laumic-f. MniilxTshii-. Mount Allison ("oil,-,.. |'.,,.,k K'ooui 
und "\VcsI..y:in." M,,vfni..nts to\\;,nl I'ni.^n \vi li tlit- ('.in.'uiii.n 
Coiifereiice. C..n.sniinnati,.Ti of Tnion. Kuitli.r T 'm'on in 1SS;{. 

I'age 451 





HOCIKTY. Mission Wmk in •i,lv.,,„„ , t ■ , , 

iiiati.m ,,f l)i«trirt \L"/,Z u '^ "I'-l''"' '"■'■.'"'■ H"' I'li-t. I-',,,-- 
'■:<:.r:a AlissiJ/.^vy «;;;:;"'"' l^'.^^'Ji'^'f^;,',-' ""f >'•-'■ i" tl,.. 

Tho war in wind, (.i,vat liritain was o„„a^.,.cI with Ftanco 
a.,<l America i„ 18l;( did not prov.nt liritish Methodists 
from liheral thinys for tho extension of tl.e l;in„- 
dom of then- Lord. They were not satisfied only to susta^, 
the messengers previously sent forth ; they turned fron, an 
Mcitnig national contest to u,ake provision for the occu- 
pancy of new Holds " white already unto harvest." 

1'" friends of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, founded 

■n Ibl.), cannot clann for it priority on the list of soeietie., 

ot kuKlred ch.aracter. It n.ust, however, l,e borne in mind 

hat, wlnle before the year nan,e,l no steps ha.l I.een taken 

tow-a,x s t ,0 forn,ation of a n.issionary society under general 

at that per,od under the auspices of British Methodism was 
greater than that of the agents of several associations for 
son,e years known to the religious public. Methodist 
ons d,d not owe their origin to a n.issionary society ; on 
the contrary, tho Wesleyan Missionary Society was called 



into existenco for the supj)ort and extension of missions 
already establislied. The liritish c'oh>nies in America had 
first (iiiga^jjed the attention of Kn^^lish ^lethodists. Tlie 
ministers assemhled at Leeds, in 17G!>, s(!nt Richard Board- 
man and Josepli Pihiioor to America, and, "in token of 
hrotlierly allection," gave seventy pounds from tlieir own 
slender resources to pay for the passage of tlu; missionaries 
and to assist their brethren in New York in the removal of 
the debt on their '' pi-eachiug house." A few years later, 
when nearly all those magiiitict-nt colonies had become inde- 
pendent of the mother-country, and a rapidly ex})anding 
Methodism had entered upon a distinct career, the eyes of 
Wesley and his co-laborers were turned toward England's 
oldest transatlantic possession, Newfoundland, and also 
toward Nova Scotia, in which province many thousands of 
Loyalists from the revolted colonies and large numbers of 
disbanded troops had had lands allotted to tluMu. John 
McCJeary, who ai-rixed in Newfoundland in 17''^;'), and James 
Wi'av, who reached Nova Scotia in 1787, crossed the ocean 
as unconscious leadei's of a long procession from Britain to 
the remaining British American provinces. Three mission- 
aries, intended by tlieir brethren to aid these leaders, but 
turned aside by Him whose path is in the great waters, in 
178G reached xVntigua, whence two of them proceeded to 
the islands of Dominica and St. Christopher. These were 
soon followed to the West Indies by others, sevei'al of whom 
prosecuted their work at the peril of life on islands where 
petty tyrants and slave-holding legislators reigned almost 
supreme. Thus in 1813, when the first steps were taken 
towards the formation of a INIethodist Missionary Society, 
.sixteen missionaries were travelling in the British North 
American provinces and the Bermudas ; twenty-four were 
to be found in various parts of the West Indies ; and two 
others, like lonely sentinels, were stt^tioned, the one at the 

roRMATius OF MissioxMiY sociiyrv. Kt 

military fortress of (lil)raltar, arul the otlirr in the distant 
African colony of Sierra Leone. 

These missions, as well as the neai'er Irish missions, Mere 
for many years vii-tually cariied on l»y a connnitt«.'(i of one. 
J)i. Coke superintended them, and, m a larj^e measure, sus- 
tained them, [n <loing this he stoojted to tiie vei-y di-ud- 
i^ery of charity, and beij;ged from door to door tln^ funds 
necessary to their maintenance. lAjr a task so ditlicult, 
his native ardor and pleasing address admirably Htted him. 
From his fre<juent voyages across the Atlantic he had 
deri\ed further ([ualilications for a work which few coveted. 
While on the American continent he had listened to the 
modest i-ecital of the toil of the heroic Asbury, and the 
noble band of pioneers in the far West and in the British 
provinces; and when in the West Indies he had witnessed, 
durinu; the darkest days of slavery, the sufl'erings of cap- 
tive Africans, to whom it was beyond Ids power to give 
any physical I'elief. J I is appeals for financial aid, pre- 
ferred in the s})ii'it of a Christian and with tlit; dignity of 
a gentlenuvn, were not always ht»ai'd with patience ; but 
for occasional tebuHs he was in some degree compensated 
l)y the appreciative i-eception given him by the thoughtful 
and benevolent. The names of Wil))erfoi'ce and the 
Thoi'ntons were fre(juently found 05i liis listft, and on 
these rolls of honor titled names were by no means rare. 
Some worthy ministers of the National Church, from one 
of the parishes of wliich Coke had been driven for his 
godliness, proved their interest in his new departure by 
financial aid. Deficiencies were sonu'times nuide up by 
the zealous collector from his private purse. In 1703, 
when he gave to the Conference an account of a six years' 
stewardship, more than <£' 2,000 was due him. This large 
balance, he said to his brethren, in a spirit in harmony 
with his whole career, " will never again be brought into 



account ; it is my subscription to the great work." Fn 
subsccjuont yo;ii-s the suj)oriMteiHlonts of circuits were 
ordered to take uj) coHections on Ix-h.'ilf of niis.sions, and 
coniniittecs were api)ointed to assist Coke -in part, per- 
haps, to control his iiii{)ulsiv(! spirit : yet the missions 
remained unch'r the virtual mana[,'ement of the one man, 
whether designated " Superintendent of Missions," or 
" Pr(!sident of the Oonnnittee." 

During the summer of 1801, Coke sailed from America on 
his eighteenth and last Atlantic passage. His hi-ief, 
enthusiastic note to William l>lack, called forth l>y Black's 
acceptance of the Hernmdian mission, and dated, " On the 
Delaware, June .'5rd," was j)roi)ahly his latest etlbrt to serve 
his Master on the American continent.' The ministers of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, of whicli he had been 
appointed a superintendent by \\'esl»*y, had only lent him 
to their English brethren. They never, however, saw fit 
to as.sert their right to recall him, certain correspondence 
between him and a l)ishop of the Protestant Ejjiscopal 
Church having awakened some fear of " Church " tendencies 
on his part. Mis services, nevertheless, were most grate- 
fully remembered. Any errors in judgment they regarded 
as of an impulsive Englishman who could not clearly 
appreciate American character and circumstances. " The 
effects of these errors," an American Methodist historian 
has writteji, " were slight and only temporary ; the results 
of his virtues were grand and enduring. In all circum- 
stances he maintained an unsullied rei)utation for integrity 
and an eminent character for piety." 

Freed thus from all transatlantic tie.s, and satisfied that 
the missions in behalf of which he had spent years and for- 
tune were in successful operation. Coke turned an earnest 
gaze toward the distant land of the Indus and the Ganges, 

1 Vol, I., p. 467. 



To him tlio study of tliat vast (tounti-y ami of its lioary 
systems of hratlitMiism was not new. As oai'ly as in \1^\ 
lie had wi'ittou to a <,'Oiith'mau in India for infoi'ination 
rospcctin*,' the stat(; of the (.'Oimtiy and tht; pro'tahlo 
dilHcultif's, exprnsc and success of a mission at some point 
witljin its tei'i'itory ; and t}n'oui,di suhserjuent ycai-s he liad 
eagerly embraced all oppor-tunities for sccutini; additional 
knowled^M' u})on a favoi-ite suhject. At length - nearly 
thirty years after the idea of a mission to India had first 
been entertained the project took dellnite shape. The 
touching story of the manner in which he silenced his 
remonstrant brethren has often been told. To his teai'ful 
entreaty for permission to proceed to tln^ I'^ast, objection 
was vain ; and the v(!teran, with consent oi the Conference, 
entered upon linal arran<,'ements for the dejiarture of him- 
self and seven yount^ colleagues upon a long contemj)lated 
errand of love. 

For some time Ix'foi'e the rleparture of Coke for fndia, 
the necessity for mor<' general etfort under systematic man- 
agement had become evident to the friends of Wesleyan 
missions. It had been'felt that no one individual, whatever 
his wealth in gifts, could j)()ssil)ly continue to survey alone 
the vast foreign Held, and to beiu- the chief responsibility 
of selecting suitalde agents antl obtaining means for their 
transport and maintenance abroad, in the abscMice of any 
general denominational scheme, warm-hearted Methodists 
had been contributing to the funds of societies ali-eady in 
existence, while Methodist youth, i-ipe and eager for mis- 
sionary service, found no fair scope foi" lioly enterprise 
under auspices they deemed most satisfactory. One of such 
young men, a class-leader in an English village, entered the 
service of the London Missionary Society, and as Robert 
Moffatt, the " apostle to Africa," won a prominent place 
among the nun)ber whose zeal, first kindled at Methodist 



altars, lias buriKul Ijiiglitly in otlior temples, to the f^lory of 
our common Lord.- It was uiHU^r tlio biu'den of the new 
respoiisihility rolhul upon the (hmominatioii by (.^ok(»'s 
aj)})j'oaohinf; (h!i)artur(% and in the; etlbi-t to Mvoid any step 
backwai'd in work abi'oad, that several Methodist ministers 
took sueh measui'es as «,'ave deliuite dir(!otion to tin; /^'rowing 
enthusiasm of their people in the evangj^li/ation of tlu; 

The distinction of leadership in the new line of ellbrt 
belongs to the Leeds cii'cuit ; though, accoi-ding to an 
authority on IJritish INrcthodism, the place of honor was 
nearly won by the Vji-ethren at Edinburgh, (ieorge Morley, 
8uj)erintendent at Leeds, convinced that the Conference 
which had just authoi'ized the expensive mission to Ceylon 
had niadt! no adeipiate ])rovision for the maintenance of 
that and the previously estal)lished missions, re.solved on his 
return to his cii'cuit to put forth ellbi-t for increased and 
continuous linancial support. He was fortunate in having 
as a colleague, .fabez iJunting, a junior preacher who had 
sometimes assisted Dr. Coke in his missionary correspon- 
dence ; and to the bold and prompt, yet judicious, measures 
of Morley's colleague, the great success attending the move- 
ment at Leeds and in other parts of JJritain may in good 
measure be attri' uted. 

Few days in the history of Methodism have been »nore 
fruitful in blessing than a certain day in October, 1813, 
On the Gth of that month the meetings announced at Leeds 
took place. Their smallest details had been i)lanned in 
much anxiety, and with earnest prayer. At six, before the 
sun had risen upon the earth, men from several parts of 
Yorkshire were on their knees in united prayer ; and at 
half-past ten, Richard Watson's memorable sermon on 
Ezekiel's vision of the valley of dry bones was preached, but 

'i "Wtjsleyan Methodist Maj,Mj;iiu'," 18S4, pp. 4!)-54. 

FOiniATloX OF }f/SS/f>XA/n' SOCIKTY. 23 

tlu' special •^'atlicriiii,' was tliat of tlio aftoniooii. It waH 
hold ill the oli.q>(!l wlicnct', nearly fifty yeaj's before, Kiehard 
Hoardinau and Joseph Pilinoor had j^one foith as the 
j)ioneers of a great missionary hand. Thoinfis Thompson, 
^^.P., took the chair, thiity foui'speaker-s, nineteen of whom 
were la 'men, siipj)ortin,Lf him. One of the ministers present 
was wont in later days to tell his junioivs of the timidity 
with which his brethren and he entei'cd uj)on their woi-kon 
that occasion. They " nu^t in the \esM'y a little hefoi-e the 
time, and on looking; into tlie chapel saw it densely crowded. 
There was no platform, and the chair was placed in the 
singers' place under the pulpit. When the titne cauie no 
one seemed dispo.sed to loav*-! the vestry. ()n(^ and another 
.said, 'I know not what to say, \ was never at such a meet- 
ing before.' At length Mr. lUinting, in the fulness of his 
heai't, e.\claim(vl, ' And I am at a loss what to say, l)ut I 
am willing to be a fool for (Mu-ist's sake," and walked into 
the chapel, the rest following." One of the most attractive 
addresses was given by William Warrenei", one of the three 
missionaries who, many yeai-s befoi-e, liad sailed with Coke 
for Halifax, and had been driven with him by a tempest off 
tlie Banks of Newfoundland to the Island of Antigua. The 
sisters were allotted that day a place in the gallery, but 
Jabez I3unting even then predicted for them their present 
noble share in missionary service. No collections were 
takeji, but the ii^terest awakened gave pDinise of large 
financial results, and justified the immediate appointment of 
a treasurer. Richard Reece preached to another crowded 
audience in the evening, and thus concluded the services of 
the day from which British Methodists date the hLstory of 
their missionary society — but not the beginning of their 
missionary work. 

The purpose cherished by George Morley originally em- 
braced only the Leeds circuit, but at the first public meet- 





ing it was resolved tliat a niissionavy society for tlie Leeds 
district sliould be organized, with local branches in the 
several circuits. This course was soon followed in other 
districts, though for a time several influential ministers and 
laymen stood aloof -the ministei's thi'ough fear of an undue 
power likely to be given l)y the new movement to the 
laity ; the laymen through fcome clerical action dictated by 
this foolish jealousy. A work so beneticent could not, how- 
ever, long be impeded in its pi'ogrcss by a cause so trivial. 
"A new and mighty impulse," says Thomas Jackson, "was 
given to mission work in the connexion. Othci" places in 
quick succession followed the noble example of Leeds, till 
the Methodist congregations from the Land's End to the 
Tweed cau;[dit the sacred flame. Collectors ofl'ered their 
services in all directions ; the hearts of the people were 
everywhere impressed and opened by just reports of the 
real state of the heathen, and bv the communication of 
authentic missionary intelligence, and money was from year 
to year poured into the sacred treasury beyond all formei" 
precedent. In less than three years each district — a very 
few only excepted — had its missionary society. At the 
Conference of 1S17 these were united. In accordance 
with the proposal of a committee charged with an examina- 
tion into missionary finances, the Conference directed that 
all district or local associations should be connected witii 
oneCeneral Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, that a 
public meeting of that society should be held in London in 
May of each yeai', and that an annual report of proceedings 
should be issued. At the first ainiual meeting, held in 
May, 1818, the general treasurer reported an income for 
the year of more than twenty thousand pounds. The 
society thus launched and placed under the direction of the 
ablest ministers and laymen of English jNIethodism, soon 
became one of the foremost missionary institutions of tlie 



world. Its receipts in the course of a few years far ex- 
ceeded the most sanguine expectations of its founders, and 
its agents proved second to none in the promotion of its 
higli aim, the glory of God in the exaltation of men. 

Coke, the "father of our missions," oidy learned from 
human voice or pen the earliest results of this movement. 
'' The Lord reward you a thousand times : "' he wrote to 
Bunting from the Cabnlca Indiaman, in a note carried to 
the shore by the pilot. On the passage to the East he 
found a grave in the depths of the Indian Ocean— the 
first of the three Insiiops of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church to whom have been given interment in Asiatic .soil 
or sea. Towards evening, on May 3rd, ISII, an awning 
was spread on the deck of the ship as though for Sabbath 
worship. The cotHn containing Coke's body, which that 
morning had been found lifeless on the floor of his cabin, 
was slowly bi'ought uj) the gangway and covered with 
signal flags. The soldiers were drawn up on deck, the 
crew, at the tolling of the ship's bell, gathered in silence, 
and the passengei-s, deeply affected, stood near the body of 
their late companion. William M. Harvard, one of the 
seven young volunteers for India, and, subsequently, a 
prominent man in Canadian Methodism, read the burial 
service. " Just then," says Coke's biographer, Etheridge— 
"and a fit end)lem and accompaniment was it of the dis- 
appearance from among men of one who had been the 
means of enlightenment to myriads— the sun went down 
behind the Indian Hood. The rapid tropical shadows 
gathered like a pall on the scene, and the ocean, 
waves he had so often traversed in fulfilling the grand 
labors of his life, now opened an asylum to his remains 
till the sea shall give up its dead." 




Eiig'lisli interest in evaii<,'<'liziiti()ii of XewfoinulluTul. Arrival of 
Saiiipsoii Bus))y. Kstablisluiient of Churcli at l'>ona\i.sta. \'isit.s 
of Mills to other liai'liors. Arrival of Ijcwis and I'ickavant. Esta- 
blislinient of church at St. .lolnTs. The l)rothers Ifickson. First 
Colonial Missioiiai'y List. Ijoss of church proix'rty at St. John's 
and Carlionear. I^einforceinent of staff. Distress in Colony. 
Ueorge Cul)itt. Other ministers. 

Am 'Tig the first to sliare in the benefits resulting from 
the formation of the Wesleyan Missionary Society were the 
numerous settlers scattered along the shores of Newfound- 
land, the tenth in magnitude of ti)e islands of the glol)e. 
The laudable but diflicult task of saving these thousands of 
the descendants of Eni^lish Protestants from the errors of 
Roman Catholicism, and of instructing them in Gospel 
truth, for niany years devolved almost wholly upon Methodist 
agents. Generous offers by the Rritish Government, so far 
from availing to inci'ease the number of the ministers to 
whom tiaditional influences led the neglected sheep to look 
as their proper spiritual shepherds, failed to maintain the 
list at the previous standard. The colony, on the appoint- 
ment in 1787 of a Inshop to Nova Scotia, had been made a 
part of that large diocese, l)ut attention to its pressing 
spiritual necessities was either forgotten or postponed to a 
convenient season, which was long on the way. Forty 
years had passed, during which the first bishop of Nova 
Scotia had died without a sight of its rugged coast line, and 
a second had resigned his ofHce without having touched its 
shores, when Bishop Tnglis reached the chief town of the 



colony in an .English frigate, and, conveyed along a part of 
the coast by the same means, visited a number of settle- 
ments for the performance of e})iscopal duties. It was 
fortunate, under tliese circumstances, that the managers of 
Wesleyan missions could command the services of a number 
of men who were not less willing to cross the ocean for the 
salvation of their fellows than were otlieis who sought gold 
through the wealth of the waters. These men came cheer- 
fully to a country then represented to be pre-eminently one 
of fog and of frost, and there diligently pursued their lioly 
work in the entire absence of that sensational element in 
toil which commands the attention and enlists the sym- 
pathies of a large and enthusiastic class of observers. 

The latest missionary sent to Kewfoundland under tiie 
direction of Dr. Coke was Sampson Busby, who reached 
the island early in 1813. His parents were members of the 
Church of England, but the son, awakened and converted 
through sermons preached in the humble Methodist sanc- 
tuary of his native Yorkshire village, sought fellowship 
with those who had held out to him the light of life. His 
first evangelistic essay.s, put forth at home, might have dis- 
couraged a youth less ardent than he. The son's words 
failed to touch his father's heart ; and a farm laborer, to 
whom he had appealed, unable to account for the zeal of the 
young convert, offered a solution similar to that which 
occurred to the Roman Fostus. " Whoy," said the rustic, 
in Yorkshire dialect, " young measter's goan' mad." Having 
been ordained by Dr. Coke and others, he was appointed to 
the Island of Nevis, but, during a lengthened stay at Luton, 
where he awaited the sailing of the convoy rendered neces- 
sary by war, his appointment was changed to Newfoundland. 

Towards the end of August, 1813, William Ellis took 
advantage of Busby's presence at Carbonear, and proceeded 
to Bonavista. He found there more than seventeen hundred 



inhabitants, twelve hundred of whom were Protestants, 
for whose religious necessities but slender provision had 
been made. The frame of a little cha}>el, raised a few years 
before by persons blessed under George Smith's ministry, 
remained a weather-beaten skeleton. The single place for 
worship was the small Episeoj)al church, in which prayers 
were read on the Lord's-day morning by the store-keeper of 
a large mercantile firm who locked uj) his olUce for the pur- 
I)Ose, and whose life, in some other res[)ects, lent no force to 
his religiou.s utterances 

Ellis found a iiome with Charles Saint, under whose 
friendly roof both liemington and Ward had been sheltered. 
In the course of a few weeks, a class of thirt}' members was 
formed, nearly all them knowing whom they had believed. 
At Christmas, twenty-three persons })artook of the Lord's- 
suppei', nineteen of whom then tirst engaged in the hallowed 
service. On the last evening of the yeai", a meeting was 
held at the house of a Mr. Oldford. A near relative, indig- 
nant at this use of his kinsman's dwelling, expressed a wish 
that Satan might be there, but " this prayer," Ellis wrote 
in his journal, " was unanswered, for Jesus was there." 
From this gathering twenty persons went to the house of 
Charles Saint, where, at half an hour before midnight, they 
knelt to renew their covenant with (jod. The more frequent 
meetings for prayer, which the failure of Ellis' health dur- 
ing the earlier months of ISII rendered advisable, 
enabled that minister to observe with pleasure that several 
of the members had leai-ned to pray in public in a "sober, 
devout and rational manner." " I believe," he afterwards 
remarked, " that (iod, in answer to their fervent prayers, 
both public and private, continued me in the land of the 
living." Of Charles Saint he remarked that he was " able 
to exhort and even to preach a short sermon," and that his 
zeal was in happy proportion to his knowledge. A " warm 



exhortation," by Benjamin Cole, induced the belief that he 
also was "designed to be of use." Charles Saint's career 
has been briefly sketched in a former volume ; fifty-tive 
years after Ellis had penned his impression of Benjamin 
Cole's relative value, death suddenly summoned the latter 
from a faithful service to Cod and his own generation in the 
several positions of day-school teacher, class-leader, and 
local preacher. 

The society having covered in the frame which had so 
long been unclothed, Ellis preached for tiie first time within 
the walls of the little church in February, 1814, and on a 
visit during the subsequent summer found the building 
completed. Progress on other lines was at the same time 
reported, in spite of the opposition of the lay reader and 
his associates. It was then, or but a little later, that 
Charles Saint met with firm face an attempted interference. 
At the out-harbors it was the custom to hoist a flag an 
hour before the time for a religious service, the flag to be 
dropped at the end of thirty miimtes, and fully lowered as 
the minister entered the pulpit. On the erection of the 
indispensal)le flagstaff beside the little Methodist sanctuary 
at Bonavista, the resident magistrate uttered a threat that 
the use of a flag as a signal for service would l)e followed 
by the immediate desti'uction of the pole. On the follow- 
ing Sunday morning a constable received orders to remove 
the obnoxious stick, but the word " advice " from Mr. 
Saint's lips acted like a charm upon the magistrate, who 
recalled the order and contented himself with threats which 
were never fulfilled. 

From Bonavista, during the winter of 1813-11, Ellis 
made several visits to neighboring harbors. Two were paid 
to Catalina, ten miles distant, where several families from 
Island Cove had found a new home. At Bird Island Cove, 
where were twenty families, he preached in April to nearly 




all the Protestants the first sermon heard in the settlement. 
In February serious disease led him to Trinity for medical 
aid. There the agent of a large firm, at the instance of 
employers, met him on his arrival, provided him with a 
home, ukI gave notice for a sermon on tiie Lord's-day. 
By this and other acts of kindness ho was in part compen- 
sated for the toil of a journey unattended by any physical 
benelit. A conversation with a young Irish clerk, wiio 
had been convinced of the errors of Roman Catholicism by 
the reading of the "Dairyman's Daughter," was remembered 
with especial pleasure. 

In returning to Conception Bay, in September, P^llis 
narrowly escaped death. The large boat in which he 
crossed Trinity Bay was cauglu at night by a gale, during 
which the sails were rent and a man was washed overboard 
to be seen no more. A few weeks lat(M', when entering a 
boat at Adam's Cove for Carbonear, where he was to preach 
a funeral sermon, he was in more innninent danger. Five 
men had taken their seats in the boat, when, just as lie 
wis stepping on board, the swell caused her to strike a rock 
and turn over. All nnist have gone down had not two men 
on the rock made dexterous use of a rope left there by 
apparent accident. One of the boat's crew was lost, as was 
also one of the rescuing party. On the death of the latter, 
Ellis, a few weeks after the event, })reaclied a funeral ser- 
mon ; but the preacher's head had been so injui'ed and his 
side so bruised by being beaten against tlie rocks, that to 
the end of life any close mental application continued to 
be a dirticult task. 

During the autumn of ISl I, several changes took place 
in the list of workers. Samuel McDowell, who returned to 
Britain at the end of a six years' service, had so lived as to 
be missed. His good natural gifts were increased in 
efficiency by his possession of much of the spirit of his Mas- 



tor. It is said tliat his earnest expostulation with an err- 
ing colleague in the colony had led the guilty man to reply 
by a blow, when McDowell at once turned the other cheek 
to the smiter, who reiuenibered certain words of the Lord 
Jesus, and burst into tears. In his iiative land, in 1855, 
this godly man closed an ainial)le record. About the time 
of his departure from Newfoundhmd two younger men 
crossed tlie ocean in a contrary direction. John Lewis was 
a native of Wales ; John Pickavant had been a convert dur- 
ing a remarkable revival in a Lanca,shire village, and in the 
local ranks had done service marked by " more than ordinary 
zeal, acceptance and success." 

Methodism in the colony, in 1815, wore a cheering aspect. 
A new church had been opened at Blackhead, a site had 
been procured and thirteen hundred pounds had been sub- 
scribed for a church at Carbonear ; and several other places 
of worship had been commenced in the adjoining circuits. 
To their report the four missionaries appended a strong 
appeal to their English brethren for more lal)orers, making 
special mention of need at 8t. John's and Bonavista. At 
8t. John's no Methodist society had been established. 
Koman Catholic immigrants, from the most beniglited and 
priest-ridden districts of Ireland, had, after the fashion of 
their class, lingered in the neighborhood of the capital, and 
had thus given Roman Catholicism complete ascendency ; 
yet two thousand live hundred persons — one quarter at 
least of the whole population — were Protestants, for wiiose 
religious training the two churches, Congregational and 
Episcopal, atlbrded insutHcient provision. The presence at 
St. John's of the excellent John Jones, who, as a soldier in 
the artillery, had been in 1775 one of the original members 
of the Independent church in the town, and after his discharge 
from the army had been ordained its pastor, seems for some 
years to have prevented any direct Methodist effort there. 

!♦ 1 



By successive Methodist missionaries he had been highly 
esteemed, and during his pastorate, whicli ended only at his 
death, in 1800, he had been occasionally visited md assisted 
by them. William Black, on arriving at St. .John's, in 1791, 
called at once on him ; and in May, 1797, William Thoresby, 
who had charge of the Conception Bay missions for nearly 
two years, spent three Sabbaths with him and his church 
of sixty members, the singing of some Methodist hymns 
with several soldiers and their wives (quartered at the 
barracks being the only distinctively Methodist incident of 
his visit. In subsequent years, liowever, it had become 
evident that the absence of a jNIethodist minister from the 
chief town of the colony, a place of semi annual resort 
for great numbers of out-liarbor fishermen, must alFect the 
missions at other points ; and for this reason the English 
Committee had, in 1811, asked their agents to pay " particu- 
lar attention " to St. John's. Definite action was, never- 
theless, delayed until the autunni of 1814, when those who 
had been awaiting the appointment of a preacher, strength- 
ened by the arrival of several families from Conception Bay, 
resolved to proceed during the ensuing spring with the erec- 
tion of a small church. 

To the appeal for more helpers a prompt response was 
given. The first step taken was the formation of the sev- 
eral circuits in the island into a separate group, as their 
previous rrlation to the Nova Scotia District liad been a 
merelv nominal one. William Ellis was appointed chairman 
of the new district, and two additional ministers were se- 
lected for St. John's and Bonavista. Delay in the arrival of 
these ministers led to the removal of Pickavant to St. John's 
in October, but only a month had been spent by him there 
when they appeared on the scene. They proved to be the 
brothers Ilickson, who had just entered upon missionary 
life after a severe struggle between conviction of duty 




at his 
at the 
ident of 
roni the 
1 resort 
iFect the 
lose who 
ion Bay, 
;he erec- 

)nse was 
the sev- 

as their 
been a 

were se- 
rrival of 
m there 
o be the 
of duty 

abroad and attachment to a widowed mother. At the end of 
a fortnight, spent ^at the liome of a gentleman who proved 
the sincerity of his assurances of pleasure and profit in their 
Hociety hy immediate union vviuli tlie small church just 
formed, the brothers parted, James to sail for Catalina, 
on his way to lJoua\ ista, and Thomas for Blackhead. The 
first preached on the evening of arrival at his station, when 
a young man was converted, to whom, as the first-fruits of 
his ministry at J^onavista, he ever remained deeply attached. 
The brethren F^llis and !>usbv stood on the beach at Black- 
head to greet Thomas Hickson ; but the warni Irish heart 
of Ellis would not allow him to wait until the young mis- 
sionary could step on shore, and so, forgetful of the chill of 
northern waters in December, he waded in and first grasped 
his hand. On the evening of that day Hickson preached at 
Adam's Cove. 

In January, 1810, an important meeting took place at 
Carbonear. Sermons were preached on the Sunday, and on 
Monday evening John (Josse, Es(|., presided at a gathering 
of the ministers and leading laymen. These unanimously 
recommended the appointment to Trinity of a minister who 
should visit the several harbors in Trinity Bay ; of a second 
to Fortune Bay, where the inhabitants, about five thousand 
in immber, and nearly all Protestants, had never had a 
minister or teacher ; of a third, to take the oversight of a 
large number of neglected Protestants about Burin, in 
Placentia Bay ; and of another, for the inhabitants of Bay 
Roberts and Spaniards' Bay. Attention was also called to 
the gross spiritual darkness of several other districts of the 
island. As a proof of interest in the issue of their repre- 
sentations, several laymen forwarded nearly thirty-one 
pounds to the Committee, with a list of subscribers, which 
appeared in the report for 1817 as the first ever forwarded 
from a British colony. 

r I 



Some (loj^rec of sadness was felt l)y the ministers at 
their district meeting, held at St. John's, in .June, 1H16, 
The erection of the church at St. John's liad \\k\m\ a sub- 
ject of g(^neral interest, and l)ri;,'ht hopes had heen enter- 
tained respecting the giowth of the society there. These 
exj)ectations had in part heen realized, A spii-it of love 
and unity had pervaded the little Hock, and si.Tlcen j)er.sons 
had been add(!d to their nund)er, but during tlie tiery 
visitation of February 12, 181G, when a thousand human 
beings had been turned into the streets, the newly erected 
church had faliei, in the endjrace of the flames, and former 
worshippers within its walls had thought them.selves for- 
tunate in being able to oljtain, through the kind offices of 
the rector, the use of the Charity school-room. Reports 
from other sections of the island were more encouiaging, 
and from Britain wei'e tidings of intended additions to the 
missionary staff", and, therefore, despite the loss at St. 
John's, and the presence of ominous clouds about the finan- 
cial horizon, the expectant reapers went forth in faith and 
hope to their sacred work. The single exception was that 
of Ellis, the chairman, who, after a long illness at Island 
Cove, was denied the privilege of continued labor, liy the 
Missionary Committee he was that year assigned a station 
in the milder climate of Bermuda, l)ut, acting on his own 
convictions, he remained as a supernumerary in Newfound- 

At the English Conference of 1816 no less than six 
ministers were selected for service in the colony. With 
the announcement of this fact in the report for the year, 
contributors to the Society's funds were informed that 
" there were not less than twenty tliousand persons there 
without religious instruction," and were reminded that "to 
prevent Christians from becoming heathens " was a duty as 
imperative as that of rescuing a pagan from darkness and 



ors at 


a sub- 


3f love 

e tiery 
i-es for- 
tUces of 
a raging, 
IS to the 
P at St. 
le finan- 
lith and 
as that 
liy the 
lis own 

han six 
le year, 
ed that 
ns there 
that "to 
duty as 
■ness and 


supei'stition. Of the six ministers despatched, John Hell 
—successor to Mllis as chairman — (Jer)i'ge Cuhitt and .John 
Walsli, had secMi some ser\ ic(i at home. Ninian Rarr, 
John liaigh and Ilichard Knight were to r(>ceive their 
ti-aiiiiiig in the colony. 

A glance at this giouj) of young ineii will sjiow the various 
cjuartei'S whence Methodism at tluit pei'iod dr(!w hei* minis- 
terial recruits. J(jhn IUjII, from Y'orkshire, luid of Kpisco- 
palian parentage, had hecome a Mt.'thodist in hoyhood. 
George Cubitt, a native of Norwich, had, by removal, been 
placed under the ministry of the able occupants of the pulpit 
of the Carver street chapel, Shetlield, and hatl by them l)een 
led at an early age into the meml)ership of Methodism. 
.John Walsh, of Ormskirk, had been trained a Roman 
Catholic, but his mothei', a Protestant before marriage, had 
returned at her husband's death to tlu; services of the church 
of her childhood. The marriage of a relative led the son to 
attend a Methodist church, and at the age of nineteen he 
resolved to abandon Roman Catholicism, ffis refusal to 
continue the payment of a certain sum for masses in behalf 
of his deceased father brought him into conflict with his 
previous instructors, and caused liim to leave his native 
place. At Liverpool, under ha})pier surroundings, he threw 
off the trammels of early training, and after a severe men- 
tal struggle accepted with his whole heart the Scripture 
doctrine of justification through faith in the atonr'nient of 
Christ. The })arents of Ninian Barr, of Clasgow, belonged 
to the Church of Scotland. At the age of fifteen, during a 
revival among the iNIethodists of Glasgow, he became a 
seeker of salvation. The Holy Spirit's assurance of liis 
acceptance as a child of God, at the end of two years of 
anxious doubt, was so cleai' that he ran off to some fields to 
give vocal expression to his joy. John liaigh belonged to 
Leeds. His parents attended a ministry which was 


msTOHY or MirriionisM 

ji I' 

"not ('\im<^<'li<,'al, and tlicrrt'ore not soul s;ivin<^." Tim 
son, hiippily, was induced to listen to tr-utii in-cdchcd else- 
wliero, and tlie t'.'ir famed iMethodist local )»reacli«M', })<)pu- 
larly known as " Hilly" Dawson, was pei-niitted to lead liini 
to Christ. Tli(^ fathei- at first opposed tne union of his son 
with the Methodists, but in the course of a few weeks i)otli 
the fatlwi- and the mother r<'j(>iced with him as partakei's of 
the comnjon salvation and as n.end)ers of tin; same section 
of the Cluirch of th(^ I'edeenier. Ilichai'd Knight, whose 
colonial service was to end only with his life, was a native 
of a Devonshire villaji^e. For some years his pnijudiees as a 
"Churchman'' kept him aloof from the IMethodist itiner- 
ants who visited his native })lace. The death of a fiiend 
who first accompanied him to a Methodist service, and the 
impression tnade by an alarming dream, led him to serious 
thought and more frequ nt attendance at the sanctuary. 
From a prayer-meeting, at which he had found relief from 
deep mental distress, lie went homo to set up the family 
altar in his mother's house, to the astonishment of friends 
not then able to a})preciate his motives. His steadiness in 
his new path was observed, and he was soon joined in it by 
his widowed mother and younger brother, the latter of 
whom became a useful class-leader. 

Thi.' j.-ain anticipated through the arri\al of these young 
minister;-, was soon lessened by the departure of Sampson 
Busby. The mission at Carbonear had prospei-ed under his 
care, and the new church had so nearly ap})roached comple- 
tion that he had preached in it, wlien the sudden death of 
his zealous wife so affected i»im that ho asked permission to 
return to England. An opportunity of sailing thither 
having been otiered before he could hear from the Com- 
niittee, he engaged a passage and went on board. But his 
plans were frustrated. Just as arrangements were made 
for immediate departure, a strong head-wind arose, which 



continued fcr several days. IMoanwhilo letters reached 
liini, inforniini^ hin» of a ti'ansfcr to Prince I'Mward 
Island. As his luij^'ai^e was taken on shoi'o the wind 
changed so suddenly that befoi-e he could enter the preacher's 
I'esidence the shi}) had rt;acli(>d the open water of Concep- 
tion Bay. 'J'hiough lif(! the hatlled niissionai-y was wont to 
think of himself in the case as a .Jonah, and to infer that the 
captain, from the hearty mannei* in which he i)!'onK)ted iiis 
departure from the ship, had eai'lier than himself ariived at 
a similar conclusion. In November, 1810, tiie lonely young 
preacher took a linal farewell of Newfoundland. 

Four new circuits wen? at once formed. ( )nc was it 
Western Bay; a second included Island Cove and Pcrlicii 
the headquarters of a third was at Trinity; and the centre 
of a fourtli was at IIarl)or Grace, a town second only in 
importance to St. John's. Early in the following spi'ing 
Richard Knight, who had remained at St. John's during the 
winter, sailed for Fortune Bay, where he was the first, and 
at the time, the only minister; and immediately after the 
district meeting of 1817, John Lewis proceeded to Burin, 
in Placentia Bay, wlience an Episcopal minister, the only 
one in that bay for sixteen years, had taken his departure 
after a verv brief residence. 

This extension of mission woik took place at one of the 
darkest periods in the financial history of Newfoundland. 
During the war with Fi'ance and the United States the 
colony had enjoyed a monopoly of the fisheries, for which 
successive seasons had been most favorable. The inflation 
of trade had attracted thousands of immigrants, developed 
extravagant habits on the part of the dependent classes, and 
put immense sums into the hands of capitalists to be invested 
abroad. At the close of the war came the inevitable col- 
lapse, throwing business everywhere into confusion, and 
plunging the colony into almost universal bankruptcy_ 



French and American fishermen, encouraged by national 
bounties, resumed their places on the Banks, and prices of 
the products of the sea — smaller in quantity than for several 
years— were (juoted at less than one-third of previous rates. 
As a natural consequence of the total neglect of agricultuT-e, 
and the entire dependence of the population u])on imported 
supplies, multitudes were soon reduced to destitution. At 
Christmas, 1816, the gaunt famine spectre haunted the 
minds of many. George Oubitt, stationed at St. John's, 
after having been without "bread, ilour and potatoes" for 
some time durincr tliat winter, thou'^ht himself fortunate in 
being able to obtain a half-barrel of potatoes, "frozen and 
not us large as walnuts, by sending eight miles for them, for 
fourteen shillings."' In some places tlie authorities were 
obliged to use aruied volunteer corps for the protection of 
warehouses, and to empower relief committees to distribute 
small (piantities of food at stated })eriods. The unusual 
gloom was deepened by tlie failure of the seal fishery of 1817, 
yet greater troubles were in store for one section of the 
island. Late on a November evening of 1817 a second 
fire broke out at St. John's, and raged until property valued 
at half a million of dollars had been consumed. A fortnight 
later, a third great fire destroyed a large part of the business 
section of the city left untouched by previous conflagra- 
tions, and made two thousand persons homeless. Only the 
unusual mildness of the winter, permitting the prompt 
arrival of vessels harried ott' fi'oin Boston, Halifax, and 
other places, for the relief of sufferers, removed serious 
danger of famine. 

Of the distresses of these dark years the Wesleyan mis- 
sionaries were not mere spectators. No one of the number 
felt them more keenly than George Cubitt, at St. John's. 
One of his earliest duties there was connected with the re- 
building of the church. On September 17, i81G, after prayer 




ices of 


, rates. 


1 ported 

n. At 

:ed the 



mate in 

zen and 

hem, for 

Les were 

(ctiou of 


of 1817, 

\\ of the 


I valued 

Only the 
fax, and 
:1 serious 

syan mis- 
e number 
t. John's, 
th the re- 
;r prayer 

by Busby, Ellis laid the foundation stone, Cubitt preaclied, 
and Ellis and Pickavant concluded the religious services, 
the governor of the colony, Vice- Admiral Pickmore, having 
been present during a part of the time. The new church 
was opened on Ohristmas-day, 1816, the outlook was grow- 
ing encouraging, and geiieral attention was being turned to 
the cultured and earnest young Methodist pastor, when the 
first of the fires of November, 1817, swept over the town, 
and a heavy cloud, beneath which there seemed to be no 
silver lining, overshadowed the pleasing prospect. The new 
church was not burned, but the congregation was so 
scattered and financially crippled as to be powerless to aid 
the trustees in meeting obligations, which included a debt 
of nearly two thousand dollars on the church burned in 
1816. At this crisis the financial aflfairs of the district 
were further complicatf.d by the destruction of the large 
new church at Carbonear, soon after the annual meeting of 
1817 had been held in it. A burning shingle, from a build- 
ing the inhabitants were trying to save, was borne forth 
by a high wind nearly half a mile, to a pile of shavings in 
the churchyard, and in a few moments the townsfolk were 
sorely startled as they saw their new sanctuary, built 
almost wholly by themselves at a cost of more than tw o 
thousand pounds, in the relentless grasp of the flames. 

The succession of misfortunt-s at St. John's hastened the 
return of Cubitt to Britain. Foi' a time he bore up bravely, 
receiving public mention among those most devoted to the 
relief of the suflering. At leng' h, however, he found the 
load too heavy for a mind more apt at intellectual pursuits 
than in the adjustment of financial difficulties. Public 
duties of a special character, tiie necessity for repeated calls 
upon the missionary tr*^i,sury, the embarrassment of circuit 
affairs, the losses and removals of friends, with the constant 
state of alarm in which through their belief in tlie presence 

if I 

!l I 


'1 i 



of incendiaries, the inhabitants lived, all had their effect 
upon a sensitive mind. Under the combined pressure 
health at last gave way, severe and long-continued head- 
aches obliging him carefully to avoid all mental effort, and 
in the summer of LSIS to become a supernumerary. Having 
resumed his ministry a year later, in England, he continued 
for sixteen years to occupy several most im[)ortant circuits. 
Subsequently he was elected to the post of connexional 
editor, for which he was admirably qualilied. Severe per- 
sonal suffering and fondness for literary labor Ird him in 
later years to become a recluse, but in his o\<a cA- -^u way 
he continued to work for tiie public good, uuiii, Id ih-iO, he 
rested at once from manifold labor and suffering. To the 
severe mental and physical strain of that period mav 
perhaps be attributed the comparatively short colonial ser- 
vice of two other ministers, John Lewis and John Bell. 
The first of these at the end of six years returned to 
Britain, where in 1866, a faithful laborer, he expired in the 
deadly grasp of Asiatic cholera ; the second, after mary 
years' service in his native land, departed in equally tiru) 
reliance upon the atonement of the Redeemer. 

In 1819 the district meeting was held under happier i-ir- 
cumstances than in the preceding years. The re* lO' iil 
from the colony of a large part of the superabundant popu 
lation, the successful fishery in 1818, and the improvement 
in prices, gradually caused trade to return to its former 
channels, and thus dispelled the general gloom. Through 
the efforts of Pickavant, sent by his l)rethren to England, 
and of George Smith, wlio heartily entered into the effort 
to assist the colony in which he had once beci. a mis.'^i "fny, 
a sum exceeding two thousand pounds had been col ; o.ed. 
Through aid thus obtained the church at Carbonear had 
been rebuilt, and the trustees of that ri St. John's relieved 
from a heavy burden and ena- led (r- hpffin the erection of 




■ effect 
I head- 
irt, and 
J re per- 

him in 

rn way 

Lb 30, he 

To the 
od mav 
mial ser- 
lin Bell, 
irned to 
>d in the 
er mary 
xUy tiru> 

Dpier 'U'- 
re! lO ill 
nt popu 

he effort 
si^i.' !>ary, 

oil', o'.ed. 

near liad 


ection of 

a parsonage. To the nienibersliip at St. Jolni's the assist- 
ance seemed of special value, for in a letter forwarded in 
July, 1819, in acknowledgment of the aid rendered by Methodism, the otlicials reported the occurrence, 
eight days before date, of another heavy tire, by which the 
principal supporters, several of whom Jiad been sufferers by 
previous fires, had Ijeen brought to the verge of I'uin. 

In spite of the fhiancial crisis in Newfoundland, the 
Missionary Committee allowed no dimiimtion in the number 
of its agents there. Of young inen sent out, one was 
William Wilson, a youth of short, slender figure and active 
temperament. In his native Lincolnshire village, a pious 
mothei" had led him in childhood to respect religion, but 
after her death he had entered into the follies common to 
his age and circumstances. In London, he lieard the truth 
preached at Lambeth. chapel, and visited one of the classes. 
From a faithful leader he learned two facts of interest — the 
first, the possibility of a knowledge on earth of the forgive- 
ness of sins ; the second, the privilege of the immediate 
possession of such assurance. One 'ay, when at his daily 
work, peace was bestowed upon him m " indescribable mea- 
sure." Some of his earliest addresses were given during 
visits to the inmates of a well-known London })rison. In 
1819 he was recommended for tne ministry and placed on 
the president's " list of reserve." The necessary examina- 
tion before the London ministers and his introduction to 
the General Committee led him into the presence of minis- 
ters and laymen whose names have been lovingly embalmed 
in denominational records. The interview with the General 
Committee was one of much interest. Ten years of mission- 
aiy life in India, and forty otliers of varied service in Britain, 
did not ellace the scene from the memoi-y of Elijah Hoole, 
a fellow candidate, who, when he had heard of William 
Wilson's deatii, recalled it as a "specially solemn occasion." 



One ev^ening in March, 1820, Hoole was despatched to Lam- 
beth, to notify Wilson tliat he was required for immediate 
service. Two evenings later he received ordination at 
Chelsea, and on the following morning took a seat on the 
stage for Liverpool. Thence, after a fortnight's detention, 
he sailed with John Bell, chairman of the Newfoundland 
District, who was returning to his post after a short absence. 
On a Sunday morning in May they landed at Harbor 
e, where, when the signal iiag had been hoisted and 
if • ed as usual, Williain Wilson began his colonial minis- 
try, which also ended on a Sabbath, nearly fifty years from 
that time. At St. John's, as the colleague of Pickavant, 
he soon after welcomed another young missionary, John 
Oliver, whom failure of mental health soon, however, obliged 
to return to Britain, and after the lapse of a year or two, 
to retire from the ministry. 

Two other young men who came out at this period were 
foster-sons of Methodism. John Boyd, who arrived in 
1823, had been led to religious decision by a sermon to the 
young by Dr. Raffles, the eminent Independent preacher. 
When twenty- five years had elapsed he heard Dr. Raffles 
once more. At the close of the service he sought an inter- 
view with the preacher, and told him of the influence which 
his sermon on a certain Sunday evening had exercised upon 
the life of one of the hearers. As the venerable man 
raised his hands, with the exclamation, " Let us magnify 
the Lord together!" both shed tears of grateful emotion. A 
pious cousin had led the awakened youth to a Methodist 
class-meeting ; and there, surprised and blessed by the 
several relations of religious experience, he had said : " This 
people shall be my people, and their God my God." A simi- 
lar determination had been reached by Adam Nightingale, 
who was sent out in the autumn of the same year. Metho- 
dist preachers had found him in a Northamptonshire 



[1 to Lani- 
tii mediate 
lation at 
at on the 
t absence. 
b Harbor 
)isted and 
lial minis- 
ears from 
ary, John 
jr, obliged 
eir or two, 

;riod were 
brrived in 
lOn to the 
3r. Raffles 
; an inter- 
;nce which 
cised upon 
•able man 
s magnify 
lotion. A 
;d by the 
id : " This 
" A simi- 
r. Metho- 

village, and explained to him the meaning of the fear which, 
despite liis unfavorable associations, the Holy Spirit had 
awakened in his heart; and some pious men of a militia 
regiment, guarding French prisoners, had strengthened his 
resolution to obtain the peace which follows forgiveness. 
That power in prayer, which, more than ability in preach- 
ing, became a n)arked characteristic of his ministry, soon 
attracted attention. One prayer, otFered by him in the 
Independent chapel of his native village, made a deep 
impression upon many listeners, one of wliom subsequently 
became pastor of an Independent church in a large English 
town. When age and infirmity had caused the latter to 
retire from the pastorate, and similar causes had led Adam 
Nightingale back to England after forty years of service 
abroad, a meeting took place in some respects resembling 
that between Dr. Raffles and John Boyd. At the end of 
a two years' employment as a home missionary in an 
English village, Nightingale was ordained for foreign duty, 
and in a few days was on the ocean in a little vessel of oidy 
seventy tons, bound for Newfoundland. A passage of sixty- 
seven days, attended with almost constant illness, did not 
prevent him from preaching twice on tlie Sunday on which 
he landed, or from accompanying, on the following morning, 
some men who had come twenty miles in an open boat in 
search of a minister to perform the last Christian rites over 
the body of a deceased neighbor. 


DLSTKTCT MEKTIXti OF 1S24. (Conci.ii.kd.) 

X'^ativc Tiuliaiis. Mission to Liil irador. Hindrances to work in X^ew- 
foiindland. Notes on circuits, ministers and laity. Influence of 
missions in Newfoundland on other countries. 

The aborigines of Newfoundland were not forgotten by 
the Wesleyan Missionary Committee in its plans for the 
evangelization of the island. In 1809, at the request of Dr. 
Coke, John Remington had gone in search of these real 
" natives," but through lack of preparation for a difficult 
and dangerous task had failed to find any representatives 
of a rapidly vanishing race. Eleven years later, when the 
story of their misfortunes was attracting the attention of 
English philanthropists, they received special mention in 
the " instructions " forwarded by the conunittee to their 
missionaries in the island. 

The story of the Beothuk Indians is a sad one. By the 
whites they were known as the Red Indians, from their use 
of. red ochre as a paint for their bodies and their wigwams. 
Nothing thoroughly satisfactory in relation to their connec- 
tion with the Indian tribes of the American continent has 
yet been determined. When Cabot first reached Cape 
Bonavista, in 1497, they roamed over the island at will, 
the undisputed possessors of its rich fisheries and hunting 
grounds. The act of Cabot, in car.'ying away thrje of their 
tribe, was a fitting prelude of their treatment by numerous 
successors. Their fate was no less sad than that of the 
Indian tribes on the broad continent, where, to the American 




ro THE 

k in Nfw- 

otten by 
5 for the 
3st of Dr. 
hese real 
b difficult 
vhen the 
Bution of 
ntion in 
to their 

By the 
their use 
r connec- 
ineiit has 
led Cape 
at will, 
e of their 
it of the 

colonist, the earlier occupant of the prairie seemed too often 
only an impediment to progress —the Imman counterpart of 
forests to be felled, of mountains to be tunnelled, of rivers 
whose broad currents were things to concjuer — an obstacle 
to be swept away. The Beothuks, according to earlier 
navigators, were disposed to be tractable, but their petty 
and repeated thefts led to attack and reprisal, and then, on 
the part of the European, to a policy of extermination. At 
length the life of the lied Indian came to be held at no 
higher value than that of the animal in whose skin he 
wrapped himself. Before the brutal policy that a dead 
Indian was the best Indian, the original possessors of the 
soil could not long retain their position, Tiiey soon re- 
treated from the coast to the islands which dotted the large 
lakes of the interior, as the implacable foe of the European, 
an occasional visit to former haunts being announced by 
the destruction of some unguarded boat, or the discharge of 
a shower of arrows at some luckless fisherman. In their 
remote retreats, however, they found no rest, for the Micmac 
Indians, who made their way from Nova Scotia to New- 
foundland about 1765, followed them with firearms into the 
interior, and soon lessened their numbers. 

Early in the present century these unfortunate natives 
were placed under protection of British law, but it was soon 
learned that justice had raised her shield over them too late. 
Efforts to win the confidence of the remnant of the tribe 
proved utterly fruitless. Lieutenant Buclian succeeded, in 
I SOI, in reaching their encampment at the head of the River 
E.Kploits, and inducing two of their number to go on board 
his vessel ; but on his return to their camp he found that 
its occupants had fled, having first beheaded the two marines 
left with them as hostages. On reaching his ship, he found 
that his two Indian visitors had .ilso made their escape, and 
had eluded all attempts at discovery. Subsequent efforts 



at conciliation were not more successful. A tishernian, 
prompted by an ofPerof reward, in 1804 captured an Indian 
woman and carried her to 8t. John's. There siie was most 
kindly treated and laden with presents, l)ut it was supposed 
that on her way back to her tribe she was murdered for the 
sake of her possessions by her already liberally rewarded 
captor. In 1819, some trappers surprised two men and a 
woman at Red Indian Lake. The men, resisting, were 
shot down ; the woman was cai'ried to St. John's. She, 
too, was treated with all kindness and sent back to her 
people, l)ut on the passage was cut down by disease. 
Her coffin was placed at the side of a lake, whence, as 
was afterwards learned, it was taken and placed beside 
the bodies of relatives. Four years later three other 
women were caj)tured and treated in a similar manner, but 
when placed on shore near their native haunts they ran 
back into the water, refusing to be left. Two of them soon 
died, but the third survived two years. In answer to 
inquiries, she was understood to say that her people had 
been reduced to a very small number, who would have killed 
her companions and herself had they attempted to return to 
them from the Europeans. Since then no Red Indian has 
been seen, the tribe having only a burial place on the large 
island over which they had once roamed unchecked. It 
was, therefore, to little purpose that, in 1820, the Committee 
of the Wesleyan Missionary Society assurv-d the public that, 
should any opening to the " long isolated aboriginal inhabit- 
ants of the interior occur, the brethren are directed to avail 
themselves of it to attempt tiicir instruction ; " and to even 
less purpose, so far as they were concerned, that the chair- 
man of the meeting held at St. John's in October, 1823, for 
the formation of an Auxiliary Missionary Society for the 
Newfoundland District, urged support of missions, with a 
special view to the enlightenment of the " aborigines of the 


n Tudiau 
was most 
k1 for the 
icn and a 
lag, were 
ii's. She, 
ck to her 
^ disease, 
hence, as 
3ed beside 
iree other 
inner, but 
they ran 
them soon 
answer to 
eople had 
lave killed 
) return to 
ndian has 
1 the large 
ecked. Tt 
ublic that, 
al inhabit- 
ed to avail 
nd to even 
the chair- 
■, 1823, for 
ity for the 
ns, with a 
ines of the 

island." The real aborigines of the island, with perhaps a 
few exceptions, were even then sleeping the sleep of death. 

For the spiritual welfare of some members of other 
Indian tribes it was not too late to devise plans. The 
occasional presence of small bands of ^licmac or Labrador 
Indians had already lent variety to the religious services 
at some of the missions, and had awakened a belief that 
some ste])s might be taken for their benefit. In the 
autumn of 1819, Ellis had baptized, at Bfireneed, six Labra- 
dor Indians of one family. The employer of these en- 
trusted Ellis with their instruction, and that minister 
resolved to devote one evening in each week to their 
special welfare. This and several others led the 
Missionary Committee, in 1S20, to make inquiries relative 
to the establishment of a mission on the coast of Labrador, 
where, as usual, Europeans had carried many of the vices 
of civilization, with but few of its virtues. 

About fifty years earlier the Moravians had succeeded, 
after one or more fruitless attempts, in establishing a mis- 
sion on that inhospitable coast. In 1771, the British 
Government granted them land for a mission station in 
57" north latitude, which they called Nain. Five years 
subsequently they formed a small settlement at Okkak, 
one hundred and fifty miles north of Nain; and, in 178*2, 
a third, to the southward of Nain, known as Hopedale. 
Many of the residents at these stations had added to a 
theoretical knowledge of salvation that personal reliance 
upon Christ's atonement which divine love has made the 
indispensable condition of its possession ; and to these 
Eskimo believers the British and Foreign Bible Society 
had already given the Gospel according to John and then the 
completed New Testament in their native tongue. 

With these Moravian missions no interference was con- 
templated by the Wesleyan Missionary Committee, when, 




ill IcSl'O, il tui'Mcd its iittcMition to tlie coast of Lalnador. 
Jietweoii JIojxHlale, tlie most southeily Moravian sottle- 
iDent, and i\\v Straits of Belle Isle, lay a coastline of thi-ee 
hundi'od miles, alonjjj wliicli the Kskinio roamed in savage 
wildness. This tract of h<;athendom liad been a source of 
sorrow to the Moravian teachers. They had complained 
that "a number of the baptized, particularly from llope- 
diile, were seduced to the south, where they purciiased tire- 
arms, associated with the heathen, and plunged themselves 
not only into spiritual but temporal ruin." It was to the 
southei-n point of this dark district that the Committee 
requested Adam Clarke Avard, a devoted young minister, 
then stationed at Fiedericton,, to proceed, in 1821, 
to connnence there the Society's mission. 

A brief sketch of the suicessive eH'orts to establish this 
mission needs not be deferred. Avard never saw the rocky 
headlands of Labrador, foi", before the date fixed for his 
removal thither, his short but useful career on earth was 
ended. The connnencement of tlu; mission was then en- 
trusted to the ministers of the Newfoundland District, by 
whom, in consecjuence of the many appeals from v.arious 
parts of their own island, any definite actioti was deferred 
for three years. At length, Th(jmas Hickson, aljout to 
return to England, went to the coast for a few weeks, 
accompanied by a special pilot. Brief observation con- 
vinced him that missionary effort was not more necessary 
among the "poor, l)enighted Escjuimaux '' than among the 
European population, many of whom were leading Tflost 
abandoned lives. On July 11, 1824, at a point on the 
shore of Hamilton Inlet, where, as far as he could learn, 
no Christian minister had before been seen, forty Euro- 
peans heard him explain and enforce "The kingdom of 
heaven is at hand ; repent ye, and believe the Gospel." 
Twenty Indians, present at the time, behaved with great 




of three 

ource of 
11 plained 
11 Uope- 
ised tii-e- 
IS to the 
in 1821, 

l)lish this 
the rocky 
d for his 
!arth was 
then en- 
strict, by 
n various 
aVjout to 
w weeks, 
tion con- 
niong the 
ing fllost 
t on the 
lid learn, 
•ty Euro- 
gdovn of 
•ith great 

jiropriety, although unable, in the al)senee of an inter- 
preter, to understand the purpose of the pi'eacher's appeal. 
At another place, with the assistance of a lialf-hreed inter- 
preter — the wife of a Canadian — he several times addressed 
a band of Eskimos, who listened with apparent interest. 
Of his dark-hued congregation Hickson wrote, on the 
morrow of one Lords-day : "They went home and spent 
the Sal>bath evening in a much better way than some pro- 
fessini; Christians do." Among them were several who 
had learned to read at the IVIoravian settlements, and who 
frecjuently spoke of their former teachers and their simi- 
lar lessons of truth. At the end of ten weeks, during 
which he married several persons, baptized some adults and 
their children, and preached to largo numbers of New- 
foundland and American tishermen, Hickson returned to 
Newfoundland to t;ike passage for England. 

During the summer of 1825, Richard Knight sailed from 
Brigus for Labrador, to spend a short time there. At his 
second service lialf of his hearers were Indians. On visiting 
their camp, he found that the occupants belonged to a 
superior class, much indebted to Moravian influence. Their 
singing of a hymn was nev(-r forgotten by the missionary 
and his friend Cozens, of Brigus. " 1 have heard," said 
the former, "singing scientitieally performed, but this ex- 
ceeded all. 8uch melody T never before heard : from the 
most aged to the child of ';<"ii- or live years all moved in 
the sweetest unison." After having preached frequently in 
the southern district, and made all possible inquiries in rela- 
tion to the proposed mission, Richard Knight returned to 
the colony, as deeply convinced as Thomas Hickson had been 
that a Labrador mission should be immediately undertaken. 

The agent selected for the isolated post was George 
EUidge, a most worthy man. He, however, accepted the 
mission wholly as a matter of duty, and sailed for his 



destination with a dogren of reluctance wliicli was not 
overcome by a closer Jic(|naintance with the «rinj rocks 
and giant clilFs of the deso''te coast. Late in the autumn' 
he visited St. John's, in «. of building matei-ials and 

winter stores for his station at Snooks' (Jove, Itut dui'ing 
the following year he returned to the colony, l)ringing 
with hini the proceeds of such property as he had been 
able to sell, and opposing any fui'ther attempt in the 
same direction. William Wilson, then at JJurin, volun- 
teered for the vacant post, and the Connnittee accepted his 
offer ; but, though his name appeared in the Minutes of 
1828 as appointed to the "Indian Mission, Esquimaux 
Bay," his presence was never required there. The views of 
Charles liate, sent there u'ttil the pleasure of the Com- 
mittee could be known, w in accordance with those of 
EUidge ; the chairman, t.^ ^lore, advised abandonment 
and sent Wilson back to J^urin. A final reference appeared 
in the report of 1829. "The Labrador mission," it was 
there said, " is for the present abandoned ; principally in 
consequence of the removal of the Esquimaux tribes from 
the coast into the interior of the countrv, and their general 

Some special hindrances to progress lay in the path of 
the missionary to Newfoundland. Schools were few in 
number and low in grade. Suitable lay helpers were, there- 
fore, often sought in vain, and evil flourished as the com- 
panion of ignorance. To the alarming prevalence of Sab- 
bath desecration and drunkenness wearisome allusion was 
made in the letters of that day. Other serious hindrances 
belonged to the list of misfortunes rather than to that of 
faults. Chief among these were the long absences of the 
fishermen from their homes and from public worship — a 
misfortune not peculiar to that day. In the northern pai'ts 
of the island, the lengthening days of departing February 



was not 
im rocks 
B autumn' 
rials and 
it during 

had beon 
pt in the 
in, volun- 
cepted his 
iinutes of 
le views of 

the Com- 
tli those of 
3 appeared 
)n," it was 
incipally in 

ribes from 

leir general 

he path of 
lere few in 
were, there- 
is the com- 
tnce of Sab- 
Uusion was 
to that of 
Inces of the 
worship — a 
•thern parts 
U February 

warned the minister to prej)aro the "sealers' sermon," and 
reminded th(r tislierman to make ready for tlie })ursuit on 
the ice of his hazardous and cruel calling ; and the bright 
dfiys of early summer saw many who had thus been engaged 
leave, often with their families, for the main-land, to remain 
there till the shadows of ajiproaehing winter should liasten 
their return. To the thoughtful pastor, the sight of the 
vessels crowded with their human freight was a sadly 
suggestive one. To him it meant, at home, shrunken con- 
gregations, shattered classes, weakened Sunday-schools; 
while, in reference to those al)0ut to sail, it led to fears of 
sudden death in the pursuit of a perilous employment, or of 
moral danger on the crowded \essel oi- busy shoi'e, invoh ing 
loss more sad than that of gallant vessel -the shipwreck of 
the soul.' On the southei'n coast, with the excej)tion of 
occasional visits with fish or for })rovisions, the fishermen 
were at home only about four months in the year. In some 
parts of the island, also, when early winter frosts had set 
in, many of the people were accustomed to resort to tilts, or 
teinporary homes in the woods, selecting such spots as the 
(piantity of material for hoops, staves and fuel rendered 
most atti'acti\e. 

In spite of all hindrances, however, faithfi.! labor had not 
lieen in vain. In the chief town Methodism had been per- 
manently esta])lished. At first it could claim few adherents 
by hereditary descent. jNIost of the Protestants were 
Englishmen from counties in which Wesley's followers were 

' Fii tlic most d»'iii()ra]iziii}^' pursuit of tlic Xcwfoundlund tislicrman — 
the seal-hunting men wlio have feared (Jod liave found opportunity to 
work ritrhteousness. Tlie career of the hite Hon. Kdward White, long 
one of the most successful sealiTii,' captains of the colony, [U'csents a case 
in point. The determination of tliis faithful Metiioclist to keep the 
liOrdV-day holy under all circumstances is widely known. One other 
case may he mentioned. A few years ago a sealing vessel, in which 
were one hundred and twenty men, became a place of salvation. On 
her return to port a thrilling scene took place at tiie first Methodist ser- 
vice, as five men arose in succession to tell of conversion experienced 
through meetings held on the vessel by the captain's sun. 


\ I 

v >■ 

less numerous than in some other parts of the Kingdom. 
The customs of the place had been strongly antagonistic to 
a religion affecting the heart and thence controlling the 
life. Observance of the Lord's-day was a matter of mere 
convenience, and drunkenness called forth slight remark, 
though fifty sudden deaths in 1823 were ascribed by John 
Walsh to the use of spii'ituous liquors as a direct cause. 
Nevertheless, under the ministry of Pickavant and Cubitt, 
at a time of peculiar ti-ial, and under their successor Walsh, 
a church of seventy members had been gathered in the 
town and its vicinity. 

Of several circuits in (Conception I^ay, Oarl)onear was 
the most important. The new church was first used in 
1821. That church, built to seat one thousand worshippers, 
and eidarged by successive additions, until its original style 
could with diiliculty be detei'mined, continued to be the 
"cathedral"' of Carbonear until 1876, when a new and very 
fine church was dedicated as its successor. Harbor Grace, 
in commercial impoi'taiice second only to St. John's, became 
a separate charge under Ninian Barr, in 1817. In 1820, 
steps were taken for the erection of a church to occupy the 
place of that built manv vears earlier by John Stretton. 
In the old church, the fii'st at Harbor (jrrace, one of the 
latest conversions — under the luinistry of John Walsh - 
was that of David Rogers, a, young Englishman trained 
under Independent auspii;es, who gave to the church of his 
adoption a long and useful personal service as class leader 
and local pi-eachci", and also a gifted son, now an ex-presi- 
dent of the Nova Scotia Conference. 

Of the two thousand inhabitants of the l^lackhead and 
Western Bay circuit, three-fourths were Protestants, who 
received no other religious instruction than that given by 
the Wesleyan missionaries. Port de Grave, at William 
Thoresby's return to England, in 1798, had seemed bright 




niistic to 
ling the 
of mere 


by John 
ict cause. 
kI Cubitt, 
or Walsh, 
iA in the 

onear was 
it used in 
ginal style 
to be the 
^v and very 
•bor Grace, 
n's, became 
In 1820, 
occupy the 
II 8tretton. 
one of the 
n Walsh - 
lan trained 
urch of his 
class leader 
!in ex-presi- 

with promise, but, in spite of the presence of some excel- 
lent members, under the leadership of George Vey, growth 
there failed for many years to correspond with tlie labor 
Ijpstowed. " The people of Bay Roberts," a part of the 
Port de Grave ciicuit, Thoresby wrote in 1707, "■lo\e tlie 
(iospel of Christ," From that place, in 1824, when a church 
had just been opened, the ]rastor reported a '" lively, zealous 
society." By the earliest itinerants from Bi'itain Brigus 
I'eceived frequent vis:its, but the Jiame tiist appeared on the 
Minutes of 1819 as that of a circuit, under Thomas Ilickson, 
the only Pi'otestant minister in the picturesque village. 
The church then used had once been I'ogardcd as the common 
jtroperty of Episcopalians and Wesloyans. For n)any years 
the Weshiyans of Brigus found a true fiiend in the late 
Charles Cozens, for many years the })rincipal merchant of 
the place, and subsequently its stipendiary magistrate 
Though an English Independent, at his request a Methodist 
minister was sent to the harbor; his plensant dwelling was 
always at the disposal of visiting itinerants ; his purse was 
readily unclasped for the support of the work, and for many 
years as superintendent of the Sunday-school he conferred 
a great benefit upon the community. In 1824, Cupids, a 
cove near Brigus, became a part of the cii'cuit, and a pi-o- 
posal to erect a small Methodist church received, a few 
months later, general sanction. 

The Island Cove and Perlican circuit reacheil from 
Lower Island Cove, in (Jonce|>tion l>ay, io the scene of 


vnis ear 

]y lal 

)ors in J rini 


itv P 


At Island Cove 

were the Garlands, in whose home the itinei-ants found a 
welcome ; at Grates' Cove was John Iloskir.s, son of the 
cirly evangelist of that name, at Old Perlican. Fearing 
the loss of his services as teacher and lay reader, for yeaj-s 
gratuitously given, the inhabitants had in 182:5 asked the 
^Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to grant him the 

I : 




usual salary. At Old Perlican, under the ministry of John 
Bell and James Hickson, many were led into the way of 
peace. F^cjually precious results attended continued services 
at Island Cove, where on one Sabbatli Hickson spent seven 
hours " without intermission "' in the old church. From 
Island Cove, wliere William Cnrland, sen., rendered valu- 
able service in the pastor's alk ,ce, Hickson, with six newly 
converted men, carried the revival flame to Hants Harbor, 
a part of the circuit. John Barbei", one of Hoskins' earliest 
converts, had removed thither and had become leader of a 
number of converts through the ministry of John Lewis 
and John Bell. After a tryinp journey, Hickson reached the 
hospitable home of John Tilley, i^lad to rest his wearied limbs 
and care for his frost bitten feet. Throui^di this visit fifty per- 
sons were added to the list of members.'- Several years later, 
Richard Knii^ht was glad to find that at Hants Harbor no 
man needed either of two tracts of which he carried a large 
supply. These were "The Swearer's Prayer," and "A Word 
to a Drunkard." 

The securing of a foothold at Bonavista was followed by 
a serious struggle for I'oom for growth. Persistent protests 
against prevalent evils were by no means acceptable to the 
majority of the merchants, or of those of humbler position, 
who were glad to be able to plead the example of the more 

-John Tilley wus a soiufwliat remarkable man. At the age of 
twenty-six, in intervals of work as a tishi'rman, he tauf^'ht himself to 
read and write, aiubthen inchuled in his list of reading hiogiajihy, his- 
tory, jioetry and theology, attaining also protieii'iicy in s(!veral sciences. 
At the age of fifty he had accunnilated a large and well-selected library. 
When a small child he had liear<l (leorg** Smith preach at Perlican, his 
native ])lace, and iiad comprehended enough of the sermon to i)roduce a 
lasting imi)ression. At Hants Harbor, where he si'ttled soon after his 
marriage, he maintained a steady Christian conrse. Tin nee, in later 
life he removed witii iiis family to Random Sonnd, in Trinity J>ay, 
where earnest toil placed him at lengtli in a position of comparative in- 
<lei)endence. Increased k'isiu'e there permitted him to carry ont a pro- 

ject lonj. 


m view 


le pro(hiction of a poetical narrative ( 

.f th 

introduction of Methodism into his native village. Occasional lines of 
considerable beauty and force occur throughout the long maiuiscript. 
Mr. Tilley closed a long life at Uandom Sound. 



wealthy in justification of their own evil acts. At Catalina, 
a small church of twenty-one members met with little 
oj)position, but at 1)1 rd Island Cove, another part of the 
Bonavista circuit, the darkness lon^ lin<^ered. Of the dis- 
persion of that darkness under the preaching of James 
Hickson, Wilson has given some interesting incidents in 
his " Newfoundland and its Missionaries." To counteract 
llickson's influence, a lay reader was appointed and a 
special choir selected. One after another of the members 
of the choir left tlieir post through interest in the forbidden 
services. Included in the number was a lover of the bass 
viol, who, on the arrival of an instrument intended to as- 
sist the lay reader's choir, presented it to the Methodists by 
a deed, which a few years ago was preserved in the Bonavista 
parsonage. Then the lay reader became anxious, and true 
to the instincts of an awakened nature, found his way to 
the camp of Israel. Double duty, not altogether free from 
ditlicultv, now devolved upon the reader at Bonavista. 
One Sunday morning a thoughtful woman, determined to 
obtain assurance of pardon and to remain a " churchwoman" 
withal, took her usual seat. The " captain," an unbeliever 
in a religion of tiie lieart, read words of blessing to the 
inquirer, as the raven, an unclean bird, carried food to the 
prophet. At once she arose to tell how prayer, just oftered, 
had been graciously answered. Full of the theme of 
eternity, she paid little heed to a prohibition, which was 
soon therefore peremptorily repeated. On the next morn- 
ing, a written message assured her that a second and simdar 
interference would oblige the " captain " to " bind her over 
to keep the king's peace," and she, too, took the track so 
many neighbors had already trodden. 

At the beautiful harbor of Trinity, the Milford Haven 
of Newfoundland, John Haigh, in 181 G, found seven or 
eiglit hundred persons. George Smith, in -1795, had gath- 








ered a little flock at Trinity, and William Ellis had paid a 
brief visit there in 1814?* John Clinch, the aged Episcopal 
minister of the place, after a service of thirty years, had 
become too infirm for his duties, and his son in his stead 
read prayers and a sermon on the Sabbath in the old 
church, which, for fifty years, had stood in mute protest 
against the sin of the place. The old clergyman, with a 
versatility frequently developed and most convenient in 
early colonial life, had been at once clergyman, physician, 
collector of customs and merchant. Of tiie character of his 
preaching no record remains, but of a serious lack of 
power indication is seen in the fact that, at the end of a 
thirty years' ministry, the .several large business establish- 
ments then flourishing at Trinity were never closed till 
noon on the Lord's-day. 

John Haigh was sent to Trinity at the instance of (ieorge 
Skelton, a medical man trained among the Methodists of 
Yorkshire, and business partner of the venerable clergy- 
man. As acting 'Magistrate, he placed the court-house at 
the preacher's disposal, and in other ways promoted the 
interests of the mission. Haigh's successoi', b^Uis, somewhat 
depressed on his arrival, resolved to begin with the youth. 
His proposition to establish a school foi" the scores of chii 
dren who roamed at will on the Sabbath, met witii general 
approval. To the estabHshment of this school may be 
traced the change which caused a leader in the gaiety of 
the village to become an "elect lady " in Christian circles. 
Jealous for the credit of the place, this lady, wife of William 
Kelson, merchant and magistrate, became a teacher. A 
sermon by Richard Knight, who one evening landed from a 
fishing boat when on his way to Bonavista, led her into 
more extended service from holier motives. Her husband, 
several years later, followed her example, and the service 
of both ended only with life. Of the total membership of 


id paid a 
ears, had 
his stead 

the old 
e protest 
, with a 
Buient ill 
ter of his 
s hick of 

end of a 
jlosed till 

of (xeorge 
:hodists of 
jle clergy- 
t-house at 
loted the 
le youth. 
:!S of chii 
\\ general 
)1 may be 
gaiety of 
;ui circles, 
af William 
acher. A 
ded from a 
d her into 
r husband, 
^he service 
bership of 

the circuit in 1824, the larger number were residents at 
English Harbor, where previous to tlie ariival of Wesleyan 
missionaries, James ] vamey had road prayers and a sermon 
twice on each Lord's-day in his own dwelling. Brief 
])iograpiiies in successive \olumes of the "Wesleyan 
Methodist Magazine ' have preserved some I'ccord of the 
unspeakable blessings which camo to Ivameys family 
through the welcomed visits of William Ellis and iiis suc- 

The despatch of John Lewis, in IS 1 7, to LJui-in has been 
mentioned. After a dreary and dangerous })assage from 
St. Johns in a large open boat, Lewis landed at Odearin, an 
island three leagues from Burin. A merciiant lodged him, 
and announced for a sermon in his own store, where the 
Protestants of the neighborhood, some of whom had never 
listened to a pi'eachei', heard him and in\ ited him to repeat 
his visit. On July "JOth, he entered the tine land-locked 
harbor of Burin, and went on shore a perfect strangi^r. He 
lirst called u})on a merchant, by whom he was invited to his 
residence ; and then waited upon the magistrate, who cour- 
teously received him, offered him the use of tiie court-house, 
and introduced him to several of the inhabitants. Encour- 
aged by this reception, Lewis spent three busy years among 
the Protestants scattered about the many iiarl^ors and 
islands of Placentia Bay. His first convert, under whose 
husl)and"s roof he found a home and class-room, died nearly 
lifty years latei-, having left an example which children and 
grand-children have not forgotten tofo'low. L'^nder Lewis' 
ministry it is probable that the late John Hallett received 
preparation for the useful service at Sound Island, which, 
as early as '825, according to the published testimony of an 
Episcopal minister, had " evidently had the good etlect " of 
bringing the many families at that place " to a proper 





' 1 

F< I 

observance of the Sabbath."'' Under Thomas Ilickson's 
ministry tlie meml)ership ,i^rew, in 1823, to the number of 
seventy, aiul some opponents consented to recognize the 
benefits received by the district through Methodist agency. 
Ilickson's final sermon at l>urin was never forgotten by at 
least one listener. This young man, near the outset of a 
chequered career, had been wounded by a ball from the deck 
of a French privateer, when on his way to join a regiment, 
under Wellington, in the Peninsula. Some time later, he 
joined a party engaged for work in Newfoundland. In the 
colony, where busy hours lasted from dawn until dark, and 
business days embraced the whole seven, the prodigal came 
to himself. Just then he heard Thomas Ilickson, under Ins 
teaching entered upon a new life, and during a membership 
of more than iifty years served the church at Burin in 
several capacities. 

The Grand Bank and Fortune circuit, one of the most 
isolated on the island, lay over two hundred and thirty 
miles to the westward of St. John's. When Richard 
Knight went there, in 1817, no Protestant place of worship 
could be found in the extensive district surrounding For- 
tune Bay, nor were any Protestant services held, except 
such as were occasionally conducted by an ignorant man, 
under the auspices of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel. jNIost of the Sundays were spent in dancing 
and drunkenness. Some hardeiied men were not ashamed 
to express a wish that the young missionary might be 
drowned on one of his passages from harbor to harbor. In 
spite, however, of strong prejudices and bitter enmity, he, 
in a single year, saw a small church built and a Sunday- 

'' Many years after ^Fr. Tlallett had ()|)eneil his dwellinj,'' for services 
coiulucted by himself, the hite liishop Feild sent him autliority tuactas 
lay reader. The old gentleman, who had virtually acted in that capacity 
lonj? before the bishop had known anything of Placentia Hay, treated 
the connnission so nnich in the light of a [ileasant compliment that even 
the clergyman who bore it had to smile at his own errand. 



mber of 
nize the 
en by at 
set of a 
the deck 
later, he 
In the 
ark, and 
jal came 
inder his 
jurin in 

the most 
d thirty 

ing For- 
, except 
.nt man, 
;ation of 

night be 
bor. In 

iiity, he, 


)V services 
y to act as 
vt capacity 
ly, treated 
that even 

school established at Grand Bank, and learned of the 
conversion of eight persons. Three of the number soon 
left for England ; the others so lived to a good old age as 
to be lamented at death in the household, the church, and 
the community. During a two years' residence at Orand 
Hank, John Haigh, the second pastor, paid three or four 
visits each year to Harlior Briton, Jersey Iliirbor, and Little 
Bay, the headquarters of several large mercantile establish- 
ments. At these business centres; he had the opportuni^^v 
of preaching to many iishermen whom he could not have 
reached at their own homes, and of counteracting the 
schemes of Roman Catholic priests, who studiously insisted 
that all children dying unbaptized must be lost, and then 
refused baptism to the children of parents who would not 
openly abjure Protestantism. Unable co visit the regions 
beyond, he followed with prayer a number of tracts for- 
warded thither as silent messengers of trutii. From his 
extensive charge he reported fifty-six members. 

The membership of the societies in Newfoundland in 
1824 was ten hundred and thirty — an increase of nearly 
seven hundred in twelve years ; and at the same time 
twelve hundred adults and children were receiving instruc- 
tion in Methodist Sunday-schools. These figures, however, 
afford no correct estimate of the spiritual results of Meth- 
odist agency. The losses to be met each year in annual 
returns were not only tiiose tlu'ough deaths, or departure 
from God, or neglect in removals. Determined hostility to 
the ministry and measures of ^Methodism sometimes led 
to the forced removal of converts to districts wiiere no 
pastor could take annual enumeration of them. A young 
minister who, at a more recent period, preached the first 
sermon in a certain dwelling in the Bay de Verds district, 
furnishes an illustration in point. The early married life 
of the heads of the family had been spent at Bonavista. 



■ I 



There, about 1818, the wife had thoughtfully listened to 
a gospel sermon, and a renewed heart had caused an altered 
life. Her husband, irritated by her abandonment of 
former follies, and her faithfulness to new convictions of 
duty, resolved to strike out for some spot beyond the reacli 
of the hated Methodist inlluences. (iathering up his 
household goods, he took liis family across Che mouth of 
Trinity Bay, and settled at Bay de Verds, where Roman 
Catholicism held almost unquestioned sway. Beyond the 
I'each of pastoral help or Christian sympathy, the wife 
steadily clung to a Fatluu-'s promises, waiting, meanwhile, 
for the morning, Yeai-s passed with but faint promise, 
but, at length, Methodism so far expanded its circles of 
toil that a day's journey secured to the patient watclier 
the opportunity of attendance at its services. 'J'hen she 
received an occasional visit from one of its ministei'S, whose 
lirst sermon in an adjacent settlement was followed by an 
attempt upon his life. Finally, in Lord's-day services, held 
in her own house, in which her husband and other mem- 
bers of her family took part, the faithful woman saw a 
joyous recompense for forty years of patient, prayerful 
waiting. Many other converts, natives of Britain, found 
their way to their native land soon after conversion. In 
some cases they were sent home by employers, to whom 
their presence had become a constant rebuke and annoy- 
ance. The removal of such members, though a loss to 
Newfoundland, often proved a blessing elsewhere. Ceorge 
Morley, a Wesleyan Missionary Secretary, while visiting 
the mission stations in Ireland many years ago, was enter- 
tained by one of them, a former lloman Catholic, con- 
verted under the preaching of John Lewis, at Burin. 
" Thus," wrote the grateful Secretary, " the labors of a 
missionary in Newfoundland have opened a door to us in 

In '!' 



Biied to 
nent of 
tions of 
le reach 
up his 
louth of 
ond the 
vhe wife 
ircles of 
'hen she 
rs, whose 
d by an 
ces, lield 
er mem- 
n saw a 
n, found 
ion. In 
,0 whom 
annoy - 
loss to 
is enter- 
lie, con- 
ors of a 
to us in 

Not a few persons, who elsewhere might have been beyond 
the range of directly evangelical })rea(?hing, learned of Christ 
as a Saviour in Newfoundland. Several Jiritish ollieers 
l)ecame decided Christians through attendance on John 
Walsh's ministry at St. John's. The name of another 
officer, converted while in garrison at St. John's, is better 
known to the religious world through the short but bright 
career of his excellent son. The otHcer in (question, Lieu- 
tenant Richard John V^icars, of tlie Royal Sappers and 
Miners, had been trained according to a strongly Calvinistic 
theological standard, but, having revolted against the views 
of his teachers, had begun to cherish serious doubts lespect- 
ing the divine origin of Christianity. At St. John's lie 
became accpiainted with George Cubitt, the popular young 
Methodist preacher, and the two soon entered into deeply 
interesting conversations on the docti'ines of the Gospel and 
the evidences of the heavenly origin of the whole Cliristian 
system. Through these discussions and the study of books 
suggested by Cubitt^ the young officer became thorougldy 
convinced that the Gospel is of God. Assured also of a 
personal interest in the benefits flowing from the atonement 
of Christ, he at once entered upon a new career. Having 
found little sympathy with his higher aims among the 
clergy and congregation of the Episcopal church, he with- 
drew from them, and sought more spiritual companion.',hip 
among the Methodists of St. John's. No less fearless in the 
social circle than in the face of the public, he made use of 
all the opportunities atibrded by his position to introduce 
the topic of personal religion among groups in whose pre- 
sence any reference to it was rarely made. who 
heard his ttrst sermon in the Methodist church at St. John's, 
the pulpit of which he frequently occupied until prevented 
by the prohibition of a superior officer, long remembered 
the pleading earnestness which drew tears from many eyes, 




An attempt to grapple with the scepticism then so prevalent 
at St. John's soon brought him into more prominent notice. 
Anspach, in his "Jfistory of Xewfounfllaiul," wiitten in 
1815, tells us that such was then the character of the intel- 
lectual portion of the inhal;itants of the capital that 
Paine's most blasphemous volumes liad more authority 
among the inhabitants of St. John's than the Sacred Scrip- 
tures. " Intidelity liad taken fast hold of the public mind, 
and the most detestable opinions upon these momentous 
subjects were unblushingly espoused and advocated by 
individuals holding some of the most important positions 
in society." One of these persons, a leading physician, 
whose influence had been most perniciou.^, prosecuted the 
young officer upon a charge of defamation of character, but 
against this charge he successfully defended liitnself. In 
efforts to do good, his own men were not forgotten. At 
Signal Hill, where his company was stationed, he had a 
room fitted up, in which the Methodist minister preached 
once in each week, additional addresses being given by 
himself ; and through means more than eighty soldiers 
entered into Christian fellowship. Some of the more devout 
men in Vicars' company of Sappers and Miners were known 
by thoughtless comrades at St. John's as " Vicars' saints," 
long before the story of the Indian Mutiny had made the 
world familiar with " Havelock's saints," as a current desig- 
nation in military circles of the gallant 78th Highlanders. 
After George Cubitt's return to England, his friend 
Vicars remained a few months in the colony. The two had 
spent some pleasant hours in each other's society at the 
residence of an evangelical Episcopalian of good social posi- 
tion. In the case of the young officer, the intimacy ripened 
into an attachment to one of the daughters, a young lady of 
Christian principle and pleasing promise, to whom he was 
married just before his return to England, in 1819, Re- 



specting the weddini,', ho wiote to Air. (jubitt : "It was a 
Methodistical one. We were at the sacrament on Sunday, at 
the love feast on Monday, and wore married on Tuesday 
morning. We had a l)reakfast for tliose who attended us 
at churoli, after which we were alone till evening, when 
John Bell, iNIr. and Mrs. Walsh and Mr. Pii'kavant came 
in, and we had our hymns, etc."' 

On his retuin to Britain, Lieutenant Vicars began to 
entertain serious thoughts of the ministry—at one time, 
there is reason to believe, under the direction of the Wes- 
leyan Missionary Society — but after some months of study 
he resolved to retain his connnission.* In the Mauritius, 
whither he was ordered, his son liedlcy was born. The 
establishment of a Weslevan mission in that island was the 
result, in great measure, of his etlbrts to boneKt tiiose 
around him. On their arrival there, the first two missionaries 
were welcomed V)y him, introduced to the governor, and 
entertained for some time at his residence. In 1835, he 
returned to Britain, and received a military appointment at 
MuUingar, Ireland, where he died, in 1830. During his last 
illness he was visited by Walter Oke Croggon, the General 
Superintendent of Wesleyan Missions in Ireland. 

True goodness does not pass by natural descent, but the 
" effectual fervent prayer " and pious example of Christian 
parents avail much in behalf of their children. In dying, 
Richard John Yicars laid his hand upon the head of his son, 
a lad of twelve, with an earnest prayer that he "might be a 
good soldier of Jesus Christ, and so light manfully under 
His banner as to glorify His holy name." That prayer was 
answered twelve years later, when the son, then with his 
regiment in Halifax, N.S., said, as an open Bii^le lay before 
him : " Henceforth 1 will live, by the grace of God, as a man 
should live who has been washed in the blood of Jesus 

* "Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, "1856. 



i i^ 

Christ." The flyinj,' father's pniyor received a still more 
satisfactory response when, sixteen years after its utterance, 
the world learned throufjh Miss Marsh's " Memorials,"' of 
ITedley Vicars' service as a "good soldier of Jesus Christ," 
througli the temptations of a military life, and the constant 
alartns, frequent separations and intense sufferings of 
Crimean trenches.'' 

Trace we a stej) further the stream of Christian inlluence. 
A letter to Lady Kayleigh, a sister of TIedley Vicars, writ- 
ten by a Prussian nobleman, may afl'ord a gleam of light. 
"I am a man of the world," he wrote, " which is, in other 
words, to say T am an unhappy man, weary of amusement, 
and yet unal)le to tind any peace. 1 do not, and cannot 
believe in the universality of such experiences as that of 
Captain Vicars, ))ut this 1 know that this little book is the 
first book on religion which in long years I have been able 
to read, and that I have not laid it down without — yes, I 
will own— without tears. Tt was by accident I took it up 
— 1, a stranger, a foreigner, almost an enemy to England. 
I was wondering what pleasure I should llnd for myself in 
London. As a matter of the war it interested me, and as 
a matter of the heart it has touched me, and I am this 

■' Thi' son was also indebted to AEetliodist iiiflueiices. From Chobliam 
('amp lie wrote, in 1854, to his mother a letter describing a period of deej) 
depression. " 1 cannot lell you m hat 1 sutt'ered then. At last, I 
thought, 'Oh, for some Christ' ui fr 'i'' to converse with!' I jumped 
up and saw Mr. Kiglev. he missionary, whom I had seen at the tent 
on Sundays. I in\it . and we sat side by side on the straw for 

more than an hour, i .i;^' on tliose ' -lightful sul)jects, the .Sinner's 

Friend and the Cliri- - Home. Oh, lie comfort of meeting with a 

child of (jod when Sai., has be i ashsaulting you, and tempting you to 
despair I We knelt on llie gi und, and leaning against tlu; tent-pole, 
prayed together." This welc('ine visitor was Edward Ivigley, whose life 
was sketched some years ago in the Irish Erawjili^t. At the time of 
the above interview, he was a worker iinder the au- , ices of the London 
City Mission, specially charged by that society with the visitation of 
soldiers, for which work a ten years* service as a Wesleyan evangelist in 
Cork had been a good prejiaration. The acquaintance did not end here. 
From the camp before Sebastopol, in March, 18.55, Vicars wrote to his 
sister: "I have had a beaut if ul letter from Mrs. 0' ens .... also from 
Mr. Rigley, Chobham missionary," 

IN yi:]VFOI\\I)LAXl). 


ill more 
ials,' of 
■ings of 

irs, writ- 
of light, 
in other 
I cannot 
, that of 
ok is the 
;een able 
t— yes, I 
iok it up 
iiyself in 
e, and as 
am this 

1 Chobham 
iod of deej) 
At last, T 
I jumped 
at tliotent 

straw for 
he Sinner's 
ting with a 
ting yo\i to 

1 tent-pole, 
, whose life 
the time of 
;he London 
isitation of 
^angelist in 
it end here, 
vrote to his 
. also from 

night at least a bettf • man for reading it. What sliali 
come of the reading, who knows?" 

WJio knows, indeed! ]iut in eternity, there can be no 
doubt, similar linos will be traced from tlie conversion of 
many others, led to Newfoundland l)y trade, as was Le Sueur, 
or on military duty, as was Vicars, and there directed to 
Christ by Wesleyan missionaries. It is the little we know; 
the great remains unknown. The day shall declare it ! 


'I . 



The War of 1812. Annual !M«'i't]'ng. Princo Edward Island. Lower 
Canada. Work in new localities. Arrival of Ministers. Formation 
of Missionary Sofiiety. Candidates for Ministrj". (ieneral Meetings 
at Annapolis. The Southern Shore. 

The outbreak of war iti 1812 was an unwelcome event to 
tlie people of British North America. In the Maritime 
Colonies, /lowever, tlie evils most dreaded were never en- 
dured. More than one monumental pillar marks localities 
in the Upper Provinces where armies then met in the 
shock of battle, but no such mementos of that period exist 
in the Lower Colonies. On the soil of the latter no foeman, 
an occasional privateer's crew^ excepted, ever attempted to 
set foot. 

The war was known to be unpopular in New England, 
because it was regarded is a triumph of Southern influence. 
In view of this fact, Sir John Sherbrooke, of Nova Scotia, 
issued a proclamation forbidding any molestation of Ameri- 
cans residing on the frontiers, or interference with goods 
found on their coasting vessels. About the same time 
General Smyth, administrator of the government of New 
Brunswick, taking advantage of the peaceable disposition 
shown by the people of Maine, published an order prohibit- 
ing to all persons under his command any interference 
with the inhabitants of the United States near the provincial 
boundary. Soon after the issue of this order the magistrates 
of St. Andrews and the neighboring Maine officials ertered 
into a mutual agreement to abstain from all hostilities. So 




well was this compact observed, tliat Duncan McColl wrote 
on the return of peace : " Not one dollar's worth of property 
was taken by violence from any man on the ' lines,' neither 
was there any killed, wounded, or taken ririsoner amoncrst 
us ; but in room of judgments we had wonderful works of 
grace, such as we never saw in this country before."' 

There was, nevertheless, even in the rural disti-icts, an 
excitemoit unfavorable to religious growtli. Though the 
sc.ittered farmers were busily employed in the production 
and conveyance of the extra supplies required by the forces, 
theirminds wereoftenpre-occupied by vague rumors and start- 
ling reports. At the seaports tlie excitement was ten-fold 
greater. The arrival and departure of ships of war, 
the condemnation and sale of pi-izes, the intelligence of 
some victory or, or the c;ipture by the press-gang of 
some luckless stranger, all combined to maintain a state of 
feeling in marked contrast with, the previous quiet of colo- 
nial lite. In New Brunswick, the general excitement was 
increased by the despatch of the 104th regiment, raised in 
that province, to the assistance of the troops defending the 
more northern frontier. The relation of the mid-winter 
march of that regiment across Lake Temiscouata and of its 
shire in the sanguinary midnight conflict at Lundy's Lane, 
bshngs to the pen of the secular historian. At the period 
reviewed such events, with tidings of conflict elsewhere, 
occupied, in a great degree, public attention, leaving little 
of special interest to Ite reported l)y the isolated pastors, 
]McColl alone excepted. Early in l.'^l.'^ that minister 
thought he saw indications of i-evival, and a few months 
later he concluded a ffrateful entrv in his iournal bv the 


1 McColl's well-known Inyalty 'lid iint wliully ]ii'()tcc't him from siis- 
icinn during' his efforts to preserve peace. Humors of a compromisiiifjf 


were whisi»ereil s(j loudly by some wlio would ^dadly luive seali'd 
his lips, that they received attention at headcpiarters, but on learuiup 
of their existence throuf,di a gentleman who held him in lii^^h esteem, he 
wrote a letter which covered the author of the slandcr.s w ith confusion. 






remark that ho might till a volume with narratives of conver- 
sions. In the interval between March and December, one 
hundred and twenty persons were added to the meml)ership 
of the St. Stephen circuit through a revival which continued 
to afford accessions tliroughout the two subsequent years. 

Other and more humble effort for the Master's sake secured 
at the same time lieaven's rich approval. At Halifax, some 
devoted Methodists sought to l)enetit the American prisoners 
whom the fortunes of war had led into the prison at Mel- 
ville Island. In the number of the visitors was an English 
woman, who, during a previous residence in Boston, had 
opened her humble dwelling for religions meetings. On 
her approach to a room in the prison, a voice, to iier great 
surprise, hailed lier as "Mothcn-." flaving turned, she saw 
at the gratini; a sailor lad in whom she at once recocrnized a 
former worshipper in her dwelling, of whose movements she 
for some time had heard nothitig. The young man's story 
was soon told. The cruise of the privateer Black I/mvk, on 
board which patriotism and profession together had led him, 
had been short,a British war- vessel having captured her and 
taken her into fTalifax. The good woman procured for him 
some necessary clothing, and furnished iiim and his comrades 
with a Bible and several other books. Many years later, when 
he had reached a widely-known position in Boston, he met 
an aged local preacher who had removed thither from the 
British Provinces. I]i the course of conversation the latter 
spoke of his wife's earlier residence in Boston. The listener 
asked for her former name. As he heard it a strange im- 
pulse seemed to seize him ; he inquired for her residence, 
then hurried away, and soon after, with his whole family, 
drove up to the door. The interview there was not soon 
forgotten, for the visitoi- was Edward T. Taylor — " Father 
Taylor," of tlie Seamen's Bethel, and the aged woman to 
whom he now, in his own peculiar way, introduced his wife 



and children, was the humble widow to whom lie could say 
in no tigurative language : " F was in prison, and ye came 
unto me." 

It was at ]Melville Island, Edward T. Taylor once re- 
marked to a Provincial visitor, that Providence pointed out 
his path of service. To the impi-isoned Americans the 
forms of prayer used by the clergyman detaileil for prison 
duty were distasteful, while certain petitions, strong in 
British sentiment, were highly objectionable : they, there- 
fore, recjuested the commandant to allow Taylor to conduct 
prayer services for them. Emboldened by the compliance 
of the official, they asked the young man to undertake a 
further duty, for the chaplain's sermons were not more 
satisfactory to them than his prayers. The youth protested 
that he could not read, and that to preach would be impos- 
sible. They replied that he could talk upon his feet as well 
as upon his knees, and at length he yielded. A shipmate 
read passage after passage from the Bible, until one had 
arrested his attention. It was repeated and made the 
subject of an address that gave indicatioTi of the unec^ualled 
pulpit strength which, when his Ijelief in Christian truth 
had l)ecome a more vital power, gave him world-wide fame. 
Successive addresses followed, and the young man, after 
captivity in Nova Scotia and in England, went forth com- 
n)itted, uidearned though he was, to a woi'k in which he 
was to have no peer.-' 

-" FatluT Taylor, the Sailor I'r.achcr," p. ;r>. Of this iiiarvflloiis 
Mt'tliudist pn-ac'luT, Dr. ( '. .\. Hartol, of Boston, in a recent articlf in 
"The Century," after iiavinj,' reealled the },n'eat Anieriean orators, re- 
marked, "lint ill none of tlieni was a power to fuse, blend and kindle so 
divine as that of Taylor." Walt Whitman, in the same perindical, 
speaks of the most brilliant lij^dits of liar and staire, a'Idint,'; " Tiiouj^di 
1 recall most marvellous effects from one or other of them. 1 never 
had anything in the way of vocal utteiance to shake me throuj^di and 
through, and become fixed with its accompaniments in my memory, 
like the prayers and sermons of Fatlu'r Taylor." And a late leading 
Methodist layman of lirooklyn. in describing liis own conversion vmder 
Father Taylor, said : " It seemed as if Isaiah and David and Daniel 
and Paul and Christ all spoke through him." 



I I 


Through lack of preachers the societies at Fredericton, 
Nashvvaiik and Sheffield were all placed in charge of the 
minister at St. John. On his arrival at that place in 1815, 
William Croscouibe went up to Fredericton, and found there 
Thomas D. Stokoe, an English local preacher of some 
ability, to whom he assigned the care of the societies in the 
neighV)orhood of the capital. Stokoe remained at Frederic- 
ton two years, having as a successor James Armstrong, 
whose stay was equally short. At St. John, Croscoinbe 
found full employment. With abundant pulpit and pastoral 
work, a " series of conversations " in his study, which led a 
number of youth into church fellowship, the circulation of 
eleven hundred dollars' value of English Methodist publica- 
tions, the erection of a parsonage, and occasional visits up 
the river, his two years at St. John seemed to pass with 
unusual rapidity. 

In 1814, an official visit was paid to Px'ince Edward 
Island by \Villiam Bennett, chairman of the district. As a 
result, the name of James Bulpitt, the only Wesleyan minister 
for some years on the island, appeared on the Minutes of 
1814 and two subsequent years as that of a supernumerary, 
and then ceased to have any recognition. For some years 
Bulpitt continued to travel at intervals through the ishmd 
as a preacher without ecclesiastical relation. In death, at 
the age of ninety-two, the sacred employment of his better 
days engaged his thoughts. Having addressed an imagi- 
nary coi\gregation, he dismissed it after the usual form, lay 
back exhausted, and soon after died. His wife, Hannah, 
to the last a faithful member, was for many years a school- 
teacher in Charlottetown. 

John Hick, Bulpitt's immediate successor, during a 
single year established for himself a place in the grateful 
recollections of many worthy persons. Though his circuit 
was ninety miles in extent, invitations reached him from 



settlers beyond its limits. In August, 1815, he preached 
the first sermon in a new church at Murray Harbor. At 
Charlottetown, the Methodists still continued to worship on 
Sunday evenings in the old church in which in the morning 
the rector conducted liturgical services, though several 
years before a lot had been purchased and timber collected 
for a church of their own. In November, 1814, the frame 
of such a church was raised, special assistance being given 
on the occasion by Britisli soldiers. l\\ this building, only 
partially finished, Hick had the pleasure of preaching the 
first sermon, in June, 181 G. He htid hardly, however, 
resumed his work at the close of the district meeting of tiiat 
season, when a letter from the chairman directed him to 
effect an innnediate exchange with John Bass Strong, a 
young minister at Montreal.'' 

Of John Hick's sons in the Gospel, at Charlottetown, 
two became widely known. One was Albert Desbrisay, 
the fourth son of the worthy rector. The young man's 
determination to serve his Lord in fellowship with the 
JNIethodist Church, was, at first, somewhat distasteful to 
his venerable father, whose eldest son had previously taken 

3 An incident connected with Mr. Hick's ministry in Montreal is sug- 
gestive. Qne Sabbatli lie pivachedon the observance of the Lord's-day. 
An official of his church, meeting him on Monday morning, exjjressed 
some surprise that a person profiting ))y transgression of Sabbath law 
should preach on such a toi)ic. He then informed the perjjlexed preacher 
that the Montreal Steamboat Company, of whose stock ^Irs. Hick held 
shares, was in the habit of receiving and discharging freight and des- 
patching boats on Sunday, and that the liipior bars on board were open 
on Sundays as on other days. The astonislied preacher at once admitted 
that those who shared in the dividends i)f the cmnpaiiy were partakers 
in the evil ; and after some consultation with Mrs. ITick, presented him- 
self at the office of the conii)any. The agent listened to his reasons for 
the proi)osed sale of the stock, and then, with a smile, declared that he 
would dispose of the shares in (piesi ion to the very person whose criticism 
had disturbed his conscience. Sti'pping over to the office of John 
Mathewson, the agent offered him the stock on easy terms, and urged 
him to avail himself of a rare ()[)portunity. The Metliodist business 
man, however, firndy refused to accept tlie offer, and others, less scrupu- 
lous, became possessors of the coveted stock. Mr. Hick died oi cholera 
in (.2n«-'bec, in 1834. His wife was a grand-daughter of Philip Embury. 





a similar step, but a consistent life soon won tiie parent's 
sympathy and approval. Adam Clarke Avard, at six years 
of age, had crossed the ocean with his fatiier, Joseph 
Avard, and had become an intimate friend of young Des- 
brisay. A student at law, he had been li\ ing only for 
the present world. The removal of his parents from the 
island, in 1814, weakened the circle of religious influences 
about him ; nevertheless, his friends perceived that he was 
losing some of his relish for former companions and plea- 
sures. While conscious that the changed life of his friend 
Desbrisay was increasing the distance between them, he 
one evening observed jNlrs. Chappell, the wife of his father's 
friend, Benjamin Cliappell, leave lier home for the prayer- 
meeeting. Almost instinctively he followed her, to return 
from the little gathering with the conviction that in 
heaven's sight he was a sinner. His interest in the preach- 
ing of John Hick called forth grateful remarks from 
friends, who, in a few weeks, had the greater joy of hear- 
ing his declaration of conscious personal salvation through 
Christ Jesus. 

John Bass Strong arrived at Charlottetown from Mont- 
real in the summer of 1816 — if summer there could be 
said to be during that phenomenal year.^ A fishing ^essel 
landed him and his wife at the extreme end of the island. 
Thence they sailed along the coast in an open boat, and at 
the end of the fourth day went on shore within four miles 
of Charlottetown, travelling thither on horseback. The 
young preacher, a native of Nottinghamshire, had entered 

^ The year 181G was long reinemViered by the old folks as " the year 
without a Bininner." But little rain fell. The wind blew almost 
Hteadily from the north, cold and fierce. In the New England States 
Hnow fell in June, in various places, from three to ten inches in depth. 
In Nova Scotia, in the middle of that month, the ground was frozen 
(sufficiently hard in moist jjlace," to carry horses. There were a few 
warm days, but on .September 12th a frost destroyed nearly all the 



the itinerancy in 1813, and had been appointed to Shel- 
burne, N.S., but an earnest appeal from Lower Canada 
liad caused him to be sent to that pro\inc"e as the first 
English Metliodist preacher in the Canada of that day. 
The serious difUculties respecting tlie jui'isdiction of the 
Englisii and Amei'ican preachers which, in 1815, ()l)liged 
William Bennett, as chairman of the "Kova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and Canada District," to visit Lower Canada, 
and, in 181(1, with William Black, to attend the Ceneral 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Balti- 
more, having rendered necessary at Montreal the presence 
of a man of greater experience, he was transferred to 
Prince Edward Island, where, more than fifty years later, 
lie finished his course. For a few weeks he was unassisted, 
but towards the close of 1810 Sampson Busby i-eached the 
island from Newfoundland, and pitched his tent at Murray 
Harbor, remaining there until the ensuing district meeting. 
In the official Minutes of 1815, the Lunenburg circuit 
first found mention, with a membership of thirty persons. 
At the district meeting of the previous year, at Newport, 
George Orth, a German school-teacher, who had become a 
Methodist in his adopted country, liad l)een present as the 
first representative of the German- speaking population of 
the province. Previously popular Ijecause of a fine voice, 
eloquent address and good education, his ministry was 
attended with a good measure of success. In 1817, seventy 
five members were reported. The exterioi- of a church 
forty five feet in length had then been completed at Lunen- 
burg, but the interior accommodation was of a somewhat 
rude kind. The term "Newlight," which the children had 
shouted after him in the streets, at his first visit as a Meth- 
odist, had not been wholly forgotten, but his message had 
come to be received with greater respect, and many had 
become visitors at the new sanctuary who had declared with 




an oath that they would never enter its doors. Some persons, 
at (irst ashamed to cross its tlireshold, had learned to kneel 
at prayer, and to defend the doctrines they had once derided. 

The arrival in April, If:^lG, of two missionaries from Eng- 
land, enabled the chairman to make provision for another 
section of countiy, which had appeared on the Minutes of 
1815 as " Manchester and the Eastern part of the Province." 
John Fishpool, the young minister sent thither, would have 
been at home with Peter Uartwright and other representa- 
tives of " muscular Christianity " in the Far West of that 
period. Once, while preaching in a provincial village, two 
young men noisily entered the church, and, on being re- 
proved, as rudely walked out. The preacher instantly fol- 
lowed them, and soon re-appeared with them, each with an 
arm in his powerful grasp, and placed them like children in 
the seats they had left. But whilst, in each of the circuits 
occupied by him during a short provincial ministry, some 
were ready in later days to recall his name in connection 
with some brilliant mental effort or eccentric word or deed, 
others, who long adorned the doctrine of God their Saviour, 
remembered him as a messenger whose utterances had been 
to them the "savor of life unto life." His fellow-voyager 
over the ocean, Thomas Catterick, a man of different tem- 
perament, was removed to Lower Canada after a few 
months' residence on the Annapolis circuit. 

The district meeting of ISIG was held in the "Stone 
chapel " at Point de Bute. An unusual interest attended its 
religious services. Tlie presence of eleven itinerant minis- 
ters and two or more local preachers attracted visitors from 
all parts of the immense Cumberland circuit. Stephen 
Bamford's second term there had been the means, as had 
also the tirst, of leading into Christ's service sons and 
daughters of Yorkshire Methodists, whose subsequent lives 
proved a blessing to that section of country. So large was 



the gathering at the services of the Lord's-cUiy that it was 
remarked that "the ciiapel was in the congregation, and not 
the congregation in the chapel." Thomas Catterick, who 
then for the tirst and hist time met the ministers of the 
Maritime Provinces, wrote to the Missionary Secretaries : 
'* In ahnost every house we entered theie were some crying 
for mercy. There appears at this time to be an abundant 
iiarvest, but where are tlie reapers to gather it in ? " 

The loss feared by Catterick was in some measure pre- 
vented by the judicious appointment of James Dunbar as 
Bamford's successor. Under his direction local laborers 

were usefully employed ; the "Jirick chapel " was opened 
at Sackville early in 1818, and a smaller church built at 
Tantramar; and visits were paid to several distant settle- 
ments. Bale Verte, where several of the numerous sons 
and daughters of Daniel Goodwin, a New England soldier 
under V/inslow at the reduction of Fort Cumberland, had 
found a home, and where the Chappells and Aliens, and 
others from the revolted colonies had made themselves 
farms, had previously been visited by the preacher but once 
or twice in each year. Dunbar now preached to theuj once 
in each fortnight, and saw the society grow to twice its 
previous number, with comfortable accommodation in a 
neat little church. 

One of the more distant sections of the Cumberland 
circuit visited by Dunbar was Wallace. Separated from 
headquarters by hfty miles of road scarcely meriting the 
name, the people there could only be visited by the preacher 
once in six months ; the membershi}), nevertheless, had con- 
tinued to grow in numbers and in activity. Four societies 
had been formed, eight or ten dwellings had been opened 
for religious services, and a small church at Wallace, built 
about 1808, had been made the property of the Connexion. 
From the leaders and members of this section a sti'ouir 





1 ■ 4. 

I ' i 

f -t 

I '' 


//rsroin' or MirnionisM 

appeal had been made to the ministers assembled at Point 
de Bute, for more satisfactory pastoral supervision. Late 
in tiie autumn, Thomas Payne, just from Kngland, reported 
at Sackville. whence Dunbar sent him on to Wallace. Dur- 
ing his eighteen months' stay in that jiart of the country, 
he receiv(;d into church fellowship several pei'sons whose 
inHuence, with that of their descendants, has been of great 
value to the Methodist Church in various parts of the Lower 
Provinces. To William Fulton and his wife, whom he 
found at Wentworth in deep anxiety ; and to William 
Tuttle, a member of a family who had bestowed their hospi- 
tality upon the earliest visiting preachers ; as well as to 
several others, he proved a true guide and an agent of bless- 

Another earnest request for the prescMice of a preacher 
was forwarded at the same time from Yarmouth. This 
memorial was prepared by an Englishman who had pur- 
chased lands and begun the erection of a largo dwelling in 
that township. To Anthony Landers —for this was his 
name — belongs alike the honor of having introduced 
Methodism into Yarmouth and of having been a pioneer in 
that foreign trade which Yarmouth business men of a later 
generation have prosecuted with singular enter])rise and 
ability. Landers was a native of Monkwearmouth, near 
Sunderland. His father had sailed his own vessel, and the 
son essayed to do the same, but misfortunes robbed him of 
his property and sent him into the forecastle. After 
various adventures, and a nairow escape in Holland from 
death as a spy, he at length crossed the Atlantic in a vessel 
of his own. In l!^08, at Halifax a .second time, he in- 
tended to sail for New York, but thwarted by the embargo 
put upon British shipping, he engaged a cargo of timber at 
'Yarmouth, and went thither to take it on board. " It was 
a place," ho wrote, " where no ships frequented but their own 


1 1 

•in he 
as to 
t bless- 

, This 
id pur- 
ling in 
as his 
iieer in 
a hiter 
se and 
ind the 
him of 
"Id from 
he in- 
nber at 
It was 
;ir own 

small vessels." On his return to London, he hecanie the 
purchaser from a person there of lands at Yarmouth, of 
which he neither knew tlie exact location nor precise extent, 
Imt wiiich proxed to he of much larger area than he had 
supposed, and to be situated in several parts of the town- 

Through varying fortunes. Landers had not licon careless 
of heavenly pilotage. He liad first visited a Methodist 
church in a spirit of ridicule, but bett<'r impulses soon led 
him in th<' same direction. IMie light of truth, slowly dawn- 
ing upon hiu), was followed in time by " noonday evidence.' 
In Halifax, he met with Joshua Marsden and Alexander 
Anderson, and during succeeding vLsits there, found a wel- 
come in a pleasant and pi'ofitable circle of friends. Believ- 
ing that an opportunity to pay his debts awaited him in 
Nova Scotia, he took up his residence near Yarmouth. In 
the autunni of 1812, he 1 lunclied the J\'fer Waldo, the first 
of a number of vessels built by him at Plymouth. As 
occasion permitted, he had been paying otl' his former credi- 
tors, but on a certain day in March, 1812, he settled in 
full the last claim against him, regarding his ability to do 
this as one of the " peculiar mercies" of his life. He then 
resolved to .secure some religious care for those among whom 
he had made his liome. A Baptist chui'ch, in which he had 
sometimes worshipped, stood at a distance of five miles from 
Hebron, near which there seemed to be a suilicient number 
of settlers to form a distinct congregation ; he concluded, 
therefore, to build a church and bring a preacher across the 
ocean. When at the Orkneys, in 1813, he thought he had 
found a suitable man in a '" missionary preacher who 
appeared to hold the doctrine and discipline of the Metho- 
dists, though not united to them," but overtures to him were 
not received with favor.'' A year or two later he com- 

■'' "Narrative of the Travels and Vovages of Captain Anthony Lan- 
ders," etc. New York, 1815. 




nienced the erection of a larcjo churcli at Trel)ron, find made 
a pressinf? appeal to the as.soinl)lo(l Wesleyan ministers for 
the appointment of a preacher. 

The arrival at Ifalifax of three youn,<4 ministers, sent out 
by the Committee during the autumn of ISIO, enabled the 
chairman to give an early response to the appeal from 
Yarmouth. RolxM't Alder, the lirst to arrive, was selected 
for that post, to which he proceeded after a short delay at 
Newport. Alder was a young man of most pleasing ap- 
pearance and clocjuent addi'css, who, at the previous Con- 
ference, had been appointed to a West Indian station, but 
had subsequeiitly been ordc^red to Nova Scotia, in conse- 
quence of the pressing appeals from that quarter. The 
township of Yarmouth, at the time of his arrival, con- 
tained about four thousand inhabitants, among whom 
Harris liarding, of the Baptist Church, was the only min- 
ister, though a small Episcopal church, organized about 
ten years before, had erected a place of worship and 
secured, to the general dissatisfaction of tlie inhabitants, 
the lieavy tract of land reserved by the government, in 
1707, for church and school purposes. AV)out 1799, Harris 
Harding and a number of his flock were baptized by im- 
mersion. At the close of an extensive revival, in 1806. 
the pastor and members adopted a new platform, having 
decided that no believers refusing to be immersed should 
be considered members of the church. Unable, however, 
to "swallow" at once the "camel" of close communion, 
they voted that "such believers as the church has a fellow- 
ship for, who walk circumspectly, may be admitted by the 
voice of the church to occasional communion." Only after 
the lapse of twenty years and more could a majority of 
the members of this church so far harden their hearts as 
to exclude from the Lord's table other believers in Jesus, 
and pilgrims to the same Father's house.*"' 

8 See "Memoirs of Harris Harding," by J. Davis. 





•s for 

it out 
>(1 the 

'lay at 
ng a\v 
s Coti- 
in, but 

'. The 
nl, con- 
ily min- 
r\ about 

ip and 
icnt, in 

by im- 
in 1806, 
1 should 
a follow- 
V)y the 
ily after 



hearts as 
In Jesus, 

Durincj the few months of AMer's rosidonce at Yarmouth 
Captain Landers was in ICnj^danrl, and tlio younji; minister, 
utidor circumstances so novel to him, was forced to rely 
almost wiiolly upon his own judi^nient. lie preached his 
first sermon at the dwollini,' of Waitstiil licwis. \\y some 
of the inhabitants he was kindly received, hut from the 
" Newli<,dits" he met with warm opposition. Tiioui^di not 
less anxious than the settled pastor " to exhibit Christ as 
the Refuge and Saviour of sinners," the earnest young 
pi-eacher was condemned as one who undervalued the 
right(>ousness of Christ and sought salvation by the deeds 
of the law. As the church connnenced by (japtain Landers 
was only tit for use during summer months, he preached 
in a lai'ge room fitted up with pulpit and henches in the 
second story of ITebron House, the captain's residence, and 
sometimes in a dwelling in tl.^ village of Yarmouth. Visits 
were also paid by him to Plymouth and Tusket. A few, at 
least, of his hearers were convinced that the " new way," as 
some were pleased to call God's message by him, was in 
reality the old way of the Gospel ; and others, who did not 
then accept the truth "in the love thereof," woi-e subsequent- 
ly aided by recollections of his teaching. Twelve persons 
only were received ])y him into church fellowship, but in the 
short list were the names of men and women worthy of 
remembrance. In the number were Waitstiil Lewis and 
his wife, of whom all the families of the name in the county 
are descendants. Mr. Lewis, a Xew Englander by birth, 
had removed from Halifax to Yarmouth. The circum- 
stances of his conversion are unknown, but the date of it 
the good man marked with chalk on a beam in his work- 
shop, wliere for many years it served to cheer him as he 
glanced at it in any moment of despondency. For some 
years he had been in communion with the " Newlights," 
but when they accepted a Calvinistic creed and made im- 





niersioii ;i ooiiclitiou of Christian fcillowship ho withdrew 
from them. On Alder's arrival, he and his excellent wife 
welcomed him, and j^ladly attended his ministry. The wife 
earlier entered the rest that romaineth, to he followed 
thither by hor hushand at the end of a long pilgrimage. 
Intimately associated with them was Thomas Dane, from 
^Massachusetts, a settlor ahout 17<'^0 at Upper Milton. 
Thoughtful always, he had profited by the teaching of a 
Scotch school-master, who fre(|uently preached in the 
vicinity of Yarmouth. Ills early removal into the village 
was a cause of much satisfaction to the few Methodists 
there, among whom, as a man of active temperament and 
attractive character and a good singer, he bore an im- 
portant share of responsibility until his death, in 1828. 

In the absc'ice of an immediate successor to Robert 
Alder, Captain Landers, on liis return from J*]ngland, fitted 
up a dwelling, and invited TJiomas D. Stokoe, of Frederic- 
ton, to remove to Yarmouth as a preacher and school- 
teacher. For a time Stokoe's ministry proved a Ijlessing. 
During the autumn of 1817, William Croscombe, then at 
Liverpool, visited the little church, i)aptizing ten persons 
and administering the Lord"s-su[)per. On the arrival of 
Thomas Payne, in 1818, arrangements were made for the 
purchase of a building previously used as a workshop. The 
minister visited the socijties in the western })art of the 
province, and carried home eighty pounds ; the Wesley an 
Missionary Society, at the suggestion of Captain Landers, 
added a grant of fifty pounds sterling ; and, with these 
sums and local contributions, the building was provided 
with a pulpit aid iT»ugh seats. In this sanctuary, enlarged 
in 1819, and sul>s(M{uently furnished with pews and galleries, 
the Methodists of Y^'armouth continued to worship, until 
increased numbers and wealth enabled them to substitute 
for it the larger and more elegant Provich'nce church. 

/.V 77/ A' 1.0 WEi: /'/:nl'/M'/:s. 





of a 
it and 
n ini- 



, fitted 



hen at 

iviil of 
for the 
). The 
of the 
\\ these 
Ip, until 


The iianio of \Villi;nu lUirt, w ho aii'ivcd in l^K;. recalls 
an intci'cstini,' cliaptci' in the histoi-y of an iMi^li.sli village. 
Hurt was a native of Cornwall. In his tiftiM-nth yeai-, when 
apprenticed to a ship-huilder at Turnrliapel, IMymouth, he 
found a home with a- family n.-imcd l*oi)e, also from Corn- 
wall. The father of this family had taken his rliildren to 
Methodist services, and had begun lo give tlirm sucli reli- 
gious instructii II as he could, when tlcath leinoNcd him. 
His first wife, a pious woman, had pr'ay "d, as she passed 
away, that her four young children miijht he "l)oin again." 
in tlu; immediate neighborhootl noCiospcj meetings were 
held ; Sabbaths were profaned and saKation was neglected. 
The j)urchase from a hawker of Haxter's "Saints" Kest " by 
the second son, Henry, was an imj)orta!it inei(h'nt in the 
history of the family. Intluenced l)y the preaching of the 
Wesleyan ministers whom \\v, went to heai- at IMymouth, 
Henry soon decided u{»ou a Christian life, ;iiid urged upon 
his i)rothers and young Burt the adoption of a similai- 
course. Ilichai-d and -John l*ope, and a young half-brother, 
William, soon felt the force of truth, and William Uurt, a 
little later, yielded to the same intlucnce, all hecdming mem- 
• ers of the first society class in the \ illnge. of which Ileni'y 
was early made leader. These five young men were to de- 
clare the (lospel of the grace of God in Ibitish North Amer- 
ica — four of them as successful itinerants, the tifth foi' a time 
as an able local preacher. " They were," to use the words of 
William I-Jurt Pope, I). !>., in a sk(>tch of his fathei-. who 
was one of th(! group, " l)ut specimens of a great nundjer 
throughout the land, to "■•hom ^lethodism came with the 
triple power of a spiritu I, mental and .social icsurrcct ion. 
Methodist preaching, as the instrumint of Cod's 
grace, gave them a new being, and ojx'iied to tliciii a new 
piospect, lioth for this world and the next. 

Of this band <A young mtn, Ibirt was ih«' to j(o 

|H ;■.', 




nisTonY OF MiyriioDrsM 



abroad. Towards the autumn of ISIG lie hastened to 
London, at the call of the Connnittee, to prepare for depar- 
ture for Nova l:Jcotia. As passengers in the Victory^ beside 
Thomas Payne and liimself, wei'e Dr. Tnulis, afterward 
bishop of Nova Scotia, and three military and naval otlioers. 
The cler<fymen, " to say the least," treated them "civilly," 
but they felt themselves obliji^ed to reprove the oihcei-s, who 
swore at the contents of some religious tracts, which the 
crew accepted from the young preachers in more courteous 
style. On tlie day of tlieii- arrival tin; young men met 
William Black, and accom[»anied him to his liome, and in 
the evening Burt began his eventful piox incial ministry. 

At Newport, Burt's first appointment, the outlook was 
not cheering. One of his earliest duties was a visit to the 
aged supernumerary, John Mann. For two years th't niinis- 
ter had been confined to his dwelling by a complication of 
disordei's. His friends, who had feared that the influence 
of domestic and other trials had in some measure lessened 
the light in which he had once walked, were cheered by the 
assurance of the hope of eternal life which, at the approach 
of death, he gave to the youthful pastor. On a wintry day, 
early in 1817, the aged man lifted a hand in token of ex- 
pectation of rest, then placed it across the other and fell asleep. 
From the grave of this pioneer of Provincial Methodism Burt 
turned away, feeling "almost alone in the great wilderness." 
He had no settled home, but was entertained in turn by the 
leading Methodist families of the place. A little while 
only, however, elapsed before evidences of the divine bless.- 
ihg upon his efforts liecame visible. Conversions took 
place at (Oakland, large numbers entered the societies at 
Kempt and Kennetcook, and seveivil persons, throughout a 
long period pillars in the churches at Windsor and Fal- 
mouth, claimed him as their guide into the path of life. 

The three young preachers Aider, Burt and Payne re- 

/K 77/ A' LOW Eh' rnOVTXCES. 


( 'US- 

ou of 
3t' ex- 
y the 
OS at 
out a 


ceived a cordial welcome at the district meeting at Jlalifax, 
in 1817. One of the evenings of the session was devoted 
to tlie formation of the " Methodist .Missionary Socioty for 
the Nova Scotia, New ih'unswick and Prince Kdward 
Island District." A large aiuiienco was pr(>s(Mit in the 
old A I'gyle-strect church. Kightccn nidiiths ptexiously, the 
congregation, assisted l)y the contriliutions of (!o\-ei'noj' 
Sherbrooke and some lending citizens, had made an exten- 
sive addition to that huilding. William j>laek occupied 
the (|uaintdooking round pulpit and pi'esidcMl o\-ei' the 
meeting ; William r.ennett conducted the earlier devotional 
exercises ; an<l the other ministei's addi'cssed the audience 
from the gallery in the rear of the pulpit. The speakers, 
clerical and lay, moved and seconded Hfteen resolutions. 
The General (younnittee then a})pointe(l consisted of aP the 
preachers in the district, with all the stewards and more 
than tifty othei- laymen. Messrs. .John A. I'aii-y and Hugh 
Bell were the secretaries, and John Starr, l'iS((., the trea- 
surer. Local committees wei-e to Ix; formed in each circuit. 
At tlie nex-t annual meeting thi-ee hundrtnl and sixty-six 
pounds wei'e reported, of which sum one-half had l)een con- 
tributed in Halifax. Each minister'- had subscriWed one 
guinea, with the exception of William Ulaek, wlios(( more 
ample private resources had enabled him to cast a larger 
sum into the treasury, ami then excite some innocent curi- 
o.sity by a further donation of fifty jvninds in the name of 
" A friend." 

At this uuHi'ting of ISI7, two young men appeared as 
candidates for the ministry. ( !erirge Millei", whos(^ long 
life made his face and fiwm familiar to a later generation, 
was a descendant of one of thos(> Palatines who, about the 
beginning of the eighteenth ce'itury, had crossed from (Jer 
many to Ireland, ant! settled in the county of Limerick, where 
John Wesley often \ isited tliens and their ch'ldren. Miller 




had entered the local ministry in his native land. An 
uncle, resident at Halifax, had encouraged him to cross the 
ocean ; on his reception into the bj'otherhood he also fur- 
nished him with the necessary outfit. The other candidate, 
Adam Clarke Avard, crossed the Straits of Nortliumberland 
with Sampson Busby, who till then was unknown to the 
ministers on the main land, save by report. Sevei-al months 
after conversion, Avard had abandoned the iden of law as 
the business of life. At the outset of a new path, he had 
encountered some discouragements, a somewhat bruscjue trus- 
tee, on the occasion of one of his earlier essays at preaching 
at Charlottetown, having ordered him down from the pulpit. 
On the invitation of Busby, he had removed to Murray 
Harbor to take charge of a school, and from the otlicial 
mei)il)ers of that circuit he had brought the requisite recom- 
mendation. By the district meeting he was ])rovisionally 
accepted, as was also his fellow-candidate, and was sent to 

One short year at Shelburne rendered Avard's name very 
dear to the little tlock in that interesting old town. An 
excellent woman, who a few years ago left earth, dated her 
better life from the hour in which she first heard him read 
a hymn in the old chuix;!!. Ueneral regret was expressed at 
his I'emoval to N<>vvpoit, l)ut there, too, the ^Master had 
work for him. A faded journal, in which, more than eighty 
years ago, a (Christian mother made note of life's joys and 
sorrows, tells in grateful words of the conversion of her 
four sons and a nej)hew through his ministry there. Of 
these four sons of Anthony Shaw, one entered the ministry, 
and, afti'r a ln-ief service at home, went by appointment of 
the Missionary Oojumittee to the AVest Indies, wlience at a 
comparati\ fly early age he returned to die; and another 
become a useful local [ireacher in his nati\c> township. The 
nephew, Robert Salter, the latest survivor of the group — a 





it a 

part only of those; who then l^elieved — was a more youth 
engaged as a teaclior. Soon after his conversion, liis pastor 
pkxced in his hands a list of members at Newport, on which 
his own name was the twentieth, with an intimation that 
he must forthwith assume the position of leadei*. Foi'ty-six 
years of faithful attention to the duties of chat and several 
other otiices in tlu; church at Carleton, N.l)., his place of 
residence from 18'_H>, fully justified that early selection by 
his pastor. iSooii after the conversion of tliese young men, 
Avard became the assistant of Bamford, at Annapolis, 

At the close of the annual meeting of I^'IT, William liurt 
set out for the Fredericton circuit. In crossing the bay he nar- 
rowly escaped drowning in a leaky vessel, which was beached 
at Parrsboro', only in time to save the lives of the passengers 
and crew. His regular circuit journeys led him to the west- 
ern side of the Grand Lake, where Daniel 8tilwell, an 
American Loyalist, and two or three pious friends, who, 
with him, had maintained the religious services of the set- 
tlement, welcomed the itinerants on their too ran; visits. 
The winter travel over the rivers and lakes perplexed the 
young Englishman. Oil his first drive to Sheffield over the 
great icy highway of the St. John, he had gone but two 
miles when he induced a friend to try the depth of the ice. 
When this had been cut as deep as the axe-handle would 
permit, and without appearance of water, he drove cheerfuly 
on. Real danger once attended an attempt on his part to 
guide a " dug-out "' acioss a passage near the head of the 
(xrand Lake during a summer visit. But for any hardships 
there soon came compensation. The meml)ership at B^'eder- 
icton, though small in numbers, was not without influence. 
Among elect women was Catharine Dayton, who, with her 
mother and brother, had found her way thither from Xorth 
Carolina. Intelligent and pious, she was associated with 
Mrs. Thomas Taylor in the organization and early manage- 




nient of tlie Frederictoii Sunday-scliool.' To the iMflueiice 
of Miss Dayton aiul her l)r<)tlier, Burt attiibuted tho con- 
version of a family on the opposite side of the river, a son 
and several daughters of which he received into uieuil)ership 
soon after liis ari'ival. The father, an American Loyalist, 
whose wife iiad perislied amonjjj the many exiles lost in the 
transport Martha, in i78.'3, took exception to his children's 
course, and meetin,i>; Burt in the; street, charged him with 
having " injured his family." A kind reply secured for the 
niinistcn- an invitation to preacli in the dwelling of the 
aggrieved father. Catharine Gill, tlie latest survivor of 
several " remarkable sistcn-s " of this family, and a cheerful, 
consistent Christian to her latest hour, joined her earlier 
friends in the Paradise of God after sixty years of fellowship 
with the church l)elow. To the agency of Miss Dayton may 
also be ascribed, in part, the conversion of Cliristoi)her 
Joseph Gaynor, long a leading Methodist layman. A clerk 
in Fredericton in IS17, he became thoughtful respecting 
personal salvation, and early in tin; following year withdrew 
from Episcopalia.n associations to join the small church of 
which Burt was the pastor. For forty years the Head of 
the church pmiiitted hini to remain with the Methodists at 
Fredericton, aits a happy illustration of a godly life, and then 
crowned His servant's departure with a most hallowed sun- 
set scene. 

Early in 1S18 a i-evival took place at .ShetUeld, where 
some of the r(!sidents at Burton, on the opposite; bank of 
the St. John, were also worshippers. One Sunday evening 
Burt preached as usual and retired wearied to his lodging- 
place. Thither, to his surprise, he was followinl by as 
many persons as tin; house could contain. Prayer was 

7 Catliiiriiic I );iytoirs iiid was ojici' iiivipkcd liy a youiip st»utfnt vrtio 
ainust'd liiuisflf with a irw"s-har|i while slic |iif|iait'(l his thiiiic, which, 
ou tht) followiiiL;' iiioniiu^', t'licitnl from Dr. Jaculis the remark : " No 
yuuug mail in New Urunawick has writ leu this I'' 

IX Till': unvKU rnovixcEs. 





■; at 



w no 

off'ered in their helialf l)y the pastor aiul an exhorter. In 
the room where tht^y knelt nine ])erson.s bore witness 
for the liist time to the presence with them of the Holy 

Spirit as the Comfortt 




mg room, 
tne pastor touiul young men pleading tor assured 
forgiveness, and with tiiem he remained until they too 
testitied that prayer had l»een answered. To the tifteen who 
then became believers in Jesus, iifteen others were soon 
added. Such successes were accepted as a satisfactory 
reason for iJurt s absence frcjm the annual meeting of 1818 
at Halifax, and were deemed a sufficient cause for sending 
Robert II. Ci'ane at (j!U'(! to his aid. On the arrival of his 
young colleague, the senior preacher visited Jemseg, at the 
mouth of the (I rand Lake, and thence crossed the river to 
Gageto wn, where, uninvited to the parish church, he stood 
on a cut in the front street of that Loyalist village and 
preached to its people, "Jesus and the resurrection." 

From the position then gained at the capital and in its 
vicinity Methodism has never receded. At Fredericton> 
valuable mendjers were added and church accommodation 
was increased ; at Sheffield, the membership was enlai-ged to 
twice its previous number and a new cliurch was completed; 
and at Nashwaak, where a few aged Highlanders looked to 
James Stewart as their header, Burt went into the woods 
with several of the congregation and aided them in cutting 
a frame for a church to be erected on ground given for that 
purpose by tlie widow of Colonel Campbell. J3ut isolated 
facts and dry statistics convey no adequate idea of the work 
accomplished. Tiie, tones in which the young minister's 
name has been uttered by the few who could bear memories 
of his presence across the billowy sea of a half a century, 
have show^n how deep was the respect and lo\(! then ac- 
corded him. One morning in June, 181 'J, he left Fred- 
ericton, watching on the way his " beloved Sheffield," until 


llisroi:)' (iF METIlOhlS.]' 


Hi I |i 







t\w pro;L,'r('.ss of tlu; l)Oiit anil a sad incident cli;uig(;(l tlu' 
current of thought. A warning against the conse(iuences 
of dai'ing profjinity liatl been addi-essed by hiin to tiie car- 
penter' of the 1)1 )at, but had been followed by a repetition of 
blasplienious language, A little later, in drawing a bucket 
of watci- from the J'iver, the {)oor man lost his balance, and 
the niinisf(,'r, glancing around at the moment, saw his heels 
going ovei" the side of the steamer. Stunned, no doubt, by 
repeated blows from the paddle-wheel, the man never re- 
appeared, and the steamer passed on. 

At the district meeting at Halifax, in 1818, two young 
men ottered their services as preachers, both of whom went 
forth to be successful workers. Robert H. Crane, one of 
the two, was the iirst native-born youth to find his way 
into the Methodist ministry in the Lower Provinces. His 
mother, one of the earliest ^Methodists in the western part 
of Nova Scotia, had seen an answer to prayer and a se([uel 
to effort, when, through a revival in the vicinity of her 
home at Aylosford, nearly all tlie members of her family 
had l)ecome partaktns of " like precious faith." Beside 
him, during the usual examination, stood a young Yoi-k- 
shire man — John Snowball. Though opposed Vjy both 
parents and employer, he had persisted in seeking a home 
in the Methodist Church. Having abandoned an inten- 
tion to otter in England for mission service abroad, he 
sailed for Nova Scotia, and landed at Halifax during the 
annual meeting of 1817 ; and through the persuasion of 
several ministers attended the meeting of the following 
year. Thence he was sent with Sampson Busby to Ann- 
apolis, and a year later, to Yarmouth. 

Within the Annapolis circuit, 1817-19, two religious gath- 
erings took place which were long remembered. Colonel 
Bayard suggested them, with the intention of promoting 
the salvation of his neighbors and of lessening the pi'ova- 

/.V 77/ A' LOW El: I'HOVrXCES. 





I the 



lence of ii spirit of l»i^()tiy. IJotli meetings app^u' to have 
Ik'cu uiuU'i' Methodist in;in!i,i,'erMeMt, tlioii^di held in I5aptist 



)ecaiiKe o 

f tl 

len- iaii,'('f size. 




spoken of ;is tlus "<^reat meeting at Xictaux,"' but me 
tioned bv Avard 




leu hy Avard as tlie "genei'al tlianksgivnig meeting, 
was held at Nictaux Plains on tin- last Sunday and Mon- 
day in September, 1817. Five Methodist ministers — Ben- 
nett, Croscombe, I5usl)y, Priestley, and Avard, witii two 
Baptist brethren, Thomas Handley Chipman and Thomas 
Ansley — met at the eomuiencement. Two Bajitist exlior- 
ters and two INlethodist local preachers were also present. 
Joshua Newton and ilobert i>arry, with se\-eral members 
of their faiiiili(>s, crossed the country from Liverpool. 
William Bennett commenced the services of tlu; Lord's- 
day, at which fifteen hundred persons are said to have 
l)een j)resent. His sermon was followcnl by others from 
Ansley, Croscond)e, and Htokoe. "A most blessed inilu- 
ence," wrote Croscombe, "followed the services." In the 
evening, Avard preached at Coloind 13ayard's n^sidence. 
nearly on Monday, Kol>ert Alder cind George Miller joined 
tiieir brethren. In the morning Alder jjreached, and 
Priestley and Miller followed with impressive discourses, 
Priestley's sermon being heard in almost l)reathless silence. 
The more public services of this gathering we"e ended on 
Monday evening by a sermon from Busby and addresses by 
several others. The next day was spent by several of the 
ministers and other visitors at Colonel Bayard's hospitable 
home. To the great joy of the heavenly-minded host, three 
persons then under his roof were persuaded to accept 
the salvation which had become his constant theme. One 
of these was a beloved daughter, who became the esteemed 
wife of a worthy minister ; another was a daughter of 
Peter de St. Croix, an Annapolis ^[ethodist who died many 
years later in New Jersey. 


IlISTtUn' or METllohlSM 






Tlu! iiu'iitiiii,' ()t' the following.' yefirwHs held in tlii' naptist 
church at (iraiivilh'. Public services wt'ic; continued for 
three days, liesides the circuit proacliers — l>usl»y and 
Snowliall — were Croscomlje and a small ''train' from 
Liverpool ; Payne, from Yarmouth ; and. diirini;' the later 
services, Avard, from Newport. (Jn tlu; Sunday morning, 
nund»(M's of heavy farm waggons and " gigs innumerable " 
were moving in one dii-ection. Thi'ce hundred vehicles of 
all sorts were counted on the gi'ounds near the church, and 
two thousand persons were believed to be present. Thonwis 
Jlandley (Jhipman, the only Jiaptist preacher there, com- 
menced the .services by ui-ging his hearers to "give all dili- 
gence to nuike their calling and election sure." Only a 
part of those present heard him, for 'I'homas Brady, a local 
preacher from Petite Kivicre, seeing that the church could 
not possibly contain the approaching crowds, volunteered to 
preach in the open aii', as he had often done in Ireland. 
Croscombe followed Chipman with a discourse on the "ten 
virgins."' The intervals, beyond the brief space used for 
refreshment, wei-e occupied with singing, prayer and 
religious conversation. Twelve persons, Croscombe be- 
lieved, were that day saved. Each evening tlie ministers 
and leading laymen held a special meeting f(jr prayer. That 
held on Monday evening, in the dwelling of Joshua de St. 
Croix, was a memorable one. Croscombe's pen grew 
eloquent as he wrote of it after the lapse of many busy 
years. The interest of the public services reached its 
highest point on the following morning, while Avard dwelt 
upon the fact of the Christian's " conversation " or citizen- 
ship being in heaven, whence he " looks for the Saviour, the 
Lord Jesus Christ." In all parts of the church ministers 
and leaders were busily aiding, l)y counsels and prayers, 
those whose hearts had been touched. " Hundreds," Avard 
wrote, " will have cause to bless God that they visited 














Gniuville." A third and similar meeting was held in 1811) 
at Nictaiix Plains, under the manai^ement of iiamt'ord, 
iJusby's suecessor at (iraiivilic. William lUirt, from 
Horton, ami (others, both Methodists and baptists, took 
part in the scivii-es. lUirt says that "a vast concourse of 
p(!oplc " atteiidt'd. " Many souls were converted ; and 
after continuini; totjether for several days, the people 
returned to their scattered liomes, full of faith and the 
Holy ( ihost, to tleclare what great things the Lord had done 
for thenj.""^ 

Fi'om his luNul([uai'tcrs at Granville, Sampson Busby, to 
whom, in liSlS, an assistant was given, paid more frecjuent 
visits to Digby and other settlements near it. l>y some 
earlier laborers Digby had been regarded as an unfruitful 
Held. Josliua Marsden had concluded that " Jesus Christ 
had not a foot of ground " there ; and another minister, 
who subsequently entered the old Loyalist village to preach 
in a blacksmiths shop, had, it was said, exposed himself to 
some danger by the act ; but William Croscondje, sent to 
Oi-anville, in 181.">, had been gladly received when several 
times he visited the village, and thence went on to the 
Neck. The court-house, through Colonel J>ayard's influ- 
ence, had now been placed at the disposal of the ministers 
as often as they could occu])y it; nevertheless. Busby, be- 
fore his removal in 1819, had conunenced the Iniilding of a 
small church in the village on a central site. At Broad 
Cove, a small settlement on tin; shore of the Bay of Fundy, 
where evil had held contnjl in spite of earnest eftbrt on the 
part of his predecessors, he left a large and convenient 

** TlicsL' iiu'ctiii;4s (1(1 not seciii to liaxc iiK^t witli iniivcrsul ;q»iirova1. 
But few Biiptist ministt-rs utti'udcd tlicin, and tlic Methodist luiiiistta'J, 
at tlifir aunuiil nu't'tin^ at Liverpool in IS'JO, passed, for reivsoiis not 
given in the records ])reserved, a resolutu^n tliat "no more great meet- 
ings, so called, lie lield by onr preachers without the jireviou.s consent of 
the district ni»'etiiig. " 






" '" llllitt 

III 1.8 

1.25 1.4 


L 6" 




■^% c% 











(7)6) 873-4503 

V MP^ 





IIISTOin' or METllOhlHM 






building', iiitendod for tlio iloublo purpose of a place of 
worship and school-room. 

At other points on the soutlun-ii shore of Nova Scotia 
than those already noticed, progress niei-its remark. On 
the Shelhurne circuit, for several years })revious to the ap- 
pointnujnt of Avai'd, the conf,a'egations had been in a great 
degree dependent upon such sei-mons as James Mann, in 
his supei-numerary yeai's, could give them. The fourth 
church in the circuit was built at Barrington, in IS 16, on 
a site given by Matthew Donaldson, an heir of whom 
attempted, on some alleged legal informality, to hold both 
land and building. It was in the line of action necessary 
on the eve of dedi(!ation to defeat that unworthy attempt 
that one first meets with the late Winthi'op Sargent, then 
in his twentieth year. 

AVinthrop Sargent's father, John Sargent, had been a 
merchant of Salem, Mass., but at the close of the revolu- 
tionary strife he had settled at Barrington, as the only 
mem])er of the family faithful tu Britain. New England 
religious prepossessions and [)rejudices long retained their 
sway over him, but through fortunate influences he was 
led in his last years to take an active interest in the busi- 
ness of the church of which his wife was a devoted mem- 
ber, and into connnunion with which all their children 
sooner or later followed her. Winthrop, in boyhood, be- 
came a Christian, and through a long life, whether among 
early friends in his native place, or in puldic life as .a suc- 
cessor of his father in the representation of the township 
in the Provincial legislature, adorned his profession. Dur- 
ing a period of nearly forty years, he fre(|uently stood in 
the Methodist puli)it at JJarrington, and to the last ad- 
dressed congi'cgations second to none there in numbers and 
intelligence. A son, the inheritor of his father's pulpit 
abilities, entered the itinerancy, and soon attracted atten- 

!X THE LOW Eli rnovrxcEs. 








It ad- 





tion as ;i proadior and pastor of much pi-omiso ; l)ut con- 
smMi)tion, liefore wliosc f»'U inlluciicc sevcr'al of his f;ith»'r's 
family droopod and died, closed a useful (.'an'ri' much too 
soon, it seemed, to human eyes. 

The Ijiverpool circuit was, in IS 17, placed under tiie care 
of William (Jroscomhe, who remained there two years. 
His duties call(>d him to the westward as fai* as Sable River 
and T-iittle Harbor ; in tlie opposite direction lie visited 
.Mill \'illa<,'e, and three oi' four times in each year the more 
distant settlement at I'etite Ili\ icre. Knowlan, his pre- 
decessor, had opened a new church at Port Mouton, and 
had seen another ('((nnnenced at Mill \'illa<;e. At the latter 
place had been a solitary member of the Methodist Church, 
a woman of deep piety and much enei-^y. Human agency 
could not be traced in her conversion, but on becoming a 
child of (Jod she souLfht communion with tlie Methodists 
at liiverpool, and opened hei dwelling for worship. He!" 
husband, a Roman Catholic, consented to her gift of a sit(^ 
for a cliurch ; and the wife, in tlu^ lirm beli<'f that hei- J^ord 
would raise uj) a peopl(> to praise Him, set out to secure tlie 
erection of a small s.mctuarv. h^ai'lv in l^jS, Croscomb(! 
i'e|)orted the compK'tion of t\w exterioi' of the building and 
the addition of seven persons to th«! membership. At 
Petite Riviere tlu; propiietors of a neat chapel and small 
dwelling conveyed them to the Confei'enc(; eai-ly in 1817, 
on the condition that a preachei' should be sent as soon as 
possible. For these premises the Methodists weic; indebted 
to Richai'd Taylor, who, upon his unfortunate failure 
as a minister in Newfoundland, had made his way to 
Nova Scotia. James Knowlan, dui'ing a merelv tem- 
porary rest from cii-cuit iiircs, in IS 17, sj)ent a few 
months at Petite llivici-e, and on his removal, 'I'homas 
Itrady, tin? Irish local pre iclier, dischaigt'd for sonu' U\\\*>. 






i. T »fl 

tlio duties of pt'pachor and p;istf)r.'' At Livorpool, Cros- 
coinl)o oiulod liis first term ot' provincial service. A fever, 
th(! result of exposure, allected his lieariuf,', and prepared 
tlio way for the painful deafness of his later years- 
Through this illness, and the ellects of an accident, his 
health had bi^conie seiiously impaired. Havin;j; received 
jH'rmission to return to iMigland, he made his way back 
to Liverpool from St. John, the place of the district meet- 
in i,' of I tS 19, and early in .July sailed from Port Medway 
for liritain. 

.Jolni 1>. Strong', at ( 'harlottetown, and Jolm Kishpool, 
of IU>de(|ue and Tryon, exchancjed circuits in IMS. The 
last-named places had been made i-et^^ulai' aj)j»()intments of 
the ('harlottetown circuit in ISl."), by John Hick, by 
whom a society of six persons had been formed at I)ede(|ue. 
John 1>. Stronijj's tirst sermon at that place was preached 
in Nathanael Wright's barn, and was followed by one visit 
to that section of the island in each six weeks. In Decem- 
ber, 181(3, lie took steps towards the building of a small 
church at J^edeque, and of another at Tryon. By the 
district meeting of the next year these places were consti- 
tuted a new circuit, and in 1818, through the eflbrts of 
John Pope and his few associates, the church at liede(iue, 
previously planned, was put up. Fishpool, on his ari'ival 
at Tryon, in 1817, found a partially finished building on a 
site given by John Lord. Taking advantage of an ex- 
change in the autumn with Payne at Wallace, he visited 
several other parts of Cumberland county, whence he 
carried liome some money and materials for preparing the 
church for winter use. Some years, however, elapsed Ix- 
fore the interior was completed, its ])ulpit having been put 

^ Tlioinas P.rarly bad eomc to Xova Scotia almiit ISU'.I. A year oi' two 
after ('roscoiulH'"s n'tiini to Kugland he witlidicw from the Mctliodist 
Cliurcli, and siil^socjut-ntly cntcrt'd th<' Free w ill liaiitist niiiUMtiy. He 
tiled at Yarmouth in 186(5, at the age of eighty -two. 

/.v THE ijnvEi: rnovfxcus. 


n a 


up at the exjionse of a Roiiiati Catholic j)riest, who was 
not on the island (liiiiiii:^ l-'ishpool's residence tlicre.'" 

The report from llcdctiuc and Tryon in 18 1 S was indic- 
ative of spiritual success ; in that from Charlottetown the 
niinistei- wrote of nuich kindness on the pai't of his people, 
hut of personal depression throu,<j;h the unlinished state of 
tiie church. Of dillicuUies incident to ti-avd in a new 
country \\v. had had a ijjood share. " Sonietiuies," he wrote 
to the Cotnniittee, " I have liecu lost for liouis in the lonely 
woods and knew not wher(> to i^o ; sometimes very much 
expo.sed in crossint,' rivers and creeks, and twice I have 
l)i'oken thi'oui,di the i(;e when the water has heen two or 
three fathoms deep. Hut hitherto the T.oid hath hel])ed 
me.'" I'oth ministei's wim'c removed fi-om the island in 
ISID, their places l)eini,' lilled by tiie appointment of liobert 
Ald«M- to Charlottetown, and (ieor^e Miller to Piedecjue. 

The societies on the Island w< re at this peiiod also 
favored with the presence of .John and William Pope, two 
etiicient local pi'eachers. Henry and Richard Po])e had 
sailed as missionaries to Canada about the same time that 
their friend l>urt had taken his departure for Nova Scotia, 
and their brothers, in the course of the next year, liad 
followed them over the ocean with Prince Edward Fsland in 
view as a place of business. At tlu! close of a successful 
year at Bedeque, John l'()|)e yielded to the desire which had 
been "uppermost since conversion," and oHered his services 
to the .Missionarv (committee, by whom, on account of 

'"'I'iif " t'lu'ftidiis " Fiitlit-r Fit/^'craM, an tldcrly Franciscan, readied 
the islantl frnni Newfoundland al)out l.SL'2. He intofnied William 
'I'eniiilc, when that niinistcr was stationed at ('hailnttetow n in ISl'S L'!t, 
that he iiad known Mr. Wfsli'V " \try well." Mr. 'I'l injile says of him : 
'■ lie Kindly oHViid iiie the loan of any of his hooks, which, however, 
with the wiirksof St. Thomas in batin. did not ammint to more than 
a .sorry fifty volumes, h'ather Fity,(,'erald is, however, a liberal num. 
He huilt tiie jiulpit in our chapel at Tryon at his own expense, and 
offered me twenty shillin^'-s towards a hell foi- our chapel here, as he 
thought we ought to iiave due." The chapel in Tryon was used till lS;iil. 


iiisrouY or mhthodism 

scanty funds, ji previous (»ir<M' had Itccii declined. His 
second oll'ei- tliey accepted, and placed his name with that 
of AUier at ( 'h;u'lotteto\vn. '-' 

Some facts i-es})ectin_i,' the i-eli<,Mous state of Prince 
Kdward Island at this time are tjiven in a pamphlet pub- 
lished on his I'etnrn to jliitain liy one Walter Johnson, a 
Scotchman, who ari'ived at the ishmd in May, 1S2(), and 
spent a year \\\vv(.\ " with a (lesii;n to (>stal)lish Sai>l>ath- 
schools and investi,i;at(! the i'eli>;ious state of tlie country." 
Over the state of his countrymen in the colony, amoni; 
whom John Keir was the only niinistei", he was ^'rieved. 
Amoni^ them were; men who feared <!od, hut who wei'e 
prevented from impai'ting such knowledge as they possessed 
to any ignorant neitfjihors hy a di-ead lest they should 
"sinfully encroach upon the ministeiial ollice and therel)y 
put an uidiallowed hand to the ai'k of (Jod.' In tin; work 
of the (.'hurch of iMinland he ccmld see little to praise. Jn 
favor of that ehurch numerous lai-^e i-esei-vations of land 
had lieen made, upon which others ''must not set a foot or 
put an axe," yet so cai'eless had its authorities heen that 
until three yeai's previously the veneiahle i^arrison chap- 
lain, Oeshrisay, had heen its .sole representative on the 
island. lioman Catholicism, when such wei'e its surround- 
in<;s, had little reason to seek disguise. One Sunday after- 
noon, while the visitor was in the nei>j;hliorhood, a horse- 
race took place near the liftman Catholic chui'ch, on the 
Hillsl»orou,i.jh Kiver, whence a i,n'eat multitude went to the 
race-course, the bishops attendance being necessary to pre- 
vent riot and bloodshed ! To the Uaptists and Methodists 
Johnson <j;ave i^eneral commendati(Mi. Meetings for Sab- 

'- A ydiinn't'i' lu'dtliir <if Williaiu l'u|if. kiiduii lal<r as the Hon. 
.loscpli l'<'|><', .ii>in(<l tlic ntln'is at lli'dtiiui' in ISl'i. and aftci' tlicir 
removal canifil (III luisincss for many Nrars on liis own account. 'V\w. 
late lion. .lanu'N < "oll('<,ff I'djic, for some years Mlni>ter of Maiine imd 
Fislifries iindtr Sir •lulm A. Macdouald's adniinistiation, was Iuh 
second sun. 


/.V rilE LOWICI; ri!f,\ISiKs. 


Lath >v,„.sl„p „.„,, |„.,,t „,, ,,,. ,,„. ,„.„,,.,. ^,^ ^,.^,,^^ ^ 

;. -"I, of «.|,i..|, ,|„. "iif,. of .vli,oo„ ' w;,s ,„,,i„Ui„,d. 

I.™- P.V.U .,.,■, (.'nuvfonl, wl,o I,.,, „„ .,1 ,!„■ s,.,ni,„>,y 

"f tie lral,la,„..s ,„ S..otk,„l, was ,1„. „„ly (,. ,„.,.a,.l,e,. 

on tl,o ,.la„c. A,„o„s. ,l„. M,.,: ists ,1,. visitor found 

.s n,o,t , ,, ,.^ ,,, ^,,,,.^.,^^. ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

a Motl,„,l,.t |,„.al ,„,,,. , ,|„.,.a,,eai„ of tl„. sn.all c-aft 

it '••'''7','"""'""-f'-""-|l— 'fiv-,as,.n„o„ 

winch ,,. n..a,,l,,l as a •■,..,,• ,,i.i„ „„| s,.,io„s ,iis..„ur.o ■" 
and ot ),„ .■.,|d .,.tt,„,, „ ,., ^,,„ j,,^^„ ,„. ^^.,.^^^^_ ^^^.^^^ 1^^^^ . . 

t.-.k.M> pa,tKu,ia,- „oti,.„ ■■ of th..,n, that I,,- was " a«,veal,lv 

-.-pnsod to find tl,at l,,,th in s, .|, and i^havi,:,,,. they 

exh,„t«l many pl,.asin,i; f,.atu,vs of ^..nuin. pi.'tv " Thf. 

of th„ Mothod.sts atCharlottetown, the teachers of which 
m -I-ly to his expressions of sarprise at the presence o^ 

so„,e very you n. eh ■ inf,.,. d hin, that thov n.ust 

al<e then, or none, as they ,.o„id .-etain no scholars "hevond 
the .go of ten o,- twelve. In a elosin,, sunnna.y, .lohnson 

-narks of the .Met lists: "They have so n.ant excellent 

oeal p,.each,.rs that they .sehlon, want f„,. sen'uons in all 

the,,. ,.e«ul.a,. places of wo,.sl,ip ; a t „,„st l,o acknow. 

lecl^ed that wl,e,-e,er the Methodists ahoun.l vice and 
•n„„o,-al,ty a,-e ,„ade to hide their heads, and ev,.rv ,na„ and 
wo„,a„ ,s taught to ,„.ay. The ,„en,be,-s of their ,.)„„.ehes 
are ,nostly f,-o,„ ICghunl „,- the island of Uue,„sey " 





OF 'rilK DJSTKKT IN is.'i;. 


District Nfcf'tinf,' of 1HL'(». Miittlnw liiclicv. IJi iit TiivfriMtol. 
William \V. Aslilrv. .lulm Marsiiail andWilliaiii Tniipl.'. D.-aths 
of Miiiistf-rs. Work ij» st-vcml Circuits. (itor;,'c .lack son. Con- 
troversy on I'.aptistii. Aliici't hcslirisay. Old Cimiltcrland Circuit. 
Artliur McNutt, .loliu I'akcr, .lames (J. Hftinit,'ar ;iiid 'riiomas H. 
J)avie.s. Trinco Kdward Island. I'riistlry at St. .lojin. Mcinlicr- 

In 1820 the annual moetini,' was for tlio first time held 
at Liverpool. One of the most iiiterestini,' services took 
place at six o'clock on the fjord's-day mornin<^. It was 
conducted hy a youth of seventeen year.s, who, as a candidate 
for the ministry, had accompanied .James Priestley from St. 
John. While preachinu; at a haltini; -place on the way he shown some nervousness, but on the mornin;^' in (jues- 
tion he arose in the puljiit with apparent s«df-possession, 
and in due time announced as his text tlu^ enif)hatic counsel 
to the exile at Patmos, " Worship God.'" Charlotte Ann 
Newton heard him, ajid recordctl in a private journal .some 
of the impressions made upon herself and others. The 
youthful appearance of the preacher had at first excited 
sympathy, but .soon, relieved from all anxiety, his hearers 
had full opportunity to discern in him that rare cond)ina- 
tion of the elements of pul])it power which in a few years 
made him a preacher never to be forgotten by any who 
listened to him. The fair critic remarks that the .sermon 
" was delivered in a most pleasinij, systematic and devout 
manner, and without apparent efTort ;' that his thoughts 



were clothed in " very superior laiif^uago," and that " both 
voice and manner were in unison." 

Matthew Itichey, the preacher of that niorni 



d th 

His childhood 

assed tJu'rtu^'h some varied experieiices 
had been spent in the district of Kathiuelton, a " very wild " 
part of the county ])one«^al. His parents were members of 
the Irisli lieformed Presbyterian Church, popularly known 
as "Covenanters." ]|(> was being trained for the ministry 
of that church, when a young friend proposed a vis't to a 
Methodist prayer-meeting, and thus unwittingly gave to 
his fellow-student's life an altogethei- new direction. The 
meeting was one of a series which tlie f<^w scattered Meth- 
odists of the place were maintaining in the absence of an 
itinerant preacher. Pleased with the hearty singing of the 
simple worshippers, the young man rei)eated his visit. A 
new element of interest now arrested his attention. The 
prayers to which he had at first listenf^d in a spirit of 
criticism became a subject of serious consideration. It 
seemed to him that the minister who had led the petitions 
of the worshi{>])ers in the church of his boyhood had learned 
to regard the Most High as so glorious and <'xalted, and so 
little in symi)atliy with the suppliants at His footstool, that 
no direct immediate answer could be expected by them ; 
whilst these humble Christians, to whose faith he had till 
then been a stranger, had been taught to regard th».' High 
and Holy One as one who ''in very deed" dwells with men, 
interested in the recital of their wants and ready witli 
fatherly love to supply their real needs. An. apj)eal to the 
teaching and spirit of the Holy Scriptures convinced 
liini that his new associates had been the more fully taught 
of God. In the train of this discovery came another — that 
of the privilege of assured acceptance by heaven, enabling 
him who has complied with the conditions stated in the 
inspired Word to rt^joice in tlie convHction tliat hejs a child 



lllSToliY OF MiynioDlSM 

of (I()(l ; l/ut of tho way l»y vvliioh a sinner can obtain 
justification witli (Jod he had yet to learn. Tliis indis- 
j)ensal)le knowl(>(l<,'o the Holy Spirit was pleaseel to ;,'ive hiai 
aa he read Fletcher's " (.'oneluding Address to the Serious 
Header," a co}>y of which had heen placed in his hands, 
llavini,' taken the little l)o<)k where lie nii<4ht read it with- 
out interruj)tion, his attention was arrested hy that impres- 
sive passa<^e at the conclusion of which the author exliorts 
his reader, " wluui th(; arrows of the Word fly ahroad," to 
" drop the shield of unhelief, make hare the breast, welcome 
the blessed shaft, and remember that the oidy way of con- 
4uei'in<^ sin is to fall wounded and lielpless at the lle- 
deemer's feet." These words led the youthful reader, in 
hund)le submission, to the cross of his Saviour. 'I'he 
emphasis and ener<;y with which, nearly sixty years later, 
the wjiole passage which they conclude was repeated by him 
from memory in his study at Windsor, rendered them more 
beautiful to tlie ear of the single listener than any quoted 
words that had ever fallen from his eloijuent lips. 

Among the hund>le Metiiodists at Jiathmelton, Matthew 
Richey at once sought a s]) home. His new associates 
were not slow to open pathways of usefulness for theii- gifted 
young brother From one of his earliest sermons, preached 
in a small dwelling, a young girl went to \wx home to 
make a consecration of life to her Saviour, a consecration 
never forgotten by her during a sul)sequent pilgrimage of 
si.xty years in Ireland and New ]3runswick. The active 
effort of the young local preacher, with tliat of an associate 
who like himself had l)een in training for the ministry of 
another section of the cliurch, gave much encouragement to 
the Irish Wesleyan mi.ssionary who had gone to his Confer- 
ence ap|)ointment in the "'dreary wilderness in tlui county 
Donegal and the wild mountains of Muckish, ' in the face 
of gloomy representations, and luid pursued his work with 


/.V 77/ A' LOWKR moVINCKS. 









" trouljlcd iK'iirt." " These vouii'' iim'Ii," lie wiutf (o the 
Coiiiinittee in London, "arc truly conv«'rte(l to (Jo<i iind 
are very useful anionic the people. 'Ihey are not to In; ex- 
celled l»y many for tiieir ^'ift in prayer, sound undiu-staud- 
'\i\^ and upriLjIit walk and c(>nversation."'' 

Matthew iiioliey soon found a j)laco on th«i list of olo- 
(juent men whom insland haa a^'ain and a^'ain nourished 
only to gracM; and hless other lands than their own. Ilis 
father could n(jt be r(!conciled to tlu^ j>urpos(^ of his proniis- 
in<^ son to enter the ministry of another communion than 
his own ; the son, theiefoi-e, the more readily allowed iiim- 
self to he drawn into the current of emii,'ration which had 
then hegun to set steadily from the United Kingdom in tin; 
direction of the Ihitish American Provinces. On his arrival 
at St. John, N.I)., he obtained a situatioji as a wiiter in the 
oilice of a leading lawyer, and a little later became an assis- 
tant to Dr. I'atterson, of the (.Jj' scliool. Meanwhile 
he had commenced in tlu; Clermain-street church j)ulpit his 
long colonial career as a preacher. From Liverpool, where 
his brethren gl;\dly accepted hisoU'ered services, he was sent, 
in responst! to an earnest appeal for help fi-om iJuncan 
McColl, as the junior preacher on the " St. J-)a^■id's, St. 
Steplien, and Magaguadavic " circuit. After the lapse of 
some years, his father and other members of the family 
followed him to New JJrunswick. In their adopt(,'d country 
the father so far acknowledged the hand of (iod in tlie 
course of the son as occasionally to listen to him, and a 
younger son became a worthy member of the M(;thodist 
church at Fredericton. 

The i-eli^ious services of the annual meeting seem to have 
prepared the way at Liverpool for tlie remarkable revival 
of that year, though in the earlier gatherings of that season 

' First Ktimrt, of tin- ( Itiit rai Wcslcyan M»ithodiKt ^l!sHi(mivrv S(ici»'ty, 
1818, i.j). 4«;, 47. 


insmiiY OF METIinniSM 

of ItU'ssiiij,', U'iiliaiii W. Ashley, an clorjUJ'nt prcvdier of 
the " (Iciicnil " or "open-coiimmiiion ' section ot" Uaptists, 
was the j»riiifi|ial a<,'ent. This iniiiister, whose name was 
lon;^ recalled on the southern coast of Nova Seotia, l)eloni,'e(l 
to a t'ainily which ;,'avo thnu? other i)reachers to other 
relii,Mnus denominations, .and at on(i time a lieutenant 
•governor to the state of Soutli Cai'olina. - At the present 
day he would ha\(! been rcigarded by religious leaders in 
gcsneral as an evangelist of tiie most a|){)i()ved ty[)e. Aft«!r 
a ministry of four years in tin; United States, he visited 
Livei|)ool. His liist meetings were held at Milton, but an 
invitation soon led him into John Pay/ant's pulpit in "Old 
Zion.'' His moi'e thoughtful hearers thei't; enjoyed his 
sermons, though for a tinu; they took excej)ti(Mi to the 
enthusiasm of some who iiad followed him from Milton ; 
but at length they discerned beneath eeitain ebullitions of 
feeling a woik bearing the seal of the Holy S{)irit, and for 
that reason enter(^d zealously into its advancement. Ashley 
and Sampson IJusby cond>ined tiu^ir ell^jrts, and eoiducted 
services alternately in the Methodist and Congi^'gational 
churches. In November, Busby became ill thiough over- 
work, and William Hurt left Hoi'ton and travelled through 
tl»« woods by way of JiUnenburg to suj>ply the plact; of his 
atllicted brother. " I often preached," JJurt wrote, "on the 
foreiH>ons of week-days, and three times on the Sabbath, 
with nioi-e or less conversions at every service." 

Memorable results attended tliis combination of effort 
for successive months. The innuediate efiects were visible 
throughout a largo section of country. Nearly every 
dwelling at Liverpool became a place of prayer. Requests 
from several settlements led Burt as far as the Ragged 


2 William W, Aslilcy's own fiimily Iu'Cjuhh in soinc respects a more 
rcnwirkaliU' one. Of eigiit sons, six were Jiaptist jireacliers, one of whom, 
however, (lied in tlie ministry of the I'mtt'stant Kpiscopul ("hiircli. 

/.v '/•///•; A oil/; A' i'i!()Vi\(i:s. 


Islands, wlicic tliirf liisli Ivniiian (/atliolics \v('r«> iiiii<»i»;; 
the coiivcits. The incarjit'i- ;^i('\\ a little litTVous (tiic day, 
wIh'Ii several Indians, "t'idly armed," entei-ed the preai-hini; 
room, luit Itet'orc! the close of the s«;rvic'e theii- leader fell 
upon his knees, |trayed t'or inoce than twenty minutes in 
his native Micmac, and then rose to his feet, with the 
(leelaration, " I'll |iray to (lud as lonif as I li\e," Of tlur 
ha[)])y death of this Indian, Ihirt some years later heard 
with deep satisfaction. Ihishy's visits to IMeasant Ki\t'r 
were also rewarded. An interesting' class there was placed 
hy him luider the care of his hnttluM", Ualph lUisby, \\\o, 
ufter conversion in his natisc land, had endijrated to N^va 
Scotia, wlinc faithful seivic«^ as a leader and local preacher 
was cut short liy sudden death, in \^'1'.\. 

The la|»s(> of vea;s I .n-v precious testimony to the worth 
of this r(\i\al. It was then that James 'iarss comn.eii. ed 
a forty-thi e years' st»Nadfast ser\ ice, and then, t(Jo, that llu-^h 
Houston, whose loiiL,' and useful work as a local preacher 
inoi'its 1,'rateful remark, entered upon the path of life. Jn 
the lon!4 list of those whose " ;,'oin^s " were at the same 
tim(^ established, wej-e also two othei- youn;j; men, both of 
whom liecame widely kncnvn in l'r«jvincial Methodism. 
Arthui" McXutt, one of them, was a native of Shelburne 
His father was a rii^id Presbyterian ; his mother, one of that 
grou[) of Methodist women names became as oint- 
ment poured forth in that old Loyalist I'etreat. To the 
patience with which Rebecca McNutt bor(i the trials which 
befell her Ijecause of her religious associations, and to her 
readiness to give " with meekness and fear a reason of the 
hope " that was in her, the son traced some of liis earliest 
religious convictions. At Lynn, Mass., whither the family 
had removed in 1810, he was led to decision through a ser- 
mon by Klijah U. Sabin ; but in a short time, through dis- 
obedience to a call to the ndnistry and association witii 






thouglitless conip.-iinons, lie lost relish for spiritual pleasures. 
Oil returning to Nova Scotia, lie entered into business, but 
his Master would not jierniit him to prosper in any other 
sphere than that nssigncd him liy Himself. Meanwhile, a 
sermon hy William Croscomlje, while that minister awaited 
at Port Medway the sailing of the vessel which was to carry 
him to Engla'id, aroused the wanderer, and at Liverpool, 
during the great revival there, he returned to the " Shepherd 
and liishop of Souls." 

llie other young man, between whom and Arthur Mc- 
Nutt there then began an eternal friendship, became pro- 
minent in business, political, and religious circles, and at a 
good old age of unusual beauty died at his native village. 
His father, a leading man at Wolfville, was an Episcopalian 
of liberal ideas ; his mother, like a number of other early 
converts of AVilliam Black in that section of the country, 
had embraced Calvinistic views; but their house was a home 
for visiting ministers of all names. The son, Thomas 
Andrew Strange Dewolf, was accustomed in later days to 
say that at twelve years of age he was a Christian, and that 
often at that period, w hen at prayer in some secluded spot 
ill the tields, heaven seemed very near. Once in particular 
it seemed that with him were the "spirits of just men made 
perfect," only hidden from him by a very thin veil. "That, 
brother," said Theodore Harding, of the Baptist Church 
to him one day when the long-attached friends were com- 
paring personal experiences, " was the communion of 
saints." The early days of the revival at Liverpool found 
him fond of gay society and lacking the comfort of religion, 
though he had not wholly thrown oti' its restraints. During 
the progress of the services he one day, in thoughtful mood, 
met Arthur IMcXutt, and the two, alike interested in a 
topic so engi'ossing as to exclude for weeks nearly all at- 
tention to secular liusiness in the community, talked with 








eacli other, niul on a certain evening knelt side by side at 
the communion railinj; of tiie Methodist church. Both 
obtained forgiveness of sins, united with the church under 
Busby's pastoral care, and both in the course of a few weeks 
became class leaders. ■' 

Najnes now familiar appear for the first time in the Min- 
utes of 1820. One was that of John Marshall, of Peter- 
borough, England, who in 1818 had been sent out to Tortola. 
His health having failed there, he sailed according to in- 
structions for Halifax, which place he reached in such 
weakness that he was unable to report at the district meet- 
ing at Liverpool. His first year of provincial life was 
spent as a supernumerary on the Jiorton and Windsor 
circuit. Another new laborer was Willian Temple, pre- 
viously intended for Newfoundland. Nearly all his relatives 
were Independents, but the salutary influences of a Metho- 
dist employers home predisposed him at conversior to a 
church home among that employer's friends. The " Chris- 
tian Community,"' a London organization for evangelistic 
and religious work upon an unsectarian basis, had 
for some years been in existence, and the life-service of a 
number of successful Wesleyan ministers and missionaries 
had been commenced under its aus|)ices. William Temple, 
in 1812, became a member of this society, of which for four 
years he was tiie secretary. Early in 181 (5, an intimate 
friend, Thomas Catterick, then under orders as a Wesleyan 
n)issionary for Nova Scotia, persuaded him to offer his 
services for the same field. The connnittee, regarding a 

3 Jo'ni liuniytat. the Kpiscdpul visiting' missionary, wrote in Xonciii- 
ber, IS'JO, to liisliop \uy([\s : "Tlif 'awakfiujig.'as it is tfrnictl by siiine, 
or 'eiiiotioii of ^'race ' Ity otlu-rs, wliicli arose at tlie time I was in Ijiver- 
I)()()l tliro\i.i:li tlie instrumentality of a l^aptist teaelier from the I'nited 
States, will liereafter form ai: im]Mprtant event in the history of the 
church of Nova Scotia, and at jiresent affords matter of curious specu- 
latiun in its hearing,' 'ipon the foundation of the mission about t(( be 
established there." William Twining,' was then about to ^n to T.ixerp' ol 
as Episcopal minister. 

I Oft 






lameness caused by accident in childhood as a disqualifi- 
cation for foreign service, doclin'id his offer but engaged 
him as an assistant in th(!ir otlice. A four years' service 
there, and the activity displayed by liim in the out-door 
duties connected with the frecjuent departure of mission- 
aries, led the Committee to I'econsider their decision, and to 
propose to him missionary work under their direction in 
the North American Provinces. Having accepted the 
proposition, he and Mrs. Temple landed late in the autumn 
of 1820 at 8t. John, wlience he at once proceeded to the 
assistance of Avard at Frederiction. 

During that Conference year two beloved ministers 
entered into rest. The first to depart was the venerable 
supernumerary, James ]Mann. In accordance with an oft- 
expressed wish to "cease at once to work and live," heaven's 
messengei- gave him brief warning. The winter of 1819-20 
was s>pent by him at St. John and (J rand Lake, whence in 
the spring he leturned to his favorite (juarters near Shel- 
burne. During the summer he was frequently unable to 
preach, but in the autumn he rallied a little. On December 
3rd, he preached an earnest sermon from Hosea viii. 12 — 
his last sermon - at IJarrington, where many years before 
Freeborn (Jarrettson, as the human agent, had called him 
into the ministry. Christmas-eve found him at North-East 
Harbor, his place of preaching on the following morning. 
On that morning he complained of pain in the left arm, but 
went on n. sled through the deep snow of the previous niglit 
to the dwelling selected for preaching, and at the close of 
the sermon performed the marriage ceremony. That after- 
noon the spirit broke away from the clay tal)ernacle. A 
grave had been opened at Cape Negro and Robert H. Crane 
had. preached a funeral sermon thei'e, when Robert Barry, 
who had hastened from Liverpool, ap})eared on the scene, to 
claim the body of the deceased minister for Shelburne. The 



e of 



corpse was then placed upon a sled and drawn towards its 
destination by young men. At various points on the route 
a halt was called, to give friends an opportunity to take, 
through the glass pane, a last look at the face so familiar. 
At Sholburnci the body, attended by six ministers of several 
denominations, was carried into the church, and was after- 
wards deposited as nearly beneath the pulpit as the rocky 
site would permit. 

The name of James Mann is worthy of a prominent place 
in the records of the; church he loved. Few of the early 
provincial pr(\ichers were better known than he ; few held 
a warmer plac(; in the hearts of the good and tiue. He was 
of large stature and dark com})lexion, preserving generally 
the old costume of " short clothes," and attending with 
scrupulous cai-e to the details of dress. Those who knew 
him well saw beneath an apparent sternness a tenderness 
which sti'ongly attached them to him. His letters to his 
young friend, Winthrop Sargent, show the aged man to 
have retained a young heart. He was not, there is good 
reason to believe, a bachelor to the last altogether by choice, 
as some have supposed. One "sweet, familiar face," that of 
a lady converted in New York dui'ing his brief ministry 
theie, is reported to have long haunted him at his studies 
and during his long and lonely walks. A determination to 
seek a nearer relation than ordinai-y friendship at length led 
liim to New York. Some persons who sailed with him 
divined his, aiul knew that he was too late, but left 
him to learn his fate from the lady's own lips. His brethren 
often smiled as they s})oke to each other about his unsuccess- 
ful ei-rand, but took good care not to mention it in his 
presence. From his first provincial home he could not tear 
liimself finally away. M :)re than once he bade its people 
farewell, and then found his way back. The attachment 
was mutual, and in families of all classes and denominations 
he was ever a welcomed guest. 






|ih :" 1 

Of the pioneer preachers of the Lower Provinces, James 
Mann was one of the most able. The American preachers 
showed their apprecifition of his talents when \\\ 17D1, the 
only year of his ministry in the land of his birth, they placed 
him in the city of New York as tin; colleague of such men as 
Thomas Morrell and Richard Whatcoat. The discourses of 
his later years an; said to have been " chaste, edifying and 
usually unimpassioned ;' sometimes upon th»love of Calvary, 
but more frequently upon the terrors of the law. As a pastor, 
his influence was of the highest character. " No frivolity 
or mirth," says Winthrop Sargent, ' could appear in his 
social intei'course, yet he was clieerful and hapjty. Exceed- 
ingly prudent and circumspect in all his associations with 
saints and siinu>rs, no speck of moral delinquency ever 
attached itself to his character." " Even the ungodly," 
wrote a minister who visited the southern coast a year or 
two after his decease, " would not allow an insinuation 
against his memory, but would fight for him." 

During his more active years, James Mann endured much 
hardship. The routes he travelled were generally passable 
only on foot. Long after he had ceased to frei[uent those 
paths, aged men deemed it .an honor that they had sometimes 
carried his saddle-bags. Some of his journeys involved much 
danger as well as fatigue. Ste})hen Humbert once accom- 
panied him on a visit to the Long Reach on the river St. 
John, when both narrowly escaped death in making their 
way from Major lirown's to an a})pointment at three miles' 
distance. As they left the shore, the storm burst upon them 
with great violence. While the snow blinded them, the 
wind carried them over the ice, at its pleasure, for two or 
three miles. At length, a slight lull permitted them to see 
the shore .and re.acii an uninhabited building. Having 
broken open the door, James Mann, who lost his in 
the unwilling race, covered Ins head and frost-l^itten face 





witli tlie contents of his pack, and tlien paced tlie floor at a 
vigorous rate till a clearer sky permitted them to find their 
way back to the hospital)le home they had left. Tliere the 
portly preacher, wearied out by his unusual speed, threw 
himself down and groaned till sleep came to liis relief. 
Still more imminent danger once threatened him on the 
road from Port Mouton to Liverpool, when he lost his 
way in the deep snow and wandered on until overtaken by 
night. Faint with fatigue, he sat down beneath a tree, with 
little hope of lieing able to endure the cold till morning. 
Fervent prayer, however, was at once followed by an impulse 
to " rise and go forward," which .seemed to electrify his whole 
system. His spirits revived and strength returned, and in 
the course of an hour or two he thankfully greeted his 
friends at Liverpool.* 

At the district roll-call of 1821 the name of Adam Clarke 
Avard received no personal response. His sun had gone 
down ere it was noon. In 1820 he had been removed from 
Annapolis to Fredericton, and about the .same time the 
Committee in London had selected him as their first mis- 
sionary to the Esfjuimaux near the Straits of Belle Isle. 
Repeated colds, caught during winter travelling, termi- 
nated in ]March in illness which so(jn ended in death. The 
day before death, his colh^ague. Temple, prayed that the 
sick man might once more be enaliled to testify of salvation. 
Awaking from stupoi*, he asked the {)urport of the prayer. 
"That," ho remarked slowly in reply, "is the blessing of 
eternity — of eternity ;" and soon after the elotjuent tongue 
lost its cuniiing. On the following Lord's-day a sermon 
suited to the occa.sion was [)r('ached by James Priestley, and 

< Thomas lilnyd, ;i iiiinisttT sent i.wt hy tlic SDcicty for tlic PidpaRa- 
tioii (tf tlic (IdsiH'l, perished in Kehruary, ITiT), iilmiit fourteen niih'H 
from ('hester, on his way to Windsor. He was accttmi)anie(l liy a ^nide, 
but a .storm of snow, hail, and rain olili^'-ed him to send the j^niith- l)ack 
to (/hester for assistance, whieh reached the spot many hours too late. 
The rescuers found tlm liody lifeless and frozen hard. 




then the Methodists of Frederiction in deep sorrow placed 
the body of the beloved younj:^ preacher beneath the pulpit 
of their church. Thence in 18158, on the traiisfei- of their 
property to others, they removed his dust and placed it 
beside the grave of Joseph Alexandei*. " A more useful 
preacher, perhaps, of his age," said William Temple, 
"America never saw." 

Several weeks in the autumn of 1821 were spent at 
Lunenburg by William Black, at the request of his brother 
ministers. Twice on each Lord's-day he preached in the 
neat little church which Orth had built almost wholly by 
his own efforts. For the benefit of hearers familiar only 
with the German language, the preacher repeated several 
of the visitor's sermons and concluded the services with a 
hymn and prayer in their own tongue. On one Sabbath 
morning Black administered the Lord's-supper to about one 
hundred communicants. Ten of these were residents of the 
town. There Orth had still to endure much opposition. 
Only a few months after Black's visit, when a " sorry 
liorse " had prevented William Temple, to his great dis- 
gust, from reaching the town in time for an appointment, 
a " wicked rabble " marched through the streets with a 
trumpet, to the annoyance of the disaj)pointed pastor and 
congregation. Several of these disappointed ones had 
come fifteen miles to meet the visiting preacher. "You 
will form some idea," wrote Black, " of the evident desire 
with which the people hunger after the W^ord of grace, 
when I inform you that men and even aged women would 
again and again, during the whole of my stay, cross rivers 
and, regardless of the badness of the roads, walk six or 
eight miles to the preaching and return the same evening, 
in some instances completely wet and weary." A single 
Sabbath was devoted to sermons at Petite Riviere, where 
in the small membership, included in a single class, the 
visitor found several persons "alive to God." 





From Shelliurne, Robert H. Crane, in 1821, reported 
success. Summoned from Yarmoutli for the purpose, he 
had preached a sermon on the death of James Mann, and 
in so doing had become the agent in leading into the path 
of life a young hearer in whom the deceased minister had 
taken a deep interest. Alexander Hood Cocken had been 
rendered thoughtful by letters received by liini during a 
fifteen months' stay in New Yoi'k by James Mann, but a 
deeper impression had be(Mi made upon him by the bearing 
of his clerical friend during a storm whicii threatened the 
destruction of a vess(>l in which they were fellow-passetigers. 
From McNutt's Island, hi^ crossed to the shore to take part 
in the burial of the aged minister. During that short 
absence, a turning-point was reached. Soon after, to the 
unconcealed surprise of some former friends, he sought 
membership in the Methodist Ciiurch, and to the end 
of a long life gave proof of satisfaction with his choice 
by generous support of the schemes of the church, intelli- 
gent .sympathy with her ministers, and useful service 
as a local preacher. Having been recjuested by the chair- 
man to remain at Shelburne, Crane had the satisfaction of 
receiving as members a number of young peoph; who had 
been led to serious thought by the sudden death of a gay 
girl. A few months latei-, Sampson Busby visited the 
place, and carried home the impression that he had never 
met with a " more sensible, humble, lively people." Jolin 
Sprott, of the Presbyterian Church, about the same time 
wrote to his friend, Duncan Mc(.'oll, tliat this "pleasing 
revival seemed to extend to Presbyterians, Methodists and 

Under the care of John Pope, sent to Shelburne in 
1822, the aspect of the circuit gave even brighter promise. 
At that very time, howev(>r, the Committee in London were 
making arrangements for the minister's removal to the 









West Indies. On receivinjj; an intimation to that ofFpct, 
he i-enionstratod as earnestly as a due ie<,'ard for constituted 
autliority would permit ; the circuit olHcials forwarded an 
appeal for his loni,'er stay in a place where he was so use- 
ful ; and William Temple, then at Livei-j)Ool, sustained their 
appeal most forcibly, but all was in vain. The decree was 
not chani,'(Hl, and to the work in the town, where the 
interior of the church had just been Hnished, as well as to 
that in the surrounding settlements, a lamentable check 
was given. A year later, the death of the excellent 
Elizabeth Hoose, sister of Robert liarjy, and a mother 
indeed in the Shelburne Israel, left a serious blank in 
religious circles in the old town. 

'i'he Iforton circuit, of which Windsor was then a part> 
was placed in charge of W^illiam Burt in 1810, It had 
grown in importance under the previous management of 
William Bennett and his young colleague, Alder. They 
had established regular apjiointments at Cornwallis, where 
Joseph Starr, a son of one of the early New England set- 
tlers, on the return home of a daughter who had become a 
Methodist in Halifax, liad invited them to preach at his 
own house at Starr's Point, and afterwards in an old dwell- 
ing from which he had removed the partitions for the accom- 
modation of the increasing congregations. Burt, during a 
three years' stay, established other appointments in the 
same township, and began the erection of a church, which 
was used until the dedication of a new and neat church in 
Canning in 18r)4. At Lower Horton, on the last Lord's- 
day in May, IS'Jl, a new church was opened, the old one 
having been drawn across the road to be converted into a 
parsonage. At Wolfville, then known as Upper Horton, 
he frequently preached in tlie dwelling of T. A. S. Dewolf, 
who sometimes assisted him as an exhorter ; and at Horton 
Coiner, as Kentville was called until 1820, he found the 

/.V 77/ a; iJtWiai /'A'or/.VfAX 


ig a 






to a 





fi'aine of ;i cliiuvh, wliicli, bofoi-c his rciiioNal, was 
foriiially ()|i(Mi('(l for worship. ( )f tii(> wliolc circuit, liOW(»r 
Morton was tlic head, ami to that plact*. in iSi'l, John 
Popo was sent as a colloagueof lUirt. At lloftoii. Wiljiaia 
Burt Popo, |). 1)., one of the most (listiiii,'uish(>(l th('ol(»(rians 
of the present day, and in l^^TT 7S pr«^sidellt of tiic liritish 
Wesleyan ('onf<'rei\ee, was l)orii and hapti/.cd. 

At Windsoi', during the earli(>r months of |Sl'"J, lUirt 
noticed amouLC interested listeners several students at Kings 
As they were desirous of a, coiaersat ion with 


him, an int(Mview took ])lace in a Held m^ar th(^ \illage. H(> 
found the young men deeply interested in the suhject of 
personal salvation, and anxious to attend his ministi'v, hut 
prohil)ited liy a college statute from presenc(^ at any 
religious services t»ut those of the l-'piscopal Church. " It is 
painful,' said tlu! chief speaker of the group, in reference 
to the preaching to which they were compelled to listen, 
'' to ha\<' to feed on husks when our souls desire the chil- 
(h'ens hread." ( )n tiood I'riday, Uurt again met them, and 
iield a long and interesting convei'sation with theii- leader, 
whom lu> regarded as a " xcry pious young man." The turn 
of the itinerant wheel a few weeks later, and Ihirt's remova] 
from the province, prevented him fi-om giving fuilher 
aid to tiiese young men, hut after some years had elapsed, 
he learned with much j)leasure of the piety of sonu' of their 


her, and in jiai'ticular of their lead(M-, .Mr. .M. 

In a letter in the Christ inn ritiiti>r in ISfii;, havid Nutter. 

time pastdr nf the Uaptist clnnvii at Windsor, tin 

l)<)nt that 

(iws siiMie 


l)se(|uent histoi'V of at least one of these youn;,' men jiroliaiily the 

>u the 




n oiii' season," says the writer, "the iiiHueiu-e of the tiMith 

extended to the collefje. Several of the students werv- ileeply impressed, 
and olitained hope in Christ. Anion^'st the nuiulier was oui- much- 

heloved and lamented Frederick Milt 

These \dinm' men hud i 

nection with u 

ley used to come to our meeIln^^s, oci';isionallv ( 

io enn- 


Sunday eveniuKsand at other times, hut I think it was like Nicodennis, hy 
stealth. ■■ Frederick Miles, i>. A., Iw-came a hi^'hly estccnied minister of 
the liaptist Church in New Brunswii'k. 






V m 




Tlu> first iniiiistor statioiuul ;it Wiiulsoi-, wliidi in 1S22 
became the head of a circuit, was (leori^t^ .lavksdii. On his 
arrival at St. Joliii from th(^ West Indies diirin<,' the pre- 
vious autumn, he liad ^(one \o Cumberland, \vhei«- Im re- 
mained throui^hout the winter. Dindnutive in stature, he 
was not surpassed by'any of his prosinciai t'eilow l;ilioi-ers 
in intellectual power. Soon after his ai-ri\al at Windsor 
he sent to the press a series of letters entitled, " An Hum- 
ble Atttuiipt to Substantiate the Ii"L,dtimacy of Infant 
Baptism, and of Sprinklini^ as a Scriptural mode." These 
letters, issued in a pamphlet of eii;lit and twenty lari,'e and 
closely printed pa,i,'es, wei'e wi'itteu at Sackville and ad- 
dressed to Priestley, the chairman of the district, at whose 
instance they were written. A pamphlet on the same sub- 
ject by |)uncai\ Ross, a Presbyterian minister at Pictou, 
had appeared in lSll,and had been followed by a bulky 
volume from the }»en of dames Munro, l^resbyteriau pastor 
at Antigonish. The })urpose of these writers, like that 
of Jackson, had been defence and not attack. " The 
advocates of the immersion theory," said Jackson in his 
preface, " have refused to gi\'e us credit even for sincerity ; 
and because we do not preach a 'baptizing sermon' on the 
occasion of each infant bapti/.ed it is very generally re- 
marked by them that we know our practice cannot ])e 
justiHed by the Scriptures and, therefore, we choose to pass 
on in silence. Thus the very peace of our nussionaries has 
been urged as an ai-gument against their proceedings, and 
they have been branded with an inconsistency which I liope 
they abhor. Tn addition to these things, a succession of 
covert attacks — chiefly in fannly and private conversations 
with the members of our societies, and by the lending of books 
on the point in controversy between them and us — have 
been incess; 

itly repeate 




1 indi 



I m 

/.v TiiE i.nwFJ! rnnvfxcEs. 



(feori,'t> JMrksoii's p,iin])Iil('t called forth aJi (virly reply 
from t\v(» (|iiirt('rs. ( >f tlir iirndiictioii <»f "a iiiceliaiiic of 
New llniiisw ic|< " lie t'lok no iioticr, ln'caiise of its "scur- 
rility aiid inr|c\-ii,cv to the ,sul)iect in dispute;" l.ut to 
William Mldrr's *• Infant Sprinkling wriLflifd in the 1)h1- 
anct's and found uantiuLC Iw rrjilicd in ;i second series 
of letters, wliieh tilled a \«tlum(' of two hundred ]>aL.M*s, 
entitled, " A {'"urtliei Attempt to sul)st!intiati' the legit- 
imacy of lnf;int {'ajitism. etc. Of the contro\«-rsy thus 
continued few details must here he L(i\en. .Many pens, 
\vi<d(led hy men of no mean -^kill. were wnrn out in tlu; 
cont(>st. In it I', l-lpisci-palian and .Methodist 
on tlie one side and r)!ij)tiston tlu' other took part with 
pen or \(iice through a hmi,' series of years, while numy 
persons who were searrejv caj)ahle of compreheiidinL; clearly 
all the points at issue, IIuiil;' aliout them uid)rotherly 
epithets with a freedom sometinu-s shameful.'' In a certain 
Nova Scotia villai,'e, when a l'.a[»tist aiul a Methodist min- 
ister had closed a discussion on haptism, the schoohhoys of 
the place undertook to decide the (|Uestion for themselves 
hy a tii,dit with snow lialls I 

Some \('ry ijood people, sick at heart of the constant din 
of clashing; ecclesiastii-al wcajxms, lia\(' wearily asked 
whether the opinions of a single indi\idual ha\(' e\er heeii 
aflected hy these unwelcoine contests. In relation to .lack- 
sou's eontrihutions to this class of litcratui'c an atllrmativo 
answer may readily l»e ^ivi-n. They led to a most dei-ided 
change in the vi(>ws of one at least of their readers - that 
one the minister who had h.tstened into the lists as an 
opponent of their author. William Mlder, a inemlier of a 

'• 'riic |iriiR'i|iiil writers (III the r>;i|iti>t -idc were Ivliimnil .\. ('rawlrv, 
Charles Tmi'!"''' '""' Alcxainier ( 'r.iwfnrfl. .\iiinii^ iiiiiiisteis eii the 
f)tlier side were Mutthew Kiiliey. MetiiiHlist ; I. W. I ). (Ir,i\ and .lainc.- 
lidherlsou, l']|(isc(i[)aHa)i : and William Seiiu i\ ille. nf the lit^fenned 




Pi'c^sbytcriiiti family which had rcinov*^! from the north of 
Ireland to Kahnouth, N.S., had at his con version Itecome a 
memher <»f the llaptist Church, and later a much esteemed 
minis*^erof th/it hody. ( )n a cahn review of his own |iam- 
pldet in I'eply to that of Jackson, he h(>(;auie convinced that 
some of tho arguments advanced liy himself were " incon- 
clusivo. " Then came (htuhts resjtectinL,' the ,i,'eneral correct- 
jiess of the vi«!ws he had for years l)een settini^ forth, and 
as thes(Mh)uhts increased in force his mind remained in a 
" lluctuatin<^ state." At h'ni,'th, (hirintj; the wintei' of I s:}.")- 
.'51, lieiu'aNc tlie subject careful thouL(ht, and thus liecame 
clearly convinced that lie could no loni^'ei- "conscientiously 
continue to l)a|>ti/,o per'sons l)y immersion who had previ- 
ously lieen l)apti/,ed by sprinklinL;; or jioui'inj,'.' ' Hiscon- 
if|'(>L;ation at I)rid;,'etown, as soon as he had informed them 
of his changed views, sununoned a "council of advice." On 
appearint,' l)(;fur(i his hrethren, he asked to he treated l)y 
them as a council of Con<^rf^'ational miriisteis had treated 
Dr. Oliapin, when on his adoption of Uaptist principles, 
tluiy <,'ave him a regulac dismission from their own hody and 
a I'ecommendation to tlui ministei's of the I'aptist Associa 
tion. His l)retln'en, liowcver, met this i-easonal)le I'ccjuest 
by a prompt denial, with tlie explanatory statement that the 
cases w(!re by no means parallel, I >i'. ('haj)in having 
renounced ej-ror for truth, whereas Mr. I'^lder was <fuilty of 
abandonment of the truth lla\ini; failed in edbrt to con- 
vince! their pastor of his "erior," the members of tlie church 
at iiridifetown accepted tlu? advice of the council, ami 
excluded him from further " fellowship " with them ; and to 
this action the nuMnbers of the next Association saw tit to 
j^ive a unanimous appi'oval. Acceptance of an otVer of the 
services of the (excluded minister havinuj been regretfully 

^ Sec [ircfiH't' to KIdcr's " IJc-isdUs for rfliii(|iiisliiii<4' tlic pi'iju'iiilcs of 
Adult iJaptisiu and embracing thuse of Infant Baptism." 

IS' run Law Eli ri!()V!X('HS. 

doclincd hy tli(! Methodist ininist(!rs of the district, in eon 
secjuenec; of restrictions imposed by the KnLjlish Cyoiniiiittpe, 
he took i-h!iri;e for Ji year of the Coiij^regiitioiiJiI ehureh at 
Liverpool, and at a lat<!r period entered the ministry o*' the 
episcopal (!hurch, in eommunion with which as the tii-st 
minister at Sychiey Mines, Capo JJreton, he died after somo 
years of faithful service. 

At (Juyshoro' and in its nei<j;hl)orhoo(i, Artljur McXutt 
may at this period Ik^ said to have l)ei,am iiis Ion;,' itiiKM-ant 
service. \\ ith reconxcrsion eai-lier conxictions of duty had 
returned in force. Prevented l>y linancial endiarrassment 
from ^'oin,<; forth as a fully authorized minister, he sub- 
mitted to l»e led 11 l,y slow and short ste])s. A xisit in 
the autumn of \^1\ to tiie eastern pait of tin' province, 
durin*,' which he held relii,qous meetings at sev(!ral .settle- 
ments on tli(! coast, was ])i'onipted by busine.s.s, but a second, 
which took him to the head of Chedabucto IJay, was wholly 
evan.t;elistic in pur])ose. No Methodist minister had l)cen 
st^nt there after the removal of Armstron<; in 1817, and 
lack of pastoial care had interfered with the permanence of 
the revivals wliich had taken place durinf,' the presence of 
that minister and his predeces.sors. A faithful few had, 
nevertheless, continued to hold occasional services in several 
dwellings; and in 1819, a small church had been built at 
Cook's (Jove, near which several oNIethodist families named 
Cook long resided. In 1821, the little band of believers 
was strengthened by the arrival of Charlotte Ann Newton, 
a d(!vout woman who had for years enjoyed the rare Chris- 
tian influence of a home with her uncle, Joshua Newton, of 
Liverpool. The announcement, early in 1822, of Arthur 
McNutt's arrival cheered tliem .still more. Numerous meet- 
ings were held with such results that the young man re- 
turned to Halifax to represent the spiritual need of the 
district to the assembled ministers. They heard his state 





■y ffi:i 

ments, exanuned him in reference to his doctrinal views, 
and, having given him a local pr-eaciier's standing, sent him 
back to watch over the work and extend it. There were 
fields nioi'(! attractivi! to a young man just putting on the 
harness, l)ut, cheered by his seniors, and in particular by 
the kind interest taken in his })rogress by William l>]aok, 
he returned to ()!uysi)oro' to prosecute for two years a 
mission which often tried his energies to the utmost. Two 
weeks out of six were spent at Guysl>oro' ; the remaining 
four weeks were devoted to journeys, generally on foot, 
along the shore between CJuysboi'o' and Canso. When 
health had yielded in some measuie, William ^lurray, just 
accepted as an itinerant on trial, was appointed in his place. 
About the same time, Albert Desbi-isay also entered upon 
his itinerant life. When his friend Avard and he had met 
at the district meeting of 1818, Avard had urged him to 
become an itinerant preacher, but he then seemed to have 
little idea of ministerial labor excerpt in a local sphere. At 
the annual meeting of X^'l'l, however, as if in the room of the 
dead, he asked a place an\ong the ministers and went with 
Priestley to the Cumberland and Petitcodiac circuit. JUit 
few preacheis were then to be found in that section of the 
country. Betw^^en Sackville and Sussex there was no Kpis- 
copai minister. Tn the settlements along the banks of the 
Petitcodiac, William l>lack had made some early and suc- 
cessful essavs in Christian work : but duriuL; the long 
absences of himself and his few helpers, others had entered 
into his labors. Alline's successors had taken part of the 
ground, and in IT'.tS, Theodore liai'ding, strong in the influ- 
ence of an extensive re\ival at Horton and Cornwallis, had 
gone thither and gathered a number of "Newliijhts" into 
Baptist fellowship. An annual visit was all that the Meth- 
odist preacher at Cumberland was able to pay the people 
scattered over this distant section of his charge ; and it is 



al views, 
sent him 
3 re were 
,' on the 
icular by 
n Black, 

years a 
;t. Two 
on foot, 
i-ay, just 
is place, 
ed upon 
bad met 

liiia to 
to have 
i-e. At 
n of the 
nt with 
:. iiut 

of the 
o Epis- 

of the 
id suc- 
e loni; 

of the 

e influ- 

is, had 


i it is 

not pr()l)al)lo that the adherents of other denominations 
received any uicator amount of pastoral oversight. Ueor<'e 
Jackson, after a visit tlierc in the spring of 1Sl'2, gave the 
Missionary Connnittee a sad picture of the moral condition 
of the majority of the iidiabitants. Some wlio had been 
members of ^Methodist societies before their removal thither, 
and many of the children of these, were being " abandoned 
to neglect.' The people, he reported, liad become "quarrel- 
some and litigious to a proverb — .so much so that the courts 
of the county wei-e generally protracted to an unusual 
length by cas(\s of assault from that neighborhood." Here 
and there, ne\ertheless, the visitor found p(;rsons who, with 
Wdliam < 'hapmaii, a nephew of William Black, had been 
"faithful among the faithless." A part of these had lived 
in the district for many years ; a few others were English 
Methodist emigrants who, on their passage in the Trafahjar 
in 1S17, had suflered shipwreck at the mouth of the Bay of 
Eundy. These new settlers felt deeply the spiritual desti- 
tution of the counti-y, and through their representations, 
added to the appeals of William Chapman and other earlier 
residents, Petitcodiac was placed upon the Minutes of 1822 
as a pai-t of the Cumberland circuit, to be cared for by 
Albert Desbrisay. Thence he was transferred duiinsr the 
following sunnner to anotlun- branch of the old Cumberland 
circuit, known as " Parrsborough and Maccan." Robert 
H. Crane, his only predeces.sor in that particular district, 
had left a church in course of erection near Parrsboio', 
another nearly finished at Maccan, and a society of twenty- 
seven members. Thiougiiout the circuit, in which Nappan 
was included, an Ei)iscopal ininisfer was the only other 
resident pastor. An extensive revival during the early 
months of 1824 led to the foi-mation of new classes at Mac- 
can, Parrsboro' and Nai)pan. At Amherst there was 
then neither Methodist church building nor oi-ganized 



Several circuits were at this time favored with visits by 
John I5aker, a youn*,' Kn,<,'lish missionary, whom service in 
Western AtVica and the West Indies had obliged to leave 
St. Vincent in 1822 for the British American Provinces, 
After some months' stay in these he went to the United 
States and sailed from Boston for England, but at Sable 
Island the vessel went ashore. The rudder and .some of 
the nearest timbers liad been torn off, and the passengers 
had been expecting speedy destruction, when the vessel, 
unusually strong, righted and drifted off the shoals. At 
the end of twelve weary, wintry days on the floating wreck, 
and after the young n)inister had been twice washed from 
the rigging, a passing vessel took ofl' the ship's company and 
landed them at Lixerpool. During the subsequent five 
months he remained in that part of Nova Scotia, rendering 
important assistance to William Temple at Liverpool, and 
also to his neighbor, Oi-th, at Lunenburg. In July he 
sailed from Port Med way for England, accompanied by a 
young lady from Mill Village, who had consented to share 
his future lot.** 

This minister, while at St. John, became the agent in the 
conversion of a youth greatly beloved in Provincial Metiio- 
dist circles in subsequent years. James Gilbert Hennigar 
had been thoughtful as a child. When John Baker found 
a temporary home under his father's roof, the son was pre- 
paring to take a situation near his father, on the civil staff of 
the engineer department. The ministerial guest, frank, open 
and well-infoi'ined, won the attention of the youth, and thus 
prepared him to listen to counsels till that time unheeded. 
The voice which said, "Thy sins be forgiven thee," soon 
whispered, "(io, work in My vineyard." Just then the 

•* Aftor tilt' (Iciitli (if .lolin Bilker, many years later, in an Knglisli cir- 
cuit, his family came to Nuva Scotia. One of liis daiiji^liters liecame tlie 
wife of the late (J.N. A. F. '!'. Dickson, and a second that of .Fohii 
Waki'tield, hoth esteemed Methodist ministers inOntarii-. 



fatlior obtained a coveted place for Jiis son, l)ut throu-h tlie 
influence of a Cluistian wife he yielded to the sons convic- 
tion of duty, with a request tiiat he should not be sent to 
preach without some further preparation. Jn view of this, 
he placed him und(;r the care of James Priestley, then at 
St. John, but such at the time were the exigencies of the 
work that at the district meeting of 1824 the'ministers sent 
young Uennigar to Sheffield, as the successor there of his 
cousin, Thomas H. Davies. 

Thomas H. Davies had gone from Annapolis to St. John 
an attached adherent of the Cliurch of England. A piou« 
aunt adn.ired his blameless life, but regretted his ignorance 
of vital godliness. Her conversations with liim removed 
some of his prejudices, and the reading of a little book led 
him to seek forgiveness of sin. During his searcJi for li<.ht 
he received such assistance from the sermons lie heard'on 
Sunday evenings in the Germain-street Methodist church 
tliat lie judged it his duty to unite in membership with true 
worshippers there. A little later he became involved in a 
severe mental conilict respecting a call to the ministry 
i^reed, howcNcr, in a providential way from obligations 
whicii might have blocked his path to the pulpit, he set 
himself to preparation for his life-work. Early preposses- 
sions led huu toward the Episcopal Church, but in that 
direction he theii saw no open door ; and when at a later 
date one was presented, he had learned to regard a Meth- 
odist preacher's position as " more honorable than that of a 
bishop elsewhere." The removal to the AVest Indies of 
John Pope and Thomas Payne, who took farewell of their 
brethren at the Mnnual meeting of 1823, having rendered 
•special measures for the supply of vacant circuits an im- 
mediate necessity, he was sent as a local preacher to Shef- 
held, where ]u> commenced a long and iionorable service 
"iiere.n is that saying true, one soweth and another 



: i 

reapctli." Such was the message sent to Thornas H. Davies 
by James (J. Tfeiuiigai- soon at'tei- the an'ival of the latter 
at Shcflicld. To Davies tlie yeai- at ^liefHekl had been one 
of much mental conflict, weak health and lack of visible 
success having led him sonietitnes to (juestion the wisdom 
of his course. I)Ut such years, like those of much V)rig]iter 
aspect, have an k'^wiX ; and one Sunday evening the discour- 
aged young preacher gave a farewell sermon at Sheffield, 
and at dawn of the next day left that place for Wallace. 
Through that farewell address the accumulating influences 
of months of preaching and piayer seen)ed in ])art to find 
developn)ent. One Sunday mo»-ning in June, ii^24, James 
(t. Heiniigar stejiped on shoie at ShetHeld fi'om a small 
vessel, and in the afternoon began his ministry there. In 
a field " white unto harvest " many sheaves were soon 
gathered, o\f'r which sower and reaper rejoiced together. 
Among thosi! who then placed tliemselves under pastoi'al 
caie was AN'iliiam Harrison, who a year or two later entered 
the ^Methodist itineiancy, from which, after short service, 
he retii'ed on the giound of ill-health, to (ind from subse- 
quent wanderings a long icst in a foi'ty years' rectoiship of 
of St. Luke's Kpiscopal church, Portland, N. B. 

At the animal meeting of 1824, the ollice of chairman 
passed fj-om James Pi-iestley to Stephen Bamford. The 
connection of the cause of this transfei- with the liistory of 
the St. John cii'cuit foi-bids absolute silence respecting it, 
while justice at the snnie time demands that it should be 
looked upon in the light f)f other dnys. At a time when 
the absence of intoxicating beveiages in any home was a 
confession of pov(M"ty or an insult to a guest, and the refusal 
to take them was an aflront to the host, a terrible danger 
thi-eatened him in whose constitution there lay dormant 
any inherited thirst for stimulants. For such a man there 
was no middle course between an unceasing light with a 



universal and a rapid advance to laiin." To this class 
belo.iy.Ml the .i,^enial, eloquent Priestley. .Mistaken friends 
aided him downward; a few tiuo friends saw his danger 
and admonished him, hut only when a pleasant habit had 
beconn.' a vih; tyrant.'" 

Rarely liavc; men in the dischai-ge of duty found them- 
selves in a more unenviable position than that occupied by 
the ministers wlio met at St. John for disciplinary action 
in this painful case. The popularity of the erring pastor, 
whom one of these ministers, nearly fifty years later, de! 
scribed as the speaker "most worthy of imitation " of all 
whom he h;uj known in I'ngland and the colonies; a wide- 
spread public belief in his innocence ; and the sympathy 
called forth by the illness and death of his wife, which 
caused a biief postjH.nement of the trial, rendered the dis- 
charge of duty most diliicult. They were, hooted in the 
streets, scurril.jus notes were addressed to them, their names 
appeared on placards at the street corners, and a once 
prominent .Methodist rushed into the press to fan the flames. 
To such a pitch, accoi-ding to a young minister of that day, 
was public feeling wrought, that evening while a sermon 
was being preached, a pistol shot was fired through a 
window of the old ( Jermain stre<-t church. Thus sustained 
by public sympathy and misled by popular applause, the 
erring ministei- refused to admit his amenability to the 

nf fh" ',V"'';i'f VT' 'i" ^'"' '''"-''''"" •■'■^'■'"'■. l>;tvi.l Nutter, u i-atriardi 
of th.. hapti.t (Innd, wrut,., a f, w y-ars ago, r..s,H.ctinK n i, is .rs• 
^V hat a u.m.l.r u,. .Ij.i „„t all luruuH. .Inu,ka;.ls: ' f lunk Id , '^i' 
tlietnn,.tat,on. through ui,al, I ami otlaTs hav. ,.a>s.,l uith aslnuM!'':" 

;"_I)iiu as iiiay have l,.....n tl,,. li;;l,t ,,f utlirr ,iavs, tl„. course i.ursu.vl l,v 

tile liquor rv,l ua.s cone.TUr.l a uivsr.rv. At the Vn^^urW\,\\^^\^^ ot iSlS, ,t was aske.i, not without snuu- n J> ^ '' Shi ' J i t 
uous hquors he n. -eneral use anion- the pn^a.•h,.^sv- an 1 t e l , . 
K.jKl.slnnen, „Mhe face of U'^sley's en,pha,i|. rule ou 'thJ^" 1 e^tf^.n ^ 
l.lacr.l Ml their .M mules the .vasue answer: '■ lr is n.qiu.sted t uit .-v rv 
preacher give attention to this .lue.stion, that no otfencJ be .^ven." ^ 




special meeting, and by his own action severed his connec- 
tion with the ministry of .Methodism. His former brethren 
had therefore to remove Alder from Windsor to >St. John, 
and make the earliest possible report of their action to the 
Comniittee in London. 

The opponents of Methodism in 8t. John were not slow 
in predicting from the housetops her total extinction in that 
city; and to some of her friends the prediction seemed not 
unlikely of fullilment. Not more than twenty persons 
listened to Uamford's sermon in the Germain-street church 
on the Sunday morning following the oliicial meeting, while 
crowds awaited Priestley's appearance at a lai-ge brick 
building secured for his use. Numbers also approached the 
latter preacher with otiers of tinancial assistance. Among 
these were some conscientious persons who could not be per- 
suaded of the justice of the charges preferred against a 
minister so genei-ally este^ nied ; there were also some Irish 
Primitive Wesleyniis, or " Clonites," who had been but a 
short time in the city ; and rallying around the same stand- 
ard — sad omen — were a large number of persons making no 
pretensions to religion, some of them even notorious for 
inteiiiperate habits. By this combination, poi)ular]y known 
as the " United Primitive Methodists,' a large brick build- 
ing, long called the " Asylum Chapel," was commenced in 
August, and pushed on with such vigor that early in Decem- 
ber, 1824, it was opened with the usual ceremonies for 
public worship. 

The existence of a congregation formed under such 
auspices and composed of such elements was naturally 
brief. Even before the occupation of the new building, 
evidenc;; . f the power of an unwelcome conviction and of a 
declit' ' .forest was observed. In the meantime, too, the 
eloqi. ■ ct Alder, a previously popular minister at 
St. John, hid i^oved a counter attraction. Early in 



Novemhor, 1821:, in roply to somo uufouiuled statomonts 
sent foi'tli tlu'ou^jfh a city })ai)oi-, t!i<> otiicial l)oard of the 
church issued a cii'cuhir. Throuyli this niodiuin they 
inforiiKKl their friends that liut one of the circuit orticials 
had al);uidoned Ins post ; tliat eiLjhtv i^ood niemhers, livincr 
in thot'ouf,di harmony, were in their society ; and that on 
the previous two Sunday evenings nearly six lumdred 
hearers liad listened to the sermons of their })astor. This 
circular, owing to the extent of the misrepresentations 
made, was followed by the puhlication, in P'ebruary, 1825, 
of a more elaborate statement from the pen of Alder, 
which, on tlie eve of its ])assage through the press, received 
as a postscript a copy of a note addressed to the preacher at 
the "Asylum Chapel," forbidding him to conduct any 
further services in that building, and bearing the signature 
of the person who had defended him in the legislatui-e, and 
had circulated the statements wliich had i-endered Alder's 
" Defence " a necessity. 

A part of those who had wavered l)etween adherence to the 
church of tlieir childhood or ado})tion and thcur i-egard for a 
favorite pi-eacher soon found theii- way back to former asso- 
ciates ; but of the many wlio had openly espoused the side 
of the erring minister few ever again availed themselves of 
the privileges of church-membership. A larger number 
became outer-court worshippers. The unfortunate man 
wlio had caused the strife applied in vain to the British 
Conference for reinstatement. After the lapse of some 
years, during which he had been practising at a distance as 
a physician, he appeared in Montreal at the time of a dis- 
trict meeting. The assend)led ministers, charmed by his 
bearing and encouraged by his assurances of reformation, 
gave him a cordial greeting, and permitted him, at Matthew 
Hichey s solicitation, to preach dui-jng their session. Tlie 
congregation heard him and urged his appointment to their 




I ' H- 

j ulpit, the (l(>k'<^;itfi fi'oiii l^'iij^flaiid proiiiisod a favorable 
represontation of liis casc! to tlie Dritish Conference, and 
everything seemed to iiidicate a reinstatement in liisfonner 
position, when the ohl liahit, aided hy the presence of temp- 
tation on a hot d;iy on a St. I^uwrence steamer, reasserted 
its power- ;ind lutldessly trampled tlie eloquent preacher 
under its feet. 

I'he pulpit of the " Asylum Chapel " had many subse- 
(juent occupants. A INIr. West was, for a few months, a 
sort of idol tliei'e, but at the end of that time his congrega- 
tion called liim bittei' names and (juarrelled among them- 
selves, till one ev(>ning constables were called in to preserve 
order. An Irish Primitive \Vesley;iii, invited to occupy the 
pulpit, neai'ly took the property out of the hands of the 
trustees, who f>idy learned the wily preacher's plans in time 
to thwart them. In 1 S.'')0, William W. Ashley, previously 
of Liverpool and Yarnmuth, occupied it, as he informed his 
fi-iend Arthur INIcNutt, for " the purpose of establishing the 
ancient order of things," according to the formula of Alex- 
ander Campbell. At a later period, Episcopalian services 
were held for a time on Sabbath evenings in the same 
l)uilding ; Williaiu T. Wishart, a Presbyterian minister, 
also preached in it ; and in 1849-50, it was used by Dr. 
Burns and the FrtM' Church congregation under his pastoral 
care. At length "St, Stephen's Hall," as it had been 
named by its Presbyterian owners, was sold, and the pro- 
ceeds used in the erection of St. Stephen's church ; and the 
place having lost altogetlier its ecclesiastical ch?"acter, be- 
came familiar to the public as the " Medical Hall. ' 

During a part of the period under review three ministers 
were stationed on Pi'ince Edwai'd Island. P>urt and Jack- 
son, on their \xn\ thither in 1823, w^ej-e accompanied by 
John Pope, about to leave for tlie West Indies. Unable to 
find a vessel at Uaie Verte, they hired two men to take them 

/.V 77/ A' LoWKli rUoVLXCKS. 


;iloii«( the sliort! in a hoat. A,uiiin disMppointed, tlirou.i^li the 
non-aii'lsal at C.'apo ToriiMMitiiic of an cxfjeetccl V('ss<'l, tliey 
resohod to cross the Straits in the same llat-bottomcd hoat. 
At a short distance from the shore the sea proved roii<di 
hut \ lien midway, tlie hoatinen lieeame helpless lhroni,di 
fear, and the ministers, in serious doultt whetliei' thev shoiihl 
ever reach tlie shore, iiad to take soh; char«;e of the frail 
craft. At len,<,'th they succeeded in reachin-r Cnpe Traverse, 
and thence they found their way to liedeipie on horses. 

AtChai-lottetownand th(^ adjacent settlements Hurt found 
a memhership of seventy-eioht persons, .s(> of whom, 
suhsecpiently standard-bearers, had hut recently arrived 
from Enoland. Tlie memhei-s outside of the town wei'e at 
Lots 48 and 49, and Little Yf)rk and Cornwall. Pastoral 
duties and the er-ection of a parsonage, for wliich his prede- 
cessor, Bamford, had made preparation, allowed him few 
idle moments. Success, however, soon made labor seem 
light. At Little York, where sonui Yorkshire villagers had 
found a home, a revival led a numljer into society, and a 
few mouths later resulted in the building of a new church. 
Several, who at Charlottetown then also first apprehended 
Christ as a personal Saviour, were long associated with 
Methodism in Pi-ince Edwaixl Island, while others were 
trained for useful service in spheres far distant. A call 
from an P:nglish IVrethodist, employed at ('aml)ridge's ship- 
yard at Souris, led Hurt to that place in 1824. The good 
man had fc^t so grieved over the absence of i-eh'gious ser- 
vices in that part of the island that he had walked to the 
capital, a distance of sixty miles or more, becoming so 
crippled by the journey, that for several days he was unable 
to return. As soon as the winter travelling would permit, 
Burt set off for Souris, accompanied by a gentleman who 
had volunteered as guide. At the head of Souris harbor 
they called at the home of a Mt-thodist brother whose wife 


msTonv OF metuodism 

liad poi'sistcntly op[)()Sf'(l his i-cli^ious opinions aiul [)i'<actic('s. 
Th«? wife, wlio was nursini^ an appai'ontly dyinrr child, j^ave 
thd visitors a cool i-cci^ption ; hut words of synij)athy and a 
praycf odcrcd for niothci' and chihi soon and forover dis- 
pelhul tlio evident prcjudict;. The chihl at once l)('i,'an to 
improve, and the mother, seeini,' in this t'aet an answer to 
the pr.'iyer of th(! nnw«'lconied pi-eaeher, ceased, to the ;^i-eat 
Joy of lier husband, to show any further ojtposition. At 
Soui'is he found several persons who had anxiously awaited 
the arrival of a mimster; and with these and their neijjjhbors 
he spent nearly a foi'tni<j;ht in preachini,', visitini,', l)aj)ti/in;,' 
their children, and forming a class. On the evening of 
Christmas, IS'il, an auxiliary missionary soci(!ty was organized 
at Charlottetown. Williiim Pope, Ks(|., liigh sjierifl', was 
chairman, and other sj)ealvers were the ministei's — hurt and 
Jackson, with Cecil W. Townshend, (J. iJinns, l^^sq., and 
Isaac Smith. So successfully was the work of this auxiliary 
carried on that for tlie yeai- ending in May, 1S27, a larg(M' 
sum was reported for missions from Chai-lottetown tiian from 
any circuit in No\a Scotia or New Brunswick, St. John 
alone excepted. 

For some time (ieorge Jackson met with little to cheer 
iiim on the liedeijue circuit, but during his last year of 
i-esidence he was permitted to see at some settlements sucli 
results as might have been expected fi"om his able and 
judicious ministry. From Tryon, in ISl'C), he was able to 
report a large increase in the congregation ; and at 
Crapaud, wliich [)lace he had almost determined to aban- 
don, the spirit of incjuiry and healing had spread, tlui con- 
gregations had become large and deeply attentive, and a 
site for a church had been promised. In 1824, Robert H. 
Crane succeeded J(jhn Snowball at Muriay Harboi-. Of 
the two classes there, one was conducti'd in the French 
language ; there was also a small English class at Three 

/.v 77/ A' /jny/'Jh' i'ii()VL\ci:s. 


Tlic ;;ro\vth of the mt'inboi'slii}) ot' Mt'tlKjdism in tlm 
Maritiiiiu Provinces tlurinj^ the twchc^ yoacs, ciKliii;:; in 
1S'J(), was fihout one tliousand. Towards tlic end of this 
pci'iod an unusual nuudtcr of losses had hecn raused hy 
renio\als. Tht! reaction which fcjllovved the c-lose of the war in 
ISl.") was heini,^ se\-ei'ely felt in all (jua iters. An unj»!'0- 
ced(uito(l activity in business had Ix'cn caused hy the con- 
flict. .Money was alnindant, ami pi'oduce of all kinds was 
sold at exofhitant prices. Iv\tiava<j;anct^, especially in the. 
use of intoxicating li(|Uors, had l»een chei'ished to an extent 
passing present lielief. The inevilal)le conse([uence of the 
cessation of the sources of an artificial prosperity, and of the 
extra\agant hahits induc(!d hy tlu^ temporary intlation 
of husiness, was a I'caction producing an almost universal 
gloom. Under its influence, some families from the farming 
districts were attractiid to Upper (.'aiiada, whither many 
had gone during years preced ng the war, but the general 
decline in business led larger numbers from the towns and 
villages to other British colonies or to the United States. 

In not a few cases the local losses to provincial churches 
proved a gain to weak societies cdsewhere. At St. Eusta- 
tius, a speck on the Carribean Sea, a negro slave, converted 
in America, had introduced the Gospel with much success 
among his fellow Africans, when the slave-owjiers became 
bitterly opposed to liim. In no West India inland was a 
warmer welcome extended to Coke by Clu-istian Negroes ; in 
none did l*e meet with a more hostile reception than from 
the Dutch governor and authorities. In spite of the relent- 
less cruelty and banishment inflicted upon the heroic coloi-ed 
leader, known in INlethodist histoiy as " Black Harry of 
St. Eustatius," and the passage of a law enacting the inflic- 
tion of thirty-nine lashes on any colored man found [)raying, 
large numbers of slaves became converts ; but so late as in 

1821, though the storm of persecution had passed ovoi', no 


It • 

1: I 










whiter resident li.-ul l)('('(»nit' .-i, Mjitlindist. \\\ tli;it ycnr a 
youiii^ wiiitc man, adistant rclutivt* of the tKiincr tyniuiiical 
governor, led tlio way, soon to Ix' followi'd liy hkmi of |iositioM 
and intlut'iicc. This t'lian,if<; was tlic result of the removal to 
the island of a family fi'om Halifax, (he mothei- of which, 
familial" with the ministry of William iJlai-k and his (;ol 
l«}a<^iies, had proved faithful thrcni^h all vicissitudes to her 
(iod and to hm- reliijious convictions. Tln'ou^di intimacy 
with this Provincial family, the youni,' man had formed an 
undcsired ac(|uaintance with iho W'esleyan missionary to 
the island. Convei'ted throu,i(h Methodist ai^ency, In; l)roke 
throu.ii;h social barriei-s and i^ave himself to the Methodist 
Chui'ch. Having enteied the service of the (Committee in 
London, and later, that of the American Methodist (Jhurch, 
lie preached the (lo.spel in the West Indies, among the 
Oneida Indians, and in LiWeria, and th(!n returnetl to the 
home work of American Methodism." At a recent date 
the Methodist was the only Protestant Ijody in St. Kusta- 
tius, and was libei-ally aidtni l»y the Dutch government. 

It is, nevertheless, probable that losses in mejnbership 
through removals were more than counterbalanced by ar- 
rivals from abroad. That restless rush which seems to 
have been a part of the (Jreator''s plan for jieopling the 
world had passed its earlier stages. The stream of emi- 
gration from IJritain, which, before the outbreak of the 
second war with AuuMic-a, had been tlowing westward, at 
the termination of the contlict began to nio-.'o with bioader 
current. Directed principally towards the United States 
and Upper Canada, the human tide, iiext'itheless, touched 
our shores. Some of the wanderei's found homes on the 
parcelled-out acres of Prince Edward Island ; others sought 
tracts of land in the newly opened farming districts of the 

" " Hciniiiisct'iiccs of the West Iiiilics." liy ;i MttliudiNt Treacher, liuok Concern, New York, iy4!l, 





othfT pi'oviiK'cs ; wliilo not a ffw fMitci'iNl upon foriuor 
pursuits in tlir sc.-i j)Oft towns, wlicrc tlirii- i,'t;in(lsons are 
now in nijuiy cases Icadin"; citizens. At the port of St. 
Jolm alone nearly si.K tlif)usan(l persons affived tVoni (Jreat 
llritain and Ii-eland durinj,' the three years eiidiiii,' in ISlMJ, 
and these were hut the .(d\anc(! <,'uar(l of a ;,'reMt procfKSsion. 
Occasiouid i-eference is yet ni;i(h' to the hardsliips en(hircd 
hy th(vs(^ enu,!j;rants, hut a great nund>ef of their (h'seen- 
dants enjoy the fruits of their i^iandsii-es (;()n([uests oxer th«; 
unhrok(Mi wiMerness, wliile they know litth; of the story of 
their physiinal toih mental conflicts and n'lii,'ious priva- 
tions. '-' 

From emigrants Methodism in l»ritisli Xorth 
America received valual)h> accessions. Sci^tch settlei-s in 
Ontario, early visit(>d hy Canadian itinerants at their hack- 
woods homes, gave to Methodism in the irpp(M' Pi'ovinces 
hoth numtirical and intellectual sti-ength, hut from the 
same class that church in the Maritime I'l-ovinces recei\ed 
a much smaller numher of adherents. Many of the l']nglish 
emigrants, Wesleyans in their native land, hecame pioneers 
of the denomitiation in their adopted country. Their small, 
rude dwellings, encircled by the forest, fre([Uently otl'ei-ed a 
home to the itinerant and furnished him with a preaching 
room, until through combination of (^tl'ort in more prosperous 
davs, neat and comfortable churches dotted the various dis- 
tricts. No less valuable has been the lu^lp derived from 
the Irisli^'emigration of former years. Gi'eat nund)ers of 

'- In ;Miirfh,""lSL*3, 'Jdliii, rrcsliytcnun pastur jit Windsor, 
wrote ill his journal : "Tiiis is tlic .Saliliatli-day. 'V\\v roads arc so liail 
T fajinot j^'o to NfWport. Hard is tlic lot of many i nii^'rants who liavi; 
hitcly liccn I't-niovcd fmni tlic full li^iit of rflij^duus insiitutioiis to tho 
darkness which spreads its ^dooniy shades lieyond tiie western main. 
'I'lii'ir children, relieved fmni f 'hi'istian restraints, a>'e daily riiieninj,' to 
he outcasts from (Jod. 'I'lie Sal )liath returns, hut whei'e are its wonted 
jo>'s? No temple is there, liu messen;^er of salvation, no son^' of /inn 
ushers in this Messed morning'. The \(iice of desotion is not heai'd, 
except in the \\his|iei's of a lirokeii heai't, and the ciiildren are not 
l.uiptizt'd except hy a ni(jther"s tears," 










i . 



f ' 


1 - 






Irishmen had already been seeking in transatlantic regions 
better iionies than their nati/e land, enchained by Uoman- 
isin and impoverished by absentee landlordism, could give 
them, when the famine fever of 1817 came to tuni the 
movement into a sweeping tide. INIany of these; emigrants 
had be(m comfortable farmers, small tradesmen, and 
mechanics, representatives of a class which constitutes the 
strength and muscle of any population. Numbers of them, 
as tliey tore themselves from the land where lay the dust 
of their fatiiers, left blanks in the leadership and closed 
doors to the itinerant. 

Fortunately for all, the various national elements in our 
growing population have become so hajipily blended as to 
render impossible any close analysis of the present influence 
of each upon Church or State in our several provinces. In 
the wide Canadian Dominion descendants of each of the 
various races represented in her aggressive population are 
playing an honorable part, all having worthy representa- 
tives in the ministry and laity of our gi'eat church. 





.\iKTri()i)is>r r\ nKUMimA, from isi.i to tkh f:EX. 

■nO.VAliV CHLKliRATfOX IX I,H3!i. 

James Dunbar spent two busy years in Jlur- 
ing the temporary absence of Sir James Cockburn in lSl:i. 
U, ,e saw ti.e revival of persecution at Hamilton in a 
dec,de< orn, and l,e, therefore, in aecoirlance with the 
Engbsh Act of Toleration, made application for a license 
for the church at tl<at place, as well as for the new one in 
course of erection at St. George's. The attorney-^eneral 
questioned the application of the Act to the colojes e.- 
pre.ssed a belief that by previous enactn.ents the .Methodi.sts 
were secured from any undue interference, and for these 
reasons declined to grant the requested For relief 
however, fron. ail ,loubt,s, J)u,.bar w.ited on the ,,ove,no; 
on h,s return to the islands during ,he succeeding sun.mer. 
Ihat ofhcer assured hiu, that he would take pleasure in 
putfng the .Metho<Iists in possession of „ny privile.-e i n li^ 

Dunbar, who ound then, of value .as safeguards against in- 
terference With ,H'blic worship 

reatel't f " '"'""T '"■""'' "" '-^^r""- "' -' ""--i'l 
equest for a second preacher, Wilson, a vou.„ 

Insh nnssionary, son.ewhat debilitated by residence i„ tl,; 




West Indies, became his colleac^ue. The two ministers, in 
August, 1814:, conducted the opening services of the first 
Methodist cimrch at St. (George's. This building, forty 
feet in length and thirty in breadth, was erected at a cost 
of a thousand pounds.' Two aisles, running through it, left 
a narrow row of pews against each side-wall, with a third 
row of large pews in the centre, directly in front of which 
stood the tall tub-shaped jmlpit. The thirty-five pews and 
a number of free seats proved insufficent for the numerous 
applicants, and a gallery across the front of the church was 
therefoi'e soon after provided. As a wooden building, it 
soon yielded to the intluence of the Bermudian climate ; and 
fourteen years later the trustees reported that " if it Iiappen 
to rain when tlie congregation is assembled, they have nmch 
dilHculty by moving about to keep themselves dry." The 
Methodists of St. Georges, however, continued to use it for 
worship until the autumn of 1839, when a tremendous 
hurricane l>roke over the islands, unroofing dwellings, 
destroying wharves, and driving shipping ashore. Then 
the already decayed place of worship, precious to many in 
Bermuda as the cradle in the new life, and to numbers 
abroad as the spot where they learned of personal salvation, 
was levelled to the ground. 

In accordance with instructions from England, Dunbar 
sailed for Nova Scotia at mid-winter, 1814, accompanied by 
his wife as the first representative of Bermuda JNlethodism 
in the wide mission field. Wilson, left in charge, was joined 
in March by Moses Rayner, a young Englishman, of whose 
subse(pient long service as a missionary his feeble health 
during a twenty months' residence in Bermuda permitted 
but slight hope. On Jiayner's arrival Wilson proceeded to 

'Tlu' cMirrciiey of tlu' islands wa-s at tliat tiiuo at the rate of twelve 
.shillings sterling to the innind. TiilMl, llieeurreiieyof tjieinotiier CdUiitry 
was intrixliicecl. 



LX lihJRMrPA. 


occupy new ground, ^eivicos were held and a small mem- 
bership gathered at Bailey's Bay. Some of these earlier 
services among "a pleasure-loving people " were conducted 
with diliiculty. ''Every door seemed to he bolted /igainst 
us," said Wilson, "and the only place that could be procured 
was the lower room of an old house in which every window 
and door is in a shattered state. Tn this ruinous place 1 
have often preached when the wind l)lew in on every side, 
and tlie ungodly who wished to annoy us, entering the house 
at another part, have got over our heads, and by walking 
to and fro, talking and laughing, disturbed the congregation 
and prevented others from attending." After some time, 
t1)0ug!i alternating between hope and despair, Wilson 
resolved ;o attempt the building of a small church. The 
lady to whom he had been indebted for the use of the 
deserted dwelling, gave him a site, and some other persons, 
from horn he had not even expected good wishes, gave him 
such liberal aid that in February, 181G, he authorized 
workmen to proceed with the building of the small sanctuary. 
Just then, Rayner, under instructions from London, sailed 
for Antigua, while William Ellis, a sutlerer from toil and 
exposure in Newfoundland, made no movement toward the 
more genial climate pi'oposed to him by the Committee. 
Left thus witli-'ut a colleague, and on a mission where only 
a man of h* rcuuau strength can long presume to attempt the 
work which i', , ■• idence has designed for two men, Wilson, 
who had alreud} ^"-jm advised to seek an early return to 
Britaiii, could give little further attention to the newer and 
smaller congregation. 

The expectation of ivmoval, early in 181;^, led to a review 
by Wilson of his own and his predecessors' work. Jn spite 
of the excitement during the war and the departures at its 
termniat. ■; t!ie leading congregations had giown, the mem- 
bership had iureased, and the acceptance by Richard M. 




\ ■': 

; :t I 

Hi<:;gs of the oUiee of local preacher had added a valuable 
helpei- in pulpit woi'k. I'y the Missionary (Jonniiittee, too, 
in reply to circulars sent by them to the colony, warm com- 
mendation of the work of the successive missionaries had 
been received from such men as the senior associate judge 
of the islands, tlie mayor of Hamilton and several other 
gentlemen of prominent position.^ A still higher and a 
holier satisfaction was that which came from the happy 
manner in which several of the earlier converts had finished 
their course. 'J'hese departures, so frequent in tlie history 
of our larger churches as to call ' v th only brief remark, 
were rich in blessing to the pastor -• ur-score members 

in Bermuda., who nevertheless seriousij elt the absence of 
each successive delegate to the General Assembly and 
Church of the Firstborn. 

Wilson's successor, William Sutcliffe, a former missionary 
to Nova Scotia, arrived from England in November, 1817. 
Late in the following month Wilson, witli his wife, a 
wortliy Bermudian, sailed for Antigua, and thence soon 
returned to Ireland. Rest, with the bracing air of his 
native country, so far improved the young minister's health 
that in 1819 he was appointed to a circuit, but on his way 
thither he was seized Ijy a fever, from which he died. His 
successor's stay in the islands was shorter than his own had 
been Few men were better prepared than Sutcliffe to 
meet by a gentle but faithful prosecution of duty the revival 
of a spii'it of persecution of which there wore too evident 
indications, but his days of active endeavor were nearly 
ended. In 1819 yellow fever invaded the islands and 
spread with great rapidity. None of the membership fell 

) ' 

2 Tlio circular, to which theso gHiitlemon, and a nnniber of others in 
>he Wt'st Iiulies, funiislicd «itisfactory rejilics, was called forth by 
the activity (tf «'veral English piil)lications in niisreja-t'scnting theoi)t>ra- 
tions of missions in the colonies, those esjiecially of the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary Society. 

:, ! 

rx iipjum^DA. 



victims to the P})idoniic, l)ut the pastor, and his wife as well, 
narrowly escaped death. The Coniniittee ordered him to 
Nova Scotia, but after a short delay he sail(>d for Canada, 
and thence soon returned to En<,dand. In suhsecjuent 
years his faculties became somewhat enfeebled. Ifis wife, 
a worthy heljjer in his several missions, died in 183'^. Over 
her remains he prayed that he also might be taken home. 
Foui- days later his prayer \is answered. 

Declining health having obliged James Duidjar to take 
flight in the winter of 1S19 from Halifax, he reached liis 
former station ^fter serious danger- through a heavy gale 
and a lee shore. His three years' residence proved a period 
of true spiritual prosperity. " ]Many,*' said the official 
members in a letter to the Committee at the end of his 
term, "have been the subjects of sound, saving conversion, 
the congregations have increased in nund)ers and in serious 
attention, prejudices have disappeared and many have been 
added to our society." A pleasant address, agreeable man- 
ners, and a deep interest in young i)eoj)le gave Duid)ar 
greater influence among the white population of Bermuda 
than any minister had had since the departure of Marsden. 
The same (jualities had aided him during his absence in 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. "A dear little man was 
James Dunbar,'' said an aged lady, the widow of a well- 
known minister, when in recalling the scenes of her child- 
hood in her home at Wilmot she remembered how he had 
then talked with her in his pleasant way about Christ and 
salvation. Under his direction an auxiliary missionary 
society was formed at Hamilton, in 1820, when the excel- 
lent H. H. Cross, Independent pastor at St. George's, 
preached the special sermon. After his return to his native 
land Dunbar labored with equal success, ending a useful 
service in ISGO, in the eightieth year of his age. 

'J'he Congj'egatioiial or rn(Iep< ndcnt diurch at St. 







-J. * 

George's merits ;ipprociative mention because of the impulse 
given by its formation to evangelical religion in that town, 
and the assistance received by Methodism from several of 
its menib(!rs at a later period. Included in its membership 
— never hu-ge — were choice spirits, successors of a little 
remnant who had preserved un<|uenche(l the coal which had 
been kindled in the islands under the ministry of Whit- 
field ; and with these weie associated a few others of 
kindred sympathies from abroad. The light had shone 
dindy for some time, but when the struggle to worship God 
according to other forms than those prescribed by the 
National Church had been successfully fought, its presence 
became apparent. Then the faithful few, whom doctrinal 
diflerences and, perhaps, social considerations had kept 
aloof from the earlier Methodists, united in a small band 
and maintained stated services, ,u wmch some one of their 
numl)er generally read a discourse from some standard 
volume. Mary Winslow, the grand-daughter of a gentle- 
man who had cordially received AVhittield at 8t. George's, 
and an earnest Christian, as her memoir by her son, 
Octavius Winslow, D.D,, abundantly '^^stities, made use of 
her position when in England as the wife of a military 
of^'> ^^■•, to secure for the little company the erection of a 
church and the appointment of a pastor. Through her 
untiring elibrts H. i\. Cross was sent to her native town as 
a spiritual under-shepherd. From several causes the church 
organized under his direction had only a brief existence. In 
the course of a few years the pastor was removed by death, 
the roof of the wooden sanctuary fell in, and the members 
were gradually scattered. The few who remained in lier- 
muda for several years visited the Presbyterian church at 
Warwick at communion seasons, )>ut at length became 
men)bers of the Methodist church or congregation at St. 
George's and welcomed attendants at its nearer sacramental 

\ r 1 



A prominent member of this choice group was William 
Samuel Ti-ott, whose name is yet dear to some l>ermudian 
Methodists. Early training and a preference for the Con- 
gregational form of church government led him to unite 
with those who had adopted it. Home time after God had 
called the pastor home, and the chuT-ch had ceased to e.xist, 
Mr. Trott became a regular worshipper with the Methodist 
congregation. Though an independent in principle, his 
assistance in public religious services, and his financial aid, 
were freely gisen to the Methodist ministers a,nd people. 
For more than forty years he and his pious wife conducted 
at their own residence the " Home Sabbath-school," which 
was continued for years after his deatli by several ladies 
who had been trained in the school, and was then trans- 
ferred by them to the Methodist Church. JMary Seon, 
who in her girlhood, and in the face of strong opposition by 
relatives, had also united with the Independent church at 
St. George's, became in 1847 a Methodist class-leader at 
Bailey's Bay. 

During the early months of 1821, the Methodist and 
Independent pastors received unexpected assistance from 
two storm-tossed brethren. The story of theii- rough pas- 
sage to a quiet haven adds an interesting page to the 
numerous narratives of missionary journeyings. One of the 
two— Duncan Dunbar, a Scotchman, sent out to Shellield 
in 1811 by the London Missionary Society — had gone back 
to Britain from New Brunswick as a Baptist minister, to 
obtain workers and funds for the " Evangelical Missionary 
Society " of that province, by means of wliich a ruimber of 
Presbyterians, Ctjngregationalists and Baptists, united 
under that name, were seeking to promote the religious 
improvement of the more destitute settlers and the 
India IS. Having partially succeeded in his mission, 
Dunbar, in the autumn of 1830, sailed from Liverpool 

) , j- 


it * ti! 
., Ill 

.1 i; 

■ ■ 1 



for New York in the Halifax Packet^ an old and unsea- 
worthy vessel provisioned for eight weeks. With him 
were his wife and three children ; John Gray, Presby- 
terian minister, and wife ; Josiah West, a pious teacher, and 
nearly fifty other passengers. At the end of a month 
violent winds liad driven the vesseil liack towards the Irish 
coast, and the whole company had been put on short allow- 
ance. At last a day came when the captain had to convey 
to them the unwelcome intelligence that the last of their 
stores had l)een eaten, there ••being between them and 
starvation only some potatoes which he had previously 
taken on board in Ireland as ballast, because stone for that 
purpose could not be obtained. To add to the terror of 
their situation, tiie captain could give no detinite idea of 
his position, his only compass having been washed over- 
board. The potatoes, by no means improved by long storage 
in the liold, wei-e brought up, and four of these and a gill 
of water per day apportioned to each passenger and seaman. 
So pitiful were tlie cries of the children for water that the 
missionaries scarcely tasted their allowance of it for three 
weeks. The crew at length became unable to work the 
ship, and passengers from the cabin and steerage were obliged 
to take their turn at the pumps. Suddenly, however, the 
leak ceased, and the crew, on rowing around the ship, found 
the sides and bottom covered with bai-nacles as with a coat 
of mail, On one of the last days of March the captain an- 
nounced that the potatoes would only supply their wants 
for twenty-four hours longer. The statement was received 
in silence. Just then a cry broke from the sailors on deck, 
to be echoed through cabin and forecastle — -the welcome 
cry of " Land ahead ! " The land, unknown to all on 
board, was Bermuda. A signal of distress had been float- 
ing for many weeks, and lest it should fail to attract at- 
tention it was supplemented by bright-colored clothing 
belonging to the sailors and children. Some pious women 

I, 't 



of the liKlt'iKMideiit cimrcli, in their loving watch for an 
expected minister, saw the signal from the hill at St. 
George's and hastened to i-ei)ort it. I'ractised ey.'s soon 
gazed intently at the vessel, whicli was sometimes approach- 
ing the breakers and at others passing out lo the deeper 
water; and then a number of men went out to her, to find 
her a rudderless, partially dismasted .ship, drifting wher- 
ever wind and current might carry her. A day or two 
later the passengers were taken on shoi-t; and made the 
guests of residents of the town. The long, dreary passage 
had not been without its bright side, for the helpless hulk 
had become a place of salvation to a Roman Catholic sea 
captain, and through tlie pei-ils of the passage several other 
persons, among them the wife of the Presbyterian minister, 
had been led to the exercise of a persojial trust in Christ not 
previously enjoyed. During their tletention at St. (^leorge's 
the ministers gave ready assistance to the resident pastors. 
Duncan Dunbar preached for James Dunbar the annual 
Wesleyan missionary sermon and assisted him in the usual 
anniversary meeting, and each of the visiting ministers took 
part in the opening services of the little Independent 
church. On Cood Friday they sailed for New York, Dun- 
bar carrying with him, besides clotliing and comfoi-ts for 
the voyage, sixty pounds Bermuda currency, contributed 
by Bermudians towards the funds of the "Evangelical 
Missionary Society of New Brunswick." 

Names of prominence in Bermudian and West Indian 
Methodism meet the eye among the signatures to tlie official 
letter carried by James Dunbar to England. There is that 
of the faithful Thomas S. Tuzo, of Hamilton. Early 
associations liad led him to avow his preference for Metho- 
dist teaching at a period when such avowal in\-olved a 
strain upon reputation. At the call of the church, lie 
tilled olHce after oHicc, performing the duties belonging to 
each with all thoroughness. During several of his later 




years ho had tc» b(> content with fovin!^ alon;^ tho sea- 
side walks (»!• thiouj^h tlu^ .shady i^movcs of his own (juiet 
estate. Then, in l>'*<7i, \\h('n (h'c-line(»f the mental faculties 
had followed the partial dee.-iy of physical powers, caine 
gentle hut rej)eated strokes of paj'alysis, and the once vigor- 
ous man fell asleep. Tlicic is also the name of James Cox, 
who, though " leader nnd local preacher," was then a lad of 
scarcely eighteen years. At that early age, his perform- 
ance of official duties had given such ])iomise of usefulness 
that during the year the Missionary (Joinmittee called him 
to leave his native colony for a wider sphere. Late in 1823 
he sailed for Antigua, to l)egin a thirty-six years' service in 
West Indian mission work, foi- which his place of birth and 
strong constitution had given him a peculiar tltness. For a 
number of years he was chairman of the Antigua District, 
where he performed an amount of la])or of which few men 
in that climate have been capable. The of his career 
was deeply felt by large numbers of persons whom he, as 
the Holy Spirit's agent, had led to God or editied by diligent 
pulpit and pastoral etlbrt. 

A third name was that of Edward Fraser, leader of a class 
of colored members. Fi'aser was a native of JJarbadoes, 
born there about 1798. Though a slave, he had few clearly 
distinctive marks of African descent, his mother having 
been a "mustee," and his father, whose name he bore, a 
native of Scotland." From his third year he had been the 
" property " of Francis Lightbourn, Esq., father of Joseph 
Fraser 1/ighbourn — for many years the rector of Devonshire 
and Peml)roke parishes, Berumda. During the absence of 
his niaster from Barbadoes, the young man was apprenticed 
to a shoemaker, whom he served as both apprentice and 

•'' 111 the West Indies, "a mulatto is the <)ffs|)riii,<;- of a l)lack woman 
by a white man ; a quach'oon is the otfsprinjjf of a muhitto woman by a 
white man ; and a mestizo or mustee is the offsprinjj: of a white man 
and a tjuadrooii." — Godet's History of Bermuda, \>. 141). 

/.V lll':h'Mll>A. 


cltM'k. Ill ISIS his owiior leiiioNrd to r>(M'iim(la, wlicre, 
until his iii.istcr's business (U'cliiicd, thr(tui,'ii chiinues in 
triulc, lie wiis ciiyaiicd solely as his assistant, haxinLj heconie 
an excellent accvtuntant Ivvrly ieli<;ious tendencies had 
heen developed Ity the inlluence of a Seoti-h i,'cntlenian and 
hy th(^ death of a friend m ho had shown an inteicst in his 
eduf/ation. In r>ai'l)a(h)es he had listened to several .Meth- 
odist sermons, and had hecome a coniniunicant at the parish 
church, hut according to his own statement he left that 
island a " hlameless I'harisee." Secret dissatisfaction, after 
his arrival at iJermuda, letl him to the Preshytei-ian church at 
Warwick, and into communication with Enoch Matson, the 
pastor. The sann^ motive also led him to call upon William 
Sutclitl'e, at Hamilton, by whom he was kindly received 
and encouraged. Thr-ough tlie cond)ined counsels of these 
ministers he was guided into the way of peace. Dunbar, 
in 1S21, })laced him in charge of a class of colored mendjers, 
and, having heard that he liad been asked to lead a ]»rayer- 
meeting, more than once said to him, " You may preach to 
them." He liowever read sermons, until an "' accunmlation 
of motives " led him to attejnpt original discourses. Divine 
sanction seemed at once to be given. A small Methodist 
society was formed at AV^arwick, and s(neral per.sons 
awakened under his preaching wei'c; i'ecei\ed into com- 
munion with the Presbyterians. Ife then, with James Cox, 
solicited subscriptions towards the ei-ection of a small 
sanctuary at Warwick. In 182"), the Methodist slaves in 
that part of the islands spent their Christmas holidays in 
working upon this building, which, through the geiier'u,s 
assistance of Chief-Justice Esten, was finished in 1S27.' 

•* This was tlic first Mctliodist cliiircli in l'>i'nim{l:i wliicli cuiild beast 
of a si)in' — an appeTidfi^^f l)iiilt in 1S('»(). V\)v this reason, pnliaps, it 
was that of the nine MetlioiHst chuivhi-s in the' islands twenty-five years 
a.i^'o, the locahty only of that at Warwick was indicated n])on a niaj) pub- 
lished under the patronayt' of the governor, Maj.-( len. .1. II. befroy, on 
wliich iuai» the sites of the p > n-est parish ciiurcln's were plainly pointed 



I ■ 
\ ' '■ 

William Dowson rcacluMl rx'rniudfi from tht! West [ncli(^s 
ill IS2.'?, and left at tlu; end of two years, to he .sucL't'('d(!d in 
a few weeks l»y liogeM' Moofe, from Nassau. l''i'om tlit;s(! 
ministers l^'rasiM' I'ec-eived dui^ encoui'Mifement. Mooro was 
unable to induce; him to enter tlu; |iuli)it Moore's successor 
only led him thither l»y tlu; distinct announcemi'nt that 
" Kdward Kraser will piinich fi'om tlie pulpit " — yet pT'(n'ious 
to the arrival of the first of these tw(» ministers the ser- 
mons of the ditlident youn<^ local {)reacher had so far 
atti'acted attention that the chief-justice— Ksten, and the 
attorney-f^eneral-- Duttertield, had l)een amoii<^ his heai-ers. 
The chief-justice took occasion to introduce Fi-aser's name 
to the general Methodist public when, as one of the speakers 
at the annual meeting of tlu; Wesleymi Missionary Society, 
in IS'Jf), in London, he made extended reference to the 
young man's mathematical studies, extensi\e theological 
reading and fervent piety, and placed a. sernion from his 
pen in the hands of the chairman of the meeting. 

l>is]iop Inglis, of Nova Scotia, of whose diocese JJermuda 
the]i formed a part, during liis first visit to the colony in 
1825, called upon Fraser with a proposition that he should 
accompany him to Nova Scotia, to Ije tiained for the minis- 
try of the Episcopal Chui'ch, The bishop's proposal must, 
of course, have included the further ofler of manumission 
on the part of the master. Less attractive oilers have some- 
times proved young men to be unworthy of a Methodist 
lineage, than which, according to heavens heraldry, none 
can be more noble. Tried by a most severe test, Edward 
Fraser, though under no human obligation save that of 
gratitude, was proved to be every inch a man though in law 
a slave. " Sii-," he said to the bishop, " the Wesleyan min- 
ister in this colony has been as an angel of light to me, and 
I can do nothing without his consent." Having learned 
from l\ogei- Moore that that minister liad already made a 

/.v n/':i:Mii)A. 

1 IT) 


repi-escutation of his ease to I he S.-,ivtafi.-s in, Iw 
addressed a ivs|t(>ctful roply to tlu' l.islioi), d.vliiiiiii,' to 
rRceive any further ovcMturcs. 'V\n> hishop was afterward 
heard to say that no youn<; man at Kin-^'s eollci^fc, Windsor, 
could have prestMited a better piece of composition. A 
year or two hiter, when Ki-aser's name came hefoi-t^ (},(> 
En^ulisli Conference of lSi>7, Richard Watson, who had 
read the doctrinal statements forwarded hy him, remarked 
in the j)resence of the assembled ministers that no more 
promisiiijL,' oamlidate had appeared for many years. 

Incredible as it may seem, this youn.i,' man. throui^h all 
these years, had been a slave in a Hritish colony. That he 
could be held as "property," in connuon with "goods and 
chattels," and subject like them to the accidents of fortune, 
under the .sanction of Jiritish law, made slavery, mild as it 
usually was in Bernuida, a hideous fact.'' To be the 
"owner" of such a man, from a Christiai; standpoint, was 
a dark crime. Happily, this " story of a crinK; " has a ter- 
mination alike credital)le to the slave and the owner. The 
former of the two had keenly felt his jjosition. Though 
knowing nothing of the rigors of bondage, th.- very thought 
that he was a slave often came over him, in his own words, 
as "a mildew and a frost." He could not think "freely," 
his mind was in " bonds." He was unwilling, nevertheless, 
to sever these bonds in any rash or summary way. To the 
Missionary Committee he wrote : " The oijstacle of a state 
of bondage is not, I think, insurmountable. T have made 
no attempt to remove it previous to this application to you, 

•'■' Many years ago, a slave-holder bnnight a runaway slave before a 
Vermont court, presenthig wliat heconsidfred indubitable evidence that 
the victim was his lawful property. Tlie judge demurred, and wanted 
ot^ier i)roof. At last, tlie slave-owner j)assionatelv demanded to know 
what evidence would satisfy him that the slavt- reallv belonged to the 
liannant. "^ biU of naif from ilud Ahmahttj!" was the memorable 
reply. As no such title coidd be produced, tiie'treml)ling negro was by 
order of the court, set free. ' ' 






because, ohlij^ed in gratitiulB as I am, I know not how to 
excuse a willingness to leave my mast<'r and his family 
until your verdict makes my call to liigher duties unques- 
tionable." The Conference acce[)ted him as a candidate for 
tlie ministry on certain conditions, but his name could not 
legally appear in their published official documents. The 
only obstacle to this was, however, soon removed. At the 
request of the ('onnnittee, Mr. Lightbourn gave him his 
freedom, and forwarded a certiticate of manumission couched 
in terms which did great honor to the freedman, while 
reflecting mucli credit on himself. 

The expectations cherished in reference to Edward Fraser 
were fully realized. Having become his owii master at the 
age of tliirty years, he because an assistant to Roger Moore's 
successor in Bermuda ; and in Decendier of that year sailed 
for Antigua, under orders for Dominica. His first appear- 
ance in England was in 1837, at the request of the Mis- 
sionary Comn\ittee. Five thousand pounds had been granted 
the Wesleyan Missionary Society by the British Government 
for the erection of school buildings for the colored popula- 
tion of the West Indies, on condition that the Society 
should expend half that amount from its own funds for the 
same purpose. The Committee, having resolved to raise the 
necessary sum as a special fund, requested Fraser to spend 
a year in Britain : with his wife, a lady of color, he sailed 
for England early in 1837, and at once entered vigorously 
into the proposed schen\e. William M. Bunting heard him 
preach a missionary sermon in Great Queen-street cliapel, 
London. Bunting's biographer tells with what " intense 
delight and astonishment " that cultivated preacher listened, 
and how, " as he stood behind the liberated slave in the 
pulpit of that church, the expression of triumph on his face 
amounted almost to raptui'e." Eraser's address at the 
annual meeting in K\e<er Hall '• fully authorized hiu),"' said 



huw to 
late for 
lid not 
i. The 
At the 
lim his 
I, while 

I Fraser 
r at the 
ir sailed 
bhe Mis- 
3 for the 
raise the 
to spend 
he sailed 
jaid him 
b chapel, 
" intense 
e in the 
1 his face 
J at the 
ini, " said 

a most competent judge, " to stand side by side with Robert 
Newt' n himself, not merely as a man and a Christian 
brother, but as an orator." Charles Dewolfe, of Nova 
Scotia, then a theological student at Iloxton, heard him a 
year later on a similar occasion, and on his return to his 
lodgings wrote in his private diary that "Edward Fraser 
and James Parsons n)ado the best speeches." James Par- 
sons, with whose name Fi'aser's was thus bracketed, was 
the great English Congregational preaclier of that day. 
Near the end of October, 18,'38, Fraser closed a successful 
mission in Britain by an address to .several newly ordained 
missionaries, and soon after sailed for Antigua. At a sub- 
sequent period he visited England as a West Indian delegate 
to the annual meeting of the Evangelical Alliance, His min- 
istry and his life terminated together in 1872. A colleague, 
near him at thehour of departure, reported that "his death, 
like hi.s life, was serene and beautiful." Tlie late Henry 
Bleby, a fellow-laborer in Jamaica, in an interesting volume 
on West fndian mission work, has said of that life : " He 
was an endjodiment of our .Methodist doctrine of Christian 
perfection and a minister fully in accordance with the New 
Testament pattern." 

Kogor Moore returned in 1827 to England, where he lived 
to a very old age, a willing worker to the end. His 
successor, James Home, was one of the many good men 
whom Methodism has drawn from the 15ritish army for a 
nobler service. His l)irthplace lay among the Grampian 
Hills of Scotland. Tn a (piiet home he had received such 
religious training as Scotch Presbyterians were then accus- 
tomed to give their children. When but a youth lie was 
called forth by the " sound of tlie aiul the alarm 
of war" which Napoleon would not allow to he hushed. 
Among his comrades he was a favorite, his good conduct 
and line appeaiancc commanding general admiration, His 



i rn 



regiment was stationed in Ii-eland, wliere Gideon Ouseley, 
the Methodist evangelist, was pursuing his vvondei-ful career 
in winning souls, while his younger brother, Ralph, after- 
wards Sir Ralph, was in the Peninsula, beginning to win 
medals and stars. 'IMie evangelist, a son of an Irish gentle- 
man of Oonnaught, had tirst hkunx rtMidered thoughtful 
through religious services conducted l)y the t|uartermaster 
and several other Methodist soldiers belonging to a detach- 
ment of an liish cavalry regiment statioiunl near his 
fathers residence ; and when the light of (led had shone 
into liis soul, and life from above had furnished him with 
new inii)ulses, he in turn became a true spiritual guide to 
many British soldiers, of whom James Home was one. It 
was during one of Ouseley's missionary tours thiough (ial- 
way and Clare that the conversion of the young Highland 
soldier took place. Such evidence of the possession of gifts 
and grace was at once given by the young soldier that 
arranL^ements were soon made to secure his discha!-<'e from 
the army. In the country of his spiritual l.)irlh he entered 
the ministi-y, and after four yeais of gospel work in li'eland 
otlered his sci'\ices to the Missionary Committee, who sent 
him to Jamaica. At the end of tlu; stipulated term there 
he resolved to leturn to the Irish Conference, but at the 
request of the Comriiittee he deferred his teturn, and arrived 
in Bermuda in April, KS28. 

On taking cliatge of the work in the island the new 
j)astoi' found four churches, and one Imndicd and thirty 
names on the roll of mend»ership. Kifty one of the mend>ers 
were whites ; twenty-four others were free pecjple of coloi- ; 
the remaining forty-nine were slaves. The laiger number 
of these slaves belonged to estates at Paget and Warwick. 
Many others, though under Methodist teaching, were not 
included in numerical retuiiis. Some slaves who had com- 
I lied with the conditions of n.emliei ship as far as was 




possible, and whose lives were consistent with their pro- 
fession, wei*(^ passed by the minister at the (|iiartei"ly dis- 
tribution of tickets, in accordance with his insti-uctions. In 
some cases they were living with partners with whom they 
had associated in their darker days, and in the way of tlieir 
marriage or otlier release from an unlawful connection lay 
serious ditHculties. The man or woman in some instances 
was unwilling to marry because uninfluenced by rc^ligious 
principle, and the existence of a family, neither head of 
wliich was permitted legal self-proprietorshij), rendered 
sejiaration an almost impossible alternative. In other cases, 
whei'e V)oth were willing to be legally married, their 
owners, from a fear lest their hold u})on their slaves should 
be weakened, detained them in an unrighteous position by 
refusal of the certificate required by law. In the j)resence 
of these dilliculties religious teachers could only pei'sist in 
teaching the right and protesting against the wrong, looking, 
as they did this, for a day Avhen the Goi'dian knot should 
be severed, and all unjust restrictions be remo\*ed. 'Ihat 
day was nearer than some dared hope. 

Under James Home's superintendence 1 Sermudian Metho- 
dism assumed a new aspect. Early in 18.'50 neaidy two 
Imndred members were reported. Two-thiids of those 
newly added were whites, most of them residents at 8t, 
(xeorge's, with a few at Harris's Bay. The wise pastor, 
who was no triller with discipline, wrote respecting his flock 
to the l.V>mmittee : " Such a state of things T have longed 
for, l>ut ne\'er in my experience, taking the society as a 
whole, have I witnessed the like until now,'' It was 
dui'ing those years of blessing that, at St. (Jeorge's, William 
Arthur Outei'liridi^e and his vounij wife burst the barriers 
imposed by early training, worldly friendship, and apparent 
personal interest, and gave themselves first to the Loixl and 
then to that branch of the church which had led them to 


il fi^ 

If '- 


ft n 




Christ Jesus. Thenceforward William Outerbridge proved 
a faithful olHcial in the society ; and in the legislature of a 
colony where Nonconformists received no special favor, 
his principles were never sacrificed to policy or self-interest 
Precious, too, were the memories cherished by Bermudian 
ministers of the winsome woman who presided over his 
home. "For them," wrote George Douglas, LL.D., of 
Montreal, thirty-five years after he had left Bermuda, "her 
home ever stood with unlatched door, and for their comfort 
her choicest ministries were generously bestowed." It was 
in 1829 also that William Gibbons, who in indecision had 
reached middle age, gave himself to the Lord, and entered 
upon long and eflective service as a leader of classes and 
superintendent of the Sunday-school. Two excellent 
women at Hamilton, to a good old age respected leaders, 
also believed in Jesus through the preaching of James 
Home. Througli fhe agency of the same minister, James 
Richardson and his wife. Independents on their arrival at 
Bermuda, were led into the fellowship of the Methodist 
Church, in which both became living epistles, the husband 
being long a sweet-spirited leader. 

Thomas Smithy a convert at Harris's Bay under Ja"- s 
Home's ministry, entered the itinerancy, and under the 
direction of the Missionary Committee preached the Gospel 
in the West Indies, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. In 
1835 he was sent to Nova Scotia, whence, after a three 
years' service, he returned in ill-healtii to his native islands, 
to go forth again to liis work, with intervals of rest, in the 
heat of the torrid /one and in the cold of more nortliern 
latitudes. His earlier ministry in Nova Scotia was the 
"savor of life unto life" in the experience of a casual hearer 
who became a leader of rare usefulness. This hearer, a 
young woman from one of the rural districts, one week- 
evening went into "Old Zoar" chapel, Halifax, where he was 



to preach. In her coiuiti-y home slie had been so power- 
fully iuiiuenced by the IJoly (Spirit that she had suddenly 
withdrawn from former vain amusements. Thoughtless 
friends declared lier a INlethodist, but though lier deceased 
father had adopted and honored tliat name, she disclaimed 
it. In the city, abstaining from frivolities of friends, she had 
visited church after churcli, not excepting the Roman Cath- 
olic chapel, in vain endeavor to find the peace of God on her 
own terms. In Zoar chapel, a sacred spot she had avoided 
until that evening, Thomas Smith pressed the appeal, 
"How long halt ye between two opinions T' in such a way 
as led her to regard herself as tlie object of a personal 
attack. Irritated though she was, she accepted a friendly 
invitation at a critical moment from a Christian woman 
and remained at the class-meeting. "I ought to know 
you," said the preacher after several inquiries about her 
homo and friends. " I think you do," was her character- 
istic reply, " for you've told the people here all about me." 
The preacher then assured her that the personal appli- 
cation of the text was the act of the Holy Spirit, and she, 
in continued services, found on God's terms the peace for 
which she longed. At a gay party at which she was sub- 
sequently present through the stratagem of friends, a 
Bermudian sea-captain rallied her upon being a ]\Iethodist. 
Her ready avowal of lier church relation led to a confession 
that his own relatives were Methodists, and to a conver- 
sation which resulted, it was believed, in his conversion. 
The captain was soon after lost at sea, but the young 
woman whose simple avowal of her faith had been of bene- 
fit to him, lived to become a trusted leader in Halifax 

The work of another of the converts at this period was 
ended in a more distant held. Benjamin F. Jenkins, in 
later years Dr. Jenkins, had come to Bermuda from his 

; i ■! I 

,'i .• :■ 

li . 

1 52 


native island, Newfoundland, wlien a mere lad as an ap- 
prentice to th(; pul)lisher of the Royal Gazette. During 
his apprenticeship he became a member of the Methodist 
Church, and on the attainment of his majority, several of 
his Methodist friends assisted liim in securing a printing 
establishment, fi'oin which he issued the Bermudian news- 
paper. That journal met with a promising reception, but 
an opening for a business of another kind soon led him to 
retii-e from its management and remove to the Southern 
States, taking with liim a wife chosen from a Methodist 
family at Hamilton. Having failed in his plans, he soon 
resumed pi-inting in a Southern city. A few years later, 
when the Methodist Episcopal Church South resolved to 
open a mission in China, the ability of Benjamin Jenkins as 
a local preacher, his singular aptness for the acquisition of 
languages, and his knowledge of printing, attracted the 
immediate attention of the Missionary Board, who in April, 
184S, sent him with Charles Taylor, M.D., to Shanghai as 
their first missionaries to the vast Chinese empire. There, 
in charge of the mission press, he at once took rank among 
the missionaries of several societies as a man of much 
ability. Ill-healtli on the part cf Mrs. Jenkins obliged him 
to sail for America in 1852, but during the passage the 
invalid died and found an ocean grave near St. Helena. 
]n 1854 Dr. Jenkins returned to China, and after fourteen 
years of further missionary service entered the United 
States consular service at Shanghai, where, in 1871, he 
died. An inscription on his tomb in the new cemetery at 
Shanghai brielly tells the visitor of the life-work of a man 
" highly respected by a wide circle of fi'iends as a Christian 
of earnest and uriassuming piety, and a scholar of large and 
varied attainments," His widow, from her arrival in 1854 
a valuable member of the missionaiy staff' at Shanghai, 
became tlie wife of (IrifHth John, a prominent minister at 
Hankow of the London Missionary Society. 



/x iii':R}fn>A 


Throu^li the ai-rivu] at St. (Jeorgo's in 1830 of Jolin 
Crofts, Sunday sermons were planned for Somerset, Tuckers- 
town and St. David's. At the last named place services 
were held in a room where some Independents had or;L(an- 
i/.ed a Sundav-school. Somerset for .some time gave little 
promise of success. Christian women from Port Royal, 
members of "the chui'ch that was in the house" of l>oaz 
Bell, walked thither every Lord's-day to maintain a school, 
but four years after the establishment of this school none 
of the whites had united with the society and the class of 
colored members had grown but slowly." Tuckerstown, a 
colored settlement four miles from St. Cieorge's, had previ- 
ously been unvisited and the sway of evil had remained 
unchecked. In the late Samuel Trott, of that settlement, 
the ministers early found an earnest hel})ei". i^y day or by 
night, for many years, his cedar boat was ready for the con- 
veyance of the minister across the harbor ; and the owner, 
assisted by willing sons oi' neighbors, was seldom absent 
from its helm.' 

'' The latest survivor of tlu'S(! Christian woiiuni, Miss Hetty Bell, 
fiiiislied a faithful Christian t-arcer in iSSli, at tiie ripi' -.v^v of S'.t years. 
hi hci' seventeenth year she had cnunti^d " the reproach of ('lirist^i'eati'r 
riches than the treasiu'es in Kyypt," and allied lierself with tlu' little 
Alethodist church. The Christian woi'k of herself anti her friends among 
the slave [)opulation yet receives grateful mention. 

" On one of thes<' occasions an incident occurred which, ha|)i)ily, had 
an amusinijc termination. During the visit in 18(11 of I'rinee Alfreil to 
the islands, ( lovernor Orel, a. High ("hurcliman, treated thi' Methotlists 
with great injustice. His refusal to allow them to address tlie prince, and 
his reservation for Kpisco[);il Sunday -scholars of seats jiroxidcd at thepul)lic 
exjjense — to the exclusion of six hundred Methodist scholai's called forth 
a written protest from Fredi'rick W. Moore, the Methodist superintendent 
nunist<'r. Before corri'sponileiuM- on the subject iuid ceasecl. Mr. Moore 
on a Sunda\' afternoon was passing from 'I'uckerstown to I'ailey's Bay 
under Mr. Trotfs charge, when, during a stpiall accompanied hy he;i,vy 
rain, the owner of the boat ol)served a yacht in a very dangerous posit ion 
and altered his course to re.'ich her. On rumiing u]) alongside, the 
yacht was found to contain the governor, his lad>' and young son, and 
an aide-de-camp, all drenched hy the w.aves which wei-e washing int(» 
their stranded ci'aft. 'I'lie whole jjarty was soon taken into the skiff, 
which, dangerously laden, passed (»ver the mile and a half between the 
reef and tlie landing place' in safety. On stejjping ashore the governor 




h J \ 


-! I' 


James irovue's delay in returning to Ireland led to the 
entire a^aiKlonnient of his purpose, in compliance with re- 
quests from tiie people, the Committee permitted him to 
remain five years in Bermuda. At the end of that period 
the membership was nearly three times larger than the num- 
ber reported l)y his predecessor. The continued revival 
there, "calm, steady and clear as the starry canopy of the 
West Indian night," gave the Beiinudas an attraction to him 
which never lost its force. In April, 1833, he sailed for 
Tui'k's Islands to recommence his West Indian service. At 
the termination of his active ministry he returned to Ber- 
muda, and thei'o spent the remaining vears of life. In 
frequent occupancy of tlie pulpit, the gathering of a class 
of wanderers from the (Jhristian pathway, and in pleasant 
intercourse with his brethren, among whom he counted the 
venerable rector of the parish, tlie earlier years of super- 
numerary life passed pleasantly away. Then came a change, 
succeeding months bi-inging increasing weakness and frequent 
sufi'ei'ing. On one of the earlier days of July, 1856, Isaac 
Whitehouse, whom he had welcomed to the West Indies 
thirty years before, and Whitehouse's young provincial 
colleague, Robert Duncan, stood beside his bed and heard 
him speak of his " hous^ and portion fair." On the morrow 
he entered into rest. His body was placed in the parish 
churchyard at Hamilton, but was subsequently removed to 
the new Wesleyan cemetery. His son, the late J. Wesley 
Home, speaks of the father as " a man of superior parts, 

said, "Trott, call at govcrnniciit house to-morrow, and I will give you 
fivo luninds for your troulilc and hravfry," "Your Excellency," re- 
spondtui the j^^ood man, " I re<niire nothing for doing my duty. Indeed, 
it has })een the greatest pleasure of my life to serve you, but we are 
building a little ^letliodist chapel at Tuckerstown, where 1 live, and if 
your excellency i)leases, 1 will gladly accept your gift as a donation to 
our building fund." The good-nature and lionesty of the man were so 
ap])arent that, averst? as the governor may havt; l)een to the extension of 
Methodism, he could not resist tlu- apjieal, and as the sail bore the boat 
away his voice rang out : "All right, my good fellow; I would rather 
you should keep wliat I give you, but do as you please with it." 

IN ni:R}fUDA. 


who liad about liiin tho mental and moral strength and firm- 
ness and conscientiousness of liis Scottish ancestry." Isaac 
Whitehouse, less likely to be suspected of undue regard, be- 
lieved that had he enjoyed the advantages now provided for 
candidates for the ministry he would have been "one of the 
greatest mei\ of the age."" 

In 18.'54 John (vrofts forwarded to England a report indi- 
cative of progress. At Hamilton there liad been a "pleasing 
addition of young persons." At Tuckerstown the Christmas 
holidays had revealed a surprising improvement in moral 
conduct. No class had been formed at 8t. David's, but a 
"gradual preparation had taken place," and "one jx'rson " 
had been received on trial. To the girl tlius 
received at St. David's, Crofts' ministi-y had been as cold 
water to a thirsty soul, but the question of church relation- 
ship had been one of nmch peiplexity. No one on the i.sland 
yet bore the name of Meth(jdist, and the school she taught 
owed its existence and continuance to Episcopal patronage. 
After brief hesitation, and with the prospect of the loss of 
her situation, she entei'ed into communion with the people 
whose teaching had given her light. When she became 
mistress of a home, a room in her dwelling was set apai-t 
for years for public worship and Sunday-school work ; and 
then by a perseverance, of which few seem capable, she 

** Few families liave liad siicli a missionary iceonl as that (if James 
Home. His Hrst wift? was a sistiTof oiu; of tlie seveji Wesleyaii mission- 
arit's lost in the Maria mail boat otf Antig'ua, in ISjCi. One of their 
(laughters marrii'd a \\'t.'sleyan missionary to tlie \\'est Indies, and gave 
a son to ^V^esleyan mission woi'k in the south of l''ranc<.'. A second 
dauvditer l)ecanie the wife of J'x'ujamin 'I'regaskis, a W'eslevan missionary 
to the West Indies and afterwards in tlie Sierra Jjeone and (iamliia dis- 
tricts, of the latter of whieli he was general suiierintendent. A (hiught^; 
of Mrs. 'I'regaskis hecame the wifi' of the g^■nl■l•al sujierintendent of mis- 
sions on the (iold ("oast. (Jeorge White, a son of -lames liorne, for 
several years a Wesh'van missionary in the West Indies, died a Protest- 
ant Kpiscoiiarmissionary in Lilu-ria ; and -James Wesley Home, another 
son, after graduation at ■Nliddletown, Conn., spent five useful years as 
superintendent of the Metliodist Academy in liilit.'ria. After his return 
to America, he lived tor many years a beloved minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Ciiurch. 



i : 

i I 





!j ;, 



1 50 


sncceoded, aided l)y a pious ufighbor, in ohtainiiig (;ontribu- 
tions for the orootioii and substHjuciit cularijoinoiit of a neat 
little church on a site willini^dy ^dven Wy her husband. A 
witty provincial minister once i^iive h(M' the desi^'nation of 
" hisliop of St. David's, " a title only honored by its applica 
tion to the frail but ener<:;etic Christian woman who was the 
"one person" received on trial at St. David's in IS."]."). 

One island only of the group was at this period closed to 
Methodist ministers, but it was Ireland Island, the extreme 
island of the chain to tiie westward. There liritish troops 
were quartered, and thousands of convicts and numerous 
civilians wei-e employed u})on the naval wor^s. It Avas 
under strict naval discipline — an appendage and extension 
in fact of the gnardship. In 18,'5*2 several Methodists 
held religious meetings and a Sunday-scho(jl in a room 
fitted up for the pui'pose by the oHicer in charge. Thirty 
pounds sterling for missions had been contributed in 
Bermuda in 1830 by non-connuissioned ollicers and men 
belonging to two companies of Sap})ers and ]Miners and 
the 81st regiment of the Line. On the transfer of one of 
the two companies of Sappers to Ireland Island in 1833, 
a courteous request for permission to the Methodist 
minister at Hamilton to preach in the room previously 
fitted up was met by the commissioner with a lefusal. 
Two pious and long-ti'ied sergeants, with several sappers, 
then made the best arrangements they could to supply 
the lack of ordinances. Several persons were converted 
and added to the small class through the preaching of 
Sergeant Teate, who conducted worship twice in each 
week in a private dwelling. The missionary, meanwhile, 
had to content himself with occasional quiet visits, during 
which he renewed tickets, administered the Lord's-supper, 
and visited the families. With the presence of these pious 
soldiers the islands were favored for several years. 

FN liEliMi'DA. 




one of 







L verted 

ing of 






A pui'o gem in Britain's cii'clet of renown was the aboli- 
tion in 18.'U of X(?gro slavery throughout her doininions. 
The ceaseless and couiltined eilurts of Oranville Sharpe, 
Olarkson, Wilherfcirce, liu.vton ami certain kimlied spirits, 
was l)r,i\-ely aided in its middle and later stages hy the 
iii[)idly growing influenee of Methodism. Ueeords of the 
denouiinat ion show the policy pursued hy Watson, lUmting, 
and otliei- leaders, and lier literatui'e preserves the story of 
the suH'erings endured hy lier missionaries for the sake; of 
the bondmen; butjjurely independent testimony establishes 
the fact of her great iulluence in removing tlx^ shackles from 
the enslaved, ''it is astonishing," wrote Chailes V. Ore- 
ville. Clerk of the Pi-ivy (/ouncil, in August, 1820, " it is 
astonishing the interest the people generally take in the 
slavery (juestion, which is the woi-k of the Methodists, and 
shows the enormous inlluence they ha\e in the country." 
This influence Thomas Fowell liuxton i-eeognized in its 
strictly denominational sense, when, on the approach of the 
memorable day in May, 1833, named for the introduction of 
the great abolition measure, he forwarded to leading Meth- 
odist otlicials an earnest i'e(|uest for prayer in all their 
churches. Combined efibrt resulted in the passage through 
parliament during the summer of a bill by which, in lan- 
guage dictated in the white heat of popuhu" feeling, the enfran- 
chisement of the slave throughout nearly the whole of avast 
empire was positively declared. Wilberforce, who had long 
and bravely conducted the struggles in })arliament, died 
almost in the hour of triumph. '• Thank Cod that T have 
been suffered to see this day," he said, as he received a 
message that the bill under the charge of his friend Buxton 
had passed its second reading, and three days later he passed 
out of a world to Avliich he had been a blessing.'' 

'■' The liitt'st imhlic .-icts nf Mir 'I'liumas l<'i)\\cll IJuxtoii and 'I'Imhiuus 
''liirkson were in lielialf of tlie Wesleviin Missionary Society, .lust he- 
fore rlcjitli. in 1844, tlie former gentleman commenied a list of 
contributioutj for a mission to tlie Gold Coast aud other parts of (jiiiiiiea, 




III l)(!i'inucla, as in Anti;i,'ua, tlie le<^islatur(; would not 
entortain the idea of aj){)rontico.slii[), (l('si;4ne(l by tlie 
l»riti.sli governnuMit to relievo the planters in some nieasuro 
and to prei)ai'e the slaves for full freedom : the death- 
strug<,do of slavery was therefor(! hrief. On the approach 
of Auf,'ust 1, IS,'} 4, the day ap[;ointed for tlui emancipation 
of the bondmen, it was thought necessary to allay the 
anxiety felt in some (piai'ters by the use of any plans likely 
to induce the slaves to receive the boon of fi-eedom in a 
spirit of moderation. The governor of the colony issued 
a proclamation directing the religious observance of the 
eventful day, and the ministers in tlu^ islands readily co- 
operated in the proposed ari-angements. There is no record 
in Jiermuda of such watch-night services as were held in 
Jajuaica and Antigua, where in the churches, as the bells 
announced the last moment of duly .Slst, 1834, there arose 
from men and women who had sprung to their feet fi'om 
bended knee a murmur of thanksgiving which grew into a 
song, and then into a shout ; but on tliat memorable 1st of 
August every place of worship in IJermuda was crowded by 
the former masters and the newly emancipated Negroes. 
A sermon preached in the Methodist church at Hamilton 
on the succeeding Lords-day morning by the resident min- 
ister, John Barry, and based upon the apostolic counsel, 
" Walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called," 
was heard by many of the princi})al iidiabitants and })y 
hundreds of colored people, and at the re(|uest of several 
leading gentlemen was publislied for gratuitous distribu- 
tion. More than four thousand slaves were that day set n 
liberty in Bermuda alone, and as their proportio*' ' ,o 
twenty millions of ])Ounds sterling granted by th' .iish 

■ ^! 

with a sviin of iiwu'ly a tliousaiid dolbu's, tlu- last of several ^'ifts m tl' 
Socit'ty ; to wliicli liis family aiMcd a further sum of fixe limidrcd dollars. 
To a practical expression ot ^food-w ill 'riiomas Clarksoii also atlded a 
l)ami)hU't specially ?icommendiiig' the (iuld Coast mission l<> the support 
of friends of \ frica in wneral, 


/A liHILMinA. 


govcrimioiit as romponsfition, Ijcnniidiiui inast«'r.s received 
one huudrrd and twciitv-ciirlit tlidusand throe huiitlrod and 
fifty })Oimds. 

It was not strange that in l>ernujdii, in the prospect of a 
general emancipation, all eyes weie turned, as John (^i-ofts 
repoited, toward the Methodists. Thon;;h Archdeacon 
Spencer, aftei- his ai-rival in l8L'!t, had (iikcti a deep inter- 
est in the religious insti-uction of the coloied p('0})le, they 
had been indebted almost wholly to the Methodists for such 
religious knowledge as they possessed. A colored woman, 
who in haniel Mel liroy's cottage heai'd .loshu.i Mai'sden at 
one of his earlier .services, oiu^ day in tlu; strcM't caught tliat 
minister's coat-skirt and kissed it, thanking (Jod that he 
had sent Mar.sden to be her "eye-lid opener." This utter- 
ance was no mere compliment, for thi'ough the light which 
liad shone into her soul she lived a consistent life and died 
a triunipliant death. In i'eferenc(i to many of her race the 
good woman's remark was an apt one. Methodist minis- 
ters had gone down to the slave in his bondage and had 
taught him in darkest days to look up, and in looking up 
he had found the all-surpassing sympathy of the "man" 
Christ Jesus. They had connselled him to obey his legal 
master, while they had also sought by all lawful means to 
ovei'throw the system which authoi'ized one man to be 
the owner of another. Their counsels meanwhile had Ixme- 
tited the ujaster through the more faithful service of the 
slave : they had been a blessing to the slave from a spirit- 
ual point of view, and fi'om a tempoi-al standpoint as well. 
Such facts were recognized by both masters and slaves — by 
the one with respect, by the other with gi-atitude ; but 
when a critical period had been passed and great numl)ers 
of human beings who had been slaves at sunset had gone 
forth as freedinon at sunrise, without any manifestation of 


'" Of luindrcfls of Hfriiiudiaii sl.'ivcs sold in .Iaiii;ii<'a, a divadcd shive- 
iiiart, in 1825, not one was a nifiiilxT nf tin' Mftluidist socictius. 

f '■ 

h|i :i 

! ■! i: 

r I 



pent-up anger or attempt at revenge, the message and min- 
istry of Methodism were accorded no small measure of 
credit. The necessity for further eti'ort was no*-, however, 
removed by the abolition of slavery : it was increased by 
that event. Tru*; freod(Mn is not a product of acts of 
parliament. Fetters upon the spirit are not removed as 
readily as are shackles from the body. A few strokes of a 
pen held by William IV. gave effect to the action of a nation 
upon whose conscience a great moral duty h.'^d taken a 
stern grip ; but no man. no nation, ever possessed the magic 
wand which could at once tit the freedmen for their new 
position. The Gospel, indeed, was scarcely less necessary to 
the former masters than to those who liad been their slaves. 
"Slr.very," said James 0. Esten, "is twice cursed — a curse 
to the master and a curse to the slave." Words of similar 
meaning fell a f(?w years ago at Middletown Wesleyan 
University from the lips of a Southei'n senator ; "Slavery is 
gone, and I aui glad of it. I feel that T myself am libtn-ated." 
John Crofts remained in Bermuda to take part in the 
religious observance of a day which he and his pred icessors 
iiad wearily awaited, and then sailed for the Bahamas to 
continue there, and sul)se(piently in Englai'd, a useful 
ministry. His innnediate successors were John Barry and 
Thoiiias Richardson. The former of tlu^se was a minister 
of experience. ]'2piscopal parents had intended him for the 
ministry of their- own church, but a sermon heard 1 y him 
in a sti'et^t of I'x'lfast from Andrew Taylor, led to a change 
of relationship to(!od and to an oH'er of himself as a laborer 
under the direction of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. 
Ill-health prevented him from going to Asia at the call of 
the Gonnuittee in ISIG, but some years afterwards he re- 
newed his oiler and in 1825 went to Jamaica. The period 
was an eventful one. The Methodist ministry and m Muber- 
ship in Jamaica, in spit(^ of a scrupulous avoidance of inter- 
ference between the planters and their slaves, were made 

f.V /U'JJLUr/JA. 


11 Murter 

the objects of a most l)itter attack. 'I'he death of one 
young missionary was caused by imprisonment in a loath- 
some jail ; the lives of two other men were only saved 
through the legal knowledge and perseverance of John 
Barry and Peter Duncan. The subsecpier.t exposure of the 
interrupcion of a missionary meeting by an alderman of 
Kingston, and a reply to a most violent attack upon the 
Methodist missionaries in the columns of a paper of which 
that official had control, took Barry in 1829 before the 
court on a charge of libel. He employed no counsel and 
called no witnesses, but defended himself in a speech of 
such eloquence that the jury, though composed in part of 
planters, brought in almost instantly a verdict of acquittal, 
which a crowded audience received with applause, and a 
multitude outside caught u[) with equal enthusiasm. 
Durinjj a visit to England he was summoned to <Ave evi- 
deuce before committees of both Houses of Parliament con- 
cerning the condition of the Negro population in .Famaica. 
During the chase of the vessel in which he had sailed by a 
supposed pirate, he had, by the captain's advice, destroyed 
his journal and all papers containing any ivference to 
slavery ; nevertheless, the evidence given by him before the 
committee of the House of Commons occupied forty-two 
pages of their closely printed report. The Mission iry Com- 
mittee then sent him out to Toronto, whert; Canadian 
Methodists had asked for a preacher under liritish Metho- 
dist jurisdiction. On the unio.. of the two sections, Barry 
so warndy espoused the cause of protesting AVesleyans at 
Toronto and Kingston that he was ordeied to relieve John 
Crofts at Bermuda. Tiiif- decision caused such n^gret that 
William Oroscombe, chaii'man of the district, oU'ered to 
resign hih station at Quebec in iiarry's f.-ivor, but the 
Missionary Secretary then in Canada proved inexorable. 
Friends of the oU'ending minister suggested an iiiilfpcudent 



( ;.; 

5 it 

■I '■,' 

congregation, but giving no heed to them he with his 
family hastened to Bermuda, which he reached in time to 
witness tlie general emancipation of the slaves. Few men, 
as preacher or pastor, have wielded sucli an influence over 
the intiilligent people of that colony. During the second 
year of his residence, however, the rupture of a t)lood-vessel 
proved the wisdom of the protest against his appointment 
to an isolated station. The Committee gave him the 
privilege of in)m(;diate return to Biitain, but in t!ie absence 
of a supply he I'emained at his post, and too soon resumed 
pulpit duties, exliaustion from which obliged him to leave 
soon after the expiration of the second year. From Guern- 
sey, on the way to wliich he was shipwrecked, a relapse 
again sent liim across the Atlantic in search of health. 
Canada, Jamaica and Bermuda were all revisited. Beruiu- 
dian Methodists did their utmost to promote his comfort, 
but in sadness they saw him depart after a few weeks' 
stay. A little later, in 1838, he fell asleep at Montreal, at 
the early age of forty-six. 

Thomas Kichardson, during the winter of 1836, was 
joined by Samuel Stuart Johnson, from Nova Scotia, who 
in the following spring sailed for his native place. Harbor 
Island, where he soon after died. Just before the young 
minister sailed, Theophilus Pugh, a vigorous and energetic 
man, of Welsh descent, arrived from the Bahama District to 
prosecute a ministiy which endeared him to many hearts. 
Personal experience and close observation had prepared him 
to be a keen discerner and a wise adviser in things pertain- 
ing to salvation. In the autumn of 1827 he had sailed as 
a missionary to the West Indies, in tlu; vessel which then 
also carried John B. Brownell to his iirst foreign station. 
Fifteeen months after his arrival at Bermuda he was 
joined by Thomas Jeffray, from St. Kitt's, who with his 
family took up his resitleiice at St. (Jeorge's, their home 
while in the colony. 





Arrival of initiistHrs. William CroHcoinhc, at St. .Trim's. Visits to 
neglected districts. R<'vivals. J'erils in travelling. Roman Catho- 
lic violence. Cluuiges in the ministry. Death of William Ellis. 
New missionary effort. 

During the autumn of 1824- three ministers arrived at St. 
John's from Europe, the eldest of whom William Cros- 
combe. A remark by that minister, after he had spent eigh- 
teen months at Nottingham on his return from No\ a Scotia, 
had led the Committee to ask him to go under their direc- 
tion either to the Cape of Good I Tope or to Gibraltar. 
Having accepted the mission to the latter place, h(» left 
England on a second term of foreign service in March, 1820. 
During his third year at (xibraltar several interviews with 
friends from British Xorth America took place, leading him 
to ask reappointment to Nova Scotia. To a request to that 
efFect the Committee gave a favorable reply, stipulating, 
however, that on liis way he should spend three years in 

Some persons who rememljered this genial-spirited minis- 
ter as the " white-headed boy " who had twelve vf^ars before 
preached to them, and several merchants to whom he pre- 
sented letters, united with the members in giving him a 
cordial reception. Gn the Sunday after his airival, while 
lie was preaching the second of the three sermons which the 
congregation then demanded on each Lords-day, George 
I'JIlidge and Simeon Noall, two young ministers, arrived 





i '.< 

from England, bringing notice of his appointment as chair- 
man. The very courteous treatment received by him from 
the governor, Sir Thomas John Cochrane, during the cere- 
monies connected with the promulgation of the constitution 
for tlie colony, was not without its value, as it gave him a 
certain social standing which he was careful to use for 
unsellish purposes. No revival, in the popular sense of the 
term, attended his earnest ministry, but popular prejudices 
gave way, the congregations l)ecame larger, the members 
grew in numbers and in grace, and several causes of finan- 
cial einl)arrassment ceased to perple.x the office-bearers. 
"A more affectionate and united people" his successor 
wrote that he had never seen. " No whispering, no tale- 
bearing, no ])ack-biting is found here," But the work done 
by him could not be tabulated in the denominational 
records. Even Frish Roman Catholics afterwards met him 
in other colonies with bright face and cheery r(.'membrance 
of his presence in Newfoundland. To some members of 
other Pi'otestant congregations he was permitted to be a 
trusted guide. One of these was a Scotch merchant, who 
under his direction during a severe illness learned to rest 
eternal interests upon the atonement of Christ. Six years 
later the preacher, when stationed in Montreal, received a 
letter written by him from the interior of the State of New 
York, in which he had become a resident, thanking him as 
the human agent in his conversion and assuring him of 
steady perseverance in the Christian pathway. 

\\\ few mission fields have Methodist ministers been more 
truly itinerant than in Newfoundland at this period. Those 
wlio were in charge of the moi'e remote circuits were in 
fact visiting missionaries. In 1S26 John Corlett, an energetic 
young preachei' sent from England during the previous year 
for the station at Trinity, sailed across Honavista l>ay to 
(Jrecni's l*ond, sometimes called from itsSabVmth deseci'ation 


1 05 

and immorality the " Sodom of the North." Five hundred 
Protestants and one Imndred llon)an Catholics lived there, 
and a numl)er of Protestants had homes in the nei'dibonn<^ 
coves. A small church had been erected and a man engaged 
to read prayers. Corlett landed early on a Sunday morn- 
ing, and at once called upoji the principal residents to ex- 
plain the purpose of his visit. Of the little tlock gathered 
thirty years earlier l)y George Smith he seems to have found 
no special trace. On the Sunday morning all the places of 
business were opened and purchases were being made of pro- 
visions, fishing materials, and other aiticles, though the 
people were not so abandoned as with one consent to prose- 
cute the fisliery on the Lord's-day. 

Having l)een denied permission to preach in the church, 
Corlett resolved to adilress the people at the door at the 
conclusion of prayers, but the lay reader failed to appear. 
At an evening service, held in a store, the young preacher 
became thoroughly perplexed. He had never seen a " more 
tumultuous company." In spite of his commanding pre- 
sence and powerful voice, he for a time despaired of securing 
their attention. At length he was able to proceed with his 
address, but not without several interruptions and some 
blasphemous threats at its close. At the end of another 
week, spent in visiting and the distrilmtion of tracts— where 
tracts could be read —the visitor entered upon the services 
of the second Sabbath. Only ten persons were present in 
the morning, but in the afternoon about seventy heard the 
preacher, and in the evening attentive hearers filled the 
room, some of whom trembled and wept while he reasoned 
with them on "judgment to come." During two other days 
spent at the place, Corlett observed an almost complete 
absence of the profanity which had sorely grieved him dur- 
ing the previous week. While he was wondering at this 
change, a man volunteered the remark that he had not 




known the like, having hofird no oath during the two days, 
and that the quiet departure of the fishermen on the Mon- 
day morning had heen in marked contrast to the quarrelling 
and profanity usual on that day. The visitor left, no mis- 
sionary appeared in his jdace, and evil, after a brief check, 
resumed its sad sway. 

Wlien thirty-six years had passed, and few of those whom 
Corlett hud addressed were to be found, the name of 
Green's Pond first appeared on the INIinutes of the Eastern 
British American Conference, under the charge of John S. 
Allen. Joseph Todhunter, Allen's successor, just then from 
England, met with such op]»osition as few places on this 
side of the Atlantic have ever offered to a messenger of the 
Gospel. His success in leading several violent opponents 
into the ranks of zealous workers called into action the 
hatred of some persons calling themselves Protestants. From 
the offering of successive insults these persons ])roceeded to 
the infliction of personal injuiy. Efforts were made to 
punish those who favored the j\[etliodists by refusing them 
employment, but INFethodist merchants of St. John's saved 
faithful men and their families from being sufferers by this 
intolerance. Then a further step in evil was taken. On an 
evening in February, 1863, when young Todhunter and 
four friends were on their way from a service at an island 
lying at three miles' distance from Green's Pond, they were 
met on the ice near the former place ])y a mob of sixty men, 
by whom they were severely beaten and driven towards an 
opening in the ice, which they narrowly avoided. The 
heaviest share of the blows fell upon the head and back of 
the young preacher, whose nervous system received so severe 
a shock that he was soon obliged to return to England, 
where for yeai's he remained unequal to the full work of a 
minister. Legal punishment was inflicted upon the visible 
leaders in this outrage, but the more guilty instigators 

IN NE 1 1 ' FO UNI) L A NO. 


of it probably escaped. In this case, however, overdoing 
proved undoing. Under t'aitliful successors of the injured 
missionary the Word of God so grew and prevailed that in 
1875 the congregation at Green's Pond entered a new church 
containing sittings for seven hundred persons; that harbor 
being the centre of a circuit iifty miles in extent, with a 
rapidly increasing population of live thousand persons. 

During the autumn of 18l'6 (Jorlett also visited the 
southern coast of Trinity .I>ay, now the island terminus of 
the Anglo-American Telegraph Company. Some discoverer, 
sailing along in a happier mood than those who gave hideous 
names to other parts of the coast, had called the harbors in 
this district by such [)leasant designations as Heart's 
Desire, Heart's Content, and Heart's Delight. Occasional 
visits had been paid to the settlers on this shore by other 
itinerants, but for some time they had had no oversight. 
Four men, who rowed Corlett from Silly Cove to New Per- 
lican, told him with tears that they had been Methodists, 
and earnestly asked him for Gospel ordinances. At New 
Perlican nearly all the inhabitants then at home attended 
the first service held there on the Lord's-day for many 
years. The three hundred inhabitants of Heart's Content 
w^ere nearly all Protestants, and favorably disposed towards 
a Methodist pastor. For a long time Episcopalian .services 
only were held at Heart's Content; a Methodist church 
was not dedicated there until tifty-two years after Corlett's 

Nearly a month of the sununer of 1827 was spent by 
Simeon Noall, then in charge of Grand Bank and Fortune, 
in visiting places to the westward of his extensive circuit. 
At St. Jac([ues the people had " no prayers, no preachin^j, 
no Gospel ordinances ; ' at I3elloram, a young man read 
prayers and a sermon once on each Sabbath, and the 
standard of morality was therefore perceptibly higher. The 







latter place was also visited once in each year by the 
Methoflist and Roman Catholic inissionaries. Noall was 
the first Protestant minister to spend Sabbath hours at 
Hermitage Cove, where he preached twice. Thence he 
hastened back to (Jaultois, where residents and some visitors 
from a distance were awaiting him. A number of lloman 
Catholics, among them a band of Micmacs who had come to 
meet a priest, joined his congregation and listened atten- 
tively. A man who the next day rowed Noall to Round 
Harbor told him that his children, seven in number, had 
never seen th(^ face of a parson. On the pj-eacher's arrival, 
two women set olF in a l)oat duriiig a heavy rain to announce 
his presence to the fishermen, for thirty years had passed 
since any act of public worship had been performed in that 
settlem(;nt. An annual visit was all that Noall's successors 
were for twelve years aljle to pay to the six or seven hun- 
dred Protestants scattered about Hermitage Bay. 

No better attention could be given by the missionary at 
Burin to the two thousand Protestants divided into small 
groups at the various harbors and coves of Placentia Bay, 
although it was well known that they were falling a prey 
to the subtle schemes of Roman Catholic priests. A live 
weeks' tour of this bay by Thomas Angwin, in 1837, was 
made in a small fishing boat. A half century later the 
venerable minister spoke with an unusual glow of feeling of 
the deep religious interest everywhere shown during this 
visit by these neglected people. At Odearin for some years 
religious services and a Suiiday-school were conducted by 
Mr. and ]\Irs. J. M. Hamilton, afterwards of Halifax, N.S. 

In the growth at this period — ^through which the mem- 
bership reached nearly twice its previous figures — each 
circuit had shared, but none to so great an extent as those 
which bordered Conception Bay. Of new members reported 
in 1S29, fifty six had united with the church at Harbor 



Grace, under Corlett'.s care. Ainoni? them were men whose 
ability and wise judgineiit fitted them for loach^rsliip, atul 
gave to ^[(>thodism a position not previtjusly hcKl l)y it in 
that town. The hirger numl)or of new nuMuhcrs reported in 
1830 were residents in tlie lilackhead and ('arl)onear eir- 
cuits. An awakening:; liad begun at lUackhead during tiie 
prcivious year and s|)read to the nearer coves, so tliat at tlie 
annual meeting Richard Knight had reported sixty evident 
conversions. On his return he had found other hearers 
interested in personal salvation, some of whom had entered 
into the rest of faith. Sei'vices wei'e continued by the 
pastor with the assistance of his brethren, until, despite 
his well-known physical vigor, he was becoming a worn- 
out man. In his account at the ensuing district meeting 
of this rare spiritual visitation, with its addition of three 
hundred and forty persons to the mem))ershij), he was al)le 
to report the absence at all stages of its progress of those 
excesses which sometimes marred the work of revival at 
that day. Of the depth of the woi'k siitisfactoi-y evidence 
was given by his successor, Ellidge, in his report for a sub- 
sequent year. The llame of revival also reached Western 
Bay; and Adam Nightingale, who in 1830 had been 
placed in charg(; of that and some other settlements pre- 
viously included in the Blackhead circuit, imported an 
addition of one hundred and tifty-eight member.s within his 
pastoral charge. 

Of deep interest are some details of the revival about the 
same period at Carbonear. There the smallness of the 
number of men included in the membership made the main- 
tenance of a prayer-meeting, as at Brigus, a ditlicult task. 
So large was the attendance on John Haigh's ministry dur- 
ing the winter of 1829 that the erection of a " portico " 
became necessary to render every foot of space available in 
a church built for a tliousand hearers, and y(;t the pastor 



■ 't 

V -.( 

' .1 





could iiieet in ;i siiit,de pew all tho men in full nieinhership 
in his society ! iJuiing tin; winter lie paid close attention 
to pastoi-al visitation and cottage prayer-nuM^tings, and with 
pleasui'e obserNed indications of increasing interest. At 
length, at one of the services on Kaster Sunday, a young 
Knglishman, unable to control his emotion, cried out in 
bitterness of spii-it. He had been regarded as one of the 
most thoughtless young men of the place, and liis deep dis- 
tress made a strong impression upon the minds of others. 
Ecpially powei'ful was the influence of tho joy which fol- 
lowed his entrance into the liberty of the Cospel. On the 
Lord's-d;iy preceding the district meeting the " richer 
energy" of the Holy Spii-it was dis})layed, and during the 
succeeding year the woik was carried forward with such 
power that nearly two hundi'ed persons, of whose real con- 
version the juistor was able to entertain satisfactory belief, 
were adtled to the membersliij). 

George Apsey, the " tirst-born child of the revival," as he 
was wont to style himself, proved worthy of the help of 
watchful pastors. 'I'lie restiveness of youth had early led 
him away fi'om a godly father's care. In the employ of 
Slade, Klson k, Co., a lai-ge mercantile house at Carbonear, 
he had risen from a subordinate position to a seat at the 
principal desk. The day on which, while engaged in his 
usual duties, the peace of God Howed in upon his heart, was 
thenceforth a red-letter day. So clear was his assurance of 
salvation that no doubt ever seemed to trouble him, and so 
changed was his life tliat his nearest friends never had 
reasons for misgivings respecting him. The energy which 
had often led him to sit up throughout the night that he 
might be at liberty to attend some scene of revelry on the 
following evening knew no abatement under the influence 
of loftier aims, and his singleness of purpose gave him 
a power over others never attained by a man of divided 

n ^ ^- 



heart. " 1 hav{» often thought of his conversion," says 
Samuel W. Spraj^^ue, (Ik-u a junior follow clerk, "as liting 
as reinarkahle as any in the jjihlc. The (ixtensivc ctlei-ts of 
it only eternity will tclh" 

On th(! consecjuences (jf (}eoi'g(! Apsey's conversion a 
bright ray of lii^rht is turned l)y a letter written iiini in 
1S08 l)y the late Thilii) Ifeiiry (lossc, KR.S., tln^ well- 
known naturalist and author, from his pleasant hoii ■ at 
Torcjuay, lvii,daud. lM)i"ty yciirs before \\w, dat*^ of this 
letter, this fellow-clejk had been prosecuting his early 
morning studies of jiature at the Ixiidv of a poiul in the 
vicinity of Carl)onear, and showing an interest in captured 
insects to an tixtent soni<>tinies whimpered to his disadvan- 
tage by his business seniors. "How indelibly," he wrote 
in 18G8, "is impressed on my memory that day when you 
came to the (jounting-house door and amazed us by saying 
that you were going to metiting ! Was Saul then among 
the ])rophets "? Yes, indeed! God the Holy (ihost had 
then begun that blessed work in your heart which presently 
united you to a risen Jesus, which has licen your joy ever 
since, and which will be your song of praise. A few 
months after the Lord was pleased to bring me to himself, 
as I made known to you before I sailed for En<dand in 
July of that year, and while in iOngland it was from you 
that 1 received the first letter which called me by the sweet 
title " lirother in (Jhrist." After that dear Sprague joined 
himself to the Lord in a perpetual covenant; 8t. John, too, 
became the Lord's ; and after 1 had left for Canada in 
1835 I heard that Newell liad followed the same blessed 
example, and that poor John Lush had died at Poole in the 
Lord. So of what a chain of blessings to our house was 
your conversion the first link ! " 

Several of these young men gave life-long .service to the 
Church of Christ on Methodist lines. George Apsey died 

' ' V 

Hf ■'1 

1 ; 



HISTORY OF Mi'/nionrsM 

in ISfU) at the place of liis second Itiith. I' ray er and praise 
had been tli(> passion of his lifci ; they were also "last 
employ." On Good Friday, thirty nine; years from the day 
when he had '* amazed " his brother clei'ks, he visited the 
familiar f)Id church for the last time. A week later, after 
a two days' tenancy of his bed, he was heard to say in a 
low tone, "Thy nanu! shall be called Israel, for thou hast 
had power with (ilod, and hast prevailerl," then he repeated 
his favorite hymn, "Jesus, Lover of my soul," and soon 
after, when lie had otlered earnest petitions for his family, 
his classes, the church and the world, the "tirst-born child 
of the revival " entered heaven by prayer. Few local 
preachers have been more popular ; few men have ever left 
so rare a reputation for saintliness. Samuel W. Sprague, 
a young Knglishman, who was led to serious thought by 
the conversation of his senior fellow-clerk, Gosse, was re- 
ceived into church fellowship by James (I. Hennigar, and 
in 1^<38 was recommended to the Fnglish Conference as one 
of the Hrst two candidates for the ministry from Newfound- 
land. On the Grand Eank and Fortune circuit he com- 
menced an itinerancy which led him into several of the 
leading stations of the I'^astern British American Confer- 
ence, and from which lie some years since retired as an 
esteemed supernumerary minister, having left an eloquent 
son, Howard Sprague, D.D., in the active ranks. William 
Charles St. John, son of a former surrogate judge of the 
colony, became a local preacher. After having for some 
years published the Harbor Grace Standard, he removed to 
the United States, where for some time he held a place on 
the start' of Zions Herald, the Methodist paper for New 
England. Several years have passed since his entrance 
into rest. 

Philip H. Gosse, a nephew of John Gosse, the early and 
steady friend of Newfoundland Methodism, remained in the 




uul pi'aise 
» bis "last 
in the day 
•isited tlie 
iter, after 
say in a 
thou hast 
B repeated 
and soon 
;iis family, 
born child 
Few local 
e ever left 
. Spra<,'ue, 
hought by 
se, was re- 
nigar, and 
nee as one 
lit he coni- 
lal of the 
n Confer- 
red as an 
1 eloquent 
[ge of the 
for some 
amoved to 
place on 
for New 

[early and 
led in the 

colony only a few years afttjr his conversion. At Carhonear 

illy to 

lie was a nienibtM- or the choir, leaving it occasiona 
occupy the pulpit as a local j)reacher. When in 1839 he 
returned to I'^ngland, after having spent some time in 
Canada and the United States, he contemi)lated entering 
the itinerant ministry, but the pul)licati()n of his first scien- 
tilic work caused delay. A year or two later lie fell in with 
some Christian friends who had withdrawn from the Churcii 
of KuLcland, and under a new influence ho severed his coii- 



d b 


nection with formcu' religious assoc 
the IMymouth Ih-c-thren. A distinguished position in society 
lay within his reach ; tlu^ (piict and unobtrusive life of 
which h(! wrote to his old friend, Apsey, was his choice. In 
the neighborhood of his residence near Tor(juay \\(\ built at 
his own expense a chircli and school-room, and by public 
addresses, the publication and distribution of tracts, and in 
other ways, he gave himself to active eflbrt for the benefit 
of his iKUghbors. The long life of this convert of the revival 
at Carbonear came to a p(;aceful in 1888. "His reli- 
gious opinions, ' said the London Athe.ntmiia, in announcing 
his d(!ath, " were extremely strong and unljending, and his 
character more resembled that of a devout old Covenanter 
than is usual now, even among the straitest body of Non- 
conformists." Another English paper, the British Weekly, 
a leading organ of the Nonconformists, remarked, in its 
notice of the eminent scientist's decease : " Mr. Gosse's 
peculiar views may not be accepted by many of our readers, 
Ijut he himself was a man of deep piety, real knowledge and 
ability, and much personal charm. "^ 

A second revival at Oaibonear took place under the min- 

' Anna Shipton, in her little book, "IVU .leHUs, or Recollections of 
Knuly (Jossc," has ^'ivt-n to the world a description of the lovi'ly charac- 
ter and (^n'istian faith of 1'. II. (iosse's first wife, a woman of intellec- 
tual [Miwer and a good classical scholar. Their accomplished son, 
Kdinund AV. (Josse, widely known in the literary worM as a poet and 
critic, was in 1S80 chosen (.'lark Lecturer at Ti'inity Cullego, Cambridge. 


I ; 

1; I 



istry of John Pickavant, and during the eighteen months 
ending at midsuninier, 18."39, led one hundred and fifty per- 
sons into church fellowship. One convert of that period 
was tiic late Joseph P(;tets, for many years stipendiary 
magistrate at Harbor CJrace, wlio had come to the colony 
as schoolmaster on one of the king's ships. Tn his case, 
as in that of iiis friend Apsoy, th(^ prayers of parents in 
England were answered in Newfoundland, the Christian 
sympathy and counsels of Jolni Pickavant at a time o{ 
bereavement being used to lead him to Christ for salvation 
and into the Methodist Church for nurture and for useful 
service as a local preacher. 

At Bonavista also the growth of the societies in numbers 
and in grace gladdened the hearts of the watclnnen. Dur- 
ing the earlier months of 1834- one hundred and twenty 
persons were taken into membership, and the corresponding 
months of 1839 were rendered memorable by the mani- 
fested presence of the Holy Spirit in the same circuit. The 
bitter opposition to Methodism, because of its interference 
with Sabbatii-breaking customs long sanctioned by Episco- 
palians as well as by Roman Catholics, had at the latter 
period lost somewhat of its force. Worship had been dis- 
turl)ed and the opproljrious epithet of " Crawler " frequently 
applied to the worshippers, when the sad experience of a 
leader in sin furnished a note of warning. The oU'ender, on 
his way home at the close of a term of imprisonment for 
the crime of breaking into the jNIethodist church and carry- 
ing off the pulpit books and cushion, was caught in a severe 
storm, and so frozen as to lose both feet. For some years 
he literally crawled about the street.s, sometimes asking 
charity at the door of the parsomige, and alike reminding 
friend and foe of Methodism of the epithet once used so 
freely by himself and liis associates. 

Tiie peril encountered l)y the missionaries in iVcwfouud- 



ifty per- 
t period 
e colony 
his case, 
irents in 

time o( 
sa! vation 
or useful 

n. Dur- 
d twenty 
)>e mani- 
jit. The 
y^ Episco- 
he latter 
been dis- 
'uce of a 
euder, on 
ment for 
id carry- 
a severe 
[lie years 
used so 


laiid when on their way from harbf>i" to harbor was sometimes 
very great. I»oth sea and land had tlieir peculiar dangers. 
The ))y,\.t in whicli John W <ilsh once sailed from 8t. John's 
for one of tiie outports was wrocktHl, and all but the captain 
and himself were lost. When removing from liurin to 
Brigu.5 in 1S.'^6 James (I. Hcnnigar and his family, seven 
in all, were packed into a cahin scarcely lai'gc enougii for 
three persons. After the boat iiad left St. Mary's, a gale 
arose, with a heavy sea, thick fog, and ice in all direc-tions. 
In spite of breakers visi))le fi'om the deck, the c.iptain 
resolved to make the land at nil hazards. The minister 
looked at his lielpless family and lifted his in art to God. 
A few moments later a glance from the deck showed the 
little vessel to be making as fair a course through the narrow 
entrance into Trepassey harbor as if some nobler hand had 
guided the helm. "I ran," the minister wrote, " with the 
Joyful intelligence to my dear wife, and if ever we wept 
with gracitude to our Clod it was then." Quite as great 
had been tlie peril of Richard Knight and John Tompkins, 
who narrowly escaped a snowy winding sheet during tlie 
winter of 1832-33, when travelling from Heart's Content 
to ("arbonear. As the jou.iiey usually required but a few 
hours, and tliey sav/ no indications of a storm, they left 
Heart's Content without guiJ.c, /un or rackets — the 
latter a sort of wooden snow shoe — and with a scanty 
supply of provisions. When nt .it' tlie barrens a mist arose, 
followed by a sligiit shower of snow, the prelude to a 
heavy storm. Bewildered and out of tln'ir course, they 
wandered on until the younger man coukl go no farther. 
Fooci was exhausted, and they were without means of kin- 
dling a tire. Having found a level spot in the snow, already 
^ery deep, tliey paced to and fro on their own track of 
thirty feet for more than twelve houis, while the storm 
liowjed around, and the scattered trees fell through its 

r y 


h * 

1 i 



violence. Toinj)kins, tlie younger and less vigorous of the 
two, repeatedly sat or fell d )\vn, entreating his companion 
to let him rest, if only for a moinent. The latter, of stronger 
frame and great [)hysical power, knew that rest in such cir- 
cumstances would soon l)e followed by " the sleep that 
knows no waking," and he therefore persisted in shaking 
the weary man, rul)l)ing his limbs and dragging him along. 
Just as thf dawn appeared the crowing of a cock told them 
that they were near .some human habitation, and plunging 
through tlie snow and thicket in the direction of the sound, 
they reached a tilt or winter hut about eight o'clock, just as 
the storm was al)ating.'- Sonie of the hardships suffered in 
removals were never forgotten by those who endured them. 
Nearly thirty years of sorrow and suffering came to the 
worthy wife of one minister as the result of two tedious 
voyages in small tishing craft, rendered necessary by a 
removal in lb'37 from Grand Bank to the Island Cove and 
Perlican circuit.'' 

There wrre also other perils. More than once Roman 
Catholics saw tit to render the harsh utterances of their 
priests into the more emphatic language of deeds. Twice they 
obliged Richard Knight to put forth all the strength of his 
muscular form in self-defence. During the wintei' of 1S30 
Adam Nightingale, at whom some enemy of the truth had 

- Of similar fxpfriencrs, sanic interesting details are given in Wil*jn's 
" Newfoiuulliiud and its INIissionaries." 

H\ ( 

V : 

2 Ni) Wcsleyan minister in tlie ct>l()ny lias lieen lost at sea since the 
death of William Ward in ISl'J, but the losses to the inenih>fcr.<hip, 
orticial and ordinary, l)y drowning, have been terribly numerous. Kach 
einniit has its own record of disasters. A memorial tablet U-hind the 
pulpit at Old Perlican preserves the names of nineteen men and two 
women, most of them niem'oers of our church, and several of them office- 
bearers, who perished one nit,'ht on their \\ay from St. John's, in May, 
1S71. in tile graveyard at ('upi<ls. side by side, are interred the Ixxlie.-* 
of nine iiHu, part of a shipwrei:ked crew belonging to the village. 
Sev«!ral of these men had been avowed discii)lesof Christ. A record kept 
by the late William Harding of liurin, shows that the greater numkxr 
of deaths of male adults in that di.-.trict were caused by drowning. 


i t 

us of the 
f stronger 
1 such cir- 
leep that 
1 shaking 
im along, 
told them 
I plunging 
the sound, 
>ck, just as 
mtfered in 
I red them, 
me to the 
AO tedious 
sary by a 
1 Cove and 

ice Roman 
es of tiieir 

Twice they 
ngth of his 

ei- of 1S30 
3 truth had 

■u in Wil*jn's 

sea Hince the 
lerous. P^ach 
t b»-hiiicl the 
UH'ii and two 
.f thoia otfice- 
hns, in May, 
ed the lxxlie.s 
the village. 
A record kept 
■tatt-r nunibf-r 


already lirod a shot, liiid a second uiirrow escape. A re- 
quested visit to a sick man liaving taken him to Bay de 
A^erds, he spent a part of tlic day in calls upon sojne other 
persons. An evening service at tlie house of th(> sick man 
was most rudely disturbed, and at its close the preacher was 
advised l>y a messa"(> from a fricndlv Roman Catholic not to 
leave tlie house tliat evening lest he should be murdered. 
Very eai'ly in the morning, soon after the death of the per- 
son, visited, \\o, left th<' dwellim:', accompanied by two men 
aimed foi' his protection. At a certain spot several men 
were awaiting liis ap})roach, but drowsiness having over- 
come them, tlieir intended \ictim ])assed on mdiarnied. 
Tiidaunted by this treatment, Xiglitingalo procured an 
ofHcial license to preach in the same dwelling, and u.sed it 
without serious interruption. A part of those concerned '\n 
the plot came to an untimely end, and their lu^'gidjors, 
iiiij)i'essccl by that fact, became passive witnesses of evan- 
gelical effort, and in rare instances partakers in its benetits. 
The publisher of the St. John's Piihlic Ledyrr, if. W. Win- 
ton, Es(|., w]ios(} courage in the exposure of the ])olitical 
schemes of the Roman Catholic j)riests rendered him 
oflious to them, was less fortunate. Business having called 
him to Conception Bay during the winter of b"^.";."), four men 
rushed upon him and a gentleman accom})anying liim over 
the hilly road Ijetween Harbor Grace and (Jarbonear, bound 
his companion to a ti'ce, and then, ha\ing dragged the 
otl'ending publisiier, nearly senseless, from his horse, cut off 
both ears close to his head. IMr. Winton lived to continue 
his exposure of priestly schemes, but five years later the 
foreman of his otlice was treated as his employei' had been ; 
larjie rewards being unaNailim; in eithei' case for the dis- 
co\ cry of the perpeti-ators of the vile deeds. 

At the close of the })eriod under review, the number of 
ministers in the colony remained the same as at its lK\gin- 

I I 



insToin' OF MFTiionisM 


\ ! 




H :i 


1 1 

ning, l)ut f)nly two of those pi-f'seiit ;it the district meeting? 
of lS2-t took {>;irt in tlic siinilai' untlicriii^ of ISTti*. Soon 
after tlio earlier meeting,', Tlioinas and dames llicksoii liad 
taken a farewell of the island. To the end of a long ser- 
vice Thomas Ifickson hore the cliaiaetef of a man "full of 
the Holy (ihost and of faith. ' His lnother James linished 
his work much earliei-. It had Item iiis constant aim to 
make his hearers "not only almcjst l)ut altogether" Chris- 
tians. At IJonavista, his miiustry hail hecn specially eti'ec- 
tive. At one service there, continued for several hours, 
forty persons are said to ha\e found peace with (jiod, and 
about thii'ty others, present at the meeting, to have subse- 
quently obtained the same great blessing, dohn Walsh, 
whose record to the last was oiu-. of much usefulness, had 
sailed for England in \^'1~). His passage aci'oss the ocean 
proved an etei'nal l)lessing to more than one fellow-passenger. 
One of his latest pleasures was the collection and despatch 
of articles for a sale in aid of the building fund of the 
Gower-street church, St. John's. Kinian Barr, long remem- 
bered as one of tlie sweetest yet most powerful singers ever 
heard in the island, followed Walsh a year later to Britain. 
As an original, impressive, successfid preacher he was above 
the average. A constitution unequal to the hardships of 
missionary life obliged Simeon Noall to leave Newfoundland 
at the end of a four years' service. Inthat rock-girt isle 
kind hearts remembered him as allable to youth, attentive 
to pastoral visitation, mighty in prayer and earnest and 
evangelical in the pulpit. Desire for a more genial climate 
led the gifted John Coi-lett, in 18.")(), to the West Indies, 
where a ministry of unusual vigor and length proved the 
wisdom of the transfer. One aftei- anotln'i- of his junior 
colleagu(!S fell theie, but lie survived to forward their 
latest messages to frietuls at home, and to retire as a 
supernumerary at the end (tf .1 fifty yeais" service. Three 



[ meeting 
i*». Soon 
ksoii had 
loni; scr- 
1 '-full of 
's linislii'd 
it aim to 
■r" Chiis- 
ially etieo- 
I'al hours, 
(j!od, and 
ave subse- 
hn Walsh, 
dness, had 
the ocean 
d desjtatch 
nd of the 
ng reniem- 
nuta\s ever 
to Britain, 
was above 
rdships of 
:k-girt isle 
rnest and 
Hal climate 
st Indies, 
|)i'oved the 
his junior 
ai'd their 
tire as a 
H. I'hree 

years latei- Charles Bate, after a nine yeai'.s" ministry in the 
colony, was i(Mn()\ed to St. Kitt's. At the end of an v\'j}\{, 
years" itinerancy in the West Indies he died atTortola, " in 
great peace." About the close of the period John l>oyd 
turned his face honx'ward. \\i' had Ixhmi a general fa\(iritc, 
and when some others had regarded their ]i\-es as in dan^^er 
through the Roman ('atholic disturbances he had jiassed 
fearlessly through hostile groups. A subse(iuent ministry, 
rich in blessing, was followed by an old age to which an all- 
pervading j)eace is said by his friends to ha\e gi\(Mi a b(>au- 
tiful aspect. Of permission given John Haigh, in ]><.'U>, to 
return to England, that minister did not a\ail himself till 
six years later, when, the JMiglish (conference! having ap- 
pointed him chairman of the lialiama District, his medical 
adviser warned him of probable danger fiom the proposed 
change. Ever prominent in his recollections was Carl^onear, 
the scene of the revival described on a previous i)age, the 
remembrance of which frecjuently exerci.sed a " vivifying 
power" in moments of depression. In 18.'58, aftei- a ten 
years' useful ministi-y, John Smithies also left the colony, 
and in ISM) sailed for Western Australia, to l)egin there a 
new mission. Eour only of the ministers removed found a 
new field on the main-land. The senioi' of these, liichai'd 
Knight, was requested by the Missionary Committee, in 
1S.')3, to take the chair of the Nova Scotia District ; in the 
same year John Tomkins, a minister of only six years' colo- 
nial service, was sent to the city of Quebec, to spend in tiic 
province of that name a ministerial service whicii ended in 
18S1 ; and in the following yeai' William Wilson and 
Richard Shepherd were removed- the first to I'rince 
Etlwaid Island, the second to New Brunswivk.' 

'The aciH'ptancf (if S;muu'l W. SpniKUf, as a faiidiilatc, in l.s;i,s, for 
tltc iiunistry, has hecn imtind on a lu'cvions |>a|;c. At tin- di'^rric^ 
niiftiny: <>f that year .Fosias K. Hmun was also unaniiiiMiisly ncmi- 
iiR'iult'd as a caiididati'. Brown was a young Scotrhnian, wlm liad s|icnt 

r 5 



■i- i 

\ \ 

I- t! 

I . ;; 

With the iiJiMioK of scNcral othor iiiiiiisttM's who thon 
(Mitcrcd tlio colony iiiiiiiy readers of tliis vohiine ai-e familiar. 
William I'^iulkiier, foi' years a j)opular and useful meiiiher 
of tlie district, reached the island in 1 S:!0. in 1S;52 
Thomas Ani,'\vin, a son of Cornish Methodism, and four 
years later. )ohn S. Addy, a Methodist of the fourth genera- 
tion, reported to the cjiairrnan ; and in the autumn of IS.'}" 
James lMii,dand left P>ritain to commence a life-long colonial 
woi'k. The passages of 'I'homas Angwin and James Eng- 
land were exceedingly perilous. The former minister sailed 
from Poole in an old vessel which had been carried as a 
prize into Halifax during th(^ war of 1812. After most 
iiiniiinent danger from iee she reached her destination, a 
fact which seemed little less than a miracle to those wdio 
saw her frame exposed on her return to an English port. 
James I^]ngland, who had been ordained with Thomas 1>. 
Freeman, and had expected to lie sent to South Afi'ica, 
sailed for Xewfoundlaud in an e(iually unsea worthy vt\ssel. 
After a three months' conllict with wind and waves, she 
was driven 1 ack fi-om the IJanks to Ireland, her crew and 
f^ingle passenger haxing been saved from starvation by 
several ])ai'rels of iloui' picked up fi'om the sea. The young 
missionary saw the vessel a wi'eck in an Irish harbor, re- 
turned to his home in Yorkshire, and iu the following 
spring made a second and successful attempf to reach his 
allotted field. During the following autunni William ISIar- 
shall also ai-rived to (•dinmcnce a, biief, devoted career. 

Severjil other ministei's were during the same period 

( 'ill 

•car.-' Ill a iiicix-aiitilc liniisc a 

r St. .Idl 


liaviiiif licsitatt'd tu aocfiii 

Ins service 

iiccansc of suiiii 


.ii'^'lisli aiitlion- 

VIlll>*tll' tciidcncic; 

he \\i 

lit to I'aiu'laiK 


)( )8t'( 

calJc'i (I 

II tllClll. 

and so 


ivoralily impressed tlieiii tliat tiny phu'cd liim in tin 'I'licnldLrical Iiisti- 

lutidii a 

t 11. 

iixtdii. and sMoii after sent liiiii tu the West Indies. Ila\iii;-'" 
caujilil tlu' spirit of " lieforiu," lie in 1S4.S withdrew frnm the itiner- 
ancy, liecanie a local preacher ami went into Imsiness in an l"] 



e IS s 

:iid to have snl)se(|nently identified liinisclf (|nile proini 

iiciitly with the " Wesleyau lUfoiin" [larty, 



who then 
il incnilxM- 
In 1S;}L> 
find four 
til ^ciicra- 
m of 1 J^"')? 
ig colonial 
ames Eng- 
ster sail(!(l 
xrried as a 
^ftor most 
tination, a 
tliose who 
iglish port, 
riionms l>. 
th Africa, 
thy vessel, 
waves, she 
' crew and 
vat ion l»y 
The young 
arbor, re- 
reach his 
liani Mai'- 
ne period 

lisli :mtlinri- 

S\l|l|)( ISt'll 

1(111. and sii 
]i;j-iciil I list i- 
llii- itiiK'V- 
liiii I']n^-li>li 
jiiitc [iiN.ini- 

ti'ansfen-ed to th(^ colony from oth(>r Uritisli Ameiiraii 
]irovinces. James (J. Ilcnnigar, tlrst on the list, arri\ed 
from Nova Scotia in iS.'i."), hut through serious illness 
was obliged to lea\e Hrigus in IS.'UJ for his natixc i)i()\ im-e. 
In 1S31 Joseph V. Ilent and William Murr;iy, both from 
New Ih'unswick, took cliarg*' of circuits, hut remained in 
the islam! a year or two only, the latter l('a\ iiig it in 
rajiidly declining health. .\l)out the same time I ngliam Sut- 
clillc, a young hlnglish minister, who had been stationed a 
year or two in C^niadn, took charge of another N<'wfoun(b 
hiiid circuit. These ministeis were followed in 1S.'»7 by 
John Snowball, and in IS.")'.) l)y ,b)liii McMurray, both fr()ni 
No\a Scotia. 

The first Wesleyan mission;) ry to find a grave on the 
island was Wildam j'^ilis, whose dust rejioses near the fiont 
of the chui'cli at llarl'oi' (irac". I'^rom ilonavista. one of 
liis most suci'cssful llclds, he look his departure in 1S.">."). 
I''ew tearless eyes were to he se<'n in the church in which he 
pr(>ached his last sei'inon tlier<'. That summer, on account 
of his enfeebled health, he was placed by his hrethreii at 
Trinity, the least laborious post at their dis[)osal. During 
a visit to l>onaventur(^ he preached several times in a small 
chui'ch from which tli ■ ice had been cut by hatchets, and in 
this way took a. s(,'vei'(> cold. After a tliice months' silence 
he visited St. .rohus, to meet his lu-ethren at their annual 


lerniL' m 

■ >( 

hut Ix'came too ill to attend their sessioi 


■y sa\ 


his work was done, atu 


)lace(l his name on 



their Minutes as a supernumeiary at HarlxM- < 

seftier having liiigennl a few months, \\{\ iiiiishecl his course 

in the full assurance of liope. 

By the' twelve Wesleyaii ministers, assisted though they 
wei'c hy useful lay helpers, not more than ten or tweUe 
thousand licai-t rs could lie reached with any fi(M|uency. 

Othei' I'rutestant bodi 

es, unfoi tunattdv, wei-e doing less in 

i i 





the way of Gvaiit^olizatioii. TIk; C^on<:,'i'<'<,'atioiialists had 
ceast'd to maintain the t'(!W missions at tlic outports at- 
tempted l)y tliem in tlu; (^ai'ly yeai's of tlio cfutury : the 
Episcopalians, with a consich;i'al»h' numhci' of hiy roach'rs and 
tfacheis, had oidy eight oi'chiincd nicMi ; and no other sec- 
tion of tli(! Protestant ('hiii'ch had any organized congrega- 
tion in th(* colony. In the meantime the Iloman Catholics, 
un<h'r the direction of an aggressive hislioj) and assisted hy 
foreign aid, had for some years being doing tluur utmost to 
secui-e conti'ol of the population. ' In \i(nv (»f the estahlish- 
ment of a representative legislatui'e, the lii'st session of 
which was opcmed in 18.'5;}, the; numl)er of priests was 
I'apidly eidarged. In 1830 there were sm'en priests, only 
three of whom, however, wei'e fully effective ; but tiiese 
wer-e joined early in 1S;U by six othei's, and in 1S3."'» by a 
further rcunforcement of tive, the lattei' luiving been accom- 
panied by a small nund>er of Presentation nuns from (lal- 
way. The political aml)ition of the l)ishop soon involved 
th(! colony in serious domestic trouble. It was seen that 
his will determined the retui'u of candidates for the legis- 
lature ; and that a Jloman Catholic elector who ventured 
to claim liberty of action soon furnished a forcible illustra- 
tion of the fact that Rome reduces the whole man to politi- 
cal as well as to religious serfdom. At tlie same time it 
was sadly significant that in those metropolitan and other 
districts where Roman Catholicism most flourished and her 
dignitaries wielded the strongest influence, the wretched- 
ness and poverty of the masses were most distinctly marked. 
The consecjuences of Papal aggressiveness had become 
visible to the scattered Wesleyan ministers long before they 
were apprehended by Protestants at large. Perversions from 

•"' Ac'CDnliiiy to u ot'uwus taken in 1X25, thi' jxipulation of tlie whole 
island, not incliidini,' tiif few inhabitants of the Frencii shore and Labra- 
dor, was (iO,OS8, of whom 24,S22 were Konian Catholics. 




l! \ 

If \ 



sts had 
lorts !it- 
ry : tlu' 
U.TS and 
\\{'V s«'c- 

listed Ity 
tinost to 
^ssiou of 
:^sts was 
sts, only 
Lit these 
S;3;? Uy a 
n accoiu- 
roni Oal- 
eeii that 
lie le-^is- 
o politi- 
tinie it 
d other 
vnd her 
ore they 
)us from 

tile wliolw 
ii(i Lalira- act'oi'diii<i[ to iJoiniui ('atliolii- ret urns, num- 
licrcd not less than tisc liiindfed diirinij the two years IS.'J,")- 
,'5(». It was towai'd the close of the period undrr review 
that a genei'al awakiny' on the pait of the Protestants took 
place. To })rotect their people against fui'thei- p(;rversion 
tlif? l']piscopalians soll^dltth(! formation into a new bishopric 
of tli(> islands of Newfoundland and IJcrnnida. both pre- 
\ iously ini'Iuded in the diocese of Xo\a Scotia. Their elToil 
led t(» tla^ consecration of Aubrey Spenser, I ).!>.. \:~, bishop 
of the new diocese, and to an early enlarijeinent of the staff 
of the colonial cler<,'y. Lack of means threatened to prevent 
any inimediat(; extension of Methodist eilbrt. The finances 
of th(! \\'(>sleyan Methodist Missionary Society were at tliat 
time in a stati; of serious end>ai'rassment. Sevei'ai of the 
missionajies then in the colony liad been sent thither in the 
expectation that a part at l(>ast of the circuits would soon 
l»ccome self-sustaining, but financial disastei' and thechrc^nic 
poverty of many of the fishermen had pr(>vented the antici- 
pated development. Thus disappointed, ham})er(!d by <h'bt, 
and pi'essed by Macedoiuan calls from \arious distant 
(juai'ters, the missionary authorities had with difliculty been 
induced to keep up a statl" they were unable to increase. 

Proffers of assistance were made, however, from an 
unlooked-for direction. Thouiih the chairman had been 
ol)liged to send John S. Addy to (Jrand liank, he endeavored 
to carry out in part the wish of the INlissicmary (Jonunittee 
that he should be employed as a visiting missionary, by 
instructing him to travel extensively through the more dis- 
tant settlements in Fortune Bay, and as far lieyond a,s ndght 
be possible. In the following spring the comndttee 
reipiested the same ministei- to \ isit the JJay of Islands and 
report to them the state of tlu; population in that section of 
the ci)lony. Adam Ni'ditinirale had also beeu instructed 
a few months earlier to visit the more needy places in liona- 


II , 
It t 

IS ' 




18 1 


vista Ijiiy, juid, if possible, some of those in the more 
northern disti'iels. Th('S(! cflorts wcri^ oltserscd with .satis- 
faction hy others than Methodists; and in particidar by 
the Con<,'regationalists of St. John's. Isolated Oongrega- 
<i;ationalist.s had rendered valuabh; aid at several of the 
stations, and soiiu^ influential members of the main l)ody at 
St. John's had befMi i,'enerous eontributors to Mothodist 
funds ; but now, inlhuMiced l)y lioman Catholic intolerance 
and CiuHvh of lOngland (^\chlsiveness, they resolved to oiler 
to their ^Fethodist bi-ethren more systematii; assistance in 
the extension of missions which they declared to be tiie 
"grand bulwark " against Home's encroachments. Among 
these Congregationalists were seveial I'jiiglish merchants, 
men of intelliirence and monev. Tin; first i)ublic e\i(lence 
of their growing fraternal sympathy given at the mis- 
sionary meeting h(»ld during the annual gatluu-ing in 
St. John's in li^.'iT. At that mec.^ting Robei't Job, Ks(j., a 
leading Oongregationalist, proposed the formation of a dis- 
tinct fund for the sup[)ort of missionaries to be con- 
stantly engaged in visiting destitute sections and scattered 
settlements; and aflirmed his l)elief tliat through moneys 
collected in the colony, and with the aid of a large London 
firm liaving several branches on the southern coast, a 
suflicient amount would be raised to sustain, without further 
burden upon the English Committee, two additional mission- 
aries, the one to travel on tlie northern and the other on 
the southern shore of the island. Pleased with this offer, 
the members of the district meeting in their annual letter 
to the Committee asked the concurrence of the authorities 
and the despatch of two young men suited for the intended 
work. The Connnittee assented to the scheme, and in their 
next general repoi't announced their intention to secure for 
the colony, if jiossiljle, the additional missionaries, and thus 
do their part towards exhibiting " to their neglected Fi'otes- 
tant brethren there the doctrines of tlie cross of Christ." 

/.V \J'JWl'(>UXI>LA.\l>. 

1 Sf) 

Fii\'()i';il»l(' tidiun's fioiii I'!iil;1;\ii(1 led (o tlic adoption ot' 
actixc incasiircs, in wiiiidi William Faulkner, a( St. .Iclui's 
iVoni IS."»7 to I "^10, w.i-, (,)!(' of the Iradin;,' spiiits. Anionic 
the lay nicHilxTs of the tirst conniiit (cf of t lit' St. .) olm's 
Au.xiliarv Wcslcvan Mis.sionarv Socit-tv wfic fouf ( "()n<'i'«v 
gati()na,lists and oni' Presbyterian. Sonic delay look place 
>f tlie uiis.sionarics, and several of the minis- 



le an'i\' 

ters present at the annual uicctiii!;' of ls;;s Noluntccred 
thei'ef(»r(> to spend se\(!ral nioiitlis. at distant jx.ints, l>ut it 
was not thought, wise to take llieni from their circuits in 
the -'l'' 'iU'(^ of snitahle lay helpers. \ year later, ho\ve\er, 
when tive hundi'cd pounds had licen placed in the hands of 
the ehaii'Uian of the district, he and his colleaijucs assumed 


le responsiliility of sendin 




irshall as a \isitin,!4 

missionary to Ilerndta;4e Www and other sections of the 
southoi'n coast, althouyh they had to lea\(; the Old I'erlican 
cir<.'uit with its thirteen liundred Protestants, one thousand 
of wiii)m wei'e Methodi-,ts, without pastoral superxision. 

t the same time made for an e\tensi\e 


rranii'einents were a 

visitation of outlyiui; districts hy se\-eral other ministers, 
their travelling e.v})onses l)eing pro\ id(,'d hy the newly 
organized society. 

At the close of the annual meeting of ls:V.) the chair- 
man. .John Pickavant, sailed for Xova Scotia. At Halifax, 

iccordini; to appointment, he met Rohert AUUm-, one of the 


ary Secretaries, and a nu nd).M' of tin; ministers of 
the Nova Scotia aiul Xew r»runswick Districts. "Help, 
iuunediate and ethcient help is needed," they said when 
they had listened to Pickavant's description of tlie moral 
condition of a lai-ge part of the population of Newfound- 
land and of the schemes of lloman (Jatholic airents, and 



the Mi 

len tliey unanunousiy resr>l\(Ml t(^ ask the .Missionary 
Committee to send thrcM? or four additional missionaries to 
that priest-ridden colony as soon as possihle. 


1.0 lifi 




1.25 1.4 


-m 6" — 












(716) 872-4503 




ISI.ANI) DIsriMcr, I'KO.M is:!(i To I'lll': ("UN 



iJivisioji of t lie I )istrict. riiaii^Ts in tlif list nf ministiTs. A|i|niiii1ni<'iits 
to tlif West Indies. ( ;u\ sImid". ( ';i|M rirt'tiiii. Iliilifax. \ Oiinj^' 
iiiini-'ters. Siiuliciiafiuiic and 'I'luro. 

At the llrilisli Conforenc*; of l.S'i.'), the luissioiis in tin; 
.M;iritiiii<' Provinces wero (lividcnl into two sections. Of 
these on»>, with StepiuMi IJanifoid as chiiiiiiian, was (l(^si<^- 
nated the Nova Scotia and Prince b^dwaid Island District; 
the other, under the directi(»n of liicliard Williams, was 
known as tlu; New Piunswick District. The division lines 
were at first di'awn with little rcjLjard to provincial bound- 
aries, Kven aftei' some readjustnu'iit, tlu^ extensive Ann- 
apolis Valley and a section of the township of Cornwallis 
continued to he a ))art of the New Hi'unswick l.>istrict. 
The formal separation took j)lace in IS'JC), when the min- 
isters from tlu; three })rovinces met in Halifax, and there 
formed two district organizations. 

Several changes in the list of ministers followed the n(!w 
arrangenuMit. At the close of the meeting at Halifax, 
William JJurt sailed for New York on his way to Canada. 
A dense fog led the (frumil S(<ir/>- into the h-ii-bor of Port 
Hehert. There IJurt arranged for an eaily Sunday service 
at the house of his friend, Tilley Richardson, hut a nu>ssage 
received as he was altout to announce a hymn, only piM'- 
mitted jiim in prayer to commend the littU^ company to God. 
Two years later he returned to Kngland, to pursue a most 

/x jXova scot/ a. 




IS in tlif 

3ns. OF 

IS (l(\si«,'- 

District ; 

-ins, was 

ion lines 


e Ann- 

n wall is 


le niin- 

k1 tlnu'e 

the iu)\v 
of Port 
ily pei'- 
to God. 
a most 

nseful ministry. In IS IS Im was made chairman of an 
I'liglish district, and in 1S.')1 was elected a memb.M" of tlu; 
" lit'gal J[un(Ii'ed." At the a^(^ of seventy he Iteeaine a 
supernumerary, and in his seventy ninth year enteied u}>on 
eternal r<'st. When his naine was read fron» the death-roll 
(»f the Conference of 1871, Dr. Osborn rose to remai'k that 
he had l)een "one of tli(^ tinest illiistiations of the fact that 
a Methodist pi'eacher with n(!ither e.\tensi\e yifts nor \)VO- 
foiind learning,' may neverthehvss <^et a congre<(ation and 
keep it. if is deceased friend had done this eveiy where." 
" If ever a man used his talent conscientiously in the (Ireat 
Muster's i-ause, it was William IJurt," said a nephew who 
had li\ed undei- his uncle's roof and witness(>d his careful 
study <»f the ancient and modern classics and his delight in 
i-eadiuL? the works of the hest Puritan preachers and wi-iters. 
Such statement^, with a remark of Dr. Oslmrn upon Mr. 
r>urt's ([ualities as a " house-goiiiLf "' minister, prepare us 
t'(ir the I'emark of a second nejdiew, W. I>, Pope, D.D., who 
speaks of his uncle's journal as "monotonous in its recoj'd 
of refreshing seasons and instances of usefulness." In (>ach 
of his coh^nial circuits men converted und(U' his ministry 
iH'came esteemed local standard hearers. 

Henry Pope, William Bui't's early friend, succeeded him 
at (Jharlottetown. As one of the earliest English pioneers 
in the Up})ei' Pi'ovinces he had travelled the circuits of the 
Canada District in the saddle-hags hi'igade ; and had heen 
the lirst English Wesleyan missionary at York, now 
Toronto, tlien a place of lifteen hundi'ed inhahitants. 'I'he 
late Di-. (^irroll in liis boyhood one day caught a glin)pse of 
him as he passed in his "light waggf)n," while he and some 
other lads were at l)lay uiuhu" the shade of the oaks which 
skirted the banks of the Toronto l>ay, and never lost the 
impi'ession made upon him by the simpU; elegance of the 
young Methodist preacher and tiie woithy wife he had 




iiisroh'Y or METHODISM 


h M 

found iiciu- Utica, on the Mohawk |{i\('r. During tlio jKM'iod 
of i'i\aliv Ix'twccn llio .Methodists of iJritish and Aincii" 
can oriifin h<' had occujiicd souh' adxanccd posts as no nici'*' 
spcctatof of an unfortunate str'ife. in lS2r», uuih-i' instfuc- 
lions from the C'oniuiittce, he reich<'d (.'hai lottctown, where 
two ))h;asant ami prolital)le years wer<' sjieiit l)y him. 

|)urini( the same year Koliert N'ouni( also entered the 
district. .\t the t h)S(> of (die of his earlier essays at pleach 
iny, an injudicious ciicuit ollicial had advised liim to '• i^o 
liome and never attempt to preach a^ain ' a piec(> of 
CO insej which, fortunately for the <'ternal interests of 
th(»usands, he found himself unaMe to follow. A sermon l»y 
Uohert Newton had helj>ed him to respond {o an inward call 
to forei<,oi Work. Soon aftei' compliance lie was selected to 
l»e the companion of Samuel Leii,di, the pioneer in .Aus- 
tralian W'esleyan missions, hut an unexpected occurrence 
led to his despatch to the West Indies. .\t the end of six 
years" residence there the health of his family demapided a 
cooler climate, and he recei\tMl an ap))ointment to Liuien- 
huri(, hut through delay in the ari'i\al of the .Minutes he 
was sent to Windsor, where he remairunl. That liappy 
comltination of talent and tact, whiili led l)r. danu\s I)i.\on 
more than once to say that Koheit Youni; could "manage 
men," proved of advantage to a circuit where the ex- 
istence of ''high j)arty spirit " had foi- some time l)ecn 
iioutrali/ing the ('ll'ect of all pastoial ethirt. A long con- 
tinue(l i-evival Ix^gan, sixty pei'sons were receivivl into 
church fellowsiiip, the chui'ch which in ISTJ had heen 
removed into the village was twice eidarged and the par- 
sonage finished, and at the end of a three years' term pei'- 
fect hai-mony was leported. Special permanence was given 
to this work l>y the pastors intei'cst in the young men of 
his charge, some of whom, to the end of a long life, wei'e 
wont to mention his nanu' in words and tones of allection- 
ate reverence. 



Illtlio .Miiiutt's of the t'olldu iiii; yt'.Mi' thicc new iiiiint's 
tippcarcd. William W'clili iiikI Willi. ini Smidi w ci <■ t't-llnw 
|);isseiii,^('rs from l'!iiL,'laii(l. 'Ilir failiff year.- of William 
Weld) had hccii spt'ut at jiatli. Mis j)ariMits w cic Mjiisco- 
piilians, hut his rai'ly associations were with the ( 'oiiLiici^fa 
tionalists, in which Itody his only luotlici' liccainc a miiiislcr. 
For Williiim Jay, ujioii whose ministry he had liccn for 
somo timo an attendant, he cntci'taincd a |>rofonnd respect. 
.lonathan Edniondson, the human a^ent in leadini,' him into 
the path of life, aided him in preparation for that <all to 
tnissionary service in Nova Scotia which reached him in 
the autumn of lSi.*7. William Smith had l)een trained in 
the path of wisdom hy a widowe<l inothei- in a (piiet I'ji^lish 
home. Both youu'' men on theii- arri\al at Halifax were 
sent to Prince Kdward l.slan<l. Wehli, who to the last was 
a close observer of the personal s})iritual (•(didition of the 
members placed uiulei- his care, was depressed on arri\al at 
Murray Harbor, but in the course of a few weeks was alile 
to send a pleasing i-epoi't from his then isolated chari^'e. A 
sinnlar I'eport was presented by his friend, who had uone at 
the same time to l>ede([ue and Tryon. The thii'd youn«^ 
man, .lames Melvin, had preceded Webb for a few months 
at Murray Harbor. He had accompanied llobeit L. i-ushei* 
from the Liverpool circuit to the annual met^tinu', and had 
there passed a very satisfactory exandnatioii. His l»rethren 
sent him to liittle Harbor on the southern coast, liut I)y 
order of the Kn<j;lish Confei-ence he left that place for Prince 
I'idward Fsland, whence he soon withdrew to leturn to Xo\a 
Scotia.' But, as was too often then the ease, the ari'i\al of 

' At a stiliNc(|iifiit (late Milvin prfaclnd fur llic l''rrc-\\ill Ilaptists 
at I'mt Mcdway. lie tlicii. >i|)c)ii the let ircnicut nf Williaiii I'.Mer tVuni 
tlie ( '(Pii^'rej,rati(>iial cliiu'eji at la\ei-|ii"il, ■n|i|ilie(l the |iiil|>it tlieie, and 
aftel'Uai'd.s aecejited a call to tlle paNtdfate >>f the ^(lll,L(^e;,^•^l imi. Ill IS.'id 
he appeared hefnre the pill llic as plain tin' ill t he w ideiykimw ii < Jnriiani 
will case, ilavin^' estalilislied his claim to the liecpiest fur the niainten- 
iuu'e of a r'on^rre^'atiniial minister at lii\er|iiMil, h*-' reliiiipii^Ueil a part 
of the auHjuiit and retired altogether tn>m pastoral duty. 



youn^ ;ui(l earnest woi-kcrs was followed liy the rcmoMil lo 
other points of men of experifnice Jind well-tiiod 'oitli. On 
the Jippointnient of the man Just named, IJolx'it L. liUslie!-, 
wliit as superintfMuh'nt of tlie Ilalifnx and Liscipool 
circuits had l)«'en lii<ddv esteejiied foe his aniiahh^ and <'<'n- 
th'manly bearing and his faithful preai-jiini; of tlie (iospel 
by word and by life, sailed foi- l''nL,dand. I)ul•in^' his 
previous residence in Canada he \\\A lalxtred with much 
success in ^fontreal, where under his direction a second 
cliurch had been erected. In lS."i7 Ik^ retui-ned to Canada 
as chairman of the East(Tn District, in the circuits of which 
lie spent all his subse({uent years. 

'Plie Missionary Committee, aljout this |)eiiod, made several 
attempts to bring about more fre([uent exchanges between 
tlieir missionaries in the Bi'itish American Piovincesand the 
West Indies. The fii'st Provincial to go southward in re- 
sponse to the call of the Committee was John Shaw, of 
Newport. As a local preacher he had followed Webb at 
INIurray Jlarboi-, and thence, at the call of the chairman, 
had gone to Wallace. While there lie had received intelli- 
gence of his acc(>ptance as a preacher on trial, with appoint- 
ment to tiie Hahamas. The rupture of a Itlood vessel a year 
or two later sent him back to Nova Scotia to die. Soon 
after the sunset houi", calm and clear, had come to this 
young man, another native-born provincial minister, of more 
matui-e experience, sailed for the West Indies under 
direction of the Committee. The intended transfer of 
William If. (afterwards Dr.) Rule from St. Vincent to 
Nova Scotia, and the subsequent des[)atch in his stead of 
William Dowson from St. Eustatius to Halifax, had led the 
Connnittee to recjuire a removal in the opposite direction. 
Thomas II. Davies, whose nami; had appeared on the INIinutes 
of 1830 as a minister in Antigua, was permitted to i-emain 
at home, and the name of Matthew liichey, who had pre. 

JX .\()VA SCOT/ A. 


\ ioiisly spent 


i liter ;it the south t'(»r tlir bciu'lit of an 

invalid wife, \v;is siiltst it ntcd. Tliat minister's reasons for 
(leelinini; ;t West ln(li;in iijijioint incnt were also aecoptod 

wild, liDWcver, forwarded p('i'(Mn|ttoi'y 

liv the ('(ininiittee 

(iidei's that, another minister should Ito chosen 1)V the dis- 

tiiet and sent southward withou 

t d( 1 



ial meetinir 

was held at Windsoi", the names of Crane, llcMiniijar aiul 
McDonald, as sui,'ifested l)y the C!onimitteo, were* discussed, 
and Kolici't II. (Irano was chosen foj* the distant ])Ost. 
lla\in!4 settled the allairs of the I'arrshoro' and Maccaii 
circuit, he saile(l with his family from Halifax on a Sun- 
day afternoon in June, IS.'i-J. In the jj;atherini^ <ilooni of 
(ncninit^ and in somewhat melancholy mood lie watched the 
r«'ceding slu)res of his native land, even the " l)ald rocks of 
Samhro Head"' se(Mnin<^ to have an attfactiveness seldom 
ascribed to them as lie looked upon them for the last time. 
In the islands of St. X'incent and Tobago lie secured 
the love of the ministers and the societies. With deep 
interest he witnessed the abolition of African slavery, and 
awaited the removal of its lasr legal vestige, the apprentice- 
ship .system. Even after he had seen the ravages of yellow 
U'wv in Toliago, and under his own roof, he was anxious to 
remain in the islands until the year 1840 should liave 
arrived. " I sliall then," he wrote to a friend at home, 
" yladlv visit you to tell vou that all the slaves of these islands 
are free." Failing health, however, re(|uired him to seek a 
somewhat earlier return. The Committee notified him of 
an api)ointment to a new provincial chai'ge, but while 
l)usied in settinu his circuit in order for his successor and in 
making preparations for the annual meeting, he fell in the 
grijt of lierce fevei', and on the evening of the following 
Sal»bath ceased to work and live. The first duty of his 
brethren from the neighl>oring islands, and of his successor 
from New Brunswick, as they met at Kingstown at the end 



3*;- » 













of traiui.'uy, \s:\\), was (o fdiiiiiiit )<> tlu; cai'tli tlio ictnains 
of tlio late siijM'i'iiitciHh'iil nt'tliat cirruit. I'liijlit ^^'esl('ya^ 
inissioiiai'ics caiiicd, ami t'nur thimsand pcrsdiis followed, 
Ills liody to (li(! ij;,'a\cyaid at Kingstown. \\li('i'(> his dust 
roposos near tlir finiit of the lar^'i' stone clmrcli eiHH'ted soon 
aftei" his decease. A white maflije taldet. placed on one 
side of the puljiit, tells in hrief the stoiy of the life and 
death of the lifst nati\elioni No\a Sc(;tii.n .Methodist 

In I Sl'S a fufthei' effort was mule foi- the extension of 
Methodism in the east(Mn part of Xo\a Scotia. "William 
Webl> wiis instructed in the summer of that ytar to take 
his station at llixcf dohn. In .Inly he \ isited Albion 
^Mines and spent one l.oidsday there. Under the morn- 
in<' sermon manv "seemed to feel the nowei' of the AVord." 
Tn the afternoon he worshipjicd in the I'i'eshyteiian churcli, 
in which lie was to preach in the evening. 'J'he candid 
]*resl)yterian lnother amused him hy an announcement of 
tli(^ intended sei\ ice, to w hich he appended the remark that 
he "did not like it nciv well, though in \ iew of th(^ kind- 
ness sliown him hy the .Methodists lie could not deny it." 
Early in August, with -lames (J. llenni,<,'ar, he \ isited (Uiys- 
boi'o', the ]>ost desii,nied foi him liy the Committee when he 
left England. William .Munay, Arthur .McXutt's successor 
there, had been a zealous worker, but lack of ordinatio i 
had been pei-sistently urucd against him and not without 
efl'ect. "These iire not ministers," it was said of him and 
his predecessor ; " we do not acknowledge; them as such, 
and the law i-e(|uii'es e\-ei'y man to pay toward the support 
of some I'egularly oi'daincnl minister." The practice of the 
l]|>iscopal minister who sj)ok<' thus was in accord with his 
precept. A general wairant of distraint was issued at his 
instance, and in more than om; cas(! taxes for his support 
were levied on persons who had been mendjers of the 

/.v mjva scot/ a, 


M(;tli()(list C'liui'fli for several yours. ( )f this coiKluft on 
f!u! part of the rector several Kjtiseopalians who li.'ul shown 
iiiucli kiiidness to the young preaeh(M\s weic not slow tr) 


cxiircss tlioir Hisaiuirova 


( )n the (lepartui'e of .Muri'av for the annual nio^'tiri'' 
I'^rancis ('o(»k hail written to William j>la<-k ur'^nj: a 
fuither suj»|ily of preaching, liut the ministers were unahle 
to SLMul a favoraljle reply. In the; following year Cliarlotto 
Newton \ isited Halifax to plead with the assenddefl 
preachers for the pi-esence at (luysl)oi'o' of one >,i tlieir 
niimbei", l)iil her pleading was \ain. Disapjtointejl though 
she and lu'r fiMcnds were, they resolved steadily to sustain 
their social icligious services and tlu' small Sunday- 
st;Iiool commenced by Christian women in L'^L'^. Theso 
faithful ones saw with pleasure the ariival in l^ilS i,i the 
ministers, lleuni''ar and AN'ehl). Sermons were 




on the Sunday, and during the ensuing week a me<'ting wa.s 
called to consider the proposal to erect a .Methodist church. 
Sul)scrij)tions were readily otl'i-red, a suitaV)le site was given, 
and at the end of eight days the young ministers l«?ft the 
\ illage. The chairman recei\ed a favorable report, and in 
a few weeks instructed Welti* to take up his residence at 
(iuysboro'. On Noveml)er 1, IS'JO, the dedicatory .services 
wei'e conducted by the young pastor, a.ssisted by Hennigar 
and Matthew Cranswick. I'revious to that date twenty 
})ersons had been enrolled in membership, to whom, under 
the ministry of Matthew Cranswick, ninety otiiers were 
added during the early months of li^.'U.-' 

Further hostility was aroused by tliis success. Offensive 

remarks r 


•tin"' tiie riirht of Methodist minist^r-rs to 

■-' 111 tlic list (if tlif lattfi' wtTf .Idscpli ainl « Miai'lntti- Jlait. from wli<r.-«». 
tiicsidc tlirtc sons and diii' (ia>i;,'iit(r went into the itiiuraiicy, .-i fourth 
-ou liccoiniii;^' a Incal prcaclier. Oik- of tlicsc, the iictivf and «-n<-n,'»-tic 
.Insiph Ilai't, an cs-prfsidcnt of thf Nt \v lirunsuick and I'ritK:*- K'lward 
Island (-'onfenncc, died in IS.SO, at tlic <'arly age of forty .-i\fn. 















arliiiiiiistcr the sacnmit'iits liaviii-^ Iici-ii marlc hy tin- rector 
to mciiilM'rs ot' tlir society, and repeated l>y liini in a note 
to AlexandtM- W. McLcod, appointed to the ciiciiit in IS;>7, 
tlio latter ndnister in |S;5S pulilished a series ot' letters in a 
small v(»hiinf' eiit 'tied, " The Methodist Ministry JM-fended,'' 
etc. This little \oliinie, eleai' and concise in statoinent, 
rcc'(M\('d in ISIO. tVoin the rectoi- (»f ( iuvshoro , a carefullv 
pr'epared r<'j)ly of similar lenj^th, containing,' the usual ar^^'u- 
iiKMits in fa\(ir of diocesan episc'oj>aey. A second xolume 
from the pen of the Methfxlist pastor ended another of those 
controversies fi'om which theChurch cannot lie wholly deliv- 
ered while any ministers of the (Jospel shall assume the 
unwarranted exercise of lordship nscr others. 

The estalilishment of .Methodism at duvshoro' was soon 
followed l»y its extension to the island of Cape IJreton. 
After the destruction of Louishurir, the I'^rench fortress and 
tJK? wint<'r port of Canada, little notice had been takcMi of the 
island until the commencement of Scotch emigi-ation t hit hei-. 
Thoui,di a separate colony, the ])opulation of Sydney, the 
capital, in 171)8, did not exceed one hundred and twenty 
])ersons. In ISOl*, a shi]) a?'rived at Sydney with eini 
grants from the Scotch Highlands and islands, and from 
that date until IS.'VJ a stieam of ]>opulation continued to 
How fi'om the same (juai'tei' until the island had liecome as 
Gaelic as any part of Scotland. Included in tlie population, 
com})uted about 1830 at nearly twenty thousand, were also 
a good nundier of Acadian Fi-ench. At least thice fifths of 
the inhabitants of the island weie Iloman Catholics, nearly 
all others were Pi'esbyterians. Sevei-al Roman Catholic 
j)riests had watched over their ]>eoj)le, but no body of Pro- 
testants; on the face of the continent had been so sadly left 
to themselves. An l^)iscopal minister at Sydney, where 
government ollicials and a detachment of troops were 
posted, and a Presbyterian minister at Mabou and Port 



llood, wluTO Ji few Prot«'.st;int t'.iinilics wcic scit tcicd 
aiiiDiii,' a lari,'<' Koiiiaii Catliolir |»o|(ulatioii, lircn tin- 
<»iily iTsi(l«'iit |)i-eacli('is of tlio island, and ot" tlirst- iiritlin- 
had any ac(|uaiiitaiu'f' with th«- (Jaclir, the only lanmiai;** 
spoken or nndci'stood hy niin'tfiiths of the I'l'otrslant. 
{lopiilation of the island. 

Jn (^ipc l5rcton, as in sonn- inoir «'.\tcn>i\t' regions, the 
first .M«'thodist workers weic laymen. John Watts, the 
dev(tut Methodist ser^it'ant, was at Sydney in IT^^l* with a 

detfic])nnMit of tlie 'J 1st re;(inient. .\l»out twcnty-t wo years 
jatei- William Charlton, a Inindde lay worker, reached the 
island on a holy errand. This ^^ood man, an i'jii,dishnia?i 
from Kx(»tor, had spent some time on the coast of r.altiiuhn' 
anioni; some Koman Catholic lisheinien. When his com- 
panions had insisted that he should ceaf-e to i)e a Protestant, 
he left them aiul found his way to ('ap«! |5reton. Thence, 
.sooji after his njarria^'e at Louishur*,' in |S(i.">, he remoyed 
to tlie ITnited States. While tryin;,' to obtain the mastery 
o\('r intemperance and other evils he also sou<,dit niemhership 
in the Methodist church in iJoston, then und<'r the clia»'«j;(! 
of I'ilijah l[ed(lin<j[. One day the [>efice (>f (Jod i^daddened 
his heart as ho \yas walkinj^ the road, and on his return 
home he found to his further joy that his wife, whose Ljood 
jud^^ment liad saved hitii from the snare rif Cniyersalism, 
had about the same hour become a ])ai'taker of '' like; 
pr'\ious faith." Soon aftei- conversion lie became a prayer- 
leader and exhorter. On recovery from a seyeiT illness he 
resolved to return to Cape J>reton, with a sj)ecial view to 
the relit,dous interests of friends there. In a short time, in 
spite of persuasion to the contrai-y, he had commenced liis 
mission at the qtiiet tishinLj settlement on th*- shore of the 
historic (Jabai'us J>ay. At his first s«'i'vice one j)ei'son pro- 
fessed to have found salvation ; on the followini,' Sunday 
sixteen otliers made a similar j)rofession ; and the levival 

I! T' 

'r ',: 

1 or, 

ifisToiiv or MhrriKnusM 

|iro»'C((I»'(| until till' Mfiiiics of foits li\(' jifiNous Imth 
rccuHJccI MS l)"lir\ci s iii(Miri>.t, It \\;is |intl»;ilil\ at Clinfl- 
toiis siilicit it ion lliat llilihcit lliriiify. rrttor and militaiy 
»lia|ihiiii at Sydnry, and tin- Hist ininistcr x-wv Men at 
(ialtaiiis, \isitrd tlic latter srttlenicnt in .liinr, Isl'.i, and 
l)a|it i/('(l sixty two |M'rsriiis of all ai,'<'s. 

Wlicn ten more ycais luul ]>assc(l William W'cldi cioss* d 
tlicSlcait of('anso on liis way (o Sydm-y. His journey 
tliitlit-r was taken at tli(! instanee (»f John (ieui'Lje .Marshall, 
l'iS<|., chief Justieo of (Jape T.reton. This gentleman was 
the son of .lose} h Marshall, captain of a Loyalist corps, tho 
Kin^''s Cai'olina Ivani;crs, and snlise»piently a settler at ( Juys- 
l>oro'. The son, on icceixin;,' his judicial appointment in 
iSil,'), had I'enioxed to Sydney and had hecome intimately 
associated with the relii^dous interests of the town. About 
the time of his arrival at Sydney, lliljhei't Ilinney, the only 
Episcopal minist(!r of tho island, and the fathei- of the late 
hishop of that name, took his farewell of the plac<'. His 
ministi'v, as well as that of his predecessor — William Twin- 
inf^, had been evan,uf(dical in character. While a candidate 
for "orders,'" he had spent a summer \acation at Li\er|iool 
as a lay I'eader. With Joshua Newton, a relatixc, lie had 
attended special services in the INIethodist church, and had 
Iteen so far benefited by their inlluence that on l)ecomin<^ 
rectoi- and military chaplain at Sydney he fearlessly a\ow('d 
his lielief in those doctrines which (,'hristians in i,'enei'al 
hold to be essential to spiritual life, and under h' ninistry 
several conscrsions took place.' The preacliinj:; of his suo- 
eesM>r, of a vei-y dillercMit chai-acter, led thou;,ditful hearers 
one aftei- another to des(;rt the chui'ch. .Vmon<^ the latest 
tolea\t' ha 1 been .ludge Marshall, llislei^al duties had not 
prevented study ai the Scrij)tures, and the entrance of the 

■■■ K. A, CrawlfV, D. D., in " .Vcadia ('nlli'j,'f and llurloii AciKleiiiv,*' 



llll ^t'lUTil 

Woi'd ii;i(l i;i\<'ii Iii;lil, uliifli in I 

:_ li;ui it'sii 


111 MIS 

(•(»ii\ cisioii. I*'nr tivf vcais atftr liis wit lidiaw al t'lKiii the 
I'ljiiscojial s('i'\ ic«'s, he liad liccii t'ciii<liict iiiLf rcliyioiiH nici't 
iiii^s (111 flic Lni'd's-day at |iii\atr rfsidciicfs, Imt iiiu^t 
t'lM'M'K'litlv at tlif linusc of I'cttT di- Li^Ir, a .Icrscy hut 
cliaiil. I''tr<irts had in the mcaiitinir Imth ip idc to scfiirc 
tilt' srr\ ict'S of an (•vaii;;cliral iniiiistiT. A siiial 



l)uilt and a tT(Hi(',st was forwarded to hr. l!al 

Knuland. for tin- sclfction of a ( 'oni,'i'('i(atioiial pastor. This 
aiiplicat ion, with aiiotlifr to |i('rsons in Scotland, was 
uiisurccssful. A third ;iii|t('al, ti> the inana^'crs of 
Andovrr 'riicoloi^dral Scminarv, hrouuht to the lit tic 




('. Al.liott, sii 


siiown 111 literary 

ciivlcs as an historical writer, l»iit the youiii,' student ^. >\\ 
returne(l to his friends a!id hooks. When I>oiial(l A, 
l''raser, of the I'res' '* ian ('hurch, \ isited the island ie 
iSi'd, he pi'cai'hed twice at Sydney to a cf)iii,'rei,ation which 
in \aiii ur-'ed iiim to remain. Finally .ludye Marshall and 
his associates resoKcd to in.ake application to the Methodist 
(listriet ineeliiii;'. To the .Metlnxlists the Jud^e was not 
altogether a strani^ei'. He had listened to several of their 
preachers, itinerant and local, and when in attendance at 
the legislature liacl made the acciuaintance of se\"eral other 


worrny memoers 

.f tl 

le society, 


y in 


( , a re(|iiest 



from Sydney for the apjiointmeiit of a minister was f 
warded to the ('ommittee in London, and was followed hy 

I resolution in its ra\(jr from the asstMii 







iiinnediate action Iia\iiig lieen taken, .lud'je Marsliall ap- 
peared before the niiiiisters in JIalifax, in May, 1Sl>!>, to 
urge the instant appointment of one of their number. In 

\iew of this recjuest, .lames ( 


cnnigar was .sent to 

Sydney to await there the arrival of a minister from 
England. On the appearance of Matthew (JraiiL "ick, Ifen- 
nigar left the work at Sydney in his care and removed to 



Ship ITaibor. Some rivalry had arisen through the fornia- 
tion of a Baptist church, but soou after arrival Cranswick 
rej)ort('d a ineinbersiiip in the several sections of the circuit 
of thirty six })ersons, with crowded congregations and pleas- 
ing prospects.^ In the following spring the field was placed 
under the charge of Webb, from Ciuysboro'. The pages 
of that mini.-.ter's journal soon grew ciieery with such 
minutes as also find a place in heaven's record. Winds 
were not always fair, opposition was sometimes ottered, but 
he satisfied himself with vindication of the truth and moved 
on. Travelling was ditticuit, the old French roads having 
become forest atiain, while the newer I'oads were scarcelv 
deserving of the name, yet visits were paid by him to 
several settlements where some from his lips ttrst heard the 
message of salvation. A convert under his ministry at Sydney 
Forks made use of his command of the Gaelic language for 
the benelit of his countrymen, one or more of whom became 
thus prepared for eldership in the Presbyterian Church 
in the island ; and a second, at the same place, lived to see 
two of her sons esteemed ministers of that sectiori of the 
Church, through whose agency she first was blessed. At 
the close of the year he reported eighty-two members, who, 
in accordance witii the readiness of the circuit oHicials to 
make provision for a married preacher, were transferred to 
the pastoral care of John Marshall. At the end of three 
useful years that minister was followed by John Snowball, 
During the residence of the latter preacher at 
Sydney was enlarged, and more than fifty persons, some of 

N Abe)ut tills time, or {K'rliaps a litth' earlier, tuok place the conversion 
of John McKinnon, a Hentenant in the 104th regiment (luring the 
second American war. His father, William McKinnon, for eighteen 
years I'rovincial Secretary of Cape 13reton, died at Sydney in 1811, n-om 
wonnds received during the attack oji Sullivan's Island, Charles. on, 
during the war of the Uevolution. John McKinnon passed away in 
18().S, having first been called to part with a son, William Charles 
McKinnon, who, in a nine years' service in the Methodist ministry, had 
proved a fitting pattern of a consecrated servant of Christ. 



whom li.'ul 1)0CM violent opjxtsci-s, wcrt' added to the societies 
at Sydney, (jral)ai'us and elsewhere, hut the loss of forty of 
the "best" nieinl>eis Ijy I'enioval to the I'nited States seri- 
ously depressed Wel)l) on ins i'eaj)|)ointnient, though his 
eontfipgation at Sydney was the largest in tlu' town. A 
church coinineneed at Sydney Mines in ls;»7 leniained un- 
tinislied until 1S40. 

At Ship Jfarhor Andrew le P>roe([, agent of a CJuernsey 
linn, with several others, had in ISl'S hiiilt a small church. 
This church they had ollered to the W'eshnan Missionary 
Society on condition that a minister should at once be sent 
to occupy its pul})it. Ifennigar on his ariival was otl'eied 
a home at the pleasant residence of Nicholas Paint, whose 
wife, an Ej)iscopaliaii, as was her husband, was deeply 
anxious for the religious teaching, under any auspices, of a 
sadly neglected people. ' In the little church llennigar 
preached to good and attenti\e congregations, from which 
in a few months lu; gathered twenty members. To duty at 
Ship Harbor he added visits to several adjacent .settle- 
ments, but to many urgent calls it was not in his power to 
respond. In the spring the auth(jrities called him else- 
where and placed another in charge. A parsonage was pro- 
vided in 1S.")2, but the l>i'eaking up ab(jut that time of the 
pi'incipal business establishment of the place, and the con- 
seijuent removal of several mendiers io other parts of the 
world, led to a partial al)andonment of the mission. The 
riame remained on the list of circuits, and for some years 
the small society recei\ed at times the steady care of proba- 
tioners or local preachers, but at othei's only an occasional 
visit from the one minister on the island at Sydney. 

' A yiiiiim- liuly from ( lucniscy. of ^'imkI family ami cultvirt'cl mind, 
while rcsidriit w ith .Mrs. I'aiiit, luul ofttii rcud tin- Scii|)tuics in the 
linmes of the ill and ij^iKirant, and ('(Midncti'd the first Snn<luy-schiHjl 
in the [)lacu. Thoiiyli nut at the tinu- a " |)rofe^ <t>v" of religion, she was 
made a hlessiji;,' to her neiLrhliois. .\ few years later her \\(irk was 
crowned by a ileatli of triinnph in her nativi' island. 



S "=) 

iJislioi) Inglis, who proacliod in the Methodist cliurch in 
li^l.'J, observt>s in ilie report: of his visitation tour that the 
l)uil(liii,i< was in a "state of dei-ay," and that no Metiiodist 
minister had resided in the ])Uiee for six years. In ISjS 
the cliurcli was loaned to the Congregationalists, but on the 
formation of the Kastein British Amei'ican Conference the 
mission was ix'sumed under the name of Pfirt Hawkesbury, 
to be steadily continued. From Margari'e an earnest I'e- 
(juest was forwaided in IS:'),'] for the api)ointment of a 
minister to that i)art of the island, V)ut the Committee could 
give no i-esponse to this ap{)eal until 183G, when a minister 
was directed by tli(^ chairman to s])end two-thii'ds of liis 
time at Ship Harbor and Arichat and the remaining third 
at Mai'garee. lOven this anangement was but temporary. 

The small amount of effort put forth in Cape Breton Ijy 
Methodism was not wholly in ^ain. ^lany were led to 
Christ — among tlumi some Jvoman Catholics — but the 
religious state of the ])opulation at large, in 1S30, was sad 
indeed. I Respecting it, Samuel D. llice, a young minister 
sent to Sydney near the close of that year by special 
arrangement, wrote to a friend: "We have classes in the 
island which meet regularly, but liave not seen a missionary 
for two years. There is no such destitution in New Bruns- 
v.ick, with all its wants." And a Presbyterian missionary, 
then on the island, might with ti'utli have I'epeated, in 1S39, 
woi'ds which he had written on his arrival in 1834 : 
" I really ijelievc, from what I have seen and learned, that 
thei'e is not a place in the whole world, professing Chi'is-" 
tianity, whei'e there are so many families so near to eadi 
other and so utterly destitute as our poor countrymen in 
this island are." 

Important successes, varied by reverses, marked the his- 
tory of jNlethodism in Halifax at this period. William 
Temple, \ylien giving in 182G an account of his steward- 



.•hureh in 
r that tlio 
In IS 18 
)ut on the 
^rence the 
jirnest re- 
iient of a 
ttee could 
a minister 
iids of liis 
ning third 
Breton Ity 
re h-'d to 
—but the 
), was sad 
y special 
s in the 
■w Ih'uns- 
,in is;^9, 
11 18:U: 
led, that 
ng Clii'is-" 
to eadi 
lymen in 

the his- 


sliip, reported an addition of thii-ty-nine members. 'I'hat 
number mi:;"ht have been increased had theri^ been a dispo 
sition on the pastor's part to make certain concessions to 
some of those eNani^elical men and women \viio had followed 
John Thomas Twining upon his dismission from the curacy 
of St. Paul's." [""nder the ministry of Stephen Uamford and 
his young colleague, llennigar -the latter aj)pointed for the 
country districts — a number of members wei-e quietly added 
to the society. Uamfoi'd's ([uaint but powerful exhortations 
more than his sermons, attract(Hl many persons to Zoar cha})el, 
some of whom continued their visits from a deep religious 
interest. Among the mercies of whicli the good man made 
"rateful note at the end of his lirst year in the*city was the 
presence in his church of a choir, "nearly all the membei-s '' 
of which were "pious." "Thei'cfore,'' said he, in his child- 
like way, in his report to his l)rethi'en, " their hearts are in 
harmony with their voices."' 

''The st'i'iiKiiis of Isaac Teuiiilf, Lunl Dallinusic's private c-liai)laiii, 
liail prnvcd a lilt'ssiii^' to soun' iiifiulxrs of St. I'aiil's. To liiiii in iiart, 
it is prolialilf, .Nh'. T\s iiiiii^' was iiidchted t'l-r that fvaii|,'fliciil tcacliiii^' 
which lit' in turn j^a\c to otlitrs. On the aiP|M(intnunt liy the r>rili>li 
"■ovcrnnu-nt of l{i)lMrt Willis, prtviously a na\al chaitlain ami at tiiat 
time r('Ctt)r of Trinity I'hurch, St. .lohn, to tlic cliari;-f of St. Paul's, and 
the ri'l)ortfd dctfrniination of the ^ovcrinncnt to place him in the new- 
position l>y military force, if necessary, the evanjifelical section of the 
con^'rej^ation, including' several peixuns lienefited liy ^he preachin;,'' of 
llihliert liinney at Sydney, estalili^hed separate services (.'onducted l>y 
'Twinin"' in Mai'chin^^ton's oh! tha|iel. They then proceeded to liuild an 
" Independent I'lpi.-cojial cliapil ;"' Imt liefore it conM lie completed .Mr. 
Twiniu"", who was garrison cha]>lain as well as principal of the gram- 
mar scliool, yielded to some official jiressure and <liscontiniied the sepai'- 
ate services. A part of the seceders returned to St. Paul's, some \inited 
with St. (ieor^e's, and others Joined in worship with other city conj^re- 
"ations. The ('alvini>tic tendencies of tiie e\an<,'elical I'lpiscopalians 
stood somewhat in the way of their vniion with the Methodists, while 
t he V could scarcely lie satisfied with the low spiritual standard of the 
Provincial I'restiyterianism of that day. I'nder these t'ircumstances 
thev were led, mainly throu^^ii the influence of (tne of their ninnlier, 
tow'ards the liaptists, with whom most of them united as the ori;^'inaI 
memliers of tlie ( Iranville street P>ap ist church. The imtinished liuild- 
in^ was purchast'd l)y them, and used for more than a half century. 
Thi'se seceders from St. J'aul's hecame leaders in the several educational 
and Uiissionary movements of the Jja[)tists of Nova Scotia. 





'in I 

i 'i- 

; 1 






'1^ 1 


' ■■( 


■ 1 





In the list of those quietly added to tlie church in Hali- 
fax at this time was xVrchibald Morton, in later yeais a 
city missionary. This son of Scotch parents had grown to 
manhood when the visits of some Methodists to the Poor's 
asylum led, as he believed, to the conversion of his })arents, 
who were in charge of the institution, and to a determina- 
tion on his own part to be a Methodist whenever he should 
be a Christian. A sermon by AVilliam Black at tlie funeral 
of one of the visitoi'S took him tirst to a Methodist church ; 
a second discourse by Stephen Bamford, followed by an invi- 
tation from a friend, led to his connection with a class ; and 
under another discourse, by William Cioscombe, Bamford's 
successor, th» Holy Spirit aided him in the exercise of that 
reliance upon the atonement of Christ which marks the 
definite point of departure upon a life of faith. JJuring a 
brief residence in Philadelphia he was ordained a local 
preacher, in accordance with the usages of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and was solicited to enter the itinerant 
ranks ; but, returning to Halifax, he resumed his place in 
choir and class and Sunday-school, and during nearly a 
half century proved himself a wise guide to young Chris- 
tians, some of whom became preachers and leaders in the 
provincial churches, while others of them bore the lamp 
of a holy profession beyond the range of our vision. 

During the one short year that Robert Young was the 
colleague of Croscombe at Halifax, that minister rendered 
important service. His sermons .ind speeches were exqui- 
site in finish and point, and were full of Christ. His nume- 
rous hearers he first impressed by his anxiety for their 
spiritual welfare, and then sought to k^ad into the fellow- 
ship of the Church. Judiciously managed i)rayer-meetings 
served as a rallying-point for those who responded to his 
warm invitations, and aided such young men as John 
McMurray, Edward Jost, Jeremiah V. Jost, and others, in 

'■y.n i 



reacliin<; a docisiou tlirough wliich numbers liave been 
blessed. l)uriii<f that year tifty-nine persons were received 
into nieinbei'shipand others were reported on trial. At the 
close of the year the junior preacher sailed for Kngland, 
and there as a rarely successful preacher, a Conference 
rej)resentative to distant mission tields, and a president of 
the IJritish Conference, his abilities found a wide sphen?. 
A son, born in Halifax and baptized by William Black as 
Robert Newton Young, was in 1880 chosen president of 
the liritish Conference. 

William Ci'oscombe's second colleague in Halifax was 
William McDonald — a promising young minister sent from 
the Canada District, but a native of Guernsey, where he 
iirst breathed the vital air while the regiment to whicli his 
father belonged was under canvas. The ministry of Henry 
Pope and llichard Williams at Quebec had been instrumen- 
tal in his conversion. At the end of a few months he was 
sent from Halifax to Charlottetown, and Thomas Taylor, 
who had just arrived from England for Shubenacadie, was 
detained in his place. So abundant in blessing were the 
winter months of 1830-31 that the superintendent an- 
nounced in the spring that seventy persons had been 
accepted for membersliij), while an equal number had been 
retained on probation. No abatement of interest was 
observed under the superintendence of William Dowson, 
transferred from the West Indies as Croscombe's successor. 
Sabbath out-door services were held by Taylor, and occa- 
sional conversions during the summer and autumn were fol- 
lowed by richer manifestations of spiritual influence on the 
earlier days of the new year. During continued services, 
more than two hundred persons were believed to have been 
made partakers of salvation. Among them were a number 
of the soldiers of the 34th regiment. The colonel of that 
regiment, though making no personal profession of a religi- 









ous life, had ol)sorve(l tho consistent conduct of several 
Methodists in his ivi^inient, and, with the ajiproval of the 
j^arrison chaplain -Twining, had issued orders that any of 
his men desii-ous of attending the meetings at the Methodist 
church should have leave until ten o'clock of each evening. 
This thoughtful act on the part of a JJritish officer was 
higldy appreciated by his men, thirty-nine of whom, as 
members of the ^Methodist Chuix'h, bade farewell to the 
society at Halifax when the 'Mth regiment left for New 
iJiunswick in tlie followini-- autunni. 

One of the numerous meetings then held in the school- 
room in the rear of Zoar chapel seems invested with 
special importance. At that meeting two young Irishmen, 
tr.ained as l^oman Catholics, knelt near each other as peni- 
t(uits, and before its conclusion rejoiced as partakers of 
pardon. One was Robert Cooney, of Dublin. His mother, 
a Protestant in girlhood, had so fully eml)raced the creed of 
her liusband that to see her son a priest had become her 
liighest ambition. When his elevation to that otlice seemed 
probable, her letters reported earnest prayers that she might 
see him celebrate "one mass at least " before she should die; 
but the death of her husband so affected the family finances 
that the idea of the priesthood was abandoned, and the son 
was sent out to New l)runswick. ]>y way of preparation 
for leaving home the youth attended the monthly proces- 
sion of his " sodality " in the Carmelite Friary, obtained 
absolution, and, to "leave no unguarded place,'"' received a 
blessed missal and the habit and surplice of the " scapular 
of our Lady of Mount Carmel." While employed in a 
barrister's office at Miramichi, his way to the priesthood 
was again opened and he resumed the necessary studies. 
Already, however, the influences of new-world freedom had 
in some measure prepared tlie young Irishman to look upon 
Roman Catholicism in that spirit of reasonable criticism 



cer Wcas 

which hci' (lii,Miit;ii'i('s so hittt'riy coiuloiiiii. In an at tempt 
during an (Section contost to play a double i;ani(^ his 
bisliop was outwitted, and lie thci'i't'orc shai-ply i-elniked the 
young aspirant to tiie priesthood, not liecaus(^ lie liad 
espoused the interests of the successful candidate, hut 
because he had espoused them too vigoi'ously. This 
duplicity sent the young man foiward in the })ath of in- 
([uiry, and soon caused him to leave his station at JJartibog, 
and to witlulraw from the lloman Catiiolic communion. A 
Protestant now in principle, he yet lacked those strong 
spiritual convictions which impart to princi})le its proper 
power; the veil was still upon his heart. Some degi'ee of 
light was gained through frequent attendance at the Pres- 
byterian and Episcopal churches. The rector of Chatham 
opened a coi'respondeuce respecting him with Pishop 
Stewart of (Quebec, but the young man respectfully declined 
the proffered assistance of both rector and bishop, and found 
special help in a careful study of the Holy Scriptures.' 
The late Joseph Sp)ratt, a local preacher at Chatham, lirst 
approached hiin upon the subject of pei'sonal salvation ; and 
^Michael Pickles, the first Methodist pastor at .Miraniichi, 
took a deep interest in him, as did that minister's successor, 
Knoch Wood. During the special services in Halifax, the 
publication of his "Histoi-y of New Brunswick ' called him 
to that })lace. While attending the meetings conviction of 
sinfulness l)ecame clearer and de(»})er, and finally induced 
compliance with the invitation to kneel as a pcuiitent seekei* 
for pardon. On a subsecjuent Sunday exenjng he assisted 
Thomas Taylor in i\\o [>ulptt, and from time to time I'en- 

■ At an ciu'lit'i' prrii 1(1 at Miraiiiiclii Ifolicrt ( "nnncy liad aciiiiii|iaiiic(l 
l''atlu'r, afterward I'lslmp, I Jullanl. as lie t'dllnweil in the tiaclc of tlic 
aj^'rnt (it tlic Ih'itisli and Fdrci^ii llililc Society, to secure coiiies of tlie 
Scriptures wliidi liad l>een distriluited anion^' liis iieople. and had known 
that the conscience of tliat. aniiaMe priest liad allowed him to put the 
collected cojiies in u stove, withoiit, however, having |)ennitte(l hiui to 
hum them. 





dered such appreciated service, that in \9>'S'l the iniiiist<M-.s of 
the district gave him a iiTiaiiinious recommendation to the 
Englisli Conference and a conditional appointment to 
Murray Ifarboi/ 

Robert Cooney's young fellow countryman knelt, as did 
several others that evening, in the uniform of a I'l-itish 
soldier, and with Archibald Morton near him as a counsellor. 
At the time he was a bugler in the 'Uth I'egiment. His 
father was a Roman Catholic, and his mother a Protestant ; 
the son had been trained according to his father's creed, and 
his name had been entered on the regimental roll as a 
llonian Catholic. He had, however, at one time attended a 
Sunday school, at which he had received the gift of a New 
Testament. An elder brother liad become a Methodist, but 
the bitter persecution of relatives had driven him across the 
Channel. His subsecjuent life could not be traced, but his 
forbearance under trial left an impression upon the younger 
brother not to be effaced in his most reckless days. AVhile 
in quarters at Georges Island, near the close of 1H31, he 
became involved in a street fray, and received such injuries 
as placed him in the military hospital. The injured soldier 
was fortunate in meeting there a chaplain who was careful 
to speak kindly to the erring and wayward. On his return 
to regimental duty he was further cared for by a ^Iiithodist 
bandsman. The latter, finding in him an interested listener, 
sometimes led him out of the barrack-room to a gun, 
under the shadow of which they found a secluded s[)ot for 
reading and conversation. The late Samuel Chittick, 
anothei" ]Methodist comrade in the 34th, believed that it was 
beside that gun that Francis Johnson was converted, but it 
was probably the place of decision only. Foster then led 
liis friend to the iMethodist church. At the close of a sermon 
the latter said to the preacher : "I am a poor ignorant 

^ " Autohiugrapliy of a Wf.slcyan MinistiT," \)\). l!(-27. 



Catholic ; vour sprinoii has touc-lied me ; I want voii to teach 
me to do iH'ttiM'."' On tlie evening of January \'l\h, \^'.V1, 
ever after called hy him his "second l^irthday," while he 
and others were kneelint^ at prayer and the con;,'rej^;ition 
were singint,' a few lines of a iiynni, the peace of OkI filled 
his heart. At his uww retjuest, his reasons havinjj heen 
frankly gi\en, liis name was transfei-r-cd to the list of 
Protestant soldiers; a liome was sought in tlie .Methodist 
('hui'cli ; and on the removal of the regiment in the autumn 
to Fredericton, he made himself known to the Methoflist 
preacher there, through whom he found warm friends. 
Earnest efibi't after mental improvement was at once enteicd 
u})on ; the use of intoxicating drinks was abandoned, and the 
imi)ortance of total abstinence from them pressed ujK^n the 
attention of his comrades. He soon became a leader among 
Christian associates ; and in the hospital lie d'.-veloped in 
the visitation of sick soldiers, with quiet encouragement from 
the connnanding oliicer, that peculiar tact which made his 
presence in sul)se(pient years to be an.xiously awaited in 
any afflicted home, or by any incjuirer after siilvation. 
It is believed that by his wis(! use of tlieir own prayer- 
l>ook, in which he readily discerned the wheat among the 
chaft", not less than a hundi'ed Roman Catholic soldiers were 
helped while in hospital to trust in a pi-eviously unknown 
Saviour, In \^\0, when the regiment was ni Toronto, his 
time of ser\ice expired and he at once returned to Halifax. 
From tiiat day he never lacked Christian work. Onf; of 
his eai'liest efforts was a mission school at Point Pleasant 
for the children of ai'tillervmen stationed there, S4^>riietimes 
through the presence of the parents turned into a nieeting 
for })rayer. A non-comnn'ssioned otiicer, then blesserj, gave 
a son to the ministry who has passed the chair of one oi 
the Mai'itime Conferences. John Marshall gave a class- 
book to the willing workei*, whose classes were rejx-atedly 


insT(nn' of metuodihm 

(lividcil iiiid subdivide.]. A t.ililct in tlic .school looin of tlio 
IJruiiswicU-sticct cliiircli (ells in few words the s(oiy of hi.s 
ni;ir\('lioiis success ;is suiicrintcndcnt of \\\v Siin(hiy-scliool 
gathei'ed tliere. Thi'oULfh that und (tlhcr clianin 's a juety 
which was thoiou^hiy s[)ontane()Us in utteraiiei^ came into 
contact with lives which ha\(' proved an untold Idessinijj to 
the Mr-thodisiii of these j)rovinces, and in an even wider 
sphere. In the list wei'e such men as the late (leorge H. 
Starr and .lames W. Morrow, who were not slow to confe.s.s 
theii- indehtedness to him for earlv L'uidance and continued 
encoura<^enient in tlie path of life;. 

TJirough these revivals came the erection of a newcliurch 
in tlie noi-th suburb of the city. After a delay of several 
years, some persons having,' wished a lar,i;('r church on tlie 
old site, a lot was purchased on Uiunswick-street, and the 
new sanctuai'y erected on it was opened for worship on 
September llth, 1(S.'>|, by sermons preached by James 
Knowlan, Ivicliard Knight and MattJK'w llichey. Tliis 
church was supposed to furnish accommodation tor one 
thousand hearers, ;uul was regai'cUid as one of the most 
ek\!Ljant places of worship then in llritish North America. 

The dedicatory services of the new chui'ch took ])lace 
during a season of On the 1 Ith of August several 
cases of the dreaded Asiatic cholei'a had been reported 
from the poor-house. A few days later the military were 
attacked, after which all classes of citizens began to fall 
victims. Neighbors met, passed a few words in reference 
to the illness and death of ac(|uaintances, and then suddenly 
moved on as if there might be mutual danger in the brief- 
est interview. During a special fast-day service in Zoar 
chapel on August 21)th, a person was seized by the fell 
disease, and was carried away in agony, to die on the after- 
noon of the same day. A combination of rainy and hot 
weather, beginning on Sunday, September Gth, caused a 



sudden iiioi't'iise ol cases ;iiid dcutlis. In the list <»t' tliDsc 
who tlicii I'cccivcd tlifir <l('iitli-\vai'i'iiiit was \\\v smir.iMr 
William Ular-k, wIid yielded to tlu; force of the disease om 
the following day, (Jidy fi\e days Ix lore the opciiiiii,' of 
th(! now chufcli, to the Ixiildiii^j fund of which he h;id hceii 
one of the most i^eiierous eontiihiitors, dc\dut men caiiieil 
him to hi.s huriah At ;in eaily date llichaiil Knight, then 
in cliargo, preached a memorial sermon jiiid dischari^ed the 
last tluty impoised upon him l»y his vemTiililc fi-irnd that 
of ^iviu^ to the nuMnl)ei's of the society his farewell messa<J[(^ 
Of tlio tweiity-f(nir other u»fMiih(Mvs on the (h»ath-roll of that 
year in the city, the larger iiundtei- fell victims to the same 
dread disease. 

A period of success was followed hy a season of s«>rious 
trial. In Octo])er, IS.'Jl*, William .Jackson, a former iMiirlish 
Wesleyan local preaclx'r, arrived fiom V'iri^'inia. This 
singular man, who had not a little natui'al a.l)ility, possessed 
the boldness necessary for a self imprtsed mission without 
either the prudence or the education re(|uisite to give it 
peruuiuence. On his arrival he called himself a .Methodist 
minister, l>ut when pressed i»y William I'.lack to producer 
his credentials he admitted his connection with the Metho- 
dist Pi'otestants of the United States.' ITis first puhlic 
appearance was on a Suntlay afternoon on the Market- 
scpiare, where his singular garl> and long, Ihnving hair 
attracted a motley crowd of attentive listeners. Some 
Wesleyan Methodists desired to see him in the pulpit of 
their church, but the ministers wisely hesitated to invite 
him thither. This hesitation oidy gr-atilied the eccentric 
stranger, whose earnest and evangelical add soon drew 

'•'The MctluKlist ]*ri)t<'stiuit Clnnvh \v;i-. (>rj,';iiii/f(l in the I'liitcd 
States ill 1S2!I. 'I'lu- ri'foniier.s or "nt'licals," ;i.s tlu-y were called, liaviiijj^ 
failed in their etForts to secure certain lay ritrlit> in tiie Methodist I'^pis- 
copal Clmrcli, withdrew from it under the lead<r'-hi|) of some ulile men. 
The Methodist Protestants iiave now a menili'-r.-.hi|> of nearly l;V>,(MMl, 
with a book-cuuceni, periodicals, college-^ and llieological schools. 


I I 

Pi 1 

' i 

if ■ 












to him mimcious ;i(lli('i('iits, l)y whose iiid he secured the 
(.'Oiitl'ol of a |tul)lie hall. I)uiiii,'4 the foUowin;,' spriiii; he 
comiiuMU'ed {\\i\ erection of a |)hi.iM! of worship, and preached 
in it as soon as it all'orch'd protection from sunshine and 
showei'. 1'his hiiihlinij; he named the " Mhcnc/*'!' Methodist 
Protestant Churcli." He liad oidv on joyed its ucconiinoda- 
tion for a few months when a content ion hetween some of 
his adherents and himself caused se\eral \\'esleyan sece(hM's 
to return to their former associates, and led Jackson to 
annouue»> an int<'ntion to return to tli(! I'^nited States. 

In his search for a successor at "Khenc/cu* church," Jack- 
son found a man whose infhtenc(i seemed likely to exceed 
liis own. 'I'liis was Thomas 'i'aylor, tlie pre\ ious coUeas^ue 
of Ci'oscoinbe and Dow-son. Taylor had been sent to Jiiver 
John, with instructions to commence a mission at Pictou, 
whiM'e the visits of a Methf)dist minister had he(>n desired ; 
and th(!nce had hcuMi removed to Shul)enacadie. Under the 
influence of deep niental (h'pression lie had h'ft the hitter 
pLace for Halifax, and hy aii act involving a breach of con- 
tract in I'^nghand had placed himself under the ban of the 
Committee in London, who positively forbade his appear- 
ance in the city pulpits. His seniors, as they met at Liver- 
pool in 1834, grieved moreover the changed position of this 
popular and useful young minister than over the death 
of the beloved McDonald, whose remains Jiad but a few^ 
weeks before been laid in the graveyard adjoining the 
church in which they werci assend)led. Hoping for reinstate- 
ment, the young preacher for some time retained a private 
position, but at length grew restive under the restrictions 
imposed by the Committee. In this state of dissatisfaction 
he was approached by Jackson, who persuaded him to 
accept the charge of Ebenezer chapel. 

Taylor's new venture proved satisfactory to himself for 
only a short time. Jackson, in professed accordance with 


IX yOVA Si'uT/A, 


the wish of friends, rciiKiiiu'il in tli(> citv 




as a ('(»ii\('rt to imincrsion 

ist til 

M'OI'lt'S, h(Mii'('oiii|ia iiU'd a l>a|i 

list iiiiiiistcr out of tlio city, aiid l»y the use of tli<' words of tln^ 
Ktliiopiaii (Miiuicli made his iiiiiia'ision in the waters of Ilrd- 
ford liasin a. soiiicwhiit (h'ainatic sirciie. Ahoiit tlicsanui 
t iiiic he uiuU'rtooU to l)iiild •' l*ro\ idencc clmrch, " luii his 

succpssoi- ill his |>ie\ ions jailpit, re^^art 


IS course as a 

breach of faith, provoked a war of ])aiii|ihleis, eondiicted 
oil lioth si(h's with son:*' al)ility l)iit more l)it teriie<s. Jack- 
son faih'd ill his attempt to hiiild ihe second chiir<'h and 
returned to the I'nited States, his uutinished Ituihlinuj 
linally heeoniint; St. Pati-ieks Koiuan ('atholi(; chajxd. 
Tayh'r for some time < mhined with his pulpit duties th<^ 
Itusiness of a hookseller and editor of the /''-iir/, a weekly 
literary joui'iial, Ijut his l)usiness ventur(;s proNcd uiiremu- 
nnrative. Towards the end of IS.'IS the Methodist Protes- 
tant chapel hecauie the " Wesleyan Ass(tciation " place of 
worship, of which ahout that time J{ol»inson IJrearo, 
" Reform missionaiy frotn Manchester, hint^dand," 
took charge," but at a later date the building jiassed into 
Presbyterian ownership. 

These movements, conducted hy men l)earing the name 
of Methodist, cost the Methodist Church in llalifa.x some 
loss in numbers and in prestige. Some former attendants, 
unsettled in opinion and weakened in attachment, were 
prepared to drift with any current. Prom this class the 
earliest city advocate of LTniversalist views, a former Wes- 
leyan local preacher, gained a few adherents ; (,'thers found 
no permanent denominational home. It was fortunate for 
Methodism in Halifax that the strong-minded and judicious 
J^ichard Knight had been called in 1833 from Newfound- 
land to preside over the Nova Scotia District. J)uring the 
winter of 1834-35 his ministry and that of his elocjuent 
colleague, Ricliey, resulted in an extensive revival. In one 





•2 1 2 



J 1 

wfM'k sixty pcrsfjiis \v«n'o l)i'liev(.'(l to have found the peaci.' of 
({o(l, and during that year al>out thirty of the soldiers in 
garrison were reeeivfid into Cln'istian fellowsliij). A nuin- 
l)er of th<; comrades of th(! latter were made partakers of 
the l)l«\ssing which attended a similar revival dui'ing the 
succeeding winter. Yet so serious had been the losses that 
the additioii^s through these revivals were not sufUcient to 
maintain the meml)(U'ship at the figures pj-eviously re- 
ported. The att(!ndanc(i on Sunday evenings was also 
lessened hy the adoption by other denominations of the 
system of Sunday evening services. ]Jishop Inglis, having 
ascertained what iiis predecessors had failed to discover, 
that such services were authorized by the Scriptures and 
the practice of the early Church, opened St. Paul's for 
evening worship on the first Lord's-day of 1835, Other 
pastors availed themselves of the ligiit which had dawned 
upon the worthy bishop, and in a short time the open doors 
of Hve churches invited the entrance of the church-going 
families and individuals of whose presence on Sabbath 
evenings the Methodists and Baptists had until then en- 
joyed a monopoly. Just at that time the trustees of the 
new church found themselves responsible for a del>t of three 
thousand pounds, the interest of which the amount avail- 
able from seat-rents was insutlicient to meet. A year later 
the Missionary Committee gave the district meeting leave 
to use a small portion of the annual missionary grant 
towards the payment of interest, and in the autumn the 
supei-intendent, John P. Hetherington, with Hugh Bell, 
Esq., went abroad for assistance. They proceeded by separ- 
ate routes through New Brunswick and met at Woodstock, 
whence the pastor returned home, the layman going for- 
ward to Quebec, Montreal and New York. The amount 
thus obtained, with the six hundred dollars received from 
the military authorities for the use of the church as a 



i^arrisou cliapol on Sunday niorniiii^'s for a year, rclitnrd 
the trustees from j^i-eat pcri)lexity and savrd a heautiful 
sanctuary from becoming a sacrifice. 

These years of anxiety were followed hy a season f)f com 
parative prosperity in the city, l)ut it was unfortunate that 
a morVjid appetite for three sermons in each chuich on the 
Sabbath should have l)een gratified at the cost of the small 
societies near the capital."* On the eastern side of tlu> 
harbor were Dartmouth, Cole Harbor and Lawrencetown, 
and on the western, Mambro and St. Margaret's I>ay. Sam- 
bro, settled originally l>y fishermen from Cape Negro, most of 
whom were INIc^thodists, had been visited in IS'JI by 
William ]>lack, who formed a class of eighteen peisons, 
some of whom had been members of a class previously 
dissolved V)y the removal of theii- leader. Karly in the 
century the same minister had preacrhed at St. JMiirgaict's 
Bay, where some families of Ifuguenot descent had 
found a liome, but no systematic attention had been given 
them until the appointment of Robert L. Lusher to the 
city. At St. Margaret's ]»ay a neat little church was built 
as early as in 1824, and at Sand)ro another was put up in 
1S30; and in 18132 these places were set off' as a distinct 
circuit, but years elapsed before the number of [)reachers 
permitted any proper supply. After the erection of the 
second city church the ministers were obliged to lea\e the 
out[)osts almost wholly dependent uj)on the local preachers, 
and when the latter were removed or were passed into the 
itnierant ranks some of the settlements near the city for 
years received no visits from any agents of Methodism, 
clerical or lay. 

'" For tlic waste of i)r('acliiiif( power in former days the iireachers 
were in i)art responsihle. A yoi.ii>? preacher wrote from tlie disti'ict 
meeting at Morton in IS'JT : " Last Siimlav we iiad live sermons. At 
• ia.m., Mr. Snowball, at 11 a.m., .Mr. Williams aid .Mr. laisher, at .'V.'iO 
I).m., Mr. Pope and Mr. Voung. Mr, Young incached a \ try great 
sermon on 'What think yeof Christ?'" 




li" I;? 

Several of these local preachers subsequently tilled hoinr- 
able posts. Hugii F. Houston obtained a good report on 
tlu! southern shore of the province ; and a conteniporai'v, 
(jeorge Stirling, died in 1870, having been for twenty-one 
years paf::tor of the Congregational churcli at Keswick Ridge, 
N.n. Among their successors in Halifax was Charles 
bewolf, of Wolfville. While a student at law in the city, 
a sermon by Kdmund A. Crawley, then pastor of the Cran- 
ville-street Baptist church, was the means of his conversion. 
After careful investigation into the doctrines and polity of 
the Baptist Church, with which he had been the more nearly 
associated, he became satisfied that the standards of Metho- 
dism were more in hai'mony with the teachings of Holy 
Scripture. Against the class-meeting he had some preju- 
dices, but these Archibald Morton soon dispersed. Soon aftei' 
his ijaptism by llichard Knight, and union with Archibald 
Morton's class, he was appointed a local pi'eacher. Early 
in 1S.'}() he gave up the study of law, and at the district 
meeting of tiiat year underwent the (examination prescribed 
for candidates for the itinerancy. A few months later he 
sailed foi' England, to spend a year at the Theological Insti- 
tution at lloxton. Jieside him, during the chairman's 
examination in 18;JG, stood two others, one of whom, Jere- 
niiah V. Jost, commenced his ministry in the following 
year on the Liverpool circuit. The service of the second, 
Jesse Wheelock, of Bridgetown, was brief. After fragmen- 
tary periods of employment, the health of this excellent 
young preacher utterly failed, and he went home to die. 

A revival at Windsor called into permanent exercise the 
(Miergies of John (now Dr.) McMurray, another young 
local preacher. At the age of five years he had left his native 
place, an Irish village near Dublin, with his pai-ents. One 
day in January, 1833, William Crosconibe, detained in 
Halifax by business, requested him to take the services of 




the Sabbath at Windsor. On the Lord's-day evening, at a 
cottage prayer-meeting, three persons recei\ cd assurance of 
salvation. Sul)se([uent meetings having proved still more 
rich in blessing, the pastor delayed the return to the city of 
the young local preachei', and with his assistance continued 
special elloit until the beginning of spring, when eighty 
persons had professed experience of conversion. At this 
busy period Croscond)e received notice from England of his 
appointment to Montreal as chairman of the district, and a 
ixMpiest to })roceed thither as soon as ))ossible : Stephen 
Uamford was therefore aj)pointed his successor at Windsor, 
and John McMui'ray was persuaded to remain there to con- 
tinue his studies and quietly aid in the pastoral care of the 
numerous converts. 

Early in the following winter the young local pi-eacher 
was called away from Windsor to fill the \acancy caused at 
Shubenacadie by the withdrawal of Thomas Tayhji'. The 
settlements in that cii'cuit, previous to IS.'iO, had formed a 
part of the pastoral care of the minister at N(!wport. 
Nearly all the oiiginal settlers in the township of Douglas 
were Pi'esl)yterians, but soon after the beginning of the 
century several ^lethodists had removed thither froui 
Newport and Tlorton, and a few other j)ersons had lieen 
converted under the preaching of one or more of the early 
itinerants. l>y these persons John Snowball, then at 
Newport, was asked to visit them. A serinon preached by 
that minister at the house of "Colonel " William Smith, an 
iiish settler on the Kentuitcook, was heard by a fellow 
"Churchman'' from the (lore settlement, who for the sake 
of a INlethodist wifeoll'ered his own dwelling to the j)reacher 
as a temporary chapel. in J)ecendier, 1821, the same 
minister formed a small societ" near M;vitland : and at their 
next annual meeting his brethi'en rcMpiested him to \ isit the 
settlements in that section of country at least four times in 



t ) 


tlie year. At llfiwdon roi^'ular sorvicps had boon hold by 
Episcopal ministers, but Mc^thodist itiiiei'aiits liad several 
times visited the place. A leading settler there, John Bond, 
a Loyalist, had had some ac(juaintance witli Methodism in 
the Southei-n States : wlicn, therefore, his wife one day 
remained to a communion ser\'ice in the little Ei)iscopal 
churcli, he too grew thoughtful, and asked for a visit from 
a Methodist preacher. A daughter of his was the first 
meml)er of the class fornx d by Snowball at the Gore. In 
l(S27-'28 these settlements received welcomed attention from 
John Shaw, then a local preacher at Newport, but subse- 
({uently a missionary to the West Jndies ; and for a longer 
period the congregatiojis nearest Newpoi-t listened to liis 
brother, Arnold Shaw, who also, as a local preacher, 
"labored much in the Lord." 

Of the eleven children of William Smith three sons 
became ]\[ethodists. Nathan Smith and his wife united 
with the first class formed at Maitland. llichard Smith 
decided to be a Methodist after an unexpected interview 
with Matthew Bichey. In response in part to the request 
of Richard and Nathan Smith, who had commenced a small 
church near INIaitland, 'J'homas Crosthwaite was sent in 
18.30 to the Shubenacadie circuit. There this devoted 
young I]nglishma)i found a Held forty miles in extent, a 
small and scattered membership without proper leaders, and 
a people generally prejudiced against his teachings by early 
training and subsecjuent influences. The candid old Scotch 
lady in that disti'ict who declined to " break the Sawl)ath " 
by compliance with a neighbor's imitation to listen to the 
young preachei' was by no means singular. Crosthwaite 
nevertlieless persevered, and at the end of a two years' term 
reported two new cliapels, one of which liad been opened in 
May, 1885, and the addition of fifty-four meinl)ers, witli 
some others upon proV)ation. To that Held John McMurray 




in 1(S.'M returned, after liavinif l»een ueoepted as a ciuulidato 
for the ministry. In the autumn a I'evival took place- at 
Maitland, at tlie elose of wliieli the eonverts were phxeed 
under the care of llichard Smith as leader, for whicli posi- 
tion the revival had been to him a precious preparation. 

In July, 18."JI, .John Mc^[urray extended his line of 
appointments into Colchester county. At Truro were 
several persons who had i)een connected with the member- 
ship in Ifalifax and elsewhere, and a few others whom 
opportunities of lieariiig the preaching of Methodist doctrine 
had disposed to regard it with favor. An occasional sermon 
had been given in th(^ court-house by John Snowball, Robert 
If. Crane, and other passing ministers. On his tirst visit to 
Truro, John McMurray, who was ac 'ompanied by Richard 
Smith, spent one Lord's day there. Flis sermons were 
preached to large congregations in the Baptist church, which 
had first been opened for woiship on the preceding Sunday ; 
and were given at hours which permitted the attendance of 
mend)ers of the several congregations of the village. Some 
of his hearers returned iiome in })erplexity, for tlie ideas 
prevalent in Presl)yterian communities respecting Meth- 
odism had been generally accepted at 'J'ruro. A INFethodist, 
according to the opinion of many at that day, was one who 
robl)ed Christ of the glory of salvation, and sought eternal 
life only through the merit of human deeds. To the sur- 
{)rise of some who entertained that opinion, the young 
Methodist preacher had not only pres(Mited Christ crucified 
as the sole ground of hope for a penitent sinner, but had 
set forth that great fact with a f('r\eney to which they were 
unaccustomed. On that day the tiuth reached the heart 
of young Samuel Scott Nelsoi. — later a [trominent local 
standard-bearer -as he sat in tin- coi-ner of the gallery, 
feai'ing tiie reproach connected with his ^Methodist mother's 
denominational name. 





i I 

Just Jit this time Arcliibald Morton, of Halifax, on 
his recovery from Asiatic cholera, spent several weeks at 
Trui'o, and gave willing support to the young minister's 
efforts. In the course of a montli sevei-al persons professed 
conversion and became members of a class held at Green- 
field. After the Baptist church had several times be(?n 
occupied, the Masonic hall was hired foj s(n'vicos on alternate 
Sundays ; visits being also paid to Greentleld, North 
Kiver and Onslow. In January, 1835, James Buckley, 
a young local preacher of li-ish parentage, who had 
made his first essay at preaching in his father's house 
near lieiwick, and who, at the district meeting of 1835, 
was accepted as a candidate for the ministry, was called 
from his studies at Kentville and sent to tiie assistance of 
John McMurray, whose health seemed likely to yield under 
excessive labor. Thirty members wei'e gathered during 
the year, and reijuestj for the ministry of Methodism were 
received from various sections of the district surrounding 
Cobequid iiay. These requests were forwarded with an 
appeal to the Missionary Committee for the appointment of 
a missionary to Truro, but in the absence of any practical 
res})onse, Truro and the surrounding district remained 
through several precious years a part simply of the un- 
wieldy Shubenacadie circuit. In the charge of this wide 
field Thomas Smith, from Bermuda, became John Mc- 
Murray's successor. 

! t 


.mi;thof)is.m in thkxova scotia axdpiuxck edward 

CKLKRRATIOX IX ],s;^!». (ConchuUd.) 

(Jlann. ut uhVr c.i.vuits. I'rince Edward Island. Hihl.. Christian 
i-nvl.. .Mnnsfria] .hanyvs. Xotics „f Mattlx-u- Rici.ev, Wiiiian. 
Maek, and ntlicr ministers. 

Throiigli tiie s.nall.iess of tiie number of ministers at this 
IKMiod, any marked advance in several of the older circuits 
was scarcely possible. Tempted by repeated calls beyond 
reasonable hmits, tiie preacher too often became liable to 
the charge of imitating the farmer in the questionable ex- 
pedient of clearing more ground than it was possible for 
him properly to cultivate. 

One minister only could be allowed to the immense Parrs- 

boro' and Alaccan circuit, which was one hund,-ed and 

twenty miles in length. Scarcely less unwieldy was the 

Wallace circuit, to which Pugwash had been added in IS'M 

and U.ver John in 1S23. There, too. after successive 

changes, all the Methodist congregations between lliver 

Plnl.p and the Albion Mines-and through the predilections 

ot the people, few ministers of other churches were on the 

ground -were in charge of one overworked preacher. 

L nder such circumstances "the presence of some active lay- 

Hion was of special value. For some years T A. S Dewolf 

while engaged in business at Parrsboro', gave to the work 

the assist^uice of his influence and ability; and for more 

than a half-century John Lockhart bestowed upon that and 

adjacent sections of the county a service which was of great 

\\ * 

i i»;. 

I I 
I ; I 


i . 




■ I 


I i 

It • 


bonofit. Ainon^ roj)r<'sont.itivo inon at Wallace was Stophou 
Kultnn, coincflcd uikUt .James ir«Mini<,'ar's luiiiistry, who, 
as cliiof ina^isti'ato of liis natives ooiinty and hor representa- 
tive for many yeai-s in the leijjislatui'e and for a period in 
the f,'ovei'nment, as well as in various positions in the 
church, was in all circumstances faithful to the law of his 

An extensive revival took ])lace at Parrsboro' in l83f)-36, 
the first by wh'ch that place was visited, thou<^h a few 
excellent members liad resided there for many years. 
Thout,di givin<f its name to the circuit, the village was 
thii'ty miles distant from jM.'iccan, where wei'e the principal 
church and the paj-sonage, and it therefore otdy received a 
visit from the circuit preacher on each third Sunday. The 
first church stood near tlie Cross Roads, about two miles 
from the site of the present sanctuary. Early in the autumn 
of 183') a poor settlement near that church was visited by 
two colored Methodists from Halifax, one of whom was a 
man of unusual power in prayer. Meetings held by these 
men were attended by several conversions and by a wide- 
spread interest in ])ersonal religion. This increasing interest 
became so apparent to William Smith, the preacher in charge, 
that on his next visit he set himself earnestly to its further 
promotioii. Kach visit for several months was marked by 
the salvation of some persons, and in the intervals Sabbath 
services, with two or more meetings in each week, were 
maintained by John Lockhart, the leader, assisted by senior 
members and new converts. One service held by ilie pastor 
in December was remembered with special interest. The 
meeting for prayer, by which the evening sermon was 
followed, could not be closed until the dawn of the next 
day. Of the eighteen persons who then entered into the 
liberty of the sons of (lod, one was Christopher Lockhart, 
son of the pious leader, and subsequently a most successful 


provincial itincranl. Aiiioiil; the uiic liuii(li<'<l «,'oiiVfrts wccf 



'lose chilli 

ho hail hccii (h'liiikards, hla^pjii'iiii'ivs aii'l 


.scorlci s. 

<,'('( 1 li 

vcs iiiiuh! ii .ahit.iiy imjJiTssioii on ;ill then 

iicquHiu lances. 


n cxt<Misi\i' i(*vi\a 

! at Ad 


led to the f)ri;aiiizatio:i of a. <-linrch ;it rh ii lAmu 


'.» 1 








at M 


A vcar carli'-r a class 

had be<Mi formed at Five Islands, when; Utv some tini»' a 
place for worshii) was found in the hctuse of .John Kilmer, 
at wliose suLC^estion Rohert Cooncv lirst \ isit«'d tlie settle. 



Early in ls;}8 William Croscoinl)(; retuiiK-d to .\o\a 
Scotia. His ministry in the Canada District had heeii suc- 
cessful, hut his views respecting the union at tliat time 
consummated had not been in harmony with of cer- 
tain leaders in the movement, and he had therefore sought 
a release from his otHcial position. On his arrival he took 
charge of the Hortou and Cornwallis circuit. When a few 
months had elapsed he went to the assistance of Peter 
Sleep, of the New Brunswick District, in special meetings 
at liill-town. A call on his way home at the house of Sarah 
Davidson, at Greenwich, led him to hold similar WTvice.s at 
that place. Mrs. J)avidson was the daugliter of Peter 
Martin, a convert of Henry Alline. At a me».'tiMt,' of the 
Horton liaptist church, in 17i).'5, it was "agi-eed that Ijrother 
Peter Martin is blessed with a gift that lie ought to improve 
as the Lord shall call him," In the good man's conserjuent 
and frequent absence his daughter Sarah, though little more 
than a child, was accustomed to gather her motherless 
sisters at the domestic altar. With the adoption of the 
system of close communion by the Jjaptist chui<-h at Horton, 
Sarah Martin's membership in it ceased, but in the absence 
of special ordinances she sought all the moi-e by reading and 
prjxyer, and by an occasional Sunday with Kebecca Crane at 
Lower Horton, to keep the Hame of devotion bright. Robert 

i 1 


*■ f- . 

H \ : 

. I., 4 :. 

C ;-,'! 

i ■'. it's 

! .■■ ' { ^ 




\\. Oriiiic had bpoii the lii-st to ciitcr {\n\ door which she 
opened iit (Jre(uiwich to tho Mothodist itinerants. I'lKh-i' 
his ministry sho entered into a eh'ai- v spiiitual atmosphcie, 
and with hci* hushand and several othei- persons liecame a 
nieiidier of a chiss held in her own dwellini,'. ('Iiielly thi'oiiL,di 
her exei'tions a small church had been luiilt on hind tjixt-n 
l»y her husband. As imw she heai-d Croscondie relate; what 
ho had witnessed at JJill-town, she told him that fcuir years 
before, during an illness supposed to be lun- last, she had 
fallen into a gentle; shu'p during which she received from a 
heavenly messenger an assurance that four years should Ije 
added to lier life, and that her })rayers for friends should be 
answered. " I beg of you," she now said to the hesi<ating 
preaclier, " to make ai'rangements for similar meetings, for T 
know the time is at hand." Three weeks from that day 
William Oroscond)e and Peter Sleep met at (jlreenwich. 
Disaiireeable weather and bad roads tested the coura<;e of 
the workers, but the faith of the invalid who was j)raying 
at home never yielded to fear, and soon received an open 
reward. Progress was constantly reported to the interested 
woman, who, in case of any negative answers to hci* (|ues- 
tions respecting individuals, had a single i-esponse. •'They 
will come,' she said : " They will come, they have been on 
my mind for years ! " One JiOrd's-day, at her own request, 
she was taken to the church, whence she was carried to her 
bed as she repeated the words of Simeon of old. Ten days 
hiter the hour of departure came. Three days before death, 
as the pastor was about to leave her room, she asked to be 
raised in her bed, and then in a voice of unusual strength 
recounted the goodness, past and present, of her Lord. 
Then, turning to the listening minister, she gently chided 
him for his lack of faith, counselled him to go on in expec- 
tation of still greater results, and with words of triumph 
lay back upon her pillow. " This," wrote Croscombe, some 



years sifter tin; ini-idcut, '-was ccrtaiiily one of the most 
.soU;liiri intciN it'ws I cscf had with a fellow iiioftal, and 
though I stood i('[»n)vc(l l>y it, I uas <,'i"('atly blessed. It was 

a voieo from the tomli 

A sermon over tlie romains of the 

deeeas(Ml woman iciidered suhscfjuent moetiii^s more impres- 
sive. Through tliis revival, attendant upon nieetini^'s which 
the superintendent had planm.'d with some relucta' ce, about 


y meml)ers, some »f whom became piUai-s ot sti'ength to 
the church, wei-e recei\ed into (Christian fellowship. 

A request for similar .services at Lower Jlorton, jir«»fei'red 
by a few |)ious sisters, again involved the pastor in per- 
plexity. Ifa\ing, however, received a {)i"omis»? of assistance 
from Peter Sleep, upon whom he leaned heavily, he made 
an announcement for a " protracted meeting." The notice 
was heard as an annoyance- by .some, with pity (ov a foolish 
pastor l)y others, and with a degree! of unbelief by some of 
the most faithful members, but the event proNcd a keen 
rebuke to all these classes. After a few days even the holy 
tact of Peter Sleep seemed f>f slight necessity to a work 
which went on with rai-e steadiness. Tlie Hrst convert of 
the revival was Robert K. (Jrane, subseipiently a useful and 
beloved preacher and pastor. It was dui'ing that season of 
grace also that Isaac Armstrong, long in request at similar 
meetings in that and neighl»oring circuits, gave up a vain 
search for rest in the tenets oi I'niversalism and found peace 
through the merits of (,'hrist as set forth in the Gospel. On 
the eleventh day of these .seivices the ol>ligations of church 
membership wei'e explainefl, and the names of one hundred 
and twenty candidates for its [)rivileges were gratefully 

The ministry at Newport of Henry Po})e, whose three 
years' term there was commenced in 18.'}.'3, was one of much 
usefulness. When the shadows of fourscore vears had 
fallen over his path, he spoke of his residence at Newport 


iiisroin' or MirriKHHsM 

; «.« 



as aiiioMi,' tlu! j)l('as; tniiis ot' a wvy \o\v^ scivic'c. 
S«'V('iity liaiiKfs were (Iicii added, liy a 1,'iadual revival, to the 
Kevciity previously on the re^'istei's of the classes. One of 
the later converts was Nicholas Mosher, sen., \\ln» heard 
Henry j'ope's sernmn from '" 1 1 iiider me not," etc., and broko 
throiiLfli the harriers which t'ni' some time had prevented him 
from inakiiii,' an open avowal of himself as a disciple of 

I''or some years tlu; care; Ix'stowed upon the Yanuoutli 
circuit was inti.'rmittent in (diaractei-. I5y <leor«^(^ Miller in 
IS'Jl' it was pi'onounced "poor i,'r(jiind," ai\d no provision 
was that year made for its supply. Just then William W. 
Ashley, previously of Liverpool, removed to Yarmouth and 
preached in tlu; small .Methodist chui'ch. It is said that the 
Methodists lifid for some iciison declined to receive liim as 
a nnnistcr of their body : whether Ik? took charge at 
Yarmouth under the. chairman's direction is uncertain. 
Crowded coni^a-egations hea^d liim, u;ay piirties were sup- 
plc'inted l)y ij;atherings at the church, and several young 
persons, wliose names are yet gi'atefully treasuied, then 
beiian their Chi'istian career. l''or nearly seven years 
Ashley r<Mnained in charge. At the end of that period 
William Smith was sent to the circuit. For a time his 
position was an end)arrassing one. Ashley had professed 
to be carina,' foi- a Methodist fold in accordajice with Metho- 
dist discii)line ; during his presence pews and .;alleries had 
been placed in the churcli and a tower added to its roof ; a 
useful ministry had endeared him to some of the senior, and 
more of the junior, mend)ers ; it was not therefore strange 
that at a period of some interest parting should on both 
sides be somewhat unwelcome, or that a piirt of the number 
])lessed through his nnnistry should have wished him to form 
an independent cluirch. A call from Eastport, ]Me., how- 
ever led him for a time to another field, and the wise 



'2 2 a 


, totho 

()M(! of 

1 1 hroko 
t<'(l him 
ciplc of 

tlillcr ill 
liiiin W. 
)ulh aiul 
that the 
e him as 
hiU'go at 
ore sup- 
\ young 
•('(1, then 
'11 yoars 
it period 
time his 
II Mctho- 
;ries had 
roof ; a 
|uior, and 
lon V)oth 
11 to form 
le., how- 
Itlie wise 


iist'ls; of Thomjis hanc, llolicrt (Jin-st 


iciiiovcd dissat isfjict ion and 

(•<in\ iiic('( 

I (.1 

i^('r\ t'i's 


Mctliodi.siii in ^^'^l'llloutll was not, as the ciiiliariMsscd 
young prcarhtT had at lirst lit-cn disposed to regard it, "'a 
rope of sand." The young iiiciidx'i's soon learned also, to 
their great ph-asuiv, that uii(h'r the I'higlish reser\-e of 
Ashh'y's suceessoi' was ;i wanii and true heart, sincerely 
(U^sirous of their spiritual ami intelleetual devdopnuMit. 
At the end of his two years" term, Yannoutli, as ii part of 
the IWirrington eireuit, recei\cd the visits of Thomas II. 
|)a\ies on eaeli third Sunday until, in the winter of 1SJ)|, 
William Menonald was sent tliitli(>r tVoin Charlottetown. 
On his removal at the end of eighteen luonths, the ineiid)ei's, 
dissatisfied with an arrangement w liioh gave them services 
only on alternate Sundays, secured the presence of William 
I'adman, a useful l''nglish local preacher, wlm afterwards 
went to the United States. Another English local preather, 
who had been in America, in r(>turning to I'jigland called 
at Yarmouth, and in the absence of a ministei- remained 
there a year. A captain bolonging to the place, and bound 
for England on his own vessel, then gave him and his wib; 
a passage home ; the ca]»tain was con\erted through their 
iniluence, and was thenceforth a faithful member of the 
Methodist society in his native town. Fruin this period the 
interests of Yarmouth M<'tliodists were jealously guarded 
l)y Lvobcrt AkU;r, their earliest ortlained preaclu^i', who aftei' 
his return to I>ritain from Canada had been chosen one of 
the (jencral Secretaries of the W'esleyan ]\lissionary Society. 
In 183;") he proposed the removal of a niinist(!r from another 
circuit for the benefit of the people of his earliest cliarge. 
"'At all events," he wrote, '-'you must lind an eflicient 
supply for Yarmouth this year and c(jntinue it whether you 

remove the })reacher from or elsewhere." And wlien 

less sanguine men hesitated to act in accordance with liis 



fn = f 


M\ i 

instructions lie emplmt'cally insisted that tlie chairman 
"must not give up Yarmouth to any local preacher, how- 
ever excellent." In accordance with such charges John 
jVlcMurray was sent to the circuit. Several conversions 
during his tvvo years' residence gave promise of a riclier in- 
gathering, but his successor, Jesse Wheelock, had only 
become familiar with his duties when illness demanded liis 
immediate removal. In his stead arrived Cliarles Dewolf, 
who after neai'ly two years at the Theological Institution 
in London, had been in September, 1838, oi'dained in City- 
road chapel. The English t'onnnittee had proposed Char- 
lottetown as the young preacher's first station, but in view 
of vacancies at both ]}ai-ringtoii and Yarmouth, the chair- 
man exercised liis discretionary power and sent him to 
Barrington. Having reached that part of the province, he 
concluded that the case of Yarmouth was the more pressing, 
and therefore secured permission to remain at that place. 

The old Jjai'rington circuit in 1828 presented a prosperous 
api)earance. JNIatthew Ilichey, at the close of an extensive 
revival, had welcomed a number of young persons into 
mem1)ership, and had encoui'aged Alexander II. Cocken 
and Winthrop Sargent to oiter upon local preachers' ser- 
vice. Lack of itinerant preachers, however, seriously 
alVected the interests of this old circuit. Thomas II. Davies, 
Matthew Richey's successor, in 182*J, found himself ol)liged 
to give supervisioii to Yarmouth and its ntighborhood. 
Through this division of lal)or over scattered districts, 
IJarrington suffered loss, but at Shelburne the visits of the 
superintendent grew to be like angels' \isits, "short and 
far between,'" and services under local leadership gradually 
declined, and then for some years the doors of the old 
church were locked, only to be opened when some passing 
minister could tarry long enough to favor the inhabitants 
with a sermon. 




ler, how- 
;es John 
•iclier iu- 
lad only 
nclecl his 
i Dewolf, 
1 in City- 
;ed Cliar- 
t in view 
the chair- 
t Inni to 
)vince, he 

t place. 

•son:-; into 
1, Cocke n 
cliers' ser- 
H. Da vies, 
elf obliged 
isits of the 
' short and 
) gradually 

of the old 
ne passing 

For the Liverpool circuit pastoral oversight was seldom 
lacking. The death there of William McDonald in IS.'Jt 
has been mentioned. Exposure during tlie winter journey 
from Charlottetown to Yarmouth had given a blow to a con- 
stitution never very vigorous and severely tried l)y close 
study and liard toil. Further exposure during attendance at 
missionary anniversaries in the autumn of \^:V.\ developed 
pulmonary disease, which ended in death in the following 
spring. His brethren lield their annual meeting that year 
under the shadow of the pulpit in which he last had preached. 
Several persons were converted during the services of that 
gathering, but the most extensive revival took place under 
the ministry of Matthew Cranswick, sent to the circuit in 
is:];"). At its close seventy persons were re})orted to have 
l)een led into a better life at Liverpool, and thirty others 
at Mill Village, In lS:]8-;5!j William Smith reported several 
conversions in the town ami a larger number in the western 
section of the circuit, where If ugh V. Jlouston, on his 
removal from TTalif ix, had found a home. 

In the Lunenburg circuit was the viljag.' (,t' that name, 
with Petite Riviere, Lahave, Uitcey's Cove, .Mahone I5ay, 
and some smaller .settlements. Some excel h>nt mend)ers 
liad entered the cluirch through a revival in iSi':?, bu. 
prejudices on the part of the Lntheran population, and 
luisconduct on tlie part of the (Je- maii .\Iethodist pastor, 
1 1 ad retarded progress in the '• iih.g,^ and sh)w subscpient 
growth under the care of an Lnglish-si)eaking pastor had 
more than once tempted the CJommittee to transfer thrir 
a-vnt to a more promising field. A few faithful nuMnbers, 
with good mission premises, in the \ iljage, and flourishing 
little societies i- some of the adj.-icent settlements, fortun"'- 
atrly availed to prevent such action. Thomas II. Davies, 
who followed Orth in a pulpit where Cermaii ha' !.. en' 
generally spoken, believed tlie use of that language io be on 


i I 

i1 1- 


II i >l 

E il 



i i 

■ i 


■ , 


: ; 

i 1 

; ; 



If \ 






the decline, hut the sons and gi'randsons of the German 
colonists were less ready to abandon either the lanajuage or 
the habits of their ancestors than the minister had supposed. 
For years after English had become the language of the 
pulpit, a part of the conversation at the circuit official 
meetings was at times no less mysterious to the chairman 
than are the records of some of those meetin<j:s to the 
minister who may give them a casual glance to day. Twenty- 
one members were added during r^ revival in 1831-35. Two 
years late?-, William E. Shenstone, an l^]nglish minister who 
liad spent nine years in mission service in Canada, arrived at 
Lunenburg, wiience he was removed in 1839. 

The po])ulation of Prince Edward Island, twenty -eight 
thousand in 1825, had increased by half that number in 
1839 ; yet, in the latter year, two ministers only were 
travelling the circuits in which three others had been busily 
employed at the earlier date. The growth of the mission, 
under the guidance of judicious pastors, and reinforced by 
emigrants from Britain, had, nevertheless, not been unsatis- 
factory. In 1839 the number of church members was six 
hundred and twenty-eight ; in 1841 the number of adherents, 
as shown by the census returns of that year, was three 
thousand four hundred and twenty. Probably in no part 
of the Maritime Provinces had the type of Methodism 
peculiar to thtj rural districts of Britain been more fairly 
reproduced than in Prince Edward Island. Albert Desbrisay 
the elder, in youth heard a triumphal hynni sung at the 
grave of a Christian woman at Charlottetown, "in con- 
formity to the custom observed by the Wesleyans," and to 
the end of life retained the impression then made. From 
year to year, laymen had been arriving from Britain, who, 
as class leaders and local preachers were not novices in 
either tlie doc^trines or discipline of their church, and were 
capable of giving practical aid to any superintendent who 





uage or 


of the 



to the 


). I wo 

tei' wiio 

rived at 

mber in 
ly were 
n busily 
Dreed by 
was six 
as three 
no part 
re fairly 
i^ at the 
' in con- 
/' and to 
I. From 
lin, who, 
Dviccs in 
\nd were 
lent who 

had been trained in the loose style of a new country.' In 
no provincial circuits have laymen from an early period 
taken a more active and intelligent part in the prJceodin-s 
of the local church courts. ° 

Of the ministers stationed about this period at Charlotte- 
town, fev,- remained longer than two years. Durin- a n^si- 
dence of a single year, William Temple had some pleasin- 
interviews with inquirers at the parsonage. Among these 
with whom he talked and prayed was a young Jloman 
Catholic whom a discussion between a Protestant and a 
Catholic had sent to the Methodist church and then to the 
pastor ; a minister of the Scotch Kirk, "whose mind seemed 
to bo iiuder the powerful influence of new and gracious 
percept;o.;s; and a school-teacher, educated in the same 
church, who, under the sermon of the previous Sunday had 
been n.ade to feel the insufliciency of a profession without a 
living ^rincipK, of purity reigning in the heart." Several 
persons were converted and welcomed as members at Little 
York in 1831, through the short ministry of William 
Mc Donald. Some serious dissensions vexed the soul of 'rood 
Stephen Bamford, but did not blunt the force of truth he 
uttered. That truth touched the heart of James Moore, a., 
Knglishman who ;iad been clerk and organist in the Episcopal 
church of the place, and who lived to give useful service in 
several official pu^.^tions in Methodism, and to see all the 
members of an um, usually large family in fellowship with the 

nfH,T!!'' '■'"''!"'■."'•'>■ l'^-'" ^vitl» «"nH- surprise f..r tiuvuv vcars tlif 
^ .jMiir my iiiertiuK was ,.nkn..wn in Halifax Mi-tliodi* ,,., 1,SL",» wh..„ tlu. tntal n,..n.lH.rsIu,, „f tha nrc it "'is 

(.',,', i*'r l"'';r"t' an.l at ulnoh, aftrr a.l.ln-ss,.s hy WiUia,,, 

l'i..itiil\ iiuM.M t^s ,t was unaiiin..His]yi,.nclu(lr(l that '• tl'is UHTtiiK^ 

Uh^^cI^o""- '/''h ^^"t'-f ^t <iuart^.ly nu.,.ti„^s an- ll;^.'!;;.- ' til 

.T,.f\r,tl -;'"r '-'^ ■''''^' '"' <J^'»'/t-.,.i that th..y ure an in.purtant 

U ai U^e'u It* n! ;'•'' 'T"'""' -'J"^ ^'7 •"■ i"^titute,l in this circuit 
iiiu mat tne pi' int meeting be considered the first." 


hjt i 



i li 


i i 

cliuich of liis adoption, witli two of them in its ministry. 
Tliroui^li tlie sauetitieJ influence of anotlier preacher of this 
period, tlie beloved John P. Hetherington, the late Ralph 
Brecken was led into union with the church at Charlotte- 
town. The name of this devoted circuit oliicial, whose 
sympathies prompted him to noble contributions in aid of 
missions, and whose services as a local preacher always 
elicited expressions of satisfaction from listeners, is worthily 
borne by a son who has occupied several leadint^ Provincial 
Methodist pulpits. Several others were converted during 
the })resence of lletherington, b :" no extensive ingathei-ing 
took place until 1837, when i Ricliard Knight's 

ministry two hundred persons in a pop. ation of two thousand 
five hundred professed conversion during a revival which 
connnenced on Easter Sunday. Of these, nearly all, wlien 
four years had passed, were reported to be walking worthy 
of their vocation. 

During Matthew Richey's ministry at Charlottetown in 
1829-30, the worshipjiers became dissatisfied with their 
church. It was a small l)uilding, with fifty pews, and was 
never thoroughly finished. After Stephen Ramford's arrival 
in 1831, a frame was raised and enclosed on anew site, but 
subsequent differences of opinion caused delay and the 
removal of tlie building a year or two later to a lot on 
Prince-street. The dedicatory services of the new church 
took place on a Sunday in July, 183;"), when sermons were 
preached l)y John P. Hetherington, William Wilson and 
Richard Knight. Of the original trustees the most widely 
known was Isaac Smith, an Englishman of most estimable 
character, good mental powers, and an acceptable local 
preacher, who at a later period became the travelling agent 
ii\ the Maritime Provinces of the British and Foreign liible 
Society. In association with him were his brother Henry 
who died at a i;ood old aije in New Zealand ; Robert Lon<; 



worth, of loyalist parentatfe, whom W'illiam lUirt had led 
into the Methodist Cliufch ; Thomas Dawson, son of the 
early local preacher of the same name ; and also John liov- 
yer, Christopher Cross, John Ti'enaman and William Tanton, 
faithful and zealous men. An addition was made to the 
length of this church in 1(S. 38-39, and some years later a 
spacious win,i,' was added. When thus enlarged the sanc- 
tuary could boast of no s; ecial architectural attractions, 
but the many occasions on which the Most High did in very 
deed dwell with men gathenul within its walls, and the rich 
church music for which it became famed, made it dithcult 
for any resident or visiting worshipper evei" to forget it. 

The district meeting of 183S, which took {)lace at Char- 
lottetown, was the first held on the Island. Chai'lottetown 
was then but a village with a single wharf. The houses 
were of wood, the six or eight exceptions being of brick. 
Communication between the island and main-land was some- 
what uncertain, even in summer. From JJaie Verte small 
vessels occasionally carried cargoes of lumber across the 
Straits. ]>etweeii that place and Charlottetown William 
Tem})le spent four days on the water at a time of removal. 
A small schooner also ran as a packet between Charlotte- 
town and Pictou. To the latter place John 8haw, when 
leaving Murray Harbor in 18*2!), made his way in an open 
boat, reaching it after a passage of seven hours. 

This first district meeting at Charlottetown was desci-ibed 
by William Wilson at the tinu! as "one of the most delight- 
ful " he had ever attended. Proceedings were i)egun on the 
4th, and ended on the 1 1th, of June. In view of the 
disloyal feeling prevalent in Canada, addr(» to the 
governors of Nova Scotia and Prince Kdward Island were 
promptly prepared. That to Sir Charles Fitzroy was pre- 
sented by the ministers in a body, and was received with all 
due couitesy. On Monday evenijig, Ralph Brecken, Esq., 

■i ; ! 

->'i i 






hi^'li shcriir of (Queen's county, ptosidetl at an interesting^ 
missionary meeting ; and on Tuesday evening fJolni 
jMcMurray and Tliomas Smith recei\ed ordination to the 
full work of the Chi'istian ministry. A farewell sermon 
was preached on the evening of Wednesday by Robert 
Cooney, under oi'ders for the Canada District. On Thurs- 
day morning the circuit otlicials waited upon the aKsend>led 
ministers with an address. "Tiie time was,' said these 
brethren in the course of their remarks, '• whcm all the 
members of our society could sit around the hearth of a pious 
brother and detail for mutual encouragement the mercies of 
a gracious Benefactoi-, ami when the congregation assem- 
bled ill a small apartment to hoar the (lospel i)reached to 
them, but now there are elev( n large classes in this town 
alone, which nundjei* in the aggregate two hundred and 
fifty nuMnbers, . . . and a-, the fruit of Christian liber- 
ality, accommodation is provided for a congregation of eight 
hundred peo})le in our lU'wly-erected chapel — which it is 
become notwithstanding necessary to enlarge —and a 
i-espectable residence is just completed for our minister, 
forming an establishment of miss" >n premises which are 
regnrded as at once a credit to the Christian liberality of 
the people and an ornament to the town." 

In 1828 John Snowball vv^as appointed to r>ede(]ue. 
While superititending the transfer of his pi'operty to the 
shore, he fell ovei- the side of the boat, l)ut by grasping a 
Moating trunk ami then an oar flung to him by William 
Temple, he escaped drowning. The parsonage at I>edeque, 
into which he led his family, was a log liouse, a single room 
in which was finished. At the several settlements in the 
circuit sonu^ valuable accessions to the mend)ership had 
been received through emigration from 1 h'itain and removals 
from a provincial circuit or two. In this way Tryon and 
Crapaud liad Ijotli been l)lessed. At the second of these 





spiiii; a 

o room 

ill the 

Ip had 

places the erection of a little loij chapel, about the time of 
George Ja(;k.soii's renioxal, i,';ive iiuich satisfaction to some 
devout spirits, in that d.iy (^f small things. At Tryon and 
Bedecjue missionary meetings were lirst held in January, 
l<S2i), by William T<'mple and John Shaw as a deputation. 
" Such," says the latt(M-, " was the interest that Roman 
Catholics, Presbyterians and baptists, as well as ^NFethodists, 
became subscribers." A number of persons united with the 
society at Tryon dui'ing SnowbaH's lirst year of residenc(% 
but about foui' weeks Itefore he crossed the Straits on his 
way to the annual meeting of 1S30 a revival began in 
several parts of the circuit, and during a single week one 
hundred persons testified to forgiveness of sin. Snowball's 
successor, Webb, was specially calculated for the care of a 
lield thus blessed, so that William Wilson, on his arrival in 
1834 from Newfoundland, was able to speak with satisfac- 
tion of the outlook. In the course of the three vt>ars' resi- 
dence of Wilson several interesting conversions took place. 
During an evening dance following a " hauling frolic,'' a 
man who had been awakened by a funeral address left the 
room in grief of spirit, soon to return and fall upon his 
knees. The dancers ceased, two others kneeled beside the 
awakened man, and a Methodist neighbor, in answer to an 
unexpected summons, arrived on the scene. At the next 
visitation of the classes the three men, eacli accompanied 
by his wife, presented themselves as candidates for mendjer- 
ship. At New London, where services liad been held in a 
dwelling, Wilson on a Sunday in July, 1830, preached 
twice in a barn, and at the close of the morning service ad- 
ministered the Lord's-supper to thirty communicants. The 
foundation of a ciiurch had then been provided. 

Murray Harbor had been irregularly supplied. Thouias 
11. Dav^'es went there in 18-7, and a year later John Shaw 
followed him. Both saw conversions durin<r their short 


f : i: 



'I -i 

m ■ 

■ I. 





residence, but through the absence of an imniecliato suc- 
cessor the circuit suffered loss. Under Robert Coonev, 
subsecjuently appointed, some improvement was witnessed. 
That minister early in 1834 narrowly escaped death by 
breaking through the ice on the harbor, when on his way to 
visit some sick members of iiis congregation. 

Two other Christian laborers of that period in Prince 
Edward Island merit appreciative mention. These were 
preachers of the Bible Christian Connexion, a body founded 
in 1815 by William O'Bryan, a Wesleyan local preacher in 
Cornwall. In doctrine the Bible Christians, or "Bryanites," 
were thoroughly Wesleyan ; unlike the Wesleyans at that 
time they admitted laymen to their annual Conference in 
equal numbers with ministers. They have always been 
mv:/St numerous in Cornwall and the West of England. 
Through the trade that had sprung up between the Island 
and some of the ports of that part of England, making the 
colony easy of access, a number of Bible Christians had 
found their way thither. Lack of religious care in the 
districts in which they became settlers at length led them 
to ask the appointment of a preacher of their own body. 
Scanty as were the finances of their missionary treasury, 
the Bible Christian Conference in 1831 decided to comply 
with the request, and also with another from Upper Canada. 
Francis Metherall, the missionary selected for Prince 
Edward Island, .sailed from Portsmouth in September of 
that year, but a leak having obliged the vessel to put back, 
he re-embarked in the following spring, and late in April 
landed at Bedeque. A walk of forty miles took him to the 
residence of the writer of the letter which had brought him 
over the ocean, and thence he returned to Bedeque for his 
family. Having found a home at Union Road for his wife 
and children, the zealous preacher at once began his work. 
A nine years' service in certain English circuits had been 





a good proparation for service abroad. At the close of his 
first yeai- in the colony he reported a circuit eijrhty miles in 
length, a iiieinbership of forty-seven persons, and call.) from 
sevei'al ini}>ortant settlements. To obtain Wetter facilities 
for reaching his numerous a})pointments, he .sr>->n removed 
to Vernon River, h'arly in 1834 Phili|» Jarnfs, a second 
missionary and no less indefatigable worker than Metlin-all, 
made his appearance. In their large and unwieldy circuit, 
extending from Sturgeon at the east to Cascumpec and 
West Cape at the north and west, were thirty six preach- 
ing places. The work west of Charlottetown was assigned 
to James ; that to the east of the Hillsborough Kiver was 
undertaken by the senior minister. For three years the 
latter performed all his journeys on foot, in the heat of 
summer, the melting snow and mud of spring and fall, and 
the storms of winter, yet neither preacher, it is said, was 
ever known to disappoint a congregation. A small log 
church, put up on the Princetown road and occu[»ied for 
forty-five years, was the first Bible Christian house of wor- 
ship on the Island. Others were soon added, but some of 
thorn long remained in an unfinished state.- 

Xumerous changes took place in the ministerial staff of 
the district at this period. In the list of preachers who 
took a filial departure from the country was Thomas Cros- 
thwaite, whose memory was long cherished in certain sections 
of the province. At Ship Harbor he became disheartened, 
and without due notice took passage in a vessel Ijound for 
I^ngland. Sonie mitigating circumstances, with warm testi- 
monials fiom brethren in Nova Scotia, saved him from the 
usual penalty of exclusiot\ from the ministry, and he went 
out under the Committee's direction to the West fnrlies, 
where, at Ijarbadoes, in 1836, he ended a useful service. 
\\ illiam Dowson returned to Britain from Charlottetown 

- " Life of Francis Metherall," by uhu Harris. 


Iff STORY OF ^fETffODfS^^ 

■ % 

in 18.'}t, but .sul)S('(|iuMitly went back to the West Tiidies, 
dying at New Providence in 1816. Tlirough ill-health 
IMiitthew Cranswick, of whom loving recollections as 
preacher and pastor were long chei'ished in Nova Scotia, 
returned to J"]ngland in 183G. Among the abler men of 
that period was John P. Hetherington, a former member of 
the Irish Conference, who recrossed the ocean after a minis- 
try of two years at Charlottetown and one at Halifax, 
His presence was imposing ; his pulpit style clear, concise 
and forcible ; and in social life his whole bearing rendered 
religion attractive. Intensely liritish sympathies had 
placed him in opposition to the union between the INIetho- 
dists of l^ritish and American origin, and had led to his 
transfer to the JNlaritime Provinces. From England he 
returned to Canada, whence, after some years, he sailed for 
his native land in declining health. His spirit returned to 
God while he was upon his knees, his hands clasped as if 
in prayer. 

The names of some other ministers who then left Nova 
Scotia were to reappear in our Methodist records. Of this 
list was Thomas Smith, whose injuiies through a fall from 
a carriage at the time of the annual meeting at Newport in 
1837, led him back to Bermuda, to remain there as a 
supernumerary. Another temporary departure was that of 
Robert Cooney, who was transferred to the Canada District, 
where — at Odelltown — he saw his church turned into a fort 
as a strategic point in one of the severest fights of the 
rebellion, and found its doors, pews and pulpit perforated 
by bullets, and its floor stained by the life-blood of loyal 
Canadian militia. 

A third name on the same list was that of Matthew 
llichey, who early in 1835, on the death by cholera of John 
Hick, was directed by the Committee to leave Halifax for 
IMontreal, as the colleague at the latter place of William 



Lord. AftcM" haviii;^ filled niost iinpoi'taut posts in CiUiiuU, 
he returnod iii IS')! to Xov;i .S(;oti;i, luid for years main- 
t.ained his raro [nilj)it reputation ; hut a leap fri)iii a t'arriai,'e 
drawn hy a runaway lio!-se, durini,' his ahseneo in tli«^ 
Upper Provinces, had inflicted permanent, thoui^di at fiist 
iniperceptii)le, injury upon the elfKpient preacher. Of all 
that group of Methodist niinistejs who on a late autumn 
day of 1883 met at Government House, Halifax, the resi- 
dence of Lieutenant-Governor Kichey, to accompany tlm 
remains of the revered father to the i^'rave, only one had 
heen pi'ivileged to know and to listen to the deceased 
preacher previous to the time when the injury caused hy tlu^ 
accident had hecome evident to his more intimate friends. 
Before his removal to Montreal his name had hecome kiiDwn 
heyond Provincial houndaries. Jn 18.')0 li(> had taken his 
invalid wife to South Carolina, and theie, thouijh unheralded 
hy any .antecedent repufation. he had soon attained a iiDpu- 
larity proh.ahly unequalled hy any j)reacher who has evei- 
visited Charleston. None of the M(;thodist or other 
churches in wjiich he pieadied would contain tin; conj^rega 
tions which followed liim. '• It was no unconnnon thing, ' 
wrote a distinguished Southern Methodist j)reacher only a 
few years ago, " for persons to go in the afternoon to the 
church in which he was to pi each in tin; evening, and to 
remain, supperless, to hear the .sermon.'" It was his presence 
which called forth from the rector of the Protestant ICpis- 
copal church, later hi shop of the diocese, a printed address 
to his paiishioners on the suhject of "fre([uentor occasional 
neglect hy memhers of the Church of its olHces for of 
other places of Christian worship." In recognition in part 
of this attractiveness as a preacher, the otlicial memhers of 
the Halifax circuit in March, |iS;}2, successfully asked that 
he might he seat to the city as the junioi- preacher, pi'omising 
the Committee to he i-esponsihle for any e.xtra expense 
caused by the proposed arrangement. 



It' : 

\ ) ' '! i' 


It must, however, be borne in mind tliat in tlu^ pulpit 
Matthew Hicliey was not inerely attractive ; he was hiijjlily 
effective, "ilis discourses," said Dr. Whitefooid ►Sinitli, of 
Charh'ston, who heard him during the winter f)f lS,S(j-;il, 

were not more "distinguished by their splendor of diction 
and rhetorical beauty than by their evangelical sentiment, 
their deliniteness and clearness of JJiblical exposition, their 
full presentation of Christian privilege, and tlu'ir faithful 
enforc* ment of Christian obligation." The ( iospel system, 
as interpreted by Methodist theologians, he had accepted 
without any reservation, and from the church of his adop- 
tion no otter of place or emolument could ever tempt him. 
Fi'om his depth of personal conviction came his power to 
convince others and thus fit them to be leaders. The late 
John Lockhart, of Parrsboro', had been converted, but, 
bewildered by teachers of Calvinistic theories and close 
connnunion, had been unable to make choice of any cluii-ch 
liome. One day he listened to Matthew liichey's exposition 
of Gotl's plan for saving men, and at once said to himself : 
" If this be Methodist doctrine, I am a Methodist I " A 
litth; later, Richard Smith, of Maithuid, met him one 
Saturday afternoon at Schult/'s, on the Windsor-road. The 
j)reacher was in perplexity, because it seemed impossible 
that his wearied horse could carry him that evening into 
the capital, where he had an appointment on the following 
morning. Having learned the facts of tlie case, the 
farmer made a i)roposal that the minister should take the 
stronger horse and go on to the city, leaving himself to 
bring in the wearied animal after a ni«iht's rest. Gratefullv 
accepting the offered assistance, the preacher invited the 
young man to listen to him on the morrow, and drove otK 
On that Sabljath Richard Smith, whose antecedents were 
not Wesleyan, was won for a life-long service in the raid<s 
of Methodism. Equally great was the service done when 



Wiiithrop Sari^'ont was sent forth at r.arriii,<,'t()n to a l(»cal 
iniiiistry of rare leii,t,'th and eircctivoness. Thcso tliree men, 
all of whom became well-known leaders in their respective 
neighhorlioods, may be assumed to l)e oidy occasional illus- 
trations of tiie influence of an able minister of the New 
Testament, with whose sermons the Mt^thodist people at least 
of nearly all sections of the liritish American Provinces 
were to some extent familiar. 

The names of Williatn I5ennett, James Knowlan and 
Stephen IJaniford, are found in the Minutes of 18:31) as 
those of supernumeraries. William Bennett, in consequence 
of impaired health, had at his own recjuest been placed on 
the retired list as early as in 1S2(). Stephen Jiamford with- 
drew from the active list in 18;};"), at the end of twenty-ei^dit 
years of active service, but in consefjuence of the lack of 
effective ministers remained in charge at Windor for an 
additional year. The name of James Knowlan had been 
placed on the superannuated list in 1S.S2. During jiis term 
of office? as chairman of the (Janada District, some serious 
differences of opinion had arisen between the Committee in 
London and himself on tinancial points. In consequence of 
these the dcterminojd Irish minister was placed in the 
supernumerary ranks, and through some further misunder- 
standing his name was in a few years omitted from the 
published denominationa! records. For a time he travelled 
through the province as a temperance lecturer, but failing 
health soon obliged hi u to retire from all pulilic engage- 
ments. Jn the early years of the century he had been one 
of the strongest men of the Provincial itinerancy. His 
mental strength, aided by a good education and an extensive 
stock of general knowledge, caused him to take a wider 
range in the pulpit than some of the preachers of his day; 
and his great interest in public affairs led him at times to 
make a use of the press of which his brethren did not 





5 ; •! i 



! r 

1 f 

' ^ 




always ap})rove. As a platfoi'in speakor he had tho advan- 
tage of a good stock of Ifisli wit, so dealt out in general as 
to avoid any interference witli ministerial tlignity. An 
early abandonment of a pathway to worldly honor, and a 
long missionary service in .Jamaica and several of the 
British American provinces, render this able and possibly 
wayward [rish minister deserving of honorable mention in 
any history of the church he served. 

The death of the venei'al)le William Black, already men- 
tioned, demands more than a passing reference. He had 
generally be<'n al)le^ until 1S29, to preach one of the three 
sermons with which the more devout Halifax Methodists of 
that day wrr«^ wont on each Sabbath to ta.x. their mental 
digestive powers, ))Ut soon after that date he had been 
obliged to cease from all pulpit efVoi't and resign his leader- 
ship of a class. ])uring the eai'ly autumn of 1831 liis friends 
saw indications of approaching departure. To Richard 
Knight he j)leasantly said, when conversing with him about 
the prevalence of Asiatic cholera, "It does not matter ; I must 
soon go ; whether by cholera or by this dropsy. It is all the 
same ; I leave it to my Master to choose." To the same 
iuinister, wIhmi he had been called to witness tlu; closing scene, 
he said in reply to a (juestion : "All is well, all is peace ; no 
fear, no doubt ; let Him do as He will. He knows what is 
best." After this he sank rapidly. " (tive my farewell 
blessing to your family and to the society," and "God bless 
you ; all is well," were the last words heard by Richard 
Knight from this venerable apostle of Provincial Metho- 

The familiar title of " Bishop," pleasantly applied by his 
friend? to William Black, was by no means inappro})riate. 
His coiuiection wiih the Methodist Church in the Lower 
Provinces was neither incidental nor partial. He was her 
first solitary laborer, using his own energies to tiieir utmost 



extent, and seekin<,' to l.ring to liis ;i.s,si.s(iinc<' sucli workecs 
as he coulci ol)tain hy visits to the rniK-d States or (Jreat 
Britain, oi- discern among the eai'ly convtTts ;if home. Ills 
etTorts were not conliiKMl to Nova Scotia; in Prince Kdward 
Island he preached the first M(>t)iodist sermons : in Xew 
Brunswick he gathered sheaves ; in Newfoundhmd he organ- 
ized the cliurch(>s in th(^ neiglihorhood of Conception Bay, 
whence their influence spread to other disti-icts of the island ; 
and if in liermuda he won no spoil for his ^Faster it was 
because some unworthy sons of that beautiful cluster of 
islets, not knowing the "day of theii' visitation," turned 
the Gospel messenger back when -'his face was as though 
he would go" thither. 

As a Christian ministei-, Williiun lUack was better quali- 
fied for his work than many who have had greater privileges. 
Through a diligent use of such advantages as were within 
his reach, he was able to read the saci-ed oracles in the 
languages through which they were revealed to men. His 
reading in theology and ecclesiastical history was also exten- 
sive and Judicious. With a piety " deej), growing and 
uniform" were combined a good acquaintance with human 
nature and the possession of such other (jualifications as 
serve to make a minister respected and useful. Robert L. 
Lusher says of him : " His ministry was neither declamatory 
nor rhetorical ; but being convincing and persuasive, and 
generally attended with a gracious influence from above, it 
was at once popular and useful. The benignity of the 
Divine charactei' rather than the ' tei-rors of the Lord,' the 
pleasures and rewards of piety rather than the eternal conse- 
quences of sin, were the topics on which he seemed most to 
delight to dwell." As a j.astor he was watchful and judi- 
cious in discipline, always avoiding the harsher way when 
the necessary ijupi-ovement could be ett'ected by more gentle 
means. Francis Asbury, the heroic apostle of American 


I .' 




Methodism, in conversation with St(>:ph<;n Jj.iniford, once 
used forcible words in reference to wliat ho deeuKMl his 
friend JJlack's too early retirement from itinerant lal)oi's; l»ut 
it may Ije (juestioned whether, alter a thiity years' servic(! 
in Jiritish North Anierica as it then was, an ap})eal cou'd 
not have been sustained a^'ainst tlie judgment of the wortliy 
bishop, one of tiie rare workers not of a centuiy only, but 
of the world's long lifetime. In William Jilack's case, retire- 
ment was not idleness. " Wherever he was," says a minister, 
just quoted, who was appointed to the Halifax circuit some 
years after his aged friend's superannuation, " whether in 
the parlor or in the pulpit, he seemed to regard it as his 
business to save souls." Of his loving and practical sympathy 
and wise counsel, the young men who were putting on the 
liarness as he was about to lay it oil' were wont often to 
speak when they too had reached advanced age. 

The personal appearance of " Bishop" JUack in his late 
years, says the Hon. S. L. Shannon, who remembers him 
well, " was very prepossessing. He was of medium height, 
inclining to corpulency. In the street he always wore the 
well-known clerical hat ; a black dress coat buttoned over a 
double-breasted vest, a white neckerchief, black small- 
clothes and well polished Hessian boots completed his attire. 
When he and his good lady, who was alway.s dressed in the 
neatest Quaker costume, used to take their airing in the 
summer with ])lack Thomas, the bishop's well-known servant, 
for their charioteer, they were absolutely pictures worth 
looking at. In the pulpit the bishop's appearance was truly 
apostolical. A round, face, encircled with thin, white 
hair, a benevolent smile and a sweet voice were most attrac- 
tive. Whenever my mind cari'ies me back to those scenes, 
the vision of the apostle John, in his old age addressing the 
churcli at Ki)hesus as his little children, comes u}) before me 
as I think of the good old man, the real father of Methodism 
in Halifax." 



ord, once 
eiiied his 
Jjors; hut 
•s' service 
eal cou'd 
le worthy 
only, but 
se, retire- 
•uit some 
hether in 
it as his 
tig on the 
t often to 

1 his late 
hei's him 
m height, 
wore the 
ed over a 
ik small- 
bis attire, 
sed in the 
ig in the 
1 servant, 
es worth 
svas truly 
in, white 
st attrac- 
36 scenes, 
ssing the 
jefore me 

In accordance with a suggestion of Richard Kni-dit the 
papers of his venerable friend were placed in the l.iuuls 
of Matthew Jlic-hey. Tn ].v;59, a of three hundred 
and s,xty-hve pages, enriched by extracts from the deceased 
'Ministers manuscript journals and son.e previously unpub- 
lished letters fron. Wesley, Coke, and Carrettson; as well 
as bnet notices of sevc-ral of the early Methodist itinerants 
and laynien of the Lower Provinces, was printed at Halifax 
1 us volun.e was a valuable addition to general Methodist 
Iiterattire , though the removal fron. Nova Scotia of the 
author, who at the time of publication was pnncipal of the 
I^pper Canada Acaden.y, at Cobourg, cause.l it to be less in incident than it might have been. A work so valu- 
able should long ago have reached a second and enlar^^ed 


'; 'ft 

J ! 








Changes in tlie ministry. Duncan McCoU. Arrival of ministers. Sus- 
sex Vale. Arthur McNutt and Petitcodiac. Arrivals of English 
ministers. Provincial candidates. St. Andrew's, Miramichi, 
Richiliucto, Bathurst, Woodstock and Andover. 

The (irst meeting of the niinisters of the New Brunswick 
District was hekl at Halifax in May, I82G, under the 
direction of llichard Williams, whom the Missionary Com- 
mittee had summoned from Canada, as chairman. This 
minister had been trained by Episcopal parents, but under 
the Methodist ministry had been led to look up, believe and 
live. After two years of circuit work in England, he had 
been directed by the Committee to join John B. Strong, 
their single agent in the Canada of that day. At the end 
of a ten years' itinerancy there, he was placed as chair an 
at St. John, where his firm and judicious management 
tended to allay the excitement caused by the previous 
secession, and to give a new impetus to the work of the 
denomination in that part of the province. 

On the arrival of Richard Williams at St. John, Robert 
Alder proceeded to Montreal. The latter minister, who 
was regarded as a young man of deep devotion to his work 
and of a high order of talent, sailed in the autumn of 1827 
for England, and in his native country soon rose to a promi- 
nent place in Methodist councils. During the year 
after his return, he represented the Connexion on the plat- 




form of the British and Foreign Bible Society, where were 
some of the leading ministers of the kingdom ; and about 
the same time he appeared before a connnittee of the House 
of Commons to give information respecting the trans- 
atlantic operations of the Methodists, whom IJishop 8ti-achan 
had so rashly misrepresented in liis eflbrts to secure the sole 
use of the vast Clergy Jieserves of Llpper Canada for the 
Church of England. During the Sheffield Conference of 
1829 the standard-bearers of English Methodism, who in 
succession were his guests, could not fail to mark tlu^ 
courtly bearing of their host, and to treat him as a man 
likely to stand in high places. In 1832 he was sent to 
Canada to t^ke part in the arrangements for the union of 
the Wesleyan missions and the circuits of the xMethodist 
Episcopal Church in the Upper Provinces. A year later he 
was elected one of the Missionary Secretaries, and to his 
special consideration as such, during an official service of 
eighteen years, nearly all subjects relating to Wesleyan 
missions in British North America were submitted. In 
1851, when the agitation of that sad period was placing the 
public services and private habits of the ministers under a 
tierce light, Dr. Alder wisely withdrew from the Conference. 
Having found an open door of refuge in the Church of 
England, he became canon of Gibraltar, and remained such 
until his death in 1873. To the last he is said to have 
retained intere;> in the progress of the Church respecting 
which in 1830 he had written to William Temple; '• I be- 
lieve Methodism is to save the world.' A less prominent 
place awaited George Jackson, who reached England about 
the same time as Alder. In 1826 ill health obliged him to 
leave Fredericton for the Carolinas, whence he returned so 
enfeebled that an innnediate passage to his native land be- 
came a necessity. Four years later he recommenced his 
useful ministry, and pursued it for a lengthened term. 

. ! 





i *! 

i ) 


On the Minutes of 182G the name of the vencrabh' 
Duncan Mc(>'oll appeared in the list of supernunieraiies. 
Mis position had been an anoniaU)us one, for his na!ne had 
in succossi\e years been printed in the list of itinei'ant^-, 
though he had been virtually a settled pastor and the 
church property at his several preaciiing places had been 
under his couttol. For years he had faithfully served his 
own geneiation by the will of dtod, but at length, undei* 
the rush of numerous years, the continued pressure of work 
and care, and the loss of his excellent wife, a stalwart frame 
began to yield. In 1826, when Richard Williams visited 
St. Stephen, McOoll expressed a wish to place in the Com- 
mittee's charge the sevei'al societies as well as the church 
property under his control. Until that time he had been 
dependent for support upon the voluntary contributions of 
his hearers and the proceeds of his own property under his 
wife's management ; he therefore asketl from the Co-iimittee 
an annuity for his support in his declining years. The 
Committee acceded to his proposal, and on the transfer of 
the property to trustees, granted him a small annual allow- 
ance. In 1817, during these negotiations, a young preacher 
was appointed to St. David's, and in 1829, when the minis- 
ters met in annual convention at St. Stephen, they were 
asked by McCoU •\) appoint one of their number to take 
the charge at St. Stephen he till then had sustained. To 
Richard Williams, selected for the post, he then surrendered 
the whole care of the societies in the county of Charlotte, 
though he continued to the end to give such assistance as 
his strength would allow. 

The period of the venerable minister's diminished service 
was short. He rated himself " useless," nevertheless the 
Master when He came found his servant at work. On 
November 28th, 1830, he preached twice at St. Stephen 
with much comfort ; on December 2nd had a " good class " 




at his own dwelling, and tlireo days luf-r, with trembling 
liand, made his final entry in his diary. The pain with 
which he then wrote indicated the " beginning of the end," 
which after twelve days took place. Large numbers from 
various parts of the country and the neighboring sections of 
Maine attended his body to the grav(>, and ministers re- 
presenting all sections of Protestantism listened to the 
appropriate words with which Kichard Williams enipha- 
•sized the occasion. By friends desirous " to show their 
appreciation of his faitliful labors " a very substantial gray 
granite monument was erected in 1885 in the St. Stephen 
and MiUtown Protestant cemetery, in memory of the vener- 
able minister and his wife ; and on arbor day of tlie same 
year a tree was planted in the public school grounds at St. 
Stephen for the same purpose. 

Py Matthew Picliey, his colleague in 1820-21, Duncan 
McColl was regaided as second to none of the earlier Pro- 
vincial itinerants in mental power. J lis eo)i version was 
clear and evident; the manifestation in iiis life f f a perse- 
vering and well regulated piety was constant ; and the 
proofs of a real call to the ministry were abundant and con- 
vincing. Large numbers of those saved through his agency 
preceded him to the heavenly world ; many of his converts 
thougiitfully walked in the long procession which followed 
his body to the grave ; and not a few otliers, wanderers 
from the place of their spiritual birth but not from their 
Saviour, heard of liis death by the slow news' despatch of 
that day with deep emotion. 

^ The preacher .sent in 1827 to St. David's was William 
Smithson, one of two young Englishmen who ariived at St. 
John early in the summer of that year. In his nineteenth 
year he had listened to Methodist ministers ami had given 
himself to the Lord. An independent congregation in 
Dublin had invited him while a local preacher to become its 




pastor, but lie liad preferred a place in the church whose 
iniuisters had jointed out to him the way of life. The 
}>illar of cloud and of fire soon led him along the right path. 
A year in the Shetland Isles was followed by an appointment 
to a circuit in the London District, and thence after a short 
residence he sailed as a missionary to New Brunswick. 

For fellow-traveller over the ocean William Smithson had 
another young Yorkshire picachei-. A Methodist mother 
had gently guided Michael Pickles, and Episcopalian 
teacliers had shown a warm interest in his studies, and while 
at school he had attended the Sunday morning services con- 
ducted in the sombre old parisli church by tlie "perpetual 
curate," Patrick lironte, father of the gifted sisters, Char- 
lotte, Emily and Anne lii'onte. This much-discussed clergy- 
man was described by Michael Pickles in later years as a 
" person of reserved habits, but of extensive learning.'" 
Through a revival at a village neai* Haworth, the youth was 
led to decision for Ohi'ist. Fears that his detei'mination to 
be a Methodist would cost him tiie good-will of both teacher 
and incumbent proved groundless. One by one hindrances 
were removed, and he was soon found preaching in the 
humble Methodist chapel which William (rrimshaw, the 
friend of Wesley, and a pi-edecessor of Patrick Bronte, had 
built for his Wesleyan friends on the road leading to the 
monotonous moor. To the two young missionaries neither 
the weather nor the associations during the passage to St. 
John proved congenial. One of the owners read prayers on 
Sunday — when he felt so inclined, and studiously ignored 
the ministerial character of his passengers. These, however, 

' Patrick lirontc, \\.\., was the first ('xaniiiuT at tlic Kn^lisli Wt'sleyan 
sc1iu(j1 at Woodliousc (rivjvf. llis wife, Miss Braiiwcll, lifldiis^t'd to a 
Icadiiijif Wcslcyaii family of Cornwall, of w liii'h Mrs. (laskell says: 
" Tlu'y wore Mt'thodists, and h(» far as I can gatlior, a j,^'ntle and 
sincere piety gave refinement and purity of character." Exception has 
frequently been taken to Mrs. (Jaskell's description of the eccentric 
Irisli clergyman. 


IN NEW Jim\\SW/r/{ 

2 to 




1) a 



t'ouiul in tlio forecastle willing liearei^, who thankfully 
received tracts, the otler of which in the cahin called forth 
angry protests. 

Soon after arrival at St. John Micha*-! I'ickles visited 
llphani, and after a day or two thej-<; moved on to Sussex 
Vale. At I'phani he found William Tweedale, an English 
local preachei-, who had formed small societies there and at 
Plampton, the care of which, in the ab-ence of a ciicuit 
preacher, iiad kept his zeal in lively exercise. In a few 
weeks the voung itinerant was cheered by a visit from two 
of the nearer brc^thren. William Temple, at the close of a 
Sabbath's duties on the Westmoreland circuit, liad proposed 
to All's. Temple a visit to the " new Englishman." J>y their 
invitation Artiiur McXutt, on whom they called at Petitco- 
diac, accompanied them. As they drove up to the door of 
the young j)reacher's home they saw no signs of his presence. 
" Brother AIcNutt," shouted William Tenjple in his brus(|ue, 
impulsive style, " he's a stiti' Englishman. We'll be sorry 
he came I " Scarcely had he given utterance to that most 
unwarranted remark when the diJiident young preacher, 
who iiad learned the errand of the visitors whom his host 
had gone out to welcome, made his aj»peai-ance with tearful 
eyes and extended hands. The friendship that day begun 
was only interrupted by death. 

Sussex Vale had been settled by a disbanded corps of 
New Jersey Loyalists, many descendants of whom are found 
among the present population. At a latf^r [>erirxl settlements 
were formed in adiaceiit districts bv emigrants from Eni;- 

if v ~ o 

land and Ireland. Tlu; only resident minist<-r in the ext<!n- 
sive circuit entered upon by Michael Pickles in b^*27 was 
Oliver Arnold, who for forty years had U^en rector of the 
parish, but by the young preacher a large majority of the 
inhabitants were regarded as " IJaptists or Newlights," by 
whom strong prejudices against Methodist teachings had 


I' M 



1 < 




heoii <^eiieriilly enteitained. With a few Provincial Meth- 
odists, auion<,' whom was George Hay ward, a coiixcrt uiuh-r 
William [Hack's miiiistiy, wore some immigrants who had 
been Methodists in homes across the ocean. A nund)er of 
these, with some persons converted under his early ministry, 
were soon formed hy the young preacher into classes in 
several settlements. Calvinist sentiments of a pronounced 
type being very prevalent, the "doctrine of necessity " was 
sometimes oflensively assei'ted by persons with whom he njet ; 
but by others, who moui'ued over their exile fiom foruier 
piivileges, he was welcomed with much emotion. Previous 
to the annual meeting of 1828, ei'ditv-two members liad 
been gathered into classes, exclusive of those on trial ; 
several Sunday-schools had been organized ; and arrange- 
ments liad been made for the erection of a church in the 
Dutch Valley ; but for some time the expectations of dili- 
gent laborers on this large circuit were not realized, as from 
the whole tleld, twelve years later, only one hundred and 
thirty-live members were reported. 

On the Minutes of 1828 the name of Arthur McNutt 
appeared. In 1826, after two years at River John as a 
local preacher, he accompanied William Temple to West- 
moreland, to be successor to William Murray at Petitcodiac. 
Financial hindrances having been removed, the Committee 
in 1828 accepted his offers of service when their delay had 
turned his face towards the United States so fully that oidy 
the pleadings of his brethren availed to retain him. In 
anticipation of the Committee's action, his brethren placed 
his name on their list as a minister at Digby, but through 
the late arrival of the English INIinutes he remained a third 
year at Petitcodiac, where abundant success followed his 
laVjors, nearly one hundred members having been added to 
the twenty-seven previously reported. 

The remarkable revival of that year began at Upper 

/.v xh'ir nniwswicK. 




Covcrdalo. At that phirc, towards tlie oloso of William 
Muri'iys two years' t^Miii, the frame aiul othor materials 
hul ln'cii collected for a small chui'ch. The ertu^tion of this 
IjiiildiiiLC, the lirst M<;thoflist place of worship between St. 
John and I ><)rcln?ster, li;ul iieen connnenced in Aui^'ust, 
JSiM), and three weeks later William Temple had preached 
under- its roof. At the i-losf; of a Sunday evening service in 
XovtMiihei-, iSiis^two conversions took place. Daring the 
week, through the agency r)f sin.'cessive meetings, twenty 
persons found })eace in the e.xercise of faith in Christ. Soon 
visitors from adjoining settlements ci-owded the little church 
and shared in the blessings of the season. In each family 
at Coverdale (;ould he found one or more than one rejoicing 
soul, hut the households of William Chapman and othtM's, 
who had i)i'ovided the church and maintained a small piayer- 
meeting in the jdace, were .seen to he to a special extent 
partakei's in the gifts bestowed. The revival continued 
throughout the winter, and attracted visitors from Dor- 
chester and Sackville anrl Susse.x Vale, who carried home 
with them some measure of its precious influence. At Dor- 
ciiester alone llfty peisons profes.sed conversion. Towards 
the termination of the more special work, Michael Pickles, 
from Sussex Vale, who in December had spent a few days 
at Coverdale and Ijaptized fifteen persons " really converted 
to God," made a thi'ee weeks' tour of the Petitcodiac cir- 
cuit, and baptized more than eiglity adults and children. 

A personal experience during this revival is told by a 
venerable minister now in retirement at Horton. George 
Johnson, when a child, had accompanied his parents from 
Yorkshire in the Tr(i/iil(fai\ and in his new home near 
Coverdale had experienced conversion, but through un- 
hall'iwed associations liad so far wandered from tlie path of 
the just as to seem proof against all religious influences. 
Arthur ^IcNutt, grieving over the youth, resolved to seek 

' ( 


I if 

f". li 



his I'oconversion. Fifty ve.'irs latoi* the lad in (luostiou told 
how prayer in his Ix'hiilf had been answered : " I was then 
a |)Oor, unhajipy backslider. . . Foi- more than a week 

I wa5) deeply convinced of my sinfulness, and sometimes felt 
like slnkin;,' into utter despair*. On the evening of Novem- 
ber 2'J, 1S'J8, Mr McXutt preaelied from 'Come unto Me, 
all ye that labor,' etc. At the close of that sermon I fell 
powerless on the lloor as if dead, and continued in that 
state for somt; time. Wiiile they were praying for me I 
had a most singular manifestation of (Jhrist, and was 
enabled to b(;lieve on Him with my lieart unto righteous 
ness. I now felt, I knew, that all my sins and l>acksli(lings 
were pardoned. You may well suppose that while I am 
blessed with my nuMital faculties I cannot foi'get this 
glorious revival." 

At this period the missions in the district were rapidly 
reinforced. Two of the preachers who then arrived had 
been in the West Indies. One, l*lnoch Wood, reached St. 
Jolni in August, 1829, to enter upon a half century's career 
as a leader in IJritish American Methodism. A native of 
Lincolnshire, lie had been a school-fellow and then a Chris- 
tian worker with Thomas (*ooper, afterwards a prominent 
Chartist, and author of the " Puigatory of Suicides " and 
some other well-known volumes. \\\ 182G lie and several 
others were sent out to the We,st Indies to supply the places 
of the five Wesleyan missionaries who had been lost through 
the wreck, near Antigua, of the Marin mail boat. From 
the West Indies also, in 1830, came Samuel .Toll, a native of 
the same English county, wlio landed at St. John and re- 
mained for a time at Portland. 

Two other young ministers about tlie same time sailed 
from England for New Brunswick : Henry Daniel, now an 
ex-president of the Eastern Biitish American Conference, 
whose face and voice are pleasantly familiar to the Metho- 


rx x/ni- liinwswK'K. 



dists of St. Jolm. li.ul coimiK'ncfd liis miiiistry in ii London 
ciivuit. His fellow j)Jiss(Mij,'«'r, Itoln-rt .1. Siicl<r|(,\(>, who 
never readied his drstinatioii, h;i 1 \\vv\\ sclfctcd Ity the 
Committee for their mission in Sweden, l)ut as he shrank 
from that position, had heen appointed to Woodstock ; 
fieorge Scott, afterward a presich'nt of the I'la^tern I'.ritislj 
American (.'onferenee, haviny; been sent in his stead to 
Stockholm. One day, during a i;ale oil' the Hanks of 
Newfoundland, Snelgrove took a seat upon one of the coops 
wdnch lined the Itulwarks. As he sat there, i^a/inpr at tin; 
wild waste of waters and listeninj,' to the roar of the wind 
through the rigging, tiie a})proach of a wave of unusual si/.e 
led him to leave his .seat for a more secure position. At 
that moment the IliJie took a lurch into the trough of the 
sea, and the young preacher, having missed his aim, shot 
past the com})anion-way, plung(Ml into the sea, and dis- 
appeared forever from human sight, leaving Henry J)aniel 
to land at St. Andrew's alone. 

By permission of the Committee several local preachers 
in the provinces were about this time transferred to tiie 
itinerant roll. Arthur McNutt's case has received mention. 
Tn 1828 the name of Joseph Fletcher Bent also appeared 
on the otiicial list, and in the followini' year that of 
Richardson Douglas. J. F. Bent was one of a family of 
ten children whom pious parents had seen led into the 
Methodist Church. Sampson Bushy, who in 1826 had 
received him into membership, took him two years later to 
Fredericton as a candidate for itinerant service. His work 
as a local preacher had been confined to the extensive 
Annapolis circuit and to occasional visits beyond, in one of 
which, to Yarmouth, he had walked the whole distance of 
one hundred miles. The services of George Johnson, of 
Coverdale, were also accepted by the English authorities. 
Subset ^aently to his restoration his studious tendencies had 





becoMio a suhject of general remark. With .Josef)h V. Bent, 
Arthur McNutt's successor at Petitcotliac, he had made 
several tours through that circuit, and had occasionally 
visited other sections of the country. Having taken charge 
of the Wallace circuit for a short time, during the absence 
of James G. Flennigar, he was recommended by tin? minis- 
ters of the New Brunswick District to the Connnittee as a 
suitable candidate for the Provincial work. The Com- 
mittee at the same time also availed thensolves of the 
offered services of Alexander W, McL?od, of St. John, son 
of the worthy layman of similar name. The legal studies 
upon which he had entered prior to his conversion in 1829, 
hal not been discontinued when his first essays at preaching 
the Gospel were being made, sometimes near the city and 
at others before the congregations under the charge of his 
brother in-law, Desbrisay. The name of William Bannister 
first appeared on thb ofiicial lists in 1833. Aji Englishman 
by birth, he had resided some time in 8t. John when liis 
name was submitted to the circuit boai'd for recommenda- 
tion to the higher courts, l)ut this recoinmenc'ation the 
circuit ofhcials, unable to discern liis qualifications for use- 
fulness, declined to give. In 1833, afte;' a two years' 
residence at Granville Ferry, where he had been assistant 
to Micliael Pickles, his case was brought to the notice of 
the assembled ministers and the English Committee, and he 
was sent to the Petitcodiac circuit. After five years of 
service in New Brunswick, where he was threatened V)y 
pulmonary weakness, he was asked by the Committee to 
take the place at St. Vincent's of Robert H. C^-ane, who was 
about to leave for the Mai-itime Provinces. On landing at 
Kingstown he found his predecessor on his death-bed. Dur- 
ing the cholera epidemic at Barl)adoes in 18r)4, Bannister 
put forth indefatigable efforts to alleviate the sufVerings of 
tne sick and dying and then fell a victim to the pestilence, 


/y xV/i'ir BRuxswicK. 



winch also carried off two of his children. For the last 
ei^dit years of his life he had b,.e„ chairman and c^eneral 
supenntendent of the n.issions in the St. Vincent's and 
J emerara Districts. Ffis brethren in their oihcial n.inute 
of his death speak of hin, as a "respected and beloved 
servant of Christ," whose munstry was "everywhere highly 
valued and useful." ^ 

With an increased number of preachers new ground was 
a once occupied. For the Hrst time ministers were placed 
at fe t Andrews, Woodstock, Miramichi and Bathurst. At 
bt. Andrew's, where occasional sern.ons had been preached 
arul Richard Williams had gathered a few members in l83o' 
Henry Daniel was first posted. On his arrival he found no 
organized society, no place of worship, and but six persons 
upon whom he could look as members. Upon the younc. 
nunLster's departure, at the end of a year which had tested 
his faith and patience, his successor found a new church 
and two classes of fifteen members each. Subse.uient 
progress was slow, and for several years sermons were 
irregular, appointments being Hlled as far as was possible 
by ministers from St. Stephen and Milltown. 

In 1830 a minister was sent to the settlements on the 
Miramichi River. Attention had been called to that section 
of the province by Roberl Tweedy, the faithful le.der of a 
•small band of Irish emigrants who had not left their reli.don 
behind them, in August, 1828, John B. Strong, then at 
l^redericton, left that ,.]ace to visit them. After a day in 
the saddle he reached Boies', over roads "Hlled with water 
and the roots and of trees." On the afternoon of the 
third day he came in sight of the broad river and numerous 
ships-a pleasing sight after the monotonous inurney through 
the woods. The parish of Chatham, containing with the 
village of Nelson fifteen hundred inhabitants, had three 
places of worship, no one of which, however, was in the 




town ; whil(! at Newcastle and Douglas, on the opposite 
bank of the river, the seventeen hundred inhabitants, whose 
number received large additions in the spring and autumn 
by the arrival of «hip]>ing, iiad no Fi'otestant church and no 
stated ministry. One half of the population at least was 
Roman Catholic. At Newcastle, on Sunday morning, the 
visiting minister preached in a lai-ge school-house, and in 
the afternoon lie crossed to Chathaui. At the latter place 
he was most kindly entertained by a gentleman from Eng- 
land, whose parents were jMethodists. Of the evening 
service at Newcastle, the preacher wrote : " Many were 
without with hats off and as still as the night. After the 
service was ended, and before I could get out, the people 
Hocked in in tears, telling me that th(^y were children of 
Methodists, that they had never seen the face of a Methodist 
preacher since they had left their native land, and begging 
me for their sakes ;ind for the sake of their children to abide 
with them or use my influence to send them a missionary." 
On iNFonday morning the visitor proceeded up the North- 
west Branch. The leader of the Irish settlement, whom he 
met on his way, seemed almost overcome with surpi'ise and 
joy, and at once led him to his humble dwelling. The wife, 
on their arrival there, struggled to suppress the rising tears 
as she exclaimed : " Have I once more tixed my eyes on a 
Methodist preacher ! '' In this log dwelling, the home of the 
husband and wife and their eight children, these Irish 
Methodists told their guest the story of their trials in their 
adopted country, while the children were sent otl'to dwellings, 
of which the stranger liad caught no glimpse, to give infor- 
mation of his arrival. During the settlers' tive years' life 
in the woods their faith in (lod and their attachment to the 
church of their childhood had been well tested. Persistence 
in a religious life had been aided by their class-!neeting ; and 
by similar means they had encouraged each other to await 




the arrival of a miuistor of their own tlenoiniiiatiou. Imiiier- 
sioiust theories had in vain been urged upon them witli zeal 
worthy of a more important cause while they thus looked for 
a messenger of the churches. With no little emotion tlic 
minister preached to twenty and mon> listeners, and ad- 
minstered the Lord's-supper to members of the class present. 
Of wine there was none, l)ut water sufficed ; Christ's presence 
gave real joy. The service ov^er, the minister mounted his 
horse, visited the homes of a few settlers, reached the kSoutli- 
west Branch, and, preaching at several places as he proceeded, 
returned to Fredericton.-' 

- Tsalxl McLean, a sister of l^nliert Tweedy, was tlie "little \vif(>'' to 
whom reference is made in an incident w iiicli the late John lirewster was 
wont to use with thrilliuj,' effect on Colonial and r>ritish missionary 
platforms : " 'And have you ever .seen the Shannon ?" said the old man 
to that minister, 'and do you know the river?' 'No," was the reply, 'I 
don't know it.'" 'I'he old man then told the story, how he had left the 
hanks of the Shannon, and how when all were sad and sighing as they 
parted from friends, liis " 'little wife' sanir, 

' .\\vay with our sorrow and fear, 
We soon shall reco\er oiu' home ;" '' 

and then how they started on their journey ; how when they came to the 
shore and were ready to emliark and leave the old country liehind, the 
tears came, hut his little wife sang again, "Away with our sorrow ajid 
fear!" They dried their tears and were soon on lioard. I*y-aiid-i)y 
came a storm and all was terror. The captain and sailors gave up all foi' 
lost, hut the littlti wife liegaii to sing, " Away with oui- sorrow and fear I " 
The captain plucke(l up courage, tlie sailors went to the pumjis, the 
storm i)assed and all was well. They landed at length, and when they 
found themselves in the wilderness their hearts were sad and heavy, hut 
the little wife sang again, " Away with our sorrow and fear !" and they 
then bestirred themselves, lnult their cahin, and soon got over their 
difiic\dti<'s. " r>ut," said the old man, "and have you never seen the 
hanks of the Shannon'.'" The family grew up, and then the little wife 
sickened, and while they were aroiuid her dying l)ed the hynui she lo\-ed 
so well was on her lijis, and she died singing "A\\ay with our sorrow 
and fear. " — N. W. ( 'Iwixtuph >>•'.•< J'<t(tK of M(fh()(Hsin, p. \U). liy an error 
of the compiler the scene of this incident is placed in Newfoundland, 
prolialily hecause .Mr Ihew.ster spent the earlier part of his ministry in 
that island. 'I'he hymn was known l>y the family as ".lohn Ihown's 
hynm," liecause a favorite hymn with their leader of that name in Jre 

iiyuui, oei-ause ;i i;i\ oi lie n\ inn \\ lui iiieir J' ii'ier m iiiai. iiaiin' iii jn-- 

land. Tsahel .McT^ean wiis a memher of the class in Williamstown. 
Three sons of Kohert Tweedy have occupied the pulpits of numerous 
circuits in tlie .Maritime l'ro\inces ; a grandson tills a professor's chair 
at Mount Allisiiu. Joseph 'i'weedy. the last of the original Irish settlers 
at W'illiamsfow n, passed to iiis linal Ikiuk^ in 1S7."), at the end of a long 
and \iseful life. 

! I. 



I \ 


J ■ ■ 1 



-r j • 

. 1 

- J i 





At Chatham and Newcastle several persons awaited with 
interest the arrival of the expected minister. Among them 
was Robert Morrow, manager at Miramichi of the large 
estahlishment of Joseph Cunard, and son of a Methodist at 
Newcastle on Tyne Daring a previous residence at Guys- 
boro', Charlotte Newton had found him a willing and 
interested hel|)er in her Sunday-school work, and in the for- 
mation of a Ladies' Bible Association. There was also 
Joseph Spratt, from Chester, England, who in his native 
land had filled the offices of class leader and local preacher, 
and who, removing about 1830 from Bay du Yin to Chat- 
ham, after a time resumed his official religious duties and 
continued them stendily until death. These and other 
friends of Methodism welcomed Michael Pickles on his 
arrival in 1830 to commence a mission. For a time the 
young preacher was bewildered by applications for sermons 
at various settlements, some at a great distance ; l)ut us 
services were to be held on each Lord's-day at Chatham and 
Newcastle, liis movements were limited within a six days' 
range. Previous to his arrival subscriptions had been 
solicited for a church at Chatham, and soon after the dis- 
trict )neeting measui'es were taken for the erection of another 
at Newcastle. In November a service was held in the 
latter building, and during the year societies were f'trmed 
at several settlements. One of the earliest duties of Michael 
Pickles' successor, Enoch Wood, was to open the new church 
at Chatham, which place became the head(|uai'ters of the 
new circuit. No regret was felt at removal from the hired 
room in the "Old Hotel," though neatly fitted up with 
a pulpit and seats, to a chuivh with accommodation for 
six hundred persons and inferior to no Metlu)dist house 
of worship in the province. On the oi'iginal board of 
trustees of " Wesley chapel " were Robert Morrow and 
Joseph Spratt, James A. Pierce, for n any years pub- 
lisher of the Mirajnichi (/leain'v; Josej)h Dutton, who a few 



years later went to Ontario ; Jolin Ilea, who subsequently 
removed to another part of the province, with several others. 
The new church at Newcastle was used for worship a few 
weeks after that at Chatham. Among the special religious 
services of tiiat autumn were the meetings held on October 
8th, the anniversary of the terrible tire of 1825.' All 
the churches were opened and sermons were preached 
in each ; and by some of the inhal>itants the day was 
observed as one of fastinLj. The abandonment by l^obert 
Cooney of Roman Catholicism was one of the most interest- 
ing incidents of the period. Much bitterness of feeling was 
for a time manifested by the Roman Catholics of that sec- 
tion of the province, but by the judicious action of Enoch 
Wood and the early i-emoval of Cooney to Nova Scotia, 
this was at length allayed. \\\ 1830 .'31, several families 
from Devonshire, among whom were some Wesleyans, 
formed a settlement about twenty-miles up the North-west 
Branch. Humphrey Pickard in 1837 visited the place, and 
Hichard Williams a few weeks later formed a class described 
in the following year as a " ha})py little .society of eighteen 

From Mii-amichi other tields were entered. In response 
to a request Enoch Wood spent the last Sunday of Septem- 
ber, 1832, af Richibucto, preaching twice in the court-house 
to large congregations, and on Monday to an interested 
audience at a settlement six miles up tiie river. At the 
latter place an offer wa-, that day made of an acre of land 
for .a church and burying-ground, at the junction of the 

■' This tcrril)]*' event could not sotm he fdrK'otteii. Winn the fiital 
iiii^lit li;ul passed, the tlirivin<r s«'ttleinents, farms and tiniher lands over 
an area of five thousand sfjuare miles were a charred aTul lilackened 
(lesolation. A million dollars' worth of projierty was consumed, and the 
loss of timhe'r was incaloulahle. ()n^' hundred and sixty persons perished 
and hundreds were injui'ed for life. The smoke from the fir<> was very 
dense as far as Yarmouth. For many yean* the anniversary of this 
terrible event was observed by c«'ssation from business, and public religi- 
ous .services. 

* ■( 

( !J 


I'm : 
-:!!! : 

:! f 

.'■■^ '- 



Nicholas and Richibucto rivers, and numerous offers of 
support for a minister were proffered. Two months later 
Henry Daniel, Wood's colleague, visited Richibucto and 
formed a class of twelve members. Near the end of 1838 
monthly visits to Buctouche were commenced, and a year 
or two later a fresh impulse was given to the work at 
Richibucto by the erection of a church. 

In 1832 Joseph F. Bent was appointed to Bathurst, 
which had several times been visited by the ministers at 
IMiramichi. In August, 1830, Michael Pickles first reached 
the village, the j)opulation of which, chiefly Presbyterian, 
was said not to exceed one hundred and tifty persons. By 
Ricliard Dawson the visitor was taken down the Bay 
Chaleur to New Bandon. Most of the settlers there, from 
Cork, had been Methodists in their native land. Soon 
after their arrival in New Brunswick, and nine years before 
this visit, they had asked for the presence of a Wesleyan 
minister, but no satisfactory response could be given. They 
had not, however, lost sight of their personal responsibility. 
Meetings were held at the house of Richard Dawson, a 
small class was organized, and a sermon was read by one of 
the settlers to his neighbors on each Lord's-day. John 
McLean, Presbyterian minister at Richibucto, had preached 
for them one Sunday morning in 1827, during a tour 
through that part of the province. "Instead of standing 
in time of prayer," he wrote, " they all kneeled, and many 
of them left the house with tlieir cheeks bedewed with 
tears." Their Sunday-school had been closed, but they 
promised the visitor that it should l)e re-opened. By these 
Irish Methodists Michael Pickles was most cordially greeted. 
One good sister threw an arm around the neck of the 
modest young preacher while slie told_ him how patiently 
and long she had waited to see the face of a Methodist 
minister in their neighborliood. Though it was after nine 


* ; 





o'clock on a Saturday evening when the news of the 
preacher's arrival was circuhited, a number of neighbors 
went at once to hear a sei-nion. After a second sennon, on 
the Lord's-day morning, tlie preaclier left for Bathurst, 
where he spent several days and preaciied in tlie couit- 
house. His visit was followed by several others from 
Enocl. Wood and Arthur McXutt. In ls;i2 a frame of a 
church was raised at Bathurst, and in 18."i.'i a circuit of 
that name, with a meml)ership of tliirty-six persons, was 
recognized in the Minutes. The arrival, during the latter 
year, of William Stevens, an English Metliodist of much 
experience, gave an interested supporter to the society, a 
superintendent to the Sunday-school, and a home to the 
appointed preacher, but for some years the unfinished state 
of the church and the slow growth of tlie society depressed 
the spirits and tried the faith of successive pastors. 

Tn 1(S32, after long and unfortunate delay, a minir;ter 
was sent to the village of Woodstock. A small village had 
grown up where fifteen years earlier there had been a single 
dwelling. As early as 1821 William Temple had visited 
the district, and on his return to Fredericton had forwarded 
to England a description of the surrounding country and of 
the religious condition of the settlers. The peo[)le received 
him kindly and promised to support a young preacher if one 
could be sent. After another visit to Woodstock and 
Wakefield, paid by John B. Strong in 1828, the Comtnittee 
resolved to occupy the ground, but further delay arose 
through the loss at sea of young Snelgrove. From Metho- 
dist teaching the settlers at Richmond, comprising the 
Watsons, McBrides, and others who had followed James 
Kirkpatrick from the north of Ireland in 1822, were for- 
tunately not wholly cut off. To his countrymen at Rich- 
mond the presence of James Killen was a blessing. That 
good man had been a member of the Irish Conference, but 








:1 S 




having been I'liarged with a wrong of which he was sub- 
secjuently proved to be innocent, he liad withdrawn from 
tlie itinerancy, and with his wife liad crossed the ocean to 
Miraniichi, and liad thence at the end of two years removed 
to Carleton countv, his home until his death in 1849. At 
Richmond he acted as a local preacher for twenty-three 
years, extending his services to Woodstock also during the 
delay caused by the death of Snelgrove. 

Several visits by F2noch Wood, Sampson Busby and 
Arthur McNutt, having fostered the desire for a Methodist 
pastor, an acre of ground was deeded to the Missionary 
Society in due form in March, 1832, and a generous sub- 
scription list was deemed a sutHcient warrant for the im- 
mediate erection of a Methodist churcli. The spot selected 
was near the " Lower Corner," some distance below the 
Meduxnekeag stream, along the bank of which only two or 
three houses then stood. Soon after tlie annual meeting of 
1832, Arthur McNutt made his way to the place, where he 
received a warm welcome from several leading men. The 
only church member resident in tiie village was a woman, 
but many other persons, weary of the lifeless ministry at 
tlie parish church, were ready to listen to the preaching of 
the truth elsewhere. At the close of the year the busy 
minister reported seventy members from the various settle- 
ments in his scattered field, wliich extended as far north as 
Andover. Nearly all the services at Woodstock were con- 
ducted by him in a school-room, but, a short time before his 
removal in 1833, at the request of the relatives of a person 
who had died in the Lord through attention to the counsels 
given V)y the Methodist pastor, the floor of the unfinished 
church was swept, the workmen's benches were pushed 
aside and a very impressive funeral sermon was preached to 
a crowded congregation, to several members of which it was 
believed to have proved the " savor of life unto life." 

{ '. 




S.amuel Joll, appointed to W<Kxlsto<;k in 1833, remained 
there two years. During' the winter of l'S33 34 he crossed 
the national boundary line to assist w^veral Ainoricaii 
Methodist brethren at a four days' untftuw' at Holton, a 
military post on the frontier. At the conclusion of the 
meeting the ministers crossed to W'ltfA^iocV, whither one 
of their number, Mark Trafton, had preceded them on 
Satui'day. This minister, who lodged wjtli the family of 
Dr. Kioe, a physician of the village, and preached on 
Sunday morning, was struck l^y the devout a{)p('arance of 
the congregation. "Great results " were years afterward 
said by Dr. Trafton to have attended the week of special 
services at Woodstock. At the close of a love-feast in 
August, 1834, twenty-eight persons were received into 
meuibership, some of whom became pillars of strength. At 
the close of his term, in 1835, Samuel Joll reported a large 
increase in the number of menibers, and a parsonage in 
course of erection. During the autumn of that year, when 
Henry Daniel had been but a few months in charge, the 
church, which only two years before had been built at a 
cost of eight hundred pounds, was burued to the ground. 
This blow, which drove a growing congregation to a school- 
room, was a severe one, but the absence of debt and the 
wise ])rovision of insurance robbed the stroke of some of its 
keenness. Steps were at once taken to secure a second 
church on the same site, and the new building was opened 
for worship in December, 1836, by sermons by William 
Smithson. The circuit, of which Michael Pickles was then 
in charge, had at least twelve preaching places. In 1838 the 
Sabbath congregations in the village of Woo<^Jstock contained 
about one hundred and seventy- five persons ; there were 
two classes at Woodstock and one at Northani{;ton. 

For a number of years but little attention could be given 
to the more distant parts of this extensive mission, which, as 




'! i! 

siipoi-iiitoiulod by Sainuol IVlcMastci's in iS.'iS, extciulf^d from 
tlu! Il;i,y S(^ttl(Mnont to AiuIonci'. The oiijuMiial sottlL'ivs on 
the banks of the St. .John, Ix'twc-n Wooclstork and the 
Grand Kails, a distance of ncarl}' t'iglity niih s, wtTO dis- 
banded soldiers. Many of tbenieked out a bare subsistence 
for their families, i-ultivating' as best they ef»uld the lands 
granted them, and drawiii'' aloii'' the shore n«'ainst the 
sti'ong current by ropes across tlieir shoulders the boat 
which conveyed any necessaries from the lowei- liver sec- 
tions. For many years no m:in cai-ed for these <'xiles. Tlie 
Episcopal minister at Woodstock in ISH) stated tliat above 
that point ther(,' was no minister of any denoniination. A 
justice of the peace, wlio had pre\iously visited them to 
administer tlu; oath necessary to secure their annual pension 
from the government, report(Ml that it was with the utmost 
diiliculty and after a half-day's stvirch that a liil)le could be 
found. In view of this fact, the Society for the Propagation 
of the (lospel sent out a number of copies of the Scriptures, 
prayer-books and tracts, and made a graiit of fifteen pounds 
each for two school-masters — the cnly pi'ovision for their 
spiritual and intellectual wants for many years. In course 
of time, otlier settlers, from the l)anks of the Lower St. 
John, were attracted up the stream by the fertile lands and 
fine timber growth. Among these Arthur iNIcNutt in 1830, 
on the first visit of a Methodist minister as far north as 
Andover, found scattered disjiples who had been converted 
under the ministry of his predecessors at Fredei-icton and 
Sheffield, and who welcomed him to their homes. At their 
request he preached at Wakefield, Andover, and other 
points ; and on his return in 1832 they became the iirst 
members of local societies which have grown into the vigor- 
ous churches of the present day. A pious Scotch woman, 
Janet Johnson, removed with her husband from Fredericton 
to Andover in 1833, and by her establishment of a Sunday- 


school of whid, sl,e wa, u,n principal nuMa^cM-, tl,e ci.cula- 
t.on of t he Sc,-,ptu,-,.s, a,„l cllbrt with i,Klivi>lual consciences, 
p.-epa,-ed ,h„ „ a,- !.„■ the We.le.aa n.i.sionary, for whose,on he- door vvas always open. At Andover services 
could for s™,e years be hehl only on each fifth ot sixth 
feabbath. In l.s;i7 a s.nall church was built there, and a 
year later a eon;;reoation of one hundred was reported, of 
whou, fourt,.,,,, „,,.e in counnunion as nm.nbe,^ In the 
itt e ehurch liritish troops were billete,! during the n.arch 
to Canada at thethne of the rebellion, and the stove which 
or n,any years „ave eo.nfort to the congregation was left 
there by the nnlitary authorities. Early in 1839 Arthur 
Me^ utt spent e.ght days at the place and its neighborhood 
and thence n,ade an earnest appeal to the Oonnnittee fo," 
the appo.„tn,ent of a missionary for that section of the 
county of Cai'leton. 


METnoDis.Nr IX TiiK XKW r.i{r.\s\vrf;iv distiuct fro>[ 

YKAK, 1S;«». (r'onrliKlnl.) 

I 1 

■' ) tl 

CliaiiK^''* in th<' ministry. Iluuipliicy Pickard, Saiinu'l 1). Rice, and 
otlicrs. Arrival of Kurdish prcaclifrs. i'mtraftcd iiifftin^^s. St. 
.riilni and Frt'dcricton. Ijcnnu-l .VUan Wilmot. Slu'tticlcl. Cir- 
cuits on tile .Vnicrioan l)or(lfr. Wcstniort'laiid. ('iiarlcs F. Allison, 
and otln-r laymen. Ft'titcodiac. .Vimapolis and HridK<'t<i\vn. Visit- 
ing' missionary. Failure to enter open doors. 

The further changes in the ranks of the ministry at this 
period were of much importance. Several men of tried 
worth took their departure for other spheres of service, but 
among the recruits of the time were worthy successors, 
some of whom saw a lirief Init hallowed career, while 
others through effective and extended service became men 
of mark in Colonial Methodism. 

Repeated attacks of illness obliged Samuel Joll to sail 
for England in the sunnner of 183G. His genial spirit and 
successful work had made him a favorite with preachers and 
people. After a fair test of ^ his physical ability for itinerant 
service, he withdrew from it and entered into secular busi- 
ness, at the same time giving faitliful assistance as a local 
lielper. In the Alinutes of 1865, his name reappeared as 
that of a supernumerary, and in that honorable list of 
enfeebled workers he retained a place until his death. For 
a time .also the New Brunswick District suffered the absence 
of John B, Strong. Having visited England in 1836, he 
sailed again for New Brunswick, but after a narrow escape 
was driven tack to an Irish port. A previous inclination 







to reinaiii at lionie liavin*,' becMi strengthened by this experi- 
ence, he rectdveil an appointment to the Xewark ciicuit, 
and sent for his family. After a residence in l'inj,'land, how- 
ever, of a year or two, he resolved to return to the Maritin^e 
Provinces as a ])ei'manent home. On his a{)pointnient to an 
Kn^lish cii'cuit, the otiice of chairman of the disti'ict had 
been ti'ansferred by the Committee to William Temple. At 
the meeting of \^'M , .Fohn Snowball, under direction for 
Newfoundland, also took leave of the ministers of the New 
Brunswick district. 

A farther reduction of the list was caused by tiie retire- 
nicnt of one minister and the death of anotlier. Tn the 
autumn of ISIifj Albert Desbri.say Hnislied his itinerant 
ministry, his early retirement being in great measure the 
result of overwork during the revival in the previous autumn 
at Shetlield. For the three years ending with 1842 he 
acted as " sup{)ly " at St. Andrew's, and then left that 
place to take a post at the new academy at Sackville. The 
retirement of William Murray was followed l>y early death. 
That minister, with Jose})!! F. lient, had in 1834 left New 
Brunswick for Newfoundland. His residence in the latter 
colon V was short, failure of health having obliged hiin to 
leave it in 183G. After a visit to England, he became 
a supernumerary at Barbadoes, but change of climate 
availed nothing. His death in New lirunswick, in January^ 
1840, was probably hastened by the earlier decease of a be- 
loved wife. ^ 

1 A young nuiii named I'rice, from the upper South-wesst brancli of tlie 
^liramichi, wlieu on liis way to an academy at Keadtield, Me., with a 
view to preparation for the Methodiwt ministry in tlie provinceH, was a 
I)assenf,'er on tiie RdikiI 'Titr when that steamer was burned in Penob- 
scot Hay, on her way from .St. John to Porthmd, in October, 183G. 
Forty of her passengers were rescued by an American reverme cutter, 
but tliirty-two others, in consequence of one of the boats liaving been 
carried off by an escaping party, were either burned to death or 
drowned. In the hst of tlie latter was young Price. The preaching of 
this young man in numerous settlements along the South-west branch of 
the Mivaniichi had broken down much of the prejudice against Metho- 




I Bl 

M P I 


Oil tlio Minutes of 1834 appeared the name of Richard 
Shepherd, a minister of some years' experience in Newfound- 
laud, and that of Peter Sloi'p, wlio had been preaching on 
the Annapolis and Bridgetown circuit. The second of these 
was sent as .a colleague of Richard Williams to Miramichi, 
of the extensive outlying districts of which circuit he took 
the principal charge. Of two young men who were accepted 
in 1835 as candidates for the ministry, neither died in con 
nection with the ministry of Methodism. One was Wesley 
Charlton Ueals, a member of a respected family in the 
Bridgetown circuit, who began his itinerant service on the 
Petitcodiac mission ; the other was William Martin Leggett, 
of Sussex \^ile, whose earlier usefulness cannot be ignored 
because of subsequent failure. Ijeggett's father had been 
aii officer in a Southern lioyalist corps ; his mother was a 
well-educated and unusually clever woman, from whom a 
son, a portrait painter of some celebrity, and the younger 
son, William, in whose published " Forest Wreath" were 
lines indicative of true poetic genius, were said to have 
inhei'ited their ability. For some years the elder Leggett 
conducted a school on the Madras system, and at the same 
time taught Indian youth, at the "Indian College" at Sussex, 
and there they pleasantly received the young preachers sent 
to the circuit.'-' The son ascribed his conversion to kiampson 

- The " Indian OdlU'gf" :it Sussex luis an interesting history. It was 
the first J'rotestaiit attempt in the Maritime Pnivinces to "proijagateand 
advance tlie (,'liristian rehgic. i" among tht; Indians. fSoon after the 
Loyalist settlenjent in Xew I'rnnswick the New ihigland Society, incor- 
porated in Ijondon in KKJl', resolved to fonnd an institution in the pro- 
vince to be called an "Academy for instructing and civilizing the 
Indians." S\issex Vale, as the Indian rendezvous for starting i(.)V and 
returning from the chase, was selected as die place for the institution, 
the management of wliich, with ample funds, was entrusted to a B(jard 
chosen from the leading men of the province. Years of effort, however, 
onlven<led in discouragement. In spite of the expenditure, the .'ndian.s 
returned to their migratory habits, and again became subject to the in- 
fluence of Roman Catholic priests. The Society then sought to effect its 
purpose by ai)prenticing the Indian yi)uth to farmers, who were to 
train them in agriciiltural pursuits, while their edvication was to be at- 
tended to at the academy. IJut this scheme proved equally abortive. 










Busby as the liuiuiiu agent. Oiio week evening, during the 
winter of 1^34-35, he visited the ohl ( Jennain-strect church, 
St. John, and while listening to the sermon felt tic ihhmI of 
a better life. At a subse(|uent service in the same place, 
and after weeks of anxiety, he professed to ha\e found 
peace of mind. On being accepted as a candidate at the 
annual meeting of 18'5.") he was phiced at Aylesford, as a 
collea<i[ue of (Jeorge Miller in the extens"\3 Brid<'etown 
circuit. In that and in more than one otlur circuit, when 
he had left friends and counti'v as a w.mdcrer, \w was re- 
memVjered by many for l)rilli;uit impromptu ctVoi-ts and 
erratic tendencies, but by others, among v.hom were men 
and women of worth and intelligence, l) that to thcin 
the Gospel proclaimed by his lips had been the " powei- of 
(iod unto salvation." 

A more satisfactory recoi'd belongs to two other young 
men who at this period ga\'e the/nschcs to tin; Church of 
(lod. Humphrey Pickavd's parents wtu-e members of Pui itau 
families who, before the war of the Kcxdhition. had left 
New l<]ngland to take possession of those vieh inter\ales 
which skirt the St. John at Maugerville and Shetlield. His 
mothei*, under the ministry of William iJennett. had l)eeoiiie 
a Methodist in hei- giiiiioo'' ; aiifl through hei" intluence 
Thomas l*ickard, after their marriage, became one of the 
snuill gi-oup of Methodisis at Fredericton, and as eaily as 
1817 an othcial UKMuber of the (;hurch there. In theii- home 
Methodist itinerants of that day fouiul the pleasant greeting 
with wliich their successors were familiar. With a praise- 

Tlic Indians (li>likc(l it and it piovcd injininus to tli>ir nioi •' ,. 'I'lif 
Society finally rctnu-ited .lol.n W'fst. ,in l']|«iM-o|ial niinist" ■ ,>iio wa-- 
sent ont to ll\idson \Va\ in \K\.), to \i>it tin- Indians in No\a .-icotia and 
New Brnnswiek and look into tlif state of affairs at Su>'^c\ \ a\>\ I'imhi 
I'eei'ipt of liis rfpoi't tlic dirictoi's rrsohcd to ln-eak ii|> tlif estalili>lnii<nt 
and to " seek in the aji|ili(al ion of tln'ii funds for furtl'rr yood than 
they fiave hitlifvto met with ainon;,'' oui' red lirtthiiii of ilic w il derm 'ss," 
A very lieasy sinu had been expeniied on the experiimnt. 













wise a})preciatiou of true culture the woi-tliy pair resolved 
to give their sons a good education. Tn the autumn of 1829, 
when in his sixteenth year, Humphrey was taken to the 
Wesleyan academy at Wilhraham, JMass. Accjua ntance 
with several ministers — with William Jiurt and (iforge 
Jackson in particular — had had a fortunate influence upon 
the 'lad, who had not, however, before leaving home, given 
any evidence of religious decision, though even then his 
observant father had written to Arthur McNutt : " Hunr 
phrey, I think, is under the silent drawing of God's Holy 
Spirit." Wilbur Fisk, of saintly memory, who a few years 
later declined consecration to the P]pisco|)al ofKce because 
he believed that he could render better service to Cod and 
his fellow-men as an educator than as a bishop, was then 
principal at Wilbraliau). Few students who came within 
the range of his Influence could fail to feel the [)Ower of 
goodness associated with true greatness of character. His 
ability as a teacher secured respect from his students, while 
his sanctified spirit threw a radiant light upon each day of 
life. At the date of Humphrey Pickard's arrival a deep 
and extensive religious work, of which lie had had some 
intimation, was in progress at the academy. At a class- 
meeting held on his first Satui'day evening there, he 
announced his intention to yield himself alive unto({()d. For- 
giveness for sins which are past he found under a sermon at a 
week-evening service. Among his school-fellows were Osmon 
C. Baker, afterwards a bishop of tlu^ Methodist Episcopal 
f'hurch; and Cln'istian Keener, now a l)ishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. The second of these was a fellow- 
student with him in 18.'Jl-32at the '\^'esleyan university at 
>ri(l(ll(>toNvn, (.\ni!i., of which Dr. Fisk had been chosen the 
first presid<'nt. About this period thoughts respecting the 
ministry of the (Jospel frequently occupied his attention. 
At length, after a three years' (Migagement in nieicautile 





pursuits at lionie, the reading of an address by Dr. Fisk led 
him to resolve to seek adn)ission to tlie ministry of tiie 
Methodist Kpiscoi)al Church. I'rom .^oin^ abi-oad Knoch 
Wood succeeded in turning liini for a time, and then sent 
him to ShetHeld, where Albert Desbrisay was in gi-eat need 
of assistance. While there, his experience in the great 
revival of 1835 removed any lingering doubts in relation to 
the path of duty. Having been accepted in 183G as a candi- 
date, he was sent as the colleague of Richard Williams to 
Miramichi, whence, late in the autumn of that year, in conse- 
quence of the failing health of George Miller, superintendent 
at Fredericton, he was called to assist Henry Daniel, secord 
preacher on the circuit. In 1837 he resumed his studies at 
Middletown, and in 1839 reentered the Provincial ministry, 
f' -»ugh at the close of his college course three invitations to 
r-H: torates in the United States — one of them from Provi- 
dence, R.I. — had reached him. 

The other candidate became, like Humphrey Pickard, a 
leader in the educational work of Canadian Methodism, and 
after honorable occupancy of numerous posts of ti'ust and 
responsibility, died while senior General Superintendent of 
the Methodist Church of tiie Dominion — an ajiostolic bishop 
in all but the name. This was Samuel Dwight Rice, the 
son of an intelligent physician, who at the time of the son's 
biith in 181;") was in practice at the frontier village of 
Itoulton, Me. The father was a i-elative of a family of the 
same nanu» which in Massachu.'^etts has attained considerable 
distinction : the mothci' was a Putnam, cousin of the patii- 
otic American farmer and daring general, Israel Putnau). 
In ISIO the family crossed th(> boundary line and settlet! at 
Woodstock. At their home, Mark Trat'ton, then a young 
minister at Orono, Me., when he crossed the fionticr to 
Woodstock with his pi-esiiling (>lder and two otht-r American 
INIethodist preachers to assist Samuel Joll in his " pi-otracted 

1 ' I 

H:'; i: 



meeting," found " most ugreeable entertainment." One of 
the two sons, who had previously l)een a Congregationalist, 
conferred a benefit uj)f)n his younger brother, Dwight, wlien 
he carried to him from Ai'thur McXutt an invitation to the 
chiss-meeting, a privik^ge the lad liad wished to enjoy. The 
elder brother subseijuently became a convert to the tenets 
of Emaimel Swcdenborg; the younger, when nearly hn If a 
century had passed, s])oke as a Methodist preacher of his 
great obligations to the class-system of Methodism. Between 
the latter brother and Artluu' ^NIcNutt there ever existed 
a strong attachment. The seni^'r of the two always re- 
garded the junior as his son in the Gospel, and the younger 
was often heard to say to his spiritual fathei' : "If 1 am not 
all I ought to be, 1 am what you made me." A year or two 
after conversion young Riceattended an academy at Leicester, 
Mass., and afterwards prosecuted his studies at Bowdoin col- 
lege, where Ifenry Wadsworth Longfellow was at the same 
time a student. During a short subsequent residence at Fred- 
ericton.his Christian life became more vigorous, while through 
conimercial pursuits he was prepared for the performance of 
duties for which many of his brethren were note(jually apt. 
Soon after his acceptance fur the itinerant ministry by the 
British Conference of 18.')7, liis health seemed to decline, 
and in August of that year, his intimate friend, the late 
JFenry Fisher, wrote of the man who nearly lifty years later 
ceased from his labors: " I )\vight's health is still precarious; 
it is a niiitter of serious doubt with me whether he is able 
to travel, except for a short period."' He, howevci-, entered 
upon his work in the extensive Miraniiehi circuit, and in 
1889 had nearly mad(> his arrangements for winter travel- 
linjj at Batluu'st, when th(> members of in extra distriet 
meeting rei|uest(Hl him to remov»> for the winter from that 
extreme point of the New Brunswick District to Sydney, 
C.B., the most distant circuit of the Xo\a Scotia District. 


-I •> 



IS ; 




\ tM-i 

rciisoiis rt'iK 


('(>lii|)l till let' \VH li I he i'ci|ii(',,t niilisu 

ally tryiiiL;. l)iit tlic yonii:^ |ireaclit'r wcut. 


llllaiii Iciiiiilf 

wrote, in a 

ll()l)l(' s 



ry scv*'!'!' cxitosiirt' irai'licil 


destiiiatif)!!, t'aitlifiillv attended ti 

is w iii'k, a 11(1 let iiiiifd 

in the following suniinfr to Xcw Uriiiiswick, li.i\iiig pioved 
by obediencf liis future titncss to (■(.mniatnl. 


le na 

refits of Sannicl McMarst 

ers, who was rccciNfM on 

trial in ISMT, wei'e Lhiaki-r: 

wild as 

.o\'a list: 



in tli(^ county of Annapolis. Tliou^li cdnxcrtfd tlii()U<^li 
tlu^ a,L,'('ncy of the early \\'esleyaii itinrranvs. they had 
continued to profess tiie {)rinciples and to adhere to tla^ 
practices of the folh»\v*'rs <»f (l*'or;,'e I'ox. Tlirou^h the 
reading of th(^ New Testament at home the terrors of the 
Lord took hold upon tiie son, hut wIumi, a few weeks later, 
business railed him from his home near .Ma r;.,fareL\Mlle to St. 
John, and Ik^ found his way to a Methodisi prayei'-meeting, 
hope sprang up, and on the following e\ening in a siirdlar 
meeting peace tilled his heart. Ivarly in iSll'.', after having 
pushed his way through doubts studiously suggested by 
others, lie was baptized and received into ('liiistian fellow 
ship l»y Albert J)esbrisay. 

Of four English inirdsters who in lS.;s reached the 
Maritime Proviiu-es, two remained in the New Brunswick 
L>istrict ami a tliird suttsecpiently joined it. ( 'harles 
Churchill and Ki-ederick Smalhvood arri\ed at Halifax in 
l(S;5S l)y the same vessel. The tirst named nduister, after a 
business life of several years, had been led by a strong con- 
viction of duty into the itinerancy, lie was prepossessing 
in manners, and liis style of pi-eaching, which in sentiment 
was richly evangelical, was calculated to please the most 
fastidious. His nussionary companion, Fredvi'ick Small- 
wood, at once commenced a highly ]>o})ular and iseful 
colonial service, unfortuiuitidy shorten«'d liy an ea.rnestness 
which too long declined acceptance of medical t-aution re- 




specting rest. The inothcM' (jf this young minister had in 
her earlier days been an attendant at tiie services of the 
General Baptists, but liad subsecjuently Ix'eonie a member 
of Jolui Angell James' chur'ch in Birmingham. Her son 
might have follov/ed her thither, but no one in the congre- 
gation showed any special interest in the lad, wlio from 
cliildhood had been "feeling after God.'" A diti'erent recep- 
tion on his first visit to a Methodist church prepared the 
way for closer association with the devout worshippers 
within its walls. At his first essay as a local preacher 
there stood beside him John Collins, a man who meiited 
regard on account of his pers(Hial character, but who is only 
known to the Methodist public through the life-story of his 
devoted son, Thomas Collins, as told by the facile pen of 
Samuel Coley. At Halifax Frederick Smallwood took leave 
of his fellow-voyager and moved on to Bridgetown, where 
he remained. His intended destination had been Wood- 
stock, hut William Temple, whose conunission as chairman 
he had brought across the ocean, detained him in the 
Annapolis valley and sent another to Woodstock. 'J'he two 
ministers who arrived at St. John in October, 18."58, were 
George M. Barratt and Charles Dewolf, the latter on his 
way to Nova Scotia. George M Bai-ratt had been trained 
under Episcopalian auspices, but after ojuversion through 
Methodist influences had oti'ered his servieses to the Mission- 
ary Committee, who at tirst assigned him to South Africa 
but subsequently sent him to New Brunswick. Both young 
men had been in attendance at the theological institution 
at H(-xton — Charles Dewolf for two years, his companion 
on the voyage, for one year. William Marshall, appointed 
to Newfouridland, and a, number of other young men, 
several of whom Ijecame distinguished in Austi-alasian mis- 
sion Helds, were ordained with them in City-road chapel, 
London. John H. .Huiid)y, one of these, hail in 1835 been 

iMtaa^ k, i 



lacl in 
of the 

er son 


n from 

b reoc'p- 

i-ed the 




) is only 

■y of his 

3 y)en of 

)ok leave 

n, where 

jU Wood- 
in the 
The two 
',8, were 
r on his 
I trained 
h Africa 
,th young 
ng men, 
lisian uiis- 
1 chapel, 
S :.).') been 

asked by the (Jouiiuittee to go out fo i'.ritish Noi-th America, 
but in view of liis attaclunent to the pastoi-al work at home 
tlie Secretaries liatl not pi'essed llieir request. Tln-ee years 
later, lie concluded to sail for the new continent with the 
earnest John Waterhouse, a former superintendent, and in 
th(i mission tield ended a most ell'ective service. 

Throu^liout tlie ohler circuits of the disti'ict some deifree 
of growth at this period took place. in If^.).") tht^nission- 
ary secretaries in their annual letter to tlu; chairman of tlie 
X(»va Scotia and New JJrunswick Districts su«'<rested the 
holding of " ju'otraeted meetings."' The proposed meetings 
involved less wear and tear than those of a subsequent 
period, which, though productive of untold benefit, often 
lessened tlie active years of the most successful toilers. The 
"protracted meeting " proper, or " four chiys' meeting " of 
that period was during its continuance a busy time. Several 
itinerant and local preachers wen; invited ; preaching at 
ten each morning was followed by singing, exhortation and 
prayer, and by a similar ser\ic(! in the afternoon ; while 
the evening was regarded as tiie principal harvesting jteriod 
of the twenty-four hours. Such meetings were seldom con- 
tinued beyond a week, but during that time visitors were 
numerous and hospitality was unlxiunded. Tluough general 
action upon the Committees suggestion several circuits re 
ceived powerful impulses, though in cei-tain sections of the 
Lower Provinces they were l)y no means a novelty. 

Steady improvement iti the St. John circuit was followed 
by an e.vtensive revivjd in ISl".). A iiieml)ersliip of two 
hundred and thirty-five jiersons was that year reported from 
the city and PoTtland ; and to that nuiid»er eighty-Hve 
others were added during the subse([uent twelve months. 
In I83;i Albert I>esl)risay went into the streets with the 
<}o>.j«el message. To one of his earliest addresses an infidel 
who had determined never to enter a church listeiied, and 




It > 

V. ^ 

tlirii tui'Med to ( Jod ;iii(l iiiiit('(l with the society. Kear of 
Asiatic ('hoh'ia, which was raL,'in,!j; in Halifax, lent a. soleiim 
interest to iclii,'! mis services in the autumu of IS.'M. 'I'luj 
utmost {)recauti<)ns, hy tin; fimii^ation at th(! Marsli Uridge 
of all pfM'soiis ,'iikI pni'cels from Halifax, and of any i)ers(tns 
who had l»e(!ii in vcliiclcs witii such, did not prevent the 
breaking out of the ])(\stilence, hut happily so delayed its 
appeai'ance that it was checked l)y tlie cooler weather wlien 
only foi'ty-scAcM deaths had heen caused hy it. In gi-ati- 
tude for this (hdivfuance the 18th of December was pro- 
claimed a day of general thanksgiving throughout the 

In tlu! city pro[)er spiritual growth led to financial expan- 
sion. An addition in I S.'}."^ to the ( Jermain-street church 
made tliat sanctuary a building of eighty feet in length 
with a gallery on four sides, and with no unoccupied pew. 
Karly in \^'-'u the larg(^ two-story schoolroom adjoining 
the church was formally opened. Jn its second-story 
room — the largest in the city — the pi'incipal public gather- 
ings of satisfactory (diaracter took i)lacc for several years. 
In November, IS.);"), Trinity I'jpiscopal church was first 
used for kSunday evening services, with " [)e\vs open and 
seats free, ' yet the old Methodist church continued to be 
'' too stiait ' for worshi{)[)ers. This fact dcjpressed Knoch 
Wood on his re appointment to the city. To pray for the 
enlargement of the society l)y the conversion of sinners 
seemed, under such circumstances, to be folly, if not mock- 
ery ; he, therefore, with the aid of several earnest laymen, 
but in the face of the strong opposition of some othei-s, 
resolved to secure the pre.sence of a second church. Three 
lots were purchased and a foui'th was gixcn ; plans were 
obtaiiu'd, a se{)ai'ate board of trustees was formed, and 
witliout a dollar in the treasury the erection of the church 
was commenced at tiie corner of Wentworth and St. <Teorge 

IN KEW Iiin'y>\\'!rK 

-I I 

streets. On a Sunday at't('in<»r)n iji July. |s">S. |%ncirli 
Wood preached fi'om tlie lloor of the l^uiKiini^ to nliout two 
thousand licarer.s a sermon fioni 1 Cor. i, l'.'>, '_M. A larii,'(^ 
company, gathered on th(^ grounds the next day. witnessed 
the laying of the corner-stone l)y John fVrtruson, I'lsij., ont; 
of th(! earliest Methodists of the city, lo whom, more tiiiin 
any other layman, the l)uilding of the old churr-li in (ler- 
main-street was due'. This buildi)jg was ♦•reeted ;it a cost 
of nearly four thousand pounds, the sit«f included. 'J'he 
dedicatory sermons were preached on Suinday, August IS, 
1839 ; in the morning by Matthew liichey, in the after- 
noon by William (*roscoml)e, and in the ev*?ninir l»y Robeit 
Alder. In ISII the school-room and cla^s- rooms weie 
finished, and on the morniiur of Christnj-'i-s of tliat yeai- the 
new bell, the heaviest in the city, rang out in iti rii-h, d<'ep 
tenor its first joyous })eals. For a f<^w years the trustees 
felt a large del»t to b(; a sevei-e burden, but in Isfo the 
IMissionary Conunittee consented to grant them five hun- 
dred pounds on condition that on*^ thousand should be 
raised by the people, and the trustees, inspirited by the 
offer, succeeded in raising much moie than the sum required 
by the Committee. Shortly before tlie gr**at fire of 1S77 
extensive repairs and alterations were Uiade, but the whole 
building was swept away by the resistless flames which in a 
single day not only destroyed the j>la<;e of holy convoca- 

•' .lolni Fcr^'usoii caiiu' to St. .loliii in 1~X'.t a- a |<«y>»-r;r»init in tlic 
Koyal Artillery. Jlf was a native of Ai-nia;rlj. Ii<-!ai»i'l, fn St. .lohii 
hf was a irieixl of ^\'illianl Colilictt. yianmjariaii nu'\ r*'fonner, wlio 
was stationed at l''ort Howe as ser^eantniajor >)i t|j<- .%4rli ret,'inient. 
Afr. l^'er^'uson is lielievetl to lia\>' lieen eon\ei-t«^l thr"«ijrh t,h»- [■reaeliin^f 
uf .fames Mann, who in 17!'- was on a visit to the ci'.y nud the up ri\er 
settlements. In tliat year he joined tlie church. Ii«-f'>r<- r,T>n version his 
lirincii)les and jiractice were usually correct : aft'-r f.'rmvfrsion his 
career was an eai'iiest Christian one. 'I'he ini]<'irtari» a"i-r.infe in his 
power he readily pive ; the completion of tiie ori:riii;iiI • ierrnain street 
church he lai'jj;ely hastened liy undertakinvr the n—jn'rii-ibility of the 
debt. As trustee, leader, Sunday-school teacher, in- «a* always at liis 
post till age and weakness prevented, and l)y his lif«- }j«- •♦•*;tir»*d general 
esteem, fie died in f'^'liruarv. 1S41. 




» I' 

lU ■>!{;! I 

: M if 

tion, hut witli scarcely an oxcpption rohhcd tlic lu'wholders 
of either lioiiic or place of Itusiness in iiiaiiy cases of lir)th 
— and scattered tliciii so widelv that it iiiav h(\ presumed 
that thepr(!vious worshippecs iievef all met again foi' praise 
undei- any one roof. 

In |S.'{(S Poftliuid and Cafleton became a separate circuit, 
known as St. .John North. Oceasioiwil services only had 
been held at Portland previous to t\w arrival of J{ichard 
Williams in IS^C) : more fre(|uent sei-mons wei'c iircached 
l)y that minister, for whose aj)pointments the hous*- of John 
Owens was always ready. A little later tin; Hon. Charles 
Sirnonds gave a site for a church, the building of whicii was 
readily undertjikcn.' The nH!ml>ership in. June, ISl".), when 
the chui'ch was opened foi- woi-ship, was repoited to l»e 
thirty-two ; a year later it had i isen to eighty. With the 
rapid increase of pojndation during the next decade, the 
circuit grew in im])Oi'tance. ]n IS.')() a parsonage was built, 
and in 1 838 a large and expensive addition was made to the 
house of worship. Kor many yeai's services were irregularly 
held at Carleton, but in 18;)0 preaching on the Sabbath 
afternoon was commenced, for which, aftei- a time, morning 
and evening sermons were substituted, A class organized 
in 1832 by Samuel .Foil was placed in charge of David 
Collins, an excellent Irish Methodist, who had emigrated 
from the county Tyrone in 1824. At the close of the 
period undei' review Methodists held their services in the 
" free meeting-house," no church under their own control 
having then been built."' 

* Tilt' orijriiial trustees of this c'lnircli were representative men in St. 
Jolm MetluKJisni iit tlie time. 'I'he.N' ucre .Alexaiidei' ^IcLeod, Siinmel 
J I. AlcKee, (ieor^'e W'iiittaker, \VilliiUa Neshit, Henry Henni^'ar, 
Robert (yhestmit, Hobert Koln-rtson, (Jilliert T. Hay, .lolm B. (iaynor, 
(ieor^e Lockiiart, .lames Hnstin, .lolm Owens and l*"ran('is . Ionian. The 
nanies of tiiese and of otlier hitmen with wiiose i)resenceSt. .lolm Meth- 
odism iiiis at various times hi'cn Messed, should at least find preservation 
in some adecjuate record of hx-al history. 

'' A plan of Sunday services for the St. .lolm circuit in \KM includes 
the followinK" ])laces : (Jity chapel, Portland, Carleton, Lower Cove, 

r.y xi:iv uni-xswicK. 


At Ki-odorii-toii, /luritii,' Jolm 15. Stronj^'s rosidfMicc in 
1S-JS.2II. it \v;m ff-k that the old rlnirdi, Unlit tluontili uood 
DuiK-an I Jliiirs exertions. li;id ln'cuiiic too small. In IN.'IO 
st('])s wf'i'c thcnffon* takfn tof the ciTction of a larifcf ono 
on lilt' inofc cliLfililf; sit*- ociaipicd l>v tlic uiacct'ill cdilicc of 
the ]ii'»'K('nt (lay. I n .januaiy, I X'.Vl, after simic dfla y 1 hioti^di 
a partiiil destruction of laiildinL; material l»y lire, the dedi- 
catory ser\ icf's of thf now church wei'o conducted l»y Arthur 
McNutt and Samjmon iSushy. A few months later the 
latter minister reporterl tli;it inei-e;ised accf>mmodation had 
nearly (ioiil)led the nundjer in atten(hince. 

in ls;];i I'jioch A\'ood was placed in chaise at l-'redei-ic- 
ton. His pulpit ability and <;f!nial .spirit soon attracted to 
the Methodist church numerous hear(>r.s pi-eviously unac- 
customed to its .services. Amonj,' tliese was Lemuel Allan 
Wilniot, a younj; lawyei' of Loyalist descent. Kaily r-eli- 
gious interest, awakened rjuring a revival amont,' the l>ap- 
tists, among wliom his father was a prominent man, had 
been dissipated by attention to study and by al)sence from 
home. When tirst brou'dit within the i'an<ire of Enoch 
Wood's influence, sunshine and shadow were; being alter- 

Aliushousc, ( liiii(li)];i I'oiiit. .Mi-|>t;ck, ;niil Loeli I^eiiioiKl. The ordainocl 
])reiicliers were S.uiiijsou liu-hy and Williiuu Smitlisoii ; the local 
pi'eachcrs wen- William Till, SHiiiiiel iianfnrd Mc-Kee. Muttlicw 
Thomas, Peter Sjicji, 'J'homa.-i Hiitchini^s, — Fiiniess jiiid M. I). It 
was in referenc"' to tln.-.-e and -ome other woi-thy members that AHiert 
])esl)risiiy in that year wrote to Arthur McN'utt, when congratulating 
him on a ))ros])eeti\<- a[»|>ointineiit to the city : "The praying' brethren 
there will make you pre^w-h whether you will or not." 'J'lie staiior lr)cal 
preacher, William Till, a native <A New lirunswick, was a conNcrt of 
Josiiua Marsden, at St. .lohn. and to tlie day of his death, in iSdi', was 
an earnest woi'ker for hi- Lord, of whom he was a coi sistent follower. 
lMiou,t,di in his eaily C'hri-tian course he had strong' convictions rtspect- 
injjf a call to the itinerant mini-try. personal fear and unfa\dral)le coun- 
.sels led him to continue in th»- narrower track of the local i>reacher, to 
his subsequent f,'rief. "< Jo," he one day said to .lames Jtenjii^^ar, "if 
(iod calls you," us the younj^ man -jioke to iiimof the ministry, and then 
he gave emphasis U) hi- c-oun-el Wy a clia|(ter of pei-sonal exjieiience. Of 
liis several colleagues in the I'j'.-al ministry at St. .loim- all good men 
and true— may be written: "They rest from their labors and their 
works do follow them."' 









il 11116 
















WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) B72-4S03 


V' ^ //.. ^T 








't« I i 

natcd ill his cxpc'lciicf;. Jic luul 1)(h;omi(' cfinscious of the 
f^r()\viii<j; personal pojiuhirity which won him an oh'ction to 
the House ot' Assciubly in IS."}!, .md had secui'ed the suj)- 
posed life eonipanionship of an ainiahU; Lcicl ; l»ut (h'atli had 
chiinied th<' youiiwf wife foe his prey, thoui^h fortunately not 
until lier abundantly pri>\»'d trust in (Jlirist had made a 
permanent impression upon hci- soirowini^ husWand. Ahout 
this time the .Metlntdist piistoi-, aware of an increasing,' icli- 
Ifious interest in his coii'irei'ation, nnxi^ notice; that at a 
certain hour he would nuM't in»iuirers in the vestry of the 
chui'ch, and organi/.c a class for their special henefit. Of 
the first three persons who waited upon him in the vestry, 
one was Allan W'ilmot, and amjther the late Jlenry Kisher, 
afterwards superintendent of education for New lirunswick. 
The young lawyer's course was watched by the wise pastor 
with much solicitude. With jileasure he saw his mai-riage 
to a young lady who lu'ought him into connection with \)V0- 
nounced Methodist antecedents, and whose (piiet personal 
iidluence .-uded him ii. the avoidance of the snai'es which 
lieset the Christian man in political life. One incident at 
that period gave Knoi-h Wood pjiculiai- satisfaction. Two 
sets of associates were to iiUM^^t in Fredericton to spend tlie 
closing hours of 1^31. One was to hold tlu; watehnij'ht 
service at the Methodist church ; the otiier to engage in a 
ball, one of the great social events of the year, given at the 
governor's n^sidenr-e. Mr. Wilniot, who held the local mili- 
tary appointment of Judge-advocate, received the usual invi- 
tation from Sir Archibald Campbell. Mr. Wood, though 
informed at a late hour of the fact, .sent his young friend an 
atlectionate Christian message of caution. A decision iuul 
at lirst l>een reached on the ground of otlicial duty, but on 
the appointed evening the pieaeher, as he glanced nervously 
down the aisles, saw his friend, accompanied by his bride, 
making his way to the minister's pew. .\t the last moment, 

iu a 

it the 



I an 


it on 






and when tlip co/ioh was at the door, a faithful fr-icud, who 
liad home icpr-oaeh fof Christ, had wliispeced : " Mi-. Wihnot, 
if Christian priiicipUi he woith anytiiini;, it is woith » vtrv- 
thinjj," and this truthful and timely remark hud instantly 
awakened a n-'w aiid nohler resolution, and had i-cndered a 
ju'rilous iiioiiKMit, oiH! of those crises in early manhood at 
which m»Mi ;iit maimed oi' made strong, a wondrous aid to 
a holdly a\(iw('d Christian life.'' 

This incident was soon followed hy connection with the 
Methodist (yliurch. K.\cessi\e I'epetition of immcrsif)nist 
views in his childliOod, he !'(Mnarked only a few weeks hcfoi'e 
his death, had created a strong prejudices against those wjio 
placed un(hie stress upon a mere mode ; from the length of 
time which elapsed before his baptism by liichard Williams, 
it seems not improl)al»le that some prejudice may liav(! been 
awakened against tlu; ordinance itself. In decision resj)ect- 
ing a church home, any struggle, if struggle there were, lay 
in another directif)n. To stem the tide of dominant and 
domineering ecclesiastical intluences of that period, through 
winch Provincial revenues were placed at the use of a single 
religious body, anil rights now common to all were limited 
to a chosen few, was to a young and rising man who in boy- 
liood had been drawn into tlie current of tliose influences, a 
serious risk, from the standpoint of the worldly wise. The 
cost, however", was counted, and the dictates of conscience 
del i 1 )eratel y fol lowed. 

Forty years later, when Lemuel Allan Wilmot had estab- 
lished a brilliant legal reputation, with one or two othei's 
had guided his native v>rovince into an era f)f constitutional 
lil)erty, had been for years a judge of the suprerne court, 
and had tilled with honor the position of lieutenant gov- 
ernor of New lir'unswick, he addi'essed for the last time the 
minist(M's of the New Biunswick Methodist Conference. To 



" liiiijfraidiical sl<itrli nf .IikIk"'*' Wiliimt," liy |{i'\ . .Inliii lifiii, I >. I ). 



irrsroiiY of mktiiodism 

his aiuliciK-o ho that eveninjj; remarked tliat lio " owod 
evorytliiii;^ to Metliodisni under (Jod. Tlie <ir;icc of (lod, 
conferred iiistrunientally liy liei\ had been a u:i'eat Messini,' 
in all diipartnients of service. In political contests— and 
lie had seen lierce ones in his day- and upon the floor of the 
Ici^dslature, lie had liy that <j;race been enal>led to do and to 
defend the rii,dit. His attachment to the institutions and 
polity of Methodism were increasint,' with his increasing; 
years." He had then been foi- twenty-live years leadei' of 
the choir at l''i'edei'icton, for more than a (piartei' of a cen- 
tury su[)erintendent of the Sunday-schotil there, and in the 
class and j)rayer-meetin,u[s liad taken a ])rominent part. In 
1S78, a few months after he had thus spoken of his olili<;a 
tions to one branch of the (.'hui'ch below, he was sudd(Mily 
called to the fellowshi]) of the Church <^rium})hant.' 

Methodism in Krederictoji has at all sta«^es of hei- history 
been l)lessed with intelligent and devoted leaders. "* The 
growth of her society rendered an enlargement of the church 
an absolute! necessity in 1S39. On the iirst Sunday in 
Januaiy, 1840, reopening services were conducted by 
Sampson Jiusby, John li. Strong and Frederick Smallwood. 
A peculiar consecration was given to the place hy the pre- 
sence at the evening service of men and women pleading for 

" < )iily a few wt'cks licforc (Icath .bulyc Wiliiiot spuke to tin- writer 
with ^'•liiwiiij,'- couiiti'iianct! of IiIh lon^ coiiUfction with the Ab'tliodist 
C'hui'cli, and of inmicrous instances of convt'i'sion anionj^ sdioliirs iii his 
Snnday-si-iiool. At iiis fnncral tiic scliolai's led the procession, then 
formed a line on either side of thi; main v.alk of tlni cemetery, and san^ 
a favorite hymn of the deceased as the hearse and monrners passed on. 
At the close of the Imrial service, each niemlier of tlie school, from the 
yonnj^est ciiiid of the infant class to the eldest teachei', filed past the 
grave, each casting' a flower npon the casket. An interestinjif l)io<^ra]»h- 
ical sketch of one of New Hninswick's most j^dftt'«l sons lias lu'en [inb- 
lished liy his intimate friend, .lohn JjatlKTii, I). |). 

** Of the earliei- of these some have l)e<'n named. Associated with 
them, among others, were Robert Chestnut ami .Fohn Simpson, tW(j 
\\(trthy Scotchmen. The first, a native of Ayr, had in ISL'li joined the 
Wesleyans in St. John ; the second liad left Scotland in ISIK, an ac- 
credited meml)er of tlie Methodist Church. Of worthy associates and 
successoi's many pages might be written. 

fx NKW /{Rrxsw/r/c 


I writer 
ill liis 
, thru 
111 saii^ 
led (in. 
[n\ tlie 
^st tlie 
\\ [>ub- 

»i, two 
■I'd tiie 
lau ac- 
[es ami 

forgiveness of sins, and by the i^athei-iui; of nearly three 
hundred others to i-eceive the «Mnl)hMns of Christ's love. 
Through tlie eidar^'euienf of the church additional accom- 
modation was atlbi'ded for nearly foui' liundred persf)ns, the 
cost of M-Jiicli was met at once by the sale of jiews. 

In IS',\'2. Slietlield and the adjoining s(>ttlements became a 
distinct circuit. ]*recious revivals had several times been 
witnessed in that section of tiie old Fi-ederi(;ton field, but 
through absence of pastoral care much loss had been suf- 
fered. In 1Sl'(), during All)ert I )esbri.say"s superintendence, 
a revival which commenced in a, reujote part of the Shef- 
6eld section gave to the menibershij) forty-three converts, 
whose subseipient lives confirmed the sincerity of their pro- 
fessions ; and a similar revival in 1('^2!>, commencing at 
Shellielfl and extending to the Kt-ench ami Mahpiapit lakes, 
resulted in numerous conversions. At the latt<'i- period the 
old church at Shellield, which had been finished in ISIS, 
was abandoned for a i\ew one, the dedicatory services of 
which w«M*e conducted in November, 1S"29. Increased in- 
terest was at that time reported fiom (irand Lake, where 
for years visits had l)een paid by the itinerants, and in their 
absenc(! a sermoii had been read by Daniel Stilwell, a Loy- 
alist, who had heard INIethodist preaching in N(>w ^'ork, 
and in conformity to a resolution then reached, had become 
a member of the first class formed at Urand Tiake. The 
"protracted meeting " held in IS.lo by Alljert hesbrisay, 
assisted by Humphivy Pickard, proved an era in the jiistory 
of the circuit. The venci-ablc Congi-egationalist pastor and 
many members of his church gave heai-ty co-operati(;n in the 
efloi'ts tf) .save neighbors, and many scores professed conver- 

sion, among whom were men 


women whose 



influence was not limited to the short day of earthly life. 

In is;i<) the section of Charlotte county once travel li'd 
by Duncan McColl had been divided into three cii'cuits. 

! i ! 




\i ^ 


Disease <»f a virulent kiiul ha<l in 1S2S-29 ivMnoved from 
eartli aUout twenty-five inlluential members ; and the at- 
tempt during tlu? following yeai- by a superintendent, so 
tejiaoious of law as was Richard Williams, to introduce 
strict Methodist discij)line had not unnaturally developed 
"some unexpected dilKculties." In 18.'}3-.'U an extensive 
revival caused important numerical growth, especially at 
Milltown, where the preacher resided. A second revival, 
two ycMrs sultsecpiently, worked an almost marvellous 
change at 8t. Stephen, and led to separation of the old field, 
ali-eady lessened in area by the formation of the St. An- 
drew's circuit, into two parts, the one known as the St. 
Steplien and St. David's, and the other as the Milltown, 
circuit. The latter was first occupied as a distinct charge 
in 18."{8 by Sampson Busby, who found in the brothers Ab- 
ner and Stephen Hill and other converts of McColl cordial 
and generous helpers. A new church, then one of the 
finest Methodist sanctuaries in the province, had been built 
in 1836, and had become the home of a fair congregation. 
In 18.38 the preaciier found a pleasant reception in the 
pai-ish of St. James. On his first visit he preached in a 
new settlement of nineteen families the first sermon heard 
there. A site near the settlement and a good list of sub- 
scriptions for the erection of a church were ofl'ered him. A 
few weeks later he reported from that point a society of 
twelve mcndters. 

In the Westmoreland circuit, which in 1839 was divided 
into two, there was in 1827 a membership of one hundred 
and seventeen persons, Pi-eaching was given at regular 
intervals at Sack vi lie, Tintramar, Point de lUite, Fort 
Lawi'enc(>, .lolicure, Dorchester and Baie Verte. From 
Dorchestei-, the liome of several of the original Yorkshire 
settlers and of the children of others, numerous accessions 
were reported in 1829. On a Sunday morning in the 




autmmi of that year, as Joseph A\;ii(l was alxnit to preach 
ill the (»kl Metliodist chuiH-h theie, a liic lucikc out aiul 
destroyed the huilding. Il was then (lie only eimicli in the 
place, for in the villa<^e and for some distance around it 
other denoniinations liatl few representatives. In I >(;com- 
ber a new cliurch was opened for woisliijt with serni(»ns by 
Sampson lUisby and Joseph Avard. A re\ ival under Wil- 
liam Temple's ministry in 1S27 led a niimlier of the chil- 
dren of tiie Yorkshire settlers at Point de I'.ute into th<' way 
of salvation, and at Bale Verte occasional accessions glad- 
dened both the itinerant and local laborers. At th<! isola- 
ted settlement at Cape Tormentine few Methodist sermons 
had been heard before 1830. About that ])ei'iod, owing to 
the rapid growth of evil influences at the Cajie, Ivlward 
Wood and a few others resolved to establish i-eligious ser- 
vices tliere, and their etforts led in a short time to the 
organization of a small society by Sampson J>usby. 

Numerous accessions to the niembershi]) of the circuit 
took place during the residence of William Smithson, which 
ended in 1833. Three years later, under the ministi-y of 
•Fohn B. Strong, fifty persons were received into fellowship, 
many of whom had for years been outt^r court worshippers. 
The protracted meeting through which such I'esults were 
oVitained was held in April, ISoO, in tlie "' lirick cha]>el " at 
Sackville. Through the fresh interest awakened by this 
revival a lu^w church was commenced near the old one in 
the autumn of 183S. With an additi<in to its length and 
the provision of side galleries, a few years after its com- 
pletion in 1840, it accommodated seven hundred hearers, 
and held its place as one of the most convenient churciies of 
the district until it was supplanted after nearly f(jrty years' 
use by the present more elegant structure. 

When more than a half century had passed, an aged 
Methodist had finished a recital of incidents respecting the 






revival at S.aokvillo in 18.'iG l)y giving an iiite rested listener 
a thump on the shoulder, acconjpanied hy the emphatic 
remark, " It's going on yer> I" As he did this, the old man 
was casting a mental glance at the .Mount Allison college 
and academies, and was connecting their existence with the 
conversion of an old friend, Chai-les Frederick Allison. I he 
name of this gentleman had Ix-cn placed u\\ the membership 
roll by William Smithson l)efore that minister's removal. 
He was a son of .lames Allison, of Cornwallis, and by 
training was an Episcopalian. After several years' <'.xperi- 
ence in the establisliment of Klisha liatchf(jrd at Parrsboro', 
he in ISIG settled at Sackville, and soon after entered into 
partnership with the Hon. William Crane.'' During a 
serious illness, which threatened the ge!»eral failui'e of his 
never vigoi-ous health, he had in vain souglit satisfactory 
spiritual gnidancM^ from the rector of the parish, when he 
was visited by William Smith.son, with whom he had be- 
come personally ac«juainted as a fellow worker in temper- 
ance effort. As a Judicious and .sympathetic counsellor in 
the sick-room that minister had few efpials. In response 
to his inquiries the sufferer tearfully admitted his sincere 
desire for conscious salvation, and gratefully listened to 
proffered counsel. Having resolved to enter into com- 
munion with the Methodist Church, lie in 1833 joined 
Richard Bowser's class, and at the next visitation of the 
society received from the liands of the man who had pointed 
him to the Redeemer his first token of membership. On 
the day on which W^illiam Smithson left for the district 
meeting he placed in his liands, for the Wesleyan Mission- 
ary Society, the sum of twenty pounds, accompanying the 

'•' Klislia Hiitcliford's cxiunple |)r(il)al)ly stimulated ("liarlcs F. Allison 
in his earlier fjifts, as his words had f'nonurat,'ed T. A. S. Dt-wolf in |Kr- 
sistt'iire in Christian work. It was of tliis trentleman that an Kiiiscopal 
minister at Parrsboro' once remarked, "We have his head, Init the 
Methodi8t8 have his heart." 


IN NEW llRfrxswiCK, 



It tllH 

gift with ^'nitcful words. It was not, liowcvci-, until tho 
revival in \^'M] that the witness of the Holy (Jhost was 
iliviMi as an aliidinu source of iov. As he knelt a thii'd 
time with othei's at tht! coniiniinion railinij during the 
special services, the longed-for measure of light and life 
came. The decision of character seen at the outset was 
again e.Khil)ited. In tin; family with which he had a home 
— for he was then unmarried it had heen his custom to 
ask some of the visiting brethren to lead tli«^ household de- 
votions, but on the evening of blessing, tha' he might at 
once commit himself to duty, he modestly undertook to till 
the place of doniestic chaplain. Again there went into the 
pastor's hands a special sum of money foi" the [X'omotion of 
the woi'k of (Jod, as a thank-otiering for spiritual blessings ; 
and into other hands thei*e also passed a certain amount to 
satisfy some conscientious scruples at which business men 
generally might hav(^ smiled. How in the adxaiHcment of 
(Jhi'istian education on .M<'thodist lines Ik^ used tluuisands 
of pounds and occupied precious years will be told in part 
on a subsetpient page;. I^'rom the unpretentious mar-ble 
slabs which appropi'iately mai'k, in the old Methodist ceme- 
teiy at Sackville, the last earthly resting-place (»f (Jharles 
Y. Allison and his sweet-spirited wife, .Milcah Trueman, an 
intelligent visitor turns his gaze almost involuntarily u[)on 
the educational institutions erected by his liberality and 
that of generous successors, utteiing nu'anwhih^ the words 
whic'h appear on Sir Christopher Wren's tomb in the crypt 
of St. Paul's : " If thou re(|uirest his monument, look 

Charles F. Allison's Chiistian life of a (|uarter of a cen- 
tury came to an end in 1S5S. His service had been a con- 
secrated one. He had recognized (Jod's claim upon his 
wealth, and for this reason tlie man who could scaic<'ly 
count his thousands of pounds by ti ns* had felt himself 









l)()iiM(| til (lit wliiit IK) iiiMii ill liritisli AiiKM'ic.'i ulio i-oiild 
coiiiif Ills tliuMsiuids liy IiiiiiiIi(m1s had had the ^(lul t<» \\X 
f«Mii|tt. He had admitted (Ind's lii^dit to say. '• \v arc not 
yoiir (»\\ II," and thcict'orc had ('iKh'aNor d lo act in such a 
way as to him seemed l»cst cah-idatcd to *';,d(iiit'y t!od." 
When oU'ered the sullVa^t's of the cdiiiniiinit v is a reprcscn- 
ta.tiv(> in jiarliamcnt, he declined acce|itaiice ; and when in 
IS;")! tlie '^ew llrunswick ^'oveniiiient appointecl him t<» a 
scat in the h'lfishit ive coiincil, h(! declined that Imiidr, and 
lemained amonu; iVieiids as "one that serxcth.' Twcj 
w»;eks hefoi'c his deatli Im welcomed to his Iioiih' I)|'. and 
Mrs. I'alni' r, of New ^'orl<. During the services held at 
Sackvdie I )y those Christian workers, their host ol»tained 
such a. measure of the haptism of the Holy Spirit, as liecanu! 
evident to all his friends. At the dost; of a inoi'iiinLC meet- 
ini,' he remained with the se.\toii to jmt tluMdiuich in order, 
then hastenecl away to piay at the hedside of a sick and 
poor old man to whose necessities he had l»een iiiinlst<!i"in^', 
and foi- the last time returned to his pleasant home. At 
the taltle his quests observed that \w seemed unusually 
weak, a fact which he explained to he the result of a chill. 
The closiiii^ scene, which came only a w<'»dv later, was in 
l)(;autiful harmony with his days of service. 

At Baie Veit'i were two local preachers, upon whom de- 
volved woik which the aij;ed Joseph Avard could no lon<i;er 
pursue. (Justavus Hamilton's name was placed on the cir- 
cuit {)lan soon aftei- his arrival from Iieland in 18"24, and 
there it found a place until his removal, in 18r)4, to (Jranil 
Falls, in the county of Carleton. Ivlward Wood, also of 
liaie Verte, was an evangelist i-athei- than a local preacher. 
This grandson of a Y^orkshire Methodist was a most labor- 
ious worker. In 18.'U he was recommended by the minis- 
ters of the New lirunswick District to the London Commit- 
tee for a fellow^a borer, but Ids age and position ^s a 

/.V A'A'ir /!h'f\su/'h\ 


. at 

eh it 


en in 
1 t«» it 
•, and 

I', and 
eld at 
f^ nK'ot- 
» ordt'T, 
j-k iuid 

lie. At 


a, chill- 
was in 

h(»n» de- 
I) lonj^er 
the cir- 
[24, and 
also of 
It la\)or- 
b utinis- 

1)11 ^ '^ 

widowr-r with rhildivn, h'd ( l.udy <<» dtMlinc sciidini,' liiin 
iiitd tlic it iiiffancy. I''itr .1 halt" icntnrv Ik- irndrit-d meat 
scrvicr to Met liodisiii in sc\cral i'(iunli<'s "t" llif t w n pro 
vincrs. S(» sci'ious were t lit' li.irc|slii|»s and 1 In' |M'cuniai'y 
losses caused liy liis tVe«|Uent aliscnce tVoui liis lionn', that 
some of his ffieitds \\fi-e inclined to accuse jiini ot' iin|iiai 
dence. 'These numerous call^ aluoatl were ilue in some 
moasui'e to his peculiar aliility in I he nianaL«'enient ot" sjiecial 
r«dii(ious meetin;^s. "• Ills |iia\ets at suth times." remarks 
ii minister who knew jiim well, '' were wisely ajtpropriate, 
fervent and hrief. At an awkward cii^is in a i'elit;ious 
ser'vice it was Ji(hniral»l(! to see this e\perien<'e(| leader with 
such I'are tact come to th<' rescue. l-'ew men could lay the 
finfi'er witii mor<! sensitive toucli u|)on the pulse of a meet 
in^, " In any memorial of l*ro\incial lay jalioicrs a sketch 
of liis services durini' a. sixty years' walk with (iod would 
fill i!»terestin<f pa,<;<'s. 

Tho lVtit(;odia,c circuit in IS.")',! included IN-t iti-odiac, 
CJovei'dale, Mom-ton, Hillshoi-o'. Iloj.cwcll and Harvey. 
Some of William lilacks early conxcrts had emWiaced the 
views of the l>aptist fatluu's who snliseipiiMitly \ isited them, 
but othei's had proxcd less pliable. 'These dillerences f)f 
opinion had for some time pre\ented the constant pi<-senee 
of a j)astor of any denomination. At Cpjier ( 'oxcr-dah^ 
lived William Chapman, a. nephew of William IM ick, who 
some years after marria^'e i<'solyed to " lead a new life," 
and at tlu^ first service at his family altai' received the 
Spirit's assuraiu-e of for,i,'iveness. ( )n land Ljivcn by him 
stood the church in which continued services .weic held in 
1829 with memorable i-e'sults. Undei- Joseph V. iJent a log 
chapel was opened at Xortii Jlivei- in IS.'Wi, and owards 
the close of 1S29 a class was foi'uied at N«'w^ Ireland, and 
two others at Hopewell. .Vt the latter place, where a 
zealous little society had been establishe<l in 17>^l\ Methodist 


r. k 



services liad for some years l»cfii wholly ahjiDdoned. In 
18.'^'^ a lot of hiiul iUKJ a sinall sum of imoim'V witc left l»y 
will for a Mrtliodist cliurdi on tlit? c-on<lition that tho 
Metiiodists should he th(! lii'st to huild. '\\w ;;ift was ac- 
cepted, hut the church, which was the first iu the newly 
formed county of Alheit to hoast of a sjiiic, was not for- 
mally opened for worsiiip until an early J^ahhath in 1^47. 
In the pai'ish of Hopewell, in 18.'}!), though two thousand 
persons wei-e scatter«!d over its tw(Mity miles of country, 
there was no resident minister of any denomination. Altout 
that time .Samuel MoMarsters l)e^an to i^'ivc the jkiirish one- 
half of his Sunday lahor. A little later \w reported in- 
CHiasin^' con^'ivgations at J! illslx/ro', l»ut wr-ote thiit at 
Hopewell persons were slow to unite in .jiuich fellowship 
because of unwillin^'»\ess to submit to church discipline. 
In 18."i8 a second revival atCo\ei(lale led a numl)er of per- 
sons into memljei'sliip. I' nusual facilities for attendance, 
through tlie fi-ee/in<^ over of 'ue river, which has never 
been thus l>rid,ued in subsecjuent year's, were freely usetl by 
interested men and women. As one i-esult (jf increased 
numbers, a pai'sona;,'e was built in IS.'VJ at (/o\erdale, 
wliich for years had l)een the head(|uarters of the circuit. 
At that j)leasant settlement an old l^aptist church had Ijeen 
purchased, and, with the assistance of Ciiai'les V. Allison, 
had been put in satisfactory order for worshiji. 

The remaininj^ circuits of the New Ijrunswick District, in 
disregard of political division lines, lay in the rich Ann- 
apolis valley of Nova Scotia. As lat(; as in 1833 the Ann- 
apolis circuit, undei" care of two ministers, covered almost 
the precise extent of country now included in the Annapolis 
District. In some parts of this vast circuit the Methodists 
were few com})ared with others, and iu none were they 
nuuierous. An)ong the New England and Loyalist settlers 
and their children who had accepted the teachings of 


/x N/cw /!/:f'Xs\v /('/(, 


I. In 

rt't \>y 

it the 
^•as ac- 
i..t t'oi'- 



i-isli oue- 

that Ht 



IT of per- 


las never 

V vised by 
n' circuit. 
J had been 

iDistiict, in 
rich Ann- 
I', the Ann- 
Ired ahnost 
were they 
hist settlers 
achings of 

VV'illiaiu lilack and others of the earlier Metiiodist pn-ai-heis 
were, however, elect men and women, with wIkmm were 
associated somt? emigrants ot' inlluencc and sterlini,' piety. 
At Nictaiix, as a useful leader and local jirraclicr, was 
William liolliind, wiioliad sailed frttm Ireland in ISl'Jwith 
his wite and child and otlici' relati\t's, in an American 
vessel which, on her way to the I'nited States, was captured 
by an l^jnglish warship and taken with her j)assenf,'ers into 
Halifax. .More extended was the in'luenet? of his fellow- 
countryman, Andiew HendersMi, who ii;nl an-ived at St. 
.John in ISIS, accompanied by his wite and on«> ihild. His 
fath(!r had for a short time been an iti / rant j)reacl" r. Tiie 
son spent a year or two in New llrunsw iclv, and then 
cro^Kr-d tl'.e Jiay as a school teacher to \\'iliiiot. Chi-istian 
communion was at times e.iioved with the niend»ers of 
Colonel iJayard's class in the leailer's pleasant home ; at 
other times he met with Christian bi<;thren at Lawrence- 
town. At the latter village in iSiM he taught a Sunday- 
school, said to hav(! been the tii\st opjuied in the coujity. 
In April, I Si I, when he removed to Ib'idgetown, no Meth- 
odist resided there. Soon aftei- his arrival, he secui'ed the 
use of the Baptist church for Sampson Ihisby, and a little 
later saw the erection of a Methodist church and formation 
of a society. Prayer and class meetings were held in his 
own dwelling, under his own management. From liridge- 
town, in 1S32, he removed to Anna})olis, the sphei-e of his 
higher usefulness as a teacher and active circuit otlicial, find 
his final place of residence. 

Some notes from the hand of Michael Pickles, the colleague 
of Sanmel JoU on the Annapolis circuit in the autumn of 
1831, atibrd a glimpse of the tj^ld they were appointed to 
tmvel. From Annapolis a request had l)een sent to the 
district meeting for a minister who should reside in the 
town. On the young preacher's lirst \isit there he found an 

W •' aJ 





old chapel with aoconunndaiion for three hundrorl hearers, 
hut no f.'Miiily with whom Aaron ?]aton, who accompanied 
him, could leave him for a nii^dit's lod,<;in<j."' The only 
real members wei'e Sert^eant ]\Iclntosh, II. A., and his 
excellent wif(% hut these, whom lie had numbered among the 
"most holy, zealous Methodists of these parts," a few 
months later sailed for Kui^dand. A lariije congreijation 
heard the depressed preacher's first sei-mon at Annapolis. 
At Granville Ferry the people filled the " house that had 
been boui'lit to preach in, " and three months afterward they 
resolved lo buiUl a church. In an old chapel ready to fall 
a few hearers listened to the preacher at Granville, At 
Ifanley Mountain a church accommodating three hundred 
people sadly needed repairs. A new and V)etter church 
was in use at IJi-idgetown, and !i ])arsonage was ready for 
the use of the senior minister and his family. That village 
liad sprung up with the rapid growth of modern western 
towns in the neighborhood of the bridge which spanned 
the Annapolis River at the head of sloop navigation. Where 
but a house oi- two liad stood in 1S2(), a village of fifty or 
sixty dwellings was to be found in 18l*4 : and in 1831 three 
churches-Baptist, Episcopal and Methodist- -were open to 
the increasing population. At Tupperville the itinerant 
preached in the house of (Captain Willett, a church being in 
course of erection ; at Clements, where no church was built 
imtil 183;"), services were also held in a dwelling. Two 
hundred persons listened to a sermon at Bear River in a 

'" .\;ii'(iii Kaloii was sii1>stH]\ifiitly a Icndint; Mt'tlnxlist <if St. .Idliii. 
He liad iii'(ilial)ly l>ut n'ct'iitly fi-.teri'd ii|i<in a ("hristian life, having' Ix'cii 
led to tliDUiilitfuliifss 1)\- a sti-imis illness and l>v tlie saliitarv intluciices 


1 sui'fiiuni 

led I 

liui lU ( Jranvillf. 


to liis I'tMnoval .; 1S41 he 

had tilled almost every post in the church at I'lridtret 


The late (;ili.ert T. Kav, another 


nown o 

tficial in St. .lol 


Mctho(lisni. left l>ij,diy in ISl'.), and soon took a leading ])Iace in the 

society 111 tile t'ltw 

His I 


-ervice and hnancial assisrance wero 

ever at the disposal of the church he so steadily loved. For several 
otiier U'adiiiij hniiieii. and for a 


nunilH'r oi ifodiv \v< 

mien, St. .Tohi 
Methodism has iieeii iiidehted to the circuits of the Ann^ipolis N'allev, 




l)arn which had aeconiniodjited conf^frogatioiis through the 
suininer. On the eveiiiuij; of the saiiio day a s(U'vice was 
held at Siuitlis (^)ve. At J)ii,d»y the chiircli was in an 
unfinished and disrej)utable state. In conso(juence of the 
irreguhirity of niinistefial visits, tht; congregation had 
dwindled and the members had Ixiconie scattered, hut 
measures wt;re at once taken to tinish the building and 
maintain more regulai' services. A visit was at the same 
time paid to J^ighy Neck. At Nictaux, where was a churcli 
partially finished, there seemed hut little disposition on the 
part of tlu; people to com])lete it. Kegulai- visits had only 
been paid foi- a brief })eriod to Aylesford Kast, but twenty 
meml)ers had been gathered and a churcli nearly finished 
there, while at AVest Aylesford another church had been 
set on foot. An extensive revival during the winter of 18*29 
had brought into the church at Aylesfoid several persons 
who became light-bearers for a long period. The same 
revival hud reached the eastern district of Wilmot, to the 
great joy of the devout Colonel JJayard, in whose dwelling 
sermons were fretjuently preached. Just then the medici- 
nal (qualities of the ''Spa Spi'ings,'' situated near the base 
of the North Mountain, were attaining the I'eputation 
which, in ISilO and the several succeeding year^, filled every 
farm-house a»id tavern within a radius of several miles with 
invalids from the two provinces and Maine. 

In some parts of this large circuit the year 1S.")L' proved 
a year of blessing. At Ib'idgi^town several persf)ns joined 
the society who soon became effective helpers ; and at .\nn- 
apolis thirty-four persons professed conversion. The first 
of the converts at Annaj)olis died near that place nearly 
forty years later, after a consistent pilgrimage. Over 
tidings of the conversion of Samuel liayard, his, the 
venerable Colonel Bayard, uttered words of praise as he 
lifted his hands heavenward. The son, a physician at 

I ! 











Annapolis, had, with characteristic decision, risen in the 
congregation, and frankly avowed his changed purposes, 
and thus commenced a new life in which he adorned the 
doctrine of God his Saviour in that town and in subsequent 
years at St. Stephen and St. John. In many families a 
complete overturn was made, tlie conversion of the mem- 
bers of one of these leading to the closing of a tavern of 
unusually baneful influence. At the close of the district 
meeting of l'S32 Michael Pickles removed to Annapolis 
and secured the aid of William Bannister ; and in 1838 a 
division of the circuit with its three hundred and ten 
members took place ; the Annapolis and Digby circuit 
extending from Annapolis to IHgby Neck, the Bridgetown 
charge from Tupperville and Granville to Cornwallis West. 
To the latter circuit in IS.ST) a second minister was 

The results of a " four days' meeting " held in October, 
18.36, in the church at West Aylesford were far-reaching. 
Nearly fifty members were added to the societies previously 
formed near that church. Through this meeting the little 
flock at Nictaux received a special blessing. Several 
members there had died, and the survivors had feared that 
upon their OMjn departure the " candlestick " would be 
*' removed out of its place.'' From a group of young men 
who drove together from Nictaux to the " West chapel " 
came several successful workers. Whitfield Wheelock died 
a missionary in the West Indies ; William Allen for a 
number of years rendered excellent service as a Methodist 
preacher ; Samuel McKeown became a Free-will Baptist 
preacher in the United States, but at a later period, at the 
head of his congregation, entered the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; William Holland, jun., became an acceptable local 
preacher ; and Dennis Bent and the two brothers Foster 
became pillars in the small society at Nictaux. 

tN iVA'ir niwxswiCK. 


d that 
Id be 
/ men 
apel " 
k died 
for a 
at the 
e local 

In 1838 .similar services were held in the same church V)y 
Peter Sleep, a successor of William Leggett, assisted by 
George Johnson, Richard Shepherd, and young men 
converted in the revival of 1830. Among the earlier 
conversions was that of a blatant rniversalist, whose hold 
avowal of his views had wrought serious injury to his 
neighl)ors. Throughout the autumn and winter the work 
continued to extend in a remarkable mannei- in Aylesford 
and also in Cornwall is, whence the sacred fire was cai-ried 
over the border into the Nova Scotia District." Special 
meetings were also held at Pine (irove, Wilmot, in the 
home of Henry Vroom, leader and local preacher, who had 
just removed thitlier. Fi'om that neighborhood, where 
there had been no class, thirty-nine memhers were reported 
in March, 18.39. Another happy result of these s»-rvices 
was the building of a neat jM«^thodist church at Pine (irove, 
the first in that part of the township. 

Equally successful meetings were held inthelower section 
of the Annapolis valley during the winter of 1838-39, the 
superintendent, George Johnson, having called to his 
assistance the young brethren Allen and Wheelock. 
Among numerous converts at Tupperville was a man of 
ninety-seven years, who was awakened througli fireside 
descriptions of the revival, and was enal)led to depart in 
peace after the lapse of a single year. Six weeks' services 
at Granville were rich in results. Among the converts 
there were men of experience and sound judgment, some of 
whom were long associated with tlie church. A young man 
named Bent subsequently entered the ministry of the 

'I Hish(.|i lii;,'lis liad aii inviilid i^i\n residing' at AylesfonJ wlioiii Peter 
Sleej) visited. Tlie son liecanie so attached to the youii^' preaclier that 
wlieii tile hisliop came to see liiiii he insisted iii)on inti'oducin<j his friend 
to liis father. Diffidence hitvin^' prevented Mr. Sleep from calling' at 
the l)ishop"s farm, the son took his fatlier to the preacher's hoarding- 
])lace. The father seemed very grateful ior the interest taken in his 



29 G 


Aiiif'iic.-in Methodist Clmrcli ; and Robert Ainslie Chesley 
died many years latei- in Newfoundland, as superintendent, 
of the St. .lolm's circuit. One practical proof of the power 
of the icvival was the early erection of a new and l»etter 
place of worship. Towards the end of March, 1831), the 
sui)etintendent reported the addition of more than two 
hundred persons t(j the societies in the Bridgetown circuit 
during the year. Conversions were also witnessed at 
several points in the Annapolis and Dighy circuit. At 
George Miller's reijuest, Williani Allen, then at Andrew 
Henderson's academy, visited Digby, and there twenty- 
tive persons pr(jfessed to have received assurance of 

An important step taken in 183(S was the appointment of 
a " visiting missionary." In IS.'JC) the Secretai'ies in London 
had written to the chairmen of each of the two Lower 
Provinces Districts in reference to such an appointment, 
suggesting that it might be well for the chairman, by calling 
to his aid one of his brethren, to undertake the task, and 
combine with his attention to "remote and neglected places" 
visits to some at least of the regular circuits. In conse- 
quence, however, of local demands for ministers no action 
on the subject was ever taken in Nova Scotia, and none in 
New Brunswick until the sunnner of 1838. 

The minister chosen for the work was Arthur McNutt. 
Towards the end of June he visited Grand Manan. That 
island, thirty miles in length and six in breadth, had then 
a population of aljout twelve hundred persons. In 1835 
the Missionary Committee had appointed a minister to the 
island, but he had not reached it, and the Episcopal minis- 
ter supposed to have it in charge had spent most of his 
time on the inain-land, so that the only resident preacher 
was one of the " Christian Band," described as a " Unitar- 
ian Baptist." xVn Irish Methodist couple, on the island 




liie 111 

1 then 





nine years, had never in tliat period heard a Methodist ser- 
mon. At Grand Manan tlie missionary spent a week in 
visiting, tract distribution, and preaching.'' At ^Nlilkish he 
found twenty-six families, most of them attached to Aletli- 
odism, who seklom heard a sermon ; and near the Long 
Reach he met with a nundjer of Methodists, most of them 
from Irelajid, who were ghid to see again the face of an 
itinerant, an occasional sermon from a city local preacher 
having been the extent of their privileges. Late in Sep- 
tember he preached at Pattekeag, in a neat little church 
whicli Enoch Wood had formally opened only a week 
before. At U})liam, a place occasionally visited l»y the St. 
John preachers, William Tweedale still conducted regular 
Jjord's-day services. At the Mulligan settlement twenty 
persons listened to the first Methodist preacher who had 
visited the place. Passing on, he preached at Salisbury, 
where the industrious McMarsters could only take the pul- 
pit once in six weeks, and thence the visitor moved on as 
an evangelist through the neighboring districts At Cover- 
dale and other sections of the Petitcodiac circuit he spent 
a short time in " contirming " Christian friends of former 
days and converts of a more recent period, after the true 
apostolic mode. On his way to the Upper St. John he ob- 
served on the steamers a great improvement in conse(i[uence 
of the temperance movement. At Woodstock he noted 
pleasing growth, and there one afternoon licard Frederick 
Smallwood preach at a street corner. The flourishing class 
at Upper Wakefield had been weakened by the death of its 
leader. At the end of .several busy days at Andcner and 
the settlements in its vicinity, he returned to Fredericton. 
In his diary he noted the fact that since he had first visited 

'-' For some yi-ars (Jraiul ManaiiWiis visited occ^asidiutlly li.\' Mftlmdist 
pi-facliei's .statiuiuHl in Cliarlottc county. In 1H74 a tlaMjlo^ncal student 
spent hi.s vacation there; hut it was not until 1W4, when its ^rrand cliff 
and seashore seenery had begun to attract visitors, that it lieeaine a 
regular station. 

: ! 




the capital tlio monibers of the church and congrej:;ation had 
been "more than d )iibled." The closinr^ weeks r)f the year 
were spent in visits to the numerous settlements in Kiuj^'s 
county. Kaily in the new year he attended missionary 
mecjtiuL^s in the Miramichi, Fredericton, St. Stephen, and 
adjacent circuits. While at Nashwaak, he pr(>ached in the 
chui-ch near the 'Pay, "be^un while Mr. lUirt was at Fred- 
oricton and since Hnished," and then went on to lioiestown, 
"a most destitute place, where they had not heard a sermon 
from ;iny minister since last summer." Thence he found 
his way to the various settlements around the Grand Lake. 
The state of society around the W.ishademoak Lake was 
"j)ainful "a result of tlie absence of an evangelical minis- 
try. At Jerusalem he enjoyed the spirit of Primitive 
Methodism amoni^ the small flock who were about to build 
a church for themselves and theii" neighbors. At St. An- 
drew's he preached in the place of Albert J)es))risay, who, 
for some months had been unable to enter the pulpit. Con- 
cerning tlu! year thus spent Enoch Wood wrote to his 
friend Temple : "The labors of this brother have been very 
arduous and his exposures many — far more so than they 
would have been on any circuit in the district." 

Such labor, it may be asserted, could not be in vain. 
Large mimbers had welcomed the visiting minister, many 
depressed ones had received comfort through his counsels 
and prayei's, discouraged men and women had been 
strengthened in their allegiance to Christ and His Church, 
and the sacraments had been administered in neighborhoods 
wliero they were seldom if ever enjoyed. The missionary 
had also been prepared to furnish to his brethren an intelli- 
gent report of the religious state of the country. " It is 
truly distressing," he said, " to see whole families and 
neighborhoods without any of the ordinances of the Gospel, 
and this not only in a few instances, for a great part of 




It is 
It of 

New Brunsw ick is in tliis state. . . . One or two visit- 
ing missionaries, what are they ainoni,' so many 1 We want 
a numbei' of young men full of faith and of the Holy 
Ghost. Ten at least should he employed in this province 
at once. . . . The land is hc^fore us and all we want 
is men and means.' 

The, unfortunatcily, woi'e not focthcoming. Dul- 
ness of trade and scarcity of money had pi-evented the 
older provincial missions from becoming s(>lf sup{)(irting, 
while a rapidly-growing deht was already so fettering the 
action of the Mis.sionarv (Jommittee in Kngland that three 
years later they declined to send a single agent abroad at 
their own expense. Even tin; one visiting missionary could 
not be contiimed as such a second year. He had re-com- 
menced his work of general visitation when changes in the 
district obliged him to take immediate charge at Westmore- 
land. The work thus laid down was not resumed, but 
efforts were made, with the help of a salaried local preacher 
or two, to place one or more sections of the province under 
the best supervision possible. Samuel McMn.rsters, an 
itinerant, was .sent in 18.39 to a lield in which at best he 
could be little better than a visiting missionary — the North- 
west and South-west branches of the Miramichi. The im- 
portance of this field was enhanced by the prospect of an 
early and rapid .settlement of an immense tract of land in 
the county of York, which at a very low price had passed 
into the pos.session of the New IJrunswick I^and Company, 
incorporated in England in 1834. Through this great tract 
of a half-million and more acres were (lowing the Miramichi, 
Taxas and Nashwaak rivers. In various directions the 
company had laid out roads and built mills, and used other 
inducements to encourage the removal to their lands from 
Britain of an industrious of settlers. Another impor- 
tant section of country for which provision was also 





attetiipted was tliat bordering on the Long Reacli of the 
St, John River. To that section went David Jennings, 
whom John Carroll, who knew him in later days in Ontario, 
has (Jesci'iljed as a " large, athletic bachelor and a great 
pedestrian. '•"■ 

It is nevertheless true that through delay at this period 
a rare denominational opportunity was lost. The period 
was one of religious unrest throughout the province. Many 
members of the Church of England were dissatisfied with a 
generally lifeless ministry, which made no efibi't even to 
attract them by the churcli millinery, vain forms and multi- 
plied communion services of the present day. For some 
years a reaction against the Calvinistic teachings of the 
professed successors of Henry Alline, and the practical 
Antinomianism which too often sprang from those teach- 
ings, had been taking place. To longing .souls, who in search 
of an (ivangelical ministry recoiled from the pronounced 
Calvinistic preaching of the time, there seemed but two 
directions in which to look. On the one hand were, the 
Methodists, whose emphatic reiteration of the great fact 
that Christ had died for all had had an important part in 
producing the reaction ; and on the othei- was the small but 
active body of Free-will Baptists, who in February, 1832, 
with two ordained elders and six churches, were organized 
in-Carleton county into a distinct religious society to protest 
with vigor, in the first place, against a " man-made minis- 
try," and in the second, against the higher Calvinism of the 
age. Of the two religious bodies Methodism had the earlier, 

'•'• Ihivid .It'iinings had conu' from Hiif^land in childhood. He had be- 
\:,nu U, pn'acli among tlic l}aIltist^i, hut whfii at Horton acach-my he 
heard a sermon from William .Somerville, after which he could never 
doubt the validity of infajit l)aptisni. Introduced to Kichard Knight 
by Charles I )e\volf, he was sent as a paid local preacher to I'urt liawkes- 
iiurv, and afterwards to (Tuysboru'. Though not accepted bj' the Eng- 
lish Conference, he preached at the Long Reach, Su.ssex and Batlmrst, 
and afterwards wt nt to Ontario, where he was received into the itinerant 
ranks, in which he nndered long and lalxirious service. 









1 be- 



and thorefore more favorable, opportunity. As early as 
1827 Albert l)esbrisay liad written from the St. John Kiv(M-, 
"The harvest hero on this river (it heinc; settled l>y the 
English for two hundred and twenty miles) is verv L'rent, 
and the inhabitants in general give Methodism a favorable 
reception. At times I am ready to lly and pursue FiOi-enzo 
Dew's plan. Three single men might, I am pei'suaded, 
obtain a comfortable living without being a shilling's bur 
den to the society." The open door was not entered, as 
under more flexible management it might have been, and 
the sequel may be learned from a letter written by a minis- 
ter stationed at Woodstock in 1S.">S : " lUit f(nv of the 
wealthy, " he wrote, "are in any way friendly to the cause, 
partly in consefjuence of non-compliance with the request 
made by them in 1821. Tt is thought by some that if it had 
been attended to \\\ time this would have been a Methodist 
country." In the absence of a Methodist ministry the 
Episcopal Church no doubt i-etained its hold upon many 
once faint-hearted adherents ; while the Free-will l»apti.sts, 
who with immersionist \iewson the subject of baptism com- 
bined an Arminian creed and an open-communion prac- 
tice, attracted many earnest souls, not a few of whom 
with opportunity would have readily accepted the Wes- 
leyan interpretation of New Testament doctrine and church 

"Of tlu' Hiiiall but active strtidu of the Cliurch of C'lirist, now 
known as Free liaptists, Henjaniin Ivandall may be retrarflcd tht; 
founder. Randall was converted under <!eoi';,'e W'liittield. and was an 
evanf,'elist of considerable success. Opposed to infant buptisiu, lie N'ft 
theCon^'repational connuunion and lieeanie a P>aptist. I'ut liisdoctrines 
were too " free ■" for those days, and lie was called to account for the 
Arminian character of his teaching'. Havin^r boldly avowed liisdisbelief 
in the Calvinist doctrine of election, he soon found himself practically, 
tln)Ugh not fornuilly, separated from tlie liajttist ministiy. Trobably the 
earliv'st advocate of the principles of the Free l^iaptists in New Ihnins- 
w'ick was Samuel llartt, who withdrew from the Calvinist Piajjtist liody 
and preached for several years in an independent relation, {,''athering 
and instructing congregations of persons who like himself liad re- 
nounced a Calvinist creed. Several of the early Free Baptist i>reachers 
of Nova Scotia— Asa McGray, Thomas Brady, and Edward Reynolds — 
had been Methodist local preachers, 







Any expression of regret at such a result would now be 
most ungracious. Let thanks iath(;r t>e given that so many 
of tliose for whom Mtfthodism faihd to care came under the 
influence of preachcsrs who taught witli empliasis an atone- 
ment for all, and recjuired a p(Msonal and active faith in 
Christ as an indispensah!e condition of salvation. Had such 
teachers not been near, it is (juite possible that a greater 
number might have fallen a prey to the teachings of llni- 
versalism, into which the reaction from Calvinism led not a 
few, or to those of Annihilationism — Carlyle's " gospel of 
dirt" — which about lb.'55 began to be propagated in New 


d now lie 
so many 
uuler the 
an atone- 
faith in 
Hail such 
I greater 
;s of Uni- 
led not a 
gospel of 
1 in New 

IN 1n;{<). 
J'n.|.arat..ry;u,.ti..Mi„ Kn-lt..,! c 

-^■^^::^:::il'::^;:rjt7''-^ ■ ■ 

I" that wvtrthe \F M ^''^'Ji a j.oint as in Isyj 

Mienjoration n><"ill...l „ • , P-^'tul centejiiuai com- 

«-.t e„-,„ae't e ": ; ;™ ;""'-' "^ ''^ ''out.,,., ,. ,,„ 

;'^-«i t.o,j:::.:::jit J- ^^'-''"''-". '-u,. .* 

ta,„ous Deed of I,,.,,.,,,,,,,,, H,','';:^™' ''"•'.»'■ ">e 

liki'ly to stand as Ion-. ■„ ,1 '"""ilat.on as is 

t'- second, t„„ o. 1. , :,;:V"" "'°"" »""■■" r- and 
A."eHcan eontinen't a^t, rC J^: t;] ^7 ^f '"«'- - *'- 
It; l.owever, in 17S4 M,.., "''"'"'*''"■'«''"'•« *'"nfo,o„cc. 

f".- as a ol.uroh tile I f ' '"'"'*">■ '""' «'™--« 

Methodists i„ the L ^ *'" g™" '^""'ly of 

portant epoch "i^i'ked it as a most in.- 

■"- at ....Lte,.;:'re:h,rs,;t:''^ ''-.-■'■ 

7 »^^>o, as a committee 



nrSTOHY OF }rKT!ini)rs.]t 

(■liari;t'f| with the iiiT!iM«^'(Mii(Mit of a ;:;('iUM'!il [)l;ui. As 
.successive speakei's iickliowlod^^'ed (Im l)lesKiii^s wliicli tlif! 
(Jospel tliruu<,'li the <a«,'eiicy of Methodism had l)ioiii,dit to 
th«! country and to themselves, the thice specified <hiys 
seemed to pass too rapidly. An alto;,'ether unlooked for 
spirit of iiliei'ulity pervaded the <,'atherin<^ and led to finan- 
cial oHerin^s not dfcamod f)f. .lahez lUintin^' had <,Mven an 
opinion that ,t'S(),000 nii<(ht l»e secured l)y the niovement, 
while the veiierahlo Hichard Keece liad j)r(»\rd darin<,' 
enouL'h to nsk for £1 10,000. Hut "grateful heai-ts smiled at 
these limits and soon overleaped them. At (his j)reparatory 
^'athering .£.'}(),()00 was promised instead of the third of that 
amount, as exf)ected hy Hunting, and when the list was 
printed a fortnight later, its total had reached the sum of 
£45,000. The fiist note had been struck l»y a communi- 
cation fi'om a widow, wlio announced her intention, in 
acknowhuigment of the great benefit tiirough Methodism to 
herself and family, to contribute one thousand guineas. 
The progress of the movement throughout the kingdom 
cannot here be described. A re-perusal of the narrative as 
given in Smith's or Stevens' "History of Methodism" would 
prove a means of grace to .'iiiy thoughtful reader. Central 
conventions and circuit meetings were held, until more than 
a million of dollars had been secured for special denomina- 
tional ]>urposes. At the same time the ]\lethodist P^pisco- 
pal ('/hurch of the United States gathered )!?f)00,000, which 
it used for similar objects. Such great fi?iancial results 
were, however, only secondary in value ; the moral influence 
of the mr)vement was incalculably more impoi'tant. y\s 
Abel Stevens has remai'ked : "The almost incredible 
liberality d the denomination, during a year of almost 
unparalleled commercial depression, demonstrated its vast 
resources. The aHection of the people for their great cause 
was shown to be profound and universal. A salutary feel- 


■1, tllf! 

^ht to 
f(l for 
. tiniin- 
ven an 
iiilrd at, 
<.f that 
list was 
> siiin of 
ition, in 
odism to 
li-ativo as 
i" would 
( '(Mitral 
()r(^ than 
|0, which 

,ut. As 
|f almost 
its vast 
^at cause 
ary feel- 



ing attended generally tlieir juhilatic coreuionieH ; their 
sui'|)risiii<; donations, pourin;; into the treasury from all parts 
of the world, \ver(^ in thousands of instances accompiinied 
by significant and touchini^ sentiments. . . . Ueyond, 
as well as within tlu; den(Muination, the extraordinary 
(hMuonstration could not fail to produce a profound impres- 
sion, for the whole Christian, tlu^ wliolc civilized, world saw 
more distinctively than e\er that after a hundred years of 
8trug<,des and triumphs, the <^i'eat movement was more 
demonstrative and more prospective than it ever had heon." 

Of th" total amount rej)orted fi'om the mission tields of 
liritish .>I(^thodisu», £''J,810, or njore: than one (piai'ter of 
the whole, was contril'uted hy that part afterwards known 
as the Conference of bjastern British America. Of this 
amount tiie Nova Hcotia and Pi'incti Edward Island District 
gave £1,231; the New lirunswick District, t'OC)') ; New- 
foundland, £187 ; and Bei'muda, i'lT)?. A ^'(3od propor- 
tion of these amounts was contributed by tin; missionaries, 
who in Newfoundland tjave more than one-(iuarter of the 
whole sum sent from the colony. It should not, however, 
be forgotten that under the stimulus imparted by the great 
centenary movement, even at its earli(M' stag(\s, churches 
were built and local efforts of otlier kinds j»rojectod, not to 
speak of the edu(^ational departure wiiich has led up to the 
Mount Allison University and its kindred institutions, with 
their precious records of progressive work. The anujunts 
named were tiu^se contributed to the English fund in the 
belief that in the benefits from the centenary sul)Sfrii>tions 
the foreign missions would obtain a pro})ortional share. 

The earlier centenary meetings in the Lower Provinces 
were attended by Robert Alder, who as a missionary sec- 
retary had been present at the Upper Canada district meet- 
ing, and by Matthew Richey, another welcomed visitor. 

After some delay on Dr. Alder's account, the meeting of the 






Nova Hcotia and l*riiice Edward Island District was opened 
by Richard Knight, the chairman. At the close of the 
business, the secretary reached the city, where he was met, 
beside others, V)y John Pickavant, chairman of the New- 
foundland District, and by William Temple, chairman of the 
New Brunswick District, accompanied by Richard Williams. 
A district centenary meeting, similar to those held in Eng- 
land, took place in Halifax on August 8th. Circular letters 
to ministers and leading laymen had previously been issued, 
inviting their presence and co operation. At tlie meeting 
an address of elaborate information on the movement, given 
by Dr. Alder, awakened nmch interest. Two ministers, 
John Marshall and Charles Churchill, then in charge in 
llalifax, with ^Messrs. Daniel Starr, John H. Anderson and 
Samuel Leonard Shannon, were appointed secretaries, and 
Martin Cay Black, treasurer, for the district. Several 
speeches by ministers and laymen enlivened tlie occasion, 
and orterings exceeding £900 currency pleasantly ended a 
rare meeting. Sectional meetings were soon after held at 
Horton, Charlottetown and Liverpool, as centres for sur- 
rounding circuits. 

The general meeting for the New J»runswick District was 
\.i\i\ in the Germain-street church, St. John, on the evening 
of Saturday, August 17th. Messrs. Alder and liichey had 
been accompanied from Nova Scotia by Messi-s. Bennett, 
Croscombe and Knight. A most liberal subscription list 
was being enlarged when an alarm of tire suddenly called 
the audience out to witness on(^ of the most destructive of 
those conilagrations by which St. John has so often been 
visited. On the following day the new Centenary cliurcli 
was formally opened, and on Monday evening a second and 
memorable centenary meeting was held within its walls. 
From St. John, on the following day, several ministers went 
up to Fredericton, where they and the object they had in 
view met witli a generous reception. 



! of the 
as met, 
le New- 
,n of the 

in Eng- 
i,r letters 
n issued, 

at, given 
harge in 
irson and 
,ries, and 


ended a 
held at 
for sur- 

itrict was 
|; evening 
clu^y had 
ition list 
[ly called 
luctive of 
[ten been 
■y church 
Icond and 
its walls. 
;er3 went 
ly had in 

The reijuest of the l>ritish Conference that on Friday, 
October 2.")th, a{)])ropriate religions services should be held 
in all Weslcyaii churches, received general attention, not 
only in Ureat Britain, but on all the mission stations and in 
the United States of America. On the morning of that 
day John McCliutock, then at Carlisle, Pa., wrote : "This 
day a million of hearts will keep as the Sabbath ! This 
day a million of voices will unite in singing the high praise 
of Cod in Methodist chapels ! " in the larger Provincial 
towns the l']nglish programme was generally adopted. At 
seven in the morning a prayei'-meeting was iuild, sermons 
were preached morning and evening, and in the afternoon 
atldresses, followed by refreshments, were given to the 
pupils in tlie Sunday schools. On this day James Mont- 
gomeiy's hymn for the occasion, " Oiu' song of pr.iise, one 
voice of prayer,'' etc., and Charles Wesley's " St^e how great 
a ilame aspires I" svere almost universally used. 

In Newfoundland tlu^ mei'tings were not less enthusiastic. 
John Picka\ant, having attended some of the eariii-r gather- 
iuLfs in Nova Scotia and New IJrunswick, reiui'ued home to 
stir up the minds of his brethren. ( )ii his ai'ri\al he calltnl 
to St. John's all the niiui.-^ters within rcacli, aiul with thfir 
assistancti held a pu!)]ii' meeting, at whieh a soeial tea was 
followed l»y addresses. Tin' ministfrs then proceeded U) the 
dillerent ciriuiits on the shores of ('oncfption Bay, in each 
of which similar mcetiiiLjs took place, so planned as to per- 
mit each pastor on Octolier L'.ltli to l)e with his own Hock.' 

'All interest i 111,' incident i.~ Inld of the eiNiuiled niei'tin.LT .-it ( ';»rl">ne;ir. 
In^diani Suteliffe, in tiie eMiu>e of un e.-iinest address, made reference 
to a |»i|iular |iictnie in wliicli a nnmlier nf cardinals w»'re seen seated 
ai'onnd ; taMe, where they were in \ain eiideaMirin^ to extin;-''uish 
sevei-al ii;,dited candles, which re|iresented the IJeforniation. Then, 
suitin",-- the action to the word, the sjieaker lifteil a candle from the 
chairman's talile to Mow jit it in imitation of the cardinals, Imt 
in the attempt he ajiparently l)iew it ont. .\ \oi(e fmni the i^Mllery 
cjilled out, "That's ont, anyhow I " and the yonn^,' pnacher, in view 
of the many Komaii Catholics present, felt as if the roof were criishint,' 
liim. \ peculiar way of lioldinj.r a candh' uIhh it i.> iiein^ Mown out 



Thei'e was iniich to call into exercise the spirit of praise 
which pervaded the celebration of 1839. The moral effects 
of .Methodisiii, as a revival of spiritual Christianity, in its 
influence upon the masses and upon contemporary religious 
bodies, were, of course, incalculable, but certain facts then 
naturally brought into prominence were not only calculated 
to surprise the most sober-thoughtcd, but to stimulate the 
general gratitude, joy and hope of its people. Wesley had 
died in 171)1, at the head of an organized host of five 
liundred and fifty itinerant })reachors, and forty thousand 
church niendx'rs in Europe and An)erica. At the celebra- 
tion of the centenary of the fo»'mation of the .society at the 
Foundeiy, nearly a h;df-c(Mitui"y later, that host had grown 
in (Treat J>ritain and the Tnited States to a great army 
of 1,171,000, including about r),200 itinerant preachers, or, 
enumer-ating the various bodies bearing the name of Metli- 
odist, a vast body of more than 1, 100,000 mendxM'S. Its 
missionaries were about three hundred and fifty in numbei-, 
with a large staff" of other paid and uu})aid agents, and 
iiavini; under tluui' charije in their mission churches more 
than seventy thousand communicants, and in theii" mission 
schools about fifty thousand pu})ils. 

In the limited s[»here in which Provincial Methodist 
ministers uiovimI, thei-e had been much cause for thanks- 
giving. Witiiin the previous twenty-five years growth had 
been remaikable. Tlit; n\end)ei'ship, it is true, had been 
eidarged by immigr-ation, but gain in this way had been 
diminished by !-emovals to the United States and to Upper 


will iirt'\('iit the wick fi'oiii siiKHildci'iii^'' (iuwii. l'\)i'timiitt'lv, tlic ri^lit 
tliin,y: liiid lu'cn doiii', and so the hiijjflit wick, luidtT a sli;j;-lit hn-atli, 
burst ;is,'ain into Haiuc, and tiir sjicakcr, defiantly slioutin.i,'', "It's not 
out I ItsnotouM" took' occasion in ('lo<|Ucnt words to show how trutli 
aitparcntly ('\tiny:uisli('d l)y iicrsccution shall again shine forth in all its 
beauty and power. riohn Mc.Murray, D.I)., then on the platform, 
«l»eaks of the incident as one of the most tlii'illing wliich ever came under 


s notice ni tl 

course oi any pulilic adiln 




y ri^lit 
's iu>t 
all its 


Canada. A comparison of the returns made in 1839 M-ith 
the ligures for 1813 is instructive. The increase in Nova 
Scotia between these two periods had been in ministers from 
seven to fourteen, and in members from 773 to 2,285 ; in 
New Brunswick, from four to eighteen ministers and from 
359 to 2,658 members. During the same period in Prince 
Edward Island two preachers had taken the place of one, 
and the number of members had giown from fifty to 559 ; 
while in Newfoundland in 1839 twelve missionaries were 
watching over about 2,000 members wh(ue 310 had l)een in 
charge of three under-sheplierds at the earlier date. In 
Bermuda an additional missionai-y was at work, and the 
membership, 134 in 1813, was reported in 1839 at nearly 
500. At the later date, there were in tlie Sunday-schools 
in Nova Scotia 920 scholai-s ; in New Brunswick, 1,G62 ; in 
Prince Edward Island, 349 ; in Newfoundland, 1,839 ; in 
Bermuda, adults included, G78. 

In the review suggested l)y the services of the Centennial 
period, the Methodists of Newfoumlland and Jkn-muda 
found some special causes for satisfaction. In the former 
colony, in the general thanksgiving for the blessing given 
to the agencies of one branch of the church, leading 
men of other sections took part. Their gifts and promised 
aid, in view of Methodism as a bulwark against the en- 
croachments of Roman Catholicism upon political rights 
and individual freedom, indicated that she had proved to 
the satisfaction of keen, practical business men her right to 
the designation of " Christianity in earnest," given her by 
Tliomas Chalmers. Bermudian Methodists knew — a few of 
theui by personal recollection —how John Ste})henson in 
1800 had left the islands a virtual wreck through persecu- 
tion ; and how, seven years later, Joshua Marsden, after a 
visit to the only IMethodist of whom lie could hear, had re- 
turned in extreme depression to the Mary Ann in the liar- 


. * | ii >i«a » 




bor of St. George's, arid tliey could therefore see good cause 
for tlie grateful utterances of their pastors at the Centen- 
nial celel (ration. They also knew that the statistics of 
menihership and Sunday-school attendance presented only 
a part of the results of continued labor "in the Lord." In 
them no reference was made to the numbers who in the 
colony had learned of Clu'ist, and had then, through the 
frequent changes in civil, and the still more numerous 
removals in military, life, borne the savor of His name to 
other lands. Nor in these returns was there any reference 
made to the salutary religious iniluence of Methodism upon 
the dominant religious body of the colony. Her presence 
had demanded a higher standard of morals on the part of 
the Episcopal clergy, and her teachings had led many mem- 
bers of their flocks to a highei* level in the religious life, 
though not a few of those thus blessed had been so inconsis- 
tent as to avow that their knowledge of salvation was 
wholly due to the teachings of the Wesleyan ministers, 
while they nevertheless continued to sustain by their influ- 
ence an ecclesiastical organization whose weakness in the 
great purpose of all church arrangements they had not 
scrupled to declare. As a proof of the sincerity of theii- 
grateful utterances, J'erniudian Wesleyans that yeai" contri- 
buted four hundred pounds to missionary funds and Cen- 
tennial schemes, although they had pi'eviously committed 
themselves to the erection of a small church near Hamilton, 
and of a larger churcli at St. Georgia's - the latter yet one 
of the finest buildings in that pictures([ue old town. 







^ dZsio,?' w:'r''''"p"*/- P''«-"^i."^>nni'^l dis,.„.ssi„n. Milk-rite 
'>k^ r mend S^'^l^S eal^;:^^ "' ^n''"'^" «---- ^ 

Can,p-,„eeti.igs at Sussex Vale. Seces iu of n- t of ^^ '"f ^^cck 
destruction of church at AI llt(,vni ] ] r'-'"L '^*'?^''^T /^"^ 
Edward^IshuHl Work anu.n, BhI^;,, sS-r :'''w.n "m "j.n rim 

The earlier chapters in the history of any great move- 
ment must almost invariably treat of individuals; but as 
that movement gathers force and volume, and its pern.a- 
nence becojnes established and its inHuence acknowledged 
separate persons gradually cease to stand forth in promi- 
nence, and events naturally fail to find conspicuous public 
record except as they emphasize or illustrate some in.portant 
step or some departure of unusual signiHcance. 

Of such an era in Provincial Methodism the Centenary 
celebration of 1839 may be said to have marked the 
arrival. William Black and his earlier associates had 
''fallen on sleep," several of their immediate successors 
had retn-ed from itinerant toil, and the very few survivors 
of the early official menibership had handed over their 
special duties to men of fewer years and greater vigor 


i ' 



h \ 


///STORY OF MET//01)tS\r 

Only here and thore could a person be found who had had 
any Hcquaiiitance with Methodism in the colonies afterward 
included in the United States ; while such settlers as could 
remember the hills and dales o^^ Yorkshire, and recall the 
faces of Wesley, John Nelsoii, and other early itiner- 
ants, were as scarce as the shrivelled and bleached leaves 
which clin.a: to the tree after the frosty blasts of a Canadian 
winter. And around these lonely men and women, relics of 
the past, in })lace of the scattered few with whom they 
once worsiiip})ed were sons and grandsons and those of 
deceased neighbors, with thrifty innnigrants and their 
families of more recent arrival, as well as some others, 
who, enlightened through the preaching of the itinerant's, 
had said : " This people shall be my people, and their God 
my (Jod." 

Of the benefits arising from the general development 
of the period, the churches enjoyed a fair share. More 
rapid transatlantic communication by steamship was about 
being opened ; inter-provincial travel by stage and steamer 
was becoming more general ; and the roads throughout the 
country wei'e year by year being rendered more worthy of 
the name. These improvements in travel, to the ministry 
of a denomination whose itinerant system had justified its 
designation of " The Church upon wheels," were of special 
advantage, while from a financial point of view they were 
not without benefit to general denominational funds. And 
in respect to places of worship, still known as chapels — a 
term unconsciously adopted by English Wesley ans from 
other Nonconformist bodies, yet implying ecclesiastical in- 
i priority — and unattended by school and class-rooms, some 
n. itcrial itnprovement in architecture, convenience and 
comfoit could also be reported'. 

^ No stove wjxa placed in t\w Slielburne Methodisst church until 1825. 
lu cast' of an occasional sermon there in the winter the worahipijcra 








By the theological and ecclesiastical unrest of the period 
Provincial Methodism was but slightly aftected. Through 
the Oxford movement, whose leaders sought to push the 
church and her ministry between the .sinner and his 
Saviour, by the placing of a special emphasis on the 
doctrine of the saving efficacy of the sacraments as admin- 
istered by men in reputed direct succession from the 
apostles, the laity at least of the Church of England in 
the colonies had not then been sufficiently influenced to 
render a general protest on the })art of others a real 
necessity. The discussion of a favorite toncit of an Evan- 
gelical leader in the hhiglish Church did, however, at this 
time threaten to assume in one or more ciicuits serious 
proportions. The doctrine of the Pre-millennial advent 
and personal reign of Christ on earth, to which Richard 
Watson and later Methodist theologians have given little 
or no attention, led at Charlottetown, where it had been 
accepted and publicly taught by several local preachers and 
leaders, to a strong protest on the part of the pastor and a 
majority of the official members. Greater publicity was 
given to a local contention by a letter from one of the lay 
preachers to Edward Bickersteth, the catholic-spirited 
rector of Watton, Herts, whose endorsement of Pre-mil- 
lennial views in his published works had given those 
theories special prominence. Mr. Bickersteth, as requested 
by the writer of the letter, forwarded a eo[)y of it to the 

carried a foot-stove or a lieatt'd 1 nick or l)lofk. Tii 'riinity l<'ij»isc'<i|)al 
cliurch, St. John, no stovf was seen until ten years after its opening' in 
Y!\\\. In winter the rector and some of his hearers kept on fur coats. 
Of a Sunday morning stfrvice in 17!t7 at lilackhead, Newfoundland, 
William Thoreshy wrote: "'J'hough I had two pairs of worst(>d gloves 
on my hands, two pairs of stockings and a pair of buskins on my legs, 
it was with difficulty 1 escaped being bit witii the frost. After preacii- 
ing I baptized three childrt-n and then held a love-feast. The water 
for the loVe-feast was taken hot to the church in a tea-kettle, yet it 
froze as I tcK)k it round to the people." In spite however of the cold 
the; meeting proved such a "refreshing season" that the minister had 
some difficulty in bringing it to an end. 




c i- 


'J * 




English Methodist authoiities. In accordance with instruc- 
tions from tliese the chairman of the district and two other 
ministers had an interview in June, 1843, with the officials 
of the Charlottetown circuit, which proved most satis- 
factory. By the conclusions readied the superintendent, 
William Smitii, was exonerated from the charge of arbitrary 
action, the spirit of discipline was maintained, any appear- 
ance of conflict M'ith the right of private judgment was 
avoided, and the way was opened for tlie general return to 
their previous posts of the silenced local preachers and 

Through the Millerite delusion of the period some injury 
was inflicted upon the societies on the Upper St. John, and 
in the western section of the Annapolis valley. The origi- 
nator of that delusion, William Miller, was an American 
farmer and licensed Baptist preacher — a somewhat remark- 
able man and fond student of Daniel's prophecies .and the 
Apocalypse. As soon as April 15th, 1843, had been an- 
nounced as the day for Christ's appearance for the final 
judgment, a number of men of varied reputation caught up 
the cry of doom and traversed the country with stick and 
chart, explaining Datiiel's visions and the mysteries of the 
llevelation of St. John with an apparent skill, which on a 
certain class of hearers made a deep iin{)ression. Several 
of these Millerite heralds sorm found their way into the 
liritish Provinces. Tn certain districts of the Upper St. 
John meetings were lield evening after evening, about 
which, through the vagaries of dupes and tricks of scoffers, 
strange stories were long told. As the diiy of predicted 
doom appioached the excitement of Miller's followers grew 
intense. When, however, that day had passed .after the 
(juiet fashion of its innnediate predecessors, October was 
pronounced by the prophet to contain the day "for which 
all other d.ays were made." "The Lord," said Miller, *' will 


it up 
)f the 
on a 
V St. 
Ir the 




certainly leave the mercy-seat on tiie l.'Uh, and a}>pear 
visibly \\\ the clouds of lu'aveii on the 22nd." Durinij the 
allotted ten days' interval l)usiness was generally suspended 
by INIiller'a followers, and the final number of their paper, 
The Advoit Herald, was issued with a valedictory. On the 
23rd, when the sun had risen as usual, the perplexed inter- 
preter of " the times and the? seasons " wrote in a newly- 
acquired spirit of wisdom ; " 1 have iixed my mind upon 
another time, and here F mean to stand until (Jod gives nie 
more light, and that is to-day, fo-dai/." To not a few this 
delusion proved a snai-e ; through it religion sultered re- 
proach ; and some persons wandered, never to return to a 
humble walk with (Jod. 

Of the unha[)py sti'ife in British ^Fethodism in 1819-51, 
which in five years cost the church the loss of nearly one 
hundred thousand members, Colonial Methodists were in- 
terested observers. A very few copies of the anonymous 
and vindictive "Fly Sheets" crossed the ocean, and to any 
injurious intiuencefrom these or fi'om the efforts of unkindly 
local critics the Wesleyan, under the aV)le management of 
Alexander W. McF^eod, supplied an ellicient antidote. Of 
the necessity of some since-conceded reforms Provincial 
Methodists in general knew little ; with the clandestine 
and cruel means employed to secure such i-eforms they 
could have no sympathy. A more conciliatory spirit on 
the part of Wesleyan leaders, it is now evident, might liave 
confined a sad strift^ within narrow limits ; to those leadei's 
the authoi'itative policy of early Methodism then seemed 
an iiidispensable one. The ministers of the two Lower 
Provinces' Districts secMn to have contented thcnnselves with 
official assurances of unabated confidence in the manage- 
ment of the Missionary Society, which had been most bitt(>rly 
assailed by the " Reformers," and l)y resolutions of appre- 
ciation of the friendly aid atFbrded for years by Koljert 

, t'. .^ny,;. „ „ IgggBBSggBBBBBBHHB 




Alder and Jaboz nuii*^ing, as those ministers retired from 
the missionary secretariat. A series of resolutions, appre- 
ciative of the British Conference and its Missionary Society, 
moved at a meeting of the Halifax official board by John 
H. Anderson, Esq., and seconded by Martin Gay Black, 
Esq., and unanimously adopted, appeared at the time in the 
London Watchman. 

The only seceders of the time from the Methodist ranks 
in the Maritime Provinces were a number of colored 
brethren. In several towns the local churches had always 
included some worthy men and women of African descent. 
For the use of a ])ody of two hundred and fifty residing 
very near Liverpool, a small church, to be used in part as a 
school-room, had been built in 1841, by their own efforts, 
aided by subscriptions secured by the chairman of the dis- 
trict, and a grant of a hundred dollars by the legislature. 
A desire for independence, long cherished by the colored 
section of the membership in Halifax, became a determina- 
tion in 1845, when the superintendent declined to admit a 
West Indian local preacher nam(;d Gerry into his pulpit. 
Whether the visitor produced the necessary credentials is 
unknown ; but the colored members, deeming themselves 
aggrieved, withdrew from their white brethren and hired 
an old hall, in Avhich for several months they listened to 
sermons by Gerry. On his departure they secured the ap- 
pointment of a minister of the Zion Methodist Episcopal 
Church of the United States. Several years later, under 
somewhat sin)ilar circumstances, a secession took place at 
Liverpool, the colored })eople having agreed to purchase the 
rights of others in the little church, in the i)ulpit of whioli 
they placed a preacher of their own race from the United 


- Several v(?ars later both clmrchea severed their relation with 
the Zion Methodist Episcopal Church, and after an interim of seme 




in the 

irt as a 
the cUs- 
idinit a 
tials is 
ned to 
the ap- 
lace at 
ase the 

tion with 
of seme 

The years now under review were years of political 
uinvst throughout the Lower Provinces. Intense excite- 
ment was caused in the several colonies in 1831) by threat- 
ened conflict on the borders of New Brunswick and Maine, 
averted only by the .•imical)le arrani^ement between Sir 
John Harvey and (Jeneral Wintield Scott, which threw the 
settlement of the dispute itito the rej^ion of diplomacy, .-md 
ended in the well-known " Ashl)urton capitulation." During 
these years the battle for responsible government in the 
three provinces was fought and won. The determination 
to secure a larger mcasuie of power, fostered by the cele- 
brated despatch of Lord Durham and sti'engthened by the 
advocacy of some of the ablest political leadeis whom Biitish 
America has known, achieved its purpose in full, when, in 
1851, Prince Edward Island, longer denied the boon than 
others on the ground of her comparative smallness of popu- 
lation, rejoiced in the possession of the I'ight of government 
according to the well understood wishes of the peoj)l('. In 
New Brunswick religious strife, for some time foreseen, 
broke out in 1847, when a l»loodthirsty attack by armed 
Roman Catholics upon an Orang(i procession took place at 
Woodstock, ending in the defeat of the aggressors and the 
trial and imprisonment of several of their leaders — a stern 
lesson, which unfortunately fjviled to prevent a similar out- 
rage two years later, in St. John. Throughout the Pro- 
vinces, but more especially in New Brunswick, altered 
trade relations and successive scanty harvests caused, about 

yciirs rt'(nu'st»'(l ii visit from Hishoji Nazivy, of tlif Twitisli Mctliodist 
Kpiscoj^il (,'luiivli, 11 body of ( 'aiiadiiin colored Mctliodists wlio, in ISali, 
liad from nutional ri'asons st^ccdcd from tlie African Mt-tliodist Episco- 
pal Church of the li^nited States. J)uriiig the bishop's visit, in 1S72, the 
two local churches, with one or two others in New IJnniswick, were 
organized into the Nova Scotia Conference. It was then that the ma- 
jority of the colored Methodists in St. John withdrew from the whites 
there and formed a congregation of tlieir own. In 1884 the Canadian 
colored cluu'ch again became a part of the African MetluKlist Episcopal 
Church of the neighboring republic. 




1H49, ;i <lt'pr(' in l)usiii('.s.s circles and a coiiseHiucut j^eu- 
enil ^'looni sucii as the country had not before known. 

The earlier years of this period were nevertheless years 
of unpr(!C('dented spiritual prosperity and rapid numerical 
gi'owth in )>()th districts. I'etwoen the years l«S3l) and 
1845 the increase in tin; nunil)erof members exceeded three 
thousand. Then, howev(,'r, proi^rcss received a serious ciieck 
from sevei'al causes. A leadin*,' layman in Nova Scotia 
wrote early in ISJ;") that societies with which he had been 
long associated had been '' r«nt to their very centre by 
political strife." " Hundreds of our meudn'rs," said a 
report of the Xew IJrunswick District, in 184U, "have been 
compelled to seek in other ])urts a subsistence denied them 
here." While these and others in the neighboring pro- 
vinces were thus being driven away, not a few wei'e being 
drawn abroad by nuirvellous stories of the golden treasures 
of California and Australia. It was wot strange, in view 
of these facts, and of tlu; secession of colored members in 
Nova Scotia, that the numerical growth in membership in 
the several provinces during the ten later years of the period 
under consi(l(M'ation was only thirtetm hundred. 

The transfers of the various years involved im|)ortant 
chang(>s in the list of minist«irs. Into the three provinces 
came, in 1844, Richard Weddal!, from Honduras ; in 1848, 
Kphraim Evans and l^jdmuud Pv,tterell, from Canada ; 
in 1850, William T. Cardy, frrni Hayti ; in 1851, Matthew 
Richey, D.l)., from Canada ; and in 1854, John B. IJrownell, 
from IJei'muda. From the same piovinces there went, in 
1847, to Canada, Enoch Wood and S. 1). {{ice ; in 1848, to 
Canada also, Charles Dewolf ; in 1854, to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of the Suited States, Alexander W. 
McLeod ; and in 1855, Robert Cooney returned to Canada. 
The embarrassed state of English Wesleyan missionary 
finances kept several young men for some time at the dooi' of 






kda ; 



t, ill 

IcS, to 


the district nici'tiii^'. liolaiid .Morton, .laiiics How*; Narra- 
way, llii'liaid Smith and otlu'r's had l)C'tMi doini,' hil)Oii(nis 
and most satisfactory cirx'uit scrvico for two oi- three years 
when their names tlrst obtained j)ul>!ic otliciul rec'o;,'nition. 
Wlien, howe\('r, linancial ohstach's had heei» lemoved, and 
the Connnittee had resolved upon th«^ foi'mation of th<! four 
Maritime Histi'iets into a Conference, theii- i-eluctance to 
receive youn<^ men en(hKl,a!id the numlier of accepted candi- 
dates rapidly increased.'' During the whole period, iS.'ii) to 
1855, forty young men wei-e received on trial for the 
niiiiistiy, of whom oidy John S. I'hinney and 'I'homas Harris 
are now in active ciivuit work in the Methodist ('hurch of 
the dominion. Two others— Charles Stewart, D.D., and 
George S. Milligan, ]jL. I), an; leaders in Methodist 
educational work, the first as theological professor at the 
university of ^Nlount Allison, the second as snjierintendent 
of INlethodist schools in Newfoundland hy government 
appointment with consent of the (.*uMf(H'(;nce. Sixteen are 
numbered with the dead in Christ, among whom were ukmi 
so blessed and honored as Holxnt V\. Crane, Christopher 
Lockhart, William Mt;Carty, Joseph Hart, William C. 
McKinnon, Samuel Avery, ITezt'kiah McKeown and Robert 
Tweedie, with the equally esteemed Uobei-t Ainslie Cliesley 
and Thomas Gaetz, both of whom found a final earthly 
resting-place in Newfoundland ; and George Whitfield 
Wheelock, who was deeply mourned at his deatli in IS If) in 
the Bahamas, a few months after liis ai'rival there by direc- 
tion of the English Committee. 

Under the chairmanship of Kphraim b]vans, I).])., several 
steps toward tlie consolidation of the work in Nova Scotia 
were taken. In lS-t9 the ministers made arrangements for 
the immediate formation of a Contingent Fund, and two 

3 Tlie Neva Scotia District iiad Ik-cii dividtd in 1852 into the "Nova 
Scotia West," and "Nova Scotia JOast and J'riiicc Kdward island," Dis- 

. 1 



years later they resolved to take collections and make appeals 
in classes and congregations in behalf of a Supernumerary 
Ministers' and Ministers' Widows' Fund. As no disburse- 
ments were to be made from the latter fund earlier than 
1856, the sums collected were transferred to the treasurer 
of the fund of the same name formed in 1855, at the organiza- 
tion of the Eastern British American Conference. Among 
the Acts to which, in 1851, the lieutenant-governor of Nova 
Scotia gave his assent at the close of the session, was one 
for the " Incorporation of certain bodies connected with the 
Wesleyan Methodist Church," enabling the INIethodists of 
the province to protect their temporalities, whether in the 
form of district oi* trust funds. A similar Act was passed 
in 1853 by the legislature of New Brunswick. 

Many precious facts relating to the years under review, 
abundantly prove that " labor is not in vain in the Lord." 
In some cases the rewards of such labor were seen in the 
gradual and steady growth of the local churches, in others 
they were observed in the more rapid development atten- 
dant upon seasons of special inteiest. Revivals in Halifax 
in 1811, in 1843 and in subsetjuent years, strengthened the 
membership there. One of the later of these revivals, like 
that in 1811, had its origin in the Sunday-school connected 
with the old chapel. Among the lads who during the special 
services of the season accepted a Saviour's guidance was the 
late James Bain Morrow, in subse([uent years a loved and 
trusted local preacher and class-leader, a man of symmetrical 
character, lofty aims, pure motives, great catholicity of spirit, 
and unostentatious benevolence.' Extensive revivals in 
1852 also aided the development of the circuit. In June 
of that year dedicatory services were held in a new church 
at the south end of the cit^, whithc ihe greater number oi 

^ Tlu' nu'tnoir of tliis Imsy iiuTcliiuit and /.t'iiloiis Christian worktT, 
l>y A. W. Nicolson, is a h'rai»liio sketdi (»f a iiohk' diaracU'r and an 
envialih- life. 




L in the 
ed the 
'as the 
d and 
als in 
ber oi 

and an 

the worshippers at the old sanctuary transferred their 
attendance.'' The erection of this church, jmuI, after its 
destruction by lire, of a successor on the same site, was lai<;«-'ly 
aided by the late (Jeorge llerl)ert .Starr, then one of the 
junior but most successful West India merchants of tho 

At Dartmouth a chui-ch was dedicated in 1853. For 
some years tiie few Methodists of the place, who looked up 
to the faithful Nathanael Russell as leader, had heard occa- 
sional sermons on tiiat side of the harbor in a school-house ; 
but in 1847, when the Sunday afterr\oon sermons in the 
city Methodist churches had been finally abandoned, the 
hour thus placed at the minister's disposal was given to 
them. In the erection of the church a deep practical 
interest was taken by George H. Starr and G. C. M. Roberts, 
M.D., a local preacher of Baltimore, Md., by the former of 
whom half of the whole cost was contributed, and such 
generous guarantees for the support of a n\inister were given 
that in 1856 the name of the town appeared as that of a cir- 
cuit. Under watchful cai'o other places in the neigh))or- 

■'' In 1S<)2 tht' old sanctuary in Ar^'vlf-sti-fct, having' sewed well its 
intended i)uriMise as a cliurcli, and having' then liei-n used for some years 
as a lieadtiuarters for ('hri*i,in etfurt of several kinds, passed into 
lK)Ssessu)n of the Kinscopal l.islnqi, Ilihltert Hinney. Finding; himself 
unable to make of the venerahje church the use intended, that minister 
sold it to other parties, 1 v wliom, to the great grief of surviving worship- 
pers within its walls, a j art of it was for some time devoteil to the sain 
of intoxicants — a sa<l fact, for which it is said the l»isho|» should not 
be held resi)onsible. 

'■' Soon after conversion in 1S4S, Mr. Starr began to contribute to 
religious ])uriM)8cs after a fa.^liion ijuit<' m-w to his friends, th' ugh his 
bnsniess pn "tits had been lessei"! '_,■ his detei-niijiation to abauiioii the 
im])('- ' 'on of West India spirits. In LSol, when he was worth tlL'.<MK) 
and 1.! ousiness was subject to all the Huctuationsof an uncertain trade, 
he gave t'l,(MM> in rouncl munliers to religious and charitable olijects. 
This course he continued until ISSd, when his estate, Jiothw ithstanding 
his increased giving, having re.iciied the value of .**_'<>(', iiM» iie resuhed 
to accumulate no more, but to devote himself more mlly to advance his 
Master's work by botii income and i) intlunce. I?y a Christian 
life, quiet, unobtrusive, but most consistent, Mr. Starr adorned tiie 
doctrine of (Jod his Saviour. 






■\i ! 

hood of the capital showed such pleasing iiiipro\'einent, that 
in 1849 they were constituted a separate circuit. At 
Musquodoboit Harbor some Methodists of German descent, 
converts under Orth of Lunenburg in 1822, had settled in 
1827. In their new home they had sought to benefit 
irreligious neighbors, and Heaven had smiled on their efforts. 
After some years of isolation a monthly visit from a Meth- 
odist preacher was secured, and in January, 1855, a small 
church was dedicated.^ During the same year the popular 
young preacher, Hezekiah McKeown, introduced Methodist 
services at Middle Musquodoboit, where in a few months 
the erection of a church was undertaken. 

Extensive revivals during 1839-43 gave strength to the 
four circuits in the two counties of Hants and King's. 
During the first of these years the superintendent at Wind- 
sor, assisted by a young colleague, had charge of the field 
extending from Half-way River, now Hantsport, to the 
limit of the Shubenacadie circuit, while his fellow-laborer 
at Horton had the oversight of all the congregations in 
King's with the exception of one included in the New Bruns- 
wick District. All over these large fields special services 
were held during the earlier years, and large numbers were 
led into Christian fellowship.** Under the successful effort 
of Henry Pope, sen., in 1840-41, the Methodist societies in 

7 The long-tried leader, Leonard Gaetz, passed away in 1S(}4, his wife 
and their eleven children having all professed allegiance to Christ, 
three of them having also entered the ministry of the (K)spel. 

"During a revival at Newport, under Roland Morton's early ministry, 
1841-43, a young Episcopalian, (ieorge W. Hill, now rector of a parish 
in Derbysiiire, England, was led into a new i)ath. At the time he was 
residing with James Allison at the " Mantua " farm, with the intention 
of becoming a farmer. In Methodist class and i)rayer-meetings at New- 
{Kjrt his first essays in Christian work were made. Unlike many Epis- 
copal clergymen who have thus been aided by Methodist influences at 
the outset, Dr. Hill retained his evangelical principles, and, during his 
long rectorsliip of St. Paul's, Halifax, was always found ready to stand 
witli bretliren of other sections of the Christian Church in efforts to 
advance the Master's work, 



Cornwrtllis received a vigorous impulse. Two of tlie con- 
verts at that period are at present esteemed supei-numerary 
ministers. The hiter years of this period in these circuits, 
under more numerous pastoi-s, were marked by frecjuent 
revivals and by the erection of new and better church 

A second .attempt to erect a cluirch at Amherst, made in 
1839, proved so successful that in January, 1841, William 
Wilson, the preacher in charge of the " Parrsboro' and 
Maccan " circuit, reported the opening, free from debt, of a 
neat little sanctuary. In 18-13, under the very successful 
superintendence of William Webb, the erection of a parson- 
age was begun in the village, and in 1847 Amherst became 
the head of the circuit, a distinction from which, however, 
it reaped slight advantage. The occupant of its parsonage 
was still superintendent of a circuit which covered a large 
section of Cumberland county, assisted sometimes by a 
junior preacher at Parrsboro' ; at other times dependent 
upon the visits of the earnest local preachers, Edward 
W^ood and Edward Dixon, of Sackville, or the readv !<elp 
of the tireless and always-welcomed Matthew Lodge, of 
Maccan Mountain. 

Trnr ) had for a time been without the presence of a 
Meth.dist v>reacher, when in 1843 Roland Morton -^esumed 
preacinir.- there, and visited Onslow, Londonderry, and 
other neighborhoods. At Truro the rector, John Burnyeat, 
gave the young minister a friendly reception and urged him 
to secure a church. Siibsci'iptions were obtained, including 
a generous one from the rector, a lot of land was purchased 
rid a contract for a building concluded. The building was 
' -'hiporarily occupied in 1844, but was not formally opaned 
Ui;iil 1848. A majority of the more constant worshippers 
were not residents in the village, but so attractive was the 
eloquent presentation of truth by James li. Narrawav, 

i , 




appointexl to the place in 1847, that on Sunday evenings 
numbers from other congregations filled all vacant seats, 
some of them becoming strongly convinced, with many in 
other sections of the circuit, of the Scriptural character of 
the Arminian system of theology. So numerous were the 
calls from other parts of Colchester county that in Decem- 
ber, 1847, George O. Huestis, then at Maitland, preached 
at Truro, and continued monthly appointments there until 
the following sunnner. ,■' t.newhat later, James Buckley, 
during a year of enforced i s >nt fronj full circuit labor, 

rendered eflicient aid in the a elopment of an interesting 

From 1848 to 1855 Truro and River John formed one 
circuit. The latter place, as an appointment for years of 
the vast Wallace circuit, had been somewhat neglected. 
Ministerial visits to All)ion Mines, a part of the River John 
circuit in 1828, had also been irregular. A strong desire 
for the presence of a Wesleyan minister at " The Mines " 
and Pictou had for some years been finding expression, 
when in 1845, in response to an ofler from the General 
Mining Association, among whose employes were a large 
number of married Englishmen, Richard Weddall was sent 
as missionary to Albion Mines. At Pictou, in 1868, after 
an unsuccessful attempt or two to place a minister there, 
an offer of the members of the Morisonian or Evangelical 
Union church led to the appointment of another preacher, 
the transfer of their property to Methodist trustees and the 
organization of a small Methodist church and Sunday- 

Seven circuits are now found within the boundaries of 
the old Wallace circuit of 1830. Of the frequent waves 
of religious power which have swept over that section of 
Nova Scotia, few in the magnitude of their results have 
equalled that experienced during the ministry there of 








Wesley 0. Beals. The outlook, at the commencement of 
some special services in March, 1848, was well calculated 
to depress any timid worker, but so great was the reward 
conferred upon a determined persistence that, at his depar- 
ture in 1851, the preacher could speak without rashness of 
nearly six hundred professed conversions during his four 
years' charge of the circuit. A great number of the added 
members became active helpers and libern^ supporters, and 
several of them, or of their children, entered the itinerancy. 
During those years a church had been opened at Pugwash 
and a new one at Wallace, both without debt. In the same 
wide field the subsequent ministry of Richard Smith and 
William McCarty proved rich in such results as are tabu- 
lated above. A new church was dedicated at Wentworth 
by Richard Smith in 1851 ; in 1854 another was opened at 
the "Head of the Bay." At the close of continued services, 
which gave to the first-named church an emphatic consecra- 
tion, all difierences in religious opinion were so thoroughly 
forgotten that Presbyterians and Baptists — deacons among 
the latter — bowed together at the table of their common 
Lord. River Philip, another section of the circuit, appeared 
on the Minutes of 1851 as a separate field, and in 1852 
Joseph Herbert Starr was sent there to take charge of a 
circuit extending from Westchester to Maccan, with a visit 
to Londonderry once in each month. In 1855 a church 
was opened at Oxford, then known as the " Head of the 

The more distant settlements of the large Guysboro' cir- 
cuit, during the earlier of the years under review, received 
only partial attention. Nearly all parts of this extensive 
charge were blessed during the awakening under the minis- 
try in 1851-52 of William McCarty, and about that time 
new churches were built at Oanso and the Intervale, and 
also at Manchester, where services bad for years been held 


I ■ n 




in a dwelling, except wiien the larger congregation of some 
Sabbath of summer softness might tempt the preacher into 
the open air. In 1855 an ingathering of members took 
place at Guysboro', and the circuit, then in charge of James 
R. Narraway, received that year a third preacher. 

The unprecedented revival of 1842-43 left no circuit on 
the shore between Halifax and Yarmouth untouched. For 
many years, through the strength of Lutheran prejudices, the 
society at Lunenburg had remained weak in numbers, but 
in other sections of the circuit there had been encouraging 
development. In 1842 nearly one hundred and seventy 
persons were added to the membership, and good congrega- 
tions were found in coi^ifortable churches at Petite Riviere, 
Broad Cove, Lahave, Ritcey's Gove and Mahone Bay. A 
church commenced a few years later at New Germany re- 
mained for many years unfinished. Petite Riviere, a place 
greatly blessed through William Webb's ministry in 1842, 
was made the head of a separate circuit in 1853, under the 
pastoral care of George W. • .ttle. 

The Liverpool circuit in 1854 reached to Mill Village, 
"a colony of Wesleyans," ten miles to the eastward of 
Liverpool, and in another direction included the Caledonia 
settlement, where in 1818 a single Scotch family had 
plunged into the forest primeval. To the westward it 
reached to Sable River and Little Harbor. In 1840 Henry 
Pope, stationed at Liverpool, secured an effective helper in 
Richard Smith, then awaiting the Committee's action re- 
specting iiis offered services. Special effort began at Mill 
Village. The junior preacher, as he one afternoon rode 
into the place, invited all whom he met to the contemplated 
meetings. Forty years later the first convert of that re- 
vival was living, the mother of seven children who were 
walking in the way of righteousness. Similar services were 
held at Liverpool and other points with equally pleasing 






consequences in conversions. When seven years had passed, 
John McMurray, then ending his four years' residence, also 
rejoiced with the joy of harvest. In 1854 a comfortable 
parsonage was added to the previous church property at 
Mill Village, and in 185.') that place was made a new 
circuit under Frederick W. Moore. 

Many sheaves were garnered in the old Barrington cir- 
cuit during the presence there in 184.'V4G of John McMur- 
ray, That minister, who had been obliged to leave New- 
foundland in the autumn of 1842 in rapidly failing health, 
had received such benefit from the homeward passage and 
subsequent rest that at the following district meeting he 
resumed active duty. For many years at Barrington there 
had been no very unusual interest. In January, 1844, the 
circuit preacher, assisted by Hugh F. Houston, commenced 
special effort at North East Harbor, which with brief intervals 
and aided by other local preachers, was repeated at various 
appointments, the meetings being thus continued until 
May, when hundreds had professed conversion. Further 
results were seen in the erection of .several new churches at 
an early date. Of the subsequent revivals of the period the 
most important was that in 1852, under the ministry of 
Jeremiah V. Jost, when seventy persons asked admission 
into the societies. At Shelburne, for several years previous 
to 1839, the only services held in the old church had been 
conducted by laymen, among whom was the late worthy 
Peter Spearwater, but in 1839, in accordance with an 
earnest request from a family which had removed thither 
from Halifax, William Shenstone made arrangements for a 
visit once in each six weeks.' 

^ In March, 1830, tlie traiis])()rt l)an(m', EIi:<th(t/i^ from Halifax for 
St. .Tolin, put into Shelburne in «listre.sK and landed tlien^ tlie lieathjuar- 
ters of the ()9th regiment, which remained on shore for some little time. 
As many of the men were Roman Catholics, Priest Kennedy asked for 
and obtained the use of the Methodist churcli for one or more religious 


' \ 

' i\ 


^^sVUjS^SB 'nMHit/L^ .Wis, v*** 





Witli the centenary services of 1839, Methodism at Yar- 
mouth entered upon a new era. Charles Dewolf, having 
called to his aid William Allen, of Nictaux, held on October 
25th the meetins^s appointed for that day. From a prayer- 
meeting on the following evening, the work of conversion 
went steadily forward for some time, both in the village and 
at Milton. In November a number of persons were baptized 
and received on trial, and in December the dedicatory 
services of the cliurch at Milton took place. Through the 
agency of services held in a school-house, and then in the 
new church, a neighborhood which had been regarded as the 
most indifi'erent to practical religion of any in the town- 
ship, became like the garden of the Lord. Tn the autumn of 
1841 the membership of the circuit was reported as being 
one hundred and fifty ; three years earlier it had not 
reached one-third of that number. Similar progress con- 
tinued during the three years' term of Charles Churchill, 
who in 1844 left a list of two hundred and ten members for 
the guidance of his successor. Religious meetings were at 
that time held in the two churches of the town, and also at 
Chebogue, Lake George, Carleton, and Beaver River. 

Much excitement was caused in 1845 at Yarmouth and 
in the nearer circuits by an attack upon the financial in- 
tegrity of the missionaries in the Nova Scotia District. 
The assault was made through an eight-page pamphlet, 
bearing no name of printer or place of publication, but 
entitled, " A candid inquiry into the lawfulness of the 
various methods resorted to by the Methodist preachers of 
Nova Scotia for the purpose of obtaining large sums of 
money f Dr their support. By Scrutator." In it were garbled 
statements and misrepresented items from the general re- 
ports of the English Wesley an Missionary Society, the 
sums received by the ministers being grossly exaggerated, 
and even their personal contributions to the mission fund 
















being ascribed to motives of self-interest. The authorship 
of this scurrilous pamphlet, which was tirst circulated at 
Yarmouth, was soon traced to a former member of the 
church there ; and it was futher ascertained that in its pre- 
paration assistance had been obtained from William W. 
Ashley, who after a several years' absence had found his 
way back to the township. To avert threatened injury, 
Richard Knight, chairman of the district, appeared in per- 
son at Yarmouth, and confronted the accusers of the 
brethren at a public meeting in the court-house. The 
chairman had not concluded an historical sketch of the 
Missionary Hociety and an explanation of the items quoted 
in the pamphlet when the satisfaction of his hearers became 
evident, and the position of his opponents was felt to be most 
humiliating. From the English Missionary Secretaries, 
from "members of the local church and other inhabitants 
of Yarmouth," and from the Free-will Baptists of Barring- 
ton, Mr. Knight received written congratulations upon the 
promptness and ability with which he had met and refuted 
the slanders of " Scrutator." 

In the circuits of the Annapolis valley, which, until the 
organization of the Eastern British American Conference, 
remained a section of the New Brunswick District, the 
repeated removals of young men of piety and promise 
often discouraged the pastors. In the Aylesford circuit, 
under George M. Barratt and a successor, Christopher 
Lockhart, a deep interest in Gospel truth had spread 
through the greater part of the townships of Aylesford and 
Wilmot, From the Annapolis and Bridgetown circuits 
some measure of spiritual and financial prosjjerity had 
reached the annual meetings. A new church was opened 
at Bear River in 1841 ; another was commenced at Law- 
rencetown in 1844, and a serious hindrance to progress at 
Annapolis was removed by the purchase of a satisfactory 


I I 





site, on which in 1846 a new church Avas sot apart for wor- 
ship. At Di<^by, a section of the Annapolis circuit, tiie 
arrival in 1842 and subsequent residence for ei<^lit years of 
the venerable supernumeraiy, Stephen Haniford, proved an 
advantage. In 1851, however, when l^igby had become a 
village of seven hundred inhabitants, among whom James 
Taylor was appointed to reside, that minister found only 
fifty -four Methodists, the Baptists at the time numbering 
ninety-nine, and the Episcopalians four hundred and fifty- 
seven. The gift, six years later, by the late (Gilbert Kay, 
of an acre of land in the centre of the village, proved most 
opportune. Towards the close of the period churches were 
erected at Sandy Cove and at Weymouth. 

In the city of St. John and in its vicinity the period 
under review was one of much prosperity. A religious 
interest, first observed in a young men's prayer-meeting, 
grew under the wise guidance of Enoch Wood, Frederick 
Smallwood, and their colleagues, into a broad stream. The 
two city churches were attended by large congregations, 
upon the numbers of which the removal from the city in 
1842-43 of thousands, through the disarrangement of trade, 
seemed to have but a slight effect. Large companies of 
sailors and visitors were also listeners to occasional sermons 
preached on the decks of ships belonging to John Owens 
and others. Not less satisfactory were the four years, 
1849-53, under the superintendence of Richard Knight, 
Enoch Wood's successor as cliairman, when in the wake of 
spiritual prosperity came financial advance in the payment 
of church debts and expenditure in church improvement, 
enlargement of missionary contributions, and in the move- 
ment for church extension which, in 1855, led to the ap- 
pointment of Charles Stewart to the city, and to the com- 
mencement, in the Benevolent Hall, of the mission which 
found its development, a year or two later, in the Exmouth- 
street church and congregation. 







A shadow like a pall was thrown over the city in July 
and August, 1854, by the presence of Asiatic cholera. The 
several shipyards at Courtenay Bay and the Straight Shore, 
where almost two thousand men had been employed, 
soon became as silent as a graveyard. On an afternoon 
in August, a visitor from the city to Portland, by one of the 
thoroughfares where thousands of people and vehicles of all 
kinds were usually to be seen, counted at four o'clock, in 
the distance of a mile and a half, only six human beings, 
and of more than two hundred shops found only two open. 
During this melancholy visitation five thousand persons 
were attacked by the disease, of whom fifteen hundred, or 
about fifteen per cent, of the population, were carried off. 
The Methodist ministers, James G. Hennigar, William T. 
Oardy, and George B. Payson, in the city, with Richard 
Knight at Carleton, and William Smithson at Portland, 
where the epidemic raged most virulently, bravely dis- 
charged their duty during those sad months, and with the 
other ministers and the fourteen physicians went in safety 
through the terrible strain.'" 

The destruction, in 1841, of the church at Portland was 
a serious loss. Bishop Inglis, who had frequently held ser- 
vices in Methodist churches in Nova Scotia, when asked for 

1" Tlio s((xton of the (Jormain-street Methodist church, William 
Muinford, an old soldier of the l()4th, or New Brunswick, Kegiiuent, 
seemed to bear a charmed life. In 1S47 he kept up connnunication for 
the authorities between the city and Partridge Islaii , ' here many 
hundreds of emigrants were dying througlrthe terrible n\) fever;" 
and on the outbreak of cholera, in 1854, his services were sought by the 
board of health in behalf of the dying and dead. George E. Fenety, 
Es(i., in a lecture in St. John in 1888, said of him : " If there was a hero, 
that ])erson was one in the true acceptation of the word. He was at work 
everywhere day and night. Death had no terrors for him. Rough 
wooden coffins were going about the streets by cartloads, and Mumford, 
often unassisted, would place the dead in coffins and have them carried 
away tor burial. Persons in a dying state, deserted by friends in sheer 
terror, had in Mumford a ministering angel, doing what he could to 
afford relief. The Victoria Cross, not then instituted, has never been 
bestowed upon a more worthy hero. He worked and lived through the 
whole plague, and came out more than conqueror." 

• ■ I 


■ ■ i 

1 ■ 1' 

» 1 . 



the use of the old Episcopal church at the suggestion of the 
rector, Harrison, declined to give permission because the 
building had been consecrated. On the Lord's-day suc- 
ceeding the fire the congregation worshipped in the open 
air, but for future services succeeded in procuring the 
Madras school-room, where they enjoyed a share in the 
revival influences of the period. 

Carleton, previous to 1842, when it was a place of four- 
teen hundred inhabitants, was a part of the Portland cir- 
cuit. For thirtj' years it had been visited by the itinerants, 
whose more recent sermons had been preached in a "union" 
church. Wearied at last by the apathy of the people re- 
specting a church of their own, the city ministers declined 
longer to cross the harbor. A twelve-months' suspension of 
services produced the intended result. Two lots having 
been secured from the corporation, a church was dedicated 
near the close of 1841. Almost immediately the new build- 
ing received its highest consecration by the presence of the 
Lord of Hosts as a "just God and a Saviour." In 1842 
"Carleton and Long Reach " appeared on the Minutes as a 
distinct circuit, which six years later received the appella- 
tion of St. John West. 

To the settlements to the westward of the Long Reach 
David Jennings was sent in 1839. A part of his hearers 
were the child »'en of settlers who had listened to the 
Manns, Fidler, Jessop and others, but many of them were 
Irish Protestant inmiigrants, whose love for the religion of 
their fathers had not been quenched by their separation 
from its visible fellowship. To a number of both classes 
Jennings and his successors, as well as self-denying local 
preachers from St. John, proved messengers of salvation. 
A church at Jerusalem was opened in 1841, and another at 
Coote Hill in 1845, two others at the later date being in an 
unfinished state. A salaried local preacher was also placed 




in 1843- 1} in ili!ii-<^o of several |)l!it'(!s included in tlie St. 
Jf)]in South circuit, of which St. Martin's was tliou^ht the 
most iuipoitant. Sixty-seven menil)ers were at that tinu! 
reported from St. ^Nfartin's, IJarnesville, ITpham, Hampton, 
Passekeag and Salt Springs, but through a neglect often 
illustrated in the neighl)orhood of our larg(M' Provincial 
towns, half that number of meml)ers could not be found in 
the same localities a (juai'ter of a century later. 

Numerical growth in the long-established ShelHeld circuit 
was effectively checked by the removal of numerous families 
to the up-river districts, and of a large proportion of the 
young men to the nearer towns. A church was built and 
a society formed at Oak Point in 1842, and an additional 
appointment or two was taken up on the opposite side of 
the Grand Lake, near its junction with the St. John, but 
no very marked revival took place until 1858, when 
Richard Knight and hiseainest helper, He/.ekiah McKeown, 
rejoiced over many anxious incjuirers. 

At Burton, a previous occasional preaching-place of the 
Sheffield pastor, a small church was opened in 1852, and in 
1854 Geo"ge S. Milligan was placed in charge of the Burton 
circuit. At Oromocto, a part of the new circuit, local 
preachers from Fredericton had for some years rendered 
faithful service, but the unfinished state for a long period 
of a church commenced in 1840 had depressed interested 
workers and checked real progress. In a few months 
Gagetown was added to the new charge. Early occasional 
services at that Loyalist village had been abandoned, and a 
small society had been dissolved. The young minister's 
first sermons at Gagetown were preached in a "union" 
chapel ; but opposition to his presence there soon aroused a 
determination to secure a denominational church. In this 
effort he found most efficient assistance from friends whom 
harsh conduct on the part of the rector had driven from 




the Episcopal church, and from some well-tried Irish 

A sore trial befell the Methodists of Fredericton in 1850 
in the destruction by fire of both church and parsonage. 
At the final service — a prayer-meeting — held in the church, 
the hallowed influence felt far exceeded the measure for 
some time enjoyed. In less than eighteen hours from that time 
a congregation of eleven hundred persons and a large Sunday- 
school had no longer a place for united worship. A spark 
from a workman's tobacco-pipe had been the agent in the 
destruction of property spread over many acres and 
estimated at a value of eighty thousand pounds. "Some 
of our friends," the superintendent, William Temple, wrote, 
" who saw their own uninsured residences in flames without 
an expression of sorrow, sat down and wept when they 
heard of the destruction of the beautiful building in which 
for years they had worshipped." The organ was with great 
difficulty saved in a slightly damaged state, and was placed 
in the later church, whence in 1881 it was transferred to a 
Roman Catholic chapel in the province of Quebec. 
Throughout 1851 services were held in accordance with a 
kind ofi'er in the Presbyterian church, and subsecjuently in 
the Temperance hall. In December, 1852, a few months 
after the arrival of Charles Churchill, the new sanctuary 
was formally set apart for worship. It still stands, its 
uplifted hand with index finger pointing heavenward from 
its lofty and graceful spire— an attractive sight to every 
visitor approaching the town. It had cost a little more 
than five thousand pounds, all the members of the congre- 
gation at a time of serious financial depression having put 
forth the utmost effort. On a cloudless day in September, 
1851, Judge Wilmot, who had taken a prominent part in 
the erection of the new church, threw open his beautiful 
grounds at Evelyn Grove for the first of a succession of 





rt in 



public t,'atlierinij;s in behalf of the building fund, the first 
two of which enabled hiiii to place nearly nine hundred 
pounds in the hands of the ti'ustoes. 

The seijuel of this trial was a pleasant surprise to the 
sufferei's and sympathizers ; to those who had looked ujx)n 
the destruction of the church building as eijuivalent to that 
of the denomination in Freder-icton it proved a severe dis- 
appointment. No revival in the history of the town has 
exceeded in importance that which early followed the com- 
pletion of this work of self-denial. The influence of con- 
tinued meetings begun early in March soon pervaded the 
town. Ball-rooms were emptied, dancing-clubs were broken 
up, and even in work-shops and places of business where 
noise and profanity had been the rule, solemnity and serious 
feeling became evident to all. Early in April more than two 
hundred persons had been received on trial, and besides 
these nearly a hundred attendants at the Sunday-school had 
been placed in church classes. 

A second preacher, sent to the circuit in 1841, tixed his 
residence at tirst at Douglas and then at Nashwaak. Ihence 
he visited Irish Methodist settlers at Tay Creek and also 
crossed the river to Kingsclear. Subsequently he limited 
his travelling to the eastern side of the river, appointments 
on the opposite bank being left to the care of the superin- 
tendent and a zealous band of local preachers. A church 
at Prince William was 0})ened by Enoch Wood in 184G. 
In the new church opened at Nashwaak in 1842 a special 
work took place early in the following year, the gracious 
influence of whicli reached other settlements and led many 
to decision for (iod. A subsequent period of depression and 
partial absence of regular gospel ordinances was followed 
by a restoration of prosperity under the earnest ministry of 
Robert Tweedie. 

At Woodstock and throughout the county of Cai^etou 





I U\ 




I i! 

the exciting influoiices of these years were felt in large 
measure. The unusual presence for a time of a regiment of 
British troops for the defence of the frontier ; the agitation 
caused by tlie industrious circulation of false predictions by 
Millerite preachers; and the local unrest which preceded and 
followed the outrage upon the Orangemen, leading to an 
immediate and wonderful increase in their numbers ; could 
not fail to affect a section of the coutitry wliere disturbing 
influences had been few." Nevertheless, a special work of 
grace, fraught with general benefit, gladdened the members 
of the little church in Woodstock, in 1842, under the pas- 
torate of George Johnson. During fifty successive evenings 
that minister, aided by judicious local helpers and visiting 
local preachers, held meetings at which awakened men and 
women sought that forgiveness of sins which had filled 
others with joy. A similar revival also took place in the 
town in 1850 under the ministry of John Allison and 
William Tvveedie. For several subsequent years the giowth 
of the town in an opposite direction left the church at some 
distance from the centre of population, this and some other 
circumstances retarding growth. At South Richmond, a 
place which had shared in the revival of 1850 at Woodstock, 
a church was commenced in 1853 ; in the same year steps 
were taken for the erection of one at Northampton. 

In the Minutes of 1851 Andover appeared as the head- 
quarters of a distinct circuit, under the care of John S. 
Phinney. Robert A. Chesley had been sent thither in 1840 

11 On July 12tli, 1S47, as about two hundred Orangemen, displaying 
no l)anners, wen- returning to Woodstock from .lacksontown, where they 
had listened to a sermon by a ]ia])tist minister, they were attacked by 
three iiundred Roman Catholics armed with guns, scythes, and other 
dangerous weapons. When two of tlie Orangemen had been wounded, 
their friends rushed to a waggoTi in wliich arms had been i)laced for de- 
fence, and returned the tire, wounding several of their opi)onents, and 
driving tlie whole body down the hill to the Meduxnekeag creek. The 
precis*' res\ilts of their onset were never fully known. Among the 
()rangemen of the county were a number of Irish Methodists. 




as the first of a stoady succession of preachers, and there 
in 1S48 John Prince had seen an extensive revival. In 
1S47 a small church was coniinenced at Williamstown, a 
"most promising place," and at FlonMiceville, in IB;")!, 
meetings were held in a log scho.l-house, fronj which John 
Allison on a Sahhath during revival services withdrew to 
a position on the bank of the river to preach in the open-air 
to more than a thousand persons. In l<Sr)2 a small society 
was formed at V^ictoria Corner, where services were held in 
the Oi-ange hall. Tht^ first regular appointments at Grand 
Falls were established in iS47 l>y John Prince. Through 
the appointment of a second preacher to the Woodstock 
circuit in 18.^).'?, the development of Methodist influence on 
the Upper St. John became more rapid. 

The Miramichi cirtniit, extending in 1810 from IJoies-* 
town, on the South-west Miramichi, to Shediac, on the 
Sti'aits of NorthumV)erland, was at that time travelled by 
Arthur IVIcNutt, Humphrey Pickard and Samuel Mc.Mar- 
sters. Of these ministers the second devoted his labor 
principally to liichibucto and the surrounding .section of 
counti-y. The third undertook the arduous duty of caring 
foi' the scattered settlements along the South-west branch. 
To the work in these several disti-icts a happy impulse 
was given by a I'evival of which the eai'liest indication was 
seen at a love-feast on the first day of 1811, at Newcastle, 
whei'e members from Chathau) and Willi.unstown were pre- 
sent. Through services held in several central localities the 
societies in the circuit received an addition of more than a 
hundred mentbers. Th(! history of the circuit foi* some 
years was, nevertheless, one of stern str-uggle. Removals 
and failures in business seriously aflected that section of 
country, and at Chatham threatened at one time the loss 
of the church property. In the general panic which about 
181*2 brou'ditthe firm of Sanmel (Junard A' Co. to the ver<re 


^" ; 




of bankruptcy, several hundred men were thrown out of 
employment, and the local manager, llobert INIorrow, a 
firm friend of the ministers and their mission, was led back 
to England. The mission property, then barely saved from 
the auctioneer's hammer, and narrowly rescued from de- 
struction by tire in 1815, remained in an embarrassed state 
until John Snowball, a determined enemy to church debts, 
stationed there from 1832 to 183G, succeeded in freeing the 
four churches on the circuit from all encumbrance. 
Through the consequences, in part, of these financial re- 
verses, the settlements on the South-west branch, at one 
time of great pron)i.:e, suti'ered long and serious neglect. 
At Richibucto, in 1840, Hutnphrey Pickard found about 
twenty persons, gathered into membership by his predecessor, 
Sanuiel I), Rice, who were attempting the building of a 
small church at the shiie-town. In the autumn twenty 
others, most of whom were residents of IJuctouche, were 
added to the circuit list. At the formation of the Richi- 
bucto circuit, in 1841, there were two classes at IJuctouche 
and one each at Richibucto and Nicholas 'Mver, with a 
church at Richibucto, which had been opened in May of 
that year. A year later there were churches at Buctouche 
and Nicholas River. 

In 1846, after an absence of a year or two, Robert A. 
Chesley was re-appointed to the Bathurst circuit. In 
1843 he had visited Dalhousie and Campbellton, the former 
place fifty-four, and the latter .seventy, miles from Bathurst, 
and had then crossed the provincial boundaiy line into the 
county of (iaspe. Among the Protestants of the extensive 
district visited, of whom a Presbyterian njinister was the 
only pastor, were several consistent Methodists, who gladly 
learned in 184G that they were thenceforth to be regularly 
visited by the minister at Bathurst. Earlier reports fronj 
\\\h \w\s tract were encom aging iu character, and ia 185-1 



out of 
TOW, a 
3d back 
ed from 
roin de- 
sd state 
[1 debts, 
3iug the 
icial re- 
i, at one 
d about 
ing of a 
1 twenty 
le, were 
e Riclii- 
with a 
May of 

bbert A. 
it. In 
I in to the 
x tensive 
Iwas the 
•ts from 
Iju W)\ 

Dalhousie, Canipbellton and several smaller settlements 
were set apart as a separate Held under the charge of James 

Within the Sussex Vale circuit the itinerants for some 
years pursued their work in the face of oppositio)i from 
more than one (juarter. After a time, however, Meth- 
odism, like the streams which flow through the pleasant 
valleys of that section of the province, (juietly pursued its 
onward course of blessing, (quickened at times in its progress 
by showers from above. By such a shower the circuit at 
length was blessed in the winter of 1845-40, during the 
presence of William Allen. In 1849 the meml>ership had 
reached the number of two hundred and forty, nearly one 
hundred of whom had been accepted dui-ing the previous 
three years. There were three churches at Pleasant V^alley, 
Smith's Creek, and Millstream, with other preaching ap- 
pointments at live school-houses and as many private dwell- 
ings. From camp-meetings subse(|uently held within its 
limits the circuit derived im[)ortant benefit. At the 
earliest, held in July, 18')!, at Sussex Vale, nearly two 
thousand persons were at one time present, and within 
three months from the date of its commencement one hun- 
dred and twenty-five persons were received into member- 
ship. A still larger number was present at the meeting of 
1854, at Smith's Creek. Within a month fi'om the begin- 
ning of this meeting John Prince reported more than two 
hundred conversions. 

Of the Petitcodiac circuit, Monctoii in 18.'i9 was only 
one of the numerous places to be visited from Coverdale. 
It was then a rjiere village, known as "Tin; Hend," where 
stages halted on the great highway between St. John and 
Halifax, (vnd where goods were landed to be distributed l)y 
teams to tl^e surrounding country. The subsequent develop- 
jTJ^ut iu sliip-building by tlie Salters and others gave it 






fui'ther prominence; hut it saw, like most Provincial towns, 
alternations of advance and reversje, until it received a 
permanent impulse as the oiiicial headfjuarters of the Inter- 
colonial Railway. Previous to 1824 a small church, f lee to 
all Protestant ministers, had been erected by a few families 
then in the neighborhood. In 1S2 1 an Episcopal clergyman 
informed his superiors that the inhabitants, disappointed in 
the quantity and quality of the preaching heard by them, 
were purposing to add a steeple to their little church, and 
then place tlu; property under episcopal control, but the 
cherished dream failed of realization. Michael Pickles, 
when visiting the circuit in 18'28, formed a class at "The 
Pend," and successive Methodist ministers preached in the 
union chapel there. At the division of the Petitcodiac tield 
in 1S4S into the Petitcodiac and Harvey circuits, Moncton 
became an inqxn'tant section of the former charge. A lot 
of land was purchased in 1H[ 1 and in .lanuai-y, 184'J, Ji 
jNIethodist church was dedicated, which for- several yeai's 
was the lai-gest and finest in the village. One hundred 
pounds above the total cost of the church having been left 
in the hands of the trustees through the sale of pews, they 
resolved to build a parsonage. In 1853 the growth of the 
population and the influence of a revival rejulered necessary 
an enlai'gement of their church. In 1847 a church was 
opened in the large parish of Harvey, and in 1819 anotiier 
at Salisbury. Extensive revivals in 1841) and 1851 were 
reported from both Harvey and Hopewell. 

A division of the old Westmoreland circuit was made in 
1839. In 1851 an extensive addition of members at Sack- 
ville was reported, but from Dorchester came tidings of sad 
declension. There the unsatisfactory site of the church, 
and the gradual alienation, through the worldly influences 
of a county town, of the youth of JNIethodist families, re- 
sulted in a loss which earnest efi'ort failed for years to 




Icule in 
lof sad 
les, re- 
liis to 

arrest. The general hlessing wliich in 1841 attended 
special meetings in the Point de lUite and r>aie Verte sec- 
tion of tiie old circuit, rendered it very pi'osperous. At 
Bayfield in 1848-49 many persons were led to decision for 
God, and by similar subsecpient revivals large numbers in 
other settlements were guided into church-fellowship. 

Varying results had attended labor on tlu^ circuits near 
the Maine frontier. In that section of New J^runswick 
Universalism had long been prevalent, and in 1835 a 
preacher of its doctrines had established himself at ISlill- 
town, where a church was provided in 1841 for Ins use. A 
further difticulty in the way of successful efJbrt lay in the 
fact that a certnin section of the membership in the b/ovder 
circuits was at that time not only imperfectly acquainted 
with the history and spirit of Methodism, but was also 
impatient of its discipline. 

From 1844 to 185.'} tlie five churches and several other 
preaching places of the St. Stephen circuit, including the St. 
David's section, had been cared for by ct\w. busy itinerant. 
The outlook, pleasant at the end of those years, has grown 
brighter with the lapse of time. In 1840 prospects were 
equally pleasing at Milltown. The minister sent thither 
preaclied in one of the finest Methodist churches in the 
province, and liis large congregation inchided earnest mem- 
bers, not a few of whom had been saved under the ministry 
of McColl. Some secret dissatisfaction, however, arose, 
and soon after the district meeting of 1844 culminated in 
the withdrawal of fifteen members, several of them men of 
influence, who sought to carry with them tlu? congregation 
and Sabbath-school. The destruction of the cb.urch during 
a night in September seemed for a moment to render 
possible the success of an unworthy scheme, but only for a 
moment. On the morning after the fire, and very near the 
smouldering ruins, a meeting was lield, at which generous 
sub.scriptions towards a new building were offered by faitli- 

. ^ 

i ' 


i ' 

: ,if 



ful men. From a fragment of the burned pulpit Bible, the 
pastor, George Johnson, preached on tiie following Sunday 
morning, and soon after left home to solicit assistance in 
several Provincial towns. One morning in January, 1846, 
a new bell of rich tone summoned worshippers to the new 
sanctuary. Under effort the interest of the circuit 
assumed a brighter aspect, but toward the close of the 
period progress was seriously checked by the decease of 
staunch and generous supporters. The seceding members, 
who had formed themselves into an independent Methodist 
church, under a pastor from the United States, finally fell 
into line with tlie Congregationalists of Milltown, among 
whom they became leading members. 

An addition of forty-four persons in 1841 more than 
doubled tlie memljersliip at the shire town, St. Andrew's. In 
1846, in spite of some painful circumstances, reports respect- 
ing the little society were cheering in character, but subse- 
quently the sad decline in the trade and population of the 
place seriously abridged their number and financial ability. 
A minister, stationed there in 1850, wrote that it was 
" melancholy in passing down the front street to notice the 
large wharves and warehouses, with other stores, which 
were once the promising localities of respected merctantile 
establishments, now unoccupied and hastening to ruin." One 
half of the circuit membership in 1853 was to be found at 
the country appointments of Bocabec and Digdeguash. 

Tn Prince Edward Island, at the close of the sixteen years 
under observation, a membership of nine hundred persons 
was being watched over by five pastors. A devoted staff" of 
lay-workers had been kept up to its previous standard by 
recruits at home and arrivals from abroad.'' The two vears' 


1- Of tlu! society classes led l)y tlif Hon. Charles Young, a lirother of the 
late Sir William Young, chief-justice of Nova Scotia, more than seven 
hundred persons have lieen members, while three hundred have been 
members of his Bible-classes. (Jf the latter nmnber forty-nine, during 
one "happy winter," professed conversion. 



term of Edmund Botterell at Charlottetown was marked hy 
much prosperity. Tlie erection of school and class-rooms, 
with well-attended services and several accessions to the 
membership, a growing Sunday-school, and contributions to 
the foreign mission fund much in advance of any other 
circuit in the Maritime Provinces, called forth thanksgiving 
on the part of the superintendent and his colleague, Henry 
Pope, jun. But the season of special reaping came at the 
beginning of 18r)l, when Frederick Smallwood had been 
placed in charge. A response given to an invitation on a 
Sunday evening in January, proved an introduction to 
services continued evening after evening for three months, 
at first in the commodious school-room and then in the 
church. Among the great numlx'r then professing conver 
sion were members of each of the Protestant congregations 
in the town and a few Roman Catholics. Oi the three 
hundred persons added to the church, nine at various dates 
entered the itinerancy. A building tjien f)ut up at some 
distance from the church for a second Sunday-school was 
used for that purpose until the opeiiing in 18G4 of the new 
and larger church. 

The growing importance of the societies in the settle- 
ments near Charlottetown led to the appointment, in 1845, 
of a second preacher. The principal places on the list were 
Lot 49 or Pownal, Cornwall, and Little Yoik. At all 
these places the congregations j)articipated in the revival 
influences at Chai-lottetown. In that year Pownal became 
a distinct circuit, a second preacher having been appointed 
to (Jharlottetown. These and other places were also blessed 
through the revival at Charlottetown in 1855, under John 
McMurray and his colleagues. 

Other societies of the Lsland were included in the liedecpie 
circuit. In that field, in 1844, Alexander W. McLeod and 
George Whitfield Wheelock were permitted to gathei' many 

t ■* 




sheaves. Special displays of saving power were seen at 
Crapaud and Tryon, but at Jiede(iue and Mar,<,'ate also many 
were blessed. A similar work was reported in 1854, when 
tije circuit, extending' from De Sable to New London, was 
in charge of (jleorge Oxley Huestis, assisted by a junior 
preacher. Regular visits were first paid in l8r)3 to Green's 
Shore, whei-e the town of Sunnnerside has since been l)uilt. 
In 1850 several business men bad renjoved to what had been 
only a scattered settlement, and had given it an impulse 
which, after a few years, made it the pi'in('ij)al shipping port 
of the western end of the island. Early in ISHIi, the pro- 
prietor of the farm on which the principal part of the town 
now stands, laid off the front in small lots, one of which he 
oftered to George (). Huestis as a site foi- a Methodist 
chui'ch, which a little later was placed thei'c. 

During a part of these years the IJible Chiistians met 
with much success. In October, 1 8 1'J, a spc^cial work began 
at Vernon Rivei'. Some saving influences felt at Lower 
Montiigue and Stui'geon, soon reached Murray ilarbor and 
Three Rivers, where for several years Wesleyan services had 
been discontinued. To meet the increased recjuirements of 
an enlarged membership, two missionaiies arrived from 
England in Septeniber, 184-1, when West (Jape, Cascumpec, 
and some adjacent settlements were placed under the care of 
William Harris, a promising young preacher who early fell 
at his post. An attempt to form a I^>ible Christian society 
at Charlottetown was lirst made in 181.5, but in a few 
months it was abandoned, not to be repeated for twelve 
years. Elsewhere in the island the impulse given by tlie 
revival of 1842 caused geneial growth, but in 1847 signs of 
decline became evident. The age of the superintendent— 
Metherall, the fre(juent changes in the ministerial by 
death, removals, and withdrawals; as well as the heavy 
losses by emigi-ation to Ontario and the United States, con- 



es had 
le of 
US of 


St by 



tril)utod greatly to the reduction of numlters. Sultsequent 
speoial elTort in old circuits and entrance into new localities 
again (Milarg(!d the nieiiiheiship, hut at the time of the final 
union of all the Mc^thodist bodies of Canada, the accredited 
members of tlu; iJible Christian societies in Prince ICdward 
Island did not exceed five hundred and sixty in number. 

On the removal of ffolin jMcNfurray, in the autumn of 
18;}9 from Sydney to Newfoundland, th«» chairman found 
himself obliged to appeal to the New Iirunswick J)istrict 
for a temporary supply for that station. In response to his 
call, a special meeting of ministers selected Samuel I), liice, 
of iJathurst, for the distant post.'' During his sjiort stay 
in Cajie I»reton he preached to large congregations ; visited 
Cabaius, where wei-e about forty members, sixty miles from 
Sydney, and reached principally on foot ; and having added 
several members to a goodly fellowship, transferred his trust 
to Thomas H. Davies, his successor. The subsequent 
decline of Sydney, through various causes, and the fre(|uent 
removals of members, interfered in some measure with the 
develojiment of jVIethodism in the island. Tn \H'}A the 
one circuit included the town, the " IMines," the " Forks," 
Louisburg, Gabarus and Ingonish, while other settlements 
awaited with all possible patience the appearance of a 
preacher. A year later Margaree appeared on the Minutes 

1" As Ml'. T\ ice wrote Mil liis nrriv.'il at Sydiify, hv "cduIi! liavc ixuue 
to the W'fst Indies or NfufniiiidliUKl " witli less fxiiensc ami exiiosiirc. 
'I'ill lie rcai'licd I'ictou by a loii^'' land journey, "all was very wi'll." 
'I'liere a cold and severe coiifjch sei/.ed liini. .After lia\iiij,' walke<i about 
on Tuesday evening' till ini(liii>,dit lie went on boani a shallop for .Aricliat. 
and in tlie midst of dirt and in a \>\iivi: wlieie lie could scarcely tiiid riMdii 
to lie down s])ent two ni^dits and a day. < )n 'riiursday lie went on board 
a sc;liooiier foi' Sydney, and lay almost freezin^^' on two lioai'<ls \\ itli a ni^ 
o\ei' liim till nine on i''iida}', wlieii tlirou;.;li stress of weather the \essel 
oaine to anchor in the place whence she had started. Then lie hired two 
Indians to take him to Sydney by St. Peter's liay and the I'ras d'Or 
T^ake, and started in their bark canoe in a snow-storm, and pushing <>n 
thi'ou^di snow, rain and fair weather, with onlj- straw for ;i bed and an 
overcoat for a covering, arrived at his destination on the Monday night 

I \ 

i[ 1 



as the ho.'i(l(niartor.s of a second circuit, under tlie care of a 
junior preacher. 

Little has ycit been said respecting the work done among 
British soldiers at several stations. Not less than three 
thousand Hve hundied of these were for many years divided 
among several |»osts in the Maritime Provinces. For some 
few years after the close of the Crimean war the Methodist 
soldier had no denominational status. A " Protestant " at 
enlistment was assumed to be either an Episcopalian or a 
Presbyterian, and, in the absence of any claim to the latter 
designation, was marched to the Sabbath morning })arade 
service of the hjpiscopal cha{)lain, though sup[)Osed to be 
left at liberty to attend what services he pleased on the 
Sabbath and other- evenings." Tin; warm greetings often 
given on such occasions by Christian men and women in 
Jiritish American towns to the soldier-sons of Englisl) 
Wesleyans and others, led many a man to a better life and 
rendered the place of his conversion ever after an attractive 
spot. Not a few British soldiers in other lands long re- 
membered the prayei-ineeting at St. John in the house of 
William Poi'tmoie — himself in earlier days a soldier — and 
similar memories of hallowed places in other towns accom- 
panied others to life's close, to be even be<iueathed in some 
instances to the corps in which they served. 

" 'I'lii.s lijwl not iilways bcfn the case. TiilSOS, at atiiiif wlu'ii AFitli' 
(list soldif'i's in garrison at (!il))'altar lia<l by tlicir sncct'ss in I'vai lizinf: 
thoir cdiniadcs awakened hitter i>erseeuti(>n, two ct)r])f>ral " might 
have gone into any den of infamy witli impunity, wei i to the 

ranks and imnisiied with two huniired lashes eaeh erime of 

attending a Metho(Hst meeting. Much, even at a hiti 

ioil, d oen- 

(h'd u|>on the officer in commaiuL In Halifax, alMiut i Mi, r ,onel 
Smith, of the Hitle Brigade, aft«'rwards known as Sir Harry Sm i, the 
hero of Aliwal, was accosted one day by a man of his regiment, who 
asked i)ermission to attend the Methodist prayer-meeting that evening. 
A peremjitory refusal was given. The next day the otticer and private 
again met, wlien the former asked the man if he had attended tiie meet- 
ing. The private reminded him that lie had refused the requested per- 
mission. "'Oh," said the colonel, " I was in a i)et then, but you never 
need ask me ; go when you j (lease, and I will take care that all will be 
right." The man thanked him, ajid availed himself of the coveted 



In cases where cotiversion had not resulted from tlie in- 
terest taken in him, the soldier did not forget the kindness 
shown. When Dr. IJule, in that stru^^le with the military 
authorities and the chapiain-p-neral, (ilei^', for the posses- 
sion of ecjual religious privileges hy the Wesleyan soldier, 
which should win for him grateful regard, first visited 
Aldershot, soon after the formation of the camp there, he 
learned this fact. "Not a few," he wrote, "betrayed a feel- 
ing that th(;y had heen heartlessly neglected since tndist- 
nient- I'hey who had l»een in Canada conti'asted the can^ 
for their souls manifest(;d by Canadian Methodists with 
the negligence, as they believed, of the English." So 
numerous, as the result of this interest in the soldier's wel- 
fai'e, had tlie Meth(»dists become in the reginrents .s«!nt from 
iJritish North America to the Crimea, that the (.anadian 
Conference entertained at one time the idea of sending one 
of its ministers to the stiat of war to attend to the spiritual 
intenists of these sons of English Wesleyans and others. 

In numerous instances converted soldiers became a bless- 
ing to the land of their second birth or temporary residence. 
In St. John, John Ferguson, a sergeant in the Royal Artil- 
lery, became the leading lay-helper in the building of the 
old (jrermain-street church, and in 18.39 laid the foundation 
stone of the second and larger church in that city. Of 
Francis Johnson, whose service has ])een described on a 
previous page, Edmund iJotterell wrote, in .some private 
notes, as a "dear friend," and the " most useful layman " 
it had ever been his " privilege to know." At Annapolis, 
the presence of Sergeant Mcintosh, R.A., and his excellent 
wife, much encouraged Arthur McNutt and Michael 
Pickles in the day of small things there. Newfoundland 
and Bermuda — the latter in particular — have also theii- 
own records of precious men converted there or led there 
through the agency of War oftice orders. 




In Halifax, espocially, where during lialf a century three 
regiments of tlie line and corresponding numbers of other 
branches of the service were stationed, many gallant fellows 
entered a higher service than that of their king or queen. 
At a love-feast, during the revival of 18+3, in which many 
of his comrades were blessed and made a blessing, Sergeant 
Stewart spoke of the city as a " Bethesda " for the army, 
and remarked that one hundred had been converted while 
in the garrison, most of whom had remained faithful. 

During the revival of 18.").3 in Halifax a young soldier 
was saved, with the record of whose godly life the religious 
world was made ac((uainted by a follow sergeant whom he 
had led to Christ.^' William Marjoui-am had landed at 
Halifax with his battery in 18.")1, as a gun ler, having been 
reduced from the rank of sergeant through di'iinken- 
ness. During the revival of 18.")2 a sergeant of the bat- 
tery, wliose determined hostility to i-eligion had niarkea 
him to human eyes as the least likely man to be 
converted, had become emphatically a "new" man. 
Through the influence of this sergeant tlie gunner one 
evening went to the lirunswick street church and stole 
up into the unlighted gallery. Thence, later in the 
evening and after a severe struggle, he went down and 
approached the communion rails as a penitent. From that 
spot he arose, when nearly all had left tlie chui'ch, with a 
feeling of safety, and the next morning, after severe con- 

'"' " ]\rt'ni()rial.s of Sci'^'cant \Villi;uu Miirjounuii, K.A.," .lames Xishet 
&, Co., London. Of this voliMiit', thf prffiu-c to uliicli was writicn l»y 
the autlior of " jMcinorials of llcdlcy N'ii'iU's," tlif ctlitof of the Wts 
liiKin Mftlnx/ist Miiinrjiiii, lias said : "This l)ook lias liad a \vid<' run 
in military I'iix'lcs and descrM's to lie ]<iio\\n Itcyoiid them. In our 
puj^cs at Ifast tilt' ^'ood scr^'cant shall hfannomufd as a Weslcyan Metho- 
dist. Why this ajtpt'ars so dimly in ihe ' Mfi'.orials,' v hich U'c edited 
hy a member of th«' s une communion, deponent showeth not. Th'Te 
may have lieen a {,'ood reason, and we impute no blame. 'The Dairy 
man's I )auj,diter," and ' 'I'he She|>lierd of Salisbury IMain." are instani'es 
of a similar kind. It may lie that the influence of their names has 
sjiread the more widely beca\ise the fact has been suppressed. . . Oh, 
for a hapjiier day !" 




flict, received the Holy Spirit's assui-auce of acceptance as 
a child of God. Havinj^ united witli the Methodist Church, 
he soon took a part iji social services and availed himself of 
all possible helps. During the few months preceding hi.s 
return to England in l^o.'J, those painful tests which are 
peculiar in great measure to army life won for him from 
his conu'ades the reputation of a genuine Christian and go.xl 
soldier, and three years later his olKcers restored him to 
his former I'ank. On his way to New Zealand in ls."i4, a 
three days' expei-ience on a burning ti-ooj)-ship brought out 
the nobilitv of the (Christian soklier. Duiing those davs of 
peril, when imminent danger had unnerved theolliceis who 
had performed the duties of cha[)Iain, the Methodist soldier 
obtained permission to i-ead tin; Sci'iptures and lead the 
prayers of his fellows in jeopardy, and, on a stoi'my night 
with a heavy sea, volunteered to be one of the party U) 
remove the women and children to the rescuing ship at a 
half-mile's distance. Nine months after his rescue, he was 
again on tlie way to New Zealand, having declined tempting 
inducements elsewhere, under a strong conviction that bin 
Master had woik foi' him to do in the southern woj-ld. ibis 
work he found in overflowing measure in New Zealand, in 
day and evening .schools and Sunday -schools, in dii-ectly 
religious and temjiei-anci^ etlbrt, and th^'n in abridged foiiii 
after the outbreak of the unsatisfactory Maori war. At 
length disease no longer permitted him to mount the liniV>er- 
box as he had done to be drawn to tlu^ scene of action, and 
a medical board ordeied his innnediate return to l>iitain, 
to the great regiet of the troops, many of whom had been 
converted through his intluence. " Well and invariablv.' 
wrote two of his higher v)tiicers, "you have combined the 
duties of a Christian and a soldiei'. Your example to the 
men under our Cf)nnnand, both in the Held before tlieeneniy 
and in the camp, has Ix en most beneticial. They have seen 






how well you have done your duty under all circumstances 
of difficulty and danger, and how, while never obtrusive in 
your advice, you have sincerely and wisely endeavored in 
proper seasons to turn them towards their Maker." During 
a several weeks' detention at Auckland, he continued 
Christian work, and on his embarkation for Britain, resumed 
it. With services on the Lord's-day l)y request of the 
officers and passengers, worship with the men in the fore- 
castle, a Bible-class, and a school for children, the Robert 
Lane became a veritable Betiiel. Then, at the end of a 
four months' passage, he went into hospital, there on a 
Sabbath morning to close a short, rich life with fragmentary 
but significant words^" ilappy — ^ Rejoice — Amen ! " That 
during a life thus ended he should have written to Archibald 
Morton, of Halifax : "I often look back with a heart full 
of gi'atitude to the place of my second birth," is not at all 
strange. "' 

During the years under review several standard-bearers 
had fallen. The amial»l(? Jesse Wheelock had l)een the first 
to depai't. In 1841, after several attempts at labor, witli 
intervening periods abi-oad, he gently fell asleep in Jesus. 
Dui'ing the succeeding year two junior preachers fell in 
harness. Peter Sleep had seen eight years of itinerant 
service. His preaching had been neither eloquent nor pro- 
found, but it had l)een accom})anied by a special degree of 
power. His presence was in such demand at "protracted" 
meetings that William (Jroscombe, when at Horton, made 
an announcement for special meetings dependent upon his 
young brother's ability to be beside him. A lady then 

'' DvifiiiK tlic pn'scnct' of a large (Ictai'limcut of Koyal Artillery at 
Woodstock, (luring the houndary ditiiculties, a young Koniaii Catholic 
soldier was awakened through a visit to the Methodist chureh there. 
On his ret\U'n to St. .loim, he was led through the ministry of Hichard 
Williams into dearer light, and after a puhlic recantation of former 
error, wa.s reot'ivcd into church-fclloMship. His early ileath, the result 
of an accident whih' on military duty, was marked by uushakfu WJntj. 
^h'nQ<' in his R»!d«emer. 



converted asserts that at the moment he rose in the pulpit 
she was conscious of an influence not previously felt. At 
such times he declined to go from house to house, but 
tjjrough quiet thought and private prayer sought a prepara- 
tion which became evident in public. His death, at Cover- 
dale, was caused by a malignant fever, which swept away 
numerous residents in tljat section of the province. Oidy 
two months later his brethren were startled by the death of 
the vigorous and zealous Samuel McMarsters. While in 
charge of the societies on the Nashwaak and upper part of 
the South-west Miramichi, he had been suddenly struck down 
by a disease to which in a few days he yielded. Devout men 
bore his body from Nashwa.'k to Fredeiicton, where they 
laid it beside the dust of Adam Clarke Avard. 

Two ministers of more extended servi(!e — William Wel»b 
and Sampson Busby — also passed within the veil. The 
foi'mer preacher had been removed from Amherst to Char- 
lottetown in 184(5. The presence of workmen preparing to 
enlarge the church led him out of the parsonage early on<; 
morning in June, lS-17, when a se\ere cold suddenly scii/ed 
him, develo{)ing into a rapid consumption which in a few 
weeks ended in death. Mis genial disposition and unim- 
peachable integi'ity liad given him a degr(!e of influence 
which made his death a seiious loss. A happy combination 
of the special <|ualilications for success in the pulpit and the 
pastorate had made his ministry the ''sa\or of life unto lift;" 
to many, while it had also bi'en a means of editicatioii to 
numerous converts under tin; preaching of his predecessors 
in his several circuits. Samj)S(»n Busby, in e(|ually liini 
reliance upon the Gospel which both had preached, died on 
Easter Sunday, 1850, at Portland. In the numerous cir- 
cuits on which he had labored he had proved a spii'itnal 
helper to many. A commanding form, pleasing address, 
attiible manner and devout spirit, witii an un(juestioi)ec| 
reputation, had made him a general favorite. 



The venerable Stephen IJanit'ord entered his final rest in 
1848. Tlie Missionary Connnittee, on relieving him fi'oui 
the duties of circuit superintendence in 1835, gave him 
leave to return to England ; he therefore crossed the 
Atlantic and attended the JJritish Conference of 1836 at 
liirnungliani, wher-e, at a special gatlieiing of returned mis- 
sionaries, lie was fornmlly " receivid into full connexion." 
The changes of numerous years in his native land had by 
that time rendered his list of former acquaintances so short, 
that in his loneliness he turned his face towards friends 
beyond tlie s(!a. He had twice l)een stationed at St. John, 
and thither on his return he and his wife again directed 
their steps. Some years later he removed to l)ig))y, where 
he continued to pi'each, ev(Mi when a broken limb, caused 
by a fall frouj his carriice, obliged him, for a time, to gather 
neighboi-s into his own dwelling, and afterward, on partial 
recovery, to address congregations from a seat in the pulpit. 
His death took place at J>igby in 1818, and his body found 
a resting-i)lace l)eside the dust of his worthy "Jane," in the 
JNIethodist cemetcM-y in St. John. A few weeks beff»re 
death he had furnished the authorities at the Hoi-se (Juards 
with replies to some in(|uiries i-especting his military 
services ; iu consequence of which, only a few days after 
his decease, two medals reached his home. '^ 

One cannot dismiss in haste the name of this venerable 
man, so eccentric and so widely beloved. Among his 
brethren in the ministry he was unicjue. Of his nn'litary 
erectness and neatness years of travelling over rough roads 
never robbed him. " Who is that tine looking man!" said 
the colonel of a llritish regiment one day, as the pi-eachei' 
stood on the {)arade watching some military evolutions. 

'" One of tlicsf was the '* I'ciiiiisular .Medal" wliicli, tlioiiKli confcrrt'd 
for services iciidereil fi'oiii 17!K5 to ISlt, was not issued until 1S4S, wlieii 
nearly all those entitled to it were in tlieir ^TaNcs. Tlie otlier would lie 
the medal issue<l at the same time for similar sei'\ ice liy tiie uaAV. 'IMie 
•J!tth re^dnieiit had at ohc ti:u.' ser\ed on hoard <hi|i ;is niirines, prohalily 
on the (icca ion of Ijord I low c's j^'reat \ iclory on dune Isi, 17'.M. 


'-'<■ , 



And a minister who oalled upon him at Digby, when a 
venei'ahle supernumerary, describes liim as then, thougli in 
his seventy-sixth year, tall, tinely-proportioned, and as erect 
as a statue, and as in all respects one of the most beautiful 
specimens of old ago ever seen by him,"* 

It was not, however, only the military bearing of Stephen 
Bamford that led a stranger to look a second time at him. 
A quaint, broad face, that beamed with happiness as if his 
heart were overflowing with Joy, was even more 
than a finely set-up frame. The haj) of his iiome, 
presided over through most of his manhood by an excellent 
woman some years his senior but not; less child-like than 
liimself, about which his intimate friends were wont to tell 
many pleasant incidents, seemed everywhere to follow him, 
Two young collegians met him one day in a street at 
Windsor, and asked him how lie was. " Oh," was the 
emphatic reply, " I am so happy I don't know what to do 
with myself," an answer of which th<; meaning was better 
understood in later years by at least one of the listeners. 
" Can't you laugh, John 1 " he one day said to the excellent 
but grave John Marshall.''' This characteristic joyousnoss, 
with the quaint utterances always falling from his lips, made 
him the life of any social circle. Even at the annual meet- 
ings of the ministers sonie sudden hit of his has been known 
to convulse the meml)ers with laughter, or some quickly 
occurring reminiscence giving an unexpected turn to a 
prayer, to cause more than a smile upon the countenances 

'** " lictsy," hf cmce said to tlu- lat«' \rrs. .lames (J. Ht'iiiiij,''ar, in allti- 
sion to a i'«'huk(' for cai'dcss appcai-ancc from "my .Jane," as lie famili- 
arly tt'rmt'd tlit^ first A[rs. Haiiiford, " f straiKlitcticd mysflf up tliat 
momt'ut. A Christian (Hi^dit to look up. \\v has nothing,' to he ashamed 
of. A Christian look down 'i No 1 " 

■'■' In 1S4.3, at a time when he was walkiny^ on crutcht's, ln'caiisc of the 
dislocation of his hip through an aeeident fifteen weeks before, he wrote 
from Dighy, with the heart of a child : "They carry me to the chai)el 
and (!o(l blesses n\e (in preaching). O religion I O Methodism, what 
do 1 owe you? What I never can repay I ! 1 " 


4 'H 

I r'i 




i ■ 

1 j 

a '^ 

1 ' 





of usually grave men, and yet all were accepted by the 
listeners as the natural outflow of the heart of one of the 
most artless of men, who was nevertheless possessed of a 
rare power of penetration into human nature. "If ever," 
it has been said, "humor was sanctified and employed in 
the furtherance of the Cluspel, it was in the preaching of 
this rare man," whose life-long aim was the avoidance of any 
shadow of reproach upon the character of the ministry. 

Of Stephen Bamford's preaching it is not easy to give a 
definite de-scription. Charles Dewolf, when at Hoxton, 
heard tlie celebrated " Billy Dawson," and that evening 
wrote : " I would rather hear Stephen Bamford." James 
G. Hennigar once remarked that his sermons were truly 
peculiar and abundantly characteristic of his oft-repeated 
assertion, "They are my own." The Hon. 8. L. Shannon, 
who heard him in boyhood, speaks of him as most eccentric 
and uncertain in the pul})it. Sometimes lie seemed to have 
reached the land of Beulah, and to have heard sera})]iic 
strains which he imparted to his delighted hearers, and then 
again he seemed to go down into tiie valley of humiliatif)n, 
and so lose the thread of his discourse as to be unaltle 
to recover it, and yet he was very popular. Before he came 
to Halifax the official members were almost alarmed at his 
appointment by the Committee in England, but l)efore iiis 
three years were out they almost idolized the man." That 
ministry whicii could move to alternate smiles and tears a 
congregation of soldiers at Fredericton and another of sailors 
at Parrsboro', proved the power of God unto the salvation 
of men and women of thoughtful minds in leading circuits, 
of whom he was wont to say, as of all saved through his 
ministry, in words not known ever to have been called in 
question by his brethren, that " none of them ever became 

-'* One of liis coiivort.s, wliose death was annoiniced in tlie Wfshf/(tn 
Methodixt Matj(t:in( ior IH^r, was a daughter i»f Major-! ieneral Miller, 



1 ■'" 

At the close of the period under review several of the 
active men of earlier years lingered among their brethren 
as venerable supernumeraries. To one of them, Richard 
Williams, residing at Bridgetown, a midnight call to depart 
came suddenly in 1850, after a retirement of five years. 
His brethren speak of liim in their post-mortem tribute as 
a man who was irreproachable in character, a preacher 
whose sermons were rich in evangelical truth, and an ad- 
ministrator who was firm and inflexible in his attachment 
to every part of Methodist discipline. As a minister he 
magnified his ofhce, and as a leading official of the Metho- 
dist Church lie allowed no word or act directed against her 
interests to pass unrebuked. In Newfoundland a promi- 
nent member of the government obliged him to call again 
and again for the title to a promised grant of land. When 
at length delay seemed to imply indifference, the stalwart 
preacher drew himself up to his full height, and, in his most 
decisive tones, bade the official "Good morning," assuring 
him that in case of any further delay he would meet him at 
"Downing-street." The official wisely recognized the evident 
determination of the man with whoin he had to deal, and 
lost no time in the preparation of the required document. 
A natural brusqueness sometimes involved him in difficul- 
ties, occasionally to the regret, and now and then to the 
amusement of his brethren. To these his literal interpreta- 
tion of Methodist law and usage was not always satisfac- 
tory, but, in words used by Enoch AVood at the time of his 
retirement in 185*J, " INlethodism in New Brunswick,"' where 
a number of his most vigorous years were spent, " is deeply 
indebted to him for his intelligence, decision and single- 

and widow of Beiijainin Sliillitto, Ks(]., of tlic Royal ^^ariIll' Artillf-ry. 
Wliil»^ resident at Windsor she was invited to tlic Mrtliodist cliurcli by 
an Episcopalian family holding a pew there, while Mr. Hamford was in 
charge. iSnlweq^nently in .fersey she nnited with the Methodist Church, 
in fellowsliip with which the remaining years of her life were spent. 
During ten of these years she was a faitliful class-leader. 





On a Sabbatli morning in INIay, 1857, after a short ill- 
ness, Albert Desbrisay, another of the retired ministers, 
happily finished his course. After his final retirement, in 
1844, from circuit responsibilities, eleven years were spent 
by him at Sackville as chaplain of the academy there. On 
leaving that position, the duties of which he had discharged 
with great fidelity, he sought a final earthly residence in his 
native place. At Charlottetown the previous deep devoted- 
ness marked his declining days, and his love for pastoral 
visitation rendered hiin highly useful. The " law of kind- 
ness," ever "on his lips," and the success of his compara- 
tively limited ministry, long rendered his name very fra- 
grant in several circuits. 

In the following November the venerable William Ben- 
nett peacefully ended a life of eighty-seven years. His 
ordination by the American Methodist bishops, Asbury and 
Whatcoat, seemed to connect him with the earlier and more 
heroic age of the denomination. His itinerant service had 
been comparatively short thougii most useful, but during its 
continuance he had been charged with serious responsibili- 
ties. As successor of William Black, he had been from 
1812 to 1820 general superintendent of the Nova Scotia 
District, during a part of which time the Lower Canada 
circuits were under his jurisdiction, and in 1816 had been, 
by appointment of tiie British Wesleyan Conference, a dele- 
gate with William Black fiom that body to confer with the 
General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
upon the peculiar relations of English and American 
Methodism to the missions in Lower Canada. Believing him- 
self to be lacking physical vigor for the circuit work of that 
period, he in 1820, at the age of fifty, asked a supernumerary 
relation, and, though unacquainted with farming, settled at 
Newport, continuing his ministry there as occasion per- 
mitted^or required. In 1840 he visited his native land, and 
at the British Conference of tliat year was received with 




all due respect. His later years were spent in Halifax, 
where for some time he was chaplain of the Provincial 

At Windsor, in 1859, the venerable William Croscombe 
ended a precious ministry of a half-century in length. At 
his decease he was the senior Wesley an missionary in the 
British North American Provinces, having served under 
the Society's direction as chairman of the Newfoundland^ 
Nova Scotia and Canada Districts, and having spent three 
years on the (libraltar mission. During a five years' 
residence in Halifax, 1851-55, he continued to preach and 
at the same time to take charge of the Methodist JJook 
Depositary until a stroke of paralysis prevented further 
service. Subsequent years at Windsor were years of weak- 
ness, during which, however, friends were often permitted 
the sight of the small, white-haired old minister tottering 
on the arm of his wife to the church, where, too deaf to hear 
a word from the preacher's lips, he sat with opened iiible 
thinking over the text, which doubtless often recalled ser- 
mons and "Scenes of more vigorous years. His preaching 
had been awakening, saving and edifying, his pastoral 
visiting that of a man of God ; in his character hu- 
mility and dignity had been beautifully blended ; and 
thus in the course of fi long ministry his name had be- 
come dear to great numbers. Final days of waiting were 
patiently borne, the things of God affording favorite topics 
of conversation. 

John Marshll, who had been obliged to retire from 
circuit cares in 1851, died at Lunenburg in 1864. The 
thirteen years of his supernumerary life were years of 
trial, through his inability during the greater part of the 
period to take any charge of the services of the sanctuary. 
There is reason to believe that his early association with 
the Methodist Church had cost him the alienation of 
relatives, who with his decision could have no sympathy. 

!• . 

I ;' 






He was dillulont, retiring, exceedingly gruve in deport- 
ment, and liis preaching, which was above the average 
order, was often accompanied hy a special unction. "I 
have constant peace with (iod," was his testimony modestly 
given at a love-feast in Halifax. He was emphatically a 
man of one book and of one work. "Few men that we have 
known," says (ieoige (). Huestis, "had so little of earthli- 
ness and so mucii of iieaven as John Marshall. He had 
trials, but he bore them like a Christian. Ho had his intir- 
mities, but they were not so prominent as to mar the 
symmetry of his spii-itual character." 

George JVIiller's su}ternumerary life of twenty years was 
closed at Bridgetown in 1869. A strong mind and a 
retentive memory had been consecrated to his holy employ- 
ment j and a diligent study of the Word of God, with care- 
ful reading of the best English divines, had made him a 
logical and lucid expositor of Scripture truth. A sermon 
on the Atonement, })reserved in the Britislt North American 
Wen/eyan Methodist Mnffnzi7ie for 1(S42, illustrates his style 
and power, and aflbrds indication that a volume from his pen 
would have been of much value. Soon after lie had uttered 
the words : " I have a house above," he passed away to his 
eternal rest. He had reached the good old ago of eighty- 
one years. 

In 1870 John Bass Strong, in the eightieth year of his 
age and lifty-seventh of ins ministry, received the call to go 
up higher. He only had preceded Richard Williams as an 
English Wesleyan missionary to the Upper Pi'ovinces. 
Through a part of a twenty years' retirement he had 
preached nearly as often on the Lord's-day as in the period 
of itinerant service. His last days were spent among his 
children in Prince Edward Island, where they were pro- 
minent workers in religious circles. A friend to childhood, 
a beautiful singer, popular preacher and successful pastor, 
he had been everywhere beloved. Old age, in the absence 



of cynicism and the pi-cscnco of a genial synn)atliy with the 
spirit and pursuits of youth, has seldom heen seen under a 
more attriictiv<> aspect. "Tell them all," he said to a visi- 
tor, as a dying message to his hrothei- ministers, "That I 
am going well. ' Not a cloud doth arise,' " etc. 

Henry Pope, who had become a sni>ernumerary in l(Sr)4, 
surviv(>d his l)iethren on the list until 1S77. laying in his 
eighty-ninth year, he liad been a solitary link between the 
past and ])resent. John Wesley, during one of his later 
visits to Cornwall, had seen him in his mother's arms and 
invoked heaven's l)lessing upon him. VVIkmi a young man, 
he had attended tlu! first W(!sleyan missionary meeting lield 
in the city of I'i'istol. At one time it liad seemed that his 
minist(!rial life would be brief. In 1829, when engaged in 
the administration of the Loi'd's-supper at Fjiverjjool Im 
was seized l)y apoplexy, and was probably saved fiom fatal 
results l»y the presence in the church of a physician. His 
brethren, a])prehensive that his work was finished, it their 
meeting in tiie following spi-ing insisted on his retirement 
as a supernumerary, but on his return in the autumn from 
a visit to England, he resumed work and steadily continued 
it. Several years subse(piently to this illness, he asked 
reappointment to (Janada, but the Committee, unable to 
comply with his r(M|uest, olFered him permission to return 
to lOngland, a privilege of which lu; did not avail himself. 
])uring the greater pint of his supernumerary life he was 
chaplain at the Provincial })(>nitentiai'y at Halifax. Jfis 
blameless life, singleheartedness of purpose, and Christian 
charity, were evident to all. Hundreds had l)een con- 
verted through his ministi'y, and several who had been 
guided by him into a new life liad, at the time of his de- 
cease, taken prominent positions in the ministry of the 
church he had faithfully served. By his wise lessons as a 
class leader, and his faithful ministry to the convicts in the 
penitentiary, his usefulness was continued to the last. 






(!ONFKI{KNCK IN 1855. 

I'uliticiil unn'st. Friendliness of Sir .Inliii lliirvcy. Cliairnifn of tlio 
period. Olian^'cs in itinerant ranks. I'ro^'ress of circuits. Revivals. 
Auxiliary Missionary Society. New missions on Western Shore and 
Bay of Notn* Dame. Interesting incidents. Death of William 
Marshall. Sound Island. 

Several of the years now under notice .vcre marked, in 
Newfoundland, by serious political unrest. The new charter 
had not proved an unalloyed blessing. An elective legis- 
lature, in the absence of sufficient precaution, had thrown 
the government practically into the hands of the Roman 
Catholic priesthood, who, as usual, were prompt to use 
political power for their own purposes. At length, in 1841, 
Captain Prescott, governor of the colony, dissolved the 
House, and in consecjuence of subsecjuent riotous proceed- 
ings at a bye-election, declared the Constitution suspended. 
In the course of the following year, through an amendment 
by the Imperial Parliament, the " Amalgamated Assembly " 
was established ; seven years later the Constitution was 
restored ; and in 1855 responsible government was granted. 
During the suspension the Methodists of the colony had no 
cause for complaint. The assistance given them in their 
educational work called fortii, on the contrary, from the 
Missionary Secretaries a warm tribute to Sir John Harvey, 
the governor, who on several occasions had expressed him- 




icii of the 


Slunv iUid 

I Williiun 

rked, in 


/e legia- 



to use 

In 1841, 

VQ{\ the 




nibly " 

an was 


lad no 


)ni the 


1 him- 

self in most favorable terms respecting the operations of 
their society. 

The chair of the disti'ict at tins time was occupied by 
men whose ability and wisdom commanded for tliem gen- 
eral resp«;ct. John I'ickavant, who had long pi-csided over 
the animal gatherings, left in IHt.'J for l^iigland, w1um(^ he 
died in 1S48. A colonial coUcagur has (lescrib(,'d him as 
"a 'master in Israel,' atlectionatt', gentle and gentlemanly, 
and in his own pulpit, where Ik; was ahv.iys most at home 
and happy, an oi-ator at (»nce cliarmiiig and sultduing." 
Richard Williams reached the colony in time to preside at 
the district meeting of 18(1. In 18 111, in consecjuence of 
serious illness, his name aj)peared as that of a supernumer- 
ary at Ilar-bor Grace, whence h(; returiunl to the New 
Jirunswick District. Etjually dignitied in bearing and most 
courteous in intercourse with all was his successor, I'idnmnd 
Rotterell, who arrived at St. John's in 1850. Towards the 
close of a five years' term in that town he received fi-om the 
English C(jmmittee the appointment of general superin- 
tendent of their missions in the Bahama District, but ob- 
tained permission to remove, in 18'),"), to the more suitable 
climate of New Brunswick. 

Of the ministers who had taken part in Centennial ser- 
vices in Newfoundland, only fcnir were ^ound in the colony 
on the formation of the new Conference in 1855. John 
Pickavant, William Faulkner, and Geoi-gt! Ellidge, after 
long colonial service, had returned to England ; John 
Snowball, Ingham Sutcliffe, John ^NIcMurray and James 
England had been transferred to circuits in Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick ; Adam Nightingale, Samuel W. 
Sprague, John S. Addy, and Thomas Angwin remained still 
on the island. In the interim Jabez Ingham, John Brew- 
ster, James Norris and William P. Wells, had each spent a 
few years in Newfoundland. Of the ministers of a half- 



j ? * ^ 5^^^^^** 



century ago, only the venerable John 8. Peach, sent thither 
in 1840, yet remains in the colony.' 

The period was not one of marked general progress, 
although several of the older missions wei-e favored with 
seasons of Messing. At St. John's and in its vicinity the 
societies received numerous accessions, but to the settlements 
somewhat more remote from the town the one n)inister could 
not give the attention demanded. In addition to his duties 
as superintendent of an impoi'tant circuit, to which were 
frequently added those of clmirman of the district, much of 
the business of his brethren at the outposts with the ca{)ital 
had to be transacted l)y him. \\\ such acceptable local 
preachers as Christopher Vey and David Rogers, and one 
or two others for a time, he had vakiable assistants, but the 
third Sabbath sei'mon in the town, which the circuit officials 
as late as 1848 deemed a necessity, lessened in some measure 
their sphere of usefulness. In 1840, in view of the calls fi-om 
places near St. John's, at one of which thirty Protestants, 
wearied with waiting, had become Roman Catholics, and 
others had threatened to follow their example, the a})i)oint- 
nient of a second preacher for the circuit was asked by the 
district. So great, however, was the end»arrassment of the 


f lii 

■ -] 

• 'I'lic fiiiuls of tlic Wcslcyjin ^iissionavy Socifty wrrc fn'cuuntly n-- 
licvcd liy the <,'('iici-(isity of iiu'i'cli;ints in ^in iii^' fire passages to iiiis- 
sioiiiirit's h(nr,(l foi' \«'\\foini(ll;inil. Of oiu- oi- two tiriiis inciitioM I., is 
already hci a made. The Missionary Secretaries, in their report for IS.V), 
say: "Our excellent friend, .lolm Miinn, Ks(|., of Harlioi' (Jrace, li;is 
already iustructed Mr. Tarhot, of Jviverpool, to ^^ive free passa.ures to 
Wesleyan missionaries coming' to Newfoundland, and tlie liouse of 
liowriujjf I'rothers, of the same poi't, has eni^'a-u'ed to do the san\e." None 
of till' nieniliers of these houses were Metlioijists. in niori' than one 
report, the Missionary Conunittee also jieknouled^'es -liniilar assistance 
fjciven l>y I'eter Koirersoii & Son, of whicli tir' i the I Ion. danies .1. 
Ko^^'rson, of St. .lohnV, is the surs ivin;j: inenil>er. In 1855 the Chtwlin, 
a \essel owned l>y that house, called at Torcpiay. when on tlie ))assa),''e 
from lla,ml)Ui'<j:, for theex|iress purpose of lirinying out Messi-s. ("onihen 
and Dove, then under appointment to the colony. Amon^^ the many to 
whom the missionaries were at that time iiidelited for fri'cjuent^'es 
from the capital to other places in the colony, tlits McsHrs. Knight, of St. 
John's, deserve special mention. 



■iitly rt'- 
to niis- 
iiiM I. as 
.!• IS.V), 
u'l', lias 
a,L;'('S to 
imisc i)f 


an diu' 
• istaiK!H 

llll'S J. 

Valid ill, 
laiiy to 
:. of ^t. 

missionary treasury, that no favorable response reached the 
cliairnian until four yeai's later, when a satisfactory tinancial 
guarantee had been given by otlicials at St. John's.- Then 
— in Nov(Mnber, 1845— a young missionary, arrayed in a 
heavy boat-cloak and cap, befitting a driz/ly atniospliere, 
knocked at the door of the St. John's parsonage, and, in 
response to the pu/zled countenpi'ce and somewhat bluJf 
intjuiry of Jlichai'd Williams, announced himself in un- 
abashed tones, as -John Brewster, " the missionary apjxjint-e-d 
by the Committee in London to help you, sir." 

The intention to erect a second church in the capital in 
184G on a site given by the government, was thwarted by 
the events of a most calamitous year. Through a lire 

which broke out on a morning in June, three-fourths of the 
place became a mass of ruins, making twelve thousand 
persons homeless. More direct loss to the fishernjen was 
caused l)y a terribh' storm in September, which strewed the 
shores with the wreckage of their pro})erty, and by the 
subsequent destruction of the pot.ito crop by disease and 
early frosts. When in April, 1847, Sir (Jaspard Le Mar- 
chant landed, us 'O^ei-nor of the colony, tiie starving poj^u- 
lation of out harbors was being driven by famine into the 
capital, ad government iiouse was being daily thronge-d 
by petitioners for relief. On the evening of a day generally 
observed by the Protestants, at the request of the governor, 
as one of humiliation and jn-ayer, a (luantity of fish sulli- 
ci<mt to meet all innnediate demands was taken on souje 
parts of the shore, but the general result of the seaiion's 

'-' Delay in tlif apii'iiutiiiciit of a second in-eacl r ami in tin- erection 
of a second chnrcli, liastened, it is [n-olialile, in some measure tlif oryaui- 
zation of ii J'reslivterian con^'re^Mtion in St. .lolm's. In 1S4L', th* 
J'resliyterian resi(l<'nts of that town, who had i>revio\isly woi'shii>]MMl 
witli other Protestant con<^i'e^ations, were Kiithered int<i adistinct liixjy. 
whose new church was opened for pnljlic worship near the close of tlj" 
next year. Dm-iiif/a jiart of ISll, .lames Kn^^land. iiy the chairmaut* 
permission, tilh'<l the |)ul|iit of the Conacre ^^ational cinn'ch in St. .lolju"*;, 
the pastor of which, Daniel S. Ward, was in I'hi^dand. 

■ i 



I \ 

fishery obliged tlie population in some sections of the colony 
to sound lower depths of misery than those previously 
reached. In 1852, no seats could be obtained in the one 
Methodist church of the town, and measures were therefore 
taken for the erection of a second, but iinancial reverses 
caused a further delay of live years. 

The destruction by tire in h'ebruary, 1850, of the neat 
and newly-repaired church at Harl)or (irace was a serious 
t'st of the faith and financial ability of the membership 
there. At a critical moment, however, John Munn, Esq., 
a leading merchant, encouraged the hearts of his financially 
weaker neighbors, and the trustees entered into immediate 
arrangements for the erection of a larger church, of which 
the congregation took possession just a year from the date 
of their loss. ^ 

In certain neighborhoods, where Wesleyan ministers had 
long been busily engaged, the appointment of E})iscopal 
ministers of the more exclusive tyj)e awakened a degree of 
denominatio)ial rivalry by no means conducive to the highest 
interests of the population, but in other settlements the 
hindrances arisinc; from this and other causes were less 
formidable. Of older missions, blessed by extensive revivals 
of religion, the Grand Bank and Fortune circuit was one. 
The ministers on the island, unwilling to desert a field where 
much of their labor had apparently been in vain, sent 
thither in 1848 Thomas Fox, a teacher and a local preacher 
of sixteen years' service in the colony. Through diligent 
visitation, that preacher won the hearts of the })eople at 
their own firesides, and by his interest in their welfare led 
them to wonder at their lack of interest in themselves. 

3 Til the late Jolm Munn, a Presbyterian, Wesleyan ministers found a 
staunch friend luul tiicir financial sciu'ines a ready cimtrilmtor. Even 
after tlie establishment (if a l*resl)j'terian ciuu'cli at Harbor Grace, his 
hand ofteji aided Methodist enterprises. For many years he was one of 
the trustees of the Methodist church property at Harbor Grace. 



,he one 

le neat 
n, Esq., 
»f which 
the date 

ters had 
?m'ee of 
■nts the 
sre less 
'as one. 
Id where 
|n, sent 
[ople at 
lare led 
II selves. 

found a 
jraco, his 
lis one of 

Just then some Chi'istian death-bed scenes, Avitli faitliful 
testimony and counsel given fi'om the verge of eternity, 
strengthened tlie previous general interest, and at length 
there came the answer to accumulated prayers in the testi- 
monies of hundreds to the conscious assurance of divine for- 
giveness. At (Irand Bank, where, as at Fortune^, there was 
already a commodious church, the erection of a larger one 
was immediately commenced. Similar .seasons of grace 
were enjoyed at Carbonear and Bonavista, and at other 
places in abundant measure. At Carl)onear, where 
John Snowball had the assistance of able local preachers, 
many names were added to the membership. Neaily as 
extensive was the revival at Bonavista under the ministry 
in the new church there of Thomas Smitli, during the winter 
of 1854-55. An early agent in the work was a fi.sherman, 
who had been converted while at St. John's in the })revious 
autumn. Many persons at Bonavista, who subsecjuently 
became leaders or prominent members, were then led to 
Christ. Not a few of these, when years afterward John 
Goodison announced from the pulpit the death of Thomas 
Smith, dropi)ed a silent tear to the memory of a good man 
and faithful pastor. 

The expected extension of Methodist missions along the 
sea-line of the island, through the intluence of the New- 
foundland Auxiliary Missionary Society, was oidy realized 
in part. This society, whose j)urposo was the raising of "a 
fund for increasing the number of Wesleyan missionaries 
for preaciiing the (losjiel in those places which are .scarcely 
ever visited by the missionaries of any Protestant detiom- 
ination, and for the estal)lisinnent of Sunday and day 
schools," was under the management of a general committee 
composed of all the Wesleyan ministers of the island, and a 
number of laymen, several of whom were Oongregationalists 
and one a Presbyterian. The EngUsh Commitlee gave their 







sjiaotioii to the scheme, l)ut l)y their subso(jueiit attempt to 
combine the money raised for a special work with the 
annual missionary grant, and l>y their demur to the expen- 
diture of a part of the sum raised in the colony in the en- 
couragement of schools, placed their ministers in an embar- 
rassing position. The latter informed the London Commit- 
tee that, " having fre(juently stated in pulilic that the 
increase of travelling missionaries would be in proportion to 
the increase of funds," they could not " honestly sanction " 
the appropriation of the receipts of the auxiliary society 
"to the support of the missionaries on the older circuits 
without breaking faith with the public," and at the same 
time they justified their expenditure for schools by the pre- 
vious practice of the English Connnittee itself. For a time 
they thus averted a threatened difficulty, but three years 
later Richard Williams took the chair of the district, and 
for reasons unsatisfactory to many, })robably to the majority, 
of his brethren, adopted such a course as left non-Methodist 
members of the committee no option but withdrawal, and 
virtually ended the distinct effort of the new society. 

Several advance steps had fortunately been taken during 
the maintenance of this united effort. Prior to tlie arrival, 
in 1840, of John S. Peach and Jabez Ingham, foi- the sup- 
ply of two new stations to be " form.i'iy and permanently 
taken up by the Society," nearly twenty places in the Bona- 
vista, Placontia and Fortune P»ays had been visited by the 
nearer preachers, and William Marshall had been sent as a 
" visiting missionary " to the Westei'ii Shore. From his 
liead(|uarters at Hermitage May, ^farshall in the autumn 
of 1839 visited nearly every hai-bor and cove as far west as 
Cape Kay, and would have pushed on to Bay St. George 
had it been possible to return fi-om that district before the 
winter. " Fifty two coves and harbors have been visited," 
said the repoj-t for 18-10, many of tlu' settlers about these 


]i \ 


.SO 7 

npt to 
X\\ the 
the en- 
lat the 
rtion to 
iction " 

le same 
the pre- 
• a time 
se years 
let, and 

al, and 

;he sup- 
i<; liona- 
Uy the 
Mit as a 
I'om his 
1 west as 
tore the 
t these 

having never heen visited before by any minister in tlio 
memory of the ohU'st iidiabitant. Along the whole Western 
Shore there is not even a school of any description except 
one at Hermitage Cove, established by your missionary 
during the year. Tluire aic harbors where not a single 
individual can read at ail, and whei-e a copy <jf the Sacred 
Scriptui'es cannot be found ; and these ai"e Pi'otestants, 
chiefly the children of English parents. " Among these 
neglected and scattered people, in number not fewer than 
two thousand five hundi'ed, Marshall sj)ent three years, 
having liis residence at Hei'mitage Co\e, where a man had 
built him a mere cabin as a shelter. Pri\ate hitters to a 
brother minister tell of hardshijis and exposure not made 
known to the public. Six months sometimes passed witii- 
out tiie arrival of letters from his native land, and he often 
grew depressed through the absence of intelligent Christian 
conversation, 'i'ln'ough the Sunday-school and somewhat 
irregular day-scliool at his place of residence, a good propor- 
tion of the thii'ty and more children in attendance learned 
to read, and ccjinmitted to memory the first Conference 
catecliism. At Durgeo, when; on one occasion he spent 
sixteen days among an "affectionate peo)»le,'' who long 
i-emembt'red him, he opened a second Sunday-school of 
thirty-four scholars. ( )f eight persons who met at his room 
at Hermitage Cove one day in March, 1S4l', in i-esponse to 
a public invitation, he wrijte as " a{)pearing earnest but 
sadly ignorant." Thi-ee months later he handed oxer his 
work to John S. Peach, who at the eiul of a vear was with- 
drawn, to liave no successor until after the t\)riiiation of the 
Eastern British American Confei'enee. 

In a northern district, entered by Marshall a year or two 
later, more immediate results were witnessed. Several 
Methodist families had removed from Conception liay to 
two or tliree of the islamls in tiie m;ii?iijticent Uay of Notre 

I 1 

i I 



' r '! i I 

. 'Si 

Damp, popularly known as (rroon Jiay. At Twillin^ate — . 
properly Toulinguet — an old settlement on an island of the 
same name, was a population of three thousand persons. A 
Congregational minister \\iv\ been placed there early in the 
century, and after his departure services had been conducted 
for a time in his church by a man who liad been converted 
during a several years' ca}itivity in France, whose followers 
appear to have been I3aptists. Previous to 1825 the Pro- 
testant Dissenting congregation had ceased to exist, and its 
members had so generally become absorbed in the later- 
formed Episcopalian congregation, that at the taking of the 
census preceding the Methodist occupation of the place not 
more than ten or twelve persons had been independent 
enough to avow themselves " Dissenters " The oldest resi- 
dents could oidy remember four sermons from the li})S of 
Methodist preachei-s, one or all of which had probably been 
given by John Pickavant when on his way in 1830 to con- 
sult French physicians at White l>ay. In iStl John S. 
Addy, under instructions from the district meeting, left 
Trinity in a trading vessel and reached Change Islands on 
Sunday, in time to preach in a house used for religious sei'- 
vices by some Methodist jisfiermen from Cupids, After 
services had also been helifd by him during the next two 
weeks at Shoe ( 'ove, Ni])per Harl)or and one or two other 
points, he reached Exploits, tlie inhabitants of which had 
been visited once rr twice in each year by the Episcopal 
minister of Twillingate. Only a fortnight before, at the 
conseciation of a church built in great measure through the 
exertions of the tiiree Methodist families of the place, an 
announcement had been made, to the general surprise, that 
no other minister than such as were appointed by the bishop 
should be permitted to preach witiiin its walls ; the three 
"precious" services held at Exploits on the Lord's-day were 
therefore held in a school-room. After an " interesting sea- 

/.V XEWFuf/XDLAX/). 


sou '" at Mort'ton's Ilarlidi', the \isitoi' rcaclu'd 'rwillinirate 
on Wednesday, and th(;it' and at Him ting Neck held several 
services previous to the Sahhiith. Ou the Sunday afternoon 
he attended the Episc(/pal chuich at T\villiii«,'ate, and lelt it 
with deep regret that the only Protestant niiuister in the 
great JBay of Notre Dame should teach an isolated people 
that a strict compliance with tlu^ prescribed rules and forms 
of the Church of England is to Ix; '"in the Lord," in the 
Scripture sense of a great fact. I'he purer Gospel preached 
by the visitor on the morning of that day was not without 
its promised influence. During the sermon the repentance 
which precedes salvation came to the heart of the man who 
had opened his house for the preacher's use, and a few weeks 
later, as the schooner on which he was returning from St. 
John's was entering the harl»or, the peace of Uod took 
possession of his lieart.' Several cheering incidents tempted 
him to prolong his visit, but even work for Christ out of an 
appointed sphere has its limits, and he therefore, after a 
seven weeks' absence, returned to an impatient flock at 
Trinity, never to r('\ isit the settlers about Ureen Bay. 

At the close of the district meeting of 1812, William 
Marshall and his young wife sailed from St. John's for 
Creen Day. Some generous promises had been made 
towards the erection of a church at Twillingate, and a 
frame had been secured for a second at Exploits, but rumors 
which had reached St. Johns caused the young missionary 
to approach his destination with some mi.sgivings. Earlier 
weeks at Twillingate were certaiidy depressing, but at 


* Siumu'l Wlu'llcr's I'cliginii was sikhi suhjcctfd tuasurc test. On the 
tirst fvcninij' of tlif tk'W Vfiir. lie and a yniin^- Cliristiaii associate lainlfd 
on an uninlial)itc(l island from an ui)turnc(l tisliinj,' l)oat, and son^lit in 
vain a slu'ltcr fr'oni rlic fniy of the stonn. 'I'he yonn^er man, after 
thirteen hours of exposure, died adeath of triumpli ; hut W'hi'ller several 
liours later was diseovered alive and taken home, where the frozen parts 
of his feet were removed l>y tiie i'ud<' sur^'ical aid of a hatehet. Some 
months after this lie became the tirst class leader at T\\ illiiif^'ate. 


i k 





1 > 




ChaiiLfe Tslaiuls wore a few foi'iiici- iiuMiiltcrs, and at some 
other points th<* outlook was pleasing;, b^ai-ly in IS 4.") the 
joy of harvest bei,'aii to lie felt l)y the patient ('\ aiij^'elist ; 
but tlien, also, opposition it T\villin,i,'ate, previously contined 
to unfriendly reniai-ks from the pulpit and i-idicule by 
written posters, commenced to take the form of interrup- 
tion in worship, the instii,Mtoi' of tlu? (lisi,'raceful conduct 
being a leading merchant of the place. An app(\al l)y the 
young minister to the local magistrate oidy elicited tlie 
taunting reply that the appli(;ant had no authority to 
preach, and must, therefore, take care; of himself. The 
work, however, went on; the ten or tv/ehe families Avho 
formed the original congregation at Twillingatt^ had by 
May been joined by twtMity others, and at that time more 
than thirty persons had been gath(M'(Hl into mend»ership 
nearly all of whom were l)elieved by their spii'itual guide 
to liave experienced forgiveness of sin. 

An interesting incident has l»een told al)out the beginning 
of the church opened at Twillingate in May, ISjIi. On a 
certain Lord's-day the lucii l)elonging to the congregation 
were recpiested by the pr(>acher to meet on the next after- 
noon to set u]) the franie on a vacant lot on which he had 
received permission to build. In tlie coui'se of the Monday 
morning, the ho.stile merchant with several others entered 
the house of tiie collector of customs, a bigoted "Church- 
man," to announce a new scheme for the annoyance of the 
Methodist preacher. '' You know," said the merchant, 

" that Marshall's going to put up a building on 's lot. 

I find we've a claim on it. We'll let them go on, and then 
we'll take it." It had so happencMl that the current of air 
caused by the opening door at the moment of entrance by 
the party had nearly closed the door of a closet in which 
the mistress of the house, utdvuown to her husband, was 
busy at the moment, and the good woman, unprepared to 



S 13. On a 

seo visitois, liiul (|ui('tly rcnuiiiiecl iu her place of (.'onct'iil- 
iiient. As the plotteis chuck led over their unri;;hteoiis 
scheme, the wife, whose Methodist antecedents luid ])ie- 
possessions were well known, trembled lest a call for the 
usual moi'iiin*,' glass should I'eveai her presence. At that 
moment, fortunately, one of the group, ha\ing glanced at 
the window, announced the ariival of an expected vessel, 
and the whole party suddenly withdrew. On gathering at 
the pi'oposed spot, in the afternoon, the men were told, to 
their great surprise, as well as to the chagrin of their 
opponents, that the frame was to he })ut uj» on another spot. 
A (isherman upon couNcrsion ccjiifessed that he and others 
had j)laced a keg of powder under the little church, and 
that only fear of personal injury had picNcnted its destruc- 
tion. Opposition, however, became by degrees less keen; 
and Methodism, when the merchant first l(>arned with cer- 
tainty how his purpos(; had l)een revealed, had ceased to be 
the "very unfashionable'" form of i-eligious belief which 
]\Iarshall in iS-tl declared it to b(>. It is said that, a year 
or two after his mischievous call at the collectors house, the 
merchant was driven by a heavy hcad-wintl into the harbor 
of Carbonear, and was then taken by a friend to the JVfetlio- 
dist church, and that after listening to Marshall, to ids 
surprise the pi-eacher on the occasion, he exclaimed : "Is it 
possible that this is the man that 1 have so opposed I " ft 
at least is certain that he gave to Mai'shall's successor per- 
mission to build a pai'sonagc on land <tf which his firm had 
control. His neighbor, the bigoted " Churchman, ' died a 
Methodist, as did m.uiy of the gainsayei's of thos(! days, and 
found his tinal earthly i'esting-plac(! near the grave of 
Marshall, in. the Methodist cemetery at Twilliugate. 

Tlu! reports from tin; several sections of the circuit in 
1845 fundshed a partial fuliilment of Marshall's pi-ediction 
of the importance of the Ureen Bay mission. One hundred 

, -i 










and four persons wore Www in nienibiM'ship with tho Metho- 
dist Church ; tlu! estiiii.'ited iuinil)er of attendants u[)()n her 
sei'vices iu the mission was eii^ht hundred. For the further 
tillage of this fruitful Hekl Marshall was in lc'^45 sent hack, 
but the added months for reapin<j; or sowinf^ by him proved 
to be few. On one of the earli«;st days of 184(5 lie was 
attacked by severe illn- ss which \ery soon (>nded his earthly 
work. " In the judgment of his brethi-en,"" it is said in tho 
Minuses, his excessive labors and privations injured his con- 
stitution and hastened his end. His earlier successors in 
the mission wei'e John S. Peach, John Bn^wster, Thomas 
Fox and Paul Prestwood. ]n no section of the colony has 
the denominational <j;i'()wth been so wonderfully ra})id. In 
the District of i^'oi^'o and Twillingate in IS.'U) there were 
forty-li\e Methodists ; at the census-taking in 1S")(S there 
wer(! two thousand adherents of Methodism ; and according to 
the otHcial leturns of iSSt more than ten thousand were 
enrolled under the same denominational standaicl. In other 
words, the gcmeral population during seven and twenty 
yeai's had grown to rather more than twice its [)revious 
tiffures ; in the same ])eriod the adlierents of Methodism liad 
become live times as numerous as they previously had 

Towards the close of ISTjO a useful lay agent was sent 
to Sound Island, in Placentia Pay, about thirty leagues 
distant from JJurin. It had been beyond the power of tlie 
minister stationed at the latter place to make more than 
one annual visit to Sound and Woody Islands, where were 
small churches, and to other and smaller islands where their 
visits had been asked ; and even these rare visits were 
attended by sei'ious danger. In 1841 James England, con- 
trary to his usual custom, left his boat at S])encer's Cove, 
having arranged to meet the boatman on the followinsf day 
at a certain point, where at the hour named he found the 


n ^ «j 

Unfortunat(Mniin (lead in the w reck ot' the When a 
year oi- two liad seen no succps.sor at Sound island to .John 
llalii'tt, .John lirewstcr heard tlic voice of a stianj^'ei in a 
prayer-ineetini,' at St. Johns. On in(|uii'y lie found hiiu to 
h(^ CharU^s Downes, who liad eoine out to take a .situation 
in an establishment in w hich he liad found with reifn^t that 
a Christian character was not rei'arded as an advaiitajje. 




the ijood 

I an 

111 accorclauce 

abandoned his intention of returninu^ to i'lngland, and went 
instead to Sound Island as a Methodist lay agent and 
teachei-. From Sound Island he visited the numerous 
islands and co\'es in that part of the bay, and many of the 
inhabitants derived j^reat profit from his teachings. Ilis 
usefulness was increased by tlu^ authorization to perform 
the rite of baptism given him by the chairman, and by the 
license to celebrate marriage granted him l)y (iovei-nor 
Bannerman, at the in.stance of Lady I'annerman, who had 
talked with him at lengtli about his isolated work. Tlu; 
people became strongly attaclied to him and to liis eijually 
zealous wife. Tn 1874 a young preacher ai-rived at Sound 
I.sland and the venerable lay agent, after a twenty-five 
years' service there, removed to St. .John's, to sj)end in that 
town the quiet evening of life. 












;f m iiiiM 

I." m 

t l££ 120 


U 111.6 






(716) 873-4503 



















Nfw Clnifcli iit St. ( if(irp''s. r'aiiscs of (lc|irfssiuii. .\rtlnii' 11. Stfcle. 
W. \']. Slifiistdiif. V'isitiii),^ pnaclins. \'cl!<iu- fcvrr. .Inliii l>. 
I>n)\viifll. 'I'lu' *' lUiick W'alcir' i('t,'-iiiifiit. (icdiy^c I )i)ii^,'las. 'riidiiias 
M. Allirii^'litdii. I'x'niiuda in.-ulf a part of N(>\a Si'otia District. 
Isaac Wliitcliousf. l''t\('i- cpidfiiiic. hccrcase in iiiciiilicrsliip. 

Throui^li tlie ti-enuMidous liunicano of 183D, which covered 
the IJei'inudas with wreckiige, the worshippers in the dihipi- 
dated Methodist churcli in St. (leorge's were at length left 
without any *.A)ernacle. Tims forced to seek shelter for the 
congregation elsewhere, the trustees fitted up a huilding at 
the head of one of the wharves for teniporai-y use, and a few 
months later purchased one of the largest and best lots in 
the centre of the town, once used as a rose-garden, as a site 
for a new place of worship. Plans were pre})ai'ed by a 
gentleman connected with the military establishment in the 
island for a church, to be built of the soft white sandstone 
found in larg«» (juantities ui^on the strata of the coralline 
mass which forms the base of the islands ; in June, 1840, 
upon basement walls of suthcient thickness for the sides of 
a fort, the corjier-stone was laitl l)y the two missionaries, 
assisted by the architect ; and on Januaiy 1st, 184"J, the 
church, still one of the linest buildings of the town, was 
opened for pul)lic worshij) by a sermon by the Presbyterian 
minister — Moriison, and another l)y Theophilus Pugli. 

The outlook of the Jiermuda mission, at the time, .showed 

lUlU Ji.. 



serious cause foi' anxiety. At Somerset, a room rented for 
years was taken from the congre<j'ation and a ^ood Sunday- 
school \v;is scattered ; and services at one or- two points were 
discontinued because' of the superintendent's inability to 
maintain them. At St. (leorge's, tlie increased accommoda- 
tion alloi'dcd l»y tlie new church jtroved for some time of 
little service. While the liuildinif was in coui'.se of erection, 
Thomas .letlVey, wiiose health had been seriously impaii-ed 
by residence in the West Indies, was ol)liLred to retui-n to 
Knifland, and for four years no successor was named. The 
absence; of a second preacher was the more deeply felt at St. 
George's because of the secession, during the progress of the 
new sanctuary, of a leading layman, who withdrew from the 
chun.'h of his adoption in conseepierice of discij)linary action, 
taking with Jiim his family and a few personal friends. 
This loss of an inHuential leadei-, al^l the irregularity ©f 
religious sei\ ices, proved a severe trial to a small society 
upon whom the (lel)t of their partially used church was 
beginning to press as a heavy bui'den. .lust then, of 
the colored n)embers of the society, dissatistied with the 
allotment of pews in the lu^w church, put into circulation a 
printetl appeal for aid in securing a " meeting-house" for a 
.se[)arate Methodist cong'regation. No consultation having 
been held with the circuit authorities, those ollicials reepiested 
the superintendent to give notice through the public journals 
of the islands, of their repudiation of "any such proceeding," 
and under this pressure a colored leader, kiu)wn to be the 
principal al)cttoi' of the scheme, pi'omised liis influence 
against any further divisive ell'ort.' 

For a short time Tlu'ophilus I'ugh received much-pri/ed 
assistance fi'om Ai'thur H. Steele, a popular and proiuising 

' 'Iwciity-scvfii years Inter tliis |km'«^iiii licc;uiic tlic iiriiiiipiil lay-lcadcr 
of tliiisr ( 'oldicd Mctliipdistsu ho, w itii ;i iiimilxi'df ( 'oldrcd Miiix'uiPiiliiiiis, 
fdriiicd ill licniiuda a liiiuiclinf till' IJritisli Ab'tlindist, Kiiiscupal ( 'liiircli, 
a ( 'aiiaiiiaii ( "iildicd ui'^'iiuixatinii. 



young man of niin'tccn ycai-s, (;f)n verted uiHlcr liis ministry. 
His seniors, awarf! of his natural <,nfts and of their improve- 
ment l»y cultivation, soon felt that special woi'k lay heforc 
him; and his father in the (los)»el, unassisted hy any col- 
league, calUnI him at once into harness, and during a few 
weeks' absence left to liim tin; whole pulpit and pastoral 
chargf! of the mission. In Januai-y, 184.'», young Steele, 
under instructions fi-om the English Missionai'V Committee, 
sailetl for Nevis. The (\'irly months of his residence there 
awakened on the p;irt of his brethren bright anticipations 
of a useful cai"eer, but these wei'c suddenly st't aside l)y his 
death, from malignant fe\'ei", in less than a year after his 
removal fi'om jiermuda. 

During the summei' of |S):5 Tlieophiius I^iigh was suc- 
ceeded by William Iv Shenstone, from No\a Scotia. 'J'he 
departing miin'ster, an earnest preachei-, a faithful, warm- 
hearted pastor, cai'eful disciplinarian, and ac-tive temperance 
worker, left behind him numy proofs of his ajiostlesliip, a 
few of wlK)m lived to listen with emotion to the announce- 
ment of his death, neaj-ly thirty years later. As a "happy 
old man "' he wrote in 1800 to a fi'iend in Jiermuda : " Here 
I am, waiting,, as I sometimes did for the boat at St. David s, 
for the Master's call." Th(! three years in Bermuda of his 
successor were years of severe toil. On reaching his station 
he found himself without any helper in j)ulpit voik. A 
few weeks after his ai-rival yellow fever broke out, and soon 
made lierce havoc amoiig Europeans. Though most fatal to 
tlie troojts and to the convicts, many others fell victims to 
it. 'J'lie Methodist pastor was seiz'd by it at St. (ieorges,. 
and obliged to remain thei-e until I'ecovery, when, as one of 
his earliest duties at Hamilton, he united with official mem- 
bers of the circuit in an address congratulating tiie gover- 
nor — Kead, on liis survival of a similar attack. On resum- 
ing circuit work, he marked the absence, in home and 

/y UK i: Men A. 

.)/ < 

cliureli, of sonic cstciMiicd friciKls, Imt a circuit plan dc- 
niandiiig sc\(mi sermons in cacli week, and a, vast amount of 
pastoral duty, left l)ut little time t'oi- thoughts of the de- 
pirted. ( )ccHsionally, lio\ve\ei-. the monotony of wotk was 
varied l)y the arri\al of a nnnister on a West India mail 
steamei", and aft«M" a time its st'vei'e sti'ain was less(Mied l>y 
the arrival, from London and l*'diid)uri,di. of two excellent 
local ))rea''hers. 

Two of these occasion;il \ isits wer(» wortliy of remark. 
William Moister, for many years a missionary in Western 
Africa and the West Fndies, spent some days on the islatids 
in April, 1844, when on his way from St. Vincent to tiic 
ITnited States. i)urinif the time lie accomjtained the pastor 
on lioard the tiaii; ship III nst rinHs^ in cnmpliance with a 
refjuest of the leader of the .Methodist class on that vessel. 
With eii,dite(Mi hardy sailors, gathered in their usual place 
of meeting, the l)oatswain's store foom, Kelow tlic^ fourth 
deck, into which tiie light of day ne\er ^'eiu-tratcd, the 
minister had a most interesting conversation. l>y tiic light 
of a lantern suspended from a heam, lie read the hymns, 
wrote the names on the tickets, and mark<'d the attendance 
on the class book, as a minister in Jamaica liad previously 
done. The religious exj)erience of the men was clear and 
definite, and was stated in the earnest and ingenuous man- 
ner characteristic of their class. With sailor like generosity 
they also {)laced in the minister's hands a small hag of 
money collected during tlu; (piarter foi' the spread of the 
(iospel, and also a copy of the rules and regulations of the 
ship's total a])stim'in"e society, of which they all wtM'c mem- 
bers. A lieutenant, who politely otl'ered to })Ut the nuji- 
isters on shore, reniarked in the boat that the ''sobriety, 
industry aitd steady conduct "' of the sailors visited maile 
them men in whom the utmost confidence could be jilaced 
in any time of emergency, aiul addtul that he had often 




II jl 


" stf>l«Mi down " to tlicir little meetings, led l>y the hojit- 
swiiin's mate, uiid much enjoyed tlieiii.- 'J'hi'ee or four 
niontiis were about the sMine time spent in tlie islands liy 
the somewiiat hi'illiant l)Ut erratic William lJe,l;^'ctt, on liis 
way from a West Indian circuit to New llrunswick. 'I'he 
attrfictiveness of his sermon'; and the j)ul)lication of sevtMal 
letters asci'ihed to his i>on, ant! al)oundin;j; with sarcastic 
criticism upon the authorities of a mudi-j^'overned colony, 
caused his name to l)e mentioned with interest by senior 
Wesley;ins in subse(juent years. 

In 1817 two ministei-s were once more stationed at the 
same time; in the islands. Thomas Smith reached Hamilton 
early in the yeai-, but through failure of health remained 
there for three subsecjuent yeai's as a supernumerary. J lis 
place, on retirement, was tilled by William Ritchie, then 
from the West Indies, but previously a missionai-y at Sierra 
Leone. Two cpiiet years were spent by him at Hamilton as 
a diligent and useful preacher and pastor. .John B. lirow- 
nell, who at the same period was stationed at St. Georgt^'s, 

- Tlu'si' Mctlmdist clnirc'lit's at'nuit \\\\\\' l)ccii Irss nirc tliaii sonic liavc 
siipposi'd. Tilt' EviiiKjdIriil Miii/(i:iiii for 1S(»7 j,''i\fs tin- tfstiiiioiiy of a 
profaiu' otfictT who was plcadiiii,' that no otticer could live at sea without 
BWcai'ing. as notont' of liis nif'U would oltt-y in the aWscncf of an oath. 
"F ncvfi' knew l>ut one cxct'ption," said tlu- otHcir, "and that was rx- 
traordinary. I dt'i-iarf, iM'licvc nic, it's tnu'. Thfre was a set of fellows 
called Metiiodists, on lioard the Virturii, Jiord Nelson's siiip (to l)e sui'e 
in; was a ratlier re]lj,'ious man himself), and those men never wanted 
HWi'arin^ at. Tlie dogs were tiie best seamen on lioard. J'iVt'ry man 
knew his fluty, and esei'v man did his duty. They used to meet toKetiier 
and sing h\inns, and nohoily dared to molest them. The conunander 
would not have suffered it had they attempteil it. Tliey were allowed a 
mess to themselves, and ne\ei' mixed witli tlie other men. I have often 
lieard them singing away mys< If ; and 'tis true, I assure you, hut not one 
of them was either killed or wounded at the battle of Trafalgar, though 
they.did their duty as well as any men." In a letter pulilished in tho 
A nniiiiiiii Maii(i:iiii of the same year, tlii' leader of tlie Methodist c^las.s 
on II. M.S. L( 7n/M//(/ wrote : " We iiad on<' of our people killed at 'I'ra- 
falgar. . . . Another iia^ died hapjiy since then in IMymouth hos- 
jiital. Some are gone into otiier siiips, so that you see the little lea\cn 
still spreads. ( )ur numlier is now ahout twenty-four. . . . Men of 
foreign nations have here found redemption through tiie hlood of ('iirist 

a Portuguese, a Swede, a I )ane. and a Dutcliinan, who, 1 lieliese, will 
bU':!s the liord forever for coming into an Knglish sliii)." 


IX l\ Ell Mr DA. 



l)y the hoat- 
riiivc or four 
It' islands l)y 
',:.',i;<'tt, on his 
iswick. 'J'he 
on of st'scral 
ith sarcastic 
rned colony, 
'st by senior 

:ione(l at the 
ed Hamilton 
1th remained 
neraiy. J I is 
liitchie, then 
lai'V at Sierra 
Hamilton as 
)hn I), lirow- 
St. Ueoi-ge's, 

liui sdiuf liiivc 

tfstiiiioiiy uf a 

at sea without 

iicf of an oath. 

il that was t-x- 

a set of fellows 

iii|i (to Ix' siirc 

TK'Vcr wanted 

]"]vtiv man 

( nii'ct tof^'ft her 

ic connuandfi' 

Ufi'f allowfii a 

I have often 

lU. lint not one 

fal^ar, thouj,']! 

lilished in th(^ 

lethodist class 

• killed at 'I'la- 

'lynioutii hos- 

■ little leaven 

. . M»'n of 

lood of ( Mil'ist 

I Itelieve, will 

had had a moic varied experience. I'.y hirth, nam(». and 
service Ix; was a missionary. 'I'lie son of a WCsjevan 
missioiiai'y whose siiMei'inns in lielialf of West Indian slaves 
had helped him into a jirem.iture i,M;i\e, he was horn at St. 
Kitt's. At liitj)tisni his parents had i,d\en him the n.ime of 
.lolm Baxtei'. the pious lay pastor who welcome)! I )r. 
(yoke to Antitfua, when winds and w;i\es jiud driven him 
thither ai^ainst ins will. Havini,'. after i-onversion in lOnic 
laiul, ofl'ered his s<'r\ii'es to the Missionary Society, he had 
heen .sent out in l.^L'lJto the West Indies. I )r'iven thence 
hy ill-health, he had soon after- heen appointed to Malta, 
but, hampei'cd by I'estiictions put upon the cbculat ion of 
the Scriptures by the liritish i;overnment in accordance with 
certain tr-eaty reijidations. he could accomplish little in be 
half of a })riest-ridden p<'ojile. AmoriLj the ollieers of tjie 
army and navy. howe\t'r', his work proved both pleasant and 
profitable. Evenings were spent in l>ible study and pr-ayer* 
in iiis home by ;i number of them, and f!'e(|uently sixty or 
more men of both bi'anche.s of the ser'\ ice wer-e present 
at communion seasons. Not less pleasant was his inter- 
coui'.se with missionaries of \arious churches ami other* 
visitors calling at Malta on their- way to mission stations 
beyond. George 0. Hur-tei*, wiio as a missionary at l>eirait 
managed for many years the pi-ess of the Amei-ican l>oai'd 
of For"eign ^Missions, was converted under his ministry, and 
was for a time a mend)er' of his class at N'aletta; and Joseph 
Woltf, the eelebr-ated Or-iental traxcller' and missionary t<i 
his .Jewish bri^thren in Asia, wat<;hed by his lied dur'ing a 
nightofjdanger'ous illness. Kr-om su(;lr service at Malta, of 
whielihonoi-ablemention is made in "The (Miurchin tiie Aruiy 
and Navy," an interesting little volurru" published by the 
London IJeligious Tract Society, he returru-d in IS.'57 to 
England, and in the following year- went out to Canada. 
Thence, after he had occupied several of the principal cir- 
cuits, the ill-health of a son led him to a milder climate. 


iffsro/iv or metiiodis.u 

Soon aftei- this minister's arrival at St. (loor,t,'o's, his 
duties were iiici'eascd hy a reijuest fi-oin an uiK'xpected 
(|uarter. On the disembarkation of the t'Jnd Ili;,'hhind 
re<^iment the sf^cond battalion went into garrison at St. 
George's, With the exception of forty only, tlie live hun- 
dred otKeers and men of tiie battalion were Presbyterians. 
On the Sunday niorninii; afte'' their arrival they were 
marched to the Episcopal ciiurch, where an Episcopal chfip- 
lain awaited their appearance, but on theii* declining to 
enter that chui'ch they were ordercnl back from its dooi- to 
their bairacks. They then, in the absence of a Presl)yterian 
minister from that pai-t of the colony, askeil the Methodist 
minister to undertakt; the duties of chaplain to the battalion. 
Witli this i-eijuest h(; thought it his duty to comply, though 
the extra labor of a special Sunday service, of hospital and 
school visitation and visitation of families and an occasional 
funei'al address, during a period of eighteen months, for all 
of which the War-otHce subsequently refused any remunei-a- 
tion when asked by the circuit olHcials, severely overtaxed 
his strength, and, with serious domestic atiliction, laid the 
foundation of disease which undoubtedly weakened his 
strength and shortened his days. A few of the men placed 
themselves temporarily under his special direction, a good 
number of them attended the voluntary services of the 
Sabbath evening, and on the death of several of them their 
comrades received permission to inter their bodies in a 
corner of the mission property, where their dust yet reposes.'" 

Towards tlie close of 1849 the Committee again decided 
upon a reduction of expcuiditure in liermuda ; they there- 
foj-e sent William Ritchie back to the West Indies, removed 
John B. Brownell to Hamilton, and in the place of the 

■' 80 exemplary was tlie conduct of the men of this famous regiment 
during their four years" stay in the island, that not a man was ever cun- 
victed before the civil authorities of a brtacli of law. 



'^,— -'r-r^---,raftae 

(J('ort,'o's, his 
ri uiu'X|)ect«>(l 
liul lli^'hland 
rrison .at St. 

the five hun- 
il thoy were 
pi.seoj)al t'hap- 
• (U'cliniii<^ to 
•Ml its dooi" to 

lie .M(!thoclist 
the battalion, 
iiiply, though 

hospital and 
an occasional 
onths, for all 
ly remunei'a- 
ly overtaxed 
:ion, laid the 
eakened his 
! men placed 
•tion, a good 
'ices of the 
them their 

jodies in a 
yet reposes. "■ 
,Min decided 

they there-. 

es, removed 

lace of the 

umn ri'{,'iinent 
was f\ t'l" cull- 

/.V HER Ml' DA. 

;{s I 

lattei', at St. (»eors;(?'s. appf)int('d (Jrorije I^ouL,'las, a junior 
preacher, from the Wesh-yaii Theoloi^'ical Institution at 
llichmond. This youim prcaeluM', to wliom thousands have 
since listened with thrilled spirit, and to whom ids (.'anadian 
bretlwen have evei- deliyhted to <,mv(! h(»nor, had been care, 
fully trained in his Scotch home, but in Montreal, in his 
eighteenth year, under the ndnistiy of William Scjuire, he 
had Itecome a l)eliever in .Jesus as a persorial Saviour, and 
a member of a class of which the excellent John .Mathewson 
was leadei". Aft<'i' having j»re;iched as a local preacher 
to the profit of congregations accustomed to the nunistry of 
men of distinguished ability, he had, in his twenty-thii'd 
year, been n^ceived on trial foi' the itinerancy, and a year 
later, on the recouunendation of his bi'cthren, had been 
accepted as a student at the I'iiiglish theologii-al institution. 
l[ar<lly, however, had he conimenced study at that "school 
of the prophets, ' wh(;n the missionai'v authorities sehuited 
him and specially ord.iined him for the vacant post in 
Hermuda. Much to the regret of IJeruHidian Methodists, 
and of members of other congregations in the colony who 
('([ually })rized his ministi-y, his residence among them 
proved brief. About eighteen months after his arrival his 
health gave way, and in the earlier part of 1852 he found 
it necessary to leave a [X'oph^ who long treasured pleasant 
memories of his j)i'esenee among them, and to make his way 
to the cooler climate of Canada. After the lapse of several 
months his place at St. George's was taken by Thomas M. 
All)righton, a young and attractive Knglish pi'eacher, also 
from the theological institution at Kichmond. Assistanci; 
was at this jieriod also given by .lames lloi-ne and Thomas 
Smith, supernumeraries, and by John McKeen, a local 
})reacher, connected with the military establishment. 

In 18.^)1 the Bermudian mission became a part of the 
Nova Scotia District. For several years it had been in- 


uisroh'Y or ]ii:rii()i>isM 

11 I* 

I'ludcd ill Hie Antimia I )i.stiict, .iiid liud tlicii l»c«'ii ;iiiiic.\<'(| 
to tlic iiiissioiis ill tlif l)aliaiii!is ; the sulisctjiit'iit traiistVr to 
the Nova Scotia I)istiict Ity tlic ('oiniiiittt'C was prompted 
1>V tln' ^icatt'r t'acilitics of foiiiimiiiifatioii l)»'twtM>ii the two 
places. To N(»\a Scotia, therefore, .loliii l». iJrowiiell found 
his way in IS')!, after sexeral months in l'jii,dand, his phico 
at Hamilton havin;,' Ix-en lilh>(l liy Isaac W'iiitehouse, a 
missionary of many vears' ser\ ice in the West Indies, and 
iit the time of his remo\al general superintendent of mis- 
sions in the llahamas. 

Soon after the arrival at Hamilton of the new sujx'riii- 
tendent another visitation of yellow fe\ei-, introduced, it is 
believed, l>y the washiiiL; ashore of a j)ackaye of infected 
clotiiiiii,' thrown from the deck of a West, Indian mail 
steamer-, spread consternation throuiih the islands. Fearful 
havoc was made amoiii; the troops and the convicts, under 
whose physicians, ii,fiiorant of the disease and unwillini,' to 
accept local advice, hospital losses speedily proxed moi'e 
severe than the ordinary slaui^diter of the liattlelield. ( )f 
one company of Koyal iMii^ineers, sixty in nuniher, fifty tiv«! 
died within one month ; several othcers also fell \ictims to 
uhe [)lamie. Amon<^ the lattf:r was the actiiii; tjoNcrnoi', 
Colonel IMiilpotts, a lirotherof the well-known "Tractai'ian" 
bishop of Ivxeter, hut a man of much hroader Christian 
synipathii'S. One day in Septendier, before I'eturiiinii; to 
St. (Jeor^e's from a nieetin:.? of the council, he called at the 
Methodist parsonaye to impiire after the health of Mr. 
Whitehouso, and exiu'cssed his pleasure at learninii; tiiat 
that niinistei's temporary indisjiosition was not indicative 
of fever. On the following; day ('olonel Philpotts was 
attacked by tiie disease, throuiih which, li\e days later, he 
died ; his latest othcial act havinj,' been his sanction of a 
proclanuition foi- the observance of a day of humiliation and 
prayer. The next otiicer in coniuiand died before he could 

!l i!—^.> 

/.V llEUMlhA. 


l)e sworn into oilier, and a tliiid, who nndi-ftook to ad 
iniiiistrr tlir i,'o\i'iiiint'iit, nai low Iv «">caj)iil tlic tut*' ot" his 

No Wcslryau iiiissionai it's in llciinuda ha\<'r\cr taUcn 
victims to yrUow trvft. thoii^li sc\cial ha\<' lice:' attacked 
l>y it. The scidor ministers therein Is")."?, Isaac \Vhit(>hoiise 
and .lames lloi-ne, had Itecn thoron^hly "seasoned' dnr'ini^ 
a lontf \N est Indian ser\iec,' I'lcvious to the out lireak of 
the pestih'iice, Tliomas M. A ilti'ii^diton had sailed t'of New 
York to recruit weakened enei'i,des, and his letur'n into the 
jaws of (h'ath had liccri |ire\cnte(l hy e.\|iosMi'c to daiii,'er' 
apparently <niite as j)erilous. On the mornirii; aft«'r' a 
fur'ioiis hurricane not a mast was h'ft in the catth'huh'n 
vessel in which he had sailed from New "N'ork, and thtee- 
foiu'tlis of the cattle placed Leneath the iipjier deck had 
l)eerr destr'oyed liv its wreck. When foiirteerr da\s had 
been spent on the disahled vessel, she was disco\cr'e(l hy a 
stearrrer' and carrit-d liack to New ^'or•k, where, hy th«^ 
counsel of his friends at St . ( ieor^tes, the youni;- mirnster 
remained f(»r' a time. 

The outlook in IS,"),') for- iJerriiudian .Methodisrrr was not 
(|uite satisfactor-y to its friends. I )ur'irii^ the second year- 
under- r'eview a very slii,dit incr'ease had taken place in the 
po[)ulation, while th(; earlier' ruimhers in the Methodist 
societies Irad not heerr maintained. Two sever'(i epidenrics 
h.'id render'cd removals and deaths unusually numer'ous, and 
the fr'ecjuent rrrovements of the tr-oops, anionic whom mem 
hers of tlio Methotlist C'hureh wer-t^ sometimes nutrrerous, 


. I 

'! I, 


' Diiriiif,' ii similai' scasdii in tlic N\'t-;t Iiiilics, .Mi-. \\'liit(ln(ii>" \\m\ 
i)\\»(l liis life t(i tlif pcfsistfiK'f of Mrs. W'liitcliousf, uIki IkkI Im ;,';,'! ■(! 
till' luitluii'ilirs to (iiliiy till' iiitfniiciit of the si pposcd dcjul liody of licr 
liusli;in(!, and had liarrrd tlir door a'^.iinst tln-ir a^^nts at tiif dffii'i'cd 
I lour, w hi if she. w itii the lie! p of native nurses, was usiii^' every effoi't to 
I' sus[)eiided animation. Tliouf,di at vai'ions I'eceiit pei-inds yellow 
fever has ra^'ed in fh<' West Indies, no epidemic hus liroken out in 
liermiula within the hist tweuty-si.\ years. 






;{s \ 

iiisTiun' or MK'nioinsM 

jiiid sMiiictiiiics fart', liad catiscd some tliictuatinii in iiuiiiIhts, 
luit tln' most |i(itcnt dt' all causes t'oi' drcliui* had been tlui 
iir'«'i,'idafity in iiiiin>.tt'iial sii|>j)ly. TIm' I'cpciitfd alisciicc of 
!i second pi'caclicr had left at tent ion tose\eial appointnuMits 
a (pu'stion of con\ cidenc*! on the part <»f a sini^de ovci"- 
woi'ked niinistef. and had served as a temptation to Trac- 
tat'iau rectors, wliose ranks were kejit up to thi; stanchird 
nund»er l»y u'rants from the colonial treasury. hut for the 
etlbrts of worthy lay helpers, and the intellii,'(>nt attachment 
of Bermudiau Methodists to the Church whose mossenijfers 
had lirouyht to theii- fatheis a ])urer ( Jospel teaching,' than 
they had before known, niore seii(»us numerical h)sses must 
liav(H)eeii suH'ercd. Happily a ciearor day was ahout to 

"^ 1 m m 


ill iiMiiilifrs, 

L(l llCCll iUv 
1 ilhs(Ml(M' (if 
<iMi,'l»^ OVCf- 

iii to Ti'.ic- 
lu! staiidiird 
I Jut foi- tlit^ 


icliin^ til. in 
losses must 
i.s about to 


IN 'iiii; si;\ i:i{Ai. i'Kovincks i-kkvioi s to i iik 


'I'lif Mttliddist i;i\i\iil ami Kdiicatidii. I ►is(i(|viiiita^,'c (' I'mviiifi'l 
.Mttlnxlists. K(liic:.ti<>iiiil iiiiivi'iiM'iifs uf otlitT rhurclifs. Ciisuc. 
c'<'s.sf\i| Mt'"'i (st I't^'mts. Andrew llcndi'isnn's acadMny. Wes- 
l<\aii diiy-Hflnii>ls, ( 'liailfs V, Allismi's |ini|H)sal. I'!:i i'( mil iind 
(i|M":'M>,' of acadt'iiiy. .Appiiiiitiiii'iit uf jdiiiciiial. I'm ^ifss of 
schnol. Ladies" acadi my. Cliarlts K. Allison and lliii ; liicy 
I'icKaril. IJcsults of tlicir worU. Mctliodift ediiciition in NfN\- 
foundlaiid. New foundland Sdiool Sooifty. .Sunday- schools in the 
several |>rovinces. Walter Hroinlev. I'rosiiicial Metliodist litera- 
ture. I'lililications of ministers, hissemination of lifeiatiire. I)e- 
positories. l-aik of a Trovincial Metliodist i<inrn;il. l-'rieiidly 
editors. Ma<,'a/.iiii' of ISXl'. '• Weslevan "' of IS.'V.l. .MaKa/ine lif 
1S4<». "Wesleyan " of ISI'.I. 

ISIetliodisni .started out froiu tin; ^'ates of a leiiow iied 
I'^u'disli university on its work of savin;; !nen. Ihe 
Wcslevs were educators befoi-e tliev liecanie evan^'elists, and 
the (!arly Wesleyan itinerants, tliouji^h often lacking in a 
liheial education, wciv nevei- disjiosed to (juestion the wis- 
(hini of tlie nin.\iui of their h-acU'i's, tliat, wink? to l»e a 
Christian was a man's lirst need, to lie a " schohir ' was his 
consecjuent neces.«ity. On lioth sides (jf ihe ocean the 
Metliodist Churoli and Methodist schools were contempora- 
neous in origin. Tn IT.'V.), the hirth-year of Mt;thodism, 
.lohn Wesley laid the foundation of Kingswood school. 
Methodism in America took organized form at the Christmas 
Conference in 17i^-t ; and in the following year the corner- 
stone of Cokesbury college was laid by Thomas Coke at 
Al)ingdon, Virginia, 






■^ I 

\. ^ 

The educational aspirations of Wesley and Coke were 
much in advance of many of their contemporaries. At his 
first Conference in 1714, Wesley called attention to the 
need of a " seminary for laborers," but the exacting nature 
of the itinerants' work, and the extraordinary f:;rowth in 
number of the societies formed by them, rendei-ed the 
foundinf( of such an institution at the time impracticable. 
Further evidenc*- of Wesley's educational zeal was given by 
his introduction in 1774 of a measure for the training of the 
daughters of his preacheis at some boarding-school of high 
literary cliaracter, but in this attempt he also found himself 
in advance of his age. Tlie founders of Cokesbury College — 
called thus in lionor of Coke ;uid Asbury, Wesley's first 
superintendents in America -aimed at a high grade in 
study, and endeavored to combine with it, in the way of 
recreation, some features of the " technical " education so 
much desired in the picsent 'day, but the destruction 
of the building by fire a second tiim; in a ten yeai's' history, 
ended a bold venture, worthy to be classed with the much- 
lauded founding of Haivari College by the Massachusetts 
Pilgrims in the wihh-rnes,, of Uoston. 

The Methodists of 'the Maritime Provinces were later in 
their entrance upon educational wor-k than were the adhe- 
rents of some other sections of the Chuich. " A brief human 
life," it has been saifl, '• counts its epochs by years ; institu- 
tions and nations bv c«'nniries.'" Our educational institutions, 
judged by this standard, have not neai'ly completed a fii'st 
sta"e in their historv. In the altsence (f such institutions 
an earlier generation of Mt'thodists was placed at a serious 
disadvantage. From King's College, Windsor, aided by 
large Imperial and Pnjvincial grants. Nonconformists were 
for many years excluded by its condition, adoi)ted against 
the wish of Bishop Inglis, that all candidates for matricur 

itlHTlli'lrrni'aiiriiiri ■ iiinliin 



Coke were 
ies. At his 
ition to the 
jting nature 
f grow til in 
■endr'red the 
II practicable. 
Aits given by 
aining of the 
hool of high 
ound himself 
iry College — 
Vesley's tirst 
ijih <'rade in 
I the way of 
education so 
'eai's' history, 
th the niuch- 


were later in 
■0 the adhe- 
bvief human 
ars ; institu- 
lU'ted a tirst 
at a serious 
)r, aided by 
ormists were 
)pted against 
for matricur 

lation sliould si^n the Thii'tv-nine Articles, as well as bvtlie 
rf-f'ulation that "no nuMuber of the university should fre- 
quent Romish mass, or the meeting-houses of Presbyterians, 
}'a[>tists or Metliodists, or the conxonticles or places of 
worship of any other dissentei'S from the Cluncli of I']ngland, 
or when; divine service shall not be performed according to 
the liturgy of the Ciuirch of Kngland." No religious tests 
were imposed upon young men entering King's (.'ollegc) 
Fredericton, under which title the collegiate school of 180;") 
was re-opened in 1821), in ac(.'ordance with the provisions of 
i\ royal chartei-, but the college was by its constitution 
Kpi.scopalian. With th(^ bishoj) of the diocese as "visitor,' 
ex officio, the president necessai'ily a clergyman of the 
National Church, and idl the members of the governing board 
subscribers to theThirty-nine Articles, its pr'onounced denomi- 
national charactei- was beyond ((uestion. This character-, in 
»|>!te <jf the constant public irritation caused by its liber-al 
*rr»dowment and fi'eciuent grants fr"om Provincial funds, and 
the despatch by the legislature in 1833 of two delegates to 
Kngland to obtain a modiiication of its i-har'tei', it r-etained 
until shorn of it by a l)iil intr-oduced into the legislatui'e in 
\f^^T} by the Hon. L. A. W'ilmot, and cai'ried after a long 
and stormy debate. Kven then, for several years, it remained 
practically an E))is(.'opalian institution. 

Such restrictions, in favor- of a section of th<! (.'iiur'ch 
whose adher-ents in Nova Scotia at least in 181';") did not 
iiuinl>er orre-fourth of the whole population, natur'ally led to 
th#r establishment of other- educati(jn;d institutions. Pictou 
a^-ademy, fouruhd by Dr-. McCuUoch in 1817, was modelled 
n\Kixi the Scotch colleges, but without tests or- degr-(;e-con- 
f'-rring powers. Three yeiu's later haihousie College was 
'rfttablished at Halifax by the Ivirl of Dalhousie, who, with 
the sanction of the Bi-itish government, appro) >i*iate(l to that 










purpose the sum of £9,7r)0, a part of the funds collected at 
the port of Castine, Me., durinj^ its occupation in 1814 by 
Sir John Cope Sherbrooke, but no educational work was 
done within its walls until 1838, when important grants 
from the Provincial chest had been bestowed upon it. The 
further recognition of the denominational principle, given 
in 1838 by the rejection of the application of Edmund A. 
Crawley for tiie chaii- of classics at Dalhousie, gave serious 
umbrage to the iJaptists, who for several years had been 
cari-ying on an academy at Wolfville. So vigorous was the 
action of the Baptist Education Society that in January, 
1839, college classes were commenced at Wolfville with 
twenty matriculated students — a larger number than any 
college in Nova Scotia could then claim. Three years later, 
after much opj)osition in the legislature, and an unsuccessful 
effort to secure for the institution the name of Queen's, the 
royal assent to an act of incorporation was secured and 
Acadia College was successfully launched upon an honorable 
career. In New J>i-unswick, the JJaptists in 1835 erected a 
building for a seininary which had been established a year 
or two earlier. For five successive years the House of 
Assend)ly voted a grant of four or five hundred pounds in 
aid of the seminary, but their purpose was as often defeated 
by the Legislative Council on the ground that it was a 
recognized principle that })ublic money should not be " given 
in aid of religious or literary institutions for the dissemina- 
tion of the peculiar tenets of the denomination by which 
they are established." This pretext must have been deemed 
most flimsy by men who were aware that the sum of £2,200 
was being annually bestowed upon King's College, where the 
theological chair and all religious teachings were Episcopalian 
in character, and that a further sum of four hundred pounds 
per year was being granted to the Madras school, of the 
regular teaching in which the '' Church" catechism formed an 


"■"^ W'^mi «■ ■ » ■ « ' « 



ol Ice ted at 
1 1814 by 

work was 
mt grants 
n it. The 
iple, j^iven 
(huuud A. 
ive serious 
3 had been 
us was the 
n January, 
fville with 
[• than any 
)^ears later, 
(ueen's, the 
^cured and 
1 honorable 

5 erected a 

^hed a year 

House of 

pounds in 
^n defeated 
: it was a 

be " given 

n by which 

len deemed 

X of ,£2,200 
where the 

ed pounds 

lool, of the 
formed an 

important branch. Tn Nova Scotia still more determined 
opposition had been shown to Pictou academy, for in that 
province the l^^^xecutive Council for eight successive years had 
refused to that most etUcient institution the grant annually 
recommended by the popular branch of the legislature. 

Nothing in the meantime had been accomplished in the 
way of direct educational work by the Methodists of the 
Maritime Provinces. To any combined and persistent 
work, the restrictions of trans-atlantic management, and 
the frequent removals from the country of leading men, 
were unfavorable. A subject so important had not, how- 
ever, been wholly overlooked. In ISl'8 the ministers of 
the Nova Scotia District resolved to estal>lish a seminary 
competent to atlbrd a thorough classical education, and in 
the following year forwarded circulars on the subject to all 
parts of the country, but the popularity of the scheme 
proved the cause of its failure. Clentlemen from Halifax, 
Horton, Bridgetown and Amherst claimed for the proposed 
school, a location in each place, and by the urgency of their 
claims perplexed the Committee, who sought refuge in 
delay. In 18."5.') a proposal foi the establishment of an 
academy for each of the two districts received tlie sanction 
of the Missionary Committee, who at the same time stated 
their inability to furnish any pecuniary assistance, or to 
allow any of their missionaries to become tinancially respon- 
sible for its success. Special eltbrts to carry out this plan 
were put forth in the New Ib-unswick Distiict, by Enoch 
Wood in particular. A site was selected at Fredericton, 
and arrangements to ])uild as sdon as one thousand pounds 
should be subscribed were reached, but when a part of the 
purchase-money of the site had been paid, and six hun- 
dred pounds had been subscribed, the project was post{)oned. 
This failure may have been a second result of divided aims, 
for a gift of the necessary land and a subscription of one 




I' > 




tliousand pounds were rece'ved from I'ridgetown, as v,fiiie 
similar offois from other places, but in some measui-e the 
apparent apathy in ellbi't on denominational lines may have 
been due to the existence at Annapolis of a widely-known 
and po})ular school under the charge of Andrew ]ienderson. 
That worthy teacher had removed from Bridgetown to 
Annapolis in 18;V2, taking with iiim several pupils. At 
Annai>olis his school grew rapidly, and young men met 
there from various parts of the two provinces. Opposition 
to him as a Methodist having driven liim from a county 
building, he accepted })r()(li'red assistance, and built ;in 
academy at " Albion Vale." \\\ this building he taught 
the " combined granunnr and connnon school," ;ind in it 
Methodist itinerants sometimes j>reached. Tn aid of its 
erection the Nova Scotia Assendjly voted one hundred 
pounds, with tifty pounds annually for some years in sup- 
port of the school. ])uring those years pupils were con- 
stantly going forth fron\ Albion V^ale, who in later davs in 
prosperous positions, and in distant as well as in colonial 
homes, were ready to acknowledge in most respectful terms 
their obligations to this ^lethodist teacher. 

On the failure of the earliest scheme for a denominational 
academy, efforts were made in one or more (piarters to 
establish We.sleyiMi day-schools. An essay of this kind in 
Halifax in 182!) pi-oved unsuccessful : a second attempt, in 
1839, gave some satisfaction for a time ; and a third effort, 
in 1849, led to the maintenance for three yeai's of a school by 
the late Alexander S. lleid. One or two eflbi-ts in other 
places were less satisfactory. The Varley Wesleyan day- 
school of St John, N. B., opened in 1854 in a large brick 
building designed for the purpose, had a more successful 
history ; funds for its establishment having been provided 
by a becjuest of Mark Varley, an Englishman resident for 
many years in St. John, to which a grant of one hundred 



n, as wp.ui 
oasure tlie 

may have 
f^etown to 
Lipils. At 

luoii met 

a covmty 
built an 

lie taught 
and in it 
aid of its 
! hundred 
irs in sup- 
were Con- 
or days in 
II colonial 
tful terms 

larters to 
s kind in 
btempt, in 
ird effort, 
school by 
s in other 
7 an day- 
irge brick 
sident for 
) hundred 

pounds was added by the legislature of the province. \o 
successful attempt at the ('stal)lishment of a similar school 
was made in Prince Kdward Island pr-evious to 1871. 
Eai'ly in that year one was opened in a building erected for 
the purpose, and known is the Methodist Academy. After 
a shoi't history, the school was i'(H)ig;iiiized under the title 
of the "(Jeneral Protestant Acadc'iiiy." At present, the 
])uil(ling, like the Varley school building in St. dohn, is 
in the ot-cupation of the city st-hool Ijoard. In Permuda 
pi'oprietary schools under Methodist auspices ha\e l)een 
maintained for a time at sin'cral pei'iods, with some mea- 
sure of satisfaction. 

The epproach of the (Jeiitennial ycai- of Methodism .'-•een^s 
to ha /e suggested successful educational action. The benev- 
olence of Chai-les Frerlcrick Allison, a member of the 
Scotch-Irish family of that name first establisjied at (,\)rn- 
wallis, had assumerl an active form u[)on his union at Sack- 
vill(> with the Methodist ( 'hui'di, but upon hist'learei' realiza- 
tion of divine forgiveness, a disposition to do yet larger 
things liad been dexeloped. In. January, IS.'VJ, he n,d dressed 
a letter to the chairman of th > New Prunswick histrict. 
"My mind," he wrote, "has of late b(>en much impressed 
with the great imjiortance of the admonition of the wise 
man : 'Train up a child in the way he should go, and when 
he is old he will not depai't from it.' The establishment of 
schools in which pure; I'digion is not (»nly taught but con- 
stantly l)rougl»t l)efore the youthful mind and represent,<»d 
to it as the basis an<l groundwork of all the happiness which 
man is capable of enjoying here on earth, and eminently 
calculated to foi-m the most perfect character, is, I think, 
one of the most efticient means in tlu; ordcM* of Divine l^-o- 
vidence to bring about the happy result spoken of by the 
wise man." To these remarks he appended a statement of 
his intention to " purchase a suitable site, and on it provide 

. "ik 

ii' ! 













buildings at a cost of four thousand pounds, for the estab- 
lishment of a school in which not only the elementary, but 
the higher branches of education should lu; taught, to be 
altogetlier under the management of the liritish Conference 
in connection with the Wesleyan missionaries in the pro- 
vinces." With these proposals he connected a furthei' olFer 
of four liundred dollars per year for ten years in aid of the 
current expenses of the proj)osed academy. A pi'eference 
had been expressed by some persons, on the fii'st intimation 
of Mr. Allison's purpose, for a site near St. John, but all 
discussion ceased when it had been distinctly stated that 
the donor's scheme had reference to the wants of Metho- 
dists in all the Maritime Provinces and not least to those of 
Nova Scotia, his native province, and that in his opinion, 
Sackville, as a central point, easily accessible to all who 
might wish to avail themselves of the proposed advantages, 
was the more suitable place. 

This oiler, which had been gladly accepted by the mem- 
bers of the New Brunswick District at their annual session 
in 1839, was laid by Mr. Allison, in person, l)efore those 
membei's of the three districts, who in the summer of 1839 
met at Halifax for conference with Robei-t Alder upon the 
Centenary movement. His statements on that occasion 
made a deep impression. Having renewed his oti'er, he 
remarked: "The Lord hath put it into my heart to give 
this sum towards building a Methodist academy," and then, 
after a short pause, as though he had spoken too confidently, 
he added : " I know the impression is f I'om the Lord, for I 
am naturally fond of money." On receipt of official infor- 
mation, the London Committee gave their warm approval 
to the scheme, and with a unanimous vote of thanks asked 
his acceptance of presentation copies of the Centenary 
volume and the missionary report for the year — ^a smaU 
but satisfactory acknowledgm nt of a sum greater than 




r tho estab- 
Dutary, but 
.n;,'ht, to be 
in tlie pro- 
lU'tlici' oiFer 
1 aid of tiie 


)lin, l)Ut all 
stated that 
s of Metlio- 

to those of 
liis opinion, 

to all who 

^ the niein- 
ual session 
efore those 
lerof 1839 
r upoji the 
it occasion 

otl'er, he 
:art to ,s,'ive 
' and then, 
Lord, for I 
icial infor 
1 approval 
inks asked 

—a sniaU 
sater than 


had ever then been olfei-ed for educational pui'poses l)y any 
ISIethodist in IJritain or Anictica. 

Seven acres of land havini;' been secured, a connnittee 
chosen rroni th(; ministers of the two districts met at Sack- 
ville on January 1 7th, IS 10, to delilK'rate upon matters 
connected with the inception of the movenitMil, A vounsr 
man, subscMjuently a leading,' ai'chitect in l'''rancisi'o, was 
sent to the United States to visit se\eral academic institu- 
tions ; a plan prepared by iiim was adopted, with the ex- 
ception of a single architectural detail ; and on .luly Oth a 
lai'ije luunber of ])ersons assembh-d to witness the lavinj; of 
the foundation stone. Devotional exei'cises were conducted 
by William Temple and liichard Knight, and addresses 
were <^i veil by Messrs. Temple, P.usby, Croscond)e, Miller, 
and Wilson, the stone bein<.( laid Ijy Mr. Allison, who to the 
formula usual on such occasions added the words : " And 
may the education evei- to be furnished by the institution 
be conducted on Wesleyan principles, to the glory of God 
and the extension of His cause." 

Mr. Allison, having withdi'awn from business at the 
beginning of 1840, gave his personal oveisight to the new 
building, which became ready for occupation early in the 
summer of 18 42. It was capable of accommodating eighty 
boarders, and was tlien superior in adaptation to its pur- 
])0ses to any academic building in the Lower l*rovinces. 
Prior to the connnencement of educational work, about 
thirty thousand dollars had been expended for buildings, 
furniture, etc. Towards this sum the site and sixteen thou- 
sand dollars had l)een given by the founder, two thousand 
dollars had been contriljuted in the three provinces, chiefly 
through the etforts of Samuel D. Kice, and a grant of two 
thousand dollars had been made by the New Lrunswick 
Legislature ; a debt of b(,'tween seven and eight thousand 
dollars remained on the building wlien formally opened. In 


): . ■ 





aid of current expenses ii;rant.s were obtained from both 
Provincial legislatures. The deputation to the Nova 8cotia 
Assembly obtained the able advocacy of Joseph Howe, who 
claimed that the location of the college; on the Provincial 
border was at once a pi'oof of the wise judgment of its pro- 
moters and a guarantee of its greater cfliciency. 

Home delay in entering upon work was caused by ditH- 
culty in securing a principal. 'J'lu; managers, unable to 
obtiiin the services of Matthev Hichey, M.A., previously 
principal of th(^ Upper Canada Academy, with whom the 
venerable William I5ennett was to iiave lieen associated as 
governor, deemed it necessaiy to ]>ut on their most j)owerful 
ijrlasses for a careful look aci'oss the ocean. While most of 
them were thus engaged, one of the number, an Englishmau 
like themselves, turned his gaze upon his neighbor, Humph- 
rey Pickard, then in St. John as a junior preacher and at 
the same time manager of the book depot there and etlitor 
of the Connexional magazine. \\\ this young minister, 
traim'd at Wesleyan University, Middletown, under that 
prince of Christian educators, Wilbur Fisk, who had given 
him high commendation for general attainments in scholar- 
ship and tact in government, Enoch Wood discernefl the 
man for the hour, and at a meeting held at St. John in 
Noveml>er, 1812, nominated him for principal at Sackville. 
By some the nomination was leciuved in grave doubt, if not 
in a spirit of opposition, and by a few the wisdom of the 
choice continued to be cpiestioned until the young principal's 
success forced them to dismiss any lingering uncertainty. 

Educational work was commenced in an informal way on 
January 19th, 1843. On the morning of that day Messrs. 
Williams, Shepherd, Wilson and Puce — ministers, with Mr. 
and Mrs. P Uison, the principal and his wife, and Joseph 
R. Hea, met seven students in one of the smaller rooms of 
the building, where appropriate selections of Scripture were 



read and fervent thaid<si,d\ in^^'s and prayers wore ofVerod. 
Tlie more formal opcninj,' was dcfoi-rcd until the licyin 
iiing of tlio summer term. ( )n June 'JiKli, mimei-ous 
visitors met in the large lecture-room of the l)uilding to 
listen to the inaugural addi'ess hy the principal, and to 
several speeches l»y others. A highly successful year fol- 
lowed, the names of eighty students appearini^' in the 
annual catalogue under those of a highly elli(nent stati', to 
which Albert Desljiisay and Thomas M. Wodd, had been 
added — the former as governor and chaplain, the latter as 
a teacher of much repute. At the end of the eleven and a 
half years wiii(;h preceded the building of the Ladies' 
Academy, tiie first pcM-iod in the history cf the institution, 
an average annual attendance of one hundred and eleven 
pupils was gratefully reported. 

Early in the histoiy of the first academy its friends 
became convinced that their purpose was only partially 
accomplished so long as they were unable to offer e(iual 
advantages to the youth of V)oth sexes. At one of the 
sessions of tlu; united disti'ict meeting at 8ackville in 1817, 
at which several leading laymen were present, a resolution 
that "an academy for females, similai- to the one now in 
existence for the other sex, is a necessity," and that the 
jNIethodist Church is under obligation to meet that necessity, 
was unanimously adopted. Karly in the following year 
Mr. Allison made an otter of one thousand pounds towards 
the erection of an academy at Sack villa for ladies, to which 
other residents of the township proposed to add nine hun- 
dred pounds, but four years and more passed before the 
amount deemed necessary by the board of trustees for the 
erection of the required buildings was placed at their dis- 
posal. In 1S.")2 tenders wfjre invited, and in July, 1854, a 
new building for a second academic household was pro- 
nounced ready for occupation. In the meantime the circuits 

< I 


i; ■. 


I ; 






^ i III w k_^ 



of thfi tliree districts had beoii carofully fativassed by min- 
isters sel(;ct(Kl for that duty. The biiildiiii^'s, when ready 
for use, had cost J?22,400 ; towards wliich 81,000 had l)eoii 
provided by Mr. Allison, and ^l-i,-"*"' had l)eeii securefl by 
subscriptions and the .sale of scholarsliips, thus leaving a 
debt upon tiio new academy of a little more than $1,000. 

The doors of the new establishment were thrown open to 
Lidy students on Au^'ust 17th, 1S.")1. Intended public 
exercises were postponed in conse(juence of the j)re valence 
in St. John of Asiatic cholera, but the abridged proceedings 
of the day were most interesting. At eleven in the moi'ning, 
Humphrey Pickard, A.A[., principal of the two academies ; 
Ephraim Kvans, I ).!)., governor and chaplain; Charles F. 
Allison, treasurer; Thomas Pickard, A.M., lecturer on 
natural science in both academies ; Mary K. Adams, chief 
preceptress of the new school, with her associate instructors; 
and some other friends, were met by eighty pupils — -a num- 
ber much l)eyond expectation. An hour was then spent 
in devotional exercises and remarks by the principal, intro- 
ductory to the organization of the first set of classes, and 
the instruction of the one hundred and sixteen pupils of 
that term. In January, 185.^, Lingley Hall, which had for 
some time been in of erection, was dedicated to the 
work of education on Ciiristian principles. The fine organ, 
and full-length portraits of Charles F. Allison and John 
Beecham, D.D., were placed there in subsetjuent years. 

To some yet unrevealed hand will belong the task of 
tracing out with minuteness the later history of the educa- 
tional institutions at Mount Allison. \\\ Humphrey Pickard, 
Charles F. Allison found a man whose development of the 
work he had originated and cherished gave him the highest 
satisfaction that may be gained from consecrated and wisely- 
used wealth. The sums given by their founder and treasurer 
to these institutions during his lifetime were estimated at 

/■:/)f'('A77()\AL WO UK 

5Pfl by inin- 
whoii roiifly 

had beoii 
secured by 

IS leaving a 
n $1,000. 
)\vii open to 
idcd public 
^ prevalence 

.he inoi'ning, 
) academies ; 

Charles F. 

lecturer on 
^dams, chief 

instructors ; 
)ils— a num- 

then spent 
icipal, intro- 

classes, and 

n pupils of 
hich had for 

cated to the 
3 tine organ, 

n and Jcjhn 

t years. 

the task of 

)f the educa- 

rey Pickard, 

ment of the 
the highest 

1 and wisely- 
nd treasurer 
stimated at 

twenty seven thousand doUai's, to which aic to lie ;idded 
three otluM' thousands in bftpiests to the acadt'niies and 
college. His last and crowning act, as r'ecoi'dcd in tlie 
minutes of the annual meeting in .lune, lsr)S, was tin; 
moving of a series of resolutions designed to ensin'(^ the 
(!stal»lishment of tlu; college which now l)ears his name. To 
the succ(!ssful pi'incipal, to whom Mr. Allison's death was 
no ordinary trial, there remained eleven othei- years of con- 
stant toil and responsiljility, with subsecjuent services in the 
securing of endowments and in the general management, 
such as few otluMs at that j)eriod could have rendered. As 
treasurei', he so faithfully continued Mr. Allison's work that, 
on his retirement from the president's chair in the colUsge 
in 1SG9, the property invested in the sevei'al (ulucational 
branches was valued at eighty thousand dollars, though a 
serious loss had been occasioned by tht; total destruction by 
fire of the original academv. t)f the benefits of his influence 
as a Christian teachei- upon the great number of Provincial 
youth who passed undew his care during his twenty-six 
years' service as principal and president, even lapsing years 
can give no adeipiate idea. " The day shall declare it." 

Tn some brief notes, on a scrap of paper now yellow with 
age, a clerical speaker at the opening of the original academy 
thus outlined the purpose of its founder : " This building, it 
was said, is to be resorted to for those accjuinunents which 
will furnish men pr()i)erly (jualitied for any station in life. 
Here the teacher will be fitted to take charge of youth, the; 
minister to instruct his fellow men, the magistrate to enforces 
human law, the judge to decide upon legal cases in dispute." 
That the good man then indulged in no mere flight of 
fancy, but that he rather saw "through a glass darkly," will 
be felt when some alumnus of Mount Allison .shall, for love's 
sake, have prepared a life-record of her early pupils and 
her graduates ; for these are to be found in the ministry of 




' I , 


•5* I ( 


iiiSToin' OF MirriioDisM 

our own luid of other sections of the ('hiireh, ainont; the 
pi'esich'nts and professors of Prf»vint'ial (•<ill(>^r(.s, ainoni,' the 
lituitenant-'^overnoi's of th(^ Dominion, in the senate and 
lower house of the; ( 'anadian h'Lfisl;ituie and in the Provincial 
lei^dslatures, aMu»n;j; the sujterintcndents (»f Provincial educa- 
tion, on the hench of the hii,dier courts of the I )oniini(Ui and 
of tiie separate provinces, on th<? list of winners of the 
cov(!ted (Jilchi'ist scholarship, and in all those professions 
whicii society sees tit to entitle " learned." They are found 
also anion^' the leading,' men in business circles and a^n-i- 
cultural pursuits, and. last hut not least, anioni,' that 
eidar;.,'ing (dass of wouiaidiood whose true repiesentatives 
lind no dis(|ualilication for womaidy duties in the fact that 
from an educational standpoint they are at once the peers 
of their hushands and the guides of their sons. {''or their 
educational enfranchisement such women in the Maritime 
Provinces will ever be grat«'ful to the Methodist educa- 
tionists at Mount Allison, who enjoy the distinction of beins^ 
the first in the British enii)ire to»!,'i\e to woman the j-i<,dit 
of arlnussion to the vai-ious degrees of a college course. 

In Newfoundland education has always biicn under 
denominational control. The earlier W'esleyan ministers 
saw with sorrow the almost universal ignorance in many 
populous settlements, and did all in their power to les.sen it 
by the establishment, as eai'ly as 1S14, of Sunday-schools. 
Defe(;ti\'e as such means were, through the lack of compe- 
tent teachers, hundreds were indebted to them for ability 
to read their l:>ibles and hymn books. These ^lethodist 
Sunday-schools had become so numerous in \>>'1\ that 
nearly twelve hundred childi'en and a large number of 
adults were availing themselves of their help. To meet in 
some small measure the educational needs of their missions 
in the colony, the Wesleyan Missionary Society decided to 
jnake a small annual grant towards the support of day- 




aiiioii!^ tlu' 

Keiwito aiul 

! Provincial 

loial educa- 

iiiiiiioii and 

lers of tli«; 


s' arc fouiul 

s and a<,n'i- 

iiiont,' that 


!' fact that 

(' the ])t'('rs 

l''()r tlicir 

e Maritinio 

dist cduca- 

ou of Ix'iiig 

1 tlie ri<,dit 


(!('U under 

I ministers 

' in many 

-o lessen it 


of compe- 

for al)ility 


IS 1)4 that 

lumber of 

'o meet in 

r missions 

lecided to 

t of day- 




scliools, three of which were in operation in iS'J.'i. These 
three schools and the thirteen others under the auspices of 
the Society for the l*roj»;ii;at ion of the ( Io><peI, furnished, 
with the cxcepti(»n of Siilihath-schools. the only educational 
facilities for the s(!\('nty thousand persons scattered o\er 
the colony. 

In \ iew of this dearth of schools, the W'esleyan nnnisteis 
in general hailed with ph'asuic the ent ranee into the colony, 
about this period, of the ai,'ents of the Xewfoundland School 
Society.' Accidiiii; to the i-onstitut ion of that Society, 
tiie teachers weie to lie uicndiers of the Xal ional Church, 
and the si-hools were to lie conducted as niin-li as possilile 
on Dr. hell's " .Madras system, " lait manat^M-rs were en joined 
to avoid a too strict interpretation of their denominiitional 
chai'acter. So lil)eial and evanifelical was the charactei' 
claimed for the new society, l>y its lii'st a;.;ents and in its 
earlier reports, that the W'esleyan Missionary Society made 
a small tyrant from its treasury towai'ds its supp(ti't, and 
seveial Wesleyan niissionai'ies took a deep interest in its 
woi'k. I>ut denominational pai'tnerships seldom prove satis- 
factory, especially when the fuKilment of verbal j^uarantees 
is wholly dependent upon the tempers and tendencies of 
ai,'ents and sub au;ents. Several of the teachers, in exjH'cta- 
tion of deacon's "orders,"' found in that pi-ospect an in 
centive to such proselytism as broke; up se\'eral W<'sleyan 
Sunday-schools, and '.inder IJishoj) Sjiencer's manai;ement 
the teachers became such useful auxiliaiies that he at lenj^th 
spoke of the school as his " I'ii^dit arm." 'riienceforwaid all 
but Episcopalians were excluded from their manat,fement, 

' Tlii.s Kn<^1isli Society ewcd its (iri<,'in to tiie etfoits in ISi.*.'{ of Saiiniel 
C'odner, a retii'cd NcwfdiiiKllaiul iiiercliant, u ho had w itncsscd tlie itciie- 
raiice of many of the colonists, and hail resolved to rescue tliejr childicn, 
as far as lay in Ids power, from a similar fate. I'rom liini tlie Soiiety 
re(.;eived pulilic advocacy and large {jfifts of money. The I'.ritisli govern- 
ment acknowledged tlie utility of this institution hy giving it liberal aid. 









and iMothodists wero soinetiTnos (li-i\ou to a (lef«Misive atti- 
tude in tlie iiiaintcnauco of tlioii* i'it,dits.'- 

luiti'itoiy action for tlio jjroniotion of education was 
taken by the colony in \^\'-\. in that year the h'<,Mshiture 
resolved to grant an annual sum of live thousand pounds, 
one-half of which shouifl he apfnopi-iated to Protestant, the 
other half to liornan Catholic, schools. Educational dis- 
tricts were defined, and school-boards were appointed for 
each. In any district \vhei-e the niajority of the iidiabitants 
were Protestants, the schools were placed under a Pro- 
testant board ; wliere lionian Catholics were most numerous 
the schools were given in charge of a Konum Catholic direc- 
torate. Certain anjounts were at the same time placed at 
the disposal of the denominations previously embarked in 
educational work, the W«'sl('yans receiving two hundred 
and iifty pounds annually as their share. With this sclieuie, 
involving a recoi^nition of their denominational status, the 
Wesleyans of tlie colony weri' satisfied, but tiiey neverthe- 
less failed in the attainment of their anticipated success ; in 
part because of delay in the foi'mation of an educational 
society in conseijuence of heavy losses through the St. 
John's fire of \^\C), and in j)art through the impossibility of 
ol)taining properly trained tc^achei'S. 

'-' 'V\w N«'\\f(mii(llaii<l Si-lii«il Sofifty. now known, after two changes of 
name, as the " ( "olonial aii'l ( 'onf inental ( "liurcli Soriety,"" is still at work 
in se\t'i'al |iart> of !'.riti-li .\i>itli Anieriea. The eoui'se aliovc (Icsci'ihed 
would justify none in w ithholdin",' from its a^^ents, in },^'neral, the trilnite 
due to their i-tforts in Newfoundland. Man\' ha\e lin-n tau^dit to rt-ad 
who would have remain»'d in i^iiorance, and lar^,'e numbers of Jiihies 
jvn<l other reli^'iou> puMii-.-itions have Itcen circulated Ity its agents, who 
have also often eomfoited the ^ick and dyiis;^'. 'I'lie steady maintenance 
of evau'/elical iii'in'-i|)le-. liv the Society ^'ave the late liishoj) Keild "in- 
finite troulile," and. in tiie uords of his liioi^q-aplier, "constantly 
thwarted his action and lii.^ wi-hes." " l'nhaii|iily," the hishop wrote 
to a friend in Kn<rland. " I c-annot act witii the Newfoundland School 
Society, for they will toh-rate only 'evangelical" men, and they have 
decided, I know not Ky what means, that [ am not one. " I'erliaps no 
better certificate of the truly I'rotestant character of the Society could 
be desired, than tlr-s*- statement- from the pen of the hard-workin^ir, seif- 
denyiiiK, but narrow-minrled, bishop of Newfoundland, and liis bioj^ra- 
pher, the assistant-secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the 

i....?-.. i .JJ5.-l,Jl^.i.-l».J 



'(MKsive atti- 

icatioii was 
lul pounds, 
testaiit, the 
atioiial dis- 
pointed for 
ider a PfO- 
5t nunierous 
tholic direc- 
le j)laced at 
inharked in 
vo hundred 
this scheme, 
status, the 
y neveithe- 
success ; in 
s^\ the St, 
ossihility of 

wo c'hiUit^cs of 

s still iit work 
ivc (Icsci'ilied 

il, tlir trit'Ut<! 

ui^^lit to n-ad 

rs of Hibles 

> ap'iits. who 
!> Krild "in- 
liisliop wrote 
Hand School 
(1 they have 
IVrhaps no 
vK'icty could 
s-orkin^f, st'if- 
1 his hiogra- 
^ation of thf 

Tlirou!:;!) an (effort to aid the several denominations in 
ohtainiiii,' suitahle teachers, Newfoundland statesmen first 
UTirned the ditheulty to he encountei-ed in the application 
of an unsectarian scliool systein to the peculiar circunr 
stances of the colony. In 184.S the sum of three thousand 
f»f>unfls was voted for the establishment at St. John's of an 
ar.-adeiny for the higher education of youth, whether I'ro 
testant or Itonian Catholic. So gieat, howevei", was the 
sfrUish pressure from a cei-tain (juarter that the scheme soon 
proved a failure. In IS^O thn>e academies were founded 
V»y the government, oi\e for tiie Episcopalians, another for 
the Roman Catholics, and a third, or General Protestant 
a/^rarleniy, for the Methodists, Congregationalists and Pres- 
byterians. In a short time the ISEethodists, who were op- 
[j<osed to a subdivision of the Protestant grant, found it 
ne'cessary to protest against the merging of their interests 
in the General Protestant academy, and to ask by petitions 
from various circuits for a sum in proportion to their equi- 
tfihle claims for the support of a classical school to be 
placed under Wesleyan management. Non-compliance for 
'WR'veral years with the request served to give unity of ])ur- 
[•-rj«e to Wesleyan (^llort. As a result a society was formcc. 
in 1851 under the designation of the Newfoundland Wes- 
leyan Metliodist School Society, which under a later desig- 
nation of School and Agency Society, became a useful 
factor in the work of education and evangelization. Under 
its auspices tlie Wesleyan Normal day-school was opened in 
l8r>2, and placed in charge of excellent teachers from the'ow Normal School. 

In accordance with action taken in ISTT), when the New- 
foundland legislature secmeil to i-egard the passage of a 
fr*^, unsectai'ian school measure as beyond the region of 
practical politics, Kpiscofialians, Wesleyans and Konuui 
Catholics receive an amount for their own soliools from the 

: I 




public treasuiy, in j)ropo!'tioii to tlieii- nuiiilters ; sepamto 
tjoai'ds of education control the schools of each denomina- 
tion, and a, supei'intendent, aj)pointed l)y the goxeinnient, 
watches over the schools of the r<'li;4ious l)ody of which he 
is the representative. Tlie ■Methodists of the colony, de- 
feated in theii' opposition to the subdivision of the Pi"otest- 
ant urant by the stron<j;(M' intluence of the Episcopalians, 
resohed to niov(^ tarnestlyon in the track prescribed for 
them. Their academy at St. John's and grammar-schools 
at (Jarl)onear miuI H;irbor tJriue ha\e been fortunate in 
their principals and teac hers : their nomination of (Jeoi'ije 
S. Milligan, LL. D., for superintendent of their educational 
work has been ecpially satisfactoiy to the government and 
to the INlethodist pulilic ; and a college at 8t. .John's has 
been in etlicient operation for three years under a superior 
stall' of educators. 

At an eai-ly pt'i'iod in I'roviiicial history the Sunday- 
school was an innioi'tant factor in general elementary educa- 
tion as well iis in I'eliijious knowledge. The numb(>r wholly 
indebted to such aid in rudimentary insti'uction would now 
seem beyond belief. Ilci'c and there in the Lower I'rovinces 
a school of the kind might have Ikmui found vei'v early in 
tlie century, but about 1817 an important impulse was given 
to theii" numeiii-al growth l)y the intluence of Walter ]>iom- 
ley, pi-eviously ca])tain and paymasti-r in the 'l'.W(\ regiment 
(lloyal Welsh Fusilier's), w1k)S(^ measures in behalf of r<'ligi- 
ous and secular inst ructiun in No\a Scotia render his name 
worthy of [lions memory. The puic inthiences of a Chris- 
tian home had fcdhtwccl hiui into a gay, thcuightless life as 
an otficei', and at a time of especial dangei' in Halifax, int'> 
which excesses at the mess had le<l him, had lirought about 
a partial reformation of life. In IS 10 he had sailed with 
his regiment for I'ortugal, and while in that country, through 

an interview with a young priest, w ho hopetl to lead him t 

ho h 




which lie 
)lony, cle- 
:i Protpst- 
•libod for 
•tunate in 
of (Jcoi'ge 
imeut and 
fohn's has 
X superior 

[0 Suuday- 
iviv t'duca- 
ll)i>r wholly 
vould now 
■V fiirly in 
was tiivi-n 
Iter IW'oni- 
1 rt'jj;ini('nt 
f of rcligi- 
!• his iiiuiie 
)f a Chris- 
It'ss life a-^ 
ilifiiN, into 
iH'ht about 
ailt'd with 
y, throuj^h 
ad him to 



an espousal of Roman Catiiolieism, he had learned the value 
of the reiii^qous traiiMii<; wliic'h enabled l)im (o instruct the 
young priest in a purer crcid whicli deeply impressed him. 
Tlirough the recall of early teachings the iiisti'U(;toi- reaped 
a blessing, and during tlu^ study of a borrowed I')ili](> 
entered U}»on a new life. Soon aftei- his retirement fi'om 
the army in ISl,'] on half pay, lie returned to Halifax. 'I'iiere 
in the same year he established the lloyal Ai'adiau school, 
conducted on Joseph Lancaster's unsectarian system and 
held attirst in the Duke of Kent's theatre. Leading .Meth- 
odists among others gave their patronage to the school. 



1 soon pro\('d most success 


Lntliusiastic and 

energetic in his work, Bromley asked for no day of i-est. In 
liis school-room, reduced in >\/.v by the use <jf the old stage 
scenes, a Sunday-school was als(» cai'ricd on under iiis super- 
intendence. At the third annual inspection of his cstal)lish- 
ment he informed his \isitors that more than one humlred 
a}»prentices and others had availed themseh es of the instruc- 

tion iiiven in his Sun(hiv S( 
eai'uest wt)rker than the two 




plea.sing to the 

hunih'ed ponnds granted him 
by the legislatuie in ajipreciation of his ser\ices was (lit; 

imitation of his Sabliath laliois in other 



s o 

f th 

le Dl'o- 

vince, especially l)y tlie l'r(^sl)yterians at J'ictou.' In ISlT) 
lilar schools were in operation in most of the tow n.s and 
in several of the c-ount ry settltMiients of the Maritime Pro- 
vinces. At Livei'pool in the suniiiier of that year, ninety 
scholars were being taught ; in St John, where a Sunday- 
school union had l)een formed in I Sl'l' •_'." 




<J f 



le secession o 



.•), tlie scliiiol was 
lerioil, whii-ji ha<l 

reduced its pupils to eighty in number ; at Fredericton a 

school of si\tv-tive children w 

IS gi\ inu proiiii>e of its u.seful 



('aiiadii tliiit tlic If^Mslatui 

t this pfriiid wi'i'i' su lii'_dd.\ rruardcd In rpiicr 

pdUiids fer the use and ciic pi;ra,L;ciii(iit uf suilj sflii 

tue Near tiraiiU'd mif liiiiKliid ami titty 

ase of lidnks and tracts Un the reiiiiitf and iiidlL-'cnt si'ttlciiitnt 

lid for till' pur- 



■ 1 1 

f 1^ 



; i'i.i 

future ; cat Charlottetowiv and the neighboring settlements 
one hunched and eighty scholars were receiving religious 
instruction ; while in Halifax, where previous to 1824 the 
children of the congi-egation had heen catechised on Satur- 
day afternoon l»y the pastor, llobert L. Lusher, the attend- 
ance at the Sunday-school, as reported at the first anniver- 
sary, in 18'25, had I'eaclied one hundred and sixty se\ en, for 
the acconnnodatiori of whom the room erected at the rear of 
the church had become too small.' In Newfoundland and 
Bermuda, where such schools had for some year.i oeen in 
existence, many of the scholars were adults. 

No section of the church has made a larger and happier 
use of literatui'e than the Metliodist has done. Its eaily 
days in the Lower Provinces were l)eset by special dilhcul- 
ties. It was at variance theologically with other denomina- 
tions, its usages were different from those of others. The 
literature previously inti-oduced into the country had been 
almost wholly Calvinistic in teaching; there was a pressing 
need, therefoie, for a literature of its own, for purposes of 
explanation, defence, propagation and education. Initial 
steps in this direction have been described in a former 
volume.'' They had reference to the introduction of a dis- 
tinct class of literature, and not to its preparation. That 
the earlier jNIethodist fathers in the Provincial ministry 
were ignoi'ant men, as has sometimes been charged, cannot 
be admitted ; that they were not as a class, in the popular 
sense of the term, a leai-ned ministry, may readily be con- 
ceded. The pulpit was their throne, and from it, believing 
themselves loved with a great love which made them too 
strong for the narrow logic and contracted exegesis which 

It is jn'ohiililc tluit tilt.! Suiulay-s(.'li(»()ls cdnductt'd by Walter IJrom- 

ley, and, for a slioit time, 

by ( 

leiH'ial lifckwitli, later known by IiIm 

religious labors in tlic Waldensian valleys, had delayed the formation of 
a Weslej-an school. 

5 Vol. I., pp. 1S4-1SJ). 






1824 the 
on Satur- 
he attend- 
t auniver- 

se\en, for 
tlie rear of 
idlaud and 
v.i oeeii ill 

.ud liappier 
Its eai-ly 
L;ial ditlicul- 
i- denoiniiia- 
thers. The 
ry had been 
,s a pressing 
purposes of 
on. Initial 
in a former 
ion of a dis- 
ition. That 
iiil rniniBtry 
rtred, cannot 
the popuhir 
adily he con- 
it, beheving 
ide them too 
cegesis which 

, WaltiT Bnnn- 
r known by hi« 
till- fonnatiou of 


denied the possibility of mercy to any human creature, they 
set forth, with all the force of a detinite conviction, the 
doctiines of fi'ee grace and full salvation. They became 
itinerant preachei-s for a single object, and, concentrating 
their whole time and force antl stern connnon sense upon 
it, they frequently "rose by the upward gravitation of 
natural iitness " to the possession of a pulpit power beyond 
the expectation of early admirei's. A nund)er of published 
sermons attest possession of literary force too rarely put 
into exercise, in part of their unsettled life as 
itinerants. In spite, however, of this nomadic life, the 
literary ventui'es of former jNlethodist ministers in the 
Maritime Provinces were neither less rare nor less success- 
ful than of ministers of otiier churches. From a 
literary standpoint, Joshua Mar.sden's " Narrative of a 
Mission," to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and J>ermuda, 
during the years 1804-12, in a series of letters to James 
Montgomery, is above the average of the publication.s of 
that day.*' In biography Matthew llichey's " JNIemoirs of 
William Black,'' is of acknowledged value and ability ; and 
in polemics, George Jackson's volume on the subjects and 
mode of baptism, if somewiiat repellant through the rude- 
ness of the dress in which Anthony Henry's establishment 
in 1824 clothed it, is l)y no means unwoi'thy of study, 
though subse(pient volumes upon the sanuj topic are legion. 
No less worthy of honorable mention were the several 
tractates on controversial subjects from the ready pen of 

" .loshua Marsdcn |nililislic(l six ll'nio xnlMincs and one ()fta\o, some 
of which had a wide circulalion. 'i'iif pri'MUt acfoniplishcd fditoi' of 
the Kjiglish " Wcslcyan Mctliodist, Mii^'azini'/'licnjaniinl Irf^ory, M. A., 
at the end of a ^ratcfid triliutc to the intinory of .lushna Maischn and 
A^,'nes IJnhntT, two piM'tical contiilmtors to thf nia^ra/ini' in f<irini'r 
day.s, n'Uiarks : "And 1 am far from hein^,' thcmdy oni'whoowts mni'h 
to these Methodist poets. ,\ distin^niished meml)er of parliament as- 
sured nie that he traced to .loshna .Mars(h'n's tlie awakening of 
his inteUectual hfe, and tlie creation of liis taste for literature; and ho 
thoroupun poured forth .some rich (piotations." 






I. ; 

. it 



Alexander W. Mf^Leod, nwX tlie graceful " ^Nloniorials of 
Missionary Life in Nova Scotia," by diaries Churchill. 

For many years *^he nieth.vis used for the dissemination 
of Methodist literature were of the most unpretenti(^us 
kind. Alexander Anderson had, no doubt, a successor in 
some Halifax merchant who devoted two or three shelves 
in his establishment to important English .Methodist publi- 
cations and a few otluu' books of a religious character, but 
the agents most relied upon were the circuit preachers. 
By some of these this l)ranch of their work was most faith- 
fully attended to, as the number of very old volumes of 
the Arminian or Wesleyan Methodist ^Magazine, oi of the 
other anu somewhat latei- Methodist serials still to be found 
in some sections of the, country clearly testifies.' At length, 
in 1839, in accordance with a suggestion from Knglaiul, a 
depot for the sale of English ^lethodist and other publica- 
tions was opened in Halifax at the residence of Cliarles 
Chui'chill, who promised personal attendance to business 
until eleven of each moi-ning. In addition to the stn.ndard 
theological works in the first list advertised, were a few 
" novelties," among which were classed Bari'ett's " Essay 
on the Pastoral OH'ice,'' lulmondson's "Elements of Revealed 
Religion," the works of John Ifai'ris, author of " Mannnon," 
and those of Krummacher. 'i'his depository ceased to 
exist after the la{)se of a few years, the high prices asked 
by John Mason, of tiie London Ijook-room, having i-endered 
a profit impossible. A second attempt was made in 1852, 
which through arrangement of the district meeting was 

' 'riu' Hclij^'ious Tiiict Sooif'ty, of J^diidoii, at oni' time detenniiH'd to 
pliict' a iHTiniiiieiiL lilirary of its imldicatioiis in tlic |iai'soiiiigt's of each of 
the leadiiij,' stations o(vii|)i('<l hy tiie Knglisli Missionary Societies. In 
18.SI) that .St)ciety sent a selection of its issues, witii a jironiise of fntnre 
pnl)lications to sevei'al of tlie stations occu|)ie{l l>y Wesleyan Mission- 
aries in the Maritime Provinces. 'I'hese libraries were lonj,' since scat- 
tered. Tlio St. .lolin lielij^'ious 'Tract Society, formed in liS;U, and 
supplied wholly hy tracts of the London Society, was for some years 
actively supported by the Wesleyan ministers of the city. 




loriala <>f 


:cessor in 
B shelves 
tibt publi- 
icter, hut 
lost fiiith- 
olumes of 
, oi of the 
) be found 
At length, 
h'ngland, a 
er publica- 
of Chailes 
(> business 
e standard 
were a few 
b's " J'^ssay 
,f Revealed 
ceased to 
rices asked 
i«- rendered 
e in 1852, 
leeting was 

(letenuined to 

Hires t)f i':vi;l> "f 
S(icit'ti»'s. Ill 
„iisc of fiitm-f 
cyan Mission- 
(liifJC sinc»> scat- 
, in 1S;U, and 
for sunie years 


lianded cner by Alcxaiuhn- W. McLeod to tiic venerable 
Williiiia Croscoiube, under whom it became an agency for 
ordci's rather than a depot for sales. A simihir de})ot for 
the sale of Meth<jdist books was established at St. John in 
1840, but it languished after a time and in iS47 had ceased 
to exist. A year after the organi/ation of the Eastern 
British American CouferiMice, a l)Ook-rooni on a more ex- 
tensive scah? was established in Halifax, with a t)ranch in 
St. Jolin. 

For a long period the Methodists of the Ijower Pi'ovinces' 
Districts \vei'(; placefl at some tlisadvantage in the dis- 
seunnation of denominational intelligence. The I'nglish 
"Missionary Notices'' jtroNided a \cry limited and exceed- 
ingly circuitous medium of conuuunication ; the ministers 
stationed in the larger towns weri' ol)lige(l, thei-efore, to 
make the best j)Ossil)]e arrangements with tlic pul)lishers of 
tlie few Pr(t\'incial journals of tlie day. Of the T-eligious 
department of the I'hila nthrop'isf, a weekly pajier com- 
menced by Edward A. Moody in Halifax in 1Sl'4, William 
Temj)l(> had chaige ; and of the /i>'h'(/t<)ns (im/ /Jh'rtn'i/ 
JoN.i'Hai, issued weekly in St. John in ISiM), Alexander 
McLeod was the compet(Mit editor. Jn IS.I^. howevei', the 
ministers of the two districts, d(\sirous of a more otlicial aiul 
untrammelled medium of t'ommunication with their churches, 
resolved to publish a magazine of their own. As it was a 
j)rivat.e risk, the sanction of the Missionary C(^mmittee was 
not deemed necessary, and in Maix-h, iS.'i'j. the liist ntniibei' 
was issuefl, under tlu^ title (^f i\w. " X()\a Scotia and New 
Ih'unswick Wesleyan Methodist Magazine."' It was a (piar- 
terly of sixty-four pages, neatly prii.ted liy the late Jacob 
S. Cunnabell. The appearance of the magazine innnediately 
aroused opposition on the part of the ^lissionary Committee 
ill London, who feared at once an injurious elfect upon the 
sale of English Oonnexioj: il periodicals, and an entangle- 

I r 






•: f 




!: ■ 

inont in any possihle financial loss ; the Secretaries for these 
reasons jjronounced the action of their missionaries uncon- 
stitutional, and demanded tin; immediate discontinuance of 
the magazine. In cons((]uence of orders so imperfitive four 
numbei-s only aj)i»eared — few enough to involve the manager, 
\^'^illiam Temple, in some anxiety and a little tinancial loss, 
V)ut quite sufficient to indicate to Methodists of later years 
the wealth of Christian record and l)iograpIiy which, 
through such a medium, might have Ijeen })reserved. The 
Provincial ministers, unwilling to abandon a periodical they 
had found to be beneficial to their people, subsequently 
placed the matter l)efore the Committee in a constitutional 
way, but only received an evasive reply about lack of time 
for proper consideration. Such action seemed the more 
unwarrantable because, through the eidargemetit of the 
mission field, the space devoted in English Wesleyan publi- 
cations to any one section of the work, in particular an old 
and familiar sphere, could be but very limited ; and because 
English Methodism had not at that time any official or 
semi-official weekly newspaper.** Thus i-epressed, the leaders 
in Provincial Methodism found themselves again under 
special obligations to the secular press, as well as to the 
general religious papers, among the managers of which tiiey 
had numerous influential friends." Of the religious columns 

** Tlirt'c years later Knocli Wood, whoso judgnietit on thin Kul)ject 
will h(^ regarded as conclusive, wrote to William 'iVuiple : "The suj)- 
pression of the magazine was impolitie, to speak in the mildest terms. 
. . . It would have lived and heeii a great hlessing. In education 
and puhlieations we are much l>ehind-ha.nd. We have iuHuenee and 
means sutiicient to su])iK)rt a press and l)ook-rooni of our own." 

!• Among" those belonging to this list may he nam(>d : .Tolin Spai'row 
Thom|>son, of Halifax; Alexander McFiCod and William 'I'ill, for years 
puhlisiitM's of wei-kly journals in St. .John ; .John Simpson, (Queen's 
printer in Frederieton, and, somewhat later, James Hogg, from 1S44 
l)ublisher of the Frederieton Ji(/ii)rt(r, and .lames A. fierce, of the 
Miramichi (ilcuntr. 'V\\v names of most of these, all of whom were 
INK'thodists, have appeared in jirevious pages, .lohn Sjjarrow Thcnip- 
soii, fr.mi the NortJi of Ireland, was a consistent C'hi'istian, and an Metiiodist. 

s editor of tin- J'<<irl, as in previous connection 



; for thesfi 
ies uiicon- 
nuance of 
ative four 
■ iniinag(!r, 
,ncial loss, 
ater years 
ly which, 
ved. The 
idical they 
ck of time 

the more 
lit of the 
yaii puhli- 
ilar an old 
ul because 
official or 

he leaders 
liii under 

as to the 
v'hich they 
IS columns 

tliin subjt'ct 
"The svip- 
Idcst tcnus. 
n fchicatiou 
iHiii'iic'i' iuul 

iliii Sparrow 
ill, for years 
)ii, (.^Ufcii's 
<:, from 1S44 
crcf, of the 
wlioin were 
(iw 'rii(>iii|i- 
ian, and an 
s coiuu'Ctiou 



of the Clit'lstinn Rppordw and Te))i))('i'(i)ici' Journal, com- 
menced in 1831 by William Till, and continued by liim 
until its discontinuance in IS 10, lOnoeh Wood, for a part of 
that pei'iod at least, had chart^c. 

After some fuithei- communication lietween thcMihairman 
and the English Committee, thi'ough which no definite 
arrangement was reached, the first numlier of tlie Wfis/ei/itn, 
a neatly printed paper of eight small pages, was issued in 
February, 1S38, from the press of William Cunnabell, Hali- 
fax. With the fourth issue it was enlarged to sixteen pages 
of the previous size. This jiaper, conunenccnl under the 
management of Alexander W. McLeod, assisted by Charles 
Churchill, was published once a foitnight. At tl:e ensuing 
meeting of the Nova Scotia District, it was placed under 
the charge of a committee who became responsible for its 
character and financial management, and in consecjuence of 
the removal of tlie original proprietor and editor from 
Windsor to Guysboro', Chai-les Churchill was placed in charge 
as editor, with John H. Anderson, a young merchant, as 
general agent. This well-conducted paper ceased to appear 
in 1840, in consequence, it is said, of influence exerted by 
the English Committee, who, however, gave their official 
sanction to the publication at St. John of a magazine for 
both districts. So great was the dissatisfaction caused by 
the intended discontinuance of the Wesh'ijan, that in its 
final issue a proposition appeared for the publication of a 
pajier to be called the Christian, ll>'rahi, to be "devoted to 
the interests of science and religion, and of \V(\sleyan Meth- 
odism in particular."' The Christi'i.u 1/ e ra / d secuvoA a .'iome- 

witli other papers, he rendered useful service to Methodisiu. His early 
advaiita^'es had lieeii few, lint by sheer effort he had iiroUj^dit himself up 
to a highly respectable position. .loseph Howe often consulted him on 
literary subjects, and Mr. Thompson re|>orted Howe's jj^reat speech in 
the ceU^brated libel case in IS.S."). .lames Hofjg, a fellow -c-ountrymaii of 
• lohn S. Thomitson, was a vigorous writer, of good iiterarv taste, and a 
faithful Methodist. 


. II 



wliat largo and dcsorvcf] circulation in Nova Scotia, l)ut the 
Coniinittcc liavinj^ forhiddcn tlicir- jx'cachers to "encourage 
or in any wny coinicct" th«}nis('lv<'s with it, it ('oascd to be 
issued dining tlio following autumn, ;ind its puljlislior, 
William (JunnabcU, turned his attention to the j)ul>lication 
of the MorniiK/ llirahl, a triweekly, and the first penny 
pajjei- od'ered in Nova Scotia. Thus it came to pass that 
Methodism alone, of religious bodies in Nova Scotia, had 
no power to speak through a paper of its own.'" 

The "Ib'itish North American Wesleyan Methodist Maga- 
zine" made its appearance in Septoud)er, IS 10. Any tiiumcial 
loss was to be met by the preachers of the three provinces ; 
any prolits were to l)e! d(>voted to the spread of the work 
of (ilod. 'J'he lirst funds were (»btaiued in the way of 
loans from the various nuiiistei's, ranging in amount from 
five to tifty pounds, 'i'he place of puldication was St. John ; 
the earlier editors wci-e i'^noch Wood and William Temple, 
of both of whom llumjdirey Pickard became the successor. 
Aftei- a discontinuance of a year, the publication of the 
magazine was resumed in ISb") and continued until 1847, 
the final volume having t»een printed by Janu^s Hogg, at 

'J'he conviction that a weekly paper was an imperative 
necessity to Provincial Methodism had now become general. 
PTumphrey Pickaid, while in Ihitain in 1818, approached 
the Seci'etaries and secured a promise of their sanction of 
such a paper. M]>hraim lOvans, a former editor of the 
CIn'isfi((ii a uavdid II, who had been transferred to Nova 

'" 'I'lic Mpjiiin'Mtly uiii>f'<'()niit;ilil(> fear, on tlu- part of llie Coniniittee, 
of a |ia])('r luulrr (!oiiti'ol of tlu'ir missionaries in tiic Lower Provinces, 
was the evident result of their faihire to control the utteriinees of the 
Christ ill II (1 iKinliiin, the Metliolist i)aper in tliel'p|>er I'rovini-es, whose 
bold, independent editor. I'^^crton Kyerson, would not i)e silenced. It 
is only justice to the Coniniittee to say that some of tliat editor's own 
friends feared that his m.anly utterances in his strife with the High 
Cluirch party in l'{)per (Canada nn'ght he imderstood to favor a .spirit of 

ia, Imt the 
used to be 
rst penny 
) pass that 
■t'otia, had 

(list Maj^a- 
ly financial 
provinces ; 
if tlu' work 
h(^ way of 
Kjunt from 
; St. John ; 
.ni TtMiipU', 
on of the 
mtil 1847, 
Hogg, at 

no ixonei'al. 

sanction of 
or of the 
to Nova 

■r Proviiu'cs, 
hiu'i's of the 
•iiu'e'S, \vli().'<e 
Isili'iict'd. It 

editor's own 
th tlie Higli 
[or ;i spirit of 



Scotia as chairman in IS IS, also felt deeply the need of a 
denominational organ. A littif later, Alexander W. McLedd, 
prevented from g'ung to Newfoundland as eliairman Ity 
the declining health of his wife, and awaiting further 
instructions from JMigland. was ads ised liy I'ljihraini l'>\ans 
to comnienre the puhlii-ation of a Methodis* pajier-. The 
rcsponsihility of the mo\-einent lia\ing lieen assumed l)y 
Messrs. l^^vans and Pickard, the lirst ntnulier of the Wi'slrjiini. 
appeai'ed in April, IS ID. Se\-en fortnightly numl>ers met 
with such appro\al that, with the somewhat reluctant eon- 
.sent of tin; I'higlish authorities, it was eontinurd as a weekly 
[)a])erfor Maiitime Methotlism, with A W.iNlcIjOod as editor. 
Of this j)aper Dr. .McT^eod eontinu'd iu chargt; until his 
regretted remo\al in ]S,")| to the I'nited States, In. Inly, 
IS,")"2, under his management, it heeame a large foui- page 
j)aper, with the extended title of Tin' /'roriiirln/ IVt's/ri/mt.. 
On tlu? remo\al of its eailiest editor, Matthew II. Iiichey, 
Ks(j , (ddest son of .Matthew liiehey, l).l)., and in latei' 
years, lieutenant-governor of Xova Scotia, took tin; editorial 
cliaii', retaining it until ISGO, when (-harles Churchill, 
previously book-steward, undertook the additional task of 
editor. In ISTo, under the control of Alexander W. Nicol- 
son, the Wexh>ij<(ii re-appeared in its eiglit page form, and in 
1879 its editorial management became a separate depart- 

( ,, 









'M :;i 










• :-; 





i 1 











Motliodisiu in rdiition to tin- Statf. Episcoiuil <l(Piuiniitii)ii in t'lii'ly diiys 
in tlu' sL'Vt'i'iil provinces. Strn^'ulc for tlic ri^,'lit to solcnmizf niiii'- 
riage. Oi)i)osition at Ert'dcricton. Suspension of Enoch Wood's 
coniuiission. Courtesy of Sir .lolm lliii'vey. Fii'inness of ( leor^'e 
Cul)itt in Newfoinidland. lioiuan ( 'atiiolic assistance. State aid. 
Influence of otiier cluuvlies on Provincial .Methodism. Eitur^'ical 
forms and clnu-cli millinery. 'I'lie prayer-l)ook in Newfoundland. 
The gown, influence of Methodism on other Provincial churche.s. 
Methodist effort in tlie tem|)eranco reform. 

In no part of the world has tlie Church sought 
to secure any special advantaf^e from the State. The motto, 
*' A fair field, with no favor," has been descriptive of the 
highest earthly ambition of her sons, few of whom have 
ever been contented in the absence df the realization of that 

In the Maritime, as well as in the Upper, Provinces, for 
many years after the arrival of the Loyalists, it might 
truthfully be said that a man lost caste by being a Noncon- 
formist, in tlie English acceptation of that tei'm. Though 
as early as 1812 the members of the House of Assembly in 
Nova Scotia informed Sir John Cope Sherbrooke of theii' 
determination not to make provision fi'om the Provincial 
revenues for the support of the Church of England in the 
colony, tliat section of the Chui'cli long retained its hold on 
privileges denied to others. Through the generous gifts of 



lufch sought 

tlio Hritisli !uul Pi'o\ incial LiovcniiMciits at vai'ious poricidi', 
Htid l»y means of its presti<,'(; as the cliui-cli of the autliori- 
tics, and tlic lar;,'*' amount of jt.'itronMi,'<> at its disjK)sal 
thfouL,di tlic old "Council of Twelve," it had obtaiiu'd a 
]Knvei' which was Ion;,' used for- the restriction of the riL,dits 
of those beyond its communion, altliough at the .-iliolition of 
the Council in ls;^7, the adherents of other sections of the 
churcli constituted foui" lift lis of the iidiahitants of N(»va 
Scotia, as they ff)r some time had done. From an eai'ly 
period to the yeai- just mentioned, that Council had viitu- 
ally ruled the country, notwithstandini:; tlie existence of a 
repi'esentative assembly. Its members, amoni,' whom were 
the bishop of the l^ipiscopal Chui'ch, the chief-justice of tlio 
province, and the collector of customs, resided at JTalifax, 
and, holding their seats ff)r life, ti'cated the people, atid 
fre(|uently the people's representatives, with a lofty indif- 
ference. In New Brunswick, tlirougli a sonu'what similar 
" Family Compact," the domination of the Fpiscopal (^Mnii-ch 
had from the first been most oppressive. For th(^ establish- 
ment of that body in the scleral parishes Provincial rev- 
enues were fi'eely used, though most promptly denied to the 
adlierents of other churches. Al)out 18 IS a law was passed 
which in a short time unseated Joseph Crandall, a I>a.ptist 
minister representing the county of Westmoreland in tlie 
Provincial Assembly, because he sometinies preached at 
Fredericton, while an Episcopal minister, known oihcially 
as " the Honorable and Reverend " Joiuitlian Odell, died 
in 1818, holding at the time the otiices of Pr-ovincial Hecr-e- 
tary and Clerk of the Ccuneil. In Prince Edward Island 
similar appropriations of property and exercise of power 
took place, in view of which the colonial legislature in 
1830 adopted a })etition to the liritish government, asking 
permission to use for the support of schools the one hundi'ed 
acres of land set apart in each township for the maintenance 







of a minister of the Gospel, to which lands, in the absence 
of any specifications, the l']piscopal Church claimed an 
exclusive i-ight. In suj)poit of this petition, the representa- 
tives alleged that the K{>iscopali;uis formed a very small 
proportion of the pr»jnil;ition of the island, having at the 
time but two churches, to one of which members of the 
Church of Scotland possessed a joint right, while on the other 
hand numerous other places of worship were scattered over 
the Island. 

In New Urun.swick alone Nonconformist ministers were 
obliged to take out special licenses to preach Several of 
the Methodist mi.ssionari<'s to that pi-ovince, who had duly 
appeared before the Loixl .Mayor of London, and fi'oni that 
functionary had received documents authorizing them to 
preach the Cospel in any jiait of the Jhitish dominions, 
were nevertheless oliliged on their airixal in X<'w liruns- 
wick to tike out special licenses, the injustic(; of the act 
gaining a deepe-r color fi-om the bitt(n' spirit shown by the 
otiicials in its enforcemenr. ( )n one occasion, when Richard 
Williams had introducfd scxcial ministers at the secretary's 
office foi- the purpose of taking the oaths and receiving 
licenses, theii- insoh-nt treatment by the ollicial drew from 
the dignified chaii-man of the district words of rebuke, and 
caused the more gentle Michael Pickles tolea\ethe otlice in 

The final [nant of contention with th(; State, on the part 
of the Meth(»dist and certain other non episcojtal churches 
in the sevci-al provinces, was in I'eference to tlu^ solemni/a 
tion of marriage.-' Of the miuisfcis of all tln^ I'eligious 

' Mr. I'ickltM w;i« ti»l<l 1)\ :i Pii'sliytciiaii iiiiiiistt r tliat i." liad |«'''- 
sisted in |in'iicliiii).' witlioiit ;i licfusi- on tlif plc-i thii* tin- wilting' >t a 
Meriui'ii tliriditili the we«-k :iu<l tin- ifiiiliii^' nf it on could not lie 
coiLsidcred preuuliiiijr. 

'-' III tlif .Muiitn-:d //</•'»/'/ ..f ,\ii;,'ust L'Cttii, IS'JO, tlicre appeared tlic 
follow ill^' : "At tliela.-t ('.,i,it of Assi/.f, al ('oiinvall, I'.C, .losepli 
Sawyer, a Metii«Klist preacher of Maltilda, was convicted of iiaviiif,' 



tl»e absence 
claimed an 
! representa- 
very small 
vinu at the 
ibers of the 
an the other 
attei-ed over 

listers were 
Several of 
ho had duly 
ul from that 
iiif; them to 
1 dominions, 
New r>runs- 
e of tiie act 
hown by the 
hei> Richard 
o secrc^tary's 
id receiving 
\\ di'cw from 
rebuke, and 
the olHce in 

on the part 
ial churches 
Ihe religious 

it I." li:i(l p 
he uiitiiif-"' 

>r a 

Iv cDUul not III- 

ii|i|K'iir('(l the 

U.C., Joseph 

Itcd (if liaviiiK 

iKidies in the seveial provinces, only those of the Churches 
of England and Scotland, Quakers and Roman Catholics 
were permitted to mai-ry by lic(Mise. In Pi'ince lulward 
Island, in 1832, ])ermission was given to all ministers in 
charge of churches, without i-esti'iction, to perform the 
marriage ceremony, though marriages had occasionally heen 
solenmi/ed at an earlier jxu'i^xl hy .Methodist ministers, 
probably by ])ublication of hanns. In Nova Scotia also, 
marriages had thus Ix en performed Ijy Metiiodist mission- 
aries, but many years of eftbrt were necessary to secure the of invid'ous distinctions. To an Act gi\ing to 
ministers of all denominations the right to many Ity license, 
|»HHjied by both branches of the legislature in IS lit and sent 
horrje l)y I.oi'd |)alhousie ^ith a susjiending clause, the 
I'nnce Regent ref'.sed his assent, alleging, as the last and 
UKYht forcible of several silly reasons, that (he Act, if assented 
to would entirely pass by the i^stablished Church, impo\ crisli 
its* revenues and degrade its authority."' J^or'd JSathuisf, 
not content with the disallowance of (he measui'e, lecpiested 
the governor also to disallow any future bill lia\ing the 
same object in view. Tn IS.'^L' a similar Act was passed, 
to conie into operation v/sen tls'' royal assc.t should be 
rd'ceiverl, which assent its ;id\()cates sectii-ed t wo years later. 
iJy this measure, however, Nonconformist ministe.>'s were 
only peiiiiitted to olliciate in cases wlieje both the persons 
to Jh" mariied were adherents of the denomination of which 
the minister was a icpicsentatise. With some uninipor- 

•""i-l'-mrnzff' inarriai^'c. Tliisai't ii.»t licinj; If^al in .a ^b'tlmdist picaclicr 
iiK dtrar ,it' iiK'c. he was scntriu'cil to fuiirto'ii yt ars" liaiiisliiin'iit. and to 
ic-a4#' x.\u' iirovim't' w itliiii scxcii (i:i\ s uftci- liis sciitcMCi'. .\biy lliis u Imlc- 
f^^ntif *-\Mu\>\i- lif iinivtisally fulldwi'd fur il,c salcc of His .\bij(',-ty"s licf^n 
mli'Jt'ctji." If this iti-iii (if news were corrcot, tlic iiuius'uiK 'it iimsl havtt 
H*-*'!! r»'niitt»'(l in wlidh' (ir in part. Dr. ('armll refer- .n .loscpli Sawyer 
at Hhi.-t rime at ('(innvall, as a "Idcated " picaciier and fdcnier piesidinj.,' 
'-5c5>-f, hiir makes iKi reference t(i this arrest. The extract willalh'ast 
**'t\*- to ilhistrate the spirit (if the jieridd. In IS.Ti, nfler a stru^^de (if 
^^•'nr.y-Hve ye.-irs. it liee.ame le,",al hir the Metiiddist mnisters (if I'jiper 
Canaria to celeliratc the rite of marriage. 








tant changes tliis law remained in force until 1847, when all 
unjust restrictions were swept away, and the ministers of 
the several denominations were placed on an equal footing. 
In New Brunswick a measure similar to that passed in 1832 
in Nova Scotia n'ceived the royal assent in 183-i, It had 
only been carried through the two branches of the legisla- 
ture by the mos^. strenuous effort on the part of Charles 
Fisher and Lemuel Allan Wilniot in the lower house, and 
of Edward B. Chandler in the legislative council, successors 
in this line of effort to Stephen If und)ert ; and it was not 
allowed to go into operation without all possible annoyance 
to the ministers enfranchised by it. Questions were con- 
tinually raised respecting the pi'oof necessary to entitle 
applicants to receive a commission to celebrate the rite of 
marriage by license. One day a contest on this point, 
between Richard Williams and Enoch Wood on the one 
hand and the pi-ovincial secretary on the other, led the 
first named minister to stretch out his brawny arm to its 
full length as he looked the official di recti v in the face and 
exclaimed : "The iNIinutes of Conference, sir, is the highest 
authority in the world." In some cases, ministers found 
themselves obliged to travel to Ercdericton to visit the 
secretary's otiice in person, in others they were made to wait 
for months for the legal commission, for which they were 
charged the sum of thiity shillings. The proceedings 
throughout were a practical connnent on the statement 
made by the secretary in his own otiice to oiie of the 
VVesleyan ministers — that if the issue of the commissions 
were dependent upon his disposition tlu? matter "would soon 
be settled." 

A new difficulty then ai'ose. The first marriage per- 
formed in New lirunswick by a Methodist minister was 
that of the late Samuel J)uncan McPherson, of Freden^ton, 
Enoch Wood officiating. When the mai-riage h J Vren 

7, when all 
iiiiiisters of 
aal footing, 
ed in 1832 
U. It had 
the legisla- 
of Charles 
• house, and 
[1, successors 
[1 it was not 
B annoyance 
is were con- 
j to entitle 
ie the rite of 
this point, 
1 on the one 
her, led the 
y arm to its 
he face and 
s the highest 
listers found 
to visit the 
made to wait 
ch they were 
10 statement 
;-» one of the 
" would soon 

uarriage per- 
minister was 




3 ha V. 

postponed for a month, in consequence of the delay in the 
delivei-y of JNlr. Wood's comniissiou, Mr. Wood and Mr. 
McPh(irsoii together called upon the secretary, who even 
then evinced his lack of courtesy by advising the younger 
man to take time to think of tlie step he was about to take. 
When, at length, the marriage had taken place, fault was 
found by certain parties, who asserted that the young hidy 
concerned was not a Methodist, because her parents were Epis- 
copalians, although for a year she had attended services in 
the Methodist churcli, in which her father held a pew. On 
lieai'ing the complaint the provincial secretary sent for L. 
A. Wilmot, and informed him that r>Ir. Wood was liable 
to be sent to jail. " He is ready to go there," replied the 
young lawyer, but to that intimation he added the sugges- 
tive assurance that any attemj)t to send the minister to 
prison would raise such a storm about the otticial as would 
land him elsewhere. The secretary soon, however, found 
his opportunity. The Methodist ministers in the province 
in general made common cause with their brother at Fred- 
ericton, who chunked that the words, "being of that d o- 
mination," which had been introduced into their connnis- 
sic!i-; by Mie executive council for the })urpose of limiting 
tl ii' sol Munization of niarriage to Metliodists oidy, were 
contra! / to the spirit and wording of the law, for which 
reason he resolved to set the limitation at detiance. Soon 
after his removal in 18."i6 to St. John, he found opportunity 
for carrying his resolution into effect, and followed his 
action by a protest to the issuer of licences against that 
official's repeated (juestioning of persons wishing to be 
t;,. rried by him. On the facts of the case having been 
n ;ru> known to the e:cecutive council, that body withdiew 
Ml. Wood's commission by proclamation in the Royal 
Gazette. The attorney-general, when asked why an action 
had not been brought against the ottending minister in the 


i; : 


' ; h 



<l . 

\i I 


courts, significantly re[)liecl that, "it was of no use doing 
that, for no jury in the country would he found to give a 
verdict ajjainst him." Durinf' the session of 1838 a Decla- 
ratory Act, removing the ofiensive clause, passed V)oth 
houses, but with a sus])ending clause, wliich for some 
time delayed its effect ; and the determined preacher at the 
end of thirteen months again secured his commission. In 
an address of the period to Sir John Harvey, lieuteiumt- 
governor of the pro 'lie ministers assembled at their 

annual meeting grate. 

/ recognized 

that gentleman's 

courteous treatment and successful etlbits to secure tliem 
their due rights in refei'ence to the marriage laws. In l.'^+G 
the adherents of the several denominations whose ministers 
were obliged to procure commissions to perform the mar- 
riage ceremony- — at times at the cost of no little expense 
and inconvenience- — petitioiied the law makers of the pro- 
vince for tlie abolition of the recjuirement as an unjust dis- 
tinction, and also a reflection upon the loyalty of their 
ministers, but several years ela})sed before the unrighteous 
demand was swept from the statute-book. 

In Newfoundland, previous to 1817, notwithstanding 
frequent representations to the British government, no 
marriage law expressly adapted to the scattered population 
of the colony had been received. The few Episcopal minis- 
ters in the colony, in accoidance with English training, 
considered themselves as alone authorized to perform the 
marriage ceremony, and alfected to treat such unions as 
were solemnized under other auspices as of doubtful validity. 
The great majoi'ity of tlie inhabitants, on the contrary, had 
been accustomed to regard all marriages performed by any 
ministers or magistrates as of full legal obligation. In 
1816 the point was raised by David Rowland, Episcopal 
minister at St. John's, who addressed a memorial to the 
governor, Sir Francis Pickmore, \n which he informed him 

use doing 
1 to give a 
J8 a Decla- 
Lssed both 

for some 
eher at the 
ission. In 
ed at their 
ecu re theui 
s. In 1.^46 
Mi ministers 
rm the mar- 
:,tle expense 
; of the pro- 
1 unjust dis- 
ty of tlieir 

nment, no 
L'opal niinis- 
h training, 
jerform the 
1 unions as 
Iful validity, 
lutrary, had 
Ined by any 
Lation. In 
|], Episcopal 
nial to tlie 
formed him 



that " tlie INIethodist ministei's have lately taken upon them- 
selves to solemnize the rite of niarriage in that town, con- 
trary to the laws of the realm and to the irreparable injury 
of the persons concerned and their iiniocent ofl'spring ;" and 
requested him to ad )pt measures to prevent the recurrence 
of a so grievous abuse. Sir Francis, on rt^ccipt of the 
memorial, sent for JNIessrs. Cubitt and Sabine, the Methodist 
and ('ongregational ministers at St. John's, to reason with 
them upon the impropriety of their course l>oth ministers, 
in reply, stated that there was no law to pre\(>nt them from 
doing as they had already done. The governor then 
endeavored to secure fi-om them a piomise that no marriages 
should in future be performed by them in any [)lace in the 
colony where an ]<2piscopai minister might be found, but 
with praisewoi'thy independence they refused to submit to 
any restriction, and assured him of thcnr readiness to abide by 
the consequences. The result of their action was soon seen. 
During the following year an order reached the colony 
which, virtually limited the right to celebrate marriage to 
the ministry of the Episcopal Church, under rules similar 
to those in force in the United Kingdom. 'J'he conseijuences 
of this unrighteous law, the piomoters of wliich lost sight 
of the small number of Episcopal ministers in the colony, 
were soon observed in the ijreat nundjer of illegal unions in 
various sections of the island. By a change in tln' law, 
made by the legislature is 1821, all ministers and I'eligious 
teachers, not engaged in secular business, wci'c authorized 
to pei'form the marriage ceremony in any case wheie the 
contracting parties could not J'each '" some church or chapel 
belonging to the Established Church without inconvenience " 
— an arrangement most beneticial to the more remote 
.stations, but continuing the total prohibition of mari'iage 
by Weslcyan ministers in such Methodist centres as St. 
.John's, HarV)or. Grace and Carbone:;r. Under its restric- 







?f f' 

If V 



tions an Englisyi lady, who came to the colony to be married 
to John Smithies, a Wesleyan missionary, found it necessary 
to take up her residence for a time at Blackhead, where no 
Episcopal minister had been placed, in order that the 
marriage ceremony might be performed by a minister of her 
own comnmnion. Roman Catholic priests could secure 
pernn'ssion to officiate by payment of a certain tax to the 
Episcopal authorities, but Methodist ministers in the more 
populous districts could in no way obtain the coveted 

This state of atfiirs soon came to an end under the new 
constitution granted the colony. During the tirst session of 
the elected legisla:i./e, lu consequence in part, it has been 
claimed, of strong Roman Catliolic eflbrt, a new law was 
passed, which rendered all marriages performed within a 
certain period legal, removed all restrictions upon non- 
episcopal ministers, and gave the governor of the colony 
permission under cert:'»i circumstances to authorize the 
solenmization of matrimony by magistrates, teachers and 
even private individuals. In the petition of Dr. Fleming, 
the Roman Catholic bishop, reference was made to the 
"painful condition in which a large and respectable portion 
of fellow-Christians, the Dissenters of the country, are 
placed," and a request was preferred for the repeal of the 
"un-Cliristian and unwise law" which denied to "the Dis- 
senters and Methodists of the Island the privilege of 
olernnizing marriage in their own church and by a clergy- 
man of their own establishment." By the strong Roman 
Catholic majority in the legislature Dr. Fleming's request 
was well understood to have all the force of a command, 
and was interpreted accordingly. Several years after the 
passage of this mensure, some eflTort was made to secure 
such a construction of its provisions as would abridge the 
liberties of Methodist ministers, but in securing favorable 





opinions from liij^li legal authorities, and resolving at all 
costs to maintain their rights, those ministers piovcd that, 
in a case of endangered liberty, as well as in one of threatened 
national conflict, "the surer way to maintain peace is to be 
prepared for war." 

In Bermuda, in 1835, John Barry, with the consent of 
the attorney-general of the Islands, performed the first 
marriage ceremony recorded in the denominational register. 
At a much earlier date, however, other Wesleyan ministers 
had officiated in a similar way, probably after publication 
of banns and without any further restriction, so far as is 
now known. During the three years ending with Decem- 
ber, 1838, thirty marriages found a record in the Methodist 
register. At a subsecjuent date some doubt respecting the 
validity of these and certain other marriages seems to have 
arisen, in consequence of which the legislature in 1847 
passed an Act confirmatory of all marriages celebrated in 
the Islands by ministers of the Presbyterian and Methodist 
congregations, and by *' other Protestant Dissenting minis- 
ters or teachers." A second Act, passed during the same 
session of the legislature, gave express permission for the 
performance, either by publication of banns or by license, 
of the marriage ceremony by ministers of any denomi- 

Direct aid from the State, for the support of the Meth- 
odist Church in tiie Lower Provinces' Districts, has been 
received in Bernmda alone, and there only to a limited 
extent. The sums granted in other colonies in aid of 
higher education have been regarded by the recipients 
simply as a just and only partial return for educational 
service which the State must otherwise have undertaken at 
a much larger cost, or have allowed to remain undone with 
great injustice to its youth. Money expended on Meth- 
odist education in Newfoundland has been given by the 



I i' 




VI !^ 


jnsTonr OF MF/niODi^u 

colony wholly iji accorrlance with the general principle of 
education under denoini national auspices, which the govern- 
ment, under pressure fi-oni Koniau Catholicism and then 
from the Episcopal CJImi'ch, found its(»lf oljliged to adopt. 
In Bermuda, in 1851, where for more than a century the 
ministers of the Episcopal Church had been receiving their 
whole support from the colonial treasury, and the single 
Presbyterian minister in the Islands had for tliirty years 
been receiving an important part of his stipend from the 
same source, the Wesleyans of the colony, in response to 
petitions for a sliare in tlio legislative gi-ants, received aii 
allowance of one hundred avid twenty pounds pei- year to- 
wards the support of their churches. In 1867, the Meth- 
odists and other Nonconformists, so-called, were exonerated 
from all liability for church rates and grants were profes- 
sedly made payal)le to tliem at a fixed rate according to 
numbers. By Episcopalians in Bermuda these treasury 
grants ai'e regarded as indispensable to the support of their 
church ; to Wesleyans, though much less numerous and 
also less wealthy as a class, they are only a supplementary 

In the Maritime Provinces the JNIethodist Church has 
exerted an important influence upon other .sections of the 
Church of Christ, while it, in turn, lias been to some extent 
affected by their presence. From the Baptist fathers, 
Methodist ministers, at some cost of numbers, learned 
something in evangelistic work. The earlier English mis- 
sionaries were second to none as sowers of the Gospel seed,, 
but as reapers of the harvest they were less skilful as a 
class, there is reason to believe, than their Baptist contem- 
poraries, who were better acquainted with the peculiar 
characteristics of a scattered popidation than any stranger 
could possibly be. As a consequence, not a few of those 
who were converted under earlier Methodist agency, even 



riiiciplo of 
he i^overn- 

iinfl then 
. to adopt, 
^ntury the 
ving their 
the single 
lirty years 
1 from the 
esponse to 
•eceived an 
lei' year to- 

the Meth- 
,^ere profes- 
jcording to 
3 treasury 
3rt of their 
lerous and 

mrch lias 

ons of the 

onie extent 

st fathers, 

•s, learned 

iglish mis- 

ospel seed. 

skilful as a 

1st contem- 

e peculiar 

ly stranger 

w of those 

ency, even 

under the ministry of William lilack, were led into the 
fellowship of the Baptist churches. To the greater pro- 
ficiency of the early Methodist itinei'ajits in Ontario in 
shepherding their converts is due, in large measure, that 
rapid and vast growth which at the present day gives to 
Methodism in the Dominion its preponderance in numbers. 
In no other respect was thei-e any necessity to learn from 
early Baptist neighbors. Immersionist theories have never 
taken any serious hold upon the Methodist churclus of the 
Lower Provinces. Several of the eailier Wesleyan mission- 
aries, acting in accordance with the principle, universally 
recognized in Methodism, that the true advantage in any 
religious rite is dependent upon the aim of the recipient 
rather than upon tlie position of th«; aduiinisti-ator oi- the 
precise form of administration, were accustomed to l)aptize 
by immersion when earnestly desired so to do by the candi- 
date, but their successors, at some risk of being chargeable 
with inconsistency, have been less willing to be "all things 
to all men." It is scarcely necessary t > say that the causes 
for this unreadiness, an explanation of which is not a 
necessity, are by no means of trifling importance. The 
influence exerted by the Provincial brandies of the Churches 
of England and Scotland upon the earlier Methodism of 
the Lower Colonies tiirough the adherents they gave her 
was highly salutary. '^^Flie lack of evangelical religion in 
the first, and the piesence of Moderatism in tlie second, of 
these churches, were so evident at the time that persons 
belonging to these communions, when seriously influenced 
through jVIethodist preaching, frecpiently thought it neces- 
sary to withdraw at once from previous denominational 
associations. Through this cause the INfethodist Church 
received for some years an accession of members whose 
early religious training was well calculated to counteract 
any serious tendencies towards indulgence in extravagances 
of "Newlight" origin. 

1 f 


I ■ ! 

I ! 









1 ; 



1 ^ 




1 1; 

1 r^ 



1 j|>. 

1 N' 





Methodism on this side of the Atlantic lias been but slightly 
affected by the liturgical forms and church millinery of the 
Old World. Most of tie early Wesleyan missionaries to the 
British American Provinces came from parts of England 
where the simpler order of Methodist services prevailed. 
It is not prol:)able that in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island, the liturgical service provided by 
Wesley was ever used in an ordinary Sunday service. In 
Newfoundland, some sixty years since, the prayer-book was 
in general use at Sabbath-morning seivices at the outports, 
at least, of the colony. With many of the people of English 
descent it was associated with memories or traditions of 
better days, and its use was in some measure beneficial. 
Here and there some fisherman, mv^ie intelligent and more 
thoughtful than his neighbors, read from its pages on the 
SabV>ath in his family, opening his door to any would-be 
worshipper, and thus protesting against surrounding 
wickedness and forming a little company by whom the 
Methodist itinerant was heartily welcomed. When the 
visitor had passed on, similar meetings were resumed, with 
the addition in some cases of a few extemporaneous words, 
or the reading of a tract or a sermon. It was not strange, 
under such circumstances, that a minister, to some extent 
acquainted with liturgical forms, should have adopted in 
growing congregations a style of worship with which both 
preacher and people were in some measure familiar. Less 
than a half-century ago, several ceremonies prescribed by 
the " Book of Common Prayei," were observed in Methodist 
congregations in several parts of the colony, but they, with 
the book by which they were authorized, are no longer in 
use. In ordinary public worship in Bermuda, liturgical 
services have been unknown. Abridged or varied forms of 
the Episcopal ceremonial observed at baptisms, marriages 
and deaths, it will be understood, are used by Methodists 
throughout the world. 



ery of the 
ries to the 
[ England 
iswick and 
ovided by 
■■rvice. In 
:r-book was 
Le outports, 
of English 
■jiditions of 
I beneticial. 
b and more 
iges on the 
\y would-he 
whom the 
When the 
3unied, with 
leous words, 
not strange, 
;onie extent 
adopted in 
which both 
liiliar. Less 
•escribed by 
n Methodist 
t they, with 
no longer in 
a, liturgical 
•ied forms of 
is, marriages 

In liritisli North America tlie use of the pulpit j,'o\vii has 
obtained to a very sli^'lit extent in Methodist cireh's ' Only 

church — tlie leadi 


m one churcli — the leadnii; one in .Montreal -has the 
black or Geneva gown been ste;ulily worn. Tlie spirit of 
Methodism is not generally favorable to an artificial dignity, 
by no means necessary to a sacred otlice when occupied by 
a true man. Some disposition toward its use on mission 
stations led tiie Secretaries, in their printed circular for 
1S;U, to say to their missionaries: "After seriously con- 
sidering the su))ject, we have also to enjoin upon you the 
laying aside of the fi-ippery of gowns and bands. Your 
brethren at home do not deem them necessary to their 
usefulness ; and men of the first-rate talents among us 
regard them as useless appendages to the dress of a minister 
of the Gospel, and inconsistent with the rules and spirit of 
Methodism." Several years after this deliverance, .lolin 
Pickavant, chairman of the Newfoundland District, surprised 
the greater part of the St. John's congregation on a certain 
Sabbath morning by entering the pulpit arrayed in a black 
silk gown. Several young men, by whom he was nmch be- 
loved, had observed their pastor in simple ministerial garb 
on one or more occasions when his Gongregational and 
Episcopal neighbors had been present in a more ample cos- 
tume, and, in the belief that an attire implying ecclesiastical 
equality would promote his influence, liad ascertained li^s 
willingness to wear a gown, and had presented him with 
one on the Saturday evening. The black robe then went 
into use in some other parts of the colony, but not for any 
long period. In 1847, at the gathering at Halifax of 
the representatives from the Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 

3 An American writer has said of the early American Methodists : 
"At first some of the old 'Churcli ' forms affected tliem. Kveu Asl)vu"y 
essayed for a while a surplice, gown and l)ands; Init all tliis frippery 
soon fell off. Crape and lawn— poor symbols of saintship anyliow — 
wt're rather in the way in the holes and dens and caves of the earth tlu^y 
sought out." 





wick Districts, a discussion arose upon the introduction into 
the Fredericton puljiit of the jL(o\vn by In;^d>ain Sutclilfe, 
who had used it for a sliort time at Montreal and afterwards 
in Newfoundhmd. Mattiiew liichey, then on a visit from 
Montreal, favored its use, but Humphrey Pickard, wliose 
Puritan tendencies had l)een aroused by some sarcastic 
allusion by a previous speaker, sj)oke vigorously against its 
introduction, and easily carried with him a majority of the 
ministers then present.' 

The intluence of Methodism in the Lower Provinces upon 
other sections of the Christian Churcli has not been less 
healthy than in other parts of the woi-ld. In the lease and 
occupancy by Episcopalians of pews in Methodist churches 
in several Provincial towns, previous to the opening of 
Episcopal churches for Sunday evening services, may be 
found one explanation at least of tlie noteworthy fact that 
advanced Ritualists have hitherto found their most deter- 
mined opponents among the members of certain older 
Episcopal families. In a letter to the English Committee 
from Windsor^ in 1827, llobeit Young makes reference 
to the influence of tlie Wesleyan missionaries upon the 
general religious public, and upon tlie special danger by 
which the Iiapti«t churches were threatened. He had at 
first regarded liis necessary removal from Jauuiica to Nova 
Scotia as a "most afflicting ])rovidence," but a closer 

4TIH' use of the bla'-k gown has been the .suliject of some serums dis- 
cussions in tlie Britisli ('onference. At Newcastle, in 1S40, the announce- 
ment that Methodist ladies of that town had provided a silk rol)e for the 
list! of tile Presidt^nt during his year of office called forth an excited con- 
versation, which Dr. limiting ended by moving the juvvious (juestion. 
The great majority of the ministers were ojjposi'd to the accejitance of 
the gown. The ajipearance, a few months later, of Samuel Waddy in a 
gown in the puljtit of the Waltham-street chapel, Hidl, led to a protracted 
discussion. At the end of three montiis the jireacher laid his gown aside 
at the request of his sui)erintendent, but popular feeling had been so 
aroust'd that both ministers were removed at the end of tlie year. The 
Conference of 1.S42, after a warm discussicm, voted, with oidy six dis- 
sentients, against the use of the gown and bands in all their churches, 
tliose ill Scotland only excepted. 

IN Till': MAlilTIME r ROV I XC l-!^. 


ftcf wards 
visit from 
u'd, whoso 
, sarcastic 
a"ainst its 
»,.ity of the 

,'iiicos upon 
t been less 
,e U^ase and 
st chvn-ches 



ces, may be 
;hy fact tliat 
most deter- 
ertain older 
, Connnittee 
OS reference 
s upon the 

I danc;er by 
He had at 

iiica to Nova 
,ut a closer 

iniu! serious dis- 
1) tlu* iUini)\ii»co- 
Isilknibf for the 

I an exciti'd cim- 
IvioUM (nu'stiim. 
Iio accfptauct' t)t 
luel Waddy "» ^ 

II to a ])rotractea 

II his gown aside 
ins had bcH-u so 

Jf the year, ine 

Itli only «^x 5"^' 
ll tlieir churches, 

acquaintance with the sahitary inlluencc of AN'cslcyan 
effort in liis xw.w fiehl hiid greatly niodilicd his \ icws. " It 
is true," he wrote to tlie Coniniittee, "that our nuuilx-r of 
nuMnh«'i-s is not V(>ry great, yet it is ('([Uiilly tiue that tlio 
iVFethofh'st ministry is liighly l)en(^licial to many wlio from 
various causes are not recognized as inendjcrs, and tliat 
it operates as a sovereign antidote against Antinoniianism, 
a (h'leterious weed that vegetates in tiiis soil, and wliich 
would, I feai-, soon overrun the whole land, were our 
missionaries to be withdrawn." 

'J'he fllfct of Methodist t(>aching upon i-cligious ])odi«'S 
holding a (Jalvinistic creed lias been very ;ipparent. The 
pi'ecise measure of influence may not Ix; so evi<lent as in 
the American republic, where, after long discussion of the 
" five points" in pulpit and press, New England theology 
first modified somewhat the ofl'ensiveness of its positions, 
and then, later, permitted grim Oiiigrcgational cluuvhes 
to swing their doors both ways, until their pul})its pro- 
claimed a salvation for all, and their congregations adopted 
a new platfoj-m, respecting which the best opinion has 
said : " The new cree.l contains no Calvinism.'"' If the 
pleaching in the T.ower Provinces of a full and free 
salvation has not yfjt led to a call for a new creed, from 
the adherents of Calvinistic branches of the Christian 
Church, it has awakened on th*^ part of many of them a 
strong symi>athy with those who are elsewhere seeking such 
a revision of doctrinal standards as shall not relegate an 
un(pialified declaration of the love of CJod to mere " foot- 
notes." This doctrine of a divine remedy as far-reaching 
in its provisions as is the curse it is designed to remove, 
and limited only as to extent of oi)eration by the choice of 
a moral agent, has at least so permeated other denomina- 
tions that the theories of predestination, election and 
reprobation are no longer heard as they a half-century since 






were in several sections of the Maritime Provinces. The 
military autliorities who, to preserve unquestioned the 
ownership of Imperial property, put a sentry on a certain 
day of each year at the entrances of certain paths, shov/ 
a keener regard for vested rights than do certain theologians 
for the possession of ground once boldly trodden and firmly 
held. As has V>een said : " If the religious history of the 
past reveals anything, if the theological drift of the Chris- 
tianity of to-day portends anything, they go clearly to show 
that Arminianism and not Calvinism — the Arminianism 
of Arminius himself and of Wesley, and not the Pelagian- 
ism that unhappily has sometimes been known by that 
name — is to be the orthodox creed of the future." '' Many 
Presbyterians of the Maritime Provinces will have no hesi- 
tation in accepting, with a local application, the .sentiments 
of Howard Crosby, D.D., as given in a note addressed by 
him to the chairman of one of the most important Metho- 
dist gatherings of recent years in New York. Said Dr. 
Crosby : " The blessing of the Lord has been with the 
Methodist Church from the beginning, and all who love the 
Lord will pray for its continued prosperity. Its influence 
on our Presbyterian Church has been most beneticent, 
helping us to a more just view of divine truth and a more 
active zeal in its preaching." In this statement may be 
read a guarded reference to the change that has taken place 
in thousands of Presbyterian churclies, and to the processes 
of assimilation— not wholly contined to one side — by which 
as an English Wesleyan theologian has remarked, " Our 
theology is becoming one, and the basis for a closer com- 
munion between these separate branches of the Christian 
Church is being laid." 

But the influence of Provincial Methodism has not ended 

5 It is said tliat Dr. Chalmers, in refuting some of the tenets of 
Arminianism, was accustonifd to say to his students that he did not 
mean the Arminianism of John Wesley. 



with the modification of tlie pulpit teachings of other sections 
of the Church. Its evangelistic methods have pervaded and 
modified and uplifted other branches of the Church of Christ. 
The bell calling for attendance at the solemn watch-night 
service of the closing year is rung in the towers of Episcopal 
churches; meetings of young (Hiristians, similar in some 
respects to class-meetings, are held in Presbytei'ian churches; 
mission and revival services, such as once attracted towards 
Methodism onlv the finger of scorn and the smile of con- 
tempt, are now l)eing adopted by others with all the zeal of 
a new departure ; and methods of Christian work, once 
peculiar to her, are becoming so common to all that she no 
longer occupies the isolated })Osition of earlier days. In 
her liistory the Cireat Head of the Churcli has been pleased 
to fulfil the patriarchal prediction : " Joseph is a fruitful 
bough, even a fruitful bough by a well, whose l)ranches run 
over the wall." 

In the advocacy of philanthropic agencies and reforms 
Provincial Methodism has not fallen to tiie rear of other 
denominations. Her ministers, in relation to the great 
temperance reform, have led their English Methodist 
brethren by a half-century at least. The latter, with some 
noble exceptions, have been a century and more behind their 
great leader. Wesley it was who, in 1739, demanded of 
the members of his societies a pledge as strongly prohi))i- 
tory of the sale and use of intoxicating drinks as any that 
has ever been presented. It was he, who, in a letter to the 
itight Hon. William Pitt, on September 6th, 1784, most 
vigorously denounced the trallic, charging it with the death 
annually of twenty thousand of the " king's liege subjects," 
and who, with an unwonted vehemence wrote to the same 
-Statesman: "All who sell these licpiors to any tliat will 
buy are poisoners-general. They murder His Majesty's 
subjects by wholesale ; neither do they ever pity or spare." 
" Blindness in part " must have " happened to Israel " when 







1 ' 








f I 

American Methodists for a time relaxed Wesley's rule 
respecting intoxicants, and i^higlish ^letliodists unblush- 
ingly transgressed a law they had not courage to expunge 
or grace to observe. A better record, blurred, it is true, 
in the earlier, and occasionally in the later stages, may be 
claimed for Provincial Methodism. Those eight courageous 
pioneers, who, in April, 1828, at JJeaver River, in tlie 
county of Yarmouth, formed, as is believed, the tirst al 
abstinence society in Canada, and attached to their pledge 
a prayer for divine aid which they never dishonored, soon 
found earnest and able advocates of their principles in 
several Methodist ministers who had broken loose fr'om the 
trammels of 12nglish iutluence. The results ui early e Vort 
in this direction must have added t<j the satisfaction idth 
which John 13. Strong, Michael Pickles and several oti ers 
reviewed at a good old age their labors in the country of 
their adoption. A similar stiind was taken in Pernuida by 
Theophilus Pugh. So sad had been the influence of drink- 
ing habits in those beautiful islands that a leading man 
there a few years ago informed his pastor that, of the 
several young men included in the earliest society class of 
which he was a niember, he only had escaped ruin through 
them. To Jngham Sutclitle belongs the credit of having, 
soon after his arrival in Newfoundland, protested success- 
fully against a continuance of the custom of using wines, 
etc., during the sessions of the annual gathering, a practice 
which, in spite of the presence of such whole souled and 
successful temperance workers as Charles Garrett, T. J-5ow- 
man Stephenson, D.D., and many others, prevailed in Eng- 
land until ISSSj when a committee of the leading ministers 
and laymen of the Cornwall District, in making arrange- 
ments for the Conference of that year, to be held in their 
county, unanimously decided that no other than non-intoxi- 
cating beverages should be procurable on the Conference 


ey's rule 
1 expunge 
t is true, 
s, may be 
r, in tlie 
tirst al 
eir pledge 
ored, soon 
Luciples in 
e fi'oni the 
?arly eTort 
Lction -,ath 
eral otl ers 
country of 
ierniuda by 
;e of drink- 
fading man 
lat, of the 
ety class of 
lin through 
of having, 
ed success- 
sing wines, 
I, a practice 
souled and 
Itt, T. Bow- 
Jled in Eng- 
Icr ministers 
[ng arrange- 
leld in their 



I'olicy of tlu' WcKlcyaii Missionary Society. Assistance. Missionary 
S'.ilifnie. Strong.,' opposition to it in Lower I'rovince.s. V'arions ])ro- 
posals for union. V'iewsof I)is(i'icts in 1S4.S on the subject. Outline 
of jilan proposed in 1S47. Suhsecpient propositions. Arrival of Dr. 
Beecliani in IS.V). Formation of Kastern British American Oon- 
ference. Keturn of l)r. Heecham to Jiritain. His earl}' (h-ath. 

In 1855, in accordance witli arrangements made by the 
English Wesk?yan Missionary Committee, the Metliodist 
Churcli in the Mai-itiine Provinces entei'ed upon a virtually 
independent caieer, the beneficial results of which were 
soon to be made evident. 

A word of criticism upon a policy so generous as that by 
which the ^Missionary Committee had for more than forty 
years been guided in its operations in liritish North Amer- 
ica must at tirst seem ungracious. The importance of the 
help given to the Methodists of tlie sevei-al provinces, and 
indirectly to the population at large, is beyond computation 
by the arithmetic of earth, but even from values only to be 
comprehended hereafter the idea of proportion is not to V>e 
excluded. Any careful student of Provincial Methodist 
history, keeping this fact in view, may with the deepest 
gratitude recall the genei-ous treatment received by Provin- 
cials of two generations fr^m the managers of tlie Wes- 
leyan Missionary Society, while he may at the same time, 
with thorough sincerity, question the wisdom of a policy 
which kept their agents in tightly-held leading-strings until 







tliey had sunk to a position of dependence, and which at the 
end of a forty-years' tei'ni presented the Wesleyan Method- 
ism of the Lower Colonies in the light of a fourth-rate divi- 
sion of the religious element of the country. Of this policy 
it may be said that its ado}>tion was perhaps only a natural 
result of the changing conditions of J^ritish Methodism, 
when the era of evangelization was giving way to that of 
organization, when her financial institutions were being 
created, and the complicated machinery of her modern 
denominational life was assuming much of its present form. 
Previous to the formation of the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society aid had been given to the scattered societies in the 
colonies, but the genera) managenient had been in great 
measure entrusted to the agents sent from Britain, or called 
into the work in the missions. ' With increased assistance, 
however, there came the exercise of a control previously 
unknown, which so hampered the Society's agents that even 
missionaries sent from Britain suljuiitted to it with reluc- 
tance.' In the endeavor to secure a thoroughly economical 
expenditure of the funds entrusted to them, '>e Committee 
for many years demanded from each station an account in 
detail of expenses, and then allowed a sum, including the 
income from the station, adetjuate to meet the annual ex- 

1 As late as 1820 the stations of the itinerants in the Lower Provinces 
were arranj^ed by themselves at their animal district meetings. About 
that period they were ordered to send to lOng'land a station-sheet for the 
following' year, wliieh ttius appeared in the pulilislied Kn{,dis]i Minntes, 
with such alterations as the (Jommittee mig'ht see fit to make, a year in 
advance of their actual residence on the circuit. The heart-hurningsand 
jealousies to whicli this system gave rise, and the impossibility of strict 
adlierence to it in all cases, led to so much hesitation in adopting it that 
the Committee, in 1825, in their general "Circular," called attention to 
tlK'ir rule, emphatically asserting that " No district has the power of 
definitive stationing, wliich lielongs wholly to tlie Conference." This 
j)ractice of pulilishing, a year in advance, aj)pointments for the whole 
nuHsion field, a great number of which, through the illness or deatli of 
missionaries or from other causes, never took effect, was ccmtinued until 
the organization of missions into conferences. Through it, the printed 
official Minutes, as far as the foreign stations are concerned, are not only 
unreliable for liistorical purposes, but are positively misleading. 



ich at the 
\ Method- 
rate divi- 
ihis policy 
a natural 
to that of 
vere being 
er modern 
3sent form. 
ities in the 
■n in great 
in, or called 
ts that even 
with reluc- 
account in 
hiding the 
annual ex- 

iver Provinces 
int:f.s. About 
-slu-et for the 
lish Minutes, 
[like, a year in 
jility of strict 
.oi>tinj? it that 
\\ attention to 

the power 




Ifor the whole 
Is or death t)f 
Kntinued until 
It, the ])rinted 

d, are not oidy 


penditure, thus estal)lisiiing a direct relation between the 
General Missiou Fund and each circuit, and challenging a 
growing dependence ; wiiile by their insistence upon the 
right to station each individual nnssionaty, they assumed a 
more complete responsibility for any financial losses in- 
curred by him at th« point at which they had placed him as 
their direct agent. This miimte control by a conniiittoe — 
sometimes, in fact, by a single secretary — resident at a dis- 
tance of neaily three thousand miles, had, in that day of 
slow postal connnunication, serious disadvantages. The 
intimate acquaintance of certain Wesleyan Secretaries with 
their distant charges has indeed been remarkable ;' but 
acquaintance with locality is but one, and perhaps the most 
simple, branch of knowledge necessary to the judicious 
direction of a mission in a new and distant country. 'I here 
are, in all such cases, prepossessions and prejudices, local 
peculiai'ities and jealousies— in a woid, a thousand subtle 
yet powerful influences which can never be described by the 
most subtle analyst of human nature, nor understood by the 
wisest of men at a distajice. It would be a base libel upon 
the excellent men who, with the highest and most unseltish 
motives, then stood at the head of Wesleyan mission work, 
to compaie in any way their management, as some have 
done, with England's former plan of governing India by a 
committee sitting in London, to the sore grief of that dis- 
tant land ; but certain it is that no one thoi-oughly familiar 
with the policy of the Wesleyan JNlissionary Society in 
British North America can deny that, in spite of a certain 

'^ It is said that a returned missionary from Africa could with difti- 
culty heiieve, as he talked of his station there u ith .lolin Iietehuui, that 
tliatcjfhcial had never seen tlie shores of the "Dark ( 'ontiTient." Nor 
was that secretary singular in his ac(iuaintance witli forei^Mi fields. Pre- 
decessors of liis are re'^iorted to have mapped (jiit other distant missions 
with an exactness sinnlar to that with wiiicli the Prussian Von Moltke 
traced out the roads over which tlie (ierman army was to carry destruc- 
tion and death into the very capital of fair France. 





discretionary power allowed at times to the chairman of a 
district, tlie fettered action of the Society's a;^ents, the fre- 
quent and apparently arbitrary removal of those aj^ents to 
other tields, and the spirit of dependence developed on the 
part of ministers and conj^regations, seriously lessened the 
sum total of the results which might have been attained 
through equally generous aid, under a policy permitting a 
larger degree of local management. 

Another serious result of this strict transatlantic manage- 
agemer\t lay in its tendency to check the growth of a native 
ministry. More than one young man, whoso life service 
proved of great advantage to the Mcithodism of the Lower 
Provinces, was only prevented from giving his best days to 
another country by the strong persuasion of those who had 
discerned his worth ; but others, confident of a call to the 
ministry, yet unwilling to be subjected to a tedious and 
uncertain process of admission to the work, and to be kept 
in waiting for severt;! years after the commencement of 
itinerant toil for an ordination conferred upon the youngest 
missionary sent out from Britain, quietly sought a sphere of 
Christian servrce elsewhere. Still another serious result 
was delay in the occupation of fields white unto harvest. 
More than once, while correspondence involving weeks and 
even months in transit was taking place, and the Committee, 
embarrassed by claims for the deficiencies of long supported 
circuits, .and by calls for an increase of agents in fielciS 
thoroughly heathen, were hesitating to increase financial 
responsibilities, other bodies, more Uhlan-like in their 
movements, stepped in and took possession of sections of 
tl-e country whence the cry, "Come over and help us," had 
first been addressed to Methodism, In the of some 
strictures o'l the foreign mission work of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, a Southern leader has aptly 
t'e!)]i\rl?ed that " wl^eu ^.w^ricuu Methodism wfts directed 



man of a 
bs, the fre- 
ayents to 
)ed on the 
ssened the 
n attained 
ii-initting a 

tic numage- 
of a native 
the Lower 
) days to 
3se who had 
call to the 
tedious and 
I to be kept 
'ncement of 
he youngest 
t a sphere of 
i-ious result 
nto harvest, 
weeks and 
iig supported 
iits in tiekis 
,se tinancial 
Ike in their 
sections of 
elp us," had 
rse of some 
|e Methodist 
has aptly 
was directed 

by letters fi-om London — though John Wesley wrote them — 
Ashury was a crippled and little-regaided deputy-superin- 
tendent. When Ashury wiis a real superintendent^ repre- 
senting tlie Church, tiiere was power and progress." This 
remark, with some accommodation to circumstances, would 
not be wholly inapplicable to Methodism in the past in the 
Lower Provinces. 

Tn Justice to the distinguished nuMi who guided tlie 
aftairs of the INlissionary Society during the eai-lier yeai-s of 
its history, it should l)e said that they soon foresaw the 
danger likely to attend their policy, and endeavored in 
some measure to avert it. hi LSiM, lliehard Watson, tiion 
one of the Secretaries, wrote to William 'iVmple : "You 
nmst all exert yourselves to excite the people to support 
their own ministry and feel compassion for your neighbors. 
You must not let the spirit of /)au/)erisni and dependence on 
the Comn)itte«; get ascendency among them. W"e have it 
from yourselves that some of the stations which are now 
very dependent might sup[)ort themselves." Four years 
later, upon the division of the old Nova Scotia District into 
two distinct sections, the Committee informed the minist(n"s 
of both districts that they had deemed it " desirable to fix 
a sum yeai' by year beyond which they cannot make any 
grant to missions." A policy of Provincial Methodist 
" home-rule " might then have hastened the era of self- 
support ; but the opportunity was not embraced, expenses, 
as before, were increased by the distant management, 
missionaries clung more closely in a sj)irit of deptuidence to 
the Committee which had sent them across the ocean or 
called them out from the mission ciicuits, and the corres- 
pondence for thirty years between the secretaries and the 
chairmen of districts became painfully monotonous in its 
repeated importunities on the part of tlie chairmen and 
expostulatory yieldings on the part of the Committee, 





From attempts by the Committee, during tlie later years of 
that period, to regulate their grants in accordance with the 
contributions of the districts to the general fund of the 
Parent Society, occasional misunderstandings arose, to the 
pain of ardent friends of missionary enterprise and to the 
checking of liberality. Beset thus with difficulties, the 
missionary authorities kept a jealous eye upon any move- 
ment which might in any way increase the financial respon- 
sibility of their ministers, and not once only painfully, and 
perhaps unnecessarily, fettered them in attempts to develop 
a Colonial Methodist literature or to found denominational 
educational institutions. 

An expedient adopted by the Committee, in the endeavor 
to lessen their financial burdens without contracting the 
spiiere of their work, was the extension to the ^Maritime 
Provinces of the "Assistant Missionary " system, originally 
designed, it would seem, for purely heathen countries. 
The "assistant missionary,'' according to a "Compendium 
of Instructions and llegulations," published in 1832 for 
the private use of missionaries, had not, " under any circum- 
stances, a claim to labor in Britain." He could not be a 
n)ember of the "Legalized Fund." Such missionaries could 
have no claim upon the regular allowances ; but as their 
cases would vary, the sum for their support was to be mat- 
ter of negotiation, to be confirmed by the Committee. 
Their "real wants, according to their habits and former 
situation, were, however, to be economically supplied.'' 
They had no claim on the Conference Funds, but "their 
care in sickness and age, and that of their widows and 
children, would be kindly considered by the Committee as 
they should occur." With the consent of the superintend- 
ent and chairman of the district, they were at liberty when 
in full connexion to administer the ordinances of baptism 
and the Ijord's-supper " in places where a regular mission^ 


V _ 



years of 
with the 
d of the 
je, to the 
id to the 
dties, the 
my move- 
[\,1 respon- 
fully, and 
:o develop 

3 endeavor 
icting the 
1832 for 
nv circum- 
[d not be a 
iries could 
t as their 
to be mat- 
Ind former 
ut ♦' their 
dows and 
nnittee as 
lerty when 
f baptism 
,r mission- 

ary could not be present," but this privilege was *' to be 
allowed cautiously, especially in India and other heathen 
countries." In all cases tliese assistant niissionari(;s had 
the right of appeal both to the district mooting and to the 
Committee. It at the same time in the power of 
"foreign district meetings" to recounnend any one em- 
ployed for four years or more as an assistant missionary to 
be received as " a regular preacher," the years of his employ- 
ment as an " assistant " to be counted in case of his recep- 
tion as if ho had been received on trial as a " regular mis- 
sionary." To the Committee, in view of this condition, 
it appeared advisable that " not only those should be 
received on trial as assistant missionaries who were likely to 
remain througli life in that capacity, but also all candidates 
for the ministry, without exception, who should be raised up 
on foreign stations." The intended application of the system 
to the Provincial work may be learned from a letter from 
Robert Alder to Richard Knight in 1834, in reference to 
the reception on trial of a certain young preacher. " The 
Head of the Church," the Secretary wrote, "appears to be 
making plain our way in British American Districts by 
raising up a native agency, and it is probable that instead 
of incurring the expense of sending out regular missionaries 
from this country to those provinces and supporting them 
there on the English scale of allowances, the Committee will 
employ a greater number of agents raised up on the spot, 
who, because they are inured to the climate and familiar- 
ized with the circumstances and facilities of tiie country, will 
be able to live with equal comfort at a much less expense 
than persons from this country can. And then by employ- 
ing assistant missionaries only we can avoid what is becoming 
a most serious consideration — bringing additional burdens 
U])on the Legalized Fund." 

From the beginning, the attempt to introduce this system 


History of MEfiwDtsM 


into the Lower Provinces was earnestly withstood by the 
leading English ministers in the Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick Districts. Richard Knight and William Temple, 
chairmen, made no secret of their opposition to it ; and 
Enoch Wood, no less influential than the^y, expressed sur- 
prise that "any one out here," as llobeit Alder had been, 
"could for a moment indulge in such a theory." The Pro- 
vincial probationers at lirst made no very serious demur, but 
when, on the arrival of the ^[inutes of 18.S7, i^ was found 
that Robert Cooney of Nova Scotia, and William Bannister 
of New Brunswick, who had been the first to bear the new 
title in the North American colonies, had, with a native 
Ceylonese brother, been received into " full conne.xion at 
the Conference of that year as assistant missionaries only, 
deep dissatisfaction was expressed, especially by the junior 
men of the New Brunswick District. The agitation was 
increased by the arrival during the autumn of that year of 
two English brethren, fully prepared by ordination at the 
very beginning of their ministerial career for the perfor- 
mance of all required duties. In view of the general dissatis- 
faction, William Temple, chairman of the New Brunswick 
District, forwarded to the Committee, in March, 1838, a 
most able paper. Through this document he informed that 
body that the proposed scheme might do for the missions in 
India, Africa, and some other quarters, " where the natives 
cannot but accord to Europeans the sincerest deference on 
account of character, intelligence and oflice," but that " in 
this country, whose natives apprehend no such superiority, 
and where a general wish prevails to foster native talent, 
supposed to be fully equal to any importation," the case 
was widely different. "Already," he added, "we are 
beginning to feel the consequence of Brothers Bannister 
and Cooney appearing on the Minutes as received into 
full connexion as assistant missionaries only." Persistence 



id by tlie 
incl New 
II Temple, 
) it ; and 
•essed sur- 
hiid been, 
The Pro- 
lemur, but 
was found 
XV tlie new 
1 a native 
inexion at 
aries only, 
the junior 
tation was 
hat year of 
lion at the 
,he perf or- 
al dissatis- 
h, 1838, a 
3rmed that 
missions in 
he natives 
'erence on 
t that " in 
ive talent, 
" the ease 
" we are 
eived into 

in such a course, lie assured the Ensjflisli authorities, 
must be followed by inevitable disaster, tlir-ou^'h the depar- 
ture of young minist(;rs to the Methodist Kjjiscopal Church 
in the United States, or to the niinistrv of other denomina- 
tions nearer home. "The anomaly," he went on to say, "of 
restraining ukmi fully devoted to the ministry of Christ, and 
our equals in piety and usefulness, from administering the 
sacraments excepting in special cases, would be exceedingly 
burdensome, if not impracticable. , . . In such cases we 
might anticipate division, and the synipathies of our people 
would most generally accompany the class that would be con- 
sidered as unneces.sarily degi-aded, and degraded merely 
because not sent out by the Committee " In ecpially strong 
terms he also assured his British fathers and brethren, as the 
Nova Scotia chairman had pi-eviou.sly done, that no assistant 
missionary could be more economically supported than the 
" Regulars," whose salary, in the face of expenses not borne 
by ministers in England, was smaller than that received on 
the poorest English circuit." In Newfoundland alone the 
measure was entertained with satisfaction, for there it 
seemed to open up the way for the full and permanent em- 
ployment of several excellent men who had been engaged in 
the colony for some years as local preachers and teachers of 
Wesleyan day-schools. This it, however, failed to do, the 
name of one candidate only from the colony — of another 
class — having found a place upon the JNIinutes under the 
new designation. 

To earnest protests against the proposed system no very 
definite replies were received. Under these circumstances 
the .senior ministers hesitated to recommend young men ; 
young men previously accepted, protested against the posi- 
tion they weie forced to occupy ; and morf* than one intending 
candidate sought entploymeiit in other fields. In January, 
1840, S. D. Rice wrote from Sydney, C.B., where his 




. I 

in'cseiicc iin(l(!r peculiar oii-cuiiistauces was a very stroiif; 
proof of (l(Miominatioiial loyalty, that Ih^ was '' (let<u'iiiiiM'(l 
to niaiiitaiii tlic point until " his "life's oiul a;,'aiiist th<^ 
al)OiMinal)le appoiulaj^o." The ohjcnrtioiiahlo " appcuda/^c,' 
nevertheloss, contiinuHl to he used for s«'veral years, a}»pear- 
in<^ for the last time in tlie Minutes of 1H4G, wIumi three 
youiif; ministers in the Nova Scotia and Prince Edward 
Island, and two in the New lirunswick, District, received the 
aj>pellation, which at that p(M-iod had come to lie scarcely 
more than anotluM' name for " probationers "' or "preachers 
on trial." Of those who, at ditlercMit periods during the ten 
years' use of a dt^si^gMiation generally understood to imply 
inferiority, bore the title of "Assistant Missionary,' one 
died as senior "general superintendent of the Methodist 
Church of the Dominion, Newfoundland and l>ermuda ; two 
became presidents of the Conference of Eastern British 
America, both having loeen also elected to the otlice of book- 
steward and editor ; while a fourth filled the chair of 
co-delegate in the same Conference. Another was also 
mourned at liis departure as a most successful chairman and 
superintendent of missions in aWest Indian District. Among 
them were men who became leaders in the Methodist educa- 
tional work in the Provinces, and who more than once stood 
on the platform of the English Conference as representa- 
tives of Provincial or Dominion Methodism. Others als- 
occupied leading circuits in the several provinces. 

The only alternative before the Committee now lay in i 
promotion of a scheme for the organization of their missions 
in the British North American provinces into one or more 
comparatively independent Conferences, at the earliest pos- 
sible period. Such a scheme had already received some 
attention from the Missionary Committee. The arrange- 
ment of a union, to embrace the whole of the British North 
Auiericau Dis ricts was,, it can scarcely be doubted, one of 

oitiiAxr/ATios or ('(^s^FPJiExci:. 



ifJlillKt tlio 

i-s, !il>l>eiu-- 
vliou three 
le Edward 
i^ceived the 
)e scurcoly 
" preachers 
ill'' tlie ten 
I to imply 
nary," one 
luuda ; two 
eru Britisli 
ce of book- 
3 chair of 
• was also 
airman and 
ct. Among 
(dist educa- 
once stood 
3thers als( 

lay in ti»<* 
kir missions 
lu! or more 
larliest pos- 
liived some 
le arrange- 
Itish North 

bed, one of 

the princij)al oUjocts contemplated in Kohert Alder's visit 
to Canada in IS.'i'J, and in the way of its aciMHiiplishmciit. 
the editor of the Cliristimi (ritardutu, tiiu org.'in of I'ppcr 
C-anada Methodism, saw tli<Mi no ditlicuity. At that pfiind 
the legislative etlorts previously made for tin- pi-omotion of 
intei'-provincial communication and trade seemed likely to 
be crowned with success, as the steamer lioi/nl William^ 
built specially for tlu; purpose, had been j^laced on the route 
betw(!en Halifax and Quebec, with instructions to call at 
some intermediatf! ports. The experience of a year or two, 
however, proved the project of a closer commercial relation 
between the Upper and Lower Provinces to be premature, 
and the abandonment of elFort in that direction s<'ems to 
have been followed by a relinquishment of the ecclesias- 
tical aim.^ The efforts of the Missionary Secretaries in 
1835, to secure; a triennial meeting ot the ministers of the 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Districts, in which purpose 
they were thwarted by some of the missionaries on the 
ground, were believed to be by way of preparation for 
a confederation of the districts. In December, 183;), Enoch 
Wood wrote to a brother minister : " The plan of indepen. 
dency is not new to my mind. It has been plain enough 

3 The political imiun of tlie British North American colonies had long 
I'cen €'1 (lisciiisst'd (lue.stion. In 1S08, Richard John l-niacke hiid intro- 
diiced the .sul)ject before the legislature of Nova Scotia; and in 1824, 
Chief Justice Sewall, the Rev. John Strachan and the lion. .). H. liohin- 
son, of the Upper Provinces, presenttnl to the Colonial Minister a plan 
for the union of the several liritish American provinces, l)Ut .lames 
Stuart, to whom the plan was njferred hy tlie Knglish otticial, reported 
against it. A year later the legislature of Lower < 'anada authorize(l the 
government to offer the sum of tl.oUO per year as a sul)sidy for a steam 
.service l'<'tween <.2iii-''«'-' ''■'"^ Halifax, to which the Nova .Scotia legisla- 
ture ad d an offer of half that amount. As a result the Jtoi/nl Wi/liuni 
\vas bvult in (.^ueljec and furnished with machinery constructed at Mont- 
real, and was placed on the 1 imposed route. After having run between 
Halifax and (2uel)ec for the two .seasons of lH8li and IHIW, she was with- 
drawn from the route "l)ecauseof insufficiency of business." On their 
reiiiov. 1 from Windsor to Lower Canada, in 1833, William Croscombt! 
and hi iamily took passage in the Roiial WiUinrn. A [lolitical union of 
several provinces was also recommended b}' Lord Durham, in 183li, in 
his report to the British goverunient. 



from the Conirnittee's own communications that they have 
been aiming at this for a long time." After liaving asserted 
his belief that a union with Nova Scotia, Newfoundland 
and Quebec was not likf ly to result in any direct benefit to 
Methodism in \(iw lirunswick, the far-sighted writer went 
on to say : "And yet I like the idea of being free 'mighty 
well.' Some of the Con)mittee's regulations retard ratlier 
than advance the work. Their prohibition about new 
circuits — see this applied to Miramichi and Grand Manan ; 
against any official puijlications l)y us— see their fiat about 
the ' Nova .Scotia and N'ew lirunswick Magazine'; and then 
their interference alxjut the appointments. . . . If it 
can be adjusted you may depend upon it our people would 
be more interested in the work, and we should generally 
increase. A general superintendent would be of 'immense 
advantage' to us and our cause." Difficulties in Canada 
caused further delay in the considtM-ation of the larger 
scheme, but at the meeting of representatives of the two 
districts in Halifax, in 1S39, Dr. Aldc^r submitted the 
subject, among others, of the uniop. of the missions in Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island into one 
Conference, consisting of three districts, but lefi the minis- 
ters free to report their views at the nrxt meetings- 
In 1841 it was airain understood by leading Provincial 
ministers that a North American Conference, with trienniil 
sessions, was to be established, but it was not until 1843 
that a pro[)osition for " the consolidation of the whole of 
our work in Jiritish North America" reached the ministers 
of the sevtM-al di.stri<;ts, Xewfoumlland included, with a 
request for oi)inions and suggestions uj-on it, for the "infor- 
mation and guidance " of the Committee. The replies 
from the districts were not reassuring; the " magniiicent 
distances" and absence of communication between the 
several points weighing not less heavily against the ecclesias- 



tical, than tlio political, union. In addition, the members 
of the Newfoundland District found adverse reasons in the 
" peculiar tinancial reverses " to which that colony was 
suV)ject, and in " their judgment, founded on experience," 
that " scarcely any of the changes with other North Ameri- 
can Districts had worked well, owing to the varied unfitness 
of the Ijretliren who have come from them, to engage in the 
toils and self denial attendant on this mission." The minis- 
ters of the New Jiruuswii-k District, while disapproving 
of an annual Conference of the several North Amei-ican 
provinces, gave it as their opinion that it might he advisable 
and expedient to divide Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island into at least four districts, and to 
holfi a triennial oi" (juadrenniiil Conference or Convention, 
to }>e composed of members from the various district meet- 
ings, when such interchanges could l)e effected between 
ministers of various districts as might be deemed necessary, 
and general Inisiness could be transacted, all arrangements 
and decisions to be subject to the control of the British 

At a meeting of the members of the Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick Districts, held at Sackville in June, 1S47, 
a j)roposal from the Secretaries, in accordance with the reso- 
Jutions of the New F3runswick brethren in 184.'?, came up 
for discussion Fortv-six ministers met at Sackville from 
the tliree provinces to confer, upon the topic of consolidation, 
with Robert Alder, who had just succeeded in the tinal re- 
e^itablishment of union between the iiritish and Upper 
Canada Conferences. Having transacted the usual annual 
business, and awaited for a time the ai-rival of the Secretary, 
they discussed the proposition, expressed their cordial ap- 
proval of it, promised to any basis of union laid before them 
their " most serious and pi-actical attention," and having 
been in session nearly a foi'tnight, separated for their vari 




I i 

ous appoiiitnients. On July 1 9tli, in accordance with a call 
from Dr. Alder, eighteen of their number, from both dis- 
tricts, with Matthew Richey, A.M., from Canada, met in 
session at Halifax, where Dr. Alder had arrived on the 
previous day. In tliis list were Richard Knight and Alex- 
ander \V. McLeod, ciiairniau and secretary of the Nova 
Scotia and Prince Edward Island District ; with Enoch 
Wood and William Temple, holding the same offices in the 
New Brunswick District. Over the two days' business 
Matthew Kichey presided at the request of the visiting 
Secretary, who was unequal to the performance of duty. 
In accordance with the wish of the latter, who desired a 
more definite expresssion of opinion than that given at 
Sackville, the assembled ministers unanimously decided it 
to be expedient that preparatory to the formation of a 
"Convention or Conference the work should be thrown into 
subdivisions," and then proceeded to form the forty-two 
circuits in the three provinces into four sections, under the 
names of the Halifax, Liver-pool, St. John, and Charlotte- 
town and New Brunswick North Districts, the several 
annual meetings to be held in .May, and the first session of 
the " British North American Conference " to be com- 
menced in St. John, N.B., on the first Wednesday in July, 
1848, at ten a.m., in accordance with a notice appended to 
tlie printed list of circuits and appointments. This plan, 
with an earnest appeal for a stated annual sum for the 
maintenance of the work, as well as a grant for past 
deficiencies, and a proposition foi" the establishment of a 
Contingent Fund, the ministers submitted to the Mission- 
ary Committee for their consideiation, asking, in case of its 
favorable reception, that, " whenever possible, the person 
who should be appointed as president of the Canada Con- 
ference might also preside at the Conference recommended.'' 
After an unexplained delay, communication was re-opened 




with a call 
(1 both dis- 
ci a, met in 
k^ed on the 
b and Alex- 
' the Nova 
ivith Enoch 
(ffices in the 
ys' business 
the visiting 
ce of duty, 
lo desired a 
lat given at 
y decided it 
ination of a 
! thrown into 
|he forty two 
IS, under the 
,d Charlotte- 
the several 
Irst session of 
to be corn- 
day in July, 
appended to 
This plan, 
sum for the 
,nt for past 
shment of a 
Ithe Mission- 
in case of its 
I, the person 
anada Con- 
as re opened 

in 1849 with the chairmen, whose views were asked re- 
specting a " North American Conference, witli Federal 
Conferences, embracing Eastern Canada, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and Western Canada," with a " view to ren(U3r 
our colonial missions more independent in action and more 
entirely self-supported." In ]\Iarch, 1850, at a nuseting of 
the General Committee in London, the Secretaries were 
requested to prepare a sketch of a plan for the organization 
of such a conference. Matters at last seemed ripe for a 
union of the circuits in the Lower Provinces' Disti-icts at 
least, when the teri'ihle disruption in English Methodism, 
in 1849-52, assumed its greatest propoi'tions, and the attack 
upon the management of the Missionary Society, ending in 
the necessary withdrawal of one leading olHcial, and tlie 
subsequent and legi'etted I'etirement of another, caused for 
a time the suspension of all })roposed arrangements icspect- 
ing the foreign Held not demanding instant attention. I'he 
only changes in I'lastern British American territory during 
this period of strife, were the transfer of l>ermuda in 1849 
to the Nova Scotia District, and the division of that district, 
in 1852, into the Nova Scotia Western District and the 
Nova Scotia East and Prince Edward Island District. 

In 1855 a long deferred measure was in pai't matured. 
The scheme of a general union of the several mission sec- 
tions in Bi'itish North America-^a pet purpose in all prob- 
al)ility of the amlntious mind of Robert Alder — was for the 
time abandoned, and a special delegate, sent out by the 
Committee to assist in the consolidation of Methodism in 
the Upi)er Provinces, was authorized to visit the Lower 
Colonies and give assistance in the foi'mation of the circuits 
in the several districts in those provinces and in Newfound- 
land into a separate Conference. 

The delegate chosen foi" the performance of these impor- 
tant duties was John Beecham, D.D., senior Missionary 




Secretary. A detailed statement of his services to Meth- 
odism, subse(|uent to liis appointment as a secretary in 1831, 
would recjuire reference to ahnost every event of impor- 
tance to tlie denomination in Britain and her dependencies 
during the twenty-four years of his official service. Tlie 
West Indies had been hii-gely indebted to him for that 
direction of their missions during the period immediately 
preceding the abolition of slavery which had won for him 
the regard of Thomas Olarkson and Thomas Fowell Buxton; 
to his intelligent and repeated applications to the War- 
office, New Zealand had owed the maintenance of the treaty 
of Waitangi, the Magna Cliarta of the Maoris and the 
colonists; while by his f?;eutlemaidy and candid intercourse 
with the officers and committees of other religious societies 
a sincere respt^ct had been secured for the principles and 
position of that section of the Church of which he was a 
i-epresentative. Of the regard entertained for him by his 
nearer brethi'en, adequate proof was given by their choice 
of him in 1850 — a critical period in the denominational 
historv— as chief officer of the British Conference, 

On May 24th, 18.");"), Dr. Beecham landed at Halifax. There, 
on the following morning, he met the ministers of the Nova 
Scotia Western District, and a day or two later held a 
lengthy conversation with a numb(;r of the official members 
of the Methodist churches in the city. Thence he proceeded 
with l)r. liichey to Amherst, to meet there the ministers 
of the Nova Scotia East District. On .lune 1st he explained 
his mission to the ministei's of the New Brunswick District, 
assembled iti St. John, and on the following day addressed 
forty and more laymen upon the same topic. In each place 
he received a hearty welcome. On his return from Up})er 
Canada he was accompanied by Enoch Wood and John 
Ryerson, president and co-delegate of the Canada Confer- 
ence. Delegates from the several sections concerned met in 




BS to Meth- 
ry in 1831, 

b of impor- 

rvioe. The 
ini for that 
won for him 
veil Buxton ; 
to the War- 
of the treaty 
oris and the 
cl intercourse 
ious societies 
,rinciples and 
hich he was a 
)r him \)y l"S 
y their choice 


^alifax. There, 
;s of the Nova 
later held a 
cial members 
I he proceeded 
the ministers 
the explained 
Avick District, 
|day addressed 
In each place 
|n from Upper 
,od and John 
:inada Oonfer- 
.cerned met in 

Halifax, among them Thomas Angwin, John S. Addy and 
Samuel W. 8prague, from Newfoundland, and the venerahle 
Isaac Whitehouse, from Bermuda. The sessions of the 
Conference were commenced on July 1 7th in the Rruns%vick- 
street ciiurch, when the chair was taken bv Dr. Beecham, 
and William Temple was elected secretary. The chairman 
of this provisional Conference then laid upon the table the 
unanimously adopted resolutions of the several district 
meetings upon the object of his mission. Addresses having 
been given by Messrs. Wood, Ryerson, Knight, and the 
veneral)le William Bennett, and the resolutions of the dis- 
trict meetings having rendered unnecessary any discussion 
of the general question, the Confei-ence then proceeded with 
business according to the order observed by the parent 

By this Conference the " missions in Nova Scotia, Prince 
Edward Island, Cape lireton. New Brunswick, Newfound- 
land and Bermuda " were constituted a " distinct but, 
affiliated conntxion, to be called 'the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist Connexion' or 'Church, of Eastern British America.'" 
The plan adopted — with some modifications in detail to 
adapt it to local circumstances — was that on which the 
English Conference in ISoL' had formed its missions in 
Fi'ance into an atliliated Conference. The tei-ritory of the 
Conference was divided into seven districts, known as Hali- 
fax, St. John, Charlottetown, Fredericton, Sackville, Ann- 
apolis and Newfoundlantl, the Bernuida mission being 
included in the Halifax District. In accordance with the 
recognized right of the British Confeience to appoint year 
l>y y Jir the chief officers, as long as it should see tit so to do 
Dr. Beecham became president, and, by election of the Confer- 
ence, Matthew Ricliey, D.D., became co delegate, and 
William Temple secretary. The auxiliary lelation of the 
societies in the .several districts to the English Missionary 



Society remained unchanged, and the British Conference 
maintained tlie right to disallow any measure passed hy the 
new Conference, provided that such right were exercised with- 
in twelve months from the passage of the measure. As far as 
possible the financial systen» of tlie Parent Confcirence was 
adopted, arrangements heing made for the organization and 
support of several special funds— the Contingent, supple- 
mented by any English grant, to meet deficiencies of poorer 
circuits, extend the Avork of God, and as its name implies, to 
pro\ide for any peculiar exigencies arising through the year 
— I he Children's, to equalize the burden of large families 
upon the circuits, and thus remove a serious difficulty in the 
allotment of stations — the Supernumerary, for the aid of 
enfeebled ministei's and ministers' widows — and, finally, a 
fund for the education of ministers' children. In order to 
enlist the sympathies and active co-operation of the laity, 
the committees having the management of these funds were 
constituted of equal numbers of ministei's and laymen. 
Circuit stewards were requested to be present at the annual 
district meetings during the transaction of financial busi- 
ness, and also at the newly-arranged financial meeting in 
the autumn. The Provincial Wesleyan, previously published 
under the direction of the Nova Scotia District, was adopted 
as the official organ of the Conference, and a committee was 
appointed, with a view to the establishment of a Connexional 
book- room, in the placr; of tiie small branch office previously 
in existence. For the information of the circuits, in rela- 
tion to the new departure, the reports in the WcsJeyan were 
supplemented by the printing of a large edition of 
" Minutes," and the circulation of four thousand copies of 
the " Pastoral Address." 

Under wise direction the Conference reached a prompt 
and pleasant ternunation. On July 2r)th, tlie president, 
accompanied by the co delegate, the chairmen of districts 


5ed by the 

cised with- 
As far as 

i>rence was 

zation and 

n\t, supple- 

-s of poorer 

! implies, to 

«^h the year 

rge fannlies 

culty in the 

I- the aid of 

id, finally, a 
In order to 

of the laity, 

e funds were 
,nd laymen. 

,t the annual 

tiancial busi- 
meeting in 
ily published 
was adopted 
immittee was 
Connexion al 
pe previously 
[uits, in rela- 
'sleyan were 
edition of 
,nd copies of 

-A a prompt 

Ihe president, 

of districts 



and several senior ministers, waited upon Sir J, (laspard Le 
Marchant, lieutenant-governor of Kova Scotia, and pre- 
sented hiin with au address wiiich elicited a most courteous 
renly ; and on the following day the Minutes of the first 
Conference of Eastern British Auierica received the official 
signature of the president and secretary. 

fn British America l)r. Beecham fully sustained the 
reputation so well earned at liome. In private intercourse 
he had endeared himself to all by his manly simplicity and 
unaffected kindness ; as a preacher he had im})ressed his 
hearers by his lucid and instructive exposition of sacred 
verities ; and throughout the sessions of the Conference he 
had shown himself to be wise and deliberate in advice and 
decided in action — a presiding officer at once digiiitied, 
discriminating, patient and courteous, and a thorough master 
of all questions connected with his mission. A visit to 
Newfoundland had been a part of his original design, but 
tliis purpose he was unable to fulfil ; the Conference there- 
fore deputed INIessrs. Richey and Knight to proceed to St. 
John's in his place. Having sailed on one of three steamers, 
which at the same hour left Halifax with Wesleyan minis- 
ters for England, Newfoundland and Bermuda, he reached 
Leeds on the last day of a long-protiacted Conference, only 
in time to render an account of his successful mission to 
his English bi'ethren. On that mission he had entei'ed in a 
spirit of self-sacrifice, and in its completion, with his usual 
devotion to his work, he had, it was believed, exerted him- 
self to an extent unwarranted by his physical health. On 
his arrival in England his friends urged rest, but he paid 
little heed to their advice until the following spring, when, 
at the urgent request of his medical attendant, he left 
official duties to seek the needed relaxation. That step, 
however, was taken too late, and the end was nearer tlian 
was supposed. On April 22nd, 1856, he closed a most use- 







ful life-service with a triumphant assurance to watching 
friends of "perfect peace ! perfect peace ! " A full-length 
portrait of this first president of the Eastern British 
American Conference, painted soon after his return to 
England, adorns the platform of Lingley Hall, Sackville, 
occupying a place opposite to that of Charles Frederick 

3turn to 





Englisli Presidents. Financial plans. Home Mission Societj'. Jubilee 
celebration. Territorial <^r()\vtli. Labrador. St. Pierre. Death 
of senior ministers. English ministerial recruits. Josej)!! Laurence. 
Membershij). Mount Allison College. Rook Room and " Wesleyan." 
Movements towards union with the Canadian Conference. Con- 
summati<jn of Union. Further Union in 1883. 

For a period of nineteen years the Methodism of the 
Lower Provinces retained the form of organization secured 
in 1855. Throughout those years, the latter of which were 
marked by pleasing development, the new Conference 
received important financial assistance from the Parent 
body, and derived valuable counsel from several of the 
more prominent men of English Methodism, The chair of 
the Conference was taken in 18G0 by William B. Boyce, 
previously a distinguished missionary to South Africa, and 
tirst president of the Australian Conference, who in 1861 
was elected one of the General Secretaries of the Wesleyan 
Missionary Society. In 1864 the business of the assembled 
ministers was guided by William Lockwood Thornton, con- 
nexional editor, and that year representative from the 
British Conference to the General Conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church of the United States and president 
of the Canadian Conference, as well as president of the 
British Conference. The occupant of the presidential 
chair in 1866 was George Scott, D.D,, a former very sue- 






cessful minister to Sweden, whose interest in the work in 
Eastern liritisli America ended only with his life ; and 
in 18G8 by VV'illiam Morley Punshon, English Methodism's 
most gifted orator, and in some respects the foremost man 
in the Methodist Church at large, who through husy years 
in England and in Canada, and through the possession and 
loss of beloved friends in eacli, became bound to botii hemi" 
spheres. Of the fifteen other Conference sessions, six were 
presided over by Matthew liichey, D. D., two by Humphrey 
Pickard, D.D., two by John McMurray, and one each by 
Charles De Wolfe, D.D., Henry Daniel, Henry Pope, Jun., 
James G. Hennigar, and Charles Stewart, D.I) , the session 
of 18G2 being the first to be presided over by a provincial- 
bom president and co-delegate. 

In a new and semi-independent position tiie financial 
interests of the denomination demanded the exercise of 
nmch judgment and tact. At the outset, while assuring tlie 
Conference of an extension for a time of the aid previously 
given by the Missionary Committee, Dr. Beecham had 
impressed both ministers and laymen witli the attainment 
of a position of self-support as an ainj to be steadily kept in 
view, in order to leave the Conunittee thoroughly free to 
devote undivided efibrt and funds to the promotion of 
missions in purely heathen countries. With a view to the 
wishes of the Committee, the several Wesleyan missionary 
societies in the provinces were in 1856 formed into one 
general association, designated the " Missionary Society of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church of Eastern British America, 
auxiliary to the Wesleyan Missionary Society," to be under 
the management of a conunittee, ten members of which 
should be laymen. Under this arrangement, a sum seldom 
larger than the grant from England, was annually contributed 
to the general fund, any material enlargement of the 
Provincial receipts being checked in great measure by the 
rapid growth of a highly popular Home Mission Society. 


SKETCH or ruoaREss. 


work in 
ife ; and 
lost n\an 
iisy years 
ssion and 
oth hemi- 
, six were 
} each by 
ope, Jun., 
the session 

» financial 
(xercise of 
ssurin^ tlie 
cliam had 
ly kept in 
ly free to 
amotion of 
sriew to the 
I into one 
Society of 
h America, 
^o be under 
; of which 
ium seldom 
ent of the 
ure by the 

Much importance was attached to tlie development of a 
Contingent Fund, " oiu^ of the oldest and most excellent 
charities of the British Conference," intended to meet the 
deficiencies of poorer circuits, and to extend the woik of 
God, as well as to provide for any unforeseen exii;<'nces in 
yearly service. Its sources of income were the annual 
missionary gratit and the subscriptions and collections in 
the congregations and classes. 

In 1858, to render the purpose of this fund more intelli- 
gible, the name of " Home Mission " was prefixed to its 
previous title. A minute of the Prince Edward Island 
District in 18G0, respecting the urgent necessity for some 
arrangement for the extension of the benefits of the Wes- 
leyan ministry to destitute portions of that island, led to a 
long conversation upon the desirableness of some general 
plan for the systematic extension of the work in all sections 
of the Conference territory ; the subject was, in consefjuence, 
referred to the Contingent Fund Committee foi- more care- 
ful consideration, and with instructions to present any feasible 
plan for the accomplishment of an end so important. No 
decided action, however, was taken until six years later, 
when, under the pressure of a proposed large reduction in 
the grant from England, and repeated deficiencies in min- 
isterial salaries to the extent of five thousand dollars per 
year, the Conference resolved that at the ensuing financial 
district meetings arranjjements should be made for the hold- 
ing of a Home Mission meeting that year on each circuit. 
At the same time a financial classification of circuits was 
resolved upon, in accordance with which all circuits 
raising less than four hundred dollars per year for circuit 
expenses, inclusive of the claims for the Children's Fund, 
should be rated as Home Missions. In 18G8, when 
deficiencies in salaries had reached the alarming figure of 
nine thousand dollars, the Conference further decided that 

'' w 



the Home Mission and Contingent Fund should be divided 
into two distinct funds — the, one to bo known as " The 
Home Mission, ' and the other as "The Contingent," Fund. 
The issue of this action proved most forcil)ly that the use 
of the word " Contingent " liad caused misapprehension of 
the real purpose of the fund, and had iiidden to some extent 
its vital importance to the Church. An immediate increase 
in the receipts led at the next Conference to some further 
adjustment of the relations of the two funds. The 
objects of the "Circuit Aid and Contingent Fund" were 
decided t(^ be tiie " maintenance of the church on estab- 
lished but dependent circuits, and the defraying of certain 
expenses necessarily incident to the operations of the Con- 
ference," its sources of income to be the subscriptions and 
collections in classes and congregations, and the amount 
of the grant by the Missionary Society to aid in the " susten- 
tation of the work formerly carried on under its immediate 
direction." The purpose of the " Home Mission F'und," 
as defined in the Minutes, was the " sustentation of the 
work on those more recently occupied fields of labor, which 
may with propriety be regarded as mission stations ; and 
its extension to destitute portions of territory yet unoccu- 
pied by our agencies." The income for such effort was to 
be sought in annual collections at puljlic meetings to be held 
at all the principal preaching-places throughout the Con- 
nexion, donations made for the promotion of the objects 
contemplated by the fund, and interest on moneys invested. 
A committee for the management of the new fund was 
composed of leading Conference officials, the chairmen of 
districts, two laymen to be appointed by the Conference, 
and one to be elected by the circuit stewards of each dis- 
trict. In 1870 the income of the fund amounted to nearly 
two thousand five hundred dollars, enabling the Conference 
to pay more than fifty per cent, of the deficiencies on a 

as " The 
,," Fund, 
i the use 
siisioii of 
le extent 
1 increase 
e further 
is. Tlie 
lid " were 
on estab- 
jf certain 
: the Oon- 
(tions and 
le amount 
e " susten- 
on Fund," 
ion of the 
jbor, which 
[tions ; and 
et unoccu- 
:brt was to 
to be held 
It the Con- 
lie objects 
s invested, 
fund was 
airmen of 
if each dis- 
|d to nearly 
Incies on a 



number of comparatively recent missions, and eliciting 
many inspiriting expressions of approval, oral and written, 
from influential members of the donomination. Iht^ Con- 
ference that year> at the suggestion of several laymen belong- 
ing to Halifax, orgjinized a Conference " Homo Mission 
Society," the annual anniversary to be held during the Con- 
ference session of each year. Through the recei})ts of the year, 
double in amount to those of the pre(;eding year, circuits 
which had becui cri{)j)le(l and embarrassed in pecuniary 
resourc(!S, weie furnished with timely aid ; lifilds which had 
been partially or wholly abandoned tor want of laborers were 
re-occupied ; and new stations were formed as centres of 
evangelistic ellort in thinly-pef)pled and spiritually destitute 
localities, while many straying souls were led to theii- Sa\ lour. 
The remaining years of the period saw only increased 
liberality and corresponding success. In 1^73, an ex- 
ecutive committee was appointed to nuike arrangements 
respecting new workers and new tields in tlu; interim of 
Conference sessions, and the autumn district meetings were 
charged with the duty of having any unsupplied circuits 
visited not less than four times in each year. At the end 
of tlie period under review, when the fund was about to be 
closed as a distinct source of income, its success had be- 
come most apparent. Its committee reported, at the final 
gathering of the members of the Eastern British American 
Conference, an income, including a large balance from the 
previous year, of fifteen thousand dollars ; a commendable 
interest on the part of the aided missions in the f'nancial 
work of the Church, as shown in the erection of churches 
and parsonages, repairs, and removal of debt on Conference 
property ; and, better than all, great spiritual prosperity, 
manifested in the large increase of membership on various 

The " Educational Fund for Ministers' Children," based 


i 'n 




upon tlie Kiii;^.swood s^.-IkkjI scheme of the Hritisli Coiiferencej 
was never |)0})ular, and tlie force of ;iny rtjason for its exis- 
tence was lessened hy the adoptioti in several proviiices of 
the free-school system. Its funds had been derived from sub- 
scriptions of ministers and collections in the congregations, 
and a considerable amount had l.>pen disbursed, when in 1870 
it was merged in the Kducational Soci((ty of the Conference, 
the principal objects of wiiich were the financial aid of young 
men in preparation at Mount Allison for the ministry of 
the (.^hurch, and the keeping more fully before the public of 
the rising educational institutions of the Connexion. The 
Children's Fund, unlike that just named, was closely con- 
nected with the tinar.cial constitution of the Church. Its 
purpose was to e«jualize the buiden of the larger families 
and to remove a .s*M-ious ditliculty in the allotment of 
stations; and its allowances were secured by a tax upon the 
circuits in accordance with the numbers in membership, the 
amount of which Ix'caine an imper.-itive demand upon the 
superintendent of each circuit. 

A more popular fund was that known as tlu^ Supernum- 
erary Ministers' and Ministers' Widows' Fund. At the 
outset it bore tlie name of the " Worn-out Ministers' Fund," 
the support for whicli was to be derived from an annual 
appeal to vhe classes and congregations. \\\ 185(5 the name 
was changed, and in l''^57 it was enacted that each minister 
and preacher on trial, not connect<'d with the Annuitant 
Fund of the English Conference, should })ay the sum of 
ten dollars an?iually. in advance. Other ministers were 
permitted to become members of the fund by a similar J)ay- 
ment, and the niendjersof the Church in the various circuits 
were urged to contribute through class cc itributions and 
chuich collections a sum e<jual to an average of ten cents 
per member. Certain sources of income were to be reserved 
for the formation and of a ca{)ital stock, wliile 





its exis- 
vhicrs oi 
troin sub- 
[ of younj; 
linistry of 

public of 
.(.n. The 
osely cou- 
irch. Its 
;r families 
otinent of 
c upon the 

u'ship, the 
upon the 

At the 
n-s' Fund," 
an annual 
|G the name 
1 minister 
he sum of 
isters were 
|imilar pay- 
)us circuits 
lotions and 
If ten cents 
It' reserved 
,ock, while 

others were set apart as curivnt income. Tlui fust lay 
treasurer oi this fund, (lilbert T. Kay, Ks(|., of St. -lohn, 
berjueatlied to it the sum of twelve liundri'd and lifty 
[><>unds, and made it a residuary legatee, and during the 
years IHO^-OT) it rerei\'e(l two legacies of one thousand 
dollars each from Martin (iay P>lack and the lion. William 
A. niack, sons of the pioneer nnnlster of h<uiored memory, 
as well as h'gacies of smaller amounts :!; various dates. 
Through the annual disbursements of tins fund, under the 
careful management of Humphrey Pickard, I ).])., and suc- 
cessive lay ti'easurers, not a few families of ministers who 
had spent their hest days in the service of (iod and for the 
highest inten'sts of their fellow men have been saved from 
actual need ; while othei's, possessed of liuuted means, have 
\>y its assistance been en.ihled to secure comforts wiiich 
must otherwisf^ liave been beyond their reach. 

In 1800 a committee was appointed to impure into ami 
take into consideration the state of Conne.xional [uojieity 
in general. A yeai- later the Conference decided that no 
[>arsonage sliould be built without peri.ussion from the 
district meeting, and that plans for model residences for 
ministers should be obtninf^d. Tn 1S()12 a Parsonajre Aid 
Fund, baseil upon a special grant given for that and several 
successive years by ti,e {'English Committee in aid of the 
erection of parsonages in Nova Scotia, New l>runswick and 
Prince Edward Island, was successfully launched. Duiing 
the next four years, by a cjireful administration of the 
moneys at the disposal of the nuinagers, the building of 
twelve new parsonages was pi-omoted, tiie purcliase of live 
dwellings for parsonages was secured, and six oi u's were 
relieved from the burdeii of debt. Subsefpiently the of 
mrAfA plans was made oliligatory u[)on all beueticiaries, 
except in case of })urchase by special })ermission. 

J!5everal of these Conference schemes received imjMntant ,is 


Ri If 

i I 



sistance from the jubilee celebration of the organizing in 1813 
of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. That movement, which 
called forth from the Wesleyans of (ilreat Britain and the 
foreign missions unconnected with the athliated Conferences 
grateful gifts amounting to one hundred and ninety thou- 
sand pounds, was taken up in J:5ritish America in 18G4. 
The presence at the Conference of that year of William L. 
Thornton, A.M., president; Robinson iScott, of the Irish 
Conference, and of John Allison, A.M., principal of the 
Ladies' Academy at Mount Allison, liy each of whom deeply 
interes..iig repoi'ts of English gatherings addressed by them 
were given, created much enthusiasm. After the sum of 
two thousand five hundred dollars had been subsci'ibed by 
the ministers present, the Conference resolved that a num- 
ber of its members should accompany the president to 
Halifax to confer with friends in that city respecting ar- 
rangements for several meetings to be held there before the 
departure of Messrs. Thornton and Scott. Tlie niinistei's 
of the Conference delegation were also authorized to associ- 
ate with themselves such laymen as they could, the whole 
to constitute a committee to make immediate plans for 
central Jubilee gatherings in St. John, Fredericton, Char- 
lottetown and St. John's, Newfoundland, to be hekl at the 
earliest possible date. At the same time a number of 
ministers and laymen from all parts of the Conference ter- 
ritory were named as a general committee of the " Aux- 
iliary Jubilee Fund ' of the Eastern British American Con- 
ference, of which the Hon. John H. Anderson and H. 
Pickard, D.l)., were appointed the treasurers. Arrange- 
ments for meetings to be held in the various circuits of the 
several districts were left to the judgment of the financial 
meeting of each district. The occasion called forth grateful 
and devout acknowledgment of past blessings, of the sin- 
cerity of which gifts amounting to the sum of twelve 
thousand dollars attbrded practical evidence. 

Iff in 1813 
;ut, which 
u and the 
lety thou- 
a in 18G4. 
Villiam L. 
the Irish 
pal of the 
lom deeply 
(d by them 
he sum of 
)scribed by 
hat a num- 
L-esident to 
ipecting ar- 
! before the 
i ministers 
d to associ- 
the whole 
plans for 
;ton, Char- 
leld at the 
numV)er of 
erence ter- 
,he '* Aux- 
rican Con- 
lu and H. 
liits of the 
|e tinancial 
th grateful 
If the sin- 
of twelve 



Througli the divine blessing u})on ellbrts in various depart- 
ments the territorial growth of the Conference became .some- 
what rapid, especially when a s<^mewliat vigorous stimulus 
had been received from the Home Mission Society. At the 
organization of the Conference in 1855 the names of seventy 
circuits found a place on its otlicial Minutes; in 167-1, at 
the division of the Conference, Is ova Scotia proper alone 
contained sixty-eight circuits and missions. At the same 
time lifty-live were reported from Kew Brunswick, and 
twelve, instead of the previous three, from Prince KtUvard 
Island. During the nineteen years the nine circuits of the 
Frederif'ton District had become nineteen, and the seven of 
the Sackville District had become twelve. Urowth in the 
number of stations in Newfoundland had also been very 
rapid, the fourteen of 1855 having become thirty-seven in 
.c87 i, nineteen of which were under Home Mission auspices. 
New gi'ound had been occuj)ied in Placeutia l>ay, and 
devoted young men had been posted at various points of 
the coast between the older circuits and the Straits of Belle 

Labrador, on the opposite side of the Straits, was one of 
the tirst points placed on the list of Home missions. Most 
of tlie settlers on tlie southern section of that neglected 
coast had been drawn thitlier l;y commercial interests from 
various parts of Newfoundland, but with these were others, 
wlio had been driven from various parts of the colony Ijy 
failure and misfortune. A part of them had been favored 
with Christian teaching by the Wesleyan ministers stationed 
on the island, but in their later resort they were deprived 
of nearly every mark of Christianity, if not of civilization. 
Roughly estimated, the number of settlers and of others 
who remained to watch over tisliing property during the 
winter was between three and four thousand ; but ir\ the 
summer these were joined by the crews and passengers of 




more than throe hundred over-crowded vessels of various 
sizes fron^ the cok)ny or elsewhere, making; the total number 
of inhabitants, permanent and temporary, at that season, 
twenty thousand and more. '* We came in contact," said a 
young preacher, who labored tliere fifteen year;, ago, "with 
men of all sorts and from all lands. During the summer 
we met with Methodist converts from Canada and two of 
Moody's New Zealand converts in an English vessel, while 
the writer, being a Welshman liiniself, had a real good time 
with a Welsh sailor, who sang a few Welsh hymns." Large 
numbers of Nova Scotian and American lishermen were 
also drawn to the same bleak coast by its extensive herring 
and salmon fisheries. 

In care for these numerous strays and wayfarers 
Methodism had certaiidy shown no undue haste. Both 
Roman Catholic priests and Ritualistic clergymen had left 
more numerous footprints on that rude shore than her 
preachers had done, and in some cases had led families 
which had been cradled in Methodism away from the truth 
so necessary to their safety. Twice only, as far as is known, 
had any Methodist missionary found his way to that deso- 
late yet sometimes busy shore during the long period after 
the abandonment in 1826 by Ceorge Ellidge of the mission 
to the Eskimos. This was when the minister at Harbor 
Grace visited a number of fishing posts in 1 845, and when 
John S. Addy, of Brigus, followed liim in the succeeding 
summer. It must not be su{)posed that all the pious fisher- 
men who found their way thither had hidden their light 
under a bushel ; many excellent men did what in them lay 
for the general benelit, but pressure of work on busy days 
and lack of stated services tested sorely aTul often sadly, the 
youth whos(> professed conversion dui-ing the previous 
winter had iiladdened some Christian mother's heart. There 
was sad significance in a statement of a Newfoundland 


:)f various 
,al uuuiber 
at season, 
bct," said a 
120, " with 
be summer 
nd two of 
issel, while 
[ good time 
IS." Large 
irmeii were 
,ive herring 

aste. Both 
en had left 
'e than her 
led families 
m the truth 
IS is known, 
that deso- 
jeriod after 
the mission 
at Harbor 
, and when 
lious tisher- 
their light 
|n them lay 
busy days 



In sac 

liy, ti 


lirt. There 
'found land 

Methodist, wlio said that " on some of the Newfoundland 
circuits after a r(n-ival it is found necessaiy to keep the new 
converts 'on ti'ial ' for at least one summer, to see if tliey 
survive the temptations of the Labrador lishing voyage." Of 
the spiritual loss befalling those who were not pi'ivileged to 
have any of the religious advantages enjoyed during tlie 
winter by many of the colonial iishermen, none could form 
an idea but those who subsecpiently carried the Gospel 
message from house to house, preaching it to groups as they 
found opportunity. 

In accordance with a reconnnendation for the appoint- 
ment to Carbonear of a second }>reacher, who should s[)end 
the summer months at Labrador, the English Committee in 
1857 sent out James A. Duke, who had volunteered for 
Labrador service, l)ut his late arrival prevented entrance 
upon his intended work during that season. A year later, 
John S. Peach spent several weeks on the coast; in 1859 
Charles Cond)en willingly undertook similar service and in 
the short space of three months visited and preached at 
various places between Cape Ray and a distant })oint to the 
northward ; and for a number of years, with an occasional 
intermission, the shore received visits from one or other of 
the ministers as long as he could be spai-ed from some New- 
foundland circuit ; but such a mode of oversight was soon 
found to be unsatisfactory and inetlicient, even when the 
visiting missionary was accompanied by an experienced 
pilot and conveyed by a whaleboat, in acooi'dance with 
arrangements made in 18'')0. At length, in 1878, encour- 
aged by a promise of three hundred dollars per year from 
the Methodist tSunday-school committee at St. Joim's 
towards the support of a married minister, the Newfound- 
land Conference sent John B. Bowell to Red Bay, where in 
1862 a church liad been built. Westward of Bed Bay lay 
a coast line of more than fifty miles in length, including h 




number of settlements inhabited by numerous permanent 
settlers and visited by a large transient class during the 
summer. The summer travelling northward involved a 
voyage of several hundreds of miles, with visits to hundreds 
of harbors and coves. A boat, provided by voluntary sub- 
scriptions, and equii)ped and manned by a grant from the 
General Board of Missions, greatly added to his opportuni- 
ties as a missionary, and gave him accommodation in 
places where a shelter could not easily have been found on 
shore. Six years after the appointment of a minister to 
Red Bay, a second missionary, a young man, was sent to 
Hamilton Inlet, around which there was a lai'ge resident 
population of whites and half-breeds connected with the 
fisheries, or the trade in fur carried on by the Hudson Bay 
Company. For these isolated missions, with not a mile of 
road, and cut off from communication with the busy world 
for eight months of the year, the Newfoundland Conference 
has always found incumbents, of whose heroism and exposure 
even Canadian Methodists have only had mere glimpses. 

A mission, deemed at the time one of the most important 
of the newei' stations, was opened at St. Pierre in the 
autumn of 1873. That island, one of a siumall group distant 
about fifteen miles from tlie southern f.oaiiMt of Newfound- 
land, and owned by France, was inhabited ehieHy by French 
Roman Catholics, Ijut among them were a number of Eng- 
lish and American settlers, who had long desired the ser- 
vices of a resident Protestant minister. In 1873, by ar- 
rangeuient with Ceorge S. Milligan, A.M., chairman of 
the St. John's District, Joseph Parkins, a Methodist minister 
who could preach in tiie French language, was sent thither. 
His congregation, which on Sunday evening filled a building 
fitted up as a temporary church, was composed of PresV)y- 
terians. Independents, a few Wesleyans, and a larger num- 
ber of Episc()])alians, in view of whose presence it had been 



jriug the 
volved a 
itary sub- 
froin the 
->pportu ni- 
dation in 
found on 
ninister to 
IS sent to 
e I'esident 
with the 
udson Bay 
i a mile of 
l)usv world 
id exposure 
re in the 
up distant 
by French 
er of Eng- 
|d the ser- 
3, by ar- 
lirman of 
t minister 
t thither, 
a building 
,f Presby- 
rger num- 
had been 

arranged that the Episcopal service should be read once on 
each Sunday. The earlier services were also attended by 
several French Protestants from the adjacput island of 
Miquelon, who invited the preacher to visit them also at an 
early date. A 8unday-scliool, in which for a time the min- 
ister and his wife had no helpers, was attended l)y nearly 
all the Protestant children of the place. In 1 874 and 1875 
the same minister was re-appointed, but soon after his return 
in the latter year he was informed by the committee control- 
ling the building used for worship, that the Episcopalians, 
the most numerous section of the Protestant inhabitants, 
would require the room for services to be conducted by an 
Episcopal minister, obtained through the bishop of New- 
foundland. As no suitable room was available for Metho- 
dist services, the Newfoundland Conference, after much 
deliberation and some criticism respecting the good faith of 
certain individuals, decided to suspend operations for the time 
l)eing in a place in which they nevertheless felt that an im- 
portant work remained to be done. Awaiting the arrival of 
a more auspicious period, the Conference placed some four- 
teen hundred dollars in conti-ibutions towards the erection of 
Methodist misvUon property at St. Pierre in the hands of 
the trustees of church property in St. John's, in whose 
possession it remains, subject to the call of the president of 
the Conference. 

The pushing out of ecclesiastical pickets in various direc- 
tions, involving promise of a belt of missions soon to be 
clasped about Newfoundland, was not witi\essed with 
pleasure by all observers. Some who l)orp the name of 
Protestant could not look upon it with equanimity, and in 
occasional cases sought to strengthen a waning power by 
obtaining possession of resting places of the dead. At 
Ureenspond, as described in a previous chapter, hostility 
reached a point so bitter as to prompt an attack upon a 





11 ■ i; ' 







young niissionaiy, endangoring his life and obliging him to 
return to England incapacitated for years for full minis- 
terial service. Even the earlier aggressive steps were 
marked by the watchful eyes of the ]loiiian(Jatholic hierarchy 
who, at that period, were being dis(juieted by the general 
reaction against the political powe?' of Home, the influence 
of which was reaching Newfoundland from other Jiritish 
American colonies. With the dismissal of the Kent niin- 
istry by Sir Alex. Bannerman, and the sanction of that act 
given by the people at the subse(juent election in 1S61, hos- 
tile feeling on the part of the Roman Catholic })opulation 
became so intense as to lead to a succession of outrages 
against law and order in several (quarters, and to a conflict 
at the capital with the troops, i^y a vijlley from whom three 
of the rioters were killed and many others wei'e wounded. 
At Carbonear, after a desultoiy discharge of firearms by a 
Roman Catholic mol) and a party of Protestants gatliered 
for the defence of the stipejuliary magistrate's residence and 
of the adjoining Methodist church, Christopher Lockhart, 
the Methodist pastor, was followed by a shower of stones 
as he entered the stipendiary's dwelling, and the magistrate 
himself, Israel McNeil, obnoxious to the Roman Catholics 
because a successor of an otticial of their own faith, was 
fired upon, a heavily wadded coat only saving him from 
serious consequences. This riot, quelled finally by a detach- 
ment of soldiers from Harbor (jJrace, taught the salutary 
lesson thiit Protestants would arm themselves in self-defence, 
and checked for a time the tendency to mixed marriages, by 
which many young Protestants had l)een alienated from the 
religion of their fathers. The intolerant spirit shown by 
Roman Catholics throughout the island, and the continued 
perversion of Protestant families on the long-neglected 
west coast, also served as a stimulus to the ministers 
and leading Methodist laity of the colony to push evangel- 



t\\\\* him to 
full minis- 
steps were 
ic hierarchy 
the jreneral 

10 iiiftuence 
her J'ritish 
( Kent niin- 
L of that act 

11 18G1, hos- 
3 po}>ulation 

of outraf^es 
to a conflict 
, whom three 
ere wounded, 
i rearms by a 
.nts gatliered 
esidence and 
,er Lockhart, 
[ver of stones 
le magistrate 
ai\ Catholics 
u faith, was 
g hin\ from 
by a detach- 
the salutary 
iiarriages, by 
Ited from the 
t shown by 
lie continued 
lie ministers 
lUsh evangel- 

istic etlbrt more vigorously year by year. Of the eftect of 
their etlbrts some idea may be obtained from the census 
i(?tui'iis of JSTb which, after an examination of the most 
completer chai'acter, against whose correctness the minute 
mcmoi'anda in the pockets of the Anglican and Roman 
Catholic clergy in certain districts encouraged no protest, 
i-evealed the startling fact that dui'ing the previous ten 
years the Methodist Church had added forty per cent, to its 
share oi the population, and tin; Church of England had 
made a gain of twenty per cent, while Roman Catholicism 
had liarely held its own, even though as late as in lS()(j 
the fui'ther per\t'rsioii of a luindjerof Protestant families on 
the west shore had Ijeen reported by the chairman of the 

For the tilling of numerous vacancies in the list of min- 
isters througli su})ei'anii nations, deaths, removals, and for 
the supply of the numerous new missions, a large number of 
recruits became necessaiy. Three of the elder men and 
several of the junior preachers fell in harness. William 
Smith and William Wilson, two of the seniors, so suddenly 
i-ested from their labors as to be unable to add in deatii 
anything to their long life-testimony. William Smith had 
been a theologian of unusual attainments, a preacher of 
much ability, a faithful ])astoi', and an earnest wrestler in 
prayer. A short illness in his home at St. Andrews, in 
18()3, was followed bv removal in the " twinkling of 
an eye." William Wilson, whose life below ceased in 
18G9, had been a man of much general information, Avell- 
tested loyalty, and intelligent zeal. He had had a (piick 
scent for heterodoxy, and a power to deal with certain forms 
of it which has not yet received proptu- recognition. As 
the sun of a Septe'mber Sabbath evening was setting, he 
had droj){>e(l on his knees in his waggon when on his way 
from an appointment on the Point de Jiute circuit, the 





I ) 

lines had fallen from his powerless fingers, and lie had 
ceased "at once to work and live." The death of the third, 
the venerable Imt niilitary-lookinj^' Richard Knight, was 
nearly as sudden. He had left home to attend a meeting 
of the Academic Board at Hackville, where removal from 
earth took place at the end of a week's illness. Just before 
he ceased to breathe, a friend, observing him to have been ap- 
parently absorbed in heavenly meditation, heard hiin say, " I 
see His glory f Hallelujah!" In all parts of the Conference he 
had rendered service unsurpassed by tluit of any of his fellow- 
laborers, and to every post of duty, whether as circuit 
preacher or Conference co-delegate, he had carried the same 
high principles of incorruptible integrity. Duty had been 
perform, d with the strictness of a soldiei-, yet with the 
spirit of a child ; and pulpit services at three score and ten 
had su<r<;ested to his hearers no thou<iht of the unwelcome 

Several of the senior ministers who during the period 
had become supernumerai'ies had also, before its termina- 
tion, entered upon the "rest that remaineth." Of the 
venerable James Home, and others of the earlier preachers, 
mention has already been made. Arthur McNutt, in 1864, 
after live years of supernumerary life, had entered into rest. 
The record of his more active life had been sustained to the 
end by his abiding interest in his brethren and in the suc- 
cess of their work. Throughout a short but painful illness 
peace had abounded, and the consolations of the Gospel 
he had faithfully preached had steadily sustained him. 
Shortly before death he had remarked to a friend who had 
been looking out at the evening sky, "The Star of liethle- 
heni shines brightly upon n;e." John Brownell, who died 
during the same yeai", had reluctantly retired in 1869. His 
qualifications for his work had been of a high oj(l<r. In 
pulpit and pastoral labors he had been a pattern of excel- 

; I 




id lie had 
f the third, 
ni<j;ht, was 
a meetinf^ 
noval from 
Just before 
ive been ii})- 
liini say, *' I 
inference he 
f his fellovv- 
as circuit 
I'd the same 
by had heen 
ft with the 
core and ten 
2 unwelcome 

tlie period 
its termina- 
1." Of the 
r preachers, 
itt, in 1864, 
■ed into rest, 
ained to the 
;1 in the suc- 
inful iUness 

the Gospel 

tained him. 

lend wlio had 

ir of liethle- 

:11, who died 
In 1869. His 

h ord.r. In 

ern of excel- 

lence, and ill various circuits his effective teaching had been 
gratefully acknowlodgt^d. On Kastcr Sunday, as the sun 
was I'ising, a six months' painful illness reached its limit, 
and he entered within the veil. Tn 186;'), after superannua- 
tion for one year only, Williaui Siiiithson had ended a career 
marked by great singleness of purpose and unwearied zeal. 
He had been stationed at Portland, Ht. John, at the time 
of the cholera visitation in IS'M. By a remarkable coinci- 
dence, when the cholera again raged in St. John, tw<'nty 
years later, he had held the same ap{)ointment, and without 
intermission, by day an